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Eastern Alps. 

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Balls Alpine Guides 





JOHN BALL, F.E.S., ME.LA., F.L.S., &c. 






Key Map .... To he 2)aslecl inside the c^'Ver at the beginning 
Thk Easti^kx Alps— Gen t-ral I\Iap .... To face title-page 

Paxoeama fuom the KiTTKEKHOKX .... To fuce 173 

Th£ Gross Glockxee and its viciuity .... „ 223 


The ioUowiug are the chief abbreviations used in this work : — 

hrs., m. — for hours and raiinites. When used as a measure of distance, one 
hour is meant tu indicate the distance which a tolerably good walker will traverse 
in an hour, clear of halts, and having regard to the diihculty of the ground. 
I:; eases where there is a considerable diiierence of height, the measure given is 
intended as a mean between the time employed in ascending and descending, 
being greater in the one case and less in the other. 

ft., yds. — for feet and yards. The heights of mountains, &c., are given in 
English feet above the level of the sea, and are generally indicated in the 
manner usual in scientific books, by the figures being enclosed in brackets, 
with a short stroke. 

m. — for mile. Unless otherwise expressed, distances are given in English 
statute miles. 

rt., 1. — for right and left. The right side of a valley, stream, or glacier, is 
that lying on the right hand of a person following the downward coarse of the 

The point:? of the compass are indicated in the usual way. 

Names of places are referred in the Index to the pages where some useful 
information respecting them is to be found. 

Throughout this work the reader is freqiiently referred for furtlier information 
to the Section and Eoute where this is to be fouu'l. When the reference is 
made to a passage occurring in the same Section, the Eoute alone is mentioned. 



Section 48. 

oetzthax disteict, 

Ronte A — Landeck to Meran and Botzen 
Route B — Imst to Meran, by the Oetzthal 

and Timbler Joch 
Route C — Sblden to the Vintschgau, by 

the Fenderthal . 
Route D — Solden to Meran, or Natums, 

by the Gurglthal 
Route E — Landeck to Feud, by the Kauu- 

Bcrthal and Gebatsch Joch . 
Route F —Imst to Fend, by the Pitzthal 
Route G— Tour of the Oetzthal Alps. 

Lengenfeld, or Sblden, to 

St. Leonhard in the Pas- 

eeyerthal .... 

Section 49. 

Innsbruck to Botzen, over the 

Brenner Pass, by road 
Innsbruck to Botzen, over the 

Brenner Pass, by railway . 
Innsbruck to Imst, or Oetz, by 

the Selrainerthal 
Selraih to Lengenfeld in the 

Oetzthal .... 
Innsbruck to Lengenfeld, by 

the Stubaythal. Ascent of 

the Schrankogl . 
Neustift to Sblden. Ascent of 

the Wilder Pf afE . 
Neustift to Sterzing 
Fend, or Gurgl, to the Brenner 

Route A — 
Route B — 
Ronte C — 
Route D — 
Route E — 

Route F — 

Route G — 
Route H — 

Route I - 

Route K- 

Route A • 
Route B - 
Route C - 
Route D- 
Route E - 
Route F - 

Route G - 
Route H - 

C T, 

-Sterzing to Meran, by the 

-Botzen to Sterzing, through 

the Samthal 

Section 50. 
zillebtfal district. 
-Innsbruck to Lend, by the 
Zillerthal and Pinzgau 

- Zell to Sterzing, by the Pfits- 

cher Joch .... 

-Zell to Stafflach, by the Tuxer- 

thal ..... 

- Imisbruck to Mayrhofen by the 

Tuxer Gebirge . 
-Zell to Bruneck, by tiie 
Krimmler Taueni 

- Zell to the Ahrenthal, by the 

Zillergrund, or Sonder- 

-Taufers to Ginzling, by the 
Miihhvalderthal , 

-St. Jakob in Pfitsch to the 
Pusterthal, by the Pfunde- 
rerthal .... 

Route I — Kematen in Pfitsch to Brixen, 

by the Valserthal . . 222 

Section 51. 
geossglockner district. 

Route A— Brixen to Villach, by the 

Pusterthal .... 2l'6 

Route B — Lienz to Heiligenblut, Ascent 

of the Grossglockner . . 234 

Route C — Eruck. in Pinzgau, to Heili- 
genblut, by the Fuscherthal. 
Ascent of the Vischbaclihona 

Route D — Kaprun to Heiligenblut, by 

the Riffelthor . . . 250 

Route E — Lienz to Mittersill, in Pinzgau, 
by the Iselthal and Velber 
Tauem .... 253 

Route F — Windisch-Matrey to Neu- 
ktrchen, or Wald, in Pinz- 
gau. Ascent of the Gross- 
168 venediger . . . .257 

RouteG — "Windisch-Matrey to Krimml, 

174 by the Virgenthal . . 263 
Route H — Lienz to Uttendorf , or Bruck, 

175 in Pinzgau, by the Kalser- 
thal and Stubachthal . , 269 

177 Route I — Heiligenblut to Windisch- 
Matrey . . . .274 

Route K — Lienz to St. Valentin, by the 

178 Defereggenthal ._ . . 27-5 
Route L — Bruneck to Hopfgarten . . 277 

183 Route M — Taufers to St. Jakob in De- 
186 fereggen, by the Rainthal . 279 

Route N — Sillian to Hopfgarten, by the 
188 Villgrattenthal . . . 281 

191 Section 52. 

192 GASTEIN district. 

Route A — Salzburg to Bad Gastein. Ex- 
cursions from Gastein . 283 
Route B— Lend to Heiligenblut, by 

Rauris, or Hof Gastein . 287 
Route C — Bad Gaste-n to Spittal on the 

Drave, by Mallnitz . .291 

201 j Route D — Bad Gastein to Ober-Vellach 

I by the Zirknitzthal, or Fra- 

207 I gantthal .... 296 

; Route E — St. Johann in Pongau to Til- 

. 210 ; lach, by the Radstadter 

I Tauem .... 298 

213 ' Route F — St. Johann in Pongau to 

j Gmllnd, by the Arlscharte . 30i 

; Route G — Gmiind to Bad Gastein by the 
218 ! Kleine Elend . . . 304 

! RouteH — Gmund to Ober-Vellach. As- 

220 i cent of the Hochalpenspitz 30G 
j Route I —St. Johann in Pongau, to St. 

Michael in Lungau. The 

221 I Hafnereck . . . . 3U 




The geological map of the Alps, east of 
the Adige, shows a broad band of crys- 
talline rocks extending from "W. to E., 
and flanked to the N. and S. by a zone 
of stdimentan' rocks, chiefly of Jurassic 
and triassic age. It has been seen in 
the preceding chapters that on the N. 
side the geological boundary almost 
exactly coincides with a great line of 
valley running parallel to the main 
chain. On the S. side the boundary is 
equally well defined, though somewhat 
mor-^ sinuous. At the W. end the con- 
V'^^rging branches of the Adige that 
meet at Botzen di-\4de the central range 
from the Orteler group and the dolo- 
mite Alps, while towards the E. the 
valleys of the Eienz and the Drare 
form a continuous line of depression, 
nearly corresponding to the S. limit of 
the crystalline rocks. The central 
range reaches its culminating point in 
the G-rossglockner, but about 25 m. 
east of that peak begins to subside to 
a much lower level, while at the same 
time it forks into two parallel branches, 
■which are divided by the valley of the 
Mur running parallel to the direction 
of the main chain. 

Austrian writers commonly designate 
the entire range of crystalline rocks, 
from the Adige to the Schneeberg, as 
the ' Central Alps.' But in a general 
arrangement of the entire Alpine chain, 
this term cannot be applied to a sub- 
division of the Eastern Alps, and it is 
no<: easy to suggest any other suitable 
collective name. In the present chap- 
ter we include only the higher western 
division of the range, for which the 
most fitting designation seems to be 
that of Central Tyrol Alps, It is 
true that the province of Tyrol includes 
jwrtions of the northern and southern 
ranges lying beyond the limit-s of the 
centVal chain, and that the latter at its 
eastern extremity extends into Carin- 
thia and the province of Salzburg ; yet 
it remains true that the range, as here 
defined, may be called, par excellence, 
the main chain of the Tyrol Alps. It 
is bounded to the iN^, by the Inn and 
thf Salza, to the W. by the Adige from 

its source to Botzen, to the S. by the 
Eisack and Rienz, and then by the 
valley of the Drave. The eastern limit 
is not quite so well marked. Oro- 
graphically the most natural boundary 
is that indicated by the valleys lying 
between St. Johann im Pongau and 
Spital on the Drave — the Gross Arlthal, 
Maltathal, and Lieserthal; but for the 
purposes of this work it is more con- 
venient to fix as the eastern limit the 
high road from Radstadt to Spital, 
crossing the two low passes of the Rad- 
stadter Tauern and the Katschberg. Al- 
though this road enters the valleys of the 
Enns and the Mur near the sources of 
those rivers, it does not cross the W. 
boundary of Styria, and for all practical 
purposes is the direct line of communi- 
cation between Salzburg and the upper 
valley of the Drave. The range in- 
cluded within these limits is divided 
into two very distinct portions by the 
deep depression leading on either side 
to the Brenner Pass, the lowest in the 
entire range of the Alps. To the west 
of that limit the peaks are collected in 
groups and short ridges not forming a 
continuous range ; while on the E, side 
the chain extending from the Wild 
Kreuzspitze to the Hochalpen-Sp. is 
one of the best defined and most con- 
tinuous in the Alps. In a distance of 
nearly 100 miles there is no pass below 
8,000 ft. in height, and there are but 
four that do not much surpass that 

Most strangers who visit the Tyro- 
lese Alps keep to the main valleys, 
where they find the conveniences of 
carriage roads and good inns ; and 
comparatively few have explored the 
remoter valleys that penetrate the re- 
cesses of the higher mountains. What- 
ever other advantages the common 
method may offer, it certainly cannot 
lead to much acquaintance with the 
Alpine region of Tyrol. In Switzerland, 
and on the Italian side of the Alps, it is 
easy to enjoy most of the finest scenery 
by keeping to beaten paths, and in 
manv places carriage roads lead near to 
the base of the highest peaks, but such 



is by no means the case in Tyrol. Al- 
though the country has been pretty 
thoroughly explored by German moun- 
taineers and men of science, the afflu- 
ence of strangers is not such as to bring 
about much local provision for their 
comfort. Amidst the far more civilised 
population of this region there is no 
risk of encountering the filth and misery 
of Dauphine, or the unfrequented parts 
of the Valais, but the traveller who 
would enjoy the finest scenery of the 
high Alps of Tyrol must put up with 
rough accommodation and indifferent 



The western portion of the Tyrolese 
chain is a high mountain mass sur- 
rounded on two sides by the upper 
course of the Adige, which at first flows 
southward for several miles, and then 
bends to the eastward, and follows that 
direction as far as Meran. The streams 
bearing part of the drainage of this 
mass to the Adige diverge from it in 
various directions, and no one of them 
drains a large svu'face. The case is 
otherwise on the NE. side. The high- 
est summits of the group enclose the 
head of the Eenderthal and Grurglthal, 
and several large glaciers pour their 
streams into those two glens which 
unite at the head of the Oetzthal. The 
torrent from that considerable valley, 
reinforced by tributaries from the Stu- 
bay Alps, flows northward to join the 
Inn below Imst. 

The best mode for forming an idea 
of the somewhat complicated orography 
of this district is to fix attention on the 
"Weisskugel (r2,277')> the second in 
height of its peaks, which rises a few 
miles E. of the sources of the Adige, 
and very near the watershed between 

that stream and the Inn. The highest 
peaks of the group lie in two ranges 
that diverge from that mountain — the 
one about due E., the other to NE. 
The former is the dividing range that 
parts the waters flowing to the Inn 
from the basin of the Adige ; but the 
latter surpasses it in height, including 
the highest peaks and the greatest gla- 
ciers. From the latter three lofty 
ridges run due N., parallel to the Oetz- 
thal, towards the Inn, and between 
them lie two Alpine valleys, too long 
neglected by travellers, the Kaunser- 
thal and Pitzthal. Including some 
accessory ridges of considerable height, 
these ranges make up the group of the 
Oetzthal Alps. With this is nearly 
connected the smaller group of the Stu- 
bay Alps, lying between the Oetzthal 
and the Brenner Pass. In a general 
arrangement of the Eastern Alps these 
are usually placed together, inasmuch 
as the Stubay group has more relations 
with the Oetzthal Alps than with the 
range, extending from the Brenner 
to the Maltathal in Carinthia. But as 
the principal valleys of the Stubay 
group descend towards the E. in the 
direction of the Brenner road, it has ap- 
peared a matter of obvious convenience 
to describe them in a separate sec- 
tion. Although the Oetzthal Alps are 
s\irpassed in height by many groups 
described in the preceding portions of 
this work, they are deservedly reckoned 
by German writers amongst the most 
considerable of the subdivisions of the 
great chain. The large number of high 
peaks, and, still more, the height of the 
passes in this district, show that it is 
one of those in which the largest mass 
of matter has been raised to the great- 
est height above the level of the conti- 
nent. Within an area of 921 square 
miles we find 14 peaks surpassing 
11,000 Vienna feet (11,408 Eng. ft.), 
and at least 60 that fall between 10,000 
and 11,000 Vienna ft. (10,371 and 
11,408 Eng. ft.), while the lowest pass 
OA-er the main ranges enclosing the val- 
leys of Fend and Gurgi is 9,514 ft. 
in height. Fully three-fourths of the 



entire space surpasses the limit of 
6,000 ft., and 164 square miles lie 
within the snow-region. If the solid 
mass were spread out uniformly, it 
would form a plateau 8,332 ft. above 
the sea-level. If we add that the group 
includes over 230 glaciers, several of 
which are amongst the most consider- 
able in the Alps, it becomes evident 
that the region here described is not 
only important to the physical geogra- 
pher, but must offer many inducements 
to the lover of high Alpine scenery. 
Much of this may be enjoyed by ordi- 
nary tourists who arrive without the 
slightest difficulty at the central points 
— Fend and Gurgl ; but it is reserved 
for the active mountaineer to make a 
thorough acquaintance with the district. 
There are good inns in the Oetzthal, 
and fair quarters at Unser Liebe Frau 
and St. Leonhard in Passeyerthal, but 
in the higher valleys it is necessary to 
apply for entertainment to the village 
clergymen, it being understood that a 
reasonable charge is made at the tra- 
veller's departure. 

Ample information respecting the 
orography of this district is given in 
Karl V. Sonklar's elaborate work on 
the Oetzthal Alps, referred to in the 
preliminary notes to this volume ; and 
further particulars useful to the moun- 
taineer may be gleaned from several 
papers in the annual volumes of the 
Vienna Alpine Club. 

It is convenient to include in this 
section the description of the great road 
through the upper valley of the Adige 
from Landeck to Botzen, which marks 
the western boundary of this district, 
and the great line of depression be- 
tween the Central and the Eastern 




Anstrian Eng. 

miles mileg 


2 9^ 

Pfunds . 

2 91 

Nauders . 

2 9^ 


3i 16i 


2 91 


H 7 

Xatums . 

2i in 


2 9| 

Tilpian . 
Botzen . 

2 H 
If s| 

21i lOOi 

In preceding portions of this work, it 
has been seen that several of the chief 
roads of Northern Tyrol converge at 
Landeck, in the upper valley of the 
Inn. That leading from Bregenz, on 
the 1. of Constance, through the Vorarl- 
berg, is described in § 34, Ete. A. The 
roads from Bavaria by Immenstadt, or 
Fiissen, andEeutte, and that from Inns- 
bruck through the Innthal, are de- 
scribed in Sections 41 and 42. The 
road described in the present Ete. is 
one of the main lines of communication 
from the north to the south side of the 
Alps, being very nearly a slow as the more 
frequented line of the Brenner, but less 
direct. The distance from Innsbruck 
to Botzen by Landeck is nearly double 
that by the Brenner (§ 49, Ete. A), but 
the road is in aU respects more inte- 
i resting. 

I This road has frequently suffered 
j from inundations, but has of late been 
in good condition. There are good 
! inns at Meran and Schlanders, and 
i tolerable ones in most of the villages 
; on the road. A post-carriage plies 
I daily throughout the year between 
j Landeck and Botzen. and besides a 
j country carriage, or Stellwagen, runs 
between Meran and Mais. In summer 
additional Stellwagen ply daily between 
Landeck and Mais, and Mais and Meran, 
and twice a day between Meran and 
Botzen. They travel slowly, and. ex- 
cept from the front seats, little of the 
countrv can be seen. 



Above Landeck, the valley of the 
Inn becomes a narrow defile, and turns 
sharply to the E. for a distance of 5 or 
6 m. The high-road is carried along 
the rt. bank to the bridge of Pontlatz, 
famous in T}-rolese history, for the de- 
struction of a Bavarian force that at- 
tempted to force the passage in 1703, 
and that of a still larger body of 
French and Bavai'ians in 1809. Here 
the road crosses to the 1. bank, and the 
vaUey widens out as it resumes its 
normal direction towards SW. [The 
pedestrian going from Innsbruck to the 
Finstcrmiinz may shorten the way by 
leaving the high road a mile below 
Imst, and following the track along the 
W. side of the Pitzthal for about 5 m. 
A path then turns out of the main 
valley, mounts SW. to the hamlet of 
Piller,and crosses the Fillerjoch (4,621'), 
a low and easy pass, whence one path 
descends to the Pontlatz bridge, and 
another keeps to the 1. and leads di- 
rectly to Prutz. The mountain lying 
between the Pillerjoch and Landeck, 
round whose base the Inn follows so 
circuitous a course, is the Venctberg 
(8,233'). It commands a fine view of 
the neighbouring valleys, and the 
snowy range to the S.] The road re- 
turns to tlae rt. bank of the Inn at (2,719'), Avith a village inn (Rose), 
standing at the opening of the Kaun- 
serthal (Rte. E), which leads into the 
heart of the glacier region. On the 
opposite side of the river, at some 
height above the valley, are the baths of 

Obladis (3,920'), said to be amongst the 
best managed in Tyrol. A handsome 
building, belonging to a company, ac- 
commodates visitors at very moderate 
prices. Light carriages can go from 
Ried as far as the village of Ladis, half 
an hour below the Baths. The salt 
spring is used internally as well as for 
baths. The high-road passes under the 
rock whereon stand the ruins of the 
very ancient castle of Landeck, and in 
about 2 m. from Prutz reaches the 
post station of Ekd (Inns :Post, Adler ; 
both indiiferent), a pretty village, 2,887 
feet above the sea, picturesquely placed 

below the castle of Sigmundsried, at the 
opening of the Ftnddserthal , a short 
glen leading to a low pass into the 
Kaunserthal. After passing Tosens, 
the road once more crosses to the 1. bank 
of the Inn, nearly opposite the opening 
of the TsclmiypacMlial, and follows the 
same side of the valley to 

Pfunds. The post-station with an 
inn (Post) is in the hamlet of Stuben, 
on the 1. bank, where there is an inte- 
resting old church with a carved wood 
altar. The modern church is in the 
principal village (Inn : Traube) on the 
rt. bank of the stream, at the opening 
of the Eadurschclthal, a wild and some- 
what dreary Alpine glen, running SE. 
to the base of the Huchglockt^ithurm 
(10,997')- By the N. side of that peak, 
two passes lead to the head of the 
Kaimserthal ; while there is an easier 
track, W. of the peak, to Mallag, in the 
Langtauferer Thai. 

A short distance beyond Prutz, the 
valley of the Inn gradually narrows, 
and we enter the famous defile of Fin- 
stermunz. The old road was carried 
for several miles along the 1. bank, but 
this has been superseded by the very 
remarkable line of road which was 
completed in 1855. Crossing the Inn, 
for the last time, about \\ m. above 
Pfunds, it ascends gradually along the 
face of a range of nearly vertical cliffs 
of secondary limestone. In most places 
a shelf has been formed for the road by 
blasting the face of the rock, but there 
are 3 tunnels and 2 galleries formed 
artificially for protection from ava- 
lanches and falling stones. At a spot 
called Hoch Finstermunz, where the 
rocks form a small platform, room has 
been found for two or three houses, one 
of which is a fair country inn, com- 
manding a remarkable view. . Many 
hundred feet below is seen the tower 
and the ancient bridge of Finstermiinz 
(3,152'), whence the old and steep road 
climbed the rocks on the rt. bank lead- 
ing to the gap through which it escaped 
from the valley of the Inn to the upland 
valley of Nauders. This point, fortified 
as early as the 11th century by 



the German invaders of Italy, is de- 
fended by a new fort -whose guns sweep 
all the approaches. Beware of sketch- 
ing near here. Por the pedestrian, the 
old road, no longer passable for vehicles, 
is on the whole more interesting than 
the new one. The abrupt contrast be- 
tween the gloom that dwells in the 
depth of the defile, and the broad day- 
light of the summit of the pass, is lost 
by the new road. Travellers entering 
Tyr.ol from the Engadine do well to send 
their luggage from Martinsbruck to 
Nauders. They shoidd walk from the 
former village by the narrow track on 
the 1. bank of the Inn ( § 36, Ete. A) to 
the old bridge of Finstermiinz, and then 
ascend by the old road to Nauders. 

On escaping from the defile, the road 
continues to ascend for some two miles 
farther to 

Nauders (Inns : Post, good and reason- 
able country quarters ; Mondschein, 
old-fashioned, cheap). The Tillage, 
with its old castle, stands 4,356 ft. 
above the sea, near the summit of the 
plateau, dividing the basin of the Inn 
from that of the Adige. Those who 
halt here should take a short and 
pleasant stroll on the S. side of the road, 
leading hence to Martinsbruck, to the 
summit of the ridge dividing the little 
upland valley from the Engadine. The 
ridge in question here forms the fron- 
tier of Switzerland, and commands a 
pleasing view of the lower Engadine, 
and the range dividing it from the 

The road to Italy ascends gently from 
Nauders along the little stream of the 
Stilkbach, and in about 4 m. reaches the 
height of land where the waters begin to 
fall towards the Adi-iatic. A small 
lake, or pool, lies very near the summit 
ot the plateau, which is 4,596 ft. above 
the sea, and is called Beschen-SchddecJc, 
from the village of Eeschen, lying near 
the lake. Excepting the Brenner, which 
is lower by 8 ft., this is the lowest de- 
pression in the chain of the Alps divi- 
ding Italy from the rest of Europe. 
The traveller has scarcely attained the 
eummit-level when a noble view of the 

Orteler and its attendant peaks is 
opened due S., and reappears at inter- 
vals, inviting the traveller to a closer 
acquaintance with the grand scenery of 
Trafoi and Sulden, and the Laaserthal, 
whose peaks are seen to the 1. of the 
j Orteler. The infant Adige, or Etsch, 
after issuing from the Beschensee flows 
I through two other lakes — Mittersee and 
I Heidersec, between which is the hamlet 
i of St. Valentin (Inn: Post), where the 
I diligence changes horses, 2 Austrian m. 
i from Xauders, Ij m. from Mais. The 
j upper end of the valley below the last^ 
I named village is locally known as Mal- 
i ser-Heidc, and was the scene of a signal 
! victory gained by the Grisons Swiss, in 
j 1499, over a superior force of Austrian 
i troops. The course of the Adige con- 
j tinues due S. as far as 

Mais (Inns : Post, or Adler ; Hirsch), 
I and then bends to SE., soon assuming 
I the due easterly direction which it main- 
tains as far as Meran. The high-road 
j keeps to the 1. bank of the stream, leav- 
: ing on the opposite side the ancient 
' town of Glurns (3,176'), at the opening of 
Yal Mustair (§37, Ete. L), the upper 
part of which belongs to Switzerland. A 
pedestrian wishing to visit the Stelvio 
i Pass may go to Santa Maria in that 
j valley, thence ascend by the Wormser 
Joch to the Italian side of the Stelvio, 
; cross that pass, and return to the high- 
' road of the Adige by Trafoi. 
i From Mais to near Meran the valley 
of the Adige is called Vintschgau, which 
is the Germanised form of the Italian 
Val Venosta. That name is derived from 
a Ehsetian tribe, said to have inhabited 
the valley, and has been preserved as 
the surname of a distinguished family 
in Val Tellina. Numerous castles mark 
the former importance of the upper 
Yintschgau as one of the chief routes 
into Italy. After passing Schlv.derns, at 
the opening of the MatsdierthaLth.^ peak 
of the Orteler again comes into view at 
Spondinig, where the road of the Stelvio, 
having issued from the Stilfserthal at 
Prad i§ 37, Ete. A), joins our route. 
Those who do not make a longer excur- 
sion should go as far as Trafoi, at the 



foot of the Orteler Spitze. Little more 
than 1 ni. bt'vond Spondinig is the post- 
station at 

£(/ers (lnr\: Post, tolerable, dear). A 
post-carriage runs daily to Bormio. 
The main valley hpre is rather bare and 
little interesting, except when some of 
the high peaks on the S. side of the 
valley come into view. This is the case 
at Laas, a poor village nearly destroyed 
by fire in 1861, standing opposite the 
opening of the Laaserthal (§ 37, Rte. 
E). The scenery improves on approach- 
ing the next post-station. 

Schlanders {Iim: Post, good and clean). 
The landlord herp is acquainted with the 
neighbouring valleys, and can give use- 
ful information. A table is hung up in 
the inn containing many particulars re- 
specting the high passes leading into 
the Vintschgau, which maybe consulted 
with advantage by mountaineers. The 
following are the distances there given 
for the passes connected with the Mar- 
tellthal, and the rates charged by the 
guide Sebastian (doubtless S. Janiger 
mentioned in § 37, Ete. C) : 

Marten to Eabbi, by TJlten. 11 Stunden, 6 fl. 
„ „ by Soilendfemer, 10 St., 6 fl. 

„ to Val di Sole, by tbe Hohenf emer, 8 fl. 
„ to Sulden, by the Madritschberg, 5 fl. 
„ to Bormio, over the Cevalfemer, 

12 Stunden. . . . 10 fl. 

The scenery hereabouts is interesting. 
To theN. a narrow cleft in the mountains 
is the opening of the ScMandernaunthal 
(Ete. C). The rock is a coarse red 
sandstone (verrucano?), and produces a 
peculiar vegetation. The culture of the 
vine commences here, and several wild 
plants of the warm region show them- 
selves, while various Alpine species, such 
as Oxytropis Halhri, descend near to 
the village. A short distance below 
Schlanders the road passes to the rt. 
bank nearly opposite the opening of the 
Martellthal (§ 37, Ete. C). Moun- 
taineers approaching the Orteler district 
from the S. cannot do better than ascend 
that fme valley, and cross one or other 
of the glacier passes leading from it to 
Stilden or to Sta. Catarina. After pass- 

C.T. * 

ing Lat!<th (Inn : Hirsch), the road re- 
crosses the Adige, which is here a sluggish 
stream, often overflowing the valley, and 
causing unhealthy swamps. On a rock 
above the road is Castelhcll, an ancient 
stronghold, nearly destroyed by a fire 
some years ago. Seseli varium has been 
found on the rocks here, and Euphorbia 
Gerardiana and Achiiha tomcatosa are 
common in gravelly places. A few miles 
farther is the opening of the Schnaher- 
thal (Ete. B), one of those that on the 
S. side penetrate most deeply into the 
mass of the Oetzthal Alps. That valley 
may be entered by a path from Staben 
on the rt. bank of the torrent, or from 
the larger village and post-station of 

Nuturns (Inn : Post), lying ^ m. below 
the opening, 1,697 ft. above the sea. The 
Vintschgau here has a somewhat bare 
and dreary aspect, the soil being formed 
of debris from the stirrounding moun- 
tains. Below Eabland the valley is 
contracted, and a barrier of rock, called 
the Toll, which is cut through by the river, 
seems to close the way. The high-road 
here crosses to the rt. bank, and ascends 
about 200 ft. to the summit of the ridge, 
when a very beautiful scene is unexpec- 
tedly opened before the traveller. Up to 
this point the course of the Adige from 
Mais has been a continuous, but very gra- 
dual, descent of about 1,500 ft. in 35 m., 
and for half that distance it has flowed 
along the N. base of the ridge that on the 
opposite side bounds the Ultenthal. 
Here that ridge ceases abruptly, and the 
river bends at a right angle to SSE,, 
while the level of the valley falls sud- 
denly by about 700 ft. The Toll form? 
the E. limit of the Vintschgau, and 
the lower reach of the valley of the 
Adige from hence to Botzen is known to 
the German inhabitants as Etschland. 
The broad floor of this rich valley, 
crowded with villages and hamlets, 
whose spires rise amid the rich foliage 
of the chestnut and walnut, is girdled 
by vine-planted hills, beyond which rise 
the higher mountains on ei<'her si{le. A 
rather rapid descent carries the traveller 
down to the rt, bank of the Etseh, and 
after crossing a bridge, he turns away 



from the river to reach the ancient capi- 
tal of Tyrol, 

'Sleran (Inns : Erzherzog Johann, or 
Post ; Graf von Meran ; both large and 
good hotels; there are several second- 
class houses: Eossel ; "Weisses Kreuz ; 
Sonne, &c.). This place is famous for 
the mildness of its climate, being some- 
times intolerably hot in summer, but 
much frequented in spring, and espe- 
cially in autumn, when the hotels are 
full, and many visitors are accommo- 
dated in pensions, paying from 2^ to 3^ 
florins a day. The town contains toler- 
able shops and cafes, and a theatre is 
sometimes open in September during the 
full season. Meran occupies the site of 
a Eoman station, said to have been de- 
stroyed by a Bergfall at the beginning 
of the 9th century ; and its early history 
is that of the Counts of Tyrol, under 
whom it enjoyed many privileges. It 
stands 1,114 ft. above the sea, close to 
the opening of the Passeyerthal (Ete. B\ 
whose torrent, the Passer, has often 
caused destructive inundations. A mas- 
sive dyke, erected to save the town 
from its encroachments, is a favourite 
promenade of its inhabitants. The chief 
street traversing the town from"W. toE. 
has covered arcades on either side, and 
the foot- way is floored with wooden 
boards. The Pfarrkirche, dating from 
the first half of the l-ith century, con- 
tains some tolerable pictures and statues 
by Tyrolese artists, and several ancient 
monuments. The lofty tower commands 
an admirable view. The Spitalldrche, 
with curious ancient wood carving, also 
deserves a visit. The neighbouring slopes 
produce fair wine, and this is one of rhe 
places especially resorted to by believers 
in the grape-cure. Other invalids follow 
the Molkenkur (whey-cure\ which is 
practised here from April to October. 
Hot and cold baths are found in the town. 

The neicrhbourhood of Meran is re- 
markable for numerous castles, most of 
them now in ruins. The most interest- 
ing of these is Schloss Tyrol, which 
gave its name to several successive rul- 
ing families, and, through them, to the 
entire territory lying between the Bava- 


• I rian frontier and the states of the Ve- 
netian republic. The castle stands X, of 
the town, and 1,081 ft. above it. com- 
manding an admirable view over the ad- 
joining valleys. It contains some very 
curious ancient stone-carving. There is 
a tolerably direct way from 3Ieran by a 
bridle-path passing the village of Tyrol, 
and a more circuitous char-road (very 
rough). Those who take the latter way 
may with little loss of time visit two 
other castles — Zenoburg and Brunnen- 
burg— originally dependencies, of the 
chief stronghold. 

Many agreeable walks may be made 
in the neighbourhood of Meran, as well 
as longer excursions amongst the high 
mountains that enclose the Ultenthal 
and the Passeyerthal. 

The road from Meran to Botzen lies 
all the way through agreeable scenery. 
The post-road is carried along the 1. 
bank, but there is a country road, longer, 
but more agreeable to a pedestrian, 
running along the base of the mountain 
on the opposite side of the valley. 
Several ancient castles stand at either 
side of the entrance to the Ultenthal. 
One of the largest of these (that of 
Lehenherg) was rebuilt about fifty years 
ago. The garden interests travellers 
from the north entering Italy for the 
fijst time. The pomegranate, oleander, 
agave, and orange here live in the open 
air, the winter temperature being milder 
than that of the plain of -Lombardy. 
Another still inhabited castle, called 
Fragshurg, is perched on a rock at a 
great height above the valley. One 
path to Pondo in Val di Non (§ 37, 
Kte. I), leaves the valley of the Adige at 
Lana, another at Andrian. several miles 
farther down the valley. There are not 
many objects of interest near the main 
road. The valley is flat, and in places 
swampy, probably unhealthy. Near the 
post-station of Vilpian the pale grey 
pinnacles of the dolomite range of the 
Rosengarten, SE. of Botzen, come intx) 
view. The ch.aracter of the vegetation 
assumes a more and more Italian cha- 
racter, as after passing Terlan, famous 
for its excellent wine, the road turns 



away from the Adige, and runs along 
the base of the hills to 

Botzen (Inns: Kaiserkrone, a large 
handsome house, with a cafe on the 
ground floor ; of less pretensions are 
the following, Mondschein ; Schwarzer 
Adler; Goldener Hirsch), described in 
§ 49, Ete. A, one of the chief stations on 
the rly. between Innsbruck and Verona. 



Hrs. walking Eng. miles 

Oetz ... 4 12 

Umhausen . . 2 6 

Lengenfeld . . 2| 7 

Solden ... 3 %\ 

Zwieselstein . . 1 3 

Moos . . . 7i 17 

St. Leonhard . . 2 6 

Meran ... 4 12 



Carriage-road to Umhausen ; the rough 
char-road to S51den was partly carried away in 
1865, but is probably now repaired; bridle- 
path from Solden to ileran. 

The chief valley of this district, and 
the most considerable of the tributaries 
of the Upper Innthal, is the Oetzthal. 
As mentioned in the introduction, it is 
enclosed at its head by the two main 
ridges of the Oetzthal Alps, and on the 
E. side by the rival group of the Stubay 
Alps. Glacier passes of more or less 
difficulty lead across those ranges to 
the adjoining valleys, and the only pass 
not guarded by glacier is that of the 
Timbler Joch, here described, which is 
the lowest depression between the Oetz- 

thal and Stubay groups. Most strangers, 
even though they should not attempt 
the higher passes, will not omit to visit 
Fend or Gurgl (Rtes. C and D), and 
but few will keep to the direct path 
described in the present Ete. There 
are inns at Umhausen (good), Lengen- 
feld (fair), Solden (improved), Schonau 
(very poor), Moos (poor), and St. Leon- 
hard (fair). It is scarcely possible to 
accomplish the distance in two days. 

Travellers approaching the Oetzthal 
from the side of Innsbruck should turn 
aside from the high-road at a chapel 
near Haimingen, a little W. of Silz, 
and follow a char- road, passing chiefly 
through forest round the base of the 
mountain, which leads in 3 hrs. from 
that place to Oetz. A pretty waterfall 
of the torrent issuing from the Stuibeth' 
thai is passed on the 1. hand. 

The traveller, entering the Oetzthal 
from the side of Landeck or Imst, fol- 
lows the high-road for some way beyond 
the latter village, and then turns aside 
and crosses a bridge over the Inn to 
Eoppen. Thence a very hilly road crosses 
the projecting spurs at the N. base of the 
WildgratJcogl (9,744'), and descends to 
Sautens, a \allage near the opening of 
the Oetzthal, on the 1. bank of the Ache, 
by which generic name the torrent drain- 
ing the great glacier region at its head is 
designated. Crossing the stream by a 
wooden bridge, the road in ^ hr. more 

Oetz (2,518'), a pretty village, with a 
neat country inn (beim Cassian), in a 
sheltered basin, where good crops of 
maize are still raised at the base of the 
Achenkogl (9,866'). Above this village 
the chief product is flax, of which large 
quantities are annually sent over the 
Timbler Joch to the Passeyerthal. The 
first step in the ascent of the valley is a 
short distance above Oetz, where the 
Ache rushes between gneiss rocks 
through a narrow defile. The road 
crosses to the 1. bank, and soon returns 
to the opposite side, when it enters the 
rather extensive basin wherein stands 

Umhausen (3,399'). The inn (beim 
Marberger) is an excellent specimen of 



Tyrolese country quarters kept by ; 
obliging people. It is prudent to lay in 
supplies of white bread and cold meat ; 
here. The host's brother (or son ?), I 
Anton Marbei-ger, is recommended as a ' 
guide, as are also F. and A. Schopf, who '' 
Hve in the village. The great rock I 
rising above the valley by Umhausen is I 
called Engelswand, the name being ex- | 
plained by a pious legend, one of many ' 
still current in the valley. Above the 
village, on the E. side of the valley, is 
the G-rosse Stuibenfall, a verj' picturesque 
waterfall of the Hairlachbach, including 
an upper and lower cascade, whose 
united height is 490 ft. [Following 
the path that mounts beside the water- 
fall, and leads to the village of Xkder- 
the>^ in the Hairlackthal, the traveller 
may ascend to the Gleirscher Joch, and 
descend thence, through the G-leirscher- 
thal, to St. Sigismund, in the Selrainer- 
thal (§ 49, Ete. D). The same pass may 
be reached from a point about midway 
between Umhausen and Lengenfeld, and 
is the most direct way from either of 
those places to Innsbruck.] 

Above Umhausen the road is very 
rough, and fit only for country-carts. 
In rainy weather it is liable to be 
covered over or carried away by torrents 
charged with mud and gravel that issue 
from narrow clefts in the mountain. 
The entrance to the defile of 3Iaui-ach is 
partly barred by a great mound, pro- 
bably an ancient moraine. The defile 
is wild and pictiu-esque : the track 
twice crosses and recrosses the stream 
by bridges whose construction cost the 
lives of many workmen. Amid scattered 
larches, and pines rooted in crevices of 
the rock, the track ascends to the next 
step {Thalstufe) in the valley, a green 
plain 4 or 5 m. in length. Lengenfeld 
is a collective name for several ham- 
lets scattered over this space, but is 
commonly applied to the hamlet of 
Fischbach nf-ar its S. end, where the 
church (3,886') with a sharp spire, painted 
bright green, and the principal inn 
(Oberwirth, very fair) are found. There 
is another inn (Unterwirth"), but nei- 
ther is as good as that at Umhausen. 

Nicholas Etschmann is said to be the 
best guide here. There is a rough but 
not difficult pass to Trenkwald in the 
Pitzthal by the Bradler Joch, and an- 
other more arduous over the Eanach- 
ferner to St. Leonhard in the same 
valley. In the opposite direction the 
Fischbach issues from the Suhthal, 
running deep into the recesses of the 
Stubay Alps, and to the E. base of the 
Schrankogl, the second peak of that 
group. See § 49, Ete. E. 

The scenery above Lengenfeld con- 
stantly increases in savage grandeur as 
after advancing for nearly 1 hr. under 
the precipices of the Burgstein, to Hube, 
from which place a pass (said to be 
difficult) leads to Mittelberg in the 
Pitzthal by the Gschrahkoglgletschcr, 
the track enters another defile where 
massive hornblende rocks close to- 
gether, barely leaving space for the 
torrent and the rough cart-track. At 
Brand, the Ache is crossed to the L 
bank, the valley opens a little, and the 
track mounts to some height above the 
torrent, and after traversing a larch 
wood descends into the basin of 

Sblden (4.442'). There is a small, but 
clean inn (beim Karlinger). Alois En- 
nemoser, one of the best guides for this 
district, and Ferdinand Platter live 
here, but are often at Fend in sum- 
mer. The landlord's son is also well 
spoken of. At Solden the valley ai>- 
sumes the characteristic aspect of the 
central recesses of the Alps. A few 
patches of rice, oats, and potatoes, ;ire 
hemmed in by pine forest, above which 
rise steep slopes of rock and Alpine 
pasture, surmounted by the peaks of the 
snowy range. The most prominent of 
these is the Hsbdcrkogl (10,375'), crown- 
ing the ridge that divides the valleys of 
Fend and Gurgl. The iU-famed Biid- 
stockl pass, over the Winacherfemer, 
leads in 12 hrs. to Neustift in Stubay. 
F. Platter, wh.-> knows it well, expects 
8 fl. Another less difficult pass leads 
to the head of the Pitzthal by the 
Pitzthaler-Jbchl (9,806'). See Ete. G. 

Above Solden the bridle-track enters 
another ravine, the wildest and 



of the entire valley. Throughout its 
entire length, but especially here, nu- 
merous M-ayside pictures and votive 
tablets commemorate accidents to life 
or limb due to avalanches, floods, falling 
rocks, and the varied chances of man's 
life in the Alps. In 1 hr. steady 
walking, the traveller reaches Zioiesel- 
stein (two inns, the new one not bad), 
standing, as the name implies, at the 
bifurcatiun of the main valley, 4,791 ft. 
above the sea. The branch mounting 
due S. is called Gurglthal (Ete. D), 
while the longer branch, mounting 
SW., is the Fenderthal (Ete. C). The 
way to the Timbler Joch ascends for a 
short distance through the Gurglthal 
on the rt. bank of the torrent, but soon 
turns to the 1. into a short lateral glen 
called TimhUhal. The rough path, 
which is passable for laden mules, 
crosses to the 1. bank of the torrent 
through this glen, returning to the 
opposite side about \ hr. below the top. 
In 3 hrs. from Zwiesel stein the 
traveller attains the Timbler Joch 
(8,298'), the lowest pass between the 
Reschen-Seheideck and the Brenner, 
and the only one well fitted for four- 
footed beasts. The pass may be reached 
from Gurgl by the Angerer Alp, and 
thence by a narrow path carried along 
the face of precipitous rocks. In fine 
weather a guide is not necessary, but 
when clouds lie on the pass, it is quite 
possible to miss the way, as the track is 
in places ill marked. The distance from 
the summit to Moos in the Passeyer- 
thal is counted 5| hrs., but in descend- 
ing 4 hrs. amply suffice. The way is 
steep for about 20 min., but thence- 
forward the descent is gentle, keeping a 
SE. direction to &Ao?2aM (5,042'), a mi- 
serable hamlet, with an inn which would 
be resorted to only in case of necessity. 
Here the track bears to the rt., and 
crosses the torrent before reaching Ba- 
bensttin{4:A9o'). From this northernmost 
branch of the Passeyerthal, several j 
passes lead to Sterzing by the Eidnaun- j 
thai and the Eatschingerthal (§ 49, i 
Ete. H). At the beginning of the fif- i 
teenth centur}' a Bergfall in the lower ! 

part of the valley leading to Moos 
barred the course of the Passer, and led 
to the formation of a lake that extended 
nearly to Eabenstein. The partial 
yielding of the barrier thus formed led 
to several inundations that spread 
havoc through the valley even to Meran, 
till about 1790 a channel was opened 
that finally drained the lake, whose bed 
is now a green basin. A very poor inn 
(Seehaus) stands here, about 2 m. below 
Eabenstein. The path thence descends 
steeply, and follows the stony slopes, 
first along the rt. bank, then by the 
opposite side to Moos (3,183'), a village 
standing at tlie junction of the Pfelder- 
thal with the main branch of the Pas- 
seyerthal. The streams meet at rt. 
angles, and their united torrents fiow a 
little S. of AV. from hence to St. Leon- 
hard. The inn is poor, but better than 
those higher up the valley. The scenery 
here is very fine. There are two paths 
descending the valley from Moos, of 
which the more direct is that by the 
1. bank. The longer but more pictu- 
resque way mounts to the village of 
Piatt, and thence follows the rt. bank. 
The distance is commonly counted 2^ 
hrs., but in descending it is easy to go 
in little more than ] ^ hr. from Moos to 

St. Leonhard (Inns : Weisses Eoss, 
beim Strobl, good; and two others), 
the chief village of the Passeyerthal, 
2,273 ft. above the sea. The valley 
here bends shai-ply at a rt. angle, a 
little W. of S., and the higher peaks are 
lost to view. The scenery is compara- 
tively tame throughout the descent to 
Meran, but the traveller familiar with 
the story of the heroic resistance of the 
TjTolese to the French and Bavarian 
invasion in 1809, will visit with interest 
the home of Ilofer, the leader of the 
national struggle and its foremost 
victim. The church and cemetery of 
St. Leonhard, which had been occupied 
as a military position by the French, 
were taken by storm by the Tyrol fse. 
About ^ hr. below St. Leonhard the 
track which keeps to the 1. bank of the 
Passer passes the wayside inn — Wirths- 
liaus am Sand— once kept by Andreas 



HoftT, who derived from it the common 
desitrnation ' der Sandvvirth.' The house 
is still an inn, and contains several 
memorials of the popular hero. The 
hut where he lay concealed, until be- 
trayed to the French in January 1810, 
is about 1^ hr. distant, on the ridge 
SE. of his home. It may be taken on 
the way to Botzen, as a track leads 
thence across the ridge into the Penser- 
th:il, or NW. branch of the Sarenthal. 
PJelow the next village of St. Martin 
the path traverses a spot called Keller- 
lahn, where, after heavy rain, a slowly 
moving stream of mud descends from 
the mountain side, crosses the track, and 
finally falls into the Passer. Men 
attempting to cross this treacherous 
current have found it impossible to ex- 
tricate themselves ; and some lives have 
thus been lost. The remainder of the 
walk to Meran is hot, and not very in- 
teresting, till that town is approached. 
The track by the 1. bank passes the 
castle of Schonna, near which is the 
very ancient church of St. George. The 
shorter way by the rt. bank traverses 
Saltans (inn kept by uncivil people) and 
Kuens. The last pai'ish priest of the 
latter village acquired reputation as a 
poet and antiquary. The priest's house 
commands a very fine view. The castle 
of Tyrol (Ete. A) may be taken on the 
way from hence to Meran, but the 
direct road enters the town through the 



As was mentioned in the last Ete., 
the main branch of the Oetzthal, and 
that which penetrates most deeply into 
the heart of the snowy Alps, is the 
Fenderthal, which unites its torrent with 
that of the Grurglthal at Zwieselstein. 
The path from Solden to Fend (also 
written Vent) turns to the rt., and crosses 
the Ache before it reaches the first houses 
of Zwieselstein, but there is another way, 
shorter, but rougher, which crosses the 
shoulder of the mountain, and avoids 
the junction of the two valleys. The 
path keeps to the 1. side of the valley, 
for the most part at a great height 
above the torrent, which rushes through 
a deep chasm, sometimes lost to view. 
At Freistabl, the first group of houses, 
the defile widens a little, but contracts 
again before the traveller reaches HcUi- 
genkrcuz (5,378'), where wine and an 
omelette, and, in case of need, one or 
two beds, may be found at the house 
of the curate. A bridge, thrown at a 
great height above the torrent, here leads 
to the opposite side of the valley, above 
which rises the peak of the Uamolkogl 
(11, .527'), but the traveller keeps to the 
1. bank, and in 5 hrs. from Solden 

. i^tJirfCSjl 68'). now often written Vent, 
one of the highest villages in the Alps, 
a small group of houses beside a church. 
As it first comes into view, backed by 
the glaciers at the head of the Kofenthal 
and Spieglerthal, which are divided by 
the peak of the Thakitsspitz (II. 172'), it 
forms a striking picture. The inn is 
very poor, and all strangers apply to 
the parish priest, that excellent mount- 
aineer, Herr Senn, who can accommo- 
date 16 or 18 persons. His house- 
keeper makes a moderate charge accord- 
ing to the supplies furnished. These 



include meat, eggs, -svine, coffee, milk, 
butter, wliite bread, and chickens. Cy- 
prian Granbichler, the best guide here, 
■was lost in 1870. Ignaz Schoj^f now 
ranks first. Nicodemus Klotz, of Rofen, 
once famous, has retired, but he has 
four younger brothers, of "whom Leander 
is said to be the boldest. Josef Gstrein 
is probably second best. Save the first, 
none of these are comparable as ice-men 
to the good Swiss and Savoy guides, but 
they are competent to lead strangers 
over the known passes. Josef Scheiber 
is said to be much improved. A tariff 
of charges has been established, mostly 

As Fend lies in the centre of an 
almost complete circle of high peaks, 
it offers very attractive quarters to the 
mountaineer. It is said that no fewer 
than twenty glaciers are drained into the 
valley, most of which are accessible with 
more or less diflSculty. Of the numer- 
ous glacier passes those leading to the 
Vintschgau are described in the present 
Rte. Of these, two leading to Natums, 
through the Schnalserthal, are mode- 
rately easy. The others here mentioned 
are mountaineers' passes, rarely used 
even by the native hunters. Full in- 
formation respecting most of them is 
contained in the valuable work of von 
Sonklar already referred to. 

Ex-cursioiis from Fend, The moun- 
taineer undertaking excursions from 
Fend must recollect that the guides of 
this district are not as well up to ice- 
work as the best Swiss and Savoy guides, 
nor equally familiar with the necessary 
precautions. He should therefore per- 
sonally look to the sufficiency and 
solidity of the rope, and will do well 
to carry his own ice-axe if he has ac- 
quired some practice with that weapon. 

The ascent which will most tempt 
mountaineers is that of the WiJdspitz 
(1 2,390'), the highest point in this region. 
The ascent was made in 1865 by Messrs. 
Tuckett, Fox, and Freshfield, taking 
nearly the same course followed by Herr 
Specht of Vienna in 1 857. This in part 
followed a projecting buttress of the 
mountain called Urkund. Mr. Tuckett 

advises future travellers to go right up the 
Eotenkahr Kees, keeping at some dis- 
tance below ti)e ridge of the Urkund, 
until they reach a Suttel, or col. between 
that and the final slopes of the Wildspitz. 
From that point the peak was attained 
in 1 hr.. and in subsequent ascents 5 
hours of actual walking have sufficed to 
reach the top. Tariff — t\AO guides at 
5 fl. each. For the way to the Pitztlial 
see Rte. F. 

The view from the Weisskugel. or Hi ti- 
ter Wilde EisspHz{]2,277'),h decidedly 
finer than that from the Wildspitz, as 
it overlooks many of the neighbouring 
valleys. It is accessible from the Hin- 
tereis Joch (see beiow), which may be 
reached from Fend, and in rather less 
time from Kurzras at the head of ihe 
Sehnalserthal. The guides, who once 
asked 20 fl. each, are now satisfied with 
10 fl. 

The Similavn (11,810') is easily 
reached from the ^Niederjoch (see be- 
low), or direct from Unser Frau by the 
ridge E. of the Tissenalpthal, to a 
point called Kasererwarterl, and finally 
by the eastern arete after crossing the 
neve of the Grafferner. The summit 
commands an admirable view. 

The Ramolkogel (11,527'). called by 
Sonklar Anich Spitze, with one of the 
finest panoramic views in this district, 
is easily reached in 5 hrs. from Fend. 

The Kreuzsintz{\\,A lO') is, however, 
now preferred by most visitors to Fend 
as affording one of the best panoramic 
views, and being easily accessible even 
to ladies since a path has been com- 
pleted nearly to the top. It turns to 
the rt. from the way to the Niederjoch 
(see below) at the somarhiitte. Of 
nearer points of view one of the best is 
the Mutboden, rising Js. of Fend, and 
reached in 2 hrs. 

1. To the Schnalserthal and Natums, 
by the Nieder Joch (9.847'). 6 hrs. 
from Fend to Unser Frau ; 4 hrs. thence 
to Staben, or A\ hrs. to Natums. This 
was long supposed to be the lowest, as 
it is the most direct way to the Schnal- 
serthal; but is in fact higher, rather more 
laborious, and more difficult than the 



Hoch Jocli, next described. Two moun- I 
taineers vrith a rope may perhaps dispense | 
witli a guide in settled fine weather, but, I 
although the writer has gone alone this I 
way in one day, from Fend to Meran, he i 
strongly advises travellers not to follow I 
his example. It is a far better plan to 1 
halt at Unser Frau, and employ the | 
spare time in the ascent of the Similaun, | 

Less than a mile above Fend two gla- 
cier sto-eams issuing from two glens or 
ncesses in the icy chain join their 
waters. The easternmost of these, flow- 
iu^^ nearly due N., issue.s from the Spieg- 
lerthal, also called ykchrthal, and leads 
to the Nieder Joch. The -way keeps at 
first to the "W. side of the torrent. On 
the opposite side rises the snowy range 
that separates Fend from Grurgl, ■whose 
chief summits are the Ra/nolkogl 
1^11 .'S27'), Firmianspitz (11,275), and 
Schcdfkogl {11,562'). 

In about 1^ hr. from F"'end the tra- 
veller reaches the base of the Marzoll 
Glacier, which descends laterally from 
tlie S. into the glen, and bridges over 
the stream -which issues higher up from 
tht Nitderjochferrier. The v/ay lies along 
the moraine of tiie Marzoll Glacier, to 
a ruined hut called S» marhiitte, and 
thence up rough slopt'S, till in about 
3 hrs. from Fend it enters on the ice of 
tue Niederjochferner. The true direction 
is indicated by little pyramids of stone 
heaped up on the ice. As the traveller 
rises, he obtains wider views of the sur- 
rounding peaks. Before him rises the 
white pyramidal summit of the Similaun 
(11,810'), which is attainable without 
difficulty in 2^ hours from the upper 
plateau near the pass. The descent 
should be made by the head of the 
Graflferner, and the Kasererwarterl (see 
above). Near the latter point is a 
curious mass of seemingly erratic blocks 
of porphyry and various other rocks. 
The Fend guides expect five florins for 
the ascent from the Nieder Joch side. 

The Finailspitz (about 11,600'), 
rising between this and the Hoch Joch, 
is easily ascended from this side, and 
also, but less easily, from the iloch 

On reaching the Nieder Joch, at the 
lowest point of the ridge, the glacier 
comes abruptly to an end, and a single 
step on the rock suffices to bring the tra- 
veller to the verge of the very steep range 
enclosing a wild glen called Tissendp- 
thal. At the first moment the descent 
appears formidably steep, almost a 
precipice ; but on looking down the tra- 
veller will see indications of a faintly 
marked trac-k carried up the broken face 
of the rocks, and in point of fact, the 
descent is not difficult. Keeping some- 
what to the rt., he reaches a slope of 
debris at the base of the rocks leading 
dowTi into the wild and dreary hollow 
which soon opens into the head of the 
Schnalserthal, near a group of huts 
called Oliervernagt (5,600'). Amid very 
grand scenery the path descends by the 
1. bank in ^ hr. more to 

Unser Liebe Fran (5,314'). There is 
a very fair country-inn here, with 4 beds, 
kept by Joh. Spektenhauser(der Unter- 
wirth j, and another nearer the church — 
not bad — (beim Suuter). Gabriel Spek- 
tenhauser (first-rate) and Urban Griscli 
are the best guides here. As at most 
places in Tyrol, a tariff for guides has 
been established. Many interesting 
passes, most of which are noticed helow, 
may be taken from this as a starting 

The walk from Unser Frau through 
the Schnalserthal is ver}- interesting, the 
scenery being throufrhout of a high order. 
The path lies at first along the 1. bank 
of the Schnahe, also called Tschernin' 
hack, then crosses to the rt. bank, and in 
1 hr. reaches Karthaiis (4,793'), a vil- 
lage with a country inn standing on an 
eminence high above the torrent. Nearly 
opposite is the Pfossenthal {B.te. D i, one 
of the most savage recesses of the Tvro- 
lese Alps. Below Karthaus the path 
keeps to the rt. bank, usually at a great 
height above the stream. Some of 
the grandest larches in Tyrol (or in 
Europe) formerly adorned this valley, 
and a few very fine trees still remain 
near the track. On the opposite side 
of the valley the village of Si. Catha- 
rina (4,063') also stands on a point very 



high above the torrent. About 1 hr. 
below Ivarthaus is liatieis, a group of 
houses, with au inn. The most pictu- 
resque point on the way is 1^ hr. below 
Ratteis, where the path passes the ruined 
castle of Ji/fahl, commanding a noble 
view of the Schnalserthal, the adjoining 
portion of the Viutschgau, and the sur- 
rounding mountains. In ^ hr. the path 
descends thence to Staben on the high- 
road a little W. of the opening of the 
valley. At the very fair inn in that 
rilliige it is often possible to procure a 
vehicle for Meran or Schlanders; but 
the prospect is more secure at the Post at 
Naturns (Rte. A). Charge for a char 
{dnsjjdnniger Wagen) to Meran, about 
3 fl. In going to Naturns the traveller 
should take a path that turns to the 1., 
about I m. above the castle of Jufahl, 
and reaches the level of the Vintschgau 
about ^ hr. west of Naturns by a very 
steep descent. At the lower end of its 
course the Schnalse has cut a very deep 
cleft, forming an impassable defile, 
through which it rushes into the valley 
of the Adige. 

2. To the Schnalserthal by the Hoch 
Jock (9,0 15'). 7 hrs. from Fend to 
Unser Frau. A new path has been 
constructed at the instance of the ac- 
tive parish priest of Fend, and two 
mules are available at each side of the 
pass for the benefit of tourists. This 
way is fully an hour longer than that 
by the Nieder Joch, but it is more used, 
and the scenery, on the whole, is finer. 
Following the western branch of the 
valley where it forks above Fend, a 
walk of rather more than 2 m. leads to 
Rofen (6,705'). The shortest path is 
that by the 1. bank of the torrent. 
Since the Stelvio road has ceased to be 
maintained at government expense, this 
is probably the highest spot in the 
German Alps which is inhabited through- 
out the year. A Steinbock (bouquetm) 
carved in stone upon an ancient house 
commemorates the heraldic device and 
privileges of nobility granted to the 
former owner by Frederick of the 
Empty Purse, when he here, at the foot 
of the glaciers, found a secure refuge 

from his enemies. Hofen is the dwell- 
ing place of the Klorz family, reputed 
the best guides in the valley. From 
this spot the branch of the valley de- 
rives its name, Eofenthal. It is en- 
closed by several of the highest summits 
of the Oetzthal Alps. Immediately 
N. of Rofen rises the Wildsjpitz 
(12,390'), followed towards the W. 
by the Prochkogl (11,926'), Plat- 
trykogl (11,056'), Langtav.fererspits 
(11,629'), Weisskugel {12,277'), and on 
the opposite side by the FineUspitz, 
Kreuzspitz {11,4:10'), and Thaleitsspitz 
(11,172'). From a cleft on the W. side 
of the Platteykogl the Vernagt Glacier 
descends into the valley. The oscilla- 
tions of this glacier, as it alternately 
advances and recedes, have caused 
disasters nearly as extensive as .the 
better known inundations of the Dranse 
near Martigny. Thrice in the 17th 
century it so completely barred across 
the valley above Rofen as to form a 
large lake, which finally burst the ice- 
barrier, and caused floods, which were 
much more destructive in the lower 
Oetzthal than in the immediate neigh- 
bourhood of the glacier. Similar acci- 
dents have been repeated on a smaller 
scale in the present century, for the 
last time in 1848. The new path keeps 
to the slope above the rt. hank of the 
torrent, and then crosses the debris left 
by the Vernagt Glacier in order to 
reach the upper slopes intervening be- 
tween that and the three great ice- 
streams which converge towards the 
head of the valley. From the NW. 
descends the KesseJwand-Gletscher, 
which joins the more extensive Hin- 
tereis-Gletscher, flowing eastward from 
the Weisskugel and the Innere Quell- 
spitz ; while the HucIijoc/ifer7ier descends 
from the ridge to the S. and SW., 
approaching very near the Hintereis- 
Gietscher in the lower part of its course. 
A mountain inn. supplying refreshments 
and beds in case of need, has been 
opened here. The way lies for ^ hr. 
over moraine, and then for 1^ hr. over 
the glacier, till the Hoch Joch (9,515') 
is attained in about 4 hrs. from Fend. 



The views on either side of the 
Dunierous peaks, rising out of a vast ex- 
tent of surrounding glacier, are very 
striking. Although the glaciers of this 
region lie very near to each other, and are 
sometimes divided only by snow-covered 
ridges, they are generally iormed in 
distinct basins, and it is not correct to 
describe them, as some writers have 
done, as though they were outlets from 
a single continuous ice-reservoir. 

The descent from the Hoch Jock is, 
for some distance, over snow slopes 
steep enough to allow of glissading. 
Before long the traveller reaches the 
rocks that enclose the head of the 
Schnalserthal. The way formerly lay 
to the 1., but a new and improved path 
to the rt. is now complete. 1 hr. suf- 
fices to reach Kurzras (6,637') ; a group 
of huts offer refreshments and, in case 
of need, three beds. The landlord 
of the huts (der Bauer) is said to be 
a good guide for some of the neigh- 
bouring peaks. The walk from hence 
to Unser Frau is extremely enjoyable. 
The way lies partly over meadows, 
partly through larch forest, and the 
surrounding scenery is grand and 
beautiful. After joining the path from 
the Nieder Joch, the traveller, in about 
3 hrs. from the summit, reaches Unser 

3. To Schlanders by the TascU JocU. 
About 12 hrs. from Fend. The travel- 
ler who has crossed the Hoch Joch, and 
descended thence to Kurzras (see above), 
may reach Schlanders on the same day, 
by crossing a pass called Taschl Jochl, 
leading from the latter place to the 
head of the Schlandernaunthal. The 
Bummit (9,067') commands a remark- 
able view of the snowy range of the 
Oetzthal Alps on one side, and that of 
the Orteler on the other. In descend- 
ing on the S. side, the way passes some 
small lakes, and thence to an AJpine 
pasture h"ing at the head of the Schlan- 
dernminthal, which is a wild hollow, 
inhabited only in summer when herds- 
men visit the head of the glen. It is a 
walk of 3 hrs. from the Alp to Schlan- 
ders (Rte. A), ending by a ver)- steep 

j descent, as the path avoids the gorgb 
I through which the torrent rushes to 
i enter the Vintschgau. This is a long 
day's walk, requiring fully 12 hrs., ex- 
clusive of halts. A curious little Lap- 
I land plant, Ravunculus pygviceiis, was 
I first found in Tyrol near a small glacier 
i above the pass here described. Starting 
I from Unser Frau, the most direct way to 
{ the Sehlandernauxithal is by the Mast- 
I aunscharte, at the head of a short 
j glen called Mastaunthal, opening SW. 
t of the village. The pass (about 9,645') 
j commands a noble view on both sides. 
; It li«s on the X. side of the Mastaun- 
: spitz (10,488'), and not to the S., as laid 
, down on Sonklar's and other maps. 
I 4. To Mais by the Langgrub Joch 
I (10,005') ayid Matscherthal. Fend to 
I Unser Frau 7 hrs. ; thence to Mais 10 
' hrs. The Matscherthal is counted as 
\ one of the most beautiful of the lateral 
i valleys of the Vintschgau. Well culti- 
1 rated at its lower end, and producing 
' excellent crops, its Alpine pastures are 
i reckoned among the richest in T}to1. 
! The beauty of its herds, and the nu- 
merous wolves that wage war against 
them, are equally proverbial. The 
moimtaineer will be still more attracted 
by the grandeur of the peaks and gla- 
ciers that enclose its head. The names 
of the chief summits, commencing on 
the SE. side of the valley, are the Rem,' 
spitz (10,512'), Salurnspitz (11,260'), 
Hintereisspitz (10,721'), Innere Quell- 
spitze (10,889'j, Weisskugel (12,277'), 
and Fuvtlesspitz. Until very lately the 
only known pass leading into the head 
of the valley was that named on the 
government map Langgrub Joch, but 
known as Matscher Joch, in the Schnal- 
serthal and Upper Vintschgau. The 
traveller taking this route from Fend 
should, on the first day, proceed to Un- 
ser Frau (either by the Nieder- or 
Hoch Joch), and will there find in 
Urban Grisch a competent guide. No 
particulars respecting the pass have 
reached the editor. 

5. To Mais by the Hinterei-s Joch and 
Matscherthal. About 13 hrs. from Fend. 
In 1865 Messrs. Tuckett, Fox, and 



Freshfit'ld, with F. Devouassoud of 
Chamouni, and P. Michel of Grindel- 
wald, having reached the Langrauferer 
Joch (see below) in 5if hrs. from Fend, 
turned to the 1., and ascended the 
Langtaufererspitz (11,626') by its N. 
arete, and descended thence southward 
to the upper part of the Hintereis Gla- 
cier. They then mounted to a snow 
col on the S. side of the Weisskugel, 
about 11,400 ft. above the sea, now 
known as the Hhitereis Joch. From 
the summit of the pass the Weisskugel 
was climbed without difficulty in 1 hr., 
and the return to the pass effected in 
25 min. The descent into the head of 
the Matscherthal was very steep. 

' Keeping first to the S., beneath the 
cliffs that "extend SE. from the pass, 
and to the 1. of a rocky point protruding 
from and dividing the upper neve of the 
Matscber Glacier, they then bent round 
to thert., and having reached the brow 
of the lofty and magnificent ice-fall, cut 
their way diagonally across its upper 
and less dislocated portion to the rt. 
lateral moraine, reached in l^-hr. Fol- 
lowing this, or the slopes of rock and 
turf, the end of the glacier was passed 
in 20 min., the highest chalets reached 
in I hr., Matsch in if hrs., and Schlu- 
derns in 1 hr. more.' Throughout the 
lower part of the valley the main tor- 
rent, Klammbach, has cut a deep trench, 
which at length becomes an impass- 
able defile, and the lateral torrents de- 
scending from the mountains on either 
side have also cut deep ravines. There 
is here a choice of paths. The way by 
Schluderns is rougher but more pic- 
turesque. Some way below the village 
of Matsch, on a high promontory in the 
angle formed by such a ravine and the 
main stream, stand the ruins of two 
castles. Unter-Matsch and Ober- 
Matsch, once belonging to the power- 
ful Counts of Matsch. The way to 
Tartsch and Metis, which stand in the 
open valley a little above the opening 
of the Matscherthal, is by a cart-road 
along the sh.pes on the NW. side of the 
valley. This gradually turns to the 
W. as it descends by the rounded 

shoulder of the mountain, to Tartsrh 
(Rte. A). 'J'he course taken by Mr. 
Tuckett's party from Fend to the 
Hintereis Joch obviously involvc-d a 
considerable detour. There is no doubt 
that the most direct way from Fend is 
by the Rofenthal up to the foot of the 
Hintereis Glacier and then by its main 
branch ascending in a directiDU rather 
S. of W. An alternative coarse was 
discovered by ]\Ir. Holzmaun in 1868 
more suited for a traveller whose guide 
was unused to ice-work. Starting from 
the Glieshof, near the head of the 
Matscherthal, the Weisskugel was 
climbed, partly by the Matscher 
Glacier, partly by steep-looking rocks 
on the S. face of the peak. Thence he 
descended to the Hintereis Joch, and 
crossed the ridge to the rt., separating 
the Hintereis from the Steinschlag 
Glacier, wliich occupies the extreme 
uppermost end of the Schnalserthal. 
The way lies to the I., keeping near the 
ridge that bounds the glacier, and it is 
then easy to descend to Kurzras. or to 
reach the path over the Hoch Joch a 
few minutes below the summit. By 
this route the summit of the Weisskugel 
has since been reached in less than 
5 hrs. actual walking from Kurzras. 

6. To Reschen, or St. Valentin, by the 
Langtaufcrer Joch (IO,.'-).35') and Lang- 
tau/ererthal, 11 to 12 hrs. from Fend. 
The ascent to the Langtauferer Joch 
lies about due W. from the foot of the 
Hintereis Glacier. Care must be taken 
to avoid the branch of that glacier that 
descends from the Hintereis Joch at the S. 
foot of the Weisskugel, and to keep a toler- 
ably direct course along the base of the 
Hoch Vernagtwand. The descent on the 
W. side of the pass lies over the Langtau- 
fcrer Ferner, which is less steep than 
most of the glaciers lying on the outer 
declivities of this group. At its head 
the main branch of the Langtaufererthal 
descends to WNW. as far as the first 
group ofhouses, called J/a//aa, belonging 
to the village of Hinterkiich. Two 
glacier passes lead from hence into the 
Kaunserthal (Rte. E). That best known 
is the Weisse See Juch (9,657') ; the 



Other keeps nearer to the base of the j 

Hoch Glockenthurm (10,997')- A little 
bc4ow Maliag another path, keeping 
a little W. of N., and passing over the 
Tscheycr Scharte to the 1. of the last- 
named peak, leads into the head of the 
Hadurschelthal. This is a rarely tra- 
versed Alpine glen, inhabited only by 
herdsmen in summer, whose torrent 
joins the Inn a few miles below the 
defile of Finstermiinz (Ete. A). A 
traveller bent on exploring the least 
known valleys of this district might \ 
accomplish the passage of the Tscheyer [ 
Scharte, and then cross a second pass on j 
the N. side of a summit called Kaiser- 
joch (10,198'), leading through a lateral 
glen (Kaiserbergerthal) from the Ead- 
urschelthal to the Kaunserthal. i 

It is a walk of 3|- hrs. through the 
Langtav.ferertkal from Maliag to G-rann, 
on the high road a short way S. of the 
Eeachen-Scheideck (Ete. A), where the \ 
Carlinbach issues to join the infant | 
Adige. Having regard to the quantity 
of water which it bears down from the 
glaciers at the head of the valley, this* 
may be considered the chief source of 
the Adige. Several hamlets are passed 
between Hinterkirch and Pedross, which 
is the chief place near the opening of 
the valley. About half-way two narrow 
glens are seen to open on the S. side. 
One of these passes to the E., the other 
to the W. of the Danzewell (10,311'). 
Both glens lead to practicable cols over 
the ridge dividing the Langtaufererthal 
from the Planailthal. The latter wild 
glen lies between the first and the 
Matscherthal, but does not penetrate so 
deeply into the snowy range as do the 
neighbouring valleys. 

On reaching Graun the traveller may 
either turn northward to Nauders, or, if 
his course be down the Vintschgau, he 
will find a less attractive inn at the 
post-station at St. Valentin. 



In describing the interior recesses of 
the Oetzthal Alps, we have hitherto 
omitted to notice the branch of the 
valley whose opening was seen S. of 
Zwieselstein. The G-urglthal is not in- 
ferior to the Fenderthal in attractions 
for the moimtaineer, except that it does 
not offer so great a variety of expeditions 
to his choice. 

The best way from Zwieselstein to 
Gurgl is by a path that mounts rather 
steeply through forest on the 1. bank of 
the main torrent, till, above the opening 
of the Timblthal (Ete. B), it crosses to 
the rt. bank near a waterfall formed by 
the torrent from that glen. The valley 
here opens and fairly enters the Alpine 
region, leaving that of coniferous trees, 
none but scattered arollas (Siberian 
pines) being henceforward seen. In 
about 1 hr. from the bridge the traveller 
reaches Pill, the lowest hamlet of Gurgl. 
Several small groups of houses are passed 
in succession, and as the surrounding 
peaks appear to close round the head of 
the valley, and the traveller thinks him- 
self approaching close to the foot of the 
glaciers, a turn of the path round an 
intervening green hillock discloses the 
church and small village of Ghirgl 
(6,238'), the higliest in the Eastern Alps. 
There is no inn, but strangers are kindly 
received by the parish-priest, and find 
very fair quarters, for so remote a spot, 
when the house is not overcrowded, as 
sometimes happens in summer. The 
former parish-priest, Herr Trientl, lately 
removed to Gries, near Lengenfeld, has 
given an interesting account of the valley 



in the second annual volume of the Aus- j 
trian Alpine Club. i 

The traveller who wishes to enjoy the | 
scenery of this district cannot do better 
than make his first halt in the upper \ 
Oetzthal at Gurgl, and after devoting a j 
day or two to the neighbourhood, go from i 
hence to Fend by the Ramol Joch ; but ! 
those who have already seen the Fender- | 
thai may take Gurgl on the way to the 
valley of the Adige, crossing one or other 
of the passes njeiiiioned below. The best 
guides here are Blasius Griiner, Peter 
Paul Gstrein, and Rupert Scheiber. A 
tariff of charges has been established, 
considerably higher than formerly. For 
thehigher peaks the rateis from 4 fl. to6 
fl. ; and in many cases two guides are con- 
sidered necessary for a single traveller. 

The indispensable exciu-sion for the 
visitor to Gurgl is that to the Eissee and 
Great Oetzthahr Glacier. There is a 
path by the 1. bank of the torrent ; but it 
is steep and difficult, and that by the 
opposite side of the valley is preferred. 
About 20 min, above the village the 
latter track reaches the Gaisbriicke, a 
bridge crossing the torrent from a lateral 
glen called Gaisberg, rarely visited by 
tourists, but interesting to the naturalist 
and geologist. At its head is a rather 
considerable glacier which may be visited 
by a detour from the path to the Eissee, 
but deserves more leisurely examination. 
Above it rise the peaks of the Granaten- 
kogl (10,783') and the Kirchenkogl 
(10,790'). The first derives its name 
from the abundance of large garnets 
found in the mica slate. As they have 
been much sought after, good specimens 
are not now easily found. On the oppo- 
site or S. side of the glacier, the mica 
slate passes into a micaceous clay slate, 
with veins (or alternating layers ?) of 
erygtalline limestone, connected with a 
large cont'guous mass of dolomite. Fine 
specimens of quartz crj^stals have been 
found on the S, lateral moraine of the 

Continuing his course up the main 
branch of the Gurglthal from the Gais- 
briicke, the traveller in 1 hr. reaches the 
opening of the Rothmoosthal, a lateral 

glen parallel to the Gaisberg, also lead- 
ing to a large glacier lying between the 
Kirchenkogl audBoik?/tOoskogel\ 1 0,772'). 
H. Trientl narrates an accident that 
befell a guide from Pf elders who accom- 
panied two English travellers across this 
glacier to Gurgl in 1863. His life was 
saved after falling to a depth of nearly 
70 feet into a crevasse. 

Crossing the torrent from the Both- 
moosferner, the traveller follows the path 
about SSW. to Schonwies, where sheep 
and goats are pastured in summer. A 
rather steep ascent follows, but the path 
has been lately improved, and on tuniing 
a corner of rock the traveller suddenly 
finds himself face to face with the great 
glacier, appropriately named Grosse 
Oetzthaler Ferner, as it is seen in the 
back ground from the lower part of ttie 
main valley. In the early summer the 
attention of the traveller will be at once 
arrested by the Eissee, or Gurgler Lake, 
This is formed in the same manner as 
other small glacier-lakes in Switzerland 
and Tyrol, but, when full, is on a larger 
scale than any of them. The torrent 
from the Langthaler Ferner which flows 
from due S. into the head of the Gurgl- 
tlial is arrested by the larger glacier, 
which fills the trough of the valley. In 
the spring and early summer, when the 
Langthaler torrent is much increased in 
volume, the waters accumulate till they 
fill the entire space between the two 
glaciers, forming a lake about 1 nu in 
length, nearly ^ m. broad, and 400 ft. 
deep at the lower end where it abuts 
against the lower glacier. Large ma-sses 
of floating ice form miniature ice-bergs 
on its sui-face, and the conditions which 
have caused the disastrous inundations 
in the neighbouring Eofenthal (Rte. C) 
seem to be repeated. In fact, some 
damage was done in the early part of 
the last century by the rapid outflo-w 
from the lake, but, as an ordinary rule, 
the accumulation stops when the stream 
has reached the level of the lower glacier 
on its W, bank. Mainly by a process 
well explained by Sonklar, the water ex- 
cavates a passage under the ice dam, 
while at the sometime a stream near the 



bank gradually deepens its bed, and so 
the lake is drained without a dangerous 
outburst of the pent-up waters. A small 
grove of arollus is seen near the base of 
the Grosse Ferner at the unusual height 
of about 7,100 ft. 

The mountaineer should ascend the 
northern peak of the Schicurzenspitz 
(9,761'), between the two great glaciers 
of the valley. It commands a noble view. 

The easiest pass from Gurgl to 
Fend is doubtless that by the Ramol 
Jock (10.537), Iving between the 
Hamolkoyel (11 ,6do) and the Stoiterhorn 
(11,2.57'). A path has been constructed 
of late years, and 6 hours steady walk- 
ing fully suffice for the passage. Fol- 
lowing the steep path by the 1. side of 
the torrent, the summit is attained by 
the slopes W. of the great glacier, and 
the descent lies over the Spiegelfemer, 
whose torrent runs into the lower part 
of the Niederthal (Rte. C) about 1 hr: 
above Fend. It appears easy to combine 
the ascent of the Stotterhorn with the 
passage of the Joch ; but that of the 
Ramolkogel costs more time. A more 
direct way from Gurgl to Fend lies over 
the Fallferner (6 to 7 hrs.). This course 
is interesting chiefly for the prodigious 
development of the ancient moraines on 
the \V. side of the Gurghhal. It is said 
that from 60 to 80 parallel moraines may 
in some places be traced on the slope 
extending from the bottom of the valley 
to a height of 2,600 ft. The ascent of 
the NoderkoglOQ.Zlo), the summit of 
which is easily reached in 5 hrs. from 
Gurgl, may also be taken on the way 
from that village to Fend. 

Passes from Gurgl to Meran. The 
easiest way from Gurgl to 3Ieran is the 
circuitous course by the Timbler Joch 
noticed in Ete. B. It is a very long 
day's walk. A shorter way to Kaben- 
Btein in the upper Passeyerthalisby the 
Ko7iigsthal, a short glen, whose torrent 
falls into the Gurglthal at Sagemiihle, 
about ^ hr. below the village. The 
pass, called Saber Joch, is said to be 
very rough, rather difficult, and to cost 
as much time as the way by the Timbler 
Joch. The most direct way to Plan in 

the Pfeldersthal is by the Bothmoosfer' 
ner (see last page). This glacier rises 
by successive steep slopes alternating 
with nearly level terraces. Some wide 
transverse crevasses are difficult to pass 
when not covered by solid snow bridges. 
The S. side is easy, and Plan is reached 
in b\ hrs. from Giirgl. The ordinary 
way to the Pfeldersthal is by the Lang- 
thaler Joch (9,939'). This pass, reached 
in 4^ hrs. from Gurgl, lies to the 
E. of the Hochwildspitz (11,410'), one 
of the highest summits in the main 
range S. of Gurgl — the corner-stone 
whereat meet the Gurglthal, Pfelders- 
thal, and Pfossenthal. The ascent is by 
the Langthalerferner, which is divided 
from the Grosse Ferner by the ridge of 
, the Schwarzenspitz, The glacier comes 
! to an end at the summit, and a steep, 
! but not very difficult, rock descent leads 
i down to Lazins at the head of the Pfel- 
I dersthal. The way being lono^, an early 
I start is expedient. The view, which 
' extends eastward to the snowy peaks of 
I the Tauern Alps, and southward to the 
j dolomite mountains of Fassa and Ca- 
: dore, is magnificent. 

In descending from the Langthaler 
1 Joch, the traveller has a choice between 
three diffi-rent courses. He may bear 
to the rt. in order to cross the Gruben 
Joch (9,548'), which leads from the head 
of the Pfeldersthal to that of the Pfos- 
senthal, passing between the Hochwild- 
spitz to the N. and the Hochweissspitz 
(about 10,370' ?) to the S. This would 
lead to Karthaus in the Schnalserthal, 
but the shortest and most interesting 
way to that place is by the Gurgl Joch 
(see below). 

The second course offered to the moun- 
taineer is to bear to the 1. and descend 
the Pfeldersthal to Flan ( 5,341'), the chief 
village of the valley, and on that account 
often called Pfelders. It is reached in 
3^ hrs. from the summit of the pass. 
There are now two inns at Plan, and it 
is no longer necessary to seek hospitality 
at the priest's house. 2 hrs. lower 
do-wn, near the opening of the valley, is 
the village of Piatt. The Pfeldersthal 
is a lateral glen which joins the main 



branch of the Passeyerthal at Moos { 
(Rto. B), but, as its level is much 
higher, the path descends rapidly from 
Piatt, and the torrent, after passing 
through a ravine, issues in a fine water- 
fall — the Platter Fall — a short distance 
from Moos. 

As the Pfeldersthal descends nearly 
due KE. from its head to its junction 
with the upper Passeyerthal — i.e. in a 
direction nearly exactly opposite to that 
of the lower part of the valley between 
St. Leonhard andMeran, the course last 
described is very circuitous, involving 
fully 11 hrs. steady walking from the 
Langthaler Joch to Meran. A much 
more interesting way, rougher, but 
scarcely half as far in actual distance, is 
by the Spronscr Joch. To reach this the 
traveller, after descending to Lazins, a 
group of huts near the head of the Pfel- 
dersthal, merely crosses the latter valley, 
and begins to '■mount, nearly due S., 
through a lateral glen called Lazinser- 
thal, which leads to the pass (8,440' 
ft. high). The view of the range of 
snowy peaks on the opposite side of the 
Pfeldersthal is said to be very fine. On 
tlie S. side of the Spronser Joch the path 
lies for a considerable distance through 
an upland valley containing five or six 
small lakes, whence a rapid descent leads 
into the Spronserthal, a wild glen en- 
closed between steep walls of rock. The 
traveller may follow this down to its 
junction with the Passeyerthal near 
Meran, or he may take a rather more 
direct way, passing by Schloss Tyrol 
(Ete. A\ and descending by the path 
from thence to the town. In this way 
Meran may be reached in 10 hrs. steady 
walking from Grurgl. A guide is required, 
not only for the passage of the Lang- 
thaler Joch, but also for the way fi-om 
Lazins to the lower part of the Spron- 

Girrgl to Natur7is hy the Gurgl Joch 
and Ffossenthal. The pass over the ] 
head of the great Oetzthaler Glacier, i 
and the descent through the Pfosson- '• 
thai to Karthaus in the Schnalserthal, is 
very rarely eifected, though one of the 
most interesting excursions in this dis- 

trict. An ascent of 2 hrs. from the 
Eissee, partly over the glacier, partly 
by steep slope ■ on the E. bank, leads 
to the Steiuerne Tisch (9,560'), a huge 
block lying close to the edge of the 
ice. Here begins the neve, and of course 
the rope should be put on. A Dr. 
Blirstenbinder from Berlin, refusing to 
adopt that precaution, was hauled up a 
corpse from a crevasse into which he had 
fallen. In 1|- hr. from the Steinerne 
Tisch, or less if the snow be in good 
order, the traveller reaches the summit 
of the Gurgler Joch (9,956'), lying be- 
tween the Hochwildspitz (11,410') and 
the Karlesintz (11,256'). Although the 
descent into the Pfossenthal is at first 
extremely steep, the people of the 
Schnalserthal annually send a large 
flock of sheep this way to the pastures 
above Grurgl. Many accidents are. re- 
corded. In June 1844, the flock was 
surprised by a snow storm on the gla- 
cier, and more than 200 sheep, with one 
of the shepherds, were frozen to death. 

At Eishof (6,790'), a large stone house 
at the head of the Pfossenthal, the tra- 
veller joins the path leading from the 
Pfeldersthal over the Gruben Joch, 
and then descends, at first due W., 
through this wild valley, one of the 
deepest and most savage in Tyrol, but 
rarely traversed by the foot of a stranger. 
From Mitterkaser, where the Pfossenthal 
bends to the S.,a path leads to St. Katha- 
rina, on the E. side of the Schnalser- 
thal. If the traveller be bound for 
Naturns he may keep to the track on 
the 1. side of the valley. Should he de- 
sign to return to Fend, or traverse any 
of the passes described in Hie. C, he will 
cross the main valley to Karthaus (10 
hrs. from Gurgl). and seek night- quar- 
ters there, or at the better inn at Unser 
Liebe Frau. 

The passaae of the Gurgl Joch may- 
be combined with the ascent of the 
Xar/e*/)//r( 11,256'), commanding a very 
fine view of the surrounding peaks and 
glaciers. This is effected by a steep 
climb along a rocky ridge that extends 
southward from the summit. Instead of 
returning the same way and descending 



to the Pfossenthal, the travelLr may I pass connecting this great glacier with 

descend to Fend across a great basin of 
liCvc above tlie head of the Schatferner, 
which falls into the Nit-derthal close to 
the lower end of tbe Maizott Glacier. 
In 3 hrs. (fast going; the path in the 
Niederthal is reached from the sunimit. 

Another route sometimes taken from 
Gurgl to Fend lies over the sunimit of 
the SchaI//ioyel(l\M'2') ; this is shorter 
than the way by the Karlespitz, but the 
view is said [o be less interesting. 

The -writer has seen no notice of the 
ascent of the Rotkbergspitz (11,904') — 
called Rothenspitz on Sonklar's map — 
next to_ the Weis^kugel. the highest 
summit in the range dividing the Adige 
from the Inn. It rises NW. of Mitter- 
kaser in the Pfossenthal and outtops 
the Similaun by 94 feet. 

