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Full text of "The Century dictionary : an encyclopedic lexicon of the English language: prepared under the superintendence of William Dwight Whitney"

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THE CENTURY 
DICTIONARY 

OFTHE 

ENGLISH 
LANGUAGE 



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AN ENCYCLOPEDIC LEXICON 



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PART XIV 
THE CENTURY CO. NEW YORK 




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THE CENTURY DICTIONARY 

PREPARED UNDER THE SUPERINTENDENCE OF 

WILLIAM DWIGHT WHITNEY, PH. D., LL. D. 

PROFESSOR OP COMPARATIVE PHILOLOGY AND SANSKRIT m YALE UNIVERSITY 

THE plan of "The Century Dictionary " in- miliar examples are words ending in or or our ieal arts and trades, and of the philological 
eludes three things : the construction of a (as labor, labour), in er or re (as center, centre), sciences, an equally broad method has been 
general dictionary of the English language in ize or ise (as civilize, civilise) ; those having a adopted. In the definition of theological and 
which shall be serviceable for every literary single or double consonant after an unaccented ecclesiastical terms, the aim of the Dictionary 
aud practical use ; a more complete collection vowel (as traveler, traveller), or spelled with e or has been to present all the special doctrines of 
of the technical terms of the various sciences, with ce or ce (as hemorrhage, hcemorrhage) ; and the different divisions of the Church in such a 
arts, trades, and professions than has yet been so on. In such cases both forms are given, manner as to convey to the reader the actual 
attempted; and the addition to the definitions with an expressed preference for the briefer intent of those who accept them. In defining 
proper of such related encyclopedic matter, one or the one more accordant with native legal terms the design has been to offer all the 
with pictorial illustrations, as shall constitute analogies. information that is needed by the general 

a convenient book of general reference. THE PRONUNCIATION. reader, and also to aid the professional reader 

About 200,000 words will be defined. The , T , ., by giving in a concise form all the important 

Dictionary will be a practically complete rec- No attempt has been made to record all the technical words and meanings. Special atten- 
ord of all the noteworthy words which have varieties of popular or even educated utter- tion hag algo been id to the d finition8 of 
been in use since English literature has ex- an e > OT .* *HK** the determinations made by the principal terms of painting, etching, en- 
isted, especially of all that wealth of new words different recognized authorities. It has been grav f ng a ^ d var ious other art-processes ; of 
and of applications of old words which has necessary rather to make a selection of words arc hitecture, sculpture, archaeology, decorative 
sprung from the development of the thought to wh , lch alternative pronunciations should be art ceramics, etc f ; of mus ical terms, nautical 
and life of the nineteenth century. It will re- ***??' and to give P^^ence among these an( J ^tary i e rms etc. 
cord not merely the written language, but the according to the circumstances of each particu- 

spoken language as well (that isfall important ar ase ! m w ? the general analogies and ENCYCLOPEDIC FEATURES. 

provincial and colloquial words) andit will in- * ende , n< f ?L f En g ll8 h utterance Th e scheme Th inclusion of go extengive and varied a 
elude (in the one alphabetical order of the Die- b 7 whleh the pronunciation is indicated is quite vocabul the introduction of spec i a i phrases, 
tionary) abbreviations and such foreign words simple, avoiding over-refinement in the das- and t h e f uli description of things often found 
and phrases as have become a familiar part of crimination of sounds, and being designed to eggential to an int emgible definition of their 
English speech. be readily understood and used. (See Key to ^ WQuld ^ ha 6 ve ^ ven to tMs Di ct i on . 

Pronunciation on back cover.) & & atincil enoy ciopedic character. It has, 

THE ETYMOLOGIES. DEFINITIONS OF COMMON WORDS. however, been deemed desirable to go some- 

The etymologies have been written anew on i n the preparation of the definitions of com- what further in this direction than these eon- 
a uniform plan, and in accordance with the es- moni WO rds, there has been at hand, besides ditions render strictly necessary. 
tablished principles of comparative philology, the material generally accessible to students Accordingly, not only have many technical 
It has been possible in many cases, by means o f the language, a special collection of quota- matters been treated with unusual fullness, 
of the fresh material at the disposal of the tions selected for this work from English books but much practical information of a kind which 
etymologist, to clear up doubts or difficulties o f a n kinds and o f all periods of the language dictionaries have hitherto excluded has been 
hitherto resting upon the history of particular wh ich is probably much larger than any which added. The result is that "The Century 
words, to decide definitely in favor of one of has hitherto been made for the use of an English Dictionary" covers to a great extent the field 
several suggested etymologies, to discard nu- dictionary, except that accumulated for the of the ordinary encyclopedia, with this pnnci- 
merous current errors, and to give for the first philological Society of London. Thousands of P al difference that the information given is 
time the history of many words of which the non-technical words many of them occurring *9 r the most part distributed under the indi- 
etymologies were previously unknown or erro- j n t he classics of the language, and thousands vidual words and phrases with which it is con- 
neously stated. Beginning with the current o f meanings many of them familiar which neeted, instead of being collected under a few 
accepted form of spelling, each important word have not hitherto been noticed by the diction- general topics. Proper names, both biograph- 
has been traced back through earlier forms to ar j es have in this way been obtained. The i a l an d geographical, are of course omitted, ex- 
its remotest known origin. The various prefixes arrangement of the definitions historically, in cept as they appear in derivative adjectives, as 
and suffixes useful in the formation of English t he order in which the senses defined have en- Darwinian from Danoin, or Indian from India. 
words are treated very fully in separate articles, tered the language has been adopted wher- ^he alphabetical distribution of the encyclo- 

ever possible pedic matter under a large number of words 

HOMONYMS. L.,_ n . lr . T A-rinwQ wiu > i<; ls believed, be found to be particularly 

Words of various origin and meaning but , , ' , . , hel P fu l in the * h t fo . r those details which 

of the same spelling, have been distinguished ^ h f orm a ver y \ &T 8 e collection (about are generally looked for in works of reference. 
hv small superior fiWres (123 tp 1 In 200,000), representing all periods and 

b <* f El literature. ^The classics 



nuring tese hoyhe rule haTbeen b ?<*f f El ^ literature. The classics .ILLUSTRATIONS. 

to give precedence to the oldest or the most V ti "fi?^ ha J e be , en *?S 1 2 on > , and The pictorial illustrations have been so se- 

"* hebeen made 



g i i , , e pcora usra - 

familiar, or to that one which is most nearly ^ } "A* ' h ^ e , been t made SMH+]!? lected and executed as to be subordinate to the 
English in origin. The superior numbers ap- S?AS22.^rtSjK25S text, while possessing a considerable degree of 

ply not so much to the individual word as to ture. American writers especially are repre- j nde 'pendent suggestiveness and artistic value. 
the group or root to which it belongs, hence 8ent , ed i grater fullness than in any similar To g cure technical accuracy, the illustrations 
the different grammatical uses of the same T rk ; ~ i ii v vr*? j *5! VI have, as a rule, been selected by the specialists 

homonym are numbered alike when they are **> cited wiU be published with the con- ^ c h arg e of the various departments, and have 
separately entered in the Dictionary. Thus a eluding part of the Dictionary. in all cageg been examined by them in proofs. 

verb and a noun of the same origin and the DEFINITIONS OF TECHNICAL TERMS. The cuts number about six thousand. 
same present spelling receive the same superior Much space has been devoted to the special unnc r>c iccnc ppirc err 

number. But when two words of the same form termg of r the Variou8 sciences, fine arts, me- MODE OF ISS UE, PRICE, ETC. 

and of the same radical origin now differ eon- cnanieal artgj pro f e8 sions, and trades, and " The Century Dictionary " will be comprised 
siderably m meaning, so as to be used as dif- much care hag been i> eg towed upon their treat- in about 6,500 quarto pages. It is published 
ferent words, they are separately numbered. men t. They have been collected by an extended by subscription and in twenty-four parts or 
TUB OR THOP u A PHY search through all branches of literature, with sections, to be finally bound into six quarto vol- 

the design of providing a very complete and umes, if desired by the subscriber. These sec- 

Of the great body of words constituting the many-sided technical dictionary. Many thou- tions will be issued about once a month. The 
familiar language the spelling is determined sands of words have thus been gathered which price of the sections is $2.50 each, and no 
by well-established usage, and, however ac- have never before been recorded in a general subscriptions are taken except for the entire 
cidental and unacceptable, in many cases, it dictionary, or even in special glossaries. To work. 

may be, it is not the office of a dictionary like the biological sciences a degree of promi- The plan for the Dictionary is more fully de- 
this to propose improvements, or to adopt those nence has been given corresponding to the re- scribed in the preface (of which the above is in 
which have been proposed and have not yet markable recent increase in their vocabulary, part a condensation), which accompanies the 
won some degree of acceptance and use. But The new material in the departments of biology first section, and to which reference is made. 
there are also considerable classes as to which and zoology includes not less than five thou- A list of the abbreviations used in the ety- 
usage is wavering, more than one form being sand words and senses not recorded even in mologies and definitions, and keys to pronun- 
sanctioned by excellent authorities, either in special dictionaries. In the treatment of phy- ciatious and to signs used in the etymologies, 
this country or Great Britain, or in both. Fa- sical and mathematical sciences, of themechan- will be found on the back cover-lining. 

THE CENTURY CO., 33 EAST 17 ST., NEW YORK. 



> I 4 Mormon 



over by :i |n< -i'li-Mi -in-i tun coium*lora whoso authority 
extends over t lie entire church, and It includes the twelve 
apostles, tin- si'vi'iitiuH, tin- jiaii i;n , li, tin- liiRti priests, 
and the elders. The twelve :Ljn>-,tk- run-Unit*' u travel* 
iiiK hi^li emmril, which itnl;iin< "thtT oftlrera and is in- 
iru-tril \\itli K'L-iieral ecclesiastical ;uittnM jty ; the seven- 
ties ;IM tin 1 nii^iiiiiarU's aiul the propagandists of the 
body ; the patri:urh pronuiuices the blessing of the 
ehurch ; the hijfh prii*t.s officiate In the offices of the 
rhuicli in th>- UMenoe "f any higher authorities; and the 
atdenooodnot meetings and Miprrintnui tin- prieu. The 
Aiinniir pt irst liooit includes the hishops, the priest*, the 
t>-;u hers, and the deacons; the two last named arethesub- 
i.nliiuit,' <>nlum in the church. The duties of the bishops 
;uv hrijt'iy stviiiur. The imtire territory govemed by the 
church is divided and subdivided Into districts, for the 
more efficient collection of tithes and the administration 
uf the government. The Mormons accept tho Biblo, the 
Book of Mormon, and the Book of Doctrine and Covenants 
as authoritative, and regard tho head of their church as 
Invested with divine authority, receiving his revelations 
as the word of the Lord. They maintain the doctrines of 
repentance and faith, a literal resurrection of the dead, 
the second coining of Christ and his reign upon earth 
(having the seat of his power In their territory), baptism 
by immersion, baptism for the dead, and polygamy as a 
sacred duty for all those who are capable of entering into 
such marriage. The Mormons settled first, at Kirtland, 
Ohio, then In Missouri, and after their expulsion from 
these places in Nauvoo, Illinois ; In 1847-8 they removed 
to ('tah, and have since spread into Idaho, Arizona, Wyo- 
ming, etc. They have frequently defied the United States 
government. There Is also a comparatively small branch 
of the Mormon Church, entitled "The Reorganized Church 
of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints," which is opposed to 
polygamy and is ecclesiastically Independent of the ori- 
ginal organization. Also Mormonut, M ormontte. Book 
of Mormon, out 1 of the authoritative writings of the Mor- 
mon Chin eli. According to the Mormons, it Is the record 
of certain ancient peoples in America, abridged by the 
prophet Mormon, written on golden plates, and discovered 
by Joseph Smith at ( 'umorah (western New York), and trans- 
lated by him. By anti-Mormons It Is generally regarded as 
taken from a romance written about 1811 by Solomon Spauld- 
ing, whose manuscript was used by Smith and Rigdon. 

Mormondom (m6r'mon-diim), n. [< Mormon'* 
+ -rfom.] The community or system of the 
Mormons; Mormons collectively. 

Mormonism (mor'mon-izm), M. [< Mormon'* + 
-i ft nt.'] The system of doctrines, practices (es- 
pecially polygamy), ceremonies, and church 
government maintained by tho Mormons. 

It Is not possible to attack Mnnnonuan with very delicate 
weapons. The Nation, Feb. 23, 1882, p. Ml. 



[< Mormon' 2 + 

[< Mormon'* + 

[NL.] Same as 




Mormonist (m&r'mou-ist), N. 
-int.] Same as Mormon*. 

Monnonite (mor'mon-it). M. 
-Hi'-.] Same us Mormon/*. 

Mormoops (m6r-mo'ops), . 
Mormops. 

mormope (mdr'raop), . A bat of the genus 
tfomuft. 

Mormopidffi (rn6r-mop'i-de), n. pi. [NL., < 
Mormops + -idtf. ] A family of bats named from 
the genus Mormops. It coincides with Lobosto- 
mntina. 

Mormops (mdr'mops), n. [NL., < Gr. fopfiu, 
a bugbear, + aty, face, countenance.] A ge- 
nus of tropical 
American phyl- 
lostomine bats 
of the subfami- 
ly Lobontiinnili- 
ntf : so called 
from the extra- 
ordinary physi- 
ognomy, which 
is remarkable 
even among the 
many strange 
expressions of face presented by bats . M. bin iii- 
ri/li'i is the type. Also Mormniijin. 

mormyre (mor'nur), n. A fish of the genus 
Miirmiirim; a mormyrian. 

mormyrian (m&r-mir'i-an), n. [< Mnraiyriig + 
-inn.] A fish of the family Morniyrifler. 

Mormyridae (mor-mir'i-de), n. pi. [NL., < Mor- 
iHi/rim + -iVte.] A family of scyphophorous 
fishes, exemplified by the genus Moniiifrux. to 
which different limits have been given, (o) By 
Bonaparte and most others tt is restricted to those species 
which have well-developed dorsal and anal fins more or 
less nearly opposite eaeh other but of varying extent, and 
a well ileveloped eanilal remote from the dorsal and anal. 
It includes all but one of the scyphophorous fishes. (6) 
By Giinther it isextended to include the foregoing, tuKether 
uith species without an anal or caudal flu placed byothrr 
authors in the family Qymnarchidir. All have the body 
and tail scaly, head scaleless, margin of the upper jaw 
formed in the middle by the intermaxillaries, which coa- 
into a single bone, and laterally by the maxillaries. 
The interopL-ieiilum is sometimes rudimentary, and on 
rarh siile of the single parietal bone is a cavity leading into 
the interior of the skull. The family contains a number 
of fresh-water African tlshes. representing several genera, 
some of which are remarkable for the prolongation of the 
snont. There is also great diversity in the development 
of the dorsal am! anal tins, in some caHes these being much 
lengthened ami in others very short. Murmyntit nxifrhyn- 
chtt.i is common in the Nile. Also M 

343 



3801 

Mormyrus (mdr-im'rus), n. f NL. (cf. L. mr- 
mi/f), < Or. /lopfiipof, a sea-fish.] 1. An African 
genus of fishes representing the family V 
ridte. M. ozyrAyneAu* i the mizdch. oxyrhynch, or thorp 
noted mormyre of tbe Nile. It U held In high esteem, and 
wa venerated by the ancient Egyptians, and never eaten, 
became It wat supposed to have devoured the privy mem- 
ber of the god Osiris. .Some specie* are highly esteemed 
for food. 
2. ['.'.] A spec ies of this genus; a mormyre. 

morn (morn), . [< ME. morn, coutr. of mor- 
iri'n, morgeit, margt-n, < AS. morgen, mergen => 
OS. morgan = OFries. morn = D. monjen = 
MLG. LG. morgen = OHG. morgan, miinjin. 
margin, MHG. G. morgen = Icel. inorgunn, 
morginn = Sw. morgon = Dan. morgen = Goth. 
minii-i/inti, morning; perhaps connected with 
OBulg. mirknati, become dark, mralcu, dark- 
ness, the morning being in this view the ' dim 
light' of early dawn. In another view, the word 
is orig. 'dawn,' connected with Lith. merkti, 
blink, Gr. /lap/iaipeiv, shine, glitter (see marble). 
The same word, in the ME. form mortem, mor- 
gen, lost the final -a (which was understood as 
a suffix) and became, through morge, niorin, 
the source of E. morrow ; while a deriv. form 
morning has taken the place of both forms in 
familiar use: see morrow, morning.} 1. The 
first part of the day; the morning: now used 
chiefly in poetry and often with personifica- 
tion. See morning. 

\Vhyt as morne milk. 

Chaucer, Gen. ProL to C. T., L 358. 

From morn 
To noon he fell, from noon to dewy ere. 

Milton, P. I.. L 742. 

2. Morrow: usually precededby the: as, the morn 
(that is, to-morrow). [Obsolete or Scotch.] 

Abraham ful erly wntz vp on the morne. 

Alliterative Poem* (ed. Morris), i. 1001. 
But Duncan swore a haly aith 
That Meg should be a bride the morn. 

Burnt, There was a Lau. 

The morn's morning, to-morrow morning: as, I'll be 
with you the morn's morning. [Scotch. ] 
morn-daylightt, [ME.] The light of morn- 
ing. 

So forth passyd till morn-day lyaht to se. 

Rom. of Partenay (E. B. T. 8.), 

morne (morn), n. [OF., < morne, blunt.] 
The rebated head of a tilting-lance. 
Compare coronal, 2 (o). 

The speare bedded with the morne. 
Quoted in Strutt't Sports and Pastimes, 

(p. 15. 

Yet so were they [lances] colour' d, with 
hookes near the mourne, that they prettily 
represented sheep- hookes. 

Sir P. Sidney, Arcadia, li. 
Tilting lances with morne*, coronets, and vamplate. 

Jour. Brit. Archaol. An., XXXIL 1-25. 



. 76& 
1. 




2. 

The road 
summits. 



A small rounded hill. [French-American.] 

sinks between mornei wooded to their 
Harper'i May., LXXIX. 846. 



morn6 (mdr-na' ), a. [OF. morne, pp. of nwrner, 
blunt, < morne, blunt: see morne.] In her., an 
epithet noting a lion rampant when depict- 
ed in coat-armor with no tongue, teeth, or 
claws. 

morned (mdrnd), a. [< morne + -ed 2 .] In her., 
blunted ; having a blunt head : said especially 
of a tilting-spear used as a bearing, 
morniflet, " See murninil. 
morning (m6r'ning), n. and a. [< ME. morn- 
ini/i', moroirnynye, iniincening, morgening,(. morn, 
morwen, morgen, morn, + -ingl. Cf. frming, < 
even* + -inj 1 .] I. M. 1. The first part of the 
day, strictly from midnight to noon. In a more 
limited sense, morning is the time from a little before to 
a little after sunrise, or the time beginning a little before 
sunrise, or at break of day, and extending to the hour of 
breakfast, or to noon. Among men of business and peo- 
ple of fashion, the morning is often considered to extend 
to the hour of dining, even when this occurs several hours 
after noon. 

The friday erly in the witsonwike, that was a feire 
mormenynge and a softe, and yet was not the water ne the 
enchauntement left.'. Merlin (E. E. T. S.), II. 851. 

To-morrow, ere fresh morm'ri/7 streak the east 
With flrst approach of light, we must be risen. 

Milton, P. L., IT. 623. 

The Duke of Devonshire took a marning't ride before 
dinner yesterday at seven o'clock in the afternoon. 
Hull Advertiter, April 16, 1796 (quoted in N. and Q., 7th 

|ser, VI. 383). 

2. Figuratively, the first or early part. 



Ollfe! how pi 



tin thy morning . 

Burns, To James Smith. 



And in the 



We are Ancients of the earth. 



morning of tin 

Tennymn, Day-Dream. l.'Knvoi. 

3. A morning drum or dr:in*;lit. [Scotch.] 



morning-tide 

of ibis be took a copious dram ..i, .r.iia he bud al- 
ready taken his morning with Donald Bran Lean. 

tieutt, Wavtrli-y, xvili. 

4. A slight rejiiist tukcn at rising, HOIIK- time 
before what i.-. cnllcil lnvjikt'ii*!. luniit&ni. 
[Scotch. ] Good morning, seu y>**l. The morn'i 
morning. See num. 

II. ii. 1. I'l'i'tiiining In llic liist (ir i urlj' 
part of the day; being in the <arly part of the 
day, or before 'dinner: HM, :i un,nninj concert. 
2. Kxisting, taking place, or aeon in ibc morn- 
ing: tm, morning dew; morning light; ;Xor<3 
service: often um><l figuratively. 

she looks u clear 
As morning rose* newly waih'd with dew. 

Shale., T. of the .s., II. 1. 174. 

The broad brow (of Chaucer), drooping with weight of 
thought, and yet with an Inexpugnable youth shining out 
of it as from the morning forehead of a boy. 

Lowell, Study Windows, p. 229. 
Morning gun, hour, etc. See the nouns, 
morning-cap (mdr'uing-kap), n. A cap worn 
during the day, on other than ceremonial occa- 
sions; especially, a cap worn by women in the 
morning to cover and protect the hair, 
morning-flower (mdr'ning-flou'er), . A plant 
of the iris family, OrArMMtAM inultiftorun. 
[Australia.] 

morning-gift (mflr'ning-gift), H. [A mod. 
translation of AS. mnnji nf/ifn (= G. morgen- 
gabe, etc.), < mitrgen, morn, morning, + gifu, 
gift. Cf. inori/iniatif.] A gift made to a wo- 
man by her liusband the morning after mar- 
riage : a practice formerly common in Europe 
(in some places a legal right of the bride), but 
now nearly obsolete. 

Now he has wooed the young counteai, 

The Countess of Balquhln, 
An* given her for a iiwrmiiQ-<j\ft 
Strathhoggie and Aboyne. 
Lard Tkimua Stuart (Child's Ballads, III. 357). 
She Is described as dwelling at Winchester In the pos- 
session, not only of great landed possessions, the marning- 
ffifltat her two marriages, but of Immense hoarded wealth 
of every kind. K. A. freeman, Norman Conquest, II. S. 

morning-glory (mdr'ning-glo'ri), n. A plant 

of the genus Iponuea, especially /. purpurea. 

See l.-iiliiiliniii. 
morning-gown (m&r'ning-goun), w. A gown 

suitable for wearing in the morning. 
Seeing a great many in rich moming-goum*, he was 

amazed to find that persons of quality were up so early. 

morning-land (m6r'ning-land), n. [Cf. G. mor- 
genland, the East.] The East. [Poetical.] 
Where through the sands of morninij-land 
The camel bears the spice. 

Macaufay, Prophecy of Capys, st. 31. 

morning-room (mdr'ning-rSm), . A room used 
by the women of a family as a boudoir or sit- 
ting-room, and supposed to be occupied only 
before dinner. [Great Britain.] 

morning-speech (mdr'ning-spech), H. [ME. 
mornxpeche, moncettpeche : see morrov-xpe <<*.] 
Same as morrow-speech. See the quotation. 

The word mornittg-speeth (morgen-spRc) is as old as An- 
glo-Saxon times ; " morgen "signified both "morning "and 
"morrow," and the origin of the term would seem to be 
that the meeting was held either in the morning of the 
same day or on the morning (the morrow) of the day after 
that on which the (Hid held its feast and accompanying 
ceremonies, and that It afterwards became applied to other 
similar meetings of the Olid-brethren. 

Knyluh Oilds (E. E. T. S.), Int, p. xxxiil. 

morning-sphinx (mor'ning-sfingks), a. See 

MMt 
morning-star (mdr'ning-star'), n. [Cf. AS. mor- 

genxteorra (cf. G. morijemttern), < morgen, morn. 



a I. SeeKtfir. Q. A 
1 of metal, usually 



morning, + xteorra, star.] 

weapon consisting of a 1 

set with spikes, 

cither mounted 

upon a long 

handle or staff, 

usually of wood 

and used with 

both hands, or 

slung to the 

staff by a tlmni.' 

or chain. Also 

called holji-u-n- 

ter sprinklrr. 

Compare irnr- 

flail Mornlng- 

Btar halberd, a 

long handled wea- 

C having the 
le of a halberd or partisan, and below It a heavy ball 
or similar mass of iron set with spikes. Also morning- 
star partizan. See halberd, partisan. 
morning-tide (mor'ning-tid), . Morning; fig- 
uratively, the early part of any cmirse. espe- 
cially nt" life. r,,]ni,;irr Hiiirrinr-tiili: 




or War-Hall, beirir,in of 
i5th century. 




mornspeech 

mornspeecht, . Same as morrow-speech. 
It is orileyned to hauen foure monttpeches in the sere. 
Emjlish Gilds (E. E. T. S.), p. 45. 

morn-tidet, Same as HHirroic-tide. 
morn-whilet, ". [ME. moniewltile.] The mom- 
ing time. 

Bot be ane aftyre mydnyghte alle his mode chaugede ; 
He mett ill the morne while fulle mervaylous dremes ! 

Morte Arthure (E. E. T. S.), 1. 3224. 

moro (mo'ro), . [NL., < L. moms, a mulberry: 
see more*, Morns.] The viuous grosbeak, stone- 
bird, or desert-trumpeter, Carpodacus (Bucane- 
tes) githagiticits, a small fringilline bird. 

Moroccan (mo-rok'an), a. [< Morocco (see mo- 
rocco) + -an.] Of or pertaining to Morocco, a 
sultanate in northwestern Africa, lying west of 
Algeria, or its inhabitants. 

The Jew is still the most remarkable element in thelfo- 
roccan population. The Academy, No. 891, p. 371. 

morocco (mo-rok'6), n. and a. [Short for Mo- 
rocco leather; cf. equiv. maroquin, < F. maro- 
quin = Sp. marroqui = Pg. marroquim = It. 
marrocchiito, with accom. adj. term., = E. -ine 1 ; 
so called from Morocco or Morocco (ME. Mar- 
rok), < AT. Marrdkush, the city which gave its 
name to the country, and in which the manu- 
facture of morocco leather is still carried on.] 

1. M. 1. Leather made from goatskins, tanned 
with sumac, originally in the Barbary States, 
but afterward very largely in the Levant, and 
now produced in Europe from skins imported 
from Asia and Africa. The peculiar qualities of true 
morocco are great firmness of texture with flexibility, and 
a grained surface, of which there are many varieties. This 
surface is produced by an embossing process called grain- 
ing. True morocco is of extreme hardness, and makes the 
most durable bookbindings ; it is used also for upholster- 
ing seats and for similar purposes, and to a certain extent 
in shoemaking. 

2. Leather made in imitation of this, often of 
sheepskins, and used for the same purposes, 
but much more largely in shoemaking. 3f. A 
very strong kind of ale anciently made in 
Cumberland, said to have a certain amount 
of beef among its ingredients, the recipe be- 
ing kept a secret French morocco, in bookbinding, 
an inferior quality of Levant morocco, having usually a 
smaller and less prominent grain. Levant morocco. 
See lemnt'2. 

II. a. Made or consisting of morocco ; also, 
of the common red color of morocco leather. 

morocco (mo-rok'6), v. t. To convert into mo- 
rocco. 

Morocco gum. See gum arabic, under gum 2 . 

morocco-head (mp-rok'6-hed), n. The Ameri- 
can sheldrake or merganser, Mergus america- 
nus. [New Jersey.] 

morocco-jaw (mo-rok'6-ja), n. The surf-scoter 
or surf -duck, QJdemia perspicillata : so called 
from the color of the beak. G. Trumbull, 1888. 
[Long Island.] 

morology (mp-rol'p-ji), n. [< Gr. [iup<Aoyia, 
foolish talking, < [lupoUyof, talking foolishly, 

< //upof, foolish, + Uyeiv, speak: see -ology.] 
Foolish speech. Coles, 1717. [Rare.] 

morone (mp-ron'), n. [< L. moms, a mulberry- 
tree : see more*, Moms.] Same as maroon^. 

Moronobea (mor-p-no'be-a), n. [NL. (Aublet, 
1775), < moronobo, the native name of the tree 
among the Galibis of Guiana.] A genus of di- 
cotyledonous plants of the polypetalous order 
Guttiferw, type of the tribe Moronobea!, distin- 
guished by short sepals, erect twisted petals, 
and spirally twisted filaments partly mona- 
delphous. One species, M. coccinea, is known, native of 
tropical America ; it is a tall tree, with long horizontal 
branches, large white solitary flowers, spirally grooved 
berries, and a copious gummy juice. See hog-gum, 

Moronobe8e(mor-p-n6'be-e),.j>i!. [NL. (End- 
licher, 1836), < Moronobea + -eie.] A tribe of 
plants of the order Gnttiferce, typified by the 
genus Moronobea, and characterized by the ab- 
sence of cotyledons and by an elongated style. 
It includes 5 genera, of tropical America, Africa, and 
Madagascar, all shrubs or trees with gummy juice, one 
of which, the Platonia of South American forests, reaches 
an immense size. 

morose 1 (mp-ros'), a. [= F. morose, < L. mo- 
rosus, particular, scrupulous, fastidious, self- 
willed, wayward, capricious, fretful, peevish, 

< mos (mor-), way, custom, habit, self-will: see 
moral*.] If. Fastidious; scrupulous. 

Speak morose things always, and jocose things at table. 
Babeet Book (E. E. T. 8.), ii. 29. 
2. Of a sour temper; severe; sullen and aus- 
tere. 

A morose, ill-conditioned, ill-natured person in all clubs 
and companies whatsoever. South, Sermons, VI. iii. 

Somewhat at that moment pinched him close, 
Else he was seldom bitter or morose. 

Cmvper, Epistle to J. Hill. 



3862 

= Syn. 2. Gloomy. Sulky, etc. (see tutten), gruff, crabbed, 
crusty, churlish, surly, ill-humored, ill-natured, cross- 
grained. 

morose 2 ! (mp-ros'), a. [= OF. moros = Sp. It. 
n/oroKO, lingering, slow, < ML. morosus, linger- 
ing, slow, < L. mora, delay: see moral. The 
form was appar. due in part to morose 1 .] Lin- 
gering; persistent. 

Here are forbidden all wanton words, and all morose de- 
lighting in venereous thoughts. Jer. Taylor. 
Morose delectation*, in theol., pleasure in the remem- 

brance of past impurities. 

morosely (mp-ros'li), ado. In a morose man- 
ner; sourly; with sullen austerity. 

moroseness (mp-ros'nes), . The state or 
quality of being morose; sourness of temper; 
sullenness. 

morosityt (mp-ros'i-ti), . [< F. morotttf, < L. 
mon>sita(-)s,peevishness, < morosus, peevish: 
see morose*.] 1. Moroseness. 
Blot out all peevish dispositions and moralities. 

Jer. Taylor, Works (ed. 1836), 1. 199. 

2f. Morose people. 

Feare not what those morosie [read morosMe] will mur- 
mure whose dead cinders brook no glowing sparkes, nor 
care not for the opinion of such as hold none but philoso- 
phic for a subject. Oreene's Vision. 

Diogenes was one of the first and foremost of this rusty 
morosotie. Nath, Unfortunate Traveller. 

rnorosopht (mo'rp-sof ), n. [< OF. morosophe, < 
LGr. uupAaotyof, foolishly wise, < Gr. /fap6f, fool- 
ish, 4- o-o06f, wise. Cf. sophomore.] A philo- 
sophical or learned fool. 

Hereby you may perceive how much I do attribute to 
the wise foolery of our morosoph, Triboulet. 

Rabelais, tr. by Ozell, iii. 46. (Nares.) 

morosoust (mp-ro'sus), a. [< ML. morosus, lin- 
gering: see >orose 2 .] Same as morose*. 

Daily experience either of often lapses, or morosous de- 
sires. Sheldon, Miracles (1616), p. 201. 

morowet, A Middle English form of morrow. 
morowespechet, n. Same as morrow-speech. 
morowetidet, Same as morrow-tide. 
moroxite (mp-rok'sit), n. [< Gr. /zopofo 
dof, a variety of pipe-clay, + -ite%.] A crystal- 
lized form of apatite, occurring in crystals of 
brownish or greenish-blue color. It is found 
in Norway. 

Morphean (mor'fe-an), a. [< L. Morphem, q. v., 
+ -an.] Of or belonging to Morpheus, a god of 
dreams in the later Roman poets. 

The Morphean fount 

Of that fine element that visions, dreams, 
And fitful whims of sleep are made of. 

Keats, Endymion, i. 

morphetic (mor-fet'ik), a. [Irreg. < Morpheus, 
q. v., + -etic.] Pertaining to sleep; slumber- 
ous. [Rare.] 

I am invulnerably asleep at this very moment ; in the 
very centre of the morphetic domains. 

Mi*t Burney, Camilla, ii. 4. 

Morpheus (mdr'fus), n. [L. (in Ovid, the first 
classical writer who mentions Morpheus), < Gr. 
as if *M.op<t>evf, god of dreams, so called from 
the forms he calls up before the sleeper, < fiop- 
$%, form.] In the later Roman poets, a god of 
dreams, son of Sleep ; hence, sleep. 

morphewt (mor'fu), . [Also morfew, mor- 
pheavi, morpheu; < F. morphee, mor fee = Sp. 
morfea = Pg. morphea = It. morfea, morfia, < 
ML. morphea, also morpha, a scurfy eruption, 
prob. for *morp)uea (cf . equiv. morpha), prob. < 
Gr. [top/pi/, form, shape.] A scurfy eruption. 
Dunglison. 

A morpheu or staynyng of the skynne. 
Elyot, Dictionary, under Alphos, ed. 1559. (HalKwell.) 

No man ever saw a gray haire on the head or beard of 
any Truth, wrinckle, or morphew on its face. 

N. Ward, Simple Cobler, p. 28. 

morphewt (mor'fu), i: t. [< morphew, n.] To 
cover with morphew. 

Whose bandlesse bonnet vails his o'ergrown chin 
And sullen rags bewray his morpheic'd skin. 

Bp. Hall, Satires, IV. v. 28. 
Do you call this painting ? 
No, no, but you call 't careening of an old 
Morphewed lady, to make her disembogue again. 

Webster, Duchess of Main, ii. 1. 

morphia (mor'fi-a), n. [NL., < L. Morpheus, 
q. v.] Same as morphine. 

morphic (mor'fik), a. [< Gr. poptpf/, form,-!- -ic.] 
In oiol., of or pertaining to form ; morphologi- 
cal: as, a morphic character. 

The majority of specific characters are of divergent ori- 
gin are morphic as distinguished from developmental. 
E. D. Cope, Origin of the Fittest, p. 111. 

Morphic valence, morphological value or equivalency 
in the scale of evolution of organic forms. Thus, any or- 
ganism in the gastrula stage of development is a gastrula 
form, having the murphic valence of a gastrula. Coues. 



morphogeny 

Morphidae (mor'fi-de), n. pi. [NL., < Morpho 
+ -iflu:] The Morpliinw rated as a family. 

Morphinae (mor-fi'ne), n. pi. [NL., < Morpho 
+ -ina'.] A subfamily of nymphalid butter- 
flies, typified by the genus Morpho, with large 
wings, grooved to receive the short abdomen 
and ocellated on the under side, and filiform 
antennae. They are found in tropical America and the 
East Indian islands, with a few in continental Asia. Ten 
genera and upward of 100 species compose the subfamily. 

morphine (mor'fin), n. [< F. morphine = Pg. 
morpMiia = It. morfma, < NL. morphina, mor- 
phine, < L. Morpheus, the god of sleep: see 
Morpheus.] An alkaloid, CiyHigNC^, the most 
important narcotic principle of opium, it crys- 
tallizes in brilliant, colorless, odorless, and bitter prisms. 
It dulls pain, induces sleep, promotes perspiration, checks 
peristalsis, contracts the pupil, and is extensively used in 
medicine in the form of its soluble salts. In large doses 
it causes death with narcotic symptoms. Mplphlne or 
morphia process, in photog., a dry collodion process, 
now abandoned, in which the preservative agent was a 
bath of morphine acetate, one grain to the ounce. 

morphinism (mor'fin-izm), . [< morphine + 
-ism.] A morbid state induced by the use of 
morphine. 

That class of diseases in which morphinism, caffeism, 
and vanillism are found. The American, XII. 269. 

morphinomania (m6r ; 'fi-npTma'ni-a), n. [NL.] 
Same as morphiomania, 

morphinomaniac (m6r"fi-np-ma'ni-ak), n. 
Same as morphiomaniac. 

morphiomania (mor"fi-p-ma'ni-a), n. [< NL. 
morphia, q. v., + L. mania, madness : see mania.] 
A morbid and uncontrollable appetite for mor- 
phine or opium ; the morphine-habit or opium- 
habit. 

morphiomaniac (mor'fi-p-ma'ni-ak), n. [< 
morphiomania + -ac.] One who suffers from 
morphiomania. 

The question arose as to how morphiomaniacs procured 
the morphine. Lancet, No. 3444, p. 461. 

morphiometric (m6r*fi-p-met'rik), a. [< NL. 
morphia + Gr. fitrpov, measure.] Measuring 
the amount of morphine: as, morpJiiometric as- 
says of opium. 

Morphnus (mdrf 'nus), n. [NL., < L. morphnos, 
a kind of eagle that lives near lakes, < Gr. p6p<t>- 
vof, dusky, dark: said of an eagle.] A genus of 
South American diurnal birds of prey founded 
by Cuvierin 1817; the eagle-hawks. There is but 
one species, M. guianensis, of large size, 3 feet 
long, with a crest. Also Morphinus. 

Morpho (mdr'fo), n. [NL., < Gr. Mop^u, 'the 
shapely,' a name of Aphrodite at Sparta, < 
liopQi], form, shape.] A genus of magnificent 
nymphalid butterflies, typical of the subfamily 
Morphina;. There are upward of 30 species, mostly 
South American, some expanding over 7 inches, others of 
celestial blue hues above and ocellated below. M. achilles, 
Af. laertes, M. cypris, M. neoptolemus, and M . polyphemus 
are examples. 

morphffla (mor-fe'a), n. [NL., for morphcea, < 
ML. morphea, *mofpha;a, a scurfy eruption: see 
morphew.] A disease of the corium presenting 
multiple roundish patches, at first pinkish and 
slightly elevated, later pale, smooth, shining, 
and level or slightly depressed. There is atrophy 
of the papillary layer of the corium, and cellular infiltration 
about hair-follicles, sweat-glands, and sebaceous glands 
and vessels ; this infiltration contracts, with subsequent 
atrophy of glands, follicles, and vessels. The disease is 
allied to sclerodermia. 

morphogenesis (mor-fp-jen'e-sis), n. [NL., < 
Gr. fiop(f>>/, form, + ytveate, origin : see genesis.] 
The genesis of form ; the production of morpho- 
logical characters ; morphogeny. 

morphogenetic (m6r // fp-je-net'ik), a. [< mor- 
phogenesis + -ic: see genetic.] Of or pertain- 
ing to morphogenesis ; morphological, with spe- 
ogeny and phylogeny ; em- 



cial reference to ontog 

bryological in a broad sense; evolutionary or 

developmental, with reference to biogeny. 

morphogenic (mor-fp-jen'ik), a. Same as mor- 
phogenetic. 

morphogeny (m6r-foj'e-ni), n. [< Gr. popipt/, 
form, + 'vtveia. generation : see -geny. Cf. mor- 
phogenesis.] I. In biol., morphogenesis; the 
genesis of form; the production or evolution 
of those forms of living matter the study of 
which is the province of the science of mor- 
phology. 2. The history of the evolution of 
the forms of organisms; morphology, or the 
science of the forms of living bodies, with spe- 
cial reference to the manner in which, or the 
means by which, such forms originate or de- 
velop ; embryology in a broad sense. 

Biogeny, or the history of the evolution of organisms, 
up to the present time has been almost exclusively mur- 
phoijeny. Haeckel, Evol. of Man (trans.), II. 401. 



morphographer 

morphographer (nior-fofi'rii-frrK w. [< mor- 
pkograph-y + -i'i- ] . ] ( >nc who investigates mor- 
phology or writoc on tlmt science. 

morphographical (mor-fo-graf ' i-kal), . [< 
HHtrplHMjrnph-y + -ic-iil.] Of or pertaining to 
morphograpliy. /win/c. Bri7., XXIV. 818. 

morphography (mor-fog'ra-fi), . (X Or. pop</>>/, 
form, -r -y/>a<j>ia, < )piiijutv, write.] Descriptive 
morphology; tlie systematic investigation, tab- 
ulation, and description of the structure of 
animals, including comparative anatomy, his- 
tology, and embryology, and the distribution of 
animals in time and in space, with special ref- 
erence to their classification; general or sys- 
tematic zoology. 

Morphography. The work of the collector and ays- 
teiuatUt: exemplified by Llnnicus and his predecessor*. 
Encyc. Bnt., XXIV. 803. 

morpholecithal (iu6r-fo-les'i-thal), a. [< mor- 
pfiolecitliun + -al.] Germinal or formative, as 
the vitellus ; of or pertaining to the morpholeci- 
thus. 

morpholecithus (mdr-fo-les'i-thus), n. [NL., < 
Gr. fio/xjiii, form, + ^tiudof, the yolk of an egg.] 
In embruol., the vitellus formativus, or forma- 
tive yolk, which undergoes segmentation and 
germination . It constitutes all the yolk of holoblastic 
eggs, as those of mammals, but only a part (usually a small 
part) of the yolk of meroblastic eggs, as of birds, the rest 
being all food.yolk or tropholecithus. 

morphologic (mdr-fo-loj'ik), a. [= F.morpho- 
loyiquc ; as morpholog-y + -ic.] Same as mor- 
phological. 

morphological (m6r-fo-loj'i-kal), a. [< morpho- 
logic + -a/.] Of or pertaining to morphology; 
of the character of morphology. 

The most characteristic morphological peculiarity of the 
plant is the investment of each of its component cells by a 
sac, the walls of which contain cellulose or some closely 
analogous compound. . . . The most characteristic mar- 
pholnyical peculiarity of the animal is the absence of any 
such cellulose investment. Huxley, Anat. Invert., p. 48. 

Morphological botany. See botany. Morphological 
Classification, n statement or tabulation or other exhibit 
of the degrees of structural likeness observed In animal or 
vegetable organisms. Such classification, based on form 
without regard to function, and thus appreciating true 
morphological characters while depreciating mere adap- 
tive modifications, is the main aim of modern taxonomy 
in zoology and botany. The term is also sometimes 
applied to classifications of languages. Morphological 
equivalents. See equivalent. 

morphologically (mor-f o-loj ' i-kal-i), adv. In a 
morphological manner; with reference to the 
facts or principles of morphology ; from a mor- 
phological point of view. 

morphologist (mor-fol'o-jist), n. [< morphol- 
(l-y + -ist.] One who is versed in morphology ; 
a student of morphology. 

morphology (mdr-fol'o-ji), n. [= F. morpholo- 
gie = Sp. morfologia = Pg. morphologia, < Gr. 
pofHtiii, form, + -ho-yia, < Myctv, speak : see -ology.] 
1. The science of organic form; the science of 
the outer form and internal structure (without 
regard to the functions) of animals and plants; 
that department of knowledge which treats both 
of the ideal types or plans of structure, and of 
their actual development or expression in liv- 
ing organisms. It has the same scope and appli- 
cation in organic nature that crystallology has 
in the inorganic. 2. The science of structure, 
or of forms, in language, it is that division of the 
study of language which deals with the origin and func- 
tion of Inflections nnd derivational forms, or of the more 
formal as distinguished from the more material part of 
speech. 

Morphology is the science of form (Or. o(>*ij), and is here 
applied to the forms of words as developed by the various 
kinds of mutation. 

S. S. Haldetnan, Outlines of Etymology, p. 17. 

morphometrical (m6r-fo-met'ri-kal),a. [<mor- 
liliiiiiidr-i/ + -ic-al.] Of or pertaining to mor- 
phometry. 

morphometry (m6r-fom'et-ri), M. [< Gr. /top+f/, 
form, + -per/rid, < ucrpov, measure.] The art of 
measuring or ascertaining the external form of 
objects. TlinmiiSy Med. Diet. 

morphon(iiior'fon), H. [NL., <Gr. uopQij, form.] 
A morphological element or factor. 

morphonomic (m&r-fo-nom'ik), a. [< morplion- 
om-i/ + -ic.] Of or pertaining to morphonomy ; 
morphologically consequent. 

morphonomy (mor-fon'6-mi), . [< Gr. tio/xpr/, 
form, + -vofiia, < viutiv, distribute : see wo/we*.] 
In Wo/., the laws of morphology; the observed 
sequence of cause and effect in organic forma- 
tion ; that department of biology which investi- 
gates the principles of organic formation or 
configuration. 

morphophyly (mor-fof'i-li), H. [< Gr. uop$'l, 
form. + v/'/, a tribe.] The tribal history of 



3863 

forms; that branch of pliylogeny, or tribal his- 
tory, which treats of form alone, without refer- 
ence to function, the tribal history of the lat- 
ter being called phi/ttioplii/ly. llmrkil. 

morphosis (m6r-f6''sis), . [NL., < Gr. uoj^u- 
ai(, a shaping, < uofxfrovv, form, shape, < popQr/, 
form.] Morphogenesis; the order or mode of 
formation of any organ or organism. 

morpion (m6r'pi-on), . [< P. morpion, a crab- 
louse, appar. < utordrr (< L. mordi-re), bite, + 
pion (= It. pedone), < ML. *pedio(n-), equiv. to 
/ittliculus, a louse, < pedix, a louse, < pea (ped-), 
= E. foot.} The crab-louse, I'hthiriu* pubis. 
See cut under crab-louse. 



Swore you had broke and robbed his house, 
And stole his talismanlc louse, . . . 
flia flea, his morpion, and punque. 
S. Butler, Hu 



433. 



udibras, III. 

morpunkee (m6r-pung'ke), n. [< Hind, mor- 
lidiikhi, a boat with a peacock decoration, a 
pleasure-boat, < mor, a peacock, + pankhi, a 
fan, also a bird, dim. otpankha, a fan, < pankh, 
a feather, wing, pinion : see punka.] A native 
pleasure-boat formerly much used for state 
occasions on the rivers of India, it Is very long 
and narrow, often seating thirty or forty men ; It is pro- 
pelled with paddles, and steered with a large sweep which 
rises from the stern in the form of a peacock or a dragon. 

Morrenian (mo-re'ni-an), a. [< Morren (see 
def.) + -taw.] Pertaining to the Belgian natu- 
ralist C. F. A. Morren (1807-58): specifically 
applied in zo81ogy to certain glands of worms, 
as the earthworm, the function of which seems 
to be to adapt the ingesta for nutrition. 

Morrhua (mor'<J-a), n. [NL., < ML. morua, 
morvta (F. morue), a cod: said to be ult. < L. 
merula (f), a fish, the sea-carp.] The principal 
genus of gadoid fishes, including the common 
cod: now called Gadus. M. vulgaris is the 
cod, M. amlejinus the haddock, etc. See cuts 
under cod* and haddock. 

morrice, niorrice-dance, etc. See morris 1 , etc. 

morricer (mor'i-s6r), . [< morrice + -er 1 .] A 
morris-daneer. Scott, L. of the L., v. 22. 

morriont, . See morion 1 . 

morris 1 (mor'is), n. and a. [Also morrice ; < ME. 
morris, mor res, morice, < OF. 'moreis, moresque, 
morisque, F. moresque = It. moresco, < Sp. 3/o- 
mco, Moorish, < Jforo.a Moor: see Moot*. Cf. 
Moresque, Morisco.] I. n. 1. Same as morris- 
dance. 

We are the hulsher to a morris, 
A kind of masque, whereof good store is 
In the country hereabout. B. Jonton, The Satyr. 
He had that whole bevie at command, whether in mor- 
rice or at May pole. Milton, Apology for Smectymuuus. 

2. A dance resembling the morris-dance. 

Well have some sport. 
Some mad marrii or other for our money, tutor. 

Fletcher, Wildgoose Chase, ill. 1. 

Nine men's morris, a game in which a figure of squares 
one within another was made on a table or on the ground, 
and eighteen pieces or stones, nine for each side, which 
were placed by turns in the angles, were moved alternately, 
as at draughts. He who was enabled to place three In a 
straight line took off one of his adversary's at any point 
he pleased, and the game ended by the loss of all the men 
of one of the players. It was also a table-game played with 
counters. Also called nine men ' merels. Strutt. 

The nine-men's morris is flU'd up with mud, 
And the quaint mazes in the wanton green 
For lack of tread are undistinguishable. 

Sha*.,M. N. D.,ii. 1. 98. 

II. a. Belonging to or taking part in a mor- 
ris-dance. 

morris 1 (mor'is), r. [< morn's 1 , .] I. trans. 
To dance or perform by dancing. See morris- 
ilniii'i . 

Since the Demon-dance was morriced. 

Hood, The Forge. 

II. intrans. To " dance " or " waltz " off ; de- 
camp; be off; begone. [Slang.] 

Zounds ! here they are. Morrice ! Prance ! 

Goldmith, She Stoops to Conquer, Hi. 

morris 2 (mor'is), n. [NL., so called after Wil- 
liam Morris, who first found it, on the coast of 
Wales.] A curious fish, allied to the eels, of 
the genus Leptocephalus. Its body is so com- 
pressed as to resemble tape. 

morris-bellst, ". pi- Bells for a morris-dance. 

morris-dance (mor 'is -dans), n. [Also mor- 
rice-dancc ; < ME. morrys-dattnce ; \morris 1 + 
ill i n cc.] 1. A dance of persons in costume, 
especially of persons wearing hoods and dresses 
tagged with bells ; also, any mumming perform- 
ance in which dancing played a conspicuous 
part. Thus, the morris-dancers of May day commonly 
represented the personages of the Robin Hood legend; 
the hobby-horse was a prominent character in morris- 
dancing of every description. 



morrow-tide 

Vnleu we should come In like a morriee-danee, and 
whistle our ballad ourselves, I know not what we should 
da B. Jonton, Love Restored. 

I judged a man of sense could scarce do worse 
Than caper in the morrin-daitce of verse. 

Cuwper, Table-Talk, 1. 619. 

2. A kind of country-dance still popular in the 
north of England. The music for all these dances 
was, BO far as Is known, In cluplr time. 

Also called Morisco, Moor-ilniici: and former- 
ly Miin.it/ni' tlnnt'i'. 

morris-dancer (mor'is-dan'ser), n. [< .Mi;. 
iiKirri'.iiliniiii'fi'; < i/iti/'i'i.^ + tlinn; ,-.\ One who 
takes part in a morris-dance. 

Item, palde in charges by the appointment of the pa- 
rlsshioners, for the settlnge forth of a gyaunt morret daun- 
en with vj. calyvera, and III. boles on borsback, to go In 
the watche befoore the Lord Maiore iippon M Idsomer even, 
. . . vj. II. ta. a. Ix. d. 

Accounts of St. Giles', Cripflegate, 1571. (HaUimll.) 
And, like a morris-dancer dress'd with bells, 
Only to serve for noise, and nothing else. 

S. Butler, Human Learning, II. 

morris-dancing (mor 'is -dan 'sing), . The 
morris or morris-dance; the act of dancing 
the morris. 

May-games, morrit-dancingt, pageant*, and processions 

. . . were commonly exhibited throughout the kingdom. 

strutt, Sports and Pastimes, p. 20. 

morris-pike* (mor'is-pik), n. [Also morrice- 
pilce, morice-pike, morys pike, etc.; < mom* 1 , in 
orig. adj. sense ' Moorish '(f), + pike*.] A pike 
supposed to be of Moorish origin. 

He, sir, . . . that sets up his rest to do more exploits 
with his mace than a morris- fdte. Shot. , C. of E. , iv. S. 28. 

The guards their morrice-piket advanced. 

Scott, Miiruiic.ii, 1. 10. 

morrot (mor'ot), . Same as marrot. [Firth 
of Forth.] 

morrow (mor'6), n. and a. [< ME. morowe, 
morwe (by loss of the final -n, appar. taken as 
inflective), for nutncen, < AS. morgen, morning: 
see morn, morning.] I. n. 1. Morning: for- 
merly common in the salutation good morrow, 
or simply morrow, good morning. 

Vse this medicyn at morowe and euen, and the pacient 
schal be hool witnoute doute. 

Boot of Quintc Essence (ed. FnmlvallX p. 21. 
The bisy larke, messager of daye, 
Salueth in hire song the morwe graye. 

Chaucer, Knight's Tale, I. 634. 
Morrow, my lord of Orleans. 
Beau, and Fl., Honest Man's Fortune, 1. 1. 

Many good morrows to my noble lord ! 

Shalt., Rich. III., 111. 2. 35. 

2. The day next after the present or after any 
day specified. 

Give not a windy night a rainy morrow, 
To linger out a purposed overthrow. 

S/io*., Sonnets, xo. 

To-morrow you will live, you always cry. 
In what far country does this morrow lie? 

Cmby, tr. of Martial's Epigrams, v. 59. 

3. The time immediately following a particu- 
lar event. 

On the morrow of a long and costly war. 

John Fislre, The Atlantic, LVUI. 377. 

The morrow of the death of a public favorite is apt to be 

severe upon his memory. Jfew Princeton Rev., III. 1. 

To morrow, on the morrow ; next day. See to-morrow. 
[Now generally written as a compound. ] 
II. a. Following; next in order, as a day. 

Alle that nyght dlde he wake in the chief mynster, till 
on the morowe day. Merlin (E. E. T. 8.), I. 108. 

A sadder and a wiser man 
He roae the morrow morn. 

Coleridge, Ancient Mariner, vii 

morrowingt (mor'o-ing), . [< morrow + -ing 1 .] 
Procrastination. Daries. 

Dally put thee off with momwing, 
Till want do make thee wearie of thy lending. 

Breton, Mother's Blessing, st. 66. 

morrow-mass*, . A mass celebrated early in 
the morning: opposed to high-mass. 
As young and tender as a morrow mast priest's lemman. 
Greene, Disputation (1692). 

morrow-speecht, [ME. morwespeche, morn- 
speche, < AS. morgensprcec, < morgen, morrow, 
morning, + sprcec, speech.] A periodical con- 
ference or assembly of a gild held on the mor- 
row after the gild-feast. Also, as a modern 
translation, morninq-speecli. 

morrpw-tidet, . [ME. monri'tid. ninrctid, mor- 
ffiititl, < AS. niorgentid, nxrt/ttitid (= OS. mor- 
gantM = Icel. morguntidhir, pi.), < morgen, mor- 
row, morn, + tf,'tide, time.] Morning. 
Khc mirrrtid flier moste came 
Tuo maidenes with muchel honur 
Into the hegeste tur. 

King Horn (E. E. T. S.), 1. 558. 



morsbunker 

niorsbunkert, . See inossbunl'er. 
morse 1 ! (mdrs), it. [Also mnrsse, mors ; < F. 
morse = Lapp, moral.; perhaps < Russ. morjfi, 
morzhu, a morse, perhaps < more, the sea (cf. 
morskaya korova, the morse, lit. 'sea-cow'). 
In another view, morse is a contracted form, 
< Norw. mar, the sea, + ros, a horse ; cf. Norw. 
rosmar, with the same elements reversed ; and 
cf. walrus.] 1. The walrus. 

Neere to New-found-land in 47. deg. is great killing of 
the Horse or Sea-oxe. . . . They are great as Oxen, the hide 
dressed is twice as thicke as a Bulles hide : It hath two 
teeth like Elephants, but shorter, about a foote long grow- 
ing downe wards, and therefore lesse dangerous, dearer 
sold then Inoru, and by some reputed an Antidote, not in- 
feriour to the Vnicornes home. 

Purchax, Pilgrimage, p. 748. 
The tooth of a marge or sea-horse. 

Sir T. Browne, Vulg. Err., iii. 23. 

2. In her. , same as sett-lion. 
morse 2 (mdrs), . [< L. morsus, a biting, a 
clasp, < mordere, pp. morsus, bite : see mor- 
dant.] The clasp or fastening of a cope and 
similar garments, generally made of metal, and 
set with jewels. Also called pectoral. 

To hinder the cope from slipping off, it was fastened 
over the breast by a kind of clasp, which here in England 
was familiarly known as the morse, ... in shape flat or 
convex. Sock, Church of our Fathers, ii. 37. 

Morse alphabet. See alphabet. 
Morse key. See telegraph. 
morsel (mor'sl), n. [Also dial, mossel; < ME. 
morsel, mossel, mussel, < OF. morsel, morcel, F. 
morceau (also used in E.: see morceau) = It. 
morsello, < ML. morsellum, a bit, a little piece, 
dim. of L. morsitm, a bit, neut. of morsus, pp. 
of mordere, bite : see morse 2 , mordant. Cf. muz- 
zle."] 1. A bite; a mouthful; a small piece of 
food; a small meal. 

And after the mossel, thanne Satanas entride into him. 
Wyclif, John xiii. 27. 
Ete thi mete by smalle mosselles. 

Bailees Book (E. E. T. S.), p. 18. 
Liquorish draughts 
And morsels unctuous. 

Shak.,T. of A.,iv. 3. 195. 
She so prevails that her blind Lord, at last, 
A morsell of the sharp-sweet fruit doth taste. 
Sylvester, tr. of Du Bartas's Weeks, ii. , The Imposture. 

2. A small quantity of anything considered as 
parceled out, often of something taken or in- 
dulged in ; a fragment; a little piece. 

Revenge was no unpleasing morsel to him. 

Milton, Eikonoklastes, ix. 

Of the morsels of native and pure gold he had seen, some 
weighed many pounds. Boyle. 

3f. A person : used jestingly or in contempt. 
To the perpetual wink for aye might put 
This ancient morsel, this Sir Prudence. 

Shak., Tempest, ii. 1. 286. 
How doth my dear morsel, thy mistress? 

SAo*.,M. forM., iii. 2. 67. 

morselization (m6r"sl-i-za'shon), . [< morsel 
+ -ize + -ation.'] The act of breaking up 
into fragments ; subdivision ; decentralization. 
[Bare.] 

The unsatisfactory condition of the foremost nations of 
Europe resulted . . . from the infinite morselization (moi- 
cellement inflni) of interests. 
A. G. Warner, tr. of Le Play, iu Pop. Sci. Mo., XXIX 798. 

morsing-horn (mor' sing-horn), n. [< "morsinij, 
verbal n. of "morse, v., prob. for 'amorce, < F. 
amorcer, prime (a gun), bait, < amorce, prim- 
ing, bait: see amorce.] The small flask for- 
merly used to contain the fine powder used for 
priming; hence, a powder-horn in general. 
Buff-coats, all frounced and broider'd o'er, 
And morsing-horns and scarfs they wore. 

Scott, L. of L. M., iv. 18. 

morsitationt (m&r-si-ta'shon), n. [< ML. as if 
*morsitatio(n-), < *morsitare, freq. of mordere, 
pp. morsus, bite: see mordant, morse 2 .'] The 
act of gnawing ; morsure. Worcester. 

morsure (mor'sur), n. [= F. morsure = It. 
morsura, < L. as if "morsurus, < mordere, pp. 
morsus, bite : see morse 2 .'] The act of biting. 
It Is the opinion of choice virtuosi that the brain is only 
a crowd of little animals, and . . . that all invention is 
formed by the mormre of two or more of these animals 
upon certain capillary nerves. 

Svrift, Mechanical Operation of the Spirit, 2. 

morsus (mdr'sus), n. [L., a biting, bite: see 
worse 2 .] In anat., a bite, biting, or morsure. 
Morsus dlaboli, or morsus dlabollcus, the devil's 
bite; the diabolical biting: a fanciful name for the flm- 
briated or infundibuliform orifice of the Fallopian tube or 
oviduct. 



(mart), n. [< F. mart = Sp. m uerte = Pg. 
It. morte, < L. mor(t-)s, death, < mort (pp. mor- 
titim), die, = Pers. tir, niiinltin = Skt. -^ mm; 
die (mritii, dead). Cf. mttrtlt, mitrthr, from the 



3864 

same ult. root.] 1. Death. 2. A nourish 
sounded at the death of game. 

He that bloweth the mort before the fall of the buck, 
may very well miss of his fees. Greene, Card of Fancy. 
They raised a buck on Rooken Edge, 
And blew the mort at fair Ealylawe. 
Death of farcy Meed (Child's Ballads, VI. 141). 

mort 2 (m6rt), a. and n. [< F. mort = Sp. muerto 
= Pg. It. morto, < L. mortuus, dead (= Gr. (Jporof 
(for *fi/}por6f, "fiporof, cf. neg. a/ifiparof), mortal, 
= Skt. mrita, dead), pp. of won, die: see wort 1 .] 
I.t a. Dead. 

Thy mede is markyd, whan thow art mort, in blysse. 

Political Poems, etc. (ed. Kurnivall), p. 159. 

II. n. The skin of a sheep or lamb which 
has died by accident or disease. [Obsolete or 
Scotch.] 

The sadler he stuffes his pannels with straw or hay and 
over gasetb them with haire, and makes the leather of 
them of Marts or tan'd sheep's skins. 
Greene, Quip for an Upstart Courtier (Harl. Misc., V. 413). 

mort 3 (mort), n. [Also murth (Halliwell) ; per- 
haps < Icel. mart for margt, neut. of martjr = 
E. many: see many' 1 .'] A great quantity or 
number. [Prov. Eng.] 

And sitch a mort of folk began 
To eat up the good cheer. 

Bloomjield, The Horkey. 

But pray, Mr. Fag, what kind of a place is this Bath ? 
I ha' heard a deal of it here 's a mort o' merry-making, 
hey? Sheridan, The Rivals, i. 1. 

mort 4 ! (mort), . [Origin obscure.] A woman. 
[Thieves' slang.] 

Male gipsies all, not a mort among them. 

/;. Jonson, Masque of Gipsies. 

When they have gotten the title of doxies, then they 
are common for any, and walke for the most part with 
their betters (who are a degree above them), called marts. 
... Of marts there be two kindes that is to say, a walking 
mart and an antem murt. The walking mort is of more 
antiquitie then a doxy, and therefore of more knaverie : 
they both are unmarried, but the doxy professes herselfe 
to bee a niaide (if it come to examination), and the walk- 
ing mort sayes shee is a widow. ... An antem murt is a 
woman married (for antem in the beggers' language is a 
church). Dekker, Belman of London (1608). 

mortaiseH, n. and v. See mortise. 
mortaise 2 t, tv. [Early mod. E. also mortayse; < 
ME. mortaisen, morteisen, < OF. mortasier, grant 
in mortmain, < mort, dead: see mort 2 , and cf. 
mortmain,] To grant in mortmain. Palsgrave. 
Churches make and found, which deuised were ; 
Bothe landes, rentes, thought he morteis there, 
To found and make noble churches gret. 

Rom. of Partenay(K E. T. 8.), 1. 6083. 

mortal (mor'tal), a. and n. [< ME. mortal, 
mortel, < OF. niortel, mortal, F. mortal = Sp. Pg. 
mortal = It. mortals, < L. mortalis, subject to 
death, < mor(t-)s, death: see mort 1 .'] I. a. 1. 
Subject to death; destined to die. 
Thou shalt die, 
From that day mortal. 

Milton, P. L., viii. 331. 

Hence 2. Human; of or pertaining to man, 
who is subject to death: as, mortal knowledge; 
mortal power. 

Thys geant tho fall to mortal deth colde 
With that mighty stroke Qaffray hym yeuyng. 

Rom. of Partenay (E. E. T. S.), 1. 4719. 

The voice of God 

To mortal ear is dreadful. Milton, P. L., xii. 236. 
When the Lord of all things made Himself 
Naked of glory for His mortal change. 

Tennyson, Holy Grail. 

3. Deadly; destructive to life ; causing death, 
or that may or must cause death; fatal. 

This gentleman, the prince's near ally, 

My very friend, hath got his mortal hurt 

In my behalf. Shak., R. and J., iii. 1. 115. 

The fruit 

Of that forbidden tree whose mortal taste 
Brought death into the world, and all our woe. 

Milton, P. L,, I. 2. 

4. Deadly; implacable; to the death; such as 
threatens life : as, mortal hatred. 

Longe endured the mortall hate be-twene hem, as longe 
as thir lif dured. Merlin (E. E. T. S.), i. 124. 

Dead or alive, good cause had he 
To be my mortal enemy. 

Scott, Marmion, iv. 21. 

5. Such that injury or disease affecting it may 
cause death. 

Last of all, against himself he turns his sword, but, miss- 
ing the mortal place, with his poniard finishes the work. 

Milton. 

6. Bringing death ; noting the time of death. 

Safe in the hand of one Disposing Power, 
Or in the natal, or the mortal hour. 

Pope, Essay on Man, i. 288. 

7. Incurring the penalty of spiiitual death; 
inferring divine condemnation: opposed to 
rental: as, a mortal sin (si-e sin). 



mortalize 

Some sins, such as those of blasphemy, perjury, im- 
purity, are, if deliberate, always mortal. 

Cath. Diet., p. 763. 

8. Extreme ; very great or serious : as, mortal 
offense. [Colloq.] 

The nymph grew pale, and in a mortal fright. 

Drydm, tr. of Ovid's Metamorph, i. 733. 
I go there a mortal sight of times. 

Dickens, Bleak House, xiv. 

9. Long and uninterrupted; felt to be long and 
tedious. [Colloq.] 

Six mortal hours did I endure her loquacity. Scott. 

They performed a piece called Pyramus and Thisbe, in 

five mortal acts. R, L. Stevenson, Inland Voyage, p. 255. 

10. Euphemistically, confounded; cursed: as, 
notawrtethingtoeat. 11. Drunk. [Slang.] 

He had lost his book, too, and the receipts ; and his men 
were all as mortal as himself. 

H. L. Stevenson and L. Qsbourne, The Wrong Box, vi. 

II. . 1. Man, as a being subject to death; 
a human being. 

And you all know, security 
Is mortals' chiefest enemy. 

Shak., Macbeth, iii. 5. 33. 
2. That which is mortal. 

So when this corruptible shall have put on incorruption, 
and this mortal shall have put on immortality, then shall 
be brought to pass the saying that is written, Death is 
swallowed up in victory. 1 Cor. xv. 54. 

mortal (mdr'tal), adv. [< mortal, a.] Extreme- 
ly; excessively; perfectly: as, mortal angry; 
mortal drunk. [Colloq.] 
I was mortal certain I should find him here. 

D. Jerrold, Men of Character, iii. 
Forty-two mortal long hard-working days. 

Dickens, Oliver Twist, xviii. 

mortalise, v. t. See mortalize. 
mortality (mor-tal'i-ti), n. [< ME. mortalite, 
mortalyte, < OF. mortalite, F. mortality = Sp. 
mortalidad = Pg. mortalidade = It. mortalita, < 
L. mortalita(t-)s, the state of being subject to 
death, < mortalis, mortal: see mortal.] 1. The 
condition or character of being mortal, or of 
being subject to death, or to the necessity of 
dying. 

When I saw her dye, 
I then did think on your mortalitU. 

Carew, An Elegie. 

We that are in this tabernacle do groan, being burdened : 
not for that we would be unclothed, but clothed upon, that 
mortality might be swallowed up of life. 2 Cor. v. 4. 

2. Death. 

Gladly would I meet 
Mortality, my sentence. Milton, P. L., x. 776. 

3. Frequency of death; numerousness of 
deaths; deaths in relation to their numbers: 
as, a time of great mortality. 

In that bataile was grete mortalite on bothe parties, but 
the hethen peple hadde moche the werse. 

Merlin (E. E. T. 8.), i. 56. 

Ther fell suche a mortalyte in the hoost that of flue ther 
dyed thre. Berners, tr. of Froissart's Chron., I. cccxxxl. 

In the extreme mortality of modern war will be found 
the only hope that man can have of even a partial cessa- 
tion of war. , The Century, XXXVI. 885. 

4. Specifically, the number of deaths in pro- 
portion to population: usually stated as the 
number of deaths per thousand of population. 
5. The duration of human life. [Bare.] 

This Age of ours 

Should not be numbered by years, dayes, and howra, 
But by our brave Exployts ; and this Mortality 
Is not a moment to that Immortality. 
Sylvester, tr. of Du Bartas's Weeks, ii., The Magnificence. 

6. Humanity; human nature; the human race. 

Like angels' visits, short and bright, 
Mortality 's too weak to bear them long. 

Norris, The Parting. 

Bills of mortality, abstracts from public registers show- 
ing the numbers that have died in any parish or place dur- 
ing certain periods of time. 

He proceeded to acquaint her who of quality was well 
or sick within the bills of mortality. Steele,TMer, No. 207. 

Law of mortality, the principle, deduced from a study and 
analysis of the bills of mortality and the experiences of in- 
surance companiesduring a long number of years, which de- 
termines what average proportion of the persons who enter 
upon a particular period of life will die during that period, 
and consequently the proportion of those who will survive. 
Tables showing the estimated number of pel-sons of a given 
age that will die in each succeeding year are called tables 
of mortality. Thus, of 100,000 persons of the age of 10, 490 
will not reach the age of 11 ; of 99,510 persons remaining 
alive, 807 will die before reaching the age of 12, and so on. 
On these tables are largely founded the calculations of in- 
surance actuaries in regard to rates of premium, present 
value of_policies, etc. 

mortalize (mor'tal-iz), i'. t. ; pret. and pp. mor- 
tnli-tfl, ppr. mortaKeing. [< mortal + -!><?.] To 
make mortal. Also spelled mortalise. 
\\'c know you're flesh and blood as well as men, 
And when we will, can mnrtalize and make you so again. 
A. Brome, Plain Dealing. 




mortally 

mortally (mor'tiil-i), mli: [< ME. iiinrliillii . 
< mortal + -''/'-'.J 1. In the manner of a mor- 
tal. 

Vet I was ui'Ttallii brought forth, anil am 

No other than I appear. Hhak., Porlclcs, v. 1. 106. 

2. Iu such a manner that death must ensue; 

fatally: as, moi-billy wounded. 3. Extremely; 

intensely; grievously. [Now chiefly colloq.] 

He wol vow haten mortally, certeyn. 

Chaucer, Manciple's Tale, 1. 211. 

A little after, hut still with swollen eyes and looking 
mortally sheepish, Jean-Marie reappeared and went osten- 
tatiously about his business. 

11. L. Stevenson, Treasure of Franchard. 

mortalness (mor'tal-nes), n. The state of be- 
ing mortal ; mortality. 

In the one place the martalnesse, in the other the misery 
of their wounds, wasted them all. 

Sir H. Savile, tr. of Tacitus, p. 40. 

mortar 1 (m6r'tar),. [Formerly more prop, mor- 
ti-r, the spelling mortar being in mod. imitation 
of the L.; < ME. mortcr, < AS. mortere = M M i . 
mortcr, mortcr, LG. morter = OHO. mortmi, 
morsari, MHG. mors(ere, morser, Q.mitrser, OHG. 
also morsali, MHG. morsel, G. morsel = Sw. mor- 
tal = Dan. morter, a mortar (def. 1) = OF. mor- 
tirr, a mortar, a kind of lamp, F. mortier (> P. 
mortier) = Pr. mortier = Sp. mortero = Pg. 
morteiro = It. mortajo, a mortar (defs. 1 and 
2), < L. mortarium, a vessel in which substances 
are pounded with a pestle, hence a vessel in 
which mortar is made, mortar (see mortar"*); 
akin to niarnix, dim. 
marculus, martulus, 
a hammer, < y mar, 
pound, grind : see 
mill 1 , meaft. Hence 
ortor 2 .] 1. A ves- 
sel in which sub- 
stances are beaten 
to powder by means 
of a pestle . The chief 

use of mortars now is in Diamond-mortar, a, section. 

the preparation of drugs. 

Mortars are made of hard and heavy wood, such as lignum- 

vita), of stone, marble, pottery, metal, and glass. 

Though thou shouldest bray a fool in a mortar among 
wheat with a pestle, yet will not his foolishness depart 
from him. Prov. xxvil. 22. 

2. In a stamp-mill, the cast-iron box into which 
the stamp-heads fall, at the bottom of which is 
the die on which they would strike if it were 
not for the interposed ore with which the mor- 
tar is kept partly filled, and on whose side is the 
grating or screen through which the ore escapes 
as soon as it has been broken to sufficient fine- 
ness to pass through the holes in the screen. 
3f. A kind of lamp or candlestick with a broad 
saucer or bowl to catch the grease and keep 
the light safe; hence, the candle itself: in 
modern times, chiefly in ecclesiastical use, in 
the French form mortier. 

For by this marttr, which that I se brenne, 
Know I ful wel that day Is not ferre henne. 

Chaucer, Troilus, iv. 1246. 

Mony morteres of wax merkked with-oute 
With mony a borlych best al of hrende golde. 

Alliterative Poems (ed. Morris), ii. 1487. 

A mortar was a wide bowl of Iron or metal ; it rested 
upon a stand or branch, and was filled either with flue oil 
or wax, which was kept burning by means of a broad wick 
[at funerals or on tomhsj. 

Dugdale, Hist. St. Paul's (ed. Ellis), p. 27. 

4f. A cap shaped like a mortar. Compare mor- 
tar-bonrd. 

So that methinkes I could flye to Rome (at least hop to 

Rome, as the olde Prouerb Is) with a morter on my head. 

Ded. Epistle to Kempt Nine Dales Wonder (1600). 

He did measure the stars with a false yard, and may now 

travel to Rome with a -mortar on 's head, to see If he can 

recover his money that way. 

Fletcher (and another), Fair Maid of the Inn, v. 2. 

6. A piece of ordnance, short in proportion to 
the sue of its bore, used in throwing bomb- 
shells in what is called vertical fire. The shells 
are thrown at a high angle of elevation, so as to drop 
from above into the enemy's intrenchment See cut In 
next column. 

Cannons full flve they brought to the town, 

With a lusty, large, great mortar. 
Undaunted Londonderry (Child's Ballads, VII. 250). 

Life-saving mortar. See life-taving. 
mortar 1 (mor'tar), v. t. [< mortar 1 , n.] To 
bray in a mortar. 

Such another rraftie mortring druggeir or Italian pur- 
redge seasoner. Kmh, Haue with you to Saffron-Walden. 

mortar- (mor'tar), . [Formerly more prop. 
mortcr, the spelling mortar being in mod. imi- 
tation of the L.; < ME. miirti r. mortier. < OF. 
mortier, F. mortier = Pr. mortier = Sp. mortem 
= Pg. morteiro = It. mortajo = D. mortel = M I A ' . 



386B 




Mortan in the Federal Mortar-bMtery before Yorktown. Virginia. 



mortgage-deed 
mort d'ancestor (mort dim 'si s-inr). [OF.: 

/"iV,death; '!',"(; ttiu-ixlnr. nm-estor.] In /'.'.</ 
In a- . ;i writ of assize by which n demandant sued 
to recover possession of un inln-rit;uiec (com- 
iiiK from his father or mother, brother or sister, 
uiH'le or aunt, nephew ur niece) of which a 
wrong-doer had deprived him on the death of 
the ancestor. It was repealed by 3 and 4 Will. 
IV., c. -11. 

mort-de-chien (mor'de-shian'), n. [F., lit. 
dog's denth: mort, death; a*, of; chien, dog.] 
Spasmodic cholera. 

morteiset, r. t. A variant of HorMtA 

morter't, An obsolete form of mortar 1 . 

morter'-'t, An obsolete form of mortar'*. 

mortgage (mdr'gaj), . [Formerly also mor- 
gage: < M K. mortgage, morgage, < OF. morgage, 
mortgaige, morgage, morouage, prop, separate. 
mort gaar, morti/ni/e, F. mortgage, lit. a dead 
pledge, (mort, dead, + gage, a pledge : see mort 1 
and gage 1 ."] 1. (a) At common law (and accord- 
ing to the present rule in some of the United 
States, and in form in nearly all, if not all, the 
States), a conveyance of real estate or some in- 
terest therein, defeasible upon the payment of 



morter, MHG. mortere, morter, mortel, G. mortel, 
< L. mortarium, mortar, a mixture of lime and 

sand, so called from the vessel in which it was ? r r _^ 

made, a mortar : see mortori.] A material used money or the performance of some other con- 

(in building) for binding together stones or dition. (6) By the law of most of the United 

bricks so that the mass may form one compact States, a lien or charge upon specific property, 

whole. The use of mortar dates back to the earliest re- re al or personal, created by what purports to be 

corded history, but various materials were employed for an expre8s transfer of title, with or without pos- 

but accompanied by a condition that 



Ion and Nineveh. Plaster (calcined sulphate of lime) was 
the cement employed on the Great Pyramid, and appa- 
rently by the Egyptians generally, but not to the entire ex- 
clusion of what is now ordinarily called mortar. The sub- 
stances mentioned are frequently designated as mortar in 
non-technical works. What is now generally understood 
by this term among buiMere and architects is a mixture of 
lime with water and sand, In various proportions, accord- 
Ing to the "fatness" of the lime and the desire to econo- 
mize the more costly material. This kind of mortar was 
well known to both Greeks and Romans. Mortar made 
of ordinary lime "sets" (hardens) in the air (not under 
water) and slowly, since the absorption of carbonic acid 
and the consequent conversion of the hydrate of lime into 
the carbonate is by no means a rapid process. The hard- 
ening of the mortar depends in large part on the crystal- 
lization of the carbonate of lime around the grains of 
sand, by which these are made to cohere firmly ; hence, 
a clean sand of which the grains are angular Is of impor- 
tance In forming a durable mortar. The kind of mortar 
which sets under water is sometimes called hydraulic 
mortar, but is more generally known as hydraulic cement, 
or simply cement. See cement and cement-slant. 
A morter fast is made aboute the tree. 

Palladium Husbondrie (E. E. T. S.), p. 108. 

So brycke was their stone and slyme was theyr morter. 

Bible oj 1551, Gen. xl. 3. 

mortar 2 (mor'tftr), r. t. [< mortar 2 , .] To 
fasten or inclose with mortar. 

Electricity cannot be made fast, mortared up, and ended 
like London Monument. Emerson, Eng. Traits, xiii. 

mortar-battery (m6r'tar-bafer-i), n. See bat- 
tery. 

mortar-bed (m6r'tar-bed), . The frame of 
wood and iron on which the piece of ordnance 
called a mortar rests. 

mortar-board (mor'tar-bord), n. 1. A board, 
generally square, useil by masons to hold mor- 
tar for plastering. Hence 2. A square- 
crowned academic cap. [Colloq.] 

mortar-boat (mdr'tar-bot),. n. A vessel, usu- 
ally of small size, upon which a mortar (or very 
rarely more than one) is mounted. 

mortar-carriage (mor'tar-kar'aj), n. See sea- 
coast artillery, under artillery. 

mortar-mant (mor'tar-man), n. A mason. 

Those morter-men . . . whose work deserved the nick- 
name of Babel or confusion. 

Up. Gauden, Tears of the Church, p. 513. (Dariet.) 



the transfer shall be void if in due time the 
money be paid or the thing done to secure 
which the transfer is given. It differs from & pledge 
in that it is not confined to personal property, and in that 
it is in form a transfer of title, while a pledge Is of chat- 
tels and is usually a transfer of possession without the 
title, but with authority to sell and transfer both title and 
possession in case of default. (See pledge.) At common 
law a mortgage was regarded (as in form It Is still almost 
universally expressed) as actually transferring the title. 
(See (a), above.) Courts of equity established the rule that 
a mortgager of real property could, by payment or per- 
formance, redeem It even after default, at any time before 
the court had adjudged his right foreclosed or the mort- 
gagee had caused a sale of the property to pay the debt 
(see equity of redemption, under equity); consequently 
mortgages ceased to be regarded In most jurisdictions 
as a transfer of the title, and are now generally held to 
create a mere lien, although the form of the instrument 
Is unchanged. The term mortgage is applied indifferent- 
ly (a) to the transaction, (6) to the deed by which it is ef- 
fected, and (c) to the rights conferred thereby on the 
mortgagee. 

2. A state or condition resembling that of 
mortgaged property. 

His trouth pllte lieth in morgage, 
Whiche If he brekc, it is falsehode. 

Gotper, Conf. Amant., Tii. 

Though God permitted the Jews, in punishment of their 
rebellions, to be captivated by the devil in idolatries, yet 
the Jews were but as in a mortgage, for they had been 
God's peculiar people before. Donne, .sermons, iii. 

Chattel mortgage. See chattel. Equitable mort- 
gage, a transaction which has the intent out not the form 
of a mortgage, and which a court of equity will enforce to 
the same extent as a mortgage, as, for instance, a loan on 
the faith of adeposit of title-deeds. General mortgage- 
bond. See ftond i. Mortgage debentures. See de- 
benture, 1. Welsh mortgage, a kind of mortgage for- 
merly used in Wales and Ireland, by which the mortgager, 
without engaging personally for the payment of the debt, 
transferred the title and possession of the property to the 
mortgagee, who was to take the rents and profits and apply 
them on the interest ; and there might be a stipulation that 
any surplus should be applied on the principal, t'nder 
this form of mortgage the mortgagee could not compel 



the mortgager to redeem or be foreclosed of his right to 
redeem, for no time was fixed for payment, and the mort- 
gager was never In default ; but the mortgagee had the 
right at any time to redeem (and, though there were no 
personal debt, an account might be taken as if there were, 
in order to ascertain what he must pay to redeem) ; and 
the statute of limitations did not begin to run against his 
claim until after full payment of the principal, 
mortar-mill (m6r'tar-mil), . A mixing and mortgage (mdr'gaj), r. t. ; pret. and pp. mort- 
stirring machine for combining lime, sand, and gaged, ppr. niortgai/ing. [< mortgage, n.] 1. 
other materials to make mortar. Such machines To grant (land, houses, or other immovable 
take the form of pug-mills and Chilian mills, and are property) as security for money lent or con- 



'orked by hand- or steam-power. 

mortar-piecet (mor'tar-pes), w. A mortar 
(piece of ordnance). 

They raised a strong batter)', and planted upon It a mor- 
tar-piece that cast stones and granadoes of sixteen inches 
diameter. Baker, Charles I., an. 1648. 

mortar-vessel (rodr'tar-ves'el), n. Same as 

mnftiir-liixit. 

mortaryt, An erroneous form of mortuary. 
They will not dreame I made him away 
When thus they see me with religious pompe, 
To celebrate his tomb-blacke mortarie. 

Greene, Selimus. 

mortast, An obsolete form of mortise. 
mortcloth (mdrt'kloth), n. [< morfi + cloth.'] 
A pall. [Scotch.] 

And let the bed-clothes for a mart-doth drop 
Into great laps and folds of sculptor's work. 

Broirninr/, The Bishop Orders his Tomb. 



tracted to be paid, or other obligation, on con- 
dition that if the obligation shall be discharged 
according to the contract the grant shall be 
void, otherwise it shall remain in full force. 
See mortgage, n., 1. Hence 2. To pledge; 
make liable ; put to pledge ; make liable for the 
payment of any debt or expenditure ; put in a 
position similar to that of being pledged. 

Mortgaging their lives to Covetise, 
Through wastfull Pride and wanton Riotise, 
They were by law of that proud Tyrannesse. 

Spemer, F. Q., I. T. 46. 

I suppose Samuel Rogers Is mortgaged to your ladyship 
for the autumn and the early part of the winter. 

Sydney Smith, To Lady Holland, vii. 

Already a portion of the entire capital of the nation is 

mortgaged for the support of drunkards. Lyman Beecher. 

mortgage-deed (mor'gaj-ded), n. A deed given 

by way of mortgage. 




Mortier-Jt-cire of Henri Deux 
. mery. fn 
collection. 



mortgagee 

mortgagee (m6i--ga-je'), . [< mortgage + -ee 1 .] 
One to whom property is mortgaged. 

mortgageor, mortgagor (mor'gaj-or), w. [< 
iiini'ti/iii/r + -or.] Same as mortgager. [Barely 
used except in legal documents.] 

mortgager (mor'gaj-er), n. [< mortgage + -cr 1 .] 
One who mortgages ; the person who grants an 
estate as security for debt, as specified under 
mortgage. [The barbarous spelling mortgageor 
is preferred by legal writers and in legal docu- 
ments.] 

morthert, . and v. A Middle English form of 
murder. 

mortherert, A Middle English form of mur- 
derer. 

mortice, . See mortise. 

mortier 1 , . [F.: see mortar'i.'] _ 1. A cap for- 
merly worn by some English officials, and still in 
use among the judiciary of France. See mor- 
ta)-i, 4. 2f. A headpiece 
in medieval armor. See 
second cut under armor. 
3. See mortar^, 3. 

mortier' 2 t, n. An obso- 
lete form of mortar 2 . 

mortier-a-cire (mor-tia'- 
a-ser'), n. [F.: mortier, 
mortar; A, with; eire, 
wax: see cere."] A mor- 

, . i T , . pottery, from the pountame 

tar in which a wax-light collection. 
was set afloat. 

Mortierella (mor"ti-e-rel'a), n. [NL. (Cpe- 
mans), named after B. du Mortier, a Belgian 
botanist.] A genus of fungi, typical of the sub- 
family Mortierellece. It has the mycelium dichoto- 
mous, branching, and anastomosing ; the sporangia-bear- 
ing hyphse aggregated, inflated at base, and erect ; and the 
stylospores echinulate. About 20 species are known. 

Mortierellece (mor'ti-e-rel'e-e), n. pi. [NL. 
(Van Tieghem), < Mortierella + -co;.] A sub- 
family of fungi (molds) of the order Mucora- 
eea. It has the fructifying branches racemose, and the 
sporangia spherical, polysporous, and destitute of colu- 
inella. It contains 2 genera, Mortierella and Herpocladi- 
" in, the latter with a single species. 

mortiferoust (mdr-tif e-rus), a. [= F. morti- 
fere = Sp. mortifero = Pg. It. mortifero, < L. 
mortiferus, mortifer, < mor(t-)s, death, + ferre 
= E. 5eorl.] Bringing or producing death; 
deadly; fatal; destructive. 

But whatever it [the cicuta] is in any other country, 'tis 
certainly martiferous in ours. Evelyn, Acetaria. 

mortification (m6r"ti-fi-ka'shon), n. [< F. mor- 
tification = Sp. mortificacion = Pg. mortificaqao 
= It. mortificazione, < LL. mortificatio(n-), a kill- 
ing, < mortificare, pp. mortificatus, kill, destroy: 
see mortify.'] 1. The act of mortifying, or the 
condition of being mortified. Specifically (a) In 
pathol., the death of one part of an animal body while the 
rest is alive ; the loss of vitality in some part of a riving 
animal; necrosis; local death; gangrene; sphacelus. 

It appeareth in the gangrene or mortification of flesh. 

Bacon, Nat. Hist. 

(&) The act of subduing the passions and appetites by 
penance, abstinence, or painful severities inflicted on the 
body ; a severe penance. 

It leadeth vs into godly workes, and into the mortifica- 
tion of the fleshly woorkes. Sir T. More, Works, p. 700. 

He carried his austerities and mortifications so far as to 
endanger his health. Prescott, lerd. and Isa., ii. 25. 

(c) Humiliation ; vexation ; the state of being humbled or 
depressed, as by disappointment or vexation ; chagrin. 

The Sight of some of these Ruins did fill me with Symp- 
toms of Mortification, and made me more sensible of the 
Frailty of all sublunary Things. Howell, Letters, I. i. 38. 

It was with some mortification that I suffered the rail- 
lery of a fine lady of my acquaintance, for calling, in one 
of my papers, Dorimant a clown. Steele, Spectator, No. 75. 
(dt) In chem. and metal., the destruction of Sctive quali- 
ties (now called sickening both in the United States and 
in Australia, with especial reference to quicksilver and 
amalgamation). 

Inquire what gives impediment to union or restitution, 
which is called mortification, as when quicksilver is morti- 
fied with turpentine. Bacon, 
(e) In Scote law, the act of disposing of lands for religious 
or charitable purposes. 

2. That which mortifies ; a cause of chagrin, 
humiliation, or vexation. 

It is one of the vexatious mortifications of a studious man 
to have his thoughts disordered by a tedious visit. 

Sir R, L'Estrange. 

8. In Scots law, lands given formerly to the 
church for religious purposes, or since the Ref- 
ormation for charitable or public uses. By the 
present practice, when lands are given for any charitable 
purpose, they are usually disponed to trustees, to be held 
either blench or in feu. [Nearly synonymous with mort- 
main. ] Mildew mortification. See mildew. = Syn. 1. 
(c) Vexation, Chagrin, Mortification. These words advance 
in strength of meaning, as to both cause and effect. Vexa- 
tion is a comparatively petty feeling, produced by small 



3866 

but annoying or irritating disappointments, slights, etc. 
Chagrin is acute disappointment and humiliation, perhaps 
after confident expectation. Mortification is chagrin so 
great as to seem a death to one's pride or self-respect. See 
tease and angeri. 

mortifiedness (mor'ti-fid-nes), n. [< mortified 
pp. of mortify, + -ness."] Humiliation; subjec- 
tion of the passions. [Bare.] 
Christian simplicity, mortifiedness, modesty. 

Jer. Taylor (1), Artificial Handsomeness, p. 114. 

mortifler (mor'ti-fl-er), n. One who or that 
which mortifies ; one who practises mortifica- 
tion. 

John Baptist was a greater mortifier than his Lord was. 
Jer. Taylor, Works (ed. 1835), I. 23. 

mortify (mor'ti-fi), i\; pret. and pp. mortified, 
ppr. mortifying. [< ME. mortifien, mortefien, < 
OF. mortifier, mortefier, F. mortifier = Sp. Pg. 
mortificar = It. mortificare, < LL. mortificare, 
kill, destroy; cf. mortificus, deadly, fatal, < L. 
mor(t-)s, death, + facere, make.] I. trans. 1. 
To destroy the life of ; destroy the vitality of (a 
part of a living body) ; affect with gangrene. 
If of the stem the frost mortify any part, cut it off. 

Evelyn, Sylva, II. i. 3. 

2f. To deaden ; render insensible ; make apa- 
thetic. 

Strike in their numb'd and mortified bare arms 
Pins. Shak., Lear, ii. 3. 15. 

3t. To reduce in strength or force ; weaken. 

The goode werkes that he dede biforn that he fll In synne 
been al mortefied and astoned and dulled by the ofte syn- 
nyng. Chaucer, Parson's Tale. 

Thai thalre bittre soure wol mortifie, 
Or kepe hem in her owen leves drie. 

Palladius, Husbondrie (E. E. T. S.), p. 57. 

4. To subdue, restrain, reduce, or bring into 
subjection by abstinence or rigorous severities; 
bring under subjection by ascetic discipline or 
regimen; subject or restrain in any way, for 
moral or religious reasons. 

Mortify therefore your members which are upon the 
earth. Col. ill. 6. 

He [Bradford] was a most holy and mortified man, who 
secretly in his closet would so weep for his sins, one would 
have thought he would never have smiled again. 

Fuller, Worthies, Lancashire, II. 193. 

Mortify your sin betime, for else you will hardly mortify 
it at all. Jer. Taylor, Works (1835), II. 18. 

The Christian religion, by the tendency of all its doc- 
trines, . . . seems to have been so throughout contrived 
as effectually to mortify and beat down any undue com- 
placence we may have in ourselves. 

Bp. Atteroury, Sermons, II. xviii. 

5. To humiliate ; depress ; affect with vexation 
or chagrin. 

Arrived the news of the fatal battle of Worchester, which 
exceedingly mortified our expectations. Evelyn. 

He had the knack to raise up a pensive temper, and 
mortify an impertinently gay one. 

Steele, Spectator, No. 468. 

6f. In chem. and metal., to destroy or diminish 
the active powers or characteristic qualities of. 

This quiksilver wol I mortifye 
Ryght in youre syghte anon, withouten lye, 
And make it as good silver and as fyn 
As ther is any in your purs or myn. 

Chaucer, Canon's Yeoman's Tale, 1. 115. 
Take also a litil quantite of Mer[curie ?] and mortifie it 
with fastynge spotil, and medle it with a good quantite of 
poudre of stafl-sagre. 

Book of Quinte Essence (ed. Furnivall), p. 19. 

7. In Scots law, to dispose of by mortification. 
See mortification, 3. 

Referring to pre-Reformation grants, he [Mr. Marshall] 
says mortified lands are such as have "no other ' reddenda 1 
than prayers and supplications and the like" that is, 
masses for the souls of the dead. 

If. and Q., 7th ser., III. 333. 
= Syn. 5. To shame, chagrin. See mortification. 

11. intrans. 1. To lose vitality and organic 
structure while yet a portion of the living body ; 
become gangrenous. 2. To become languid; 
fall into decay. 

'Tis a pure ill-natur'd Satisfaction to see one that was a 
Beauty unfortunately move with the same Languor, and 
Softness of Behaviour, that once was charming in her 
To see, I say, her mortify that us'd to kill. 

Steele, Grief A-la-Mode, iii. 1. 

3. To be subdued; die away: said of inordi- 
nate appetites, etc. Johnson. 
mortis causa (mor'tis ka'za). [L., in case of 
death : causa, abl. of causa, cause, case ; mortis. 
gen. of mor(t-)s, death: see cause and wort 1 .] 
In contemplation of 
death Donatlo or gift 
mortis causa. See dona- 
tion. 

mortise (mor'tis), n. 
[Also mortice, early 
mod. E. also mortaise, 

morteise, mortesse; < ME. morteis, mortais, mor- 
tas, < OF. mortaise, mortoise, F. mortaise; cf. It. 




Mortise-joint. 
a a, mortises ', b b, ten 




mortmain 

mortise (Plorio), Sp. mortajti, a mortise; ult. 
origin unknown. The equiv. W. mortais, Ir. 
mortis, moirtis, Gael, moirteis, are of E., and 
Bret, mortez is of F. origin.] 1. A hollow cut 
in a piece of wood or 
other material to re- 
ceive a correspond- 
ing projection, called 
a tenon, formed on an- 
other piece in order to 
fix the two together. 
The junction of two pieces 
in this manner is called a 
mortise-joint. 

Also vpon the hight of 
the same Mownte of Cal- 
very, ys the very hold or 
morteys hevyn out of the stone Rooke wherin the Crosse 
stode, with ower blyssyd Savyor at the tyme of hys pas- 
sion. Torkiwjton, Diarie of Eng. Travel], p. 43. 

The joyner, though an honest man, yet hee maketh his 
joynts weake, and putteth in sap in the mortesels [read 
mortessesl], which should be the hart of the tree. 

Greene, Quip for an Upstart Courtier. 

If it [the wind] hath rufflan'd so upon the sea, 
What ribs of oak, when mountains melt on them, 
Can hold the mortise f Shak., Othello, ii. 1. 9. 

2. Figuratively, stability; power of adhesion. 

Oversea they say this state of yours 
Hath no more mortice than a tower of cards. 

Tennyson, Queen Mary, iii. 1. 

Chase mortise. See chase-mortise. 
mortise (mor'tis), r. t. ; pret. and pp. mortised, 
ppr. mortising. [< ME. morteysen, < OF. mor- 
taisier, mortoiser, mortise ; from the noun.] 1. 
To join by a tenon and mortise ; fix in or as in 
a mortise. 

Mars he hath morteysed his mark. 

York Playi, p. 226. 

To whose huge spokes ten thousand lesser things 
Are mortised and adjoin'd. Shot., Hamlet, iii. 3. 20. 

