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THE 
CENTURY COOK BOOK 



THE 

CENTURY COOK BOOK 



BY 



-^U-, d^^ 



^^-^e-'-pC^ 



This hook contains directions for cooJcing in its various branches, 
from the simplest forms to high-class dishes and ornamental pieces ; 
a group of New England dishes furnished by Susan Coolidge ; 
and a few receipts of distinctively Southern dishes. It gives also 
the etiquette of dinner entertainments — how to serve dinners — 
table decorations, and many items relative to household affairs 



"NOW GOOD DIGESTION WAIT ON APPETITE 
AND HEALTH ON BOTH" 




NEW YORK 

THE CENTURY CO. 

1901 



Copyright, 1895, by 
The Century Co. 



p 



Gin 



The DeVinne Press. 



"To he a good cook means the knowledge of 
all fruits, herbs, balms and spices, and of all 
that is healing and sweet in field and groves, 
and savory in meats ; means carefulness, in- 
ventiveness, watchfulness, willingness and read- 
iness of appliance. It means the economy of 
your great-grandmothers and the science of 
modem chemists. It m^ans much tasting and 
no wasting. It means English thoroughness, 
French art and Arabian hospitality. It means, 
in fine, that you are to be perfectly and always 
ladies (loaf-givers) and are to see thMt every 
one has something nice to eaf."— Buskin. 



777/5" 



AGRIO 



CLoSSp 



O'f /'> 



M'dX&3Zi% 



APHORISMS -BRILLA T-SA VARIN. 

Les animattx se repaissent; VTwmme mange; 
Vhomme d'esprit seul salt manger. 

Bis moi ce que tu manges, Je te dirai ce que 
tues. 

Le CrSateur, en obligeant VTwmme h manger 
pour vivre, Vy invite par Vappetit et Ven ricom- 
pensepar leplaisir. 

La table est le seul endroit oil Von ne s'ennt'.ie 
jamais pendant la premiere heure. 

La dicouverte d'un mets nouveau fait plufi 
pour le honheur du genre humain que la de- 
couverte d'une etoile. 

Uordre des comestibles est des plus substan- 
tiels auxplvs Ugers. 

L'ordre des boissons est des plus tempSree* 
aux plits fumeuses et aux plus parfumSes. 

On dement cuisinier mats on natt rStisseur. 

Attendre trop longtemps un convive retar^ 
dataire est un manque Wigards pmir totis ceux 
qui sont present. 

Gelui qui regoit ses amis, et ne dtmne aucun 
soin personnel au repas qui leur est pripari, 
rC est pas digne d' avoir des amis. 

La mattresse de la maison doit toujours s"* as- 
surer que le cafi est excellent, et le muitre, que 
les liqueurs sont de premier choix. 



TIM£ TABLE. 



BOILING. 



MEATS. 



VEGETABLES. 



Mutton 
Potted Beef • 
Oorned Beef 
Ham 
Turkey 
Chicken 
Fowl 
Tripe 



Codfish 

Haddock 

Halibut 

Blue 

Bass 

Salmon 

Small Fish 



per pouud. 



Time. 
15 minutes. 
.30 to 35 min. 
30 minutes. 
18 to 20 min. 
15 minutes. 
15 

20 to 30 min. 
3 to 5 hours. 



FISH, 
per pound 



Lobster 





Time. 


6 


minutes. 


6 


<> 


15 


" 


10 


" 


10 


<< 


10 to 15 min 


6 


minutes. 



Potatoes 

Asparagus 

Peas 

String Beans 

Lima 

Spinach 

Turnips 

Beets 

Cabbage 

Cauliflower 

Brussels Sprouts 

Onions 

Parsnips 

G-reen Corn 

Macaroni 
Rice 



Time. 
20 to 30 mi- 
20 to 25 ' 
15 to 20 ' 
20 to 30 " 
30 to 40 " 
15 to 20 " 
30 minutes. 
30 min. or moi^ 
20 " 
20 " 
10 to 15 mil 
30 to 40 
30 to 40 " 
20 to 25 ' 

20 minutes 
15 to 20 min. 



30 to 40 min. 



BAKING. 



MEATS. 

Beef, ribs, rare per pound, 

" *' weD done 
'* " boned & rolled " 
Round of Beef 
Mutton, leg. rare " 

" " well done " 

loin, rare " 

shoulder, stuffed" "* 
" saddle, rare . " 
Lamb, well done " 

Veal, " •' 
Pork, ' " 
Venison, rare " 

Chicken 
Goose 



Bread 
Biscuits 



MEATS. 



Time. 
8 to 10 min.!; 
12 to 15 " I 
12 to 15 " 
12 to 15 " 
10 minutes. 
15 " ' 

8 

15 
9 
15 

18 to 20 min. 
20 minutes. 
10 
15 
18 

Time. 
1 jiour. 
20 minutes. 



Fillet, hot oven 
Braised Meats 
Liver, whole 
Turkey, 8 lbs 

very large 
Birds, small, hot oven 
Ducks, tame 

** wild, very hot oven 
Partridge 
Grouse 



FISH. 



Large Fish 
Small " 



Time. 
30 minutes. 
3 to 4 hou] 

2 hours. 
1^ ♦' 

3 " 

15 to 20 mi 
45 minutes 
15 

35 to 40 mi 
20 to 25 " 

i 

Time, 
. 1 hour, abo 
20 to 30 m 



Time. 
Cake 20 to 46 

Custards, very slow oven .1 hoUT. 



BROILING 

Time. 
Steak, 1 inch thick 8 to 10 min. 

' " 1', " " 10 to 15 " 

Mutton Chops, French 8 minutes. 

" English .10 " 
Spring Chicken 20 " 1 



Quail 

Grouse 

Squabs 

Shad, Bluefish, Trout 



Time. 
8 to 10 m 
15 minutes 
10 to 15 m 
15 to 25 



Small Fish 5 to 10 



WEIGHTS AND MEASURES 



4 gills 
2 pints 
4 quarts 
16 ounces 


= 1 pint. 
= 1 quart 
= 1 gallon. 
= 1 pound. 




i kitchen cupful 
1 kitchen cupful 
4 kitchen cupfuls 


= lgill. 

— J pint or 2 gills, 

=1 quart 



2 cupfuls of granulated sugar ) _ ^ , 

2 J cupfuls of powdered sugar ) "' 

1 heaping tablespoonful of sugar ^ 1 ounce. 

1 heaping tablespoonM of butter ) ^^ ^^ ^^ ^ 

Butter size of an egg ) 

1 cupful of butter— J pound. 

4 cupfuls of flour >^^^j 
1 heaping quart > 

8 round tablespoonfuls of dry material— 1 cupful. 
16 tablespoonfuls of liquid = 1 cupful. 

PROPORTIONS * 

5 to 8 eggs to 1 quart of milk for custards, 
d to 4 eggs to 1 pint of milk for custards. 

1 saltspoonful of salt to 1 quart of milk for custards. 

1 teaspoonful of vanill^ to 1 quart of ;nilk for custards. 

2 ounces of gelatine to 1| quarts of liquid. 

4 heaping tablespoonfuls of cornstarch to 1 quart of milk. 

3 heaping teaspoonfuls of baking-powder to 1 quart of flour 
1 even teaspoonful of baking-powder to 1 cupful of flour 

1 teaspoonful of soda to 1 pint of sour milk. 
1 teaspoonful of soda to ^ pint of molasses. 
1 teaspoonftil of baking-powder is the equivalent of J tea- 
spoonful of soda and 1 teaspoonful of cream of tartar. 

For other proportions, see page 340. 
For measuring, s-^e page 77. 



PREFACE 

In France various honors are awarded to cooks. Accom- 
plished chefs de cuisine are by compliment called cordon-hleu, 
which is an ancient and princely order. A successful culinary 
production takes the name of the inventor, and by it his fame 
often lasts longer than that of many men who have achieved 
positions in the learned professions. Cooking is there esteemed 
a service of especial merit, hence France ranks all nations in 
gastronomy. 

Although definite honors are not conferred on cooks else- 
where, good cooking is everywhere appreciated, and there is no 
reason why it should not be the rule instead of the exception. 
In large establishments it may be said to prevail, but in many 
moderate households the daily fare is of a quality which satis- 
fies no other sense than that of hunger, the hygienic require- 
ments and esthetic possibilities being quite unknown or dis- 
regarded. This is what Savarin designates as feeding, in 
contradistinction to dining. 

The author believes that the women of to-day, because of 
their higher education, have a better understanding of domes- 
tic duties J that hygiene, economy, system, and methods are 
better understood and more generally practised. Children are 
not only more sensibly clothed, but they are more wholesomely 
fed, and households are directed with more intelligent care. 

It is hoped that this book will inculcate a desire to learn the 
simple principles of cooking for the benefits which such know- 

ix 



X THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

ledge will give, and that it will be of material assistance to any 
woman who wishes to establish and maintain a well-ordered 
cuisine. Receipts are given for simple and inexpensive as well 
as elaborate and costly dishes, and they are intended to be of 
use to the inexperienced as well as to the trained cook. The 
rules are given in precise language, with definite measurement 
and time, so that no supervision by the mistress will be required 
for any receipt given the cook. 

At the head of each chapter are given the general rules for 
the dishes included in that class. Economy, practicability, and 
the resources of the average kitchen have been constantly borne 
in mind. 

The illustrations, it is believed, will aid materially in serving 
dishes, as they complete and demonstrate the receipts. Many 
of them are given to attract attention to very simple dishes, 
which might be selected as suited to one's convenience, but 
which might otherwise be overlooked in a hasty perusal of the 
text. The pictures are from photographs of dishes, many of 
which are not too difficult for a novice to undertake. 

The author has fortunately been able to secure from Susan 
Coolidge a number of receipts of New England dishes ; also a 
few distinctively Southern dishes from an equally experienced 
Southern housekeeper. These, she hopes, will enable many 
who have strayed from home to enjoy again the dishes asso- 
ciated with other times and places. 

Much care has been taken to give a complete alphabetical 
index, so that anything in the book can be quickly found, even 
if the ordinary classification is not understood. 

The chapters on etiquette, serving, etc., are meant to aid those 
young housekeepers who, from lack of observation or expe- 
rience, find themselves at a loss to remember small details 



PREFACE xi 

when the responsibility of an entertainment falls upon them 
for the first time. 

The author, in speaking of this book to friends, has had 
various questions asked and suggestions given, by which she 
has endeavored to profit. Some of the questions have been 
the following: 

"Have you given receipts suitable for a family of two or 
three?" 

" Have you given expedients, so if articles called for in the 
receipts are not at hand others may be substituted ? '^ 

" Is your book only for rich people ? " 

" Is it not a mistake to use French names, which many do not 
understand ? " etc., etc. 

In deference to the last suggestion, she has explained the 
meaning of certain classes of dishes known only by the French 
names, and which would lose character if translated. A souffle, 
for instance, has no special significance when caUed " inflated," 
but the word souffle defines the class of dishes which are in- 
flated, and is so generally understood that it is almost an Angli- 
cized word. 

The terms Souffles, P§,tes, Timbales, Hors-d'oeuvres, Entrees, 
etc., are as distinctive as Stews, Hashes, Creams, etc.; hence 
there seems no other way than to learn the culinary nomen- 
clature as one partakes of the dishes. 

The author strongly urges the trial of new dishes, and break- 
ing away from the routine of habit. The preparation of so- 
called fancy dishes is very simple. A little attention given to 
ornamentation and garnishing, making dishes attractive in ap- 
pearance as well as taste, will raise the standard of cooking 
without necessarily increasing the expense. 



CONTENTS 



Paet I 

dinnee-glving and the etiquette op dinners 1 

Manner op Serving Dinners 10 

Laying the Table 13 

Table Decorations 17 

Courses 24 

The Home Dinner 27 

Serving the Inpormal Dinner 29 

Luncheon 31 

The Five o'Clock Tea 33 

A Homily on Cooking 35 

Cooking as a Pleasure and an Accomplishment 38 

To Train a Green Cook 40 

Economical Living 44 

Wastefulness 50 

How TO Utilize what Some Cooks Throw Away 51 

Emergencies 55 

Things to Remember 58 

Care op Utensils 61 



Part II 

CHAPTER 

I Methods of Cooking Explained .... 67 

n Soups 84 

in Fish 112 

IV Meats 145 

V Poultry and Game 179 

VI Vegetables 200 

t Farinaceous Foods used as Vegetables 222 

VII < Macaroni 224 

( Cereals 227 



XIV 
CHAPTEE 

vin 



IX 
X 

XI 
XII 

XTTT 
XIV 
XV 

XVI 
XVII 

xvm 

XIX 

XX 

XXI 

xxn 
xxm 

XXIV 

XXV 

XXVI 

xxvn 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

A Group of Eeceipts prom a New England Kitchen ... 229 

S Distinctively Southern Dishes 246 

Very Inexpensive Dishes 249 

Miscellaneous Receipts 257 

Eggs 261 

Sauces 275 

I Entries 292 

< Terrapin, Frogs' Legs 311 

( Mushrooms 314 

Aspic Jelly, Fancy Molding, Supports 321 

(JHAPiNG-DiSH Receipts 329 

Bread ... 338 

Sandwiches and CANAP:f!S 364 

Cheese and Cheese Dishes 369 

Salads 374 

Cold Desserts 386 

i Hot Desserts 421 

( Pudding Sauces 444 

( Pies 450 

( Puff Paste 457 

{ Cake 462 

i Icing and Decorating Cakes 483 

Ice-Creams, Water-Ices, Parfaits, Mousses, Punches.. . 488 

Boiling Sugar and Making Candies 510 

Fruits, Cooked and Fresh 529 

Compotes, Preserving and Canning, Pickles 535 

Beverages 548 

Wines 560 



THE CENTUEY COOK 
BOOK 



THE CENTURY OOOK 
BOOK 

Paet I 

* 

DINNKR-GIVING AND THE ETIQUETTE 
OF DINNERS 



" To feed were best at home ; 
Prom thence, the sauce to meat is ceremony, 
Meeting were bare without it." — Shakspere 

A DINNER party may be considered as holding the 
highest rank among entertainments. In no other so- 
cial function is etiquette so strictly observed. There 
are prescribed rules for the form of the invitation, the 
manner of assigning each guest his place at the table, 
the manner of serving the dinner, etc. j and when these 
rules are followed there need be no embarrassments. 

It should always be remembered that the social part 
of the entertainment is on a higher plane than the gas- company, 
tronomic one, though the latter must by no means 
be slighted. A sentiment expressed by the wit who 
said, "A fig for your bill of fare, give me a bill of 
your company," is generally felt, and a hostess should 
bring together only such people as she believes will be 
mutually agreeable. 



g THE CENTUEY COOK BOOK 

The idea, given by Goldsmith in his "Retaliation/' 
of looking upon one's friends as so many pleasant 
dishes, is offered as a suggestion. He says : 

If our landlord supplies us with beef and with fish, 
Let each guest bring himself, and he brings the best dish: 
Our Dean shall be venison, just fresh from the plains ; 
Our Burke shall be tongue, with a garnish of brains j 
Our Will shall be wild fowl of excellent flavour, 
And Dick with his pepper shall heighten the savour; 
Our Cumberland's sweetbread its place shall obtain, 
And Douglas is pudding, substantial and plain ; 
Our Garrick 's a salad, for in him we see 
Oil, vinegar, sugar, and saltness agree : . . . 
At a dinner so various — at such a repast, 
"Who 'd not be a glutton, and stick to the last t 

^a5°** The hostess should give her instructions for the de- 
Hostess, tails of the entertainment so explicitly that on the 
arrival of the guests she will have no care other than 
their pleasure. 

If she is nervous, has wandering eyes, or shows 
constraint, it affects sensibly the ease of her guests. 
The spirit of pleasure is infectious, and upon the de- 
meanor of the hosts the success of the evening largely 
depends. Much tact may be shown in placing the 
right people together at the table. If one is a great 
talker let the other be a good listener ; if one is dog- 
matic let the other be without positive views, and so 
on ; for as every one is happiest when appearing well, 
it is wise to consider the idiosyncrasies of the guests. 

^T is a great point in a gallery how you hang your pictures ; 
and not less in society how you seat your party. 

The part of the hosts is thus well defined ; but the 
The Guests, guests, too, have their obligations, and in recognition 
of the compliment of being included in an entertain- 
ment where the number of guests is limited to very 
few, each one should make exertion to be agreeable, 



DINNER-aiVING AND THE ETIQUETTE OF DINNERS 3 

as a dull dinner companion is a recognized misfortune. 
At a dinner there is time, not given at most other 
forms of entertainment, for rational and sustained 
conversation, and this may be turned to durance vile 
if one victimizes by egotism or caprice the person 
who without power of withdrawal is assigned to his 
or her society for perhaps two hours or more. Also, 
if one finds oneself neighbor to some person for 
whom one has a personal antipathy, it must not be 
allowed to interfere with the general pleasure j and 
should such a situation occur, there is nothing to do 
biit to make the best of it, and conceal from the hos- 
tess the mistake she has unwittingly made — 

And do as adversaries do in law, 

Strive mightily, but eat and drink as friends. 

Under these circumstances the discovery may possi- 
bly be made that an unfriendly person is more agree- 
able than was supposed, and a pleasanter relationship 
may be established. 

Two hours is the extreme limit of time that should 
be given to a dinner ; one hour and a quarter, or a Time, 
half, is preferable. Eight courses served quickly, but 
without seeming haste, require as much time as most 
people can sit at the table without fatigue. Last im- 
pressions are as enduring as first ones, so it is impor- 
tant not to surfeit, for 

When fatigue enters into so-called pleasure, failure begins. 

Judgment shown in combination of dishes, the per- 
fection of their preparation, careful serving, and taste 
in adornment, are elements of refinement that far out- 
weigh quantity and ostentation. 

The temperature and ventilation of the dining-room ture. 
should be given careful attention. The best of spirits 
and the brightest wit will flag in an overheated, Ul- 



4 THE CENTURT? COOK BOOK 

ventilated room. It is not always easy to maintain a 
fresh atmosphere where as many guests are seated as 
the size of the room permits, but at least the room can 
be well aired before the dinner is served. Windows 
opened a very little from both the top and bottom in 
an adjoining room,with a careful adjustment of screens 
to protect those who are sensitive to drafts, will do 
much to keep the air fresh, and will have a sensible 
effect upon the comfort and mental activity of the 
The company, 
lavitation. 'Invitations are sometimes sent out a month or three 
weeks in advance, but ordinarily two weeks is suffi- 
cient time to secure the guests one wishes to entertain. 
Courtesy requires a dinner invitation to be answered 
at once, certainly within twelve hours, but better in 
less time. This enables the hostess to fill the vacancy 
in case the invitation is declined. Unconventional 
people are sometimes unmindful of this obligation, 
but as a rule those who are accustomed to entertain- 
ing recognize the importance of a prompt reply, and 
answer a dinner invitation immediately. 

It is well, when convenient, to send the invitation 
as well as the reply by hand, so that there may be no 
uncertainty of prompt delivery ; to send either of them 
by post is, however, permissible. 

The answer should be definite, and where a man and 
his wife are invited, if one of them is unable to ac- 
cept, the invitation should be declined for both. An 
invitation should be precise in expression, therefore 
the prescribed form given below should be exactly 
followed. It does not belong to the order of social 
notes J it is simply a formal invitation, and an accep- 
tance should be of the same character. Any deviation 
from the prescribed form is uncalled for and likely to 
cause criticism. In declining the invitation, however, 
it is considered more gracious to answer the formal 



DINNER-GIVINa AND THE ETIQUETTE OF DINNERS 5 

note informally, and, by stating the reason, show that 
the regret is not merely a perfunctory expression. 

Verbal invitations or replies should never be given 
for formal entertainments. R. S. V. P. should not be 
put on a dinner invitation. Every well-bred person 
knows an answer is necessary, and it is a reflection 
upon good manners to assume that no reply would 
be given if the request for it were omitted. 

It is important also that the reply should repeat, 
in the same words as the invitation, the date and 
hour of the dinner, so, if any mistake has inadvertently 
been made, it may be corrected, thus establishing an 
exact understanding. 

A dinner engagement is the most exacting of any 
social obligation, and no greater discourtesy can be 
shown than to break it except for serious cause. 

Mr. and Mrs. James J. James 
request the pleasure of 
Mr. and Mrs. Smithes 
company at dinner^ on Monday^ ^o|™ ?f 

December twenty-third, at 
eight o^clocJc. 
99 West A Street, 
Dec. 1st. 
Envelop addressed to Mrs. John B. Smith. 



Mr, and Mrs. John B. Smith 
accept with pleasure 
Mr, and Mrs. Jameses 
Ttind invitation to dinner on 
Monday, December twenty-third, 
at eight o'cloclc, 
66 West B Street, 
Dec. 1st. 
Envelop addressed to Mrs. James J. James. 



Eeply. 



THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

Mr. and Mrs. John B. Smith 

regret that they are unable to accept 

Mr. and Mrs. Jameses 

Jcind invitation to dinner on 

Monday, December twenty-third, 

at eight o'clocTc. 

m West B Street, 

Dec. 1st, 

OR, 

Mr. and Mrs. John B. Smith 
regret that owing to a previous 
engagement they are unable to accept 
Mr. and Mrs James's 
hind invitation to dinner on 
Monday^ December twenty-third, 
at eight d'cloclc. 
66 West B Street, 
Dec. 1st. 



Where an invitation is meant to be informal, a 
social form of note with formal phraseology is often 
sent, thus : 
My dear Mrs. Smith : 

Will you and Mr. Smith dine 
with us informally on Thursday evening, December 
twenty-third, at eight o^cloch f 

Sincerely yours, 

Mary James. 
99 West A Street, 
Dec. 1st. 



DINNER-GIVING AND THE ETIQUETTE OF DINNERS -J 

This form of invitation is sometimes misleading to 
strangers, as the word "informal" is open to different 
interpretations. 

These dinners are generally quite as formal as the 
others, and require the same toilet. 

A woman's dinner dress should be decollete, and 
for a man evening dress is always de rigueur. 

The butler wears a dress suit with white tie. The 
footman, or second man, wears the livery of the Dress, 
family, or, in default of that, a coat of dark color, with 
brass buttons, and a bright-colored striped waistcoat. 

The dining-room maid wears a plain black dress, a 
white apron that covers completely the front of her 
skirt, a linen collar and deep cuffs, and a small white 
cap, with or without strings, but no crown. Every- 
thing in a well-ordered household is supposed to be 
clean, including the hands of the domestics, and the use 
of white gloves is not permissible. First-class butlers 
and footmen do not wear mustaches. 

Guests are expected at the hour mentioned in the 
invitation, and should be as near that time as possible. ArrivaL 
In large cities, where distances are great and exact time 
difficult to calculate, a little grace is allowed, but the hos- 
tess is not expected to wait longer than fifteen minutes 
for a tardy guest. It is considered a breach of etiquette 
to be late, and the assumption is, when this occurs, that 
the delay is unavoidable and will be indefinite, and so 
the other guests should not be inconvenienced. 

At large dinners a gentleman finds in the dressing- 
room, or a servant passes to him before he enters the 
drawing-room, a tray holding small addressed envel- 
ops. He selects the one bearing his own name, and 
finds on an inclosed card the name of the lady he is to 
take to the table. The letter R or L in the corner of the 
card denotes whether he will find his place on the right 



8 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

or left of the table from the entrance. If he does not 
know the lady, he should tell the hostess, so that he 
• may be presented to her. The hostess stands near 
the door to receive her guests, and such introductions 
follow as can conveniently be made. If general in- 
troductions are omitted, guests are expected to act as 
though acquainted, and speak to whomever they may 
be near. This rule holds good for all entertainments 
in some countries, but Americans continue a reserve 
except at dinners, where barriers to ease and pleasure 
must not exist. The hostess does not knowingly 
bring together people who object to meet one another, 
but in such an event the acquaintanceship need not 
extend beyond the evening, and good breeding re- 
quires a courteous recognition of the friends of the 
hostess while under her roof. 

The butler keeps count of the arrival of expected 
guests, and announces dinner shortly after all are in 
the drawing-room. In case of a tardy guest he waits 
for the hostess to order the dinner served. He then 
Annoimce- ®^^^^^ ^^® room, and, looking at the host or hostess, 
ment. says, " Dinner is served," or ^' Madam is served," or 
simply bows to the hostess. 

The host then offers his right arm to the lady who 
is to sit at his right, and leads the way into the din- 
ing-room ; the other couples follow in any order that 
is convenient. The hostess, with the gentleman she 
Precedence, honors with the seat at her right, are the last to leave 
the drawing-room. If a distinguished man is present, 
it is to him this courtesy is shown. Except in official 
and diplomatic circles, there is no other rule of pre- 
cedence. If the President of the United States or a 
royal personage were being entertained, the hostess 
with this dignitary would then precede the others. 

At each cover is laid a card on which is distinctly 
written the name of the person who is to occupy that 



DINNER-GIVING AND THE ETIQUETTE OF DINNERS 9 

place. Confusion is thus avoided in seating the guests. 
It has been a fashion to have these cards artistic and 
elaborate in design, but at present plain gilt-edged 
cards stamped with the family crest or monogram are 
more generally used. 

When the dinner is finished, the gentlemen return Departure, 
to the drawing-room with the ladies, and then with- 
draw to the smoking-room for half an hour. Shortly 
after their return to the drawing-room the guests 
take their leave. If guests of honor are present, they 
are the first to go. 



MANNER OF SERVING DINNERS 



Passing 
the Dishes. 



Number of 
Servants. 



The custom of serving dinner ci la Russe (dishes 
passed) has supplanted the form known as the Eng- 
lish style, where the joints are carved on the table. 
This is for good reason, as the host cannot well fulfil 
his social part if he has to do the carving ; therefore, 
unless on very informal occasions, when the number 
of servants maybe insufficient, the carving is done on 
the side-table, or the garnished dishes are cut in the 
kitchen. The portions, whether carved or otherwise, 
are placed on dishes to be passed, and should be so 
arranged that each guest may remove a part easily 
and without destroying the symmetry of the whole. 
This need not preclude attractive garnishing, but 
such complicated constructions as are sometimes seen, 
which embarrass one to find how to break them, should 
be avoided. 

Sometimes a dish is placed on the table to be shown, 
and then removed to be served. 

The dishes are presented on the left side. Those of 
the first course are passed first to the lady sitting on 
the right of the host, and then in regular order to the 
right around the table. The dishes of each following 
course are started at some distance from the place 
where the preceding one was presented. In this way 
the same person is not left always to be served last. 

At least one servant is needed for every six persons, 
otherwise the service will be slow and tedious, and the 
portion placed on one^s plate becomes cold before the 
accompaniments of sauce or vegetable can be passed. 

Many dishes may be garnished with the vegetable 

10 



MANNER OF SEEVING DINNERS 11 

or sauce, thus obviating in a measure this difficulty. 
For large dinners two or more dishes should be ar- 
ranged to pass on opposite sides of the table, so that 
every one may be served at about the same time. 
Plates, vegetable, and other large dishes are held in 
the hand of the servant. Small dishes, like hors 
d^oeuvres, bonbon dishes, etc., are passed on a tray. 

When the wines are served, the servant should 
name the wine offered, so that it may be refused if not Wines, 
wanted j the glasses should not be filled entirely full. 

When a plate is removed it should be immediately piatea. 
replaced by another one holding a fork or any piece of 
silver or cutlery which is needed for the next course. 

Plates should be removed with the left and replaced 
with the right hand. 

Care should be taken that plates for the hot dishes 
are warm, but not hot, and that for the cold dishes 
they are not lukewarm. 

The plate holding the shell-fish is placed upon the 
one already on the table ; this under plate is used also 
to hold the soup plate, but double plates are not 
again used until the end of the dinner, when the 
dessert plate holding the finger-bowl plate is put on. 
In case a hot sweet dish is served, the double plates, 
being intended for ices, fruits, and bonbons, are not 
put on until after that course. Silver serving-dishes 
are much usedj lacking these, all the china used in 
the same course should match when possible. 

A different set of plates may be used with each 
course. In the matter of china the greatest latitude 
of taste and expense is possible, some china being 
more valuable than its weight in silver. When 
handsome china is being used, which demands great 
care in handlmg, it is well to have a table in the 
pantry reserved for its use, where it can be carefully China 
piled and left until the following morning to be 



China. 



Care of 



12 



THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 



Clearing 
the Table. 



The 
Service. 



Ordering 
the Dinner. 



washed. With daylight and ample time, it can be 
given the care it might not receive if washed after the 
fatigue and late hours of a long dinner. This need 
not necessarily mean leaving a disordered pantry for 
the night, although that would be of less consequence 
than the extra risk of having valuable china nicked 
or broken. The same care is recommended for hand- 
some glass. 

Before the dessert is served, all the plates, the small 
silver, the salt- and pepper-boxes, the hors d'ceuvres, 
and such glasses as will not be again used are removed ; 
the crumbs are then taken off, a silver crumb knife 
and a plate being used for this purpose. The dessert 
and finger-bowl plates are then put on. Under the 
finger-bowl is placed a small fancy doily, and beside 
it on the same plate such small silver as will be 
needed. If peaches, or any fruit which will stain, 
are to be served, a fruit doily should also be given at 
this time and laid beside the place. The finger-bowl 
should be filled one third with water, and have a thin 
slice of lemon, a scented leaf, or a flower floating in it. 

The service should be entirely noiseless, and the 
machinery of the household as invisible as possible. 
There should be no rattling of china or silver, no 
creaking boots, or heavy tread, or audible speech 
among the servants. 

When entertaining one should not attempt more 
than one is sure of being able to attain, bearing in 
mind the capabilities of the cook and the range, and 
remembering that the quality of the dishes rather 
than the number of them is what pleases. Experi- 
ments should be made at times when failure is of less 
consequence. In arranging the menu, each course 
should be in pleasing contrast to the preceding one, and 
in the same course only such dishes should be served 
as go well together. Butter is not served at dinner. 



LAYING THE TABLE 

A ROUND or square table five feet across is a con- 
venient size for ordinary use, giving ample room for Tlie Table. 
six people, and leaving space for decoration. Large 
round tops are made to fit over extension-tables, 
which will seat from twelve to twenty or more peo- 
ple ; and when the size of the room will permit, this 
is the pleasantest form of table for entertainments, 
and best lends itself to decorative effects, giving to 
each person a complete picture of the table and of the 
company assembled. 

A thick cotton material, which is made for the pur- 
pose, for interlining between table and cloth, is the The Linen, 
first requisite in laying the table, and should always 
be used. It protects the polished surface of the table 
from injury, gives a more brilliant whiteness to the 
cloth, and prevents any noise when placing the china 
and silver upon the table. The linen should be as 
fine as the purse will allow. Handsome linen wiU 
give elegance to a table where ornamentation is very 
simple. It should be ironed without starch, or with 
a very little if it is not sufficiently heavy to take polish 
without it. It should be folded perfectly square, so 
that the lines will be straight, and should be of spotless 
and dazzling whiteness. With this as a basis, there 
will be no difficulty in making an attractive table. 

In the way of linen, much taste may be shown in 
the ornamental pieces used in the center of the 
table. These may be of any shape or size desired, 
from a small square to a long scarf. They may be of 

13 



14 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

embroidered linen, drawn-work, lace, plain silk or 
satin ; but wash materials are preferable, and effects of 
color, when desired, can be obtained in the embroidery 
or linings. The attractiveness of these pieces depends 
on their daintiness. The fashion of a center-piece of 
linen is, however, a passing one, as they are not at 
present so generally used. 

After the interlining has been spread, the cloth 
of laying should be laid with great care, making the center fold 
the Table, run perfectly straight with the room, and the cross 
fold again exactly divide the table at right angles to 
the other crease. By these straight lines, everything 
else is gaged. The fancy linen piece is next laid, 
and its center must coincide with that of the cloth. 
If the piece is square, it sometimes has better effect 
to place the points on the long lines of the cloth, giv- 
ing it a diamond shape ; this, however, is a matter of 
fancy. The center ornament is then placed on the 
exact point where the folds of the cloth cross in the 
middle of the table. The plates are next put in posi- 
tion, attention being given to the decoration on the 
china, if it be a monogram that it is right side up, if 
flowers that they are in natural position, etc. Where 
there are an uneven number of covers it is better to 
place the plates at equal distances around the table, 
without regard to the place of the hostess being oppo- 
site to that of the host. In other cases, the plates at 
the head and foot of the table, and those on the sides, 
should be directly opposite each other. Under no 
circumstances must the plates be omitted. On the 
left of the plates place the forks ; three or four may 
be put on and laid in the order in which they will be 
used. Three knives (one of them being a silver knife 
for the fish course) and the oyster fork are placed on 
the right of the plate ; the soup spoon may go in front 
of the plate or with the knives on the right ; the bowls 



LAYING THE TABLE 



15 



of the forks and spoons should be right side up, the 
edges of the knives turned toward the plate. 

After the plates and small silver and cutlery are 
in position, the decorating of the table should pro- 
ceed as far as possible. The position for everything 
can be best determined after the plates are laid. 
The perishable articles, that cannot be put on until 
the last moment, can usually have their position lo- 
cated by the compotiers or the bonbon dishes which 
will hold them. Uniformity is not required in having 
two or four of these dishes to match, but such orna- 
mental holders as are used must be placed in uniform 
positions, so as to balance and harmonize. Any de- 
viation from this rule, or neglect of the small details 
in placing the table furniture, will give the effect of 
a disordered table. 

The candlesticks, or candelabra, as the case may be, 
should be so placed as not to obstruct the views across 
the table. This may be determined by two persons 
taking seats on opposite sides of the table, viewing 
each other from different places, and moving the can- 
delabra until the right position is found, which usually 
will not be more than an inch or two either way. It 
is well to give attention to this matter, as comfort is 
much disturbed and conversation interrupted from 
shutting out by this kind of screen the different per- 
sons at the table. Before being placed on the table 
candles should be fitted firmly and straight in their 
sockets, be lighted for a few minutes, and then the 
wicks should be cut and the shades fitted squarely 
upon the holders. This will prevent smoking, drip- 
ping and other annoyances that may occur if it is not 
done. Shade-holders that fit the top of the candle 
are very objectionable and dangerous, but those that 
clasp the candle below the heated part give little 
trouble. 



The Deco- 
ration. 



Lights. 



16 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

Salt- and pepper-boxes are placed at the corners of 
the table, or within easy reach of every two people 
if more than four are used. If carafes are used the 
same rule is observed. After the decoration of the 
table is completed as far as possible, the glasses are 
put on. There is danger of their being broken if put 
on before. They are placed in uniform groups at the 
right of the plates : the water glass nearest the plate, 
and the wine-glass to be first used nearest the edge 
of the table. Port and Madeira glasses are not put 
on until the time for serving those wines, which is at 
the end of the dinner. 

The napkin, folded in triangular shape, the embroi- 
dered monogram on top, is laid on the plate, and a 
piece of bread cut two inches long and one and a half 
inches thick, or more generally a dinner roll, is laid 
in the fold, but left in full sight, so that it will not be 
shaken on to the floor when the napkin is lifted. 

Everything that will be needed in serving the din- 
ner should be convenient to hand. The plates to be 
warmed should be in the hot closet j those for the 
cold courses, the finger-bowls, extra small silver and 
ujjg cutlery, extra rolls and cracked ice, should be on the 
Sideboard, sideboard, SO that there will be no delay in getting 
them when needed. 

Foot-stools placed under the table for the ladies 
add much to their comfort. 




DIAGRAM OF TABLE. 

A. Plates. 

B. Plant, Flowers, Fruit, Lamp, or ornamental piece of silver. 

C. Compotiers, holding cakes, fruit, or flowers. 

D. Candlesticks or Candelabra. 

E. Salt and Pepper Boxes. 

F. Water and Wine Glasses. 

G. Bonbons, or Hors d'CEuvres, or Carafes. 
H. Bonbons, or Hors d'CEuvres. 




DETAIL OF ONE COVER. 



TABLE DECOEATION 

There is wide range for individual taste and artis- 
tic arrangement in table decoration, which is limited 
only by the resources at one's command. 

Pleasing effects of color are perhaps the first con- 
sideration. Of late it has been a fashion to have one 
prevailing color. In many cases this is very suitable 
as well as complimentary to the guests entertained. 
For instance, a white dinner to a bride, pink to young 
people, red to a Harvard company, or yellow to those 
with Princeton affiliations. 

The scheme of color is often carried through the 
menu as far as possible j the dishes served correspond- 
ing in color to the table decorations. Where this is 
done the colors should be light and delicate. Dark 
shades are not pleasing, and suggest the name "painted 
foods/' which has been scornfully given to them. 

Of all colors green is the easiest to carry out, and 
perhaps the most pleasing. The many shades of 
green give variety and contrasts. Ferns make a 
light and dainty centerpiece, and rival flowers in 
beauty. For the menu spinach gives a soup, vege- 
table, and coloring for sauces. Green salads are nu- 
merous. Angelica makes a decoration for desserts. 
Pistachio nuts give flavor and color to ice-cream, 
icings, and bonbons. A very beautiful and elaborate 
dinner on this scheme is described below, which was 
called in the invitation "Al Fresco," and in its de- 
sigri and execution well simulated an out-door enter- 
tainment. Green is a soft, reposeful color j red, pink, 

2 17 



18 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

and yellow are gayer, and give a more festive aspect. 
Yellow is sunny in effect, and for a yellow dinner the 
color scheme may be obtained with yellow flowers, 
oranges, silver-gilt compotiers, gilded china, and with 
light diffused through yellow shades. For the culi- 
nary part the yolks of eggs render important service 
for coloring, covering, and garnishing, and oranges 
furnish many delicious dishes. 

White dinners are also easy to arrange with white 
flowers, silver, a profusion of cut-glass, lace shades, 
white grapes, spun sugar, whipped cream, white 
sauces, celery, whites of eggs, white meats, etc. 

A white dinner is likely to be too severe, however, 
unless carefully managed. Delicate ferns can be 
mixed with white flowers without changing the effect, 
and a warm glow may be thrown on the table from a 
center light in the chandelier, screened with thin pink 
or yellow silk, and raised high, so as not to appear as 
a part of the decoration. The most beautiful pictures 
of snow scenes are not a dead white, but reflect the 
color of the sunset or atmosphere. 

Fruits and flowers typical of the season are in good 
taste, and usually more pleasing than hot-house prod- 
ucts. In the spring, tulips, daffodils, lilies of the val- 
ley, or any wild flowers. Goldenrod, chrysanthemums, 
and asters in their times. Autumn leaves and berries 
later, holly and mistletoe at Christmas, and lilies at 
Easter, while in the summer the fields and lanes 
afford a wealth of material. At other times, and 
where the purse does not permit indulgence in roses 
and forced flowers, the resources lie in potted plants 
and fruits. Any plant not too large, which looks fresh 
and healthy, will make a pleasing centerpiece. The 
crotons and dracaenas give beautiful colors. A dish of 
growing ferns makes an attractive, satisfactory and 
enduring center ornament. With care the ferns will 



TABLE DECORATION ^ 19 

last a long time, and at small expense can be renewed. 
Double silver-plated boxes, both square and oval, are 
made for this use. 

Fruits are always pleasing and give good color 
effects. 

The success of any decoration depends largely upon 
the proper lighting of the table j lacking this, beauti- 
ful arrangements may appear commonplace or wholly 
lose their effect. 

The decorated-dinner table should be the especial 
picture of the room, the conspicuous object of in- 
terest and beauty for the timej therefore the light 
should be centered upon it and the rest of the room 
form but the shadowy background. The pleasantest 
light is from shaded single candles, placed at intervals 
around the table, and a more brilliant light thrown on 
the center of the table from the shaded drop-light of 
a chandelier, or from large candelabra holding groups 
of candles. 

Small lamps which fit candlesticks are much used, 
and when there are open windows and drafts they 
give much less trouble than candles. Effects of color 
are largely obtained from the use of shades. These 
vary in size and shape to suit the fancy or fashion of 
the moment, and are made of silk, lace, or paper ; for 
the latter, crape papers are much used. Shades re- 
cently brought from Paris were of translucent paper 
painted by hand to imitate china. Making shades is 
pleasant fancy work, and the materials are so inex- 
pensive that one can easily indulge in a variety of 
them. With a centerpiece of polished red apples and 
candles with red shades, or a potted plant and green 
shades, quite a definite and pleasing character may be 
given to a simple dinner. High ornaments should be 
avoided except they be candelabra or lamps which do 
not obstruct the view across the table. It is very 



20 THE CENTUEY COOK BOOK 

annoying to be forced to look around ornaments when 
trying to talk to a person seated opposite at table ; 
such a screen effectually debars general conversation. 
On large or long tables, large ornamental pieces 
should be used. Those appropriate to a small table 
often appear scanty and insufficient on a large one. 
Masses of one color are more effective than mixtures, 
and a display of abundance may be made on large 
tables while on small ones daintiness is more pleasing. 

Confectioner's pieces are again being used for dinner 
decorations. Baskets and horns of plenty made of 
nougat or pulled sugar, holding glac6 fruits, and 
forms made of spun sugar are in good taste, but imi- 
tations of art objects and high pyramids, such as are 
used on supper tables, should be excluded. 

A pleasing decoration for a hot day maybe made of 
a block of ice set in a pan deep enough to hold the 
drippings, but placed on something to raise it above 
the sides of the pan. The pan should be concealed 
with moss and ferns, or flowers, arranged around it 
loosely so as to partly conceal the ice also. A hole 
cut through the center of the block of ice, and a flat 
candle, such as are used in night lamps, placed within 
it, gives a brilliant and lovely effect. The block of ice 
should be cut square and weigh at least ten pounds. 
This decoration is easily managed in the country, 
where ferns are readily obtainable. 

A pan filled with floating water-lilies, together with 
their buds and leaves, the pan being concealed in a bed 
of moss and ferns, makes also a pretty decoration for 
a luncheon table. These flowers close at night, and so 
are only suitable for daylight service. A table may 
be made beautiful by entirely covering it with a mass 
of the same kind of flowers, leaving only enough space 
around the edge to hold the plates and glasses. The 
flowers may or may not be raised in the center of the 



TABLE DECOEATION 21 

table, or may in any way simulate a garden-bed. When 
daisies are used they should be plentifully mixed with 
grasses as they are in the field. Care must be used 
not to make the decoration high, or the effect will be 
lost; and to avoid this the stems of the flowers, cut 
the desired length, can be stuck into wet sand or moss, 
held in flat tins. This will hold them firmly in place, 
as well as keep them fresh. An English fashion is to 
have a piece of silver ornament the table, without ac- 
cessories of fruits or flowers. This severe but elegant 
simplicity is perhaps a reaction from the overloading 
of tables which has long prevailed. 

A pink dinner given in Washington was arranged 
as follows: The table was round and large enough 
to seat eighteen persons. A covering of thin ivory- 
colored India silk over pink was cut round to fit the 
table, and a frill of lace ten inches deep fell over a 
ruffle of pink silk on the edge. A large square of silk 
gauze embroidered in pink covered the center of the 
table. A mound of maiden-hair ferns formed the cen- 
terpiece. Around this were placed pink candles in 
Venetian-glass candlesticks and shaded with full frills 
of lace over pink. The bonbon dishes and all the 
glasses were of Venetian and Bohemian glass. Four 
ornamental candy pieces were used : two were garden 
hats holding glazed cherries, and a pink ribbon tied 
around each hat held a large bunch of pink roses. 
The other two were baskets, and held frosted grapes 
which were half hidden under spun sugar. Orna- 
mental silver was omitted, as being out of harmony 
with the other decorations. 

A dinner unique in its character was given a few 
years ago by Lord Dufferin, the English ambassador 
to France. The centerpiece was flowers, and can- 
delabra lighted the table ; but in place of the dessert 
dishes which ordinarily do ornamental service were 



22 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

choice bits of bric-^brac collected by the ambassador 
in various parts of the world. The curios served as 
an interesting novelty, and became the subject of con- 
versation. A dinner given in Jamaica is described, 
where orchids in profusion were suspended over the 
table, some on climbing vines, and others, of such deli- 
cate form and texture as made it seem not unnatural, 
appeared as though floating in the air. 

The " Al Fresco " dinner referred to above was in 
imitation of a woodland scene. It was served in a 
dining-room the walls of which were hung with tapes- 
tries. The ceiling decoration was blue sky with white 
clouds. A profusion of palms, bay-trees, and rubber- 
plants were placed about the room and screened the 
side-boards. The dining-table was a mass of verdure. 
It was round, seating eighteen persons. The whole 
center of the table was depressed eight inches, leaving 
an outside rim fourteen inches wide for the plates and 
glasses. The center space was filled with growing 
plants, the top of the pots being on a level with the 
outside rim. The pots were concealed by mosses and 
loose ferns making a solid mass of green. Four tall 
slender plants rose from the center, the rest was of 
ferns and lycopodium with here and there a few prim- 
roses. Green candles with fluffy green shades in glass 
candlesticks were so distributed as to give sufficient 
light. The space left for the dinner service was cov- 
ered with light-green India silk over canton flannel. 
On the back of the menu cards were water-color 
sketches of forest scenes. The menu was largely com- 
posed of products of the forest. The aspect of this 
dinner was really sylvan, and the idea so well carried 
out that the elaboration of it was artistically hidden. 
From the time of LucuUus, dinner-givers have been 
striving for novelties, but as a rule any radical de- 
parture from conventional forms U a failure. 



TABLE DECORATION 23 

MENU OF THE "AL FRESCO" DINNER 

Soup 
Cream of Celery (colored green). 

Msh 
Brook Trout, Butter Sauce. 

Entrie 

Mushrooms on Crusts. 

Boast 

Saddle of Venison. Wild plum sauce. Saratoga 
potatoes. Green peas served in fontage cups. 

Salpicon of Fruits au Rhum. 
Oame and Salad 

Quails in nests of Pur6e of Chestnuts. English 
Walnuts and Celery mixed with green Mayonnaise in 
cups of molded tomato jelly. 

Cheese 

Small balls of Cream-cheese, colored green to imi- 
tate bird's eggs, in nests of shredded Lettuce. 

Hot Entremet 
Individual Nut Puddings (burning). 

Dessert 

Pistache Ice Cream Pralinee, molded in a ring, the 
center filled with whipped cream. White cakes with 
green icing. Fruits. Coffee. 



COUESES 

The order of the dinner service is soup, fish, flesh, 
fowl. These may be supplemented to any extent with 
entremets and entrees. Mets are the principal dishes. 
Entremets, the dishes served between the mets. En- 
tries, dishes which are served between any of the 
courses. 
qJJ^ I. Course. Canapes of caviare, small bits of anchovy 
toast, or in their season muskmelons, are sometimes 
served as the first course, but ordinarily oysters or 
clams on the half shell is the first dish presented. The 
smallest-sized shell-fish are preferable to the large ones. 
One half dozen are served on each plate and placed 
symmetrically on or around a bed of cracked ice; a 
quarter of a lemon cut lengthwise is placed in the cen- 
ter. Cayenne pepper and grated horse-radish are passed 
with this course, also very thin slices of brown bread 
buttered and folded together, then cut into small 
squares or triangular-shaped pieces. The plates hold- 
ing the shell-fish may be placed on the table before 
dinner is announced ; but as there is no place to con- 
veniently lay the folded napkin except on the plate, 
it is as well not to serve the mollusks until the guests 

SoooJid are seated. 

Soup. * II. Course : Soup. It is better to serve a clear soup 
when the dinner is to be of many courses, as heavy 
soups are too hearty. The choice of two kinds of 
soup may be offered. Grated Parmesan cheese may 
be passed with clear soups, dice of fried bread with 
eream soups, and toasted cracker biscuits with any 

24 



COURSES 



25 



kind of soup. One ladlef ul of soup is sufficient for 
each person, and a second portion is not offered. An 
anecdote is told of a punctilious person who, being 
asked if he would be helped again to soup, answered, 
" Thanks, not to-day." 

Hors d^oeuvres, which are radishes, celery, olives, 
etc., are passed after the soup. Salted almonds are 
taken at any time through the dinner. 

III. Conrse : Fish. Fish, if boiled or fried, is served 
upon a napkin. If baked no napkin is used, and a lit- 
tle sauce is spread on the dish. Boiled potatoes are 
served with boiled fish, and are more attractive when 
cut with a potato-scoop into smaU balls. Cucumbers 
dressed with oil and vinegar are also served with fish. 

IV. Course : Entries. Entries can be served between 
any of the courses, or they may be omitted altogether ; 
but a variety of attractive dishes come under this head, 
and usually one is served after the fish. 

V. Course : Vegetables. A vegetable, such as aspara- 
gus, artichokes, cauliflower, is served at this time, al- 
though the French reserve the vegetable until after 
the joint. Only one vegetable besides potato is per- 
mitted with a meat course, and if more are wanted 
they are served as a separate course. 

VI. Course. The joint with one green vegetable and 
potato. 

VII. Course. Frozen punch, when served, comes be- 
tween the meat and game courses. It is not passed, 
but a glassful standing on a plate, with a coffee spoon 
beside it, is placed before each person. 

If preferred, a cheese omelet or souffl6 may be used 
instead of punch for this course. 

VIII. Course : Game and Salad, or Poultry and Salad. 
Game is usually not passed, but the portions are laid 
on the individual plates by the butler. This is done in 
order to serve it as hot as possible. A small cold plate 



Third 

Course; 

Fish. 



Fourth 
Course: 
Entries. 



Fifth 

Coarse: 

Vegetables. 



Sixth 
Course. 

Seventh 
Course. 



Eighth 
Course. 



26 



THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 



Ninth 
Coarse. 

Tenth 
Coarse. 



Eleventh 
Coarse. 

Twelfth 
Coarse. 



is sometimes given for the salad ; crescent-shaped plates 
are made for this use. With ducks, celery and small 
squares of fried hominy are served. When game or 
poultry is not used, cheese may be served with the 
salad, or cheese-straws instead of cheese. When salad 
is served with game or poultry, cheese and crackers 
may be served immediately afterward as a separate 
course, or they may be passed after the dessert. 

IX. Course. Sweet puddings, souf9.es. Bavarian 
cream, etc. 

X. Course. Ice-cream or any frozen dessert. Cakes 
and brandied peaches, preserved ginger, or wine- jellies 
may be passed with ice-cream. 

XI. Course. Fruit, fresh or glac6, and bonbons. 

XII. Course. Coffee, liqueurs. 

Of the courses given above, the first, fourth, fifth, 
and seventh, and a choice of either the ninth or tenth, 
may all, or any one of them, be omitted. 

Black coffee in small cups is passed on a tray, with 
cream and sugar, in the drawing- and smoking-rooms 
after the guests have left the table. 

ApoUinaris or other sparkling water is passed later, 
and is usually welcomed. 



THE HOME DINNER 

At the every-day or family dinner there will nat- 
urally be less elaboration in the decoration of the 
table, and fewer courses, than when the dinner is an 
occasion of entertainment, but so far as the appoint- 
ments reach they should be observed with the same 
precision and care. The dinner has always something 
of a ceremonious character, being the time when the 
family all meet with the leisure to enjoy one another's 
society after the labors of the day are done. It is 
well, therefore, to attend to the few material details 
which aid in making the occasion an agreeable one. 
Refinements are more clearly shown at table than 
elsewhere, and the influences of decorum at dinner 
are more subtle than are always recognized. Let 
the linen be as spotless and white, the silver and 
glass as polished, and the dishes, however few, be 
as carefully prepared as though guests were present. 
The simplest dinner so ordered will give pleasure and 
satisfaction. "When attention to details is practised 
every day, company will cause no agitation in the 
household. The refinements of the table are within 
the means of the humblest. A word may also be said 
for manners at the home table. The habit of fault- 
finding, commenting upon the dishes and wines, cor- 
recting the mistakes of servants while at the table, 
making apologies, etc., is reprehensible, inefficacious 
and vulgar, and not only interrupts conversation, 
but spoils the pleasure of the dinner hour. It is 
always difficult, and often impossible, to improve a 

27 



28 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

dish after it is served ; therefore, it is better to accept 
it without remark. If the housekeeper, who is always 
the first to observe faults in the service, can conceal 
her discomfiture, it is but right for the others to be 
considerate. Faults often pass unnoticed if attention 
is not called to them. Dr. Johnson, it is said, always 
complained of his dinners, but never omitted to say 
grace. Upon one such occasion his wife interrupted 
him, saying, " Nay, hold, Mr. Johnson ! Do not make 
a farce of thanking God for a dinner which in a few 
minutes you will pronounce uneatable.'^ 

The home table, with its every-day appointments, 
causing one to blush in the event of a friend's un- 
expected arrival, is not to be excused in this day of 
advanced women in the nineteenth century, when 
higher education has at least taught them to regard 
their domestic duties in the light of a science and an 
art. 

There are many simple dishes that can be quickly 
prepared which will give the dinner a little more com- 
plimentary character, and supply the little extra that 
may be needed when more are present than were ori- 
ginally provided for. A beefsteak can be virtually 
enlarged by serving with it a mushroom sauce, for the 
mushrooms, having the same elements of nutrition as 
the meat, permit the latter to be served in smaller 
portions. A simple entree, such as a dish of macaroni, 
a scallop dish, a mince, with good sauce (which is 
easily made where the stock pot is ever ready), a 
cheese omelet, a vegetable salad, etc., etc., are sug- 
gested as a few of the dishes, which are called by the 
French plats WamitiSj and should enable any woman 
to enjoy the pleasure of entertaining unexpected 
guests in a hospitable manner. 



SERVINa THE INFOEMAL DINNER 

In laying the table for an informal dinner, where 
the carving is to be done on the table, a napkin to 
protect the cloth is spread at the carver's place. Very- 
pretty fancy pieces are made for this use, but an ordi- 
nary dinner napkin wiU do. This is not removed until 
the table is cleared for the dessert. When the carving 
is done on the table, the soup and dessert are usually 
served by the lady of the house, and the salad is also 
dressed on the table, and then passed. So far as the 
service will allow, however, it is pleasanter to have 
everything passed that does not need cutting. 

The vegetable dishes should never be placed on the 
table. When the joint is put on the table, warm plates 
in a pile are set at the left of, or before the carver, and 
when a portion is served, the plate is lifted by the serv- 
ant and placed before the person for whom it is in- 
tended, without the use of a tray. The plates placed on 
the table when it is laid are used for holding the soup 
plates, and are not removed until the ones holding the 
portions of the next course are exchanged for them ; if 
the succeeding course is to be passed, warm or cold 
plates, as the course requires, are in turn exchanged 
for them ; but if the course is to be served from the 
table, the places are meanwhile left without covers. 
There should always be a plate before each person 
except in this instance, and when the table is cleared 
for dessert. Sharpening the carving-knife is a trial 
to the nerves of many, and this infliction can be easily 
avoided by having it done before dinner is announced. 



30 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

Many good carvers, however, seem to delight in this 
preliminary operation and are unconscious of com- 
mitting an act of impoliteness. The attractiveness of 
a dish may be wholly lost by unskilful carving, and 
the appetite may be destroyed by an overloaded plate. 
Where but one substantial dish is served, it is per- 
missible to be helped a second time. The dish can 
be removed to the side-table, and the second por- 
tions helped by the servant, if the carver does not 
care to be interrupted in his own dinner after he has 
performed the office of cutting the joint. 

The sense of sight should always be considered, 
even though it cost the trouble of replenishing a dish. 
No more than can be used on one plate is served at the 
same time at any well appointed table. One vegetable 
only, besides potatoes, is served with the roast ; if more 
are used, they are served as courses separately. 



LUNCHEON 

The luncheon service does not differ materially 
from that of dinner. Lighter dishes are usually 
served, entrees taking the place of joints and roasts, 
and the soup or bouillon is served in cups instead of 
soup plates. Grape fruit, or a fruit salad, is often an 
acceptable first course. 

When the table has a handsome and polished sur- 
face the cloth may be left off if desired and a fancy 
square take its place. In this case small squares may 
also be used under the plates to protect the table and 
in such other places as needed. Drawn-work linen 
squares over mahogany make an attractive luncheon 
table. 

When a large number of guests are being enter- 
tained at luncheon, small tables placed in the different 
rooms (and on the piazzas, if in the country) are often 
used, and these do not admit of more than the slight 
decoration of a few flowers. Luncheons of this kind 
are usually of an informal character and secondary to 
some entertainment which has preceded them. A few 
simple menus for luncheons are given below. 

MENUS FOR LUNCHEON 

No. 1. No. 2. 

Grape Fruit. Melon. 

Bouillon. Clams on Half -shell. 

Oyster Patties. Cold Salmon, Sauce Tartare. 

Chops and Peas. Filets Mignons, Sauce B^ar- 
Quail, Lettuce Salad. naise. 

Ice-Cream. Omelet Souffle. 

Cake. Cheese. 

Tea. Coffee. 

31 



82 



THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 



No. 3. 

Grape Fruit. 
Bouillon. 
Shad Roe. 

< Broiled CMcken. 

I Green Peas. 
Russian Salad. 

I Ice-Cream and Jelly. 

i Angel Cake. 
Tea. 

No. 5. 
Chicken Consomm^. 
Lobster Chops. 
Mushrooms on Toast. 
Sweetbreads and Peas. 
Frozen Punch. 
Quails on Toast. 
P£lt6 de Foies-Gras 

en Bellevue. 
( Lettuce. 
Charlotte Russe. 






No. 7. 
Salpicon of Fruit. 
Cream of Clams. 
Salmon Cutlets, Cucumbers. 
Curried Eggs. 
Chicken h, la Poulette. 
Asparagus, Sauce Hollandaise. 
Fruit Tart. 
Chocolate Pralin^e 



No. 4. 

Bouillon. 

Lobster k la Newburg. 

Eggs Villeroi. 

Sweetbreads and Peas. 

French Chops, Potato Straws, 

Russian Salad of Chicken As- 
pic, Celery and Walnuts 
(see receipt). 

Plum-Pudding Glac6. 

Coffee. 

No. 6. 

Clams. 

Eggs h, la Reine. 

( Planked Shad. 

^ Cucumbers. 

( Broiled Squabs. 

i Vegetable Salad. 
Ice-Cream. 
Cheese. 
Fruit. 

No. 8. 
Little Neck Clams. 
Bouillon. 
Vol-au-Vent. 
Broiled Chicken, Peas. 
Mushrooms. 
Lobster Salad. 
Gateau St. Honor6. 
Strawberries. 



At a Imicheon, given in a country house to a large partj 
of golfers, all the edibles, consisting of cold meats, game, 
aspics, salads, and mince-pie, were placed on the side-table, 
and the gentlemen served the ladies before taking their 
own places at the table. The servants came into the room 
only to remove the plates. This gave a very social and 
lively character to the meal, which all enjoyed for its in- 
formality. 

Entertainments of this kind may often be practicable, 
as the question of service sometimes debars one from en- 
tertaining many guests at a time. 



THE FIVE O'CLOCK TEA 

A CUP of tea at this time of the afternoon is usu- 
ally gratefully accepted, and one is disappointed if it 
is made so badly that it is not drinkable. The young 
lady who presides at the tea table at an afternoon 
reception has sometimes a diflScult task if the tea is 
not prepared with a bag (as directed on page 550), but 
for the unceremonious social cup of tea with the 
friend who drops in at this hour it is easy to have it 
just right. After the proper preparation of the tea (as 
directed on page 549), the attractiveness of the table 
and the delicacy of the china are the next things to 
be desired. Tea does not taste as well taken from a 
coarse, large, or heavy cup. The taste and refine- 
ment of the hostess are easily recognized in this very 
unceremonious, but very social, function. The cloth 
may be as elaborate as one wishes, but it must above 
all be spotless, unwrinkled and dainty. The cups may 
all differ from one another, but each one should be 
small and thin, and the steaming kettle, which lends 
cheerfulness to the occasion, should be highly pol- 
ished, whether it be silver, brass, or copper. A dry 
biscuit or a thin piece of bread and butter is usually 
offered with the tea. Fresh unsalted butter is pref- 
erable, but any of the fine butters may be used. The 
butter is spread very evenly on the loaf ; the bread 
sliced very thin and doubled like a sandwich. It may 
be cut into any shape desired, such as strips, diamonds, 
or triangles. It is attractive stamped into circles with 
a biscuit-cutter of about the size of a silver dollar, 

3 33 



34 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

Three kinds of bread maybe used — white, graham, and 
Boston brown bread, and all may be served on the same 
plate. This simple dish is carried into the esthetics in 
some English houses, where the bread and butter is de- 
scribed as tasting of roses, violets, clover, or nastur- 
tiums. The flavor is obtained by shutting the fresh 
butter in a tight jar with the blossoms for several 
hours. Butter very readily absorbs flavors and odors, 
indeed it is the medium used for extracting perfumes 
in the manufacture of those articles. The flavored 
butter is spread in the ordinary way on the bread, 
which has been treated also to a bath of flowers. 
Butter sandwiches must be exceedingly thin and 
shapely, and have no suggestion of mussiness. They 
should be laid in a folded napkin to keep them fresh. 
Any sweet wafers may also be used, but as this is not 
a meal, nothing should be offered which will take 
away the appetite for dinner, which follows shortly 
afterward. 



A HOMILY ON COOKIN& 

It is a trite saying that a thing worth doing at aU 
is worth doing well, but, from the inefficiency of the 
large number of domestics who hold the office of 
cook, and from the acceptance of careless work by so 
many families, it would seem that the truism is not 
regarded in reference to cooking. Since it is upon 
the kitchen that the health and comfort of the family 
so greatly depend, is it not a duty, and would it not 
be a pleasure, for the mistress of every house to 
understand the science of cooking as well as the 
arts which give other attractions to the house? A 
knowledge of its fundamental principles would give 
her a sense of independence and power, which know- 
ledge is proverbially said to do. If she were familiar 
with the nature of the yeast plant, and the action of 
heat as applied in boiling, broiling, and frying, if she 
could make a sauce and clear a soup, her family 
would be relieved from the afflliction of sour bread, 
burned meats, and muddy soup. An ordinary kitchen 
servant can do these simple things well, if she is once 
told how, and this basis would be a guide in other 
work, and a safeguard against many failures. There 
is no such thing as luck in cooking. Laws govern 
the chemical changes which take place, and can always 
be relied upon. Water will boil at 212°, and cannot 
be made hotter by violent boiling in an open vessel. 
Frying can be properly done only when the fat is 
smoking hot. Broiling can be properly done only 
over, or under, hot and bright coals. For baking, 

55 



36 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

the oven must be of the right temperature. The 
same thing cooked in the same way will always be 
the same, and failure comes simply from neglect of 
the rules. It is as easy to have good cooking as 
bad J the former requires only the elements of care 
and intelligence. With very little trouble, dishes may 
be made to please the sight as well as the taste. The 
difference between the elegance and refinement of one 
table and the vulgarity of another often lies merely 
in the manner of dishing and serving. Again, the step 
from plain to fancy cooking is very short. A simple 
and tasteful arrangement, or combination, of materials 
prepared in the ordinary way will make an orna- 
mental dish. Minced chicken pressed into a ring 
mold to give it shape, and the center filled with a 
mushroom sauce, will make a more appetizing dish 
than if placed carelessly together with no regard to 
symmetry. Potatoes pressed into a fancy mold, a 
part of the center removed, and the space filled with 
chopped seasoned meat, will give a chartreuse, and no 
thought of hash suggested. A jelly with a flower in 
the top, or of two colors, will make a decorative piece 
for the table. Uniformity in size and shape of pota- 
toes, chops, pancakes, slices of bread or anything that 
is served on the same dish, gives a pleasing sense of 
order and care, which is as marked as the proper ar- 
rangement of the table furniture. It is in little things 
only that fancy differs from plain cooking, but as 
soon as a cook comprehends the value of the appear- 
ance of dishes she is sure to think of their perfection 
in every other way. 

There is a popular prejudice against fried foods, 
and a belief that abstaining from them will cure us 
of our dyspepsia, but if articles are properly fried 
they should contain no more grease than the boiled 
one does of water. Smoking fat has such a high 



A HOMILY ON COOKING 37 

degree of heat, that certain articles are better cooked 
by frying than by any other method. Minced meat, 
rolled into the form of croquettes and fried, assumes 
a different character both in taste and rank from the 
minced meat heated in other ways. If the croquettes 
are coated with egg and crumbs and immersed in 
smoking hot fat, as the rule directs, the egg is in- 
stantly hardened, and no fat can be absorbed through 
it. That which covers the outside is evaporated by 
draining and drying in a hot place. The napkin on 
which the croquettes are served will not be stained if 
they are rightly fried. Saratoga chips can be handled 
with a glove without soiling it. We need not be a 
nation of dyspeptics from eating pie when the French 
are not from eating puff-paste, or from hot breads 
when the English are not from plum pudding and 
pork pies. It is from the manner of preparing our 
foods that we suffer. Cooking has not been one of 
the virtues of our new country, as we have been satis- 
fied to get our cooks from France and Ireland, but 
if intelligent American housewives will take interest 
and pleasure in this important department, which is 
delegated to their care, some of the serious trials of 
life will be overcome, and emancipation from many 
petty cares and annoyances will follow. 



COOKINa AS A PLEASURE AND 
AN ACCOMPLISHMENT 

The common sayings about waste in American 
kitchens, dyspeptic results of American cooking, etc., 
reflect the opinion held by other nations of our culi- 
nary art, and though the judgment may be too severe, 
it has been pronounced, and should remind us of our 
shortcomings. 

It seems, however, as though a new era were now 
dawning. Cooking-schools are established in large 
cities, cooking lectures are given everywhere and are 
well attended. The nutritive values of different foods 
and the chemistry of cooking are studied. This, and 
the recognition of the fact that health proceeds largely 
from the diet, seem to indicate that there has been an 
awakening of interest in the subject of gastronomy. 
In this day of fads, it will soon be discovered also 
that pleasures lie in this line of work. Fancy cook- 
ing has an interest quite as engaging as other occupa- 
tions of diversion. Fine cooking utensils, gas-stoves, 
and modern convenieuces, make the well-appointed 
kitchen as attractive as the laboratory or workshop. 
Trying a new dish has the same interest as any other 
experiment. The construction of ornamental pieces 
is as interesting as other fancy work. Making puff- 
paste, ice-creams, fancy molding of desserts and sal- 
ads, boiling sugar, etc., are in reality simple pro- 
cesses, and with very little practice found to be as 
easy to prepare as dishes which from familiarity have 
come to be called plain cooking. Skill and dexterity 
of hand may be enjoyed in boning, trussing, and lard- 
ing, and taste shown in decorating with truffles and 
other articles, in molding with flowers and fruits, in 



COOKING AS A PLEASURE AND AN ACCOMPLISHMENT 39 

icing cakes, in spinning sugar, and in making bonbons. 
The pleasure of decorating the table and adorning the 
dining-room will be found secondary to that of pre- 
paring artistic dishes when that art has once been 
learned. 

The gas-stove obviates the objection, formerly ex- 
isting, of one^s being subjected to excessive heat while 
cooking. At a cost of about $2.00 a stove can be 
bought which will stand on a table anywhere, and 
answer all ordinary purposes of boiling and frying. 
More expensive ones, fitted with ovens and other appli- 
ances, answer the requirements of all kinds of cooking. 

When the preparation of anew or a fancy dish comes 
to be looked upon as a pastime instead of a task, there 
may be discovered in America Savarins and Becha- 
mels. We have already had a Sam Ward, but to the 
women should belong the honor of raising our stan- 
dard of cooking, and though they need not agree with 
the terrible sentiment expressed by Margaret Fuller, 
that a woman to have influence must cook or scold, 
still it must be conceded that the former accomplish- 
ment will enable her to wield a potent scepter. Per- 
haps, however, the strongest word to be said in favor 
of every mistress of a house knowing how to cook is 
the usefulness of it. The difiiculty of getting trained 
cooks at reasonable wages, the caprices of the class, 
whose consciences do not prevent their leaving at the 
moment when their services are most needed, and the 
many occasions that arise when a knowledge of cook- 
ing is of the greatest comfort and service, make it 
difficult, for those who know how to cook, to compre- 
hend how any one can keep house without this know- 
ledge, or how, with the inferior service generally ren- 
dered, the pleasures of hospitality can be enjoyed, or 
the comfort of a well-ordered culinary department 
experienced. 



ECONOMICAL LIYINO 

A VERY pleasant book called "$10.00 Enough" ex- 
plains how a family of two lived well on that sum 
per week, including house rent and wages of one ser- 
vant. Mrs. Rorer says $2.00 per head a week is a lib- 
eral allowance. Articles are published giving direc- 
tions for living on ten cents a day j also of dinners for 
six people costing twenty-five cents. In examining 
these formulae it is evident that in order to accom- 
plish this very small cost of living, one must first un- 
derstand the comparative values of foods, so as to se- 
lect those which at low prices furnish the necessary 
nourishment, and secondly, to be able to cook them 
in such a way as to make them acceptable j in fact the 
rule holds good, however high the scale of living, that 
the proper cooking of food counts for more than the 
cost of it. The cheap and the expensive articles can 
be equally spoiled in the cooking; while the cheap ones, 
well cooked, are more esteemed than the high-priced 
ones poorly prepared. The first thing excluded from 
the list of cheap nutritive foods is white bread. Re- 
fining the flour to the whiteness of the so-called best 
qualities takes out most of its nutritive elements, 
while the lower grades or brown flours retain the 
gluten, and make a bread which is preferred when one 
becomes familiar with it. Beans, peas, and corn-meal 
have an important place on the list of accepted foods. 
They supply the wastes of the system and afford a 
hearty meal. Meat, which is the most expensive food, 
has come to be regarded here as a necessity, but in 



ECONOMICAL LIVING 45 

the old countries the classes who perform the hardest 
labor consider it only as a luxury, and seldom use it 
oftener than once a week. Often the cost of living is 
more in the waste than in the actual consumption of 
food. Another needless and unwise expense is buy- 
ing more than is required, providing for three persons 
enough for six ; and still another extravagance is in 
buying articles which are out of season. For instance, 
in the spring veal is a very cheap meat j in the autumn 
it is the most expensive one, but, at the right times, 
ore may indulge in sweetbreads, calfs head, calfs 
brains, and liver. In its season game is frequently 
abundant and reasonably cheap. The idea prevails 
that, in order to have variety, it is necessary to buy 
whatever the market offers, whereas variety may be 
attained by variation in the ways of cooking, in serv- 
ing with different sauces, and with different accom- 
paniments, and in arranging the menu so that one 
course is in pleasing contrast to the preceding one, 
thus avoiding surfeit. 

Many pieces of meat of the best quality are sold at 
low rates because not in shapes to be served as boiling 
or roasting pieces. These serve well for entrees and 
made-up dishes; other pieces, which are tough, but 
well flavored, can by slow cooking be made as tender 
as the prime cuts, such as a round of beef braised. 

On page 249 will be found a number of menus and 
receipts for very inexpensive dinners. 

Mr. Gibson, in an interesting article on "Mush- Mushroomg. 
rooms," published in " Harper^s Magazine " for Au- 
gust, 1894, calls attention to the vast amount of 
wholesome and nutritious food that lies at the door 
of every country dweller. City people pay at least a 
dollar a pound for mushrooms, which are served at the 
finest dinners, and are considered as among the best 
articles for use in high-class cooking. Therefore, why 



i 



46 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

should they be scorned or overlooked by those who can 
have them for the gathering? Neglect to use them 
seems equal in wastefulness to the practice of some 
country butchers, who throw away calves' heads, brains, 
sweetbreads, fresh tongues, etc., because the people have 
not learned their value. A French family who moved 
into a western town reported that the cost of living 
there was nominal, because the foods which they most 
prized, not being recognized as belonging on the list 
of comestibles, were given away by the butchers as 
food for dogs. Mushrooms are very distinctive in 
feature, and by the aid of descriptions given in books 
and colored charts, one can easily learn the edible va- 
rieties which grow in his neighborhood. By taking 
no risks in eating those not perfectly recognized, there 
is no danger of being poisoned. It is not thought 
difficult to learn varieties of the rose, nor to discrimi- 
nate between the poison and the innocuous ivy. The 
form, color, and habitat of mushrooms make them 
equally easy to recognize. Care should be taken, 
however, to avoid any mushroom which is old or 
partly decayed, as its condition then is analogous to 
that of putrid meat. In their season the edible fungi 
grow in great profusion ; they are nitrogenous, con- 
taining the same nutritive elements as meat, and well 
serve as a substitute for it, giving a pleasant change 
to the limited bill of frugal fare. Mr. Gibson speaks 
of them as beefsteaks. They seem from circumstances, 
therefore, to have a place in the dietary of the poor 
as well as the rich. Receipts for cooking mushrooms 
are given on page 314. 

It is sometimes thought to be an extravagance to 
serve a roast to a smaU family, because so much meat is 
left over. When there is no way known of presenting 
it again except as cold meat or as hash, it may indeed 
be disagreeable to have the same meat served four 



ECONOMICAL LIVING 4? 

times. A good cook, however, served turkey accept- 
ably at four dinners to a family of three persons in 
this way : 

FIEST DAYS DINNEE 

10 lbs. turkey at 16 cents per lb $1.60 

1 quart sweet potatoes boiled .10 

2 quarts apples (of which she used three for baked 

apple dumplings, sabayon sauce, page 446) .15 

1 egg 03 

1 lemon 02 

i cup sugar 01 

— .06 

Cost of first day's dinner $1.91 

SECOND DAY'S DINNEE 

2 lbs. codfish boiled .20 

HOLLAND AISE SAUCE (page 281). 

2 eggs 06 

i lb. butter 08 

i lemon 01 

— .15 
6 croquettes made of one cupful of turkey meat .00 

SAUCE TO MIX THEM 

i cup milk 01 

i tablespoonful butter 01 

legg 03 

— .05 
i tablespoonful flour (see croquettes, page 293) 

1 pint cranberries .09 

Sweet potatoes left from day before, cut in strips and 
browned (see page 206) .00 



BROWN BETTY PUDDING 

Apples from day before 00 

Molasses and crumbs 05 

- .05 

Cost of second dinner .54 



48 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

THIRD DAY'S DINNEB 
Soup made from carcass of turkey 00 

CHICKEN souPFLt (page 190). 
1 cup turkey meat 00 

SAUCE TO MIX IT 

1 tablespoonful butter 02 

1 cup milk 04 

3 eggs 09 

Other ingredients 02 

— .17 

BAKED MACABOKI 

i lb. macaroni 04 

Cheese 05 

— .09 

COTTAGE PUDDING 

1 egg 03 

i cup sugar 01 

i cup milk 02 

1 tablespoonful butter 03 

Baking powder 01 

— .10 
CHOCOLATE SAUCE (page 447). 

3 oz. chocolate 08 

i cup sugar 02 

— .10 

Cost of third day's dinner .46 

FOUETH DAY'S DDTNEB 

1 codfish steak, 1 lb 10 

4 smelts for garnishing 10 

— .20 

CHARTREUSE OF CHICKEN (page 190). 

1 cup rice 04 

White sauce 07 

What is left of turkey including giblets 00 

Boiled potatoes 05 

Scalloped tomatoes 15 

Salad of water-cresses .05 

Bread pudding 10 

— .46 

Cost of fourth day's dinner M 



ECONOMICAL LiVlNGi 4d 

First day .$1.91 

Second day 54 

Third day 46 

Fourth day 66 

Extras for bread, seasonings, etc 30 

Total $3.87 

Average per day 96f cents. 

The turkey in this case gave three cupfuls of 
chopped meat after the dinner of the first day. Any 
kind of meat can be made into the same dishes, and 
will be liked if the meat is chopped very fine, is well 
seasoned, and made creamy by using enough sauce. 



WASTEFULNESS 

As a rule the family life of America does not repre- 
sent opulence, yet it has become a familiar saying that 
a French family could live on what an American fam- 
ily throws away. Again, it is said that in American 
kitchens half the provisions are spoiled and the other 
half wasted. There is no need to-day of being open 
to such accusations. At small expense a woman can 
have the benefit of lessons in cooking-schools, and 
should not be accepted as a cook until she has some 
knowledge of the duties, and is qualified to bear that 
name. The gage of a woman's rank in her profes- 
sion can be definitely determined by what she wastes 
or utilizes, and the high wages paid a first-class cook 
are often saved by the intelligent use she makes of all 
her materials. Many of her best entrees are but a 
combination of odds and ends which another cook 
would throw away. Her delicious sauce, which gives 
a very ordinary dish that requisite something which 
makes it highly esteemed, may be but the blending 
of many flavors obtained from little scraps. 

The waste in foods need be so small as practically to 
have no waste material 5 not a crumb of bread, a grain 
of sugar, a bit of butter, a scrap of meat or fat, a 
piece of vegetable or leaf of salad, but can be utilized 
with profit. The soup pot is a receptacle for every- 
thing too small for other uses, and from this source 
can be drawn seasonings which will give richness and 
flavor to innumerable dishes, which are greatly im- 
proved by using stock instead of milk or water in their 
preparation. 

50 



HOW TO UTILIZE WHAT SOME COOKS 
THROW AWAY 

Trim such pieces of cut bread as will do for toast Bread, 
into uniform shape and serve at the next breakfast. 
Smaller pieces cut into croutons (page 81) for gar- 
nishing or for soup. Save unshapely pieces for bread 
pudding, Brown Betty, or stuffings. Save every scrap 
of bread for crumbs, to use for breading croquettes, 
chops, scallop dishes, etc. It is well to have two kinds 
of crumbs, using the white ones for the outside of 
fried articles, as they give a better color. To prepare 
the crumbs, separate the crumb from the crusts of 
bread and dry each of them slowly, on separate tins, 
on the shelf of the range. When dry, roll, sift and 
place them in glass preserve- jars until wanted. 

Clarify all beef fat and drippings, the grease which Fat. 
rises on soup stock, and fat from poultry, and keep in 
a clean jar or tin pail for use in frying ; it is preferable 
to lard (see "frying,'^ pages 72 and 59). Mutton, tur- 
key, and smoked meat fat has too strong a flavor to 
be used for frying, but save it with other fat that may 
be unsuitable for frying, and when six pounds are col- 
lected make it into hard soap (page 259). 

Use the marrow of beef bones on toast for a lunch- 
eon entree (page 159), or use it with bread to make 
balls for soup (page 94). 

Grill wings and legs of fowls that are left over 
(page 188) for luncheon, or stuff the legs as directed 
(page 188). If the sinews are removed from the legs 
when the fowl is drawn, as directed (page 180), the 

51 



52 



THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 



Tough 
Pieces. 



Small 

Pieces, 

ColdMeats. 



liggS. 



meat of the leg will be as good as that of the second 
joint. 

Use a ham bone for improving bean soup. Use the 
carcasses of fowls and the bones from roasts for mak- 
ing soup. 

Try out chop bones and other meat taken from the 
plates for soap fat. 

Chop the tough ends of steak very fine, season, and 
form them into balls or cakes, saute or broil them, and 
serve for breakfast or luncheon (see '* Hamburg 
steaks," page 151). 

Cut pieces of white meat into dice or strips, mix it 
with a white sauce, turn it into a flat dish, make a 
border of pointed croutons, sprinkle over the top a 
little chopped parsley, and garnish with hard-boiled 
egg J or mix the meat with aspic jelly in a mold and 
serve cold with salad. 

Mix dark meats of any kind with a brown sauce, 
and garnish with lettuce leaves, hard-boiled eggs, and 
croutons. Any kind of cold meat may be chopped 
and used in an omelet, or combined with rice and to- 
matoes for a scallop. For cold mutton see " Ragout 
of Mutton ''(page 165). 

Save egg-shells to clear soup, jellies, or coffee. 
Boiled eggs that are left return to the fire and boil 
them hard to use for garnishing, to mix with salad, 
or to make golden toast (page 270) for luncheon. 
Cold poached eggs can be boiled hard and used in 
the same way. Cold fried or scrambled eggs can be 
chopped and mixed with minced meat, and will much 
improve it. 

When an egg is opened for the white alone, drop 
the yolk carefully into a cup, cover the cup with a wet 
cloth, and keep it in the ice-box until wanted. When 
whites are left over make a small angel cake (page 
467), angel ice cream (page 497), liisses (page 475), 



HOW TO UTILIZE 



53 



General 

Odds and 

Ends. 



Cereals. 



or cover any dessert with meringue, or serve a mer- 
ingue sauce (page 448) with the next dessert, or make 
a meat souffle without yolks (page 190). 

Everything too small to utilize in other ways put 
in the soup pot, and from this can be drawn sauces and 
seasoning for minces, scallops, etc., that will often be 
better than specially prepared stock. 

Oatmeal, hominy, cracked wheat, and other cereals 
which are left over can be added next day to the fresh 
stock, for they are improved by long boiling and do 
not injure the new supply, or such as is left can be 
molded in large or in small forms, and served cold 
with cream, or milk and sugar. In warm weather 
cereals are nicer cold than hot. Cold hominy and 
mush, cut into squares and fried, so that a crisp 
crust is formed on both sides, — also hominy or farina, 
rolled into balls and fried, — are good used in place of 
a vegetable or as a breakfast dish. 

Any of the cereals make good pancakes, or a small 
amount added to the ordinary pancake batter im- 
proves it. 

Cold rice can be added to soup, or made into 
croquettes, or used in a scallop dish, or mixed with 
minced meat and egg and fried like an omelet. Cold 
rice pudding can be cut into rounded pieces with a 
spoon and served again on a flat dish; this may be 
covered with whipped cream or flavored whipped 
white of egg. 

A small amount of vegetables left over may go Vegetables, 
into the soup, or may be mixed with a ragout. Peas, 
tomatoes, or beans can be put in an omelet. A 
number of vegetables mixed together can be used for 
a salad. Cauliflower broken into flowerets, covered 
with white sauce, and sprinkled with grated cheese, 
makes " cauliflower au gratin/^ a dish which is much 
liked. 



64 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

The coarse stalks and roots of celery make a good 
vegetable dish when cut in pieces and boiled, or they 
make a good cream-of-celery soup. The leaves are 
valuable in the soup pot for flavor; also are useful 
for garnishing. 
Sour Milk. Sour milk makes cottage cheese, or makes good 
biscuits. 

For uses of stale cakes see page 411. 

For jellies left over see page 418. 
Fruits. When fruits show signs of deterioration, stew them 
at once instead of letting them decay. See compotes. 
Stew apple parings and cores to a pulp and strain; 
this will make a jelly which, spread on apple tart, 
greatly improves it. 

Boil lemon and orange peels in sugar, and dry as 
directed, page 527, for candied peels. 
Cheese. Grate cheese which becomes dry and use for gratin 
dishes or soups ; or it can be served with crackers the 
same as though in its original shape. 



EMERaENCIES 

There is to-day such a variety of well-preserved 
foods that a store-closet provided with these articles 
may be almost the equivalent of a full larder. With 
such a resource the housekeeper can meet without 
embarrassment the emergencies that may arise in 
any household, however well ordered. In the coun- 
try, where tradespeople are difficult to reach, it will 
be especially useful at such times. The articles sealed 
in glass jars seem the most wholesome, and are some- 
times so well preserved as to be a very good substitute 
for the fresh ones. Salted meats and fish are distinc- 
tive foods, which are occasionally very acceptable, and 
the dessicated foods are beyond suspicion of unwhole- 
someness. A few suggestions are offered of how to 
utilize some of the articles which can be recom- 
mended. Many of the soups are excellent; chicken 
gumbo is particularly good. Extract of beef can be 
quickly made into soup, beef -tea, or aspic jelly (page 
322). Canned salmon and chicken, either of them, can 
be heated and covered with a white sauce, or be used 
for salad, or the salmon may be broiled and covered 
with a maitre d'hdtel sauce (page 286). 

Potted meats spread on toast make excellent cana- 
pes for luncheon (page 368). Shrimps make a salad, 
or in a chafing-dish can be prepared ci la Newhurg 
(page 333). Of the salted and smoked meats are ham, 
bacon, dried tongue, chipped beef, codfish, smoked sal- 
mon, and mackerel, all of which are much esteemed 
as breakfast dishes, and may be offered at luncheon 

56 



56 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

or supper. Of the vegetables, string-beans and flage- 
olets make good salads. Asparagus makes a good 
extra course served alone. Tomatoes, the cheapest of 
all, and perhaps the most useful, will make soup, 
sauces, a scallop dish, or may be added to an omelet, 
macaroni, or rice. Pilot bread, toasted bread in slices, 
and rusks make delicious cream-toasts for luncheon 
or supper. Noodles or macaroni boiled plain for a 
vegetable, or mixed with any sauce, tomatoes, or 
cheese. Cheese is useful for canapes (pages 368-371), 
cheese souf9.e (page 370), macaroni, etc. There are va- 
rieties of plain and fancy cracker biscuits which can 
be used in the place of cake. Plum-puddings wrapped 
in tin-foil will keep indefinitely. The canned whole 
apples can be used for dumplings (page 429) or pies. 
California apricots or cherries around a form of plain 
boiled rice, hominy, or other cereal, make a dessert ; 
peaches make a shortcake (page 443) ; jams make de- 
licious tarts, or, served alone with cracker biscuits, are 
a sufficient dessert for luncheon. Plain boiled rice 
may be used as a vegetable in place of potatoes ; or, 
sweetened and mixed with a few raisins, or served 
with stewed prunes, makes a dessert. 

There are prepared flours from which biscuits may 
be quickly made ; prepared buckwheat which makes 
good pancakes for supper or for breakfast. A few 
cans of condensed milk should be in the store-room for 
use in case of real necessity only ; it answers very well 
for puddings, sweet dishes, or chocolate. 

Outside the store-room supplies, eggs furnish a 
variety of dishes quickly prepared. Eggs ci Vaurore, 
or Bourguignonnej omelets with peas, tomatoes, mush- 
rooms, minced meat, etc., are for luncheon, and cheese 
omelets, sweet omelets, and souffles for dinner dishes. 

It is well to have fondant (page 513) in close jars 



EMERGENCIES 57 

ready for icing cakes or for bonbons, candied fruits 
for sweets or for ornamenting desserts, ginger and 
brandied peaches to serve with ice-cream. Lady-fin- 
gers are easily made, and will keep in a cracker-box 
indefinitely. If these are at hand, a Charlotte russe 
is quickly made, and is one of the simplest and most 
acceptable light desserts. 

There are olives, gherkins, and chow-chow for Jiors 
cPxuvres. There are catsups and condiments in va- 
riety to make barbecues (page 331), or to make cold 
meats acceptable. 

The growing plant, the globe of gold fish, the bird- 
cage partly concealed with branches, may be utilized 
for table decoration. As circumstances alter cases, 
there are many expedients to which a housekeeper 
may resort in supplying deficiencies which might not 
be in rule, were the occasion a formal one. The chaf- 
ing-dish on the luncheon or supper-table, or a dish 
more appropriate to a different meal, would not only 
be excused, but perhaps give to an embarrassing oc- 
casion the pleasant feature of informality. 



THINaS TO REMEMBER 

A DASH of salt added to the whites of eggs makes 
them whip better. 

Not a speck of the yolk must get into the whites 
which are to be whipped. 

Fold the whipped whites into any mixture rather than 
stir them in, as the latter method breaks the air cells. 

Break eggs one at a time into a saucer, so any can 
be rejected if necessary and the mixture not be spoiled. 

Add a tablespoonful of water to an egg used for 
crumbing in order to remove the stringiness. 

Use a double boiler for milk. 
Milk. Milk is scalded when the water in the lower pan 

boils. 

A pinch of bi-carbonate of soda mixed with tomato 
before milk or cream is added prevents the milk from 
curdling. 

With sour milk, or molasses, use soda instead of 
baking powder. 
Butter. Milk and butter should be kept in closely covered 

vessels, as they readily absorb flavor and odor from 
other articles. 

Butter added slowly in small bits to creamy mix- 
tures, or sauces, prevents a greasy line forming. 
CrumbB. Crumbs grated directly from the loaf give a more 
delicate color than dried crumbs to fried articles. 

Dried crumbs absorb more moisture, and- are better 
for watery dishes. 

Crumbs spread over the tops of dishes should be 
mixed evenly with melted butter over the fire; this 



THINGS TO REMEMBER 



69 



Meats. 



is a better method than having lumps of butter dotted 
over the crumbs after they are spread. 

"When the sauce bubbles through the crumbs on 
top of a scallop dish, the cooking is completed. 

Meat should not be washed. It can be cleaned by 
rubbing with a wet cloth, or by scraping with a knife. 

Drippings are better than water for basting meats. 

Meats should not be pierced while cooking. 

Soak salt fish with the skin side up over night. 
Change the water several times. 

To skim sauces, draw the saucepan to the side of 
the fire, throw in a teaspoonf ul of cold water, and the 
grease will rise so that it can be easily taken off. 

A few drops of onion juice improve made-over 
meat dishes ; not enough need be used to give a pro- 
nounced onion flavor. 

The skimming from soups, drippings from any beef Drippings, 
roasts, and trimmings from any beef, serve the same 
uses as lard, cottolene, or butter. 

To extract onion juice, press the raw surface of an 
onion against a grater, move it slightly, and the juice 
will run off the point of the grater. 

Chop suet in a cool place, and sprinkle it with flour 
to prevent its oiling and sticking together. Remove 
the membrane before chopping it. 

Add a few drops of rose-water to almonds to pre- 
vent their oiling when chopped or pounded. 

To loosen grated peel, or other articles, from the 
grater, strike the grater sharply on the table. 

When mixing a liquid with a solid material, add 
but little liquid at a time and stir constantly to pre- 
vent lumping. 

When adding cornstarch, arrowroot, or any starchy 
material to hot liquid, first mix it with enough cold 
water, or milk, to make it fiuid; pour it in slowly 
and stir constantly until it becomes clear. 



Onion 
Joice. 



Chopping 
Suet. 



Chopping 
or Pound- 
ing Al- 
monds. 



IWlTITlg . 



60 



THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 



Gelatine. Soak gelatine in a cool place for an hour in cold 
water or milk. It will then quickly dissolve in hot 
liquid and have no odor. If jellied dishes do not 
stiffen, add more gelatine ; boiling down will not effect 
the purpose. 
Molds. Grease molds evenly with butter or oil, using a 

brush. Lumps of butter on the side of molds leave 
an uneven surface on the article cooked or molded in 
them. Molds for jellies are not greased. 

Invert a dish over a mold before turning it, so 
that the form will not break ; also, place it in exactly 
the right spot before lifting off the mold. 

It is desirable to pass all liquid mixtures through a 
strainer to make them perfectly smooth. 

To keep dishes warm until time of serving, place 
the saucepan in a pan of hot water. 
Flavoring. Any flavoring is added after the mixture is cooked, 
excepting for baked dishes. Wine increases the taste 
of salt, therefore, where wine is used for flavoring, 
very little salt should be put in until after the wine 
is used, when more can be added if necessary. 

Dishes which are to be frozen need an extra amount 
of sweetening. 
Eaisins. Flour raisins before adding them to a mixture in 

order to prevent their settling to the bottom. 
Baking. Never slam the oven door, or jar any rising material 
while it is baking. 

Anything being cooked for the second time needs a 
hot oven. 



strainers. 



To keep 
Dishes 
Warm. 



CAEE OF UTENSILS 

A VERY essential thing in doing nice cooking is to 
have clean utensils. The pans of a careless cook are 
encrusted outside and frequently inside with dry, hard 
grease, which ordinary washing will not remove; the 
broilers are black with burned grease, and the ovens 
are in the same state. If one sees this condition of 
things, or finds a woman putting a saucepan on the 
hot coals, one needs no further commentary on her 
work. The saying "You can judge a workman by 
his tools " is very true in this case. No good cook 
will abuse her utensils, or expect to get well-flavored 
sauces from saucepans which are not immaculately 
clean. To keep utensils clean, it is necessary to wash 
them thoroughly, after they are used, with soda to 
cut the grease, and with sapolio to scour off any 
blackened spots. Sand or ashes may be used on the 
outside of iron pots. The outside as well as the in- 
side of every utensil should be clean, and never be al- 
lowed to approach that state where only scraping will 
clean them. When utensils do reach that unwhole- 
some condition, the coat of burned and blackened 
grease can be removed only by boiling in a strong 
solution of sal soda for an hour or more, using a large 
boiler which wiU hold enough water to entirely cover 
them. After the grease is softened, it can be scraped 
off, the articles then scoured with sand, ashes, or sa- 
polio.* This is a good day's work for a charwoman, 
which will change the aspect of things in the kitchen, 

* It can also be easily removed by soaking in a solution of Babbitt's 
lye — one tablespoonf ul to several gallons of water.— M. E. 

61 



62 



THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 



Tins, 
Sieves, 
Wooden- 
ware. 



Arrange- 
ment of 
Utensils in 
Closet. 



Supply- 
Closet 



Refriger- 
ator. 



and may awaken a pride for cleanliness where it has 
not before existed. 

Tins should be well dried before being put away, or 
they will rust. Sieves should not be washed with 
soap, but cleaned with a brush, using soda if neces- 
sary. Wooden ware should not be put near the lire 
to dry, or it will warp or crack. 

An orderly arrangement of utensils in the kitchen 
closet will greatly facilitate quick work. Everything 
of the same class should be in the same group : Sauce- 
pans and gridirons hung on hooks, measuring-cups, 
iron spoons, and strainers also hung in a place very 
convenient to hand. Molds and baking tins should 
be placed where they will not get bent or jammed. 
Practise strictly the system of a place for everything 
and everything in its place. 

Order in the supply-closet is also necessary. Have 
a number of tin boxes, and of glass preserve- jars of 
different sizes, to hold everything large and small in 
the way of food supplies. Stand them in rows, each one 
plainly labeled, that no time may be lost in searching 
for the article needed. The cost of these receptacles is 
small, while their use is not only a great convenience, 
but also a protection from dust and insects. A closet 
so kept is also easily supervised. In every large and 
well-ordered kitchen perfect order and system prevail. 
Were it not so, a hopeless confusion would soon ensue. 
In small households the same nicety can be the rule, 
and if the mistress makes a weekly inspection, order 
will soon become a tradition of the household, and be 
maintained without demur. The refrigerator must 
be kept scrupulously clean and dry to insure whole- 
some food, and its waste-pipe kept freely open. This 
should not be connected directly with the general 
waste-pipe of the house. Cases of diphtheria have 
been directly traced to this cause. There should be 



CARE OF UTENSILS 63 

a free use of soda in washing out tlie refrigerator to 
keep it free from taint. As butter and milk readily 
absorb the flavors of other articles they should be kept 
by themselves, or with only the eggs, in the small 
compartment. Lemons or other fruit are particularly 
to be excluded. Fish may be laid directly on ice, the 
skin side down; but beefsteaks or other uncooked 
meats lose flavor if placed in direct contact with ice. ^^^-^^ ^^ 

Proper care of the range and intelligent use of the Eaiige. 
coal are also essential factors of success in cooking. 
If the drafts are left open too long, the greatest 
heat is often lost before cooking begins. If they are 
closed the moment the coal is kindled, the heat will 
remain steady for a long time. When the coals look 
whitish, they are becoming exhausted and beginning 
to fall to ashes, and this condition arrives quickly when 
rapid combustion takes place from open draughts. 
Piling the coal above the level of the fire-box is an- 
other error generally practised by ignorant cooks. 
The heat does not increase from the depth of coal, 
but from the breadth of surface. Piling up the coal, 
in a mound which nearly touches the top of the range, 
results in heating the iron red-hot, warping the lids 
out of shape, destroying the saucepans, and very 
likely burning the food. No articles cooked on top 
of the range require excessive heat, and are usually 
spoiled by too rapid cooking. 

When the ovens do not bake on the bottom or on Ovens. 
the top, it means a layer of ashes shuts off the heat. 
The ashes are easily removed from the top, but to lift 
the plate from the bottom of the oven and clean it 
out requires a cold range, so this is often neglected 
or not understood, while the cook wonders why the 
bread will not bake on the bottom, and why the cake 
is spoiled. 



PART n 
KECEIPTS 



Chaptee I 
METHODS OF COOKING EXPLAINED 

BOILING 

There is an erroneous impression that articles cook 
faster when the water is boiling violently, but this is 
not the case; the ebullition is caused by the escaping 
steam, which is lost heat, and the water at this time is 
at 212° (except in high elevations), however fast or 
slow it may be boiling. If, however, a little sugar or 
salt is added to the water it increases its density, and 
the heat rises to 224° before the steam escapes. The 
heat can be raised also by covering the pot and confin- 
ing as much of the steam as possible. Where violent- 
ly boiling water is recommended, as for rice and green 
peas, the object is not greater heat, but to keep the 
grains and peas separated by the turbulence of the 
water. There is waste of fuel in unnecessarily fast 
boiling, and economy can be easily practised here, es- 
pecially where gas is used, as the boiling point, once 
reached, can be maintained with but little heat. 
Where the juices and color are to be retained, the 
articles are put into already boiling salted water. 
The albumen on the surface is then at once coagulated 
and the juices shut in. Where the object is to extract 
the juices, as for soups, they must be cut into pieces 
so as to expose more surface, and put into cold water, 
and the heat of the water gradually raised to the sim- 

67 



68 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

mering point only. The slow, long cooking obtained 
in simmering water best destroys the fiber of meat, 
and tough pieces cooked in this way are made tender. 
Simmering. To render tough pieces tender, the meat is first put 
into boiling water in order to fix the albumen on the 
surface, the heat then reduced, and the cooking done 
at the simmering point, which is 185°. Hence, water 
at different stages of heat is used, according to the ob- 
ject in view, and the result is as definite as that of the 
different degrees of heat in an oven, so this point 
should not be considered as of little importance. 

The flavor of meats and vegetables is volatile, and 
much of it can be carried off by escaping steam, as is 
demonstrated by the odors which sometimes pervade 
the house. To prevent the latter, and also to make 
the article tender and retain all its flavor, the pot 
should be covered and the water kept at the simmer- 
ing point only. 
Vegetables. An exception to this rule is made in the cases of 
cabbage and cauliflower. These strong-flavored vege- 
tables will be much less objectionable when cooked in 
rapidly boiling water in open vessels (see page 212). 
Green vegetables should be boiled in open vessels, as 

Meat, high heat destroys their color. All meats should be well 
tied and skewered, to keep them in good shape while 
boiling, and, when possible, be placed with the bone side 
up, so if any scum settles it will not spoil the appear- 
ance of the dish. For fish a little vinegar should be 

Fish. put into the water, as it hardens the meat and helps to 
prevent its falling apart (see page 113). 

Salt water is used where the object is to keep the 
flavors in, fresh water where it is to draw them out 
as in soup, where the salt is not added until the cook- 
ing is completed. The rule of not piercing meat, 
thus letting out its juices, applies to boiling as well as 
to other methods of cooking. Fifteen minutes to the 



METHODS OF COOKING EXPLAINED 69 

pound is the rule for mutton or tender meat, a much 
longer or indefinite time for tough meat. 

Ham is done when the skin peels off easily. 

The scum should be taken off the pot when boiling 
meat. 

Milk boils at 196° and easily burns, therefore it is 
safer to use a double boiler for anything containing 
milk. When using a double boiler, the liquid in the 
inner pan is scalded when the water in the outside 
vessel boils. 

BAKING 

The baking of many articles is a more important 
matter than the mixing. There are no definite tests 
for ovens, therefore one has to learn by experience 
and careful watching the capabilities or faults of the 
ovens used. A common trouble is from not having 
them thoroughly cleaned of the ashes which settle un- 
der the ovens and prevent the heat reaching the bottom 
part. It is usual to have them hotter on the fire side. 
In this case it is necessary to turn frequently the 
articles being baked, or, where this cannot be done, 
to interpose a screen to protect them from burning. 
Asbestos paper, which is now sold at very low cost at Asbestos 
house-furnishing stores, is a convenient thing to place v&ver. 
against the side of the oven, or on the shelf of the 
oven if the excessive heat is on top. A tin, or a 
piece of brown paper, will, however, ordinarily serve 
the purpose. Directions for baking bread and cake 
are given at the heads of those chapters. 

To lower the heat of an oven, if closing the damper 
is not sufficient, open the lid of the range over the 
oven a little way. Sometimes a pan of cold water put 
on the shelf of the oven will effect the purpose. 
When baking meats, the oven should be very hot at 
first, and after the meat is seared the heat should be 
lowered, so the cooking will be done slowly. 



70 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

ROASTING 

Roasting is done before the fire, and should not 
be confused with baking, which is done in the oven. 
Roasted meats have a distinctly better flavor than 
baked ones. The latter are likely to taste of smoke 
unless the oven is frequently opened for basting, as 
few of them are sufficiently ventilated to free them of 
smoke and steam. Baking is the method generally 
employed in small households, but where the grate of 
the range is sufficiently large, and the front can be ex- 
posed, it will be found no more trouble to roast than 
to bake the meats, and the improvement will well 
repay the trouble of changing a habit. Tin ovens 
(Dutch ovens) are made for this use, with a clock- 
work to turn the spit, so the only care is to baste, 
which has to be done in either case, and to keep the 
fire bright, which is done by adding a few coals at a 
time if necessary. 

The meat should at first be placed near the coals to 
sear the outside, and then be drawn back where it will 
cook at lower heat. 



BROILING 

Meat cooked by broiling is exposed to a greater 
heat than in any other manner of cooking, and 
to prevent its burning, requires constant watching. 
Meats for broiling are cut thin, and much surface 
is exposed, therefore they must be at once exposed to 
intense heat to sear the surface and retain the juices. 
Frequent turning not only prevents burning, but 
gives slower cooking and also prevents the grease 
dripping into the fire, making a smoke which destroys 
the flavor of the meat. The rule for broiling is to 
have bright coals without flame, drafts open to carry 
off smoke, and meat turned as often as one counts ten 



METHODS OP COOKING EXPLAINED 71 

(see broiling beefsteak, page 156). In this way the 
result will be satisfactory, the meat will be puffed 
and elastic from the confined steam of the juices, 
will have a seared crust, and the rest evenly 
cooked through and of the same color. When 
the puffed appearance of broiled meats begins to 
disappear it means the moisture is evaporating 
through the crust, which will leave it hard and 
dry. 

Chops wrapped tight in oiled paper before being 
broiled are especially good (see page 166). The paper 
will not burn if turned as directed above. 

Although broiling with a double wire-broiler over 
or under bright coals is the approved way, it can be 
accomplished in a hot pan when coals are not acces- 
sible. In this instance a frying-pan is heated very 
hot, then rubbed with suet to prevent the meat from 
sticking, and the meat is turned frequently as in the 
other method. This manner of broiling is recom- 
mended only as an expedient, as hot iron does not 
give the same result as hot coals. 

BRAISING 

Meat cooked by braising is shut in a closely-covered 
pot with a few slices of salt pork (laid under the meat 
to prevent its sticking to the pot), a mixture of vege- 
tables, cut into dice, a little soup stock or water, and a 
bouquet of herbs, and cooked slowly in the confined 
steam. This method of cooking tough or dry meats 
makes them tender and of good flavor. Braised 
dishes are much esteemed. 

FRICASSEEING 

Meat cooked in this way is first sauted to keep in 
its juices, then stewed until tender and served in a 



72 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

white or brown gravy, made from the liquor in the 
pot in which the meat is stewed. Toasted bread and 
sometimes dumplings are served with it. In the lat- 
ter case it is called a pot-pie. 



SAUTlfiiNG 

A little fat is put in a shallow pan ; when this is hot, 
the articles to be cooked are laid in and browned on 
both sides. This manner of cooking is by many mis- 
called frying, and is largely responsible for the disre- 
pute of frying, as sauted articles are likely to be greasy 
and indigestible. 

FRYING 

Frying is cooking by immersion in very hot fat. 
The success of frying depends upon the fat being 
sufficiently hot, and enough fat being used to com- 
pletely cover the articles cooked in it. A kettle for fry- 
ing should be kept for that purpose alone, and started 
with enough fat to fill it two thirds full. Olive-oil, 
lard, cottolene, drippings, or any mixture of them, 
serve the purpose. When properly used but little fat 
is consumed, and the pot can be easily replenished 
with the right quantity for its next use. Each time, 
after using the fat, a slice of raw potato should be 
dropped in to clarify it j it should then be strained 
through a cloth and returned to the pot, be covered 
when cold, and set away until again wanted. This 
fat can be used for potatoes, and anything which is 
coated with egg and crumbs. If fish without this 
coating are fried in it, it will then be unsuitable for 
other purposes. A pot of fat will with care last for 
months, but should be clarified as often as necessary 
Heating (gee below). When the fat is to be used, the frying- 
the fat. ;tettle should be placed on the range an hour before 



METHODS OF COOKING EXPLAINED 73 

the time it is needed. It will then become gradually 
hot, and at the right moment can be quickly raised to 
the smoking heat needed for frying. It takes some 
time for fat to reach this temperature; and if this 
preparatory measure is not taken, a cook, when hur- 
ried, is likely to use it before the right heat is attained, 
or to place it on the open fire, which is attended with 
great danger. Many persons are seriously burned 
from this imprudence. When fat boils over and takes 
fire, the best extinguisher is ashes. If the cook's Toextin- 
clothes take fire, the best thing to do is to wrap the guiah fire 
skirts together and roll on the floor until assistance ^°°^ 
comes. With ordinary care there need be no acci- ^®*^®* 
dents. Dropping grease on the range or clothes can 
be avoided by holding a tin plate under the frying- 
basket when removing it from the kettle. When the 
articles to be fried are prepared, the wire basket should 
be dipped into the fat to grease it, the articles laid in, 
a few at a time, without touching one another, the 
basket hung on an iron or wooden spoon, and slowly 
lowered into the fat. Too many articles must not be 
put in at the same time, or the heat of the fat will be 
too much reduced. Spattering is caused by water con- Spattering, 
tained in the articles being turned to steam and throw- 
ing out the fat ; hence, one reason for making them 
very dry and of lowering them gradually into the fat. 
When fat is sufficiently hot it at once sears the outside 
of everything placed in it, and forms a crust through 
which the grease cannot penetrate and be absorbed 
by the food. Egg and crumbs are used for the pur- 
pose of thus encrusting the outside of made dishes, 
like croquettes. The mistake should not be made of 
leaving articles too long in the fat; a lemon color. Color of 
which is the one desired, is quickly attained. When ^®* ^^ 
lifted from the fat, the basket should be held for a ^^^^ 
few minutes, or until through dripping, over the ket- 



74 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

tie, which is the hottest place to be found, the articles 
then placed on a brown paper without touching one 
another, and set in the open oven, or on the hot shelf, 
until perfectly dry. If so treated the grease will 
evaporate, and the articles become so free from it as 
not to leave a mark on the napkin on which they are 
served. Articles properly prepared and fried in this 
manner can be no more unwholesome than meat which 
is basted with drippings. The fat should be given 
time to again rise to the smoking heat before a second 
basketful of articles is immersed. When frying ar- 
ticles which take a little time to cook, the pot should 
be drawn to a cooler part of the range, after the first 
few minutes. The coating will then be formed, and 
the cooking can proceed more slowly, and the articles 
will not brown too much before they are cooked. 
Croquettes, being made of cooked meat, need to re- 
main in the fat only long enough to color and become 
heated. 

TO CLARIFY FAT 

When fat becomes discolored and unfit for use, stir 
into it when melted one half teaspoonf ul of baking 
soda and a quart of water. Let it boil for a little 
time, take off the scum that rises, and set the pot 
aside until cold. Remove the cake of grease, scrape 
off all the impurities, put it again on the fire, where 
it will melt but will not be agitated, and let it re- 
main undisturbed until all the water has evaporated 
and the remaining impurities have settled to the bot- 
Bubbling tom j then pour off the clear grease. When fat bub- 
bles it means there is water in it, not that it is hot. 

TO TRY OUT SUET AND OTHER FATS 

Cut the fat into pieces, place it in a shallow pan 
over moderate heat until the fat is melted, then strain 



METHODS OF COOKING EXPLAINED 75 

it through a cloth. There will be no odor from the 
fat if not placed where it becomes too hot. All kinds 
of fats are good for frying except mutton fat, turkey 
fat, and fat from smoked meats; these can be used 
for making soap, as directed on page 259. 

TO PREPARE ARTICLES FOR FRYING BY COVERING 
THEM WITH EGG AND CRUMBS 

All scraps of bread should be saved for crumbs, p_?l_ 
as directed on page 51, the crusts being separated 
from the white part, then dried, rolled, and sifted. 
The brown crumbs are good for the first coating, the 
white ones for the outside, as they give better color. 
Where a very delicate color is wanted, bread grated 
from a stale loaf or rubbed through a coarse sieve 
gives better results; the fresh crumbs need not be 
very fine. Cracker crumbs give a smooth surface 
and are better for oysters than bread crumbs, but for 
most things bread crumbs are preferable. For meats 
a little salt and pepper, and for sweet articles a little 
sugar, should be mixed with the crumbs. Crumbs left 
on the board should be dried, sifted, and kept to be 
used again. 

The whole egg is generally used. The white alone The Egg. 
will serve, but not the yolk alone, as it is the albumen 
which is needed. The albumen quickly coagulates 
when put into the hot fat, and forms a coating through 
which the grease will not penetrate. To one egg is 
added one tablespoonful of water, so as to make it 
thin enough to run and remove the stringiness of the 
egg ; these are beaten lightly together, but should not 
be foamy, as bubbles break and leave holes for the 
grease to enter. Where delicate color is wanted, 
it is better to use the white of the egg only and 
fresh crumbs. Turn the crumbs on to a board ; roll 
the articles first in the crumbs to dry them well, then 



76 



THE CENTUEY COOK BOOK 



place them in the beaten egg one at a time, and 
with a spoon pour the egg over and moisten them 
thoroughly j return them to the board, and completely 
cover them with crumbs. Soft, creamy mixtures like 
Molding, croquettes require delicate handling, and are easier 
to manage if first made into a ball, — molding them 
into shape being left until the second crumbing, at 
which time they can be rolled into cylindrical form 
and the ends flattened by dropping them lightly on 
the board. They will keep their shape better if, after 
being prepared, they are allowed to stand an hour or 
more before being fried. (See croquettes, page 293.) 



Cutting 
lardoons. 



LARDING 

Larding is simply drawing small pieces of salt 
pork through the surface of meat. It is easily done, 
and so much improves lean, dry pieces of meat as to 
well repay the trouble. The pork for larding is best 
cut lengthwise with the rind, and that nearest the 
rinu is the firmest. Cut it into slices, one quarter 
inch thick, and then into strips one quarter inch wide 
and two inches long. The lardoons can be made 
firmer by placing them on ice, but ordinarily this is 
not necessary. The larding needle holding a lardoon 
is pressed through the surface of the meat, taking a 
stitch about a quarter inch deep and an inch long, 
then drawn through, leaving the lardoon projecting 
on both sides. The stitches should be taken at regu- 
lar intervals, so as to appear ornamental, and when 
all the lardoons are in they should be cut even. For 
birds or small pieces, the lardoons would of course be 
cut of a size to suit the needle used. 



DAUBING 



Daubing is cutting through the entire thickness of 
the meat in several places and inserting lardoons of 
salt pork. The cut is made with a thin, sharp knife. 




] KVING KKTTLi: AND BASKET. 

1. Fryinu- Kottlc 

2. Wire J];i-k(t and Iron Spoon for liftiug the Frying Basket. (See page 72.) 




1. PIECE or ME VT LARDED. 2. LAKDIXG NEEDLES. 3. LARDOONS. 




MEASURING CUP AND SPOONS, 

1. Tin measuring cup holding one half-pint. 

2. Spoonful of salt, pepper or spices. 3. One half spoonful. 

4. Spoonful of flour, sugar, or butter. 5. Heaping spoonful. (See page 77.) 



METHODS OF COOKING EXPLAINED 77 

BONING 
Cutting the meat free from the bones, leaving the 
meat whole, is called boning. This is easily done with 
a sharp-pointed knife, and requires but little practice 
to accomplish successfully. Directions for boning ^owia. 
fowls are given on page 181. Boned fowls are usually 
made into galantine, but they are also good when 
stuffed and pressed into natural shape, or to imitate a 
duck or a rabbit and served hot. The butcher will Meats, 
remove the bones from joints of meat when requested. 
Boned meats make an agreeable change, and in the 
case of shoulder pieces make them suitable to serve 
as roasts (see pages 163 and 168). Chops with the 
bones removed, the tail ends wrapped around the meat 
and secured with wooden toothpicks or with small 
skewers until cooked, resemble in form filets mignons. 

MEASURING 

Exact measurements are an important factor in the 
success of cooking, therefore a defi^nite understanding 
of what a cupful or a spoonful means is requisite. A 
cupful means one half pint. A tin cup holding this cup 
amount is as necessary as a quart measure in every 
kitchen. They can be bought for ten cents apiece 
in any house-furnishing store. A spoonful of butter, 
lard, sugar, or flour means a rounding spoonful, as 
much rising above the spoon as is held in the bowl. 
A spoonful of salt or spices means only as much as 
the bowl holds, the top being smoothed off with 
a knife,* One half spoonful means the half of the 
contents of the bowl divided lengthwise. A heaping 
spoonful means as much as the spoon can be made 
to hold. A table giving comparative weights and 
measures is given on page 387. 

* Cooking soliools have recently adopted the rule of using even 
spoonfuls for every spoon measurement. Tliis ensures great exact- 
ness.— M. R. 



Measuring- 



78 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

STIRRING AND BEATING 

These two methods should not be confused. The 
object of stirring is to mix the materials. The spoon 
is held on the bottom of the dish, and the materials 
rubbed and pressed together as much as possible. 
It is not essential to always stir one way. The object 
of beating is to get air into the mixture to make it 
lighter, which is done by continuously lifting it up in 
the same way ; therefore a beaten mixture must not 
be stirred, or the imprisoned bubbles of air will be 
broken and the result of the beating lost. 

HOW TO STONE OLIVES 

With a sharp-pointed knife cut through the olive 
to the stone on the blossom end and pare off the meat, 
turning the olive around three times, keeping the 
knife at not too sharp an angle close to the stone. 
The meat will then be in one curled piece, which can 
be pressed into its original shape again. 

HOW TO CUT BACON 

Place the bacon on a board with the rind down. 
With a very sharp knife slice the bacon very thin 
down to the rind, but do not try to cut through it. 
When enough slices are cut, run the knife under, 
keeping it close to the rind, and the slices will be free. 

HOW TO EXTRACT ONION JUICE 

Cut an onion across and press it against a coarse 
grater, moving it a very little ; the juice will then run 
off the point of the grater. 

CARAMEL 

Caramel is used to color soup, gravies, etc., and 
serves also as a flavoring for desserts. It must be 



METHODS OF COOKINa EXPLAINED 79 

used with care for coloring, as it also sweetens. The 
flavor of caramel depends upon the degree to which 
the sugar is cooked before the water is added. It 
grows stronger as it becomes browner. 

Put one half cupful of granulated sugar and two 
tablepoonfuls of water into a granite- ware saucepan, 
stir until the sugar has melted, then let it cook with- 
out stirring until it has turned dark brown, but not 
black, then add one half cupful of hot water, and let 
it simmer until the sugar is dissolved and cooked to 
a thin syrup. 

TO MAKE ROUX 

Put one tablespoonful of butter into a saucepan. 
When it bubbles add one tablespoonful of flour and 
let them cook together for a few minutes, stirring all 
the time. If it is to be used as thickening for a 
white sauce or soup, do not let it color. If for brown 
soup or sauce, let it become brown. This amount is 
sufficient to thicken one cupful of milk or of stock, to 
make a sauce, or to thicken one pint or more of soup. 

Roux can be prepared and kept in jars ready for 
use. The proportion of equal quantities of butter 
and flour is usually taken, and is the rule, but in some 
cases double the flour is used. The flour cooked in 
this way gives a better result than when rubbed with 
the butter and stirred into the liquid. Cooking flour 
in hot fat seems to more surely burst the starch- 
grains, which removes the raw taste it is likely to 
have if cooked only in the boiling liquid. 

TO MARINATE 

Make a mixture in the proportion of three table- 
spoonfuls of vinegar to two of oil, one teaspoonful 
of salt, one quarter teaspoonful of pepper, one bay- 
leaf, one teaspoonful onion juice, and a sprig of 



80 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

parsley. Put it on a flat dish and lay any cooked 
or raw meat in the marinade for an hour or more be- 
fore using, turning the pieces often. Enough flavor 
is absorbed to much improve meats or fish to be used 
for salads, fish to be fried or boiled, and other cases 
given in receipts. The onion juice may be omitted if 
desired. 

SALPICON 

A salpicon is a mixture of cooked meats, which 
are cut into dice and combined with a sauce, mush- 
rooms, and truffles. Chicken, sweetbreads, and tongue 
mixed with mushrooms and truffles and moistened 
with a Bechamel sauce, is a combination often used. 
Salpicon is used in timbales, patties, and vol-au-vent. 
A mixture of fruits seasoned with sugar and wine 
is also called a salpicon. 

SEASONING AND FLAVORING. 



Coadi- 



The savoriness of a dish can often be much en- 
hanced by adding a few drops of Worcestershire 
ments. sauce, of mushroom or tomato catsup, of kitchen 
bouquet, by a few celery seeds, a bay-leaf, or a sprig 
of some dried herb. A little tarragon vinegar or a 
few capers will often much improve a salad. 
Almonds. A half dozen chopped almonds wiU greatly improve 
a bread pudding or any other simple dessert. A few 
Orange shreds of candied orange peel will give a delicious 
peel. flavor to puddings, sauces, and cake. 

A flavor of almonds, orange- or rose-water, sherry, 
•or maraschino, will be an agreeable change from va- 
nilla, and much more wholesome. 

Some cooks feel they are called upon to do fancy 
cooking if expected to use a bay-leaf or an almond ; 
others feel a receipt is extravagant or impracticable if 
it calls for anything in the line of flavors beyond salt 



METHODS OF COOKING EXPLAINED 81 

and pepper, lemon juice, vanilla, or raisins ; but there 
is no more extravagance in using different condiments 
than in using always the same, or those which from 
habit have established themselves in the favor of 
every housekeeper. None of the condiments are ex- 
pensive, and so little is used at a time that one bottle- 
ful lasts a long time. All the flavoring extracts are 
the same price, and the expense of a few almonds is 
only nominal, therefore it is a pity not to have a va- 
riety of such articles in the dresser, and give variety 
to dishes by at least the very simple means of chang- 
ing flavors. A cottage pudding with a little shredded 
orange peel, nuts, or cocoanut in it, or with a chocolate, 
wine, or meringue sauce, will be an agreeable change 
from the plain pudding with hard sauce. The same 
may be said of a corn-starch or a rice pudding, of a 
custard, and of many other things. 

CROtJTONS AND CROUSTADES 

Croutons or crusts are used in pea, bean, and all 
cream soups, for garnishing all kinds of stewed 
dishes, and for any dish with which toast would be 
acceptable. When cut large and filled they are called 
croustades. 

To make croiitons or croustades, cut bread into the 
desired shape and saute the pieces in hot butter, or 
dip them in melted butter and toast them carefully in 
the oven, turning frequently, so they will be evenly 
colored ; or they may be fried in smoking-hot fat. 
They should be crisp and dry and the color of amber. 

They are made of various sizes and shapes to suit 
the uses they are to serve. For soups the bread is cut 
into cubes one quarter inch square or into fancy shapes ; 
for garnishing meat dishes they are cut into diamonds, 
squares, triangles, and circles 5 for sippets to eat with 



82 



THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 



For Soapi. 



Pyramidal 
Pieces. 



boiled eggs, into strips one half inch wide and four 
inches long ; for poached eggs, into circles four inches 
in diameter. 

To make croiitonsfor soup, cut bread into slices one 
quarter of an inch thick, take off the crust, then cut 
it into strips one quarter of an inch wide and then 
across into even squares; or with vegetable cutters 
cut the sliced bread into fancy shapes. 
Triangles. For triangles, cut a slice of bread one half inch 
thick, then into strips one and a quarter inches wide, 
then into pieces two or three inches long, then diag- 
onally across. 

For pyramidal pieces, cut the bread into one inch 
squares and cut diagonally across the cube. When 
used for garnishing they may be moistened a little on 
one side with white of egg, and will then stick to the 
dish sufficiently to hold in place. A circle of pyra- 
midal pieces makes a good border to inclose minced 
meat, creamed fish, etc. 

Circles for poached eggs are cut with a biscuit cut- 
ter three inches in diameter, and may be toasted in 
the ordinary way if preferred. 

For boxes cut bread from which the crust has been 
removed into pieces two and a half inches thick, two 
and a half inches wide and three and a half inches 
long, then with a pointed knife cut a line around the 
inside one half of an inch from the edge and care- 
fully remove the crumb, leaving a box with sides and 
bottom one half inch in thickness. The boxes may be 
cut round if preferred, using two sizes of biscuit cut- 
ters. They are browned the same as other croutons, 
and are used for creamed spinach, creamed chicken, 
creamed fish, etc. 

A five cent square loaf of bread cuts to good ad- 
vantage. 



Circles. 



Boxes. 



«ZE^ 



CUTTING BACON. 



(SKI-: PA (..!■: 



rs.) 




CROfyiONS AND CROU8TADES. (SEE PAGE 81.) 

1. Sippets to use with boiled eggs. 2. Pyramidal Pieces for Borders. 

3, 4, 6. Bread Boxes. 5, Triangles for GarnisMng. 

7. Croustade for Poached Egg, Creamed Meats, etc. 

8. CrofttoDS for Soups. 




SOME USEFUL UTENSILS. 

1, 2. Small Pointed Knives for Vegetables, Boning, etc. 

3. Fluted Knife for cutting potato straws, or cutting vegetables Into fancy shapes. 

4. Tuller Knife. Useful for pastry and all work done on a board. 

5. Broad-bladed Knife or Spatula. 6. Saw. 

8, 9. Small Wooden Spoons. 7. Bread or Cake Knife. 



METHODS OF COOKING EXPLAINED 83 

CHARTREUSE 

Chartreuse is a liqueur made by the monks of 
the French monastery of Grande Chartreuse j but 
a class of dishes has also been given this name, 
where two or more foods are used one of which 
conceals the others. The story goes that on fast days 
the monks were thus able to indulge in forbidden 
food, and savory viands were hidden under cabbage 
or other severely plain articles. Chartreuses are made 
by lining a mold with rice, a vegetable, or a force- 
meat, and filling the center with a different food. Two 
vegetables are sometimes so combined, but more often 
game or meats are inclosed in rice and served with a 
good sauce. (See illustration facing page 190.) 

Fruits are made into chartreuses by inclosing them En 
in blanc-mange or puddings. When meats are molded ^®^evue. 
in aspic jelly they are called " En Bellevue " as in this 
case they are not concealed. 



Chapter II 



SOUPS 



^f 



\t(. 






^^U. 



Brown 
Stock, see 
page 88. 

White 
Stock, see 
page 99. 

Chicken 
Consommd 

or Broth, 
8eepage98. 



As nothing is easier than making good soups, they 
should be the first lesson in cooking. 

They are one of the most nutritious and inexpen- 
sive foods presented, and have a very wide range, ex- 
tending from the clear, transparent soups, through 
many degrees of consistency, color and material, to 
the heavy varieties which contain enough nourish- 
ment for a meal in themselves. The pot-au-feu as 
managed in the families of the French peasantry fur- 
nishes their chief source of diet. The pot on the fire 
receives every bit of nutritious material of eveiy 
kind; by slow cooking the juices and flavors are ex- 
tracted, and a savory combination is made which is 
both pleasant to the taste and satisfying to the hunger. 

The stock-pot should be on every range, and its 
contents ever ready to be drawn upon, not only for 
soup, but for sauces, and for flavoring the numerous 
dishes which can be enriched and improved by stock.* 

The many kinds of soups are variations of the few 
kinds of stock. 

The brown stock is made from beef, or from beef, 
veal, and fowl combined, and mixed vegetables. 

"White stock is made of veal and chicken together, 
or from veal alone, seasoned with onion, celery, white 
pepper, and salt, nothing being used which will give 
color. 

Chicken stock is made from the fowl alone, and sea- 
soned with celery, white pepper, and salt. 

Cream soups are made without stock, the basis be- 

* It is not meant to imply that the stock-pot should never be re- 
moved from the range and that articles should be added at any time. 
When the nutriment is extracted from one collection of materials, the 
stock should be strained oflf, the pot thoroughly cleaned, and a new 
stock started as soon as enough materials have again accumulated. 
— M.R. 

84 



SOUPS 85 

ing vegetables boiled and mashed to a puree by being Cream 
pressed through a colander or sieve, then mixed with pS^ios* 
cream or milk and seasoned to taste. 

The meats used for soups are : the lower ©r tough Soup 
part of the round, the shin, and the neck pieces of ®* ' 
beef, the knuckle of veal, and fowls. Mutton is not 
used except for mutton broth. A very little ham is 
sometimes used ; game also gives good flavor. 

Bones contain gelatine and cause the stock to jelly 
when cold. 