Fend, recently called Gebatsch Joch, 
offers a sample of the strange effects of 
vague rumour in exaggerating the perils 
of Alpine adventure. The pass appears 
to have been at one time frequently 
uskI by the natives of Fend, who passed 
that way to the pilgrimage church of 
Kaltenbrunn in the Kaunserthal. Of 
late it has been rarely used, and has 
acquired the name of a dangerous pass. 
Even in a work so generally accurate 
as the second edition of Schaubach, 
published in 1866, it is alluded to as 
only to be attempted ' at peril of life, 
and probably impracticable since Nico- 
demus IClotz no longer undertakes to 
act as guide.' The ' Jahrbuch of the 
Austrian Alpine Club,' however, con- 
tains two accounts of the pass which 
was traversed early in July 1860 by 
Herr "Weilenmann, and about six weeks 
later by Dr. A. v. Kuthner. As in all 
similar expeditions the constant use of 
the rope is indispensable, and when 
there is little snow on the upper part of 
the Gebatschferner, the crevasses may 
give some trouble, but in their ordinary 
condition the glaciers on both sides seem 
to be singularly free from difficulty, as 
may be inferred from the fact that Herr 
Weilenmann reached the pastures of the 
Platteyberg above Eofen in 5 hrs. from 
the Gebatschalp in the KaunserthaL 
The confusion existing as to the true 
names of many of the peaks and glaciers 
in this district, and the want of agree- 
darj- ridges that stretch northward from j ment between the beet maps, makes it 

Eoui-E E. 


It was remarked in the introduction 
to this section that the Fenderthal, or 
main branch of the Upper Oetzthal, is 
walled in on the NW. side by the high- 
est of the ridges making up the group 
of the Oetzthal Alps. This, which has 
by Sonklar been collectively called 
Weisskamm, contains the three highest 
summits of the entire group, and no- 
where sinks below the level of about 
10,400 ft. The three parallel secon- 

the Weisskamm towards the Innthal 
enclose two valleys, the Kaunserthal to 
the W., and Pitzthal to the E., that 
deserve far more attention than they 
have received from travellers. Glaciers 
of the grandest character enclose each 
valley at the upper end, and very in- 
teresting passes afford to the moun- 
taineer a choice of agreeable routes for 
approaching Fend, or travelling thence 
to the Innthal. The greatest of these 

diificult to follow the narratives above 
alluded to without risk of error. 

The Kaunserthal was referred to in 
Ete. A, as the post-road to the Finster- 
miinz passes the opening of the valley 
at Prutz, about 3 hrs. above Landeck. 
From the foot of the Gebatsch Glacier 
to near Kaltenbrunn (5 hrs. walk) the 
valley descends due N., but then turns 
westward, and for 2 hrs. more keeps a 
course but little N. of W. to Prutz. 

glaciers, the longest in the Alps E. of I The range on the W. side of the valley 

the Adige, is the Gelatschferner, also 
written Gepaatschferner, which falls 
into tlie head of the Kaimserthal. The 

includes the following principal sum- 
mits, some of which are liable to be 
confounded with others of the same 



name in this district. Karls-sjpitz 
( 10,253'), Zirmes-spitz (9,652'), Glork- 
haus (10,159'), Kaiserjoeh (10,198'), 
Glockenthurm (10,998'), and lastly the 
Weissseespitz (11,618'), rising nbove 
the W. side of the Gebatsch Glacier, 
and joining the main range of the Weiss- 
kamm. In the range dividing the 
Kaunser and Pitz valleys the main 
summits in ascending from N. towards 
S. are the Aif^^ispitz (8,403'). PdscheJ- 
kopf(9,bWi Watzekopf{9,o51'), Blick- 
spitz (11,047'), and the range is linked 
to the Weisskamm by the Oelgruhcnspitz 
(about 11,000'). 

As happens in nearly all the valleys 
radiating from the snowy group of the 
Oetztha-1 Alps, the Faggenhach, which 
drains the Kuunserthal, has at the 
opening of the valley cut a very deep 
cleft, through which it issues to join the 
Inn at Prutz. A sharp ascent of more 
than 800 ft. leads from that village to 
Kauns (3,557'), a thriving village, with 
an ancient castle (Bareneck), repaired 
and modernised by its present owner. 
Overlooking in some places the deep 
gorge of the Faggenbach, the path along 
the rt. bank leads in 2 hrs. from Prutz 

Kaltenbrunn (4,181'). A large and 
handsome church, with but half a dozen 
houses, one of which is a rough but 
tolerable inn, marks a spot much re- 
sorted to by pilgrims from the neigh- 
bouring valleys. The name is ap- 
parently derived from a jet of very 
pure and cold water that is made to 
issue from a crucifix of life size opposite 
the church porch. In approaching this 
place from the Innthal below Imst, the 
shortest way is by the lower part of the 
Pitzthal, and the path of the Piller 
Joch, then following a track leading 
along the W. base of the Aifenspitz to 
Kauns. In approaching Kaltenbrunn, 
the stranger might suppose himself 
near the head of the valley, as above it 
the mountains seem to close together, 
but a short distance farther on an 
abrupt bend in the course of the stream 
opens before the traveller the long reach 
of the upper valley, extending without 

C. T. * 

a break to the foot of the Gebatsch 
Glacier. The scenery is somewhat 
monotonous, the more so as the higher 
summits are often shut out from view. 
The valley is very subject to avalanches 
in winter and spring, no less than 
36 habitual avalanche-channels being 
pointed out on the slopes on either side. 
Further peril and loss to the natives of 
the valley is caused by the impetuous 
torrent of the Faggenbach, which often 
overflows its channel, bearing do^vn 
masses of sand and gravel over the 
pastures and fields. The destruction 
of the forests is, as usual, tlie main 
source of mischief The only village i.s 
Fcvckten (4,325'), a very small place, 
with a rough but tolerably clean inn, 
kept by Gfall. Near at hand is tlie 
Gsollbtichfull,a. waterfall of much local 
repute. It is formed by the Gsollbach, 
a torrent descending from the Disten- 
kopf, which springs over nine successive 
ledges of rock, in as many cascades, 
whose united lieightis 1,375 ft. Four of 
these are visible from the ordinary path, 
but the supply of water is often insuffi- 
cient. The Brunigbach iail, higher up 
in tiie valley, which descends 498 ft. in 
a single bound, is more picturesque. 
Several pa.^ses, noticed in lUe. G, lead 
from the lower part of the Kaunserilial 
tc the adjoining valleys. Another 
pass leads westward from Feuchten to 
the Innthal through the Christinathal. 
The higher of the VerpeUsiiitzen, two 
very steep (supposed inaccessible) obe- 
lisks of rock that projectfrom the snowy 
range E. of Feuchten, has been twice 
climbed by travellers, each time under 
the guidance of Gabriel Spekteu- 
hauser. On the secf nd occasion the 
descent was made to Feuchten. 

'There are several scattered groups of 
houses above Feuchten, at one of which, 
called Eifenhof, dwell the brothers 
Auer, of whom the younger, named 
Johann, is counted the best guide in the 
valley. He accompanied M. Weilen- 
mann, and other subsequent travellers, 
over the pass to Fend. An avalancho 
of mud, gravel, and stones, poured down 
through a cleft on the E. side of tha 



valley in 1862, has ruined the best 
pasturages in the valley, and reduced 
the few inhabitants to poverty. Four 
hrs. from Feuchten, or o^ hrs. from 
Kaltenbrunn, the traveller reaches the 
Gebatschalp (6,225') — also called Oel- 
grubenalp — with the last huts, close to 
the foot of the great glacier. Connected 
with the Pitzthal by the Oelgruben 
J(;ch (Rte. G), and with the Lang- 
taufererthal by the Weisse See Joch, 
and close to the largest glacier of the 
Eastern Alps, this spot may serve as a 
centre for many interesting excursions, 
and the German Alpine Club has ju- 
diciously built at a place some 20 min. 
above the chief hiitten a place of refuge 
for travelkrs. For a general view the 
best point is the Wonnetierg (9,625'), a 
western outlyerfrom the Oelgrubenspitz. 
commanding an admirable view of the 
Gebatsch Glacier. 

This great ice-stream is divided at its 
lower end by the BauchJcopf (9,796'), 
a massive island of rock, round whose 
eastern side the larger arm of the 
glacier falls in a rather steep ice-fall, 
while the narrower branch descends on 
the W. side. The easiest way to reach 
the upper plateau of the glacier is to 
climb the rocks of the Klein Rauchkopf, 
lying E. of the main mass, and sepa- 
rated from it by an ice-couloir. On 
reaching the summit, the Hochnagel- 
warid (11,623') is seen due S., while a 
range of dark rocks called Schwarae 
Wand encloses the glacier on the SE. 
side. The pass to Rofen and Fend lies 
on the E. side of the first-named ridge. 
It is said that the upper part of the 
Gebatsch Glacier is very difficult when 
the n^v6 is so far melted as to leave 
exposed the great crevasses by which it 
is intersected, but no such difficulty 
.was encountered by either of the tra- 
vellers who have given an account of 
the pass, and Mr. Weilenmann reached 
the summit in 3^ hrs.from the Gebatsch- 
alp. The height of the Gebatsch Jcch 
has not been measured, but has been 
estimated by Mr. Tuckett at about 
10,800 ft. 

The next high sununit to the E. is the 

I ProchJcogl (11,926'), beyond which the 
I Wildspitz asserts its .supremacy over all 
j the surrounding peaks. Contrary to 
' the current belief on the subject, the 
Gebatsch Joch leads to the NW. branch 
of the Hoch Vernagtferner, and not 
to the Kesselwand GL, or N. branch of 
the Hintereis Glacier. In descending 
it is expedient to bear to the 1. down 
the gentle elopes of neve that lead to 
the point where the Eofenthalfemer 
joins the main stream. No difficulty is 
found in leaving the glacier on its £. 
bank, near to the highest pastures of 
the Piatt eyberg above Rofen, which is 
easily reached in another hour. See 
Rte. C. 


Although the majority of travellers 
will naturally choose the easy route 
from the valley of the Inn to Fend or 
Gurgl, through the Oetzthal (Rte. B), 
not a few momitaineers may be tempted 
to prefer the way through the Pitzthal, 
here briefly described. There is a choice 
between three rather difficult glacier- 
passes leading directly to Fend, and the 
less arduous passes noticed in the next 
Rte., connecting th.^ head of the valley 
with Solden or the Kaunserthal. 

Not taking into account the lateral 
glen of the Taschachthal, the head of 
the Pitzthal descends from S. to N. for 
about 9 m. parallel to the Kaunserthal, 
till, at St. Leonhard, it bends to the 1., 
and for about the same distance follows 
a NW. direction to Kreith, where it 
unites with the little glen descending 
from the Pillerjoch, turns to NE., and 
joins the valley of the Inn a little below 
Imst. The distance from the opening 
of the valley to the Mittelbergalp near 
the foot of the great glacier is counted 
as 11 Stunden. Crossing the Inn by 
the Langenbriicke below Irast, a cart- 
track mounts to Arzl, a large scattered 
village, overlooking the junction of the 
Gurglthal (§ 42, Rte. A\ and the Pitz- 
thai with, the Inn. The track thence 



inounts alone: the 1. bank of the torrent 
to Wens (2,831'), 1^ hr. aboA-e Arzl, a 
thriving villaae, with massive stone 
houses, overlooked by the still inhabited 
castle of Hirschberg. It will not escape 
the traveller's notice that the short 
lateral glen, opening; to SW., and lead- 
ing over the low Pillerjoch to Prutz, is 
the orographic continuation of the upper 
valley of the Inn, and affords one more 
instance of the truth that the direction 
of the existing valleys and depressions 
of the Alps is not what should be ex- 
pected by those who believe that these 
originate exclusively in erosive action. 
The path to the Pillerjoch passes by 
Kreith, while that leading up the main 
valley crosses the torrent to Jerzeus, 
near to the Stuihenfall, a fine waterfall, 
not to be confounded with others of the 
same name in the Oetzthal and else- 
where. Henceforward the slopes on 
the E. side of the valley are extremely 
steep, merely showing patches of snow 
and short tongues of glacier protruding 
through the openings in the range. On 
the opposite side the slope is gentler, 
and many short lateral glens lead up to 
the glaciers that extend almost continu- 
ously along the ridge. Not less than 
fifteen are said to send their torrents 
from that side into the Pitzthal. The 
track which is practicable for rough 
country vehicles as far as St. Leonhard, 
keeps to the rt. bank between Jerzens 
and Ritzenried, soon after crosses to the 
1. bank, but returns to the opposite side 
to Harlach, ami in 6|- hrs. from Arzl 
leads the traveller to 

St. Leonhard (4,58i'). This is the 
chief place in the valley, and might 
serve as headquarters for a traveller 
wishing to explore the fine ranges that 
enclose it on either side. The names of 
the chief summits in the Kaunsergrat 
are enumerated in the last route. Those 
of the opposite ridge between this 
and the Oetzthal (or Pitzkamm of 
Sonklar), reckoning from N. to S., are as 
Mlows:—Wildgratkogl (9,744'), ^ohe 
Feiler (10,092'), FeuerJcogl (10,100'?). 
Hohe Gcige {11,128'), Puikogl (10,965'), 
and Schwarze KogeU (10,675'). The 

latter, said to command an especially 
fine view, is reached with little dithculty 
from Mittelberg. The passes over botli 
these high ranges are noticed in the next 
Rte. Passing on the way the hamlet of 
Trenkwaid, in 3 hrs. from St. Leonhard, 
the traveller reaches Platigeros (5,464'), 
the highest village in the valley, where 
a small inn (Traube), kept by very 
civil people, supplies lodging and enter- 
tainment. Here trees become scarce, 
and too few remain on the slopes to 
ward oS" avalanches from the houses, 
scattered through the upper valley. 
The path passes three hamlets belong- 
ing to Plangeros — Tieflehn. Manndorf. 
and Mittelberg (5,880'). The latter is 
a mere group of hiltten. very near to the 
foot of the great Mittelberg Glacier, 
whose ice-fall, said to be the grandest 
in Tyrol, is full in view. Here tbe main 
valley comes to an end, but a wild lateral 
glen, Taschachthal, opens to the SW. 
It is surrounded by high glaciers, of 
which the Taschach and Sechsegerten 
Glaciers descend from the main rang-.e 
N. of the Wildspitz, while over the Oel- 
grubenferner lies a way to the Kaunser- 
thal. Travellers may now find good 
shelter for the night at the Taschach- 
hiitte, lately built hy the German Alpine 
Club. The best guides in the valley are 
'der Bauer,' in Mittelberg, and a man 
(name unknown"! at the preceding hamlet 
of Manndorf. The better guides of the 
Oetzthal (especially Alois Ennemoser) 
and Gabriel Spektenhauser of Unter 
Liehe Frau, are probably much more 
useful than any native of the valley. 

The westernmost pass, which may be 
called Taschach Joch, was traversed by 
Dr. Ruthner in 1858. Mounting from 
Rofen by the Platteyberg to the upper 
plateau of the Vernagt Glacier, as on 
the way to the Gebatsch Joch, the pass 
leading to the Taschachferner was ap- 
proached by the SE. corner of the pla- 
teau. From thence hedescended through 
the Taschachthal to Mittelberg. 

The highest and most difficult, but 
probably the finest, of the three passes 
was effected by Messrs. Tuckett, Fresh- 
field, and Fox, in 1865, ou the same day 

♦m 2 



on which they ascended the Wildspitz 
(Kte. C). 

After descending eastward from the 
Wildspitz to the head of the Ilofen- 
kar-Kees. and then keeping round well 
to the I., they dropped down upon the 
lowest point in the ridge connecting the 
Wildspitz with the WeisskopJ\\ 1,209'), 
often called Fender Weisskugel. The 
pass, connecting the neve of the Rofen- 
kar with that of the Mittelherg Gi., has 
been called Mutelberger Juch, and, being 
but little below the summit of the 
Weisskopf, may be estimated at about 
1 1 ,000 ft. 

The descent was made by 'the east- 
ern of the two great bays into which 
the Mittelberg Gl. is divided by the 
Hochwand, and no diflficuities were en- 
countered till the brow of the upper ice- 
fall was reached at the point where the 
highly crevassed Hanyendeferner comes 
down from the E. at rt. angles to the 
main ice stream.' A passage through 
the seracs was soon effected, and the 
rt. lateral moraine was reached in 2 hrs. 
from the pass. Two hrs. more of steep 
climbing were required to reach the 
terminal moraine, whence the Hiitlen 
of the Mittelbergalp were reached in 
another ^ hr. 

An easier way for descending from 
the Wildspitz to Plangeros was dis- 
covered in 1869 by ^Messrs. Noon, 
Pendlebury, and Berreiter of Innsbruck. 
Turning westward from the summit, 
and keeping well to the 1., they easily 
reached the level snow-field at the 
head of the Taschach Ghicicr. Then 
keeping a general NNV. direction, and 
passing some crevassed glacier, their 
course was t)arred by impassable cre- 
vasses till turning E. they found an 
easy descent along the lidge dividing 
the Taschach from the Mittelberg 
Glacier, and finally completed the de- 
scent by the former ice-stream. 

The pass of the Schuarze Schneide 
has proba])ly been long kn'^^n to the 
people of the upper Pitztha., out the 
first recorded p;issage was by M. Ep- 
senhardt, of iJerlin, with the curate 
iif Piangeros, in 1863. it is described 

by Herr Senn, parish priest of Fend, 
in the 2nd annual volume of the 
Austrian Alpine Club. This route 
to Fend involves two passes, of which 
that of the Schwarze Schneide traverses 
the dividing ridge between the Pitzthal 
and Oetzthal, while the Sdter JochL 
connects the Tiefenthal Gl. (cr Seiter- 
ferner)with the head of the Rettenbach- 
fenier. The way from Mittelberg 
mounts, as in the passage of the Mittel- 
berger Joch, by the rt. bank or E. side 
of ttie great lower ice-fall, and in a 
similar way surmounts the ice-fall of the 
Hangendeferner by ascending the steep 
western slopes of the Karleskogl. It 
dues not appear that any serious diffi- 
culty is encountered in reaching the 
summit of the pass which traverses the 
ridge called Schwarze Schneide, probably 
about 10,000 ft. in height. The view iu 
both directions is very striking. To 
the E. descends the Retteubachferner, a 
glacier of considerable extent, though 
inferior to the great ice-stream that has 
accompanied the traveller during the 
ascent. If followed by the traveller, it 
would lead him through the Rettenbach- 
thal to Solden in the Oetzthal. To reach 
Fend, it is necessary to cross the neve at 
the head of the Rettenbach Gl. in a di- 
rection somewhat W. of S. to reach the 
Setter Jochl{a.hom 9,850' ?). a depression 
in the ridge dividing that glacier from 
the much smaller Tiefenthai Ghcier. 
There is no difficulty in the descent from 
the second col to the Mutboden men- 
tioned in Rte. C as commanding one of 
the finest views near Fend. From 8 to 
9 hrs., exclusive of hults. should be 
allowed for this way from Mittelberg to 
Fend. Those who do not attempt any- 
one of these laborious glacier passes 
may well make the ascent of the Mit- 
tayskoyel (10,357'), ovcilooking the 
Mittelberg Glacier. The view is highly 
spoken of by Sonklar. It is impossible 
in the present work to do more than 
refer the reader to the interesting 
observations on the glaciers of this 
valley contained in the \\ork of that 
careful writer. 



Route G, 

tour of the oetzthal alps. lengf.n- 
peld, or solden, to st. leonhard 
in the passeyerthal. 

A n enterprising mountaineer favoured 
"by a run ot fine 'wcatlit-rmay tnjoy such 
a series of fine glacier-passes as rannot 
be easily matched elsewhere in the Alps, 
by accomplishing the complete tour of 
ihe Oetzthal Alps from the Oetzihal to 
the Passeyerthal, and visiting on the 
-nay the upper part of each of the val- 
leys mentioned in the introduction to 
this section that radiate from the central 
mass. In the preceding l^tes. most of 
the passes that -would be taken in this 
tour have been noticed, but it -will be 
convenient to enumerate them in order 

Befween the Oetzthal and Pitzthal, 
and this and the Kaunserthal, there is 
a choice among various passes, of -which 
those nearest the main chain here 
obtain precedence. 

Passes from ihe Oetzthal to the Pitzthal. 
1. Pitzthaler Jochl (9,806'). Leads 
from Solden to Plangeros in G to 6^ hrs. 
The Editor has received an account 
of this pass, as made from Plangeros 
to Solden by Mr. Holzmann -with 
Tobias Ennemoser as guide. Ascending 
by the rt. bank of the torrent, without 
crossing to the Mittelberg huts, they 
reached in 1 hr. the end of the Mittfl- 
berg Gi. Still ascending by the rt. 
moraine for ^ hr., nearly to the loot of 
the icefail, they then turned due E. 
and in .50 min. reached a stone pyramid 
visible fro 11 below. Leaving the small 
Schwarzkogel to the rt. a further 
ascent of I hr. leads to a second stone 
pyramid which is close to the top of 
the Polles Pass. Turning to the rt., 
and climbing a slightly projecting rock 
marked by a pole, a few steps more 
lead to a third stone pyramid marking 
the summit of the Pitzthaler Jochl, of 
■which the height has perhaps been 
exaggerated. A short couloir leads 
down to the Rettenbach Glacier, rather 
steep but not difficult. In ascending 

it may be better to keep to the s^ope 
above the 1. lateral moraine. Less 
than 1 hr. suffices to reach the oi^ening 
of the Rettenbaclithal from the foot of 
the glacier, and after crossing the main 
torrent the traveller may reach SoWen 
in 35 min. more. 

2. By the Gschrahhngl - Gktscher. 
Above Hube, in the Oetzthal, between 
Solden and Lengenfeld, a short glen 
called rolh'sthul leads to the above- 
named glacier, also called Polles Giet- 
scher. 'Ihe pass at the head of that 
glacier is only a few hundred ft. N. of 
the Pitzthaler Jochl, and the descent is 
by the way above descrihed. 

3. By the Bradler Jvch ( about 9, .500'?). 
This connects Lengenfeld with the 
Hundstlial, a wild rough glen that joins 
the Pitzthal near Trenkwald. ashort way 
below Plangeros. This pass, which does 
not involve the passage of glacier, takes 
7. hrs. exclusive of halts. A more diffi- 
cult course irom Lengenfeld to St. Leon- 
hard is sometimes taken across the Ra- 
nachferner, but scarcely deserves to be 
counted as a pass. 

4. By the GriibelJoch (9,0.50'.?). A 
tract mounts from Umhausen through 
the Lairschthul, and alter passing close 
under the S. side of the AVildgratkogl, 
turns southward, and again resumes its 
westerly directiim till it reaches the 
Pitzthal at Giilbel, ^ hr. above Ritzen- 

Passes from the Pitzthal to the Kaunser- 
1, By the Oelyruben Joch (9,400'.?). 
This pass, which appears to be easy 
considering its height, is taken from 
Mittelberg at the hi ad of the Pitzthal 
by mounting through the Tuschnchihal. 
About 7 hrs. suffice to leach the Ge- 
batschalpfrom Plangeros. In going fVom 
Plangeros, it is siiorter to take a path to 
the rt. of the Mittelberg huts, and just 
above the opening of the Taschach 
valley to cross to the rt. bank of the 
torrent, returning to the 1. bank about 
\ hr. farther on. After passing in front 
of the great ice-falls of the Taschach 
Glacier yVihich seen from below appears 



to bar the valley, an upper basin is ] 
reached which is closed by the Sachs- j 
eierten Glacier. Tiiis is reached in 3 
to 3^ hrs. steady walking from Plan- 
geros. The lower part is crossed 
diagonally in order to attain to the small 
Oelyrubei'ifenier and to the summit of 
the pass. The latter name is given to 
the small glaciers on both sides of the 
ridge. A long slope of debris leads 
down to the Lower Oelgruben Gl, which 
is traversed for some way, keeping near j 
the rt. lateral moraine. Below this a ! 
tract leads down into the head of the j 
Kaunserthal; and on reaching it, it is j 
necessary to turn to the 1. and ascend ; 
the valley (less than 200 yds.) to reach j 
the bridge crossing the torrent to tiie i 
Gebaisch Alp. The traveller may j 
either seek shelter at the Alpine Club 
hut (Rte. E ), or go to Feuchten ; fully 
3 lirs. descending the valley. 

2. By the Verpeil Joch. The tra- 
veller who has reached Trenkwald from 
Lengenfeld by the Bradler Joch (see 
above) may on the same day traverse 
this pass between the Sonneikogl and 
Schwahenkogl, leading in 6 hrs., exclu- 
sive of halts, to Feuchten (Rte. E). The 
way is said to be very rough and steep, 
requiring a local guide ; and the diffi- 
culty of finding one would present a 
serious obstacle to the traveller wishing 
to effect both passes on the same day. 

3. By the Tiefenthal Joch (8,703'). 
This leads from St.Leonhard to Kalten- 
brunn, and is easier than the last. The 
track passes under the Feischelkoyl 
(9,546'), and is said to command fine 

4. BytheNiederJochl{1M^'). This 
is the easiest and most frequented (f 
the passes connecting the Pitzthal and 
Kaunserthal. It is best taken from 
Harlach(Rie. F),abouthalfway between 
St. Leonhard and Hitzenried. and by it 
Kaltenbrunn is reached in 5 hrs., ex- 
clusive of halts. 

Passes from the Kaunserfhal to the 

Lanyiaiif ever thai. 
The direct way from the Gebatsohalp, 
at the head of the Kaunserthal, to 

Mallag, in the LanLtaufererthal, is by 
the Weisse SceJoch (9,G")7'). 'J'he course 
is about due SW. to the Weisse See 
(8,273'), a small g:acier-lake. Thence, 
amid very grand scenery, the traveller 
mounts, bearing a little to the 1. to the 
glacier that covers the summit of the 
pass. From 6 to 6^ hrs. suffice to 
reach Mallag, the highest hamlet of 
Langtaufers. There is another pass, 
or a variation on the Weisse See Joch, 
as to which the scant notices that have 
reached the writer are not accordant. 
It is said to pass close under the 
Gluckenihurni (10.997'), and to be 
longer than the ordinary route. 

The traveller who would add one more 
to the number of unfrequented valleys 
visited in the tour of the Oetzthal Alps 
may take the head of the Radursehel- 
thal ou his way to the Langtautererthal. 
About 1 hr. below the Gebatschalp he 
may follow a track that mounts west- 
ward to the Kaiser Joch, and descends 
into the head of the Radui'schelthal ; 
and he may reach Mallag on the same 
day by turning about due S., and 
crossing the Tscheyer Scharte (Rte. 
C). Thi> would involve a very long 
day's walk. 

A Pass front Mallag to (he head of the 
Matscherthtl, between the Freibrun- 
nisrspitz (11,719') and the Weisskugel, 
is mentioned by Sonklar under the 
name Matscher Joch. It was pointed 
out by shepherds at Mallag, who spoke 
of it as dangerous and very rarely used, 
but no traveller is known to have pass.-d 
that way. As mentioned in Rte. C, 
there are two passes leading from the 
middle part of the Langtaufererthal to 
the Platiailthal. It is most likely that 
the herdsmen of that valley are ac- 
quainted with some pass leading across 
the ridge SW. of the Portlesspitz 
(10,066') to the Matscherthal. 

Pass from the Mat.^tcherthal to the 

The only one known is the Langyrub 
Joch, better known in the Schnalsenhal 
as Matscher Joch, noticed in Rte. C. 
Particulars as to this pass, which lies 



immediately N. of the Salurnspitz 
(1 1,260'), are much desired. 

Pass from the Schnalserthal to the 

The easiest way from Unser Frau to 
lloos, or St. Leonhard, in the Passeyer- 
thal, is by the Pfossenthal and the 
(wTuben Jock (9,54S') leading to the 
head of the PfVIdersthal (Rte. D). It 
is worth remarking that the ascent of 
the Siinilaun might be taken in the way 
from Unser Frau to the Pfossenthal, as 
it is doubtless practicable to desceud 
from that peak to Mitterkaser or Eishof, 
in the latter valley. Ildefons Kohler, 
of Rableid, in the Pfossenthal, is re- 
commended as guide, and Pixner, inn- 
keeper at Plan, can lead travellers from 
the Pfeidersthal over theGruben Joch. 

The complete tour of the Oetzthal 
peaks, here suggested, will include six 
passes with an average height of very 
nearly 10,OUO It. 



The Brenner pass, as has been re- 
marked in the introduction to this 
chapter, divides the main chain of the 
Tyrol Alps into two imequal portions, 
of which the western division includes 
the two irregular groups of the Oetz- 
thal and Stubay Alps, while the eastern 
division is traversed by a nearly con- 
tinuous range extending from near Ster- 
zing to the frontiers of Styria. The line 
of valley followed by the road from 
Innsbruck to Brixen is thus, in an 
orographic sense, a boundary between 
two well-marked di\'isions of the Alpine 
chain. Of the western division the most 
considerable portion has been described 
inthelast section, and there remains only 
a small but lofty group of high mountains, 
commonly called the Stubay Alps, from 
the name of the chief valley which pene- 
trates deeply into their recesses. This 

is to be described in the present section. 
As the drainage of the Stubay valley, 
and that of the other principal valleys 
of this group, is borne to join the Inn 
or the Eisack through the line of de- 
pression traversed by the Brenner road, 
the latter is also naturally to be described 
in this place. 

Although little visited by English 
tourists, the Stubay Alps lie close to 
one of the most frequented of alpine 
highways. Without quitting the rail- 
way carriage or the high road, the tra- 
veller may gain a glimpse of several of 
the higher peaks, but he can form no 
adequate idea of their dimensions, nor 
of the glaciers that enclose their inner 
valleys. Enclosed between the Oetz- 
thal, the Inn, the Brenner road, and 
the Jaufen Pass, the Stubay group fiUs 
an area of about 610 square miles. Its 
highest summit, the Wilder Pfaff, 
attains 11,512 ft., and at least thirty- 
three peaks exceed 10,000 Vienna ft. 
(10,371 Eug. ft.) in height. If spread 
out uniformly over the whole area, these 
Alps would attain the height of 7,164 ft. 
over the sea-level. 

The Stubay Alps have been thorouglily 
explored by MM. Barth and Pxaundler, 
who have carefully measured the heights 
of nearly all the principal peaks, and 
have published the results of their 
labours, with a detailed map, in whicli 
71 separate glaciers are laid down, in 
a volume entitled ' Die Stubayer Ge- 
birgsgruppe,' published at Innsbruck, 
in 1865. 

The best headquarters for the moun- 
taineer in this district are at Neustift, 
in the Stubaythal, and at Gschnitz, but 
some fine scenery is accessible in a 
day's walk from the inn at the summit 
of the Brenner Pass or from the town 
of Sterzing. 

Besides the road of the Brenner and 
the main group of the Stubay Alps, we 
include in the present section the much 
lower pastoral district of the Sarnthal, 
lying between the Passeyerthal and the 
Eisack, which may conveniently bo 
visited by the pedestrian on the Tray 
from Botzen to Sterzing. 



Route A. 






Schbnberg . 




. . u 


Brenner . 

. . n 





Mittewald . 



Brixen . 




. . n 





Botzen . 



16S 79^ 

Eeference has been mafle in several 
proceding portions of this work to the 
groat breach in the continuity of the 
chain of the Alps which is marked by 
the valley of the Adige. Following up 
the course of that river from the neigh- 
bourhood of Verona, wliere it issues 
from the mountains through the deep 
and broad valley that extends in a 
nearly straight line for more than 80 m., 
we reach the point, less than 900 ft. above 
the sea, where the main river is formed 
''•lose to Botzen, by the junction of the 
Etsch, or upper Adige, with the Eisack. 
The road leading by the Etschthal from 
Lcindeck in the upper valley of the Inn 
to Botzen was described in the last sec- 
tion. The opening throusrh which that 
road is carried from the banks of the 
Inn to the lakes at the head of the 
Adige has orographically the charac- 
teristics of a true break or gap in the 
Alpine chain, whereas that at the head 
of the Eisack, which forms the Brenner 
Pass, corresponds rather to a disloca- 
tion in the range, similar to that form- 
ing the passes of the Simplon and Ma- 
loya. The Brenner is, however, lower 
by a few feet than the pass leading to 
Landeck, and it has from the earliest 
times had far greater political impor- 
tance, as this offers a very direct, and the 
other only a circuitous, route from the 
valley of the Danube to the plains of 
Northern Italy. By this road the legions 
of Drusus, passing beyond the natural 
boundaries of the empire, established 
the sway of the Roman Caesars over 

the semibarbarons tribes of the Rhfeti 
and the Alemanni, and by the same 
passage the reflex flood of barbarian in- 
vasion has ever since continued to inun- 
date the pla.ins of Lombardy and Vene- 
tia. It was but natural that this should 
(in 1772) be the first Alpine pass 
made practicable for carriages, and that 
it should be destined to be the first 
over whicli the locomotive draws its 
load. As some travellers will continue 
to use the post-road, and pedestrians 
descending from the higher valleys may 
traverse portions of it, it is here de- 
scribed in the first place, and a notice 
of the railway is added imder a separate 
heading. The distances by post-road, 
as given above, are doubtless somewhat 

After leaving the town of Innsbrisek, 
by the arch erected in honour of Maria 
Theresa, the road traverses the suburb 
of Wiltcn. The abbey, famous during 
the middle ages, stands on the site of 
the Roman Veldidena, which was levelled 
to the ground by Attila. On leaving 
the village of "Wilten, the road turns 
SW., and at once begins to ascend a 
green hill, lying in the angle between 
the Sill and the Inn. This is the JBercf 
Isel, a spot famous in the popular 
annals for three victories gained by the 
Tyrolese peasantry under Hofer and 
Speckbacher, against the French and 
Bavarian forces, in 1809. After gaining 
a very fine view of Innsbruck and its 
neighbourhood, the road turns south- 
ward, and enters the valley of the Sill, or 
Unter-Wippthal. The old road was in 
places steep, and not quite safe, but the 
new road, laid out by Italian engineers, 
maintains a very gentle inclination 
throughout the ascent of about 2,700 ft. 
to the summit of the pass. In com- 
mencing the ascent along the 1. bank 
of the Sill, the only prominent object is 
the peak of the Series or Waldraster- 
spitz (8,898'), rising boldly somewhat 
W. of S. Before long, the road crosses 
the impetuous torrent of the Rutzbach, 
issuing from the Stubaythal (Rte. E), 
by a single arch of wide span. Just 
beyond the bridge is the hamlet of 



Vnter-Schbnbcrg (2,243'). This stands 
lit the N. end of a high promontory 
between the Sill and the Eutzbach, 
which is crowned by the little village of 
Ober-Schonberg (3,271'), commanding 
a very fine view of Innsbruck and the 
neighbouring Innthal, and the moun- 
tains that guard it on the N., and, on 
the other hand, of the Stubaythal and 
the peaks and glaoiers that enclose it to 
the SW. The new road, with much 
advantage to the post-horses, but to 
the loss of tourists, w^nds along the 
slopes above the Sill on the E. side of 
the promontory, avoiding the village. 
Tlie pedestrian is strongly advised to 
keep to the old road, and those who 
travel by hired carriages can follow the ' 
same course, leaving their vehicles near 
the bridge over the Eutzbach, and re- 
joining them an hour later, about ^ m. i 
S. of Ober-Schonberg. 

The new road, although it loses all : 
view of the Stubaythal, is not altogether ; 
devoid of objects of interest. 

On the opposite side of the Sill rise : 
tlie Giuvgctzcr (8,781') and the Kreuz- 
joch (9,141'), two summits commanding 
very fine panoramic views. Between 
them is a pass leading to Volders, in , 
the lower Innthal (§ 43, Ete. B). Nearly ; 
2 leagues beyond Schonberg is the j 
thriving village of | 

Matrey {Inns: Stern; Krone; "Weisse ' 
Rose), the chief place in the valley of i 
the Sill, 3,391 ft. above the sea. The 
castle, belonging to Prince Auersberg, | 
is picturesquely placed. Here the high 
road is joined by a char-road from Hall 

with a solitary church standing on a 
rock midway in the glen. Passes con- 
nect its head with the Tuxerthal (§ 50, 
Ete. D), the "Wattenserthal, leading to 
the lower Innthal, and the Schmirnthal." 
About 3 m. from Matrey the road 

Stcinach (Inns : Post, good ; Stein- 
bock), a post-station, 3,651 ft, above 
the sea, rebuilt since 1853, when the 
chui'ch and most of the houses were 
burned down. Here the Gschnitzthal 
opens to WSW. (Ete. O), and the tra- 
veller gains a glimpse of the Habicht- 
spitz. A little way beyond the village 
the road passes for the first time to the 
rt. bank of the Sill, and just beyond 
Stafflach (Inn : Hirsch, food very good, 
not cheap) crosses a considerable torrent 
formed about 1 m. E. of that village by 
the junction of the streams from two 
Alpine glens. That seen to ESE. is 
the Falscrthal, also written YalserthaJ, 
but not to be confounded with the Swiss 
valley of that name. The other branch 
is the Schmirnthal. The path through 
it leads to the village and church of 
Schmiryi (4,542'), andfarther on to Obtrn 
(5,065'), 3| hrs. from StafBach. Two 
paths, one over the Ti'.xer Joch (j ,&\^'), 
the other by the Schncebruckkopf, lead 
to Lanersbach in the Tuxerthal. (See 
§ 50, Ete. C.) Beyond Stafflach the 
high-road crosses and re-crosses more 
than once the Sill, here reduced to 
a mere mountain stream, and passes 
the little village of Grics (3,890'), with 
a very fair country inn. Here opens to 
SW. an extreme'y picturesque little 

which is carried along the rt. side of 1 Alpine glen called Oberhcrg, which is 

the valley, and shortens the way to the 

Brenner Pass for those approaching it 

from the Lower Innthal who have no 

occasion to pass through Innsbruck. 

This road leaves the Innthal near the mount thence nearly 

Ciistle of Amras, and passes several 

villages and hamlets. From Miihlthal 

or Ellbogen the traveller may ascend 

the Olungetzer, or traverse the Eosen 

Joch to the Voldererthal. For a notice of 

also the name of the village at its head, 
1|- hr. from Gries, and 4,440 ft. above 
the sea. The traveller, who there finds 
very tolerable night-quarters, may 
due W. to the 
MvAtenjoch (8,133'), leading to 
Gschnitz, or may reach Anichen, in the 
Pflerschthal (Ete. G) in 4i hrs. hy the 
Grubjoch (7,021'), or else may return 
to the high-road at Gossensass above 

the pretty walk to Neustift, see Ete. E. Sterzing (see below) by a pass (7,052') 
A little above Matrey the road passes i between the Eothspitz and Lorenzen- 
opposite to the opening of the Navisthal, | berg. 



Above Grries the road for the last 
time passes to the rt. bank of the Sill, 
and soon readies the little lake, Bren- See (4,303'), that is counted as its 
cliief source. The lake is fed by two tor- 
rents — the Vennabach, flowing through 
a lateral glen on the E. side from the 
]>ase of the Kraxentrcg (9,831'), and the 
stream descending from the Brenner 
Pa>s, which preserves the name of Sill. 
A gentle ascent leads to the depression 
forming the watershed between the 
Danube and the Adige, where stands the { 

Brenner Posthcmse (fair accommoda- 
tion, not cheap for T-\to1), 4-, 588 ft. above i 
the level of the Adriatic. It commands | 
no distant view. The streamlet seen I 
to form a little waterfall on the rt. of j 
the road behind the posthouse is the 
principal source of the FAsnck, which is 
henceforth followed to its junction with 
the Adige at Eotzen. For more than a 
mile the road is nearly level, till, after 
passing the Brennerhad, a small esta- 
blishment beside a warm mineral spring, 
it begins to descend rather rapidly to 
SSW., crossing and re-crossing several 
times the narrow stream of the Eisack, 
which here runs through a narrow but 
not Yevy picturesque glen. [From the 
Brennerbad a path is carried SE. over j 
the Schliisseljoch to Kematen, in tlie I 
Plitschthal, whence the Zillerthal is I 
reached by the Pfitscherjoch.] The i 
valley of the Eisack opens a little at | 
Gossnuass (3,520'), where it is joined j 
by the Pfierschthal from WNW. As I 
throughout the entire route, ruined 
Ciistles crown the heights on either side 
of the road. Below the village the val- 
ley narrows for a short distance, but 
widens gradually as it approaches 

Sterzivg (Inns : Post ; Krone ; both 
good and clean), the principal place in 
the upper valley of the Eisack. This 
is locally called Ober-Wipptka/, the Sill 
valley, through which the traveller 
ascended from Innsbruck to the Brenner, 
receiving the name Unter-Wippthal. 
Though the position of Sterzing is not 
very picturesque, it affords convenient 
lieail-qua'-ters for mountain excursions. 
The little town, 3,094 feet above the 

sea, stands close to the junction of the 
Pfitschthal, through which lies a highly 
interesting route to the Zillerthal (§ 50, 
Pte. B), while on the opposite side the 
Gailbach bears down the drainage from 
the Eidnaunthal and the Ratschingesthal. 
Occupying the site of the Roman sta- 
tion Vipitenum (Pfitsch ?), Sterzing 
long derived wealth and importance 
from the silver mines worked in the 
neighbouring valley of Ridnaun. The 
modern name is probably derived from 
the Sesterces coined here. For some 
miles below the town extends the 
marshy flat called Sterzinger Moos, the 
filled-up bed of an ancient aake. Here 
the Eisack, which had hitherto kept a 
course somewhat W. of S., turns to SE., 
and at the lower end of the Moos, near 
Mauls (good country-inn, beim Nagele) 
enters a defile extending to the post- 
station (2,611 ft. above the sea) at 

Mittewcild (Inn : Po^t, good, but rather 
dear). The valley between this and 
Sterzing is famous in Tyrolese annals 
for the heroic exploits of her sons. Here 
the Elector of Bavaria was driven back 
with heavy loss in 1703 ; and the French 
under Joubert retreated in 1797. More 
memorable still was the campaign of 
1809. Marshal Lefevre had despatched 
from Innsbruck a force of Bavarian and 
Saxon troops to force their way over the 
Brenner, and effect a junction with the 
larger French army, which was ad- 
vancing from Carinthia through the 
Pusterthal. When the allied troops had 
been driven back with heavy loss, the 
Saxons being all killed or taken pri- 
soners, the French general advanced in 
person with a larger force, chiefly French. 
Met in front by the Capuchin Has- 
pinger, and attacked on both flanks by 
Speckbacher and Hofer, his men were 
thrown into utter confusion, and a hur- 
ried retreat to Innsbruck, with the loss 
of cannon and ammunition, was the 
invader's only resource. 

Several passes lead from this part of 
the valley. The most frequented is the 
Pfvser Joch (7,340'), by which the pe- 
destrian may reai-h Eotzen from Mauls, 
or from Stilfs, on the opposite side of the 



main valley, through the Samthal. The | 
pass is ou this side called Stilfser Joch, 
from the above-named village, but the 
name is inconvenient, as it is theTyrolese 
name for the far better known pass of 
the Steh-io. 

The opening of the defile of the 
Eisuck into the broad valley above 
Brixen is guarded by the strong fortress 
oi FranzensJ'este (2,418'), mounting 137 
guns, and commanding the road into 
Carinthia by Brunecken as well as the 
pass into Northern Tyrol. The road 
passes through the outworks of the 
fortress, and immediately after reaches 
Untcrau, where there is a good country- 
inn. While the main road descends 
the slopes above the rt. bank of the 
Eisack to Brixen, another crosses that 
stream by the Ladritscher Briioke, and 
is carried somewhat X. of E. to Miihl- 
bach on the Eienz, there joining the 
main line from Brixen to Villach in 
Carinthia. From this point the traveller 
overlooks the junction of the Eisack 
with the more considerable stream of 
the Rienz, which, having flowed nearly 
due W. as far as jMuhlbach, there turns 
a,bruptly to the S., and merges its name 
in that of the lesser stream. On the 
tongue of land dividing the streams 
above the junction stands the wealthy 
monastery of Neustift. The vegetation 
assumes a southern character, and the 
traveller from the N. greets the chestnut, 
which here begins to predominate over 
other deciduous trees. Passing the open- 
ing of the Schalderei-thal, which, leads by 
some mineral baths of local repute and 
the Schalderer Jock to Diirnholz, in the 
Sarnthal, the high-road runs due S. to 

Brixen (Inns : Elephant, ill-managed 
and dirty, in 1865; Sonne, second-class, 
cheap ; Goldenes Kreuz). This ancient 
and dull place, 1,934 ft. above the sea- 
level, claims the rank of a city, be- 
ing the see of a bishop who for m-.ny 
centuries ruled a temporal principality. 
His palace or castle is conspicuous at 
the SW. end of the town. The cathe- 
dral is modern, but the cloisters are 
ancient and curious. Constant inter- 
course with Italy has given a some- 

what Italian character to the town, which 
in the language of the South is called. 

A new line of railway from hence to 
Villach, connecting the S. Tyrol with 
Styria, and with Trieste, is already 
commenced. Meantime a diligence goes 
daily from Brixen to Villach (§ 52, 
Rte. A), in 26 i hrs., and a Stellwagen 
rtms as far as Bruneck. From hence 
to Botzen the scenery is far more pictur- 
esque than throughout the way from 
Innsbruck. A few miles below Brixen 
the valley of the Eisack is narrowed to a 
defile, which extends in a SSW. direc- 
tion most of the way to Botzen, the road 
being carried along the rt. bank of the 
river. The vegetation, assimiing a 
more and more southern character, adds 
much to the beauty of the scenery, and 
at intervals the singular forms of the 
dolomite peaks seen through the glens 
that open on the E. side of the valley 
aiford a striking contrast to the mas- 
sive porphyritic rocks that rise on either 
hand. After passing on the rt. hand 
the pretty waterfall called Schrambach- 
fall, the road reaches the first post- 
station at 

Klausen (Inns : Gans ; Eossel). The 
defile of the Eisack is here extremely 
confined, barely leaving room for a 
narrow street. Opposite the village 
opens the Villnbsihal (§ 60, Rte. G),"^a 
valley interesting to geologists. Its lower 
end is enclosed by mountains formed of 
hornblende rock and porphyry, but at 
its head it is separated from the Grod- 
nerthal to the S., and the Gaderthal to 
the E., by a range formed of sandstone 
and dolomite. On a projecting rock 
above Elausen stands the convent of 
Seben, commanding a remarkable view. 
It is said to occupy the site of a Rha&tian 
stronghold, afterwards occupied by the 
Romans, who erected on the spot a 
temple to Isis. A monumental crucifix 
commemorates the fate of a nun who in 
1809 sprang from a window overlooking 
the precipice to avoid the violence of the 
French soldiery. The road from Klausen 
to Botzen is locally called Kuntersweg, 
after Heinrich Kunter, a private citizen 




of Botzen, who constructed the first road 
through the defile of the Eisack early in 
the 1-lth century. Before that time the 
communication between Brixen and 
Botzen was carried on by circuitous paths 
over the mountains on either side. At 
Kollmann {1,716') the torrent from the 
Grodnerthal joins the Adige, and the 
Trosthurg, one of the numerous castles 
belonging to Couu*} "Wolkenstein, stands 
in a commanding position at the entrance 
to that very picturesque valley. There 
is here a tolerable country-inn (Kreuz). 
A path to Castelruth and the Seisser Alp 
diverges from the main valley at Koll- 
mann, and another rather steeper track 
mounts thither from Torkele, an inn by 
the roadside, about ^ hi', lower down. 
The road descends, though not steeply, 
all the way from Kollmann to the post- 
station at 

Atzwang (Inn : Post), 1,452 ft. above 
the sea. Here the pedestrian may ascend 
through the glen of the Finsterbach to 
the 'earth pyramids' near Lengmoos, 
and descend thence to Botzen by Klo- 
benstein and Oberbotzen (see below), 
the tour requiring about 5 hrs., exclu- 
sive of halts. The finest part of the 
defile of the Eisack is between Atzwang 
and Karneid. The dark red porphyry 
rocks rise very steeply on either side of 
the river, which follows a sinuous course 
through the deep cleft. Here the rail- 
way engineers have encountered the chief 
difficulties in the construction of the line 
between Botzen and Innsbruck, and 
have had to tunnel through several pro- 
jecting corners of rock. Hard as it is, 
the porphyry rock is rapidly disinte- 
grated by the weather, and masses have 
from time to time fallen on the road. 
At one point below Atzwang a consider- 
able Bergfall occurred in 18-io, and huge 
fallen blocks still lie on either side of 
the roadway. At St eg a frequented track 
crosses the river, and mounts to Vols 
and Seiss (§ 60, Kte. C). Here the pin- 
nacles of the Schleren are seen from the 
road towering above the nearer slopes. 
The road for the first time crosses to the 
1. bank at Blumau, arnd the valley turns 
due W. at the junction of the Gannen- 

bach, which here issues from the ravine 
leading to Tiers. Of the numerous cas- 
tles that crown the neighbouring heights, 
mostly out of sight of the road, the most 
considerable is that of Karneid, still 
inhabited, which guards the entrance to 
the Karneidthal. The wonderful scenery 
of the road loading that way to Welschen- 
ofen is noticed in § 60, Rte. D. On re- 
crossing to the rt. bank of the Eisack at 
Kardaun, the road emerges from the 
defile through which it has been carried 
for fully 15 m. The gentler slopes on 
the N. side of the valley are covered 
with vineyards, producing the excellent 
wine of Botzen, while on the opposite 
side noble chestnut-trees descend to the 
level of the valley. The grey foliage of 
the olive, which here reaches its northern 
limit, the shrill note of the cicala, and 
the intense heat which commonly pre- 
vails here in summer, still farther com- 
pletes the southern character of the 
scene as the traveller enters the ancient 
town of 

Botzen (Inns : Kaiserkrone, a large 
handsome house, with a cafe on the 
ground floor, charges not unreasonable; 
of less pretensions are the following — 
Mondschein, or Mezza Luna ; Schwarzer 
Adler ; Goldener Hirsch). The eastern 
windows of the two hotels first named 
command a \'iew of the dolomite peaks 
of the Eosengarten. Standing only 859 
ft. above the sea, close to the head of the 
main valley of the Adige, and sheltered 
from the N. wind by steep mountains, 
this place enjoys a milder winter climate 
than the plain of Northei'n Italy, and 
though the spring is more backward, the 
summer heat is intense ; the thermo- 
meter in the shade often ranging from 
90<^ to 95'^ Fahr. On this account the 
citizens retire in summer either to the 
little country-inns or mineral baths in 
the surrounding mountain valleys, or 
else to small country-houses {Sommer- 
frischhduser) on the adjoining plateau 
of the Eitten. Though the German ele- 
ment predominates, a large portion of 
the population is Italian, and that lan- 
guage is spoken in many of the shops. 
The Italian name of the town is Bolzano. 





It stands at the junction of the Talfer 
torrent, issuing from the Sarnthal (Ete. 
3v), with the Eisack. A massive dam is 
constructed to resist the inundations of 
the Talfer, which has often borue de- 
struction into the town, and another 
dyke, carried alon2 the Eisack, protects 
the railway and the lower part of the 
town from its floods. The architecture 
and general appearance partakes some- 
what of the.styles of Germany and Italy, 
which may be said to meet here. The 
principal houses have singular projec- 
tions from the roof (Dachhauben) in- 
tended to admit air into the iipper part, 
and protect them from the summer heat. 
Streams of water are conducted through 
most of the streets. The principal 
church, built of red sandstone, offers a 
combination of the German Gothic and 
Lombard styles, and is worth a visit. 
The gardens of Count Sarnthein and 
Herr JNIoser will interest the traveller 
from the north of the Alps, unused to 
such luxuriant growth of the fig, vine, 
pomegranate, and oleander. Oranges 
and lemons are common here, but the 
trees require protection in winter. The 
neighbourhood of Botzen is of extreme 
interest to the botanist, and may be said 
to embrace three distinct floras, including 
within a space less than half of an 
English county no less than 1,720 flower- 
ing plants. The flora of the main valley 
of the Adige includes many curious 
paludose species ; e.g., Ahhovanda vesi- 
culosa, Alisyna pariiassifolium, Sturmia 
Laeselii, Cyperus glomerulus, and C. 
Monti. That of the lower mountains, 
chiefly composed of porphyry and sand- 
stone, is further noticed in connexion 
with the ascent of the Kitten (see below), 
and that of the dolomite region (inclu- 
ding the Seisser Alp) is described in § 60. 
An agreeable view of Botzen and the 
neighbourhood is gained from the Cal- 
varienberg, on the 1. bank of the Eisack. 
The coloured groups in carved wood or 
stucco, intended to represent the events 
of the Passion, appear grotesque to the 
northern eye. To see the dolomite range 
of the Eosengarten to advantage, the 
traveller should go as far as the Talfer- 

briicke, at the W. end of the town. An 
excursion of some interest is that to the 
castle of Sigmundskmn, standing on a 
projecting rock on the W. side of the 
; Adige, about 3 m. from Botzen. But a 
\ single tower, used as a powder magazine, 
j now remains of an extensive pile that 
j once cro-mied this point. It commands 
j a very fine view of the dolomite range. 
I The most interesting excursions from 
i Botzen are undoubtedly those that lead 
: the traveller into the heart of the 
grand and beautiful scenery of the dolo- 
mite Alps desci-ibed in § 60, but the 
ascent of the Rittmrhorn is an expedi- 
tion which has lately become popular for 
the sake of the very fine panoramic view 
gained from the summit, and the singular 
eaath-pyramids seen on the way. The 
excursion may be taken on the way 
from Botzen to Sterzing through the 
Sarnthal (Ete. K); or may be combined 
I with a visit to the Seisser Alp, or the 
Grodnerthal, by descending from the 
Kitten into the valley of the Eisack at 
Atzwang or Kollmann. The way is by 
a country-road, or a path leading to 
the village of Oherbotzen (4,1-43'), lying 
at the S\V. end of the rather exten- 
sive tract between the Talfer and the 
Eisack which is collectively known as 
] the Bitten. It may be described as a 
broken and irregular plateau, rising 
gradually from S. to N., and culminating 
in the Eittnerhorn. It is the chief re- 
fuge of the citizens of Botzen in the hot 
season, and a stranger is struck by the 
amoimt of substantial comfort implied 
in the fact that so small a town should 
furnish owners to the large number of 
separate dwellings scattered over this 
I tract. Many of these are grouped about 
: Oberbotzen, but the chief centre of the 
j Sommerfrisch life is found at Klohen- 
i stein (3,955'), reached by turning east- 
' ward from the road to the Sarnthal. 
I This is quite a gay residence during the 
! hot season, and numerous pic-nic parties 
are often to be met on the adjoining 
; slopes, or at some point commanding a 
; fine view. There is here a good country- 
; iun, and it affords a convenient centre 
i for several agreeable walks. The chief 



§ 49. 

objects of interest for strangers are the 
earth-pyramids. Having traversed the 
villaijeof Levgmoos, the traveller follows 
a path leading NW. to the glen of the 
Finstorbach which descends from the 
plateau of the Hitten towards the defile 
of the Eisack. There is here a vast 
accumulation of friable clay formed by 
the decomposition of the porphyry rock, 
and the action of the weather and the 
surface drainage have cut deep trenches 
in the soil, which have intersected each 
other in such a way as to leave standing 
a iarge number of columns or obelisks, 
each capped by a large stone, or, more 
commonly, by a tree. Whenever one of 
these obelisks loses this covering, the 
weather exerts its action, and it soon 
crumbles away. 

The ascent of the Riftnerhnrn (8,0'64') 
is very easily made from Klobenstein, 
and there seems to be no reason why 
ladies should not ride nearly to the top. 
The annexed plate will give some idea 
of the extent of the panorama visible 
from the summit. 

The flora of the Ritten is very rich. 
It has been carefully studied by Tyro- 
lese botanists, especially by Baron 
Hausmaun, a resident in Botzen, and 
the author of an excellent Flora of 
Tyrol. One of the most interesting 
habitats is a shallow pool called Wo[fs- 
grubersec, on whose margin has been 
found the very rare and curious little 
grass — Cohanthus subtilis, besides Li- 
mosella aquatica, Centuncuhis minimus, 
&e. In the lower part of the ascent 
from Botzen are seen Onosma stellvJa- 
tum, Avcna rapiU.aris, Panicum undula- 
tifolium, NothochlcBna marantce, and 
other uncommon plants. Among the 
species interesting to the northern bo- 
tanist in the neighbourhood of Botzen 
is Colutea arborescens, common on warm 
slopes. It is often infested with the 
parsisitic Cuscuta planiflora. 


Route B. 




Eng. miles 

Pat=ch . 

. SJ 


Matrei . 

. 9i 


Steinach . 

• 4| 



. H 


Brermer . 

• ^'i 



. 8 



. fii 


StPrzing , 

• 5^ 



. 5 



• ^2 




Brixen . 

: loj 

Klaiisen . 

. 10 



• 5| 


. 8 


Blumau . 

. 6i 


Botzen . 

. vf 


126 79 

The opening of the first line of railway 
across the main chain of the Alps was 
an event the importance of which has 
scarcely, as yet, been duly felt, either 
by the European public or by the rail- 
way directors themselves. On the com- 
pletion of this essential link in the chain 
of communication between the North and 
the South of Europe, it might have been 
expected that requisite arrangements 
would have been made to satisfy the 
general demand for rapid communication 
between the North and South, and that 
by the widest publicity travellers would 
have been invited to profit by the new 
facilities thus provided. Instead of 
this, the really important event of the 
opening for traffic of the railway over 
the Brenner took place on the 24th Aug., 
1867, with scarcely a passing notice in 
the public papers. The arrangements 
for passengers from England, France, 
and North Germany, who all arrive via 
Munich, are still imperfect, and though 
there is now daily a direct train, with 
but one change of carriage for first- 
class pa .«engers, from Cologne to 
Verona in 32 hrs., much time is lost 
by the way. The construction of the 
line, favoured no doubt by the nature of 
the ground, which offers less difficulties 
than anj mountain railway has hitherto 



encountered, reflects great credit on all 
concerned. The skill of the engineers 
"was exercised in avoiding— rather than 
in devising — gigantic works. The tun- 
nels are 17 in number, and their col- 
lective length not quite 3 miles ; and 
between Innsbruck and Botzen the line 
has been carried over only 11 bridges. 
Those familiar with the scandalous job- 
bery and wasteful extravagance of Eng- 
lish railway management will learn witli 
surprise that this first railway across 
the Alps was completed for less than 
2y millions sterling, or at the rate of 
about 28,000/. a mile. 

The chief difhculty encountered in 
laying out the line arose from the steep- 
ness of the ascent from Gossensass, 
above Sterzing,to the summit of the pass. 
Fortunately the former village stands 
at the opening of the Pflerschthal, a glen 
whose floor mounts to the westward for 
some miles with a very moderate slope. 
Near the village of Ast, about 2^ m. from 
G-ossensass, the railway enters a tunnel 
very nearly ^ m. long, in which it de- 
scribes a curve not much less than a 
semicircle. The traveller who enters 
the tunnel in the bottom of the valley 
travelling eastward is astonished to find, 
on issuing from it, that he is moving in 
the opposite direction, and already at 
gome height, above the stream ; and, on 
returning to the valley of the Eisack, 
within a few hundred yards of the point 
where he left it, he finds that he has 
gained an elevation of about oOO feet. 
In a similar manner the steepness of 
the slope of the Sill valley, between 
Steinach and Gries, is much reduced by 
a lateral deviation at Stafflach. where 
the road enters the opening of the Eal- 
serthal, and returns to the Sill at a 
higher level. 

The traveller should endeavour to 
place himself on the rt. hand side of the 
carriage in going from Innsbruck to Bot- 
zen, and on the 1. hand when proceeding 
from Botzen to Innsbruck. Very little, 
however, is seen of the remarkable en- 
gineering works connected with the line. 
Besides the tunnel in the Pflerschthal, 
already mentioned, the most remarkable 

works are near Matrei, where the former 
bed of the Sill has been made use of for 
the passage of the railway, while the 
torrent has been turned aside through a 
tunnel, from which it issues lower down 
in a pretty waterfall, and near Gos- 
sensass, where another tunnel has been 
constructed to serve as a channel for the 
waters of the Eisack. 

Negotiations are said to be pending 
between the railway companies con- 
cerned for an express train from Ostend 
to Brindisi, via Cologne, Munich, the 
Brenner, and Verona, by which passen- 
gers for and from the East may travel 
without change of carriage, and without 
needless delay. 

EorTE C. 


The pedestrian going from Innsbruck 
to the Oetzthal, or to the upper valley of 
the Inn, may take a course little longer 
than the high-road, and avoid heat and 
dust, by following the Selrainerthal, 
which runs nearly parallel to the Inn, 
and is connected by a low pass with the 
lower end of the Oetzthal. The scenery 
is extremely pleasing, and from several 
points fine ^iews are obtained of the 
snowy peaks of the Stubay Alps. 

Starting from Innsbruck, the traveller 
may choose between the country-road 
running along the S. side of the Inn, 
from Wilten to Vols, and thence 
mounting to Ober-Perfus, or take a 
rougher track, that turns westward from 
the Brenner road about 2 m. above 
Wilten, and traverses the villages of 
Natters, Gbtzens (2,837'), and Axains. 
Either of these courses leads in about 
3 hrs. from Innsbruck to Selrain 
(2,958'), the chief place in the valley to 
which it gives its name. It stands on 
the rt. bank of the torrent which, having 
flowed eastward to this point, now 
turns to NE., and soon joins the Inn a 
little below Zirl, which is reached from 
hence in 1^ hr. The village is locally 
called Rothenbrunn, from the red coloiu 
of the water of a mineral spring near at 



hand. The arrangements for water- 
drinkers are on a poor scale, but there 
is a tolerable inn often visited in sum- 
mer by parties from Innsbruck. Avery 
steep path climbs the hill N. of Selrain. 
to the ancient church of St. Quirinus, 
commanding a fine view of the Stubay 
Alps. S. of the village is the opening 
of an uninhabited glen called Fatscher- 
thal, which leads up to the base of the 
Hoke nil fr spitz (10,141'). It is pro- 
bably not difficult to reach Neustift in 
the Stubaythal by traversing the ridge 
connecting that summit with the Eoih 
Wandspitz (9,218'). 

About 1^ hr. above Selrain is Gries 
(3,824') (svith a small inn), the chief 
place in the upper Selrain erthal, at the 
E. base of the Freihut (8,581'), a coni- 
cal peak, bright with green pastures 
that stands in the fork of the valley. 
The summit commands a fine view 
of the Stubay Alps. The southern 
branch, called Lisenzerthal, is described 
in the next Rte. The western branch, 
or Oberthal, opens on the N. side of the 
Freilitit. The path ascends somewhat 
N. of "W. on the 1. bank of the torrent 
to St. Sigismund (4,924'), about 1^ hr. 
above Gries. There is here a poor inn. 
The hamlet stands at the junction of 
the Gleirscherthal with the main valley. 
See next Rte. At Haggen (5,279'), 'a 
group of houses ^ hr. above St. Sigis- 
mund, another wild glen, the Kras- 
pesthal, sends a torrent northward from 
the Kraspesferner to join the stream. 
An easy ascent of about If hr. leads 
from Haggen to the nameless pass that 
forms the western extremit}' of the Sel- 
rainerthal. [On the way another path 
mounts NE. to the much hiarher rido-e 
connecting the Scharfl grspiiz (9,3-30') 
with the Kreuzjoch (8,773'). On the X. 
side it descends into the head of the 
Kanzthal, and, passing by the eastern 
base of the HochefUrspitz (9,152'), 
enters the valley of tlie Inn at Flauer- 
ling, about 1 hr. E. of Telfs.] 

The track from Selrain to Oetz soon 
reaches a larcre herdsman's chalet called 
Kiihthei (6,352'), only a few feet below 
the summit of the pass. Eefreshment, 

and night-quarters in case of need, may 
be found here, and the neighbouring 
scenery has attractions for the moun- 
taineer. On the N. side the Birkkopl 
(9,281') oiFers a noble view, which con;- 
bines the Oetzthal and Stubay Alps, 
with the ZuGTspitz and the other high 
limestone peaks N. of the Innthal. On 
the S. side the traveller should not fail 
to visit a short glen, called Finstcrthal, 
whose torrent issues from the Kilh- 
theier Seen, two lakes, the lower and 
larger of which is 7,421 ft. above th« 
sea. They lie in the centre of an 
amphitheatre of peaks that approach to, 
but do not quite attain, 10,000 ft. in 
height, and are fed by three small 
hanging glaciers. The torrents that 
unite below Kiihthei descend to the 
Oetzthal through the Stuibenthal. In 
2 hrs. the path, which keeps all the 
way to the rt. bank of the Stuibenbach, 

Ochsdigarten (5,170'), the only vil- 
lage in this very poor glen, whose in- 
habitants suffer at times severely from 
t}'phus fever. There is no inn, but the 
priest supplies refreshment, and has 
three beds available for travellers. A 
path crossing the ridge to the N. leads 
from hence to Sils. The Stuibenbach, 
on entering the Oetzthal about 2 m. 
from its junction with the Inn, forms 
the picturesque waterfall that is ad- 
mired by travellers going from Sils to 
Oetz (§ 48, Ete. B) ; but the shortest 
way to the latter village avoids the 
waterfall by crossing the torrent some 
way higher up, and follows a track that 
winds southward round the shoulder of 
the mountain. Taking that course, the 
tra.veller in 2 hrs. from Ochsengarten 
descends to Oetz. If bound for Imst^ 
his shortest way is to follow the path 
from Ochsengarten to Sils, and there 
hire a vehicle ; but if he would avoid 
the dusty hiffh-road, he may take the 
road from Oetz to Roppen, noticed in 
§ 48, Rte. B. An active walker will not 
employ more than Ih hrs., exclusive of 
halts, on the way from Selrain to Oetz. 
which is thus reached in a long day 
from Innsbruck. 



Route D. 

seleain to lexgexfeld in the 

A more direct, but more arduo\is, 
course from Innsbruck to the upper part 
of the Oetzthal than that pointed out in 
the hist Ete., is found by turning aside 
from the main path of the Seh-ainerthal i 
through one or other of the lateral val- 
leys that descend from the higher peaks 
of the Stubay Alps. 

1. By the Gries Joch. 9 hrs. The 
most direct and probably the most 
interesting way from Sebain to Lengen- 
feld is through the LisenzerthaJ, which 
joins the main branch of the Selrainer- 
thal at Grries (see last Rte,). A constant 
and rather steep ascent commences near 
the latter village. The path lies at first 
on the 1. bank of the Mclach torrent 
(whence this lateral glen is sometimes 
called Melachthal), but crosses to the 
opposite bank, and after passing Kniepes 
(5,102'), a cluster of Huttcn near a 
fine waterfall, attains the upper level 
of the Lisenzerthal, a broad reach of 
Alpine pasture, backed by a range of 
high summits, of which the most promi- 
nent is the Fernerkogl (10,704'). This 
shows on the N. side as a pyramidal 
peak of dark rock merely capped with 
snow ; but on the S. and E. sides its 
flanks are laden with an extensive 
glacier, the Lisenzerferner. In the 
middle of the upper valley is the Lisen- 
eer Alp (2 hrs. from Gries). Here the 
traveller finds a large and substan- 
tial buildinar, which serves not only for 
ordinary dairy purposes, but is used as 
a retreat in hot weather by the canons 
of Wilten. "When not thus occupied, 
the mountaineer here finds good night- 
quarters. The ascent of the Fernerkogl, 
which has been effected a few times 
from this side, passes for a ditficult and 
even dangerous expedition, owing to the 
sharpness of the ice-arete leading to the 
summit, which sometimes forms an over- 
hanging cornice. [A very rough path to 
the Stubaythal crosses the range SSE. 
of the Lisenzer Alp by the Lisinzcr Joch 

(9,211')— also called Horn Joch (?). The 
pass lies between the Horuspitz (9,605') 
to SW. and the Hohe ViUerapitz [^ 1 0, 141'). 
The ascent lies at last up a pathless 
slope covered with huge boulders,requir- 
ing some activity and caution. On the 
opposite side the descent is less trouble- 
some, though steep, to the Alp of Oberiss 
in the Alpeiner branch of the Stubay- 
thal. This way is sometimes taken as 
a detour from the ordinary route from 
Innsbruck to the Brenner by travellers 
who wish in two or three days to form 
some acquaintijnce with the valleys of 
the Stubay Alps. The ascent of the 
Hohe Villerspitz may (?) be combined 
with the passage of the Lisenzer Joch.] 

About ^ hr. above the Lisenzer Alp 
the Melach torrent at the foot of the 
Fernerkogl is joined by a stream flowing 
eastward out of a deep recess in the 
mountains locally called Langenthal. 
By that way lies the track to Lengen- 
feld in the Oetzthal. Passing the 
Langenthaler Alp (6,507'). the path 
mounts due W., by the N. side of a 
small glacier lying on the NE. flank of 
the Seberkogl (10,709'). Keeping close 
under the double summit of the Gries- 
Jcogl, of which the higher rises on the 
rt. hand to 10,638 ft., the traveller 
reaches in 5 hrs. the summit of the 
Gries Joch (8,652'). From the pass 
the way at first lies W, under rocks 
that bound on the N. side the ice- 
stream of the Grieaferner, which 
descends towards the Sulzthal. On 
reaching the lower end of the glacier 
the way turns S. towards a small tarn 
that sends a stream in successive 
cascades to the Sulzthal. On its rt 
bank a path descends rather steeply to 
Gries (5,121'), the only village in the 
Sulzthal, in about 3 hrs. from the pass. 
A beaten track leads trom thence along 
I the Fischbacii torrent to Lengenfeld in 
the Oetzthal (see next Rte.). 

2. By the Gleirscher Jbchl. 9 hrs. 
to Umhausen, 10^ hrs. to Lengenfeld. 
This is the shortest way from Selrain 
to Umhausen, but a rather longer route 
to Lengenfeld and the upper Oetzthal 
than that jusL described. As mentioned 



in ihe last Rte., the torrent from the 
Gleirscherthal joins the main stream of 
the Sflraiuerthal ac St. Sigisuiuucl, the 
high..-st viUage in the latter valley. A 
track mounts thence along the rt. bank 
of the toiTent through the wild glen ot 
the Gleirscherthal, nut to be confounded 
with the Gleirschthal (§4.3, Ete. G), 
from whence flows one of the sources 
of the Isar. After ascending for about 
2 hrs., the traveller sees before him 
to the S. the head of the glen, enclosed 
by a range of snowy peaks considerably 
exceeding 10,000 ft. in height, while a 
tributary toi-rent flows out of a recess I 
on the W. side of the valley. Taming! 
nearly due W., a rough track mounts 
on the S. side of this stream to the 
Gleirscher Jochl (9,214'). On the W. 
side this overlooks the Zwicselthal, a 
short glen through which a torrent from 
a comparatively large glacier flows 
northward, till it meets nearly at the 
same point three other toiTents, whose 
united streams descend WSW. towards 
the Oetzthal through the Hairlachthal. 
A path running along the rt. bank of 
the torrent through the Zwieselthal, but 
keeping to the 1, bank in the Hairlach- 
thal, leads to the village of Kiederthei 
(4,791'), standing near the point where] 
the latter glen opens into the Oetzthal. 
From thence the traveller may descend i 

in about 1 hr. to Umhs 


close to the Stuiben waterfall, men- 
tioned in § 48, Rte. B. If bound for 
Lengenfeld, he may avoid the waterfall, 
and take a nearly direct path that leads 
from Niederthei to Au. 



The Stubay Alps derive their name 
from that of the main valley wliich pene- 
trates most deeply into the central mass, 
and round whose head arise most of the 
highest summits of the group. The 
Stubaythal is thei'efore the headquarters 
to which the mountaineer wishing to 
explore this group naturally resorts ; 
and as it is connected by high glacier- 
passes with the adjoining valleys to the 
S. and W., there is a considerable choice 
of interesting excursions. The beet 
guides are Pancraz GleiDser,of Fulpmes, 
and Urbas Loisl, of Neustift. 

However irregular may appear at first 
sight the disposition of the chief masses 
constituting the Stubay Alps, the paral- 
lelism of most of the chief ridges and 
corresponding valleys points to the ac- 
tion of mechanical causes acting on an 
extensive scale. Sinking minor irregu- 
larities, the main ridges run from SW. 
to NE., or at right angles to that direc- 
tion. If we fix our attention on the 
Wilder Pfaff, the highest of the group, 
we fiLud one high ridge, scarcely any- 
where subsiding to the level of 10,000 
ft., that extends about 10 m. NW. to 
the Leuchtkogl (9,981'), while a much 
longer, but less loftv, range terminates 
to NE. in the Serlesspitz (8,898'). On 
the N. side, or within the elbow thus 
formed, another parallel sy.stem of two 
ridges diverges from the Wildes Ilinter- 
bergl (10,925'). The higher of these 
extends NW. to the Grieskogl, and there 
forks into diverging branches ; while at 
rt. angles to it a longer ridge runs NE. 
to the Saile (7,884') near Innsbruck. 
Some of the highest summits of the 
group are inserted in the space between 
the central points of these two elbow- 
shaped ranges, but these al.'^o aiFect a 
parallel disposition. From the Euder- 
hofspitz (11,393') a short ridge runs 
NW. to the Brunnenkogl, while a NE. 
ridge, terminating in the Milderauspitz 



(8.930'\ divides the two main branches 
of the Stubaythal, and, in the opposite 
direction, a SW. ridge connects the Ru- 
derhofspitz with the Hochspitz (10,984'). 
The accessory ranges for the most part 
conform to tlie general plan, which is 
seen in the direction of the minor A^al- 
leys. By far the larger part of the drain- 
age of these Alps is carried to the Inn, 
either northeastward through the Wipp- 
thal, or NW. through the Oetzthal. It 
is only at the S. end that a few glaciers 
send their streams to the Adige through 
the Passeyerthal. or through the Eisack 
to Brixeu and Botzen. 

The passes mentioned in this Rte. are 
all somewhat laborious, and, excepting 
til at fii*st described, are little known even I 
to the native guides. { 

In going from Innsbruck to the Stu- I 
bajiihal, the traveller has a choice of ' 
ways. Tliat most frequently chosen is 
to follow the old Brenner road as far as 
Ober-Schonberg (Rte. A), and then take 
the track to Mieders (3,132'), f hr. dis- 
tant, a cheerful villao-e standing just at 
the opening of the Stubaythal at a con- [ 
siderable height above the rt. bank of ! 
the Etdzback, which has here cut a deep 
trench through the secondary rocks. 
The good inn (Blaue Traube) was for- 
merly frequented in summer by visitors 
from Innsbruck. The ordinary course 
is to cross the Rutzbach a little above 
Mipdfrs, and follow its 1. bank to 

Fulpmes (2,970'), with a good inn 
(Pfurtscheller's). An omnibus, con- 
venient for luggage, leaves this place 
daily for Innsbruck, returning in the 
afternoon. Instead of taking Fulpmes 
on the way, the pedestrian may follow 
the track which keeps all the way to 
Neustift by the rt. bank of the Rutzbach. 

A more direct way from Innsbruck to 
Fulpmes than that by Mieders is to 
follow a track by the village of Mutters 
(2,666'), which lies on the slopes W. of 
the Sill at the NE. base of the Saile. 
The path winds along the slopes above 
the junction of the Rutzbach with the 
Sill, and passes Te/fes (3,207'), a pretty | 
village at some height above the 1. bank ' 
of the former stream, 20 m. from Fulp- ! 

mes. From the latter village a path 
leads to Axams in the Selrainerthal, 
bearing a little E. of N. over a pass called 
Halsl (6,583'), between the Ampferstein 
(8,373') and the Saile (7,884'). The 
latter, which is the easternmost summit 
of the range dividing Selrain from Stu- 
bay, is sometimes ascended for the sake 
of its fine view. Although the whole 
zone between the Inn and the Eisack is 
broadly described as being composed of 
crystalline rocks, the rocks on either side 
of the lower Stubaythal are of triassic 
age, and partly of dolomitic limestone, 
whose characteristic forms will be recog- 
nised especially in the peaks on the S. side 
of the valley. In 1^- hr., steady walking, 
from Fulpmes the traveller reaches 

Neustift (3,210'), the highest village 
in the Stubaythal. Salzburger's inn 
supplies good country quarters — but the 
landlord died lately. Urbas Loisi ( to 
be heard of in summer at Ranalt or 
Barenbad) and Pancraz Gle nser are 
both good guides. They expect 8 fl. 
(without food) for the more difficult 
glacier passes. The position of the village 
is fine. It is indeed rather distant from 
the higher peaks at the head of the mam 
valley, but it stands close to the openinp- 
of two lateral glens which offer several 
interesting exciirsions. Both are formed 
by ridges running parallel to the general 
direction of the valley, but the streams 
that at first keep the same direction are 
turned aside, and finally joiii the torrent 
of the Rutzbach. 

The less considerable of these is the 
Pinneserthcil. It lies between the main 
ridge dividing Stubay from Gschnitz, and 
a short ridge terminating near Neustift 
in the Eifferspitz (8,217'). The latter 
branches o\it from the main ridge where 
it reaches its highest point in the fine 
peak of the Habicht. The scenery of 
this short glen is very wild and striking. 
2 hrs. from Neustift the ti-aveller reaches 
the Pinneser Alp (5,012'), where those 
who make the ascent of the Habicht from 
this side usually pass the night. From 
thence a path is carried for seme distance 
SW., and then turns due S., and mounts 
to the Pinneser Joch (8,395'), a pasB 



lying a short distance E. of the Habicht. 
From the summit the traveller may 
descend into the Gschnitzthal (Ete. H), 
which is reached a little way above the 
chief village. The ascent of the Habicht 
(10,746'), also called Hager, may be 
made equally well from Neustift or from 
G-schnitz. as in either case the summit 
is reached from the Pinneser Joch. The 
way is over a glacier lying on the E. 
slope of the mountain, and the only 
serious difl&culty is in crossing a Bcrg- 
schrwnd, near the summit, which has 
sometimes been found troublesome. The 
panorama is especially remarkable for 
the view of the neighbouring peaks of 
the Stubay Alps, nearly all of which are 
in view. It has been included among 
the illustrations to the above-cited work 
of 3DI. Earth and Pfaundler. 

The other more considerable glen 
opening near Neustift is described lower 
down. The glacier passes leading from 
that village to Lengenfeld are now to be 
noticed. They should be undertaken 
only with a good guide and a solid rope. 

1. l^eustift to Lengenfeld by the Mut- 
terberger Joch {9,893'). 11 to 12 hrs. 
This pass, chiefly used by the native 
hunters, is approached through the 
main branch of the Stubaythal. The 
way lies for several miles about due 
SW., by a track which is passable for 
rough country carts as far as the 
hamlet of Volderau (3,742'), about 1^ 
hr. above Neustift. Following the track 
by the rt. bank, the traveller reaches 
Falbeson, W. of which a torrent issues 
from a deep recess in the mountains. 
It is fed by the Huhe Mooaferner, a 
large glacier lying on the E. slope of 
ihe nuderhoj'sp'ifz (11.393'), and S. of 
the Stespitz f 11,202'). which is acces- 
sible on this side. Above Falbeson the 
path tiirns for a while nearly due S. to 
RiiiiaU (4.185'), the highe>t hamlet in 
the main valley, 2\ hrs. from Neustift. 
There is now a very fair mountain inn 
here— no meat, but ei:gs and fowls. 
Those who do not intend to attack the 
peak of the Wilder Ptatl", or to make a 
detour to the Sulzenau (Rte. F), may 
enjoy an admirable view by mounting W. 

from Ranalt to the Pfandler Alp, and 
thence to a projecting point 8,054 feet 
in height. About ^ hr. above Eanalt the 
main torrent receives a considerable 
tributary flowing nearly due N. from a 
t short glen or recess in the mountains 
called Langenthal. Its S. end is closed 
by the Langenthalferner. a large gla- 
cier, several miles in width, formed by 
the snows accumulated on the N. side of 
the range extending from the Wilder 
i Freiger (11,253') to the Feueratein 
j (10,'713'). It is further noticed in Ete. 
I G-. From the jimction of the two tor- 
, rents the rough cart-track runs westward 
to the Hiitten oi Schbngelair (4:,5S1'), and 
^ hr. farther reaches Graha (4,899'), 
a chalet conveniently placed for those 
I making the ascent of the Wilder PfaflF 
I by the Sukenau Glacier. Following the 
I main valley, nearly due E., the traveller 
I reaches the Mutttrberger Alp ( 1 1 hr. from 
Ranalt), whence a steep ascent leads 
■to the Oberleger (6,219'), the highest 
' group of hiiiten in the valley, about 
I 44 hrs. from Neustift. This lies at the 
I lower end of the Glamergrube, as is 
I locally called the uppermost trough- 
; shaped depression forming the head of 
! the Stubaythal. A very steep ascent 
I leads to the last basin at the foot of the 
: pass, Iving between the Bauvkogl 
: (10,561') and the Bockkogl (11,120'). A 
short way to the rt. of the track the 
traveller may visit the Mutterberger See, 
' a little lake almndantly stocked w^th 
fish at the unusual height of 8,250 ft. 
Amid huge blocks of gneiss the traveller 
1 reaches the last steep declivity by which, 
after crossing a neve-slope for ^ hr., he 
attains in 4 hrs. from Graba the sum- 
■ mit of the Mutterberger Joch (9.893'). 
' It commands a fine view of the 
I Wilder Pfaff, but in other directions the 
prospect is limited. The descent is 
\ commenced, through a steep couloir, 
' which leads down to a slope of rotigh 
debris set at a high angle, and requiring 
caution ; and it is only after a con- 
siderable part of the way has been thus 
' accomplished that the traveller finally 
\ lands upon the Sidzthalfcrner, a fine 
glacier filling the upper end of the 



Sulzthal. This is traversed diagonally 
from the rt, to the 1. bank, and the level 
of the valley below the glacier is at- 
tained at the SW. base of the Schrankogl, 
the second in height of the peaks of this 
group. Anotlier considerable glacier, 
the Schwarzcrbcrgferner, falls into the 
head of the valley a short way W. of the 
track. The descent is at first gentle, 
then much more rapid ; two very poor 
chalets are passed, and in 1^ hr. from the 
foot of the glacier, the traveller, keeping 
due NW. along the Fischbach, reaches 

Gries (5,121'), a very poor village, 
where the mountaineer now finds a 
friendly welcome at the house of Herr 
Trientl, formerly parish-priest of Grurgl, 
whose interesting account of that district 
is published in the first annual volume 
of the Austrian Alpine Club. The name 
Gries recurs very frequently among the 
valleys of the Tyrol Alps, and in this 
district there are two other villages of 
the same name, one near the Brenner 
Pass (Rte. A), the other in Selrain (Kte. 
C). If the mountaineer should not be 
satisfied with the long day's walk, and 
the noble scenerywhieh he has traversed, 
he may descend in | hr. from Gries to 
Lenqenfeld, and find good quarters at 
the'village-inn (§ 48, Rte. B). 