2. To cut or make a mortise in. 

mortise-block (m6r'tis-bl ok), n. A pulley-block 
in which the openings for the sheaves are cut 
in a solid piece. 

mortise-bolt (mor'tis-bolt), . A bolt the head 
of which is let into a mortise instead of being 
left projecting. 

mortise-chisel (m6r'tis-chiz // el), n. In carp., 
a strong chisel used in making mortises. 

mortised (mor'tist), a. In her., same as enclave. 

mortise-gage (mor'tis-gaj), . A scribbling- 
gage having two points which can be adjusted 
to the required distance of the mortise or tenon 
from the working-edge, as well as to the width 
of the mortise and the size of the tenon. 

mortise-lock (m&r'tis-lok), n. A lock made to 
fit into a mortise cut in the stile and rail of a 
door to receive it Mortise-lock chisel. See chisel^. 

mortise-wheel (mor'tis-hwel), n. A wheel hav- 
ing holes, either on the face 
or on the edge, to receive the 
cogs or teeth of another 
wheel. 

mortising-machine (m&r'- 
tis-ing-ma-shen"), n. A ma- 
chine for cutting or boring 
mortises in wood. Such ma- 
chines range from a pivoted lever, 
worked by the hand or foot and op- 
erating a chisel moving in upright 
guides, to power gang-boring machines for making a num- 
ber of mortises at once in heavy timber. These larger 
machines employ either chisels, that cut out the mortises 
by repeated thrusts, or routers and boring-tools. 

mortlingt, n. See morling. 

mortmain (mort'man), n. [< OF. mortenmin, 
also main morte, F. mainmorte Sp. manos 
muertas, pi., = Pg. mSomorta = It. mono morta, 
< ML. mortua mantis, manus mortua, mortmain, 
lit. 'dead hand': L. mortua, fern, of mortuus, 
pp. of mori, dead; warn**, hand: see morft and 
main 3 . Cf. mortgage."] In law, possession of 
lands or tenements in dead hands, or hands 
that cannot alienate, as those of ecclesiastical 
corporations; unalienable possession, convey- 
ances and devises to corporations, civil or ecclesiastical, 
were forbidden by Magna Charta, and have been restrained 
and interdicted by subsequent statutes. Also called dead- 
hand. 

All purchases made by corporate bodies being said to 
be purchases in mortmain, in mortua manu ; for the rea- 
son of which appellation Sir Edward Coke offers many 
conjectures ; but there is one which seems more probable 
than any that he has given us: viz., that these purchases 
being usually made by ecclesiastical bodies, the members 
of which (being professed) were reckoned dead persons in 
law, land therefore holden by them might with great pro- 
priety be said to be held in mortna manu. 

Blackstone, Com., I. xviii. 

Though the statutes of mortmain had put some obsta- 
cles to its increase, yet . . . a larger proportion of landed 
wealth was constantly accumulating in hands which lost 
nothing that they had grasped. Ilallam, Const Hist., ii. 




mortmain 

Here [Slcllyl, In the end, Rome laid her mortmain upon 
Hi'" k, riiirnirhui, iiiul sikrlint alike', turning the Island 
int.. u granary and reducing Its inhabitant* to serfdom. 

J. A. Syiiwiulx, Italy and Greece, p. 143. 
Alienation In mortmain, un alienation of lands or 
Irn.-nn-iits to any corporation, sole or aggregate, ecclesi- 
:iMi<-:il in temporal, particularly to religious houses, by 
whirh the i-Htatf lnvoincs perpetually inherent in the cor- 
IKiratinn anil mmlirlialilc. Mortmain Act, an KliKlish 
statute of 1730 (II (!eo. II., c. 36), based on the Impoliey of 
allowing gifts, under the name of charity, to be made by 
persons in view of approaching death, to the disinheritance 
of their lawful heirs. It prohibits, except in the instance 
of some universities and colleges, all alienation of land 
for charitable purposes (unless on full and valuable con- 
sideration) otherwise than by deed indented and executed 
In the presence of two or more witnesses, twelve months 
before the death of the donor, and enrolled in chancery 
within six months after its date, and taking effect in pos- 
session immediately after the making thereof, and with- 
out power of revocation or any reservation for the benefit 
of the grantor or persons claiming under him. Statutes 
Of mortmain, the name under which are known a num- 
ber of English statutes, beginning in 1226 (I) Hen. III., c. 
88; 7 Edw. I., st. 2 ; i:i Kdw. l.,c : ; 15 Rich. II., c. 5; 23 
Hen. VIII., c. 101, restricting or forbidding the giving of 
land to religious houses. The Mortmain Act (which see, 
above) Is sometimes incorrectly called a statute of mort- 
main. 

mortmalt, See mormal. 

mortn, n. An erroneous form of mornt. 

mortoriO (raor-to'ri-o), n. [It., also mortoro, < 
mnrto, dead: see mort 2 .'] A sculptured group 
representing the dead Christ. 

In the mortonaot the church of San Giovanni Decollate 

at Modena, the dead body of our Lord lies upon the ground. 

C. C. Periling, Italian Sculpture, p. 227. 

mortpayt, [< OF. mortepaye, mortepaye; < 
mort, dead, + paye, pay: see mart 2 and pay 1 , 
n.] Dead-pay. 

The seuere punishing of mort-payet, and keeping backe 
of souldiours wages. Bacon, Hist. Hen. \ 1 1 , p. 101. 

mortresst (mdr'tres), . [Early mod. E. mar- 
tense (Palsgrave), for "mortresse, < ME. mor- 
treus, mortreux, mortrewes, mortrus, morterews, 
mortrels, appar. pi., the sing, 'mortrel, tnortrell 
being scarcely used ; < OP. mortreur, mortreus, 
morteruel, mortereol, a mixture of bread and 
milk, appar. < morter, mortier, mortar (in general 
sense of 'mixture'): see mortar 2 .'] A kind of 
soup, said to have been "white soup," a deli- 
cacy of the middle ages in England. 

Ac thei etc mete of more coste, mortrewet, and Dotages ; 
Of that men mys-wonne thei made hem wel at ese. 

Fieri Plowman (B), xill. 41. 
He cowde roste, and sethe. and broille, and frle, 
Maken tnortreux, and wel bake a pye. 

Chaucer, Gen. Prol. to C. T., I. 884. 
A mortress made with the brawn of capons, stamped, 
strained, and mingled with like quantity of almond bat- 
ter, is excellent to nourish the weak. Bacon, Nat. Hist. 

mortreuxt, mortrewest, ". See mortress. 
mort-safe (mdrt'saf), n. [< mort 2 + safe.'] An 
iron coffin. 

Iron coffins, called mort tafet, were used In Scotland as 
a precaution against resurrectionists. After time had 
been allowed for the wooden coffin to decay, the grave was 
reopened, and the mort *"'' taken out for further use. 

H. and Q., 7th ser., VI. 516. 

mortstonet (mdrt'ston), n. [< mort 2 + stone.] 
A large stone by the wayside between a village 
and the parish church, on which in former 
times the bearers of a dead body rested the 
coffin. 

'Tis here, 

Six furlongs from the chapel What is this? 
Oh me ! the mortJttone. 

Sir H. Taylor, Edwin the Fair, v. 7. 

mortuary (m6r'tu-a-ri), a. and . [= F. mor- 
tuaire = Sp. mortiiorio = Pg. mortuario = It. 
mortorio, mortoro, < L. mortuarius, belonging 
to the dead, ML. neut. mortuarium, also mor- 
tiiorinni, a mortuary, < L. mortuus, dead: see 
mort 2 .'] I. n. Of or pertaining to the burial of 
the dead. Mortuary chaplet, a wreath or crown put 
upon the head of a corpse at the funeral ceremony and 
often left with it in the tomb. Such a garland was known 
by the Romans as corollariutn. In medieval Europe these 
wreaths were common, especially in the case of women 
who died unmarried. They were sometimes made of fili- 
gree-work with gold ami silver wire. Mortuary chest, 
a coffer of wood or other material intended to receive the 
rrniaiitiof bodies once buried elsewhere, when the graves 
have been disturbed. 

II. .; pi. mortuaries (-riz). 1. In law, a 
sort of ecclesiastical heriot, a customary gift 
claimed by and due to the minister of a parish 
on the death of a parishioner. It seems to have 
been originally a voluntary bequest or donation, intended 
to m.ikc amends for any failure in the payment of tithes of 
which tluMU-crasod had IMVII guilty. Mortuaries, wheredue 
by custom, were recoverable in the ecclesiastical courts. 

The curate clamed y" lieiyng shete for a mortuary. 

Hall. Hen. VIII., an. 0. 

The Payment of Mortuaries is of great Antiquity. Itwas 
antiently done by leading or driving a Horse or Cow, &c., 
before the Corps of the IM'ct'asr.l at his Kuncral, It a-> 
considered as a (Sift left by a Man at his Death, by \Vaj of 



3867 

Recompence for all Failures In the Payment of Tithes and 
(Dilutions, and culled a Corse-present 

Bourne'i Pop. Antiq. (1777), p. 25. 

2. A burial-place. Whitlock. 3. A place for 
the temporary reception of the dead ; a dead- 
house. 4. A memorial of the death of some 
beloved or revered person; especially, in the 
seventeenth century, a sword bearing some em- 
blem of the wearer's devotion to the memory of 
Charles I. and the cause of royalty. 

Swords of this type [cavalry sword, time of the Com- 
monwealth] are often called mortuary, as a number of 
them were made In memory of Charles I., and bear his 
likeness upon the hilt. 

Kdi/ertun-CasUe, Schools and Masters of Fence, p. 240. 

mprula (mor'ij-lil), . ; pi. morula (-16). [NL., 
dim. of L. morum, a mulberry : see more*.] In 
i iniiryol.,the condition (resembling a mulberry) 
of an ovum after complete segmentation of the 
vitellus or yolk and before the formation of a 
blastula, when the contents are a mass of cells 
derived by cleavage of the original and suc- 
cessively formed nuclei; a mulberry-mass of 
blastomeres or cleavage-cells. See monerula, 
blastula, gastrula, and cut under gastrulation. 

The number of blastomeres thus increases In geometrical 
progression until the entire yelk la converted into a mul- 
berry-like body, termed a morula, made up of a great num- 
ber of small blastomeres or nucleated cells. 

Huxley, Crayfish, p. 20ft 

morulation (mor-o-la'shon), 11. [< morula + 
-it I ion.'] In embryol., the conversion of the vitel- 
lus or yolk of an ovum into a mulberry-mass 
(morula) of cleavage-cells. 

moruloid (mor'<J-loid), a. [< morula + -oid.] 
Having the character of a morula ; resembling 
a morula. 

Moms (mo'rus), . [NL. (Tournefort, 1700), < 
L. nwrus, a mulberry-tree: see more 4 .] A ge- 
nus of dicotyledonous trees of the apetalous 
order Urticacea>, type of the tribe Morete; the 
mulberries. It is characterized by spicate flowers, the 
fertile with a 4-parted perianth, and by leaves 3-nerved 
from the base. The mulberry-fruit is a multiple fleshy 
fruit formed by the coalescence of many ovaries and In- 
vesting perianths. About 12 species are known, natives 
of the northern hemisphere and of mountains in the trop- 
ics ; some are valued for their edible fruit, and some for 
their leaves, which are used as silkworm-food. See mul- 
berry. 

Morvan's disease. A disease described by 
Morvan in 1883, characterized by a progressive 
anaesthesia and akinesia, especially of the ex- 
tremities, accompanied by trophic disturb- 
ances, including ulceration and necrosis. The 
nerves have been found to exhibit an intense inflamma- 
tion, so that it has been regarded as a multiple neuritis. 
Also called analgesia panaru and partgo-analgcsia. 

morwet, A Middle English form of morroir. 

morwent, n. A Middle English form of morn, 
morroir. 

morweningt, A Middle English form of morn- 
ing. Chaucer. 

morwespechet, . See morroic-speecli. 

mosaic 1 (mo-za'ik), a. and . [Formerly also 
mosaiek, musaick; = F. mosaique = Sp. mosd- 
ico = Pg. mosaico = It. mosaico, musaico, < ML. 
mosaicus, prop, "musaicus, < MGr. "//otwaucof, 
equiv. to Or. uovaeloc. (> L. museus and musi- 
rx), mosaic, lit. of the Muses, i. e. artistic, 
neut. imimiiKi'ii; also /lovaeiov (> L. unix/riim, also 
tnuxiriiiH, sc. opus, mosaic work), (.uovaa, a Muse : 
see Muse 2 . Cf. museum. ~\ I. a. Made of small 
pieces inlaid to form a pattern ; also, resem- 
bling such inlaid work. 

The roofe compact, and adorned with M otaick painting. 
Sandys, Travailes, p. 24. 

In the bottom of this liquid Ice 
Made of Mutaick work, with quaint deulce 
The cunning work-man had contriued trim 
Carpes, Pikes, and Dolphins seeming even to swim. 
Sylvester, tr. of Du Bartas's Weeks, ii., The Trophies. 

Mosaic canvas, the finest sort of canvas, prepared for em- 
broidery. Diet, of Ncedleirort. Mosaic glass, gold, etc. 
Seo the nouns. Mosaic theory, a doctrine respecting 
the physiological action of the compound eyes of arthro- 
pods, which supposes that each retinal cell perceives but 
a part of the picture, the several parts being connected 
by the action of the brain as a kind of optical mosaic. 
Mosaic wool-work, rugs, etc., made of variously colored 
woolen threads, arranged so that the ends form a pattern. 
The threads are held firmly in a frame, so as to form a 
dense mass, with the upper ends of the threads presenting 
a close surface ; this surface Is smeared with a cement, and 
has a backing of canvas attached, after which a transverse 
section is cut the desired thickness of the pile, and so on 
with a number of similar sections. 

II. . 1 . Mosaic work ; inlaid work, especial- 
ly in hard materials, as distinguished from in- 
lays of wood, ivory, or the like. The most common 
materials for mosaic are colored stones and glass, pave- 
ments and floors being more commonly made of the for- 
mer. Glass mosaic is composed either of pieces cut from 
small colored rods which are prepared in a suitable vari- 
ety of colors and shades, and by means of which pictorial 



mosaicist 

effects can readily be obtained, us iti Ibnnnn iiumair, m f 
tessera made each by itself, the colors used in thi- m* Him! 
being fewer ami the pieces usually aliout a quarter of an 




Mosaic. Detail from apse of the Basilica of Torcelio, near Venice; 
lath century. 

inch square. The latter variety may be distinguished as 
Byzantine or Venetian mosaic. Mosaic was a usual deco- 
ration among the later Greeks and the Romans, and among 
the Byzantines and their immediate artistic followers, 
as |at Ravenna and Venice, and in the splendid Norman- 
Saracenic churches of Sicily, displayed a preeminent ex- 
cellence of design and magnificence of color. The art has 
recently been revived, with especial success in Italy and 
France. 

Each beauteous flower, 
Iris all hues, roses, and jessamin, 

Rear'd high their flourish'd heads between, and wrought 
Miaaic. Milton, P. I. , Iv. 700. 

The liquid floor Inwrought with pearls divine, 
Where all his labours in momic snine. 

Savage, The Wanderer, v. 

2. A piece of mosaic work : as, a Florentine mo- 
saic; a Roman mosaic; a glass mosaic. 

Uerschel thought that the workers on the mosaics ot the 
Vatican must have distinguished at least thirty thousand 
different colors. O. T. Ladjl, Physiol. Psychology, p. 333. 

3. Anything resembling a piece of mosaic work 
in composition. 

No doubt every novel since time began has been a mo- 
taic. The author fits into one picture bits of experience 
found in many places, in many years. 

A. Lang, Contemporary Rev., LIV. 817. 

Alexandrine, fictile, Florentine, etc., mosaic. See the 
adjectives. Cloisonne mosaic, a modern decorative 
art in which dividing lines, bars, or ridges are made 
prominent features of the design, the spaces between be- 
ing filled with colored material, as opaque glass. Roman 
mosaic. See the quotation. 

The modern so-called Roman mosaic is formed of short 
and slender sticks of coloured glass fixed in cement, the 
ends, which form the pattern, being finally rubbed down 
and polished. Encyc. Brit., XVI. 854. 

Straw mosaic, fine straw In different shades of color at- 
tached by glue to a cardboard foundation : used in vari- 
ous forms of decoration. Art of Decoration, II. S3. 

Mosaic 2 (tn9-za'ik), a. [= F. mosaique = Sp. 
mosaico = Pg. It. mosaico (cf. G. mosaisch), < 
NL. 'Mosaicus (cf. LL. Moseius, Moseus), < LL. 
Moses, Moyses, < Gr. Mwo-r/f, Mum^r, Moses, < 
Heb. Afosheh, Moses, appar. < m/iA, draw out 
(sc. of the water, with ref. to Ex. ii. 3-5), but 
prob. an accommodation of the Egyptian name.] 
Relating to Moses, the Hebrew lawgiver, or to 
the writings and institutions attributed to him. 
Mosaic law, the ancient law of the Hebrews, given to 
them by Moses, at Mount Sinai, and contained In the books 
of Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. 

mosaical 1 (mo-za'i-kal), a. [< mosaic 1 + -<i/.] 
Same as mosaic*. [Rare.] 

Behind the thickets again [were] new beds of flowers, 
which being under the trees, the trees were to them a 
pavilion, and they to the trees a monaieal floor. 

Sir P. Sidney, Arcadia, I. 

Mosaical 2 (mo-za'i-kal), a. [< Mosaic* + -a/.] 
Same as Mosaic'-. 

After the Babylonish Captivity, when God did not give 
any new command concerning the Crown, tho the Royal 
Line was not extinct, we find the People returning to the 
old Mosaical Form of Government again. 

Milton, Answer to Salmasius. 

mosaically (mo-zii'i-knl-i), </r. In the man- 
ner of mosaic work. 

mosaicist (mo-za'i-sist), . [< mosaic* + -i>7.] 
One who mates or deals in mosaics. 



mosaicist 

By far the greater number of these colors are discov- 
eries or improvements of the venerable mftsaicist Lorenzo 
Radi. Hoivells, Venetian Life, xvi. 

Mosaism (mo'za-izm), n. [= F. nnuiiii'xnic ; as 
Mi>x(t(ic)~ + -ism.] The religious laws and 
ceremonies prescribed by Moses; adherence 
to the Mosaic system or doctrines. 

mosalt, " [For *mosul: see muslin.'] Muslin. 

There [in Grand Cairo] there are diverse ranks of Drapers 
shops ; in the first rank they sell excellent fine linnen, fine 
Cloth of Cotton, and cloath called Mosal, of a marvellous 
bredth and flnenesse, whereof the greatest persons make 
shirts, and scarfs to wear upon their Tulipants. 

S. Clarice, Geog. Description (1671X p. 56. 

mosandrite (mo-zan'drit), n. [Named after K. 
G. Mosander, a Swedish chemist, 1797-1858.] 
A rare silicate containing chiefly titanium and 
the metals of the cerium group, occurring in 
reddish-brown prismatic crystals, and also in 
massive and fibrous forms. It is found in the 
elseolite-syenite of southern Norway. 

mosandrium (mo-zan'dri-um), n. [< Mosander: 
see mosandrite.]' A supposed chemical element 
found in samarskite, but now believed to be a 
mixture. 

Mosasauria (mo-sa-sa'ri-ii), n. pi. [NL. : see 
Mosasaurus.] A group of remarkably long- 
bodied marine reptiles, from the Cretaceous 
rocks of Europe and America. It is typified by the 
genus Mosasaurus, which attained a length of over 13 feet 
and possessed some 100 or more vertebrce. The skull re- 
sembles that of the monitors in the large size of the nasal 
apertures and the fusion of the nasals into one narrow 
bone. Now called Pythonomorpha. 

mosasaurian (mo-sa-sa'ri-an), a. and n. [< 
Mosasauria + -an.] I, n. Pertaining to the 
Mosasauria ; pythonomorphic. 

II. n. A member of the Mosasauria. 
Mosasaurus, Mososaurus (mo-sa-sa'rus, rno- 
so-sa'rus), n. [NL., < L. Mosa, the river Meuse 

(F.) or Maas 
(D.), on which 
Maestricht is 
situated, where 
the first was 
found, + Gr. 
aavpof, lizard.] 
The typical ge- 
nus of Mosa- 



3868 



mosquito-canopy 



mere tablet inscribed with verses from the Koran, called 





Skull of Mosasaurus hofmanni. SdUrift. M. cam- 

peri was discov- 
ered in 1780 in the Maestricht, and originally called La- 
certa gigantea. The genus is also called Saurochampsa. 
Also written Mascesaurus. 

moschate (mos'kat), a. [< NL. moschatus (ML. 
muscattis), < LL. muscus, ML. also moscus, mos- 
chus, < LGr. ftoaxof, musk: see muscat."] Ex- 
haling the order of musk. Gray. 

moschatel (rnos'ka-tel), n. See Adoxa. 

raoschatous (mos'ka-tus), a. [< NL. moscha- 
tus : see moschate.'] Same as moschate. 

Moschidse (mos'ki-de), n. pi. [NL., < Moschus 
+ -idee."] The Moschitue, or musk-deer, rated 
as a family apart from Cervidce. 

moschiferous (mos-kif'e-rus), a. [< ML. mos- 
chus, moscus, muscus, Lti. muscus (LGr. poaxof), 
musk, + L. ferre = E. bear^.] In zoiil., bearing 
or producing musk : as, moschiferous organs ; a 
moschiferous animal. 

Moschinae (mos-ki'ue), n.pL [NL., < Moschus 
+ -ince.] A subfamily of Cervidte represented 
by the genus Moschus, containing small Asiatic 
deer both sexes of which are hornless, and the 
male of which has long canine teeth projecting 
like tusks from the upper jaw, and secretes an 
odoriferous substance called musk; the musks 
or musk-deer. The young are spotted as in Cermdae, the 
adults plain-brownish. Both true and false hoofs are long 
and widely separable ; the tail is very short, and the hind 
quarters are high. There are 2 genera, Moschui and Hydro- 
pates. Also Moschina and Moschida. See musk-deer. 

moschine (mos'kiu), a. [< Mosch-us + -inei.] 
Pertaining to the Moschina;, or having their 
characters; musky: as, a moschine deer; a 
moschine odor. 

moschitot, . See mosquito. 

Moschus (mos'kus), n. [NL., < ML. moschus, 
< LGr. pfaxof, musk: see musk.] The leading 
genus of Moschina;. The common musk-deer 
is M. moschiferus. 

Moscovitet, n. and a. An obsolete variant of 
Muscovite. 

moseH, n. [Prob. < ME. mose, mase (used to 
gloss the corrupt ML. words adtrica and me- 
phas), appar. the name of a disease; prob. = 
MD. *mase, masche = MLG. mase = OHG. 
masa. MHG. mase, a spot: see measles. Cf. 
wosei, v.] A disease of horses. Halliwell. 

moseM, r. i. [< mose 1 , H.~] To have the disease 
called the mose: in the phrase to mose in the 



i-lihir (also to mourn of the chine, where mourn tion is found in numerous hanging lamps. The direction 
is a different word from mose: see mmmft). of Mecc a. Is indicated by a niche or recess, sometimes a 

His horse hipped, with an old mothy saddle, and stir- 
rups of no kindred ; besides, possessed with the glanders, 
and like to mase in the chine. Shalt., 1. of the S., iii. 2. 51. 

mose 2 (moz), n. [Cf. moss 2 ."] A smolder of 

wood. HalHwell. [Prov. Eng.] 
moselt, n. and v. A Middle English form of 

HI n?:le. 
Moselle (mo-zel'), " [< F. Moselle, G. Mosel, 

< L. Mosella, the river Moselle: see def.] One 
of the wines produced along the river Moselle. 
The most esteemed brands are those known as sparkling 
Moselle, which are considered lighter than champagne 
and almost as good as the sweeter champagnes. 

moses (mo'zes), n. [From thename Moses (?).] 

Naut., a flat-bottomed boat used in the West 

Indies for carrying hogsheads of sugar to ships, 
moses-boat (mo'zes-bot), n. [Cf. moses.] An 

old style of skiff or small boat with a keel. 

[Provincetown, Massachusetts.] 
mosey 1 (mo'si), a. A dialectal variant of mossy. 
mosey 2 (mo'zi), e. '. [Origin obscure ; thought 

by some to be abbr. from vamose.] 1. To move 

off or away quickly; get out; "light out." 

[Slang, U. S.] 

And seeing, and why, and wherefore, 

The times being out o 1 j'int, 
The nigger has got to mosey 

From the limits o' Spunky P'int 

Bret Harte, Speech of Sergeant Joy. 

2. To be lively; be quick; "hustle." [Slang, 
U. S.] 

Hurry 'long, D'rindy, you-uns ain't goiu' ter reel a hank 
ef ye don't mosey. 
M. N. Murfree, Prophet of Great Smoky Mountains, xiii. 

mosk, n. See mosque, 

moskered (mos'kerd), a. [Also maskered; ori- 
gin obscure.] Decayed; rotten; brittle. 

The teeth stand thin, or loose, or moskered at the root. 
Granger, Com. on Ecclesiastes, p. 320 (1621). (Latham.) 

Some moskered shining stones and spangles which the 
waters brought downe. Capt. John Smith, Works, 1. 12ft. 

mosklet, Same as mussel. 

Moslem (raos'lem), n. and a. [Also Moslim, 

Muslim, Mooslim; < Turk, muslim, pi. muslimin 

(< Ar.), musliman (< Pers.), also used as sing.; 

< Ar. muslim, also transliterated moslem, pi. 
muslimin, a believer in the Mohammedan faith, 
lit. one who professes submission (islam) to the 
faith, < sellim, consign in safety, resign, submit, 

< salama, be safe and sound. Cf. Islam, Mus- 
sulman, and salaam, from the same source.] I. 
n. A follower of Mohammed; an orthodox Mo- 
hammedan. 

II. a. Of or pertaining to the Mohammedans ; 
Mohammedan. 

They piled the ground with Moslem slain. 

Hatleck, Marco Bozzaris. 

Moslemism. (mos'lem-izm), (. [< Moslem + 

-ism.] The Mohammedan religion. 
Moslim (mos'lim), n. and a. Same as Moslem. 
moslings (moz'lingz), M. pi. [Perhaps for 

*mosselings, < mossel, dial, form of morsel, a 

bit, a piece: see morsel."] The thin shreds of 

leather shaved off by the currier in dressing 

skins. They are used to rub oil from metals 

in polishing them. 

It is necessary, between the application of each powder, 
to wipe the work entirely clean, with rags, cotton-waste, 
sawdust, mailings (or the curriers' shavings of leather). 

0. Byrne, Artisan's Handbook, p. 374. 

mosolin (mos'6-lin), n. [OF.: see muslin."] 
Stuff made at Mosul, in Asiatic Turkey; ori- 
ginally, costly materials of different kinds for 
which Mosul was famous in the middle ages. 
Compare muslin. 

Mososaurus, n. See Mosasaurus. 

mosque (mosk), n. [Also mosk, and formerly 
mosch, mosche, moschee, muskey (also mesquit, 
meskit, meskito, meschit, mesquita, mosquito,, 
muskethe, etc: see mesquift); < F. mosquee = 
It. moschea (> G. moschee), < Sp. mezquita 
Pg. mesquita, < Ar. masjid, masjad, a temple, < 
sajada, prostrate oneself, pray.] A Moham- 
medan place of worship and the ecclesiasti- 
cal organization with which it is connected; 
a Mohammedan church. The architectural char- 
acter of mosques varies greatly, according as they oc- 
cupy free or cramped sites, and as in construction they 
are original foundations or adaptations of existing build- 
ings. The normal plan of the mosque is rectangular, and 
includes, besides the covered place of worship proper, an 
open cloistered court with a fountain for ablutions, and 
one or more minarets from which the faithful are sum- 
moned to prayer at stated hours. The dome, supported 
on pendentives, and the arch, usually pointed, of the horse- 
8hoe(Saracenic)forni,and springing from slender columns, 
together with elaborate and often splendidly colored sur- 
face-ornament, mainly geometrical, are features of very 
frequent occurrence. In the interior the chief decora- 



Mosque of Mehemet AH in Cairo. 

the mihrat. A class of mosques is set apart for the instruc- 
tion of young men, and with many of the larger there are 
connected hospitals and public kitchens for the benefit of 
the poor. See cuts under Moorish, mimbar, and minaret. 

For the Sarrasyns kepe that place in greate reuerence, 
and worshyp it ryght moche in theyr nianer, and haue 
made thereof theyr Mmkey. 

Sir R. Giiyljorde, Pylgrymage, p. 20. 

The places of most Religion amongst themselues are 
their Matches, or Meschits: that is, their Temples and 
Houses of prayer. Purchas, Pilgrimage, p. 297. 

By his [Mahomet II. 's] command the metropolis of the 
Eastern church was transformed into a mosch. 

Gibbon, Decline and Fall, Ixviii. 

mosquital (mus-ke'tal), a. [< mosquito + -al.~] 
Of or pertaining to or produced by a mosquito : 
as, mosquital saliva. 

mosquito, musquito (mus-ke'to), n.; pi. mos- 
quitos, mosquitoes, musquitos, musquitoes (-toz). 
[Formerly also musketo, moschito, muskito ; = F. 
moustique, for *mousquite = G. moskite, < Sp. Pg. 
mosquito, a little gnat, dim. of mosca, a fly,< L. 
musca, a fly : see Musca .] One of many different 
kinds of gnats or midges the female of which 
bites animals and draws blood. They are insects 
of the order Diptera, suborder Nemocera, and chiefly of the 




Mouth-parts of Mosquito (Culex fifietts }, enlarged. 

a, antennae ; /, labrum ; mp, maxillary palpus ; r, manclibular 

setae ; mx, maxillary setae ; lg, ligula ; li, labium. 

family Cidicidte or gnats, though some members of related 
families, as Simuliidce, are called mosquitos, the term be- 
ing applied in most parts of the world to gnats which have 
a piercing and sucking proboscis and annoy man. The 
name is said to have arisen in the West Indies, where it 
specifically designates Oulex mosquito, a gnat streaked 
with silvery white and having a black proboscis. Mosqui- 
tos are commonly supposed to be especially tropical in- 
sects ; but they swarm in summer in almost inconceivable 
numbers in arctic and cold temperate latitudes, as in Lab- 
rador, or in the region of the Red Kivcr of the North, and 
throughout the moist wooded or marshy regions of Brit- 
ish America. They breed in water, and hence are most 
numerous in marshy and swampy places. The life of the 
adult insect is very brief, and its natural food is a drop 
or two of the juice or moisture of plants. See cut under 



. 

In 66. deg. 33. min. they found it very hot, and were much 
troubled with a stinging Me, called Mvukitn. 

Purchas, Pilgrimage, p. 741. 

This summer was very wet and cold (except now and 

then a hot day or two), which caused great store of mus- 

ketoes and rattle-snakes, 

WinOernp, Hist. New England, 1. 104. 

Mosquito fleet. Sec /<<-'. 
mosquito-bar (mus-ke'to-biir), n. A mosquito- 

net. It may be a net-covered frame for a window, a net 

window-screen that can be rolled up or let down by means 

of pulleys, or a net canopy for a bed. 
mosquito-canopy (mus-ke't6-kan"o-pi), n. A 

covering of fine netting supported on a frame 



mosquito-canopy 

or tester iiinl suspended over u l>e<l as ;i protec- 
tion against insects. 
mosquito-curtain (niiis-ke'to-ker''tan), . 

S;inir as nt08f]uito-net, 

mosquito-hawk (inus-k(Vt6-hiik), H. 1. A 
1 1 r;ti_'on-H y. The mime applies to any of these insect* 
in the I'nited States, from their preying upon mosquitos 
and other gnats. This habit is so well marked that 




Mosquito-hawk (Calopttryx apicatis), natural size. 

propositions have been made for the artificial propagation 

and protection of dragon-files as a means of relief from 

mosquitos in places where the latter are exceptionally 

numerous. 

2. The night-hawk, a caprimulgine bird, Chor- 

deiles popetue, or some other species of the same 

genus. 

mosquito-net (mus-ke'to-net), n. A screen or 
covering of plain lace, coarse gauze, or mos- 
quito-netting, used as a protection against 
mosquitos and other insects. 

mosquito-netting (mus-ke'to-net'ing), . A 
coarse fabric with large open meshes, used for 
mosquito-bars, etc. The most common kind Is a sort 
of gauze of which the warp has single-threaded strands 
and the weft strands of two loosely twisted threads hold- 
ing the thread of the warp between them. 

moss 1 (m6s), n. [(a) Early mod. E. also mosse; 
< ME. man, < AS. *mo.i (not found in this form) 
= MD. mos, also mosch, mosse, moss, mold, D. 
mos, moss, = MLG. mos = OHG. MHG. mos, Q. 
moos = Icel. mosi = Sw. mossa = Dan. mos, 
moss; akin to (6) E. dial, meat, < ME. *mese, < 
AS. me6s = OHG. mios, MHG. G. mies, moss 
(the two series of forms being related phoneti- 
cally like loss, n., and lese^, lerscl, .); akin to 
L. muscua (> It. Sp. mmeo = Pr. mossa = OF. 
mui:, mousse, P. mousse, the Pr. and F. forms 
prob. in part from OHG. ), moss ; cf . W. mwswg, 
micsmgl, mwswn, moss; OBulg. miihu = Bulg. 
muh = Serv. mah = Bohem. Pol. meclt = Buss. 
innl.ii u (>Hung. moh), moss. Cf. wss 2 .] i. A 
small herbaceous plant of the natural order 
Musci, with simple or branching stems and nu- 




Fertile Plant of the Moss BartiMta hrachyfhylla. 
a. the capsule with the operculutn and calyptra : t>, the - -.ipsult 
writh the operculuni ; c, transverse section of the leaf; rf. the apex of 
the leaf; t. part of the annulus ;/. part of the annulus and the peris- 
tome, with a few spores above : f . leaf, in the axil of which are to be 
seen the antheridia and paraphyses ; h, antheridimn and paraphysis. 

merous generally narrow leaves: usually ap- 
plied to a matted mass of such plants growing 
together ; also, in popular use, any small 
cryptogarnic plant, particularly a lichen: as, 



3860 

Iceland moss, club-wow*, rock-/<;.ss, coral-wow;, 
etc., and sometimes small matted phanero- 
gams, as I'ysiilii nlliini. 
Paul primus heremita had pamiked liym-seliie. 
That no man myghte se hyui fi>r inuche tnog and leues. 
fieri /Inw/umC'), xviii. in. 

And on the stone that still dotli turn about 
There groweth no motte. 

Wyatt, How to Use the Court, 

Mot* growetb chiefly upon ridges of houses, tiled or 
thatched, and upon the crests of walls. 

Boom, Nat. Hist, { 537. 

The short mow that on the trees is found. 

Drayian, Barons' Wars, ill. 

2. Money: in allusion to the proverb, "a roll- 
ing stone gathers no moss." [Slang.] Animal 
mosses, the moss-animalcules or Ilrito&xi. Black moBS, 
same as lony-maia. Bog-mOBB. See Sphagnum. Cana- 
ry-mOBB, a lichen, Parmelia perlata, used in dyeing. 
Cteylon moss, a seaweed, Gracillaria lichenoidet, of Cey- 
lon and the Indian archipelago, similar to Irish moss, 
and used in immense quantities by the inhabitants of 
those islands and the Chinese. Also called Jaffna moss 
and agar-ayar. Clubfoot moss. .Same as clvn-mott. 
Corsican moss, an esculent seaweed, Plocaria Helmin- 
thnchvrtftn. Cup-moss, a name of various species of 
lichens, particularly of the genera Lecanrtra and Cladoma. 
Feather-moss, a name sometimes given to some of the 
larger species of llypnmn. Florida moss. Sam e as long- 
I/IOM. Flowering moss, the Pyzidanthera barbulata, a 
prostrate and creeping evergreen plant of the pine- barrens 
of New Jersey, having small leaves and numerous white 
or rose-colored flowers. Fork-moss, a name sometimes 
applied to certain species of Dicranum. Golden mOBB. 
See Leskea. Hair-moss. Same as haircap-mott. Ice- 
land moss, a lichen, Cetraria Ittandica, so called from Its 
abundance In Iceland, where It Is used as a food and to 
some extent as a medicine. Before use it requires to be 
steeped for several hours to rid it of a bitter principle, 
after which it Is boiled to form a jelly, which is mixed with 
milk or wine, or it may be reduced to powder and used as 
an ingredient in cake and bread. In Germany it is used for 
dressing the warp of webs In the loom. It is also mixed 
with pulp for sizing paper in the vat. See Cetraria. Idle 
moss, a name of various pendulous tree-lichens, particu- 
larly Usnea barbata. Indian moss, a garden name for 
Sax^fraga hypnoides. Irian moss, a seaweed, Chondms 
crupiu. See carrageen Irish-moss ale, ale of which 
Irish moss or carrageen forms an ingredient. It U sup- 
posed to be potent In some diseases. Jaffna moss. Same 
as Ceylon mow. Long moss. See long-mots. New Or- 
leans moss. .Same asiong-mofts. Scale-moss. HeeJun- 
germanniacea. Spanish moss. Same as long-mots. 
Tree-moss, a name for various species of Lycvpodium, 
particularly L. dendroideum. Water-moss. See forth'- 
lutlii. (See also beard-mam, blade-mutt, reindeer-mots.) 

moss 1 (mds), e. [< ME. mossen, mosen ; < moss 1 , 
n.] I. trans. To cover with moss. 

Do clay uppon, and mom It alle abonte. 

PaUadiux, Husbondrie (E. E. T. S.), p. 74. 

Under an oak whose boughs were most'd with age, 
And high top bald with dry antiquity. 

Shot., As you Like it, iv. 3. 105. 

Il.t intrant. To become mossy ; gather moss. 
Selden moseth the marbleston that men ofte treden. 

Piers Plowman (A), x. 101. 
Syldon massyth the stone 
That oftyn ys tornnyd & wende. 
Boot of Precedence (E. E. T. 8., extra ser.), I. 89. 

moss 2 (m6s), n. [< ME. moss, mos, < AS. mos 
(moss-), a swamp, = MD. mose, a swamp, bog, 
sink, kitchen-sink, = OHG. MHG. mos, G. moos 
= Icel. most = Sw. mosse, m&sse = Dan. mose, 
a swamp; akin to E. mire, < ME. mire, myre, 
< Icel. myrr, myri = Sw. myra = Dan. myre, 
myr = OHG. mios, MHG. G. mtes, a swamp (see 
>!); prob. orig. 'a place overgrown with 
moss,' derived from and partly confused with 
moss 1 .] A swamp or bog; specifically, a peat- 
bog or a tract of such bogs ; also, peat. 

Sone in a mom entryt are thai, 

That had wele twa myle lang of breld, 

Out our that mom on fnte thai yeid. 

Barbour, xix. 738. (Jamiaon.) 
We think na on the lang Scots miles, 
The moaet, waters, slaps, and stiles, 
That lie between us and our hame. 

Burnt, Tarn o' Shanter. 

It [the road] went over rough boulders, so that a man 
had to leap from one to another, and through soft bottoms 
whore the mats came nearly to the knee. 

R. L. Stevenson, Merry Men. 

moss :l t, . An erroneous form of morse 1 . 

The masses teeth, all kinds of Furrs, and wrought Iron 
do here sell to much profit. Sandys, Travailes, p. 67. 

moss-agate (m6s'ag'at), n. A kind of agate 
containing brown or black moss-like dendritic 
forms, due to the oxids of manganese or iron 
distributed through the mass. Also called 
dettdnichnte. 

moss-alcohol (mds'al'ko-hol), n. See alcohol, 1. 

moss-animal (mds'an'i-mal), n. A moss-ani- 
innlcule. 

moss-animalcule (m6s'an-i-mal'kul), . A 
bryozoan orpolyzoan: so called from the mossy 
appearance of some of them, especially the 
phylactolsematous polyzoaus, translating the 



moss-owl 

scientific name linji>::nii. Also 

//lf>*.S-fl>/Y//, rilftSK-pftllJll, Sci- /W//.IX/. 

mossback (mos'liak). n. 1. A large and old 
lisli, as a IHI-- : - called by anglers, in allusion 
to the growth of seaweed, etc., which may be 
found on its back. 2, In I . N. /w/i/iV.i, one 
attached to antiquated notion-: an extreme 
conservative. [Slang.] 3. In the southern 
United States, during the civil war, one who 
hid himself to avoid conscription. [Slang.] 

moss-bass (mds'bas), n. The large-mouthed 
black-bass, Micrnptrmx xtitumidi-x, a centrar- 
fhoid fiwh. [Indiana, U. 8.] 

mossberry (mds'ber'i), .; pi. mossberries (-iz). 
See cranberry, 1. 

moss-box (mds'boks), n. A kind of huge stuff- 
ing-box used in a method of sinking shafts in- 
vented by M. J. Chaudron, a Belgian engineer, 
for preventing water from entering at the bot- 
tom of the tubing. It consists of flanged rings ar- 
ranged to form an annular box, In which moss Is placed 
to fonn a packing and compressed by the weight of the su- 
perincumbent tubing, thus permanently stopping the In- 
flow of water from upper strata which would otherwise de- 
scend outside the tubing and enter the pit at the bottom. 

mossbunker (mds'bung-kcr), . [Also moss- 
bunker, mossbanker, massbanker, mart>hbunl:i r, 
marshbanker, morscbotiker, morsbunker, mouse- 
bunker, etc., and abbr. bunker, in earlier form 
marsbancker(\679), < D. marsbankei', the scad or 
horse-mackerel, Caranjr trachurwi, which an- 
nually visits the shores of northern Europe in 
immense schools, and swims at the surface iu 
much the same manner as the mossbunker 
this name being transferred by the Dutch of 
New York to the fish now so called (it occurs so 
applied, in the form masbank, in a Dutch poem 
byJacobSteedmanin 1661). The D.marsbanker 
(Gronovius, 1754) is not in the dictionaries. 
Its formation is not clear; appar. < mars, a 
peddler's pack (or i., a mass, crowd), + bank, 
bank, + -er (= E. -er 1 ) ; prob. in allusion to its 
appearance in schools.] The menhaden, Bre- 
voortia tyrannus. See cut under Breroortia. 

This bay [New York) swarms with flsh, both large and 
small, whales, tunnies, . . . and a sort of herring called 
the marsbanckers. 

Danken and SZwu/pr, Voyage to New York, 1679 (tr. In 1867 
(for Col!. Long Island Hist. Soc., I. 100). 

He saw the duyvel, In the shape of a huge mots-bunker, 
seize the sturdy Anthony by the leg, and drag him beneath 
the waves. Irving, Knickerbocker (ed. Grolier), II. 223. 

moss-campion (m6s'kam'pi-on), n. A dwarf 
tufted moss-like plant, with purple flowers, "S'i- 
lene acaulis. It is found In high northern latitudes, ex- 
tendiiig southward on the higher mountains. 

moss-capped (mos'kapt), a. Capped or covered 
with moss. 

moss-cheeper (mds'che'per), . The titlark. 
[Scotch.] 

In descending the Urioch hill, I found the nest of a tit- 
lark, or mom-cheeper. 

Fleming, Tour In Arran. (Jamieson.) 

moss-clad (moVklad), a. Clad or covered with 
moss. Lord Lyttelton. 

moss-coral (mds'kor'al), n. Same as moss-ani- 
malcule. 

moss-crops (moVkrops), n. The cotton-grass, 
a bog-loving plant. See cotton-grass and Erio- 
pnoruni. [Local, Scotch.] 

moss-duck (m&s'duk), . See duck'*. 

mossel (mos'el), n. An obsolete or dialectal 
form of morsel. 

moss-grown (moVgron), a. Overgrown with 
moss. 

Shakes the old beldam earth, and topples down 
Steeples and ntost-grovm towers. 

Shot., 1 Hen. IV., lit 1. 83. 

moss-hags (m6s'hagz), n. pi. Dead peat, dried 
up and more or less blown away, or washed 
away by the rain, so as to leave a curiously 
irregular surface, over which it is hardly pos- 
sible to walk with safety. [Scotch.] 

mosshead (mds'hed), n. The hooded mergan- 
ser, Lophodytes cvcullatus. [South Carolina.] 

The colored women often use a large bunch of "Florida 
moss," Tillandsia usneoides, as a cushion for the heavy 
loads they carry on their heads, and I am inclined to be- 
lieve that nonhead was suggested by this practice, ra- 
ther than by any direct resemblance to moss In the bird's 
crest. 0. TrumbuU, Bird Names (1888), p. 75. 

mossiness (m6s'i-nes), n. The state of being 

mossy, or overgrown with moss, 
moss-locust (nfds'ld'kust), n. See /Vwi/W-'. 
mosso (mos'so), a. [It., pp. of muovere, move: 

see mote.'} In music, rapid : as, j>i moivm, more 

rapid; meno mosso, less rapid, 
moss-owl (mds'oul), n. A dialectal form of 

mouse-owl. [Scotch.] 



moss-pink 

moss-pink (mos'pingk), . A plant, /'War sub- 
ulata, foxind 011 the rocky hills of the central 
United States, and often cultivated for its 
handsome pink-purple flowers. 

moss-polyp (m6s'pol"ip), re. Same as moss-ani- 
luiilcule. 

moss-rake (mos'rak), n. A kind of rake used 
in gathering Irish moss, Chondrus crispns. 

moss-rose (mos'roz), n. A beautiful cultivated 
rose, so named from its moss-like calyx. It is 
considered a variety of the cabbage-rose. 

moss-rush. (m6s'rush), re. An Old World species 
of rush, growing on peaty land : same as goose- 
corn. 

moss-trooper (m6s'tr6"per), . One of a num- 
ber of men who troop or range over the mosses 
or bogs (compare bog-trotter) : applied specifi- 
cally to the marauders who infested the bor- 
ders of England and Scotland in former times. 

A fancied moss-trooper, the boy 

The truncheon of a spear bestrode, 
And round the hall, right merrily, 

In mimic foray rode. Scott, L. of L. M., i. 19. 
The moss-troopers of Connecticut. 

Irving, Knickerbocker, p. 305. 

moss-trooping (rnds'tro^ping), a. Having the 
habits of a moss-trooper. 

A stark mass-trooping Scott was he, 
As e'er couched border lance by knee. 

Scott, L. of L. M., i. 21. 

moss- wood (m6s'w<id), re. Trunks and stumps of 
trees frequently found in morasses. Halliwell. 

mossy (mos'i), a. [Early mod. E. also mossie, 
and with single s (as in ME. mots), also mosy, 
mosie, moosie, moocie, etc., dial, mosy, mosey; < 
moss 1 + -(/!.] 1. Overgrown with moss; abound- 
ing with moss. 

We are both old, and may be spar'd, a pair 
Of fruitless trees, mossie and withered trunks. 

Shirley (and Fletcherl), Coronation, ii. 1. 

A violet by a mossy stone. Wordsworth, Lucy. 

The mossy marbles rest 
On the lips that he has pressed 
In their bloom. 0. W. Holmes, The Last Leaf. 

2. Like moss. Specifically (a) Hairy; rough. (6) 
Downy. Levins. 

Incipient barba, a younge moocie bearde. Elyot, 1559. 
(c) Mealy, (d) Moldy. |In these specific senses mostly 
prov. Eng. or Scotch, and usually mosy.] 
most (most), a. and n. [< ME. most, mast, < AS. 
moist = OS. mest = OFries. mast = D. meest = 
MLG. mest, meist = OHG. MHG. G. meist = 
Icel. mestr = Sw. Dan. mest = Goth, moists, 
most; superl. going with more and mo, corn- 
par.: see wiorei.] I. a. 1. Greatest in size or 
extent; largest: superlative of much or mickle 
in its original sense 'great,' 'large.' 

They slepen til that it was prime large, 
The moste part, but it were Canace. 

Chaucer, Squire's Tale, 1. 354. 
Hit wern the fayrest of forme & of face als, 
The most & the myriest that maked wern euer. 

Alliterative Poems (E. E. T. S.), ii. 254. 

2f. Greatest in age; oldest. 3f. Greatest in 
rank, position, or importance ; highest ; chief. 
Thanne Ooddard was sikerlike 
Under God the moste swike [traitor) 
That cure in erthe shaped was. Havelok, L 422. 
But thou art thy moste Enemy. 
Political Poems, etc. (ed. Furuivall), p. 190. 
Chese yow a wyf in short tyme atte leste 
Born of the gentilleste and of the meste 
Of al this lond. Chaucer, Clerk's Tale, 1. 75. 

Feith, hope, & charite, nothing colde ; 
The mooste of hem is charite. 

Hymns to Virgin, etc. (E. E. T. S.), p. 117. 
So both agreed that this their bridale feast 
Should for the Gods in Proteus house be made ; 
To which they all repayr'd, both most and least. 

Spenser, F. Q., IV. xl. 9. 

4. Greatest in amount, degree, or intensity: 
superlative of much, 

Thou hast lore thin cardinals at thi meste nede. 

Flemish Insurrection (Child's Ballads, VI. 273). 
I had most need of blessing. Shak., Macbeth, ii. 2. 32. 

5. Greatest in number; numerous beyond 
others; amounting to a considerable majority: 
superlative of many : used before nouns in the 
plural. 

Most men will proclaim every one his own goodness. 

Prov. xx. 6. 
He thinks most sorts of learning flourished among them. 

For the most part, mostly; principally. 

II. n. 1. The greatest or greater number: in 
this sense plural. 

Then began he to upbraid the cities wherein most of his 
mighty works were done. Mat. xi. 20. 

He has his health and ampler strength indeed 
Than most have of his age. Shak., W. T., iv. 4. 415. 



3870 

2. Greatest value, amount, or advantage; ut- 
most extent, degree, or effect. 

A covetous man makes the most of what he has and can 
get. Sir K. L' Estrange. 

At most, or at the most, at the utmost extent ; at fur- 
thest ; at the outside. 

Within this hour at moat 
I will advise you. Shak., Macbeth, iii. 1. 128. 

They [the works of the great poets] have only been read 
as the multitude read the stars, at most astrologically, not 
astronomically. Thoreau, Walden, p. 113. 

Least and mostt. See fcasti. To make the most of. 
See moAei. 

most (most), adv. [< ME._most, mast, < AS. 
moist, adv., orig. neut. of moist, a. : see most, .] 

1. In the greatest or highest or in a very great 
or high degree, quantity, or extent; mostly; 
chiefly; principally. 

Thy soverein temple wol I most honouren 

Of any place. Chaucer, Knight's Tale, 1. 1549. 

Women are most fools when they think they 're wisest. 
Beau, and Ft., Scornful Lady, iv. 1. 

Those nearest the king, and most his favourites, were 
courtiers and prelates, Milton. 

He for whose only sake, 
Or most for his, such toils I undertake. 

Dryden, ^Eneid, i. 859. 

2. Used before adjectives and adverbs to form 
a superlative phrase, as more is to form a com- 
parative: as, most vile; most wicked; most illus- 
trious ; most rapidly. Like more with comparatives, 
it was formerly often used superfluously with superlatives : 
thus, most boldest, dearest, heaviest, worst, etc. See morel. 

For whan his semblant is moste clere, 
Thau is he moste derke in his thought. 

Qower, Conf. Amant., ii. 

For in the wynter season the fowler spedyth not but in 
the moost hardest and coldest weder ; whyche is grevous. 
Juliana, Berners, Treatyse of Fysshynge, p. 4. 

This was the most unkindest cut of all. 

Shak., J. C., iii. 2. 187. 
Most an-endt. See an-end. 

-most. [An altered form, by confusion with 
most, of ME. -mest, < AS. -mest, a double superl. 
suffix, < -ma (= L. -mus), as in forma, first, for- 
mer, + -est (E. -est 1 ), as infyrst, first.] A dou- 
ble superlative suffix associated with -more, a 
comparative suffix, now taken as a suffixal form 
of most, as used in forming superlatives, as in 
foremost, hindmost, uppermost, utmost, inmost, 
topmost, etc. Compare -morel. 

mosteM, mostent, v. Middle English forms of 
must 1 . 

moste 2 t, a. and n. A Middle English form of 
moist. 

mostly (most'li), adv. For the greatest part ; 
for the most part ; chiefly ; mainly ; generally. 

This image of God, namely natural reason, if totally or 
mostly defaced, the right of government doth cease. 

Bacon. 

My little productions are mostly satires and lampoons on 
particular people. Sheridan, School for Scandal, i. 1. 

mosto (mos'to), . [= Sp. Pg. It. mosta, < L. 
mustum: see musft, .] Must; specifically, a 
preparation used for "doctoring" wines of in- 
ferior quality : same as doctor, 6. 
mostourt, A Middle English form of moist- 
ure. 

mostwhatt (most'hwot), adv. For the most 
part. 

For all the rest do most-what fare amis. 

Spenser, Colin Clout, 1. 757. 
mosy, a. See mossy. 
mot^t, n. An obsolete form of mote 1 . 
mot 2 (mot), re. [< F. mot = Pr. mot = Sp. Pg. 
mote = It. motto (> E. motto), a word, motto, < 
ML. muttum, a word, L. a mutter, a grunt, < 
L. muttire, mutire, mutter: see mutter.] If. A 
word; a motto. 

God hath not onely graven 
On the brass Tables of swift-turning Heav'n 
His sacred Mot. 
Sylvester, tr. of Du Bartas's Weeks, ii., The Columnes. 

2 (F. pron. mo). A saying, especially a brief 
and forcible or witty saying; abon-mot. [Re- 
cent.] 

But, in fact, Descartes himself was author of the mot 
"My theory of vortices is a philosophical romance." 

Sir W. Hamilton. 

mot 3 (mot), n. [< ME. mote, mot, < OF. mot, 
a note of a horn (another use of mot, a word), 
< L. muttum, a murmur, grunt: see o< 2 .] A 
note on the bugle, hunting-horn, or the like; 
also, a note in the musical notation for such 
instruments. 

Strakande fill stoutly mouy stif motez. 
Sir Gawayne and the Green Knight (E. E. T. 9>.\ 1. 1364. 
Three mots on this bugle will, I am assured, bring round, 
at our need, a jolly band of yonder honest yeomen. 

Scott, Ivanhoe, xl. 



mote 

(mot), n. [See wont 1 .] 1. An obsolete or 
dialectal form of moat. 2. A mark for players 
at quoits. Halliwell. 

motacil (mot'a-sil), n. [= F. motacille = Sp. 
motac'Ma = Pg. motacilla, < L. motacilla, the 
white water-wagtail, < motus (with dim. suffix), 
pp. of movere, move: see move. The L. word 
is commonly explained as lit. 'wagtail,' as if 
irreg. < L. motare, move (freq. of movere, move), 
+ *cilla, assumed to mean ' tail.'] A wagtail. 
See Motacilla. 

Motacilla (mo-ta-sil'a), n. [NL.,< L. motacil- 
la, the white water- wagtail : see motacil.'] A 
genus of chiefly Old World oscine passerine 
birds, typical of the family Motacillida; or wag- 
tails. The name has been used with great latitude and 
little discrimination for many small singing birds of all 
parts of the world, as the true SylviidoK or Old World war- 
blers, various MusdcapicUe or Old World flycatchers, many 
of the American Sylmcolidoz or wood-warblers, and for all 
the Motacillidce, including the pipits or titlarks of the 
subfamily Anthince. It is now restricted to the black- 
and-white or pied wagtails, as M. alba, of lithe form, with 
massed coloration of black, white, and ashy, long vibratile 
tail of twelve weak narrow feathers, pointed wings whose 
tip is formed by the first three primaries, and whose inner 
secondaries are long and flowing, and long slender feet 
without specially lengthened or straightened hind claws. 
There are many species, widely distributed in Europe, 
Asia, and other parts of the Old World, one or two of which 
sometimes straggle to America. Thus, M. alba has been 
found in Greenland and M. ocularis in California. 

Motacillid.se (mo-ta-sil'i-de), n. pi. [NL., < 
Motacilla + -ida;."] A family of oscine birds of 
the order Passeres, typified by the genus Mota- 
cilla ; the wagtails. The bill is shorter than the head, 
straight* slender, acute, and notched ; the primaries are 
nine in number ; the inner secondaries are lengthened ; 
the feet are long and slender, with scutellat* tarsi and 
usually long and straightened claw ; and the tall is usually 
as long as the wings. The Motacillida are small insec- 
tivorous birds of terrestrial habits, resembling larks (Alau- 
<//'/") in some respects, but widely separated by the lami- 
nlplantation of the podotheca. Two subfamilies are gen- 
erally recognized, Motacillince and Ant/ana:, or wagtails 
proper and pipits or titlarks. 

Motacillinse (mo'ta-si-li'ne), n. pi. [< Mota- 
cilla + -i<E.] 1. The Motacillida; as a sub- 
family of some other family, as St/lviida!. 2. 
A subfamily of Motacillida:. It contains the wag- 
tails proper as distinguished from the pipits or AntMnce, 
having the point of the wing formed by the first three 
primaries, the tail as long as the wing or longer, and the 
coloration either pied with black and white or varied with 
yellow and green. There are some 50 species, chiefly of 
two leading genera Motacilla and Budytes. See wagtail. 

motacilline (mo-ta-sil'in), a. Pertaining to or 
resembling the Motacillinc?. 

motationt (mo-ta'shon), re. [< LL. motatio(n-), 

< L. motare, keep moving, freq. of movere, move : 
see move.] The act of moving; mobility. Bai- 
ley, 1731. 

motatorious (mo-ta-to'ri-us), a. [< LL. mote- 
tor, a mover, < L. motare, pp. motatus, move: 
see motation.] Vibratory; mobile: said of 
the legs of an insect or arachnid which, on 
alighting, has the habit of moving them rapid- 
ly, keeping the body in a constant state of vi- 
bration. This habit is found espcially among 
certain long-legged spiders and crane-flies. 

Motazilite (mo-taz'i-llt), n. [From an Arabic 
word meaning 'to separate.'] One of a numer- 
ous and powerful sect of Mohammedan heretics, 
who to a great extent denied predestination, 
holding that man's actions were entirely within 
the control of his own will. They held extremely 
heretical opinions with reference to the quality or attri- 
butes of Deity. They appeared a few generations after 
Mohammed, and became one of the most important and 
dangerous sects of heretics in Islam. 

mote 1 (mot), n. [Formerly aiso moat ; < ME. 
mot (dat. mote), < AS. mot, a particle, atom, 
= D. mot, dust; cf. D. moet, a knob, speck, 
mark; Sp. mota, a bur in cloth. Cf. mo(tfl.~\ 
1. A small particle, as of dust visible in a ray 
of sunlight; anything very small. 

As thikke as motes in the sonne-beame. 

Chaucer, Wife of Bath's Tale, 1. 12. 

Why beholdest thon the mote that is in thy brother's 

eye? Mat. vii. 3. 

These Eels did lie on the top of that water, as thick as 

motes are said to be in the sun. 

/. Walton, Complete Angler, p. 159. 

2f. A stain ; a blemish. 

Mote ne spot is non in the. 

Alliterative Poem* (ed. Morris), i. 763. 

3. An imperfection in wool. 4. The stalk of a 
plant. Halliirell. [Prov. Eng.] 5. A match 
or squib with which, before the introduction of 
the safety-fuse, it was customary to ignite the 
charge in blasting. 
mote- (mot), v. [< ME. mote, mot (pret. moste), 

< AS. 'motan (pres. mot, pret. moste; not found 
in inf.) = OS. motan, pres. mot = OFries. pres. 



mote 

mot, prot. iiuixtf = MI). D. oioFtrii = MLG. 

inn/I'll. !,<!. llliitlll =O||<;. lliil'i.ril, Mllli. Ill iii - 

zen, G. muxnen = Goth, motan, gnmutan (pres. 
mot, pret. <//*/< ), bo obliged; relations doubt- 
ful. The word remains imly in the pret. (and 
now also pres.) ;.>/, and in the archaic subj. 
imiti'.] 1. May; might: chiefly in the sub- 
junctive: as, so mote it be. [Archaic.] 2f. 
Must. Sec in nut*. 

Ylt mot he doon bothe right to poore and ryche, 
Al be that hire estaat be nat yllche. 

Chaucer, Good Women, 1. 388. 

At last their wayes so fell, that they mote part. 

Spenser, V. (J., III. Iii. 62. 

mote'^t, " and v. An obsolete form of moot*. 
mote 4 t, n. An obsolete form of moat. 
mote r> t, " [ME., < L. motus, motion, < movere, 
pp.;no<u,move: see mure; of. motion.] Motion. 

The residue is the mene mote for the same day and the 
same houre. Chaucer, Astrolabe, II. 44. 

mote-bellt (mot'bel), . A bell used to summon 
people to a moot or court. 

moteil (mo'ted), a. [< mote* + -ed 2 .] Contain- 
ing motes ; abounding in motes. 

And the old swallow-haunted barns 
Brown-gabled, long, and full of seams 
Through which the mnii-,1 sunlight streams. 

WhiUier, Witch's Daughter. 

moteless(m6t'les), a. [< ME. moteles; < mote* 
+ -leas.} 1. Free of motes. 
In this moteless air were placed test-tubes. 

The American, IV. 298. 

2. Spotless; without blemish. 

That moteles meyny may neuer remwe, 
Fro that maskelez mayster neuer-the-les. 

Alliterative Poems (ed. Morris), 1. 898. 

moteling (mot'ling), n. [< mote* + -ling*.] A 
little mote ; something very small. 

A cloud of Moatlings hums 
Above our heads. 
Sylvester, tr. of Du Bartas's Weeks, li., The Vocation. 

Motella (mg-tel'ii), n. [NL., < F. motelle, the 
eel-pout (of. miistelle, the whistlefish) ; < L. 
mustela, a fish, the eel-pout : see Afustela.] A 
genus of gadoid fishes ; the rocklings. They are 
of small size, with elongate body, small scales, two dorsal 
tins, and one anal. There are several species, of various 
seas, as M. mustela. 

moteret, ('. A Middle English form of mutter. 
Prompt. Parv., p. 30. 

motet (mg-tef), n. [Also motett, mottett; = F. 
motet = Sp. Pg. motete, < It. mottetto (ML. mo- 
tetum), a motet, dim. of motto, a word, saying: 
see mot 2 , motto.] In mime: (a) A vocal com- 
position in somewhat strict polyphonic style, 
having a Biblical or similar prose text, and in- 
tended to be sung in a church service. Origi. 
nally the motet was designed as a contrast to the plain- 
song of the remainder of the service, and probably it 
oftn possessed something of the graceful Intricacy of 
the madrigal. The earliest motets date from about 1300. 
The use of an Instrumental accompaniment is usually 
limited, and often avoided altogether, (h) Any vocal 
work in harmony intended for use in a church 
service ; an anthem, strictly speaking, a motet is in 
medieval style, and an anthem in modern style ; but the 
distinction is often Ignored. 

motettist (mo-tet'ist), n. [< motet, motett, + 
-ist.] A composer or singer of motets. 

motetus (mo-te'tus), n. [ML., also motetum.'] 
In medieval music, a middle voice or voice-part ; 
a mean. 

moth 1 (mdth), n. [< ME. mothe, moththe, < 
AS. moththe = MD. motto, D. mot = MLG. LG. 
muttc = MHG. mottc, matte, G. motte = Icel. 
motti, a moth, = Sw. mott, a moth ; also E. dial. 
mought, < ME. moughte, mowghte, moughthe, < 
AS. mohthe. Perhaps akin to mad 2 , made 2 , 
whence maddock, mawk, a maggot. The forms 
are somewhat discordant ; perhaps two or more 
orig. diff. words are involved.] 1. A nocturnal 
or crepuscular lepidopterous insect; a member of 
the order Lepidoptera and suborder Heterocera. 
Moths resemble butterflies, but lor the most part fly by 
night instead of by day, and their antennae, though exhibit- 
ing great diversity of size and shape, are not rhopalocerous 
or clubbed at the end like those of butterflies. There are 
many families and very numerous genera and species. 
Aside from numberless specific names, moths are distin- 
guished by the leading families under English names. 
Hawk-moths are Sphiitfridce and related families ; butterfly 
hawk-moths, l'raniidce( various popnlarnames),ygtniida; 
clear-winged hawk-moths, .ftffenidcc ; swift-moths, llepia- 
lidce; lappet-moths or silkworm-moths, Bmnbycida; tiger- 
moths, Arctiidff; lackey-moths, Lithonidce; rustic moths, 
Soetuidte; geomctrid moths, Geometridie ; meal-moths, 
PyraKilce; leaf -rolling moths, Torlricida; ermine-moths, 
1'poiwuieutidif; leaf-mining moths, Tineida; plume-moths, 
Alucitidat (or Ptfrophoridte), The tineids include the va- 
rious small ninths injurious to carpets and other woolen 
fabrics. The smaller moths, of several families, are often 
colleeth uly -Irsiu'iiateil Micrnlepidojitrrti. Various small 
white mealy moths are MttM miller*. See the above 



3871 

names, and cuU under rphinz, Bombyx, Cidaria, Kaclei, 
Carpocapsa, and Ayrotu. 

An vtiredy reue thl residue shal ipene, 

That inenye innththe was maUter ynne, In a myntc-whlle. 
Piert Plowman (C), xlli. 216. 

2. Any larva that destroys woolen fabrics. 3. 
Figuratively, one who or that which gradually 
and silently eats, consumes, or wastes anything. 

If I lie left behind, 
A moth of peace, and he go to the war. 

fihak., Othello, I. a 257. 

Bee-hawk moth. Seefce-Aau*. Buffalo moth, a popu- 
lar misnomer of the dennestld beetle Anthrenut tcrophu- 
lariaK, derived from the brown hairy humped larva. See 
cuts under Anthrenus and carpet-beetle. Death's-head, 
deltoid, emperor, harlequin moth. See the qualify- 
ing words. Grape-berry moth. See grapei . Hebrew- 
character moth. See Hebrew, Honeycomb moth. 
See honeycomb. 
moth'-'t, An obsolete variant of motel. 

Featvaso [It.), a little stlcke, a f ease-straw, a tooth-plcke, 
a moth, a little beame. Florio. 

A moth It Is to trouble the mind's eye. 

Skat., Hamlet, L 1. 112. 

moth-blight (m&th'blit), w. A homopterous in- 
sect of the genus Aleurodes or family AUurodi- 
Atx: so called from their resemblance to moths 
and the injury they do to plants. They are re- 
lated to the coccids or scale-insects, and to the 
aphids or plant-lice. 

moth-cicada (mdth'si-ka'dS), n. A homopter- 
ous insect of the family Fleitida-; a flatid. 

moth-eat (moth'et), v. t. To eat or prey upon, 
as a moth eats a garment: only in the past 
participle. 

Rulne and neglect have so moatheaten her (the town of 
Fettipore] as at this day she lies prostrate, and become the 
object of danger and misery. 

Sir T. Herbert, Travels in Africa, p. 61. 

mothed (mdtht), a. [<moth + -ed 2 .] Moth- 
eaten. [Kare.j 

Shredded perfume, like a cloud 
From closet long to quiet vowed, 
With mothed and dropping arras hung. 

Broirning, Paracelsus. 

mothent (mdth'n), a. [< moth + -en 2 .] Full of 
moths; moth-eaten. 

We rake not up olde, mouldie, and mothen parchmentes 
to seeke our progen Hours' names. 

Fvlke against Allen (1580), p. 125. 

mother 1 (muTH'er), n. [With th for orig. d, as 
also in father; < ME. moder (gen. moder), < AS. 
modor, moder, moddor (gen. modor, dat. meder) = 
OS. modar, muodcr = OFries. moder = D. moeder, 
moer = MLQ. moder, LG. moder, mor = OHG. 
MHG. muoter, G. tter = Icel. modhir = Sw. 
Dan. moder (not found in Goth., where the word 
for 'mother' was aithei and for 'father' atta) = 
Olr. mathir, Ir. Gael, mathair = L. mater (matr-) 
(>It. 8p. Pg. madre = Pr. maire = OF. mere, F. 
mere) = Gr. ftirrrip, Doric parr/p = OBulg. unit! = 
Buss, mati = Lith. mote = Pol. matka (with 
dim. term, -to) = OPers. mate, Pers. mdder = 
Skt. in a tn (stem water), mother; a general In- 
do-Eur. word (though absent in Gothic and mod. 
W.), with appar. suffix -tar, of agent, from a 
root usually taken to be / ma, Skt. ma, mea- 
sure or make ; but this is conjectural. Cf. mat- 
ter, from the same ult. root.] 1. A woman in 
relation to her child ; female parent : also used 
of female animals in relation to their offspring. 
Thus brought merlyn the messagers of the kynge to 
his moder place. Merlin (E. E. T. S.), 1. SO. 

Many was the modur son 
To the kyrk with him can fare. 
Itnliiu Hood and the .Von* (Child's Ballads, V. 5). 
Ladies ! thou, Paris, mov'st my laughter, 
They 're deities ev'ry mother's daughter. 
Cotton, Burlesque upon Burlesque, p. 258. (Danes.) 

2. That which has given birth to anything; 
source of anything; generatrix. 

Alas, poor country ! . . . It cannot 
Be called our mother, but our grave. 

Shot., Macbeth, iv. 8. 166. 
Athens, the eye of Greece, mother of arts 
And eloquence. Milton, P. II. , Ir. 240. 

3. A familiar appellation or term of address of 
an old or elderly woman. 

But, mother, I did not come to hear Mr. Rochester's for- 
tune ; I came to hear my own. 

Charlotte Bronte', Jane Eyre, xix. 

4. A title sometimes given to a"n abbess, and 
to other women holding an important position 
in religious or semi-religious institutions. 

Why should these ladies stay so long? They must come 
this way ; I know the queen employs 'em not ; for the rev- 
erend mother sent me word they would all be for the gar- 
den. Beau, and Fl., Philaster, 11. 2. 

5. A hysterical malady. 

O, how this mother swells up toward my heart ! 

Shot., Lear, U. 4. 56. 



mother-in-law 

The mother Is a pestilent, wilful, troublesome sickness. 
MUU(%lbolHM ill. 1. 

6f. Tin- thickest plate, forming the body or 
principal part, of tne astrolabe. 

The moder of thin Astrclable Is the thikkeste plate, 

perced with a large bole, that reueyvytli in hir wumbo 

the thynne plates compowned for diverse clymatz, and 

thi riet shape!) in manere of a net or of a wcbbe of a loppe. 

Chaucer, Astrolabe, L 3. 

Artificial mother. See brooder. - Congregation of the 
Mother of Ood. See congregation.- Every mother's 
son, all, without exception. [Colloq.] Mother Carey's 
chicken. See cAioim i . Mother Carey's goose. See 
goose. Mother church. See church. -- Mother of eela, 
a lycodold fish, Zoarce* anffuillaru, more commonly known 
as eel-pout. Mother of God, a litli- iiiven to the Virgin 
Mary. Mother of herrings, the alike. |Prov. Eng.] 
Mother of the maids, the chief of the ladies of honor at 
the Enl Uh court. Mother of the mawklns. See mal- 
kin. Mother's mark, a birth-mark ; a strawberry-mark, 
mole, or other ntevus. 

mother 1 (muTH'er). v. t. [< mother*, n.] To 
be or act as a mother to ; treat in a motherly 
fashion. 

The queen . . . would have mothered another body's 
child. llweell, Hist. Eng.,p. 170. 

I mothered all his daughters when 
Their mother's life cut short. 

Uarper'i Mag., LXXVIIL 829. 

mother 2 (muTH'er), . [Altered, by confusion 
with mother*, from *mudder,( MD. ntodder, mud, 
dregs, lees, D. moer = MLG. moder, moer, dregs, 
lees, LG. moder (> G. moder, also mutter) = Dan. 
Sw. mudder, mud, mold; akin to mud, q. v.] 

1. Dregs; lees. 

Near a Nymph with an Urn, that divides the High-way, 
And into a Puddle throws Mother of Tea. 

Prior, Down-Hall, at. 15. 

2. A stringy, mucilaginous substance which 
forms in vinegar during the acetous fermenta- 
tion, and the presence of which sets up and 
hastens this kind of fermentation. It is produced 
by a plant, Mycoderma aceti, the germs of which, like those 
of the yeast-plant, exist in the atmosphere. 

Unhappily the bit of mother from Swift's vinegar-barrel 
has had strength enough to sour all the rest [of Carlyle's 
characteristics]. Lowell, Study Windows, p. 124. 

mother 2 (muTH'er), v. i. [< mother?, n.] To 
become concreted, as the thick matter of li- 
quors ; become mothery. 

They olnt their [sheep's] naked limbs with mothrrrd oil. 
Dryden, tr. of Virgil's Oeorglcs, iii. 688. 

mother 3 (muTH'er), n. Same as mouther. 

A sling for a mother, a bow for a boy, 
A whip for a carter. 
Tueser, Five Hundred Points of Good Husbandry. (Latham.) 

mother-cask (muTH'er-kask), n. The cask in 
which acetous fermentation is carried on in the 
manufacture of vinegar. 

mother-cell (muTH'er-sel), n. See cell. 

mother-cloves (muTH'er-klovz), n. See clore*. 

mother-country (muTH'er-kun'tri), n. 1. A 
country which Las sent colonies to other coun- 
tries: used in speaking of it in relation to 
its colonies. 2. One's native country. 3. A 
country as the mother or producer of anything. 

motherhood (muTH'er-hud), n. [ME. *moder- 
hod, moderhede; < mother* + -hood.] The state 
of being a mother. 

Mother-Hnbbard (muTH'er-hub'ard), H. A 
loose full gown worn by women: so named 
from its general resemblance to that considered 
characteristic of "Mother Hubbard" in the 
rimes of "Mother Goose." 

One morning ... he opened his door and beheld the 
vision of a woman going towards the breakfast-room In 
a robe de nuit, but which turned out to be one of the 
Mother Uubbardt which have had a certain celebrity as 
street dresses in some parts of the West. 

C. D. Warner, Their Pilgrimage, p. 61. 

mothering (muTH'er-ing), n. [< mother* + 
-ing*.]ji rural custom of visiting one's pa- 
rents and giving them presents on Mid-Lent 
Sunday : supposed to be derived from the cus- 
tom in former times of visiting the mother 
church on that day. Also called midlenting. 
[Eng.] 

Ill to thee a simnel bring 

'Gainst thou go'st a mothering. 

Herrict, To Dianeme. 

mother-in-law (muTH'er-in-la'),n. 1. The 
mother of one's husband or wife. 2. A step- 
mother. [Now only prov. Eng.] 

To violate so gentle a request of her predecessor, was an 
ill foregoing of a mothrr-in-lav>'t harsh nature. 

Middleton, Anything for a Quiet Life, L 1. 

3. An English drink composed of equal propor- 
tions of old strong ale and bitter ale : so called 
in jocose allusion to the qualifications 'old' and 
' bitter. ' The name has also been recently applied in the 
United States to a similar mixture. 



mother-land 

mother-land (mimi'er-land), . The land of 
one's origin; fatherland; the land whence a 
people originally sprang. 

Their effect upon the poets of our motherland across the 
sea. The Century, XXIX. 607. 

motherless (muTH'er-les), . [< ME. moderles; 

< mother* + -less.} Destitute of a mother; 
having lost a mother: as, motherless children. 

motherliness (rnulH'er-li-nes), re. The quality 
of being motherly. Bailey, 1727. 

mother-liquor (muTH'er-lik"or), n. Same as 
mother-water. 

mother-lode (muTH'er-lod), n. [Translation of 
Mex. veto, madre.] A certain very important 
metalliferous vein in Mexico. The name is also 
sometimes used in California as a designation of what is 
more commonly called the "Great Quartz Vein," a vein- 
like mass oJ quartz which has a very conspicuous outcrop 
and has been traced nearly continuously for a distance of 
fully 80 miles from Mariposa to Amador county. 

mother-love (muTH'er-luv), re. Such affection 
as is shown by a mother. 

motherly (muTH'er-li), a. [< ME. moderlich, 

< AS. moderlic, < moder, mother, + -lie = E. -ly 1 ."] 
1. Pertaining to a mother: as, motherly power 
or authority. 2. Becoming or characteristic 
of a mother; tender; parental; affectionate: 
as, motherly love or care. 

The motherly airs of my little daughters. 

Addison, Spectator. 
3. Like a mother. 

She was what is called a motherly woman, large and ca- 
ressing, and really kind. 

Mrs. Oliphant, Poor Gentleman, xxxi. 

= Syn. Motherly, Maternal, Parental. The same distinc- 
tion holds between the Anglo-Saxon word and the Latin 
ones in this list that is found in the words compared un- 
der brotherly and under fatherly. 
motherlyt (muTH'er-li). adv. [< motherly, a.] 
In the manner of a mother. 

She casteth the rod into the fire, and colleth the child, 
giveth it an apple, and dandleth it most motherly. 

J. Bradford, Letters (Parker Soc., 1853), II. 87. 

mother-lye (muTH'er-lS), re. Same as mother- 
water. 

mother-maid (muTH'er-mad), n. The Virgin 
Mary. 

Thou shalt see the blessed mothermaid 
. . . exalted more for being good 
Than for her interest of motherhood. 

Donne, Progress of the Soul, ii. 

mother-naked (muTH'er-na // ked), a. [X ME. 
modirnakid (= G. mutter-naclct) ; < mother^ + 
naked.'] Naked as at birth ; stark naked. [Ar- 
chaic.] 

I saw a child madir nakid, 
New born the modir fro. 

Hymns to Virgin, etc. (E. E. T. S.), p. 58. 

mother-of-COal(muTH'er-ov-kol'), n. See coal. 

mother-of-pearl (muTH'er-ov-perl'), n. The 
nacreous inner layer of the shell of various 
bivalve mollusks, as of the pearl-oyster, when 
hard, silvery, iridescent, or otherwise sufficient- 
ly beautiful to have commercial value ; nacre. 
It is the substance of which pearls consist, a pearl being a 
mass of it instead of a layer. The large oysters of the In- 
dian seas secrete this nacreous layer of sufficient thickness 
to render their shells available for purposes of trade. The 
genus Meleagrina furnishes the finest pearls as well as 
mother-of-pearl. These shells are found in the greatest 
perfection round the coasts of Ceylon, near Ormuz in 
the Persian Gulf, and in the Australian seas. Mother-of- 
pearl is procured from many different shells, univalve as 
well as bivalve, and is extensively used in the arts, particu- 
larly in inlaid work, and in the manufacture of knife- 
handles, buttons, toys, snuff-boxes, etc. Mother-of- 
pearl work, a kind of embroidery in which many small 
pieces of mother-of-pearl are sewed to the background, 
small holes being bored in them for the purpose. The 
outlines of the flowers, leaves, etc., made by the thin 
mother-of-pearl are indicated by silk or gold thread, in 
which material are also made the light sprays, stems, etc. 

mother-of -thousands (muTH ' er - ov - thou '- 
zaiidz), n. The Kenilworth or Colosseum ivy. 
See ivyl. The name is less frequently applied to a few 
other plants, especially Saxifraga mrmentosa, the straw- 
berry-geranium, of similar habit. [Prov. Eng.] 

mqther-of-thyme (muTH'er-ov-tim'), . The 
wild thyme, Thymus Serpyllum. See thyme. 

mother-of-vinegar (muTH'er-ov-vin'e-gar), n. 
See mother 2 , 2. 

mother-pearlt, Same as mother-of-pearl. 

mother-queen (muiH'er-kwen), n. The mother 
of a reigning sovereign ; a queen-mother. 

With him along is come the mother-queen, 
An Ate, stirring him to blood and strife. 

Shale., K. John, ii. 1. 62. 

mothers (muTH'erz), n. Same as mother-water. 
mothershipt, n. [ME. "moderschipe, moderchep; 
< mother* + -ship.] Motherhood. 

He hathe seyde as myche ther ageyns as he dar do to 
have hyr gode moderchep. Paston Letters, I. 258. 



3872 

mothersome (muiH'er-sum), u. [< mother + 
-some.] Careful or anxious, as a mother is. 
Mrs. Trollope, Michael Armstrong, xv. 
mother-spot (muTH'er-spot), n. A congenital 
spot and discoloration of the skin; a birth-mark. 
See ncevus. 

mother-tongue (muTH'er-tung'), n. 1. One's 
native language. 2. A tongue or language to 
which other languages owe their origin, 
mother-vessel (muTH'er-ves'el), n. A souring- 
vat used in the manufacture of wine-vinegar, 
mother-water (muTH'er-wa"ter), n. In cheni. 
and phar., and in chemical industries, water 
which has contained dissolved substances, and 
which remains after a part or the whole of these 
substances has crystallized or has been precip- 
itated in an amorphous condition. Also called 
mother-liquor, mother-lye, and mothers. 
mother- wit (muTH'er-wit'), re. Native wit; 
common sense. 

For whatsoever mother-wit or arte 
Could worke, he put in proofe. 

Spenser, Mother Hub. Tale, 1. 1138. 
Kath. Where did you study all this goodly speech? 
Pet. It is extempore, from my mother-wit. 

Shak., T. of the S., ii. 1. 265. 

motherwort (muTH'er-wert), n. 1. A labiate 
plant, Leonurus Cardiaca, which grows in waste 
places. It has sometimes been used in amen- 
orrhea. 2f. The mugwort, Artemisia vulgaris, 
formerly used for uterine affections. 

mothery (mu?H'er-i), a. [< mother 2 + -i/ 1 .] 
Containing or of the consistence of mother (see 
mother^); resembling or partaking of the nature 
of mother : as, the mothery substance in liquors. 
Is it not enough to make the clearest liquid in the world 
both feculent and mothery ? Sterne, Tristram Shandy, ii. 19. 

moth-gnat (mdth'nat), H. A dipterous insect 

of the family Psychodidce. 
moth-hawk (mdth'hak), re. The nightjar, 
moth-hunter (mdth'hun'ter), . 1. Alepidop- 

terist. 2. A goatsucker or moth-hawk; any 

bird of the family Caprimulgid<e. See cut under 

goatsucker. 
mothing (moth'ing), re. [<w*A 1 + -#!.] The 

catching of moths. [Rare.] 
He [the entomologist] need not relax his endeavors day 

or night. Mothing is night employment. 

A. S. Packard, Study of Insects, p. 84. 

moth-mullen (inoth'muFen), n. See mullen. 
moth-Orchid (moth'6r"kid), re. Same as moth- 
plant. 

moth-patch (moth'pach), re. A term loosely 
applied to various patches of increased pig- 
mentation in the skin. 

moth-plant (moth'plant), re. A plant of the 
genus Phalcenopsis. 

moth-sphinx (moth'sfingks), re. A moth of the 
family CastniicUe. 

moth-trap (moth'trap), re. In bee-keeping, a de- 
vice to capture the moths whose larvae prey 
upon the bees in the hive, or to capture the 
larvse themselves. 

mothy (m6th'i), a. [< moth^ + -J/ 1 .] Contain- 
ing moths ; eaten by moths. 

An old mothy saddle. Shak., T. of the S., iii. 2. 49. 

motif (F. pron. mo-tef), n. If. A Middle Eng- 
lish form of motive. 

Freres fele sithes to the folke that thei prechen 
Meuen mottfs meny tymes insolibles and fallaces, 
That both lered and lewed of here byleyue douten. 

Piers Plowman (C), xvii. 230. 

2. [F.] A datum, theme, or ground for intel- 
lectual action: used as French. 

The motifs or data which give to the mind its guidance 
in achieving its more difficult tasks are the spatial series of 
muscular and tactual sensations which are caused by the 
motions of the eye for parallel turning, for accommodation, 
and for convergence in near vision. 

G. T. Ladd, Physiol. Psychology, p. 463. 

3. [F.] In music: (a) A figure. (6) A subject 
or theme, particularly one that recurs often in 
a dramatic work as a leading subject. 

motific (mo-tif'ik), a. [< L. motus, motion (see 
mote&), +'facere, make.] Producing or indu- 
cing motion ; motor or mot orial. Good. [Rare.] 

motile (mo'til), a. and n. [< L. as if *motilis, < 
movere, pp. motus, move : see move.] I. a. Ca- 
pable of spontaneous motion; executing auto- 
matic or apparently voluntary movements: as, 
a motile flagellum ; motile^ cilia, spores, etc. 

II. n. One in whose mind motor images are 
predominant or especially distinct. 

This division of men into visuals, audiles, root-ties, . . . 
[i. e., cases where motor representations are the favorite 
furniture of the mind]. Mind, XI. 415. 

motility (mo-til'i-ti), n. [= F. motilite = Pg. 
motilidade, < L. as if *motilita(t-)s, < "motilis, 



motion 

motile : see motile.] The quality of being mo- 
tile ; capability of moving ; capability of auto- 
matic or spontaneous motion : the opposite of 
stability. 

motion (mo'shon), n. [< ME. motion, mocion, < 
OF. motion, F. motion = Sp. mocion = Pg. mo- 
cao = It. mozione, < L. motio(n-), a moving, an 
emotion, < movere, pp. motus, move : see move.] 
1. Change of place; transition from one point 
or position in space to another ; continuous va- 
riation of position: used both concretely, for a 
single change of position, and abstractly, to 
denote such change considered as a character 
belonging to the moving body, and also gener- 
ally for a class of phenomena. 

There's not the smallest orb which thou behold'st 
But in his motion like an angel sings, 
Still quiring to the young-eyed cherubins. 

Shak., M. of V., v. 1. 61. 

Encouraged thus, she brought her younglings nigh, 
Watching the motions of her patron's eye. 

Dryden, Hind and Panther, i. 533. 

The atomists, who define motion to be a passage from 
cue place to another, what do they more than put one sy- 
nonymous word for another? For what is passage other 
than motion? Locke, Human Understanding, III. iv. 3. 

All that we know about motion is that it is a name for 
certain changes in the relations of our visual, tactile, and 
muscular sensations. 

Huxley, Sensation and Sensiferous Organs. 

Consider for a moment a number of passengers walking 
on the deck of a steamer. Their relative motions with re- 
gard to the deck are what we immediately observe, but if 
we compound with these the velocity of the steamer itself 
we get evidently their actual motion relatively to the earth. 
Thomson and Tail, Nat. Philos., 45. 

2f. The power of moving; ability to change 

one's position. 

As long as there is motion in my body, 

And life to give me words, I'll cry for justice ! 

Fletcher, Valentinian, iii. 1. 

Swallow'd up and lost 
In the wide womb of uncreated night, 
Devoid of sense and motion. Milton, P. L., ii. 151. 

3. Style or manner of moving; carriage. 
[Rare.] 

A true-bred English Beau has, indeed, the Powder, the 
Essences, the Tooth-pick, and the Snuff-box, and is as 
Idle ; but the fault is in the Flesh, he has not the motion, 
and looks stiff under all this. 

C. Burnaby, The Reform'd Wife (1700), p. 32, quoted in 
[N. andQ., 7th ser., V. 334. 

4. In astron., angular velocity; amount of an- 
gular movement, especially the rate of move- 

. ment of a heavenly body in longitude : as, the 
mean daily motion of the sun is 3548". 5. In 
mech., any mechanism for modifying the move- 
ment in a machine, or for making certain parts 
change their positions in certain ways; also, the 
action of such mechanism: as, the slide-valve 
motion of an engine ; heart-moiiox in spinning- 
machines, etc. 6f. A puppet, or a similar figure 
mechanically moved ; also, a puppet-show. 

Like dead motions moving upon wires. 

Beau, and Ft., Woman-Hater, iii. 1. 
They say there is a new motion of the city of Nineveh, 
with Jonas and the whale, to be seen at Fleet-bridge. 

B. Jonson, Every Man out of his Humour, ii. 3. 
Like the masters of a puppet-show, they despise those 
motions which fill common spectators with wonder and 
delight. Stcifft, Change in Queen's Ministry. 

7. In philos., any change: a translation of KI- 
vr/atf. There are four kinds of motion, according to Aris- 
totelians generation and corruption, alteration, augmen- 
tation and diminution, and change of place. Bacon distin- 
guishes nineteen kinds of simple motions, which seem to 
be something like elementary forces. 

8. A natural impulse, as of the senses, but es- 
pecially of the mind or soul ; tendency of de- 
sires or passions ; mental agitation. 

When we were in the flesh, the motions of sins, which 
were by the law, did work in our members to bring forth 
fruit unto death. Rom. vii. 5. 

Hee found more motions of Religion in him than could 
be imagined. Quoted in Capt. John Smith's Works, II. 59. 

The people, exorbitant and excessive in all thir motions, 
are prone oftimes not to a religious onely, but to a civil 
kind of Idolatry in Idolizing thir Kings. 

Milton, Eikonoklastes, Pref. 

Catch, in the pauses of their keenest play, 
Motions of thought which elevate the will. 

Wordsicorth, Sonnets, iii. 40. 
Woman's pleasure, woman's pain 
Nature made them blinder motions bounded in a shallower 
brain. Tennyson, Locksley Hall. 

9f. Animal life; the faculty of automatic move- 
ment and sensation or feeling; the exercise 
of such faculty ; something which usually be- 
longs equally to soul and body, though occa- 
sionally confined to one or the other. 

Ay, but to die and go we know not where ; 

To lie in eold obstruction and to rot ; 

This sensible warm motion to become 

A kneaded clod. Shak., M. for M., iii. 1. 120. 



motion 

10. Inclination: disposition; impulse; will: 
as, of one's own iimltim. 

In 111 Edw. IV., 14711, . . . [the LynenweversJ . . . "of 
thalre trenutciou and %vlll have boQndan thnyme and thayre 
craft perpetually to kepe . . . upon Cnrpus I'rliti day a 
pageant. . . ." (Council Book III. f<>. 20" v.) 

York Plays, Int., p. xxvli. 

11. Proposal; institution; incitement. 

Then he snld to hys cardynals, Sirs, make you redy, for 
I woll to Home. Of that DKHVOf) his eardynalles were sore 
abashed and displeased, for they loued nat the Komaynes. 
lirriien, tr. of Froissart s Chron., I. cccxxvl. 
Between the acting of a dreadful thing 
And the first motion, all the interim is 
Like a phantasma, or a hideous dream. 

A'Affl*., J. C., II. 1. 64. 

12. A proposal or proposition formally made; 
specifically, a proposal formally submitted in a 
deliberative assembly, with a view to its discus- 
sion and adoption ; also, the act of submitting 
such a proposal: as, the motion to appoint a 
committee was carried. 

The motion aboute setting forth y fishing ship (caled 
y Frindship) came first from y plantation. 

Bradford, Plymouth Plantation, p. 288. 

Valentine and Hollis held the Speaker down In his seat 
by main force, and read the motion amidst the loudest 
shouts. Macaulay, Nugent's Hampden. 

13. In lair: (<t) An application to a court or 
judge, usually in the course of a legal proceed- 
ing. Whatever is asked of a court by a suitor 
is asked by a motion, (fc) More narrowly, an 
application which is incidental to the progress 
of a cause, as distinguished from the trial or 
investigation of the issue: as, a motion for an 
injunction; a motion to open a default, still fur- 
ther distinctions are made in common parlance. Thus, 
applications on the trial incidental to its progress, such 
as to strike out testimony or to grant a non-suit, are called 
million*, though, being on the trial, and the result being 
included in thejudgment, they are not motion* within the 
rules regulating the formalities required for making mo- 
tions, the record of the decision, the award of costs, or 
the mode of review. ( c ) In some of the United 
States, the paper drawn up by the attorney 
of the moving party, saying, "now comes the 
plaintiff (or defendant)," etc., "and moves," 
etc. (much in the same way that an application 
to the court would be entered in the minutes), 
and filed with the clerk in advance of apply- 
ing to the court, and usually also served on 
the other party. 14. In muxic: (a) The me- 
lodic change of a voice or voice-part from one 
pitch to another ; melodic progression, it is con- 
crete, conjunct, or conjoint when it consists of a single step, 
dwcreteordw/unctwhenofaskip. (ft) The melodic pro- 
gression of any two voice-parts in harmonic 
writing in relation to each other. It is rimilar 
when both voice-parts rise or fall at the same time, paral- 
lel when they together rise or fall by the same interval, 
contrary or opposite when one rises and the other falls, 
oblique when one rises or falls while the other remains sta- 
tionary, and mixed when all varieties occur at once in sev- 
eral parts. In general, between important or conspicuous 
parts, contrary motion is sought. Parallel motion in per- 
fect fifths or octaves is regularly forbidden ; and similar 
motion to a perfect fifth or octave Is employed sparingly. 

15. In the fine arts, the change of place or po- 
sition which, from the attitude represented, a 
figure is portrayed as making. It can only be Im- 
plied from the attitude which prepares the subject for the 
given change, and therefore differs from action. 

16. In med., evacuation of the intestine; alvine 
discharge. 

Shall I lose my doctor? no; he gives me the potions 
and the muttons. Shak., M. W. of W., lit. 1. 106. 