The soup vegetables are onions, carrots, turnips. Vegetables, 
and celery. They are cut into small pieces and are 
sometimes fried before being added to the soup pot. — 

Parsley wrapped around peppercorns, cloves, bay- Bouquet, 
leaves and other herbs, excepting sage, and tied, makes 
what is called a bouquet. In this shape the herbs are 
more easily removed. 

The proportions are one quart of cold water to a 
pound of meat, and to four quarts of water one each 
of the vegetables of medium size, named above, two 
sticks of celery, and a bouquet containing one root of 
parsley with leaves, one bay-leaf, twelve peppercorns, 
six cloves, — one sprig of thyme, and sweet marjoram if 

desired. Wie order 

ofprepar- 
In making good soup the first essential is a perfectly ing Soups. 

clean pot. I would emphasize the word clean. First 

have the pot thoroughly washed with soda and water 

to remove any grease, then scoured with sapolio to 

take off any bits of burned or hardened matter. 

The meat should be wiped clean with a wet cloth 

and carefully examined to see if there are any tainted 

spots, then cut into pieces about one and a half inches 

square (except in the case where a round of beef is 

used, which is to be removed when tender and served 

as bouilli). The meat and bones must be put into 

cold water in order to extract the juices, and never be 



Fropor- 



86^ THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

allowed to boil. Slow cooking best effects the object 
desired (see article on boiling, page 67). After the 
meat has stood fifteen minutes in cold water, put it on 
the fire, cover, and let it come slowly to the simmering- 
point, then place on the back of range to simmer for 
six hours or more. An hour before the cooking is 
completed, add the vegetables, cut into small pieces. 
When the soup is to be served clear, it is well to remove 
the scum as it rises, but this is not essential, for much 
of it comes off when the soup is strained, and perfectly- 
clear soup requires clarifying in any case. The French 
receipts all say remove the scum, but as it is a nutrient 
part of the meat, unless clearness is desired, it seems 
better to let it remain during the period of cooking. 

When the soup has simmered five or six hours, it 
should be strained into an earthen bowl and left to 
cool uncovered. Under no circumstances let it stand 
in the pot after it is cooked. The grease wiU rise to 
the top and form a cake which can be easily removed 
Bern vine "^^^^ ^^^^- -^^J ^^^^® particles which may stick to 
the Grease, the jelly may be wiped off with a cloth wet in hot 
water. Where a quantity of stock is made at one 
time, it is well to strain it into two or even three 
bowls ; the grease forms an air-tight cover and will 
help to keep it from souring. Stock should be made 
the day before it is to be used in order to let the grease 
rise and the floating particles settle, but where it is 
needed at once, the grease that cannot be skimmed off 
with a spoon can be absorbed by passing tissue paper 
over it carefully. 
Clarifying. Soup can be made perfectly clear by taking the jel- 
lied stock from which every particle of grease and sed- 
iment has been removed, and stirring into it, while 
cold, the sHghtly-beaten white and crushed shell of 
one egg to each quart of stock. It must be stirred 
constantly until the soup is hot enough to coagulate 



SOUPS 87 

the albumen, by which time it has thoroughly mixed 
with and imprisoned the fine particles which cloud the 
liquid. Let it boil violently for five minutes, then 
let it stand five minutes longer on the side of the range 
to settle. Strain through a fine cloth laid on a seive. 
Let it drain through without pressing. In some cases 
a small bit of lemon rind used with the egg in clear- 
ing gives a pleasant fiavor to the soup. After clearing 
it will ordinarily need to be heated again before serv- 
ing. In high-class cooking, soups are cleared with 
chopped raw meat or chicken, which adds to, instead 
of detracting from the richness of the soup. The al- 
bumen of egg does not materially affect the quality 
of the soup, and is recommended for general practice.* 

If a deeper color is wanted, it may be obtained by Coloring, 
adding a very little caramel (see page 78) or a few 
drops of a preparation called "Kitchen Bouquet." 
Artificial coloring, however, is not so good as that 
obtained by browning the vegetables and part of the 
meat before adding them to the soup pot. (See 
brown stock, page 88.) 

The meat soups are called broths, bouillon, or con- Fames. 
somm6, according to their richness. 

The purees are thick soups made with or without 
stock, the basis being mashed vegetables or meat 
pounded to a paste. 

Stock made of meat alone will keep better than Meat 
where vegetables are used. In warm weather it is well ^^^^' 
to have it so prepared. 

COMMON STOCK (POT-AU-FEU) 

For this stock pieces of fresh or cooked meat are 
used, also all odds and ends, chicken bones, gravies, 

* It will be difficult if not impossible to make a-perfectly clear and 
brilliant soup from stock where bones have been used, If the stock has 
been subjected to boiling heat. Boiling dissolves the lime in the bones, 
and this gives a cloudiness which clarifying will not entirely remove. 
— M. B. 



88 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

cooked or raw vegetables, etc. Water in whicli fish 
or vegetables (excepting cabbage or potatoes) have 
been boiled may or may not be used. They are put 
together cold and are simmered for five or six hours, 
then strained through a colander into an earthen 
bowl and left to cool uncovered. Clear soup should 
not be attempted with this stock, but it is good to 
combine with vegetables for vegetable soup, or with 
other mixtures like rice, bits of meat, chicken, gumbo, 
etc., for soup and to use for sauces and seasoning. 

BEEF OR BROWN STOCK 

8 lbs. of shin of beef. 1 onion. 

8 quarts of cold water. 1 stick of celery. 

1 medium-sized carrot. 12 peppercorns. 

1 medium-sized turnip. 6 cloves. 

1 parsley root and leaves. 1 tablespoonful of salt. 
Rub with a wet cloth the outside of the shin of beef, 
which has been well broken by the butcher. Take the 
meat from the bones and cut it into small pieces. Put 
aside a half pound of the meat. Place the rest of the 
meat and the bones in a perfectly clean pot with the 
cold water, and let it stand fifteen to twenty minutes, 
or until the water is red; then place them on the 
fire and let them come slowly to the simmering point. 
MeanwhOe, place in a saute-pan some of the marrow 
from the bones, or a tablespoonful of drippings. When 
the fat is hot put in the half pound of reserved meat 
and cook it until it is well browned. When the water 
in the pot has begun to simmer, put in the browned 
meat and rinse the saute-pan with a few spoonfuls of 
water so none of the value of the browned meat will be 
lost. This will give good color and also flavor to the 
soup. Place the pot where the water will simmer only, 
and leave it to cook for six hours, or until the meat is 
cooked to shreds and its nutriment fully extracted. 



SOUPS 89 

Add the vegetables, which have been well washed, 
scraped, and cut into pieces, one hour before the 
cooking is completed, and add the salt just before 
removing the stock from the fire. 

If a clear soup is not desired, the care to keep it below 
the boiling point is not essential. (See note, page 87.) 

When the stock is done strain it through a close 
cloth or a fine sieve into an earthen bowl, and let it 
cool without covering. 

When ready to serve, remove the grease, clear it if 
desired for transparent soup, add more pepper and 
salt to taste. 



FOR IVIACARONI, NOODLE, VERMICELLI, VEGETABLE OR 

PRINTANI^RE, JULIENNE, TAPIOCA, AND 

CROUTE-AU-POT SOUPS, 

Take as much of the beef stock as will be needed, 
allowing one half pint for each person, remove all the 
grease, heat it, and season to taste. Just before serv- 
ing add any of the above articles, which must have 
been boiled separately. The soup will then have the 
name of the ingredient used. 

Julienne does not differ from the vegetable soup Julienne, 
except in the form given the vegetables. For juli- 
enne, the outside or deep yellow of the carrot, turnip, 
and celery are cut, with a knife which comes for the 
purpose, into thin, thread-like pieces about two inches 
long. The shredded vegetables must be boiled before 
being added to the soup, and care used to prevent 
/ their breaking or becoming too soft to hold their form, 
or they may be fried in butter until tender. Green 
peas, asparagus tips, and flowerets of cauliflower may 
also be added. (See illustration facing page 92.) 

Any vegetables may be used for vegetable soup, but 
judgment should be shown in the combination. They prfntan- 
may be made ornamental by being cut into fancy iAre. 



90 



THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 



Tapioca. 



Crofite aa 
Pot. 



Oarnishes 
for Soaps. 



shapes with cutters, or into balls with a small potato 
scoop, or they may be cut into dice. 

Pearl tapioca boiled to clearness makes a very pretty 
thickening to clear soup. 

Small pieces of toast or thin shavings of stale bread 
are added to the tureen just before serving to make 
the croMe-au-pot The soup should be served before 
the bread dissolves or gets very soft. 

For julienne, tapioca, and croute-au-pot, the soup 
should be perfectly clear and a deep amber color. 

Other garnishes which may be added to soups are : 
Force-meat balls (see page 92) 5 yolks of hard-boiled 
eggs J egg balls (see page 92) j royal custard (see 
page 92) ; fried croMons (see page 81) ; noodles (see 
page 93) ; dumplings (see page 170) ; thin cross-cuts 
of celery ; thin slices of lemon, one for each plate ; 
grated Parmesan cheese (passed) ; macaroni cut into 
pieces one eighth of an inch thick, making rings ; 
sweet potato baUs (see page 94) ; marrow balls (see 
page 94) j green pea timbale (see page 94) 5 harlequin 
slices (see page 94) j with consomm6, a poached egg 
for each portion. 



THICKENING FOR SOUPS 

Roux (see page 79) makes the best thickening for 
soups which are not clear, using brown or white roux 
according to the color of the soup. Thin the roux 
with a httle soup, so it will be smooth before adding 
it to the soup kettle. Roux added to pea, bean, and 
potato soups prevents their separating. 

A thickening of eggs is made as follows : Beat two 
or three yolks and dilute them with a half a cupful of 
cream or milk or cold soup. Stir in a few spoonfuls 
of the hot soup to warm it. Remove the soup from 
the fire and stir in slowly the egg mixture, return it 



SOUPS 91 

to the fire to cook tlie egg, but do not let it boil, or it 
may curdle. 

Clear soups are sometimes thickened by using one 
teaspoonf ul of arrowroot to a quart of soup. Mix the 
aiTowroot with a little of the cold soup, turn it into 
the hot soup, and cook until it becomes clear. A clear 
soup so thickened may be flavored with sherry. 



GARNISHES FOR SOUPS 
EOYALE 

A CUSTARD TO SERVE WITH CONSOMMlfi 

2 yolks. i teaspoonful of salt. 

1 entire egg. Dash of cayenne. 

i cupful of beef stock. 
Beat the eggs well, but not to a froth. Add one third of a tea- 
spoonful of salt and one half cupful of clear beef stock. Pour 
the mixture into a small pan or flat dish, so it will be about one 
half inch deep. Set the pan into another one containing hot 
water and place them in a very moderate oven, so that the cus- 
tard will set without bubbles and without browning on top. 
Let the custard become perfectly cold. Without removing it 
from the pan, cut it into cubes one half inch square, or into 
fancy forms, with vegetable cutters. 

These pieces should be placed carefully in the consomm6 after 
it is in the tureen, allowing three or four pieces to each portion 
of soup. 

FOBGE-MEAT BALLS 

Chop any cooked meat very fine, season highly with salt, 
pepper, thyme, onion juice, lemon juice, and herbs if desired ; 
add enough yolk of egg to moisten and bind the meat. Mold 
into balls one half inch in diameter, roll the balls in flour, and 
poach them in boiling water, or they may be fried in butter. 

Force-meat balls may also be made of raw meat prepared as 
for timbale paste (see page 297). 

EGG BALLS 

Rub to a paste, with a wooden spoon, the yolks of hard-boiled 
eggs J season with salt, pepper, and butter j add enough raw 

92 




PKINTANlilEE AND JULIENNE SOUP VEGETABLES. (SEE PAGE 89.) 

1, 2, 3. Cutters used for cutting vegetaljles for Printani^re Soup. 

4. Vegetables prepared for Printani^re Soup. 

5. Knife for cutting vegetables into Julienne. 6. Julienne. 




NOODLES. (SEE^PAGE 93.) 

1. Sheet of Noodle Paste. 2. Noodles for Soup. 

3. Noodles to serve as vegetable. 4. Noodle Balls. 

5. Sheet of Noodle Paste Eolled. 6. Paste cut from Roll. 

7. Noodle Paste cut for BaUs before being fried. 




RADISHES CUT TO IMITATE ROSES. 



SOUPS 93 

yolk to bind the paste ; form it into balls one half the size of a 
natural yolkj roll them in white of egg and then in flour, 
and poach the balls in boiling water for a few minutes. 

Three yolks will make five balls. One ball is enough to allow 
to each portion of soup. 

NOODLES 

Several dishes may be made from noodles. 

To three eggs (slightly beaten) mixed with two tablespoonfuls 
of water and a little salt, add enough flour to make a stiff 
dough ; work it well for fifteen or twenty minutes, adding flour 
when necessary. When it is smooth and elastic, cut off a small 
piece at a time and roll it as thin as a wafer. It can be rolled 
very thin by placing a cloth under it. Sprinkle the thin sheet 
with flour, and roll it into a rather tight roll. With a sharp 
knife cut it, from the end, — into threads, if for soup j if to use 
as a vegetable, into ribbons one quarter inch wide. Let them 
dry an hour or more. They will keep the same as macaroni. 

NOODLES SEEVED AS A VEGETABLE 

Throw a few noodles at a time into boiling, salted water; 
boil them until they are done, separating them carefully with a 
fork to prevent their matting together. Skim them out when 
done, and keep them on a warm dish on the hot shelf until 
enough are cooked. Season with butter. Put them in the dish 
in which they are to be served, and sprinkle over them bread 
crumbs browned in hot butter to a golden color. This dish 
may be served with fish, with meat, or as a course by itself. 
Noodles may also be cooked like macaroni, with cheese. 

NOODLE BALLS 

Take some of the noodle paste made as directed above. RoU 
it as thin as possible, then place it on a floured napkin and roU 
until it is as thin as paper ; fold it double, and cut it into circles 
one quarter inch in diameter, using a small vegetable cutter or 
pastry bag tube. Fry them in smoking hot fat, tossing them in 



94 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

the frying basket so that they will color evenly. They will pnff 
into balls and color in one minnte. Drain and place them on 
paper on the hot shelf. Sprinkle them on the soup after it is in 
the tureen, or better pass them, as they soften very quickly. 

MAEEOW BALLS 

Melt a tablespoonf ul of marrow and strain it through a cloth, 
or fine sieve, into a bowl ; beat it till creamy, then add an egg 
and beat again thoroughly. Season with pepper, salt, and a 
little nutmeg. Add to this mixture as much soft bread as it will 
moisten. Roll it into small balls and poach in boiling water. 
Place them in the soup just before serving. 

SWEET POTATO BALLS 

Mash some cooked sweet potatoes, season with butter, salt, 
pepper, and nutmeg, and a little grated cheese. Moisten with 
beaten egg ; roll into small balls and poach in boiling water. 
Put the balls into the soup the last thing before serving. 

GEEEN PEA TIMBALE FOE SOUP 

Mix one half cupful of mashed green peas with one table- 
spoonful of soup stock and three whites of eggs ; season with 
salt, pepper, and a little nutmeg. Beat well together and place 
in a small mold or flat tin. Set the mold into hot water and 
place in slow oven until the mixture is set. When it is firm, 
unmold, cut into small cubes, and put them in the soup just be- 
fore serving. 

HAELEaUIN SLICES 

Cut into small squares some cooked carrots, turnips, and string 
beans. AiTange them in timbale cups, mixing the vegetables 
together; fill the cups up with royale mixture. (See above.) 
Set them into hot water and cook in slow oven until the custard 
is firm. Unmold when cold, and cut with a sharp knife into 
slices one eighth of an inch thick. Place these in the soup just 
before serving. 



BROTHS 

CHICKEN BROTH 

1 fowl. J cupful of rice. 

4 quarts of cold water. Salt and pepper. 

Clean the fowl carefully ; wash it with a wet cloth ; cut it into 
pieces and remove the fat. Place the joints in a saucepan with 
a quart of water to each pound of fowl. Let it simmer until 
the meat is tender ; then remove the breast j after four hours 
take it off and strain it through a sieve. Let the soup stand 
until the grease rises j then carefully remove it, and put the 
soup again in the saucepan 5 add the breast of the chicken, 
cut into dice, and the half cupful of rice ; salt and pepper to 
taste, and cook until the rice is tender. 

CLAM BROTH 

12 large hard-shelled clams for 1 pint of broth. 

Boil the clams and juice for twenty minutes 5 strain and let 
it stand to settle ; strain it again carefully into a saucepan, and 
let it boil up once ; season with butter and pepper — no salt — and 
serve in cups with whipped cream on top. 

To open the clams and obtain the juice, place the clams, after 
they have been carefully washed with a brush and clear water, 
in a saucepan ; add two tablespoonfuls of hot water j cover and 
let them steam until the shells open ; then strain off the liquor. 

MUTTON BROTH 

The neck or shoulder-pieces may be used for broth. The 

meat should be cut into pieces and the fat removed. To each 

95 



96 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

pound of meat add one quart of cold water ; simmer for four or 
five hours ; strain it into an earthen bowl ; when ready to serve, 
remove the grease, and add to each quart of stock one stick of 
celery, two tablespoonfuls of rice, salt and pepper to taste, and 
boil until the rice is soft. 

The water in which a leg of mutton has been boiled will 
make a good mutton soup, but is not rich enough for a broth 
to be served to an invalid. 

Broth Made Quickly for Invalids. Broth may be made quickly 
by chopping lean meat to a fine mince. To a pound of meat 
add one pint of cold water ; let soak for fifteen minutes j then 
let slowly boil for half an hour ; season and strain. 



SOUPS 
BOUILLON 

(3 PINTS. TIME, 5 hours) 

3 lbs. of beef cut from under 2 sticks of celery. 

side of round and 1 bay-leaf. 

chopped to a mince. 2 cloves. 

3 quarts of cold water. 6 peppercorns. 

1 onion. . 1 teaspoonful of salt ad- 

^ carrot. ded just before taking 

1 sprig of parsley. the soup off the fire. 

Take three pounds of beef cut from the lower part of round, 
remove all the fat, and chop the meat to a fine mince. Place 
the chopped meat in a saucepan with three quarts of cold water, 
and let it stand one hour j then put it on the fire, cover, and let 
it come slowly to the boiling-point, taking off any scum that 
rises. Then place it where it wiU only simmer. After it has 
simmered for four hours add the vegetables cut into dice, and 
the spices, and let it simmer one hour longer. Strain into an 
earthen bowl and let it cool without covering. This stock will 
not jeUy, as no bones are boiled with it. 

When ready to use remove grease, season, if necessary, with 
pepper and salt, and put into saucepan with three fourths of a 
pound of lean meat chopped fine, and the white of one egg. Stir 
until it boils j let it boil for fifteen minutes. Lay a fine cloth on 
a sieve and strain through it the bouillon without pressing. It 
should be perfectly clear and of the color of amber. It can be 

7 97 



08 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

served in cups. A little sherry may be added, if liked, wlieii 
served at afternoon teas. 

CONSOMME'' 

4 lbs. lower part round of beef. 2 sprigs of parsley. 
4 lbs. knuckle of veal. 15 peppercorns. 

2 tablespoonf uls of butter. 3 cloves. 

6 quarts of cold water. 1 inch square of cinnamon. 

1 large onion. A little thyme. 

i carrot. A little marjoram. 

3 stalks of celery. A little summer savory. 
1 tablespoonf ul of salt. 2 bay-leaves. 

Cut the beef into pieces one inch square. Remove the veal from 
the bone, and cut it also into small pieces. Put one tablespoon- 
f ul of butter into a very clean soup-pot with the pieces of meat, 
and stir over a hot fire until the meat is browned, care being 
taken that it does not burn ; then add one quart of water, and 
let it cook untQ a glaze has formed on the bottom of the kettle, 
which will take about one hour. Then add five quarts of cold 
water and let it come slowly to the boiling-point. Set the soup- 
pot back on the fire and let the soup simmer for six hours. Re- 
move the scum from time to time as it rises. One hour before 
the time for removing the soup add to it the vegetables, which 
have been cut fine and browned in one tablespoonful of butter. 
Add also the herbs and spices, and one tablespoonful of salt. 
When it has simmered six hours, strain it through a fine cloth, 
laid on a sieve, into an earthen bowl, and let it cool without 
covering. A fowl added to this receipt will give the soup a more 
delicate flavor. If used it should be put in the pot at the time 
the five quarts of water are added. The veal-bone may also go 
in at this time ; but the soup will not be so clear if the bone is 
used. If a chicken is used it may be removed from the stock 
when tender and used for other purposes. 

* This receipt gives a perfectly clear brilliant soup after it is clarified. If no bones 
are used it can be boiled slowly without injury instead of being simmered. The stock 
will not always jelly.— M. B. 



SOUPS 99 

OX-TAIL SOUP 

2 ox-tails. 1 stick of celery. 

1 onion. 1 root of parsley. 

1 tablespoonful of drip- 3 cloves. 

pings or of salt pork. 6 peppercorns. 

4 quarts of cold water. 1 tablespoonful of salt. 

Cut the ox- tails into pieces, separating them at the joints. 
Saute the onion and the ox-tails in the drippings to a delicate 
brown. Put the meat in the soup-pot with four quarts of cold 
water. Let it come to the boiling-point ; add the vegetables and 
spices, and simmer for four hours, then add the salt. Strain, 
take off the grease. Select some of the pieces of ox-tail, one 
piece for each portion, and place them in the tureen with the 
soup. Ox-tails are gelatinous and make a smooth soup. 

WHITE STOCK 

1 knuckle of veal. 1 onion. 

1 fowl. 2 stalks of celery. 

Bouquet of herbs. 1 small turnip cut into dice. 

1 small carrot cut into dice. 

Cut the meat from the bone. Wash the skin of the fowl (see 
page 180). Allow one quart of cold water to each pound of meat 
and bone. Place all in a kettle. Cover and let simmer four or 
five hours. Strain into an earthen bowl, and let cool uncovered. 

White stock may be made of veal alone. If a fowl is used, 
the breast and second joints may be removed when tender, and 
used for other dishes (croquettes, souffl6, imperiale, etc.). A 
part of the veal may also be removed, and used for veal loaf 
(see page 171). 

WHITE SOUP 

1 pint of white stock. Salt and pepper to taste. 

1 pint of milk or cream. Chicken, veal, or celery (cut 

1 tablespoonful of butter. into small dice), or rice. 

1 tablespoonful of flour. 



100 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

Put one pint of milk or cream into a double boiler ; add to it 
one pint of white stock, and a white roux made of one table- 
spoonful of butter and one tablespoonful of flour cooked to- 
gether, but not browned. Dilute the roux to smoothness with a 
little of the cold milk before adding it to the soup. Let it come 
to the boiling-point. Season to taste, and strain into the tureen j 
then add one tablespoonful or more of chicken breast, veal, 
or celery (cut into small dice), or rice. If desired, two or more of 
these may be used, and the yolk of a hard-boiled egg, pressed 
through a sieve, sprinkled over the top. This quantity gives 
but one quart of soup ; enough to serve to four people. 

CHICKEN CONSOMME, OR STOCK 

Place a fowl, cut into pieces, in four quarts of cold water; 
let come slowly to the boiling-point ; then draw it to the side 
of range and simmer for three hours. At the end of this time 
add one slice of onion, two sticks of celery, one tablespoonful 
of salt, one saltspoonf ul of pepper, and simmer one or two hours 
longer J strain into earthen bowl, and let cool without covering. 

This stock may be cleared the same as beef stock, and served 
in cups for luncheon. It may also be mixed with gelatine, 
cleared, and used for aspic, in Russian salads, jellied chicken, 
etc. (see page 323). 

The meat from the breast and second joints may be removed 
from the stock-pot, when tender, and reserved for timbales, cro- 
quettes, patties, etc. 

If this soup is not rich enough, it can be reduced by opening 
the lid of the pot, after it has simmered the required time, and 
allowed to boil uncovered until as rich as desired. 

PLAIN CHICKEN SOUP 

1 fowl. 1 slice of onion. 

4 quarts of water. 2 sticks of celery. - 
1 cupful of rice. 1 sprig of parsley. 

Place the fowl, cut into pieces, in a saucepan with four quarts 
of cold water j when it comes to the boiling-point, draw it aside 



SOUPS 101 

and let it simmer for three hours j then add one thick slice of 
onion, two sticks of celery, one sprig of parsley, and one cupful of 
rice, and simmer for another hour j strain and let the soup stand 
UDtil the grease can be taken off the top. Remove the meat, bones, 
and vegetables from the strainer, and press the rice through 
the sieve ; stir this into the soup ; season with salt and pepper, 
and heat again before serving; a little cream may also be 
added. This soup is also good thickened with a little roux or 
\jith corn-starch. For the latter, take two tablespoonfuls of the 
cold stock ; stir into it one tablespoonf ul of corn-starch 5 then 
stir it into the soup, and let cook for ten minutes to take away 
the raw taste of the starch, and to make it clear. Pieces of the 
breast cut into dice may also be added. 



VEGETABLE SOUP 

To one quart of common stock add one pint of parboiled 
mixed vegetables cut into small dice. Simmer until the vege- 
tables are tender but not pasty. Season with salt, pepper, and 
one teaspoonful of sugar. 

Serve without straining. 



TOMATO PUREE 

Put into a granite-ware saucepan a quart of canned or 
of fresh tomatoes; add a pint of water or of stock; — the soup 
will be better if stock is used ; — add also one bay-leaf, a sprig 
of parsley, a stick of celery, six peppercorns, and a teaspoon- 
ful of sugar; simmer until the tomato is thoroughly soft. 
In another saucepan put a tablespoonf ul of butter ; when it is 
hot add a sliced onion, and fry, but not brown it ; then add a 
tablespoonful of flour, and cook, but not brown the flour. To 
this roux add enough of the tomato to dilute it, and then mix 
it well with the rest of the tomato, and season with salt. Pass 
the whole through a fine sieve or strainer. Heat it again before 
serving, and sprinkle over the top small croiitons. 



102 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

SPLIT-PEA OR BEAN SOUP 

1 cupful of split peas, or 2 quarts of water. 

1 cupful of dried beans. i teaspoonful of sugar. 

1 tablespoonful of butter. 1 tablespoonful of flour. 
Salt and pepper to taste. 

Let the peas or beans soak over night in three quarts of cold 
water. Put the soaked peas or beans into a saucepan with two 
quarts of water and a ham-bone, if you have it, otherwise it may 
be omitted. Let simmer for four or five hours, or until the peas 
or beans are perfectly soft. (Add more water from time to 
time, if necessary.) Then pass them through a sieve ; add to 
the pulp enough stock, or milk, or water to make a soup of the 
consistency of cream. Put it again into a saucepan on the fire; 
season, and add a roux made of one tablespoonful of butter and 
one tablespoonful of flour cooked together j dilute the roux to 
smoothness with a little of the soup before adding it to the pot. 

The roux will hold the particles of peas or beans in suspen- 
sion. Without it they are liable to precipitate. 

An onion may be boiled with the peas or beans if desired. 

Serve croutons on the soup, or pass them. 

BLACK-BEAN SOUP 

2 cupfuls of black beans. Egg balls. 

Brown stock. Thin slices of lemon. 

Brown roux. Force-meat balls. 

Bouquet of herbs, made of a White of hard-boiled egg, 

sprig of parsley, a sprig of J cupful of sherry or red 

thyme, one clove. wine. 

4 peppercorns, 1 onion. Salt and pepper to taste. 

Soak two cupfuls of black beans over night. Put the soaked 
beans into a saucepan with a bouquet of herbs, and cover them 
with cold water. Let them boil slowly until tender, which will 
take several hours, adding more water if necessary. When the 
beans are very soft remove the bouquet, drain off the water, and 



SOUPS 103 

pass the beans through a puree sieve. Add to the pulp enough 
brown stock to make a soup of the consistency of thin cream. 
Place it again on the fire and add a brown roux made of one 
tablespoonful of butter and one tablespoonful of flour, cooked 
together until brown j dilute it to smoothness before adding 
and cook it with the soup for five minutes. This will prevent 
the soup from separating. Season with salt and pepper. Strain 
it through a sieve into the tureen; then add thin slices of 
lemon, egg balls, and force-meat balls, allowing one of each to 
each portion of soup; add also the white of one hard-boiled 
egg cut into small dice, and one quarter of a cupful of sherry 
or red wine. 
This resembles mock-turtle soup. 



GALF'S-HEAD OB MOCK-TURTLE SOUP 

Make a brown roux by putting in a saucepan one tablespoon- 
ful of butter, let it brown, add two tablespoonfuls of flour, and 
let that brown ; then add, slowly at first, one and a half or two 
quarts of water in which a calf s head has been boiled, white 
wine instead of vinegar being used in the boiling (see boiled 
calf^s head, page 175). Add three or four strained tomatoes and 
simmer for one half hour. Skim off any fat and season with 
salt and pepper. Add some pieces of boiled calf s head cut in 
pieces one half inch square, a few egg balls, two or three table- 
spoonfuls of sherry, and a few very thin slices of lemon. 



FISH STOCK 

Put into the soup-pot a tablespoonful of butter or of drip- 
pings. Add a tablespoonful each of chopped onion, carrot, and 
turnip. Fry them without browning, then add fish-bones, head, 
and trimmings, a stalk of celery, sprigs of parsley and of thyme, 
a bay-leaf, a tomato or a slice of lemon. Cover with water, and 
simmer them for an hour or more. Season with salt and pep- 
per. Strain. 



104 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

When this stock is used for soup, make a roux of one table- 
spoonful each of butter and flour, add a cupful of milk or 
cream, and add this amount to each pint of the fish stock. 

OYSTER SOUP 

Scald a quart, or twenty-five, oysters in their own liquor. As 
soon as they are plump, or the giUs curl, remove them (oysters 
harden if boiled). Add to the liquor a cupful of water. Make 
a roux of one tablespoonf ul each of butter and flour, dilute it 
with the liquor, and when it is smooth add a cupful of scalded 
milk or cream. Season with, pepper, salt, if necessary, and a 
dash of cayenne or paprica ; then add the oysters, and as soon 
as they are heated serve at once. In oyster houses finely 
shredded cabbage with a French dressing is served with oyster 
soup, and is a good accompaniment when served for luncheon. 
Oysters should be carefully examined, and the liquor passed 
through a fine sieve before being cooked, in order to remove 
any pieces of shell there may be in them. 

CLAM SOUP 

Remove the clams from the shells as soon as they have opened 
(see clam broth, page 100). Put them in a warm place, until the 
juice is prepared. Add a cupful of hot milk to a quart of juice, 
and thicken it with a roux made of one tablespoonful of butter 
and one tablespoonful of flour; then add the clams, chopped 
fine, season, and bring the soup again to the boiling-point and 
serve. Two spoonfuls of whipped cream served on each plate- 
ful of soup is an improvement to the dish. 



CREAM SOUPS 

ONION SOTJP 

(a very simple soup quickly made) 

Slice two or three large onions j fry them in a tablespoonful 
of butter or drippings until they are soft and red, then add 
three tablespoonfuls of flour, and stir until it is a little cooked. 
To this add slowly a pint of boiling water, stirring all the time, 
so it will be smooth. 

Boil and mash three good-sized potatoes. Add to them slowly 
a quart of scalded milk, stirring well so it will be smooth. Add 
the potato and milk mixture to the onion mixture. Season with 
salt and pepper. Let it get very hot, and pass it through a 
strainer into the tureen. Sprinkle over the top a little parsley 
chopped very fine, and a few croutons. The soup will be better 
if stock is used instead of water to dilute the onion mixture. 

POTATO SOUP 

Boil and mash three or four potatoes. 

Make a roux of one tablespoonful of butter, one half table- 
spoonful of flour, and one teaspoonful of chopped onion, letting 
the onion cook in the butter a few minutes before adding the 
flour. When the roux is cooked add to it a pint of milk, making 
a thin, white sauce. Add this to the mashed potato and pass 
the whole through a strainer. Return it to the fire for a few 
minutes to heat and blend it. Season it with salt and pepper. 

Sprinkle on the soup, when it is in the tureen, a teaspoonful 
of chopped parsley and a few croutons. 

105 



106 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

If the soup is too thick, add a little more milk or a little hot 
water. The roux prevents the milk and potato from separating, 
and also gives it smoothness. The sonp can be made richer by 
using more milk, and stirring into it, just before serving, the 
beaten yolks of two eggs. This soup may also be made of 
sweet potatoes. 

TOMATO BISaUE 

i can of tomatoes. 1 teaspoonful of salt. 

1 quart of milk. J saltspoonful of pepper. 

2 tablespoonfuls of butter. 1 saltspoonful of soda. 
1 tablespoonful of corn-starch. Dash of cayenne. 

Stew the tomatoes until very soft ; then pass them through a 
fine sieve or strainer. Put the strained tomatoes into a granite- 
ware saucepan, and add one saltspoonful of soda ; when it has 
ceased foaming add the butter, a small piece at a time ; if put 
in all at once it will show an oily line ; add salt, pepper, and 
cayenne. 

Put the milk into a double boiler, and stir into it a table- 
spoonful of corn-starch which has been mixed with a little of the 
cold milk, to make it smooth; let it scald for ten minutes, or 
long enough to cook the corn-starch j then pour the milk into 
the tomatoes, beat well together, and serve at once. 

It is better not to add the milk to the tomatoes until just 
ready to serve, for fear of curdling. 

CREAM OF ASPARAGUS; CREAM OF GREEN PEAS; CREAM 

OF STRING BEANS; CREAM OF SPINACH; CREAM 

OF CORN; CREAM OF CELERY 

These soups are very delicate, and are much esteemed. They 
are all made in the same way. The vegetable is boiled until 
soft, and is then pressed through a sieve. A pint of the vegetable 
pulp is diluted with a quart of stock (the stock may be veal, beef, 
or chicken broth). It is thickened with a roux made of one table- 
spoonful of butter and two tablespoonfuls of flour, seasoned with 



CREAM SOUPS 107 

pepper and salt, and is then strained again, so it will be perfectly- 
smooth. It is replaced on the fire, a cupful or a half cupful of 
cream added, and the whole beaten with an egg- whip to make it 
light, and is served at once very hot. The French thicken cream 
soups with egg-yolks. In this case two yolks would be used for 
the above quantity. The beaten yolks are diluted with the cream, 
and cooked only just long enough to set the egg. It would cur- 
dle if allowed to boil. Butter is needed for seasoning, and 
where eggs are used it should be added in small bits before the 
cream and eggs. Where roux is used for thickening, there is 
enough butter in the roux. 



CREAM OF CLAMS 

25 large clams. Small slice of onion. 

2 tablespoonfuls of butter. Dash of nutmeg. 

2 tablespoonfuls of flour. Salt and pepper. 

IJ pints of milk. J pint of cream. 

Wash the clam shells thoroughly with a brush and clear 
water. 

Put them into a pot on the fire with one half cup of boiling 
water J cover and let steam until the shells open; take out 
the clams and let the liquor settle; then strain it carefully, 
and set aside ; remove the clams from the shells ; chop them, 
pound them in a mortar, and press as much of them as possible 
through a puree sieve. Put the milk into a double boiler with the 
slice of onion. Put the butter into a frying-pan, and when it bub- 
bles, stir into it the flour, and let it cook a few minutes, but not 
brown ; add enough of the milk slowly to make the roux liquid ; 
then add it to the milk in the double boiler, first having re- 
moved the slice of onion ; add a dash of nutmeg and of pepper, 
then the cream ; when ready to serve, stir in the clam pulp and 
one pint of the clam liquor ; taste to see if salt will be needed. 
After the clams are added to the milk, leave it on the fire only 
long enough to get well heated ; if boiled, the milk will curdle. 



108 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

Beat a moment with an egg- whisk to make foamy. If the mix- 
ture is too thick, it may be diluted with milk or cream. 

This is good for luncheon, served in small cups, the top cov- 
ered with a spoonful of whipped cream. 

CREAM OF OYSTERS 

Scald a quart of oysters in their own liquor. Remove the 
oysters ; chop and pound them in a mortar, then press as much 
of them as possible through a puree sieve. 

Make a roux of one tablespoonful of butter and a heaping 
tablespoonful of flour. Dilute it with the oyster juice. Add 
the oyster pulp ; season it with pepper, salt, and paprica, and 
keep it hot until ready to serve. Just before serving add a half 
pint of whipped cream, and beat it well into the soup.^ 

SOUP A LA REINE 

Put a chicken into three quarts of water. Simmer it slowly 
for two hours, or until the chicken is very tender. A half hour 
before removing it add a half pound of rice and a bouquet 
containing one root of parsley, one sprig of thyme, a thin 
slice of onion, and a stick of celery. Boil it until the rice is 
soft, then strain through a colander. Let the broth cool and 
remove the grease. Remove the white meat from the bones of 
the chicken, put it with the rice in a mortar, and pound both to 
a pulp. Pass the pulp through a puree sieve, moistening it 
with a little stock to make it pass through easier. "When ready 
to serve, add the puree to the stock, season with salt and pep- 
per, and heat it thoroughly without boiling. Just before send- 
ing it to the table add a half pint of hot cream. 

If desired the soup can be thickened with a little roux, or 
with fifteen blanched almonds chopped and pounded to a paste, 
using a little cream to prevent the almonds from oiling. 

1 Any soup made of milk will be greatly improved by adding a cupful of 
hot cream just before serving. 
A little fish stock improves clam or oyster cream soup. 



CREAM SOUPS 109 

BISaUE OF LOBSTER 

Put into a mortar equal parts of boiled lobster meat and 
boiled rice j pound them to a pulp ; then add enough broth to 
dilute it J season with salt and paprica. Pass it through a 
sieve. Heat it without boiling, and then add enough Bechamel 
sauce to make it the consistency of cream soup ; lastly, add to 
each quart of soup a quarter of a pound of lobster butter, add- 
ing a little at a time, and stirring until the butter is melted. In- 
stead of the lobster butter, plain butter may be used, and the 
coral of the lobster, dried and pounded to a powder, stirred in 
at the same time. Serve croutons with the bisque. 

LOBSTER BUTTER 

After the meat is removed from the lobster, take all the rest 
(except the lady, woolly gills and intestine), including the shell, 
and put it into a mortar with twice its weight of butter. Pound 
it to a pulp ; then place it in a. saucepan on the fire, and cook 
until the butter is melted. Strain it through a cloth. Beat the 
strained butter until it is cold. If not a deep enough color, add 
a very little cochineal. 



CHOWDERS 



POTATO CHOWDER 

6 good-sized potatoes. 1 pint milk or cream. 

i lb. salt pork. 1 pint water. 

1 onion. 1 tablesp'ful chopped parsley. 

1 tablespoonful butter. 1 teaspoonful salt. 

1 tablespoonful flour. J teaspoonful pepper. 

Cut the potatoes into dice, cut the pork into small pieces, and 
put it with the sliced onion into a frying pan, and fry until a 
light brown. 

Put into a kettle a layer of potatoes, then a layer of onions 
and pork, and sprinkle with salt, pepper, and chopped parsley. 
Repeat this until all the potatoes, pork, onions, and parsley are 
in. Pour over them the grease from the pan in which the pork 
and onions were fried. Add one pint of water, cover, and let 
simmer twenty minutes. Scald the milk in a double boiler, 
and add it to a roux made of the flour and butter. Add this 
to the pot when the potatoes are tender, and stir carefully to- 
gether, so as not to break the potatoes. Taste to see if the 
seasoning is right. Serve very hot. 

This is a good dish for luncheon, or for supper in the country. 

FISH CHOWDER 

3 lbs. fresh fish. J lb. salt pork. 

3 large potatoes. 1 pint milk. 

1 large onion. 3 ship crackers. 

Pepper and salt. 
Cut the fish, the potatoes, and the onion into slices. Cut the 
pork into half-inch dice. Put the pork and the onion into a 

uo 



SOUPS 111 

pan and saute them a light brown. Place in alternate layers 
in a large saucepan first potatoes, then fish, then pork and 
onion j dust with salt and pepper, and continue in this order 
until all the materials are used. Cover the whole with boiling 
water and let the mixture simmer for twenty minutes. Scald a 
pint of milk or of cream, take it off the fire and add one and a 
half tablespoonfuls of butter and three broken ship crackers or 
the same quantity of water biscuits. Arrange the fish mixture 
in a mound on a dish, cover it with the softened crackers, and 
pour over the whole the hot milk. 

CLAM CHOWDEB 

50 clams. 1 tablespoonful butter. 

1 medium-sized onion. 2 tablespoonfuls flour. 

6 oz. salt pork. 1 pint of milk or cream. 

3 large potatoes. 1 saltspoonful of mace. 

1 teaspoonful salt. 1 saltspoonful of thyme. 

J teaspoonful pepper. 3 ship crackers. 

Put the clams, with their own liquor, into a saucepan on the 
fire. When they have boiled three minutes, remove the clams and 
return the liquor to the fire. Cut the pork into slices. Chop 
an onion and fry it with the pork until both are browned. Then 
stir in two tablespoonfuls of flour. When the flour is cooked, 
add slowly the clam liquor, a dash of mace and thyme, and salt, 
if necessary ; then add three parboiled potatoes cut into dice, 
and cook until the potatoes are tender. When ready to serve 
add a pint of milk or cream, the clams cut into pieces, and a 
quarter of a pound of broken ship crackers or any hard water 
cracker. 



Chaptee III 
FISH 



Cooking. 



Freshness. 



Dressing. 



Keeping 

Frozen 

Fish. 



Trimming. 



The hones. 



To skin, 
hone, and 

remove 
the fillets. 



It is essential that fish should be perfectly fresh, 
thoroughly cleaned, and carefully cooked. If under- 
done it is not eatable; if cooked too long it loses 
flavor and becomes dry. The sooner it is cooked 
after being taken from the water, the better. When 
fresh, the eyes are bright, the gills red, the flesh firm 
and odorless. Ordinarily the fishman removes the 
scales and draws the fish before delivering it ; but if 
not, this should be done at once, and the fish thor- 
oughly washed, but not allowed to soak in water, 
then wiped dry and put into the refrigerator, on the ice, 
the skin side down, but not in the same compartment 
with butter, milk, or other foods which absorb flavors. 

Fish that are frozen should be laid in cold water 
until thawed, but not allowed to remain in the water 
after they become flexible. 

The head and tail should be left on, and the fins 
trimmed, of any fish which is to be served whole. 

When the fillets only are to be used, the head and 
bones may be used for a fish soup. 

To separate a fish, cut through the skin all around, 
then, beginning at the head, loosen the skin and strip 
it down. By putting salt on the hand a firmer grasp 
may be obtained, and with the aid of a knife the skin 
can be removed without tearing the flesh. After the 
skin is taken off from both sides, slip the knife under 



112 



FISH lis 

the flesh, and keeping it close to the bone, remove the 
fillets. The fillets may then be cut into two or more 
pieces according to the size of the fish, care being 
used to have them of uniform size and shape. 

Fillets taken from small fish and from flounders or 
other flat fish are sometimes rolled and held until 
cooked with small skewers. Wooden toothpicks serve 
this purpose very well. 

Fish containing many bones are not suitable for 
fiUets. 

TO CARVE FISH 

Run a knife down the back, cutting through the 
skin. Remove the fins. Then cut into even pieces on 
one side. When these pieces are served, remove the 
bone, and cut the under side in the same way. 

TO BOII, FISH 

Add one teaspoonful of salt and one tablespoonful 
of vinegar to every two quarts of water, and use suffi- 
cient water to entirely cover the fish. The salt and 
vinegar serve to whiten and harden, as well as to sea- 
son the meat. A bay-leaf and soup vegetables in the 
water improve the flavor of cod and some other fish. 
The fish must not be put into cold water, as that ex- 
tracts the flavor; nor into boiling water, as that breaks 
the skin and gives it a ragged appearance. Lower 
the fish gradually into warm water, let it come quickly 
to the boiling point, then draw to the side of the 
range, where it will simmer only, until done. 

Allow ten minutes to the pound after the water has Time- 
begun to simmer. 

A fish kettle, with strainer, is requisite for boiling The Kettle, 
a fish whole. A plate held in a piece of cheese cloth 
may be used for smaller pieces. When the fish is 
done the strainer should be lifted out carefully and 
placed across the kettle until the fish is well drained. 

8 



114 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

To boil a A boiled as well as a baked fish is more attractive 
fish whole, served upright as if swimming. To hold it in this 
position, place a carrot inside the fish to give it round- 
ness and stability, and prop it on both sides with 
pieces of carrot or turnip. The head must be wrapped 
with cord or a strip of cheese cloth to keep it from 
losing shape, and the whole held in position by strings 
going around the strainer (see illustration). If a fish 
is too large for the kettle, it may be cut into halves 
or thirds, and when cooked laid carefully together on 
the dish and garnishing placed over the cuts. 
Serving. Boiled fish is served on a napkin, and garnished 
with parsley. This may be so arranged as to conceal 
any defects. 
Garniilies. Slices of lemon, slices of hard-boiled eggs, chopped 
pickle, or capers may also be used for garnishing. 
Boiled potato balls may be served on the same dish. 
Sauces. Boiled fish needs a rich white sauce. Drawn butter, 
egg, HoUandaise, or Bechamel sauces are generally 
used. 




FISH PKEPAKED TO BOIL IN UPRIGHT POSITION. (SEE PAGE 114.) 




SLICES OF CODFISH BOILED OR SAUTED AND RESTED AGAINST A WEDGE-SHAPED 

BREAD SUPPORT AND GARNISHED WITH BOILED OR FRIED POTATO BALLS, 

WATER-CRESS, AND LEMON. 



FISH 

COURT BOUILLON 

Court bouillon is used for boiling fresh- water fish or others 
which are without much flavor. It may be prepared before- 
hand, and used several times, or the vegetables may be added 
at the time the fish is boiled. 
Fry in 1 tablespoonful of Then add 2 quarts of hot water, 

butter, 1 cup of vinegar or wine, 

1 chopped carrot, 3 peppercorns, 

1 chopped onion, 3 cloves, 

1 stalk of celery. 1 bay-leaf, 

1 teaspoonful of salt. 

BAKED FISH 

After the fish is caref uUy washed and dried, put in the stuffing, 
and sew up the opening with a trussing needle j then cut three 
gashes in each side of the fish, and lay a lardoon of salt pork in 
each cut. Next, run a trussing needle, holding a double white 
cotton cord, through the head, the middle of the body, and the 
tail. Draw the fish into the shape of the letter S, and tie the 
cord firmly. In order to cook evenly, it is better to have the 
fish upright, and by trussing as directed it will hold that posi- 
tion. Dredge the fish with salt, pepper, and flour, and lay it on 
slices of larding pork in a baking pan. Place also over the 
back slices of pork. Allow fifteen minutes to each pound, and 
baste frequently. The pork should supply sufficient liquid for 
basting ; if not, add a very little water. The fish can be more 
easily removed if a baking sheet is used in the bottom of the 
pan. (See illustration facing page 118.) 

Serve with a brown sauce. Garnish with lemon and parsley.' 
Haddock, bluefish, shad, and bass are good for baking. 

116 



116 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

STUFFINGS FOR BAKED FISH 

Put a large tablespoonf ul of butter into a saucepan. When 
melted stir into it 
1 cupful of cracker or dry Iteaspoonful of chopped capers, 

bread crumbs, J teaspoonful salt, 

1 teaspoonful of chopped onion, J teaspoonful pepper, 
1 teaspoonful of chopped parsley. 
If a moist stuffing is preferred, add one quarter cupful of 
milk, stock or water. 

BREAD STUFFING 

Fry a tablespoonf ul of chopped onion in a tablespoonful of 
butter. Add a cupful or more of stale bread, which has been 
soaked in hot water, then pressed dry. A tablespoonful each 
of chopped parsley, suet, and celery, one quarter teaspoonful 
each of salt and pepper, and a dash of powdered thyme (if 
liked). When it is well mixed, remove from the fire and add 
an egg. 

TO BROIL FISH 

Fish to be broiled are split down the back. After being 
washed and well dried, they should be rubbed with oil or but- 
ter, or the skin floured, to keep from sticking. The broiler 
should be made hot and gi'eased with a piece of salt pork before 
the fish is laid on. The hot wires will sear the lines which 
should always show on broiled dishes. The fire must be clear 
and hot for small fish, more moderate for large ones, so the 
outside may not be burned before the inside is cooked. When 
there is danger of this, the broiler may be laid on a pan in the 
oven to complete the cooking. The broiler should be turned as 
often as the cook counts ten, and as the skin burns easily, it 
must be carefully watched. When done, the wires should be 
carefully raised from both sides so as not to break the meat, 
and the fish turned on to a hot dish and spread with butter, 
salt, and pepper, or better, a maitre d' hotel sauce. This sauce 
makes a more evenly distributed mixture. A wreath of water- 



FISH 117 

cresses laid around the fish makes a good garnish, and is an 
acceptable accompaniment to any broiled dish. Lemon is also 
used for garnish and flavor. 

Shad, bluefish, and mackerel are most frequently cooked in 
this way. 

TO SAUTE FISH 

Small or pan fish, and fish cut into slices, are often sauted. 
After the fish is washed and dried, dredge it with salt and pep- 
per, and roll in flour, then dip in egg and roll in bread crumbs, 
cracker dust, or in corn-meal. Put into a frying-pan a few 
pieces of salt pork, and after sufficient grease has tried out, lay 
I > in the fish j or one tablespoonf ul of lard and one tablespoonful of 
'^ ' butter may be used instead of the fat pork. Butter burns, and 
*^ ' ^should not be used alone. The grease must be very hot, and only 
enough of it to cover the bottom of the pan one eighth of an 
inch deep. Turn the fish with a broad knife or pancake turner, 
and with care to not break the meat. When cooked an amber 
color it is ready to turn. 

Slices of halibut should be marinated (see page 79) before 
being coated with flour. Lay the fish or slices overlapping each 
other on a hot dish. Serve with quarters of lemon, and garnish 
with parsley. (See illustrations facing pages 114 and 124.) 

TO FRY FISH 

Fish to be fried are first well washed and dried, then dredged 
with salt, pepper, and fiour, then dipped in egg, and rolled in 
bread or cracker crumbs. The fish should be completely in- 
cased in the egg and crumbs, leaving no opening for the grease 
to enter. The same rule applies to frying fish as to other arti- 
cles (see page 72). They must have entire immersion, and the 
fat smoking hot. 

TO FRY SMELTS 

Smelts, after being washed, dried, and sprinkled with salt and 
pepper, are dipped in egg, then rolled in bread or cracker 
crumbs. The head and tail pinned together with a small 



118 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

skewer, or wooden tooth-pick (to be removed after they are 
fried), makes them into rings, and is a pretty way of serving 
them either by themselves or for garnishing other fish dishes. 
Cook only as many as will cover the bottom of the frying-basket 
at one time (see rules for frying, page 72). Dress the smelts on a 
folded napkin, and serve with Mayonnaise or with Tartare sauce. 

FRIED SMELTS ON SKEWERS 

Use medium sized smelts, clean carefully, and wipe them dry. 
Dredge them with salt and pepper; dip them in egg and roll 
them in crumbs. String three or four on each skewer, the 
skewer passing through the eyes. Place them in a frying- 
basket, a few at a time, and immerse in very hot fat. Pre- 
pare at a time only as many as will go in the frying-basket. 
The time given to rolling them is only as long as required for 
the fat to regain the right degree of heat. Dress on a napkin 
and serve with Mayonnaise, Tartare sauce, or quarters of lemon. 

BROILED SMELTS 

Split the smelts down the back and remove the bone. Lay 
them on a hot broiler, which has been rubbed with suet, to pre- 
vent sticking. Broil over hot coals for two minutes on each 
side. Put into a dish some Bechamel sauce, and lay the broiled 
fish on the sauce, or they may be spread with maitre d' h6tel 
sauce. Serve at once while very hot. 

FRIED FILLETS OF FISH 

Remove fillets as directed on page 112. Dip them in salted milk, 
roll in flour, then in egg and fresh bread crumbs. Fry as soon 
as prepared in hot fat. Fillets may also be cooked by sauteing. 
Arrange the fillets on a napkin or hot dish, overlapping each 
other. Serve with Bearnaise, Mayonnaise or Tartare sauce. 

WHITEBAIT 

Wash the whitebait with great care, and dry well by rubbing 
them in a napkin. Roll them in flour, using enough to entirely 




WHITEBAIT. (SEE PAGE 118.) 



FISH 119 

cover them. Toss them on a sieve to shake off the loose flour. 
Place them in a fine wire basket, and immerse in smoking hot 
fat for one minute, or just long enough to give them a light 
amber color. The fish are so small, it takes but a moment to 
cook them, and there is danger of burning them by leaving them 
in the fat too long. They should be crisp and dry. Only enough 
to make one layer on the bottom of the basket should be fried 
at once. Too many will cool the fat, and also will stick together. 
The fat must be brought to the right degree of heat before put- 
ting in the second basketful. They should be floured only just 
before going into the fat. The flour becomes damp if it re- 
mains on the fish for any time, and they will then neither take 
color nor become crisp. Turn them on to a paper, sprinkle with 
salt, and keep them in a warm oven until all are cooked. Have 
a hot dish with a folded napkin on it standing on the warming 
shelf. Place the whitebait between the folds of the napkin, 
and serve immediately. They cool rapidly, and should not be 
cooked until just in time to serve. They are easily prepared, 
and very nice when crisp and hot, but will not be right unless 
care is given to the small details. 
Serve with quarters of lemon. 



BOILED HALIBIJT STEAKS 

Lay two chicken halibut steaks into a shallow stew pan, suflS- 
ciently large to allow them to lie side by side. Cover them with 
court bouillon or with hot water, and add a slice of carrot, 
onion, piece of celery, bay-leaf, four cloves, six peppercorns, 
and juice of half a lemon. Let simmer until done. Or they 
may be put into a baking pan, with a little water, covered with 
another pan or greased paper, and steamed in the oven until 
cooked. Lift out the slices with a skimmer and broad knife, 
and with care not to break them j lay them on a hot dish, one a 
little overlapping the other. 

Garnish with boiled potato balls, and serve with egg or with 
Hollandaise sauce. (See illustration facing page 124.) 



120 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

HALIBUT — TURKISH STYLE 

(receipt given at ONE OF MRS. RORER^S LECTURES) 

Place on the bottom of a baking pan two or three slices of 
onion, then a cutlet of halibut, and put a tablespoonf ul of butter 
cut into small bits over the top of the fish. Cut three skinned 
tomatoes into quarters, slice a sweet green pepper into ribbons, 
and put the tomatoes and pepper on the fish. Put the pan on 
the shelf of the oven to cook first the vegetables, but do not let 
it remain there long enough to discolor or change their shape ; 
then remove it to the bottom of the oven, baste it well, and 
finish the cooking. When done place it carefully on a hot dish, 
and pour over it the juice from the pan. The fish should retain 
its whiteness, and the vegetables their color, giving a very pretty 
as well as delicious dish. 

SCALLOPED FISH 

2 pounds halibut or any white 

fish, boiled with 4 cloves, 

1 slice onion, 1 bay-leaf, 

1 stalk celery. Juice of one-half a lemon, 

1 sprig parsley, 1 cupful white sauce, 

6 peppercorns, Mashed potato. 

Boil two pounds of fish in courlj bouillon until tender enough 
to flake. Make a white sauce of one tablespoonf ul butter, one 
tablespoonful flour, one cupful of milk, salt, pepper, and 
cayenne. (See white sauce, page 278.) Boil f oui* medium-sized 
potatoes, mash them, and season with one half teaspoonful of 
salt, one quarter teaspoonful of pepper, and a little cream or 
milk; beat them until light, then add the whites of four eggs 
beaten stiff. 

Fill a baking dish one half full of the flaked fish, pour over it 
the white sauce, and cover the top with potato, leaving the 
potato rough and irregular. Place in the oven for fifteen min- 
utes, or until browned. Cream may be substituted for the 



FISH 121 

white sauce, and enough used to moisten well the fish. Shells 
or individual cups may be used instead of a baking dish. 

SCALLOPED FISH AU GRATIN 

Make a Bechamel sauce (see page 279). Take some seasoned 
mashed potato, and mix with it one beaten egg. Make with 
the potato a border around a flat dish. In the center of the 
ring of potato spread a layer of sauce, over this a layer of 
flaked cod fish, then another layer of sauce and fish, cover the 
top with sauce, sprinkle it with bread crumbs and grated cheese 
(parmesan or dairy), and a few pieces of butter. Bake in a hot 
oven until browned, and serve in the same dish. The potato 
border may be made ornamental by pressing the potato through 
a pastry bag with tube, the same as is used for potato roses (see 
page 202). The potato will not hold its form unless egg is mixed 
with it. 

White sauce may be used instead of Bechamel, but is not quite 
as good. One layer of fish in large flakes, covered with sauce, 
crumbs, and cheese, and browned with a border of boiled potato 
balls laid around regularly, is also a good way of serving it 
when a small quantity is needed. 

FISH CHOPS 

1 pound or 1 pint of fish. 1 cupful of milk or cream. 
1 teaspoonful of salt. 1 tablespoonful of butter. 

i teaspoonful of pepper. 2 rounded tablespoonf uls flour. 
J teaspoonfulof onion juice. Yolks of two eggs. 
1 tablespoonful of chopped parsley. 

Put in a double boiler one cupful of cream or milk; when 
scalded, stir into it the butter and flour rubbed together, and 
cook for five minutes. Remove from the fire and mix in, stir- 
ring all the time, the beaten yolks of two eggs, put again on the 
fire, and stir until thickened. 

Take one pound or pint of shredded boiled fish, sprinkle over 
it one teaspoonful of salt, one half teaspoonful of pepper, one 



122 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

tablespoonful of chopped parsley, ten drops of lemon juice. Mix 
the seasoned fish with the white sauce, then spread it on a dish 
and set aside for several hours to cool and stiffen. It will not 
be difficult to mold if it stands long enough. Take a tablespoon- 
ful of the mixture in the hands, and mold into the form of 
chops, round at one end and pointed at the other; roll the 
chops in crumbs, then in beaten egg, then in coarse bread 
crumbs grated from the loaf (see croquettes, page 293). After 
the chops are molded let them stand for a time to stiffen before 
frying. Place them in a basket four at a time, and immerse in 
hot fat until an amber color. Place on a paper to dry. When 
all are done pierce a small hole in the pointed end with a fork, 
and insert a sprig of parsley. Dress on a napkin, and serve 
with tomato, B^arnaise, or Hollandaise sauce. Any kind of fish 
may be used for the chops. (See illustration facing page 130.) 

FILLETS BAKED WITH CUSTARD OR TOMATOES 

Remove the fillets from any white fish, dredge them with salt 
and pepper, and lay them in a baking pan, one on top of the 
other. Beat two eggs, and add to them 

2 cupfuls of milk, 1 saltspoonful of nutmeg, 

1 saltspoonful of salt, 3 soda crackers rolled to 

1 saltspoonful of pepper, powder. 

Put two tablespoonfuls of butter into the pan with the fish, 
and set it in the oven. When the butter is melted, add one half 
the milk mixture, and baste the fish with it frequently. When 
the custard becomes set add a little more of the milk, and con- 
tinue the operation until the fish is cooked. Lift the fish care- 
fully from the pan with a pancake turner and broad knife. 
Place it on a hot dish, and pile on the top the flakes of custard. 
Instead of the milk mixture tomato may be used if preferred. 

To one half can of tomato add 

1 teaspoonful of salt, 1 slice of onion, 

i teaspoonful of thyme, 1 bay-leaf, 

4 teaspoonful of pepper, 3 cloves. 



FISH 123 

The whole of the tomato mixture may be put in the pan as 
soon as the butter is melted. 

GOLD FISH 

Any kind of fish which is good boiled may be served cold, and 
in summer is often more acceptable in this way. Bass, trout, 
halibut, salmon, and bluefish are recommended. Serve with cold 
Bearnaise, Mayonnaise, or Tartare sauce. Garnish with lettuce 
leaves or water-cresses, and hard-boiled eggs. 

FISH PUDDING 

1 pound or pint boiled halibut. 1 J teaspoonf uls salt. 

J cupful of cream or milk. J teaspoonful pepper. 

1 J tablespoonfuls of butter. J teaspoonful onion juice. 

J tablespoonf ul of flour. 2 eggs. 

Pound the fish in a mortar until it is thoroughly mashed, 
then rub it through a puree sieve; season the fish pulp with 
salt, pepper, and onion juice. Put the butter into a saucepan 
when melted, add the flour, and cook for a few minutes, then 
add slowly the cream or milk, stirring constantly until well 
scalded; then add the fish pulp, take from the fire, add the 
beaten eggs, and mix thoroughly. 

Butter well a border or ring mold holding a pint or little 
more; put in the mixture, pressing it well against the sides to 
remove any air bubbles. Cover the mold with a greased paper, 
and set in a pan of warm water covering one haK the mold. 
Place in moderate oven for thirty minutes, and do not let the 
water boil. Place the form of fish on a hot dish, fill the center 
with boiled potato balls (see page 203), pour over the potato balls 
some Bechamel or some white sauce, sprinkle chopped parsley 
over the top. Serve with the fish a generous amount of Bechar 
mel or of white sauce. This is a very good dish. 

FISH TIMBALE 

Cut one pound of very fresh white uncooked fish into small 
pieces, put it in a mortar, and pound until the fiber is well sep- 



124 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

arated from the meat, then press it through a puree sieve. To 
every cupful of fish pulp add one tablespoonful of bread 
crumbs soaked in milk or cream until soft and then pressed 
through a sieve ; add also the beaten yolk of one eggj ten drops 
of onion juice, one teaspoonful of salt, one quarter teaspoonful 
of pepper, and a dash of nutmeg. Beat all well together and 
for some time, to make it light j then for every cupful of pulp 
beat in lightly the whites of two eggs whipped very stiff. Put 
the mixture into a well buttered mold, filling it only three quar- 
ters f uU, set it into a pan of warm water, covering three quar- 
ters of the mold, cover the mold with a greased paper, and place 
in a moderate oven for twenty minutes. Do not let the water 
boil. Turn the timbale on to a hot dish, and pour around, but 
not over it, a Bechamel or a tomato sauce. This is a very deli- 
cate fish dish, and is particularly good when made of shad. 



FISH DISH FOR A PINK LUNCHEON 

Cut halibut or any firm white fish into cutlets thi-ee quarters 
of an inch thick, two inches wide, and three inches long. 
Dredge with salt, pepper, and paprica. Lay them in a pan so 
they do not touch, cover with salted water, cover the pan, and 
let them steam in the oven for ten or fifteen minutes until 
cooked, but remove while they are still firm enough to retain 
shape. Pound the trimmings of the fish in a mortar, pass it 
through a sieve, and to one half cupful of the fish pulp add a 
thickening made as follows : put a dessert-spoonful of butter in 
a saucepan on the fire ; when it is melted add a dessert-spoonful 
of flour, cook for a minute without coloring, add three table- 
spoonfuls of cream or milk, a quarter teaspoonful of salt and a 
dash of pepper, remove it from the fire. Stir in the half cupful 
of fish pulp and one beaten egg ; color it a delicate pink with 
a few drops of cochineal, beat the whole until light, and spread 
the cutlets of fish with this mixture one quarter inch thick; 
smooth it carefully on top and sides with a wet knife. Place 
the pieces in a pan, cover, set it into another pan containing 




FISH STEAKS SAUTED OB B01Li:i), GAKMSIIKD WITH POTATO BALLS, WATER-CRESS, 

AND LEMON. 




CREAMED FISH IN SHELLS, 



FISH 126 

hot water, and let steam in the oven for ten or fifteen min- 
utes. Range the pieces standing on end around a socle of rice 
or hominy (see page 326) ;mask the top of the socle with prawns, 
or with parsley, or with water cresses, and a few pink roses or 
pink carnations. Serve with Hollandaise sauce, colored green 
or pink. 

The pink cutlets may be garnished with capers, or with a thin 
slice of pickle cut into fancy shape with cutter. 

EOLLED FILLETS OF FLOUNDER 

Select flounders of uniform size, and large enough to make 
two strips about two and a half inches wide on each side, each 
fish giving four fillets. Marinate them, or else dredge with salt 
and pepper, and dip into butter. Roll them, beginning at the 
broad end, and fasten with a wooden took-pick. Egg and 
bread-crumb them, and fry in hot fat for seven minutes. Fry 
only four at a time, that the fat may not be too much cooled 
when they go in. Remove the skewer carefully, and serve with 
r6moulade, Tartare, or tomato sauce. 

SHAD 

Shad maybe broiled, and spread with maitre d' h6tel sauce j 
stuffed and baked, and served with brown sauce j or it may be 
boiled and served with Hollandaise, Bechamel, or egg sauce. 

PLANKED SHAD 

Have a hardwood board one and a half or two inches thick. 
Split the shad as for broiling, place it on the board with the skin 
side down, and fasten with a few tacks ; place the board before 
the fire, and roast until donej rub it from time to time with a 
little butter. The plank should be well-seasoned, and be heated 
before placing the shad on it, or it will impart the flavor of the 
wood to the fish. 

A substitute for this mode of cooking is to put into a baking- 
pan a tablespoonful of drippings j when very hot lay in the shad 



12« THE CKMTLIKY OOOK BOOK 

wiih the sViTi side Tip. place it under the coals, and when the 
ddn is puffed and bhstered it is done. Tnm it onto a hot dish. 
dredge witii s^ and pepper, cover witii bits of bntter, and 
aerve with qnartCTs of lemon- 

BBOILED SEAJ) KOE 

Wash and dry the roe with care not to break the skin, place 
it on a well greased broiler, and rub it with butter once or twice 
during the time of brraling; eook to a nice brown, place it on a 
hot dish, and cover with a maitre d' hdtel sauce. 

Garnish the dish with a wreath of water cress€S. This makes 
a good fish course for luncheon- Shad roe may also be cooked 
in a saute>pan, uang one half butter and one half drippings or 
lard. 

SHAD £0E CEOaXTETTES, HO. 1 

Put the roes from two fishes into boiling salted water, and sim- 
mer for fifteen minutes : when cool, remove the skin, and mash 
them with a fork, so the little eggs will be separated but not 
broken: scald one cupful of cream or milk, and stir into it one 
tablespoonful of butter and two tablespoonfuls of flour rubbed 
together. Take the paste on a spoon, and stir it in the cream 
until dissolved- Remove from the fire, and add the beaten yolks 
of two eggs^ and the seasoning — one tablespoonful of chopped 
parsley, juice of one half a lemon, dash of nutmeg, salt, pepper, 
and cayenne to taste. Place again on the fire, and stir until the 
sauce is thickened; then add the mashed shad roe, pour the 
mixture on a dish, and set away to cool for several hours. 
Form it into small croquettes, egg and bread-crumb them, using 
crumbs grated from the loaf; fry in hot fat until an amber 
color. Dress on a folded napkin, garnish with parsley, and 
serve with Mayonnaise, Tartare, or Beamaise sauce. 

SHAD EOE CEOaXJETTES, HO. 2 

Put shad, poes into salted boiling water, and simmer for fifteen 
minuteB; vonove with care not to break the skin, and place in 



FISH 127 

cold water; when cold, dry them, and with a sharp knife cut 
them into pieces two inches thick j dredge them with salt, pep- 
per, and lemon juice, dip them in beaten eggj roll in grated 
white bread crumbs, place in a wire basket, and fry in hot fat. 
Dress on a napkin, and serve with Tartare or Bearnaise sauce. 



SALT MACKEREL 

Soak the mackerel for twelve hours or more, with the skin side 
up, and change the water several times. Simmer it for fifteen 
or twenty minutes ; and, if convenient, have in the water one 
teaspoonful of vinegar, one bay-leaf, one slice of onion, and a 
sprig of parsley. When tender, place carefully on a hot dish, 
and pour over it a cream sauce; or the soaked fish may be 
broiled, and spread with butter, pepper, lemon juice, and 
chopped parsley. 

CREAMED MACKEREL 

Soak the mackerel for twenty-four hours, then lay it in a 
shallow stew-pan, and cover with milk or cream. Simmer for 
fifteen minutes. Remove the fish carefully, and place it on a hot 
dish. Add to the milk or cream in the stew-pan one tablespoon- 
ful e£ich of butter and flour rubbed together. Stir until a little 
thickened, and the flour cooked; add a little pepper and chopped 
parsley, and pour the sauce over the fish. 



SALT CODFISH 

Soak the codfish several hours, changing the water three 
times. Simmer it for 20 minutes or until it is tender. Take out 
carefully all the bones. Make a white sauce of one tablespoon- 
ful each of butter and flour, and one cupful of milk ; add to it, 
off the fire, two beaten yolks. Return to the fire, and stir in one 
cupful of shredded codfish. Taste to see if it needs seasoning 
with salt and pepper. Serve it on slices of toast, or place it in 
center of dish, and surround it with triangular croutons. 



128 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

CLUB HOUSE FISH BALLS 

Boil the quantity of codfish that will be needed, changing the 
water once, that it may not be too salt. While the fish is hot, 
pick it very fine, so that it is feathery j it cannot be done fine 
enough with a fork, and should be picked by hand. At the 
same time have hot boiled potatoes ready. Mash them thor- 
oughly, and make them creamy with milk and a good-sized 
lump of butter. To three cupfuls of the mashed potatoes take 
one and one half cupfuls of fish. The fish should not be packed 
down. Beat one egg lightly, and stir into the other ingredi- 
ents J season to taste. Beat the mixture well together and until 
light, then mold it into small balls, handling lightly, and before 
frying, roll the balls in flour. Fry them in smoking hot fat 
until a golden color.* 

BROILED SAEDINES ON TOAST 

Drain sardines from the can. Lay them on a broiler over hot 
coals for two minutes on each side. Have ready hot toast cut 
the right size to hold three of the fish. Arrange them neatly 
on the toast, and moisten with a little heated oil from the can. 

FBESH FISH BALLS 

To one cupful of flaked boiled fish add a cream sauce made 
of one tablespoonful of butter, one tablespoonful of flour, and 
one half cupful of milk. 

Let the sauce be very stiff, so it leaves the sides of the pan ; 
mix it well with the fish, and when hot add two beaten eggs, 
pepper, and salt. Drop the mixture, which should be like thick 
batter, from a spoon into very hot fat. 

It will puff, and be very light. 

SALMON 

Put salmon into hot water to preserve its color, and simmer 
in acidulated water or in court bouillon, as is the rule for all fish. 
The middle cuts are preferable where a small quantity only is 

* This mixture can l>e spread on a pan, then marked into squares, and baked in 
the oven. This method makes it a more wholesome dish for those who are unable to 
eat fried preparations.— M. B. 



FISH 129 

needed. The head piece makes a pretty cut, but is not profit- 
able to buy, as the head adds materially to the weight. Where 
a large fish is to be used for a supper or cold dish, it may be cut 
in halves or sections (see page 114) if too large for the fish ket- 
tle. Cold salmon can be elaborately garnished with aspic, col- 
ored mayonnaise, shrimps, gherkins, capers, etc. 

CANNED SALMON 

The canned salmon is very good, and makes a palatable emer- 
gency dish. It can be prepared quickly, as the fish is already 
cooked. It may be broiled, and spread with maitre d' h6tel 
butter, or it can be served on toast with cream dressing ; or a 
white sauce can be made, and the fish put in it to heat; or the 
fish may be heated in water, and served as cutlets with Bear- 
naise sauce. 

SALMON CUTLETS 

Prepare salmon cutlets the same as boiled halibut steaks 
(page 119), or cut them in half heart or chop shapes, roll them in 
egg and bread crumbs, and fry in hot fat. Arrange them in 
a circle overlapping one another, and serve with Bearnaise, 
Hollandaise or Tartare sauce. 

BROILED SLICES OF SALMON 

Marinate the slices for one hour. Broil on both sides; baste 
with butter, so that they will not brown. Place them on a hot 
dish, and sprinkle with salt, pepper, lemon juice, and chopped 
parsley. Serve with them a Bearnaise sauce or quarters of lemon. 

SLICES OF SALMON WITH MAYONNAISE 

Simmer two slices of salmon in court bouillon until done; re- 
move carefuUy so as not to break them. When perfectly cold 
cover one side of them with a smooth layer of mayonnaise 
made with jelly (see page 290), and colored a delicate green. 
Arrange a row of sliced gherkins or of capers around the edge. 



130 THE CENTUEY COOK BOOK 

Place a wedge-shaped socle of bread in the middle of a dish, 
and fasten it to the dish with white of egg, so that it will be firm ; 
rest the slices against it; conceal the side of socle with garnish 
of fresh lettuce leaves. Place a bunch of parsley or water- 
cress or if convenient a bouquet of nasturtium blossoms, in the 
hollow center of the fish. Use hard-boiled eggs cut in halves 
for further garnishing. 

This makes a handsome supper dish for card or theater 
party. It should be kept in a cool place until ready to serve. 

FILLETS OF SALMON FOR GREEN LUNCHEON 

Cut salmon into pieces three quarters of an inch thick and 
two and a half inches square, trim them carefully, and flatten 
with heavy knife so they will be uniform. Lay them in a bak- 
ing-pan so they do not touch, cover them with salted water, and 
simmer them in the oven for about twenty minutes, or until 
well cooked, but still firm. Take them out carefully, skin and 
dry them, and when cold marinate them. Make a jelly mayon- 
naise (see page 290), using a little tarragon vinegar; color it 
green; cover the fillets with the green mayonnaise while it is 
soft enough to become perfectly smooth, and set them away in a 
cool, dry place. When ready to serve place the fillets on the 
top of a socle made of hominy, and ornamented on the sides 
with green beans and balls of carrot, or green peas (see illus- 
tration page 324). Arrange a macedoine of vegetables (see 
page 216) around the base of the socle. Serve with it a mayon- 
naise dressing. One pound of salmon wiU cut into nine cutlets. 

CROUSTADE OF SHRIMPS 

Make a sauce the same as for lobster filling (see page 140), and 
substitute potted shrimp meat for the lobster. Serve in crous- 
tades of rice. This is a good luncheon dish, and easily prepared. 




FISH CHOPS. (SEE PAGE 121.) 




LOBSTER FARCI. 



SHELL-FISH, LOBSTEES, CRABS 

OYSTEKS 

Oysters are out of season during the months of 
May, June, July, and August. The rule is to use 
oysters only in the months that have the letter r in 
the name. 

When served raw, the small varieties are the best. 

They are left on the deep half of the shell. Six are 

allowed for each person. They should be arranged -^^^ ^ 
r J o serve on 

regularly on the plate around a little ice broken fine, haif-sheU. 
the valve side toward the center of plate, and in the 
center of the circle a quarter of a lemon. A few 
sprigs of parsley or cress under the lemon makes a 
pretty garnish. Black and red pepper are served 
with raw oysters, and also very thin slices of buttered 
brown bread. 

Oysters served raw should be very fresh. It is 
therefore not desirable to use them in this way 
when one lives inland. To prevent the chance of any 
bits of shell getting into oyster dishes, they should be 
washed; each oyster being taken on a fork and dip- Precaution, 
ped into water. As they are largely composed of 
water, this will not injure their flavor. The juice 
should be strained through a coarse sieve. 

Cracker crumbs are better than bread crumbs for 
mixing with oysters. 

Oysters require very little cooking. They are put 
over the fire in their own liquor, and removed the 
moment they are plump or the gills are curled. More Cooking, 
cooking than this makes them tough. 

131 



X32 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

FRIED OYSTERS 

Drain the oysters. Roll each one first in cracker crumbs, 
then in egg mixed with a little milk, and seasoned with 
pepper and salt, then again in the cracker crumbs. Use first 
the crumbs, as the egg will not otherwise adhere well to the 
oyster. Place them in a wire basket, and immerse in smok- 
ing hot fat. As soon as they assume a light-amber color 
drain, and serve immediately. 

Oysters should not be fried until the moment of serving, 
for they are quickly cooked and it is essential to have them 
hot. 

Pickles, chow-chow, horse-radish, cold-slaw, or celery salad 
are served with fried oysters, and may be used as a garnish or 
be served separately. 

OYSTERS A LA VIILEROI 

Prepare a Villeroi sauce (see page 280). Heat the oysters in 
their own liquor until plump, then remove and wipe them dry. 
Place them on a pan turned bottom side up, leaving a space 
around each one. With a spoon cover each oyster with the 
thick sauce, and set them away for several hours to cool and 
harden; then trim them to good shape. Take one at a time on 
a broad knife or spatula, and, holding it over a dish containing 
beaten egg, coat it well with egg'j then cover it with fresh 
bread crumbs and draw the coating around the whole oyster. 
Place the rolled oysters in a wire basket, and immerse in hot 
fat until an amber color. Dress them on a folded napkin, and 
serve with a B6chamel sauce, or with the same sauce with which 
they are coated, diluted with stock or oyster juice. A little 
chopped trufle and mushrooms improve the sauce. 

BROILED OYSTERS 

Dry the oysters. Heat the broiler well, and grease it by rub- 
bing it with a slice of salt pork or with suet. Dip the oysters 
into melted butter, or into oil, and lay them on the broiler. 



SHELL-FISH, LOBSTERS, CRABS 133 

Broil them on both sides for a few minutes over bright 
coals. Have ready some toast cut into uniform shapes and 
moistened with oyster juice. On each crouton place three or 
four oysters, and pour over them a little melted maitre d'h6tel 
sauce. 

PANNED OYSTERS 

Heat a baking-pan very hot. Put into it a tablespoonful of 
butter; then the oysters, which have been well drained. Let them 
cook in hot oven until browned. Have ready some toast cut 
into even pieces; soften them with some liquor from the pan; 
place three or four oysters on each piece, and pour over them 
the liquor from the pan, which should be reduced if too watery. 
Sprinkle with a little parsley chopped very fine. 

ROASTED OYSTERS 

Wash the shells well with a brush and cold water. Place 
them in a pan with the deep half of shell down. Put them into 
a hot oven, and bake until the shell opens. Remove the top 
shell carefully so as not to lose the liquor. Arrange them on 
plates, and on each oyster place a piece of butter and a little 
pepper and salt. If roasted too long the oysters will be tough. 

OYSTERS A LA POULETTE 

25 oysters. 4 tablespoonfuls of flour. 

1 cupful of oyster juice. 1 scant teaspoonful of salt. 

1 cupful of milk or cream. 1 saltspoonful of pepper. 
Yolks of 3 eggs. Dash of cayenne pepper. 

2 tablespoonfuls of butter. Dash of nutmeg. 

Scald the oysters in their liquor until plump. Put into a 
saucepan two tablespoonfuls of butter; when melted stir in 
carefully the flour, and cook, but not brown. Stir in slowly the 
oyster juice; when perfectly smooth add the milk or cream and 
the seasoning. Take it off the fire, and when a little cooled stir 
in the beaten yolks. Place again on the fire, and stir until 
thickened ; then pour it over the oysters on a hot dish. Place 



134 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

a border of triangular-shaped croutons around the dish, and 
serve at onee. Do not add the cream and eggs to the sauce 
until time to serve, so that there may be no delay, as this dish 
is not good unless hot, and if kept standing the sauce will curdle. 
The sauce should be of the consistency of cream. 

SCALLOPED OYSTERS 

Place in a shallow baking-dish a layer of oysters j over this 
spread a layer of bread or cracker crumbs j sprinkle it with 
salt, pepper, and bits of butter j alternate the layers until the 
dish is full, having crumbs on top, well dotted with bits of but- 
ter. Pour over the whole enough oyster juice to moisten it. 
Bake in a hot oven fifteen or twenty minutes, or until browned ; 
serve it in the same dish in which it is baked. Individual seal- 
lop-cups or shells may also be used, enough for one person being 
placed in each cup. 

OYSTER FILLING FOR PATTIES 

For one dozen oysters, 
1 tablespoonful of butter. Yolks of 2 eggs. 

1 tablespoonful of flour. Dash of cayenne. 

1 cupful of milk or cream. Dash of mace. 

Scald the oysters in their liquor ; drain and cut each one into 
four pieces with a silver knife. Put the butter into a sauce- 
pan, and when melted add the flour j cook, but not brown; 
then add the milk or cream, and stir until smooth ; add the sea- 
soning, and remove from the fire. When a little cooled add the 
beaten yolks, stirring vigorously ; place again on the fire, 
and stir until thickened ; then add the pieces of oysters. The 
filling should be soft and creamy, and the patty cases should 
be heated before the filling is put in. 

This mixture is improved by using an equal quantity of oys- 
ters and mushrooms, either fresh or canned, and should be 
highly seasoned. It may be served in bread-boxes (see page 82), 
or in crusts prepared by removing the crumb from rolls, then 



SHELL-FISH, LOBSTERS, CRABS 135 

browning them in the oven. Minced oysters and clams in 
equal parts, with some of their juice used in making the sauce, 
also make a good filling. 

The same mixture may be made into croquettes, in which 
case two tablespoonfuls of flour instead of one are used, also a 
few more oysters, and the sauce is allowed to become thicker 
(see croquettes, page 292). 

CLAMS 

Clams are served raw on the half shell during the months 
that oysters are out of season. Little Neck clams are best for 
this purpose, and the smaller they are the better. The manner 
of serving them is the same as for raw oysters. As many as 
ten or twelve are allowed for each person. 

TO OPEN CLAMS 

To remove clams from the shells when wanted for cooking, 
wash the shells well with a brush and clear water. Place them 
in a saucepan or pot with a very little hot water ; cover the 
pot, and let them steam until the shells open ; strain the liquor 
through a fine cloth, or let it cool and settle ; then pour it off 
carefully in order to free it from sand the shells may have con- 
tained. 

CREAMED CLAMS 

Scald the clams in their own liquor. If opened by steaming, 
they are sufficiently cooked. Chop them into fine dice and 
measure. To each cupful of chopped clams add one cupful of 
thick cream sauce. For one cupful of sauce put into a sauce- 
pan one tablespoonful of butter j when melted, stir in one 
tablespoonful of flour; cook, but not brown it; then add 
slowly one half cupful of clam liquor and one half cupful of 
milk or cream ; season with pepper, and salt if necessary. Let 
it cook until a smooth, thick cream, stirring all the time ; add 
the clams only just before serving. Pour the mixture over 
small pieces of toast laid on the bottom of the dish. 



136 THE CENTUEY COOK BOOK 

BOASTED CLAMS 

Clams are roasted in the same manner as oysters (see page 133). 

CLAM FRITTERS 

Mix chopped clams with fritter batter (see page 426), using 
clam liquor instead of water in making the batter, and have the 
batter quite thick. Drop the mixture from a tablespoon into 
hot fat, and fry until an amber color. 

SCALLOPS 

Scallops are dried with a napkin, then rolled in cracker dust, 
then in egg and crumbs, and immersed in hot fat for a minute, 
or just long enough to take a light color. Mix salt and pepper 
with the crumbs. 

LOBSTERS 

Lobsters are in season from March to November. They are 
in the market all the year, but during the off months they are 
light and stringy. Their size increases with their agej there- 
fore a small, heavy lobster is better than a large one. 

They are unwholesome if boiled after they are dead. If 
bought already boiled, their freshness may be judged by the 
tail, which should be curled and springy. If it is not curled 
up, or will not spring back when straightened, the lobster was 
dead when boiled, and should be rejected. 

Lobsters may be killed just before being boiled by running 
a pointed knife into the back through the joint between the 
body and tail shells. 

TO BOIL A LOBSTER 

Have in a kettle enough water to entirely cover the lobster. 
Before it becomes very hot take the lobster by the back and 
put it into the warm water head first. This smothers instead 
of scalding it to death, and seems the most merciful way of 
killing it. A lobster treated in this way does not change posi- 



SHELL-FISH, LOBSTERS, CRABS 137 

tion, and seems to have been killed instantly. Cover the pot. 
When it boils, add one tablespoonf ul of salt, and boil for thirty 
minutes. It will be tough and stringy if cooked longer. 

TO OPEN A LOBSTER 

After the lobster is cold, break apart the tail and body j twist 
off the claws ; remove the body from the shell j shake out the 
green, fatty substance and the coral, and save them to mix with 
the meat. Remove the stomach, which lies directly under the 
head, and is called the "lady"; remove also the woolly gills; 
break open the body, and take out the small pieces of meat 
which lie under the gills ; break open the claws and remove 
the meat. With scissors or a knife cut the bony membrane 
on the inside of the tail; remove the meat in one piece, and 
open it to remove the intestine, which runs the entire length of 
the tail-piece. The intestine is sometimes without color. 

TO BROIL A LOBSTER 

With a sharp knife cut quickly down the back, following a 
line which runs down the middle of the shell. The fishman 
will ordinarily do this, and it is as quick and merciful as any 
way of killing. The lobster may be killed, if preferred, by 
running a knife into the back as directed above, and then 
opened with a heavy knife and mallet. Remove the stomach, 
or lady, and the intestine. Lay the two pieces on the broiler, 
with the shell part down, and broil over a moderate fire for 
thirty minutes or longer. Spread a little butter over it when 
half done, to keep it moist; spread butter, salt, and pepper over 
it when done ; open the claws with a nut-cracker or mallet, 
and serve immediately. 

TO BAKE A LOBSTER 

Split the lobster open in the same way as for broiling. Re- 
move the stomach, or lady, and the intestine ; lay the two pieces 
in a baking-pan ; spread over the top of each salt, pepper and 



138 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

butter, and sprinkle with bread crumbs; bake about forty 
minutes in a hot oven; during the baking baste it twice by 
pouring over it a little melted butter* Baked and broiled lob- 
sters are considered a great delicacy. 

LOBSTER FARCI 

2 cupf uls of boiled lobster meat. 1 tablespoonful of salt. 

1 cupful of milk or cream. 1 tablespoonful chopped 

2 tablespoonfuls of butter. parsley. 

1 tablespoonful of flour. J nutmeg. 

Yolks of 3 hard-boiled eggs. Dash of cayenne pepper 

2 tablespoonfuls of bread or of paprica. 
crumbs. 

Put into a saucepan one tablespoonful of butter; when it 
bubbles add one tablespoonful of flour ; cook, but not brown ; 
add one cupful of milk slowly, and stir until smooth ; then re- 
move it from the fire ; add the salt, the pepper, the parsley, the 
yolks mashed fine, and lastly the lobster meat cut into pieces 
one half inch square. (Use a silver knife to cut lobster.) Be 
careful, in mixing, not to break the meat. Have the shell from 
which the meat was taken carefully washed and dried, leaving 
on the head ; cut out neatly the inside shell of the tail-piece, and 
fit the two parts of the shell together. As the shell contracts 
in cooking, it is well to trim off a little from the sides of the 
body shell in order to leave an opening wide enough to admit a 
spoon in serving. Put the meat mixture into the shell. Cover 
the top with the bread crumbs, which have been moistened with 
one tablespoonful of butter. Place it in the oven for a few 
minutes to brown. If the meat of two lobsters is used, the 
shells of both may be used, or the two tail-shells may be fitted 
into one body shell, which will then hold all the meat. 

LOBSTER CHOPS 

The mixture for chops is prepared in the same manner as for 
f arci, except that the meat is cut a little finer. After it is mixed 




LOBSTEB CHOPS, SERVED STANDING. 




LOBSTER CHOPS. 



SHELL-FISH, LOBSTERS, CRABS 139 

with the white sauce, spread it on a platter to eoolj when suffici- 
ently cold, mold into the form of chops. Then dip in egg, roll in 
fresh bread crumbs (see croquettes, page 293), and immerse in 
hot fat until fried to an amber color. The chops will mold better 
if the mixture is left for some time to harden. The chops may 
also stand for some hours before being cooked. Tin forms are 
made for molding chops, btit they are easily shaped without them 
if the mixture has stood long enough to stiffen. After they are 
fried, make a little opening in the pointed end, and insert a 
small claw. 

Serve the chops on a napkin, and garnish with lemon and 
parsley. 

LOBSTER A LA NEWBURG 

One and a half cupfuls of boiled lobster meat cut into pieces 
one inch square. 
1 tablespoonful of butter. Yolk of two eggs, 

f cup of Madeira or sherry. 1 truffle chopped. 
1 cupful of cream. J teaspoonf ul of salt. 

Dash of cayenne or paprica. 

Put the butter in a saucepan; when it has melted add the 
lobster meat, the chopped truffle, the salt, and the pepper; cover 
and let simmer for five minutes ; then add the wine, and cook 
three minutes longer. 

Have ready two yolks and one cupful of cream well beaten 
together; add this to the lobster, shake the saucepan until 
the mixture is thickened, and serve immediately. This dish 
will not keep without curdling, and should not be put to- 
gether until just in time to serve. The lobster may be pre- 
pared and kept hot. The rest of the cooking, from the time 
the wine goes in, requires but five minutes, so the time can be 
easily calculated. If the mixture is stirred the meat will be 
broken ; shaking the pan mixes it sufficiently. This is a very 
good dish, and easily prepared ; but it will not be right unless 
served as soon as it is cooked. The quantity given is enough 
for six people. Crab meat may be used in the same way. 



140 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

LOBSTER STEW 

Put into a saucepan one tablespoonf ul of butter and one tea- 
spoonful of chopped onion. Before it takes color add one 
tablespoonful of flour, and cook, but not brown. Then add 
slowly one cupful of water in which the lobster was boiled, one 
cupful of milk, and one cupful of good stock. Add the lobster 
meat, and when it has become thoroughly hot remove the meat 
and place it on the dish on which it is to be served, ar- 
ranging it in the shape of a lobster as far as possible. Cut the 
tail-piece into thick slices, without changing its position. Sea- 
son the sauce with salt, pepper and cayenne, and pour it over 
the meat. Place around the edges triangular croutons, and 
garnish with head, small claws, and tail. 

LOBSTER FILLING FOR PATTIES 

1 cupful of lobster meat cut into dice. 1 teaspoonf ul of salt. 

1 tablespoonful of butter. J teaspoonf ul of pepper. 

1 tablespoonful of flour. Dash of cayenne. 

1 cupful of milk. 2 yolks. 

Put the butter into a saucepan ; when melted add the flour^ 
and cook a few minutes, but not brown ; add slowly the milk 
or cream, and stir until perfectly smooth. To this white sauce 
add the two yolks beaten, and stir them in off the fire ; then add 
the meat, season, and replace on the fire until sufficiently thick- 
ened. Mix carefully with a wooden spoon, so as not to break 
the meat. The filling should be very creamy. The salpicon 
given below may be used for filling, if preferred. 

SALPICON OF LOBSTER 

1 tablespoonful of lobster 1 tablespoonful of butter. 

meat cut into dice. 1 teaspoonful of flour. 

6 mushrooms. J cupful of white stock. 

1 truffle. i cupful of cream. 

Salt and cayenne. 

Put one level tablespoonful of butter into a saucepan, and 
when melted add one level tablespoonful of flour ; cook, but not 



SHELL-FISH, LOBSTERS, CRABS 141 

brown J add slowly tlie stock, and stir until perfectly smooth; 
then add the cream ; after it begins to thicken add the lobster 
meat, the chopped truffle, and the mushrooms cut into dice. 
Season highly with salt and cayenne or paprica. Let simmer 
for five minutes. This must be creamy, but not too soft. It 
can be served as filling for patties or potato croustades, or may 
be served in paper boxes. This amount makes about a cupful 
of salpicon, which is enough for six patties. 

GRABS 

Crabs are in season during the months of May, June, July, 
and August. They may be had at other times, but are then 
light and stringy. Soft-shell crabs are best in July and August. 
Like lobsters, crabs must be bought while alive, and boiled in 
the same way. Put them head first into hot water. After five 
minutes add one tablespoonful of salt, and boil for thirty 
minutes. 

When cold remove the shells, the stomach, which is just 
under the head, the gills, and the intestine. Take out the meat 
carefully. 

DEVILED CRABS 

12 crabs. 1 teaspoonful salt. 

1 cupful of cream or milk. J teaspoonful paprica or 

IJ tablespoonfuls of butter. dash of cayenne. 

1 tablespoonful of flour. J teaspoonful of lemon juice. 

1 tablespoonful chopped parsley. Yolks of 4 hard-boiled eggs. 

To obtain enough meat to fill nine shells, use twelve crabs. 
After they are boiled remove the meat with care, breaking it as 
little as possible. 

Put into a double boiler the cream ; when it is scalded add to 
it the fiour and butter, which have been rubbed together; stir 
until smooth and thickened; then add the mashed yolks, the sea- 
soning, and the crab meat. Mix well together, and taste to see 
if more seasoning is needed. Deviled crabs need to be highly 
seasoned. A little mustard may be used, if desired. Have the 



142 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

shells carefully washed and dried, and fill them with the mixture, 
rounding it well on top, and pressing it close to the edges of the 
shells, so that in frying none of the fat may enter. Smooth the 
top, and let stand until cold. Beat one egg with one tablespoon- 
ful of water, and, holding a shell over this, baste it with the eggy 
letting it run over the whole top, including the shell; then 
sprinkle with white bread crumbs. Put two at a time into a 
frying-basket, and immerse in very hot fat. It will take but a 
minute to color them. They may be browned in the oven, if 
preferred, in which case the egging is omitted, and a few pieces 
of butter are placed on top of the crumbs. 

STUFFED CRABS WITH MUSHROOMS 

Meat of 6 crabs. 1 tablespoonful of butter. 

Mushrooms cut into dice 1 tablespoonful of flour. 

the same quantity as of 1 teaspoonful of salt. 

the crab meat. i teaspoonful of paprica, or 
1 cupful of cream or milk. dash of cayenne. 

1 slice of onion. J teaspoonful of lemon juice. 
Yolks of 4 hard-boiled eggs. 

Put into a saucepan one tablespoonful of butter, and one 
slice of onion chopped fine ; before it becomes brown, add one 
tablespoonful of fiourj cook, but not brown; and add slowly 
one cupful of milk or cream. Stir until smooth and thickened ; 
then add the mashed yolks, the seasoning, the crab meat, and 
the chopped mushrooms. This mixture should not be very 
soft. Fill the shells with it, and finish the same as deviled 
crabs. 

SOFT-SHELL CRABS 

Wash the crabs carefully; lift up the flap, and remove the 
sand-bag (stomach), gills, and intestine; dry them well, and 
dredge with salt and pepper. Roll in flour, and saute them in 
butter. Have a generous amount of butter in the frying-pan, 
and saut6 them on both sides ; when done place them on a hot 
dish. To the butter in the frying-pan add a little lemon juice. 



FISH 143 

Strain this over the crabs, and sprinkle them with parsley- 
chopped very fine. 

Sof t-sheU crabs may also be fried, in which case they are first 
dipped in milk, then covered with fine bread-crumbs, and im- 
mersed in hot fat. 

They may also be broiled over a slow fire, and when done 
covered with maitre d'hotel sauce. The preferable way of 
cooking them is by the method first given. 

OYSTER-CRABS 

After they are carefully washed and dried, dip them in milk, 
then roll them in flour, and fry them for one minute in hot fat. 

Serve them on a hot napkin with quarters of lemon, or they 
may be served in fontage cups, or in paper boxes, or in shells. 
(See also oyster-crabs, page 310.) 

GRABS ST. LAURENT 

1 cupful of boiled crab meat (6 1 tablespoonful of flour, 
crabs). J cupful stock. 

2 tablespoonfuls grated Parme- J cupful cream or milk, 
san cheese. J teaspoonful salt. 

2 tablespoonfuls white wine. J teaspoonful pepper. 

1 tablespoonful of butter. Dash of cayenne. 

Put into a saucepan one tablespoonful of butter j when 
melted add the flour; cook, but not brown j add slowly the 
stock, and stir until perfectly smooth ; then add the cream, 
and when thickened, add the salt and pepper, then the crab meat 
and the cheese j simmer for a few minutes, and add the wine ; 
spread this mixture over pieces of buttered toast cut in squares 
or circles ; sprinkle with grated Parmesan cheese, and place on 
each piece a small bit of butter ; set in the oven for three min- 
utes ; serve very hot on a napkin garnished with paisley. This -^ 
dish may be prepared in a chafing-dish, in which case the mix- ^ 
ture must be placed on the toast and served directly from the 
chafing-dish. 

Boiled halibut may be substituted for the crab meat. 



144 



THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 



CRAB STEW 



J dozen crabs. 

1 quart milk. 

Yolks of 4 eggs boiled hard. 

i lemon. 

1 nutmeg. 

Mash the hard-boiled yolks 



2 tablespoonfuls butter. 

1 tablespoonful flour. 

1 dessert spoonful mustard. 

i teaspoonf ul salt. 

J teaspoonf ul red pepper. 

fine, and rub into them the 



butter, flour and mustard. 

Put the milk into a double boiler ; when it is scalded stir in 
the mixture of egg, etc.; season, and just before serving stir 
in the crab meat, and add one cupful of sherry. Place in bottom 
of a deep dish a few thin slices of lemon and turn the stew over 
them. 



Slow 



Chaptek IY 

MEATS 

Long, slow cooking breaks down the fiber of meat, 
and so makes it more tender. Whatever method of cooking, 
cooking is employed, this fact should be remembered. 
Many of the tough pieces are the most nutritious ones, 
and can by slow cooking be made as acceptable as the 
more expensive cuts. 

In order to shut in the juices, meat should at first Juioea. 
be subjected to a high degree of heat for a short time. 
A crust or case will then be formed on the outside by 
the coagulation of the albumen, after which the heat 
should be lowered, and the cooking proceed slowly. 
The same rule holds for baking, where the oven must 
be very hot for the first few minutes only ; for boil- 
ing, where the water must be boiling and covered for 
a time, and then placed where it will simmer only ; 
for broiling, where the meat must be placed close to 
the coals at first, then held farther away. 

Tough meats are better boiled, because a lower de- 
gree of heat can be maintained and slower cooking 
insured. 

Dark meats should be served underdone or red j the of cookiBg. 
white meats thoroughly cooked, but not dried. 

Dry meats are improved by being larded. Dry laeats. 

Clean meat by wiping it with a wet cloth, but do not cleaning, 
put it in water. 

Salt and pepper draw out the juices; therefore do geasonirg 
not put them on meat before cooking, or until after 

10 145 



146 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

the meat is seared, unless the meat is to be covered at once with 
egg and crumbs, or with flour. 

Do not pierce the meat with a fork while cooking, as it 
makes an outlet for the juices. If necessary to turn it, use 
two spoons. 

TO KOAST BEEF 

Time for cooking rib roast rare eight to ten minutes per 
pound J time for cooking rolled roast rare, ten to twelve min- 
utes per pound. 

To roast beef on a spit before the fire is unquestionably the 
best method of cooking it; but as few kitchens are equipped 
for roasting meats, baking them in the oven is generally prac- 
tised, and has come to be called roasting. Beef should be well 
streaked with fat, and have a bright-red color. Place the meat 
to be baked on a rack which will raise it a little above the bot- 
tom of the pan. Dredge the whole, top and sides, with flour. 
Place in a corner of the pan a half teaspoonful of salt and a 
quarter teaspoonful of pepper. Do not let them touch the raw 
meat, as they draw out the juices. Put into the pan also two 
tablespoonfuls of drippings. Place it in a very hot oven for 
fifteen or twenty minutes, or until the meat is browned ; then 
shut off the drafts and lower the temperature of the oven, and 
cook slowly until donej baste frequently; do not put water 
in the pan, as it makes steam, and prevents browning. A 
roast has a better appearance if the ribs are not too long. 
They may be cut off and reserved for the soup pot, or broken 
and doubled under. 

Serve it standing on the ribs, and cut the slices in line with 
the ribs. 

For a rolled roast, remove the bones, roll it, and tie securely 
into good shape ; when cooked, cut the cords and run through 
a fancy skewer holding at the head a slice of lemon or piece of 
carrot cut into ornamental shape. This piece of beef stands on 
the dish like a cylinder, and should be cut across horizontally. 

If the beef is cooked as directed it will have one quarter of 



MEATS 147 

an inch of seared meat ; the rest will be of a uniform red color 
all through. If cooked in too hot an oven the center will be 
raw, while an inch or two of the outside will be much over- 
done, hard, and tasteless. (See illustration facing page 152.) 

YORKSHIRE PUDDING 

Put two cupfuls of flour into a bowl, and mix in one half 
a teaspoonf ul of salt. Beat up three eggs, and stir them into 
the flour ; then add two cupfuls of milk. Stir until the mixture 
is smooth, then turn it into a pan containing a little of the drip- 
pings from the roast beef. Let the batter be only one inch 
deep in the pan: Bake thirty to forty minutes. Cut the pud- 
ding in squares, and place it around the roast beef. 

ROUND OF BEEF 

Ten to twelve minutes per pound. 

The cut from* the upper side of the round is a good roasting 
piece. It should be cooked very slowly after it is browned in 
order to make it tender. The under side of the round should 
be cooked d la mode, or braised. 

« 

BRAISED BEEF 

Take one hpJf cupful of salt pork, one half cupful each of carrot, 
turnip, onion, and celery, all cut into dice. Mix them together 
and spread them on a baking pan, reserving one half cupful for 
the top of the meat. On the bed of vegetables place a piece of 
beef cut from the upper or under side of the round, weighing 
five or six pounds. Dredge it with flour. Place it in hot oven to 
brown for twenty to twenty-five minutes. Then add two cupfuls 
of stock or water; a bouquet of herbs, consisting of parsley, six 
peppercorns, three cloves, one bay-leaf; spread the one half cup- 
ful of vegetables over the meat ; add a half teaspoonf ul of salt 
to the pan, cover it closely with another pan, reduce the heat 
of the oven, and cook very slowly for four or five hours. 



148 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

Double pans are made which are especially good for braising, 
where the steam should be confined as much as possible, and the 
basting is done automatically. These pans should not be used 
for baking meats. If very close fitting pans are not used, the 
water must be renewed when necessary, and basting done fre- 
quently. The success of this dish depends upon slow cooking. 
Strain the sauce from the pan, season with salt and pepper; 
pour a little of the sauce over the meatj serve the rest in a 
sauce-boat. It is very like a Spanish sauce. The vegetables 
may be served around the meat if desired. This way of cook- 
ing can be done in a pot if more convenient, and is then called 
a pot roast. 

BEEF A LA MODE 

Use six or seven pounds of the upper round of beef for this 
dish. (It is very good cold when properly cooked.) The suc- 
cess depends upon very slow cooking. The vegetables give it a 
distinctive flavor. 

Make several deep incisions into the meat with a thin, sharp 
knife, or with a steel. Press into them lardoons of salt pork 
about half an inch square, and two or three inches long. This is 
called daubing, and the butcher will ordinarily do it if requested, 
Put trimmings of pork, or two tablespoonfuls of drippings, into 
the bottom of a large iron pot. "When it is hot, put in the meat, 
and brown it on all sides by turning it to the bottom of the pot. 
This will take about half an hour. Next dredge it with flour, and 
brown that also. Then put a small plate under the beef to lift it 
a little off the bottom of the pot, and prevent its burning. FiU 
the pot with enough boiling water to half cover the meat. Add 
a half cupful each of sliced onions, carrots, and turnips, and a 
sprig of parsley. Cover the pet very tight, so the meat will cook 
in steam; and simmer it for four or five hours. Add more boil- 
ing water when necessary. When the meat is done, place it 
on a hot dish. Place some of the vegetables around and over it. 
Make a gravy as follows: put into a saucepan a tablespoonful 
of butter; when it bubbles, add a tablespoonful of flour, and 



MEATS 149 

stir until it is browned j then add a cupful of liquor strained 
from the pot in which the beef was cooked. If there is not a 
cupful of liquor in the pot, add enough hot water to make that 
quantity. Season with pepper and salt. This will resemble a 
Spanish sauce. It can be poured over the meat, or served 
separately. 

BOUILLI 

This dish is prepared usually from the meat used in making 
soup. Take a piece from the lower side of round; trim, and tie 
it into good shape j place it in the soup pot with cold water, 
allowing one quart of water to each pound of meat. Let it 
come slowly to the boiling point, and then let it simmer for four 
hours. After it has cooked two hours add a whole carrot, onion, 
and turnip, parsley, celery, six peppercorns, three cloves, one 
teaspoonful of salt. The meat will be tender if cooked very 
slowly, and not allowed to boil; but having been put into cold 
water, its juices will be extracted. Therefore the water is used 
as soup, and the meat will depend on a good sauce for flavor. 
Any rich brown sauce will do. Tomato or horseradish sauce is 
recommended. Cut the vegetables into fancy shapes with cut- 
ters, or into dice, and place them on the dish around the meat. 

FILLET OF BEEF 

Time, thirty minutes in hot oven. 

The fillet is the tenderloin of beef, and is taken from the 
underside of the sirloin cut. Remove, taking care not to make 
the meat ragged, the sinewy skin and the muscle from the 
top, and most of the fat from the other side. Fold the thin end 
under, trim it into good shape. Lard it plentifully, letting the 
whole upper surface be perforated with fine lardoons. Place in 
a small baking pan thin slices of larding pork, over the pork 
place a layer of chopped onion, carrot, turnip and celery; lay 
the tenderloin on top. Pour in the pan a cupful of stock, add 
one half "teaspoonful of salt, one quarter teaspoonful of pepper, 
and a bouquet of parsley, one bay -leaf, and two cloves. Bake 



150 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

in a hot oven for thirty minutes, and baste frequently. The 
fillet should be rare. Remove it when donej strain off the 
gravy, and skim off the grease. Put into the same pan a table- 
spoonful each of butter and of flour j stir until they are browned ; 
then add slowly the gravy strained from the pan; if not enough 
to give a cupful, add enough stock to make that measure. Stir 
untn it boils j then add a canful of mushrooms (which have been 
drained), and let them simmer for five minutes ; not longer, or 
the mushrooms will harden. Taste to see if the seasoning is 
right. Add a half teaspoonf ul of kitchen bouquet to make it 
brown. The sauce should be of the consistency of cream. A 
half cupful of Madeira or of sherry may be used in place of 
the mushrooms if preferred. Spread the sauce on the serving 
dish, and lay the fillet on it. Arrange the mushrooms top side 
up, evenly around the fillet. In carving cut the fillet diagonally, 
instead of straight across ; and put a little gravy in the center 
of each slice. The time for cooking is always thirty minutes, 
for the weight is in the length, and not in the thickness of the 
meat. 

HOW TO BUY A FILLET 

A profitable way to obtain a fillet is to buy a large cut of the 
sirloin, remove the tenderloin, and have the top cut into two or 
more roasting pieces. Beef will keep for some time, and the 
butcher will hold it until called for. In this way it will cost 
twenty-two to twenty-five cents per pound, while, if bought by 
itself, it would be from eighty cents to one dollar per pound. 

For a moderate sized family it may seem too much beef to 
buy at one time; but it is the one kind of meat that can be 
served very often, and there is no waste. It is good hot or 
cold, warmed over or hashed. The suet is the best fat for 
frying purposes, and the bones make good soup. Part of the 
sirloin piece can be cut into steaks, and one of the roasting 
pieces rolled to give variety. The flank can be made into Ham- 
burg steaks, or into soup. If judiciously cut there will be 
little left over to cook again. 



MEATS 151 

GOLD ROAST BEEF 

Roasted and braised beef are both quite as good cold as hot, 
and in summer are sometimes preferable cold. Serve with cold 
beef a vegetable salad when it is used for dinner. Make the 
salad of string beans, asparagus, or a macedoine of vegetables. 
For a supper dish, the rolled rib roast can be made very attrac- 
tive by garnishing it with aspic jelly cut into fancy forms. Place 
a large star of the jelly on top, and small timbale forms of jelhed 
vegetables, and broken jelly on the dish around the meatj or a 
simpler garnishing can be made with lettuce leaves, tomatoes 
stuffed with mayonnaise, or celery, etc. Use lettuce with any of 
the salads. Have a fancy skewer stuck in the side. 

SCALLOPED MEAT 

Spread in a baking dish alternate layers of bread-crumbs, 
meat chopped very fine, a sprinkling of chopped parsley and 
onion, pepper and salt. When the dish is nearly full, pour 
over enough white sauce to moisten it well; cover with crumbs 
and bits of butter. Set in oven until browned. Soup stock 
or tomatoes may also be used for moistening a scallop. If un- 
cooked meat is used, it will require longer cooking (one hour 
in slow oven), and more liquid used, so that it will not get too 
dry. The coarse ends of steak can be utilized in this way. 
A scallop made of raw meat and tomatoes makes a good luncheon 
dish. 

HAMBURG STEAKS 

Chop one pound of lean raw meat very fine, remove all the 
fiber possible. To the mince add 

i tablespoonf ul of onion juice. J teaspoonful pepper. 
i teaspoonful salt. Dash of nutmeg. 

1 



Form it into small balls, and flatten; dredge them with flour, 
and saute them in butter. Place them on a hot dish, and spread 
with maitre d'h6tel butter; or make a thick brown sauce by 



152 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

adding a tablespoonful of flour to the butter used in the saut6 
pan. Let it brown j then add slowly a little soup stock. Sea- 
son with salt and pepper, and lemon juice, or Worcestershire 
sauce. Drop a teaspoonful of sauce on each cake without 
spreading it. Garnish with water-cresses. These steaks can be 
made from the end pieces of steaks, or from the round. 

When made for invalids, the best meat is used. They are 
seasoned only with salt and pepper, and broiled just enough to 
be thoroughly heated. Another way to serve them is to make 
them the size of English muffins j on the upper side make a 
depression or hollow, broil or saute them, and place them on a 
baking dish j spread them with maitre d'h6tel butter, and drop 
an egg in the hollow top of each one. Put them in the oven just 
long enough to set the white of the egg. Place a dash of pep- 
per on the center of the yolk, and serve at once very hot. 

BEEF FIE 

Lay in a pie dish a few thin slices of onion ; then a layer of 
cold cooked beef cut very thin. Dredge with a little flour, pep- 
per, and salt j fill the dish with these articles in alternate lay- 
ers, and add any cold gravy there may be at hand. Scald and 
peel enough tomatoes to cover the top of the dish ; have them 
of uniform size, and place them close together. Spread over 
them some bread crumbs, salt, pepper, and bits of butter. 
Place the dish in the oven, and cook until the tomatoes are 
tender. 

Mutton or veal may be used in the same way. 

WARMED-OVEE BEEF (CHAFING-DISH) 

Cut the beef into small thin slices, and trim off the fat. Put 
into a stew pan one tablespoonful of butter, and one table- 
spoonful of flour. When cooked, and a little browned, add 
slowly one cupful of stock, one teaspoonful each of Worcester- 
shire sauce and mushroom catsup. Season with salt and pep- 
per to taste. Add the slices of beef, and let them become 



ROLLED RIB ROAST OP BEEF GARNISHED WITH POTATOES ROASTED I\ SAME DISH 

WITH THE BEEP. FANCY SKEWER GARNISHED WITH SLICES OF TURNIP AND 

CARROT, RUN INTO THE SIDE TO HOLD IT TOGETHER. (SEE PAGE 146.) 



A BONKD T1:NDERL0IN STEAK MADE TO IMITATE A CHATEAUBRIAND GARNISHED 
WITH WATER-CRESS AND LEMON. (SEE PAGE 157.) 




MARROW-BONES SERVED ON ROUND SLICES OP TOAST. (SEE PAGE 159.) 



MEATS 153 

thoroughly hot. Then place in the center of a hot dish, and 
pour the sauce over them. Garnish with croiitons, and serve 
with it farina balls (see page 223). Tomato catsup may be sub- 
stituted for the Worcestershire sauce. When this dish is to 
be prepared in a chafing-dish, the sauce may be made before- 
hand ; the heating and mixing only being done over the lamp, 
and croutons alone served with it. Any kind of meat or fish 
may be used in this way. 

INSIDE FLANK 

Take the piece of meat called the inside flank ; wipe it clean 
with a wet cloth ; carefully remove the skin and fat and lay it 
flat on a board ; moisten three quarters of a cupful of crumbs 
with stock 5 add one teaspoonf ul of salt, one quarter teaspoon- 
ful of pepper, one teaspoonful onion juice or one half onion 
chopped fine, one tablespoonful chopped parsley. Spread this 
mixture on the meat evenly; then roll and tie it with white 
twine J turn in the ends to make it even and shapely. 

Cut into dice an onion, turnip, and carrot, and place them in 
a baking-pan ; lay the rolled meat on the bed of vegetables ; 
pour in enough stock or water to cover the pan one inch deep ; 
add a bouquet made of parsley, one bay-leaf and three cloves ; 
cover with another pan, and let cook slowly for four or five 
hours, basting frequently. It can be done in a pot just as well, 
and should be covered as tight as possible ; when cooked, strain 
off the vegetables; thicken the gravy with brown roux and 
serve it with the meat. Long, slow cooking is essential to make 
the meat tender. If cooked too fast it will not be good. 

A thin steak cut from the round may be cooked the same 
way, and a little ham chopped fine may be added to the stuffing. 
The cost of this dish is not more than eighteen to twenty-five 
cents, and is enough for four or five persons. 

RAGOUT OF BEEF 

Cut two pounds of the upper round of beef into inch squares ; 
dredge them with salt and pepper, and roll them in flour. Put 



154: THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

into a saucepan some butter and some drippings, or a little suet, 
and let it try out, using enough only to cover the bottom of the 
saucepan ; when the gre^ise is hot, turn in the pieces of meat, 
and let them cook until well browned on all sides. Watch, and 
turn them as soon as browned j then draw the meat to one side 
of the pan, and add a tablespoonful of flour j let the flour 
brown, and add a cupful of stock or water, and stir until it 
comes to the boiling-point 5 then add a teaspoonful of salt, a half 
teaspoonful of pepper, one half teaspoonful of kitchen bouquet; 
one carrot cut into ])locks, and one tablespoonful of onion; 
cover the saucepan, «'i,nd let it simmer (not boil) for an hour. 
Just before serving add two tablespoonf uls of sherry or of Ma- 
deira. Serve a border of rice around the ragout. 



BEEFSTEAK 

Some one has said, "There is as much difference be- 
tween beefsteaks as between faces, and a man of taste 
can find as much variety in a dinner at the Beefsteak 
Club as at the most plentifully-served table in town." 

The difference between a thick and a thin steak is 
particularly marked — the former seems like an alto- 
gether different dish from the latter. Some may like Thickness, 
their steak well done, but it is not a taste to be com- 
mended. A perfect steak should be cut one and a 
half inches thick, and cooked so that on both sides it 
has a crust one eighth of an inch thick of browned 
meat, the rest being an even red color. It should be 
puffed and elastic from the confined steam of the 
juices. When the steak is over-cooked the steam 
and the juices have escaped, leaving the meat dry 
and tasteless. The three best sauces which are served 
with steak are first the maitre d%6tel and then the 
B^arnaise and mushroom sauces. Tough beefsteaks Sauces, 
can be made more tender by pounding them ; but a 
better way is to brush them on both sides with a mix- 
ture of one tablespoonful of vinegar and two table- 
spoonfuls of oil or melted butter. The steak should 
then stand two or more hours before being cooked. It 
is the fiber of meat which makes it tough, and this fiber 
is soluble in acetic acid, which is found in vinegar. 
Broiling under the coals is better than over them 
when possible, as all smoke is then avoided. 

155 



156 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 



TO BROIL A BEEFSTEAK 

Time : one inch thick, eight minutes j one and a half inches 
thick, ten minutes. 

Trim a steak into good shape, taking off the end-piece to be 
used in some other form, as it is not eatable when broiled; 
take off superfluous fat j make the surface smooth by striking 
it with the broad blade of knife j heat the broiler very hot. 
Take a piece of the fat, trimmed off the meat, on a fork and 
grease the broiler wellj lay on the steak with the outside or 
skin edge toward the handle, so the fat may run on the meat. 
Place it close to the hot coals and count ten slowly ; turn it and 
do the same ; this is to sear the outside and keep the juices in j 
then hold it farther from the coals to cook more slowly, and 
turn it as often as you count ten, counting about as fast as the 
clock ticks. If turned in this way very little fat will run into 
the fire, and it also cooks slowly, giving an even color all 
through. The flame from fat does not injure the meat, but 
the smoke must be avoided. Wrap a napkin around the 
hand holding the broiler to protect it from the heat. A steak 
ought not to be less than an inch, but should be one and a half 
to one and three quarters inches thick. Allow eight to ten 
minutes for cooking according to the thickness. One two 
inches thick will take fourteen to eighteen minutes. A steak 
should be rare but not raw, should have a uniform red color, 
and be full of juice. 

When done it will be puffed between the wires of broiler, 
and will offer a little resistance to the touch. If experience 
does not enable one to judge in this way, remove the broiler to 
a dish on the table, and make a small clean cut on one side. 
Do not at any time pierce the meat with a fork, Sprinkle 
it with salt and pepper, and spread with maitre d'hotel butter. 
If the steak has to stand a few minutes before serving, which 
should be avoided if possible, dredge it at once with salt and 
pepper, but do not spread with the maitre d'h6tel butter until 
just before sending it to the table. The heat of the meat must 



MEATS 157 

melt the butter^ and the parsley should look fresh and bright. 
Steak, as well as all broiled articles, should be garnished with 
slices of lemon and with water-cress. 

Fried potato-balls, straws, puffed, or Saratoga potatoes may 
be served on the same dish. 

CHATEAUBRIAND 

The Chateaubriand is cut from the center of the fillet j but 
a good substitute is a tenderloin steak cut two inches thick, 
the bone removed, and the meat then turned so as to make 
a circle. Flatten it by striking with broad blade of knife or a 
cleaver. Broil slowly as directed above for eighteen minutes. 
Serve with maitre d'h6tel butter, mushroom, or olive sauce, 
placing the mushrooms or olives on top of the steak, the sauce 
under it. (See illustration facing page 152.) 

The Chateaubriand may also be roasted or braised. 

MIGNON FILLETS 

Cut slices from the end of the fillet of beef about five eighths of 
an inch thick. Press and trim them into circles j dredge with salt 
and pepper ; saute them in butter ; spread B6arnaise sauce on 
a hot dish, and lay the mignon fillets on it, or lay the fillets on 
croutons of the same size as the fillet, and place on top of each 
one a small spoonful of peas, string-beans, or macedoine of 
vegetables. 

CORNED BEEF 

Put corned beef into cold water; using enough to cover it 
well ; let it come slowly to the boiling-point ; then place where 
it will simmer only ; allow thirty minutes or more to each pound. 
It is improved by adding a few soup vegetables the last hour of 
cooking. A piece from the round is the best cut, and should 
have a layer of fat. If cooked very slowly as directed, it wiU 
be tender and juicy. 

If the piece can be used a second time, trim it to good shape j 
place it again in the water in which it was boiled j let it get 



158 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

heated through j then set aside to cool in the water and under 
pressure, a plate or deep dish holding a flat-iron being set on 
top of the meat. The water need not rise above the meat suf- 
ficiently to wet the iron. "When cooled under pressure the 
meat is more firm and cuts better into slices. 

Cabbage is usually served with hot corned beef, but should 
not be boiled with it. The receipt given on page 212 is recom- 
mended, and if that method is followed, there will be no odor 
from the cooking, and the objection to this very good dish will 
be removed. 

CORNED BEEF HASH 

Chop cooked corned beef, using some of the fat. Do not 
make it too fine j chop some cold boiled potatoes (not fine) j mix 
the two together in equal proportions j season with salt, pep- 
per, and onion juice, if liked. 

Put a tablespoonful of butter in a frying-pan with as much 
milk, stock, or hot water as will be required to moisten the 
hash J add the chopped meat and potatoes j mix them together 
with care to not mash the potatoes j cover and cook slowly for 
half an hour, or until a crust has formed on the bottom of the 
pan J then turn it on to a hot dish, like an omelet. Hash should 
not be like mush, but the meat and potato quite distinct, and 
as both ingredients have been already cooked they need only to 
be well heated and incorporated with the seasoning. 

HASH 

Unless for brown hash, or corned beef hash, potato is not 
used. Chop the meat to a fine mince. Put a tablespoonful of 
butter into a frying-pan with one slice of onion ; remove the 
onion when cooked, and add one tablespoonful of flour, and let 
it brown, thus making a brown roux, if the hash is to be made 
of beef or mutton. Do not let it brown if it is to be used for 
veal or chicken hash. To the brown roux add slowly a cupful 
of stock or hot water j then a cupful and a half of minced meat ; 
season with salt and pepper j stir until well incorporated, and 



MEATS 159 

serve at once on toast. To a white roux add slowly a cupful 
of milk J then add one and a half cupfuls of veal or chicken 
chopped fine ; season with salt and pepper. Cut toast into large 
circles with a biscuit-cutter. Spread them with a thick layer of 
mince, and on this place a poached egg, neatly trimmed to the 
same size as the toast. It can be cut with the same cutter, or 
it may be poached in a muffin-ring (see page 263). 

Put a dash of pepper on the center of yolk. Garnish with 
parsley. This makes a very presentable breakfast or luncheon 
dish. 

BROWN HASH 

Cut lean meat into small dice j cut also cold boiled potatoes 
into dice of the same size ; mix them together, and place in a 
small baking-pan j dredge with salt and pepper, and dot plen- 
tifully with bits of butter. Put into hot oven to brown j stir 
them often so aU sides will brown alike, and do not let them 
become too dry. 

MAEROW-BONES 

Have the bones cut into pieces two or three inches long; 
scrape and wash them very clean j spread a little thick dough on 
each end to keep the marrow in ; then tie each bone in a piece of 
cloth and boil them for one hour. Remove the cloth and paste, 
and place each bone on a square of toast; sprinkle with red 
pepper and serve very hot. Or the marrow-bone can be boiled 
without being cut, the marrow then removed with a spoon 
and placed on squares of hot toast. Serve for luncheon. (See 
illustration facing page 152.) 



MUTTON 



The ents 
and cook- 
ing of 
Mutton. 



Vegetables 
to serve 

with 
Vntton. 



Anecdote 

of Charles 

Lamb. 



Mutton should be hung for some days before being 
used. The leg may be either boiled or roasted j the 
saddle always roasted; the shoulder boned, stuffed and 
roasted; the chops broiled, and the neck stewed. Ex- 
cept where it is stewed, mutton should be cooked 
rare. Mrs. Brugiere recommends pounding the leg of 
mutton before cooking it. The roasted leg or the 
saddle are the only forms of mutton permissible to 
serve at a ceremonious dinner. The strong taste of 
mutton is in the fat. Therefore trim off a part of the 
fat from the outside, and when baking it in the oven 
set the joint on a rack in the pan, so it will not cook 
in the fat. 

Certain vegetables have by experience been found 
to go well with certain meats. Of these turnips have 
been established as the accompaniment of mutton. 
This has been amusingly emphasized by an anecdote 
told of Charles Lamb. On an occasion when riding 
in a stage coach, he was much annoyed by a Scotch 
farmer, who was a fellow passenger, asking him ques- 
tions about the crops. *^And pray, sir," asked the 
farmer, "how are turnips t' year?" "Why," stam- 
mered Lamb, " that will depend upon the boiled legs 
of mutton." 

Turnips and carrots cut into dice, boiled separately, 
then mixed and covered with white sauce, also make 
a good vegetable dish for boiled mutton. Caper 
sauce is always served with it. 

Another anecdote is given as a suggestion for an 

160 



IVIEATS 161 

expedient in case the mutton is too underdone (boiled 
mutton should be red, but not black). An English 
nobleman, on being shown a Dutch picture represent- 
ing a man in a passion with his wife because the mut- 
ton was underdone, exclaimed, " What a fool the fel- 
low is not to see that he may have a capital broil." 

With roasted mutton may be served baked turnips 
stuffed with seasoned bread-crumbs soaked in cream. 
It is a Russian dish. Bananas cut in two, rolled in 
egg and crumbs, and fried like croquettes, are also 
recommended for roast mutton. Mint sauce and 
green peas are usually served with spring lamb. 



162 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

ROAST LEG OF MUTTON 

Time ten minutes per pound (rare) 5 fifteen minutes per pound 
(moderately well done). 

Cut the bone short, place in a hot oven for twenty minutes ; 
then add one cupful of hot water; baste frequently. Allow ten 
minutes to the pound for cooking rare. When ready to serve 
conceal the bone with a frill of paper, or a few leaves of parsley. 

ROAST LOIN OF MUTTON 

Have the joints cracked entirely through, so there may be no 
trouble in carving. Remove the fat and kidney. Allow nine 
minutes to the pound ; roast the same as the leg. 

ROAST SADDLE OF MUTTON 

The saddle is the back of the animal. If split it would be 
called the loin, and when cut gives the chops. It does not 
furnish very much meat for a roast, so requires to be a large 
cut. It is esteemed for its handsome appearance, as well as for 
its flavor. Remove the skin from the top, also the fat and kid- 
neys from the under side. The suet on the top can be lightly 
cut in points, and a little raised to make decoration. Roll the 
flaps under, and tie into a well rounded shape. If a large sad- 
dle is used, the tail is left on. It should be cooked in a hot 
oven, basted frequently, and cooked rare, allowing nine minutes 
to the pound. In carving cut slices the length of the saddle, 
and parallel to the back bone ; then slip the knife under, and 
separate them from the rib bones. After the top is carved, the 
saddle is turned, and the tenderloin, which lies on the under 
side, is cut in the same way. 