2. Neustift to Lengevfeld throKgh the 
Alpeinerthal. Allusion has already been 
made to a glen parallel to the Stubay- 
thal, enclosed at its head by several of 
the highest summits of this district, 
whose torrent, after running for several 
miles from SW. to NE., turns to the rt., 
and descends somewhat S. of E, into 
the Stubaythal a little above Neustift. 
This is the Alpeinerthal, known at 
Neustift as the Oberberg, but not to be 
confounded with the glen of that name 
near the Brenner Pass. The torrent 
issues from the Alpeinerferner, one of 
the greatest glaciers of this district, 
whose main southern branch is locally 
called Thalferner. The beaten track 
mounts from near Neustift by the 1. 
bank of the Alpemerbach, but it is 
nearly as short a course to follow 
the opposite bank and pass Bdrenbad 
(4,125'), a rough but cleau establishment, 

visited for the sake of its mineral waters 
by peasants from the adjoining valleys. 
From hence or from Neustift the traveller 
is recommended to ascend the Hoher 
Burgstall (8,563'), a projecting peak 
commanding a vei-y fine view of the 
surrounding Alps. Of two summits, 
that to the SE. is the higher by a few 
feet. The right path to it is easily missed. 
The valley path on the 1. bank passes 
some clusters of stone huts, scarcely to 
be distinguished at a distance from the 
masses of rock fallen from the sur- 
romiding peaks that give a savage 
aspect to the scenery. This is scarcely 
relieved by the masses of dark pine 
forest that here and there clothe the 
slopes. The upper level of the glen ia 
fairly entered at the Alp of Seduck 
(4,752'). The path now keeps to the rt. 
bank, chiefly through pine forest, with 
the snowy peaks at the head of the glen 
gleaming here and there through the 
branches. On the rt. hand the foaming 
torrent springs from ledge to ledge over 
successive steps of mica slate-rock, com- 
pleting a thoroughly characteristic 
picture of high Alpine scener}'. Crossing 
to the 1. bank, the path mounts in 
3 hrs. from Neustift to the Ober-Iss Alp 
(5,659'), standing on a gentle slope of 
upland pasture at the foot of the Hohe 
Villerspitz. From hence diverges the 
path leading to the Lisenzerthal over 
the ridge SW. of that peak (Rte. D). At 
one of the huts the stranger finds 
shelter and refreshment— wine, coffee, 
eggs, and sometimes bread. The 
Alpeinerbach flows in a deep channel to 
the 1., and a column of cloudlike spray 
marks from a distance the site of a fine 
waterfall. A steep ascent by the 1. hauic 
leads in f hr. to the highest chalets, 
called Alpeiner Alp (6,702), at no 
great distance from the waterfall. Above 
this point the valley seems to be barred 
across by a ridge of rock, but this is 
surmounted by a frequented cattle- 
track, and on reaching the summit the 
stranger gains a grand view of the 
noble amphitheatre of snowy peaks 
that enclose the head of the valley. 
This ia still more fully enjoyed when, 



after passing a solitary unoccupied stone 
hut, he reaches the foot of the glacier, 
found by MM. Baxth and Pfaundler to be 
7,307 ft, above the sea. The surrounding 
rang'33 form a quadrangle open to the 
XE., -whose highest summits may be 
noticed in the following order, beginning 
about due 8. and turning round to W, 
and N. : Krdlspitz (11,01 2'), Secspitz 
(11,202'), Ruderhofspitz (11,393'), 
S-hwarzirherg, Hocheisspitz (10,837'X 
Verborgener Berg (11,120'), Wilder 
Thurm (10,963'), Wildes Hinterhergl 
(10.924'), and Brunnenlcogl (10,901'). 
Between the Seespitz and Wilder Thurm 
all the snows of this great enclosure are 
finally united in the great ice-stream of 
the Alpeinerferner, and the usual object 
of travellers who reach its lower end is 
to make a short excursion on its surface, 
and enjoy its grand scenery. The pass 
of the Schwarztrberger Joch (10,09-i) 
lies at the uppermost SW. extremity of 
the neve feeding the glacier, at the S. 
side of the Hocheisspitz, and between that 
and the Schwarzerberg. It has been 
called difficult and dangerous, but those 
epithets apply to most high glacier 
passes when undertaken by inexpe- 
rienced persons, and without proper ap- 
pliances. In 1864 Dr. Ruthner traversed 
the pass, having on the same day made 
the first ascent of the Ruderhofspitz. 
That peak, ' commanding one of the 
finest views in this district' [R. P ]. 
may be reached without much difficulty 
trom the Alpeinerferner, and a steep 
des^cent effected by the Muttenberger 
Alp to Ranalt. From the summit of 
the Schwarzerbergev Joch the peak of 
the Schnnikogl (1 1,474'), the chief rival 
cf the Wilder Piatt, is seen rising 
beyond the upper neve-basin of the 
fSchwarzerbergferner, somewhat re- 
sembling, on a rather smaller scale, the 
peak of the Grivola as seen from Les 
Poussets above Gogne, In June, 1866, 
I\Iessrs. F. F. Tuckett and F. A. Brown 
reached the summit by the E. arete in 
1 ^ hr. from the summit of the Schv\arz- 
erbt rger Joch. The descent from the 
la'ter to the head of the Sulzthal is 
effected mainly by the rt,, or northern, 

l)ank of the Schwarzerbergferner, and 
I the track from the Muttenberger Joch 
\ (see aliove) is joined a short way below 
! the lower e^d of the Suiz'hal Glacier. 
1 The writer has received from Mr. 
Holzmann an account of the passage 
of the Hmterbergler Joch (about 
10,5.50'). which he effected from Ones, 
in the Sulzthal, to Neustift, partly in 
company with a chamois hunter from 
Gries, and par'ly alone and in bad 
i weather. Ascending the ISulzthal for 
I about 1^ hr. from Gries, he turned to 
!the 1. up the E. slope of the valley, and 
[in J hr. reached the opening of a wild 
glen — called Schraukor, lying on the 
[ NW. Bide of the Scl}rankogl. Mount- 
ing eastward for another ^ hr,, they 
I then turned to the "N from a rocky 
' plateau where there is a small tarn, and 
in 1 hr. 20 m. more attained the ridge 
connecting the Brunnenkogl with the 
i Winnebachkogl, and overlooking the 
I head of the Langenthal, towards which 
j the descent seems practicable. Turning 
j E. over the neve close to the ridge they 
climbed a couloir that descends from 
; near the summit of the Bruinietikogl 
\ (10,901'), and in | hr. more attained 
{ the crest connecting that peak with the 
I Hinterb-rgl and looking down on the 
I head of the Alpeinerthal. There is a 
lower point in the same ridge lying 
more to the rt., but the higher one 
seems preferable. The summit of the 
' Brunnenkogl — only 351 ft. above the 
pass — was gained in 25 min. The 
] btrgsclirund below the pass being im- 
j practicable, it is necessary to keep to 
I the 1, over rocks, and descend by a 
1 couloir on the E. face of the peak to 
the neve-basin below. This is a true 
ice lake, or closed reservoir, wherein 
the snow has accumulated until it par- 
tially overflows in one direction towards 
the I^isenzerferner. and in the other 
towards the Stubaythal, towards which 
it descends eastward in a steep ice-fall. 
'I heie is a practicable couloir close to 
tne I. bank, down which a steep descent 
may be effected. The stream from the 
ice-fall disappears under the 1. moraine 
of the Berglesferner, and the easiest 



way is to traverse that glacier, below 
which a track on the \. bank of the 
torrent leads down to the Alpeiner Alp 
— less than 3 hrs. from the sumrnit of 
the pass. 2^ hrs. (descending the 
valley) suffice to reach Neustift. 

In approaching the Stubaythal from 
Matrei on the Brenner road (Rte. A.), 
the traveller may ascend easily by an 
agreeable path to Waldrast, a pretty 
inn frequented by excursionists from 
Innsbruck, and then descend to Fulpmes, 
o: else follow another rather shorter 
track leading to Neustift by Medraz. 

Route F. 

neustift to soldex. ascent of the 
wilder pfaff. 

A pass leading from the head of the 
Stubaythal to the Winacherthal, which 
opens into the Oetzthal at Solden, has 
long been known to the nadve chamois- 
hunters. The bad reputation acquired 
bv previous fatal accidents was con- 
firmed in 1860 by the unfortunate fate 
of the Rev. W. G. Watson, who, in 
descending on the SW. side, accom- 
panied by a friend, and a guide named 
MuUer, of Neustift, was lost in a con- 
cealed crevasse. The behaviour of the 
guide on that occasion created an un- 
favourable prepossession, which was 
perhaps unjustly extended to Tyrolese 
guides in general. It must be remem- 
i>ered that a guide in Tyrol means a 
man who shows the way, but who is in 
no way responsible for the traveller's 

The way from Neustift to Solden 
foliows the main branch of the Stubay- 
thal, described in the last Rte., as far as 
the Mutterberger Alp ; but a short way 
above it the path to the Mutterberger 
J,)ch is left on the rt. hand, and a path 
turns oflf to SSW., and ascends through 
a ravine called Wildgrube, along a tor- 
rent that is fed by the Schuu/elfemer 

and Fernauferner — two adjoining gla- 
ciers that descend into a recess on the 
SW. of the valley. The Wildgrube leads 
to a little basin called ['Uter-Fernau, 
and then by another short and steep 
ascent the traveller reaches the Ober- 
Fernau. a grassy plain, bright with 
Alpine flowers, just below the end of the 
Fernau Glacier. From thence the track 
runs westward along the base of the 
Egqesengrat (8.632'), the summit of 
which commands a fine view of the sur- 
rounding peaks. The way to the pass 
keeps to the N. side, or 1. moraine, of 
the Schaufelferner, above which, on the 
opposite side, rises the peak of the 
Schaufelspitz (10,924'), ascended in 
1862 ijy Herr Specht with Urbas Loisl. 
Keeping a westerly course the traveller 
in 2 hrs. from the Mutterberger Alp 
attains to the moraine of the Bildstockl 
Glacier, which appears to be the local 
name for the upper part of the large 
glacier named Daunkoglferner on Earth 
and Pfaundler's map. Turning SW. an 
ascent of 2 hrs. more leads to the summit 
of the Bildstockl Pass (about 9,750'), 
which is marked with a cross. S. of 
the cross is a small pool, often frozen 
over. The pass lies about half-way 
between the Wi7iacherspitz (\0,9oS') and 
the Schaufelspitz. The descent by the 
Winacherferner is steeper than the 
ascent. Some guides preler to descend 
by the E. side, others to keep as much 
as possible to the rt., but all agree that 
the course marked on Earth and 
Pfaundler's map, running down the 
middle of the ice stream, is utterly ob- 
jectionable. The best course is ap- 
parently that bearing to the rt. side of 
the glacier. Very near to the pool, just 
below the summit, are rocks which lead 
down to the neve of the upper part of 
the Winacherferner. Crossing this in 
a direction but little W. of due S. the 
traveller returns to the rocks above the 
rt. bank, through which a ratlier steep 
descent avoids the most difficult part of 
the ice-fall. Eelow this the course is 
over the glacier, keeping close to the rt. 
bank to avoid crevasses, until the ice 
is left near a little level space where a 



faint track is found that lea is down to 
the Winacherthal, iieeping near a small 
torrent that falls over the steep slope 
on its N. side. The level of the Wina- 
cherthal, a short and wild glen visited 
by herdsmen in summer, is reached 
about 20 min. above the Karlinger Alp, 
whence Solden is reached in 1^ hr. 
The distance between tliat place and tlie 
Mutterberger Alp is counted as 7 hrs., 
exclusive of halts, and 1 ^ hr. more must 
be allowed between the Alp and Raualt. 
It is reckoned a d;iy's work of 10 hrs., 
including halts. The guides ask 8 florins 
for leading strangers across this pass. 

MM. Earth and Pfaundler have 
pointed out the existence of another pass 
on the SE. side of the f^chaufelspitz, 
about midway between that peak and 
the Aperer Pfaff. It is higher but 
seemingly more direct than the Bild- 
stockl. This, which may be called 
Fernau Jock, is 10,041 ft. in height; 
it was reached by the above-named 
travellers by the strip of rock and 
moraine separating the Schaufel Glacier 
from the Fernau Glacier, in their ascent 
of the Wilder Pfaff, but it does not ap- 
pear that the descent into the Winacher- 
thal has yet been effected. This would 
lie over the NW. branch of the Pfaffen- 
ferner, which is much crevassed, and 
should bsundertaken only by experienced 
ice-men. The statements of MM. Earth 
and Pfaundler and other travellers 
respecting this and the Eildstockl Pass 
are not quite reconcilable with the map 
published by those writers. Further 
discrepancies between the rrtap and the 
text may be noted in the upper part of 
the Sulzenau Glacier. 

The most interesting route for the 
adventurous mountaineer between Neu- 
etift and the upper Oetzthal is doubtless 
that by the Pfafen Jock (about 10,600', 
F.F.T.), first traversed in 1865 by 
Messrs. Tuckett, Backhouse, Fox, and 
Freshfield, with which may be combined 
the ascent of the Wilder Pfaf {11,512'), 
the highest peak of the Stubay Alps. 
To this peak the name Schau'felspitz, 
properly belonging to the much lower 
summit overlooking the Eildstockl Pass, 

was formerly given. The designation 
now commonly adopted originates in 
the popular legend of a parson led away 
by his passion for the chase, who, with 
his curate, deserted his church and his 
flock on a holiday, preferring to hunt 
the chamois on the high glaciers. Bi^- 
wildered amidst the crevasses, the faith- 
less pastors never returned to the 
village; and on a stormy day their 
shades may sometimes be descried, still 
seeking in vain for an outlet from their 
icy prison. 

The principal peak, lying exactly in 
the axis of the main branch of the 
Stubaythal, has a double summit, of 
which the eastern (locally called Zv.cker- 
hutl) is higher by 18 ft. It is flanked 
on the E. and W. by two dependent 
peaks, of which the Oesilicher Pfaf 
measures 11,376 ft., while the western 
point of bare rock is the Aperer Pfaff 
(10,981'), To the SE. of the highest 
peak is the Sonklarspitz (11,410'), ard 
NE. of this, or about due E. of the 
Oestlicher Pfaff, is the Wilder Freigcr 
(11,253'). It is now ascertained that 
the watershed runs directly between t:ie 
last-named summits, and that a trans- 
verse ridge connects the former with 
the Sonklarspitz. It is less certain whe- 
ther or not there may be a continuous 
ridge connecting the Oestlicher Pfaff with 
the Aperer Freiger (10,67 o'), and dividing 
the neve of the Sulzenauferner from that 
of the Griinauferner. Five large glaciers 
diverge from the mountain. On the N. side 
is the Sxdzenauferner, and on the NE., 
the Grunauferner ; to the W., the Pfaf'en- 
ferner ; to the S., the Hohlferner ; and 
it now appears certain that the great 
Uehlethalferner (Rte. G) extends to the 
SE. base of the Oestlicher Pfaff. 

The first ascent, by MM. Earth and 
Pfaundler, was made from the Mutter- 
berger Alp. Having reached the above- 
mentioned pass of the Fernau Joch, 
between the Schaufelspitz and the 
Aperer Pfaff, they passed along the S. 
face of the latter till they reached the 
depression or pass— subsequently named 
Pfaffen Joch — between the Aperer and 
Wilder Pfaff. From hence the latter 



shows as a ven- sharp snow pyramid 
about 900 ft. in height. Though not 
very steep, the arete is excessively sharp. 
Careful step-cutting and perfect steadi- 
ness on the part of all the travellers are 

In the second ascent, ilr. Tuckett 
and his companions took a more direct 
and more interesting course by the Sid- 
zenau. As mentioned in Kte. E, a 
copious torrent descends from the S. in 
a very fine waterfall, and enters the 
main branch of the Stubaythal at the 
Graba Alp. A track mounts by the W. 
side of the waterfall, and in less than 
1 hr. from the Alp reaches a grassy 
plain, the fiUed-up bed of a lake, 
6,063 ft. above the sea, surrounded by 
several of the highest peaks of this dis- 
trict. It well deserves a visit even by 
those who do not intend going farther. 
This basin is walled in on the S. side 
by a range of steep rocks about 1,000 ft. 
in height. Down the face of these 
rocks the streams from the Sulzenau and 
Griiuau Glaciers descend in cascades 
that have cut a deep channel, and 
are seen full in front below the ridge 
of the Aperer Freiger, which separates 
the above-named glaciers. A faintly 
marked track leads up the rocks to 
the base of the Sulzenau Glacier. 
This is divided into two branches 
by a high shelf of rock that runs 
NNW. from the Oestlicher Pfaff, but 
does not extend so far as is shown 
on MM. Barth and Pfauxidler's map. 
The glacier is easily traversed as far as 
the base of the lower ice-fall, which is 
surmounted by keeping to the rocky 
slope on the right bank. Above this is 
the junction of the two branches of the 
glacier, and the uppermost, or western, 
branch is seen to descend in a still 
loftier ice-fall. This, like the former, is 
to be climbed by the rocks on the L 
hand (or rt. bank), forming the N. end 
of the ridge or shelf ab jve spoken of. 
Mr. Tuckett and his compinions this 
gained the summit of the Ffaffen Joch 
(about 10,600'), in less than 4 hrs. from 
Graba, excluding halts. Ha^Hng reached 
the western summit of the Wilder Pfaflf, 

and returned to the col, they descended 
SW. to a basin of neve, at the head of 
the Pfaflfen Glacier; before long this 
forms an ice-fall, and they were forced 
to bt-ar to the rt. along its brow for a 
considerable distance till they were able 
to cut their way down to some very 
steep rocks, whence they succeeded, but 
not without difficulty, m getting down 

i to the head of the Winacherthal, 2 hrs. 
above Solden. Future explorers may 
try whether it is not an easier course to 
keep due W. across the upper part of 

I the PfafFenferner, and then cross a ridge 
beyond which lies a small tarn whose 
stream runs down to the Winacherthal 
beside the path from the Bildstockl 

'' Pass. 

i In both the ascents above described 

' the travellers found that time did not 

■ allow them to reach the highest point, 
or Zuckerhiitl, which is connected with 
the W. peak by an extremely sharp 
arete, chiefly formed of ice. The higher 
point has since been attained by Herr 
Specht, and again, in 1867, by Herr 
Stiidl. The latter effected the extremely 
steep and rather dangerous descent 
from the summit to the Hohlferner, 
and so reached the highest huts in the 

j Winacherthal. 

[Messrs. R. and W. M. Pendlebury, 

1 with Gabriel Spektenhauser, with some 
difficulty in the passnge of a large berg- 
schrund succeeded by a steep ice-wall, 
crossed the ridge connecting the Oest- 
licher Pfaff and Wilder Freiger from 
the Graba Alp to the upper neve of the 
Ueblethalferuer. This stretches south- 
ward nearly at a level for some dis- 
tance ; by bearing to the 1. close under 
the Sonklarspitz, they reached a second 
col — a slight depression in the ridge 
S. of that peak — and without further 
difficulty descended into the head of 
the Passeyertlial. and so reached 
Schonau (§ 48, Rte. B). The course 
followed was much the same as that of 
Dr. Ruthner (Rte, H).] 



Route G. 


In describing the high-road over the 
Brenner Pass (Rte. A), reference -was 
made to two Alpine valleys, the one 
opening a few miles above Sterzing, the 
other just below that town. The active 
mountaineer may reach either of those 
valleys by fine glacier from the upper 
end of the Stubaythal, while making 
but a short detour from the road be- 
tween Innsbruck and Sterzing. 

It was mentioned in Rte. E that the 
torrent issuing from a short glen, called 
Laingenthal, flows northward to join 
the Rutzbach above Ranalt. This 
issues from the Ldngenthal/erner, a 
glacier of great breadth lying on the N. 
slope of the range connecting the Wilder 
Freiger with the Feuerstein (10,713'). 
It is not to be confounded with a much 
smaller glacier of the same name at the 
head of the Lisenzerthal, nor with the 
Laangenthal Glacier near Gurgl (§ 48, 
Rte. D). Over the glacier here referred 
to lie two Rtes. to Sterzing. 

1. By the Pflerscher Hochjock (9,7 80'). 
This pass was traversed several years 
ago by Mr. Marshall Hall, more re- 
cently by Dr. Ficker of Innsbruck, and 
the Editor is indebted for full notes of 
the way to Mr. Holzmann, who crossed it 
with Anderl Pfurtscheller of Ranalt, 
son of the innkeeper, a good local guide. 
It is not a col, or depression between 
two peaks, but a passage over the ridge 
E. of the Feuerstein, at a point accessible 
from the Langenthal Glacier. Ascend- 
ing by the rt. bank of the torrent, in 2 
hrs. from Ranalt, the highest hiitten of 
the Langenthal, called Im Griibel, are 
reached. Crossing the torrent and as- 
cending to SSW. yon arrive under a 
wall of rock that supports the W. 
branch of the Langenthal Gl. It is 
now necessary to turn to the 1. and as- 
cend to SE. over rocks and snow to 
reach the lower part of the glacier be- 
low the junction of its two main 
branches. Keeping the same direction, 
with the Feuerstein right ahead, the 
glacier and its moraines are crossed. 

The way then lies nearly due E. up a 
shallow ravine between the E. branch 
of the Langenthal Gl. and the S. wall of 
the valley. To avoid the upper ice-fall it 
is necessary to turn to the N. and climb 
the rocks above the rt bank. Having 
gained the snow-field above, the course 
is ESE. towards the snowy ridge that 
falls to NE. from the Feuerstein. As- 
cending amid partly covered crevasses 
you reach the edge, in places over- 
hanging, where the ridge falls in a pre- 
cipice towards the Gschnitzthal. Turn- 
ing to the rt., and traversing a snow 
arete between the precipice on the 1. 
and a bergschrund on the rt., you attain 
to the summit of the pass, where some 
projecting rocks mark the point of junc- 
tion of Stubay, Gschnitz, and Pflersch, 
and command a magnificent view. The 
descent lies down the arete connecting 
the Feuerstein with the Schneespitz. 
From the lowest point in that ridee it 
is possible to descend by a couloir to 
the Feuerstein Glacier, lying at the 
uppermost end of the Pflerschthal ; but 
it is a better way to keep at about the 
same height along the rocks forming 
the precipitous southern face of the 
Schneespitz. Passing through a gap in 
a ridge projecting SE. from that peak 
you attain the upper level of a great 
glacier (not laid down on any map) 
called Schneespitzferner, flowing nearly 
due E. This is traversed without dif- 
ficulty, and you then traverse two rock 
basins with remarkable glaciated sur- 
faces, and descend green slopes into the 
Pflerschthal, which is reached about 
20 m. above the church at Boden. Time 
about 8 hrs. from lianalt exclusive of 

[From the arete below the Hochjoch 
it is doubtless possible to descend into 
the Gschnitzthal by the westernmost of 
three small glaciers, all named Simming- 
ferner, and there is another pass from 
Pflersch to that valley between the 
Schneespitz and the Eisenspitz (^ 9,893') 
over the middle Simming Gl.] 

The traveller who descends into the 
head of the Pflerschthal by the Feuer- 
stein Glacier passes near to a remark- 



able -waterfall, called HiJlle. -where the j 
main torrent springs from the level 1 
ot the npper pastures to the much ! 
lower basin, -where ihe highest houses j 
are situated. From the hamlet of i 
Hinter.stein a path runs south-ward, | 
close by the EHcsspitz (8,608'), to St. | 
l^orenz ir IJidnaun, and another crosses | 
the ridge W. of the Tribulaun (10,1 fiS'), , 
and leads in G hrs. to Gschnitz. At the 
southern foot of the latter mountain, ! 
N^hich is the easternmost high peak of \ 
the Stiibay Alps, is the hamlet called j 
Borlni (4.123'), with the church and the j 
curates liouse, -where, in a case of need, j 
slit-lter and some refreshment may be 
had. From hence to its opening on the 
Brenner road the valley is nearly level 
and well cultivated, containing several 
hamlets and scattered houses. Above 
Aiiiclien the valley is locally called 
ItiTier-Pfl-rsch. The rail-way over the 
Brenner Pass is carried for about 2^ miles 
into th»' lower part of the valley, retum- 
inir along the slopes on the N. side, so 
as to regain the valley of the Eisack at 
a I onsiderable height above Gossensass 
(see Rte. B\ In less than 2 hrs. from 
Boden the tiaveller may descend gently 
nlong atolerable char-road to Gossensass 
on the Brenner road (Rte. A). Should 
the traveller intend to return to the N. 
side of the main chain, he may take a 
very agreeable -way, leading in 6 hrs. 
from AnicJien over the Grub Jnch 
(7,021') to Gries on the N. side of the 
Brenner Pass. The path on the N. side 
passes the Oherberger Seen, anddescends 
through the short but extremely pic- 
turesque glen of Oberberg. See Rte. A. 
2. % the Ridnaunthal. The Rid- 
natmthal, -whose torrent joins the Eisack 
a little below Sterzing, in many re- 
spects resembles the above-described 
parallel glen of the Ptierschthal, but 
it is divided from the head of the 
Stubaythal by the highest peaks and 
most considerable glaciers of this 
district. 'ihere is but one known 
pass, the Gr'mdl JocK lying E. of the 
H(><h>jriiinl (10,262'), and considerably 
\V. of the Feuerstein. From the foot 
of tlie Liiiigenthal Glacier the -wav is at 

first SW., and then about due S. On 
the S. side the descent is by the steep 
and rather difficult Hiingendefemer, 
belo-w which it is necessary to bear to 
the 1., or SE.. until the head of the 
Ridnaunthal is reached at the Alp of 
A gels. 

About i hr. lower down a considerable 
lateral glen, called Liizz'ichcrlhal, opens 
to SW., at right angles to the main 
valley : through it a path leads over an 
easy pass to the head of the Passeyerthal 
(Rte. G). Descending to ESE., the 
highest houses in the Ridnaunthal, near 
the church of St. Lorenz, are soon 
reached, and in less than ^ h.r. more 
the village of 

Ridnann (4.379'). sometimes called 

for distinction Inner-Ridnaun, with a 

poor inn kept by kindly people. The 

church of St. Joseph at this place and 

the very ancient church of St. Magdalen, 

on a rock above the path descending the 

valley , are very picturesque, and deserve 

the traveller's notice. A defile separates 

Ridnaun from the lower part of the 

valley, and about ^ hr. descending are 

required to reach Mareit. the chief place 

in the lower Ridnaunthal. It is over- 

j looked by a large country-house that 

stands on the site of the ancient castle 

of Wolfsthurm. Passing below the 

! pretty village of Tel/s. that stands on 

i the slopes above the 1. bank of the 

j Gailbach, the track traverses Thuins, 

and then turns northward to reach 

Sterzing (Rte. A). 

The Gailbach, which drains the Rid- 
naunthal, has its chief source in the 
I Ueblethalferner, the largest glacier of 
I the Stubay Alp**. It originates in an 
extensive neve-basin between the peaks 
of the Wilder Pfaflf, Sonklarspitz, and 
Wilder Freiger. and is bounded to the 
AV. and S. by a ridge connecting the 
Sonklarspitz with the Botzer (10,686';, 
and extending eastward fiom the latter 
peak. From the great ice-reservoir in- 
cluded within these limits a compara- 
tively narrow stream of ice flows east- 
ward into the head of the Ridnaunthal, 
terminating a short way N. of the .\gels- 
alp. M M. Bartii and Pfaundler effected 



a fine pass over the head of this glacier, 
passing S. of the Sonklarspitz, and 
reaching the head of the Passeyerthal 
— locally called Hiiiterseethal — some 
way above the point where the path of 
t' e Tinibler Joch falls into that valley. 
They probably descended by the same 
couise afterwards taken by Dr. Kutimer, 
and later by Messrs. Pendlebury, in 
crossing from Sulzenau between the 
AViider Freiger and the E. peak of the 
Wilder PfafF. The first traveller who 
crossed directly from Ranilt to Ridnaun 
by the FlafFennieder and Uehlethal- 
fi-rner was Mr. Holzmaun in 1872. He 
reached Sterzing in \-J hrs. exclusive 
of hults. See Iltes. F. and H. 

Route H. 


There is an increasing disposition 
among mountaineers to arrange routes 
through the Alps so as to descend as 
rarely, andfor as short a time as possible, 
below the region of permanent snow 
and high Alpine vegetation. With that 
object numerous ' High-level Routes ' 
have been devised among the ranges of 
the Pennine and the Central Alps. The 
conformation of the Tyrolese Alps is 
less favourable to carrying out a similar 
design, but it may be convenient to point 
out the various routes that may be taken 
by a traveller wishing to keep as near 
as possible to the crest of the main 
chain. Most of the valleys and passes 
tliat may be taken for that purpose 
through the Stubay Alps have been 
noticed, in the foregoing routes ; but 
there is one rather considerable valley, 
Gschnitztna,!, besides two or three 
passes, not hitherto enumerated. 

In starting from Fend or G-urgl, the 
traveller will either cross the Timbler 
Joch (§ 48, Rte. B) to the head of 
the Passeyerthal, or descend to Solden, 
and remount towards the higher peaks 
through the Winacherthal. In the fol- 
lowing enumeration the routes are , 
arranged in the order of the various ; 

points on the Brenner, wh'^re the tra- 
veller would first reach the high-road 
which is described in Rte. A. 

1. To Stcinack. Starting from Solden, 
the traveller may reach the Graba Alp 
in upper Stubay by the PfafFen Joch, or 
the Mutterberger Alp by the Bildstockl. 
Both passes are described in Rte. E. 
He will sleep at either of the above- 
named chalets, or else somewhat lower 
down in the Stuba}i:hal, at Schbnge- 
lair. As mentioned in the last Rte., the 
latter p)lace is but a short way above 
the junction of the Langenthal with the 
main branch of the Stubay thai. On 
the E. side the Langenthal is bounded 
by a shiirt range including the double 
peak of the Rothenspitzen, the Aeussere 
Wettersjntz (10,063'), and Innere Wet- 
terspitz (10,017'); and over this range 
are two unnamed passes leading to the 
Gschnitzthal. The shortest way is by 
the northernmost of these passes lying 
between the Aeussere Wetterspitz and 
the Southern Rothenspitz (9,974'). The 
former peak, commanding a fine view, is 
easily reached from the summit of the 
pass, and which is 9,143 ft. above the 
sea-level. To reach the more southern 
pass, it is necessary to follow the Lan- 
genthal to the base of the great glacier, 
and then ascend due E. along a torrent 
that flows from the foot of the pass. 

WTiichever of these passes be selected, 
the traveller descends to the head of the 
Gschnitzthal, and follows the rt. bank 
of the torrent to the Lapones-AIp 
(4,636'). The upper part of this valley 
is uninhabited save in summer, and but 
a solitary chapel is passed on the way to 
the principal village. To the 1. rises 
the Habicht, and E. of it the Pinneser 
Joch, noticed in Rte. E. On the oppo- 
site side rise the very bold limestone 
peaks of the Trihidaun (10,167'). These 
are extremely difficult of access, and the 
highest, or western, peak is said not yet 
to have been attained. [West of the 
Tribulaun are two passes leading to 
the Pflerschthal (Rte. G). One of 
these, l}'ing close to that moun- 
tain, is most convenient for the traveller 
going from Pflersch to Gschnitz. The 



other, nearer to the head of the valley, is 
attained by bearing to the rt. a con- 
siderable way above the Lapones-Alp, 
and by that way an active walier may 
easily reach Pflersoh in one day from 
Schonpfelair.] The chief place in the 
Gschnitzthal is 

Gschnitc (4,070'). There is no inn, 
but strangers are received by che parish- 
priest. They find here two good guides 
for mountain excursions — Georg Pitt- 
racher, and Andreas Salchner. The 
scenery of the valley hereabouts offers 
much variety from the contrast between 
the limestone ridges dividing it from the 
Pinneserthal (Ete.E), and the crystalline 
slates that prevail at its upper end. In 
descending the path keeps to the 1. bank. 
On the opposite side, near the track lead- 
ing to the Oberbergthal, is the ancient 
chapel of St. M. Magdalen, or Magda- 
lenenkirchlein (5,338'), conspicuously 
perched on a rock. After passing 
through a defile between bold limestone 
rocks, the track approaches Trins, 
counted 2 hrs. from Gschiiitz. Eefore 
reaching the village, the traveller passes 
near to the modern castle of Schneeberg 
(3,960'), standing on a projecting rock 
above the torrent which separates it 
from the village of Trins (3,885'). Near j 
to it will be seen a ridge crossing the i 
valley, which is the remains of the ter- [ 
minal moraine of an ancient glacier, i 
Trins stands at the S. base of the Blaser 
(7,332'), well known to Tyrolese bota- 
nists for its varied and interesting 
vegetation. Less than 1 hr. suffices for 
the descent to Steinach (Rte. A) on the 
Brenner road, standing exactly at the 
opening of the Gschnitzthal. 

2. To Gries. Reference was made in 
Rte. A to the short but picturesque 
glen, called Oberbergthal, which opens 
on the Brenner road W. of the hamlet 
of Gries. The traveller wishing to 
take it on his way from the Uetzthal 
may rt-ach Gschnitz bv the way above 
described, aud aftiT crossing to the rt. 1 
bank of the torrent mount by a rough j 
pith througii the forest to a point] 
just below the Magdalenkirchlein. He I 
there enters the Magdaleuihal, a lateral 

glen leading to the Muftcr, Joch This 
is apparently 8,1.37 ft. in height, the 
adjoining summit, call d Mutter, reach- 
ing to about 4,(300 ft. TiiL-re is anotuer 
pass some way NK. of the last, called 
Oberberyer Joch (7,1(53') ; but this is 
better suited for a traveller starting frora 
Trins. From either pass the traveller 
may descend into th-^ Oberbergthal 
near the village of Obirberg (4,440'). 
An easy descent of 1 hr. leads thence 
to Vinaders (4,097'), the priccipal place 
in the valley, only \ hr. from Gries. 

The traveller who has readied the 
Pflerschthal by any one of the routes 
mentioned below may take the Grub 
Joch pass, leading from Anichen to 
Oberberg, mentioned in Ete.G, and thus 
reach Gries after seeing the finest 
scenery of both valleys. 

3. To Gossensass. It was seen in 
Rte. P that the most direct way from 
Neustift to Sterzing is throngh the 
Pflerschthal, which opens on the high- 
road of the Brenner at Gossensass, the 
highest village on the S. side of the 
latter pass. The same route may be 
taken by a traveller coming from the 
head of the Oetzthal, who, having reached 
Schongelair from Solden by any of the 
routes mentioned above, may on the 
following day traverse the Pflerscher 
Hochjoch to Pflersch, and on the third 
morning descend to Gossensass, or cross 
the pass leading to Gries. 

4. To Sterzing by Eidnotin. The 
route from the Oetzthal to the Brenner 
last described is circuitous, and involves 
two rather difficult passes. The way by 
the Gschnitzthal is preferable for the 
traveller whose aim is the N. side of the 
Brenner Pass, while he whosf direction 
lies S. of that boundary may find a more 
direct way by the Riduaunthal. Some 
light is thrown on thetopc^graphy of the 
district by an expedition made by Dr. 
Ruthner in 1867. Starting from Sul- 
zenau (Rte. F), and ascending by the 
j^lacier of the Aperer Freiger, he reacbe4 
in .5^ hrs. the ridge, now known as the 
Pfaffennieder (9,8 ti^.'.'), forn^ing the I^. 
boundary of the Uebiethalferner a!i4 
connecting the Oestiicher Pf^tf wjih 



the Sonklnrspitz ; he finally descended 
into the Hinterseethal at the head of 
Passeyer, making a -wide circuit round 
the E. side of the latter peali. 

The easiest way to reach Ridnaun 
from Fend or Gurgl is to cross the 
Timbler Joch to the head of the Pas- 
seyerthal (§ 48, Rte. E), and thence 
follow a direct and steep, or else an 
easier and more circuitous, way to 
Schnetberg. That name was formerly 
given to some extensive mines, now 
scarcely worked, but is now used for 
the chapel and inn, considerably above 
the mine, almost enclosed by peaks, 
the chief of which (sometimes called 
Schwarzseespitz) is 8,995 ft. above the 
sea. The Frauenkirche, a chapel 
which must be nearly 7,000 ft. above 
the sea, is much frequented by pilgrims 
on the 5th August. Except at that 
moment, when it is overfull, the 
traveller finds tolerable quarters in a 
mountain-inn close at hand. An easy 
pass leads from Schnee'oerg to the upper 
end of the Lazzacherthal, but it is a still 
easier course to pass through a tunnel, 
nearly ^ m. long, formerly used by the 
miners, which opens on the E. side 
about 800 ft. below the top of the 
pass. It is necessary to take lights. 
The path descends NE. to the 
point where the Lazzacherthal joins 
the head of the Eidnaunthal (Ete. Gr), 
through which lies the way to Sterzing. 
The course above described is practicable 
for ordinary tourists : the enterprising 
mountaineer, with a good guide, may 
take a much more difficult, but more in- 
teresting, way, starting from Solden in 
the Oetzthal. Following the main torrent 
of the Winacherthal to its source at the 
foot of the Hohlferner, a considerable 
glacif^r that originates on the S. side of 
the Wilder Pfaff, and the SW. side of 
the Sonklarspitz, the traveller ascends 
along the S. bank towards the ridge of 
the S'hwarze Wand, which extends a 
little W, of S. from the Sonklarspitz, 
and forms the E. boundary of the Hohl- 
ferner By ascending to the head of 
the latter glacier to the point N. of the 
Sonklar.'^pitz attained by Dr. Kuthner, 

he would gain the upper nev6 of the 
Ueblcthalferner, and might on the same 
day reach the head of the Ridnannthal. 
But, according to MM. Barth andPfaund- 
ler, it is necessary to cross the ridge of 
the Schwarze Wand at its S. end, and to 
descend into the head of the Passeyer- 
thal, and seek shelter at one cf the 
highest chalets. Starting early on the 
following morning, the traveller ascends 
by a short but steep glacier to the 
Konigshofer Joch, a pass forming the 
lowest point in the range that encloses 
on the western side the head of the 
Uebhthalferner, the most extensive 
glacier of the Stubay Alps. It includes 
a number of branches that flow through 
openings between the surrounding 
peaks, and converge in a great basin, 
which is drained by an ice-stream that 
issues due E. towards the head of the 
Ridnaunthal. The highest summit on the 
S. side of the glacier-basin is the Botzer 
(10,686'). From this extends to NW. a 
ridge including several minor peaks, of 
which that nearest the pass, called 
Kbnig-^hof (about 10,370'), is easily 
ascended from thence. 'On the opposite 
side is the Sonklars'pitz (11,410') which 
is concealed from the head of the glacier 
b}' an intervening range of steep rocks 
called Becher. The map of Messrs. 
Barth and Pfaundler is undoubtedly 
incorrect in respect to this portion of 
the Stubay group ; and it is not easy to 
reconcile with it the account of the pass 
given by Dr. Ruthuer in the 4th ' Jahr- 
buch' of the Austrian Alpine Club. It 
may perhaps be doubted whether future 
travellers starting from the Sulzenau 
in Stubay may not find an easier and 
more direct way by the Griinauferner 
than by his route. The only informa- 
tion respecting the descent from the 
Konigshofer Joch into the Ridnaun- 
thal by the Ueblethalferner is that 
gleaned from the work of Messrs. 
Barth and Pfaundler, who traversed it 
late in tjae autumn. At that season it 
was somewhat difficult, owing to nu- 
merous and wide crevasses. They found 
it expedient to keep throughout some- 
what to the N. side of the glacier, twice 



If-aving the ice for slopes of debris at ■ 
the foot of projecting rocks. Farther | 
east the glacier descends in an ice-fall, 
and at a point called ' In Lochern ' it is 
necessary to quit the ice on the 1. bank, 
and descend by the rocks, till the lower 
end of the glacier is attained below the 
ice-fall. It is here so level and vmbroken 
that it is locally CBMedEbncferfier, and a 
person approaching from the E. would 
not suppose that it was the outflow of 
so vast a mass of ice and neve. On the 
S. side a glacier-lake is formed in 
summer by the stream descending from 
a lateral glen, which finds the outlet 
barred by the glacier. The lower end 
of the Ebneferner is too steep to be 
conveniently passable, and the traveller 
leaves the ice for the last time by the 
1. bank, and descends into the uppermost 
end of the Eidnaujithal a short way 
above the Ober-Agelsalp, where, in case 
of need, he finds tolerable shelter for the 
night. Some way lower down is a wider 
and more level basin, where stand the 
chalets of the Unter-Agelsalp, about 
2 hrs. above Ridnaun. The Ridnaun- 
thal is more fully noticed in Rte, Gr. 

In taking the course above described, 
the traveller who has crossed the first 
pass leading from the head of the 
Winacherthal to that of the Passeyer- 
thal, and encounters unfavourable 
weather on the following day, has the 
advantage of being able to continue his 
route by the easy pass between Schnee- 
berg and the Lazzacherthal. 

5. To Sterzing by Eatschinges. A 
little above the point where the Gail- 
bach issues from the Ridnaunthal into 
the open basin below Sterzing, it receives 
a considerable tributary torrent from the 
Ratschingesthal, a narrow glen nearly i 
parallel to Ridnaun, but less interesting 
to the mountaineer, as it lies outside the 
glacier region of these Alps. The easiest 
and shortest way from Fend or Gurgl to 
Sterzing is through that glen. Having 
crossed the Timbler Joch, and ascended 
from the head of the Passeyerthal to 
Schneeberg (see above), an easy pass 
leads thence to the head of the Rat- 
schingesthal. For the greater part of its 

length this is little more than a defile. 
At the widest part stands the village of 
Eatschinges. It is chiefly known for 
quarries of highly crystalline white 
marble, which would be more extensively 
used if it were less difficult of access. 
At its lower end the defile of the Rat- 
schingesbachis so narrow that the path is 
forced to mount to a great height above 
the rt. bank, after which it descends to 
the village of Gasteig, whence a char- 
road leads in | hr. to Sterzing (Rte. A). 

Route I. 



Irs.' walking 

E. miles 

St. Leonhard 

. 6 



. 4 


The mountaineer going from Inns- 
bruck to Meran will naturally select 
some of the routes through the Stubay 



or Oetztbal Alps described in the present 
or the List section. The tourist -who 
selects the easiest way between those 
placos will prefer to follow the high- 
road over the Brenner to Sterzing, and 
thence take the beaten track over the 
Jaufen Pass. This is a frequented mule- 
path, easy enough on the east side ; but 
the descent from the pass to St. Leon- 
hard is so steep and rough for the first 
1^ hr. that ladies and nervous persons 
can scarcely be recommended to ride. 

On leaving Sterzing the path crosses 
the G-ailbach, and ascends to Gasteig 
(Inn : fair), a village standing close to 
the junction of a slender stream from 
the Jaufenthal with the powerful torrent 
which bears down the drainage of the 
Eidnaunthal and Katschiugesthal. The 
Jauftnthal is a short glen, without a 
village, but it has a church and a small 
group of houses which bear the same 
name. A track runs thence due S. 
across the ridge dividing this from Pens 
in the Samthal (Ete. K). On reaching 
the summit of the ridge at the head of 
the Jaufenthal, the path descends a 
little, but a further ascent is needed to 
reach the summit of the pass. About ^ 
hr. before this is attained, the traveller 
passes a solitary stone house, called 
Jaufe7ihaus{6,o4:o'), intended as a refuge 
for wayfarers. In case of need better 
quarters may be found here than at a 
similar refuge, bearing the same name, 
which is found on the opposite side of 
the pass. 

The Jaufen Pass (6,872'), supposed to 
derive its name from the Eoman designa- 
tion, Mons Jovis, is reached in about 
3^ hrs. from Sterzing. There is another 
path about equally short, but less fre- 
quented, which mounts from Grasteig 
along the slopes on the S. side of the 
Eatschingesthal, and joins the common 
track near the Jaufenhaus. The descent 
towards Passeyer appears very steep, 
but no fatal accidents are recorded since 
3, eerbxin bishop, who had accompanied 
the Elector Louis of Bavaria on his way 
to Meran, broke his neck here on his 
way back to Germany. The way lies 
nearly due E. along the precipitous slopes 

on the X. side of the WalUnthal, a short 
glen which joins the Passeyerthal at St. 
Leonhard. On descending into the glen 
the path passes the hamlet of Walttn, 
where there is a poor inn. As the tra- 
veller approaches St. Leonhard he passes 
close to the ancient castle of Javfenhurg 
now in ruins, except a portion inhabited 
by a peasant. It commands a very fine 
view of the Passeyerthal. 1\ hrs. from 
the pass suffice to reach St. Leonhard ; 
but as that village is lower than Sterzing 
by 820 ft., 7 hrs. are allowed for the whole 
distance when the pass is taken from this 
side. The Passeyerthal, through wliich 
lies the remainder of the way to Meran, 
is described in ^ 48, Ete. B. 







Samthcin . 

. . 4i 


Pens . 

. 4A 


Sterzing . 

. 5| 


14^ 43 

The district included, and almost en- 
closed, between the two main branches 
of the Adige contains, along with the 
two high gi'oiips of the Oetzthal and 



Stiibay Alpp, a more POTithern group of 
much lovver mountains. This is diviclKl 
into tMo eoual portions l)y the Sarnfhal. 
a valley originatino: in tlie mountains S. i 
of Sterzing, and opening into the broad ; 
valley of the Adige immediately N. of 
Botzen. A glance at the map sliows i 
that the most direct line between those • 
towns lies through this valley, and over 
one or other of the easy passes connect- 
ing it with the upper valley of the Eis- ' 
ack. Though the scenery is not of a : 
very high order, this course may be re- j 
commended to the pedestrian who would j 
avoid the heat and dust of the high road, j 
In descending the valley the traveller , 
may avail himself of the new road called 
Sarner Strasse. opened in ISo-i. by en- 
gaging a vehicle from the village of 
Sarnthein to Botzen ; but in ascending 
it does not save much time. The road 
keeps chiefly to the 1. bank of the Talfer- 
hach. but there is also a footpath by the 
rt. bank. The former is generally pre- 
ferred. Leaving on the rt. hand the 
road to Klobenstein. noticed in Rte. A, 
the new road turns nearly due N. The 
villages are for the most part perched 
on the slopes of the mountains on either 
hand, and many ancient castles, in 
more or less ruinous condition, are seen 
throughout the valley. About 1| hr. 
from Botzen two tributary torrents fall 
in opposite directions into the Talfer. 
From the W. comes the Dornbach, above 
which is seen the village oi Afiyig (3,383'), 
and nearly opposite is the junction of the 
Emmersbach. On the slope above it 

Wangen (3.468'). About | hr. farther 
the road enters the remarkable defile 
of the Marterloeh, passing under a 
nearly vertical rock, crowned by a pil- 
grimage church. Farther on (on the rt. 
bank) is the mineral spring of Schorgan, 
frenuented by the countrv* people ; the 
road keeps to the opposite side until 
close to the main village, and chief place 
of the district, 

Sarntheiji (Inns: beim Schweizer, 

and several others), 3,164 ft. above 

the sea. Since the opening of the new 

road it is resorted to by the people of 

c. T. ( 

Botzen during the Somrncrfris''}) season. 
On the heights above the 1. Itank of the 
stream opposite to the villair*^ are the 
castles of Reineck and Kranzenstein, 
and in the valley a more modern .resi- 
dence belonging to Count 8arnthein. 
As the mountains enclosing the valley 
are easily accessible, there are many 
paths leading in various directions, to 
find which, as a general rule, it is ad- 
visable to take a guide. One somewhat 
frequented track leads westward in 5 or 6 
hrs. over the Kreiiz Jock ( 6,04-o') to Me- 
ran. In the opposite direction paths lead 
to Klausen or to Kollman in the valley 
of the Eisack. One of the most agree- 
able expeditions is the ascent of ti>e 
Sanier Srharte C8.2."Jo'), rising due W. 
of the village. The panorama is much 
the same as that from the Rittnerhorn 
(Rte. A). From the top the traveller 
may descend to Klausen, or else make 
his way southward to Klobenstein and 

The Sarnthal, after widening out 
somewhat in the neighbourhood sf the 
principal village, narrows again as tlie 
tra*k runs northward along the 1. bank 
to Asffcld, where the main stream of the 
Talfer is formed by the junction of the 
torrents issuing from the two uppermost 
branches of the valley. The NE. branch, 
or Diirnholzthal, is briefly noticed below: 
the northern branch, called Pensertbal» 
affords the most direct way to Sterzing. 
The scenery of the P'nserthal is varied 
and pleasing throughout the ascent to 
"Weissenbach, where, about 3^ hrs. from 
Sarnthein, the traveller finds a tolerable 
country inn. Here the head of the val- 
ley opens, into view somewhat N. of E., 
while a path mounts westward, and leads 
in about 6 hrs. to St. Leonhard in the 

Nearly 1 hr. above Weissenbach is 
Fens (4.781'\ the highest villasre in this 
branch of the Sarnthal. It has a rough 
atid poor, but clean, inn. Fi-om this 
village a path runs due N. to the Jaufen- 
thal (see last Etc."), and is possi[)ly the 
shortest way to Sterzing. Another pass, 
lying a little way farther E., leads to 
Grasteig. Tl\e more frequented way is 




by a track which follows the torrent to 
the hamlet of Asten, and then turns 
northward to ascend the Tenser Joch 
(7,340'). On reaching the summit the 
traveller overlooks a short and deep glen 
■whose torrent joins the Eisack near ! 
Mauls. The path to Sterzing winds | 
aiong the slopes on the N. and W. side | 
of the glen, and finally turns northward j 
over the shoulder of the mountain, and 
descends to Stilfs on the rt. batik of the 
Eisack, about 4 m. below Sterzing. 

The Durnholzthal, the opening of 
which was left on the rt. hand in ascend- 
ing from Astfeld. is a very picturesque 
glen, through which the traveller may 
find an agreeable way from Sarnthein to 
Brixen. About If hr. from Sarnthein he 
leaves on his rt. hand the hamlet of 
Jicinswald, where there is a decent inn, 
and 1} hr. farther reaches 

Durnholz (5,203'), where accommoda- 
tion is found at the house of the priest. 
Near this is a lake well stocked with 
trout, whose dark blue waters are ima- 
gined to be in connection with the la- 
goons of Venice. A pleasant path leads 
in b\ hrs. over the Schalderer Joch 
(about 7.500') to Brixen, passing thr' 
village of Schalders, with a rustic bath 
establishment. Another way leads to 
Klauson by the Lazfonser Joch. The 
l.-itter pass is most easily reached from 

[There is a direct way from Pens to 
Durnholz ''\\' the Durnhoher Joch 
(7.i8(f'), which may be accomplished in 
2| hrs. from one village to the other.] 



In the last two sections the portion of 
the main chain of the Tyrol Alps lying 
between the sources of the Adige and the 
Brenner Pass have been described. It 
was seen that this consists mainly of 
two masses of crystalline rock — a loftier 
and more extensive south-western mass 
enclosing the head of the Oetzthal, and 
a smaller and less elevated north-east- 
ern mass sui-rounding the Stubaythal 
and its tributary glens. It was re- 
marked that the Brenner Pass, which 
opens so deep a passage from the north 
to the south side of the Alps, corresponds 
rather to a dislocation than to a breach 
in the continuity of the main range. 
Taking into account the seneral disposi- 
tion of the masses, and that of the main 
valleys and minor ridges, the T}to1 
Alps W. of the Brenner adhere to that 
SW. to NE. direction which prevails 
throughout the Western and Central 
Alps. On the other hand, the inspec- 
tion of any ordinary map suffices to 
show that in Eastern Tyrol, and the re- 
gion extending thence eastward to the 
borders of Hungary, the ruling direction 
of the ridges and valleys diverges little 
from due W. to E. In the space imme- 
diately E. of the Brenner, where the 
two systems, if prolonged, would inter- 
sect, we find interposed a lofty group 
mainly composed of two nearly parallel 
ridges that affect an intermediate direc- 
tion from WSW. to ENE. The longer 
! and more considt^rable of these is nearly 
j continuous with the range of the High 
I Tauern to the E., but both lie somewhat 
I on one side of the axis of the western 
I main range, and the Brenner Pass cor- 
j responds to the dislocation thus caused, 
j A-ery much as the Malo;a, the Spliigen, 
! and the Simplon passes corrrspond to 
j similar dislocatirms. The ridtros above 
! spoken of enclose the pi'incipal branch 
i of the Zillerthal, and they are chiefly 
■ drained by torrents that send their 
j w.-iters to the Inn through the. same val- 



ley, which naturally gives its name to ; 
this portion of the Tyrol Alps. I 

The longer and loftier of the two j 
ridges that enclose the Zillerthal extends j 
westward close to the town of Sterzing, 
and, with but trifling dislocations, forms 
a continuous range from tlieuce to the 
Arlscharte, a distance of 100 English 
m.. measured along the nearly straight 
axis of the chain. In this space there 
is no pass falling below 8,000 ft., and 
but very few that even approach that 
limit, so that taking together the 
main range of the Zillerthal with that 
of the High Tauern, described in the 
following sections, they form a far more 
complete barrier between the North and 
the South than any part of the Alpine i 
chain of nearly equal extent. No engineer 
has ever proposed to carry a carriage- 
road over this part of the Alpine chain, 
and in a space of 85 miles there is but 
a single pass serviceable for beasts 
of burden. One of the slight disloca- 
tions above mentioned corresponds to 
the junction of the ZillertJial range ex- 
tending ENE. from Sterzing with the 
High Tauern, the point of junction be- 
ing the summit of the Dreiherrnspitz. : 
Here is the Krimmlertauern Pass j 
(9,071'), which forms the most natural 
division between the district described ; 
in this section and the High Tauern ; 
range. Southward the Ahrenthal, and 
northward the Krimmlerthal, form a : 
well-marked boundary between this and ; 
the district described in the next sec- i 
tion. Elsewhere its limits are traced by ; 
the valley of the Rienz to the S., by the 
road of the Brenner to the W., and on 
the N. side by the valley of the Inn be- 
tween Innsbruck and the Zillerthal — by 
the latter valley as far as the village of 
Zt'll, and thence by the road over the 
Grerlos Pass to Wald in Pinzgau. at the 
junction of the Krimmler Ache with the 

The way from Bruneck to "Wald. by 
the Ahrenthal and the Krimmlerthal, 
is described in Rte. E. Vmt the valley of 
the Rienz, between Brixen and Brun- .' 
eck, is more conveniently described in i 
the next section. 

The portion of TjtoI included within 
the limits above defined has until lately 
been almost completely neglected, not 
only by foreign tourists, but also by 
Austrian mountaineers. Most of the 
highest peaks remained, not only nnas- 
cended, but unmeasured ; and in this 
way it happened that five or six peaks 
in succession have enjoyed the reputa- 
tion of being the highest of the group. 
It is mainly to Colonel von Sonklar, 
whose name so constantly recurs in 
connection with the main chain of the 
Tyrol Alps, that we are indebted for 
such accurate information as we now 
possess. He has not indeed lavished 
upon this district the amount of labo- 
rious investigation which in the Oetzthal 
and Tauern groiips have almost ex- 
hausted the field of orographic enquiry', 
but his papers upon this district in the 
first and second volumes of the ' Jahr- 
buch ' of the Austrian Alpine Club con- 
tain the chief data requisite for a correct 
knowledge of the two main ridges that 
form the nucleus of this group. 

The longer and more southerly of these 
ridges, which we shall term the Ziller- 
thal main range, is that which extends, 
as already mentioned, from Sterzing to 
the Krimmler Tauern— about 36 m. On 
the S. side this range, through about 
half its length, falls abruptly towards 
the Ahrenthal, and sends out no lateral 
ridgps of considerable height ; but on the 
N. side the secondary ridges are of much 
greater dimensions. Prom the ENE. 
end of the range, near the Krimmler 
Tauern, a very considerable mass, whose 
mean height is little less than that of 
the main chain, diverges to N. and NW., 
and other considerable secondary ridges 
.are noticed in Rte. B. The highest 
peaks in the main Zillerthal range, 
reckoning from K. toW., are the Bauch- 
kogel (10,661'). Hnllen~koiif (10,492'), 
lAJfdspitz (11.108'), Schwarzenstein 
(11.04:6'), the five Horn Spitzm. which 
attain 10,842 ft., Thumerkamp (1 1.1 89'), 
Bossruckspitz (10,881'), Mosdc (called 
on the S. side Mbsdenock) (11,315'), 
Weisszmtk{10,84:V)Mochfcilcr (1 1.535'), 
Grn^esj^itz {II, Z93'), Grabqntz{10,0&d'), 



Wildkreuzspifz (10.271'), and lastly the 
Ebengruhspitz (9 J63'). The last, with 
the somewhat more northerly Kramer- 
spitz (9,658'), are succeeded by the 
much lower summit of the Trenserjoch, 
which forms the western termination of 
the main range close to Sterzing. The 
highest of the above-named peaks (Hoch- 
feiler and G-rasespitz) do not lie on the 
watershed, but in a short lateral ridge 
projecting northward from the "Weiss- 
zinth. In the mountain mass extending 
N. and NW. from the Krimmler Tauern 
the principal summits are the Eeichen- 
spitz (10,866'), &u;hprkopf (10,708'), 
Wildaerlosspitz {10,771'), and Gamssjntz 

The northern group of the Zillerthal 
Alps is mainly formed by the so-called 
Tuser range. This is nearly parallel 
to the main range, but is directed more 
nearly from XE. to SW., so that if pro- 
longed, the axes of both would meet a 
little W. of Sterzing. It is shorter, and 
it« mean elevation is less than that of 
the main range, but its highest peak 
falls only a few ft. below the Hochfeiler: 
Its chief summits, reckoning as before 
from E. to W., are the Grunhcrqlcor 
0.397'), Blffler {lQm7'\ RippenMpfe 
(10,743'), Olpjercr Fuss-stein (11,451'), 
Alpeiner-Feriierspiiz (11,11 3'), Sdgewand 
(10,870') — not to be confounded with 
the much lower Hoch Sage (9,365'), one 
of the minor peaks of the main range. 
Somewhat S. of the Sagewand is the 
Hohcwand (10,780'), and to this succeeds 
a series of lower summits (none of 
which attain 10,000 ft.) till the Tuxer 
range terminates towards the Eisack 
between Grossensass and Sterzing in the 
low summit of the Saunjoch (6,844'). 
The two principal ranges are united to- . 
gether by a comparatively low transverse 
ridge connecting the Hochfeiler with the 
Hohewand. over which lies the pass of 
the Pjitscher Jock (7,297'). 

An extensive mountain tract lies to 
the N. of the Tuxer range, filling the 
space between it and the Innthal with 
ramifications that reach the Lower Zil- 
lerthal. The summits of this range 
fall for the most part considerably be- 

low 10,000 ft. One of the most cjn- 
spicuous is the Glungetzerspitz (8,756'), 
near Innsbruck. 

Till lately few of the higher summits 

of the Zillerthal Alps had been ascended. 

The Hochfeiler was reached for the first 

time in 1865 by M. Grohmann. and the 

{ Moseleinthe same year by Mr. Tuckett. 

I The LofFelspitz was climbed in 1843 by 

I M. Lipoid, and since that date by some 

I German travellers, and by Dr. Erinton ; 

: the Schwarzenstein has been attained by 

I Dr. Ruthner; and in 1867 M. Grohmann 

j climbed the Olperer Fus.->-stein. There 

remain unascended, the Grasespitz, Ai- 

peiner Eernerspitz, and Tliurnerkamp, 

all exceeding 11,000 ft. in height. The 

last appears difficult, but promises a very 

fine panoramic view. 

Good quarters are found at Zell and 
Mayrhofen ir the main valley, but these 
places lie too low for the taste of moun- 
taineers. They will prefer the humbler 
yet clean accommodation at Ginzling or 
Lauersbach. Members of the Alpine 
Club, able to speak German, may safely 
venture to apply for hospitality at the 
"Widura, or priest's house, even in places 
where this is not accorded to all travel- 
lers. Of course in such cases the tra- 
veller should leave a suitable gratuity 
with the housekeeper. 



Route A. 


Eng'. miles 

Jenbach (by railway) . . . Ti^ 

Fiigen 5i 

Zell 8" 

Geiios mi 

Wald lO-f 

Mittersill 14 

Lengdorf 7 

Bruck 10 

Taxenbach 7 

Lend 5 


This is a route frequented by tourists ; 
and although the portion between Wald 
in Pinzgau and Lend does not lie within 
this district, it has appeared more con- 
venient to describe it here rather than 
refer the reader to another section. 

The valley of the Inn between Inns- 
bruck and Kufstein is described in § 43, 
Rte. B. Travellers approaching the 
Zillerthal usually leave the railway at 
Jenbach; but pedestrians from the Kuf- 
stein side may stop at BrLvle//_</. The 
distance from either of these stations to 
Strass, where the road to Zell turns 
aside from the main road along the Inn, 
is about 1^ m. An omnibus plies daily, 
leaving Zell at 8.30 a.m., reaching 
Jenbacti at ! 2. .'30, and returning thence 
about 2 P.M. Carriages are usually to 
be found at Jenbach, either at the 
stiition or at the post in the vilkiges; 
but it is safer to order one be'brehand. 
'['he road is good as far a=; ZfU, but 
be: ween that place and Wild it is too 
rough for any but common carts, and 
thoee who do not walk must ride. The 
cliarges for horsts a id gu.des alongthis 
route are liigher than is u^uhI m Tyrol. 

Thr visitor to the Zillerthal who is 
not too hurried, iniiy feel interest in 
obtaining >onie little acquaintance with 
the nrrniiier- and c-usronis of its inhabit- 
atiis. The people of this valley are 
consulered throughout Tvrol as in a 
spL'cial d 'gree ' racv of the soil.' The 
artistic eleni'jnt is strong in their com- 
posiiion. Tile valley has produced not 

a few painters and sculptors. The love 
of music and dancing is univeisai, an<i 
the Zillerthal minstrels, especially those 
who perform at Zell, bear a high re- 
putation. Unhappily, this pleasant trait 
is counterbalanced by the almost eciualiy 
general love of strong drink. A fes- 
tivity which commences under ttie 
auspices of the Muses usually degene- 
rates into a bacchanalian orgy. 

'I'he road from Strass keeps to th-^ W 
side of the valley at some distance irom 
the I. bank of the Ziller. The scenery 
of the lower valley is pleasing, but not 
very striking; the lower slopes on either 
hand are animated by numerous neat 
villages and hamlets.with many of those 
sharply-pointed church spires that aie 
characteristic of N. Tyrol. Some high 
summits, especially the Ahornspitz, are 
visihle in the buckground, but the 
bolder peaks of the nuiin range are not 
visible from the main valley. 

At Schlitters, the first village beyond 
Strass, the pastoral glen of the Ochsen- 
thal opens to SSW., enclosed by a range 
which scarcely surpasses 7,000 ft. in 
height. The next village, about 3^ m. 
from Strass, is 

Fiigen (Inns: Post; Stern; Aigner's; 
the latter is visited for the sake of the 
musical performances of the landlord 
and his family), the chief place of the 
Lower Zillerthal. The church contains 
some fine carving by a native artist. 
This is the most convenient starting- 
point for the ascent of the Kdlerjoch 
(7,633'), which rises to the SW., and 
about an equal distance SE. of Schwaz, 
in the Inr.thal (§ 43, Rte. BK The 
panoramic view is highly spoken of. 
The higher summit of the GUferUhery 
(8,201'j stands at the head of "the Van- 
kratzenthnl, the torrent from which is 
traversed by the road about 1^ m. S. of 
Fiigen. It should command a still more 
extensive view. After passing Uderns 
and Ried. the traveller sees on the op- 
posite side of the valley, beside the 
village of Stumm, the opening of the 
Heircnthal. a wild glen that drains on 
one side the group of summits NW. of 
Oerlos, that culminate in the Thorhelm 


(5 44. Kte. D). The head of the glen 
should offer some fine scenery. Some : 
2 m. farther, the road crosses a slight 1 
eawnence by Ascliau. that commands a | 
very pleasing view of the valley. Little j 
more than 2 m. beyond Aschau is ■ 

Zefl (1,850'), the chi<;f place in the \ 
valley, with numerous inns. The Post | 
on the 1. bajik is good, but rather j 
U'jisy ; excellent music in the evening ; | 
next is the Wtlschwirth, a good country 
itm; neither is r-lieap for Tyrol. The 
Bi-iiuhausis rustic, clieap, good dinners; 
and l^esides this thcNeu\virth,Engel,and 
Greicierers are recommended. The chief | 
inns and the church are on the rt. bank ! 
of the Ziller. The inns are crowded on ! 
Sundays and holidays, and nowhere can i 
the traveller find more characteristic | 
scenes of rural Alpine life. The after- 
noon is devoted to shooting-matches, 
f(/ilowcd by song and dance, in which 
the athletic forms of both sexes, ar- 
rayed in their ancient costume, are 
seen to advantage. These amusements, 
seasoned by copious libations, are kept 
up till a late hour. The stranger who 
may be tempted to mix in these revels, 
Tunst be prepared to accept the chal- 
lenge when invited to drink a health 
eitlier in wine or brandy. A refusal is 
deemed a serious afi'ront. 

A small gold-mine near the village 
does little more than pay the cost of 
working it. ' 

At Zell, a portion of the range of 
saowy peaks enclosing the main branch 
of the Zillerthal comes into view. Of 
these the nearest conspicuous summit is 
the Gross Ingent (9,562'). The traveller 
bound for the Pinzgau unwillingly turns 
aside from the wild and striking scenery 
of the main valley, to commence the as- 
cent of the low pass that here connects 
Tyrol with Salzburg. The charge for a 
horse to Wald or Krimml is 9 fl. ; and 
that for a guide (quite unnecessary) 4 fl. 

The ascent to Gerlos commences very 
near the village of Zell. At a votive 
column to the Madonna the path bears 
to the rt.. at first S., and then mounts 
to the E. the slope of the Hainzenherg, 
which is the spur of mountain that 

divides the trough of the Gerlos Pass 
from the Upper Zillei-thal. Footpaths 
save the traveller's feet from the rough 
cart-road, and at intervals he enjoys the 
shade of the pine-forest. A neat little 
church, with adjoining priest's house, 
senses for the scattered inhabitants. 
Towards the summit of the slope the 
view backward, extending the whole 
length of the Lower Zillerthal, with its 
many villages and church-spires en- 
closed between the mountains on either 
side, is very charming. At about 1 
hr. from Zell, is a wayside inn (Auf 
dem Etschen). The Gerlos torrent, 
hitherto lost to sight in a ravine on the 
1. hand, is now approached, but the 
track keeps to its 1. bank. Through 
some lateral glens that open on the rt. 
hand, glimpses are gained of the Brand- 
berger Kolm, and other high mountains 
forming part of the Eeichenspitz group 
mentioned in the introduction to this 
section, while on the N. side the sum- 
mits of the Thorhelm range occasionally 
come in view. At the hamlet of Gmund, 
about 2| hrs. from Zell, the torrent 
from the Wimmerthal, issuing through a 
rocky cleft on the rt. hand, forms a 
pretty wa<-erfall. Here the track, which 
has hitherto lain due E., bends to NE. 
across a tract of broad Alpine meadow, 
and crosses the torrent three times, and 
after various windings, in about f hr. 
more reaches the scattered village of 
Gerlos (3,964'). There are three inns, 
of which two are kept by Kammerlander. 
The better of these is the Alpenrose, 
which is tolerably good, but by no 
means cheap. To SSE., through the 
Schonacherthal, lies the way to the 
Eeichenspitz (10,866') and the Wild- 
gerlosspitz (10,771'). The former is said 
to have been reached years ago by Peter 
Haller, the best guide for this neigh- 
bourhood — to be heard of here or at 
Gmiind. About ^ m. beyond Gerlos 
the Krummthal opens to the N., soon 
turning to WNW., and offers the best 
way to the summit of the Thorhelm 
(§ 44, Rte. D\ 

After passing the opening of the 
Krummthal (also called Kriimmel or 



Ivrimmel. but not to be confounded with i 
the better known valley mentioned j 
l»elow j, the track passes through a gorge i 
which s'>on opens into the Durh.^bodm, ! 
as the uppermost end of the G-erlos glen i 
is locally called. There is here a large \ 
Klause, or woodcutter's dam, near the I 
o^(^mngof the Wddfjerlo^thal. Throtigh | 
this the mountaineer may ascend due S. i 
to a little lake (Gerlos See), very finely | 
situated in the midst of a circle of high I 
peaks. The rough cart-track leading to 
the Piuzgau, keeps a little N. of E., 
through the Diirlosboden to the pass — 
Gerlos Sattel (4.717')) also called Pinz- i 
gauer Hohe, about 1.^ hr. from G-erlos. 
This deep depression, hnng in the axis ' 
of thp great line of valley that extends | 
hence to Hieflau on the Enns, divides | 
the Kitzbiihel (§ 44) from the Zillerthal } 
Alps. The portion of that long trough j 
forming the tipper valley of the Salza, \ 
and called Pinzgau, plays a part in the 
orography of this district, similar to { 
that of the Rhone valley in Switzerland, 
running transversely to the natural flow 
of the cb'ainage ot the main chain, with 
this additional circumstance, that on 
the N. side of the Pinzgau the low Thurn 
Pass (4,371'), and the still deeper open- 
ing at Zell am See (2.469'). left free 
course for the outflow of the drainage in 
that direction. The way lies nearly due 
p].. atid in less than ^ hr. the traveller 
reaches a rough-looking inn at Ronaeh 
(4.346'), and following the course of the 
infant Salza, that issues from a glen to 
the N. (§ 44. Rte. D), he reaches in 
about 2 hrs.' steady walking from the 
pass, the village of Wald (3,044') in 
Pinzgau. The road becomes practicable 
for liijht carriages at Ronaeh, but no 
vehicle is to be found there, nor is one 
always available at AYald. Travelling 
witli ladies, it is prudent to write be- 
forehand to that place or to Krimml. 

The great majority of travellers who 
cross the Gerlos Pass make a slight 
detoiu' to visit the waterfall of Krimml, 
perhaps the finest in the Alps. Even 
without that attraction, the scenery on 
the way to Krimml (see Rte, E) is 
much superior to that of the direct road 

by Wald. and involves a detour of only 
3 or 4 miles. 

The high road along the N. side of 
the Salza runs for many miles nearly 
level. The most interesting spots on 
the way are those where the lateral 
valleys of tlie High Tauern open into 
the Pinzgau. Two of the finest of these, 
bearing down the clrain;ige of -the highest 
peaks of the Gross Venediger group 
{% 51. Rte. F), pour their torrents into 
the Salza nearly at the same point. The 
opening of both valleys is well seen 
from a smith's forge, built up against a 
huge erratic block, called the Teufelstein, 
little mo^-e than a mile below Wald. 
The legend connecting this block with 
the ruined castles of Hieburg and Pried- 
burg on the opposite slopes of the valley, 
may be read in the third vol. of Schau- 
bach. About 2^ m. from Wald is 
Neitkirchn (2.987"), with a decent coun- 
try inn (Bachmaier). and a very ancient 
castle, still inhabited. The village 
watchmaker is recommended as a guide. 
Scarcely 2 ra. beyond Neukirchen is the 
Weyerhof, an ancient house standing by 
a picturesque tower, all that remains of 
a ruined castle. The house is now con- 
verted into a very fair country inn, de- 
serving a visit for the sake of the wood- 
carving still contained in some rooms. 
The glrtss-p;nnted windows have been 
removed to the museum at Salzburg. 
The Weyerhof stands a little below the 
opening of the HahacherthaL one of the 
wildest glens of the Tauern Alps. In the 
background the Schwarzkopf (10.425') 
is seen risins; above the Habacher-kees, 
after the two Sulzbacher glaciers, the 
greate-st of those on this side of the 
range i% 51, Rte. F). 

About U ni. from AVeyerhof is the 
neat village of Brambcrg (2.874') with an 
old gothic church. After passing Bichl 
the road crosses a torrent and reaches 

Muhlbach (2,714'), about 8^ m. from 
Wald. The torrent descends from the 
MwMbnchthal. through which a path 
leads to Kirchberg, near Kitzbiihel, over 
the Stange, a pass lying close under *he 
peak of the Rettenstein. Near Miihi- 
bach on the S. side of the Salza are 



furnaces for smelting copper, and vitriol- 
works. About 1 ni. boyoiid Miihlbach j 
the road descends to the Salza, then 
crosses to the rt. bank, and in a few mi- 
nutes more reaches Hollcrshach (2,783'), 
at the opening of the Holltrsbacherthcd. 
The mountaineer may find his way 
through it to Windisch Matrei over a 
difficult pass (§51, Rte. F). The road 
now runs nearly straight for nearly 4 ni. 
along the meadows that fill the floor of 
the valley, and then turns to the 1. to 

Mittersill (2,622' Moll), the principal 
place in Upper Pinzgau. Grrundtner's 
Grasthaus, in the market-place, is the 
Vjest inn. The large house kept by the 
brewer (Eupp) is said to be ill managed. 
The little town stands on both sides of 
the Salza, and is united to the adjoining 
village of Velben by a bridge over the 
Velber Ache. Owing to the slight fall 
of the ground throughout the long reach 
V>elow Mittersill (about 60 ft. in 10 m.), 
the neighbourhood is very subject to 
inundations, and the inhabitants are 
forced to keep boats in readiness in 
order to cross the flooded meadows that 
separate the hamlets and farndiouses. 
Hence Mittersill is locally called the 
' Venice of Pinzgau.' Save this serious 
drawback,the position is very fine. Many 
K)i the houses command views up and 
down the main valley, extending fully 
1.3 m. to the westward, and nearly twice 
as far in the opposite direction. The 
view is much finer from the old castle 
on the slope to the N., about 600 ft. 
above the town. This has been pub- 
lished in panoramic form by Oberer, in 
Salzburg. The road to Kitzbiihel is 
described in § 44, Rte. C, and that to 
Windisch Mata-ei in ^ 51, Rte. E. 

The road from ^Mittersill keeps to the 
N. side of the Salza through a dreary 
swampy tract. Of late years, a more 
intelligent system than that of merely 
damming in the beds of the tributary 
torrents has prevailed, and tlie sand and 
gravel which they bring down has been 
made to contribute to the solidification 
of the swamps. The road passes a 
monument that commemorates, not the 

actions, but the good intentions of tho 
Emperor Francis, Avho passed tiiis way 
in 1832, and goes through Stuhlfelden ^ 
whence travellers sometimes ascend the 
Malitz Koyl (7,333'), commanding a fine 
view, not quite equal to that from the 
Geisstein (§ 44, Rte. C). Some way 
farther, the opening of the Stubachthal 
is seen to the S., and in the background 
a part of the fine range that encloses its 
upper end, culminating in the peak 
called by Sonklar Schneewinkel (1 1 ,580'). 
A pathway, chiefly supported on pine 
branches, is carried across the marshes 
to a wooden In-idge over the Salza that 
leads to the Stubachthal. 

The next place on the high road is 
Uttendorf (2,669'). On the opposite 
bank is Schwarzenbach, where there is 
a neglected mineral warm spring, said t<j 
be similar in its effects to that of Gas- 
stein. About 3 m. beyond Uttendorf is 
Levgdorf. This is a hamlet belonging 
to the village of Nicderdll, on the 1. bank 
of the Salza, at tlie opening of a short 
glen called Muhlbachthal, which must 
not be confounded with the valley so 
named on the N. side of the Pinzgau. 
The seemingly insignificant torrent that 
issues from this glen accomplished a great 
amount of destruction on August 5, 1798. 
A storm on the Tauern range to the S. 
must have caused some considerable 
landslip whose materials were hurried 
down by the swollen torrent. In a few 
minutes the hamlet of Miihlbach above 
Niedersill was swept away. The latter 
village Avas not exempted. The torrent 
of mud and stones destroyed many 
houses anil half buried others. The 
transported materials still surround the 
church and parsonage to the height of 
6 ft., and the present cellar of the inn 
was formerly the ground-floor Gast- 

Passing Walchen, the road reaches 
Piesendorf (2,614'), with a decent inn, 
beim Salater, about 12 m. from Mittersill. 
This is a convenient starting-poinr for 
the ascent of the Grosse Arche (8,041'), 
recommended by Schaubaeh for its 
panoramic view. It does not appear 
that this is at all equal to that gained 



from the Zirmkogl (7,260') on the X. i 
side of the main valley, or from the 
Schwarzkopf in the Fu.scherthal (§ 51, 
Rte. C). Opposite Fiirth, about H m. 
from Piesendorf, is the opening of the 
Kapnmerthal, containing some of the 
grandest scenery of the Tauern Alps. 
Several secondary glaciers and two of 
the first order enclose the head of the 
valley, which is i-elatively short and 
steep, terminatinp- on one side at the 
foot of the Wiesbachhorn (11,737')» and 
on the other at that of the Hohe Riflfel 
(11,('63'). See § 51, Rte. D. Eather 
more than 3 m. beyond Piesendorf the 
road from Zell am See (§ 45, Ete. B), 
distant about 2 m., enters the valley 
from the N. A nearly equal distance 
from the junction is 

Bruck (2,469 ), a village with a good 
inn (bei Mayr) at the opening of the 
Fuscherthal, one of the chief lateral 
valleys of the Tauern Alps. It is de- 
scribed in § 51, Ete. C. The bridge over 
the Salza which gives its name to the 
village is crossed by the road to Pusch. 
Travellers having an hour to spare here 
should visit the neighbouring castle of 
Fischhorn. It is finely situated, and 
contains in its stained glass windows 
some curious memorials of the Peasants' 
War, when this and other ecclesiastical 
castles were taken and plundered by the 
peasants, who afterwards paid dearly 
fur their brief successes. 

In the village of Hundsdorf, scarcely 
a mile below Bruck, is an inn kept by 
Trauner, which is recommended as good 
country quarters where vehicles may be 
found at a moderate rate, Thoug-h the 
valley offers nothing remarkable, the 
scenery is very agreeable between Bruck 

TcLxenhach (2,547'). The inn here 
(beim Taxwirth) is said to be the best 
in Pinzgau. The village stands at the 
openingof the Eauriserthal, a still more 
considerable valley than that of Pusch. 
The Eauris torrent forms a very remark- 
able waterfall near its junction with the 
Salza. The deep cleft into which the 
torrent springs is penetrated by a path, 
partly carried along planks and ladders. 

and the so-called A'/e'r/oc^ is remarkable 
not only for the waterfall, but for the 
singularity of the scene that surrounds 
it. The spot may be reached, with a 
guide, in 20 min. from the inn. 

Below Taxenbach the valley of the 
Salza is called Pongau ; the character of 
the scenery changes, and the river, no 
longer flowing amidst flat meadows, is 
enclosed between steeper slopes that gra- 
dually contract to a defile. The rock is 
clay slate, which easily disintegrates, 
and frequent damage has been effected 
by landslips. Mainly to this circum- 
stance is due the fact that no hamlet, 
and scarcely a single house, is seen on 
the way from Taxenbach to 

Ltnd (2,208'), where the frequented 
road to Gasstein quits the valley of the 
Salza. It is described in § 52, Ete. A, 
and the road from Salzburg to Lend in 
§ 45, Ete. E. 

Those who feel an interest in local 
dialects will find specimens of popular 
songs of the Pinzgau in the second 
' Jahrbuch ' of the Austrian Alpine Club, 



About IS hrs.' walking, exclu.siTe of halts. 

For about 5 m. above Zell, the Zil- 
lerthal preserves the same character 


that marks irs lowt-r portion, between 
Strass and ZelL described in the last 
Rte. At Mayrhofen its character is 
completely changed. Throe torrents is- 
suing from as many rugged Alpine glens, 
meet nearly at the same point. The 
eastern branch, which originates on the 
SW. side of the highest peaks of the 
Reichenspitz group, preserves the name 
Zillerthal. The western branch is the 
Tuxerthal, noticed in Rte. C ; and the 
central branch assumes first the name 
of Zemmthal, and finally, near its 
head, is called Zamser G-rund. This, 
which divides the two chief ranges of 
the Zillerthal Alps, described in the in- 
troduction to this section, is undoubtedly 
the main branch of the Zillerthal, whe- 
ther we consider its orographic relations, 
or its superior length, or the fact that its 
torrent brings down the largest share of 
the waters of the Ziller. Through this 
lies the most direct way from Zell to 
Sterzing. The accommodation at Grinz- 
ling is rather rough, and the walk from 
that place to Sterzing rather long, yet, 
when better known, it will probably be- 
come a frequented resort of tourists, as 
it is undoubtedly one of the grandest 
valleys of the Eastern Alps. 

The carriage-road extends for a dis- 
tance of about 4^ m. S. of Zell to 

Mayrhofen (about 1,960'), the last vil- 
lage in the lower division of the valley, 
with two inns (Neuhaus, good; Grlasner). 
Though lying low, it is well situated for 
many Alpine excursions, and the finest 
parts of the Zillerthal Alps maybe visited 
from hence. The ascent of the Ahornspitz 
(9,731') is especially to be recommended 
to the traveller who would gain a gene- 
ral view of the higher peaks of this dis- 
trict. The ascent to the peak, which 
rises due SE. of Mayrhofen, is long — 7 
hrs. being usually required — but free 
from difficulty, though rather steep to- 
wards the top. 

The path from Mayrhofen to the 
Zemmthal crosses the Ziller (Rte. E), 
and, following the rt. bank of the 
Zemmbach, in ^ hr. from the village, 
traverses the Stillup torrent, issuing 
from one of the wildest glens of this dis- 

trict, commonly called Stillup Gerund* 
[ Two fine peaks of the main range guard 
the head of that glen— to ESE. the Hol- 
leuzkopf (10,492'), and the Loffelspitz 
(11,108') to SW. In the ridge connect- 
ing them are the much lower summits 
of the KfaHenspitz (9,678'), and Keil- 
bachspitz (10,161'), between which is 
the Keilhach Joch (9,311'), a very fine 
glacier pass leading directly from Mayr- 
hofen to Steinhaus in the Ahrenthal 
(Rte. E). Amid grand scenery, and 
many unknown but noble waterfalls, the 
path mounts to the Taxa Alp, 4^ hrs, 
from Mayrhofen. 5 hrs. more suffice to 
reach the summit, and descend through 
the Keilbachthal to Steinhaus.] 

Leaving on the rt. hand a bridge lead- 
ing to Finkenberg and the Tuxerthal, 
the track passes opposite the junction 
of the Tuxerbach, and soon enters one 
of the wildest and most savage defiles 
in the Alps. It has been compared to 
the Via Mala, with which it has but a 
superficial resemblance, though quite 
equalling it in grandeur. The Tristen- 
spitz, which divides the Stillup Grund 
from the Floitenthal, rises so steeply 
above the Zemmbach that no path is 
carried on that side, and the track 
crosses to the 1. bank by the Hochsteg, a 
covered bridge thrown over the raging 
torrent. The path at first mounts to a 
great height above the bottom of the 
defile to a sort of shelf of the mountain, 
locally called Dornau, whereon stand 
several small farmhouses. The scenery 
changes rapidly as the path, descending 
a little, plunges into the defile. On the 
one side is the nearly vertical face of the 
Tristenspitz ; on the other, a steep slope 
covered with blocks of hiige dimensions, 
fallen from the Griinberg. The path 
creeps onward under and between the 

* The term Grund, often employed in the 
German Alps to designate the uppermost end 
of a glen without permanent habitations, is in 
this district often applied to its entire length. 
Thus the Floitenthal is commonly called 
Floiten Grand, and the upper end of the valley 
leading to Pfitsch. Zamser Grund, while the 
lower portion between Hreitlehuer andDomau 
is often styled Zamra Grund. 



stone masses, while the torrent roars in I 
one continuous cataract. At one point : 
the path is carried along planks sustained | 
on iron stanchions against the vertical j 
rock overhanging the torrent. The defile ! 
at length opens a little at the Karlssteg, \ 
a wooden bridge, over which the travel- 
ler returns to the rt. bank. The valley 
now opens out a little, and admits to 
view some of the neighbouring peaks, 
especially the Gross Ingent. The tra- 
veller passes several Asten, or Mayens, 
where the cattle are kept in early summer 
before proceeding to the upper pastures; 
and in 3 hrs. from Ma^-rhofen reaches 

Ginzling (3,260'), the solitary vil- 
lage (or hamh't) of the Zemmthal, stand- 
ing at the confluence of the Floiten- 
thal. It has a fair country inn, better 
than might be expected in so wild a 
place. This is the best, if not the only 
available stopping-place for a traveller 
who would explore the main range of 
the Zillerthal Alps, and guides for the 
more difficult expeditions are generally 
to be found. The two excursions most 
commonly made are the ascent of the 
Tristenspitz, and that of the loftier Gross 
Ingent (9,562'); the one rises to the 1., 
the other to the rt., of the entrance to 
the Floitenthal. The latter, which is 
conspicuous in the view from Zell, com- 
mands an extensive view, but not equal 
to that from the Ahornspitz, and the as- 
cent is steeper and more troublesome. 
A more considerable expedition is the 
ascent of the Loffelsjntz (11,108'), here 
commonly called Loffler. The only 
practicable way is said to be that through 
the Floitenthal. The scenery of that 
glen is so wild and striking, that those 
who do not care to go farther are well 
rewarded for the labour of ascending 
as far as the foot of the glacier. About 
halfway in the ascent of the Floiten- 
thal is a hut used by chamois-hunters, 
where a stranger might pass the night, 
but it would be necessary to carry cover- 
ing and food. The surrounding rugged 
heights produce much game, but the 
bouquetin, which found here its last 
refuge in thf German Alps, has been ex- 
tirpated within the last 60 years. The 

stony path extends as far as the soin- 
k'dtt'j of the Baumgarteneralp (o.Oi 5'), ill 
deserving its name, as it stands in 
the midst of a stony waste, surrounded 
by rugged rocks and glaciers. Cattle 
find excellent pasture in the crevices be- 
tween the scattered blocks. The hut is 
but a short way from the foot of the 
Floitengn.;nd Glacier, which descends to 
about 5,080 ft. To ascend the Loflfel- 
spitz, it is necessary to cross the lower, 
gently sloping, part of the glacier; when 
it becomes more crevassed, it is expedient 
to bear to the 1., and ascend slopes where 
sheep are pastured in summer. Here 
there is an outcrop of a band of serpen- 
tine, that stretches along the mountains 
SE. of the Zemmthal at a height of 
from 6,000 to 7,000 ft. It is accom- 
panied by many rare minerals. On 
reaching the level of the upper glacier, 
the traveller bears to the rt., and com- 
mences a long and steep ascent, at first 
over ice, which soon gives place to neve, 
to attain the crest of the main range 
between the desired summit and a snowy 
point (10,661'), projecting between the 
Loffelspitz and the Schwarzenstein. The 
ascent to the former peak lies eastward 
along the sharp arete, whose southern 
face of nearly vertical rock looks to the 
Ahrenthal, while the north side is a peril- 
ously steep ice-slope. The height of 
the point where the ridge is struck is 
10.359 ft., so that the cHmb along the 
ridge would not give much trouble if it 
were not for the necessity for step- 
cutting. The summit is a plateau of 
neve some 12 or 14 ft. square, whence 
the traveller views a horizon of vast 
extent. The Schwarzenstein (11,046') 
has been ascended by Dr. Ruthner, but 
apparently not from the Floitenthal side. 
When mountaineers give more attention 
to this district, thenumber of excursions 
from Ginzling will doubtless be much 
increased. The tourist, who devotes but 
a single day from Mayrhofen to visit 
the valley, may return thither from 
Ginzling in about 7 hrs., with a guide, 
by a col or depression on the SE. side 
of the Tristenspitz, descending to the 
Stillup Grund. The prospect of effect- 



ing a pass to the Abrenthal through the 
Floiteuthul cannot be considered hopeful, 
but, till seriously attempted by compe- 
tent mountaineers, must remain uncer- 
tain. Mr, Tuckett has shown the possi- 
bility of reaching the Zemmthal from 
the Ahrenthal, passing over the summit 
of tlie Mosele on the -vray ; but few tra- 
vellers can expect to rival the perfor- 
mances of that indefatigable mountain- 
eer and his accomplished guides. 