17. In milit. tactics, one of the stages into 
which each movement prescribed in the man- 
ual of arms is divided to facilitate instruction. 
Absolute motion, change of absolute place. Accel- 
erated motion. See accelerate. Active motion, In 
kinexitherapit, motion of the limbs or other parts of the 
patient produced by his own exertion, In contradistinction 
to passive motion, where the limbs are moved by the at- 
tendant, Angular motion. See angular. Brunonlan 
motion. Same as Bromiian movement (which see, under 
Broirnuin). Center of motion, see center^. ciliary 
motion. See ciliary. Consensual motions. Seecon- 
tensual. Contrariety of motion. See contrariety. 
Differential motion. See differential. Direct mo- 
tion, (a) In agtron., increase in the longitude of a star. 
(6) In music. See direct.- Disjunct motion. See def. 
14 (a). Diurnal motion of a planet, elliptic motion, 
equable motion. See the adjectives. Energy of mo- 
tion. See enerinj, ~. Equation Of motion. See equa- 
tion. Focus of mean motion, of true motion. See/o- 
CIM. Harmonious motion, see harmanvni*. Heart- 
motion, in spinning, winding, and analogous machines, 
a motion produced by means of a heart shaped cam. 
Horary motion, the space moved through by a heaven- 
ly body in an hour. Hourly motion, in astron., the 
change of position which takes place in an hour. In- 
testinal, Irrotational motion, see the adjectives. 
Lateral motion, in a railroad-car, the end-play or 
freedom of movement of an axle in its boxes, or the 
freedom of movement between a swing-bolster and a 
truck. Laws Of motion, specifically, Newton's three 
laws of motion, which are as follows: Pirnt Lair. Kvri> 
body eontiniies in its state of rest, or uniform motion in 



3873 

a straight line, except BO far 8 it may he compelled by 
force to change that state. Sfcott4l.au. GbMfiOfBM* 
tinii is proportional to force applied, and takes place in 
the direction nf the straight line in which the force acts. 
Third Law. To every action Ihere is always un equal and 
conirary reaction; or, the mutual actions of any two 
bodies are always equal, and oppositely directed. Line 
of motion. See Jiii- - . Local motion. See local. 
Lost motion, In mech., any difference of motion between 
the driving parts of a motor and the driven machine, or 
between the parts of a machine that communicate mo- 
tion from one to another. It results from faulty construe . 
tion of the parts, or from looseness of the boxes of axles 
or shafting or of a belt, which is thus permitted to slip. 
Natural motion, an involuntary movement of the body, 
as the beating of the heart. Overhead motion, a mech- 
anism, consisting of countershafts and speed-pulley ar- 
rangements of gears or any other contrivances, for increas- 
ing speed or force, Interposed between some prime mover 
or main line of power-transmission and a machine with 
which It communicates. It Is so called because, for con- 
venience in transmission, or that it may not occupy work- 
ing-space, it Is placed over the machine affected by It. Also 
called overhead w*. Paracentric motion, motion to 
or from an attracting centr.-~ParaUel motion, (a) 
See parallel. (b) la music. See dcf. 14 (>>). Passive mo- 
tion. Bee under active motion. Perpetual motion, 
(a) A machine which should do work without exhausting 
any power of doing work that is, its work must not be 
accompanied by any displacement (such as the fall of a 
weight, or the uncoiling of a spring) or transformation 
(such as the combustion of fuel) which could not be un- 
done by a replacement or counter-transformation with- 
out the expenditure of as much work as the machine has 
done. Such a machine is impossible, and contrary to all 
experience ; for power of doing work Is never Increased 



nor diminished. Nevertheless, very many pretended per- 
petual motions have been put forth by deluded or knavish 
inventors. Most of them are of two classes 1st, those 



which depend upon gravity or magnetism, and, 2d, those 
which depend upon centrifugal force or other pressure 
mistaken for moving power. (6) The mode of motion of 
such a machine, (c) By a popular abuse of the trim a 
movement or machine whicn could go on indefinitely by 
its own self-generated power. Thus, if a man should 
pretend to have a wheel which turned upon its bearings 
without resistance, so that it would go on moving indefi- 
nitely, or to have a fluid which, though viscous, was fric- 
tionless, so that its motion, though continually decreas- 
ing, never came to rest, neither claim would be a claim 
to a perpetual motion, nor (however unfounded) would it 
violate any fundamental principle of mechanics. On the 
other hand, a machine (such as has actually been pro- 
Posed) which would not go on moving of itself forever, 
but would require a little external force to overcome fric- 
tion, but which with that little force should be capable 
of doing an indefinite amount of work, would, properly 
speaking, be a perpetual motion. Positive motion, in 
no;-/i., an arrangement of apparatus connecting related 
parts of a machine in such manner that, as one moves, 
the other must move In accordance with the law of the 
relation. For example, the system of gearing which takes 
motion from the lathe-spindle, and imparts motion to 
the lead-screw of a lathe, is a positive motion. On the 
other hand, any mechanism which moves a part of a ma- 
chine in a manner that permits the possibility of some 
subsequent motion, or variation of the motion, of the part, 
through the action of any force not directly transmitted 
by such mechanism, is not positive. Examples of motions 
not positive are the mechanism actuating a tilt-hammer, 
which falls by its gravity ; a spring which by Its elasticity 
recoils ; and pulleys driven by belts in which the motion 
may be varied through slip. Positive-motion loom. 
See Jooml. Primary motion, the diurnal motion of a 
fixed star. Proper motion, in outran., that apparent 
motion or angular velocity of a fixed star which is due to 
a real movement of the star itself relatively to the other 
stars Quantity of motion, momentum, the sum of the 
velocities of all the particles each multiplied by the mass. 
Rectilinear, parabolic, or circular motion, motion 
in a rectilinear, parabolic, or circular path. Relative 
motion, change of relative place. Retrograde mo- 
tion, in aittron., decrease in the longitude of a star. 
Rotational motion. See vortex-motion. Secondary 
motion, the proper motion of a fixed star. Simple har- 
monic motion, a motion like a uniform motion round the 
circumference of a circle which is looked at edgewise : 
"when a point Q moves uniformly in a circle, the perpen- 
dicular Qr drawn from Its position at any instant to a fixed 
diameter A A' of the circle intersects the diameter at a point 
P, whose position changes by a simple harmonic motion." 
Thomson and Tail. Slide-valve motion, in a steam-en- 
gine, broadly, the valve-gear; any one of a great variety of 
devices for imparting to a slide-valve its proper motion for 
induction, cut-off, exhaust, and compression or cushioning 
of steam at the end of the piston-stroke ; specifically, the 
motion of a slide-valve produced by the valve-gear. The 
link-motion is one of the most important of valve-gears. In 
the majority of slide-valve motions the primary movement 
is derived from an eccentric keyed to the crank -shaft. In 
other cases motion is taken from the cross-head. In the 
Joy valve-gear the primary movement is obtained from the 
connecting-rod. See induction, cut-off, exhaust, eccentric, 
and valve-gear, Take-up motion, in a loom, the mech- 
anism which takes up and winds the woven cloth on the 
cloth-beam as fast as the warp is unwound from the warp- 
beam. The name is also given to analogous mechanism 
in many oilier kimisof machines. Violent motiont, in 
nltier writers, a motion impressed upon a body by an ex- 
ternal force. Voluntary motion, motion ensuing on 
an act of will, in contrast with reflex action or motion. 
= Syn. Motion. Moi-> ui'-oi. l/'"v. M otion may be consid- 
ered separate from that \vhieh moves ; movement is al- 
ways connected with the person or thing moving : henre 
we speak of the laws of motion ; of heat as a mode of 
motion ; and of perpetual motittn not of movement in any 
of these cases; hence, also, motion Is the more scientific 
and technical term. Motion is more general and more 
voluntary; movement, more particular and occasional: 
hence we speak of a motion with the hand ; a movement of 
flumps: involuntary movements; the movement* of the 
heavenly Inidies ; the rate of motion or of movement. The 
figurative uses of the two tforrespond to the literal. The 



motive 

rlii'-f uses of move are founded upon the Idea of mov- 
iiiu a piece, In chess or a similar game, for winning the 
game. 

motion (mo'shon), r. [ME. muciimen ; < motion, 
.] I. traitx. 1. To guide by a significant mo- 
tion or gesture, as with the hand or head: as, 
to motion a person to a seat. 2. To propose; 
move. 

Here's Gloucester, a foe to citizens, 

One that still motions war and never peace. 

Shak., 1 lien. VI., I. S. 83. 

II. in trans. 1. To make a significant move- 
or gesture, as with the hand or head: as, 
iiinliiiii to one to take a seat. 2. To make 
a proposal ; offer plans. [Bare.] 

Rychard Stratton told me that whyll he was in servyse 
with Whethyll, John Redwe mocyond hym onys myche 
aftyr this intent, etc. Ponton Letteri, III. 158. 

Well hast thou motion'd, well thy thoughts employ'd. 

Milton, P. L., ix. 229. 

motional (mo'shon-al), a. [< motion + -al.] 
Of or pertaining to motion ; characterized by 
(certain) motions: specifically applied to par- 
ticular imitative diseases exhibiting peculiar 
muscular actions, as tarantism. 

motion-bar (mo'shon-bar), w. In a steam-en- 
gine, a guide-bar or -rod. K. H. Knight. 

motion-distortion (mo'shqn-dis-tdr'shon), n. 
A distortion of a line of a spectrum due to rela- 
tive motions of the parts of the source of light. 

motionert (m6'shon-er),*H. [< motion + -er 1 .] 
A mover. 

Without respect* of any worldly rewarde or thanke, to 
referre the fruiet and successe of his labours to God the 
mocioner, the autour, and the woorker of all goodness. 

l-ilnll. To Queen Catherine. 

motion-indicator (mo'shon-in-'di-ka-tor), n. 
A n apparatus for showing the speed or the num- 
ber of revolutions of any machine or part of a 
machine in a given time. It differs from a counter 
in that the latter merely registers movement, indepen- 
dently of time. 

motionistt (mo'shou-ist), w. [< motion + -'*<.] 
One who makes a motion. 
Milton [uses] mationist. F. Ball, False 1'hilol., p. 57. 

motionless (mo'shqn-les), a. [< motion + -less.] 
Without motion ; being at rest. 

motion-mant (mo'shon-man), n. An exhibitor 
of a puppet-show. See motion, n., 6. 

And travel with young Goose the motion-man. 

B. Jonton, New Inn, L 1. 

motivate (mo'ti-vat), v. t.; pret. and pp. moti- 
vated, ppr. motivating. [< motire + -ate*.] To 
motive ; act as a motive or as the inciting cause 
of; induce. 

Tlie expulsions from Southern Russia have not been 
motivated by any new circumstances. 

American Hebrew, XXXVI. 88. 

motivation (mo-ti-va'shon), n. [< motivate + 
-i<>.] The act or manner of motivating; the 
act or process of furnishing with an incentive 
or inducement to action. 

motive (mo'tiv), a. and n. [I. a. = Sp. Pg. It. 
wotiro, < ML. motivus, serving to move, motive, 

< L. monere, pp. motiix, move : see move. II. n. 

< ME. motif, < OF. motif, F. motif = Sp. Pg. It. 
motivo, < ML. motivum, a motive, moving cause, 
neut. of motivus, serving to move : see I.] I. a. 
Causing motion ; having power to move some 
one or something; tending to produce motion. 

Generals, even In spiritual things, are less perceived and 
less motive than particulars. 

Jer. Taylor, Works (ed. 1835), I. T. 

Motive power or force. () The whole power or force 
acting upon any body or quantity of matter to move it. 
(6) Moving or impelling force In a figurative sense. 

Such men as Spenser are not sent Into the world to be 
part of its motive power. 

Lowell, Among my Books, 2d ser., p. 166. 

(c) The department which has to do with the care and 
maintenance of the locomotives of a railway company : as, 
the superintendent of the motive poirer. 

II. w. 1. A mental state or force which in- 
duces an act of volition; a determining im- 
pulse; specifically, a desire for something; a 
gratification contemplated as the final cause 
of a certain action of the one desiring it. The 
term motive is also loosely applied to the object desired. 
The noun motive, in this sense, was brought Into general 
use by writers influenced by Hobbes (though he uses the 
adjective onlyX who held that men's actions are always 
governed by the strongest motive, and denied the freedom 
of the will. It is now, however, in common literary and 
conversational use, apart from any theory. 

What moves the mind, in ever)- particular instance, to 
determine its general power of directing to this or that 
particular motion or rest? And to this I answer, the mo- 
tive, for continuing in the same state or action is only the 
present satisfaction in It; the motive to change is always 
some uneasiness. 

Locke, Human Understanding, II. xxi. 29. 

Without another life, all other motives to perfection will 
be insufficient. Bp. Atterbury, Sermons, I. xi., l"ref. 



motive 

By motive, I mean the whole of that which moves, ex- 
cites, or invites the mind to volition, whether that be one 
thing singly, or many things conjunctly. 

Edwards, On the Freedom of the Will, i. 2. 

When the effect or tendency of a motive is to determine 
a man to forbear to act, it may seem improper to make 
use of the term motive ; since motive, properly speaking, 
means that which disposes an object to move. We must, 
however, use that improper term, or a term which, though 
proper enough, is scarce in use, the word determinative. 

Bentham, Introd. to Morals and Legislation, x. 3, note. 

2. The design or object one has in any action ; 
intention; purpose; the ideal object of desire. 

The conversion of the heathen was the motive to the 
settlement. Bancroft, Hist. U. S., I. 20. 

We must measure morality by motives, not by deeds. 

a. Spencer, Social Statics, p. 250. 

3. One who or that which is the cause of some- 
thing ; an originator. 

It hath fated her to be my motive 
And helper to a husband. 

Shak.; All's Well, iv. 4. 20. 
Nor are they living 
Who were the motives that you first went out. 

Shak., T. of A., v. 4. 27. 

4f. Movement. 

Her wanton spirits look out 
At every joint and motive of her body. 

Shak., T. and C., iv. 5. 57. 

5. Prevailing design. Specifically (a) In music, 
same as subject. (b) In the fine arts (I) the prevailing 
idea in the mind of an artist, to which he endeavors to 
give expression in his work ; or (2) a subject or example 
prominently characteristic of any work or part of a work, 
and elaborated or often repeated with more or less varia- 
tion. 

The Panathenaic procession furnished Pheidias with a 
series of sculptural motives, which he had only to express 
according to the principles of his art. 

J. A. Symonds, Italy and Greece, p. 218. 

6f. Motion; proposition. 

Suche motyues the! moeue this maistres in her glorie, 
And maken men in mysbileue that muse moche on her 
wordes. Piers Plowman (B), x. 113. 

Leading motive. See leading^. = Syn. 1. Motive, Reason, 
Inducement, Incentive, Impulse, consideration, prompting, 
stimulus. The differences among the first five of these 
words are suggested by the derivations. A motive is that 
which moves one to act, addressing the will, as though di- 
rectly, and determining the choice; it is the common 
Shilosophical term, and may be collective : as, the whole 
eld of motive. A reason is that which addresses the ra- 
tional nature by way of argument for either belief or 
choice. An inducement leads one on by his desire for 
good : as. to hold out an additional inducement. An in- 
centive urges one on like martial music. An impulse drives 
one on, but is transitory. 

motive (mo'tiv), v. t,; pret. and pp. motived, 
ppr. motiving. [< motive, .] To act on as a 
motive, or with the force of a motive ; prompt; 
instigate. [Recent.] 

When he has satisfied himself . . . that it was made by 
such a person as he, so armed and so motived, . . . the 
problem is solved. Emerson, Essays, 1st ser., p. 10. 

motiveless (mo'tiv-les), a. [< motive + -less.'] 
Having no motive or aim ; objectless. 

Though inconceivable, a motiveless volition would, if 
conceived possible, be conceived as morally worthless. 

Sir W. Hamilton. 

motivelessness (mp'tiv-les-nes), . The char- 
acter of being motiveless. 

That calm which Gwendolen had promised herself to 
maintain had changed into sick motivelessness. 

George Eliot, Daniel Deroada, xxiv. 

motivity (mo-tiv'i-ti), n. [< motive + -ity."] 
The power of moving; form of motion or loco- 
motion. 

The active power of moving, or, as I may call it, motiv- 
ity. Locke, Human Understanding, II. xxiii. 28. 

motley (mot'li), . and a. [Formerly also mot- 
ly ; <ME. motteleye, mottelay, mottelee, motle, a 
mixture of colors, a party-colored dress ; of un- 
certain origin. According to Skeat, < OF. 
mattele, clotted, curdled, cf. equiv. mattonne, 
curdled, < mattes, curds, < G. dial. (Bav.) matte, 
curds ; but the sense does not suit. In meaning 
the word motley is like medley ; but the forms 
disagree. The supposed derivation from W. 
mudliw, a changing color, < mud, change, + lliw, 
a stain, hue, and that from W. ysmot, a patch, 
spot, do not suit the conditions. Hence mottle.] 
I. n. 1. A habit made of pieces of cloth of 
different colors in glaring contrast : the usual 
dress of the jester or professional fool. 
A worthy fool ! motley 's the only wear ! 

SAa*., As you Like it, ii. 6. 34. 
Hence 2. A jester; a fool. 

Will you be married, motley! 

Shak., As you Like it, iii. 3. 79. 
3. Any mixture, as of colors. 

With notes to each and all, interlacing the pages into a 
motley of patchwork. 

D. G. Mitchell, Wet Days at Edgewood. 

A motley of white and gray on the head, neck, shoul- 
ders, and back. Amer. Nat., May, 1889, p. 449. 



3874 
Man of motleyt, a man dressed in motley ; a fool. 

Never hope, 
After I cast you off, you men of motley. 

Fletcher, Wit without Money, iii. 4. 

II. <i. 1. Party-colored; variegated in color ; 
consisting of different colors : as, a motley coat. 

Expence and after-thought, and idle care, 
And doubts of motley hue, and dark despair. 

Dryden. 

2. Composed of or exhibiting a combination of 
discordant elements; heterogeneous in compo- 
sition; diversified. 

Inquire from whence this motley style 
Did first our Roman purity defile. - 

Dryden, tr. of Persius's Satires, i. 158. 

Motley color, in ceram., a kind of metallic luster given 
to some kinds of English pottery, in the seventeenth cen- 
tury and later, by dusting them with powdered lead and 
manganese. 

motleyt (mot'li), v. t. [< motley, n. Cf. mot- 
tle."] To variegate; give different colors to. 

The course of th' holy Lakes he leads, 
With thousand Dies bee motleys all the incudes. 

Sylvester, tr. of Du Bartas's Weeks, ii., Eden. 

motley-minded (mot'li-mm'ded), a. Having 
a mind or character like that of a profes- 
sional fool or clown ; exhibiting incoherence 
in thought ; having thoughts of a motley char- 
acter. 

This is the motley-minded gentleman. 

Shak., As you Like it, v. 4. 41. 

motlyt, . and a. An obsolete spelling of mot- 
ley. 

motmot (mot'mot), n. [Also momot; said to be 
so named from the bird's note, which sounds like 
mot-mo t, slowly repeated.] A bird of the family 
Momotidce or Prionitidw; a sawbill. These birds 
are peculiar to America, inhabiting tropical and subtropi- 
cal forests, and ranging north nearly or quite to Texas. 
The average size is about that of the jays, to which they 
have some superficial resemblance ; but they are more like 
the bee-eaters of the Old World, Meropid<e, having a simi- 
lar Blender form, with long tail, of which the middle fea- 
thers project beyond the rest and are spatulate, forming a 
kind of racket. The bill is serrate, the coloration is varie- 
gated, chiefly greenish and bluish. These birds are of soli- 
tary habits, like kingfishers, to which they are closely re- 
lated ; they feed upon reptiles, insects, and fruits. See 
cut under Sfomotus. 

motq (mo'to), n. [It., = Pg. moto, < L. motus, 
motion: see mote 5 .} In music: (a) Motion; the 
direction in which the harmonic parts move : 
as, moto contrario (contrary motion). See mo- 
tion, 14. (b) Energetic or spirited movement ; 
spirit: as, con moto (with spirited movement). 

motograph (mo'to-graf), n. [< L. motus, mo- 
tion, + Gr. ypdfetv. write .] A form of telegraph- 
er telephone-receiver, invented by Edison, de- 
pending for its action on the variation of the 
friction between two conductors in relative mo- 
tion, when a current of electricity is passed from 
one to the other across the surface of contact. 
A revolving drum is interposed in the circuit, one of the 
electrical connections being made through a movable ter- 
minal in contact with the surface of the drum. This con- 
tact-piece is connected to a recording lever or to a telephon- 
ic diaphragm, and, in consequence of the variations of the 
friction produced by the electric currents, causes the lever 
to record, or the diaphragm to repeat, the message. 

motographic (mo-to-graf' ik), a. [< motograph 
+ -ic.] Of or pertaining to the motograph. 

There are models of ... the automatic and autographic 
telegraph, the motographic translator and repeater. 

Elect. Rev. (Amer.), XIV. 5. 

moton 1 t, n. An obsolete form of mutton. 

moton 2 t (mo'ton), n. [OF. (?).] A piece of ar- 
mor of the fifteenth century, forming part of the 
defense of the arm and shoulder. Perhaps (as 
thought by Meyrick) it was a gusset for the 
armpit. 

motonert, n. See muttoner. 

mptophone (mo'to-fon), n. [< L. motus, mo- 
tion, + Gr. (jxjvj/, voice.] A sound-engine actu- 
ated by aerial sound-waves, invented by Edison . 
Vibrations of a diaphragm, produced, as in the phonograph, 
by sound-waves, are converted into motion of rotation by a 
stylus and ratchet-wheel. 

motor (mo'tor), n. and a. [= F. moteur = Sp. 
Pg. motor = It. motore, a motor, < LL. motor, 
one who moves (applied to one who rocks a 
cradle), < L. movere, pp. motus, move : see move.'} 
I. n. 1. One who or that which imparts motion ; 
a source or originator of mechanical power ; a 
moving power, as water, steam, etc. 

These bodies likewise, being of a congenerous nature, 
do readily receive the impressions of their motor. 

Sir T. Browne, Vulg. Err., ii. 2. 

Specifically 2. In math., an operator or a 
quantity which represents the displacement of 
a rigid body. It involves the designation of a particu- 
lar line in space, and the association with it of a length and 
an angle. 



mottetto 

This is in complete analogy with his [Clifford's] intro- 
duction of the word motor to embrace the species twist 
and wrench. The Academy, June 29, 1889, p. 452. 

3. Iii mtieli., i\ prime mover; a contrivance for 
developing and applying mechanically some 
natural force, as heat, pressure, weight, the 
tide, or the wind ; a machine which transforms 
the energy of water, steam, or electricity 
into mechanical energy: as, an electric mo- 
tor. See machine, 2. 4. In anat., specifical- 
ly, a motor nerve Air-motor, a machine driven by 
compressed air. Such machines are constructed like 
steam-engines, and use the air expansively or non-expan- 
sively, according to the character of the engine. They 
are, strictly speaking, heat-engines, in which the heat nat- 
urally existing in air, or this in connection with heat de- 
rived from the work of compression, is converted into 
outer work. When the air is used expansively, the ex- 
pansion is regulated by cut-off valve-gear, as in a steam- 
engine. Expansion is, however, not generally so available 
as with steam, on account of the chilling of the air during 
the period of expansion and consequent freezing of pre- 
cipitated aqueous vapor, which clogs the valve-ports with 
ice, and seriously interferes with the working of such en- 
gines. This difficulty is avoided by heating the air prior 
to its induction to the cylinder of the engine, but, except 
in the so-called caloric engine, this principle has not been 
widely adopted. See caloric engine (under caloric), ice-ma- 
chine, and cut under air-engine. Domestic motor, a 
small motor used for pumping water, orrunninga sewing- 
machine, etc. Electric motor. See electric. First 
motor, a prime motor. Hydraulic motor. See hy- 
draulic. Motor oculi, the third pair of cranial nerves, 
giving motor impulse to most of the muscles of the eye. 
Also called oculomotor. See second cut under brain. 
II. o. 1. Giving motion ; imparting motion. 

Asceticism throws away a great power given by God to 
help and improve us. It abandons to evil what might be 
a vast motor force leading to good. 

J. F. Clarke, Self-Culture, p. 392. 

2. Inphysiol., conveying from the centertoward 
the periphery an impulse that results or tends to 
result in motion, as a nerve : opposed to sensory. 
3. Of or pertaining to or acting through the 
motor nerves or tracts. 

A vigorous motor system, ready to act, and to act ener- 
getically, is a condition of a rapid development of will. 

J. Stdly, Outlines of Psychol., p. 598. 

Many cases of motor disturbance occur without the dis- 
turbance of sensation in the same extremity. 

G. T. Ladd, Physiol. Psychology, p. 284. 

Motor dynamo, a dynamo used as a motor. When one 
dynamo is being driven by another the driver is sometimes 
called the motor dynamo. Motor nerve, any nerve whose 
function is to excite muscular contraction, and thus effect 
movement in an animal body. Most nerves are of mixed 
character, or sensorimotor, effecting both motion and sen- 
sation. See vaiomotor. Motor printer, a printing tele- 
graph in which the mechanism is moved by electric, steam, 
or other motive power. 

motor-car (mo'tor-kar), n. A car which car- 
ries its own propelling mechanism, as an elec- 
tric motor, pneumatic engine, steam-engine, 
etc., and is therefore a locomotive. Many such 
cars have sufficient power to draw other cars 
attached to them. 

motorial (mo-to'ri-al), a. [< LL. motorius, 
motory (see motory), -H -al.~] Of or pertaining 
to motion; specifically, of or pertaining to a 
motor nerve; motor, as a nerve: as, motorial 
nerve-fibers; a motorial impulse. 

Recent observers have described the nbrilte of motor 
nerves as terminating in motorial end-plates. 

IT. B. Carpenter, Micros., 682. 

The motorial disorder in this disease [paralysis agitans] 
becomes bilateral. Pop. Sci. Mo., XXV. 175. 

motorium (mo-to'ri-um), n. ; pi. motoria (-a). 
[NL., < LL. motorium, the power of motion, 
neut. of motorius, moving: see motory."] That 
part of an organism which moves or is moved, 
as distinguished from that which feels, senses, 
or perceives: the opposite of sensorium. Since 
a sensorium has no determinable physical location, the 
motorium is the entire physical organism. Motorium 
commune, a hypothetical common center in the brain 
for motor impulses. 

motorius (mo-t6'ri-us),M.; pl.motorii(-l'). [NL., 
< LL. motorius, moving : see motory."] In anat. 

and physiol., same as motor, 4 Motorius oculi. 

Same as motor oculi or oculomotor. More fully called ner- 
vus motorius oculi. 

motorpathic (mo-tor-path'ik), a. [< motor- 
path-y + -ic.'} Of or belonging to motorpathy 
or the movement-cure ; kinesitherapeutic. 

motorpathy (mo-tor'pa-thi), . [Irreg. < L. 
jwofor, a mover (see motor), + Gr. -jrafeo^Ordftjf, 
suffering: eeepatnos.'] In med., the movement- 
cure; kinesitherapy. 

motory (mo'to-ri), a. [= Pg. motorio, < LL. 
motorius, moving, < L. motor, mover: see mo- 
tor, .] Same as motor or motorial. 

mottH. An obsolete preterit of mete. 

mott 2 t, n. An obsolete form of mot z . 

motteleyt, . and a. An obsolete form of motley. 

mottetto (mot-tet'to), n. [It.: see motet.'] 
Same as motet. 



mottle 

mottle (raot'l), i 1 . t.; prel. and pp. Hu>ttlril,pnr. 
iiiitttUtii/. \ < iHiittvy, taken us "mottlt/.'] To 
mark with spots or blotches of different colors 
or shades of color ; blotch; variegate; cloud. 



u grotesque 
Mottle with mazy .shades the orchard's slupe. 

Southey, Roderick, xv. 

mottle (mot'l), w. [< mottle, .] The pattern 
or arrangement of spots and cloudings forming 
a mottled surface, especially in marble or in 
the natural veining of wood. 

mottled (mot'ld), p. a, 1. Spotted; variegated; 
marked with blotches of color, of unequal in- 
tensity, passing insensibly into one another. 

The strong peculiarity of Harvey's style : . . . thought 
pressed on thought, sparkling with imagery, mottled with 
learned allusions, and didactic with subtle criticism. 

/. D'lnraeli, Amen, of Lit, II. 111. 

Bless the mottled little legs of that there precious child 
(like Canterbury brawn, his own dear father says). 

Dicker*, Martin Chuzzfewit, \li\. 

Specifically 2. In entom., marked with irreg- 
ular spots, generally formed of hairs of a dif- 
ferent color from the ground ; having two or 
more colors irregularly mingled in spots, but 
not running into one another. 3. In metal., 
an epithet noting the appearance of pig-iron 
when in a stage intermediate between the 
stages designated as the white and the gray. 
In mottled iron the whiter parts of the metal are dissemi- 
nated through the grayer, so that the whole has a spotted 
or mottled appearance. The grayest iron contains the lar- 
gest amount of graphitic carbon ; the whitest iron the least 
graphitic and the moat combined carbon. Mottled calf. 




mottle-faced (mot ' 1 - fast), a. Having a mot- 
tled face. 

The mottle-faced gentleman spoke with great energy 
and determination. Dickens, Pickwick, xliii. 

mottling (mpt'ling), n. [Verbal n. of mottie, v."] 
1 . Variegation of a surface by irregular spots. 
2. pi. In entom., the marks of a mottled sur- 
face. 

motto (mot'6), n.; pi. motto* or mottoes (-oz). 
[< It. motto (= F. mot), a saying, motto: see 
mot 2 ."] 1. A short pithy sentence or phrase, 
sometimes a single wordj used to indicate the 
tenor of that to which it is attached (as an es- 
say or a treatise), or adopted as expressive of 
one's guiding idea or principle, or appended to 
a device or a coat of arms. In heraldry the motto is 
carried on a scroll, alluding to the bearing or to the name 
of the bearer, or expressing some principle or tenet. The 
heraldic motto, strictly considered, is not hereditary, but 
personal ; but it is frequently used by successive bearers of 
the escutcheon to which it belongs, especially when, as is 
often the case, it refers to some part of the achievement. 

2. The poetry or verse contained in a motto- 
kiss or paper cracker. 

Then we let off paper crackers, each of which contained 
a motto. W. S. tiillvrt, Ferdinand and Elvira. 

3. A motto-kiss. [U. S.] Motto indention. See 
indention^. 

mottoed (mot'od), a. [< motto + -ed 2 .] Hav- 
ing a motto ; bearing a motto : as, a mottoed 
scroll. 

motto-kiss (mpt'6-kis), H. A candy or sweet- 
meat wrapped in fancy paper and having a scrap 
of love-poetry or a motto inclosed with it. used 
for the amusement of children. In the United 
States called motto simply. 

mottramite (mot'ram-it), n. [< Mottram (see 
def . ) + -ite 2 .] A hydrous vanadate of lead and 
copper occurring as a crystalline incrustation 
of a velvet-black color on sandstone at Mottram 
in Cheshire, England. 

motty (mot'i), a. [< mot 1 , mote 1 , + -y l .~\ Con- 
taining motes. [Scotch.] 
The motty dust-reek raised by the workmen. //. MiUer. 

mou (mO), n. A Scotch form of mouth. 

mouch (mouch), v. i. [Also mooch; var. of 
Michel, q. v.] 1. To skulk; sneak; move 
slowly and stupidly. See miehe 1 . [Slang.] 

These hedge fellows are slow and dull ; they go mouth- 
ing along as if they were croaking themselves. 

Mayhew, London Labour and London Poor, I. 472. 

2. To live a sort of semi-vagabond life, without 
a fixed place of abode, selling water-cresses 
and other wild produce. See moucher. [Slang.] 
moucharaby (mS-shar'a-bi), n. [F.] In 
itrch.: (a) A balcony inclosed with latticework 
in a customary Oriental fashion, in such a man- 
ner that a person upon it can see the street 
without being seen. Also called la ttice-window. 
See cut under lut'iei-u-iiulow. (6) A balcony 
with a parapet and with machicolations, often 
embattled, projecting from the face of a wall 
over a gate, to contribute to the defense of 
the entrance. See cut in next column. 



Moucharaby. Carfebrooke Castle, Isle of Wight. 

mouchard (mS-shar'), n. [P., a police-spy, < 
mouehe, a fly, spy, esp. a police-spy: see 
mouehe.'] In France, a police-spy. 

mouehe (m6sh), . [P., fit. a fly, < L. musca, fly : 
see Musca."] A patch worn as an ornament. 

moucher (mou'cher), n. [Var. of micher. ~] 1. 
One who mouches: same as micher. 2. One 
who lives a semi-vagabond life, selling water- 
cresses, wild flowers, blackberries, and other 
things that may be obtained in country places 
for the gathering. [Slang.] 

The moucher sells the nests and eggs of small birds to 
townsfolk who cannot themselves wander among the 
fields, but who love to see something that reminds them 
of the green meadows. As the season advances and the 
summer comes he gathers vast quantities of dandelion 
leaves, parsley, sow-thistle, clover, and so forth, as food 
for the thousands of tame rabbits kept in towns. 

1'iiU Mall Gazette. 

mouchoir (mB-shwor'), n. [P. (= Sp. mocador 
= It. moccatore (see moccador, muckender), < 
moucher, < ML. muccare, blow the nose, < L. 
muccus, mucus, mucus (of the nose): see mucus.'] 
A pocket-handkerchief. 

Whenever the dear girl expected his Lordship, hertnou- 
choirs, aprons, scarfs, little morocco slippers, and other 
female gimcracks were arranged. 

Thackeray, Vanity Fair, xlviiL 

moudiwarpt, moudiwartt, Obsolete vari- 
ants of moldwarp. 

mouflet, An obsolete form of muffle 1 . 

mouflon, moufflon (m8f 'Ion), n. [Also mufflon ; 
< P. mouflon (see def.), prob. < G. muffel, a dog 
or other animal with large hanging lips: see 
muff 1 , muffle 1 ."] A wild sheep; an animal of 
the genus Otis, particularly the musimon, 0. 
musimon. This Is a species inhabiting the mountains 
of southern Europe, as in Greece, Sardinia, and Corsica. 
Though the fleece is not woolly, the animal is closely re- 
lated to the common sheep, 0. aries, with which it breeds 
freely, and to various other kinds, as the argall, the big- 
horn, etc. Ruffed mouflon. Same as aoudad. 

mought 1 (mout). An obsolete or dialectal form 
of might*, preterit of may 1 . 

mought 2 , n. An obsolete or dialectal variant 
of moth 1 . 

mouhairt, n. An obsolete form of mohair. 

mouiik, . Same as muzhik. 

mould, mouldability, etc. See mold, etc. 

moulet, v. An obsolete form of mold 2 . 

mpulin (mo-Ian'), n. [< F. moulin, a mill, = 
Sp. molino = Pg. moinho sc It. molino, < LL. 
molinum, molina, a 
mill: see mill 1 '} 
A nearly vertical 
shaft or cavity 
worn in a glacier by 
the running down 
of water, which 
sometimes in the 
hot days of sum- 
mer, on the large 
glaciers, forms con- 
siderable rivulets 
on the surface of 
the ice. These run 
until they reach a crev- 
ice, down which they 
descend and gradually 
wear a more or lew 
cylindrical cavity, 
through which the wa- 
ter pours in a subgla- 
cial cascade. 

A remarkable phe- 
nomenon, seen only on 
the greater glaciers, is 
that presented by the 



mound 

throw, < m<iiiliii, a mill: see iinniliii.\ The op- 
eration of reeling off, twisting, ana doubling 
raw silk. 

moulinet ( mo'li-net ), n. [< P. mouliiu-t, a mill- 
stonc, drum, capstan, dim. of moulin, a mill: 
see iiiniilin.} 1. The drum or roller of a e;ip- 
stan, crane, etc. 2. A form of windlass used 
for bending the great crossbow. See cranequin, 
and cut in preceding column. 3. A kind of 
turnstile. 4. A circular swing of a sword or 
saber. 

moult 1 , moultent, etc. See molt 2 , etc. 

moult'-', a. [< P. moult, much, < L. multus, much : 
see mii/titiiilf.] Much; many. [Rare.] 

On the eve we went to the Franciscans' Church to hear 
the academical exercises ; there were moult and mtiult 
clergy. Walpole, Letters (1789), I. 89. 

moun 1 1, >. . [< ME. mown, mowen, pi. pres. ind. 
of in, ni : see //"///'.I To be able; may; must. 
See moic 3 . 

Moun ye drynke the cuppe whiche I schal drlnke? . . . 
Thel seyu to him, we moun. Wyclif, Mat. xx. 22. 




Cnsbow,A,baH,0. ami Moulinet fo, 
bending the bow, I 4 lh and 15 th centu- 

riej. 

m/\tiljnacra fmK'Mn , arbalist with moultnet in place and 

mouiinage (mo nn- ad , ust< . d , rMd , , bend the bow; , 

arhalist without the moulinet, ride 
view: e, rooultnet on a larger scale, as 
it looks when the bow is bint. 



,,1 

MB, ATOM Guide, 

[Introd., Ixiv. 



), II. [r .. \ niOII- 

.ill 'll 
1 1 III r. mill Silk, 



un), v. i. [Sc. also maun; < ME. moic- 
nen, mpunen, < Icel. munu, will, shall, must; a 
preterit-present verb.] Must. [North. Eng. 
and Scotch.] 

mouncelt, [ME., < OF. moncrl, mmuel, man- 
eel, etc., a little hill, a heap, < LL. monticellus, 
dim. of mniiHi-iilii.i. a little hill or mountain, 
dim. of mon(t-)s, a hill, mountain: see mount 1 . 
Cf. monticle, monticule.'] A heap; a pile. 

Thel lepe to fight with the crowned lyon that badde hi* 
bestes departed in to xvilj mounceh. 

Merlin (E. E. T. S.\ lit 413. 

mouncht, v. An obsolete form of munch. 

mound 1 (mound), n. [< ME. mound, a protec- 
tion, a helmet, might, < AS. mund, the hand, a 
hand (as a measure), hence (like the e<juiv. L. 
mm tun. hand) power, protection, guardianship, 
esp. in comp., in legal use; not found in sense 
of 'hillj' but cf. muiid-beorh, a protecting hill; 
= OFries. mund, mond = OHG. munt = Icel. 
mund, protection; perhaps ult. related to L. 
mon(t-)s, a hill, mountain, > E. mount 1 , with 
which mound 1 has been somewhat confused: see 
mount 1 ."] If. A protection; restraint; curb. 

Such as broke through all mound* of law. 

Sunlit, Sermons. 

2f. A helmet. Weber, Metr. Rom., L 3f. 

Might; size. 

Fourti thousand men thai founde, 
To bataile men of grete mounde. 

Arthour and Merlin, p. 138. (JlaUiutll.) 

4. An artificial elevation of earth, as one raised 
as a fortification or part of a fortification, or 
as a funeral monument ; a bank of earth ; 
hence, a bulwark ; a rampart or fence. 

This great gardln compast with a mound. 

Speruer, F. Q., II. vii. 66. 

God. had thrown 
That mountain as his garden mound high raised. 

Milton, r. L., IT. 226. 
I thought of a mound in sweet Auburn, 
Where a little headstone stood. 

Loirrll, First Snow-fall. 

6. A natural elevation presenting the appear- 
ance of having been raised artificially; a hil- 
lock; a knoll. 

He pointed to the field, 

Where, huddled here and there on mound and knoll, 
Were men and women staring and aghast. 

Tennyson, Geraint. 

6. In ci/ engin., in excavations, a piece of the 
original ground left at intervals to show the 
depth. Indian mounds, earthworks erected by the ab- 
origines of North America, the so-called mound-builders. 
They are especially numerous in that part of the United 
States which lies between the Great Lakes on the north and 
the Gulf of Mexico on the south, and is bounded on the 
west by the States lining the western bank of the M ississip- 
pi river, and on the east by a line drawn through the mid- 
dle of the States of New York and Pennsylvania and ex- 
tending southward so as to include the greater part of the 
two Carollnas and the whole of Georgia and Florida. Some 
of these works are very extensive and of varied character, 
consistingof moundsortumuli, either conical ortruncated, 
together with embankments or walls of earth or stone, 
which Inclose areas of great size, and not infrequently are 
accompanied by wide and deep ditches. Thus the work 
at Newark, Ohio, covers an area of two square miles and 
consists of a network of hillocks and lines of circumval- 
lation. So far as is known, some of these works were used 
as burial-places, and as the sites of rude dwellings and 
cabins ; others were Intended, no doubt, for purposes of 
defense, and others, again, may have been connected in 
some way with religious rites and ceremonies. Many of 
them were situated In the river-valleys ; and not a few of 
the most prosperous cities in the Mississippi valley oc- 
cupy sites once taken up by them. 

I venture the assertion that not only has there not, as 
yet, been anything taken from the moundt indicating a 
higher stage of development than the red Indian is known 
to have reached, but that even the moundt themselves, 




mound 

and under this head are included all the earthworks of the 
Mississippi Valley, were quite within the limits of his ef- 
forts. L. Carr, Mounds of the Mississippi Valley, p. 3. 

mound 1 (mound),!-', t. [< mound 1 , .] To for- 
tify with a mound ; add a barrier, rampart, etc., 
to. 

We will sweep the curled vallies, 
Brush the banks that mound our alleys. 

Drayton, Muses' Elysium, iii. 

A spacious city stood, with firmest walls 

Sure mounded and with numerous turrets crown'd. 

J. Philips, Cider, i. 
A sand-built ridge 
Of heaped hills that mound the sea. 

Tennyson, Ode to Memory, v. 

mound 2 (mound), n. [<F. wod!e = Sp. Pg. mun- 
do = It. mondo, < L. mundus, the 
world, the universe, cosmos, lit. or- 
nament, decoration, dress; hence 
ult. E. mundify, etc., mundane, etc. 
Cf. mappemounde.~] A figure of a 
globe, taken as an emblem of sov- 
ereignty. The emblem is of ancient 
Roman origin, being associated with Jupi- 
ter, as in a Pompeiian wall-painting. It 
often surmounts a crown. Also monde. Mound. 

She willed them to present this crystal 
mound, a note of monarchy and symbol of perfection, to 
thy more worthy deity. B. Jonson, Cynthia's Revels, v. 3. 

mound-bird (mound'berd), re. A bird of the 
family Megapodiidm, and especially of the genus 
Megapodim. The mound-birds are so called from the 
great mounds or tumuli which they construct for the re- 
ception of their eggs, which are hatched by the heat of de- 
composition of the decaying vegetable substances in which 
they are buried. See cut under Megapodius. 

mound-builder (mound'biFder), n. 1. One of 
a race of people by whom the various earth- 
works called Indian mounds (see mound 1 ) were 
constructed. That these works are not necessarily of 
great antiquity, and that they were built by a race in 
no essential respect different from that found inhabiting 
the region where they occur when this was first settled 
by the whites, is the present opinion of nearly all the 
besWnformed investigators of American archaeology. See 
quotation under Indian mounds, above. 

In districts where the native tribes known in modern 
times do not rank high even as savages, there formerly 
dwelt a race whom ethnologists call the Hound-Builders, 
from the amazing extent of their mounds and enclosures, 
of which there is a single group occupying an area of four 
square miles. E. B. Tylor, Prim. Culture, I. 50. 

2. A mound-bird. 

mounded (moun'ded), a. [< mound 1 + -erf 2 .] 
Possessing a mound; formed into or shaped 
like a mound. [Poetical.] 

When wealth no more shall rest in mounded heaps. 

Tennyson, Golden Year. 

mound-maker (mound'ma"ker), n. Same as 
mound-bird. 

mounseer (moun-ser'), n. An old Anglicized 
form of monsieur, now used only as ludicrous. 

mount 1 (mount), n. [< ME. mount, mont, munt, 
< AS. munt = OF. mont, mount, munt, F. mont 
= Sp. Pg. It. monte, < L. mons, montis, a hill, 
mountain; from a root seen also in eminere,j>ut 
out: see eminent, prominent. Hence ult. (<TL. 
mon(t-)s) E. mountain, moimt 2 , amount, para- 
mount, surmount, etc., monte, etc.] 1. An eleva- 
tion of land, more or less isolated; a hill; a 
mountain : in this sense chiefly archaic or poet- 
ical, except before a proper name as the par- 
ticular designation of some mountain or hill : 
as, Mount Etna ; Mount Calvary. 

Doun ouer the jnownt of Olyuete, 
Als it fell in thare iornay, 
To ierusalem the redy way, 
Graithly lurth thai held the gate. 

Holy Rood (E. E. T. S.), p. 128. 

On the mount 

Of Badon I myself beheld the King 
Charge at the head of all his Table Round. 

Tennyson, Lancelot and Elaine. 

2f. A mound ; a bulwark or breastwork for at- 
tack or defense. 

Hew ye down trees, and cast a mount against Jerusalem. 

Jer. vi. 6. 
They raised vp mounts to plant their artillery vpon. 

HoMuyts Voyages, II. 122. 

3. In fort., a cavalier. See cavalier, 5. 4. In 
her., a bearing which occupies the base of the 
shield in the form of a green field curved con- 
vexly upward, except when the summit of the 
escutcheon is occupied by a tree or tower, in 
which case the mountmerely slopes toward this. 
It is not necessary to mention its color, which 
is always vert. 5. In palmistry, a prominence 
or fleshy cushion in the palm of the hand. 
These mounts are seven in number, and surround the 
hollow part In the center of the palm (called the plain of 
Mars), as follows : (a) Mount of Apollo, at the base of the 
third finger ; (6) Mount of Jupiter, at the base of the fore- 
finger ; (c) Mount of Mars, between the Mount of Mercury 



3876 

and that of the moon ; (d) Mount of Mercury, at the base 
of the little finger ; (e) Mount of the Moon, near the wrist 
on the side of the hand furthest from the thumb; (/) 
Mount of Saturn, at the base of the middle finger ; ((?) 
Mount of Venus, the large fleshy base of the thumb. 
Mount grieced or in degrees, in her., a mount terraced 
in the form of steps. 

mount 2 (mount), v. [< ME. mounten, monten, 
miinten, < OF. munter, F. monter (= Sp. Pg. 
montar = It. montare), < ML. montare, mount, 
lit. go up hill, < L. mon(t-)s, a hill: see mount 1 . 
Cf. dismount, surmount.'] I. intrans. 1. To 
rise from, or as from, a lower to a higher po- 
sition; ascend; soar: with or without up. 

Doth the eagle mount up at thy command? 

Job xxxix. 27. 

The Cabalist . . . mounteth with all his Industrie and 
intention from this sensible World vnto that other intel- 
lectual!. Purchas, Pilgrimage, p. 751. 
As high as we have mounted in delight, 
In our dejection do we sink as low. 

Wordsworth, Resolution and Independence. 

She mustered up courage to look her straight in the 

face, and a trifle of colour mounted to her face. W. Black. 

2. Specifically, to get on horseback: &s,tomount 
and ride away. 

The mony come count, and let me mount. 
Robin Hood and the Butcher (Child's Ballads, V. 34). 

3. To amount ; aggregate : often with up : as, 
the expenses mount up. 

Sir, you know not 

To what a mass the little we get daily 
Mounts in seven years. 

Fletcher, Beggar's Bush, iv. 1. 

II. trans. 1. To raise from, or as if from, a 
lower to a higher place ; exalt ; lift on high. 

That we, down-treading earthly cogitations, 
May mount our thoughts to heav'nly meditations. 

Sylvester, tr. of Du Bartas's Weeks, i. 7. 
What power is it which mounts my love so high, 
That makes me see, and cannot feed mine eye? 

Shak., All's Well, i. 1. 235. 

2. To get upon; place or seat one's self upon, 
as that which is higher ; ascend ; reach ; climb : 
as, to mount a horse; to mount a throne. 

So men in rapture think they mount the sky, 
Whilst on the ground th' intranced wretches lie. 

Dryden, Essay on Satire, 1. 118. 

3. To set on horseback; furnish with a horse 
or horses for riding: as, the groom mounted the 
lad on a pony ; also, to seat in a coach or the like 
conveyance. 

Gone ev'ry blush, and silent all reproach, 
Contending princes mount them in their coach. 

Pope, Dunciad, iv. 564. 

Six Moorish scouts, well mounted and well armed, en- 
tered the glen, examining every place that might conceal 
an enemy. Irving, Granada, p. 78. 

He mounted me on a very quiet Arab, and I had a pleas- 
ant excursion. JUacaulay, in Trevelyan, I. 324. 

4. To place in suitable position with adjust- 
ment of parts, so as to render available for use : 
as, to mount a cannon; to mount a loom. 

Let France and England mount 
Their battering cannon charged to the mouths. 

Shak., King John, li. 1. 381. 

On this rampart he mounted his little train of artillery. 
Prescott, Ferd. and Isa,, II. 12. 

Specifically 5. Toprenare for representation 
or exhibition by furnishing and accompanying 
with appropriate appurtenances and accesso- 
ries, as a stage-play or other spectacle. 6. 
To be equipped or furnished with; carry as 
equipment or armament: used specifically of 
anything that carries war material: as, the 
fort mounts fifty guns. 7. To put in shape for 
examination or exhibition by means of neces- 
sary or ornamental supports or accessories; 
furnish, fit up, or set with necessary or appro- 
priate appurtenances: as, to mount a picture 
or a map ; to mount objects for microscopic ob- 
servation; to mount a sword-blade; to mount 
a jewel. To mount guard, to take the station and 
do the duty of a sentinel. To mount the high horse. 
See horsed. 

mount 2 (mount), n. [< mount 2 , .] 1. That 
upon which anything is mounted or fixed for use, 
and by which it is supported and held in place. 
Specifically (a) The paper, cardboard, or other material 
to which an engraving or a drawing is attached in order 
to set it off to advantage. A mount may be a single sheet, 
or two sheets to one of which the print is attached, while 
the other, with a space cut out somewhat larger than the 
print, is placed over it, permitting it to be seen, while 
protecting it from abrasion. 

The crude white mounts wholly or practically destroy 
the value of those " high lights " always so carefully placed 
by Turner, and which were with him so integral a part of 
every composition. Nineteenth Century, XIX. 401. 

(6) The necessary frame, handle, or the like for any deli- 
cate object, as a fan. 

Perforated cedar, sandalwood, nacre, ivory, such is the 
proper mount of an elegant fan. 

Art Journal, N. S., VIII. 90. 



mountain 

(e) The paper, silk, or other material forming the surface 
of a fan. 

A paper mount pasted on a wooden handle. 
Coryat's Crudities, quoted in Art Journal, N. S., XVII. 173. 

To this period belong the fans called "Cabriolet." In 
these the mount is in two parts, the lower and narrower 
mount being half-way up the stick, the second mount in 
the usual place at the top of the stick. 

Harper's Mag., LXXIX. 404. 

(d) Apparatus for the adjustment and attachment of a 
cannon to its carriage. 

The carriages and mounts of the guns are made entirely 
of bronze and steel. The Century, XXXVI. 889. 

(e) pi. The metal ornaments serving as borders, edgings, 
etc., or apparently as guards to the angles and prominent 
parts, as in the decorative furniture of the eighteenth 
century in Europe. (/) The glass slip, with accessories, 
used to preserve objects in suitable form for study with 
the microscope. The object is usually covered with veiy 
thin glass, in squares or circles, and, except in the so-called 
dry mounts, is immersed in a liquid (fluid mounts), such 
as Canada balsam, glycerin, etc. ; a cell, as of varnish, is used 
in some cases. 

2. The means of mounting or of raising one's 
self on or as on horseback, (a) A horse, especially 
in riding or hunting use. 

I have got a capital mount. Dickens. 

(6) A horse-block. Balliwell. [Prov. Eng.] (c) A bicycle. 

mountable (mouu'ta-bl), a. [= F. montable; 
as mount 2 , v., + -aole.'] Capable of being as- 
cended or mounted. Cotgrave. 

mountain (moun'tan), n. and a. [< ME. moun- 
taine, mountein, montatn, montaine, muntaine, 
montaigne, < OF. montaigne, muntaine, F. mon- 
tagne = Pr. montanha, montagna, montayna = 
Sp. montana = Pg. montanha = It. montagna, < 
ML. montanea, also montana, a mountain, a 
mountainous region, < L. montana, neut. pi., 
mountainous regions, < montanus, of or belong- 
ing to a mountain, mountainous, < mon(t-)s, a 
mountain: see mount 1 . Mountain is related to 
mount* &a fountain is to fount 1 .'] I. re. 1. An 
elevation of land of considerable dimensions 
rising more or less abruptly above the surround- 
ing or adjacent region. Ordinarily no elevation is 
called a mountain which does not form a conspicuous 
figure in the landscape ; hence, what is a mountain in one 
region might be regarded as simply a hill in another. A 
region may have great elevation above the sea-level, but 
not be recognized as a mountain. Thus, the Plains, or the 
region between the Missouri and the Rocky Mountains, 
have an elevation on their western edge as great as that 
of the highest points of the Appalachian range. Elevated 
regions not mountains are often called plateaus. Eleva- 
tions, although of considerable height, if quite isolated or 
precipitous, are often called rocks: as, the Rock of Gibral- 
tar. Peak is occasionally used in the same way: as, 
Pike's Peak; the Peak of Teneriffe; and in the United 
States, in regions formerly occupied or explored by the 
French, the word butte is employed with a somewhat simi- 
lar meaning, while mound is used over a considerable ex- 
tent of country, especially in Wisconsin, as nearly the 
equivalent of butte or mount. For ranges or connected 
series of mountains, see mountain-chain. 

We retourned towardes Iherusalem by the mountaynes 
of Jude. Sir R. Guylford, Pylgrymage, p. 38. 

Mountains interpos'd 
Make enemies of nations. 

Cowper, Task, ii. 17. 

'Tis distance lends enchantment to the view, 
And robes the mountain in its azure hue. 

Campbell, Pleasures of Hope, i. 7. 

2. Something resembling a mountain in being 
large ; something of extraordinary magnitude ; 
a great heap : as, a mountain of rubbish. 

So many hadde thei slayn of men and of horse that the 
mounteins of bodyes were a-boute hem so grete that noon 
myght come. to hem but launchinge. 

Merlin (E. E. T. S.), ii. 333. 

If it can confer anie thinge to the montan of your Ma- 
jesties praise, and it were but a clod use it and the auctour 
as yours. A. Hume, Orthographic (E. E. T. S.), Ded., p. 3. 

See skulking Truth to her old cavern fled, 
Mountains of Casuistry heap'd o'er her head ! 

Pope, Dunciad, iv. 642. 

3. A wine made from grapes grown on high 
ground. See II., 2. 

Very little old Mountain or Malaga sweet wine is grown. 
Redding, Modem Wines (1851), p. 201. 

Old man of the mountain. SeeAssassin,i. The Moun- 
tain. A name given to the extreme revolutionary party 
in the legislatures of the first French revolution. The 
name was derived from the fact that they occupied the 
higher part of the hall. (Compare Montagnard, 2.) Among 
the chief leaders were Robespierre and Danton. The name 
was temporarily revived in the legislatures following the 
revolution of 1848. To make a mountain of a mole- 
hill. See mole-hill. 

II. a. 1. Of or pertaining to mountains; 
found on mountains; growing or living on a 
mountain: as, mountain air; mountain pines; 
mountain goats. 

And ii. thy right hand lead with thee 
The mountain-nymph, sweet Liberty. 

Milton, L' Allegro, 1. 36. 

2. Produced from vines growing on the slopes 
of a mountain, a hill, or any high ground : as, 



mountain 

mountain wine. 3. Like a mountain in size; 
vast; mighty. 

Tin' hr.-li, the inottittain majewty of worth 
Should be, anil Khali, survivor of lift woe. 

/.'..//.i/i, rhlldu UaroM, lii. 7. 

Mountain battery, boomer, cavy, howitzer, lime- 
atone, maize, etc. See the nouns. 

mountain-artillery (moun'tan-iir-til'e-ri), n. 

SIT lirlilll I'l/. 

mountain-ash (raouu'tiin-ash'), n. 1. One of 
several small trees of the genus J'ynis, having 
nsh-like loaves, primarily I'.iiucuparia, This, the 
rowan-tree or quick- beam, grows wild in the northern parts 
of the old World, and Is In general cultivation for iirna- 
ment, on account of Its handsome pinnate leaven, its small 
but numerous corymbed white flowers, and Its bright-red 
berries. The wood is used for tools ; the berries afford 
malic acid, and all parts of the tree, as also of the American 
species, are astringent. The best-known American moun- 
tain-ash is /'. Americana, a similar tree, but with larger 
leaves, and smaller though deeper-colored fruit. It Is na- 
tive In the mountains of the eastern United States and 
northward, and Is also cultivated. The western moun- 
tain-ash, P. nambud/otia, a not very different tree, extends 
across the continent. See dogberry, 2, and wicktn. 
2. One of several species of Eucalyptus, es- 
pecially E. amygdalina, K. goniocalyjc, E. Sie- 
lii-rinna, and E. pilnlarin (the flintwood). [Aus- 
tralia.] 

mountain-avens (moun'tan-av'enz), . A ro- 
saceous plant, Dryat och>i>etala. 

mountain-balm (moun 'tan -bam), n. 1. An 
evergreen plant, Eriodictyon ylutinosum (prob- 
ably also E. tomentosum). Also called yerba 
.tn n tn. 2. The Oswego tea, Monarda didynta: 
so called in the drug-trade. 

mountain-beauty (moun'tan-bu'ti), . The 
California mountain-trout. 

mountain-beaver (moun'tan-be'ver), . The 
sewellel, Haplodon riifm. See sewellel, and cut 
under Haplodon. 

mountain-blackbird (moun'tan-blak'berd), . 
The ring-ouzel, Merula torquata. Also called 
,1101/nttiiii-mlli'i/, IHOHH tula-ouzel, or mouiitniii- 
thrush. [Local, Eng.] 

mountain-blue (mouu'tan-blo), . 1. The blue 
carbonate of copper. See azurite, 1. 2. Same 
as blue ashes (which see, under blue). 

mountain-bramble (moun'tan-bram'bl), n. 
The cloudberry, Rubim Chamamorus. See 
rloudlxTri/. 

mountain-cat (moun'tan-kat), n. 1. A cata- 
mount; a wildcat. 2. An animal about as 
large as a cat, Bassaris astuta. See Hassans, 1. 
[Southwestern U. S.] 3. In her., same as 
catamount, '2. 

mountain-chain (moun'tan-chan), w. A con- 
nected series of mountains or conspicuous ele- 
vations. In the formation of mountains other than vol- 
canic the process has usually been of such a character 
that a long strip of country hi been raised In a sort of 
crest or wall ; indeed, regions thousands of miles in length 
have occasionally been thus affected. This elevated ridge 
or wall has either in the original process of mountain- 
building been raised into musses or subdivisions of vary- 
ing height and more or less isolated from each other, or 
else long-continued erosion and exposure to atmospheric 
agencies have brought about the same result. The more 
or less separated and distinct peaks, summits, or crests 
together make up the range. It is Impossible to establish 
any criterion by which one mountain-range can be sepa- 
rated from another adjacent one. In most cases, how- 
ever, there is more or less similarity, if not absolute iden- 
tity, between the different parts of a range, from both a 
geological and a topographical point of view ; but there 
are ranges which are made up of parts differing from each 
other greatly in lithological character and in the epoch of 
their formation, and which, nevertheless, are always popu- 
larly considered as forming one system, and are so desig- 
nated : this is the case with most of the greater mountain- 
chains, as the Himalayas, the Andes, and the Cordilleras. 

mountain-cock (moun'tan-kok), . The male 
cii|nMv;iillii', Tctrao iimit'iiUnx. 

mountain-cork (inonn'tan-kdrk), n, A white 
or gray variety of asbestos, so called from its 
extreme lightness, as it floats in water. Also 
called mountain-leather. 

mountain-cowslip (moun ' tan -kou' slip), n. 
See auricula, &uA French cowslip (under <woh/>). 

mountain-crab (moun'tijn-krab). . A land- 
crab of the family '.'/ rin-ciniilir. 

mountain-cranberry (moun' tan-kran'ber-i), 
ii. The cowberry, I'arriitium I'itis-ltliea. 

mountain-cross (raoun'tan-kr6s), n. In her., a 
plain cross humet or couped. 

mountain-curassow (moun'tan-ku-ran''6), n. 
A bird of the subfamily Orwip&HilM. 

mountain-damson (moun'tan-dam'zn), ii. A 
West lii'li;iii tivi'. Simiirulxi amiirti, which yields 
a bitter tonic and astringent. 

mountain-deer (mouu'tan-der), . The cham- 
ois. [Bare.] 

It is a taste of doubt and fear, 

To aught but Bunt or immnlain-dttr. 

Stort, Lord of the Isles, iv. 8. 



3877 

mountain-dew (momi'tan-dn), H. Whisky, es- 
Highland whisky. [Scotch.] 



mountain-tea 

mountain-lover (inoun'IAn-luv 'I'-r). . [Tr. 
XL. fti'fi/iliilit, Nuttall's niinic of tlic Krnus.J A 



The shepherds, who had all come down from the moun- 
tain heights, and were collected together (not without a 
qut-Mrhof the mfwntain-deicor water of life) in a large shed. 

J. Wilson, Lights and shadows of Scottish Life, p. 306. 

mountain-ebony (raoun'tau-ob'o-ni), n. The 
wood of an Indian tree, Jlniiliiiiin variegata. 

mountained (moun'taml), a. [< mountain + 
-/-.] 1. Covered with mountains. 

Tills mountained world. ',.,<. Hyperion. 

2. Heaped up high. 

Olant Vice and Irreligion rise 
On mountain' d falsehoods to invade the skies. 

Brown, Essay on Satire. 

mountaineer (moun-ta-ner'), . [Formerly also 
iiiniiiiiniiii'f; < OF. montanier, motitagnier, mun- 
tnignirr = It. montagnaro, montanaro. < ML. 
montanarius, a mountaineer, prop, adj., < L. 
montana, mountains: see mountain and -eer.] 

1. An inhabitant of a mountainous district; 
hence, a person regarded as uncouth or bar- 
barous. 

Who call'd me traitor, mountaineer. 

Shale., Cymbeline, Iv. 2. 120. 

A few inmintaiiitn may escape, enough to continue the 
human race ; and yet, being illiterate rusticks (as moun- 
tainers always are), they can preserve no memoirs of former 
times. Benttey, Sermons (ed. 1724), p. 108. (Latham.) 

2. A climber of mountains: as, he has distin- 
guished himself as a mountaineer. 

mountaineer (monn-ta-ner'), 0. '. [< moun- 
taineer, .] To assume or practise the habits of 
a mountaineer ; climb mountains : seldom used 
except in the present participle or the parti- 
cipial adjective. 

Not only in childhood and old age are the arms used for 
purposes of support, but In cases of emergency, as when 
mountaineering, they are so used by men in full vigour. 
//. Spencer, Prln. of BIol., S 60. 

mountaineering (moun-ta-ner'ing), n. [Verbal 

n. of mountaineer, r.] The act or practice of 

climbing mountains. 
mountainert (moun'tan-er), . Same as moun- 

taineer. 
mountainett (moun'tan-et), n. [Formerly also 

mountanet; < OF. montagne, montaignette, dim. 

of montai/ne, montaigne, a mountain: see moun- 

tain.] A small mountain. 

Betwixt her breasts (which sweetly rose up like two fair 
mnuntainet* In the pleasant vale of Tempe) there hung a 
very rich diamond. Sir P. Sidney, Arcadia, L 

mountain-fern (moun'tan-fern), H. A common 

European fern, Aspidium Oreoj>teris, closely al- 

lied to the male-fern, A. Filix-mas. 
mpuntain-fever (moun'tan-fVyer), n. A name 

given somewhat loosely to certain fevers occur- 

ring in the Cordilleras. They are usually ma- 

larial or typhoid. 
mountain-finch (moun 'tan -finch), . The 

brambling or bramble-finch, Fringilla monti- 

I'riiit/itla. See brambling. 
mountain-flax (moun'tan-flaks), ii. 1. Aplant, 

I. in n in catharticiim or Polygala Senega. See flax, 

1 (a) and (b), and Linum. 2. A fibrous asbes- 

tos, especially when spun and made into cloth. 
mountain-fringe (moun't^n-frinj), n. The 

climbing fumitory, Adlumia cirrhosa. See cut 

under Adlumia. 
mountain-grape (moun ' tan - grap), n. See 

grape 1 . 
mountain-green (moun'tan-gren), M. 1. Same 

us >iiiiliiclii/c-f/i'i'i'ii, 1. 2. Same as May-pole. 3. 
mountain-guava (moun'tan-gwa'va), ii. See 

i/inll'il. 

mountain-hare (moun'tau-har), . An alter- 
native name of the northeni or varying hare, 
Lepn.t riii-inbiliii, and of some of its varieties. 

mountain-holly (moun' tan-hoi 'i), n. A 
North American plant, Xeinopanthes Canaden- 
si.i, a branching shrub with ash-gray bark. 

mountain-laurel (moun'tan-la'rel), n. I. Kal- 
inin liitifiilia. See cut under Kalmia. 2. Um- 
liellii/iii-in Ciilit'ornii'ii. 3. A plant of the genus 
Ofnli a (Oi-iiiiiii/ihne). 

mountain-leather (moun ' tan - IOTH ' er), . 

Same as mountain-cork. 

mountain-licorice (moun'tan-Hk'o-ris), . A 
European species of trefoil, Trifolium alpiiiiiin. 

mountain-linnet (moun'tan-liu'et), n. Asmall 
fringilline bird of Europe, Linota mnntiiini. tin 1 

twite. 

mountain-lion (moun'tfin-li'on), . The cou- 
ir:ir, I-'i'/i.i i-iiiii-i>liir. See cut under cougar. 
[Western U. S.] 

There deer, bears, mountain-twit*, antelope, and tur- 
keys are In abundance. Harper's May., LXXV1I. 878. 



proposed name for plants of the genus I'u 
1 1 in n. -Canby'B mountain-lover, P. Canbyi, a shrub 
with deep-colored evergreen leaves, discovered in the 
mountains of Virginia In 1868. 

mountain-magnolia (moun'tan-mag-no'lifi), w . 

See Mni/iiiiliii. 

mountain-mahoe (nioun'tfin-iua'ho), n. See 
ma In n . 
mountain-mahogany (moun ' tan - ma - hog ' a - 

ni), ii. Sec iiiahoi/inty. 
mountain-man (moun'tan-man), n. A trap- 

per: so called in the Rocky Mountains. Sports- 

man's Gazetteer. 
mountain-mango (moun'tan-mang'go), n. See 

mani/ii. 

mountain-maple (moun'tan-ma'pl), . See 
maple 1 . 

mountain-meal (moun'tan-mel), n. Same as 
lii'i'i/int til. 

mountain-milk (moun'tan-milk), ii. A very 
soft spongy variety of carbonate of lime. 

mountain-mint (moun'tan-mint), . See mint 2 . 

mountainous (moun 'tan -us), a. [Formerly 
also mountanous; < OF! montnigneux, F. mon- 
tagneux = Sp. montanuso = Pg. munldi/ltoso = 
It. montagnoio, < LL. montaniosus, mountain- 
ous, < L. montana, neut. pi., mountainous re- 
gions: see mountain.] 1. Abounding in moun- 
tains : as, the mountainous country of the Swiss. 
The Country is not moutiianout, nor yet low, but inch 
pleasant plaint tills, and fertile valleyes. 

Quoted in Capt. John Smith'* Works, 1. 115. 

2. Large as a mountain ; huge ; towering. 

What cnstom wills, in all things should we do t . 
The dust on antique time would He unswept, 
And mountainou* error be too highly heapt 
For truth to o'er-peer. Shale., Cor., 1L S. 127. 

On Garth, In Air. amidst the Seas and Skies, 
Mountainous Heaps of Wonders rise. 

Prior, On Ex. UL 14, st 7. 
3f. Inhabiting mountains ; barbarous. 

In ... destructions by deluge and earthquake, . . . 
the remnant of people which hap to be reserved are com- 
monly Ignorant and mountainous people, that can give no 
account of the time past. Bacon, Vlciasitude of Things. 

mountainousness(moun'tan-u8-nes), . Moun- 

tainous character or condition. 
Armenia is so called from the mmmtainousness of It. 

Brercteood. 
mountain-parsley (moun'tan-pars'li), n. 1. 

The plant Peucedanum Orconelinum. 2. The 

parsley-fern of Europe, Cryptogramme (Alloso- 

rus) crispa. 
mountain-pepper (moun'tan-pep'er), w. The 

seeds of Capparis Sinaiea. 
mountain-plum (moun'tan-plum), . A tree, 

Ximenia Americana. 
mountain-pride (moun'tan-prid), n. A tree of 

Jamaica : same as May-pole, 3. 
mountain-rhubarb (moun' tan -re'bftrb), w. 

The plant Bumex alpinus. 
mountain-rice (moun'tan-ris) ; n. 1. An upland 

rice grown without irrigation in the Himalayas, 

Cochin-China, and some districts of the Unit- 

ed States and Europe. 2. Any of the several 

grasses of the genus Oryzopxis. 
mountain-rose (mouu't&n-roz), . The alpine 

rose, Rosa al]>ina. 
mountain-sandwort (moun'tan-sand'wert), H. 

See sandwort. 
mountain-sheep (moun'tan-shep), N. The com- 

mon wild sheep of the Rocky and other North 

American mountains; the bighorn, Oris mon- 

tana. 
mountain-soap (moun'tan-sop), n. A clay-like 

mineral, having a greasy feel, which softens in 

water and is said to have been used as a soap: 

it is generally regarded as a variety of halloy- 

site. 
mountain-sorrel (moun'tan-sor'el), . Aplant 

of the genus Oiyria. 
mountain-sparrow (moun'tan-spar'6), . The 

tree-sparrow. Passer montaiitis. 
mountain-spinach (moun'tan-spin'aj), w. A 

tall erect plant, A triples hortrimis, of the natural 

order < 'In n:ii>niliaceie, a native of Tatary. it is 

cultivated in France, under the name arrvthf, for the 

sake of its Urge succulent leaves, which are used as 

spinach. Also called garden- orach. 

mountain-sweet (moun ' tan -s wet), n. New 
Jersey tea. See Ceanothus. 

mountain-tallow (moun 'tan-taro), n. A miner- 
al subst;i in T having the color and feel of tallow. 
It occurs in a bog on the borders of Loch Fyne in Scot- 
land, in a Swedish lake, and in geodes in the Glamorgan 
coal-measures. Also called hatchettite, hatchettin. 

mountain-tea (moun'tiln-te), . The American 
wintergreen. tiaiilthcriu 



mountain-tobacco 

mountain-tobacco (moun'tan-to-bak"6), H. 
composite plant, Arnica montana. 



3878 

A mountebankish (moun'te-bangk-ish), a. [< 
mountebank + -('s/i 1 .] Characteristic of a moun- 

[< tebank ; quackish ; knavish. 

A Saturnian merchant born in Rugilia, whom for hii 
cunningness 
and mountebankish t 



mouritainward (moun ' tan - ward), adv. 
mountain + -ward.'] In the direction of moun- 
tains; toward the mountains. 

There is a flue view of the country seaward and moun- 
tainward. The Atlantic, LXIV. 355. 

mountain-witch (moun'tan-wich), . A wood- mountebankism (moun'tf-bangk-izm)^ 
pigeon, Gcotrygon sylvatic'a. P. H. Gosse. 



mourn 

that win the game. . . . Mount Saint was played by count- 
ing, and probably did not differ much from Picquet, or 
picket, as it was formerly written, which is said to have 
been played with counters. 

Strutt, Sports and Pastimes, p. 435. 

[< ME. moimttire, mountain; 



in negotiating, and for some Hocos-pocos mounturet, 

mkixh tricks, I transformed to a fox. n,nnt,,r < DV i*>i /</> Tf mnmftir'p Tt, mnn- 

llowell, Parly of Beasts, p. 87. (Dames.) 1 Uiu e, <,Vf . m l1c,H.m it. mow 



, . _ 

mcHtntebank + -ism.'] Same as mountebankery. 



LUMWU) vrwv* Wa v * f oyw* /vw *. - / V\ m J jO ~\ 

mountain-wood (moun'tan-wud), n. Avariety mounted (moun ted), p. a. [Pp. ot mount*, v.] 



of asbestos. See asbestos, 3. 

Mountain wood occurs in soft, tough masses ; it has a 
brown colour, much resembling wood, and is found in Scot- 
laud, France, and the Tyrol. Spans' Encyc. Manuf., 1. 341. 

mountancet, * [ME. mountaunce, montaunce, 

< OF. montance, mountance, a rising, amount, 

< monter, mount: see mount 2 , v. Cf. mounte- 
nance.~] Amount; extent. 

Of al the remenant of myn other care 
Ne sette I nat the mountaunce of a tare. 

Chaucer, Knight's Tale, 1. 712. 

Everyche of hem hath be Zere the mountance of 6 score 
Floreynes. Mandeuille, Travels, p. 38. 

mountant (moun'tant), a. [< F. montant, 
mounting, ppr. of monter, mount: see mounft, 
v. Cf. montant.'] High; raised: a quasi-her- 
aldic epithet. 

Hold up, you sluts, 

Your aprons mountant; you are not oathable 
Although, I know, you'll swear. 

Shak., T. of A., iv. 3. 135. 

mountebank (moun'te-bangk), re. and a. [For- 
merly also mountibank; < It. montambanco, 
montimbanco, earlier mania in banco (Florio), a 
mountebank, < montar 1 in banco, play the moun- 
tebank (Florio), lit. mount on a bench : montare, 
banco, bench : see mount 2 , iw 1 , 



1. Raised; especially, set on horseback : as 
mounted police ; specifically, in her., raised 
upon two or more steps, generally three : said 
especially of a cross. 2. Elevated ; set up. m ount 
3. Furnished ; supplied with all necessary ac- 
cessories. 

She is a little haughty; 

Of a small body, she has a mind well mounted. 

Fletcher, Wildgoose Chase, ii. 2. 

Mounted Andrewt, a merry-andrew or mountebank. 
Daviett. 

While mounted Andrews, bawdy, bold, and loud, 

Like cocks, alarum all the drowsy crowd. 
Verses prefixed to Rennet's tr. of Erasmus's Praise of Folly. 
Mounted cornet, in organ-building : See cornet*, 1 (c). 
-Mounted power, a horse-power designed for service 
without dismounting. E. H. Knight. Mounted work, 
silverware of which the ornaments are soldered on instead mOUntyt (moun ti),?i. 



tatura, < ML. as if *montatura, a mounting, < 
montare, mount: see mount 2 . Cf. monture.'] 1. 
A mounting. 
The mounture so well made, and for my pitch so fit, 



mount ; in, on ; , , , 

bank 1 , bench. Cf.saltimbanco.~\ I. n. 1. A peri- 
patetic quack; one who prescribes and sells 
nostrums at fairs and similar gatherings. 
We see the weakness and credulity of men is such as they mounter (moun'ter), n. 



will often prefer a mountebank or witch before a learned 

physician. Bacon, Advancement of Learning, ii. 190. 

The front looking on the greate bridge is possess'd by 

mountebanks, operators, and puppet-players. 



of being raised in relief from the body itself by chasing or 
repousse" work. 

mounteet (moun'te), n. Same as mounty. 
mountenancet (moun'te-nans), n. [s ME. 
moiintenance, also mowntenaunce, montenance, 
an erroneous form (appar. simulating the form 
of maintenance) of mountance: see mountance.'] 
Amount ; space ; extent. Compare mountance. m0 urf 
The montenans of dayes three, 
He herd bot swoghyne of the node. 
Thomas of Ersseldoune (Child's Ballads, I. 103). 
Man can not get the mount'nance of an egg-shell 
To stay hjs stomach. B. Jonson, Tale of a Tub, iii. 5. 

-erl. Cf. 



As though I see faire peeces moe, yet few so fine as it. 
Gascoigne, Complaint of the Greene Knight. 

2. A horse or other animal to be ridden; a 
int. 

After messe a morsel he & his men token, 
Miry watz the momyng, his mounture he askes. 
Sir Gawayne and the Green Knight (E. E. T. S.), 1. 1691. 

Most writers agree that Porus was four cubits and a 
shaft length high, and that being upon an elephant's back 
he wanted nothing in higlit and bigness to be proportion- 
able for his mounture, albeit it were a very great elephant. 
Horth, tr. of Plutarch, p. 584. 

3. A throne. 

And in the myddes of this palays is the mountour for 
the grete Cane that is alle wrought of gold and of pre- 
cyous stones and grete perles. Mandeville, Travels, p. 217. 

[Also motmtic, mowntee; 



OP. montee, a mounting, rising, prop. pp. of 
monter, mount: see mount 2 , t'.] In hawking, 
the act of rising up to the prey that is already 
in the air. 



[<mounfl 



F. montcur."] 1. One who mounts or ascends. 
2. One who furnishes or embellishes; one 



The sport which for that day Basilius would principally 
show to Zelmane was the mountie at a beam. 

Sir P. Sidney, Arcadia, ii. 

uiuuii. n. A variant of wore*. 

niourdantt, . An obsolete form of mordant. 

Mouriria (mo-rir'i-S), re. [NL. (A. L. de 
Jussieu, 1789), < mouririchiri, native name in 
Guiana.] A genus of dicotyledonous shrubs, of 
the polypetalous order Melastomacece and of 
the tribe Memecylew, all other genera of which 
have the ovary with more than one cell. About 
~~ species are known, found from Mexico to Brazil, es- 



**. ^ji+\j - 3^ species are Known, louuu iium nr.\u<p m JHVHUI co- 

who applies suitable appurtenances or orna- pecially in Guiana. They bear small rosy-yellow or white 



ments: as, a mounter of fans or canes. 3f. 
An animal mounted; a monture. 



=Syn. 1. J 

n. . 

lountel 
doctor. 

Observed ye, yon reverend lad 

Mak's faces to tickle the mob ; 
He rails at our mountebank squad- 
It's rivalry just i' the job. 

Burns, Jolly Beggars. 
2. Produced by quackery or jugglery. 

Every mountebank trick was a great accomplishment 
there [in Abyssinia]. 

Bruce, Source of the Nile, Int., p. Ixxiv. 
Mountebank shrimp. See shrimp. 
mountebank (moun'te-bangk), v. [< mounte- 



r.] 1. The act of rising or ascending ; espe- 
cially, the act of getting on horseback ; ascent ; 
soaring. 

There was mounting 'mong Graemes of the Netherby clan ; 

Forsters, Fenwicks, and Musgraves, they rode and they 

ran. Scott, Young Lochinvar. 

It was in solitude, among the flowery ruins of ancient 
Rome, that his highest mountings of the mind, his finest 
trances of thought, came to Shelley. 

E. Doivden, Shelley, II. 261. 



Diary, Feb. 3, 1644. 

Perhaps the latest mountebank in England was about 

twenty years ago, in the vicinity of Yarmouth He was And forward 8purr ' d his mounter fierce withal, 

selling ''cough drops and infallible cures for the asthma. Within his arms longing his foe to strain. 

Mayhew, London Labour and London Poor, I. 217. Fairfax, tr. of Tasso, vii. 96. 

Hence 2. Any impudent and unscrupulous mountiet, See niounty. 
pretender; a charlatan. mounting(moun'ting), n. [Verbal n . of mount 2 , 

Nothing so impossible in nature but mountebanks will 
undertake. Arbuthnot, Hist. John Bull. 

I tremble for him [William IV.] ; at present he is only a 
mountebank, but he bids fair to be a maniac. 

Gremlle, Memoirs, July 30, 1830. 

3. The short-tailed African kite, Helotarsus 
ecauda'MS : so called from its aerial tumbling. 
Syn. 1. Empiric, etc. See quack, n. 

1. Pertaining to or consisting of 
mountebanks; sham; quack: as, a mountebank 

2. The act or ai't of setting stuffed skins of 
animals in a natural attitude; taxidermy. 

3. That which serves to mount anything, as a 
sword-blade, a print, or a gem: see mount 2 , v., 
7. 4. That which is or may be mounted for 
use or ornament : as, the mountings for an an- 
gler's rod. 5. Same as harness, 5. 

mounting (moun'ting), a. In her., rising or 
climbing : applied to beasts of chase when they 
are represented in the position called rampant 

,-.-.,- in case of a beast of prey. Compare mountant. 

bank,n.l I. trans. 1. To cheat by unscrupu- mounting-block (moun'ting-blok), n. A block, 
lous and impudent arts ; gull. generally of stone, used in mounting on horse- 

1 11 mountebank their loves, 
Cog their hearts from them. . . ... ... , ^ . . 

Shak., Cor., iii. 2. 132. mountmgly (moun'tmg-li), adv. By rising or 

2. To introduce or insinuate by delusive arts ascending; so as to rise high. 

But leap'd for Joy, 
So mounlingly I touch'd the stars, methought. 

Middleton, Massinger, and Rowley, Old Law, ii. 1. 

mounting-stand (moun'ting-stand), n. A small 
table containing a sand-bath, heated by a 
lamp, and having adjustable legs and other 



or pretensions. 

Men of Paracelsian parts, well complexioned for hones- 
ty : ... such are fittest to Mountebanke his [Beelzebub's] 
Chimistry into sicke Churches and weake Judgements. 

N. Ward, Simple Cobler, p. 2. 

II. intrans. To play the mountebank: with 
indefinite it. 

Say if 'tis wise to spurn all rules, all censures, 
And mountebank it in the public ways. 
Till she becomes a jest. 

Kingdey, Saint's Tragedy, ii. 4. 

mountebankery (moun'te-bangk-er-i), n. [< 
mountebank + -ery.~] The practices of a mounte- 
bank; quackery; unscrupulous and impudent 
pretensions. 

Whilst all others are experimented to be but mere em- 
pirical state mountebankery. Hammond, Works, IV. 509. 

mountebanking (moun'te-bangk -ing), . [Ver- 
bal n. of mountebank, .] Mountebankery. 

mountebanking. 

Thackeray, Roundabout Papers, De Juventute. 



conveniences for mounting objects for exami- 
nation with a microscope. 

mountlett (mount'let), . [< OF. mantelet, dim. 
of mont, mountain: see mount 1 and -let.'} A 
small mountain ; a hill. 

Those snowie mountelets, through which doe creepe 

The milkie riuers that ar inly bred 

In siluer cisternes. G. Fletcher, Christ's Victorie, st. 50. 

mount-needlework (mount'ne''dl-werk), . 
Decorative needlework, embroidery, etc., moUTJlH, n. 
wrought upon a foundation which is mounted 
or stretched in a frame. Diet, of 



flowers, rigid sessile opposite leaves, and round coriaceous 
berries. M. myrtuloidet of the West Indies is called 
small-leafed ironwood, and, with the genus in general, 
stiverwood. 

mourn 1 (morn), ?'. [< ME. mournen, mornen, 
murnen, < AS. murnan, meornan = OS. mornian, 
mornon = OHG. mornen = Goth, maurnan = 
Icel. morna, grieve, mourn. Connection with 
G. murren = Icel. murra, murmur, grieve, L. 
murmurare, murmur, and with L. mcerere, mat- 
rere, mcereri, be sad, grieve, mourn, Gr. utpipva, 
care, etc., is doubtful.] I. intrans. 1. To ex- 
press grief or sorrow; grieve; be sorrowful; 
lament. 

Alisaundrine anon attelede to hire boure, 

& morned neigh for road for Meliors hire ladi. 

William of Palerne (E. E. T. 8.), 1. 1760. 

Blessed are they that mourn, for they shall be com- 
forted. Mat. v. 4. 

A plentifull Haruest found not labourers to inne it, but 
shed it selfe on the ground, and the cattell mourned for 
want of milkers. Purchas, Pilgrimage, p. 631. 

2. To display the appearance of grief; wear 
the customary habiliments of sorrow. 

We mourn in black ; why mourn we not in blood? 

Shak., 1 Hen. VI., i. 1. 17. 
What though no friends in sable weeds appear, 
Grieve for an hour, perhaps, then mourn a year. 

Pope, Elegy to an Unfortunate Lady, 1. 56. 

=Syn. 1. Grieve, etc. See lament, v. i. 
II. trans. 1. To grieve for; lament; bewail; 

deplore. 

As when a father mourns 
His children all in view destroy'd at once. 

Milton, P. L., xi. 760. 

Portius himself oft falls in tears before me, 
As if he mourn'd his rival's ill success. 

Addison, Cato, i. ti. 
I go at least to bear a tender part, 
And mourn my lov'd one with a mother's heart. 

Pope, Iliad, xviii. 84. 

2. To convey or express grief for. 

Soft is the note, and sad the lay, 
That mourns the lovely Rosabel! e. 

Scott, L. of L. M., vi. 23. 

mourn 1 !, [ME. murne: see mourn 1 , v.~] Sor- 
rowful. 



Ther let we hem sojourne, 

And speke we of chaunces hard and murne. 

Arthour and Merlin, p. 308. (Hattimll.) 

[< mourn 1 , r.] Sorrow. 



Mount Saintt. An obsolete card-game. 

Coeval with Gleek we find Mount Saint or more properly mOUm~t, '' 
Cent, in Spanish Cientos, or hundred, the number of points mourn I tii/ ; 



Hold, take her at the hands of Radagon, 

A pretty peat to drive your mourn away. 

Greene and Lodge, Looking-Glass for Lond. and Eng., p. 1 24. 

{(Dames.) 



I. [Found first m the yeibal noun 
prob. orig. as a noun, "mourne, er- 



mourn 

roneoiiHly, in I'im-icrs' use, for * minimi- (being 
OOnfuged with Ilie K. mining), < OF. tnoiirnr, 
IIIOIII-I-HI-, olilcr miiriii-, in pi. ininirin-.--, iiiiiiirrni-x, 
morufx, hemorrhoids or piles, also the mumps 
and u disease of horses; prob. (like pili-x), 
with ref. to tin' shape of hemorrhoids, < Lj. 
iiKinuii, a mulberry: see imin^. (,'oiifusion 
with OF. nnirl, dentil (as asserted in the quot. 
from Topsell), seems improbable; but there 
may have been confusion with OF. utorre, mu- 
ms of the nose, us used in the name, of a dis- 
ease of horses, les iiuirves de jpetit point, a 
kind of frcn/.io in an horse, during which he 
neither knows any that have tended him, nor 
hears any that come near him" (Cotgrave). 
There seems to have been confusion also with 
iiii>.it; the expression to mose in the chine being 
equivalent to to mourn of the chine: see mose 1 . 
None of the expressions appear in literary use 
except in allusive slang; and their origin was 
appar. never clearly known.] To have a kind 
of malignant glanders : said of a horse, and 
allusively of persons, in the phrase to mourn 
of the chine or uinm-ninu of the chine. Compare 
to mose in the chine (under mose 1 ), and see 
mourner*. 

The Krenche-man saythe ' ' mort de langue, et de eschine 
Mount maladyes sauncu medicine," the mtturnynge of the 
tongue and of the chyne are diseases without medicyne. 
Fitzherbert, Husbandry (1534). 

This word mourning of the chine is a corrupt name bor- 
rowed of the French toong, wherein it is called mote [la- 
ter editions morte] deschien, that is to any, the death of the 
liacke. Because many do hold this opinion, that this dis- 
ease doth consume the marrow of the backe. 

Topsell, quotwl in N. and (J., 7th SIT., III. 184. 

This Louer, fuller of passions than of pence, began (when 
In-' Mitred into the consideration of his owne estate) to 
mourn* nf the chyne, and to hang the lippe. 

Greene, Never too Late. 

mourner 1 (mor'ner), n. 1. One who mourns 
or laments. 

Because man gocth to his long home, and the mourner* 
go about the streets. Eccles. xii. 5. 

2. One employed to attend funerals in a habit 
of mourning. 

And the mourners go home, and take off their hatbands 
and scarves, and give them to tlu-ir wives to make aprons 
of. K B. Ramsay, Hem. of Scottish Life, p. 20. 

3. Anything associated with mourning. 

The mourner-yew and builder-oak were there. 

Dryden, Pal. and Arc., til. 961. 

4. Iii certain localities, at a funeral, one who is 
recognized as belonging to the circle of those 
most afflicted by the death and has a special 
place accordingly. [Colloq.] _ Indian mourner. 
Same as sad-tree. 

mqurner'-'t (mor'ner), n. [< mourn* + -erl; 
with allusion to mourner 1 .] One who has the 
mourning of the chine, [Slang.] 

lie's chin'd, he's chin'd, good man ; he is a mourner. 

Beau, and Ft., Custom of the Country, lit. S. 

mournful (moru'ful), rt. [< mourn 1 + //.] 1. 
Sorrowful ; oppressed with grief. 

The future pious, mournful Fair, . . . 
Shall visit her distlnguish'd Urn. 

Prior, Ode on Death of Queen Mary. 

2. Denoting or expressing mourning or sorrow ; 
exhibiting the appearance of grief: as, mourn- 
ful music ; a mournful aspect. 

Yet cannot she rejoyce, 

Nor frame one warbling note to pass out of her mournfult 
voyce. Gascoignc, Flowers, Lamentation of a Lover. 

Yet seemed she to appease 
Her mournefuU plaintes. 

Spenser, F. Q., I. L 54. 

No funeral rite, nor man in mourning weeds, 
Nor mournful bell shall ring her burial. 

Shale., Tit. And., v. 8. 197. 

3. Causing sorrow ; deplorable; doleful: as, a 
mournful death. =8yn. Lugubrious, doleful, afflictive, 
grievous, lamentable, deplorable, woful, melancholy. 

mournfully (morn'ful-i), adr. In a mournful 
manner; sorrowfully; as one who mourns. 

What profit is it that we have kept his ordinance, and 
that we have walked mournfully before the Lord of hosts? 

Mai. iu. 14. 
Beat thou the drum, that it speak mournfully. 

Shak., Cor., v. 6. 151. 

mournfulness ^orn'ful-nes), n. 1. The con- 
dition of being mournful; sorrow; grief; the 
state of mourning; the quality of sadness. 
2. An appearance or expression of grief. 

mournful-widow (morn'ful-wid'6), n. Same 
as /iiiiiiniiiiii-liriilr. 

mourning 1 (nmr'ning), n. and a. [< ME. mourn- 
1/1111. ilium-Minn, niornyiiii. < AS. murnung, mourn- 
ing, verbal n. of uiurnnn, mourn: see mourn 1 .] 
I. n. 1. The act of lamenting or expressing 
grief; lamentation; sorrow. 



3879 

I . . . ne had al owtte'rly foryeten the wepinge and the 
mournymje that was set in niyii lit-i If. 

Chaucer, Bocthliii, Iv. prose 1. 

But when my mournings I do think upon, 
My wormwood, hemlork, and affliction, 
My soul is humbled in rememb'ring this. 

Donne, Lamentations of Jeremy, ill. 19. 

And at end of day 

They reached the city, and with mournirtg sore 
Toward the king's palace did they take their way. 

William Morru, Earthly Paradise, I. 349. 

2. The outward tokens or signs of sorrow for 
the dead, such as the draping of buildings in 
giving expression to public sorrow, the wear- 
ing of garments of a particular color, the use 
of black-bordered handkerchiefs, black-edged 
writing-paper and visiting-cards, etc. The color 
customarily worn on such occasions differs at different 
times and in different countries: in China and Japan, for 
Instance, white is the mourning color, and basted un- 
hemmed garments the style. At present in Europe and 
America the customary color is black, or black slightly 
relieved with white or purple, black crape playing an im- 
portant part especially in the mourning worn by women. 
Sometimes a distinctive garment, such as the widow's cap, 
Is added. 

No Athenian, through my means, ever put on mourning. 
Lamjhorne, tr. of Plutarch's Pericles. 

And even the pavements were with mourning hid. 

Dryden, Pal. and Arc., HL 942. 

To be in mourning, to be onder the regulations and re- 
straints, as regardsofress, social intercourse, etc., which, 
and for such length of time as, custom or fashion pre- 
scribes on the occasion of the death of a relative or some 
one held in peculiar respect 

II. a. Having to do with mourning for the 
dead; of such kind as is used in mourning for 
the dead: as, a mourning garment; a mourning 
hat-band. 

Six dukes followed after, In black mourning gownds. 

Death of Queen Jane (Child's Ballads, VII. 78). 

mourning'-'t, H. See mourn*. 

mourning-bride (m6r'ning-brid'),M. The sweet 
scabious, Scabiosa atropurpurea : so called when 
its flowers are deep purple or crimson, but they 
are sometimes rose-colored or even white. 

mourning-brooch (mor'uing-brbch), n. A 
brooch of jet or other suitable material, worn 
by women as a sign of mourning. 

mourning-cloak (mor'ning-klok), n. 1. A cloak 
formerly worn by persons following a funeral, 
usually hired from the undertaker. 2. A but- 
terfly, Vanessa antiopa. 

mourning-coach (mor'ning-koch), n. 1. A 
coach used by a person in mourning, black in 
color, and sometimes covered outside as well 
as inside with black cloth, the hammer-cloths 
also being black. 

It was the fashion to use a mourning coach all the time 
mourning was worn, and this rendered it incumbent upon 
people to possess such a vehicle ; consequently they were 
frequently advertised for sale. 

AMon, Social Life in Reign of Queen Anne, II. 176. 

2. A closed carriage used to convey mourners 
on the occasion of a funeral. 

mourning-dove (mor'ning-duv), n. The com- 
mon American or Carolina turtle-dove, Zenai- 
dura caroUnensis : so called from its plaintive 
cooing. See cut under dore. 

mourning-livery (mor'ning-liv'er-i), n. Liv- 
ery worn by men-servants in commemoration 
of the death of a member of a master's family. 

mourningly (mflr'ning-li), adv. In the manner 
of one who mourns. 

The king very lately spoke of him admiringly and 
mourningly. Shot., All's Well, i. 1. 34. 

mourning-piece (mor'ning-pes), n. A picture 
intended MS a memorial of the dead. It repre- 
sents a tomb or an urn inscribed with the name of the de- 
ceased, with weeping-willows, mourners, and other fune- 
real accessories. 

They go to sea, you know, and fall out o' the riggin', or 
get swamped in a gale, or killed by whales, and there 
ain't a house on the island, I expect, but what's got a 
mourning-piece hangin' up in the front room. 

M. ('. l.rr, \ Quaker Girl of Nantucket, p. 48. 

mourning-ring (mor'ning-ring), n. Aringworn 
as a memorialof a deceased person. Such rings 
were commonly inscribed with the name and the dates of 
birth and death of the person commemorated. The cus- 
i "in of wearing them is almost obsolete. 

mourning-Stuff (mor'ning-stuf), n. A luster- 
less black textile material, such as crape, cash- 
mere, or merino, regarded as especially fitted 
for mourning-garments. 

mourning-widow (mor'ning-wid'6), . 1. A 
diisky-petaled geranium of central and western 
Europe, (ieraniitm ph<rum. 2. Same as mourn- 
ing-bride. 

mournivalt, . See murniral. 

mournspine (m6m'sum),. [< mourn 1 + -some.] 
Mournful. [Recent and rare.] 



mouse 

Then there came a mellnw noine, vi-ry low and mourn- 
mane, not a sound to be afraid of. 

J(. D. Blachnare, Lorna Doone, III. 

mouse (mous), . ; pi. mice (mis). [< ME. 1111111.1, 
mx(pl. mi/*, myse, rarely musun). < AS. inii.i (pi. 
niyx) = L>. niiiiti = MLG. mus, LG. mus = OHG. 
MHG. mus, G. maim = Icel. mus = 8w. L)an. IHH.I 
= L. mus (mur-) = Gr. uvf (/if-) = OBulg. n/i/.-i/n 
= Bulg. mixlikii = Serv. misli = Bohem. mush = 
Pol. mys: = Buss. t>iuitthl= Pers. (> Turk. ) imi.ili 
= Skt. (*/!(> Hind. IIHI.--II. mii-i), dim. niii.iliil.-n 
(Pali musiko), a rat, a mouse; prob. 'stealer,' < 
/ mus, Skt. / munh, steal. Hence ult. (< L. 
mus) muscle 1 , miisi-iilur, etc.] 1. A small ro- 
dent quadruped, Mus musculus, of the family 
Muridai : a name extended to very many of the 




nttitfitltti), 



smaller species of the same family, the larger 
ones being usually called rats. Mice proper, be- 
longing to the genus Hut, are Indigenous to the Old 
World only, though .V. musculus has been Introduced 
and naturalized everywhere. The native mice of America 
all belong to a different section of Muridce called Sia- 
modontes, and to such genera as Hesperomus. See cuts 
under deer-mouse, Armcola, and Emtomys. \Moute, like 
'"', enters into many compounds indicating different spe- 
cies or varieties of murines, and many other small quad- 
rupeds, not of the same family, or even of the same 
order : as, harvest-mow^, meadow-mow*-, neld-moiiw. Bee 
these words.) 

Now yif thon saye a maust amonges oother mutui [ var. 
myse] that chalengede to hymself-ward rytit and power 
over alle other myms [var. tny*e], how gret scorn woldis- 
thow nan of It I Chaucer, Boethlus, II. prose 6. 

2. Some animal like or likened to a mouse, as 
a shrew or bat. See shrew-mouse. 

And there ben also Myse als grete as Houndes; and 
zalowe 3lyff als grete as Kavenes. 

MandenOe, Travels, p. 291. 

3. A moth of the family Ampnipyridtr. 4. 
Some little bird : used in composition : as, sea- 
moiuie and sand-moiwe, the dunlin or purre, 
Tringa alpina, a sandpiper. [Local, Eiig.] 