Serve currant jelly with the saddle of mutton. 

ROLLED LOIN (CROWN ROAST) 

Have the butcher cut a full loin, split the bone between the 
chops, trim the rib bones as for French chops, and chop them off 




CROSN-N KUAST. A RACK OF MUTTON, THE CEMEK FILLED AVITH SARATOGA POTA- 
TOES. (SEE PAGE 162.) 




BONED AND STUFFED SHOULDER OF MUTTON. <-.) i. IVGE WJ.) 



MEATS 163 

to a uniform length j then roll the loin backward into a circle, and 
tie securely. Have a thick slice of larding pork wrapped around 
each bone, so it will not burn while cooking. Baste frequently 
while roasting, and allow nine minutes to the pound. Serve 
with Saratoga or other fancy fried potatoes in the basket-like 
top formed by the bones. Place a frill of paper on each bone. 

SHOULDER OF MUTTON STUFFED 

Have the butcher carefully remove the blade from the shoul- 
der, and fill the space with a mixture made of 

1 cupful of bread-crumbs. Juice of 1 lemon. 

2 tablespoonfuls of butter. 1 teaspoonf ul of salt. 

1 tablespoonful chopped parsley. J teaspoonful of pepper. 
1 dozen oysters. 1 egg. 

Sew up the opening, roast in the oven with a little water in 
the pan; allow fifteen minutes to the pound, and baste fre- 
quently. Serve with the gravy from the pan, after the grease is 
carefully poured off. More oysters may be used, or they may be 
omitted altogether. A stuffing may be made of chopped meat, 
celery, onion, mushrooms, crumbs, egg, and seasoning of salt 
and pepper. 

A stuffed shoulder can be pressed into a shape to resemble 
a fowl or a duck, and garnished so as to make an ornamental 
dish. 

BOILED MUTTON 

Time fifteen minutes to the pound. 

Put the mutton in just enough boiling water to cover it, and 
put on the lid of the pot. After fifteen minutes draw it aside, 
and let it simmer for the required time. Thirty minutes before 
removing the meat add some soup vegetables. They will give 
flavor to the meat, and enrich the water, which may be used for 
soup the next day. Cut the carrot and turnip in half inch 
thick slices, and stamp with a fluted cutter, so the rims will be 
scalloped. Place the meat on a hot dish, and rub lightly over it 



164 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

enough of the white sauce (to be used for the caper sauce) 
to make the surface white and smooth. Sprinkle with chopped 
parsley or capers. Take the sliced vegetables, cut a hole in the 
center, and string them alternately on the bone, which will pro- 
trude at each end. This will give the effect of skewers, conceal 
the bone, and make the dish more presentable. 
Serve with caper sauce. 



CAPER SAUCE 

Put two tablespoonfuls of butter into a saucepan; when 
melted, add a tablespoonful of flour; cook for a few minutes, 
but not brown ; then add one cupful of water in which the mut- 
ton was boiled; season with salt and pepper, strain, and add 
one heaping tablespoonful of capers. 



EAGOUT OF MUTTON OB LAMB 

One and one half pounds of the neck of mutton or lamb cut 
into pieces one inch square. 

1 tablespoonful of butter. IJ cupful s of water or stock. 
1 tablespoonful of flour. 1 teaspoonful of salt. 
1 onion. J teaspoonful of pepper. 

1 carrot. Sprig of parsley. 

i can of peas. 1 bay-leaf. 

1 clove. 

Put the butter into a frying-pan; when melted add the flour, 
and let brown. Then add the carrot and onion cut into dice, and 
the mutton. Cook, stirring frequently, until all are browned, 
using care that they do not burn; it will take about twenty 
minutes. Then add the stock or water, and the seasoning, 
having the herbs in a bouquet, so they can be removed. Cover 
closely, and let simmer for two hours. Add the peas ten min- 
utes before removing from the fire. 



MEATS 165 

RAGOUT OF COLD BOILED MUTTOH 

2 cupfuls of cold boiled mut- 2 tablespoonfuls of butter. 

ton cut in inch squares. J can of peas. 

1 onion sliced. 1 teaspoonful of salt. 

1 cupful of stock or water in J teaspoonful of pepper. 

which mutton was boiled. 1 head of lettuce. 
Farina balls. 

Put all the ingredients, except the lettuce and farina balls, 
into a saucepan together; cover closely, and simmer very 
slowly for one hourj stir occasionally, but with care not to 
break the meat or peas. When ready to serve, taste to see 
if the seasoning is right, and pour on a hot dish. Lay around 
the edge, and close to the meat, the crisp leaves of one head of 
lettuce, and the farina balls (see page 223). This way of utiliz- 
ing cold mutton will be found very good. The garnishing 
makes it a presentable dish, and is a good accompaniment in 
place of other vegetables. 

IRISH STEW 

Cut the neck of mutton into pieces two and one half or three 
inches square. Put them into a saucepan with one tablespoon- 
f ul of butter, and let them brown ; stir frequently so they do 
not burn. When browned add enough water to cover them 
well, and two or three onions cut into pieces. Cover closely 
and let simmer two hours. Then add more water if necessary, 
some parboiled potatoes cut in two, and a few slices of carrot, 
salt, and pepper to taste; cover and let cook one hour more. A 
teaspoonful of Worcestershire sauce is an improvement. The 
gravy must be quite thick, so too much water must not be 
used. The potatoes should be very soft, but not broken. 

MUTTON CHOPS 

Loin chops should be cut one and one fourth inches thick, 
and the fat trimmed off, leaving them round ; or the end pieces 



166 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

may be pared off thin, wrapped around the chops, and fastened 
with a skewer, making the chop into the form of a circle. 

The breast chops are cut a little thinner, the bones scraped 
and cut into even lengths. They are called French chops when 
the bones are bare. Whichever kind of chops are used, they 
should be all of uniform size and shape. 

Broil the chops over or under hot coals, turning the broiler 
as often as you count ten slowly, using the same method as in 
broiling steak. When the meat offers a little resistance and 
is puffy, it is done. If cooked too long the chops will be hard 
and dry. If properly seared at first the juices are shut in, and 
the inflation is caused by the confined steam from the juices. 
It will take eight to ten minutes to broil chops which are one 
inch thick. When done sprinkle over them a Uttle salt and 
pepper and butter. Dress them on a hot dish in a circle, the 
chops overlapping. 

Green peas, string-beans, or any small vegetable, or fancy- 
fried potatoes, such as balls, straws, Saratoga, etc., may be served 
on the same dish, and placed in the center of the circle, or around 
the chops. Spinach or mashed potato pressed into form of socle 
may be used, and the chops rested against it, the bones pointing 
up or slanting. Paper frills placed on the ends of the bones im- 
prove their appearance. 

CHOPS IN PAPER GASES 

Put into a frying-pan some slices of salt pork j when tried 
out, lay in neatly trimmed and seasoned lamb or veal chops j 
let them saute until half cooked ; remove the chops, and to the 
pan add a tablespoonful of onion chopped fine ; when the onion 
is cooked add a cupful of stock and a cupful of mixture containing 
minced veal or chicken, a little ham, and mushrooms, chopped 
parsley, and trufiles if convenient; salt and pepper to taste. Put 
a spoonful of this sauce on a well-buttered or oiled paper, cut in 
heart-shape ; lay the chop on the sauce, and on the chop put 
another spoonful of the sauce. Fold the paper over, and plait 




RAGOUT OF MUTTON GARNISHED WITH I ARINA BALLS AND LETTUCE. (SEE PAGE 165.) 




THREE KINDS OF MUTTON CHOPS. 



1. English Mutton Chop. 

2, French Chop. 



3. Boned and Rolled Chop. 
(See page 165.) 



MEATS 167 

the edges together so as to completely enclose the chop. Lay 
the enclosed chops on a buttered dish, and place them in the 
oven for ten minutes ; serve on the same dish very hot. Chops 
can also be broiled in well-greased paper, and with a little care 
it is easily done without burning the paper. Heavy writing pa- 
per should be used j the fire should be moderate, and the chops 
turned frequently. They are served in the papers, and are very 
good, as they hold all the juices of the meat. 

CHOPS A LA MAINTENON 

Put one tablespoonful of butter in a frying-pan j when hot 
add one tablespoonful of flour j let the flour cook a few minutes 5 
then add four tablespoonfuls of chopped mushrooms, one tea- 
spoonful of parsley, one half teaspoonful of salt, and a dash of 
pepper ; moisten with three tablespoonfuls of stock j mix well 
together and set aside to cool. Have six French chops cut one 
inch thick. With a sharp knife split the chops in two without 
separating them at the bone; spread the mushroom mixture 
between the opened chops ; press the edges well together, and 
broil for eight minutes j serve with an olive sauce. 

SPRING LAMB 

Spring lamb is best when two months old. It must be used 
when fresh, and must be thoroughly cooked, but not dried. It 
is divided into the fore and hind quarters, the whole of either 
not being too much to serve at one time ; the former are less 
expensive than the latter, but the meat is equally sweet and 
good. Roast it in a hot oven with a little water in the pan ; al- 
low fifteen to* eigbteen minutes to the pound, and baste fre- 
quently ; serve with it mint sauce, and green peas or asparagus 
tips for vegetable. 

When using a fore quarter, have the bones well cracked, so 
that in carving it may be cut into squares, or have the shoulder 
blade removed. A very good dressing may be made on the 
table as follows; out ground the shoulder bonej lift and place 



168 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

under it two tablespoonfuls of butter, the juice of one lemon, 
one teaspoonful of salt, one half teaspoonful of pepper. Press 
the pieces together, and let stand a minute to melt the butter 
before carving. 

VEAL 

The flesh of veal should be pink and firm, the bones hard. 
If it has a blue tinge and is flabby, it has been killed too young, 
and is unwholesome. Like lamb, it must be used while per- 
fectly fresh and be thoroughly cooked. It contains less nour- 
ishment than other kinds of meat; also, having less flavor, 
it requires more seasoning. Veal is frequently used as a substi- 
tute for chicken. It can be made into croquettes and salads 
very acceptably. 

EOAST FILLET OF VEAL 

The fillet is cut from the upper part of the leg, and should be 
four to six inches thick. Only one good fillet can be cut from 
the leg. Press and tie it into good round shape. Lay a few 
slices of larding pork over the top. Place it in very hot oven 
for fifteen minutes j then lower the heat ; baste frequently with 
water from the pan ; allow eighteen to twenty minutes to the 
pound. It must be thoroughly cooked, but not dried. Re- 
move the slices of pork from top a half hour before it is done, 
so it may brown. The bone may be removed from the fillet be- 
fore cooking, and the space filled with stuffing made of crumbs, 
sweet herbs, pepper and salt, and a little chopped salt pork. 
Thicken the gravy in pan to serve with the fillet. 

STUFFED SHOULDER OF VEAL 

Twenty to twenty-five minates per pound. 

Have the blade removed, and fill the space with a stuffing 
made of bread crumbs, thyme, marjoram, lemon juice, chopped 
salt pork, salt and pepper, and an egg j also chopped mush- 
rooms, if desired. Sew up the opening, press and tie it into 



MEATS 169 

good shape, and roast the same as the fillet. The stuffing may 
also be made of minced veal cut from the knuckle, highly- 
seasoned. 

FRICANDEAU OF VEAL 

The fricandeau is the most choice cut of veal. It is taken 
from the upper round of the leg, and is .ofle side of the fillet. 
As it destroys that cut, it commands tlie highest price. It 
should be cut four inches thick, and is usually larded and 
braised. Place it in a baking-pan on a layer of sliced salt pork, 
and chopped carrot, onion, and turnip. Add a bouquet of 
herbs, a cupful of stock, and enough water to fill the pan one 
and a half inches deep. Cover closely, and let cook in moder- 
ate oven, allowing twenty minutes to the pound j baste fre- 
quently. Remove the cover for the last half hour, so the meat 
may brown. Strain the gravy from the pan to serve with it. 

VEAL CUTLETS 

Leave the cutlet whole or cut it into pieces of uniform size 
and shape ; dredge with salt and pepper ; dip in egg and cover 
with bread crumbs or with flour j saute cutlets in drippings, or 
in a frying-pan after slices of salt pork have been tried out. Cook 
until well browned on both sides; then place them on a hot 
dish and moisten the top with a little lemon juice; or, omitting 
the lemon juice, serve with them a tomato or a Bearnaise sauce, 
or make a gravy by adding a little flour to the grease in the 
pan, and diluting to right consistency, after the flour is browned, 
with stock or water. If the gravy is used, put it in the bottom 
of the dish and place the cutlets on it. 

A PLAIN POT-PIE 

Cut veal, chicken, or beef into pieces ; put them with strips 
of pork into boiling water and cook until tender ; season with 
salt, pepper, and butter. There should be enough liquid to 
make a generous amount of gravy. When the stew is ready 



170 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

cook the dumplings, and place them on the same dish around 
the stew. If suet dumplings are used, they must be placed in 
the pot as soon as it boils in order to cook them a sufficient 
length of time. It is better to cook either kind of dumplings 
in Si separate pot with plenty of water, and not remove them 
until the stew is dished and ready to be sent to the table. 

DUMPLINGS WITH BAKING POWDER 

2 cupfuls of flour. 2 teaspoonf uls of baking powder. 

i teaspoonful of salt. 1 cupful of milk. 

Mix the flour, salt, and baking powder well together, then stir 
in quickly the milk. Have the dough quite soft. Drop the bat- 
ter from a spoon into the stew, or into boiling water j or, if 
preferred, make the dough just consistent enough to roll, and 
cut it into squares. The stew must not be allowed to stop sim- 
mering after the dumplings are in ; and they must be served 
immediately after being taken from the pot, or they wiU fall. 
It will take ten minutes to cook them. 

DUMPLINGS WITH SUET 

1 cupful of chopped suet. 1 teaspoonful of salt. 

2 scant cupfuls of flour. J cupful of cold water. 

Mix together lightly the flour, suet and salt; then with a 
knife stir in quickly the water. The dough must be soft, but 
not sticky. Put it on a board, and roU it lightly to one inch 
thickness, and place it on the boiling stew in one cake. The 
stew must not stop boiling for a moment, or the dumpling will 
fall. Cook for one hour. The dough may be rolled into balls 
if preferred. When the dumpling is put in, draw the pot for- 
ward where it will heat quickly, and not arrest the boiling. 
When it is thoroughly hot, place it where it will simmer 
continually during the hour of cooking. If this rule is ob- 
served, it will be light and spongy. Where cooked meat is 
used, which does not require such long cooking, the dumplings 
may be boiled in ws^ter, 




JELLIED VEAL DECORATED WITH SLICES OF HARD-BOILED EGG. 
WITH LETTUCE. 



GARNISHED 




COLD HAM COVERED WITH CHAUDFROID SAUCE AND DECORATED WITH TRUFFLES 
TO IMITATE BRANCHES — ORNAMENT ON TOP A HALF-OLIVE SURROUNDED WITH 
SLICES OF PICKLE — A PIECE OF THE HAM-SKIN LEFT ON THE BONE END AND 
THE EDGE OF THE SKIN DECORATED WITH TRIANGULAR AND DIAMOND-SHAPEl> 
PIECES OF TRUFFLE— PAPER FRILL ON HAM-BONE — DISH GARNISHED WITH 
LETTUCE, WATER-CRESS, OR PARSLEY. 



MEATS 171 

This mixture can be used for fruit and for roly-poly pud- 
dings (see page 443). 

JELLIED VEAL 

Wipe a knuckle of veal clean with a wet cloth ; have it well 
broken. Put it in a saucepan with two quarts of water, or 
enough to cover it. Tie in a piece of cheese-cloth one table- 
spoonful each of chopped onion, carrot, and turnip, a little 
parsley and celery, three cloves, and a blade of mace. Put it 
in the pot. Boil slowly until the veal falls from the bone; 
then strain it, and put the liquor again in the saucepan; sea- 
son it with salt, pepper, and a little lemon juice. Reduce it to 
one quart by boiling with the cover off the saucepan. Cut two 
hard-boiled eggs into thin slices, and with them ornament the 
bottom of a plain mold; a brick ice-cream mold, or a small tin 
basin will do. Put a very little of the liquor in to fix the orna- 
ment, but not enough to float the egg slices. When set add 
a little more of the liquor, enough to make a layer of jelly one 
quarter of an inch thick. When that is set fill the mold with 
the veal, and place slices of boiled egg between the layers of 
meat. Around the sides of the mold lay in slices of egg. Then 
pour in as much of the liquor as it will hold, and set away to 
harden. This makes a good cold dish to use with salad. 

VEAL LOAF 

3 pounds of veal. 1 teaspoonful of salt. 

J pound of ham, or J teaspoonful of pepper, 

i pound of salt pork. 1 teaspoonful of onion juice. 

2 eggs. J teaspoonful of ground mace. 

1 cupful of fine bread or i teaspoonful of allspice, 
cracker crumbs. 

Chop the Veal and ham very fine, mix into it the other ingre- 
dients, and mold it into a loaf; or press it into a mold or tin to 
form a loaf; then turn it on a baking dish. Baste it with 
beaten egg, and sprinkle it with bread crumbs, Cook iu mod- 



172 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

erate oven for two hours, basting it several times with melted 
butter and water. This dish is to be served cold. 

VEAL SCALLOP 

Chop veal to a fine mince. Put into a baking-dish alternate 
layers of veal and bread crumbs, sprinkling the meat with salt 
and pepper, the crumbs with bits of butter. Over the top 
pour a white sauce made of one tablespoonful each of but- 
ter and flour, and one cupful of milk. Spread over it a layer of 
crumbs, and put in the oven to brown. 

Rice may be used instead of the crumbs, and tomatoes instead 
of the white sauce. 

LIVER AND BACOlSr 

Cut the liver into slices one half inch thick ; lay them in boil- 
ing water for a few minutes, then dry and cover them with flour 
and a little pepper and salt. Lay in a hot frying-pan very thin 
slices of bacon. When tried out enough for the bacon to be 
crisp, remove it and put the slices of liver in the same frying 
pan. Cook until thoroughly done, but not dried. Remove the 
liver, and to the fat in the pan add a spoonful of flour; when 
the flour is brown, add enough water slowly to make a thick 
sauce. Pour the sauce over the liver, and place the bacon 
around it. Liver is generally cut thin, but it will be found 
much better when cut a half inch or more thick. The bacon 
should be cut thin, and cooked quickly; the liver cut thick, and 
cooked slowly. 

BROILED LIVER 

SKce the liver. Let it soak in hot water a few minutes to 
draw out the blood. Dry it, rub it with butter, and broil five to 
eight minutes, turning it constantly. It should not be cooked 
until dry. When done, spread it with butter, and serve at once. 

BRAISED LIVER 

Use a calf s or Iambus liver. 

Lard it in two or three rows. Cut into dice one carrot, one 
turnip, one onion, a stalk of celery, and the bits left from the 



MEATS 173 

lardoons of salt pork; put them in a baking pan, and on this 
bed of vegetables place the larded liver. Add two cupf uls of 
stock or hot water, and a bouquet of one sprig of parsley, one 
bay-leaf, and two cloves. Cover with another pan, and cook in 
moderate oven for two hours; baste occasionally. Serve with 
the vegetables from the pan, on the same dish, placed around 
the liver. Pour over the liver a sauce made as follows: Put in 
a saucepan one tablespoonful of butter; when melted, add 
one tablespoonful of flour, and stir until browned; then add 
slowly the strained liquor from the pan. If there is not enough 
to make one cupful, add water to make that quantity. Season 
with salt and pepper, and add, if convenient, one tablespoonful 
each of Worcestershire sauce and mushroom catsup. 

STEWED KIDNEYS 

Beef, calf or lamb kidneys may be used. Be sure they are 
very fresh. Remove the fat and white center, then soak them 
for one hour in salted water. Cut them in slices one half inch 
thick, cover the slices with flour, and saut6 them for five 
minutes in one tablespoonful of butter. Add to the frying-pan 
one thin slice of onion and one half cupful of water, and sim- 
mer for ten minutes, not longer. The kidneys will be tough 
and hard if cooked too long. Just before serving, add one 
quarter cupful of sherry; salt and pepper to taste. One table- 
spoon of Worcestershire sauce may be used instead of the 

sherry. 

TRIPE 

Soak the tripe for several hours, then scrape it thoroughly 
clean, put it in salted water, and simmer it for three or four 
hours, until it is like jelly. Drain off the water, and put the 
tripe aside until ready to use. Put a tablespoonful of butter in 
a saucepan; when hot add a tablespoonful of flour, and cook 
for a few minutes, but do not brown. Then add slowly one cup- 
ful of milk, and stir until smooth. Add a half teaspoonful of 
salt, a dash of pepper, and a half teaspoonful of onion juice; 
then add one cupful of the boiled tripe. Stir until the tripe is 
heated, and serve immediately. 



174 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

CALF'S HEABT 

Wash the heart, but do not let it soak, or stand in water. 
Fill it with a stuffing made of minced meat or of bread, either 
one of them seasoned with onion, sage, thyme, marjoram, pep- 
per and salt, and an egg to bind it. Bake it for two hours, 
basting it frequently with water from the pan. When the 
heart is cooked remove it, and add to the pan a tablespoonf ul of 
flour J stir until it has browned. Then, if there is not enough 
liquor in the pan, add to it just enough water to make a thick 
sauce. Strain this over the heart, and serve on the same dish 
some boiled and browned onions. 

BEEF'S TONGUE 

If a smoked tongue is used, soak it over night. Put it in cold 
water, and let it come to the boiling point. Then simmer for 
four hours, or until tender. 

Boil a fresh tongue in salted water one and a half hours. A 
few sou|) vegetables may be added to the water if convenient. 
Before putting it in the water, trim it carefully, and skewer it 
into good shape. When it is boiled remove the skin. If it is 
to be used cold, replace the skewer, put it again in the water 
in which it was boiled, and let it remain there until cold; 
then cover it with a meat glaze colored red. If served hot, pour 
over it a white sauce, and garnish with parsley and sliced 
pickle; or serve with it a piquante sauce. Spinach is a good 
vegetable to serve with tongue. 

HOT SLICED TONGUE 

Make a piquante sauce (see page 283). Lay slices of boiled 
tongue cut one half inch thick into it, and let them remain 
until well heated. Arrange the hot slices in a circle, the slices 
overlapping, and pour the sauce in the center. G-arnish with 
capers, slices of hard-boiled eggs, and gherkins; or make a 
form of spinach by pressing into a bowl weU-chopped and sea- 



MEATS 175 

soned spinach. Turn it on the center of a dish, and lay the 
slices around or against it. Serve with piquante or with pickle 
sauce. 

COLD TONGUE 

Lay thick slices of tongue in a circle, the pieces overlapping. 
Place in the center a bunch of nasturtium blossoms and lettuce 
leaves. Serve with Tartare or cold Bearnaise sauce. 

JELLIED TONGUE 

Cut tongue into slices. Lay them together to look like a 
solid piece, and place them in a square or brick-shaped mold. 
Sprinkle a few capers in the bottom of the mold before putting 
in the tongue. Have the mold only large enough for the 
tongue to fit in easily, but be held in place. Fill with aspic 
jelly (see page 321). 

BOILED CALF'S HEAD 

Have the head split open, and the gristle about the nose and 
eyes, and the eyes and ears, removed by the butcher. Wash 
thoroughly the headj remove the tongue and brains j parboil 
the brains, and set them aside with the tongue to use on an- 
other occasion (see page 307). Blanch the head by putting it 
into cold water; when it comes to the boiling point, pour off 
the hot water, and cover it with cold water. When cold, rub it 
with lemon. Put it into boiling water, enough to cover it; add 
two tablespoonfuls of vinegar or white wine, twelve pepper- 
corns, one bay-leaf, one onion, one carrot, and a sprig of parsley. 
Cover the pot, and let boil for two hours, or until tender, but 
not ready to fall apart. When done, take out the bones care- 
fully, and lay the meat on a baking dish in compact shape. 
Rub over the top with eggj sprinkle it with bread crumbs and 
bits of butter, and set in the oven to brown. Serve with it a 
Poulette or an Allemande sauce. 

Put any of the meat left over after being served in this man- 
ner into a mold; fill it up with water in which the head was 



176 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

boiled 5 season to taste. This will make a jellied meat very- 
good to use with salad. 

The wafer from the pot will make a good soup. (See mock 
tui#^ ^up.) Four separate dishes can be made from one head, 
viz. : boiled calf's head, cold jellied calf's head, mock turtle soup, 
tongue and brains, with white, Poulette, or Vinaigrette sauce. 

CALF'S HEAD WITH VINAIGRETTE SAUCE 

After the calf s head is boiled as directed above, take it from 
the water, remove the meat, and press it into a square mold or 
tin, and let it get entirely cold. It can then be cut into uni- 
form pieces. When ready to serve, heat some of the liquor in 
which the head was boiled, cut some long slices from the form 
of cold calf s head, lay them in the hot liquor to become hot 
only. Remove them carefully, and place them on a hot dish. 
Pour over them a Vinaigrette sauce. (For sauce, see page 307.) 

POEK 

Salt pork and bacon should be kept always at hand j the former 
for larding, spreading in thin slices over baked meats, poultry, 
and birds, and various other uses as directed in many receipts. 
Bacon is an appetizing accompaniment to many breakfast 
dishes. Fresh pork is used only in cold weather, and must be 
thoroughly cooked. 

ROAST FORK 

Th6 roasting pieces are the leg, loin, spare-rib, and shoulder. 
If the skin is left on cut it through in lines both ways, forming 
small squares. Put a cupful of water in the pan with the 
meat ; bake in a moderate oven, allowing twenty to twenty-five 
minutes to the pound. Pork must be thoroughly cooked. 
Serve with apple sauce or fried apples. 

FRIED AFFLES 

Cut slices one half inch thick across the apple, giving circles. 
Do not remove the skin or core. 

Or cut the apples in quarters, leaving on the skin and remov- 



MEATS 177 

ing the core. Saute the apples in butter or drippings until ten- 
der, but not soft enough to lose form. 

Serve the fried apples on the same dish with pork as gar- 
nishing. 

PORK CHOPS 

Cut pork chops not more than one half inch thick. Trim off 
most of the fat, dredge them with flour, and saut6 them until 
thoroughly cooked, and well browned. It will take about twen- 
ty-five minutes. Serve with fried apples. 

BOILED HAM 

Soak the ham over night, or for several hours. Thoroughly 
wash and scrape it. Put it into cold water; let it come to the 
boiling point; then simmer, allowing twenty minutes to the 
pound. Pierce the ham with a fine skewer. If done the skewer 
can be withdrawn easily without sticking. Let the ham partly 
cool in the water; then remove and draw off the skin. Sprinkle 
the top plentifully with cracker crumbs and brown sugar, or 
brush it with egg. Press into it a number of whole cloves, and 
set it in the oven a few minutes to brown. Or the ham may be 
left white, and dotted with pepper, a clove stuck in the center 
of each spot of pepper. Soup vegetables and a bouquet of 
herbs boiled with a ham improve its flavor. A ham boiled in 
cider is especially good. Trim the meat around the bone, and 
conceal the bone with a paper frill or vegetable cut into shape 
of rose. Ornament the ham with dressed skewers, or with 
parsley and lemon. 

BAKED HAM 

Soak and prepare the ham as directed above. Let it simmer 
for two hours; then remove it and take off the skin, and bake 
it in a moderate oven for two hours; baste it frequently, using 
a cupful of sherry, two spoonfuls at a time, until all is used; 
then baste with drippings from the pan. When done, cover it 
with a paste made of browned flour and brown sugar moistened 
with sherry, and replace in the oven for a few minutes to 
brown. 

12 



% 



178 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

BROILED HAM AND EGGS 

Cut the ham very thin. If very salt, place it in boiling water 
for a few minutes. Then dry and broil it over hot coals for 
three or four minutes. 

Put a few pieces of salt pork into a frying pan. When tried 
out, add the eggs, one at a time, from a saucer. Baste the top 
of the eggs with fat from the pan. Let them brown a little on 
the edges, but not blacken, and serve them around the slices of 
ham. 

Boiled ham may be broiled. If so, cut it into thin, small 
pieces, and after broiling it, place on each piece a fried egg. 

HAM AND EGGS A L'AUEORE 

Chop fine some cold boiled ham. Boil six or eight eggs very 
hard (see page 262). With a sharp knife cut them in quarters 
lengthwise. Remove the yolks, and press them through a 
coarse sieve or strainer; lay the white segments in warm water. 
Make a white sauce, using two tablespoonfuls of butter; when 
melted, add two tablespoonfuls of flour, and let cook for a few 
minutes; then add slowly two cupfuls of milk. Stir constantly, 
and when a smooth, consistent sauce, season with salt and 
white pepper. 

Moisten the chopped ham with a little of the sauce, and place 
it on the fire just long enough to become well heated. Stir con- 
stantly so the sauce will not brown. Make a smooth, rounded 
mold of the ham in the center of a hot dish. Pour over it the 
white sauce. Sprinkle thickly over the top the yolk crumbs; 
then range, evenly around it the white segments of the eggs. 

BACON 

Cut bacon very thin, as shown on page 78. Lay the slices on 
a hot frying-pan. When clear turn them over. Tip the pan a 
little, so the fat will run to one side. If not wanted crisp and 
dry, turn the slices before they look clear, and remove before 
all the fat is tried out. 



Chapter V 
POULTEY AND GAME 

CHICKENS 

To judge the age of a chicken, touch the end of the 
breastbone. If it is still cartilaginous, and bends 
easily from side to side, the meat of the chicken will 
be tender. If the cartilage has hardened to bone, the 
bird is over a year old, and should be used only for 
the purposes which fowls serve. The skin of the 
chicken should be firm, smooth and white ; the feet 
soft, the legs smooth and yellow, the spurs small, the 
eyes bright and full, the comb red. On young chick- 
ens there are pin-feathers j on fowls, there are long 
hairs. The dry-picked chickens are preferable to 
those which are scalded. It is not easy to find all 
the conditions right in our markets, which are mostly 
supplied with frozen poultry, and one is obliged to rely 
very much on the honesty of the poulterer. Chicken, 
to be perfectly wholesome and good-flavored, should 
be drawn as soon as killed; but here again we are 
subject to the customs of our markets, and are obliged 
to buy poultry which has not only been kiUed, but 
undrawn, for an indefinite time. It is presumable, 
however, that poultry sent to market is frozen shortly 
after being killed, and it does not deteriorate while 
frozen. It should be drawn at once after it comes to 
the kitchen, without waiting for the time to prepare it 
for cooking. 

179 



180 



THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 



TO CLEAN AND DRAW POULTRY 

First, remove any pin-feathers ; then singe off the 
hairs. This is done best over an alcohol flame. Put 
one or two tablespoonf uls of alcohol into a plate or sau- 
cer and ignite it. (Wood alcohol is inexpensive, and 
besides serving this purpose very well may be used 
also in the chafing-dish and tea-kettle lamps.) If alco- 
hol is not at hand, use lighted paper, but take care not 
to smoke the chicken. Hold the fowl by the head and 
feet, and turn it constantly, exposing every part to the 
flame. After singeing, wash the outside of the chicken 
Washing, thoroughly with a cloth and bowl of water. The skin 
will become several degrees whiter when freed from 
dust and the marks of much handling. Do not place 
the chicken in the bowl of water, or at any time al- 
low the meat to soak, as that will extract its flavor. 
After the chicken is drawn, it should only be wiped 
out with a wet cloth. If it is properly drawn there 
will be nothing unclean to wash away from the in- 
side. After the skin of the chicken is cleaned, cut 
off the head, cut the skin down the back of the 
neck, turn it over while you remove carefully the 
crop and windpipe, and cut off the neck close to the 
body, leaving the skin to fold over the opening. Next 
take the leg, bend it back slightly, and carefully cut 
the skin on the joint, just enough to expose the sinews 
without cutting them ; run a skewer or fork under 
them, one at a time, and draw them out j five or eight 
of them can be easily removed after a little practice. 
The one on the back of the leg is particularly large 
and strong. These sinews are very tough and almost 
bony after cooking, especially in turkeys, but if they 
are removed the meat of the drumstick is quite as 
good as that of the second joint. After the sinews 
are drawn, break the leg off at the joint, the sinews 
hanging to it. Cut a small opening under the rump ; 



Drawing 

the 
Sinews. 



POULTEY AND GAME 181 

run a finger around close to the body to loosen the 
entrails. Do the same at the neck opening. Carefully 
draw them out, in one solid mass, without any part 
being broken j cut around the vent to free the large 
intestine. If by any mischance the gall or intestines 
should be broken, the inside of the chicken must be 
washed at once; otherwise only wipe it out with a 
wet cloth, as directed above. Cut the oil sack away 
from the rump. Cut the gall carefully off the liver ; 
cut the outer coat of the gizzard and draw it care- 
fully away from the inner sack, leaving the sack un- 
broken. Open the heart and wash away the clot of 
blood. The heart, liver, and gizzard are the gib- 
lets. All poultry and birds are dressed in the same 
way. 

TO BONE A FOWL 

Wash and singe the fowl; take off the head and 
legs, and remove the tendons as directed for drawing. 
When a fowl is to be boned it is not drawn. The 
work of boning is not difficult, but requires care and 
a little practice. The skin must not be broken. Use 
a small pointed knife; cut the skin down the full 
length of the back ; then, beginning at the neck, care- 
fully scrape the meat away from the bone, keeping 
the knife close to the bone. When the joints of the 
wings and legs are met, break them back and proceed 
to free the meat from the carcass. When one side is 
free, turn the fowl and do the same on the other side. 
The skin is drawn tightly over the breast-bone, and 
care must be used to detach it without piercing the 
skin. When the meat is free from the carcass, re- 
move the bones from the legs and wings, turning the 
meat down or inside out, as the bones are exposed, 
and using care not to break the skin at the joints. 
The end bones of the wings cannot be removed, and 
the whole end joint may be cut off or left as it is. 



182 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 



BOASTED BONED CHICKEN 



Spread the boned chicken on a board, the skin side down*, 
turn the flesh of the legs and wings right side out, and stuff 
them with forcemeat into shape. Equalize the meat as well as 
possible, placing the mignon fillets, or little strips of white 
meat next the bone, over the dark meat, etc. ; dredge with salt 
and pepper. Make a roll of the stuffing or forcemeat, and lay it 
in the chicken. Draw the skin up, and sew it together securely. 
Turn it over, place the legs and wings into the position of a 
trussed fowl, press the body into natural shape, and tie it 
securely J or it may be pressed into the form of a duck or rab- 
bit. Cover with slices of salt pork, and roast in oven, allowing 
twenty minutes to the pound; baste frequently. Remove the 
pork the last fifteen minutes, dredge with flour, and let it 
brown. Serve with a giblet or tomato sauce. 

BRAISED BONED CHICKEN 

To braise the chicken prepared as above, roll it lightly in a 
piece of cheese cloth, tying the ends well. Put in a saucepan the 
bones of the chicken, a slice of carrot and onion, a bouquet 
containing parsley, one bay-leaf, three cloves, twelve pepper- 
corns, celery if convenient, and a knuckle of veal. Add enough 
water to cover the bed of vegetables and bones j lay in the 
chicken j cover the pot, and let it simmer for four hours. 

JELLIED BONED CHICKEN 

A braised boned chicken may be served hot, or it may be set 
aside to cool, then jellied as follows: Strain the water in which 
the chicken was braised, and let it cool; then remove the grease 
and clarify the liquor; season it highly. If veal has been used, 
and the liquor jellies, it may be used as it is. If veal has not 
been used, add gelatine soaked in cold water, observing the pro- 
portion of one box of gelatine to one and a half quarts of liquor. 



POULTRY AND GAME 183 

Mask a mold with jelly (see page 323) ; when the jelly is set, put 
in the chicken, and add enough liquid jelly to entirely cover it. 
Or, on the bottom of the mold make a decoration of either truffles, 
ham, capers, gherkins, or any combinations suitable; fix it with 
a thin layer of jelly; when hardened, add enough more to make 
a layer of jelly one quarter of an inch thick, and when that is 
hardened lay in the chicken, and surround it with the liquid 
jelly (see molding jellies, page 324). Garnish the dish on which 
the jellied chicken is served with lettuce, and serve with it a 
Mayonnaise, B6arnaise, or Tartare sauce. 

When the chicken is to be jellied, use enough water in the 
braising pot to give three pints of liquor after the cooking is 
done. 

FORCEMEAT, FOR STUFFING BONED FOWLS 

Use the meat of another fowl, or veal, or pork, or a mixture. 
Chop them fine, and add to the minced meat one cupful of 
bread or cracker crumbs and, if convenient, a little chopped 
boiled ham or tongue, and a few lardoons of pork. Season 
with the following articles, and moisten the whole with stock: 

1 tablespoonf ul of chopped parsley. J teaspoonf ul of pepper. 
1 teaspoonful of onion juice. 1 teaspoonful thyme. 

1 teaspoonful of salt. 

If veal is used, take it from the knuckle, and use the bone in the 
braising pot, as it will give a good jelly. 

TO TRUSS A FOWL 

When the fowl is wiped, singed, and drawn as by directions 
given above, put in the stuffing if it is to be used; place a little 
in the opening at the neck, the rest in the body, and sew up the 
opening. Draw the skin of the neck smoothly down and under 
the back, press the wings close against the body, and fold the 
pinions under, crossing the back and holding down the skin of 
the neck. Press the legs close to the body, and slip them under 



184 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

the skin as much as possible. Thread the trussing needle with 
white twine, using it double. Press the needle through the 
wing by the middle joint, pass it through the skin of the neck 
and back, and out again at the middle joint of the other wing. 
Return the needle through the bend of the leg at the second 
joint, through the body and out at the same point on the other 
side; draw the cord tight, and tie it with the end at the wing 
joint. Thread the needle again, and run it through the legs 
and body at the thigh bone, and back at the ends of the drum- 
sticks. Draw the drumstick bones close together, covering the 
opening made for drawing the fowl, and tie the ends. Have 
both knots on the same side of the fowl. When cooked, cut the 
cord on the opposite side, and by the knots it can easily be 
drawn out. (See illustration.) 

BOASTED CHICKEN 

A roasted chicken may be stuffed or not. If stuffing is used 
it should only half fill the chicken. Truss it as directed above, 
or use skewers, doubling a cord across the back and around the 
ends of the skewers to hold them in place. A roasted or boiled 
chicken is not presentable, which has not been securely fast- 
ened into good shape before being cooked. Dredge the chicken 
with salt and pepper, and place it on slices of salt pork in a 
baking pan,- add a very little water, and bake in hot oven, 
allowing fifteen minutes to the pound; baste frequently. 
White meat must be well cooked, but not dried. Fifteen min- 
utes before it is done, rub it over the top and sides with butter, 
dredge it with flour, and replace it in the oven until it becomes 
a golden brown and looks crisp. Draw out the trussing cords, 
and garnish with parsley. Serve with it a giblet sauce. Do 
not use a tough chicken for roasting; one a year old is about 
right. A roasting chicken may be larded if desired. 

STUFFING FOR FOWLS 

Moisten a cupful of bread-crumbs with a tablespoonful of 
melted butter; season highly with salt, pepper, thyme, chopped 




BACK OF TRUSSED CHICKEN. 



POULTEY AND GAME 185 

parsley, and onion juice; or put in a saucepan a tablespoonful 
of butter and fry in it one minced onion; then add one cupful of 
soaked bread, the water being pressed out, one half cupful of 
stock, one teaspoonf ul of salt, one half teaspoonful each of pep- 
per and thyme, and one half cupful of celery cut into small pieces. 
Stir it until it leaves the sides of the pan. 

CHESTNTJT STUFFING 

Shell a quart of large French chestnuts. Put them in hot 
water and boil until the skins are softened j then drain off the 
water and remove the skins. Replace the blanched chestnuts 
in water, and boil until soft. Take out a few at a time, and 
press them through a colander or a potato press. They mash 
more easily when hot. Season the mashed chestnuts with a 
tablespoonful of butter, a teaspoonful of salt, and a quarter of 
a teaspoonful of pepper. Some cooks add a tablespoonful of 
chopped parsley, and moisten it with a little stock. Some add, 
also, a few bread crumbs. The dressing is best seasoned only 
with butter, salt, and pepper 

GIBLET SAUCE 

Boil the giblets until tender ; chop them, but not very fine ; 
add a tablespoonful of flour to the pan in which the chicken 
was roasted j let it brown, stirring constantly ; add slowly a 
cupful of water in which the giblets were boiled ,• season with 
salt and pepper ; strain and add the chopped giblets ; serve in 
a sauceboat. The liver is a tidbit, and should be roasted and 
served with the chicken, instead of being used in the sauce. 

BOILED CHICKEN 

A chicken too old to roast is very good when boiled. Truss 
the chicken firmly. It is well also to tie it in a piece of cheese- 
cloth, to keep it in good shape. It may be stuffed or not. 
Boikd rice seasoned with butter, pepper, and salt, or celery cut 
in small pieces, is better to use for boiled chicken than bread 
stuffing. 



186 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

Put the chicken into boiling salted water and simmer, allow- 
ing twenty minutes to the pound ; when done, remove the cloth 
and cords carefully, spread a little white sauce over the breast, 
and sprinkle it with chopped parsley. Garnish with parsley, 
and serve with it eggj oyster, or B6arnaise sauce. 

BEAISED CHICKEN 

A fowl too old to roast may be made tender and good by 
braising, and present the same appearance as a roasted chicken. 

Prepare it as for roasting, trussing it into good shape. Cut 
into dice a carrot, turnip, onion, and stalk of celery; put them in 
a pot with a few slices of salt pork, and on them place the fowl, 
with a few pieces of salt pork laid over the breast; add a bouquet 
of parsley, one bay-leaf, three cloves, six peppercorns, also a tea- 
spoonful of salt, and a pint of hot water. Cover the pot closely 
and let simmer for three hours. If any steam escapes, a little 
more water may have to be added. When done, rub a little 
butter over the breast, dredge with flour, and place in the oven 
a few minutes to brown. Strain the liquor from the braising 
pot, season to taste, and if necessary thicken with a little brown 
roux J serve it with the chicken as sauce. 

BROILED CHICKEN 

Young spring chickens only are used for broiling. Split 
them down the back, remove the entrails and the breast bone, 
wipe them clean, sprinkle with salt and pepper, and rub them 
with soft butter. Place them on a broiler over a slow fire, the 
inside down; cover with a pan, and let cook for twenty to 
twenty-five minutes. Turn, to let the skin side brown when 
nearly done. Place them on a hot dish, and spread them with 
maltre d^hdtel butter ; garnish with parsley or watercress and 
thin slices of lemon. 

FRICASSEE 

Cut a chicken into eleven pieces: two drumsticks, two second 
joints, two wings, two breasts, three back pieces. 



POULTRY AND GAME 187 

Put the pieces in a saucepan with two tablespoonf uls of but- 
ter or drippings ; let them brown slightly on both sides, but 
use care that they do not burn ; when a little colored, add 
enough boiling water to cover themj add a bouquet of herbs, 
salt and pepper, and a few slices of salt pork. Simmer until 
tender. Arrange the pieces neatly on a dish, using the best 
ones outside, and pour over them a gravy made as follows: 
Strain the liquor from the pot and take off the fat. Make a 
white roux of one tablespoonf ul of butter and two of flour; 
add to it slowly a cupful of the liquor from the pot ; season to 
taste 'j remove from the fire, and when a little cool add a cupful 
of cream or milk beaten up with two or three yolks of eggs. 
Place again on the fire until the eggs are a little thickened, but 
do not let it boil, or they will curdle. A tablespoonful of sherry 
may be added, if liked, or a half can of mushrooms. A border 
of rice may be placed around the chicken, or softened toast 
used under the chicken. 

To make a brown fricassee, sprinkle the pieces of chicken, af- 
ter they are simmered until tender, with salt, pepper, and flour, 
and place them in the oven to brown. Make a brown instead 
of a white roux, and omit the cream or milk. 

FRIED CHICKEN 

Cut a tender chicken in pieces j dip the pieces in water; 
sprinkle them with salt and pepper, and roll them in flour ; 
saute them in a tablespoonful of lard or butter, browning both 
sides ; then remove and add to the pan a tablespoonful of flour; 
cook it for a minute without browning, stirring all the time, 
and add a cupful of milk or cream ; stir until it is a little thick- 
ened ; strain ; mix into it a tablespoonful of chopped parsley. 
Place the sauce on the serving-dish and arrange the pieces of 
chicken on it. 

CHICKEN FEITTEES 

Cut cold cooked chicken or turkey off the bones in as large 
pieces as possible ; sprinkle with salt and pepper ; dip them in 



188 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

fritter batter (see page 426), and fry in hot fat until a golden 
brown. Place the pieces when fried on a brown paper until all 
are done ; dress them on a folded napkin, and serve with a 
Bearnaise, Mayonnaise, or Tartare sauce. 

The pieces may be rolled in egg and bread crumbs instead of 
being dipped in batter, if preferred. 

STUFFED CHICKEN OR TURKEY LEGS 

Carefully remove the tendons from the drumsticks as di- 
rected in drawing (page 180) ; remove the bone, all but about an 
inch and a half at the small end, and remove any remaining 
sinews. Stuff the leg with a forcemeat made of chicken or 
veal chopped very fine, and use with it the liver and a little 
strip of larding pork ,• season it with salt, pepper, and chopped 
parsley, and moisten it with one egg. Draw the skin over the end 
and sew it closely together, keeping the shape as natural as possi- 
ble. Lay the stuffed legs in a baking-pan ; cover with boUing 
water, and simmer an hour, or until tender; remove them 
from the water, press them into shape, and let cool. When 
cold, take out the stitches, dredge with salt and pepper, roll in 
beaten egg and bread crumbs, and fry in hot fat until browned j 
or broil them on both sides four minutes, if chicken ; six min- 
utes, if turkey legs j or they may be sauted in butter. They 
may be deviled by rubbing them with mustard and a little red 
pepper before coating with the eggs and crumbs. Serve them 
arranged like chops, the bones masked with paper frills. 

If preferred, the bones may be entirely removed, and the leg 
flattened to look like a cutlet. This can be done by placing 
them under a weight to cool after being boiled. Serve with an 
olive, Bearnaise, Tartare, or any sauce preferred. 

ORILIED BONES 

Take the wings, second joints, and drumsticks of cold cooked 
chicken; dip them in melted butter, sprinkle them with salt and 
pepper, and broil them until they are very hot and well 
browned. 



POULTRY AND GAME 189 

CHICKEN A LA VIENNE 

Split a small spring chicken down the back, as for broiling; 
remove the breast bone j then cut it into four pieces, giving two 
breast and two leg pieces, cut off the pinions ; marinate the pieces 
in oil, vinegar, pepper, and salt; then roll in flour, and fry in hot 
fat, one piece at a time; drain and place on paper in the open 
oven until all are done. They should be a light golden color. 
Place a paper frill on the leg and wing bones, and dress them 
on a folded napkin. Serve with Tartare sauce; or arrange the 
pieces overlapping on a dish, and garnish with four lettuce 
leaves holding Tartare sauce. 

CHICEJiN, BALTIMOEE STYLE 

Split a small spring chicken down the back as for broiling; 
remove the breast-bone and cut off the pinions. Cut into four 
pieces ; dredge with salt and pepper ; dip them in egg and fresh 
crumbs. Place them in a pan, and pour over each piece enough 
melted butter to moisten it ; then roast in the oven eighteen to 
twenty minutes. Make a cream sauce, taking one cupful of 
Bechamel sauce, and adding to it a half cupful of cream and a 
half tablespoonful of butter. Pour this sauce on a dish, and 
place the pieces of chicken on it. Garnish with slices of fried 
bacon. 

CHICEJSN IMFEEIAL 

Cut the breast from a chicken, retaining it in shape on the 
bone. Remove the skin, and lard the breast on each side with 
four lardoons. Place it in a deep saucepan ; cover with stock 
or boiling water, and simmer for thirty to forty minutes, or 
until tender. Then remove from the water, and place in oven 
for ten minutes to take a very light color. Make a sauce as 
follows : 

Put into a saucepan one half cupful of the stock in which the 
breast was boiled, and one half cupful of cream. Let it come to 
the scalding point ; season with salt and pepper and one table- 
spoonful of chopped parsley. Remove from fire, and stir in 



190 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

slowly two yolks and two tablespoonfuls of milk beaten to- 
gether. Stir constantly until thickened, but do not let boil, or 
the egg will curdle. Strain and pour it around the breast. The 
breast should be carved diagonally, giving three pieces on each 
side. 

CHICKEN BREASTS WITH POULETTE SAUCE 

Remove the breasts from several chickens ; cut them length- 
wise, each breast giving four pieces. Simmer them in salted 
water until tender. Make a Poulette sauce (see page 280), and 
pour over the breasts piled on a dish. Sprinkle with parsley 
chopped very fine. Use a generous amount of sauce. 

CHICKEN CHARTEEUSE 

Mix one cupful of cooked chicken minced very fine with 
1 teaspoonful of chopped J teaspoonf ul of salt, 

parsley, 2 tablespoonfuls of tomato 

i teaspoonful of onion juice, 

juice, 1 beaten eggj 

Dash of pepper. 

Grease well a charlotte russe or pudding mold; line it one 
inch thick with boiled rice. Fill the center with the chicken 
mixture, and cover the top with rice, so the chicken is entirely 
encased, and the mold is full and even. Cover and cook in 
steamer for forty-five minutes. Serve with it a tomato sauce; 
pour a little of the sauce on the dish around the form, not 
over it. 

CHICKEN SOUFFLE 

1 tablespoonful of butter. 1 cupful of minced 

1 tablespoonful of flour. chicken. 

1 tablespoonful of chopped J teaspoonful of salt. 

parsley. 3 eggs. 

1 cupful of milk. 10 drops of onion juice. 

Dash of pepper. 

Make a white sauce by putting the butter in a saucepan or 
double boiler. When melted add .the flour, and cook a moment 



POULTRY AND GAME 191 

without browning. Then add slowly the milk, and stir till 
smooth. Season with salt, pepper, parsley, and onion juice. 
There should be one cupful of the sauce. Remove from the fire, 
and stir in the beaten yolks of three eggs; then add a cupful of 
chicken chopped fine. Stir the mixture over the fire a minute 
until the egg has a little thickened; then set aside to cool. 
Rub a little butter over the top, so it will not form a crust. 
When time to serve beat very stiff the whites of the three eggs, 
and stir them lightly into the cold chicken mixture. Put it 
into a pudding dish, and bake in hot oven for twenty minutes. 
Serve at once in the same dish. This is a souffle, so the 
whites of the eggs must not be added until it is time for it to 
go into the oven, and it will fall if not served immediately after 
it comes from the oven. This dish may be made with any kind 
of meat. Chicken souffl6 may be baked in paper boxes, and 
served as an entree. 

CHICKEN LOAF 

Boil a fowl until the meat falls from the bones. Strain, and 
put the liquor again in the saucepan; reduce it to one and a 
half pints, and add one quarter box of soaked gelatine. Lay a 
few slices of hard-boiled egg on the bottom of a plain mold; 
fill the mold with alternate layers of white and dark meat of 
the chicken. Season the liquor, and pour it over the meat in 
the mold, and set it away to harden; it will become a jelly. It 
is a good dish to use with salad for luncheon or supper. 

CHICKEN CHAUDFROID 

Cut cold cooked chicken into as neat and uniform pieces as 
possible; remove the skin ; make a chaudfroid sauce as directed 
on page 281. Mix the sauce thoroughly, and let it cool enough 
to thicken, but not harden. Roll each piece of chicken in this 
sauce until well coated. Range the pieces without touching in 
a pan, the ends resting on the raised edge; place the pan on ice 
until the sauce is set. Make a socle (see page 326) of bread or 
rice; rub it with butter, and mask it with chopped parsley. 
Arrange the pieces of chicken around the socle, resting them 



192 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

against it; then with a brush coat them over lightly with clear 
chicken aspic which is cold, but still liquid. Ornament the top 
of socle with a star of aspic, or with a bunch of nasturtium, 
or other blossoms or leaves. Garnish the dish with aspic, with 
flowers, or leaves j or, if socle is not used, pile the pieces in pyram- 
idal form and garnish. Serve with it a Mayonnaise, B^arnaise, 
or Tartare sauce j or some of the chaudf roid sauce diluted. 

CHICKEN MAYONNAISE 

Cut cold cooked chicken into pieces; remove the skin, and 
trim the pieces into good shape. Cover each piece with jelly 
Mayonnaise (page 290), and leave them in a cool place until the 
Mayonnaise has set. Trim them and dress them around an 
ornamented socle or a mound of salad, or lay each piece on a 
leaf of lettuce. Garnish with aspic or with flowers. Use a 
green, white, or yellow Mayonnaise; and keep in cold place 
until ready to serve. 

ENGLISH CHICE:EN PIE (COLD) 

Take two tender chickens, and cut them up as for frying. 
Put them into a large saucepan with two and a half quarts 
of water; add a bouquet made of sweet marjoram, basil, 
parsley, three bay-leaves, sprig of thyme, and small blade of 
mace. Let them simmer until well cooked. Add to the pot 
when the chicken is about half done one half pound of bacon 
cut into small pieces like lardoons. Wash the bacon before 
adding it. A quarter of an hour before removing the chicken 
add the half of a small can of truffles cut into slices. 

Boil eight eggs very hard, and cut them in slices. Arrange 
on the bottom of an earthen dish a layer of egg slices and 
truffles, then a layer of chicken meat; alternate the layers until 
the dish is two-thirds full. Return the bones and coarse pieces 
of meat to the pot, and reduce the liquid one third. Strain, 
cool, and remove the grease. Return the stock to the fire, add 
a quarter box or one half ounce of soaked gelatine. Pour this 




CHICKEN IMPERIALE AND STUFFED LEGS. (SEE PAGES 188 AND 189.) 




CHARTREUSE OF CHICKEN GARNISHED WITH SLICE OP HARD-BOILED EGG AND 
PARSLEY. (SEE PAGES 83 AND 190.) 




GALANTINE OF TURKEY COVERED WITH CHAUDFROID SAUCE AND DECORATED 
WITH TRUFFLES, (SEE PAGES 193, 281 AND 326.) 



POULTRY AND GAME 193 

over the chicken. When it has jellied and is ready to serve, 
place on the top a crust of puff paste, which has been cut to fit 
the dish, and has been baked separately. 



TURKEY 

The rules given for dressing and cooking chickens 
apply also to turkeys. Turkey can be substituted for 
chicken in any of the receipts given. A young tur- 
key will have smooth black legs and white skin. 

Fifteen minutes to the pound is the time allowed General 
for roasting or boiling a young turkey; for an old Directions. 
one more time will be required. They should have 
slow cooking and frequent basting. After a turkey 
is trussed, wet the skin -, dredge it well with salt and 
pepper, and then with a thick coating of flour. This 
will give a crisp brown crust. 



TURKEY GALANTINE OR BONED TURKEY 

Select a young fat hen turkey. Bone it as directed, page 181; 
spread the boned meat on the table, the skin side down. Equal- 
ize the meat as well as possible by paring it off at the thick 
parts, and laying it on the thin parts. Leave the legs and 
wings drawn inside; lay a few lardoons of salt pork on the 
meat lengthwise. Make a forcemeat of another fowl or of veal, 
or of both chicken and veal. Chop it to a very fine mince, and 
pound it in a mortar to make it almost a paste. Season it with 
salt and pepper, savory, marjoram, thyme, and sage — about a 
half teaspoonful each of the herbs — one teaspoonful of onion 
juice, a half cupful of cold boiled tongue cut into dice, some 
trufles cut into large pieces. Moisten it with stock and mix 
thoroughly. It will take three or four pounds of meat, accord- 
ing to the size of the turkey, to make sufficient stuffing. Spread 

13 



194 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

tte forcemeat on the boned turkey, having the tongue, truffles, 
and a few pieces of both the white and dark meat of the turkey 
well interspersed through it. Roll up the turkey, making it as 
even as possible, and sew it together j then roll it in a piece of 
cheesecloth and tie it securely at both ends and around the 
roll in several places. 

Place the galantine and the bones of the fowl in a kettle, 
with an onion, carrot, celery, bouquet of herbs, and a table- 
spoonful of salt. Cover it with boiling water, and let simmer 
three or four hours ; then remove it from the fire ; let the galan- 
tine remain in the water for an hour ; then take it out, cut the 
strings which bind it in the middle, draw the cloth so it will 
be tight and smooth, and place it under a weight until perfectly 
cold. A baking-pan holding two flatirons will answer the pur- 
pose. Remove the cloth carefully, set the galantine in the 
oven a moment to melt the fat, and wipe it off with a cloth j 
trim it smooth ; then brush it over with glaze (see page 277), or 
rub it over with beaten egg and sprinkle with crumbs and 
brown in the oven j or, cover it with a chaudfroid sauce, and 
ornament it as shown in illustration. The ornament of cut truf- 
fles is applied by taking each piece on a long pin and placing it 
on the chaudfroid before it is quite set. When perfectly set it 
is brushed over lightly with a little liquid jelly. Galantine of 
chicken or game is made in the same way, except that in small 
pieces they are not flattened by being put under a weight.* 

A galantine is always used cold. Garnish with aspic. The 
water in which it was boiled — strained and cleared — may be 
used for the aspic. Use a box of gelatine to one and a half 
quarts of liquor. 

EOAST GOOSE 

Green geese about four months old are the best, as they get 
very tough when much older. If there is any doubt about the 

* A rectangular-sliaped galantine may be obtained by pressing it into a bread-tin 
to cool. It should tlien be trimmed and incased in aspic, using the same or a 
sUglitly larger bread- tin of the same shape. Bee Molding, page 32is.— M. R. 



POULTRY AND GAME 195 

age of the goose, it is better to braise than to roast it. It can 
be browned after it is braised, and have the same appearance as 
if roasted. Dress and truss a goose the same as a turkey ; singe 
and wash the skin well ; flatten the breast bone by striking it 
with a rolling-pin. Stuff it only partly full with mashed potato 
highly seasoned with onion, sage, salt, and pepper, or with a 
mixture of bread, apples, onions, sage, salt and pepper, and a 
little butter. Dredge the goose with salt, pepper, and a thick 
coating of flour ; put a little water in the pan and baste fre- 
quently. Allow eighteen minutes to the pound for a young 
goose, twenty-five minutes for an older one. Serve with goose 
apple sauce and a brown giblet gravy. 

TAME DUCKS 

Prepare the same as geese. Stuff with the same mixture or with 
celery. Roast ducklings in a hot oven twenty minutes, if liked 
rare 5 thirty minutes if they are to be cooked through. Old 
ducks require an hour to cook, and should be basted frequently. 
Pekin ducks, a breed of white ducks raised in quantities on 
Long Island, are especially esteemed. 



GAME 

CANVASBAGKS AND BEDHEAD DUCKS 

Carefully pick, singe, and wipe the outside. Draw them, 
leaving on the head, so as to distinguish them from ordinary 
game. Cut an opening at the neck, and through it draw^ 
the head and neck, letting the head emerge at the back 
between the drumsticks, and tie it securely in place. Do not 
wash the inside. If carefully drawn they will not need it. 
Cut off the wings at the second joint. Truss the ducks neatly. 
Sprinkle with salt and pepper inside, and a teaspoonful of cur- 
rant jelly may also be put inside. Place them in a baking-pan 
with a little water, and bake in a very hot oven from fifteen to 
eighteen minutes j baste frequently. 

Wild ducks should be very rare and served very hot, on hot 
plates. Each duck makes but two portions, as the breast only 
is served. Serve with duck small pieces of fried hominy and 
currant jelly. 

The Canvasback is superior in flavor to any other species of 
wild duck, and is much esteemed. They have a purple head 
and silver breast, and are in season from September to May. 
The " Redhead " closely resembles in flavor the '' Canvasback,^ 
and often is mistaken for it. 

SALMI OF DUCK OR GAME 

Cut the game into neat pieces ; put them in the oven for five 
minutes to start the juices. Putin a saucepan one tablespoonful 
of , butter, one half pound of bacon or salt pork cut into dice, one 
tablespoonful each of chopped onion and carrot, twelve pepper- 
corns, one saltspoonful each of salt, thyme, and sage, and any 
coarse pieces of the game. Cover with a greased paper and let 
cook to a glaze ; then add a tablespoonful of fiour, and let it 
brown ; then two cupf uls of stock ; simmer for thirty minutes ; 
strain; add one quarter cupful of Madeira and the pieces of 
game ; cover and let simmer another thirty minutes. 

396 



GAME 197 

This dish needs long, slow cooking and careful watching. 
Garnish with croutons and truffles. 

The truffles should be added to the salmi a few minutes be- 
fore it is removed from the fire. If cooked game is used for 
the salmi, simmer for ten minutes only after the pieces are added 
to the sauce. 

POTTED PIGEONS (Dark Meat) 

Unless pigeons are young they should be braised or stewed 
in broth. Truss them carefully; place slices of bacon on the 
bottom of a stew-pan; lay in the pigeons side by side, their 
breasts up; add a carrot and onion cut into dice, a teaspoon- 
ful of sugar, and some parsley, and pour over enough stock 
or boiling water to cover them. Cover the pot closely. Let 
them simmer until they are tender, adding boiling water or 
stock when necessary. Serve each pigeon on a thin piece of 
moistened buttered toast. 

EOAST PIGEONS OR SaUABS 

Do not roast pigeons unless they are young and tender. After 
they are well trussed, or tied into shape, tie thin slices of bacon 
over the breasts, and put a little piece of butter inside each 
pigeon. Roast them about fifteen minutes; baste them with 
butter. 

Or split the pigeons in two through the back and breast, cover 
with thin slices of salt pork, and roast them in the oven. 
Thicken the gravy in the pan with a little cornstarch. Season 
and moisten with it slices of toast on which the half pigeons 
will be served. 

PRAIRIE-CHICKEN OR GROUSE ROASTED (Dark Meat) 

Grouse, like all game, should not be too fresh. Wash them on 
the outside only, the same as directed for chicken (page 181). 
Put a little butter inside each bird and truss them into good 
shape. Roast them in a hot oven twenty-five to thirty minutes. 



198 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

basting them frequently with melted butter. Five minutes be- 
fore removing them dredge them with flour. Boil the liver of 
the grouse, pound it with a little butter, pepper, and salt to a 
paste; spread it over hot buttered toast moistened with juice 
from the pan. Serve the grouse on the toast. Prairie-chickens 
have dark meat, and many epicures declare that they should be 
cooked quite as rare as canvasback ducks and that their flavor 
when so served is unsurpassed. Young prairie-chickens have a 
much lighter meat and need not be so rare. 

aXTAILS ROASTED (White Meat) 

Draw the birds carefully. Wipe them inside and out with 
a damp cloth j do not wash them more than this. Truss them 
carefully, letting the legs stand up instead of down, as with 
a chicken. Tie around each one a thin slice of pork or bacon. 
Bake in g, hot oven fifteen to twenty minutes. Baste fre- 
quently, having in the pan a little butter, hot water, salt, and 
pepper. Serve on slices of toast moistened with juice from the 
pan. 

aUAILS BROILED 

Split them down the back. Broil over hot coals four minutes 
on each side. Baste them while broiling with a little butter. 
When they are done spread them with butter, salt, and pepper j 
place them on slices of slightly moistened toast, and stand them 
in the oven a few minutes to soak the butter. 

SNIPE AND WOODCOCK (Dark Meat) 

Draw the birds carefully. Wipe inside and out with a wet 
cloth, but do not wash more than this, as it takes away their 
flavor. Cut off the feet, and skin the lower legs, which can be 
done after holding them a minute in scalding water. Skin the 
head, and take out the eyes. Press the bird well together; 
draw around the head, and run the bill like a skewer through 
the legs and body. Wrap each one in a thin slice of pork or 
bacon, and bake in a hot oven for ten minutes; baste with butter. 



GAME 199 

Chop or pound the hearts and livers to a paste. Season with 
salt, pepper, onion juice, and butter. Spread the paste on slices 
of toast just large enough to hold one bird. Place the crous- 
tades in the oven to become very hot. Pour over them the 
juice from the dripping-pan holding the birds. Place the birds 
on the toast, and serve at once. Garnish the dish with water- 
cress. The croustades are better fried than toasted. 

ROASTED AND BROILED PARTRIDGE (White Meat) 
Dress and truss the partridge the same as a chicken. Lard 
the breast, or cover it with a slice of salt pork. Put into the 
baking-pan with the bird one tablespoonful of butter, and two 
of boiling water. Roast in a hot oven about forty minutes, bast- 
ing frequently. 

The partridge has white meat, and so needs to be thoroughly 
cooked, but not dried. Place the bird on a hot dish, and 
around it on the same dish a border of coarse bread-crumbs, 
which have been thoroughly mixed in a saucepan with a table- 
spoonful of melted butter. Serve in a sauce-boat a white sauce 
or a bread sauce. If the partridge is to be broiled split it 
down the back, rub it well with butter, place the inside next the 
coals J cover and broil for twenty-five minutes. Keep it well 
moistened with butter, and turn it to brown on the skin side a 
few minutes before done. Sprinkle with salt and pepper, and 
serve on buttered toast. 

VENISON 
Venison is prepared and cooked the same as mutton. The 
roasting pieces are the saddle, and haunch or leg. It should be 
cooked underdone, allowing ten minutes to the pound. Serve 
with it currant jelly sauce and salad. 

VENISON STEAK 

A venison steak is cooked in the same manner as a beefsteak. 
A little melted currant jelly is served on the same dish, or as a 

sauce (see page 287).* 

* The steak should be moistened with the sauce so it will have a glazed appear- 
ance. 



Chaptee VI 

VEGETABLES 

The simplest way of cooking vegetables is usually 
the best j but all kinds need seasoning or to be served 
General ^^^^ ^ sauce. They should be cooked only until ten- 
Directions, der. The time depends upon their freshness. The 
same vegetable sometimes takes twice the time to 
cook when wilted. They should be well washed in 
cold water to remove all dust and insects, and if 
wilted, should stand some time in it to refresh them. 
Green vegetables are put into salted boiling water, 
and cooked rapidly in an uncovered saucepan. This 
will preserve their color. Overcooking destroys both 
their color and appearance. When done they should 
be removed from the water at once and be well 
drained before the seasoning is added. 

One vegetable only besides potato is served with a 

meat course, but cauliflower, stuffed tomatoes, aspara- 

Serving. gus, green corn, egg-plant, artichokes, or mushrooms 

may be served as a separate course. 

When using canned vegetables, turn them onto a 

Canned sieve or colander, and let water from the faucet run 

"Vegetables over them in order to remove the taste of the can 

which they sometimes have. 



200 




VEGETABLE CUTTERS. 



1. Plane for cutting Saratoga Potatoes. 4. Potato scoops for cutting balls. 

2. Potato Press for making potatt) rice. 
Fluted knives for potato straws or fluted slices, and for potato curls. 




STUFFED BAKED POTATOES. (SEE PAGE 204.) 



VEaETABLES 201 

BOILED POTATOES 

Wash the potatoes wellj take off only a thin paring, and 
drop them at once into cold water to prevent their discolor- 
ing. Have them of uniform size, or cut the larger ones into 
pieces the size of the small ones, so they will all be cooked at 
the same time, for after a potato is cooked it rapidly absorbs 
water and becomes soggy. If the potatoes are old or with- 
ered, put them on to cook in cold water j if fresh and firm, 
put them into boiling salted water, and boil slowly about thirty 
minutes, or until they can be easily pierced with a fork. Then 
at once drain off every drop of water ; shake them in the pot a 
moment to expose all sides to the air j sprinkle with a little salt; 
cover the pot with a double cloth, and place it on the back of 
the range for a few minutes to evaporate all the moisture. If 
treated in this way the potatoes will be dry and mealy. 

Violent boiling is likely to break the outside surface and 
make them ragged in appearance. 

New potatoes are boiled with the skins on. 

MASHED POTATOES 

After the potatoes are boiled and dried as directed above, 
mash them at once over the fire and in the same pot in which 
they were boiled, so that they will lose no heat. Season them 
with salt, butter, and cream or milk ; heat the milk and butter 
together; add them slowly, and beat the potatoes well with a 
fork or an egg-beater until they are very light and white. Turn 
them into a hot dish. Do not smooth the top. 

POTATO CAKES 

Mashed potato left over may be used for cakes. Add an egg 
to a cupful and a half of potato and beat them well together 
until light ; form it into cakes or balls ; roll them in flour and 
saut6 in butter, or spread the mixture in a layer one inch thick ; 
cut it into strips or squares and saute ; or put it into a well- 
buttered border mold ; cover with greased paper, and bake for 



202 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

half an hour in a moderate oven. Let it stand in the mold for 
ten minutes ; then turn onto a dish, and fill the center with any 
mince or with creamed fish. Mashed potato without egg will 
not hold its form when molded. 

POTATO RICE 

Press well-seasoned mashed potatoes through a colander or a 
potato press onto the center of a dish, leaving the little flakes 
lightly piled up. Serve chops or minced meat around the 
mound of potato. 

POTATO SOUFFLE 

To two cupfuls of smooth, well-seasoned, and quite moist 
mashed potatoes add the yolks of two eggs. When a little 
cooled stir in lightly the whites of two eggs beaten very stiff. 
Put the whole into a pudding-dish, and brown it in a quick 
oven. 

POTATO ROSES 

To two cupfuls of well-seasoned mashed potatoes, add the 
yolks of two eggs and white of one, and beat them well together. 
Place it in a pastry bag with a tube having a star-shaped open- 
ing (see illustration), and press it through. As the potato comes 
from the tube, guide it in a circle, winding it around until it 
comes to a point. The little piles of potato will resemble roses. 
Touch them lightly with a brush dipped in egg, and place a bit 
of butter on each one. Put them in the oven a moment to 
brown slightly. The edges touched by the egg will take a 
deeper color. Potato roses make a good garnish for meat dishes. 

POTATO CROQUETTES 

To two cupfuls of well-seasoned mashed potatoes add the 
beaten yolks of two eggs, a tablespoonf ul of chopped parsley, 
one and a half tablespoonf uls of butter (if none has been used 
in seasoning), a dash of cayenne and nutmeg ; stir over the fire 
until the potato leaves the sides of the pan. When cold, form 
It into small croquettes, roll them in egg and bread-crumbs and 



VEGETABLES 203 

fry theni in hot fat to an amber color. Serve on a napkin (see 
frying croquettes, page 294). The croquette mixture may be 
made into balls enclosing minced meat. When used in this 
way serve with it a white sauce. 

POTATO BALLS 

With a potato scoop (see illustration) cut balls out of peeled 
raw potatoes, and drop them in cold water for half an hour. Put 
them into salted boiling water and boil for fifteen minutes, or 
until tender J drain off the water; cover with a cloth and let 
stand on the back of the range until dry. Serve them on a 
napkin, or pour over them white sauce, and sprinkle with par- 
sley, or use them as a garnish. The pieces of potato left from 
cutting the balls can be boiled and mashed, so there is no waste. 

POTATO OMELET 

Cut cold boiled potatoes into dice a quarter of an inch square ; 
mix them with enough white sauce to well moisten them. 

Place a tablespoonful of butter in a frying-pan -, when the 
butter is hot, put in the potatoes and saut6 them until browned 
on the bottom, loosen them from the pan, and turn them like an 
omelet onto a flat dish ; or this preparation may be put in a 
baking-dish, sprinkled with crumbs and grated cheese, then put 
in the oven to brown, and served in the same dish. 

CREAMED POTATOES 

Cut cold boiled potatoes that are a little underdone into dice 
or into slices one eighth of an inch thick. Put them in a 
saucepan with enough milk or cream to cover them, and cook 
until the potatoes have absorbed nearly all the milk ; then to 
every two cupf uls of potato add one tablespoonful of butter, 
one half teaspoonful of salt, a dash of pepper, and, just before 
serving, a teaspoonful of parsley chopped very fine j or a white 
sauce may be made, using cream, if convenient, and the potatoes 
placed in it just long enough to heat them ; or a cream sauce may 
be poured over hot boiled potatoes j then sprinkle with parsley. 



204 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

BROILED POTATOES 

Peel and cut the potatoes lengthwise into slices one quarter 
of an inch thick. Broil them on both sides over moderate heat 
until tender -, spread each slice with butter, and sprinkle with 
salt and pepper. Serve very hot. 

Or, use cold boiled potatoes. Dip each slice in melted but- 
ter; sprinkle with pepper and salt and broil three minutes on 
each side. 

BAKED POTATOES 

Select large potatoes of uniform size and shape. Wash and 
scrub them with a brush. Bake them in a hot oven about an 
hour, or until soft ; press them to see if done, but do not pierce 
them with a fork j when soft break the skin in one place, and 
serve at once on a napkin. They become watery if kept. 

STUFFED POTATOES 

Select potatoes of equal size and shape, wash and scrub them 
well and bake them. While they are still hot cut a piece off the 
top of each, and with a spoon scoop out the potato, leaving 
the skin unbroken. Mash and season the potato, using a little 
hot milk and beating it well to make it light. Fill the potato 
skins with the mashed potato, letting it rise a little above the 
top of the skin. Place a piece of butter on the top of each, 
and put them in the oven to get well heated and slightly brown 
the tops J or cut the baked potatoes in two, lengthwise, and when 
the skins are filled, smooth the potato even with the skinj brush 
them with egg and set in the oven to glaze. (See illustration.) 

POTATOES BAKED WITH MEAT 

Pare the potatoes, and place them in the dripping-pan with 
the meat one hour before the meat is to be removed. Baste 
them with the drippings, and turn so all sides will be browned. 

LYONNAISE POTATOES 

Put one and a half tablespoonf uls of butter in a frying-pan. 
When melted add a scant tablespoonf ul of chopped onion ; let it 



VEGETABLES 205 

slightly color, then add two cupf uls of cold boiled potatoes cut 
into dice. Stir until the potato has absorbed all the butter, 
and become slightly browned j then sprinkle with salt, pepper, 
and a tablespoonful of chopped parsley. Mix well, and serve 
very hot. 

FRIED POTATOES 

Cold boiled potatoes are sliced, then put into a saute-pan 
with butter, and cooked until browned on both sides. If rolled 
in flour they will form a crisp crust. Eaw potatoes are sliced 
or cut into any shape, and put into cold water for half an hour. 
They are then well dried on a napkin, and immersed in hot fat 
until done. Too many must not be put in the basket at 
once, as it cools the fat (see frying, page 72). Fry them to an 
amber color; then drain, and place them on a paper in the oven 
until all are done. Serve them at once, as they lose their crisp- 
ness if kept. 

FRIED POTATO BALLS AND STRAWS 

To make baUs use a potato scoop; press it well into the potato 
before turning it. To make straws cut the potato into slices 
lengthwise, and then into strips, making each one about one 
eighth of an inch thick. 

Slices or strips cut with a fluted knife are good forms for 
fried potatoes. Fry the potatoes in hot fat, using a basket. 
Fancy fried potatoes are used to garnish any broiled meat dish. 
There are many kinds of cutters to give different shapes to 
potatoes. 

SARATOGA POTATOES 

Cut the potatoes with a plane into slices as thin as paper if 
possible. Let them soak in cold water for a little time to wash 
out the starch; then, put them into fresh water with a piece of 
ice to thoroughly chill them. Drain a few of the slices at a 
time, dry them on a napkin; put them in a frying basket and 
immerse them in smoking-hot fat. Keep them separated, and 
remove as soon as slightly colored. Turn them into a colander 



206 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

to drain, and sprinkle them with salt. When the second lot are 
fried turn those in the colander onto a paper in the open oven, 
and so on nntil all are done. Saratoga potatoes should be per- 
fectly dry and crisp. They may be used hot or cold, and will 
keep for some time in a dry place. If wanted hot, place them 
in the oven a moment before serving, 

PUFFED OR SOUFFLE POTATOES 

Peel the potatoes j cut the sides square, and trim off the cor- 
ners, so as to give an oval shape. With one even cut slice them 
one eighth of an inch thick the length of the potato ; they must 
be all the same size and shape. Soak them in cold water for 
half an hour; dry them on a napkin, and fry them in fat which 
is only moderately hot until they are soft, but not colored. 
Remove and place them on a sieve to drain and cool. Then 
immerse them in hot fat, when they will puff into balls. Toss 
the basket, and remove any that do not puff. Sprinkle with 
salt, and serve them on a napkin, or as a garnish. Holland 
potatoes best suit this purpose ; it is impossible to get the same 
result with most of the other varieties. 

SWEET POTATOES 

Wash and scrub the potatoes; put them in boiling water, 
and cook until they can be pierced with a fork; then pour off 
the water. Cover the pot with a cloth, and draw it to the side 
of the range to let the potatoes steam for ten minutes. Peel 
them before serving. 

BAKED SWEET POTATOES 

Wash and scrub the potatoes without breaking the skin. 
Bake until soft; then break the skin in one place, and serve at 
once. 

BROWNED SWEET POTATOES 

Cut cold boiled potatoes into slices one quarter of an inch 
thick. Sprinkle them with salt and pepper; spread with butter, 
and sprinkle with sugar. Place them in a hot oven to brown. 



VEGETABLES 207 

SWEET POTATO CROQUETTES 

Follow the rule for potato croquettes giveu on page 202. 

SWEET POTATO PUREE 

Mash thoroughly the boiled potatoes, and season them well 
^ith salt, pepper, and butter j add enough hot milk to moisten 
bhem. Serve it the same as mashed white potato; or put it in 
1 pudding-dish, brush the top with egg, and brown it in the 
Dven. Serve with it a tomato sauce, and use as a luncheon 
lish. Either boiled or baked potatoes may be used. 

STEWED TOMATOES 

If fresh tomatoes are used remove the skins by placing them 
in boiling water a few minutes; they will then peel off easily. 
Out them in pieces, and stew in a granite-ware saucepan until 
:ender. To one quart of tomatoes add one teaspoonful each of 
5alt and sugar, one quarter teaspoonful of pepper, and a table- 
spoonful of butter. Thicken with a teaspoonful of cornstarch 
wet in cold water, or with one half cupful of cracker or bread- 
crumbs. 

SCALLOPED TOMATOES 

Season a can of tomatoes with one teaspoonful of salt, and 
3ne quarter teaspoonful of pepper. Spread a shallow baking 
iish with a thin layer of bread-crumbs; pour in the tomatoes, 
sprinkle over them a tablespoonf ul of sugar, and a few drops of 
onion juice. Cover the top with a cupful of bread-crumbs 
which have been moistened with a tablespoonful of melted but- 
ter. Bake in a hot oven for fifteen minutes. Serve in the 
same dish. 

STUFFED TOMATOES 

Select large, firm tomatoes; do not remove the skins; cut a 
small slice off the stem end, and scoop out the inside. Fill 
them with a stufling made as follows : Put one tablespoonful of 
butter in a saucepan; when hot add one tablespoonful of onion 
chopped fine. Let it color slightly ; then add three quarters of a 



208 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

cupful of any minced meat, chicken, or livers, one tablespoonful 
of chopped parsley, one cupful of bread-crumbs, the pulp taken 
from the tomatoes, one teaspoonful of salt, one quarter tea- 
spoonful of pepper, and also an egg if desired. Stir it over the 
fire until it is consistent. Dust the inside of the tomatoes with 
salt and pepper, and fill them, letting the stuffing rise half an 
inch above the tomato, and place a piece of butter on it. The 
above amount of stuffing is enough for eight tomatoes. Cut 
slices of bread one half inch thick into circles the size of the to- 
tomatoes; dip them quickly in water, and place in a baking- 
pan. Place a tomato on each piece of bread, and bake in oven 
about fifteen minutes, or until the stuffing is browned. A brown 
sauce may be served with this dish. The meat may be omitted 
from the stuffing if desired. If convenient it is better to use 
oil instead of butter with tomatoes. 

BOASTED TOMATOES 

Peel the tomatoes; cut a piece off the top, and remove a little 
of the pulp. Put a piece of butter or a few drops of oil in each 
one ; dust with salt and pepper, replace the top, sprinkle it with 
crumbs, pepper, and salt. Put a small piece of butter or a little 
oil on each one, and place on a slice of bread. Bake in oven 
fifteen to twenty minutes. 

BROILED TOMATOES 

Cut the tomatoes horizontally in two; leave the skins on. 
Place them on a broiler with the skin side down ; dust with salt 
and pepper, and broil, without turning, over a moderate fire 
fifteen to twenty minutes, or until tender. Lay them on a hot 
dish, and spread each piece with either but-ter, oil, maitre d'ho- 
tel sauce, hot Mayonnaise or Bearnaise; or the tomatoes may 
be cut into thick slices, covered with oil, and then broiled, turn- 
ing frequently. 

TOMATO FABCI 

Cut the tomatoes in halves; place them in a frying-pan, the 
open side down, in one half inch deep of hot fat. Move them 



VEGETABLES 20^ 

about until they are cooked a little tender. Then lift them 
carefully without breaking, and place them side by side in a 
baking-dish. Pour a little sweet oil around themj sprinkle 
with chopped garlic, and parsley, salt, pepper, and cayenne. 
Bake in hot oven fifteen to twenty minutes. Serve in same 
dish. 

6EEEN PEAS 

The flavor of peas, and also the time required for cooking 
them, depends very much upon their freshness. Put them in- 
to salted boiling water, and do not cover the saucepan; boil ten 
to twenty minutes, or until soft enough to be easily mashed. 
Drain off the water, and season with pepper, salt, and butter. 
Mix in the seasoning carefully with a fork, so as not to break 
the peas. Sometimes a little sugar improves them. Use plen- 
ty of water in boiling, and do not let them be overcooked, as 
this is as bad a fault as having them underdone. When 
canned peas are used turn them onto a sieve, and rinse them 
off with cold water (this will remove the taste of the can, 
which they sometimes have)j add the seasoning, and let them 
become thoroughly heated. They do not require any more 

cooking. 

PUREE OF PEAS 

Boil the peas until very tender; mash and press them 
through a sieve. Place them again in the saucepan, and stir 
into them enough hot milk, pepper and salt, to well moisten 
and season them ; add also some butter, and a very little sugar. 

Dried peas may be used in this way, but require soaking and 
long boiling. The pur6e makes a pretty garnish pressed through 
a pastry bag like potato roses (see page 202), or into a fancy bor- 
der around a dish. 

STRING BEANS 

Remove carefully all the strings; cut the beans into one- 
quarter inch pieces, laying a number together, and cutting them 
at one time; or cut each bean lengthwise into four strips, and lay 
them evenly together. Place them in salted boiling water^ and 
u 



210 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

boil uncovered until tender j drain off the water, and season witl 
salt, pepper, and butter, or mix with them just enough whit( 
sauce (page 277) to coat them well. 

FLAGEOLETS 

If the dried beans are used soak them several hours in coh 

water; then throw them into salted boiling water, and boi 

until tender, but not soft enough to break. Use plenty o 

water in boiling them, and drain well. Season with butter 

salt, and pepper. If cooked right the beans will be glossy 

They are good also as a pur6e, the same as puree of peas (se< 

page 209). 

LIMA BEANS 

Put them into salted boiling water, and cook until tender 
then drain off the water. Moisten them with butter, and sea 
son with salt and pepper j and add, if convenient, a little ho 
cream, or cover with white sauce. 

SPINACH 

Put a half peck of spinach into cold water to freshen; pick i 
over carefully, removing all the wilted and yellow leaves. Pas 
it through five changes of water to free it from grit. Put it ii 
a saucepan; enough water will cling to it for the cooking 
Cover the saucepan; stir occasionally so it does not burn 
After fifteen minutes add a tablespoonful of salt, and cook fiv 
minutes longer ; then turn it into a colander to drain ; when i 
is dry chop it very fine. Put into a saucepan one and a hal 
tablespoonfuls of butter, and one tablespoonful of flour. Af te 
they are a little cooked add a teaspoonful of salt, dash of pep 
per, and the spinach. Cook five minutes ; then add a half cup 
ful of cream or milk, and cook another five minutes. Sti 
constantly, to prevent burning. Taste to see if the seasoning ii 
right. Serve either in a vegetable dish, or in the center of a disl 
with chops around it, or in bread boxes as shown in illustration 
or press the spinach into individual timbale molds, place eacl 
form on a square of toast, and garnish the top of each one ii 




roii-Ms ui rLiiKi:: lou caknishing. (see pages 209, 210, and 217.) 




CHAKTKKLSE OF SriNACH. (SEK PAGES 83 AND 211.) 

Border of alternate strips of carrot and turnip. Top circles of carrot and turnip. 



VEGETABLES 211 

imitation of a daisy by placing in the center some of the yolks 
of hard-boiled eggs which have been pressed through a sieve, 
and around this center a circle of the whites of the eggs chopped 
fine J or a thick slice of hard-boiled egg may be pressed into the 
top of each mold. 

SPINACH SOUFFLE 

Take a cupful of spinach which has been prepared as directed 
above (any that is left over can be utilized in this way) ; mix 
with it the beaten yolk of an egg, and stir it over the fire until 
the egg is set. Let it cool. When ready to serve stir into it 
lightly the well-beaten whites of three eggs. Fill individual 
china cups or buttered paper boxes half full, and place them in 
a hot oven for ten to fifteen minutes. Serve at once. Like any 
souffle, it will fall if not sufficiently baked, or if not served 
very promptly. 

CHARTREUSE OF SPINACH OR OF CABBAGE 

Boil a large carrot and turnip ; cut them into slices length- 
wise three eighths of an inch thick, then into strips of the same 
width. Butter well a tin basin, with slightly flaring sides, or a 
plain mold. Ornament the bottom with hard-boiled egg, or 
with fancy pieces of the vegetables. Around the sides of the 
mold place close together alternate strips of the carrot and tur- 
nip. If the mold is well but'tered they will easily hold in place. 
Fill the center with spinach or with seasoned chopped cabbage, 
and press it down so it is quite firm ; smooth the top and cut 
off the strips of vegetable so that they are even. Heat the 
chartreuse by placing the mold in a pan of hot water and 
putting both in the oven for a few minutes. Turn the chart- 
reuse on a flat dish to serve. A white or a vinaigrette sauce goes 
well with this dish. Birds, veal cutlets, chops, chicken, or sweet- 
breads may be placed on top of the chartreuse if desired. 

ASPARAGUS 

Scrape the stalks ; let them stand in cold water for half an 
hour ; tie them again into a bundle and make them uniform in 



212 



THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 



length; put them into salted boiling water and cook about 
twenty minutes or until tender, but not so soft as to be limp. 
Place the asparagus on buttered toast and remove the string. 
Serve with the asparagus, but separately, plain melted butter, 
a white, or a HoUandaise sauce. Cold boiled asparagus is served 
as a salad with plain French dressing (see page 375) or with cold 
Bearnaise sauce. 

ASPAEAGUS TIPS 

Cut the asparagus stalks into pieces about an inch long, 
and as far down as tender. Cook them in salted boiling water. 
Drain and stir into them just enough white sauce to weU coat 
them. 

CABBAGE 

Four vegetables are the result of the cabbage plant 
by cultivation. As the rose changes its character 
under the hand of the floriculturist, so it is with cab- 
bage at the hand of the gardener. First is the cab- 
bage, which is the leafy bud that stores up food for 
a flower the next year. Second, the cauliflower, which 
is a cluster (corymb) of forced cabbage flowers. Third, 
Brussels sprouts. The leaves are picked off, and small 
buds form along the Stemj and fourth, kohlrabi, 
KohlraH. which is the leaves turned into a fleshy tuberous-like 
vegetable. In these results two of the phases, cauli- 
flower and Brussels sprouts, are much esteemed, and 
are given rank with the best vegetables, while cab- 
bage and kohlrabi have little favor, and are consid- 
ered coarse and vulgar foods. The cabbage, however, 
if properly cooked, will be found an exceedingly pala- 
table vegetable, which very closely resembles cauli- 
flower. 



Cabbage. 



Cauli- 
flower. 

Brussels 
sprouts. 



BOILED CABBAGE 

If this receipt is exactly followed, this much-despised vegeta- 
ble will be found very acceptable, and its odor wiU not be per- 



VEGETABLES 213 

ceptible through the house. Cut the cabbage into good-sized 
pieces, take off the outside leaves, and cut away the hard core. 
Wash it well in two changes of water, and place the pieces, open 
side down, on a colander to drain. Have a very generous 
amount of water in a large saucepan or pot ; let it boil violently ; 
add a tablespoonful of salt and one quarter teaspoonf ul of bak- 
ing soda ; put in the cabbage, one piece at a time, so as to check 
the boiling as little as possible. Let it cook for twenty-five 
minutes uncovered and boiling rapidly all the time. Push the 
cabbage under the water every five minutes. Turn it into a 
colander and press out all the water. Put into a saucepan one 
tablespoonful of butter, a heaping teaspoonf ul of fiour, one half 
teaspoonf ul of salt and a dash of pepper ; add slowly one half 
cupful of milk, and stir till smooth; then add the cabbage. 
Cut it into large pieces with a knife, and'mix it lightly with the 
sauce. If the cabbage is free from water the sauce will adhere 
to it and form a creamy coating. 

This receipt of Catherine Owen has been found most sat- 
isfactory. 

CABBAGE WITH CHEESE 

(Very Good.) 
Boil the cabbage as directed above. Press out all the water 
and chop it. Make a white sauce of one tablespoonful each of 
butter and flour, one cupful of milk, one half teaspoonful of 
salt, dash of cayenne (see page 277). Spread a layer of cabbage on 
the bottom of a pudding-dish ; cover it with white sauce ; then 
add a layer of grated cheese. Make a second layer of cabbage, 
sauce, and cheese j cover the top with a layer of crumbs moist- 
ened with butter, and place it in the oven. When the sauce 
bubbles through the crumbs it is done. Serve in same dish. 

SWEDISH CABBAGE 

Slice the cabbage into thin shreds as for cold slaw ; cook it 
in a generous amount of rapidly boiling water for fifteen min- 
utes ; then drain off the water ; cover it with milk ; add salt, 
pepper, and a bit of mace, and cook until tender, and until the 



214 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

milk has boiled away so that it only moistens the cabbage. Add 
a piece of butter, and serve. 

HOT SLAW 

Cut the cabbage into thin shreds as for cold slaw. (Use a 
plane if convenient.) Boil it until tender in salted fast-boiling 
water. Drain it thoroughly, and pour over it a hot sauce made 
of one tablespoonful of butter, one half teaspoonful of salt, 
dash of pepper and of cayenne, and one half to one cupful of 
vinegar, according to its strength. Cover the saucepan and let 
it stand on the side of the range for five minutes, so that the 
cabbage and sauce will become well incorporated. 

BRUSSELS SPROUTS 

Remove any wilted leaves from the outside of the sprouts, 
and let them stand in cold salted water from fifteen to twenty 
minutes, so that any insects there may be in them will come 
out. Put the sprouts into salted, rapidly boiling water, and 
cook uncovered fifteen or twenty minutes, or until tender, but 
not untU they lose their shape. Drain them thoroughly in a 
colander j then place them in a saucepan with butter, pepper, 
and salt, and toss them until seasoned ; or mix them lightly with 
just enough white sauce to coat them. 

CAULIFLOWER 

Trim off the outside leaves and cut the stalk even with the 
flower. Let it stand upside down in cold salted water for fifteen 
or twenty minutes to take out any insects there may be in it. 
Put it into a generous quantity of rapidly boiling salted water 
and cook it uncovered about twenty minutes or until tender, 
but not so soft as to fall to pieces. Remove any scum from 
the water before lifting out the cauliflower. If not perfectly 
white, rub a little white sauce over it. Serve with it. a white, a 
Bechamel, or a HoUandaise sauce ; or it may be served as a gar- 
nish to chicken, sweetbreads, etc., the little bunches being broken 
off and mixed with white sauce. 



VEGETABLES 215 

CAULIFLOWER AU GRATIN 

Break the boiled cauliflower into small flowerets. Place them 
in a pudding-dish in alternate layers with white sauce and 
grated cheese. Cover the top with crumbs moistened with 
butter, and bake until the sauce bubbles through the crumbs. 

EGG-PLANT 

Cut the egg-plant into slices one quarter of an inch thick, 
after removing the skin. Sprinkle the slices with salt. Pile 
them one upon another on the back of a dish. Place on them 
a plate holding a weight ; let it stand one hour to express the 
juice. Dip the slices in egg and crumbs, or in egg and flour, 
and saut6 on both sides in lard or drippings. 

STUFFED EGG-PLANT 

Boil an egg-plant twenty to thirty minutes, or until tender. 
Cut it in two lengthwise, and take out the pulp, using care not 
to break the skin. Mash the pulp, and season it with butter, 
salt, and pepper ; replace it in the skins ; sprinkle with bread- 
crumbs moistened in butter, and place in the oven to brown. 

STUFFED PEPPERS 

Use green sweet peppers of uniform size. Cut a piece off the 
stem end, or cut them in two lengthwise, and remove the seeds 
and partitions. Put them in boiling water for five minutes to 
parboil. Fill each one with a stuffing made of equal parts of 
softened bread-crumbs and minced meat well seasoned with salt, 
butter, and a few drops of onion juice. Place them in a baking- 
dish with water, or better stock, half an inch deep, and bake in a 
moderate oven for half an hour. Serve them in the same dish 
if a suitable one is used j if not, remove them carefully to an- 
other dish. 

CHESTNUT PUR^E 

Remove the shells; boil ten minutes; then drain and remove 
the skins. Put them in boiling salted water, and cook until ten- 



216 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

der; then drain, mash, and press them through a colander. 
Season with butter, salt, and pepper; moisten with cream, or 
milk, or stock. 

CELERY STEWED 

Cut the celery into pieces one inch long. Boil in salted water 
until tender j drain and mix with a white sauce. 

CELERY AU JUS 

Cut heads of celery into pieces six inches long, leaving them 
attached to the root ; remove the coarse branches, and trim the 
roots neatly. Parboil it for five minutes. Make a brown roux, 
using two tablespoonfuls each of butter and flour, one tea- 
spoonful of salt, and one quarter teaspoonful of pepper, and 
dash of nutmeg. Add two cupfuls of stock when the roux is 
well browned ; and in this, place the bunches of celery ; cover 
and cook very slowly for twenty-five minutes. Remove the 
celery, and place it evenly on a dish. Strain the gravy j pour 
it around or over the celery. 

CARROTS AND TURNIPS 

Cut carrots and turnips into dice one quarter of an inch 
square, or with a small potato scoop cut them into balls. Boil 
them separately in salted water ; drain and mix them carefully 
together. Stir lightly into them enough white sauce to 
moisten them well. 

MACEDOINE OF VEGETABLES 

Cut a carrot and turnip into half inch dice, or with small 
vegetable-cutters cut them into fancy shapes or into small 
balls. Mix them in about equal proportions with green peas, 
flageolet beans, string-beans cut into half inch lengths, and 
small pieces of cauliflower. The vegetables should be boiled 
separately and well drained before being put together, and 
when prepared should be mixed lightly so as not to break 



VEGETABLES 217 

them, and seasoned with butter, pepper, and salt, or be moist- 
ened with a Bechamel or a cream sauce. The macedoine may 
be used as a garnish for meat, or can be served separately in 
a vegetable dish. This mixture of vegetables may also be used 
for a salad. Sometimes the vegetables, instead of being mixed 
together, are placed in separate piles around the meat or on a 
flat dish, and then give a good effect of color. 

DRIED BEANS 

BOILED, BAKED, PUR]6e, CROQUETTES 

Wash the beans, and soak them over night. Boil them slowly 
until tender, changing the water several times. They are im- 
proved in flavor by boiling with them a small piece of salt pork, 
a bay -leaf, and onion. If they are to be baked remove them 
from the water when the skin will break easily ; put them in a 
pipkin or bean pot, bury in them a piece of salt pork with the 
rind scored j sprinkle with salt and pepper. Pour over them a 
tablespoonful of molasses, and enough salted water to cover 
them. Cover the pot closely, and place it in a slow oven to 
cook for six to eight hours. 

For a puree, boil the beans until tender j mash them through 
a colander. Season with butter, salt, and pepper j and add 
enough cream or stock to make them the right consistency. 
This is called " Puree Bretonne." To use it for a garnish, press 
it through a pastry bag into forms like potato roses (see page 
202), or put it into small fontage cups (see page 300), or on thin 
pieces of toast the size of a silver dollar. To make croquettes 
add a beaten egg to the pur6e, form it into small croquettes, roll 
them in egg and crumbs, and fry in hot fat. 

BEETS 

Wash beets well, but do not break the skin, or they will lose 
their color in boiling. Cook for one hour if young, for two to 
three hours if old. When done throw them into cold water, 
and remove the skins. Season with butter, salt, and pepper. 
Serve them whole if small ; cut into slices if large. 



218 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

SUMMER SaUASH 

Wash; cut into small pieces; cook in salted boiling water for 
twenty minutes, or until tender. Drain thoroughly; mash, and 
press out all the water. Season with butter, pepper, salt, and 
cream if convenient. 

FAESNIPS 
* Boil the parsnips one hour, or until tender; throw them in 
cold water, and remove the skins. Cut them in slices length- 
wise one quarter of an inch thick. Sprinkle with salt and pep- 
per. Dip in melted butter; then roll in flour, and saut6 on both 
sides until browned. Or mash the boiled parsnips; season, and 
stir into them one tablespoonful of flour and one egg to bind 
them; form into small cakes, and saut6 in drippings until 
browned on both sides. 

CUCUMBERS 

BOILED, STUFFED 

Boiled : Peel the cucumbers, and cut them lengthwise into 
quarters. Boil them in salted water until tender. Make a 
white sauce (page 277), using cream instead of milk, if con- 
venient. Place the well-drained cucumbers in the sauce, to be 
heated through; then sprinkle with chopped parsley, and serve. 

Stuffed: Select large cucumbers of uniform size. Cut them 
in two lengthwise. With a spoon remove carefully the seeds, 
and Ell the place with a stuffing made of equal parts of minced 
chicken, or any meat, and soft crumbs, seasoned, and moistened 
with one egg and a little stock. Round it over the top, and 
sprinkle with crumbs. Place the pieces in a pan with enough 
stock to cover the pan one half inch deep. Cook in a moderate 
oven one hour, or until the cucumbers are tender; replenish 
the stock in the pan if necessary. Remove them carefully to a 
hot dish. Thicken the gravy in the pan with a little cornstarch, 
and pour it around, not over them. This dish can be served as 
an entree. 



VEGETABLES 219 

LETTUCE STEWED 

Wash the lettuce carefully to remove the dust and any in- 
sects. Take off the wilted leaves, and cut the root even with 
the head. Tie the top together. Lay the heads side by side in 
a baking-pan J add enough stock to cover the pan one and a 
half inches deep. Cover, and place in a moderate oven to sim- 
mer for one half hour, or until the lettuce is softj renew the 
stock if necessary. Lift the lettuce out with a fork, putting 
it under the middle ,• let it drain, and lay it double, as it will be 
over the fork, in a row on a hot dish. Season the gravy in the 
pan with, butter, salt, and pepper ; thicken it with cornstarch, 
or with a beaten egg, and serve it with the lettuce. 

ONIONS 

Put them in salted boiling water, and cook until tender; 
drain, and pour over them a white sauce, or melted butter, pep- 
per, and salt. If browned onions are wanted for garnishing 
place them, after they are boiled tender, in a pan ; sprinkle with 
salt, pepper, and a little sugar ; and put them in a hot oven to 
brown. 

STUFFED SPANISH ONIONS 

Peel the onions. Scoop out from the top a portion of the cen- 
ter. Parboil them for five minutes, and turn them upside down 
to drain. Fill them with a stuffing made of equal parts of minced 
chicken, or meat, and soft bread-crumbs, chop fine the onion 
taken from the center, and add it to the mixture. Season it with 
salt and pepper, and moisten it with melted butter. Fill the 
onions heaping full, and sprinkle the tops with crumbs. Place 
them in a pan with an inch of water ; cover, and let cook in an 
oven for an hour, or until tender, but not so long as to lose 
shape. Take off the cover the last five minutes, so they will 
brown very slightly. 



220 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

GOBN ON THE EAB 

Strip off the husk and silk. Put into boiling water ; cover, 
and boil ten to fifteen minutes. Do not salt the water, as it 
hardens the hull. 

CORN MOCK OYSTERS 

Cut down through the center of the grains, each row of green 
corn on the ear and with the back of a knife press out the 
pulp, leaving the hulls on the ear. To a pint of the pulp add 
two beaten eggs, one teaspoonf ul each of butter and salt, a dash 
of pepper, and enough flour to bind it. Roll it into small cakes, 
and saut6 them in butter; or it may be dropped from a spoon 
into hot fat, making fritters. These may be made of canned 
corn, in which case use a little milk and sugar. 

CANNED CORN 

Turn it into a sieve, and let a little water run over it from 
the faucet. Put it into a shallow baking dish ; add to one can- 
ful of corn one tablespoonful of butter, one half cupful of 
cream or milk, one half teaspoonful of salt, and a dash of pep- 
per. Place in the oven to brown the top, and serve in the 
same dish. 

SUCCOTASH 

Mix equal parts of corn, cut from the ear, and any kind of 
beans J boil them separately; then stir them lightly together, 
and season with butter, salt, and pepper and add a little cream 
if convenient. 

ARTICHOKES 

Cut the stems off even with the leaves ; remove the hardest 
bottom leaves, and cut off the top ones straight across, leaving 
an opening. Take out the inside, or choke. Wash well, and 
place upside down to drain. Put them into boiling water for 
half an hour, or until the leaves pull out easily ; drain well, and 
serve on a napkin. They should be cut with a sharp knife into 



VEGETABLES 221 

halves or quarters, and served with white, Bechamel, or Hol- 
landaise sauce. The bottom and the base of the leaves only- 
are eatable. 

AETICHOEE BOTTOMS 

Remove all the leaves and choke. Trim the bottoms into 
good shape. Boil them in salted water until tender. Serve 
with Bechamel or HoUandaise sauce. Or cut the leaves close 
to the bottom, and divide it into quarters. Cook, and serve the 
same way. 

Canned artichoke bottoms can be procured, which are very 
good. 



Chaptee VII 
FARINACEOUS FOODS USED AS VEGETABLES 

RECEIPTS FOR MACARONI AND CEREALS 

TO BOIL EIGE 

Wash the rice well, and drain it. It must be washed in several 
waters, and until the floury coating, which is usually on rice, is 
all removed. This flour makes it pasty, and holds the grains to- 
gether. Have a large saucepan of salted boiling water. Place it 
on the hottest part of the range, so it will boil violently. Sprinkle 
in the rice slowly, so as not to stop the boiling, and let it cook 
for fifteen to twenty minutes uncovered. At the end of fifteen 
minutes take out a few grains. If they are soft when pressed 
between the fingers, they are done. Then drain off every drop 
of water; sprinkle with salt ; cover the pot with a napkin, using 
one thickness only — and set it on the side of the range to steam 
and become perfectly dry. Or the rice may be turned into a 
colander to drain, then placed in the open oven to dry. Use a 
large amount of water in proportion to the rice. Have it violent- 
ly agitated all the time to keep the grains separated. Do not 
cook it too long, and do not stir or touch it while cooking. 
The cloth will not prevent the moisture escaping, and will help 
to keep it warm while it is drying. If these simple rules are 
observed, each grain will be separate and dry. Do not cover 



FARINACEOUS FOODS 223 

the dish in which it is served. Rice cooked in this way can be 
served in the place of potatoes. 

RICE AND TOMATO 

To a cupful of boiled rice add a half cupful of strained tomato 
sauce, which has been well seasoned with butter, salt, pepper, 
and bay-leaf. Toss them together, or mix lightly with a fork 
so as not to mash the grains. Serve as a vegetable. 

PABGHED BICE 

Boil rice as directed above, so each grain will be separate. 
Let it get cold, then separate the grains lightly with a fork on 
a flat dish. Put into a frying-pan just enough butter to cover 
the bottom of the pan; when it is hot add a little of the rice at 
a time, and saute it to a delicate color. Shake the pan con- 
stantly to keep the grains separated. Remove the rice as it is 
done, and spread on a paper to dry in an open oven. The rice 
should not be greasy when served. This makes a good rice 
dish to serve as a vegetable with broiled meats. 

FAEINA BALLS 

J cupful of farina Dash of cayenne. 

2 cupfuls of milk 5 drops of onion juice. 

i teaspoonf ul of salt. Yolk of 1 egg. 

Cook the milk and farina in a double boiler for twenty to 
thirty minutes. Wet the farina with a little cold milk before 
stirring it into the boiling milk, so it will be smooth; add the 
salt, and cook to stiffness, or until the milk has evaporated, 
then add the cayenne, onion juice, and beaten yolk of egg. 
Stir well to mix, and to cook the egg; pour it onto a dish. 
When cold roll it into balls one inch in diameter; roll the balls 
in crumbs, then in egg (the white and yolk with one table- 
spoonful of water, beaten only enough to break), and again in 
white crumbs. Fry them in hot fat for one minute, or to a 
light amber color. Be sure the balls are completely coated 



224 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

with egg and crumbs, or they will break in frying. Any cold 
cereals can be used in this way. They make a very pretty dish. 
Serve on a napkin, or to garnish a meat dish. 

FRIED HOMINY 

Cut cold boiled hominy into slices one haK inch thick, then 
into pieces of uniform size. Roll in flour, and saute on both 
sides, or dip them in egg and crumbs, and fry in hot fat. 

FRIED CORN MUSH 

Pour well-boiled cornmeal mush (page 228) into a bread-tin 
or dish with straight sides, so it will cut in even slices. Make 
the mush the day before it is to be used, so it will have time to 
harden. Cut it in pieces one half inch thick, and into any shape 
desired, but have the pieces uniform. RoU each one in egg 
and flour, and fry in hot fat; or they may be rolled in milk, 
then in flour, and sauted in butter. They should have a crust 
on both sides. It is good served as a vegetable with game, or 
as a breakfast dish with or without syrup. 



MACARONI 

The best macaroni is smooth, has a fine, close 
General grain and clear yellow color. It is made of flour 
directions, and water only, and when cooked needs the season- 
ing of a good sauce. It is generally mixed with 
cheese, but tomato, cream, or Bechamel sauces make a 
good combination. When macaroni is to be boiled 
in long pieces to be used for timbales, hold the pieces 
in a bunch, and lower them gradually into hot water. 
They will quickly soften, and can be turned into a 
circle in the saucepan. They must be removed when 
tender, and not cooked until they lose form. When 
done drain off the hot water, and pour on cold water 
for a few minutes ; then lay them straight on a cloth. 



i 




BEAN POT. 




iAKlNA BALLS. (SEE PAGE 223.) 



FARINACEOUS FOODS 225 



SPAGHETTI 



Spaghetti is a small and more delicate form of 
macaroni. It is boiled until tender in salted water How to 
and is combined with cheese and with sauces the same ®®^®' 
as macaroni, and is usually left long. It makes a 
good garnish. 

BAKED MACARONI, WITH CHEESE 

Take as much macaroni as wiU haK fill the dish in which it 
is to be served. Break it into pieces two and a haK to three 
inches long. Put it into salted boiling water, and boil twelve 
to fifteen minutes, or until the macaroni is perfectly soft. 
Shake the saucepan frequently to prevent the macaroni from 
adhering to the bottom. Turn it into a colander to drain -, then 
put it into a pudding-dish with butter, salt, and grated cheese. 
If much cheese is liked, it may be put into the dish in two lay- 
ers, alternating the seasoning with the macaroni. Cover it 
with milk, and bake until the milk is absorbed and the top 
browned. A tablespoonful or more of melted butter should be 
used to a half pound of macaroni. The macaroni called " Mez- 
zani," which is a name designating size, not quality, is the pref- 
erable kind for macaroni dishes made with cheese. 

MACARONI AU GRATIN 

Boil the macaroni as directed above. Drain it in a colander; 
then return it to the saucepan with butter and grated cheese. 
Toss over the fire until the butter is absorbed and the cheese 
melted. Serve at once before the cheese has time to harden. 

A mixtui'e of Parmesan and of Swiss cheese is often liked j 
the former strings when melted ; the latter becomes liquid. 

MACARONI WITH TOMATO OR OTHER SAUCES 

Boil the macaroni as directed above; drain it in a colander; 
then return it to the saucepan, and mix it with tomato sauce, 
with cream sauce, or with Bechamel sauce ; toss until they are 
well mixed ; serve in a vegetable dish or as a garnish. 

15 



226 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

MACARONI WITH MINCED MEAT 

Mix boiled macaroni with minced chicken or any meat, and 
moisten with white or brown sauce. The meat should be 
minced very fine. This makes a good luncheon dish. 

RECEIPT FOR MACARONI 

(FROM MRS. MASPERO.) 

Put the macaroni into salted boiling water, and cook it twelve 
to fifteen minutes, or until it is tender. Do not let the water boil 
violently, as this breaks the macaroni. "When it is cooked, 
drain off all the water, and cover the hot macaroni with grated 
cheese (Parmesan and Gruy^re mixed). With two forks mix 
lightly the cheese with the macaroni. Turn it into the hot 
serving-dish, and pour over it the sauce given below. Serve at 
once. 

SAUCE FOR MACARONI, FOR RISSOTTO, 
AND FOR POLENTA 

Put into a saucepan one and a half tablepoonfuls of butter. 
Add a small onion chopped fine and a half clove of garlic. Cook 
until all are browned ; then add three tablespoonfuls of water in 
which the macaroni was boiled, and a teaspoonful of beef ex- 
tract. Add, also, three or four soaked mushrooms, and let it 
simmer for five minutes. 

This amount of sauce is enough for a pound of macaroni. 

The mushrooms given in this receipt are the dried c^pes, 
which can be bought by the pound at Italian groceries. They 
are the best, after the fresh mushrooms, to use for sauces. They 
should not be cooked longer than five minutes to give their best 
flavor. 

SAUCE FOR MACARONI No. ^ 

(MRS. MASPERO.) 

Make a sauce as directed for No. 1, using in place of the beef 
extract a cupful of chopped round of beef, and a cupful of 
tomatoes. 



FAEINACEOUS FOODS 227 

SAUCE FOR MACARONI No. 3 

(MRS. MASPERO.) 

When roasting an upper round of beef stick into it six cloves, 
a clove of garlic, and a few lardoons of pork. Sprinkle it well 
with salt and pepper. After the beef is roasted, turn the juice 
from the pan over the macaroni and cheese. 

POLENTA 

(MRS. MASPERO.) 

Make a cornmeal mush ; boil it for a long time, until it is 
firm and hard. Cut it in slices or leave it in one piece. Pour 
over it sauce No. 1 given above. 

RISSOTTO 

(MRS. MASPERO.) 

Boil rice until tender, but not soft. The Italian rice must be 
used, as it does not get soft like the Carolina rice ; when the rice 
is done, drain off the water and steam it dry; then add, while 
the rice is still pn the fire, some mixed grated Parmesan and 
Swiss cheese. Turn them together lightly until the cheese has 
softened, then put it into the hot serving-dish, and cover with 
sauce No. 1 given above. 

CEREALS 

OATMEAL PORRIDGE 

Oatmeal is ground in different grades of coarse- 
ness, and some brands are partly cooked before they 
are put up for sale ; therefore the time for cooking 
varies, and it is better to observe the directions given 
on the packages. Oatmeal requires to be cooked un- 
til very soft, but should not be mushy. The ordinary 
rule is to put a cupful of meal into a quart of salted 
boiling water (a teaspoonful of salt), and let it cook 



228 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

in double boiler the required time. It is well to keep 
the pan covered until the oatmeal is cooked, then re- 
move the cover and let the moisture evaporate until 
the oatmeal is of the right consistency. It should be 
moist enough to drop but not run from the spoon. It 
should be lightly stirred occasionally to prevent its 
sticking to the pan, but carefuUy so as not to break 
the grains. 

If carefully cooked, the sides of the pan will not be 
covered with burned oatmeal, and so wasted. 

Oatmeal is very good cold, and in summer is better 
served in that way. It can be turned into fancy 
molds or into small cups to cool, and wiU then hold 
the form and make an ornamental dish. 

CRACKED WHEAT 

Add to three cupfuls of water a half teaspoonful of salt; 
when it boils add a half cupful of cracked wheat, and let it cook 
uncovered until the water is nearly evaporated ; then add three 
cupfuls of hot milk ; cover and cook until the wheat is soft ; 
then uncover and cook to the right consistency. It should be 
quite moist. Stir it carefully from time to time while it is 
cooking, but with care not to break the grains. 

Turn into molds to harden, and serve cold with sugar and milk. 

COBNMEAL MUSH 

Sprinkle with the hand a pint of cornmeal into rapidly boil- 
ing salted water, stirring all the time. Cook for half an hour ; 
or mix the cornmeal with a pint of milk and teaspoonful of salt 
and turn it slowly into a quart of boiling water; cook for 
half an hour, stirring constantly. This may be eaten cold or hot, 
with milk, with butter and sugar, or with syrup. When cold 
it can be cut into slices and browned on both sides in a saut^- 
pan, and used as a vegetable dish, or as a breakfast dish, and 
may be eaten with syrup. 



i 



Chaptee VIII 

A GEOUP OF EECEIPTS FEOM A 
NEW ENGLAND KITCHEN 

(SUPPLIED BY SUSAN COOLIDGE) 

Many of the receipts in this little " group '^ have 
never before appeared in print. They are copies from 
old grandmother and great-grandmother receipt- 
books, tested by generations of use, and become, at 
this time, traditional in the families to which they 
belong. They are now given to the public as exam- 
ples of the simple but dainty cooking of a by-gone 
day, which, while differing in many points from the 
methods of our own time, in its way is no less delicious. 

SPLIT PEA SOUP 

Soak one quart of split peas in lukewarm water for three 
hours. Pour off the water and boil the peas in three and a 
haK quarts of salted water till they are thoroughly soft. Rub 
through a colander, and throw away whatever does not pass 
through. This will keep several days. 

Take out the quantity needed for dinner (allowing a gener- 
ous quart to three persons) ; boil in it a small piece of pork, 
onion, and a little white pepper and salt ; strain and serve very 
hot, with small cubes of fried bread dropped into the tureen. 

BLACK BEAN SOUP 

1 quart of black beans. The bone of a boiled ham. 

4 quarts of water. 6 cloves. 

4 peppercorns. 

229 



230 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

Boil on the back of the range for twelve hours 5 rub through 
a colander and set away to cool. 

This should make soup for two dinners for a family of six. 
When served, add a glass of wine to each tureenful, two or 
three slices of lemon, and cubes of bread fried in butter. 



CLAM SOUP 

Boil a quart of clams in their own liquor till they are tender 5 
then chop them fine and return to the broth. 

Stii* together until smooth two tablespoonfuls of butter and 
one and a half of flour, and with them thicken the soup. Add 
very carefully a pint of milk, stirring to avoid curdling, and add 
two tablespoonfuls of butter, with pepper and salt, after taking 
the mixture from the fire. 

CLAM CHOWDEB 

Cut one half pound of salt pork into slices, and fry them 
brown; chop two small onions, and cook them with the pork. 
Stew separately a quart of tomatoes, canned or fresh, and a quart 
of shced potatoes. When all are done, put them together with 
one quart of clams and their juice. Add three pints of water, 
salt, pepper, a Httle thyme, a very little flour for thickening, and 
a handful of small whole crackers. Stew all together for half 
an hour, and serve very hot. 

FISH CHOWDEB 

Three pounds of fresh codfish well boiled and the bones care- 
fully removed. Two onions chopped fine and fried with haK a 
pound of salt pork, cut into small dice. Six potatoes cut small, 
a pint of water, a little salt and white pepper. Stew for twenty 
minutes, thicken slightly with a little flour ; add a. pint and a 
half of milk, and let all boil up once, stirring thoroughly. Put 
a handful of oyster crackers into a hot tureen, and pour the 
mixture over them. 



NEW ENGLAND RECEIPTS . s 231 

BROWNED OYSTERS 

Take thirty large oysters (about three pints) ; wash them in 
their own liquor. Add to one pint of milk three tablespoonf uls 
of the oyster liquor, well strained, a very little mace, and a bit 
of butter about the size of an English walnut, and make the 
mixture scalding hot. Rub two tablespoonfuls of flour per- 
fectly smooth with a little of the milk ; pour in and stir until 
the whole is thick. Then drop in the oysters j cook five min- 
utes or so, till they are well plumped out, and add a little salt, 
white pepper, and a tablespoonful of Worcestershire sauce. 
Serve on a platter on slices of buttered toast. 



FISH AND OYSTERS 

Make a pint or more of white sauce, with flour, butter, and 
hot milk, carefully stirred till smooth and thick. Pick to fine 
bits two quarts of cold boiled codfish, and add one pint of oys- 
ters chopped fine. Fill a well-buttered pudding-dish with al- 
ternate layers of the fish and oysters and white sauce, sprink- 
ling a little salt over the layers of cod. Cover the top of the 
dish with fine bread-crumbs and small bits of butter ; baste 
with a little cold water, and bake till the top is browned. 



SCALLOPED OYSTERS 

Three pints of oysters ; a quart of sifted bread-crumbs. Place 
a layer of crumbs in the bottom of a rather deep baking-dish, 
then a layer of oysters, and sprinkle with salt and white pepper. 
Repeat the process till the dish is filled. Cover the top with 
crumbs and a layer of soft bread broken into bits and placed 
round the edge of a circle of small oyster crackers. Wet the 
whole with half a pint of soup stock and a quarter of a cup of 
oyster liquor. Cover the top generously with butter cut into 
fine bits. Pour over the whole a glass of sherry, and bake an 
hour. 



232 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

PICKLED OYSTERS 

Scald the oysters in their own liquor, with a little water added, 
till they are plump. Skim them out, and drop into a bowl of 
cold water; rinse well and put them in glass jars. 

Scald an equal quantity of the liquor and vinegar with whole 
peppers, mace, and salt, and when perfectly cold fill the jars up 
with it. These will keep two or three weeks. 

FRICASSEED OYSTERS 

Drain a quart of large oysters from their liquor, and place 
them in a covered saucepan with a quarter of a pound of good 
butter. Set them on the back of the range, and let them sim^ 
mer gently till the oysters are well plumped out. 

Put the oyster liquor in another saucepan with three table- 
spoonfuls of powdered cracker, and a little pepper. When the 
oysters are done, remove them from the butter with a fork, and 
place them on toasted crackers on a hot platter. Add the but- 
ter in which they have been cooked to the oyster broth. Let it 
boil up once. Stir in half a pint of cream, and pour over the 
oysters. 

STEWED LOBSTER 

Cut a boiled lobster weighing four pounds into small pieces. 
Thicken a half pint of milk with a teaspoonful of flour and a 
tablespoonf ul of butter ; add a teaspoonful of dry mustard, and 
a little salt and pepper. Stew the lobster in this till it is quite 
tender, and lastly add a tablespoonf ul of vinegar. 

FISH BALLS 

MAINE 

Soak over night three quarters of a pound of boneless codfish. 

In the morning shred the fish (uncooked) very carefully with 
a silver fork till it is fine. Add to it a dozen potatoes of 
medium size, freshly boiled, mashed, and rubbed through a 
sieve, two beaten eggs, a tablespoonful of butter, a little hot 
milk or cream, and a sprinkling of white pepper. 

Mold into round balls, and drop into very hot fat. 



NEW ENGLAND RECEIPTS 233 

CODFISH AND CREAM 

Shred two thirds of a bowlful of salt codfish, wash it several 
times with fresh water, drain off the water, and put it into a 
saucepan with a pint of sweet cream and half a pint of sweet 
milk. Let it come nearly, but not quite, to the boiling point. 
Beat together one egg, a tablespoonful of flour, and two table- 
spoonfuls of sweet milk J add it to the fish, and stir continually 
until it is done. Put the mixture in a hot dish, and add a large 
spoonful of butter, stirring it thoroughly. 

OYSTERS ON A CHAFING-DISH 

Put into the chafing-dish four or five tablespoonfuls of the 
oyster liquor; add salt, white pepper, and a tablespoonful of 
butter, and stir till it is scalding hot. Drop the oysters in, a 
dozen at a time, and cook till they are plump and tender j then 
skim out and place on slices of hot buttered toast j add more 
oysters as required. 

PILAU 

One haK pint of rice; one pint of stock; one haK can of 
tomato. Soak the rice in cold water for an hour. Pour off the 
water, and put the rice, with the stock and one quarter of a white 
onion, in a double boiler. Stew till the rice absorbs the stock. 

Stew the tomato thoroughly, and season with butter, salt, and 
pepper. Mix it with the rice. 

Saut6 in butter to a light color jointed chicken, slightly 
parboiled, or slices of cold cooked chicken or turkey. Make 
a hole in the rice and tomato, put in the chicken and an ounce 
of butter, and stew all together for twenty minutes. Serve 
on a platter in a smooth mound, the red rice surrounding the 
fowl. 

SPICED SHAD 

Scale the fish, cut off the heads and tails, and divide them 
into four pieces. 

Chop four or five small onions, and sprinkle a layer on the 
bottom of a stone jar; on this place a layer of fish, packing 



234 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

closely. Spice with black and cayenne pepper, cloves, allspice, 
whole peppers, and a little more onion. Then add another 
layer of fish, and so on till the jar is full. Arrange the roe on 
top, spice highly, and fill the jar with the strongest vine- 
gar procurable. Place thick folds of paper on the jar under 
the cover, and bake for twelve hours. The vinegar will dis- 
solve the bones, and the fish can be sliced for a tea-table relish. 

FORE AND BEANS 

NEW HAMPSHIRE 

Soak a pint of small white beans over night. 

In the morning pour off the water, pour on a pint of cold 
water, and set at the back of the range to simmer slowly for 
three quarters of an hour. 

Place the beans in a bean-pot with half a pound of scored 
salt pork in the middle, half a teaspoonf ul of dry mustard, salt, 
white pepper, and a half pint of white sugar. Add water from 
time to time, as it grows dry, and bake twelve hours. 

A RECHAUFFE OF COLD MUTTON 

Have the mutton cut very neatly and carefully into slices. 

Add to a half pint of gravy or stock a little white pepper, a 
quarter of a teaspoonful of dry mustard, a quarter of a tea- 
spoonful of curry powder, and three large tablespoonfuls of 
currant jelly. When this is scalding hot, add a glass of sherry. 
Have ready a hot platter with slices of toast. Put the sliced 
mutton into the sauce long enough to heat through, but not to 
cook for a moment. Take the slices out with a fork, and place 
them on the toast; last of all pour the boiling gravy over all, 
and serve instantly. This preparation will be found delicious — 
it robs the second-day-of-the-mutton of its terrors. 

CORNED BEEF 

If a round of corned beef is to be eaten cold, as is often the 
case, it should be carefully and slowly boiled, and left in the pot 
till the next day. The soaking in the water in which it has 



NEW ENGLAND RECEIPTS 235 

been boiled has the effect of making the beef delightfully delicate 
and tender, and a little less salt in its flavor. No one who has 
tried this method will be content with any other. 

If the beef is to be served hot, what is left can be reheated, 
and left to cool for the next day's use in the liquor. 

A BEEFSTEAK PIE 

CONNECTICUT 

Three pounds of lean rump steak cut thick. Cut it into 
strips three inches long, and an inch wide. Put it to stew in 
enough boiling water to not quite cover the meat, and simmer 
yery slowly for half an hour. Add a tablespoonful of parsley 
chopped fine, a large teaspoonful of sweet thyme, haH a tea- 
spoonful of white pepper, and a quarter of a pint of sliced 
onions. Stew together till the meat is perfectly tender. Rub 
smooth a tablespoonful of corn starch, and stir it with the gravy 
until it becomes of the consistency of cream; add a little salt 
and a tablespoonful of Worcestershire sauce. Place the meat 
in a deep pudding-dish with alternate layers of cold ham sliced 
thin and sliced hard-boiled eggs — seven or eight eggs will be 
required. Add a little grated nutmeg ; cover with paste, and 
bake half an hour. 

EAST CHICKEN SALAD 

Take a two-pound can of Richardson & Robbins's compressed 
chicken ; remove the skin, and cut the chicken into small dice. 

Add twice as much celery cut into small pieces, salt to taste, 
and marinate the whole with a mixture of three tablespoonfuls 
of vinegar to nine of oil. Have it very cold, and just before 
serving pour over it a Mayonnaise made by the following 
receipt. This quantity is enough for twenty-five persons. 

CBEAM DRESSING 

Rub together in a china bowl a large tablespoonful of butter, 
four tablespoonfuls of vinegar, a half teaspoonful of salt, and a 
half teaspoonful of dry mustard. r 



236 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

Place the bowl in a saucepan full of boiling water over a 
spirit lamp, or on the range. Stir the mixture carefully till 
very hot, to prevent the butter from oiling. When hot add two 
well-beaten eggsj stir till thick, then pour in a haK pint of 
cream, stir, remove from the fire, and allow it to get perfectly 
cold. 

Cold sweet-breads are excellent served with this cream May- 
onnaise. 