The path from G-inzling to the Pfit- 
scher Joch crosses to the 1. bank of the 
Zemmbach, and begins to ascend through 
a strait in the valley less narrow and 
■wild than that passed lower down, yet 
offering fine scenery. Among many fine 
■waterfalls the traveller will admire one 
formed by the torrent from the GunJcl- 
thal, a short steep glen descending par- 
allel to the Floitenthal, from the Gross 
Ingent, In rather more than 2 hrs. from 
Ginzling thetraveller reaches the Brelt- 
lahncr Alp, a group of huts, most of 
which are mere storehouses for cheese 
and butter brouglit hither from the sur- 
rounding alps. Of late years a little 
Alpine inn has been opened here. The 
accommodation is very poor, but the 
people very civil, and the charges mode- 
rate, A guide named Josele is usually 
to be found here. The houses stand 
close to the junction of two torrents. 
That issuing from the lateral valley 
opening to SE. keeps the name Zemm- 
bach, and the glen is called Obcr-Zemm- 
Grund, and also Schwarzensteiner 
Grund. The SW, branch or continua- 
tion of the main valley now receives the 
name Zams'r Grund, and is called at 
its upper end Pfitscher Griindl, because 
the right of pasturage belongs to the 
people of the.Pfitschthal. 

The Ober-Zemm-Grnnd deserves the 
attention of the mountaineer, and es- 
pecially of the mineralogist, and is 
now become tolerably accessible, since 
accommodation of the rougher sort is 
available at the Breitlahner Alp, An 
ascent of \ hr, by the rt. bank of the 
Zrii mbach leads to an upper nearly 
level step of the valley, and in another 
i hr, the traveller reaches the Schwemm 

Alp, famous for the richness of its milk. 
To this follows an ascent, longer and 
much steeper than the first, leading to 
the Grawand Alp, where the cembra, and 
Finns unighus, begin to supplant the 
pine. Amid scenery of the highest order 
the track mounts through a defile to 
the next alp, called Waxegg. The senn- 
hiitte is on the 1, bank, at no great 
distance from the fine Waxeag Ferntr, 
which descends from the NE, flank of 
the Mosele. Towards its head the val- 
ley bends to the 1., and the path goes a 
little N. of E, to the Schwarz€7isttiner 
Alp, on a projecting spur at the base of 
the Eothenspitz. The traveller who 
does not attempt any more arduous as- 
cent should go as far as the Schwar- 
zensee, a little lake, often frozen over 
in summer, that lies in a hollow X. of 
the alp, whence it is reached in ^ hr. 
It is a favourable point for viewing the 
grand circle of peaks and glaciers. This 
includes the Schwarzenstein (11,046'), 
five peaks of the Hornspitzen, whose 
summits range from 10,333 to 10,842 ft,, 
the Thurnerkamp, a beautifully sharp 
pyramid, 11.189 ft., the Rossruckspitz 
(10,881'), and the MBsele (11,315'). 
Three great glaciers descend into the 
head of the valley — the Horyikees, be- 
tween the Schwarzenstein and Horn- 
spitzen, the Rossruck Ferner, between the 
Thurnerkamp and Eossrucksp»itz, and 
the Waxrgg Ferner, from the flanks of 
the Mosele. To the above-named sum- 
mits, all lying in the main range, must 
be added the Grosse Morchner (10,730') 
din([x\ie M6rchenschneid{\Q,b2Z') in the 
ridge dividing the Floitenthal from the 
Ober-Zemm-Grund, and the Schdnhich- 
lerhorn (10,277')j ^i^*^ Grosse Greincr 
(10.524') in the opposite ridge extending 
XW. from the Mosele, The last-named 
peak, which overlooks the lower part of 
the "Waxegg Ferner, is famous for the 
fine specimens of rare minerals that 
have been collected on its eastern flank, 
but most of these have been found at 
various other points in the same rai'ge. 
It appears not impossible to reach the 
summit of the Mosele (see Rte. G) by 
the E, slopes of the Schonbichlerhorn 



and then by the neve of the Waxfgg 1 
Ferner. It is said that people from the I 
Ahrenthal have occasionally effected a ' 
pass across the snow-ridge connecting j 
the Schwarzenstein with the Horn- 
spitzen. At the lowest point the height j 
does not, according to Sonklar, exceed 
9,435 ft. 

The way through the Zamser-Grimd, 
leading from Breitlahner to the Pfitsch- 
er Joch, is very little frequented, be- 
cause the uppermost pastures belong to 
Pfitsch, and the path is of the roughest. 
A steep ascent above the 1. bank of the 
Zamserbach, followed by a slight de- 
scent, carries the traveller to an upper 
step in the valley, and he prpsently en- 
ters a desolate-looking tract that extends 
throughout the whole way to the Pfitsch- 
er Joch. The entire surface is covered 
with fragments of rock of various 
sizes, that have been loosened from the 
mountains on either side. After pass- 
ing a fine waterfall fed by the snows of 
the Olperer Fuss-stein on the rt., the 
Zamser Hiitten are reached. These 
stand opposite the opening of the Schlco- 
eisenthal (also called Horpingerthal), 
the last considerable glen that bears 
down the drainage of the main range 
to the Ziller. A very large glacier — 
the Schlegeisenfcrner — closes the head 
of this savage glen. A pass may be 
effected that way to the Miihlwalder- 
thal (Rte. G-). by the ridge connecting 
the Mosele with^he Ewis— 9,808 ft. in 
height at the lowest point; and Mr. 
Tuckett descended on this side from the 
summit of the 3Iosele. As mentioned 
in the introduction to the section, the 
two dominant peaks of the main Ziller- 
thal range — the Hochfeiler and Grase- 
spitz — lie in the lateral ridge bounding 
the Schlegeisenthal on the SW. Nei- 
ther seems to be accessible from this 
side, but the first is easily reached by 
its western slope, as mentioned lower 

The ascent from the Zamser Hiitten is 
continued over the same sort of broken 
ground that has already tried the tra- 
veller's patience; a goatherd's hut is 
passed, scarcely distinguishable among 

the scattered blocks, and at length he 
reaches the summit of the 

Pfitscher Joch (7.297'). The actual 
distance from Breitlahner is probably 
not more than 8 m., but owing to the 
extreme roughness of the path, from 
4 to hrs. should be allowed for that 
distance. Throughout the way from 
Mayrhofen the botanist will find most 
of the species peculiar to the higher re- 
gion of the cr\-stalline rocks, and a few 
rarities. Of these the most interesting 
is that little northern shrub the dwarf 
birch — Betula nana, seldom more than 
a few inches in height. 

The upper part of the Joch is a broad 
saddle, on which lie three small tarns. 
Turning round, the traveller looks back 
over the long reach of stony desolation 
through which the track has carried 
him, and to NE., but near at hand, the 
Zamserbach flows from the Stampfel 
Ferner, which descends from the Sage- 
wand, a ridge vrith two summits — the 
eastern 10,659, the western 10,870 ft. in 
height. The plague of loose stones ac- 
companies the wanderer till he reaches 
the SW. verge of the nearly fiat ridge 
forming the pass. Here his eye is gra- 
tified by the sight of green grass, over 
which lie may descend the greater part 
of the way to Stein, the highest hamlet 
in the Ffifscherthal, reached in 1^ hr. 
from the simimit. On the way he gains 
views of the Hochfeiler and Grasespitz. 
From Stein an unfrequented pass leads 
in about 8 hrs. over a nameless (?) pass, 
8,698 ft. high, to Pfunders, and another, 
still rougher, in the opposite direction, 
by the Falserthal to Stafflach, on the 
Brenner road. Little more than ^ hr. 
suffices to reach 

,SY. Jakob (4,737'), the chief place of 
the upper valley, which is locally called 
Inner Pfitsch. The inn is very poor, 
and it is best to apply to the parish 
priest, who usually receives travellers. 
The situation of the village is very fine, 
and it is a good starting-point for se- 
veral expeditions. The church having 
been destroyed by an avalanche in 1835 
— all but tile steeple — has been rebuilt. 
Johann Grans has a good collection of 



rare minerals. The excursion which ] 
doubtless will in future attract moun- j 
taineers is the ascent of the Hxhfiihr 
(11,525'). the highest of the Zillerthal 
Alps. This was first accomplished in 
1865 by Herr Gi-rohmaun. the indefa- 
tigable explorer of the Cadore Alps. 
The excursion was effected without the 
slightest serious difficulty from the head 
of the Gliederthal, a short glen that 
branches eastward from the head of the 
Ptitscherthal, a little above Stein. The 
summit is not visible from the amphi- 
theatre at the upper end of the Glieder- 
thal, but comes into view after mount- 
ing the lower slope of the Hintergras 
Ferncr. After following for some way 
the glacier-stream, Herr Grrohmann left 
it for the slopes of a sheep pasture 
called Hintern Grras. From hence the 
way to the summit is nearly in a straight 
line, over gently sloping snowfields and 
easy rocks. The peak is extremely steep 
on the Schlegeisen side, and care must 
be used in approaching the verge. Herr 
Grohmann considers that 6 hrs. suffice 
for the ascent from St. Jakob, and says 
that few peaks of equal heisht are so 
easy of access. A beaten track leads 
nearly at a level in 1 hr. from St. Jakob 

Keinaten (4,792'\ the chief pla<!e of 
Ausser Pfitsch, as the lower part of the j 
valley is called. The inn is no better i 
than at St. Jakob, and it is better to ap- \ 
ply to the priest, whose house promises i 
better quarters. The aspect of the val- i 
ley confirms the tradition that a lake ! 
once extended from Kematen to the 1 
Sage on the way to Sterzinir. There is I 
an easy way hence to Pfunders. by the i 
Brass Joch (^8.422'), a distance of about i 
6 hrs. Peter Fuchs. a well-kno^Ti guide j 
hero, has a collection of minerals for ; 
sale. An easy level track leads down ; 
the valley over the bed of the ancient 
lake to a place called Sage, where there 
is a wayside inn, and then abruptly com- 
mences the descent through a steep and 
very picturesque defile. Twice the tor- 
rent is passed by slender wooden bridges 
that tremble w'th the crash of the rush- 
in": ton-ent beneath. In a short distance 

the stream falls through a vertical 
height of more than 1.200 ft. The village 
of Afens to NW.. and Tulfer on the SE, 
side of the valley, stand on terraces of 
the mountain high above the defile. At 
length the valley opens, the walls of 
rock recede on either side, and the tra- 
veller finds himself in the lower nearly 
level tract that extends to the opening 
of the valley opposite Sterzing. The 
only village is Wies'n (3,098'). above 
which stands the old castle of Moos, 
still inhabited. In ^ hr. more, or 4 hrs.' 
easy-walking from St. Jakob, the travel- 
ler reaches 

Sterzhiff, described in § -49. Ete. A. 

Those who are bound for the N. side 
of the Brenner Pass should not descend 
to Sterzing. There is an easy and agree- 
able path from Kematen, over the 
Schliissel Joch, leading in 3 hrs. to the 
Brenner road, a little below the summit. 

In descending the Pfitscherrhal from 
St. .Jakob, the traveller may easily pass, 
unobserved, a little lateral glen, called 
Burgumthal, which opens eastward from 
the hamlet of Burgum, about 1^ hr. be- 
low St. Jakob. By that way he may 
reach a pass on the SW. side of the 
"Wildkreuzspitz, and descend thence by 
Vals (Ete. I) to Miihlbach, on the 
main road of the Pusterthal, altogether 
avoiding the Brenner road. Through 
the same glen the summit of the Wild- 
kreuzspitz (10.271') may be reached 
with little difficulty. From the alp at 
the head of the Burgumthal, about \\ 
hr. above Biirgum. the way is by the 
glacier that descends between this and 
the western summit of the Kramerspitz 
(9,658'), and then (by a rather circuitous 
course) along the E. side of the ridge 
that descends southward from the sum- 
mit of the Wildkreuzspitz, It appears 
that there is a more direct wav by a 
steep couloir that mounts from the gla- 
cier direct to the summit. 



Route C. 

zell to stafklach, by the ttxeethax. 

7 hrs.' walking to Hinter Tux — 6 hrs. thence 
to Stafflach. 

The Tuxerthal, commonly, but impro- 
perly, written Duxerthal, is the only one 
of the upper branches of the Zillerthal 
that supports any considerable popula- 
tion. The available pasture is much 
more extensive than in the savage rooky 
defiles of the Zemm G-rund and Zillcr 
Grund, and there is also a limited quan- 
tity of land under crops. The people 
are distinguished, even among their 
lively neighboiu's, for their love of gaiety 
and jollification, and though their life is 
hard, they are a strong and comely race. 
The valley offers some fine scenery, but | 
not equal in grandeur to that of the I 
Zemm G-rund, described in the lastEte. I 

The direct way from ]Mayrhofen (see 
last Rte.) is \>y a track that crosses a 
bridge over the Ziller, and ascends di- 
rectly to Finlccnhcrij ; but the traveller 
who cares for grand scenery will make 
a detour by the Karlssteg, and return 
by an upper track along the "W. side of 
the Zemm Grund. Then crossing the 
spur of the mountain that divides the 
Zemmbach from the Tuxerbach, he 
reaches a slender wooden bridge, called 
the Teufelssteg, 100 ft. above the latter 
torrent, that carries him to its 1. bank. 
From Finkenberg, the old path mounts 
high above the 1. bank of the Tuxerbach, 
which rushes through a deep cleft for a 
distance of several miles ; but the slope 
being subject in wet weather to land- 
slips, a new track has been made along 
the rt. bank, which is reached a short 

way above Finkenberg. The views are 
finer from the old track. A vast mass 
of sand, clay, and gravel, the accumula- 
tion of many landslips, being thoroiighly 
impregnated with water, has formed a 
sort of mud glacier, which remains fixed 
in dry weather, but advances after rain 
or thaw, and is sometimes actually dan- 
gerous to traverse. In from 3^ to 4 hrs. 
from Mayrhofen, the travellf-r reaches 

Lanersbach, the chief of Yorder Tux, 
as the lower part of the valley is locally 
called. The village inn is said to afford 
clean though rough quarters, with a 
friendly reception. Up to this point the 
way through the Tuxerthal has lain 
about due W., along the N. side of the 
GrilnbergJcor (9,397'). which forms the 
NE. extremity of the Tuxer range. 
Henceforward the Tuxerthal follows its 
normal direction to SW., parallel to the 
Zemm Grund and to both the principal 
ranges of the Zillerthal Alps. The 
higher peaks are concealed from La- 
nersbach by a low projecting ridge, but 
they soon come into view in ascending 
to the head of the valley. The scenery 
is throughout interesting, as the snowy 
peaks are almost constantly in view. 
The object which "will most attract at- 
tention throughout the upper part of the 
valley is the great glacier which bears 
the appropriate name Gefrorne Wand, 
Though surpassed in size by many others 
in this group, and elsewhere in Tyrol, 
this glacier is one of the most remark- 
able for its extreme steepness and the 
imposing effect of the shattered columns 
and pinnacles of ice that seem to im- 
pend over the head of the valley. The 
most conspicuous of the higher siunmits 
is the northern of the twin peaks that 
form the E. boundary of the upper pla- 
teau of the Gefrorne Wand — called the 
Ri'ppenJtopfe. The northern peak, er- 
roneously named Olperer by Souklar, 
and Gefrorne-Wandspitz by Dr. Ruth- 
ner, surpasses its neighbour by 27 ft.,, 
and attains 10,743 ft. In about If hr. 
from Lanersbach, the traveller reaches 

Hinter Tux (4,839'), the highest 
hamlet of the Tuxerthal. The inn of- 
fers poor accommodation, and the land- 



lord is not famed for civility or atten- 
tion. There is here a mineral bath, 
somewhat frequented by the peasants 
of the valley. Owing to the formidable 
steepness of the G-efrorne "VVand, this is 
not a favourable starting-point for the 
ascent of the high peaks on the S. side, 
but noble views might doubtless be ob- 
tained from the mountains on the oppo- 
site side of the valley, if the accommoda- 
tion were such as to tempt travellers to 
halt here. The path to the Tuxer Joch 
mounts by the 1. bank of the main 
branch of the torrent which issues from 
several different points at the base of 
the G-efrorne Wand, and crosses a small 
triinitary torrent that forms a pretty 
waterfall to the rt. A path moiTuts that 
way to the Geier Joeh (noticed below), 
or by a long circuit leads to the Tuxer 
Joch. If the traveller should have a 
little time to spare, it is worth while to 
make a slight detour to the 1. to approach 
the Gefrorne Wand, and for that pur- 
pose should follow a path leading to the 
Stock Alp, the highest sennhiitte in the 
valley. It is easy to regain the regular 
path higher up, and the near view of 
the glacier well rewards the slight ex- 
tra exertion. The latter part of the as- 
cent is rather steep and stony, but the 
track, which is much more frequented 
than the Pfitscher Joch, is well marked, 
and a guide is not required by any one 
used to mountain walking. On reach- 
ing a cross at the summit of this ascent, 
the traveller must be careful not to fol- 
low the track that leads at first straight 
forward, but gradually bears to the rt., 
and finally returns to Hinter Tux by 
the waterfall that was seen lower down. 
The true way lies somewhat to the 1., 
keeping for about ^ m. nearly at a level, 
till a second cross is reached which 
marks the pass of the 

Tuxer Joch (7,618'), dividing the ba- 
sin of the Ziller from that of the Sill. 
The path now descends to a herdsman's 
hut, lying in a hollow, and after passing 
it commences a steep and rather long 
descent into the xippermost branch of 
the Sohmirnthal, locally called Kaserer- 
tkal. This wild glen is closed at its up- 

per end by tlie Kascrcr Fcrncr, one of 
the numerous glaciers that flow from the 
vast snowfields surround the 01- 
pi-rer Fuss-stein, the highest peak of 
the Tuxer range. It is possible to reach 
the Zamser Hiitten (Rte. E) by way of 
the KasererFerncr, and the upper neve 
of the Gefrorne Wanfl, descending on the 
E. side of the Olperer by the Schram- 
ma Ferner. This must be a fine 
glacier pass, and apparently does not 
present any unusual difficulty. Though 
it is the longest branch of the Schmirn- 
thal, the Kasererthal is in truth a late- 
ral glen which descends to NW. at rt. 
angles to the SW. direction of the main 
valley. This is reached at Ohcrn 
(o, 065'), also called Kaseni, where, along 
with a few scattered houses, there is a 
mountain inn, which combines the 
poorest accommodation with extortionate 
charges. What may be considered as 
the main branch of the Upper Schmirn- 
thal mounts steeply to NE. from Ka- 
sern, and leads to a pass called Gcier 
Joch, by which Hinter Tux is reached 
by a longer and less interesting route 
than that of the Tuxer Joch. 

Amid very agreeable scenery, the path 
descends the Schmirnthal by a path 
aboA'e the rt. bank of the torrent, pass- 
ing opposite to a group of houses at the 
opening of the Wildlahnerthal, through 
which savage glen there is a good view 
of the peak of the Olperer Fuss-stein. 
These houses are sometimes designated 
as Inner Schmirn, but incorrectly, as 
that name is locally given to the entire 
valley above the chief village of 

Schmirn (4,042'). which is reached in 
about 4^ hrs. from Hinter Tux. The 
inn is uninviting, but mountaineers may 
safely apply for hospitality to the parish 
priest, who takes a lively interest in the 
exploration of the neighbouring Alps. 

The Olpircr Fu^s-stein (11,451'), the 
highest of the Tuxer range, and the 
second in height of the Zillerthaler Alps, 
rises from the midst of the great snow- 
fields that divide the Schmirnthal and 
Falserthal from the Zamser Grund at 
the head of the main branch of the Zil- 
lerthal. There is a vazue tradition of 



an ascent in the last century, but it 
was effected with ease in 1867, from the 
liead of the Zamser Grund, bj M. G-roh- 
mann. In the 3rd vol. of the ' Jahrbuch' 
of the Austrian Alpine Club, Dr. Kuth- 
ner (who was accompanied by Felix 
Hans ofSchmirn, recommended as a good 
guide, and his brother Toni), recounts 
an unsuccessful attempt to scale it. 
There has been much confusion as to 
the proper name of this fine peak. Dr. 
Ruthner seems to have proved that the 
highest point ought to be designated 
Olperer, and that the name Fuss-stein, 
applied bySouklarto the latter, belongs 
more justly to a lower summit SW. of 
the first, whose height is 11,030' ft. ac- 
cording to Sonklar. The name Olperer 
haviug been given by Sonklar to the 
double summit of the Rippenkopfe, the 
best way to avoid further confusion is 
to call the greater mountain Olperer 
Fuss-stein. The vast snoT\^elds that 
encompass it send down glacier streams 
into the surrounding valleys. To the 
SW, the Alpcincr Fcrncr reaches the 
head of the Falserthal ; the Wildlalmer 
Ferner descends to the "Wildlahnerthal ; 
the Kaserer Ferner to the Kasererthal, 
and the Gefrorne Wand, sometimes 
called Tuxer Eismeer. to the head of the 
Tuxerthal. This is bounded on the E. 
by the ridge of the Rippenkopfe, and the 
glacier on the E. side of that ridge, 
called Bippen Ferner, descends towards 
the Zamser Grund below the Zamser 
Hiitten. The neve of the Kaserer Ferner 
and Gefrorne Wand does not reach the 
actual base of the Olperer. for the ridge 
forming the snowshed of the Wildlahner 
Ferner subsides to the E. and SE., and 
tlie snowfield that surrounds the peak 
for nearly half its circuit feeds the 
Schramma Ferner, the greatest of the 
glaciers that descends to the Zamser 
Grund. The S. face of the Olperer, seen 
from the upper end of the Zamser Grund, 
seems hopelessly inaccessible, and the 
Js W. face, fronting the Wildlahnerthal, 
presenting excessively steep snow- slopes, 
liroken here and there by rocks, is so 
forbidding that no attempt has yet been 
made that way. A sharp arete, descend- 
c. T. 

ing first SE. and then ESE. from the 
summit, and encompassed by the ne%'e 
of the Schramma Ferner, seems to offer 
a more hopeful prospect. The slope of 
the arete is, however, broken by vertical 
rocks which have formed the turning- 
point in two attempts at an ascent. 
Dr. Ruthner's guides led him by a very 
circuitous course. From the slope on 
the NE. side of the Wildlahnerthal 
they ascended diagonally above the Wild- 
lahner Ferner till they reached the ridge 
that divides this from the snowfield 
that is the common source of the Kaserer 
Ferner and the Gefrorne Wand. Thence 
crossing to the head of the basin drained 
by the Schramma Ferner they rounded 
the arete already mentioned, which is 
accessible only at its SE. end. In re- 
turning they took a shorter way, keep- 
ing nearer to the peak of the Olperer, 
and descended, through a very long and 
steep couloir, a vertical height of more 
than 1,500 ft. to reach the Wildlahner 
Ferner. This is easily traversed along 
the rt. (or NE.) side, the opposite por- 
tion being much crevassed. The extreme 
upper end of the Wildlahnerth?! is 
locally known as Hinter Holle, and the 
middle part, below the foot of the gla- 
cier, as Yorder Holle. The couloir, or 
Klamm, of the Hinter Holle, is practi- 
cable only when the snow is moderately 
soft, as otherwise it would cost hours of 
step-cutting. A fine glacier pass may 
be made from the Wildlahnerthal to the 
head of the Falserthal by the Alpeiner 
Ferner, or, -ndthout descending into that 
valley, the traveller may reach the head 
of the Zamser Grund near the Pfitscher 
Joch by traversing the ridge (about 
10,000' ?) between the Fuss-stein proper 
(or SW. peak of the Olperer Fuss-stein) 
and the Alpeiner-Fernerspitz (11,113'). 
The latter is the Schrammaeherspitz of 

The stranger visiting Schmirn is 
strongly advised to mount to the little 
pilgrimage church ' An der kalten Her- 
berg,' g- hr. distant from the village, over- 
looking from the W. side the junction of 
the Wildlahnerthal with the main valley. 

The descent from Schmirn to Staff- 



lacb, scarcely Hhr. distant, is through- 
out very agreeable. A singular contrast 
to the wild scenery through which the 
traveller has passed since leaving Mayr- 
hofen is presented by the railway via- 
duct that crosses the ravine of the 
Schmirn torrent just above its junction 
with that issuing from the Falserthal at 
the village of St. Jodok. Penetrating 
the ridge behind that village that divides 
Schmirn from Fals, the railway traverses 
the Falserbach by a second viaduct, and 
returns at a higher level to the valley of 
the Sill. Less than 1 m. from St. Jodok 
is Sfafflach (§ 49, Rte. A). 

The Falserthal, which joins the 
Schmirnthal at .'^t. Jodok, is a wild 
Alpine glen, containing no villages. As 
mentioned above, a fine pass may be 
effected by the Alpeiner Ferner, which 
closes its upper end, to the Wildlahner- 
thal, and another pass leads by a branch 
of the valley that opens to SE. below 
the Alpeiner Glacier over the ridge 
dividing this from Stein or St. Jakob in 
the Pfitscherthal. There is also a 
track passing over the ridge to the S., 
and then westward along the Vennabach 
to the Brenner. (See § 49, Rte. A.) 

Mr. J. Warner highly recommends a 
pass connecting the Falserthal with the 
head of the Zamser Grund. Starting 
from StafBach with a young guide 
named Anton Strichner, he reached ' a 
very narrow depression S. of the Fuss- 
stein' — apparently the same pass re- 
feiTed to in the last page. ' The double 
view of the ranges of the Stubayer and 
Zillerthaler Alps is most splendid.' 
The descent towards the Zamser Grund 
is quite obvious. 

EorTE D. 


The mountain district lying XW. of 
the Tuxerthal, and extending thence to 
the Inn and the Sill, is sometimes col- 
lectively called Tuxer Gebirge. It is 
penetrated by many valleys, some of 
which run westward towards the Bren- 
ner road, the others northward towards 
the Inn. Though bordered by two of 
the most frequented highways in the 
Alps, these valleys are amongst the most 
unfrequented in the T}Tol. The people of 
the Tuserthal, indeed, often pass by 
the AVattenserthal or the Weerthal to 
Schwaz or Hall, but the foot of a stranger 
rarely treads the green pastures of these 
upland glens For the sake of those 
travellers who love the b;)-ways of the 
Alps, we briefly notice the tracks that 
may be taken by one who would avoid 
the ordinary routes. 

1. By the Navisthal. In ascending 
from Innsbruck to the Brenner Pass 
(§ 49, Ete. A), the opening of the Navis- 
thal is seen on the 1. hand a little beyond 
Matrey, and the church of St. Catharine 
standing on a projecting rock on the site 
of an ancient castle attracts for a mo- 
ment the attention of the traveller. At 
the hamlet of Navis, about H hr. from 
the opening, the valley divides. Mount- 
ing along the eastern branch, there is a 
track passing by the S. side of the 
Kreuzjoch (9, 060'), which either leads to 
Kaserer at the head of the Schmirnthal, 
or, by bearing to the 1., will enable the 
traveller to reach Hinter Tux without 
any considerable descent towards the 
Schmirnthal. For the way thence to 
Mayrhofen see last Ete. 

The main branch of the Naristhal 
mounts to NE. and then turns eastward 
along the N. side of the Kreuzjoch, ter- 
minating at the foot of the Geicrspitz 
(or Schehruck of the maps). This is the 
centre {Knotenpunkt) whence diverge 
several ridges,withas many intermediate 
valleys. On the W. and NW. side the 
drainage runs to the Navisbach ; on the 
N. and NE. to the Wattenserthal ; on 



the E. to one of the lateral glens of the 
Txixerthal ; and on the S W. to the head 
of the Schmirnthal. There is a track 
by the X. side of the Geierspitz that 
descends into the head of the "Watten- 
serthal, and thence, crossing a second 
ridge, attains the glen of the Nasstuxer- 
hach, -which joins the Txixerthal imme- 
diately belovv Lanersbach. The moun- 
taineer may possibly find a more agree- 
able route by ascending the Geierspitz, 
and descending thence to a little lake on 
its E. side, -^vhich sends its torrent to 
join the Tuxerbach, about halfway be- 
tween Hinter Tux and Lanersbach. 

The traveller wishing to reach the 
Innthal fi-om Navis may choose between 
two passes. The more direct leads nearly 
due X. to the head of the Voldererthal ; 
the other, a little longer, is reached by 
following the main branch of the valley 
nearly to its head, and then turning 
northward. The pass leads to the SW. 
branch of the Wattenserthal, locally 
called Molsthal. 

2. B_q the Muhlthal. The Milhlthal 
is a short glen that joins the Sill, near 
a -village of the same name, about 5 m. 
below Matrey. It offers a very circuitous 
route for reaching the Tuxerthal from 
Innsbruck, but may well be taken in the 
way by a traveller willing to devote two 
or three days to the exploration of this 
and the neighbouring valleys. 

Erom the rly. station at Patsch the 
distance to Muhlthal is about 2^ m. 
Ascending for nearly 2 hrs.,the traveller 
reaches the Vigaralp, where the Miihl- 
thalbach forms a fine waterfall. The 
head of the glen is a wild hollow, co- 
vered with scattered blocks, in the midst 
of which are five tarns that feed the tor- 
rent. The pass of the Rosen Joch, on 
the N. side of the lireuzjoch (not to be 
confounded with the summit of the same 
name and nearly equal height that di- 
vides the t-n-o branches of the Navisthal), 
leads to the head of the Voldererthal, 
and the traveller wishing for good night- 
quarters will descend tlirough that valley 
to the Baths of Yolders, or to the village 
on the main road of the Innthal. The 
alternative is to cross the ridge dividing 


I the head of the Voldererthal from the 
j Molsthal, and halt for the night at Wal- 

chen. (See below.) 
I Most travellers, moderately favoured 
! by weather, will prefer to the path 
tbroxigh the Muhlthal the ascent of one 
; or other of the summits on the N. side 
I of that glen, and may combine this with 
[ the track to Volders, The ridge di-viding 
i the Milhlthal from the Inn has tliree 
i summits. At the W. end nearest to 
Innsbruck the Paffecherkofel, in the mid- 
dle the Morgenkopf, and at the E. end 
the Glungetzer. Of these the most fre- 
q-uented is the Patsch rJwfd (7,368'), a 
green summit, easy of access, conspicuous 
in the neighbourhood of Innsbruck. The 
usual coui'se, both for foreign and native 
visitors, is to start from, and retiu-n to 
that city, the excursion taking about 8 
hrs., exclusive of halts. A carriage- road 
goes as far as Lavs (Inn : Wilder Mann), 
a village lying S. of Schloss Amras, at 
the WNW. foot of the mountain. The 
shorter and steeper way is by Sis- 
trans; the easier and more frequented 
path passes by the pilgrimage chapel, 
'zum Heiligen ^Yasser' (3,994'), where 
there is a fair counti-}' inn, for the benefit 
of those who would reach the summit 
for sunrise. The summit, reached in 
little more than 2 hrs. from the inn, is 
overlooked by many higher peaks to the 
E. and SE. Yet its position is so favour- 
able that the -view is, in some respects, 
superior to that from the Glungetzer. 
i The eye wanders along the Innthal, from 
I Telfs to Schwaz, with the bold limestone 
I ranges that bound it on the N. side, 
over the greater part of the Lowfr 
Wippthal, thi'ough which the locomotive 
now drags its burden across the central 
chain of the Alps, and ascending along 
I the Stubaythal rests on the snow}' peaks 
that enclose its upper branches. 

An active mountaineer would probably 
have no difficulty in reaching the peak 
of the Glungetzer (8,781') by passing 
along the connecting ridge over the sum- 
mit of the Morgenkopf, but the mountain 
is usually approached from the Yoldorer 
Bad. In addition to the horizon of the 
Patscherkofel, the x-iew include-s a great 



part of the Zillerthal Alps and part of 
tlu' High Tauern. On the E. side an 
easy descent leads to the Schafferhiitte, 
also known as Feld-Alm, above theYol- 
dererthal, whence a good path leads to 
the Baths mentioned below. A traveller 
wishing to return to the Brenner road 
should follow a SE. coiirse in descending 
the mountain, so as to reach the Vol- 
derertlial near its head, and thence, 
crossing the pass that divides that valley 
from Navis, he could descend in the 
afternoon to 3Iatrey. 

3. By the VoldercrthaL The second- 
ary valley which opens to the S. atVol- 
ders in the Innthal is referred to in § 43, 
Kte. B, and repeatedly alluded to in con- 
Bection with the valleys above described. 
It does not afford a direct route from 
Innsbruck to the Tuxerthal, but it is the 
only one of the valleys of the district 
here described that offers to the stranger 
tolerably comfortable quarters. In en- 
tering the valley at Volders the traveller 
passes beneath two ancient castles. The 
torrent has cut a deep channel, and the 
path ascends rather steeply above the rt. 
bank to attain the Volderer Bad, a mi- 
neral spring, frequented in summer quite 
as much for the oool and agreeable po- 
sition as for its curative properties. As 
already mentioned, the upper end of the 
valley^is connected by passes of no difS- 
ctilty with the Miihlthal, the Navisthal, 
and'the MolsthaL or SW. branch of the 
Wattenserthal. The most direct way to 
the Tiixerthal and Mayrhofen is by Wal- 
chen, at the junction of the two branches 
of the Wattenserthal. 

4. By the Wattrnserthal. From Wat- 
tens, on the S. side of the Inn, near the 
rly. station of Eritzens, the traveller may 
enter the Wattenserthal, an upland glen 
that penetrates deeply into the mass of 
the Tuxer Gebirge, and offers a more 
direct way for the pedestrian going from 
Innsbruck to Lanersbach or ^layrhofen 
than those above noticed, and is on that 
account somewlmt frequented by the 
Tuxerthal people. The distance from 
Wattcns lO the uppermost end of the 
valley, where it terminates at the NW. 
base of the Geierspitz, is counted 6 

hrs.' walk. About halfway the main 
torrent of the valley, which preserves a 
direction somewhat W. of N., is joined 
by a tributary from the Mohthal, a la- 
teral glen, connected bj passes with 
Navis and the head of the Voldererthal. 
At the junction is Walchen, where, along 
with a few scnnhutten, there is a rough 
mountain inn for the accommodation of 
the Tuxerthal passengers. The highest 
Alp in the main branch of the valley is 
Lizum. A sinuous path, whose ultimate 
direction is due W., leads thence to the 
head of a glen called Xass Tux, whose 
torrent joins the Tuxerbach, a short way 
below Lanersbach. 

5. By the Kolsassthal. The way 
through the Wattenserthal is more di- 
rect for a passenger boimd for Laners- 
bach than that now noticed, but if MavT- 
hofen be the traveller's destination, 
he will do better to follow the course 
of the Inn from Innsbruck to Weer. 
I The village inn here is frequented by 
I Zillerthal people, and a traveller may 
I here seciu'e a guide on more reasonable 
j terms than they usually exact. Weer 
stands at the opening of the Kolsassthal 
— sometimes called Wetrthal — whose 
stream is said to contain gold-dust. Eor 
a distance of about 4 hrs.' walk this 
mounts about due SE. — the Gilfertsberg 
(8,201') rising steeply on the NE. side. 
At its upper end the valley bends to the 
rt. towards its head, which lies some- 
what W. of S. It is necessary to follow 
this upper reach of the valley for a short 
distance before beginning to ascend its 
eastern slope to the pass leading to Mayr- 
hofen through the Zldavthal. The path 
follows the torrent through the latter 
glen to its junction with the Ziller, ^m. 
below Mayrhofen. If the traveller were 
to cross the ridge on the E. side of the 
Kolsassthal too near to the Grilfertsberg, 
he would find himself at the head of the 
Finsiiigthal, and following its torrent — 
the Pankrazenbach — would be led to 
Uderns, in the Lower Zillerthal, many 
miles distant from 3Iayrhofen. 

Eurther information as to the valleys 
mentioned in this Rte. will be thank- 
fully received. 





Gerlos . 
Krimml . 
Kasern . 
Taufers . 
Bruneck . 





. S 



. & 


. 3h 


. 3i 


. 3 




Frequented footpath, rough between Krimml 
and Kasern ; char-road fi'om St. Valentin to 
Bruneck. The distances are reduced a little 
below the usual estimate, but, in the \\Titer's 
opinion, that between Krimml and Kasern is 
Btill somewhat too great. The writer has 
carried his own knapsack from St, Valentin, 
nearly 1 hr. below Kasern, to Zell in l-5i hrs., 
exclusive of halts, reaching Krimml in Si hrs.' 
steady, but not fast, walking, including some 
delay by the way, and at the top. 

The route here described, which lies 
exactly along the eastern boundary of 
the district included in this section, is 
undoubtedly one of the most interesting 
that can be chosen by a traveller, who 
shuns glacier expeditions, for crossing 
the main chain of the TjtoI Alps. Ex- 
cept in xevy bad weather, the passage of 
the Krimmler Tauern is quite free from 
risk and difficulty, and in clear weather 
it does not even require the assistance of 
a local guide. There is no rock scenery 
on the way so impressive as that in the 

lower part of the Zemmthal, described 
in Ete. B, but the scenery is throughout 
very pleasing, and in some places beauti- 
ful ; while on the way, without the trouble 
of a detour, one of the finest, perhaps 
the finest, waterfall in the Alps offers 
an additional inducement. The distance 
can be conveniently accomplished in 2|- 
days, sleeping at Krimml and Stein- 
haus, but is rather too much for 2 days, 
even when taken from the S. side. The 
track over the Krimmler Tauern was at 
one time used for beasts of burden, and 
there seems to be no reason why a lady 
should not ride over it, dismounting in 
the steeper places, if it were possible to 
obtain a thoroughly reliable horse op 
mule; but the writer has little confidence 
in the fitness of the animals usually to 
be found in Tyrol for rough, steep, and 
slippery mountain-paths. 

The way from Zell to the Durlosboden 
is described in Ete. B. Soon after pass- 
ing a signal that marks the boundary 
between Tyrol and Salzburg, the traveller 
ascending from G-erlos sees a finger-post 
pointing to a track on the rt. hand that 
leads to Krimml over the Pinzgauer 
Platte (about 5,600'). As the name in- 
dicates, this is a flat ridge, with here and 
there a scattered tree, from whose eastern 
verge the traveller gains a long vista 
through the Pinzgau, with several peaks 
of the Tauern range on the rt., and the 
Kitzbiihel Alps to the 1., reminding him 
of the view of the Ehone valley from 
the Forclaz above Martigny. The path 
is good and frequently passed by ladies 
on horseback. The pedestrian rnay with 
advantage make a slight detour to the 
summit of the PlattcnJcogl (6,659'). This 
is the green eminence seen on the rt. 
hand forming the northern end of the 
ridge dividing the Wilde G-erlos- from the 
Krimmler- Thai. The way is to turn 
from the regular track close to a senn- 
hutte where passing travellers regale 
themselves with milk and cream. The 
mountain is perfectly easy, and in clear 
weather even a novice will in 1 hr., 
very easy walking, reach the summit. 
A wooden monument in somewhat di- 
lapidated condition is designed to com- 


mcmorate the visit of the Archbishop 
of ."Salzburg iu 1838. In addition to thf 
view of the Pinzgau and Krimmlerthal, 
he here gains several of the peaks and 
ghiciers of the Reioheuspitz group, and 
the noble pyramidal summit of the Drei- 
herrnspitz shows to great advantage. In 
descending, the regular track from Grerlos 
to Krimral may be regained about 2 m. 
from Krimml, so that the detour need 
not cost much more than 1 hr. The 
bridle-track descends the rather steep 
slope towards Krimml in many windings, 
through a wood composed of birch and 
alder, and in little more than 3 hrs. 
from Grerlos the traveller reaches 

Krimml (3,584'), a prettily situated 
village on the W. slope of the valley, 
about 200 It. above the level of the tor- 
rent. Kerschdorfer's inn, sometimes 
overcrowded, supplies very fair accom- 
modation. The charges for guides and 
horses are high, except that for a guide 
to the Falls. The best guide for mountain 
ascents is Josef Hock (there is another 
inferior Hock), and Matth, Poltiacher 
second. Krimml is connected with "Wald 
(about 4 m. distant) by a good road, so 
that travellers bound for the Pinzgau 
(Kte.B) lose little time by taking this way 
if a vehicle be forthcoming; but as only 
two or three are to be had here it is pru- 
dent to write or send in advance to secure 
one. The great object of attraction is the 
Watfrfall of the Krimmler Ache. This 
includes three separate falls, whose col- 
lective height is 1,478 ft. In approach- 
ing Krim7nl by the path from Gerlos, 
they are all seen at the same time, which 
is not the case from any spot near at 
hand. The traveller who wishes without 
loss of time to see all the falls from 
the most favourable points of view does 
well to take a guide. If bound for the 
Krimmler Tauern, he may visit them on 
the way with little loss of time, but if 
intending to return to Krimml, he should 
allow 2^ hrs. for the excursion, supposing 
him to ascend to the summit of the up- 
permost Ml. The track leading to the 
Tauern — known as the Tauernweg — en- 
ters the pine-forest which clothes the 
slopes of the valley, and about f m. 

from the village crosses to the rt. bank 
of the Krimmler Ache. The increasing 
roar of the waters, which is already 
heard long before reaching Krimml, an- 
nounces the near approach to the lower 
fall. A guide-post ' zum Wasserfall' 
indicates the path which in 3 or 4 
minutes leads to it. To see it to perfec- 
tion it is well to cross a wooden bridge 
and approach as near to it on the 1. bank 
as the clouds of dense spray will permit. 
The mass of water, after springing over 
the upper ledge, strikes a mass of pro- 
jecting rock, and is shattered into m^-riads 
of water-rockets. It is well to carrj- an 
umbrella, for partial protection from the 
spray, and those who fear a chill will 
not linger long near the fall. Peturning 
to the Tauernweg, which is paved "with 
huge blocks of gneiss, the traveller 
moimts through the forest, accompanied 
by the hollow roar of the waters, now 
rising, now falling, as he approaches or 
recedes fiom the raging torrent. To get 
a favourable view of the second requires 
a considerable detour, and most persons 
content themselves with looking down 
upon it from the Jagersprung. At that 
spot the Tauernweg approaches the verge 
of the precipitous rocks above the tor- 
rent, and is guarded by rough pine-stems, 
to prevent cattle from falling over. The 
name of the spot is derived from the 
story of a hardly pressed poacher laden 
with a chamois, who attempted to escape 
his pursuers by a desperate leap, and 
was lost in the gulf below. Looking over 
the verge, the traveller descries little save 
a whirl of spray and foam driven upward 
by gusts of cold wind: of the roaring and 
howling waters scarcely an^-thing is seen. 
Over the wild scene, when the sun looks 
down upon it, the rainbow hangs sus- 
pended in a nearly complete circle. On 
reaching a hut that stands on a narrow 
shelf of level ground, the traveller sees 
a path to the rt., and a2:ain leaves the 
Tauernweg for a few minutes to visit 
the uppermost fall, by far the most re- 
markable, as its absolute height is about 
700 ft. Taking into account its con- 
siderable volume, which is maintained 
in stimmer by the outflow of numerous 



glaciers, this is certainly not surpassed 
by any in Europe. It is advisable to 
cross to the 1. bank by a wooden bridge 
and clamber over the moss-grown blocks 
tliat border the torrent at the foot of the 

Eeturning to the main track, the travel- 
er follows its windings that lead away 
a-om the waterfall, and then after about 
f hr. return to the rt. bauk just above 
it. The softened roar of the waters, 
and the never-ceasing cloud of spray 
that hangs above the forest, mark its 
position, and in the background is a 
pleasing view of Krimml and its little 
valley, enclosed on the N. side by the 
range connecting the Thorhelm with the 
Rettenstein. Passing through a narrow 
but short defile — a sort of portal to the 
upper valley — the track enters the upper 
level of the Krimmlerthal, which offers 
a singular contrast to the scenery just 
left behind. For a distance of about 
5 m. this upland glen stretches nearly 
at a level between mountains of gentle 
nearly uniform slope, while the peaceful 
torrent meanders through the Alpine 
meadows. Not much is seen of the 
higher peaks on either side. The most 
conspicuous is the Huttelflialspitz {9.7 0-i') 
— corruptl}"- Hinthalspitz— one of the 
highest points in the range dividing 
Krimml from Sulzbach. The geologist 
will remark the vast amount of debris 
excavated by torrents from the crystal- 
line slates that constitute the prevailing 
rock in this valley. Sonklar has called 
attention to a steep pile of debris, about 
1,000 ft. in height, brought down by a 
single small torrent from the last-men- 
tioned mountain. It overhangs the E. 
side of the valley a little way above the 
highest waterfall. In about 3^ lirs. the 
traveller ascending from Krimml reaches 
the Tauernhaus (5,235'), standing be- 
side a group of sennhiltten, a mere hut 
often filled at night bypassing peasants. 
It is a most undesirable stopping-place 
for the night, but a pleasant spot for a 
halt to hmch. From the opposite or 
western side, the Rcdnbach torrent de- 
scends from the Rtkhenspitz (10,866'), 
and forms a very picturesque waterfall, 

reached from hence in rather more than 
1 hr. The imaginary Zillerspitz, said 
to be 19 ft. higher than the Reichenspitz, 
and placed S. of the latter at the source 
of the Rainbach, is one of the many 
blunders of the Austrian Kataster. 

For about ^ hr. the Tauernweg as- 
cends gently along the rt. bank of the 
main torrent to the Unlass Alp (5,589'), 
where the Windbach from the WSW. 
joins the Krimmler Ache. Here the 
great peaks that enclose the head of the 
Krimralthal, which for some time have 
been coming into view, form a curve, 
concave to NW., extending E. and NE. 
from the 

Bt'cihcrrnspitz (11,494'), through the 
Simonys'pitz (11,180'), to the Hmter- 
Maurerkopf (10,701'), and thence 
northward to the Schliefer spitz (about 
10,580'?). In the centre the Krimml 
Glacier, also known as Prcttaucr- 
glctbcher, descends into the head of the 
valley after receiving several tributary 
ice-streams. It is extremely steep and 
much crevassed. The writer is not 
aware that any serious attempt has 
been made to reach Pregratten in the 
Virgenthal (§51, Rte. G.) over the ridge 
that divides the Krimml- from the 
Maurer-gletscher. On the N. side flank 
of the Dreiherrnspitz hangs tlie Purlox- 
gletscher, a rather large glacier of the 
second order, which does not descend to 
the level of the valley. West of this is 
a relatively deep gap in the transverse 
ridge connecting the Dreiherrnspitz with 
the Fcldspitz (9,637') in the main range 
of the Zillerthal Alps. This gap is 
called Birnlilcke. Its height, according 
to the Kataster, is 9,018 ft., but is 
given as only 8,491 ft. on the far more 
reliable axithority of Sonklar, who has 
fixed on this as the dividing-point be- 
tween the ranges of the High Taiiern 
and Zillerthal Alps, Considering that 
it is in some degree an arbitrary matter 
to fix the precise point in the connect- 
ing ridge that shall separate adjoining 
mountain groups, and the fact that the 
ridge in question is apparently impas- 
sable at the Birnliicke, the writer has 
adhered to the Krimmler Tauern pass 



§ 50. 


as the most eligible boundary. The 
way to it turus to the rt. from the 
Unlass Alp, and mounts through the 
lateral glen of the Windbach, command- 
ing at first very fine views of the above- 
named peaks and glaciers. Trees gra- 
dually disappear, and the slopes are 
more and more covered with scattered 
blocks. The stems of the creeping pine 
(P. mughus) writhe over the rocky slope, 
alternating witli the rhododendron, and 
the last cembra pine-stems are seen 
beside the highest sennh'utte. From 
the upper end of the Windbachthal a 
steep asjcent of 1 hr. leads to the summit 
of the 

Krimmlcr Tauern (9,071')- ^^ the 
autumn the snow-slope on the N. side 
is of slender dimensions, and as it is by 
no means steep, it opposes no serious 
diiSculty at any time. A few posts 
help the solitary traveller to find his 
way when the clouds lie low. The 
ancient mule-path, which lay farther 
west, over what is now called the Alte 
Tauern, was abandoned, owing to the 
formation of a small glacier on that 
part of the ridge. The present pass is 
but a slight depression in the transverse 
ridge spoken of above, which forms the 
natural link between the Zillerthal and 
High Tauern Alps. The view towards 
the S. is extremely interesting. The 
SW. prolongation of the Tauern range, 
which on one side bounds the upper 
Ahrenthal, is spread out before the 
traveller, rivalling in height, and in the 
extent of its glaciers, the opposite range 
of the Zillerthaler Alps. 

Commencing with the Dreiherrnspitz, 
the chief peaks are the Bosshuf 
(11,483'?), Virgcljoch{lO,%l^'),Eodts2>iiz 
(11,459'), or Weletz, Gross Glockhaus 
(10,546'), Affenthalspitz (10,103'), Hir- 
banock (9,854'), and Grvss Limbeck 
(10,325'), terminating in the Oher Stein- 
erholm (8,040'), above Luttach. A 
great part of the Upper Ahrenthal is 
also seen from the pass and during the 
descent. The slope on the S. side is 
steeper and more continuous than on 
the Krimml side, but the track is tole- 
rably well marked, and quite free from 

' difficulty. About 2 hrs. suffice for the 
descent to Kasern (5,181'), the first in- 
habited place in the Ahrenthal, through 
\ which lies the remainder of the way to • 
( Bruneck. This is one of the most con- 
' siderable lateral valleys in Tyrol, being 
fully 30 m. in length, and containing 
many populous villages. From its head 
j to Luttach, a distance of 18 m., it de- 
' scends from ENE. to WSW. parallel to 
the main range of the Zillerthal Alps 
; and the western extremity of the Tauern 
' chain ; but below Luttach its torrent 
! flows SSE. through an opening between 
: the latter and the Miihlwalder range to 
the W. Entering a much wider channel 
! at Taufers, and receiving two conside- 
i rable affluents, the stream descends 
nearly due S. to Bruneck. The in- 
convenient Tyrolese custom of applying 
different names to different portions of 
the same valley holds here. The upper 
portion, as far as the defile above St. 
Peter, is called Frettau, the middle 
part alone — from St. Peter to Luttach — 
is locally known as Ahrenthal, and the 
lower part from Luttach to Bruneck en 
is known as Tauferen-thal. The name 
Ahrenthal is here used to designate the 
entire valley, as being the most widely 
known, and that adopted in the best 
j The inn at Kasern was formerly a 
mere Tauernhaus, and certainly inferior 
to the humble inn at St. Valentin, but 
the writer is informed that the former 
is now to be preferred. Anton Abner, 
of Kasern, is said to be a competent 
guide. The traveller who has started 
in good time from Krimml may well 
pxish on to Steinhaus. A little above 
Kasern is the ancient chui'ch of Heiligen 
Geist, perched upon a rock, to avoid 
avalanches. To encourage travellers, 
it is announced that the cemetery here 
is for the benefit of those who perish in 
crossing the Tauern. In the adjoining 
mountain is a mine, producing copper 
ore of excellent quality. The entrance 
to the shafts is in the little glen (called 
Eodtthal) opposite Kasern. In the 
Rodtthal is a considerable peat-bog, 
, more than 6,000 ft. above the sea. 



producing much fuel for the miners. 
A descent of ^ hr. takes the traveller 
from Kasern to 

Si. ValentiJi (4,581'), the highest vil- 
lage in. Prettau, a naturally poor spot, 
but kept in some relative prosperity by 
the adjoining mines. Here begins the 
road, though narrow, tolerably well 
kept ; but the chance of finding a vehicle 
anywhere above Steinhaus is uncertain. 
Instead of following the main valley, the 
traveller may cross the Bretterscharte 
(§ 51, Ete. 31), and so reach Taufers 
through the Rainthal. There is scarcely 
a hovise on the way between St. Valentin 
and the next village. The road enters a 
narrow defile forming the lower limit of 
Prettau, on issuing from which it reaches 

St. Peter (3,939'), about 3 m. from 
St. Valentin. A guide named Anton 
Eauchenbichler is to be heard of here. 
The church is conspicuous from a dis- 
tance, on a lofty rock. Descending 
gently, for rather more than 3 m., 
through the open valley, which here 
shows no striking featiu'es, the traveller 

St. Jakob (3,929'). The way from 
this village to Zell over the Horndl 
Pass, is noticed in the next Ete. The 
Hirbanock (9,854'), a summit com- 
manding a very fine panoramic view, 
and rising SE. of St. Jakob, may pro- 
bably be reached from this side (see 
§ 51, Ete. M). The still higher peak of 
the G-ross Diirreck (10,325') is also 
•within reach, but no notice of the ascent 
has reached the writer. Paul Kaiser 
and Michael Oberhollenzer of St. Jakob 
are recommended as guides. About 2 
m. lower down the Ahrenthal is 

Steinhaus (3,454'), with an inn, said 
to be the best in the valley, which 
affords a convenient stopping-place on 
the way from Krimml to Bruneck. It 
would also serve as a starting-point for 
exploring expeditions among the high 
peaks that enclose the valley. A pass — 
said to be difficult — may be effected from 
hence to the Stillup Grund (Ete. B), by 
the Keilbach Gletscher, on theE. side of 
the Keilbachspitz (10,169'). By that 
way Mayrhofen may be reached in 10^ 

hrs., exclusive of halts. Continuing his 
journey along the main valley, the tra- 
veller, in J hr. from Steinhaus, reaches 
St. Johaim (3,329'), and about 1 m. 
farther St. Martin (3,263'), the prin- 
cipal church of the upper valley. A 
little farther, on the opposite, or NE., 
side of the valley, the smelting-works of 
Arzbach, where the copper ore from the 
mines is reduced, are conspicuous. Up 
to this point the valley has been nearly 
straight, and for many miles has pre- 
served an uniform gentle slope. The 
road, which below St. Peter keeps con- 
stantly to the rt. bank, has traversed 
numerous torrents that descend through 
short steep glens from the main range 
of the Zillerthal Alps. Some of these 
no doubt lead to practicable passes over 
that range, that remain to be explored 
by competent mountaineers. Now the 
1 torrent of the valley {Ahrenbach). swollen 
: by the contributions of many tributaries, 
j bends rapidly to the 1., and soon flows 
through a defile that leads SSE., at rt. 
angles to its previoiis coiu'se. Just 
beyond the turn of the valley, the road, 
after passing the Weissenbach, reaches 

Luttach (3,140'), a prosperous village, 
with an inn in a large stone house. [The 
traveller may here diverge from the 
direct way and make an interesting 
detour by the glen of the Weissenbach, 
which descends from the W. into the 
valley just above the village. It con- 
tains the small village of Weissenbach 
(4,312'), with the very ancient church 
of St. Jakob, well deserving a visit for 
its early German architecture, and the 
remarkable stone carving of the altar. 
Above the village the glen divides, and 
both branches doubtless deserve to be 
explored. The eastern branch originates 
on the E. side of the Thurnerkamp, 
while the torrent of the western branch 
apparently springs from a glacier on 
the ridge connecting that peak with the 
Mosele. Instead of returning to Luttach, 
the traveller may traverse the LapfU' 
cher Jock (7,763'), between Weissenbach 
and Lappach, or choose the somewhat 
easier pass of the Miihlwalder Joch 
{1,1QT) leading to Miihlwald (Ete. G).] 



Below Luttach the valley is narrowed 
to a dotile which separates the upper 
valley from the lower portion, locally 
called Taufererthal, The scenery is 
very picturesque for a distance of about 
3 m., when the road, passing under the 
ancient castle, enters the basin of Tau- 
fcrs. This lies in the intersection with 
the main valley of a transverse that 
crosses it neai'ly at rt. angles. To the 
ENE. is the Eainthal (§ 51, Ete. M), 
parallel to the upper Ahrenthal, and in 
the opposite direction the Miihlwalder- 
thal (further noticed in Rte. G). Five 
villages or hamlets lie near together in 
thissmilingbasin: Sand,Tai/fers(2,SSo'), 
a.ndJMi(hlen on the rt, bank, Moritzeii and 
Kematcn on the 1. bank— all but the 
last belonging to the commune of Tau- 
fers. There are several inns, the best 
of which is said to be at Sand. On the 
8. side of the Eainbach, close to its 
junction with the Ahrenbach, is Winkd, 
where there is a little-frequented mine- 
ral spring with a decent inn. The most 
striking object at Taufers is the Burg, 
or ancient castle, built on the steep slope 
E. of the narrow defile leading to Lut- 
tach. Its grey towers and machicolated 
walls extending for a considerable dis- 
tance above the base of the hill, and 
backed by the sno'ny summits of the 
Mostnock range, form a striking picture. 
The lords of this castle, who, by means 
of a wall and gateway, literally held the 
keys of the Ahrenthal, were people of 
note in the 12th and 13th centuries. 
Since the old line died out the strong- 
hold has passed through many hands. 
It is still partly habitable. Besides the 
castle, there are several curious old 
houses in this part of the Taufererthal 
which at one time or other have been 
the seat, of noble families. The church 
of St. Catharine at Miihlen is the most 
ancient in the Taufererthal. Its organ 
is in local repute. About 3 m. S. of 
Miihlen is 

UttcJiheim, with a picturesque old 
castle on a rock, less extensive but still 
more ancient than that of Taufers. It 
is reached by a very steep path, partly 
by steps cut in the rock. Nearly 3 m. 

farther the road passes opposite to Gais 
(2,732'), a village on the 1, bank of the 
Ahrenbach. Here the geologist will 
observe one of the most striking ex- 
amples of the vast extent of the masses 
of transported matter brought down by 
the torrents in this district. Gais stands 
at the junction of the ]Miihlbaeh, an 
unimportant torrent issuing from the 
Miihlbacherthal which drains a small 
part of the Alps above Antholz (§ 51, 
Ete. L). The mass of transported mat- 
ter brought down into the main valley, 
and not washed downwards by the 
Ahrenbach, forms a hill about 600 ft. 
! in height, and covers a space not much 
1 less than a square mile. The charming 
scenery of the Taufererthal has perhaps 
gained in interest and variety by the 
insertion of these green promontories 
that almost bar across the main valley 
and make it resemble a succession of 
separate basins. The last place in the 
valley of any note is St. Georgen (2,710'), 
less than 2 m, from 
Bnmeck (§ 51, Ete. A). 



The tracks leading from Zell to the 
Brenner road through the western 
branches of the Zillerthal have been 
noticed in Etes, B and C, and in the 
last Ete. is described the course ordi- 



Tiarily taken by travellers bound for the 
Ahrentlial. A much more direct way to 
the upper part of the same valley may 
be found by crossing one or other of 
the passes that are connected with the 
eastern branch of the valley of the Zil- 
ler. which for about 10 m. preserves the 
name Zillerthal. This tract is some- 
times called Ziller Grund, but that name 
properly belongs only to the uppermost 
eastern branch of the Upper Zillerthal. 
It is not likely that this course will 
];e generally preferred to the way by 
Ivrimml, with its deservedJy famous 
waterfall, but it may sometimes be con- 
venient to a traveller pressed for time, 
or for one who wishes merely to make 
an excursion from Zell, going one way 
and returning the other. If the latter 
be the object in view, it will be best to 
go from Zell by Ivrimml, sleeping on 
the second night either at St. Peter or 
Steinhaus. In approaching the passes 
mentioned below from theN. side, he may 
sleep at Mayrhofen, but rough quarters 
for the night may be found at Haisling. 
1 . By the ITorndl Pass. 1 1 hrs. from 
jMayrhofen to St. Jakob. As mentioned 
in Rte. B, the junction of the Ziller with 
theZemmbach is but a few minutes' walk 
from Mayrhofen. The stream of the 
Ziller is here used to drive a garnet 
mill — one of the largest of the many in 
this neighbourhood. Garnets are ex- 
ceedingly common in the mica schist of 
both branches of the valley, and the 
preliminary process of cleansing the 
stones from their outer crust and roughly 
rounding them is performed here, Tliey 
are then sent to Bohemia to be polished 
and set in ornaments that pass under 
the name of Vienna jewellery. The 
lower end of the upper valley into 
which the traveller now enters is con- 
tracted, and the path mounts steeply 
above the rt. bank of the torrent till it 
attains the upper level, which stretches 
upwards with an uniform and moderate 
slopie for several miles. Urcvidherg and 
Haidiiig (poor inn), the highest villages, 
arc left on the slope of the mountain to 
the 1. hand, and the track follows the 
stream till, about 3 hrs. from Mayrhofen, 

it crosses a wooden bridge at the base 
of an eastern buttress of the Ahornspitz. 
Eather more than 1 hr. above the bridge, 
the traveller, following the track by the 
1. bank, reaches the junction of the two 
torrents that form the Ziller. The E. 
branch flows from the Ziller Griind — the 
S. branch from the Sonder Grund. 
Through the latter lies the way to the 
Horndl Pass (8,366')- Though steep and 
rough, the path is pretty v/ell marked, as 
this pass is that usually taken by the Zil- 
lerthal people bound for the Ahrenthal, 
or Bruneck, and in fine weather a guide 
may not be absolutely necessary. At 
the junction of the torrents is a hut, 
* In der Au.' originally intended for shel- 
ter for chamois-hunters. Thence to the 
summit, erroneously reported to be 
covered by a small glacier, is reckoned 
as a walk of 4 hrs. Though consider- 
ably lower than the Krimmler Tauern, 
this is better situated for a view of the 
Vv'estern Tauern range from the Drei- 
herrnspitz to the Gross Diirreck. The 
steep descent to St. Jakob in Prettau 
may be easily effected in 3 hrs. The 
proper charge for a guide between 
Mayrhofen and St. Jakob is 4 fl., but 
the Zillerthal guides often ask more. 
For the road to Bruneck see last Ete. 

2. By the Kmscharte. This pass 
leads either to St. Peter or St. Valentin, 
at the upper end of the Ahrenthal. 
Though scarcely longer than the last, 
it is said to be a rougher and steeper 
Avay, and it will be prudent to allow 
\ hr. longer time — IH hrs., exclusive 
of halts, from ^lap'hofen to either of the 
above-named villages. Being very rarely 
used, it should not be attempted without 
a guide. 

For rather more than ^ hr. the tra- 
veller follows the path that runs east- 
ward from the hut ' In der Au ' through 
the Ziller Grund. A narrow stony glen 
called Hundskehle then opens to the rt. 
hand, and the path, leaving the Ziller 
Grund, moimts due S. It must be noted 
that the name Hundskehle is also given 
to a high peak rising due N. of the en- 
trance to the glen, and the same name 
is also, but incorrectly, applied to the 



pass. This lies over a depression Jn 
the Korscharte (8,451' Soaklarj on the 
W. side of the Rauchkofd (10,661'). 
The way is extremely rough, lying over 
huge loose masses of stone that cover 
the slopes at the head of the glen. Fur- 
ther information is much desired. 

3. B>^ the Heiligengeist Jochl. 12 hrs. 
fi'om Mayrhofen to Kasern. The finest 
scenery of this branch of the Zillerthal 
is found at the upper end of the Ziller 
Grund, which comes to an end nearly 
2 hrs. above the opening of the Hund- 
skehl, in the centre of an amphitheatre of 
snowy peaks. Though the fact is denied 
in the new edition of Schaubach, there 
is an easy pass leading in 6 hrs. from 
the Kiichelmoosalp, at the head of the 
Ziller Grrund, to Kasern. It is called 
Heiligengeist Jochl, and, being more 
circuitous than the passes above named, 
is little used. The summit (8,309' 
Sonklar) is marked by a cross. Dr. 
Euthner gives the height at 9,676 ft. — 
probably on the unreliable authority of 
the Kataster. 

It will not be forgotten that there is 
a way from Mayrhofen to St. Jakob, 
even more direct than tiiat of the 
Horndl, bv the Keilbaeh Joch at the 
head of the StiUup Grund (Ete. B). The 
objection to that way for a traveller 
starting from ilayrhofen is the fact that 
it would be impossible to reach the neve 
before a comparatively late hour. 




A glacier pass, fit only for practised moun- 

The Miihlwaldertkc/l enters the basin 
of Taufers (Ete. E) immediately oppo- 
site to the Eainthal, and its lower por- 
tion, about 5 m. in length, is e-\ndently 
the western continuation of the trougli 
marked by the latter valley, running 
parallel to the main ranges of the 
neighbouring Alps. It is interesting to 
the mountaineer, as it originates on the 
S. side of the highest peaks of the Zil- 
lerthal Alps, and offers what must be a 
very fine glacier pass to the Zamser 
Grund, through the Schlegeisenthal, with 
the alternative of making the ascent of 
the Mosele, and descending thence into 
the same glen. The scenery of the val- 
ley is so fine that an excursion to its 
head will well reward those who do not 
attempt glacier expeditions. They may 
return to the Ahrenthal by Weiss- 
enbach (Ete. E), or reach Pfunders (Ete. 
H) by a pass mentioned below. 

At the opening of the valley at Miih- 
len, the track, passable for country ve- 
hicles, mounts rather steeply by the 1. 
bank of the torrent, and then for another 
hr. along the nearly level troiigh of the 
vaUey to Muhlvjcdd (3,731'), a village 
scattered over the green floor of the val- 
ley. The modern ch\irch stands on an 
eminence. Here the valley again nar- 
rows and begins to bend gradually to 
the rt. The path, no longer passable for 
carts, ascends through the defile, keep- 
ing still to the 1. bank, and after about 
\^ hr., assumes the NXW. direction, 
which it maintains up to the base of the 
Mosele. Before long the valley opens a 
little, and here stands 

Lappach (4,634'), the highest village, 
with an inn and a good guide named 
Einspacher. No information has reached 
the writer respecting the direct route to 
Ginzling. The pass — called by Sonklar 
Ewis Sattel (9,808')— lies between the 
W. peak of the Mosele and the E. 
summit of the Ewis (1{!,228';. W. of 



the latter is the hip;hest summit of the 
Ewis (10,-il)8'). From Lappach Mr. 
Tuckett ascended tlie Mosele (1 1,315') — 
here called Mciselenock— by one of the 
two glaciers, called Mosele Ferner, at the 
head of the valley. Two summits are 
visible from this side, but the eastern 
peak is tlie higher by about 200 ft. This 
was reached from the saitd between it 
and the Thurnerkamp. The descent on 
the opposite side was much more diffi- 
cult. Keeping at first N., and then NW., 
Mr. T. aud his companions reached in 
2 hrs. the nere of the Furtsckldgel 
Glacier, and in 1 j hr. more quitted this 
by its rt. bank. Following the torrent 
from the g'acier through a short tribu- 
tary glen into the Schlegeisenthal, they 
reached Grinzling (Rte. B) on the same 
evening in lof hrs., exclusive of halts, 
from Lappach. 

As mentioned in Rte. E, there is an 
easy way from Lappach to the Ahren- 
thal over the Lapparhcr Jock (7,763'), 
and along the Weissenbach torrent, 
which joins the Ahrenbach just abov 

Further information is desired as to 
the passes mentioned in this Rte. 

Route H. 

st. jakob in pfitsch to the pusteethai,, 
by the pfundereethai.. 

The range of the Grubachkamm, men- 
tioned in the last Rte., running parallel 
to theMiihlwalderthal, follows a SSE. 
direction from the Napfspitz to the 
Kremspitz (9,354'), and thence extends 
nearly due E. to the BlanJccnstdn 
(7,991') above Uttenheim in the Tau- 

Luttach— reached in 5 hrs. from Lap- j fererthal. The lower portion of the 
pach. By a slight detour the traveller | range divides the lower Miihlwalderthal 

may reach the summit of the Bingel- 
stein (8,363'), on the S. side of the pass. 
It commands a tine view of the Ziller- 
thal Alps. In the opposite direction he 
may reach Pfunders (Rte. H) over the 
Eiegler Joch (7,987'), also called Zesen 
Joch, in about 4^ hrs. from Lappach. 
A rather longer way, through finer 
scenery, is over the Basner Joch (8,407'). 
The track enters the Miihlwalderthal 
about 10 min. below the church at Lap- 

The range enclosing the Miihlwalder- 
thal on the W. and S. sides — called by 
Sonklar the Grubachkamm — diverges 
from the main Zillerthal range on the 
S. side of the Weisszinth (10,841'). Be- 
tween its highest northern peak — Napf- 
spitz (9,465') — and the Weisszinth is a 
comparatively deep cleft in the ridge 


and by that way a pass that promises 

fine scenerv may be made from the head 

of " ~ " ■^" " " 


from the Pusterthal, the upper portion 
separates the upper Miihlwalderthal 
from the parallel valley of Pfunders 
•which joins the Pusterthal at Nieder- 
vintl (§ 51, Rte. A). Like the Miihl- 
walderthal, the Pfundererthal originates 
in the main range of the Zillerthal Alps. 
Its torrent springs from the snows of the 
Hochsdge (9,365'), and receives several 
tributaries that drain the glaciers on the 
S. side of the range connecting that 
summit with the Weisszinth. A travel- 
ler who, after passing the Pfitscher Joch 
(Rte. B) from Zell, wishes to take a di- 
rect route to the Pusterthal, may well 
select this as the easiest and shortest 
way. Pfunders may also be taken on 
the way from the Ahrenthal by a moun- 
taineer wishing to avoid the lower val- 
leys, who would take Weissenbach, Lap- 

as the £i66mc/-^r ^A^e^ (8,350'), j pach, and Pfunders on his way to St. 

Jakob in Pfitsch. 

Starting from St. Jakob, the traveller 
the Miihlwalderthal to that of the ' has a choice between two passes ; the 
-J .K_i rather more direct, but less fre- 



§ 50. 


quented. steeper and rather higher, lies 
on the E. sido of the IToeli Siiire, and is 
approached by way of Stein. The sum- 
mit is 8,698 ft. above the sea. On the 
S. side it is necessary to follow a SW. 
course until the main torrent at the 
head of the Pfundererthal is reached. 
' Here this rarely used track joins the 
more frequented path over the Drass 
Joch. This is approached from Kema- 
ten (Rte. B), 1 hr. below St. Jakob. The 
path aseends a little S. of E. through 
the tributary glen called Drassberg, and 
attains in 3 hrs. the summit o± the 

Drass Joch (8,422'), known on the S. 
side as Pfunderer Joch. It lies on the 
N. side of a summit called Sand joch 
(9,696'), which name is sometimes in- 
correctly given to the pass. 

In descending it is necessary to bear 
to the 1., somewhat N. of E.. to follow a 
torrent that descends towards the Hoch 
Sage, and then bends abruptly to the rt. 
and joins several other streams from that 
mountain to form the main torrent of 
the Pfundererthal. The valley is some- 
what sinuous, biat does not widely di- 
verge from the ruling direction towards 
SSE. The highest hamlet is Ban 
(4.830'), at the junction of the Eisbruck- 
erbach, descending from the Weisszinth, 
with the main torrent. In | hr.'s easy 
walking from Dan, or b\ hrs. from Ke- 
maten, the traveller reaches 

Pfunders (3,791'), the chief place in 
the valley, a picturesque village, with two 
very poor inns ; that near the church on 
the rt. bank of the stream seems px-efer- 
able. The passes leading to the Mlihl- 
walderthal are noticed in the last Rte. 
There is also a pass on the W. side of the 
valley, leadingfrom Pfunders to the upper 
part of the Valserthal (Rte. I). From 
hence, or Weitenthal, the traveller may 
ascend the Eidcchsherg (8,975'), locally 
called Hegedex, This crowns a project- 
ing ridge that extends to SW. from 
the Grubachspitz. and is said to com- 
mand a remarkably fine view. 

If bound for the Pusterthal, the tra- 
veller will follow the path along the E. 
side of the valley. Below Pfunders this ; 
is contracted to a narrow defile, said 

to be dangerous in bad weather, owing 

to falling bloi'ks. A fine waterfall 

I is passed, and in about 1 m. the valley 

widens out, and for nearly 1 hr. the path 

runs straight along the level floor to 

Weitenthal, near the footof theEidechs- 

j berg. Thence, amid agreeable scenery, 

' the traveller descends to Nlcdervindl, on 

I the main road of the Pusterthal (§51 A), 

and finds good accommodation at the 




The way through the Pfundererthal, 
described in the last Rte., is pjossibly 
the shortest way for a pedestrian from 
the Pfitscherthal to the Pusterthal, 
but there is anotlier way by which the 
valley of the Rienz is reached at Miihl- 
bach, a few miles above Brixen, which 
would be convenient for a traveller 
going to that town who shoidd wish to 
avoid the beaten track of the Brenner 
road. This lies through the Valserthal, 
a glen nearly parallel to Pfunders, and 
separated from the valley of the Eisack 
by the Eltzeilkainm, a short range 
which at first extends southward from 
the Wildkreuzspitz, but turns to SSE. 
when it approaches the junction of the 
Eisack with the Rienz. The mountain- 
eer may be more readily tempted to 
choose this route as he may take on the 
way the summit of the Wildkretizspitz 
(10,271')- As mentioned in Rte. B, 
there is a pass leading from Pfitsch to 
Vals by the SW. side of that peak, and 
its summit is accessible by the ridge 











1^ 3S - '<« ^ ^ «'« ^'^ :y"x. 

V ^«,.S« ^ ' ? 




that descends thence towards the pass. 
The simiiuii may be reached in 4 hrs. 
from the Eiirgum Alp, and on rctui-ning 
to a point ntar the summit of the pas.s, 
the traveller may descend to the Wild- 
see, a comparatively large Alpine lake, 
■which is the source of a considerable 
torrent flowing to the Valserthal. The 
principal torrent, however, or at least 
that which flows due S. in the direction 
of the axis of the valley, rises on the S. 
side of the Drass Joch (see last Ete.). 
From the "Wildsee the way lies westward 
for ^ hr. till the stream from the lake 
joins the main torrent, and the com'se 
of the united stream lies thenceforward 
nearly due S. After passing the Pfanna 
Alp the path passes through a strait in 
the valley, and when this opens he finds 
himself near the first houses of Vals. 
The village is scattered over a space of 
nearly 3 m., the church being 4,442 ft. 
above the sea. It is inhabited by a fine 
vigorous race, who have the name of pre- 
serving the simplicity and independence 
of character once universal in Tyrol, 
but now becoming rare there as else- 
where. Mounting through the Eitzeil- 
thal, a path leads over an easy pass to 
Mauls on the Eisack (§ 49, Ete. A). In 
2 lirs. from Yals, descending during the 
latter half of the M'ay through a pictur- 
esque defile, the traveller reaches Miihl- 
bach, on the high road about 6 m. from 
Brixen (§ 51, Ete. A). This vaUey 
must not be confounded with the Falser- 
thai N. of the Brenner Pass, noticed in 
Ete. C, nor with the Valserthal in the 
Grisons (§31, Ete. F). 


Ix the introduction to the last section, 
the eastern limit of the Zillerthal Alps 
was fixed at the pass of the Krimmler 
Tauern ; and it was remarked that the 
range extending eastward from that pass 
for a distance of about 62 miles is the 
longest continuous range, preserving a 
nearly straight course, and unbroken by 
any deep passes, to be found in the 
Alps. To this range, modern G-erraan 
writers have given the name 'High 
Tauern Alps,' and the same designation 
is adopted in the present work, although 
it has not seemed convenient to include 
the entire within a single section. 

Throughout the preceding portions of 
this work, the designation 'main range 
of the Alps' has, in accordance with 
general usage, been applied to what may 
more accui^ately be termed the dividing 
ridge, separating the waters of the 
Adriatic from those flowing in otlier 
directions — i. e. westward to the Medi- 
ten-anean, northward to the North Sea, 
or eastward to the Black Sea through 
the Danube. At its western extremity, 
the High Tauern range touches the 
watershed between the JDanube and the 
Adige ; but as we carry the eye east- 
ward from the Dreiherrnspitz, it will be 
seen that the drainage of the S. side 
of that range all flows to the Drave. 
The circumstance that at a point some 
hiuidreds of miles eastward of its source, 
and far beyond the limits of the Alps, 
the Drave pours its waters into the 
Danube, forms no solid objection to the 
conclusions derived from orography and 
geological structui-e, which alike point 
to the ridges dividing the Danube from 
the Drave, as constituting the main 
range in this portion of the Alps. 

Although a line drawn along the 
watershed from the Dreiherrnspitz to the 
Arlscharte diverges but little from a 
straight line bearing a httle S. of E., 
the reader who has not skipped the brief 
preliminary observations in the preced- 
ing volumes of this work will not ex- 



pect to find here a strictly continuous 
ridge, wliose separate portions preserve 
the same direction as the collective mass. 
Applying the figurative term commonly 
used in most European languages, we 
may say that the Alpine chain is formed 
of large and massive links, alternating 
with others much smaller and shorter. 
To represent the real structure of the 
Alps, we must imagine the larger links 
laid on the ground nearly parallel with 
each other, but in a direction more or 
less transverse to that of the chain it- 
self, and the smaller links placed so as 
to unite the larger at the points where 
these approach most nearly together. The 
•smaller links, elsewhere in this work 
spoken of as dislocations in the main 
range, almost invariably coincide ■nnth 
the lowest and most practicable passes. 
Allowing for some local disturbances, we 
have seen that the dominant direction of 
the separate masses that collectively make 
up the Alpme chain varies little from 
WSW. to ENE. throughout the Western 
and Central Alps, and the greater part 
of Tyrol. The same direction is found 
in the Zillerthal Alps, and again in 
the westernmost of the four groups 
that constitute the High Tauern range. 
Whatever may be the causes that have 
impressed this characteristic over so 
wide a region, they cease to operate at 
the Velber Tauern, which divides the 
western group of the High Tauern from 
the remainino- eastern portion of that 
range. The three groups lying eastward 
of that limit exhibit, both in their se- 
parate ridges and the con-esponding val- 
leys, a manifest tendency towards the 
direction WNW. to ESE., and the 
same direction is recognised throughout 
Carinthia, and in some other adjacent 
portions of the Eastern Alps. For this 
reason, the writer would be disposed, in 
a purely scientific arranarement of the 
Alpine chain, to consider the Velber 
Tauern (8,024'), which is the lowest 
pass over the main range between the 
Brenner and the Arischarte, as marking 
one of its most important divisions. 

In the present work, practical con- 
siderations, depending on the conveni- 

ence of travellers, demand the first con- 
sideration; and it has appeared best to 
include in the present section the two 
dominant groups of Central Tyrol lying 
on either side of the above-named pass. 
The western group, whose best known 
peaks are the Grossvenediger (12,053') 
and the Dreiherrnspitz (11,494'), forms 
the watershed betWL-en the Danube and 
the Drave for a distance of about 14 
m. between the Velber Tauern and the 
Dreiherrnspitz ; but a prolongation of 
its main axis, including many lofty 
summits and numerous small glaciers, 
extends to WSW. parallel to the Ahreii- 
thal for not less than 16 m., its last 
high summit being the Grossmostnock 
(10,036'), E. of Luttach. 

On the E. side of the Velber Tauern 
extends the mass of lofty peaks distri- 
buted among numerous minor ridges, 
which the writer designates collectively 
as the Grlockner group, because it cul- 
minates in the beautiful peak of the 
Grrossglockner (12,455'), the highest 
summit of the Eastern Alps. This 
group is divided from the more easterly 
portions of the Tauern range by the 
Hochthor (8,551'), north of Heiligen- 
blut, which is taken as the eastern limit 
of the district described in this section. 
On the N. side of the range, extending 
from the Krimmler Tauern to the Hoch- 
thor, comparatively short valleys, divi- 
ded by secoudar}- ridges of no great di- 
mensions, descend towards the valley of 
the Salza, described in § 50. The case 
is different on the southern side. Two 
nearly isolated high groups rise on the 
S. side of the main masses already de- 
scribed. To the SW. is the Antholzer 
j group, whose highest peak is the Hoeh- 
gall (11,284'), and some 24 m. farther 
E. is the Schober group, so called from 
its best known summit, the Hochscho- 
ber (10,628'), tliough this is surpassed 
by the Petzeck (10,761'). Somewhat 
S. of the line, joining the Antholzer with 
the Schober group, is the longer, but less 
lofty, range known as the Defcreggen 
j ran^e, whose highest point, the AYeisse 
I Spitz, does not surpass 9,706 ft. As the 
; Defereggen range approaches at its W. 

§ 51. 



end close to the Antholzer Alps, and at 
the opposite end near to Hoelischober, 
It will be seen that the three minor 
groups along with the two loftier masses 
to the N. form a great basin, wherein 
originates one of the most important 
lateral valleys of the Eastern Alps. Tlie 
waters of its four main branches, being 
united in the same channel at Peisch- 
lach, flow to SE. through an opening 
between the Hochschober and the Defer- 
eggen range. 

The district included in this section 
lies between the valley of the Salza on 
the N. and the Pusterthal on the S. 
The western limit is the way from I3run- 
eck to EJrimml, described in the last sec- 
tion ; and its eastern boundary is the path 
from Lienz to Heiligenblut, and thence 
to Bruck, in the Pinzgau, through the 

' The writer, who beyond all others has 
contributed to a complete and accurate 
knowledge of this and the district de- 
scribed in the next section, is Colonel 
V. Sonklar, whose important work, ' Die 
Gebii'gsgruppe der Hohen Tauern,' con- 
tains a mass of accurate information, 
the result of many years' laborious ex- 
ploration, accompanied by observations 
which have made the orography of this 
district more thoroughly known than 
that of any other equally extensive part 
of the Alpine chain. Dr. Euthner, 
Mr. Keil, and other Austrian moun- 
tiiineers, have also contributed much to 
the exploration of the less easily acces- 
sible summits and passes. 

Although the upper valleys of the 
Venediger range offer much fine scenery 
and numerous considerable glaciers, 
there is no single point in that part of 
the district at all equal to Heiligenblut, 
with its one great peak — the Glockner, 
and one great glacier — the Pasterze. 
The preference shown by travellers to 
tliat spot is partly cause and partly ef- 
fect of better accommodation than is to 
be found in most of the other Alpine 
valleys of this district. In this respect 
it is perhaps surpassed by Fusch, where 
very fair quarters are found at the baths 
of St. AYolfgang, and at the village of 

Fusch. Tolerable accommodation is 
now found at Pregratten, and that place 
offers the best resting-place for a moun- 
taineer wishing to explore the S. side of 
the Venediger range. 

While conforming to the usage of re- 
cent German writers who have used the 
designation 'Tauern range' as a geo- 
graphical term, applicable to a certain 
portion of the central chain, the writer 
must express his opinion that no evi- 
dence has been produced to show that 
the word ' Taiiern ' has, or ever had, 
any wider meaning than that given to 
it by the invariable usage of the in- 
habitants of this part of the Alps. By 
them it is strictly confined to the prac- 
ticable passes over the central range 
that connect valleys on the N. side with 
those on the opposite slope ; the solitary- 
exception being in an outlying district 
on the border of Bavaria, where a moun- 
tain (§ 42, Ete. B) bears the name Tauern. 
The writer has little doubt that the ori- 
gin of the word is to be sought in the 
Gothic daur, which assumes the forms 
tur and tiiora in Old High German, toor 
or ttwr in the dialect of the Sette Comu- 
ni, and is scarcely altered in the English 
door. The same root (in Sanskrit dvdr, 
or dur) may be traced throughout the 
cycle of the Indo-Germanie tongues. If 
this view be correct, the use of the term 
in the Eastern Alps is the exact equi- 
valent of ■j)&'rte, applied in the PjTenees 
to the passes over the main range serving 
to connect France with Spain. 