5. A familiar term of endearment. 

Let the bloat king . . . call yon his inoune. 

Shalt., Hamlet, ill. 4. 183. 

6. Naut. : (f) A knob formed on a rope by spun- 
yarn or parceling, to prevent a running eye 
from slipping. (6) Two or three turns of spun- 
yarn or rope-yarn about the point and shank 
of a hook, to keep it from unhooking. Also 
called mousing. 7. A particular piece of beef 
or mutton below the round ; the part immedi- 
ately above the knee-joint. Also called mouse- 
piece and mouse-buttock. 8. A match used in 
blasting. 9. A swelling caused by a blow; a 
black eye. [Slang.] Economist mouse. Seewono- 
miV Hare-tailed mouse. Same as lemming. Lea- 
thern mouse, a bat. Long- tailed mouse, one of the 
Murince, as the common European wood-mouse, Mus tylva- 
ticvt, or the American deer-mouse. Hetprromui leucopui: 
so called in distinction from the short-tailed fleld-mice, 
voles, or ArricuHatr. Pharaoh's mouse. .Same as I'ha- 
raoh'i rat (which see, under rat). 

mouse (mouz), f. ; pret. and pp. moused, ppr. 
mousing, [(.mouse, n.] I. intrans. 1. To hunt 
for or catch mice. 

Your puss, demure and pensive, seems 

Too fat to mnute. F. Locker, My Neighbour Rose. 

2. To watch or pursue something in a sly or in- 
sidious manner. 

A whole assembly of mmaing saints, under the mask of 
zeal and good nature, lay many kingdoms in blood. 

Sir R. L'Eitrange. 

A miiurinii, learned New Hampshire lawyer. 

H. Cabot Lodge, Daniel Webster, p. 107. 

3. To move about softly or cautiously, like a 
cat hunting mice; prowl. 

When we were not on the water, we both liked to mouse 
about the queer streets and quaint old houses of that re- 
gion. T. W. Higyintan, Oldport, p. 62. 

II. trans. 1. To tear as a cat tears a mouse. 

And now he feasts, mmaing the flesh of men. 

Shot., K. John, ii. 1. 354. 

2. To hunt out, as a cat hunts out mice. [Rare.] 

He preached for various country congregations, and usu- 
ally returned laden with boxes and bundles of literary odds 
and ends, motited from rural attics and bought or begged 
for his collection. -VVu- 1'ort Evangelist, Oct. 20, 1804. 



mouse 

3. jVnwf., to pass a few turns of a small line 

round the point and shank of (a hook), to keep 

it from unhooking. 
mouse-barley (mous'l>ar"li), n. Hordeum mu- 

riinim, a grass of little value, 
mouse-bird (mous'berd), . Any bird of the 

African genus Colius; one of the colies: so 

called from their color, 
mouse-bur (mous'ber), n. See the quotation, 

and Martynia. 
On our way across the camp we saw a great quantity of 

the seeds of the Martynia proboscidea, mouse-burrs, as they 

call them, devil's claws or toe-nails. 

Lady Brassey, Voyage of Sunbeam, I. vi. 

mouse-buttock (mous'buf'ok), . Same as 
mouse, 7. 

mouse-chop (mous'chop), n. A species of fig- 
marigold, Mesembryanthemiim murinum. 

mouse-color (mous'kul"or), . The gray color 
of a mouse. 

mouse-colored (mous'kul"ord), a. Having the 
gray color of a mouse, or a color somewhat simi- 
lar; dark-gray with a yellowish tinge, the color 
of the common mouse. 

mouse-deer (mous'der), . A chevrotain or 
tragulid: a small deer-like ruminant of the 
family Tragulidce. 

mouse-dun (mous'dun), a. See dun 1 . 

mouse-ear (mous'er), n. 1. A species of hawk- 
weed, Hieracium Pilosella, found throughout 
Europe and northern Asia. It is a low herb with 
tufted radical leaves and leafy barren creepers, its heads 
of lemon-colored flowers borne on leafless scapes. Also 
called mouse-ear hawkweed. 

2. One of various species of scorpion-grass or 
forget-me-not of the genus Myosotis : so called 
in allusion to their short soft leaves. See My- 
osotis. Golden mouse-ear, ffieracium aurantiacmn, 
a European species with golden-red corymbed heads. 
Mouse-ear chickweed. See chiekieeed. Mouse-ear 
cress, Sigymbrium Thaliana. Mouse-ear everlasting, 
a common composite plant of North America, Antenna- 
ria plantayintfoKa, with whitish heads in small corymbs, 
blooming very early in the spring. Also called plantain- 
leafed everlasting. Mouse-ear hawkweed. See def. 1. 
Mouse-ear scorpion-grass, Myosotis palustris. 

mouse-fallt (mous'fal), . [ME. mousfalle, 
mowsefelle, mowsfalle; < mouse + fall.] A 
mouse-trap which falls on the mouse. 

mouse-fish (mous'fish), .. An antennarioid 
fish, Pterophryiie histrio, which is party-colored, 
and chiefly inhabits the Sargasso Sea, where it 
builds a sort of nest. The skin is smooth and pro- 
vided with tag-like appendages, the mouth is oblique, the 
ventral fins are long, and the dorsal and anal fins are well 
developed. Also called marbled angler, frogflsh, and toad- 
fish. See cut under Pterophryne. 

mouse-grass (mous'gras), n. 1. A grass, Aira 
caryophyllca, having short soft leaves. [Local, 
Eng.] 2. Another grass, DicJielaclme crinita, 
of similar habit. [Australia.] 

mouse-hawk (mous'hak), n. The rough-legged 
bustard. See Archibuteo. [New Eng.] 

mouse-hole (mous'hol), . A hole where mice 
enter or pass, or so small that nothing larger 
than a mouse may pass in or out ; a very small 
inlet or outlet. 

If you take us creeping into any of these mouse-holes of 
sin any more, let cats flay off our skins. 

Massinger, Virgin- Martyr, ii. 1. 

mouse-hound (mous'houud),. A weasel. Hal- 
liwell. [Prov. Eng.] 

mouse-hunt (mous'hunt), . 1. A hunting for 
mice. 2f. A mouser; one who watches or pur- 
sues, as a cat does a mouse. 

Aye, you have been a mouse-hunt in your time, 
But I will watch you from such watching now. 

Shak., R. and }., iv. 4. 11. 

Many of those that pretend to be great Babbies in these 
studies have scarce saluted them from the strings, and the 
titlepage, or, to give 'em more, have bin but the Ferrets 
and Moushunte of an Index. 

Milton, Reformation in Eng., i. 

mpusekin (mous'kin), . [< mouse + -kin.'] A 
little or young mouse. 

"Frisk about, pretty little mousekin," says gray Orimal- 
W. Thackeray, Virginians, xxxviii. 

mouse-lemur (nious'le"mer), it. A small kind 
of lemur of the genus Chirogaleus, as C. milii 
or C. coquereU. See Galaginiiue, and cut under 
Chirogalcux. 

mouse'-mill (mous'mil), n. See mill. 

mouse-owl (mous'oul), . The short-eared owl, 
Asia brachyotus or accipitrinus. 

mouse-pea (mous'pe), . See Lathyrus. 

mouse-piece (mous'pes), n. Same as mouse, 7. 

mouser (mou'zer), n. An animal that catches 
mice; specifically, a cat: commonly used with 
a qualifying term to describe the proficiency of 
the animal as a mouse-catcher. 



3880 

When you have plenty of fowl in the larder, leave the 
door open, in pity to the poor cat, if she be a good mouser. 
Swift, Advice to Servants, ii. 
Owls, you know, are capital mousers. 

Barham, Ingoldsby Legends, I. 28. 

mouse-roller (mous'ro"ler), n. In printing, an 

inking-roller which jumps up to take ink, and 

then jumps back to put this ink on the inking- 

table. 
mousery (mous'er-i), . ; pi. mouseries (-iz). [< 

mouse -r -ery.] A place where mice abound; 

the breeding-grounds of large numbers of mice 

or voles. 
The disturbance of this populous mousery by the visits 

of owls. F . A. Lucas, The Auk, V. 280. 

mouse-sight (mous'sit),M. Myopia; short-sight- 
edness; near-sightedness. 

mousetail (mous'tal), . A plant of the genus 
Myosurus, especially M. minimus: so named 
from the shape of the elongated fruiting re- 
ceptacle. 

mousetail-grass (mous'tal -gras), . 1. One 
of the foxtail-grasses, Alopecurus ayrestis. 2. 
Another grass, Festitca Myurus. 

mouse-thom (mous'thorn), n. The star-thistle, 
Centaurea calcitrapa, in the form commonly 
known as C. myacantlm. The involucre bears 
long spines. 

mouse-trap (mous'trap), n. [< ME. mowse-trap; 
< mouse + trap 1 .'] 1 . A trap for catching mice. 
2. A certain mathematical problem, itisasfol- 



lows : Let a given number of objects De arranged in a circle 
and counted round and round, and let every one against 
which any multiple of a given number is pronounced be 
thrown out when this happens ; then, which one will be 
left to the last? Mouse-trap switch, in elect., an auto- 
matic switch which is shiftea from one position to an- 
other when the current passing through the coil of a con- 
trolling magnet falls below a certain limit, in which case 
the released armature draws away a detent and allows the 
movement of the switch. 

mouse-trap (mous'trap), v. t. [< mouse-trap, 
n.] To catch, as a mouse, in a trap; entrap. 

mousie (mou'si), n. A diminutive of mouse. 
[Scotch.] 

But, Mousie, thou art no thy lane, 
In proving foresight may be vain. 

Burns, To a Mouse. 

mousing (mpu'zing), a. and n. I. a. Mouse- 
catching; given to catching mice. 

A falcon, towering in her pride of place, 
Was by a mousing owl hawk'd at and kill'd. 

Shak., Macbeth, 11. 4. 13. 

II. . 1. The act of watching for or catching 
mice. 2. Naut., same as mouse, 6. 3. In a 
loom, a ratchet-movement. 

mousing-hook (mou'zing-huk), n. A clasp- 
hook or other form of hook for ropes or harness 
having a latch or mousing-contrivance to lock 
a rope or ring in the hook. 

mousqiietaire (m6s-ke-tar'), H. [F. : see muske- 
teer.] 1. A musketeer. 2f. A turn-over collar, 
usually of plain starched linen, and broad, worn 
by women about 1850. 3. A cloak of cloth, 
trimmed with ribbons or narrow bands of velvet, 
and having large buttons, worn by women about 
1855 Mousquetaire glove, a glove with long loose 
top, and without lengthwise slit, or with a very short open- 
ing at the wrist : so called as resembling a military glove. 

mousseline (mo-se-len'), re. [F., lit. muslin: 
see muslin.] A very thin glass used for claret- 
glasses, etc. 

mousseline-de-laine (mo-se-len'de-lan'), n. 
[F. : mousseline, muslin; de, of ; laine (< L. lana), 
wool: see muslin, de%, lanary.] An untwilled 
woolen cloth made in many colors and printed 
with varied patterns. Also called muslin-de- 
laine. 

mpusseline-glass (mo-se-len'glas), . See m HX- 
lin-glass. 

moustache, n. See mustache. 

mousy (mou'si), a. [< mouse + -y 1 .] 1. Of or 
relating to a mouse or the color or smell of a 
mouse. 2. Abounding with mice. 

mout (mout), r. The earlier, now only dialectal, 
form of molft. 

moutardt, n. [ME. mowtard ; < mouten, mowten, 
molt: see molt?.] Amoltingbird. Prompt. Parv. 

moutert, A Middle English form of molt?. 

mouth (mouth),H. l<ME.mouth,muth,<A8.muth 
= OS. muth = OFries. mund, mond = D. mond 
= MLG. munt, LG. mund = OHG. mund, MHO. 
inn at, Or. mund = Icel. munnr, mudlir = Sw. mun 
Dan. mund (> E. dial, mun) = Goth, muntiis, 
mouth.] 1. The oral opening or ingestive 
aperture of an animal, of whatever character 
and wherever situated; the os, or oral end of 
the alimentary canal or digestive system. The 
mouth is in the head in most animals, and serves for tak- 
ing in food, mastication, deglutition, and the utterance of 
the voice. In nearly all vertebrates the mouth is com- 




mouth 

posed of upper and under jaws and associate parts, and 
consequently opens and shuts vertically ; in many the 
orifice is closed by fleshy movable lips, and the cavity is 
furnished with teeth 
and a tongue. Ap- 
propriate salivary 
and mucous glands 
moisten the interior, 
which is lined with 
epithelium. In most 
invertebrates, as the 
enormous assem- 
blage of arthropods, 
the basis of the 
mouth is clearly seen n 
to be modified limbs, f ~i 
and the jaws work 
sidewise. In other 
cases the mouth, 
though definite in 
position and charac- 
ter in each case, 
varies too widely to 
be defined excepting ,, 
as the ingestive ori- * 
flee. In protozoans 
any part of the body 
may act as a tempo- 
rary mouth ; and in 
many worms there is 
never any mouth or 

special digestive Longitudinal Vertical Section of Mouth, 

System, food being Nose, etc., taken a little to the left of the 

absorbed directlv uiiddle line, a, cervical vertebrae; 6, fful- 

thrniKrh fl.n hitML let or esophagus; c, windpipe or trachea ; 

thlOUgh the mtegu- rf.larynx; <7epiglottis;/;uvula; f.open- 

ment. The most ing ofleft Euslachian tutie ; h, opening of 

complicated mouths left lacrymal duct in the nose; *', hyoid 

are found among in- J> ne : * HOTC; ', hard palate; , , 

c..,.to .,,,.1 ** base of cranial cavity; o, f, q, superior, 
sects and crusta- mid dlc, and inferior turbinate bines. The 
ceans (see cut under pharynx extends from r to s. 

mouth-part). Seeo2, 

stoma, and cuts under medustform, Actinozoa, Haliphy- 

sema, anthozooid, Aurelia, and house-fly. 

Made hem to be vn-armed and waish theire mouthes and 
theire visages with warme water. 

Merlin (E. E. T. S.), Hi. 545. 
Hys mou'the, hys nose, hys eyn too, 
Hys herd, hys here he ded also. 

Holy Hood (E. E. T. S.), p. 171. 

2. Specifically (a) The human mouth regard- 
ed as the channel of vocal utterance. 

Assoyne . . . excuse sent by the mouth of another for 
non-appearance when summoned. 

Knglish Gilds (E. E. T. S.), p. 464. 

Now that he is dead, his immortall fame surviveth, and 
flourisheth in the mouthes of all people. 

Spenser, State of Ireland. 

(6) The interior hollow of the mouth ; the buccal 
cavity: as, inflammation of the mouth and throat, 
(c) The exterior opening or orifice of the mouth ; 
the lips: as, a well-formed mouth; & kiss on 
the mouth, (d) In entom., the mouth-parts col- 
lectively; the oral organs or appendages which 
are visible externally: as, the trophi of a man- 
dibulate mouth. 3. Anything resembling a 
mouth in some respect, (o) The opening of any- 
thing hollow, for access to it or for other uses, as the 
opening by which a vessel is filled or emptied, charged 
or discharged ; the opening by which the charge issues 
from a firearm : the entrance to a cave, pit, or den ; the 
opening of a well, etc. ; the opening in a metal -melting fur- 
nace from which the metal flows ; the slot in a carpenters' 
plane in which the bit is fitted ; the surface end of a min- 
ing-shaft or adit ; etc. 

Turn thou the mouth of thy artillery, 

As we will ours, against these saucy walls. 

Shak., K. John, ii. 1. 40S. 

(6) The part of a river or other stream where its waters 
are discharged into the ocean or any large body of water ; 
a conformation of land resembling a river-mouth. 

It [the river Po] disgorgeth itself at length iuto the gulf e 
of Venice, with sixe greate mouths. 

Coryat, Crudities, I. 97. 

(c) The opening of a vise between its cheeks, chops, or 
jaws, (d) In fort., the interior opening of an embrasure. 
It may be either rectangular or trapezoidal in form. Some 
military writers call this opening the throat of the embra- 
sure, and apply the term mouth to the exterior opening. 
See embrasure^, (e) In an organ-pipe, the opening in the 
side of the pipe above the foot, between the upper and the 
lower lip. See pipe, (f) In ceram., a name given to one 
of the fireplaces of a pottery-kiln. The kilns for firing the 
biscuit have several of these mouths built against them 
externally, and a flue from each mouth leads the flames 
to a central opening, where they enter the oven, (g) The 
cross-bar of a bridle-bit, uniting the branches or the rings 
as the case may be. 

4. A principal speaker; one who utters the 
common opinion ; an oracle; a mouthpiece. 

Every coffee-house has some particular statesman be- 
longing to it, who is the mouth of the street where he lives. 
Addison, Coffee House Politicians. 

5. Cry; voice. 

The fearful dogs divide. 
All spend their mouths aloft, but none abide. 

Dryden, tr. of Ovid's Metamorph. , iv. 108. 

6. Flavor; taste in the mouth: said of beer. 
By mouth, or by word of mouth, by means of spoken 
as distinguished from written language ; by speech ; viva 
voce. 

But did not the apostles teach aught by mouth that they 
wrote not? 
Tyndale, Ans. to SirT. More, etc. (Parker Si*., 1850), p. 26. 

Down In the mouth, dejected; despondent; "blue." 
IColloq.) 



mouth 

The U< 1111:111 orator was ii< '/, in '/ mouth, finding him- 
self thus i -heated by the money-changer. 

Hi'. Halt, Works, VII. 309. 

From hand to mouth, sec hand. Full, Imperfect, 
masticatory, i u., mouth. 8e the adjective* Man- 
dibulate mouth. samr :is mnxtii-dt^ri/ umutli. Mark 
of mouth. See wwirti.- Mouth-glue. See glue. Mouth 
Of a plane, the spiice lK-t\vi-t.-n the cutting edge of a plane- 
iron and the part of the pl:uie-sto<:k immediately in front 
<>f the iron, through which the shavingM pass in hand- 
pl:uiinir. Mouth Of a shovel, the part of a shovel which 
In use rtrst begins to receive the charge or load ; the front 
r<l'_'( -"i :i h"M I. This part Is frequently made of steel, 
such sliovcla lK-iriu;r:i]li-iU'/r<7 mouthed. TO be born with 
a silver spoon In one's mouth. See 6wnii. To carry 
a bone In the mouth, sec 6mwi. To crook the mouth. 
See crunk. To give mouth to, to utter; express. To 
have one's heart In one's mouth. See heart To 
laugh out of the other side of one's mouth. Scelauyh. 
-To look a gift-horse In the mouth. See yift-hnrnr. 
To make a mouth, or to make mouths, to distort 
the mouth in mockery ; make a wry face ; pout. 
Ay do, persever, counterfeit sad looks, 
Make mouths upon me when I turn my back. 

Shak., M. N. D., ill. 2. 238. 

To make or have one's mouth water. See water. To 
make up one's mouth for. See make^.1o put one's 
head Into the lion's mouth. See lion. To stop one's 
mouth, to put one to silence. 

mouth (moiiTii), r. [< ME. moutheii ; < mouth, 
.] I. trans. If. To utter. 
Thanne Mercy fnl myldly mouthed thise wordes : 
"Throw experience," quod she, "I hope they shal be 
saued. " Pien Plowman (B), xvlli. 150. 

2. To utter with a voice affectedly big or swell- 
ing, or with more regard to sound than to sense. 

Speak the speech . . . trippingly on the tongue ; but 
if you mouth it, as many of your players do, I had as lief 
the town-crier spoke my lines. Shak., Hainlet, ill. 2. 3. 

I hate to hear an actor mouthinij trifles. 

Goldsmith, Citizen of the World, xxl. 

3. To touch, press, or seize with the mouth or 
lips; take into the mouth; mumble; lick. 

The beholder at first sight conceives it a rode and in- 
formous lump of flesh, and imputes the ensuing shape 
unto the mouthing of the dam. 

Sir T. Browne, Vulg. Err., ill. 6. 
lie mouthed them, and betwixt his grinders caught 

Drydm, tr. of Persius's Satires, 1. 281. 
Psyche . . . hugged and never hngg'd It (her infant] close 

enough, 
And in her hunger mouth'd and mumbled it. 

Tennyson, Princess, vl. 

4. To reproach; insult. 

Then might the debauchee 
Untrembling mouth the heavens. 

Blair, The Grave. 

II. in trans. 1. To speak with a full, round, 
or loud voice; speak affectedly; vociferate; 
rant: as, a iiunilhiiuj actor. 

Nay, an thoult mouth, 
I'll rant as well as thou. 

Shak., Hamlet, v. 1. 306. 
I'll bellow out for Rome and for my country, 
And mouth at Ceesar till I shake the senate. 

Addison, Cato, i . 8. 

2. To join mouths; kiss. [Rare.] 

He would mouth with a beggar, though she smelt brown 
bread and garlick. Shak., M . for M., 111. 2. 194. 

3. To make a mouth ; make a wry face ; gri- 
mace. 

Well I know when I am gone 
How she mouths behind my back. 

Tennyson, Vision of Sin, IT. 

mputhable (mou'THa-bl), n. [< mouth + -able.] 
That can be readily or fluently uttered ; sound- 
ing well. 
And other good mouthaMf lines. 

0. W. Holmes, The Atlantic, LIX. 640. 

mouth-arm (mouth'iinu), . One of the oral 
arms or processes from the mouth of a jelly-fish 
or other hydrozoan. Science, V. 258. 
mouth-blower (mouth'blo'er), . A common 
blowpipe. 

mouth-case (mouth'kas), H. In entom., that 
part of the integument of a pupa that covers 
the mouth. 

mouthed (moutht), p. a. Furnished with a 
mouth: mainly used in composition, to note 
some characteristic of mouth or of speech, as in 
titird-iiioutheil, foul-mnuthnl. iiiili/-iii<ititlied. 
A i:mgler, and eiiill mouthed one. 

Oower, Conf. Amant., v. 
And set me down, and took a mouthed shell 
And murnmr'd into it, and made melody. 

Keats, Hyperion, ii. 

mouther (mou'THer), n. One who mouths; an 
affected dtvliiimer. 

mouth-filling (mouth'fil'ing), a. Filling the 
mouth. 

Swear me, Kate, like a lady as thou art, 
A good moiit/i-rilliiuj oath. 

Shak., 1 Hen. IV., iii. i. 259. 

mouth-foot (mouth'fut). H. A mouth-part which 
consists of a modified foot or limb ; a foot-jaw or 
pcd: generally in the plural. 



3881 

mouth-footed (mouth' fut'ed), a. Having 
mouth-feet ; having foot-jaws or maxillipeds ; 
specifically, stomatopodoug. 
mouth-friend (mouth'frend), w. One who pro- 
fesses friendship without entertaining it ; a pre- 
tended or false friend. 

May you a better feast never behold, 
You knot of mouth-friendt ! 

Shak.,T. of A., iii. 6.99. 

mouthful (mouth'ful), n. [< mouth + -fid.] 1. 
As much as the mouth will contain or as is put 
into the mouth at one time. 

A 1 [a whale) plays and tumbles, driving the poor fry be- 
fore him, and at last devours them all at a mouthful. 

Shak., Pericles, II. 1. 35. 
2. A small quantity. 

You to your own Aquluum shall repair, 
To take a mouthful of sweet country air. 

Dryden, tr. of Juvenal's Satires, 111. 499. 

mouth-gage (mouth 'gaj), n. An instrument 
consisting mainly of graduated bars and slides, 
used by saddlers for measuring the width and 
height of a horse's mouth, as a guide in fitting 
a bit. 

mouth-glass (mouth'glas), M. A small hand- 
mirror used in dentistry for inspecting the 
teeth and gums, etc. 

mouth-honor (mouth'on'or),/?. Respectordef- 
erence expressed without sincerity. 

Curses, not loud but deep, mouth-honour, breath. 

Shot., Macbeth, v. 8. 27. 

mouthing (mou'THing), H. [Verbal n. of mouth, 
v.] Rant. 

These threats were the merest mouthing, andJudasknew 
It very well. The Century, XXXVIII. 896. 

mouthing (mou'THing), p. a. Ranting. 

Akenside is respectable, because he really had something 
new to say, in spite of his pompous, mouthing way of say- 
Ing it. Lowell, Study Windows, p. 180. 

mouthing-machine (mou'thing-ma-shen*), n. 
In sheet-metal working, a swaging-machine for 
striking up the mouths or tops of open-top tin 
cans, to receive the covers, and also for crimp- 
ing the bottoms of the cans, 
mouthless (mouth'les), a. [< ME. "mouthks, < 
AS. muthleds, < muth, mouth, + -leds, E. -7e.- 
see mouth and -less.] Having no mouth ; asto- 
matous. 

mouth-made (mouth'mad), a. Expressed with- 
out sincerity ; hypocritical. 

Riotous madness, 

To be entangled with those mouth-made vows, 
Which break themselves in swearing ! 

Shak., A. and f., i. 3. 30. 

mouth-organ ( mouth 'dr'gan), H. 1. Pan's- 
pipes, or a harmonica. 

A set of Pan pipes, better known to the many as a moutfi- 
organ. Dickens, Sketches. (Darits.) 

2. In sool., one of the parts or appendages of 
the month. 
The degraded mouth-organs of the Sugentia. 

A. S. Packard. 

mouth-part (mouth'part), n. 
organ that en- 
ters into the 
formation of 
the mouth of 
an insect, crus- 
tacean, myria- 
pod, etc. See 
also cuts under 
Intiixe-fly, hy- 
oid, and 



movable 

mouth-ling (moutli'i-in;;). w. Tbe oral or eso- 

|>liHK<'Hl nci'viiits riiiic "t an rdiiiindcrm. 
mouthroot (motith'riit), n. The goldthread, 
Cn/itix trij'iiliu. The root is a tonic bitter, and 
is used in some places for the cure of MU--- 
mouth. 

mouthy (mou'thy), a. [< mouth + -y 1 .] Lo- 
quacious; ranting; affected. 

Another Bald to a mouthy advocate, Why darkest thuu 
at me so sore? Puttenham, Arte of Eng. Poesle, p. 148. 
A turgid style of mouthy grandiloquence. 

be Quincey, Rhetoric. 

mouton (mci-ton'), w. [OF., a coin so called 
from the paschal lamb on the obverse, lit. 
sheep': see mutton.'] A gold coin current in 
France in the fourteenth century, having tvpes 
similar to those of the agnel, and weighing about 




An appendage or 




mouthpiece 
(mouth ' pes), 

Ii. 1. In an Mouth-parts of a Beetle (HarfalHS taligi- 
inotviimont or MIM), viewed from the under side. 

M. if, the mandibles; G, gena. or cheek ; 

tlteilSli made i, glossa. and 3, 3, the paragloss.Te, together 

ibial 



*Un m/Cutl* flm Ubrura visible; 8, mentum ; 9. submentum : 
the mOUth, the jo.guU; n,antenna<9,8,3. 2 and I together 
part which compose the labium or under lip and its ap- 

tpuches the p 

lips or is held in the mouth, as in a musical 
instrument, a tobacco-pipe, cigar-holder, etc. 
See cut under clarinet. 2. One who delivers 
the opinions of others ; one who speaks on be- 
half of others: as, the mouthpiece of an as- 
sembly. 

I come the mouthpiece of our King to Doonn. 

Tennyson. Gcraint. 

mouth-pipe (mouth'pip), n. 1. That part of 
a musical wind-instrument to which the mouth 
is applied. 2. An organ-pipe having a lip to 
out the wind escaping through an aperture in 
a diaphragm. E. H. Knight. 



Obverse. Reverse. 

French Mouton of Henry V. of England. 

70 grains; also, a gold coin with similar types 
(sometimes called agnel) struck by Edward III. 
and Henry V. of England for their French do- 
minions. The mouton of Edward weighed about 
70 grains, that of Henry about 40 grains. 

mouzah (mo"zS), . [E. Ind.] In India, a vil- 
lage with its surrounding or adjacent township. 

mouzlet, v. Aii obsolete form of muzzle. 

movability (m8-va-bil 'i-ti) , n . [Also morea bil- 
ity ; < movable + -ity: see-bility.] The quality 
or property of being movable ; movableness. 

movable (ino'va-bl), a. and n. [Also moveable; 
< ME. movabylle, moevable, mevable, < OF. mo- 
vable, mouvable = Pr. movable = 8p. movible = 
Pg. movivcl = It. moi'ibile, < L. as if "movibilis, 
contr. mobilis (>ult. E. mobk 1 , mobile 1 , q. v.), < 
motere, move: see move.] I. a. 1. Capable of 
being moved from place to place; admitting of 
being lifted, carried, drawn, turned, or con- 
veyed, or in any way made to change place or 
posture; susceptible of motion; hence, as ap- 
plied to property, personal. 

To the thridde his goodes meuable. 

Hob. of Gloucester, p. 586. 

A stick and a wallet were all the moveablr things upon 
this earth that he could boast of. GoUmiith, Vicar, ilx. 

2. Capable of being transposed or otherwise 
changed in parts or details: as, in printing, a 
form of movable type. 3. Changing from one 
date to another in different years : as, a movable 
feast. 

The lunar month is natural and periodical, by which the 
moveable festivals of the Christian Church are regulated. 

Holder. 
4t. Fickle; inconstant. 

Lest thou shouldest ponder the path of life, her ways 
are moveable, that thou canst uot know them. Prov. v. 6. 

Movable bars, the cross-bars of a printers' chase which 
are detachable. Movable dam. Same as barrage. 
Movable do. See do* and solmization, Movable feast. 
See /ecufl, 1. Movable kidney. Same as floating kid- 
ney (which see, under kidney). Movable ladder. See 
ladder. Movable property, personal property. 

II. n. 1. Anything that can be moved, or 
that can readily be moved. 

The flrste moevable of the elghte spere. 

Chaucer, Astrolabe, L 17. 

2. Specifically (generally in the plural), per- 
sonal property; any species of property not 
fixed, and thus distinguished from houses and 
lands. Movable things are those which could be removed 
or displaced without affecting their substance, whether 
the displacement might be effected by their own proper 
force or by the effect of a force external to them. Goud- 
tinit. In Scots law, movables are opposed to heritage ; so 
that every species of property, and every right person 
can hold, is by that law either heritable or movable. 

If you want a greasy paire of silke stockings also, to 
shew yourself e in at Court, they are to be had too amongst 
his moveaNft. ffath. Four Letters Confuted. 

Books of travel have familiarized every reader with the 
custom of burying a dead man's movables with him. 

a. Spencer, Prin. of Sociol., 1 103. 

3. An article of furniture, as a chair, table, or 
the like, resting on the floor of a room. 

An ample court, and a palace furnish 'd with the most 
rich and princely mortaMes. Evelyn, Diary, Oct. 11, 1644. 

It's much if he looks at me ; or if he does, takes no more 
Notice of me than of any other Moreable in the Boom. 

Steele, Conscious Lovers, iii. 1. 
Helrship movables, see heinhip. 



movabled 
movabledt, . [< movable + -ed 2 .~\ Furnished. 

They entered into that straw-thatched cottage, scurvily 
built, naughtily moveabled, and all besmoked. 

Urquhart, tr. of Rabelais, iii. 17. (Danes.) 

movableness (mo"va-bl-nes),. [Also moveable- 
ness; < movable + -HC.VS.] The state or property 
of being movable ; mobility ; susceptibility of 
movement. 

movably (mo'va-bli), adv. [Also moveably; < 
movable + -fy 2 .] In a movable manner or state ; 
so as to be capable of movement. 
moval (mo'val), n. [<. move + -al.] Movement; 
removal. 

And it remov'd, whose movall with loud shout 
Did fill the echoing aire. 

Vicars, tr. of Virgil (1632). (Sares.) 

move (mo'v), v. ; pret. and pp. moved, ppr. mov- 
ing. [Early mod. E. also moove, mieve; < ME. 
moven, moeven, meven, mefen, < OF. mover, mou- 
ver, muver, also moceir, muveir, movoir, F. mouvoir 
= Sp. Pg. mover = It. movere, muovere, < L. mo- 
vers, move, = Skt. miv, push. Hence ult. (< 
L. movere) E. amove, remove, promote, remote, 
mobile, moblei, mob 2 , moteG, motile, motion, mo- 
tor, motive, amotion, emotion, commotion, mo- 
ment, mutine, etc.] I. trans. 1. To cause to 
change place or posture in any manner or by 
any means; carry, convey, or draw from one 
place to another; set in motion; stir; impel: as, 
the wind moves a ship ; the servant moved the fur- 
niture. Specifically, in chess, draughts, and some similar 
games, to change the position of (a piece) in the course of 
play : as, to move the queen's bishop. 

Were she the prize of bodily force, 
Himself beyond the rest pushing could inane 
The chair of Idris. Tennyson, Geraint. 

My liege, I move my bishop. Tennyson, Becket, Prol. 

2. To excite to action ; influence; induce; in- 
cite; arouse; awaken, as the senses or the 
mental faculties or emotions. 

But Medea mauet hym a moneth to lenge. 
Then leuyt thai the lond and no leue toke. 

Destruction of Troy (E. E. T. S.X 1. 986. 
The Sowdon anon he ganne his councell to meve 
Of that mater that towchid hym soo nere. 

Generydes(E. E. T. S.), 1. 1760. 

I moved the king my master to speak in the behalf of 

my daughter. Shak., All's Well, iv. 5. 75. 

I little thought, good Cousin, that you of all Men would 

have moved me to a Matter which of all Things in the 

World I most decline. Baker, Chronicles, p. 225. 

I told him that my business was to Cachoa, where I had 

been once before ; that then I went by Water, but now I 

was moved by my curiosity to travel by Land. 

Dumpier, Voyages, II. i. 94. 

3. To rouse or excite the feelings of; provoke ; 
stir up : used either absolutely or with a phrase 
or preposition to indicate the nature of the feel- 
ings roused : as, he was moved with or to anger 
or compassion. Used absolutely: (a) To affect with 
anger; irritate. 

Be not mooued in case thy friend tell thee thy faultes full 

playne : 

Requyte him not with mallyce great, nor his good will dis- 
dayne. Babees Book (E. E. T. S.), p. 99. 

Being mooed, he strikes whate'er is in his way. 

Shale., Venus and Adonis, 1. 623. 
(&) To affect with tender feelings ; touch. 

She gan him soft to shrieve, 
And wooe with fair intreatie, to disclose 
Which of the Nymphes his heart so sore did mieve. 
Spenser, F. Q., IV. xii. 26. 
My poor mistress, moved therewithal, 
Wept bitterly. Shak., T. O. of V., iv. 4. 175. 
" Trust in God " is trust in the law of conduct ; " delight 
in the Eternal " is, in a deeply moved way of expression, 
the happiness we all feel to spring from conduct. 

M. Arnold, Literature and Dogma, i. 
(c) To agitate or influence by persuasion or rhetorical art. 
Seeing their power to move the masses, the pontiffs accu- 
mulated privileges upon them. Welsh, Eng. Lit., I. 78. 
These tidings produced great excitement among the 
populace, which is always more moved by what impresses 
the senses than by what is addressed to the reason. 

Macaulay, Hist. Eng., vi. 

4. To propose; bring forward ; off er formally ; 
submit, as a motion for consideration by a 
deliberative assembly : now used only in such 
phrases as to move a resolution, or to move that 
a proposal be agreed to. 

I durste meve no mateere to make him to tangle. 

Piers Plowman (A), ix. 113. 

I speak this of a conscience, and I mean and move it of a 
good will to your grace and your realm. 

Latimer, 2d Sermon bef. Edw. VI., 1550. 
Let me but move one question to your daughter. 

Shak., Much Ado, iv. 1. 74. 
This ... he moved as a sixth article of compact. 

Bancroft, Hist. Const., II. 115. 

5. To submit a question, motion, or formal pro- 
posal to. 



3882 

The pastor moved the governour if they might without 
offence to the court examine other witnesses. 

Winthrop, Hist. New England, I. 375. 

6f. To address one's self to ; call upon; apply 
to ; speak to about an affair. 

I have heard y' when he hath been moved in the bussi- 
nes he hath put it of from him selfe, and referred it to 
ye others. John Robinson, quoted in Bradford's Plymouth 

[Plantation, p. 48. 
The Florentine will move us 
For speedy aid. Shak., All's Well,!. 2. 6. 

7t. To complete the course of. 

After the monethis were meuyt of the mene true, 
Then waknet vp were and myche wale sorow ! 

Destruction of Troy (E. E. T. S.), 1. 8182. 

8. To cause to act or operate: as, to move 
the bowels. =Syn. 2. To influence, actuate, persuade, 
prompt, incite, induce, incline, instigate. 3. To stir, agi- 
tate. 

II. intrans. 1. To pass from place to place ; 
change position, continuously or occasionally : 
as, the earth moves round the sun. 

The moving waters, at their priestlike task 
Of pure ablution round earth's human shores. 

Keats, Last Sonnet. 

2. To advance as in a course of development or 
progress. 

Al of nou3t hast maad to meeue, 
Bothe heueu <fe earthe, day & nyjt. 

Hymns to Virgin, etc. (E. E. T. S.), p. 101. 

One far-off divine event, 
To which the whole creation moves. 

Tennyson, In Memoriam, Conclusion. 

3. To change one's place or posture consciously, 
or by direct personal effort : often in a specified 
direction from or to an indicated place. 

The Janizary seemed to be much afraid, talked often of 
the heat of the weather, and would not move until he 
knew they [the Arabs) were gone, and which way they 
went. Pocoete, Description of the East, II. i. 132. 

He generally says his prayers without moving from his 
shop. . W. Lane, Modern Egyptians, I. 189. 

4. To walk ; proceed ; march. 

While still moving in column up the Jacinto road he met 
a force of the enemy, and had his advance badly beaten 
and driven back upon the main road. 

U. S. Grant, Personal Memoirs, I. 412. 
There was nothing of the superb gait with which a regi. 
ment of tall Highlanders moves behind ita music, solemn 
and inevitable, like a natural phenomenon. 

R. L. Stevenson, Inland Voyage, p. 202. 

5. To carry one's self, with reference to de- 
meanor, port, or gait: as, to move with dignity 
and grace. 

He moves a god, resistless in his course. 

And seems a match for more than mortal force. 

Pope, Iliad, xii. 557. 
Katie never ran ; she moved 
To meet me. Tennyson, The Brook. 

6. To change residence: as, we move next week. 
7. To take action; begin to act; act. 

As this affair had happened, it might have been of bad 
consequences to have moved in it at Damascus, so I took 
no further notice of it. 

Pococke, Description of the East, II. i. 127. 
God moves in a mysterious way 
His wonders to perform. 

Cowper, Light Shining out of Darkness. 

8. In chess, draughts, and some similar games, 
to change the position of a piece in the course 
of play : as, whose turn is it to move f 

Check you move so wildly. Tennyson, Becket, Prol. 

9. To bow or lift the hat ; salute. [Colloq.] 
At least we move when we meet one another. 

Dickens, Bleak House, rrix. 

10. In music, of a voice or voice-part, to pro- 
gress from one pitch to another ; pass from tone 
to tone. 

move (mov), n. [< move, v.~\ 1. A change of 
position or relation. Specifically, in chess, draughts, 
etc. : (a) A change of the position of a piece made in the 
regular course of play. 

The signora did not love at all, but she was up to any 
move on the board. TroUope, Barchester Towers, xxvii. 

(6) The right or turn to move a piece : as, it is my move 
now. 

Becket. It is your move. 

Henry. Well there. (Moves.) 

Tennyson, Becket, Prol. 

2. A proceeding; a course of action: as, he 

hoped by that move to disconcert his opponents. 

An unseen hand makes all their moves. 

Cmdey, Destiny. 

On the move, moving or migrating, as animals ; active or 
progressive. To have the move, in draughts, to occupy 
the situation in which that player is who can flrst force his 
adversary to offer a man to be taken. To know a move 
or two, 01- to be up to a move, to be smart or sharp; 
be acquainted with tricks. [Slang. ) = Syn. Movement, etc. 
See motion. 

moveable, moveableness, etc. See movable, 
etc. 



movement 

mpve-allt, The name of a game, apparently 
like "my lady's toilet." Davies. 

Come, Morrice, you that love Christmas sports, what say 
you to the game of move-all ? Miss Burney, Cecilia, i. 2. 

moveless (mov'les), . [< move + -tes.] Not 
moving; immovable; fixed. 

The Grecian phalanx, moveless as a tow'r, 
On all sides batter'd, yet resists his pow'r. 

Pope, Iliad, xv. 144. 
Moveless as an image did she stand. 

William Morris, Earthly Paradise, II. 216. 

movement (mov'ment), >. [< OF. movement, 
F. momement = Sp'.' movimiento = Pg. It. movi- 
mento, < ML. movimentum, movement, < L. mo- 
vere, move: see move, v. Cf. moment, momen- 
tum.'] 1. The act or condition of moving, in 
any sense of that word. 

Sound and movement are so correlated that one is strong 
when the other is strong, one diminishes when the other 
diminishes, and the one stops when the other stops. 

Blaserna, Sound, p. 7. 

The circumstances of awakening from sleep, wherein 

movement as a general rule appears to precede sensation. 

A. Bain, Emotions and Will, p. 288. 

2. A particular act or motion ; figuratively, a 
quality or effect as of motion. 

Forces are not communicated by one thing to another ; 
only movements can be communicated. 

Lotze, Microcosmus (trans.), I. 58. 

The movements of living things have direct reference to 
consciousness, to the satisfaction of pleasures, and to the 
avoidance of pains. 

E. D. Cope, Origin of the Fittest, p. 231. 
That crenellated palace from whose overhanging cornice 
a tall, straight tower springs up with a movement as light 
as that of a single plume in the bonnet of a captain. 

H. James, Jr., Confidence, i. 

3. Action; incident. 

The dialogue is written with much vivacity and grace, 
and with as much dramatic movement as is compatible 
with only two interlocutors. Prescott, Ferd. and Isa., i. 18. 

4. A course or series of actions or incidents 
moving more or less continuously in the direc- 
tion of some specific end: as, the antislavery 
movement; a reactionary movement. 

The whole modern movement of metaphysical philoso- 
phy. J. D. Morell. 

That much-misunderstood movement of old times known 
and ridiculed as euphuism was in reality only a product 
of this instinct of refinement in the choice of terms. 

The Atlantic, LVIII. 425. 

5. The extent or value of commercial transac- 
tions for some specified time or place : as, the 
movement in coffee is insignificant. 

The total movement of bonds held for national banks was 
$87,967,300. Rep. Sec. Treas. (1886), I. 58. 

6. A particular form or arrangement of mov- 
ing parts in mechanism : as, the movement of a 
watch (that is, all that part of a watch that is not 
the case) ; the movement of an organ or a piano- 
forte. 7. JUilit., a change of position of a 
body of troops in tactical or strategical evolu- 
tions. 8. In music: (a) Motion; melodic pro- 
gression. See motion, 14. (6) Rhythm; meter; 
accentual character: as, a march movement, 
(c) Tempo ; pace ; relative speed of perform- 
ance: aSj with a quick movement, (d) A prin- 
cipal division or section of an extended work, 
like a sonata or a symphony, having its own 
key, tempo, themes, and development, more 
or less distinct from the others Amoeboid 
movements, Brownlan movement, ciliary move- 
ment, Circus movements. See the qualifying words. 
Geneva movement, in clockwork, calculating-machin- 
ery, and recording-mechanism, a peculiar system of wheel- 
work, consisting of a notched wheel and a single-toothed 
wheel (which may be smaller than the notched wheel), 
the spaces between the notches on 

the wheel B being made concave on 
the perimeter, and the concave parts 
being arcs of circles having the same 
radius as the toothless part of the 
perimeter of the wheel A. The 
wheels are so centered in relation 
with each other that, in rotating, the 
tooth of the wheel A engages a notch 
In the wheel B, moving the latter 
radially, and after the tooth releases 
itself from the notch the perimeter 
of the wheel A engages with the ad- 
jacent concave in the wheel B and 
locks the latter, restraining it from 
moving till the wheel A has again 
brought its single tooth around into 
engagement with the next notch in 
the wheel B. The latter is thus 
moved once and locked at each turn 
of the wheel A. If the wheel B has 
ten notches, it will turn once, and 
can thus be made to carry or record 
one for every ten turns of the wheel 
A , and in this form it is much used in 
various measuring-, counting-, and adding-machines and 
recording-instruments. Where a stop-movement of the 
wheel B is desired, the notches are spaced according to the 
movement required, and the wheels have equal diameters. 




The Geneva Stop 
Movement, used in 
Swiss watches to limit 
the number of revolu- 
tinns in winding up, 
the convexly curved 
part, a It, of the wheel 
B serving as the stop. 



movement 

This form of tin- movement ia used in watch-work, and 
is HomfthiM- r.iiini /,,/, ,</,,,/. - Grave, muscular, etc. , 
movement. SeetheadJwttTM. Movement of plants, 
the spontaneous activity of plants, abundantly attested in 
a great variety of ways, and latterly the subject of an im- 
portant oilmen of vegetable physiology. Most tlnieellular 
p!;ui(s (bacteria, etc.) possess projter motions of their own, 
not distinguishable from those of animals, and the same is 
true of the spores of alKiv and the spermatozooids of most 
cryptogams. For (If mo\ rim iits of the more highly organ- 
ized plants, see circitinnutatwn, geotrrrjrigin, hflwtr"in.--in 
apoi/eotropiitiit, aphetuttropitrtn, ituiijeutropimn., diahefitttrit- 
ffi.tm, t-ic. - Oxford Movement, a name sometimes given 
to a movement in the Church of England toward High- 
rhuivli prinri|ilrx, as against a supposed tendency toward 
liberalism and rationalism: so called from the fact that 
it originated in the University of Oxford (1833-41). See 
Tractarianinn, Puseyian. - Syn. Move, etc. See motion. 

movement-cure (mov'ment-kur), . The use of 
selected bodily movements with a view to the 
cure of disease ; kinesitherapy. 

moventt (mo'veut), a. and . [= OF. movant, 
V. iiiiHtciint = Sp. iiioriente = Pg. It. movente, < 
I,. limn n(l-)s, ppr. of movere, move: see move.'} 

1. a. Moving; not quiescent. 

To suppose a body to be self-existent, or to have the pow- 
er of Being, is as absurd as to suppose it to be self-mown*, 
or to have the power of motion. 

JT. Grew, Cosmologia Sacra, 1. 1. 

II. M. That which moves anything. 

But whether the sun or earth be the common movent 
cannot be determin'd but by a farther appeal. 

Glanntte, Vanity of Dogmatizing, ix. 

mover (mo'ver), n. [< move + -er 1 . Cf. OF. 
moceor, moveur, mouveur = Sp. Pg. movedor 
= It. movitore, mover.] 1. One who or that 
which imparts motion or impels to action. 

O thou eternal Mover of the heavens, 
Look with a gentle eye upon this wretch ! 

SAa*.,2Hen. VI., ill. 8. 19. 

2. One who or that which is in motion or ac- 
tion. 

In all nations where a number are to draw any one way, 
there must be some one principal mover. 

Hooter, Eccles. Polity, vil. 8. 

3. A proposer; one who submits a proposition 
or recommends anything for consideration or 
adoption: as, the mover of a resolution in a 
legislative body. 

Attempts were made by different members to point out 
the absence from the resolution of any specific or tangible 
charge, or to extract from the mover some declaration that 
he had been informed or believed that the President had 
been guilty of some official misconduct, 

O. T. Curtis, Buchanan, II. 248. 

4. One whose business is to move furniture 
and other household goods, as from one place of 
residence to another. [Colloq.] First mover, 
(a) The primnm mobile ; that formerly supposed sphere 
of the heavens which carries all the others, and in which 
are fixed the fixed stars. 

Do therefore as the planets do : move always and be car- 
ried with the motion of your Jtrgt mover, which Is your 
sovereign ; a popular judge is a deformed thing. 

Bacon, Charge to the Judges in the Star-chamber. 
(6) The first cause. Prime mover. See prime. 
moveresst (m6'ver-es), . [ME. moveresse; < 
mover + -ess.] A female mover; a stirrer of 
debate and strife. 

Amyddes saugh I Hate stonde, 
That for hir wrathe, yre, and onde, 
Semede to ben a moveresse. 

Rom. of the Rote, 1. 149. 

moving (mS'ving), p. a. 1. Causing to move 
or act; impelling; instigating; persuading; 
influencing: as, the moving cause of a dispute. 
2. Exciting the feelings, especially the ten- 
der feelings ; touching ; pathetic ; affecting. 

Have I a moving countenance ? is there harmony In my 
voice? Ford, Love's sacrifice ii. 2. 

1 played a soft and doleful air, 
I sung an old and moving story. 

Coleridge, Love. 

Action of a moving system. See action. Moving fil- 
lister. See fillister. Moving force, in meeh. See mo- 
mentum. 

moving (mo'viug), . [< IDE. MewyM; verbal 
n. of move, r.] Movement ; motion ; impulse. 

Firste moevyng is cleped inoeeyng of the flrste moevable 
of the eighte spore, which moenyng is fro est to west. 

Chaucer, Astrolabe, L 17. 

How many kinds of motion or moving be there? Six : 

that is to say. Generation, Corruption, Augmentation, 

Diminution, Alteration, and Hiring from place to place. 

Wuntlrcillt, Arte of Logicke, I. xxit 

movingly (mo'ving-li), atlr. In a moving man- 
ner ; in a manner to excite the feelings, espe- 
cially the tender feelings ; pathetically. 

movingness (mo'viug-nes), n. The power of 
moving ; the quality of exciting the feelings, 
especially the tender feelings ; affectingness. 

There is a strange mtmngnett ... to be found in some 
pus&igcsof the Scripture. 

Boyle, Style of Holy Scripture, p. 242. 



3883 

moving-plant (mO'ving-plant), n. An East 
Indian plant, IJc.i/iiiiiliuiii i/yrans. Also called 

li-li-i/ rn /ih -plant. 

mOW 1 (mo), ('.; prel. mmi-nl, pp. initiml or 
moicn, ppr. iHoir'nuj. [Sc. niinr; < ME. iiuncm, 
mawen (pret. innr), < AS. ninirini i prcl . mi dir) = 
( )Fries. mijii = D. maaijcn = ML< i . mi n n, mi 11/1 n, 
mi-ill n. L<;. HUlirii, Illl it'll = <)H(i. HIII/IIII, Iliniiii, 
Illiill, MM<i. niiijili. IHIII/III, mill-in, <i. niiiliin = 

Sw. meja = Dan. meie (s G. f), reap; not record- 
ed in Goth.; cf. Icel. ma, blot out, wear out, 
destroy; < ^ nut, me, seen also in Gr. (with a- 
copulative)a//dv,reap,4yu)?rof, a reaping, harvest, 
and in L. (with formative -t) mctere, reap; cf. 
Ir. meithle, reaping, reapers. Hence ult. im-iiil- 
ow, mead 2 .} I. trans. I. To cut down (grass 
or grain) with a sharp implement; cut with a 
scythe or (in recent use) a mowing-machine; 
hence, to cut down in general. 

He has got somebody's old two-hand sword, to moic yon 
off at the knees. 11. Jonson, EpUxene, iv. 2, 

The many-leaved locks 

Of thriving Charvel, which the bleating nocks 
Can with their daily hunger hardly mmce 
So much as dally doth still newly growe. 

Sylvester, it. of Du Bartas's Weeks, it, The Lawe. 

2. To cut the grass from : as, to mow a meadow. 
3. To cut down indiscriminately, or in great 
numbers or quantity. 

He will maw all down before him, and leave his passage 
polled. Static., Cor., Iv. 5. 214. 

II. intrans. To cut down grass or grain ; prac- 
tise mowing; use the scythe or (in modern use) 
mowing-machine. 

An 111 mower, that mowt on still, and never whets his 
scythe. Bacon, Advancement of Learning, L 96. 

mow 2 (mou), n. [< ME. movie, muge, < AS. 
IHIII/II, m n liii, a heap or pile of hay, mow, = Icel. 
mugr, mugi, a swath, a crowd (lit. a heap), = 
Norw. IHIII/II, mua, mue = Sw. dial, muga, muva, 
a heap, esp. of hay ; akin to muck 1 , q. v. Cf. 
ML. muga, mu</ium,amow (< AS.).] 1. Aheap 
or pile of hay, or of sheaves of grain, deposited 
in a barn ; also, in the west of England, a rick 
or stack of hay or grain. 

O, pleasantly the harvest moon, 

Between the shadow of the mowt, 

Looked on them through the great elm-boughs ! 

Whittier, Witch's Daughter. 

2. The compartment in a barn where hay, 
sheaves of grain, etc., are stored. 
mow 2 (mou), v. t. [< wiow; 2 , .] To put in a 
mow; lay, as hay or sheaves of grain, in a pile, 
heap, or mass in a bam : commonly with away. 
mow 3 t, [ME. mowe, mowen, inf. and pres. 
ind. plural of may 1 : see may 1 . Cf. wioun 1 .] 
To be able; may. See may 1 . 

For who Is that ne wold hire glorifle 

To mowen swich a knyght don lyve or dye ? 

Chaucer, Trollns, II. 1594. 

But that may not be upon lesse than wee mowe falle 
toward Hevene, fro the Erthe, where wee ben. 

MandeviUe, Travels, p. 184. 

mow 4 !, . [ME., also mowe, moge, mage, < AS. 
nueg, mtege, a kinswoman: see way 3 .] A kins- 
woman ; a sister-in-law. Prompt. Pan. 

mow 5 (mo), n. [Formerly also moe; < ME. 
mow, mowe, < OF. moue, moe, F. moue, a gri- 
mace, < MD. mouice, the protruded under lip in 
making a wry face.] 1. A grimace, especially 
an insulting one ; a mock. 

Of the buffettes that men gaven hym fChrlst], of the 
foule mowes and of the reproves that men to hym seyden. 
Chaucer, Parson's Tale. 
Each one, tripping on his toe, 
Will be here with mop and mow. 

Shale., Tempest, Iv. 1. 47. 

And other-whiles with bitter mockes and moves 
He would him scorne. Spemer, V. <J., VI. vii. 49. 

2f. A jest ; a joke : commonly in the plural. 
And whan a wight is from her whiel ythrow, 
Than laugheth she [Fortune] and maketh him the mowe. 
Chaucer, Troilus, IT. 7. 
Yett was our meeting meek eneugh, 
Begun wi' merriment and movxt. 
Raid of the Reidtwire (Child's Ballads, VI. 133). 
The men could weill thair wapoues weild ; 
To melt them was no mowe*. 

Battle of Balrinnet (Child's Ballads, VII. 224). 

Nae mowes, no joke, f Scotch.) 
mow 5 (mo), r. i. [Formerly also moire; < ME. 
mowen ; < mou*, .] To make mouths or gri- 
maces; mock. Compare mop 1 . 

Summe at me inoiris. somme at me smylis. 

Political Poems, etc. (ed. Furnivall), p. 186. 
Sometime like apes that mote and chatter at me, 
And after bite me. Shot., Tempest, it 2. 9. 

mow 6 (mou or mo), H. A Chinese land-measure, 
equal to about one sixth of an English acre. 
Also spelled mou. 



moya 

mowburn (mou'bern), r. /. To heat and fer- 
iiient in the mow through being placed there 
before being properly cured: said of hay or 
grain. Not only the straw, but the seed or kernel is in- 
jured by mow bin niuK this greatly impairing the nutri- 
tive value of hay or grain, and unfitting grain* for malting. 

mower 1 (ino'er), H. [< MK. HIIIII-III, miiiiii. 
A!S. 'niiiifi rc,<. HII/, mow: see mow 1 and -er 1 .'} 

1. One who mows. 

And the milkmaid slngeth blithe, 
And the mower whets his slthe. 

Milt*,,,, L' Allegro, 1. 86. 

2. A mowing-machine. Front-cut mower, a mow- 
ing-machine In which the cutting mechanism is In front, 
and the team or power which Impels It Is behind. Except 
for clover-headers and lawn-mowers, this arrangement has 
not been much used In modern machines. Also called 
prvpfUer-mowvr. 

mower 2 (mo'er), n. [< mow& + -er 1 .] One who 

mows, mocks, or makes grimaces. 
mowing 1 (mo'ing), n. [Verbal n. of mow 1 , r.] 

1 . The act of cutting with a scythe. 2. Land 

from which the crop is cut. 

"And be off lying in the mowiny, like a patrldge, when 

they come after ye. That's one way to do business," said 

Hepsy. //. B. Stowe, Oldtown, p. 87. 

mowing 2 (mou'ing), n. [Verbal n. of ioa> 2 , r.] 
The process of placing or storing hay or grain 
in a mow. 

mowing 3 t, [Verbal n. of morcS, p.] Ability. 
It Is opin and cler that the power ne the nunmnge at 
shrewes uis no power. Chaucer, Boethlus, Iv. prose 2. 

mowing 4 (mo'ing), n. [< ME. mowynge; verbal 
n. of mow&, r.] Grimacing; mocking. 

mowing-machine (mo'ing-ma-shen'), n. A 
machine for mowing grass. 'The terms mowing- 
machine, harvester, and reaper are In a measure inter- 
changeable. While essentially the same machine, the 
mowing-machine or mower Is used for cutting grass and 
clover, and the reaper for cutting grain. Both mowers 
and reapers, more properly the latter, are harvesters. 
The mowing-machine is essentially a vehicle fitted with 
some form of gearing for transmitting the motion of 
the axle to a set of reciprocating knives. An arm pro- 
jects from the vehicle and carries a series of points or Hn- 
ger-like guards, in and between which play a series of 
lance-shaped knives. This bar is made to travel close to 
the ground while the shearing action of the row of recip- 
rocating knives between the guards mows down the grass. 
A track-clearer or wing at the end of the bar guides the cut 
grass toward the machine, so that a clear track will be 
formed for the tread-wheel at the next passage of the 
mower in the field. Mowers have one driving-wheel or 
two, and either a fixed and rigid cutter-bar or, more often, 
a bar hinged so that it can be turned up out of the way 
when not in use for mowing. 

mowl, n. A dialectal form of moltft. 

mow-land (mo 'land), n. [< mow 1 + land 1 ."} 
Grass-land; meadow-land. [New Eng.] 

mowlet, c. A Middle English form of mW 2 . 

mowledt, mowldet, ;. . Middle English forms 
of molef. 

mow-lot (mo'lot), n. A piece of ground or a 
field in which grass is grown. [Local.] 
I kept him [a coltj here In the iiiim--li't. 

S. Judd, Margaret, II. 7. 

mown 1 . A past participle of mow 1 . 

mown 2 t, v. i. Same as mown 2 . 

mowntauet, n. A Middle English form of mouii- 
i n in. 

mowret, . A Middle English variant of mire 2 . 

mowset, n. An obsolete spelling of mouse. 

mowthet, " A Middle English form of mouth. 

mow-yard (niou'yard), M. [< mtr2 + yard?.] 
A rickyard; a stackyard. 

We've been reaping all the day, and well reap again the 

morn. 

And fetch it home to mow-yard, and then well thank the 
Lord. 

/{. D. Blackmore, Lorna Doone, xxlx. , Exmoor Harvest- 

[Song. 

mowyer (mo'yer), n. [< mow 1 + -yer.~\ If. 
One who mows; a mower. 2. The long-billed 
or sickle-billed curlew, Xumenius longirostriy. 
G. Trumbutt. See cut under curlew. [Cape 
May, New Jersey.] 

moxa (mok'sa), n. [Chin, and Jap.] 1. A soft 
downy substance prepared in China and Japan 
from the young leaves of Artemisia Moia, used 
as a cautery. 2. The plant from which this 
substance is obtained. 3. In med., a vegetable 
substance, either cut or formed into a short 
cylinder, which when ignited will burn without 
fusing, used as a cautery or a counter-irritant 
bv being applied to the skin. Galvanic moxa 
platinum rendered incandescent by a galvanic current, and 
used as a moxa. 

moxibustion (mok-si-bus'chon), . [< mom 
+ (ci>i)liustiini.'] Iii med., the act or process 
of burning or cauterizing by means of moxa or 
a moxa. 

moya (moi'a), . [S. Amer.] Mud poured 
out from a volcano during the time of an erup- 
tion. The name Is a local one, and was originally given 



moya 

to the dark carbonaceous mud poured out from the volcanic MSS. 

vents near Quito. These flows are also called mud-lam, iw-f 

and by the Italians lava d'acqua or lava di fango. The 

term inaya is used chiefly by writers on South American 

geology. 
moyennet (moi-en'), [OF., fern, of moicn, 

miiyeii, middle, mean: see mean 8 .] A size of 

cannon formerly in use, about 10 feet long. 
moyleH, and n. An obsolete form of moil 1 . 
moyle^t, See moift. 

moyleret, A Middle English form of mutter^. 
moyret, An obsolete form of moire. 
moystt, and v. An obsolete form of moist. 
moysturet, . An obsolete form of moisture. 
moyther (moi'THer), i: A variant of moither, for 

moider. 
Mozambican (mo-zam-be'kan), a. [< NL. Mo- 

zambica (< Mozambique: see def.) + -aw.] Of 

or pertaining to Mozambique, a Portuguese pos- mucate (mu'kat), n. 






An abbreviation of m&IHUOripts. 
n abbreviation of mount. 

,,n.pl. In a saw, teeth placed 

o, so as to resemble the letter M. 
muablef (mu'a-bl), . [< ME. muable, < OF. 
muable, < L. mntabilis, changeable: see mutable 
and mue, ei8.] Mutable ; changing ; change- 
able. 
Alle the progression of muable nature. 

Chaucer, Boethius, iv. prose 6. 

mubble-fubblest (mub'l-fub"lz), n. pi. [Also 
in uble-fublc ; a slang term.] A causeless de- 
pression of spirits; the blue-devils. [Old 
slang.] 

Melancholy is the creast of courtiers armes, and now 
every base companion, being in his mublefubles, says he 
is melancholy. Lyly, Mydas, v. 2. (Nares.) 

[< muc(ic) + -atei.] A 



, 

session on the east coast of Africa Mozambi- salt formed by the union of mucic acid with a 
can suhregion, in zoogeog., a subdivision of the Ethiopian ^ase 
region, south of the Libyan subregion, and extending per- An obgolete f orm of muse s. 

Mozambique '- 

n. 



. 

muce&n, mucedine (mu'se-din) . [< LL ,- 

' 



Mniarah ?mo~7flr'ab') 11 ' K SD Mozdrabe < cedo(mueedin-), mucus: see mucedinous.'] 1. A 

1 f^Jj^^ ) LH^SA^v^ **# f th t e / am *Vr d ;Tr 2 -otb!eTn 

Arab: see Arab.] One of those Christians in genous constituent of wheat gluten, solubl. 

Spain who lived among and measurably assimi- alcohol. 

lated themselves to the Moslems, but continued Mucedmese (mu-se-dm e-e), n. pi. [NL., < LL 

in the exercise of their^own religion. >cedo (mucedin-}, mucus : see mucedtnous.-} 

Same as 



caying animal or vegetable substances, and 
MozarablC (mo-zar a-blk), a. \\ MOZarao -r to their decay. They appear as a downy coating composed 
-ic.] Of or pertaining to the Mozarabs: as, of minute thread-like white or colored bodies. 
Mozarabic Church, architecture, liturgy, etc. mucedlnOUS (mu-sed'i-nus), a. [< LL. mueedo 
Mozarabic liturgy, Mozarabic mass, the ancient (mucedin-), mucus (<li. mucus, mucus), + -ous.] 
national liturgy of the Spanish church. In its present j n J Q J nav i ng the character of mold or mildew ; 
form, which shows some assimilation to the Roman mass, V , . 

this liturgy was restored and revised by Cardinal Ximenes resembling mold. 

in A. D. 1500, and is still in use in the chapel of a college much (much), a. and n. [< ML. muche, moche, 
at Toledo founded by him, and in a few other chapels or myche, miche, abbr. from muchel, mochel, mychel, 

' michel, assibilated form of mukel, mikel (> E. 

mickle, mucTcle), < AS. micel, mycel, great, much: 

see mickle.~] I. a.; compar. more, superl. most. 

If. Great in size; big; large. 
And Antor, that hadde this childe norisshed till he was 



churches. The Roman liturgy was made compulsory in 
Spain, with the exception of a few churches, about A. D. 
1100, and in the thirteenth and succeeding centuries the 
national liturgy had fallen into almost entire disuse. The 
inappropriate epithet Mozarabic that is, 'Arabizing' 



mapi._ _,_._. 

may have been given to this liturgy from its longer reten- 
tion in that part of Spain which was held by the Moors, 
or may have been meant as an unfavorable reflection upon 
it by the friends of the Roman rite. Apart from obvious 
Roman insertions, this liturgy is found to agree with 
canons of early Spanish councils, especially that of Toledo 
in A. D. 633, and with an account of the Spanish liturgy 
given by St. Isidore of Seville at about the same date. 
The Mozarabic liturgy closely resembles the Gallican litur- 
gies, belongs with them to the Ephesine, Gallican, or His- 
pano-Gallican group of liturgies, and, as the only full and 
complete extant member of that group, serves as its type 
and representative. Among the marked peculiarities of 
this liturgy are (1) the nature, arrangement, and un- 
equaled variability of its parts ; (2) its Oriental affinities, 
such as remains of the epiclesis, proclamations by the 
deacon, the position of the pax, the presence of the 
Han eta Sanctis, etc. ; (3) the elaborate ritual of the fraction ; 
and (4) the use of a peculiar nomenclature for the parts, 
considerably different even from that of the Gallican uses, 
as, for instance, ojficium for introit, sacrificium for offer- 
tory anthem, Ulation lor preface, etc. See Ephesian, Gal- 
lican, liturgy. Mozarabic office, the office for the ca- 
nonical hours according to the ancient Spanish rite, as 
given in the breviary published by Ximenes in A. D. 1502. 
Mozarabic rite, the Mozarabic office and liturgy. 

Mozartean (mo-zar'te-an), a. [< Mozart (see 
def.) + -e-an.~\ Of or pertaining to Wolfgang 
Amadeus Mozart (1756-91), an Austrian musi- 
cal composer, or resembling his style. 

mozetta (mo-tset'ta), n. [< It. mozzetta,<. mozzo, 
cut short.] ' A short ecclesiastical vestment or 
cape which covers the shoulders and can be 
buttoned over the breast, and to which a hood is 
attached. It is worn by the pope, cardinals, bishops, 
abbots, and some other prelates who are especially privi- 
leged by custom or papal authority. It is, however, a dis- 
tinctive mark of a bishop. 

mozing (mo'zing), . [Verbal n. of *moze; ori- 
gin obscure.] The operation of gigging. See 



M. P. An abbreviation of Member of Parliament. 
Mr, An abbreviation of Master or Mister. 
M-roof (em'rof), n. A kind of roof formed by 
the junction of two simple pitched roofs with 




a valley between them, so that in transverse 

section it resembles the letter M. 
Mrs. An abbreviation of Mistress or Missis. 
MS. An abbreviation oi- manuscript. 
M. S. In music, an abbreviation of mono sinis- 

trn, 'the left, hand,' noting a note or passage 

to be played with the left hand. 



a moche man of xv yere of age, he hadde hym trewly nor- 
isshed, so that he was laire and moche. 

Merlin (E. E. T. S.), i. 97. 

2. Great in quantity or extent ; abundant. 

In that Lond is tulle mocheUe waste. 

MandevUle, Travels, p. 198. 

If thou well observe 

The rule ol Not too much, by temperance taught, 
In what thou eat'st and drink'st, . . . 
So mayst thou live. Milton, P. L., xi. 531. 

My much business hath made me too olt iorget Mondays 
and Fridays. Winthrop, Hist. New England, I. 453. 

When many skin-nerves are warmed, or much retinal 
surface illuminated, our feeling is larger than when a lesser 
nervous surface is excited. W. James, Mind, XII. 8. 

[In this sense much is sometimes used ironically, imply- 
ing little or none. 

How say you now? Isitnotpasttwo o'clock ? and here 
much Orlando ! Shak., As you Like it, iv. 3. 2. 

Much wench ! or much son ! 

B. Jonson, Every Man in his Humour, iv. 4.] 

3t. Many in number. 
Edom came out against him with much people. 

Num. xx. 20. 

4t. High in position, rank, or social station ; 

important. 

He ne lafte not lor reyn ne thonder 
In sikncsse nor in meschief to visite 
The f erreste in his parisshe, moche and lite. 

Chaucer, Gen. Prol. to C. T., L 494. 

Much of a muchness. See muchness. Too much for 
one, more than a match lor one : as, he was too much for 
me. [Colloq.] 
II. n. 1. A large quantity ; a great deal. 

And over al this yet seyde he muchil more. 

Chaucer, Knight's Tale, 1. 1992. 

Unto whomsoever much is given, of him shall be much 
required. Luke xii. 48. 

They have much of the poetry of Maecenas, but little of 
his liberality. Dryden. 

The parents seldom devote much of their time or atten- 
tion to the education of their children. 

E. W. Lane, Modern Egyptians, I. 63. 

2. A great, uncommon, or serious thing; some- 
thing strange, wonderful, or considerable. 

It was . . . much that one that was so great a lover of 
peace should be so happie in warre. 

Bacon, Hist. Hen. VII., p. 234. 
This gracious act the ladies all approve, 
Who thought it much a man should die for love, 
And with their mistress join'd in close debate. Dryden. 
To make much of. Seemafrei. 
much (much), adr. [< ME. muche, moclie, myche, 
miche, abbr. form of muchel, mochel, etc., assib- 
ilated form of mukel, mikel, < AS. micel, micle, 
niiclitm, adv., prop. ace. sing., and dat. sing, 
and pi., of micel, adj.: see much, a.'] 1. In a great 



much-what 

degree ; to a great amount or extent ; greatly ; 
far. 

Soche on niyght moche helpe us to be-gile his pepill, like 
as the pvophetes be-giled us. Merlin (E. E. T. S.), i. 2. 

Jonathan, Saul's son, delighted much in David. 

1 Sam. xix. 2. 

Upon their plaines is a short wodde like heath, in some 
countries like gaile, full of berries, farre much better than 
any grasse. Capt. John Smith, True Travels, I. 39. 

They do not much heed what you say. 

Burton, Anat. of Mel., p. 239. 

There seemed to be a combination among all that knew 
her to treat her with a dignity much beyond her rank. 
Swift, Death ol Stella. 

Read mnch, but do not read many things. 

J. F. Clarice, Self-Culture, p. 317. 
2f. Very. 

And he hadde take the semblaunce of a moche olde man. 
Merlin (E. E. T. S.), i. 91. 

It [jEsop's Fables] is a moche pleasant lesson. 

Sir T. Elyot, The Governour, i. 10. 

This figure hath three principall partes in his nature 
and vse much considerable. 

Pvtlenham, Arte of Eng. Poesie, p. 81. 

Thus far my charity this path has try'd 

(A much unskilful, but well-meaning guide). 

Dryden, Religio Laici, 1. 225. 

In this sense much was formerly often used ironically, im- 
plying denial. 

With two points on your shoulder? much ! 

Shak., 2 Hen. IV., ii. 4. 143. 
To charge me bring my grain unto the markets, 
Ay much ! when I have neither barn nor garner. 

B. Jonson, Every Man out of his Humour, i. 1. 
In present use, much or very much corresponds, before a 
comparative or a superlative with the, to very before a posi- 
tive : thus, very great, but much or very much greater, 
much or very much the greatest. 
Thou art much mightier than we. Gen. xxvi. 16. 

To strength and counsel join'd 
Think nothing hard, much less to be despair'd. 

Milton, P. L., Vl. 495. 

3. Nearly: usually emphasizing the sense of 
mdeflniteness. 
I heare sale, you haue a sonne, moch of his age. 

Ascham, The Scholeraaster, p. 20. 

Much like a press of people at a door. 

Shak., Lucrece, 1. 1301. 

Men's thoughts are much according to their inclination. 
Bacon, Custom and Education. 

All left the world much as they lound it. 

Sir W. Temple. 

(The adverb much is very often prefixed to participial 
forms, etc., to make compound adjectives: as, much- 
abused, mA-enduring, mucA-debated.] Much about. 
See about. Much about it, nearly equal; about what it 
isorwas. [Colloq.J Much at one, nearly of equal value, 
effect, or influence. 

The prayers are vain as curses, much at one 

In a slave's mouth. Dryden. 

Not SO much as, not even. 

Our Men entered the Town, and lound it emptied both 
ol Money and Goods ; there was not so much as a Meal of 
Victuals left for them. Dampier, Voyages, 1. 144. 

much (much), v. t. [< much, a. Cf. ME. muche- 
len, < AS. micelian, become great: see mickle, 
t>.] 1. To make much ; increase. 2. To make 
much of; coax; stroke gently. Salliwell. 
[Prov. Eng. and U. S.] 

muchelt, muchellt, <*> "> and adv. Same as 
much. 

muchelhedet, >< [ME.,< muchel + -hede, -head.] 
Greatness; size. 

Of fairuesse and of muchelhede, 
Bute thu ert a man and heo a maide. 

King Horn (E. E. T. S.), p. 52. 

mucherus, Same as mochras. 
muchetert, muchitert, Same as muckender. 
muchly (much'li), adv. Greatly; much. [Ob- 
solete or slang.] 

Went gravelie dight to entertaine the dame 
They muchlie lov'd, and honour'd in her name. 

MS. Bibl. Reg., 17 B. xv. (BalliweU.) 

muchness (nmch'nes), n. The state of being 
much ; large quantity. 

We have relations of muchness and littleness between 

times, numbers, intensities, and qualities, as well as spaces. 

IF. James, Mind, XII. 15. 

Much of a muchness, nearly of like account ; ol about 
the same importance or value ; much the same : a trivial 
colloquial expression. 

Oh! child, men 's men ; gentle or simple, they're much 
of a muchness. George Eliot, Daniel Deronda, xxxl. 

much-whatt (much'hwot), adv. Nearly; al- 
most. 

This shews man's power and its way of operation to be 

much-what the same in the material and intellectual world. 

Locke, Human Understanding, II. xii. 1. (Nares.) 

much-whatt (much'hwot), n. [< ME. *mucli- 
hwat, much-quat; < much + what.] Nearly 
everything; everything. 

Thus thay meled of much-ytiat til myd-morn paste. 
Sir Oaieayne and the Green Knight (E. E. T. S.), 1. 1280. 



mucic 

mUCiC (mu'sik), n. [<//(<) + -<<.] . 

ing to or derived from gums, sp,-, itlcally applied 
to an acid (C,iH 10 Og) formed by the oxidizing action "t 
dilute nitric acid on sugar of milk, gum, pet-tin bodies, or 
in;iniiite. It forms a white crystalline powder, difficultly 
soluble in cold water. 

mucid (mii'sid), n. [= It. mm-idn, < L. iiiin-i- 
dux, moldy, < murrrt; be moldy or musty, < /- 
cux, mucus: see mucus.'] Musty; moldy. Hai/fi/. 

mucidness (mu'sid-ues), n. Mustiness; moldi- 
ness. Ainxirnrth. 

mucidous (mu'si-dus), a. Same as mucid. 
[Rare.] 

muciferoUS (mu-sif'e-rus), a. [< L. mucus, mu- 
cus, -I- ferrc = E. Scar 1 .] Secreting mucus; 
inuciparous. 

The muc\ferou system of many deep-sea fishes is devel- 
oped in an extraordinary degree. 

Giinther, Encyc. Brit., XII. 684. 

muciflc (mu-sif'ik), . [< L. IHHCII.I. mucus, + 
t'tirt re, make.] Muciparous; muciferous. 

muciform (mu'si-form), a. [< L. mucus, mucus, 
+ forma, form.] In mcd. , having the character 
of mucus; resembling mucus. 

mucigen (mu'si-jon), n. [< mc<() -I- -gen, 
producing.] A clear substance secreted by the 
cells of mucous membranes and of certain 
glands, and which becomes converted into 
mucin. 

mucigenous (mu-sij'e-nus), . [< L. TOUCH*, mu- 
cus, + -genus, producing : see -i/enous.'] Same 
as inuciparous. 

Out of the breeding-season none of these mucigenoue 
cells an to be found in the kidneys. Nature, XXXIX. 108. 

mucilage (mu'si-laj), n. [< F. mucilage = Sp. 
mucilago = Pg. mucilagem = It. mucellaggine, 
mucilagine, mucilage, < LL. mucilago, muccilago 
(-gin-), a moldy, musty juice, < L. mucere, be 
moldy or musty: see mucid, mucus.'] If. Moldi- 
ness; mustiness; rottenness; a slimy mass. 

The hardest seeds corrupt and are turned to mucilage 
and rottenness, . . . yet rise again, In the spring, from 
squalor and putrefaction, a solid substance. 

Evelyn, True Religion, I. 196. 

2. Gum extracted from the seeds, roots, and 
bark of plants. It is found universally in plants, but 
much more abundantly in some than in others. The 
marsh-mallow root, tubers of orchids, the bark of the lime 
and elm, the seeds of quinces and flax, are examples of 
plant-products rich in this substance. In the arts the 
name is applied to a great variety of sticky and gummy 
preparations, some of which are merely thickened aque- 
ous solutions of natural gum, which is easily extracted 
from vegetable substances by hot water ; while others are 
preparations of dextrine, glue, or other adhesive mate- 
rials, generally containing some preservative substance 
or compound, as creosote or salicylic acid. 
8. In chem., the general name of a group of 
carbohydrates, having the formula CgHioOsn. 
The mucilages have the common property of swelling 
enormously in water, so that they are in a condition near 
to solution, leaving no jelly-like mass as many gums do. 
Members of the group differ greatly in properties, some 
being closely related to the gums, others to cellulose. 
Their chemical constitution is not yet determined. Ani- 
mal mucilage. Same as mucus, l. Mucilage-canals, 
special mucilage-secreting passages or canals observed in 
many plants, as those traversing the parenchyma of the 
pith and cortex of the Marattiaceto, the stems of the Cyca- 
dacecK, the posterior side of the leaves of some species of 
Liienpodium, etc. Mucilage-reservoirs. Same as mu- 
c&aye-canal*. 

mucilage-cell (mu'si-laj-sel), n. An individual 
cell secreting mucilage, as those which occur 
in various ferns, mosses, etc. 

mucilage-slit (mu'si-laj-slit), n. In hot., in the 
. / n llnicn-titrii; a slit on the under surface of the 
thallus, with no special guard-cells, and lead- 
ing like a stoma into an intercellular space 
filled with mucilage. Goebcl. 

mucilaginous (mu-si-laj'i-nus), a. [< P. iiiiiri- 
luuineujc = Sp. Pg. nuiriliigiiiono = It. nniri llnii- 
i/iniiKit. miirilagiiioso, < LL. as if 'miirilngiiinxiix, 
< nnirilago: see mucilage.] 1. In anat., mucip- 
arous ; secreting a glairy or viscid substance 
like mucus: specifically applied to synovial 
membranes, certain of whose fringed vascu- 
lar processes were called mucilaginous gland* 
by Clopton Havers in 1691. [Obsolete.] 2. 
Slimy; ropy; moist, soft, and slightly viscid; 
partaking of the nature of mucilage : as, a mii- 
riliii/iitiiiix gum Mucilaginous extracts, in chem.. 
fxtiiu-ts \\ liii-li dissolve readily in water but scarcely at all 
in iilcohol, and undergo spirituous fermentation. Muci- 
laglnous glands, see ;ilawl. Mucilaginous sheath, 
an envelop or coat of mucilage surrounding the fllamenta 
of certain algso, occurring particularly in the Conjugate. 

mucilaginousness (mu-si-laj'i-nus-nes). . 
The state of being mucilaginous ; sliminess ; 
stickiness. 

mucin (mu'sin), H. [< L. mums, mucus. + 
-in 2 .] A nitrogenous body found in all con- 
nective (issue, and the chief constituent of 



mucus. It is a glutinous substance, soluble in 
weak alkalis, but not in water. 

IllUcinoid (mu'si-noid), n. f< tinii-in + -niil.\ 
Resembling mucin. 

mucinous (inu'si-nus), a. Pertaining to or of 
the nature of mucin. 

mUCiparOUS (mu-sip'a-rus), it. [=F. iiinri/iai-i. 
< L. martin, mucus, + ///</,. bring forth.] Se- 
creting or producing mucus. Also /</(*. 

Mucivora (mu-siv'o-rjl). n. }>l. [NL., < L. / 
cw*, a moldy 'juice (see mucus), + vorare, de- 
vour.] A group of dipterous inwrts which feed 
upon plant-juices. IJexroiili/, 

mucivore (mu'si-vor), n. [< NL. Miirirurn. 
<[. v.] A raucivorous insect. 

mucivorous (nm-siv'o-rus), . [< NL. iluri- 
vora + -OMS.] Feeding upon the juices of plants, 
as Mucivora. 

muck 1 (muk), H. and a. [< ME. muck, //,, 
mok, mokke, mukke, < Icel. myki = Dan mog, 
dung (whence nit. E. midding, midden, q. v.); 
cf. Dan. mak, grease. Prob. orig. 'heap' (cf. 
a similar sense of dung): cf. Norw. mukka = 
Sw. dial, m&kka = Dan. mokke (Aasen), a heap, 
pile : not connected with AS. meox, dung, for 
which see mix 2 , mixen."] I. n. 1. Dung in a 
moist state ; a mass of dung and putrefied vege- 
table matter. 

With fattening muck 
Besmear the roots. J. Philipt, Cider, t. 

Hence 2. Manure in general. 

And money is like mucke, not good except It be spread. 
Bacon, Seditions and Troubles. 

3. A wet, slimy mass; a mess. [Colloq.] 

One of them, I thought, expressed her sentiments upon 
this occasion In a very coarse manner, when she observed 
that by the living Jingo she was all of a made of sweat. 

Qnidsmith, Vicar, Ix. 

Beer . . . which in made of noxious substitutes [for 
the proper constituents], and which Is fitly described In 
the Eastern counties by the somewhat vigorous word 
muck. Nineteenth Century, XXI. 126. 

4. Money: so called in contempt. 

He married her for tmirifo 1 , she him for lust ; 
The motives fowle, then fowly live they must. 

Dana, Scourge of Folly (1611). (Kara.) 

Swamp-muck, Imperfect peat ; the less compact varie- 
ties of peat, especially the paring or turf overlying peat. 

II. . Resembling muck; mucky; damp. 
[Provincial or rare.] Muck Iron. See iron. 
muck 1 (muk), v. [< ME. mukke, manure with 
muck, remove muck from; < Icel. mykja = 
Dan. moge, manure with muck, Icel. moka = 
Sw. mocka = Dan. muge, remove muck from; 
from the noun.] I. trans. 1. To manure. 2. 
To remove muck or manure from. 

I can always earn a little by ... mucking out his stable. 
Mayhew, London Labour and London Poor, I. 489. 

U. intrans. To labor very hard; toil. Hal- 
liu-ell. [Prov. Eng.] 

muck 2 (muk), n. An erroneous form, due to 
mistaking the adverb amuck for a noun with 
the indefinite article. See amuck. 

Frontless and satire-proof he scow'rs the streets, 
And runs an Indian muck at all he meets. 

Dryden, Hind and Panther, ill. 1188. 
Ran a Malayan muck against the times. 

Tennyson, Aylmer's Field. 

muck-bar (muk'bar), n. An iron bar which has 
been passed through the muck-rolls only. 

muckendert, muckindert (muk'en-der), . 
[Also muckinger, mucketer, muckiter, corrupt 
forms, appar. simulating muck*, of moccador, 
mockador: see moccador.] A handkerchief 
used like the modern pocket-handkerchief, but 
generally carried at the girdle. 

The new-erected altar of Cynthia, to which all the Pa- 
phlan widows shall after their husbands' funerals offer 
their wet muckindcrs. Chapman, Widow's Tears, iv. 1. 

Be of good comfort ; take my muckinder 
And dry thine eyes. 

B. Joiaon. Tale of a Tub, ill. 1. 

mucker 1 (muk'er), . [< ME. mukker; < muckl 

+ -er 1 .] One who removes muck from stables. 

etc. Cattt. Aug., p. 246. 
mucker' 2 (muk''er), v. [< ME. nnn-hvi-tt, miiflc- 

rcn, mokfi-fn; appar. freq. of muck 1 , f.] I.t 

trim*. To hoard up; heap. 

Lord, trow ye a coveytous or a wreeche, 

That blameth love, or halt of it despite, 

That of tho pens that heganmotre[var. motor) and thn hi . 

Was ever yet igeve him suich delite, 

As is in love in o polnte in soon plyte? 

Chaucer, Troilus, 111. 1375. 

But as sone as thy hacke is turned from the preacher, 
thou runest on with al thy forcasting studies, to muckre 
vp ryches. J. Udau, On Jas. I. 

II. intrant. 1. To make a mess or muddle of 
any business: muddle: fail. [Prov. Eng.] 



mucoid 

By-the-bye, Welter has ii<c*-rr.'</; yii know tlmt by thb 
time. H. Kimjutrii, Havenshoe, xlv. 

2. To be dirty or untidy. llnlliin-U. [Prov. 
Kn K .] 

mucker- (muk'er), . [< mucker-, c.] A heavy 
fall as in the mire or muck. [Prov. Eng.] 

He ... earned great honour by leaping in and out of 
the Loddon ; only four more doing it, and one receiving a 
mucker. Kingdey, 1852 (Life, I. 849). (Dana.) 

mucker' ( muk'er), n. [< G. mucker, a sulky per- 
><iii. a hypocrite, < mucken, mutter, grumble.] 
1 . In Germany, a person of canting and gloomy 
religious tendencies ; specifically [coj).], one of 
a sect accused of immoral practices, adherents 
of J. W. Ebel, a clergyman in Kdnigsberg, 
Prussia, about 1810-39. Hence 2. A person 
lacking refinement; a coarse, rough person. 
[Slang.] 

muckerert (muk'er-er), n. [< ME. mokerere; < 
murker- + -fr 1 .] A miser; a niggard. 

Avarice maketh alwey mokererei to ben hated. 

Chaucer, Boethiua, U. prow 5. 

muck-fork (muk'fork), i. A dung-fork; a fork 
for distributing manure, 
muck-heap (muk'hep), n. |X ME. mukkeliepe; 

< muck 1 + heiti>.~\ A dunghill. 

muck-hill (muk'hil), n. [< ME. mukhil, mocliil; 

< murf-i + Wi.] A dunghill. 

muckibus (muk'i-bus), a. [Appar. < muck 1 + 
-ibus, a I .. termination as in omnibus and (as- 
sumed) in circumbendibus, etc.] Confused or 
muddled with drink; tipsy; maudlin. [Old 
slang.] 

She [Lady Coventry] said ... If she drank any more, 
she should be muckibut. Walpole, Letters, III. 10. 

muckindert, n. See muckender. 

muckiness (muk'i-nes), . Filthiness; nasti- 
ness. 

muckingert, " Same as muckender. 

muckintogs, muckingtogs (muk'in-, muk'ing- 
togz), . [A corruption of mackintosh, simu- 
lating mucky (weather) and togs, toggery.] A 
mackintosh. [Vulgar.] 

A little "gallows-looking chap," . . . 
With a carpet-swab ana mucking-togf, and a hat turned 
up with green. Barhain, Ingoldsby Legends, n. 137. 

muckitert, . Same as muckender. 

muckle (muk'l), a. and . A dialectal (Scotch) 

form of mickle. 
muckle-hammer (muk'l-ham'er), n. A heavv 

ax-like hammer for spalling or scaling off small 

flakes of granite, 
muck-midden (muk'mid'n), . A dunghill. 

[Scotch.] 
muck-pit (mnk'pit), n. Apitformanureorfilth. 

Thou must be tumbled into a muckpit. 

Dekker, Wonderful Year. 

muck-rake (muk'rak), . A rake for scraping 
muck or filth. Sunyan, Pilgrim's Progress. 

muckret. " An obsolete form of mucker^. 

muck-rolls (muk'rolz), . pi. The first pair of 
rolls in a mill for rolling iron. The Iron Is passed 
through these rolls, and afterward finished by another pair 
of rolls, called merchant train or puddle-bar train. 

mucks, n. See Mj- 2 . 

muck-sweat (muk'swet), . Profuse sweat. 

Dunglison. 

mucksy, n. See muxy. 

muck-thrift (muk'thrift), n. A miser. D. Jer- 
rold. 

muck-worm (muk'werm), n. 1. A worm that 
lives in muck. 2. A miser; one who scrapes 
together money by mean devices. 

Misers are muck-uxrrmt. silk-worms beaus, 
And death-watches physicians. 

Pop*, To Mr. John Moore. 
O the money-grubbers ! Sempiternal wucktrornu ! 

Lamb. 

mucky (muk'i), a. [< muck 1 + -y 1 .] Contain- 
ing or resembling muck ; filthy; vile. 

Thereafter all that mucky pelfe he tooke, 
The spoile of peoples evil gotten good. 

Spenier, F. Q., V. U. 27. 

mucky (muk'i), r. t. ; pret. and pp. muckinl. 
ppr. muckying. [< mucky, a.] To soil. 

She even brought me a clean towel to spread over my 
dress, "lest," as she said, "I should mueky it." 

Charlotte Bronte, Jane Eyre, xxix. 

mucocele (mu'ko-sel), n. [< L. mucus, mucus, 
-I- Gr. Kifl.ii, a tumor.] An enlarged lacrymal 
-;H : a tumor that contains mucus. 

mucodermal (mu-ko-der'mal), a. [< L. mucus, 
mucus, + Gr. tepua, skin : see dermal.'] Of or 
pertaining to the skin and mucous membrane. 

mucoid (mu'koid), a. [< L. mucus, mucus, + 
Gr. fJ<5oc. form.] Resembling mucus or mucous 
tissue. 



mucoid 

The membrane is coated in places with a scanty mucoid 
exudation. Lancet, No. 3447, p. 605. 

Mucoid degeneration. See degeneration. Mucoid tis- 
sue, mucutis tissue. 

mucopurulent (mii-ko-pu'ro-lent), . [< L. mu- 
c/ts, mucus, + puriileiitus, purulent: see mucus 
and purulent.] Of or pertaining to mucus and 
pus: as, a mucopurulent discharge (a discharge 
in which these two substances are present). 

muco-pus (mu'ko-pus), n. [< L. mucus, mucus, 
4- pus, matter of a sore.] In pathol., a mor- 
bid liquid product containing a considerable 
amount of muciu and numerous leucocytes. 

mucor (mu'kor), n. [< L. mucor, mold, moldi- 
ness, < nmcere, be moldy: see mucid.~\ 1. 
Moldiness; mustiness. 2. [cap.] [NL.] A ge- 
nus of zygomycetous fungi, typical of the sub- 
order Mwcorece; the true molds. The reproduction 
is asexual, by the formation of numerous spores in a rela- 
tively large sporangium, and sexual, by the conjugation 
of two hyphae, which gives rise to a zygospore. The most 
common species is M. Mucedo. See iivoldv. 
3. In med., mucus. 

Mucoreae (mu-ko're-e), n. pi. [NL., < Mucor + 
-ea!.] A suborder of zygomycetous fungi of the 
order Mucorini, typified by the genus Mucor. 
They are mostly saprophytic, occurring on bread, fruits, 
saccharine fluids, excrement of animals, etc. Sometimes 
called Mucorei. 

Mucorini (mu-ko-ri'ni), n. pi. [NL., < Mucor 
+ -int.] An order of zygomycetous fungi, the 
typical genus of which is Mucor. Sometimes 
written Mucoracece. 

mucosa (mu-ko'sa), n. [NL., sc. membrana : see 
mucous.] A mucous membrane. More fully 
called mernbrana mucosa, 

niucose (mu'kos), a. [< L. mucosus: see mu- 
cous.] Same as mucous. 

mucoserous (mu-ko-se'rus), a. [< L. mucus, 
mucus, + serum, serum: see serous.] Of or per- 
taining to mucus and serum. A mucoserous 
discharge consists of serum containing mucus 
in considerable quantity. 

mucosity (mu-kos'i-ti), n. [= F. mucosite = 
Sp. mucosidad = Pg. mucosldadc = It. mucosita; 
as mucose, mucous, + -ity.] 1. Mucousness; 
sliminess. 2. A fluid containing or resembling 
mucus. 

mucososaccharine (mu-ko-so-sak'a-riu), a. [< 
L. mucosus (see mucous) + saccharum, sugar: 
see saccharine.] Partaking of the properties 
of mucilage and sugar. 

mucous (mu'kus), a. [= F. muqueux = Sp. 
mucoso, mocoso = Pg. It. mucoso, ? L. mucosus, 
slimy, (.mucus, slime, mucus: see mucus.] 1. 
Pertaining to mucus or resembling it; slimy, 
ropy, and lubricous. 2. Secreting a slimy sub- 
stance; pituitary: as, the mucous membrane. 

Mucous canals, in ichth. See the quotation. 

In most, if not all, fishes the integument of the body and 
of the head contains a series of sacs, or canals, usually dis- 
posed symmetrically on each side of the middle line, and 
filled with a clear gelatinous substance. . . . These sensory 
organs are known as the "organs of the lateral line," or 
mucous canals. Huxley, Auat. Vert., p. 79. 

Mucous fever, fish, glands, ligament. See the nouns. 

Mucous layer. See mmoUast. Mucous membrane. 
See membrane. Mucous tissue, gelatinous connective 
tissue. The cells may be round, branching, or fusiform, 
and the intercellular substance is of jelly-like consistence 
and contains mucin. Mucous tissue forms the chief bulk 
of the navel-string, or umbilical cord, in 

which case it is called the jetty of Wharton. 

The vitreous humor of the eye also con- 
sists mainly of this tissue. 
mucousness (mu'kus-nes), . The 

state of being mucous ; sliminess. 

Johnson. 
mucro (mu'kro), re. ; pi. mucrones 

(mu-kro'nez). [L., a sharp point, 

esp. of a sword.] A tip; a spine 

or spine-like process ; a mucronate 

part or organ; a sharp tip or point. 

True it is that the mucro or point thereof 
inclineth unto the left. 

Sir T. Browne, Vulg. Err., iii. 2. 

Specifically (a) In etitom.,&n angular pro- 
jection on the margin or surface of a hard 
part, as on the thighs or the tips of the 
elytra ; an angular process shorter than a 
spine. (6) In bat., a short and abrupt point 
of a leaf or other organ. Mucro cordis, 
the lower pointed end of the heart. 

mucronate (mu'kro-nat), a. [= F. 
mucrone = Pg. mucronado = It. mu- 
cronato, < L. mucronatus, pointed, 
< mucro(n-), a sharp point: see mu- 
cro.] Narrowed to a point; end- 
ing in a tip ; having a mucro : as, 
a mucronate feather, shell, leaf; a 
mucronate process. Mucronate 

mucronated (mu'kro-na-ted), . Tail-feather of 
Same as mucronate. ' "'S'uSS' 




Mucronulate 
Leaflet of Picta 



3886 

mucronately (mu'kro-nat-li), adr. In a mu- 
cronate manner; in or with a tip or pointed 
end. 

mucrones, Plural of mucro. 

mucroniferous (mu-kro-nif' e-rus), a. [< L. 
mitcro(n-), a sharp point, + ferre = E. bear^.] 
Same as mucronate. 

mucronulate (mu-kron'u-lat), a. [< NL. mucro- 
nulatus, < *mueronulus, dim. of L. mucro(n~), a 
sharp point: see mucronule.] In 
bot. andzool., minutely mucronate ; 
having a little point, as the carpels 
of 8ida mucroni/lata. 

mucronule (mu'kro-nul), n. [< 
NL. "mucronulus, dim. of L. mu- 
cro(n-), a sharp point: see mucro.] 
A small mucro. 

muculentt (mu'ku-lent), a. [< 
LL. muculcntus, full "of mucus, < 
L. mucus, mucus: see mucus.] 1. 
Slimy; moist and moderately 
viscous. Bailey. 2. Resembling 
mucus; mucoid; gelatinous; cel- 
lulose. Behrens, Micros, in Botany (trans.), v. 