MACARONI A FALSI 

Break a dozen stems of large macaroni into pieces four 
inches long, and stew carefully, till tender, in consomme or white 
soup stock. 

Place in a dish layers of the macaroni sprinkled with salt, 
pepper, and of Gruy^re cheese grated fine. Cover the top with a 
thick layer of grated cheese, on that a layer of fine bread- 
crumbs, and on that bits of butter cut fine. Bake just long 
enough to brown the top thoroughly. 

CORN PUDDING 

Scrape with a knife two dozen ears of green corn, cutting 
each row through the middle. Add one pint of milk, half a 
pound of butter, three eggs, the whites and yolks beaten sepa- 
rately, a little salt, and white pepper. Stir the yolks into the 
milk and corn, pour into a baking-dish, stir in the whites, and 
bake an hour and a half. 



THIN INDIAN BREAD 

VERMONT 

Mix together two cupfuls of meal, a tablespoonful of lard, 
and a teaspoonful of salt 5 scald with boiling watsr. Thin it 
with a large cupful of cold milk and two well-beaten eggs. 
Spread thin on a large buttered pan, and bake till brown in an 
oven only moderately hot. 



NEW ENGLAND RECEIPTS 237 

GRAHAM GEMS 

One pint of milk. 

One pint of graham flour. 

Place on top of the range a frame of "iron-clad" gem-pans to 
get very hot. Stir the milk and meal together lightly, not try- 
ing to make the batter very smooth. Drop a bit of butter into 
each hot pan, and while it sizzles pour in the batter, and in- 
stantly set in the ovenj bake twenty minutes. The heat raises 
the batter to lightness, and the butter gives a savory crust to 
the little cakes. 

COLONIAL HOE-CAKES 

CONNECTICUT 

Stir Indian meal and water together into a thickish paste. 
Spread thickly on a new wooden spade, or on the top of a new 
barrel, and set on end before an open fire to slowly toast, turn- 
ing the cake when the outer side is brown. No preparation of 
Indian meal has quite the flavor of this. 

RHODE ISLAND JOHNNY-CAKE 

For this, Rhode Island meal, ground between stones, is re- 
quired. Take one pint of meal and one teaspoonful of salt, 
and scald thoroughly with boiling water till it is a stiff, smooth 
batter. Thin with cold milk tiU about the consistency of sponge- 
cake batter, and drop in tablespoonfuls on a hot buttered grid- 
dle. When the under side is brown, turn the cakes and brown 
the other side. Eat with butter. 

BOSTON BROWN BREAD 

One pint of yellow cornmeal, scalded with a small quantity of 
boiling water, just enough to wet it thoroughly. Let it stand 
ten minutes. Then add enough cold water to make a soft bat- 
ter. Add one quarter pint of brewer's yeast, one quarter pint of 
molasses, one pint of rye meal, one half teaspoonful of salt, and 
one saltspoonfid of soda. Beat it well together, and set it to 



238 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

rise over night. When light, stir it thoroughly, put it into a 
buttered tin, sprinkle a little flour over the top, and set it to 
rise again. Bake about two hours. It is excellent cut into 
slices and toasted. 

DABS 

CONNECTICUT 

A pint of cornmeal, thoroughly scalded with hot water. Rub 
into it a dessertspoonful of butter, two eggs beaten very light, a 
wineglassful of cream or milk, and a little salt. Butter a tin 
pan, and drop the mixture from a spoon upon it. Bake in a 
moderate oven. 

CREAM OATMEAL 

Boil oatmeal for an hour as for breakfast use. Rub it 
through a fine sieve, add a little milk, and cook it very slowly 
in a double boiler for half an hour longer. When perfectly 
smooth, add a little salt and cream. 

This is the most delicate preparation of oatmeal that an inva- 
lid can take. 

ZEPHYRS 

Prepare a thin mush of Indian meal, water, and salt, and boil 
till smooth. Drop this batter into iron-clad pans, made very hot 
and buttered, and bake till brown. 

SaXTASH PIES 

Pare and cut into pieces a Hubbard squash, and steam it till 
thoroughly soft j then rub it through a coarse sieve. 

To a quart of the squash, which should be as thick and dry 
as chestnuts when prepared for stuffing, add three quarters of a 
pint, heaping full, of granulated sugar, the peel and juice of a 
large lemon, half a nutmeg grated, a tablespoonf ul of powdered 
ginger, about as much powdered cinnamon, a small teaspoonf ul 
of salt, six drops of rose-water, half a pint of cream, and four 
beaten eggs. Stir thoroughly, and add about three pints of 
scalded milk. The mixture should be tasted, and a little more 
sugar, or lemon, or spice added if required. 



NEW ENGLAND RECEIPTS 239 

Line a deep tin pie-dish with paste, lay a narrow strip around 
the edge, and fill the dish with the mixture. Bake till the fill- 
ing is set. This quantity will make four pies. 

PUMPKIN PIES (About Four Pounds) 

MASSACHUSETTS 

Pare a small pumpkin, about four pounds, and take out the 
seeds. Steam till soft, and strain through a colander. 

Beat in three eggs, three tablespoonfuls of molasses, two 
tablespoonfuls of ground cinnamon, one of ginger, two tea- 
spoonfuls of salt, and two quarts of hot milk. If more sweet- 
ening is needed add a little sugar. Bake with an under crust 
only. This receipt will make five pies. 

EASY PIE-CRUST 

Three quarters of a pint of lard, three quarters of a pint of 
butter, three quarters of a pint of iced water with a teaspoonf ul 
of salt dissolved in it, a pint and a half of flour sifted twice 
through a fine sieve. ^ 

Put the lard and flour into a bowl (leaving out a little flour f 
for rolling), and very lightly rub them together with the tips of 
your fingers. Pour in the salted water, and stir with a knife 
till the flour and lard are well mixed. Pour out onto the paste- 
board (over which a very little flour should be sifted), and beat 
the mixture with a rolling pin, doubling and folding, and put- 
ting the dry particles in the middle, till the whole becomes a 
smooth, firm paste. 

Roll this into a narrow oblong, as far as possible rolling from 
you. Divide the butter, which should be \ ery cold and hard, 
into three parts, and put one third on the paste with a knife, 
cutting it into little bits. Fold the sheet of paste over into a 
roll, and again roll out into an oblong. Add the second third 
of butter in the same way. Roll once more, put on the last 
third of butter, again fold into a roll, and cut the paste in two, 
putting one half on top of the other half. 



240 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

Cut portions off from the end of the double roll, and with 
them hne the pie dishes, rolling them very thin. This quantity 
of paste will make four or five pies. Care should be taken not 
to increase the quantity of flour. The pie-crust will be found 
tender and delicate, though not so elegant as puff -paste; and to 
make it ready for use in the pie-dishes should not take more 
than a quarter of an hour. 

A BOILED INDIAN PUDDING 

CONNECTICUT 

One quart of milk. 

One pint of meal. 

Five tablespoonfuls of West India molasses. 

Two tablespoonfuls of suet chopped fine. 

Scald the milk, and pour it over the mealj add the other in- 
gredients. Put the pudding into a mold or bag, and boil foui* 
hours. 

Hot maple molasses and butter are eaten with this pudding. 



A BAKED INDIAN PUDDING 

Three and a half quarts of sweet milk. 

Three heaping tablespoonfuls of cornmeal. 

One half pint of molasses. 

One teaspoonful of salt. 

Ginger to taste. 

Boil one quart of the milk; add to it molasses, butter, salt, 
and spice, and lastly the meal stirred smooth with a little cold 
milk; scald the whole together, and turn into a well-buttered 
baking-dish. When it begins to crust over, stir it aU up from 
the bottom, and add a pint of cold milk. Repeat the process 
every half hour, or oftener if the pudding browns too fast, till 
the five pints are used; then let it bake till done — six hours 
in all. Serve hot with a sauce of grated or granulated maple 
sugar stirred into rich cream, and kept very cold tiU needed. 



NEW ENGLAND RECEIPTS 241 

ORANGE INDIAN PUDDING 

CONNECTICUT 

Put four heaping tablespoonfuls of Indian meal in a bowl, 
and mix in half a pint of molasses and a teaspoonful of salt. 
Boil three pints of milk j pour it scalding hot on the meal, stir- 
ring carefully till perfectly smooth and free from lumps. But- 
ter a deep pudding-dish j cover the bottom thickly with frag- 
ments of dried orange-peel j pour in the mixture, and, last of all, 
pour gently over the top a tumblerful of cold milk. Bake 
four hours and a half in a hot oven. Eat with thick cream. 

BLUEBERRY PUDDING 

RHODE ISLAND 

Line a deep pudding-dish with slices of buttered bread. Fill 
this with alternate layers of whortleberries or blueberries, and 
granulated sugar. Squeeze the juice of a lemon over the 
whole. Cover the top with slices of bread buttered on both 
sides. Place a plate over the dish, and bake for an hour and 
a half, setting the dish in a pan of hot water. 

Take the pudding from the oven, spread over the top a 
meringue of white of egg beaten lightly with sugar in the propor- 
tion of a tablespoonful of sugar to one egg, and return it to the 
oven just long enough to lightly brown the meringue. The 
pudding should be eaten hot with hard wine sauce. 

A PEACH PUDDING 

Line the bottom of a deep pudding-dish with thick slices of 
stale sponge cake soaked in sherry. Fill the dish with fresh 
peaches, sliced, and well sprinkled with sugar. Spread over 
the top a meringue similar to that described for whortleberry 
pudding, and leave it in the oven just long enough to brown. 

Set the dish on the ice, and serve very cold. It is eaten with 
cream. 

CHERRY BREAD 

Fill a deep pudding-dish with alternate layers of buttered 
bread and sour cherries, stoned, and stewed with sugar. 

16 



242 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

Pack the dish in ice, and half freeze the mixture, which will 
become a semi-jelly. It is eaten with thick cream. 

LEMON EIGE PUDDING 

Boil a half pint of rice in a quart of milk till very soft. Add 
to it while hot the yolks of three eggs, three large tablespoon- 
fuls of sugar, the grated rind of two lemons, and a little salt. 
If too thick, add a little cold milk. It should be a little thicker 
than a boiled custf Turn it into a pudding-dish. 

Beat the whites o^ the eggs very stiff with eight tablespoon- 
fuls of sugar and the juice of the two lemons, and brown the 
top delicately in the oven. Set on ice and eat very cold. 

BEKMUDA PUDDING 

Weigh two eggs, and allow the same weight in sugar and 
flour, and the weight of one egg in butter. Beat the butter 
and sugar to a cream, add the eggs beaten to a froth, and lastly 
the flour, in which half a teaspoonful of Royal Baking Powder 
has been mixed. Stir till perfectly smooth ; then add a heaping 
tablespoonf ul of orange marmalade 5 pour into a buttered mold ; 
cover with buttered paper, and steam gently for an hour and a 
haK. Serve with wine sauce. 

RICE AND ORANGE-MARMALADE PUDDING 

Simmer a quarter of a pint of rice in a quart of milk till it is 
very soft and thick. Add a teaspoonful of salt, four tablespoon- 
fuls of sugar, a little cream, and let all cool together a few min- 
utes. Pour into a pudding-dish and bake till set. 

Spread over the pudding a thick layer of orange marmalade, 
and over that a meringue, and return to the oven till the top is 
lightly browned. Serve it cold. 

MOLASSES PIE 

This is a genuine New England dainty, dear to the hearts of 
children. Mix half a pint of the best molasses with a table- 



I 



NEW ENGLAND RECEIPTS 243 

spoonful of flour, and add the juice of a large lemon, and the 
rind and pulp chopped fine. Bake with an under and an upper 
crust. 

PRUNE JELLY, WITH ALMONDS 

One pound of prunes. One half box of Coxe's gelatine. Soak 
the prunes over night, and stew till tender in the water in which 
they have soaked. Remove the stones, and sweeten to taste. 

Dissolve the gelatine in a little hot water, and add to the 
prunes while hot. Lastly, add the juice of a lemon and two 
tablespoonfuls of blanched almonds. Pour the jelly into molds 
and set it on the ice to harden. Eat with cream. 

CLARIFIED APPLES 

Melt two cupfuls of crushed sugar over the fire, adding a lit- 
tle water to keep it from burning, and dropping in a few bits 
of lemon-peel. 

Pare eight large greening apples, and slice them very thin. 
Have a saucepan full of boiling water ready, and into this put 
the apples and let them cook till they are parboiled, but not 
soft enough to break. Skim them out, and drop them into the 
boiling syrup, shaking them continually over a slow fire till 
they are done. If properly prepared the slices will be almost 
transparent. 

LEMON ICE 

One quart of milk. One tumblerful of sugar. Mix the two, 
and half freeze in an ice cream freezer. Then add the juice and 
pulp of four large lemons ; stir thoroughly, and freeze firm. 
This is the simplest and cheapest of frozen preparations, and 
for use in the country, where materials are hard to come by, it 
is invaluable. 

APPLE SAUCE 

Pare, core, and quarter enough Baldwin or greening apples 
to fill a small stoneware jar. Add three quarters of a pint of 
sugar and a quarter of a pint of water j cover tightly. Set this 



244 THE CENTUEY COOK BOOK 

in the oven of the range as soon as the last meal of the day — 
dinner or supper, as it may be — is served, and let it remain till 
breakfast next morning. The long, slow cooking gives the ap- 
ples a deep red color and a flavor quite different from other 
preparations. 

STEWED PEARS 

Prick hai'd baking pears with a fork in half a dozen places, 
and with them fill a small stoneware jar. Add half a pint of 
sugar, half a pint of water, and a heaping teaspoonful of mo- 
lasses. Cover tightly, and bake all night as directed above. 

CRANBERRY JELLY 

Stew four quarts of cranberries in a porcelain kettle with 
water enough to floai^ifchem, till they are thoroughly soft and 
broken. Rub them through a coarse sieve. Allow to each pint 
of the marmalade-like mixture resulting a pound of sugar. 
Put the fruit on the fire till it boils hard. Stir in the sugar, 
and as soon as it jellies, which will be in a few minutes, re- 
move from the fire and pour into glasses. The advantage of 
this preparation of cranberries is that it keej^ perfectly for six 
weeks or two months, losing nothing in quality or flavor during 
the time. 

HARTFORD ELECTION CAKE 

4J pounds of flour. J ounce of mace. 

2^ pounds of sugar. A cupful of brandy and 

2J pounds of butter. sherry mixed. 

i ounce of nutmeg. 2 pounds of raisins, 

i pound of sliced citron. 4 eggs. 

At noon, or early in the afternoon, begin making this cake. 
Cream the butter and sugar, add a quart of lukewarm milk, half 
of the flour, and. either a half pint of brewer's yeast or a cake 
and a half of compressed yeast. Beat the mixture, well, cover 
the pan with a thick towel, and set it in a warm place to rise. 

At_ night, when it is very light, add the flour, spices, and 
eggs. Set' the pan in a moderately warm place for a second 






^^ NEW ENGLAND R^yjJEIPTS ^ 245 

rising. Early next morning add the fruit, the wine, the grated 
peel of a lemon, and half a teaspoonful of extract of rose. Pour 
into pans lined with buttered 'paper. Let them stand an hour 
or until light. This receipt makes seven loaves, which require 
to bake from an hour to an hour and a half, according to oven. 
A half teaspoonful of soda dissolved in a little warm water, 
and stirred into the batter just before it is put into the pans, is 
an improvement. 

INSTANTANEOUS FROSTING 

To the white of an unbeaten egg add a cupful and a quarter 
of pulverized sugar, and stir until smooth. Add three drops of 
rose-water, ten of vanilla, and the juice of half a lemon. It will 
at once become very white, and will harden in five or six 
minutes. 



Chapter IX 

Part I 

DISTINCTIVELY SOUTHERN DISHES 

The dishes in which the South excel, and which 
. may be called distinctive to that section, are those 
made of cornmeal, of gumbo or okra, and those sea- 
The soned with sassafras powder or twigs. The cornmeal 
used in the South is white and coarse-grained (it is 
called there water-ground), and gives quite a different 
result from that which is finer in grain and yellow in 
color, which is usually sold at the North. The hoe 
used for baking corn-cakes is an article made for the 
The Hoe. purpose, and not the garden implement usually asso- 
ciated with the name. 

PONE 

Sift a quart of white cornmeal, add a teaspoonful of salt j pour 
on enough cold water to make a mixture which will squeeze ea- 
sily through the fingers. Work it to a soft dough. Mold it into 
oblong cakes an inch thick at the ends, and a little thicker in 
the center. Slap them down on the pan, and press them a lit- 
tle. These cakes, they say, must show the marks of the fingers. 
The pan must be hot, and sprinkled with the bran sifted from 
the meal.* Bake in a hot oven for about twenty minutes. 

HOE-CAKE No. 1 

Make the same mixture as for pone. Spread it on the 
greased hoe, or a griddle, making a round cake one quarter inch 
thick. Bake it on the top of the range, turning and baking it 
brown on both sides. 

216 



i 



DISTINCTIVELY SOUTHEEN DISHES 247 

HOE-CAKE No. 2 

Use for these cakes, if possible, coarse water-ground white 
meal. Add to a quart of meal a teaspoonf ul of salt ; pour over 
it enough boiling water to make it a soft dough; add also a 
little milk to make it brown better. Let it stand an hour or 
longer, then work it together with the hand. Form it into lit- 
tle cakes an inch thick, and bake on a greased griddle till 
browned on both sides. Serve very hot. They are split and 
spread with butter when eaten. 

EENTUGKT CORN DODGERS 

Mix a teaspoonful of salt with a cupful of white cornmeal. 
Scald it with just enough boiling water to dampen it; then add 
enough cold milk to enable you to mold it. Stir it well to- 
gether, and form it into cakes three quarters of an inch thick 
in the middle and oblong in shape. Use a tablespoonful of 
dough for each cake. Bake them on a greased pan in a hot 
oven for twenty-five minutes. 

MARYLAND BEATEN BISCUIT 

Add a teaspoonful of salt and tablespoonful of butter to a 
quart of flour. Rub them together, then add a cupful of milk, 
and, if necessary, a little water, making a stiff dough. Place 
the dough on a firm table or block, and beat it with a mallet or 
rolling-pin for fully haK an hour, or until it becomes brittle. 
Spread it half an inch thick ; cut it into small circles, and prick 
each one with a fork. Bake them in a hot oven about twenty 
minutes. 

SOFT CORN-BREAD 

Mix a tablespoonful of butter with two cupfuls of hot boiled 
hominy or of rice ; add two or three well-beaten eggs, and then 
add slowly two cupfuls of milk, and lastly a cupful of white 
cornmeal and a dash of salt. Turn the mixture, which should 
be of the consistency of pancake batter, into a deep dish, and 



248 THE CENTUEY COOK BOOK 

bake about an tour. Serve it with a spoon from tbe same dish 
in which it is baked. 

SOUTHERN WAY OF COOKING EICE 

"Wash the rice thoroughly through several waters, using the 
hand. Put it into a saucepan with a pint of water and a half tea- 
spoonful of salt to each cupful of rice. Let it boil covered until 
the water has boiled away; then draw it to the side of the 
range, open the cover a little, and let it steam until thoroughly 
dry. Do not touch the rice while it is cooking. This receipt 
is furnished by a Southern negro cook. 

GUMBO FILE 

(a new ORLEANS DISH) 

50 oysters. 2 onions. 

1 fowl cut into pieces. J teaspoonful of salt. 

J pound of veal cut into pieces. J teaspoonful of pepper. 

J pound of ham cut into pieces. J teaspoonful of powdered thyme. 

3 tablespoonfuls of tomato. J teaspoonful of marjoram. 

1 tablespoonful of drippings. Dash of cayenne. 

2 tablespoonfuls of sassafras powder. 

Wash well the outside of a fowl (see page 180), and cut it 
into pieces. Cut the veal and the ham into small pieces, and 
dredge all of them well with flour. 

Put the onions, shced, into a pot or large saucepan with one 
tablespoonful of fat or drippings, and fry until brown; then 
add the pieces of chicken, veal, and ham. Turn them often, so 
all will brown evenly j this will take about twenty minutes. 
When the meat is browned, add two quarts of hot water; cover 
the pot, and let simmer for two hours. After the first hour 
add the salt, pepper, thyme, marjoram, and tomatoes. At 
the end of two hours, if the meat is tender, add the oysters and 
the oyster juice, and let remain on the fire only long enough 
to ruffle the gills of the oysters. Take from the fire, and add 
two tablespoonfuls of sassafras powder, and stir until a Little 



DISTINCTIVELY SOUTHERN DISHES 249 

thickened (do not add the sassafras until the pot is removed 
from the fire). 

Serve in a meat-dish with a border of boiled rice. This is a 
dish much used in the South. It may be served as a chowder, 
with the meat and liquor together, or may be served separately, 
using the liquor as a soup. 

Powdered sassafras leaves may be obtained at the grocer^s. 

CHICKEN GUMBO 

Cut a chicken into pieces j roll the pieces in flour ; put them 
into a pot with a few slices of salt pork and one sliced onion. 
Saut6 them a light brown ; then add four quarts of hot water, 
and simmer it until the chicken is nearly cooked; then add two 
slices of boiled ham, two quarts of sliced okra, one half can of 
tomatoes, and one pod of red pepper. Continue to cook until 
everything is tender. Season with salt and pepper, and just be- 
fore serving stir in one teaspoonful of sassafras powder. If 
sassafras twigs can be had they are better than the powder, 
and should be added with the vegetables. 

This is a favorite Southern dish. It resembles a chowder, 
and is so hearty as to almost constitute a dinner in itself. 

Part II 
YEEY INEXPENSIVE DISHES 



living. 



The following receipts are furnished by a lady who 
for many years solved the problem of providing J^^*®' 
nourishment for a family of three persons upon a 
very small income. The average expenditure each 
day for three meals did not exceed twenty cents per 
capita, or four dollars and twenty cents a week for 
the family; and great care was taken to secure for 
this sum the greatest possible amount of nourish- 
ment. In families where meat is not considered a daily 
necessity, this price might be further reduced. 



250 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

It is, of course, very much easier to supply coarse 

qualities of food for a low sum than refined and 

dainty dishes, but, after all, it is more a matter of the 

Care care given to the preparation than of the food itself 

i"cooking which produces refined results; for instance, beef, 
cheap cuts which is very nourishing, is least suited to these re- 

meat, q^^irements, because the less expensive portions, which 
often contain the most nutriment, cannot be served 
as daintily as either veal or mutton without a large 
amount of care and trouble; this it is often difficult 
to give personally, and almost impossible to secure in 
a low-priced cook. Still, it is worth while for any 
housekeeper desirous of obtaining the maximum nour- 
ishment at minimum cost, to try the following receipts 
for using the most inexpensive portion of beef that 
can be bought, i. e., the shin, which costs about eight 
cents a pound. 

TO PREPARE SHIN OF BEEF 

Take a slice about one inch thick, cut toward the smaller end 
of the shin, so that the little round bone in the center is quite 
small. This is fairly manageable, and can by careful cooking 
be rendered as tender as a sirloin steak. Place the slice in a 
stewpan, cover it with water, add salt, and set it upon the far 
end of the grate for three hours, never allowing it to boil. If 
by that time it is fairly tender, cover it with vegetables cut in 
very small dice — carrots, turnips, and one large onion; advance 
the pot nearer to the fire, and let it simmer another hour. 
Push aside the vegetables, take the meat out carefully, and lay 
it on the dish; pile the vegetables upon its center, then care- 
fully thicken the liquor, and if necessary brown it with a drop 
or two of burnt sugar, and pour this gravy over the beef. 

ANOTHER WAY 

Take about two and a half pounds of the thicker part of the 
shin, place it in an iron pot with two tablespoonfuls of drip- 
pings. Turn it as it browns. When brown enough put it in a 



VERY INEXPENSIVE DISHES 251 

stew-pan; add enough water to cover it, a large onion stuck full 
of cloves, and half a cari'ot cut into slices. Let it simmer four 
hours, remove the meat and onion and carrot, thicken the 
liquor, and serve in a dish large enough to allow plenty of 
gravy. If, after removing the meat, the liquor appears too rich, 
pour off the fat before thickening. 

Round steak can be used instead of shin for both 
these receipts, but costs just double the price. It re- Bound 
quires far less cooking and calls for less care, and * ' 

if carefully and slowly stewed for one hour makes a 
very appetizing dish. 

Another very appetizing dish, much used by people 
of small means in England, is beefsteak pudding, for 
which it is also possible to use the shin, by stewing it 
beforehand, and cutting it up when perfectly tender 
into small pieces; but it is usually made of round 
steak as f oUows : 

BEEFSTEAK PUDDING 

Line a pudding-basin with a plain crust made of chopped 
suet and flour mixed with water, and simply rolled out once 
an inch thick; cut up a pound of round steak, and sprinkle 
with flour, pepper, and salt; chop a small onion fine, put all 
into the lined basin, add a cup of water, cover over with the suet 
crust, and tie it in a weU-floured cloth. Have a saucepan full 
of water boiling rapidly, and put the basin in, the opening down- 
wards ; leave the lid off the saucepan, and let it boil two and one 
haK hours, adding water if it boils away. A sheep's kidney 
cut up small adds richness to the gravy. 

Sometimes, where great economy must be practised, 
and the sum allowed for the entire meal for three 
people is only sixty cents, it is difficult to remember 
just such accessories in the way of vegetables as are Menus, 
as inexpensive in their way as the meat, and for this 
reason the following very modest menus are offered 
as samples of what can be accomplished in the way of 
very inexpensive dinners. 



252 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

DINNER No. 1 

POTATO BALLS, SCOTCH BROTH, TURNIPS WITH WHITE SAUCE, 
TAPIOCA AND APPLES 

This is an excellent winter dinner. 

Scotch Broth, — Buy for four persons one pound or one and a 
quarter pounds of scrag of mutton ; chop it into pieces, and put 
it into an iron pot with one quart of water, one large onion cut 
into slices, and a small cupful of pearl barley. Let it simmer 
for two hours, adding a little water if it becomes too thick. 
Serve boiling hot with the mutton in it. 

This is very inexpensive. The scrag of mutton costs from 
eight to ten cents ; the barley is eight cents a pound — about two 
cents' worth is suffi.cient ; the onion may be reckoned as one 
cent. It can be made a little more costly by buying what is 
called the best end of the neck. Six or eight chops would 
weigh the pound and a quarter required, and would cost per- 
haps twelve to fourteen cents. The chops look somewhat bet- 
ter than the chopped-up scrag, but the nourishing quality is as 
good in the latter. 

Potato Balls. — Choose large potatoes, and with a scoop cut 
out small balls J boil these and serve them sprinkled with 
chopped parsley. 

Turnips. — Cut into small dice, boil until tender, throw away 
the water, and serve with a white sauce made of milk, flour, 
and a teaspoonful of butter. Two turnips are sufficient for a 
dish. 

Tapioca and Apples. — Apples are cheap early in the winter. 
Three or four at a cent apiece should be pared and cored, and 
placed in a low baking-dish with two dessertspoonfuls of 
tapioca, and enough water to cover the whole. Bake in a slow 
oven. By soaking the tapioca over night a less quantity will do, 
say, one and a quarter spoonfuls. 

N. B. — Both sago and tapioca are very economical because, 
when soaked over night, they swell greatly, and they can both 
be cooked with water, instead of milk, with good results. 



VERY INEXPENSIVE DISHES 253 

DINNER No. 2 



BAGE, RENNET CUSTARD 

Buy one and a quarter pounds of leg of veal at ten cents a 
pound ; cut the meat into dice, and place it in a stew-pan with a 
piece of mace and a pint of milk. Place it back of the fire so 
that it will not burn, and thicken it before serving with a tea- 
spoonful of flour. 

Stuffed Potatoes. — Bake four large potatoes until nearly done ; 
then cut in half, remove the insides, beat them up with milk, re- 
place in the skins, and serve in a pyramid. 

Purified Cabbage, — Cut a cabbage into thin strips as if for 
salad ; boil it in salted water, but every time the water comes to 
the boiling point throw it away for three successive times; 
after the third boiling use milk instead of water, and add a little 
nutmeg. If nicely cooked in this way, cabbage is as palatable 
and as digestible as cauliflower. 



DINNER No. 3 

STEWED CARROTS, CHOPS WITH PARSLEY SAUCE, CREAM POTA- 
TOES, APPLE DUMPLINGS 

Chops cut from the shoulder of mutton are cheaper than 
either neck or loin chops, and are as good, perhaps better, for 
boiling. Put the chops on in enough cold water to cover themj 
let them simmer for half an hour, and at the end of that time 
come just to a boil ; pour off the liquor into the stock-pot, and 
lay the chops on a hot dish; make some white sauce of one 
ounce of butter, one teaspoonf ul of flour, and a cup of milk ; add 
chopped parsley, and pour over the chops. 

To stew carrots cut them in very thin rounds, lay them in a 
stew-pan with enough water to more than cover. Let them boil 
till tender, about one quarter of an hour; then thicken the 
liquor with flour, and add a tiny bit of butter. 



254 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

DINNER No. 4 

BOILED ONIONS, CURRY, RICE, STEWED PRUNES 

Curry can be made of a variety of materials. The best for 
the purpose are the white meats, veal, pork, or chicken ; and al- 
though curried cooked meat is a satisfactory substitute for 
hash, it is not on the whole commendable. The Indian receipt 
for ordinary curry is as follows : 

Cut the fowl or meat into joints or fair-sized pieces j dip each 
piece in curry powder, or sprinkle freely with it; cut up a 
large onion, and have a clove of garlic. Put all together in a 
frying-pan, the bottom of which is covered with melted butter 
(drippings or lard will do) ; fry until thoroughly brown, turning 
continually. When brown, remove meat into a stew-pan j make 
a gravy with flour and water (or stock) in the frying-pan from 
which the meat was taken j strain it over the meat, and then add 
a few drops of lemon, or a little Worcester sauce — and set the 
stew-pan on the side of the stove and let it simmer for two hours. 
The meat should be so tender that it can be readily separated by 
a fork. A knife should never be used. Eggs make a delicious 
curry. Boil them hard, shell, and cut in halves ; make a curry gravy 
as above, and pour over them. Serve with rice around the dish. 

Eice. — The proper way to serve rice with curry is perfectly 
dry, and this is best secured by throwing a cupful (for an 
ordinary dish) into water which is already boiling hard. Let it 
continue to boil rapidly until the water has all boiled away^ 
leaving the lid off. The rice will then be almost tender, and by 
removing to the side of the stove the evaporation will continue, 
and the rice drying off will be easily separable grain from grain, 
which is the proper way. The success of this method depends 
upon having plenty of water in the first instance. 

Madras curry is differently made, and is served dry. For it, 
proceed as for the other curry by frying all the ingredients to- 
gether in butter or drippings, but when brown continue to fry 
untn the meat is done ; then at the last moment add a sprink- 
Kng of curry powder, shake the pan, and turn all the contents 
onto a hot dish. Serve with rice. 



VERY INEXPENSIVE DISHES 255 

DINNER No. 5 

BRUSSELS SPROUTS, UYER SAUTE, POTATOES, RICE PUDDING 

Calf's liver can be so cooked as to be both delicate and easily 
digested. The German method is a very good one. Remove 
any outer skin, and cut the liver into very thin slices. Have a 
pan with salted boiling water and throw in the liver. It will 
require only about five minutes' cooking if the slices are thin 
enough. Take them out, lay them on a hot dish, and make a 
gravy by frying a cut-up onion and when brown pouring in the 
liquor used to boil the liver, thickening with flour and browning 
if necessary. Add at the last moment one half a large spoonful 
of vinegar. 

Liver balls may be made by using the liver left over, chopping 
it very fine with an onion, some sage, or thyme (as may be pre- 
ferred), bread-crumbs and a beaten egg, and frying in hpt lard. 

Liver should be accompanied by a green vegetable, for which 
reason Brussels sprouts are suggested. They should be cooked 
in salted water, drained, and served with white sauce, flavored 
with nutmeg. 

DINNER No. 6 

PRIED SWEET POTATOES, BREAST OF MUTTON, CAPER SAUCE, 
STRING-BEANS (TEN CENTS A CAN), APPLE PIE 

Breast of mutton is the cheapest of all mutton, and being 
very fat, is considered unprofitable, but by care it can be made 
both palatable and economical. Buy about three pounds of 
breast ; place it in a pan over a slow fire until a good deal of the 
fat has melted, but avoid letting it brown ; pour away the fat as 
it melts, and when fairly free of it place the meat in a stew-pan 
with an onion cut up, and enough water to cover it, and a little 
thyme. Let it cook very slowly, only simmering for two hours ; 
then lay on a hot dish, and pour caper sauce over it. If it is 
still fat skim often while simmering. 

SOME CHEAP SOUPS 

Tomato. — Turn a can of tomatoes into a stew-pan, and let 
come to a boil j fry some bread in dice, place them at the bot- 



256 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

torn of a soup tureen, and rub the tomatoes through a col- 
ander over them; put the pulp left in the colander back into 
the stewpan; add water, let it boil up, and strain again into the 
tureen; stir in a teaspoonful of butter, season with pepper and 
salt, and serve. 

Carrot — Boil haK a dozen large carrots until quite tender; 
then rub them through a colander into a saucepan; add a pint 
and a half of water to the pulp, and boil ; thicken with a little 
flour, and add a teaspoonful of butter, pepper and salt. 

Potato. — Boil haK a dozen large potatoes; rub them through 
a sieve (coarse hair is the best) into a saucepan in which there 
have been placed a shredded onion, some chopped parsley, and 
about a cupful of milk. Stir in the potato pulp, and thin with 
water. Season with pepper and salt. 

Bean. — Soak some beans over night, boil for one hour; add 
an onion when nearly soft, rub them through a colander into a 
tureen in which have been already placed some onions fried in 
butter or lard, and add water if too thick. 

Celery. — Take the cast-off leaves and hard ends of a bunch of 
celery, and let them boil until perfectly shredded; then strain 
the water into some thickened milk, and let it all come to the 
boiling point, but not boil. Season with butter, pepper and salt. 
It is a very good addition to this soup to break an Qg^ into the 
tureen, and pour the soup upon it. 

Stock can be used in any of these soups instead of water. 




BUTTER PATS AND MOLDED BUTTER. (SEE PAGE 258.) 



1. Sliells made with No. 5. 

3. Small pat8 made with No. 6. 



2. Balls made with No. 7. 
4. Rolls made with No. 7. 




BREAD-AND-BUTTER SANDWICHES. 

Made of White, Graham, and Boston Brown Bread. (See page 364.) 



Part III 

MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS 

STERILIZED MILK 

The subject of bacteria in foods has of late become a matter 
of careful scientific study, and the fact has been established 
that milk is one of the most subtle of disease-carriers. Hence 
every careful mother, before giving it to her children, subjects 
it to the sterilizing process, which is simply raising it to the 
degree of heat which destroys the germs. It is found, how- 
ever, that this does not kill the spores or seeds of the baciUi, 
and so the operation is but a partially successful expedient. 
(To render it really sterile requires heating several times on 
successive days.) It has also been found that sterilizing milk 
robs it of its antiscorbutic qualities, and that children fed en- 
tirely upon it are subject to bleeding gums and other symptoms 
of scurvy. Milk should be fresh as possible, as the longer it 
stands the greater will be the number of bacteria, and less rich 
the milk in the substances on which they feed. The first point 
to emphasize in the simple process of sterilization is perfect clean- 
hness. Rounded bottles should be used, as they are easier to 
clean. They should be well rinsed as soon as emptied, and left 
to soak in soda and water, and before use they should be sub- 
jected to a good scrubbing with scalding water and a piece of 
cloth tied onto a stick or wire. The brushes made for cleaning 
bottles should be avoided, as they are more than likely to be full 
of germs themselves. Turn the fresh milk into the bottles as 
soon as cleaned. Fill them to within an inch of the top, and 
stop them with antiseptic cotton. The sterilizing is effected by 

17 257 



258 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

keeping the bottles in boiling water or in live steam for at least 
half an hour. The water in the boiler should be cold at first, 
and the heat raised gradually. This, as well as not letting the 
bottles rest on the bottom of the kettle, will prevent their break- 
ing. Sterilizers are made which are both cheap and convenient, 
but any kettle well covered will answer the purpose. The time 
for cooking should be counted from the moment the water 
boils. Let the bottles remain in the water until cooled, and do 
not remove the stopper until the milk is to be used. 

DEVONSHIRE CREAM, No. 1 

(receipt obtained in ENGLAND.) 

Put a panful of milk in a cold place for twenty-four hours, 
or in summer for twelve hours. Then place it on the fire, and 
let it come very slowly to the scalding-point, but do not let it 
boil. Put it again in a cool place for six or twelve hours, and 
then take off the cream, which will be firm and of a peculiarly 
sweet flavor. 

DEVONSHIRE CREAM, No. 2 

Put the fresh milk on the fire, and let it very slowly come to 
the scalding-point, but do not let it boil. Leave it on the fire 
for about half an hour, then remove to a cold place, and let it 
stand for six hours, or until the cream has all risen. 

Devonshire cream is thick and clotted, and is used on fruits, 
mush, etc. It will keep for some time, and is particularly 
delicious. 

FRESH BUTTER 

The French use for table butter that which is freshly made 
and without salt. One soon learns to prefer it to the best 
salted butter. It is very easy to make fresh butter, but not 
always easy to buy it, for it keeps only a day at its best, and 
therefore the surest way of having it good is to make it. Take 
a half pint of double cream; turn it into a bowl, and with a 
wire whip beat it until the butter forms. This will take but a 



MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS 259 

few minutes, if the cream is of the right temperature (65°). (If 
very cold, it will whip to froth as it is prepared for whipped 
cream.) Turn off the milk j add some ice water, and work the 
butter until it is firm and free from milkj then press it into 
pats, and keep it in a tight jar on the ice until ready to use. 

This amount of cream, which costs ten cents, will, if rich, 
give a quarter of a pound of butter. Put some fresh grass or 
some clover blossoms in the jar with the butter, and it will 
absorb their flavor. (See illustration facing page 256.) 

TO MAKE WHITE HARD SOAP 

Save every scrap of fat each dayj try out all that has accu- 
mulated, however small the quantity. This is done by placing 
the scraps in a frying-pan on the back of the range. If the 
heat is low, and the grease is not allowed to get hot enough to 
smoke or burn, there will be no odor from it. Turn the melted 
grease into lard-pails and keep them covered. When six 
pounds of fat have been obtained, turn it into a dish-pan ; add 
a generous amount of hot water, and stand it on the range until 
the grease is entirely melted. Stir it weU together j then stand 
it aside to cool. This is clarifying the grease. The clean grease 
will rise to the top, and when it has cooled can be taken off in a 
cake, and such impurities as have not settled in the water, can 
be scraped off the bottom of the cake of fat. 

Put the clean grease into the dish-pan and melt it. Put a can 
of Babbitt's lye in a lard-pail; add to it a quart of cold water, 
and stir it with a stick or wooden spoon until it is dissolved. It 
win get hot when the water is added; let it stand until it cools. 
Remove the melted grease from the fire, and pour in the lye 
slowly, stirring aU the time. Add two tablespoonfuls of am- 
monia. Stir the mixture constantly for twenty minutes or haK 
an hour, or until the soap begins to set. 

Let it stand until perfectly hard; then cut it into square 
cakes. This makes a very good, white hard soap which will float 
on water. It is very little trouble to make, and will be found 



260 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

quite an economy in a household. Six pounds of grease make 
eight and a half pounds of soap. 

FLOOR POLISH 

4 ounces of beeswax. Piece of resin size of 

1 quart of turpentine. hickory nut. 

Cut up the beeswax and pound the resin. Melt them toge- 
ther. Take them from the fire and stir in a quart of turpentine. 
Rub very little on the floor with a piece of flannel ; then polish 
with a dry flannel and a brush. 



i 



Chaptee X 
EGGS 

There is a best way of doing everything, even if it be to boil 
an egg. — Emerson. 

The variety of purposes wMch eggs serve, the 
many ways of cooking them, their value as a highly 
concentrated, nutritious, and easily-digested food, 
make them one of the most useful articles of food. 
To have them fresh and rightly cooked is within the 
power of the simplest household. They hold the 
principal place as a breakfast dish, and although 
the original methods of cooking them may b§ limited 
to boiling, baking, poaching, etc., each one of these 
can be varied in an indefinite number of ways, giving 
a menu of eggs unlimited in extent, and thus secur- 
ing always a new way of presenting them, if desired. 
Urbain Dubois has recently published a book giving 
300 ways of preparing eggs. The varieties are at- 
tained mostly by the sauces and garnishings. It is 
not generally understood that sauces can be served 
with poached, hard-boiled, and scrambled eggs, and 
also with omelets, 

A fresh %^^ should feel heavy, sink in water, to judge oi 
and when held to a bright light, show a clear round freshness 
yolk. If old, a part of the substance will have preserve 
evaporated through the pores of the shell, leaving a ^fSS^- 
space filled with air, which will cause it to float on 
water. It will also contain dark specks. To presei*ve 

261 



262 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

eggs it is necessary to stop the pores of the shells 
with a coating of fat or gum or wax. This will pre- 
vent the air from entering and decomposing the nitro- 
pack. genoTis elements of the egg. They should be packed 
standing on the small end, and kept in a cool, dark 
place. Another way of preserving them is to immerse 
them in a saturated solution of lime. 

BOILED EGGS 

Soft-boiled eggs should have the albumen creamy, not hard. 
To obtain this, slow heat is required. Hence receipt No. 1 is 
recommended. No. 2 gives a soft egg, but the time is difficult 
to determine exactly. No. 3 gives satisfactory results. To have 
eggs hard boil them for twenty-five minutes. The yolks will 
then be dry and mealy. When done, place them in cold water 
for fifteen minutes. Then roll them lightly on the table to crush 
the shells, which can then be peeled off easily, leaving the sur- 
face smooth and white. Use a sharp, thin knife for cutting 
them so the piecesVill be clean and smooth. 

No. 1 

Place the eggs in warm water to heat the shells so they will 
not crack when put into boiling water. Let the water in the 
saucepan boil violently ; put in the eggs carefully, and when 
the water again bubbles, remove it from the fire • cover and let 
the eggs remain in it for five minutes. 

No. 2 

Put the eggs into boiling water and cook for three minutes, 
the water boiling all the time. 

No. 3 

Place the eggs in cold water on the fire, and remove as soon 
as the water boils. 



EGGS 263 

POACHED EGGS, No. 1 

The white of a poached egg should be a white, translucent, 
jelly-like mass. To obtain this result, which makes it an easily- 
digested food, it must cook very slowly, the water never reach- 
ing the boiling-point. Place in a shallow pan as many muffin- 
rings as you have eggs to poach. Turn in enough boiling 
water to just cover the rings; add a little salt. When the 
water boils, draw the pan to the side of the range, and break 
an egg into each ring. It should take at least ten to fifteen 
minutes to cook the eggs to the translucent state desired. Have 
ready even pieces of toast one half inch thick, cut into rounds 
a trifle larger than the muffin-rings. Moisten them with hot 
water, and spread with a little butter. Remove the eggs care- 
fully on a skimmer or pancake turner, and place one on each 
round of toast ; then lift off carefully the rings, and place a spot 
of pepper in the center of each yolk. Arrange them sym- 
metrically on a dish, and garnish with parsley. 

FRENCH POACHED EGGS, No. 2 

These eggs, when properly cooked, are in the shape of balls, 
and are used for fancy egg-dishes. Have in a deep saucepan a 
generous amount of water j add a little salt and vinegar ; the 
salt to raise the heat of the water, the vinegar to harden the 
white of the egg. When the water is violently boiling, crack 
the shell of the egg, and holding it close to the water, drop the 
contents quickly on the point of greatest ebullition. The egg 
should drop all at once, not drain into the water. The mass 
will then be whole, and the violently agitated water will toss it 
about, giving it a round form. When sufficiently firm to hold, 
remove with a skimmer and place carefully on the bottom of an 
inverted tin to drain. Poach but one egg at a time, and re- 
move it before the yolk hardens. 

POACHED EGG, No. 3 

Add a dash of salt to the white of an egg and whip it to a 
froth. Place this in a deep saucer or cup, and place in the cen- 



264 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

ter the whole unbroken yolk. Set the dish in a pan of boil- 
ing water j cover and let cook for two minutes. This is a good 
way to serve an egg to an invalid. 

FRIED EGGS 

Place a little butter in a very clean frying-pan. When it 

bubbles, turn in the eggs, one at a time, and keep the pan 

where the heat is not sufficient to blacken the butter. If the 

eggs are wanted hard, turn and fry them on both sides like a 

pancake. 

SCRAMBLED EGGS 

Beat the eggs lightly with a fork, just enough to break them. 
To four eggs add two tablespoonfuls of milk, one half tea- 
spoonful of salt, and a dash of pepper. Put into a very clean 
frying-pan one half tablespoonf ul of butter. When it begins to 
bubble, turn in the eggs, and stir them constantly over a slow 
fire until they begin to set 5 then remove them from the fire 
and continue to stir until they are of the right consistency. 
The heat of the pan will be sufficient to finish the cooking, and 
there will not be danger of their being overcooked. They 
should be firm only, not hard. If the pan is perfectly clean, 
and the butter is not allowed to burn, they will have a bright 
clean color. Scrambled eggs may be varied the same as 
omelets, by mixing with them any other thing desired. The 
extra material should be added when the pan is taken from the 
fire, and stirred with the egg until it has finished cooking. A 
teaspoonful of parsley, chopped fine, gives a good flavor and 
simple change. A little pur6e of tomatoes added makes a good 
combination. With minced chicken, veal, ham, fried bacon, 
mushrooms, or sweetbreads, it makes a good luncheon dish. 
Any pieces left over will serve the purpose, as very little is re- 
quired. Garnish the dish with croutons and parsley. 

PLAIN FRENCH OMELET 

An omelet is the most difiicult to prepare of any egg dish. 
It requires some practice to give it the right shape (which is 
high in the center and pointed at the ends), to have it soft in~ j 



i 




1. SHIRKED EGG. 2. COCOTTE. (SEE PAGE 26S.) 




POACHED EGG. NO. 3. (SEE PAGE 263.) 




EGGS X i'AUROUE. (SEE PAGE 270.) 



EGGS 265 

side, to give it a smooth, slightly browned surface, a texture 
like scrambled eggs, and to have everything perfect. The first 
essential is to have a perfectly clean and smooth pan. It is 
difficult to make a smooth omelet in a pan used for other pur- 
poses ,• so it is well to have one kept for this use alone. The 
French do not wash the omelet-pan, but scour it smooth with 
salt and vinegar when it sticks, and at other times rub it clean 
with a dry cloth. Before using the pan scour it well with dry 
salt to give it extra smoothness. 

It is better to make several small omelets than one large one, 
using not more than three or four eggs for each one. Beat the 
eggs just enough to break them. The rule is twelve beats. To 
three eggs add a half teaspoonful of salt, a dash of pepper, and 
a half teaspoonful of butter broken into small bits. A teaspoon- 
ful of milk may be used or not. Have the pan evenly heated 
and hot, but not scorching. Put in a half teaspoonful of but- 
ter and let it run evenly over the pan, but not brown ; turn in 
the eggs. With a knife or fork break the cooked surface in 
several places quickly, so the egg from the top may run to the 
bottom and cook, or press the egg away from the sides, letting 
the uncooked part run under. This must be done in the be- 
ginning so as not to make the surface uneven. When the egg 
is cooked, but yet quite soft on the top, lift the pan on one side, 
slip the knife under, and carefully roll the omelet to the center. 
Let it cook a moment to set any egg that has run out, and if 
the color is not right add a little butter, and let it run under 
and slightly color the omelet Place a hot dish over the pan 
and turn them together so the omelet will faU in the right 
place 5 press it into good shape, doubling it under on the ends 
if necessary. Garnish with parsley and serve at once. Have 
everything ready before beginning to cook an omelet, as it will 
not bear being kept while the dish is heated, and the garnishing 
found. 

VARIATIONS OF THE OMELET 

No. 1. Sprinkle a little parsley, chopped fine, over the top. 

No. 2. Turn tomato, Bechamel or mushroom sauce on the 
dish around the omelet ; sprinkle the top with chopped 



266 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

mushrooms, if that sauce is used. Garnish with 
pointed croutons. 

No. 3. Green omelet. Mix chopped parsley with the egg 
mixture before cooking the omelet, and do not brown 
the surface. 

No. 4. Aux Fines Herbes. Chop parsley, chives, chervil, and 
tarragon very fine. Mix them with the egg mixture 
before cooking. When the omelet is turned out, rub 
over it a little maitre d'hdtel butter (see page 286). 

No. 5. With Peas or Tomatoes. Before turning a plain 
omelet, spread it with a few green peas or tomatoes 
cooked and seasoned. Asparagus or any other vege- 
table may be used in the same way. 

No. 6. With Ham. Spread the plain omelet with ham, 
chopped fine, before turning it. Any other cooked 
meat may be used in the same way. 

BEATEN OMELET 

Beat very light the yolks and whites of three eggs separately. 
Season the yolks with salt and pepper and one tablespoonf ul of 
milk; then fold in lightly the whipped whites. Put a half 
teaspoonful of butter in a hot frying or omelet pan. Let it 
run over the bottom and sides of the pan, but do not let it brown. 
Turn in the egg mixture, spread it lightly and evenly over the 
pan, and let it cook until it forms a very light crust on the bot- 
tom ; then place it in the oven about three minutes, or until the 
egg is cooked through, but not hard ; fold it once, and turn 
it onto a hot dish. This omelet may be used the same as the 
French omelet in combination with other things. Spread any- 
thing so used on the omelet before turning it. For a sweet 
omelet add sugar to the yolks, and omit the pepper. Serve at 
once. 

SHIRRED EGGS 

(SUR LE PLAT . . . AU MIROIR . . . COCOTTE.) 

For this dish (sur le plat) individual china dishes are gener- 
ally used, although a dish holding several eggs will do. Butter 



EGGS 267 

the dishes ; break into each one an egg ; sprinkle a little salt on 
the whites, but not on the yolks. Place them on the shelf of 
the oven so the heat will be greatest on top j baste the yolks 
several times while baking with a little hot butter. This will 
give them a glaze. As soon as the glaze appears remove them 
from the oven, and if not sufficiently cooked, stand them for a 
minute on the top of the range. Care must be used not to dry 
the eggs. 

Several eggs cooked together in this way in a large dish, 
then cut into circles with a biscuit cutter, and placed on broiled 
ham, stewed kidneys, minced meat, tomato puree, or other 
things, are called eggs au miroir. When baked in individual 
dishes, they may be varied by sprinkling in the dish before the 
egg is added a little chopped ham, chicken, mushrooms, or tomato 
puree, etc. When baked in little pot-shaped dishes in the same 
way they are called cocottes. These may be varied by lining 
the dishes with a thin layer of forcemeat or minced meat, the 
eggs then dropped in and poached by standing the dishes in 
a pan of water in the oven. When done, a little cream or Becha- 
mel sauce or tomato puree is turned over the top, and sprinkled 
with parsley. Serve eggs sur le plat and cocotte in the dishes 
in which they are baked. 

MOLDED EGGS 

(A LA POLIGNAC) 

Butter well some individual timbale molds ; chop some pars- 
ley very fine, and powder the inside of the buttered molds with 
it. To do this, place a teaspoonful of the parsley in a buttered 
mold, cover it with the hand and shake it well -, then invert the 
mold, and strike it on the table to free it of all that is loose. 
Break into each mold an egg, letting it go in slowly from the 
side so no air bubbles will be held, as they make holes and un- 
even surface in the cooked egg. Sprinkle the top with salt 
and butter. Place the molds in a pan of hot water, half cover- 
ing them, and poach in a moderate oven eight to ten minutes, 
or until firm enough to stand, but not very hard. Serve them 
on a flat dish with a spoonful of white. Bechamel, or tomato 



268 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

sauce under each form. This is a very simple way of prepar- 
ing eggs, and makes a good luncheon dish. 

MOLDED HAM AKD EGOS 

Mince some boiled ham very fine. Moisten it with white 
sauce and raw eggj just enough to make a consistent paste. 
Line individual buttered timbale molds with a thin layer of the 
ham paste. Break an egg in the center of each one, and poach 
them in the oven eight to ten minutes, as directed for eggs k la 
Polignac. Place a little white or Bechamel sauce on the serv- 
ing dish ; turn the eggs onto it, and put a spoonful of sauce on 
the top of each one, letting it run over, and partly mask them, 
as the color of the ham is not attractive. Garnish with parsley. 
Another receipt for ham and eggs is given on page 178. Any 
other meat may be used in the same way. 

POACHED EGGS ON ANCHOVY TOAST 

(a supper dish) 

Cut toasted bread into circles; spread them with anchovy 
paste, and place on each piece a poached egg prepared as di- 
rected in receipt No. 1. 

POACHED EGGS WITH ANCHOVY 

(an entree for luncheon) 

Cut bread into circles and toast them ; spread them lightly 
first with anchovy paste, then with a layer of ham or tongue 
chopped very fine, seasoned well, and a little moistened with 
stock or white sauce. Cover the top with whipped white of 
egg ; place a raw yolk in the center of each one. Bake them 
in the oven for one minute, or just long enough to well heat the 

POACHED EGG WITH TOMATO 

Cut bread into slices three quarters of an inch thick, then 
into circles. With a smaller cutter cut half way through the 



EGOS 269 

bread, and remove the center, leaving a form like a patty case. 
Fry them in hot fat to an amber color ; fill the centers with 
well seasoned tomato puree, and place on the top of each one a 
French poached egg. 



EGGS A LA VILLEROI 

This dish is served as an entree for luncheon, and is a par- 
ticularly good as well as mysterious dish, for having a soft egg 
inside a croquette seems a difficult thing to get. Poach the 
eggs French style (page 263), using care to have them round and 
just firm enough to hold in shape. Lift them carefully on a 
strainer, and place them on the bottom of an inverted pan, leaving 
a space between them. When they are cold trim them, carefully 
removing any ragged ends of white, and wipe them dry. Make 
a Villeroi sauce as directed (page 280). When it is partly cooled, 
pour it with a spoon over the eggs. It should form a thick 
coating. When it is cold and well set, trim each egg neatly 
again, cutting away any of the sauce that has run over the pan. 
Have some soft, white crumbs, grated from the loaf or rubbed 
through a coarse sieve, and mixed with grated cheese. Lift an 
egg on a broad knife, and place it on the crumbs. Cover it with 
as many crumbs as wiU adhere. Lift it again on the knife into 
a dish containing beaten eggy and with a spoon moisten it well 
with the egg. Then place it on fresh, white crumbs that are 
not mixed with cheese, and cover it completely. It can now be 
handled with care and turned into good shape in the crumbs. 
Let the breaded eggs stand until just ready to serve, then place 
three or four at a time in a wire basket, and plunge them in 
smoking hot fat (see frying, page 72) to take a delicate color. 
Do not let them become deeper than lemon color. Place a 
spoonful of Villeroi sauce on each plate, using the sauce left 
from coating the eggs and thinning it with stock • place an egg 
on the sauce and serve at once. Chopped truffles mixed with 
the sauce improves it. 



270 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

EGGS A LA BOUEGUINONNE 

Poach eggs in the French style, letting them be as soft as 
possible. Butter a flat baking-dish ; sprinkle it with bread 
crumbs and grated cheese. Place on them carefully the poached 
eggs. Cover them with Bechamel or Allemande sauce (see 
page 279), and sprinkle over the top grated Parmesan cheese. 
Place in a hot oven to melt the cheese, and lightly brown the 
top. 

EGGS A L'AXrRORE 

Take six hard-boiled eggs, and press the yolks through a 
colander. Cut the whites into half-inch dice, mix them with 
a well-reduced white or Bechamel sauce, and turn them into a 
flat baking-dish. Cover the top with the mashed yolks, dot it 
with small bits of butter, and place in a hot oven for a few 
minutes to heat, but not brown. This may be served in indi- 
vidual cups or shells if desired. Chopped mushrooms mixed 
with the sauce makes a good variation of the dish. Another 
way of serving it is to cut the whites lengthwise into quarters or 
eighths, and place them in a circle on the dish; pour the sauce 
in the center, leaving the points of one end uncovered, and 
sprinkle over the sauce the mashed yolks. In order not to 
have the dish cold when served in this way, keep the cut whites 
in hot water until ready to serve. Have the dish hot, and put all 
together quickly at the moment of serving. (See illustration.) 

GOLDEN CREAM TOAST 

Cut bread into even pieces; toast and butter the pieces, and 
moisten them with hot water. Boil six eggs hard. Separate 
the whites from the yolks ; chop the whites, and press the yolks 
through a colander or sieve. Make a white sauce, using one 
tablespoonful each of butter and flour cooked together, and 
then add a cupful of cream or milk. When it is well thickened 
add the chopped whites, and season with pepper and salt. 
Spread this mixture on the slices of toast, and cover the top 



EGGS 271 

with the mashed yolks. Sprinkle the yolks evenly over the 
pieces, so they look very yellow. Serve very hot. 

CURRIED EGOS 

Boil the eggs hard ; remove the shells carefully as directed 
(page 262), and drop them in hot water to keep warm until 
ready to use. Mold some boiled rice into a form resembling a 
nest. Have the rice boiled so each grain is distinct (see page 
222). Place it on the hot shelf to keep warm. Place a tea- 
spoonful of chopped onion in a saucepan with a tablespoonful 
of butter, and cook until the onion is a light yellow, but not 
brown. Add an even tablespoonful of corn starch, mixed with a 
half tablespoonful of curry powder and diluted with a little 
cold milk or stock, then stir in slowly one and a half cupfuls 
of white stock or milk. Let it cook until the corn starch is 
clear J add pepper and salt to taste, and strain it. The sauce 
should be a bright yellow color, perfectly smooth, and not very 
thick. Wipe the eggs dry, roll them in the sauce to get evenly 
coated with color, and place them in the nest of rice. Pour in 
enough sauce to moisten the rice without discoloring the out- 
side or top edge of the rice around the eggs. (See illustration.) 

STUFFED EGGS No. 1 

Cut hard-boiled eggs in two lengthwise. Take out carefully 
the yolks, mash them, and mix them with some chicken or 
other meat minced fine. Season the mixture with pepper and 
salt. Moisten it with a little of any kind of sauce or gravy, 
and add a little raw egg. Chopped trufles and mushrooms may 
be added to the stuffing if convenient. Fill the spaces in the 
whites of the eggs with the mixture; smooth it even with the 
top; rub a little raw white of egg over the pieces, and press 
two halves together. Roll the stuffed eggs in egg and crumbs, 
and fry in hot fat to a lemon color. Serve the eggs on a nap- 
kin, and pass with them a white, Bechamel, tomato, or any other 
sauce. 



272 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

STUPFED EGGS No. 2 

Cut hard-boiled eggs in halves. Take out the yolks, leaving 
two cup-shaped pieces. Mix the yolks with an equal quantity 
of softened bread} season with salt, pepper, and parsley. Add 
a little raw egg to bind the mixture, and fill the spaces from 
which the yolks were taken. Round it on top to give the ap- 
pearance of a whole yolk. Cut a little slice off the bottom of 
the eggj so it will stand firm. Place them in the oven just long 
enough to heat, and serve standing, on a dish covered with 
white sauce. 

EGG CROaUETTES 

Cut some hard-boiled eggs into quarter-inch dice. Mix with 
them some chopped mushrooms. Stir them carefully into a 
well-reduced Bechamel or white sauce made as directed for 
croquettes (page 293). Turn the mixture onto a cold dish to 
cool and stiffen. Mold into croquettes, and fry in hot fat. See 
directions for croquettes (page 293). 

OTHER WATS OF SERVING HARD-BOILED EGGS 

(LUNCHEON DISHES) 

No. 1. Cut hard-boiled eggs in two lengthwise. Arrange 
them symmetrically on a flat dish, and pour over them a giblet 
sauce made of chicken or turkey gravy. 

No. 2. Cut hard-boiled eggs into quarters. Make a ring 
form of boiled rice; fill the center with the eggs; pour over 
them some Bechamel sauce. Sprinkle the whole with bread- 
crumbs and grated cheese. Moisten the top with melted but- 
ter, and place in the oven to brown. Serve on the dish in 
which they are browned. 

TOMATOES STUFFED WITH EGGS 

Select round tomatoes of uniform size; remove the skins. 
Cut a slice off the tops, and take out the seeds and soft pulp. 
Drop into each one a raw egg, and replace the cover. Set the 




CUREIED EGGS IN A NEST OF RICE. (SEE PAGE 271.) 




MOLDED EGGS A LA POLIGNAC. (SEE PAGE 267.) 



I 



EGGS 273 

tomatoes into a buttered pan or into a baking-dish which can 
be sent to the table, and place in the oven for about ten min- 
utes, or until the egg has set. Serve on the same dish and with 
a brown or a Bechamel sauce. 



EGOS A LA REINE 

DOWN TOWN CLUB 

Make croustades, three inches in diameter and haK an inch 
thick, from stale American bread. Dip them in good melted 
butter, put them on a pan in the oven until they are a nice 
light-brown color ; then take out the center of each croustade 
and fill with f oie gi'as. On the top of each put a poached egg ; 
then pour over a cream sauce, sprinkle with truffles chopped 
fine, and serve immediately. 

EGGS LIVINGSTON 

DOWN TOWN CLUB. (FOR SIX PERSONS) 

Take twelve raw eggs, half a pint of rich cream; beat well 
together, add salt and pepper. Put the mixture in a flat sauce- 
pan well buttered, and scramble j then add three quarters of a 
pint of well-cooked tomato meat and three truffles hashed 
(not too fine). Dress on toast covered with pate de foie gras. 
Serve very hot. 

EGGS AU BEURRE NOIR. 

Poach or fry the number of eggs desired and place them on 
a flat dish. Pour over them enough brown butter sauce to well 
moisten them. (See page 291.) 



274 THE CENTUBY COOK BOOK 

SPANISH OMELET 

Make a plain French omelet, using four eggs (see page 264). 
Just before it is done place in the center a veal kidney, which 
has been well soaked, then cut into half-inch dice and sauted 
until tender in a tablespoonful of butter. Do not cook the 
kidney too long or it will toughen. 

Fold the omelet and turn it onto a dish. Pour around the 
omelet a tomato sauce (see page 285). Spread over the top of 
the omelet a sweet green pepper, which has been boiled until 
tender and then cut into narrow strips. 

The sauce, the kidney and the pepper should be prepared 
first, as the omelet must be served as soon as the eggs are 
cooked. 



Chapter XI 

SAUCES 



" There are many sauces besides hunger." 

The basis of most sauces is butter and flour cooked 
together, which makes a roux or thickening. If for 
a white sauce, the flour is not colored ; if for a brown 
sauce, the flour is cooked until brown. To this basis 
are added the flavor and seasoning suited to the dish 
with which it is to be served. For meats, it is the flavor 
of meat, vegetables, spices, and herbs j for entries, it 
is the flavor of meat or chicken, and cream j for vege- 
tables it is butter, cream or milk, and eggs ; for fish, 
the same, with a little lemon- juice or vinegar to give 
piquancy. The basis of pudding sauces is butter and 
sugar. 

Sauces are easily made, and greatly improve the 
dishes they accompany. Many dishes depend upon 
sauces to make them palatable, and many made-over 
dishes are very acceptable when served with a good 
sauce. The first and most simple one to learn is the 
white sauce, and this is used for very many dishes. 
It is made by melting a tablespoonf ul of butter, and 
then adding a tablespoonful of flour. To this roux is 
added a haK pint (one cupful) of milk for white sauce, 
or of cream for cream sauce. If a cupful of stock (or 
haK stock and half milk) is used it becomes a Becha- 
mel sauce ; then, if a couple of egg-yolks are added, it 
makes a poulette sauce, which is the one generally 
used with chicken, sweetbreads, oysters, etc. 

275 



General 
directions. 



Uses and 

variations 

of the 

white 

sauce. 



276 



THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 



Stock for 
sauces. 



General 
directions. 



The superiority of French cooking is largely in the 
variety of their sauces, to the preparation of which 
much care is given. It cannot be too strongly urged 
that every housekeeper will give attention to this 
important branch of cooking. 

Every kitchen can produce a stock made from odds 
and ends unsuitable for other purposes than the stock- 
pot, and this stock is most useful in preparing sauces, 
giving a flavor not obtained in specially prepared 
stock. 

A French cook keeps at hand the different essences 
required to combine in sauces, such as a Mirepoix 
(vegetable flavor), which is made by cutting into dice 
an onion, caiTot, and turnip, celery, parsley, bay-leaf 
and bits of meat, frying them in fat pork or butter, 
then adding a little water, and simmering an hour, or 
until the flavor of the vegetables is extracted; a 
Spanish sauce, made by adding stock instead of water 
to the fried vegetables ; a veal or white stock ; a brown 
and a white roux, and glaze. 

The flavor of vegetables can easily be obtained by 
frying them in the butter used in making the roux, 
before the flour is added. In preparing sauces with 
milk, use a double boiler, or set a small saucepan into 
a larger one containing water. The milk will be 
scalded when the water boils in the double boiler. 
Brown sauces need long slow cooking to blend the 
flavors. If the butter rises to the top add a little 
more stock or milk ; stir it well until it boils, and it 
will then become smooth again. Do this just before 
serving. Have always a smaU strainer at hand, and 
strain sauces so there will be no lumps in them. If 
stock is not at hand, substitute beef extract, which 
comes in jars, using it in the proportion of one tea- 
spoonful of extract to a cupful of hot water. In this 
case fry vegetables in the roux. 



SAUCES 277 

GLAZE 

Glaze is much used in high-class cooking. It gives to meats 
a smooth and polished surface. Cold meats to be garnished 'for 
suppers are much improved in appearance by being glazed. 
Glaze is also added to sauces to give them richness and flavor. 

To make glaze : Take good consomme of beef (or a white 
stock, when it is to be used for fowls or white meat), clear it, 
and reduce it to one quarter (or one quart of stock to one cup- 
ful). It will quickly boil down in an open saucepan and be- 
come like a thick paste. It will keep some time if closed in a 
preserve jar and kept in a cool place. When used, heat it in a 
double saucepan and apply it with a brush. 

ROUX FOB SAUCES 

One tablespoonf ul of butter ; one tablespoonf ul of flour. 

Roux is used for thickening, giving body to sauces, etc. It is 
made by cooking together an equal quantity of butter and flour 
for about five minutes, or until the flour has lost the raw taste. 
When the roux is cooked, draw the saucepan to a cooler part of 
the range, and add the liquor (stock or milk) slowly, in the pro- 
portion of one cupful of liquor to one tablespoonful each of 
butter and flour, and stir until smooth. If the roux is for white 
sauce do not let the flour color. If for brown sauce, let it cook 
until brown, but be careful that it does not burn. If more flavor 
is wanted, fry a few slices of onion or other vegetables in the 
butter before adding the flour. Sauces thickened in this way 
are much better than those in which uncooked flour is used. 
In making roux do not use more butter than flour. Where 
more butter is required in a sauce, add it, in small pieces at a 
time, after the other ingredients are mixed with the roux. This 
will prevent an oily line forming. 

WHITE SAUCE 

1 tablespoonful of butter. 1 cupful of milk. 

1 tablespoonful of flour. J teaspoonful of salt. 

i teaspoonful of pepper. 



278 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

Put one tablespoonful of butter in a saucepan. When it 
bubbles add one tablespoonful of flour, and cook, stirring con- 
stantly, for five minutes, but do not let it color ; draw it to a 
cooler part of the range and add very slowly, stirring all the 
time, one cupful of cold milk, and stir until perfectly smooth 
and a little thickened. Season with salt and pepper. Most of 
the white sauces are simple variations from this sauce. Water 
may be used instead of milk, and it is then called drawn-butter 
sauce. It can be made richer by adding a little more butter, in 
small pieces, one at a time, after the milk is in ; also by adding 
the beaten yolk of an egg. If the egg is added remove the pan 
from the fire and let it cool a little before adding the egg ; then 
cook for a minute, but do not let it boil, or the egg will curdle. 

The secret of making a good white sauce is in cooking the 
flour until the starch grains have burst, which removes the raw 
and pasty taste one finds where this care is not used. There is 
no difficulty in making it smooth if the milk is turned in slowly, 
as directed above. A common way of making this sauce is to 
rub the butter and .flour together, and then stir them into the 
boiling milk, but this does not give as good a result as when 
a roux is made. The intense heat of frying butter cooks the 
flour quickly, while milk boiled long enough to cook the flour 
is changed in flavor. When this sauce is used as the basis of 
other sauces, the amount of salt and pepper must be varied to 
suit the requirements of the other ingredients. 

WHITE SAUCE FOR FISH 

Make a white sauce, using with the milk two tablespoonf uls 
of the water in which the fish is boiled. Boil in the water 
with the fish five cloves, three bay-leaves, one onion, eight pep- 
percorns, and two tablespoonf uls of salt. This will give flavor 
to the fish and to the sauce. 

EGG SAUCE FOR BOILED FISH 

To a pint, or two cupfuls, of white sauce, add three hard- 
boiled eggs cut into slices or small dice, and, if liked, a tea- 
spoonful of chopped parsley. 



SAUCES 279 

CAPER SAUCE 

(boiled mutton) 

Add to two cupfuls of white sauce four tablespoonfuls of 
capers. See also page 164. 

OYSTER SAUCE 

(BOILED FISH OR FOWLS) 

Scald the oysters in their own liquor until the edges curl. 
Make a white sauce using oyster-liquor instead of milk, or 
use half milk and half oyster-liquor. Add the oysters just be- 
fore serving. One dozen oysters are enough for one pint of sauce. 

CELERY SAUCE 

(BOILED fowls) 

Cut one half cupful of celery into small pieces. Boil it in 
salted water until tender. Add the cooked celery to one cupful 
of white sauce. 

LOBSTER SAUCE 

Chop the meat of a lobster into coarse pieces. Add it to a 
pint of white sauce. Add also a little of the coral (which has 
been dried and pounded to a powder), and a little paprica. 

VELOUTE AND ALLEMANDE SAUCES 

(FISH AND VEGETABLES) 

Make a white sauce (page 277), using chicken or veal stock 
instead of milk. 

AUemande. Remove the Velout6 from the fire ; add two yolks 
beaten with one half cupful of cream or milk, one tablespoon- 
ful of chopped parsley, and a dash of nutmeg. Put on the fire 
a moment to thicken, but do not let it boil. Continue to stir 
for some moments after removing from the fire. 

BECHAMEL SAUCE 

Make a white sauce, using for liquor one half each of rich 
white stock and milk, or use stock alone. A slice of onion, car- 



280 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

rot and turnip should be fried in the butter before the flour is 
added. A richer Bechamel is made by adding a little cream 
and chopped mushrooms. 

POULETTE SAUCE 

(for chicken-breasts, sweetbreads, and OTHER ENTREES) 

Take a pint of white sauce made with chicken or veal stock 
instead of milk. Beat four yolks with a cupful of cream. Re- 
move the sauce from the fire, and add it slowly to the eggs and 
cream, stirring all the time. Put it again on the fire a moment 
to thicken J but do not let it boil, or it will curdle. Add one 
tablespoonful of butter slowly, a small piece at a time, the juice 
of half a lemon, a tablespoonful of chopped parsley, and a dash 
of nutmeg. Serve at once. Do not put the sauce together 
until it is time to serve, as it is likely to curdle after the eggs 
and lemon- juice are in. Stir constantly, and for a moment 
after removing from the fire. 

VILLEROI 

(to use for eggs VILLEROI, AND FOR COATING COLD MEATS 
THAT ARE TO BE HEATED AGAIN) 

Put in a saucepan one tablespoonful of butter and a slice of 
onion; fry for a few moments, but not brown. Remove the 
onion, and add two tablespoonfuls of flour; cook but do not 
brown the flour. Dilute with two cupfuls of stock, and boil, 
stirring constantly until the sauce is very thick. Season with 
one half teaspoonful of salt, one quarter teaspoonful of pepper, 
a dash each of cayenne and nutmeg; remove from the fire, and 
add the yolks of four eggs beaten with one half cupful of 
cream or milk. Place again on the fire, and let thicken until 
quite stiff and elastic. Do not let it boil after the eggs are 
added, or it will curdle; stir constantly. When it is beginning 
to cool pour it over the articles it is to coat, or roll the 
articles in it as the receipts direct. Chopped parsley, truffles, 
and mushrooms may be mixed with this sauce, if desired. The 



ic^$ 



'tJjj^<^. 



SAUCES 281 

thick sauce left from coating the articles may be diluted with 
stock or milk, and served with them. This amount of sauce is 
sufficient to coat and to give diluted sauce for a dozen eggs 
villeroi. 

HOLLANDAISE 

(boiled fish, asparagus, cauliflower) 

In a saucepan or bowl rub to a cream one half cupful of but- 
ter; add the yolks of four eggs, and beat well together; then 
the juice of half a lemon, one half teaspoonful of salt, andi'jZjQ 
a dash of cayenne; then add slowly one cupful of hot water; / ^i 
mix well, and set it into a saucepan of hot water. Stir con- 1 
stantly until the sauce becomes like a thick cream. Do not-i WO^ 4(K 
let it boil. Remove from the fire, and continue to stir ^^^^ k^jLA-Ju 
a few minutes. It should be creamy and consistent. It is one \ ^^^Ji { 
of the best sauces to use with fish. It is also good cold with 
cold fish or meats. 

CHAUDFROID SAUCE 

(for covering cold chicken or meats which are to be 
served cold) 

Put two tablespoonfuls of butter into a saucepan; when it 
bubbles add two tablespoonfuls of flour. Let it cook well, but 
not brown; stir aU the time. Add two cupfuls of chicken or 
of veal stock, and stir until it is well thickened. Season with 
salt and pepper. Then add a half box, or one ounce, of gelatine 
which has soaked an hour in a half cupful of cold water. Stir un- 
til the gelatine has dissolved. Strain the sauce, and let it just ^^ 
begin to stiffen before using it. Put a little on ice to see if it 
will be of the right firmness. If it is too stiff add a little more 
stock ; if not hard enough add a little more gelatine. It needs 
to be only firm enough to hold its place weU without running. 

A yeUow color can be given it by adding the yolks of three 
eggs just before removing it from the fire. A brown chaud- 
froid, which is used for game and dark meats, is made by 
browning the roux, diluting it with beef stock; and a deeper 



282 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

color can be obtained with a few drops of kitchen bouquet. 
This sauce, poured over boned chicken or other meats, gives 
them a smooth, even surface. They can then be elaborately 
decorated with truffles, making ornamental cold dishes for 
suppers. Before covering a galantine with chaudfroid fill any 
irregularities on the surface of the meat with a little of the 
sauce which has been placed on ice to set. The surface can in 
this way be made perfectly even, so when the sauce is turned 
over it the galantine will be smooth. (See picture, page 192.) 

BROWN SAUCE 

Put a tablespoonful of chopped onion and a tablespoonful of 
butter in a saucepan on the fire. Let them both become brown ; 
then add a tablespoonful of flour, and brown that also. Stir 
all the time. Add a cupful of beef or brown stock, and cook until 
the sauce is a little thickened. Season with pepper and salt. 
Strain it to remove the onion. A sauce poivrade is made by 
adding to the brown sauce, at the same time that the stock is 
put in, a cupful of claret, two cloves, a bay-leaf, a little thyme 
and parsley. In place of claret, a teaspoonful of mustard, the 
juice of half a lemon, and a teaspoonful of tarragon vinegar 
gives a Robert sauce. 

ESPAGNOLE 

(CHOPS, CUTLETS, CROQUETTES, AND SEASONING 
FOR OTHER SAUCES) 

2 J cupfuls of stock or consomm6. 1 tablespoonful each of 

1 tablespoonful of gelatine. chopped carrot and celery. 
4 tablespoonfuls of butter. 1 bay-leaf. 

4 tablespoonfuls of flour. 3 cloves. 

2 tablespoonfuls of chopped onion. 1 piece of parsley. .?; 
1 tablespoonful of chopped lean 1 piece of mace. 

ham. 1 teaspoonful of salt. 

J teaspoonful of pepper. 

Soak the gelatine in a half cupful of stock. Put the butter i 
a saucepan J when hot add the chopped vegetables and ham, and f 



SAUCES 283 

let them brown; then add the flour, and let that brown. Stir 
constantly so it will not burn. When well browned add slowly 
the stock, then the herbs, spices, salt, and pepper, and let cook 
for five minutes. Cover the saucepan. Set it into a larger one 
containing hot water. Draw it to the side of the range to 
simmer slowly for two hours. Then stir in the soaked gela- 
tine, and let stand another half hour. When ready to serve 
skim off the fat and strain. If a stock made with knuckle of 
veal is used, the gelatine will not be needed. It is used to give 
smoothness. This is the richest of the brown sauces, and in 
French cooking is used as the basis, or seasoning, for them all. 
If too thick dilute with stock. 

CHAMPAGNE SAUCE (HAM) 

Put in a saucepan one cupful of champagne, two cloves, six 
peppercorns, one bay-leaf, one teaspoonful of sugar. Let them 
infuse for five minutes over the fire; then add a cupful of Es- 
pagnole or of brown sauce, and a little mushroom liquor if con- 
venient. Let it simmer for ten minutes and strain. 

Any white wine may be used instead of champagne. 

PiaUANTE SAUCE 

(BAKED PISH, ROAST AND BROILED MEATS) 

2 cupfuls of brown stock. 1 tablespoonful of chopped onion. 
4 tablespoonf uls of butter. 1 tablespoonful of chopped capers. 
2 tablespoonf uls of flour. 2 tablespoonfuls of chopped pickle. 
4 tablespoonfuls of vinegar. 1 teaspoonful of sugar. 
Dash of cayenne. J teaspoonful of salt. 

1 teaspoonful of tarragon vinegar. 

Put the butter in a saucepan, and when it begins to brown 
add the flour, and stir until it is well browned, but do not let it 
burn. Draw to a cooler place on the range, and slowly add the 
stock, stirring constantly, add salt and cayenne, and let sim- 
mer for ten minutes. In another saucepan boil the vinegar, 
onion, and sugar rapidly for five minutes; then add it to the 



284 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

sauce, and at the same time add the capers, pickle and tarragon 
vinegar. Stir well, and let cook for two minutes to heat the 
pickle. If the sauce becomes too thick dilute it with a little 
water. For piquante sauce No 2, to two cupfuls of Espagnole 
sauce add capers and pickles. 

SOUBISE SAUCE 

(FOR CHOPS) 

Fry three or four onions until soft in a tablespoonful of but- 
ter; press them through a strainer, and mix with a cupful of 
brown sauce. 

HOBSEBADISH SAUCE 

(ROAST OR BOILED BEEF) # 

Mix together two tablespoonf uls of soft white crumbs of bread 
and two tablespoonf uls of grated horseradish. Cover them with 
cream or milk, and let soak for two hours. Then rub them 
through a sieve, and add one quarter teaspoonful of salt, one 
quarter teaspoonful of sugar, and two tablespoonf uls of vinegar. 
Enough milk should be used to give it the consistency of cream. 
This sauce will keep in a cool place for several days. 

MUSTARD SAUCE 

(corned beef, BROILED AND ROASTED MEATS) 

Make a roux of one tablespoonful of butter and one tea- 
spoonful of flour. Add to it 

1 cupful of stock. 1 teaspoonful of dry English 

1 tablespoonful of French mustard. 

mustard. i teaspoonful salt. 

1 tablespoonful of vinegar. 1 teaspoonful of sugar. 

A dash of cayenne. Cook slowly for ten minutes. 

CURRY SAUCE 

(FOR EGGS, CHICKEN, ETC.) 

Put a tablespoonful of butter in a saucepan. When it bub- 
bles add a teaspoonful of onion- juice, and a tablespoonful of 



SAUCES 285 

curry powder mixed with two tablespoonfuls of flour. Let it 
cook a few minutes, and add slowly two cupf uls of milk. Stir 
constantly. 

OLIVE SAUCE 
(ducks) 

1 dozen stoned olives. 1 tablespoonful each of chopped 

1 cupful of brown stock. onion and carrot. 

1 tablespoonful of butter. 1 clove. 

1 tablespoonful of flour. 1 teaspoonf ul of salt. 

Dash of pepper. 

Put the butter in a saucepan; when it bubbles add the 
chopped onion and carrot and let them brown ; then the flour 
and let that brown. Tben add slowly the stock ; season with 
salt, pepper and one clove j let simmer for twenty minutes and 
strain. Stone the olives, leaving the meat in one piece ; boil 
them in a little water for half an hour. Add the cooked olives 
to the strained sauce, and cook for five minutes; or, dilute a 
cupful of Espagnole sauce with a cupful of brown stock, and 
add the cooked olives. If brown sauce is not at hand, use ex- 
tract of beef from jar (one teaspoonf ul of extract to one cup- 
ful of hot water). If the sauce gets too thick dilute it with a 
little stock. 

TOMATO SAUCE 
(meats, croquettes and entr^jes) 

2 tablespoonfuls of butter. Parsley. 

1 tablespoonful of flour. 1 bay-leaf. 

1 tablespoonful each of carrot 3 cloves. 

and onion. J teaspoonf ul of salt. 

J can of tomatoes. J teaspoonful of pepper. 

Put one tablespoonful of butter in a saucepan j add the 
chopped onion and carrot, and let slightly brown ; add the flour 
and cook five minutes, stirring constantly. Then add the toma- 
toes, cloves, bay-leaf, salt and pepper. Cook slowly for half an 
hour, or until the tomatoes are soft and reduced to right con- 



k 



286 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

sistency. Then add a tablespoonful of butter (a small piece at 
a time to prevent an oily line) 5 strain; add more salt and 
pepper if necessary. 

MUSHROOM SAUCE 

(using canned mushrooms) 

Make a brown roux, using one tablespoonful eacb of butter 
and of flour ; add a cupful of stock and a half cupful of liquor 
from the can of mushrooms. Cook for five minutes, stirring 
all the time ; then add one can of drained mushrooms, a tea- 
spoonful of lemon-juice, a half teaspoonful of salt and a quar- 
ter teaspoonful of pepper. Let the mushrooms become well 
heated ; then remove from the fire and stir in the yolk of one 
raw egg rubbed with a teaspoonful of butter. Stir the hot 
sauce until the egg is set ; add a teaspoonful of chopped pars- 
ley and serve 5 or a half teaspoonful of kitchen bouquet may be 
used and the egg and parsley omitted. 

This sauce may be served on the same dish with beefsteaks, 
fowls, etc., and the mushrooms laid evenly, top side up, 
around the meat as a garnish. 

It may be made a white sauce by making a white roux, 
using white stock and leaving out the kitchen bouquet. The 
mushrooms are sometimes cut into halves or quarters. 

MAITRE D'HOTEL SAUCE 

(BROILED FISH AND STEAKS) 

2 tablespoonfuls of butter. 1 tablespoonful of lemon juice. 

1 tablespoonful of chopped i teaspoonful of salt, 
parsley. J teaspoonful of pepper. 

Rub the butter to a cream; add salt, pepper, and parsley 
chopped very fine ; then the lemon- juice slowly. Spread it on 
broiled meat or fish ; let the heat of the meat melt the butter. 
The dish must not be put in the oven after the sauce is spread, 
or the parsley will lose its freshness and color. This sauce, 
which greatly improves as well as garnishes broiled meat, can 
be mixed and kept for some time in a cool place. Soften a little 



f 



SAUCES 287 

before using so it will spread evenly, and be quickly melted by 
the hot meat. 

MINT SAUCE 

(spring lamb) 

1 bunch of mint ; 1 tablespoonf ul of sugar ; f cupful of vinegar. 
Rinse the mint in cold water j chop it very fine. Dissolve the 
sugar in the vinegar ; add the mint and let stand for an hour, 
to infuse before using. If the vinegar is too strong, dilute it 
with cold water. If the sauce is wanted hot, heat the vinegar 
and sugar, and stir in the chopped mint just before serving. 

BREAD SAUCE 

(PARTRIDGES, QUAIL, GROUSE) 

Sift two cupf uls of dry bread-crumbs. Put on the fire a pint 
of milk and a small onion sliced. When the milk is scalded 
remove the onion, and add enough of the fine crumbs to thicken 
it. Season with a tablespoonful of butter, a half teaspoonful 
of salt, a dash of pepper and of nutmeg. Put the coarse 
crumbs into a pan with a tablespoonful of butter and saute 
them a light brown, stirring all the time ; add a dash of paprica ; 
serve the fried crumbs on the dish with the gamej serve the 
sauce in a boat. 

JELLY SAUCE 

(GAME AND MUTTON) 

Melt in a saucepan one tumblerful of currant or of grape 
jelly; add slowly one tablespoonful of butter. Let boil one 
minute ; remove, and just before serving add one tablespoonful 
of sherry or of red wine. 

CRANBERRY SAUCE 

(roast turkey, chicken, mutton) 

1 quart of cranberries. 2 cupfuls of sugar. 

2 cupfuls of water. 
Pick over the berries carefully and wash in cold water. Put 
them in a porcelain-lined or granite-ware saucepan, with enough 



288 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

water to cover them. Cook until tender j then add the sugar, 
and remove as soon as the sugar is dissolved. It may be served 
hot or cold. If thoroughly cooked the skins improve the sauce. 
If strained and put in a mold to cool, it becomes a jelly. If 
the berries are carefully selected, and boiled slowly without 
being stirred, they will retain their shape, and the sauce will be 
clear and transparent. 

APPLE SAUCE 

(GOOSE AND pork) 

Peel, quarter, and core six tart apples. Put them in a porce- 
lain-lined or granite- ware saucepan, and cover with water. Boil 
until tender, then press them through a colander ; add a tea- 
spoonful of butter, a dash of nutmeg or cinnamon, and sweeten 
to taste. When used with meats apple sauce should be tart. 

BEABNAISE 

This is a very good sauce to use either hot or cold with meats 
and fish. It is very like Mayonnaise. 

Yolks of 4 eggs. 4 tablespoonfuls of salad oil. 

i teaspoonful of salt. 1 tablespoonful of hot water. 

Dash of cayenne. 1 tablespoonful of tarragon 

vinegar. 

Beat the yolks; add the oil and water; stand the bowl in 
boiling water and stir until the eggs thicken ; remove and add 
salt, pepper, and vinegar. It should be creamy and of the con- 
sistency of Mayonnaise. A few chopped capers, olives, and 
gherkins make it a good Tartare sauce; and a little tomato 
pur6e will make it a red Mayonnaise to use with cold boiled fish. 

MATONNAISE 

Yolk of 1 egg. 1 cupful of salad oil. 

J teaspoonful of salt. IJ teaspoonfuls of 

Dash of cayenne. lemon-juice. 

Let the oil and egg be thoroughly chilled before beginning to 
make Mayonnaise. In summer it is well to stand the soup- 



SAUCES 289' 

plate in whicli the dressing is being mixed in a dish of cracked 
ice ; stir constantly with a silver fork or a wooden spoQi^. Have 
the yolk entirely free from any white of the egg ; add drop by 
drop the oil. The success depends on adding the oil slowly at 
first. It is well to spend half the time in incorporating the first 
two spoonfuls of oil j after that it can be added in larger quan- 
tities. After the dressing has become a little thick, alternate a 
few drops of lemon-juice or of vinegar with the oil; a little 
tarragon vinegar gives good flavor. If mustard is liked, add 
one quarter teaspoonful of dry mustard. Add the salt and 
pepper last. If the sauce curdles, take another yolk, and 
add slowly the curdled Mayonnaise. A few drops of ice water 
or a small bit of ice added to the mixture when it begins to curdle 
will sometimes bring it back. 

This dressing will keep for some time in a closed jar in the 
ice-box. The proportions given are right, but it is usually de- 
sirable to make a larger quantity. With care more oil can be 
added to the eggj which will give more sauce. 

A very safe mixture, and one recommended for summer, is made 
by using the yolk of a hard-bailed egg with a raw yolk. With this 
the dressing is more quickly made and seldom curdles. Lemon- 
juice makes a whiter dressing than vinegar, but it also makes it a 
little softer. 

WHITE MAYONNAISE 

Just before serving add to the above quantity of Mayonnaise 
one half cupful of very stiff whipped cream, or the white of 
one half an egg whipped very stiff. 

GREEN MAYONNAISE 

Take some green herbs, such as chervil, tarragon, chives, 
parsley, a leaf of spinach, lettuce or watercress, and pound 
them in a mortar with a little lemon- juice. Express the juice 
and add it to the Mayonnaise. It is then called Ravigote sauce. 
Mashed green peas may be used to give color and also more 
consistency to the sauce when it is to be used to cover cold fish. 
A little vegetable green coloring can be added if the color is 
not sufficiently deep, but a delicate color is preferable. 

19 



290 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

EED MATONNAISE 

Dry some lobster coral ; pound it to a powder and rub it 
through a sieve; mix it with a little lemon-juice and add it to 
the Mayonnaise. Use a little carmine color if deeper shade is 
wanted. Or, color with well-strained tomato puree. 

JELLY MAYONNAISE 

Instead of yolks of eggs, use aspic jelly as a medium to hold 
the oil; mix the sauce the same as the ordinary Mayonnaise. 
Or, to a cupful of aspic jelly (see page 321) or chicken aspic add 
a cupful of oil, one tablespoonful of vinegar (one half being 
tarragon if convenient), a few drops of lemon-juice, salt, pepper, 
and cayenne j stir together all at once, the jelly being warmed 
enough to be liquid. Place it on ice and stir until it begins to 
set ; keep it in a cool place. This jelly softens easily. It is 
used to coat fish or meats, and should be put on when a little 
soft. It will then make a smooth and polished surface. Keep 
the meats coated with the jelly on ice until ready to serve. It 
is used also for salads in forms, or Jiussian salads (see receipts). 

MAYONNAISE WITH ARROWEOOT 

Smooth a tablespoonful of arrowroot in cold water; stir it 
over the fire until it becomes smooth, clear and firm like starch ; 
when a little cooled, add salt, pepper, mustard, and two or three 
yolks, and beat until smooth ; when cold add oil as in regular 
Mayonnaise. This mixture will not curdle. 

TARTARE 

(pish and COLD MEATS) 

To a cupful of Mayonnaise made with mustard, add one 
tablespoonful of capers, three olives, and two gherkins, all 
chopped very fine ; also the juice expressed from some pounded 
green herbs, as in green Mayonnaise or Ravigote (see above) ; 
or chop the herbs fine and mix them in the dressing. A good 



I 



SAUCES 291 

Tartare sauce can be made by using tarragon vinegar and a 
little onion-juice when mixing the Mayonnaise, and adding 
parsley and capers, both chopped very fine, just before serving it. 

AGRA DOLCE 

(SOUR sweet) 

(an ITALIAN SAUCE USED WITH VENISON, SWEETBREADS, CALF^S- 

HEAD, AND MUTTON) 

Mix together two heaping tablespoonfuls of brown sugar, 
one quarter bar of grated chocolate, one tablespoonf ul each of 
shredded candied orange and lemon-peel, ten blanched almonds 
shredded, one half cupful of currants, and one cupful of vinegar. 
Let them soak for two hours. Then pour it over the cooked 
meat, and simmer for ten minutes. 

This receipt was obtained in Florence, where it is a well-known 
and favorite sauce. 

BEUBBE KOIE OR BROWN BUTTER SAUCE 

(eggs, calf's head, calf's brains, fish) 

Put a quarter of a pound of butter in a saucepan and let it 
cook slowly until it has browned, then add three tablespoon- 
fuls of hot vinegar, one tablespoonf ul of chopped parsley, and 
a dash of pepper and of salt. 



Chapter XII 

ENTEfiES 

Entrees are the dishes served between any of the 
regular courses. 

GEOaUETTES 

GENERAL DIRECTIONS 

Croquettes are simply minced meat mixed with a 
thick sauce, then rolled into shape and fried. Any 
kind of cooked meat, fish, shell-fish, hard-boiled eggs, 
and some kinds of vegetables may be served as cro- 
quettes. Croquettes may be plain, using one kind of 
meat alone, or made richer by combining with it 
sweetbreads, brains, mushrooms, trufles, etc. What- 
Shape. ever meat mixture is used, the rules for sauce, mold- 
ing, and frying are the same. The croquettes may 
be shaped like cylinders, pyramids or chops. The 
meat should be chopped very fine. (An " Enterprise 
Chopper" is recommended.) They should be very 
soft and creamy inside, and should be fried to a light 
How to golden color only. Serve them on a napkin and gar- 
serve, nish with parsley. 



292 




ENTERPRISE CHOPPER. 




ci{oqui:tte8. (see page 292.) 



ENTREES 293 

THE ENTERPRISE CHOPPER 

This simple machine minces meat very fine, and is useful in 
making croquettes, forcemeat for stuflSngs, etc. Where meat 
having much fiber is put in the chopper, it soon becomes clogged. 
The end piece can then be taken off, and the fiber clinging to 
it, which stops the holes, be removed. In making timbales the 
meat put through the chopper in this way, and then pounded, 
will sometimes do without being passed through a sieve. 

SAUCE FOR CROaTJETTE MIXTURE 

(To this amount of sauce add two cupfuls of meat.) 

1 tablespoonful of butter. 1 teaspoonful of onion-juice. 

2 tablespoonfuls of flour. 1 teaspoonful of salt. 

1 cupful of milk or cream. J teaspoonful of pepper. 
1 egg. Dash of cayenne. 

Dash of nutmeg. 

Put the cream or milk in a double boiler and scald it. Rub 
the butter and flour together. Take this paste on a spoon and 
stir it in the scalding milk until it is dissolved from the spoon, 
and the sauce has become thickened and consistent. Add the 
seasoning ; then remove from the fire and stir in a beaten egg 
(the egg may be omitted if desired). Place it again on the fire 
for a minute to cook the egg, but do not let it boil, and add two 
cupfuls of meat minced very fine. 

Pour this mixture on a flat dish, and set it away for two 
or more hours. It will then be stiffened and can be easily 
molded. If a mixture is used which absorbs the sauce, add 
more than the quantity given in receipt. The softer the mix- 
ture, the more creamy, and therefore the better will be the cro- 
quettes, and if allowed to stand long enough the molding will 
not be difficult. 

TO MOLD CROQUETTES 

Take a tablespoonful of the mixture (this will make a cro- 
quette of the right size j large ones are likely to crack open in 



294 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

frying) j roll it lightly between the hands into a ball. Have a 
plentiful supply of bread-crumbs spread evenly on a board; 
roll the ball lightly on the crumbs into the shape of a cylinder, 
and flatten each end by dropping it lightly on the board ; put 
it in the egg (to each egg add one tablespoonf ul of water, and 
beat together), and with a spoon moisten the croquette com- 
pletely with the egg j lift it out on a knife-blade, and again 
roll lightly in the crumbs. Have every part entirely covered, 
so there will be no opening through which the grease may be 
absorbed. Where a light yellow color is wanted, use fresh 
white crumbs grated from the loaf (or rubbed through a pur6e 
sieve) for the outside, and do not use the yolk of the egg. 
Coarse fresh crumbs are used for fish croquettes, which are 
usually made in the form of chops, or half heart shape. A 
small hole is pricked in the pointed end after frying, and a 
sprig of parsley inserted. For lobster croquettes a small claw 
is used instead of the parsley. Cracker-crumbs are used where 
a smooth surface is wanted. Have all the croquettes of per- 
fectly uniform size and shape, and lay them aside on a dish, 
not touching one another, for an hour or more before trying. 
This will make the crust more firm. 

The white of an egg alone may be used for egging them, but 
not the yolk alone. Whip the egg with the water, just enough 
to break it, as air-bubbles in the egg will break in frying, and 
let the grease penetrate. 

TO FRY CROaUETTES 

Let the fat become smoking hot ; then test it with a piece of 
bread. If the bread colors while you count forty (twenty sec- 
onds), it is right. It is well to put the frying-pot on the fire an 
hour before it is needed, so it will be hot, and ready to be 
raised quickly to the right degree. After dipping the frying- 
basket in the fat to grease it, lay in it four croquettes so that 
they do not touch one another, and immerse them in the fat. 
Cook only long enough to attain a delicate color. Let them 
drain a moment over the hot fat j then lift them from the bas- 



ENTRIES 295 

ket with the hand (if done quickly the hand will not be burned) 
and place on a brown paper on the hot shelf or in the open 
oven until all are ready. Do not fry more than four at one 
time, as more would reduce the heat of the fat too much. Let 
the fat become smoking hot before each immersion of croquettes. 
Hang the basket on a long iron spoon so the hand will not be 
burned by the spattering fat. 

MATERIALS USED FOR CROaUETTES 

CHICKEN CROQUETTES 

Chop the chicken very fine, using the white meat alone, or 
the dark meat alone, or both together. Season with salt, pep- 
per, onion- juice, and lemon-juice. Chopped mushrooms, sweet- 
breads, calf's brains, tongue, ham or truf&es are used with 
chicken, and a combination of two or more of them much im- 
proves the quality of the croquettes. 

VEAL CROQUETTES 

Veal is often mixed with chicken, or is used alone as a substi- 
tute for chicken. Season in same manner and make the same 
combinations. 

SWEETBREAD CROQUETTES 

Cut the boiled sweetbreads into small dice with a silver knife. 
Mix with mushrooms, using half the quantity of mushrooms 
that you have of sweetbreads. Use two eggs in the sauce. 

OYSTER CROQUETTES 

Scald the oysters j cut them into small pieces with a sUver- 
plated knife. 

LOBSTER CROQUETTES (see page 138) 
FISH CROQUETTES (see pages 121 and 126) 

MEAT AND BOILED HOMINY CROQUETTES 

Equal proportions. 



296 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

MEAT, RICE, AND TOMATO CROQUETTES 

Equal proportions of meat and boiled rice: moisten with 
tomato puree. 

MACARONI CROQUETTES 

Boil the macaroni in salted water until tender ; let it cool ; 
then cut into pieces one quarter inch long, forming rings. To 
a cupful of the rings add one tablespoonful of grated cheese. 

The sauces to serve with croquettes are brown, Bechamel, 
Poulette, and Tomato. 

TIMBALES 

Timbales are forms of pastry or of forcemeat filled 
with salpicon. They are made in individual, bor- 
der, or cylinder molds. The receipts below give the 
rules for making the pastry, forcemeat, and salpicon, 
and the combinations. For forcemeat, the raw meat 
is used, and may be used alone or mixed with panada: 
in the latter case it is called Quenelle forcemeat. Cut 
the meat or fish in pieces (excepting chicken, which is 
General scraped), and pound it in a mortar to separate the 
directions. f^Q^}^ from the fiber, then press it through a puree 
sieve. Do not chop the meat, as the fiber is not then 
so easily separated. If the meat pulp is mixed with 
panada, press it through the sieve again so the paste 
will be perfectly smooth and fine. Truffles are used 
in decorating the molds and in the salpicon. The 
little bits left from the decoration are chopped and 
used in the salpicon or in a sauce. 

TRUFFLES 

Truffles can be bought in tins, and as very little is used at a 
time they are not as expensive as at first appears. To preserve 
truffles left over in an opened can, drain them from the liquor 
and roll them in melted paraffine or in melted suet. With the 




PUREE sii:vj;:: a>;d 3ioktau. 




HINGED MOLD AND INDIVIDUAL TIMBALE MOLDS. 



ENTRIES 297 

air-tight covering which either of these things gives, the truffles 
can be kept in the refrigerator for an indefinite time. 

CREAM CHICKEN FORCEMEAT 

Cut the breast from a chicken or turkey, also the white meat 
from the wings j remove the skin and fat, and with a knife 
scrape the meat so as to free it from the sinews. Place the 
scraped meat in a mortar and pound it to a paste; incorporate 
into it gradually, while pounding, the white of an egg ; this will 
moisten it a little so it will pass more easily through the sieve„ 
After it is thoroughly macerated, take a little at a time and 
with the pestle or spoon rub it through a sieve ; it passes through 
better when a little is worked at a time. Put the pulp in a 
bowl, season it with salt, pepper, and a dash of nutmeg. Set 
the bowl on cracked ice and stir in slowly (as you add oil to 
Mayonnaise) one or one and a half cupfuls of thick cream — 
some mixtures take more cream than others ; stir continually, 
using a wire whip if convenient. When it is a consistent paste, 
try it by dropping a half teaspoonful in hot (not boiling) water 
and let it poach; if it is too thick add more cream, if too thin 
add a little beaten white of egg. The sample should poach 
for ten minutes, and when cut should be smooth and firm, but 
not tough. 

CREAM FORCEMEAT, No. 2. 

To one half pound of meat pulp add five ounces of butter, 
one whole egg, and four yolks, or the whites alone of four eggs 
if used with white meat ; beat very thoroughly together ; pass 
again through the sieve ; place on ice and beat in slowly one 
pint of whipped cream — three quarters of a cupful of cream will 
make about the right amount after being whipped. 

FISH CREAM FORCEMEAT 

Scrape, pound, and pass through a sieve one pound of firm 
white fish. Put the pulp in a bowl, season with salt, pepper 
and cayenne; whip into it the whites of two eggs, and add 



298 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

slowly, beating all the time, about one and a haK cupf uls of 
cream. Poach a small piece to see if right: if too thick add 
more cream, if too thin add more white of egg, A pretty deco- 
ration for fish timbale, especially when made of salmon, is lob- 
ster coral, dried and pounded to powder, and sprinkled on the 
buttered mold. Fish timbale is usually made in a solid piece 
and served as a fish course. With white fish serve a tomato 
sauce J with salmon a Poulette or a cream sauce, or Mayonnaise. 

aUENELLE FORCEMEAT 

To one cupful of meat-pulp, after it is rubbed through the 
sieve, add one half cupful of panada, one quarter cupful of 
butter, yolks of three eggs, salt, pepper, and dash of nutmeg. 
Stir well together and pass again through the sieve. Place on 
ice and add slowly one cupful of cream. Try by poaching a 
small piece to see if it is of the right consistency. A good 
white sauce or tomato puree may be substituted for the cream 
in some cases. This forcemeat is used the same as cream force- 
meat. 

BREAD PANADA 

• 

Soak the crumb of bread j express the water and place the 
bread in a saucepan on the fire. Stir it to a paste with milk or 
stock, and continue to stir until it leaves the sides of the pan. 

FLOUR PANADA 

Put a little water, milk or stock in a saucepan ; add a little 
butter and salt, and stir in as much flour as will absorb the 
liquid. Stir constantly until it leaves the sides of the pan. 

TO MOLD AND COOK TIMBALES 

Rub the mold well with butter j ornament it with truffle, 
tongue, ham, or hard-boiled egg. Cut the truffle, or other article 
used for the decoration, in very thin slices and stamp it into 
fancy shapes with a cutter, or cut it with a knife. Arrange the 



I 



ENTRl^ES • 299 

pieces in some design on the mold ; they will stay in place if 
the mold is well buttered. Put in the forcemeat carefully with 
a knife, press it well against the sides to force out any air-bub- 
bles, and have a care not to displace the decoration. If the tim- 
bale is to be filled with salpicon, make a layer of the forcemeat 
from a quarter to three quarters of an inch thick, according to 
the size of mold, using enough to give stability to the form 
when unmolded ; make it a little thicker at the base than at the 
top and leave a smooth surface inside j fill it with the salpicon 
and cover the top with forcemeat, pressing from the sides 
towards the center j draw the knife across the top so it will be 
smooth and even, and stand straight and firm when unmolded. 
Stand the mold or molds in a pan of water, covering them one 
half or a little more. Cover them with a greased paper and let 
them poach in a slow oven ten to fifteen minutes for small, 
and twenty minutes for large molds. If the center feels firm to 
the touch they are done. The water must not be allowed to boil; 
slow cooking is necessary to have them tender. Let the molds 
stand a minute in the water, then invert on a cloth to let the 
moisture drain off, and unmold them on the dish on which they 
are to be served. 



SALPICOlSr 

Cooked veal, chicken, game, sweetbreads, calf s brains, livers, 
fish, oysters, lobster, mushrooms, trufl9.es, tongue, etc., when cut 
into dice and mixed with a rich sauce is called salpicon. It is 
used for filling timbales, vol-au-vent, patties, croustades, etc. 
It may also be served in paper boxes, or shells, or fontage cups. 
It may be made of one kind of meat, but is usually a mixture 
of two or more, with mushrooms and truffles. The meats are 
cut into small dice and warmed with a sauce which goes well 
with the meats used. The sauce must be reduced until quite 
thick, and enough of it used to make the mixture very creamy. 
For dark meat use an Espagnole, brown or mushroom sauce ; 
for white meat, Bechamel, Allemande or Poulette sauce. 



300 • THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

FONTAGE CUPS 

(used FOR OYSTER-CRABS, SALPICON, CREAMED 
SWEETBREADS, ETC.) 

Make a batter of one half cupful of flour, yolk of one eggy one 
quarter teaspoonful of salt, one tablespoonful of salad oil, and 
enough milk or water to make the batter thin. Let it stand for 
an hour or two. Beat it well together, and have the batter very 
smooth; strain it if there are any lumps. Have a pot of hot fat ; 
place the fontage iron in the fat until it is thoroughly hot, then 
dip it in the batter, and hold it there a moment until a coating 
of batter has adhered ; place it again in the hot fat until the 
cup is cooked a delicate color, and can be detached from the 
iron. Repeat the operation until all are made, and keep them 
in a warm dry place until used. This amount of batter will 
make twelve cups. 

PAIN DE VOLAILLE 

Make a chicken cream forcemeat (see page 297). Butter in- 
dividual timbale molds, decorate them with truffles, fill with 
forcemeat, and poach ten to fifteen minutes in slow oven. 
Serve with an Allemande sauce. 

Or, line the molds with forcemeat ; fill them with salpicon made 
of the dark meat of the chicken and mushrooms; mix with Es- 
pagnole or a good brown sauce; cover the top well with force- 
meat, and poach as directed. 

Or, use a charlotte russe mold ; line it a half inch thick with 
forcemeat, and use the same salpicon, adding small egg balls or 
quenelles, a few pieces of tongue, and a truffle chopped very fine. 

Or, use a border mold for the forcemeat, and fill the center of 
the ring, when unmolded, with the salpicon. 

aXJENELLES 

These are quenelle forcemeat formed into small balls, the balls 
rolled in flour and poached, then used in salpicon; or, with two 
tablespoons, the forcemeat may be molded into egg-shaped 
pieces, poached in hot salted (not boiling) water, and ranged on 




I 

CHICKEN TIMBALE — FILLING OF SALPICON ; DECORATION OF TRUFFLES. 





INDIVIDUAL 
TIMBALES OF ANT FORCEMEAT ; DECORATION OF TRUFFLES. 




FISH TIMBALE DECORATED WITH 
SLICES OF CUCUMBER PICKLE. 



ENTRifiES 301 

a socle ; or they may be placed on a dish in a circle. The two 
latter forms of quenelles are served with a sauce as an entree. 
Fish quenelles with tomato sauce make a very good dish. Large 
quenelles for decorating dishes may be made by molding the 
forcemeat into fancy shapes with a knife on buttered white 
paper (the paper will become detached while they are poaching). 
The quenelles may be ornamented with trufles or tongue, using 
white of egg to make the decoration adhere. Use salted water 
for poaching them, and do not let it boil. 

PALMETTES 

Press forcemeat into rings or cutlet molds; partly poach 
them. Unmold, roll in egg and crumbs, and fry in hot fat. 
Serve with a sauce. 

CELESTINES A LA MAINTENON 

Take some quenelle forcemeat (see page 298). Add to it a 
little juice from a can of trufiles, one truf&e chopped fine, two 
tablespoonfuls of mushrooms chopped fine, and a few bits of 
ham, or tougue. Mix well together, and stir in enough cream 
to make it quite soft. Butter some cutlet molds, or some rings. 
Fill them with the mixture; smooth them with a knife, and 
place them on the bottom of a large saucepan. Pour enough 
boiling water to cover them carefully on the sides of the pan, so 
it will go into the pan without defacing the forcemeat; let them 
poach for five minutes without the water boiling. The cutlets 
will leave the molds, and rise to the top. Lift them out with a 
skimmer, and place on an inverted pan to cool. When perfectly 
cold, dry them lightly with a napkin, and cover each one with 
Villeroi sauce (see page 280). Set aside to let the sauce harden. 
Sprinkle with bread-crumbs; moisten with egg and cover with 
fresh crumbs grated from the leaf. Use a broad knife to 
handle them -with when crumbing. Fry in hot fat, like cro- 
quettes, to an amber color. Serve with Bechamel or Poulette 
sauce. 



302 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

BOUDINS EOUENNAIS 

Line well-buttered individual molds with a cream forcemeat 
made of veal or chicken ; fill the center with a forcemeat made 
of duck or any game. Cover the top with a white forcemeat, 
and smooth it off even with the mold. Poach them for ten 
minutes. Unmold, and let them cool; then cover with egg and 
fresh bread-crumbs, and fry in hot fat to an amber color. 
Serve with them an Espagnole or a brown sauce. 

MACARONI TIMBALE 

Cook until tender in salted water long pieces of spaghetti, 
or fine macaroni. Put it into the water slowly, and it can then 
be turned so it will not break. Lay the pieces straight on a 
napkin to cool. Butter well a dome-shaped mold. Wind the 
spaghetti around the mold, holding it in place, as you proceed, 
with a layer of forcemeat. Fill the center with boiled maca- 
roni and cheese, mixed with a well-reduced Bechamel sauce j 
or fill the timbale with a salpicon of sweetbreads and mush- 
rooms. Make the layer of forcemeat thick enough to give the 
timbale stability. Cover it with a greased paper, stand it in a 
pan of hot water, and poach in a slow oven for thirty minutes. 
This timbale may also be made in individual molds. 

HONEYCOMB TIMBALE 

(A VERY SIMPLE LUNCHEON DISH) 

Boil in salted water large-sized macaroni. When cold cut it 
into pieces one quarter of an inch long, making rings. Butter 
a plain dome-shaped mold, and cover it with the rings. Fill 
the mold with minced uncooked chicken, turkey, or veal, mixed 
with cream sauce. Add three or four eggs to the creamed 
mince just before putting it into the mold. UrJess the eggs 
are added, it will not have stiffness enough to hold in shape. 
Cover the mold with a greased paper. Place it in a pan of hot 
water, and poach in a slow oven for thirty minutes. 



^ 



ENTRIES 303 

This timbale may also be made of any cooked meat as fol- 
lows: Put the meat through an " Enterprise" chopper. Make a 
sauce, using two tablespoonfuls each of butter and flour, a cup- 
ful of milk, and a cupful of stock. After the liquid is added to 
the roux put in a slice of onion and two dried mushrooms, one 
teaspoonful of salt, and one quarter teaspoonful pepper. Let it 
cook until a little thickened. Add half the strained sauce to 
the minced meat. Stir it over the fire until the meat is heated j 
remove from the fire, add two beaten eggs, and turn it into a 
a quart timbale mold, which is lined with macaroni in any of the 
forms given in illustrations. Cover the mold with a greased 
paper. Place it in a pan of hot water, and poach for twenty 
minutes. Serve the rest of the sauce with the cooked timbale. 

A SIMPLE TIMBALE OF HALIBUT 

Take a half pound of uncooked halibut. Cut it into fine 
pieces, pound it in a mortar, and pass it through a sieve. Mix 
a cupful of white bread-crumbs with a half cupful of milk, and 
stir until it makes a smooth paste; remove it from the fire, add 
the fish pulp, a half teaspoonful of salt, and a dash of paprica. 
Then beat in lightly, a little at a time, the whipped whites 
of five eggs. Fill buttered timbale molds with the mixture, 
and place them in a pan of hot water in a moderate oven for 
twenty minutes. This will fill a quart mold, or eight individual 
molds. Serve with a white or with a tomato sauce. 

PASTRY TIMBALE 

Make a paste, using to one pound of flour three quarters of a 
pound of butter, four yolks, one half teaspoonful of salt, and one 
and a half cups of water. Work it well, roll it one quarter of an 
inch thick, cover, and set it aside for one hour. Butter a timbale- 
mold, and line it with the paste. If ornamentation is wanted, 
cut some noodle paste into fancy forms. Arrange the pieces in 
some design on the bottom and sides of the mold, and brush 
them with a little water before putting in the paste. With 



304 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

a cutter or knife stamp out a circle in the paste on the bottom 
of the mold, but do not remove it. Then with a buttered paper 
cover the whole inside surface of the paste. Fill the center 
with flour. Cover the top with buttered paper, buttered side 
up; then a layer of paste, and press it to the paste of the sides. 
Set it aside for half an hour. Bake it in a hot oven for fifty 
minutes. Unmold, take off the circle which was cut in the 
paste; remove the paper and flour. Brush the timbale all over, 
inside and out, with yolk of egg, and place it in the oven to 
brown. Fill it with salpicon. 

POTATO AND FISH TIMBALE 

(FOR LUNCHEON OR BREAKFAST) 

Butter a plain mold. Sprinkle it with white bread-crumbs. 
Fill it with mashed potato which has been seasoned and mixed 
with two or more egg yolks and some grated cheese. Bake it 
for forty minutes in a moderate oven. With a pointed knife 
cut around the top one and a half inches from the edges; lift 
off the piece, and with a spoon scoop out the potato, leaving a 
lining one and a half inches thick. Brush the inside with 
egg, and place it again in the oven to dry and brown. Fill 
the center with creamed fish; replace the top piece, and fill 
the cut with potato so as to confine the fish. Place a dish over 
the top, invert the mold, and let it stand a few minutes. It 
will then come out of the mold. Serve with a white sauce. 

VOL AU VENT 

Prepare a puff paste (see page 458). Roll it one and a half 
inches thick. Cut a circle six to six and a half inches ivi 
diameter, using as guide a pie-tin or cardboard, if a regular 
cutter is not at hand. Place it with care on a baking-tin, and 
cut a smaller circle around the top, one and a half inches from 
the edge, and two thirds through the paste. Paint over the top 
with yolk of egg, and bake it in a hot oven for thirty minutes. 
Do not open the oven door for the first fifteen minutes. Wheni, 




MACARONI TIMBALE. (SEE PAGE 302.) 








pj^^^^^ y 



HONEYCOMB TIMBALE, (SEE PAGE 302.) 



ENTR:6ES * 305 

baked, lift off the inside circle. Cut out the uncooked paste, 
paint it over with white of egg, and place it again in the oven 
to brown. Keep the crust hot until ready to serve. Then 
fill with salpicon, and replace the cover, or small circle of paste. 

PATTIES 

Prepare patty shells as directed in puff paste receipt (page 
460). Fill them with oysters (see page 134), with lobster (see 
page 140), or with any salpicon. 

EISSOLES 

Roll puff paste one eighth of an inch thick. Place on it at in- 
tervals of three inches from the edge and five inches apart, 
a teaspoonful of salpicon, or of creamed minced meat. Moisten 
with a wet brush the paste, and fold it over the balls of meat. 
With the finger press the paste together lightly around the 
meat, inclosing it like a small pie. Then with a patty or biscuit- 
cutter stamp out the rissoles in shape of half-circles, the ball of 
meat being on the straight side, and a border of paste an inch 
or more wide on the rounded side. Egg and bread-crumb them 
or not, and fry in hot fat. Serve on a folded napkin. 

TO PREPARE SWEETBREADS 

Soak the sweetbreads in cold water for an hour or more. 
Change the water several times, so that all the blood will be 
extracted, and leave the sweetbreads very white. Put them on 
the fire in cold water, and simmer (not boil) for twenty minutes. 
Then immerse them again in cold water. This is to parboil 
and blanch them. Remove all the pipes, strings, and fibers 
it is possible to do without breaking the sweetbreads to pieces. 
When half cold tie each one in a piece of cheese-cloth, drawing 
it tightly into an oval form, and place them under a light 
weight until cold. They will then be smooth and a uniform 
shape, and may be larded with fine lardoons if desired. Use a 
silver knife for cutting sweetbreads. 

20 



306 THE CENTUEY COOK BOOK 

BAKED SWEETBREADS 

Take parboiled larded sweetbreads, and place them on slices 
of salt pork in a baking-pan. Add enough stock to cover well 
the pan. Cook them in a hot oven for twenty minutes, basting 
frequently. Serve with a brown or with a mushroom sauce. 

BRAISED SWEETBREADS 

Place in a baking-pan a bed of vegetables cut in small dice, 
and a few pieces of salt pork. Lay parboiled sweetbreads on it. 
Add enough water or stock to cover the vegetables. Close the 
pan tight, and cook for forty to forty-five minutes. Uncover 
the pan the last fifteen minutes to let the sweetbreads brown. 
Paint them with glaze. Strain the liquor from the pan; thicken 
it with a brown roux, and serve it on the dish under the 
sweetbreads. 

SAUTED SWEETBREADS 

Cut the parboiled sweetbreads in slices and saute them in 
butter ; serve with green peas. 

FRIED SWEETBREADS 

Roll the sweetbreads (either whole or cut in slices) in egg 
and crumbs ; let them stand for a time, then fry in hot fat ; 
dress them on a folded napkin and serve with them a Bechamel 
sauce. They may also be dipped in fritter batter and fried. 

SWEETBREADS A LA POULETTE 

Simmer the sweetbreads for thirty or forty minutes j blanch 
them, then cut or break them in pieces and place them on a 
dish. Pour over them a Bechamel or a Poulette sauce. Mush- 
rooms and chopped trufiles may be added if desired. 

CHAUDFROID OF SWEETBREADS 

Simmer the sweetbreads until cooked ; blanch and tie them in 
cloth as directed above, or place them in muflSn-rings under 



ENTRIES 307 

pressure until cold; cover them with a Chaudfroid sauce (see 
page 281). Place fancy bits of truffle on the top lightly, and 
when the sauce has set, paint it over with liquid aspic. Arrange 
them on a socle or on a mound of salad, and serve with them a 
Mayonnaise sauce and lettuce. 

CALF'S BRAINS 

Soak the brains for an hour in cold water ; then simmer in 
water containing a tablespoonf ul of vinegar for twenty minutes ,• 
an Onion, thyme, bay-leaf, salt and peppercorns in the water 
also will improve the flavor of the brains ; place again in cold 
water to blanch j remove the skin and fibres, and cook by any 
of the receipts given for sweetbreads. The boiled brains may 
also be served with any of the following sauces poured over 
them : a plain white sauce j a white sauce with chopped mush- 
rooms; a white sauce seasoned with mashed yolks of hard- 
boiled eggs, a little mustard, tarragon vinegar and chopped 
parsley, and a tablespoonful of chopped pickle added just before 
serving; a Vinaigrette sauce; a Hollandaise sauce; a tomato 
sauce ; or a sauce made of browned butter and a dash of vinegar. 

liiABINADE OF BBAINS 

Boil the brains ; remove the skin and veins ; cut them into 
pieces the size of half an egg', let them stand an hour in a 
marinade of oil, vinegar, onion, pepper and salt ; then wipe and 
dip them into fritter batter and fry in hot fat. Arrange them 
on a napkin and serve with tomato sauce. 

CALF'S HEAD A LA VINAIGRETTE 

Place pieces of hot boiled calf s head in the center of a dish ; 
split the tongue in two and lay it across two sides of the dish, 
and the brains on the opposite sides ; garnish with parsley and 
serve with a Vinaigrette sauce, or with a Piquante sauce. 

Vinaigrette Sauce (Cold) : Three tablespoonfuls of oil, one table- 
spoonful of vinegar, one teaspoonf ul each of grated onion, chopped 
parsley, and capers, one saltspoonful each of salt and pepper. 



308 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

FALSE TERRAPIN 

Cut boiled calf s head (see page 175) into pieces one inch 
square J break into pieces the boiled brains. Make a brown 
roux; add to it water in which the calf's head was boiled, 
in the same proportion as for white sauce; season with salt, pep- 
per, and cayenne, and add a cupful of cream ; then put in the 
pieces of meat, three or four chopped hard-boiled eggs, a few 
small egg balls, and a glass of sherry ; serve very hot ; there 
should be a half more sauce than meat. 

CALF'S HEAD A LA POULETTE 

Cut boiled calf's head into pieces one inch square ; heat them 
in hot water J drain and pile them in the center of a hot dish; 
sprinkle over them a few small egg balls, and pour over the 
whole a Poulette sauce, using for the sauce water in which 
the calf's head was boiled in the place of chicken stock. 

OTSTER CASES 

Line buttered paper cases, or china individual cups, with 
a layer of fish quenelle forcemeat (page 298), or with the fish 
preparation given in receipt for fish pudding (page 123) ; scald 
some oysters in their own liquor until the gills curl; cut each 
oyster into four pieces and fill the center of the cup with them ; 
pour over them a tablespoonful of Bechamel sauce, made with 
oyster- liquor in place of stock; cover the top with forcemeat, 
brush it over with butter and bake in a moderate oven for fif- 
teen minutes. 

Cases of other combinations may be made in the same way ; 
using mashed potato for the lining and any creamed meat for 
filling ; or use hominy or rice with chicken, mushrooms, etc. 

LIVER LOAF, OR FALSE PATE DE FOIS GRAS 

Cut a calf s liver in pieces ; pound it in a mortar and press it 
through a sieve; add to one cupful of liver pulp one quarter 
cupful of flour panada, one teaspoonful each of butter audi 



ENTRIES 309 

salt; one half teaspoonful of pepper; dash each of cayenne and 
of nutmeg and allspice, and two eggs. Mix well together and 
pass it again through the sieve. Put the mixture into a well- 
buttered pint mold ; place it in a pan of hot water in the oven 
for forty-five minutes or more. An ice-cream brick-mold makes 
a loaf of convenient shape. It may be served hot with a 
brown sauce; but is better cold with salad, or used like pat6 
de foie gras. A loaf of any game may be made in the same 
way. The loaf may be made very ornamental by decorating it 
with pieces of trufile, ham, and white of hard-boiled eggs cut 
into diamond shapes and fitted together to look like blocks. To 
arrange this decoration use two molds of the same size ; butter 
one of them and apply carefully the decoration ; line the other 
with thin slices of larding pork and cook the liver or game 
mixture in it ; when it is cold remove the pork, and this will 
leave it small enough to fit into the decorated mold. Fill the 
space between them with aspic jelly and let it become well set 
before unmolding the form. 

CHICKEN LIVERS 

Cut the gall carefully off the livers ; dry them with a cloth 
and cut them in two or more pieces. Place them in a frying- 
pan with a tablespoonful of butter, and saute until cooked, or 
about five minutes. Turn them often, so they will not burn, and 
dredge them with a little flour ; add one cupful of Espagnole, 
or of brown sauce, and one half cupful of Madeira ; season with 
salt and pepper and let simmer slowly for ten minutes. If the 
color is not dark enough, add a few drops of caramel or of 
kitchen bouquet ; serve with croutons around the dish, or in a 
croustade, or in fontage cups. 

STUFFED MUSHROOMS 

Take off the stalks from one pound of fresh mushrooms, 
peel the cups, using a silver knife, and drop them into cold 
water to keep them white (if exposed to the air they discolor). 
If they have to stand for some time put a little lemon-juice in 



310 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

the water ; scrape the stalks, chop them and put them into a 
saucepan with one tablespoonful of butter and one half onion 
sliced ; cook slowly for ten minutes, then add one tablespoonful 
of flour and cook that five minutes j add one cupful of stock 
and one half cupful of bread crumbs ; season with salt, pepper, 
and a dash of cayenne. Fill the cups of the mushrooms with 
this mixture ; sprinkle with crumbs and place them on circles of 
toasted bread one quarter of an inch thick and the size of the 
mushroom. Bake in moderate oven for fifteen minutes. 

CHICKEN PUREE 

Chop cooked chicken very fine; pound it to as much of a 
paste as possible; season with salt and pepper; mix it with 
half its quantity of Chaudfroid sauce (see page 281). Coat a 
mold with jelly (see page 323), and fill it with the mixture, which 
must be cold and beginning to set; when it has hardened, turn 
it onto a dish ; garnish with lettuce and serve with it a Mayon- 
naise or a Bearnaise sauce. Game may be used in the same 
way. Ornamented individual timbale cups may also be used 
for molding the puree. 

OYSTER-CRABS 

Put into a saucepan two tablespoonfuls of butter and a gill 
of water, one teaspoonful of lemon -juice, a little salt and white 
pepper. When the liquid is warm, put a few of the crabs in at 
a time and cook until they begin to whiten, then skim them out 
and keep them in a warm place until all are cooked. The 
liquid must only simmer; if it is too hot the crabs will break 
open. The crabs should be just moistened with the sauce in 
which they krQ cooked. Serve in croustades, or in fontage cups 
(see page 300). 