An excellent map of this district on 
a large scale is annexed to Sonklar's 
work already mentioned. Mr. Franz 
Keil, who unites skill as a chartogra- 
pher with a minute knowledge of the 
entire region, has executed, on a still 
larger scale, a separate map of tho 
neighbourhood of the Grossglockner, 
extending from the Pinzgau to Kals and 
Heiligenblut for Dr. Euthner's interest- 
ing volume, ' Aus den Tauern ; ' and 
another, including the Grossvenediger 
group, with portions of the adjoining 
valleys, which is inserted in the second 
volume of the ' Jahrbuch of the Austrian 
Alpine Club.' Another good map oi 



the Pcisterze Glacier and its neighbour- 
liood, hj M. Keil. is given in * Peter- 
mjinn's geographische aNfittheilungen 
for I860.' Sonklar's map "vrill be 
the mountaineer's best companion in 
this district ; but the finest districts are 
included in the map annexed to this 
v«^!ume, and in Keil's map of the Gross- 
venediger group. 

Besides the ancient rough inns found 
6n most of the old-established passes, 
— known as Tauernhaiiser — the moun- 
tJiiiieer in this district finds shelter in 
many interesting l.ut out-of-the-way 
spots, in huts provided by the liberality 
of the Austrian Alpine Club or that of 
private individuals, such as Mr. Stiidl 
and other lovers of the Alps. 










Bruneck . 















Oberdranburg . 















Yillach . 



29J 140 ; 

Railway open. 2 trains each way daily ; one I 
takes 8 hrs., the other 12 hrs. ! 

The road connecting Brixen with Vil- j 
Inch has always been one of the great ' 
lines of communication through the ' 
Alps, but has acquired additional im- \ 
]iortance by the completion of the rail- : 
way between those towns. ] 

Taken together with the line from 
Bruck to Klagenfurt, by the valley of 
the Mur, it opens a direct channel for 
exchanging the mineral treasures of 
Styiia with the silk and corn cf Lom- 

bardy, shorter by at least 1.30 miles than 
the former line by Laybach and Gorizia. 
Of the road here described, only the por- 
tion between Bruneck and Lienz belongs 
to this district, of which it forms the 
southern boundary ; but it appears more 
convenient to unite the whole under a 
single heading. 

For fully three-fourths of the distance 
between Brixen and Villach, the road 
lies through one of those great longitu- 
dinal valleys — running parallel to the 
direction of the main chain, and to the 
line of outcrop of the crystalline rocks — 
which are so characteristic of the Alps 
as compared with other great mountain 
districts. If it be allowable to doubt 
whether such valleys as that of the 
Rhone and Vorderrhein, in Switzer- 
land, that of the Inn from its source 
to Kuffstein, or that of the Adda from 
Bormio to Colico, owe their origin to 
the same causes that have upraised the 
great mountain ranges Avith which they 
are connected, such a doubt is scarcely 
possible in regard to the great valley 
extending from Untervintl to Marburg, 
in Styria, or, at all events, as to its 
upper portion, which terminates near 
Sillian. Although the waters at its 
western end flow towards the Adige, 
while eastward from Innichen they go 
in the opposite direction to the Drave, 
this is so manifestly a single valley that 
it has from a remote period been known 
by the single name — Pusterthal — which 
it still bears. 

It is characteristic of the ignorance 
which until recent times has prevailed 
respecting the higher region of the T}to1 
Alps that geographers should have 
sought the source of the Eisack, or east- 
ern branch of the Adige, in the compara- 
tively insignificant stream that descends 
from the long frequented Brenner Pass, 
instead of preferring the Eienz, whose 
main source is at the W. base of the 
D^'eiherrnspitz, whence it descends to 
Bruneck, bearing the name Ahren- 
bach. Still more perverse was the se- 
lection of the petty torrent that springs 
from the flat between Toblachand Inni- 
chen as the source of the Drave, when 



it is seen that the Isel, -which joins it 
at Lienz, bears do-«-n tenfold the volume 
of water flowing from at least a hundred 
glaciers, and drains four considerable 
Alpine valleys with their numerous la- 
teral branches. 

The structure of the valley above 
Brixen well deserves the attention of 
the physical geologist. A few miles N. 
of the town, the Kisack issues from the 
upper valley, through which it has flowed 
south-eastward from Sterzing, and in 
thp open space below the Franzeusfeste 
it is separated from the Rienz by a nar- 
row isthmus of low ground where the 
streams might be expected to unite. 
The isthmus expands, however, into a 
cumparativeiy higli promontory of crys- 
talline (granite':') rock, round the E. side 
of which the Rienz descends through a 
narrow gorge, while the Eisack flows 
through a more open trough on the op- 
posite side, till the waters are finally 
united at the S. end of the promon- 
tory under the walls of Brixen (§ 49, 
Rte. A). 

The rly. to Villach branches from that 
over the Brenner Pass at l-'ranzensfeste, 
the first station beyond Brixen, and only 
2 m. distant though considerably higher. 
Travellers who desire to see the country 
or to penetrate the lateral valleys will 
not be anxious to use a conveyance 
which offers little advantage in the 
way of saving time, and it 1 lows them 
small opportunity to enjoy the scenery. 
Light vehicles (einspannige Wagen) 
are to be had at all post stations, and 
may usually be hired in the country 

Although the road to Bruneck is des- 
tined to follow the valley of the Rienz, 
it keeps to the rt. bank of the Eisack 
for about 2 m., crossing to the opposite 
side close to the abbey of Neustift. The 
church is richly decorated in the style 
of the last century. The library is said 
to be the richest in Tyrol, and the tra- 
veller may see here the tomb of the 
Minnesanger, Oswald v. Wolkenstein. 

Still keeping near to the Eisack, and 
to the W. side of the rocky promontory, 
the road goes northward to Schahs 


i (2,516'), on the site of the Roman Se- 
batum. The cultivation of the vino 

; ceases, and the last chestnut trees are 

I seen on the low ground between the two 

[The geologist, instead of following 
the road from Brixen to Schabs, will do 
well to take a way, little longer, though 
much rougher, which will enable him to 
study the course of the Rienz. Crossing 
the Eisack at Brixen, close to its junc- 
tion with the Rienz, he should ascend 
to Elms. This stands at the S. end of 
the promontor}', which is so nearly level 
that it may be described as a plateau. 
The church commands a fine view. 
A track leading northward from Elvas 
overlooks the deep cleft through which 
the Rienz descencls from the Pusterthal, 
and the opening of the Liisenthal (§ 60, 
Rte. Gr). Passing some small pools, he 
will rejoin the road at Schabs. The 
botanist taking this walk may gather 
Sempervivu'in arenarium, and other in- 
teresting plants.] Close to Schabs a 
road turns sharply to the W., and leads 
over the Ladritscher Briicke to the 
Brenner road, which is joined under the 
M-alls of the Franzeusfeste. By that 
way travellers coming from Innsbruck 
and Sterzing enter the Pusterthal with- 
out making the circuit by Brixen. The 
road to Bruneck now approaches the 
Rienz, and about 2^ m. N. of Schabs 
crosses the torrent from the Valserthal 

! (§ 50, Rte. I), and enters the village 

Muhlhach (Inn : Sonne, very fair), 
2,542 ft. above the sea. On a terrace 
of the mountain W. of the Valserthal, 
is Spings (3,621'). From this important 
strategic position, held in 1797 by 
General Joubert, with a corps of 30,000 
men, the Tyrolese peasantry drove the 
French foe after two days* desperate 
fighting. At a still higher level, on the 
opposite side of the Valserthal, is 
Meransei\ (4,645'), reached by a path so 
steep as to deserve the local name 
' Katzenleiter' (cats' ladder). The slope 
rising S. of Miihlbach from the opposite 
bank of the Rienz, called Rodenecker 
Berg, covered with cornfields and manj 



thriving hamlets, is guarded at its S. i 
end by tlie ancient castle of Bodeneck, 
once one of the strongest in Tyrol, 
standing on a projecting rock, and 
reached by a bridge over a deep cleft in 
the mountain. It -was in great part 
destroyed by fire in the seventeenth cen- 
tury, when precious collections of books, 
MSS,, pictures, and antiquities, were 
iie:irly all lost. It still contains some 
objects of interest, and especially the 
family papers of theWolkenstein family. 
The traveller wishing to visit it should 
cross the Rieuz near Schabs, and follow 
the road by Vils, afterwards reaching 
Miihlbaeh by Korburg, 

Miihlbach is counted as the first vil- 
lage in the Pueterthal, but orographically 
that great valley terminates a few miles 
higher up, and the course of the Rienz 
Uience to Brixen lies through a cleft 
at right angles to the direction of the 
main valley. The defile was formerly 
closed by a strong fort — called Miihl- 
l)acher Klause — about 1 m. N. of the 
village, which was blown up by the 
French. The road still passes through 
an archway of the ruined fort. On 
issuing from the defile, the traveller 
finds himself at the eastern end of the 
Piisterthal, and may travel hence to 
Marburg, in Styria, nearly 200 m. as 
the bird flies, diverging but little from a 
straight line, and without crossing 
any transverse ridge. The first village 

Niedervintl (Inn : Post, not so good 
as it was formerly, and rather dear), 
standing at the opening of the Pfunde- 
rerthal (§ 50, Ete. H), 2,502 ft. above 
the sea, to which follows Obervintl. 
Numerous castles, for the most part in 
ruins^ are passed. One of the most 
ancient is the Sonnenhurg (2,778'), 
etanding on a rock opposite the opening 
of the e-aderthal (§ 60, Rte. G), which 
runs deeply into the dolomite region of 
S. Tyrol, and is also known as Abteithal, 
from the jurisdiction once held over it 
by the Abbess of Sonnenburg. Early 
in the eleventh century, the castle was 
converted into a Be-nedictine abbey for 
noble ladies, and preserved that destina- 

tion for nearly 800 years, till suppressed 
by Joseph II. A short way beyond 
Sonnenburg, but on the S. side of the 
Rienz, is St.Lorenzen (2.636'), a thriving 
village, in which the taste for painting 
and bright colours, characteristic of this 
part of Tyrol, is conspicuous. It is 
said to have a good inn, but strangers 
naturally push on about 2 m. farther 

BrunecJc (Inns : Post, excellent and 
reasonable ; Goldenor Stern, also good ; 
Sonne), the chief place in the Pusterthal, 
athriving little town, 2,686 ft. above the 
sea. The church having been destroyed 
by lightning a few years ago, it was re- 
placed by a new building much admired 
by the Tyrolese. The castle, standing 
near 200 ft. above the town, commands 
a good view of the surrounding country. 
The position is rather remarkable. Due 
N. extends the wide level trough through 
which the Ahrenbach flows from Taufers 
(§ 50, Rte. E) to join the less consider- 
able stream that preserves the name 
Rienz. Nearly opposite is the equally 
wide opening of the Gaderthal ; while 
eastward, but at a higher level than 
these, the Upper Pusterthal mounts 
gradually to the height of land that 
separates the basin of the Adige from 
that of the Drave. Round the point of 
intersection of these great Alpine high- 
ways, the higher mountains recede, so 
as to leave a wider opening than is 
commonly found in the interior valleys 
of the Alps. Though not immediately 
surrounded by flne scenery, Bruneck is so 
near to many interesting spots that its 
excellent inn affords convenient head- 
quarters to the mountaiuter. 

Near Bruneck, the zone of granite, 
which has extended eastward along the 
N. side of the valley of the Rienz, from 
near its junction with the Eisack, comes 
to an end, and mica slate becomes the 
prevalent rock on both sides of the val- 
ley. The high-road returns to the rt. 
bank of the Rienz, and begins a rather 
longer ascent than any that has been 
met since leaving Brixen, rising nearly 
600 ft. before reaching the first village, 



Tcrcha (3,278'), beyond which the 
road crosses the Wielenbach, a torrent 
descending from the Schwarze Wand 
(10,179'), one of the peaks of the Ant- 
holzer Alps. From hence the ascent 
is very gentle, but continuous. To the 
S. is seen the opening of the Gaisel- 
bergerthal (§ 60, Rte. H), through which 
tlie mountaineer may reach a little- 
known district of the dolomite Alps, 
lying between the Grade rthal and the 
Ampezzo Pass. Nearly opposite is the 
opening of the Antholzerthal (Rte. L), 
which offers a convenient way for the 
pedestrian who desires to approach the 
inner recesses of the High Tauern Alps. 
Here the main valley is narrowed be- 
tween the bases of the opposite moun- 
tains, and the road ascends rather more 
steeply, crossing the Rienz, and soon 
returning to the rt. bank, before reach- 
ing the small village of 

Welsherg (3,544'), with a good inn 
(Rose) at the confluence of the Grsiess- 
bach, which here descends through a 
narrow cleft from the Gsiessthal (Rte. 
L). Welsberg stands on the site of a 
little lake which was drained in the four- 
teenth century by the lord of the adjoin- 
ing castle, whose name it received. It 
has two inns (Lowe, clean and good ; 
Rose). At some points on the road 
from Brixen, glimpses of the fantastic 
forms of the Dolomite Alps have already 
been gained ; but they come rather more 
fully into view near Welsberg, and es- 
pecially about 2 m. beyond the village, 
where the road passes opposite the 
opening of the valley of Prags ('§ 61, Rte. 
I), where rough but tolerable accom- 
modation is found at either of the es- 
tablishments for mineral baths. Here 
the road follows the 1. bank of the 
Rienz — now reduced to a trifling stream 
— and before long reaches 

yiederndorf (3,784'), a place of some 
traflB.c, as it lies near the junction of the 
Ampezzo road from Belluno with that 
from Villach. The Post is a tolerably 
good inn ; and the Adler, where the 
Stellwagen halts, is not a bad one. 
The Tyrolese peasantry have a whole- 
Bome faith in the efiicacy of mineral 

waters ; and there is scarcely one of 
the lateral valleys of the Pusterthal iu 
which there is not one or more estab- 
lishments of the kind, usually supplying 
the roughest accommodation at very 
low charges. From one of these baths, 
called Maktadt, on the slope of the 
mountain, about 1^ m. SE. of Niedern- 
dorf, there is a fine view of the Defer- 
eggen Alps. 

About \^ m. beyond the village, the 
traveller crosses the Rienz for the last 
time, near the point where it flows into 
the Pusterthal from its chief source in 
the Diirren See, near Hollenstein. Two 
massive outposts of the dolomite mass, 
standing one on each side of the narrow 
defile, form a noble portal through 
which the Ampezzo road runs due S. 
towards Belluno and Venice (§61, Rte. 
A). At the point where this highway 
leaves the road to Villach is a large 
cross, which at the same time marks 
the summit -level, or height of land, be- 
tween the Drave and the Adige, where 
the waters are parted between the Black 
Sea and the Adriatic. This level tract 
(3,951 ft. above the sea), called Toh- 
lacher FeJd, from the adjacent village of 
Toblach, slopes very gently, almost im- 
perceptibly, on either side. There is 
nothing in the landscape to suggest the 
idea of an Alpine pass. Barley and 
rye are grown to some height above the 
valley ; and though the winter climate 
must doubtless be severe, the remains of 
many castles show that it has not in 
past times been such as to deter wealthy 
men from dwelling here. On the down- 
fall of the Roman power, this region 
fell under the authority of the Bavarian 
(or rather Boyoar) dukes, who here ar- 
rested the western flow of the Slavonic 
invasion at its natural geographical 
limit. The name Victoribiihel, still given 
to a slight eminence, records a victory 
srained over these barbarous tribes in 

A streamlet, flowing from the base of 
the mountain on the rt. of the road, is 
fixed upon as the source of the Drave 
(Grerm. Dmu, but locally called Drag), 
for no other reason than the fact that it 



l:es near a frequonted highway. It is 
joinfd a little farther on by a consider- 
able torrent from the Sextenthal, which, 
lifter fuliowintr the course of that valley 
towards WNW., turns round towards 
due E. on entering the main valley at 

I?i?iichen (3,701'), a small place, de- 
8t^rving the especial notice of the anti- 
quary, who will find here good quar- 
ters (BeimNeuwirth). The Bar (? same 
house) is also recommended. The Stifts- 
kirche, rebuilt afrer a fire in 1284, is 
one of the most interesting of the early 
Tyrolese churches, having in many par- 
ticulars preserved the type of the most 
ancient Christian churches of Northern 
Italy. It has a vestibule for catechu- 
mens, a lower chapel or crypt under the 
raised choir, and a separate baptistery. 
An ancient crucifix was saved from the 
destruction of the earlier church, as also 
were the bones of St. Candidus — the 
gift of Pope Adrian I. in 780, preserved 
in a silver shrine. Two portals of some 
hard rock, miscalled porphyry, and an- 
cient carving in ihe walls of the church, 
alsodeserA-e attention. Other less impoi- 
tant ancient churches here have partially 
escaped the ravages of fire and barbarian 
invasion, that began with the Sclavonic 
hordes in the sixth and seventh cen- 
turies, and terminated, we may hope, 
with the French in 1809. 

Through the Sextenthal ran the Eo- 
man road to Aquileja, which here joined 
the great Noric highway through the 
valley of the Drave, and the still more 
important line over the Brenner. Fa- 
voured by this central position, the Ro- station of Aguntum rose to mu^h 
importance. It stood on the slope S. of 
the present Anllage, and appears to ha 7e 
fallen into decay after the destruction of 
Aquileja by the Huns. Numerous ro- 
cords of antiquity, and some objects cf 
art, which are seen in the museum at 
Innsbruck, have been found here, and 
doubtless many more would reward a 
systematic exploration of the site. 
' The Sextenthal (§61, Rte. H) offers 
ready access to some of the finest scenery 
of t'.ie Dolomite Alps, and those who 
have ni;t time for a longer expedition 

may well give a day to an excursion to 
the upper part of that wild valley. The 
most prominent of the peaks seen from 
the main road is the Dreidckustcrspits 

The high-road follows the 1. bank of 
the infant Drave to Vierschach (3,832'), 
soon after crosses to rt. bank, but re- 
turns to the opposite side before reaching 

Sillian (Inns : Post, very fair ; Neu- 
wirth), 3,611 ft. above the sea. The 
scenery of the valley is rather dreary, 
but a fine view may be gained from 
the Hehnspitz {7,^7o'), a summit, easy 
of access, rising SW. of the little 
town. About a mile lower down, the 
main valley is partially barred across by 
the masses of debris brought down by 
the torrent from the Villgrattenthal 
(Rte.N), through which the mountaineer 
may reach the Defereggenthal. The 
swamps produced by this obstacle to the 
course of the Drave were drained through 
the interposition of the late Archduke 
John, with much benefit to the health of 
the inhabitants. The traveller following 
the high-road may pass without remark 
the junction with the Drave of a small 
stream from the Kartitschthal. The 
level of that valley being about 800 ft. 
higher than that of the Pusterthal, the 
stranger does not suspect that it forms 
the W. extremity of the great trough of 
the Gailthal, which is in truth the oro- 
graphic prolongation of the Pusterthal, 
while the course of the Drave from 
hence to Villach, though not without 
geological significance, does not follow 
the main line of depression. The direc- 
tion of the road, and the Drave valley, 
here changes to somewhat N. of E., and, 
after passing Strassen (3,595'), descends 
rather steeply to Abfaltershach (3,223'). 
The character of the scenery gradually 
changes as the mountains draw nearer 
together, and the road crosses the Drave, 
and recrosses to the 1. bank, before reach- 

Mittewald (2,950'), with a fair coun- 
try inn at the Post. Through the nar- 
row cleft of the Burgerthal, opening N. 
of the village, the mountaineer may 
reach Hopfgarten (Rte. K), over the 



Bocksteinscharte (7,434'). Nearly 3 m. 
E. of Mittewald, the valley opens a little 
at the inn of Au (2,856'), at the junction 
of another short glen, descending from 
the N., called VUfernerthal. Here the 
Pusterthaljin its true geographical sense, 
comes to an end, though the designation 
is commonly extended to all that part of 
the Drave valley lying within the bounds 
of Tyrol. The valley is now contracted 
to a mere defile, well known in the his- 
tory of the Tyrolese struggle against the 
French invasion as the Lienzer Klause. 
At the narrowest point stands the an- 
cient castle of Burg fried, which, though 
partially in ruin, and garrisoned onlj 
by peasants, successfully resisted the 
French in 1 809. Later in the same year, 
another desperate and bloody striiggle 
occurred in this defile. On the S. side 
is the Spitzlcofcl (8,913'), one of the 
highest summits of the detached group 
of dolomitic mountains that divide Lienz 
from the Gailthal. A glimpse of some 
of these peaks is gained as the road, 
near the E. end of the defile, passes the 
opening of the Galizenbach (§ 62, Rte. F). 
By a rapid transition, the road passes 
from the midst of stern and rugged 
scenery to the richly wooded basin 
wherein the copious stream of the Isel 
descends from its parent glaciers to join 
the Drave. Traversing the village of 
Leisach (2,326'), the road turns NNE., 
and soon reaches the picturesque little 
town of 

Lienz (Inns: Post, very good; Lamm; 
Rose ; Fischwirth). It occupies a part 
of the site of the Roman city of Leon- 
tium, which is said to have extended for 
a space of 3 m. along the N. side of the 
valley, and to have been destroyed about 
the 9th century by a great Bergfall — a 
judgment, says the chronicler, on the 
wickedness of its inhabitants. Ancient 
foundation walls, portions of mosaic 
pavement, coins, and other remains, 
found here and there as far eastward as 
the hamlet of Dewant, give some colour 
to the tradition. For more than two 
centuries, it was the seat of the powerful 
Counts of G-orz (Grorizia), who dwelt in 
the castle of Bruck (now a brewery), 

overlooking the town on the W. side. 
The chief part of the town (Altstadt) 
stands on the tongue of land above the 
junction of the Drave with the Isel, 
2,193 ft. above the sea. The Rathhaus 
(or town-hall), in the main street, with 
its four massive towers, is a stately 
building. It contains a portion of a 
Roman altar, with the figures of Venus, 
Leda, and the Dioscuri, removed from 
the castle of Bruck. On the 1. bank of 
the Isel is the suburb called Rinder- 
markt, and above it, on rising ground, 
the ancient Pfarrkirche, dating, at least 
in part, from the 12th century. It well 
deserves a visit, and the traveller should 
not fail to notice the eastern portal of 
the churchyard with two marble lions, 
which are believed to date from the Ro- 
man or pre-Roman period. The situa- 
tion of Lienz is charming. The rich 
valley, crowded with hamlets, half hid 
amid gardens and orchards, is circled 
round by steep slopes, forest-clad, or 
green with Alpine pasture. Above these, 
on the N. and E. sides, rise rugged ridges 
of crystalline slate, outliers from the 
ranges of the High Tauern Alps. But 
the chief attraction is found in the pic- 
turesque forms of the dolomite peaks S. 
of the town, visible from its streets, but 
seen to greater advantage from the slopes 
on the N. side of the valley. Lienz is 
the most convenient starting-point for 
many of the longer expeditions de- 
scribed in the follo\\'ingRtes., but is also 
a centre where manj' days may be well 
spent in shorter excursions of especial 
interest to the geologist and the botanist. 
The slopes on the N. side of the town 
offer the most interesting views, and at 
the Heidenhof, only ^ hr. distant, near 
the village of Grafendorf (2,453'), the 
traveller finds a frequented restaurant, 
where he may dine and enjoy the view 
at the same time. A little higher up 
is Thurn (2,797')) with the ruins of a 
castle. He who would command a 
wider view should ascend the S. peak of 
the Zetterfeld (6,939'), or the much 
higher summit oi iYiQ Schleinitz {^,522'). 
Though surpassed by some of the higher 
summits of the Hochschober group, of 


which it is a southern promontory, this 
commands a fine panoramic view, in- 
cluding all the higher peaks of the do- 
lomite Alpis. 

Less laborious than the ascent of the 
8ohleinitz is that of the IjO^es Weibele 
(8,266 ), in the range W. of Lienz, di- 
viding the Isel from the Drave. The 
view is nearly as extensive, and it is 
reached in 2 hrs. less time. The excur- 
sion to the Kersehbaumer Aim. famous 
for its rare plants, is described in § 61, 
along with a notice of the dolomite 
peaks that divide Lienz from the Gail- 
thai. A short and very interesting ex- 
cursion is that to Tristach and the 
Jungbrunn, on the 8. side of the Drave. 
The latter is a mineral spring of local 
repute, about 3 m. from Lienz. In a 
recess of the mountains, only i m. dis- 
tant, is the Trutachcr See (2,686'), ly- 
ing at the base of the Kauchkofel( 6,261'). 
Fossils of the Kossen formation may be 
found near the lake, and some of the 
rare plants of the higher zone of these 
Alps (such as Saxifraya Burseriana) may 
be found on shaded rocks at a compara- 
tively low level. Astragalus leontinus 
is found near the village of Tristach. 
3Iany Alpine species are found in the 
main valle}-, such as Oxytrapis pilosa 
and 0. v.roloisi^, Fhaca australis and 
P. alpiva, Sayina Linnm, &e. 

An agreeable excursion from Lienz, 
longer than those above noticed, is that 
to the head of the Dehantthal, which de- 
scends 8E., nearly parallel to the Isel- 
thal. to join the main valley of the 
Lrave at the village of Debant, about 
\ m. E. of Lienz. It originates in a 
cirque enclosed on three sides by the 
high peaks of the Schober group. As 
the lower part of the valley is not very 
interesting, it is scarcely worth while to 
visit it unless the traveller pushes on at 
least as far as the foot of the glaciers at 
The head of the valley, fully 5 hrs. from 
Lienz. It is said that glacial phenomena 
are here seen on a large scale, and near 
the junction of the torrent from the 
Klein-Gossnitz Glacier with the main 
torrent is an ancient moraine, so con- 
siderable that Souklar has thought it 

deserving of insertion in his map. Se- 
veral fine, but not easy, passes lead to 
the adjoining valleys. Beginning at the 
E. side, the more important of these 
may be thus enumerated : — Secscharte 
(8,4-52'), leading to the Wangenitzthal ; 
1 Hofalnifcharte (9,028'), to theGossnitz- 
i thai: Glodkseharte (9,282'), and Schohcr- 
' t/iorl (9,2.52'), both leading to Kals 
' through the Lesachthal ; and the Leih- 
\ vitzscharfe (8.405'), to St. Johann im 
Wald (Ete. E). 

Below Lienz, the Drave, now grown 
to a river, flows through what is orogra- 
phically the prolongation of the valley 
of the Isel, which extends ESE. some 
way beyond the frontier of Tyrol. 
Leaving on the 1. hand the low pass of 
the iselberg leading toHeiligenblut, the 
road keeps to the N. side of the broad 
valley, below many remains of ancient 
castles, passes Xicohdorf (2,1^%'), 'Am\ 
I reaches Norsach, the last Tyrolese vil- 
li lage, about 10 m. from Lienz. There 
is here a good country inn, whence the 
traveller may make the ascent of the 
Ziethenlcopf (8,1.38'). This is one of 
the higher summits of tlie Kreuzeck 
range, which di^'ides the MoUthal from 
the Drave, and, being more detached 
from the highf-r ranges than the Schlei- 
nitz, or thf Boses Weibele. offers a 
panoramic view in many respects more 
complete. The ascent is easily made 
in from 4 to 5 hrs. 

No change in the asp^-ct of the valley, 
and no natural landmark, indicate the 
limit where the traveller quits Tyrol to 
enter Carinthia. He soon reaches the 
post-station at 

Oherdrauhvrg (1,992'"), a smnll place, 
with an indifferent inn, at the Post, 
overlooked by the ancient castle of Drau- 
burg, now belonging to Prince Porcia. 
Here the ancient Roman road to Aqui- 
leja, still an interestinsz, though no lon- 
ger a frequented, way, diverges south- 
ward. (.*^ee § 62. Rte. E.) The valley of 
the Drave now bends somewhat to the 
1., and follows a nearly due E. course for 
nearly 20 m. Several torrents descend 
from the N. into the valley through 
fchort glens running into the Ivreuzeek 



range. The most considfiable is that 
issuing from the Lrassnitzthcd, which 
opens at JJcUach, about 5 m. E. of Ober- 
drauburg. Ey that glen the traveller 
may reach a fine pass between the Sand- 
fdd (8,808') and the Krevzcck (8,851'), 
and descend thence to the Mollthal, 
through the "Wollathal. Keeping con- 
stantly to the 1. bank of the Drave, the 
road reaches the next post-station, 

Gi-cifcnhurg (2,054'), on a little emi- 
nence above the river formed by the de- 
tritus borne down by the torrent from 
the Gnopiiitzthal, a glen that drains the 
SE. side of the Kreuzeck. On the S. 
eide is the dolomitic peak of the Eeiss- 
kqfel (7,749'), said to command a very 
interesting panoramic view-. The pedes- 
trian may take a short cut from Grrei- 
fenburg to Villach by the Weissensee, 
rejoining the high-road atPaternion, an 
excursion of much interest to the geolo- 
gist (§ 62, Rte. G). Those who prefer to 
travel in light country carriages may, 
•without lengthening the way, see some- 
thing of the lower and less interesting 
part of the Gailthal by following the 
road to Hermagor by Weissbriach, and 
thence to Villach by Arnoldstein, The 
scenery of the main valley is, however, 
at least equally interesting. The course 
of the Drave, which from nearlnnichen 
to this point has kept close to the line 
of junction between the secondary rocks 
and the crystalline slates of the central 
chain, now quits that boundary, and 
enters a comparatively narrow cleft in 
the mica slate ridges which are the 
eastern prolongation of the Kreiizeck 
range. Keeping at first its easterly di- 
rection by Steinfeld and Lengholz, it 
tlien turns nearly due N., and amid 
very pleasing scenery, and the din of 
forges that accompany the traveller 
through Carinthia and Styria, reaches 
the next post-station at 

Sachseiiburg (1,843'), on the rt. bank 
of the Drave, just at the point where it 
turns eastward to join the Moll. It has 
been seen that near its source the Drave 
quitted the direction of the great line of 
valley, extending from Sillian through 
the Gailthal, and, after flowing through 

a narrow defile, entered the valley of 
the Isel at Lienz. Exactly in the eame 
way, the river quitted its normal course 
at Greifenburg, and, after passing 
through another cleft, enters the Moll- 
thal immediately below Sachsenburg. 
The course of the river from hence to 
Villach exactly follows the ESE. direc- 
tion of the Moll from Fragant to the 
junction, and is parallel to that of the 
main ridges and main valleys of this 

The high-road crosses both rivers im- 
mediately above their junction, and for 
many miles adheres to the 1. bank of 
the united stream, which here runs 
through a broad, level, and fruitful val- 
ley. The exact site of the Roman city 
of Teitrnia, or Tibumia, is now lost, but 
remains of antiquity have been found 
at many points. Numerous castles 
crown the heights, of which the most 
remarkable are the ruins of Ortenhurg. 
The Counts of Ortenburg, who flourished 
here for many centuries, held their do- 
main as an imperial fief independent 
of the Dukes of Carinthia. "When the 
race at length died out, their privileges, 
including that of conferring titles of no- 
bility, were held to pass to the owner 
for the time being of this castle. The 
latter right sui-vived till 1753, when it 
was sui'rendered by Prince Porcia to 
Maria Theresa. Kot far from this the 
traveller reaches the little town of 

Spittal (1,772'), at the junction of the 
Lkserhach with the Drave. Through 
that valley the highway from Salzburg 
by the Radstiidter Tauern (§ 52, Rte. E) 
joins our road. There is here a good 
country inn at the Post, a pretty church, 
restored of late years, and a stately 
Schloss belonging to Prince Porcia. 
Omnibuses ply twice a day to the rail- 
way-station at Villach. The pedestrian 
may, by a slight detour, take the Mill- 
stadter See (§ 55, Rte. F) on his way to 
Villach, or to the next post -station at 

Fatcrnion (1,704'), a small village 
with an indifferent inn, standing on 
the rt. bank of the Drave. The road 
crosses the river about 3 m. higher up, 
and near the bridge the traveller, in 



clear weather, gains a fine view up the 
^Mollthal, with some of the peaks of 
the Ilochnarr range in the background. 
At Xickehdorf, less than a mile below 
Paternion, the traveller who has taken 
the way fromGreifenbui-gby theWeissen 
See rejoins the high-road. (See § 62, 
Ete. Or.) This henceforward keeps tx) 
the rt. bank of the river through the green 
and fruitful valley. The declivity on 
the rt. conceals from view the higher part 
of the Dobratsch (7,067'), which forms 
the last massive link in the chain di- 
viding the Drave from the Gailthal. 
Not being strictly parallel, these streams 
converge in an open space, traversed 
only by low hills, at the NW. corner of 
which, near the base of the Dobratsch, 
stands, 1,593 ft. above the sea, 

VUlach (Inns : Post, GoldenesLamm), 
described in § 55, Ete. A. 

Route B. 



■Wiaklem . 
Dbllach . 



8 21* 

Road passable for light carriages, A pedes- 
trian following the foot-path over the Iselsberg 
may easily perform the whole distance in 7 

Heiligenblut is deservedly a favourite 
resort of tourists in the Eastern Alps ; 

and whatever rivals may hereafter 
arise, when the region is more fully 
known to travellers, this must ever 
remain one of those choice peculiar 
spots where the memory stores up 
images of grandeur and beauty never 
to be eflfaced. It cannot, indeed, riA'al 
in variety such centres as Zermatt, 
Chamouni, Lauterbrunnen, and others 
that occur to every Alpine traveller; 
the interest is here concentrated on a 
single peak and a single glacier. The 
picture is varied only by the changing 
lights and shadows of morning and 
evening, clouds or serene sky, sunshine 
and moonshine ; but it is hard to say 
how it could be imagined more per- 
fect. The exquisitely sharp cone of 
the Grossglockner, rising in an un- 
broken slope of 5,000 ft. above the 
Pasterze Glacier, is not surpassed for 
grace and elegance by any in the Alps. 
The ascent, though it cannot be called 
easy, is, with competent guides, per- 
fectly safe, and can be accomplished 
with little fatigue, so that it is annually 
achieved by an increasing number of 
travellers. The village is now acces- 
sible by road from the S. side, and by a 
moderately easy path from Gastein 
(described in § 52, Ete. B). Besides 
these ordinary modes of access, there are 
several mountain or glacier paths no- 
ticed in the following routes. It must 
be owned that the accommodation falls 
far short of what is found at equally 
frequented places in Switzerland ; but, 
except when overfull, the inn is tolerably 

The pedestrian, starting from Lienz, 
wiU save little time by taking a car- 
riage to Heiligenblut ; but, of course, the 
case is altered in descending the valley 
of the MoU from that place to Wink- 
lern. It is, however, a good plan to 
avail oneself of any passing diligence 
or Stellwagen for the 3 m, of dusty road 
between Lienz and Dblsach (2,38-4'), a 
village on the 1, of the high-road to 
Villach, at the foot of the Isdsherg. 
This is a low isthmus, connecting the 
range of the Hochschober to NW. with 
that of the Kreuzeck to E„ and thereby 



separating the valley of the Moll from 
that of the Drave. It rises only about 
1,600 ft. above the latter, and about 
800 ft. above the former, stream. The 
carriage-road winds up the slope above 
Dolsach, while the path keeps to the 
rt., passing near the old castle of Wal- 
lenstein. The summit of the low pass 
is indicated by a cross marking the 
frontier between Tyrol and Carinthia, 
near a country inn called Auf der Wacht 
(3,820'). During the ascent, the tra- 
veller will not fail to turn round to 
enjoy the view over the valley of the 
Drave, and the fine group of dolomite 
peaks rising behind it, culminating in 
the Kreuzkofel (8,979 ). This is par- 
ticularly striking when the passage of 
the ridge is made in the opposite di- 
rection. Leaving, on the rt. hand, a 
mineral spring with baths, the road 
descends to Winklerii (3,186'), a village 
standing on the slope above the S. bank 
of the Moll, which, after flowing nearly 
due S. from Dollach, here turns sharply 
to the E. A post-carriage runs three 
times a week to Spittal (§ 52, Rte. C). 
A char hence to Heiligenblnt costs 4 fl. 
The inn, kept by Herr von Aichenegg, 
a small proprietor of old family, is very 
good and reasonable. The road to Heili- 
genblut, rough in places, descends to the 
level of the Moll, and then crosses to 
the 1. bank, running a little E. of N., as 
far as Mortsckack (3,185'). The valley 
is enclosed between two high groups of 
crystalline slate peaks. That on the E. 
side is a lateral branch of the Hoch- 
narr range, and the much higher mass 
to the W. is the Schober group, whose 
highest simimits are the Petzeck and 
Hochschober. Above Mortschach, the 
road returns to the rt. bank, and soon 
reaches the opening of the Wangenitz- 
thal, a steep lateral glen, whose torrent 
flows from a lake {Wangenitzsee), at 
the unusual height of 8,262 ft. There 
is said to be another smaller lake, or 
taxn (Kreuzsee), a still higher level, 
close to a pass, called Seescharte (8,452'), 
over the ridge dividing this from the 
Debantlhal. On the N. side of the 
Wangenitisee rises a high snowy range, 

crowned by the Petzeck (10,761'), 
the summit of which may be reached 
from the lake. In going from Heiligen- 
blut to Lienz, the active mountaineer 
may easily take the Seescharte on his 
way, descending to the Drave through 
the Debantthal (Rte. A). About 3 m. 
N. of the opening of the "VYangenitzthal, 
the road, after recrossing to the 1. bank 
of the Moll, reaches 

Dollach (3,372'), with a very fair 
country inn — Beim Ortner. The village 
was once a prosperous place, when the 
mines in the adjacent Zirknitzthal gave 
abundant occupation to the natives. 
Since these have been abandoned, the 
place has decayed. Several of the best 
guides in the valley live here, but are 
oftener to be found at Heiligenblut. 
The Zirknitzbach, which flows through 
the village, forms a remarkably fine 
waterfall in a deep ravine at the lower 
end of the Zirknitzthal. It is ac- 
cessible in 10 min., and should not 
be missed. For a notice of the glacier 
passes leading to Rauris, see § 52, Rte. 
B. A remarkably fine view of the en- 
tire valley, and the Pasterze Glacier, 
is gained from the Stanziwurdi (8,87 S'), 
the summit of which may be reached in 
4 hrs. from Dollach. The road now 
follows the 1. bank of the Moll in a 
NNW. direction. At Putschal, about 
2 m. above Dollach, the opening of the 
Grattenthal is seen on the W. side. It 
is a wild glen, whose head is enclosed 
by the highest snowy summits of the 
Petzeck and Schober group. The main 
valley is now narrowed between the 
bases of the mountains on either hand, 
barely leaving space for the Moll, which 
chafes and rages in its narrow channel, 
partly blocked up by rocks that have 
fallen from the adjoining heights. The 
road crosses and recrosses the stream, 
and passes opposite a pretty waterfall of 
the Staubbach family, called Jungfern- 
sprung. The BrennJcogel (9,894'), the 
easternmost of the high mountains en- 
closing the head of the valley, now 
comes into view, but, though near at 
hand, no part of the great peak is yet 
seen. It is onlj after passing the 



§ 51. 


hamlft of Pockhorn (3,568'), and cross- 
ing the Flciss torrent, which descfnd.3 
from the glaciers of the Hochnarr, 
that the valley opens to WNW., and 
the beautiful peak of the G-lockner is 
revealed to view. The exquisite appa- 
rition is soon lost again, as a low inter- 
vening ridge comes in the way. The 
road begins to mount rather steeply. 
A path to the 1. leads past a fine fall 
of the 31511, called the Zlapp, which can 
be seen by the pedestrian without any 
loss of time. From the waterfall, he 
should follow the path that mounts by 
the 1. bank, and rejoin the road a short 
way from 

HeUigenhlut (Inn : G-locknerhaus ; was 
burned down in 1864, has been rebuilt 
and improved in most respects ; charges 
ratherhigh, but accommodation very fair, 
when the house is not overfull), a small 
group of houses, with a very picturesque 
church in old German style, standing 
4,26i ft. above the sea, on a terrace 
about 200 ft. above the 1. bank of the 
Moll. As already said, the situation of 
this place is perfect. The view of the 
Glockner surpasses anything of the 
8ame kind to be gained from any in- 
habited place, not reckoning the moun- 
tain inns of Switzerland, and enough 
is seen of the lower part of the great 
Pasterze Glacier to excite, without fully 
satisfying, the traveller's curiosity and 
activity. The British traveller, smitten 
with the plague of haste, may accom- 
plish in one day the indispensable ex- 
cursion to the Pasterze Glacier, or may 
even combine it with the walk hence to 
Pusch or to Kaprun (Rtes. C and D) ; 
but the wiser few will linger many days, 
and may vary the enjoyment of the 
grand scenery of the main valley by 
excursions into the Gossnitzthal, and 
other recesses of the surrounding Alps. 

The visitor who can put up with 
rather rough accommodation, and pre- 
fers a quieter spot than the frequented 
inn, may find fair accommodation, civi- 
lity, and moderate charges, at a little 
inn in the hamlet of Pleiss, about i hr. 
above HeiligenVjlut. It is kept by 
Tribuser, ' der Pleissner,' commands a 

remarkably fine view, and is chiefly 
frequented by German artists. 

Heiligenblut is the only place in the 
Austrian Alps where there is a regu- 
larly organised corps of guides with a 
fixed tarilF. The charges are rather 
high for the country, but cannot be called 
extravagant, when it is remembered 
that, at the ordinary exchange, the 
florin is scarcely worth more than 2 
francs, except that 15 lbs. is an un- 
reasonably low allowance for a porter. 

The following tariff contains also the 
charges for horses and chars. Some 
slight changes may have been recently 
introduced : — 


Gossnitz Waterfall .... 
Leiter do. . . . . 

Wolfganghiitte, Brettboden, Franz- 

Josephs-Hohe, Johannes-Hutte . 
Johannes-Hutte and back across the 

Pasterze Glacier .... 

Kaiser Thcirl 






Hochthor ...... 

Fuscher "Wegscheide 

Fuscher Thor 



Pasterze Glacier and over Pfandl- 

scharte to Ferleiten 
Tauernhaus in Rauria 
Kauris or Bucheben 
Bucheben and over the Stanzer 

Scharte to Bad Gastein 

fl. kr. 



1 60 

























A guide or porter is obliged to carry 
15 lbs. luggage for the above rates of 
pay, and for every lb. in excess 2 kr. 
per lb. per Stunde distance. No claim 
for Trinkgeld is allowed. 


To the Leiter "Waterfall 
,, Wolfganghiitte 
„ Brettboden or Wallnerhii 
,, Hochthor 
„ Rauris or Bucheben 
,, Fuscher Thor . 
,, Ferleiten . 
.. Fusch 















A horse cannot, at the same time, 
serve for riding and baggage, nor is the 
driver compelled to act as porter. 



CHARS {Ein Scanner). ! 

fl. kr. 

To Dfillach 1 f^O 

„ Mortschach 2 60 j 

„ Winklern 4 | 

„ Stall C 50 I 

„ Obervillach Id n | 

., Lienz 9 1 

Speaking generally, the Hciligenblut 
guides are good mountaineers, but fall 
far short of the better Swiss and Cha- 
iriouni men in general intelligence and 
information. For the ascent of the 
Glockner, the charge, not included in 
the tariff, is now 8 fl. 50 kr. per guide, 
and 13 fl. when taken over the Pfandel- 
scharte toFerleiten. They do not now in- 
sist on the unreasonable rule of requiring 
two guides for each traveller, but usually 
insist on three guides for two travellers. 
The guides most highly recommended 
for glacier expeditions are Josef Tri- 
busser (the best mountaineer), Anton 
Grauogger (who ranks as chief guide), 
Anton Wallner, Christ. Pichler, Josef 
Lackuer, Georg Bauerle, and Johann 

The neighbourhood of Heiligenblut 
is, in an especial sense, classic ground 
to the lover of Flora. For nearly a 
centurj' Wulfen, Hoppe, Hornschuch, 
Schultes. and the succeeding generation 
of Austrian botanists, have made this 
their favourite resort. Unfortunately, 
the avidity of collectors has nearly, if 
not quite, extirpated some of the rarest 
Bpecies, but an ample harvest still re- 
mains to be gathered by an active ex- 
plorer. A list of the more interesting 
species is given lower down. 

Heiligenblut derives its name from a 
precious relic found on the person of 
St. Briccius. a pious Dane, who, after 
serving the Emperor Leo as a valiant 
general, was lost in a sno-w-storm on 
his homeward journey over the Hoch- 
thor. The legend, copied from a little 
work called ' i)er Fiihrer in Karnthen,' 
is incorrectly given by Messrs. Gilbert 
and Churchill in their well-known work. 
The correct version will be found in 
Sonklar's ' Eeiseskizzen aus den Alpen 
uud Karpathen.' The traveller should | 
not fail to viijit the church where the I 

relic is preserved in an elaborate richly 
carved shrine. 

AVhat may be called the indispaia- 
flWe excursion fromHeilig<-nblut is that 
to the Fastcrze Glacier (locally called 
Pasterzenkees); and. in truth, "whatever 
other expeditions a traveller may make, 
even though he should ascend the Glock- 
ner, or one of the other high summits 
that look down on the glacier, he will 
do unwisely if he fail to traverse at 
least some part of its surface. Though 
not nearly equal in dimensions to the 
greatest glaciers of the Swiss and Savoy 
Alps, this measures about 6 m.from its- 
lower end to the bounding ridge of the 
Hohe Riffl, which is as great a space as 
the eye can well take in at the same 
moment, and the view of the Glockner,- 
as seen from the lower glacier, is not- 
surpassed by any of the same character- 
in the Alps, 

The path from Heiligenblut to the 
glacier descends a little towards the 
Moll, and crosses to the opposite bank, 
but in about | m., on approaching a 
point where the torrent from the Goss- 
nitzthal joins the Moll from the SSW., 
and the Tauernbach from the N., the' 
track to the glacier returns to the L 
bank, and then traverses the last-named' 
torrent. At this spot, called 

Winkel (4,335'), the last group of 
houses is left behind. The ascent now 
becomes steeper, and, though the upper 
course of the Moll is nearly one con- 
tinuous cataract, it has cut so deep a 
cleft in the rocks that it is lost both to 
the eye and the ear. The Briccius-Ka- 
pelle (5,348'), a small oratory, is reached 
just opposite the spot where the Leiter- 
bach descends, in a very fine waterfall, 
to the level of the main valley. 

From this point, the head of the valley 
is locally called Pasterzenthal, and the 
stream issuing from the great glacier 
Fastcrze. The path ascends gradually 
along the steep slope, and, about ^ hr. 
1 eyood the chapel, divides. That on 
the 1. hand, wliich is somewhat shorter, 
■R'as formerly considered dangerous, and 
obtained the name Bose Platte; but it 
has been so much improved that ladies 



may pass vdthout hesitation. The ascent 
continues over a rounded eminence 
called Ochsenbrett, and from the sum- 
mit the lower portion of the Pasterze 
Glacier for the first time comes fully 
into view. Since the visit of the present 
Emperor and Empress of Austria in 
1857, this spot, reckoned 3 hrs. from 
Heiligenblut (very easy going), is called 
Elizabethsruhe. However fine the view 
from hence may be, it gives a very in- 
complete idea of the extent of the glacier, 
and the traveller who does not intend to 
prolong his walk much farther should 
at least mount to the Sattel, an adjoining 
eminence, whither on that occasion the 
Emperor was conducted, and which then 
received the name Franz-Josephs-Hohe 
(8,323'). Those who extend the excur- 
sion to the upper end of the main reach 
of the glacier will be well rewarded. 

A brief description of the Pasterze 
Glacier will be here in place. Like all 
great glaciers, it consists essentially of 
two portions — an upper basrn of neve, 
where the snow is stored up and gra- 
dually converted into ice ; and a lower 
ice-river, whose volume is proportioned 
to the extent of the reservoir. The 
basin — locally called Oberster Paster- 
zenkees — is in form a nearly rectangular 
parallelogram, with sides rather more 
than 2.^ m. in length. Beginning at the 
SW. corner, the boundary riins nearly 
due N. from the ScJmeewinkel (11,591'), 
over the summit of the Johannisberg 
(11,425') to the Hohe Eiffel (11,003'), 
dividing the Cai'inthian Mollthal from 
the Salzburg valley of Stubach. From 
the Hohe Eiffel, the bounding ridge 
runs eastward to the Vorder-Bdrenkopf 
(10.507'), and the Mitttl - B'drcnkopf 
(10, 976'), dividing the Mollthal from the 
Kapruner Thai. From the Mittcl-Bdren- 
kopf, the main range between Fusch and 
the Moll extends to SE. ; but the chief 
basin of the glacier is limited by a ridge, 
for the most part covered with ice, that 
extends a little W. of S. to the Gross- 
Burgstall. On the E. side of this latter 
ridge is a much smaller snow basin, 
which sends a tributary glacier to join 
the main stream on the SE. side of the 

Gross-Burgstall. On the S. side, the 
great neve basin is limited by a pro- 
jecting ridge extending eastward from 
the Eomai-iswand to the Klein-Burg- 
stall. The main outlet of this reservoir is 
through the opening between the Klein- 
and the Gross-Burgstall. These are two 
high rocky cliffs, covered at the top with 
neve, but presenting a bold front to the 
lower glacier. The upper ice-fall ter- 
minates between these barriers at a 
height of about 8,300 ft., and thence the 
majestic ice-stream flows in a straight 
course for about 3 m., preserving a 
gentle slope till it reaches the base of the 
Franz-Josephs-Hohe. From that point, 
where the height of the glacier above 
the sea-level is about 7,800 ft., it de- 
scends in two very fine ice-falls, of which 
the lower is visible from Heiligenblut, a 
height of more than 1,500 ft. in a hori- 
zontal distance of less than a mile. 

We have seen that the upper reser- 
voir of the Pasterze is enclosed on three 
sides by ridges that form part of the 
main chain dividing Salzburg from Ca- 
rinthia. The glacier proper, from the 
two Burgstalls to the foot of the lower 
ice-fall, flows between two parallel 
ridges, of which the shorter, biit by far 
the most remarkable, is the Gross- 
glockner range. This diverges from 
the main chain at the above-mentioned 
peak of the Schneewinkel, and extends 
SSE. a distance of rather more than 
6 m. The first prominent point is the 
Eomanswa7idkopf (II, 6S2') ; to this, 
after a slight depression, succeeds a 
singular rocky ridge of excessive steep- 
ness, and nearly horizontal at the 
top, appropriately named Glocknerwand 
(12,182'), and then, after another de- 
pression, not seen from the lower part 
of the glacier, the range rises at once 
to its culminating point in the NNTV. 
peak of the Crrossglockticr (12,455'), 
scarcely separated, as seen from below, 
from the adjoining SSE. peak, some 
50 ft. lower. A lontr slopf>. at first very 
steep, then gentle, leads downward to 
the Huhenwartsikart'^ ( 1 0,359' ), to which 
succeeds the Kdlerbirg (10,687'), and 
other sumiuita in gradually descending 



order, till the range terminates in the ■ 
I'^d'-/copf i^SASO'), which over- 1 
looks the junction of the Leiterbach ; 
with the Moll. On the opposite side of ! 
the gbicier, the valley of the Moll is i 
divided from that of Rauris by the 
range extending from the Mittol-Ba- i 
renkopf to the Hochthor (see next | 
RtH.), whose chief summits are the j 
Brfitkopf [10,220'), Fuschtr Kahrkopf 
(10.957',). Sinewellcck (10.732'), 5^^^/- 
mnnn (9,9G0'), and BrefDikoqel {9,S9o') ; 
but the glacier stream is immediately 
confined by a s-teep ridge called the Frei- 
tvand (9,960'), that diverges from the 
Fuscher Kahrkopf nearly parallel to the 
main range, and excludes from view all 
the other summits named above. 

Between the Ochsenbrett and the 
Franz-Josephs-Hohe the Pfandelbach, 
descending from the Pfandelscharte 
(see next Rte.), crosses the path to the 
glacier. It is traversed by a wooden 
bridge, beyond which is the Wallner- 
hiitte (6,762'), a rude stone hut. Then 
commences the moderately steep ascent, 
leading in 1 hr. to the summit of the 
Franz-Josephs-Hohe, a point which will 
remind the traveller in many respects 
of the Pavilion on the Mont Anvert, 
near Chamouni. A descent of about 
400 ft. leads to the lateral moraine, 
whence access to the glacier is quite 
easy. Here the traveller must decide 
as to his course. The guides usually 
lead strangers to the Hoffmannshutte, 
formerly called Johannishutte (8,026'), 
a stone hut on the slope of the Freiwand, 
reached from hence in | hr. Above 
it, towards the peak of the Fuscher 
Kahrkopf, is a stony slope called Garns- 
grube, famed as a habitat for many 
rare plants. The hut, originally built 
at the cost of the late Archduke John, 
was rebuilt at the expense of the late 
Mr. Hoffmann, who fell in the war of 
1870. It affords comfort;ible night- 
quarters. From hence the summit of the 
Fuscher Kahrkopf may be attained in 
less than 3 hrs. Except for the botanist, 
the best way of employing 3 or -t hrs. 
which are devoted to the Pasterze Gla- 
cier, is to traverse the centre of the 

great ice-stream to the base of the up- 
per ice-fall. With ordinary caution the 
excursion is free from risk or difficulty. 
In about 3 hrs. from the time when he 
first touches the ice, thfi traveller may 
reach the base of the upper ice-fall be- 
tween the Grross- and Klein-Burgstall, 
visit the base of both, which are found 
to be more considerable cliffs than they 
appear at a distance, and return to his 
stariag-point. In warm weather, ice- 
avalanches constantly fall over the face 
of the Grross-Burgstall, and care should 
be taken to avoid tlieir track. 

Among the other excursions from 
Heiligenblut, mo^t of which are noticed 
in the following Rtes., the Gossnitzfcdl 
deserves especial mention, not only for 
the waterfall itself, but for the striking 
scenery of the savage glen leading to 
it : 1 hr. suffices for going and return- 

To the mountaineer, the most at- 
tractive excursion from Heiligenblut 
is the ascent of the Grossglockner. 
Like other expeditions of the same 
kind, this long enjoyed the prestige 
of difficulty and danger, but of late 
years it has been often accomplished 
by travellers who possessed little pre* 
vious training. There are now four 
ways for making the ascent, two start- 
ing from Kals, and two from Heiligen- 
blut (see Rte. H). 

The old course from Heiligenblut lay 
by the head of the Leiterthal, whose 
torrent joins the Moll opposite the 
Briccius-Kapelle, mentioned above. The 
path crosses the torrent from the Goss- 
nitzthal opposite Winkel (see above), 
and mounts diagonally along the slope 
on the SW, of the main valley, till, at 
the Sennhiitten of the Trogalp, it enters 
the Leiterthal at a high level, much 
above the waterfall that is admired oa 
the way to the Pasterze Glacier. Tra- 
versing the torrent about 1^ hr. from 
Heiligenblut, the path turns about due 
W. along some steep rocks. This pas- 
sage is called the Katzensteig, and has 
somehow acquired a reputation for 
difficulty which can scarcely be detected 
by anyone accustomed to mountain walk- 




ing. About 1 hr. from the bridge over 
the Leitei-bach, the traveller reerosses 
the torrent to the Leitcrkuttc (6,640'), 
8U] 'plying rough quarters for the night ; 
better, however, than in the Ochsen- 
hiitte, another hut rather higher up in 
the valley. It is advisable to start 
hence before daylight, as the remainder 
of the way through the Leiterthal, as 
far as the foot of the glacier, may be 
easily accomplished with the aid of a 
lantern, and better still, in the writer's 
opinion, without it. The opening seen 
in the range to the 1. is that of the 
Peischlagthal, through which lies one of 
the paths to Kals. Tiie ;iscent becomt'S 
rather steeper, but nowhere difficult, 
and in less than 2 hrs. from the Hiitte 
the traveller reaches the moraine at the 
foot of the Lciter Glacier (locally called 
Leiterkees). Here formerly stood a 
stone hut, built at the cost of Count 
Salm, Prince Bishop of Gurk, to whose 
active personal intervention the first 
ascents were mainly due. It was de- 
stroyed several years ago by the advance 
of the glacier. 

The Leiter Glacier is divided into 
two branches by a buttress of rock pro- 
jecting from the steep mass of the 
IIoke7nvartkopf (10,792'); between this 
and the equally steep rocks of the Kel- 
lerbtrg, a couloir leads from the E. branch 
of the glacier to the Hoh:nwartscharte 
(10,359'). This is the lowest point to 
which the ridge of the Glockner sinks 
on the ESE. side, and to this the travel- 
ler's steps are directed. The glacier is 
easily traversed, but as it rises towards 
the couloir it increases in steepness, and 
finally attains a slope of nearly 40°. If 
the neve be hard frozen, as usual in the 
early morning, reasonable care is re- 
quisite, as a slip might have awkward 
consequences. On reaching the summit, 
the traveller stands on the ridge leading 
by a continuous ascent to the highest 
peak. For a considerable distance, the 
slope is so gentle, and the ridge so 
broad, that the course is remarkably 
easy. TheHohenwartkopf, which looked 
so conspicuous from the Leiterkees, 
here shows as a mere snow-hillock, 

which the traveller passes on his 1. hand. 
The name was given in compliment to 
Count Hoheuwart, a canon of Klagen- 
furt, who, in 1799, reached the E. peak 
of the Glockner for the first time, and 
three years later also attained the high- 
est summit. The last halt in the ascent 
is usually made at the Adlersruhe 
(11,339'), a point where some shattered 
rocks slightly project through the cover- 
ing of neve, elsewhere continuous along 
the ridge. Here are seen the roofless 
walls of a little hut, erected by the 
earlier explorers. From the Aldersruhe, 
the Glockner peak shows itself in full 
beauty, as an excessively shai-p snow 
cone, sloping on the S. side at an angle 
of 60°, while on the other hand the 
somewhat irregular edge of the arete, 
in places actually overhanging, is seen 
against the sky. For some distance, the 
slope is still moderate, but increases 
rapidly after crossing the Bergschrund. 
When it reaches -iO-', if not sooner, it is 
expedient to cut steps, taking care not 
to approach too close to the edge over- 
hanging the Pasterze Glacier. The 
steep part of the arete is about 600 ft. 
in vertical height, and the maximum in- 
clination observed by the writer 47° (49° 
according to Schlagintweit). The slope 
on the 1. hand, towards the Kodnitzkees, 
in some places attains an angle of 67°, 
while on the rt. hand it approaches still 
more nearly to the vertical. The first 
peak, about 12,400 ft. in height, had 
always been found a snow-ridge, vary- 
ing in sharpness and in form with the 
season; but in 1861 it was for the first 
time seen bare of snow. The difficulty 
of the Glockner ascent formerly lay in 
the passage from the first to the second 
peak. The arete is excessively narrow, 
and at the gap between the two peaks 
there is an awkward drop of from 15 to 
20 ft., which lands the traveller on what 
may be truly described as a knife-edge 
of hard-frozen snow, that bridges over 
the chasm. A wire rope iiistened to the 
rock now makes the descent easy and 
safe. A more direct and, on the whole, 
a more interesting way to ascend the 
Glockner is that from the side of the 



Pasterze Glacier. The E. face of the i introduction to this section. In their 

highest peak appears, indeed, to be im- j work, entitled ' Untersuchungen iiber 
practicable, but the portion of the ridge ■ die physikali.sche G-eographle der 
below the Adlersruhe is less steep, and j Alpen,' the brothers Schlagintweit have 
a small glacier there fiiUs rapidly to- given the results of their laborious ex- 
warJs the Pasterze. Though the lower i amination of the Pasterze Glacier and the 

part of this glacier is steep, and in some 
seHSons a good deal crevassed, it does 
not oppose a serious obstacle to prac- 
tised ice-men. The course now pre- 
ferred by most mountaineers is to sleep 
at the Hoftniaiinshiirte, and then, cross- 
ing the main glacier, ascend to the 
Adlersruhe, and thence by the course 
above described to the summit. With 
the snow in good order active walkers 
have made the ascent in less than 
4 hrs. from the hiitte. After cross- 
ing the snow bridge, the ascent of 
tne final peak is a mere bit of pleasant 
rock climbing. Everj traveller knows 
that the view from a peak 12,455 ft. in 
height, and with no loftier rival within 
more than 100 m., must be of almost 
boundless extent, but the view from the 
Glockner has the further advantage 
of showing a vast region which is im- 
perfectly known to ordinary travellers. 
The dolomite Alps, from the Marmolata 
to the Terglou, are amongst the most 
interesting objects ; westward the eye 
reaches to the Bernina ; northward, over 
the plain of Bavaria to the neighbour- 
hood of Eatisbon ; and to SE. to the 
mountains on the Bosnian frontier, fully 
170 m. distant — the Klek, above Ogulin, 
S. of Karlstadt, being easily recognised. 
For such distant views, exceptionally 
favourable weather is, of course, the 
first requisite. 

The ascent of the Grossglockner is 
briefly recounted by the late Dr. Brin- 
ton, in the 2nd series of ' Peaks, Passes, 
and Glaciers.' A more detailed nar- 
rative will be found in Colonel v. Son- 
klar's pleasant volume, 'Reiseskizzenaus 
den Alpen und Karpathen,' and in Dr. 
Buthner's work, ' Aus den Tauern.' 
The reader who desires accurate infor- 
mation as to the topography and hypso- 
metry of this and other portions of the 
High Tauern range will refer to Son- 
klar's important work mentioned in the 

C. T. ] 

surrounding ranges ; but, unfortunately, 
that work and the accompanying map 
contain many errors of nomenclature, 
and some of their determinations of al- 
titude differ widely from the results 
subsequently obtained. The height given 
by them for the Grossglockner, derived 
from a single barometric observation, is 
12,958 ft. That adopted by Sonklar, 
which is the mean of four closely con- 
cordant trigonometric observations, dif- 
fers by more than 500 ft. 

Of other expeditions from Heiligen- 
blut that may be recommended to prac- 
tised mountaineers, the ascent of the 
Brennkogel is noticed inRte. C; and the 
chief glacier passes are mentioned in 
that and the following Etes. For the 
ascent of the Hochnarr see § 52, Ete. B. 

The only excursion of any importance 
that remains to be noticed is the ascent 
of the Johannisherg (11,425'). This is 
the snow-clad cone seen in the back- 
ground from the Franz-Josephs-Hohe, 
and, from the neighbourhood of Heili- 
genblut, to the rt. of the Glockner range. 
The only account of the ascent known 
to the writer is that given by Dr. 
Euthner, save a brief notice in the 
travellers' book of the hotel at Heiligen- 
blut, of a previous ascent in 1844. The 
chief interest of the excursion lies in 
the experience that is gained of glacier 
scenery and glacier travelling in all its 
forms, and the view from the summit is 
remarkable rather for the vast tract of 
snow and glacier, that is seen on every 
side, than for the distant panorama. In 
these respects it appears to the wi-iter 
that the Mittel-Barenkopf is at least as 
■well situated, while it is far more con- 
veniently accessible from Fusch than the 
Johannisberg from Heiligenblut. The 
way to the latter summit is by the 
steep and crevassed branch of the 
Pasterze Glacier that lies between 
the base of the Glocknerwand and tha 


Klein-Burgstall, and then by the convex 
snow-covered ridge that descends from 
the summit towards the Klein-Burgstall. 
Of coiirse, the usual appliances and pre- 
cautions for high glacier expeditions 
should not be neglected. The local 
guides here are not sufficiently aware 
of the importance of the rope as a safe- 
guard. The main objection to this ex- 
pedition rises from the rather tedious 
return along the great glacier over the 
same course that had been taken in the 
ascent. There can be no doubt as to the 
possibility of effecting a pass from Hei- 
ligenblut to the head of the Stubachthal 
(Rte. H) by the Oedenwinkelscharte 
(10,473'), which is the lowest point in 
the ridge connecting the Johannisbei^ 
with the Schneewinkel, and the ascent 
of the former peak might well be taken 
on the way. Dr. Euthner passed a 
miserable night at the Wallnerhiitte, 
near the lower end of the Pasterze Gla- 
cier. Most travellers will prefer to start 
from Heiligenblut some 2 or 3 hrs. be- 
fore daybreak. 

To the botanist who may devote a few 
days to the neighbourhood of Heiligen- 
blut, a notice of the localities for some 
of the rarer species will be acceptable. 

The steep slope on the 1. side of the 
path, just below the lower end of the 
Pasterze Glacier, is called Die Marga- 
ritzen. Here may be found Juncus cas- 
ianeus, Tofieldia bo?'ealis, Kobresia cari- 
cina, Carex hicolor and C ttstulata, 
Festtcca Scheuchzeri, &e. The slopes on 
the NE. side of the Pasterze, and espe- 
cially the Gamsgrube, produce many of 
especial interest, e.g. Ranunculus pyre- 
ficBus, Braya aljnna, Draha ZahlhrucTc- 
neri, D. Johannis, and B. Wahlenhergii, 
Bianthus barbatus and B. glacidis, 
Phaca australis and P.frigida, Semper- 
vivumBraunii, Cineraria longifolia, Sa-us- 
svrea alpina and S. discolor, Leontodon 
Taraxaci, Soyeria tnontana, many forms 
of Hieracmm, Gent tana nana and G-. 
prostrata, Pedicularis asplenifoUa, An- 
drosace alpi?ia, Prinmla longiflora, Al- 
lium victoriale, Carex fuliginosa, C. 
Gebhardi, and G. clavceformis. On the 
Way towards the Hochthor (Rte. C), 

and on the slopes on either hand, are 
found Oxytropis triflara, Leontodon Ta- 
raxaci and Lomatogonium carinthiacmn, 
with other rare species. The last-named 
plant flowers about the beginning of 
September, and is scarcely to be detected 
at other seasons. Towards the head 
of the Leiterthal may bo gathered 
Eanuncultis rutaifolius, Viola pinnata, 
Lychnis alpina, &c. The localities here 
cited, and the ravine of the Fleiss, also 
produce many very rare mosses. The 
Apollo butterfly is common on the way 
to the Pasterze, and a great variety C'f 
alpine coleoptera will reward the re- 
search of the entomologist. Here, as 
elsewhere in the Alps, a varied flora in- 
dicates variety in the mineral structure 
of the surrounding ranges. The Gross- 
glockner and the adjoining ranges are 
now held by geologists to be composed 
of metamorphic rocks of palaeozoic age, 
which are distinguished from the crys- 
talline slates and gneiss, that prevail 
throughout the central range, by the 
presence of a larger proportion of lime 
and magnesia. There is a considerable 
outburst of serpentine on the N. side of 
Heiligenblut, and it seems to form part 
of the Glockner range. 







In the last Rte., the most frequented 
road for travellers who visit Heiligen- 
blut from the S. has been described. 
Of those who approach that place from 
the N. side, probably the larger number 
take the way by Gastein (§ 52, Ete. A), 
attracted by the European reputation 
of that fashionable watering-place ; but 
those who travel mainly to enjoy grand 
natural scenery will doubtless prefer 
the far more beautiful route through the 
Fuscher Thai, locally called die Fusck, 
which pours a copious torrent into the 
Salza, at Bruck (§ 50, Ete. A), in the 
Pinzgau. It has the advantage of offer- 
ing a variety of passes across the main 
chain to suit the taste and strength of 
different classes of travellers. 

Leaving the high-road at Bruck, the 
traveller crosses the bridge over the 
Salza, and keeps due S. along the rather 
rough road leading to the chief village 
of the valley. Some glimpses are gained 
of the glaciers of the Brennkogel, the 
summit of which is well seen from 
Bruck ; but there is no object of special 
interest in the space — about 1 hr. in a 
char, or 1|- hr. on foot — between that 
Tillage and 

Fnsch (2,631'), only 187 ft. above 
the bridge at Bruck. It has a very 
fair, though somewhat rustic, inn, but 
strangers are much better oflF at the 
baths. The village stands at the junc- 
tion of the Hirzbach with the main 
torrent. That torrent originates in a 
glacier on the N. declivity of the Hoch- 
tenn (11.059'), and, after flowing about 
3 m. a little E. of N. to the Hirzbach- 
alp (5,633'), turns due E., and descends 
to Fusch, near which it forms a fine 
cascade. The Hirzhachthal contains 
much to interest the mineralogist and 
the botanist, and the scenery at its 
upper end is very fine. 

The road is just passable for light ve- 
hicles as far as Em-pachcr, about 2 m. 

I above Eusch, bxititis so rough that most 
j travellers prefer to walk. Those bound 
for the baths should prefer the very agi'ee- 
able path on the E. side of the valley, 
partly shaded by fine sycamores. This 
leads in 1| hr. to the baths at the hamlet 
of St. Wolfgang (3,750'), which is more 
generally known as FxiscTier Bad. St. 
Wolfgang stands at some height above, 
and nearly a mile E. of the main valley, 
at the lower end of the lateral glen of 
the Weichselbach. The baths have long 
been kno\vn, and a fine church formerly 
stood near to them. This, with the 
ancient bath-house and other buildings, 
were utterly destroyed by a great ava- 
lanche at the beginning of the last cen- 
tury. The present church was then 
built in a securer spot some way from 
the older edifice. Three buildings for 
the reception of guests are near at 
hand, all belonging to Gr. Mayer, who 
is an experienced chamois-hunter, and 
is well acquainted with the neighbouring 
Alps. Wlien these buildings are full, 
as sometimes happens in the height of 
summer, accommodation may be found 
in another house belonging to J. Holzer, 
better known as Euscher Hans. He is 
an excellent guide, and acquainted with 
the habitats of many rare plants. His 
daughter also follows the profession of 

Besides those who resort to this place 
for the sake of the baths, usually as a 
sequel to the regular coiu'se of G-astein 
waters, it is in increasing favour with 
German tourists, either as head-quarters 
for Alpine excursions, or for the more 
tranquil enjoyment of the beautiful 
scenery of the neighbourhood. The 
preference shown to it is well deserved : 
for though no single peak here equals 
the Glockner, and no glacier approaches 
in beauty or extent the Pasterze, most 
mountaineers will prefer this for a pro- 
longed stay. The rock scenery of the 
upper valley is of the highest order, 
and the immediate neighbourhood is 
laid out with some regard to the enjoy- 
ment of visitors, while admirable points 
of view, in which the noble peak of the 
Yischbachhorn is the most prominent 


object, are near at hand. The water of 
the mineral sprin^ is used both for 
■warm baths and internally, and perhaps 
the beneficial effects experienced in cases 
of weak digestion and delicate nerves 
are not diminished by the fact that the 
mineral ingredients exist only in minute 
quantities. To the taste the water dif- 
fers in no respect from that of the 
purest spring. 

31. Mayer, the Eadmeister, rents the 
shooting of the valley, and readily 
gives his guests permission to follow 
game, and to shoot at, and even to kill, 
chamois, if they can. 

The best guides here are Anton 
Hutter, Jakob Erlinger (otherwise Win- 
tinger), and the above-named Fuscher 

Among the many excursions to be 
made from the baths, it is enough to 
point out those most likely to interest 
travellers of various capacities. Those 
■who cannot undertake more than a mere 
stroll may best ascend the Kasercck 
(o,24:o'). easily reached in li hr. It 
lies northward of the baths, and imme- 
diately overlooks the main valley of 
Fusch. A much more extensive pano- 
rama is gained from the KuhAahrJccypf 
(7,443'), NE. of St. Wolfgang, reached in 
3 hrs. by an easy walk over Alpine pas^ 
tures. This is better suited for ladies than 
the ascent of the SchwarzJcopf {^,012'), 
which rises nearly due S. of the baths, 
exactly opposite the Vischbachhorn, and 
is the highest point in the range dividing 
Fusch from Eauris. There is no diffi- 
culty in the ascent, but a snow slope of 
some extent usually must be crossed, 
and the way, over shattered rocks, is in 
places very rough. The panorama is 
one of the finest to be gained from a 
summit of such moderate height, and 
decidedly superior to that from the 
G-amskahrkogel above Gastein (§ 52, Ete. 
A). The view from the Grosskoff 
(7,290') is not quite equal to that from 
the Kiihkahrkopf, but it lies convenient 
for the traveller taking the pass of the 
Weichselbachwand (§o2, Ete. B), andean 
be ascended ■wnth very little loss of tinip. 
The ascent of the Vischbachhorn, which 

I is for a practised mountaineer the most 

j attractive object in this valley, is noticed 

I lower down. Those who do not attempt 

I any of the glacier passes described be- 

j low should on no account fail to go as 

1 far as the Trauner Alp, and visit the 

j adjoining glen of the Kaferthal. 

I Whichever route to Heiligenblut the 

traveller may intend to take, he muht 

follow the main valley for a distance of 

fully 2 hrs. above St. "Wolfgang. If he 

start from that place, he should take a 

path along the E. side of the Fuscher 

Thai, which at first keeps at a great 

height above the stream. It is narrow, 

rough in places, with many ups and 

dowus, but very agreeable, at times 

I enjoying the shade of fine old pine 

trees, at others commanding fine -views 

j of the snowy peaks at the head of the 

; valley. It finally approaches the level 

of the Fuscher Ache, and crosses to the 

1. bank, where it joins the ordinary 

J track from the village of Fusch, a short 

'\ way below 

[ Fcrleiten (3,772'), a hamlet ■^^th a few 

! poor-lookirig houses. Formerly there 

I was no accommodation for strangers 

I except at the TauernJiaKs, a sort of 

I chalet inn which is to be found in most 

i of the valleys of this district at the 

i foot of each of the frequented passes 

I leading across the main chain. Of late 

! years, an inn has been opened, which 

[ supplies tolerably good Cjuarters. There 

I have been some complaints of excessive 

i charges. The situation is very fine, 

i commanding grand views, and con- 

i venient for glacier excursions. The 

head of the Fuscher Thai is divided from 

that of the 31511 by the portion of the 

main chain extending from the Mittel- 

Barenkopf to the Brennkogel. (See 

description of the Easterze Glacier in 

last Ete.) Though it does not include 

any first-rate peak — the highest being 

the Fuscher Kahrkopf (10,957')— this 

opposes a formidable barrier between the 

adjoining valleys. It sinks at one point 

only — the Efan del sch arte — below the 

level of 9,000 ft., but that depression is 

guarded by a small glacier, and the 

only way practicable for beasts of bur^ 



den is liy traversing the ridge on the I 
X. side of the Brennkogel to the head, 
of one of the branches of the adjoining ■ 
valiey of Kauris, and thence reaching I 
Heiligenblut by the Hochthor pass. ' 
Prom the ]Mittel-Barenkopf, a very high ! 
range extends to NE., wliich culminates ' 
in the Vispachhorn, and divides the : 
upper part of Fusch from Kaprun. ! 

The passes leading from Ferleiten to j 
Heiligenblut are now to be noticed. 

1. JJi/ the Fuschci' Thbrl and Hoch- 
thor, 7 to 8 hrs., exclusive of halts. — 
The path follows the 1. bank for about 
^ hr. above Ferleiten; and, on reaching 
the first group of Mitten, crosses 
the main torrent, and commences the 
ascent to the Fuseher Thorl. It should 
be remembered that no house of any 
kind is passed between this point and 
Heiligenblut, and the prudent traveller 
will carr}^ some provisions for the jour- 
ney. The slope is rather steep, but the 
path makes many windings, and is not 
easily missed. Half-way in the ascent 
is the Petersbrunnen (7,014'), an excel- 
lent spring. Beyond it, the ascent is 
more gentle, and in 3 hrs. from the 
point where he leaves the torrent, the 
traveller reaches the summit of the 
Fuseher Thbrl (7,998'). Throughout the 
ascent, and at last from the summit, | 
the traveller is often tempted to turn i 
round and enjoy the grand views of tlie 
snowy peaks which he leaves behind 
him, and on this account this pass is 
taken to much more advantage from 
the Heiligenblut side. It lies on the 
Is. side of the Brennkogel, and crosses 
the range that divides Kauris from 
Fusch. An outline sketch of the view 
from the summit is given in the ' Jahr- 
buch of the Austrian Alpine Club for 

The traveller must beware of de- 
scending from the Thorl to SE., along 
the course of a little stream that flows 
into the head of the Seidelwinkelthal 
(§ 62, Kte. B). His true direction lies 
ne irly due S., along the stony slopes E. 
of the Brennkogel. The path at first 
descends a little, but remounts nearly 
to the level of the Fuseher Thorl before 

it is joined by the path from Kauris, 
passing, on the way, a cleft in the rocks 
called Mitter Thorl. At most seasons of 
the year, considerable snow slopes lie 
on the N. side of the Hochthor ; but 
in autumn these nearly disappear. The 
guides point out a place where a pro- 
cession of pilgrims, going from Fusch 
to Heiligenblut on June 28, were sur- 
prised by a snow-storm, accompanied 
by piercing wind, and all but two were 
frozen to death. Posts are placed at short 
intervals, to mark the path when it is 
concealed by snow. About H hr. from 
the Fuseher Thorl, or oi hrs. from Fer- 
leiten, the traveller reaches the 

Hochthor (8,0.51'), the easiest and 
most frequented pass over this part of 
the main range. On the S. side, Alpine 
pastures extend nearly to the summit, 
and the botanist will find many inter- 
esting plants (see last Kte.). The 
descent is at first gentle, gradually in- 
creasing in steepness. The view, which 
was not extensive as long as the track 
lay at the head of the Seidelwinkelthal, 
now opens over a wide range of distant 
peaks, in which those of the Schober 
group are the most prominent. About 
1 hr. below the summit, the Gross- 
gloekner is for the first time uncovered, 
and no true mountaineer can behold 
that beautiful peak without longing to 
attain its summit. Amid very pleasing 
scenery, the sinuous path descends to 
Heiligenblut (described in the last Kte.). 

2. By the Tfandclscharte. — Under 
ordinary circumstances, 7 hrs., exclusive 
of halts, from Ferleiten, is amply suffi- 
cient ; but, -with fresh and soft snow, 
another hour should be allowed. The 
local estimate of 1 1 hrs. from St. "Wolf- 
gang to Heiligenblut is certainly ex- 
cessive. The pass of the Pfaudelscharte 
and the small glacier leading to it are 
almost constantly in view as the tra- 
veller ascends to the valley above Fer- 
leiten, and, in clear weather, the prac- 
tised mountaineer has no need of a 
local guide for this pass. He should 
take care not to approach too near a 
spot where masses of ice fall from a 
higher level on the glacier near the 


point where he first enters on it. Cross- i 
ing the stream of the Fuseher Ache by j 
the same bridge that leads to the Fu- 
t^cber Thcirl, the broad track, passable for 
carts that carry cheese down to Bruck, 
ascends gradually along the E. side of ' 
tiie valley — the views of the grand rock | 
scenery opposite constantly increasing | 
in beauty — till the traveller, in l^- hr. 1 
from Ferleiten, reaches the Trauncr ■. 
Alp (4,948'). The Sennhiitte here, be- i 
longing to the innkeeper, Trauner "Wirth, | 
in Hundsdorf, near Bruck, is a large j 
establishment, very superior to ordinary ' 
chalets, and would be found a good stop- 1 
ping-place for the night by a traveller | 
intent on a glacier expedition. Imme- ' 
diately "W. of the Alp opens the grand 
rocky glen of the Kciferthal, in which ; 
Dr. Euthner counted fourteen water- j 
f;ills of the Staubbach family. The range 
at the head of the Fusch Valley, over \ 
which the traveller seeks a passage to j 
Heiligenblut, extends nearly due east- | 
ward from the Fv.scher KahrJcopf 
(10,9o7') to the Brcnnlcogd (9,895'), the 
chief summits (reckoned from "W. to E.) 
being*;he5met/x7ZcfA-( 10,733') and 6^G//i.s- 
knhrkapf (9,349'), then the adjoining 
pf^aks of the Spillmann (9,959') and 
Klohen (10,011'), which are connected I 
by a high snow plat'^au with the Brenn- ; 
kogel. The Pfandelscharte lies W. of I 
the latter peaks, dividing them from ; 
the Gamskahrkopf. The soutliern and 
highest summit of this latter mountain | 
is sometimes called Barenkopf ; but, as j 
there are already four adjoining peaks \ 
bearing that name, it is highly desirable 
that it should be laid aside. Going at ; 
a moderatf^ pace, 1^ hr. (or 3 hrs. ; 
from Ferleiten) suffice for the ascent 
from the Trauner Alp to the point \ 
■where it is expedient to enter on the 
glacier, which is called Schartenkees. ! 
With moderate care, there is neither j 
risk nor difficulty in the passage. To 
the 1., a secondary glacier descends , 
from the flanks of the Kloben, and : 
masse.? of ice from above occasionally 
fall. The fragments seen on the glacier 
fihow the places which ought to be \ 
avoided. Towards the summit the ice ! 

gives place to neve, which is easily tra- 
versed, as crevasses appear to be few 
and narrow. The slope diminishes in 
steepness, and the channel of the glacier, 
which has been confined between a range 
of rocks belonging to the Spillmann 
on the 1., and another from the Gams- 
karkopf on the rt., opens out to the S., 
as the traveller attains the summit of 
the Vfandchcharte, 8,817 ft. above the 
sea, in 2^ hrs. from the Trauner Alp. 
The view from the top of the pass is 
confined, and it is advisable to descend 
at least \ hr., bearing towards the 
slopes of turf on the rt. of the glacier, 
in order the better to enjoy the admir- 
able view of the Glockner range and 
the great Pasterze Glacier, which is no- 
where else seen to greater advantage. 
The active traveller, who has started 
in time from Ferleiten, or even from 
St. "Wolfgang, may find time to make 
the slight detour to the Johannishiitte, 
but most travellers content themselves 
with what they see without leaving the 
direct way. The faintly marked track 
descends by the rt. bank of the torrent, 
sometimes called Pfandelbach, some- 
times Schartenbaeh. passing the Schaf- 
lochhiitte, to the Wallnerhiitte, where 
the traveller joins the beaten track 
leading from the Pasterze Glacier to 
Heiligenblut. That village is easily 
reached in Z\ or Z\ hrs. from the sum- 

In fine weather, this pass, which is 
practicable for all per.sons moderately 
used to mountain excursions, offirs two 
of the finest views in this region, and 
deserves to be reckoned among the 
finest in the Alps. 

3. By the Bockkahrscharte, 8 hrs. from 
Ferleiten. — Although it is difficult to 
overrate the attractions of the Pfandel- 
scharte Pass, many mountaineers will 
prefer a route leading more directly 
through the heart of the great mass of 
glacier Ipng between the 3Ioll, Fusch, 
and Kaprun valleys. From the Fusch 
side, this must be approached by either 
of the considerable glaciers that descend 
into the K'dferthal, which has been al- 
ready mentioned as the highest SW. 



branch of the Fuscher Thai, and is often 
visited by tourists from the baths of St. 
Wolfgang. To make the description of 
the route more clear, it is necessary to 
refer to the great range extending NNE. 
from the Mittel-Barenkopf between Fusch 
and Kaprun, whose peaks exceed in 
height those of the adjoining portion of 
the main range. It will be seen by re- 
ference to the maps of Keil or Sonklar 
that this is a chain whose separate links 
are disposed in a direction transverse to 
itself, the chief summits being arranged 
in pairs, connected by four short parallel 
ridges, running WNW. to ESE. Be- 
ginning at the end nearest the main 
range, we have first the ridge connecting 
the Gross-Bdrenkoirf (11,470') with the 
Hohe Dock (10,909'); next that joining 
the Glockerin (11,356') with the Brat- 
schenkopf{ 11,126"); followed by the less 
defined ridge which terminates towards 
Kaprun in the Fochezkogel (10,118'), 
and towards Fusch in the great peak of 
the V-ischbachhor?i {11,7 S8'); and finally 
that connecting the Klem- Vischbackhorn 
(10,790') with the Sandbode7ikogel. A 
promontory extending northward from 
the Klein-Vischbachhorn includes the 
peaks of the Hochtenu (11,059') and 
the Braehkopf {1Q,QW)- 

As the southernmost of the ridges here 
mentioned is much higher than the pa- 
rallel portion of the main range between 
the Mittel-Barenkopf and the Breitkopf, 
it was long believed that the former con- 
stituted the NW. limit of the neve-basin 
of the Pasterze; and on Schlagintweit's 
and other maps that glacier is made to 
extend to the foot of the Hohe Dock. 
Through recent explorations, especially 
those of Dr. Euthner and M. F. Keil, a 
considerable glacier, fully 2 m. in length, 
lying between the main range and the 
Hohe Dock ridge, has been made known 
and mapped. This is the Bockkahrkees. 
Descending to ESE. by the N. side of 
the Breitkopf (10,320')— also called 
Bockkahrkopf — it meets the Fuscher 
Kahrkees,\f\u.c\\ flows to NNE., by the E. 
side of the same summit, and the united 
ice-streams descend into the head of the 
Kaferthal in a fine ice-fall, known as 

the Wasserfall-Glctscher, where it reaches 
the level of 6,194 ft. The name is de- 
rived from the many waterfalls fed from 
the upper level of the glacier that fall 
over the rocks into the Kaferthal. It 
was supposed in Fusch that the AYas- 
serfall - Gletscher and both its upper 
branches were impassable, but Mr. 
Tuckett, with Christian Aimer, in the 
course of an expedition made in bad 
weather in 1866, being misled by a local 
guide in a sno«'-storm, proved the pos- 
sibility of traversing both the Bockkahr- 
kees and the Fuscher Kahrkees. Having 
ascended by the latter to the F^ischer 
Kah7-scharte (9, 4:36'), they passed by the 
W. side of the Breitkopf to the Bock- 
kahrscharte, descended the Bockkahrkees 
nearly to the junction of the two glaciers, 
and, having thus lost 4 hrs., reascended 
to the Fuscher Kahrscharte, and thence 
descended to Heiligeublut, The course 
described by Dr. Euthner — the most 
persevering and successful explorer of 
this district — under the guidance of 
Eoderer, an excellent local guide, now 
deceased, is probably a little longer, 
but appears to the writer to promise 
more variety and interest. 