Mucuna (mu-ku'nii), n. [NL. (Adanson, 1763), 
< mucuna, the Brazilian name of one of these 
plants.] A genus of leguminous climbing herbs 
and shrubs of the tribe Phaseoleai, characterized 
by showy flowers with the banner smaller than 
the wings or the acute keel, and anthers of two 
shapes. About 22 species are known, usually climbing 
high, natives of warm climates throughout the globe, with 
clusters of purplish or yellowish flowers, leaves of three 
leaflets, and fleshy pods, usually clothed with stinging 
hairs. The cowhage or cowitch of New South Wales is 
M. yigantea. For M. pruriens, see cowhage, 1. 

mucus (mu'kus), n. [<L. mucus, muccus(= Gr. 
pmai;, found only in grammarians, and perhaps 
after the L. word), mucus, slime; of. Qtr.uvurK, 
snuff of a wick, /uifo, mucus, akin to airo-uvaoetv, 
wipe away, L. mungere, blow the nose, Skt. 
v/ muck, release.] 1. A viscid fluid secreted by 
the mucous membrane of animals. It is charac- 
terized by the presence of considerable quantities of mu- 
cin. Also called animal mucilage. 

2. In bot., gummy matter soluble in water. 

3. The slime of fish Mucus-glands. Seemucous 
glands, under gland. 

mucyline (mu'si-lin), n. [< muc(ilage) + -yl + 
-me?.] A sizing for woolen yarn. It is a solution 
in water of a paste compounded of stearin, soap, glycerin, 
and sulphate of zinc. 

mud (mud), n. [< ME. mud, mod, mudde, < 
MLG. mudde, LG. mudde, mod = Sw. modd, 
mud, mire ; cf . MHG. mot, G. mott, peat (see 
moafl). Hence ult. mother^, q. v.] Moist and 
soft earth or earthy matter, whether produced 
by rains on the earthy surface, by ejections 
from springs and volcanoes, or by sediment 
from turbid waters ; mire. 

mud (mud), v. ; pret. and pp. mudded, ppr. mud- 
ding. [< mud, n.] I. trans. 1. To bury in mud 
or mire ; cover or bedaub with mud. 

I wish 

Myself were mudded in that oozy bed 
Where my son lies. Shak., Tempest, v. 1. 151. 

2. To make turbid or foul with dirt ; stir the 
sediment in (liquors). 

Mud not the fountain that gave drink to then. 

Shak., Lucrece, 1. 577. 

The fount of my teares, troubled and mudded with the 
toadlike stirring and longbreathed vexation of thy venim- 
ous enormities, is no longer a pure silver spring but a 
miry puddle for swine to wallow in. Nash, Christ's Tears. 

II. intrans. To go in or under the mud, for 

refuge or warmth, as does the eel. 
mudar, n. See madar. 
mud-bank (mud'bangk), n. An accumulation 

of mud, especially as formed by streams. 
mud-bass (mud'bas), . A centrarchoid fish, 

Acantharchus pomotis. It has an oblong-oval form; 

teeth on the tongue, palate, and pterygoids; a large mouth; 




Mud-dauber {Pelopaus luncttus}. 
(About natural size.) 




Mud-bass {Acantharchus fort 
(From Report of U. S. Fish Com 

cycloid scales ; convex caudal fin; and eleven spines in 
the dorsal and five in the anal fin. It is about 4 inches 
long, and is found in still fresh- water streams near the At- 
lantic coast of the United States from New Jersey to South 
Carolina. 



muddle 

mud-bath (mud'bath), n. A kind of bath con- 
nected with some mineral springs, consisting 
of mud transfused with saline or other ingre- 
dients, in which patients suffering from rheu- 
matism, etc., plunge the whole or parts of the 
body with supposed good results: as, the mud- 
baths of St. Amand or of Barbotan, in France. 

mud-bit (mud'bit), n. In well-boring, a chisel- 
edged tool used for cutting through dense strata 
of clay shale and the like. 

mud-boat (mud'bot), n. A boat for carrying off 
and discharging the mud dredged from a bar or 
river-channel. 

mud-burrower (mud'bur // o-er), n. A crusta- 
cean of the genus Callianassa. 

mud-cat (mud'kat), n. A catfish, Leptops oli- 
varis. See Leptops, 1. 

mud-cock (mud'kok), n. A cock inaboilerused 
in blowing out the deposits of sediment; a 
purging-valve or -cock. 

mud-cone (mud'kon), . A conical elevation of 
more or less decomposed material (lava and 
ashes) softened by water ; a mud-volcano : of 
frequent occurrence in solfataric areas or re- 
gions of dying-out volcanism. See mild-volcano. 

mud-coot (mud '- 
kot), n. The com- 
mon American 
coot, Fulica ame- ~ r- 
ricana. 

mud-crab (mud'- 
krab), n. A crab 
of the genus Pa- 
nopams. 

muddar, . Same 
as madar. 

mud-dauber 
(mud ' da " ber), . 
A digger-wasp of 
the family Sphegidce. See blue-jacket, 2. 

mud-devil (mud'dev'l), n. A menopome. 

muddify (mud'i-fi), v. t.; pret. and pp. muddi- 
Jie<l, ppr. muddifying. [< mud -t- L. facere, 
make: see -fy.] To make muddy; cloud; soil. 

Don't muddify your charming simplicity with contro- 
versial distinctions that will sour your sweet piety. 

Walpole, Letters (1789), IV. 491. (Davies.) 

muddily (mud'i-li), adv. 1. In a muddy man- 
ner; turbidly ; with foul mixture. 2. Ob- 
scurely; cloudily; confusedly. 
Lucilius writ not only loosely and muddily. Dryden. 

muddiness (mud'i-nes), . 1. The quality or 
condition of being muddy ; turbidness ; foul- 
ness caused by mud, dirt, or sediment: as, the 
muddiness of a stream. 2. Obscurity ; want of 
perspicuity. 

mud-dipper (mud'dip // er), n. The ruddy duck, 
Krisiiiiitura rubida. G. Trumbull. See cut un- 
der Erismatura. [Virginia.] 

muddle (mud'l), v. ; pret. and pp. muddled, ppr. 
muddling. [Freq. of mud, v.] I. trans. 1. 
To make foul, turbid, or muddy, as water. 
He did 111 to muddle the water. Sir R. L'Estrange. 

2. To bewilder; perplex. 

Fagging at Mathematics not only fatigues, but hope- 
lessly muddles an unmathematical man, so that he is in 
no state for any mental exertion. 

C. A. Bristed, English University, p. 267. 

3. To intoxicate partially; cloud or stupefy, 
particularly with liquor: as, to muddle one's 
brains. 

I was . . . often drunk, always muddled. 

Arbuthnot, Hist. John Bull. 

4. To spend profitlessly ; waste ; misuse ; frit- 
ter : usually with away. 

His genius disengaged from those worldly influences 
which would have disenchanted it of its mystic enthu- 
siasm, if they did not muddle it ingloriously away. 

Lowell, Among my Books, 2d ser., p. 143. 

5. To bring into a state of confusion; make a 
mess of. 6. To mix; stir: as, to muddle choco- 
late or drinks. 

II. intrans. 1. To contract filth; become 
muddy or foul. 

He never muddles in the dirt. Swift, Dick's Variety. 
2. To become confused, especially from drink. 
3. To potter about ; wander confusedly. 

There are periods of quiescence during which he not 
only feels comparatively well, but really acts well in the 
sense of muddling about, somewhat crippled it may be, 
but with a convalescent energy deserving praise. 

Lancet, No. 3454, p. 947. 

muddle (mud'l), w. [<. muddle, i:] 1. A mess; 
dirty confusion ; filth. 2. Intellectual confu- 
sion ; cloudiness ; bewilderment. [Colloq.] 
We both grub on in a muddle. Dickens. 



muddle 

3. A kind of chowder; a pottle made with 
crackers. Bee pottle, '2 Mush muddle. See 
inunh 1 . 

muddlehead (mtid'l-hed), n. A confused or 

: !ii|ncl person; a blockhead. 

Miuiktml are imt waiting in intelligence ; but, as a body, 

they huveone iiitcllectuiil defect they are muddle-headg. 

C. Jleade, Never too Late to Mend, vi. (Done*.) 

muddle-headed (mud'l-hed'ed), a. Having 
the liruins muddled; stupidly confused or dull ; 
doltish: the opposite of clcar-lit-mtnl. 
What a precious muddle-headed chap you are ! 

Dickenn, Oliver Twist, xxx. 

muddle-headedness (inud'1-hed'ed-nes), n. 
The quality of being muddle-headed; confu- 
sion; want of clearness of thought. 

Such is the muddle-headedneesot modem English spell- 
ing, which seems to lie almost worshipped (or its Incon- 
sistencies. W. W. Skeat, N. and lj., Bth ser., IX. 3i. 

muddler (mud'ler), n. A chnrning-stick for 
muddling chocolate or for mixing toddies. 

mud-drag (mud ' drag), . An implement or a 
machine for clearing rivers and docks ; a hedge- 
hog. See hedgehog, 4. 

mud-dredger (mu'd'drej'er), n. A dredging- 
machine. 

mud-drum (mud'drum), . A chamber placed 
below the steam-generating part of a steam- 
boiler, and communicating by an upper and 
a lower passage or passages with the water- 
space in the boiler. It Is usually of cylindrical form 
(whence the name drum), and its function is to collect the 
sand or earthy matters deposited from the water which 
is fed to the boiler. The foreign substances so collect- 
ed are removed from the mud-drum through hand-holes 
In It. 

muddy (mud'i), . [= MLG. moddich, muddich, 
LG. muddig = G. mottig = Sw. moddig; as mud 
+ -J 1 .] 1. Abounding in, covered with, or con- 
taining mud: foul with mud; turbid, as water 
or other fluids ; miry. 

The true fountains of science out of which both painters 
and statuaries are bound to draw, . . . without amusing 
themselves withdipping in streams which are often muddy, 
at least troubled : I mean the manner of their masters after 
whom they creep. 

Dryden, On Du Freeuoy's Art of Painting. 

2. Consisting of mud or earth; hence, gross; 

impure; vile. 

Such harmony Is in immortal souls ; 
But whilst this muddy vesture of decay 
Doth grossly close it In. we cannot hear it. 

Shak., M. of V., v. 1. 64. 

8. Not clear or pure in color: as, a muddy 
green ; a muddy complexion. 4. Cloudy in 
mind; confused; dull; heavy; stupid. 
Dost think I am so muddy, so unsettled. 
To appoint myself in this vexation? 

Shak., W. T., i. 2. 828. 

5. Obscure; wanting in clearness or perspicu- 
ity: as, a muddy style of writing, 
muddy (mud'i), v. t.; pret. and pp. muddied, 
ppr. muddying. [< muddy, a.] 1. To soil with 
mud ; dirty. 

Here is a purr of fortune's, sir, or of fortune's cat, that 
has fallen into the unclean fishpond of her displeasure, 
and ... Is muddied withal. Shak., All's Well, v. 2. 23. 

2. To cloud; make dull or heavy. 

Excess . . . uniil/lies the best wit, and makes it only to 
flutter and froth high. N. Oreie, Cosmologia Sacra. 

muddy-brained (mud'i-brand), a. Dull of ap- 
prehension; stupid. 
O, the toil 

Of humouring this abject scum of mankind, 
Muddv-brain'd peasants ! 

Ford, Perkln Warbeck, II. 3. 

muddybreast (mud'i-brest), n. The American 
golden plover, Charadrius dominicus, in the 
transition stage of its plumage. G. Trumbull. 

muddy-headed (mud'i-hed*ed), a. Having a 
dull understanding; muddy-brained; muddle- 
headed. 

Many boys are muddy-headed till they be clarified with 
age. Fuller, Holy State, p. 100. 

muddying (mud'i-ing), n. [Verbal n. of mud- 
di/. t: ] A mode of fishing in which attendants 
stir up the muddy bottom of a lake or stream. 
[Southern U. S.] 

As soon as the heat of summer has thoroughly warmed 
the waters of these lakes, and has somewhat reduced their 
volume, the season for muddying begins. 

Sportsman's Gazetteer, p. 371. 

muddy-mettled (mud'i -met 'Id), a. Dull- 
spirited. 

A dull and muddy-mettled rascal. 

Shalt., Hamlet, U. 2. 594. 

mud-eel (mud'el), n. 1. A long slender sala- 
mander which lives in the mud, as s/rrit /uor- 
tina or ttltrmopgit tridiirlylti. Also called /;/- 
i/. See <i.nilt>tl. 2. An eel of any kind; 



liss? 

especially, in New England, a yellow-bellied 
sluggish variety of the common eel, found in 
muddy water. 

mudfish (mud'fish), n. A fish which lives or 
burrows in the mud. Specifically (a) A dlpnoui fish, 
I'rotopterus annectenf, of the family Lepidosirenidce. (b) 




Mudfish (Prot&fterui anntctttu). 

The Australian Ceratodus Jmtteri. (c) The North Ameri- 
can bowftn, Atnia calm. Also called marnh fmh. (d) s<nm; 
or any species of the genus Umbra or family IJmbridcc. 
Also called mud-minnow. (e) A former Anglo-American 
name In New York of a kllllflsh. Schoep/. (/) A gobilne 
fish, GUlichthus mirabilis, remarkable for the great exten- 
sion backward of the maxillary bones. It attains a lejigth 
of 6 Inches, and burrows in the mud between tide-marks, 
so that Its burrow is exposed at low tide. It abounds along 
the coast of California. (</) A New Zealand fish of the fam- 
ily Galaxiitlce; the Neochanna apoda. P. L. Sdater. (See 
cuts under Amiidce, Lepidosiren, Umbra, and (rillieltihyt.) 

mud-flat (mud'flat), H. Amuddy low-lying strip 
of ground by the shore, or an island, usually 
submerged more or less completely by the rise 
of the tide. 

mud-frog (mud'frog), n. A European frog of 
the family Pelobatidas, Pelobates ftiseus. 

mud-goose (raud'g8s) ; . Hutchins's goose, 
liemicla hutehinsi, of wide distribution in North 
America. It closely resembles the common wild or 
Canada goose, but is smaller and has fewer tall-feathers. 
./. /'. Oiraud. [Long Island, New York.] 

mud-hen (mud'hen), H. 1. The common gal- 
linule, Gallinula galeata. [Local, U. 8.] Also 
mud-pullet. [Florida.] 2. The American coot, 
Fuliea americana. 3. Same as marsh-hen (b). 
4. A bivalve mollusk of the family J'enerida; 
and genus Tapes. It is common along the Eu- 
ropean coasts on sandy bottoms near low-water 
mark. See hen, n., 4. 

mud-hole (mud'hol), . 1. A place full of 
mud ; a spot where there is mud of consider- 
able depth; a depression where water and mud 
stand, as in a road. 

All in ml/mil's of course should be filled promptly at all 
times, so that no water may stand in the road. 

The Century, XXXVIII. 956. 

2. In steam-engines, an orifice with steam- 
tight covering in the bottom of a boiler, through 
which the sediment is removed. Also mud- 
valve. 3. A salt-water lagoon in which whales 
are captured. [Whalers' slang, California.] 

mud-hook (mud'huk), . An anchor. [Slang.] 

mudiet, a. An obsolete spelling of moody. 

mudir (mo-der'), . [Also moodir; Ar. (> Turk.) 
mudir, a manager, director, administrator, etc., 
< adir, manage, inspect.] An administrator. 
Specifically (a) In Turkey, the head of a "kasa," or can- 
ton. (6) In Egypt, the governor of a district called a mu- 
dirieh, or province. 

mud-laff (mud'laf), n. Same as laff'*. 

mud-lamprey (mud'lam'pri). n. The young 
of the sandpride, Petromyson branchialis. 

mud-lark (mud'liirk),. 1. A man who cleans 
out common sewers, or any one who fishes up 
small articles from the mud on the strands of 
tidal rivers. [Slang.] 

The mud-larks collect whatever they happen to find, such 
as coals, bits of old iron, rope, bones, and copper nails that 
drop from ships while lying or repairing along shore. 

Maiiheic, London Labour and London Poor, II. 173. 

2. A neglected or deserted child, who is allowed 
to run and play about the streets, picking up his 
living and his training anyhow ; a street Arab ; 
a gamin. 3. A kind of pipit, Anthus. Encyc. 
Brit., XIV. 317. 

mud-lava (mud'la'vft), . Same as moya. 

mud-minnow (mud'min'o), n. Same aa mud- 
Jish (d). See Umlirida;. 

mud-plantain (mud'plan'tan), . See Heteran- 
thera. 

mud-plug (mud'plug), n. In steam-engines, a 
tapered screw-plug for filling a mud-hole. 

mud-puppy (mud'pup'i), . See hellbender, and 
mud-t'fl. 1. 

mud-rake (mud'rak), n. Oyster-tongs with long 
poles or handles. [New Jersey.] 

mud-scow (mud'skou), n. A flatboat or barge 
for the transportation of mud, generally used in 
connection with dredges. 

mud-shad (mud'shad), n. A fish of the family 
Dorttaiiniiilii , Dorosoma cepedianum. It has a su- 
perflcial resemblance to the shad. The snout is projecting 
and blunt; the mouth Is small, inferior, and oblique; the 
maxillary bones are narrow, short, and simple ; and the 
lower jaw is short, deep, and enlarged backward. It is 
very abundant in many parts of the United States, espe- 
cially southward. It has many other names, as trinter-shad, 



muezzin 

itinlc-ihad, hairy-bode or thread-herring (in North Carolina), 
and on tin- St. John's river ffizzard-tihad or u-hite-etjfd nhad. 
See cut under ffiaard-shad. 

mudsill (mud'sil), n. 1. The lowest sill of a 
structure, resting on the ground. 2. A low- 
born, ignorant, contemptible person. [U. S.] 

The term mud-frill is supposed to be used contemptu- 
ously in the Southern States to designate the lowest rank 
of the people : those who use nothing and have nothing to 
use but muscle for their maintenance; men who an im 
educated and indifferent to education ; men without other 
aspiration or ambition than that which incites them Ui ap- 
pease their hunger and to ward off the blasts of winter. 
Pop. Set. Mo., XXVI. 39. 

mud-snail (mud'snal), n. Same as pond-snail. 

mud-snipe (mud'snip), n. The American wood- 
cock, I'nilohcla minor. [Local, U. 8.] 

mudstone (mud'stpu), n. A fine argillaceous 
rock, often containing more or less sand, some- 
what harder than clay, and destitute of any 
distinct lamination. [Rare.] 

mud-sucker (mud'suk"er), n. 1. An aquatic 
fowl which obtains its food from mud. 

In all water-fowl . . . their legs and feet correspond to 
that way of life [swimming] ; and in inud-gucker* two of the 
toes are somewhat joined that they may not easily sink. 
Derltam, Physlco-Theology, vli. 1, note w. 

2. A catostcmoid fish. See sucker. 

mud-swallow (mud'swoKo), n. The cliff-swal- 
low or eaves-swallow, Petrochelidon lunifronx, 
which builds its nest of pellets of mud. See cut 
under caves-swalloic. 

mud-teal (mud'tel), n. See greemoing. 

mud-tortoise (mud'tdr'tis), n. Same as mud- 
turtle. 

mud-turtle (mud'ter'tl), n. A name given in 
the United States to various turtles which live 
in the mud or muddy water, as species of Tri- 
onychidce and Emydid<e. 

mud-valve (mud'valv), n. Same as mud-hole, 2. 

mud-volcano (mud'vol-ka'no), n. A conical 
hill or miniature volcano surrounding an orifice 
or crater, and the result of the pressure and es- 
cape from below of steam or gases, given out 
either continuously or at intervals. Such accu- 
mulations of mud are not uncommon in regions of dying- 
out volcanism, the material being the result of the soften- 
ing and decomposition of the lava or ashes by solfataric 
agencies. Somewhat similar mud-cones or mud-volca- 
noes sometimes occur in regions not volcanic, where they 
appear to be caused by the combustion of sulphur or of 
coal. 

mud-walled (mud'wald), a. Having a wall of 
mud, or of materials laid in mud instead of mor- 
tar. 

Folks from llud-uvtt'd Tenement 
Bring Landlords Pepper-Corn for Rent ; 
Present a Turkey, or a Hen, 
To those might better spare them ten. 

Prior, To Fleetwood Shepherd, I. 19. 

mud-wasp (mud'wosp), n. Same as dauber (e), 

mudweed (mud' wed), . Same as mudu-ort. 

mud-worm (mud'werm), n. A worm that lives 
in the mud, as a lugworm; specifically, one of 
the Limieolte. 

mudwort (mud'wert), n. A plant, LimoneVa 
aquatica. Also called mudvceed. 

muet, v. t. An obsolete spelling of mete 3 . 

Muehlenbergia (mu-len-ber'ji-fi), . [NL. 
(Von Schreber, 1789), named after Rev. G. H. 
E. Muehlenberg, an eminent botanist of Penn- 
sylvania, 1753-1815.] A genus of grasses of the 
tribe Agrostidea;, known l>y its capillary awns, 
small spikelets, and grain tightly invested by 
the delicate glume. About ao species are known, 
mostly of North America or the Andes, and a few In Asia. 
They are low grasses, sometimes forming a turf, with many- 
paniclcd flowers. On account of the early deciduous seed 
these grasses are called droptetd, especially M. diffuxa 
(also called nimble-will). II. capillaris, an extremely deli- 
cate species, shares with various other grasses the name 
of hair.yraw. The species have no marked agricultural 
worth. 

Muellerian, a. See JUiillerian. 

muermo (m8-er'mo), n. [Chilian.] A fine rosa- 
ceous tree of Chili, Eutryphia cordifolia. It 
reaches a height of 100 feet. IU wood Is preferred to all 
other In Chill for rudders and oars. Also called ulmo. 

muett, n. A Middle English form of mute* . 

muezzin (mu-ez'in), . [Formerly also mued- 
din, nmetdiii; < Ar. muezzin, miiazan (prop. 
muedlidhin), a public crier who calls to prayer, 
< HIM-, formative prefix, + 'azzana, inform (cf. 
'azan, the call to prayer, 'uzn, the ear), < 'azautt, 
hear. The consonant here represented by z is 
dltdl, prop, pronounced like th in E. this, but in 
Turk., Pers., etc., like E. z.~\ In Mohammedan 
countries, a crier who proclaims from the min- 
aret of a mosque (when the mosque has one, 
otherwise from the side of the mosque) the 
regular hours of prayer. These hours are dawn, 
noon, four o'clock in the afternoon, sunset, and 
nightfall. 



muezzin 

On which is a Tower, as with us a Steeple, whereupon 
the Mnetden or Thalisman ascendeth. 

Purchas, rilgrimage, p. 800. 

The musical chant of the muezzins from the thousand 
minarets of Cairo sounds most impressively through the 
clear and silent air. 

R. Curzon, Monast. in the Levant, p. 32. 

muff 1 (muf), n. [Early mod. E. muffe, < ME. 
"muffe (in deriv. verb muffle), < D. mof, a muff (> 
G. muff), = Sw. muff=: Dan. mtiffe; prob., after 
F. moufle, etc. (see muffle 1 ), < ML. *muffa, dim. 
muffnla, moffula, a muff, < OHG. *mouwa, MHG. 
HOM!e=LG. oe,iae=MD. momve,T>.maamc, 
a wide, hanging sleeve. Hence muffle^.] 1. A 
cover into which both hands may be thrust in 
order to keep them warm. It is commonly cylin- 
drical and made of fur, but sometimes of velvet, silk, 
plush, etc., in bag shape or other fanciful design. The 
muff was introduced into France toward the close of the 
sixteenth century, and soon after into England. It was 
used by both men and women, and in the seventeenth cen- 
tury was often an essential part of the dress of a man of 
fashion ; but it is now exclusively an article of female ap- 
parel. 

In the early part of Anne's reign it was fashionable for 
men to wear mu/s, as it had been ever since Charles the 
Second's time. 

J. Ashton, Social Life in Reign of Queen Anne, I. 156. 

2. The whitethroat, Sylvia cinerea. Macgillivray. 
Also muffet. 3. A cylinder of blown glass 
ready for slitting and spreading open in the flat- 
tening-furnace to form a plate. 4. A joining- 
tube or coupler for uniting two pipes end to end. 

muff 2 (muf), v. [= D. muffen, dote, = G. muffen, 
be sulky, sulk. Cf . freq. muffle 2 and mumble.] 

1. trans. 1. To mumble; speak indistinctly. 
[Prov. Eng.] 2. To perform clumsily or badly; 
fail, as in some attempt in playing a game; 
muddle ; make a mess of. 

I don't see why you should have muffed that shot 

Lawrence, Guy Livingstone, vi. 

You know we consider him a rhetorical phenomenon. 
Unfortunately he always muffs anything he touches. 

Harper't Mag., LXXVIII. 737. 

3. Specifically, in ball-playing, to fail to hold 
(the ball) when it comes into the hands. 

II. intrans. To act clumsily or badly, espe- 
cially in playing a game, as in receiving a ball 
into one's hands and failing to hold it. 
muff 2 (muf), n. [Cf. D. mof, a clown, boor; 
from the verb.] 1. A simpleton; a stupid or 
weak-spirited person. [Colloq.] 

The Low Dutch call the High "mu/es" that is, etour- 
dis as the French have it, or blockhead upbraiding them 
with their heavinesse. Sir J. liearsby, Travels (1657). 

A muff of a curate. Thackeray, Lovel the Widower, i. 

2. An inefficient apprentice craftsman. 

These boys [who have no liking for their craft] often 
grow up to be unskilful workmen. There are technical 
terms for them in different trades, but perhaps the generic 
appellation is muffs. 

Mayhew, London Labour and London Poor, II. 377. 

3. Anything done in a clumsy or bungling fash- 
ion, as a bad stroke of play in a game of ball ; 
specifically, in ball-playing, failure to hold a 
ball that comes into one's hands. 

muff-dog (muf'dog), n. A very small lap-dog, 

such as a woman can carry in her muff, 
muffet (muf 'et), n. [< muffl + -et.~\ Same as 

muffl, 2. 
muffetee (muf-e-te'), n. [< muffi + -et + -ee 2 .] 

A small muff worn over the wrist ; a wristband 

of fur or worsted worn by women, 
muff-glass (muf 'glas), n. Same as pot-glass. 
muffin (muf 'in), n. [Perhaps < roujfi.] 1. A 

light round spongy cake, the English variety of 

which is usually eaten toasted and buttered. 

2. A small earthen plate. 
muffin-cap (muf 'in-kap), n. A round flat cap 

worn by men. The name is given in particular to two 

varieties : (a) A cheap cap of 

coarse woolen, worn by charity 

boys and occasionally by oth- 
ers. (&) A fatigue-cap worn by 

some regiments of the British 

army. [Eng.] 

muffineer (muf-i-ner'), n. 

[< muffin + -eer.~\ 1. A 

dish in which to serve 

toasted muffins, crum- 
pets, etc., so arranged as 

to keep them hot. 2. A 

vessel of metal with a 

perforated cover, used to 

sprinkle sugar or salt on 

muffins. 
muffin-man (muf ' in - 

man), n. A seller of muf- 

finS ' Muffineers, def.,. 

The muflnmm carries his 

delicacies in a basket, wherein they are well swathed in 
flannel, to retain the heat. 

Mintlteu; London Labour and London Poor, I. 214. 



3888 

muffin-ring (muf in-ring), n. A ring of iron or 
tin in which muffins are baked. 

muffle 1 (muf'l), n. [< ME. *muffle (in deriv. verb 
muffle), < MD. moffcl (> G. muffel) = OF. moflc, 
moufle, a kind of mitten or muff, F. moufle, a 
muff, a muffle, = Sp. miifla = It. muffola, a muff 
or mitten, < ML. muffula, moffula, a muff, dim. 
of "muffa, a muff: see mitffl.] It. A muff for 
the hands. 

This day I did first wear a muffle, being my wife's last 
year's muffle. Pepys, Diary, Nov. 80, 1662. (Encyc. Diet.) 

2. A boxing-glove. 

Just like a black-eye in a recent scuffle 

(For sometimes we must box without the muffle). 

Byron, Don Juan, ii. 92. 

3. Same as muffler (c). 4. A cover or wrap, 
especially one used to deaden sound. 

Yesterday morning he sent for the officer on guard, and 
ordered him to take all the muffles off the drums. 

GreviUe, Memoirs, July 18, 1830. 

5. In chem. and metal., an arched vessel, re- 
sisting the strongest fire, made to be placed 
over cupels and tests in the operation of assay- 
ing, to preserve them from coming in contact 
with fuel, smoke, or ashes though at the same 
time of such a form as not to hinder the action 
of the air and fire on the metal, nor prevent the 
inspection of the assayer. 

In the coppilling of a fixed metall, which, as long as any 
lead or drosse or any allay remains with it, continueth 
still melting, flowing, and in motion under the muffle. 

Hmoett, Parly of Beasts, p. 148. (Davies.) 

6. A small furnace with a chamber in which 
pottery or porcelain painted with metallic colors 
is baked or fired. 7. A pulley-block contain- 
ing several sheaves. E. H. Knight Hard muffle- 
colors. See hard. Muffle-painting, ceramic decoration 
by painting which will not bear the heat of the porcelain- 
furnace, but is glazed or fixed at the lower temperature 
of the muffle. Painting upon enamel, whether the enamel 
is applied upon metal or a ceramic paste, is of this nature. 
Muffle-painting is divided into two kinds hard muffle- 
painting, or demi-grand-feu, and ordinary or soft muffle- 
painting. 

muffle 1 (muf'l), v. t.; pret. and pp. muffled, ppr. 
muffling. [< ME. muffelen, conceal (the face) ; 
cf. D. moffelen, conceal, pilfer; from the noun 
(see muffle 1 , n.); perhaps in part confused with 
muffle 2 , .] 1. To infold or wrap up, especially 
in some cloth or woven fabric, so as to conceal 
from view or protect from the weather; wrap 
up or cover close, particularly the neck and 
face; envelop or inwrap in some covering. 

As though our eyes were muffled with a cloude. 

Oascoigne, Chorusses from Jocasta, iii. 
The face lies muffled up within the garment. 

Addison, Cato, iv. 3. 

2. To blindfold. 

Alas, that love, whose view is muffled still, 
Should, without eyes, see pathways to his will ! 

Shot., B. and J., i. 1. 177. 

3. Figuratively, to wrap up or cover; conceal; 
involve. 

The sable fumes of Hell's inf email vault . . . 
Muffled the face of that profound Abyss. 

Sylvester, tr. of Du Bartas's Weeks, i. 1. 



They were in former ages mu 
superstition. Ar 



ed up in darkness and 
uthnot, Hist. John Bull. 




4. To envelop more or less completely in some- 
thing that deadens sound: used especially of 
bells, drums, and oars. See muffled. 

The bells they were muffed, 
And mournful did play. 

The Death of Queen Jane (ballad). 

5. To restrain from speaking by wrapping up 
the head ; put to silence. 

Go, tell the Count Rousillon, and my brother, 
We have caught the woodcock, and will keep him muffled 
Till we do hear from them. Shak., AU's Well, iv. 1. 100. 
I wish you could muffle that 'ere Stiggins. 

Diclteru, Pickwick, xxvii. 
- Syn. 5. Muzzle, etc. See gag. 

muffle 2 (muf'l). v. i.; pret. and pp. muffled, ppr. 
muffling. [< D. moffelen = G. dial, muffeln, 
mumble ; freq. of the verb represented by muff 2 , 
v. Cf. waffle.] To mumble; mutter; speak 
indistinctly. 

The Freedom or Apertness and vigour of pronnncing 
as ... in the Bocca Romana and giving somewhat more 
of Aspiration ; And . . . the closeness and Muffling, and 
. . . Laziness of speaking, . . . render the sound of their 
Speech considerably different. 

Holder, Elements of Speech, p. 79. 

muffle 3 (muf'l), re. [< F. mufle, the muffle, < G. 
muffel, a dog or other animal with large hang- 
ing lips.] The tumid and naked part of the 
upper lip and nose of ruminants and rodents. 

muffled (muf 'Id), p. n. 1. Wrapped up closely, 
especially about the face ; concealed from view ; 
also, blinded by or as by something wrapped 
about the face and covering the eyes. 



mug 

A plague upon him ! muffled! He can say nothing of 
me. Shalt., All's Well, iv. 3. 134. 

Muffled pagans know there is a God, but not what this 
God is. Jlev. T. Adams, Works, III. 160. (Dairies.) 

2. Dulled or deadened : applied to a sounding 
body or to the sound produced by it. 

A sort of muffled rhyme rhyme spoilt by the ends being 
blunted or broken off. Craik, Hist. Eng. Lit., II. 94. 

Muffled drum. See drumi. Muffled oars, oars having 
mats or canvas put round their looms when rowing, to pre- 
vent them from making a noise against the tholes or in the 
rowlocks. 

muffle-furnace (muf 'l-fer'nas), n. See furnace. 

mufflejaw (muf'l-ja), n. A'cottoid fish, Urani- 
dea rfcharasoni, a kind of millerVthumb. 

muffler (muf'ler), . Anything used to muffle 
or wrap up. Specifically (a) A sort of kerchief or scarf 
worn by women in the sixteenth century and later to cover 
the lower part of the face, the neck and ears, etc., either for 
protection against the sun or wind, or for partial conceal- 
ment when in public. See half-mask. 

He might put on a hat, a muffler, and a kerchief, and so 
escape. Shalt., M. W. of W., iv. 2. 73. 

(6) A glove, generally without fingers but with a thumb ; 
a mitten. 

Threadbare mufflers of grey worsted, with a private 
apartment only for the thumb, and a common room or tap 
for the rest of the fingers. Dickens, Chimes, i. 

(c) A wrapper or scarf for the throat, usually of wool or 
silk ; a large silk handkerchief so used. Also muffle, (d) 
In mech., any device for deadening sound : usually a cham- 
ber or box for inclosing cog-wheels or other noisy parts of 
machinery, or steam- or air-valves in which the sound of 
escaping steam and air is desired to be muffled, as in the 
automatic air-valves of steam-radiators, etc. In the piano- 
forte tire muffler is a device for deadening the tones, usu- 
ally consisting of a strip of soft felt, which can be inserted 
between the hammers and the strings by pulling a stop or 
lever. 

mufflin (muf'lin), n. [Origin obscure.] A tit- 
mouse: as, the long-tailed mufflin, Acredula 
rosea. [Local, Eng.] 

mufflon, n. See moiiflon. 

mufti 1 (muf 'ti), n. [< Ar. mufti (> Turk. Hind. 
mufti), a magistrate (see def. 1), one who gives 
a response, < mu-, a formative prefix, + afti. 
judge (>fetwah, a judgment, doom: see/ete).] 
A Mohammedan law-officer whose duty it was to 
expound the law which the kadi was to execute. 

mufti 2 (muf'ti), n. [Appar. for 'mufti-dress, the 
dress of a mufti, i. e. civil officer or civilian. 
See mufti 1 .'] In India, citizen's dress worn by 
officers when off duty: now commonly used in 
this sense in the British army. 

Heha8no?w^(i-coat, except one sent him out by Messrs. 
Stultz to India in the year 1821. 

Thaclteray, Newcomes, viii. 

An officer of the station who accompanied us was dressed 
in mufti, so that, altogether, we presented by no means 
an imposing appearance. 

W. H. Russell, Diary in India, II. 230. 

mufty (muf'ti), n.; pi. muf ties (-tiz). [Cf. 
WMW 1 .] The whitethroat : same as muff\ 2. 

mug 1 (mug), n. [< Icel. mugga, soft, drizzling 
mist. Cf. W. mwg, smoke, fume, mu-ci, mtcean, 
fog, mist ; Gael, mugach, gloomy, cloudy. Cf. 
also Dan. muggen, musty, moldy, and Dan. mog, 
E. mttcfci ; but these are hardly allied. Hence 
muggy.'] A fog; a mist. Halliwell. [Prov. 
Eng.] 

mug 2 (mug), ii. [Early mod. E. mugge ; cf. Ir. 
mugan, a mug, mucog, a 
cup ; Sw. mugg, an earthen 
cup; Norw. mugge, a mug 
(< E. ?).] 1. A small cy- 
lindrical drinking-vessel, 
commonly with a handle ; 
a small jug. 

With mug in hand to wet his Jjj 
whistle. Cotton. W 

2. The contents of a mug; 

as much as a mug will hold : 

as, a mug of milk and water. 

The clamorous crowd is hush'd 
with mugg of mum, 

Till all, tuned equal, send a gen- 
eral hum. 

Pope, Dunciad, ii. 386. 

mUg S (mug), n. [Origin Ob- 

scure ; perhaps a slang use 
of Wttjp. It is supposed by some to be of Gipsy 
origin, ult. < Skt. miillia, the face.] 1. The 
mouth or face. 

Brougham is no beauty ; but his mug is a book in which 
men may read strange matters and take him as he stands, 
face and figure, and yon feel that there is a man of great 
energy and commanding intellect. 

ffoetes Ambrosiantf, Dec., 1834. 

2. A grimace. [Prov. Eng. or slang.] 
mug 3 (mug), r. .; pret. and pp. mugqed, ppr. 
mugging. [Formerly also mog; < mug*,n.~\ To 
distort the face ; make grimaces. 




Beer - muff. German 
pottery with pewter mount- 
ings ; i8th century. 



mug 

Wit hung her blob, ev'n Humour teem'd to mourn, 
And sullenly sat magging o'er his urn. 

CW;w, \lisr,'lhmi<!8(172), p. 121 (llalliirrll.) 

The low comedian had mugijeJ at him in hla richest man- 
ner tlfty nights for a wager. Dickeiut, Little Unrlt, I. 20. 
To mug up. (o) To paint one's face. (b) To cram for 
an examination. [Slang, Kng. | 

mug 1 (mug), ". [E. Iml.] Same as green gram 
(wTiich see, under </;<'). 

muga (mo'gii), n. [E. Ind.] 1. A silkworm of 
Assam in British liulia, Anthrnrit nxsiima, par- 
tially domesticated. Also, erroneously, minigti. 
2. A kind of silk, the production of the muga 
silkworm in India, especially in tin; hill-coun- 
try on the northeast coast, where the plants 
grow upon which the worms feed. 

muget, >i. [< OF. muge, mougc, <. L. mugil, a mul- 
let: see Magi!.] A fish, the sea-mullet. 

The flshe cald a muge which is sayde to feedc herselfc 
with her own snotte. 

O. Ilarvey, Trimming of Thomas Nashe. 

muggar(inug'iir), n. [E. Ind.] A kind of croco- 
dile : as, the Siamese muggar, Crocodilus si<imi-n- 
sis. Also mni/grr. 

muggard (mng'ird), a. [< mug 3 4- -ard. Cf. 
G. mucker, a sulky person : see mucker*.] Sul- 
len; displeased. Grose. 
mugger, n. Same as muggar. 
muggev (mug'et), n. [Origin not ascertained.] 
Chitterling. 

I'm a poor botching tailor for a court. 

law bred on liver, and what clowns call nmgget, 

Wolcot (Peter Pindar), The Remonstrance. (Daviet.) 

mugget 2 t (mug'et), n. [Also mugwet, muguet; < 
F. muguet, woodruff.] A name applied to vari- 
ous plants, especially to the woodruff (Asperula 
odorata) and the lily-of-the-valley. 

muggins (mug'inz), n. [Origin obscure.] 1. A 
children's game of cards played by any num- 
ber of persons with a full pack divided equally 
among the players. Each onelu turn placesacard face 
up In a pile In front of him, and if the top card of one player 
matches with the top card of some other player, that one of 
the two who first cries "Muggins ! " adds his card to the pile 
of the other. This continues until all the cards are placed 
In one pile the player who owns this being the loser. 
2. A game of dominoes in which the players 
count by fives or multiples of five. Each player 
putting down a domino with 5 or 10 spots on it, or one 
with such a number of spoU as, united with those on 
the dominoes at either or both ends of the row, make 5 
or a multiple of 5, adds the number so made to his score. 
The player first reaching 200 If two play, or 160 If more 
than two, wins the game. 

muggisn(mug'ish).. [<Mi0 1 + -feft 1 .] Same 
as muggy. 

mugglet (mug'l), n. [Cf. mug' 2 .'} A contest be- 
tween drinkers to decide which of them can 
drink the most. 

muggled (mug'ld), a. [Appar. an arbitrary 
var. of smuggled.] Cheap and trashy, as goods 
offered for sale as smuggled articles; sham. 
[Slang.] 

Another ruse to introduce mugglrd or " duffer's " goods. 
Mayhew, London Labour and London Poor, II. 44. 

Muggletonian (mug-l-to'ni-an), n. [< Miig- 
gleton (see def.) + -tan.] A member of a sect 
founded in England by Ludowick Muggleton 
and John Eeeve about 1651. The members of the 
sect believed in the prophetic inspiration of Its founders, 
as being the two witnesses mentioned in Revelation xl. 
8-6, and held that there is no real distinction between the 
persons of the Trinity, that God has a human body, and 
that Elijah was his representative in heaven when he de- 
scended to die on the cross. The last member of the sect 
Is said to have died in 1888. 

mugglingt (mug'ling), n. [< muggle + -ing.] 
The practice of drinking in rivalry. 

muggs, M. ft. See mugs. 

muggy (mug'i), . [< mug 1 + -yi ; prob. in part 
confused with mucky.'} 1. Containing moist- 
ure in suspension ; damp and close ; warm and 
humid: as, muggy air. 

.'/ .' W still. An Italian winter is a sad thing, but all the 
other seasons are charming. Byron, Diary, Jan. 8, 1831. 

2. Moist ; damp ; moldy. 

Cover with muggy straw to keep it moist. Mortimer. 

Also muggish. 

Mughal (mo'gal), n. Same as Mogul. 
mug-house (mu'g'hous), n. An ale-house. 

Our sex has dared the mughouse chiefs to meet, 
And purchased fame in many a well-fonght street. 
Tickell, Epistle from a Lady in England to a Gentleman at 

[Avignon. 

mug-hunter (mug'hun'ter). 11. One who en- 
gages in sporting contests solely with the aim 
of winning prizes (which are frequently cups) : 
an epithet of opprobrium or contempt. [Slang.] 

mugiencyt (imV.ji-e.n-si), . [< mngirn(t) + 
-i'y.] A bellowing. .Sic T. lirmene, Vulg. Err., 
iii. 27. 



3889 

mugientt (mii'ji-;iit), a. [= Sp. miiyinitr. =It. 
tiiiti/gliiiiiitt; < L. iHiigifii(t-)x, ppr. of miigin 
(> It. iiniggliitire), bellow as a cow, hence also 
blare as a trumpet, rumble as an earthquake, 
as thunder, creak as a mast, i-tc.: cf. Or. 
, lii-llow; orifr. imitative, like E. moo 1 .] 
Lowing ; bellowing. [Obsolete or archaic.] 

A bittern maketh that murtunt noise or ... humping. 
Mr '/'. Browne, Vulg. Err., iii. -J7. 

Mugil (mu'jil), n. [L., a mullet: see ittiillrfl.] 
The leading genus of Mugilidet; the mullets. 

Mugilidae (mU-jil'i-de), n.pl. [NL., < M'igil 
+ -iit<K.] A family of percesocine fishes, typi- 
fied by the genus Mugil; the mullets, (a) In Bona- 
parte's system, same as Muyiltridei. (b) In recent sys- 
tems restricted to mugiliform Hshes with only 24 ver- 
tebra and rudimentary or very weak teeth, and In this 
sense accepted by nearly all modern authors. There are 
about 80 species, of 7 or 8 genera, mostly Inhabiting tropi- 
cal or subtropical regions eitherin salt or fresh water ; but 
several extend much further, both north and south. Two at 
least are common in British waters, and two others abound 
along the Atlantic coast of the United states. None oc- 
cur on the Pacific coast north of southern California. 
Most of the Mugilidce feed almost entirely upon the or- 
ganic matter contained in mud. The mud is worked for 
some time between the pharyngeal bones, which are pecu- 
liarly complicated ; the indigestible part* are then ejected, 
and the rest is swallowed. See cut under mullet. 

mugiliform (mu'ji-li-fdrm), a. [< L. mugil, a 
mullet, -I- forma, form.] Having the form of 
a mullet ; resembling the 3Iugiliformes. 

Mugiliformes (mu*ji-li-f6r'mez), n. pi. [KL.: 
see mugiliform.] Gtinther's eleventh division 
of Acanthopterygii. It includes Mugilidce, Aihe- 
rinidce, and Sphyra'nidte. 

mugiloid (mu'ji-loid), a. and n. [< L. mugil, a 
mullet, + Gr. eloof, form.] I. a. Mugiliform; 
of or pertaining to the Mugilidtf or Mugiloidei. 
H. n. A mngiloid or mugiliform fish. Agax- 
siz; Sir J. Richardson. 

Mugiloidei (mu-ji-loi'de-I), n. pi. [NL.] Cu- 
vier's eleventh family (in French Mugiloides) 
of Acanthopterygii, comprising forms with the 
ventral fins abdominal or subabdominal in posi- 
tion, two dorsal fins, and small teeth. It in- 
cluded the Mugilidae, Tetragonuridce, and Athe- 
rinid<e of subsequent systems. 

mugs, muggs (mugz). . pi. [Origin obscure.] 
The Teeswater breed of sheep. [Scotch.] 

mugweed (mug' wed), n. [Perhaps a corruption, 
simulating treed 1 , of mugget: seemugget 2 .] The 
crosswort, Galium cruciatum. Also golden mug- 
weed. 

mugwett, M. See mugget 2 . 

mugwort (mug'wert), n. [Also dial. (Sc.) mug- 
gart, muggon; < ME. mugworte, corruptly mugh- 
warde, < AS. mucgwyrt, mugwyrt, a plant, Arte- 
misia vulgaris, < "mueg, mycg, midge, + wyrt, 
plant.] The plant Artemisia vulgaris; also, 
sometimes, A. Absinthium. In the United States the 
western mugwort is A. Lvdovieiana, the leaves, as In A. 
vulgaris, white-tomentose beneath. East Indian mug- 
wort, Cyathocline lyrata, related to Artemisia. West In- 
dian mugwort, Partftenium Hystfrophorus. 

mugwump (mug' wump),n. and a. [<Algonkin 
mugquomn, a great man, chief, captain, leader: 
used in Eliot's translation of the Bible (1661) to 
render the E. terms captain,duke, centurion, etc.] 

1. n. If. AJQ Indian chief ; an Indian leader. Said 
to have been used among the Indians and whites of Mas- 
sachusetts and Connecticut in tin- seventeenth and eigh- 
teenth centuries. 

2. (a) A person of importance ; a man of conse- 
quence ; a leader. In this sense long in local use 
along the coast of Massachusetts and the Connecticut 
shore of Long Island Sound. Hence (6) A person 
who thinks himself of consequence; a self-im- 
portant man : a humorous or satirical use of the 
preceding. In this sense the word was also long in local 
use as above, and occasionally appeared in print (as in 
the Indianapolis "Sentinel," In 1872, and the New York 
"Sun," March 2Sd, 1884). 

The great Mwnrvmp [a Democratic (Locofoco) candidate 
for county commissioner] was delivered of a speech upon 
the occasion, which was highly applauded by the great 
"Doctor Dum-nev.T." 

Tippecanoc Log-cabin Snngtter, May 29, 18*0 (a later edi- 
Ition, dated July 4, 1840): issued "from the office 
[of the ' Great Western.' " 

(In a "song" following the above, in the "negro" dia- 
lect, the same person is referred to as "ole mug," and 
"honest, honest, mwjtntmp coon.") 

Then the great mugwump [a Democratic (Locofoco) can- 
didate for Congress] was delivered of a speech which the 
faithful loudly applauded. 

Solon RMnson, editorial In the "Great Western," 
[Lake Co., 111., July 4, 1840. 

We have yet to see a Blalne organ which speaks of the 
Independent Republicans otherwise than as Pharisees, 
hypocrites, dudes, mujiTOmjn, transcendentalists, or some- 
thing of that sort. AVic York Evening Poet, June 20, 1884. 

The educated men in all the university towns . . . are 
in open revolt now. . . . We presume they can he partially 



mulberry 

disposed of by calling them free-traders all educated 
mi 'n :ire free-traders, It seems and if any of them hold 
out after that, they can be called mvjirumpt. 

The Nation, July 24. 1884, p. 61. 

3. [<;>.] In r. X. iiiilit. hint., one of the Inde- 
jM-nilent members of the Re-publican party who 
in 1H84 openly refused to support the nominee 
(.lune 6th) of that party for the presidency of 
the Uniti-d States, and either voted for the 
Democratic or the Prohibitionist candidate or 
abstained from voting. The word was not generally 
known in any sense before this time, but It took the popu- 
lar fancy, and was at once accepted by the Independents 
themselves as an honorable title. [U. 8. political slang 
in this sense and the next.] 

4. In general, an independent. 

For that large class of people natural muywtimpi 
who regard the right of property as far above those of per- 
sons, economy seems commendable. 

The American, XVI. 227. 

II. a. 1. Of or pertaining to a mugwump (in 
sense 2 (b)). 

The faithful forty-seven [Locofoco voters] would do well 
to be careful how they follow the lead of this mugwump 
coon. Solon Robinson, editorial in "Great Western, ' 

[Lake Co., 111., Aug. 8, 1840. 

[See also note following the first quotation under I., 2 (b). ] 
2. Of or pertaining to a political mugwump (in 
sense 3 or 4). 

The Democrats now are satisfied as to the strength of 
the Mugwump stomach. The American, XVI. 229. 

mugwump (mug'wump), r. i. [< mugwump, n.] 
To act like a mugwump ; assert one's indepen- 
dence. [Slang.] 

They mugmtmped In 1884. 

New York Tribune, March 10, 1889. 

mugwumpery (mug'wump-er-i), n. [< mug- 
wump + -ery.] The principles or conduct of a 
mugwump in the political sense. [Slang.] 

The second service . . . rendered to the community Is 
in reminding the practitioners of the spoils system that 
they cannot in our day get rid of Muyirumpery and all 
that the term Implies. The Nation, XLVIII. 378. 

mugwumpism (mug'wump-izm), i). Same as 
mugwumpery. 

Munammadan, Muhammadanism, etc. See 
Mohammedan, etc. 

Muharram (mij-har'am), M. [Ar.] A Moslem 
religious festival, held during the first month 
of the Mohammedan year. The ceremonies with 
the Shiah Moslems have special reference to the death of 
Hnsain, grandson of Mohammed, who is looked upon by 
the Shlahs as a martyr ; with the Sunnltes they have ref- 
erence to the day of creation. Also Moharram. 

iiuiir (mttr), w. A Scotch form of moor 1 . 

muir-duck (miir'duk), n. See duck%. 

muir-ill (mur'il), . A Scotch form of moor-ill. 

muirland (mur'land), . A Scotch form of 
moorland. 

muir-poot (mur'pSt), . A young moor-fowl 
or grouse. Scott. [Scotch.] 

muiik (mo'zhik), n. Same as muzhik. 

mult, n. An obsolete form of mull 1 . 

mulatto (mu-lat'd), . and a. [= G. mulatte 
= D. Dan. mttlat = Sw. mulatt = F. muldtre = 
It. mulatto = Pg. mulato, < Sp. mulato, a mu- 
latto, equiv. tomuleto, a mulatto, so called as of 
hybrid origin, lit. a mule, dim. of mulo, a mule : 
see mule.] I. n. One who is the offspring of 
parents of whom one is white and the other 
a negro. The mulatto is of a yellow color.wlth frizzled 
or woolly hair, and resembles the European more than the 
African. 
II. a. Of the color of a mulatto. 

There were a dozen stout men, black as sable Itself, 
about the same number of women of all shades of color, 
from deepest jet up to light mulatto. 

V. M. Baker, New Timothy, p. 84. 

mulattress (mu-lat'res), n. [< mulatto + 
-tress.] A female mulatto, 
mulberry (mul'ber'i), n. and a. [< ME. mul- 
bery, moolbery, prob. < AS. 'morberie (not re- 
corded, but cf . morbedm, mulberry -tree ; the 
AS. form "murberie, often cited, is erroneous) 
= D. moerbezie = LG. mulberie= OHG. morberi, 
murberi, MHG. mulbere, 
G. maulbeere = Sw. mul- 
bdr = Dan. morb<er, mul- 
berry, the mulberry- 
tree, < *mor, ME. more, 
< L. mdrum, < Gr. u6pav, 
uopov, a mulberry; L. 
morus, Gr. uopia, a mul- 
berry-tree : see more* 
andoerry 1 . The dissimi- 
lation of the first r to I 
is due to the following 
r.] I. n. ', pi. mulber- 
ries (-iz). 1. The berry - 
Black Mulberry i.iA. vr,. like collective fruit of 




mulberry 

the mulberry-tree. 2. Any tree of the genus 
Morns. The black mulberry, M. niyra, native somewhere 
in western Asia, has been known in Europe from antiquity. 
It yields a pleasant dark-colored fruit, and its leaves were 
formerly in extensive use for feeding silkworms. The white 
mulberry, M. alba, introduced from China much later, has 
almost superseded the black in silkworm-culture. It has 
been to some extent introduced into the United States. The 
red mulberry, M. rubra, a native of the United States, is the 
largest species of the genus. Its wood, which is very 
durable in contact with the soil, is used for posts, and for 
cooperage, sliip- and boat-building, etc. Its leaves are 
less valued for silk-production than those of the other 
species, but its fruit is excellent. The Mexican mulberry, 
extending into Texas, etc., is M. microphylla. 

3. One of several plants of other genera. 

4. In embryo!., a mulberry-mass or mulberry- 
germ; a morula. See cut under gastrulation. 
Dwarf mulberry. See knoutberry and cloudberry. 
French mulberry. See Callicarpa. Indian mulber- 
ry, a small tree, Morinda citrifolia. See ach-root, al-root, 
and Morinda. Mulberry-silkworm, JSumbiix man, 
which feeds on the mulberry. Native mulberry of 
Australia. See Hedycarya. Paper-mulberry. See 
Broussonetia. 

II. a. Relating to the mulberry (the tree or 
its fruit) ; having the shape or color of a mul- 
berry (fruit). Mulberry calculus. See calculus. 
mulberry-faced (mul'ber-i-fast), a. Having 
the face deep-red, the color of a mulberry. 

Vile as those that made 
The mulberry-faced Dictator's orgies worse 
Than aught they fable of the quiet Gods. 

Tennyson, Lucretius. 

mulberry-germ (mul'ber-i-jerm), . Same as 
mulberry-mass. 

mulberry-juice (mul'ber-i-jos), n. The Mori 
succus of the British Pharmacopoeia ; the juice 
of the ripe fruit of Mortis nigra : used in medi- 
cine as a refreshing, slightly laxative drink. 

mulberry-mass (mul'ber-i-mas), n. In em- 
brynl., a morula. Also mulberry-germ. 

mulberry-rash (mul'ber-i-rash), n. The char- 
acteristic eruption of typhus fever. 

mulberry-tree (mul'ber-i-tre), . See mul- 
berry, 2. 

mulch, a., n., and v. See mulsh. 

mulct (mulkt), n. [= OF. multe = Sp. Pg. It. 
multa,<.1i. mulcta, multa, a fine, penalty; a word 
of Sabine origin.] 1. A fine or other penalty 
imposed on a person for some offense or misde- 
meanor, usually a pecuniary fine. 

Or if this superstition they refuse, 
Some mulct the poor Confessors' backs must bruise. 
J. Beaumont, Psyche, v. 120. 

It seeks to saue the Soule by humbling the body, not by 
Imprisonment, or pecuniary mulct. 

Milton, Reformation in Eng., ii. 

2f. A blemish; a defect. 

The abstract of what's excellent in the sex, 
But to their mulcts and frailties a mere stranger. 

Maseinger, Emperor of the East, iv. 5. 

= Syn. 1. Amercement, forfeit, forfeiture, penalty, fine. 
mulct (mulkt), v. t. [= OF. multer, F. muleter 
= Sp. Pg. multar = It. multare, < L. multare, 
mulctare, fine,punish, < multa, mulcta, a fine: see 
mulct, n.] 1. To punish by fine or forfeiture ; 
deprive of some possession as a penalty; de- 
prive: formerly with either the crime or the 
criminal as object, now only with the latter: 
followed by in or of before the thing : as, to 
mulct a person in $300; to mulct a person of 
something. 

All fraud must be ... soundly punished, and mulcted 
with a due satisfaction. Bp. Hall, Cases of Conscience, i. 6. 

"I will not spare you," was his favourite text; 

Nor did he spare, but raised them many a pound ; 

Ev'n me he mulct for my poor rood of ground. 

Crabbe, Works, I. 130. 
2f. To punish, in general. 

How many poor creatures hast thou mulcted with death, 
for thine own pleasure ! Bp. Hail, A Meditation of Death. 

mulctary (mulk'ta-ri), a. [< L. mulcta, a fine, 
penalty, + -ary.] Consisting of or paid as a 
pecuniary penalty ; imposing such a penalty. 

mulctuary (mulk'tu-a-ri), a. [Irreg. for mulc- 
tary, the term, -u-ary appar. conformed to that 
of sumptuary, etc.] Same as mulctary. 

muldet, n. and v. A Middle English form of 
mold*. 

mule (mul), n. [Early mod. E. also moil, moyle; 
< ME. mule, muile, < OF. mule, F. mule = Sp. Pg. 
It. mulo = AS. mul = D. mutt = OHG. mul, 
MHG. mul, mule = Iee\. mull=Sw. mta=:Dan. 
mule ; also, in comp., D. muilezel = MHG. mule- 
sel, G. maulesel = Dan. mulaisel = Sw. mulasna 
(D. ezel, etc., ass: see ass 1 ); MHG. multier, G. 
iininl-thier = Dan. muldyr (OHG. MHG. tier, G. 
tnier, Dan. dyr, beast, = E. liter) ; < L. mulus, a 
mule. The E. mule does not come from the 
AS. mul, which would give a mod. form "motel 
(of. owl, < AS. ule) ; it depends on the OF. or 



3890 

the orig. L.] 1. A hybrid animal generated 
between the ass and the horse. The cross is usually 
between a jackass and a mare, that between a stallion and 
a she-ass being called a hinny. The mule is a valuable 
product of artificial selection, in some respects superior to 
either parent, and is extensively bred in America (Ken- 
tucky, Missouri, Mexico, etc.), in Spain, in Poitou (FranceX 
etc. It retains to some extent the specific characters of the 
ass, in the comparatively large head, long ears, reached 
mane, slim tail, and narrow, pointed hoofs, but acquires 
much of the size, strength, and symmetry of the mare. The 
animal matures slowly, is very long-lived, little liable to dis- 
ease, and able to do more work than a horse under hard 
treatment and poor fare. Being also very agile and sure- 
footed, it is serviceable as a pack-animal in countries 
where a horse could scarcely be used. The mule is not less 
docile and intelligent than the horse, and its strength is, 
in proportion to its size, probably greater. Mules are or- 
dinarily incapable of procreation, and such seems to be al- 
ways the case with the jack ; but instances of impregnation 
of the hinny by the male ass or by a stallion are not rare. 
They drewe owt of dromondaries dyverse lordes, 
Moyllez mylke whitte, and mervaillous bestez, 
Elfaydes, and Arrabys, and olyfauntez noble, 
Ther are of the Oryent, with honourable kynges. 

Xorte Arthure (E. E. T. S.), 1. 2287. 

So is the mule, whose panch being full with sucking, she 
kickes her dam. Dekker, Catch Pole's Masque (1613). 

2. A hybrid in general; a mongrel; a cross 
between different animals. 

No certain species, sure ; a kind of mule 
That's half an ethnic, half a Christian. 

B. Jonson, Staple of News, ii. 1. 

3. The scaup-duck, Fuligula mania. Rev. C. 
Swainson. [Prov. Eng.] 4. In bot., a plant or 
vegetable produced by impregnating the pistil 
of one species with the fecundating element of 
another; a hybrid. 

Several mules have been produced between the species 
of this genus (Verbascum). London. 

5. In spinning, a machine invented by Samuel 
Crompton (completed 1779), in which the rov- 
ings are delivered from a series of sets of 
drawing-rollers to spindles placed on a car- 
riage which travels away from the rollers while 
the thread is being twisted, and returns toward 
the rollers while the thread is being wound : so 
named because it was a combination of the 
drawing-rollers of Arkwright and the jenny of 
Hargreaves. 6. In numis., a coin, token, or 
medal which, owing to mistake or caprice, con- 
sists of two obverse or two reverse types, or of 
which the obverse and reverse types are acci- 
dentally associated. Thus, a denarius having a head 
of Tiberius on each side, or a denarius having the head 
of Tiberius on the obverse and a reverse type struck from 
one of the coin-dies of Augustus, would be a mule. 

The encouragement given to the creation of new varie- 
ties [of English tradesmen's tokens in the eighteenth cen- 
tury] by combining obverse and reverse dies that had no 
real connection was satirized by a token bearing the re- 
verse type of an ass [that is, a token-collector] and mule 
saluting each other, [and] having for the legend *' Be as- 
sured, friend mule, you shall never want my protection." 
The very appropriate term mule was ever after applied to 
these illegitimate varieties. 

T. Sharp, Cat. of Chetwynd Coll. of Tokens, p. iv. 

7. A slipper without heel-piece or quarter. 

8. The foot of a wine-glass. 9. A disease in 
horses. 

There are several kinds of scratches, distinguished by va- 
rious names, as crepances, rat-tails, mules, kibes, pains, &c. 

Keei, Cyc. 

mule-armadillo (murar-ma-diFo), n. A book- 
name of Dasypus hybridus. 

mule-canary (mul'ka-na"ri), n. A hybrid be- 
tween the canary and some other finch. 

mule-chair (mul'char), n. Same as cacolet. 

mule-deer (mul'der), . The blacktail or black- 
tailed deer, Cariacus macrotis : so called from the 
large ears. It is decidedly larger and more stately than 
the Virginia or white-tailed deer, and is next in size to the 



mulier 





Blacktail, or Mule-deer (Cariacus macrotis}. 



wapiti and caribou among the North American Cenidce. 
The tail is very short and slim, and mostly white, but with 
a black brush at the end. The antlers are characteristic, 
being doubly dichotomous that is, the beam forks, and 
each tine forks again ; whereas in C. mrginianw the beam 
is curved and all the tines spring from it. The animal is 
the commonest deer in many wooded and mountainous 



Head of Mule-deer Fawn. 



parts of western North America, but is not found east of 
the great plains. 

mule-doubler (mul'dub"ler), . In cotton- 
manuf., a machine upon which the operations of 
doubling and twisting are performed with many 
spindles, and which in general mechanism re- 
sembles the spinning-machine called mule. 

mule-driver (mul'drFver), n. [= D. muildrij- 
ver = MHG. mfiltriber = Dan. muldriver.] A 
driver of mules ; a muleteer. 

muleherdt, . [ME. mulehyrde; < mule + herd 2 .] 
A keeper or driver of a mule or mules. Cath. 
Ana., p_. 246. 

mule-killer (mul'kil'er), . The whip-tailed 
scorpion, Tlielyplionus giganteus. Also called 
nigger-killer and grampus. [Florida.] 

mule-Skinner (muTskm"er), . Aprairie mule- 
driver. [Western U. 8.] 

Mule-skinners, stalking beside their slow-moving teams. 
T. Jioosevelt, The Century, XXXV. 499. 

mule-Spinner (mul'spin"er), n. One who spins 
with a mule. 

mulett, n. [< F. mulet, a mule, < mule, < L. mu- 
lus, a mule : see mule. Cf. mulatto.] A mule. 

muleteer (mu-le-teV), . [Early mod. E. mu- 
leter, muliter ; < F. muletier (= Sp. mulatero, 
muletero = Pg. mulateiro = It. mulattiere), < 
mulet, a mule : see mulet.] A mule-driver. 

We agreed with certain Muccermen, so call they their 
muliters of Alleppo, to carry us unto Tripoly. 

Sandys, Travailes, p. 156. 

mule-twist (mul'twist), n. Cotton yarn spun 
on a machine called a mule. The yarn produced 
by mule-spinning is of more uniform quality than that 
spun on the original water-frame. See mule, 6, and water- 
frame. 

mulewort (mul'wert), n. A fern of the genus 
Hemionitis. 

muley (mu'li), a. and n. [Msomooly, moily, moo- 
ley, mulley ; origin uncertain ; perhaps, through 
an OF. form mulle (?), < L. mutilatus, mutilated: 
see mutilate. Cf. mull 5 .] I. a. Hornless: said 
of cattle. 

Muley cattle have been in Virginia for a great many 
years, and their descendants have also been uniformly 
polled. Amer. Nat., XXII. 802. 

II. n. 1 . Any cow : a colloquial abbreviation 
of muley cow. 2. Same as muley-saw. 

muley-axle (mu'li-ak"sl), n. A car-axle having 
no collars at the ends. 

muley-head (mu'li-hed), n. The sliding guide- 
carriage of a muley-saw. 

muley-Saw (mu'li-sa), n. A mill-saw which is 
not strained in a gate or sash, but has a rapid 
reciprocating motion, and has guide-carriages 
above and below. E. H. Knight. 

mulga-grass (mul'gii-gras), . See Neuracline. 

Mulgedium (mul-je'di-um), n. [NL. (Cassini, 
1824), < L. mulgere, milk : see milk.] A section 
of the genus Lactuca ; the blue lettuce, formerly 
regarded as a distinct genus. See Lactuca. 

muliebrity (mu-li-eb'ri-ti), n. [< LL. nniliebri- 
ta(t-)s, womanhood, < L. muliebris, of woman, 
womanly, < mulier, a woman: see mulier 1 .] 1. 
Womanhood; the state of puberty in a woman. 
2. Womanishness ; womanliness. 

There was a little toss in their movement, full of mulieb- 
rity. 0. W. Holmes, Old Vol. of Life, p. 32. 

[Rare in both uses.] 

mulier 1 (mu'li-er), n. [Now only in legal use, in 
L. form; < ME. muliere, moillere, moylere,< OF. 
mulier, mulier, moiler, moillicr, muiller, etc., = 
Sp. mujer = Pg. mulher = It. moglie, moi/li< i'n. 
mogliere, a woman, wife, < L. mulier, a woman. 
There is no probability in the old etym. (given 
tiy Isidore) which explains mulier as if *mollier, 
< mollis, soft.] In lair, a woman; a wife. 

mulier 2 (mu'li-er), H. [< ME. mulirr, < ML. 
(AL.) mulier, a child born in legitimate mar- 
riage, < L. mulier, a woman: see mulier^.] A 
legitimate son, in contradistinction to one born 
out of wedlock. Mulier puisne, a younger sou born 



mulier 

in wedlock ami preferred before an elder brother burn out 
of wedlock, who was called bastard eiyne. 
mulierlyt (mu'li-rr-li), </r. In tint manner or 
condition of a mulier; in wedlock; lawfully. 
To him, ai next helre, being mnlierle burn. 

Stanihurst, Chron. Ireland, an. 1568. 

inulierose (mu'li-o-ros), . [< L. I/.V;-</.VM.V, 
fond of women, < in iilier, a woman : see muUer 1 .] 
Kxressively fond of women. C. Iteade, Cloister 
and Hearth, xxxiii. [Rare.] 
mulierosity (inu'li-e-ros'i-ti), n. [< L. innlii- 
nixi/n(t-)tt, fondness for women, < nnilii-i-tixitx. 
fond of women : seemulierose.] Excessive fond- 
ness for women. [Bare.] 

Both Uasnar Sanctus and he tax Antiochus for his mu- 
liernsity and excess In luxury. 

Dr. H. More, Mystery of Iniquity, II. x. $ 8. 

Prithee tell me, how did you ever detect the noodle's mu- 

lierorituf C. Reade, Cloister and Hearth, xxxiii. (Davit*.) 

mulierty (rau'H-er-ti), . [< OF. mulierte (f), 
< L. mulierita((-).i, womanhood, < mulier. a wo- 
man: seo mulier 1 .'] lulaui: (a) Lawful issue. 
(6) The position of one legitimately born, 
mulish (mu'lish), a. [< muli- + -ixli 1 .] Like a 
mule; having the characteristics of a mule; sul- 
len; stubborn; also, of a hybrid character. 

It [tragi-comedy] will continue a kind of mulish pro- 
duction, with all the defects of its opposite parents, and 
marked with sterility. (liMtmiih. 1'he Theatre. 

The curbs invented for the muluh mouth 
Of headstrong youths were broken. 

Camper, Task, it. 744. 

inulishly (mu'lish-li), adv. In a mulish manner; 
stubbornly. 

mulishness (mu'lish-nes), n. The state or qual- 
ity of being mulish ; obstinacy or stubbornness. 

mulitert, n. An obsolete form of muleteer. 

mull 1 (mul), n, [< ME. mull, mol, molle, mul, < 
A8. myl (rare), dust, = L). mul = MLG. mul, 
LGr. in n II M IH 1. will = Icel. mill, dust; akin 
to AS. molde, etc., earth, mold (which has a for- 
mative -d), melu, meal, etc., < "malan = OHG. 
malan = Icel.ma{a, etc., grind: see mold 1 , meal 1 , 
mill 1 . Cf. mold 1 , with which mull 1 has appar. 
been in part confused (the Icel. mold, Sw. mull, 
Dan. tnuld, are cognate with E. mold 1 ).'] If. 
Dust; rubbish; dirt. 

I am bot mokke & mul among. 

Alliterative Poems (ed. MorrlsX 1. 804. 

2. Soft, crumbling soil. Halliwell. [Prov. Eng.] 
3. [vmu/I 1 , r., 3.] A muddle; a mess; afail- 
ure: applied to anything that is involved or 
confused through mismanagement. [Colloq.] 

The party was a mult. The weather was bad. ... In 
fine, only twelve came. George Eliot, in Cross, II. xii. 

mull 1 (mul), v. t. [ME. mul, muleii ; < mull 1 , n. 
Perhaps in part due to maul 1 .] 1. To reduce 
to dust ; break into small pieces ; crumb. 

[A sister] that went by the cloyster, and as me thought 
scho bare meet muled [var. croumed] apon pan-hem) n. 

Quoted In ('nth. Any., p. 244, note. 
Here's one spits fire as he comes; he will go nigh to 
mutt the world with looking on It. 

Middleian, World Tost at Tennis. 

2. To rub, squeeze, or bruise. Halliieell. [Prov. 
Eng.] 3. To confuse; mix up; muddle; make 
a mess of. 

Peace is a very apoplexy, lethargy ; mulled, deaf, sleepy. 
insensible. Shot., Cor., iv. 5. 239. 

mull- (mul), n. [Prob. < Icel. muli, a jutting 
crag, a promontory ; otherwise < Gael, maol, a 
promontory, < maol, bare, bald.] A cape or 
promontory: as, the mull of Galloway; the 
mull of Kintyre. [Scotland.] 

mull 3 (mul), H. A dialectal (Scotch) form of 
mill 1 . 

mull 4 (mul), v. [Appar. a back formation from 
mulled ale (and the later mulled trine, cider, etc.), 
mulled ale being an erroneous form of muld-ale 
or mold-ale, < ME. mold-ale, molde-ale, a funeral 
feast, < molde, the earth (the grave), + ale, ale, 
a feast: see mold-ale. Some confusion with 
mull 1 , i'., or with F.mouillcr,<. Ij.mollire, soften, 
is supposed to have influenced the development 
of the word; and in the sense of 'keep stirring' 
the dial, mulfi for mill 1 may be partly concern- 
ed.] I. trans. 1. To heat and spice for drink- 
ing, as ale, wine, or the like ; especially, to make 
into a warm drink, sweetened and spiced. 

Do not lite the cellar, 
There 's excellent wine in 't, captain ; and though it be cold 

weather, 

I do not love it mutt'd. Fletcher, Loyal Subject, Iv. 7. 
Now we trudged homewards to her mother's farm, 
To drink new cider, mull'd with ginger warm. 

(fnii. shepherd's \\ eek, Friday. 

The luncheon basket being quickly unpacked, the good 
priest warmed our food and produced a bottle of port 
wine, which he mulled for our benefit. 

Lady Brattey, Voyage of Sunbeam, II. xxi. 



3891 

2. To boil or stew, llnlliirrll. [Prov. Eng.] 
II. intrant. 1. To stir; bustle; make a stir. 

[Karo.] 2. To work continuously at any thing 

without making much progress; toil steadily 

and accomplish little; moil. 

Millie >i M" was not likely to act upon Impulse, and there 

Is even reason to believe he took much time mulling over 

the matter after it developed in his mind. 

The AUatUic, LXIV. 188. 

mul! 5 t (mul), . [Cf. niullfif, muley.] A cow. 
Compare mul<-y. Satyr against Hypocrites (1689) . 
( \ni-i'.t.) 

mull (mill), t'. i. [Perhaps contr. of muggle 1 . 
Cf. moltft (ME. moulen, muwlen, etc.).] To rain 
softly. HaUiwell. [Prov. Eng.] 

mull' (mul), n. [Abbr. of mulmul.] A thin, 
soft kind of muslin used for dresses, trim- 
mings, etc.: known as India mull, French mull, 
etc. Also mulmul, mullmull. 

mullagatawny (mul'a-ga-ta'ni), . Same as 
iHitllif/ataicny. 

mullah (mul'a), n. Same as molla. 

mullar, . if. An obsolete form of mulier 1 . 
2. A stamp engraved in intaglio for making a 
salient impression in metal by percussion. 

mullen, mullein (mul'eu), n." [< ME. moleyn, 
< AS. moleyn, defined as "mullein, Verbascum 
tha/isun," by Cockayne, etc. ; but molegn, also 
molegen, moleng, moling, is found only in glosses, 
explained by ML. calmum (among things apper- 
taining to the table), calmum being elsewhere 
explained as the droppings of a candle which 
adhere to the sides of the candle or of the can- 
dlestick; by galmum, explained as a reduced 
form of galbanum, a gum-resin, or the plant pro- 
ducing it (see galbanum) ; by galmilla, gamilla, 
which glosses both molegn and lim-mulegn (Urn, 
viscous substance, E. 
liuii' 1 ) ; and by galmulinii, 
which glosses molegn- 
xtycce (stycce, piece). 
The term seems to have 
been transferred from 
the droppings of a can- 
dle to tne weed, which is 
elsewhere compared to 
a candle-wick or candle- 
stick or torch . Cf . " hcrba 
liminaria [read lumina- 



mullet 

(1820-64), professor at Wur/.burg.- Miillertan 
fibers, see nuteiUaeular fbert. Mulier 1 a muscle, r 
Muller's palpebral muscle. See under MBM, 
Miillerian- (mu-le'ri-an), ". [< .'//<//</ (-<< 
def.) + -tan.] Pertaining to Johanin-s .Miilln- 
(lxid-58), a German physiologist. Also Miil- 
lerian, Muellerian. Mullertan duct. See duct of 
Mulier, under duet. 

One commences at the anterior a)>domlnal orillce of the 
primary duct, and has no further relations to the kidney. 
This is the Mullerian duel. 

(Jcgenbaur, Comp. Anat. (trans.), p. 004. 

Miiller's fluid. Sr. _/////</. 

Muller's glass. Same as hyalite. 

mullet 1 (iniilVt), . [< ME. mul' I, muli I, < OF. 
muli I, F. miilit, a mullet, dim. of inulle, < L. 
tiiullug, the red mullet: see Mullus.'} 1. A fish 
of the genus Mugil or of the family Miinilidn: 
Of the true mullets the genus Mwjil is toe type. The 
characteristics are a nearly cylindrical ixuly covered with 
large scales ; six branchiostegal rays ; head convex above ; 
the scales large ; the muzzle short ; an angular rise In 
the middle of the lower jaw, which tits Into a corre- 



ria], moleyn, feltwort," in 




m Thaf- 
t*s). I, the inflorescence ; 2, 
the leaf; a, the fruit. 



IE. gloss ; and see quo- 
tation and phrase candle- 
wick mullen, below. The 
origin of AS. molegn is 
unknown. The OF. mo- 
laine, moulaine, F. molenf, 
mullen, appears to be < 
E. For the AS. form mo- 
legn, of. AS. holegn, holly : 
see hollen, holly 1 .] A well- 
known tall, stout weed, Ferbascum Tnapsus, with 
a long dense woolly raceme of yellow flowers, 
and thick, densely woolly leaves; also, any plant 
of the genus Verbascum. An Infusion of the leaves 
of the common mullen is used In domestic practice for 
catarrh and dysentery ; while the name bullock's or caie't 
lungwort indicates another medical application. (For other 
uses, see Jigh-pninon and hay-taper.) This plant has received 
numerous fanciful names, as Adam's Jlannel, blanket leaf, 
feltwort flannel -juncer, hare' 8 -beard, ice-leaf, Jupiter's-staff. 
The motn-mulleu is r. Blattaria, a less stout plant, with 
the flowers yellow, or white tinged with purple. The 
white mullen is V. Lychnitu. These species are fully, or 
the last sparingly, naturalized In the Tjnited States from 




Europe. 

Mtiulaine [F.I, mullen, wooll-blade, 
beard, big-taper, torches. 



long-wort, hares- 
Cotyra ve. 

Candle-wick mullen, the common mullen : so called 
because anciently it was covered with tallow and used as 
a candle or torch. See hay-taper. 

Meschenierc [F.], candle trie* mullein. Cotgrave. 

Mullen dock, the common mullen. See docA-i, 2. Mul- 
len foxglove. See foxglove. Mullen pink. See Lyeh- 
ni*, '2. _Petty mullen, an old name for the common cow- 
slip, Primula veris. 

mullen-shark(mur en-shark), w. Ashark-moth, 
I'licu/tia rerbasci, whose larva feeds on the mul- 
len. 

mulier 1 (mul'er), n. [< OF. moleur, moullevr, a 
grinder, < OF. moire, mouldre, moulre, F. mou- 
dre, (. L. molere, grind, < mola, a millstone : see 
mill 1 , meal 1 , etc.] 1. The grinder in an amal- 
gamating-pan, or any similar form of pulveriz- 
ing and amalgamating apparatus. 2. An im- 
plement of stone or glass with which paints 
are ground by hand. 

mulier- (murer), H. [<;! + -<rl.J 1. One 
who mulls wine, rider, etc. 2. A vessel in 
which wine or other liquor is mulled. 

Miillerian 1 (mu-le'ri-an), n. [< Miiller (see 
def.) + -ian.] Pertaining to H. M. Mulier 



Gray or Striped Mullet (Mufti cefhalus or alfntta). 
(From Report of U. S. Fish Commission.) 

ponding hollow In the upper ; and clllifonn teeth. The 
best-known species is the common gray mullet or great 
mullet (M. capita), found round the snores of the British 
islands, and in particular abundance in the Mediterra- 
nean. It grows to the length of from 12 to 20 inches, 
and exceptionally to nearly 3 feet. It is of a bottle-green 
color on the back, light on the sides, which are marked 
with longitudinal bands, and of a silvery white under* 
neath. It frequents shallow water, and in spring and 
early summer often ascends rivers. It has the habit of 
rooting in the mud or sand in search of food. Another 
species, also known as the gray mullet (M. cephalug), a na- 
tive of the Mediterranean, Is distinguished by having its 
eyes half covered by an adipose membrane. It weighs 
usually from 10 to 12 pounds, and ts the most delicate of 
all the mullets. A smaller species, the thick-lipped gray 
mullet (M. chela). Is common on the British coasts. Many 
other species, natives of the Mediterranean, India, and 
Africa, are much esteemed as food. 

The Indian Manat and the Mnllit float 

O'er Mountain tops, where yerst the bearded Goat 

Did bound and brouz. 

Sylvester, it. of Du Bartas's Weeks, i. 2. 

2. A surmullet, or fish of the family Afullida?. 
3. The white sucker or red-horse, Moxosto- 
ma macrolepidota. [Local, U. 8.] 4. One of 
various fishes of the family Catostomida' and 
Cyprinidte in the United States. 6. One of 
various species of the family Scianidn: and ge- 
nus Menticirrus along the coast of the United 
States Black mullet, Menticim* nebulimm, a sciae- 
nid, the kingflsh. See cut under kingjish. Blue mullet, 
Moxostoma careijonug, a catostomid. [Morgantown, North 
Carolina.] Golden mullet, a catostomid, Moxtxtoma 
macrolepuMa. or red-horse. Ground-mullet, a scuenid, 
Meniicimu alburnwi. the southern kinntlsh. Jumping 
mullet, a catostomid, 3foxontmna cernua. King of the 
mullets. See Kiw/i. Long-headed mullet, a cyprlnld, 
Squaliu* atrariun. Red mullet, one of various species 
of Mullidce. Silvery mullet, a catostomid. Jtiixtuttvnia 
earpio. Striped mullet, a catostomid, Minytrema me- 
lorapg. [Interior t". S.) Thick-headed mullet, a catos- 
tomid, Moxottama congetta. Whltefish-mullet, a catos- 
tomid, Moxattoma caregonut. 

mullet 2 (mul'et), n. [Early mod. E. also mulet; 
< ME. molette, < OF. moletle, mollelte, the rowel 
of a spur, a painter's grindstone, F. molette, a 
rowel, = Sp. Pg. moleta, mullet, = It. molette, 
pi., pincers (cf. It. molla, a millstone, mill-wheel, 
clock-wheel), < L. mola, a millstone: see mill 1 .] 

1. The rowel of a spur. 

The brydylle reynys were of sylke, 
The mulettyt gylte they were. 

MS. Cantab, ft. II. 38, f. 87. (UaUiveU.) 

2. In /('/.. a star-shaped figure having some- 
times five, sometimes six points. It is thought to 
represent the rowel of a spur, but this is more particularly 
suggested by the mullet pierced 

(see below). The mullet is one r -- 

of the common marks of caden- ' \ A V 

cy, and is taken to indicate the *yV VV S ( ' 

third son. Also attroid and mo- **^ ^* *^ 

Irtle. 

3t. pi. Small tongs or pin- 

cers, especially those used 

for curling the hair. 

Moiette [H.\ mullets, fire- 
tongs, pincers. . . . 

POalura [It], a pair of muMt 
to pull out haires with. Florio. 



Where are thy muttett! 

B. Jonton, Cynthia s Revels, v. 2. 




Three Mulleslnchief: 

of William, Lord Douglas. 



mullet 

Mullet pierced, in her., a star-shaped figure having a 
round hole In the middle. It is supposed to represent the 
rowel of a spur, and has usually five points. 
mullet-t (mul'et), v. t. [< mullet*, n.] To deck 
or adorn by means of mullets or curling-pincers. 

Her ladiships browes must be mullitted. 

Quarles, Virgin Widow (1656). 

The osprey or 



3892 



multidenticulate 



Same 



mullet-hawk (mul'et-hak), n. 

fish-hawk, Pandion haliaetus. 
mullet-smelt (mul'et-smelt), . See smelt. 
mullet-sucker (mul'et-suk"er), . bame as mu i ne)W . An obsolete or dialectal form of ma? 1 . 

mullet 1 , 3. mulse (muls), n. [= Pg. It. mulso, mulsa, < L. 

mulley (mul'i), a. and w. Same as mttley. 
mullhead (mul'hed), K. A stupid follow. Hal- 

Jiwell. [Prov. Eng.] 



of business; a mull or mess. [Prov. Eng.] multiangular (mul-ti-ang'gu-lar), . Same as 

4. The stump of a tree. Halliwell. [Prov. multangular. 

Eng.] multiarticulate (muFti-S.r-tik u-lat), a 

Mullus (mul'us), w. [NL., < L. mwttus, the red as multarticulate. 
mullet. Cf. mullet^.] The typical genus of multiaxial (mul-ti-ak'si-al), a. [Prop. *mult- 
Mullida;, whose best-known species is the mul- axial, < L. multus, many, + axis, an axle: see 
lus of the ancients, now known as the red axial.'} Having many or several axes or lines 
mullet or surmullet, M. surmuletus. of growth. H. Spencer, Prin. of Biol., $ 50. 

rnulmul (mul'mul), . [Also mnllmull ;< Hind, multicamerate (mul-ti-kam'e-rat), . [< L. 
malmal.] Same as mulF. multus, many, + camera, a chamber: see cam- 



Mullidse (mul'i-de), n. pi. [NL., < Mullus + w i ne ._!_2. Wine sweetened artificially. 



erate.~\ Having many chambers or cells ; mul- 
tiloculate. Gegenbaur, Comp. Anat. (trans.), 
p. 282. 

wine) of mulsus, pp.' of miilcere, sweeten, lit', multicapitate (mul-ti-kap'i-tat), a. [< L. mul- 
stroke, soothe, soften. Cf. emulsion.] 1. Sweet tus, many, + capitatus, having a head: see capi- 
tate.'] Having many heads ; multicipital. 



mulsum, honey-wine, mead, neut. (sc. vinum, 



-idm.] A family of acanthopterygian fishes, n^gh ( mu l s h), a. and . [In technical use as multicapsular (mul-ti-kap'su-lar), a. [= F. 

noun and verb now commonly mulch, but prop, multicapsulaire = Pg. multicapsular = It. molti- 
mulsh (cf. Welch, prop, and now usually Welsh) ; capsolare, < L. multus, many, + (NL.) capsula, 
< ME. wiokfi = G. dial, molsch, mulsch, soft, capsule: see capsule, capsular.] Having many 
mellow, rotten ; cf. LG. molschen, mulschen, be- capsules: used especially in botany, 
come weak; cf. AS. molsnian, also in comp. multicarinate (mul-ti-kar'i-nat), a. [(.'L.mul- 
d-molsnian, for-molsnian, ge-molsnian, molder, tus, many, + carina, a keel: see carina, can- 
decay, rot, prob., with formative -s, < molde, nate.] Having many keel-like ridges, as the 
earth, mold (cf . AS. milds, ME. milse, milce, mild- shells of certain mollusks. 
ness, similarly formed, <TO<Zde, mild): seemoldi. multicauline (mul-ti-ka'lin), a. [< L. multus, 

many, + caulis, a stem: see caiilis.] Having 
many stems. Thomas, Med. Diet. 
multicaVOUS (mul-tik'a-vus), a. [= Pg. multi- 
cavo, < L. multicavus, many-holed, < multus, 
many, 4- cavus, hollow: see caw 1 .] Having 
many holes or cavities. 



typified by the genus Mullus. They have an ob- 
long compressed body covered with large deciduous scales, 
unarmed opercular bones, no bony preopercular stay, and 
a pair of movable barbels at the throat. About 50 species 
inhabit tropical or subtropical seas, and one, the red mul- 
let or surmullet, Mullus surmuletus, goes northward to the 
British and neighboring waters. 
mulliegrumst, n. An obsolete form of mulli- 
grubs. 

Peter's successour was so in his mulliegrums that he had 
thought to have buffeted him. 

Nashe, Lenten Stuffe (Harl. Misc., VI. 172). (Dames.) 

mulligatawny (mul"i-ga-ta'ni), n. [Tamil mil- 
agu-tannir, lit. pepper-water.] A famous East 
Indian soup made of meat or fowl, strongly fla- 
vored with curry. Also spelled mullagatawny. 
In Mulligatawny soup . . . Australian meat forms 'a 
very serviceable ingredient. 

Saturday Ren. (London), May 24, 1873, p. 691. 

mulligrubs (mul'i-grubz), n. [Formerly also 
mulliegrums; appar. a slang term, and perhaps 

1 1. A pain in 



Less prob. < AS. myl, dust: see mull 1 .] 
Soft; mellow: said of soil. 



I. a. 



Thi vynes soile be not to molsh nor hardde, 
But sumdel molsh, neither to fatte ne leene. 

Palladius, Husbondrie (E. E. T. S.), p. 48. 



II. H. In gardening, strawy dung, or any other 




der 



,,,,.; ( ,i 



To cover 



Doctors for diseases of wind and doctors for diseases of 

water, doctors for mulligrubs and doctors for "miseries." 

The Atlantic, XXI. 268. 



2. Ill temper; sulkiness; the sulks: as, to have 
the mulligrubs. [Slang.] 3. The dobson or 
hellgrammite. [Local, U. S.] 

mullingong (mul'in-gong), n. [Australian.] iTi' _, lqr ,,, ,tii'<rii liirl < 
The duck-billed platypus, Ornitkorhynchus pa- multang 
radoxus. Also malangong. See cut under duck- 
bill. 

mullion (mul'yon), n. [A corruption of mun- 
nion, perhaps by some vague association with 
mulleft, a five-pointed star: see 
munnion.] Inarch.: (a) A divi- 
sion, typically of stone, between 
the lights of windows, screens, 
etc. Mullions were first used toward 
the close of the twelfth century, and 
reached their most perfect develop- 
ment about the middle of the thirteenth 
century. In the later medieval archi- 
tecture, while becoming constantly 
more elaborate in design and in mold- 
ings, and exhibiting much science in 
the methods of assembling, the niul- 
llons are artistically less satisfactory 
in their lines. The word is in the plu- 
ral almost synonymous with tracery. 
See also cuts under batement-liyht, 
geometric, decorated, flamboyant, (&) 

One of the divisions between 
panels in wainscoting. 
Formerly monial. 

mullion (mul'yon), v. t. [< mul- 
lion, n.] To form into divisions 
by the use of mullions. 

mullioned (mul'yond), n. [< mullion + -ed2.] 
Having mullions. 

mullitt, v. t. See mullefi. 

mull-madder (murmad"6r), n. An inferior 
quality of madder, consisting of the refuse sift- 
ed or winnowed out in the preparation of the 
finer qualities. 

mullmull (mul'mul), n. See mulmul. 

mull-muslin (mul'muzlm), n. A muslin of 
the finest quality, thin, soft, and transparent 

11 cor) frv Ajpwmon'a Hvnccoa nnrl tit A lilro T'Vif 



of newly planted 
lants, etc. 

r. t. [ 
with mulsh. 

mult (mult), v. t. [< late ME. multen (ML. nail- 
tare), a back formation (perhaps confused with 

L. multare, fine: see mulct) < multer, multure multicentral(mul-ti-sen'tral), a. [< L multus, 
VIL. molitura), toll for grinding: see mul- many, + centrum, center: see central.] Hav- 

-i m A . i ' A 11 * ^__ j- inr* manv rxmr.Arfl snpPitlP.il. I Iv. hfl.VITlJ'' TlUltlV 



several cells; many-celled: as, a multieellular 
organism. Compare unicellular. 

To enable this multieellular to be used as an inspections,! 
instrument, ... a mirror supported in a frame ... is 
supplied. Elect. Review (Eng.), XXV. 626. 




(ML 

ture.] To take toll from for grinding corn 

See multure. 

mult-. See multi-. 

UUltangular (mul-tang'gu-lar), a. [Also mul- 
tiangular; = F. multangulaire = Sp. Pg. mul- 
tangular = It. moltangolare, < L. multangulus, 
multangular (cf. LL. multiangulum, a polygon), mu iticliarge (mul'ti-charj), a 

< multus, many, + angulus, angle- see angle 3 , P V -, TT __. 

angular.] Having many angles ; polygonal. 

multangularly (mul-tang'gu-lar-li), a*'. In 



ing many centers; specifically, having many 
centers of organic activity or development, as 
nuclei. 

The changes undergone by the nucleus in this rapid 
mulUcentral segregation of the parent protoplasm have 
not been determined. 

E. R. Lankenter, Encyc. Brit., XIX. 837. 

[< L. multus, 

many, + ET charge.] Having or capable of con- 
taining several charges: as, a multicharge gun. 
l. 



Renaissance Mul- 
lion. HiJteldeVille, 
Beaugency, France. 



multangufar form; with "nTany" angles or cor- multicipital (mul-ti-sip'i-tal), a. [<L. multus, 
ners. . , many, + caput (in comp. -ciput), head: see ca- 

multangularness(mul-tang'gu-lar-nes),. The put 3 ' itez f.] \ Q Z0 oi. and bot., having many 
character of being multangular or polygonal. h ea |j s multicapitate 

multanimous (mul-tan;i-mus ),.[< L. mul- multicolor .multicolour (mul'ti-kul-or), a. [= 
tus, many, + animus, mind.] Exhibiting many p> mu i tico i' ore _ Pg . multicolor = It. multicolore, 
phases of mental or moral character; showing < L mMKicotor man y. C olored, < multus, manv, 
mental energy or activity m many different di- + col color . gee colo) .^ Having many color's, 
rections; many-sided. Also multicolored. [Rare.] 

That multanimoua nature of the poet, which makes him multicolorOUS (mul-ti-kul'or-us), a. [< LL. 
for the moment that of which he has an intellectual per- , llt . !fi .. l .j f - m . < . ma iiv colored"- see multicolor 1 
ception. Lowell, Among my Books, 2d ser., p. 314. . see w io?.J 

Of many colors; party-colored; pied. 

multarticulate (mul-tar-tik'u-lat), a. [Also mu lticostate (mul-ti-kos'tat), a. [< L. multits, 
multiarticulate; < L. multus, many, -t- articulus, many , + costa, a rib: see costate.] 1. In hot.. 
joint: see article, articulate.] Many-jointed; pa l m ately nerved. See nervation, and cut under 
having or composed of many joints or articula- i ea f. %. In zool., having many ribs, ridges, or 
tions, as the legs and antennse of insects, the eo ste. 

bodies of worms, etc. Usually multiarticulate. mnlticuspid (mul-ti-kus'pid), . and n. [< L. 
Apus glacialis presents an elongated vermiform body, multus, much, + cuspis (cuspid-), a point : see 
terminated by two long muWartteulate setose styles. cusp.] I. a. Having more than two cusps, as a 

Jbrfqr, Anat, Invert., p. 242. "fljg ^ muMc ^ 1)jda . te _ 

multeity (mul-te'i-ti), n. [< ML. as if "multei- n. n. A multicuspid tooth. 
ta(t-)s, < L. multus, much, many: see multitude multicuspidate (mul-ti-kus'pi-dat), . [< L. 
and -ity.] Manifoldness ; specifically, extreme multus, many, + cuspis (cuspid-), a point: see 
numerou8ness;numerosity;multitudinousness; cusp, cuspidate.] Same s,amuUicusi>i<l. 
the character of existing in such great numbers multicycle (mul'ti-si-kl), n. [< L. multus, many, 
as to give the averages of chance the character + cyclus, a circle, a wheel: see bicycle.] A ve- 
locipede or "cycle" with more than three 
wheels ; specifically, a form of velocipede first 
introduced to public notice in 1887, by a series 
of experiments at Aldershot in England, to test 
its value as a vehicle for infantry. It is intended 
to carry from five to twelve men. It has seven pairs of 
wheels, six pairs being actuated by twelve men, two men 
to a pair, the space over the axle between the wheels of the 
seventh pair being occupied as a baggage-van. The pro- 



If it should appear that the field of competition is de- 
ficient in that continuity of fluid, that multeity of atoms, 
which constitute the foundations of the uniformities of 
physics. F. Y. Edffeworth, Mathematical Psychics. 



of certainty and law. 