ENTREE OF OYSTER-CRABS 

Use for this entree individual shirred-egg dishes. Cut slices 
of bread one inch thick; with a biscuit-cutter stamp it into 
circles one inch smaller than the egg dish, and with a smaller 
cutter stamp out the center, making rings of the bread one 



TERRAPIN, FROGS' LEGS 



311 



inch thick, one inch wide, and one inch smaller than the egg 
dishes. Place the bread rings in the dishes and moisten them 
with cream ; fill the space outside the rings with oyster-crabs 
cooked as directed above j spread one layer of crabs in the 
center of each ring and on them break an egg. Cover the whole 
with Bechamel sauce and sprinkle the top with grated Parmesan 
cheese. Place this in a hot oven just long enough to set the 

TERRAPIN, FEOGS' LEGS 



TERRAPIN 

Terrapin measuring six inches or more across the 
bottom shell are called '^ counts." The largest do not 
exceed ten inches; the average size is seven inches, 
and weight three to five pounds. The counts vary 
in price from seventeen to eighty dollars a dozen, 
according to size and weight. 

The terrapin which are most esteemed, and which 
command the highest price, are the " Diamond Back,'^ 
from the Chesapeake Bay. Probably it is the wild 
celery of this region which gives the especially prized 
flavor to the terrapin as well as to the Canvasback 
ducks taken there. Good terrapin, however, are taken 
in- Long Island waters and all along the sea-coast. 

Terrapin burrow in the mud as soon as cold wea- 
ther approaches and remain there until May, during 
which time they grow fat. They are caught during 
their season of hibernation, and are kept in cool, dark 
places packed in sea grass until wanted ; the season 
for eating them being from December to April. Ter- 
rapin taken during the summer are rank in taste and un- 
fit for food, and are confined in pens and fed on celery. 

The female terrapin is the most prized on account 
of its eggs, terrapin-eggs, as served in the stew, being 
considered a great delicacy. 



CoTints. 



Diamond 
backs. 



Season. 



312 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

The Maryland style of cooking terrapin is one of 
the most esteemed. A simple way is that of the 
Cookiiig. Southern negro, who places the "bii*d/' as he calls 
it, over hot coals or in the oven until cooked, when 
the under shell comes off, and, removing only the 
gall, he eats the whole of the contents from the in- 
verted upper shell, seasoning with butter, pepper, 
and salt. Before hibernating, the terrapin empties 
the stomach and is consequently clean, but a fastid- 
ious taste prefers to have the terrapin thoroughly 
washed, and the entrails and lights as well as the gall- 
sack removed. 

It is of the greatest importance that the gall should 
The gall, be very carefully removed, for, if the sack be punc- 
tured or in any way injured, so that the liquid touches 
the liver or meat, its disagreeable bitter taste will in- 
fect the entire dish. 



TO PREPARE TERRAPIN 

Drop the live terrapin into hot water, and let it remain until 
the skin can be removed from the head and feet. Then remove, 
wash in several changes of water, take off the skin from the 
head and feet by rubbing it with a cloth, and return it to 
fresh scalding water to cook until tender. This is shown by 
pressing the feet between the fingers. They should be done in 
forty-five minutes to an hour. If a longer time is required, the 
terrapin is probably not a good one, and the meat wiU be stringy. 
Remove as soon as tender. When cold, cut off the nails, re- 
move the shells, take out very carefully the gall-sack from the 
liver, the entrails, lights, heart, head, tail and white muscles. 
Separate the pieces at the joints, divide the meat into pieces an 
inch and a half long, and do not break the bones. Place the 
meat, cut into pieces, the terrapin eggs and the liver in a pan, 
cover with water, and boil again until the meat is ready to drop 
from the bones. 



TERRAPIN, FROGS' LEGS 313 

STEWED TERRAPIN, MARYLAND STYLE 

Mash the yolks of eight hard-boiled eggs and mix them with 
two tablespoonfuls of best butter, rubbing them to a smooth 
paste. Put a pint of cream in a double boiler j when it is 
scalded, stir in the egg and butter until smooth j season with 
salt, white and cayenne pepper, a dash of nutmeg and allspice. 
Add a quart of terrapin prepared as directed above, and sim- 
mer for ten minutes, or until the terrapin is well heated. Just 
at the moment of serving add two tablespoonfuls of sherry or 
madeira ; serve very hot. Terrapin is often served in individ- 
ual metal cups made for the purpose, so as to insure its being 
hot J but with care to have all the dishes hot, the stew need not 
be allowed to get cold when served in ordinary deep plates, 

TERRAPIN A LA NEWBURG 

Put in a saucepan one quart of terrapin (prepared as directed, 
page 312), a half pint of cream, and a tablespoonful of best but- 
ter. Let it cook a few minutes ; then draw it aside, and add 
the yolks of five eggs beaten with a half pint of cream. Stir 
until the eggs are thickened ; but do not let it boil, or it will 
curdle. Season with salt, white pepper and paprica. At the 
moment of serving, add two tablespoonfuls of sherry. Like all 
Newburg dishes this must be prepared only just in time to 
serve, or it will curdle. 

FRIED FROGS' LEGS 

Dip the skinned frogs^ legs in milk ; sprinkle with salt and 
pepper, and roll them in flour. Immerse in smoking hot fat 
until cooked to a delicate color. Serve on a napkin. 

FROGS' LEGS A LA POULETTE 

Saut6 the skinned frogs^ legs in butter; cook some fresh 
mushrooms in the pan at the same time if convenient. Place 
on a hot dish with the mushrooms, and pour over them a 
Poulette sauce (see page 280). 



MUSHROOMS 

(SEE ALSO PAGE 45) 

When one has learned to distinguish a few varie- 
ties of the edible fungi, a delicious acquisition to the 
menu will be enjoyed. 

The author will not assume the responsibility of 
instructing how to distinguish the esculent mush- 
rooms. There are books and colored charts which 
give explicit and reliable descriptions, and with these 
one can easily learn to know a few of them. Acci- 
dents are usually the result of carelessness or reck- 
lessness, many of the poisonous mushrooms being so 
attractive in appearance as to invite favor. 

Mushroom hunting is akin in pleasure to botaniz- 
ing, geologizing, or the gathering of any natural his- 
tory specimens. It is not always easy to reject the 
many unfamiliar kinds. 

In gathering mushrooms they should be cut, not 
gather, pnlled, and laid in the basket with the giUs up, so the 
spores will not be lost. If the stem is perforated with 
fine holes it means that worms have bored it, and it 
should be rejected. 
The three The most common varieties are the Agaracini — those 
nonvari^ having gills; the Boleti — those having pores; and 
ties. puff-balls (Lycoperdacege). All the puff-balls are edi- 
ble, and those of the Boleti which have no tinge of 
red on the pore surface; but especial care must be 
used with the Agaracini, for it is said that all deaths 
from mushroom-poisoning have come from the Ama' 

314 



i 



MUSHROOMS 315 

nita, which is a genus of the gilled species, and is 
very common and abundant. 

The safeguard to other species of poison varieties 
is their bitter and acrid taste. This warning the 
poisonous Agaric does not give, but it has the dis- ^^ 
tinguishing feature of a cup or volva at the base of Amanita, 
the stem. This cup is some times below the ground, 
and should be carefully sought j and where any doubt 
is felt, the specimen should be rejected. The anti- 
dote to this poison, as given by Mr. Gibson, is one Antidote to 
sixtieth grain doses of atropine in hypodermic in- poison, 
jections. 

Authorities on mushrooms advise the amateur to 
first acquaint himself with the Amanita family. 

'' Dr. W. A. Curtis found in North Carolina thirty- 
eight edible species of Agaricus, eleven of Boletus, 
nine of Polyporus, seven of Hydnum, and thirteen of 
Clavaria.^' 

The popular tests of the cap peeling, or the mush- 
room blackening a silver spoon when cooking, are 
worthless. 

Mushrooms are very short-lived, and are quickly at- 
tacked by insects and worms, and so rendered unfit Freshness, 
for use. They also decay quickly, and should be re- 
jected if not entirely sound. Many cases of illness 
are the result of this unfit condition. The same 
would be the case if unwholesome meat were eaten, 
but good meat is not condemned on that account. 
Mushrooms contain the same nutritive value as meat, uourish- 
and rank second to it in nitrogenous elements. They ment in. 
vary in flavor and in delicacy as much as vegetables. 



316 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

COOKING MUSHROOMS 

The simplest way of cooking mushrooms is usually the best, 
and this may be broiling, sauteing in butter, or stewing in a 
little cream sauce. These simple ways may be varied by sea- 
soning with sherry, Madeira, or lemon-juice. Any meat stock 
may be used to stew them in, but many of the mushrooms are 
very juicy, and their flavor must not be lost by diluting them 
with too much liquor. They may be cut in pieces when used 
for sauces. When dried and powdered they make an excellent, 
seasoning for sauces. Dried c^pes may be bought at grocers', 
and are very useful to stew in sauces. 

It is better to cook mushrooms as soon as they are peeled, and 
to rinse them only as much as is necessary, as they lose some 
flavor by soaking. When they are to be used for garnishing, 
they are thrown into water with lemon-juice, one tablespoon- 
ful of juice to a quart of water, and are afterward boiled in 
the same water; this keeps them white. The water they are 
boiled in should be saved to use in sauces. Again, they may be 
put into a saucepan with butter and lemon-juice, and cooked 
(stirring frequently) for about five minutes. They are then 
covered to keep them moist and white until ready for use. 
Lemon-juice keeps them white, but the flavor of the mushroom 
is somewhat destroyed by it, and so it is not recommended for 
general practice. The French peel the caps with a fluted knife 
to make them more ornamental, but it is a difficult operation, 
and does not repay the trouble. 

" Mr. George Augustus Sala, in a discourse on ' Dinners De- 
parted,' refers to the famous k la mode beef, served in the days 
of old at the ' Thirteen Cantons,' in Blackmore Street, Drury 
Lane, and of which Soyer was very fond. The dish was re- 
markable for its rich sauce, the concoction of which was a close 
secret. However, the former proprietor of the old eating- 
house confided the receipt to Mr. Sala. Thus : ^ It was simply 
made from a particular mushroom, which he called " morella," 
and which I infer was the Morchella esculenta, described in 
botanical works. These mushrooms were gathered in the fields 



MUSHROOMS 317 

round about the metropolis, dried, reduced to powder, and then 
used to thicken the sauce and enhance the flavor of h la mode 
beef.^'' 

THE FAIRY RING CHAMPIGNON 

(marasmius oreades) 

This is one of the most common and easily recognized mush- 
rooms, and in their season enough for a sauce may be gathered 
in almost any dooryard. The difference between the real and 
the false fairy is easily distinguished, the former having the 
gills wide apart, and a little mound rising in the center of the 
cap, while the "false'' have the gills close together and usually a 
depression in the center of the cap. 

If the "fairies" are dry when gathered soak them in water 
for a little while, and then saute or stew them. Put a table- 
spoonful of butter in a saucepan j when it bubbles add a tea- 
spoonful of flour, and cook the flour a few minutes, but not 
brown it; then add a half cupful of water or of milk, stir un- 
til smooth, and add a pint of the " fairies." Simmer for fifteen 
minutes, season with salt and pepper. Pour this over softened 
buttered toast or over meat ; use water to make the sauce if 
they are used with meat, and milk if served on toast; or cook 
them by saut^ing them in a little butter, and serve them on 
softened toast. 

THE AGARICUS CAMPESTRIS 

This mushroom is one and two third inches in diameter j has a 
white or cream colored cap and purplish pink gills, the gills be- 
coming brown at a later stage. When once learned they are 
unmistakable. It is a highly esteemed variety, and grows 
abundantly in meadows and pastures, but never in the forest. 
It is the mushroom generally found for sale in the markets. 

Cut off the stem near the cup, peel them, and lay them with 
the gills up on a dish and sprinkle them with salt. After a 
little time they will be quite moist j then stew them in a sauce, 



318 THE CENTUEY COOK BOOK 

the same as given above for the '^ fairies/^ They may also be 
sauted in butter, or be broiled. To broil, lay them on a fine 
wire broiler; turn the gills first to the coals for a few minutes; 
then turn the other side, and place a piece of butter on each 
one. Serve on toast. The fire for broiling mushrooms should 
not be very hot or bright. 

AGARIGUS PROCERUS 

Remove the scurf spots, and broil the same as given above. 
Use plenty of butter. Serve on a dish with meat or on toast, 
as preferred. 

AGARIGUS RUSSULA 

This mushroom is of various colors. It is found in woody 
paths and clearings. It is particularly subject to the attack of 
worms, and must be carefully scrutinized. The noxious Russu- 
las have a bitter taste, and in appearance resemble closely the 
esculent ones, so care is required to discriminate them. Wash 
them well, peel, and broil as directed for the Campestris. Lay 
them under a broiled steak, so they will absorb the juices of 
the meat. 

COPRIlSrUS COMATUS AND COPRINUS ATRAMENTARIUS 

These grow in masses in barnyards, gardens or any rich 

earth, and in decomposition become a soft black paste. They 

should be gathered at the white or pink stage. Fry them in 

butter or stew them with butter and a little milk or cream. 

They are very juicy, and do not need much liquor added to stew 

them. 

THE BOLETI 

This species is of a distinctly different character from the Aga- 
racini or gilled mushrooms. The cap is more solid, being filled 
with a mass of vertical tubes or pores. Some Boleti are as 
large as six to eight inches in diameter, one of them making a 
meal for several people. Any of this class which have any 
tinge of red on the under surface should be rejected. 



MUSHROOMS 319 

Remove the skin and pores, and either saut6 the caps in but- 
ter, or dip them in fritter batter, or egg and crumb them, and 
fry in smoking-hot fat. They may also be stewed in a white 
sauce, but they are very juicy, and need but little extra liquor. 
These mushrooms must be carefully examined for insects, as they 
are quickly attacked. 

PUFF BALLS 

All are edible when gathered at the white stage. Cut them 
in slices one half inch thick. Either saute them in butter, or 
dip them in beaten egg^ and fry in hot fat or cook on a griddle. 
Season with pepper and salt. 

MORGHELLiE ESCULENTS 

These mushrooms resemble none but those of the same genus, 
and all of them are edible. They are hollow, the exterior re- 
sembles a honey-comb, and they are found in open woods and at 
the base of trees on lawns. Grreat use is made of all the Morels 
in the French kitchen, and they are much prized by epicures. 

Morels are usually stuffed with chicken, veal, or other meat, 
chopped very fine and highly seasoned. The stem is opened to 
admit the forcemeat, then pressed together again. Lay them 
on slices of bread, and bake in a moderate oven for ten minutes, 
or until tender; baste them with butter while cooking, and 
sprinkle them with salt and pepper. Wash the Morels well be- 
fore stuffing them. 

HYDNUM CAPUT MEDUSJE 

Cut the fungus into pieces, and simmer it in a little water; 
season with butter, salt, and pepper, and add a little cream. 
When cooked, pour the mixture over croutons, or saute the 
pieces in butter ; add a little sherry just before removing from 
the fire, and serve on softened toast. 

CLAVARLflL 

Separate the branches, and stew in white sauce ; or saut^ them 
in butter, seasoning with lemon- juice, salt, and peppev. 



320 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

TO DEY MUSHROOMS 

Place them in a saucepan, and cook with gentle heat until 
the moisture they give is evaporated ; then place them on a hot 
sheK until they are thoroughly dry. Pound them to powder 
in a mortar, and place the powder in well-closed preserve jars, 

SCALLOPED MUSHROOMS 

Make a roux of one tablespoonf ul each of butter and flour. 
Add two cupf uls of chicken broth or of white stock 5 add the 
chopped stalks of a pint of mushrooms j reduce the sauce one 
half J add a tablespoonf ul of chopped parsley, pepper, and salt. 
Turn this sauce into a shallow baking-dish. Press into it as 
many mushrooms as will fit into the dish, placing them close 
together, with the gills up. Put a piece of butter on each one j 
sprinkle the top with crumbs, and place in the oven for five to 
eight minutes. Serve in the same dish. 

MUSHROOMS A LA POULETTE 

Stew the mushrooms in a little water with a tablespoonful of 
butter J season with pepper and salt. When ready to serve, 
add a little milk or cream ; remove from the fire, and stir in the 
beaten yolks of two eggs ; replace on the fire for a minute to 
thicken the eggs, and serve at once. 





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■4»«w 




Chapter XIII 

ASPIC JELLY, FANCY MOLDING, 
SUPPORTS 



Aspic is very useful in the preparation of cold 
dishes, and much care should be given to having it 
perfectly clear and well flavored. The second one of 
the two receipts given below is so simple that the 
most inexperienced cook can easily make it. With 
aspic, cold meats and salads can be made into most Uses- 
attractive dishes j and it is well worth while to learn 
and ornamenting with it. (See opposite pages 326, 
328.) 

ASPIC 

1 fowl. 2 onions. 

1 shin of beef. 1 carrot. 

1 knuckle of veal. 1 stock of celery. 

4 cloves. 1 turnip. 

1 bay-leaf. i package Cox^s gelatine. 

1 cupful of sherry or Madeira. 

Put the chicken, beef, and veal in a pot. Cover them well 
with cold water, and let simmer for five or six hours, with the 
pot covered closely. An hour before removing from the fire, 
add the carrot cut into dice, the cloves, and bay-leaf. Fry in 
butter the onions and celery (cut into pieces) to a dark brown, 
and add them to the stock at the same time. Remove from the 
fire, strain, and add one half package of gelatine (which has been 
soaked for an hour in one cupful of water) and one cupful of 

21 321 



^22 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

sherry or Madeira. Stir until the gelatine is dissolved. Set 
away until the next day. There should be two quarts of jelly. 
If it is not solid enough to stand, more gelatine may be added 
at the time of clearing. Boiling down jelly will not make it 
more firm. 

TO GLEAB ASPIC 

Remove all the grease from the top of the jelly, and wipe it 
off with a cloth wet in hot water, so every particle of grease 
will be removed. Stir into the cold jelly the beaten whites and 
the sheUs of three eggs (do not froth the egg). Put it on the 
fire, and continue to stir until it boils. Let it boil for five 
minutes; then strain it through a double cloth. If not per- 
fectly clear, strain it a second time. Let the jelly drain 
through the cloth without pressure. 

aUIGK ASPIC 

Put into a saucepan one and a half cupfuls of cold water, 
a tablespoonful each of chopped carrot and celery, a slice of 
onion, sprig of parsley, one bay-leaf, and three cloves; add 
also one teaspoonful of beef extract (obtained in jars) dissolved 
in one cupful of hot water. Cover, and let simmer for half 
an hour; then add one half box of Cox's gelatine, which has 
been soaked in one half cupful of cold water for one hour. 
Stir until the gelatine is dissolved. Season with salt and 
pepper. A tablespoonful of sherry improves the flavor. If a 
deeper color is wanted add a few drops of kitchen bouquet 
or of caramel. Strain through a double cloth. If it is for 
molding it can be used at once, as there is no grease to be 
removed. If for garnishing, turn it into a shallow pan to set. 
It can be stamped or cut into fancy shapes more easily if cooled 
in layers of the right thickness. Gelatine added to a good, 
clear consomme wUl give the same results. Observe always 
the proportion of one box, or one and a half ounces, of gelatine 
to one and a quarter quarts (five cupfuls) of liquor. This sim- 
ple method of making aspic is very quick, and is entirely satis- 
factory. 











® 2 






/\/\ 



SOCLES OR SUPPORTS FOR CHOPS, BIRDS, ETC. 

FORM MADE OF RICE, HOMINY OR WHITE CORN MEAL MOLDED IN A TIN BASIN. 

(SEE PAGE 326.) 

1. Green string beans. 

2. Balls of carrot or beet cut In halves, or slices stamped into small rounds. 

3. Parsley stalk. 

4. Balls of carrot, large green peas or capers. 

5. Slices of string beans. 






BLOCKS OF BREAD FOB SUPPORT OF MEAT, POULTRY, FISH, GAME, ETC. 



ASPIC JELLY, FANCY MOLDING, SUPPORTS 323 

CHICKEN ASPIC OR JELLY 

Boil a fowl as directed for chicken stock (page 100), or boil 
a chicken or knuckle of veal, as directed for white stock (page 
99). Let the stock cool, take off the grease, then clarify the 
stock. If veal has been used, no gelatine will be needed. If 
chicken only has been used in making the stock, add to each 
quart of hot clarified stock three quarters of a box of Cox's 
gelatine which has been soaked one hour in a half cupful of 
cold water. Stir until the gelatine is dissolved. This will 
make a very clear, light-colored jelly, good for molding, salads, 
chicken, etc. ^ 

ASPIC CROUTONS 

When jeUy is to be used for garnishing, pour it into a square 
shallow pan one and a half inches deep. When it has thor- 
oughly set, turn it onto a slightly dampened napkin spread on 
a board in a cool place. Dip a knife into hot water. Wipe it 
dry, and cut the jelly in strips the same width as the thickness 
of the jelly; then cut it straight across, making squares, or 
diagonally across, making diamonds, or into triangles. These 
croutons will stand upright, and can be used for borders. If it 
is to be laid flat on the dish the strips need be cut only one 
quarter of an inch thick, and can be stamped with cutters into 
fancy shapes. Small molds may also be used for getting fancy 
forms of aspic. (See illustration facing page 328.) 
TO CHOP JELLY 

Place the jelly on a cold plate, and with a knife cut it very 
slowly until it is of the right size. The chopped jelly is used to 
cover the top of meats, or to place like a wreath around it on 
the dish. It may be either fine or coarse, but each piece should 

I be separate and distinct, and can be kept so if cut slowly in a 

I cool place, and not allowed to become warm. 

I TO MOLD JELLY 

I (see illustrations) 

Where the mold is to be only coated with jelly, first paste a 
piece of paper over the top of the mold; when it is firm, cut an 



k 



324 THE CENTUEY COOK BOOK 

opening in the paper, and pour in some cold, but liquid, jelly; and 
turn the mold on ice slowly, so that every part may be coated. 
Pour off any of the jelly that has not adhered to the sides; remove 
the paper, and lay in the material which is to fill the center of 
the mold. This method is employed where only a thin coating 
of jelly is required. Where it is to be an inch or more in thick' 
ness it is better to use a double mold as explained below. 

When molding jelly have a pan of cracked ice, and set the 
mold into it. The jelly will then quickly harden. The mold 
must be perfectly firm and upright, or the jelly will not stand 
straight when unmolded. Do not oil or grease a mold used for 
jelly. (See illustrations facing pages 326 and 386.) 

TO UNMOLD JELLY 

Dip the mold quickly into warm (not hot) water; wipe it 
dry, place the dish over the top of the mold, and turn them 
over together. If the jelly fails to slip out, rub the mold with a 
cloth wrung out of hot water. It takes only a low degree of 
heat to melt jeUy, and if too much is used the fine points and 
edges will be destroyed. Do not unmold jeUy until it is time 
to serve it. Do not shake the mold in trying to get it free, 
or the jelly is liable to break. 

TO OBNAMENT MOLDS 

Lay whatever fancy pieces are used for the decoration care- 
fully in place on the bottom of the mold. With a spoon add 
only enough jelly to moisten them; if too much is used, the pieces 
will float out of place. Let the jeUy harden and fix the deco- 
ration; then add as much as will make a layer one half inch 
thick; let that set; then place the material which is to fill the 
center. If it is a bird, or anything in one piece, add a little 
jelly to fix it in place; then fill up the mold. If the material iai 
a soft substance, set in the double mold (see below) ; or, if one 
is not at hand, add a few spoonfuls at a time of the filling, 
leaving a space of one half an inch around the sides, and fill 
this with jelly. Proceed in this way until the mold is full. 




DAISY DESIGN FOK ASPIC JELLY FORMS. (SEE PAGE 326.) 



1. Yolk of hard-boiled egg. 

2. White of hard-boiled egg. 



3. Parsley leaves. 

4. Parsley stems. 



SLICE OF WHITE OF HARD-BOILED EGG CUT INTO PETALS. 




BERRY DESIGN FOR ASPIC. (SEE PAGE 326.) 



1. Capers. 



3. Parsley stems. 



2. Parsley or water-cress. 



ASPIC JELLY, FANCY MOLDING, SUPPORTS 325 

having the top covered with jelly, so that when unmolded it 
will form a complete case. If ornament is used on the sides of 
the mold, arrange the decoration when the mold is filled to the 
right height, dip the pieces in jelly to make them adhere, and 
cover them very slowly at first, so they will not float off. When 
the filling is to be in alternate layers with jelly, proceed in the 
same way, adding one Jayer at a time, and letting each one 
harden before the next is placed. The mold should not be 
moved while being filled; one layer should not become too 
hard before the next one is added, and no dampness must set- 
tle on them. Any of these causes will make the jelly liable to 
separate when unmolded. If the mold is placed on ice, as di- 
rected, the jelly hardens quickly, and the flUing is soon accom- 
plished. 

DOUBLE MOLDS 

For salads, and also in many cases for sweet jellies, it is easier 
to use a double mold. If one is not at hand two Charlotte 
Russe molds may be substituted, or any two molds or tins of 
the same shape, one of which is an inch smaller than the 
other. Place the larger one on ice, and pour into it enough 
jelly to make a layer on the bottom the same thickness as the 
width of space between the two molds. When it is set, place 
the smaller mold, filled with ice, on it; and fill the space be- 
tween the two with jelly. When that has set, remove with 
a spoon the ice from the small mold, and pour in carefully a 
little warm water. It can then be easily lifted out. Be careful 
not to have the water too warm. Fill the space left by the 
small mold with the material to be used, leaving a space on top 
to cover with jelly — to encase it. Another way of molding 
jellies double, besides using the double mold and the method 
given above in ornamenting molds, is to fill the mold en- 
tirely with jelly, and when it has hardened, scoop out with a 
teaspoon, heated in hot water and wiped dry, enough of the 
center to give the space desired. This has to be done very care- 
fully, as there is danger of the sides falling in. (See page 386.) 



326 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

DECORATIONS FOR MEAT JELLY 

DAISY DESIGN 

Cut a hard-boiled egg into slices one eighth of an inch thick. 
With a pastry-bag tube or a small round vegetable-cutter 
stamp circles from the yolk. Cut the white strips diagonally, 
so they form diamond-shaped pieces. Lay a round piece of 
yolk in the mold, and the white pieces around it to simulate 
a daisy; place small pieces of parsley beside it, and use the 
stem of parsley for the stem of the daisy. This decoration fits 
very well in a Charlotte Russe mold, or in individual molds. 
Make two or three daisies on the large mold, only one on the 
small ones. 

BERRY DESIGN 

Use capers, grouped like berries, along the stem. Use water- 
cress for leaves and parsley for stems. This design, being dark, 
looks well in chicken or veal jelly. 

TO DECORATE WITH TRUFFLES 

Slice the truffles very thin ; stamp them into any form de- 
sired. Take each piece on a long pin, and place it in a well- 
buttered mold; or for jelly molds dip them in cold jelly, and 
they will then adhere to the sides of the mold. Arrange the 
pieces symmetrically in any design. If the truffle is cut in 
strips, make geometrical forms. Some dishes may be orna- 
mented after they are unmolded by dipping the pieces of truf- 
fle in cold but liquid jelly, and then applying them. The lat- 
ter is the method used for chaudfroid dishes, which are usually 
much ornamented. (See illustration facing page 320.) 

Green peas, carrots, beets, pickles, string-beans, radishes, 
parsley, etc., in combinations, can be made into various designs. 

SOCLES 

Socles are stands on which to raise birds, chops, or other ar- 
ticles above the dish to give them a better appearance, and allow 
more garnishing. They are also used as supports against whicljj 




1. SMALL MOLDS TOR ASPIC. 2. MOLD WITH PAPER PASTED OVER THE TOP FOR 
COATING THE MOLD. (SEE PAGE 323.) 




SLICES OF TONGUE IX ASPK (KX BELLEVUE). (SEE PAGE 83.) 

DECORATED WITH HARD-BOILED EGG IN DAISY DESIGN. (SEE PAGE 326.) 

DISH GARNISHED WITH OLIVES CUT IN HALVES. 




BONED BIRDS IN ASPIC AROUND SOCLE. 

The boned birds are molded in fluted individual molds and decorated with hard- 
boiled egg in daisy design as directed on page 326. Dish garnished with parsley. 



ASPIC JELLY, FANCY MOLDING, SUPPORTS 327 

to rest larger pieces of meat, fish, tongue, etc., to keep them in 
place. Elaborate socles of various shapes are made of tallow 
by caterers, but these are not practicable for ordinary cooks to 
undertake, and they are also in questionable taste. The simple 
supports given below are easily made, and well repay the 
trouble, especially for cold dishes. They should be stuck to 
the dish with white of eggy so they will be firm. The simplest 
way of making a socle is to take a loaf of stale bread, remove the 
crust, and cut the crumb to the desired shape. Then spread it 
with butter, and cover it with parsley chopped very fine. If to 
be used for a hot dish, immerse the bread in hot fat until it 
takes a golden brown. Another simple socle can be made of 
hominy. Fill a well-buttered cake-tin or plain mold with 
boiled hominy. When cold it will retain the form of the mold. 
If desired, the sides of the mold can be ornamented with vege- 
tables of different colors cut into fancy shapes. (See picture.) 

RICE SOCLE OR CASSEROLE 

Boil rice with three times its quantity of water, and a little 
butter, until it is very soft ; then mash or pound it in a mortar 
until it becomes a smooth, elastic paste. Press the paste into a 
plain buttered mold or pan of the size desired for the socle, and 
place a weight on it so it will be compact and firm when cold. 
Unmold, and with a pointed knife, a turnip cut wedge-shape, 
and a butter-stamp, mold the sides to fancy form. Brush it 
over with yolk of egg, and place a moment in the oven to 
brown ; or it may be ornamented the same as the hominy sup- 
ports, with vegetables cut into fancy shapes. (See illustrations.) 
If wanted for a casserole, scoop out carefully a hollow in the 
center, and fill with chicken or any creamed meat, or with 
vegetables. 

POTATO CASSEROLE 

To a quart of seasoned mashed potato add four or six egg 
yolks. Stir it over the fire to dry it well ,• then with the hands or 
a knife mold it into a hollow cylinder or into a cup-shaped form j 



328 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

brush it over with yolk of egg, and place it a moment in the 
oven to brown. Fill the center just before serving with any- 
minced meat, or with birds, chops, sweetbreads, or any creamed 
dish. The casserole may also be formed by pressing the potato 
into a mold which opens (see illustration), or any mold with 
fluted or plain sides, which, when buttered, will let the potato 
slip out 5 then egg and brown as before. 

A POTATO SUPPORT FOR HOT MEATS 

Add slowly to two cupfuls of well-mashed sweet or white 
potato, beating all the time over the fire, one cupful of hot 
milk, a tablespoonful of butter, one quarter of a teaspoonful of 
pepper, a teaspoonful of salt, and lastly, three beaten eggs. 
Butter well a plain mold of the shape desired ; sprinkle over it 
as many bread-crumbs as will stick to the butter; turn in the 
puree of potatoes, place the mold in a pan of water, and bake 
for thirty minutes. Turn the molded potato in the centre of 
a dish, and arrange chops or birds around and against it. 

CROUSTADES OP BREAD 

Take a loaf of bread two days old, which was baked in a 
round or a square tin ; pare off the crust, and cai-ve it with a 
sharp-pointed knife into vase or cup-shape. Fry it in hot fat 
to gold color. Paint the inside with white of egg to prevent its 
soaking np the sauce of the filling. Fill with mushrooms, 
chicken livers, creamed chicken or any salpicon. Do not put 
the filling in until ready to serve, and heat the croustade before 
adding it. 

ROLL CROUSTADES 

Cut off the tops of rolls, or of home-made biscuits of any size. 
Remove the crumb from the inside; butter the rolls inside and 
out, and set in the oven to brown. Fill with any creamed 
meat or salpicon. 




BONED BIRDS IN ASPIC, THE SAME AS PRECEDING CUT, SERVED ON FLAT DISH 
AND GARNISHED WITH PARSLEY. 




PATE DE FOIE GRAS EN BELLEVUE. SLICES OF PATE ALTERNATING WITH ASPIC 
— MOLDED IN INDIVIDUAL TIMBALE MOLDS. FORMS STANDING ON BICE SOCLE 
DECORATED WITH TONGUE AND PICKLE — GARNISHED WITH BUNCH OP RED 
CARNATIONS. 




V2^ 



fOOOiOi 



ASPIC CUT INTO ORNAMENTAL SHAPES FOR GARNISHING COLD DISHES. 



i 



Chapter XIV 

CHAFINa-DISH EECEIPTS 

CHAFING-DISH COOKING 

The chafing-dish, although a time-honored utensil, 
has recently had a renaissance. To-day it is not more 
valued for the convenience than for the fun of it. 
Amateurs and epicures alike find pleasure in brewing 
and stewing over the alcohol lampj in preparing a 
luncheon dish, or a novelty for ^^tea;" but, best of 
all, at the midnight hour the chafing-dish does its best 
though most disastrous service, for matutinal head- 
aches have been called the desserts, and just deserts 
of late suppers. 

The chafing-dish with double pan (the lower one ^^^. 
to hold hot water) is the preferable one, because dishes dish to use. 
may be kept warm in the hot water, and also because 
articles cooked with milk are liable to burn if cooked 
directly over the flame. 

For safety from fire and staining, the chafing-dish 
should stand on a large metal tray, and the lamp 
should not be filled too full. Wood alcohol, which is 
much cheaper than high-proof spirits, answers just as 
well the purpose of heating, but has an unpleasant odor. 

The various articles to be used in the preparation Kuggian 
of the dish should be put into Russian bowls, and the bowls, 
bowls placed on a Japanese tray. These bowls are 
of wood, and are made of all sizes. They do not 
break, they make no noise, and are ornamental : the 



330 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

last is a consideration whicli recommends them, other 
things being equal, where fancy work is being done. 
The preliminary preparation of the foods should be 
done in the kitchen, rather than before the party as- 
sembled to assist in the cooking operation with their 
advice, praise, and appetite. 
Wooden spoons, which come in all sizes, are also 
^ , desirable to use, as they do not become hot, do not 
spoons, scratch the dish, and are noiseless. Articles prepared 
in the chafing-dish are served directly from it, there- 
fore garnishing has no part, but toast or croutons go 
well with most of the preparations, and these can be 
toasted or reheated on an asbestos pad placed over 
the flame. The water-pan containing hot water should 
be placed under the cooking-pan as soon as the flame 
is extinguished. It will keep the dish warm, and 
serve as a bain-marie (the utensil employed in large 
kitchens for keeping dishes hot until time for serv- 
ing). Two chafing-dishes are almost a requisite where 
no other fire than the lamp is to be called upon, but 
with this hatterie de cuisine a supper can be easily 
and quickly prepared without one half of it spoiling 
while the other half is being made ready — the toast 
and hot water, for instance. 
Dishes The dishes most suitable for chafing-dish cooking 

f^*haf ^^^ stews, eggs, and cheese. Stews can be modified 
ing-dish. in a great variety of ways, the barbecue being a 
favorite one. The simplest way of cooking in a chafing- 
dish is to put a little butter in the dish, and when it 
bubbles add oysters, mushrooms or any article which 
makes its own liquor; this lacking, a little water or 
milk is added, and seasoning to taste. 

Canned chicken, tongue, salmon, crabs, and shrimps 
make good dishes and are easily prepared. Paprica, 
a kind of red pepper, is especially good for use in 
chafing-dish cookery instead of cayenne. 



m 



CHAFING-DISH RECEIPTS 331 

PANNED OYSTERS 

For twenty-five oysters, put in a chafing-disli one table- 
spoonful of butter. When it is melted, add the juice of half a 
lemon and one teaspoonful of chopped parsley. Then add the 
oysters, which should be well drained. Cook, stirring carefully, 
until they are plump and the gills a little frilled — no longer. 
Season with salt and pepper, and serve at once on toast. The 
oysters exude enough juice to soften the toast. Or let the 
butter brown in the chafing-dish, then add the oysters and 
cook until plump or the gills are curled. Then add a wine- 
glassful of sherry or Madeira. Season with salt and pepper 
and serve at once. When wine is used, omit the lemon and 
parsley, and do not season until after the wine is added, as wine 
augments the flavor of salt. Have ready some toasted bread 
and pour the oysters over it j or cut the toast into smaU squares, 
stir them into the oysters and serve directly from the chafing- 
dish. 

OYSTER STEW 

Put a tablespoonf ul of butter in the chafing-dish j add a heap- 
ing tablespoonful of flour, and cook a few minutes, stirring all 
the time so it will not color. Add a cupful of milk slowly and 
stir until it begins to thicken ; then add the oyster liquor (have 
the liquor strained so it will be free from pieces of shell), and 
lastly the oysters; season with salt and pepper and a little 
celery salt if liked. As soon as the edges of the oysters curl 
they are done, and the cooking must be arrested, or they will 
become tough. 

CREAMED OYSTERS AND CLAHS 

See receipt for creamed clams (page 135). This receipt can 
easily be prepared in the chafing-dish. Also oysters a la Pou- 
lette given on page 133. 

BARBECUE OF FISH 

Marinate one pound of any cold boiled white fish in one 
tablespoonful of oil, one tablespoonful of vinegar, one slice of 



332 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

onion, pepper and salt. Leave tlie fish in as large pieces as 
possible. Put. in a chafing-dish three tablespoonfuls of tomato 
catsup, three tablespoonfuls of sherry, three tablespoonfuls of 
butter. Put the butter in first, and when melted add the catsup 
and wine and then the fish. Baste the fish with the liquor until 
it is thoroughly heated, and it is then ready to serve. Thin slices 
of cooked cold beef, veal, or ham may also be cooked in this way. 

EGGS WITH TOMATOES 

Put into the chafing-dish a cupful of canned tomatoes, and 
cook until they begin to soften; then season with one table- 
spoonful of butter, salt and pepper to taste. Add two beaten 
eggs, and stir constantly until they begin to thicken. Then 
extinguish the flame, and the heat of the dish will be sufficient 
to complete the cooking. Stir constantly until they are of the 
consistency of scrambled eggs. Serve at once, or they will 
separate. 

TOMATOES AND RICE 

Put into a chafing-dish a half cupful of tomatoes j add a bay- 
leaf, a few drops of onion-juice, pepper and salt to taste. Let 
them cook until tender, then remove the bay-leaf and stir in 
as much boiled rice as can be well coated and moistened with 
the tomatoes. Serve with cracker biscuits. 

CEEAMED DISHES 

(eggs, chicken, OR veal) 
Use the double pan with water. Make a white sauce by put- 
ting in the chafing-dish one tablespoonful of butter; let it 
bubble, then stir in one tablespoonful of flour ; let it cook a few 
minutes, but not brown ; then add a cupful of milk slowly, stir- 
ring all the time until it is a little thickened. Season with pep- 
per and salt. Lay in carefully thick slices of hard-boiled egg. 
As soon as they are heated, place them on slices of toast soft- 
ened with hot water, and pour the thickened sauce over them. 
For chicken or meat, season the sauce with a few drops of 



f 



CHAFING-DISH RECEIPTS 333 

onion-juice, a little chopped celery if convenient, salt, pepper, 
and paprica. Have the chicken in good-sized pieces, or meat 
in thin slices, and leave them in the sauce only long enough to 
become well heated; canned chicken or turkey may be used. 
Any kind of meat can be minced and used in this waj^, in which 
case the sauce should be made with half milk and half stock. 
If stock is not at hand extract of beef (one teaspoonful to a 
cupful of boiling water) may be substituted. With chicken or 
oysters, the yolk of an egg is added just before it is removed, 
which makes it " h la poulette." 

DISHES A LA NEWBURG 

These are favorite chafing-dish preparations, and may be 
made of lobster, crabs, shrimps, soft-shelled clams, chicken, or 
cold boiled halibut. Lobster : Take the meat of one boiled lob- 
ster, put it in a chafing-dish with a tablespoonful of butter, a 
teaspoonful of salt, a dash of cayenne or of paprica. Stir lightly 
with a fork for three minutes, or until the lobster is well heated ; 
then add a wineglassful of sherry or of Madeira; cook for an- 
other three minutes, and then add the beaten yolks of three 
eggs, diluted with a half pint of cream. Stir the mixture con- 
stantly for a minute, or just long enough to set the egg. If 
cooked too long it will curdle; serve at once. Prepare the 
dishes h la Newburg with a double pan. For soft-shell clams 
use only the soft half of the clam. For chicken use the white 
meat cut into inch squares. For halibut leave the pieces large, 
and break them as little as possible. 

TERRAPIN 

The prepared terrapin which comes in cans is the best for 
the chafing-dish, and needs only to be heated and seasoned to 
taste. 

CHICKEN LIVERS WITH MADEIRA 

Put a tablespoonful of butter in the chafing-dish; add the 
livers cut into pieces ; cook them directly over the flame, turn- 



334 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

ing them constantly, and dredge them while cooking with a 
tablespoonful of flour. It will take about five minutes to cook 
them J add a cupful of stock, and a few drops of kitchen bou- 
quet. Then place the pan in the double pan containing water 
already hot j add to the livers a half cupful of Madeira and a 
few stoned olives ; season with salt, pepper, and paprica after 
the wine is in j cover and let it simmer for ten minutes. Serve 
with croutons. 

CKAB TOAST 

Put into the chafing-dish a tablespoonful of butter ; when it 
is melted, add a tablespoonful of chopped celery, a teaspoonful 
of flour, a half cupful of cream or milk, and a canful of crab 
meat. Stir until the moisture is nearly evaporated ; add a ta- 
blespoonful of sherry, salt and pepper, and paprica to taste j 
spread on toasted biscuits, or on thin slices of toast. 

SMELTS A LA TOULOUSE 

12 smelts. 1 tablespoonful of butter. 

J cupful of white wine. 1 tablespoonful of flour. 

3 tablespoonfuls of liquor 1 dozen canned mushrooms, 

from the mushroom-can. 1 trufOle. 

Cut down the back of the smelts, and remove the bone j close 
the fish, and lay them in the chafing-dish with the wine and 
mushroom liquor taken from the can. Cook until done, which 
will take five or six minutes. Remove and place the smelts on 
a hot dish. Mix with the liquor in which they were boiled one 
cupful of stock ; rub together the butter and flour, and stir this 
in also, leaving it on the spoon until by stirring it is dissolved. 
(This method prevents its getting lumpy.) Then add the 
chopped mushrooms and chopped truffle. Season with salt and 
paprica or a dash of cayenne. Cook, stirring all the time until 
the sauce is creamy; then pour it over the fish. Serve with 
croutons. 

This is a good supper dish. 



CHAFING-DISH RECEIPTS 335 

MEATS 

VENISON 

Put a tablespoonf ul of butter in a chafing-dish. When it is 
very hot, lay in a piece of venison steak j let it cook a minute 
on both sides. Use spoons for turning the meat, so as not to 
pierce it. When the surfaces are seared, add a glassful of cur- 
rant jelly, and baste the venison constantly with the liquid jelly 
until cooked rare. Extinguish the flame, and cut and serve the 
meat from the chafing-dish. 

MUTTON 

Lay a slice of mutton cut from the leg into a hot chafing- 
dish J turn it constantly, using two spoons, until it is cooked 
rare. Extinguish the flame, and cover the meat with a maitre 
d' hotel sauce (page 286). If preferred, spread it with currant 
jelly or with plum sauce j or prepare it the same as venison, 
with a little butter, and, instead of jelly, add a half canful of 
tomatoes, and finish the cooking in the same way. Season with 
a little onion-juice, pepper, and salt. 

BEEF 

A small steak can be pan-broiled in the same way. For beef 
a maitre d'hdtel sauce must be used. A Delmonico steak or a 
small porterhouse steak, with the bones removed, are the best 
cuts to use. 

Any meat cooked in the chafing-dish should have all the fat 
trimmed off, so that there will be less odor. 

WELSH EAREBIT AND GOLDEN BUCK 

Receipts for Welsh Rarebit and Golden Buck are given on 
pages 371 and 372. 

FONDUE 

BRILLAT-SAVARIN 

Savarin gives this receipt, which he says is taken from the 
papers of a Swiss bailiff. He says : " It is a dish of Swiss ori- 



336 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

gin, is healthy, savory, appetizing, quickly made, and, more- 
over, is always ready to present to unexpected guests." 

He relates an anecdote of the sixteenth century of a M. de 
Madot, newly appointed Bishop of Belley, who at a feast given 
in honor of his arrival, mistaking the fondue for cream, eat it 
with a spoon instead of a fork. This caused so much comment 
that the next day no two people met who did not say : " Do you 
know how the new bishop eat his fondue last night ? " " Yes j 
he eat it with a spoon. I have it from an eye-witness." And 
soon the news spread over the diocese. 

RECEIPT 

"Weigh as many eggs as you have guests. Take one third 
their weight of G-ruy^re cheese, and one sixth their weight of 
butter. Beat the eggs well in a saucepan; add the cheese, 
grated, and the butter. Put the saucepan on the fire and stir 
until the mixture is soft and creamy ; then add salt, more or 
less, according to the age of the cheese, and a generous amount 
of pepper, which is one of the positive characters of the dish. 
Serve on a hot plate. Bring in the best wine, drink roundly of 
it, and you will see wonders." 

PINEAPPLE CANAPES 

Split in two some square sponge-cakes, which can be bought at 
the baker's for two cents each. Put a little butter in the chafing- 
dish. When it is hot put in the slices of cake, and brown them a 
little on both sides. Lay the slices on a plate, and spread each one 
with a layer of canned chopped pineapple. Turn the juice from 
the can into the chafing-dish. Moisten a teaspoonful of arrow- 
root with cold water, stir it slowly into the hot juice, and con- 
tinue to stir until it becomes thickened and clear. Pour the 
sauce over the slices of spread cake. If more than a cupful of 
juice is used, add more arrowroot in proportion. Any kind 
of fruit, and slices of sponge cake or of brioche, can be used 
instead of the square individual cakes. Strawberries, rasp- 
berries, or peaches make good sweet canap6s. 



CHAFING-DISH RECEIPTS 337 

CHOCOLATE MADE WITH CONDENSED MILK 

Fill the cups to be used about one third full of condensed milk ; 
add a heaping teaspoonful of instantaneous chocolate, which is 
chocolate ground to a fine powder. Mix them well together ; 
then fill the cup with boiling water, and stir until the chocolate 
and milk are dissolved. No sugar is needed, as the milk is 
sweetened to preserve it. 



i 



Chaptee XY 

BEEAD 

Yeast is a minute plant, and like other plants must 
have the right conditions of heat, moisture, and nour- 
ishment in order to live or to flourish. It will be 
killed if scalded, or if frozen, as any other plant would 
be J therefore, as we depend upon the growth of this 
little plant for raising our bread, we must give its 
The yeast requirements as much care as we do our geraniums 

plant. or our roses. The yeast plant takes its nourishment 
from sugar. This is found in flour. It converts this 
sugar into carbonic acid gas and alcohol, and the 
pressure of this gas causes the mixture in which it 
is generated to become inflated, or to "rise.^^ 

In mixing bread, we put the yeast into warm (not 
hot) water; this we mix with flour, thus supplying the 

Making moisture and nourishment required. We put this 

bread. mixture in a warm place to force the growth of the 
plant. When the dough has become sufficiently in- 
flated we put it into the oven and raise the heat to a 
degree which kills the plant and flxes the air cells, 
and our bread is done. 
In cities, where fresh compressed yeast can be ob- 

Yeast. tained, it is not worth while to prepare one's own. 
Where this cannot be had, the dry yeast-cakes often 
give satisfactory results, but are not as reliable as a 
liquid yeast, which in the country it is often necessai 
as well as desirable to make. 




FORMS OF GKOWTH OF THE YEAST PLANT. 




BREAD AND ROLL TINS. 



BREAD 339 

DICK BENNET'S RECEIPT FOR YEAST 

Peel nine good-sized potatoes, and boil them with a large 
handful of loose hops tied in a thin muslin bag. Use enough 
water to cover them well. When the potatoes are tender strain 
off the water. Mash the potatoes, return them to the water 
in which they were boiled, and mix them well together. Add 
two tablespoonfuls of flour, one half cupful of granulated 
sugar, and one tablespoonf ul of salt. Cook it for a few minutes, 
adding sufficient flour to make a thin batter. Set it aside until 
lukewarm ; then add a yeast-cake, or a cupful of liquid yeast. 
Mix it well and place in a stone jar. Let it stand for twelve 
hours in a warm place. Stir it three times during this period. 
Place a weight on the lid of the jar, and set it in a cool place. 



TEAST RECEIPT No. 2 

6 grated raw potatoes. J cupful of salt. 

1 cupful of brown sugar. 2 quarts of flour. 

Mix these together, and add enough water to make a batter 
as thick as that used for griddle cakes. 

Pour two quarts of boiling water on as many hops as one 
can hold in the hand. Let them boil for five minutes. Strain 
off the water, and while hot add it to the batter. When it is 
lukewarm add a cupful of yeast, or a yeast cake. Let it stand 
several hours in a warm place until it rises, or the top is cov- 
ered with bubbles. Then place in glass preserve jars, and keep 
in a cool place. Use a granite-ware saucepan and a wooden 
spoon when making yeast, in order to keep a good color. 



WHAT TO DO WHEN YEAST IS NOT OBTAINABLE TO 
START THE FERMENTATION IN MAKING YEAST 

Mix a thin batter of flour and water, and let it stand in a 
warm place until it is full of bubbles. This ferment has only 
half the strength of yeast, so double the amount must be used. 



340 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

PROPORTIONS OF RAISING MATERIALS TO USE, 
AND OTHER ITEMS 

One cake of compressed yeast is equal to oue cupful of liquid 
yeast. 

Baking-powder is a mixture of soda, cream of tartar, and corn- 
starch, or rice flour. 

Use one level teaspoonf ul of baking-powder to each cupful of 
flour. 

Use one even teaspoonful of soda and two full teaspoonfuls 
of cream of tartar to a quart of floui\ 

When sour milk is used, take one even teaspoonful of soda 
to a pint of milk, and omit the cream of tai*tar. 

When molasses is used, omit the cream of tartar, and use one 
teaspoonful of soda to each cupful of molasses. 

Mix powders with the flour, and sift them together, so as to 
thoroughly mix them. 

Mix dry materials in one bowl and liquids in another; com- 
bine them quickly, and put at once into the oven. 

The oven for baking bread should be hot enough to brown a 
teaspoonful of flour in five minutes. For biscuits it should 
brown in one minute. 

Rolls brushed with milk just before baking will have a brown 
crust. 

Rubbing the crust with butter just before it is taken from 
the oven will make it crisp. 



GENERAL DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING BREAD 

Bread is often mixed the night before it is to be 

baked, and left to rise from eight to ten hours ; but 

the whole process of bread-making, from the mixing 

Time re- to the serving, can be done in two and a half hours if 

^^Mn? sufficient yeast is used. In hot weather it is desirable 

bread, to complete the work in a short time, in order toi 

prevent fermentation or souring, which occurs if left' 



BEEAD 



341 



Baiffing 
the bread. 



too long a time. Four hours and a half is ample 
time for the whole process, using the ordinary amount 
of yeast; two hours for the mixing and rising of 
the sponge or dough j one half hour for the knead- 
ing and molding; one hour for the loaves to rise in 
the pans, and one hour for the baking. 

A thin batter called a sponge may be made at night, 
and the rest of the flour added in the morning, or the 
dough may be mixed and kneaded at night and only 
molded into loaves in the morning ; but a better way, 
especially in summer, is to set the bread early in the 
morning and have it baked by noon. It needs to rise 
twice, once either in the sponge or in the dough, and 
again after it is molded into loaves. The old way of 
letting it rise three times is unnecessary, and increases 
the danger of souring. If the dough gets very light 
before one is ready to work it, it should be cut away 
from the sides of the pan and pressed down in the 
center with the knife. This liberates some of the gas 
and retards the fermentation. This can be done sev- 
eral times. If it rises too high it will collapse, which 
means souring, but before that it loses its best flavor, 
and so should not be allowed to more than double its 
bulk. 

The proportions of flour, liquid, and yeast cannot 
be exactly given, as flour of different qualities and 
degrees of dryness wiU absorb more or less liquid, 
and the amount of yeast to be used depends both materials 
upon the time allowed and the temperature. 

Two cupfuls of liquid will take six to seven cupfuls 
of sifted flour, and this will make two small loaves. 
Oq8 half a compressed yeast cake will raise this 
amount in two hours if kept in a warm place. The 
other ingredients for this quantity are one teaspoonful 
of salt, one tablespoonf ul of sugar, and one tablespoon- 
ful of butter, lard, or cottolene, if shortening is desired. 



Propor- 
tions of 



342 



THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 



Miziiisr. 



sponge. 



The crast 
on dough. 



Kneading 
and mold- 
ing. 



Bread made with milk instead of water, and with 
shortening, is more tender than when water alone is 
irsed. Boiled potatoes are sometimes added, and give 
a more moist bread. 

Dissolve the yeast in a part of the tepid water; in 
the rest of the water mix the salt, sugar, and butter, 
add the dissolved yeast, and then stir in enough flour 
to make a soft dough which will not stick to the 
hands. If the flour is cold warm it. If milk is used, 
scald it, then allow it to become tepid before mixing 
it with the yeast. Place the pan in a warm place 
free from draughts. When the dough is to be made 
into rolls or fancy forms, it needs to be a little stiffer 
than for loaves. 

A sponge is a thin batter made by mixing only a 
little flour with the other ingredients. This is left to 
stand until filled with large bubbles. The rest of 
the flour is then added, to make the dough. 

When bread is to be made in a short time, it is 
better to set a sponge instead of making a dough at 
first ; for in this way the second rising will be a little 
quicker. 

When a dough is mixed and set aside to rise, 
cover the pan with several thicknesses of cloth to 
exclude the air and so prevent a crust forming on 
the top. It helps also to keep the dough at an even 
temperature. If a crust forms it is difficult to mix it 
in so thoroughly that it does not leave hard spots and 
lines in the bread. There is a bread-pan made with 
close-fitting cover, which is recommended. 

When the dough is made, it should be kneaded for 
twenty to thirty minutes. Turn it from the pan on- 
to a board, and work it by drawing it forward with 
the fingers and pushing it away with the balls of the 
hands, turning it all the time. This stretches the 
gluten and changes it from a sticky paste to a smooth, 



BREAD 343 

elastic substance. Use as little flour on the board as 
possible, and work it until it no longer sticks. The 
more it is worked the finer will be the grain, and the 
less flour used the better will be the bread. 

When dough is made at the first mixing, return it 
to the pan after it is kneaded and let it rise to double 
its size (not more), and then work it down, mold it 
into loaves, and let it rise a second time in the baking- 
pans. When a sponge is made, knead the dough when 
the flour is added to the sponge, and put it at once Baking, 
into the baking-pans. 

Divide the dough evenly and shape it to the pans 
as well as possible, filling the pans only half full. 
Cover and set them in a warm place free from 
draughts. When they have doubled (not more) in 
size, put them in the oven. The loaf rises a little 
more in the oven. If it is too light, it is likely to fall, 
which means it has soured, and for this there is no 
remedy. The loaf in the pan should rise in one hour. 

Care in baking is even more essential than care in 
mixing and raising the bread. Test the oven by put- 
ting in a teaspoonful of flour. If it browns the flour 
in five minutes the heat is right. Have the fire pre- The fire, 
pared so it will not need replenishing during the hour 
required for the baking. The bread rises after it 
goes in the oven, and is likely to rise unevenly if the 
oven is hotter on one side than the other j therefore 
it should be watched and turned carefully if neces- 
sary. At the end of ten to fifteen minutes the top 
should be browned, and this will arrest the rising. If 
the oven is too cool, the bread is likely to rise so 
much as to run over the pan, or to have a hole in the 
center. If the oven is too hot it will make a crust Time, 
too soon, the centre be underdone, and the crust be 
too thick. One hour is the time required for baking 
the ordinary sized loaf. 



344 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

When the bread is taken from the oven turn it out 
of the pans and support the loaves in such a way that 
the air will reach all sides. If the loaves stand flat 
brea^after the bottom crust will become moist. If wrapped in 
it is baked, cloth it will do the same and give a soft crust, which, 
however, some prefer to have. It should not be put 
in the bread-box until entirely cold. 

For baking rolls the rule is different from that for 

BakinK bread. Rolls should rise, to be very light, more than 

bread rolls, double their original size, and the oven be hot enough 

to form a crust at once. It should brown flour in one 

minute and bake the rolls in fifteen to twenty minutes. 

The ordinary white flour of best quality is nearly 

Flour, all starch, the nourishing parts of the wheat having 

been mostly all removed by the bolting to make it 

white. The whole wheat flour makes a much more 

nourishing and health-giving bread, and when the 

habit of eating it is once formed, bread made of the 

white flour is no longer liked. 

There is a variety of bread-pans giving loaves of 
different shapes to be used for different purposes. 
Besides the square tin which gives the ordinary square 
loaf, there is a sheet iron rounded pan open at the 
Pans. ends. The dough for this pan is made into a long 
roll a little thicker in the middle than at the ends. 
It gives the shape of the Vienna loaf. After the 
bread has risen cut it across the top in three diagonal 
slashes with a sharp knife ; when it is nearly baked 
brush over the top with a thin boiled cornstarch, and 
it will further resemble the Vienna loaf. For dinner 
bread, there is a pan a foot long of two flutes, about 
two inches each across and open at the endsj for this 
roU the dough long and round, or make two smaller 
rolls and twist them together; bake in a Lot oven 
like biscuits. This gives a long, round crusty loaf 
like the French bread. A pan of small flutes is used 



BREAD 345 

for dinner sticks or finger rolls, giving a pencil of 
bread three quarters of an inch thick and five inches Different 
long. Bread made in different shapes gives a pleasant ^yariety!' 
variety and often seems like a different article when 
baked so as to give more or less crust. 



WATER BREAD No. 1 

(TWO SMALL LOAVES) 

2 cupfuls of tepid water. J compressed yeast cake. 
1 teaspoonful of salt. 6 to 7 cupfuls of flour. 

For mixing, kneading, and baking, see general directions 
given at head of chapter. 

WATER BREAD No. 2 

(two small loaves) 

2 cupfuls of tepid water. 1 tablespoonful of sugar. 

i cake of compressed yeast. 1 tablespoonful of butter, 

1 teaspoonful of salt. lard, drippings, or cotto- 

6 to 7 cupfuls of flour. lene. 

For mixing, kneading, and baking, see general directions 
given at head of chapter. 

MILK BREAD 

Make the same as Water Bread No. 2, but use milk in place 
of the water, or use half milk and half water. 

POTATO BREAD 

Add one medium-sized mashed boiled potato to the sponge of 
any of the foregoing receipts. Potato gives a more moist 
bread, which retains its freshness longer. 



346 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

RECEIPT FOR ONE LOAF OF BREAD OR ONE PAN OF 
BISCUITS TO BE MADE IN TWO HOURS 

1 cupful of scalded milk. 1 tablespoonful of sugar. 

J cupful of butter. J teaspoonful of salt. 

3 yeast cakes. White of one egg, 

3 to 4 cupf uls of flour. 

Make a sponge ; let it stand in a warm place in a pan of warm 
water until full of bubbles ; then add the flour, knead it for 
twenty minutes, mold into loaf, and let it rise in the baking- 
pan until double in size, and bake. 

BREAD MADE WITH BAKING-POWDER 

Add to four quarts of flour a teaspoonful of salt and six tea- 
spoonfuls of baking-powder. Sift them three times so as to 
thoroughly mix them, and then add slowly a quart of cold 
water, or enough to make a dough of the right consistency. 
Mold it quickly into four loaves, and put at once into a moder- 
ate oven for one and a quarter hours. 

BREAD MADE OF WHOLE WHEAT FLOUR 

Dissolve a yeast cake in two tablespoonf uls of tepid water. 
Put into a bowl a pint of milk; add to it a pint of boiling 
water, and let it stand until it is lukewarm ; then add the dis- 
solved yeast, a teaspoonful of salt, and enough whole wheat 
flour to make a thick batter. The batter should drop, but not 
run off the spoon. Beat this batter with a spoon for fifteen 
minutes. It becomes quite soft and liquid by beating. Add 
enough more flour to make a dough ; turn it onto the board and 
knead it a few minutes j return it to pan, and let rise for three 
hours, or until light. Mold it into small loaves ; let it rise 
again, and bake in moderate oven thirty to forty-five minutes. 

GRAHAM BREAD 

Dissolve a half teaspoonful of soda in a cupful of lukewarm 
water. Put a tablespoonful of butter into a tablespoonful and 



BREAD 347 

a half of molasses, and let them warm until the butter is melted. 
Add to it the dissolved soda and water, and a half teaspoonful 
of salt. Stir this mixture into a cupful of light white bread 
sponge, and add enough Graham flour to make a stiff batter, 
or very thin dough. Turn into a greased pan. Let it rise until 
even with the top of the pan, and bake in a moderate oven an 
hour or an hour and a quarter. Use a spoon, and not the 
hands, for mixing Graham flour. A little white flour may be 
mixed with the Graham flour if a lighter colored and dryer bread 
is preferred. 

GLUTEN BREAD 

Pour a pint of boiling water into a pint of milk ; add a tea- 
spoonful of butter and a teaspoonful of salt. Let it stand until 
it is lukewarm ; then add a well-beaten egg, a quarter of a yeast- 
cake dissolved, and enough gluten to make a soft batter. Cover 
and stand in a warm place to rise ; then add enough gluten to 
make a soft dough, and knead it well. Form it into four loaves, 
and let rise again. Bake for one hour. 

Gluten bread requires less yeast and less time to rise than 
ordinary bread. 

BOSTON BEOWN BREAD 

2 cupfuls of white commeal. 2 cupfuls of milk (one of 

2 cupfuls of yellow cornmeal. them being sour milk, if 

2 cupfuls of Graham flour or of convenient). 

rye meal or of white flour. 2 cupfuls of boiling water. 

1 cupful of molasses. 1 teaspoonful of salt. 

1 teaspoonful of soda. 

Mix well the flour, meal, and saltj add to them the boiling 
water. Mix the sweet milk and molasses together, and add 
them to the scalded meal. Dissolve the soda in the sour milk, 
and add it last. T^urn the mixture into a covered cylindrical mold 
or into a covered pail, and steam it for three hours j then un- 
cover and bake in the oven for half an hour. Slices of this 
bread toasted, buttered, and covered with cream make a good 
breakfast or luncheon dish. 



348 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

TOAST 

Cut the bread in even slices one quarter of an inch thick. 
Cut off the crust and trim the pieces into even and uniform 
shape. There is no waste in this, as the scraps of bread can be 
dried and crumbed. If the bread is fresh, let it dry a few min- 
utes in the oven. Place it on a wire toaster, and turn often un- 
til well dried through j then hold it over the coals a minute to 
take an even golden color. Toast requires careful watching, or 
it will burn or be unevenly colored. Toast should not be 
served until the moment it is required. A few pieces only 
should be served at a time, and the plate should be hot. If 
wrapped in a napkin, or piled up, it quickly becomes damp and 
loses its crispness. If a soft toast is wanted, color the bread at 
once without drying it; the center wUl then be only heated. 
Toast used under game or meats is made dry, buttered, and 
sprinkled with salt ; then softened with a little boiling water. 

MILK TOAST 

Make a dry toast ; spread it with butter, and sprinkle it with 
salt. Place it in the dish in which it is to be served, and pour 
over it a little boiling water ; cover it, and place in the oven a 
few minutes to steam and soak up the water. It should have 
enough water to entirely soften it, but not lose its shape. Put 
one teaspoonful of butter in a saucepan. When it bubbles, stir 
in a teaspoonful of flour, and let it cook a minute without 
coloring. Add slowly, stirring all the time, one cupful of milk. 
Cook until it is slightly thickened j add a saltspoonf ul of salt. 
Pour this thickened milk over the softened toast just before 
serving. Bread for milk toast should be cut in even slices one 
half inch thick, thoroughly dried in toasting, evenly colored, 
and steamed until tender. When cream is used, it is scalded 
and poured over the softened toast. 

PANADA 

Split Bent's water biscuits in twoj sprinkle salt or sugar I 
between them, and place together again; or, use two large l\ 



BREAD 349 

soda biscuits, or pilot bread, or Passover bread. Place them 
in the dish in which they will be served; pour over enough 
boiling water to cover them. Cover the dish, and place it in 
the open oven, or on the hot shelf, until the biscuits have be- 
come soft like jellyj pour off any water that has not been 
absorbed, using care not to break the biscuits. Sprinkle again 
with salt or sugar. A little cream or hot milk can be added if 
desired. 

PULLED BEEAD 

Break off irregular pieces of the crumb of fresh bread, and 
dry it in a very slow oven until lightly colored. The inside of 
fresh biscuits left over can be treated in this way, and will keep 
an indefinite time. They should be heated in the oven when 
served, and are good with chocolate, or coffee, or bouillon. The 
crusts of the biscuits may be used as cups for creamed meats 
or vegetables, or for eggs. 

ZWIEBACK 

Cut rusks into slices one half inch thick, and dry them in a 
very slow oven until dried through, and of a deep yellow color. 
Slices of Vienna bread can be used in the same way. 

BEEAD EEITTEES 

Take pieces of raised bread- do ugh the size of an egg, drop 
them into smoking hot fat, and fry to a cold color, the same as 
doughnuts. Drain and serve on a napkin for breakfast, or 
sprinkle them with powdered sugar and ground cinnamon 
mixed, and serve them for luncheon. 

BEEAD EOLLS 

For one panful of biscuits take as much raised bread-dough 
as will make one loaf of bread. Use any kind of bread-dough, 
but if no shortening has been used, add a tablespoonf ul of but- 
ter to this amount of dough. Add also more flour to make 
a stiff er dough than for bread. Work it for ten minutes so as 



350 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

to give it a finer grain. Cut it into pieces haK the size of an 
eggj roll them into balls, and place in a pan some distance 
apart. If enough space is given, each roll will be covered with 
crust, which is the best part of hot breads. If, however, the 
crumb is preferred, place them in the pan near enough to run 
together in rising. Let the biscuits rise to more than double 
size, and bake in a quick oven twenty to thirty minutes. 

When removed from the oven rub the crusts with a little 
butter, and wrap the rolls in a cloth until ready to serve. This 
will give a tender crust. If a deep color is liked, brush the rolls 
with milk or egg before placing them in the oven. A glaze 
is obtained by brushing them with sugar dissolved in milk 
when taken from the oven, then replacing them in the oven 
again for a moment to dry. 

CRESCENTS 

Add to bread-dough a little more sugar, and enough flour 
to make a stiff dough. Roll it to one eighth inch thickness. 
Cut it into strips six inches wide, and then into sharp triangles. 
Roll them up, commencing at the base; the point of the tri- 
angle will then come in the middle of the roll. Turn the points 
around into the shape of crescents. Place on tins to rise for 
half an hour, brush the tops with water, and bake until lightly 
colored. When taken from the oven brush the tops with thin 
boiled cornstarch water, and place again for a minute in the 
oven to glaze. 

BRAIDS AND TWISTS 

Take any bread- or biscuit- dough. Roll it one inch thick, 
and cut it into strips one inch wide. RoU the strips on the 
board to make them round. Brush the strips with butter. 
Braid or twist the strips together, making them pointed at the 
ends, and broad in the middle. Let them rise a little, but not 
so much as to lose shape, and bake in a quick oven. Glaze the 
tops the same as directed above for crescents. 



BREAD 361 

CLEFT ROLLS 

Make the dough into balls of the size desired. After the 
rolls have arisen cut each roll across the top with a sharp knife 
about an inch deep. If cut twice it makes a cross roll. Glaze 
the tops as directed for crescents, or brush them with milk and 
sugar. 

LUNCHEON AND TEA ROLLS 

2 quarts of flour. 1 teaspoonful of salt. 

3 cups of boiled milk. J cupful of butter. 
3 tablespoonfuls of sugar. Whites of 2 eggs. 

i yeast cake. 

Boil the milk, dissolve in it the sugar and salt, and add the 
butter to melt it. When this mixture becomes tepid, add the 
beaten whites of the eggs and the yeast, dissolved in two table- 
spoonfuls of water J then stir in the flour, and knead it for 
twenty to thirty minutes j cover it well, and put it aside in 
a warm place free from draughts to rise over night. If to 
be used for breakfast, mold the rolls to any shape desired j let 
them rise to more than double their size, and bake for thirty 
minutes. If they are to be used for luncheon, cut down with a 
knife the raised dough in the morning, and keep it in a cool 
place until an hour and a half before the time for serving the 
rolls ; then mold, raise, and bake them. If they are to be used 
for tea, do not set the dough until morning. In summer allow 
four and a haK hours for the whole work, the same as directed 
for bread on page 340. 

PARKER HOUSE ROLLS 

2 quarts of flour. 1 teaspoonful of salt. 

2 tablespoonfuls of butter, 1 pint of milk, 
or lard, or cottolene. J compressed yeast cake. 

i cupful of sugar (scant). 

Put the salt into the flour, and work in the shortening thor- 
oughly. Dissolve the yeast in one cupful of warm water. 
Scald the milk, and dissolve the sugar in it after it is taken off 



352 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

the fire. When the milk is lukewarm, mix the yeast with it. 
Make a hollow in the center of the flour, and pour into it the 
milk and yeast mixture. Sprinkle a little of the flour over the 
top. Cover the pan well, and leave it to rise. If this sponge is 
set at five o^clock, at ten o'clock stir the whole together thor- 
oughly with a spoon. Do not beat it, but stir it well, as it gets 
no other l^^ading. In the morning turn the dough onto a 
board, work it together a little, and roll it evenly one half inch 
thick. Lift the dough off the board a little to let it shrink 
all it will before cutting. Cut it into rounds with a good-sized 
biscuit-cutter. Place a small piece of butter on one side, and 
double the other side over" it, so the edges meet. Let them rise 
for two hours, and bake in a quick oven for twenty minutes. If 
the rolls are ^ be used for luncheon, cut down the dough in 
the njo^ning/sand keep it in a cool place until the time for mold- 
^g^them. If for tea, set the sponge in the morning, using one 
Imlf cake of compressed yeast.* 

TEA BISCUITS MADE WITH BAKING POWDER 

4 cupfuls of sifted flour. 1 teaspoonful of salt. 

3 teaspoonf uls of baking-powder. 1 tablespoonful of butter. 
Add the salt and baking-powder to the flour and sift them. 
Rub in the butter well. With a fork stir in lightly and quickly 
sufficient milk to make a soft dough. The dough must be only 
just stiff enough to roll. Flour the board well, turn the dough 
onto it, and lightly roll it to a half inch thickness. Cut it into 
small circles, brush the tops with milk, and bake in a quick oven 
for twenty to thirty minutes. 

BISCUITS MADE WITH SOUR MILK 

1 quart of flour. 1 tablespoonful of but- 

1 teaspoonful of soda. ter or lard. 

1 teaspoonful of salt. Milk. ' '' 

Mix the soda and the salt with the flour, and sift them several 1. 
times so they will be thoroughly mixed. Rub in the butter f; 

* Place tlie rolls far enougli apart in tlie pan to give room for thein to rise without 
running together. J, 



j^READ 353 



-ti 



evenly. Stir in lightil^ with a fork enough sour milk to make 
a dough just stiif enough to roll. The dough can be left very- 
soft if the board is well floured and the rolling-pin is used very 
lightly, patting the dough rather than rolling it. Roll it out 
quickly an inch thick. Cut it into small rounds. Bake in a 
quick oven twenty to thirty minutes. The dough can be rolled 
half an inch thick, and two rounds placed together with a 
small bit of butter between. They are then called twin biscuits. 
These biscuits may be made of sweet milk, in which case two 
rounding teaspoonf uls of cream of tartar must be used with the 
soda and mixed with the flour. 

CORN BEEAD No. 1 

2 cupfuls of flour. 3 teaspoonfuls of bak- 

IJ cupfuls of cornmeal (yel- ing powder. 

low or white). 1§ cupfuls of milk. 

i cupful of sugar. 1 tablespoonf ul of but- 

1 saltspoonf ul of salt. ter or lard melted. 

2 eggs. 
Mix the flour, meal, salt, and baking-powder together thor- 
oughly. Beat together the eggs and sugar ; add the butter, then 
the flour mixture, and lastly mix in quickly the milk and turn 
into a flat pan to bake. Sour milk can be used instead of sweet 
milk, in which case a teaspoonf ul of soda dissolved in a quarter 
of a cupful of hot water is used, and baking-powder is omitted. 

GOEN BEEAD No. 2 

1 cupful of fine cornmeal sifted. 1 tablespoonful of butter. 
li cupfuls of milk. 1 teaspoonf ul of baking- 

2 eggs. powder. 

1 teaspoonful of sugar. 
Scald the milk and pour it onto the sifted meal. Let it cool, 
then add the melted butter, salt, sugar, baking-powder, and 
yolks of the eggs. Stir it quickly and thoroughly together, 
and lastly fold in the whites of the eggs beaten to a stiff froth. 
Bake in a flat pan in a hot oven for thirty minutes. 



354 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK ; 

PUFFS OR POP-OVERS 

2 cupfuls of milk. 2 eggs (whites and yolks 

2 cupfuls of flour. beaten separately). 

1 teaspoonful of salt. 

Mix the salt with the flour. Mix the beaten yolks with the 
milk, and add them slowly to the flour to make a smooth batter. 
Lastly fold in the whipped whites. Put the batter at once into 
hot greased gem-pans, filling them half full, and put into a hot 
oven for thirty minutes. Serve at once, as they fall as soon as 
the heat is lost. 

GRAHAM GEMS 

2 cupfuls of Grraham flour. 2 eggs. 

1 cupful of milk. J teaspoonful of salt. 

1 cupful of water. 1 tablespoonf ul of sugar. 

Mix the dry ingredients together; beat the eggs separately. 
Mix the milk with the salt and sugar ; add the water, then the 
flour, and lastly fold in the whipped whites, and put at once 
into very hot greased gem-pans, filling them half full. Bake in 
a hot oven thirty minutes. 

CORN GEMS 

(MADE OF CORN FLOUR) 

2 eggs. 1 tablespoonf ul of butter. 
1 cupful of corn flour. 1 cupful of milk. 

4 cupful of white flour. 1 teaspoonful of salt. 

1 teaspoonful of baking-powder. 

Break the yolks of the eggs ; add to them milk, salt, and melted 
butter; mix them well together, then add the two kinds of 
flour. Beat the whites of the eggs to a stiff froth ; when they 
are ready, add the baking-powder to the flour mixture and 
then fold in lightly the whipped whites. Turn at once into 
warm gem-pans, a tablespoonful of batter into each one, and 
bake in a hot oven for fifteen minutes. This receipt can be used 
for any kind of flour. 



BREAD 35S 

MUFFINS No. 1 

2 cupfuls of flour. 2 eggs (beaten separately). 

1 cupful of milk. J teaspoonf ul of salt. 

1 level tablespoonf ul of butter. 2 even teaspoonfuls of bak- 
ing-powder. 

Mix thoroughly the baking-powder and salt with the flour. 
Stir the milk and yolks together ; add the butter, melted ; then 
the flour, and lastly fold in the whipped whites. Turn into 
hot gem-pans, and bake at once in a very hot oven for fifteen to 
twenty minutes. Serve immediately. 

RAISED MUFFINS 

1 pint of milk, scalded. 1 tablespoonful of sugar. 
i compressed yeast-cake. 1 teaspoonf ul of salt. 

2 tablespoonfuls of butter. About 2J cupfuls of flour. 

Scald the milk, and add the butter, sugar and salt. When it 
has become lukewarm, add the yeast dissolved in a quarter cup- 
ful of lukewarm water. Stir in enough flour to make a drop 
batter, cover it well, place it in a warm place free from draughts, 
and let rise over night. In the morning stir it down, grease 
some muf&n-rings, place them on a hot greased griddle, fill the 
rings half full of batter. It will rise to the top. Turn the mufBns 
with a pancake turner and bake them on both sides until a thin 
brown crust is formed. Two eggs may be added to the batter 
in the morning if desired. If so, beat the yolks and whites 
separately and add the whites last. 

ENGLISH MUFFINS OR CRUMPETS , 

Use the receipt for raised muffins, omitting the sugar and 
eggs. Do not bake them so much. Turn them before the crust 
becomes brown. When cold, pull them apart and toast them. 

SALLY LUNN 

This is the same as the receipt for Muffins No. 1, using three 
eggs instead of two, and baking it in a cake-tin instead of gem- 
pans. In this form it is served for luncheon or for tea. 



356 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

WAFFLES 

2 cupfuls of flour. 1 tablespoonful of butter, or 

1 teaspoonful of baking-powder. lard, or cottolene. 
14 cupfuls of milk. J teaspoonful of salt. 

3 eggs beaten separately. 

Mix the flour, baking-powder, and salt thoroughly together. 
Mix the yolks with the milk j then the melted butter, the flour, 
and lastly the beaten whites. Have the waffle-iron very clean j 
let it be thoroughly heated on both sides. Rub it over with a 
piece of salt pork, or with a piece of butter tied in a clean rag. 
Close the iron, and turn it so the grease will cover every part. 
Put enough batter into each section of the iron to fill it two- 
thirds fuU. Shut the iron, and cook the waffles a minute or 
longer on each side. Serve the waffles hot, using with them 
syrup or powdered sugar mixed with ground cinnamon. 

HOMINY CAKE 

Stir into one cupful of boiled hominy while it is still hot a 
teaspoonful of butter, one saltspoonf ul of salt, and the yolks 
of two eggs well beaten j add slowly a cupful of milk, and then 
a half cupful of fine cornmealj lastly, fold in the whipped 
whites of two eggs. Bake in a flat tin in a hot oven for 
twenty to thirty minutes. Cold boiled hominy left over can be 
used for this dish by heating it with enough water to moisten it. 



OAT CAKE 

Mix oatmeal, which is ground fine, with a little salt and 
enough water to make a stiff dough. Roll it on a floured board 
to one eighth inch thickness, and bake it in one sheet in a slow 
oven without browning, until dry and hard. It should be gray 
in color. "When done, break it into irregular pieces. This is a 
Scotch dish, and in Scotland is made with a fine oat flour, 
which is difficult to obtain in this country. 



BREAD 367 

BRAN BISCUITS 

1 pint of bran. i pint of milk. 

i pint of flour. 6 tablespoonf uls of molasses. 

1 even teaspoonful of baking soda. 

Mix the bran, flour, and soda together j mix the molasses and 
nilk together, and add the flour mixture. Bake in gem-pans. 
Cwo of these biscuits eaten at each meal act as a laxative and 
5ure for constipation. The receipt is furnished by a physician. 

BREAD STICKS 

Any bread-dough may be used, though that with shortening 
s preferred. After it is kneaded enough to be elastic, cut it into 
)ieces half the size of an egg, roll it on the board into a stick 
he size of a pencil and a foot long. Lay the strips on a floured 
)aking-tin or sheet. Let them rise a very little, and bake in a 
noderate oven, so they will dry without browning. Serve them 
vith bouillon or soups, or with tea. 

RUSKS 

1 cupful of milk scalded. 2 eggs. 

2 tablespoonfuls of butter. J cake of compressed yeast. 

3 tablespoonfuls of sugar. J teaspoonful of salt. 

Flour. 

Make a sponge (see directions at head of chapter), using the 
nilk, salt, and yeast. When it is full of bubbles, add the but- 
:er, sugar, and well-beaten eggs. Stir in enough flour to make 
I soft dough. Knead it for twenty minutes. Let it rise to 
iouble its bulk ; then mold it into balls the size of half an egg. 
Place them rather close together in a baking- tin, and let them 
rise until very light. When they are ready to go into the oven, 
brush over the tops with sugar dissolved in milk, and sprinkle 
^he tops with dry sugar. Bake in a hot oven about half an hour. 
Rusks must be well kneaded and be very light before being 
baked. A part of the dough set for bread may be made into 
rusks by adding to it an eggy sugar, and butter, 



358 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

DEIED EUSES 

Cut rusks that are a day old into slices one half inch thick 
and dry them in a slow oven until a fine golden color. 

BATH BUNS 

4 cupfuls of flour. J teaspoonful of salt. 

1 cupful of milk. J nutmeg grated. 

J cupful of sugar* J compressed yeast-cake. 

i cupful of butter. 3 eggs. 

Mix the salt, sugar, and grated nutmeg with the flour. Scal< 
the milk and melt the butter in it. Dissolve the yeast in i 
quarter cupful of lukewarm water. When the scalded milk ha 
become lukewarm, add to it the dissolved yeast and the eggs 
which have been well beaten, the yolks and whites separately 
then add the flour. Use more flour than given in the receipt, i 
necessary, but keep the dough as soft as possible. Knead it oi 
a board for twenty minutes. Let it rise over night in a warD 
place, well covered. In the morning turn it on to the molding 
board, roll it and rub it lightly with butter, then fold it severa 
times, cut it into pieces the size of a large eggj and mold it inU 
balls. The folding is to make it peel off in layers when baked 
But may be omitted if desired. Press into the side of each bun 
after it is molded, a piece of citron and lump of sugar wet witl 
lemon- juice. Place the buns in a baking-tin and let them rise t( 
jnore than double their size. Brush the tops with egg diluted witl 
water to give a brown crust. Bake in a moderate oven for half ai 
hour. When baked, brush over the tops with sugar dissolved ir 
milk, and return to the oven for a few minutes to glaze. Sprinkh 
a little powdered sugar over the tops as soon as they are removed 
from the oven. 

COFFEE CAKE 

Take two cupfuls of bread sponge, add one egg well beaten, { 
half cupful of sugar, a tablespoonful of butter, and a cupful o; 
tepid water. Mix them well together, then add enough flour t( 
make a thin dough. Let it rise until double in size. Turn il 



BEEAD 359 

on a board, and roll it out an incli thick. Place it in a baking- 
tin, cutting it to fit the tin, and let it rise again until light. 
Just before placing it in the oven, spread over the top an egg 
beaten with a teaspoonful of sugar. Sprinkle over this some 
granulated sugar, and a few split blanched almonds. If pre- 
ferred, the dough may be twisted and shaped into rings instead 
of being baked in sheets. This cake, which is a kind of bun, is, 
as well as bath buns, a good luncheon dish to serve in place of 
cake J or either of them, served with a cup of chocolate, makes a 
good light luncheon in itself. 

BRIOCHE 

Brioche is a kind of light bun mixture much used in France. 
It has many uses, and is much esteemed. It will not be found 
difficult or troublesome to make after the first trial. The paste 
once made can be used for plain brioche cakes, buns, rings, 
baba, savarins, fruit timbales (see page 406), cabinet puddings, 
etc. 

1 cake of compressed yeast. 7 eggs. 

J cupful of lukewarm j pound of butter, 

water, J teaspoonful of salt. 

1 quart of flour. 2 teaspoonfuls of sugar. 

Dissolve the yeast-cake in a quarter of a cupful of lukewarm 
water. Stir it so it will be thoroughly mixed, then add enough 
flour to make a very soft ball of paste. Drop this ball into 
a pan of warm water (the water must not be hot, or it will kill 
the yeast plant). Cover, and set it in a warm place to rise, 
which will take about an hour. This is for leaven to raise the 
brioche. The ball of paste will sink to the bottom of the water 
at first, but will rise to the top later, and be full of bubbles. 

Put the rest of the flour on a platter, and make a weU 
in the center of it. Into this well put the butter, salt, sugar, 
and four eggs. Break the eggs in whole, and have the butter 
rather soft. Work them together with the hand, gradually in- 
corporating the flour, and adding two more eggs, one at a time. 



360 THE CENTUEY COOK BOOK 

Work and beat it with the hand until it loses its stickiness, 
which will take some time. When the leaven is sufficiently 
light, lift it out of the water with a skimmer, and place it with 
the dough. Work them together, add one more egg, the last of 
the seven, and beat it for a long time, using the hand. The 
longer it is beaten the better and the finer will be the grain. 
Put the paste in a bowl, cover, and let it rise to double its size, 
which will take four to five hours; then beat it down again, 
and place it on the ice for twelve or twenty-four hours. As 
beating and raising the paste require so much time, the work 
should be started the day before it is to be used. 

After taking the paste from the ice, it will still be quite soft, 
and have to be handled delicately and quickly. It softens 
more as it becomes warm. 



TO MAKE A BRIOCHE ROLL WITH HEAD 

Take up carefully a little of the paste, and turn it into a ball 
about three inches in diameter; flatten it a little on top, and with 
a knife open a little place on top, and lay a small ball of paste 
into it. liet it rise to double its size, and bake in a moderate 
oven for twenty to thirty minutes. If a glazed top is wanted, 
brush it over with egg yolk diluted one half with water, before 
putting it in the oven. Serve hot or perfectly fresh. 



TO MAKE A BRIOCHE CROWN OR RING 

ri\x old the paste into a ball, roll it down to a thickness of half 
hxti iL-ch, keeping the form round. Cut it several times through 
the middle, and twist the paste into a rope-like ring. Let it 
rise, brush the top with egg, and bake in a well-heated oven for 
about half an hour. 

TO MAKE BUNS 

Roll the paste into small balls, glaze the tops when ready 
to go into the oven, and bake about twenty minutes, 



BREAD • 361 

BRIOCHE FOR TIMBALE, OR CABHSTET PUDDINGS 

When the brioche is to be used for timbales, or cabinet pud- 
dings, turn the paste into a cylindrical mold, filling it half full. 
Let it rise to the top of the mold, and bake in a hot oven for 
about half an hour. 

PANCAKES 

The batter for pancakes should be smooth, and thin enough 
to run freely when turned onto the griddle. In order to have 
all the cakes of the same size an equal quantity of batter must 
be used for each cake. It should be poured steadily at one 
point, so the batter will flow evenly in all directions, making 
the cake perfectly round. An iron spoonful of batter makes a 
cake of good sizej but if a larger one is wanted, use a ladle 
or cup ; for if the batter is put on the hot griddle by separate 
spoonfuls, the first becomes a little hardened before the second 
is added, and the cake will not be evenly baked, or have so 
good an appearance. Lastly, the baking is of great importance. 
The cakes must be well browned on both sides, the color even 
and uniform on every part. To effect this the griddle must be 
perfectly clean and evenly heated. A soap-stone griddle is the 
best, as it holds the heat well, and as it requires no greasing. 
The cakes baked thus are by some considered more wholesome. 
The griddle should stand on the range for some time before 
it is needed in order to get thoroughly and evenly heated. 
Where an iron griddle is used, it should also be given time to 
become evenly heated; and while the cakes are baking it 
should be moved so the edges may in turn come over the 
hottest part of the range. It must be wiped off and greased 
after each set of cakes is baked. A piece of salt pork on 
a fork is the best thing for greasing, as it makes an even 
coating, and too much grease is not likely to be used. An iron 
griddle is often allowed by careless cooks to collect a crust 
of burned grease around the edges. When in this condition, 
the cakes will not, of course, be properly baked. The griddle 
should be hot enough to hiss when the batter is turned onto 



362 THE CENTUEY COOK BOOK 

it. Serve the cakes as soon as baked, in a folded napkin on a 
hot plate. Two plates should be used, so while one is being 
passed the next griddlef ul may be prepared to serve. 

PLAIN PANCAKES 

Stir two cupfuls of milk into two beaten eggsj add enough 
flour to make a thin batter. Add a half teaspoonf ul of salt 
and a heaping teaspoonful of baking-powder. Sour milk can 
be used, in which case omit the baking-powder and add a half 
teaspoonful of soda. The baking-powder or soda should not 
be put in until just before beginning to bake the cakes. The 
cakes will be lighter and better if the eggs are beaten separately, 
and the whipped whites added the last thing. 

FLANNEL CAKES 

1 tablespoonf ul of butter. 2 cupfuls of flour. 

1 tablespoonf ul of sugar. Milk. 

2 eggs. 1 teaspoonful of baking-powder. 

Rub the butter and sugar to a cream, add the beaten eggs, 
then the flour, in which the baking-powder has been sifted. 
Add enough milk to make a smooth, thin batter. 

RICE PANCAKES 

Make the same batter as for plain cakes, using half boiled 
rice and half flour. Any of the c6reals— hominy, oatmeal, 
cracked wheat, etc. — can be used in the same way, utilizing any 
small quantities left over; a little butter is sometimes added. 

BREAD PANCAKES 

Soak stale bread in hot water until moistened ; press out the 
water. To two cupfuls of softened bread, add two beaten eggs, 
a teaspoonful of salt, a half cupful of flour, and enough milk to 
make a thin, smooth batter j add, the last thing, a teaspoonful of 
baking-powder, or use soda if sour milk has been used in the 
batter. 



BREAD 363 

COBNMEAL PANCAKES 

Pour a little boiling water on a cupful of commeal, and let it 
stand half an hour. Add a teaspoonful of salt, a tablespoonful 
of sugar, one egg and two cupfuls of flour. Add enough milk 
to make a smooth batter, and a teaspoonful of baking-powder 
just before baking. Instead of white flour rye meal may be 
used: one cupful of rye to one of cornmeal, a tablespoonful of 
molasses instead of the sugar, and soda in place of baking- 
powder. 

BUCKWHEAT CAKES 

Scald a cupful of yellow meal in a quart of boiling milk. 
Add a half teaspoonful of salt; when cold add a quarter of 
a compressed yeast-cake, and enough b ikwheat flour to make 
a soft batter. Beat it well together. Let it rise over night. 
In the morning stir in a tablespoonful of molasses and a tea- 
spoonful of soda. Although the above method is the old 
and better way, these cakes can be made in the morning, and 
baking-powder used instead of yeast ; in which case divide the 
batter, and add the baking-powder, one half at a time. 

ADIRONDACK PANCAKES 

Bake several pancakes as large as a plate. Butter, and cover 
them with maple syrup. Pile them one on another, and cut 
like a pie. . ,., 



■-m.*» 



Chapteb XVI 



Shapes. 



SANDWICHES 

SANDWICHES AND CANAPfS 

Sandwiches are usually the chief reliance for cold 
lunches, and are always acceptable if well made and 
attractively served. Where they are to be kept some 
time, as in traveling, they should be wrapped in oiled 
or paraffin paper, for this will keep them perfectly 
fresh. 

Sandwiches may be made of white, Graham, or 
brown bread, or of fresh rolls, and may be filled with 
any kind of meat, with fish, with salads, with eggs, 
with jams, or with chopped nuts. 

They may be cut into any shapes, the square and 
triangular ones being the usual forms, but a pleasant 
variety may be given by stamping them with a biscuit- 
cutter into circles, or by rolling them, and these forms 
are recommended for sandwiches made of jams or 
jellies, as it gives them a more distinctive character. 

The meat used in sandwiches should be chopped to 
a fine mince, seasoned with salt and pepper, mustard, 
if desired, and moistened with a little water, stock, 
cream or milk, or with a salad dressing, using enough 
to make the mince spread well. Fish can be pounded 
to a paste, then seasoned. Potted meats can also be 
used. SHces of anything that has a fibrous texture 
make the sandwich difficult to eat, and as knives and 
forks are not usually at hand when sandwiches are 

Note.— Sandwiclies of any kind which are left over are good toasted, and can be 
served at luncheon.— M. E. 

9H 



How to 

prepare 

the meat 



SANDWICHES 365 

served, it is desirable to make the primitive way of 
eating as little objectionable as possible. 

The butter for sandwiches should be of the best, Butter, 
and should be soft enough to spread easily without 
tearing the bread. The butter may sometimes be 
worked into the meat paste. What are called " sand- 
wich butters " are frequently used. They are made 
by rubbing the butter to a cream, combined with an- 
chovy paste, with mustard, with chopped parsley and 
tarragon, with pate de foie gras, etc. 

These butters are used to spread the bread for 
meat sandwiches, using with the butter any flavoring 
that win go well with the meat. 

When rolls are used for sandwiches, they should be Bolls, 
very fresh, should be small, and have a tender crust. 
The finger rolls are good for the purpose, also Parker 
House rolls, when made in suitable shape. Graham 
bread makes excellent sandwiches. 

Bread for sandwiches should be of fine grain and a 

day old. A five-cent loaf cuts to good advantage. The ^°^ *° 

. prepare 

crust should be cut off, and the loaf trimmed to good the bread. 

shape before the slices are cut. The crusts and trim- 
mings can be dried for crumbs, so they are not wasted, 
and no butter is lost in spreading bread which will 
afterward be trimmed off. When the bread is ready, 
the butter should be spread on the loaf, and then a 
slice cut off evenly one eighth of an inch thick. The 
next slice will have to be cut off before being spread, 
in order to have it fit exactly the preceding piece. 
After the first slice is covered with the filling, lay the 
second slice on it. In many cases the second slice of 
bread does not need spreading with butter. Cut the 
sandwich to the desired shape. One cut across the loaf 
will make two square, or four triangular, sandwiches. 
Poultry, game, ham, beef, and tongue can be pre- 
pared as directed above, or they may be mixed with a 



366 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 



Meat sand- 



Fish sand- 



French or a Mayonnaise dressing. Chicken pounded 
to a paste, then well mixed with a paste made of the 
"wiches." yolks of hard-boiled eggs mashed, a little milk or 
cream, and a little butter, then seasoned with salt, pep- 
per, and a few drops of onion-juice, makes a delicious 
chicken sandwich. 

Anchovies, sardines, or any fresh boiled fish may 
wiches. be used for sandwiches. It is better pounded to a 
paste. Moisten sardines with a little lemon-juice. 

Fresh fish should be well seasoned with salt and 
pepper, and moistened with a white or any other 
sauce, or with Mayonnaise. A little chopped pickle 
may be added. Shad roe, mashed with a fork to sepa- 
rate the eggs, and seasoned in the same way, makes 
excellent sandwiches. 

EGG SANDWICHES 

No. 1. Cut hard-boiled eggs into slices j sprinkle with salt 
and pepper plentifully, and spread the bread with but- 
ter mixed with chopped parsley. 

No. 2. Lay the sliced eggs between crisp lettuce leaves, and 
spread the bread with butter, then with Mayonnaise. 

No. 3. Chop the hard-boiled eggs fine. Mix with Mayonnaise 
and spread on the buttered bread, or mix them with 
well-seasoned white sauce. 

SALAD SANDWICHES 

No. 1. Lay a crisp lettuce leaf sprinkled with salt between 
buttered thin slices of bread ; or spread the bread with 
Mayonnaise, then with lettuce or with water-cress. 

No. 2. Chop chicken and celery together fine ; mix it with 
French or with Mayonnaise dressing. 

No. 3. Chop lobster meat -, mix it with any dressing ; cut let- 
tuce into ribbons j cover the bread with the lettuce ; 
then a layer of lobster ; then with lettuce again. 

No. 4. Mix chopped olives with Mayonnaise j serve with 
afternoon tea. 



SANDWICHES 367 

SPANISH SANDWICHES 

Spread buttered Graham bread with mustard j then with a 
layer of cottage cheese; and then with a layer of chopped 
olives mixed with Mayonnaise. 

CHEESE SANDWICHES 

No. 1. Cut American cheese in slices one-eighth of an inch 
thick, or about the same thickness as the bread. 
Sprinkle it with salt, and have the bread well buttered. 

No. 2. Cut Gruy^re cheese in thin slices. Lay it on the 
bread, sprinkle it with salt and pepper; then add 
French mustard. 

No. 3. Grate any cheese. Rub it to a paste with butter, and 
spread the bread ; dust with salt and pepper. Cut 
into strips and serve with salad. 

No. 4. Mock Crab. Rub to a smooth paste. one tablespoonful 
of butter, two tablespoonf uls of grated cheese, a salt- 
spoonful each of salt, paprica, and dry mustard, a lit- 
tle anchovy paste, and a teaspoonf ul of vinegar. Spread 
between thin slices of dry toast. 

EAW BEEF SANDWICHES 

Scrape the raw beef ; spread it between thin slices of plain 
bread. Sprinkle with salt and pepper. Place the sandwiches 
on a toaster, and hold them over the coals until well heated. 
Serve them hot. 

SWEET SANDWICHES 

No. 1. For ^Esthetic Sandwiches, see chapter " Five O'clock 
Tea,'' page 33. 

No. 2. Spread thin slices of bread with any jam, or with fruit 
jelly, or with any preserved fruit, or with chopped 
canned fruit. Cut them into circles, or roll them as 
directed above. 

No. 3. Spread very thin buttered slices of Boston brown 
bread with chopped walnuts, or with chopped almonds, 
or with both mixed, or with salted nuts chopped. 



368 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

CANAPES 

Canapes are slices of bread toasted or fried in hot fat, or 
dipped in butter, and browned in the oven. The slices are 
then covered with some seasoned mixture. They are served 
hot, and make a good first course for luncheon. The bread is 
cut a quarter of an inch thick, then into circles two and a half 
inches in diameter, or into strips four inches long and two 
inches wide. They are sometimes used cold, and are arranged 
fancifully with different-colored meats, pickles, eggs, etc. 

CHEESE CANAPES 

Cut bread into slices one quarter inch thick, four inches long 
and two inches wide. Spread it with butter, and sprinkle it 
with salt and cayenne or paprica. Cover the top with grated 
American cheese, or with grated Parmesan cheese, and bake in 
the oven until the cheese is softened. Serve at once, before 
the cheese hardens. 

HAM CANAPES 

Cut bread into slices a quarter inch thick, then with a small 
biscuit-cutter into circles ; fry them in hot fat, or saute them in 
butter. Pound some chopped ham to a paste 5 moisten it with 
cream or milk. Spread it on the fried bread j dust with cayenne, 
sprinkle the top with grated Parmesan cheese, and place in a 
hot oven until a little browned. 

ANCHOVY CANAPES 

Spread strips of fried bread with anchovy paste. Arrange in 
lines, on top, alternate rows of the white and yolks of hard- 
boiled eggs chopped fine. 



SARDINE CANAPES 

Spread circles of fried bread with a layer of sardines poundec 



to a paste. Arrange on top, in circles to resemble a rosette/ 
lines of chopped hard-boiled egg and chopped pickle. 



CHEESE DISHES 369 

CANAPE LORENZO 

2 tablespoonfuls of butter. 1 tablespoonful of milk. 
2 tablespoonfuls of flour. 2J tablespoonfuls of grated 

1 slice of onion. Parmesan cbeese. 

1 cupful of stock. 2J tablespoonfuls of Swiss 

1 cupful of crab meat. cheese. 

Salt, pepper, and cayenne. 

Put in a saucepan one tablespoonful of butter, and fry in it 
one slice of onion chopped fine, but do not brown; then add 
one tablespoonful of flour and cook, but do not brown ; add 
the stock slowly, and when smooth add the cooked crab meat. 
Season highly with salt, pepper, and cayenne, and let simmer 
for six or eight minutes. 

Put into another saucepan one tablespoonful of butter ; when 
melted, add one tablespoonful of flour and cook, but not brown ; 
then add the milk and stir in the cheese, and let cook just 
long enough to soften the cheese. Remove from the fire and 
let cool; then form the cheese mixture into six balls. Have 
ready six slices or circles of buttered toast, or bread fried in 
butter, and cover them with a layer of the crab mixture, and in 
the center of each piece place a baU of the cheese. Place in a 
hot oven for five minutes. 

This is a good supper dish, and may be made of lobster, fish, 
or chicken. 

Serve with water-cress. 



CHEESE AND CHEESE DISHES 

Among the best cheeses are Stilton, Cheshire, Ca- 
membert, Gorgonzola, Rocquefort, Edam, Gruyere, 
and Parmesan. The Parmesan is a high-flavored, 
hard Italian cheese, and is mostly used grated for 
cooking. Our American dairy cheeses are much es- Varieties, 
teemed, and are largely exported to foreign markets ; 
but as they have no distinctive names, it is difficult 

24 



370 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

to find a second time any one that is particularly 
liked. The Pineapple cheese is the only one that 
differs radically from the other so-called American 
cheeses. The foreign cheeses are, nearly all of them, 
very successfully imitated here. Cheese is served with 
crackers, wafer biscuits, or with celery after the des- 
sert, or with salad before the hot dessert. Any of the 
cheese dishes, such as souffle, ramekins, omelets, etc., 
are served before the dessert. Cheese straws are 
used with salad. Cheeses small enough to be passed 
whole, like Edam, Pineapple, etc., have the top cut 
off, plain or in notches, and are wrapped in a neatly 
plaited napkin. The top is replaced after the service, 
so as to keep the cheese moist. A Stilton or Chester 
cheese is cut in two, and one half, wrapped in a 
napkin, served at a time. Rocquefort and Gorgon- 
zola are served in the large slice cut from the cheese 
Serving, and laid on a folded napkin. American dairy cheese 
is cut into small uniform pieces. The soft cheeses, 
Brie, Neuch^tel, etc., are divested of the tinfoil and 
scraped before being passed. They are placed on a 
lace paper. Fresh butter, wafer biscuits, and celery 
are passed with cheese. 

CHEESE SOUFFL;]^ 

2 tablespoonfuls of butter. J teaspoonful of salt. 

1 heaping tablespoonful of flour. Dash of cayenne. 
i cupful of milk. 3 eggs. 

1 cupful of grated cheese. 

Put into a saucepan the butter ; when it is melted stir in the 
flour and let it cook a minute (but not color), stirring all the 
time 5 add one half cupful of milk slowly and stir till smooth, 
then add salt and cayenne. Remove from the fire and add, 
stirring constantly, the beaten yolks of three eggs and the cup- 
ful of grated American or Parmesan cheese. Replace it on the 



CHEESE DISHES S71 

fire, and stir until the cheese is melted and the paste smooth 
and consistent (do not cook too long, or the butter wiU separate). 
Pour the mixture on a buttered dish and set away to cool. 
When ready to use, stir into it lightly the well-beaten whites of 
the three eggs j turn it into a pudding-dish and bake in a hot 
oven for twenty to thirty minutes. Do not open the oven door 
for ten minutes ; do not slam the oven door ; do not move the 
souffle until after fifteen minutes ; serve it at once when done. 
Like any souffle, it must go directly from the oven to the table, 
or it will fall. 

CEACEEES AND CHEESE 

Split in two some Bent's water biscuits ; moisten them with 
hot water and pour over each piece a little melted butter and 
French mustard; then spread with a thick layer of grated 
cheese ; sprinkle with paprica or cayenne. Place them in a hot 
oven until the cheese is soft and creamy. 

CHEESE CANAPES 

Cut bread into slices one half inch thick ; stamp them with a 
biscuit cutter into circles j then, moving the cutter to one side, 
cut them into crescent form ; or, if preferred, cut the bread into 
strips three inches long and one and one half inches wide ; saute 
them in a little butter on both sides to an amber color. Cover 
them with a thick layer of grated cheese ; sprinkle with salt, 
pepper, and dash of cayenne. Fifteen minutes before the time 
to serve, place them in the oven to soften the cheese. Serve at 
once very hot ; or, cut some toasted bread into small triangles ; 
spread with a little French mustard ; dip in melted butter ; then 
roll in grated cheese ; sprinkle with salt, pepper, and dash of 
cayenne, and place in a hot oven for a few minutes to soften 
the cheese. Serve at once on a hot dish. 

WELSH EABBIT 

1 pound of cheese. J teaspoonful of dry mustard. 

i cupful of ale or beer. J teaspoonful of salt. 

Dash of cayenne. Slices of toast. 



372 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

Grate or cut into small pieces fresh American cheese. Place 
it in a saucepan or chafing-dish with three quarters of the ale. 
Stir until it is entirely melted ; then season with the mustard, 
salt, and pepper, and pour it over the slices of hot toast, cut in 
triangles or circles. Everything must be very hot, and it must 
be served at once, as the cheese quickly hardens. Some use a 
scant teaspoonful of butter (more will not unite), a few drops 
of onion-juice, and the beaten yolks of two eggs, added just 
before serving. The egg makes it a little richer and prevents 
the cheese hardening so quickly. Milk may be used instead of 
ale to melt the cheese, in which case the egg should also be 
used. If any of the cheese fondu is left, it can be heated again 
with the rest of the ale for the second helping. 

GOLDEN BUCK 

Make Welsh rarebits as directed above, and place on each one 
a poached egg (see page 263). 

CHEESE STRAWS 

Mix with one cupful of flour one half cupful of grated Par- 
mesan cheese, a dash of cayenne, one half teaspoonful of salt, 
and the yolk of one egg ; then add enough water to make a 
paste sufl&ciently consistent to roll. Place it on a board and 
roll to one quarter inch thickness. Cut it into narrow strips 
and roll so each piece will be the size and length of a lead pen- 
cil. Place them in a baking-tin and press each end on the pan 
so they will not contract. Bake to a light brown in a moder- 
ate oven. Serve with salad. These straws will keep for several 
days, and should be heated just before serving. 

CHEESE STRAWS No. 2 

Take bits of puff paste j roll them to one half inch thick- 
ness; cut them into strips one inch wide and three inches long; 
sprinkle them with grated cheese and bake ; or, the pastry may 
be rolled to one quarter inch thickness; then spread with cheese, 



CHEESE DISHES 373 

doubled aver, and then cut into strips, leaving the cheese be- 
tween two layers of paste. 

CHEESE PATTIES 

Make some small round croustades as directed (page 82). 
Dip them in butter and toast them in the oven to a delicate 
color. Fill the centers with a mixture of two ounces of grated 
cheese, one half tablespoonful of butter, one tablespoonful of 
milk, a little salt and pepper. Place the croustades again in 
the oven to melt the cheese. Serve very hot. 

COTTAGE CHEESE 

Place a panful of milk which has soured enough to become 
thick, or clabbered, over a pan of hot water. Let it heat slowly 
until the whey has separated from the curd 5 do not let it boil, 
or the curd will become tough ; then strain it through a cloth 
and press out all the whey ; stir into the curd enough butter, 
cream, and salt to make it a little moist and of good flavor. 
Work it well with a spoon until it becomes fine grained and 
consistent, then mold it into balls of any size desired. 

FONDUE 

See page 335. 



Chapteb XVII 



SALADS 



Drying 
fhe salad. 



Catting 
the meat. 



Marinat- 
ing. 



Nearly all the meats, vegetables, and fruits may 
be served as salads. The essential thing is to have 
the salad fresh and cold; and if green, to have the 
leaves crisp and dry. If any water is left on leaves, 
the dressing will not adhere to them, but will run to the 
bottom of the dish, and both the salad and the dress- 
ing will be poor. All greens should be carefully 
washed in cold water to free them from dust and 
insects, and to make them crisp. After they have 
stood fifteen to twenty minutes in cold or ice water, 
free them from moisture by swinging them in a wire 
basket, or dry, without bruising, each leaf carefully 
with a napkin. The dressing is added only at the 
moment of serving, as the salad wilts if allowed 
to stand after the dressing is added. The green 
salads are the most simple of any, and are especially 
worthy the little care required to make them perfect. 

Meat of any kind used for salads should be cut 
into dice, but not smaller than one half inch, or it 
will seem like hash. It should be marinated before 
being mixed with the other parts of the salad. Meat 
mixtures are usually piled in cone-shape on a dish, the 
Mayonnaise then spread over it, and garnished with 
lettuce, capers, hard-boiled eggs, gherkins, etc. 

To Marinate. — Take one part of oil and three of 
vinegar, with pepper and salt to taste; stir them into 
the meat, and let it stand a couple of hours; drain off 
any of the marinade which has not been absorbed. 



374 



Fish 



SALADS 376 

before combining the meat with the other parts of 
the salad. Use only enough marinade to season the 
meat. 

French dressing is used with green vegetable sal- 
ads, and either Mayonnaise or French dressing with 
potato and tomato salads. 

Lettuce, water-cress, fetticus, sorrel, or other leaf 
salads are better with French dressing. A boiled fish 
can be served whole as a salad for suppers or lunch- 
eons, or in hot weather as a fish course for dinner. It 
may be covered, all but the head and tail, with a thick 
coating of green or red jelly Mayonnaise (see page 
290), and elaborately decorated with capers, olives, 
gherkins, hard-boiled eggs, and lettuce. Salmon, blue 
fish, bass, or any firm fish, serves this purpose. Fish 
may also be cut into cutlets of equal size and shape, 
and covered with jelly Mayonnaise garnished in the 
same way. 

Nasturtium blossoms make a good garnish, and 
also add a good flavor to green salads. 



MAYONNAISE 

The receipts for Mayonnaise are given on pages 288-290. 
White Mayonnaise, instead of that having the color of the eggs, 
is the fancy of to-day. The yolks will whiten by being stirred 
before the oil is added, and lemon-juice, used instead of vinegar, 
also serves to whiten the dressing j so it is not always necessary 
to add whipped cream, although the cream gives a very deli- 
cate and delicious Mayonnaise. The jelly Mayonnaise is used 
for molded salads, and will be found very good, as well as use- 
ful, for the class of salads served at suppers, etc. 

FRENCH DRESSING 

This dressing is the most simple, and the best one to use 
with green salads for dinner. The proportions are one table- 



376 THE CENTUBY COOK BOOK 

spoonful of vinegar to three of oil, one half teaspoonf ul of salt, 
and one quarter teaspoonful of pepper. Mix the salt and 
pepper with the oil; then stir in slowly the vinegar, and it will 
become white and a little thickened, like an emulsion. Some 
like a dash of paprica or red pepper. When intended for lettuce 
salad it is much improved by using a little tarragon vinegar 
with the wine vinegar. More oil may be used if preferred, but 
the mixture should be so blended as to taste of neither the oil 
nor the vinegar. 

LETTUCE SALAD 

Use only the tender leaves. Let them stand half an hour 
in cold water to become crisp. Rub the inside of the salad 
bowl lightly with an onion. Wipe the lettuce leaves perfectly 
dry without bruising them, and arrange them in the bowl in 
circles, the heart leaves in the center. Sprinkle over them 
a teaspoonful of mixed tarragon, parsley, and chives, chopped 
fine; pour over the French dressing, and toss them lightly to- 
gether. French lettuce salads always have chopped herbs mixed 
with them, and they are a great improvement to the salad. If 
all of them are not at hand, any one of them may be used alone. 
The salad should be put together only just before being served, 
or its crispness will be lost. Nasturtium blossoms, small rad- 
ishes cut into flowers, or a few white chicory leaves may be 
used with plain lettuce salad. 

WATER-CRESS AND APPLES 

Prepare the water-cress the same as lettuce, letting it be- 
come crisp in cold water, then drying it thoroughly. Mix 
it with French dressing. A few thin slices of sour apple with 
water-cress makes a good salad to serve with ducks. 

A chopped hard-boiled egg sprinkled over the top of water- 
cress is a good garnish, and improves the salad. - 

CELERY SALAD 

Wash and scrape the tender stalks of celery, cut them intc 
one quarter inch pieces, or into straws two inches long, or cutfi 




SALAD OF WATER-CRESS GARNISHED WITH RADISHES CUT TO RESEMBLE ROSES. 




CUCUMBERS CUT IN HALVES LENGTHWISE AND THEN SLICED TO SERVE WITH FISH. 




STR1^,G-BKA^ SALAD. 



SALADS 37^ 

them in pieces one and a half inches long, and slice them in 
small strips nearly to the end; place them in ice-water for a 
few mmutes to curl them. Mix the celery with either French 
or Mayonnaise dressing, and garnish with lettuce leaves or 
celery tops. 

cxrcraiBEE akd tomato saiad 

Slice cucumbers and tomatoes into pieces of equal thickness, 
and lay them alternately around a bunch of white lettuce leaves 
both ^^^^""^^^^ "^^^"'^ * ^'''''"'^ "'■ Mayonnaise dressing, or 
CUCUIIBER SAIAD TO SERVE WITH FISH 
Peel the cucumbers, and place them in cold water to become 
crisp Do not use salt in the water, as is sometimes recom- 
mended, as It wilts and makes them indigestible. Cut the 
cucumbers in two lengthwise, and lay them, with the flat side 
down, on the dish on which they are to be served. Slice them 
without destroying their shape, and pour on them a French 
dressing. 

STEING-BEAK SAIAD 

Cut each bean in four strips lengthwise ; lay them evenly to- 
gether and boil in salted water until tender. Remove them 
carefully and drain. When they are cold and ready to serve, 
pile them on a flat dish, trim the ends even, and pour over 
them slowly a French dressing. Garnish with parsley, white 
chicory leaves or nasturtium leaves. 

BEAK SALADS 

Boiled navy beans, flageolets, or Lima beans may be mixed 
with French or Mayonnaise dressing, and garnished with hard- 
boiled eggs and parsley. 

CAUIOXOWEE SAIAD 

Break the vegetable into flowerets; season with salt, pepper 
and a little vinegar and oil. Pile them in a pyramid on a dish.' 
and pour over them a white Mayonnaise. Arrange around the 



378 THE OENTUKY COOK BOOK 

base a border of carrots or beets, cut into dice or fancy stapes, 
to give a line of color. Place a floweret of cauliflower on the 
top of the pyramid. 

MAGEDOINE SALAD 

This salad is composed of a mixture of vegetables. The vege- 
tables are boiled separately ; the large ones are then cut into 
dice of equal size. The salad is more attractive when the vege- 
tables are cut with fancy cutters or with a small potato-scoop. 
Peas, flageolets, string beans, flowerets of cauliflower, beets, 
celery roots, asparagus points, carrots, and turnips — all, or as 
many as convenient, may be used. Mix them lightly with 
French dressing or with Mayonnaise. If the latter, marinate 
them first. Be careful not to break the vegetables when mix- 
ing them. Arrange lettuce leaves like a cup, and place the 
macedoine in the center. 

POTATO SALAD 

Boil the potatoes with the skins on j when cold remove the 
skins and cut them into slices three eighths inch thick, or into 
dice three quarters inch thick, or cut the potatoes into balls with a 
scoop; sprinkle them with a little grated onion and parsley, 
chopped very fine. Turn over them a French dressing. They will 
absorb a great deal. Toss them lightly together, but do not break 
the potatoes, which are very tender. A Mayonnaise dressing is 
also very good with marinated potatoes. A mixture of beets 
and potatoes with Mayonnaise is also used. Garnish with let- 
tuce, chopped yolk of hard-boiled egg and capers. In boiling 
potatoes for salad, do not steam them after they are boiled, as 
they should not be mealy. New or German potatoes are best 
for salad. 

COLD SLAW 

Shred a firm cabbage very fine. Mix it with a French dressing, 
using an extra quantity of salt, or put into a bowl the yolks of 
three eggs, one half cupful of vinegar (if it is very strong di- 



SALADS 379 

lute it with water), one tablespoonful of butter, one half tea- 
spoonful each of mustard and pepper, and one teaspoonful each 
of sugar and salt. Beat them together, place the bowl in a pan 
of boiling water, and stir until it becomes a little thickened. 
Pour this while hot over the cabbage, and set it away to cool. 

HOT SLAW 

Place shredded cabbage in a saucepan with enough salted 
boiling water to cover it. Boil it until tender, but not so long 
as to lose shape ; turn it onto a sieve and drain it well in a 
warm place. Pour over the drained cabbage a hot Bearnaise 
sauce. 

Cabbage salads are good to serve with fried oysters, meat 
fritters, or chops. 

The boiled cabbage, cold, may be used with French dressing. 

TOMATO SALADS 

To remove the skins from tomatoes, place them in a wire- 
basket, and plunge them into boiling water for a minute. This 
is better than letting them soak in the water, which softens 
them if left too long. 

No. 1. 

Select tomatoes of the same size and shape ; peel, and place 
them on ice until ready to use ; then cut each one in two and 
place on each piece a teaspoonful of Mayonnaise. Dress them 
on a bed of lettuce leaves; or, slice the tomatoes without break- 
ing their form, place each one on a leaf of lettuce, cover the 
tomato with Mayonnaise, and sprinkle over a little parsley 
chopped fine ; or scoop out a little of the center from the stem 
end and fill it with dressing. 

An attractive salad is made of the small yellow tomatoes 
which resemble plums. Remove the skin carefully; let them 
get thoroughly cold; then pile them on a dish the same as 
fruit, garnish with leaves of lettuce, and pour over them a 
French dressing. 



380 THE CENTUEY COOK BOOK 

No. 2. STUFFED TOMATOES 

Select round tomatoes of equal size ; peel and scoop from the 
stem end a part of the center. Place them on ice until ready to 
serve ; then fill them with celery cut fine and mixed with Mayon- 
naise. Let it rise above the top of the tomato. Put a little May- 
onnaise on small lettuce leaves, and place a stuffed tomato on 
the dressing in the center of each leaf. Arrange them in a cir- 
cle on a flat dish. Tomatoes may be stuffed in the same way 
with chopped veal, celery and veal or chicken, celery and sweet- 
breads, or chopped hard-boiled eggs and shredded lettuce. 

No. 3. TOMATOES AND EGGS 

Prepare the tomatoes as above ; partly fill them with Mayon- 
naise, and press into each one the half of a hard-boiled egg, 
letting the rounded top rise a little above the tomato. Serve 
on lettuce as above. 

No. 4. MOLDED TOMATOES 

Select small round tomatoes. Stuff them in any way directed 
above, but do not let the filling project beyond the opening. 
Place individual molds on ice. Small cups will do ; pour in one 
eighth of an inch of clear aspic or chicken aspic (see page 323) ; 
when it has set, place in each one a tomato, the whole side down ; 
add enough jelly to fix the tomato without floating it. When 
that has set, add enough more to entirely cover it (see Fancy 
Molding, page 323). Turn each molded tomato onto the plate on 
which it is to be served, and arrange around it a wreath of 
shredded lettuce. Pass Mayonnaise dressing separately. 

No. 5. TOMATO JELLY 

J can or 2 cupfuls of tomatoes. J teaspoonful of thyme. 
3 cloves. 1 teaspoonful of salt. 

1 bay-leaf. 1 teaspoonful of sugar. j 

1 slice of onion. J teaspoonful of pepper. ■ 

i box or i ounce of Cooper's gelatine, soaked in i cupful of 
water. 




TOMATOES STUITKD WITH CKLERY AND >IAYONXAISE STANDING ON LETTUCE 

LEAVES. 




SALAD OE SLICED HAKD-BOILED EGGS ARRANGED ON LETTUCE LEAVES, THE 
STALK ENDS OP THE LEAVES MEETING IN THE CENTER OP THE DISH. 




SALAD OP 8TUFPED EGGS GARNISHED WITH LETTUCE CUT INTO RIBBONS. 
(SEE PAGE 381.) 



SALADS 381 

Boil together the tomatoes, spices, and onion until the tomato 
is soft ; then add the soaked gelatine, and stir until the gelatine 
is dissolved ; then strain and pour it into a border or ring- 
shaped mold to set. Serve with the center of the jelly-ring filled 
with celery cut into pieces, into straws, or curled, and mixed 
with Mayonnaise. Form outside the ring a wreath of shredded 
lettuce. 

This jelly may also be molded in a solid piece and surrounded 
by the celery. (See illustration opposite page 384.) 

CELERY AND WALNUT SALAD 

Mix with the celery, cut into small pieces, one third the quan- 
tity of English walnut meats broken in two, and enough May- 
onnaise to well moisten it. Garnish with lettuce. 

SWEETBREADS WITH CELERY 

Cut cold cooked sweetbreads into dice and mix with an equal 
quantity of celery. Cover with Mayonnaise and garnish with 
lettuce. 

EGG SALAD No. 1 

Cut hard-boiled eggs (see page 262) into thick slices or into 
quarters. Use a sharp knife so the cuts will be clean. Arrange 
each portion on a leaf of lettuce partly covered with Mayon- 
naise, and arrange the lettuce in a circle on a flat dish, the stem 
of the leaf toward the center of the dish. Place a bunch of 
nasturtium flowers or a bunch of white chicory leaves in the 
middle. (See illustration.) 

No. 2 

Cut hard-boiled eggs in two, making the cut one third from 
the pointed end. Remove the yolks without breaking the whites j 
mash them and mix with chicken, chopped fine, and enough 
Mayonnaise to bind them. Fill the large half of the egg with 
the mixture, rounding it on top like a whole yolk. Invert the 
small pieces of white. Cut the pointed ends of both pieces flat, 
and stick them together with raw white of egg. Place the vase- 



382 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

shaped eggs on a flat dish, and fill the spaces with shredded 
lettuce. Pass Mayonnaise, as that put in the yolks will not be 
sufficient. (See illustration.) 

OEANGE SALAD 

Use for this salad sour oranges ; if these cannot be obtained, 
strain over sweet oranges after they are sliced a little lemon- 
juice. Cut the oranges in thick slices, remove the seeds care- 
fully, arrange them in rows, and turn over them a dressing 
made of one tablespoonful of lemon- juice to three of oil, with 
salt, and cayenne, or paprica to taste. Serve with game. 

Grape fruit may be used the same way, and walnut meats 
used with either. 

CHICKEN SALAD 

Cut cold cooked chicken into dice one half inch square, or 
into pieces of any shape, but not too small. Use only the white 
meat, if very particular as to appearance, but the dark meat is 
also good. Veal is sometimes substituted for chicken. Wash 
and scrape the tender stalks of celery. Cut them into small 
pieces, and dry them well. Use two thirds as much celery as 
chicken. Marinate the chicken as directed at the head of chap- 
ter. Keep it in a cold place until ready to serve; then mix 
with it the celery, and add lightly a little Mayonnaise. Place 
the mixture in a bowl, smooth the top, leaving it high in the 
center; cover it with Mayonnaise. Garnish with hard-boiled 
eggs, the whites and yolks chopped separately ; also with sliced 
pickle, stoned olives, capers, lettuce-leaves, celery-tops, etc. 
Arrange any or all of these in as fanciful design as desired. 
Shredded lettuce may be used instead of celery if more 
convenient. 

LOBSTER SALAD 

Cut the boiled lobster into one inch pieces or larger. Mari- 
nate it, and keep in a cool place until ready to serve; then mix 
with it lightly a little Mayonnaise. Place it in the salad bowl; 
smooth the top, leaving it high in the center. Mask it with a 



SALADS 383 

thick covering of Mayonnaise. Sprinkle over it the powdered 
coral of the lobster. Place on top the heart of a head of let- 
tuce, and around the salad a thick border of crisp lettuce-leaves, 
carefully selected. 

Shad roe, canned salmon, or any firm white fish mixed with 
Mayonnaise, and garnished with lettuce, may be served as a 
salad. 

OYSTER SALAD 

Scald the oysters in their own liquor until plump and frilled. 
Drain, and let them get very cold and dry. If large oysters, cut 
each one with a silver knife into four pieces. Just before serv- 
ing mix them with Mayonnaise or Tartare sauce, and serve 
each portion on a leaf of lettuce. Celery may be mixed with 
oysters, and served the same way. 

BOUILLI SALAD 

Cut beef that has been boiled for soup into half-inch dice. 
Marinate it, using a little grated onion with the marinade. 
Mix it lightly with some cold boiled potatoes cut into half -inch 
dice, and some parsley chopped fine. Pour over it a French 
dressing, or Mayonnaise. Garnish with hard-boiled eggs and 
lettuce. 

RUSSIAN SALAD 

Fill the outside of a double mold with clear aspic jelly (see 
page 321), and the center with a macedoine of vegetables, or 
with celery, or with any one vegetable. Marinate the vege- 
tables; then mix them with Mayonnaise made with jelly in- 
stead of eggs (see page 290). Cover the top with jelly so the 
vegetables will be completely enclosed (see directions for double 
molding, page 325). Turn the form of salad on a flat dish, and 
garnish with shredded lettuce. 

INDIVIDUAL RUSSLA.N SALADS 

Ornament the bottom of small timbale-molds with carrot 
cut into fancy shape in the center, and a row of green peas 



384 THE CENTUEY COOK BOOK 

around the edge. Add enougli clear aspic or chicken jelly 
to fix them, then fill the mold with jelly; when it has har- 
dened, scoop out carefully with a hot spoon some of the 
jelly from the center, and fill the space at once with a mace- 
doine of vegetables mixed with jelly Mayonnaise as above. 
Serve each form on a leaf of lettuce. Pass Mayonnaise 
separately. 

Note. — Molds of salad in aspic may be elaborately decorated 
with rows of different-colored vegetables, or they may be 
arranged in layers like the aspic of pate. 

: Individual salads, when served for suppers, buffet lunches, 
etc., may be placed around graduated socles in a pyramid. 
Decorations of capers and parsley, also of trufles and tongue, 
are suitable for Russian salads. 

ASPIC OF PATE EN BELLEVTTE 

Ornament the bottom of individual timbale molds with a 
daisy design made of hard-boiled egg as directed, page 326 -, fix 
it with a little jelly; then add a layer of jelly one quarter inch 
thick, and a layer of pat6 de foie gras alternately until the 
mold is full. Any forcemeat may be used in the same way. 
Turn the molds onto a flat dish and surround them with 
shredded lettuce, or place them on an ornamented socle. Pass 
Mayonnaise. (See illustration facing page 328.) 

CHICKEN ASPIC WITH WALNUTS 

Make a clear chicken consomme (see page 100). To one 
and one half cupfuls of the consomm^ add one half box 
of Cox's gelatine soaked for one half hour in one half cupful 
of cold water. Ornament the bottom of a quart Charlotte 
mold with a daisy design with leaf, as given page 326. Add 
a layer of jelly one quarter inch thick, and -then fill the 
outside of double mold with jelly. (See double molding, 
page 325.) Fill the center with one and a half cupfuls of 
celery cut rather fine, and one half cupful of English wal- 





iS iiiii^'. 