Keeping constantly to the path along 
the 1. bank of the Fuscher Ache, and 
ascending the slope on the rt. hand as it 
approaches the opening of the Kaferthal, 
the traveller reaches in 1^ hr. from Fer- 
leiten the Judenalp, lying just opposite 
to the Trauner Alp, mentioned above on 
the way to the Pfandelscharte. Above 
the Judenalp, the W. declivity of the 
Fuscher Thai rises in very steep slopes, 
intersected by transverse bands of still 
steeper rock. To the NW. these slopes 
lead up to the base of the precipices 
that miist be climbed in the ascent of 
the Vischbachhorn ; due W. they lead 
up to the Etniskopf, which is connected 
with the base of the Hohe Dock by a 
ridge called Eemsschartel. The S. face 
of the Hohe Dock shows towards the 
glacier a range of formidably high and 
steep precipices, intersected transversely 
by a ledge covered with lo se debris. 
Along this a man with sure foot and 
steady head may pass without difficulty, 



but the unpractised traveller 7night find 
it danjrerous. The length of this ledge, 
known to the hunters of the valley as 
the Hoy. Gang, is counted as | hr., or 
about a mile. At its W. end it gradu- j 
ally approaches the level of the glacier I 
at a point far above the ice-fall. Here, j 
by a short descent over debris, and with | 
some trouble from lateral crevasses, the 
traveller enters on tJie glacier, and tra- \ 
verses it in a SW. direction to the de- i 
pression of the Bock/cohrscharte (9,991'). 
A few ft. above the lowest point, and on 
the 1. hand, are some bare rocks at the 
W. base of the Breitkopf, which afford 
a pleasant halting-place, whence the 
traveller may survev the surrounding 
glaciers. Of distant view, there is little 
to be seen. He wdll at once perceive 
that he has entered on the neve-basin 
of that eastern branch of the Pasterze 
G-lacier which joins the main stream on | 
the SE. side of the Gross-Burgstall (as j 
described in the last Rte.); while the j 
main neve-basin of the Pasterze is sepa- i 
rated by an ice-covered ridge — a mere | 
convexity in the surface of the upper j 
glacier — that extends NXE. from the 
Hohen Burgstall. At the point where 
that ridge intersects the main range, 
^STW. of the Bockkahrscharte, this rises 
into a slightly projecting eminence called 
the Emrandbiihl (10,395'). In the de- 
scent from the Scharte, it is best to keep 
to the 1. under the slope of the Breitkopf, 
and then, leaving on one side the Fus- 
cher Kahrscharte, along the W. base of 
the Puscherkahrkopf. There are many 
concealed crevasses, and the rope should 
not be cast aside till the glacier is left 
high above its junction with the main 
stream. Descending the slopes of the 
Gamsgrube, the traveller reaches the 
Johannishiitte in about -ii hrs. from the 
Judenalp, and thence descends by the 
ordinary way to Heiligenblut. 

Inasmuch as the object of choosing 
this route is to obtain a thorough ac- 
quaintance with the great glacier region 
rf the Bockkahr and upper Pasterze, it 
appears that this would be more com- 
pletely attained by crossing the main 
range near the head of the Bockkahrkees. 

It is likely that this may be effected by 
the 8E. side of the Mittel-Barenkopf ; 
and if time permit the ascent of the latter 
summit, where the frontier of Carinthia 
meets the valleys of Fusch and Kaprun, 
the view cannot fail to offer much inte- 
rest. The easiest way thence would 
doubtless be by the X. side of the Hohen 
BurgstdU, crossing the E. branch of the 
Pasterze to the slopes of the Gamsgrubf, 
but in the early summer experienced 
ice-men may cut their way down the 
great upper ice-f;ill of the Pasterze, be- 
tween the Klein- and Grross-Burgstall, 
as did Mr. Tuckett's party in 1865, with 
P. Devouassoud and Peter Michel as 

It will be seen from what is said above 
that the Fuscher Kahrscharte is to be 
added to the list of passes leading from 
Fusch to Heiligenblut. When better 
known, it will probably be found little 
longer than the Pfandelscharte. In 
addition to the list of passes properly so 
called, the mountaineer, in favourable 
weather, may also include among possi- 
ble routes that over the summit of the 
Brennkogd (9,895'). Of late years this 
has become a common excursion ; it is 
no way difficult for anyone moderately 
used to mountain walking, and is but 
little longer than the way over the Fu- 
scher Thorl and Hochthor. The shortest 
way to reach the summit is by the ridge 
that mounts to it from the Fuscher Thorl, 
but this involves some stiff scrambling ; 
and the more usual andeasier way is by 
the slopes above the Mitter Thorl, about 
half-way between the Fuscher Thorl and 
Hochthor. From the summit, which 
is formed of shattered rocks, a very fine 
view is obtained of the peaks enclosing 
the Pasterze Glacier, and those of the 
Fuscherkamm, but to SSW. the pano- 
rama is interrupted by the somewhat 
higher summits of the Bacherin (10,158') 
'ji.vAKaseroclclcopfi^.^1^'), which form a 
short ridge (parallel to the 3Iollthal), that 
here rises between the head of that val- 
ley and the main range. A rather con- 
siderable glacier, fed by the snows of 
the Brennkogel and the adjoining peak 
of the Kloben, flows northward on the 



W. side of the rid<;e leading to the Fu- 
scher Thorl; and another, less consider- 
able, originates on the 8. side of the 
ridge connecting the Brennkogel with the 
Spiilmann. The latter is drained through 
the narrow glen of the Giitthal, which 
runs due S. towards the Moll. After 
joining the Tauernbach, that descends 
from the Hoehthor, this torrent joins 
the main stream at Winkel, above Heili- 
genbhit, where it is crossed by touris;s 
on the way to the Pasterze Glacier. 
Tlirough the Gutthal lies the way from 
the Brennkogel to Heiligenblut, It is 
better not to descend due S. into the 
head of the glen, but to bear a little to 
the 1., and pass along the W, side of the 
Brettersee, a tarn whose^stream joins that 
of the Gutthal. Following the 1. bank 
of the torrent, the highest alp in that 
glen is reached, and then the track to the 
1. is taken, which crosses the Tauernbach 
above its junction with the Gutihal. 
Immediately beyond it is the Muriahilf- 
Kapelle (5,197'). where the traveller 
joins the bridle-track from the Hoehthor 
to Heiligenblut. 

The mountaineer who does not object 
to a stiff scramble, and to add fully 1 
hr. to his day's walk, may well follow 
the example of Dr. Euthner, and take 
the summit of the Kloben on his way 
from FerleHen to the Brennkogel. The 
way is \,y the Trauner Alp and the 
track mounting thence to the Pfandel- 
scharte (see above). Bearing to the 1., 
the traveller enters a ravine, and then 
ascends a long and steep slope, called 
the Schwarze Leiter. The crumbling 
nature of the rock — a calcareous mica- 
schist — makes this rather difficult, and 
even dangerous, for unpractised climbers. 
After gaining the ridge, he follows it 
eastward to the peak of the Klohcn 
(10,011 '). Though surrounded on every 
side by glacier or snow-slopes, the sum- 
mit is covered with vegetation, which 
here reaches an unusual height. In 
1857, owing to the unusual heat of the 
season, a ridge of rock lying somewhat 
S. of E. from the summit was stripped 
of the snow which had long concealed 
it, and the process was repeated in 1859. 

Here, at 9,580 ft. above the sea, were 
found the ruins of a miner's hut (Knap- 
jjcnhaus), with the opening of two shafts, 
and a quantity of iron-ore that had been 
extracted. Among the ruin;?. Dr. Euth- 
ner found fragments of cloth clothing, 
and several large bones, but he failed to 
ascertain whether these were human re- 
mains. It is most i:)robab]e that thi.s 
was one of the many spots in this part of 
the Alps where gold has been extracted ; 
but though most of these are well 
known, no record or local tradition re- 
lating to a mine on the Kloben has been 
discovered. The fact s must be reckoned 
among the numerous evidences of an 
increasing accumulation of snow in the 
higher regions of the Alps during the 
last 300 or 400 years. The mine, as 
well as the summit of the Kloben, He 
on the N. side of the dividing range, 
which passes from the summit of the 
Spiilmann to that of the Brennkogel. 

Before closing the account of the Fu- 
scher Thai, it is necessary to add a short 
notice of the ascent of the Vischhachhom 
(11,738') — perhaps more correctly writ- 
ten Wiesbachhmm ; but we follow the 
local pronunciation. This is not only 
the highest peak of the Fusch range, 
but one of the highest and noblest in 
the Eastern Alps ; the only one which by 
its extreme steepness and the boldness 
of its form maintains an imposing ap- 
pearance as seen from the summit of the 
Grossglockner. On the Fuscher Thai 
side, it shows ranges of formidably steep 
precipices, surrounded by glaciers lying 
on the upper shelves of the mountain, 
that are broken at their lower end into 
threatening crags of flue ice. The as- 
cent may in many respects be compared 
to that of the Finsteraarhorn, to which 
mountain it bears much resemblance, 
save that: instead of rising on either side 
above surrounding glaciers, it pluncjes 
its roots into the comparatively deep 
valleys of Fusch and Kaprun, whence it 
rises very abruptly through a vertical 
height of about 7,000 ft. The first 
ascent was made some fifty years ago 
by hunters of the valley; the second, 
in 1841, by Prince Schwarzenberg, Car- 



dinal Archbishop of Salzburg. The 
third, by Dr. Ruthner and Count D. 
Andrassy, -nras effected in 1854, and is 
recounted by the former in his often- 
quoted work, * Aus den Tauern.' The 
place in the Fuscher Thai nearest the 
base of the mountain is the Vogallalp, 
about ^ hr. above Ferleiten ; but as it 
is necessary to attack the peak from the 
S. side, it has been found expedient to 
pass the night at the Judenalp, some 
miles farther up, on the N. side of the 
entrance to the Kaferthal. The main 
peak falls in nearly vertical cliffs towards 
the valley, and sends out to NE. a 
rather long ridge, whose SE. face of 
bare rock appears absolutely inaccessi- 
ble ; while its northern slope sustains a 
glacier called Sajidhodenkecs, which ap- 
pears no less hopeless. To the S. of the 
highest peak is seen the Bratschenkopf 
(11,126'), which is in fact the ESE. end 
of a ridge whose "WNW. summit is the 
Glockerin (11,356'). The outlet of the 
great snow-basin between this ridge and 
the highest part of the mountain is by 
a glacier called TeufelsmuMkees\ which, 
on reaching the verge of the precipices 
facing the Fuscher Thai, breaks away so 
as to form a range of high ice cliffs. 
Although the precipices on the E. side 
of the Bratschenkopf are very high and 
extremely steep, they are passable to 
a mountaineer with a perfectly steady 
head, accustomed- to stiff rock climbing. 
Having attained a considerable height 
above the final ice-fall of the Teufels- 
miihlkees, that glacier may be traversed 
with little difficulty ; and by this, and 
by steep snow-slopes above it, the base 
of the final arete is reached. This 
mounts NXE. to the highest peak, and 
is apparently neither so steep nor so 
narrow as that of the Glockner. The 
a<itual summit is an inconveniently nar- 
row ridge of frozen snow. However ex- 
tensive the view, it is naturally inferior 
to that from the Grlockner, but many 
mountaineers will prefer the ascent of 
this peak for the sake of the more in- 
teresting and varied rock-work. The 
difficulties of the ascent seem to be con- 
fined to that part of the expedition, as 

with ordinary precaution the remainder 
of the way appears to be free from danger 
or serious obstacles. Dr. Ruthner, to 
whose work the writer is indebted for all 
that he knows of the ascent, took 1\ hrs. 
to reach the summit from the Judenalp. 
There is a much easier way from the 
Kaprunerthal. (See next Rte.) 

At the E. base of the Vischbachhorn 
lies a glacier called Focke'iidkees, which 
seems to deserve more attention than it 
has yet received. Although not directly 
connected with any considerable reser- 
voir of neve, this descends lower than 
any glacier in the Fuscher Thai, its lowest 
j extremity having been ascertained by 
; Dr. Ruthner to reach 5.699 ft. There 
can be little doubt that this is a fine in- 
j stance of a 'glacier remanie' fed by 
; avalanches from the main peak, and, 
I very probably, by the ice that falls from 
t the overhanging Teufelsmiihlkees. 




About 13 hrs.' walking, exclusive of halts. 

In describing the great Pasterze Gla- 
cier (Rte. B), we have had frequent oc- 
' casion to refer to the valley of Kaprun, 
which originates in the main range that 
bounds that glacier to the N., and opens 
. into the Pinzgau, near the village of 
j Kaprim, about 3 m. W. of Bruck. Al- 
j though it offers the attraction of very 
j grand scenery, this is one of the least 
I known valleys of the High Tauern 


range, chiefly because it is oue of the 
few that do not lead to a pass over the 
main range, available at least for the 
native hunters and herdsmen. It is 
further remarkable for the fact that, 
though not so high as many others, it 
contains no permanent dwellings, ex- 
cept close to its opening. The herds- 
men's huts near its head have supplied 
poor quarters to the few travellers that 
have visited the valley, but better accom- 
modation is now available, as a substan- 
tial stone hut fitted with a stove, &c., has 
been erected near the AYasserfallalp at 
the cost of the Vienna Alpine Club. Of 
course, visitors must bring their own 
provisions. From that starting-point, 
mountaineers may with advantage at- 
tempt the ascent of the fine peaks that 
enclose the vaUey. On the W. side, 
between this and Stubach, are the 
Grosseiser (10,361') and KltzsUinhorn 
(10,482'); to the S. rise the Hohe Rifel 
(11,003'), Vorder-Bdrenkopf (10,507'), 
and 3Iittel-Ijdrenkopf {10,97 &) ; and on 
the E. side, the great peaks of the 
Fuscher Kamm, of which the Gross- 
Bdrenkojyf (11,470'), the Glockerin 
(11,356'), and the Hohe Tenn (11,059') 
are the most prominent. Most of these 
have been climbed by Anton Hetz, the 
best guide in the valley, who has also 
ascended the Vischbachhorn. (See below.) 

Ordinary tourists w^ho avoid difficult 
expeditions may be content to visit the 
head of the valley up to the base of the 
Karlinger Kees, while an active walker 
may combine this with the Stubachthal, 
by crossing the Kapruner Thorl (Rte. H), 
and returning to the Pinzgau at Utten- 
dorf (§ 50, Rte. A), in a single long 
day's walk. 

The pass to Heiligenblut, here briefly 
described, is known only by the descrip- 
tion of Dr. Euthner, who crossed it in 
1855. It seems probable that the diffi- 
culties which he encountered may be 
avoided by future travellers who are 
more fortunate as to weather, especially 
if they have with them a man more 
thoroughly familiar with glacier work 
than any of the native guides, however 
efficient these may be in other respects. 

I Excepting Anton and Peter Hetz, there 
1 are no guides familiar with the head of 
the valley, unless perchance some herds- 
, man at the highest Sennhiitten. Colonel v. 
I Sonldar was led into serious difficulties 
j by a man whom he engaged at Kaprun, 
) and who proved himself to be an igno- 
j rant pretender. 

I The Kapruner Thai offi^rs an excellent 
' example of that plan of structure, so 
j common in the valleys of the crystalline 
I rock masses, in whicli the floor of the 
I valley descends abruptly by steep steps 
I (G-erm. Thahtufe), separated by nearly 
I level interval:;", some of which at least 
I are the filled-up beds of ancient lakes. 

The village of Kaprun (2,532'), which 
! stands at the opening of the valley about 
j ^ m. S. of the Salza, may be reached 
I trom the hamlet of Fiirth, on the high- 
j road between Piesendorf and Bruck, or 
else by a very agreeable foot-path lead- 
ing in about 1 hr.from the latter village, 
and running part of the way along the 
rt. bank of the Salza. There are two 
countiy inns in the village (Neumeyer ; 
Beim liramer), at either of which the 
traveller should lay in a store of provi- 
sions, unless he has taken the precau- 
tion of previously doing so at Bruck, or 
Zell am See. Besides A. Hetz, Strah- 
hofer and the brothers Niederrist are 
named as guides, but are probably ac- 
quainted only with the track leading to 
the head of the valley. The village is 
pictiiresquely situated, overlooked by an 
ancient castle, and with the peak of the 
Kitzsteinhorn in the background. This 
fine mountain is again seen from many 
points on the way. Behind the village 
the entrance to the upper valley appears 
to be barred by a rocky ridge of no 
great height, at the W. end of which 
the stream has cut a narrow cleft, while 
the path mounts the first and lowest 
step in the ascent of the valley, which 
is locally called Wiirstelau (about 
2,800'). Looking back, a view is gained 
northward of the Zeller See, and the 
village of Zell, which is only 5 m. from 
Kaprun. Eor more than i hr. the track 
— here practicable for rough carts — 
mounts very gently, amid scenery of no 


great interest, till it reaches the Gross- 
biichel. This is a sort of promontory 
of rock projecting from the E. side of 
the valley, beyond which the path enters 
a picturesque ravine, where the Kapni- 
ner Ache foams amid blocks fallen from 
the surrounding heights. Follo\\'ing 
this for nearly | hr. the traveller reaches 
the base of a second steep and high step 
in the valley, where the torrent falls 
from its upper level in a series of cas- 
cades. The scenery is extremely pic- 
turesque, especially at a point where 
the opening of a short lateral glen, on 
the 1. hand, gives a view of the Fuscher 
Kamm. The snowy summit at the head 
of the lateral glen is the BrachJcopf 
(10,649'), which crowns a ridge project- 
ing to XW. from the Hochtenn. After 
the path has by many zigzags attained 
the summit of the steep ascent, it goes 
for a short distance nearly at a level to 
the Limhrrgahp (5.16.5'). This stands 
on an alluvial plain, which extends 
southward more than a mile to the junc- 
tion with the main stream of the torrent 
from the Wielinr/er Kecs, a large glacier 
that descends from the ]S1V. flank of 
the Vischbachhom. This plain, with 
the pastures of the surrounding slopes, 
is collectively known as the Wasserfall- 
o.Ip, but strictly speaking includes two 
alps — that of Limberg at its northern 
end, and the Further Alp at its southern 
extremity. Xear to the latter stands 
the hut erected by the Austrian Alpine 
Club. A third group of Sennhutten, 
called Bauernalp (5,231'), stands a little 
E -f the main valley, on the N. side of the 
torrent draining the Wielinger Glacier. 
At the S. end of the plain a massive 
rock called the Hohenhurg, forming a 
sort of island in the middle of the val- 
ley, rises to a height of about 2,000 
ft. above it. While the main branch of 
the torrent descends through a ravine 
on the "W. side of the Hohenburg. be- 
tween it and the foot of the GriesJcopf 
(10,357'), forming the waterfall which 
gives its name to the plain, another 
branch flows through a depression on 
its E. side, anil joins the stream that 
Lssues from the Wielinger Glacier. The 

I grand, but somewhat stem, riew from 
! the lower end of the Wasserfallalp is 
I well represented in the ' Jahrbuch of the 
I Austrian Alpine Club for 1867.' From 
i the FiirtherAlp the shorter course is by 
I the path on the "W. side of the Hohen- 
burg, but in going from the Bauernalp 
the eastern path is preferred. Which- 
ever course be taken, the traveller, on 
reaching the summit of the ascent, finds 
himself on the margin of a perfectly 
level plain 1^ m. long and nearly ^ m. 
in width, closed at its S. end by tlie 
Karlinger Kees, the most considerable 
glacier of the valley. This is the Mon- 
serhoden, obviously the filled-up bed of 
an ancient lake, a basin seeminsrly quite 
enclosed by snowy peaks, into which, be- 
sides the great Karlinger Kees.three other 
glaciers descend from the surrounding 
heights. Sonklar, whose knowledge of 
the Austrian Alps is so extensive and 
minute, considers this one of the 
grandest and most impressive .<?cenes in 
the entire range. The only notable de- 
pression in the range enclosing the 
Mooserboden is that of the Kapnmer 
Thorl (8,7-iO'), over which lies the pass 
to the Stubachthal mentioned m Rte. 
H. From it descends to XE. the Thorl 
Glacier, which is so completely covered 
with debris as not to be easily recognised. 
The Mooserboden lies in the prolonga- 
tion of this glacier, while the middle 
part of the Kapruner Thai descends 
nearly due X. Hence it happens that 
the range of high peaks circling round 
the head of the valley from the Glocke- 
rin to the Eiser is not seen until the 
traveller reaches the lower end of the 
Mooserboden. This is 6,462 ft. above 
the sea, and the plain is so nearly hori- 
zontal that the lowest point of the gla- 
cier at the upper end of the Mooser- 
boden was found by Sonklar to be only 
91 ft. higher. 

In F. Keil's excellent maps, the Thorl 
Glacier and another descending from 
the Eiser are incorrectly represented as 
joining the Karlinger Kees on the NW. 
side, while a glacier stream from the 
Gross-Barenkopf flows on the opposite, 
or rt. bank. In point of fact, the three 


glaciers in question all pursue an in- 
dependent course, but do not reach the 
floor of the main valley. 

The lower part of the Karlinger Gla- 
cier, for a distance of about 1 m., is 
gently inclined and easily traversed, but 
higher up it desends in a great ice-fall. 
To reach the Eiffelthor, Dr. Ruthner 
found it expedient to quit the ice on the 
rt. bank, and climb round a buttress of 
rock projecting from the Gross-Baren- 
kopf, until he reached a point some way 
above the ice-fall. Here the main 
stream of the glacier, which descends 
from the Hohe Riifel, receives nearly at 
rt. angles a tributary ice-stream origi- 
nating in the basin between the Gross- 
and Mittel-Bfirenkopf, and, in conse- 
quence, the ice is broken by numerous 
and wide crevasses. Having for some 
time followed a general direction nearly 
due S., which brought him near to a 
range of rocks below the summit of the 
Vorder-Barenkopf, Dr. Euthner bore to 
SW., and finally reached the lowest 
point in the range connecting the latter 
summit with the Hohe Eiffel in 4^ hrs. 
from the Fiirther Alp. It lies about half- 
way between the above-named peaks, 
but rather nearer the Hohe EiflFel, 
whence it was appropriately named 
Eiffelthor. Its elevation according to 
Sonklar is 9,958 ft. 

Dr.Euthner was withheld from cross- 
ing the great neve-basin of the Pasterze 
in a southerly direction by the crevassed 
state of the glacier on the E. side of 
the Johannisberg, and directed his 
course to the summit of the Gross- 
Burgstall. Finding it impossible to 
continue the descent in that direction, 
he remounted NNE. to some projecting 
rocks which have been called Hoher 
Burgstall, and, thence crossing the E. 
branch of the Pasterze Glacier, reached 
the slopes of the Gamsgrube. It is true 
tliat on June 9, 18Go, Mr. Tuckett 
and his companions descended by the 
E. side of the Johannisberg, and cut 
their way down the central ice-fall be- 
tween the Gross- and Klein-Burgstall, 
but it is very doubtful whether this feat 
coxdd be repeated late in the season, and 

at that time the best way would be to 
steer ESE. from the Eiffelthor towards 
the Fuscher Kahrkopf, and, on approach- 
ing that peak, to descend the glacier 
southward until it is practicable to at- 
tain the slopes of the Gamsgrube. 

It is likely that a fine pass may be 
effected from the Mooserboden to Fer- 
leiten, by following the E. branch of 
the Karlinger Kees to the ridge con- 
necting the Mittel- with the Gross-Baren- 
kopf, descending by the Bockkahrkees 
and the Hohe Gang. (See last Rte.) 

The summit of the Vischhachhorn was 
reached inl867, by the brothers Hetz 
of Kaprun, in 6 hrs. from the Wasser- 
fallalp. Save the passage of a not very 
narrow snow arete, this course seems to 
involve no serious difficulty. The final 
peak is climbed from the SSW. side, as 
in the ascent from the Fuscherthal. 

Route E. 

liexz to mitteesill, in pinzgau, by the 
iselthal and velber taueen. 

Hrs. English 

walking miles 

St, Johann im "Wald . 3 9 

Windisch-Matrey . SJ 9 

Tauernhaus . . .4 10| 

Mittersill ... 8 17 



Char-road to "Windisch-Matrey, whither a 
small post-carriage plies daily in summer. 
Bridle-path thence to Mittersill. The distances 
given above are only approximate. The ordi- 
nary estimate is 22 Stunden, but is certaiuly 
much exaggerated. 

In Rte. A, reference was more than 
once made to the Isel, which joins the 
Drave at Lienz, and is in truth the 
principal branch of that stream. In- 


eluding two considerable affluents from 
the W., and one from NNE., it drains 
an area of about 400 square miles, and 
bears do"wn the outflow of eighty-three 
glaciers. The Iselthal must therefore 
be considered one of the most consider- 
able of the secondary valleys of the 
Alps, and as its tributary glens are en- 
closed by ranges that attain a height 
of from *10,000 to 12,000 ft., there is 
abundant attraction here for the natu- 
ralist and the lover of grand scenery. 
^NTevertheless, the attention of British 
travellers has been little turned to the 
recesses of this region of TjtoI. It is 
not surprising that Heiligenblut and its 
neighbourhood should have precedence 
in the estimation of travellers, nor that 
the fascinations of the dolomite ranges 
of S. Tyrol and the Carnic range should 
outweigh the soberer charms of the cen- 
tral range, but those who will devote 
some time to the lateral valleys of the 
Iselthal, if not unfortunate as to weather, 
will not repent of their choice. 

The main branch of the Iselthal has 
another claim on the attention of travel- 
lers, as it leads to the lowest pass over 
the central range between the Brenner 
and the Arlscharte, and oiFi-rs one of the 
most direct routes from England, via 
3Iunich, to the South-Eastern Alps. We 
have seen in § 4-1, Ete. C, that, from the 
Worgl station on the rlwy. from Munich 
to Innsbruck, a carriage-road leads in a 
few hours to Mittersill, in the Pinzgau. 
By the Ete. now to be described, the 
traveller r caches TVindisch-Matrey on the 
next day ; and if an active walker, he 
may, by an early start, reach that place 
in time to get on to Lienz the same eve- 
ning in a light country vehicle. Ladies 
can scarcely be recommended to take 
this route. It is very doubtful whether 
saddle-horses used to such excursions 
are to be found at "Windisch-Matrey or 
Jrlittersill; the day's journey between 
those places is a long one; and the ac- 
commodation at the Tauernhaus is not 
tempting. They may, however, go from 
Lienz to "Windisch-Matrey, and thence 
to Pregratten. (See next Etes.) 

For about 1^ m, from Lienz, the road 

keeps the rt. bank of the Isel, and 
crosses it a little below Oher-Liens. 
which is passed on the rt. hand on rising 
ground. In clear weather, the snowy 
peaks of the Venediger group are seen 
in the distant background. The pretty 
hamlet of Aineth (2,312'), with a clean 
little country inn, also standing above 
the road on the X. slope of the valley, 
recalls one of the sites where the pea- 
sant heroes of Tyrol made a successful 
stand against the French invasion in 
1809, but where the first success was 
expiated when an overwhelming force 
afterwards carried fire and sword into 
the recesses of the Alps. The site of 
Aineth resembles that of many other 
villages in this district, which stand 
upon mounds of transported matter 
washed down from the mountain ranges, 
forming what are called by geologists 
cones of dejection. The slope being 
usually gentle, and the soil finely divi- 
ded, they are often the most fruitful 
spots in the valley, especially when they 
lie on its sunny side. 

[Aineth is the most convenient start- 
ing-point for the ascent of the Hoch- 
schober (10,628'). the best kno-rni, though 
the second in height, of the lofty group 
that rises between the Iselthal and the 
Mollthal. An account of the ascent is 
given by Mr. F. Keil in the ' Mitthei- 
lungen of the Austrian Alpine Club 
for 186-4.' "With four companions and 
two guides, he ascended the N, slope of 
the vallev to Gwabl. and thence followed 
a path NW. to Leihnigg (4,024'), This 
little village stands on the verge of the 
slope where the torrent from the upland 
glen of the Leibnigger Tlial falls steeply 
in a continuous cataract to join the Isel 
near St. Johann im Wald, In 2 hrs, 
more, they reached the alp at the head 
of the Leibnigger Thai, where they slept. 
On the following; morning, the ascent 
was accomplished by the S, side of the 
peak, chiefly over steep slopes of debris 
and rocks, avoiding the snow-slopes on 
either hand. Except one rather steep 
face of rock, they found no difficulty 
worth notice in the ascent. The position 
is excellent for a panoramic view.] 



From Aineth the road runs along the 
1. bank of the Isel to SL Jokann im 
Wald (2,363'), appropriately so called, 
as the scattered houses are concealed 
amidst the surrounding trees. The 
church and inn are on the rt. bank, near 
the bridge by which the road crosses the 
Isel. SW. of the village, the Michelbach 
forms a fine waterfall, and by that way 
the traveller may ascend in about 4^ hrs. 
to the summit of the Weisse Wand 
(7,960'), which overlooks the three val- 
leys that meet at Peischlach and the 
higher ranges of the surrounding Alps. 
Silene Pumilio, Allium victoriale, and 
other rare plants, are found on the moun- 

For some miles above St. Johann, the 
floor of the Iselthal is a gravelly plain, 
overgrown with Hippo2:)hde rhamnoides. 
The ruins of Kienburg are seen on a 
height to the 1., and on the opposite side 
of the valley a very large farmhouse, 
which, in 1809, was filled with families 
from the lower valley, who fled before 
the French invasion. A little farther 

Peischlach (2,479'). A country inn, 
' In der Huben,' stands at the junction of 
the central branch of the valley with 
the Defereggenthal (Rte. K), while the 
village and church are on the opposite 
side of 1>he main valley, where the tor- 
rent of the Kaiser Thai (Rte. H) enters 
it from the NNE. Up to this point, the 
road ascending the valley has kept a 
NW. direction, and the slope has been 
insensible. Here it turns a little to the 
rt., about NNW., and begins to mount 
rather more steeply through the much 
narrower valley, which gradually con- 
tracts to a defile, but soon opens again 
into a comparatively wide basin, backed 
by the Ki-ystallkcypf (9,859'), which is 
the easternmost summit of the Eicham 
range dividing Virgen from Frosnitz, and 
the more distant WildenJcogel (9.900'), 
rising N. of the Frosnitzthal. In the 
midst of this picturesque basin, over- 
looked by the old castle of Weissenstein, 

Windisch-Matrey (3,237'), the chief 
place in the Iselthal, with a good inn 

(Rauterer's), which may serve as head- 
quarters for excursions among the 
neighbouring valleys. As the name 
expresses, this place was originally 
founded by a Slavonic (Wendisch) tribe, 
who were, perhaps, allowed to settle 
here when the Germanic population, 
under the Boyoar dukes, successfully 
resisted the onward tide of Slavonic 
invasion, through the Drave valley, in 
the seventh century. 

L. Stocker, Joh. Kraissler, and Andra 
Eder are recommended as guides for 
the neighbouring passes. 

Due W. of Matrey is the opening of 
the Virgenthal (Rte. Gr), which drains 
the S. side of all the highest peaks of the 
Venediger group, and is to the moun- 
taineer the most attractive of the tri- 
butary valleys of the Iselthal. In the 
opposite direction mounts the path that 
leads eastwards from Matrey to Kals, 
described in Rte. I. Above Matrey, tlie 
name Isel is preserved by the torrent 
that flows from the Virgenthal, and 
justly so, as it is the most copious 
branch of the stream ; but the writer 
agrees with Sonklar in regarding as the 
main branch of the valley that which 
leads to the Velber Tauern. It is not, 
perhaps, an unimportant fact that the 
deepest depression in the range of the 
High Tauern should correspond with the 
head of the principal valley on the S. 
side of that range. The northern 
branch of the valley, described below, 
is locally best known by the desig- 
nation Tauern thai, though the upper end 
is also called Gschlossthal. 

[The antiquary should on no account 
omit to visit two ancient churches in 
this neighbourhood. That of St. Nicho- 
las, on the S. side of the Isel, at the 
opening of the Virgenthal, is easily 
reached in ^ hr. from Windisch-Matrey. 
The building suffered from an earthr 
quake in the seventeenth, and from a fire 
in the eighteenth century. The E. end 
dates from the firsthalf of the fourteenth 
century, and was built over a crypt of 
perhaps still earlier date. In this part of 
the building, now used as a belfry and con- 
siderably lower than the pavement of the 



modern church, are the n mains of some 
very curious frescoes in Byzantine style, 
the greater part of which are apparently 
still concealed by the -svhite-wash •which 
was laid over them at the time of the 
rebuilding of the church, and may pro- 
bal'ly be still removed. Of still grf-ater 
interest is the church of Obcr-Mauer, 
about half-way to Pregratten (Kte. G). 
This is also very ancient, but repaired 
or altered at various subsequent periods. 
Outside, the most remarkable feature is 
the complete absence of windows on the 
N. side. This is explained on entering 
the church by the fact that the entire 
wall on that side is covered by paintings 
in fresco, which evidently date from the 
earliest period of German art. On one 
of the most ancient. Prof. Fenzl, who 
has given a notice of these churches in 
the 'Mittheilungen of the Austrian Al- 
pine Club for 1S63,' traced the date U-16, 
while others may probably belong to the 
latter part of the fifteenth century. Of 
greater artistic merit are other frescoes 
in the same church, especially a votive 
picture on the S, side near the high 

The char-road ends at Windisch-Mat- 
rey, and soon after leaving that place, 
the Tauernthal gradually narrows until, 
after passing Proseck (3,578'), it becomes 
a mere defile, through which the track 
keeps to the rt. bank until, after passing 
opposite a fine waterfall of the Steiner- 
bach, it crosses to the opposite side of 
the Tauernbach. The valley opens a 
little at the junction of the fine lateral 
glen of Prosnitz, noticed in the next 
Ete. ; but the path keeps to the 1. bank 
until about ^ ra. beyond the entrance of 
that glen, when it returns for a short 
time to the W. side of the torrent, but 
before long — at the junction of the 
Petersbach— for the last time recrosses 
that stream. Thenceforth, till it reaches 
the Tauernhaus, it remains on the E. 
side of the valley. Rather more than 
2| hrs. from Matrey, the traveller reaches 
the Landecksacre (4,219'), where the 
torrent from the LandecJdhal, after 
rushing through a narrow cleft, descends 
in a waterfall to the level of the main 

valley. [Through the Landeckthal lies 
a very unfrequented way to the W. 
branch of the Stubachthal (Rte. H) 
over the Ocdscharte (about 8,300'?), on 
the E. side of the LandeckAopf (9,439'). 
The passage is said to be difficult and 
dangerous, owing to the crevassed con- 
dition of a small glacier that must be 
traversed.] Here the Tauernthal, which 
had bent aside to the N., resumes its 
NNW. direction, and the track leads in 
less than H hr. to the 

Matrey ir Tauernhaus (4,957')? where 
refreshments, and, in case of need, 
rough accommodation for the night may 
be found. In fine weather, a guide over 
the Velber Tauern is not required hy 
anyone well used to mountain walking, 
but when clouds lie low, the track may 
easily be missed. At first the path 
keeps parallel to the main torrent, cross- 
ing the Meselinbach — a stream that 
descends from the NE. close to the 
Tauernhaus — but it soon leaves on the 
1. hand the cattle-track that goes nearly 
due W. to the Gschlossalp (see next 
Rte.), and begins to mount diagonally in 
a NW. direction till it approaches the 
streamlet that descends from the Velber 
Tauern. Here the course bends round 
to NE., parallel to that streamlet, and 
at some height above its 1. bank, and 
finally turns nearly due N. Two huts, 
intended as refuges for travellers, are 
passed on the way, at the higher of 
which {\ hr. below the summit) a store 
of firewood is kept to relieve those who 
attempt the passage in inclement weather. 
During the ascent, the traveller gains 
fine views of the great Schlaten Glacier, 
and enjoys a distant prospect both to 
N. and S. on attaining the summit of 

Velber Tanern (8,024'), in about 3 hrs. 
from the Matreyer Tauernhaus. The 
scenery of the head of the Velber Thai, 
through which lies the way to ]\Iittersill, 
is impressive from its extreme wildness. 
Blocks of hornblende slate, intermixed 
with patches of snow, cover the slopes, 
and small dark tarns lie in the hollows, 
while on the W. side the sombre rocks 
of the Freiwand, terminating in the peak 



of the Taiiernkogd (9,790') enhance the 
stern effect of the whole. A rapid de- 
scent leads down to a little level marshy 
space called — like many similar spots 
in the Tauern Alps — Nassfeld. Lower 
down, the track passes at some height 
above the E. side of the Hmtersee 
(4,354'), a comparatively large lake, said 
to have been caused by a Bergfall at the 
time of the earthquake of 1495, which 
was severely felt in this part of the 
Alpine chain. Numerous torrents, de- 
scending the steep walls of the valley in 
brawling cataracts, converge towards the 
basin of the lake. Henceforward the 
track descends gently along the rt. bank 
of the Velber Bach to the upper Tauem- 
haus, called Spital. Better accommoda- 
tion, how'ever, is found at Schosswend 
(3,537'), about 20 min. lower down, on 
the 1. bank of the torrent. This, which 
is also known as the Vorder-Tauernhaus, 
offers the best accommodation between 
3Iatrey and Mittersill, Half an hour's 
walk below Schosswend, the torrent joins 
a rather more considerable stream that 
issues from the E. branch of the Velber 
Thai — locally called Ammerthal, or more 
commonly, die Oed. Some way below the 
junction, the path, which since Schoss- 
wend has followed the 1. bank, crosses 
to the opposite side of the valley, and 
for some miles lies over a nearly level 
tract, part of which appears to be the 
bed of an ancient filled-up lake. The path 
keeps near to the main torrent, which 
is crossed three times before it finally 
descends into the valley of the Salza. 
At its mouth the Velber Thai appears to 
be barred across by a transverse ridge, 
partly cut through by the torrent, which 
at last descends, in a leap of nearly 300 
feet, to the level of the Pinzgau. In the 
angle between the Salza and the Velber 
Bach stands 

Mittersill (§50, Rte. A). The way 
from the Matreyer Tauernhaus to the 
head of the Velber Thai may be varied 
by taking the now abandoned track of 
the Alte Tauern, lying about ^ m. E. of 
the pass above described. From the 
Tauernhaus the way mounts NE., by 
the 1. bank of the Meselinhach. till it 

reaches a tarn called Grimer See. Here 
the course turns to NNW., and, after 
passinganother Alpine lake, ascends over 
slopes of debris to a little glacier that 
covers the ridge. The course was for- 
merly marked by poles, but some caution 
is needed, as there are some concealed 
crevasses, which led to the abandonment 
of this route. 

A more interesting, but perhaps diffi- 
cult, pass may probably be effected from 
the Griiner See to the head of the Am- 
merthal, or E. branch of the Velber 
Thai, on either side of the Thorlkopf 
(9,583'). The scenery of that glen, 
which may be visited from Mittersill or 
Schosswend, is said to be very fine, and 
it offers many attractions to the botanist. 



In the last Rte. was described the 
easiest and most direct way for a tra- 
veller wishing to reach the Pinzgau from 
Lienz, but, if moderately favoured by 
weather, the lover of fine scenery will 
scarcely be content to pass near to 



a considerable glacier region without 
gaining a further glimpse of it than he 
may do in the ascent of the Velber 
Tauern. For the practised mountaineer, 
there is a choice among various passes 
by which the Pinzgau may be reached in 
two days from Lienz, but as none of these 
can be descri'ied as easy, the ordinary 
tourist may content himself with a visit 
to Gschloss and the Frosnitzthal, and 
then explore the southern glaciers of the 
Venediger group from the Virgenthal. 
A few notes on the topography of the 
district may be useful, nay, even essen- 
tial, to those who do not possess one or 
other of the maps named in the intro- 
duction to this section. In regard to 
the nomenclature of some summits and ' 
passes, and slight topographical de- j 
tails, there are dififerences between F. | 
Keil's more highly finished map, pub- j 
lished in the ' Jahrbuch of the Austrian j 
Alpine Club for 1866,' and Sonklar's i 
map on a smaller scale, annexed to his i 
' Hohe Tauern.' The writer has followed \ 
the one or the other according as the ; 
author appears to be supported by direct | 
observation on the spot. j 

It was remarked in the introduction to j 
this section that the western portion of I 
the High Tauern range, which culminates \ 
in the Grossvenediger, extends about 14 
m. EXE. from the Dreiherrnspitz to the 
Velber Tauern, between the basin of 
the Salza and that of the Isel, and, in 
the opposite direction, for about 16 m. 
WSW. from the same peak, dividing the 
Ahrenthal from the western affluents of 
the Isel. 

From the neighbourhood of the Drei- 
herrnspitz and the Grossvenediger, but 
especially from the latter, numerous ac- 
cessory ridges, rivalling in height the i 
peaks of the main range, diverge to 
NNW. towards the Salza, or in the op- 
posite direction towards the Virgenthal, 
and hence it happens that the confor- 
mation of this group is very favourable 
to the formation of considerable glaciers, 
but not so to that of prominent peaks. 
Although the actual summit of the Gross- 
Tenediger is a very sharp ridge, the i 
peak is only the highest central summit i 

out of many surrounding rivals, one or 
other of which may easily be taken for 
it when seen from different sides. But 
on the other hand, few mountains of such 
moderate height display so ample an 
ice-mantle. From the peak, and its 
closely adjoining subordinate summits, 
no less than nine great glaciers descend 
into the surrounding valleys. Most of the 
higher summits of this group appear to 
be accessible without much difficulty, 
and the practised mountaineer -n-ill find 
here scope for many new excursions, al- 
though M. F. Keil, Prof. Simony, and 
other Austrian mountaineers have al- 
ready done much towards its thorough 
exploration. Under the present heading, 
the expeditions are briefly noticed that 
may be made by a mountaineer wishing 
to cross to the Upper Pinzgau from the 
Isel-Tauernthal. It will be remarked 
that no less than four valleys descend 
from the main range towards thp Salza 
between the Velber Thai and the Krimm- 
ler Thai. It is most probable that, when 
the range is more fully known, each of 
these will offer at least one practicable 
pass to the mountaineer, but as these 
are «till imperfectly known, we give 
precedence to that which is likely to at- 
tract the larger number of travellers — 
the way over the summit of the Gross- 
venediger (12.053'). 

Though it appears certain that the high- 
est peak was reached at the end of the last 
century, the mountain was in the neigh- 
bouring valleys supposed inaccessible, 
and its reputation was confirmed by 
an accident which happened in 1828, 
when the late Archduke John attempted 
the ascent, and one of his guides was 
carried down a steep incline by an 
avalanche. In 1841, the summit was at- 
tained by MM. Lasser, Euthner, Graven- 
egg, and a numerous party from the 
Pinzgau, who ascended from the Obersiilz- 
bachthal. A much shorter and easier way 
from the S. side has since been frequently 
followed (see Ere. G), and another 
equally easy route has more recently 
been found from the Gschloss Alp at the 
head of the Isel-Tauernthal. 

The summit is the meeting-point of 



three rirlges that connect it with as 
many neighbouring peaks. One of these 
extends ENE. to the Klemvenediger 
(11,649'), another SE. to the Raincrhoni 
(11.703'), -while the third, after sinking 
to the Dorfer Sulzbach-Thorl (9,438'), 
rises again to the peak of the Gross- 
Geiger (10,915'). The highest ridge, 
■which is almost precipitous towards the 
N. and NW., seems to be accessible only 
by the EXE. or SE. ridges above men- 
tioned. Owing to the sharpness of the 
highest ridge, the snow accumidates there 
so as to form an overhanging cornice, 
which, becoming over-heavy, breaks 
away at intervals of three or four years. 
Hence the actual summit is at times 
positively unsafe, and is never a com- 
fortable resting-place for the traveller 
who loves to spread his maps, and study 
at his ease the topography of the sur- 
rounding region. In other respects, the 
mountain is singularly easy of access. 

In describing the path over the Velber 
Tauern (see last Ete.), it was mentioned 
that above the Tauernhaus the head of 
the Tauernthal turns westward towards 
the base of the Grossveuediger. Fol- 
lowing the upward path along the N. 
side of the Tauernbach, after passing a 
narrow place in the valley where the 
ascent is somewhat steeper, the traveller, 
having surmounted this last thalstufe,m 
about f hr. enters the uppermost basin, 
wherein stand the Sennhiitten of 

Gsckloss, clustered in two groups, 
of which the farther — called Inner- 
G-schloss — is 5,423 ft. above the sea. 
At the Birnbaumer Hiitte, the travel- 
ler finds better accommodation than 
usual in such places, when it is not 
already occupied by tourists, or by 
citizens of Lienz, who come in hot 
weather to enjoy the pure air and 
grand scenery. This, in truth, is of a 
high order. The head of the valley is 
closed by the Schlaten Glacier — except- 
ing only the Pasterze, the greatest ice- 
stream of the Tauern range — seen from 
its uppermost head under the summit 
of theGrrossvenediger to its base, which 
reaches a lower level than any in the 
Eastern Alps, being only 117 ft. above 

Inner-Gschloss. To the rt. of the 
highest peak is seen the Kleinvenedi^er, 
and to the 1. the Hoher Zaun (11,439'), 
or Krystallkopf of Keil's map. 

The glacier is guarded on its 1. flank 
by the conical rocky summit of the Kes- 
sclkopf (9,448'), and on the N. side of 
this, not seen from Gschloss, another 
considerable ice-stream — the Villragcn 
Glacier — reaches the level of the valley. 
This originates on the KE. side of the 
lOeinvenediger, and is divided from 
the Unter-Sulzbach Glacier by the ridge 
connecting that peak with the Hohe 
Fiirl eg (11,114'), and receives tributaries 
from the ridge eastward of the latter 
peak that divides the basin of the Isel 
trom the Habachthal. In his often-cited 
work, Sonklar mentions some ciirious 
particulars respecting the structure of 
this glacier, and states that, at the time 
of his visit, it had advanced within a few 
years no less than one-third of a mile, 
leaving only a short space intervening 
between its lower end and that of the 
Schlaten Glacier, 

Gschloss being, to the lover of nature, 
one of the most attractive spots in this 
district, it may be hoped that a mountain 
inn may, before long, be opened here, 
which will, doubtless, become a favourite 
resort of travellers. The best point of 
view in the neighbourhood is the JRothe 
Sael (9,728'), an eminence in the range 
di\-iding this from the Hollersbachthal, 
easily reached in 3| hrs, Eather more 
difficult of access is the Wildefikogd 
(9,901'), rising S, of Gschloss, the highest 
point in the range dividing it from Fros- 

[The traveller who may visit Gschloss 
fi-omWindisch-Matrey,without intending 
to cross the main range, should visit the 
Frosnitzthal either in going or returning. 
It offers much fine scenery, especially at 
the upper end, where the Frosnitz Glacier 
descends from a high semicircular basin 
enclosed by the Krystalhcand (10,831'), 
the Klcxerho]if{\ 1 ,021'), and the Hinicr- 
Eichamspitz (10,836'). The path to it 
leaves that leading from "Windisch-Mat- 
rey to the Tauernhaiis (last Ete.) about 
1| hr. above the former place, and crosses 



§ 51- 


the Tauernbach, to the hamlet of Grubcn, 
just above the junction of the Frosnitz 
torrent. The path ascends westward 
very gently along the 1. bank of the tor- 
rent to a considerable group of Senn- 
hiitten, standing about l^- hr. from 
Gruben. Sere the valley turns north- 
ward, and a steep ascent leads to the 
upper basin, where the pastures of the 
Frosnitz Alp surround the lower ex- 
tremity of the glacier. Ascending to 
NXW., the traveller may reach the 
Lobben-Thbrl (9,156'), a depression in 
the ridge connecting the Krystallwand 
with the Wildenkogel, and descend thence 
to G-schloss. The pass is said not to be 
very easy, and it would be prudent to 
take a local guide.] 

Host of those who have ascended the 
Grossvenediger from Gschloss have 
been accompanied by a guide named 
Patterer, but more commonly known as 
Staller Nandl. He is somewhat ad- 
vanced in years, but appears to be a 
good mountaineer. He is content with 
4 florins as daily pay for glacier expe- 
ditions. In fine weather the use of a 
local guide in the ascent is almost con- 
fined to the preliminary portion of the 
way, which is \isually accomplished be- 
fore daylight. The true coiu'se to be 
taken is sufficiently obA-ious to any 
practised mountaineer who views the 
mountain from the Gschloss Alp. The 
Schlaten Glacier descends from the neve 
region in one continuous ice-fall, about 
2,500 ft. in vertical height; but there is 
no difficulty in ascending along its 1. 
bank, partly by the lateral moraine, and 
partly by the slopes of the Kesselkopf. 
As; these slopes gradually bend to the rt., 
and shut out the view of the Gschloss 
Alp, it is best to bear nearly due N., 
and ascend over debris, and finally by a 
snow-slope, to the ridge connecting the 
Kesselkopf with the Kleinvenediger, 
and dividing the neve of the Schlaten 
from that of the Viltragen Glacier. 
Being now nearly on a level with the 
great neve-basin of the f -rmer glacier, 
this is traversed in a WSW. direction, 
and before long the traveller sees before 
him the pyramidal summit of the prin- 

cipal peak, with the Kleinvenediger on 
the rt., and the Eainerhorn, or Hennen- 
kopf, to the left. The best course is to 
; aim at a slight depression (about 11,200 
I ft. in height; in the ridge connecting the 
i latter with the central peak, and, follow- 
j ing this, the traveller, in about 5 hrs. 
' from Gschloss, if the snow be in g<x)d 
condition, may reach the summit of the 
! Grossvenediger (12,053'). — The name 
' is supposed to be derived from a rumoxir, 
j or fancy, of the countrymen who reached 
I the summit in the last century that Ve- 
j nice had been, or might be, discerned 
from the summit. This the writer be- 
lieves to be absolutely impossible, owing 
; to the height of the intervening ranges 
' of the Venetian and S. Tvrol Alps. It 
' is, however, rather remarkable that the 
; peak lies exactly in the meridian of Ve- 
nice. As already mentioned, the summit 
is not, in its ordinary state, favourable 
for a panoramic view, as the topmost 
ridge is the overhanging crest of a snow- 
wave, whereon the climber may have the 
satisfaction of setting his foot, but can- 
not comfortably repose to survey the 
view. For the descent towards the 
Sulzbachthal, local knowledge on the 
part of the guide is more needed than 
for the ascent ; but the writer does not 
know that any one of the local guides is 
well acquainted with both sides of the 
mountain. The way lies down the ridge 
that connects the summit with the Klein- 
venediger, steeper than that by which 
1 the ascent was effected, but nowhere 
I difficult. Having accomplished about 
j two-thirds of the distance, it is possible 
to quit the ridge (turning sharply to 
] \^rN'W.), and cross the upper neve of 
I the Unter-Sulzbach Glacier towards a 
I mass of rock that projects from the snow, 
called by the guides Keesschroffen, and 
incorrectly marked ' Ober-Sulzbach- 
Thorl' on the map annexed to Sonklar's 

If it were possible to descend into the 
Unter-Sulzbaehthal by the glacier of the 
same name, that would be the shortest 
course for reaching the Pinzgau ; but as 
that glacier may be said to be unex- 
plored, it would be wiser to attempt the 



ascent rather than the descent by that 
route, and it is better to try the com- 
l)aratively well-known course by the 
Ober-Sulzbach Grlacier. The Kees- 
schroffen (about 9,750') lies on the 
slightly projecting ridge which divides 
the neve of the latter from that of the 
Unter-Sulzbach Grlacier, and from thence 
the way lies for a consideraljle distance 
nearly due W., down slightly inclined 
snow-slopes, until it approaches the 
point where the glacier turns northward, 
and descends into the valley. There is 
now a choice of two courses to reach 
the Ober-Sulzbachthal. It is possible 
to keep to the slopes of the Stierlaner 
Wand that overlook the rt. bank of the 
glacier, and so reach the valley without 
again touching the ice. But the rocks 
are extremely steep and much broken, 
and the passage is scarcely practicable 
without minute local knowledge ; and it 
will be found better to cross the glacier 
diagonally to the 1. bank, and descend 
partly by the ice, partly by the rocky 
slopes. On both sides of the glacier, 
care is needed, owing to the shattered 
condition of the rocks, which yield to 
the slightest touch. With some trouble 
from rough ground, and bridgeless 
glacier torrents, the traveller may count 
on reaching the highest Sennhiitten of 
the Ober-Sulzbachthal. Ample time 
should be allowed for the descent, as 
the stranger must count on encoimtering 
difficulties by the way. The scenery at 
the head of the Ober-Sulzbachthal is 
very tine. The conical snow-peak seen 
at the head of the glacier, commonly 
pointed out as the G-rossvenediger by 
the people of the valley, is the G-ross- 
geiger (10,915'), lying rather more than 
2 m. WSW. of the true summit. The 
valley is remarkable for the extreme 
steepness of the ridges that enclose it, 
but especially that on the W. side, di- 
viding it from Krimml. It consists of 
two nearly level tracts, separated by a 
high step, wherein the torrent descends 
about 1,600 ft. in a distance of 1^ m., 
forming in one place, near the Weyeralp, 
a fine waterfall 300 ft. in height. Near 
the same point, another waterfall is seen 

on the W. side of the valley, formed by 
the Seebach, which descends from a 
small lake, perched, at a great height, 
on the ridge dividing this from the 
Krimmler Thai. The track keeps all the 
way to the rt. bank of the Sulzbach 
torrent till it approaches the opening of 
the valley. It then passes to the op- 
posite bank, and soon after crosses the 
Salza, and reaches the high-road (§ 50, 
Ete. A) at Rosenthal, about 20 min. 
from Wald, or ^ lir. W. of NeuJcirchen. 

As already mentioned, the writer is 
not aware that any traveller has yet 
effected the passage of the main range 
of the Tauern Alps, to the head of the 
Untcr-Sulzbachthal, but there is little 
doubt that such a pass may be effected, 
and that it would be at once interesting 
and not very laborious. It may be best 
undertaken from the N. side, and the 
following brief notes may be found ser- 
viceable. The Unter-Sulzbach joins the 
Salza at a point less tlian 1 m. E. of the 
junction of the Ober-Sulzbach, and SW. 
of the village of Neukirehen. Close to 
the opening of the valley, it forms a 
waterfall, remarkable even in this re- 
gion for the great volume of water, and 
the savageness of the surrounding scene. 
A path and a sort of platform have 
been constructed to enable visitors to 
see it to advantage. The fall marks 
the lowest of the five successive steps, 
by which the floor of the valley rises to 
the level of the great glacier that fills 
its head. This is considered the wildest 
of the tributary valleys of the Pinzgau, 
being enclosed on either side by ranges 
of extraordinary height and steepness. 
That on the E. side, dividing this from 
the Habachthal, is locally called Gemsen- 
gebirge, and derives its name from the 
abundance of chamois and other game, 
due to its difficulty of access. It in- 
cludes several peaks exceeding 10,500 ft. 
in height, and one pass — the Kessel- 
scharte (8,739') — by which chamois hun- 
ters reach the Habachthal. Another 
pass, called Fahkiamm, leads to the 
Ober-Sulzbachthal. The lower part of 
the Unter-Sulzbachthal is traversed by 
a cart track leading to a copper mine, 


l)ut beyond this the traveller finds only 
a cattle-track, which, after following the 
1. bank for a short way above the copper 
mine, returns to the E. side of the valley, 
and follows it to the highest Sennhiitteu. 
Nothing can exceed the wildness of the 
scenery. Huge blocks of gneiss, fallen 
from the precipices above, almost bar 
tiie way, and the path winds tediously 
amongst them. The highest chalets are 
at the Qber-Aschamalp (5,371')- From 
the upper end of the valley, none of the 
higher snow-peaks are visible, and the 
greater part of the glacier is concealed 
by the steep slope of its lower extremity. 
But very fine views are gained from the 
slopes that overlook it, and especially 
from a point called Langeck (9,44:1'), at 
a considerable height above its rt. bank. 
This appears to be level with the upper 
neve-basin, which is described as gently 
inclined and free from crevasses, but is 
separated from the middle and steeper 
part of the ice-stream by a great trans- 
verse crevasse or Bergschrund — said to 
run across its entire breadth. It seems 
probable that the upper plateau may be 
attained from the rt. bank of the glacier, 
but this awaits further exploration. 
HaA-ing gained the upper level of the 
neve, there would be no difficulty in 
reaching the UnUr-Stdzbach-Th'orl 
(9,691'), a depression in the ridge con- 
necting the Kleinvenediger with the 
Hohe Filrleg, and dividing the neve of 
the Viltragen Glacier from that of 
the Unter-Sulzbach. It is doubtful 
whether the easiest way to Gschloss 
may be to descend the Viltragen Glacier, 
which is much less steep and crevassed 
than the neighbouring Schlaten Glacier, 
or to cross nearly at a level from the 
Thorl to the ridge W. of the Kesselkopf, 
and thence descend by the way above 
described in the ascent of the Gross- 
venediger. It is somewhat remarkable 
that, while the Unter-Sulzbach Glacier 
has advanced of late years about 330 ft, 
the Ober-Sulzbach Glacier should have 
retired nearly an equal distance within 
the same period. 

The next tributary valley of the Salza 
eastward of the Unter-Sulzbachthal is 

the Habachthal (a corrupt form of Heu- 
bachthal). It is in regard to the range 
at the head of this valley that the 
widest diiferences are found between 
the maps of Sonklar and Keil, not only 
as to the nomenclature, but also as to 
the conformation of the ground; and 
strange to say, a similar discrepancy is 
found between the brief descriptive re- 
marks of these writers, both careful and 
scientific observers. Sonklar describes 
it as being throughout a narrow cleft, 
enclosed between rugged walls of rock, 
through whose sombre and drearily 
wild scenery the path mounts in a con- 
tinuous, but not steep, ascent from its 
junction with the Salza at Habach to 
the glacier that closes its upper end ; 
while Keil finds that it presents a 
smiling contrast to the savage scenery 
of the Unter-Sulzbachthal. It is certain 
that the valley is so narrow, and the 
walls so steep, that the snow from 
winter and spring avalanches remains 
in the valley unmelted till late in the 
summer, and that rocks often fall from 
the surrounding heights. Sonklar no- 
ticed one enormous block that fell in 
1859, near to the Prossing Alp. Eme- 
ralds are found at a height of over 8,00') 
ft. on the lofty and steep "Watzfeld 
range which separates this from the 

The Habach Glacier is the smallest 
of those that descend into the valleys 
radiating from the higher peaks of the 
Venediger group, but descends to a 
comparatively low level — 6,060 ft. It 
appears doubtful whether a direct 
passage between the Habachthal and 
Gschloss has yet been accomplished. 
There is little doubt that native hunt- 
ers have traversed a pass (9,528 ft. 
in height) between the Schwarzkopf 
(10,426') and the Graukogd (9,946')— 
which latter appears to be the Kratzen- 
bergkopf of Keil's map. But this 
pass does not apparently lead across 
the main chain, but rather to the upper 
basin of the Hollersbachthal, and to 
reach Gschloss. it would be necessary to 
cross the Plenitz-Scharte mentioned be- 
low. In case, however, M. Keil be coy- 


rect in thinking that the Hohe Fiirleg 
(11,114') may be ascended without | 
much difficulty from the head of the j 
Habachthal, there can be little doubt 
that the descent on the Grscliloss side | 
may also be effected, although perhaps ! 
not without difficulty. In attempting 
this expedition, it would be advisable to 
start from the Grschloss side. 

From the preceding pages, the reader 
•will have drawn the conclusion that the 
three uppermost lateral valleys of the 
Pinzgau, if accessible from G-schloss, 
can be reached only by rather long gla- 
cier expeditions, for which the traveller 
should have the assistance of good 
guides, and be favoured by weather. 
There is a fourth valley through which 
the Pinzgau may be reached from the 
head of the Isel-Tauernthal, by passes 
that are much shorter than those 
hitherto spoken of, though not so easy 
as to be recommended to inexperienced 
travellers without good guides. This 
valley is the Holler shachthal, whose tor- 
rent enters the Pinzgau at the village of 
Holler shach, about 3| m. W. of Mittersill. 
A track mounts from that village along 
the E. bank of the stream, surmounting 
four successive steps in the floor of the 
valley, till, at the Ober-Rossgrubalp 
(.5,201'), the valley divides into two 
branches. The SW. branch, locally 
called Easberg, leads up to the Easberg- 
see (6,736'?), erroneously called "Weissen- 
egger See on Keil's map, M-hich re- 
ceives the drainage of the snow-slopes 
and small glaciers that surround the 
head of this glen. The SE. or Weissen- 
egg branch of the valley ascends more 
gently, and is enclosed by ranges that 
are nearly free from permanent snow. 

For the traveller starting from the 
Tauernhaus, the most direct way to 
Hollersbach is by the Weisse7iegger 
Scharie (about 8,800' ?), also known as 
Hullersbacher Tauern. The ascent is 
steep, and a small glacier which de- 
scends from the pass on the N. side is 
steep and almost dangerous when the 
surface is hard frozen, but easily tra- 
versed when the sun has softened the 
upper crust. The descent through the 

"VVeissenegg is easy, and the traveller, 
on reaching the junction of the torrent 
with that from the Easbergsee, finds a 
track leading in 2-^ hrs. to Hollersbach. 
Starting from Gschloss, a shorter and 
rather more interesting route is by the 
Flenitz-Scharte. This is a snow (or 
glacier) pass NW. of the Gschlossalp, 
whence it is said that there is no diffi- 
culty in descending to the Easbergsee. 
The height of the Plenitz Scharte pass 
has not been ascertained. The measure- 
ment given by Sonklar — 9,630 ft. — ap- 
plies to an eminence in the ridge con- 
siderably higher than the pass. 

Additional information as to the 
passes here noticed will be thankfully 



In the preceding Ete. the higher 
peaks and glaciers of the Venediger 
group were approached from the E. 
side, starting from the Tauemthal or 
northern branch of the Isel valley. In 
the present Ete. the S. side of the same 
great mass is to be visited through the 
Virgejithal, which is pronounced by 
competent judges to include scenery 
even surpassing in grandeur and va- 
riety that of the other valleys of this 
part of the High Tauern range. The 



torrent of the Virgenthal retains the , 
name Isel, and is, in truth, the chief 
branch of that stream, and the valley 
itself is sometimes called Mittel-Isel- 
thal, sometimes Ober-Iselthal, names 
here rejected as tending to create con- 
fusion. Though still rarely visited by 
English travellers, this part of the range 
has been made more accessible, since 
the inn at Pregratten has been much 
improved, and good shelter for the 
night is found at the Johannishiitte, 
near the base of the Isel Glacier. 

As mentioned in Ete. E, the Virgen- 
thal opens due W. of Windisch-Matrey, 
and as far as Pregratten it is traversed 
by a rough road over which it may be 
possible, though scarcely pleasant, to 
travel in a light eiyispdmiigen Wagen. 
This keeps to the N. slope of the valley, 
passing opposite the remarkable church 
of St. Nicholas (see Ete. E). In about 
1 hr. the pedestrian reaches Mitteldorf 
(3,924'), and in ^ hr. farther, 

Virgen (3,940'), the chief place in 
the lower division of the valley, with a 
rather rough but clean country inn 
(Panzl's). Though the position is not 
so fine as that of Pregratten, this is a 
convenient centre for some excursions. 
The summits of the Virgen range, divi- 
ding this valley from Defereggen, 
several of which exceed 9,000 ft. in 
height, must command very fine pano- 
ramic views, and in this respect the 
Zuinigkopf (9,078') is probably to be 

[Two passes lead across the same 
ridge to the Defereggenthal, both com- 
manding very fine views. The nearer 
of the two, which, in default of a local 
name, may be called Stemkas Pass 
(about 8,500'?), is reached by a path 
that mounts SW. in about 2 hrs. to the 
head of a glen called Steinkasthal, sur- 
rounded by a steep and high amphithe- 
atre of rock ; 2 hrs. more are required 
for the ascent to a point some way E. of 
the Steinkasko]^/ {9,006'). The descent 
on the N. side is extremely steep, pass- 
ing two terraces on the slope of the 
mountain. 3^ hrs. (or less?) suffice to 
reach St. Veit (Ete. K), which lies due 

S. of the pass. To reach the more 
easterly and more frequented pass, lead- 
ing to St. Leonhard, the traveller must 
follow the lower road to Pregratten 
nearly as far as Welzelach. W. of 
that village, the glen of the Mulitz sends 
its torrent to join the Isel. Exoni a 
cross, which commands a fine view, just 
above the village, the path through the 
Mulitz mounts above the 1. bank, and 
after H m. of nearly constant ascent 
carries the traveller to a comparatively 
level reach, where many Sennhutten en- 
liven the pastures. Here the path 
crosses to the rt. bank, and ascends to 
the head of the glen, which finally bends 
to the rt., or somewhat N. of W., where 
broad slopes of debris extend to the 
flanks of the Lasorling. The way to 
the pass keeps nearly due S., avoiding 
the last bend of the stream, and mounts 
over rocky slopes, here and there 
patched with snow, to the Mulitz- JTiorl 
(8,911'), reached in 4 hrs. from Welze- 
lach. The view in both directions is of 
a high order. On the S. side, the de- 
scent is easy, chiefly over Alpine pastures, 
until the pine forests are reached that 
clothe the slopes of the Defereggenthal. 
If bound for St. Leonhard or St. Jakob, 
the course from the pass lies at first 
SW., then WSW., until the glen of the 
Tegischbach is reached, which leads 
southward into the main valley near St. 
Leonhard, rather more than 3 hrs. from 
the pass. St. Veit is about equally dis- 
tant, but lies SE. of the Thorl] 

In going from Virgen to Pregratten, 
the traveller has a choice of ways. The 
road descends towards the Isel, and, 
after following the 1. bank for some dis- 
tance, crosses to the opposite side before 
reaching the junction of the Mulitz tor- 
rent. A short way beyond it, and 
about 1 hr. from Virgen, it reaches 
Welzelach (3,892'). Here the main 
valley seems to be closed by the rocks 
that rise abruptly, and appear to bar 
further progress. The road enters a 
narrow gorge, through which the Isel 
flows southward for more than 1 m., 
until the valley turns abruptly, and re- 
sumes its upward course about due W. 


At the hamlet of Bowojach, where the 
road returns to that bank, it is joined 
by the horse-track from Virgen, which 
is both a shorter and more interesting 
way for the pedestrian. This keeps to 
the N. side of the valley, rather high 
above, and distant from the Isel. Pass- 
ing the village of Ober-Mauer (4,305'), 
whose church is noticed in Rte. E, it 
winds along the slopes, which command 
extensive \'iews of the ranges to the S. 
and AY., till it rejoins the road, and 
then follows the 1. bank of the Isel to 

Fregratten (4,330'), the chief place in 
the upper Virgenthal, about 3|- hrs.from 
Windisch-Matrey. The inn, formerly 
very poor, is said to be improved. The 
parish priest formerly gave good ac- 
commodation to a few travellers in his 
house, but it is uncertain wlaether this 
is still afforded. The position of Pre- 
gratten has been compared to that of 
Heiligenblut without much reason. 
There the stranger's interest is concen- 
trated on a single picture of surpassing 
grandeur ; while here he finds far 
greater variety, though no single scene 
monopolises his attention. Travellers 
who intend making glacier excursions 
from the Johannishiitte (mentioned 
below) must secure the services of one 
of the Stein er family, to whom the cus- 
tody of that building is confided. Three 
of that name now exercise the profession 
of guide, and of these. Urban is said to 
be the best moimtaineer. Besides these, 
Balthasar Ploner, and Kassian and 
Andra Berger, are recommended as com- 
petent men. 

Pregratten stands at the junction 
with the Isel of the torrent from the 
Timmlthal, a short glen through which 
it is possible to make the ascent of the 
Grossvenediger, or the Eainerhorn. 
The way leads by the Wallhorn Alp, 
and thence to the head of the glen, 
whence the upper neve of the Mullwitz 
Glacier is reached by traversing the 
rather steep ridge of the Wallhorn- 
Beharte. This is the most direct, but 
ft somewhat difficult way. As it is 
necessary either to start from Pregrat- 
ten or to seek wretched night-quarters 


at the Wallhorn Alp, most travellers 
I will prefer to start from the Johannis- 
■ hutte (6,954'). This is a solid stone cot- 
tage, giving good shelter for twelve per- 
j sons, built by the late Archduke John* 
and lately improved by the Austrian 
! Alpine Club, at the upper end of the 
' Dorferthal, also called Klein- Iselthaly 
^ which joinsthemaiu valley at Islitzabout 

1 hr. W. of Pregratten. A further walk of 

2 hrs. amid fine scenery, enlivened by 
numerous waterfalls, suffices to reach the 
Hiitte. This stands close to the lower 
end of two glaciers of the first order, 
both of which give access to the upper 
snow-fields of the Venediger group. That 
which descends from the X. in the pro- 
longation of the axis of the Dorferthal 
is the Dorfer Glacier {Isel Glacier of 
Sonklar), which is formed by the union 
of two great ice-streams. The larger 
northern branch descends from a neve- 
basin bounded by the Grosshapp 
(10,832'), the Gross-Geiger (10,915), 
the ridge extending thence to the Q-ross- 
venediger, and that connecting the 
latter with the Aderspitz (11,493'). 
The XE. branch of the Dorfer Glacier 
(Eainerkees of Keil) is divided from 
the northern branch by a massive but- 
tress of rock descending southward from 
the Aderspitz, locally called Keesfleck. 
It must be understood that the latter is 
a generic name given in this district to 
an island of rock projecting through the 
surface of the Kees or neve. The Eai- 
nerkees originates between the Ader- 
spitz and the Eainerhorn (11,703'), and 
is bounded on the E. side by a ridge 
— called Mullwitz Ader — extending S. 
from the latter peak through the 
Klein-Gdger (10,507'), and terminating 
close to the Johannishiitte. The second 
great glacier of the valley — the Mull- 

j witz Glacier — descends from the E. side 
of this last-mentioned ridge, and comes 
to an end EXE. of the Johannishiitte, 
at a height of 7,503 ft., while the Dorfer 
Glacier descends more than 600 ft. 
lower, to 6,886 ft. A series of wet 
seasons might, however, suffice to unite 
these glacier streams. 

Professor Simony has given a good 



account of the ascent of the Grossvene- 
diger from this side. Crossing dia- 
gonally the main branch of the Dorfer 
Glacier from the W. to the E. moraine, 
his party ascended along the ridge, above 
mentioned, that extends S. from the 
Aderspitz, The summit of this ridge 
was reached by a long, but seemingly 
not difficult, snow-slope (Schneeleiten), 
and thence they gained the depression 
in the ridge between the Kainerhorn 
and the highest peak, which is also 
aimed at in the ascent from Gschloss 
(seelastEte.). In recent ascents, a some- 
what easier, but decidedly longer, course 
has been preferred. The way crosses 
diagonally the Mullwitz Glacier, from 
the 1. to the rt. bank, and then ascends 
the steep slopes until the summit of 
the Klein-Geiger is attained. Thence- 
forward the course is perfectly easy, but 
circuitous, passing round the E. and N. 
sides of the Rainerhorn, and gaining 
the ridge between this and the Gross- 
venediger from the N. instead of the 
S. side. 

When, as sometimes happens, the snow 
of the Venediger overhangs to a perilous 
extent, the summit of the Eainerhorn 
(11,703') is decidedly a finer point for a 
panoramic view. The writer has adopted 
the name given to the summit by Keil 
and Simony in honour of the Archduke 
Eainer, a good mountaineer, who has 
ascended the Venediger and several other 
peaks of this district, because of the 
utter uncertainty attached to its other 
designations. The name, Hennenkopf, 
given on the Kataster map, and on the 
far weightier authority of Sonklar, has 
no foundation in local usage. The peak 
is often called Kleinvenediger on the 
Pregratten side, and in Gschloss ap- 
pears to be known as Hoher Zaun. 
Some of the differences between Son- 
klar's map and that of Keil may be ac- 
counted for by the fact that the former 
traveller encountered bad weather in 
both his attempts to reach the summit 
of the Grossvenediger. 

The Grosshapp {10,%Z2'), rising NW. 
of the Johannishiitte, and reached by a 
stiff climb of 3 hrs., commands an ex- 

cellent view of the chief peaks of the 
Venediger range. 

The traveller wishing to reach KJrimml 
by a glacier route may well choose the 
Dorfer- Sulzbacher 77^6VZ (9,438'), a com- 
paratively low pass over the main range 
between the Gross-Geiger and Gross- 
venediger, connecting the neve of the 
Dorfer with that of the Ober-Sulzbach 
Glacier. The main branch of the Dorfer 
Glacier is remarkably free from cre- 
vasses, and the summit of the pass is 
reached with ease in 2^ hrs. from the 
Hiitte. Inasmuch as the real difficulties 
of this route lie on the Ober-Sulzbach 
Glacier (see last Rte.j, it is, perhaps, 
wiser to start from that side, with the 
advantage of a guide possessing minute 
local knowledge, not owned by most of 
the Pregratten guides. 

Various excursions maybe made from 
Pregratten, on the S. side of the main 
valley, to points commanding favourable 
views of the snowy range. The most 
easily reached is the Bergerkopf {%,10b'), 
lying due S. of the village. Sonklar 
speaks in the highest terms of the view 
from the Lasbrling (10,171'), a peak 
with two summits (of which the southern 
is lower by 21 ft.) somewhat difficult of 
access, from its extreme steepness on all 
sides. With the assistance of Joh. 
Kratzer, an excellent mountaineer, ac- 
cidentally met at the Lasnitzen Alp, he 
ascended from the head of the Lasnitz- 
entkal, but descended by a small glacier 
on the E. side of the highest peak (called 
Musspitz on the Austrian military map) 
to the head of the Zopatnitze'nthal. This 
latter very picturesque glen appears to 
the writer to offer the best way to the 
summit — certainly the shortest from 

If the traveller should not select that 
route to Krimml, he should not omit to 
make an excursion from Pregratten to 
the Maurer Glacier, one of the lai^est 
and most remarkable of those in this 
district. It falls into the head of the 
Maurcrthal, a wild lateral glen parallel 
to the Dorferthal, which joins the main 
valley about ^ hr. W. of the latter, at a 
farmhouse called Strbden (4,51 4'^ An 



ascent of about 600 ft. by the 1. bank of 
tiie torrent leads to the Gbriach Alp, 
where a large group of Sennhutten stands 
in the midst of a comparatively level 
tract. To this succeeds a much longer 
ascent of fully 1,000 ft., where the glacier 
stream falls in a succession of cascades, 
and the traveller reaches the foot of the 
glacier at a height of 6,750 ft. Here 
two great ice-streams meet nearly at rt. 
angles, but do not, as usually happens 
in such cases, unite in a single channel. 
The western branch — Dellach Glacier of : 
Sonklar, or Simony-Kees of Keil — being 
the more copious of the two — flows 
across the valley, and abuts against its 
eastern slope, carrying its 1. moraine 
across the true Maurer Glacier, which, 
descending from the N., seems to ter- 
minate about the point where it meets 
the other ice -stream. The Dellach Glacier 
is excessively crevassed, while the Maurer 
branch proper is easily traversed. Keep- 
ing due N.,the traveller may reach, at 
its head, a depression in the main chain, 
called Maurer-Sulzbach Thbrl (about 
9,540'), which leads to the SW. corner 
of the neve-basin of the Ober-Sulzbach 
Glacier. There seems to be no doubt as 
to the possibility of reaching the neve of 
the Ki'imml Glacier by bearing to the 1. 
on the SW. side of the Hinter-Maurer- 
kopf (10,701'). This is the Ileiligen- 
geist-Keeskogel of Sonklar ; but as that 
name originates in a topographical error 
on the part of the people of the upper 
Pinzgau, it seems desirable to abandon 
it. The possibility of descending into 
the Krimmler Thai, either by the Krimml 
Glacier or along its lateral moraine, and 
thereby effecting a direct pass between 
Krimml and Pregratten, remains to be 
decided by future explorers. It may 
best be attempted by starting from the 
Tauernhaus on the Krimml side. The 
traveller who does not intend crossing 
the main chain by the Maurer-Sulzbach 
Thorl may best visit the Maurerthal 
from the Johannishiitte, by traversing 
a fine pass (known to the local guides) 
near to a point called Thiirml. He may : 
on the same day return to Pregratten, 
or else seek night-quarters at the Bciwell 

Alp (4,943'), with a view to exploring 
the uppermost end of the main valley. 
It is unfortunate for travellers that 
there is no inn, or even tolerable shelter 
for the night, in the immediate neigh- 
bourhood of the iJmbal Glacier. The 
Bowell Alp lies about 1 m. W. of Stroden, 
near the entrance of the fine defile 
through which the westernmost branch 
of the Isel descends from its parent 
glacier. S. of the alp the Kleinbach, 
and a few hundred yards farther W., 
the Grossbach, joins the Isel. Along 
the latter stream, a track mounts SSW. 
to the Troyer Thorl (8,495'), the easiest 
and most frequented pass from the up- 
per Virgenthal to Defereggen. From 
the summit, the way lies SE., through 
the Troyerthal, to St. Jakob (Ete. K). 

The western extremity of the Virgen- 
thal, above the junction of the Gross- 
bach, is often called Umbalthal, but we 
follow Keil in reserving that name for 
the last NW. branch leading up to the 
Umbal Glacier. The main valley comes 
to an end about 2 hrs. W. of Stroden, 
at the base of a group of lofty peaks 
whose highe.'-t summits are the Bodt" 
spitz {\\,^b^'), or Wcletzkopf, Taharspitz 
(11,154'), amd Klei-nglockhaus (11,238') 
— the latter being several hundred ft. 
higher than the Grossglockhaus, which 
stands about 2 m. to NW., overlooking 
Kasern, in Prettau. The first-named 
peak, which is accessible without much 
diflSculty, must command a remarkably 
fine panoramic view. It forms part 
of the range of the Tauern Alps, ex- 
tending "WSW. of the Dreiherrn spitz, 
and dividing the head of the Ahrenthal 
from the aflSuents of the Drave, while 
the others form part of a lateral 
ridge projecting southward from the 
Eodtspitz, and dividing the Virgen- 
thal from the uppermost NW. branch 
of the Defereggenthal. At the head of 
the Virgenthal, two short glens unite 
tlieir torrents to form the main branch 
of the Isel— from the SW. the Tabar- 
thal, from the NNW. the Umbalthal. 
The Tabarthal divides into three short 
branches, through one of which, called 
Sidzba^h, the traveller may traverse a 


:;entral tyrol alps. § 51. grossglockner district. 

pass called Sidzhach-Tharl, said to be j 
fatiguing and rather difficult, and so 
reach the Jagdhaus Alp at the head of ; 
the Defereggenthal. Another branch, ;' 
turning to SE., leads over the Kaseck- \ 
scharte (erroneously marked as Troyer ' 
Thorl on Sonklar's map) to the head of 
the Troyerthal, and so to St. Jakob. Far ' 
more attractive to the mountaineer than i 
the Tabarthal is the Umbalthal. A com- 
paratively short ascent leads from the 
junction of the two glens — 6,416 ft. 
above the sea — to the lower end of the 
Umbal Glacier, one of tlie greatest in 
this district, pronounced by Sonklar to ' 
be a perfect model glacier, both in re- ! 
spect to the beauty and the regularity of ■ 
its features. It originates mainly in a : 
great snow-field on the S. side of the ; 
Dreiherr 71 spitz (11,494') and the more I 
eastern summit, which, for want of any 
local name, has been fitly denominated 
Simonyspitz (11,180'). The ascent of 
both summits may best be attempted 
from this side. The former was first 
reached in Nov. 1866 by B. Ploner of 
Pregratten, and in 1867 by Dr. Wagl. 
The name Dreiherrnspitz originated in 
the middle ages, when this great corner- 
stone marked the meeting of the terri- 
tories of the Counts of Tyrol and Goritz 
with those of the Bishop of Salzburg. 
It is more remarkable to the geographer, 
as the peak which sheds its waters to- 
wards three of the greatest rivers of the 
Alps — the Inn, Drave, and Adige. 

Traversing diagonally the lower part 
of the Umbal Glacier, the traveller will 
find on its rt. or AV. bank a faintly 
marked track. This affi^rds a not very 
difficult route for the traveller wishing 
to reach Krimml from Pregratten ; but 
it is a two days' journey, involving the 
necessity of passing a nisht at Kasern 
(§ 50, Ete. E j, at th'e head^of the Ahren- 
thal. There are two practicable passes 
over the ridge between the Dreiherrn- 
spitz and the Rodtspitz — the Vorder- 
Umbal -Thorl (9,723'), lying to the SW., 
and the Hinter-Umbal-Thiirl (9,832'?) 
to NE. of the Eierl-opf (10,465'). The 
former is said to be the easier, and is 
certainly the shorter way. Both courses i 

reunite on the W. side of the Eierkopf. 
It is possible to descend directly into 
the head of the Prettau, above Kasern, 
by the ravine of the Windbach ; but it 
is said to be a better way to bear to the 
1., somewhat S. of W., towards a de- 
pression in the ridge connecting the 
Pferraspitz (9,664') with the Eodtspitz, 
and thence descend to Kasern through 
the glen of the Rettenhach. 

The mountaineer who loves a high- 
level glacier route may reach Kasern 
from the Maurerthal by ascending to 
the Recken-Thbrl (9,832'), a snow pass 
on the N. side of the Malchamspitz 
(11,023'), which connects the neve of 
the Dellach Glacier with that of Umbal, 
There would probably be no difficulty, 
for experienced ice-men, in traversing 
the neve of the Umbal Glacier to the 
Hinter-Umbal-Thorl ; but this pass is 
locally reputed to be not only difficult 
but dangerous. 

It will be seen that the Virgenthal 
offers numerous attractions to the enter- 
prising mountaineer, who may devise 
many other expeditions besides these 
here indicated. 