There may be multeity in things, but there can only be 
1-1 mi. plurality in persons. Coleridge. 

used for women's dresses and the like. The 
name is usually given to the English and other 
imitations of mull. See mul!7. 
mullock (mul'ok), n. [Early mod. E. also mol- 

locke, < ME. mullok, dim. of mul, mulle, dust: multert, A Middle English form of multure. 
see mulfl and -ock.] 1. Eubbish; refuse; dirt; multer-arkt, n. A vessel in which the multure 
dung. [Obsolete or prov. Eug.] or toll for grinding corn was deposited. Cath. 

The mullok on an hepe ysweped was. Ang., p. 246. 

Chaucer, Prol. to Canon's Yeoman's Tale, 1. 385. multer-disht, n. A dish or vessel used in mea- 
The Ethiopians gather together ... a great deal of suriug the amount of multure or toll for grind- 
rubbeshe and mulloctte. ing. Cath. Ang., p. 246. 

Fardle of Facions (1555), vi. (Cath. Ang.) mu lti-. [L. multi-, before a vowel mult-, com- multidenticulate (mul"ti-den-tik'u-lat), . [< 
2. In mining, rubbish; attle ; mining refuse ; billing form of multus, much, many: see multi- L. multus. many, + denticuluf,; dim. of dcn(t-)s 
that which remains after the ore has been sep- tude.] An element in many words of Latin ori- =E. tooth: see denticulate.] Having many den- 
arated. [Australia.] 3. A blundered piece gin or formation, meaning 'many' or 'much.' ticulations or fine teeth. 



pulsion is performed entirely by the feet of the men, and 
the vehicle is steered by one man. 
multidentate (mul-ti-den'tat), (i. [< L. multus, 
many, + dcn(t-)s = E. tooth : see dentate.] Hav- 
ing many teeth or tooth-like processes Multi- 
dentate manulble. See mandible^. 



multidigitate 

multidigitate (nnil-ti-dij'i-tat), n. [< L. mil/lux. 
many, T ilii/itns. linger: see itit/itntr.] Having 
manv finders, Iocs, or di^itiite processes. 

multidimensional (mul H-di-men'shon-al), . 
[< L. miillii.i, iiiiiiiy, + iliiin'ni<i(>i-), dimension : 
see tliuirii.iioii, i/niii iixi/niiil.] In HKI th., of more 
Iliiiii three dimensions; ((-dimensional. 

Only matlirinaticlans can work out systems of nou- 
laii'liillan ^'roNirtn . "i "f muttuUmenrionat space. 

It. A. l'i;i,-lnr. (i, -nil. !!, ail's Mat:., (VI. IV. :!. 

multifaced (mul'ti-fast), a. [< L. mult UK, many. 

+ fucii'x, face, + E. -cifl.] Having many faces, 

as certain crystals; presenting many different 

appearances, 
multifariet, [< LL. uuiHifiiriim. manifold: 

-.IT iiiiil/ifiiriiiiix.] Sumo as iHiiltifiiriiiu.t. 

As though we sent into the lanil of France 
Ten thousand people, men "f good puissan. . , 
To werre vnto ne.r hiiulrfiiK imilttfarie. 

llnkluyt'* Vnyages, I. 197. 

multifarious (mul-ti-t'a'ri-us), a. [= Sp. miil- 
tifario, < LL. Hiiiltifni'iii.1, manifold, < L. miiltux. 
many, + -farius = Gr. -<f>datof, < ^aivteOtu, ^/ <pa, 
show, appear. Cf. bifarious.] 1. Having great 
multiplicity; of great diversity or variety; made 
up of many differing parts. 

Man is a complex and imtltifariww being, integrated of 
Iwdy and soul. Bp. Parker, Platonick Philos., p. 7. 

2. In but. and :<x'it., arranged in many rows or 
ruiiks. 3. In law (of a pleading in equity), 
combining in the same bill of complaint dis- 
tinct and separate claims of distinct natures or 
affocting different persons not connected there- 
in, which ought to be made the subject of sepa- 
rate suits. As the objection is founded on the inconve- 
nience of trying together diverse matters, what is to be 
regarded as multifarious is largely discretionary with the 
trial court. 

multifariously (mul-ti-fa'ri-us-H), adv. In a 
multifarious way; with great diversity. 

multifariousness (mul-ti-fa'ri-us-nes), . The 
state or quality of being multifarious; multi- 
plied diversity. 

raultiferous (mul-tif'e-rus), a. [= F. multi- 
fi-ri' = Sp. iunlt(fero,"<. L. multifer, fruitful, < 
iiiiiltiix, much, + ferre = E. bear 1 .} Bearing or 
producing much or many. Bailey, 1731. 

multifid (raul'ti-fid), . [= F. multifide = It. 
iinilliiiilii, < L. iiiultifidus, many-cleft, < mulhis, 
many, + findere,-\/ fid, cleave: see fission.] Hav- 
ing many fissions or divisions ; cleft into many 
parts, lobes, or segments, as certain leaves: 
chiefly a zoological and botanical term. 

multittdous (mul-tif'i-dus), a. [< L. mitltifi- 
tlnx: see in nl ti fill.] Same as multifid. 

multifidus (mnl-tif'i-dus), .; pi. multifidi (-di). 
[NL., <L. Hiultijidiis, many-cleft: see multifid.'] 
In anat. , one of the muscles of the fifth or deep- 
est layer of the back, consisting of many fleshy 
and tendinous fasciculi which pass obliquely 
upward and inward from one vertebra to an- 
other, the whole filling the groove between the 
npinous and transverse processes from the sa- 
crum to the axis: more fully called the miiltifi- 
di'K x/iiiia; and also /iVi.v/iiH//.--. 

multiflagellate (nml-ti-rlaj'e-lat), a. [< L. 
iniiltii.1, many, + flidjclliuii, whip: see flagel- 
late 1 .] Possessing many flagella, or whip-like 
appendages: correlated with unifageltate, bi- 
jl/ii/i Hull-. 

multiflorous (mul-ti-flo'rus), a. [= F. mtilti- 
Jlnm = Sp. Pg. It. multifloro, < LL. multiflorutt, 
abounding in flowers, < L. multus, many, + 
flos (Jtor-), a tlower: see flower.] Many-flow- 
ered ; having many flowers. 

multiflue (mul'li-flo), . [< L. maltus, many, 
+ E. flue 1 .] Having many flues, as the boiler 
of a locomotive. [A trade use.] 




kfottUMl. Window ( Apsidal Chapel. Khcims Cathedral. France i 

IJth century. 
1M.3 



3893 

multifoil (inul'ti-foil), a. and u. [< I., multus. 

many, + folium, a leaf: see foil*.] I. . In 

uri'li.. iliTiiriiliim, etc., having more than five 

foils or arcuate divisions : as, a multifoil arch. 

II. u. Multifoil ornament. 

In his architecture the tracery, scroll-work, and multi 
/i7 bewilder us, and divert attention from the main de- 
sign. Sleaiuaa, Viet. Poets, p. 335. 

multifold (mul'ti-fold), a. [< L. multiix, m;i n \ . 
+ E. -lulil.] Many times doubled; manifold; 
numerous. 

multiform (mul'ti-form), . and . [= F. iiiul- 
til'iirnif Sp. Pg. ntnltifnrmr = It. uiiillijtiniii; 
molt/forme, < L. mninfiniiiis. many-shaped, < 
HI nl I us, many, + forma, form.] I. . Having 
many forms; highly diversiform ; polymor]iliic. 
Air, and ye elements, the eldest birth 
of Nature's womb, that in quaternion run 
Perpetual circle, fnti/ti/orw, and mix 
And nourish all things. Milton, P. I . . v. 182. 

Multiform aggregates which display In the highest de- 
gree the phenomena of Evolution structurally considered. 
H. Spencer, Prin. of BloL, 5 36. 

Multiform function, a function such that within a given 
area of the variable the latter can pass continuously through 
a cycle of values so that when it returns to its original value 
the function shall have a different value from that which 
it had at first. Also called non-uniform function. 

II. n. That which is multiform ; that which 
gives a multiplied representation or many rep- 
etitions of anything. 

The word suits many different martyrdoms, 
And signines a tnull\form of death. 

Mr*. Browniwj, Aurora Leigh, iii. 

multiformity (mul-ti-for'mi-ti), M. [= OF. mul- 
lifiirmite = Sp. multiformidad = Pg. multiformi- 
rtade, < LL. multiformita(t-)s, < L. multiformis, 
many-shaped: see multiform.] The character 
of being multiform ; diversity of forms ; vari- 
ety of shapes or appearances in one thing. 

From that most one God flowea multiformity of effects ; 
and from that eternall Uod tcmporall effects. 

/;/'. Hall, Noah's Dove. 

If we contemplate primitive human life as a whole, we 
see that miiltifonnitit of sequence rather than uniformity 
of sequence is the notion which it tends to generate. 

B. Spencer, Prin. of Psychol., 5 488. 

multiformous (mul-ti-fdr'mus), a. [< multi- 
form + -mitt.] Same as multiform. [Rare.] 

His iiniltifoniiniix places corapell'd such a swarm of 
suitors to hum about him. 

Bp. Hacket, Abp. Williams, I. 204. (Ztoriw.) 

multiganglionate (mul-ti-gang'gli-on-at), a. 
[< L. multus, many, -f- (LL.) ganglion, a tumor: 
see ganglion.] Having many ganglia. Huxley. 

multigenerate (mul-ti-jen'e-rat), . [< L. 
multux, many, + generatus, pp. otgenerare, gen- 
erate: see generate.] Generated in many ways. 
Multigenerate function, in math., a function not mo- 
nogenous. 

multigenerous (mul-ti-jen'e-rus), a. [< L. 
multiycncrig, also multigenerus, of many kinds, 
< multus, many, + genus (gener-), kind : see 
genus.] Of many kinds; having many kinds. 

multigranulate (mul-ti-gran'uJat), a. [< L. 
in nl lux, many, + granulitw, a grain: see granu- 
late.] Having or consisting of many grains. 

multigyrate (mul-ti-ji'rat), a. [< L. multus, 
many, + gyrus, a circle, circuit, ring : see gy- 
rate.] Having many gyres or convolutions; 
much convoluted, as a brain. 

multijugate (mul-ti-jo'gat), a. Same as multi- 
jui/oun. 

multijugous (mul-ti-jo'gus), a. [< L. multiju- 
gus, iinutijuffis, yoked many together, < multus, 
many, + jttgum, yoke.] In hot., consisting of 
many pairs of leaflets. 

multilaminate (mul-ti-lam'i-nat), a. [< L. mul- 
tus, many, + lamina, a thin plate of wood: see 
laminate.] Having many layers or laminae. 

multilateral (mul-ti-lat'e-ral), a. [Cf. F. mul- 
tilali-rc = Sp. mitltildtero = Pg. multilatero = 
It. moltilatero; < L. multus, many, + latits (la- 
ter-), side: see lateral.] 1. In matli., having 
more lines or sides than one. Hence 2. Gen- 
erally, many-sided. 

The whole poem represents the multilateral character of 
Hinduism. J. F. Clarke, Ten Great Religions, ill. 8. 

multilineal (mul-ti-liu'e-al), a. [= Pg. multi- 
liiixil, < L. miitiitx, many, + linen, a line: see 
liiifii/.] Having many lines. 

multilinear (mul-ti-liu'e-ar), a. [< L. multux, 
many. + linca, a line: see linear.] Same as 
in nit Hi in nl. 

multilobate (mul-ti-16'bat), a. [< L. multus, 
many, + NL. lobus, a lobe, + -air 1 : see lobate.] 
Haviugmauy lobes; consistingof several lobes. 

multilobed (mid'ti-lobd), a. [< L. multus, 
many, + NL. lobus, a lobe, + -(f 2 .] Having 
many lobes or lobe-like parts ; multilobate. 



multipartite 

multilobular (mui-ti-lob'u-ljir). n. [< L. mul- 
lux, many, + NL. liibiiliix, Inimle: see lobulnr.] 
Having many lobules. 

multilocular (mul-ti-lok'u-lftr), . [= F. //- 
m It. HKiltili 



tiliiriiliiire = Pg. mnttOoOUUtr 
(. L. multus, many, + loculus, a cell, + -<ir& : see 
locular.] Having many cells, chambers, or com- 
partments: an, a iiiiiltiliiriilar pericarp; &multi- 
luciiliir spore; multiloeular shells. See pluri- 
locular.- Multilocular crypt. Seecrw*. 

multiloculate (ninl-ti-lok'u-lat), . [< L. niul- 
tu.-i, many, + Im-iiliix, a cell, + -ate 1 .] Same as 
iinittilocular. 

multiloquence (mul-til'o-kwens), . [= It. 

niiillU<><iui-n:ii, < \i. niultiin, many, + loquentiti, 
a talking, < loquen(t-)s, ppr. of lot/ui, speak, 
talk: see locution.] Use of many words; ver- 
bosity; loquacity. 

multiloquent (mul-til'o-kwent), a. [< L. mul- 
tus, much, + liii]iiin(t-)s, ppr. of loqui, speak.] 
Speaking much ; very talkative ; loquacious. 

multiloquous (mul-til'o-kwus), a. [= 8p. 
moltiliiciio = Pg. multiloquo = It. tuoltiloqtto, < 
L. multiloquus, talkative, < multus, much, + 
/'ii/in. speak, talk.] Same as multiloquent. 

multiloquyt (mul-til'o-kwi), . [= Pg. multi- 
loquio = It. moltiloquio, multiloquio, < L. multi- 
loquium, talkativeness, < multiloquus, talkative: 
see multiloquous.] Same as multiloquence. 

Jfultttoquy shews Ignorance ; what needs 

So many words when thou dost see the deeds? 

Owen Kpiyrami (Ie7). (Kara. ) 

multinodal (mul-ti-no'dal), a. [< L. multus. 
many, + nodus, knot: see nodal.] Having 
many nodes, in any sense of that word. 

multinodate (mul-ti-no'dat), a. [< L. multus, 
many, + nodus, knot: see node.] Same as mul- 
tinodal. 

multinodous (mul-ti-no'dus), a. [< LL. multi- 
nodus, multinodis, having many knots, < L. mul- 
tus, many, -f- nodus, knot: see node.] Same as 
multinodal. 

multinomial (mul-ti-no'mi-al), a. and n. [= 
Sp. It. multinomio, < L. multus, many, + nomen, 
a name: see name 3 , nomen. Cf. binomial.] 
Same as polynomial Multinomial theorem, an 
extension of the binomial theorem. 

multinominal (mul-ti-uom'i-nal), . [< L. 
multus, many, + nomen (nomin-), name : see 
ii'iniiiini.] Same as multinominous. 

multinominous (mul-ti-nom'i-uus), a. [< LL. 
multinominis, many-named, < L. multus, many, 
+ nomen (nomin-), name : see name 1 .] Having 
many names or terms; multinomiual ; polyony- 
mous. 

Venus is multinominoug, to give example to her prosti- 
tute disciples. Donne, Paradoxu. 

mnltinuclear (mul-ti-nu'kle-ar), a. [< L. mul- 
tus, many, + nucleus, a kernel: see nuclear.] 
Same as multinucleate. 

multinucleate (mul-ti-nu'kle-at), . [< L. 
multus, many, + nucleus, a kernel: see nucle- 
ate.] Having many or several nuclei, as a cell. 
Encyc. Brit., XXIV. 125. 

multinucleated (mul-ti-nu'kle-a-ted), a. Same 
as multinucleate. 

multinucleolate (mul-ti-nu'kle-o-lat), a. [< 
L. multus, many, + nucleolus, dim. of nucleus, a 
kernel: see nucleolate.] Having many or sev- 
eral nucleoli. 

multiovulate (mul-ti-6'vu-lat), a. [< L. mul- 
tus, many, + orulum, ovule : see ovule.] Inbot., 
containing or bearing many ovules. 

multipara (mul-tip a-ra), n.; pi. multiparce 
(-re). [NL., fern, of muttiparus: see wultipa- 
rous.] In obstct., a woman who has had two 
or more children, or who, having had one, 
is parturient a second time: opposed to pri- 
mipara. 

multiparity (mul-ti-par'i-ti), n. [< multipa- 
rous + -ity.] Plural birth; production of sev- 
eral at a birth. 

multiparous (mul-tip'a-rus), a. [= F. mitlti- 
IIHI-V = It. moltiparo, < ^IL. multiparus, giving 
or having given birth to many, < L. multus, 
many, + parere, bear.] 1. Producing many 
at a birth. 

Creatures . . . that are feeble and timorous are gener- 
ally Multiparout. Ray, Works of Creation, p. 138. 

2. In hot., many-bearing: said of a cyme with 
three or more lateral axes (the pleiocnasium of 
Eichler). 

multipartite (mul-ti-par'tit), ft. [= F. multi- 
partite = It. iultii>artito, < L. niultipartitux, 
much-divided, < multus, much, + partitus, pp. 
of partire, divide, < pars (part-), a part: see 



multipartite 



3894 



part, i\] Divided or cleft into many parts; multiplicable(raul'ti-pli-ka-bl),. [=OF. miil- 



multifld. 



having several part , 

multiped, multipede (tnul'ti-ped, -ped), <i. and 
. [= F. multipede; < L. mvltipes (-ped-), many- 
footed (> multipeda, a many-footed insect), < 
mxltuK, many, + pes (ped-) = E. foot.'] I. a. 
Having many feet; polypous. 
II. H. A many-footed or polypous animal. 

multipinnate (mul-ti-pin'at), a. [< L. multus, 



lipliciible, nniltipliiible, .' multi pliable = Sp. 
Hitiltiplicable = Pg. multiplic,arel=li. moltiplica- 
bile, that may be multiplied, < L. multipHeu- 
bilis, multiplied, manifold, < multiplicare, mul- 
tiply: see multiply.'] Multipliable; capable of 
existing in many individual cases, 
multiplicand (mul'ti-pli-kand), n. [= F. mul- 

uuii/ipiimct.i<e vmui-ii-yn. n,i,, . L s ^. ,,-.-..o, tiplicande = Sp. Pg. multiplicands = It. 7oMt- 
many, + piitnatus, feathered: see pinnate.] In plicando,< L. multiplicandm, gerundive ofmul- 
bot., many times pinnate. See^riiraafe. tiplieare, multiply: see multiply.'] In aritfi., a 

multiple (mul'ti-pl), . and n. [= F. multiple number multiplied or to be multiplied by an- 
= Sp. miiltiplo = Pg. mitttiplo = It. multiple, < other, which is called the multiplier. See mul- 
ML. multipius, manifold, < L. multus, many, + tiplication, 2. 

-plus, as in duplus, double, etc., akin to E. -fold : The two numbers given or assignd in every multiplica- 
see-fold and cf. duple, triple, etc. Cf. multi- tion have each of them a peculier name, for the greater is 
nler with rliff uppond element 1 Iff 1 Mani- called the multiplicand and the lesser is named the multi- 
ni.j 1. . i. mam Arithmetick (1600), foL 23Q. 

fold ; having many parts or relations. 2. Con- ' 
sisting of more tlian one complete individual, multiplicate (mul'ti-pli-kat), a._ [= Sp. Pg. 




B will bear a simple ratio to'each other. Multiple arc, In bot., same as multiplex, 2. 

the system of connecting electric batteries, lamps, or other multiplicatedt (mul'ti-pli-ka-ted), a. 
circuits to the leads or main conductors where terminals t , ;;.,/., 4. P M -\ MiilHnliprl nut in 
of each lamp or other circuit are connected to the leads, nplteate -t- -ea . J 



[< mul- 
two or 



cap was Inn n n mvttiplicattd." 

Sir T. Herbert, Travels (1664), p. 319. 



so as to fornfan independent arc or circuit between them, more folds. 

See parallel circuit, under parallel. Multiple contact, The Persian 

drilling -machine, etc. See the nouns. Multiple 

echoes. See echo, l. Multiple epidermis, iu Sot,, ryuiw 

an epidermis of several layers of superposed cells, result- multiplication (mul'tl-ph-ka'shon), n. [< Mi,. 

ing from the division of the original epidermal cells by multiplication, < OF. multiplication, F. multipli- 

partitions parallel to the surface. Multiple fruit. See 

fruit, 4. Multiple images. See image. Multiple in- 
tegral, in math., a quantity which results from the per- 



formance of integration more than once, generally with 
reference to different variables. Multiple lines, in 



cation, < Sp. multiplication = Pg. multiplicaqao 
= It. moltiplicazione, < L. multiplicatio(n-), mul- 
tiplication^ mwltiplicare, pp. multipUcatu,mu\- 

. . tiply: see multiply.] 1. The act or process of 

fort., several lines of detached works or ramparts ar- , -nflj-ii,, ,, r ,t \, ,,.,,.., ^;,,, f in numVipr- the 
ranged for the defense of a military position.- Multiple multiplying or ot increasing in number , tne 
neuritis, a neuritis involving several nerves at once. state ot being multiplied: as, the multiplication 
Multiple point or tangent, in math., one which results of the human species by natural generation, 
from the coalescence oftwo points or tangents. The mul- 
tiple points of curves are made up of the three kinds of 
double points : namely, the point where the curve crosses 
itself, the outlying point, and the cusp. In like manner, 
the multiple tangents are made up of three kinds of double 
tangents the tangent from one real convexity to an- 
other, the outlying tangent with no real point of tan- 
gency, and the tangent at an inflection. Multiple pole. 
Same as multipolar. Multiple star. See star. Multi- 

2. An arithmetical process in which one num- 
ber, the multiplier, is considered as an operator 
upon another, the multiplicand, the result, called 
the product, being the total number of units in 

tipiy'ing another 'by T^ho'l^'m^mber :"'a^T2 as many groups as there are units in the mul- 
K&mTMiple of 3, the latter being a submulti- tiplier each group being equal in number to 

.7. ... _if i _' i _js ii.. n .._ the multiplicand ; more generally, the operation 

of finding the quantity which results from sub- 
stituting the multiplicand in place of unity in 
the multiplier. Thus, the multiplication of 4 by 5 gives 
5 times 4, or the number of units in five groups of four units 
each; so the multiplication of g by ~ consists in finding ' 



In hilles feet towarde Septentrion 
Good humour hath multiplication. 

Palladius, Husbondrie (E. E. T. S.), p. 175. 

It may be doubted whether any of us have ever yet real- 
ized the enormous change which has taken place in the 
conditions of national progress by the multiplication and 
diffusion of cheap books. Nineteenth Century, XXIV. 499. 



pie values, in 0(17., symbols which fulfil the algebraic 
conditions of a problem when several different values are 
given to them, as the roots of an equation, certain func- 
tions of an arc or angle, etc. 
II. TO. In arith., a number produced by mul- 



ple or aliquot part of the former Common 
multiple of two or more numbers, a number that is di- 
visible by each of them without remainder : thus, 24 is a 
common multiple of 6 and 4. The least common multiple 
is the smallest number of which this is true : thus, 12 is 
the least common multiple of 6 and 4. The same defini- 
tions apply to algebraic quantities. Multiple Of gear- 
ing, a train of gearing by which a specific power to accom- 
plish a definite act or function is attained through change 
of speed-ratio. Thus, in powerful shears, etc., a high speed 
is changed to a low speed with great increase of pressure 
exerted through a small distance on the cutting blade ; 
conversely, by a multiple of gearing a high speed with less 
pressure may be obtained. 



not of unity, but of f, of unity. By a further generalization, 
multiplication in the higher mathematics is regarded as the 
process of bringing an operand under an operator. Thus, 
in quaternions, if u be the operation of turning a line in a 
given direction through a given angle, and if v be another 
similar versor, then uv, or the result of the multiplication 
of v by u, is the rotation which would result from turning 



- ... i ,,.. T . ,. T a line first through v and then through u. In like manner, 

multlplepomdmg (mul_ ti-pl-pom ding), . In j n the theory of differential equations, if D.r denote the 



Scots law, double poinding or double distress. 
It gives rise to an action by which a person possessed of 
money or effects which are claimed by different persons 
obtains an adjudication for settlement and payment : cor- 
responding to interpleader in England and the United 
States. See poinding. 

multiplex (mul'ti-pleks), a. and n. [= Sp. mul- 
tiplice = Pg. multiplex, multiplice = It. multi- 
plice, moltiplice, < L. multiplex (LL. also multi- 
plicus), manifold, < multus, many, + plicare, 
fold: see plicate.] I. a. 1. Manifold; multi- 
ple ; multiplicate. 

In favour of which unspeakable benefits of the reality, 
what can we do but cheerfully pardon the multiplex inep- 
titudes of the semblance? 

Carlyle, Misc., IV. 137. (Dames.) 
2. In bot., having petals lying over one another 
in folds. Also multiplicate. 

II. n. In math., a set of objects. 
multiplex (mul'ti-pleks), v. t. [< multiplex, a.] 
To render multiplex ; manifold. [Colloq.] 

We have only described a comparatively simple form of 
the apparatus, and we ought to add that it admits of being 
easily duplexed, and even of being multiplexed. 

The Engineer, LXVII. 532. 

multipliable (mul'ti-pll-a-bl), a. [< F. multi- 
pliable, < L. multipliabilis : see multiply. Cf. 
multiplicable.] Capable of being multiplied. 

Good deeds are very fruitful, and, not so much of their 
nature as of God's blessing, multipliable. 

Bp. Hall, Meditations and Vows, iii. 78. 
There is a continually increasing demand for popular 
art, multipliable by the printing-press, illustrative of daily 
events, of general literature, and of natural science. 

liuskin, Lectures on Art (1872), p. 10. 

multipliableness (mul'ti-pli-a-bl-nes), w. Ca- 
pableness of being multiplied" 



mention of differentiation relatively to the variable x, and 
Dy denote the same operation relatively to the variable }/, 
then the operation of differentiating flrstrelatively to i/and 
then relatively to x is regarded as the product of !)> by 
Dx, and is written D^-Dy. In the algebra of logical rela- 
tions, the multiplication of one relative by another consists 
in putting the relates of the multiplicand disjunctively in 
place of the correlates of the multiplier. In other cases, 
multiplication consists in conjoining (in some specific way) 
each unit of the multiplier with each unit of the multipli- 
cand: and this definition may be regarded as including 
every other. Thus, the multiplication of 2 feet of length 
by 3 feet of breadth is considered as giving 6 feet of area, 
in each of which square feet one unit of length is conjoin- 
ed with one unit of breadth. So the momentum of a body 
having a motion of translation is said to be the product of 
the mass into the velocity that is, is the result of impart- 
ing to each particle of the mass the whole of the given 
velocity. In the Boolian algebra, theproduct of two classes 
A and B is the whole of the class embraced by both that 
is, it embraces all the individuals each of which reunites 
the characters of A and of B. In algebra, multiplication 
is denoted by writing the multiplier before the multipli- 
cand, either directly, or with a cross ( x ) or a dot (.) inter- 
posed between them. All multiplication follows the dis- 
tributive principle, expressed by the formula 

(a + b) (c + d) = at + tc + ad + bd. 

Under certain restrictions, all multiplication follows the 
associative principle, expressed by the formula a(bc) = 
(ab)c. According to the nature of the conjunction of units, 
multiplication does or does not follow the commutative 
principle, expressed by the formula 06 = ba. 
3. Specifically, in bot., increase in the number 
of parts of a flower, either (a) in the number 
of whorls or spiral turns, or (b) in the num- 
ber of organs (pistils, stamens, petals, or se- 
pals) in any whorl, circle, or spiral turn. Also 
called augmentation. See cliarixin. 4f. The 
supposed art of increasing gold and silver In- 
alchemical means. Chaucer. 



multiply 

It is ordained and stablished, That none from hence- 
forth shall vse to multiply Gold and Silver; nor use the 
Craft of Mullijilication; and if any the same do, and be 
thereof attaint, that he incur the Pain of Felony in this 
case. Slot. 5 Hen. IV., cap. 5. 

Multiplication of Gold or Silver, the Art of encreasing 
those Metals, which in the Time of K. Henry IV was pre- 
sum'd possible to be effected by means of Elixirs, or other 
C'hymical Compositions. 
Quoted in Booke of Precedence (E. E. T. S. , extra ser. ), i. Ill . 

Item, you commaunded midliplication and alcumistrie 
to bee practised, thereby to abait the king's coine. 

Stow, Edw. VI., an. 1549. 

Anagrammatic, commutative, internal multiplica- 
tion. See the adjectives. Cross or duodecimal mul- 
tiplication. See duodecimal, n., 2. Multiplication 
table, a table containing the product of all the simple 
digits, and onward to some assumed limit, as to 12 times 
12. Polar or external multiplication, a multiplica- 
tion in which the reversal of the order of the factors in- 
variably reverses the sign of the product, while not alter- 
ing its numerical value. Contrasted with internal multi- 
plication. 

multiplicative (mul'ti-pli-ka-tiv), a. and n. 
[=F. mnltiplicatif = Sp. Pg. It. multiplicatirn : 
as multiplicate + -ive.] I. a. Tending to mul- 
tiply or increase ; having the power to multiply 
numbers. 

II. . A numeral adjective describing an ob- 
ject as repeated a certain number of times or 
as consisting of a certain number of parts, 
such as single, double (duplex), triple (treble), 
quadruple, quintuple, or twofold, threefold, four- 
fold, fivefold. 

multiplicator (mul'ti-pli-ka-tor), n. [= F. 
multiplicateur = Sp. Pg. multiplicador = It. 
multiplicatore, < LL. multiplicator, a multiplier, 
< L. multiplicare, pp. multiplicattts, multiply: 
see multiply.] Same as multiplier, 2. 

multiplicioust (mul-ti-plish'us), a. [< L. mul- 
tiplex (multiplied), multiplex, + -ous.] Mani- 
fold; multiplex. 

The animal [amphisbaena] is not one, but muUipUcioui, 
or many, which hath a duplicity or gemination of princi- 
pal parts. Sir T. Browne, Vulg. Err., iii. 15. 
Tills sense [smelling] . . . although sufficiently grand 
and admirable, (yet) is not so mullipliciom as of the eye 
or ear. Derham, Physico-Theology, iv. 4. 

multipliciouslyt (mul-ti-plish'us-li), adv. In 
a manifold or multiplex manner. 

multiplicity (mul-ti-plis'i-ti), n. [= F. mul- 
tiplicite = Sp. multiplicidad = Pg. multipliti- 
da.de = It. moltiplicitd, < LL. multiplicita(t-)s, 
manifoldness, < L. multiplex, manifold: see 
multiplex.] 1. The state of being multiplex 
or manifold or various ; the condition of being 
numerous. 

Moreover, as the manifold variation of the parts, so the 
multiplicity of the use of each part, is very wonderful. 

N. Grew, Cosmologia Sacra, i. B. 

2. Many of the same kind; a large number. 

Had they discoursed rightly but upon this one princi- 
ple that God was a being infinitely perfect, they could 
never have asserted a multiplicity of gods. 

South, Sermons. 

A multiplicity of laws give a judge as much power as a 
want of law, since he is ever sure to find among the 
number some to countenance his partiality. 

Goldsmith, Reverie at Boar's-Head Tavern. 

Multiplicity Of a curve, the total number of multiple 
points, crunodes, acnodes, and cusps, or of their compound 
equivalents, belonging to it. Thus, a curve having no sin- 
gularity except a ramphoid cusp has a multiplicity of 2, 
since a ramphoid cusp is equivalent to a simple cusp and a 
crunode. Order of multiplicity of a right line with 
reference to a surface, the number of tangent planes to 
the surface from the line. 

multiplier (mul'ti-pll-er), n. 1. One who or 
that which multiplies or increases in number. 

Broils and quarrels are alone the great accumulators 
and multipliers of injuries. Decay of Christian Piety. 

2f. An alchemist. Compare multiplication, 3. 
Alchymists were formerly called multipliers, although 
they never could multiply ; as appears from a statute of 
Henry IV. repealed in the preceding record. 

/. D'lsraeli, Curios, of Lit, I. 376. 

3. The number in the arithmetical process of 
multiplication by which another is multiplied. 
Also multiplicator. 4. A flat coil of conduct- 
ing wire used as the coil of a galvanoscope. 
The tendency to deflection is proportional near- 
ly to the number of coils. 5. An arithmome- 
ter for performing calculations in multiplica- 
tion. E. H. Knight. 6. A multiplying-reel ; an 
attachment to an anglers' reel which gathers in 
the slack with multiplied speed at each revo- 
lution of the crank. See reel Indeterminate, 
last, etc. , multiplier. See the adjectives. 

multiply fmiil'ti-pli), t-.; pret. and pp. multi- 
plii-il, ppr. multiplying. [<ME. multiplirn, miil- 
tipli/cn. inlfe/>lie>t, < OF. multiplier, ninltcplin-, 
<F'.multi/jli/'r = Sp.Pg. itiultipliear = It. mvlti- 
/ilii'iire, nioltiplimri'. < lj. niuHiplirnri; make 
manifold, multiply, increase, < multiplex, mani- 



multiply 

fold- see </'</<'-<. J I. Inm*. 1. To make multiramose (mnl-ti-ra'm6s),n. [< I- </>*. 
manifold; increase, in number or quantity; many, + ramiis, branch: see ramose.] 



make more by natural generation or reproduc- many branches. 

by accumulation, mldition, or repe- multiramoUS (mnl-ti-ra 

' 



ra'mus), a. Same as m ul- 

tiriiiitii.tr. 

multisaccate (mul-ti-sak'at), o. [<L. multus, 
many, 4- sacrus, a sac: see saccate.] Having 



titio'u: as, to mnl/i/i/i/ nion or horses; to mi- 

/illl c-vils. 

That (lod for has grace gonre grayn nmiteplir. 

Piers Plmeman, p. 13ft. (Richardton.) 

I will harden I'haraoh'B heart, and multiply my signs multiscient (mul-tish'ent), a. [< L. multux, 
and my wonders, in the land of Egypt. Ex. vil. 3. many, 4- xrieng (scient-), ppr. of .icin; know : see 

Therefore doth Job open his mouth In vain ; he multi- 
plieth word* without knowledge. Job xxxv. 16. 



manv SUCK. 



MvVV.'] Knowing many things; having much 
learning. 
W'hen they arc come to the bottome, another Caueprea- multisciOUSt (mul-tish'iis), rt. [< L. miilli- 



i-ntly presents It sclfe, which torrilleth those that enter 



multivocal 

It in a fault In a innliiiinlr <.f preachers that they ut- 
terly neglect method in their harangues. H attt. 
3. A crowd or throng; a gathering or collec- 
tion of people. According to some ancient legal au- 
llinritiri., it ri-quin-d at least ten to make a multitude. 
The multitude, the populace, or the mass of men with- 
out reference to an assemblage. 

The hasty multitude 

Admiring enter'd ; and the work some praise, 
And some the architect. Milton, P. L., L 730. 

That great enemy of reason, virtue, and religion, the 
MM* Sir T. Browne, Rellgio Medici, II. 1. 

= 8yn. Multitude, Throng, Cimed, swarm, mas, host, le- 
gion. A multitude, however great, may be In * space 
BO large as to give each one ample room ; a throng or a 
croud is generally smaller than a multitude, but U gath- 
ered Into a close body, a throng being a company that 
presses together or forward, and a croird carrying the cloe- 
uess to uncomfortable physical contact. 

A very subtle argument could not have been communi- 
cated to the multitude* that visited the shows. 

De Quincey, Secret Societies, I. 

We are enow, yet living In the field, 

To smother up the English in our throng*, 

If any order might be thought upon. 

Shalt., lien. V., Iv. 5. 20. 

It creases here, It crosses there, 
Thro' all that crowd confused and loud. 
_ 7 _ _ Tennytnn, Maud, xxvl. 

many series; arranged in many rows ; multifa- jnultitudinary (mul-ti-tu'di-na-ri), a, [< L. as 
rious; polystichous. if "tniiltitndiHarius, < multitudo (-din-), a multi- 

II. intrans. 1 . To grow or increase in number multiseriate (mul-ti-se'ri-at), a. Same as mul- 
or extent; extend; spread. tiserinl. 

Be fruitful and multiply. Gen. I. 22. multisillQUOUS 

The word of God grew and multiplied. Acts xii. 24. 



,,.,.,, knowing much, < multuK, much, 4- xciux, 

Having variety of 



, Tears of Amaryllis. 
2. In arith., to perform the operation of multi- 
plication upon. See iiiultiiilirittion, 2. 3f. To 
increase (the precious metals) by alchemical 
means. See multiplication, 3. 

An impostor that had like to have Impos'd upon us a 
pretended secret of i '"-'' '* 



See the 



pp. 



[< . i- 

secare, cut.] Having many 



:ool. and bot., having many septa, dissepiments, 
or partitions: as, multiseptate spores. 

l-ti-se'ri-al), o. [< L. muliim, 
series: see serial.] Having 



Multiplying camera, gearing, glass, etc. 
nouns. 



= Sp. multisilicuoso, < L. mullitu, 
many, 4- siliqua, siliqua: see siliquous.] Hav- 
ing many poas or seed-vessels. 
multisonous (mul-tis'6-mis), a. [= Pg. multi- 

2. In arith., to perform the process of roulti- sm|() < L MM ; to(OMM , i loud-sounding, < multus, 
plication.^ See. multiplication^ I. df. i muen , 4- sonus, sound.] Having many sounds, 

or sounding much. 

multispiral (mul-ti-spi'ral), o. [< L. multus, 
many, 4- spira, spire: "see spiral.] Having 
many turns or whorls: applied in conchology 



tude : see multitude.] Multitudinous; manifold. 
[Rare.] 
[= * multitudinous (mul-ti-tu'di-nus), a. [< L. as 



As dangers and difficulties multiplied, she multiplied 
resources to meet them. Prescott, Kerd. and Isa,, U. 16. 

., to perl ,_- 

See. imtftipMoattoit, 2. 3f. To in- 
crease gold or silver by alchemical means. 

Whoso that listeth outen his folye, 
Lat him come forth, and lerne multiplye. 
Chaucer, Prol. to Canon's Yeoman's Tale, L 282. 



multiplying-lens (mul'ti-pli-ing-lenz), . 

leu*. 



See ( a ) to spiral univalve shells of many whorls, and 
(b) to opercula of many concentric rings. 



multiplying-machine (mul ' ti - pli - ing - ma - nraltistaminate (mul-ti-stam'i-nat), a. [< L. 

shell'), . A form of calculating-machine. multus, many, 4- stamen, the thread of a warp 
multiplying-wheel (mul'ti-pli-ing-hwel), . (NL. stamen): see staminate.] In hot., bearing 

A wheel which increases the number of move- many stamens. 

ments in machinery. multistriate (mul-ti-stri'at), a. [< L. multus, 

multipolar (mul-ti-po'lar), a. and n. [< L. man y, 4- stria, a streak: see striate.] Having 

multuit, many, 4- j>olus, pole: see polar.] I. a. many stria), streaks, or stripes. 



Having many poles, as a nerve-cell or a dyna- multisulcate (mul-ti-sul'kat), a. 
mo : opposed to unipolar, bipolar. See cut un- 
der cell, 5 Multipolar dynamo, a dynamo in which 



if * multitudinosus, < multitudo (-din-), a multi- 
tude: see multitude.] 1. Consisting of a mul- 
titude or great number. 
Multitudinous echoes awoke and died In the distance. 

LimijfrWnr, Evangeline, II. -'. 

2. Of vast extent or number, or of manifold di- 
versity; vast in number or variety, or in both. 

My hand will rather 
The multitudinous seas incarnadine, 
Making the green one red. 

Shalt., Macbeth, II. 2. 62. 

One might with equal wisdom seek to whistle the vague 
multitudinous hum of a forest. 

E. Gurney, Nineteenth Century, LXXI. 446. 

3f. Of or pertaining to the multitude. 

At once pluck out 

The multitudinout tongue ; let them not lick 
The sweet which is their poison. 

Shalt., Cor., 111. 1. 166. 

multitudinously (mul-ti-tu'di-nus-H), adv. In 



than one pole is opposed to the membrane. 

II. H. An electromagnetic machine in which 
several magnetic poles are used or exist. Also 
called multiple pole. 

multipotent (mul -tip '6- tent), a. [< L. >w/- 
tipoten(t-)s, very powerful', < multus, much, 



man 

many 

see syllable.] 
polysvllable. 

multitentaculate (mul'ti-ten-tak'u-lat), a. [< 
L- multus, many, + NL. tentaculum, tentacle: 
, see tentaculate.] Having many tentacles. 

+ poten(t-)s, powerful: see potent.] Having multititular (mul-ti-tit'u-lar), o. [< L. mul- 
manifold power, or power to do many things, tus, many, + titulits, title: see titular.] Hav- 
ing many titles. 



[Rare.] 

By Jove multipotent, 

Thou ahonldat not bear from me a Greeklsh member 
Wherein my sword had not impressure made 
Of our rank feud. Shak., T. and C., iv. 5. 129. 

multipresence (mul-ti-prez'ens), n. [< multi- 
l>rrnfn(t) + -ce. Cf. presence.] The power or act 
of being present in many places at once, or in 
more places than one at the same time. 

This sleeveless tale of transubstantiation was surely 
brought Into the world, and upon the stage, by that other 
fable of the MuUipreneitce of Christ's Body. 

Bp. Hall, No Peace with Rome, I. Ui. 3. 

The mediaeval schoolmen and modern Roman divines 
ascribe omnipresence only to the divine nature and per- 
son of Christ, unipresence to his human body in heaven, 
and a miraculous mult ipre settee to his body and blood in 
the sacrament of the altar. 

Scha/, Christ and Christianity, p. 75. 

multipresent (mul-ti-prez'ent), a. [< L. mul- 
tux, many, + )irir.*rii(t-)s, present: see present, 
a.] Being present in more places than one; 
having the property or power of multipresence. 

multiradiate (mul-ti-ra'di-at), a. [< L. iinil- 
litu, many, 4- radius, ray: see radiate, a.] 
Having many rays ; pplyactinal. 

multiradicate (mul-ti-rad'i-kat), a. [< LL. 
iiiultiriiilij: (-radic-), many-rooted (< L. niiiltii", 
manv, 4- radir (mdic-), a root): see radicate.] 
Having many roots. 

multiramified (mul-ti-ram'i-fid),. [<L. >nnl- 
tu.<, many. 4- rtiunix, a branch, 4- facere, make: 
see ramify.] Much-branched; having many 
branches. 

The HeadliuiL's il.iiin to lie not less genuine derivatives 
from the antique bnnoh "f C:lw:illader than any of the 
last-named inuttiramitied families. 

Pfaeoek, Headlong Hall, I 



[<L. multus, a multitudinous manner; in great number or 
many, 4- sulcus, furrow: see sulcate.] Having with great variety. 

many sulci or furrows; much-furrowed. multitudinousness (mul-ti-tu'di-nus-nes), . 

Tt. molli- The character or state of being multitudinous. 

rufx, niaii\ , T yyuuvu, syllable: its [nature's] multitudinmignttt is commanded by a Ben- 
A word of many syllables; a ate of powers. J. Martineau, Materialism, p. 151. 

multivagantt (mul-tiv'a-gant), a. [< L. mul- 
tus, much, 4- vagan(t-)s, ppr. of t-agari, wander: 
see vagrant.] Same as multiragous. 
multivagoust (mul-tiv'a-gus), a. [< L. multira- 
gus, that wanders about much, < multus, much, 
4- vagus, wandering, strolling: seerague.] Wan- 
dering much. Bailey. 

multituberculate (mul'ti-tu-ber'ku-lat), a. [< multivalence (mul-tiv'a-lens), . [< multini- 
L. multus, many, 4- tubercuhim, a small sweU- ien(t) + -ce.] The property of being multiva- 
ing, tubercle : see tuberculate.] Having many i en t. 

tubercles, as teeth. Micros. Science, XXIX. i. 20. multivalent (mul-tiv'a-lent), a. [< L. multus, 
multituberculated (mul'ti-tu-b^r'ku-la-ted), many, 4- valen (t-)s, ppr. of ralere, be strong. Cf. 
<i. Same as multituberculate. W. H. Flower, equivalent.] In chem., equivalent in combining 
Encyc. Brit., XV. 376. or displacing power to a number of hydrogen 

multitubular (mul-ti-tu'bu-lar), a. [< L. mul- or other monad atoms. 

tun, many, 4- tubulus, a tube: see tubular.] multivalve (mul'ti-valv), n. and n. [=F. mul- 
Having many tubes: as, a multitubular boiler, ftratof , < L. multus, many, 4- ralva, door: see 
multitude (mul'ti-tud), n. [< F. multitude = 
Sp. multitud = Pg. multitude, multidSo = It. 

niultititdine, moltitudine, < L. multitudo (-din-), a - -, 

- to the acorn-shells or cirripeds of the family Balamd^ 

or Lepadida, once supposed to be mollusks. Also mtdti 

valvular. 

_ . II. n. A multivalve zoological shell. 

orig. pp. of alere, nourish, grow : see altitude, Multivalvia (mul-ti-val'vi-S), n. pi. [NL., < 
old).] 1. The character of being many; nu- L. multus, many, 4- valva, door: BBemultiraln:] 
merousness; also, a great number regarded in Linnsaus's system of classification, a divi- 
collectively or as congregated together. Aquinas gion of his Testacea, including his genera Chi- 
and others distinguish transcendental and material mul- f on an( j Lepag. 

titude; but it is difficult t<i attach any definite conception __n.{ TT ,,-| m ,i,,_ / m ,,i ti voi'A ISi-^ n S-mn--,^ 
to transcendental multitude, which is the opposite of trail- mUltlValVUlar (mnl-tl-val VU-lto), a. , 
scendental unity. Material multitude is the multitude of midlinilrr. 
individuals of the same species, an expression which sup- jjmltiversant (mul-tl-ver sant), a. | ( L. ;(- 



great number, a multitude, a crowd, in gram, 
the plural number, < multus, OL. moltus, much, 
many, appar. orig. a pp. (cf. altus, high, deep, 



,. . , 

valve.] I. a. Having many valves. Formerly spe- 
cifically applied (a) among molluska, to the coat-of-mail 
shells, chitons or Chitonido? ; and (&) among crustaceans, 



poses matter to be the principle of individuatlon. 

And whiles they sought to flye out of the Citie, they 
wedged themselues with multitude so fast in the gate 
(which was furthest from the enemle) and the streetes ad- 
ioyiiing, as that three rankes walked one vpon the others 
heads. Purchas, Pilgrimage, p. 420. 

Armed freemen scattered over a wide area are deterred 
from attending the periodic assemblies by cost of travel, 
by ens! of time, by danger, and also by the experience 
th;it multitude* of men unprepared and unorganised are 
helpless in presence of an organized few. 

//. Sprncer, Prin. of Sociol., { 49B. 

2. A great number, indefinitely. 



tus, many, 4- versan(t-)s, ppr. of versare, turn 
about, infcens. of vertere, turn: see verse. Cf. 
foiirersant.] Turning into many shapes; as- 
suming many forms ; protean. 

multivious (mul-tiv'i-us), a. [< L. multirius, 
having many ways, < multHS, many, 4- via, 
way.] Having many ways or roads. [Rare.] 

multivocal (mul-tiv'o-kal), o. and n. [< L. 
multus, much, many, + cor (roc-), voice: see 
rocal.] I. a. Ambiguous; equivocal. 
An ambiguous or multivocal word. Coleridge, 



multivocal 

II. H. A word or an expression that is equiv- 
ocal, or susceptible of several meanings. 

Multivocals, as conducing to brevity and expressiveness, 
are unwisely condemned, or deprecated. 

F. Hall, Mod. Eng., p. 170. 

multivoltine (mul-ti-vol'tin), a. [< L. mvltmt, 
many, + It. volta, a turn, winding: see volt 1 .] 
Having several (at least more than two) annual 
broods; generated oftenor than twice a year: 
said of silkworm-moths and their larvee. 

Some [races of silkworms] are multimMine. 

Encyc. Brit., XXII. 68. 

multivorous (rnul-tiv'o-rus), . [< L. multiis, 
much, + vorare, devour.] Voracious. 
multocular (mul-tok'u-lar), a. [< L. in ill tun, 
many, + oculus, eye: see ocular.] Having 
more than two eyes; having two eyes each of 
many facets or ocelli, as a fly. 

Flies . . . are multocular, having as many eyes as there 
are perforations in their cornea. 

Derham, Physico- Theology, viii. 3, note k. 

raultuni (mul'tum), n. [< L. multum, neut. of 
multus, much: see multitude.] In brewing, a 
compound consisting of an extract of quassia 
and licorice, used as an adulterant. 

multum in parvo (mul'tum in pftr'vo). [L. : 
multum, neut. of multus, much; in, in; parvo, 
abl. of pnrvns, small.] Much in small compass. 

Multungulat (mul-tung'gu-la), n. pi. [NL. 
(Blumeubach), < L. multus, many, + ungula, 
hoof.] The seventh order of mammals, con- 
taining hoofed quadrupeds with more than two 
hoofs, as the hog, tapir, rhinoceros, and ele- 
phant: later called Multungulata. 

Multungulata (mul-tung-gu-la'ta), n.pl. [NL., 
neut. pi. of multungiilatus : see multungulate.] 
An order of Mammalia comprising ungulate 
quadrupeds which have more than two func- 
tional hoofs. It is approximately equivalent to the 
Pachydermata of Cuvier and to the suborder Periesodac- 
tylaot modern naturalists, but agrees exactly with no nat- 
ural division. Illiger in 1811 divided it into 6 families : 
Lrnnnunguia (hyrax), Proboscida: (elephants), Nasiwrnia, 
(rhinoceroses), Obern (hippopotamuses), Nasuta (tapirs), 
and Setigera (swine). Earlier Multungula. Compare So- 
lidungutata. 

multungulate (mul-tung'gu-lat), . and n. [< 
NL. multungiilatus, many-hoofed, < L. multus, 
many, + itngiila, a hoof : see ungulate.] I. a. 
Having more than two functional hoofs; spe- 
cifically, of or pertaining to the Multungulata. 
II. n. A multungulate mammal. 

multuplet, a. [Var. of multiple, with term, as 
in duple, quadruple, etc.] Manifold. Roger 
North, Lord Guilford, ii. 78. (Davies.) 

multure (mul'tur), . [Early mod. E. also 
moulturc, mouter, 'monster; < ME. multure, mul- 
ter, < OF. multure, moulture, molture, F. mouture 
= Pr. moldura, moltura, moudura, a grinding, 
toll for grinding, < L. molitura, a grinding, < mo- 
lere, pp. molitus, grind: see mill 1 .] 1. The act 
of grinding grain in a mill. 2. The quantity of 
grain ground at one time ; a grist. 3. In Scots 
law, the toll or fee given, generally in kind, to 
the proprietor of a mill in return for the grind- 
ing of corn. 

Out of one sack he would take two moult urea or feesfor 
grinding. Urquhart, tr. of Rabelais, i. 11. (Davies.) 

It is always best to be sure, as I say when I chance to 
take multure twice from the same meal-sack. 

Scott, Monastery. 

multurer (mul'tur-er), n. [< multure + -er 1 .] 
A person who has grain gromid at a certain 
mill. Mnltnrera are or were of two kinds first, such as 
were thirled (thralled) to a certain mill by the conditions 
on which they occupied their land ; and, second, those 
who used the mill without being bound by the tenure to 
do so. The former were termed tnsucken multurerg, the 
latter outsucken multurers. [Scotch.] 

mum 1 (mum), o. [< ME. mum, mom, used inter- 
jeetionally, expressing a low murmuring sound 
made with the lips closed, used at once to attract 
attention and to command silence ; an imitative 
syllable, the basis of the verbs mumble, mump 1 , 
iHunfi, and their numerous cognates; cf. L. mu, 
Gr. uv, a mere murmured syllable ; also murmur, 
and similar ult. imitative words.] Silent. 

Shall we see sacrifice and God's service done to an in- 
animate creature, and be mum? 

J. Bradford, Letters (Parker Soc., 1853), II. 231. 

The citizens are mum, and speak not a word. 

SAni.,Rich. III., iii. 7. 3. 

mum 1 (mum), r. ('. ; pret. and pp. mummed, ppr. 
mumming. [< ME. miimmen = D. mom mem = 
G. mummem, mumble, mutter; imitative of the 
sound: see mum 1 , ,a. Cf. mumble, mump 1 .] To 
be silent ; keep silence. 

Better mumme than meddle ouermuch. 

Gascoigne, Steele Glas(ed. Arber), Epil.,p. 88. 



3896 mummer 

[The imperative is often used as an interjection. mumble-the-peg (mum ' bl-the-peg'), n. [(. 

Mum then, and no more. Shak., Tempest, iii. 2. 59. mumble, r., + the 1 + obj. peg.] A boys' game 

in which each player in turn throws a knife 
from a series of positions, continuing until he 
fails to make the blade stick in the ground. 
The last player to complete the series is compelled to draw 
out of the ground with his teeth a peg which the others 
have driven in with a certain number of blows with the 
handle of the knife. Also mumble-peg, and corruptly 



j/i umljly-peg, muynblety-peg. 



But to his speach he aunswered no whit, . . . 
As one with griefe and anguishe overcum, 
And unto every thing did aunswere mum. 

Spenser, F. Q., IV. vii. 44. 
I know what has past between you ; but, mum. 

Goldsmith, She Stoops to Conquer, v. ] 

mum' 2 (mum), .'. i. ; pret. and pp. mummed, ppr. 
mumming. [Also mumm; < ME. "mommeii, < 

mummeii), mask, play the mummer, < MD. mom- 

3?S;^^:S$&? closed; an indistinct utterance. 

been used ovig., in connection with the syllable 

mum, by nurses to frighten or amuse children, 

at the same time pretending to cover theirfaces : 

nee mum 1 .] To mask; sport or make diversion 

in a mask: as, to go a m/niniiiiit/. 

Disguised all are coming, 

Right wantonly a-mumming. 

Quoted In Chambers's Book of Days, II. 739. 

mum 3 t (mum), n. [= D. mom = Dan. mumme, < 
G. mumme, a kind of beer, said to be so named 
from Christian Mumme, who first brewed it, in 
1492.] A strong ale popular in the seventeenth 
century and in use down to a later time. It 
seems to have been made from wheat-malt, with a certain 
amount of oat-malt, and flavored with various herbs, with 
sometimes the addition of eggs. 

An honest Yorkshire gentleman . . . used to invite his 
acquaintance at Paris to break their fast with him upon 
cold roast beef and mum. Steele, Guardian, No. 34. 

A sort of beverage called mum, a species of fat ale, brewed 
from wheat and bitter herbs, of which the present genera- 
tion only know the name by its occurrence in revenue 

acts of Parliament, coupled with cider, perry, and other mum-budgett (mum buj'et), interj. [< mum 1 - 
exciseable commodities. Scott, Antiquary, xi. "budget, put for budge, used like mum to com- 



in a low tone or with the vocal organs partly 



These makes hippynge, homerynge, 
Of medles moautiyaaA 

M S. Lincoln A. i. 17, f. 206. (HalUwell.) 

A series of inarticulate though loud mumblings over his 
food. Jthoda Broughton, Ked as a Rose is She, xxxiii. 

mumblingly (mum'bling-li), adr. In a mum- 
bling manner; with a low inarticulate utter- 
ance. 

mumbo-jumbo (mum'bo-jum'bo), n. [Said to 
be a native African name ; but it may be a 
mere loose rendering in E. of African jargon.] 
1. A god whose image is fantastically clothed, 
worshiped by certain negro tribes. 

Worship mighty Mumbo-Jumbo 
In the Mountains of the Moon. 

Bon Gaultier BaMads, Lay of the Lovelorn. 

Hence 2. Any senseless object of popular 
idolatry. 

lie never dreamed of disputing their pretensions, but 
did homage to the miserable Mumbo-Jmnbo they paraded. 
Dicker*, Little Dorrit, i. 18. 



A dialectal variant of 



mum 4 (mum or m'm), n. 

ma'am for madam. 
mumble (mum'bl), r.; pret. and pp. mumbled, 

ppr. mumbling. [< ME. momclen = D. mommelen 



mand silence.] An exclamation enjoining si- 
lence and secrecy. [In the first quotation it is 
resolved into its component parts, and used as 
a kind of masonic sign.] 

= G. miimmeln = Sw. mumla = Dan. mmnle, 

mumble; freq. of mum 1 , v. Cf. mamble.] I. 

intrans. 1. To speak with the vocal organs 

partly closed, so as to render the sounds inar- 
ticulate and imperfect; speak in low tones, 

hesitatingly, or deprecatingly. 

Muttering and mumbling, idiotlike it seem'd. 

Tennyson, Enoch Arden. 

2. To chew or bite softly or with the gums; mumchancet (mum'chans) w. and a. [= G. 

v t* -Britl! thfi mims mi unpmiTit of l?r>lc or mummenschanz; as mum 1 + chance.] I. n. I 

A game of hazard with cards or dice in which 
silence was absolutely necessary. 

In conies the setter with his cards, and asketh at what 
game they shal play. Why, saith the verser, at a new 
game called mum-chance, that hath nopolicie norknaverie, 



I come to her in white and cry mum; she cries budget; 
and by that we know one another. 

Shak., M. W. of W., v. 2. 6. 

Avoir le vec gelf., to play mumbudget, to be tongue-tyed, 
to say never a word. Cotgrave. 

"Nor did I ever wince or grudge it 
For thy dear sake." Quoth she, "Mum budget." 

S. Butler, Hudibras, I. iii. 208. 



work food with the gums on account of lack or 
defectiveness of teeth. 

I have teeth, sir ; 
I need not mumble yet this forty years. 

Middleton, Chaste Maid, i. 1. 
The man who laughed but once, to see an ass 
Mumbling to make the cross-grained thistles pass. 

Dryden, The Medal, 1. 146. 

II. trans. 1. To utter in a low inarticulate 
voice. 

He singes the treble part, 

The meane he mumbles out of tune, for lack of life and hart. 
Gaseoigne, Memories. 

Mumbling of wicked charms. Shak., Lear, ii. 1. 41. 

The chiefe Bonzi in an vnknowne language mumMeth 
ouer an hyinne. Purchas, Pilgrimage, p. 532. 

He with mumbled prayers atones the Deity. Dryden. 
2. To chew gently; work (food) by rubbing it 
with the gums on account of lack of teeth. 

Gums unarmed to mumble meat in vain. 

Dryden, tr. of Juvenal's Satires, x. 319. (Latham.) 

The sea laps and mumbles the soft roots of the hills, 
and licks away an acre or two of good pasturage every 
season. Lowell, Fireside Travels, p. 278. 

3t. To cover up or hide, as if by uttering in a 

mumbling, unintelligible fashion; say over in- mum-houset (mum'hous), n 



but plain as a pike staf : yon shal shuttle and ile cut ; you 

shal cal a carde, and this honest man, a stranger almost to 

us both, shal cal another for me, and which of our cards 

comes first shal win. Greene, Conny-Catching (1591). 

But leaving cardes, lett's go to dice awhile, 

To passage, treitrippe, hazarde, or mum-chance. 

Machiai-ell's Dogg (1617), sig. B. (Nares.) 

2. One who has not a word to say for himself ; 
a fool. 

Why stand ye like a mum-chance f What, are ye tongue- 
ty'd? Plautus made English (1694). (Nares.) 

Methinks you look like Mumchance, that was hanged for 
saying nothing. Sunfl, Polite Conversation, i. 

3. Silence. Huloet. 
II. a. Silent. 

The witty poet [Swift] depicts himself as cutting a very 
poor figure at Sir Arthur's dinner-table in the presence 
of the dashing dragoon captain, and indeed sitting quite 
mumchance. N. and Q., 7th ser., II. 242. 

A tavern where 



mum was sold. 



articulately: with up. 

The raising of my rabble is an exploit of consequence, 
and not to be mumbled up in silence. Dryden. 

Take heede that you fishe not so falre that at length you 
catch a frogge, and then repentaunce make you mumble mumm (mum), r. i. See mini/-. 
p a mass with miserere. Greene, Carde of Fancie. mummachog ( mum 'a-chog), . Same as mum- 



I went with Mr. Norbury, near hand to the Fleece, a 
num-htttise in Leadenhall, and there drunk mum. 

Pepys, Diary, II. 12J. 



[< mumble, r.] A low, 



mumble (mum'bl), . 

indistinct utterance, 
mumble-matinst (mum'bl -mat "ins), . [< 

mumble, r., + obj. matins.] An ignorant priest. 

Davies. 
How can they be learned, having none to teach them but 

Sir John Mumble -matins? Bp. Pilkington, Works, p. 26, 

mumblement (mum'bl-ment), 



mycJtog. 

mummanizet (mum'a-nlz), v. t. [Irreg. < 
mumm-y + -an + -tzc (cf. humattite).] To 
mummify. 

Deere Vault, that veil'st him, 

Mummanize his corse, 
Till it arise in Heauen to be crown'd. 

Davies, Muse's Tears, p. 9. (Duties.) 



., ,, [Formerly 

also momblement ; < mumble + -meat.] Low in- mummet, it. See ;<>. 

distinct words or utterance ; mumbling speech, mummer (mum'er), n. [< OF. momeur, < momei; 



( '(ir/i/te, French Rev., III. iii. 8. [Bare.] 
mumble-newst (mum'bl-nuz), w. [< mumble, r., 
+ obj. news.] A tale-bearer; a prattler. 
Some carry-tale, . . . some mumble-news. 

Shot., L. L. L., v. 2. 464. 

mumbler (mum'bler), n. One who mumbles. 
Mass mfnnblers, holy-water swingers. 

Bp. Bale, A Course at the Romyshe Foxe (1543), fol. 88. 



mum: see mum 2 .] One who mums, or masks 
himself and makes diversion in disguise; a 
masker; a masked buffoon; specifically, in 
England, one of a company of persons who go 
from house to house at Christmas performing 
a kind of play, the subject being generally St. 
George and the Dragon, with sundry whimsi- 
cal adjuncts. 



mummery 

mummery unnm'(T-i). .; pi. /imTir.v (-!/.). 

[Formerly also nuniiiiici'i/ ; < <)K. iiHnitni/rit, K. 
tmnitt'i'ic (= Sp. annul i'i ~ 1). moiinnt'i'ij = <!. 
mumiiirrri = Dim. minium ri), mummery, < IHO- 
i<r, ilium, i;o a mnminiii";: sec muni'-. ] 1. 1'sin- 
tomime M enacted l>\ mummers; ashoworper- 
fonnanco of mummers. 

Vour futile^ 
lliwdain'il tin- iHiniiini ni <if foreign stroller*. t-'i-uti>u. 

This festival [of fools) was a reliuioiiH niuniiiitri/, usually 
In-Ill itt Christmas time. 

Struct, Sports and Pastimes, p. 308. 

2. A ceremony or performance considered false 
or pretentious; farcical show ; hypocritical dis- 
guise and parade: applied in contempt to vari- 
ous religious ceremonies by people who are of 
other sects or beliefs. 

The temple and its holy rid s prf:m'd 

Hy iiiinnin'rie* he that dwelt in it dimlain'il. 

L'ltifper, Expostulation, 1. 145. 

But for what we know of Eleusis and its mttmweritx, 
which is quite enough for all practical purposes, we are 
indebted to none of you ancients, but entirely to modern 
sagacity. De (Juincey, Secret Societies, i. 

mumniet (mum'et), . [Perhaps a dial, cor- 
ruption of noimmeat( ME. noncmete): see quot.] 
Luncheon. [Local, Eng.] 

This nonemete which seems to have been a meal in lieu 
uf a nap is still the wur<l by which luncheon was called 
at Bristol in my childhood, but corrupted into mmnmet. 

Suuthey. 

mummiat (mum'i-a), . [ML.: see mummy. ~\ 
Same as mummy 1 , ii. 

Hee supposed that Mum nun was made of such as the 
sands had surprised and buried quirk : but the truer Mum- 
7/u'a is made of embalmed bodies of men, as they yse to 
doe in Egypt. Purchat, Pilgrimage, p. 230. 

Your followers 
Have swallowed you like roummia. 

Webster, White Devil, L 1. 

murainick (nmm'ik), v. t. [Cf. mommick.'} To 
eat awkwardly and with distaste. [Prov. Eng. 
and local U. S.] 

mummied (raum'id), /). u. Mummified. The 
Academy, No. 891, p. 383. 

mummification (inum'i-fi-ka'shou), n. [= F. 
uitiinification; as mummify + -anon.] 1. The 
process of mummifying, or making into a mum- 
my. 2. In pnthol., dry gangrene. See gan- 
greae, 1. 

mummiform (inum'i-fdrm), . [< mummy 1 + 
L. forma, form.] Resembling a mummy: ap- 
plied in entomology to the nymphs of certain 
Lepicloiitera. 

mummify (mum'i-fi), v. t.; pret. and pp. mum- 
mified, ppr. nt n minifying. [= F. momifier; as 
mil m in y 1 + -fy,] To make into a mummy; em- 
balm and dry as a mummy; hence, to dry, or 
to preserve by drying. 

Thou art far 

More richly laid, and shalt more long remain 
Still mummified within the hearts of men. 

John Hall, Poems (1646), p. 50. 

There had been brought back to France numerous mutn- 
ni : it'll corpses of the animals which the ancient Egyptians 
revered and preserved. Uuxley, Amer. Addresses, p. :&. 

mumming (mum'iug), . [< ME. >II</I>IIIII/H</: 
verbal n. of mitmV, fl.J The sports of mummers ; 
masking or masquerade. 

That no maner of personne, of whate degree or condlclon 
that they be of, at no tytne this Christmas goo &nwiinnii/i</ 
with cloce visagcd. English <Jiltls(E. E. T. S.X p. 427. 

She had borrowed the suit under pretence she meant to 
pluy in sonic uuwiininy or rural masquerade. 

Scott, Monastery, \\i\. 

" Disgnisings" and " unimniinnx," i. e. dances or other 
appearances in costume, no doubt often of a figurative 
description, were in vogue at Court from the time of Ed- 
ward III. A. W. Ward, Eng. Dram. Lit, I. 82. 

limmmock (mum'ok), H. [Var. of mammock. 
('I. iiiniiiiiii<-/,-.] An old coat fit to put on a scare- 
crow. 

1 haven't a rag or a tttiinniifH-k 

To fetch me a chop or a steak : 
I wish that the coats of my stomach 
Were such as my uncle would take. T. Hood. 

mummy 1 (mum'i), .; pi. mummies (-iz). [For- 
merly also ninmniir. mummec; in late MK. mu- 
inifii, iiini/ii/iiii (<lef. U); = D. G. Sw. Dan. n/iniiii'. 
< OF. iunii(. F. momie = Sp. Pg. momiti = It. 
in ii in in in. < JIli. miiiiiiii, momiii, iiiiininiid = NGr. 
m>r//m=Turk. inuniii/d = PeTS. iMii'i/<i(>Hind. 
iiuiHiiutii), ;i mummy (Hind, also a medicine), < 
Ar. in Ti in ii/a, pi. moirdmi, an embalmed body, a 
mummy. < iiii'iin (> Pers. ilium, > Hind, mom), 
wax (used in embalming); cf. Coptic iiiinii. 
bitumen, gum-resin.] 1. A dead liumau body 
embalmed and dried after the manner of the 
ancient Egyptian preparation for burial. An im- 
mense number of mnmmie.s are found in Egypt. consi>t- 
inir not only of human bodie*. 'tut of tlmsc of various ani- 




Hu.nl of Mummy of Suti I., father 
of K.uiieses II. 



3897 

mals, as bulls, apei, ibises, crocodiles, llsh, etc. The pro- 
cesses of embalming bodies were very various. The bodies 
of the poorer classes were 
merely dried with salt or 
natron, and wrapped up 
in course cloths. Those 
of the rich and the great 
underwent the most cum 
plicated operations, and 
"'!< laltoriontdy adorn- 
ed with various oina 
ments. The embalmers 
il the brain 
tlnoiik'h the nostrils, and 
the entrails through an 
H in the side. The 
In nly was then shaved 
and washed, the belly 
tilled with perfumes, and 
the whole body covered 
with natron, and steeped 
in the same material for 
seventy days. After this 
the corpse was washed, 
treated with balsam or 
nib' i antiseptics, and 
then wrapped up In linen bandages, sometimes to the mini 
ber of twenty thicknesses. The body was then put into an 
ornamented case of wood or cartonnage. Sometimes the 
cases were double. The term mummy is likewise used of 
human bodies preserved in other ways, either by artificial 
preparation or by accident. The Ouanches, or ancient 
people of the Canaries, embalmed their dead in a simple 
but effectual manner. In some situations the conditions 
of the soil and atmosphere, by the rapidity with which they 
permit the drying of the animal tissues, are alone sufficient 
for the preservation of the body with the general charac- 
teristics of a mummy. This is the case in some parts 
of South America, especially at Arica (formerly in Peru), 
where considerable numbers of bodies have been found 
quite dry, in pits dug in a dry saline soil. In some places 
natural mummies are occasionally found in caverns or 
in crypts, as In a well-known church-crypt in Bordeaux, 
France. Natural mummies of various animals are often 
found in such state of preservation as to allow of scien- 
tific description of many of their parts. 

An imposture perhaps contrived by the Water-men, who, 
fetching them [tnearmsand legs]from the Mummca, . . . 
do stick them over-night in the sand. 

Sandys, Travalles, p. 99. 

2f. The substance of a mummy; a medicinal 
preparation supposed to consist of the sub- 
stance of mummies or of dead bodies; hence, 
a medicinal liquor or gum in general. Also 
mummia. See first quotation under mummia. 

Mummy hath great force In stanching blood, which may 
be ascribed to the mixture of balms that are glutinous. 

Bacon, Nat. Hist., ( 980. 
'Tls true ; there's magic in the web of it : ... 
And it was dyed in mummy which the skilful 
Conserved of maidens' hearts. 

Shak., Othello, ill. 4. 74. 

Make mummy of my flesh, and sell me to the apothe- 
caries. Shirley, Bird in a Cage, 1. 1. 
In or near this place is a precious liquor or mummy 
growing; . . . a moist, redolent gum it is, sovereign against 
poisons. Sir T. Herbert, Travels in Africa, p. 124. 
Mininini is said to have been first brought into use in 
medicine by the malice of a Jewish physician, who wrote 
that flesh thus embalmed was good for the cure of divers 
diseases, and particularly bruises, to prevent the blood's 
gathering and coagulating. Chambers'! Cyc., 1738. 

3. In Inn-/., a kind of wax used in grafting and 
planting trees. 4. A brown color prepared 
from the asphalt taken from Egyptian mum- 
mies, and used as an oil-color by artists. It re- 
sembles asphaltum in ita general qualities, and has the ad- 
vantage of being less liable to crack. It was supposed 
that the asphalt taken from the Egyptian mummies made 
the finest color. ITre, Diet, III. 361. To beat to a mum- 
my, to beat soundly, or till insensible. 

mummy 1 (mum'i), i'. t. ; pret. and pp. mummied, 
ppr.miimii/in<i. [< mummy*. .] To embalm; 
mummify. Encyc. Brit., XVII. 21. 

mummy 2 (mum'i), .; pi. mummiex (-iz). [Short 
for mummychog.'] A mummychog. Massachu- 



mump 




Mummy-case of Kha-Hor, between two others. Boutak Museum. 
Cairo, 



setts Fisheries Report for 1872, p. 51. 
mummy-case (mum'i-kas), n. In Egyptian ar- 



l., a case of wood or cartonnage in which a 
mummy was inclosed, having as nearly as pos- 
sible the shape of the mummy, and carved and 
painted so as to represent the dead person. 
The mummy-cases of the rich were often very elaborately 
painted and inlaid, and were inclosed in a second or outer 
case of wood, or a sarcophagus of stone, the latter being 
sometimes also of the form of the mummy, but more fre- 
quently rectangular. See cut in next column. 
mummychog (nium'i-chog), . [Amer. Ind. 
mi/mm<i<-lto{/.~\ A salt-water minnow, the com- 




Mutmnychog {f-'mtjulus M<V'O/U). 

mon killifisli. t'liiiiliiliin In ti riK'litus ; also, one of 
numerous other small cvprinodonts. killifishes 
or top-minnows. See l:ill(li.tli. Also written 



mumnuiclioi/, mummit'lioy, mammichtiy, inammy- 
cli ui/. 

mummy-cloth (mum'i-kloth), . 1. Cloth in 
which mummies are enveloped, a fabric as to 
the material of which there is some dispute, but 
which is generally admitted to be linen. 2. 
A modern textile fabric made to some extent 
in imitation of the ancient fabric, and used 
especially as a foundation for embroidery. 3. 
A fabric resembling crape, having the warp of 
either cotton or silk and the weft of woolen : 
used for mourning when black on account of its 
lusterless surface. Also ntotiiie-cloth. 

mummy-wheat (mum'i-hwet), n. A variety of 
wheat, originally considered a distinct species, 
Triticum compositum, cultivated in Egypt and 
Abyssinia, and to some extent elsewhere. It has 
been raised from grains found in mummy-cases probably 
placed there, however, by fraud. 

mump 1 (mump), r. [< D. mompen, mump, cheat ; 
a strengthened form of mommrn, mumble: see 
mxnti, r. The Goth, bi-mantpjan, deride, in 
perhaps ult. related. In part perhaps associ- 
ated with munch, aa crump 3 with crunch, liumji 
with hunch, lumpl with lunch, etc. Hence 
mttmpg.] I. iiitrann. 1. To mumble or mutter, 
as in sulkiness. 

And when he's crost or sullen any way, 

He untinim, and lowres, and hangs the lip, they say. 

John Taylor, Works (1(130). (Saret.) 

When they come with their counterfeit looks, and mump- 

ing tones, think them players. Lamb, Decay of Beggars. 

2. To nibble; chew; munch, or move the jaw 
as if munching. 

Aged iniinipin'i beldames. A'o*A, Terrors of the Night. 
Spend but a quarter so much time in mumping upon 
Gahrielism. 

Kath, Dedication to Haue with you to Saffron- W'alden. 

3. To chatter; make mouths; grin like an ape. 
TIT. The tailor will run mad upon my life for X 

Ped. How he mumps and bridles; he will ne'r cut clothes 
again. Fletcher and Rotrley, Maid In the Mill, ill. 1. 

4. To implore alms in a low muttering tone; 
play the beggar; hence, to deceive; practise 
imposture. 

And then went mumping with a sore leg, . . . canting 
and whining. Bvrkt. 

Doubtless his church will be no hospital 
For superannuate forms and mumpiwj shams. 

LauxU, The Cathedral. 

II. trans. 1. To utter with a low, indistinct 
voice ; chatter unintelligibly. 

Who mump their passion, and who, grimly smiling, 
still thus address the fair with voice beguiling. 

(rMtim'th, Epilogue Spoken by Mrs. Buckley and 
[Mln Cetley. 

2. To munch; chew: as, to mump food. 

She sunk to the earth as dead as a doore naile, and 
never mnmpt crust after. Kathe, Lenten Stuff e. 

3. To overreach. 

What, yon laugh, I warrant, to think how the young 
Baggage and you will mump the poor old Father : but if 
all her Dependence for a Fortune be upon the Father, he 
may chance to mump you both and spoil the Jest 

Wycheruy, Gentleman Dancing-Master, ill. 1. 

mump 2 (mump), H. [Origin obscure.] 1. A 
protuberance: a lump. [Prov. Eng.] 2. Any 
great knotty piece of wood; a root. //</" 
[Prov. Eng.] 



mumper 
mumper (mum'per), . A beggar. 

Since the king of beggars was married to the queen of 
sluts, at Lowzy-hill, near Beggars-hush, being most splen- 
didly attended on by a ragged regiment of IIIM;/C. 

Poor Kobin (1094). (Nares.) 

The country gentleman [of thetime of Charles II.] . . . 

was . . . deceived by the tales of a Lincoln's Inn mumper. 

Macaulay, Hist. Eng. (Latham.) 

mumping-day (mump'ing-da), n. St. Thomas's 
day, the twenty-first of December, when the 
poor go about the country begging corn, etc. 
Halliwell. [Prov. Bug.] 

mumpish (mum'pish), a. [< mump' 1 + -is}! 1 .] 
Dull; heavy; sullen; sour. 

mumpishly (mum'pish-li), adf. In a mumpish 
manner; dully; sullenly. 

mumpishness (mum'pish-nes), re. The state of 
being mumpish ; sullenness. 

mumps (mumps), n. pi. (also used as sing.). [PI. 
of 'mump 1 , n.,< mump 1 , v. Cf. mump 2 .] 1. Sul- 
lenness; silent displeasure; sulks. [Rare.] 

The Sunne was so in his mumps uppon it, that it was al- 
most noone before hee could goe to cart that day. 

Sashe, Lenten Stuffe (Harl. Misc., VI. 168). (Dames.) 

2. A contagious non-suppurative inflammation 
of the parotid and sometimes of the other sali- 
vary glands and of the cireumglandular connec- 
tive tissue ; idiopathic parotitis. Mumps is usual- 
ly an innocent affection without dangers or sequela;. It 
begins with pain and then swelling behind the jaw, close 
to the ear, on one side. The pain at first is caused by mo- 
tion of the Jaw or the presence of acids. The other side 
is involved a day or two later. There may be inflamma- 
tion of the testes and scrotum in males, or of the mammaj, 
ovaries, and vulva in females ; this extension is, however, 
mostly confined to pubescence and adult life. One attack 
usually protects. The period of incubation is thought to 
be from 7 to 14 days. 
3f. A drinking game. 

Now, he is nobody that cannot drinke super nagulum, 
carouse the hunter's hoop, quaife upsey freze crosse, with 
leapes gloves, mumpes, frolickes, and a thousand such 
domineering inventions. Sashe, Pierce Penilesse. 

mumpsimus (mump'si-mus), n. [A term ori- 
ginating in the story of an ignorant priest who 
in saying his mass had long said mumpsimus for 
sumpsimus, and who, when his error was point- 
ed out, replied, "I am not going to change my 
old mumpsimus for your new sumpsimus." The 
story evidently refers to the post-communion 
prayer "Quod ore sumpsimus," etc.] An error 
obstinately clung to; a prejudice. 

Some be to stiff e in their old mumpgimus, others be to 
busy and curious in their newe sumpsimus. 

Hall, Hen. VIII., f. 261. (Halliwett.) 

Mere chance of circumstances is their infallible deter- 
minator of the true and the false, and, somehow, it cannot 
but be that their old mumpsimus is preferable to any new 
sumpsimus. F. Hall, Mod. Eng., p. 137. 

mun 1 (mun), n. [< ME. mun, prob. < Sw. mre 
= Dan. mund = G. mund = D. mond = E. mouth ; 
see mouth.] The mouth. 

One a penny, two a penny, hot cross buns, 
Butter them and sugar them and put them in your muns. 
Popular rime, quoted by Halliwell. 

mun 2 , . A variant of mown 2 , maun that is, 
must. [Now only provincial.] 

A gentleman mun show himself like a gentleman. 

B. Jonson, Every Man in his Humour, 1. 1. 

mun 3 (mun), n. [Origin not ascertained.] One 
of a band of dissolute young fellows who, in the 
reign of Queen Anne, swaggered by night in 
the streets of London, breaking windows, over- 
turning sedans, beating men, and offering rude 
caresses to women; a Mohawk. 

mun 4 (mun), w. 1. A dialectal variant of maw, 
used indefinitely for both numbers of the third 
personal pronoun (lie, him, they, them). 

I've seed mun [him] do what few has. 

Kingsley, Westward Ho, xxx. 

Look to mun [them] the works of the Lord. 

Kinysley, Westward Ho, xxx. 

2. A familiar term of address applied to per- 
sons of either sex and of any age : usually at 
the end of a sentence and practically expletive : 
as, mind what I'm telliu' you, mun. [Prov. Eng. 
and southern U. S.] 

munch (munch), v. [Formerly also maunch, 
mounch; < ME. munchen, var. of manchen, 
maunchen, var. of maungen, mangen, eat: see 
mange, v. For the relation of munch to mauncli 1 , 
cf . that of crunch to craunch.] I. trans. To chew 
deliberately or continuously ; masticate audi- 
bly; champ. 

And some wolde munche hire mete al allone. 

Chaucer, Troilus, i. 915. 
I could munch your good dry oats. 

Shak., M. N. D., iv. 1. 86. 

II. intraitx. To chew continuously and noisily. 



3898 

A sailor's wife had chestnuts in her lap, 
And nnincfi'd, and munch'd, and mutlch'd. 

Shalt., Macbeth, i 3. 5. 

munch (munch), n. [< miiucli, r.] Something 



munch-presentt, . 



A variant of maunch-pres- 



a. and . [= 
: see 



mungo 

be met with, or to be looked for in this world. 
[Bare.] 

A vacuum and an exorbitancy are mmitliddioui evils. 
jr. Ward, Simple Cooler, p. 21. 

mundificant (mun-dif'i- 

I'g. ninndijicantc = It. 
difica n(t-)s, ppr. of m 
Mmcketetttry. A g,!, b.tttr, t|,, pi,,,. -;;) . H,,iug th, pt t. d,.n 

9?f j&tf :@sa 3^HEb a > ta "-"" - 

These are placed in such a manner as mutually to inter- P las ^- ; ""> ''""""./".' 

lock on a frame which is immersed in a trough of acidu- mundlfication (mun"di-fi-ka shon), n. [= t . 

lated solution. mondijicdtion = Pg. mundijicac.au = It. mondifi- 

muncorn, re. Same as mangcorn. cazione, < ML. mundificatio(n-), < LL. mundifi- 

mundH, n. [AS.: see mown* 1 .] In Anglo-Saxon Cf ,re, pp. mundificatus, cleanse : see mundify.] 

law, protection; security. Compare mundium. The act or operation of cleansing any body 



from dross or extraneous matter. 

The juice both of the braunehes and hearbe itself, as also 

of the root, is singular for to scour the jaundice, and all 

things els which have need of clensing and mvndijication. 

Holland, tr. of Pliny, xxiv. 6. 



(mund), re. 
mound?.] A globe or ball : same as mound*. 



Till . . . a waiver was given, the wrong-doer remained 
in the folk's mund; and to act against him without such 
a waiver, or without appeal to the folk, was to act against 
the folk itself, for it was a breach of the peace or frith to 
which his mund entitled him. 

J. Jt. Green, Conq. of Eng , p. 23. 

IX L. mundus, world: see mundificativet (mun'di-fi -ka-tiv), a. and n. 
[= F. mondificatif = Sp. Pg. mundificativo = It. 
mondificatii'O, < ML. mundificativus, < LL. mun- 

dificare, pp. mundijicatus, cleanse: see mitndi- 

Rock, Church of our Fathers, i. 258. fy.] Same as mundificant. 

mundane (mun'dan), a. and n. [In ME. man- mundifier (mun'di-fi-er), n. Same as mimdifr- 
dain, < OF. mondain, F. mondain, = Sp. Pg. cant, liees. 

mundano = It. mondano; < LL. mundanus, be- mundify (mun'di-fi), v.; pret. and pp. mundt- 
longing to the world, < L. mundus, the world, fied, ppr. mundijijing. [< F. mondifier = bp. 
< mundus, adorned, elegant, clean ; cf . cosmos 1 .] Pg- mundficar = It. mondtficare, < LL. mundi- 
I a. 1. Belonging to this world; worldly; terres- fieare, cleanse, < L. mundus, clean, + facere, 
trial: earthlv: as. this mundane sphere: mun- make.] I. trans. To cleanse ; make clean ; pu- 



trial; earthly: as, this mundane sphere; mun 
dane existence. 

The pompous wealth renouncing of mondain glory. 

Hot. of Gloucester, p. 579, App. No. 2. 



rify. 



Here mercury, here hellebore, 
Old ulcers mundtfying. 

Drayton, Muses' Elysium, v. 



I, King Pericles, have lost 

This queen, worth all our mundane cost. 

Shak., Pericles, iii. 2. 71. 

A sight . . . fitted for meditation on the volatility of 
mundane things. Lathrop, Spanish Vistas, p. 96. 

2. In astrol., relating to the horizon, and not 
to the ecliptic. Thus, mundane parallels are small 
circles parallel to the horizon ; mundane aspects are dif- 
ferences of azimuth amounting to some simple aliquot 
part of the circle. But the mundane aspects are calcu- 
lated in such violation of the truths of trigonometry as to 

leave room for dispute as to what is intended. Mun- ,., , ,.,, ,., 

dane astrology. Seeastrology,!. Mundane era. See mundll (mun'dil), n. Same as mandil*. 
era. mundiumt, [ML.: see mund 1 .] In Anglo- 

Saxon law, protection. See the quotation. 



Whatever stains were theirs, let them reside 
In that pure place, and they were mundifled. 

Crabbe, Works, VIII. 132. 

II. intrans. To do something by way of 
cleansing. 

To cleanse and mundifie where need is. 

Holland, tr. of Pliny, xxiii. 4. 

Or at least forces him, upon the ungrateful inconvenien- 
cy, to steer to the next barber's shop, to new rig and mun- 
difie. Country Gentleman's Vade-mecum (1699). (Nares.) 



And the worst oppressions in consequence of the mun- 
dium [protection given by a noble or rich man to a poorer, 
for services to be rendered and assessments paid by the 
latter! led to the fear that a new serfdom might arise. 

English Gilds (E. E. T. S.), Int., p. ex. 



Il.t n. A dweller in this world. 

By the shyppe we may vnderstande ye folyes and er- 
roures that the mondaynes are in, by the se this presente 
worlde. Prol. to Watsons tr. of Ship of Fools. 

mundanely (mun'dan-li), adv. In a mundane 
manner; with reference to worldly things, 
mundanity (mun-dan'i-ti), n. [= F. mon- mundivagant (mun-div'a-gant), a. [< L. mun- 
danite = It. mondanitd,, '< ML. mundanita(t-)s, dus, the world (see mundane), + vagan(t-)s, ppr. 
love of the world, < L. mtmdanus, of the world: of vagari, wander: see vagrant.] Wandering 
see mundane.] The quality of being mundane ; over the world. J.Philips. [Bare.] 
worldliness; worldly feelings ; the way of the mundul (mun/dul), n 
world. 

The love of mundanity, wherein do reside the vital spirits 
of the body of sin. W. Montague, Devoute Essays, I. xx. 1. 
He could have blessed her for the tone, for the escape 
into common mundanity. 

Mrs. Humphry Ward, Robert Elsmere, II. xvi. 

mundationt (mun-da'shon), n. [= It. monda- 
zione, < LL. mvndatio(n-'), a cleansing, < L. mun- 



% Same as 

mundungot, mundungust(mun-dung'go, -gus), 
n. [Cf. Sp. mondongo, paunch, tripes, black- 
pudding.] Tobacco made up into a black roll. 

With these mundungo's, and a breath that smells 
Like standing pools in subterranean cells. 

Satyr against Hypocrites (1689). (Hares.) 

Exhale mundunaus, ill-perfuming scent. 

J. Philips, Splendid Shilling. 



dare, pp. mimdatus, cleanse, < mundus, clean: munerary (mu'ne-ra-ri), o. [<LL. munerarius, 
see mundane.] The act of cleansing. Bailey, belonging to a gift, < L. muniis (nmner-), a gift : 
1731. gee munerate.] Having the nature of a gift. 

Bailey, 1731. [Rare.] 



LL. 



mundatory (mun'da-to-ri), a. and n. [< 

mundatorius, belonging to cleansing, < mun- muneratet (raii'ne-rat), v. t. [< L. mmieratus, 
dator, a cleanser, < L. mundare, pp. mundatus, pp. O f munerare ("> It. mwierare), give, < munus 
cleanse: tee inundation.] I.t a. Having pow- (nmner-), OL. moenus (moener-), a service, of- 
er to cleanse; cleansing. Bailey, 1727. [Rare.] fice, function, favor, gift, present, a public 
II. n.; pi. mandatories (-riz). Sameas^Mri- show: cf. mnnia,moenia, duties, service. Hence 
ficator. remunerate.] Same as remunerate. 

mund-byrdt (AS. pron. mund'biird), n. [AS. munerationt (mu-ne-ra'shou), n. [= It. mune- 
(= OS. mundburd = OHG. mund'iburd), protec- razione, < LL. muneratio(n-), a giving, < L. mu- 
tion, patronage, aid, a fine (see def.), < mund, nerare, pp. mmieratus, give: see munerate.] 
protection, -f *byrd,< beran, bear: see Senr 1 and game as remuneration. 

birth.] In early Eng. hist., a fee or fine paid munga (mung'ga), n. Same as bonnet-macaque. 
for securing protection. mungcorn (mung'k6rn), n. Same as mangcorn. 

In the laws of Ethelbert the king's mundbyrd is fixed mungCet, . See munjeet. 
at fifty shillings. Stubbs, Const. Hist., 71. nilingo ' (mnng'go), n. [Perhaps < *mmig, mong, 

mundic (mun'dik), n. [Corn.] Iron pyrites, mang, a mixture, as in iiiiniiiciirn, mungcorn. 
either pyrite or marcasite, and including also But the termination, in this view, is not ex- 
arsenical pyrites, or arsenopyrite, which is plained. The early history is not known. Some 



sometimes called arsenical mundic. 

There are mines of silver mixed with copper at Kuten- 

berg, to the west of Prague, in which there is a crystal that 

is thought to be Flores cupri ; they find likewise both white 

and yellow mundic, and formerly they had antimony there. 

Pococke, Description of the East, II. ii. 239. 

mundicidioust (muu-di-sid'i-us), a. [< L. mun- 



conjecture that the word is due to a proper 
name, Mungo. This is a Sc. name.] Artificial 
short-staple wool formed by tearing to pieces 
and disintegrating old woolen fabrics, as old 
clothes. The cloth made from it when mixed with a lit- 
tle fresh wool has a fine warm appearance, but from the 
shortness of the fiber is weak and tender. See shoddy. 



dim, the world, -i- cadere (in comp. -cidcre), fall, mungo 2 (mung'go), re. [Cf. NL. Mungos, the 
happen: see cadcnt, chance.] Happening, to specific name of the plant: see Mungos.] An 



mungo 

Kiist linli;iii plant. n/iliiitrlii-.n Minn/us, whose 
routs arc :i reputed cure for snako-bitcs. See 



MM 



lllUllgofa (imin-gi/fji). ii. The gopher, a kind 
of tortoise. 

I, tlesh of the t'other, or munyofa, as It is also called, 
Is con>.iileiv,l cMvllcnt eating. Xuv* Brfl., X. 780. 



mungOOS, . Se 

Mungos (mung'gos), M. [NL. : see mongoos.] 
1. A o;enusof African viverrine quadrupeds of 
tlie subfamily Illiinoi/iilinie, The Mungon fan- 
ciatun is si common species. 2. [(. c.] Same as 

tt01M000, 

mungrelt, '< and An obsolete spelling of 

ninniii'i ! . 
munguba (mun-go'bji), . [Native name.] A 

stately species of silk-cotton tree, Bombax Mnii- 

i/nliii, found on the Amazon and Rio Negro. 
mungyt (mun'ji), . [Origin obscure.] Dark; 

clouded; gloomy. 

Disperse this plague-distilling cloud, and clear 
My mangy soul Into a glorious day. 

Quarle*, Emblems, r 5. 

Munia(mu'ni-a), n. [NL. (Hodgson, 1836), from 
an E. Ind. name.] An extensive genus of plo- 
ceine birds of India and islands eastward, as M. 
ma jit or M. malacca, in which genus the paddy- 
bird is placed by some authors. See 1'adda. 

municipal (mu-nis'i-pal), a. [< F. municipal 
= Sp. Fg. municipal = It. munieipale, < L. mu- 
tiicipaliH, of or belonging to a citizen or a free 
town, < municeps (municip-), a citizen, an in- 
habitant of a free town (> municipium, a free 
town, having the right of a Komaii citizenship, 
but governed by its own laws), < munus, duty 
(see numerate), + capcre, take: see capable. \ 

1. Of or pertaining to the local self-govern- 
ment or corporate government of a city or town. 

When the time comes for the ancient towns of England 
to reveal the treasures of their municipal records, much 
light must be thrown upon the election proceedings of the 
middle agea. Stubbe, Const. Hist, { 422. 

2. Self-governing, as a free city. 

There are two distinct and opposite systems of adminis- 
tration, the municipal or self-governing, and the central- 
izing or bureaucratic. 

W. R. Grey, Misc. Essays, 2d ser., p. 48. 

3. Pertaining to the internal affairs of a state, 
kingdom, or nation, and its citizens: as, muni 
cipal law (which see, below) Municipal bor- 
ough. See borough*, 2 (a). Municipal corporation, 
court, judge, etc. See the nouns. Municipal law, a 
rule of civil conduct, prescribed by the civil power in a 
state, respecting the intercourse of the state with its 
members and of its members with each other, as distin- 
Kiiished from iutfriiiilitmtil law, the law of nations, etc. 
in this phrase, derived from the Roman law, the word 
municipal lias no specific reference to modern municipal- 
ities. 

The municipal laws of this kingdom . . . are of a vast 
extent, and . . . include in their generality all those sev- 
eral laws which are allowed as the rule and direction of 
justice and judicial proceedings. 

Sir M. Hale, Hist Com. Law of Eng. 

I call it municipal law, in compliance with common 
speech : for, though strictly that expression denotes the 
particular customs of one single municipium or free town, 
yet it may with sufficient propriety be applied to anyone 
state or nation which is governed by the same laws and 
customs. Blaclcstonc, Com., Int., J 2. 

The term municipal [for local or provincial law] seemed 
to answer tile purpose very well till it was taken by an 
Knglish author of the first eminence to signify Internal 
law in general, in contradistinction to international law, 
and the imaginary law of nature. It might still be used 
in this sense, without scruple, in any other language. 
llentham, Introd. to Morals and Legislation, xvil. 2(5, note. 

municipalisation, . Sec niiiiiicipali;ntion. 

municipalism (mu-nis'i-pal-izm), n. [= F. mu- 
nici/>alixic ; as miiiiii-ipal 4- -(',>/.] Systematic 
municipal government ; the tendency to or pol- 
icy of government by municipalities. 

municipality (mu-nis-i-pal'i-ti), .; pi. munici- 
/Kililii-s (-tiz). [= F. iiinnicii>nKtf = Sp. muni- 
ci/ialidad = Pg. iiniiiici/ialitlailf = It. municipa- 
liti'i : us municipal + -('///.] A town or city pos- 
sessed of corporate privileges of local self-gov- 
ernment; a community under municipal juris- 
diction. 

We have not relegated religion (like something we were 
ashamed to shew) to obscure miniiW/Hi(i'/i>&orrustick vil- 
lages. Burke, Rev. in France. 

London claims the first place . . . as thegreatest muni. 
ripalilu. us the model on which . . . the other large towns 
of the' country were allowed or charged to adjust their 
usages. Stubbs, Const. Hist., 486. 

municipalization (inu-nis'i-pal-i-za'shon), . 
[< municipal + -/:< -t- -<tliiin.~] The act or pro- 
cess of converting (a community) in to a munici- 
pality, of bringing it under municipal control, or 
of providing for it the privileges of local self- 
government. Also spelled m/iiiici/ni/i.'iiiliiiii. 