RUSSIAN MACEDOIKE SALADS WITH ASPIC. 

PINK AND WHITE OUTSIDE, CENTER FILLED WITH CELERY, PEAS AND BEANS, 

MIXED WITH CHICKEN ASPIC. 

1. Turnip. 2. Beet. 3. Triiffle. 

4. Red beets. 5. Slices of hard-boiled ^^^. 

6. Olives. 7. Turnip. 

8. Beet. 9. Turnip. 





INDIVIDUAL SALADS. 

1. Pat^ de fole gras and aspic jeUy in layers. Daisy decoration made of hard- 

boiled egg. 

2. Russian Salad decorated with green peas or capers. 




TOMATO JELLY MOLDED IN RING, THE CENTER FILLED WITH CURLED CELERY 

AND MAYONNAISE — LETTUCE CUT INTO RIBBONS AROUND THE OUTSIDE. 

(SEE PAGE 381.) 



SALADS 385 

nuts, broken to same size as the celery. Mix them with a 
dressing made of 

3 tablespoonfuls of melted 1 teaspoonful of vinegar, 

chicken jelly. J teaspoonful of tarragon 
2 tablespoonfuls of oil. vinegar. 

1 teaspoonful of salt. J teaspoonful of pepper. 

Cover the top with jelly, so as to completely enclose the 
celery mixture. Turn it onto a flat dish, and place around it a 
wreath of shredded lettuce. This is a very delicious salad, and 
well repays the trouble of preparation. 

BIBDS-NEST SALAD 

Rub a little green coloring paste into cream cheese, giving it 
a delicate color like birds' eggs. Roll it into balls the size of 
birds' eggs, using the back or smooth side of butter-pats. 

Arrange on a flat dish some small well-crimped lettuce leaves; 
group them to look like nests, moisten them with French dress- 
ing, and place five of the cheese balls in each nest of leaves. 
The cheese balls may be varied by flecking them with black, 
white, or red pepper. 

The nests may be made of shredded lettuce if preferred. 



Chaptek xvin 

COLD DESSERTS 

UTENSILS 

Illustration No. 1, Egg-beaters. — No. 1, Dover 
beater J Nos. 2 and 3, Wire Whips; No. 4, Daisy 
beater. 

lUustration No. 2, JeUy Molds.— No. 1, Two Char- 
lotte Russe molds to use for double molding; No. 2, 
cylindrical mold for Charlottes, Bavarians, cornstarch, 
etc.; Nos. 3 and 4, ring molds. 

Illustration No. 3. — No. 1, jelly mold packed in ice 
ready to be filled; No. 2, smaller mold to fit inside 
for double molding. 

Illustration No. 4. — Pastry bag and tubes. 

Illustration No. 5. — Paper for filtering fruit juices. 

Illustration No. 6. — No. 1, lace papers to use under 
cake, puddings, jellies, individual creams, bonbons, 
etc.; also for timbales; No. 2, paper boxes and china 
cups to use for individual souffles, biscuits, glace 
oranges and grapes, creamed strawberries, and cher- 
ries; also for creamed chicken, and fish, salpicon, etc. 

The china cups are useful for the latter purposes. 

The rectangular paper boxes are easily made. For 
boxes SJxlf inches, cut heavy unruled writing paper 
into pieces SjxTJ inches; fold down an edge two 
inches wide all around; fold it back again on itself, 
giving a border one inch broad. Cut the comers at 
the black line, as shown in diagram, and fold the box 
together. The ends will fit under the folds, and hold 

386 




1. Dover Beater. 

2. Wire Spoon. 



EGG WHIPS. 

3. Wire Whip, 

4. Daisy Beater. 



No. 1, 




JELLY MOLDS. 

1. Two Charlotte Molds for double molding. 



No. 2. 



2. Cylindrical Mold. 



4. Ring Molds. 




^ Xo. 3. 

JELLY MOLDS. 

1. Mold packed in ice for fancy molding. 

2. Smaller Mold of same shape to fit into No. 1 for double molding. (See page 326.) 



DESSERTS 



387 



the box in shape. A little more stability may be 
given the box by taking a stitch at each corner, and 
letting the thread run around the top of the box 
under the flap. 



rn 



WEIGHTS AND MEASURES 

4 gills = 1 pint. 
2 pints = 1 quart. 
4 quarts = 1 gallon. 
16 ounces = 1 pound. 

J kitchen cupful = 1 gill. 

1 kitchen cupful = i pint or 2 giUs. 

4 kitchen cupf uls = 1 quart. 

2 cupfuls of granulated sugar > _ -, -i 
2J cupfuls of powdered sugar ) ~ 

1 heaping tablespoonful of sugar = 1 ounce. 

1 heaping tablespoonful of butter > 2 oz. or i cupful. 

Butter size of an egg 5 

1 cupful of butter = ^ pound. 

4 cupfuls of flour ) _ -, -, 
1 heaping quart > ^ 

8 round tablespoonfuls of dry material = 1 cupful. 
16 tablespoonfuls of liquid = 1 cupful. 

PROPORTIONS 

5 to 8 eggs to 1 quart of milk for custards. 

3 to 4 eggs to 1 pint of milk for custards. 

1 saltspoonful of salt to 1 quart of milk for custards. 



388 



THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 



1 teaspoonf ul of vanilla to one quart of milk for cus- 
tards. 

2 ounces of gelatine to If quarts of liquid. 

4 heaping tablespoonfuls of cornstarch to 1 quart of 
milk. 

3 heaping teaspoonfuls of baking-powder to 1 quart 
of flour. 

1 even teaspoonful of baking-powder to 1 cupful of 

flour. 
1 teaspoonful of soda to 1 pint of sour milk. 
1 teaspoonful of soda to J pint of molasses. 



Oelatine. 



MATERIALS 

Cooper's gelatine costs eight cents a box, holding 
two ounces. Unless perfectly transparent jelly, with- 
out clarifying, is required, it serves as well as the more 
expensive brands. Cox's gelatine costs fifteen cents a 
box, containing one and one half ounces. It is clear, 
and needs only to be strained to make a transparent 
jeUy. 

Isinglass comes in thin sheets, is very clear, and 
makes a brilliant jelly. It costs ten cents an ounce, 
and there are eight and one half sheets of the white, 
thirteen sheets of the red, to an ounce. 

For dissolving and proportions, see page 412. 

Unsweetened chocolate costs about thirty-eight cents 

Chocolate, a pound. It is usually divided into squares weighing 

one ounce each. Sweetened chocolate costs about fifty 

cents per pound, and is usually divided into bars, each 

weighing a little less than one and a quarter ounces. 

Break the chocolate into pieces, and put them into 
a dry pan on the fire, where the heat is moderate. 
The chocolate melts quickly, and must be carefully 
watched, or it will burn. Add a few spoonfuls of 
milk to melted chocolate to dissolve it before adding 
it to custards. 



To melt 
chocolate. 



■5rJr 




No. 4. 



PASTRY BAG AND TUBES. 




PAPEB FOB FILTERING FRUIT JUICES. 



No. 5. 



DESSERTS 



389 



Do not let a particle of the yolk get into the 
whites. Add a little salt, and they will whip more 
quickly. The ^' daisy beater," with the handle bent, as 
shown in illustration, is an excellent one for whipping 
eggs. Hold it flat, and whip with an upward motion. 

One tablespoonf ul of powdered sugar to the white 
of one egg is the right proportion for sweetening 
meringue. Add but one spoonful of sugar at a time, 
place it on the side of the dish, and beat it in gradu- 
ally from below. This will destroy the air-cells less, 
and leave the egg lighter than sprinkling the sugar 
over the top. 

To whip cream, see page 408. 

Milk is scalded when the water in the outside dou- 
ble kettle boils. 

Eaisins are more easily stoned if soaked a few 
minutes. Roll raisins and currants in flour before 
adding them to cake or puddings. If added the last 
thing they will then hold in place, and not sink to 
the bottom. 

Use arrowroot to thicken fruit juices. It cooks 
perfectly clear, and does not destroy the color or cloud 
the transparency of the fruit. 

Where essences or wine flavorings are used they 
are put in the last thing, and after the mixture is 
cooked. For cold desserts the mixture should be 
partly or entirely cold before adding them. 

In molding mixtures be careful that bubbles of air 
do not form on the sides of the molds, as they leave 
holes and destroy the smoothness and beauty of the 
form. This can be prevented by pouring the mixture 
very slowly into the center of the tin. 



To whip 



Sweeten- 
ing. 



To whip 
cream. 



Milk. 
Baisins. 



Thicken- 
ing. 



Flavoring. 
Holding. 



FLAVORS 



Vanilla has long held first place in American cook- 
ing as flavoring, but is no longer highly esteemed, 



390 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

and by many it is considered injurious. The essences 
of fruits, flowerSj and nuts are preferable. They cost 
twenty cents per bottle of two ounces. 

Liqueurs. Cordials or liqueurs give by far the most delicate 
and pleasant flavor to jellies, creams, and many other 
desserts. They are rich syrups of different flavors, 
and contain only enough spirits to preserve them. 
Maraschino has the flavor of bitter cherry, Curasao 
of orange-peel, noyau of peach-kernels or nuts. They 
cost about $1.50 per bottle, holding nearly a quart, 
and last so long a time that the expense of using 
them is really not greater, if as much, as for vanilla, 
which costs twenty-five cents for two ounces. 

Wines. Kirsch, rum, and sherry are also much used in high- 
class cooking, and, like the liqueurs, need not be ex- 
cluded from use on the score of temperance. The 
slight flavor they impart to cooked dishes does not 
suggest the drink or create a taste for liquors. Wine 
augments the flavor of salt, and so the latter should be 
used sparingly until after the flavoring is added. 
Eau de Vie de Dantzic is made of brandy, is highly 
Eau de Vie flavored, and contains gold-leaf. It is used for jellies, 

® ^ *^' making them very ornamental. There is seldom 

enough gold-leaf in it, however, and more should be 

added. A book of gold-leaf costs less than fifty cents. 

In French cooking the vanilla bean is generally 

used instead of the extract. The bean is split and 

Vanilla infused in the liquid. Half of one bean is sufficient 
to flavor one quart, but its use is not always econom- 
ical, as one bean costs twenty cents. It is said the 
Tonquin bean, which is much less expensive, very 
closely resembles the vanilla bean in flavor and can 

Vanilla ^® substituted for it. 

powder. Vanilla powder is used for ice-creams. 

Vanilla Vanilla sugar is better than the extract of vanilla for 
sugar, meringues, whips, etc., where a liquid is not desirable. 



DESSERTS 



391 



Flavoring sugars can be made as follows : 

Cut one ounce of dried vanilla beans into pieces 
and pound them in a mortar with one half pound of 
granulated sugar to a fine powder. Pass it through 
a fine sieve. Pound again the coarse pieces that do 
not go through at first. Keep it in a well-corked 
bottle or preserve jar. 

Cut from six oranges the thin yellow rind, or zest, 
taking none of the white peel. Let it thoroughly 
dry, then pound it in a mortar with a cupful of granu- 
lated sugar and pass it through a fine sieve. Keep it 
in an air-tight jar. One tablespoonful of this sugar 
will fiavor a quart of custard. The Mandarin orange 
makes a good flavor. 

Another way is to rub cut loaf-sugar against the 
peel of an orange or lemon. As the sugar breaks the 
oil sacs and absorbs the zest, scrape it off, dry, and 
pass it through a fine sieve. 

Make the same as orange sugar, using two cupfuls 
of dried rose leaves to one of sugar. 

Orange and lemon syrups are made by pounding 
the thin yellow rinds with a little tepid water to a 
pulp, then adding it to cold syrup at 32° (see page 513), 
and letting it infuse for an hour or more. Strain and 
keep in air-tight jars. 

Pistachio flavor can be obtained, when it is not con- 
venient to use the nuts, by first flavoring with orange- 
flower water, then adding a very little essence of 
bitter almond. 

A peach leaf, infused with milk when it is scalded 
for custard, will give the flavor of noyau. 

Caramel (see page 78). This gives a very delicate 
and agreeable flavor to custards, cream and ices. 

Candied orange and lemon peel cut into shreds is 
good in custards and cakes. To prepare it, boil the 
peel in water until tender, then in sugar and water 



Flayoiing 
sugars. 



Vanilla 
stigar. 



Orange 

sugar. 



Lemon 
sugar. 



Bose 
sngar. 

Orange 

and lemon 

syrups. 



Pistachio 
flavor. 



Caramel. 

Fresenred 
orange and 
lemon peeL 



392 



THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 



until clear J let it stand in the syrup several hours, 
then drain and dry. It will keep indefinitely in a 
closed jar. 



Fruit 
juices. 



Candied 

California 

fruits. 



Angelica. 



COLORING 

Vegetable coloring pastes, which are entirely harm- 
less, can be obtained for twenty-five cents a bottle. 
The green and the red, or carmine, are the colors gen- 
erally used for icings, creams and jellies. The orange 
is used for orange-cake icing and candies. Very little 
should be used, as the colors should be delicate. To 
guard against using too much it is well to dilute it 
with a little water and add only a few drops at a 
time to the mixture. 

The various shades of red to pink are obtained by 
using more or less carmine. 

Fruit juices impart both color and flavor. They 
should be filtered (see page 415) before using, or they 
give a muddy color. 

GARNISHING 

To decorate cold sweet dishes, use fancy cakes, 
icings, fruits either fresh, candied, compote or glace ; 
jellies or blanc-mange molded, or made into a layer 
and then cut into fancy shapes. Spun sugar (see 
page 515) makes a fine decoration, and can be formed 
into nests, wreaths, balls, or simply spread irregularly 
over a dish. 

The candied California fruits are very useful and 
beautiful for both cold and hot desserts. They cost 
sixty to eighty cents a pound, and are not expensive, 
as but little is used at a time, and they keep indefi- 
nitely in closed jars. Cherries are used whole, the 
other fruits are cut into pieces. 

Angelica is also very effective for decoration. A 
piece costing twenty cents will go a long way. It is 




LACE PAPERS, PAPER BOXES, AND CHINA BOX. 



No. 6. 




FLOATING ISLAND. (SEE PAGE 395.) 



DESSERTS 



393 



cut into thin strips and then into diamond-shaped or 
triangular pieces^ and used to simulate leaves. The 
combination of cherries and angelica is especially 
pretty. 

A mold sprinkled with currants makes a good gar- 
nish for hot or cold puddings. 

Raisins and almonds also make an effective garnish 
for either hot or cold desserts. 

Almonds, pistachio nuts, filberts, English walnuts 
and chestnuts are employed in many ways, as see 
receipts. 

Fresh flowers and green leaves may be used with 
good effect on many cold dishes. Pink roses lend 
themselves particularly to this purpose. Violets, pan- 
sies, geraniums, sweet-peas and others are often ap- 
propriate. Nasturtiums with salad are good for both 
decoration and flavor. (See opposite pages 328,410,492.) 

Colored sugars and small candies called " hundreds 
and thousands" are used to sprinkle over icings, 
meringues, creams and whips. To color sugar sift 
coarse granulated sugar, spread the coarse grains on 
stiff paper, and drop on it a few drops of coloring 
fluid. Roll it under the hand until evenly tinted, 
then leave to dry on the paper. Keep in corked 
bottles. 

Sauces for cold sweet dishes are custards, whipped 
cream, canned or preserved fruit, fresh fruit juices, 
or purees. The purees are crushed fruit sweetened 
to taste (with sjrrup at 30^ if convenient). They are 
improved with a little flavoring of Maraschino, kirsch, 
Curasao, or with orange or lemon juice. Peach is im- 
proved in appearance if slightly colored with carmine. 

Canned fruits are now very inexpensive, and many 
of them are fresh in taste as well as appearance. They 
are useful in a variety of desserts, and often suit the 
purpose as well as fresh fruits. 



Currants. 

Baisins 

and 
almonds. 

Nnts. 



Fresh 
flowers. 



Colored 
sugars. 



Sauces. 



Canned 
fruits. 



394 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 



THE STORE-CLOSET 



Gamisliing 
and 



The various articles needed for garnishing, flavor- 
ing, etc., should be kept in glass preserve jars, and 
labeled. The store-closet, once furnished with the 
requisites for fancy dishes, will tempt the ordinary- 
cook to a higher class of work, and contribute to the 
flavoring, desirable end of presenting dishes that please both 
sight and taste, and so raise the standard of every- 
day cooking. It is very easy to garnish a dish or 
decorate a mold, and the habit once formed will lead 
to more ambitious attempts. 

CUSTAEDS 

BOILED CUSTARD NO. 1 

2 cupfuls, or one pint, of milk. J saltspoonful of salt. 
Yolks of 3 eggs. J teaspoonful of vanilla. 

3 tablespoonfuls of sugar. 

Boiled custard is the basis of many puddings, ice-creams and 
sauces. It requires care to get it just right, for the cooking 
must be arrested at the right point j a moment too soon leaves 
it too thin, a moment too long curdles and spoils it, It should 
have the consistency of thick cream, and be perfectly smooth. 
It is safer to make it in a double boiler. Bring the milk to the 
scalding-point without boiling ; then take from the fire, and pour 
it slowly into the eggs and sugar, which have been beaten togeth- 
er to a cream ; stir aU the time ; replace on the fire, and stir until 
the custard coats the spoon, or a smooth creamy consistency is 
attained j then immediately strain it into a cold dish, and add 
the flavoring. If vanilla bean, peach leaves, or lemon zest are 
used for flavoring, they can be boiled with the milk. If by ac- 
cident the custard begins to grain, arrest the cooking at once by 
putting the saucepan in cold water j add a little cold milk, and 
beat it vigorously with a Dover beater. Five egg yolks to a 
quart of milk will make a good boiled custard, but six or eight 



DESSERTS 395 

make it richer. It is smoother when the yolks only are used, yet 
the whole egg makes a good custard, and in the emergency of not 
having enough eggs at hand a little corn-starch may be used. 

Boiled custard may be flavored with vanilla, almond, rose, 
maraschino, noyau, caramel, coffee, chopped almonds, grated 
oocoanut, or pounded macaroons. The cocoanut makes a de- 
licious custard, but must be rich with eggs and stiff enough to 
keep the cocoanut from settling to the bottom. 

BOILED CUSTARD NO. 2. 

Make a boiled custard (see preceding receipt), using a pint of 
milk, three egg yolks, three tablespoonfuls of sugar, dash of 
salt, and any flavoring preferred. Let it get entirely cold j just 
before serving mix in lightly the whites of three eggs beaten to 
a stiff froth. This will give a sponge-like texture, and make a 
very delicate custard. As the whites are not cooked it will not 
keep long after they are added. Ornament the top with bits of 
jelly on small pieces of the whipped egg. 

FLOATING ISLAND 

Whip the whites of two or three eggs very stiff ; add a table- 
spoonful of powdered sugar (see page 389) to each egg ; flavor 
with essence of almond, and add a few chopped almonds. Turn 
it into an oiled pudding-mold which has a fancy top j cover and 
place it in a saucepan of boiling water to poach for twenty 
minutes. Leave enough room in the mold for the meringue to 
swell. Let it stand in the mold until cold j it will contract and 
leave the sides. When ready to serve, unmold the meringue 
and place it on boiled custard served in a glass dish. 

CHOCOLATE CUSTARD 

Make a boiled custard No. 1, using the whites as well as the 
yolks of the eggs j add one bar of melted chocolate (see page 388). 
Mix thoroughly and strain into cups. 



396 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

BAKED GUSTAED 

Use the same proportions as for boiled custard. Beat the 
eggs, sugar, and salt together to a cream j stir in the scalded 
milk 5 turn into a pudding-dish or into cups j grate a little nut- 
meg over the top j stand it in a pan of hot water, and bake in a 
moderate oven until firm in the center. Test by running a knife 
into the custard. If it comes out clean, it is done ; if milky, it 
needs longer cooking ; but it must be carefully watched, for it 
will separate if cooked too long. 

A custard, to be smooth and solid, must be baked very slowly. 
The holes often seen in baked custard are caused by escaping 
bubbles of steam, which rise through the mixture when the heat 
reaches the boiling-point. 

CARAMEL CUSTABD 

Put a cupful of granulated sugar into a small saucepan with 
a tablespoonful of water j stir until melted; then let it cook 
until a light brown color (see caramel, page 78). Turn one 
haK the caramel into a well-buttered mold which has straight 
sides and flat top, and let it get cold. Into the rest of the cara- 
mel turn a haK cupful of hot water, and let it stand on the side 
of the range until the caramel is dissolved. This is for the sauce. 

Stir four yolks and two whole eggs, with three tablespoonfuls 
of sugar, and one half saltspoonf ul of salt, to a cream, but do 
not let it froth ; add a pint of scalded milk and a half teaspoon- 
ful of vanilla. Strain this into the mold onto the cold hard- 
ened caramel. Place the mold in a pan of hot water, and bake 
in a very moderate oven until firm in the center ; test by run- 
ning in a knife (see baked custard), and watch it carefully. The 
water in the pan must not boil, and the oven should be so slow 
that it will take at least an hour to cook the custard. It will 
then be very firm and smooth. Unmold the custard. when ready 
to serve. It will have a glaze of caramel over the top, and some 
will run down the sides. Serve the caramel sauce in another 
dish. This dish is recommended. 




CORNSTARCH PUDDING IN LAYERS. (SEE PAGE 398.) 







COENSTAK( II PUDDING MOLDED IX RING MOLD WITH WHITE CALIFORNIA 
CANNED CHERRIES AND CENTER FILLED WITH CHERRIES. 



DESSERTS 397 

CHOCOLATE CREAM CUSTABD 

Use the same proportions as for caramel custard. Add one and 
one half ounces of melted chocolate (see page 388). Strain, it into 
a buttered mold, and bake slowly the same as caramel custard. 
Unmold when cold, and serve with or without whipped cream. 

Both the caramel and the chocolate cream custards may be 
baked in individual timbale-molds, if preferred. 

RENNET CUSTARD 

Sweeten and flavor the milk ; heat it until lukewarm ; then 
turn it into the glass dish in which it is to be served. Add to 
each quart of milk a tablespoonf ul of liquid rennet (which comes 
prepared for custards), and mix it thoroughly. Let it stand 
where it will remain lukewarm until a firm curd is formed ; then 
remove carefully to a cold place. If jarred the whey is likely 
to separate. Brandy or rum make the best flavoring for this 
custard, but any flavoring may be used. It may be served with- 
out sauce, but a whipped cream, colored pink, improves it, and 
also takes away the suggestion of soured milk which curds give. 

CORN-STARCH PUDDINGS 

(NO. 1). A PLAIN CORN-STARCH PUDDING 

1 pint of milk. 3 tablespoon fuls of sugar. 

2 heaping tablespoonf uls Whites of 3 eggs. 

of corn-starch. J teaspoonful of vaniUa. 

Beat the eggs to a stiff froth. Dissolve the corn-starch in a little 
of the cold milk. Stir the sugar into the rest of the milk, and 
place it on the fire. When it begins to boil, add the dissolved 
corn-starch. Stir constantly for a few moments. When it be- 
comes well thickened, stir in the beaten whites of the eggs, and 
let it remain a little longer to cook the eggs. Remove from the 
fire ; flavor with vanilla, and turn it into a mold.* 

* Corn-starcli has a raw taste unless it is thoroughly cooked. After the mixture 
has thickened it can be left to cook in a double boiler for half an hour without chang- 
ing its consistency, and this length of time for cooking is essential to its flavor. A 
mold of com starch should not be very flim, but have a trembling jelly-like consist- 
ency. The eggs may be omitted from above receipt if desired, but the pudding will 
not be as delicate.— M. E. 



308 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

This pudding is quickly and easily made. It gives about a 
quart of pudding, or enough to serve six to eight persons. It 
may or may not be served with a custard made of the yolks of 
the eggs, but it requires a good sauce and flavoring, or it is 
rather tasteless. Several variations of this receipt are given 
below. 

(NO. 2.) CORN-STARCH WITH CANNED FRUIT 

When the corn-starch is sufficiently set to hold the fruit in 
place, stir into it lightly one half can of weU-drained fruit (cher- 
ries, raspberries, strawberries, or any other fruit), and turn it 
into a mold to harden. Serve the juice of the fruit with it as a 
sauce. 

(NO. 3.) COCOANUT PUDDING 

When the corn-starch is removed from the fire, and partly 
cooled, add half a cocoanut grated. Mix it well together and 
turn into a mold ; serve with a custard or, better, with whipped 
cream. Sprinkle sugar over the half of the grated cocoanut not 
used, and spread it on a sieve to dry. It will keep for some time 
when dried. 

(NO. 4.) CHOCOLATE PUDDING 

When the corn-starch is taken from the fire and flavored, turn 
one third of it into a saucepan, and mix with it one and a half 
ounces or squares of chocolate melted, a tablespoonf ul of sugar if 
unsweetened chocolate is used, and a half cupful of stoned raisins. 
Let it cook one minute to set the chocolate. Turn into a plain 
cylindrical mold one half of the white corn-starch. Make it a 
smooth, even layer, keeping the edges clean ; then add the choco- 
late ; smooth it in the same way; then add the rest of the white 
corn-starch, making three even layers, alternating in color,* 
after each layer is in wipe the sides of the mold so no speck 
of one color will deface the other. (See illustration.) 

CORN-STARCH CHOCOLATES 

(VERY SIMPLE, AND QUICKLY MADE) ' 

Scald a pint of milk and four tablespoonf uls of sugar ; add an 
ounce of chocolate shaved thin, so it will dissolve quickly; then 



1.. 



DESSERTS 399 

add two heaping tablespoonf uls of corn-starch which has been 
diluted with a little of the cold milk. Stir over the fire until 
the mixture is thickened, add a half teaspoonful of vanilla, and 
turn it into small cups to cool and harden. Unmold the forms 
when ready to serve, and use sweetened milk for a sauce. By 
using a little less corn-starch, this mixture will be a smooth, 
thick custard, and may be served in the cups. 

BLANC-MANGE, OR WHITE JELLY 

i box, or 1 ounce, of gelatine. J cupful of sugar. 
3J cupfuls of milk. 1 teaspoonful of vanilla, 

or other flavor. 

Scald three cupfuls of milk with the sugar j then add and dis- 
solve in it the gelatine, which has soaked for one half hour in a 
half cupful of milk. Remove from the fire, add the flavoring, 
and strain into a mold. Blanc-mange may be flavored with any 
of the liqueurs, and it may have incorporated with it, when stiff- 
ened enough to hold them suspended, chopped nuts or fruits, or 
raisins, curi'ants, and citron. 

PLUM PUDDING JELLY 

i box, or 1 ounce, of gelatine 1 cupful of sugar. 

soaked J hour in 1 cupful of 1 pint of milk. 

cold water. 1 cupful of raisins stoned. 

IJ ounces of chocolate. J cupful of currants. " 

i cupful of sliced citron. 

Dissolve the sugar in the milk, and put it in a double boiler 
I to scald. Melt the chocolate on a dry panj then add a few 
I spoonfuls of the milk to make it smooth, and add it to the 
scalded milk. Remove from the fire, and add the soaked gela- 
tine. Stir until the gelatine is dissolved; then strain it into a 
j bowl. When it begins to set, or is firm enough to hold the fruit 
I in place, stir in the fruit, which must have stood in warm 
water a little while to soften. Flavor with one half teaspoon- 
ful of vanilla, or a few drops of lemon. Turn it into a mold to 



400 , THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

harden. Serve with it whipped cream, or a sauce made of the 
whipped white of one egg, one tablespoonf ul of powdered sugar, 
a cupful of milk, and a few drops of vanilla. 



BAVAEIAN CEEAMS 

Bavarian creams are very wholesome, light, and 
delicious desserts. They are easily made, and are iu- 



Oeneral 



remarks expensive, as one pint of cream is sufficient to make 
about, a quart and a half of bavarian. They are subject to 
so many variations that they may be often presented 
without seeming to be the same dish. Bavarian 
creams may be used for Charlotte Russe. 
General Rules. — Have the cream coldj then 
i whipped, and drained (see whipping cream), and do 
' not add the whipped cream to the gelatine mixture 
until the latter is beginning to set. 
How to Have the gelatine soaked in cold water one hour. 
It will then quickly dissolve in the hot custard. 
Do not boil the gelatine. 



make. 



PLAIN BAVARIAN CKEAM 

1 pint of cream whipped, i box, or 1 ounce, of gela- 
1 pint of cream or milk. tine soaked in one haK 

i cupful of sugar. cupful of water. 

Yolks of 4 eggs. J vanilla bean, or 1 teaspoon- 
J saltspoonf ul of salt. f ul of vanilla extract. 

Whip one pint of cream, and stand it aside to drain. Scald 
one pint of cream or milk with the vanilla bean spht in twoj 
remove it from the fire, and turn it slowly, stirring all the time, 
on the yolks, which have been beaten with the sugar and salt 
to a cream. Return it to the fire a moment to set the egg, but 
take it off the moment it begins to thicken. Add the soaked 
gelatine and flavoring (if the bean has not been used). Stir 
until the gelatine has dissolved, then pass it through a sieve. 



I 



DESSERTS 401 

When it is cold, and beginning to set, whip it a few minutes with 
a Dover beater and then mix in lightly the whipped cream, and 
turn it into a mold to harden. Avoid using any of the cream 
which has returned to liquid. This cream should have a spongy 
texture. 

CHOCOLATE BAVARIAN 

Use the receipt given above for plain Bavarian. Melt two 
ounces of chocolate, and dissolve it in a little milk,- add this to 
the custard mixture before the gelatine. 

ITALIAN CREAM, OR BAVARIAN WITHOUT CREAM 

Make a custard of one pint of milk, the yolks of three eggs, 
and three tablespoonfuls of sugar j add a dash of salt. When it 
is cooked enough to coat the spoon, add an ounce of gelatine, 
which has soaked for haK an hour in some of the cold milk. 
As sooij as the gelatine is dissolved, remove from the fire, and 
when it begins to stiffen fold in carefully the whites of three 
eggs whipped to a stiff froth, and turn it into a mold to set. 

FRUIT BAVARIAN 

Mash and press through a colander any fresh or canned fruit. 
If berries are used, press them through a sieve to extract the 
seeds. Sweeten to taste, and flavor with a little orange and 
lemon- juice, Curasao, or maraschino. To a pint of fruit juice 
or pulp add a half box or one ounce of gelatine, which has 
soaked an hour in one half cupful of cold water, and then been 
dissolved in one half cupful of hot water. Stir the fruit and 
gelatine on ice until it begins to set, otherwise the fruit will set- 
tle to the bottom. Then stir in lightly a pint of cream whipped 
and well-drained, and turn it into a mold to harden. Straw- 
benies, raspberries, pineapple, peaches, and apricots are the 
fruits generally used. With fruits it is better to use a porce- 
lain mold if possible, as tin discolors. If a tin one is used, coat 
it with jelly as directed on page 323, using a little of the dis- 
solved gelatine (sweetened and flavored) prepared for the fruit 

26 



402 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

EIGE BAVARIAK, OR BIZ A L'IMFEKATRICE 

Put into a double boiler one and one half pints of milk and a 
few thin cuts of lemon-zest j when it boils stir in one half cup- 
ful of well- washed rice and a saltspoonful of salt. Cook until 
the rice is perfectly tender. The milk should be nearly boiled 
away, leaving the rice very moist. Then add or mix in care- 
fully a half cupful of sugar and a quarter of a box, or one half 
ounce, of gelatine, which has soaked in half a cupful of cold 
water for one hour, and then melted by placing the cup con- 
taining it in hot water for a few minutes. When the mixture is 
partly cold add three tablespoonf uls each of maraschino^and of 
sherry, or of sherry alone, or of any other flavoring. When it 
is beginning to set, stir in lightly one half pint or more of well- 
whipped cream, and turn it into a mold. This is a very white 
dish, and is a delicious dessert. It may be served alone, or with 
orange jelly cut into croutons, or with orange compote (see 
page 536), or with plain or whipped cream. 

BAVABIAN PANACHEE 

Make a plain Bavarian ; flavor with vanilla j divide it into three 
parts before the cream is added. Into one third stir one ounce 
of melted chocolate. Into another third mix two tablespoonf uls 
of pistachio nuts chopped fine, and color it green (see page 392). 
Arrange the three parts in layers in a mold, beginning with the 
white, and stir into each one, after it has begun to set, and just 
before putting it into the mold, a third of the whipped cream. 
By keeping it in a warm place the Bavarian will not set 
before it is wanted, and it can then be made to set quickly by 
placing it on ice. 

BAVABIAN EN SUBPBISE 

Line a mold with chocolate Bavarian one inch thick. FiU the 
center with vanilla Bavarian mixed with chopped huts, or line 
the mold with vanilla Bavarian, and fiU with fruit B'^varian (see 
double molding, page 325). 




CORNSTARCH PUDDING WITH PAN8IES MOLDED IN A LAYER OF JELLY ON TOP- 
GARNISHED WITH PANSIES. 




OHABLOTlE KUjSSE WITH CAKK AKRANGKD IN STRIPS OP TWO COLOBS. 
(SEE PAGE 404.) 



DESSERTS 403 

DIPLOMATIC PUDDING 

This is molded in a double mold, and made of very clear 
]emon, orange, or wine jelly for the outside, and a Bavarian 
cream for the inside. With candied fruits make a design on the 
bottom of the larger mold (see molding, page 325) ; fix it with a 
very little jelly, then add enough more to make a half or 
three quarter inch layer of jelly. When it is set put in the 
center mold. Make a layer of fruit and a layer of jelly alter- 
nately until the outside space is filled, using fruits of different 
colors for the different layers or stripes. When it is set, re- 
move the small mold, and fill the space with Bavarian, using a 
flavor that goes well with the one used in the jelly — mara- 
schino with orange ; sherry, noyau, or almond with lemon. 

DIPLOMATIC BAVARIAN 

Take six lady-fingers; open, and spread them with apricot, or 
with peach jam. Place them together again like a sandwich. 
Moisten them with maraschino, and cut them in one inch lengths. 
Boil until softened a half cupful of stoned raisins and a half 
cupful of currants; drain them, and moisten them with maras- 
chino. Make a plain Bavarian flavored with kirsch. When it 
is beginning to set and ready to go into the mold, mix it lightly 
with the cake and fruit, and turn into a mold to harden. 

CHAELOTTE EUSSE 

Charlotte Russe is simply a cream mixture, molded. Forms, 
with cake on the outside. It is easily made and al- 
ways liked. Charlotte pans are oval, but any plain, 
round mold, or a kitchen basin with sides not too 
slanting, or individual molds may be used. 

First place on the bottom of the pan an oiled paper General 
which is cut to fit it neatly; then arrange lady-fingers directiona. 
evenly around the sides, or instead of lady-fingers use 
strips of layer sponge cake. No. 1 (page 466), or of 
Genoese (page 467). Cut the strips one or one and a 



404 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

half inches wide, and fit them closely together. Fill 
the center with any of the mixtures given below, and 
let it stand an hour or more to harden. 

A sheet of cake cut to fit the top may, or may not, 
be used. If cake is used it is better to place it on the 
Charlotte after it is unmolded and the paper removed. 
The layer cake should be one quarter or three eighths 

Ornament- of an inch thick only. Charlottes can be ornamented 

ation. ij2 many ways, and made very elaborate if desired. A 

simple decoration is obtained by having the strips of 

Cake in cake in two colors, alternating the upper, or browned, 

two colors. ^^^Yi the under, or white, side of the cake. For the 
top, cut a piece of cake to the right shape. Then cut 
it transversely, making even, triangular pieces, with 
the width at the base the same as the side strips. 
Turn over each alternate piece to give the two col- 
Icing in ors (see illustration) ; or, ice the strips and the top 
piece of cake with royal icing (see illustration) in 
two colors. Let the icing harden before placing it 
in the mold. Have the sides, as well as the bottom, 
of the mold lined with paper. Arrange the strips in 
the mold with the colors alternating. Instead of us- 
ing cake for the top, some of the filling mixture can 
be put into a pastry-bag, and pressed through a tube 

Decorating over the top in fancy forms. Meringue or whipped 
cream may also be used for decorating the top. 

CHARLOTTE RUSSE FILLING No. 1 



two colors. 



the top. 



Whip a pint of cream to a stiff froth. Soak a half ounce of 
gelatine in three tablespoonfuls of cold water for haK an hour j 
then dissolve it with two tablespoonfuls of boihng water. Add 
to the whipped cream a tablespoonful of powdered sugar (or a 
little more if liqueurs are not used for flavoring), and two des- 
sertspoonfuls of noyau or other liqueur, or a teaspoonful of 
vaniUa. Then turn in slowly the dissolved gelatine, beating all 
the time. When it begins to stiffen turn it into a mold which 
is lined with cake. 



DESSERTS 405 

CHARLOTTE RUSSE FILLING No. 2 

Beat well together two yolks of eggs and a half table- 
spoonful of sugar. Scald a half cupful of milk, and stir it into 
the beaten yolks j add a dash of salt, and return it to the double 
boiler. Stir it over the fire until it coats the spoon, thus making 
a plain boiled custard. Add to the hot custard a level table- 
spoonful of Cooper's gelatine, which has soaked for half an hour 
in four tablespoonfuls of cold water; stir until the gelatine is dis- 
solved, then strain it into a bowl; add two tablespoonfuls of 
sherry (or use any flavoring desired) and the whipped whites of 
two eggs ; beat until it just begins to thicken, then mix in lightly 
a pint of cream whipped to a stiff froth, and turn into the mold. 

CHARLOTTE RUSSE FILLING No. 3 (Fruit) 

Soak an ounce of gelatine in a half cupful of cold water for 
half an hour. Make a syrup of one cupful of sugar, a half cup- 
ful of lemon- juice, and two cupfuls of orange- juice. When it 
has become a light syrup, turn it slowly onto the beaten yolks 
of four eggs, beating all the time. Return it to the double 
boiler, and cook until it is a little thickened, then add the gela- 
tine. When the gelatine is dissolved, strain and beat until it is 
cold; add the whites of four eggs, and beat until it stiffens, 
then turn it into the mold. A pint of whipped cream may be 
used instead of the whipped whites of the eggs if convenient. 
In place of orange and lemon- juice, any fruit may be used. 
Stew the fruit until tender, add enough sugar to sweeten, and 
cook it to a light syrup; then press the fruit through a sieve, 
and to two and a half cupfuls of fruit syrup or of fruit pulp 
add the four eggs, and proceed as directed for the orange filling. 

CHARLOTTE RUSSE FILLING, No. 4 

Use any of the plain or fruit Bavarian creams. 

CHARLOTTE RUSSE FILLING No. 5 

Use whipped jelly plain, or whipped jelly with fruits, called 
macedoine of fruits (see page 417). 



406 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

TIMBALE OF BRIOCHE 

Bake a brioche (see page 359) in a cylindrical mold. Cut a 
straight slice off the top about one inch thick j replace the cake 
in the tin, and carefully pick out the center of the loaf, leaving 
a thickness of one inch of the brioche. Spread the inside with a 
layer of jam. Put in a saucepan the liquor from a can of 
apricots or peaches. Stir into it two tablespoonf uls of arrow- 
root, moistened with a little water, and stir over the fire until 
the juice is thickened and clear. Fill the center of the brioche 
with the drained fruit, mixed with blanched almonds and rai- 
sins j pour over it the thickened syrup, replace the cover. 
"When set turn it onto a dish; spread the outside with a little 
jam, and sprinkle with chopped blanched almonds. This makes 
a very simple and wholesome sweet. 

CHABLOTTE PBINGESSE de GALLES 

Take eight Carlsbad wafers of oblong shape. Stand them on 
end around the outside of a cylindrical mold, and carefully stick 
the edges together with sugar cooked to the crack, or with 
royal icing (see page 483). Make the octagon as regular as 
possible. When the edges are well set place it on a founda- 
tion either of puff-paste or of layer cake cut to the shape of the 
form. Ornament it with dots of royal icing pressed through a 
pastry-bag and tube onto the edges. Just before serving fill 
the center with whipped cream, or with czarina cream, or with 
whipped jelly and fruits, or whipped jelly and meringue, or 
with any of the mousses. The wafers quickly loose their crisp- 
ness, so the form must not be filled until the moment of serving. 

A filling may also be made for this Charlotte of any of the 
Charlotte Russe mixtures, molding them in a form smaller than 
the form of wafers, and when unmolded the ornamental form 
placed over it, and whipped cream piled on top. In this way 
the wafers will not be softened. 

STRAWBERRY CHARLOTTE 

Cut large firm strawberries in two lengthwise; dip themj 
in liquid gelatine, and line a plain mold, placing the flat side! 




CHARLOTTE RUSSE WITH STRIPS OF CAKE ICED IN TWO COLORS. (SEE PAGE 404.) 




CHARLOTTE BUSSE MADE OF ONE LAYER OF CAKE— TOP DECORATED WITH DOTS 

OF ICING. 





4 






rim 

1 ; ■ :/- 


1 


■Mi 


«■! 


m^"'' 



1 



CHARLOTTE PRINCESSE DE GALLES. (SEE PAGE 406.) 



DESSEETS 407 

against the mold. If the mold is on ice the jelly will harden 
at once, and hold the berries in place. Fill the center with 
Charlotte filling No. 1, or with Bavarian cream, or with pain de 
fraises. 

GATEAU ST. HONOBE 

This is a combination of puff-paste, cream cakes, glace fruits, 
and whipped cream. It is said to be the triumph of the chefs 
art, yet one need not fear to undertake it when one has learned 
to make good pastry and to boil sugar. It is an ornamental, 
delicious dessert, and one that can be presented on the 
most formal occasions. First : Roll thin a very short or a puff- 
paste, so when baked it will be one quarter of an inch thick 
only. Cut it the size of a layer-cake tin,- place it on a damp- 
ened baking-tin, and prick it with a fork in several places. 
Second: make a cream-cake batter (see page 474) j put the 
batter in a pastry-bag with half inch tube, and press out onto 
and around the edge of the paste a ring of the batter. With 
the rest of the batter make a number of small cakes (two dozen), 
forming them with the tube into balls one half inch in diame- 
ter. Brush the ring and balls with egg, and bake in a quick 
oven; then fill them with St. Honor e cream (see below). Third: 
boil a cupful of sugar to the crack, and glac6 some orange sec- 
tions and some white grapes (see glace fruits, page 516). Fourth : 
with some of the sugar used for the fruits stick the small 
cream cakes onto the ring, making an even border j on top of 
each cake stick a grape, and between them a section of orange. 
Place a candied cherry on each piece of orange, and one below 
it, if there is room. Other candied fruits and angelica may be 
used also, if desired, and arranged in any way to suit the fancy. 
Fifth : make a St. Honore cream as follows : scald one cupful 
of milk in a double boiler ; turn it slowly onto the yolks of six 
eggs, which have been well beaten with one and one half table- 
spoonfuls of corn-starch and a cupful of powdered sugar. 
Return to the fire until it begins to thicken or coats the spoon, 
then remove, and flavor with one teaspoonful each of vanilla 
and noyau, and stir in lightly the whites of eight eggs beaten 
very stiff. Cook it one minute to set the whites, beating all the 



408 



THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 



time. When cold, turn it into the gateau. Whipped cream 
may or may not be piled on top of the St. Honore cream. 

CBOQTJENBOUCHE OF MACAROONS 

Oil the outside of a dome-shaped mold. Beginning at the 
bottom, cover it with macaroons, sticking the edges of the 
macaroons together with sugar boiled to the crack, or with 
royal icing (see page 483). Just before serving turn it off the 
mold, and place it over a form of plain or fruit Bavarian cream, 
which has been hardened in a smaller mold of the same shape. 
There should be an inch or more of space between the two, the 
outer one covering the other like a cage. 

A croquenbouche can also be made of little cakes cut from a 
layer cake with a small biscuit-cutter, and iced in two colors with 
royal icing, or with glace oranges, or with chestnuts. The lat- 
ter are difl&cult to make, but are very good with ice-creams. 



General 
directions. 



Tempera^ 
tore. 



Texture. 



WHIPPED CEEAM 

One half pint of double or very rich cream costs 
ten cents, and may be diluted one half, giving a pint 
of cream as called for in the receipts. Cream should 
be placed on the ice for several hours before it is 
whipped. It is essential to have it very cold, other- 
wise it will not whip well; and also, if rich cream, it 
will form particles of butter. If not lower than 60° 
it will all go to butter. Place the bowl containing the 
cream in a larger bowl containing cracked ice, and 
with a cream churn, Dover beater, or wire whip, which- 
ever is convenient, whip it to a stiff froth; continue 
to whip until it all becomes inflated. If the cream is 
cold it will take but a few minutes. This gives a 
firm, fine-grained cream, which is used for Bavarians, 
mousses, ice-creams, etc. When a hghter and more 
frothy cream, called syllabub, is wanted for whips and 
sauces, dilute the cream more, and remove the froth 



I 



DESSERTS 409 

from the top of the cream as it rises while being 
whipped, and place it on a fine sieve over a bowl to 
drain. That which drips through the sieve replace 
in the whipping-bowl to be again beaten. The flavor- 
ing and sweetening are added after it is whipped for Time for 
the first method J but it is better to add it before for * ^' 
the latter, as mixing breaks down the froth. Whipped 
cream, like beaten whites of eggs, added to gelatine or 
custard mixtures, gives them a sponge-like texture. 
It should be drained, and added only when the mix- Draining, 
tui-es are cold and ready to be molded or frozen. It 
is then cut in lightly, not stiiTcd. Some judgment 
must be used about diluting the cream, and it must 
stand several hours on ice to insure success. 

Cream whipped by the first method is the one ' 

recommended for all purposes. When it is added to 
other things, any liquid cream that may have dripped 
to the bottom of the bowl should not be put in. 

DESSERTS OF WHIPPED CREAM 

Preserves and jams served with whipped cream 
make an excellent dessert. 

WHIPS 

Flavor a pint of cream with a dessertspoonful of maraschino, 
kirsch, or rum, or with a teaspoonf ul of essence of vanilla, rose, or 
almonds, or flavor it with black coffee. Color it pink, or green, 
or leave it white. Sweeten with three scant tablespoonfuls 
of powdered sugar. Whip it to a stiff froth and drain. Let it 
stand on ice until ready to use ; then with a spoon pile it high 
on a glass dish. If the cream is white sprinkle it with colored 
pink and green sugar mixed (see page 393). Or, skim off the 
foam which first rises, placing several spoonfuls of it on a 
sieve to drain. Color the rest a delicate pink, and whip it 
until it all becomes firm and of fine grain. Turn this into a 
glass dish, and with a spoon place the white froth upon it. 



410 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

CZARINA CBEAH 

1 pint of cream. J cupful of blanched almonds. 

J box of gelatine. 1 teaspoonful of vanilla. 

J cupful of sugar. J teaspoonful of rosewater. 

4 tablespoonfuls of sherry. 

Put a bowl containing the cream on ice; whip it to a stiff 
froth; add slowly the sugar, then the gelatine (which has first 
been soaked an hour in one quarter cupful of cold water, and 
then dissolved by placing the cup in hot water), beating all 
the time. Add the vanilla and rosewater, and enough green 
coloring (see page 392) to give it a delicate color. When it 
begins to stiffen add the sherry, and lastly the almonds chopped 
fine. When the cream is quite firm put it in round paper 
boxes, and sprinkle over the top a little colored sugar, or 
chopped pistachio nuts and granulated sugar mixed. Let it 
stand an hour or more on ice before serving. 

CHESTNUT PUREE WITH CREAM 

Boil a pound of shelled BngKsh chestnuts a few minutes; 
then drain, and remove the skins. Boil them again until ten- 
der; drain, and mash them through a puree sieve; sweeten, 
flavor with vanilla, and moisten them with a little cream. Put 
the puree in a saucepan, and stir over a slow heat until dry; 
then press it through a colander or potato-press onto the dish in 
which it is to be served. Form it into a circle, using care not 
to destroy the hght and vermicelli-like form the colander has 
given it. Serve whipped cream in the center of the ring. 

CHESTNUTS WITH CREAM 

After removing the shells and skins from some English 
chestnuts, boil them until tender in water, then in sugar and 
water, until clear. Let them lie in the syrup until cold; then 
drain, and pile them on a dish. Boil the syrup down to a thick 
consistency, and pour it over the nuts. Serve cold with 
whipped cream. 





i 





CHAELOTTE PRINCESSE DE GALLES MADE OP ROLLED GAM 11; IS. (SEE PAGE 406.) 



F 


MJOwi^^MPjtv. ^^\ 







GiXBAU ST. HONOi;]':. (s!;i: i'AGE 407.) 




PINK JELLY GARNISHED WITH PINK CARNATIONS. 



DESSERTS 411 

USES FOR STALE CAKE 

FINE CONES 

With a biscuit-cutter, cut slices of stale cake or bread into 
circles. Moisten them with sherry, maraschino, or merely with a 
little hot water. Chop some fresh or canned pineapple into small 
pieces, and pile it on the cakes. With a knife press each one into 
the form of a cone or small pyramid. Place them in a shallow tin 
close together^ but not touching. Put the pineapple liquor into 
a saucepan, and thicken it with arrowroot (which has first been 
wet with water), using a teaspoonful to a cupful of liquor. 
Cook until the arrowroot becomes clear and begins to stiffen,- 
then pour it slowly over the cones. It will cover them with a 
jelly. When cold, trim them carefully so the base of each one 
will be round, and lift them carefully from the tin. 



CAKE WITH CUSTAED 

Spread slices of stale cake or cottage pudding with jamj 
place them in a glass dish, and cover with boiled custard j or 
first moisten the cake with sherry, then cover with custard. 



TRIFLE (Esther) 

Slice in two six square sponge cakes (layer cake cut in 
squares will do), spread with jam or jelly (a tart jelly is best), 
and put them together like sandwiches. Moisten them in a 
mixture of one third brandy and two thirds sherry. Put them 
in a glass dish, and pour over them a custard made of one pint 
of milk, three eggs, and three tablespoonf uls of sugar ; put to- 
gether as directed for boiled custard No. 2 (page 395). Blanch 
and cut in fine strips one half cupful of almonds, and stick 
them into the top cakes standing upright. Cover all with 
a half pint of whipped cream, and sprinkle the top with hun- 
dreds and thousands (see page 393). or with colored sugar (see 
page 393), 



412 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

BANANA TEIFLE (Martha) 

i cupful of milk. J saltspoonful of salt. 

} cupful of water. 2 bananas. 

1 heaping teaspoonful of 6 lady-fingers. 

cornstarch. ^ pint of cream, or fche whipped 
1 even teaspoonful of sugar. white of one egg. 

Slice the bananas, and lay them in a glass dish in alternate 
layers with four lady-fingers split in two. Put the milk and 
water in a saucepan; add the sugar, salt, and the corn-starch di- 
luted in a little cold water. When it has thickened pour it 
over the bananas, and let it stand until cold and ready to serve; 
then cover the top with whipped cream, or if that is not con- 
venient use the whipped white of one egg sweetened with one 
tablespoonful of sugar. Split and break in two the remaining 
lady-fingers, and place them upright around the edge. 

SWEET JELLIES 

With different flavors, colors, and combinations, a 

great variety of attractive desserts can be made with 

gelatine. They are inexpensive, require no skill, and 

the work is accomplished in a very few minutes. 

Points to Points to Observe in Making Jellies. — Have jellies 

obse^in perfectly transparent and brilliant. Use the right 

jellies, proportions, so the jelly will hold its form, but not be 

too solid. Mold the jelly carefully. 

Dissolving. Dissolving. — Gelatine should be soaked in cold 

water in a cold place (one cupful of water to a box 

of gelatine) for one or more hours ; then dissolved in 

a Little hot water, or added to the hot mixture. Treated 

in this way it will dissolve quickly, and be free from 

taste or smell. If soaked in warm water, in a warm 

place it will have a disagreeable taste and odor, 

requiring much flavoring to overcome. 

It does not need cooking. If the jelly is not suffi- 



JELLIES 



413 



eiently firm, add more gelatine j boiling down will 
not effect the purpose. 

Proportions. — Observe the quantity of gelatine 
stated on the box, as some brands do not contain two 
ounces. Two ounces will take one and three quarter 
quarts of liquid, including that used for soaking and 
flavoring. The directions given on the boxes usually 
give the proportion of one ounce to a quart of liquid, 
but this will not insure a jelly which will stand firm, 
and it is safer to use less liquid. 

For this amount two cupfuls of sugar will give 
about the right sweetening, but must be modified to 
suit the flavoring used. In summer, or if the jelly 
will have to stand any length of time after it is un- 
molded, it is better to use but one and one haK 
quarts of liquid to two ounces of gelatine. 

Clarifying. — Most of the brands of gelatine are al- 
ready clarified, and need only to be passed through a 
sieve to remove the lemon-zest and any particles of 
gelatine that may not have dissolved. Any fruit juices 
used should be passed through a filter-paper (see be- 
low) before being added to the jelly : straining the 
jelly once or twice through a felt or flannel will usu- 
ally give perfectly limpid and beautiful jelly. When, 
however, they need to be clarified, or a particularly bril- 
Uant jelly is required, stir into the mixture when it is 
cool the whites of two eggs, well broken but not too 
much frothed ; add also the shells ; stir it over the fire 
until it boils ; let it simmer a few minutes and strain 
it, twice if necessary, through a bag, without pres- 
sure. A piece of flannel laid over a sieve or strainer 
may be substituted for a bag if more convenient. 

Molding for Fancy Jellies. — Place the mold in a 
bowl containing cracked ice ; the jelly will then quickly 
harden, and the process of fancy molding not be te- 
dious. Have the mold perfectly even, so the jelly will 



Propor- 
tions. 



To clear 
jeUy. 



Molding 

for fancy 

jellies. 



414 



THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 



To mold 
with fruit 
or flowers. 



Double 
molding. 



TJnmolding. 
Serving. 



stand firm and straight when unmolded 5 also, do not 
move the mold while flUing, as jarring or shaking is 
likely to separate the layers and cause them to fall 
apart. Have the jelly mixture cold, but not ready to 
set, or it wiU take in bubbles of air and cloud the 
jelly. Pour in one layer at a time and let it harden 
before adding the next. Do not, however, let it be- 
come too firm or gather moisture, or it will not unite, 
and also will be clouded. (See picture facing page 386.) 

To suspend a bunch of grapes in the center of a 
form, first pour into the mold a layer of jelly one half 
inch deep J let it harden; then place on it, and ar- 
range in good shape the bunch of grapes, leaving one 
half inch or more space around the sides; pour in 
another half inch of jelly, but not enough to float 
the grapes ; when that has set, cut with scissors the 
grape stem in many places, so it wiU fall apart when 
served ; then fill the mold with jelly. Any fruits, or 
flowers, can be put in in the same way, care being 
used to add at first only just enough jelly to fix the 
ornament ; otherwise it will float out of place. Plain 
jellies are more transparent when molded in forms 
having a cylindrical tube in the center, like cake-tins. 
The space left can be filled with whipped cream or 
with fruits, which gives a pretty effect. (See picture.) 

Double Molding (see page 325) can be used with 
good effect in sweet jellies in combination with 
whipped jelly. Bavarian creams, fruit jellies, etc. 

TJnmolding. — See page 324. 

Serving. — Jellies are improved by serving with them 
whipped cream, custard, or puree of fruits. It may 
be poured around, not over, the jelly on the same 
dish. When a sauce is not used, have a, lace paper 
under the jelly. Jelly is more attractive when served 
on a flat glass dish. 

For fruit jellies it is well to use a china mold, or 



JELLIES 415 

else coat the tin one with clear jelly (see page 323), Jruit 
as tin is likely to discolor it. ^® ®*' 

To Clarify Fruit Juices.— F ass the fruit juice to clarify 
through filter-paper laid in a funnel. If filter-paper fruitjuices. 
is not at hand, soak unsized paper to a pulp. Wash 
it in several waters ; press it dry ; and spread it on a 
small sieve or in a funnel, and drain the juice through 
it. If orange, lemon, or other fruit juices are first 
clarified, it wiU often obviate the necessity of straining 
the jelly. (See illustration facing page 388.) 

WINE JELLY 

J box, or 1 ounce, of gelatine. 1 cupful of sugar. 
J cupful of cold water. Juice of 1 lemon. 

2 cupf uls of boiling water. | cupful of sherry, or 

3 parts sherry, 1 part brandy. 

Soak the gelatine in one haK cupful of cold water for one 
hour or more. Put the boiling water, the sugar, and a few 
thin slices of lemon-peel in a saucepan on the fire. When the 
sugar is dissolved, add the soaked gelatine, and stir until that 
also is dissolved ; then remove, and when it is partly cooled add 
the lemon- juice and the wine. Strain it through a felt or flan- 
nel, and turn it into the mold. If the jelly has to be clarified 
do it before adding the wine. Any wine or liqueur can be used 
for flavoring. This will make one quart of jelly. 

LEMON JELLY 

J box, or 1 ounce, of gelatine. 1 cupful of sugar. 
J cupful of cold water. Juice of 3 lemons, filtered, 

2 cupfuls of boiling water. Thin slices of lemon-rind. 

Put together as directed for wine jelly. 

ORANGE JELLY 

i box, or 1 ounce, of gelatine. Juice of 1 lemon. 
J cupful of cold water. 1 cupful of sugar. 

1 cupful of boiling water. 2 cupfuls of orange-juice, 

filtered. 



416 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

Combine the same as directed for wine jelly. 

A stronger flavor and color of orange can be obtained by soak- 
ing with the gelatine the grated yellow rind of one or two 
bright-skinned oranges. In this case the juice need not be fil- 
tered, for the mixture will have to be passed through flannel. 
Putting it through several times gives a clearer and more bril- 
liant jelly. ' 

COFFEE JELLY 

Use the receipt given for wine jelly, using three quarters of a 
cupful of strong filtered coffee instead of wine, and omitting the 
lemon ; mold in a ring, and fill the center with whipped cream j 
or, if this is not convenient, use any mold, and serve with it 
sweetened milk. 

CHAMPAGNE JELLY 

} box of Cox's gelatine soaked 1 cupful of sugar. 

in J cupful of cold water. 1 teaspoonf ul of lemon- 
1 cupful of boiling water. jnice, filtered. 

1 cupful of champagne. 
Combine the same as wine jelly, and do not add the cham- 
pagne until the jelly is cold. This will give one and a half 
pints of jelly. It is very clear and transparent, and well suited 
to fancy molding. 

CHAMPAGNE JELLY WITH FLOWERS 

Place on ice a broad round mold (a basin wiU serve the pur- 
pose) 5 arrange, on a very thin layer of jelly, some pink rose pet- 
als in rosette form, or to simulate an open rose; add carefully 
a very little jelly with a spoon to set the decoration; when it 
has hardened, add a very little more, and so continue to do un- 
til the petals are haK enveloped ; then place in right position 
some angelica cut in diamond shaped pieces to simalate leaves ; 
add a little jelly at a time until the mold is full. The petals 
will be bent out of shape if the jelly is not added very slowly. 
When unmolded place around it some green rose-leaves and a 




JELLY WITH A ROSE MOLDED IN IT AND GARNISHED WITH ROSES. (SEE PAGE 4U.) 




JELLY WITH A BUNCH OF GRAPES MOLDED IN IT. (SEE PAGE 414.) 



JELLIES 417 

few loose pink rose-petals. A little rose-water or essence should 
be used with the champagne to flavor the jelly. Violets and an- 
gelica can be used in the same way, or a spray of roses with 
leaves can be put in a deeper mold, and when secured in posi- 
tion the stems cut the same as directed for molding grapes. 
When flowers are used they must be very fresh. 

WHIPPED JELLY OR SNOW PUDDING 

Make a wine or lemon jelly (page 415). Place it in a bowl 
on ice ; when it is cold, but before it begins to harden, beat it 
with a Dover beater until it becomes white and a mass of froth. 
Turn it into a mold to harden. Serve wdth it a sauce made of 
boiled custard, or any preserve that will go well with the flavor- 
ing, or a compote of orange or any fruit. 

JELLIES WITH FRUITS (Macedoine) 

Berries or any fresh fruits, peeled and quartered, may be 
placed in layers, or irregularly through the entire mold, or a 
mixture of fruits may be used in the same way, when it is called 
a macedoine. The jelly may be clear or whipped. Strawber- 
ries, raspberries, currants (red and white), cherries, peaches, 
plums, pears, apricots, and pineapples are suitable for this use. 
Preserved or canned fruits well drained may also be used. 
Candied fruits are especially good, but should be cut into pieces, 
and softened in maraschino. Jellies to be used with fruits are 
best flavored with kirsch or maraschino. 

RUSSIAN JELLIES 

For these double molds are used (see page 386). 

No. 1. Make the outside layer of any transparent jelly. When 
hard remove the inner mold and fill the space with the same 
jelly whipped until foamy. No. 2. The outside a transparent 
jelly, the inside one of different flavor and color, such as cham- 
pagne and maraschino colored pink, orange and strawberry, 
lemon and coffee. No. 3. The outside champagne jelly, the in- 

27 



418 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

side whipped jelly mixed witli macedoine of fruits. No. 4. The 
outside wine or maraschino jelly, the filling pain de f raises 
(see page 419). No. 5. The outside fruits in clear jelly, the in- 
side Bavarian cream. No. 6. Maraschino jelly, center Bavarian 
cream mixed with crushed peaches or with apricot jam. 

BIBBON JELLT 

Make a plain jelly ; divide it into three parts ; flavor one with 
maraschino 5 the second with strawberry- juice, and deepen the 
color with a little carmine (see page 392) j the third with orange, 
noyau, or any other flavor, and whip it until foamy. Put it into 
mold in layers, beginning with the lightest. 

ITALIAN JELLY 

Make a plain blanc-mange (see page 399). Let it set in a 
layer one half inch thick ; cut it into small circles, diamonds, or 
fancy shapes with cutters. Ai-range these pieces in some de- 
sign around or inside a mold of transparent jelly (see molding 
jellies, page 324). The blanc-mange may be colored pink, 
green, or yellow, and gives a very pretty effect. 

DANTZIC JELLY 

This is a very clear, ornamental jelly, the gold-leaf giving 
it the appearance of Venetian glass, and is good in individual 
molds to serve with ices. Use the receipt for wine jelly, omit- 
ting the wine and making the amount of liquid right by using 
more water ; clarify or strain it several times to make it very 
brilliant; when it is cold add two tablespoonfuls each of eau 
de vie de Dantzic (see page 390) and brandy. 

WHAT TO DO WITH JELLY LEFT OVEB 

Add a little lemon- juice, and beat the jelly until it becomes 
entirely white, which will take some time ; turn it again into a 
mold to set. If there is not enough jelly for this, cut the jelly 
into fine dice with a knife as directed for cutting aspic on page 
323, and beat into it lightly an equal quantity of meringue. 
This should be prepared in a cold place. 



JELLIES 41^ 

PAINS ATTX FRXnTS, OR JELLIED ERUITS 

PAIN DE FRAISES (STRAWBERRIES) 

Crush the berries to a pulp ; sweeten to taste, and add a lit- 
tle flavoring, either orange and lemon juice, maraschino or Cu- 
rasao. To a pint of the pulp add a half box, or one ounce, of Coop- 
er's gelatine, which has soaked an hour in one half cupful of 
cold water, and then been dissolved in one half cupful of hot 
water. Stir until it begins to set ; then turn it into a china mold to 
harden. The mold may be ornamented with blanched almonds 
split in two, and arranged in star shapes. When a tin mold is 
used for fruits, it is well to coat it first with plain jelly (see 
page 323), as tin sometimes discolors fruit juices. A little 
carmine may be used to heighten the color of red fruits. Rasp- 
berries, cherries, peaches, apricots, plums, pineapples, or oranges 
can be used in the same way. This gives a very good dessert 
with little trouble. Serve with cream. 

SUPR:eME OF STRAWBERRIES 

Make a pain de fraises ; place it on the outside of a double 
mold (see page 325), and fill the center space with whole ber- 
ries, or with any other fruit or mixture of fruits, such as white 
grapes and oranges, etc. Serve it very cold with whipped cream. 

PAIN DE RIZ AUX FRUITS 

(RICE WITH fruits) 

Make a rice Bavarian (see page 402) j mix with it a few 
chopped blanched almonds. Put it in a cylindrical mold in 
layers with pain de fraises (strawberries) or raspberries, keep- 
ing the red layer thinner than the white one j or mold it in a 
double mold, using the jellied fruit for the center or for the 
outside. 

PAIN DE RIZ A LA PRINCESSE 

Decorate a mold with candied cherries and angelica j line it 
with rice Bavarian, and fill the center with fresh or canned 
pineapple chopped and jellied. The jelly may be clear or 
whipped or mixed with whipped cream. 



420 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

FAIN D'OEAKGES 

(ORAjNGES) 

Take off the peel and divide into sections eight to ten oranges j 
run a knife between the skin and pulp and remove it carefully. 
Place the bare but unbroken pulp on a sieve to drain; roU 
each piece in powdered sugar, and lay them overlapping in a 
ring around a cylindrical mold ; fix and cover them with clear 
jelly flavored with kirsch or maraschino. Arrange them in 
the same way around the outside of a double mold. Fill the cen- 
ter with orange Bavarian, using the juice drained from the 
pieces to flavor the Bavarian. Serve it with orange quarter 
cakes (see page 478) around the dish. 

PAIN DE PECHES 

(peaches) 

No. 1. Make a jelly of peaches the same as rule given above 
for strawberries J color it with a little carmine, giving it a 
delicate pink shade ; garnish the mold with blanched almonds 
and angelica, and fill it with the jellied peach-pulp. No. 2. 
Cut peaches in quarters or halves, and arrange them in a double 
mold with blanched almonds to look like the pits ; fill the cen- 
ter with peach Bavarian. 

PAIN DE MAERONS 

(chestnuts) 

Make a pur§e of boiled chestnuts j sweeten and flavor with 
vanilla ; add to one pint of pur^e one ounce of dissolved gela- 
tine; when beginning to set add a few spoonfuls of whipped 
cream ; cover a mold with thin coating of jelly (see page 323), 
and fill outside of double mold with very brown chocolate Ba- 
varian (see page 401) ; fill the center with the jellied chestnuts. 



General 



Chaptee XIX 

HOT DESSERTS 

SOUPFLES 

The preparation of souffles is exceedingly simple, 
the only difficulty being in serving them soon enough, 
as they fall very quickly when removed from the heat. 
They must go directly from the oven to the table, and 
if the dining-room is far removed from the kitchen romarks. 
the souffl6 should be covered with a hot pan until it 
reaches the door. The plain omelet souffle is the most 
difficult. Those made with a cooked foundation do 
not fall as quickly, but they also must be served at 
once. In order to insure the condition upon which 
the whole success of the dish depends, it is better to 
keep the table waiting, rather than suffer the result 
of the omelet being cooked too soon. Have every- 
thing ready before beginning to make a souffle, and 
see that the oven is right. In adding the beaten 
whites " fold ^' them in, that is, lift the mixture from 
the bottom, and use care not to break it down by too 
much mixing. 



421 



422 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

OMELET SOUFFLE 

Whites of 6 eggs. 3 rounded tablespoonfuls of 

Yolks of 3 eggs. powdered sugar, sifted. 

Grated zest of i lemon. 1 tablespoonful of lemon-juice. 

Whip the whites of the eggs, with a pinch of salt added to 
them, to a very dry stiff froth. Beat to a cream the yolks and 
the sugar, then add the lemon. Fold in the beaten whites 
lightly (do not stir) and turn the mixture into a slightly oiled 
pudding-dish. If preferred, turn a part of it onto a flat dish, and 
with a knife shape it into a mound with a depression in the center. 
Put the rest into a pastry-bag, and press it out through a large 
tube, into lines and dots over the mound ; sprinkle it with sugar 
and bake it in a very hot oven eight to ten minutes. Serve at 
once in the same dish in which it is baked (see souffles above). 
The flavor may be vanilla, or orange if preferred. 

VANILLA SOUFFLE 

1 cupful of milk. 2 tablespoonfuls of butter. 

2 tablespoonfuls of flour. J teaspoonf ul of salt. 

3 tablespoonfuls of sugar. 1 teaspoonful of vanilla. 

4 eggs. 

Put the milk into a double boiler with the salt ; when it is 
scalded add the butter and flour, which have been rubbed to- 
gether. Stir for ten minutes to cook the flour and form a 
smooth paste j then turn it onto the yolks of the eggs, which, 
with the sugar added, have been beaten to a cream. Mix thor- 
oughly, flavor, and set away to cool ; rub a little butter over 
the top, so that no crust will form. Just before time to serve, 
fold into it lightly the whites of the eggs, which have been 
beaten to a stiff froth. Turn it into a buttered pudding-dish 
and bake in a moderate oven for thirty to forty minutes ; or, put 
the mixture into buttered paper cases, filling them one half full, 
and bake ten to fifteen minutes. Serve with the soufle foamy 
sauce (page 445). This souffle may be varied by using different 
flavors J also by putting a layer of crushed fruit in the bottom 




PUDDING MOLDS. 




BAKED APPLE DUMPLINGS. (SEE PAGE 429.) 



HOT DESSERTS 423 

of the dish, or by mixiDg a half cupful of fruit- pulp with the 
paste before the whites are added. In this case the whites of 
two more eggs will be needed to give sufficient lightness. Serve 
at once after it is taken from the oven. 

CHOCOLATE SOUFFLE 

3 ounces of chocolate. J cupful of milk. 

1 heaping tablespoonf ul of sugar.* Yolks of 3 eggs. 

2 rounded tablespoonf uls of flour. Whites of 4 eggs. 

1 rounded tablespoonful of butter. 
Melt the butter in a small saucepan ; stir into it the flour and 
let it cook a minute, but not brown, then add slowly the milk 
and stir until smooth and a little thickened j remove it from the 
fire and turn it slowly onto the yolks and sugar, which have 
been beaten to a cream ; mix thoroughly and add the melted 
chocolate (see page 388) ; stir for a few minutes, then set it 
away to cool j rub a little butter over the top so a crust will not 
form. When ready to serve, stir the mixture well to make it 
smooth and fold into it lightly the whites of the eggs, which 
have been whipped until very dry and firm. Turn the mixture 
into a buttered tin, filling it two thirds full. Have the tin lined 
with a strip of greased paper which rises above the sides to 
confine the soufle as it rises. Place the tin in a deep saucepan 
containing enough hot water to cover one half the tin. Cover 
the saucepan and place it where the water will simmer for 
thirty minutes, keeping it covered all the time. Place the tin 
on a very hot dish and serve at once. Cover the top with a hot 
tin until it reaches the dining-room if it has to be carried far. 

PRUNE SOUFFLE 

i pound of prunes. 4 eggs. 

3 tablespoonfuls of pow- 1 small teaspoonful of 

dered sugar. vanilla. 

Beat the yolks of the eggs and the sugar to a cream, add the 
vanilla, and mix them with the prunes, the prunes having been 

* If unsweetened chocolate is used, add about ttiree more tablespoonfuls of sugar 
or to taste, and a teaspoonful of vanilla. 



424 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

stewed, drained, the stones removed, and each prune cut into 
four pieces. When ready to serve fold in lightly the whites of 
the eggs, which have been whipped to a stiff froth, a dash of 
salt having been added to the whites before whipping them. 
Turn it into a pudding-dish and bake in a moderate oven for 
twenty minutes. Serve it as soon as it is taken from the oven. 
A few chopped almonds, or meats from the prune-pits, may be 
added to the mixture before the whites are put in if desired. 

APPLE SOUFFLE 

Boil some peeled and cored apples until tender ; press them 
through a colander j season to taste with butter, sugar, and 
vanilla. Place the puree in a granite- ware saucepan and let it 
cook until quite dry and firm. To one and one quarter cupfuls 
of the hot reduced apple pur6e add the whites of four eggs, 
whipped very stiff and sweetened with three tablespoonfuls of 
powdered sugar. Mix the pur6e and meringue lightly and 
quickly together and turn it into a pudding-dish ; smooth the 
top into a mound shape ; sprinkle with sugar and bake in a slow 
oven twenty to twenty-five minutes. This souffl6 does not fall. 
Serve with a hard, a plain pudding, or an apricot sauce. 

FAEINA PUDDING 

This is a very wholesome, delicate pudding, and is especially 
recommended. The receipt gives an amount sufficient for six 
people. 

2 cupfuls of milk (1 pint). 3 tablespoonfuls of sugar. 
4 tablespoonfuls of farina. 3 eggs. 
Grated rind of J lemon. 

Put the milk and lemon-zest into a double boiler j when it 
reaches the boiling-point stir in the farina and cook for five 
minutes ; then remove from the fire and turn it onto the yolks 
and sugar, which have been beaten together until light j stir 
all the time. Let it become cool but not stiff j when ready to 
bake it, fold in lightly the whites of the eggs beaten to a stiff 



HOT DESSERTS 425 

froth, a dash of salt added to them before beating. Turn it 
into a pudding-dish and place the dish in a pan containing 
enough hot water to haK cover it. Bake it in a moderately hot 
oven for twenty-five minutes. Serve at once, or, like other 
souffles, it wiU faU. Serve with it a sabayon No. 2, or a meringue 
sauce (pages 446 and 448). 

SWEET OMELETS 

These desserts are quickly made, are always liked, and serve 
well in emergencies. 

ORANGE OMELET 

3 eggs. 1 orange, using the grated 

3 tablespoonfuls of pow- rind and 3 tablespoonfuls 

dered sugar. of juice. 

Beat the yolks of the eggs with the sugar to a cream ; add 
the grated zest of the rind and the orange juice ; then fold in 
lightly the beaten whites of the eggs. Have a clean, smooth 
omelet or frying-pan j put in a teaspoonf ul of butter, rubbing 
it aroundr the sides as well as bottom of the pan. When the 
butter bubbles, turn in the omelet mixture and spread it evenly. 
Do not shake the pan. Let it cook until it is a delicate brown 
and seems cooked through, but not hard. Fold the edges over 
a little and turn it onto a flat hot dish ; sprinkle it plentifully 
with powdered sugar j heat the poker red hot and lay it on the 
omelet four times, leaving crossed burnt lines in the form of a 
star. This ornaments the top and also gives a caramel flavor 
to the sugar. 

JAM OMELET 

Make a French omelet as directed on page 264, using four to 
six eggs; omit the pepper and add a little powdered sugar. 
When the omelet is ready to turn, place in the center two table- 
spoonfuls of any jam (apricot is particularly good) and fold. 
Turn the omelet onto a hot dish and sprinkle it with sugar. 



426 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

BUM OMELET 

Make either a French omelet, or a beaten omelet, using a 
little sugar and omitting the pepper. Place the dish holding 
the omelet on a second and larger dish to prevent accident 
from fire. When ready to place on the table pour over the 
omelet a few spoonfuls of rum or brandy and light it. It is 
better not to touch the match to it until it is on the table. 

SWEET PANCAEJSS 

3 eggs. 1 teaspoonful of sugar. 

1 cupful of milk. J cupful of flour. 

i teaspoonful of salt. J tablespoonf ul of oil. 

Beat the yolks and whites of the eggs separately ; mix them 
together and add the salt, sugar, and one half the milk ; stir in 
the flour, making a smooth paste j then add the rest of the milk, 
and lastly the oil ; beat well and let it stand an hour or more 
before using. Bake on a hot griddle in large or small cakes as 
desired j spread each cake with butter and a little jam or jelly, 
then roll them, sprinkle with sugar, and serve at once. Any 
pancake batter can be used. Those made of rice or hominy are 
good. The batter can be made of a consistency for thick or 
thin cakes by using more or less milk. Currant or tart jelly is 
better to use than a sweet preserve. 

FRITTEES 

With fritter batter a number of good desserts are made, 
which, if properly fried, will be entirely free from grease, and 
perfectly wholesome. 

FRITTER BATTER 

2 eggs. 1 saltspoonful of salt. 

1 tablespoonf ul of oil. If for sweet fritters, 1 tea- 

1 cupful of flour. spoonful of sugar and 1 

i cupful of cold water. tablespoonf ul of brandy. 

For clam or oyster fritters use one tablespoonful of lemon 

juice or vinegar, salt and pepper to taste, and the liquor of the 

clams or oysters instead of water. 



HOT DESSERTS 427 

Stir the salt into the egg-yolks ; add slowly the oil, then the 
brandy and the sugar ; the brandy may be omitted if desired, 
and if so, use two tablespoonf uls of oil instead of one. When 
well mixed stir in slowly the flour, and then the water, a little at 
a time. Beat it well and set it aside for two hours (it is better 
to let it stand longer) ; when ready to use, stir in the whites of 
the eggs beaten to a stiff froth. The batter should be very 
thick and of the consistency to coat completely the article it is 
intended to cover. If not soft enough add the white of another 

APPLE FRITTERS 

Cut firm apples crosswise into slices one quarter of an inch 
thick. With a biscuit-cutter stamp them into circles of uni- 
form size ; sprinkle them with orange sugar (see page 391), and 
moisten them with brandy. Let them stand to soak for ten 
minutes, then dry one or two at a time on a napkin ; dip them 
in batter, using care to have them completely coated, and drop 
them into hot fat (see frying, page 72). Fry to an amber color; 
lift them out on a skimmer and dry on paper in an open oven 
until all are fried j then roll them in sugar and serve on a 
folded napkin, the slices overlapping. Fry only two at a time, 
so they can be kept well apart. Serve with a sauce flavored 
with brandy or sherry. 

PEACH OR APRICOT FRITTERS 

Out the fruit in half ; sprinkle with sugar moistened with 
maraschino, and roll them in powdered macaroons before dip- 
ping them in the batter. Fry as directed above. Well-drained 
canned fruit may also be used for fritters. 

ORANGE FRITTERS 

Cut the oranges in quarters ; take out the seeds and run a 
knife between the pulp and peel, freeing the orange and leaving 
it raw. Roll them in powdered sugar and dip in batter before 
the sugar has time to dissolve ; fry as directed for apple fritters. 



428 THE CENTUEY COOK BOOK 

FRITTERS MADE OF BISCUIT DOUGH 

Make a biscuit dough as given on page 352; turn it on a 
floured board and let it rise until ligbt, then roll it one eighth 
of an inch thick and cut it into circles with a fluted patty-cutter. 
Put a teaspoonful of jam in the center of a circle. Wet the 
edges and cover with a second circle ; press the edges lightly- 
together and fry in hot fat. 

BALLOONS 

Put a cupful of water in a saucepan ; when it boils add one 
tablespoonful of butter j when the butter is melted add one 
cupful of flour and beat it with a fork or wjre whip until it is 
smooth and leaves the sides of the pan. Remove from the fire 
and add three eggs, one at a time, beating vigorously each one 
before adding the next. Let it stand until cold. When ready 
to serve, drop a spoonful at a time into moderately hot fat and 
fry for about 15 minutes. Take out on a skimmer and dry on 
brown paper. The batter will puff into hollow balls. If the 
fat is very hot it will crisp the outside too soon and prevent the 
balls from pufi&ng. Fry only a few at a time, as they must be 
kept separated. Sprinkle with powdered sugar and pile on a 
folded napkin. Serve with lemon sauce made as follows. 

Lemon sauce: Strain the juice of one and a half lemons; 
add one cupful of powdered sugar, then a half cupful of boiling 
water. 

BATTER PUDDING 

1 cupful of milk. J cupful of flour. 

1 heaping tablespoonful of butter. 3 eggs. 

Put the milk in a double boiler ; when hot add the butter. 
Let the milk boil ; then add the flour, and beat it hard until it 
leaves the sides of the pan ; then remove from the fire and stir 
in gradually the eggs, which have been well beaten, the yolks and 
whites together, and a dash of salt. Continue to beat the 
batter until it is no longer stringy. Turn it into a warm greased 
pudding-dish, and bake in a moderate oven thirty to thirty-five 



HOT DESSERTS 429 

minutes. It should puff up like a cream cake, and have a tMck 
crust. Serve as soon as it is taken from the oven, or it will fall. 
The batter may stand some time before baking if convenient. 
It may be baked in gem-pans fifteen to twenty minutes if pre- 
ferred. Serve with plain pudding or hard sauce. 



DESSEETS MADE OF APPLES 

SNOW APPLE PUDDING 

Fill a pudding-dish half fuU of apple pur§e or sauce, weU 
seasoned with butter, sugar, and nutmeg. Pour over it a bat- 
ter made of one and a half cupfuls of flour mixed with two 
heaping teaspoonf uls of baking-powder, one half teaspoonf ul of 
salt, and a tablespoonf ul of chopped suet or of lard. Moisten it 
with about three quarters of a cupful of milk, or enough to 
make a thick batter. It should not be as stiff as for biscuits. 
Cook in a steamer about three quarters of an hour, and serve 
at once with a hard, foamy, sabayon, or any other sauce. The 
top will be very light and white. This quantity is enough to 
serve six people. 

BROWN BETTY 

In a quart pudding-dish arrange alternate layers of sliced 
apples and bread-crumbs ; season each layer with bits of but- 
ter, a little sugar, and a pinch each of ground cinnamon, clov>3s, 
and allspice. When the dish is full pour over it a half cupful 
each of molasses and water mixed ; cover the top with crumbs. 
Place the dish in a pan containing hot water, and bake for 
three quarters of an hour, or until the apples are soft. Serve 
with cream or with any sauce. Kaisins or chopped almonds 
improve the pudding. 

BAKED APPLE DUMPLINGS 

Make a short pie-crust; roU it thin and cut it into squares 
large enough to cover an apple. Select apples of the same sizej 



430 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

pare them ; remove the core with a corer, and fill the space with 
sugar, butter, a little ground cinnamon, and nutmeg. Place an 
apple in the center of each square of pie-crust ; wet the edges 
with white of egg and fold together, the points meeting on the 
top; give the edges a pinch and turn, making them fluted. 
Bake in a moderate oven about forty minutes, or until the apples 
are tender, but not until they have lost their form. If pre- 
ferred, the crust may be folded under the apple, leaving it 
round. It must be well joined, so the juices will not escape. 
Brush the top with egg, and ten minutes before removing from 
the oven dust them with a little sugar to give them a glaze. 
Serve with hard sauce. 

APPLE CHARLOTTE 

Cut bread into slices one quarter inch thick ; then into strips 
one and a half inches wide, and as long as the height of the 
mold to be used ,• cut one piece to fit the top of mold, then di- 
vide it into five or six pieces. Butter the mold ; dip the slices 
of bread into melted butter, and arrange them on the bottom 
and around the sides of the mold, fitting closely together or 
overlapping. Fill the center entirely full with apple sauce 
made of tart apples stewed until tender, then broken into coarse 
pieces, drained, and seasoned with butter and sugar. A little 
apricot jam can be put in the center if desired; chopped al- 
monds also may be added. Cover the top with bread, and bake 
in a hot oven about thirty minutes. The bread should be an 
amber color like toast. Turn it carefully onto a flat dish. 
Serve with a hard sauce or any other sauce preferred. 

APPLES WITH RICE, No. 1 

Boil half a cupful of rice with a saltspoonf ul of salt in milk 
until tender ; sweeten it to taste ; drain it if the milk is not all 
absorbed ; press it into a basin ; smooth it over the top ; when 
it has cooled enough to hold the form, turn it onto a flat dish. 
This will be a socle, and should be about one and a half to two 




STEWED APPLES ON A RICE SOCLE — GARNISHED WITH CANDIED CHERRIES AND 
ANGELICA. (SEE PAGE 430.) 




STEWED APPLES CUT IN HALVES AND ARRANGED AROUND A RICE SOCLE — GAR- 
NISHED WITH MERINGUE. (SEE PAGE 431.) 



HOT DESSERTS 431 

inches high. Pare and core as many apples as will stand on 
the top of the socle j boil them slowly until tender in sugar and 
water J remove them before they lose shape. Boil the sugar 
and water down to a thick syrup. Arrange the apples on the 
top of the rice, and pour over them a little of the thickened 
syrup; then fill the center of each apple with jam; place a 
candied cherry on each one, and a pointed piece of angelica 
between each apple. The syrup should give enough sauce, but 
Richelieu sauce is recommended instead. Serve hot or cold. 



APPLES WITH RICE, No. 2 

Boil the rice as above ; sweeten it and flavor it with a few 
drops of orange-flower water, almond, or other essence, and 
mix into it a few chopped blanched almonds. Turn it onto a 
flat dish, and press it into a mound or cone. Cut some apples 
of uniform size in halves, cutting from the stem to the blossom ; 
remove the core with a vegetable scoop (see illustration), and 
pare off the skin carefully ; stew the apples slowly until tender, 
but still firm enough to hold their shape; before removing 
them add a few drops of carmine to the water, and let themi^ 
stand until they have become a delicate pink ; then drain and 
place them evenly and upright against the form of rice. Put 
some meringue in a pastry-bag, and press it in lines or dots 
around the apples and over the top of the rice, making it as 
ornamental as desired. Dust it with sugar, and place for one 
minute in the oven to slightly color the meringue, but not long 
enough to dry the surface of the apples. Serve with whipped 
cream, with fruit sauce, Richelieu sauce, or wine sauce. 

Whipped cream may be substituted for the meringue, in 
which case place the apples overlapping one another around 
the rice in wreath shape ; flatten the top of the rice, and pile 
the whipped cream on it. Another form may be made by put- 
ting the rice in a border-mold to shape it, filling the center of 
the rice with a well-seasoned apple pur^e, and finishing as 
directed above. 



432 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

APPLES WITH CORN-STAECH (Felice).y 

Pare and core as many apples as will be used, having them 
of uniform size. To a quart of water add one half cupful of 
sugar and the juice of half a lemon ; boil the apples in this 
until tender, but remove them before they lose shape ; drain and 
place them in regular order on the dish in which they are to be 
served. Boil the water down one half j then stir into it one 
tablespoonful of corn-starch or arrowroot moistened in a little 
water j let it cook until the starch is clear j remove from the 
fire ; flavor with lemon, almond, kirsch, or anything preferred j 
let it stiffen a little j then pour it over the apples j sprinkle 
with sugar and place in the oven *a moment to brown, or, omit- 
ting the browning, sprinkle them with 'green and pink sugar 
(see page 393), or stick them full of split almonds. 

FLAMING APPLES 

Pare and core the apples ; stew them in sugar and water until 
tender, but still firm enough to hold their shape. Remove them 
carefully to the serving-dish j fill the centers with apricot or 
raspberry jam j boil down the liquor to a thick syrup and pour 
% over the apples j just before serving pour over them a few 
spoonfuls of rum or brandy, and light it with a taper after it is 
on the table. Serve with fancy cakes. 

BAKED APPLES 

(FOR breakfast) 

Select apples of equal size 5 wash and polish them ; remove 
the core. Place them in a baking-tin a little distance apart^ 
and put a little water in the bottom of the pan. Bake in a 
moderate oven about thirty minutes j baste frequently, so they 
will not burn or blacken. Serve with sugar and cream. 

BAKED APPLES 

(for luncheon) 

Pare and core the apples j fill the centers with butter and 
sugar. Let them bake in a pan with a little water until tender, 



% \ HOT DESSERTS 433 

but still in good shape ; "baste frequently, letting them become 
only slightly colored. After removiri^ from the oven sprinkle 
them with granulated sugar and a little powdered cinnamon or 
nutmeg. 

TAPIOCA PUDDING 

Arrange evenly in a buttered dish six apples which have 
been pared and cored. Any other fruit may be used — canned 
peaches are good. Soak a cupful of tapioca in hot water for an 
hour or more ; sweeten and flavor it to taste and pour it over 
the fruit. Bake in a moderate oven for an hour. 



EICE PUDDINGS 
PLAIN RICE PUDDING No. 1 

In a pudding-dish holding a quart, put two heaping table- 
spoonfuls of well- washed rice 5 fill the dish with milk, and add 
a half teaspoonf ul gf salt. Let it cook in the oven for half an 
hour, stirring it two or three times. Take it out and add two 
tablespoonf uls of sugar and a scant teaspoonful of vaniUa ; also 
a half cupful of stoned raisins if desired. Grate nutmeg over 
the top 5 return the dish to the oven and cook slowly for two 
hours or more ; as the milk boils down, lift the skin at the side 
and add more hot milk. The pudding should be creamy, and 
this is attained by slow cooking, and by using plenty of milk. 

EICE PUDDING No. 2 

Scald a pint and a half of nulk j add a tablespoonf ul of corn- 
starch which has been moistened with a little of the cold mill^j 
cook it for a few minutes ; then remove it from the fire and stir 
in three cupfuls of boiled rice, a cupful or more of sugar to 
taste, and the beaten yolks of two eggs. Return it to the fire 
and cook it until thickened, stirring constantly but carefully. 
Turn it into a dish, cover the top with meringue, and place it in 
the oven for a few minutes to brown. 



i 



dfOK J 



% 



434 THE CENTURY COOK B« 

RICE AND RAISINS ^^, ^;^ 

Mix with two cupfuls of boiled rice a half or three quarters 
cupful of raisins. The rice sh5uld >" boiled as directed on 
page 222, and the raisins should be soaked in hot water lintil 
plump, and the seeds removed. Press -the mixture into a bowl 
to give it shape, and turn it onto a flat dish. Grrate nutmeg 
over the top. Serve with sweetened milk a little flavored with 
vanilla or almond, or only nutmeg. 

For Lemon Rice Pudding, see page 242. 

For Rice and Qrange Marmalade Pudding, see page 242. 

BREAD PUDDINGS 
BREAD PUDDING No. 1 

2 cupfuls of milk. 2 egg-yolks. 

1 cupful of bread-crumbs or 1 egg-white. 

broken bread. J teaspoonful of vanilla. 

1 tablespoonf ul of sugar. 1 saltspoonful of salt. 

Soak the bread in the milk until softened j then beat it until 
/ smooth and add the rest of the ingredients excepting the white 

,' of egg. Turn it into a pudding-dish, place this in a pan of hot 

' • water, and bake in a slow oven fifteen to twenty minutes, or 

I only long enough to set the custard without its separating. 

Cover the top with a layer of jam or with tart jelly, and place in 
\ the center a ball of meringue made with the white of one egg • 

dust with sugar, place in the oven a moment to brown the mer- 
ingue, and then put a piece of jelly on the top of the meringue. 
Serve hot or cold. The jelly and meringue answers as a sauce. 

BREAD AND BUTTER PUDDING 

Cut stale bread into thin slices ; remove the crusts, dip them 
in melted butter, and arrange them in a small bread-or square 
cake-tin in even layers, alternating with layers of stoned raisins. 
When the mold is full, pour over it a mixture made of one pint 
of milk, the yolks of two eggs, and two tablespoonf uls of sugar. 



HOT DESSERTS 435 

Use only as mueli as the bread will absorb. Bake in a mod- 
erate oven t-venty to thirty minutes. Turn it onto a flat dish 
and serve with it a plg'-^ pudding sauce. The bread should be 
dry and crisp and hold the form of the mold. 

BREAD TARTS 

Cut bread into slices a quarter of an inch thick, then with a 
biscuit-cutter about three inches in diameter stamp it into cir- 
cles. Moisten the circles of bread with milk, but do not use 
enough to cause them to fall apart ; then spread them with any 
jam or preserve and place two together like a sandwich. Place 
them in a frying-pan with a little butter, and saute them on 
both sides to a delicate color. Sprinkle with powdered sugar 
and serve very hot. A sabayon or other sauce can be served 
with them if convenient, but it is not essential. 

For other bread puddings see Blueberry Pudding and Cherry 
Bread, page 241. 

CAKE PUDDIIsraS 

COTTAGE PUDDING 

1 cupful of flour. J cupful of sugar. 

1 heaping teaspoonf ul of J cupful of milk. 

baking-powder. 1 saltspOonful of salt. 

1 tablespoonful of butter. 1 egg. 

Mix the baking-powder with the flour and sift them. . Rub 
the butter and sugar together to a cream and beat into it the 
egg ; then add the milk, in which the salt has been dissolved. 
Add the flour ; beat well together and turn into a cake-tin hav- 
ing a tube in the center. Bake about twenty-five minutes in 
a moderate oven. Turn it onto a flat dish, le »^ ing it bottom side 
up. The chocolate saiice given below is rect>mmended, but any 
other sauce may be served with it. 

Chocolate sauce: Melt three ounces or squares of Bakei'^s 
chocolate on a dry pan (see page 388) j add one half cupful of 






436 THE CENTURY COOK BObK 

sugar and one half cupful of boiling water. Stir until well dis 
solved and smooth, then add one quarter teaspoonf ul of vanilla 



CANARY PUDDING 

Take the mixture for Genoese cake, which is three eggs, and 
their weight respectively of sugar, butter, and flour ; cream the 
butter and sugar j then beat in, one at a time, the three eggs ; 
add lightly the sifted flour. Butter a covered pudding-mold ; 
decorate it with raisins, or sprinkle it all over with currants; 
fill it half full of the mixture ; cover and steam for one hour, or 
put it in individual timbale-molds and bake for twenty minutes. 
Serve with wine or fruit or Richelieu sauce. 



SUET PUDDING 

1 cupful of molasses. 3J cupfuls of flour. 
1 teaspoonful of soda. 1 cupful of stoned raisins. 
1 cupful of milk. 1 cupful of suet, chopped fine. 

1 teaspoonful of salt. 

Mix the salt, flour, and suet together. Mix the molasses and 
milk J add the soda and then as much of the flour mixture as 
will make a stiff batter (not dough), then add the raisins floured, 
and fill a covered pudding-mold half full; steam for three 
hours. Serve with foamy, wine, or brandy sauce. 

FARINA PUDDING (Boiled) 

vStir into three cupfuls of boiling milk one cupful of farioa, 
anSr^ok for ten minutes. Rub together one tablespoonful of 
butter and two tablespoonfuls of sugar ,♦ add the yolks of three 
eggs, the grated rind of one lemon and twenty-five chopped 
blanched almonds. Stir this mixture into the farma after it is 
a little cooled; lastly add the whites of three eggs beaten to 
stiff froth. Boil this pudding in a covered mold for one and a 
half hours. Serve with any padding sauce. 



qA. ^ 



HOT DESSERTS 437 

CHRISTMAS PLUM PUDDIlirG 

J pound of suet chopped very fine j mix with it, while chopping, 

a tablespoonful of flour, 
f pound of raisins seeded, 
f pound of currants, 
f pound of sugar, 
f pound of fresh bread-crumbs. 
Grated zest of one lemon. 

i pound candied orange-peel and citron cut into thin shavings. 
J teaspoonful each of ground cinnamon, cloves, nutmeg, and 
allspice. 

Mix the dry materials together thoroughly, and then add 
six eggs, one at a time, and one half cupful of brandy ; add 
another egg if too stiff, and more crumbs if too soft. Wet a 
strong cloth in cold water, wring it dry, butter it, and dredge 
it well with flour j turn the mixture into the center and draw 
the cloth together over the top, leaving room for the pudding 
to swell a little, and tie it firmly ; give it a good round shape. 
Put it into a pot of boiling water, having it completely covered 
with water ; cover the pot and boil four to five hours. Do not 
let the water fall below the pudding, and in adding more let it 
be hot, so as to not arrest the boiling. After it is removed 
from the water let it rest in the bag for ten minutes to harden 
a little, then cut the string and turn it carefully onto a dish. 
Cut a small hole in the top of the pudding and insert a paper 
bonbon case (see page 386) j trim it so it does not show. Pour 
rum or brandy onto the dish and also into the paper box on 
top; place it on the table and touch it with a lighted taper. 
Serve with a brandy sauce. The amount given will serve 
twelve to fourteen persons. The mixture may be divided and 
boiled in small puddings if it is too much to use at one time. 
It will keep for a long time, and the puddings can be warmed 
when used. Slices of cold plum pudding may be steamed and 
served with a sauce ; or they may be rolled in egg and crumbs 
and fried in hot fat, and be served as fruit croquettes. 



438 THE CENTUEY COOK BOOK 

FIG PUDDING 

J cupful of chopped figs. i cupful of flour. 

J cupful of chopped suet. J cupful of chopped almonds. 

2 cupf uls of white bread-crumbs. 4 eggs. 

J cupful of sugar. 1 teaspoonful of baking- 

1 cupful of milk. powder. 

3 tablespoonfuls of noyau or other flavor. 

Flour the figs and suet. Soak the bread-crumbs in the milk, 
add the sugar, then the egg-yolks, and beat it well; then add 
slowly, stirring all the time, the figs, suet, almonds, flour mixed 
with the baking-powder, flavoring, and lastly the whites of the 
eggs beaten very stiff. Turn it into a covered pudding-mold, 
filling it three quarters full ; steam for three hours. This mix- 
ture will fill twelve individual molds. If the small molds are 
used, place a star of angelica in the bottom of each one and 
cover it with a thin layer of boiled rice ; then fill three quarters 
full with the pudding mixture ; place them in a pan of hot 
water, cover with a greased paper, and poach on top of the 
range for one and one half hours. This pudding can have 
brandy poured over and lighted the same as the plum pudding. 
Serve with a syrup sauce flavored the same as the pudding. 



CABINET PUDDING No. 1 

Ornament the bottom of a well-buttered mold with citron 
and raisins. Cover them with slices of cake; then fill the mold 
nearly full with alternate layers of fruit and cake, arranging 
the fruit on the edges of the fruit layers so it will be even and 
symmetrical. Make a custard mixture of a pint of milk, three 
egg-yolks, and three tablespoonfuls of sugar. Pour it slowly 
into the mold, so the cake will be thoroughly soaked, and set it 
in a pan of water. Bake it in a slow oven for an hour, or until 
the custard is set. Unmold the pudding, and serve with it a 
wine sauce. 



HOT DESSERTS 439 

CABINET PUDDING No. 2 

Cut a half pound of candied fruits into dice, using cherries, 
apricots, plums, limes, etc.; also some candied orange-peel 
shredded. Butter well a plain cylindrical mold; sprinkle over 
the bottom a thin layer of the fruit, then a layer of cake 
(genoese, or sponge layer cake, see page 466). Fill the mold to 
within an inch of the top with alternate layers of fruit and cake, 
using also some macaroons. Leave always some fruit on the 
sides of the mold. Then turn in slowly a custard mixture made 
of one pint of milk, the yolks of five eggs, and two and one half 
tablespoonfuls of sugar. Let it stand a few minutes for the 
cake to absorb the liquid; then place the mold in a pan of hot 
water, and poach in a slow oven for one hour. This pudding 
is usually served hot, but may be served cold. Serve with Sa- 
bayon, Richelieu, or Bischoff sauces. (See pudding sauces.) 

CABINET PUDDING No. 3 (Royale) 

Take a loaf of brioche (see page 359 and 361) baked the day be- 
fore in a cylindrical mold. Cut it into slices one half inch thick. 
Cut with a small patty-cutter a round piece from the center of 
all but two of the slices. Cut the crust from the outside, taking 
as little as possible. Spread each slice with apricot jam, and 
sprinkle with chopped almonds. Butter the mold well, and re- 
place the slices, using on the bottom one which has not had a 
hole cut in the center. When all but the last slice are in, fill 
the well in the center with mixed canned fruits well drained, 
using pineapple, apricots, a few candied cherries, and chopped 
almonds; then pour in a custard mixture made of one pint of 
milk, four yolks of eggs, two and a half tablespoonfuls of 
sugar. Let the brioche absorb the liquid; then cover with the 
second whole slice, and pour over that, too, some of the custard 
mixture. Place the mold in a pan of hot water, and poach in a 
slow oven for one hour. Let it stand a little while in the mold 
after it is cooked. When ready to serve, unmold, spread the 
whole outside with apricot jam, and sprinkle with chopped 
almonds. Serve with apricot sauce or any other sauce. 



440 THE CENTUEY COOK BOOK 

CABINET PUDDING No. 4 

Cut slices of bread one half inch thick to fit a mold. Fill the 
mold with alternate layers of bread and chopped drained pine- 
apple (fresh or canned). Pour in a custard mixture made of 
one pint of milk, yolks of three eggs, and three tablespoonfuls 
of sugar. Bake in a slow oven for one hour (as directed above), 
or until the custard is set. Serve with a sauce made of the 
juice of the fruit diluted and thickened with a little arrowroot, 
then sweetened and flavored (with kirsch if liked), and a few 
shredded almonds. 

SAVABINS 

Butter some individual timbale-molds, sprinkle them with 
chopped almonds, fill them half full of brioche paste (see page 
359), let the paste rise to the top of the molds, and then bake in a 
hot oven for about twenty minutes. When baked, cut off the top 
even with the mold, and turn them out. Pour over them a hot 
syrup made of one cupful of sugar and three quarters of a cup- 
ful of water boiled for ten minutes (or to 30°), and flavored with 
four teaspoonfuls of kirsch. Other flavors may be used if pre- 
ferred. Let the savarins absorb enough of the hot syrup to be 
well moistened, but not so much as to lose their firmness. 
Drain and serve them hot. Or incorporate into the paste 
before molding a little shredded candied orange-peel. Soak 
them, when baked, in syrup flavored with orange or cura9ao, and 
cover them with an orange fondant icing (see page 485 ), and 
serve cold. 

BABA 

Into three cupfuls of brioche paste mix one cupful of cur- 
rants, raisins, and chopped citron, which have soaked for an 
hour in maraschino. Half fill buttered baba-molds (which are 
cups holding about one half pint) ; let it rise to top of mold, 
which will take about three quarters of an hour. It must not 
rise in too warm a place, or the butter will separate. Bake 
them in a moderate oven one half hour. Let them absorb hot 
syrup at 30<^, flavored with kirsch or sherry. 



HOT DESSERTS 441 

CUSTAEDS 

gb£me PARISIENNE 

This is the same as caramel custard (page 396), except that it 
is served hot. Butter well a flat mold or basin, ornament the 
bottom with a few candied cherries and angelica, pour over 
them caramel which is not browned deeper than an amber 
color, and do not use enough to float the fruits. Let it cool be- 
fore adding the custard mixture. When it is baked, let the 
mold stand in the hot water until the moment of serving. 

FRIED CREAM 

1 pint of milk. 2^ tablespoonfuls of cornstarch. 

J cupful of sugar. 1 tablespoonful of flour. 

i teaspoonf ul of butter. J teaspoonful of vanilla. 

Yolks of 3 eggs. ^ saltspoonful of salt. 

Put the milk into a double boiler with the salt and a piece 
of cinnamon or lemon-zest. When it is at the boiling-point add 
the sugar J then the cornstarch and flour, which have been 
moistened in cold milk. Stir until thickened ; remove, and turn 
it over the beaten yolks of the eggs. Place it on the fire again 
for a few minutes to set the eggs. Add the butter and flavor- 
ing, and strain it onto a flat dish, or biscuit-tin, making a layer 
three quarters of an inch thick. Let it stand until perfectly 
cold and firm (it may be made the day before it is used); 
then cut it into pieces three inches long and two inches wide. 
Handle the pieces carefully, using a broad knife-blade. Cover 
each one with sifted cracker-crumbs, then with eggj and again 
with crumbs; be sure they are completely covered. Fry the 
pieces in hot fat to an amber color ; lay them on a brown paper 
in the open oven to dry, sprinkle them with sugar, and serve on 
a folded napkin. The crust should be crisp, and the center 
creamy, the same as a croquette. If the pudding stands long 
enough before being fried, it will not be difficult to handle. 
Have the fat smoking hot, and do not fry too long. This dish 
is recommended, as it is particularly good, and very easy to 
make. 



442 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

SHOET CAKES 

STRAWBERRY SHORTCAKE 

4 cupfuls of sifted flour. 1 teaspoonful of butter. 

3 heaping teaspoonfuls of 1 teaspoonful of lard. 

baking-powder. Milk. 

1 teaspoonful of salt. 2 quarts of strawberries. 

Sift the baking-powder and salt with the flour, rub in the 
shortening ; then with a fork stir in lightly and quickly sufiicient 
milk to make a soft dough — too soft to roll. Turn it into 
a greased tin, and bake in a hot oven for thirty minutes. 
Watch to see that it rises evenly. Unmold, and leaving it 
inverted, cut a circle around the top, within one inch of the 
edge; lift off the circle of crust, and with a fork pick out the 
crumb from the center, leaving about three quarters of an inch 
of biscuit around the sides. Spread the inside of the cake with 
butter, and then fill it with crushed strawberries, which have 
been standing half an hour or more mixed with sugar enough to 
sweeten them. Turn off the juice from the berries before filling 
the cake. Replace the circle of crust, and cover the whole cake, 
top and sides, with meringue, heaping it irregularly on the top. 
Use a pastry-bag if convenient to give the meringue orna- 
mental form. Place it in the oven a moment to slightly color 
the meringue. Arrange a few handsome berries on the top. 
Serve the strawberry-juice as a sauce. Whipped cream may be 
used instead of meringue, if convenient. Shortcake, to be good, 
should be freshly made, and served as soon as put together. 

CURRANT SHORTCAKE 

Make a biscuit dough as directed for strawberry shortcake 
above, using half the quantity. Turn it into a pie-tin to bake. 
While it is still hot cut the edges and pull it apart with forks 
(do not cut it). Turn the crumb sides up; butter them and 
cover each one with a thick layer of crushed currants, which 
have been standing at least two hours with enough sugar to 



HOT DESSERTS 443 

sweeten them. Place one layer on the other, cover the top with 
meringue, and ornament it with a few currants in lines or ar- 
ranged in any way to suit the fancy. This is a delicious short- 
cake, the acid of the currants giving it more character than 
strawberry shortcake. 

STRAWBEERY CAKE 

Make two layers of Genoese (page 467) or of sponge cake No. 
1 (page 466); cover them with whipped cream, and arrange 
whole strawberries close together over the entire top; place 
one layer on the other, and serve at once. The cream moistens 
the cake if it stands long. 

Shortcakes are good made of peaches or pineapple, using the 
biscuit mixture. 

ROLY-POLY PUDDING 

Make a biscuit dough, and roll it out a quarter of an inch 
thick; spread it with any kind of berries (whortleberries or 
blackberries are best). Then roll it, and tie it in a cloth, leav- 
ing room for the pudding to expand, and boil or steam it for an 
hour. Serve with any sauce. 

FRUIT PUDDING 

Beat two eggs ; add a cupful of milk, three teaspoonfuls of 
baking-powder and enough flour to make a stiff batter; then 
sth* in as much fruit as it will hold (cherries, whortleberries, 
strawberries, or raspberries are the best fruits to use). Turn 
the mixture into a pudding-mold large enough to give room for 
the pudding to expand, and boil it for an hour. Serve with it 
plain pudding sauce, Sabayon, or a fruit sauce. 

BAKED INDIAN PUDDING 

J cupful yellow meal. 3 cupfuls of milk. 

Scant half cupful of molasses. 1 egg, 

i teaspoonful of salt. i cupful of water. 

IJ tablespoonfuls of butter. Dash of nutmeg. 



444 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

Put two cupfuls of milk, a quarter cupful of water, and the 
salt, on the fire j when it boils stir in the meal, and let it cook 
five minutes, stirring all the time ; then remove from the fire, 
and add the rest of the milk mixed with the molasses, the but- 
ter, the beaten egg, and the nutmeg (or ginger, if preferred), 
and turn it into a baking-dish. Bake it in a slow oven for 
three hours. This quantity makes a pint and a half of pudding. 

Note.— Some small bits of candied orange-peel sprinkled on the bottom of the 
dish before the batter is put in give a delicious flavor to the pudding. 

• PUDDINa SAUCES 

« 

PuDDmG sauces are quickly made. They call for but few 
materials, and, like other sauces, often give the whole character 
to the dish. Serving the same pudding with a different sauce, 
makes it a different dish j therefore it is well to vary as muc^ 
as possible the couLbinations. Farina pudding can be serv 
with almost any of the sauces given below. Cake, cornstarch, 
rice, apple, or bread puddings can also be served with almost 
any sauce, if the flavorings are the same, or such as go well 
together. Hot puddings can be served with cold sauces. Jellies, 
creams, and blanc-manges can be served with whipped cream, 
the fruit sauces, or the whipped egg sauces. 

Stewed prunes or compote of orange are good to serve with 
plain boiled rice, or with sweetened hominy, farina, or cerealine 
molded in cups. 

PLAIN PUDDING SAUCE No. 1 (Hot) 

f cupful of sugar. 1 tablespoonful of cornstarch. 

2 cupfuls of boiling water. Flavoring to taste of vanilla or 

1 teaspoonf ul of butter. any essence, or brandy, rum, 

Zest of lemon. or wine. 

Dilute the corn-starch with a little cold water, and stir it into 
the boiling water; add the sugar and stir until the starch be- 
comes clear; then add the butter and flavoring. If the sauce 
becomes too thick, dilute it with a little boiling water; the 
whipped white of one egg may be added, but is not essential. 



HOT DESSERTS 445 

PLAIN PUDDING SATJCE No. 2 (Cold) 

Stir a heaping teaspoonful of corn-starch, which has been 
moistened with a little cold milk, into a pint of boiling milk, 
and stir for five minutes, or until it is well cooked ) add three 
quarters of a cupful of sugar, and remove from the fire. When 
the mixture is cold flavor it, and just before serving beat in the 
whipped whites of two eggs and serve at once. 

EICH PUDDING SAUCE 

(for fruit puddings or croquettes) 
3 tablespoonfuls of butter. J cupful of sherry. 

3 tablespoonfuls of powdered Juice of J lemon. 

sugar. 2 egg yolks 

2 tablespoonfuls of hot water. Dash of nutmeg. 

' Cream the butter -, add the sugar, and cream again thoroughly ; 
then add the yolks and beat until light j add the hot water and 
the nutmeg. Place it in a saucepan of hot water, and beat, 
adding slowly the lemon-juice and the wine. The sauce should 
be foamy. 

FOAMY SAUCE 

(STEAMED AND BAKED PUDDINGS) 

J cupful of butter. ^ cupful of boiling water. 

1 cupful of powdered sugar. 2 tablespoonfuls of sherry. 
1 teaspoonful of vanilla. 1 egg white. 

Cream the butter and sugar ; add the vanilla and wine, and 
beat them well. Just before serving stir in the boiling water j 
add the whipped white of one egg, and beat until foamy. 

BRANDY, RUM, OR KIRSCH SAUCE 

(FRUIT OR PLUM PUDDINGS) 

Putin a saucepan two cupfuls of water with one cupful of 
sugar. When the sugar is dissolved and the water boils, add 
slowly a heaping tablespoonful of corn-starch or arrowroot di- 



446 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

luted with a little cold water ; stir until the corn-starch is clear; 
then remove from the fire, and add two tablespoonf uls of the 
liquor. Serve it hot. 

SABAYON No. 1 ■^' 

4 egg-yolks. 4 tablespoonf uls of pow- 

4 tablespoonf uls of wine. dered sugar. 

Beat in a small saucepan the eggs and sugar to a light cream j 
add the wine. When ready to serve, place the saucepan in an- 
other one containing hot water, and beat until the sugar is 
melted and the egg beginning to thicken. 

SABAYON No. 2 

Put one cup of sugar, one half cup of sherry, and one egg all 
together in a saucepan and whip.c,ver the fire until it is a little 
thickened, -r ' 

SYRUP SAUCE 

Put two cupfuls of sugar and three tablespoonf uls of water 
into a saucepan on the fire, and stir until the sugar is dissolved ; 
then let it boil without touching until it is a light sy- and 
remove from the fire: add a teaspoonful of butter ^r- 

ing, which may be ':ruit juice, liqueur, brand \ * 4g 

extract. ^ *** 

FRUIT P* 

Canned fruits, preserves, or 3 ijs ike good sauces for blanc- 
mange, corn-starch, rice, or boile?^p(iddings. 

The juice of canned fruit, boiled and thickened a little with 
arrowroot, flavored or not with liqueur or essence, makes a 
good hot sauce. 

APRICOT SAUCE 

Dilute one half cupful of apricot jam with one half cupful of 
hot water -, sweeten if necessary ; strain and flavor with vanilla 
or one teaspoonful of Madei^^a or maraschino. 



HOT DESSlg^BTS 447 

PUREE OF FRUIT SAUCES 

Strawberries, raspberries, peaches and apricots make excel- 
lent pudding sauces. Mash the fruit and press it through a 
colander or coarse sieve ; sweeten to taste ; serve hot or cold 5 
if hot, let it come to the boiling-point and thicken with arrow- 
root, using ono teaspoonful to a cupful of pur^e. 

PINEAPPLE SAUCE 

Chop the pineapple (fresh or canned) fine ; sweeten and thicken 
with arrowroot. Serve with fritters, corn-starch, rice, or batter 
puddings. 

BOILED CUSTARD SAUCE 

Yolks of 2 eggs. 2 tablespoonfuls of sugar. 

1 cupful of milk. J teaspoonful of vanilla. 

Beat the yolks and sugar to a cream ; pour over them the 
scalded milk ; return to the fii. ) to cook the eggs, but let it only 
slightly thicken ; remove ; add the flavoring and beat with a 
wire whip to make it light and foamy. When served with plum 
pudding add rum or brandy to flavor it. Almonds chopped 
fine improve it for hot puddings. 



CHOCOLATE SAUCE 



-^ 



"• P cupful each of sugar and water in a saucepan and 

let , , r v^^^i V Jutes. Let the syrup cool, c* .en stir it slowly into 
f jur ounce ^ of unsweeten , locolate melted; add one half tea- 
spoonful of vanilla. L . > ..Jand in a pan of hot water until 
ready to serve; then ada • ' .^' cupful of cream or of milk.* 

BISO. F SAUCE 

Put in a saucepan one cupful of white wine, one cupful of 
hot water, and sugar to taste; add the zest of ' half of an 
orange and one half of a lemon ; let it come to the boiling-point; 
remove from the fire ; take out the orange and lemon peel and 
add one half cupful of seedless raisins, one tablespoonful of 

* This sauce sliould be smooth and of the coii«!istency of heavy cream. If it is to 
be used with ice-cream, omit the cream or milk and make it of the right consistency 
with water. See also page 435.— M. R. 



448 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

shredded almonds, and a tablespoonful of finely shredded can- 
died orange and lemon peel j cover and let stand a half-honr. 
When ready to serve let it again come to the boiling-point. 
Serve with cabinet puddings. 

BICHELIETJ SAUCE 

Put one cupful of sugar into a saucepan with one cupful of 
boiling water ; let it boil five minutes j add one teaspoonf ul of 
arrowroot moistened with a little water, and cook until clear ; 
then remove from fire. Flavor with one tablespoonful of kirsch 
and add two tablespoonfuls of shredded almonds and candied 
cherries cut into small pieces. 

MERINGUE SAUCE 

Whip the whites of two or three eggs to a very stiff froth. 
Take as many tablespoonfuls of sugar as you have egg-whites ; 
add a little water and let it cook to the ball (see page 512), 
or so that when dropped into water it will roll into a ball 
between the fingers. Turn this hot syrup slowly onto the 
whipped eggs, beating all the time ; then beat it over the fire for 
a minute where the heat is mc derate. This is called Italian 
meringue. Remove it from the fire and add a little leti^on- 
juiee or kirsch to take away the excessive sweetness : Oi : -**i<-tle 
currant jelly can be used, also grated orange-peel and shredded 
candied peel ; serve it at once. This is a good sauce for souflles 
or light puddings. 

HABD SAUCE 

Beat together one half cupful of butter and one cupful of 
sugar until they are very white and light j flavor with vanilla, j 
wine, or brandy. The success of this sauce depends upon its : 
being beaten a long time. It may be varied by beating with it^ 
the yolk of an egg, or adding the whipped white of an eggi 
after the butter and sugar are beaten. Let it stand on ice to ^ 
harden a little before serving. i 



HOT DESSERTS 449 

STRAWBERRY SAUCE 

Make a hard sauce as directed above ; add the whipped white 
of one egg and a cupful of strawberries mashed to a pulp. 
Any fruit-pulp may be added in the same way and makes a 
good sauce for fruit puddings. 

COCOANUT SAUCE 

Make a hard sauce as directed above j add the yolks of two 
eggs ; when it is very light and creamy add the whipped whites 
and a cupful of grated eocoanut. 

COLD JELLY SAUCE 

Stir a half glassful of grape, currant, or any jelly until 
smooth ; then beat into it lightly the whipped whites of two 
eggs. Serve with any light pudding or with jelly. 



29 



Chapter XX 

PIES AND PUFF-PASTE 

The American pie is perhaps the most ridiculed of 
all dishes. It has, however, great popularity and un- 
doubted merits. Were the crust, especially the under 
one, always right, it would remove the most salient 
point of criticism. The tart pies, made with puff- 
paste, are a temptation to the most fastidious taste. 
The mince pie, probably the most indigestible of all, 
is the one universally accepted as a treat, and seldom 
Seasons, refused by the scoffer. Pies have their seasons, like 
other good things, the apple pie being the only one 
served the year round. The berries and fruits, 
each one in their time, make most acceptable and de- 
licious pies and tarts, while rhubarb introduces the 
spring, and pumpkin announces the autumn. In 
this day of canned and dried fruits the season need 
not be so strictly observed, but fresh fruits will always 
be preferable to preserved ones, and tradition goes far 
to hold the place for pumpkin pie at Thanksgiving, 
and mince pie at the Christmas feasts. 



i50 



PIES AND PUFF-PASTE 451 

PIES 

PLAIN PASTRY FOR PIES 

1 quart of flour. 1 teaspoonful of salt. 

1 cupful of butter. Or use one-half butter and 

1 cupful of cold water. one half lard or cottolene. 

This quantity gives enough for three or four pies. Cottolene 
makes good pastry. The shortening may be mixed, but the 
flavor is better where butter alone is used. The richness of 
pastry depends upon the amount of shortening used. 

Sift the salt and flour together, reserving a little flour for 
the board. With a knife, cut the butter into the flour. Add 
the water a little at a time, and mix it in lightly with the knife j 
turn it onto the board, and roll it twice — that is, after it is 
rolled out once, fold it together and roll it again. If the paste 
is wanted richer for the top crust, put bits of butter over the 
paste when roUed; fold and roll it again several times. Fold 
the paste, and put it in the ice-box for an hour before using, 
keeping it covered. In making pastry everything should be 
cold, the handling light, and the hands used as little as pos- 
sible. Paste will keep several days in a cool place, but should 
be rolled in a napkin, so it will not dry and form a crust. 

To Put a Pie Together. — Roll the paste one eighth inch thick, 
and a little larger than the tin. Dust the pan with flour j place 
the paste on it, letting it shrink all it will. Lift it from the 
sides to fit it into place, and press it as little as possible. Cut a 
narrow strip of paste, and lay around the edge; moisten it so it 
will stick. Brush the top of the bottom crust with white of 
egg, so the filling will not soak in and make it heavy. Put in 
the filling, and cover with another sheet of pastry. Moisten the 
top of the strip of pastry so the top crust will adhere to it ; this 
gives three layers around the edge. Trim and press them 
lightly together. Cut several slits in the top crust to let the 
steam escape in cooking. 

A thin piece of paste cut into fancy shape can be placed in 
the center for ornament if desired. 



452 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

PASTRY FOR TARTS OR OPEN PIES 

2 cupfuls of flour. 1 tablespoonf ul of sugar. 

J cupful of butter. Yolks of 2 eggs. 

^ teaspoonful of salt. Water. 

Sift the flour, salt, and sugar together. Cut in the butter as 
directed above. Mix in the beaten yolks, then enough water to 
make a paste which is not very stiff j roll it two or three times, 
then wrap it in a cloth, or cover it closely, and put it in the ice- 
box for an hour. This gives enough paste for four small tart 
pies like those shown in illustration. 

TART PIES 

(apricot, plum, apple, berry) 

Roll the paste one eighth of an inch thick, lay it on a deep 
pie-dish J let it shrink all it will, and use as little pressure as 
possible in fitting it to the tin. Cut the paste an inch larger 
than the dish, and fold it under, giving a high twisted edge. 
Prick the paste on the bottom in several places with a fork. 
Lay over it a thin paper, and fill the tart with rice, dried peas, 
beans, cornmeal, or any dry material convenient. Brush the 
edge with egg, and bake it in a moderate oven. When done 
remove the rice, or other filling, and the paper. Brush the bot- 
tom with white of egg. This will insure a dry under crust. 
If apricots or peaches are to be used, peel and cut them in 
halves, lay them evenly over the tart with the center side up. 

Place the half of a blanched almond in each one to represent 
the pit. Put the juice of the fruit into a saucepan on the fire; 
if there is no juice use a cupful of water. Sweeten to taste, 
and when it boils add to each cupful of juice one teaspoon- 
ful of arrowroot dissolved in a little cold water, and let it 
cook until clear; then pour it around the fruit, but not over 
it, as the fruit should lie on top and show its form. Place 
in the oven only long enough to cook the fruit tender- If 
canned fruit is used, cook the juice and arrowroot until a little 




TART RINGS AND CRUSTS. 

1, 2. Tart Rinse. 3, Crust baked in ring No. l. 

4. Crust filled with rice as prepared for baking. (See page 452.) 




TART PIES. 

1. Pie filled with quarters of apples arranged in rows. 

2. Pie filled witb apricots cut in halves— a blanched almond in the center 

of each piece. (See page 452.) 



PIES AND PUFF-PASTE 453 

thickened and clear j then pour it around the fruit, and let 
cool. It will not need to be put in the oven. 

When plums or cherries are used, remove the pits carefully, 
and place the fruit close together, with the whole side up. For 
apple tarts, cut the apples in even quarters or eighths j stew them 
in sweetened water, with a little lemon-juice added, until tender. 
Lay them overlapping in even rows or circles in the tart. To a 
cupful of water in which the apples were stewed add a tea- 
spoonful of arrowroot, and cook until clear j pour it over the 
apples, sprinkle with sugar, nutmeg, and cinnamon. With 
berries, the fruit may be stewed or not before being placed in 
the tart; then strips of paste are laid across it, like lattice- work, 
and the paste brushed with egg. Bake long enough to cook 
the fruit and the strips of paste. When cold place a fresh 
berry on each piece of crust where it crosses; or place a drop of 
meringue on the crusts, and the berries in the openings. 

The California canned fruits, costing thirty-five cents, make 
very good pies. One can of fruit will make two pies. Tart- 
rings are better to use than pie-tins, as the sides are straight. 
Place them on a baking-sheet, or tin, before lining them with 
pastry. 

ORANGE PIE 

Juice and grated yellow 3 eggs. 

rind of 1 orange. 1 cupful of granulated sugar. 

§ cupful of milk. 1 tablespoonf ul of flour. 

i saltspoonf ul of salt. 

Beat the yolks and the sugar together; add the flour, the 
milk, and the grated rind and juice of the orange. Place it on 
the fire in a double boiler, and stir until it is a little thickened; 
then pour it into an open or tart pie, and bake thirty minutes. 
The crust of the pie should be brushed with white of egg before 
adding the thickened mixture. The tart crust may be first 
baked, as directed above, if preferred. Cover the top with 
meringue made with the whites of the eggs and sweetened 
with three tablespoonf uls of sugar. Pile it on irregularly, or 



454 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

press it through a pastry-bag into fancy shapes. Place it in the 
oven a moment to brown. A little more flour may be used if 
the pie is wanted more solid. 

A PLAIN APPLE PIE 

Fill a pie with apples sliced thin, using enough to make the 
pie at least an inch thick when done. Add a little water to the 
apples, and cover with a top crust which is a little richer than 
the under one. This is done by rolling out a part of the same 
paste, covering it with bits of butter, folding it together, and 
rolling it again, repeating the operation two or three times. 
Cut a few slits in the paste to let out the steam while cooking. 
Brush the top with beaten yolk of egg. 

When the pie is baked^.and while it is still hot, lift off care- 
fully the top crust; add sugar, nutmeg, and a little butter, and 
mix them well with the apples. Replace the top crust, and 
diust it with powdered sugar. Apple pies seasoned in this way 
are better than when seasoned before being baked. 

PUMPKIN PIE 

Cut a pumpkin into small pieces; remove the soft part and 
seeds. Cover and cook it slowly in its own steam until tender; 
^^then. remove the cover and reduce it almost to dryness, using 
care that it does not burn. Press it through a colander. To 
two and one half cupfuls of pulp add two cupfuls of milk, one 
teaspoonful each of salt, butter, cinnamon, and ginger, one 
tablespoonful of molasses, two eggs, and sugar to taste. Add 
the beaten eggs last and after the mixture is cold. Pour it 
into an open crust and bake slowly forty to fifty minutes. 
Squash pies are made in the same way, but are not the same 
in flavor, although they are often given the name of pumpkin 
pies. 

^v. MINCE PIE MIXTURE 

8 pounds of lean boiled beef chopped fine, or half beef and 
half boiled tongue. 



PIES AND PUFF-PASTE 455 

li pounds of suet chopped fine. 

3 quarts of apples chopped not very fine. 

1 quart of stoned raisins. 

2 cupfuls of cleaned currants. 

i pound of citron cut into thin slices. 

1 cupful of candied orange and lemon peel shredded. 

1 teaspoonful each of cloves, allspice and cinnamon. 
Grated zest and juice of two oranges and two lemons. 

2 nutmegs grated. 3 cupfuls of sugar. 