Route H. 

liexz to rttendoef, or bruck, in 
pikzgau, by the kalserthax and 

Hrs. English 
TvaUdng miles 
Peischlach . . . 3| 11^ 

KaLs . . . . 2i 7 

Vellem . . . S 20 

Uttendorf ... 2 6 



In the preceding routes, most of the 
valleys that penetrate deeply into the 
recesses of the Tauem Alps have been 
described, and there remain biit two 
considerable valleys, both of which, 
however, offer to the tourist scenery of 
a very high order, and to the moun- 
taineer the attraction of several first- 
rate expeditions. This is especially 
true since the discovery of a direct 
route from Kals for the ascent of the 

Of the paths leading across the main 
range from the Drave to the Salza, 
adapted to ordinary travellers who do 
not attempt difficult expeditions, that 
of the Kaiser Thorl, from Kals to 
Uttendorf, is, perhaps, the most inte- 
resting. The di.stance is rather less 
than that from Windisch-Matrey to 
Mittersill (Ete. E), and the scenery 

The way from Lienz to Peischlach 
(2.479'), in the main valley of the Isel, 
has been desci'ibed in Rte. E. Erom 
that village a track ascends NNE. by 
tlie E. side of the narrow cleft through 
which the Kalserbach enters the Isei- 
thal. After mounting rather steeply 
for |- hr., a very fine view of the Gross- 
glockner is unexpectedly gained. The 
peak remains for some time in view, 
but as the traveller advances, the inter- 
mediate ranges gradually come in the 
way, and finally eclipse it altogether. 
The valley is not here broken into 
«teps with intervening level spaces, but 
mounts continuously. About 1 hr. from 
Peischlach is Haslach (3,630'), near to 
which the traveller passes a fine water- 
fall. Nearly ^ hr. farther \a Aring 

j (4,317'), beyond which the track passes 
! to the 1. bank of the Kalserbach a little 
i below the junction of the Lesach, a 
copious torrent charged with the drain- 
age of several of the glaciers of the 
Schober group, which issues from the 
Lesachthal, further noticed in the next 
Ete. The village of Lesach (4,389') 
stands on the slope above the junction. 
Thence the way lies for a while through 
pine forest, till the valley, for the first 
time, opens out into a comparatively 
broad basin, where stands 

Kals. This, in truth, includes two 
villages. The larger of these, locally 
called Grossdorf (4,472'), stands on the 
W. slope of the valley, while St. Ewpert 
(4,324') is on the rt. bank, close to the 
junction of the torrent from the Kod- 
nitzthal. Here is the chief church of 
the valley, and near it an inn. A second 
inn stands near the bank of the torrent. 
Both are rather rough country inns, 
but are improved of late years, and 
offer tolerable accommodation. The 
Kals people are friendly to strangers, 
and remarked in Tyrol as exceptionally 

Many of the most interesting excur- 
sions from Kals are mentioned in the 
next Ete.; but the chief attraction for 
mountaineers will doubtless be the two 
routes to the summit of the Gross- 
glockner, which have been discovered 
within the last few years. A glance 
at the map will show that, while all the 
glaciers and snow-slopes of the NNE. 
side of the Glockner range lie in the 
upper basin of the Mollthal, those of 
the opposite or SSW. slope are di^'ided 
by the ridge that separates that valley 
from the Kalserthal. Four rather con- 
siderable glaciers send their drainage 
to the Kalserbach, and one only — the 
Leiter Glacier — is drained towards the 
Moll through the Leiterthal. It will 
be recollected that the way to the 
Glockner from Heiligenblut — ^long sup- 
posed to be the only possible course — 
lies through that glen, and that the 
base of the highest peak is reached at 
the Adlersri'.he, a patch of rocks pro- 
' jecting from the ridge of the mountain 


on the ESE. side of the summit. From 
the Adlersriihe, a secondary ridge runs 
southward, dividing the valley of Kals 
from Heiligenblut, and connecting the 
Glockner group with that of the Hoch- 
fichober. Between this and the Vanit- 
scharte, another shorter and nearly 
parallel ridge, extending SSW. from 
the main peak, and called Grlocknergrat 
by the Kals guides, is a n^v^-basin, 
whence descends the Kodnitz Glacier, 
whose torrent joins the Kalserbach at 
St. Eupert. Starting from Kals, the 
ascent is made either by the Kodnitz- 
kees or the Vanitscharte. There are 
several excellent mountaineers amongst 
the Kals guides. Foremost should be 
reckoned Thomas Groder and Josef 
Kehrer, who discovered the direct way 
to the summit of the Glockner. Groder 
has three brothers, all good guides. 
Besides these, Josef Schuell, Geurg 
Payer and his two sons, Johann Grafler, 
and Peter Hutter, are all well recom- 
mended. Their demands are consider- 
ably less than those of the Heiligen- 
blut men. 

The way is by the Jorgenhuttc (6,444'), 
the highest Sennhutte'iu the Kochiitzthal. 
The Kodnitz Glacier is much crevassed, 
but there is little difficulty in reaching 
the deep slope at its NE. corner, that 
leads to the Adlersruhe, where the an- 
cient course from Heiligenblut (Rte. B) 
is joined. The discovery of a much 
shorter line to the highest peak of the 
Glockner, by the ridge of the Vanit- 
scharte, is due to the Kals guides named 
above, and to the perseverance of M. 
Egid Pegger, who ascended three times 
in 1865. The base of the scharte is 
reached by traversing the W. branch of 
the Kodnitz Glacier, called Vanitkees, 
which is tolerably free from crevasses. 
Here a hut has been erected, about 9.300 
ft. above the sea, at the expense of Herr 
Stiidl of Prag ; and as it affords good 
shelter for the night, it has made this 
rt«. much easier than that from Hei- 
ligenblut. Thenceforward the ascent lies, 
throughout, over rock, in some places 
Ti-ry steep, but apparently nowhere dan- 
gerous. The scTiuiible must be of the 

most interesting description ; and the 
view of the great Pasterze Glacier, sud- 
denly opened to view as the traveller 
gains the summit, transcendently grand. 
This description, however, refers to the 
exceptionally hot summer of 1865. 
Rocks were then bare which had never 
been seen bare before, as, for instance, 
the second peak of the Glockner itself. 
The Kals guides, determined to secure 
a preference for the new route, have im- 
proved the ascent, and in the steepest 
places have even attached wire ropes to 
the rocks. 

The way from Kals to the Pinzgau 
lies over the Kaiser Tauern, and, though 
not difficult for a mountaineer, is, in 
places, intricate, and should not be 
taken without a guide. The path fol- 
lows the main valley nearly due N. 
from the village, through the compara- 
tively level tract which forms the limit 
of permanent habitations. At the open- 
ing of the Teischnitzthal, through which 
flows the torrent from the Teischnitz 
Glacier that descends to SW. from the 
peak of the Grossglockner, the tra- 
veller should turn round to catch a fine 
distant view of the peaks of the Hoch- 
schober group. Above the junction of 
this torrent, where stands a group of 
houses called Tav.rtr (4,806'), the main 
valley appears to be barred by a trans- 
verse ridge, through which the Kalser- 
bach has cut a very deep trench. The 
path ascends the steep slopes above the 
I. bank, and in about \ hr. the traveller, 
having gained the summit, enjoys a 
view of a picturesque Alpine basin, 
whereon stand many Sfnnhuiten. Above 
this point the main valley is locally 
called Dorferthal. But it is desirable 
to abandon that useless designation, 
liable to be confused with the Dorfer- 
thal, near Pregi-atten. The scenery 
here is extremely fine. To the rt. rises 
the great range of the Grossglockner, 
while on the W. side the valley is 
divided from the Tsel-Tauernthal by a 
high range — the Kalserkamm of Son- 
klar — which culminates in iheRoIffemer 
(10,666'). The writer is not aware that 
HD^ pass is known across this range to 



the Tauernhaus at the S. foot of the 
Velber Tauern, neither has he seen any 
notice of the ascent of the last-named 
summit. He is inclined to select it as 
likely to command the finest view of the 
peaks of the High Tauern. 

After descending some way across the 
barrier that divides the upper from the 
lower valley, the traveller follows the on- 
ward track, alternating between masses 
of dark pine forest and patches of green 
Alpine pasture. The peaks of the 
G-lockner range naturally attract the 
larger share of his attention. Several 
of these come into view at the point 
where the torrent from the Frusnitz 
Glacier, also called Dorfer Glacier, en- 
ters the valley. The whole of this 
tract is collectively known as Dorferalm, 
but each separate small group of Hutten 
has a special name. At the highest of 
these, called Boheim (5,731'), about 2|- 
hrs. from Kals, travellers wishing to 
cross the pass very early sometimes 
seek and find shelter for the night. It 
lies immediately S. of the confluencf^ of 
the torrent from the Laperwitz Glacier 
— the northernmost considerable glacier 
on this side of the Glockner range. 
Above this point, the valley changes its 
character. The Alpine pastures in some 
places give place to piles of debris 
fallen from the surrounding heights. 
J3efore long the Lorfer-See (6,227') is 
reached. This is said to originate in a 
Bergfall from the Ka^tenkofel (10,403'), 
•which overhangs the valley on the E. 
side. The aspect of the scenery becomes 
more and more severe as the traveller 
advances. In front, but a little to the 
1., is seen the Tauern Glacier, of small 
dimensions, but remarkable for its pure 
tints. It lies in a hollow enclosed by 
the Rothe Tauernspitz (10,503'), Gra- 
natenspitz (10,116'), and Bdrenkopf 
(10,093')— the latter not to be con- 
founded with the summits so named at 
the head of the Pasterze Glacier. After 
approaching near the base of the gla- 
cier, the path txxrns aside to KE. for the 
ascent to the 

Kaiser Taucm (8,410'), reached in 
2^ hrs. from Boheim, or 5 hrs. from 

Kals. This is a wild and rather dreary 
spot, being usually encumbered with 
much soft snow ; but the epithet ' dan- 
gerous,' applied to it in the new edition 
of 'Schaubach,' is as erroneous as several 
other statements there made respecting 
the head of the Kalserthal. In de- 
scending to the Stubachtkal the way lies 
at first NXE., but before long bears some- 
what to the 1., or about due N., down a 
steep rocky declivity, with little or no 
trace of path. At the base of this 
descent, the traveller reaches the higher 
of the two lakes that occupy this branch 
of the valley. This is the Weisssee 
(7,514') of Keil's and Sonklar's maps, 
arising from the melting of a rather 
large glacier of the same name that lies 
on the E. flank of the Sonnblick (9,954'), 
and reaches to the lake shore. Dr. 
Euthner has erroneously called it Griine 
See. It may here be observed that mi- 
nute local knowledge, which is not pos- 
sessed by all the Xals guides, is much 
needed in the upper part of the Stu- 
bachthal. The torrents have cut deep 
and impassable gorges, and bridges 
(Stege) are often wanting, or consist 
only of a single dangerously narrow and 
slippery pine trunk. On one occasion. 
Col. V. Sonklar, falling into a furious 
torrent, had a very narrow escape with 
his life. In descending from the Kai- 
ser Tauern the traveller does not imme- 
diately enter the main branch of the 
Stubachthal. This is traversed by the 
torrent from the Oede^nmnkel Glacier, 
a very considerable ice-stream flowing 
from the NW. extremity of the Glock- 
ner range. Half a mile below the glacier, 
the torrent enters a level plain, called 
Tau£r7iraoos{6,%^&), \\va.. long, and|-m. 
broad, obviously the area of an ancient 
lake, part of which, not yet filled up, 
occupies the northern end of the plain. 
Escaping from this basin, the torrent 
descends a high and precipitous step in 
the valley to the lower level of the En- 
zinger Boden. At that point it joins 
the stream which originates in the "Weiss- 
see, and drains the W. branch of the 
valley, locally called Tauernthal, The 
main (OedenwinkeU branch is separated 


from the Tauernthal by a low ridge, 
whose highest point — the Schafhilhel 
(8,017') — lies somewhat S. of theWeiss- 
8ee. The course formerly followed in 
descending from the Kaiser Taiiern was 
to cross this ridge by a merely trifling 
ascent on the S. side of the Schafbiihel, 
and, passing along the W. side of the 
Tauernmoos, to keep along the heights 
on the E. side of the main valley to the 
"Wurfalp, whence a beaten track descends 
to Hopfsbach. This involves crossing 
the violent torrent belowthe Tauernmoos 
by the rough trunk of a single tree, 
unsafe for many travellers, and most 
prefer to keep along the Tauernthal, 
passing on the "W. side of a second lake 
that lies nearly 1 hr. below the Weisssee. 
As to the name of this lake, there is in- 
tolerable confusion. It is the Griine 
See of Sonklar's map, Schwarzsee of 
Keil, and the Weisse See of Dr. Ruthner, 
while ]VIr. Tuckett, who passed a night 
in the neighbouring shepherd's hut, 
declares that on the spot it is known as 
the Blansee (6,395', Keil), which latter 
name is here adopted. By a rough 
but not difficult track, the traveller de- 
scends, amid very fine scenery, to the 
Hopfsbachalp. The traveller who would 
not lose the far grander scenery of the 
Oedenwinkel branch of the valley has 
three courses by which he may avoid 
the dangerous passage of the torrent. 
Crossing the ridge E. of the Weisssee, 
and keeping well to the rt., he may 
reach the lower end of the Oedenwin- 
kel Glacier, which, like that of Zmutt, 
is completely covered over with debris. 
Crossing over to the rt. bank of the gla- 
cier, he may descend to the Tauernmoos, 
and keep along the E. side of the marshy 
flat, till he hits upon a faintly traced 
cattle-track, which may be followed 
about dueN. to theWurfalp. This would 
involve rough scrambling over pathless 
ground on both sides of the glacier, and 
a considerable detour, which may be 
avoided by a traveller who does not ob- 
ject to wade through the ice-cold torrent 
below the glacier, where it meanders 
throiigh the plain of the Tauernmoos. 
A third course, which is easier than 

either of the others, is to return from 
the Tauernmoos to the Tauernthal by 
the S. side of the Schaffbiihel. Which- 
ever route be taken, the traveller finally 
reaches the floor of the main valley at 

HopfshacTialp (4,148'). This is the 
summer dwelling of one of the large 
peasant proprietors, who own nearly the 
entire Stubachthal. The class is charac- 
teristic of the Pinzgau, but those of this 
valley enjoy especial local importance, 
both for the extent of their possessions 
and the antiquity of their families. 
Though not rich, if measured by a mo- 
ney standard, these men enjoy many of 
the advantages and the local influence 
elsewhere accorded to wealth. They are 
known — like the chiefs of Highland 
clans — by local instead of family names. 
The owner of this, the highest part cf the 
valley, and another tract near its open- 
ing, is known as the Enzinger. Next 
below him is the Vellerer, and lower 
still the Widrechtshauser. Travellers 
speak highly of the kindness and hos- 
pitality shown to them by these peasant 
lords of the valley. The traveller ap- 
proaching from the Pinzgau will do 
well to apply to one or other for local 
information and for a guide. A rough 
road, passable for light vehicles, is car- 
ried through the valley as far as the 
Hopfsbachalp, but the traveller coming 
from Uttendorf will gain little time by 
taking a vehicle beyond Vellern (3,352'), 
about 1 hr. below the Alp. The hamlet 
of Vellern, where numerous houses are 
gathered round that of the proprietor 
above named, stands a short way below 
the junction with the main valley of a 
western tributary glen called Dorfer- 
Oed. This is very rarely visited by a 
stranger. It originates in a wild hol- 
low, in great part occupied by snow and 
glacier, enclosed between the Sonnbliclc 
(9,954'). BaheiiTcopf (10,114'), and the 
Landcclckopf (9,440'). A pass, said to 
be difficult, leads over the main range 
between the last-named summits to the 
Landcckthal (Ete. E), which opens into 
the Isel-Tauernthal nearly 3 hrs. above 
Windisch-Matrey. If it were mode- 


rately easy, it would be a short cut for 
a traveller bound to that place from the 
lower Pinzwau. 

From Vellern the road descends by a 
gentle slope through the lower Stubach- 
thal, passes the large farm establish- 
ment of the "Widrechtshauser, and lower 
down the chief house of the Enzinger. 
Part of the appurtenances of these 
farms is a still for making the gentian 
liqueur for which the Talley is locally 
renowned. The road enters the Pinz- 
gau. opposite 

Uttendorf (§ 50, Rte. A), which is 
reached by a bridge over the Salza. 

The mountaineer wlio wishes to enjoy 
the finest sceneiy of this district will 
combine the passage of the Kaiser 
Tauern with a visit to the Kaprunerthal 
(Rte. D). For this purpose he will 
avail himself of the fine pass of the 
Kapniner Thorl. Sleeping at the Bo- 
heim hut, at the upper end of the Kal- 
serthal, an active walker may reach 
Kaprun on the following day. But it 
would be a better plan to go on the first 
day from Kals to the Hopfsbachalp by 
the Blausee, and on the following day 
remount the E. branch of the Stubach- 
thal by the "Wurfalp. Unless he should 
have secured the services of G-rafler of 
Kals, who knows the way, he should 
enquire for Johann Berger, the best 
guide in the Stubachthal. In the for- 
mer case he must somehow reach the 
E. side of the basin of the Tauernmoos 
from the Kaiser Tauern, as above ex- 
plained ; in the other, he will reach the 
same point bv the easier way from the 
Wurfalp. The Kcqyruner TJiorl (8,74(/) 
is a depression in the range that divides 
the upper end of the Kaprunerthal from 
that of the Stubachthal, about half-way 
between the Hnh" Eiffel (11,003') and 
Grosseiscr (10,361'), and immediately S, 
of the Kleineher (9,699'). Being a gla- 
cier pass, and lying out of the line of 
ordinary traffic, it is very rarely used. 
In ascending from the Tauernmoos, it is 
necessary to cross diagonally the Eiffel 
Glacier, originating in a snow-field on 
the NW. flank of the Holie Riifel. The 
last part of the ascent is by a steep 

c. T. 

! slope of debris. Of two depressions 
that seem to oifer equal facilities for 
crossing the ridge, that lying to the left 
is to be preferred. The rt. hand pas- 
sage, marked by the remains of a wooden 
cross, though formerly easier, is now 
abandoned. From the summit the 
w.iy lies at first ENE. over neve, but 
gradually bears to the 1., and before 
long reaches the ice-stream which de- 
scends north-eastward towards the Moo- 
serboden. This, which is the Tkorl- 
gletscher of Sonklar, is so completely 
covered with debris, that from a dis- 
tance it is not recognised as a glacier. 
In order to avoid very rough ground, 
and tinbridged glacier streams, it is 
advisable to leave the Thorlgletscher 
by the rt. bank, and, crossing diagon- 
ally the adjoining much greater ice- 
stream of the Karlinger Glacier, de- 
scend to the Mooserboden by its rt. bank. 
(See Ete. D.) 

From the Hopfsbachalp the traveller 
vixQ.y reach the Pinzgau at a point nearly 
half-way between Uttendorf and Ka- 
pnm, by traversing the easy pass of 
the Muhlbacher Thorl {1,10T). This lies 
at the head of the Milhlbachthal, a short 
glen that opens into the valley of the 
Salza at Miihlbach, a little below Leng- 
dorf (§ 50, Rte. A). Descending to the 
Lakoral'p (6,731'), the traveller finds 
a cattle-track that leads him in 2 lirs.* 
rapid descent to Miihlbach. 



The mountaineer visiting the range of 
the High Tauern will naturally endea- 
vour to avoid descending into the com- 
paratively hot, and not very interesting, 
main valleys of the Pinzgau and Pu- 
sterthal, and to keep as near as possible 
to the peaks of the main range. For 
this pui-pose he will necessarily have 
occasion to pass from Heiligenblut, his 
head-quarters in the Glockner group, to 
Windisch-Matrey, which, as has been 
seen in Etes. F and G, gives ready access 
to the innermost recesses of the Venedi- 
ger range. A good walker, taking the 
easier of the passes here enumerated, 
may easily accomplish the distance in a 
single day. Whichever he may select 
of the various passes leading to Kals, 
he must not fail to traverse the short 
and easy, but very beautiful, pass lead- 
ing from the latter place to Wicdisch- 
Matrey, and should arrange his course 
so as to be at the summit either early 
in the morning, or a little before sun- 
set, so as to enjoy to advantage the very 
remarkable view. 

The direct way from Heiligenblut to 
Kals is through the Leiterthal, which 
was described in Rte. B, in connection 
with the ascent of the Grrossgloekner. 
On the 1. hand, ascending the Leiter- 
thal, a siiort steep glen ascends at first 
SSW., then SW., and leads to the Pel- 
schlach-T/iorl {S,062'), on the S. side of 
the Kaarherg (9,058'). A few hundred 
yards beyond the point where the path 
diverges into the Peischlachthal, another 
track diverges from the Leiterthal, and 
mounts no less steeply to the Berger 
Thorl (7,971', Keil), another pass on 
the N. side of the same summit. The 
latter is generally preferred, being 
rather shorter and easier. The height 
of 8,714 ft, attributed to this pass is 
probably one of the numerous blunders 
of the ' Kataster,' Whichever pass be 
chosen, it is necessary to descend into 
the Kudnitzthal, and the paths reunite 
at the WSW. base of the Kaarberg. ' 

The torrent of the Kodnitzthal, after 
flowing nearly due S. for some miles, 
turns westward at the junction of the 
stream from the Peischlach-Thcirl. 
Just below the junction, on the N, side 
of the valley, is a group of farm build- 
ings called Grader (4,802'), whence a 
beaten path along the rt, bank leads to 
Kals, From 6 to 7 hrs, are allowed for 
the walk from Heiligenblut. 

The mountaineer, not over-pressed 
for time, may desire, on his way from 
Heiligenblut to Kals, to see something 
of the range of high peaks between 
those valleys, whose chief summits are 
the Petzeck (10,761'), and Hochschoher 
(10,628'). Of the ascent of the former, 
the writer has no information. The 
second is most easily reached from 
Aineth, or St. Johann, in the Iselthal 
(Rte, E). Although it does not approach 
the highest summits, the most interest- 
ing of the lateral valleys of this group 
is the Gossnitzthal. The very fine water- 
fall in which its torrent descends to the 
level of the MoUthal is noticed among 
the excursions from Heiligenblut. 
Above the ravine of the waterfall, the 
path, which keeps to the 1. bank, enters 
on an alluvial plain. H m. long, whereon 
stands a group oi H'utten, called ' In der 
Eben ' (5. .447'). Another ascent leads 
to a higher basin at the extreme head 
of the valley, into which the Oossnitz 
and Hornkogel Grlaciers send their tor- 
rents. The only pass said to lead west- 
ward from hence to the Kaiser Thai is 
that of the Krystdlscharte (9,217'), 
mentioned by Sonklar as connecting 
this with the Lesachthal, which opens 
into the Kaiser Thai about ^ hr, below 
Kals. From his map, however, it 
would appear that the descent on the 
W. side from that pass must be to- 
wards the Kodnitzthal, but doubtless, 
when this range is better knoTvai, a pass 
to the Lesachthal will be discovered. 
The wTiter suggests the ascent of the 
Pei.^chlach-Kcsselko])/ (10,221') of Keil 
— Bosps AVeibele of the ' Kataster ' — 
as likely to command a singularly fine 

Having reached Kals by one or 

EorxE K. 



Other of the passes above named, the 
course to Windisch-Matrey lies due W., 
up a short but rather steep lateral glen. 
A guide is scarcely required, unless it 
be to find the shortest way through the 
fields in the valley. Ascending steadily 
f-jr 2 hrs., the traveller reaches the 
summit of the Matnyer Kaher Thorl 
(7,277'); which is visible both from Kals 
and Windisch-jVTatrey. At this very 
moderate height, accessible to the most 
moderate walker, a view of extraordi- 
nax'y beauty and variety is gained. The 
eye penetrates into the adjoining valleys 
of Kals and Matrey, along the Yirgen- 
thal, and through part of the valley of 
Kodnitz, and contrasts these with the 
snowy ranges which form the back- 
ground on either side. To the W. the 
chief summits of the Glockner and 
Schober ranges are all in view, and 
eastward the more distant range of 
peaks from the Kleinvenediger to the 
Lasorling. In the descent it is well to 
remember that the way lies by the S. side 
of the Bretterthal, through which a tor- 
rent descends to Windisch-Matrey that 
has often carried destruction to the 
houses and gardens of its inhabitants. 
The larches here extend to a height 
little below the summit of the pass, and 
the way is partly under the shade of 
forest, with charming views at intervals 
over the Iselthal, and along the Virgen- 
thal. From 3 to 3^ hrs. are quite suffi- 
cient for this pass, but most travellers 
will be tempted to linger by the way. 

The pass, above described, between 
Matrey and Kals is so interesting that 
it is well worth while for a traveller 
going from Lienz to Kals to make the 
detoui' that way, which involves but 
little delay. Taking a light carriage 
from Lienz to Windisch-Matrey, he will 
have time not only to make the pass to 
Kals, but, if needful, to push on to the 
Jorgenhiitte or the Boheimhiltte on the 
same day. 

In der Huben 
St. Jakob . 
St. Valentin 

. H 
. 1 
. 4f 

. 4 

. 4 




18 44i 

Carriage-road to In der Huben ; horse-track 
to the Jagdhausalp ; on foot thence to St. Va- 

In the preceding Etes. all the prin- 
cipal valleys of this district have been 
described, with the sole exception of 
the Defereggenthal, often written Tefer- 
ecJccnthal. This lies parallel to the 
Pusterthal, and to the general direction 
of the High Tauern range, and about 
I half-way between them. The direction 
I of the upper end of the valley is indeed 
! towards SE., or transverse to that of 
i the Antholzer and Ahrenthal ranges, 
[ between which it originates, but from 
I the Patscher Briicke to its junction with 
the Isel — a distance of nearly 20 m. — 
I the course of the torrent is due £. On 
i the one side, the valley is divided from 
I the Virgenthal by the range noticed in 
Ete. G, which culminates in the Lasor- 
ling, and on the other, the somewhat 
lower, but not insignificant, range called 
by Sonklar Dcftreggenkamm separates 
it from the Pusterthal. The latter is 
much less steeply inclined on either 


side than most of the ranges of this | 
district. Tho main valleys on either j 
side are 12 or 13 m. apart, and com- j 
paratively long lateral glens penetrate i 
deeply into the mass, which does not i 
usually surpass 9,000 ft. in height, j 
The Ete. here described may be con- 
venient for a pedestrian going from 
Lienz to the head of the Ahrenthal, but 
if unwilling to achieve a glacier pass, 
he should prefer the easier and less fa- 
tiguing -^ay from St. Jakob to the Ah- 
renthal by the Klamml Joch and Bret- 
terscharte (Rte. 31), while the mountai- 
nesr bound for the same place will un- i 
doubtedly prefer the route through the i 
Virgfnthal, which offers scenery of a 
higher order. The Defereggenthal will | 
probably be oftener used by travellers I 
starting from Bruneck, who, traversing ' 
one or other of the passes mentioned in 
the following Rtes., may reach Kals and 
Heiligenblut by an easy, agreeable, 
and direct way, avoiding the high-road 
through the Pusterthal. 

The torrent of the Defereggenthal — 
called Schwarzbach — dpscends through 
a narrow cleft to join the Isel imme- 
diately above the good inn at In der 
Huben, close to Peischlach (Ete. E) ; 
and there is a path on either side lead- 
ing to Hopfgarten (3,611'), the most 
considerable village in the valley. Like 
the re=;t of the people of this valley, the 
inhabitants follow the trade of hawking 
carpets and rugs throughout Germany, 
where they pass as natives of the Puster- 
thal. Above the village, the path 
enters a gorge, but the valley soon 
widens, and the scenery, without rising 
to grandeur, is varied and agreeable. 
As usual in the transverse valleys of 
the Alps, the villages for the most part 
stand on the northern slope, and the 
opposite side presents alternations of 
r^ok, pine forest, and rough pasture. 
The path is in most places near to the 
stream, and about half-way between 
Hopfgarten, it passes below 

St. Veit (4,883'), a village seen from 
afar, as it is nearly 800 ft. above the 
level of the valley. Thence ascends the 
path to the Steinkas Pass, noticed in 

Ete. Gr. Following the valley path, the 
traveller passes the hamlet of Gort- 
schach (4,156'), and about 2 m. farther 
crosses to the rt. bank, and keeps along 
the stream as far as St. Leonhard 
(4,553'), the only village on the S. side 
of the valley. Several tributary glens 
enter the main valley near here. On 
the JST. side, the Tegischbach descends 
through a narrow glen, up which lies 
the way to the Mulitz-Thorl (Ete. G), 
A little farther W. is the opening of the 
Trover Thai, by which the head of the 
Virgenthal is reached, either by the 
Grossbach or the Kaseckscharte Csee 
Ete. G). On the S. side opens the Lag- 
nitzenthal, descending from the highest 
part of the Defereggen range, where 
four summits near together exceed 
9,500 ft. in height. Thelirack descends 
slightly from St. Leonhard to the 
Schwarzbach, crosses to the 1. bank, 
and goes along level ground to the 
opening of the Troyer Thai, just beyond 
which is the highest village in the 
valley — 

St. Jakob (4,470'). There are tole- 
rable country inns here and in the othe? 
villages of the valley. The best is ap- 
parently that nearest the church (Bas- 
ler's ?), but there have been complaints 
of extortion. Either here or at Erlsbach 
is the best stopping-place on the way to 
St. Valentin or to Bruneck. For about 
1^ hr. above St. Jakob, the main valley 
preserves its original direction, and the 
path ascends westward towards the 
peaks of the Antholzer Alps, which ap- 
pear to bar further progress. Soon 
after passing Erlshach (5,128') — a small 
hiimlet with a very clean inn — this 
divides. Along the lesser torrent of 
the Stallerbach, that descends from the 
SW., mounts a path to Antholz (Ete. 
L) ; while the main stream flows from 
the NW., and the path for some time 
follows its 1. bank. It crosses to the 
rt. bank, however, at the opening of 
a short and steep lateral glen called 
Patschthal, but presently recrosses the 
torrent by the Fatscher Brucke f5,384'). 
Henceforward, the way lies through h 
green highland valley, in which large 



herds of horned cattle are pastured in 
summer. Excepting occasional clumps 
of P'mus cemhra, timlaer is scarce, and 
the numerous Sennhutten are built 
of flags of gneiss, piled up in such a 
way that, except for the smoke, they 
are scarcely recognisable. The people 
of this valley, except in the chief vil- 
lages, speak a dialect unintelligible 
even to Austrian s, and are shy of 
strangers. The milk-maids are said 
often to retreat into the Hiitten, and bar 
the doors so as to disappoint the travel- 
ler, who merely seeks a draught of milk. 
At the Oberhausalp, the path returns 
to the rt. bank, which it follows for a 
long distance. Fully 2 hrs. above the 
PatscherBriicke,the valley again divides. 
The branch of the stream which retains 
the name Schwarzbach descends due S. 
from a glacier between the Rodtspitz and 
the Grossglockhaus, while the Affen- 
bach flows ESE., from the uppermost 
head of the valley, which forms the 
western extremity of the basin of the 
Drave. A short distance above the 
junction of these torrents, a rough path, 
still keeping to the rt. bank, leads to 

Jaffdhausalp {6,602'), a summer Tillage 
of Sennhutten, with a little chapel. In 
ascending the valley, this is reckoned 5 
hrs. from St. Jakob. The direct way to 
the head of the Ahrenthal lies along 
the Aflfenbach. It ascends at first NW., 
and, having approached close to the low 
pass that leads to the Eainthal (Rte. 
M), bears at first N., and finally NXE., 
in the final ascent to the MerbjiJchl 
(9,280'), about 2^ hrs. above the alp. 
The pass, which commands a very fine 
view of tiie Zillerthal Alps, has been 
described as the ' Ochsenleute-Tauern,^ 
a name apparently borrowed from the 
much lower pass of Ochsenlenk, or 
Bretterscharte, leading from the head 
of the Eainthal to the Ahrenthal, for 
which see Ete. M. There is a small, 
but rather steep, glacier on the N. side 
of the ^Nlerbjoehl, for which crampons, 
or the use of the ice-axe, are generally 
required. From the foot of the glacier, 
a rapid but not difficult descent leads 

to St. Valentin (§ 50, Ete. E). There 
is another pass from the Jagdhausalp 
to the head of the Ahrenthal, said to be 
higher and more diflScult than the 
Merbjochl, but likely to be very inte- 
resting to the moimtaineer. This, which 
is approached by following the glen of 
the Schwarzbach, is called io^c/^oc/i; it 
lies about half-way between iheRodtsjntz 
(11,459') and GrossglocJihaus (10,546'), 
and must apparently command fine near 
views of the adjoining peaks, as well as 
the remarkable range of the Zillerthal 
Alps to the N. and W. The descent to 
Kasern follows the glen of the Eodten- 
bach, and joins the path by which the 
descent from the Umbal-Thorl (Ete. Gr) 
is usually effected. 

Route L. 
brrneck to hopfgarten. 

In describing the road from Bruneek 
to Lienz (Ete. A), we noticed two late- 
ral valleys, whose torrents join the 
Eienz some way E. of the former town, 
each of which offers a convenient roiite 
for a traveller going thence to Windisch- 
Matrey, Kals, or Heiligenblut. The 
more interesting is that first described. 

1. By the Antholzer rA«/.— About 9 m. 
by road to the baths of Antholz ; \{\\ 
hrs.' walking thence to Hopfgarten. 


The traveller will do well to engage i 
a light vehicle from Bruneck, as far as ' 
the baths. About o m. from the towu, 
lie leaves the high-road of the Puster- 
thal, and turns XNE. into the open i 
valley of Antholz, which, for several j 
miles, is comparatively broad, and | 
ascends with a very gentle slope. After 
passing the "vnllages of ^leder-Rasen 
(3.409') and Ohcr-Uascn (3,565'), with 
several old castles in more or less 
ruinous condition, the Baths of Antholz, 
about 4 m. from the entrance of the 
valley, are reached. The mineral spring 
is locally known as Salomonsbrunnen, 
and is somewhat frequented in summer. 
The establishment supplies humble ac- 
commodation, and the arrangement of 
the baths argues a condition of primitive 
innocence or ignorance. The position 
is very picturesque. To the N. and 
NXE. the fine range of the Antholzer 
Aliys, here commonly known by the col- 
lective name Eiesenferner, is seen to 
great advantage. This is a remarkable 
detached range of lofty peaks, parallel 
in its general direction to the Zillerthal, 
and the western portion of the Taueru 
Alps, from which latter it is separated 
by the Eainthal, described in the next 
Ute, The highest summits are the 
Hochgall (11, 284'), also known as Eieser, 
and Wildgall (10,785'), both rising above 
the upper end of the Antholzer Thai, a nd 
the Schnecbige Nock (11,068'), which 
crovrns a promontory extending towards 
the Eainthal. There are two villages 
higher up in the valley, each of which 
is sometimes called Antholz. The first, 
about 1 m. above the baths, is locally 
known as Niederthal (3,728'), or Wcd- 
hurg; and the second, nearly 1 hr.'s walk 
farther, is the principal place in the valley 
— called Mitterthal (4,075'), or Gassen 
— with a tolerable country inn (Brug- 
ger s). This is the best starting-point 
for several Alpine excursions, amongst 
which the ascent of the Hochgall, not 
yet effected, will attract mountaineers. 
Two fine glacier passes lead to the 
Eainthal (Ete. M). That of the Ant- 
holzer Shartc (9,281') leads to the head 
of the Bachernthal, one of the two 

uppermost brandies of the Eainthal; 
while the GansebiichJ-Joch (9,407') is 
a more direct way to Taufers, as it leads 
through the Geltthal to the lower part 
of the same valley. Another way to 
Taufers keeps on the S. side of the 
higher summits of the Antholzer range, 
but is fatiguing, as it involves the pas- 
sage of three ridges, and the descent 
into two intermediate glens. The pass 
from Mitterthal to Gsiess over the 
Ochsenfelder Alps is likely to give a 
fine view of the Antholzer range. 

Above Mitterthal, the valley bends to 
ENE., parallel to the main range of 
the Zillerthal Alps, and to the inter- 
mediate ridges and valleys. The track, 
passable for country carts, mounts, 
chiefly by the 1. bank of the torrent, 
through the rather broad valley into 
which great masses of detritus have 
been carried down by torrents from the 
surrounding heights. In about l\ hr. 
from the village, the traveller reaches the 
Antholzer See (5,305'), one of the most 
beautiful Alpine lakes in Tyrol, about 
two-thirds of a mile in length, and half 
that width, seemingly owing its origin 
to two great mounts of detritus that 
have descended from opposite sides of 
the valley. Pine forest and rock en- 
close the lake, and from above these, 
the snowy peaks of the Hochgall and 
its attendant summits are reflected in 
the waters. The track passes along 
the S. and E. shore, and then, crossing 
the torrent, ascends, in another hour, 
to the summit of the Stcdler Sattel 
(6,738'), the low pass that marks the 
division between the Defereggen and 
Antholzer Alps. A few minutes' de- 
scent on the EXE. side leads to the 
Stcdler See (6,600'), a mere tarn at the 
head of a short pastoral glen, called 
Stalleralp, which joins the main branch 
of the Defereggenthal about 1^ hr. 
above St. Jakob, for which see last 

2. Bg the Gsiessthal and Gsiess Jock. 
About 10 ro. by road; 12 hrs.' walking 
thence to Hopfgarten. The traveller, 
following the high-road of the Puster- 
thal, who, at Welsberg (Ete. A), crosses 



an unijiiportant torrent that issues from 
a narrow cleft in the side of the valley, 
would not suppose that it drains a con- 
siderable valley at least 15 m. in length, 
and containing numerous villages. The 
barrier at the mouth of the valley is 
formed by a ridge of metamorphic slate 
running E. and W., which has impressed 
that direction on the lower part of the 
valley. The shortest way for a traveller 
coming from Bruneck is to leave the 
high-road about a mile before reaching 
Welsberg, and ascend gently to Tcmten 
(3,991'), a village on the N. side of the 
gorge ; but the more frequented track, 
passable for country carts, ascends 
from Welsberg by the S. side of the old 
castle, and only crosses to the N. side 
of the Pnd7iigbach (as the main torrent 
is called) about 1^ hr. from that vil- 
lage. It is soon joined by the path 
from Taisten. and in If hr. from Wels- 
berg, the traveller reaches 

Ausser-Fichl (4,104')> the chief vil- 
lage of the lower valley, often called 
G-siess ; but that name is also given to 
St. Martin. M. Huter, the priest of 
this village, is an excellent botanist. 
A path leads hence over the Speikrirdl 
to Xiederthal, in the valley of Antholz. 
Above Pichl, the Gsiessthal turns to 
NE., with a gradual ascent; and, in 
about H hr. more, 

St. Martin (about 4,500' ?) is reached. 
This remote village is remembered as 
the birthplace of the Capuchin Has- 
pinger, whose fiery spirit so often led 
the Tyrolese to victory against the 
French and Bavarian invader in 1809. 
There is an inn ; but few travellers will 
break the journey to St. Jakob. Here 
the valley is somewhat contracted ; but 
it opens again, and forms a green basin 
round St. Magdalena (4,664'), about 
f hr. above St. Martin. A path runs | 
from this, the highest village in the j 
valley, to Kalchstein, in Villgratten j 
(Rte. N). The head of the Gsiessthal ! 
now lies nearly due N., and the ascent i 
is continuous, but not steep, to the [ 
summit of the j 

Gsiesser Joch (7,353'), the deepest i 
depression in the Defereggen range. 

It lies between tlie Pfannhorn (9,242 ) 
— also called Kaschkosel — and tii- 
Planl-fdd (8,651'). The^'descent to St. 
Jakob (about 7^ hrs.' steady walking 
from Welsberg), follows the Lapcsthal, 
a short sinuous glen, whose torrent 
flows at first N., and then westward, 
to join the Defereggenthal at Lapp — 
less than i hr. above St. Jakob. 



About lOi hrs.' steady walking, exclusive of 

In the last Rte. two paths leading 
from Bruneck to St. Jakob, the highest 
village in Defereggen, have been de- 
scribed, and in the preceding route is a 
notice of the glacier passes connecting 
the head of that valley with that of the 
Ahrenthal. There remains a xevy agree- 
able and interesting way, passable on 
horseback, intermediate between those 
already described, which leads from Tau- 
fers, in the lower Ahrenthal, to the head 
of the Defereggenthal, through the 
Bainthal. This lateral valley, dividing 
the Antholzer range from the western 
extremity of the Tauern chain, opens 
into the beautiful basin of Taufers at 
Winkel (§ 50, Ete. E), in a narrow- 
cleft that leaves space only for the 
Rainbach torrent. To reach the path, 
which follows the heights above the K 



side of this cleft, the traveller crosses 
the main valley to Moritzen (2,841'), 
and immediately commences to ascend 
by a rather steep horse-track, -which 
commands fine views of the rich valley 
that stretches hence to Bruneck, and the 
more Alpine scenery of the Miihlwalder 
Thai (§ 50, Rte. Gr). After a hot climb 
up the sunny slopes, the traveller vrill- 
ingly follows the path to the 1. bank of 
the Eainbach, along which he ascends 
for fully 3 m., amid the frequent shade 
of pine trees, and near the brawling 
torrent, but without any distant view. 
Another pleasant change occurs when 
thp path returns to the rt. bank, at a 
point near a saw-mill, where the torrent 
springs over a ledge in a waterfall. 
Here the first view of the glaciers of the 
Antholzer Alps is gained on the SSE. 
side, through the opening of the Gdt- 
thal, and tte traveller sees before him 
tfi ENE. the picturesque Alpine basin 
of St. Wolfgang (5,238'), evidently the 
filled-up bed of an ancient lake. It is 
a dead level space, marshy in places, 
enclosed on every side by high peaks. 
The village, which is sometimes called 
Eain, stands about f hr. from the bridge 
mentioned above, or 3 hrs. from Taufers, 
and immediately below the meeting of 
the two Alpine glens, whose torrents 
form the Rainbach. Of these, the 
most attractive to the mountaineer is 
the Bachenxthal, which originates at 
the base of the glaciers of the Hochgall 
and the adjoining peaks, and through 
which lies a pass, said to be difficult, 
to Xitterthal, in Anthok. The NE. 
branch of the vaUey, called Knutten- 
thal, leads to Dofereggen. 

St. "Wolfgang offers many attractions 
to the lover of nature. The scenery is 
of a high order, and many interesting 
excursions afford scope for the activity 
of the mountaineer. The inn is very 
poor, and travellers are received at the 
priest's house, or Vidum, close to the 
church. Johann Bacher, the teacher 
of the village school, and G-eorg "Weiss 
are recommended as guides. Sonklar 
recommends the ascent of the Stutten- 
nock (8,991'), for the sake of the pano- 

ramic view, which includes all the higher 
peaks of the neighbouring Alps. The 
most remarkable of these, and the most 
attractive to the motmtaineer, is the 
Schneehige Nock (11,068'), ov Rv.thner- 
horn of Sonklar. This bold obelisk of 
rock crowns a short promontory that 
extends NNW. fr^om the main ridge of 
the Antholzer Alps, between the head 
of the Geltthal and that of the Bachern- 
thal. It was climbed for the first time 
in 1866, by the Archduke Rainer, with 
Coimt "Wurmbrand and the two guides 
above named. They reached the steep 
ridge from the Bachernthal side, and 
thence, with little further difficulty, 
attained the summit. 

The way from St. "Wolfgang to Defer- 
eggen lies through the Knuttenthal. 
The scattered houses that make up the 
village extend some way into that glen, 
and also into the Bachernthal, with the 
difference that the latter is level for 
some distance, while the floor of the 
EJiuttenthal ascends rapidly. The sce- 
nery is not interesting, as the slopes 
are bare, and no remarkable objects are 
in view. In about 1^ hr. the huts of 
the Knuttenalp, at the head of the glen, 
are reached. A beaten track mounts 
nearly due E. from the alp by gentle 
slopes to the KlammlJoch (7,606'), one 
of the easiest passes in Tyrol. The 
crags of the G-raunock (10,118'), rising 
S. of the pass, above a little tarn called 
Elammlsee, are striking objects. From 
the oratory that marks the summit of 
the ridge, above 2^ hrs. from St. "Wolf- 
gang, several of the high peaks that 
enclose the head, of the Uefereggenthal 
are well seen. A very short descent 
leads to the Affenbaeh, and following 
that torrent, the traveller in \ hr. from 
the pass reaches the Jadghausalp. ra- 
ther less than 2^ hrs." steady walking 
from Erlsbach (see Rte. K). 

A comparatively easy pass — though 
rougher and steeper than the Klaraml 
— leads northward from the Knuttenalp 
over the Bretterscharte (8,242') — also 
known as Ochsenlenk — and descends 
into- the upper Ahrenthal, about \ hr. 
above St. Peter (§ 50, Rte. E). By this 


way a traveller may reach St. Valentin, 
or Kasern, in a moderate day's walk 
from St. AVolfijang, or a long day from 
St. Jakob, in Defereggen, as the latter 
involves the passage of the Klamml as 
well as the Bretterscharte. 

Among the excursions from St. Wolf- 
gang, not above specified, is the ascent 
of the Hirhanock (9,85-i'), rising nearly 
due X. of the village. It is higher and 
more difficult than the Stuttennock, 
and scarcely so well situated, except for 
the view of the Zillerthal Alps ; but, if 
the descent on the NW. is not too 
troublesome, this would aiFord a very 
interesting way from St. Wolfgang to 
Steinhaus, in the Ahrenthal. 

EotTTE N. 


The traveller who enters the Puster- 
thal from the Gailthal, or the Ampezzo 
road, somewhere not far from Sillian, 
and whose aim is to reach Heiligenblut 
or Windisch-Matrey, may be glad to 
find a direct way by which to avoid the 
detour through the main valley of the 
Drave, or that by Antholz or Grsiess. 
The Villgrattenthal, which opens into 
the Pusterthal about 1 m. E. of Sillian, 
and soon divides into two branches of 
about equal length, offers a convenient 

way for this pm-pose, as through its E. 
branch Hopfgarten is reached in 8^ hrs. 
By following the path through the W. 
branch leading to St. Jakob, in Defereg- 
gen, it is equally easy to reach the head 
of the Ahrenthal, or Pregratten, in the 

Like many other valleys of this dis- 
trict, the VillgraUentlial, at its lower 
extremity, shows a narrow cleft merely 
giving space fur the torrent, and the 
track (practicable for country carriages?) 
mounts by Heimfels, above the 1. bank, 
and then ascends very gently to Ausser- 
Villgratten (4,205'), little more than 1 
hr. from the opening of the valley, or 1^ 
hr. from Sillian. This village is often 
called Brucken, and thence the lower 
part of the valley Brucker Thai. There 
is a poor but tolerable inn, and travel- 
lers may also seek accommodation from 
the priest. The village stands at the 
junction of the two upper branches of 
the valley, of which the NE. branch, or 
Winkelthal, is the way to Hopfgarten. 
For about 2 hrs. the path ascends 
through this narrow glen — where many 
saw-mills are cutting into planks the 
timber that once clothed the slopes — 
and then begins to mount in a NE. di- 
rection to the Villgrattner Jock (aboiit 
8,300'?), by which Hopfgarten is reached 
in about 7 hrs. from Aust-er-Villgratten. 
With a good local guide, it is likely 
that Hopfgarten may be avoided, and a 
more direct course taken to reach the 
inn, 'In der Huben,' at the junction of 
Defereggen with the Iselthal. By fol- 
lowing the Winkelthal for nearly 2 hrs. 
farther than the point where it is left to 
reach Hopfgarten, the traveller may 
reach the Weiherwand (8,-lro8'), a pass 
lying at the extreme northern end of 
the valley, and leading to St. Veit (Ete. 
K). The chief torrent of the Winkel- 
thal does not originate in the Defei'eg- 
gen range, biit flows eastward from the 
short but lofty range which extends 
thence southward, between the two 
branches of the Villgrattenthal, culmi- 
nating in the Hochgrabe (9,673'). At 
the base of the Weiberwand, the torrent 
turns southward, and finally flows SW. 



§ 52. 

to meet the other principal torrent of 
the valley at Aiisser-Villgratten. The 
western branch, which for some distance 
preserves the name Villgrattenthal, is 
more thickly inhabited than the Win- 
kelthal. For about 6 m, the track 
ascends gently to WNW., passing Inner- 
Villgratten (4.506'), to Senfte (4J04'). 
Just below this latter hamlet, a lateral 
glen opens to the W., wherein stands 
the remote village oi Kalchstein (5,370'). 
Easy passes lead thence to Toblach over 
the Kiihbacher Thbrl, and to St. Martin, 
in G-siess. Above Senfte, the Villgratten- 
thal ascends for nearly 4 m. somewhat 
W. of due N., and comes to an end at a 
point where two torrents unite. The 
lesser of these flows eastward from the 
range dividing this valley from Grsiess ; 
while the more important stream de- 
scends westward, through an upland 
glen called Arnthal, from the same range 
whence, on the opposite side, rises the 
main torrent of the Winkelthal. From 
the point where the Arnthal turns ab- 
ruptly southward, two tracks cross the 
ridge that forms the northern boundary 
of the valley. That hang farther W. 
leads to St. Jakob, the other to St. 
Leonhard. Both are said to be rough 
and fatiguing passes. 

Following the Arnthal to its head, the 
traveller may cross the range dividing 
this from the head of the "Winkelthal — 
called Ober-Arnthaler Lenke — and so 
descend to Ausser-Yillgratten ; thus 
making the tour of both branches of the 
valley in one hard da/s walk from the 
latter village. 




I In the preceding sections, the main chain 
of the Eastern Alps, which we have de- 
I signated the Central Tyrol Alps, have 
I been described, -with the exception of the 
I eastern extremity of the chain, which 
I happens to lie beyond the political 
I boundary of Tyrol, and to be divided 
' between the ancient territories of Salz- 
burg and Carinthia. It was observed in 
the introduction to this chapter that the 
eastern limit of the central chain should, 
on orographic grounds, be fixed at the 
Arlscharte, where originate the two 
ranges that enclose the valley of the 
Mur. For the purposes of this work, it 
is more convenient to extend the bound- 
ary of the district now described a few 
miles eastward, to the far better known 
pass of the Eadstadter Tauern; while 
its western limit, as fixed in the last 
section, is the track from Lienz to Bruck, 
in the Pinzgau, over the Hochthor Pass, 
which divides t£ie great group of peaks 
surrounding the Pasterze Glacier from 
the summits rising farther east. These 
are distributed in two ridges running 
from "WXW. to ESE. The westernmost, 
dividing the MoUthal from the upper 
valleys of Eauris and G-astein, culmi- 
nates in the Hochnarr (10,692'), and 
includes five or six other summits that 
slightly exceed 10,000 ft. in height. 

The eastern range, connected with the 
former by a transverse ridge of moderate 
height, has one peak — Hochalpenspitz — 
that exceeds 11,000 ft., and four or five 
surpassing 10,000 ft. Still farther east, 
and separated from the Hochalpenspitz 
range by the Arlscharte, is the much 
smaller group culminating in the Haf- 
nereck (10,044'), which sheds its drain- 
age eastward to the Mur, northward to 
the Salza through the Grossarl Ache, 
and southward to the Drave through the 
Malta. This group is remarkable as 
being the eastern limit at which con- 
Biderable glaciers are found in the central 
chain, and as the origin of the double 
lange enclosing the valley of the Mur. 



It •will be seen that, at its eastern 
end, the High'Tauern range attains an 
altitude much inferior to that of the 
portions hitherto described, and, though 
not deficient in fine scenery, the district 
now to be noticed certainly does not 
rival, in this respect, the choicer spots 
pointed out in the four preceding sections, 
unless the head of the Maltathal, with 
which the writer is not personally ac- 
quainted, should form an exception. For 
this reason, it is expedient to take this dis- 
trict at the beginning rather than the end 
of a tour in the Tauern Alps. While the 
remaining valleys are almost unknown 
to strangers, that of Gastein has, through 
various causes, acquired European cele- 
brity. It, therefore, naturally gives its 
name to the entire district; the more 
especially as it affords very good head- 
quarters for the traveller, whose aim is 
to enjoy fine natural scenery, as well as 
for the invalid and the politician. 

The eastern and western boundaries 
of the district comprised in this section 
have been already mentioned. To the N. 
it is limited by the line of valley tra- 
versed by th.e road from Bruck, in the 
Pinzgau, to Eadstadt on the Enns ; and 
to the S. it is equally well defined by the 
valley of the Drave between Lienz and 

The reported suspension or abandon- 
ment of the mines of Eauris may be 
inconvenient to mountaineers, who may 
fail to find expected food and shelter. 



Lend . 
Hof Gastein 
Bad Gastein 








Post-road. The distances charged between 
Lend and Bad Gastein are somewhat exagge- 

The baths of Gastein have enjoyed a 
high reputation for their healing virtues 
during the last three centuries, and the 
valley has been famous for its gold 
mines from the remotest period ; but of 
late years the celebrity of the place has 
been much increased by the accident 
that it has been resorted to by sovereigns 
and ministers of state. The telegraphic 
wire that penetrates this remote Alpine 
valley, instead of discharging its cus- 
tomary ofl&ce of ordering rooms or horses 
for invalids, has been engaged in carrying 
messages on which depended the peace 
of the civilised world. It is easy of ac- 
cess for travellers approaching from the 
N. side of the Alps, and the diligence 
from Salzburg, which plies daily in sum- 
mer, brings the tourist to this convenient 
starting-place for a tour in the Eastern 
Alps on the third day from London. 

The road from Salzburg to Lend is 
described in § 45, Ete. E. At the latter 
village, the road turns aside from the 
Salza to enter the Gasteinerthal, one of 
that long series of nearly parallel valleys 
through which the drainage of the High 
Tauern Alps is borne northward into the 
great transverse valley of the Salza. As 
happens in many other valleys of this 
region, this is not locally known by any 
single designation, but the name ' Die 
Gastein' is given to its lower portion, 
containing the greater part of the popu- 
lation, and has been appended to the 
designation of its three chief villages. 

The real distance from Lend to the 
baths is not more than 18 m. = 6 hrs.' 
walk, ascending the valley, cr 3j hrs. in 



a carriage. The charge for vehicles ■with 
two horses is 8 florins. A small carriage 
that carries the letters takes one or two 
passengers, but no luggage beyond a 
knapsack. The narrow defile through 
which the Grasteiner Ache descends to 
the level of the Salza is called the Klamm. 
Those who would approach near the 
series of fine cascades formed by the 
torrent may follow a very rough path ; 
while the road winds up the steep rocky 
Bide on the 1. side of the gorge. The 
present road, made in 1832, is quite safe 
in summer, but exposed to avalanches 
in winter and spring. Though the ascent 
is not great, the scenery is unexpectedly 
grand, and the traveller will be glad to 
mount it on foot. Before issuing from 
the defile, the road passes to the rt. bank 
by a bridge (2,473')— 265 ft. above the 
post-house at Lend — leading to the 
ruined castle of Klammstein, which once 
completely commanded the entrance to 
tlie valley. A short additional ascent 
of about 150 ft. carries the road to the 
level of the lower valley. Through green 
fields, along the rt. bank of the now 
tranquil stream, the road goes nearly at 
a level to 

Dorf Gastein (2,649'), a scattered 
village, with a tolerable country inn, 
whence a path runs eastward over the 
mountain in 3 hrs. t9 Grossarl (Kte. F). 
Here the road makes a slight circuit, 
and the pedestrian finds a short cut over 
the meadows. The general direction 
hitherto followed has been about SSE. ; 
henceforward, as far as the baths, it is 
nearly due S., bending somewhat to the 
W. as far as 

Hof Gastein (2,846'), the chief village 
in the valley, whose records go back to 
a period of remote antiquity. The earliest 
church was built in the ninth century on 
the site of a still more ancient chapel. 
It has several inns (Moser's, good ; 
Blaue Traube; Schwarzer Adler; and 
others). Since the waters from the famous 
mineral spring have been led here in 
wooden pipes, still retaining a tempera- 
ture of 93° Fahr., many invalids prefer 
this place, either for economy, or because 
of the greater certainty of fi.nding accom- 

modation. The position is, however, 
much less favourable for mountain excur- 
sions, excepting only the ascent of the 
G-araskahrkog^^i, which is rather nearer 
this village than the baths. The chief 
existing evidence of the wealth once de- 
rived from the neighbouring mines is 
found in the stately monuments preserved 
in the church and adjoining cemetery. 
Moser's Hotel, whose architecture recalls 
that of Venice, once the home of the 
Strasser family, adjoins the new baths. 
An outburst of serpentine through the 
surrounding mica schist is, as usual, 
associated with the appearance of many 
rare minerals. It is on reaching Hof 
G-astein that the traveller, for the first 
time, gains a view of the high peaks at 
the head of the G-asteinerthal, among 
which the Ankogl, crowning the high 
range that divides the main branches of 
the valley, is the main object of attrac- 
tion. The old road to the baths — rather 
shorter for the pedestrian — kept to the 
rt. bank of the torrent, but the modern 
road crosses to the opposite side a short 
way above Hof G-astein, near the point 
where the path to Eauris mounts west- 
ward through the short glen of the 
Angerthal (Ete. B). After passing the 
so-called Englische Kaffeehaus, much 
resorted to by visitors, the road soon 

Bad Gastein — often called Wildbad 
Gastein. The position of this place is 
very singular, just at a high step in the 
valley, where the torrent descends about 
600 ft. in two waterfalls connected by 
rapids. Between the waterfalls is a 
narrow shelf whereon stand most of the 
houses and baths, while the remainder 
are scattered over the slopes on either 
side of the valley. Save a house built 
by the late Archduke John, and a few 
others of less note, all the buildings 
here are either hotels or lodging-houses 
for the accommodation of visitors. Of 
the former, the first in rank is Strau- 
binger's, with table d'hote, reading-room, 
and various modern comforts, rather 
dear for Germany. The landlord is the 
present representative of a family which 
has here exercised the same profession 


Bince 1602. To him also belongs the 
Schweizerhaiis, prettily situated, but 
some way from the Laths. Tolerably 
good accommodation is also found at 
Grruber's inn, the Hirsch, Grabenwirth, 
and Mitterwirth, not to name others of 
lower rank. Many visitors prefer to 
engage lodgings, and take their meals at 
Straubinger's or some other hotel. The 
handsomest rooms, for which the charges 
are rather high, are in the Badeschloss, 
built by an Archbishop of Salzburg; 
they are let only when not required for 
royal or imperial visitors. The lodging- 
houses called Bellevue and Solitude are 
recommended. As there is not accom- 
modation here for more than about 500 
%'isitors at a time, every room is often 
occupied during the season ; and families 
intending a visit should not fail to 
write beforehand to the Bade-Director, 
to secure necessary rooms. In the hotels 
the baths are made of wood, and alto- 
gether rather rough ; in the Badeschloss 
are a .few baths lined with porcelain 
tiles, but these are often secured before- 
hand, and are not always accessible. As 
a general rule, all charges here are regu- 
lated by tariff, and visitors can suit 
themselves as to their expenses. 

The mineral springs, seven in num- 
ber, all issue in the immediate neigh- 
bourhood, one of them in the midst of 
the cascade. They seem to have iden- 
tical properties, and are remarkable for 
their high temperatui-e— 116° to 120° 
Fahr. Chemical analysis fails to ac- 
count for the energetic action of these 
tasteless waters, which contain ordinary- 
earthy salts in quantity little greater 
than in most spring water. It is, how- 
ever, worthy of note that the water is 
found to possess unusually high con- 
ductivity for electricity. The usual 
course of cure recommended to patients 
includes twenty-one baths, and they are 
sometimes advised to conclude by a short 
course of the waters at St. Wolfgang, in 
the neighbouring valley of Fusch (§ 51, 
Kte. C). The climate of Grastein, espe- 
cially in July, is often wet and rather 
cold ; and visitors are not seldom reduced 
to take exercise in a long gallery covered 


with glass — called the Wandelbahn — 
which is a conspicuous but not pictu- 
resque object from a distance, as it is 
carried along the verge of the rocks 
immediately above the great waterfall 
of the Grasteiner Ache. The latter is 
the ruling genius of the place. The 
ceaseless clouds of spray bedim the 
windows of the Wandelbahn, and of 
many of the houses ; and the hollow 
roar of the waters is found by some to 
be soothing, while it irritates the nerves 
of more delicate persons who are lodged 
in the adjoining houses. 

The church of St. Nicholas, dating 
from the fourteenth centuiy, and the 
adjoining cemetery, are interesting to 
the antiquary. Numerous paths enable 
visitors to visit with ease the more at- 
tractive spots in the immediate neigh- 
boui'hood, but not without a little climb- 
ing up or down hill. Above tne baths, 
the cascade and rapids of the Ache have 
excavated a deep and impassable cleft 
in the slate rocks, above which a pic- 
turesque bridge — the Schreckbrilcke 
(3,524') — is thrown over the torrent. 
Having gained this elevation, the visitor 
may, without further labour, wander 
along the nearly level reach of the 
upper valley that extends some way 
beyond the village of Buckstein (see 
below). Another favourite stroll is to 
descend to the opening of the Kotschach- 
thal, and follow the path up that glen. 
The junction of the Kotschachbach is 
about ^ m. below the baths, and 2,870 
ft. above the sea, but a path winds 
along the slopes, so that to enter the 
glen, it is not necessary to descend so 
low. The bridge above the great water- 
fall, near to Straubinger's hotel, is 3,152 
ft. above the sea. 

A glance at the map shows that the 
upper valley of Gastein runs transverse 
to the general direction of the main 
ridges of the adjoining Alps. It comes 
to an end in the Nassfeld, at the base of 
the ScharrecJc (10,277')» and receives 
from the ESE. three tributaries from 
as many parallel glens. The highest 
of these — the Weissenbachthal — ap- 
proaches the Malnitzer Tauern(Ete.C); 



the next is the Anlaufthal (mentioned 
in the same Rte.) ; and the lowest the 
Kotschachthal, which joins the main 
valley below the baths, and is further 
noticed in Rte. Gr. 

The charges for guides at Grastein are 
quite unreasonable, and there is a heavy 
extra demand for carrying baggage. 
Johann Freyberger is recommended as 
intelligent, and a good walker. For 
the Ankogl, and other high summits 
towards the head of the valley, the best 
man is probably the Schmied (Komeck? ) 
at Bockstein, but he is now advanced in 

Of the easier excursions from G-astein, 
by far the most interesting is that to 
the Nassfeld, for which see Ete. C. 

The favourite mountain excursion 
from Bad Gastein is the ascent of the 
Gamskahrkogel (7,91 7')» a summit rising 
nearly due E. of Hof G-astein. A bri- 
dle-path leads from that place to the 
summit, and many persons therefore 
descend thither, and engage horses — 
charged at the unreasonable rate of 8 fl. 
per horse, and 2 fl. for the guide. A 
much more direct way from Bad Ga- 
stein is found by crossing the lower part 
of the Kotschachthal, and following a 
nearly direct course to the summit, for 
the most part up steep grassy slopes. 
A person used to mountain walking 
does not require a guide. "With favour- 
able weather , the panoramic view is 
extensive and interesting, but, in the 
writer s opinion, it has been somewhat 
ovei^i'aised by German writers. Eather 
more laborious, and in many respects 
more interesting, is the ascent of the 
Badhausberg (often written Eathhaus- 
berg). This is a considerable mountain 
mass that rises S. of Bockstein, between 
the above-mentioned glens of Anlauf 
and Weissenbach. The NW. summit, 
conspicuous from Gastein, measures 
8,218 ft. but the highest, SE., summit, 
locally called Kreuzkofel, attains 8,804 
ft. The mountain has been fiimous for 
its mineral wealth from the most remote 
antiquity ; the fame of its golden pro- 
duce having led the Eomans to drive 
out the Noric tribes, who had already 

established themselves in this remote 
corner of the Alps. The highest shaft 
— long since abandoned — is 8,170' ft. 
above the sea. The mineralogist may 
here find many rare minerals and ores 
of lead and copper, associated with 
silver, antimony, and arsenic, with oc- 
casional particles of gold. The gneiss 
of which the mountain is chiefly formed 
varies much in structure, and often 
assumes a porphyritic character. Crys- 
tals of beryl have been found in the 
quartz veins of the Ivreuzkofel. The 
botanist may gather Sileae immilio, 
LinncBa horealis, Primula Ion qi flora, and 
other rare plants. The most direct way 
is to ascend from Bockstein, by a well- 
traced path that begins to mount a short 
way above the bridge. 

As the working of the mines is said 
to be suspended for the present (1869), 
travellers may no longer be able to 
return in a miner's car on a very steep 
slide, which shot down a slope of about 
2,300 feet vertical height in a few 
minutes. Although the shaft, called 
Christoph-Stollen, which once produced 
gold and silver to the annual value of 
80,000 ducats, has been long unworked, 
it may be easily traversed with a miner 
for guide. Entering at the N. end, 
the traveller comes out at a point l^- 
m. distant, and 7,205 ft. above the 
sea, just below the topmost ridge of 
the mountain. From the summit of 
the Kreuzkofel, which in fine weather 
commands a very fine view of the neigh- 
bouring snowy peaks, the traveller may 
descend eastward through the Hiekahr 
to the Anlaufthal, or AVSW. through the 
Weissenbachthal to the Xassfeld (Ete. 
C). The miners show a house on the 
mountain — called Christophen-Berghaus 
— built more than 300 years, which has 
survived the annual fall of at least one 
avalanche every spring, while all the 
other buildings have been repeatedly 

The mountaineer who may make a 
halt at Gastein will be tempted to 
undertake the ascent of the AnJcogl 
(10,674:'), This fine peak sends nearly 
all its drainage to the Drave through 



tlie IMaltarha], or through the Seethal, 
which is one of the tributaries of the 
MoUthal, but its NE. slope rises above 
the head of the Anlaufthal ; and from 
the Eadeckalp (5,657'). at the head of 
that glen, the ascent may be effected. 
It is an expedition for practised moun- 
taineers, involving (it is said) some stiff 
glacier work ; and the final climb is 
along a very narrow arete of treacher- 
ously loose rocks. The view is not 
equal to that from the Hochnarr. For 
a notice of the ascent from Maluitz, see 
Rte. C. 

EoirrE B. 



The valley of Eauris, lying between 
those of Fusch and G-astein, offers the 
most direct route for a traveller ap- 
proaching Heiligenblut from Salzburg ; 
but it is little frequented. The superior 
attractions of the scenery of the Fuscher 
Thai, and the great resort of strangers 
to Bad G-astein, leave few to follow the 
intermediate route. This is, however, 
by no means uninteresting ; and it 
enables the traveller to reach Heiligen- 
blut on the second day from Salzburg, 
sleeping at Eauris. The mountaineer, 
travelling in the opposite direction, who 
may take the summit of the Hochnarr 
on his way from Heiligenblut, can de- 
scend to the Salza either by way of 
Eauris or of G-astein. 

1. By Eauris and the HocMhor. 
Carriage-road to Eauris — about 11 m. 
Bridle-track thence to Heiligenblut — 
about 10 hrs. The high-road of the 
Pinzgau (§ oO, Ete. A) is followed for 
about 5 m. from Lend to Taxenbach. 
From that place to Eauris a little 
time is saved by taking a carriage. 
The traveller, on entering the valley of 
Eauris, should on no account omit to 
visit the Waterfall of the Kitzloch, re- 
markable not only for the volume of 
water of the Eauriser Ache, which here 
springs from the level of its own valley 
to that of the Salza, but especially for 
the imposing effect of the dark and 
savage cleft, in which visitors are enabled 
to approach the waterfall by steps and 
wooden planks attached to the rocky 
walls. After this slight detour, the 
traveller follows the road above the rt. 
bank of the torrent, leaving to the rt. 
the village of Enihach (3,325'), which 
commands a noble view along the Pinz- 
gau, and northward to the crags of the 
Uebergossene Alp, rising behind the 
Dienten mountains. The pedestrian 
coming from Lend may take this vil- 
lage on his way to Eauris, by a slight 
short cut ; but he thus loses the re- 
markable waterfall. On reaching the 
level of the valley of Eauris, the fine 
snowy peaks at the head of the valley 
come into view. They are here indis- 
criminately known as the Hohe Gold- 
berg. The very small but ancient 
market-town of Eauris (3,141') is said 
to have a good inn (Beim Brauer). 
The landlord possesses three fine dishes 
of Urbino majolica ware, one of which 
bears the date 154:2. Two paths lead 
from hence E. and SE. to the valley of 
G-astein. About 1 hr. above Eauris,' the 
main valley, which mounts due S. to 
the mines at the foot of the Goldberg 
Glacier, is joined by a considerable 
lateral glen from the SW. The way to 
Heiligenblut is through this, which is 
known as the Seidelicinkelthal. Leav- 
ing the nearly level cart-road on the rt. 
bank of the main torrent, the traveller 
crosses to the opposite bank some way 
below the junction, in order to reach 



the hamlet of Worth {^A9T), at the open- | 
ing of the Seidelwinkelthal. This is a I 
nnrrow glen not offering any very re- ■ 
markable object, yet the scenery is 
pleasing, and the frequent shade of \ 
pine trees makes the walk the more I 
agreeable. Nearly 3 hrs. of steady | 
walking from Worth are required to 
reach the 

Tauernhaus (5,049'), locally called 
Taurach. This is a humble Alpine 
hostelry of the same kind as those 
mentioned in the last section. It is 
one of the best of its class, offering 
tolerable refreshment, and endurable, 
though far from comfortable night- 
quarters. The forest which clothes the 
lower part of the glen comes to an end 
a short way above the Tauernhaus ; but 
for some way the ascent is still gentle, 
keeping a SW. direction till, on rounding 
a corner, the path begins to mount to- 
wards S., winding up a rather steep 
stony slope. The solitary traveller 
must take care not to choose a path to 
the 1., which leads to the Fuscher Thorl, 
and to keep a general direction but little 
W. of S. till he reaches the last slopes 
that lead to the Hochthor. That pass, 
as well as the path from Fusch over the 
Fuscher Thorl, is described in § 51, 
Ete. C. From 5|- to 6 hrs. suffice to 
reach Heiligenblut from the Tauernhaus. 
The traveller wishing to vary the or- 
dinary way from the Tauernhaus to 
Heiligenblut may cross the Weissenhach- 
scharte (8,651'), a pass lying about 1^ m. 
E. of the Hochthor, and involving 
about an hour's walk more than the 
usual route. The descent lies through 
a wild glen called Grosse Fleiss, which 
joins the Kleine Fleiss (mentioned below) 
about 1 hr. from Heiligenblut. 

2. Bi; Hof Gastein and the Hochthor. 
Carriage-road to Hof G-astein — 14 m. 
Bridle^track thence to Heiligenblut — 
about 15^ hrs. The only frequented 
path between the valleys of Gastein 
and Kauris is that mentioned in Ete. 
A, which mounts to SW. through the 
Aiujerthal. This is a short open glen 
that joins the main valley of Gastein, 
nea' the hamlet of Aigen, between Hof 

and Bad Gastein. Those who start 
from the latter place need not descend 
to Aigen ; but they must allow half an 
hour more time than from Hof. A 
broad track, practicable for light vehi- 
cles, mounts through the lower part of 
the Angerthal. The glen originates at 
the N. base of the Bockhardtscharte, 
but the way to the Eauriser Thai lies 
through a western tributary that joins 
the main branch of the glen rather 
more than 1 hr. above Aigen. Keeping 
to the track along the N. slope, usually 
at some distance from the stream, the 
traveller gradually attains a considerable 
height, without thereby obtaining a wide 
view, until, on attaining the summit of 
the pass — Auf der Stanz (6,920') — a 
grand scene is suddenly opened before 
him. The peaks at the head of the 
Eauriser Thai, and the range dividing 
the latter from Fusch, are reduced to 
comparative insignificance by the nobler 
summits of the Glockner and the Wies- 
bachbom that tower above the nearer 
mountains. The botanist will do wisely 
to allow abundant time for this walk, 
as he will find many rarities. In ascend- 
ing from Gastein, Willemetia apargioidcs 
is abimdant in marshy Alpine meadows; 
on the opposite side, near the top, Lo- 
nuitogonium carinthiacum is found on 
the dry grassy slopes. Fully 4 hrs. 
must be allowed to reach the summit 
from Hof Gastein, and less than half 
that time is needed for the rapid descent 
to Biichehen (3.641'). This ranks as a 
village — the highest in Eauris — because 
it possesses, along with half a dozen 
houses, a church and an inn. The latter 
has undergone several vicissitudes, but 
the latest accounts that have reached 
the writer are favourable. The stranger 
seeking information as to the neighbour- 
ing mountains will find a friendly recep- 
tion from the parish priest. An easy 
walk of I hr. down the main valley, 
keeping always to the 1. bank, leads 
from Bueheben to Worth, at the opening 
of the Seidelwinkelthal, where the travel- 
ler joins the regular track from Eauris 
to Heiligenbhit, already noticed. 

[The traveller wishing to reach St. 



Wolfgang, in Fusch (§ 61, Rte, C) 
from Kauris or Gastein mt\y take a 
rather steep, but very agreeable, path 
that mounts on the rt. hand from the 
Seidehvinkflthal to the pass of the 
Weicksdbachwand (7,258') (also locally 
called Schiitterriedl ?). The summit, 
commanding a noble view of the Wies- 
bachhurn, is reached in 3 hrs. from 
Worth, and H hr. suffices for the de- 
scent to St. Wolfgang.] 

Those who may not be inclined to 
undertake the laborious and somewhat 
difficult passes next described will do 
well to make an excursion from Buch- 
eben to the mines at the head of the 
Eauriser Thai. The scenery is fine, and 
will well reward the sliglit excursion ; 
but it is a still better plan to take the 
mines on the way from Bad Gastein to 
Bucheben (see below). In descending 
from Auf der Stanz to Bucheben, it is not 
easy to lose the way, but those who tra- 
vel in the opposite direction should take 
a local guide, as there are many cattle- 
tracks in various directions. 

3. Bi/ the -/nines of Rauris, and the 
Goldzech-Tav.ern. Eoad or bridle-path 
to the Neubau — 9^ hrs. Grlacier-pass 
thence to Heiligenblut — 7 hrs. This is 
undoubtedly the most interesting route 
for a mountaineer going from Rauris to 
Heiligenblut, especially in clear weather, 
when the ascent of the Hochnarr may 
be combined with the expedition, and 
involves only about 1 hr.'s addition to 
the day's walk. It is, however, far 
more easily accomplished by starting at 
an early hour from Heiligenblut, where 
Pius Granogger and other guides are 
acquainted with the way. On the Eau- 
ris side, the only guicle who is recom- 
mended is the Hutmann Stockl at Ivolm- 
♦Saigurn. The writer has been informed 
that the so-called gold mines at the head 
of the Eauriser Thai have been recently 
(1869) closed, and it is unsafe to count 
on the rough accommodation formerly 
found at Kolm-Saigurn. The pass is 
sometimes difficult, owing to the cre- 
vassed state of the glacier, and at times 
there is some risk from falling rocks. 
The mines are, or were, if not the 
c. T. 

highest worked in Europe, certainly thosa 
carried on in the face of the greatest 
difficulties. One of the ancient shafts 
is now covered over by a glacier, 
and even the path leading to the 
works, which appears so easy in sum- 
mer, is in winter much exposed to 

j avalanches. 

The portion of the High Tauem range 
that forms the boundary between Salz- 
burg and Carinthia at the head of the 
valleys of Eauris and Gastein, and may 
be called from its highest summit the 
Hochnarr range, preser^-es that general 
direction from WNW. to ESE. which is 
characteristic of the region E. of the 
Velber Tauern. For a distance of abou'" 
11m. from the Weissenbachscharte to 
the Goiselspits (9,739'i, it forms the 
dividing ridge between the Salza and 
the Moll. From the last-named sum- 
mit, a much lower transverse ridge con- 
nects this with the parallel range of the 
Ankogl and Hochalpenspitz, but the 
axis of the Hochnarr range extends 6 m. 
farther to ESE., terminating in the- 
Lonzaberg (7,088') over Ober-Vellach 
(Ete. C). The Hochnarr (10,692') con- 
siderably overtops all the other summits 
of this range ; the other most conspicu- 
oi;s points are the Goldberqspits [10, OQo) 
and the ScluD-reck (10,277'). 

A short way above Bucheben, the cart- 
track from Eauris passes to the rt. bank 
of the Ache. The way along the main 
branch of the valley — locally known as 
Hidtwinkelthal — is rendered the morg 
interesting as the peaks and glaciers at 
its head are almost constantly in sight. 
At the Zottbriicke (about 4.200'), near 
the junction of the Krummelbach, which 
issues from a narrow cleft on the W. 
side of the valley, the track returns to 
the 1; bank, and soon after ascends a 
projecting eminence, that commands a 
fine view in both directions along the 
valley. Here begins the region of Al- 
pine pastures, -with which, in unusuul 
combination, are seen various build- 
ings connected with the mines. The Bo- 
denhaus, where refreshnients are found, 
served as a she'.ter in bad weather for 
the miners travelling to or fro. Amid 




very fine scenery the traveller continues 
to ascend to 

Kolm-Saiffurn{r), Z78'), the head-quar- 
ters of the miners, where the gold-bear- 
ing ore is crushed, and the precious 
metal extracted by amalgamation. The 
chief Hutmann. or foreman, keeps a sort 
of rude hostelry, where refreshments, 
and, in case of need, rough night-quar- 
ters, are found. Fine specimens of rare 
minerals are often to be obtained here. 

The most direct w'ay from Kolm-Sai- 
gurn to the Hochnai'r is by the Lange 
G-asse and the Keestrachter, but re- 
cently travellers have usually passed by 
the Neuhau (7,115'), a building intended 
mainly to afford a shelter for the por- 
ters who carry down the freshly ex- 
.tracted ore. Although a little circuit- 
ous, this course probably saves time, 
as there is a beaten track as far as the 
Xeubau. The highest shaft now worked 
is about h hr. higher up. On a rock 
rising but little above the level of the 
surrounding glacier, just 7,700 ft. above 
the sea, stands the miner's house {Knap- 
penhaus), * Am Boden.' Here, under 
physical conditions of extreme difficulty, 
the miners labour throughout the year. 
Those who see these regions during the 
short summer season have no adequate 
idea of what the life here must be during 
the remainder of the year. According to 
M. Reissacher, the director of the mines 
in this district, the diminished density 
of the air is the chief cause of the inju- 
rious effects of the labour on the health. 
It is necessary to allow the men weekly 
periods of absence to descend into the 
valley. He has found it impossible to 
keep dogs or cats alive for more than a 
few weeks. There may, however, be 
local causes at work in addition to that 
which he regards as alone important. 

[From the house ' Am Boden,' an ac- 
tive mountaineer may in 3 hrs. reach 
the summit of the Sckarrcck (10,277')> 
which is easy of access from this side, 
and commands a very fine view.] 

Of the glaciers that are drained into 
the headof the Rauriser Thai, by far the 
most considerable is the Goldberg- Glet- 
^cJver, which is fed by. the snows lying 

within a great semicircle extending from 
the Herzog Ernst (9,695') on the E. to 
the Hmfer-Sonnblick (9,591'). The way 
to Heiligenblut lies westward across 
this glacier, and along moraine, tiU the 
much crevassed Hochnarr Glacier is 
reached. The lower part of this, which 
bears the singular name Pilatus-See, 
is crossed, and thenceforward the course 
is cliiefly over neve, passing under the 
N. side of a steep ridge of crumbling 
rock, whence loose blocks are not sel- 
dom detached. It wovdd appear (?) 
that this part of the route may be 
avoided by a traveller aiming directly 
at the pass to Heiligenblut, which lies 
S. of the peak of the Hochnarr. This, 
however, commands so fine a view, and 
is so easy of access, that no mountaineer 
can willingly leave it on one hand. The 
pass of the Goldzech-Tauern does not 
seem to have been accurately measured, 
but must be at least 9,500 ft, in height. 
It immediately overlooks the head of 
the wild glen of the Kleine Fleiss, whose 
torrent, after uniting with that of the 
Grosse Fleiss, joins the Moll at Pock- 
horn, below Heiligenblut. Both these 
glens were formerly the scene of mining 
activity, but most of the shafts, which 
extended as high as 9,400 ft., are now 
covered by glacier. The descent is over 
glacier to a small lake called Zirmer 
See, which lies in the midst of scenery 
of the wildest character. This is ap- 
parently the same as the Goldzech-See 
of Sonklar, 8,602 ft. above the sea-level. 
Following the remains of an ancient 
horse-track, the traveller descends to 
St. Anton, a hamlet jixst below the junc- 
tion of the Grosse Fleiss, and in another 
^ hr. reaches Heiligenblut. 

There is another glacier pass, some- 
times followed by native cliamois hunt- 
ers, which leads from Rauris through the 
Krummelthal (mentioned above), and 
over the Weissenbacher Kees to the head 
of the Grosse Fleiss. This is probably 
quite as laborious a route as that by 
the Goldzech-Tauern, and apparently 
much less interesting. 

4. Bi/ Bad Gastein, Neiihau, and the 
Goldzech- Tauern. By road to Bad G-a- 



stein, 21m.; thence to Heiligenblut, on 
foot, 11^ hrs., exclusive of halts. By 
the coui'se here indicated, an active 
mountaineer may accomplish the dis- 
tance between Bad Grastein and Heili- 
genblut in one rather long day's walk ; 
but, in the absence of any guide at G-a- 
stein well acquainted with the route, it 
is scarcely practicable except from the 
Heiligenblut side. The writer was fa- 
voured with a note by the late Dr. Brin- 
ton, who made the exciirsion in 1861 with 
Herr v. Mojsisovics. Having ascended 
through the Kleine Fleiss, they gained 
the summit of the Hochnarr, and de- 
scended thence to the Neubau by the 
course already described. From the 
Neubau a track, called Verwaltersteig, 
oiten used by the miners in simiraer, 
leads to the Riffelscharte (8,103'), a 
slight depression in the range, which 
diverges northward from the Herzog 
Ernst between the valleys of Gastein and 
Kauris. This way should not be taken 
late in the autumn, nor at any season 
after much fresh suow, as it is much 
exposed to avalanches, and numerous 
accidents from that cause are recorded. 
The descent on the E. side is through 
the short glen of the Siefflitcthal, where- 
in are seen several ruined buildings, 
connected with now abandoned mining 
works. On reaching the Moserhiitte, at 
the N. end of the Nassfeld, the travel- 
ler joins the beaten track leading from 
the Mallnitzer Tauern to Bad Gastein 
(see Ete. C). The following times 
were noted by Messrs. Brinton and 
Mojsisovics, both fast walkers : Heili- 
genblut to the summit of the Hoch- 
narr, 5 hrs. ; descent thence to the Neu- 
bau, 3 hrs ; ascent to the Eiffelscharte, 
f hr. ; descent to the Moserhiitte, nearly 
1 hr.; thence to Bad Gastein, 1^ hr. 

Travellers who do not undertake diffi- 
cult excursions may very well make the 
circuit from Bad Gastein to Bucheben 
by the route here described — reaching 
the Neubau by the Sieglitzthal, and 
descending thence to Bucheben. This 
is in fine weather quite free from diffi- 
cidty, but involves a rather long day's 
walk. A rather shorter course is to 

mount from the Ober-Bockhardt See 
(Ete. C), to the pass of the Ober-Lrk- 
hardtschartc (7,445'), which, as well as 
the Eiffelscharte, commands a very fine 
view. Thence a path leads down to 




The valley of Gastein is connected 
with that of the Moll, in Carinthia, by 
the most frequented pass over the main 
range between the Brenner and the Ead- 
stadter Tauern. Thougli higher by 14 
ft. (?) than the Yelber Tauern (§ 51, 
Ete. E), it is much easier of access, and 
in summer is traversed daily by beasts 
of burden. This important pass is most 
generally known by the name Mall- 
nitzer Tauern, which it bears on the 
Carinthian side, but at Gastein it is 
better known as the Nassfelder Tauern. 
Two other passes, rather shorter in 
distance, but much more laborious, con- 
nect the baths of Gastein with Mallnitz. 
These, though noticed below, are little 
used, but apparently deserve more atten- 
tion than they have hitherto obtained 
from travellers. 

1. By the Mallnitzer Tauern. 7| hrs, 
on foot, or 8^ hrs. on horseback, to 
Mallnitz; about 26 m. thence to Spittal. 
Although the easiest pass over the High 



Tauern Alps, this is not a light under- 
taking for ladies. Those who prefer 
that course may engage horses (at 10 fl. 
each) for the whole distance from Bad 
Gastein to Ober-Vellach — reckoned 10 
hrs. ; but as the descent on the S. side 
is very steep, those who can walk a few 
miles do better to take the horses only 
to the summit of the pass (5 fl. each), 
and descf-nd on foot. From Mallnitz 
there is a road to Ober-Vellach, and a 
vehicle of some sort is usually to be had ; 
but the way is so rough that those who 
can do so may better walk, the distance 
being about 6 m. It is possible to go 
in a char from Bad Gra stein to Bockstein 
(about f hr.), and to engage the horses 
required from the landlord of the inn at 
that place. 