The proposal seems to aim at the municipaluati'>n < >f 
land, by placing the local authority in the position ..t 
ultimate landlord. NtMfcMtl CMWy, XVIII. r>Y 

Such is the present position of affairs in I'arix, and it 
certainly points in the direction of the mnniciiialaation 
of Hi, bread ti:nlr. Lancet, No. 346, p. 2UO. 

municipally (mu-nis'i-pal-i), a<ly. In a muni- 
cipal manner; as regards municipal rule. 

municipium (mu-ni-sip'i-um), n.; pi. muiiici- 
\iin (-ii). [L.: see municipal.] In ancient 
times, an Italian town with local rights of self- 
government and some of the privileges of Ko- 
inaii citizenship; later, a town-government 
similarly constituted, wherever situated. 

A colony was brought to It (the ancient Carnuntum) ; it 
was made a municipium ; and the emperor Aurelius spent 
much of his time in this city. 

I'ocrx-Jte, Description of the East, II. II. 241. 

nmnifict (mu-nif'ik), a. [< It. ////<, < L. 
iiiiinijicus, bountiful, liberal, < munus, a pres- 
ent, + facere, make.] Liberal; lavish. Black- 
Incl:, Hymn to Divine Love. 

munificatet (mu-nif 'i-kat). r. I. [< L. miuiififa- 
tus, pp. of munijicare, present, < munificus, pres- 
ent-making: see munijic.] To enrich. r<7.-- 
criim. 

munificence 1 (mu-nif'i-sens), n. [< F. munifi- 
cence = 8p. Pg. munificencia = It. munificenza, 
n.-irt, < ' 



mur 

M'-n must beware that, in the procuring or munitingot 
religious unity, they do not dissolve and deface the lawi 
of charity. Bacon, I nlty In Religion. 

Monasteries strongly munitfit agnlnst the incursions of 
robbers and plrati. Sandyi, Travailes, p. 64. 



munition (mu-nish'on), M. [< F. mum/inn = Sp. 
municioH = i'g. miiniedo = It. munizione, < L. 
iiiiiiiilio(n-), adefendmg, a fortification, < mii- 



L. munijicentia, bountif ulness : 
see munificent.] The quality or character of 
being munificent ; a giving or bestowing with 
great liberality or lavishness ; bounty; liberal- 
ity. Also muni/iwncy.= Syn. Liberality, Oenerotity, 
etc. (see benrjicence\ bounteousness, bountifulness. 

munificence 2 !, " [Irreg. < L. muni-re, fortify 
(see muniment), -r- -ficentia, < facen(t-)s, ppr. of 
facere, make.] Fortification or strength ; de- 
fense. Spenser, F. O_., II. x. 15. 

munificency (mu-nif'i-sen-si), n. Same as inii- 
Hijieencc 1 . Sandys. Travailes, p. 72. 

munificent (mu-nif 'i-sent), <J. [= It. munifi- 
cente, < L. as it *munificen(t-)s, equiv. to muni- 
ficus, bountiful: see munific.] 1. Extremely 
liberal in giving or bestowing; very generous : 
as, a munificent benefactor or patron. 

Think It not enough to be liberal, but munificent. 

Sir T. Browne, Christ. Mor., 1. 6. 

2. Characterized by great liberality or lavish 
generosity: as, a munificent gift. 

Essex felt this disappointment keenly, but found con- 
solation in the most munificent and delicate liberality. 

ii, Lord Bacon. 



= 8yn. Bountiful, bounteous, princely. See beneficence. 
munificently (mu-nif'i-sent-li), flrfc. In a mu- 

nificent manner; with remarkable liberality or 

generosity. 
munifyt, '. [Irreg. < L. muni-re, fortify, + 

-fy-1 To fortify. [Rare.] 

The king assails, the barons mtinifn'il. 

Draylon, Barons' Wars, II. st. 34. 

muniment (mu'ni-ment), H. [Formerly also 
mnnymmt and, rarely, miuiment; < OF. muni- 
ment = L. mitnimentum, a defense, (. munire, 
OL. mocnirt, furnish with walls, fortify, < nioe- 
nia, mcenia, walls.] If. A fortification of any 
kind; a stronghold; a place of defense. 2. 
Support; defense. 

The arm our soldier, 

Our steed the leg, the tongue our trumpeter, 
With other muniments and petty helps. 

SAn*.,Cor., i. 1. 122. 
We cannot spare the coarsest muniment of virtue. 

Emerson, Conduct of Life. 

3. A document by which claims and rights are 
defended or maintained; a title-deed; a deed, 
charter, record, etc., especially such as belong 
to public bodies, or those in which national, 
manorial, or ecclesiastical rights and privileges 
are concerned. 

The privileges of London were recognized (at the time 
of the coronation of William the Conqueror) by a royal 
writ which still remains, the most venerable of Its muni- 
mento, among the city's archives. 

/. R. Green, Conq. of Eng., p. 553. 

4. Any article preserved or treasured as of spe- 
cial interest or value, as jewels, relics, etc. 

Upon a day as she him sate beside, 

By chance he certaine minitnruta forth drew 

Which yet with him as relickes did abide. 

Sprrurr, . Q., IV. viil. 6. 

Muniment-house, muniment-room, a house or room 
in cathedrals, colleges, collejriute churches, castles, or pub- 
lic buildings, purposely made for keeping deeds, charters, 
writings, etc. 

munion, . Sec IHIIHIIIHII. 

munitet (niu-nif), r. t. [< L. munitux, pp. of ;- 
nirc. (>!.. Him nire (> It. niiinirc = Pg. F. miiiY, 
furnish with walls, fortify). < mwnia, munin. 
walls.] To fortify; strengthen. 



= ST 

, t-), a de 

g, pp. of munire, defend: see iiiniiiti:.] If. 

Fortification. 
Keep the munition, watch the way. Naham ii. 1. 

2. Materials used in war for defense or for at- 
tack; war material : military stores of all kinds; 
ammunition; provisions: often in the plural. 

A very strong citadel at the west end, exceedingly well 
furnished with i,n</o'//".i, wherein there are five hundred 
pieces of Ordinance. Coryat, Cniditiea, I. 7. 

Ills majesty might command all his subjects, at their 
charge, to provide and furnish such number of ships, with 
men, munition, and victuals, and for such time as he should 
think flt Hallam. 

Torpedo-boats, iron-dads, and perfected weapons and 
munitiiHix at the service of any government that has money 
to buy them. The Century, XXXVIII. 318. 

3. Figuratively, material for the carrying out 
of any enterprise. 

/'' ". Cant. Your man of law 

And learn'd attorney has sent you a bag of munition. 
Fcn.jun. . . . What Is 't? 
I'm. Cant. Three hundred pieces. 

11. Jontan, Staple of News, I. 1. 

munityt (mu'm-ti), n. [< OF. munite, for im- 
munite: see immunity.] Immunity; freedom; 
security. W. Montague, Devoute Essays, I. iv. 2. 

munjah (mun'jii), n. Same as mooiijo. 

munjeet (mun-jet'),w. [Also mungeet ; < Hind. 
manjit, a drug used for dyeing red.] 1. An 
East Indian madder-plant, Rubin eordifolia, tak- 
ing to some extent the place of the common 
madder, and like the latter affording garancin. 
2. The dyestuff obtained from its root. 

munjistin (mun-jis'tin), n. [< munjeet (*mun- 
ji[s]t) + -in 2 .] An orange coloring matter 
(CgHgOg) contained, together with purpurin, in 
munjeet or East Indian madder. It is nearly 
related in composition to purpurin and alizarin. 

munna (mun'a). [Same as maunna.] Must 
not. [Scotch.] 

munnion (mun'yon), 11. [Also munion; < F. 
moignon, a blunt end or stump, as of an am- 
putated limb (= Sp. munon, the stump of an 
amputated limb, = Pg. munn&o, a trunnion of 
a gun, = It. mugnone, a carpenters' munnion, 
moneone, a stump), < OF. moing (> Bret, mon, 
moun, etc.) = It. manco, maimed, < L. mancutt, 
maimed: see manlcl. The F. moignon does not 
appear in the particular sense ' munnion,' the 
F. form for which is meneau, OF. menel. Hence, 
by corruption, mullion, now the common form 
in arch. use. MonialV, muntin, and munting ap- 
pear to be other forms of the same word, due to 
some orig. misunderstanding.] 1. A mullion. 
[Obsolete or provincial.] 2. In ship-building: 
(a) Apiece of carved work placed between the 
lights in a ship's stern and quarter-galleries. 
(6) A piece placed vertically to divide the 
panels in framed bulkheads. 

mun-pins (mun'pinz), n.pl. [< ME. mompyntt, 
mane-pins; < mun 1 + pin.] Teeth. [Obsolete 
or prov. Eng.] 

Thy mone-pynnef bene lyche old yvory. 

Lydyate, Minor Poems, p. 30. (llaUiuvll.) 

munst, ". [Cf. muni.] The face. Bailey, 1731. 

muntt, n. A Middle English form of m'n< 2 . 

muntin, munting (mun'tin, -ting), n. [See 
munnion.] The central vertical piece that di- 
vides the panels of a door. 

Muntingia (mun-tin'ji-a), H. [NL. (Plumier, 
1703), named after Abraham Miiiiting, professor 
of botanyatGroningen,whodiedabout 1683.] A 
genus of dicotyledonous shrubs, of the polypet- 
a Ions order Tiliatta; and the tribe Tilieir, known 
by its many-seeded berry. There is but one species, 
M. Calakura, a native of tropical America, bearing white 
bramble-like flowers and fruit like cherries. Its wood is 
used for staves, etc., its bark for cordage. See calabur-trce 
and gilkwood. 

mnntjac, muntjack (munt'jak), n. [Java- 
nese.] A small deer of Java, Cerrulus muntjac, 
belonging to the subfamily ('errulina: The term 
is extended to the several specie* of the same genus. 
They are diminutive deer, resembling to some extent 
musk-deer and chevrotains. The male has small simple 
spiked antlers and long tusk-like canine teeth : the female 
Is hornless and without tusks. These animals inhabit 
southern and eastern parU of Asia as well as some of the 
adjacent Islands. Also written muntjat, mintjac. 

Muntz's metal. See metal. 

mur 1 (mer). w. [A var. of mouse, ME. mous, mug, 
< AS. m us = L. nnix (mur-), a mouse: see 
minme.] A mouse. Hnlliinll. [Prov. Eng.J 



mur 

mur-t, " See mure 1 . 

mur 3 , murr 1 , n. [Also murre ; origin obscure.] 
If. A catarrh; a severe cold in the head and 
throat. 
With the pose, mur, and such like rheumes. 

Holland, tr. of Plutarch, p. 685. (JSncyc. Diet.) 

Some gentlemanly humour, 
The murr, the headache, the catarrh. 

Chapman, Mons. D'Olive, ii. 1. 

In sooth, madam, I have taken A murr, which makes my 
nose run most pathetically and unvulgarly. 

Marston, Antonio and Mellida, II., ill. 2. 

2. An epizootic disease, having some resem- 
blance to smallpox, which affects cattle and 
sheep, and is said to have been transferred to 
man. Dunglison. 

Muraena (mu-re'nii), . [NL., < L. mitrcena, 
murena, the'murena, a fish (> It. Sp. Pg. mu- 
rena = F. mureiie, a kind of eel, the lamprey), 

< Gr. uvpaiva, a sea-eel, lamprey, a fern, form, < 
uvpos, oftvpoe, a kind of sea-eel.] 1. The typical 
genus of Murcenidce. The name has been indiscrimi- 
nately applied to almost all the symbranchiate and true 
apodal fishes, but by successive limitations has become 
restricted to the European murry and closely related spe- 
cies. 

2. [7. c.] A fish of this genus. Also written 
nnirena. 
Muraenesocidae(mu-re-ne-8os'i-de), n.pl. [NL., 

< Mura-nesox (-esoc-) + -ld(e.] A family of en- 
chelycephalous apodal fishes, exemplified by 
the genus Murmiesox. They have a regular eel-like 
form, with pointed head, lateral nostrils and branchial 
apertures, and tongue not free. The family consists of a 
few tropical or subtropical sea-eels. 

Muraenesocina(mu-re"ne-so-si'na), n.pl. [NL., 

< Mumnesox (-esoc-) + -ina 2 '.] In Gunther's sys- 
tem, a group of Murceni&te platycMstve : same as 
the family Murcenesocidai. 

Muraenesox (mu-re'ne-soks), . [NL., < Mu- 
rama + Esox.] ' The typical genus of Mtiratne- 
socidoe, resembling Mimena, but with the snout 
extended like a pike's, whence the name. M. 
cinerus, an East Indian species, attains a length 
of 5 or 6 feet. 

Mursenidae (mu-re'ni-de), n. pi. [NL., < Mtt- 
rasna + -idee.] A family of apodal fishes, typi- 
fied by the genus Muraina. (a) In Bonaparte's sys- 
tem of classification, a family of Malacopteryyii, embracing 
all the Apodes as well as the Qymnati. (6) In Muller's and 
Giinther's systems, afamilyof physostomoua fishes of elon- 
gate-cylindric or cestoid shape, with the vent far from the 
head, no ventral fins, vertical flns, if these exist, confluent 
or separated by the tip of the tail, the sides of the upper jaw 
formed by the tooth-bearing maxillaries, the fore part by 
the intermaxillary (which is more or less coalescent with 
the vomer and ethmoid), and the shoulder-girdle not at- 
tached to the skull. It corresponds to the Apodes and 
Lyomeri of recent systematists. (c) In Cope's system, a 
family of Colocephali, with three or fewer opercular bones, 
no scapular arch, no glossohyal, and no osseous lateral 
branchihyals. 

muraenoid (mu-re'noid), a. and n. [< L. mu- 
rcena + Gr. el6o;, form.] I. a. Pertaining to 
the Murcenidce, or having their characters. 

II. . One of the Murcenidce. Sir J. Kichard- 
son. 

Muraenoididas (mu-re-noi'di-de), n. pi. [NL., 

< Murcenoides + -idcel] A family of blenniiform 
fishes, typified by the genus Murcenoides. Also 
called Xiphidiontidee. 

murage (mu'raj), n. [< F. murage (OF. muraige, 
a wall), < murer, wall: see mure^,v. Of. murager, 
murenger.] Money paid for keeping the walls 
of a town in repair. 

The grant of Muraffe by the sovereign for the privilege 
of fortifying the cities and repairing the walls. 

N. and Q., 7th ser., II. 275. 

muragert, n. See murenger. 

muraille (mu-ra-lya'), a. [F., walled, pp. of 
murailler, < muraille (= Pr. muralh = Sp. mu- 
raZto=Pg. muralha = it. muraglia), a wall, < mur, 

< L. murus, a wall: see mure^.] In7ter., walled. 
Also muralle. 

mural (mu'ral), a. and n. [< F. mural = Sp. 
Pg. mural = It. murale, < L. muralis, belonging 
to a wall, < murus, a wall: see mure 1 .] I. a. 1. 
Of or pertaining to a wall. 

Disburden'd heaven rejoiced, and soon repair'd 
Her mural breach. Milton, P. L., vi. 879. 

2. Placed on a wall ; of plants, trained on a wall. 

Where you desire mural fruit-trees should spread, gar- 
nish, and bear, cut smoothly off the next unbearing branch. 
Evelyn, Calendarium Hortense, January. 

These paintings, so wonderfully preserved in this small 
provincial town [Pompeii], are even now among the best 
specimens we possess of mural decoration. They excel 
the ornamentation of the Alhambra, as being more varied 
and more intellectual. J. Fergusson, Hist. Arch., I. 870. 

3. Resembling a wall; perpendicular or steep : 
as, a mural structure or formation. 4. In pa- 
thol., noting vesical calculi when rugous and 



3900 

covered with tubercles. Such calculi are com- 
posed of oxalate of lime, and are also called 
mulberry calculi.- Mural arch, a wall or walled arch, 
placed exactly in the plane of the meridian for the fix- 
ing of a large quadrant, sextant, or other instrument 
to observe the meridian altitudes, etc., of the heavenly 
bodies. Mural circle, an instrument which superseded 
the mural quadrant, and which has in its turn been su- 
perseded by the meridian- or transit-circle. It consists 
of an accurately divided circle, fastened to the face of a 
vertical wall with its plane in the plane of the meridian. 
It is furnished with a telescope and reading-microscopes, 
and is used to measure angular distances in the merid- 
ian, its principal use being to determine declinations of 
heavenly bodies. See transit-circle. Mural crown, a 
golden crown or circle of gold, indented and embattled, 
bestowed among the ancient Romans on him who first 
mounted the wall of a besieged place and there lodged a 
standard. Mural painting, a painting executed, espe- 
cially in distemper colors, upon the wall of a building. 
Mural quadrant, a large quadrant attached to a wall, 
formerly used for the same purposes as a mural circle. 
Mural standards. See standard. Mural tower, in 
miltt. arch., a tower strengthening a wall but not pro- 
jecting beyond it on the outside. O. T. Clark, Archal. 
liiat. Jour., I. 102. 

II. !. A wall. 

Now is the mural down between the two neighbours. 
Shak., M. N. D., v. 1. 208. 

muraled (mu'rald), a. [< mural + -erf 2 .] Made 
into a mural crown. 

Ardent to deck his brows with murald gold. 

J. Philips, Cerealia. 

murall6(mu-ral-a'), a. In her., same as muru Hie. 
murally (mu'ral-i), adv. In a form or arrange- 
ment resembling that of the stones in a wall. 

Murally divided spore-cells. 

E. Tuckerman, Genera Lichenum, p. 138. 

Muranese (mu-ra-nes' or-nez'), a. [< Murano 
(see def .) + -ese.'] Of or belonging to Murano, 
an island town near Venice, celebrated for its 
glass-manuf ac tories . 

Murano glass. See glass. 

Muratorian (mu-ra-to'ri-an), . [< Muratori 
(see def.) + -an.] Of or pertaining to L. A. 
Muratori (1672-1750), an Italian scholar Mu- 
ratorian fragment (or canon), a list of the New Testa- 
ment writings, edited by Muratori. It dates probably from 
the second century. 

The Muratorian fragment on the Canon must have been 
written about A. D. 170. Athenaeum, No. 3232, p. 447. 

muray (mu'ra), . Same as moray. 

murcnisonite (mer'chi-son-it), n. [Named after 
Sir Roderick I. llufokigon (1792-1871), a British 
geologist.] A mineral, a flesh-red variety of 
orthoclase or potash feldspar, occurring in the 
New Red Sandstone near Exeter, England. It 
shows brilliant golden-yellow reflections in a 
certain direction. 

murder (mer'der), n. [Also and more orig. 
miirther (now nearly obsolete); < ME. morder, 
mordre, morther, morthre, < AS. morthor, mor- 
tliur, murder, torment, deadly injury, mortal 
sin, great wickedness (= Goth, maurtlir, mur- 
der, > ML. munlrmn. OF. mortre, F. meitrtre, 
murder, homicide) ; with formative -or, < mortli, 
death, murder, homicide, destruction, mortal 
sin (> ME. murtit, slaughter, destruction: see 
murth), = OS. morth = OFries. morth, mord = D. 
moord = MLG. LG. mort = OHG. mord, MHG. 
mart, G. mord = Icel. mordh = Sw. Dan. mord, 
murder, = L. mor(t-)s, death, = Lith. smer- 
tis, death, akin to Gr. ftpordf, mortal, W. marw 
= Bret, man, death, L. mort, die (> martinis, 
dead), Skt. \/ mar, die : see mort 1 , mar ft, mor- 
tal, etc., immortal, ambrosia, amrita, etc.] 1. 
Homicide with malice aforethought ; as legal- 
ly defined, the unlawful killing of a human 
being, by a person of sound mind, by an act 
causing death within a year and a day there- 
after, with premeditated malice. 

What form of prayer 

Can serve my turn ? Forgive me my foul murder? 
That cannot be ; since I am still possess'd 
Of those effects for which I did the murder, 
My crown, mine own ambition, and my queen. 

Shalt., Hamlet, iii. 3. 52. 

The name of murder (as a crime) was anciently applied 
only to the secret killing of another ; . . . and it was de- 
fined, homicidium quod nullo vldente, nullo sciente, clam 
perpetrator. Blackstone, Com., IV. xiv. 

2t. Slaughter; destruction. Agrarian murder. 
See agrarian. Murder will out, the crime of murder 
is not to be hid ; something is or will be disclosed which 
was meant to be kept concealed. Statute of mur- 
ders, an English statute of 1512 for the punishment of 
murder. 

murder (mer'der), r. t. [Also and more orig. 
iinirther; < ME. murdren, mordren, nuirtlii'r/ , 
morthren, < AS. myrthrian, in comp. for-iur- 
thrian.of-mi/rtliriiiii; cf. OFries. mortliia, nior- 
iti/i = IX moorden = OHG. murdjan, MHG. mur- 
doi.miirden, mordcu,G. ci'-morden = Icel. i>/i/nlli<i 



mure 

= Sw. miirda = L>an. inyrde = Goth, niaurtlirjan, 
murder; from the simpler form of the noun 
(OS. morth = OFries. mortli, etc.): see murder, 
n.] If. To kill; slay in or as in battle. 

.Man! of here misthi men [were] murdred to dethe; 

therfor the quen was earful. 

William of Palerne (E. E. T. S.), 1. 2860. 

2. To kill (a human being) with premeditated 
malice; kill criminally. See murder, 11., 1. 3. 
To kill or slaughter in an inhuman or barba- 
rous manner. 

Calling death banishment, 
Thou cutt'stmy head off with a golden axe, 
And smilest upon the stroke that murders me. 

Shak., R. and J., iii. 3. 23. 

4. To destroy; put an end to. 

Canst thou quake and change thy colour, 
Murder thy breath in middle of a word, 
And then begin again, and stop again? 

Shak., Rich. III., iii. 5. 2. 

5. To abuse or violate grossly; mar by bad 
execution, pronunciation, representation, etc.: 
as, to murder the queen's English; the actor 
murdered the part he had to play Murdering 
bird or murdering pie, the shrike or butcher-bird. Also 
called nine-murder. = Syn. 2. Slay, Despatch, etc. See 
killi. 

murderer (mer'der-er), . [Also and more 
orig. murtherer; < ME. mordrere, morthcrer; < 
murder + -fi' 1 .] 1. A person who commits 
murder. 

In that Yle is no Thief, ne Mordrere, ne comoun Woman, 

ne pore beggere, ne nevere was man slayn in that Contree. 

Mandemtte, Travels, p. 292. 

2t. Some destructive piece of ordnance. One 
kind thus named was usually placed, on shipboard, at the 
bulkheads of the forecastle, half-deck, and steerage, and 
used to prevent an enemy from boarding. Also murdering- 
piece. 

But we, hauing a Murtherer in the round house, kept the 
Larbord side cleere, whilst our men with the other Ord- 
nance and Musquets playd vpon their ships. 

John Taylor, Works (1630). (Kares.) 

Mr. Vines landed his goods at Machias, and there set up 
a small wigwam, and left five men and two murderers to 
defend It. Winthrop, Hist. New England, II. 152. 

= Syn. 1. Manslayer, cutthroat, assassin, thug. SeeJKK', 
u. t. 

murderess (mer'der-es), n. [Also murdress; < 

murder + -ess.] Afemale who commits murder. 

Hast thou no end, O fate, of my affliction? 

Was I ordain'd to be a common murdress? 

Fletcher, Wife for a Mouth, v. 1. 

murdering-piecet (mer'der-ing-pes), w. If. 
Same as murderer, 2. 

O my dear Gertrude, this, 
Like to a murdering-piece-, in many places 
Gives me superfluous death. 

Shak., Hamlet, iv. 5. 95. 

A father's curses hit far off, and kill too ; 
And, like a murdering-piece, aim not at one, 
But all that stand within the dangerous level. 

Fletcher, Double Marriage, iv. 2. 

2. pi. Bits of old iron, nails, etc., with which a 
gun was loaded to sweep the decks of an enemy's 
ship. Also nmrdering-sliot. Bailey, 1731. 
murdermentt (mer'der-ment), 11. [< murder + 
-incut.] Murder. 

To her came message of the murderment. Fair/ax. 
murderous (mer'der-us), a. [Formerly also 
murtherous; < murder + -ous.] 1. Of the na- 
ture of murder; pertaining to or involved in 
murder: as, a murderous act. 

Since her British Arthur's blood 

By Mordred'smurtAerows hand was mingled with herflood. 
Drat/ton, Polyolbion, i. 184. 
If she has deform'd this earthly Life 
With murd'rous Rapine and seditious Strife, . . . 
In everlasting Darkness must she lie? 

Prior, Solomon, iii. 

2. Guilty of murder; delighting in murder. 

Enforced to fly 

Thence Into Egypt, till the murderous king 
Were dead who sought his life. 

Milton, P. R., it 76. 

3. Characterized by murder or bloody cruelty. 

Upon thy eye-balls murderous tyranny 
Sits in grim majesty, to fright the world. 

Shale., 2 Hen. VI., iii. 2, 49. 

4. Very brutal, cruel, or destructive. =Syn. San- 
guinary, bloodthirsty, blood-guilty, fell, savage. 

murderously (mer'der-us-li), ddi'. In a murder- 
ous or bloody manner. 

murdress (m'er'dres), w. [< OF. mvrdriere, F. 
mi'iirtrivre, a loophole.] 1. Amurderess. 2. In 
old fort., a battlement with interstices or loop- 
holes for firing through. 

mure 1 ! (mur), . [< F. mur = Sp. Pg. It. mum 
= AS. mur = OS. 'muni = OFries. inure = D. 
miiur = MLG. mure, = OHG. miira, mftri, MHG. 
uiiire, iiiini'c, G. niaucr = lool. murr = Sw. Dan. 
mur = Ir. mur, a wall, < L. murn.i, OL. mornix, 
moiron, a wall.] 1. A wall. 



mure 

Oh had God made vs man-like like . 
We 'd not bo here fenr'd in a i 



But ha' I 



pn-M-nt ;it th< 



ii iniii'l, 

I :n iu< 



T. Hfilir-nurl, If you Know not Me ii 
I he ineewsant care and labour t his t 



Math uroiitfht the m<n-<- Ihat should e 



mflne it in 



Si. thin that life lixiks through, and will break out. 

Shak., Hen. IV., iv. 4. 119. 

2. .Sun s miii-iii/r. 

mure't (mrir), r. t. [< MK. inun-ii (= I). ML<i. 
IIIIIITII ( )!!(!. mill-mi. M IK J. in n n , milll-i a. I '. 
niiiiierii = Irrl. mii fit = Sw. mura = Dan. mu>-i- 
= S|i. \'g. iiiitrar = It. murare), < F. murer, < 
ML. murare, wall, wall in, < L. muriix, a wall: 
see mure*, n. Cf. immure.] To inclose in walls : 
wall; immure; close up. 

And he had let muren alle the Mountayne aboute with 

a strong Walle and a fair. M<ni<li /'///<, Travels, p. ^Ts. 

lie tooke a mnzzel strong 
Of surest yron, made with many a lincke, 
Therewith he inured up his mouth along. 

>> 'iuvr, . Q., VI. xii. 34. 

mure 2 (mur), a. [< ME. mure; by apheresis for 
ill mure, q. v. ; otherwise < OF. meur, ripe, soft, 
mellow, also discreet, staid, < L. maturus, ripe, 
mature: sri> mature.] Soft; moek ; demure. 
l{,i II iu-ell. [Prov. Eng.] 

Thou art clennes, both mylde & mitre. 

Political I'ofttu, etc. (ed. Kurnlvall), p. 107. 

mure :! (mur), r. t. ; pret. and pp. mured, ppr. 
muring. [Origin obscure.] To squeeze. Halli- 
iri-ll. [Prov. Eng.] 

mure ;t (mur). H. rCf . Mwrv*, V.] Husks or chaff 
of fruit after it has been pressed. Uiilliir, II. 
[North. Eng.] 

murena, . See Murcena. 

murengert (mu'ren-jer), n. [Also muriiigi r. 
miirenger(1)', <ME. murager,(. OF. mitrngier(t), 
an officer in charge of town walls, receiving the 
murage or toll for repairs, < murage, toll for 
repairing walls : see murage. For the epenthet- 
ic n, cf. messenger, passenger, porringer, etc.] 
An officer appointed to superintend the keep- 
ing of the town walls in repair and to receive 
a certain toll (murage) for that purpose. 

A nominal appointment to the office of Murenger still 
takes place annually (at Oswestryl, though the active du- 
ties of the office have long ceased. 

Municip. Corp. Report, 1835, p. 2827. 
The charter of Henry VII. provides that the mayor and 
citizens [of Chester] "may yearly choose from among the 
citizens of the aforesaid city two citizens to be overseers 
of the walls of the aforesaid city, called Muragert, . . . 
and that they shall yearly overlook and repair the walls of 
the aforesaid city." Municip. Corp. Report, 1835, p. 2622. 

Mures (mu'rez), n. pi. [NL., pi. of L. mus 
(mur-), mouse: seeMus, mouse.] TheOldWorld 
Murina: as distinguished from the American Kig- 
moaontes by having the molar cusps in series of 
threes across the teeth. There are many gen- 
era. The group is only a section of a subfamily 
of Murida. 

murex (mu'reks), . [NL., < L. murex, thejiur- 
ple-fish.] 1. [o<y>.] The typical genus of Muriei- 
'/"'. The aperture of the shell Is rounded, the canal is long 
and straight, and the outer 
surface of the shell is inter- 
rupted by numerous varices 
or spines, at least three to a 
whorl. The most remarka- 
ble forms of these shells are 
from tropical seas. The ani- 
mals are highly rapacious, 
and some of them do great 
damage to oystor-heds, as 
the European M. erinaceus. 
The celebrated purple dye of 
the ancients was chiefly fur- 
nished by the animals of two 
species of the genus Murex. 
M. trunculwi and M. branda- 
ris, the dye being secreted by 
a special gland, called the 
" purpurigenous gland," of 
the animal. The amount se- 
creted being very small, the 
number of animals sacrificed 
to secure it was correspond- 
ingly large, and the cost 
therefore great. Hence its 
use was confined to the 
wealthy, or reserved for sa- 
cred or regal purposes. Its 
manufacture seems to have 
expired after the capture of 
Constantinople by the Turks. 
2. A species of this genus. 3. PI. miireies or 
murii-en (-rek-sez. -ri-sez)- A caltrop. 

murexan (mu'rek-sau). H. [< L. murex + -an.] 
The purptiric acid of Prout (C 4 H ? .NH2.N 2 O S ). 
It is a product of the decomposition of murex- 

iilc. 

murexide (mu'rek-sid or -sid). ii. [< L. mitrex. 
the purple-fish, + -irfe 8 .] The purpurate of 
ammonia of Prout (probably C 8 HaN(-O 6 ). it 
crystallizes in four sided prisms, two faces of which reflect 
agreen metallic luster. The crystals are transparent, and 




Mori* trni>afiia. 



9901 

i>> transmitted light are of a garnet-red color. It f..im- 

1 brOWDtlb-nd powder, and is soluble in eallstie |K,tasli, 
the solution having a beautiful purple eolnr. In ] - 

18Sti this substance was largely used as a dye for j In 

ring pinks, purples, and roils, hut the intnlm lion of mil- 
line enliirs put all end to its use. 
murgeon (incr'jon). . [Formerly /)(/</. 
cf. F. morgue, a wry f:i<-<-. ///</' ' . make a wry 
ttM: scr IIKII-I/III i.J 1. A wry mouth; a gri- 
mace ; also, a grotesque posturing. 

Prelacy is like the great golden Image In the plain nf 
Dura, and ... as Shadraeli, Meshach, and Abednego 
were l>orne out in refusing t<> bow down and worship, - < 
neither shall Cuddy Ueadrfpg . . . make muryronx, or 
jennyflectlons, as they ca them, in the house of the prel- 
ates and curates. Scott, Old Mortality, vli. 

2. A murmur ; a muttering or grumbling, 
rnuriacite (mu'ri-a-sit), . [< F. muriaeitc; < 

L. muria, brine, 4- -c- + -H ('*. Cf. muriatic.] 

Native anhydrous calcium sulphate, or anhy- 
drite. See inilii/ilri/i . 
muriate (mu'ri-at), n. [= F. muriate = Sp. 

Pg. It. muriate, < NL. murintiim, < L. nun-id. 

brine.] Same as chloricfl. Muriate of ammonia. 

Same as ml ammoniac (which see. under ammoniac). 

Muriate Of copper. Same as atacainite. 
muriate (mu'ri-at), r. t.; pret. and pp. muriali-<l, 

ppr. muriating. [<L. muria, brine, -r -ate 9 .] To 

put into brine. 
Early fruits of some plants, when tmiriated or pickled, 

are justly esteemed. Evelyn, Acetaria, { 12. 

muriatic (mu-ri-at'ik), a. [= F. nniriatiqw = 
Sp. miiridtieo = Pg. It. mitriatico, < L. muriati- 
cus, pickled, < muria, brine: see muriate.'] Hav- 
ing the nature of brine or salt water; pertain- 
ing to or obtained from brine or sea-salt. Muri- 
atic add, the commercial name of hydrochloric acid. See 
hydrochloric. 

muriatiferous (mu'ri-a-tif'e-rus), a. [< muri- 
ate + li.ferrc = E. bear 1 .] Producing muri- 
atic substances or salt. 

muricate (mu'ri-kat), a. [< L. niuricatuit, 
pointed, < murex (marie-), a pointed rock, a 
spire.] Formed with sharp 
points: full of sharp spines 
or prickles. Specifically (o) In 
dot., rough with short and linn ex 
crescences : distinguished from echi- 
miti', or spiny, by having the ele- 
vations more scattered, lower, and 
less acute. (6) In entom., armed 
with thick, sharp, but not close-set 
pointed elevations. 

muricated (mu'ri-ka-ted), a. 
Same as muricate. 

muricatohispid (mu-ri-ka-to- 
his'pid), . [< L. muricatus, 
pointed (see muricate), + hispidus, hispid.] In 
6of., covered with short, sharp points and rigid 
hairs or bristles. 

Muricea (mu-ris'e-il), n. pi. [NL.,< Murex (.V- 
ric-) + -ea.] Same as Murifidce. 

murices, . Latin plural of murex. 

Muricidae (mu-ris'i-de), . pi. [NL., < Murer 
(Muric-) + -ida?.] A. large family of marine 
gastropodous mollusks, typified by the genus 
Murex, to which different limits have been 
assigned. Within even its most restricted extent, the 
family Includes very diversiform shells. The animal has a 
broad foot of moderate length, a long siphon, eyes at the 
external base of the tentacles, a large pnrpurigenons 
gland and teeth of the radula triserial, the median broad 
and generally prismatic and tridentate and with smaller 
accessory denticles, the lateral acutely unicuspid and ver- 
satile. The shell has the anterior canal straight, the 
columellar lip smooth and reflected. The operculnm is 
corneous, and with a suhapical or lateral nucleus. The 
typical species have variccs In varying number, but gen- 
erally three to a whorl. The shells are numerous in tropi- 
cal seas, and some aberrant members of the family in- 
habit cold waters of both hemispheres. The family is 
generally subdivided into two subfamilies, Muricince and 
riifiniriaa. Also Muricea. See cut under Murex. 

muriciform (mu'ri-si-fdrm), a. [< L. murex 
(marie-), the purple-fish, +/orma,form.] Re- 
sembling a murex or one of the Muricida; in 
form. 

muricine (mu'ri-sin), a. [< L. murex (murie-). 
the purple-fish, + -tne 1 .] Of or pertaining to 
the .Vuriciilir ; like a murex. 

muricitet (mu'ri-sit), . [< Murex (Muric-) + 
-iti"."\ A fossil murex, or a fossil shell resem- 
bling that of a murex. 

muricoid (mu'ri-koid), a. [< L. murex (murie-). 
the purple-fish, + Gr. eMof, form.] Muriciform ; 

resembling a murex Muricoid operculum, an 

operculum having a suhapical nucleu.-. 

muriculate (mu-rik'u-lat), a. [< NL. *wnV- 
lutiix. dim. of L. muricatus, pointed: see muri- 
I'Hle.] In hot., minutely muricate. 

Muridae (mu'ri-le), . pi. [NL. . < Mu* (Mur-) + 
-iiln:] A family of quadrupeds of the order Ro- 
ili iitjn or <!lin:t. tyiiificd by the genus Mux. it is 
hy far the lanrest fatnily of i-odent-i, and is of world-wide 
distribution. They have 2 incisors and :i molais above 



murk 

and below on each side (with some rare exceptions). The 
i ie 'larsare rooted or rootless, and eii her tiii>en-ii late or flat- 
Lipped :nel \>iili ;.n-'nl;u i'iiami-1 folds. Theexternal ehai- 





T~r 




Cranial Characters of a Leading 1 ype of Murtdir. 

Skull of a Murine (.If Mi rattHJ): n. upper view ; A, under view: 

c . f, side views of skull ami lower jaw. 

acters are very variable, but the pollex is always reduced 
or rudimentary, and the tail is generally long and scaly. 
There are many genera, which are grouped In 10 sub- 
families Sminthitu*, Hydromyincf, PlatacantliomyinCR, 
Verbillinte, Phtatomifinaf, DendromyintK, Cricftincf, Muri- 
ntf, Arrictitinte, and Siphnrince. See cuts under Arricvla, 
hatnstfr, lemming, beaver-rat, moune, munkrat, Xrttokia. 

muridet (mu'rid or -fid), w. [= F. muride; as L. 
HI uria, brine, + -ide 2 . ] Bromine : so called be- 
cause it is an ingredient of sea-water. 

muriform 1 (mu'ri-fdrm), a. [= F. murifornie, 
< L. murus, wall, + for- 
ma, form.] In hot., re- 
sembling the arrange- 
ment of the bricks in 
the walls of a house : ap- 
plied to the cellular tissue 
constituting the medul- 
lary rays in plants, the 

.*,. ". f \. , ' Mtinf',nn EpMenm of the 

epidermis Of the leaves Superior hace of a Cran- 

of grasses, etc. 

The acicular or colourless spore-type is of a distinct and 
higher series than the muriform or coloured. 

Tuckerman, Genera l.ii henum, p. 272. 

muriform 2 (mu'ri-form), . [< L. mu.<< (mur-), a 
mouse, + forma, form.] Mouse-like or murine 
in form; myomorphic. 

Murinae (mu-ri'ne), n. pi. [NL., < Mus (Mur-) 
+ -ina;.] The largest and typical subfamily of 
Muridw, represented by the genus Mus and 
closely related genera. They fall into two sections, 
Mures and fXymodontet, of the Old and the New World re- 
spectively. The genera of Muret are J/, relomy*. Echi- 
nuthrix, Uromys, Hapalotis, Acomy*, Henamys, and Jlru- 
chytarsomys; of Sigmodnnte* Rrymomy*, Hotochilus, He*- 
peromyt, Ochetodon, Keithrodim, Sigmodon, and Xeotuma. 
murine (mu'rin), a. and n. [< L. murinus, of a 
mouse, < mus (mur-) = Gr. //i"f =E. mouse: see 
mouse.] I. a. Muriform or myomorphic in gen- 
eral; resembling a mouse or a rat; specifically, 
of or pertaining to the family Muridte or the 
subfamily Murina'. 

II. n. A mouse or a rat. 
muringert, " See muretiger. 
muriont, . An obsolete form of morion*. 
murk 1 , mirk (merk), a. [Also dial. mark ; < WE. 
mirke, merke, < AS. mirce, dark, gloomy, evil, 
= OS. mirki = Icel. myrkr = Sw. Dan. mark, 
dark. Cf. OBulg. mrakii = Serv. mrak = Pol. 
mraik = Buss, mrakii, darkness; Gr. a/i/oJ.jor, in 
the phrase pumSf afiotyor., 'the darkness of 
night-T Dark ; obscure ; gloomy. 

Such myster saying me seemeth to mirke. 

Spenter. f hep. Cat, September. 
It fell about the Martinmas, 

\\ hen nights are lang and mirk. 
The Wife a/ Uther't Wett (Child's Ballads, I. 216). 
The chimes peal muffled with sea-mists mirk. 

Lmcett, The Black Preacher. 



murk 1 , mirk (merk), . [< ME. mirte, 

< AS. iiiirrr. iiii/rce (^ Icel. myrkr, also mjiirlcri, 
= Sw. marker = Dan. mfirke), darkness, gloom, 

< mircf, dark: see murk 1 , a.] Gloom; darkness. 

The ncght drow negh anon vppon this. 
And the mone in the nirrke mightely shone. 

Destruction o/ Troy (E. E. T. 8.), 1. 3196. 
Ere twice in murk and occidental damp 
Moist Hesperus hath qnench'd his sleepy lamp. 

.5*0*-., All's Well, Ii. 1. 166. 



murk 

The soothing lapse of morn to mirk. 

VtHcrxon, The Celestial Love. 

murk 1 , mirk (inerk), r. t. [< ME. merken, mirl;< it 
(= Icel. myrkna), darken; < murk 1 , a.] To 
darken. Palsgrave. 

murk' 2 (inerk), . [Cf. marc 2 .'] Refuse or husks 
of fruit after the juice has been expressed; 
marc. 

murkily, mirkily (mer'ki-li), adr. In a murky 
manner; darkly; gloomily. 
murkiness, mirkiness (mer'ki-nes), n. The 
state of being murky; darkness; gloominess; 
gloom. 

As if within that murkiness of mind 
Work'd feelings fearful, and yet undefined. 

Byron, Corsair, i. 9. 

murklinst (merk'linz), adv. [< murk 1 + -tins for 

-linos: see -fi'n</ 2 .] In the dark. Bailey, 1731. 

murknesst, mirknesst (merk'nes), n. [< ME. 

mirknes, myrknes, merkenes; < murk 1 , a., + 

-ness.] Darkness. 

For in myrfcnes of unknawyng thai gang, 
Withouten lyght of understandyng. 

Hampole, Prick of Conscience, 1. 193. 
In hell sail neuer myrknes be myssande, 
The myrknes thus name I for nighte. 

York Plays, p. 7. 

ratirksomet, mirksomet (merk'sum), a. [< 
murk 1 + -some."] Darksome. 

Through mirkesome aire her ready way she makes. 

Spenser, F. Q., L v. 28. 

murksomenesst, mirksomenesst (inerk 'sum- 
nes), n. The state of being murksome ; dark- 
ness. Bp. Mountagu, Appeal to Ceesar, viii. 
murky 1 , mirky (mer'ki), a. [< murk 1 + -y 1 . 
The older adj. is murk 1 .] Dark; obscure; 
gloomy. 

The murkiest den, 

The most opportune place, the strong'st suggestion 
Our worser genius can, shall never melt 
Mine honour into lust. Shak., Tempest, iv. 1. 25. 

murky 2 (mer'ki), n. A variety of harpsichord- 
music in which the bass is in broken octaves. 

murlin, murlan (mur'lin, -Ian), n. A round 
narrow-mouthed basket. [Scotch.] 

murlins (mer'linz), . [Origin obscure.] Bad- 
derlocks, Alaria esculenta. See Alaria and bad- 
derlocks. [Ireland.] 

murmur (mer'mer), . [< ME. murmur, < OF. 
murmure, F. murmure = Pr. murmur, murmuri 
= Pg. murmur = It. mormure; cf. Sp. Pg. mur- 
murio, mormoreo = It. mormorio, < L. murmur, a 
murmur, humming, muttering, roaring, growl- 
ing, rushing, etc., an imitative word (cf. 
Hind, murmur, a crackling, crunching), a re- 
duplication of the syllable *mur, cf. L. mu, Gr. 
uv, a sound made with closed lips, E. mum 1 , 
etc. Cf. murmur, v.'] 1. A low sound contin- 
ued or continuously repeated, as that of a 
stream running in a stony channel, of a num- 
ber of persons talking indistinctly in low tones, 
and the like ; a low and confused or indistinct 
sound; ahum. 

In that Vale heren men often tyme grete Tempestes and 
Thondres and grete Murmures and Noyses, alle dayes and 
nyghtes. Mandeville, Travels, p. 281. 

The current that with gentle murmur glides. 

Shak., T. <t. of V., ii. 7. 25. 
The still murmur of the honey-bee. 

Keats, To My Brother George. 

2. A muttered complaint or protest; the ex- 
pression of dissatisfaction in a low muttering 
voice; hence, any expression of complaint or 
discontent. 

Murmur also is oft among servants and grutchen when 
hir soveraines bidden hem do leful thinges. 

Chaucer, Parson's Tale. 

Palomydon, the proud kyng, prise of the Grekes, 
Made murmur full mekyll in the mene tyme. 

Destruction of Troy (E. E. T. S.)> 1. 7196. 
Some discontents there are, some idle murmurs. 

Dryden, Spanish Friar, iy. 2. 

3. In med., any one of various sounds, normal 
and pathological, heard in auscultation Car- 
diac murmur, an adventitious or abnormal sound heard 
in auscultation of the heart. Direct cardiac mur- 
murs, murmurs produced by the blood while moving for- 
ward, as in stenosis of any orifice. Dynamic murmurs 
See dynamic. Flint's murmur, a murmur resembling 
that of mitral stenosis as developed in cases of aortic re- 
gurgitation In which there is no mitral stenosis. Nor- 
mal vesicular murmur, the respiratory sounds of 
health, including the inspiratory and expiratory divisions. 

Regurgitant cardiac murmurs, murmurs produced 
! blood as it rushes back past a leaky valve. Res- 
piratory murmur, the sound of the breathing as heard 
in auscultating the chest. Also called respiration 
murmur (mer'mer), v. [< ME. murmuren, < 
)F. (and F.) miirmurer = Sp. mitrmurar, mor- 
murar = Pg. murmurar = It. mormorare, mur- 
murare = OHG. murntttron, murmuloii, MHG. 



3902 

G. inurmeln, < L. murmurare, murmur, mutter, 
= Gr. /lopui'petv, later ftvp/tvpeiv, roar as the ocean 
or rushing water : see murmur, n. Cf. ML. HI in-- 
rare, D. tiiorren = MHG. G. murrcn = Icel. murra 
= Sw. morra = Dan. murre, murmur.] I. i- 
traiis. 1. To make a low continuous noise, like 
the sound of rushing water or of the wind among 
trees, or like the hum of bees. 

They murmured as doth a swarm of been. 

Chaucer, Squire's Tale, 1. 196. 
The murmuring surge, 
That on the unmimber'd Idle pebbles chafes, 
Cannot be heard so high. Shak., Lear, iv. 6. 20. 

I, drawn near, 

The murmuring of her gentle voice could hear, 
As waking one hears music in the morn. 

William Morn*, Earthly Paradise, I. 299. 

2. To utter words indistinctly; mutter. 3. 
To grumble; complain; utter complaints in 
a low, muttering voice; hence, in general, to 
express complaint or discontent: with at or 
against. 

The Jews then murmured at him. John vi. 41. 

Since our disappointment at Guiaquil, Capt. Davis's Men 
murmured against Captain Swan, and did not willingly 
give him any Provision, because he was not so forward to 
go thither as Capt. Davis. Dumpier, Voyages, 1. 160. 

= 8yn. 3. To repine, whimper. 

II. trans. To utter indistinctly; say in a 
low indistinct voice ; mutter. 
I ... heard thee murmur tales of iron wars. 

Shalt., 1 Hen. IV., ii. 3. 61. 
Though his old complaints he murmured still, 
He scarcely thought his life so lost and ill. 

William Morris, Earthly Paradise, II. 156. 

murmurationt (mer-me-ra'shon), n. [< ME. 
murmuracioun, < OF. murmuracion, F. murmu- 
ration = Sp. murmuracion, mormuracion = Pg. 
murmuragao = It. mormorazione, murmurazione, 
< L. murmuratio(n-), a murmuring, < murmu- 
rare, pp. murmuratug, murmur : see murmur, v.~\ 

1. Murmuring; discontent; grumbling. 

After bakbityng cometh grucchyng or murmuracioun. 
Chaucer, Parson's Tale. 

2. In falconry, a gathering of starlings. 
murmurer (mer'mer-er), n. One who murmurs ; 

one who complains sullenly; a grumbler. 
murmuring (mer'mer-ing), n. [Verbal n. of 
murmur, .] A continuous murmur; a low 
confused noise. 

As when you hear the murmuring of a throng. 

Drayton, David and Qoliath. 

murmuring (mer'mer-ing), p. a. 1. Making 
or consisting in a low continuous noise. 
Where rivulets dance their wayward round, 
And beauty born of murmuring sound 
Shall pass into her face. 

Wordsworth, Three Years She Grew. 

2. Uttering complaints in a low voice or sullen 
manner; grumbling; complaining: as, a person 
of a murmuring disposition. 

murmuringly (mer'mer-ing-li),rfo. With mur- 
murs ; with complaints. 

murmurish (mer'mer-ish), a. [< murmur + 
-isft 1 .] In pathol., resembling a murmur; of 
the nature of a murmur. See murmur, n., 3. 
Lancet, No. 3411, p. 78. 

murmurous (mer'mer-us), a. [< OF. murmuros, 
murmurous = Pg. murmuroso = It. mormoroso, < 
ML. murmurosus, full of murmurs, < L. murmur, 
murmur: see murmur, .] 1. Abounding in 
murmurs or indistinct sounds; murmuring. 

It was a sleepy nook by day, where it is now all life and 
vigilance ; it was dark and still at noon, where it is now 
bright and murmurous. Harper's Mag., LXXVIII. 148. 
And all about the large lime feathers low, 
The lime a summer home of murmurous wings. 

Tennyson, Gardener's Daughter. 

2. Exciting murmur or complaint. 

Round his swoln heart the murmurous fury rolls. 

Pope, Odyssey, xx. 19. 

3. Expressing itself in murmurs. 

The murmurous woe of kindreds, tongues, and peoples 
Swept in on every gale. 

Whittier, In Remembrance of Joseph Sturge. 

murmurously (mer'mer-us-li), adv. With a low 

monotonous sound ; with murmurs. 

murnivalt (mer'ni-val), n. [Also mournival, 

mournifal; < OF. mornifle, "a trick at cards, 

also a cuff or pash on the lips" (Cotgrave), still 

used in the latter sense ; origin unknown.] 1. 

In the card-game of gleek, four cards of a sort. 

A mumival is either all the aces, the four kings, queens, 

or knaves, and a gleek is three of any of the aforesaid. 

Compleat Gamester (1680), p. 68. (Nares.) 
2. Hence, any set of four ; four. 
Cen. Let a protest go out against him. 
Mirth. A motmiival of protests, or a gleek at least. 

B. Jonson, Staple of News, iv. 1. 



murre 

murphy (mer'fi), .; pi. nmrpJiies (-fiz). [So 
called from the Irish surname Miirjilii/; appar. 
in allusion to the fact that the potato is the 
staple article of food among the Irish it is 
called the "Irish potato" in distinction from 
the sweet potato.] A potato. [Colloq.] 

You come along down to Sally Harrowell's ; that's our 
school-house tuck-shop she bakes such stunning mur- 
phies, we '11 have a penn'orth each for tea. 

T. Hughes, Tom Brown at Rugby, i. 6. 

murr 1 , . See rs. 

murr 2 (mer), v. !. [Imitative; cf. purr."] To 
purr as a cat. Hogg. [Scotch.] 

murra (mur'a), . [L., less prop, murrha, myr- 
rliti ; in Gr. uuppla or fiuppia, also /mppivr/, a ma- 
terial first brought to Rome by Pompey, 61 
B. c. ; appar. the name, like the thing, was of 
Asiatic origin.] In Rom. antiq., an ornamental 
stone of which vases, cups, and other orna- 
mental articles were made. This material and the 
various things made from it are mentioned by several 
Greek and Latin authors, but Pliny is the only one who 
has attempted any detailed description of it. Unfortu- 
nately his accounts are so vague that the material can- 
not be positively identified, nor has anything been found 
in the excavations at Rome which is certainly known to 
be the ancient murra. In the opinion of the best authori- 
ties, however, it was fluor-spar, for of the known materials 
this is the only one found in abundance which has the pe- 
culiar coloration indicated by Pliny. The principal ob- 
jection to this theory is that no fragments of fluor-spar 
vases have been found in Rome or its vicinity. Vessels of 
murra were at one time considered by the Romans as of 
inestimable value. 

murrain (mur'an), . and a. [Formerly also 
murren; < ME. 'murrin, morrein,<M'E.moreyne, 
moryn, < OF. marine = Sp. morritla = Pg. mor- 
rinha = It. moria, sickness among cattle, < L. 
mori, die: see mart 1 ."] I. n. A disease affecting 
domestic animals, especially cattle; a cattle- 
plague or epizootic disease of any kind ; in a 
more limited sense, the same as foot-and-mouth 
disease (which see, under foot). 

For til moreyiie mete with ous ich may hit wel a-vowe, 
Ne wot no wight, as ich wene what is ynowh to niehe. 

Piers Plowman (C), xxi. 226. 

This plague of murrein continued twenty-eight yeare ere 
it ended, and was the first rot that euer was in England. 
Stow, Edw. I., an. 1257. 

Murrain take you, a murrain to or on you, etc., plague 
take you ; plague upon you. 

A murrain on your monster 1 Shak., Tempest, ill. 2. 88. 
II. rt. Affected with murrain. 

The fold stands empty in the drowned field, 
And crows are fatted with the murrion flock. 

Shak., M. Jf. D., ii. 1. 97. 

murrainlyt (mur'an-li), adv. [Also murrenly; < 

murrain +-ly2."] Excessively; plaguily. Davics. 

And ye 'ad bene there, cham sure you'ld murrenly ha 

wondred. Bp. Still, Gammer Gurton's Needle, Hi. 2. 

murray (mur'a), . Same as moray. 

Murraya (mur'a-a), n. [NL. (Linnaeus, 1771), 
named after J. A.Murray, a Swedish botanist.] 
A genus of dicotyledonous trees of the poly- 
petalous order Euiacece and the tribe Aurantiew, 
known by its pinnate leaves, linear awl-shaped 
filaments, and imbricate petals. Four species are 
known, of tropical Asia and the islands as far as Austra- 
lia, very small summer-flowering trees with dotted leaves, 
small oblong berries, and fragrant white flowers resem- 
bling orange-blossoms. M. exotica has been called Chinese 
box, and its large variety (sometimes regarded as a species, 
M. Sumatrana) Sumatra orange. The species is valuable 
for its perfume, and yields a bitter extract, murrayin. The 
seeds of M. Soenigii atford a flxed oil called simbolee-oil. 
See curry-leaf. 

Murray cod. See cod 2 . 

murrayin, murrayine (mur'a-in), n. [< Mur- 
raya -r -in 2 .] See Murraya. 

murre 1 !, . See mur 3 . 

murre 2 (mer), n. [Also marre; origin obscure.] 
1. The common guillemot, UriaorLomvia troile, 
and other species of the genus, as U. orL. brtin- 




mclii, the thick-billed murre or guillemot. 2. 
The similar but quite distinct razor-billed auk, 
A lea or f 'tti >IHI n ia torda. See cut under razor-Mil. 



murrelet 



3903 



muscatorium 



murrelet (mer'let), . [< mum-- + -M.] A 
small bird of the- ank family, AleiAe, related t'> 
the nnirres. Severn! sp.vies of munrMs Inhabit the 
North I'aeMi:; they he-long tip the gem-i-i BnietarrAoniptaU 
M\(\ Siinthliborhamphti*. The marliled mum-let is /;. mar- 

nu.tutut; tlii-iTi-stnl n ,11, n hi is*. 

murrent, An obsolete form of murrain. 

murrey (mur'i), a. and n. [< OF. moire = 8p. 
I'g. Hiiirndo = It. miirntii, mulberry-colored, < 
.\fl,. miii-nliis, black, blackish (cf. miiralum, a 
kind of drink, wine colored with mulberries: 
see moral), < L. ;.s-, a mulberry: see more 4 .] 
I. . Of a mulberry (dark-red) color. 

The leaves of some trees turne a little murry or red- 

ili.-li. Hui-un, Nat. Hint., i 512. 

After him followed two pert apple-squires ; the one had 

a murrey cloth gown on. 

Greene, Quip for an Upstart Courtier (Harl. Misc., V. 420). 

II. . In /ice., noting a tincture of a dark- 
reddish brown, also called sani/iiinr. Indicated 
in heraldic representations in black and white 
by lines crossing each other diagonally at right 
angles. 

murrha, . See murnt. 

murrbina, See murrina. 

Murriant, A variant of Marian. 

murrina (mu-ri'nii), 11. pi. [L., also less prop. 
iiiurrhina, myrrhtiia, neut. pi. of murrinus, of 
murra : see iwKcrinc.] Murrine vessels, chiefly 
shallow vases and cups. See murra. 

Murrhina continued to be in request down to the close 
of the empire, and legal writers are continually mention- 
ing them as distinct things from vessels of glass or of the 
precious metals. King, Nat. Hist, of Gems, p. 188. 

murrinallt, An error for murnival. 
murrine (mur'in), a. [Also murrhine, myrr/nm; 
< L. murrinus, less prop, murrhinus, myrrhinus, 
of murra, < murra, murra : see murra.] Made 
of or pertaining to murra. See murra. 

How they quart in gold, 

Crystal, and myrrhine cups, emboss'd with gems 
And studs of pearl. MOiun, V. &., iv. 119. 

Murrine glass, a modern decorative glass-manufacture, 
in which gold and other metals are used for decoration in 
the body of the glass and are seen through the glass itself : 
precious stones are sometimes embedded in the paste. 
murriont, An obsolete form of morion*-. 
murry (mur'i), n. Same as moray. 
mursnid (mdr'shed), H. [Ar. (> Turk. ) murshid, 
a spiritual guide ; cf . rashid, orthodox, rashid, 
prudent, roshd, prudence, orthodoxy.] The head 
of a Mohammedan religious order. Encyc. Brit., 
VH. 113. 

murthH, A Middle English form of mirth. 
murth-t, [ME., < AS. morth, murder: see 
murder.] Murder; slaughter. 

The stoure was so stithe tho strong men among, 
That full mekull was tho murthe, & mony were ded. 

Destruction of Troy (E. E. T. S.), 1. 58S. 

murther, murtherer, etc. See murder, etc. 

murumuru-palm (mo-ro'mo-ro-pam), n. A 
palm, .Ixlriii-iiryutii Murumuru. 

muruxi-bark (inO-ruk'si-bark), ii. The astrin- 
gent bark of Byrsoiiimtt *i>icatn, of the West In- 
dies and South America, used in Brazil for tan- 
ning. 

muryet, An obsolete form of merry 1 . 

Mus (mus), n. [NL., < L. mus = Gr. uiif = E. 
/IIIIM.IC.] The leading genus of Murida;, typical of 
the subfamily Marina;. The term was formerly used 
with great latitude for the whole family and various other 
rodents. It is now restricted to species like the common 
honae-mou.se, .)/< HII/M i//"-. the common rnt, .)/. deeiniiii- 
nus; the black rat, M. rattm; M. sylmticw, the wood- 
mouse of Europe ; and M. miuutui, the harvest-mouse of 
the same continent. It still includes a great many species 
of mice and rats, all indigenous to the Old World. Also 
Musmlas. See cut under harvest-mouse. 

Musa (mu'za), n. [NL. (Plumier, 1703), prob. 
< Ar. mice, banana.] A genus of monocotyle- 
donous plants, type of the order Seitemiiieo;and 
the tribe Mnxfii; known by its tubular calyx. 
There are about 20 species, natives of the tropics. They 
are herbs with thick smooth tree-like stems formed of 
sheathing petioles, rising S to ito feet high from solid wa- 
tery bulbs, with large oblong leaves from 8 to 20 feet long, 
and yellowish flowers in the axils of large ornamental 
bracts (often pnrplishX the whole forming a long nodding 
spike. M . mpientum is the banana. M . paradisiaca (per- 
haps not distinct from the former) is the plantain. M . tfx- 
tilis 1st lie Manil p. hemp. The finest ornamental species is 
,W Knxi if. the Abyssinian banana. See cuts under banana 

Musaceae (mu-/.a'se-e), n. pi. [NL. (Massey, 
1816), < Musa + -acea-.] A natural order of 
monocotyledonous plants, typified by the ge- 
nus Jfitsa ; the banana or plantain family. It 
embraces 4 other genera. 

musaceOUS (inu-za'shius), a. [< Mintm-i-ir + 
-ous.] In liot., of or relating to the MH*IH-I 

muszeographist, musaeograpby, etc. See i- 

aviir\i\\ist. eti-. 



1 Mi miiKadintot I'aris and your dandies of I^imlnn. 
li, i oiiingsby, IT. 15. 



musaickt, " and n. An obsolete form of mo- 

imnl ftnft'ul) a t- IV ',/,- as .>/*<-' + muscadine ( mus'ka-din), n. and a. [Formerly 
"S2] IMatftg to theMutes or poetry; poeti- als ,,n,^,di,u; < F. m, ,!,, a must-lozenge, 

cal. [Rare.] 

musalchee, . See muMlMW. 
Musalman (mus'al-man), n. and a. Same as 

Mussulman. 
musang (mu-sang'), . [Malay iiiiii</.J A 

viverroid mammal of the genus I'aradoxurus, 

r. lin-iniiiiliriiilitus (also called P. musanga, I'. 



llln(.J //( llffn tl'l' II* , v A '""" Mini', t* 

al>oilan(ly, beau, <lt. Hiosi-iitimi, :i grape, pear, 
apricot so called (Florio), < moscatv, musk: see 

'/. ] I. a. Same as mtucadel. 
He . . . \ at thlt instant breakfMtlng on new-laid eggs 
and nuueadine. Scot', Kenllworth, I. 




Musanu (Mulaxfa/aictala). 



typus, and /'. fawiatue), occurring throughout 
the countries east of the Bay of Bengal 
Burma, Siam, the Malay peninsula, Sumatra, 
Java, and Borneo. It has the back generally itriped, a 
pale band crosses the forehead, and the whiskers are black. 
The name extends to any paradoiure, and to some similar 
animals. The golden musang is P. aurrul ; the hlll-mu- 
sang is P. yrayi; the three-striped whit-eared musang 
is Arctoyale leucotit. See paradoxure. 

musart (mu'z&r), n. [Cf. musette.] An itine- 
rant musician who played on the musette; a 
bagpiper. Webster. 

Musarabic (mu-zar'a-bik), a. A variant of 
Mozarublc. 

musard (mu'zard), n. [< ME. mtutartl, < 
(and F.) musar'il (= It. musardo),( muser, muse : 
see nittscl.] It. A mnser or dreamer; a vaga- 
bond. 

Alle men wole holde thee for mtaarde, 
That debonair have founden thee. 

Rom. <tf the Rate, 1. 4034. 

We ne do but as tmuardet, and ne a-wayte nought elles 
but whan we shall be take as a bridde in a nette, for the 
SaUnea be but a iourne hens, that all the contre robbe and 
distroye. Merlin (E. E. T. S.), ii. 183. 

2. A foolish fellow. Halliwell. [Prov. Eng.] 
Mus. B. An abbreviation of Bachelor of Music. 
Musca (nius'ka), n. [L., = Gr. pvia, a fly : see 
midge. Hence ult. mosquito.] 1. A genus of 
flies, or two-winged insects, founded by Lin- 
noeus in 1763. Formerly applied to Diptrra at large, 
and to sundry other insects, as many of the Itymenoptera ; 
now the type of the family Humane, and restricted to such 
species as the common house-fly, M. domestica. As at 
present restricted, Musca is characterized by having the 
antennal bristle thicklyfeathered on both sides, the fourth 
longitudinal vein of the wings bent at an angle toward 
the third, and middle tibia; without any strong bristles or 
spurs on the inner side. In this sense it is not a very large 
genus, having but 14 species in Europe and 5 in North 
America, two of the latter, M. damestica and X. corvina, 
being common to both continents. See cut under house- 



II. a- Of the color of inuacadel. 
Mont decoctions of astringent plants, of what color o- 
ever do leave in the liquor a deep and mutcadine red. 

Sir T. Browne, Vulg. Err., vL 12. 

muscae, . Plural of musca, 2. 
Muscaies (mus-ka'lez), . pi. [NL., pi. of 'mus- 
ntlix, of moss, < L. mugcvn, moss: see mo** 1 .] 
In hot., an alliance of acrogenu, divided into 
l/i 1'iiin-ii and .l/iwi : same as Muscinete. 
muscallonge, w. Same as maskalonm. 
muscardine 1 (mus'kar-diu), . [< F. muscar- 
dine, a fungus so called (cf. muncardin, a dor- 
mouse: see muHcardine'*), < It. mimcardino, a 
musk comfit, grape, pear, etc., var. of mosca- 
dino, F. mmcadin, a musk-lozenge: see i- 
cadine.] 1. A fungus, Botrytis liamana, the 
cause of a very destructive disease in silkworms. 
2. The disease produced in silkworms by the 
muscardine. 

muscardine 2 (mus'kar-din), . [< * . mttscaram, 
a donnouse, prob. f or'm uscadin , a musk-lozenge, 
with ref . to the animal's odor.] The dormouse, 
Aluvca rdinus avellti nu ri us. 

Muscardinus (mus-kar-di'uus), . [NL., < * . 
muscardin, a dormouse: see muxcardine"*.] A 
genus of dormice of the family Myoxidfe, with 
a cylindric bushy tail and thickened glandular 
cardiac portion of the stomach. The common 
dormouse of Europe, M. arellanarius, is the type. 
See cut under dormouse. 

Muscari (mus-ka'ri), n. [NL. (Philip Miller, 
1724), said to be so called "from their musky 
smell," < LL. muscun, musk : see musk. But the 
term, -art is appar. an immediate or ult. error 
for -arium. The word intended is appar. Jftw- 
rarium, so called in ref. to their globular heads, 
< L. musearium, a fly-brush, also an umbel, < 
musca, a fly.] A genus of ornamental plants 
of the order Liliateie and the tribe Scillea, char- 
acterized by its globose or urn-shaped flowers. 
About 40 species are known, natives of Europe, northern 
Africa, and western Asia. They bear a few narrow fleshy 
leaves from a coated bulb, and leafless scapes with a ra- 
ceme of nodding flowers, usually blue. They are closely 
akin to the true hyacinth. The species In general are 
called grape- or globe-hyacinth, especially M. Itolrymdet, a 
common little garden-8ower of early spring, with a dense 
raceme of dark-blue flowers, like a minute grape-cluster. 
It is now naturalized in the Vnited States. M. motchatum, 
from it* odor, is called mtwJr- (ffrape-)hyacinth. 
Muscaria (mus-ka'ri-a), . pi. [NL., < L. musca, 
a fly: see Musca.'} A tribe of brachycerous 
dipterous insects, containing those flies whose 



prob 



j*y< 

2. [I. f.] A fly or some similar insect. [In this 
sense there is a plural, musca; (-se).] 3. The 
Flv, a name given to the constellation also 
called Apis, the Bee. It is situated south of the 
Southern Cross, and east of the Chameleon, and contains 
one star of the third and three of the fourth magnitude. 
The mime was also formerly given to a constellation situ- 
ated north of Aries. Muscfe tripiles, an old name of 
the ichneumon-flies : so called from the three threads of 
the ovipositor. Muscae vlbrantes, an old name of the 
i> hneuinon-flies : so called because they continually wave 
their antennae. Muscffl volitantes, specks appearing 
to dance in the air before the eyes, supposed to be due to 
opaque points in the vitreous humor of the eye. 
muscadel (mus'ka-del), . [Also muscatel; 
early mod. E. mitsladeU; < OF. miixcadel, also 
in nxc/iili't, F. muscadet = Sp. Pg. moscatel = It. 
moscadello, moscatello, < ML. muscatellum, also, 
after Rom., muscadellunt, a wine so called, dim. 
of muscatum, the odor of musk (> It. moscato, 
musk, etc., > F. muscat, a grape, wine, pear 
so called) : see mtiscat. Cf. muscadine.] 1. A 
sweet wine: same as muscat, 2. 

He calls for wine, . . . quaff'd off the mtitcadel, 
And threw the sops all in the sexton's face. 

,<Woi., T. of the 8., iii. 2. 174. 

2. The grapes collectively which produce this 
wine. See Malaga grape, under Malaga. 

In Candia ther growe grett Vynes, and specially of mal- 
wesy and muslcadfR. 

Torkingtan, Diarie of Eng. Travell, p. 20. 

3. A kind of pear. 

muscadin (F. pron. miis-ka-dau'), n. [F.: see 
muxcadiiie.] A dandy: a fop. 



Ml IIMIIS IllntrULOf HJjiienuiiif^ inwuv 

jboscis is usually terminated bv a fleshy lobe, 
_ in the house-fly : now equivalent to Afusci- 
d<e in the widest sense. 

muscarian (mus-ka'ri-an), n. f< NL. Muscaria, 
q. v., + -an.] Any ordinary fly, as 8 member 
of the Muscaria. 

muscariform (mus-kar'i-form), a. [< L. mus- 
carium, a fly-brush (< musca, a fly), + forma, 
form.] Having the shape of a brush ; brush- 
shaped; in hot., furnished with long hairs to- 
ward one end of a slender body, as the style and 
stigma of many composites. 

muscarine (mus'ka-rin), n. [< NL. muscarius 
(see def.) + -iw 2 '.'] An extremely poisonous 
alkaloid (C 5 H 13 NO 2 ) obtained from the fly- 
fungns, Aijarieu* muscarius. It produces myosis, 
infrequent pulse with prolonged diastole, salivation, vom- 
iting, spasm of the muscles of the intestines, tumultuous 
peristalsis, great muscular weakness, dyspncea, and death. 

muscat (mus'kat), 11. [< F. muscat, a grape, 
wine, pear so called, < It. moscato, musk, wine, 
< ML. musculiim. the odor of musk, neut. of 
muacatus, musky, <LL.iM*ew,musk: see mufc. 
Hence muscatel, muscadel, muscadine.] 1. A 
grape having a strong odor or flavor as of musk. 
There are several varieties of grape, mostly white, which 
come within this category. 

2 . Wine made from muscat-grapes, or of similar 
character to that so made, usually strong and 
more or less sweet. Also called muscadel. 

He hath also sent each of us some anchovies, olives, and 
muscatt ; but I know not yet what that is, and am ashamed 
i,,:,.k. Peivt, Diary, I. 282. 

muscatel (mus'ka-tel), M. Same as must-mltl. 

Muscatel raisin." Sec rawin. 
muscatorium (mus-ka-to'n-um), n. [ML., a 

fly-brush, < L. MWM, fly.] Eccks., same as 

flabelluni, 1. 




muschelkalk 

muschelkalk (mush'el-kalk), . [(>., < /- 
*<//, sliell, + kail;, lime or chalk.] One of the 
divisions of the Triassic system as developed 
in Germany, occupying a position between the 
Keuper and Banter. See Triassic. In both Ger- 
many and France it is subdivided into three zones, the 
upper one of which is a true shelly limestone, as the name 
indicates, while the other two are also chiefly limestone, 
but much less fossiliferous than the first. The forma- 
tion is important on account of the beds of salt and anhy- 
drite which it contains. 

muschetor, muschetour (mus'che-tor, -tdr), .. 
[< OF. mouscheture, F. moucheture, little spots, 

< OF. mouscheter, F. moucheter, ^ , 

spot, < OF. mousehe, F. mouche, 
a fly, a spot, < L. musca, a fly : 
see mouche.'] In her., a black 
spot resembling an ermine spot, 
but differing from it in the ab- 
sence of the three specks. See 
ermine^, 5. 

Musci (mus'si), n. pi. [NL., pi. 
of L. muscus, moss: see moss'-.'] A large class 
of cryptogamous plants of the group Muscineo! 
or Sryophyta; the mosses. They are low tufted 
plants, a few inches in height, always with a stem and 
distinct leaves, producing spore-cases (sporogonia) which 
usually open by a terminal lid and contain simple spores 
alone. The germinating spore gives rise in the typical 
families to a filamentous conferva-like prothallium, upon 
which is produced the leafy plant, these together consti- 
tuting the sexual generation or pbphyte. The sexual or- 
gans are antheridia and archegonia, and from the fertilized 
oosphere proceeds the sporogonium or "moss-fruit," 
which in itself comprises the non-sexual generation or 
sporophyte. The sporogonium or capsule, which is rare- 
ly indehiscent or splitting by four longitudinal slits, usu- 
ally opens by a lid or operculum ; beneath the opercu- 
lum, and arising from the mouth of the capsule, are com- 
monly one or two rows of rigid processes, collectively the 
peristome, which are always some multiple of four ; those 
of the outer row are called teeth; those of the inner, cilia. 
Between the rim of the capsule and the operculum is an 
elastic ring of cells, the annulus. The Musci are classified 
under four orders the Bryacece or true mosses (which are 
further divided into acrocarpous, or terminal-fruited, and 
pleurocarpous, or lateral-fruited), Phascacece, Andrceacece, 
and SphagnacetE. See cut under moss. 

Muscicapa (mu-sik'a-pa), . [NL., < L. musca, 
fly, + capere, take.] A Linnean genus of fly- 
catchers. It was formerly of great extent and indis- 
criminate application to numberless small birds which 
capture insects on the wing, but is now restricted to the 
most typical Muscicapidce, such as the blackcap, M. atri- 
capUla, the spotted flycatcher, M. grisola, the white-col- 
lared flycatcher, M . collaris, etc. See cut under flycatcher. 

Muscicapidae (mus-i-kap'i-de), n. pi. [NL., < 
Muscicapa + -idw.~\ A family of Old World os- 
cine passerine birds, typified by the restricted 
genus Muscicapa ; the flycatchers. They are cich- 
lomorphic turdiform or thrush-like Ptwseres, normally 
with 10 primaries, 12 rectrices, scutellate tarsi, and a gry- 
panian bill of a flattened form, broad at the base, with a 
ridged culmen and long rictal vibrissse. Their character- 
istic habit is to capture insects on the wing. None are 
American, though many American fly -catching birds of the 
setophagine division of Sylvicolidts and of the clamatorial 
family Tyrannidce have been included in Muacicapidte. 
Upward of 60 genera and nearly 400 species are placed in 
this family in its most restricted sense. 

Muscicapinae (mu-sik-a-pl'ne), . pi. [NL., < 
Muscicapa + -itue.~\ The flycatchers as a sub- 
family of Muscicapidce or of some other family. 

muscicapine (mu-sik'a-pin), a. Pertaining or 
in any way relating to the genus Muscicapa. 

muscicole (mus'i-kol), a. [< L. muscus, moss, 
+ colere, inhabit.] In bot., living upon decayed 
mosses or Sepaticce, as certain lichens. 

muscicoline (mu-sik'o-lin), a. [< muscicole + 
-inel.] Same as muscicole. 

muscicolous (mu-sik'o-lus), a. [< muscicole + 
-ous.] Same as muscicole. 

Muscidae (mus'i-de), n. pi. [NL., < Musca + 
-idee.] The representative and by far the lar- 
gest family of the order Diptera ; the flies. The 
limits and definition of the family vary widely. It is 
now commonly restricted to forms with short three- 
jointed antennae, the third joint of which is setose; the 
proboscis normally ending in a fleshy lobe and the pal- 
pi generally projecting ; five abdominal segments ; two 
tarsal pulvilli ; and no false vein in the wing. The Muscidie 
comprise more than a third of the order Diptera, and are 
divided into numerous subfamilies, which are regarded as 
families by some writers. They are primarily divided into 
Calyptratce and Acalyptratce, according as the tegulee are 
large or very small. 

musciform 1 (mus'i-f6rm), a. [< NL. muscifor- 
mis, < L. musca, a fly, + forma, form.] Fly- 
like ; resembling a common fly ; of or pertain- 
ing to the Musciformes. 

musoiform 2 (mus'i-f 6rm), a. [< L. muscus, moss, 
4- forma, form, shape.] In bot., same as mus- 
cold. 

Musciformes (mus-i-for'mez), n.pl. [NL., pi. 
of musciformis : see musciforml.] A section of 
musciform Tipulidce, containing those crane- 
flies which resemble common flies, having a 
comparatively stout body and short legs. 



3904 

Muscinae (mu-si'ne), n. pi. [NL., < 
+ -inn'.'] A subfamily of MustMce, exemplified 
by the genus Musca, in which the antenna! bris- 
tle is feathered to the tip, and the first posterior 
cell of the wing is much narrowed or closed. 

Muscinese (mu-sin'e-e), n. pi. [NL., < L. mim- 
cus, moss, + -in +' -ew.'] A group of higher 
cryptogams, coordinate in rank with the Thal- 
lo'phyta, Pteridopliyta, and Fhanerogamia, and 
embracing the two classes Musci and Hepaticte: 
same as Jiryophyta. 

Musciphagat (mu-sif'a-ga), n. [NL., < L. 
musca, a fly, + Gr. <f>a-yeiv, eat.] A genus of fly- 
catchers : same as Dumicola. 

Muscisaxicola (mus"i-sak-sik'o-la), . [NL., < 
Musei(capa) + Saxicola.~] A genus of clama- 
torial flycatchers of the family Tyrannidie, 
founded byLafresnaye in 1837: so called from 
some resemblance to chats. The species are 
numerous, all South American. M. rufivertex 
and M. flavinucha are examples. 

muscite (mus'It), n. [< L. muscus, moss, + 
-He 2 .] A fossil plant of the moss family, found 
in amber and certain fresh-water Tertiary 
strata. Page. 

Muscivora (mu-siv'o-ra), n. [NL., < L. musca, 
a fly, + vorare, devour.] A genus of South 
American crested flycatchers of the family 
Tyrannidai. It was established by Cuvier in 1799-1800, 
and was afterward called by him Muscipeta, the mouche- 
rolles. There are several species, as M. cristata and M. 
coronata. The term has also been variously applied to 
other birds of the same family, as by G. R. Gray in 1840 
to species of MUvvlm, and by Lesson to certain fly-catch- 
ing birds of a different family. 

muscle 1 (mus'l), n. [Early mod. E. also muskle; < 
F . muscle = Pr. muscle, moscle = Sp. nmsculo = Pg. 
musculo = It. muscolo = D. G. Sw. Dan. muskel, a 
muscle, < L. musculus, a muscle, a little mouse, 
dim. of mus, a mouse, = Gr. [tvf , a mouse, also a 
muscle, = G. maus, a mouse, a muscle ; cf. F. 
souris, a mouse, formerly the brawn of the arm, 
Corn, loyoden fer, calf of the leg, lit. mouse of 
leg: the more prominent muscles, as the biceps, 
having, when in motion, some resemblance to a 
mouse : see mouse. Hence muscle"*, mussel. The 
pron. mus'l instead of mus'kl is prob. due to the 
ult. identical muscle^, mussel, where, however, 
the pron. of c in -cle as ' soft' is irregular, though 
occurring also in corpuscle."] 1. A kind of 
animal tissue consisting of bundles of fibers 
whose essential physiological characteristic is 
contractility, or the capability of contracting 





muscle 

2. A certain portion of muscle or muscular tis- 
sue, having definite position and relation with 
surrounding parts, and usually 
fixed at one or both ends. Any one 
of the separate masses or bundles of 
muscular fibers constitutes a muscle, 
which as a whole and in its subdivisions 
is enveloped in f ascial connective tissue 
and usually attached to the part to be 
moved by means of a tendon or sinew. 
Muscles are for the most part attached 
to bones, with the periosteum of which 
their tendons are directly continuous. 
The most extensive or most fixed attach- 
ment of a muscle is usually called its 
origin; the opposite end is its insertion. 
Individual muscles not only change 
their shape during contraction, but are 
of endlessly varied shapes when at rest, 
indicated by descriptive terms, as con- 
ical,fti8iform, penntyorm, dif/astric, del- 
toid, etc., besides which each muscle has 
its specific name. Such names are given 
from the attachments of the muscle, as 
stenwclidomastoid, mnotiyoid; or from 
function, as flexor, extensor ; or from 
position, as pectoral, gluteal; or from 
shape, as deltoid, trapezoid; or from 
some other quality or attribute, in an 
arbitrary manner. Circular muscles are 
those whose fibers return upon them- 
selves ; they constitute sphincters, as of 
the mouth, eyelids, and anus. The swell- 
ing part of a muscle is called its telly ; 
when there are two such, separated 
by an intervening tendon, the muscle 

is douMe-beUied or digastric. Muscles _. . 

whosejfibers are set obliquely upon an Fascial investment 
axial tendon are penntform, or bipenni- of Muscles of Right 
farm. Muscles whose fibers are all paral- A ""- . /" ',"';}' 
lei are called simple or rectilinear; those ^ biceps' s supi- 
whose fibers intersect or cross each n'ator longus.' 
other are called compound. Muscles 
which act in opposition to one another are termed antago- 
nistic ; those which concur in the same action are termed 



Muscles of Human Head, Face, and Neck. 

a, anterior, and b, posterior belly of occipitofrontalis, extending 
over the scalp; c t sternoclidomastoid ; d, trapezius (a small part of 
it); e, attollens aurem; f, attrahens aurem ; g, retrahens aurem ; 
h, orbicularis palpebrarum ; /, corrugator supercilii ; j, orbicularis 
oris ; k, four small muscles of the nostril (the line marks the anterior 
dilatator nans, behind which is the posterior dilatator ; the compressor 
narium is next to the tip of the nose, and the depressor alas nasi is di- 
rectly below the posterior dilatator) ; /, levator labii superioris alseque 
nasi ; m, levator labii superioris, beneath which lies, unmarked, the 
levator anguli oris ; n, zygomaticus minor ; a, zygomaticus major ; 
f, superficial, and a, deep parts of the masseter; r, risorius, be- 
neath which lies the buccinator, unmarked, little shown ; s. depressor 
anguli oris ; f, levator menti ; u, depressor labii inferioris ; v, ante- 
rior, and 7ii, posterior belly of digastricus ; x, mylohyoid ; y, stylo- 
hyoid ; z, hyoglossus ; aa, thyrohyoid ; at>. sternohyoid ; ac, anterior, 
and ad, posterior belly of omohyoid ; af, a small part of inferior con- 
strictor of the pharynx, just above which a small part of the middle 
constrictor appears ; ag, scalenus medius ; ah, scalenus anticus ; at, 
scalenus posticus ; at', levator anguli scapulae ; ak, splenius capitts. 
(The platysma, which covers much of the neck and the lower part of 
the face, has been removed.) 

in length and dilating in breadth on the appli- 
cation of a proper stimulus, as the impulse of 
a motor nerve, or a shock of electricity; flesh; 
"lean meat." By such change of form, the muscles 
become the immediate means of motion of the different 
parts of the body, and of locomotion of the body as a 
whole. 




Aponeurotic 




C 



Principal Muscles of the Human Body. 

A. i, i, occipitofrontalis; 2, temporal is; 3, orbicularis palpebrarum : 
4, masseter ; 5, sternoclidomastoid ; 6, trapezius ; 7, platysma my- 
oides ; 8, deltoid; 9, biceps; 10, brachialis anticus; ri, triceps; 12, 
supinator ; 13, 14, extensors of thumb and fingers ; 1=;, pectoralis ma- 
jor; 16, latissimus dorst ; 17, serratus magnus ; 18, obliqutis externns 
abdominis ; 19, rectus abdominis ; 20, glutjeus medius ; 21, gluteus 
maximus; 22, tensor vaginas femoris; 23, vastus externus; 24, biceps 
feinoris or biceps flexor cruris ; 25, 25, inner and outer heads of 
gastrocnemius; 26, tibialis anticus; 27, extensor longus digitorum ; 28, 
28, tibialis posticus ; 29, peroneus longus ; 30, peronens brevis ; 31, 
peroneus tertius ; 32, muscles of little toe, opposite insertion of peroneus 
tertius; 33, tendon of extensor proprius hallucis; 34, flexor longus 
digitorum ; 35, tendp Achillis. 

R. i, deltoid ; 2, insertion of pectoralis major ; 3, coracobrachialis ; 
4, biceps; 5, brachialis anticus ; 6.a small part of triceps; 7, pronator 
radii teres ; 8, supinator longns ; 9, flexor carpi radialis ; 10, palmaris 
longus, expanding below into the palmar fascia ; ir, flexor sublimts 
digitnrum ; 12, flexor carpi ulnaris ; 13, flexor brevis pollicis; 14, ad- 
ductor pollicis ; T5, abductor minimi digiti. 

C. i, border of glutaius medius; 2, tensor vaginas femoris; 3, iliacus 
and psoas magnus ; 4, pectineus ; 5, adductor longus ; 6, 6, 6, sartorius ; 
7, gracilis ; 8, rectus femoris ; 9, vastus externus ; 10, vastus internus ; 
n, insertion of biceps femoris ; 12, ligament of patella, or common 
tendon of insertion of 8, 9, 10 ; 13, tibialis anticus ; 14, extensor longus 
digitornm ; 15, peroneus longus ; 16, inner head of gastrocnemius ; 
17, inner part of soleus; iR, peroneus brevis. 



muscle 

",,</ '"V""*. Musi-les subject to the will :tn- /'<>/i,, </"/</. 
tlii-'ir I'll" i- ,-n e Mnped. and they eotnposr tlir great hulk 

of the muscular flynom, l,n-lniiini-ii muscles are not -ui> 
ject to the will; t'hc> ;n> neiMTally nn.-triped, though the 
heart is an exception to this. lie. Mow organs whose walls 
:n . notaMy iimseiilar, a* tin- heart, intestine, bladder, and 

u 01 nt i. are Vailed luil/nii u/nxrli'*. Striped or voluntary 111118- 
clr is Minieriliirs e.illrd niiixfli' nj ttniiiull lift', an dintill- 

guifthed from iinstii|H-.l involuntary muscle o/ organic life. 
3. A purl, organ, or tissue, of whatever hi-t" 
logiotu cliaraetrr. \vliich has the property of 
(oiitrai'lilily. ami is thus capable of motion in 
itself. 4. Figuratively, muscular strength; 
brawn: :is, u man of miwr.le Active Insuffi- 
ciency of a muscle. Ht-fitfHi/ii-inn-H. Alarymuscles, 
in insects, delicate fan-shaped musrlcs in tlie upper part 

of the abdomen. rarh pair uniting by the expanded portion 
brln\v (he dorsal vessrl or heart: collectively they have 
h. ni ealle I the /H'rii-nnHttl .s./^/m. Their ftlnctfon ap- 
prar* to be to prnniote tlie eirenlation of the blood by al- 
tering the size of the perieardlal cavity. AmatOrlal 
muscles, see iintninrnii. Appendlcular muscles, 
those whieh belong to the appendicillar skeleton ; muscles 
of the limbs. Artificial muscle, an elastic bawl of 
caoutchouc worn to supply the place of or to supplement 
the action of some paralyzed or weakened muscle. Axial 
muscles, those which belong to the axial skeleton ; mus- 
cles of the trunk, including the head and tail. Canine, 
ciliary, dermal, etc., muscle. See the adjectives. 
Grief-muscles, a name given by Darwin to the orbicu- 
laris palpchraruin, corrugator supercilii. pyrainldalis nasi, 
and central anterior parts of the occipitofrontalis mus- 
cles, which draw the features into an expression of grief. - 
Grlnnlng-muscle, the levator angull oris, one of the mus- 
cles of expression. Hilton's muscle. (After the anato- 
mist Hilton.} The lower aryepiglottie or inferior aryteuo- 
epii;lottidean muscle, called by Hilton compressor sacculi 
larynyi*. Homer's muscle. [After the anatomist HOT- 
H>'I-.\ The tensor tarsi, a very small muscle at the inner 
side of the orbit, inserted into the tarsal cartilages of the 
eyelids. -Hypaxial, hypothenar, etc., muscles. See 
the adjectives. Intercostal muscles, two seta of mus- 
cles, the external and the internal, their fibers crossing 
each other obliquely, connecting the adjacent margins of 
the ribs throughout nearly their whole extent. They are 
concerned in the actof respiration. Kissing-muscle, the 
orbicular muscle or sphincter of the mouth: technically 
called the nrbicularis oris, oiicitlaris, and basiator. Mul- 
ler's palpebral muscle. [After H. M. Matter. \ A layer 
of smooth muscular fibers in either lid, inserted near the 
attached margin of the tarsus, and innervated through the 
cervical sympathetic. Muscles of deglutition, of mas- 
tication, etc. See deylutitinn, mastication, etc. Orbic- 
ular, pyramidal, quadrate, etc., muscles. See the ad- 
jectives. Snarling-muscle, the levator labii superioris, 
as of the dog, which, when it acts, displays the teeth, as in 
snarling. Sneering-muscle, the human levator labii 
superioris alojque nasi, which acts in the expression of 
sneering. (For other muscles, see their special names.) 
muscle-, a. See lilHitsel. 

muscle-band, . See mussel-band. 
musclebill (mus'1-bil), . The surf-scoter, a 

duck, (Eilcmia perxpicillata. (l-.TrumbuU. [Ken- 

nebunk, Maine.] 
muscle-case (mus'1-kas), . A muscle-compart- 

ment. 
muscle-casket (mus'l-kas"ket), . A muscle- 

compartment. 
muscle-cell (mus'1-sel), . A cell from which 

muscular tissue is derived ; a myamoeba ; a 

myocyte. 
The connection with the muscle-cells. 

C. Claus, Zool. (trans.), p. 45. 

muscle-clot (mus'1-klot), >i. The substance 
formed as a clot in the coagulation of muscle- 
plasm; mvosin. 

muscle-column (mus'l-kol"um), . 1. A bundle 
of muscular fibers. 2. A muscle-prism. 

muscle-compartment (mus'1-kom-piirt 'meut), 
. Tlie prismatic space bounded at both ends 
by Krause's membrane (intermediate disk) and 
laterally by the longitudinal planes which mark 
out Cohuheim's areas. It is occupied by a mus- 
cle-prism. Also mimcle-CHxr. m uncle-casket. 

muscle-corpuscle (mus'l-k6r"pus-l), H. A mus- 
cle-nucleus. especially in a striated muscle. 

muscle-current (mus'l-kur'ent), n. See cur- 
/</' . 

muscled (mus'ld),rt. [< muscle! + -e<J2.] Hav- 
ing muscles or muscxilar tissue; musculated: 
used in composition: as, a strong-miwcferf man. 

muscle-nucleus (mus'l-nu*kle-us), n. A nu- 
cleus of a muscle-fiber. In the striated muscles of 
mammals these are usually placed on the inner surface of 
the siireolemtna. 

muscle-plasm (mus'l-plazm), n. The liquid 
expressed from muscle minced and mixed while 
living with snow and a little salt. It coagulates, 
forming a clot (myosin) and muscle-serum. 

muscle-plate (mns'1-plat). . A primitive seg- 
ment df the meaoderm of an embryo destined 
to become a muscle or series of muscles ; a myo- 
comma, myomere, or myotome. Also called 



Most of the voluntary nmselesof the binly are developed 

from a series of portions of mesoderm which ... are 

termed the muscle-plate*. Qttniii, Anat.. II. i:i2. 

muscle-plum (nms'l-plum). n. A dark-purple 

plum. IliilliirrU. 



3005 

mUSCle-prism (miis'l-pri/m), . The prismatii- 
muss ul' imis.-lc-rods occupying a musclc-eom 
partment. 

muscle-reading (mus'l-re'ding), w. The de- 
tection ami interpretation of slight involuntary 
contractions of the muscles by a person whose 
hand is placed upon the subject of experimen- 
tation. 

In tin- researches I made on mutcle reailitifi . it was 
shewn over and over that by pure chance only the blind- 
fold subject would, under certain conditions, tlnd the ob- 
ject looked for in one cage, and sometimes In two cues 
out of twelve. Proe. Sue. Psych. KeKarch., I. 17. 

muscle-rod (mus'1-rod), . A segment id' :i 

muscle-fibrilla between two successive Krause's 

membranes (intermediate disks). 
muscle-serum (mus'l-se'rum), n. The serum 

formed on the coagulation of muscle-plasm. 
muscle-SUgar (mns'1-shug iir), H. Inosite. 
muscling (mtis'ling), H. muscle 1 + -inj/ 1 .] 

Exhibition or representation of the muscles. 
A good piece, the painters say, must have good iiiuxciin?t, 

as well as colouring and drapery. Shaftetfiury. 

muscoid (mus'koid), a. and H. [< L. muscus, 
(see moss*), moss, + Gr. elAof, fonn.] I. a. In 
hot., moss-like; resembling moss. Also musci- 
fiinii. 

II. n. One of the mosses; a moss-like plant, 
muscological (mus-ko-loj'i-kal), a. [< numcol- 
oij-ij + -ic-al.] Belonging or pertaining to mus- 
cology. 

muscologist (mus-kol'o-jist), . [< nnmcolot/-// 
+ -int.] One skilled in the science of muscol- 
ogy ; a bryologigt. 

The tribe of Sphagnaceie. or Bog-Mosses, is now sepa- 
rated by Mttxrolii'iifitx from true Mosses. 

IT. B. Carpenter, Micros., 3S9. 

muscology (mus-kol'o-ji), n. [= F. muscologii; 
< L. muKCUs, moss, + Gr. -~fj>yia, < Myctv, speak : 
see -ology.~\ The branch of botany that treats of 
mosses ; also, a discourse or treatise on mosses. 
Also called bryology. 

muscosity (mus-kos'i-ti), H. [< L. mtiseosus, 
mossy, < muscus, moss (see mo.w 1 ), + -ity.] Mos- 
siness. 

muscovado (mus-ko-va'do), H. [Also muscova- 
da ; = F. moscouade, mascouade,<. Sp. moscabado, 
moscabada, mascobado, mascobada, for azucar 
mascobado, inferior or unrefined sugar.] Unre- 
fined sugar; the raw material from which loaf- 
sugar and lump-sugar are procured by refining. 
Muscovado is obtained from the juice of the sugar-cane 
by evaporation and draining off the liquid part called 

MtaM 

Muscovite (mus'ko-vit), . and a. [Formerly 
also Moscovite ; < If. Muscovite, now Muscovite 
= Sp. Moseovita = D. Moskoviet = G. Moskoici- 
ter = Sw. Dan. Moskorit; as Muscovy (ML. Mua- 
coria), Russia (< Russ. Mo/tkova (> G. Monkau. 
F. Moscou), Moscow), + -(to 2 .] I. n. 1. A native 
or an inhabitant of Muscovy or the principal- 
ity of Moscow, or, by extension, of Russia. 2. 
[/. c.l In mineral., common or potash mica (see 
mi'j2), a silicate of aluminium and potassium, 
with the latter element in part replaced by hy- 
drogen; the light-colored mica, varying from 
nearly white to pale smoky brown, which is 
characteristic of granite, gneiss, and other re- 
lated crystalline rocks: formerly called Musco- 
''.'/ ;/!ttxx. in granitic veins it sometimes occurs In plates 
of great size, and is often mined, as for example in western 
North Carolina; In thin plates it is used in stoves, win- 
dows, etc. When ground up it is used as a lubricator, for 
giving a silvery sheen to wall-paper, etc. Phengite Is a 
variety of muscovite containing more silica than the com- 
mon kinds. The name hydromifa or hydromiucovite is 
sometimes given to the varieties which yield considerable 
water on ignition. These usually have a pearly or silky 
luster and a talc-like feel, and are less elastic than the less 
hydrous kinds: damourlte, margarodite, and sericite are 
here included. Fuchsite is a green-colored variety of 
muscovite containing chromium. In 1887 the production 
of mica (muscovite) in the United States was about 70,000 
pounds, valued at nearly $150,000; 2,000 tons of mica- 
waste, valued at 15,000, were ground for use. (Jh'n. He- 
sources of the U. S., 1887.) 
3. [/. c.] The desman or Muscovitic rat. 