1 tablespoonf ul of salt. 3 cupfuls of brandy. 

1 cupful of molasses. 1 cupful of sherry. 

1 cupful of cider. 

Mix the m«at and suet together; then add all the dry in- 
gredients and then the liquids. Pack in an earthen jar. It 
should stand several days before using, and will ^'3cp an ^'^- 
definite time. 

The pies should be made of good puff paste for the upper 
crust and tart paste for the under one, the edge having three 
layers as directed on page 451. The filling of mince meat 
should be one and a half inches thick. Paint the top crust 
with egg and trace with a pointed knife some simple design on 
it, cutting the paste very slightly. Bake for one hour and a 
quarter. G-laze the top by sifting a very little powdered sugar 
over it a few minutes before removing it from the oven. 



CREAM PIE 

3 eggs. 1 teaspoonful of baking- 

1 cupful of sugar. powder. 

1 cupful of flour. 

Sift the flour and baking-powder together; beat the yolks 
and sugar together; add the flour and lastly thb whipped 
whites of the eggs. Bake this cake mixture in two layers, and 
place between them when cold, and just before serving, a thick 
layer of whipped cream. Have the top piece covered with a 



456 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

boiled icing, or use between the cakes a cream filling made as 
follows ; 

CREAM FOR FILLING. 

2J cupfuls of milk. f cupful of sugar. 

2 tablespoonfuls of flour. 1 egg. 

1 teaspoonf ul of vanilla. 
Scald the milk ; turn it onto the beaten egg ; return it to the 
fire ; add the flour moistened with a little milk, and the sugar, 
and stir until thickened. Let it cool before adding it to the 
cake. Serve with whipped cream if desired. 

COCOANUT PIE 

Line a tin basin which is two inches deep with pie paste, and 
bake it as directed for tart pies (page 452). Make a custard of 
one pint of milk, three egg-yolks, three tablespoonfuls of sugar, 
and two tablespoonfuls of corn-starch. Scald the milk and turn 
it onto the yolks and sugar beaten together; return it to the 
fire ; add the corn-starch moistened with cold milk, and stir un- 
til well thickened ; add one half teaspoonf ul of vanilla, and the 
whites of two eggs whipped to a froth ; cook one minute to set 
the egg J then remove, and when nearly cold and stiffened stir 
in the half of a grated cocoanut. Brush the bottom of the 
baked pie-crust with white of egg ; cover it with a thin layer of 
grated cocoanut and turn in the thickened custard. Cover the 
top with meringue made with the white of one egg. Return it 
to the oven one minute to color the meringue. Let the pie 
stand long enough to get firm and cold before serving. If the 
grated cocoanut is not added until the custard has stiffened, it 
will not sink to the bottom. 

CRANBERRY PIE 

Chop one cupful of cranberries and a half cupful of seeded 
raisins together into small pieces; add to them a cupful of 
sugar, a half cupful of water, a tablespoonful of flour, and a 
teaspoonf ul of vanilla. Bake with an upper and under crust. 
This resembles cherry pie. 



PIES AND PUFF-PASTE 457 

WASHINGTON PIE 

Make two round layer cakes, of sponge or of Genoese cake ; 
spread between them a layer of pastry cream or of chocolate 
filling. Dust the top with powdered sugar in crossed lines to 
imitate strips of pastry. 

Pastry Cream — Boil with a pint of milk or water five table- 
spoonfuls of sugar ; add two tablespoonf uls of corn-starch, the 
yolks of five eggs, and a tablespoonf ul of butter ; stir until thick- 
ened, add flavoring, and when partly cool spread it on the cake. 

Chocolate Filling — Mix a half cupful of milk and a cupful of 
sugar, and stir until the sugar is dissolved ; then add an ounce 
of shaved chocolate, and the beaten yolks of two eggsj stir 
until it is thickened ; flavor with one half teaspoonf ul of vanilla, 
and let it partly cool before spreading it on the cake. 



PUFF-PASTE 

It is a mistake to consider the making of puff -paste too diffi- 
cult for any but an experienced cook to undertake. No one need 
hesitate to attempt it, and if the few simple rules are strictly 
observed there will be success. The materials are few and in- 
expensive, and within the compass of the most moderate house- 
hold. If light, good pastry can be substituted for the sodden 
crust of the ordinary pie, it will be found not only more palat- 
able, but far more digestible and wholesome. Confections of 
puff-paste can be served on all occasions, and always make an 
acceptable dish, whereas ordinary pastry is excluded from any 
but the most informal service. 

GENERAL RULES 

The most important rule for making puff-paste, and the se- 
cret of success, is to have cold paste and a hot oven. It is well 
to have a marble slab to roll it on, but this is not positively 



468 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

essential. A warm, damp day should be avoided. The paste 
will keep on ice for a day or two before it is baked, and for 
several days in a dry place after it is baked, and if placed in 
the oven for a few moments just before serving, it will have the 
same crispness as when just baked. If there is no room colder 
than the kitchen to work in when mixing the paste, stand by ar 
open window or in a current of air, for it is necessary to keep 
the paste cold during the whole time of preparing it. Use 
pastry flour if convenient (Plant's St. Louis Flour). It car 
be obtained at all first-class grocers. It has a very fine grain 
and can easily be distinguished from ordinary flour by rubbing 
a little between the thumb and forefinger. 

RECEIPT FOE PUFF-PASTE 

J pound or 1 cupful of butter. J teaspoonful of salt. 

i pound or 2 cupf uls of flour. 4 to J cupful of ice- water. 

1st. Put the butter in a bowl of ice- water, and work it wit! 
the hand until it becomes smooth and flexible ; then place it ir 
a napkin and knead it a little to free it from moisture. Pat it 
into a flat square cake, and place it on the ice until ready tc 
use. 

2d. Sift the flour and salt together on a board or marble slab 
reserve a little flour to be used for dusting the slab. Make 
a well in the center, and pour in a part of the water. Work ir 
the flour, and use enough water to make a smooth paste. The 
exact amount of water cannot be given, as at certain times the 
flour absorbs more than at others. G-ather in all the crumbs, 
and work the paste as you would bread dough until it becomes 
smooth. Roll it in a napkin, and place it on ice for Mteen 
minutes, that it may become thoroughly cold. 

3d. Sprinkle the slab lightly with flour. Roll the cold paste 
into a square piece ; place the cold butter in the center, and 
fold the paste over it, first from the sides and then the ends, 
keeping the shape square, and folding so the butter is com- 
pletely incased, and cannot escape through the folds when 




THREE PANS ARRANGED FOR CHILLING PUFF l'A«TK — THE UPPKR AND UNDER 
ONES HOLDING CRACKED ICE, THE CENTER ONE HOLDING THE PASTE 
WRAPPED IN A NAPKIN. 




PATE SHELLS. 



PIES AND PUFF-PASTE 459 

rolled. This must be absolutely guarded against at all times, 
and can be prevented if the paste is rolled evenly and folded 
properly. Turn the folded side down, and with a rolling-pin 
roll it lightly away from you into a long, narrow strip, keeping 
it as even as possible. Fold it over, making three even layers 
of paste. This is called *^ giving it one turn'^; then roll the 
folded strip again, and fold as before. This must be repeated 
until it has had six turns, which is as many as it should receive 
to give it its greatest lightness. After each turn, if it shows 
signs of softening, otherwise after each two turns, wrap 
the paste in a napkin, and place it in a pan, which should be 
placed between two other pans containing cracked ice, and let 
it remain there twenty to thirty minutes. Great care must be 
used in rolling the paste to keep the edges even, so that the 
layers will be even, and to roll lightly and always away from 
you, so as not to break the air-bubbles which give the lightness 
to the paste. The rolling is made easier by lightly pounding 
as well as rolling the paste. After each folding press the edges 
gently with the rolling-pin to shut in the air, and turn the paste 
so as to roll in a different direction. The paste should slip on 
the slab. If it does not, it sticks, and must be put on the ice 
at once. When it has had six turns cut it into the desired 
forms, and place again on the ice for twenty to thirty minutes 
before putting it in the oven. The trimmings, put together and 
rolled, make a good bottom crust for tart bands, or a top crust 
for mince pies. 

The baking of puff-paste is as important a matter as the roll- 
ing. The oven must be very hot, with the greatest heat at the 
bottom, so the paste may rise before it begins to brown ; there- 
fore put it on the bottom of the oven and lay a paper on the 
shelf for a few minutes. Do not open the door for the first five 
minutes. It is essential to have the oven very hot. It must 
not, however, scorch the paste, and if it scorches open the 
draughts at once, and place a basin of ice- water in the oven to 
lower the temperature. The amount given in this receipt 
makes about six pat6 shells or one vol-au-vent case. 



4:60 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

pAte shells 

Roll puff-paste which has had six turns to a quarter-inch 
thickness j cut it into circles with a fluted or plain cutter two 
and a quarter inches in diameter. It should be icy-cold when 
cut, for if it sticks on one side it will not rise evenly. From one 
half the circles cut a hole in the center with a cutter one inch in 
diameter. Moisten the edges of the whole circles, and place on 
them the rings. Brush over the top with egg. (This is to glaze 
them, and the egg must not touch the edges.) Place them on the 
ice for half an hour, then bake in hot oven for twenty minutes. 
Bake the small circles cut from the center on a separate tin, as 
they do not require as much time ; when baked pick out from 
the center any uncooked paste. Use the small pieces for covers 
after the cases are filled. If preferred, roll the paste one half 
inch thick, and with the small cutter cut half-way through the 
paste. When baked lift off the inner circle, and remove the 
uncooked paste from the interior. 

TART BANDS 

Make a good short paste, using the receipt for tart paste. 
Roll it one eighth inch thick, and cut it into a circle six inches in 
diameter, using a basin for guide. Wet the edges and lay around 
it a band of puff -paste cut in a strip one and one half inches 
wide and one quarter inch thick. Place the strip neatly and 
carefully around the edge, using care not to press it ; cut the 
edges that are to join in a sharp diagonal line, and moisten them 
so they will adhere. Prick the bottom crust in many places with 
a fork to prevent its puffing up ; brush the top of the band with 
egg, but do not let the egg touch the edges j let it rest on ice 
for half an hour, then bake in hot oven thirty to forty minutes. 

When ready to serve fill it with jam, preserves, pur^e, or any 
other mixture used for tart pies. 

These tarts are very good, and can be served where pies would 
not be admissible. 



PIES AND PUFF-PASTE 461 

MILLEFEITILLES 

Roll puff-paste turned six times to the thickness of one half 
inch J cut it with a pastry wheel into pieces three inches long 
and one inch wide. Brush the tops of the pieces with egg, and 
sprinkle them with sugar. Let them stand on ice one half hour, 
and then bake in a hot oven for twenty minutes, or until well 
browned j these are served in place of cakes. Or, cut the paste 
three and a half inches long and two inches wide, and when 
baked place two pieces together with a thin layer of apricot 
jam between them, and cover the top with meringue. These 
are served as a dessert dish for luncheon. 

TARTLETS 

Cut puff -paste into rings the same as for pi,t6 shells. Use 
tart paste for the under crust. After they are baked fill the 
center with pineapple, with any preserves, or with apple pur^e 
covered with apricot jam. 

PAGANINI TARTLETS 

Roll puff-paste one eighth inch thick; cut it with a pastry 
wheel into squares of three and a half to four inches. Turn the 
points together in the middle, and press them down lightly. 
Bake; then put a spoonful of jam in the center of each, and 
cover the jam with meringue; place them in the oven a moment 
to brown. 

TO GLAZE PASTRY 

Take an egg and one tablespoonful of water, and beat the 
egg enough to break it, but not enough to make it froth. The 
yolk alone may be used with the water, but the white alone will 
not give it color. Brush it lightly over the pastry, using a brush 
or quill-feather, and dust it with a very little sugar. This will 
give a brown and polished surface to the pastry. 

When two layers of pastry are to be stuck together, brush the 
top of one with water, and lay the other on it before baking 
them. 




nre. 



Chaptee XXI 

CAKE 

The most difficult part of cake-making is the bak- 
ing. Unless the oven is right, the cake will be a fail- 
ure, no matter how carefully it may have been mixed. 

RULES 

Have everything ready before beginning to mix the 
cake. 

Have the weights and measures exact. 

Have the fire so it will last through the baking, and 
the heat of the oven just right (see below), for on this 
the success of the cake mostly depends. 

Do not mix the cake until the oven is entirely ready 
for it to go in. 

Sift the flour before measuring it. 

If baking-powder or cream of tartar is used, sift it 
with the flour. 

Mix in an earthen bowl with a wooden spoon. 

Beat the yolks and whites of the eggs separately. 

Grease the tins with lard, as butter blackens. 

For some cakes it is better to line the pans with 
paper. 
Fruit "When fruit is used, roll it in flour, and add it the 

last thing. 

If the fruit is wanted in layers, add it while the 
mixture is being poured into the tins. 
Salt Add one quarter teaspoonful of salt to aU cakes. 



CAKE 



463 



Jf a sugary crust is wanted, sprinkle the top with 
sugar before the cake is baked. 

If the cake cracks open as it rises, too much flour 
has been used. 

If it rises in a cone in the center, the oven is too 
hot. 

Beating eggs and butter makes them light, beating 
flour makes it tough j hence the rule to add it last. 

When the whipped whites are added do not stir, 
but turn or fold them in lightly, so as not to break 
the air-cells. 

In filling the pans let the mixture be a little higher 
on the sides than in the middle. 

When molasses is used, baking-powder (also cream 
of tartar) must be omitted, and soda alone used for 
raising the cake. 

One teaspoonful of baking-powder is the equivalent 
of one teaspoonful of cream of tartar, and one half 
teaspoonful of soda. 



Sugary 
crust. 

Cause of 
cracking. 

TTneyen 
rising. 

Beating. 

Adding 

white of 

egg. 



Pans, how 

fiUed. 

Soda and 
baking 
powder. 



Equiva- 
lenta. 



HOW TO BEAT EGGS 

Place the whites on a flat dish, being careful that Whites, 
not a particle of the yolk gets in. Add a pinch of 
salt, and with a daisy beater held flat whip the whites 
with an upward motion to a stiff, dry froth. It will 
take but a very few minutes if the eggs are fresh and 
cold. Put the yolks in an earthen bowl, and with Yolks, 
a wooden or silver spoon beat them until a lemon 
color. If sugar is used add it at this time, and stir 
until the whole becomes light and creamy. 



HOW TO LINE TINS WITH PAPER 

Turn the tin bottom side up, lay over it the paper, 
and crease the circle for the bottom. Cut the paper 
in several places down to the circular mark, fold it 




464 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK • 

around the pan, and cut away the paper that doubles 
over. Grease the paper, and fit it neatly inside the 
pan, leaving an inch of paper rising above the edge. 

HOW TO GREASE PANS 

Warm the pan, and with a brush spread evenly the 
f lard or cottolene. For flat tins to be used for small 

cakes, brush them lightly with oil; then with a paper 
or cloth rub them dry, and sprinkle with flour. Jar 
Fiourinir ^^^^ ^^ ^^® flour will completely cover them; then 
tins. turn over the tins, and strike them against the table. 
All the superfluous flour will fall, leaving the tins 
lightly coated with flour. This will give a clean sur- 
face to the bottom of the cake. 

HOW TO BAKE CAKE 

The oven should be only moderately hot at first, so 
that the cake can get heated through, and can rise 
before forming a crust; the heat should then be in- 
creased, so that when the cake has been in the oven 
one half the time required for baking a light crust 
will be formed. It should rise evenly, and be smooth 
on top. When it rises in a cone in the center it is 
because the oven is too hot, and a crust has formed 
on the edges before it has had time to rise. Some- 
times it rises on one side, showing the oven is hotter 
on one side than the other, in which case it should be 
turned or a screen interposed; but it must be done with 
the greatest care. Moving or jarring the cake before 
the air-cells are fixed is almost sure to cause it to fall. 
Do not open the oven door for the first five minutes, 
and then open and shut it very gently, so as not to 
jar the cake. Cake takes from fifteen minutes to an 
hour to bake, according to its kind and thickness. A 
hotter oven is needed for a thin cake than for a thick 
one. It is done when it shrinks from the pan, and 



Time. 



CAKE 465 

makes no singing noise ; or when a broom straw run 
into it comes out clean and smooth. Be sure the 
cake is done before removing it from the oven. Let 
it stand a few minutes in the tin, and it will then 
come out easily. Always handle the cake carefully. 
The following test for the oven is given by Miss 
Parloa. Put in a piece of white paper. If at the end m ^ ^ 
of five minutes the paper is a rich yellow color, the the oven, 
oven is right for sponge-cake; if light yellow, it is too 
cool J if dark brown, too hot. For pound or butter- 
cakes, it should be light yellow at the end of five min- 
utes. For gingerbreads and thin rolled cakes, it 
should be dark brown. 

MIXING SPONGE-CAKES 

Cream the yolks and sugar together. Add the fla- 
voring and water -, then fold in the beaten whites, and 
lastly the flour, sprinkling it in, and lightly folding, 
not stirring it in. If baking-powder is used, it is 
mixed with the flour. 

MIXING CAKE MADE WITH BUTTER 

Rub the butter until it is light and smooth. Add 
the sugar, and stir until creamy. If there is too much 
sugar to mix with the butter, beat one half with the 
yolks of the eggs. Add the beaten yolks to the 
creamed butter and sugar. (If only a little butter is 
used melt it, and add it to the yolks and sugar.) 
Next add the flavoring, and then the milk and flour 
alternately, until all are in. Beat the batter a few 
minutes to give it fine grain ; then fold in the whipped 
whites of the eggs lightly. If fruit is used, flour and 
add it the last thing. Turn it into the pans, and put 
it at once into a moderate oven.* 

* Cake made wltti butter needs to have the dough quite thick with 
flour, as the hutter when melted acts as a wetting. 
30 



466 THE CENTUEY COOK BOOK 

SPONGE-CAKE No. 1 

6 eggs. 2 teaspoonf uls of bak- 

3 cupfuls of sugar. ing-powder. 

4 cupfuls of flour. Juice and grated rind of 
1 cupful of cold water. 1 lemon. 

i teaspoonf ul of salt. 

In this cake the beaten whites are added last. The baking- 
powder mixed with the flour is added to the yolks, sugar, and 
flavoring. This is a good cake to use for layer-cakes or rolls. 
It is sufficient for two loaves. 

SPONGE-CAKE No. 2 

Weigh any number of eggs ; take the same weight of sugar 
and one half the weight of flour ; the grated rind and juice of 
one lemon to five eggs. For mixing this cake, see the direc- 
tions given above ; the mixture should be very light and spongy, 
great care being used not to break down the whipped whites. 
The oven should be moderate at first, and the heat increased 
after a time. The cake must not be moved or jarred while 
baking. The time will be forty to fifty minutes, according to 
size of loaf. Use powdered sugar for sponge-cake. Rose-water 
makes a good flavoring when a change from lemon is wanted. 
Almonds chopped fine mixed in the cake, and also orange rind 
grated over the cake before it is frosted, are good. 

SPONGE-CAKE No. 3 

10 eggs. J pound of flour. 

1 poimd of powdered sugar. Juice and grated rind 

of i lemon. 

Beat the yolks and sugar together for at least half an hour. 
It will not be right unless thoroughly beaten ; add the lemon, 
then the whites beaten very stiff, and the flour last j sprinkle 
the top with sugar. Put it at once into a moderate oven. This 
is a moist cake and has a thick crust. 




CAKE TINS AND BAKING SHEET. 




1 



GAUFFRE IRON, (SEE PAOKiTi). 




PLAIN cur CAKES ICED AND SMALL PIECE OP ANGELICA PLACED IN CENTER OP 

EACH CAKE. 



CAKE 467 

WHITE SPONGE, OR ANGEL CAKE 

Whites of 6 eggs. 1 cupful of flour. 

} cupful of granulated sugar. J teaspoonf ul of vanilla. 
i teaspoonf ul of cream of tartar. 

Put the cream of tartar into the flour and sift it five or six 
times ; sift the sugar twice. Put a pinch of salt with the whites 
of the eggs and whip them very stiff ; add the sugar to the 
whipped whites, placing it on the end of the platter and gradu- 
ally beating it in from below ; add the flour in the same way, 
and lastly add the flavoring. Do not stop beating after the 
mixing is begun, and keep the mixture light. Bake it in a per- 
fectly bright ungreased pan, or one lined with paper; a pan 
with a tube in the center is best. Bake in a moderate oven 
thirty to forty minutes. Do not move or jar it while it is 
baking. Try it with a broom-straw before removing it from 
the oven, and do not let it get too deeply colored. Let it stand 
in the pan a few minutes, then loosen it around the sides, and 
it will fall out. Turn the cake upside down and ice the bottom 
and sides if desired. The usual receipt is double the above 
quantities, eleven eggs being used, but this one gives a cake 
large enough to serve six people, and as it should be used while 
it is very fresh, it is better not to make more than enough to 
serve once. It can be made with five eggs and is very good, but 
not quite as spongy. Do not cut the cake, but break it apart 
with two forks.* 

SUNSHINE GAEIE 

Make the same as angel cake, adding the beaten yolks of two 
eggs before putting in the flour. 

GENOESE CAKE 

Three eggs, and the same weight of butter, of sugar, and 
^of flour. Beat the butter and sugar together until very 
tHght and creamy; add one saltspoonful of salt and flavor- 
ig (one half teaspoonful of vanilla or almond, or one table- 

* If toaked too fast this cake will be tough. It is well to set the cake-pan in a pan 
>f water in the oven. 



468 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

spoonful of brandy) j then add the eggs one at a time and beat 
each one well before adding the next. Beat the mixture for 
fifteen to twenty minutes j then stir in lightly the sifted flour 
and turn it into a pan, filling it three quarters full. This cake 
can be used for layers, rolls, canary pudding, or can be cut into 
small forms for fancy cakes. Bake slowly about forty minutes. 

JELLY ROLLS 

Make a layer of Grenoese, or of sponge-cake No. 1. Put the 
mixture on the layer tins in spoonfuls, placing it around the 
edges J then with a broad knife smooth it over toward the middle, 
making it as even as possible. Another way is to press it 
through a pastry l)ag in lines onto the tins. The layers should 
be only one half inch thick when baked, and the crust should 
not be hard. As soon as it is removed from the oven, and before 
it has had time to cool, cut off the hard edges, spread it with 
currant, or any jeHy or jam, and roll it up evenly j then roll it 
in a paper and tie, so it will cool in a round, even shape. 

LAYER CAKES: CHOCOLATE, VANILLA, COFFEE 

Bake Genoese or sponge-cake No. 1 (one half the receipt will 
give three layers) in round layer tins, using three for each 
cake J when baked spread two of them with filling and pile 
them one on the other. Trim the outside with a sharp knife so 
it will show a white even edge instead of crust. Cover the top 
with a soft royal icing made of confectioners' sugar and flavored 
the same as the filling. 

CREAM FILLING 

Beat well together the yolks of five eggs, one half cupful of 
sugar, and one heaping tablespoonful of cornstarch ; dilute it 
with two cupfuls of boiling milk, and stir it over the fire until 
thickened ; then remove, add the flavoring, and let it cool. If 
coffee flavoring is wanted, use one half black coffee and one 
half milk. If chocolate, melt three or four ounces and add it to 
the custard. 



CAKE 469 

CHOCOLATE FILLING 

Melt four ounces of chocolate j dilute it with three table- 
spoonfuls of milk, and then add a cupful of sugar mixed with a 
well-beaten egg, and stir until thickened. 

ORANGE CAKE 

Whites of 9 eggs. 1 cupful of butter. 

2 cupf uls of granulated sugar. 1 cupful of milk. 
3. heaping cupfuls of flour sifted 2 teaspoonfuls of baking- 
three or four times. powder. 
1 teaspoonful of lemon- juice. 

Cream the butter ; add the sugar, and beat for ten minutes j 
add the milk, and then add alternately the whipped eggs and 
the flour, the baking-powder having been sifted with the flour j 
add tlie lemon- juice last, and mix all lightly. Bake in layer 
tins 5 spread the layers with orange filling and frost tlie top 
with royal icing flavored with orange- juice and a little lemon. 

ORANGE FILLING 

Beat the whites of two eggs to a stiff froth. Boil one and one 
quarter cupfuls of sugar with one half cupful of water to the small 
ball (see page 512). Pour the boiling sugar in a very fine stream 
onto the whipped whites, beating hard all the time. Add the 
gi'ated rind and juice of one orange and continue to beat until 
it is cold and the sugar is stiffened enough to place between the 
cakes without running. 

PISTACHIO CAKE 

Make three layers of cake after the receipt given for orange 
cake. Make a cream filling as directed for layer cakes, flavor 
it with orange-flower water and a little bitter almond, to give 
the flavor of pistachio (see page 391), and color it a delicate green. 
Frost the top with a soft royal icing (page 484) made of con- 
fectioners' sugar J color it a delicate light green and sprinkle the 



470 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

top with chopped pistachio nuts. This cake is rather soft and 
creamy, and should not be cut before going on the table. 

PLAIN CUP CAKE 

J cupful of butter. 2 teaspoonf uls of baking 

IJ cupfuls of sugar. powder. 

1 cupful of water or milk. 4 eggs. 

3 cupfuls of flour. Juice and rind of 1 lemon. 

Beat the butter and sugar to a cream ; add the beaten yolks ; 
then add slowly the water and three quarters of the flour. Beat 
it a long time until very smooth and light ; then add the lemon 
and the rest of the flour in which the baking-powder is mixed ; 
beat well together, and lastly add the whipped whites of the 
eggs. Bake in gem-paus, putting a tablespoonful of the mix- 
ture into each pan. Raisins may be added to this cake, or two 
ounces of melted chocolate may be used instead of the lemon- 
juice, making it chocolate cake j or it may be made into spice 
cakes by using two tablespoonfuls of molasses with enough 
water to give one cupful of liquid j add also one haK teaspoonf ul 
each of ground cloves, cinnamon, and allspice, and a few cur- 
rants if desired; use- one teaspoonf ul of soda instead of the 
baking-powder if molasses is used. Bake in a moderate oven 
about one half hour, and see that the cakes rise evenly and are 
of the same size. Turn them out of the pans bottom side up, 
and frost the bottom and sides with royal icing while they are 
still warm. For chocolate or spice cakes, use chocolate icing. 

GOLD-AND-SILVER CAKE 

Use the receipt given for plain cup cake. Divide the materials ; 
use the whites of the eggs with one part, the yolks and one 
whole egg with the other. Bake in separate tins ; cut before 
serving ; arrange the slices with the two colors alternating on a 
lace paper. 

MARBLE CAKE 

Make a mixture as directed for plain cup cake ; divide it into 
three parts ; color one with carmine, another wif^^. melted choco- 



CAKE 471 

late (one ounce), and leave the third one white. Do this quickly, 
so the baking-powder will not lose its force before going into 
the oven. Pour the mixtures into a tin, alternating the colors 
twice J they will run together and make a mottled cake. 

RICHER CUP; OR, 1, 2, 3, 4 CAKE ^ - -^- 

Use one cup of butter, two of sugar, three of flour, and four 
eggs, and one half teaspoonful of vanilla. Mix as directed for 
butter-cake mixtures (page 465). 

POUND-CAKE 

Use one pound each of butter, sugar, and flour ; ten eggs ; 
one quarter teaspoonful of mace and one half cupful of brandy. 
Mix as directed for butter-cake mixtures. Divide it into two 
loaves and bake in tins lined with paper forty to fifty minutes 
in a moderate oven. This cake may be filled with sliced citron 
and raisins if desired, or may have nuts mixed with it, making 
a nut cake, or some nuts may be sprinkled over the top before 
it goes in the oven. 

WHITE CAKE 

Whites of 6 eggs. 2 cupf uls of flour. 

I cupful of butter. Juice of half a lemon. 

IJ cupfuls of powdered sugar. J teaspoonful of soda. 

Sift the soda with the flour three times ; cream the butter and 
add the flour to it ; whip the eggs to a stiff froth and add the 
sugar, then beat them gradually into the butter and flour, and 
add the lemon- juice. When it is thoroughly mixed and smooth 
put it into a biscuit or flat tin, so it will make a layer one and 
a half inches thick when done. Bake it in a moderate oven ; 
while it is still warm spread it with royal icing (see page 483). 
Before the icing fully hardens, mark two lines down the length 
of the cake, dividing it into three sections, then across in even 
lines, giving slices one inch broad and about two and a half 
inches long ; to do this hold over it a straight edge and mark it 
with the back of a knife. Put into a pastry bag some of the 
frosting, made a little stiff er -with sugar, and place two dots of 



472 ^ THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

icing on each slice. This cake may be made with baking- 
powder, using one teaspoonful and mixing it in the usual way. 
It will then be a lighter cake and should be baked in a loaf ; the 
first gives a fii'm, fine-grained cake. ^ 

PLAIN FRUIT CAKE 

( f cupful of butter. ^ 

1 J 2 cupfuls of granulated > Cream these together well, 
sugar 

2' 



I 3 eggs. ^ ^ 

r 1 teaspoonful of gJlspice. ( 



cupful of milk with J 
teaspoonful of soda dis- 
teaspoonful of allspice. C solved in it. 

i teaspoonful of grated r 3 cupfuls of sifted flour 

nutmeg. ^j with 1 teaspoonful of 

3-^ J teaspoonful of ground | cream of tartar mixed 

cloves. V in it. 

i teaspoonful of ground ai ^ cupful of sliced citron, 

mace. I 2 cupfuls of raisins. 

Mix the materials in the order given, beating well each one 
before the next is added 5 add part of the flour and the milk at 
the same time, then the rest of the flour. Flour the fruit and 
add it last. More fruit can be used if desired. This will make 
one large or a dozen small cakes. Bake in a moderate oven 
about one hour if in one cake. 

BROD TORTE 

9 eggs. Citron size of small^gg. 

2 J cupfuls of sugar. J cupful of blanched almonds. 

2 cupfuls of bread-crumbs — Grated rind of one lemon. 

Graham preferred. J cupful of brandy or rum. 

2 teaspoonfuls of ground 2J ounces of chocolate. 

cinnamon. 

1 teaspoonful of ground allspice. 

Put into a bowl the bread-crumbs, dried and pounded fine, 
the citron and almonds both chopped fine, the spices and lemon- 




ICED CAKE DECORATED WITH CANDIED CHERRIES CUT IN HALVES, ANGELICA 
CUT INTO TRIANGULAR PIECES, AND A SCALLOPED LINE OF ICING. 




CAKE COVERED WITH CHOCOLATE ICING AM) OKNAMBNTED IN CENTER WITH 
LINES OP WHITE ICING. 




CAKE ORNAMENTED WITH A MEDALLION IN CENTER FORMED BY A RING OP 
CANDIED PLUMS CUT IN QUARTERS AND STOOD ON EDGE. THE CENTER OF THE 
CIRCLE IS COVERED WITH BOILED ICING AND DECORATED WITH CANDIED CHER- 
RIES AND ANGELICA. THE CAKE OUTSIDE THE MEDALLION IS BRUSHED WITH 
WHITE OF EGG AND THEN COVERED WITH BLANCHED ALMONDS CUT IN THIN 
SLICES. 



CAKE 473 

rind and the chocolate grated fine ; mix them thoroughly and 
evenly together. In a second bowl put the yolks of the nine 
eggs and whites of five with one and one half cupfuls of sugar. 
Beat them until quite stiff. In a third bo^l put the whites of 
four eggs ; beat them to a stiff froth ; then stir in the remaining 
cupful of sugar. Now gradually and lightly mix the dry in- 
gredients of bowl No. 1 with No. 2 ; then add the whites from 
No. 3. Lastly, add the brandy or rum, and quickly put it into 
the oven to bake for three quarters of an hour. Cover with 
chocolate icing, and decorate with lines of white icing. 

FRUIT CAKE 

1 pound of flour. 9 eggs. 

1 pound of sugar. 1 tablespoonful of ground 

1 pound of butter. cinnamon. 

i pound of candied citron (sliced) 1 tablespoonful of mace. 

4 pounds of currants. 1 tablespoonful of nutmeg. 

4 pounds of raisins (stoned and 3 gills of brandy, 
chopped). 

Mix the fruit together and flour it ; mix the spices with the 
sugar. Cream the butter and sugar j add the beaten yolks, then 
the whipped whites and the brandy, then the flour, and lastly 
the fruit. Put the mixture in two large tins lined with double 
paper, and bake in a moderate oven for three hours. If pre- 
ferred, add the sliced citron in layers as the mixture is poured 
into the pans. One pound of chopped almonds may be substi- 
tuted for one of the pounds of currants. This cake will keep 
any length of time, therefore the quantity may not be too great 
to make at one time. 



CREAM CAKES AND ECLAIES 

These are made of cooked paste, and are very easy to prepare. 
The cream cakes differ from the Eclairs only in form and in 
not being iced. 



474 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

CREAM CAKES 

1 cupful of water. IJ cupfuls of flour (pastry 

1 tablespoonful of sugar. flour preferred). 

2 tablespoonfuls of butter. 3 to 4 eggs. 

i saltspoonful of salt. 

Put the water, sugar, salt, and butter in a saucepan on the 
fire. When the butter is melted remove ; add to it the flour, 
and beat until it is a smooth paste ; return it to the fire, and 
stir vigorously until the paste leaves the sides of the pan j then 
remove ; let it partly cool, and then add the eggs, one at a time, 
beating each one for some time before adding the next. When 
all are in, beat until the batter is no longer stringy. It should 
be consistent enough to hold its shape without spreading when 
dropped from the spoon on a tin. Three eggs make it about 
right unless they are very small or the flour very dry. The 
batter is better if it stands for an hour or two before being 
used ; but this is not essential. Put the mixture into a pastry- 
bag with a tube of one half inch opening j press the batter 
through into balls one and a half to two inches in diameter. A 
spoon can be used, but does not give the cakes as good shape. 
Brush the tops with egg. Put them in a slack oven and bake 
slowly for about forty minutes. They will feel light when 
done, and be puffed very high. Oil and flour the pans or 
baking-sheets as directed on page 464. When the puffs are 
cool make an incision in the side and fill with cream filling as 
given for layer cakes, page 468. The whipped whites of the 
eggs may be added to this filling if it is wanted thinner and 
lighter. 

These cakes are good made very small, filled with jam and a 
little whipped cream, and the tops dipped in sugar boiled to the 
crack, then sprinkled with chopped burnt almonds. 

CHOCOLATE, VANILLA, AND COFFEE e'cLAIRS 

Make a mixture as for cream cakes ; put it into a pastry-bag 
with a tube of three eighth inch opening. Press the batter onto 



CAKE 475 

tins (floured as directed for cream cakes) in strips three and 
one half inches long, and a little distance apart, the same as 
lady-fingers. Egg the tops and bake in a slack oven about thirty 
minutes. Cut open one side and fill with cream filling made 
the same as for cream cakes. Make a chocolate icing No. 2 
(page 485) ; dip the Eclairs into it, covering them one half. 
For vanilla or coffee eclairs use fondant icing, page 485. Fla- 
vor the filling with vanilla or coffee, the same as the icing. 

CAROLINES 

Make small eclairs two inches long, using a tube with open- 
ing no larger than a pencil. When baked run a wooden skewer 
through them, leaving an opening at each end, so the filling will 
go all the way through. Put the filling in a bag, and press it 
through the Carolines. Cover the top with fondant icing. Have 
the filling flavored with coffee. 



FANCY SMALL CAKES 

MEBTNGUES AND KISSES 

Add a half saltspoonful of salt to the whites of three eggs ; 
beat them, and add gradually, while whipping, three quarters of 
a cupful of powdered sugar. Continue to beat until the mix- 
ture is smooth and firm enough to hold its shape without 
spreading when dropped in a ball ; add the flavoring of lemon- 
juice or any essence. Place the meringue in a pastry-bag and 
press it through a tube into balls of the size desired onto strips 
of paper laid on a board that will fit the oven. With a wet 
knife flatten down the point on top left by the tube, and sprinkle 
them with sugar. Put them into a very slack oven, and let 
them dry for at least an hour ; then remove from the papers and 
either press in the bottoms or scoop out the soft center and 
turn them over to dry inside. If small kisses, it is better to give 
them plenty of time to dry, so none of the center has to be taken 
out. They can be removed to the warm shelf if the oven is 



476 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

giving them too much color. They should be only slightly col- 
ored on top and dried all the way through. For large me- 
ringues to be filled with cream, use one and a half tablespoon- 
fuls of meringue for each piece. Make them an oblong shape. 
Place them in an oven hot enough for cake and watch them 
closely until they have formed a light-colored crust j then re- 
move and take out the soft center or press in the bottom, and 
turn them over to dry inside. These meringues may be 
dried like the kisses, but take longer time, as they are larger. 
When a board is not at hand the papers holding the meringues 
may be laid in biscuit-tins, a second tin placed like a cover 
over the top, and set on the shelf over the range for several 
hours. This serves very well where the fire is too great for the 
ovens to be cool. There is no difficulty in making meringues if 
the eggs are sufficiently whipped. They soon become stiff when 
whipped after the sugar is in. They must be dried rather than 
baked. If the meringues stick to the paper turn them over, 
slightly moisten the paper, and it will soon come off. Make 
kisses small and stick two together with white of egg. "When 
very small they are good with a little jam or jelly between them. 
Large meringues can be filled with ice-cream or with whipped 
cream just before serving them, and two placed together. 

One quarter cupful of powdered sugar is needed for the white 
of each egg. 

LADY-FINGEES 

6 eggs. J pound or 1 cupful of 

i pound or IJ cupfuls of sifted flour. 

powdered sugar. i saltspoonful of salt. 

Flavoring of vanilla, lemon, or orange-flower water. 
Beat the yolks and sugar to a light cream ; add the flavor- 
ing. Stir in lightly the flour and then the whites of the eggs 
whipped very firmj the salt is added to the whites before 
being whipped. Have a sheet of paper on the baking-pan or 
sheet. Place the mixture in a pastry-bag, and press it through 
a tube having an opening one half to three quarter inch wide. 



CAKE 477 

Have the strips four and a half inches long. Cut off the paste 
from the tube with a knife so the ends will be clean ; dust them 
with sugar and bake in a moderate oven ten to twelve minutes, 
or until a light crust has formed. The crust should not be 
colored. When done, stick two together, using white of egg. 

For Biscuit Balls. — Drop the mixture in balls one half inch 
in diameter, and bake the same as fingers. Stick two together 
with a little jam between them. 

MACAEOONS 

J pound of almonds. IJ cupfuls of powdered 

Whites of 4 eggs. sugar. 

Pound the blanched almonds to a paste, adding a teaspoonf ul 
of rose-water to keep them from oiling ; add also the sugar, a 
little at a time, while pounding the almonds; add a few drops of 
almond essence and the whipped whites of the eggs ; beat thor- 
oughly together. Drop the mixture in balls one half inch in 
diameter on strips of paper, using a pastry-bag. If not stiff 
enough to hold their shapes without spreading, add one table- 
spoonful of flour. 

GOCOANTJT BALLS OR CONES 

Grate a cocoanut ; add to it half its weight of sugar ; then 
stir in the whipped white of one egg. Roll the mixture into 
balls or cones, and bake in a moderate oven twenty to thirty 
minutes. If the mixture is too soft to hold its shape, add a 
very little flour. 

MADELEINES No. 1 

Make two thin layers of Genoese cake (page 467), flavored with 
brandy ; place them together with a thin layer of jelly or jam 
between them. Cut the cake into fancy shapes, such as dia- 
monds, squares, circles, and crescents, having them not more 
than one and a quarter to one and a half inches in diameter, and 
the same in thickness. Ice them with fondant (see page 485), 



47g THE CENTUBY COOK BOOK 

flavored with rum, kirsch, or maraschino, or vary the flavor for 

the different shapes ; or, make the cakes of one layer one and 

a quarter inches thick, and ice them on top and sides with royal 

icing or with fondant, making it of different colors, pink, green, 

chocolate, white, and flavor to corres{)ond. Place in the center 

of each cake a currant, bit of candied cherry, piece of angelica, 

or almond. 

MADELEINES No. 2 

Take a sponge-cake No. 1, or a Genoese cake mixture, and 
make it a little stiffer with flour (enough batter can usually be 
saved from layer cake to make a few fancy cakes). With a spoon 
or pastry-bag drop it in balls one half inch in diameter; bake, 
and place two together with a little jam or jelly between them. 
Cover them with soft royal icing ; have them all of the same 
color. If green, use pistachio flavor as directed, page 391, and 
sprinkle the tops with chopped pistachio nuts ; if white, with al- 
monds ; if pink, leave them plain, and flavor with rose. 

LITTLE POUND-CAKES 

Use the Genoese mixture with a few currants added, or the 
plain pound-cake mixture. Bake in small tins one and a half 
inches in diameter; take care that they rise evenly so they are 
flat on top. Ice the top only with any kind of icing. 

ORANGE QUARTERS 

Use the Genoese or any butter-cake mixture, making it quite 
stiff with flour ; flavor it with lemon- and orange-juice, and add 
a little of the grated rind of orange. Drop a small tablespoon- 
ful of the cake mixture at intervals into the tin made for this 
cake (see illustration), and bake in a moderate oven ; cover the 
wedge-shaped sides of the cakes with soft royal icing flavored 
and colored with orange- juice. 

ALMOND WAFERS 

Take one tablespoonful each of flour and powdered sugar and 
one half saltspoonful of salt. Sift them weU together. Beat 




2 OrInPF mTAST^4''nf/xf«'' ^^""^ '^ "^"^^H THEY WERE BAKED. 
i' ?3^^^^'^^^^^^^ CAKES AND BAKING TIN. (SEE PAGE 478 ) 
3. SHELL-SHAPED GENOESE CAKES AND BAKING TIN 



%^ 






SMALL KISSES. (SEE PAGE 4745.) 

ONrS AND^'l«v?i«lSy,^''^' DIAMOND-SHAPED, AND CRESCENTS, EACH 

^THE^?A^^ IseTSgE 4™ '''^''^ ^^ ANGELICA CUT THE SAMe'sHaSe 



CAKE 479 

the white of one egg just enough to break it, and add as much 
of it to the flour and sugar as it will take to make a creamy 
batter j flavor with a few drops of almond essence. Grease th(^ 
pans lightly and flour them as directed on page 464. Drop 
half teaspoonful of the paste on the pan, and with a wet fiu^^ 
spread it into a thin round wafer. Bake it in a very moder. 
oven until the edges are slightly browned, then, before remo 
ing from the oven door, lift each wafer, and turn it around m 
stick. They stiffen very quickly, and the rolling must be done 
while they are hot. 

VENETIAN CAKES 

i cupful of butter. 1 cupful of almonds. 

- J cupful of powdered sugar. 1 teaspoonful of vanilla. 
li cupfuls of pastry flour. Yolks of 3 eggs. 

Cream the butter and sugar together until very light ; add 
the yolks well beaten ; then the almonds blanched and cut in 
strips ; mix ; add the vanilla and stir in lightly the flour. The 
dough should be rather soft. Take a small piece at a time, 
drop it in powdered sugar, and roU it between the hands into a 
ball one inch in diameter. Put a piece of pistachio nut on the 
top. Place the balls a little distance apart on floured pans (see 
page 464), and bake in a moderate oven ten to fifteen minutes, 
or to a pale color. They will flatten in baking and have the 
shape of macaroons. 

GAUFFRES 

This receipt was obtained in Paris, and makes the little 
cakes one sees for sale at all the French fetes, and also on the 
sea-beaches, where the vender calls so cheerily, "Voici les 
plaisirs." They are baked in a kind of small wafle-iron. The 
plaisirs are rolled as soon as taken from the iron. 

Add a dash of salt to the whites of six eggs, and whip them 
to a stiff froth. Put a half pound of flour in a bowl, and add 
enough water to make a thin batter ; flavor it with vanilla, then 
add the whipped whites of the eggs. Bake one gauffre to see 



480 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

if the batter is of the right consistency. It should be very thin, 
and water can be added until it is right. Have the iron hot, 
and grease it well with butter or oil. Pour in the batter, and 
let it run evenly into all the grooves; close the iron, and bake 
on both sides over hot coals. The iron must be very clean, 
smooth, and well greased, or the gauffres will stick. Dredge 
them with powdered sugar as soon as baked. 



JUMBLES, COOKIES, AND PLAIN CAKES 

JUMBLES 

Beat to a cream one cupful of butter with two cupfuls of 
sugar. Add three eggs, the yolks and whites beaten sepa- 
rately; then the flavoring. Stir in lightly enough flour to 
make a paste just firm enough to roll thin. Cut it into circles 
and with a smaller cutter stamp out a small circle in the middle, 
leaving the jumbles in rings. Place them in a floured pan, 
brush the tops with white of egg, and sprinkle with pounded 
loaf sugar. The sugar should be in small lumps. Bake in a 
moderate oven to a light color. 

SAND TARTS 

Make the mixture given for jumbles. Cut it into squares or 
diamonds, place them in floured pans, brush the top with 
white of egg. Sprinkle with granulated sugar mixed with 
ground cinnamon. Place a piece of blanched almond in the 
center of each one. 

BOILED JUMBLES 

Make a mixture as directed for jumbles, using only enough 
flour to make a thin batter. Drop a teaspoonful of batter for 
each cake on a floured pan. In the oven it runs out into a thin 
cake, so leave plenty of room for the batter to spread. As soon 
as the edges begin to brown lift the cakes, and at the oven 
door roll them around a stick. Leave them in the oven a few 
moments longer to dry. 



CAKE 481 

I 

PLAIN COOKIES 

1 cupful of butter. 2 eggs. 

2 cupfuls of sugar. i teaspoonf ul of vanilla. 

1 cupful of milk. Flour. 

2 teaspoonfuls of baking-powder. 

Mix in the order given. Use enough flour to roll the dough 
thin. Cut it into circles, and bake in a moderate oven. Brush 
the tops with white of eggj and sprinkle them with sugar. Cara- 
way seeds may be mixed with the dough, or sprinkled over the 
tops if liked. For soft cookies do not roll the dough so thin. 
Stamp them out with a fluted cutter, and remove them from 
the oven as soon as baked, not leaving them to dry as for crisp 
cookies. 

GINGER SNAPS 

Put a half cupful of butter and a cupful of molasses on the 
fire J as soon as the butter is softened remove them, and add 
a half cupful of brown sugar, a teaspoonf ul of ginger, and a 
teaspoonf ul of soda dissolved in a little hot water ; then mix in 
enough flour to make a stiff dough. Roll it very thin, and 
stamp it into circles. 

CRULLERS 

Beat three eggs together; add four tablespoonfuls of sugar 
and four tablespoonfuls of melted butter or lard; then enough 
flour to make a dough stiff enough to roll. Roll it a quarter of 
an inch thick. Cut it into pieces three and a half inches long 
and two inches broad. Cut two slits in each piece, and give 
each one a twist. Fry the crullers in hot fat, the same as 
doughnuts. 

DOUGHNUTS 

2 eggs. 1 saltspoonful each of salt 
1 cupful of sugar. and ground cinnamon. 

1 cupful of milk. J teaspoonful of soda and 1 

4 tablespoonfuls of melt- teaspoonful of cream of 

ed butter. tartar, or 1 teaspoonful 

Flour enough to make a of baking-powder. 

soft dough. 

31 



482 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

Roll the dough one inch thick. Cut it into small circles, or 
rings, or strips and twist them. Drop the cakes into smoking 
hot fat, and fry to light brown j drain, and roll them in pow- 
dered sugar while still warm. 

BBEAD CAKE 

Take a piece of raised bread-dough large enough for one 
loaf. Mix into it one tablespoonful of butter, one cupful each 
of sugar, raisins, and currants j one half teaspoonful each of 
ground cinnamon, cloves, and allspice. Let it rise, which will 
take some time, and bake the same as bread. 

ONE-EOG CAKE 

Cream together a half cupful of butter and a cupful of sugar. 
Add a cupful of milk, and one beaten egg] then two cupfuls of 
flour mixed with two teaspoonfuls of baking-powder. Bake in 
a moderate oven. 

WAEEEN'S CAKE 

2 eggs. 1 cupful of flour. 

1 cupful of sugar. J cupful of hot water. 

2 teaspoonfuls of baking-powder. 

Beat the yolks and whites of the eggs together well, add the 
sugar, then the flour, in which the baking-powder is mixed, and 
lastly the water. Put it into the oven at once. 

MOLASSES WAFERS 

Mix well together one cupful of butter, one cupful of sugar 
two cupfuls of molasses, and two cupfuls of Jour. Drop a few 
spoonfuls into a pan, in different places, and put it in the oven; 
it will melt and run together. Let it bake until it begins to 
harden on the edges ; then remove, cut it into squares, and while 
it is still hot and soft roll each piece around a stick. 



CAKE 483 

SOFT GINGERBREAD 

1 cupful of molasses. 1 teaspoonful each of gin- 

1 tablespoonf ul of butter. ger, ground cloves, cin- 

1 tablespoouful of boiling water. namon, and soda. 

2 to 3 cupf uls of flour. J saltspoonful of salt. 

Add the melted butter to the molasses, then the spices. Dissolve 
the soda in the boiling water, and stir it into the molasses. Add 
enough flour to make a very soft dough— too soft to roll. Bake 
in a biscuit-tin lined with paper, in a moderate oven, for thirty- 
five minutes. Mix it quickly and put it into the oven at once. 

MOLASSES CAKE 

Put together two cupfuls of New Orleans molasses and one 
cupful of butter, and heat them enough to soften the butter j 
remove from the fire, and add a teaspoonful each of powdered 
ginger and cinnamon, and one haK teaspoonful of cloves, then 
three well-beaten eggs. When it is well mixed add alternately, 
in small quantities, three cupfuls of flour and one cupful of 
boiling water in which have been dissolved three teaspoonfuls 
of baking soda. 

ICING AND DECORATINa CAKES 

ROYAL ICING 

Place the white of an egg in a bowl or plate. Add a little 
lemon-juice or other flavoring, and a few drops of water. Stir 
in powdered sugar until it is of the right consistency to spread. 
While the cake is still warm pile the icing on the center of the 
cake, and with a wet knife smooth it over the top and sides of 
the cake. It will settle into a smooth and glossy surface. If 
the icing is prepared before the cake is ready, cover it with 
a wet cloth, as it quickly hardens. If it becomes too stiff add a 
few drops of water, and stir it again. Color and flavor as 
desired. One egg will take about a cupful of sugar, and 
will make enough icing to cover one cake. If a little more 
is needed add a little water to the egg, and it will then take 



484 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

more sugar. When icing is wanted for decorating a cake, beat 
the whites to a froth, then beat in the sugar instead of stirring 
it, and continue to beat until it is firm enough to hold its form. 
Stirring more sugar into the unwhipped whites will make it firm 
enough for decorating, but the whipped icing is better. Put it 
into a pastry-bag with small tube, or into a paper funnel, and 
press it through into ai^y shapes desired. A good icing is made 
of milk and sugar alone. 

EOYAL ICING WITH CONFECTIONER'S SUGAR 

Make this icing the same as the other, using confectioner's 
sugar, which is finer than the powdered sugar, and use a little 
water with the egg. This makes a soft, creamy icing ; the more 
water used, the softer it will be. If beaten instead of stirred it 
will become firm enough to hold in place without so much sugar 
being used, but in this way it dries sooner and is not so creamy. 
This is a good icing for layer cakes, fancy cakes, and eclairs. 

BOILED ICING No. 1 

Put a cupful of sugar into a saucepan with one quarter cup- 
ful of boiling water and a half saltspoonful of cream of ^artar j 
stir till dissolved, then let it boil without stirring until it threads 
when dropped from the spoon. Turn it in a fine stream onto 
the white of one egg whipped to a stiff froth. Beat the egg 
until the mixture becomes smooth and stiff enough to spread, 
but do not let it get too cold. Pour it over the cake. 

BOILED ICING No. 2 

Boil sugar as directed above to the soft ball ; then remove 
from the fire, add the flavoring,_and stir it until it looks clouded, 
and turn it at once over the cake.*^^^^ "^ nVv- 

CHOCOLATE ICING No. 1 

Melt in a dry saucepan some chocolate; dilute it with a little 
water and add enough powdered or confectioner's sugar to make 
it of the right consistency. Use it while warm, as chocolate 
quickly hardens. Flavor it with vanilla. 



1 



CAKE 485 

CHOCOLATE ICING No. 2 

Melt in a dry pan four ounces of chocolate, or of cocoa. 
Boil one and three quarter cupfuls of sugar with a cupful 
of water till it threads when dropped from the spoon, the same 
as for boiled icing. Turn it slowly onto the chocolate, stirring 
all the time. Use this icing for dipping eclairs and small 
cakes, and for layer cakes. Chocolate icing loses its gloss 
when at all stale. 

CHOCOLATE ICING No. 3 

Melt one ounce of chocolate ; dilute it with two tablespoonfuls 
of milk 5 add two tablespoonfuls of sugar and a quarter tea- 
spoonful of butter j stir till smooth and spread on the cake. 

ICING FOE SMALL CAKES 

Stir into confectioner^s sugar enough syrup of thirty degrees 
(see page .513) to dissolve it; add fruit-juice or liqueur to flavor 
it. When ready to use, heat it, stirring all the time, and stand 
it in a pan of hot water while the cakes are dipped into it. 

COFFEE ICING FOR ECLAIRS 

Make the same as the one given above, using very strong 
coffee or coffee essence to color and flavor it. Use enough 
^sugar to make a soft flowing icing, and dip the cakes into it 
while it is hot. 

FONDANT ICING 

This is the best of all icings. It is soft and glossy, and is 
used especially for small cakes and eclairs. If the fondant is 
already made, i|| gives very little trouble. To make fondant 
see page 514. ^Lwill keep in tight preserve jars any length of 
time. ^E^flp^i^V>^^ ^^^ work so well after it has been melted 
two or threej^pire, therefore it is better to take only the amount 
to be used ijP'one flavor or color at a time. Place it in a cup 
and stand it in a pan of boiling water. Stir the fondant con- 
stantly while it is melting, or it will become a clear liquid. It 
win soften at a low degree of heat j add the flavoring and col- 



486 THE CENTUEY COOK BOOK 

oring and dip the cakes into it. If it becomes too hard, add a 
few drops of syrup at thirty-four degrees (see page 513). When 
liqueurs are used for flavoring, add a drop or two at a time 
only, or they will dilute it too much. Should this occur, add 
a little more fondant to the cup. Maraschino, curaQao, kirsch, 
orange-flower water, rose, almond, and coffee essences make 
good flavorings for fancy-cake icings. 



aARNISHINa CAKES 

WITH POWDERED SUGAR 

The simplest of all garnishings is to sprinkle the 

cake with powdered sugar ; strips of paper can be 

laid over the cake before it is dusted, so as to give 

In lines liii^s or squares of white over the top j stencils for 

or squares, this purpose are easily cut, giving circles or diamonds. 

WITH CHOPPED NUTS 

Brush the cake with white of egg and then sprinkle 
waSuts, or with nuts chopped or sliced fine ; or the cake may be 
pistachio lightly coated with a red jelly or jam, and then 
sprinkled with chopped nuts. 

WITH COLORED SUGARS 

Cover the cake with royal icing, and before it 
hardens sprinkle it with red and green colored sugar 
(see page 393). It may be put on in dots or sprinkled 
evenly over the whole. 

WITH TWO COLORS 

Loaf cake may be iced in sections of alternate colors. 
To do this, place a strip of stiff paper upright be- 
tween the colors while spreading them, and remove it 
carefully as soor as the icing is on. This will give a 



CAKE 487 

clean, sharp line. Cakes iced with chocolate or with 
boiled icing may be ornamented with fine lines of 
royal icing. 

TO DECOEATE IN DESIGNS 

Place royal icing in a pastry bag having a tube 
with small opening. Press the icing through slowly, 
following any design one may have in view. Points 
may be pricked in the flat icing at regular intervals 
as a guide. It requires some practice to acquire the 
facility for making very elaborate designs, but straight 
lines, dots, and circles around the cake are easy to 
make, and with these a great variety of combinations 
can be made. Tubes of various-shaped openings are 
made to give different forms to the icing pressed 
through them. If one cares to practise making fancy 
decorations, draw a design on a paper or slab and To practise 
follow the lines with icing ; scrape off the icing when ^J^Jf 
it is done, and repeat the operation until familiar 
enough with the design to be able to make it without 
a guide. 



Chapter XXII 
FROZEN DESSERTS 

ICE-CREAMS, WATER-ICES, PARE AITS, MOUSSES, FROZEN 
FRUITS, PUNCHES, AND SHERBETS 

Frozen desserts are the most acceptable of any 
that can be presented in the summer-time, and at any 
season they are served and expected at dinner enter- 
tainments. 

The trouble of making them is not greater than 

Compara- ^^^^^ ^^ making any dessert of the same class, and the 

tivetrouble expense no more than any dessert using the same 

expense, amount of eggs and cream; thus a plain ice-cream is 

the same as a custard, a mousse the same as whipped 

cream, etc. 

Parfaits are especially delicious creams, and as they 
require no stirring while freezing are very quickly 
and easily made. The freezing of ice-creams which 
require stirring is accomplished in twenty to twenty- 
five minutes, and is much easier work than beating 
eggs for cake. In fact, the whole process of making 
ice-creams is easier than that of making cake, but the 
latter is so generally practised that nothing is thought 
of it. It will be the same with ice-cream if the habit 
is once formed. They have the advantage over hot 
desserts that they require no attention at dinner-time. 

CLASSIFICATION OF ICE-CREAMS 

Philadelphia ice-creams are cream sweetened, fla- 
vored, and stirred while freezing. 



Fancy 
creams. 



FROZEN DESSERTS 489 

French ice-creams are custards of different degrees 
of richness stirred while freezing. 

Parfaits, biscuits, and mousses are whipped cream, 
with or without eggs, frozen without stirring. 

Water-ices are fruit- juices sweetened with sugar 
syrup, stirred while freezing. 

Punches and sherbets are water-ices with liquors 
mixed with them either before or after they are 
frozen. 

These creams, in different degrees of richness and 
with different flavorings, give an infinite variety, and 
their combinations and forms of molding give all the 
fancy ices. 



GENERAL RULES FOR MAKING ICE-CREAMS — TO PRE- 
PARE ICE-CREAM MIXTURES 

Unless the cream is to be whipped it should be The cream, 
scalded, as it then gives a smoother and better icej 
otherwise it has a raw taste. It is scalded as soon as 
the water in the outside kettle boils. If the cream is 
too much cooked it will not increase in bulk when 
stirred, therefore do not boil the cream. When 
whipped cream is used it should be very cold, whipped 
to a stiff, firm froth with a wire whip, and the 
liquid which drains from it should not be used. (See 
whipping cream, page 408.) 

Ices are much better when the sugar is added in the The sugar, 
form of syrup. (See sugar syrup, page 503,* and boil- 
ing syrup, page 513.) Frozen fruits are smoother 
when sweetened with syrup, and water-ices should be 
made of a thick syrup diluted with fruit-juice to 20° 
on the syrup gauge. 

In custard creams the milk should be scalded, and 
when a little cool stirred into the beaten yolks (the 
whites of the eggs are not generally used). T} 



490 



THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 



Biscuits 

and 
parfaits. 

Freezing. 



Time. 



whole is tlien placed on the fire, and stirred continu- 
ally until it coats the spoon no longer. The flavoring 
is then added, and it is beaten until cold. This 
makes it light and smooth, and increases its bulk. 

For biscuits and parfaits the custard is made of 
sugar syrup and yolks of eggs cooked together until 
it coats the spoon, and is then beaten until cold. 

Freezing. — Put the ice in a strong cloth or bag, 
and pound it quite fine. The finer the ice the quicker 
will be the freezing. Snow may be used in place of 
ice. Use one part of rock salt (fine salt will not do) to 
three parts of ice. Eock salt can be had at feed-stores 
when not found at grocers^ Place the can in the 
freezing pail with the pivot of the can in the socket of 
the pail, have the cover on the can, and a cork in the 
opening on top. Hold the can straight, and fill around 
it three inches deep of ice ; then an inch of salt. Al- 
ternate the layers of ice and salt, observing the right 
proportions, until the packing rises to within an inch 
of the top of the can ; pack it down as solid as possible. 
See that the can will turn, and be careful not to lift it 
out of the socket. Take off the top of the can j put in 
the paddle, placing the pivot in the socket at the 
bottom ; then pour in carefully the ice-cream mixture, 
which must be perfectly cold. Adjust the tops and 
crank, and turn it for twenty to twenty-five minutes, 
by which time the cream should be frozen. The crank 
turns harder when the mixture has stiffened, and it is 
not necessary to look in order to know it is frozen. 
If the cream is frozen too quickly it will be coarse- 
grained. To have it fine-grained it must be turned 
constantly, and not frozen in less time than twenty 
minutes. 

PacUng. — When the cream is frozen take off the 
crank and the top of the pail. Wipe carefully the top 
of the can, and see that the ice and salt are well be- 



FROZEN DESSERTS 



491 



low the lid, so none will get into the cream j lift off 
the top, take out the paddle, and with a spoon or fruit^mts. 
wooden spatula work down the cream. If fruit, cream, etc. 
whipped cream, or anything is to be added to the 
cream, put it in at this time and work it well to- 
gether. If the cream is to be molded, remove and 
place it in the molds j if not, smooth the top, and 
make the cream compact with a potato masher. Re- 
place the top, put a cork in the opening of the lid, 
draw off the water in the pail by removing the cork 
from the hole in the side of the pail, add more ice 
and salt. Cover it with a heavy cloth, and let it 
stand until ready to use. The cream ripens or be- Ripening. 
comes blended by standing, so should be made before 
the time for serving. Look at it occasionally to see 
that the water does not rise above the opening of the 
can. K properly watched, and if the packing is re- 
newed as required, the cream can be kept for any 
length of time. 

Molding Ice- Creams. — Put the frozen ice-cream into Molding. 
the mold, filling it entirely full; press it down to 
force out any air bubbles. Rub butter around the 
edge where the lid fits on. Lay a wet thin paper over 
the top, and put on the lid. Fill the edges around 
the lid with butter or lard. This will harden, and 
make the joints tight. Too much care cannot be Precaution, 
taken to prevent the salt water leaking into the mold. 
Imbed the mold in ice and salt for from one to six 
hours. Mousses require four to six hours, and par- 
faits two to three hours. Watch to see that the 
water does not rise above the lid of the mold, and 
draw it off when necessary. 

Fancy Molding. — When two or more kinds of 
creams are to be combined in the same mold, first 
place the mold in ice and salt; line it an inch or 
more thick with one kind of cream, and fill the center 



492 



THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 



Bombs. 
Fanach^e. 

ETeapoIitan. 



with a cream of different flavor and color. These are 
called bombs. Or, place two or more kinds in even 
layers. Where two colors are used they are pana- 
chee; if three, they are neapolitan. If the colors 
are to run in vertical strips, which is desirable in 
pyramidal molds, cut a piece of stiff paper or card- 
board to the shape of the mold; fill each side with a 
different cream, and then withdraw the paper. Arrange 
layers of creams so that when unmolded the most 
solid one will be at the bottom, as it has the weight 
of the others to sustain; for instance, do not put 
water-ices or parfaits under French creams. Biscuits 
are put into paper boxes, and individual creams into 
lead molds. The latter must be thoroughly chilled, 
then filled according to fancy or color suitable to the 
form. They are then closed, and put into a freezing- 
box, or into a pail, the joints of the pail tightly sealed 
with butter, and packed in ice and salt. A freez- 
ing-box with shelves is desirable to have for these 
creams, but a lard-pail answers very well for a small 
number of molds, as the lid fits over the outside, and 
so can be made tight. Molds packed in this way re- 
quire to stand longer than those which come in direct 
contact with the ice and salt. 

The individual creams have to be frozen very hard, 
and when unmolded should be brushed with a little 
color to simulate the fruit or flower they represent. 
Thus, a peach or a pear would be of French cream, 
Decorating, which is yellow in color, and the sides brushed with a 
little diluted cochineal to give pink cheeks, and a piece 
of angelica stuck in to represent a stem. A flower 
would be molded in white cream, and the center made 
yellow. A mushroom stem would be dipped in pow- 
dered cocoa, etc. 

Individual creams are perhaps too difficult for an 
amateur to undertake, and hardly repay the trouble 



Individual 
creams. 



Freezing 
box. 



mi 



m ■'% 



I 41 



ICE-CREAM MOLDS IN BRICK FORMS AND INDIVIDUAL LEAD MOLDS. 




ICE-CREAM MOLDED IN A RING MOLD, THE CENTER FILLED WITH WHIPPED 

CREAM COLORED PINK, AND THE DISH GARNISHED WITH PINK 

ROSES AND LEAVES. 



FROZEN DESSERTS 493 

when so many ornamental creams are more easily 
made. 

To JJnmold Creams. — Dip the mold into cold water ; Unmoiding. 
wipe it dry and invert it on the dish. If it does not 
come out at once let it stand a moment, or wring a cloth 
out of warm water, and wipe quickly around the mold. 
This must be done quickly, or the sharp edges of the 
molded cream will be destroyed. With parfaits and 
mousses it is better not to use a hot cloth, as they melt 
very easily. It destroys the attractiveness of ices to 
have the dish swimming in melted cream, or to have 
the mold soft and irregular in shape, which partial 
melting produces. Hence the unmoiding of creams 
requires great care. 

Ornamental Creams, — A plain ring-mold of ice- 
cream in any color can be made an ornamental cream, 
by filling the center with berries or with whipped 
cream for sauce. The whipped cream may be colored to 
give pleasing contrast. For instance, a white ice-cream- 
ring filled with pink whipped cream and a few pink 
roses laid on one side of the dish, or a ring of pis- 
tachio ice-cream filled with white whipped cream or 
with strawberries, and a bunch of green leaves laid 
on one side of the dish. Melon 

A melon mold may be lined with pistachio ice-cream, cream. 
the center filled with pink ice-cream mixed with a few 
small chocolates to represent seeds, or with French 
ice-cream, which is yellow, and mixed with blanched 
almonds. The surface of the melon when unmolded 
is sprinkled with chopped browned almonds to simu- 
late a rind. This dish may be garnished with leaves. g 

Spun sugar can be employed to ornament any form sugar, 
of cream. It may be spread over or be laid around 
it, and makes a beautiful decoration. 

Individual Creams, representing eggs or snow-balls, 
can be served in a nest of spun sugar. Glac6 grapes 



494 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

or oranges can be arranged on the same dish with in- 
dividual creams representing peaches and pears, the 
whole lightly covered with a little spun sugar. 

Individual ice-creams, representing roses, can be 
held by artificial stems, stuck into a rice socle, with 
natural roses and leaves interspersed, giving the effect 
tions. of a bouquet. 

Individual creams are also served in baskets of 
nougat or of pulled candy. The baskets can be orna- 
mented by tying a bunch of roses with a ribbon on 
the handle. 

Individual creams representing strawberries are 
served on flat baskets, or piled on a flat dish and 
trimmed with natural leaves. 

Forms of ice-cream representing animals and vege- 
tables are in questionable taste, and are not recom- 
mended. 

Attention is called to the following creams given in 
the receipts, which are especially good : 

The coffee and the chocolate pralin^e. 

The white ice-cream, plain or mixed with candied 
or preserved chestnuts, or with candied fruits cut 
into dice. 

The maple parfait, which is quite new. 

Fruit ice No. 2. Chocolate mousse. 

Maraschino, Curasao, and noyau make delicious 
flavorings for cream. 

RECEIPTS FOE ICE-CEEAMS AND ICES 
VANILLA ICE-CREAMS 

NO. 1. PHILADELPHIA ICE-CREAM 

1 quart of cream. J pound, or 1 cupful, of sugar. 

1 vanilla bean or 1 tablespoonful of vaniUa extract. 

If the cream is very rich dilute it with a little milk, or the 
ice-cream will be too rich, and also it may form fine particles of 



FROZEN DESSERTS 495 

butter while being stirred. Put the cream and the sugar into 
a double boiler and scald them; when they are cold add the 
flavoring. If a vanilla bean is used it should be infused with 
the cream when it is scalded. Freeze and pack as directed in 
general directions, page 490. 

NO. 2. AMERICAN ICE-CREAM (VERY PLAIN) 

1 quart of milk. 3 whole eggs, 

1 cupful of sugar. 1 tablespoonful of vanilla. 

Scald the milk. Beat the eggs and sugar together j stir the 
scalded milk into them slowly j replace on the fire in a double 
boiler and stir constantly until the custard coats the spoon ; do 
not let it boil, or it will curdle. Beat it for a little while after 
taking it off the fire. When it is cold add the flavoring, and 
freeze it as directed at head of chapter. 

Cream will improve this mixture, even if it be only a few 
spoonfuls. More eggs, also, will give a richer ice-cream. When 
the cream is frozen remove the dasher, press the cream down 
with a potato-masher to smooth the top and make it compact, 
and leave it in the freezer until time to serve. A few raisins, thin 
slices of citron, or a little fresh or preserved fruit may be mixed 
in when the dasher is removed, and will much improve the cream. 

NO. 3. FRENCH ICE-CREAM 

1 pint of milk. 6 egg-yolks. 

1 pint of cream. 1 tablespoonful of vaniUa 

1 cupful of sugar. extract or of powder, 

or 1 vanilla bean. 
Scald the pint of milk in a double boiler. (It is scalded when 
the water in the outside kettle boils. Beat the yolks and sugar 
together until light and smooth. Stir the scalded milk slowly 
into the beaten eggs and sugar. Put this into a double boiler 
and cook, stirring constantly until it thickens enough to coat 
the spoon. Do not let it boil or cook too long, or it will curdle. 
If a vanilla bean is used it should be cut in two lengthwise and 
infused with the scalded milk. Remove the custard from the 

Note.— Plain vanilla ice-cream is very good served with hot chocolate sauce. 
Page 447. 



496 THE CENTUEY COOK BOOK 

fire ; add the cream and the flavoring and stir until it is partly 
cooled. When cold freeze it as directed at head of chapter. 

Note 1. — This makes a solid, fine-grained cream. It can be 
made with one quart of cream instead of half milk, and eight to 
ten eggs may be used instead of six. The richness depends 
upon the amount of cream, and the solidity upon the number of 
yolks used. 

Note 2.— "With the whites of the eggs make an angel cake, or 
keep them until next day, and make an angel cream (page 497), 
or an angel parfait (page 505). 

CHOCOLATE IC&CREAH 

Use either of the receipts given for vanilla creams, according 
to the richness and quality of cream desired ; add to the cus- 
tard while it is hot four ounces of melted chocolate. To melt 
the chocolate break it into small pieces j place it in a small 
saucepan on the side of the range where the heat is not great. 
When it is melted add a very little milk or custard to dilute 
and smooth it before adding it to the ice-cream mixture, 
Freeze and pack as directed at head of chapter. 

GAEAMEL ICE^CEEAM JBTo. 1 

1 pint of milk, IJ tablespoonfuls of 

1 pint of cream. scraped chocolate. 

3 whole eggs. Caramel. 

Scald the milk ; add it slowly to the beaten eggs ; add the 
chocolate, and cook in a double boiler, stirring constantly until 
the custard coats the spoon ; then add the hot caramel. When 
the mixture is perfectly cold add the cream, whipped, and freeze. 
See general directions. 

To make the caramel, put a cupful of sugar with a half cup- 
ful of water into a saucepan ; stir until the sugar is dissolved ; 
then, without touching, let it cook until a golden color — not 
longer, or it will blacken. This is the caramel stage, and regis- 
ters on the thermometer 345^ (see page 512). 



FROZEN DESSERTS 497 

GAKAMEL ICE-CBEAM NOo 2 

Add the hot caramel to any of the mixtures given for vanilla 
creams, omitting the sugar and vanilla. The caramel supplies 
both sweetening and flavoring. It must be mixed with the 
custards while hot, as it quickly hardens, and will not then 
dissolve. 

COFFEE ICE-CREAM No. 1 

To any of the receipts given for vanilla cream add a half cup- 
ful of black coffee, and omit the vanilla. 

COFFEE ICE-CREAM No. 2 

1 quart of milk. li cupfuls of sugar. 

1 quart of cream. J ounce of isinglass soaked 

i cupful of very black for half an hour in a little 

coffee. of the cold milk. 

Scald the milkj add the coffee and isinglass and sugar. 
When it is cold add the cream, whipped, and freeze. 

WHITE OR ANGEL ICE-CREAM 

Whites of 6 eggs. Italian meringue made of the 

1 cupful of powdered sugar. whites of 2 eggs and 1 

1 pint of cream. tablespoonful of hot syrup. 

2 tablespoonfuls of noyau or of orange-flower water. 

Break the whites of the eggs, but do not beat them to a froth ; 
stir into them the cupful of powdered sugar, and then add the 
cream. Place it in a double boiler, and stir until it is scalded, 
but do not let it boil j remove from the fire and stir until it is 
cold, to make it light. When it is cold add the flavoring, and 
freeze. When it is frozen remove the dasher, stir in the Ital- 
ian meringue, turn it into a mold, and pack in ice and salt for 
two or three hours. This cream requires a little longer to 
freeze than the other creams. 



498 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

ITALIAN MERINGUE 

Whip the whites of eggs to a stiff froth j beat into them 
slowly some boiling syrup cooked to the ball. This cooks the 
eggs enough to prevent their separating. The syrup is made 
by boiling sugar and water until; when a little is dropped into 
cold water, it will form a ball when rolled between the fingers. 

BICE ICE-CREAM 

Cook a cupful of rice until very soft. Have the juice of a 
lemon in the water in which the rice is boiled. When the rice 
is steamed dry, cover it with a thick sugar syrup and let it 
stand for an hour or more. Drain off the syrup, add a half 
pint of cream, whipped (this may be omitted if preferred) j stir 
this into vanilla cream No. 1 or 3, or with angel ice-cream after 
it is well frozen. Mold and pack in ice and salt for one or two 
hours. 

PISTACHIO ICE-CREAM 

Blanch two ounces of pistachio nuts ; this is done by pouring 
over them boiling water: after a few minutes the skins can be 
easily removed. Pound the nuts in a mortar to a smooth paste, 
using a little cream to prevent their oiling. Add this quantity 
of nuts to one quart of vanilla cream mixture No. 3 -, color it 
green, the shade of green peas j flavor with a little orange- 
flower water, then freeze. When nuts are not obtainable, the 
flavor of pistachio can be produced with orange-flower water 
and a very little bitter almond. 

NEAPOLITAN ICE-CREAM 

This cream is molded in brick form in three layers of different 
flavors and colors. Make a cream after the receipt for vanilla 
cream No. 3, using eight or ten yolks, as it should be solid and 
of fine grain ; omit the vanilla flavoring. Have a pail packed 
in ice j when the cream is frozen, remove one third of it to the 
pail and stir in quickly a little vanilla, using the vanilla powder 



FROZEN DESSERTS 499 

if convenient j put this into the brick-shaped mold, also packed 
in ice, and smooth it down to an even layer. Take from the 
freezer one half of the cream remaining in it and put it into 
the pail j stir into it one ounce of melted chocolate diluted and 
made smooth with a little cream or milk. Place the chocolate 
cream in an even layer on the layer of vanilla cream. To the 
cream remaining in the freezer add an ounce of pistachio nuts, 
prepared as directed in receipt for pistachio cream; color it 
green and add it to the mold for the third layer. Seal the joints 
of the mold with butter to make it very tight, as directed for 
molding, page 491. Pack in ice and salt for several hours. The 
molding of this cream must be done quickly, but with care to 
have the layers even. Strawberry ice is often used for one of 
the layers instead of chocolate cream. 

NESSELBOBE PUDDING 

1 cupful of French chestnuts^ J can of pineapple (drained). 

1 cupful of granulated sugar. IJ tablespoonfuls of mara- 

Yolks of 3 eggs. schino, or 2 tablespoonfuls 

i pint of cream. of sherry. 

J pound of mixed candied fruits. J teaspoonf ul of vanilla 

1 cupful of almonds. sugar, or J teaspoonful of 

' vanilla extract. 

1. Remove the shells from the chestnuts ; put them in boiling 
water for three minutes, then into cold water, and take off the 
skins. Boil the blanched chestnuts until tender. Take one 
half of them and press them through a sieve. They will go 
through more easily while hot. 

2. Blanch the almonds ; chop them fine and pound them. 

3. Cut the candied fruits and the chestnuts into dice ; pour 
over them the maraschino and let them stand until ready to use. 

4. Put into a saucepan on the fire a cupful of granulated 
sugar and one quarter cupful of boiling water; stir until the 
sugar is dissolved, then let it cook slowly for five minutes^ 
making a sugar syrup. 



500 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

5. Beat the yolks of three eggs until light. Pour onto them 
slowly, stirring all the time, the sugar syrup ; place them on 
the fire and stir constantly until the mixture is enough thick- 
ened to coat the spoon and has the consistency of thick cream. 
Remove it from the fire, turn it into a bowl, and beat it until it 
is cold. When it is cold add a half pint of cream, the mashed 
chestnuts, the pounded almonds, and the vanilla flavoring, and 
freeze it. When it is frozen remove the lid of the freezer, add 
the fruits, replace the lid, and turn the freezer for another five 
minutes. Put the cream into a fancy mold and pack in ice and 
salt until ready to use. Serve with it whipped cream, or the 
sauce given below for plum pudding glace flavored with mara- 
schino. This makes a quart of cream, and, being very rich, is 
enough to serve to ten persons. 

Gouffe gives the receipt for this pudding, which he says he 
obtained from the chef of Count Nesselrode. He omits the 
grated almonds, and uses stoned raisins and currants instead of 
candied fruits. When the cream is half frozen he adds a half 
pint of whipped cream. The raisins and currants are boiled 
until plump and added after the cream is frozen, but before it 
is packed. 

PLUM PUDDING GLACE 

Make a chocolate ice-cream as directed on page 496, using the 
French ice-cream mixture. Have a scant three quarters of a 
pound of mixed fruit, composed of seeded raisins and currants 
boiled until plump, thin slices of citron, a few candied cherries 
and apricots if convenient. Pour over them a little sherry and 
let them stand long enough to be a little softened. When the 
cream is frozen, drain the fruit and mix it into the cream, turn- 
ing the dasher for a few minutes to get it well mixed and again 
hardened. Place it in a melon mold and pack in ice and salt. 
This will make about two quarts of cream. Serve with a sauce 
placed around it on the same dish. The sauce may be whipped 
cream flavored with a little kirsch or brandy, or a sauce made 
as follows. 



FROZEN DESSERTS 501 

SAUCE FOE PLUM PUDDING GLACE OR FOR KESSELRODE 

PUDDING 

Beat the yolks of two eggs with two tablespoonf uls of pow- 
dered sugar to a cream. Stir it over the fire in a double boiler 
until the egg is a little thickened, but not hard. Continue to 
beat the egg until it is cold. It will then be light and creamy ; 
add a tablespoonful of brandy, or of kirsch, or of rum, or of 
maraschino ; and then mix in lightly a half pint of cream whipped 
to a dry, stiff froth. 

TUTTI-FRUTTI 

Make a French vanilla ice-cream, page 495. Cut into small 
dice four ounces each of candied cherries, apricots, and plums j 
and other fruits may be used if desired. Let them soak until a 
little softened in maraschino, or kirsch, or sherry. When the 
cream is frozen, stir in the salpicon of fruit, drained; replace 
the lid of the freezer and turn it for five minutes. Turn it into 
a fancy mold and pack in ice and salt until ready to use. The 
angel ice-cream, page 497, may be used instead of the vanilla 
No. 3 if preferred. Serve with the Tutti-Frutti a sauce of 
whipped cream flavored with kirsch, maraschino, or sherry. 

FRUIT ICE-CREAMS 

No. 1. Berries, or any kind of larger fruit cut into small 
pieces, may be added to any of the vanilla creams after 
they are frozen. Remove the paddle of the freezer, 
mix the fruit in well, then mold and pack in ice and 
salt for one or two hours. The fruit will become too 
solid if packed for a long time. 

No. 2. Crush any fruit or berries to a pulp. Sweeten it to 
taste with a thick sugar syrup (32° on the syrup gauge). 
Freeze the same as any ice cream, and pack in ice and 
salt if molded. This makes a delicious ice. Sugar 
may be used instead of syrup for sweetening, but the 
latter gives a better result. 



602 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

No. 3. Using canned fruit. Strain the liquor from the fruit ; 
sweeten it if necessary with sugar or with syrup. 
Mix it with an equal quantity of cream, and freeze. 
When it is frozen add the drained fruit. Mix it well 
together. Mold and pack in ice and salt for one or two 
hours. The fruit will become hard if it is packed too 
long. Preserved strawberries are a particularly good 
fruit to use for ice-cream. 
Note. — Strawberries, raspberries, cherries, peaches, apricots, 

plums, pineapple, bananas, and oranges are the fruits generally 

used for ices and creams. 

FRUIT PUDDINGS 

No. 4. Line a mold one or one and a half inches thick with 
vanilla ice-cream; fill the center with fresh straw- 
berries, raspberries, whortleberries, peaches, bananas, 
or any fruit. Cover the top with cream. Pack in ice 
and salt for two hours. The fruit may be mixed with 
whipped cream, if convenient, when it is put in the 
center of the mold. Whipped cream may also be 
served as a sauce with this cream. 

NUT ICE-CREAMS 

Yanilla ice cream No. 3, also angel ice-cream, is good with 
chopped nuts mixed with it after it is frozen and before it is 
packed. Boiled chestnuts cut into small pieces, chopped Eng- 
lish walnuts, filberts, pecan nuts, or almonds may be used. 
Almonds should be blanched, chopped, and browned; and a 
caramel or an almond flavoring is better than vanilla for the 
cream when almonds are used. i 

PAEFAITS 1 

This class of ice-creams is very easily made, as they are not 
stirred while freezing. The yolks of eggs are cooked with 
sugar syrup to a thick smooth cream, then flavored and beaten 



f 



FROZEN DESSERTS 503 

until cold and light, and mixed with drained whipped cream. 
They are then simply put into a mold and packed in ice and 
salt for three or four hours, according to size of mold. They 
are not solid like the custard ice-creams, but have a sponge-like 
texture. They should not be frozen too hard. It is because 
they have no water in them to crystallize that they do not 
require to be stirred while freezing. 

SUGAR SYRUP 

Put two cupf uls of sugar and a half cupful of water into a 
saucepan on the fire. Stir until the sugar is dissolved, then let 
it cook slowly without touching it for about ten minutes, or 
until it is a clear syrup. The syrup can be made in larger 
quantities and kept in preserve jars ready for use. To keep 
well it should be boiled to a rather thick consistency, or should 
register 32° on the syrup gauge. For parfaits it should be 
thinner or register 20°. For water ices it should register 32° 
(see boiling sugar, page 513). 

In using sjrrups by measure, articles may be too much sweet- 
ened if the right degree is not designated ; but if one has not a 
syrup gauge the sweetening must be determined by taste. All 
classes of ice-creams are better sweetened with syrup than with 
sugar. It seems to give them more smoothness and delicacy. 

VANILLA PARFAIT 

Beat the yolks of eight eggs until light ; add one cupful of 
syrup. Place the mixture on a slow fire and stir constantly 
until the eggs have thickened enough to make a thick coating 
on the spoon. Turn it into a bowl and beat it with a whip 
until it is cold ; it will then be very light. If a vanilla bean is 
used for flavoring, infuse it with the syrup ; if the extract is 
used add a teaspoonful of it to the custard when it is taken 
from the fire. When the custard is cold add a pint of cream 
whipped to a stiff froth. (If any liquid has drained from the 
cream do not let it go in.) Stir these lightly together j turn the 
mixture into a mold holding three pints. Pack in ice and salt 



504 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

for four hours. Make the joints of the mold very tight as 
directed for molding at head of chapter. 

This cream can be varied by using different flavorings in 
place of the vanilla : a tablespoonf ul of Curasao or of noyau, 
two ounces of chocolate melted and smoothed with a little 
cream, etc., etc. 

MAPLE PARFAIT 

This is made the same as the vanilla parfait, using maple 
syrup in place of the sugar syrup, and omitting the vanilla fla- 
voring. Maple syrup may be made by adding water to maple 
sugar and cooking it to the right consistency. 

PARFAIT AU CAPE AND CAPE PRALINE 

Put the yolks of five eggs into a saucepan j beat them light ; 
add three tablespoonf uls of sugar syrup and four tablespoonfuls 
of strong black coffee. Stir the mixture over a slow fire until 
it is enough thickened to make a thick coating on the spoon. 
Turn it into a bowl and beat it until it is cold and light. If 
making coffee pralin6, add three tablespoonfuls of praline 
powder (see below). Mix in lightly a pint of cream whipped to 
a stiff froth. If any liquid has drained from the cream do not 
let it go in. Turn the mixture into a mold holding three pints 
and pack in ice and salt for four hours. 

CHOCOLATE PARPAIT AND CHOCOLATE PRALINE 

Put the yolks of five eggs into a saucepan ; beat them until 
light ; add three tablespoonfuls of sugar syrup. Cook over a 
slow fire, stirring constantly until it makes a thick coating on 
the spoon. Turn it into a bowl ; add two ounces of melted un- 
sweetened chocolate and beat until it is cold and light. If 
making chocolate praline, add three tablespoonfuls of praline 
powder ; stir in lightly a pint of cream whipped to a stiff froth. 
If any liquid has drained from the cream do not let it go in. 
Pack in ice and salt for four hours. This makes three pints of 
cream. 



PBOZEN DESSERTS 505 

PEALINE POWDER 

Put one and a half cupfuls of sugar and a half cupful of 
water into a saucepan on the fire ; stir until the sugar is well 
dissolved j then add a cupful of shelled almonds and a cupful 
of shelled filberts without removing the skins. Let it cook, 
without touching, until it attains a golden color, the caramel 
stage. Turn it onto a slab or oiled dish. When it is cold 
pound it in a mortar to a coarse powder. Keep the praline 
powder in a close preserve jar ready for use. 

ANGEL PAEFAIT 

Whip the whites of three eggs to a stiff froth. Put a half 
cupful of sugar and a half cupful of water into a saucepan on 
the fire. Stir until the sugar is dissolved, then let it cook slowly, 
without touching, to the ball, or until a little dropped into cold 
water will form a ball when rolled between the fingers. Pour 
three tablespoonfuls of the boiling-hot syrup slowly onto the 
whipped whites, beating constantly. Add a teaspoonful of 
vanilla, or of maraschino, or of sherry, or of noyau, or any 
other flavoring. When the Italian meringue is cold, add a 
pint of cream whipped to a stiff froth. Do not let any liquid 
that has drained from the cream go into the mixture. Mold 
and pack in ice and salt for four hours. 

IMPERATRICE OF RICE PUDDING GLACE 

Boil a scant half cupful of rice in milk and water as directed 
for boiling rice, page 222, so each grain will be separate ; but 
it must be quite soft, so boil it half an hour. This will make 
a cupful of rice when boiled. Whip half a pint of cream to 
a stiff froth ; mix into it four tablespoonfuls of powdered sugar 
and one tablespoonf ul of noyau or any flavoring desired j mix 
the rice lightly with the whipped cream. Turn it into a mold, 
and as quickly as possible pack it j leave it in the ice and salt 
for three hours. 

This gives about a quart of cream. 



506 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

PARFAITS OF CHESTNUTS, CANDIES, FRUITS, FRESH 
FRUITS, OR BERRIES 

Make a vanilla parfait as directed, page 503. "When the mix. 
ture is ready to go in the mold add a cupful of boiled chestnuts, 
or marrons glac6, or of mixed candied fruits cut into dice. 
Roll them in powdered sugar so each piece will be dry and 
separate and not sink to the bottom. Stir them in quickly and 
pack the mold as quickly as possible after the fruit is mixed in, 
When fresh fruits or berries are used crush the fruit ; strain 
off the juice J add enough powdered sugar to the pulp to make 
it of the same consistency as the whipped cream. Pack in ice 
and salt for three hours. 

BISCUITS GLACE 

Make a syrup of one cupful of sugar and a quarter cupful of 
water. Beat the yolks of four eggs j add to them three quar- 
ters of a cupful of syrup and a half cupful of cream or milk. 
Place the mixture on the fire and cook^ stirring constantly un- 
til it makes a thick coating on the spoon. Turn it into a bowl ; 
place it on the ice, and beat it until it is cold and quite stiff and 
light J then fold in lightly a pint of cream whipped to a stiff 
froth. If any liquid has drained from the cream do not let it 
go in. For flavoring infuse a vanilla bean with the syrup, or 
add a teaspoonful of vanilla extract, or of maraschino, or 
any flavoring desired, to the custard when it is taken from the 
fire. Put the mixture into paper boxes ; sprinkle over the top 
some chopped browned almonds or some macaroons rolled to 
crumbs, and pack. Tin boxes containing a framework of shelves 
are made for holding individual ices while freezing, but a tin 
lard-pail can be used if necessary, placing a sheet of paper be- 
tween each layer of boxes. Securely seal with butter the lid of 
the pail and pack in ice and salt for four or five hours. 

MOUSSES 

Whip a pint of cream very stiff ; turn it onto a sieve to drain 
for a few minutes so it will be entirely dry. Return it to the 



FROZEN DESSERTS 607 

bowl and whip into it lightly four tablespoonfuls of powdered 
sugar and a tablespoonful of cura9ao, of noyau, of kirsch, or 
of very black coffee, or a teaspoonful of any flavoring extract, 
or an ounce of chocolate, melted, and diluted with a little milk or 
cream, and flavor with a few drops of vanilla. When a liqueur 
is used for flavoring less sugar is needed than with coffee, choco- 
late, or essences. Turn the cream into a mold and pack it in 
ice and salt for four hours. Garnish the dish with small iced 
cakes. 

FEUIT MOUSSES 

Whip a pint of cream very stiff and drain as directed above. 
Mix with it a cupful of any fruit-pulp, the juice drained off and 
the pulp mixed with enough powdered sugar to make it of the 
same consistency as the whipped cream; a little cochineal 
added to strawberry or to peach mousse gives it a better color. 
A little vanilla improves the flavor. Mold and pack in ice and 
salt for three hours. 

GOLDEN MOUSSE (Made without Cream) 

3 eggs. 1 tablespoonful of syrup 

3 tablespoonfuls of sherry. with the yolks, 

i tablespoonful of lemon- juice. 2 tablespoonfuls of syrup 

with the whites. 

Beat the yolks smooth ; add a tablespoonful of syrup, and 
cook, stirring constantly until* the mixture makes a thick coat- 
ing on the spoon. Remove from the fire, add the sherry and 
lemon-juice, and beat it until it is light and cold ; whip the 
whites of the eggs to a stiff froth ; pour into them slowly two 
tablespoonfuls of boiling syrup cooked to the ball (see Italian 
meringue, page 498) ; add the Italian meringue to the mixture 
of yolks, put it into a mold, and pack in ice and salt for four 
hours. This mousse can be flavored with a tablespoonful of 
kirsch, rum, or brandy instead of sherry. A few white grapes 
or candied cherries laid in the bottom of the mold before the 
mixture is put in, makes the dish more ornamental. 



508 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

WATER-ICES 

Water-ices are made of fruit-juice sweetened with sugar 
syrup. Sugar may be used, but the result is better with syrup. 
The liquid mixture should register 20° on the syrup gauge, but 
if one is not at hand, it can be sweetened to taste. 

A good way of preparing it is to make a syrup of 32^ and 
add enough fruit juice to dilute it to 20°. Freeze the same as 
ice-cream, and pack in salt and ice. The ices will not get so 
hard as creams. The following method may also be used : 

ORANGE-ICE 

Boil a quart of water and two and one half cupf uls of sugar 
for ten minutes ,° strain and add the juice of six oranges and 
one lemon. When cold, freeze. 

LEMON-ICE 

Add to the amount of sugar and water given above the juice 
of four lemons and one orange. 

STRAWBERRY-ICE 

To a quart of syrup made as given above, add a cupful and a 
half of strawberry- juice. 
Ices may be made of any fruit used in the same proportions. 

PUNCHES AND SHEEBETS 

These ices are served in glasses after the joint or 
Serving, last entree, and before the game. A quart is enough 
for twelve portions. 

Punches differ from sherbets only in having a 
little Italian meringue added to them just before 
Liquors, serving. They are simply water-ices with liquors 
added. Roman Punch has a cupful or two gills of 
rum added to a quart of lemon-ice. Punches having 
other names are made in the same way, but have other 
liquors or mixtures of liquors. These may be kirsch, 



FROZEN DESSERTS 509 

kirsch and rum, kirsch and maraschino, rum and 
sherry, or any other combination desired. When 
champagne is used it is generally added to orange- 
ice. 

Strawberry, raspberry, pioeapple, or orange-ices 
are generally used for sherbets with liqueurs such 
as cura9ao, maraschino, noyau, etc., combined with 
kirsch, rum, or champagne. 

The liquors can be added to the ice mixture before „. . . 
it is frozen, in which case it takes them longer to the liquors, 
freeze ; (in fact, spirits will not freeze at all, and hence 
these ices are always soft, and have to be eaten with 
a spoon) ; or the liquors may be poured over the frozen 
mixture and stirred in with the paddlCo Sometimes 
the water-ice is placed in the glasses and a teaspoon- 
ful of the liquor or mixture of liquors is poured over 
each glassful at the moment of serving. 

COFFEE PUNCH 

Mix together a quart of black coffee, a cupful of cream, 
three quarters cupful of sugar ; freeze, and then mix in a half 
cupful of brandy or rum, and a half pint of cream, whipped, 
and let it stand half an hour. Stir it well before serving. 

CAFE FRAPPE 

Mix a quart of black coffee with a quart of cream and a cup- 
ful of sugar, or, better, sweeten with syrup. Freeze the same 
as ice-cream, and serve in glasses. A little brandy may be 
mixed in just before serving, if desired. 

LALLA EOOEH 

Make a vanilla cream No. 3. When it is frozen 
of Jamaica rum. Turn the dasher until it is we 

AUow a cupful of rum to each quart of c 
glasses the same as punch. 




Chaptee XXIII 

SUGAE AND ITS USES 
BOILING SUGAE AND MAKING CANDIES 

BOILING SUGAR 

To boil sugar is one of the niceties of cooking, but 
as the uses of boiled sugar in fancy cooking are so 
various, it is worth some practice to acquire the re- 
quisite skiU. With the ordinary ways of testing, it re- 
quires much experience to tell the exact point at which 
to arrest the cooking, and on this the success depends. 
The stages named " thread," " blow," *' ball," etc., give 
the different degrees required for different purposes. It 
passes quickly from one to the other and needs care- 
ful watching and close attention. The professional 
cook^s method of testing it by dipping in the fingers 
is not practicable for ordinary use. It is also difficult 
to judge by dropping it in water unless experienced, 
but with a sugar thermometer it can easily be deter- 
mined with perfect exactness and much less trouble. 
A sugar thermometer costs $1.75 or $2.00, a syrup 
gauge costs fifty cents, and both should be considered 
as necessary cooking utensils as are molds, mortars, 
and other articles used in fancy cooking. For measur- 
ing syrups, the syrup gauge is used as explained be- 
low. Ice-creams and frozen fruits are much nicer 
when sweetened with syrup instead of sugar. Water- 
ices and compotes to be right must measure a certain 
density, and for this the syrup gauge is employed. 

510 



SUGAR AND ITS USES 511 

Fondant, one of the very useful articles, candies, and 
spun sugar are easily made with the aid of the ther- 
mometer. Eleven stages of sugar are explained be- 
low, but it is not essential to learn exactly more than 
the four which are most used, namely : the " thread" for 
boiled icing, the "soft-ball" for fondant, the ** crack" 
for glac4 fruit, and the " caramel." 

GRANULATION 

The tendency of sugar, when the water which holds 
it in solution is evaporated, is to resume its original 
form of crystals j to prevent this is the chief care : the 
liquid must not be jarred or stirred after the sugar is 
dissolved. The grains which form on the sides of the 
pan as the boiling proceeds must be wiped away ; this 
is done by dipping a cloth or brush into water and 
passing it around the pan above the sugar. If these 
crystals are allowed to remain, the whole mass will 
become granular. Also the sugar has a great affinity 
for water, and care must be used to have a dry atmos- 
phere. No steam from boiling kettles, etc., must be 
in the room, and it is useless to attempt confections 
requiring the ball or crack stages on a rainy or damp 
day. When the right degree is reached, place the 
sugar pan in one containing cold water, to prevent the 
cooking from proceeding any farther. The different 
stages follow very quickly after the thread j it is there- 
fore well to have a moderate heat and give it undi- 
vided attention. A very little cream of tartar (a scant 
half saltspoonful to a pound of sugar) added at the' 
beginning makes the sugar less liable to grain. If 
cream of tartar is not used, a few drops of lemon- 
juice should be added at the crack stage. If the sugar 
passes the degree desired, add a spoonful of water 
and continue the boiling. No sugar need ever be 
wasted unless it becomes burned. In working the 



512 



THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 



sugar, if it begins to grain there is nothing to do but 
to add a little water and boil it again. 



First and 
second de- 
grees. 



Third and 
fourth. 



Fifth and 
sixth. 



Seventh 
and eighth. 



Ninth and 
Tenth. 



DEGREES OP BOILING SUGAR 

SmaU Thread, 215o. 

Large Thread, 217o. 

Press a little of the syrup between the thumb and 
finger. A ring will form and a fine thread be drawn 
out which breaks at once and returns to the drop; 
for the second stage the thread draws a little farther 
than the first. 

Little Pearl, 220° 

Large Pearl, 222°. 

The sugar forms a thread between the fingers which 
stretches long, but breaks. For the fourth it stretches 
without breaking. The first four degrees are syrups. 



The Blow, 230O. ) , „. ,. 
The Feather, 2320. ] crystallization. 



Heventh. 



Dip in a broom-straw twisted to form a small loop 
at the end. A film will fill the loop, which will blow 
into a bubble. 

At the sixth stage fine threads will fly from the 
bubble. The candy stages follow : 

SmaU Ball, 2360-238o. 

Large Ball, 2460-2480. 

Drop a little into cold water ; for the 7th a soft ball 
can be rolled between the fingers j for the 8th a hard 
ball. 

Small Crack, 290^. 

Crack, 310°. 

At the 9th a little, dropped into water, will break 
when cooled. At 300^ it begins to assume a light 
color, and a few drops of lemon-juice should be added 
(four drops to a pound of sugar). At 310° it breaks 
off sharp and crisp, and crackles when chewed. 

The Caramel, 345O-350o. 



SUGAR AND ITS USES 513 

It now assumes a yellow color, and great care must 
be used or it will burn. The cooking must be arrested 
as soon as it is taken from the fire by holding the 
pan in cold water for a minute or so. A skewer or 
stick is the best thing to use for testing, as the little 
sugar that adheres to it will cool quickly. Dip the 
stick first into water, then into the sugar, and again 
into water. ^ 

SYRUPS 

To use a syrup gauge have a glass deep enough to 
allow the gauge to float. A small cylindrical glass like 
the one shown in illustration is best, as it requires so 
little syrup that removing and pouring it back does g ^ ^ 
not arrest the boiling. Syrups can be prepared and in stock, 
kept in air-tight preserve jars until needed for use. 
It is weU to have in stock syrup at 34° for soften- 
ing fondant when used for icing cakes, Eclairs, etc. 
Water-ices should register 18^-200 on the gauge when 
ready to freeze. Fruits to be frozen are better when 
sweetened with syrup at 32° than when sugar is used. 

To prepare syrup without a gauge the following Making 
method can be employed : Put into a saucepan three ^^SS a 
and one half cupfuls of sugar and two and one half gauge, 
cupf uls of water. Stir it over the fire until the sugar 
is dissolved. After it has boiled five minutes, count- 
ing from the time it is actually boiling, it will register 
28° ; every five minutes' additional boiling will thicken 
it one degree. 

At the end of 15 minutes it is 30°. 

At the end of 25 minutes it is 32°. 

At the end of 35 minutes it is 34°. 

FONDANT 

Fondant is the basis of all French cream candies. 
It can be kept any length of time in air-tight preserve 

33 



514 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

jars, and used as needed for the various purposes 
which it serves. A great variety of bonbons can be 
Th nses of ^^^® ^^ ^^ ^7 ^^ing different flavors, colors, and nuts 
fondant, in various forms and combinations. Some of these are 
given under " Candies,^' but each one's taste may sug- 
gest something different. Fondant makes the nicest 
icing for small cakes ; strawberries with the hulls on 
dipped into fondant make a delicious fruit glac6. It 
will be found easy to make fondant if the directions 
given below are strictly followed. 

TO MAKE FONDANT 

Place in a copper or a graniteware saucepan two 
eupfuls of granulated sugar, one cupful of water, and 
a scant half saltspoonful of cream of tartar. Stir 
until the sugar is dissolved, but not a minute longer. 
As it boils, a thin scum of crystals will form around 
the edge of the pan. These must be wiped away by 
wetting a cloth or brush in water and passing it 
around the dish without touching the boiling sugar. 
This must be done frequently, or as often as the crys- 
tals form, or the whole mass will become granular. 

Testing. When large bubbles rise it must be carefully watched 
and tested, as from this time it quickly passes from 
one stage to another. Have a cup of ice- water and a 
skewer or small stick ; dip it into the water, then into 
the sugar, and again into the water. If the sugar 
which adheres to it can be rolled into a soft ball, it is 
done. This is the stage of small-ball, and the ther- 
mometer registers 236^-238° (see page 512). Have 
ready a marble slab, very lightly but evenly rubbed 
over with sweet-oil. If a slab & not at hand, a large 
platter will serve the purpose. The moment the sugar 
is done, pour it over the slab and let it cool a few 

Cooling, minutes, or until, pressing it with the finger, it leaves 
a dent on the surface. If stirred while too warm it 



SUGAE AND ITS USES 



515 



will grain. If a crust forms, every particle of it must 
be taken off, or else the boiling must be done again, 
as it shows it has cooked a little too long. When it 
will dent, work it with a wooden spatula, keeping the 
mass in the center as much as possible. Continue to 
stir until it becomes a very smooth, fine, white, creamy Working, 
paste, which is soft and not brittle and can be worked 
in the hands like a thick paste. If the results are not 
right and the mass becomes grained, the sugar need 
not be wasted, but can be put in the saucepan 
with a spoonful of water and boiled again. In stir- 
ring the fondant do not mix in the scrapings unless 
the whole is still very soft. They can be worked by 
themselves afterward. Confectioners use one part of 
glucose to ten of sugar and boil to 240°. 



Three 



SPUN SUGAR 

Although spinning sugar has been called the climax 
of the art of sugar work, one need not be deterred 
from trying itj for with a dry atmosphere, the sugar 
boiled to the right degree, and care given to prevent requisites, 
graining, it can be accomplished. It is upon these 
three things alone that success depends. Spun sugar 
makes a beautiful decoration for ice-creams, glac6 
fruits, and other cold desserts. The expense of mak- 
ing it is only nominal, but it commands a fancy price. 



DIRECTIONS FOR SPINNING SUGAR 

Put in a copper or a graniteware saucepan two cup- 
f uls (one pound) of sugar ; one half cupful of water, 
and one half saltspoonful of cream of tartar. Boil 
the sugar as directed for fondant above, letting it 
attain the degree of crack, or 310°. This is the degree 
just before caramel, and care must be used. When it 
has reached the crack, place the sugar pan in cold 



516 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

water a moment to arrest the cooking, for the heat of 
the pan and sugar may advance it one degree. For 
spinning, two forks may be used, but a few wires 
drawn through a cork are better, as they give more 
points. Have also two iron bars or rods of any kind 
(pieces of broom handle will do), placed on a table or 
over chairs so the ends project a little way ; spread 
some papers on the floor under them. Take the pan 
of sugar in the left hand, the forks or wires in the 
right J dip them into the sugar and shake them quickly 
back and forth over the rods ; fine threads of sugar 
will fly off the points and drop on the rods. If the 
sugar gets too cold it can be heated again. Take the 
spun sugar carefully off the rods from time to time 
and fold it around molds, or roll it into nests or other 
Keeping, forms desired. Place the spun sugar under a glass 
globe as soon as made. Under an air-tight globe 
with a small piece of lime it may keep crisp for a day 
or two, but it readily gathers moisture, and it is safer 
to make it the day it is to be used. Do not attempt 
to make it on a damp or rainy day, and have no boil- 
ing kettles in the room (see general directions for 
boiling sugar, page 513). 

GLAC^ ORANGES AND GRAPES 

Divide an orange into sections ; do not break the 
inside skin, for if the juice escapes in ever so small a 
quantity the section must be discarded. Let them 
stand several hours until the surface has become very 
dry. Remove grapes from the bunch, leaving a short 
stem attached to each one. Boil some sugar to 340°, 
or the point just before the caramel stage (see direc- 
tions for boiling sugar, page 512). Remove the pan 
from the fire and place it for a moment in water to 
arrest the cooking. Drop the orange sections into 
the sugar, one at a time, and remove them with a 






GLACE ORANGES AND GRAPES IN PAPER BOXES. 




GLAC6 GRAPES IN NEST OF SPUN SUGAR. 



SUGAK AND ITS USES 617 

candy wire or with two forks, and place them on an 
oiled slab to dry. With a pair of pincers take each 
grape by the small stem and dip it into the sugar, 
and be sure it is entirely coated. Place each sepa- 
rately on the slab to dry. If the day is damp, the 
sugar not suflQciently boiled, or the fruit at all moist, 
the sugar will all drain off ; therefore the work must causes of 
be done only under the right conditions. Candied failure, 
cherries may be treated in this way : first wash them 
to remove the sugar ; let them dry, then pierce them 
with an artificial stem and dip them carefully so as 
not to deface the stem. 

CANDIES 

When making candies observe carefully the rules 
for boiling sugar. When sugar reaches the candy 
stage, the water has evaporated, and the tendency is 
to return to the original state of crystals. If it is 
jarred, or is stirred, or if the thin line of crystals 
formed around the pan by the sugar rising while boil- ^amda^ 
ing is allowed to remain, the whole mass wiU granu- tion. 
late, hence, for success, it is necessary to avoid these 
things. To keep the sides of the pan washed free of 
crystals dip a brush in water and pass it around the 
pan close to the edge of the sugar as often as is neces- 
sary} a sponge or a small piece of cloth may be used, 
but with these there is danger of burning the fingers. 
A very little acid added at the crack stage also pre- 
vents graining ; this is termed " Greasing." If too Greasing, 
much acid is used it prevents the sugar advancing to 
the caramel stage, and also may cause granulation. A 
few drops, only, of lemon- juice, of vinegar, or a little 
cream of tartar are the acids used. 

The success of candy-making depends entirely upon 
boiling sugar to just the right degree. The candy 
will not harden if boiled too little. Another stage, 



518 



THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 



Making 
candies. 



Marble 
slab and 
iron bars. 



where it hardens but sticks to the teeth, means the 
boiling was arrested at the hard-ball instead of the 
crack stage. Unless a thermometer is used, a little 
practice seems necessary before one recognizes the 
small differences upon which success depends; but 
the experience once gained, it is easy to make a pound 
or more of candy at slight expense. In the country^ 
where it is often impossible to get fresh candies, it is 
desirable to be able to make them. Where fondant 
is already prepared and kept in preserve jars, the cream 
bonbons can be quickly made. Carameled nuts are 
perhaps the least trouble to make of any candies. 

A marble slab is almost requisite in making candy, 
though greased papers and tins can be used. Candy 
poured upon a slab cools quickly, has an even surface, 
and can be easily removed. Four square iron bars 
are useful to confine the sugar. These can be placed 
so as to form bays of the size suitable to the amount 
of sugar used and the thickness required. 



NOUGAT No. 1 (For Bonbons) 

Blanch one cupful of almonds. Chop them and place them 
in the oven to dry. They must be watched that they do not 
brown. Put into a saucepan two and a half cupfuls of pow- 
dered sugar and a tablespoonful of lemon-juice. Place it on the 
fire and stir with a wooden spoon until it is melted and slightly 
colored. Let it stand a few minutes so it will be thoroughly 
melted and not grainy, then turn in the hot almonds, mix them 
together quickly, not stirring long enough to grain the sugar, 
and turn it onto an oiled slab. Spread it out in an even sheet, 
one eighth of an inch thick, using a half lemon to press it with. 
While it is still warm, mark it off into squares or diamonds. 
Break it into pieces when cold. These sheets of nougat can be 
lifted and pressed into molds, but it hardens quickly and is not 
as easy to work as the receipt No. 2. 



SUGAR AND ITS USES 519 

NOUGAT No. 2 (For Molding) 

Put two cupf uls of granulated sugar into a saucepan with a 
half cupful of water. Let it boil to the crack (310°) without 
stirring (see boiling sugar, page 511), add a few drops of lemon- 
juice, and then turn in a half cupful of hot chopped blanched 
almonds which have been dried in the oven. Mix them to- 
gether, stirring only enough to mix them and not grain the 
sugar. Pour it on an oiled marble slab, and press it as thin 
as an eighth of an inch or less. Cut the sheet of nougat into 
pieces of the right size and press them into oiled molds. Do 
this while the nougat is only just cool enough to handle, so it 
will be pliable. Loosen the form from the mold while it is still 
warm, but keep it in the mold until cold. The work has to be 
done quickly, as the nougat hardens in a few minutes. Perhaps 
the first trial to make nougat forms will be a failure, but a few 
trials will enable one to accomplish it. 

If any pieces get broken off the molded forms, they can be 
stuck on again with liquid sugar or with royal icing. Horns of 
plenty are favorite forms for nougat. The molds come of dif- 
ferent sizes. These pieces filled with glace fruits make very 
ornamental pieces. The horns are molded in halves. When 
the nougat has hardened, the two pieces are tied together, rested 
on a muffin ring, and royal icing pressed through a pastry-tube 
into any ornamental shape along the edges. This quickly 
hardens and binds the horn together. A support for the form 
is made from nougat cut into strips and formed into a box-shape, 
open at one end. 

NOUGAT No. 3 (Soft White Nongat) 

Put into a saucepan the whites of three eggs whipped to a 
stiff froth ; beat into them one pound of heated strained honey, 
then add a pound of sugar cooked to the ball, 236°. Continue 
beating until it attains 290°. A little of the mixture cooled in 
water will then crumble between the fingers. At this stage add 
a pound of sugar cooked to the crack, 310°, a pound of whole 



520 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

blanched almonds, and a few pistachio nuts. Pour the mixture 
into a dish lined with wafers, making the nougat one inch thick. 
Cover the top with wafers, and when cold cut it into pieces 
three inches long and one inch wide. To make wafers, see re- 
ceipt for gauffres (page 479) ; but instead of baking them in the 
gauffre-iron, spread the mixture as thinly as possible on an oiled 
paper and dry in a slow oven without coloring. 

NOUGAT No. 4 (Bonbons) 

Blanch, chop, and dry without coloring one cupful of almonds. 
Melt one cupful of powdered sugar with one teaspoonful of 
lemon-juice, stirring all the time. When it is thoroughly melted 
and a delicate color, turn in the hot almonds. Mix them to- 
gether and turn into an oiled tin. Press down the nougat 
evenly, leaving it an inch thick. Cut it in inch squares before 
it becomes hard. This nougat has only enough sugar to bind 
the nuts together. 

BURNT ALMONDS 

Put a cupful of brown sugar into a saucepan with a very little 
water. Stir until the sugar is dissolved. Let it boil a minute, 
then throw in a half cupful of almonds and stir over the fire 
until the sugar granulates and is a little browned. When the 
nuts are well coated, and before they get into one mass, turn 
them out and separate any that have stuck together. 

SUGARED ALMONDS 

Put a cupful of granulated sugar in a saucepan with a little 
water. Stir until it is dissolved, then let it cook to the ball 
stage without touching except to test. Turn in a half cupful 
of blanched almonds and stir off t^ie fire until the nuts are well 
covered with the granulated sugar, but turn them out before 
they become one mass. Boil another cupful of sugar to the ball, 
turn in the coated almonds and stir again in the same way, 
giving them a second coating of sugar, but not leaving them in 
the pan until they are all stuck together. The nuts may be 
given a third coating in the same way, if a larger size is wanted. 




HOKN OF PLENTY IN NOUGAT FILLED WITH GLACfc ORANGES AND GRAPES 
COVERED WITH SPUN SUGAR. 



SUGAR AND ITS USES 521 

For pink almonds, add a little carmine to the sugar just be- 
fore putting in the almonds for the last coating. Any flavoring 
desired may also be added at this time. 

MABEONS GLACE (Candied Chestnuts) 

Remove the shells from a dozen or more French chestnuts. 
Cover them with boiling water and let them stand a few min- 
utes until the skins can be removed. Put them again in hot 
water and simmer slowly until the nuts are tender, but not soft. 

Put a cupful of sugar and a cupful of water in a saucepan 
and stir until dissolved. Add the boiled chestnuts and let them 
cook in the syrup until they look clear, then turn them onto a 
sieve, using care not to break the nuts, and let them cool. Re- 
turn the strained syrup to the saucepan and cook it to the hard- 
ball stage. Remove it from the fire, add a few drops of lemon- 
juice and a half teaspoonful of vanilla extract. Drop the chest- 
nuts into it, one at a time, turn until thinly coated, and remove 
with a candy wire to an oiled paper or slab j or, when the sugar 
has reached the ball stage, add a few drops of lemon-juice, let 
it cool a few minutes, and then stir until it begins to whiten j 
then immediately place in a pan of hot water, flavor with va- 
nilla and stir until it again becomes liquid, and dip the nuts 
as directed above. 

MARSHMALLOWS 

Soak four ounces of gum arable in a cupful of water until it 
is dissolved. Strain it to take out any black specks that may 
be in the gum. Put the dissolved gum arable into a saucepan 
with a half pound of powdered sugar. Place the saucepan in a 
second pan containing boiling water. Stir until the mixture 
becomes thick and white. When it begins to thicken, test it by 
dropping a little into cold water. When it will form a firm ball 
remove it from the fire, and stir into it the whites of three eggs 
whipped to a stiff froth. This will give it a spongy texture. 
Lastly, flavor it with two teaspoonf uls of orange-flower water. 
Turn the paste into a pan covered thick with corn-starch. The 
layer of paste should be one inch thick. Too large a pan must 



522 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

not be used, or it will spread and make a thin layer. After the 
paste has stood twelve hours, turn it onto a slab and cut it into 
inch squares, dust them well with corn-starch or with confec- 
tioner's sugar, and pack in boxes. As the paste is more or less 
cooked, it will be more or less stiff. Marshmallows become 
harder the longer they are kept, but are best when as soft as 
they can be handled. 

CAEAMELS 

CHOCOLATE 

Put into a saucepan a half cupful each of molasses, of white 
sugar and of brown sugar, a cupful of grated chocolate, and a 
cupful of cream or milk. Stir the mixture constantly over the 
fire until it reaches the hard-ball stage, then add a teaspoon ful 
of vanilla and turn it onto an oiled slab between iron bars, or 
into a greased tin, having the paste an inch thick. Mark it in 
inch squares and cut before it is quite cold. Wrap each piece 
in paraffin paper. 

VANILLA, COFFEE, MAPLE 

Put into a saucepan one cupful of sugar and three quarters 
of a cupful of cream. Stir constantly over a hot fire until 
it reaches the hard-ball stage; remove from the fire, add a tea- 
spoonful of vanilla, and turn it onto an oiled slab between iron 
bars, or into greased tins, the same as directed for chocolate 
caramels. For coffee caramels use a half cupful of cream and 
a quarter of a cupful of strong coffee. For maple caramels use 
a cupful of maple syrup in place of sugar, and omit the vanilla. 

BONBONS OF FONDANT 

HARLEaUIN BALLS 

Take several small portions of fondant and color each one a 

.different shade Do this by dipping a wooden toothpick into the 

' coloring matter and then touching it to the paste. The colors 

are strong, and care must be used not to get too much on the 



SUGAE AND ITS USES 523 

fondant, for the candies should be delicate in color. For orange 
balls, color and flavor with orange-juice; for pistachio, color 
green and flavor with orange-flower water and then with bitter 
almond (see page 391) ; for pink, color with carmine and flavor 
with maraschino or with rose-water; for chocolate, mix in cocoa 
powder and flavor with vanilla ; for white, flavor with noyau, 
peach, or anything preferred. When liquid flavors are used, if 
the fondant becomes too soft, mix in a little conf ectioner^s sugar j 
use as little as possible, as too much gives a raw taste. Work in 
the flavorings and colors by hand, and wash the hands between 
each different color. After the fondant is prepared, roll it into 
balls the size of filberts, then roll them in almonds chopped fine. 
The nuts improve them, but may be omitted if desired. Let the 
balls stand for two or more hours to harden before putting them 
together. If the balls are wanted of one color on the outside, 
omit the nuts and dip them in liquid fondant colored as desired. 

NEAPOLITAN SaUARES 

Color and flavor fondant in three colors as directed above; 
roll it into layers one quarter inch thick, and place the layers 
one on the other ; press them together lightly and cut into inch 
squares. 

NUT CREAMS 

Mix chopped nuts of any kind into flavored fondant, then roll 
into a layer three quarters of an inch thick, and cut into squares. 

SUGAR-PLUMS 

Take small pieces of fondant, flavored and colored to taste; 
form it into olive-shaped balls. Hold one in the palm of the 
hand, cut it half through and press into it an almond; form the 
fondant around it, leaving a narrow strip of the nut uncovered, 
giving the appearance of a shell cracked open, showing the kernel. 
If chocolate color is used the almond should be blanched, but 
with light colors the skin is left on to give contrast. When 
green color is used it represents a green almond. 



524 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

CHOCOLATE CEEAMS 

Roll fondant flavored with vanilla into small balls; let them 
stand a few hours to harden. Melt an ounce of unsweetened 
chocolate, add to it two tablespoonf uls of milk, two tablespoon- 
fuls of sugar, and a quarter teaspoonful of butter. Stir till 
smooth ; drop the balls into it and remove with a fork or candy- 
wire. If the chocolate becomes too stiff, add a few drops of 
syrup and heat it again. 

CEEAMED NUTS AND CREAMED FRUITS 

Put one or two tablespoonfuls of fondant into a cup. Place 
the cup in a basin of hot water and stir constantly until the 
fondant becomes soft like cream or molasses. If it is not stirred 
it wiU go back to clear syrup ; flavor and color the liquid fondant 
as desired. Drop the nuts in one at a time, turn them until well 
covered with fondant, lift them out with a candy-spoon, and place 
them on an oiled paper, or on an oiled slab. English walnuts, 
cherries, strawberries, and grapes are very good creamed in this 
way. The hulls are left on strawberries, the stems on cherries 
and grapes. Brandied cherries may also be creamed in the 
same way. If the fondant becomes too stiff, melt it again. 
After it has been melted twice it no longer works well. A few 
drops of syrup at 34° can then be added. It is well to have 
some syrup prepared to keep in stock for this purpose. A 
drop or two of liquid is sufiicient to soften fondant, and unless 
care is used it will be diluted too much, in which case confec- 
tioner's sugar can be mixed in ; but this gives a raw taste to the 
fondant, and should be avoided if possible. 

COCOANUT CREAMS 

Grate some cocoanut fine. Mix it with as much liquid fon- 
dant as will bind it well, and flavor with a little vanilla. Spread 
it in a layer one inch thick and cut into one inch squares, or 
roll it into balls, and dip the balls into melted chocolate, the 



SUGAR AND ITS USES 525 

same as directed for chocolate creams, or into liquid fondant, 
flavored and colored as desii'ed. 



COCOANUT CAKES 

Moisten a cupful of sugar with the milk of a cocoanut j boil 
it to the soft-ball j then stir in as much grated cocoanut as the 
boiled sugar will moisten j stir it only enough to mix and not 
granulate. Drop a spoonful at a time on an oiled slab, making 
flat round cakes about two inches in diameter. If the sugar 
granulates before the cakes are all spread, add a little water 
and cook it again to the soft-ball. 

PEPPERMINT CREAMS 

Melt fondant as directed for creamed nuts ; flavor it with es- 
sence of peppermint. With a spoon drop the liquid fondant in 
even amounts upon an oiled slab, making lozenges j or, better, 
turn it into starch molds (see starch molds, below). 

CHOCOLATE PEPPERMINTS 

Dip the peppermint lozenges into liquid chocolate, as directed 
for chocolate creams. 



TO MAKE STARCH MOLDS AND CAST CANDIES 

ill a box-cover with corn-starch, having it very light and 
dry ; shake it down even. Press into it a die of any shape de- 
sired, making the indentations carefully. Plaster casts are 
made for this purpose, but buttons make very good dies. A 
smooth flat button one half inch in diameter makes a good 
shape for peppermints. Molds are used for cream drops, choco- 
lates, or any of the flavored clear candies. 

The liquid candy is dropped carefully into the molds and re- 
moved when cold and the starch dusted off. The starch can 
then be stirred light and again pressed into molds. 




526 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

CANDIES MADE FEOM SUG^AR BOILED TO THE 
CRACK OR THE CARAMEL 

PEPPERMINT DROPS 

Boil a cupful of sugar to the hard-baU. Remove it from the 
fire ; add a half teaspoonf ul of essence of peppermint and stir 
it just enough to mix in the flavoring and cloud the sugar. 
Drop it into starch molds or upon an oiled slab, letting four 
drops of the candy fall in exactly the same spot ; it will then 
spread round and even. 

These drops should be translucent or a little white. Unless 
care is used the candy will grain before the drops are molded j 
therefore it is better to pour it from the spout of the pan than 
to dip it out with a spoon. 

CARAMELED NUTS 

Boil a cupful of sugar to the crack or to the caramel, as pre- 
ferred j add a few drops of lemon-juice. Blanch a few almonds 
and dry without coloring them. Drop one at a time into the 
sugar; turn it until well covered without stirring the sugar; 
lift it out with the candy-spoon, and place it on an oiled slab. 
Do not drain the nuts when lifting them out, and enough 
sugar will remain to form a clear ring of candy around each one. 
English walnuts, filberts, or any other nuts may be used in the 
same way. They should be warmed so as not to chill the candy. 
The work should be done quickly. If the sugar becomes hard 
before the nuts are all done, return it to the fire to heat. Add 
a teaspoonf ul of water if necessary, and boil it to the right de- 
gree again. If the sugar is boiled to the crack, the candy will 
be without color ; if boiled to the caramel, it will be yellow. 

ALMOND HARDBAKE 

Blanch some almonds and split them in two. Dry them in a 
moderate heat without coloring them. Lay them with the flat 
side down on an oiled layer-cake tin, entirely covering it. Pour 



I 



SUGAE AND ITS USES 627 

over the nuts enough sugar boiled to the crack to entirely cover 
them. The almonds may be laid in regular order like wreaths, 
or in groups like rosettes, if desired. Mark off squares or cir- 
cles on the candy while it is warm, and it can then be broken 
in regular pieces when cold. 

PEANUT CANDY 

Fill a small square tin a half inch deep with shelled peanuts, 
leaving the skins on. Boil some sugar to the crack or to the 
caramel, and pour it over the nuts, just covering them. Cut it 
into two-inch squares before it becomes quite cold. 

TAFFY 

Put into a saucepan two and a half cupfuls of sugar and a 
half cupful of water j stir until it dissolves ; then wash the sides 
of the pan, and let it boil without touching until it reaches the 
soft-ball stage j add a tablespoonf ul of butter and a half tea- 
spoonful of lemon-juice, and let it boil to the crack 5 add a tea- 
spoonful of vanilla, and turn it onto an oiled slab or a tin to 
cool. Mark it off into squares before it becomes cold. 

MOLASSES CANDY 

Put into a large saucepan a cupful of brown sugar, two cup- 
fuls of New Orleans molasses, and a tablespoonf ul each of butter 
and vinegar. Mix them well and boil until it will harden when 
dropped in water. Then stir in a teaspoonful of baking-soda, 
which will whiten it, and turn it into a greased tin to cool. 
When it can be handled pull it until white and firm j draw it 
into sticks and cut it into inch lengths. 

CANDIED ORANGE OE LEMON PEEL 

Keep the peel of the fruit, as it is used, in a weak brine until 
enough has collected to preserve. Wash it thoroughly in sev- 
eral waters. Let it boil in plenty of water until tender, chang- 



528 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

ing the water several times. If the peels are fresh they need 
be boiled in one water only. When they can be pierced with 
a straw, drain off the hot water. Let them cool, and scrape 
out the white pulp with a spoon. Make enough syrup to cover 
the yellow peels, using the proportion of a pound of sugar to a 
pint of water. When the syrup is boiling, drop in the peels and 
let them cook slowly until they are clear. Then boil rapidly 
until the syrup is reduced almost to dryness, using care that it 
does not burn. Spread the peels on a flat dish and place them in 
a warm place to dry for twelve hours or more. When perfectly 
dry pack them into preserve jars. They are cut into shreds and 
used in cakes, puddings, and wherever raisins and citron are 
used. They are also used in pudding sauces. It is very little 
trouble to make the candied peels, and they are a delicious addi- 
tion to various sweet dishes. The boiled peel can be cut into 
shreds before being cooked in the syrup if preferred. 