A singular contrast is presented to 
the visitor at Bad G-astein, where he 
lives between the roar of the great water- 
fall below the baths and the angry whirl 
of the foaming cataracts above, when, 
after a short accent, he passes the 
Schreckbriicke (Rte. A), and a few steps 
farther gains the level of the upper 
valley, which stretches peacefully to the 
S., with a range of partially snow-clad 
summits, stern rather than grand in 
aspect, rising in the background. Here, 
about f hr. from the baths, is tke 
mining village of 

BbcJcstein (3,607'). ''^ith a tolerably 
comfortable inn, which some mountain- 
eers find preferable to the crowded 
hotels of Bad Gastein. Here the ore 
from the Eadliausberg (Ete. A) is 
crushed and washed, and the gold ex- 
tracted. Leaving to the 1. the opening 
of the Anlmifthal, noticed below, the 
way lies SW. through the valley, now 
contracted by a buttress projecting from 
the Radhausberg. Keeping to the rt. 
bank of the torrent, the path ascends 
gradually through a long and narrow 
defile, and unexpectedly leads to the very 
fine waterfall called Kesselfall. This is, 
however, only the first of a series that 
enliven the scenery of this part of the 
valley. A path made by the late Arch- 
duke John, which turns to the rt. from 
the main track, leads, with very little 

loss of time, by two other waterfalls' 
whose effect is much heightened by the 
grandeur of the surrounding scener3\ 
These are called the Bdrcnfdlle. In the 
back -ground, the Scharreck, which here 
presents a bold pyramidal outline, is a 
striking object. Scarcely has the tra- 
veller left the Barenfalle when another 
cascade comes into view. Behind the 
precipitous rocks that rise above the 1. 
bank of the main torrent, lies an upland 
glen called BockJiardt, but often written 
Poekhart, containing two Alpine lakes. 
The stream that drains the lower lake, 
not finding a channel through which to 
reach the level of the Gasteiner Ache, 
attains the verge of the precipitous rocks 
enclosing the defile, and springs or slides 
down their face in a singular fall, called 
SchleurfaU. Returning hence to the 
bridle-track, the traveller soon crosses 
the torrent to its 1. bank, by the E'lg- 
thorhriicJce (4,950')- One path mounts 
the very steep rocks to reach the level 
of the Bockhardt glen, while the main 
track follows the 1. bank of the Ache. 
[The Bockhardt well deserves an ex- 
cursion from Gastein. It is a short, 
comparatively broad, glen, or rather 
hollow in the mountains, resembling, 
though on a larger scale, those often 
seen in N. Wales, and there called cwm. 
To such hollows the designation Kahr is 
commonly given in the Eastern Alps ; 
and the name is probably in its original 
form Pochkahr, the first syllable refer- 
ring to the crushing process to which the 
gold-bearing ore of this region is sub- 
jected. The mines, which formerly pro- 
duced both gold and silver, have been 
long since abandoned. The traveller 
may mount directl}- by the path near 
the Engthorbriicke, or, after visiting the 
Nassfeld, take a less steep way by a 
track, anciently used by miners, that 
diverges from the main valley near the 
Moserhiitte. Another path, shorter than 
either, leads back to Bockstein. The 
Bockhardt is divided into two terraces, 
each partly occupied by a lake. The 
Unter-Boc'khardtsce (6,069') is a com- 
paratively large sheet of waicr, about 
150 ft. in depth. A comparatively steep 



ascent leads thence to the Oher-BocJc- 
hardtsee (6,679'), a smaller basin, sur- 
rounded by Alpine vegetation, in which 
the botanist will recognise Saxifraga 
planifoUa. It is surrounded by rugged 
stony slopes wherein are seen very 
numerous 'openings of the shafts for- 
merly worked here. Like most of the 
other mountain lakes of this neighbour- 
hood, these contain no fish, doubtless 
owing to the presence of metallic salts. 
From the npper lake, the traveller may 
reach Kolm-8aigurn in Rauris, by a pass 
mentioned in the last Rte. Another pass 
— Unter-BockhurdUcJutrte (7,383') — lies 
]NNE. of the lower lake, and leads to 
the head of the Anger thai. By that 
way an active walker may return to 

After passing the Engthorbriicke, a 
short ascent leads the traveller to the N. 
end of the Kassfeld, a level basin, 2 m. 
long and about ^ m. broad, doubtless 
the area of an ancient lake. The name 
Nassfeld is often locally given to similar 
spots in the Eastern Alps ; but this, 
happening to lie in the way of a fre- 
quented highway, is the only one gene- 
rally known by that name. The timber 
that once clothed the slopes having been 
consumed centuries ago by the miners, 
it is perfectly bare of trees — a green 
carpet, through which meander many 
gentle streams, surrounded by stern 
slopes, above which, to the S. and SW., 
rise the snowy summits of the Hochnarr 
range, extending from the Scharreek to 
the Goiselspitz. It is so nearly level 
that the Moserhiitte, at the N. end, close 
to the opening of the Sieglitzthal, is only 
16 ft. lower than the Straubingcrliillte 
(5,403'), more than a mile farther S. 
At these Sennhiitten, wayfarers find the 
usual dairy refreshments, for which they 
are expected to pay handsomely. 

Besides several glacier streams de- 
scending from the higher peaks, the 
Isassfeld receives at its upper end a tor- 
rent that flows from ESE. through the 
Wcisscnbachthal, vrhich may be con- 
sidered the chief source of the Gasteiner 
Ache. The traveller bound for the Mall- 

nitzer Tauern must avoid the path that 
follows the torrent through iho last- 
named glen, and leads across the ridge 
dividing this from the Anlaufthal, and 
should keep the more beaten track that 
winds up the slopes on the S. side of the 
glen. The ascent is easy, and, after 
winding round a hollow just below the 
top of the ridge, in 2^ hrs. from the 
Moserhiitte, or o hrs. from Bad Gastein, 
the traveller reaches the 

Mcdlnitzer Tauern (8,038'), marked by 
a wooden cross. It commands an ex- 
tensive view on the Carinthian side, 
extending to the Terglou, and this may 
be increased by a slight ascent to an 
adjoining eminence. A few min. below 
the summit, on the S. side, is the Tauern- 
haus, the highest of the refuges bearing 
that name. The person who keep*; it is 
occasionally absent, but, as a general 
rule, there are found here wine, coffee, 
bread, butter, and milk, ample refresh- 
ment for an Alpine tourist, and a hay 
couch for the benighted traveller. Posts 
mark the track when the ground is 
covered with snow ; otherwise no diffi- 
culty is found until lower down, where 
care is required not to be misled by the 
numerous cattle-tracks. The Kreuz- 
Kapelle (7,221') is passed in descending 
to a large group of Sennhiitten — called 
Manhartalp (5,810') — at the head of the 
Mcdlnitzer TAa/. a trilnitary of the Moll- 
thai, through which lies the way to Ober- 
Vellach. Keeping mainly to the rt. 
bank of the torrent, 2^ hrs.' steady walk- 
ing suffice to reach 

'Mallnitz (3,860'), the first village in 
Carinthia, with a tolerable mounUiiu inn, 
improved of late years. The landlord 
is well acquainted with the surrounding 
mountains, especially the neighbourhood 
of the Ankotrl (.see below). A very 
rough road leads hence to the Mollthal, 
and equally rough vehicles are usually 
to be found by those who prefer severe 
jolting to travelling on foot. After pass- 
ing Lassach (2,980'). the road crosses to 
the 1. bank of the 3Iailnitz, and the eye 
accustomed to tho stern scenery of this 
part of the Tauern range rejoices in the 



i-icli foliage of fine walnut trees as the 
]o;id descends rather steeply to 

Oher-Vellach (2,221'), a small town, 
the chief place in the Mullthal, nearly 
one m. below the junction of the Mallnitz 
with the Moll. There are two inns (Zum 
Prinzen Lichtenstein ; Post), of which 
tlie first is said to be the best, but rather 
d^'ar. A chamois-hunter, named Guri, 
is well acquainTed with the neighbouring 
Alps. A small post-carriage plies three 
times a week up the valley from Spittal 
to "Winklern, and returns on the alternate 
days : but the chance, even of a single 
seat, is uncertain. From this place to 
its junction with the Drave, the Mollthal 
extends nearly straight to ESE., although 
the road, which crosses the valley twice, 
and winds along the base of the bound- 
ing slopes, is very sinuous. The scenery 
is throughout very pleasing, but more 
interesting in ascending than descending, 
as some of the peaks of the Ilochnarr 
range are often m view. IS^umerous 
Roman remains have been found here ; 
the way through the Anlaufthal, noticed 
below, having been a frequented Eoman 
road. On the top of a hill, called 
Danlehberg (3,188'), that rises imme- 
diately above the 1. bank of the Moll, 
about 6 m. below Ober-Vellach, stands a 
chapel which was once a temple of Her- 
cules, as is testified by an inscription 
built into the wall. This spot commands 
a fine view up and down the valley, and 
the pedestrian does well to avoid the 
road, which here follows the rt. bank of 
the Moll, and follow a path from the 
village of Penk which passes over the 
Danielsberg. He rejoins the road where 
it returns to the 1. bank, at the opening 
of the Einkenthal. The detour scarcely 
costs an hour's additional walk. After 
passing KoJmitz (1,993'), aiid Miihldorf, 
tlie road from Ober-Vellach joins the 
high-road through the valley of the 
Drave at Mvllhr'ucke ( 1 ,829'), rather more 
than 13 m. from Ober-Vellach. Tra- 
vellers intending to ascend the valley of 
the Drave cross the Moll just above its 
.junction with the latter river, by the 
bridge, which is only \\ m. from Sach- 
eenburg (§ 51, Kte. A), while those I 

bound for Villach follow the road along 
the 1. bank of the Drave to Spittal. [The 
wi'iter has not seen any notice of the 
ascent of the PoZm?V7^ (9,123'), a fine peak 
that rises about 4 m. SW. of Ober- 
Vellach. As it is the highest summit in 
the mountain range that divides the val- 
ley of the Moll from that of the Drave, 
it must necessarily command a very fine 
panoramic view.] 

2. BytheWoigstensc'karte{^,OW). If 
the height of the Mallnitzer Taueru has 
not been, as the writer suspects, some- 
what exaggerated, this is, by a few feet, 
the lowest pass over the main range be- 
tween the Pfitscher Joch and the Arl- 
scharte, and is, at the same time, the 
most direct way from Gastein to Mallnitz, 
In spite of these apparent recommenda- 
tions, it is rarely, if ever, used by travel- 
lers ; the writer has never heard the 
pass named at Bad Gastein, nor has he 
seen any notice of it seeming to be 
derived fr6m personal observation. The 
cause of this disfavour seems to be the 
existence of a small glacier on the N. 
side of the pass, which may possibly 
make the passage difficult. The Woi<j- 
stenscharte may be reached by a circuitous 
path that mounts from the Nassfeld 
through the Weissenbacltthal, mentioned 
above, but there is a much more direct 
way throxigh the Hiekahr, a tributary' 
glen of the Anlaufthal, further noticed 
below. To jiidgp from maps, the pass 
must be nearer to Bad Gastein by several 
miles than the Mallnitzer Taueru ; while 
it is not more distant from Mallnitz. 
Further information is desired. 

3. B?/ the Anlavf thai and!. 
This way is rougher and more laborious, 
but somewhat shorter, than that over the 
Mallnitzer Tauern. It is little used in 
summer, but, Ijeing exposed to avalanches, 
is often preferred by natives of the val- 
ley who attempt the passage in winter. 
According to an ancient tradition, this 
was the course followed by the Eoman 
road that connected the mines of Gastein 
with the valley of the Drave, 

As mentioned in Ete. A, the Atilauf- 
thal ]oms the main branch of the Ga- 
steiner Thai by Bocksttin, at the X. base 



of the Eadhausberg. Throughout the 
greater part of its length, it is a defile 
enclosed between steep slopes, partly 
covered with pine forest. The finest 
ecenerj is in two lateral glens opening 
on the 1. hand as the traveller ascends 
the valley. Following the path along 
the 1. bank of the torrent, he reaches, 
in I hr. from Bockstein, the first of these 
glens, called HieJcahr. This presents 
itself as a cirque, or amphitheatre, with 
one tier of rocks rising above another. 
On the 1. hand, a cascade is seen at a 
great height on the steep face of a rock ; 
the same torrent forms a more consider- 
able waterfall lower down, not far from 
the point where it enters the Anlaufthal. 
A very steep path mounts about 1,600 
ft. to the Hiekahralp, a high terrace 
whereon lie two Alpine tarns. By that 
way, the Woigstenscharte, mentioned 
above, is not very distant ; and by bear- 
ing to the rt. it is possible to reach the 
summit of the Radhausberg (Ete. A). 
In 2^ hrs. from Bad Gastein the open- 
ing of the Taiiernthal, the second tri- 
butary glen of the Anlaufthal, is reached. 
It is marked by another waterfall, the 
finest in the valley, called Tauernfall. 
From the junction of the two glens, a 
•well-beaten cattle-track mounts to the 
Badeckalp (5,657'), at the head of the 
main branch of the valley, under the TV. 
face of the Ankogl. From the same 
point, a hunter's path leads NE. over a 
high and rough pass to the Prossaualp, 
in the Kotschachthal. The way to the 
Holier Tauern, also locally called Korn- 
Taicern, mounts SSE. through the 
Tauernthal. After attaining a con- 
siderable height, the traveller comes, in 
two places, upon the remains of a broad 
substantial causeway, paved with large 
flags of gneiss. The doubt whether any 
of the subsequent rulers of this region 
were capable of undertaking such a mas- 
sive work gives some colour to the tra- 
dition that these are poilions of the 
ancient Roman way. In 2 hrs. from tlie 
opening of the Tauernthal, a steady 
walker will reach tlie summit of the 
pass, 8,089 ft. above the sea. The view 
is unexpectedly grand, and far superior 

! to that from the Mallnitzer Tauern, in- 
I eluding on the one hand the near range 
j from the Ankogl to the Hochalpenspitz, 
i and to the the chief summits of the 
j Glockner group. The descent on the S. 
I side is by a steep track that zigzags down 
I the E. side of a narrow glen opening 
1 into the Seethal. The latter is the E. 
branch of the Mallnitz valley, which, 
at the village of that name, joins the 
main branch, descending from the Mall- 
nitzer Tauern. From 2^ to 3 hrs. from 
the summit of the pass are reqmred to 
reach the village of Mallnitz. 

[The ascent of the Ankogl — noticed 
in Rte. A, among the excursions from 
Gastein — may best be undertaken from 
the village of Mallnitz, whither an active 
mountaineer may return on the same 
day, or even descend by the Radeck 
Grlacier to Bad Gastein. The way lies 
through the Seethal, above mentioned, 
one of the finest Alpine glens of this dis- 
trict, especially at its upper end, where, 
under the name Lassacher Winkcl. it 
extends to the base of the Hochalpen- 
spitz. About 1 hr. above Mallnitz. just 
beyond the point where the track to 
the Hohe Tauern turns northward out 
of the Seethal, the traveller passes close 
to the Stajntzsee (3,942'), a little lake 
lying on one side above the 1. bank of 
the Seebach. An hour farther are the 
huts of the LassacJwr Alp (4,272'), 
where, in case of need, shelter for the 
night may be obtained. Here opens a 
very fine \'iew through the Lassacher 
Winkel, which stretches toESE. at least 
2 Stunden, to the base of a glacier that 
lies on the ridge connecting the Hooh- 
alpenspitz wdth the Sdulcck (10,108'}. 
From the Lassacher Hiitten, the way to 
the Ankogl lies up a slope of debris, 
and then through a band of pine forest 
tlaat girdles the valley, till tlie traveller 
enters a ravine, named the Trom, which 
leads up to a glacier that extends to a 
southern peak of the mountain, called 
at Mallnitz, Kleiner Ankogl. The gla- 
cier is reached in 2|- hrs. Irom the Las- 
sacher Alp; and in 1| hr. more of iee- 
work, in part rather steep and requiring 
caution, the traveller reaches the ridge 



on tlie rt. of the Kleine Ankogl. The 
ascent may be completed by keeping 
to the ridge that connects the latter 
with the main penk, or else by follow- 
ing the steep neve slope along the base 
of the same ridge (by its E. side ?). 
There is nnotherway (rather easier, but 
longer, than that by the Trom) by the 
Luokenthorl. With a good guide — more 
easily found at Malinitz than at Ga- 
stein — the traveller may descend by the 
Eadeck Glacier to the head of the An- 
laufthal, and so reach Bad Gastein on 
the same evening. 

A rather rough map by F. Keil, con- 
tained in the ' Jahrbuch of the Vienna 
Alpine Club for 1865,' will be useful 
for thia excursion; but the names in- 
serted do not all agree with those used 
at Malinitz.] 



In Rte, B we have pointed out a 
course by which an active mountaineer 
may accomplish the distance between 
Bad Gastein and Heiligenblut, at the 
head of the Mollthal, in a single long 
day's walk ; and in the last Rte. three 
passes have been named by any one of 
which a moderate walker may easily 
reach Ober-Vellach, in the lower Moll- 
thai, in one day from the baths. Be- 

tween these two places — Ileiligcnblut 

and Ober-Vellaeh — extends the iu.ig and 

, sinuous valley of the Moll, of which the 

I upper portion only, between AVinklern 

, and Heiligenblut, is described in § ol, 

Rte. B. 

In the present Rte. attention is 
I called to three different glacier passes, 
j by which, starting early from Bad Ga- 
, stein, they may reach the Mollthal either 
: at Dollach, in the upper valley, or at 
j fragant, about 1^ hr. above Ober-Vel- 
lach. As in any case it is needful to 
! pass by the Neubau, at the mines of 
, Raiaris, it is obvious that these passes 
j may be taken from Bucheben, inRauris, 
j more easily than from Gastein. As both 
1 passes are better known than the Gold- 
; zech-Tauern (noticed in Rte. B,, it is 
j believed that a traveller starting from 
j Gastein or Bocksttin may there find 
a competent guide, which can scarcely 
I be said for the other pass. Those who 
I dislike so long a day's walk, or wish to 
see something of the Rauris mines, may 
best go on the first day by the Buck- 
hardt to Kolm-Saiguru, and, taking 
there a guide for the glacier, may reach 
Dollach or Fragant m good time ua 
the day. 

Starting from Bad Gastein, or Bock- 
stein, the traveller may reach the Xeu- 
bau, at the foot oi' the Goldberg Glacier, 
in 5 hrs. The way then lies over the 
latter, and nearly due S. towards the 
TrainerJcojjf{%,M^'), or Altenkogel, ris- 
ing at the S. extremity of the neve basin 
of that great glacier. If desirous to take 
the shortest way to Dollach, he should 
bear somewhat to the 1. to reach a de- 
pression immediately AV. of the Tramer- 
kopf. This is the pass of the Tramer- 
scharte (8,391'), also known as Win- 
dischscharte. It lies immediately at 
the head of the northern branch of the 
Zirknitzthal, which opens into the 
Mollthal at Ddllach (§ 51, Rte. B). 
This pass is, however, said to involve 
some diflEicuit glacier work, and to be 
sometimes impracticable. It is certain 
that the natives generally prefer the 
other pass over the main range, which lies 
a short way E. of the Tramerkopf. Thia 



is the Klein-Zir/oiitc'scharte (8,855'). 
On reaching the summit, the traveller 
sees before him a snowfiekl that gra- 
dually falls toAvards the SSE., forming 
the Wurten Glacier, which sends its 
rorrent, to the Fragantthal. To reach 
Dollach, it is necessary to bear to the rt. 
from the summit of the pass, scarcely 
descending below its level, in order to 
traA'erse a ridge, diverging southward 
from the Tramerkopf, which divides 
the valleys of Zirknitz and Fi'agant. 
Having reached a stone man which 
marks the summit of this latter ridge, 
the descent lies into the eastern branch 
of the Zirknitzthal, often called Klein- 
Zirknitz. At the foot of the glacier is 
the Gross- Zirknit^sce (7,^93'), a glacial 
lake on which often float detached ice- 
masses. The scenery of both branches 
of the Zirknitzthal is said to be of a 
vt-ry high -order, but little accm'ate in- 
formation respecting these parses has 
reached the writer. 

Should the traveller have reached 
Dollach sufficiently early, he may push 
on (in a vehicle or on foot) to the com- 
fortable inn at Winklern (§ 51, Ete. 
B), a distance of S^ m. 

The distance by road from Winklern 
to Ober-Yellach is about 28 m., and as 
the road is tolerably good, much time 
is saved by taking a vehicle ; but the 
scenery is sufficiently varied to make 
walking agreeable. The pedestrian may 
save a little cime by crossing the Moll 
below Winklern, and following the path 
on the 1. bank till the road crosses to 
that side of the stream about 3 m. far- 
ther doAvn. Few considerable Alpine 
streams hare so sinuous a course as 
that of the MciU. Keeping from Heili- 
genblut a general southward direction, 
and flowing SSW. for some miles above 
Winklern, where it is separated from 
the Drave only by the low and narrow 
isthmus of the Iselsberg, it bends at 
first SE. for about 3m., and then turn- 
ing again nearly at rt. angles, flows 
about ENE. fur many niiles to Fragant, 
beyond which its course is at first E. to 
Ober-Vellach, whence its channel, after 
uniting with that of the Drave, is ESE. 

to Villach, In descending the valley, 
the traveller will not fail to remark the 
vast masses of debris and loose soil 
borne down by lateral torrents. One 
great mass, the accumulated result of 
many separate operations, is traversed 
before reaching Stall (2,778'), a villago 
nearly half-way from Winklern to Ober- 
Vellach. Still more signal are the effects 
of another mound of deliris borne down 
through a ravine called Klausengraben, 
about 4 m. below Stall. Within the last 
ten years, this has formed a new lake, 
l^- m. long, Mhich has robbed the inha- 
bitants of an equal extent of cultivated 
ground. About 3 m. farther is Fragant 
(2,300'), at the opening of the lateral val- 
ley bearing the same nan)e. The inn hex'o 
is said to be tolerably good, and the 
villlage shoemaker is recommended as 
a guide for Alpine excursions. The tor- 
rent from the Fragantthal is ill-famed 
for the destruction which it has often 
caused in the main valley. Here the 
valley widens out, and extends nearly 
at a level for about 5 m. to Ober-Vel- 
lach, mentioned in the last Kte, 

The traveller wishing to take a direct 
course from the Neubauto Fragant, may 
descend from the Klein-Zirknitzscharte 
along the Wurten Glaciir into the heaei 
of the Wxirtcnthal, or northern branch 
of the Fragantthal. There is another 
pass — Goldberg Tauern (9,070') — con- 
necting the Goldberg with the Wurten 
Glacier. It is a little higher, but rather 
more direct. Some explorer will doubtless 
find a more direct way from Bad Gastein 
to the Wiu'tenthal by a glacier pass from 
the S. end of the Nassfeld, on either 
side of the summit of the Muramr Spitz 
(9,858'); but this remains to be dis- 
covered. The Wurtenthal is said to 
be a very wild and dreary glen, 
through which the traveller descends 
for nearly 3 hrs. to its junction with 
the Sadniggthal, which is the W. branch 
of the Fragaut Valley. A hamlet, 
called Inner- Fragant, stands at the junc- 
tion, and below this the valley is known 
as Fragantthal. In the last century, Inner- 
Fragant was frequented for its mineral 
spring, now deserttd. In little more 



tliHU 1 hr. the village of Pragant is 

Tlie mountaineer travelling up or 
down the Mollthal may with little or 
no loss of time avoid the long circuit 
between Dollach and Fragant, by leav- 
ing the Mollthal at the latter village, 
and taking a path through the Sadnigg 
branch of the valley which mounts by 
the Sehober Alp to a pass connecting 
this with the head of the Aitcnthal. 
Keeping along the slope at a consider- 
able height above the rt. bank of the 
Asrenbach, a slight ascent suffices to 
reach the Astmer Battel (6,518'), a de- 
pression in the range dividing the 
Astenthal from the Zirknitzthal. From 
this second pass, the path descends 
direct to Dollach. If the weather be 
favourable, it is well worth while to 
lengthen this excursion by about 4 hrs. 
in order to reach the summit of the 
Stdlkopf (9,554'), the highest point of 
a promontory projecting southwards 
from the Hocbnarr range. This rises a 
short way northward from the head of 
the Astenthal, and appears to be mode- 
rately easy of access. Between the 
summit and Dollach, the traveller may 
pass either by the Zirknitzthal, or by 
the path above mentioned along the 
JsW. side of the Astenthal. It is ex- 
pedient to start very early from Dollach 
or Fragant, or else to sleep at the high- 
est Hutten in the Astenthal. 



Radstadt . 
St. ilichael 







Rennweg . 
Giniind . 
YiUach . 





Post-read. Diligence twice a week between 

Salzburg and Yillach, passing by Kadstadt, but 

' not by St. Johann. Extra horses are required 

for rhe passage of the Piadstadter Tauem and 

the Kaischberg. 

We have already seen that for a dis- 
tance of more than 100 m. eastward of 
I the Brenner Pass no carriage-road tra- 
verses the central range of the Eastern 
I Alps. It is only on the E. side of the 
I mountain mass that culminates in the 
I Hafaereck, where the main chain divides 
I into the two parallel ranges enclosing 
the valley of the rilur, that the barrier 
between the waters flowing to the Drave 
and those of the Danube subside low 
enough to permit the construction of 
the road which is known as that of the 
Eadstadter Tauem. That name belongs 
to the higher pass traversed by that 
road, connecting the valley of the Enns 
with the head waters of the ]Mur, and a 
second pass (the Katschberg) must be 
surmounted before the traveller can de- 
scend to the valley of the Drave. 

The traveller who takes this road 
from SaLzbm'g to Villach does not keep 
to the main road along the Salza to St. 
Johann in Pongau (§ 45, Kte. E), but: 
quits that stream a short way above 
Werfen, and follows the post -road 
through the Fritztbal, which is noticed 
in § 46, Ete. F. The distance from 
Werfen to Eadstadt is 4|- Austrian, or 
21 English, miles. Those who come from 
Gastein or the Pinzgau will natirrally 
take the road here described from St. 
Johann in Pongau to Ea-^Istadt, which 
shortens the distance by 14 English m. 



That portion of the road, formerly very 
rough, has been recently improved, hut 
the postmaster at St. Johann sometimes 
objects to supply horses, so that it is 
often a better plan to hire a carriage 
from Lend to Eadstadt, From the 
latter place, the traveller may pursue 
his journey either by diligence or post- 

Although the road from St. Johann 
to Eadstadt traverses the water-shed 
between the Salza and the Enns, it lies 
along the great line of valley which, 
with trifling exceptions, forms the 
northern boundary of the crystalline 
rocks in the Eastern Alps. The height 
of land over which the road is carried 
is only about 900 ft. above the level of 
the Salza, and scarcely 200 ft. above 
the Enns at the point where it is first 
approached. For some miles from St. 
Johann, the new road mounts at a con- 
siderable height above the Kleinarl- 
bach, gaining a fine view over the 
Pongau, backed by the crags of the 
Uebergossene Alp ; it then runs nearly 
at a level till it reaches Wagraiit (2.743'), 
a village about 7 m. from St. Johann, 
with a tolerable country inn, at the 
opening of the Kleinarlthal (Ete. I). 
A very easy ascent leads hence to the 
pass, or height of land, dividing the 
basin of the Salza from that of the 
Enns, 2,933 ft. above the sea. An 
interesting view is gained along the 
upper Ennsthal, especially when clouds 
do not cover the bold peaks of the 
Pachstein group, here seen to great 
advantage. A short descent along a 
gentle slope leads to the Enns. This 
is here an insignificant mountain stream 
that issues from the Flochau. its parent 
glen, further noticed in Ete. I. 

The first village on the Enns is Beit- 
dorf (2,751'). A little farther, on the 
rt. bank of the Enns, is Altenmarkt 
(2,707')> supposed to be the Eoman sta- 
tion Ani, and certainly the original site 
of Eadstadt, which stands about 3 m. 
lower down, on the opposite bank of 
the Enns, just above its junction with 
the Tauern Ache. It is noticed in § 47 
Ete. A. 

The lladsladter Tauern is one of tliose 
Alpine routes that deserves more ceie- 
brity than it has hitherto obtained. 
The scenery offers i-AV more of variety 
and interest than the more famous pass 
of the Brenner, and has special attrac- 
tions for the geologist and the botanist, 
who should arrange their journey so as 
to pass some hours at the summit. The 
ascent commences close to the town of 
Eadstadt, where the stream of the 
Tauern Ache, descending from the pass, 
unites with the Enns. ^Eirst by the 1., 
then by the rt. bank, the road ascends 
gently through the lower part of the glen 
to the pictiu-esque village of 

Unter- Tauern (3,338'). The nearer 
wooded slopes are backed by the rugged 
mass of the Wmdsfdd (8,532') which 
rises to the rt. of the pass. Here the 
ascent becomes more rapid, and the 
road passes through a defile— the Tau- 
ernklamm — close to the foaming rapids 
of the Ache. Higher up, that torrent 
forms a high waterfall, but partially 
seen from the road. Tourists usually 
make a_ slight detour to visit it, ba 
may enjoy the view of a second, less 
lofty, but more picturesque fall without 
quitting the road. Higher up, on reach- 
ing the level pastures of the Gnadou- 
alp (4,055'), the road bears to the 1. 
away from tlie torrent, and begins to 
mount the slope of the mountain. To 
attain the vippermost shelf in the valley, 
the road turns abruptly eastward, nearly 
at rt. angles to its previous direction, 
while the torrent disappears altogether 
from view. It is usual to halt where a 
path turns aside with a finger-post in- 
scribed ' Nach dem JohannsfalL' It is 
worth while to follow the indication, 
not so much for the sake of the water- 
fall as for the remarkable conformation 
of the rocks around it. Issuing from a 
narrow cleft, the torrent springs into a 
hollow abyss 600 ft. deep, and is turned 
into a cloud of spray before it reaches 
the bottom. A last ascent leads from 
this point to the Tauernhaus, locally 
known by the name WicsenecJc. The 
group of houses, including the large 
inn and refuge, a chapel, and a priest's 




h:<ise, lies in the centre of an amphi- | 
tlieatre of peaks wIiIl-Ii somewhat exceed | 
8,000 ft. in height, broken through only 
liy the depression forming the pass, and 
the way Ijy which the road ascends from 
Untertauern. The naturalist who would 
halt here finds rough, but tolerable, 
accommodation at the Tauernhaus. The 
geologist will find occupation in exam- 
ining the limestone masses, apparently 
of Triassic age, that are inserted be- 
tween the gneiss and mica schist of the 
Hafnereek range to the SW., and the 
cLiy slate and other Palaeozoic rocks that 
prtn-ail to the east of the pass. As 
usual, variety in the mineral composi- 
tion of the rocks is accompanied by a 
rich and varied flora. Nowhere does 
the beautiful Rhododendron hirsidum 
cover the slopes with richer masses of 
colour. Among the rare plants of the 
.surrounding heights may be named 
lianuyiculns Tufcsfvlms, Arahis jpuraUa, 
Chirleria imhricata, Saxifraga Burser- 
iana, Cineraria crispa, Campanula pulla, 
Lomatogonium carinthiacum (close to 
the summit of the pass), Juncus casta- 
neus, &c. A scarcely perceptible ascent 
leads from the Tauernhaus to the sum- 
mit of the 

Radstddter Tauern (5,703'). On the 
very summit is a cemetery (Friedhof) 
for the accommodation of wayfarers 
lost in crossing the pass in winter — a 
somewhat lugubrious arrangement for a 
pass not exposed to unusual risks, yet 
pleasing becauseof the serene tranquillity 
of the spot. A tombstone three hun- 
dred years old marks the resting-place 
of W. Wieseneck, the builder of the 
Tauernhaus. A Roman milestone was 
dug up close to the summit. In de- 
scending, the road passes a second 
Tauernhaus at a spot called Scheidberg. 
Farther on, a view is gained on the rt. 
hand up the Lantschthal, a short glen 
leading to the Flaehau (Ete. I). A rapid 
and continuous descent leads to 

Tv:eng (3,846') — -more properly called 
Weng — the post-station, with a clean, 
comfortable, and reasonable inn, offer- 
ing good head-quarters for a naturalist. 
Peter Simmerl is recommended as a good 

guide. This is the first place in Lungau^ 
by which name is designated the upper- 
most valley of the Mur, along with the 
numerous glens through which tributary 
streams are poured into that river. 
Being traversed by the main high-road 
leading from Salzburg, through Carin- 
thia, to Italy, this district has been for 
ages separated from Styria, to which it 
naturally belongs, and annexed to the 
dominions of the Archbishops of Salz- 
burg. * Prom Tweng, the road runs 
ESE. along the Taurach torrent for 
about 7 m. to MauUrndorf (3,454'), a 
very ancient little town, the annals of 
whose castle — granted to the ecclesias- 
tical rulers of Salzburg by the Emperor 
Henry II. — are full of grim records of 
mediaeval valour and cruelty. From 
Mauterndorf (Inn : Post), the Taurach 
flows a little N. of E. to join the nearly 
parallel stream of the Mur at Tams- 
weg; and along it runs the road that 
follows that river to Judenburg and 
Brack (§53, Rte. A). The road to 
Villach winds over the low ridge between 
Mauterndorf and the Mur crossing the 
so-called Staig Pass, to reach the post- 
station at 

St. Michael (3,507'), a small town, 
busy with frequent through traffic, with 
several inns (Post ; Wastl ; &c.). The 
passing tourist does not suspect the 
immediate vicinity of fine Alpine scenery 
at the head of the Murthal, and in 
the Zederhausthal (Rte. I). Almosc 
immediately on leaving St. Michael, 
commences the ascent of the Katschherg 
(5,261'). Though this pass is not 500 
ft. lower than that of the Radstadter 
Tauern, it offers a marked contrast. 
The latter in its general aspect and 
vegetation is purely Alpine in character, 
whereas this recalls merely the moun- 
tainous region on the outskirts of the 
Alps. In the ascent from St. Michael, 
a view, however, is gained of the head 
of the Zederhauswinkel, enclosed by a 
high range, of which the most prominent 
summit is the Moserwandl (8,790'). 
On the summit of the Katschberg, the 
traveller passes the frontierof Carinthia, 
and descends rapidly io Rmau-eg {Z,! 'io')t 



the post-station, with a rather poor inn, 
where delicious trout are kept alive in 
a tank to furnish a meal for passing 
travellers, Jager Hiesl is recommended 
as a guide. Here the stream of the 
Lieser, which springs from the SE. base 
of the Hafnereck, is joined by the road 
which accompanies it to its junction 
with the Drave. Though the higher 
peaks to W. and NW. are scarcely any- 
where in view, the scenery of the Lieser- 
thal is throughout interesting and agree- 
able. At Krevisbrucke (2,891'), said to 
have a good inn, the Kremsergrahen 
opens eastward, and through the north- 
ern branch of that glen a path leads, by 
the N. side of the Konigsstuhl, to 
Turrach (§ ob, Rte. D). Lower down 
in the valley, at the village of Leoben 
(2,814') — not to be confounded with 
the Styrian town of that name — another 
parallel glen leads along the Leohen- 
back to the same place. The latter is 
the better way for a traveller wishing 
to take the summit of the Konigsstuhl 
on his way. From Leoben, where the 
Lieserthal becomes narrower and steeper, 
the road descends to 

Gmiind (2,385'), a pretty little town, 
finely situated at the opening of the 
Maltathal, whose attractions, yet little 
known to strangers, are noticed in the 
following Rtes. Of several inns, that 
kept by Lax (who is well acquainted 
with the neighbouring Alps) and the 
Post are recommended. After a glimpse 
of the snowy peaks that guard the upper 
end of the Maltathal, the road descends 
rather rapidly along the slopes above 
the rt. bank of the Lieser. About 7 m. 
from G-miind, a broad valley opens to 
ESE., wherein lies the Millstadter See, 
one of the largest lakes in this part of 
the Alpine chain, about 8 m. long and 
more than 1 m. broad, further noticed 
in § 00, Rte. F. The lake, which is 
1,904: ft. above the sea-level, is drained 
from its "WNW. end into the Lieser. 
That stream runs to join the Drave 
through a deep and narrow channel, 
while the road passes over the low pine- 
grown ridge that divides the lake from 
the valley of the Drave. The physical 

geologist, who may here speculate on 
recent theories as to the origin of Alpine 
lakes, should be aware that, although 
the terrace on which the town of Spittal 
stands is only 2 ft. above the level of 
the lake, the bed of the Drave at the 
junction of the Lieser is lower by 245 
ft., or ],649 ft. above the sea. The 
road from Spittal to V'^illach is described 
in § 51, Rte. A. 

RotJTE F. 


Char-road to Hlittschlag, about 15 m. ; on 
foot to Flugelhof , 9i lirs. ; char-road thence to 
GmUiid, about 9 m. 

The course here described, which is 
entirely free from difficulty, and practi- 
cable for every moderate walker, enables 
the traveller to enjoy much of the fine 
scenery of the Maltathal, though it does 
not offer attractions equal to those of 
the following Rtes. It may be taken 
by one going from Salzburg to Villach 
with little or no loss of time, as on the 
first day from Salzburg he may easily 
reach Hlittschlag, in Grossarl, and on 
the following day may arrive at the 
Fliigelhof in time to go on to Grmiind. It 
must be said that there is little chance 
of finding a vehicle at the Fliigelhof, 
unless it should be ordered beforehand 
by a letter to the postmaster at G-miind. 

The Grossarithal opens into the val- 



ley of the Salza just at the point where 
that river, after flowing duo eastward 
from its soui'ce, turns at rt. angles to 
its previous course, and runs northward 
towards Salzburg, Thus it happens 
that the Grossarl Ache is nearly con- 
tiinious with the lower course of the 
Salza. The road from St. Johann 
crosses the Kleinarlbach, and ascends 
above the rt. bank of the Salza, till in 
about 5 m. the road reaches, at Stcgen- 
vmcht, the entrance of the savage defile 
through which the Grrossarl Ache de- 
scends to join the Salza. In this defile 
thermal springs exist similar in charac- 
ter to those of Gastein, and have, at 
various periods, been used with similar 
salutary effects ; but inundations, ava- 
lanches, and similar accidents, have as 
often made the spot inaccessible, or 
diverted the channels of the warm 
springs. In 3 hrs. from St. Johann the 
road reaches 

G-rossarl-Borf {2,^W), the chief place 
in the valley. An active walker may from 
hence reach Dorf Gastein in 3 hrs. over 
the ArWtbrl, and another, rather longer, 
pass leads to Hof Gastein over the 
Aigenalp. Following the road, which 
is constructed for the sake of the copper 
mines, the traveller passes, about 1^- hr. i 
above Grossarl, the opening of the \ 
Tofirntlial, by which way Bad Gastein | 
may be reached in 4 hrs., crossing the j 
shoulder of the Gamskahrkogel. A I 
short way farther up the valley, 5 hrs.' I 
walk from St. Johann, is | 

HuttschJag (3,125'), a mining village, j 
where copper of excellent quality is ex- 
tracted and refined. The veins are near 
the junction of the metamorphic slates 
with the trias. As much as 100 tons of 
sulphujf are said to be annually extracted 
from the ore. Above this place, the 
track, which for some distance is practi- 
cable for rough carts, follows the valley 
in a SE. direction to the hamlet of 
Stockham, 1^ hr. from Hiittschlag. Not 
much higher up is the last permanent 
dwelling, a farmhouse near a little lake, 
appropriately named Hof am See (3,490'). 

' Here the valley narrows to a stony 
defile, but the path continues to ascend 

gently as far as the Schoderalp. The 
MUte stands on a huge pile of debris, 
the remains of a bergfall from the E. 
side of the valley, which bridges over 
the torrent for a distance of 700 or 800 
yards. Here the path to the Arlscharte 
turns to SAV., and ascends rapidly along 
the slope of a promontory that projects 
between the Marchkaar and the Kolben- 
kaar. After ascending for 1 hr. the 
path reaches a sort of terrace, called 
'Am Kolben' (5,991'), where the forest 
comes to an end. The path now turns, 
first to the 1., then back to the rt., and 
ascends over piles of debris to the Arl- 
scharte pass, reached in 4 hrs. from Hof- 
am See ' [K. S.] Beside the summit is 
a knoll, called Arlhohe, only 62 ft. 
higher, found by Sonklar to be 7,561 ft. 
above the sea. It commands an exten- 
sive view in both directions. 

Here the traveller looks alongthf main 
branch of the Maltathal — more correctly 
written Maltcinthal, but we adhere 
to the commoner usage. This, by the 
unanimous testimony of the few travel- 
lers who have traversed it, is one of the 
grandest and most picturesque in the 
Eastern Alps. A rapid descent leads 
the traveller from the pass to the Samer- 
Mitte, the highest alp in the main branch 
of the valley. On the way to Graiind he 
will enjoy scenery that offers a rare com- 
bination of all the elements of scenic 
grandeiu' and beauty. Eock masses of the 
boldest and most fantastic forms, luxu- 
riant vegetation of pine and larch, and, 
above all, a marvellous variety of water- 
falls, leave nothing wanting to enhance 
the effect. The upper portion of the 
valley from the Flilgelhof to the Wastel- 
alp — called for distinction Maltagrdben 
— is nearly throughout a narrow defile, 
opening, at intervals, into a little basin, 
containing grf en pasture and a Sennhutte. 
In this space Dr. Euthner reckons a 
dozen fine waterfalls, without counting 
those in the lateral valleys. * Nowhere 
in the Alps,' says Sonklar, ' are the traces 
of glacial action to be seen on a vaster 
scale.' These are well exhibited a little 
below the Samerhutte. Here the main 
torrent of the Malta flows into the 



proper head of the ralley. Ic is 
formed by the union of tv,-o glacior 
streams from the Grosse Elend and 
Kleine Elend glens, mentioned in the 
following lltes., ■which join their wa- 
ters about a mile W. of the Samer- 
hiitte. The character of the scenery 
here is that of an upland Alpine glen, 
nearly bare of timber, enclosed be- 
tween a high ridge that extends north- 
ward from the Hochalpenspitz to the 
Brannkahrnock, and that connecting 
the Markkahrspitz with the Hafnereck. 
Descending over rough ground, first by 
the 1., then by the rt., bank of the Malta, 
the traveller, in about one hr., reaches 
the Wastclalp, or ^\^astelbauerhiitte. 
This is the largest Sennhiitte in the 
valley, but more commodious night- 
quarters are now to be found, as men- 
tioned in the next Rte. Here we enter upon 
the characteristic scenery of the Malta- 
graben. For a considerable distance, 
the path keeps to the rt. bank. The 
Bossturnpel, a fine fall of the I^.Ialta, is 
followed by that of a torrent descending 
from a ravine on the rt. Nearly one hr. 
is required to reach the Adambaucrhiltte, 
which lies on the 1. bank, and the path 
keeps that side of the torrent through 
the remarkable defile which extends 
hence to the Traxhiitte. 

Supported in places on projecting 
beams, or cut into the face of the live 
rock, the footway finally returns to the 
rt. bank by a bridge flung across from 
rock to rock, at a great height above the 
torrent. Shortly below this the travel- 
ler reaches what is, perhaps, the most 
remarkable spot in the valley, and which, 
therefore, forms the turning-point for 
most tourists who visit it from G-miind. 
With a background of bold rocks and 
noble pine-trees, two waterfalls are 
brought together into the same picture. 
As seen from below, the Hochalpenbach, 
which drains the chief glacier of the 
Hochalpenspitz, forms on the 1. hand a 
double fall — above a cataract, below a 
bolder spring from the edge of a ledge 
of rocks. On the rt., and close at hand, 
the more copious stream of the Malta 
is abruptly hurried over a barrier some 

■ 50 ft. high, into a deep circular cnl- 
'• dron. from the colour of the water in 
j this ' Ivessel,' the waterfall is known as 
ihe Blaxie Tumj[)f. Scarcely h ra. below 
this singular spot is the Traxhutte 
I (3,775'), about 2 hrs. from the Wastel- 
I alp. The huts lie in a little basin 
closed at the lower end by a projecting 
buttress of the mountain, and it is 
necessary to ascend some way before re- 
suming the descent, which is hencefor- 
ward rather rapid. Near a fine fall of 
the Mollniggbach is a picturesque bridge 
—Hochstg (3,205')— below which the 
last Sennhiitte is passed. Though long, 
the valley is so interesting that it is 
almost Vi'ith regret that the traveller 
reaches the highest hamlet, a group of 
very poor houses, called Brandstall. 
This lies only a short way above the 
junction of the Gossgraben, a consider- 
able glen described in Rte.H. Close to 
the junction, on the rt. bank of the 
Malta, is the 

Flilg'lhof (2,762'), a large farming 
establishment, surrounded by fine lime 
trees, belonging to Count Lodron, the 
owner of a large modern residence in 
the town of Gmiind, and one of the 
chief proprietors of the adjoining dis- 
striet. The farmer here will give re- 
freshment, and, doubtless, in case of 
need, night accommodation. At another 
house, on the opposite side of the Malta, 
the farnier (der Klampferer) sometimes 
has a vehicle available for hire. This 
place is commonly reckoned 11 hrs. 
from Hiittschlag, but an active walker 
will reach the pass in 5 hrs., and de- 
scend to Fliigelhof in 4^ hrs. 

Below the junction of the Gossgra- 
ben, the Maltathal completely changes 
its character, and is henceforth a broad 
and nearly level valley, with numerous 
farmhouses, and a good deal of land 
available for tillage. About half-way 
to Gmiind is the village of Malta 
(2,562'), with a tolerable inn, kept by 
Anderl Krammer. The parish priest, 
Herr Kohlmayr, has largely contributed 
to dispel the general ignorance which, 
till very lately, prevailed as to this 
beautiful valley, and has published a 



little descriptive work which the writer 
lias not been able to procure. He 
strongly recommends tourists to ascend 
to a point called Faschauner 27/6W (about 
6,200'), reached by a good path in 3 
hrs. from the village, and kindly lends 
to strangers a panorama by which they 
may identify the principal peaks. By 
persevering in the same direction, nearly 
due N. from Malta, the traveller may 
reach the s.ummit of the Fanchauner Nock 
(9,130'). one of the chief summits in the 
range dividing the Malta- from the 
Lieser-Thal. A gentle descent along a 
good road leads from Malta to Gyyiilnd 
(Rte. E). 



By road to Fliigelhof , 9 m. ; 14 hrs. on foot, 
exclusive of halts, thence to Bart Gastein. 

Of the glacier passes connected with 
the inner recesses of the Makathal, the 
least laborious and difficult is that lead- 
ing to Bad Gastein by the Klein-Elend- 
Bcharte, but it is certainly inferior in 
interest to the passes leading to the 
Mallnitzthal, enumerated in the next Rte. 
The Makathal, despite its undoubted 
attractions, has been under a decided 
disadvantage as compared with most 
other considerable valleys in the Eastern 
Alps, owing to the want of an inn above 
the village of Malta, and to the diffi- 
culty of finding competent guides. The 
best guide for the glacier passes is 


probably Jager Plorian, a gamekeeper, 
usually to be found at Count Lodron'a 
Jagdschloss, or shooting-lodge, at Dorn- 
bach, about half-way between Gmii^d. 
and Malta. Johanii Fercher, of Milta, 
has also been recommended. He asks 
10 fl. (too much) for the pass to Gastein. 
A mountaineer planning excursions will 
do well to apply to Herr Kohlmayr, 

; the parish prie.^t at Malta. A traveller, 
accompanied by an experienced guide, 
who designs merely to effect the pass 

: from the Kleme El end to Gastein. may 
count on finding sufficient local guidance 
at the highest Sennhiitten, and need not 
engage a man in the lower part of the 
valley. The difficulty as to accommo- 
dation in the upper part of the valley 
has been to a grent extent overcome 
through the liberality of Baron "Werue!-, 
who has built two shooting-lodges — one 
at Schonau, the other (smaller) at the 
Sommerhiitte under the Klobenhuhe — 
and kindly makes them available as 
night-quarters for tourists. 

At the SamerhiittP, where the path to 
the Arlscharte is left on th^- rt. hand, 
the ti-aveller bound for Gastein turns to 
the 1., along the torrent which unites 
the waters of the Klein- and Gross- 
Elendbach, and, keeping along the 1. 
bank for ^ hr., reaches, in 6 hrs. from 
the Fliigelhof, the R.chenbuchlhutte. 
This group of Hiitten stands at the 
junction of the Ivleine Elend, which 
mounts due W., with the Grosse Elend, 
which bears at first SW., then nearly 
due S. The scenery here is wild and 
impressive. Eight in front, in ascending 
from the Samerhiitte, is the Schwarz- 
horn, a double-pointed peak — Vorder- 
Schioarzhorn (9,444') ; Hi7iter-Schwarz- 
horn (9,536') — whichs crowns a massive 
buttress projecting NE. from the Ankogl, 
and divides the two Eiend glens. The 
Grosse Elend lies between this and a 
longer ridge, extending due N. from the 
Ho^^halpenspitz to the Brunnkahrnock 
(9.003'). The Rhine Eloid, through 
which lies the way to Gastein, is en- 
closed at its head and on its N. side by 
a portion of the main range of tha 
Tauern Alps, dividing Salzburg from 


Carinthia. From the summit of the 
Ankogl, this extends nearly due N. to 
the W, summit of the TischelJcahrkopf 
(9,288'). At that point, it tarns at rt. 
angles, and -extends due E. to the Arl- 
scharte, and thence to the Markkahr- 
spitz. There is a Sennhiitte in Kleine 
Elend, 1 hr. higher up than the Eeehen- 
buchlhiitte, but it supplies very con- 
tracted and comfortless quarters. It 
may be liere noted that the nam-e Elend, 
giveu to these glens, is almost certainly 
derived from Eleun (elk), which animal 
inhabited this part of the Alps within 
the historic period. It is here necessary 
to note a serious error in Sonklar's 
generally excellent map. He there 
places the pass to Gastein between the 
above-mentioned "W. peak of the Tischel- 
kahrkopf and the more southerly summit 
of the Fa»cknock (9,698') ; whereas it 
appears that the pass is more nearly 
where it is shown in the sketch map by 
E. Keil, in the ' Jahrbuch of the Austrian 
Alpine Glub for 1865,' some way E. of 
the E. summit of the Tischelkahrkopf, 
and not far from the spot where Sonklar 
lays down a track leading to Grossarl. 
In regard to this, and one or two other 
errors in this part of the range, it must 
be observed that Sonklar's map is partly 
based upon that of the Austrian Etat- 
Major, which is in this district by no 
means completely accurate. 

After following the 1. bank of the 
Klein-Elendbach for about f hr. from 
the above-mentioned Hiitten, the tra- 
veller turns to the rt., nearly due !N"., and 
commences a steep and long ascent. On 
approaching the snow-slopes that cover 
the sximmit, it is necessary to bear some- 
what to the 1., till, in 3| hrs. from the 
Epchenbiichlhiitte, the summit of the 
KJcm-ElenclscJmrte, also known as Kes- 
selkakrscharte, is attained. Though only 
8,231 ft. above the sea, this displays 
a considerable field of neve, which, on 
the N. side, is developed into a glacier 
of some extent. The view is said to 
be extremely fine. At first, the course 
lies well to the 1., or nearly due W., 
in order to avoid crevasses; but soon 
it becomes expedient to bear to the rt. 

C. T. 

hand, in a northerly direction, along the 
E. side of the glacier {Kessclkahrkees), 
soon leaving the ice, so as to avoid the 
crevassed extremity of the glacier, 
whence numerous glacier streamlets 
trickle down the face of steep ledges of 
rock. Without local knowledge there 
may be a little difficulty in effecting the 
descent to the Kcsselkahralp (5,987')- 
The Hutte, reached in 1^ hr. from the 
summit of the pass, lies in a hollow a 
little on the N. side of the head of the 
Kotschachthal, where the torrent of that 
valley is formed by the confluence of 
several glacier streams. 

The Kotschachthal, through which lies 
the course to Gastein, is, undoubtedly, 
one of the finest valleys of this district, 
though it must yield the palm to the 
Maltathal. It is a favourite haunt of 
chamois and other game. Too rarely 
nsited by the tourist, it well deserves 
an excursion from Bad Gastein. In 
descending from the Kcsselkahralp 
into the valley the assistance of one 
of the herdsmen may be required to 
find the way, which is rather cir- 
cuitous, passing on one side of a very 
fine waterfall. The main branch of the 
valley is reached at the Frossau-Alp 
(4,188'). This is very finely situated at 
the junction of three considerable glacier 
torrents, each of which forms a consider- 
able waterfall in its descent to the level 
of the main valley. Above the forest- 
clad slopes that surround the alp is a 
circuit of rugged peaks, whose flanks are 
clad with glaciers or snow-slopes. A 
beaten track descends the valley from 
the Prossau-Alp, first by the rt. bank of 
the Kotschache, afterwards by the oppo- 
site side of the stream. The traveller 
bound for Bad Gastein must not follow 
the torrent to the Badbriicke, on the old 
road from Hof Gastein, whence he would 
have to reascend to the baths, but take 
a well-made path, frequented by the 
bath visitors, that winds round the slope 
of the hill, and involves only a trifling 
ascent. The descent from the Kcssel- 
kahralp to Bad Gastein is effected in % 
hrs.' steady walking. 





The finest passes connected -wdth the 
Maltathal are those leading westward 
to Mallnitz or Ober-Vellach ; and there 
is little doubt but that the active moun- 
taineer may take on his way the ascent 
of the Hochalpenspitz, so as to reach 
Mallnitz on the second day from G-miind. 
It is certain that the ascent of that peak 
may be effected from the G-rosse Elend ; 
and a mountaineer who wishes in a 
single excursion to enjoy the finest 
scenery of the Maltathal cannot do 
better than go on the first day to the 
highest Hiitten in G-rosse Elend, ascend 
the peak on the following day, and, if 
possible, descend to the Fliigelhof by 
the G-ossgraben. 

" We shall, in the first place, enumerate 
the passes leading from Malta to Ober- 

1. By the PUschnitzscharte. This is 
the most circuitous way from Malta, 
involving a walk of 13 hrs., exclusive of 
halts, from the Fliigelhof; but for a 
traveller intending to make but one ex- 
cursion through the Maltathal, it de- 
serves a preference, as this shows more 
of its noble scenery than the passes 
approached through the Gossgraben. 
The first day from Malta or Grmiind 


will be employed in reaching the Rechen- 
biichlhiitte, at the junction of the tor- 
rents from G-rosse Elend and Kleine 
Elend ; but it is possible to go about 
1 hr. farther, to the highest Hiitten in 
Grosse Elend, which afford tolerable 
shelter. The glen of Grosse Eleyicl is 
said to present a pecuJiarly stern and 
desolate aspect, but rises to grandeur at 
its upper end, where it forms the centre 
of a vast amphitheatre of glacier-clad 
peaks. On the rt. is the ridge, dividing 
this from Kleine Elend, that extends 
from the Ankogl to the Schwarzhom; 
in front the much longer and higher 
range, extending from the Ankogl to 
the Hochalpenspitz ; and on the ] . the 
scarcely less lofty ridge connecting the 
latter with the Brunnkahmock (see last 
Ete.). Ihe great mass of glacier falling 
into the head of the valley is collectively 
called G-ross - Elendkees ; but, though 
usually connected by snow-slopes, so as 
to appear a nearly continuous mass, this, 
in fact, includes, at least, four distinct 
glaciers. On Sonklar's map, two of these 
are indicated, and a third is inserted on 
F. Keil's sketch map, mentioned in the 
last Ete. That descending very steeply 
from the peak of the Ankogl is the 
Kaltewand Glacier; S. of this is the 
gently sloping Pleschnitzkees ; SE. of the 
latter, from the part of the range between 
the Thorlspitz and Karlspitz, descends 
the FaUhachkees, which, like it, is little 
crevassed ; divided from the Fallbach 
Glacier by a ridge called Kalberriegel, 
is the Brunnkahrkees (Gross-EIend-Glet- 
scher of Sonklar), the most considerable 
of these glaciers, fed by the snows that 
accumulate on the NW. side of the 
Hochalpenspitz. From the Eechen- 
biichlhiitte, the way to Mallnitz lies along 
the main torrent, till, at the junction of 
the streams from the Pleschnitzkees and 
the FaUhachkees, it bears somewhat W. 
of N. along the former torrent. The 
glacier is free from difficulty, and in 
about 3^ hrs. from the Eechenbiichlhiitte, 
the traveller reaches the summit of the 
Plrschnitzscharte {^hout 8,500'?). The 
name is written in various ways, and it 
appears that the pronunciation at Mall- 



nitz corresponds best to Blasiskscharte ! 
The pass is sometimes called Gross- 
'Elendscharte, but that designation is 
vague, being often extended to the entire 
ridge connecting the Ankogl with the 
Hochalpenspitz. The view in both di- 
rections is extremely fine, and the tra- 
veller moderately favoured by weather 
will not fail to make a long halt on the 
summit of the ridge. The near peaks 
of the Ankogl and Hochalpenspitz — 
especially the latter — first claim atten- 
tion; and in the eastern background, 
the range of the Hafnereck, on the op- 
posite side that of the Hochnarr, are 
objects of further interest. The descent 
lies in a SW. direction, over a steep 
slope set with loose blocks, more or less 
covered with snow according to the sea- 
son. After a while, the ground becomes 
easier, but continues to be steep and 
pathless until, in about 1^ hr. (descend- 
ing from the pass), the Ochsenhiitte, 
surrounded by the scanty remains of an 
ancient larch forest, is attained. A 
tolerably good path leads hence along 
the Pleschnitzbach to the uppermost 
group of Hiitten of the Lassacher Alp, 
mentioned in Rte. C, in connection with 
the ascent of the Ankogl from Mallnitz. 
That village may be reached in 3^ hrs. 
from the summit of the pass, or 7 hrs. 
from the Eechenbiichlhiitte ; but as it 
lies at least 1,500 ft. lower than the 
Eiitte, 8 hrs. should be allowed when 
the pass is taken in the opposite direc- 
tion — i.e. 2 hrs. to the Lassacher Alp; 
4 hrs. thence to the summit ; 2 hrs. de- 
scending from the pass to the Eechen- 

Mountaineers may be tempted to effect 
a pass from the Lassacher Winkel, at the 
head of the Mallnitzthal, to the Grosse- 
Elend, by the ridge connecting the Thorl- 
spitz with the Karlspitz (9,689'), de- 
scending on the NE. over the Fallbach 
Glacier. The scenery must be even finer 
than that of the pass above described ; 
but as the ridge on the Lassacher side 
is very steep, it would be best to make 
the attempt from that side. There are 
two guides at Mallnitz — Schoberl, and 
Filipp Sauper, both rather advanced in 

years, who are well acquainted with the 
upper end of the Maltathal. They are 
satisfied with 2 fl. for daily pay. 

Of late years, a few travellers have 
made their way from Mallnitz to Ga- 
stein by crossing on the first day the 
Pleschnitzscharte, sleeping at the Hiitten 
in Kleine Elend, and on the following 
day crossing the Klfin-Elendscharte 
(Rte. G). Those who take this course 
should not follow the path through the 
Grosse Elend to its junction with the 
other glen, but keep along the slope of 
the Schwarzhorn at a height of about 
7,300 ft., and pass a little lake at the 
foot of the peak of the Vorder-Schwarz- 
horn, which commands a noble view of 
the surrounding Alps. Thence they can 
descend to the Hiitten in Kleine Elend. 

2. Bt/ the Dossner Scharte. 10 hrs.*" 
walking from Fliigelhof to Ober-Vellach. 
The chief lateral glen of the Malta- 
thai is the Gossffrabcn, which opens due 
westward from the Fliigelhof. It offers 
scenery which in this region is second 
only to that of the main valley, and 
leads by at least three fine passes to the 
Moll Valley. Besides Florian, of Dorn- 
bach, named in the last Etc., Simou 
Moser, and Moidle Franz, are named as 
good guides. Filipp Sauper, of Mallnitz, 
is also acquainted with the pass here 
described. Travellers wishing to under- 
take this pass, or that of the Kapponig 
Thorl, from Ober-Vellach, should en- 
quire for a hunter named Guri. He is 
also acquainted with the way up the 

The finest scenery of the Gossgraben 
is in the lower portion, extending from 
the Fliigelhof to the Zwillingfall. There 
is no lack of fine waterfalls to rival 
those of the Malta. The first is the 
Treskafall, where the Goss springs in 
one mass of foam down a ledge 168 ft. 
in height. Another, less considerable 
in volume, is formed by a tributary tor- 
rent that joins the Goss at the Wvialp. 
This is, perhaps, the most beaiitiful 
point of view in the valley. The fine 
pyramidal peak in the further back- 
ground is the Sauleck (10.108 ). and to 
the 1. is the pass of the Dossner Scharte, 



over which the traveller is to make his 
way to the Mollthal. Another remark- 
able point is reached some way farther, 
at the so-called ZwiVinfifall. As in the 
main branch of the Maltathal, we have 
here two fine waterfalls, very different in 

I to be locally known as WinJcelkees. 
' Above the Tripphiitte are many cattle- 
; tracks, but apparently no defined path. 
{ The ascent for some distance lies over 
I Alpine pasture, and gradually enters a 
stony hollow, with scattered pools of ice- 

character, placed side by side. One is i cold water, leading to a ravine or cou- 

formed by a slender stream descending 
from the Trippenalp. the other by the 

main torrent of the Goss, falling through | summit of the 

loir, up which, over a rather steep snow- 
slope, lies the way to the pass. The 

a vertical height of 250 ft. A steep 
ascent by a narrow track on the S. side 
of the main fall leads to a higher step 
in the valley, and, keeping chiefly to 
the rt. bank, the path ascends very 
gently till another rocky step is reached, 
above which is the Ulrichkufie (Z,926'), a 
large Sennhiitte offering the best night- 
quarters to be found in the valley. Up 
to this point, the ascent has been very 
gentle, except where the two Tliahtnfen, 
mentioned above, have to be surmounted. 
Here, as we approach the head of the 
Gossgraben, the slope becomes more 
rapid and continuous. Traversing the 
Goss by a solid wooden bridge, and 
mounting among scattered groups of ; 
larch wood, the path leads from the j 
Ulinchhiitte to the Obere Tripphiitte, \ 
which is an excellent resting place for | 
an Alpine luncheon, as it commands a I 
complete view of the peaks that enclose 
the head of the valley. The giant of ; 

Dossner Scharte (8,748'), sometimes 
called Mallnitzer Scharte, is a narrow 
gateway between steep rocks, command- 
ing a remarkable view that on the E. side 
extends along the whole length of the 
Gossgraben, and in the opposite direc- 
tion through the Dossenthal. From 
hence, the summit of the Sauleck was 
reached with little difficulty in 1^ hr. 
by Dr. P. Grohmann. On the W. side 
of the pass, the descent lies over a long 
slope, covered with huge blocks of gneiss 
set at a high angle. Except in seasons 
when these are covered with snow, this 
demands much caution and patience 
from a traveller not well used to such 
ground. The slope is locally known as 
Das bose Gemauer; nearly 1 hr. must 
be allowed for the descent, and rather 
more for the ascent when the pass is 
taken the other way. At the foot of the 
steep slope lies a large tarn, about 1 m. 
in circumference, seemingly formed by 
an ancient Bergfall (or ? moraine), as it 

the group — the Hochalpenspitz — is con 

nected by the Trippeskamm, a long and ! lias no visible outlet. Keeping well to 
steep ridge, with the Sauleck ; adjoin- ' the rt., a faintly marked track leads the 
ing the latter is the Grossgbssachspitz i traveller from this vrild and dreary scene 
(9,657')) ^^^ then the Kleingossachspitz j to the head of the Dossenthal. On tum- 
(9.588'), with the Dossner Scharte be- ing round to view the head of the valley, 
tween them. The next depression to | this seems to be completely barred by 

the 1. is the Kapponig Thorl (mentioned 
below), and then follows the ridge di^nd- 
ing the Malta from the Moll, whose most 
conspicuous summits are the Dristcn- 
sjAtz (9,605'), and the BeissecJc (9,693'). 
A considerable glacier, lying on the S. 
declivity of the Hochalpenspitz, is con- 
cealed from view at the Tripphiitte by 
an intermediate ridge, but is seen from 
various points on the way. By all the 
travellers who have written about this 
district, this is called Trippcnkees, but, 
at least on the Lassacher side, it seemg 

a dam formed of colossal blocks of 
j gneiss, which sustains the lake. The 
I Bosscnthal is a short, rather steep, glen, 
that pours its torrent into the Mallnitz, 
nearly half-way from the village of that 
name to Ober-Yellach. It offers much 
pleasing scenery, and, in descending, 
the peak of the Grossglockner is fre- 
quently seen above the intermediate 
ranges ; while in ascending the glen, 
the "Sauleck is always a striking object. 
The highest Hiitten are those of the 
Egger Alp. Below these the path de- 



scends a steep slope, and before long 
reaches another Hiitte, where it is well 
to obtain local guidance, in order to 
avoid losing time at the opening of the 
glen. A path to the 1., which, below the 
junction of the Dossenbaeh, k^eps the 1. 
bank of the Mallnitz, leads to the road 
f hr. above Ober- Vdlach (Ete. C). Those 
who are bound for Mallnitz follow a 
track along the slope of the mountain 
overlooking the lower end of the Dos- 
senthal, passing two farmhouses, and 
finally descend to the main valley close 
to the village. 

3. By the WinJcchcharte. In a paper 
contained in the ' Jahrbuch' of the Aus- 
trian Alpine Club for 1865, Dr. "Wagl 
mentions the existence of the pass here 
named, connecting the head of the 
Lassacher Winkel with the Trippenalp 
in the Gossgraben. No fm-ther infor- 
mation has reached the writer, but, as 
it appears to lead through the very 
finest scenery of this part of the range, 
it must deserve the attention of moun- 
taineers. The ridge which is crossed 
between the two valleys is that which 
has been called Trippeskamm by Mojsis- 

4. By the Kajrponig Thbrl. This is 
the most direct way from the head of 
the Gossgraben to Ober-Yellach, and 
is said to be shorter by from 1 to 2 hrs. 
than that by the Dossner Scharte. The 
summit, which is also called Yellacher 
Thorl, is 8,732 ft. above the sea-level. 
On the "WSW. side, the descent lies 
through the Kapi^onig Grabcn, a narrow, 
steep ravine, whose torrent flows in a 
nearly direct line from the summit of 
the pass to the town of Ober-Yellach. 

5. By the Zwengberger Thorl (about 
8,700'). Of this pass, which lies SE. of 
the Dristenspitz (9,605'), no information 
has reached the writer. It is approached 
from the upper part of the Gossgraben, 
and the descent lies through the Ziceng- 
berger Thai, which opens into the Moll- 
thai about 3 m. below Ober-Yellach. 
The ascent of the Dristenspitz, which 
must command nearly the same view as 
the Eeisseck, might probably be taken 
on the way. 

6. By the Eichen-Thbrl This is a 
pass which avoids altogether tlie Malta- 
thai, as it connects the head of the 
Eadlgraben, a glen opening into the 
Lieserthal ^ hr. below Gmiind, with. 
that of the Binkc7ithal, which joins the 
Mollthal a little above Kolmitz. The 
chief inducement to take this course is 
in order to combine with it the ascent 
of the Beisseck (9,693'), a detached 
summit which commands one of the 
finest views of the eastern portion of 
the High Tauern Alps. The Badlgra- 
ben is a narrow glen, originating in two 
Alpine tarns at the SE. side of the 
Eeisseck. It contains iron-works, and 
an alkaline spring near its opening, 
where accommodation for the night 
may probably be obtained. Dr. Groh- 
mann, who ascended the Eeisseck from 
this side, took as guide Michael Elreidel 
of Aich. The Eeisseck may be ascended 
from the Gossgraben ; and a travc," ^r 
sleeping at the Ulrichhiitte might take 
the summit on his way to Gmiind, 
descending through the Eadlgraben. 

It seems desirable to give here a 
slight notice of the ascent of the Hoch- 
alpenspitz (11,026'), a peak surpassing 
by several hundred feet all those lying 
E. of the Grossglockner and Yisch- 
bachhoru, whose importance until very 
lately liad been strangely overlooked. 
The engineers engaged in the triangula- 
tion for the Austrian Military Map, 
instead of measuring the highest point 
in the range dividing the Maltathal 
from the Mallnitzer Thai, fixed their 
attention on a minor summit, forming 
the easternmost extremity of that range, 
which rises between the Maltagraben 
and the Giissgrabeu. To this, which is 
but 8,561 ft. in height, and is apparently 
a point called Gamsnoek by the herds- 
men, they gave the name Hoehalpen- 
spitz. Most travellers preferred oificinl 
authority to the evidence of their own 
senses, and the received height of the 
Hochalpenspitz continued to be 8,568 
ft. until Dr. Euthner reached the second 
peak in 1859, and found its height by 
the barometer to be 10,979 ft. The. 



highept summit was first attained in 
the follow-ing year bj Dr. G-rohmann, 
and ht^ was succeeded in 1S61 by Herr 
V. 3Io;sisovics, M-hose barometric obser- 
vations, b)- comparison with Klagenfurt, 
give a height of 11,288 ft. We have 
here preferred Col. v. Sonklar's deter- 
mination, intermediate between the 
others, and resting on nearly concord- 
ant observations from three different 
points. The best guide for the ascent 
is probably Lenzbaner, of the village 
of Malta. Hans Fercher, of the same 
place, cannot be recommended ; but 
Franz Weinzierl, the ' Senner ' at the 
Stranerhiitte, who accompanied M. Moj- 
sisovi.-^s, showed himself a good moun- 

The three ascents known to the wri- 
ter -were all effected from the Hochalp. 
This is reached from the Hocbsteg, in 
the Maltatlial, a short way below the 
Traxhiitte. A steep ascent leads to 
the upper pastures, where the traveller 
reaches in succession the Stranerhiitte 
(5,318'\ the Anemannhiitte, and the 
Hochalpenhiitte (6,360'). The second 
of these offers the best night-quarters. 
It is here necessary to point out an 
error in Sonklar's usually excellent 
map. The second peak of this group, 
the Preimehjjifz (10,648'\ is placed by 
him too far E. of the ridge extending 
northward to the Brunnkahrnock, and 
the ridge laid down on the map con- 
necting it with the Steinerne Mandl 
has no existence. The Hochalpenkees, 
a considerable gla<:ier, flows at first 
ESE. from the ridge connecting the 
highest peak with the Preimelspitz, 
but it gradually bends to EXE. round 
the base of the latter peak, and sends 
its torrent by the Preimelalp to feed 
the fine waterfall above the Traxhiitte 
(Rte. F). The stream, passing by the 
Hochalpenhiitte, which some way lower 
down unites with that glacier torrent, 
originates in a wild stony hollow, 
wherein lie three tarns. This hollow 
is divided from the Hochalpen Glacier 
by a ridge called Thurriegel, but this is 
in several places overflowed by the ice- 
Btream, and one arm of the glacier 

descends as far as the uppermost turn, 
whose height is 8.217 ft. It is by this 
lake, and the above-mentioned arm of 
the glacier, that the main ice-stream is 
most easily reached. M. Mojsisovics 
is convinced that the best course is to 
reach a projecting point in the main 
ridge — called Steincrncs Mandl{lO,Z\ 7'), 
and follow the ridge to the apparent 
summit ; but the guides have always 
preferred a more circuitous course keep- 
ing considerably to the rt. of the direct 
line. On attaining the highest point 
in the snowy ridge forming the bound- 
ary of the glacier-basin, the traveller 
finds that this is overtopped by a rocky 
point near at hand, which projects from 
the ridge connecting this with the Saul- 
eck. This highest peak is connected 
with the lower snow summit by a very 
narrow arete, similar in character to 
that uniting the tvro peaks of the Gross- 
glockner. None of the travellers who 
have reached the summit appear to have 
been fortunate in point of weather, but 
the view must be both very extensive 
and very interesting, from its overlook- 
ing many of the greater valleys of the 
Eastern Alps. 

The innkeeper at Malta, who ac- 
companied Dr. Euthner, effected a de- 
scent towards the Grosse-Elend by the 
Brunnkahrkees, but it is yet to be seen 
whether it may not be possible to reach 
directly the Lassacher Winkel, or to 
make a descent (probably less difScult) 
by the Trippenkees to the Gossgraben. 





In Ete. E, the circuitous carriage- 
road from St. Johann to the head of 
the Mur Valley by Eadstadt, and the 
Radstadter Tauem, has already been 
described. It may not occur to many 
travellers that there is a choice among 
various paths, by which the same point 
may be reached much more directly, 
which offer the attractions of fine scen- 
ery, and the advantage of making closer 
acquaintance with a mountain mass that 
has some special interest for the physi- 
cal geographer. Although the course 
of recent geological investigation tends 
to modify the belief in the extreme 
antiquity of the rocks, forming what is 
commonly called the central chain of 
the Alps, there can be no doubt of the 
relative antiquity of these masses as 
compared with the ranges which flank 
them on the N. and S. sides ; and some 
special interest attaches itself to the 
district in which this central chain 
bifurcates, and extends eastward as a 
double range, divided by a broad and 
deep valley, whose existence dates from 
a date anterior, at all events, to the 
latest period of geological history. 
The point at which this bifurcation 
occurs is the peak of the Markkahrspitz, 
one of the summits of the Hafnereek 
range, which has been already referred 
to as forming the NE. boundary of the 
Maltathal. This range, whose direction 
is parallel to that of the Hochalpen- 
gpitz, and to that of all the chief ridges 

of the High Tauern Alps E. of the 
Velber Tauern, is also remarkable as 
being the easternmost portion of the 
central chain, lofty enough to produce 
glaciers of notable dimensions. One 
such, at least, is found on the flanks of 
the Hafnereek, while E. of this group 
we find indeed patches of permanent 
snow, but nothing deserving the title of 
glacier. It will be seen lower down 
that the most interesting of the passes 
here enumerated may be taken quite as 
conveniently from Gastein as from St. 
Johann, and involves no loss of time to 
a mountaineer going from that place to 
Vienna or Gratz. 

The better to understand the orogra- 
phy of these valleys, the reader should 
fix his attention for a moment on the 
MarkTiohrs'pitz (9,245'), the corner- 
stone at which meet the basins of the 
Mur, Drave, and Salza. At its N. and 
E. sides, this peak sends its drainage 
into the uppermost branches of the 
Murwinkel ; its NW. face overlooks the 
head of the Grrossarlthal ; while on the 
S. side it rises above the head of the 
Maltathal. Erom this central point, a 
high range extends ESE. parallel to 
the latter valley; but this forms only 
for a short distance the watershed 
between the Drave and the Mur. From 
the Hafnereek (10,044'), a much lower 
ridge diverges to the E., and forms the 
dividing range between those rivers. 
In the opposite direction, from the 
summit of the Markkahrspitz, the 
boundary between the waters of the 
Mur and those of the Salza extends 
nearly due N. for about 9 m., and then, 
at the summit of the Rothhorn, turns 
eastward, forming the northern limit to 
the basin of the Mur, and dividing its 
waters from those of the Enns. Of 
the three parallel valleys lying between 
the G-asteiner Thai a-nd the Radstadter 
Tauern, the Grossarlthal alone ap- 
proaches the base of the Markkahr- 
spitz, while Kleinarl and Elachau ter- 
minate farther N., near the Rothhorn 
and the adjoining summit of the Moser 
Wandl (8,790'). 

1. By Kleinarl and, the Zederhamthal^ 



Char-road to Kleinarl, about 13 m. 
On foot thence to St. Michael, 10 to 11 
hrs. In following the road from St. 
Johann to Eadstadt, the opening of the 
Kleinarlthal was passed at Wagrain, 
about 7 m. from the first-named place. 
The geologist will be struck by the 
vast dimensions of the terraces of dilu- 
vium (or glacial drift?) about this point. 
A tolerable road goes as far as Kleinarl 
(3,105'), the only village of the valley. 
By starting in a light carriage very 
early from St. Johann, the traveller 
may reach St. Michael on the same day. 
About 1 hr. above the village is the 
Jdgcrsee (3,588'), with a little shooting- 
box beside it. Another hour's walk 
leads to the uppermost part of the 
Kleinarlthal, called Tappenkahr. This 
is a deep recess, surrounded by steep 
slopes, in the centre of which lies the 
Tappenkahrsee (5,407'), a rather large 
and deep lake, famous for its saibling. 
The farthest head of the valley above 
the lake, locally known as Kahrhoden, 
is a FreigeUrg, or open pasture, to which 
the people of the adjoining valleys are 
entitled to send their cattle. One con- 
sequence of this is to produce a con- 
vergence of numerous cattle-tracks, and 
the traveller on that account wiU find 
the aid of a local guide almost indis- 
pensable, the more so as the maps of 
this district are discordant. There are 
paths, leading on the one side to thft 
Grossarlthal, and on the other to Flach- 
au ; but the most frequented is that 
to Lungau over the SchierecJc, 4 hrs. 
from Kleinarl. The pass may be 
reached from Grossarl, by a path over 
the Tappenkahralp, in little more time 
than by Kleinarl. The Schiereck over- 
looks the upper end of the Zederhaus- 
thal, through which lies the easiest way 
to St. Michael ; but the traveller wish- 
ing to enjoy the finer scenery of the 
Murwinkel may reach the head of that 
glen (without descending into Zeder- 
haus ?) by a path passing by the Gling- 
spitz (7,976'), which involves only a 
slight detour. 

The Zederhaustkal, more commonly . 
called here Zederhauswinkel, is said to I 


offer less interesting scenery than that 
of the adjoining Murwinkel. It is a 
long pastoral glen with many Senn- 
hiitten. The name Zederhaus (cedar 
house) is derived from the Pinus cem- 
hra — one of whose many designations 
in the Alps is Zeder — here used for 
building. The uppermost end of the 
valley, called Hinterridmg, descends, at 
first, towards ENE. ; the stream then 
bends to the rt. ; and from Hof to St. 
Michael its direction is ESE. Eully 
3 hrs., or perhaps more, are required 
to reach Hochpichl, the highest hamlet. 
Hof, G-ries, and other groups of houses 
are passed in succession, before the 
traveller reaches Zederhaus, the only 
village, where, in case of need, accom- 
modation may be had for the night. 
He will probably prefer to push on 2|- 
hrs. farther to St. Michael (Ete. E). 

The geologist may be tempted to 
diverge from the direct course above 
pointed out, in order to visit the ad- 
joining valley of Flachau, whence the 
head-waters of the Enns enter the main 
valley above Eadstadt (Ete. E). The 
valley contains important iron mines, 
said to be the most productive in the 
Salzburg territory ; but the chief inte- 
rest to the geologist arises from the 
presence of undoubted miocene tertiary 
deposits near the opening of the valley. 
The geological map annexed to this 
volume shows that similar deposits are 
believed to exist elsewhere, in the main 
valleys of Styria and Carinthia, bat 
they are not always to be identified 
with certainty. The scenery of the 
Elachau is said not to be very interest- 
ing, but it is a comparatively short 
valley, and an easy pass over the JVinds- 
feld (7,037') leads to Zederhaus, and 
thence to St. Michael. Another pass, 
noticed in Ete. E, leads from the 
Flachau to Tweng ; and another, higher 
and more laborious, to theTappenkahr,at 
the head of the Kleinarlthal. Schwarz- 
pichler, to be heard of at Zederhaus or 
Hochpichl, is recommended as a guide. 

2. By Grossarl and the Murthorl. 
Char-road to Hiittschlag, about 15 
m, ; thence to Mur, 8 hrs.' walking; 



char-road from Mur to St. Michael, 
10 m. 

At Stockham (Kte. F), about U hr. 
above Hiiltschlag, the path leading to 
the sources of the Mur quits That lead- 
ing to the Arlscharte. Passing the 
Krahalp, this leads to the Murthbrl, 
a depression in the range connecting the 
Mureck with the Wachteck. -The Joch 
is marked by a cross, and there is 
every-nhere a findable path. On reach- 
ing the head of the Mur valley, turn to 
the W., and climb one of the adjacent 
mountains. The "Wachteck is the best, 
though difficult, if I recollect aright.' 
[W. B.] The upper valley of the Mur, 
into which the traveller descends from 
the pass, exhibits a singular parallelism 
to the Zederhaus Valley, already de- 
scribed. The extremity of the valley, 
containing the chief source of the Mur, 
descends for some distance towards the 
ENE., and that portion is called 
Schmalzgrahn. On bending round to 
ESE., the valley assumes the name 
Murwinkel, which it retains till its 
junction with the Zederhausthal, close 
to St. Michael. The scenery of the Mur- 
winkel is fine, but it rises to grandeur 
only in the two lateral glens which are 
passed on the rt. hand by a traveller 
descending the valley. The first of 
these is the Moritzenthal, the second 
the Rothirildenthal, both leading to the 
Maltathal by passes mentioned below. 
In 8 hrs.' steady walking from Hutt- 
scblag, the traveller reaches 

Jf«r(3,638'),thehighestvillage on the 
river of that name. Inn (G-frererwirth), 
'small, but bearable, 15 years ago.' 
[W. B.] Near the village are the 
abandoned smelting-houses of Schell- 
gadcn, at the opening of a sliort glen 
called Gangthal which mounts to SSW., 
and is said to oifer many attractions to 
the mineralogist and the botanist. A 
tolerable road leads from Mur to St. 

2. Bii the Maltathal and the Moritzen- 
thal. The passes above described are 
free from difficulty, and to find his way, 
the traveller can have recourse to the 
herdsmen who aj.*e always found in 

summer at the highest pastures. The 
case is different in regard to the passes 
leading from the Murwinkel to the 
Maltagraben. These can scarcely bf> 
undertaken except from the E. side, 
where, at the village of Mur, severaJ. 
competent guides are to be found Leo- 
pold Genser, Peter Simmerl, KuperC 
Schiefer, and Paul Konig are all re- 
commended. .Che pass here mentioned 
as well as thzu over the Eothgilden- 
scharte, next en ^merated, are not likely 
to be selected b} a traveller going from 
St. Johann to St. Michael, or vice versa, 
as they involve a considerable detour, 
yet show nothing of the finest portions 
of the Maltathal. But the way through 
the Moritzenthal offers a very direct 
route from St. Michael to Bad Gastein ; 
going on the first day to the Eechen- 
biichlhiitte, and on the next crossing 
the Klein-Elendscharte to the Kot- 
schachthal (Rte. 0). Supposing that 
the distance from Mur to the Rechen- 
i biichlhiitte can be accomplished in 
7 hrs., the whole distance from Mur 
to Bad Gastein rpquires 15 hrs., ex- 
clusive of halts. This was accomplished 
in one day by the late Archdulie John, 
before Alpine Clubs had come into 
existence. The opening of the Moritzen- 
thal is about 3 hrs. above Mur. It is 
said to be a short wild glen, encom- 
passed by rocks and snow-slopes, in the 
midst of which lie three small lakes. 
Above these lies the pass which leads to 
the head of the Maltagraben at the 
Samerhiitte. The way is said to be 
laborious and rather difficult ; but no 
details have reached the writer. 

4. By the Rothgildenscharte. Eor 
the reason above mentioned, this pass 
must be approached from the E. side. 
The Bothgildenthal is the finest of the 
lateral glens of the upper Murthal, and 
the traveller whose course lies eastward 
along that river or its tributaries may 
here bid adieu to the characteristic 
scenery of the high Alps. In this glen 
are important mines of arsenical ores, 
from which as much as 100 tons of 
white arsenic are said to be annually 
extxacted. The process is carried on 



in winter, when the ground is covered 
with snow, in order to avoid poisoning 
the cattle pastured on the surrounding 
slopes. The glen contains two lakes, of 
which the larger, called Rogeler See, is 
enclosed between steep faces of rock, 
above which rises the rugged peak of 
the Hafnereck, and others scarcely in- 
ferior in height. Masses of permanent 
snow rest in the rifts ; while in the 
uppermost hollow, N. of the main peak, 
lies a rather considerable glacier. 

To the rt. of the Hafnereck is the 
pass of the Bothgildenscharte. It is 
described as difficxilt, and even danger- 
ous, on account of a crumbling mass of 
steep rocks, a little below the summit 
on the E. side, which must be climbed 
in order to reach the ridge. The descent 
is to the Wastelalp in the Malta- 
graben (Rte. F), It is said that those 
bound for the lower part of the Malta- 
thai may reach that valley at a point 
lower than the Wastelalp, by bearing 
to the 1. to the Mairalp. But by 
ta,king this course the traveller would 
lose some of the finest scenery of the 

The ascent oi t\ie Hafiicreck (10,044') 
is said to be impracticable from the 
side of the Murwinkel, and the course 
taken by the few travellers who have 
climbed the peak has been to mount 
from the village of Mur, along the ridge 
dividing the Murwinkel from the head of 
the Lieserthal, and, passing round the 
peak, to reach the summit from the SE. 
side. The ascent may probably be 
shorter and easier from the Traxhiitte, 
in the Maltagraben. 

The pass from Mur to the head of 
the Lieserthal by the Buchlwand is said 
not to be difficult, and a fine walk may 
thus be made to Eennweg, on the high- 
road from St. Michael to Gmiind. 

Much information respecting the Lun- 
gau district, including the upper valley 
of the Mur and its tributaries, is fouiid 

in a paper by Dr. Wallmann, in the 
' Mittheilungen of the Austrian Alpine 
Club for 1864,' but more detailed and 
accurate information as to the passes 
connected with the Maltathal and the 
upper branches of the Mur Valley is 
much to be desired, and will be thank - 
fully received by the writer. 



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