I 




DIFFERENT WAYS OF PKEPAKING OKANGES. 



Chapter XXIY 

FEUITS 

In point of general usefulness, apples hold the first 
place among fruits. Oranges also serve a great num- 
ber of purposes, and, like apples, can be depended on 
nearly the whole year. Peaches and apricots, although 
of short season, can be so successfully preserved that 
they, as well as berries, render important service in 
cooking. All of these fruits are excellent prepared as 
compotes, with pastry, with corn-starch, or with gela- 
tine, making a variety of dishes without number. In 
the index will be found a list of dishes under each of 
these heads. In the fruit season one is sometimes at 
a loss to know how to utilize the abundance there may 
be at command. Usually the fresh fruit is most ac- 
ceptable at that time, but the little trouble and slight 
expense of canning should make one provident enough 
to secure a yearns store to supply the various purposes 
which cooked fruit serve. 

Fresh fruits are always wholesome, beautiful, and 
inviting, and should always have a place on every 
table. The practice of leaving fruit on the sideboard 
in a warm room from one meal to another is a mistake, 
for fruit should be fresh, firm, and cold to be in its ture 
best condition. An exception to this rule may be 
made for fruits fresh from the garden with the heat 
of the sun upon them. The small fruits are much 
more delicious when tasting of the sunshine, but fruits 

34 529 



Tempera- 



680 



THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 



obtained from markets are better for being cbnied. 
Much taste may be shown in arranging fruits for 
decorating the table. They maybe combined in large 
dishes, giving effect of abundance, or a quantity of 
one kind massed together for color-effects, or a few 
choice specimens of a kind placed on separate compo- 
tiers. All the ways are good and, if the fruit is fresh 
and fair, will be most attractive. Green leaves should 
Arranging, be combined with fruits ; grape-leaves under small 
groups of peaches, plums, grapes, etc., are much used by 
the French, who excel in the beautiful arrangements of 
fruit. White grapes, shading from those with pink 
tints to white below, give pleasing effects on white 
dinner-tables. 

Apples should be washed and rubbed until well 
polished. Fine apples so treated make an attractive 
centerpiece dish. 

A few ways of preparing oranges are given in illus- 
trations. 

The grape-fruit is served at breakfast, or as a first 
course at luncheon. The pulp must be separated from 
the thin bitter skin which separates the sections, with 
a silver knife. A little sugar is added, and sometimes 
a teaspoonful of sherry, to each portion. The pulp 
and juice is eaten with a spoon from the peel, one half 
the shaddock being served to each person, or it may 
be served in small glasses. The peels prepared as 
fancy baskets can be kept fresh for several days in 
water. 

Peaches should have the down taken off lightly 
with a soft brush before being served. A fruit doily 
should be given at the time they are passed, as peaches 
stain the table linen. 

Large fine strawberries are served with the hulls on 
and piled in a pyramid. Sugar is passed with them, 
or they may be served on individual plates around a 
small mound of sugar, made by pressing the sugar in 



Apples. 



ninstra- 

tions. 

Oranges, 
grape-fruit, 
or shad- 
docks. 



Peaches. 



Straw- 
berries. 



FRUITS 531 

a wineglass and then unmolding it in the center of 
the plate. 

No berries should be washed. If strawberries are 
sandy, cold water must be poured over them and 
drained off at once, but the berries will no longer be 
at their best. Sugar should always be passed, and not Berries, 
put over the berries before serving them, as it extracts 
their juice and destroys their firmness. They should 
also be served in small dishes, as they crush with their 
own weight. Where a large quantity is being served, 
several dishes should be used. 

A mixture of red and of white currants makes an Currants, 
attractive breakfast fruit. They may be served on the 
stems if fine and large clusters. 

Bananas sliced and covered with whipped cream 
make a good light dessert for luncheon. They may be Bananas 
moistened with orange-juice or with sherry before the sauted, and 
cream is added, if desired. Bananas may be cut in two ^^ed. 
lengthwise, sauted in a little butter, and served as a 
vegetable or as an entree j or they may be cut in two, 
the ends cut square, so they will resemble croquettes, 
then rolled in flour, and fried in hot fat to a light 
color, and served as a dessert with currant jelly sauce. 
To make the sauce, dilute the jelly with boiling water j 
add a few chopped blanched almonds and shredded 
candied orange-peel. The unripe and not fully devel- 
oped banana is devoid of sweetness and when roasted 
resembles a baked potato. In hot climates the 
jiatives live mostly on bananas, and a nation is said to 
be cursed where they grow, because the ease with 
which they get their living makes them lazy. 

Soak dried figs in cold water for several hours, then stewed 
stew them slowly until plump. Drain and pile them ^S^- 
on a dish, and serve with whipped cream slightly 
sweetened and flavored with vanilla, sherry, maras- 
chino, or with essence of almond. Arrange the cream 
in a circle around the figs. 



BS^ 



THE CENTUEY COOK BOOK 



Melons. 



Mix together lightly an equal proportion of orange- 
of fruits, pulp, bananas cut into half-inch dice, and grapes cut 
in two and the seeds removed. Add sugar if neces- 
sary, and a little sherry or liqueur if desired ; serve in 
glasses or in half -orange skins. Grape-fruit may be 
used in the same way ; it may also be combined with 
the orange salpicon. There should be a good quantity 
of juice with the mixture. 

Melons are in perfection in hot dry weather. They 
absorb Avater readily and should not be gathered after 
a h(iavy rain storm. Small melons are cut in two, the 
seeds removed, a piece of ice placed in each piece, and 
a half melon served to each person. Large melons are 
cut in broad sections and a generous piece served as a 
portion. Melons may be served at the beginning or 
the end of any meal. They are usually most accept- 
able as a first course. They should be thoroughly cold. 

Any of the fruits can be partly frozen and served 
as a]i ice. Cut them into pieces, sweeten with sugar 
syrup, and pack in ice and salt for an hour, but do not 
leave them long enough to become stiff. Berries are 
of coui'se left whole. 

Pare and core quinces the same as apples. Put 
them in a shallow earthen dish, with enough water to 
fill the dish a quarter inch deep. Place them in a 
moderate oven and bake until tender, basting them 
often. Serve them hot with butter and sugar as a 
lu7icheon dish. 

Nuts with hard shells are cracked, the meats re- 
moved and placed in bonbon dishes, or are piled on 
lace papers in small compotiers. Almonds with paper 
sliells are served whole. Almonds are also served 
blanched. Peanuts with the shells and skins re- 
moved, and served in bonbon dishes, are much liked 
and seldom recognized as the much-despised nut. 
Peanuts may be salted the same as almonds. 



Frozen 
fruits. 



Quinces 
baked. 



Nuts. 




GRAPE FRUIT SERVED IN A BASKET MADE OF THE PEEL AND A BRANCH OP 
HOLLY TIED TO THE HANDLE. (SEE PAGE 530.) 



FEUITS 



533 



Blanch the almonds by putting them in boiling 
water for a few minutes ; the skins can then be easily- 
rubbed off. Put the blanched nuts into a pan with 
a small piece of butter, and place them in a moderate 
oven. Stir them frequently so they will brown on all 
sides. Sprinkle them freely with salt as soon as they 
are taken from the oven. 

Blanch the almonds, and when they are thoroughly 
dry pour a tablespoonf ul of oil on every cupful of nuts. 
Let them stand in the oil for an hour, then add a table- 
spoonful of fine salt to each cupful. Stir thom and 
place in a shallow pan in the oven until they are col- 
ored a light brown. Stir them occasionally while in 
the oven, so they will be evenly colored. Turn them 
onto a paper to dry, and shake off the loose salt be- 
fore serving. 

Brown them in the oven with a little butter the 
same as almonds. Filberts are blanched, but walnuts 
do not have the skin removed. 

A mixture of salted almonds, walnuts, and filberts 
makes a good combination. 

Salted nuts are served at luncheon or dinner, and 
are eaten at any and all times during those meals. 



Salted 
almonds. 



Salted 

almonds 

No. 2. 



Salted 

English 

walnuts 

and filberts. 



SALPICON OF FRUIT PUNCH 

This is served in glasses, in place of and in the same way as 
frozen punch after the roast. Cut a pineapple into small dice ; 
remove the bitter skin carefully from ths segments of three 
shaddocks and cut them into pieces. Cut in two and remove 
the seeds from a pound of white grapes j mix the fruit to- 
gether. Put a cupful of rum and a cupfu], of sugar into a 
saucepan on the fire and let them come to the boiling point, 
then pour them over the fruit and let stand until cold. The 
rum will not penetrate the fruit so well if put on cold. Put 
the mixture into a freezing-can and pack in ice and salt for 



534 THE CENTUEY COOK BOOK 

several hours, or until ready to serve. Stir the mixture to- 
gether carefully every little while. 

PUNCH OF WHITE CALIFORNIA CANNED CHERRIES 

Drain off the liquor 5 make a rum syrup as above ; soak and 
freeze in the same way. 

JELLIED FRUIT 

Cut the pulp of two oranges into small pieces ; cut two bananas 
into dice j cut half a dozen candied cherries into quarters ; chop 
a dozen blanched almonds. Mix all lightly together and turn 
them into a bowl or a china mold. Soak a half ounce of gela- 
tine in a half cupful of cold water for an hour ; dissolve it in a 
cupful of boiling water ; add a half cupful of sugar and stir 
over the fire until dissolved ; then add the juice of half a lemon, 
the juice which has drained from the fruit, and a tablespoonful 
of sherry. Turn it into the mold slowly, so it soaks into the 
fruit, and set aside to cool. Serve with cream if convenient. 
Any mixture of fresh fruits may be used in the same way; 
raisins may be used instead of cherries, or both may be omitted. 
This is a good way to utilize fruits that are going to waste. 

FRUIT JUICES 

The juice of oranges, strawberries, currants, or any fruit 
makes a delicious first course for luncheon in summer time or 
the fruit season, when prepared as directed below. It is served 
cold in small glasses and eaten with a spoon. 

Take a quart of fruit-juice ; this will require about a dozen 
oranges, or two quarts of strawberries or other juicy fruit j 
strain it through filter paper to make it clear (see page 415)j 
put it in an earthenware or porcelain -lined saucepan on the fire, 
and as soon as it steams, stir in three teaspoonf uls of arrowroot 
moistened in a little cold water. Cook it until clear; then add 
a half cupful of sugar (or more if an acid fruit), and as soon 
as the sugar is dissolved turn it into a bowl to cool. At the 
moment of serving put a piece of ice in each glass. 




^ 



OKAFE FRUIT SERVED IN A BASKET MADE OF THE PEEL — GERANIUM 
LEAVES TIED TO THE HANDLE. 




PLUMS. 



For plain 



Chaptee XXV 

COMPOTES, PRESERVING AND 
CANNING, PICKLES 

COMPOTES 

Compotes are fresh fruits stewed. They are good 
served with cake as a plain dessert. In combination 
with rice or other molded cereals they are a very desserts, 
wholesome sweet for children. 

Make a syrup of 28° (see page 513). When it is 
boiling drop the fruit in, a few pieces at a time, so it 
will not get broken or crushed. Let it cook until 
tender, but still firm enough to hold its form. Re- 
move it carefully with a skimmer. Arrange the pieces Serving, 
in regular order, overlapping, or piled like uncooked 
fruit in a glass or silver dish. After the fruit is 
cooked, let the syrup boil down until thick, or about 
32°, and strain it over the fruit. Let it cool before 
serving. 

APPLE COMPOTE 

Pare and core the apples; leave them whole, or cut them into 
halves, quarters, or thick round slices. Boil them until tender, 
and finish as directed above. Have a few slices of lemon in 
the syrup and serve them with the fruit. Pieces of cinnamon 
and cloves boiled with the fruit give a good flavor. 

For jellied apples boil down the syrup to the jelly point. 
When partly cooled pour it slowly with a spoon over the 

535 



636 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

apples, so enough will acLhere to give them a glaze. The 
center of the apples may be filled with a bright-colored jelly 
or jam. 

COMPOTE OF PEABS 

Use pears that are not quite ripe. Cut them in two length- 
wise, splitting the stem. Remove the core carefully with a 
scoop. Boil and serve them as directed above. 

COMPOTE OF PEACHES OR APRICOTS 

Peel the fruit and cut it in halves. Prepare it as directed 
above. Mix with the syrup some meats taken from the pits. 

COMPOTE OF ORANGES 

Peel the oranges down to the pulp, using a sharp knife. Cut 
them in two crosswise. Remove with a pointed knife the core 
and seeds from the center. Boil them, one or two at a time, 
until tender, in a syrup with a little lemon-juice added, and be 
careful to keep them in good shape. Boil the syrup down until 
it threads, and pour it over the oranges piled in a glass dish. A 
candied cherry in the center of each one gives a pretty garnish. 
Orange compote is good served plain, or with whipped cream, 
with ice-creams, Bavarians, or corn-starch puddings. Mandarin 
oranges make a delicious compote. 



PEESEEVINa AND CANNINO 

The success of preserving and canning depends 
upon heating the fruit until all germs are destroyed, 
thefr^ then sealing it air-tight while still scalding hot. In 
this way no new germs of ferment or mold can reach 
the fruit. Patent jars are generally used, and must 
be put into scalding water before being filled to pre- 
vent their breaking, and also to sterilize them. The 
preserve must be put into them scalding hot, a spoon- 
handle run down the sides to liberate any bubbles of 



I 



:. \ 




COMPOTE OF OKANGES GARNISHED WITH CANDIED CHERRIES. (SEE PAGE 536.) 



Use of 



COMPOTES, PRESEEVING AND CANNING, PICKLES 537 

air, the jar filled to the very brim, and the top put on 
each one at once after it is filled. A simple and very 
effectual way of hermetically sealing fruit is to cover 
it with paraffin. This can be obtained at any phar- paraffin, 
macy. Place the paraffin in a small saucepan on the 
side of the range j it melts at a low degree of heat. 
When the jar or glass is filled with hot preserves 
wipe the glass close to the fruit to free it of syrup. 
Cover the top with a tablespoonful of liquid paraffin, 
and do not move the jar until the paraffin has set ; it 
will then adhere closely to the glass. This will be 
found a very easy and satisfactory way of sealing 
fruits. The paraffin when taken off the fruit can be 
washed and kept to use again. In preserving, sugar propoj. 
is used in the proportion of three quarters of a pound tions. 
or one pound of sugar to a pound of fruit, and the 
fruit is thoroughly cooked. In canning, one quarter 
of a pound of sugar to a pound of fruit is used, the 
fruit is only thoroughly scalded, and so retains its 
flavor better. Fruits should be under rather than 
overripe for preserving, and only the finest should be 
selected. Inferior fruit may be used for jams. It is 
most abundant when at its best, and at this time it is 
cheapest. A porcelain-lined kettle and wooden spoons TTtensila. 
should be used in the cooking, and a wide-mouthed 
funnel is a convenience for filling the jars. 



PRESERVED PEACHES 

The skin can easily be removed from peaches, leaving a 
smooth surface, by placing them in a wire basket and plunging 
it for a moment into boiling lye. The lye is made by adding 
two cupf uls of wood ashes to four quarts of water. From the 
lye put the fruit into cold water and rinse it several times, then 
rub off the skin. Cut each peach in two and place again in 
cold water to preserve the color until ready to use. Place in a 



538 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

porcelain-lined kettle three quarters the weight of sugar you 
have of fruit. Add a very little water to dissolve the sugar. 
Let it boil a minute, and take off any scum that rises. Then 
add as much fruit as will float without crowding, and cook un- 
til it is transparent, but not until it loses shape. Remove each 
piece separately as soon as it is cooked. When ready to fill the 
jars place them carefully in a pan of boiling water ; have the 
tops and rubbers also in hot water. Part of the fruit has become 
cooled while the rest was cooking, but, as it must go into the 
jars hot, place it again in the boiling syrup, a little at a time. 
Use a ladle or cup to dip out the fruit; run a spoon-handle 
around the inside of the jars after they are filled to liberate any 
air bubbles. Add enough syrup to fill them to overflowing, and 
adjust the rubber and top on each jar as it is filled. Any juice 
that is left over may be boiled down to a jelly, or it may be 
bottled to use as flavoring or for sauces. 

PRESERVED PEARS 

Peel the pears ; cut them in two lengthwise, splitting the stem, 
or they may be left whole if preferred. Place them carefully in 
jars ; fill the jars with a syrup of 30° (see page 513) ; cover the 
jars without fastening the tops. Place the jars in a boiler of 
warm water, half covering them. Stand the jars on muffin-rings, 
slats of wood, or something to raise them off the bottom of the 
boiler, or they will break while cooking. Cover the boiler and 
cook the fruit until it is tender and looks clear. Remove the 
jars carefully, fill them completely full, using more hot syrup, 
or the contents of one of the cooked jars. Adjust the tops and 
set them to cool where the air will not strike them. (See can- 
ning.) Pears may be cooked the same as peaches, but they are 
such a very tender fruit, it is better to use the method given, as 
the shape is kept better in this way. 

PRESERVED PLUMS 

Preserve plums in the same way as directed for peaches or 
for pears. Remove the skin from them or not. If left on it is 



COMPOTES, PRESERVING AND CANNING, PICKLES 539 

likely to crack open and come off if boiled too long. To pre- 
vent this, in a measure, prick the plums in several places with a 
fork before cooking. 

GRAPE PRESERVES 

Press the pulp out of each grape. Boil the pulps until tender, 
then pass them through a colander to remove the seeds. Mix 
the skins with the pulp and juice, add as many cupfuls of sugar 
as there are of grapes, and boil all together until well thickened. 

Seal while hot the same as other preserves. 

Green grapes are preserved by cutting each grape in halves, 
taking out the seeds, then adding an equal quantity of sugar, 
and boiling all together until of the right consistency. 

PRESERVED STRAWBERRIES No. 1 

Select firm, large berries and remove the hulls. To each 
pound of fruit (one basketful of berries will weigh about a 
pound) add three quarters of a pound of granulated sugar. 
Mix it with the berries, and let them stand ten to fifteen min- 
utes, or long enough to moisten the sugar but not soften the 
berries. Put them in a granite or porcelain-lined saucepan and 
let them boil slowly five to ten minutes, or until the berries are 
softened ; do not stir them, as that will break the berries, and 
do not boil long enough for them to lose their shape. Cook 
one basketful of berries only at a time. A larger quantity 
crushes by its own weight. A good method is to have two 
saucepans and two bowls, and leave the berries, after being 
hulled, in the baskets until ready to use j then put a basketful 
at a time in a bowl with sugar sprinkled through themj while 
one bowlful is being cooked, the bowl refilled, and the glasses 
filled, the other one is ready to use. In this way no time is lost, 
and the cooking is accomplished in as short a time as though 
all were put into a preserving kettle together. It is well to 
put strawberries into glasses. One basketful of berries will fill 
two half -pint tumblers. Cover the tops with paraffin as di- 
rected above, page 537. 



54:0 THE CENTUEY COOK BOOK 

PRESERVED STRAWBERRIES No. 2 

Fill pint jars with as many berries as they will hold j pour 
over them a hot syrup of 32° (see page 513). After standing 
a few minutes they will shrivel, and more berries should be 
added. Cover and cook them in a boiler as directed for pre- 
served pears and canning. 

Strawberries require more sugar than other fruits to pre- 
serve their color, therefore they do not can well. 

Strawberries, if carefully prepared by either of the foregoing 
receipts, will resemble the Wiesbaden preserves. 

RASPBERRY PRESERVE 

Raspberries are preserved the same as strawberries. 

CITRON PRESERVE 

Pare and core the citron j cut it into strips and notch the 
edges J or cut it into fancy shapes. Allow a pound of sugar to 
a pound of fruit, and to six pounds of the fruit allow four 
lemons and a quarter of a pound of ginger root. Tie the gin- 
ger in a cloth, and boil it in a quart and a half of water until 
the flavor is extracted j then remove it, and add to the water 
the sugar and the juice of the lemons j stir until the sugar is 
dissolved and the syrup is clear ; take off any scum j then add 
the citron, and cook until it is clear, but not soft enough to fall 
apart. Can and seal while hot. 

CANNINa 

APPLES, PEACHES, PEARS, PLUMS, CHERRIES, 
BERRIES, ETC. 

Canning does not differ from preserving, except in 

« _ the amount of sugar used. A quarter of a pound of 

tions. sugar to a pound of fruit is the rule, but none at all 

need be used, as the fruit will keep just as well with- 



COMPOTES, PRESERVING AND CANNING, PICKLES 



541 



out it if it is thoroughly sterilized by heat and im- 
mediately sealed. Fruits that require sugar when 
eaten fresh need sugar in like proportion when canned. 
The fruit may be boiled in a syrup of 14° which is 
made of one pound of sugar to a quart of water, and 
bottled the same as when preserved, but an easier and 
better way is to cook it in the jars. Pack the fruit 
tightly in the jars and cover it with a syrup of 149 j 
red fruits need more sugar to preserve their color, and Red fruits, 
should have a syrup of 24°, which is one pint of water 
to a pound of sugar. Place the jars in a boiler of 
water, half covering them ; raise them off the bottom 
of the boiler by standing them on muffin-rings or 
slats of wood. Do not let them touch. Cover the 
boiler, and let them cook until the fruit is tender ; the 
fruit will fall a little, so the jars will have to be filled 
up again ; use for this the contents of another jar, 
or plain boiling water; adjust and fasten the tops at 
once, and place them where the air will not strike Cooling, 
them while cooling. 

Another way is to pack the dry jars full of fruit, 
fasten down the tops at once, place them in a boiler 
of cold water nearly covering them, raise it to the 
boiling-point and cook for an hour, and leave them 
in the water until cold again. In this way they are 
cooked in their own juice, and are said to retain their 
flavor better than where water is used. Canned ap- 
ples make a very good substitute for fresh ones for 
pies, compotes and apple-sauce. 



I 



JAMS OR MARMALADES 

Use three quarters of a pound of sugar to a pound 
of fruit. Place the fruit, pared and cored, in layers 
with the sugar in the preserving kettle. Let it stand 
a few minutes to extract some of the juice from the 
fruit ; then place it on the fire and cook until it be- 



I 



542 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

comes a tkick, consistent mass. Stir it frequently to 
break the frait. When it has become tender, use a 
potato-masher to crush it. When it looks clear, put a 
Testing, little on a plate, and if it thickens, it is done. Put 
it into tumblers and cover. This does not require to 
be hermetically sealed. In making preserves it is 
well to reserve all the fruit which is not perfect and 
make it into jam. 



QUINCE MARMALADE 

Pare, core, and cut into pieces the fruit. Put the skins and 
cores into a kettle; cover them with water, and boil thirty 
minutes, or until tender ; strain off the water through a colan- 
der, and as much pulp as will pass without the skins. To this 
add the rest of the fruit and three quarters of a pound of su- 
gar to each pound of fruit. Boil it until it becomes a jelly-like 
mass. Mash the fruit as much as possible. It may be colored 
red, if desired, with cochineal. Turn it into glasses, tin boxes, 
or wooden salt-boxes. It becomes solid, and is served cut into 
slices. The Russians cut it into inch squares, and serve it as a 
bonbon. 

ORANGE MARMALADE 

Allow the juice and grated rind of one lemon to every five 
oranges. Weigh the fruit before cutting it, and allow three 
quarters of a pound of sugar to a pound of fruit. €lemove the 
peel in quarters, and boil it in plenty of water until it is tender 
enough to pierce easily with a broom-straw j then drain off the 
water and let it cool. Remove the seeds and as much of the 
skin as possible from the pulp. Boil the pulp with the sugar un- 
til the orange is well cooked. When the peel is cool take one 
piece at a time in the palm of the hand, and with a tablespoon 
cut out all the white pithy part, leaving the thin yellow rind. 
Place a number of these pieces together, and with a sharp knife 
cut them into thin shreds. By cutting many together in this 
way it is done quickly. Add the shredded rinds to the cooked 



COMPOTES, PRESERVING AND CANNING, PICKLES 543 

oranges and let them cook until of the right consistency. It 
should be very thick, but not solid like jelly. This is a very 
good marmalade, and resembles the Dundee brand. 

APPLE MARMALADE 

Make the same as directed for jams. 

BRANDT PEACHES 

Cook the fruit the same as directed for preserving peaches ; 
but for this purpose the peaches are left whole, the skin left on 
or not, as desired. If the skins are retained they should be 
carefully brushed to remove all the down ; use only fine fruit. 
When the jars are filled, add to each quart a half cupful of 
brandy, and seal j or, after filling the jars with fruit, boil down 
the syrup until it is very thick, and to each cupful of syrup add 
a cupful of brandy; pour it over the fruit and seal. Cali- 
fornia brandy serves very well for this purpose. 

JELLIES 

CURRANT OR ANY BERRIES 

To make clear jelly use only the perfect fruit. Pick it over 
carefully and remove the stems. Place it in a porcelain-lined 
kettle and crush it enough to give a little juice so it will not 
burn. Cook it slowly until the fruit is soft, then turn it into a 
heavy cloth and press out all the juice. Strain the juice several 
times if necessary, to make it clear. Passing it through filter 
paper is recommended. Measure the juice, and to each pint 
allow a pound of sugar. Put the sugar in the oven to heat, 
but do not let it burn. Put the strained juice into the kettle 
and let it boil twenty minutes ; then add the hot sugar, and stir 
until the sugar is dissolved and the juice is clear again. Pour 
it into glasses and let it stand until set. Grapes and cherries 
do not jelly easily, and a little gelatine added will insure success. 
When fruit does not jelly it is usually because it is over ripe. 
The fruit should not be gathered after a rain, nor should it 
be washed. 



544 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

APPLE JELLY 

Wash tlie apples j cut them in pieces without peeling or cor- 
ing, but remove any imperfect parts. Barely cover them with 
water and boil slowly until they are tender, then strain off the 
liquor through cheese-cloth without pressing. Measure the 
juice, and to each pint of juice allow a pound of sugar. Put 
the juice in the preserving kettle and let it boil five minutes ; 
then add the sugar and stir until it dissolves. Continue to boil 
it until a little dropped on a cold plate will jelly. It will take 
twenty to thirty minutes. Turn it into tumblers and cover. 
This jelly spread on the apple used in tarts improves them very 
much. 

CRAB-APPLE JELLY 

Make the same as apple jelly. 

QUINCE JELLY 

Make the same as apple jelly. 

SPICED GRAPES 

Prepare the grapes as for preserving, by removing the skins, 
boiling the pulp, and straining out the seeds. To seven pounds 
of fruit (weighed before the seeds are removed), add a cupful 
of strong vinegar, a cupful of grape- juice taken from the 
grapes used for preserves, two ounces of cinnamon, one ounce 
of cloves (tie the spices in a cloth so they can be removed), 
three and one half pounds of sugar. Boil until it becomes 
thick like a marmalade, which will take about an hour and a 
half. When done turn it into glasses. This is good with roast 
meats. 
«^ PLUM SAUCE FOR MEATS 

To each pound of Damson plums, add a half cupful of sugar, 
one half ounce each of cinnamon, mace, and cloves (tie the 
spices in a bag). Remove the stones from the plums and boil 
until it becomes thick like jam. 



COMPOTES, PEESERVING AND CANNINa, PICKLES 545 

SWEET PICKLED PEACHES AND PLUMS 

Allow three and three quarter pounds of sugar to seven 
pounds of fruit. Put the sugar into the preserving kettle with 
a quart of vinegar and two ounces each of cloves and a stick of 
cinnamon. Boil them for five minutes after the sugar is dis- 
solved. Pare the peaches and stick a clove into each one. Place 
a few at a time in the boiling syrup and cook them until they 
look clear, but are not softened enough to fall apart. When all 
are cooked, continue to boil the syrup until it is reduced nearly 
one half and pour it over the peaches. Plums are pickled in the 
same way. The skins maybe left on both peaches and plums if 
preferred; in which case the down must be brushed off the 
peaches, and the plums must be pricked with a fork in several 
places to prevent the skins cracking when placed in the hot 
syrup. 

PICBXED WALNUTS 

Q-ather the walnuts when well grown, but still soft enough to 
be pierced through with a needle. Run a heavy needle through 
them several times and place them in strong brine, using as 
much salt as the water will absorb. Let them remain in brine 
for a week or ten days, and change the brine every other day ; 
then drain the nuts and expose them to the air until they have 
turned black. Pack them in jars and cover them with boiling 
hot vinegar prepared as follows : To a gallon of vinegar add 
an ounce each of ginger root, mace, allspice, and cloves, and 
two ounces of peppercorns 5 boil them together for ten minutes 
and strain over the nuts. Let them stand a month before using. 

CUCUMBER OB. GHERKIN PICKLES 

Gather each day the cucumbers of the size desired j rub them 
smooth with a cloth and place them in brine strong enough to 
float an egg. They will keep in the brine until wanted to 
pickle. Soak the cucumbers in water for two days after taking 
them from the brine, changing the water once, and then scald 
them in vinegar, or pour the boiling vinegar over them and let 



646 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

them stand in it two days before using. Put into each two 
quarts of vinegar an ounce of peppercorns, a half ounce each of 
mustard seed and mace, a piece of horseradish, a piece of alum 
the size of a pea, and a half cupful of sugar ; boil them together 
for ten minutes before straining it over the cucumbers. The 
very small cucumbers are called gherkins. 

GEEEN TOMATO FICKLE 

1 peck of green tomatoes. 1 teaspoonful of turmeric. 

2 quarts of onions. 2 pounds of brown sugaro 
Vinegar. J pound of white mustard seed. 
J tablespoonful of cayenne. J ounce of ground mace. 

4 tablespoonful of ground 1 tablespoonful of celery seed, 

mustard. 1 tablespoonful of ground 

cloves. 

Slice the tomatoes and onions very thin ; sprinkle a little salt 
through them and let them stand over night. Drain them 
through a colander and put them on to boil with enough vinegar 
to cover them and boil slowly until they are clear and tender, 
then drain them from the vinegar. Put into some fresh vine- 
gar the sugar, mustard seed, mace, celery seed, and cloves, and 
let them boil for a few minutes j then pour it over the drained 
tomatoes, which have been mixed with the cayenne pepper, 
ground mustard, and turmeric. Mix them well together ; add a 
half bottle of salad oil, and when cold put it in jars. 

CHOW-CHOW 

Cut into pieces, 2 large cabbages. 

i peck of green tomatoes. 15 onions. 

25 cucumbers. 

Mix them together and pack them in layers with salt; let 
them stand for twelve hours, then drain off the brine and cover 
them with vinegar and water, and let them stand another twelve 
hours. 



COMPOTES, PRESERVING AND CANNING, PICKLES 547 

Drain off the vinegar and cover them with one and one half gal- 
lons of scalding hot vinegar which has been boiled a few min- 
utes with one pint of grated horseradish, one half pound of 
mustard seed, one ounce of celery seed, one half cupful of ground 
pepper, one half cupful of turmeric, one half cupfiil of cinna- 
mon, and four pounds of sugar. 

Let them stand until perfectly cold, then add one cupful of 
salad oil and one half pound of ground mustard. Mix them all 
thoroughly together and place in jars. 

NASTURTIUM PICKLE 

Pick the nasturtium seeds green ; leave a short stem on them 
and place them in a weak brine for two days ; then soak them 
in fresh water for a day. Pack them in jars and turn over 
them boiling vinegar 5 seal and let them stand a month before 
using. 



Chapter XXVI 
BEYERAaES 

FILTERED WATER 

It is a recognized fact that many diseases are con- 
tracted through drinking impure water, yet many are 
' so careless as not to take the simple means of remov- 
ing this danger. It only requires boiling the water 
to destroy the germs. This, however, does not re- 
move the foreign matter, such as decayed vegetable 
growth and other substances, therefore it is well to 
filter as well as to boil water. Many good filters are 
made which are cheap and easy to clean. The Gate 
City Stone Filter is perhaps the simplest one, being 
an earthen crock with a porous stone bottom. Al- 
Boilingthe though all filters claim to remove germs as well as 
water, impurities from water, it is safer to boil it first. 
Bright, crystal-like water in clear glass carafes is an 
ornamental addition to the table service as well as a 
convenient way of serving it. If the carafes are stop- 
ped with cotton and placed in the refrigerator for 
several hours, the water will be refreshingly cool, and 
cracked ice, which many do not use, in the belief that 
it arrests digestion, will not be required. 

TO FREEZE CARAFES 

Fill the bottles a little less than half full. The 
water should be below the largest part of the bulb; 
stop the bottles with cotton, and over the top of each 
one invert a tin cup. Individual timbale-molds may 

548 



BEVERAGES 549 

be used. Cover the bottom of a tub with ice and salt, 
place the bottles on it, leaving some space around each 
one, then fill the tub with ice and salt, the same as in Faeking. 
packing ice-creams, and cover it. Within two or three 
hours the water will become frozen. Care must be 
taken that the water in the tub is never high enough 
to flow into the top of the carafes. When ready to 
serve, wipe the frozen carafes and fiU them with ice 
water. 

TEA 

You cannot have first-rate tea or coffee unless you 
use freshly-boiled water. Water that has been boiled 
for an hour or more lacks life, and gives a dull taste The water, 
to the decoction. Draw freshly filtered water and let 
it come to a hard boil before using. 

Scald the pot and immediately put into it the tea- 
leaves. 

When the water boils hard, pour upon the tea- 
leaves the required quantity of water. Shut down 
the cover of the tea-pot and let it stand just five min- 
utes before serving. 

To give the proportions of tea and water is impos- propor- 
sible, as such different degrees of strength are de- tioM. 
manded. One teaspoonful of tea to a pint of water, 
steeped five minutes, makes a weak tea. Two tea- 
spoonfuls give the color of mahogany, if an English 
breakfast tea is used. Oolong tea does not color the 
water very much, so its strength cannot be as well 
judged in that way. Tea, to be perfect, should not 
steep longer than five minutes; it may continue to steeping, 
grow stronger after that time, but the flavor is not as 
good, and if the leaves remain too long in the water 
the tea becomes bitter. 

The Russians, who are reputed to have the best 
tea, prepare it at first very strong, getting almost 
an essence of tea; this they dilute to the strength 



Thetea- 



650 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

desired, using water which is kept boiling in the 
samovar. Water removed from the kettle and kept 
in a pot where it falls below the boiling-point, will 
not give satisfactory results in diluting a strong 
The tea- infusion, 
bag. "Where a quantity of tea is to be used, as at recep- 

tions, it is well to put the tea into a swiss muslin bag, 
using enough to make a very strong infusion. Place 
the bag in the scalded pot ; add the boiling water ; 
after five minutes remove the bag. Keep a kettle of 
water boiling over an alcohol flame, and use it to di- 
lute the tea as needed. The tea will then be as good 
as though freshly made. If, however, the leaves are 
allowed to remain in the pot the tea will not be fit 
to use after a short time, and no matter how much 
it may be diluted, it will still have an astringent 
taste. 

Silver balls are convenient to use where one or two 
cups at a time only are to be made for the friend who 
drops in for the afternoon cup of tea. The ball hold- 
ing the tea is placed in the cup, water from the boil- 
ing kettle poured over it, and the ball removed when 
the water has attained the right color. 

Various preparations of tea are made by adding 
flavorings. The so-called Russian tea is made by 
adding sugar and a thin slice of lemon to each 
Tea punch, cup; tea punch by soaking the sugar first in rum 
or brandy. These, however, as weU as milk, de- 
stroy the flavor of tea and change the character of 
Iced tea. the drink. Iced tea is a very refreshing drink in 
summer. It is served in glasses, with plenty of 
cracked ice, and should not be made very strong, 
or it will become clouded when the ice is added. 
Iced tea is improved by adding lemon. One table- 
spoonful of lemon- juice to a glass of tea is a good 
proportion. 



Btissian 
tea. 



BEVERAGES 6B1 

COFFEE 

CARE OF THE COFFEE-BEAN 

It is generally understood that tea becomes air- 
drawn if not kept closely covered. It is also desir- 
able to keep coffee in the same way. 

COFFEE MIXTURES AND BRANDS 

Mandhaling coffee, which is grown by the Dutch 
government on the island of Sumatra, is considered 
the finest coffee in the world. The finest Mocha which 
comes to this market contains twenty per cent, of 
"Long Bean." The best-known mark of this coffee 
in New York is H. L. 0. G. A favorite mixture is ^ j^^^ 
two thirds Mandhaling to one third Mocha. The or- H Mocha, 
dinary mixture of two thirds Java to one third Mocha 
is misleading, as there are an indefinite number of in- 
ferior qualities of both " Mocha " and " Java." The 
best Java comes from the port of Padang in Su- 
matra, and the only true Mocha comes from Aden in 
Arabia. The finest grades of Mexican, Maracaibo, 
Bogota, and Jamaica coffees are highly esteemed. 
High grades of " Washed Rio " are also richly flavored 
coffees. These high-class coffees are difficult to get 
unadulterated. Another difficulty in buying coffee 
is that each variety has many grades, so the only as- 
surance one can have of the quality received is the 
good faith of the grocer with whom one deals. A 
practice among grocers is to make mixtures which 
they sell under their own trademark. 

TO T/LAKE COFFEE 

To have the coffee right is one of the difficulties of the house- 
keeper. The making of coffee is a very simple operation, but 
the nicety and care with which it is prepared mark the differ- 



552 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

ence between the good and bad decoction. The best quality of 
coffee carelessly made is not as acceptable as that well made 
from an inferior bean. Coffee readily absorbs foreign flavors. 
If the pot is wiped out with a soiled cloth, or if the coffee is 
strained through a flannel not perfectly sweet, the coffee betrays 
it. If the spout is allowed to collect a film of stale coffee, it 
will ruin all the fresh coffee put into the pot. To have perfect 
coffee, use an earthen or china pot, and have the water boiling 
when turned onto the coffee. Like tea, the results will not be 
right if the water is allowed to fall below the boiling-point before 
it is used. Have the coffee ground to a fine powder in order to 
get its full flavor as well as strength. There is great waste in 
having coffee ground coarse. A pound will go three times as 
far in the former as in the latter case, therefore a good coffee- 
miU is an economy in a household. Like tea, it should also be 
freshly made. It seems to lose its fine flavor if kept hot for 
any considerable time. Black coffee is usually made by dripping. 
Any coffee is better made in that way, using less coffee if less 
strength is desired, but a strong infusion diluted with hot milk 
makes a better drink than weak coffee flavored with milk. 



DRIP COFFEE 

One heaping tablespoonful of coffee to a cupful, or half 
pint, of water will make black coffee. Put the coffee powder 
into a felt bag, or on a thick flannel laid on a strainer and pour 
the boiling water over it. The flannel must be thick, and close 
enough to prevent the fine powder straining through. If enough 
coffee is used to make it of much depth in the strainer, the 
water will pass through very slowly and the coffee will be cold, 
therefore have the pot hot before beginning, and stand it in a 
pan of hot water while it is dripping. Coffee will not be right 
unless the water is violently boiling when poured on the grounds. 
Serve the coffee at once. 



BEVERAGES 553 

BOILED COFFEE 

Put the ground coffee into the pot, pour over it boiling 
water j let it come to the boiling-point ; remove, and stir into it 
the slightly beaten white of an egg and the crushed shell; re- 
place it on the fire and let it boil one minute. This is to clear 
the coffee of the fine particles held in suspension. Pour a 
tablespoonful of cold water down the spout and place it on the 
side of the range where it will be perfectly still for five minutes, 
then pour off carefully the liquid coffee. Do not let the coffee 
boil three minutes altogether. The aroma of the coffee is the 
escaped volatile oils — all that is lost detracts just so much from 
the flavor of the drink. 



ICED CAFE AU LAIT 

Add enough cold black coffee to milk to give it the desired 
strength and flavor. Sweeten to taste and let it stand on ice 
until ready to serve. Serve it in glasses instead of cups. Any 
coffee left from breakfast prepared in this way makes a re- 
freshing and acceptable drink for luncheon in summer. 



CHOCOLATE 

Maillard^s chocolate is excellent ; his receipt is given below. 
For each cup of chocolate use one cupful of milk and one bar of 
chocolate. With Maillard's chocolate this is nearly one and a 
quarter ounces. Put the cold milk into a porcelain -lined sauce- 
pan, break the chocolate into small pieces, and add them to the 
milk. Place the saucepan on the fire, and with a wooden spoon 
stir constantly and rapidly until the chocolate is dissolved and 
the milk has boiled up once. Beat it vigorously to make it 
smooth, and serve at once. More milk may be added if this is 
too rich. Chocolate should not be kept standing.* 

* Huyler'8, Baker's, and other brands of chocolate may be prepared in the same 
way, the proportions being regulated by the richness desired.— M. E. 



654 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

COCOA 

Dissolve a teaspoonful of cocoa in half a cupful of boiling 
water J then add a half cupful of boiling milk and boil it for 
one minute, stirring vigorously all the time. Sweeten to taste. 

Brioche or Bath buns are good to serve with chocolate or 
cocoa for a light lunch. 

LEMONADE 

Squeeze the lemons, allowing two lemons for every three 
glasses of lemonade j remove any seeds that may have fallen 
in, or strain the juice if the lemonade is wanted clear. Sweeten 
the juice with sugar, or, better, with sugar syi'up. When ready 
to use, add the necessary amount of water and a large piece of 
ice if served in a bowl, or put cracked ice into the glasses if 
only a few glassfuls are made. Put a thin slice of lemon or a 
few shavings of lemon-zest into each glass. 

ORANGEADE 

To two and one half cupfuls of orange-juice, the juice of two 
lemons, and the grated rind of one orange, add two cupfuls of 
syrup at 32° (see page 513), or sweeten to taste ; add enough water 
to bring it to HP on the syrup gauge, or to taste -, strain and 
place it on ice until ready to use. 

COBBLERS 

Put a claret-glassful of claret into a tumbler ; add a teaspoon- 
ful of sugar, or sweeten to taste ; fiU the glass with ice cracked 
fine, and add a little water if desired. Place a shaker over the glass 
and mix it well j add a strawberry, raspberry, bit of pineapple, 
orange, or any fruit convenient; add, also, two straws. Cob- 
blers may be made of sherry, Catawba, or any wine, using a 
quantity in proportion to the strength desired. They are meant 
as light cooling drinks, and should not be strong of wine. 



BEVERAGES 655 

CLARET CUP No. 1 

1 pint of claret. 1 slice of cucumber rind. 

1 pint of soda. - 1 orange. 

Juice of 1 lemon. Grapes. 

1 sherry-glassful of liqueur. Bunch of mint. 
Large piece of ice. 

CLABET CUP No. 2 

1 quart of claret. 1 slip of borage, or a slice 

1 glassful of white Cura9ao. of cucumber. 
1 glassful of sherry. 1 pint of soda. 

Juice of 1 orange. 
Sweeten to taste. 

CHAMPAGNE CUP No. 1 

Juice of J lemon. 1 slice of cucumber. 

1 teaspoonf ul of powdered sugar. 1 slice of pineapple. 

I sherry-glassful of liqueur. 1 orange cut in pieces. 

1 pint of champagne. Bunch of mint. 

1 pint of soda. Large piece of ice- 

CHAMPAGNE CUP No. 2 

1 quart of champagne. 1 slip of borage, or a slice 
1 glassful of white Cura9ao. of cucumber, or green 
1 glassful of sherry. celery-tops. 

Juice of 1 orange. 1 pint of Apollinaris. 

MOSELLE CUP 

1 quart of Braunberger or Juice of 1 lemon. 

Zeltinger. 1 slip of borage or a slice 

1 pony of brandy. of cucumber. 

Juice Of 1 orange. 1 pint of Apollinaris. 

No sugar. 



556 THE CENTUEY COOK BOOK 

SAUTERNE CUP 

Use brand "Graves." 

To a quart of Sauterne add the strained juice of four large 
lemons. Sweeten with powdered sugar to taste, add a cocktail 
glassful of brandy, two thirds glassful of maraschino (noyau can 
be used, but it is not so good), and a teaspoonf ul of Angostura 
bitters. Put it on ice until ready to use, and then, not before, 
add a bottle of Delatour soda, also chilled, or the same amount 
of soda from sjrphon. Lastly, add six thin slices of cucumber 
and a few pieces of any fruit convenient, such as pineapple, 
raspberries, strawberries, etc., and a piece of ice. Borage is 
better than cucumber for cups if it can be had. 

CIDER CUP 

1 pint of cider. J of 1 orange sliced. 

1 sherry-glassful of sherry. 1 yellow rind of 1 lemon. 

1 sherry-glassful of brandy. 1 slice of cucumber. 

1 liqueur-glassful of Cura9ao. A dash of nutmeg. 

Piece of ice. Sugar to taste. 

THE THORP COCKTAIL 

The following formula is for one cocktail only j the same pro- 
portions must be observed in making any number of them. 
Have the glasses well chilleda(^efore beginning, and always use 
sugar syrup instead of sugar for sweetening. 

1 teaspoonful of sugar syrup. 5 teaspoonfuls of Old Tom gin. 
1 teaspoonful of orange bitters. 5 drops of noyau or maraschino. 

Enough cracked ice to chill but not to dilute. Stir with a spoon 
until thoroughly chilled and blended. The mixture must not be 
shaken, as that fills it with air. Lastly, take a piece of lemon 
zest the size of a ten-cent piece, hold it over the cocktail, and 
express a little of the oil, then drop it in the glass. 



BEVERAGES 667 

EGG-NOG 

Beat the yolk of one egg and a teaspoonf ul of sugar to a light 
cream j whip the white of the egg to a stiff froth j mix them 
together ; turn them into a glass ; add one teaspoonf ul of rum 
or brandy and as much milk as the glass will hold. Stir or 
shake it well together ; add more sugar and rum if desired. 
Grate a dash of nutmeg over the top ; whipped cream may be 
used instead of milk, and will give more nourishment when it is 
used for an invalid. 

MILE SHAKE 

Fill a glass two thirds full of milk j sweeten it to taste with 
any fruit syrup, or with a syrup made of boiled sugar flavored 
with vanilla, orange-flower water, or any liquOT*j strained pre- 
serve of any kind or liquefied jelly may be used. Fill up the 
glass with cracked ice and shake together until well mixed. 

MILK PUNCH 

Add to a glass of milk a teaspoonf ul or more of sherry, brandy, 
or rum ; sweeten to taste ; shake well and dust over the top a 
little grated nutmeg. 

FRXTIT SYRUPS 

A refreshing drink can be made of fresh strawberries, rasp- 
berries, cherries, or currants. Cook a quart of fruit with a pint 
of water until well softened ; then' strain and press out the juice 
through a heavy cloth. When cold, sweeten and dilute to taste 
•and serve in glasses filled with cracked ice. 

GRAPE-JUICE 

Add a quart of water to three quarts of grapes, free from the 
stems ; let them come slowly to the boiling-point j then strain 
through a thick cloth. Return the liquid to the fire, let it again 
come to the boiling-point, and turn at once into glass jars and 
seal immediately. Use a porcelain-lined kettle and wooden 
spoon in preparing the juice. 



558 THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 

BASFBEBB7 VINEGAR 

Put three quarts of ripe raspberries into an earthen bowl ; 
pour over them a quart of vinegar; at the end of twenty- 
four hours press and strain out the liquor and turn it over 
another three quarts of fresh ripe berries. Let it stand another 
twenty-four hours ; again express and strain the juice, and to 
each pint add a pound of sugar, and boil for twenty minutes. 
Turn it into bottles, and cork when cold. When used dilute the 
raspberry vinegar with three parts of water. 

KOUMISS 

Koumiss, which is simply fermented milk, can easily 
be made at home after the receipt given below, and 
can then be had sweet and is much more palatable 
than the acid koumiss sold at pharmacies. It is a 
valuable drink or diet for invalids with weak diges- 
tion, or for dyspeptics. 

For making koumiss it is necessary to have strong 

bottles (champagne bottles are best), and they must 

Driving ^^ scrupulously clean. A corking machine is re- 

the corks, quisite for driving in the corks. This is placed over 

the bottle j the cork, which has steamed an hour or 

more in hot water until softened, is placed in the side 

Tying the opening and the rammer pounded until the cork is 

corks. fj.QQ from the machine. The cork must be tied down 

to insure safety. A loop of twine is placed over it, 

then drawn tight around the neck of the bottle, 

The Cham- brought back, and tied over the top of the cork. 

pagne tap. ^ champagne tap for drawing the koumiss is also 

necessary, as it contains so much gas, it is impossible 

to draw the cork without losing a good part of the 

contents of the bottle. 

Receipt. — FiU quart bottles three quarters full of fresh 

milk ; add to each one a tablespoonf ul of fresh brewer's yeast 





2 "^ 5 w 

HH!z!0 

?9f 




BEVERAGES 559 

and a tablespoonful of sugar syrup. The syrup is made by 
boiling sugar and water together to a syrup (the sugar must 
be used in this form). Shake the bottles for some minutes to 
thoroughly mix the ingredients, then fill them nearly full with 
milk and shake them again. Cork and tie them, and stand them 
upright in a cool place for two and a half days ; then turn them 
on the side and use as needed. They should be kept in a cool, 
dark place, so the fermentation will be slow, and the tempera- 
ture should be about 52°, or low enough to prevent the milk 
from souring. 

Brewer's yeast is best and gives the koumiss the taste of 
beer j but compressed yeast may be used, a fifth of a cake dis 
solved being added to each bottleful of milk. 



Chaptee XXYII 

WINES 

The temperance movement has made great advance 
since the days when it was not considered etiquette 
for a man to leave the table sober, and also from re- 
cent times when men lingered at the table after the 
ladies had withdrawn, to partake of strong liquors 
with their cigars. 

To-day there are some people who exclude wine 
entirely from their table, and many others who serve 
it only in moderation. It is common now to have 
but three kinds, such as sherry, claret and cham- 
pagne, and sometimes only one. In this respect, there- 
fore, one may follow his own conviction without fear 
of being considered peculiar. 
The usual order of serving wines is as follows : 
With the first course of the dinner there should be 
White served a white wine of some kind, such as Niersteiner, 
wines. Hochheimer, or Liebfrauenmilch amongst the Rhine 
wines J Zeltinger, Josephshofer, or Scharzberger Mus- 
catel amongst the Moselle wines j Haut Barsac, Haut 
Sauterne, or Chateau Yquem amongst the white Bor- 
deaux wines ; and Chablis, Nuersault or Montrachet 
amongst the white Burgundies. 
Sherry. Sherry is served with soup. It should be light and 
Cham- ^^^^ ^ should be chiUed by being placed in the ice- 
pagne. box for some time before dinner. Champagne is now 
served with the fish and continued all through dinner. 
Claret. Claret or Burgundy is served with the game. Pontet 

560 



WINES 



561 



Tempera- 
tare. 



Sweet 
cham- 
pagne. 



Canet, Larose, Leoville, Margaux, and Lafite are stan- 
dard vintages amongst the clarets. Chambertin, Clos 
de Tart, Clos de Vougeot and Romance amongst tlie Burgundy. 
Burgundies. Claret is sometimes, and very properly, 
served at the same time as champagne, as many peo- 
ple drink no other wine. In this case a higher grade 
of claret or a fine Burgundy should be served with 
the game. The white Bordeaux and Burgundy wines 
should be served cool. 

Rhine and Moselle wines are best at a temperature 
of about 40O F. 

The champagne should be very dry (brut) and 
served very cold. Half an hour in ice and salt before 
dinner will bring it to about the right temperature. 
Sweet champagnes are but seldom served nowadays, 
and are more appreciated, perhaps, at ladies' lun- 
cheons than at dinners. Sweet champagne cannot 
be too cold and should be f rapp6 if convenient. Clarets 
and Burgundies should stand upright on the dining- 
room mantelpiece for at least twenty-four hours be- 
fore they are required, in order that the wine may 
acquire the temperature of the room, as well as be 
prepared for decanting. Wines old in bottle will 
form more or less deposit, which, if shaken up with 
the wine, will injure it. After standing twenty-four 
hours the sediment will fall and the wine should then 
be decanted (with the aid of a candle), care being Decanting. 
taken that no sediment passes into the decanter. 

Neither claret nor Burgundy is good the second 
day after decanting. They contain too small a per- 
centage of alcohol to keep their flavor more than a 
few hours after the bottle is opened, and what remains 
over from dinner should be put into the vinegar demi- 
john. Ports and Madeiras are but little used at din- 
ners, but may still be served with the cheese at the 
end of dinner, or with the dessert. A glass of port 



Care of 
wines. 



Port 



36 



562 



THE CENTURY COOK BOOK 



Madeira. 



Brandy. 



liquenrs. 



with a biscuit at five o'clock is very popular in many 
quarters, and will be welcomed by those who are 
afraid of tea. 

A fine Madeii'a may be served with the soup instead 
of sherry, and is the wine par excellence to drink 
with terrapin. A superior quality of brandy and va 
rious liqueurs are usually served with coffee. In buy- 
ing wines it is always best to go directly to a rehable 
wine merchant and take his advice. Especially is 
this true when the buyer himself has no great know- 
ledge of the different kinds of wines. It has been 
said that a man's wine merchant should stand in as 
close relation to him as his lawyer or his physician. 



INDEXES 



1 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX 



Agra Dolce, 291. 
Ariemande Sauce, 279. 
Almonds, burnt, 520. 

Chopping, 59. 

Hard-bake, 526. 

Salted, 533. 

No. 2, 683. 

Sugared, 520. 
" Wafers, 478. 
Anchovy canap^, 368. 
Angel cake, 467. 

Ice-cream, 497. 

Parfait, 505. 
Angelica, 392. 
Apples, 530. 

Baked for breakfast, 432. 
•' " luncheon, 432. 

Compote of, 535. 

Clarified, 243. 

Charlotte, 430. 

Dumplings, 429. 

Flaming, 433. 

Fritters, 427. 

Fried with pork, 176. 

Jelly, 544. 

Marmalade of, 543. 

Pie, 454. 

Pudding, 429. 

Sauce, 243, 288. 

Souffle, 424. 

With rice, 430. 

" No. 2, 431. 
" Corn-starch, 432. 
Apricot Sauce, 446. 
Artichokes, 220. 

Bottoms, 221. 
Asparagus, 211. 

Cream of, 106. 

Tips, 212. 
Aspic jelly, 321. 

To chop, 323. 

To clear, 322. 

Chicken, 323. 

Crofttons, 823. 

To mold, 328. 

To ornament molds for, 
324. 

Quick, 322. 

Of pU6 en Bellevue, 384. 

B 

Baba. 440. 
Bacon, 178. 
♦* how to cut, 78. 



Baked Apples, 432. 

Beans, 217, 234. 

Custard, 396. 

Fish, 115. 

Ham, 177. 

Lobster, 137. 

Macaroni, 226. 
Baking, 69. 

Bread, 343. 

Cake, 464. 

Custards, 396. 
Balloons, 428. 
Banana trifle, 412. 
Bananas, sliced, 531. 

Sauted, fried, 581. 
Barbecue offish, 331. 
Bath buns, 358. 
Batter pudding, 428. 
Bavarian creams, 400. 

General directions for mak- 
ing, 400. 

Chocolate, 401. 

Diplomatic, 403. 

Fruit, 401. 

en surprise, 402. 

Italian cream, 401. 

Panach6e, 402. 

Plain, 400. 

Rice, 402. 
Beans, 217. 

Baked, 217, 234. 

Boiled, 217. 

Croquettes of, 217. 

Dried, 217. 

Lima, 210. 

Pur^e of, 217. 

Salads, 377. 

Soup, 229, 256. 

String, 209. 
B6arnaise sauce, 288. 
Beating, 78. 
B6chamel sauce, 279. 
Beef, 146. 

k la mode, 148. 

Bouilli, 149. 

Braised, 147. 

Cold roast, 151. 

Corned, 157, 234. 
" hash, 158. 

Fillet of, 149. 
« How to buy, 150. 

Inside flank of, 153. 

Pie, 152. 

Raw sandwiches, 367. 

Ragotlt of, 153. 

To roast, 146. 

Rolled roast of, 146. 

Round of, 147. 



Shin of, to prepare, 25a 

Stock, 88. 

Tongue, 174. 

Warmed over, 152. 
Beefsteaks, 155. 

To broil, 156. 

Pie, 235. 

Pudding, 25L 
Beets, 217. 
Berries, 531. 
Berry Design for molds, 

326. 
Beverages, 548. 
Bird's-Nest salad, 385. 
Bischoff sauce, 447. 
Biscuits, beaten, 247. 

Bran, 357. 

Dough fritters, 428. 

Tea, 352, 
Biscuit glac^, 506. 
Bisque of lobster, 109. 
Black bean soup, 229. 
Blanc-mange, 399. 
Blueberry pudding, 241. 
Boiled beans, 217. 

Cabbage, 212, 263. 

Calf'shead, 175. 

Chicken, 185. 

Cucumbers, 208. 

Custard, 894. 

Eggs, 262. 

Fish, 114. 

Ham, 177. 

Lobster, 136. 

Mutton, 163. 
Boiling, 67. 

Sugar, 510. 
Bonbons, 522. 
Bone, to, a fowl, 181. 
Bones, grilled, 188. 

Marrow, 159. 
Boned chicken, 182. 

Turkey, 193. 

Shoulder of mutton, 163. 

Shoulder of veal, 168. 
Boning, 77. 
Boston brownbread, 237, 

347. 
Boudins Rouennais, 302. 
Bouilli, 149. 

Salad, 383. 
Bouillon, 97. 
Bouquet for soups, 85. 
Brains, calf, 307. 

Marinade of, 807. 

Braising, 71. 
Braised beef, 147. 

Chicken, 186, 



566 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX 



»-^ 



Bran biscuits, 357. 
Brandy peaches, 543. 

Sauce, 445. 
Bread, 338. 

General directions for mak- 
ing, 340. 

Baking, 343. 

Boston brown, 237, 347. 

Braids and twists of, 360. 

Care of, 344. 

Cake, 482. 

Corn, 353. 
" soft, 247. 

Fritters, 349. 

Graliam, 346. 

Gluten, 347. 

Made with baking powder, 
346. 

M-ill^ 345, 

Mixing, 342. 

Pans, 344. 

Panada, 298. 

Potato, 345. 

Pulled, 349. 

Puddings, 434. 

Rolls, 349. 

Sauce, 287. 

Sticks, 357. 

Tarts, 435. 

Thin Indian, 236. 

Water, No. 1, 845. 
'* No. 2, 345. 

Whole wheat, 346. 
Bread and Butter Pudding, 

434. 
Brioche, 359. 

Roll, 360. 

Crown, 360. 

For timbales, 361. 

Timbale of, 361. 
Brod Torte, 472, 
Broiled Lobster, 137. 

Oysters, 132. 
Broiling, 70. 
Broth, Chiclcen, 95, 

Clam, 95, 

Mutton, 95. 

Made quickly for invalids, 96. 
Brown Betty, 429. 
Brown butter sauce, 291. 
Brown sauce, 282, 
Brown stoclc, 88, 
Browned oysters, 231. 
Brussels sprouts, 214, 
Buckwheat cakes, 363, 
Buns, Bath, 358. 

Brioche, 360. 
Burnt almonds, 520, 
Butter, 34, 58, 

How to make, 258, 



Cabbage, 212. 

Boiled, 212, 253. 

Hot slaw, 214. 

With Cheese, 213. 

Swedish, 213. 
Cabinet puddings, 438. 



C&U frappe, 509. 

Parfait, 504. 

au lait, iced, 553. 
Cake, 462, 

Rules for making, 462. 

To line tins with paper, 
463. 

To grease pans, 464. 

To bake, 464. 

Mixing sponge, 465. 

Mixing batter, 465. 

Angel, 467. 

Almond wafers, 478. 

Bread, 482. 

Brod Torte, 472. 

Cakes, small fancy, 475. 

Carolines, 475. 

Chocolate Eclairs, 474. 

Chocolate filling for, 469. 

Cocoanut balls, 477. 

Coffee, 358 

Cookies, plain, 481. 

Cream, 474. 

Cream filling for. 468. 

Cream cakes and Eclairs, 478; 

Crullers, 481. 

Cup, plain, 470. 

Cup, richer, 47L 

Doughnuts, 481. 

Eclairs, 474. 

Election, 244. 

Fruit, plain, 472. 

Fruity rich, 473. 

Garnishing, 486. 

Gauffres, 479. 

Genoese, 467, 

Gingerbread, soft, 483, 

Gingersnaps, 481. 

Gold and silver, 470. 

Hoe, 246. 

Hoe, No. 2, 247. 

Hoe, Colonial, 237, 

Hominy, 356. 

Icing and decorating, 483. 

Jelly rolls, 468. 

Johnny, 237. 

Jumbles, cookies, plain, 
480. 

Jumbles, 480. 

Layer, 468. 

Lady fingers, 476. 

Little pound cakes, 478. 

Macaroons, 477. 

Madeleines, 477. 

Marble, 470. 

Meringues and kisses, 475. 

Molasses, 483. 

One egg, 482, 

Orange, 469. 

Orange filling for, 469, 

Orange quarters, 478. 

Pound, 471. 

Pistachio, 469, 

Sand tarts, 480. 

Sponge, 466. 

Sunshine, 467, 

Uses for stale, 411. 

Venetian cakes, 479. 

Warren's, 482. 



White, 47L 

White sponge, 467. 

With custard, 411. 
Calf's brains, 307, 

h la poulette, 308. 

h la vinaigrette, 307. 

Head boiled, 175. 

With vinaigrette sauce, 176. 

Soup, 103. 

Heart, 174. 

Liver, 172. 
Canapds, 368. 

Anchovy, 368. 

Cheese, 368, STL 

Ham, 368, 

Lorenzo, 369. 

Pineapple, 336. 

Sardme, 368. 
Canary pudding, 436, 
Candied fruits, California, 

392 
Candies, 517, 

General remarks about 
making, 517. 
Candy, Molasses, 527. 

Peanut, 527. 

Taffy, 527. 
Canned fruits, 393. 
Canning, 536, 
Canvasback ducks, 196, 
Caper sauce, 164, 279, 
Carafes, to freeze, 548. 
Caramel, 78, 391, 512. 
Carameled nuts, 526. 
Caramels, chocolate, 522. 

Vanilla, coffee, maple, 522. 
Caramel custard, 396, 

Ice-cream, 496. 
Carrots and turnips, 216. 
Casserole of rice, 327. 

Of potato, 327. 
Cauliflower, 214. 

au gratin, 215. 

Salad, 377. 
Celery, cream of, 106. 

Stewed, 216. 

au jus, 216. 

Salad, 376. 

And walnut salad, 381. 

Sauce, 279. 
Cereals, 227. 
Chafing dish cookery, 329, 

Kind of, to use, 329. 

Dishes suitable for, 330. 

Oysters in, 233, 331, 

Meats in, 335. 
Champagne cup. No. 1, 555. 

No. 2, 555. 

Jelly, 416. 
" with flowers, 416. 

Sauce, 283. 
Charlotte, apple, 430. 

Russe, 403. 

Filling, No. 1, 404, 

" No. 2 (With Eggs), 

405. 

" No. 3 (With Fruit), 

405. 

♦' No. 4, 405. 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX 



567 



Charlotte. 

FilUng, No. 5, 405. 
" PrincessedeGalles, 
406. 

Strawberry, 406. 

Timbale of Brioche, 406. 
Chartreuse, 83. 

Of chicken, 190. 

Of spinach, 211. 
Chateaubriand, 157. 
Chaudfroid of chicken, 191. 

Of sweetbreads, 306. 

Sauce, 281. 
Cheese, 369. 

Cottage, 373. 

Dishes, 369. 
" General directions 
for, 369. 

Canap6s, 368, 371. 

And craclters, 37L 

Fondue, 335. 

Golden Buck, 372. 

Patties, 373. 

Sandwiches, 367. 

Souffle, 370. 

Straws, 372. 

Welsh Rarebit, 371. 
Cherry bread pudding, 241. 
Chestnuts, candied, 
(marrons glac6), 521. 

Parfait of, 506. 

Pain de marrons, 420. 

Pur6e, 215, 410. 

Stuffing, 185. 

"With cream, 410. 
Chickens. 179. 

To judge of, 179. 

To clean and draw, 180. 

To bone, 181. 

To truss, 183. 

k la Vienne, 189. 

Aspic, 323. 

Aspic with walnuts, 384. 

Baltimore style, 189. 

Boiled, 185. 

Braised, 186. 

Breasts with poulette sauce, 
190 

Broiled, 186. 

Broth, 95. 

Consomm6, 100. 

Chartreuse of, 190. 

Chaudfroid, 191. 

Fricassee, white, brown, 186. 

Fried, 187. 

Fritters, 187. 

Gumbo, 249. 

Imperial, 189. 

Jellied, boned, 182, 

Leggs stuffed, 188. 

Livers, 309, 333. 

Mayonnaise, 192. 

Pie, English, 192. 

Pur^e, 310. 

Souffle, 190. 

Soup, plain, 100. 
Chocolate, 388, 553. 

To melt, 388. 

Bavarian, 40L 



Caramels, 622. 

With condensed milk, 387. 

Cream, 397. 

Creams, 524. 

Custards, 395. 

]6clairs, 474. 

Filling for cake, 469. 

Ice-cream, 496. 

Icing No. 1, 484. 
" No. 2, 485. 
" No. 3. 485. 

Parfait, 504. 

Peppermints, 526. 

Pralin^, 504. 

Pudding, 398. 

Sauce, 435, 447. 

Souffle, 423. 
Chopscutfronishoulder,253. 

Fish, 121. 

Lobster, 138. 

Mutton, 165. 

In paper cases, 166. 

k la Maintenon, 167. 

Pork, 177. 
Chow-chow, 546. 
Chowder, clam. 111, 230. 

Fish, 110, 230. 

Potato, 110. 
Christmas plum pudding, 

437. 
Cider cup, 556. 
Clam broth, 95. 

Chowder, 111, 230. 

Fritters, 136. 

Soup, 104, 230. 
Clams, 135. 

To open, 135. 

Cream of, 107. 

Creamed, 135. 

Roasted, 136. 
Claret cup No. 1, 555. 
•' " No. 2, 555. 
Clarified apples, 243. 
Clarifying fat, 74. 

Fruit juices, 415. 

Jelly, 413. 

Soups, 86. 
Club house fish balls, 128. 
Cobblers, 554. 
Cocoa, 554. 
Cocoanut balls, 477. 

Cakes, 525. 

Creams, 524. 

Pie, 456. 

Pudding, 398. 

Sauce, 449. 
Codfish and cream, 233. 
Codfish balls, 128, 232. 

Salt, 127. 
Coffee, 551, 

Care of beans, 661. 

Mixtures and brands, 551. 

To make, 551. ■ 

Drip, 552. 

Cake, 358. 

Ice-cream, 497. 

Iced (au lait), 653. 

Icing for Eclairs, 485. 

Jelly, 416. 



Cold chicken pie, 192. 

Desserts, 394. 

Jelly sauce, 449. 

Tongue, 175. 

Fish, 123. 

Roast beef, 15L 

Slaw, 398. 
Coloring, 392. 

Soups, 87. 

Sugar, 393. 
Common stock, 87. 
Compote of apples, 535. 

Oranges, 536. 

Peaches and apricots, 536. 

Pears, 536. 
Consomm^, 98, 100. 
Cookies, plain, 481. 
Cooking for pleasure, 38. 
Corned beef, 157, 234. 

Hash, 158. 
Corn bread (soft), 247. 
No. 1, 353. 
No. 2, 353. 

Canned, 220. 

Cream of, 106. 

Dodgers, 247. 

On the ear, 220. 

Mock oysters, 220. 

Pudding, 236. 
Cornmeal mush, 228. 

Fried, 224. 
Cornstarch with apples, 
432. 

Pudding, plain, 397. 
With canned fruit, 398. 
cocoanut, 398. 
chocolate, 398. 

Chocolates, 398. 
Cottage pudding, 435. 
Courses, 24. 
Court bouillon, 115. 
Crab-apple jelly, 544. 
Crabs, 141. 

Deviled, 141. 

Crabs, oyster, 143, 310. 
Entree of, 310. 

Soft-shell, 142. 

Toast, 334. 

Stew, 144. 

St. Laurent, 143. 

Stuffed with mushrooms, 
142. 
Cracked wheat, 228. 
Cranberry Jelly, 244. 

Pie, 456. 

Sauce, 287. 
Cream of asparagus, 106. 

Celery, 106. 

Clams, 107. 

Of com, 106. 

Of green peas, 106. 

Of oysters, 108. 

Of string beans, 106. 

Cakes, 474. 

Chicken forcemeat, No. 1, 
297. 

No. 2 
297. 



568 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX 



Cream. 

Czarina, 410. 
Devonshire, 258. 
Dressing, 235. 
Fried, 441. 
Italian, 40L 
Pie, 455. 
To wliip, 408. 
Soups, 84, 105. 
Wliips, 409. 
Creamed clams, 185. 
" dishes, 332. 
" mackerel, 127. 
Creams, chocolate, 524. 
Cocoanut, 524. 
Nut, 523. 
Peppermint, 525. 
CrSme Parisienne, 441. 
Croquenbouche of Maca- 
roons, 408. 
Croquettes, 292. 
Sauce for mixing, 293. 
To mold, 293. 
To fry, 294. 

Materials used for, 295. 
Bean, 217. 
Egg, 272. 
Potato, 202. 
Sweet potato, 207. 
Croustade of shrimps, 130. 
Bread, 328. 
Rolls, 323. 
CroQte°au=pot, 89. 
Crofitons and croustades, 

81. 
Crullers, 481. 
Crumbs, 51, 75. 
Crumpets, 355. 
Cucumbers, boiled, 218. 
Pickles, 545. 
Salad for fish, 377. 
Stuffed, 218. 
And tomato salad, 377. 
Cup cake, 470, 471. 
Currant jelly, 543. 

Shortcake, 442. 
Currants, 531. 
Curried eggs, 271. 
Curry, 254. 
Madras, 254. 
Sauce, 284. 
Custards, 394. • 

Baked, 896. 
Boiled, No. 1, 394. 
No. 2, 395. 
Caramel, 396. 
Chocolate, 395. 

f baked, 897. 

" cream, 397. 

Rennet 397. 
Sauce, boiled, 447. 

D 

Dabs, 238. 

Daisy designs for molds, 

326. 
Daubing, 76. 
Decorating cakes, 486. 



Decorations for meat jelly, 

326. 
Desserts, information per- 
taining to, 386. 

Cold, 394. 
Deviled crabs, 141. 
Devonshire cream, 258. 
Diplomatic Bavarian, 403. 

Pudding, 403. 
Dishes a la Newburg, 139, 

333. 
Doughnuts, 481. 
Dried beans, 217. 

Mushrooms, 320. 
Drip coffee, 552. 
Drippings, 51, 59. 
Ducks, tame, 195. 

Canvasbacks and redheads, 
196. 

Salmi of, 196. 
Dumplings, apple, 429. 

With baldng powder, 179. 
'•'•' suet, 170. 



Eclairs, 470. 

Chocolate, vanilla,coffee,474. 
Economical living, 44. 
Eggs, 58, 261. 

a I'Ain-ore, 270. 

h, la Bourguinonne, 270. 

k la Polignac, 267. 

k la Reine, 273. 

k la Villeroi, 269. 

au beurre noir, 273. 

au miroir, 266. 

Balls for soup, 92. 

Boiled, 262. 

Cocotte, 266. 

Croquettes, 272. 

Curried, 271. 

Fried, 264. 

Golden cream toast, 270. 

How to judge and keep, 261. 

Livingston, 273. 

Nogg, 557. 

Omelet, 263. 

Poached, 263. 

On anchovy toast, 268. 

" (entr^eX268. 

Salads, 381. 

Sandwiches, 366. 

Sauce, 278. 

Scrambled, 264. 

Shirred, 266. 

Stuffed, 271, 272. 

Sur le plat, 266. 

With tomatoes, 268, 332. 

In tomatoes, 380. 

To whip, 389, 463. 

Plant, 215. 

stuffed, 215. 
Election cake, 244. 
Emergencies, 55. 
English muffins, 355. 
Enterprize chopper, 293. 
Entrees, 292. 
Espagnole sauce, 282. 



False terrapin, 308. 
Fancy molding, 413. 

In aspic, 324. 
Farinacious foods, 222. 
Farina balls, 223. 

Pudding, 424. 

Boiled, 436. 
Fat, to clarify, 74. 

To try out, 74. 

Saving, 51. 
Figs, 591. 
Fig pudding, 438. 
Fillet of beef, 149. 
Fillets offish, 112. 118, 125. 
Fillets mignon, 157. 

Of salmon, 130. 
Filtered water, 548. 
Fish, 112. 

Balls, 128, 232. 
" fresh, 128, 

Baked, 115. 

Barbecue of, 331. 

Bones of, 112. 

To bone and remove fillets, 
112. 

To boil, 113. 

Time to boil, 113. 

To boil whole, 114. 

To serve boiled, 114. 

Sauces for boiled, 114. 

Court bouillon for, 115. 

To broil, 116. 

To carve, 113. 

Cold, 123, 

Cooking, 112. 

Chops, 121. 

Cliowder, 110, 230. 

Dish for pink Imicheon, 124. 

Dressing, 112. 

Fillets of, 112, 118, 122, 125. 

Fillets of, baked with cus- 
tard or tomatoes, 122. 

To fry, 117. 

Fillets of fried, 118. 

Freshness of, 112. 

Frozen, 112. 

Forcemeat of, 297. 

Garnishing, 114. 

Kettle, 113. 

Keeping, 112. 

Pudding, 123, 

And oystei-s, 231. 

Sauces for, 275. 

Sandwiches, 366. 

Scalloped, 120. 

" au gratin, 121. 

Stock and soup, 103. 

To saut6, 117. 

Timbale, 123. 

Trimming, 112. 
Five o'clock tea, 33. 
Flageolets, 210. 
Flaming apples, 432. 
Flavoring, 60, 80. 

When to add, 389. 
Flavors, 389. 
Floating Island, 395. 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX 



569 



Flounder, rolled fillets of, 125 
Flowers for garnishinsT, 393. 
Floor polish, 260. 
Foamy sauce, 445. 
Fondant, 513. 

To make, 514. 

Bonbons of, 522. 

Icing, 485. 
Fondue, 335. 
Fontage cups, 300. 
Forcemeat, chicken, cream, 
297. 

No. 2, 297. 

Fish, cream, 297. 

Quenelle, 298. 

Balls, 92. 

For boned fowls, 183. 
Fowls, to bone, 181. 

To truss, 183. 
French dressing for salads, 
375. 

Omelet, 264. 
Fricasseeing, 71. 
Fricassee of chicken, 186. 

Oysters, 232. 
Fried bananas, 531. 

Cream, 441. 

Corn-meal mush, 224. 

Hominy, 224. 
Fried oysters, 132. 
Fritters, 426. 

Apple, 427. 

Batter, 426. 

Biscuit dough, 428. 

Bread, 349. 

Chicken, 187. 

Orange, 427. 

Peach or apricot, 427. 
Frogs' legs, fried, 313. 

k la poulette, 313. 
Frosting, instantaneous, 

245. 
Frozen desserts, 488. 

Remarks about, 488. 

Fruits, 501, 532. 

Punches, 508. 
Fruit cake, plain, 472. 

Rich, 473. 
Fruits, 529. 

Remarks about, 529. 

Bavarian, 401, 

Frozen, 501, 532. 

Ice-creams, 501, 

Jellied, 534. 

Juices, 534, 

" To thicken, 389. 

Pudding, 443, 502. 

Salpicon of, 532. 

' ' punch, 533. 

Sauces, 446, 

Syrups, 557. 
Frying, 72. 

To prepare articles for, 75. 



Oalantine of turkey, 193. 
Qarnishing, 392. 
BoUed fish, 114. 



Cakes, 486. 

With flowers, 393. 
Garnishes for soups, 92. 
Gateau St. Honors, 407. 
Gauffres, 479. 
Gelatine, 60, 388. 
Gems, corn, 354. 

Graham, 237, 354. 
Genoese cake, 467. 
Giblet sauce, 185, 
Gingerbread, soft, 483. 
Ginger snaps, 481. 
Glac^ oranges and grapes, 

516. 
Glaze, 277. 
Gluten bread, 347. 
Gold and silver cake, 470. 
Golden buck, 372. 

Cream toast, 270, 
Goose, roast, 194. 
Graham bread, 346. 

Gems, 237, 354. 
Grape fruit, 530, 
Grapes glac6, 516. 

Juice, 557, 

Preserved, 539, 

Spiced, 544, 
Grease, removing from 
soups, 86. 

Saving, 51. 
Green peas, 209, 

Cream of, 106. 

Timbale of, for soups, 94. 
Grilled bones, 188. 
Grouse, roasted, 197. 
Gumbo file, 24«. 



H 

Halibut steaks, boiled, 119. 

Turkish style, 120, 

Timbale, 303. 
Ham boiled, 177. 

Baked, 177. 

And eggs, broiled, 178, 

a TAurore, 178. 

Canapes, 368, 

Omelet, 266. 
Hamburg steaks, 151, 
Hard sauce, 448. 
Harlequin balls, 522. 

Slices for soups, 94, 
Hartford election cake, 244. 
Hash, corned beef, 158, 

Brown, 159. 
Heart, calf's, 174. 
Hoe cake, 246. 

No 2, 247, 

Colonial, 237. 
Hollandaise sauce, 281, 
Home dinner, 27, 
Homily on cooking, 35, 
Hominy cake, 356, 

Fried, 224. 
Horseradish sauce, 284. 
Hot slaw, 214. 



I 



Ices, 508, 

Lemon, 243, 508. 

Orange, 508. 

Strawberry, 508, 
Ice-creams, 488. 

American, 495. 

Angel, 497. 

Caramel, 496, 497. 

Coflfee, 497. 

Chocolate, 496. 

Classification of, 488. 

Fancy molding of, 49L 

Freezing, 490. 

French, 495. 

Fruit, 501, 

General rules for making, 
489, 

Imperatrice, 505. 

Individual, 492, 498. 

Molding, 491, 

Neapolitan, 498, 

Nesselrode, 499. 

Nut, 502, 

Ornamental, 493. 

Packing, 490. 

Philadelphia, 494. 

Pistachio. 498. 

Plum pudding glac6, 590. 

Rice, 498. 

Tutti frutti, 501. 

Vanilla, 494. 
Iced tea, 550. 
Icing, boiled, 484. 

Chocolate, 484, 485. 

Coffee for Eclairs, 486. 

Fondant, 485. 

Royal, 483. 
" with confectioners* 
sugar, 484. 

For small cakes, 485. 

And decorating cakes, 483. 
Indian bread, 236. 

Pudding, 240, 241, 443. 
Individual salads, 383. 
Inside flank of beef, 153. 
Irish stew, 165. 
Italian cream, 401, 

Jelly, 418, 

Meringue, 498. 



Jams, 541, 

Jam omelet, 425, 

Jellied chicken, 182, 

Fruit, 534. 

Fruits (Pain aux fruits), 
419. 

Tongue, 175. 

Veal, 171. 
Jellies, 412, 543. 
Jelly rolls, 468, 
Jelly, to clarify, 413. 

Apple, 544, 

Aspic, 321, 

Berry design for mold, 326. 



570 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX 



Jelly. 

Coffee, 416. 

Cold, sauce, 449. 

Crab-apple, 544. 

Cranberry 244. 

Champagne, 416. 

•' with flowers, 416. 

Currant, 548. 

Daisy design for mold, 326. 

Dantzic, 418. 

Decorations for meat, 326. 

Dissolving, 412. 

Italian, 418. 

Lemon, 415. 

Mac6doine, 417. 

Molding fancy, 324, 413. 

Orange, 415. 

Points to observe in mak- 
ing, 412. 

Plum pudding, 399. 

Proportions for, 413. 

Prune, 243. 

Quince, 544. 

Ribbon, 418. 

Rolls, 468. 

Russian, 417. 

Sauce, 449, 287. 

Serving, 414. 

Wine, 415. 

With fruits (mac^doine), 
417. 

What to do with left over, 
418. 

Whipped. 417. 

White or blanc-mange, 399. 

Unmolding, 324, 
Johnny cake, 237. 
Julienne soup, 89. 
Jumbles, 480. 



Kidneys, stewed, 173. 
Kisses, 475. 
Kneading bread, 342. 
Koumiss, 558. 



Lady fingers, 476. 
LallaRookh,509. 
Lamb, spring, 167. 
Larding, 76. 
Layer cakes, 468. 
Lemonade, 554. 
Lemon ice, 243, 508. 

Jelly, 415. 

Sugar, 39L 

Syrup, 391. 
Lettuce salad, 376. 

Stewed, 219. 
Lima beans, 210. 
Little pound cakes, 478. 
Liver and bacon, 172. 

Braised, 172. 

Broiled, 172. 

Loaf or false pat6 de foie 
gras, 308. 

Saut6,256. 



Livers, chicken, 309, 333. 
Loaf of chicken, 191. 

Liver, 308. 

Veal, 171. 
Lobster, 136. 

To bake, 137. 

To boil, 136. 

To broil, 137. 

To kill, 136. 

To open, 137. 

h la Newburg, 139. 

Bisque of, 109. 

Butter, 109. 

Chops, 138. 

Farci, 138. 

Filling for patties, 140. 

Freshness of, 136. 

Salad, 382. 

Salpicon of, 140. 

Sauce, 279. 

Season of, 136. 

Stew, 140. 

Stewed, 232. 
Luncheon, 31. 
Luncheon and tea-rolls, 
351. 

M 

Macaroni, 224. 

h la Albi, 236. 

au gratin, 225. 

Baked with cheese, 225. 

Mrs. Maspero, 226. 

With tomato or other sauce, 
225. 

With minced meat, 226. 

Timbale, 302. 
" Honeycomb, 302. 

Sauce for, 226. 
" No. 2, 226. 

" No. 3, 223. 

Soup, 89. 
Macaroons, 477. 
Mac^doine |elly, 417. 

Salad, 378. 

Of vegetables, 216. 
Mackerel, salt, 127. 

Creamed, 127. 
Madeleines, No. 1, 477. 

No. 2, 478. 
Mditre d' hotel sauce, 286. 
Marble cake, 470. 
Marinate, to, 79, 374. 
Marmalade, 541. 

Apple, 543. 

Orange, 542. 

Quince, 542. 
Marrow balls, 94. 

Bones, 159. 
Marrons, pain de, 420. 

Glac6, 521. 
Marshmallows, 521. 
Mayonnaise, 288, 375. 

Arrowroot, 290. 

Green, 289. 

Jelly, 290. 

Red, 290. 

White, 289. 

Of chicken, 192. 



Measuring, 77. 

Meats, 52, 145. 

Cooking, 145. 

Cleaning, 145. 

General remarks about, 146. 

Juices of, 145. 

Piercing, 146. 

Scalloped, 151. 

Sandwiches, 364. 

Seasoning, 145. 
Menus, luncheon, 31. 

Inexpensive dinners, 47, 
352. 
Meringues, 475. 
Meringue sauce, 448. 

To sweeten, 389. 
Mignon fillets, 157. 
Milk, 54, 58, 63. 

Bread, 345. 

When scalded, 389. 

Punch, 557. 

Toast, 348. 

Shake, 557. 

Sterilized, 267. 
Millefeuilles, 461. 
Mince pie, 454. 
Mint sauce, 287. 
Miscellaneous receipts, 257. 
Mixing liquidsand soIids,59 
Mock oysters, 220. 
Mock turtle soup, 103. 
Molasses cake, 483. 

Candy, 527. 

Pie, 242. 

Wafers, 482. 
Molding, 389. 

Articles to fry, 76. 

Fancy, 413. 

Jellies, 323. 

Ice-creams, 491. 
Molds, 60. 

Double, 325. 

To ornament, 324. 
Moselle cup, 555. 
Mousses, 506. 

Fruit, 507. 

Golden, 507. 
Muffins, 355. 

English, 355. 

Raised, 355. 
Mushrooms, remarks about, 
45, 314. 

Cooking, 316. 

h la poulette, 320. 

Agaricus campestris, 317. 
" procerus, 318. 
" russula, 318. 
Boleti, 318. 

Coprinus comatus, 318. 
" atramentariuB, 

318. 

Clavaria, 319. 

Hydnum caput Medusae, 319. 

Puff balld, 319. 

Marasmius oreades, 317. 

Scalloped, 320. 

Sauce, 286. 

To dry, 320. 
Mustard sauce, 285. 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX 



571 



Mutton, remarks about, 160. 
BoUed, 163. 
Breast of, 255. 
Broth, 95. 
Chops, 165. 

" in paper cases, 166. 
k la Maintenon, 167. 
Leg of, 162. 
Loin of, 162. 
B^gotit of, 164. 

" cold boiled, 165. 
Bechauff^ of, 234. 
Boiled loin of, 162. 
Saddle of, 162. 
Shoulder of, stuffed, 163. 

N 

Nasturtium pickle, 547. 
Neapolitan ice-cream, 498. 

Squares, 523. 
Nesselrode pudding, 499. 
Noodles, 93. 

Balls, 93. 

To serve as vegetables, 93. 

Soup, 89. 
Nougat, 518. 

For bonbons, 518. 
" molding, 519. 

Soft white, 519. 
Nuts, 532. 

Carameled, 526. 

Creams, 523. 

Ice-creams, 502. 

Salted, 533. 



Oat cake, 356. 
Oatmeal, creamed, 238. 

Porridge, 227. 
Olives, to stone, 78. 
Olive sauce, 285. 
Omelets, 264. 

aux fins herbes, 268. 

Beaten, 266. 

Green, 266. 

Ham, 266. 

Jam, 425. 

Orange, 425. 

Plain French, 264. 

Potato, 203. 

With peas and tomatoes, 26 

Rum, 426. 

Variations of, 265. 

Souffle, 422. 

Spanish, 274. 
Onions, 219. 

Juice, 59. 
" how to extract, 78. 

Soup, 105. 

Spanish, stuffed, 219. 
Orangeade, 554. 
Oranges, 530.* 

Glac6, 56. 
Orange cake, 469. 

Compote of, 636. 

Fritters, 427. 

Ice, 608. 



Indian pudding, 241. 

Jelly, 415. 

Juice, 534. 

Marmalade, 541. 

Omelet, 425. 

Or lemon peel candied, 891, 

527. 
Pie, 453. 
Salad, 382. 
Sugar, 391. 
Syrup, 39L 
pain d', 420. 
Oysters, 131. 
a la poulette, 133. 

" Villeroi, 132. 
Broiled, 132. 
Browned, 231. 
Cooking, 131. 

' ' in chafing-dish , 233. 
Crabs, 143, 310. 

" entree of, 310. 
Cases, 308. 
Creamed, 331. 
Cream of, 108. 
Filling for patties, 134. 
And fish, 231. 
Fried, 132. 
Fricassee, 232. 
Mock, 220. 
Panned, 133, 331. 
Pickled, 232. 
Raw, 131. 
Roasted, 133. 
Salad, 383. 
Sauce, 279. 
Soup, 104. 
Scalloped, 134, 23L 
Stew, 331. 
Oxtail soup, 99. 
Ovens, 63. 



Panada, bread, 298. 

Flour, 298. 
Pancakes, remarks about, 
361. 

Adirondack, 363. 

Bread, 362. 

Buckwheat, 363. 

Cornmeal, 36a 

Plain, 362. 

Rice, 362. 

Sweet, 426. 
Pans, bread, 344. 

Cake, 463, 464. 
Panned oysters, 133, 331. 
Pain aux fruits, 419. 

de fraises, 419. 

d'oranges, 420. 

de pfiches, 420. 

de marrons, 420. 

de riz aux fruits, 419. 
". k la princesse, 419. 

de volaille, 300. 
Parched rice, 223. 
Parfaits, 489. 

General rules for making. 



Angel, 505. 

au caf^ and pralin^, 504. 

Of chestnuts, 506. 

Maple, 604. 

Vanilla, 503. 
Parker House rolls, 351. 
Parsnips, 218. 

Partridges, roasted, broil- 
ed, 199. 
Pastry, 451. 

Plain, 239, 45L 

For tarts, 452. 

To glaze, 46L 

Timbale, 303. 
Pat£ de foie gras en belle* 

vue, 384. 
PHt^ shells, 460. 
Patties, 305. 
Pea soup, 102, 229. 
Peaches, 530. 

Compote of, 636. 
Peach-leaf flavor, 39L 

Fritters, 427. 

Frozen, 501, 532. 

Pickled, sweet, 546. 

Preserved, 537. 

Pudding, 24L 
Peanut candy, 527. 
Peanuts, 532. 
Pears, stewed, 244. 

Preserved, 588. 
Peppermint creams, 525. 

Drops, 526. 
Peppers, stuffed, 215. 
Philadelphia ice-cream ,494. 
Pickled oysters, 232. 
Pickles, 545. 

Chow-chow, 546. 

Cucumber or gherkins, 545. 

Green tomato, 546. 

Nasturtiums, 547. 

Peaches, 546, 

Plums, 545. 

Walnuts, 645. 
Pies, 450. 

Apple, 454. 

Beef, 152. 

Beefsteak, 235. 

Chicken, 192. 

Cocoanut, 456. 

Cranberry, 456. 

Cream, 455. 

Mince mixture, 464. 

Molasses, 242. 

Orange, 453. 

Plain apple, 454. 
" pastry for, 239, 45L ,>*■*; 

Pumpkin, 239, 454. 

Squash, 238. 

Tart, 452. 

Washington , 457. 
Pigeons, potted, 197. 

Roasted, 197. 
Pineapple canapes, 336. 

Sauce, 447. 
Pine cones, 411. 
Piquante sauce, 283. 
Pistachio cake, 469. \ 

Flavor, 391. 

Ice-cream, 498, 



572 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX 



Plain pudding: sauces, 444, 

445. 
Plum-pudding. 437. 
Jelly, 399. 
Glac6, 500. 
Sauce for, 501. 
Plum sauce for meats, 444. 
Polenta, 227. 
Pone, 246. 
Pork, 176. 
And beans, 217, 234. 
Chops, 177. 
Roast, 176. 
Pot-pie, 169. 
Potatoes, baked, 204. 
Baked with meat, 204. 
Balls, 203. 

fried, 205. 
Boiled, 201. 
Bread, 345. 
BroUed, 204. 
Cakes, 201. 
Casserole, 327. 
Chowder, 110. 
Creamed, 203. 
Croquettes, 202. 
And fish timbale, 304. 
Fried, 205. 
Lyonnaise, 204. 
Mashed, 201. 
Omelet, 203. 
Puffed, 206. 
• Rice, 202. 
Roses, 202. 
Salad, 378. 
Saratoga, 205. 
Soufil6, 202. 
Soup, 105. 
Straws, 205. 
Stuffed, 204. 
Supports for hot meats, 

328. 
Sweet, 206. 
» baked, 206. 
" browned, 206. 
" Croquettes, 207. 
*' Puree of, 207. 
Poulette sauce, 280. 
Poultry and game, 179. 
To clean and draw, 180. 
Pound cake, 471. 
Pound cakes, small, 478, 
Prairie chicken and grouse 

197. 
Praline powder, 505. 
Preserved citron, 540. 
Grapes, 539. 
Peaches, 537. 

" brandied, 543. 
Pears, 538. 
Plums, 538. 
Raspberries, 540. 
Strawberries, 539. 

No. 2, 540. 
Preserving, 537. 
Printani^re soup, 89. 
Prune Jelly, 243. 
Souffle, 423. 



Pudding batter, 428. 
Beefsteak, 251. 
Bermuda, 242. 
Blueberry, 24L 
Bread, 434. 

« and butter, 434. 
Brown Betty, 429. 
Cabinet, 438. 

No. 2, 439. 
No. 3 (Royal), 439. 
" No. 4, 440. 
Canary, 436. 
Chocolate, 398. 
Cherry bread, 241. 
Cocoanut, 398. 
Cottage, 435. 
Cornstarch, 397. 
Diplomatic, 403. ^,\ . ^^. 
Fig, 438. f! 6> S/ i 

Fish, 123. <>.^ , \ 

Fruit, 443. ^ \ ^-. 

Indian, 240, 241, 443. V : 
Peach, 241. 
Plum, 437. 

" glac6, 590. 
Rice, plain, 433. 

" and marmalade, 242. 
Roly-poly, 443. 
Snow apple, 429. 
Suet, 436. 
Tapioca, 433. 
Yorkshire, 147. 
Puffs or pop-overs, 354. 
Puff paste, 457. 
Rules for, 457. 
Receipt for, 458. 
Pulled bread, 349. 
Pumpkin pie, 239, 454. 
Punch, frozen, general 
rules, for, 508. 
Coffee, 509. 
Milk, 557. 
Salpicon of fruit, 533. 

of CaUfomia 
cherries, 584. 
Pur6e of beans, 217. 
Chestnuts, 185, 215. 
Chicken, 310. 
Fruit sauce, 447. 



Quails broiled, 192. 

Roasted, 198. 
Quenelles, 300. 

Forcemeat, 298. 
Quick aspic, 322. 
Quinces, baked, 532. 

Jelly, 544. 

Marmalade, 542. 



Ragoflt of beef, 153. 

Of mutton, 164. 
Raisins, 60, 389. 
Range, 63, 



Raspberry vinegar, 558. 

Preserve, 540. 
Raw beef sandwiches, 367. 

Oysters, 131. 
Rechauffe of mutton, 234. 
Redhead ducks, 196. 
Refrigerator, 62. 
Rennet custard, 397. 
Rhode Island Johnny cake, 

237 
Ribboii jelly, 418 
Rice, to boil, 222. 
Southern way of boihng, 

248. 
Bavarian, 402. 
Ice-cream, 498. 
' Pancakes, 362. 
■ Parched, 223. 
Pudding No. 1, 433. 
No. 2, 433. 
Lemon rice-pudding, 242. 
\And marmalade pudding, 

242. 
And raisins, 434. 
Pudding glac6, 505. 
And tomatoes, 223. 
Rich pudding sauce, 445. 
Richelieu sauce, 448. 
Rissotto, 227. 
Rissoles, 305. 
Roast beef, 146. 

Cold, 151. 
Roasted oysters, 133. 
Roasting, 70. 

Rolled loin of mutton, 162. 
Rolls, baking, 344. 
Bread, 349. 
Cleft, 361. 

Luncheon and tea, 351. 
Parker House, 351. 
Roly-poly pudding, 443. 
Rose sugar, 391. 
Roux, to make, 79. 
Royal icing, 483. 
Roy ale, 92. 
Rum omelet, 426. 

Sauce, 445. 
Rusks, 357. 
Dried, 358. 
Russian jellies, 417. 
Salad, 383. 
Bowls, 329. 



Sabayon sauces, 446. 
Saddle of mutton, 162. 
Salads, general reman 
about, 373. 
Aspic of p&t6 en bellevu 
884. 

" with walnuts, 384. 
Bean, 377. 
Bird's nest, 385. 
Bouilli, 383. 
Cauliflower, 377. 
Celery, 376. 

" and walnut, 381. 
Chicken, 285, 382. 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX 



578 



Salads. 

Cold slaw, 378. 
Cucumber, 377. 

•' and tomato, 377. 

Egg, No. 1, 381. 
•' No. 2, 381. 
French dressing for, 375. 
Hot slaw, 379. 
Lettuce, 376. 
Lobster, 882. 
Mac^doine, 378. 
Mayonnaise dressing for, 

288, 290, 375. 
To marinate, 374. 
Orange, 382. 
Oyster, 383. 
Potato, 378. 
Russian, 383. 

" Individual, 383. 
Sandwiches, 366. 
String bean, 377. 
Sweetbreads with celery, 

381. 
Tomato No. 1, 379. 
" and egg, 380. 
" jelly, 380. 
" " molded, 380. 

Tomato stuffed, 380. 
Water cress and apples, 376. 
Sally lunn, 355. 
Salmi of duck or game, 196. 
Salmon, 128. 
Broiled slices of, 129. 
Canned, 129. 
Cutlets, 129. 
Fillets for green luncheon, 

130. 
Slices with mayonnaise, 129. 
Salpicon, 80, 299. 
Of fruits, 532. 
Punch, 533. 
Lobster, 140. 
Salt codfish, 127. 

Mackerel, 127. 
Salted nuts, 533. 
Sandwiches, remarks about, 
364. 
Shapes of, 364. 
How to prepare meat for, 

364. 
How to prepare bread for, 

365. 
Butter, 33. 
Cheese, 367. 
Egg, 866. 
Fish, 366. 
Meat, 365. 
Raw beef, 367. 
Rolls, 365. 
Salad, 366. 
Spanish, 367. 
Sweet, 367. 
Sardine can.ap6s, 368. 
Sardines, broiled, 128. 
Sauces for meats, 375. 
Sauces for sweet puddings, 

444. 
Sauces for cold sweet des- 
serts, 393. 



Sauces for macaroni, ris- 

sotto, 226. 
Sauces for boiled fish, 

kinds of, 114. 
Sauces, 375. 

General directions for, 275. 

Agra dolce, 291. 

Allemande, 279. 

Apple, 288. 

B6amaise, 288. 

Bechamel, 279. 

Beurre Noir or Brown But- 
ter, 291. 

Bread, 287. 

Brown, 282. 

Caper, 279. 

Celery, 279. 

Champagne, 283. 

Chaudfroid, 281. 

Cranberry, 287. 

Curry, 284. 

Egg, 278. 

Espagnole, 282. 

For mixing croquettes, 293. 
" macaroni, 223, 226. 

Giblet, 185. 

Glaze, 277. 

Hollaudaise, 281. 

Horseradish, 284. 

Jelly, 287. 

Lobster, 279. 

maltre d'h6tel, 286. 

Mayonnaise, 288. 

" with arrowroot, 290. 
" green, 289. 

" jelly, 290. 

« red, 290. 

" white, 289. 

Mint, 287. 

Mushroom, 286. 

Mustard, 284. 

Olive, 285. 

Oyster, 279. 

Piquante, 283. 

Poulette, 280. 

Roux for, 277. 

Soubise, 284. 

Tartare, 290. 

Tomato, 285. 

Velout^, 279. 

Villeroi, 280. 

White, 277. 
'♦ for fish, 278. 
Puddingsauces, sweet, 444. 
Sauce, apricot, 446. 

Bischoff, 447. 

Brandy, rum, kirsch, 445. 

Cocoanut, 449. 

Cold jelly, 449. 

Chocolate, 447. 

Custard, 447. 

Foamy, 445. 

Fruit, 446. 
" pur6e of, 447. 

Hard, 448. 

Meringue, 448. 

Pineapple, 447. 

Plain pudding, No. 1 (hotX 
444. 



Plain pudding, No. 2 (cold), 
445. 

Rich pudding, 445. 

Richelieu, 448. 

Sabayon, No. 1, 446. 
" No. 2, 446. 

Strawberry, 449. 

Syrup, 446. 

For plum pudding glac^,501. 
Saratoga potatoes, 205. 
Saut^ing, 72. 
Savarins, 440. 
Scalloped fish, 120. 

Mea^ 151. 

Mushrooms, 320. 

Oysters, 23L 

Tomatoes, 207. 

Veal, 172. 
Scallops, 136. 
Scotch broth, 252. 
Scrambled eggs, 264. 
Seasoning, 80. 

Meats, 145. 
Serving boiled fish, 114. 

Dinners, 10. 
" the informal, 29. 

Jellies, 414. 

Wines, 560. 
Shad, 125. 

Planked, 125. 

Spiced, 233. 

Roe, broiled, 126. 
" croquettes, No. 1, 126. 
" " No. 2, 126. 

Shell fish, 131. 
Sherbets, 508. 

General remarks about, 
508. 
Shirred eggs, 266. 
Shin of beef, 250. 
Shortcake, currant, 442. 

Strawberry, 443. 
Shrimps, croustade of, 130. 
Smelts h la Toulouse, 334. 

Broiled, 118. 

To fry, 117. 

Fried on skewers, 118. 
Snipe, 198. 

Snow apple pudding, 429. 
Snow pudding, 417. 
Soap, to make, 259. 
Socles, 326. 

Of rice, 327. 
Soubise sauce, 284. 
Souffles, 421. 

Apple, 424, 

Cheese, 370. 

Chicken, 190. 

Chocolate, 423, 

Omelet, 422. 

Potato, 202. 

Prune, 423. 

Spinach, 211. 

Vanilla, 422. 
Soup, general directions for, 

Meats, 85. 
Vegetables, 85. 
Inexpensive, 255. 



574 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX 



Qarnishes for Soup, 90, 92. 

Forcemeat balls, 92. 
Egg balls, 92. 
Green pea timbale, 94. 
Harlequin slices, 94. 
Marrow balls, 94. 
Noodles, 9a 

" balls, 93. 
Sweet potato balls, 94. 
Soup, bean, 102. 
Black bean, 102, 229. 
Bouillon, 97. 
Calf's head or mock turtle, 

103. 
Chicken, 100. 

" consomm^, 100. 
Clam, 104, 230. 
Crotite au pot, 90. 
Fish stock and, 103. 
Julienne, 89. 
Lobster bisque, 109. 

" butter for, 109. 
Macaroni, 89. 
Noodle, 89. 
Onion, 105. 
Oyster, 104. 
Ox-tail, 99. 
Pea, 102, 229. 
Potato, 105. 
Tapioca, 90. 
Tomato bisque, 106. 



puree, 101. 
ible, 89. 



Vegetal 

" or printani^re, 89. 
Vermicelli, 89. 
White, 99. 
Broths, 95. 
Clam, 95. 
Chicken, 95. 
Mutton, 95. 

Made quickly for inva- 
lids, 96. 
Chowders, 110. 
Potato, 110. 
Clam, 111, 230. 
Fish, 110, 230. 
Soups, cream, 105. 

" asparagus, 106. 
" celery, 106. 
" clams, 107. 
" com, 107. 
" green peas, 106. 
" oysters, 108. 
Spinach, 166. 
String beans, 106. 
" k la reine, 108. 
Southern dishes, 246. 
Spaghetti. 225. 
Spanish omelet, 274. 
Spanish Sandwiches, 867. 
Spiced Grapes, 544. 
Spinach, 210. 
Chartreuse of, 211. 
Souffle, 211. 
Sponge, to make bread, 345. 
Sponge cake, Nos. 1, 2, 3, 466. 
" white, 467. 
" mixing, 465. 
Spring Iamb, 167. 



Squabs, 197. 
Squash, 218. 

" Pie, 238. 
Starch molds for candies, 

525. 
Steaks, Hamburg, 151. 
Stew, Irish, 165. 
Stewed figs, 531. 
" pears, 244. 
" kidneys, 173. 
«* lobster, 232. 
" oysters, 331. 
Sterilized Milk, 257. 
Sticks, bread, 357. 
" cheese, 369. 
Stock, soup, 84. 
" " brown, 88. 

« white, 99. 
Strawberries, 530. 
Strawberry Cake, 443. 
Charlotte, 406. 
Shortcake, 442. 
Preserved, 539, 540. 
Suprfeme of, 419. 
Sauce, 449. 
Ice, 508. 
Ice-cream, 501. 
Stirring, 78. 
Store-closet, 55, 394. 
Strainers, 60. 
String beans, 209. 
" salad, 377. 
Stuffing for baked fish , 116. 
" •' Boned fowls, 
183. 

" fowls, 184. 
chestnut, 185. 
Stuffed chicken legs, 188. 
Cucumbers, 218. 
Eggs, 271, 272. 
Egg-plant, 215. 
Mushrooms, 309. 
Peppers, 215. 
Potatoes, 204. 
Shoulder of mutton, 163. 

" veal, 168. 
Spanish onions, 219. 
Tomatoes, 207. 
Succotash, 220. 
Suet, to try out, 74. 
Chopping, 59. 
Pudding, 436. 
Sugar and its uses, 510. 
Boiling, 510. 

" degrees of, 512. 
Colored for garnishing, 393. 
" how to make, 393. 
Creams, 624. 
Spun, 515. 
" directions for mak- 
ing, 515. 
Syrup, 503. 
Syrups, 513. 
Sugared Almonds, 520. 
Sunshine Cake, 467. 
Supply closet, 62. 
Supports for hot meats, 328. 
Sweetbreads, to prepare, 
305. 



k la poulette, 306. 

Baked, 306. 

Braised, 306. 

Chaudf roid of, 306. 

Fried, 306. 

Salad, 381. 

Sauted, 306. 
Sweet pancakes, 426. 
Sweet potatoes, baked, 206. 

balls for soup, 94. 

boiled, 206. 

browned, 206. 

croquettes, 207. 

Pur^e of, 207. 
Sweet sandwiches, 367. 
Swedish cabbage, 213. 
Syrups, fruit, 557. 

sauce, 446. 

sugar, 503, 613. 



Table, laying the, 13. 

Time, inside of cover. 

Weights and measures, 387. 
Taffy, 527. 
Tapioca, Soup, 90. 

and apples, 252. 

Pudding, 433. 
Tartare sauce, 290. 
Tart bands, 400. 

bread, 435. 

Pies, 452. 
Tartlets, 461. 

Paganini, 461. 
Tea, 549. 

Five o'clock, 31. 

Iced, 550. 

Biscuits, 352. 
•* with sour milk, 

352. 
Terrapin, 311. 

k la Newburg, 313. 

General rules about, 312. 

Maryland style, 313. 

False, 308. 
Thickening for soup, 90. 
Things to remember, 58. 
Timbales, 296. 

To mold and cook, 298. 

Fish, 123. 

Halibut, 303. 

Honeycomb, 302. 

Macaroni, 302. 

of brioche, 361. 

Pastry, 303. 

Potato and fish, 304. 
Toast, 348. 

milk, 348. 
Tomato bisque, 106. 

broiled, 208. 

Farci, 208. 

Jelly, 380. 

Pur^e, 101. 

Roasted, 208. 

Salads, 379, 380. 

Sauce, 285. 

Scalloped, 207. 

Stewed, 207. 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX 



575 



Tomato. 

Stuffed, 207. 
" with eggs, 

and rice, 223. 
Tongue, beef, 174. 

cold, 175. 

Hot sliced, 174. 

Jellied, 175. 
Trifle, 411. 

Banana, 412. 
Tripe, 173. 
Truffles, 296. 

To decorate with, 
Turkey, 193. 

Boned, 193. 

Galantine, 193. 
Turnips, 160. 216. 
TuttI FruttI, 501. 

u 



Cutlets, 169. 

Fricandeau, 169. 

JelUed, 171. 
« Loaf, 171. 

Boast fillet of, 168. 

Scallop, 172. 

Stuffed shoulder of, 168. 

With white sauce, 253. 
Vegetables, general remarks 

about, 200. 

Soup, 101. 

for soup, 85. 

Mac^doine of, 216. 
Veloute sauce, 279. 
Venetian cakes, 479. 
Venison, 199. 

" steak, 199. 
Vermicelli soup, 89. 
Vllleroi sauce, 280. 
Vol-au-vent, 304. 



Water^cress salad, 376. 
Water-ices, 508. 
Weights and measures, 387. 
Welsh rabbit, 371, 
Wheat, cracked, 228. 

Whole, bread, 346. 
Whips, 409. 
Whipped Cream, 408. 

Jelly, 417. 
Whitebait, 118. 
White cake, 471. 

Jelly, 399. 

Soup, 99. 

Stock, 99. 
Wines, serving, 560. 
Wine jelly. 415. 
Woodcock, 198. 
Wooden spoons, 330. 



Uses for stale cake, 411. 
Utensils, care of, 61. 

For desserts, 386. 



Vanilla souffle, 422. 

Ice-cream, 494. 

Sugar, 391. 
Veal. 168. 



W 

Wafers, molasses, 482. 
Waffles, 356. 
Walnuts, pickled, 545. 

ifinglish, salted, 533. 
Warren's Cake, 482. 
Washington Pie. 457. 
Wastefulness. 50. 
Water. 548. 



Yeast. 338. 

Remarks about, 338. 

Dick Bennet's, 339. 

Receipt No. 2, 339. 
Yorkshire Pudding, 14Z 



Zephyrs, 238. 
Zwieback, 349. 



GENERAL INDEX 



PART I. 

Dinner-giving and the etiquette of din- 
ners, 1. 
Manner of serving dinners, 10. 
Laying the table, 13. 
Table decoration, 17. 
Courses, 24. 
The home dinner, 27. 
Serving the informal dinner, 29. 
Luncheon, 31. 
The five o'clock tea, 33. 
A homily on cooking, 35. 
Cooking as a pleasure and an accom- 
plishment, 38. 
To n*ain a green cook, 40. 
Economical living, 4A. 
Mushrooms, 45, 814. 
Menus. " Al Fresco " dinner, 23. 
" Luncheon, 31. 
" Economical living, 47, 252. 
Wastefulness, 50. 

How to utilize what some cooks throw 
away, 51. 

Bread, 51. 

Fat, 51. 

Bones, 51. 

Tough pieces, 52. 

Small pieces, 52. 

Cold meats, 52. 

Eggs, 52. 

General odds and ends, 63. 

Cereals, 53. 

Vegetables, 38. 

Sour milk, 54. 

Fruits, 54. 

Cheese, 64. 
Emergencies, 55. 



Things to Bemember, 

Items about 
Eggs, 58. 
Ml&, 58. 
Butter, 68. 
Crumbs, 58. 
Meats, 59. 
Drippings, 59. 
Onion juice, 59. 
Chopping suet, 59. 

" almonds, 69. 
Mixing liquids and solids together, 
Gelatine, 60. 
Molds, 60. 
Strainers, 60. 
To keep dishes warm, 60. 
Flavoring, 60. 



Baisins, 60. 
Baking, 60. 
Utensils, care of, 61. 

" cleaning, 61. 
Tins, sieves, woodenware, 62. 
Tins, arrangement of, 62. 
Supply closet, 62. 
Refrigerator, 62. 
Coal and range, 63. 
Ovens, 63. 



PART IL 

CHAPTER I. 

Methods of Cooking Explained. 

Boiling, 67. 

Baking, 69. 

Roasting, 70. 

Broiling, 70. 

Braising, 71. 

Fricasseeing, 71. 

Saut6ing, 72. 

Frying, 72. 

To clarify fat, 74. 

To try out suet and other fats, 74. 

To prepare articles for frying by cover 

ing them with egg and crumbs, 75. 
The crumbs, 75. 
The egg, 75. 
The molding, 76. 
Larding, 76. 
Daubing, 76. 
Boning, 77. 
Measuring, 77. 
Stirring and beating, 78. 
How to stone olives, 78. 
How to cut bacon, 78. 
How to extract onion juice, 78. 
Caramel, 78. 
To make roux, 79. 
To marinate, 79. 
Salpicon, 80. 

Seasoning and flavoring, 80. 
Croutons and croustades, 81. 
Chartreuse, 83. 



CHAPTER II. 

Soups. 

General directions for preparing soups, 
including directions for 
Brown stock, 84, 88. 
White stock, 84, 99. 



576 



GENERAL INDEX 



577 



General directions for preparing soups. 
Cliicken consomm^, 100. 
Cream soups, 85, 105. 
Soup meats, 85. 

" vegetables, 85. 
The bouquet, 85. 
Proportions, 85. 
The order of preparation, 86. 
Removing tlie grease, 86. 
Clarifying, 86. 
Coloring, 87. 
Meat stock, 87. 

Common stock (pot au feu), 87. 
Beef or brown stock, 88. 
Macaroni soup, 89. 
Noodle soup, 89. 
Vermicelli soup, 89. 
Vegetable or printani^re soup, 89. 
Julienne soup, 89, 
Tapioca soup, 90. 
Crofite au pot, 90, 
Garnishes for soup, 90. 
Thickening for soup, 90. 
Garnishes for soups, 92. 

Royale, 92. 

Forcemeat balls, 92. 

Egg, 92. 

Egg balls, 92. 

Noodles, 93. 

" to serve as a vegetable, 93. 

Noodle balls. 93. 

Marrow balls, 94. 

Sweet potato balls, 94. 

Green pea timbale, 94. 

Harlequin slices, 94. 



Broths. 

Chicken broth, 95. 

Clara broth, 95. 

Mutton broth, 95. 

Broth made quickly for invalids, 96. 



Soups. 

Bouillon, 97. 

Consomm^, 98. 

Ox-tail soup, 99. 

White stock, 99. 

White soup, 99. 

Chicken consomm^, 100. 

Plain chicken soup, 100. 

Vegetable soup, 101. 

Tomato piu'^e, 101. 

Split-pea or bean soup, 102. 

Black bean soup, 102. 

CaK's head or mock turtle, 103. 

Fish stock, 103. 

Oyster soup, 104. 

Clam soup, 104. 



Cream Soups. 



Onion soup, 105, 
Potato soup, 105, 
Tomato bisque, 106. 

87 



Cream of asparagus, 106. 

Green peas, 106. 

String beans, 106. 

Spinach, 106. 

Corn, 106. 

Celery, 106. 

Clams, 107. 

Oysters, 108. 
Soup h la reine, 108. 
Bisque of lobster, 109. 
Lobster butter, 109. 



Chowders. 

Potato chowder, 110. 
Fish chowder, llO. 
Clam chowder, ill. 



CHAPTER ni. 

Fish. 

Cooking, 112. 

Freshness, 112. 

Dressing, 112. 

Keeping, 112. 

Frozen fish, 112. 

Trimming, 112. 

The bones, 112. 

To skin, bone, and remove fillets, 112. 

To carve, 113. 

To boil, 113. 

Time to boil, 113. 

The kettle, 113. 

To boil a flsh whole, 114. 

Serving boiled flsh, 114. 

Garnishing boiled flsh, 114. 

Sauces used for boiled flsh, 114. 

Court bouiUon, 115. 

Baked flsh, 115. 

Stuffings for baked flsh, 116. 

To broil flsh, 116. 

To saut6 flsh, 117. 

To fry flsh, 117. 

To fiy smelts, 117. 

Fried smelts on skewers, 118. 

Fried flllets of fish, 118. 

Smelts broiled, 118, 

Whitebait, 118. 

BoUed halibut steaks, 119. 

Halibut, Turkish style, 120. 

Scalloped flsh, 120. 

Au gratin, 121. 
Pish chops, 121. 
Fmets baked with custard or tomatoes, 

122. 
Cold flsh, 123. 
Fish pudding, 123. 
Fish timbale, 123, 
Fish dish for pink luncheon, 124, 
Rolled flllets of flounder, 125. 
Shad, 125, 
Planked shad, 125. 
Broiled shad roe, 126, 
Shad roe croquettes, No. 1, 126. 

No. 2, 126, 
Salt mackerel, 127. 



578 



GENERAL INDEX 



Creamed mackerel, 127. 

Salt codflsli, 127. 

Club house fish-balls, 128. 

Broiled sardines on toast, 128. 

Fresh flsh-baUs, 128. 

Salmon, 128. 

Canned salmon, 129. 

Salmon cutlets, 129. 

Broiled slices of salmon, 129. 

Slices of salmon with mayonnaise, 129. 

Fillets of salmon for green luncheon, 130. 

Croustade of shrimps, 130. 



SheU-fish, Lobsters, and Crabs. 

Oysters, 131. 
Raw oysters, 131. 
Precaution, 131. 
Cooking, 131. 
Fried oysters, 132. 
Oysters h la Villeroi, 132. 
Broiled oysters, 132. 
Panned oysters, 133. 
Roasted oysters, 133. 
Oysters k la poulette, 133. 
Scalloped oysters, 134. 
Ovster filling for patties, 134. 
Clams, 135. 
To open clams, 135. 
Creamed clams, 135. 
Roasted clams, 136. 
Clam fritters, 136. 
Scallops, 136. 
Lobsters, 136. 
Season, 136. 
Freshness, 136. 
To kill a lobster, 136. 
Boil a lobster, 136. 
Open a lobster, 137. 
Broil a lobster, 137. 
Bake a lobster, 137. 
Lobster f arci, .138. 
Chops, 138. 
k la Newburg, 139. 
Stew, 140. 

Filling for patties, 140. 
Salpicou of lobster, 140. 
Crabs, 141. 
Deviled crabs, 141. 
Stuffed crabs with mushrooms, 142. 
Soft-shell crabs, 142. 
Oyster-crabs, 143. 

Crabs St. Laurent (chafing-dish), 143. 
Crab stew, 144. 



CHAPTER IV. 

Meats. 

General remarks, 145. 
Slow cooking, 145. 
Juices, 145. 

Degree of cooking, 145. 
Cleaning, 145. 
Seasoning, 145. 
Piercing, 146. 



Beef, 

To roast beef, 146. 

Rolled roast beef, 146. 

Yorkshire pudding, 147. 

Round of beef, 147. 

Braised beef, 147. 

A la mode, 148. 

Bouilli, 149. 

Fillet of beef, 149. 

How to buy a fillet, 150. 

Cold roast beef, 151. 

Scalloped meat, 151. 

Hamburg steaks, 151. 

Beef pie, 152. , , 

Warmed-over beef (chaflng-dish), 

Inside flank, 153. 

Ragout of beef, 153. 

Beefsteaks, 155. 

To broil a beefsteak, 156. 

Chateaubriand, 157. 

Mignon fillets, 157. 

Corned beef, 157. 

Corned beef hash, 158. 

Hash, 158. 

Brown hash, 159. 

Marrow bones, 159. 



Mutton. 

Remarks about mutton, 160. 
Roast leg of mutton, 162. 

Loin of mutton, 162. 

Saddle of mutton, 162. 
Rolled loin of mutton, 162. 
Shoulder of mutton stuffed, 163. 
Boiled mutton, 163. 
Caper sauce, 164. 
Ragout of mutton or lamb, 164. 

of Cold boiled mutton, 165. 
Irish stew, 165. 
Mutton chops, 165. 
Chops in paper cases, 166. 

h la Maintenon, 167. 
Spring lamb, 167. 



Veal. 

Remarks about veal, 168. 

To roast fillet of veal, 168. 

Stuffed shoulder of veal, 168. 

Fricandeau of veal, 169. 

Veal cutlets, 169. 

Aplainv>otpie, 169. 

Dumplings with baking-powder, 170, 

Dumplings with suet, 171. 

Jellied veal, 171. 

Veal loaf, 171. 

Veal scallop, 171. 

Liver and bacon, 172. 

Broiled liver, 172. 

Braised liver, 172. 

Stewed kidneys, 173. 

Tripe, 173. 

Calf's heart, 174. 

Beef's tongue, 174. 

Hot sliced tongue, 174. 



GENERAL INDEX 



579 



Cold tongue, 175. 

Jellied tongue, 175. 

Boiled calf's Lead, 176. 

Calf's head with vinaigrette sauce, 176, 



Pork, 

Roast pork, 176. 

Fried apples, 176. 

Pork Chops, 177. 

Boiled ham, 177. 

Baked ham, 177. 

Broiled ham and eggs, 178. 

Ham and eggs a, I'aurore, 17a 

Bacon, 178. 



(CHAPTER V. 
Poultry and Game. 
Chickens, 179. 

To judge of chickens, 179. 

To clean and draw poultry, 180. 

To hone a fowl, 181. 

Roasted boned chicken, 182. 

Braised boned chicken, 182. 

Jellied boned chicken, 182. 

Forcemeat or stuflSng for boned fowls, 183. 

To truss a fowl, 183. 

Roasted chicken, 184, 

Stuffing for fowls, 184. 

Chestnut stuffing, 185. 

Giblet sauce, 185. 

Boiled chicken, 185. 

Braised chicken, 186. 

Broiled chicken, 186. 

Fricasseed chicken, white and brown, 186. 

Fried chicken, 187. 

Chicken fritters, 187. 

Stuffed chicken or turkey legs, 188. 

Grilled bones, 188. 
, Chicken h la Vienne, 189. 
Baltimore style, 189. 
[ Imperial, 189. 

}■ Breasts with poulette sauce, 190. 
Chartreuse, 190. 
Souffi6, 190. 
i Loaf, 191. 
■ Chaudfroid, 191. 
I Mayonnaise, 192. 
r English chicken pie (cold), 192. 

Turkey, 193. 
■: Galantine or boned turkey, 198. 
'- Roast goose, 194. 

Tame ducks, 195. 



Oame. 

Canvasbacks and redhead ducks, 196. 

Salmi of duck or game, 196. 

Potted pigeons, 197. 

Roasted pigeons or squabs, 197. 

Prairie chicken or grouse, roasted, 197. 

Quails roasted, 198. 

Broiled, 198. 
Snipe and woodcock, roasted, 198. 



Partridges, roasted and broiled, 199. 
Venison, 199. 
Steak, 199. 



CHAPTER VL 

Vegetables. 

General dii-ections, 200. 
Potatoes, boiled, 201. 

Mashed, 201. 

Cakes, 201. 

Rice, 202. 

Souffle, 202. 

Roses, 202. 

Croquettes, 202. 

Balls, 203. 

Omelet, 203. 

Creamed, 203. 

Broiled, 204. 

Baked, 204. 

Stuffed, 204. 

Baked with meat, 204. 

Lyonnaise, 204. 

Fi'ied, 205. 

Balls, fried, and straws, 205. 

Saratoga, 205. 

Puffed, 206. 
Sweet potatoes boiled, 206. 
Baked, 206. 
" Browned, 206. 
" Croquettes, 207. 
« Puree, 207. 
Tomatoes, stewed, 207. 

Scalloped, 207. 

Stuffed, 207. 

Roasted, 208. 

Broiled, 208. 

Farci, 208. 
Green peas, 209. 
Pur^e of peas, 209, 
String beans, 209. 
Flageolets, 210. 
Lima beans, 210. 
Spinach, 210. 

Souffle, 211. 
Chartreuse of spinach or cabhage, 211. 
Asparagus, 211. 

Tips, 212. 
Cabbage, 212. 
Boiled cabbage, 212. 

with cheese, 213. 

Swedish, 213. 
Hot slaw, 214. 
Brussels sprouts, 214. 
Cauliflower, 214. 

au grattn, 215. 
Egg-plant, 215. 

Stuffed, 215. 
Peppers, stuffed, 215. 
Chestnut pur6e, 215. 
Celery, stewed, 216. 

au jus, 216. 
Carrots and turnips, 216. 
MacMoine of vegetables, 216. 
Dried beans, 217. 
Boiled " 217. 
Baked " 217. 



580 



GENERAL INDEX 



Pur^e of beans, 217. 
Croquettes of Beans, 217. 
Beets, 217. 

Summer squasli, 218. 
Parsnips, 218. 
Cucimibers, boiled, 218. 

Stuffed, 218. 
Lettuce stewed, 219. 
Onions, 219. 

Spanish onions, stuffed, 219. 
Corn on tlie ear, 220. 

Mock oysters, 220. 

Canned, 220. 
Succotash, 220. 
Artichokes, 220. 

Bottoms, 221. 



CHAPTER Vn. 

S'arinaceous Foods used as Vegetables- 
Receipts for Macaroni— Cereals. 

To boil rice, 222. 
Rice and tomatoes, 223. 
Parched rice, 223. 
Farina balls, 223. 
Hominy fried, 224. 
Commeal mush fried, 224. 



Receipts for Macaroni. 

Macaroni, 224. 
Spaghetti, 225. 

Baked macaroni with cheese, 225. 
*' au gratin, 225. 
" with tomato or other 

sauces, 225. 
Baked macaroni with minced meat, 226. 
Receipt for macaroni from Mrs. Maspero, 

226. 
Sauce for macaroni, for rissotto, and for 

polenta, 226. 
Sauce for macaroni No. 2, 226. 

" " " 3,227. 

Polenta, 227. 
Risotto, 227. 



Cereals. 



Oatmeal porridge, 227. 
Cracked wheat, 228. 
Commeal mush, 228. 



CHAPTER Vin. 

A Group of Receipts from a New England 
Kitchen. 

Split-pea soup, 229. 
Black bean soup, 229. 
Clam soup, 230. 
Clam chowder, 230. 
Fish chowder, 230. 
Browned oysters, 231. 
Fish and oysters, 231. 



Scalloped oysters, 231. 

Pickled oysters, 232. 

Fricasseed oysters, 232. 

Stewed lobster, 232. 

Fish-balls, 232. 

Codfish and cream, 233. 

Oysters on a chafing-dish, 233. 

PUau, 233. 

Spiced shad, 233. 

Pork and beans, 234. 

A rechauffe of cold mutton, 234. 

Corned beef, 234. 

A beefsteak pie, 235. 

Easy chicken salad, 235. 

Cream dressing, 235. 

Macaroni h, I'albi, 236. 

Com pudding, 236. 

Thin Indian bread, 236. 

Graham gems, 237. 

Colonial hoe-cakes, 237. 

Rhode Island johnny-cake, 237. 

Boston brown bread, 237. 

Dabs, 238. 

Cream oatmeal, 238. 

Zephyrs, 238. 

Squash pies, 238. 

Pumpkin pies, 239. 

A rule for simple pie-crust, 239. 

A boiled Indian pudding, 239. 

A baked Indian pudding, 239. 

Orange Indian pudding, 241. 

Blueberry pudding, 241. 

A peach pudding, 241. 

Cherry