II. a. Of or pertaining to Muscovy, or Mos- 
cow, a former principality in central Russia, 
and the nucleus of the Russian empire ; by ex- 
tension, of or pertaining to Russia. 

I have used the word Mtucnrite in the sense of "pertain- 
ing to the Tsardom of Muscovy," and Moscovite in the 
sense of "pertaining to the town of Moscow." 

D. M. Wallace, Russia, p. 420. 

Muscovitic (mus-ko-vit'ik), . [< Mitneoeite + 

-<.] Same as .)//!//. 
niUSCOVy (mus'ko-vi). .; pi. tnx<-i>ritx (-viz). 

[Short for .)/i/.sr<iry din-k (see iu.*l:-<litck).] A 

Muscovy duck or musk-duck. See duck-. 1. 

ami mxl;-<liK'l:, 1. 
Muscovy glass. See musconte, 2. 



musculation 

She were an excellent lady hut that her face peeleth like 
lliucocy-glan. Huntm and Webster, Malcontent, I. 8. 

muscular (mus'ku-liir), 11. [= F. Hiiixi-iiliin-i 
= Sp. I'g. miixriiliir It. iiiiixcii/in-i; iiiiixriilarr, 
< NL. 



*OTfMCtem, of muscle, < L. 
muscle: see mrwr/e 1 .] 1. Of or pertaining in 
any way to muscle or muscles; composing, con- 
stituting, or consisting of muscle: as, the 
i-nliir system; Hiiixi-iilin- origin or insertion; 
mwenfer fiber or tissue. 2. Done by or de- 
pendent upon muscle or muscles: as, 



ni n ^i ulnr movement; HiKr/flrstrength. 



3. Well-muscled; havingwell-developedmus- 
cles; strong: sinewy; brawny: us, a muxnilin 
man. 4. Figuratively, strong and vigorous. 

No mind becomes muscular without rude and early ex- 
ercise. Bulirer, My Novel, Ix. IB. 

Muscular Christianity. See Christianity. [The origl- 
nation of this phrase has been generally attributed to 
Charles Kingsley ; but he expressly repudiates It. 

We have heard much of late about "Muscular Chrinti 
unity." A clever expression, spoken in jest by 1 know not 
whom, has been bandied about the world, and supposed 
by many to represent some new ideal of the Christian char- 
acter. For myself, I do not know what it means. 

Letters and Menviriei of Charles Kingsley, II. 212. | 

Muscular fascicle, fasciculus, or lacertus, a bundle 
of a variable number of parallel muscular fibers. - Mus- 
cular fiber, (a) Muscular tissue, as composed of fibers. 
(6) One of the fibers of which muscular tissue is ultimate- 
ly composed. Muscular fibril, fibrillation, see the 
nouns. Muscular impression, the mark of the inser- 
tion of a muscle, as of an adductor muscle on the Inner sur- 
face of a bivalve shell. See cut at ciburimn. Muscular 
insertion, one of the attachments of an individual mus- 
cle, generally that inserted in the smaller or more movable 
part. Muscular motion, muscular movement, the 
motion or movement which results from the action of mus- 
cles. Muscular plate, fame asitwrff-trfofe. Muscu- 
lar rheumatism. Same as maalyia. Muscular sen- 
sations, feelings which accompany the action of the mus- 
cles. (James MM, 1829.) By these a knowledge Is obtained 
of the condition of the muscles, and the extent to which 
they are contracted, of the position of various parts of the 
body, and of the resistance offered by external bodies. 
Muscular sense, muscular sensations or the capacity 
of experiencing them, especially considered as a means 
of information. Muscular stomach, a sUimach with 
thick muscular walls, as the gizzard of a fowl : distin- 
guished from the glandular titrrmach, or proventriculus. 
Muscular system, the total of the muscular tissue or 
sum of the individual muscles of the body; musculation 
or musculature, regarded as a set of similar organs or 
system of like parts, comparable to the nervous system, 
the ossemts system, etc. Muscular tissue, the proper 
contractile substance of muscle; muscular fiber. It Is 
of two kinds striated or striped muscle, and smooth. 
The former, of which all the ordinary' muscles of the trunk 
and limbs and the heart are composed, consists of bundles 




Striated Muscular Tissue, magnified about 250 diameters. 
. /, a muscular fiber without its sarcolemma, breaking up at one 
end into its nbrilkr ; ft, two separate nbrilbr : < . a muscular fiber 
breaking up into disks ; /', a muscular fiber of which the contractile 
substance [a, a) is torn across while the sarcolemma ( 6) has not given 
way. 

of fibers which present a striated appearance, and arc 
enveloped in and bound together by connective tissue 
which also supports the vessels and nerves of the muscle. 
Striated muscle-fibers, except those of the heart, have an 
outer sheath of sarcolemma. Smooth muscular tissue 
consists of elongated band-like non-striated fibers, each 
with a rod-like nucleus ; they do not break up into flbrlllie. 
and have no sarcolemma. Muscular tube, in ichth., a 
myodome. = Syn. 3. Sinewy, stalwart, sturdy, lusty, vig- 
orous, powerful. 

muscularity (mus-ku-lar'j-ti), H. [< mtixrulur 
+ -<ty.] The state, quality, or condition of be- 
ing muscular. 

mnscularize (mus'ku-liir-iz), r. t.; pret. and pp. 
niKfTH/iirr.iil. ppr. niiixrulnri;ing. [< muscular 
+ -ire.] To make muscular or strong; de- 
velop muscular strength in. Lotccll, Among 
my Books, 2d ser., p. 5. 

muscularly (mus'ku-lar-li), adr. With mus- 
cular power; strongly; as regards muscular 
strength. 

musculation (mus-kn-la'shon), . [= F. HI.- 
/ as L. muscuius, muscle, + -afiow.] The 



musculation 

way or mode in which a part is provided with 
muscles ; the number, kind, and disposition of 
the muscles of a part or organ. 

It is not by Touch, Taste, Hearing, Smelling, Musculation, 
etc., that we can explain astronomical, physical, chemical, 
and biological phenomena. 

G. II. Lewes, Probs. of Life anil Mind, II. 446. 
=Syn. Musadation, Musculature. M mentation is more 
frequent in merely descriptive anatomy, with reference to 
the attachments or other topographical disposition of in- 
dividual muscles; musculature is the more comprehensive 
morphological or embryological term. 

musculature (mus'ku-la-tur), n. [= Sp. muscu- 
latura; as L. musculiis, muscle, + -ature.] The 
furnishing or providing of a living organism with 
muscles, or the method or means by which mus- 
cles are formed ; also, the muscular tissue, sys- 
tem, or apparatus itself, considered with ref- 
erence to its origin, development, and subse- 
quent disposition ; musculation. 

The musculature of the right side of the larynx is still 
free, and, when acting, a crater-like cavity is seen, lined 
with granulations. Lancet, No. 3436, p. 12. 

Dermal musculature. See dermal. = Syn. See mug- 
culation. 

musculet (mus'kul), n. [< L. musculiis, muscle : 
see muscle 1 ."] A muscle. 

musculi, . Plural of musculus, 1. 

musculine (mus'ku-lin), n. [< L. musculus, mus- 
cle (see muscle 1 ), '+ -ine 2 .] The animal basis of 
muscle ; the chemical substance of which mus- 
cle chiefly consists. See muscle-plasma and 
myosin. 

miisculite (mus'ku-llt), n. [< L. musculus, mussel 
(see mussel), + -jfe 2 .] A fossil shell like a mus- 
sel or Mytilus, or supposed to be of that kind. 

musculocutaneoUS (mus // ku-16-ku-ta'ne-us), a. 
[< L. musculus, muscle, + cutis, skin: see cu- 
taneous. ] Muscular and cutaneous : specifically 
said of certain nerves which, after giving off 
motor branches to muscles, terminate in the 
skin as sensory nerves. The superior and inferior 
musculocutaneous nerves of the abdomen are two branches 
of the lumbar plexus, more frequently called the Uiohy- 
poffastric and ilio-inguinal. (See these words.) The mus- 
culocutaueous nerve in the arm is a large branch of the 
brachial plexus, which supplies the coracobrachialis and 
biceps muscles, and in part the brachialis anticus, and then 
famines in the skin of the forearm. That of the leg is one 
of two main branches of the external popliteal or peroneal 
nerve, which supplies the peronei muscles and then rami- 
fies in the skin of the lower leg and foot. 

musculopallial (mus"ku-16-pari-al), a. [< L. 
musculiis, muscle, + NL. pallium: see pallial.~\ 
Supplying or distributed to muscles and to the 
mantle or pallium of a mollusk: specifically 
applied to the outer of two nerves given off 
from the visceral ganglion, the other being 
the splanchnic nerve. Trans. Soy. Soc. Edin., 
XXXII. 628. 

musculophrenic (mus"ku-16-fre'nik), a. [< L. 
musculus, muscle, + Gr. fypfiv, diaphragm.] Per- 
taining to the muscular tissue of the diaphragm : 
specifically applied to a terminal branch of the 
internal mammary artery, which supplies the 
diaphragm and lower intercostal muscles. 

musculosity (mus-ku-los'i-ti), n. [= F. mus- 
culosite, < L. as if *nmsculosita(t-)s, < muscu- 
losus, musculous : see musculous.] The quality 
of being musculous ; muscularity. 

musculospiral (mus // ku-16-spi'ral), a. [< L. mus- 
culiis, muscle, + spira, spire: seespzraZ.] Inner- 
vating a muscle and winding spirally around a 
bone : specifically applied to the largest branch 
of the brachial plexus, which winds around the 
humerusin company with the superior prof unda 
artery, and supplies the muscles of the back 
part of the arm and forearm and the skin of 
the same part. 

musculous (mus'ku-lus), a. [= F. mwsculeux 
= Sp. Pg. musculosb = It. muscoloso, musculoso, 
< L. musculosus, muscular, fleshy, < musculus, 
a muscle: see muscle 1 .'] 1. Pertaining to a 
muscle or to muscles. 

The uvous coat or iris of the eye hath a musculous power, 
and can dilute and contract that round hole in it called 
the pupil or sight of the eye. Ray, Works of Creation, ii. 

2. Full of muscles; hence, strong; sinewy. 
[Obsolescent.] 

He had a tongue so musculous and subtile that he could 
twist it up into his nose. Swift, Tale of a Tub, xl. 

musculus (mus'ku-lus), n. [L. : see muscle 1 .] 

1. PI. musculi (-11). Inoi.,a muscle. Muscles 
were all formerly named in Latin, musculus being express- 
ed or implied in their names, but few retain this designa- 
tion, though the Latin form of the qualifying word or words 
may remain, as pectoralis, ylutoeus, etc. 

2. [cap.] In 2067.: (a) A genus of mice, of which 
Mus musculus is the type : same as Mits. Kaft- 
nesque, 1818. (b) A term in use among the 
conchologists of the seventeenth and eigh- 
teenth centuries for various bivalve shells, as 



3906 

Panopa-n, Uiiionidce, Cyrenidce, Mytilidw, etc. 
(c) A genus of brachiopods of the family Tere- 
bratulidfi'. Qucnstedt, 1871. 

Mus. Doc. An abbreviation of Musical Doctor 
(Doctor of Music). 

muse 1 (muz), v. ; pret. and pp. mused, ppr. mus- 
ing. [< ME. musen, gaze about, ponder, won- 
der, muse, < OF. muser (= Pr. OSp. musar = 
It. musare), ponder, muse, dream, F. loiter, 
trifle, dawdle ; origin uncertain ; prob. same as 
It. mussare, mutter, mumble, F. dial. (Walloon) 
muser, hum, buzz, < ML. musare, mussare, L. 
mussare, murmur, mutter, be in uncertainty ; cf . 
Norw. musa, mussa, mysja, mutter, whisper; Or. 
uv&iv, mutter; lilt., like mum!, mumble, mutter, 
etc., imitative of a low indistinct sound. An- 
other etymology (Diez, Skeat) rests on It. mu- 
sare, 'gape about,' explained as orig. 'sniff as 
a dog v (cf. F. muser, begin to rut), < OF. 
"muse (= It. muso), the mouth, muzzle, snout 
(whence dim. musel, mosel, > ME. mosel, > E. 
muzzle), < L. morsus, bite, ML. also muzzle, 
snout, beak: see muzzle, morse"*. Forthe change 
of L. morsus to OF. "muse (mus), cf. OF. jus, < 
L. deorsum, OF. sus, < L. seorsum. But the Pr. 
OSp. and It. forms, in this view, must be bor- 
rowed from the OF., a thing in itself highly 
improbable at a date so early, and sufficient, 
with the improbability of such a transfer of 
notions, to disprove this explanation. In ano- 
ther view, also improbable, the word is < OHG. 
muozen, be idle, muoza, G. musze, idleness, lei- 
sure. Hence amuse.] I. intrans. 1. To pon- 
der; meditate; reflect continuously and in si- 
lence ; be in a brown study. 

Right hertely she hym loved, and mused here-on so 
moche that she was sore troubled, and fayn wolde she haue 
hym to be her lorde. Merlin (E. E. T. S.), ii. 229. 

Taking my lonely winding walk, I mus'd, 
And held accustom'd conference with my heart. 

Cowper, The Four Ages. 
And the young girl mused beside the well, 
Till the rain on the unraked clover fell. 

Whittier, Maud Muller. 

2f. To be astonished ; be surprised ; wonder. 

I muse my Lord of Gloucester is not come ; 
'Tis not his wont to be the hindmost man. 

SAafr.,2Hen. VI., lit. 1.1. 
Yonder is ther an host of men, 
I musen who they bee. 

Captain Car (Child's Ballads, VI. 150). 

This may be a sufficient reason to us why we need no 

longer muse at the spreading of many idle traditions so 

soon after the Apostles. Milton, Prelatical Episcopacy. 

3. To gaze meditatively. 

As y stood musynge on the moone. 

Political Poems, etc. (ed. Furnivall), p. 148. 
Then came the fine Gawain and wonder'd at her, 
And Lancelot later came and mused at her. 

Tennyson, Lancelot and Elaine. 

= Syn. 1. Meditate, reflect, etc. (see list under contem- 
plate), cogitate, ruminate, brood. 

II. trans. 1. To meditate on; think of re- 
flectively. 

Thou knowist all that hertes thenke or muse, 
All thynges thou seest in thy presence. 

Bom. of Partenay (E. E. T. S.), 1. 6441. 

Come, then, expressive Silence, muse His praise. 

Thomson, Hymn, 1. 118. 
2f. To wonder at. 

muse 1 (muz), n. [< ME. muse, < OF. muse, muze, 
musing, amusement, < muser, muse: see muse 1 , 
v.] 1 . The act of musing ; meditation ; reverie ; 
absent-mindedness; contemplative thought. 
Thys king in muses ther was full strongly 
In the noblesse of this castell alway, 
That almost he slepte, but not a-slepe fully. 

Rom. of Partenay (E. E. T. S.), 1. 5511. 

2. Wonder; surprise. 

This dedication . . . may haply make your Honors muse; 
well fare that dedication that may excite your muse. 

Florio, It. Diet. (1598), Ep. Ded., p. [3]. 

He ... was lill'd 

With admiration and deep muse, to hear 
Of things so high and strange. 

Milton, P. L., vii. 52. 
At or In a muse, in doubt or hesitation. 

Which euent beeing so straunge, I had rather leaue 
them in a muse what it should be, then in a maze in telling 
what it was. Lyly, Euphues, Anat. of Wit, p. 104. 

For the dnke and our fleet, we are now all at a muse what 
should become of them. 

Court and Times of Charles II., I. 251. 

Muse 2 (muz), n. [< OF. muse, F. muse = Pr. Sp. 
Pg. It. musa = D. muze = G. muse = Sw. Dan. 
miixf, < L. musa, < Gr. fiovaa, ^Eolic fjotaa, Doric 
fj.aaa, Laconian //ua or fiiid, a Muse (see def. 1), 
hence also music, song, eloquence, in pi. arts, 
accomplishments, and in general fitness, pro- 
priety; prob. contr. of *uaovaa (reg. contr.,uwoa), 
fern. ppr. of *udetv, a defective verb (perf. //e- 



museography 

//on, part. ficuaac, pres. mid. /lanffai), strive af- 
ter, seek after, attempt, long for, desire eager- 
ly, covet, etc. The lit. meaning of uovua is 
sometimes given as ' inventress ' (as ancient 
writers assumed), from the sense 'invent' in- 
ferred from the sense ' seek after'; but the term 
more prob. referred to the emotion or passion, 
the "fine frenzy," implied in the verb in the 
usual sense ' strive after' (////auf, excited), and 
in its derivatives, among which are counted 
luuveaOtu, be in a frenzy, fiavia, frenzy, madness, 
pdvTir, a seer, prophet, etc.: see mania, Mantis. 
Hence museum, music, mosaic 1 , etc.] 1. In Gr. 
myth., one of the daughters of Zeus and Mne- 
mosyne, who according to the earliest writers 
were goddesses of memory, then inspiring god- 
desses of song, and according to later ideas di- 
vinities presiding over the different kinds of po- 
etry, and over the sciences and arts, while at the 
same time having as their especial province 
springs and limpid streams. Their number appears 
in the Homeric poems not to be fixed; later it seems to have 
been put at three, but afterward they are always spoken of 
as nine : Clio, the Muse of heroic exploits, or of history ; 
Euterpe, of Dionysiac music and the double flute ; Thalia, 
of gaiety, pastoral life, and comedy ; Melpomene, of song 
and harmony, and of tragedy ; Terpsichore, of choral dance 
and song; Erato, of erotic poetry and the lyre ; Polymnia 
or Polyhymnia, of the inspired and stately hymn ; Urania, 
of astronomical and other celestial phenomena ; and Cal- 
liope, the chief 'of the Muses, of poetic inspiration, of elo- 
quence, and of heroic or epic poetry. Tne Muses were 
intimately associated in legend and in art with Apollo, 
who, as the chief guardian and leader of their company, 
was called Musagetet. 

In this city [Cremona] did that famous Poet (Virgil] con- 
secrate himself to the M uses. Coryat, Crudities, I. 140. 

Hence 2. [cap. or I. c.] An inspiring power ; 
poetic inspiration : often spoken of and apos- 
trophized by poets as a goddess. 

O for a Muse of fire, that would ascend 
The brightest heaven of invention 1 

Shak., Hen. V., i., Prol. 
Of Man's first disobedience, and the fruit 
Of that forbidden tree, whose mortal taste 
Brought death into the world, and all our woe, . . . 
Sing, heavenly Muse. Milton, P. L., i. 6. 

3. A poet; a bard. [Bare.] 
So may some gentle Muse 
With lucky words favour my destined urn; 
And, as he passes, turn 
And bid fair peace be to my sable shroud. 

Milton, Lycidas, 1. 19. 

muse 3 (mus), n. [< OF. musse, a little hole or 
corner to hide things in, < musser, hide: see 
miche 1 ,mooch,moucfi.] 1. An opening in a fence 
through which a hare or other game is accus- 
tomed to' pass. Also muset. 

As when a crew of gallants watch the wild muse of a Bore, 
Their dogs put in full crie, he rusheth on before. 

Chapman, Iliad, xi. 368. (Nares.) 
The old prouerbe . . . " 'Tis as hard to find a hare with- 
out a muse as a woman without a scuse." 

Greene, Thieves Falling Out (Harl. Misc., VIII. 387). 

(Nareg.) 

Like to an hunter skilfull in marking the secret tracts 
and muces of wild beasts, [he] enclosed many a man within 
his lamentable net and toyle. 

Holland, tr. of Ammianus Marcellinus (1609). (Nares.) 

2f. A loophole ; a means of escape. 

For these words still left a muse for the people to escape. 

N. Bacon. 

3. The mouthpiece or wind-pipe of a bagpipe. 

Also written smuse. 

mused (muzd), a. [< muse 1 + -ed 2 .] Overcome 
with liquor; bemused; muzzy. 

Head waiter honour'd by the guest, 
Half-mused, or reeling ripe. 

Tennyson, Will Waterproof. 

museful (muz'ful), a. [< muse 1 , n., + -ful.'\ 
Thinking deeply or closely; thoughtful. Dry den. 

musefully (muz'ful-i), adv. In a museful man- 
ner; thoughtfully. 

muselt, n,. An obsolete variant of muzzle. 

museless (muz'les), . [< Muse 2 , n., + -less.] 
Without a Muse; disregarding the power of 
poetry. 

Museless and unbookish they [the Spartans] were, mind- 
ing nought but the feats of Warre. 

Milton, Areopagitica (Clarendon Press), p. 7. 

musenna, See mesenna. 

museographer (mu-ze-og'ra-fer), n. [< mtiae- 
oi/miili-y + -er 1 ,] Same as museogrofnist. 

museographist (mu-ze-og'ra-fist), . [< muse- 
ograpn-y + -is/.] One who describes or classi- 
fies the objects in a museum. Also musaeog- 
mi>hit<t. [Recent.] 

Most of the naturalists and museoffraphtetshuve included 
shells in tlu'ir works. 

Mendes da Costa, Elements of Conchology, p. 57. 

museography (iiiu-ze-og'ra-fi), w. [< Gr. ^ovae'i- 
ov, a museum, + -ypafyia, < ypajeiv, write.] The 



museography 

systematic description orwrittcn olftMiAefttion 
of objects iii a museum. Also mutxeograpky. 

museologist (mu-ze-ol'o-jist), . f< niii.t, )//-// 
+ -int.] One versed in museology. 



3907 



music 



A 



Eng.] 6. The best kind of iron ore. IIiilli- 

"'' II. Mush muddle, pot-pie. (Cape Cod.) ~ ~ Oeurye Eliot, Daniel Deronda, xlvl. 

mush- (mush), v. t. [Perhaps a var. of MM. r. over-ripe, mushy, braised, and partially decayed fruit 

To nick or notch (dress-fabrics) round the edges ma kes a poor dark-colored dried product 

with a stamp, for ornament. Sei. Amer., N. 8., LXI. 232. 

' V -<f2.] ghat- music (mu'zik), n. [< ME. mturik, musi/k, mu- 

[Prov. Eng.] gj^ _ Jj. miizirl,; mu:ijk = Ml.li. Mll<i. inn- 



museology (mii-/.e-oro-ji), >i. [<'Nlj. iiiiisriiiii, mushed (musht), a. [< mush* 
museum, + fir. ->;<", < >'/f'"i speak: see -olo- tered; depressed; "used up." 
f/i/ ] The science of arranging and managing Going about all day without changing her cap, and look- 

museums. Ms -o/,, W . [Recent.] Ing a. If she "*, Mm on ^ ^ , & 

But the account of the last [general arrangements of the . . 

wveral muscumsl is generally unsatisfactory and imper- musheront, . An obsolete form of muxliroom. 
feet, while very slight r no mention Is made of such dc- mushetour, . In her., same as muschftor. 
vii'i's i :m' (nariii-tcrM.luiilly American, and in which m ushaUash-rOOt '< OOO mUSOUCUSh-rOOt. 

, notably advanced by u*^ ^ ^ ush ? oom (musu ' r om), n. anf a. [Also dial. 

or obs. iiiiixliriinii', mushrump, musheron; < ME. 
musheron, muscheroii, < OP. motwcteron, mouse- 
ran, a mushroom, < mousse, moss: see mo** 1 .] 
I. . 1. A cryptogamic plant of the class FM- 
gi: applied in a general sense to almost any 
of the larger, conspicuous fungi, such as toad- 
stools, puffballs, Hydnei, etc., but more partic- 
ularly to the agaricoid fungi and especially to 
the edible forms. The species most usually cultivated 
hi the Agaricus campestris, edible agaric or mushroom. 
Mushrooms are found In all parts of the world, and are 
usually of very rapid growth. In some localities they form 
a staple article of food. In Tlerra del Fuego the natives live 
largely upon Cytharia Danrinii, and in Australia many 
species of Boletus are used as food by the natives. Many 
mushrooms are poisonous, and the selection of those suit- 
able for cooking should be intrusted to competent judges. 
See cut under Agaricus. 

Hither the Emperour Claudius repaired. In hope to re- 
cover his health through the temperature of the air, . . . 
but contrarlly here met with the mushrames that poysoncd 
him. Sandys, Travailes, p. 236. 

Hence 2. An uostart ; one who rises rapidly 
from a low condition in life. 

But cannot brook a night-grown mushrump 
Such a one as my lord of Cornwall is 
Should bear us down of the nobility. 

Marlowe, Edward II., i. 4. 

And we must glorify 
A mushroom ! one of yesterday ! 

B. Jonson, Catiline, II. 1. 

3. A small mushroom-shaped protuberance that 
sometimes forms on the end of the negative 
carbon in arc-lamps Cup-mushroom, a common 
name for certain discomycetous fungi, particularly of the 
genus/Vnox. See DiscomyceUs&n&Peziza, Devil's mush- 
room, a name given to many poisonous fungi resembling 



. 82. 

muser (mu'zer), n. One who muses; one who 
acts, speaks, or writes as in a revOrio ; an ab- 
sent-minded person. 

He (Arnold] is not, like most elegiac poets, a mere sad 
muser; he is always one who Hnds a secret of Joy In the 
midst of pain. Contemporary Ken., XL1X, 530. 

muse-rid (muz'rid), a. Ridden by a Muse or 
the Muses; possessed by poetical enthusiasm. 
[Rare.] 

No meagre Muse-rid mope, adust and thin, 
In a dun night-gown of his own loose skin. 

Pope, Dunclad, ii. 87. 

muset (mu'set), n. [Also muxit; dim. of mmeP.] 
Same as muse 3 , 1. 

The many miMcte through the which he [the hare] goes 
Arc like a labyrinth to amaze his foes. 

.s7.ii/.-., Venus and Adonis, 1. 683. 



musette (mu-zef), . [F., dim. of OF. muse, a 
pipe, a bagpipe, = It. musa, < ML. musa, a 
bagpipe, < L. musa, a song, a Muse: see 
iftweC] 1. A small and simple variety of 
oboe. 2. A form of bagpipe once very popular 
in France, having a compass of from ten to thir- 
teen tones. 3. A quiet pastoral melody, usual- 
ly with a drone-bass, written in imitation of a 
bagpipe tune : often introduced as one of the 
parts of the old-fashioned suite, especially as 
a contrast to the gavotte. Such melodies were often 
used as dance-tunes ; and thus the term musette was ex- 
tended to tha dance for which they were used. 

museum (rau-ze'um), n. [= F. museum, muste= 
Sp. museo = Pg. museu = It. museo, < L. mu- 
seum, < Gr. ftovaciov, a temple of the Muses, a 

place of study, a library or museum, also (late) edibie'mushrooms. [Colloq.'l-Fairy-ringf mushroom, 
mosaic, < /iolaa, a Muse : see Jfiwe^.J A build- gee champignon and Marasmius. St. George's mush- 
ing or part of a building appropriated as a re- 
lository of things that have an immediate 



pository of things that have an immediate re- 
lation to literature, art, or science ; especially 
and usually, a collection of objects in natural 
history, or of antiquities or curiosities. Among 
the leading museums may be mentioned in Italy, the 
Vatican (developed largely from the sixteenth to the eigh- 
teenth centuries) and the Capitollne at Eome, the Uftizi 
and ritti Palace at Florence, the great Museo Nazionale at 
Naples, and the Brera at Milan ; in France, the Louvre (per- 
haps the most Important in the world, opened 1793X the 
Luxembourg (devoted to recent art), the Trocadero, and 
the Hotel de Cluny at Paris ; in Germany, the Zwinger 
(founded in the eighteenth century) at Dresden, the mu- 
seums of Berlin, and the (ilyptothek and Plnakothek at 
Munich ; in Great Britain, the Ashmolean at Oxford (open- 
ed 1683) and the British Museum (the largest In the coun- 
try founded 1753) and the South Kensington Museum 
(illustrative of the industrial arts) at London. There are 
very notable museums at St. Petersburg, at Madrid, and 
at Athens ; and the museum at Ghizeh (formerly Bonlak), 
near Cairo, has a world-wide reputation. In the United 
States the chief museums are the Museum of Fine Arts at 
Boston, the Metropolitan Museum at New York, and the 



room, a species of mushroom, Agaricus gamoosus, which 
appears in May and June, growing in rings. The name is 
also given to A. anemis. 

II. a. 1. Of or pertaining to mushrooms; 
made of mushrooms : as, mushroom sauce. 2. 
Resembling mushrooms in rapidity of growth 
and in unsubstantiality; ephemeral; upstart: 
as, mushroom aristocracy. 

Somebody buys all the quack medicines that build pal- 
aces for the mushroom, say rather the toadstool, million- 
aires. 0. W. Holmes, Med. Essays, p. 186. 
Mushroom anchor, catchup, coral, etc. See the nouns. 
Mushroom head, the nose-plate on the inner part of 
the breech-plug of a breech-loading cannon. See nose-plate, 
and second cut under /ermeture. 
mushroom (mush'rom), v. t. [< mushroom, w.] 
To elevate suddenly in position or rank. 

The prosperous upstart mushroomed Into rank. 

Richardson, Clarissa Harlowe, I. 297. (Dames.) 

mushroom-hitches (mush'rom-hich'ez), n. pi. 
Inequalities in the floor of a coal-mine, occa- 



, , 

National Museum at Washington. The meaning to the sioned by the projection of basaltic or other 

term museum Is sometimes extended, especially on the stony substances. Halliwell. [Prov. Eng.] 

continent of Europe, to include galleries of pictures and mu8 h.room-Spawn. (mush'rom-sp&n), n. The 

. ^.1 , ^f substance in which the reproductive mycelium 
[Prob. ong. a dial. var. of fc mush room is embodied. 



ulpti 
mush 1 (mush), n. 



, mus room s emo. 



[Prov." Eng.] 

or milk until it forms a thick, soft mass: as, 
oatmeal mush ; mush and milk; specifically, 
such a preparation made from Indian corn; 
hasty-pudding. 

In thickness like a cane, It Nature roul'd 
Close up in leaves, to keep It from the cold ; 
Which being ground and boyl'd, Mush they make. 
Hardie, Last Voyage to Bermuda (1671). (BarOett.) 



Two small mushroom^tones, in form of a bluntish cone. 
. . . Fifteen other mushroom-stones of near the same shape 
with the precedent. . . . These are of a white colour, and 
in shape exactly resembling a sort of coralline fungus of 
marine original, which I have by me. 

Woodward, On Fossils, p. 137. 



mushroom-strainer (mush'rom -stra'ner), n. 
An inverted-dish strainer for cistern-pumps, so 
named from its shape. E. H. Knight. 

mushroom-sugar (mush'roin-shug'ar), n. Man- 
nito. 

mushru (mush'i-6), n. [Hind, mashrffa.] A 
washable material made inlndia,havinga glossy 
silk finish and a cotton back. It is used for 
wearing-apparel, and is very durable. 

3. Something resembling mush, as being soft m ushrump (mush'rmnp), n. An obsolete or 
and pulpy: as, muxh of mud. dialectal form of mushroom. 

I hati>, where I looked for a manly furtherance, or at mushy (musll'i), a. [< mush^ + -y 1 .] Like 
least iinianl) resistance, to find a A .>f coneesH.m. mush; soft; pulpv; without fiber or firmness. 
/.'HI, i.-.-ii, friendship. 

The death penalty is disappearing, like some better 

4. Fish ground up; churn; ponniee; stosh. things, beforea kind'of miMAj/andunthinkingdoubtoflU 
5. Dust; dusty refuse. Halliicetl. [Prov. morality and expediency. The Nation, Feb. 3, 1870, p. 67. 



Ev'n in thy native regions, how I blush 

To hear the Pcnnsylvanians call thee Mush ! 

Joel Barlow, Hasty Pudding, i. 

Why will people cook it [rice] into a mush? See how 
separate the grains are ! 

H'. M. Baker, New Timothy, p. 19. 



= G. Dan. Sw. muxik, < OF. (and F.) mu- 
e = Sp. musica = Pg. It. musica, music, < L. 
ica = AT. mugiqa = Turk. Hind, musu/i, < 
Gr. uovatidi (sc. rexvrj), any art over which the 
Mu-es presided, esp. lyric poetry set to melody, 
music ; fern, of /lavotnot, of the Muses (o jiovoi- 
ifor, a votary of the Muses, a poet, musician, 
man of letters), < uovaa, a muse: see Muse*.} 

1. Any pleasing succession of sounds or of 
combinations of sounds; melody or harmony: 
as, the music of the winds, or of the sea. 

For the armony 

And iweet accord was so good musike 
That the uolce to angels most was like. 

Flower and Lea/. 
In sweet music is such art, 
Killing care and grief of heart 
Fall asleep, or hearing die. 

Shak., Hen. VIII., 111. 1 (song). 

When those exact co-ordinations which the ear per- 
ceives as rhythm, tune, and tone-color are suggested to 
the ear by a series of musical sounds, the result Is music. 
S. Lanier, Scl. Eng. Verse, p. 48. 
The bird doth not betray the secret springs 
Whence note on note her music sweetly pours. 

Jones Very, Poems, p. 29. 

2. (n) The science of combining tones in rhyth- 
mic, melodic, and harmonic order, so as to pro- 
duce effects that shall be intelligible and agree- 
able to the ear. (6) The art of using rhythmic, 
melodic, and harmonic materials in the produc- 
tion of definite compositions, or works having 
scientific correctness, artistic finish and pro- 
portion, esthetic effectiveness, and an emo- 
tional content or meaning. 

In Candia slue Creta was musyke flrste founde, and also 
tourneys and exercyse of armes on horsbacke. 

Sir It. Ouytfordc, Pylgrymage, p. IS. 

Mvric has been developed according to certain rules 
which depended on unknown laws of nature since dis- 
covered ;. . . it cannot be separated from these laws, and 
. . . within them there is a field large enough for all the 
efforts of human fancy. Blaterna, Sound, p. 187. 

Degrees to music are not conferred by the University of 
London. Grace's Diet. Music, I. 452. 

3. A composition made up of tones artistically 
and scientifically disposed, or such compositions 
collectively: as, a piece of music. Music Is clas- 
sified and named with respect to Its origin or general 
style as barbarous, popular, national, artistic, sacred, sec- 
ular, etc. ; with respect to its technical form as melodic, 
harmonic, polyphonic or contrapuntal, hoiuophonic, Gre- 
gorian, classical, romantic, strict, free, lyric, epic, dra- 
matic, pastoral, mensurable, figured, etc. ; with respect to 
Its method of performance as vocal, instrumental, solo, 
choral, orchestral, concerted, etc. ; and with respect to its 
application as ecclesiastical or church, theatrical, operatic, 
military, or as concert-, chamber-, dance-music, etc. 

HIslRosslnl's] use of the crescendo and the "cabaletta," 
though sometimes carried to excess, gave a brilliancy to 
his music which added greatly to the excellence of its ef- 
feet. Encyc. Brit., XX. 861. 

4. A musical composition as rendered by in- 
struments or by the voice. 

Some to Church repair, 
Not for the doctrine, but the music there. 

Pope, Essay on Criticism, 1. S44. 

5. The art of producing melody or harmony by 
means of the voice or of instruments. 

Also there shalbe one Teacher of Musicke, and to play 
one the Lute, the Bandora, and Cytterne. 

Book of Precedence (E. E. T. 8., extr ser.), 1. 7. 

6. The written or printed score of a composi- 
tion; also, such scores collectively: as, a book 
of music; music for the piano or the flute. 7. 
A company of performers of music ; a band; an 
orchestra. 

Enter music. 

Page. The music is come, sir. 
Fal. Let them play. Shot., 2 Hen. IV., ii. 4. 245. 

I am one of the music, sir. 

Fletcher, Wife for a Month, ii. 6. 

8. Pleasurable emotion, such as is produced 
by melodious and harmonious sounds; also, 
the source, cause, or occasion of such emotion. 

Such Musicke is wise words, with time concented. 

Spenser, F. Q., IV. ii. 2. 

The graces and the loves which nuke 
The music of the march of life. 

Whittier, Last Walk In Autumn. 

9. Lively speech or action; liveliness; excited 
wrangling; excitement. [Colloq., U. 8.] 10. 
Diversion; sport; also, sense of the ridicu- 
lous. In this sense apparently confused with 
amuse; compare mufticnl, 5. [New Eng.] 
Broken, cathedral, church, congregational music. 
See the qualifying words. Dynamics Of music. See 



music 

rfiwM> - Florid Greeorian tanizary music. See 
tnu^'fyi"ra s G ~las^music,^nm e in which 
some article is hidden, to bel sought for by one of the com- 
pany who is partly guided by the music of some instrn- 
mont which is played fast as he approaches the place of 
concealment and more slowly as he wanders fi 

A pleasant game, she thought ; she liked it more 
Than magic music, forfeits, all the rest - 



phrasenrstusedbyRichardWagnertoexpressanelaborate 
combination of poetic, musical, dramatic, and scenic art 



3908 

We shut our hearts up nowadays, 
|,ike 5; ,,ne old .** that plays 
Unfashionable airs. 

Austin Dobmn, A C.age d Amour, 
2. A barrel-organ. 
Aminadab that grinds the mmlc-box. 

Goldsmith, She Stoops to Conquer, i. 1. 

music-cabinet (mu'zik-kab'i-net), n. An orna- 
mental stand or rack for holding music-books 
and sheet-music. 

music-case (mu'zik-kas), n. 1. A set of shelves, 
compartments, or drawers tor holding music, 
whether bound or in sheet form. 2. A roll, fo- 
". f r &* ' "Specially ^ 

Music of the spheres. t harmony of the spres, music. Also called music-roll music-folio, etc. 
under harmony. Music trade-mark. See trade-mark. 3. A printers' case or tray fitted with parti- 

Organic music. See organw.- Program music ,mu- tions for mus i c 4yp e s. 

men?h n n d d e wimouuh y e eo? word^e'scripTiol S music-chair (mu'zik-char), , Same as MW.O 
gestion of definite objects, scenes, or events. The term is stool. 

oftenvei-y vaguely used.-To face the music. See/ocei. music-clamp (mu'zik-klamp), w. A clip or nle 
- Turkish music. Same as January mime. for holding sheet-music. 

musict (mu'zik), r. *. [< music, n.] To entice music-club (mu'zik-klub), . An association 
or seduce with music. for the practice of music. 

A man must put a mean valuation upon Christ to leave There were also music-dubs, orprivate meetings for the 
him for a touch upon an instrument, and a faint idea of practice of music, which were exceedingly fashionable 
future torments to be fiddled and muxick'd into hell. with people of opulence. 

Gentleman Instructed, p. 135. (Daviet.) Strutt, Sports and Pastimes, p. 383. 

musica (mu'zi-ka), n. [L. and It.: see music.'] music-demy (mu'zik-de-mi"), n. An English 
Music __ Musica flcta, falsa, or colorata, false or size of printing-paper, 20J X 14f inches. 
feigned music : a term applied in the fourteenth, fifteenth, music-desk (mu'zik-desk), . A music-stand, 
and sixteenth centuries to music in which accidentals or T ap-tap-tap," went the leader's bow on the music- 
notes foreign to the scale of the mode were introduced for ^ f Dickem, Sketches, viii. 

the sake of euphony. ,,-,. */u//mii'ilr Wlis^ Mnmn no musuf 

musical (mu'zi-kal), . and !. [< F. Sp. Pg. mUSlC-fOllO (mu zik-lc 10), n. bame as 
musical = It. mnsicalc, < NL. *musicalis, < L. case, 2. 

munea music see music 1 I 1 Of or per- mUSlC-nall(mu'zik-hal), H. A public hall used 
iisio in an v sense- of the nature especially for musical performances or other 
taming to music, in any s m ,Wi P mtwrial ments sneoifieallv in En?- 

of music: as, musical proportion. 2. Sound- public entertainments, spec any, m rmg 
ing agreeably: affecting the ear pleasurably; land, such a hall in which the entertainment 

nits of sinin dancin recitations or im- 



musive 

His operas, although by no means written" with a pur- 
pose ' 'represented an ent.rely new type of <***>* 
Mtfettt. Quarterly Rev., GXIAI. 66. 

nmsicography (mu-zi-kog'ra-fi), w. [< Gr. //r- 
OTk-n, music, + 5/HMto, write.] The science or 
art ' o f wr i t ing music out in legible characters ; 
mugical notation 

mus i c omania (niiV'zi-ko-ma'ni-a), H. [= F. 
musicomanie = It. musicomania. "< NL. wi.v/r- 
,,-, < Gl , , lovatK j lj music, + pavia, mania.] 
In p<lflloL , a variety of m ouomania in which the 
intellectual faculties are deranged by an ab- 
for music. Dmuilison. Alsd 



conformable to the laws of the science of music ; 
conformable to the principles of the art of mu- 
sic; melodious; harmonious. 

ht A A nr 8 Tute" d ""' riCal 
Albright Apollo's lute. L L L , y 3 



consists of singing, dancing, recitations, or im 
itations in character burlesque, variety per- 
formances, and the like. 



S?S?S5~ 

While yet the thought of glorious Summer lives. 



i spree. 
F. Locker, The Music Palace. 

(mu'zik-hol'der), H. 1. A mu- 
e X rack, clip, or hook for holding 

music for a performer. 



WiMamMorra, Earthly Paradise, I. 375. mUSlC-hOUSe (mu ' zik-hous), . 1. A house 



where public musical entertainments are given, 
Towards the close of the seventeenth century, the pro- 
fessed musicians assembled at certain houses in the me- 
tropolis, called mtmc-Aowses, where they performed con- 
certs consisting of vocal and instrumental music, for the 
entertainment of the public. 

Strutt, Sports and Pastimes, p. 382. 

. fi n tlipv business pntippm dpalimr in 

* A mm 01 otbei Dusmes. ? g 



3 Pertaining to the performance or the nota- 
tionofmusic. 4. Fond of music ; diseriminat- 
ing with regard to music: as, the child is musical, 

r>7par i Arniifriiur- ridiculous 
ornasamttSMKMear. O. Amusing, 11 iUS. 

[Slang, New Eng.]_Muslcal box, a mechanical mu- 
sical instrument, consisting essentially of a barrel or cyl- 
inder, caused to revolve by clockwork, in the surface of 
which are small pegs or pins, so arranged as to catch and 
twang the teeth of a kind of steel comb. These te 

graduated in size, and carefully tuned ; and the , . . 

sitipn of the pins is such as to sound them in perfect musici a n (mu-zish'an), . [Early mod. E. also 
melodic succession and rhythm, so that even very elabo- SSST. V W mtaS/m- " ~ 

rate music may be faithfully reproduced. The position . 

of the barrel may usually be slightly shifted from side to 
side, so that more than one tune can be played from the 
same barrel ; and sometimes more than one barrel is pro- 
vided for the same box, so that an extensive repertoire is 
possible. Occasionally small bells, or even small reeds 
blown by a bellows, as in the hand-organ, are added to in- 

' 



. 

teeth are printed music, or musical instruments, or both. 
he dispo- musici (mu'zi-si), . pi. Same as Iiarmonici. 



. W mtaS/m- u i>"+ i, n ~\ One 

, < H . mimcien ., , as music T -law.j 

who makes music a profession or otherwise de- 
vo tes himself to it, whether as composer, per- 
fo,,^,. ,.;,, theorist or historian 
] Ier > cr 
The praise of Bacchus then the sweet musician sung. 

Dryden, Alexander's Feast, 1. 47. 

crease the resources of the instrument. The effects pro- m ,,^ rial , pr rmfl 7 ish'an erl K musician + 
duced are often very pleasing and varied. -Musical DlUSlCianer (rau-zisn an-ei), H. ^musicia 
characters. See character. -Musical clock, a clock to -e'' 1 -] Same as OTc8rtn. [Obsolete or colloq.] 
which a musical box or barrel organ is so attached as to play 
tunes at certain periods -Musical condenser, a con- 
denser to the terminal plates of which the wires from a tele- 
phone-transmitter are attached. When a musical sound 
is produced in the neighborhood of the transmitter, it is 

reproduced by the condenser. Musical director, the i * - i_/ ,.\ r / _i_ 

conductor, dii-ector, or leader of a choir, chorus, band, or muSlCianly (mu-zish'an-ll), a. [< musician + 
orchestra. Also called music director. Musical drama. -?i/l.] Ha\-ing, exhibiting, or illustrating the 

properties of good music, or the skill and taste 
JJ fag mn^nn 

musicTansbip (mTzish'an-ship), n. [< ,,'- 
cian + -s/iip.] Skill in musical composition or 
expression ; musical acquirements. 

As a w hole, "St. Polycarp is a work which bears testi- 
mon y J th '?. tho thorough musicianship and to the nat- 
1 8 ' composer. Athenaam, No. 3178, p. 392. 



Musicianer I had always associated with the militia- 
rallst ers of my boyhood, and too hastily concluded it an 
abomination of our own, but Mr. Wright calls it a Nor- 
f Hj word, and I find it to be as old as 1642 by an ex- 
tract in Collier. Lowell, Biglow Papers, 2d ser., Int. 



. . 

Seeopera.-Musicalear. See earl, 5.-Musical glasses, 
See aloes -Musical harvest-flies, the Cicadwte.-Mu- 



- Musical scale. Seesotfc. 

II. n. A meeting or a party for a musical en- 

ii/w'/v7/> 
miisictlle. 



Such fashionable cant terms as theatricals and musicals, 
invented by the flippant Topham, still survive among his 
confraternity of frivolity. 

/. D Israeli, Curios, of Lit., III. 346. 

musicale(mu-zi-kal'),. [< F. mutsicale (soiree 

iiiuxicule, a musical party), fern, of musical, mu- 

sical : see musical.'] A performance or concert 

of music, vocal or instrumental, or both, usually music-loft (mu'zik-16ft), n. 

of a private character; a private concert. loft. 

musicality (mu-zi-kal'i-ti), . [< musical + music-mad(mu'zik-mad), a. Inordinately and 

-ity.] Same as musicalness. morbidly devoted to the studv or pursuit of 

musically (mu'zi-kal-i),ac7>. In a musical man- music; afflicted by musicomania. 

nerj in relation to music. music-master (mu'zik-mas"ter), n. 

musicalness (mu'zi-kal-nes), . The character 

of being musical. 
music-book (mu'zik-buk), M. A book contain- 

ingmusic. 
music-box (mu'zik-boks), . 1. Same as mu- 

steal box (which see, under musical). 



mUSicleSS (mu'zik-les), a. [< music + -less."] 
Unmusical ; inharmonious. 

Their muskklesse instruments are frames of brasse hung 
about with rings, which they jingle in shops according to 
thelr marchings. Sandys, Travailes, p. 172. (Dames.) 

Same as organ- 



A male 

teacher of music. 
music-mistress (mu'zik-mis"tres), n. A female 

teacher of music. 
musicodramatic (mu'zi-ko-dra-mat'ik), it. 

Combining music and the drama; at once dra- 

matic and musical. 



mus i c . pap er (mu'zik-pa'per), . Paper rule,! 
w jth staft'% for recording music. 

music-pen (mu'zik-pen), n. An instrument con- 
ggigS a wooden handle and a piece of brass 
go bent upon itself as to make five small chan- 
ne l s or gutters. When the channels are filled with 
ink and the pen is drawn across paper, five parallel lines 
are made, which constitute a staff for writing music. 

music-rack (mu'zik-rak), n. A rack or in- 
clined shelf attached to a musical instrument, 
or mounted upon ail independent support, de- 
signed to hold the music for a singer or player. 
^j gQ ca ]i e( j m u#ic-1lolder. 

music-recorder (rnu'zik-re-kor"der), n. A de- 
vice for recording music as it is played on any 
sort of keyed instrument, as the organ or piano- 
forte. Mr. Fenby's recorder, named by him a phmo- 
^p^ doe s this by means of a stud attached to the under 
side of each key. When the key is pressed down, the stud 
comes in contact with a spring, which in turn sets in action 
an electromagnetic apparatus, which causes a tracer to 
press against a fillet of chemically prepared paper moving 
at a uniform rate. The arrangement is such as to denote 
the length and character of the notes. AbbeMoigno'spho- 
nautograph records note8 by means of a pencil attached 
to a kind , spheroidal drum, which vibrates when any 
musical notes are sounded, whether by the mouth or by 
an 'ns t " t - , g . 

music-roU 

musicryt (mu'zik-ri), . [< music + -ry.] Music. 
Marston, Scourge of Villanie, xi. 131. 

music-school (mu'zik-skol), n. A school where 
music is the principal subject taught: when 
on a large scale, also called a conservatory. 

music-shell (mu'zik-shel), n. A volute, Yoluta 
mu.sica, inhabiting the Caribbean Sea, having 
the shell marked with color in a way that re- 
sembles bars of music, the spots being in 
several rows or series. See cut under volute. 

_...; _ m .- tl . /'mf.viV smitlil A workman 
musiC-smitn (n ai>, n. Aw 

who makes the metal parts ot pianofortes, etc. 
Simmonds, 
music-stand fmu'zik-stand) n 1 A music- 

n IK o 1, -flispd platform as 

F ack O1 music-case. ^. A ra >d platlorm, as 

m a . P a l k ' 5^2X4 a l^ nd playS i tt 

DlUSlC-stOOl (mu'zik-stol), n. A stool, often 

with an adinstable seat for a nerformeron the 

!?.SJteW 

Pianoforte 01 similar instrument. Also mtmc- 

Chair. 
music-tVDC (mu'zik-tip), H. Type for use in 

ntinw rniisio 

B . mus11 -.' .... , , . , 

USlC-Wire (mu'zik-wir), n. Steel wire such as 
i s use d in making the strings of musical instru- 
ments 

Musiznv Cmu-ze'nvi) w TF 1 An excellent 

"^f^ -J*. , Voted'Or i Bursundv 
rea_wme ol nay. 

mUSlDlOll, niUSinon (niu si-mon, mus mou), . 
f = F. musimonc, musmon . = It. musimone, < L. 

;,,,./,, \ ,,,,,.,,/, y,, \fdr imlinninA a Sm-rlininii 
musimo(n-), DHMfMH-HW. fiovafiuv), a Oarfl 

animal, supposed to be the mouflon.J A wild 
sheep, the mouflon, Otis musimon. 
musing (mu'zing), n. [< ME. musyng ; verbal n. 
of^^i,,,] Thibet of pondering"; Meditation; 
thoughtfuluess. 

Generydes stode still in grete mtuyny, 
And to the queue gaue answere in this case. 

Generydes (E E. T. S ) 1. 491. 
Sometimes into mminas fell 
^ anla fgS m 'ig h t tTll hi's thought 
When he again to common life was brought. 

William Morris, Earthly Paradise, II. 274. 

musing (mu'zing), p. a. Meditative; thought- 
ful; preoccupied. 

w)th CTen step and mMing gait . 

Milton, II Penseroso, 1. 38. 

musingly (mu'zing-li), adc. In a musing way. 
musion, . [Appar. a corrupt form of mnsi- 
man.] In lier., a wildcat used as a bearing. 
The Cat-a-Mountain, musion, or wild cat. 

Emyc. Brit., XI. 099. 

musitt, An obsolete form of mtiset for 

muse 3 , 1. 

musitiont, An obsolete spelling of mit/tidim. 
musive (mu'ziv), a. [= F. musif, < LL. mm-i- 

turn, < Gr. fiovaeiov, mosaic: see museum and 

mosaic 1 .'] Same as mosaic 1 , 



musive 

Assuming tin 1 emu's [of the retina] to he arranged some- 
what In the form of hexagonal cells In u iMXMJOomb] tliis 
lii headed or ziK/ag outline seen between two very clow 
parallel linen on u white' ground) hiia heen explained by 
Riipposing that the n-t iii:il in wife of sueh a line IB no small 
that, us It falls across this muriw surface, one minute sec- 
tion of it would excite only one cone, while the sections 
immediately aliovc and below would cover halves of two 
;id(;u'cnt cones, and, eicltlnf lioth to activity, would appear 
twice as large. ''. X Hall, German Culture, p. 2711. 

mUSJld, u. Same as mu.ijiil. 

musk (musk), H, [< ME. musk, < OF. must; F. 
iiiii.ii' I'r. iiiii.if = Sp. iimsro (olis., the usual 
term being almisele = PC. alntisclt; iiluii.ti-in; 
IVniii the Ar., witli Ar. art.) = It. ixm. miixi'hin 
= D. niHukus = ( ! . mii.irli n.i Ssv. in iinkus = Dan. 

IIIK.1/,-11.1, HI I l.i/: 111, < \Ai. IIII/.K'II.I, ML. also W/W/niX. 

< Gr. [i6axoc,, < Ar. iinuli/:. mn.il:, tni.ik = Turk. 
mi.ik, < I J ers. niii.i/:. ii/i.il: = Iliinl. iiin.ili/:, musk, 

< Skt. uiii.ilil:ii. testicle. prob. < \/ ninnli, steal, 
whence also nil. mini.ii'. Hence nit. iiiiwnt, nni.i- 



'l, muscadel, muscadine, etc., and the second 
element of nutmeg.] 1. An odoriferous sub- 
stance secreted by the male musk-deer, MO.IC/I MX 
111111,'liil'rrn.i. Sec muxk-drrr. The secretion is a 
viscid fluid, which dries as a brown pulveruline substance, 
of a slightly bitter taste and extremely powerful, penetrat- 
ing, and persistent odor. It is the strongest and most 
lasting of perfumes, and is also used in medicine as a dif- 
fusible stimulant and antispasmodfc. The commercial 
article is Imported from Asia in the natural pods or bags, 
frequently mixed with blood, fat, and hairs, and adulter- 
ated with foreign substances. Various other animals se- 
crete a substance like musk, and several are named from 
this fact. See compounds following. 

Which the Hunters (at that time chasing the said beast) 
doe cut off, and drie against the Sunne, and it proueth the 
best Muske In the world. Purchat, 1'ilgriniage, p. 428. 

That oll'd and curl'd Assyrian Bull 
Smelling of mutk and of insolence. 

Tennyson, Maud, vl. 6. 

2. A kind of artificial musk made by the action 
of nitric acid upon oil of amber. 3. The smell 
of musk, or a smell resembling it ; an aromatic 
smell; a perfume. 

The woodbine spices are wafted abroad, 
And the musk of the rose is blown. 

Tennyson, Maud, xxii. 1. 

4. Same as musk-plant, in both senses. 
musk (muxk), r. t. [< musk, .] To perfume 

with musk. 
muskallonge (mus'ka-lonj), . See tiutiilra- 

longe, 

muskatt, An obsolete form of muscat. 
musk-bag (musk'bag), . 1. A small bag con- 

taining musk and other perfumes, sometimes 

used as a sachet. Closet of Rarities (1706). 

(Hares.) 2. The pod, pouch, or cyst of the 

musk-deer which contains the musk. 
musk-ball (musk'bal), . A ball of some sub- 

stance impregnated with musk and other per- 

fumes, kept among garments after the man- 

ner of a sachet to perfume them. 
Curious imak-batts, to carry about one, or to lay in any 

place. Accomplish'd Female Inttructor (1719). (Naret.) 

musk-beaver (musk'be'ver), . The muskrat, 

Fiber sibethicus. 
musk-beetle (musk'be'tl), . A cerambycid 

beetle, Callirhroma moschata. See cut under 

l'i rnmbyx. 
musk-cake (musk'kak), n. Musk, rose-leaves, 

and other ingredients made intoacake. Climri 

of Rarities (1706). (Nares.) 
musk-cat (mnsk'kat), . A civet-cat; figura- 

tively, a scented, effeminate person ; a fop. 
Here is a purr of fortune's, sir, or of fortune's cat but 

not a must-cat. Shale., All's Well, v. 2. 20. 

Away, uui>ea(/ B. Jonton, Cynthia's Revels, iv. 1. 
musk-cattle (musk'kat'l), n. pi. Musk < 
musk-cavy (mnsk'ka'vi), . A West Indian ro- 

dent of the family Octodontidar, subfamily Eehi- 







Musk-cavy (Cafromys filorieles). 



iioiiii/iinr, and genus Capromys: so called from 
its mnskv odor. There are 2 species In Cuba, C. pi- 



31109 

iin.l '' ];vl,ennltt, known a* the kutia-nivju nnd 
huKa-oarabati. They are of large sire and arboreal habits, 
and somewhat resemble rats. 

musk-codt (musk'kod). n. Amusk-bag; hence, 
figuratively, a scented foj>. 

It's a sweet musk-cod, a pure spic'd gull. 

Deklter, Satiromastlx. 

musk-deer (musk'der), . 1. A small rumi- 
nant, Moschit* Di'ni'liifi i -UK, of the family Cervi- 
dte and subfamily Mimchinie, the male of which 
yields the scent called musk. These little deer In- 
habit the elevated plateaus and mountain-ranges of cen- 
tral Asia, especially the Altaic chain. The male is about 
3 feet long and 20 inches high, hornless, with long canine 
teeth and coarse pelage of a dirty brown color, whitish un- 
derneath. The doe is smaller, and has no musk. The gland 
or bag of the male which contains the perfume U of about 
the size of a hen's egg, of an oval form flattened on one 
side. It is an accessory sexual organ. 
2. In an improper use, a tragulid, cheyrotain, 
or kanchil, small ruminants of the family Tra- 
!lii/id(K. They superficially resemble musk-deer, but be- 
long to a different family. The males are horned, and have 
no musk. Musk-deer plant. SeeLimonia. 

musk-duck (musk'duk), n. 1. A duck, Cairina 
iiin.icliata, of the family Anatidce and subfamily 
Anatinai, commonly but erroneously known as 
the mnscovy and Barbary duck, it ls native of 
tropical America, now domesticated everywhere. It Is 
larger than the mallard, and the upper parts are of a 
glossy greenish-black color. 

2. A duck of the genus Biziura, as B. lobata of 
Australia : so called from the musky odor of 
the male. 

muskelt, . An obsolete form of muscle'* for 

muskelyt, a. [< muskel + -y 1 .} Muscular. 

Muskely, or of muscles, hard and stiffe with many 
muscles or brawnes. 

Witlml*, Diet. (ed. 1608), p. 404. (Xara.) 

musket 1 ! (mus'ket), H. [Also musquet; < ME. 
musket, muskytte, < OF. mousket, mosquet, mos- 
chet, mouschet, mouchet, etc. (F. moucnet, emou- 
chet (ML. muscctug, nmschetus) =: It. moschetto, 
also with diff. suffix, moscardo), a kind of hawk, 
so called with ref. to spots on its breast, or 
more prob. from its small size, being compared 
to a fly, dim. < L. musca. a fly (> OF. mousche, 
F. mouche, a spot, a fly: see mouehe). Cf. mos- 
quito."] In falconry, an inferior kind of hawk; 
a sparrow-hawk. See eyas-musket. 

One they might trust their common wrongs to wreak ; 
The Musquet and the Coystrel were too weak. 

Dryden, Hind and Panther, iii. 1119. 

musket 2 (mus'ket), n. [Formerly also musquet; 
= D. musket = G. muskete = Sw. muskot = Dan. 
musket, < OF. mousquete, mousquet (F. mousquet), 
m., mouschete, moschete, f., = Sp. Pg. mosquetc 
(ML. muschetta, muscheta). < It. moschetto, a 
musket (gun), so called (like other names of 
firearms, e. g. falcon, falconet, saker) from a 
hawk, < moschet to, a kind of hawk : seei*tefi.] 
A hand-gun for soldiers, introduced in Euro- 
pean armies in the sixteenth century: it suc- 
ceeded the harquebus, and became in time the 
common arm of the infantry, it was at first very 
heavy, and was provided with a rest. The earliest mus- 
kets were matchlocks, which were superseded by the 
wheel-lock, the snaphance, the flint-lock, and the jpercus- 
slon-guns. The musket was made lighter, while still gain- 
ing in efficiency and accuracy. The rifle-musket was in- 
troduced in the middle of the nineteenth century. See 
ri/fe, and cuts under matchlock and trim 1 . 

And is it I 

That drive thee from the sportive court, where thou 
Wast shot at with fair eyes, to be the mark 
Of smoky muskets? Shot., All's Well, 111. 2. 111. 

Bastard musket, a hand-gun used in the sixteenth cen- 
tury. See caliver. 

musket-arrowt (mus'ket-ar'o), n. A short ar- 
row thrown from a firearm. These arrows seem 
to have been generally feathered, but examples remain 
of arrows three or four inches long with barbed heads 
and a disk-shaped butt, which appear to have been in- 
tended for this use. 

Mutquet arrow* 892 shefe 13 arrowes and one case full for 
a demi-culvering. . . . Mumiet arrow* with 22 shefe to 
be new feathered. Rep. Royal Commission, 1595. 

musketeer (mus-ke-ter'), n. [Formerly also 
musketteer, nnixketier, musqueteer; = D. G. mus- 
l:i tii-r = Sw. musketor = Dan. musketeer, < F. 
mousquetaire (= Sp. mosquetero = Pg. w(x<///' - 
teiro = It. mii.icliettiere), a soldier armed with 
a musket, < mousquete, a musket :: seemMfoA] 

1. A soldier armed with a musket. 

Kalegh, leaving his gaily, took eight mutkttim in his 
barge. Oldys, Sir Walter Raleigh. 

2. A musket; a musket-look. 

Did they . . . into pikes and mutqtieteers 
Stamp beakers, cups, and porringers ? 

S. Butler, lludibras, I. U. 582. 

musket-lock (mus'ket-lok), H. 1. The lock of 
a musket. 2. A musket. [Rare.] 



musk-ox 

We must live like our I'uritan fathers, who always went 
to church, and sat down to din HIT, when the Indians were 
in their nelghliorhood, with their muMket-lack on the one 
side, and a drawn sword on tin ntln r 

W. I'hillij*, Speeches, p. W. 

musketot, ^'' c ' nin.ii/iiiio. 

musketoon (mus-ke-ton'), . [Formerly also 

iliii.il/intiiiiii; < I-'. H/UILII/III tun, < It. nn i.ii'/i' II-HII, 

< moschetto, a musket : see mugkeft.] 1 . A light 

' and short hand-gun: in the seventeenth and 

eighteenth centuries a usual weapon of cavalry. 

One of them ventnr'd upon him (as he [John Lisle] was 
going to Church accompanied with the chief Magistracy) 
and shot him with a Mtuqueloon dead In the place. 

Wood, Athena! Oxon., II. 388. 

2. A soldier armed with a musketoon : gener- 
ally used in the plural. 

A double guard of archers and munkalixna. 

Sir T. Herbert, Travels In Africa. 

musket-proof (mus'ket-prOf), a. Capable of 
resisting the force of a musket-ball. 

musket-rest (mus'ket-rest), n. A fork used as 
a prop to support the heavy musket in use in 
the sixteenth century. Also called croc. 

He will never come within the slgne of It, the sight of a 
cassock, or a muxket-rtat againe. 

B. Jonton, Every Man in his Humour, 11. 3. 

musketry (mus'ket-ri), n. [< F. nwusqueterie 
(= Sp. mosqueteria = It. moschetteria), < mous- 
quet, musket: see musket*.] 1. The art or 
science of firing small-arms: as, an instructor 
of musketry. 2. Muskets collectively. 

The cannon began to fire on one side, and the ntutquetry 
on both, and the bridge of Hothwell, with the banks ad. 
jacent, were Involved in wreaths of smoke. 

Scott, Old Mortality, ixxi. 

3. A body of troops armed with muskets, 
musket-shot (mus'ket -shot), n. 1. The dis- 
charge of a musket; a bullet from a musket: 
as, he was killed by a m.ef-0A0<. 2. The range 
or reach of a musket. 3t. A musket-ball. 

With more than iinuktt-nhot did he charge his quill 
when he meant to inveigh. Wash, Unfortunate Traveller. 

musk-flower (musk'flou'er), n. Same as musk- 
plant, 1. 

musk-gland (musk'gland), n. The glandular 
organ of the male musk-deer which secretes 
musk. It is an accessory sexual organ, corre- 
sponding to the preputial follicles of many 
mammals. 

musk-hyacinth (musk'hi'a-sinth), . One of 
the grape-hyacinths, Muscarl moschatum, with 
musky scent. 

musklness (mus'ki-nes), n. The quality or 
state of being musky; the scent of musk. 
Bailey, 1727. 

muskit-grass (mus'kit-gras), . Same as ntes- 
quite-grass. 

muskle't, n. An obsolete form of muscle 1 . 

muskle 2 t, An obsolete form of mussel. 

muskmallow (musk'mal"6), n. 1. A common 
plant, Jfij/ra moschata. See mallow. 2. Aplant 
of the old genus Abelmoschus, the abelmosk. 

rauskmelon (musk'mel"on), n. [Formerly, and 
still dial., muskmillion; < musk + me/on.] A 
well-known plant, Cucumis Melo, and its fruit. 
The seeds have diuretic properties, and were formerly 
used in catarrhal affections. See Curumttr, meloni, 1, and 
abdalavi. 

So, being landed, we went up and downe, and could finde 
nothing but stones, heath, and mosse, and wee expected 
oranges, llmonds, flgges, mutke-millions, and potatoes. 

John Taylor, Works (1630). (Sara.) 

musk-mole (musk'mol), . An insectivorous 
quadruped, Scaptochirus moschatus, of the mole 
family, Talpid/e. It resembles the common 
mole, and is found in Mongolia. Also called 
musky-mole. 

musk-okra (musk'o'kra), n. See okru. 

musk-orchis (musk'dr'kis), . A plant, Her- 
minium Monorchis. 

musk-OZ (musk'oks), . A ruminant mammal, 
Ovibos moschatus, of the family Bovidai and sub- 
family Oribovinfs, intermediate between an ox 
and a sheep in size and many other respects. 
There are horns in both sexes, those of the male being very 
broad at the base and meeting in the middle of the fore- 







Musk-ox (Otn'tfJ 



musk-ox 



3910 



muss 



head then turning downward for most of their length, and musky (mus'ki), a. [< musk + -y 1 .] Having mUSOmania (mu-zo-ma'ni-a), j . [< Gr. 

J_ _. ,, ,] ..rt *1,0 . i *S . ..11 J.1- - _ ,] . ..*.!.. .iion /cmrt 4ll*jolf>\ -i- lirnltrt TnaHllOCQ IT 



finally recurved. The pelage is very long and tine, the 
hairs hanging like those of a merino eheep, and lias occa- 
sionally been woven into a fine soft fabric. The musk-ox 
was formerly an animal of circumpolar distribution, but is 
now found only in arctic America, where it lives in herds 
of a dozen or more. It is very fleet, active, and hardy, 
and sometimes performs extensive migrations. The beef 
is eaten, though the animal smells strongly of musk. Also 

mSetrlmusk'par), . A fragrant kind of musky-mole (m US 'ki- m ol), Same as musk- 



the character, especially the odor, "of musk; muse (see music), + uavia, madness. Ct.musi- 
fragrant like musk. comania."] Same as musicomania. 

West winds, with musky wing, DlUSOnt, n. [ME., < OF. moison, moesonmueson, 

muson, mutson, measure, < u. mentno(n-) t a mea- 
suring, < meteri, pp. niensus, measure : see mete^, 



About the cedarn alleys fling 
Nai-d and cassia's balmy smells. 

Milton, Comus, 1. 989. 



nmskyllet, . 



An obsolete form of mussel. 






measure, and cf. dimension.} A measure. 

Lo ! logyk I lered hire and al the lawe after, 
And alle musons in musyk I made hire to knowe. 

Piers Plomnan (A), xi. 128. 

v / i, 1 A small vel mUSiet, All ODSOieie loriii ui mivic. iiusons, measures. ... The meaning of "measures" is 

__ , (.mi u- Muslim (mus'lim) and a. Same as Moslem, the time and rhythm of mensurable music, as opposed to 

low-flowered plant, Mtmulus moscliatus, cm i- "*"",? (mnr'Hn) n and a [Formerly also plain chant, which was immensurable. . . . Since muson 
vated for its odor. 2. The musk heron's-bill, mUSlin (muz 1m), n. ana a. J measure, it was easily extended to signify measure- 

*vX/wJta antflintum muslen (unAmussolm, < It.); = G. Sw. Dan. - men t or dimension. Piers Plomnan, II. 153 (notes refer- 

i" i -i A fi-aornTit IHml seW. < F. mousseline = Sp. muselina, < It. mw- [ring to the above passage), 

(mi m;, . . ;, m ,, a ii,, nr-nn arli.. < mtuuiola ("E. formerly ,, . , _ -, .., r1VTT . ,, , 

Musophaga (mu-sof a-ga), n. [NL., < Musa + 
Gr. Qayeiv, eat.] The typical genus of Muso- 
pkagida', formerly coextensive with the family, 

nac Mosul, Muzol,Mau ? ol, .AT.Maustl, ,a city m g^*^,^ t sueh species as j/. efcta^ 
Mesopotamia on the Tigris, whence the fabric f , bluish-black color and 

first came. Cf. cahco, damask, nankeen, also 



muskquasht, " An obsolete form of musquash. 
G. Cuvier. 

muskrat (musk'rat), n. 1 . A large murine ro- 
dent quadruped, Fiber zibethicus, of the family 
Mtiridw and subfamily Arvicolince: so called 



mosal), muslin, < ML. Mossula, G. Mossul, E. 
Moussul, Mosul, etc., Turk. Mossul, Mossil,< Sy- 



Jfertfa and subfamily Arvicolinte : so called ' 2- ^^^U^T^iie^Srte dor f' s hed with a frontal shield or casque, 

from its musky odor. It is of about the sizeof a small na e ? from Eastern cities and ^eambnc, dor- Musophagidae (mu-so-f aj'i-de), . pi. [NL., < 
rabbit, of a very, stout thick-set form and dark-brown c* :, lawn , Irom ^uropean ci les.J 1 n. i. M j + 4a(l ^ A family of cuculine pi- 



rabbit, of a very stout thick-set form and dark-brown 
color grayish underneath, with small eyes and ears, large 
hind feet with webbed toes, and long naked scaly tail, 
compressed in the horizontal plane so as to present an up- 



- -, - . 

Cotton cloth of different kinds finely made and 



carian birds, most nearly related to the cuckoos, 



.- in * i iU t* canail Ulruss IUUBI Ilcitri V rciaiev* iv mo UUIMWVD, 

finished for wearmg-appare , the term being a i so 'some resemblance to gallinaceous 

,,enfl iraiM/Mialv at, fliffprpiit. timps and Tuaces. , & . , 




used variously at different times and places, 
(a) A very fine and soft uncolored cloth made in India ; also, 
any imitation of it made in Europe. The India muslin is 
known by different names, according to its place of manu- 
facture and its fineness and beauty. See mullT. 

She was dressed in white muslin very much puffed and 
frilled, but a trifle the worse for wear. 

H. James, Jr., Pass. Pilgrim, p. 184. 



birds; the plantain-eaters and touracous. The 
feet are zygodactylous, with homalogonatous and desmo. 
pelmous musculation. The plumage is aftershafted, with 
tufted elseodochon, and there are no caeca. The family is 
confined to continental Africa. The leading genera are 
Musophaga, Turacus (or Corythaix), and Schizorhis. There 
are about 15 species. The family formerly included the 
colics (Coliidce). 



ft) A material somewhat stouter than India muslin, used Musophaginae (mu"so-fa-ji'ne), n. pi. [NL., < 
for women's dresses, plain or printed with colored _pat- Musophaga + -ina;.~]' the only subfamily of 

Musophagida'. In a former acceptation of the family 

it was divided into two subfamilies, Musophayinai and 

Coliince. 
musophagine (mu-sof'a-jin), . Having the 

characters of Musophaga ; pertaining to the Mu- 



Mtiskrat (Fiber xibethicus}. 

per and an under edge, and two broad sides. In the char- 
acter of the fur, the scaly tail, and aquatic habits, the musk- 
rat resembles the beaver, and is sometimes called tmuk- 
bcaver; but its actual relationships are with the voles and 
lemmings. It is one of the commonest quadrupeds of 
North America, almost universally distributed throughout 
that continent, living in lakes, rivers, and pools, either in 
underground burrows in the banks, or in nouses made of 
reeds, rushes, and grasses, as large as haycocks and of sim- 
ilar shape. The fur is of commercial value, and the ani- 
mal is much hunted. Also called musquash and ondatra. 
2. An insectivorous animal of musky odor lik- 
ened to a rat, such as the European desman, 
Mygale pyrenaica, and the Indian musk-shrew 
or rat-tailed shrew, Sorex indicus or Crocidura 
myositra, also called Indian muskrat and mon- 
joitrou. 3. A viverrine quadruped, the South 
African genet, Genetta felina Indian muslcrat. 
Same as monjourou, 

musk-root (musk'rot), n. 1. The root of Fe- 
rula Sumbul, containing a strong odorous prin- 
ciple resembling that of musk. It is employed 
in medicine as a stimulating tonic and anti- 
spasmodic. Also called sambul or sumbul. 2. 
Adoxa Moschatellina. See Adoxa. 

musk-rose (musk'roz), n. A species of rose, 
so called from its fragrance. 

I know a bank where the wild thyme blows, . . . 
Quite over-canopied with luscious woodbine, 
With sweet musk-roses and with eglantine. 

Shak., M. N. D., ii. 1. 252. 



soj>Jianidai or Musopliagirxe. 



in Ami, in the presidency of Madras, 
muslin, a muslin in which a thick hair cord is intro- 
duced into the fabric. Dacca muslin, a very thin vari- 
ety of India muslin made at Dacca in Bengal. The mod- 
ern Dacca muslin is used chiefly for curtains ; it Is two 
yards wide when figured, and narrower when plain. It 
was formerly used in Europe for women's dresses and sim- 
ilar purposes. Darned muslin, thin and fine muslin 



terns, or having a slight dotted pattern woven in the stuff. 
Also jaconet and organdie, according to its fineness, (c) 
In some parts of the United States, cotton cloth used for 
shirts, other articles of wearing-apparel, bedding, etc. 
2. One of several different moths : a collectors' 
name, (n) A bombycid moth, as the round-winged 
muslin, Jfudaria senex. The pale muslin is N. mundana. , 

(b) An arctiid moth, as Arctia mendica. Also called mus- MuSOphyllum (mu-so-fil'um). n. [NL. (Gop- 
lin-moth.- Arnl muslin, an extremely fine muslin made pert; 1854 ^ < M usa -f- Gr. 0&W, leaf.] A ge- 

1881 nus of fossil plants based on leaf-impressions 

having nearly the same nervation as those of 
the genus Musa, to which they are assumed to be 
closely related. Nine species have been described 
from the Upper Cretaceous of southern France, the Eocene 
of France, Java, and Colorado, and the Miocene of Italy, 
Bohemia, and Hesse. 

musquash (mus'kwosh), . [Formerly also 
miiskquash, mussacus; Amer. Ind.] Same as 
muskrat, 1. 

musquash-root (mus'kwosh-rot), n. Same as 
ground, of flowers or"other patterns cut out of very fine beaver-poison. 

muslin, the finished work having a resemblance to some musquett, " See mtiskefl, musket*. 
kinds of lace.- Swiss muslin, a thin sheer muslin striped m usauetOOnt, . See musketoon. 
or figured in the loom, made in Switzerland. miionnitn i SPA mnsmiito 

II. . Made of muslin: as, a muslin dress. lto - "' 

The ladies came down in cool muslin dresses, and added 
the needed grace to the picture, 

C. D. Warner, Their Pilgrimage, p. 23. 

muslin-de-laine (muz'lin-de-lan'), n. See 
mousseline-de-laine. 

muslined (muz'lind), a. [< muslin + -en^.~] 
.slin. 



tate tamboured muslin. (6) Muslin with figures printed 
in color on it. India muslin. See def. 1 (a). Linen 



Draped or clothed with musl ; 

The airy rustling of \ight-muslined ladies. 

Howells, Their Wedding Journey. 



muslinet (muz-li-nef), . [< muslin + -et.~\ 
A fine cotton cloth, stouter than muslin. Some 
varieties of it are figured in the loom, others are made 
with satin finish, stripes, etc. |Eng. trade-name. ] 
musk-seed (musk'sed)_, See amber-seed. mus l in . g l ass (rau z'liu- g las), n. A kind of blown 
musk-Sheep (musk'shep ) . Same as mmk-ox Iasswa 8 re ^ a de f ora ^ d surf ace in iniita- 
musk-shrew (musk'shro) . The rat-tailed ^i on of muslin. Also mousseline-glass. 
ST^SE SS&KURV muslin-kale (muz'lin-kal), . *[< muslin 
odor. Also called muskrat. 
musk-thistle (musk'this'l), w. A plant, Car- 
duus nutans, of the north-temperate part of the 
Old World, locally naturalized in Pennsylvania. 
It has a winged stem, from 1 to 3 feet high, and a solitary 
nodding head of crimson-purple flowers. 

musk-tortoise (musk'tor'tis), . A tortoise musnud ( mus 'nud),, [< Hind, masnad, a cush- 
of the family Cmostermda-, having a strong ion , seat, throne, <Ar. sarf, a cushion for the 
musky scent. Six kinds inhabit the fresh waters of - 

the United States, as Aromochelys odoratus, which has so 
strong an odor that it is commonly called stinkpot. 

musk-tree (musk'tre), n. A composite tree, 
Olearia (Eurybia) art/ophylla, of Australia and 
Tasmania, with musk-scented leaves. It grows 
25 or 30 feet high, and affords a white, close-grained wood, 
used for cabinet-work, implements, etc. 

musk-turtle (musk'ter'tl), n. Same as mtisl-- 



tion of muslin. 
muslin-kale (muz'lin-kal), n. [< muslin + 
kale; prob. so called from its thinness or want 
of any rich ingredient.] Broth composed simply 
of water, shelled barley, and greens. [Scotch.] 

I'll sit down o'er my scanty meal, 
Be 't water-brose or muslin-kail. 

Burns, To James Smith, 
inusmon, n. See nmsimon. 



ion, seat, throne, < Ar. 
back, < sanada, lean against.] In India, a raised 
seat, overspread with carpets or embroidered 
cloth and furnished with pillows for the back 
and elbow. This forms the seat of honor, as in the 
zenana, where it is the seat of the lady of the house, and 
privileged visitors are invited to share it as a mark of re- 
spect and favor. It is also the ceremonial seat or throne 
of a rajah. Also masnad. 



tortoise. 

musk-weasel (musk'we'zl), . Any viverrine 
carnivorous quadruped of the family Viverrida;. 

muskwood (musk'wud), n. Either of the two 
small trees Guarea trichilioides and Trichilia 
moschata, natives of tropical America, the lat- 
ter confined to Jamaica. 



They spread fresh carpets, and prepared the royal 
ud, covering it with a magnificent shawl 



musquito, See mosquito. 

musrol, musrole (muz'rol), n. [Formerly also 

musroll; < F. muserolle (= Sp. muserola = It. 

museruola), OF. muse, nose: see muzzle."] The 

nose-band of a horse's bridle. 
And setteth him [a horse] on with a Switch and holdeth 

him in with a Musrol. Comenius, Visible World, p. 122. 

muss 1 (mus), n. [< OF. mousche, the play called 
muss, lit. a fly, F. mouche, a fly, < L. musca, a fly: 
see Musca. The word muss, prop. *mush, of 
this origin, seems to have been confused with 
another muss, a var. of mess?, itself a var. of 
mesh 2 , and ult. of mash 1 , a mixture, of which 
m/i 1 is a third variant. The words are mainly 
dial, or colloq., and, in the absence of early 
quotations, cannot be definitely separated.] If. 
A scramble, as for small objects thrown down 
to be taken by those who can seize them. 

Of late, when I cry'd " Ho ! " 
Like boys unto a muss, kings would start forth, 
And cry " Your will." Shak., A. and C., iii. 13. 91. 

Ods so ! a muss, a muss, a muss, a muss '. [Falls a scram- 
bling forthe pears.) B. Jonson, Bartholomew Fair, iv. 1. 

A musse being made amongst the poorer sort in hell of 
the sweet-meat scraps left after the banquet. 

Dekker, Bankrout's Banquet. 

2f. That which is to be scrambled for. 

They '11 throw down gold in musta. 

Middlfton, Spanish Gypsy, U. 1. 

3. A state of confusion ; disorder: as, the things 
are all in a mugs. [Colloq., U. S.] 4. An in- 
discriminate fight; a squabble; a row. [Slang, 
U.S.] 

muss 1 (mus), v. t. [< muss 1 , n.] 1. To put into 
a state of disorder; rumple; tumble: as, to 
muss one's hair. [U.S.] 2. To smear; mess. 



Ilajji Baba of Ispahan, p. 142. (%ule and Burncll.) muss'-'t (mus), n. [A var. of mouse (ME. mus), 



Musnud-carpet, piece of stuff about two yards square 
(sometimes carpeting, but frequently brocade, embroi- 
dered silk, or thelike), lined and wadded laid on the floor to 
receive the musnud. Persons conversing with the occu- 
pants of the musnud, if inferior in rank, sit on the carpet- 
on its extreme edge if they wish to express humility. 



or, more prob., directly < L. mus, a mouse, used 
as a term of endearment : see mouse."] A mouse : 
used as a term of endearment. 

What ail yon, sweetheart? Are you not well? Speak, 
good muss. E. Jonson, Every Man in his Humour, ii. 1. 



mussacus 

mussacus (niiis'ii-kiis), . |See ww/xft.] it. 

'I'hc muskrat or musquash. I'll/it. .Inlin Smith. 
2. [<<//).] Tin' ^'eiius which I lie rauskmt repre- 
sents: same as fiber or Ondatra. Oken, 1816. 
Mussaenda (mu-seu'dii), . [XL. (Linnaeus, 
17-~>:i), from a native name in Ceylon.] A ge- 
nus of shrubs and trees of the order Hiiliiirmi , 
ly|>i- of the tribe Mu.wmli-ii; and known by its 
(lowers in terminal corymbs with one of the five 
calyx-lolies enlarged and colored white or pur- 
ple. About 40>pedt>x are fniind, natives of tropical Asia 
anil Africa and of the 1'ucilic islands. They have opposite 
or whorleil leaves anil abumlaiit salver-shaped yellowish 
flowers of singular beauty, with the corolla tul f:u ]im 
longed beyond the haiulsome calyx. Home species are 
locally rsti-riiii-il for tonic and febrifugal properties, etc. 
Tin- U'st-kitown greenhouse species is M. frondosa. 

Mussaendeae (mu-sen'de-e), n.]>l. [NL. (Ben- 
thaiu and Hooker, 1873), < Musgcenda + -e<c.] A 
tribe of dicotyledonous plants of the order Itn- 
biacece, typified by the genus Must>amda, and 
known by its valvate corolla and berries with 
many minute seeds. About 35 genera are 
known, all tropical, and mostly trees or shrubs. 

mussal, mussaul (mu-.sal'), . [< Hind, ma- 
ska' I, maxhiil, maxiil, < Ar. masha'l, a torch.] 
In India, a torch, usually made of rags wrapped 
around a rod and fed with oil. Yule and llitr- 

,!/. 

mussalchee (mu-sal'che), . [Also musalehee, 
iiiitxxaiili-hee; < Hind, tttashiilehi, less prop. ma- 
xiui!,-lii, a torch-bearer, among Europeans also 
a scullion, < maslt'al, less prop, mashdl, masdl, 
a torch. < Ar. mixh'al, a torch.] In India, a 
household servant who has charge of torches 
and lamps; a torch-bearer; a scullion. 

Others were musalchees, or torch- bearers, who ran by the 
side of the palkees, throwing a light on the path of the 
iH-atvr* frnm flambeaux. 

W. It. Russell, Diary In India, II. 83. 

Mussarabian (mus-a-ra'bi-an), a. A variant 
of Mo;arnbj<i>i. 

mussaul, . See mussal. 

mussel, muscle'- 3 (mus'l), . [Early mod. E. 
also miiskle; < ME. muscle, muskle, muskylle, 
inoxklc, < AS. mitxle, mueile = D. mossel = 
MLG. mussel = OHG. mutteulu, MHG. mux- 
cliclc. iiiiixclnl, G. McAeJ = Sw. m.ts/ = Dan. 

IIIH.ililtt/ V. Illllllll! = Sp. IlllixCUlO = Pg. mitit- 

fiil/i = It. iiiitm'iilo, < L. musculus, a small fish, 
a sea-mussel, same word as musculus, a lit- 
tle mouse, also a muscle: see munch*.'] Any 
one of many bivalve mollusks of various gen- 
era and species, (a) Any species of the family Myti- 
lidoe, especially of the genera MytiluA and Modiola, of a 
triangular form and blackish or dark color, with two ad- 
ductor muscles and a large byssus or beard. They are 
chiefly marine, and abound on most sea-coasts. Thecom- 
mnn mussel is ili/tilu* eitnlix. Horse-mussels are species 
of Modiola. Date-fthetts or baring mussels are species of 
Lithwtomus which excavate the hardest rocks, (6) Any 
species of the family UnimMan, more fully called fresh- 
water mussels. The species are very numerous and belong 
to several different genera. See cats under Latnelli- 
branchiatti and date-xhfll. 

When cockle shells turn siller bells, 

And mussels grow on every tree, 
When frost and snaw shall warm us a', 
Then shall my love prove true to me. 
Waly, Waly, but Love be Bonny (Child's Ballads, IV. 182). 

mussel-band (mus'1-band), w. An ironstone in 
which the remains of lamelli branch shells are 
abundant. Also called mussel-bind. [Local, 
Bug.] 

mussel-bed (mus'1-bed), . A bed or repository 
of mussels. 

mussel-bind (mus'1-bind), n. See mussel-band. 

mussel-digger (raus'l-dig'er), . The Califor- 
nia gray whale, Rltachianectcsglaticus: go called 
from the fact that it descends to soft bottoms 
in search of food, or for other purposes, and 
returns to the surface with its head besmeared 
with the dark ooze from the depths. C. M. 
Sen HI mini. 

mussel-duck (mus'1-duk), n. The American 
scaup-duck. See scaup. G. TrumbuU. 

mussel-eater (mus'l-e'ter), . The buffalo 
piTrh, .liiloiliitotits (jruiiniens, of the Mississippi 
valley. 

musseled (mus'ld), a. [< mttssel + -Off 2 .] Poi- 
soned by eating mussels. 

One uttri-tril with siidi phenomena [symptoms of urti- 
caria| is said, occasionally, to be miateled. 

ItunHlinn, Med. Diet, (under Mytilus Edulis). 

mussel-pecker (mus'l-pek'er), n. The Euro- 
pean oyster -catcher, Ha'niatopiui oaMlnjitx. 
[Loi-;il. British.] 

mussel-shell (mus'1-shel), n. A mussel, or its 
shell. 

mussiness (mus'i-nes), n. The state of being 
mussy, rumpled, or disheveled. 



3911 

A general appearance of uiiurinnw, characteristic of the 
man. K. V. Indrprndtnt, March 26, lxt. 

mUSSitatet, ' < [< L. muxxitatua, pp. of miif- 
xitnn- (> OF. mii.ii/ir = Sp. musitar), freq. of 
mussare, murmur (see muse*): an imitative 
word, like murmurim; murmur: see murmur.] 
To mutter. Minxlicu ; Haiti u. 

mussitationt (mus-i-ta'shon), . [< F. ntuxxi- 
Inlinn = It. MHKitaziiim; niiixxitnzione, < LL. 
iiiiixsittitin(H-). a murmuring, < L. unixxiiiirr, pp. 
uiiixxitatiix, murmur: see mussitate.] A mum- 
bling or muttering. 

mussite (inns'it), . [So i called from the MUKSII 
Alp in the Ala valley, in Piedmont.] A va- 
riety of pyroxene of a greenish-white color. 
Also called alalite and, more commonly, diop- 
side. 

mussuck, mussuk (inus'uk), . [E. Ind.] A 
large water-bag of skin or leather used by a 
Hindu bheesty or water-carrier. It is usually 
the whole skin of a goat or sheep tanned and 
dressed. 

Mussulman (mus'ul-man), n. and a. [Also 
MIISII/IIIIIII, MinHilitiiin ; = F. Sp. niuxiilnifiii, niitx- 
gulmano = Pg. nmsulmSo, miisulinaiio = It. 
musulmano = G. muselmann = Sw. mime/mati, 
inusiilman = Dan. musulmnn, miisclmand; ML. 
musulman, < Turk, musulman, < Pers. miunilman, 
mussalman, a Moslem, < muslim, < Ar. niuxliiii, 
moslim, Moslem : see J/oxfrm.] I. n.; pi. .)/.<- 
milmans (-manz). A Mohammedan, or follower 
of Mohammed ; a true believer, in the Moham- 
medan sense ; a Moslem. 

Now, my brave Miuvntlnmitx. 

You that are lords o' the sea, and scorn us Christians, 
Which of your mangy lives is worth this hurt here? 

Beau, and Fl., Knight of Malta, II. 1. 

II. a. Of or pertaining to Moslems, or to 
their faith or customs. 

Our Laura's Turk still kept his eyes upon her, 
Less in the Mwawlman than Christian way. 

Byron, Beppo, st. 81. 

Mussulmanic (mus-ul-man'ik), a. [< Mussul- 
man + -tc.] Pertaining to or resembling Mus- 
sulmans or their customs. Wright. 

Mussulmanish (mus'ul-man-ish), n. [< Mussul- 
man + -i'x/(i.] Mohammedan. 



They proclaimed them enemies to the 
faith. Sir T. Herbert, Travels In Africa. (Latham.) 

Mussulmanism (mus'ul-man-izm), n. [< Mus- 
sulman + -ism.'} The religious system of the 
Mussulmans; Mohammedanism. 

Mussulmanliket(mus'ul-man-lik), a. Moslem. 

Our subiecta may with all securltle most safely and 
freely trauell by Sea and land into all and singular parts 
of ya\uMumlmaiiKte Empire. Hakluyt's Voyages, II. 159. 

Mussulmanly (mus'ul-man-li), adv. [< Muxsul- 
ntan + -ly' i .'} In the manner of Mussulmans. 
Wright. 

Mussulwoman (mus ' 1 -wum ' an), . ; pi. Mus- 
sulwomen (-wim'en). [< Mussulman) + wo- 
man.'] A Mohammedan woman. [Burlesque.] 

The poor dear Mutmltcmnen whom I mention. 

Byron, Beppo, it. 77. 

mussy (mus'i), a. [< muss 1 + -yi.] Disor- 
dered; rumpled; tousled. 

Tho' his head is buried in such a musty lot of hair. 

Headiny (Fenn.) Morning Herald, AprU 4, 1884. 

must 1 (must), v. i., without inflection and now 
used both as present and as preterit. [< ME. 
mostt (pi. mosten, moste), < AS. moste (pi. mostoii), 
pret. of nidtan, pres. pret. mot, may : see mo/e 2 .] 
To be obliged; be necessarily compelled; be 
bound or required by physical or moral neces- 
sity, or by express command or prohibition, or 
by the imperative requirements of safety or in- 
terest; be necessary or inevitable as a condi- 
tion or conclusion: as, a man must eat to live; 
we must obey the laws; you must not delay. 
Like other auxiliaries, must was formerly used without a 
following verb(#o, get, and the like) : as, we must to horse. 
wherfor they muftten, of necessitee, 
As for that night departen compignye. 

Chaucer, Nun's Priest's Tale, 1. 172. 
He moste passe be the Desertes of Arabaye; be the 
whlche Desertes Moyses ladde the Peple of Israel. 

Mandemlle, Travels, p. 57. 

Likewise tnitut the deacons be grave. 1 Tim. III. 8. 

Out of the world he must who once comes In. 

Ucrrick, None Free from Fault. 
Faith is not built on disquisitions vain : 
The things we must believe are few and plain. 

Dryden. Religio Lalcl, I. 482. 
The navigation of the Mississippi we must have. 

Jtfmnn. 

Popularly, what everybody says must be true, what 
everybody does must be right. 

E. B. Tylor, Prim. Culture, I. 12. 



mustachial 

Well must ye, an elliptical phrase for wishing good luck 

In any mil'. Iliil/iirrU. |l'rov. llnir. | 

must- (must), n. [Also formerly sometimes 
iinixto (< It.); < MK. must, most, <. AS. max! = 
D. most = OHG. MHG. G. most = Icel. Sw. 
in//-/ = Dan. iiKiat = OF. moust, F. moiit = 8p. 
Pg. It. mosto, < L. Hiii.ihuii, now wine, prop, 
neut. (sc. viiium) of mustus, new, fresh, whence 
also ult. E. moist. Hence musty, iinixtunl.] 
1. Now wine; the unfermented juice as pressed 
from the grape. 

Butt thel are drounken, all thes menge, 
Of ninxtf or wyne, I wolle warande. 

York Plays, p. 470. 

They are all wine* ; but even as men are of a sundry and 
divers nature, so are they likewise of divers sorts ; for new 
wine, called muste, is hard to digest. 

Heufenuto, 1'nssvngers' Dialogues (1612). (Karri.) 
Ami In the vats of Luna 

This year the must shall foam 
Round the white feet of laughing girls, 
Whose sires have marched to Rome. 

Macaulay, Iloratlns, st. 8. 

2t. The stage or condition of newness : said of 
wine. 

The draughts of consulary date were but crude unto 
these, and Oplmlan wine but In the must unto them. 

Sir T. Browne, Urn-burial, III. 

3. The pulp of potatoes prepared for fermenta- 
tion. 

must 3 (must), n. [Prob. < Skt. matta, pp. of 
/ mad, be excited or in a rage.] A condi- 
tion of strong nervous excitement or frenzy to 
which elephants are subject, the paroxysms 
being marked by dangerous irascibility. 

must* (must), f. [< musty, fl.] I. intrans. To 
grow stale and moldy ; contract a sour or musty 
smell. 

II. trail . To make stale and moldy; make 
musty or sour. 

Others are made of stone and lime ; but they are subject 
to give and be moist, which will must com. 

Mortimer, Husbandry. 

must 4 (must), M. [< mi/*H, c.] Moldormoldi- 
ness; fustiness. 

A smell as of unwholesome sheep, blending with the 
smell of iinut and dust. Dickens, Bleak House, xxxix. 

mustache, moustache (mus-tash'), //. [Also 
mustaehio, and formerly mustacho, mostacho, and 
in various perverted forms, musehacho, mul- 
chato, etc., after Sp. or It. ; < P. moustache = 
Sp. mostacho, < It. mostacchio, niustacchio, mos- 
taccio, a face, snout, = Albanian mustukes, < 
Gr. /il'oraf, also /'iroraf, m., the upper Up, mus- 
tache, a dial. (Doric and Laconian) form of 
ftdoTai;, f., the mouth, jaws, < uaaaaiai, chew : 
see mastax.] 1. The beard worn on the upper 
lip of men ; the unshaven hair of the upper lip : 
frequently used in the plural, as if the nair on 
each side of the lip were to be regarded as a 
mustache. 

This was the auncient manner of Spaynyardes . . . to 
rntt of all theyr beardes close, save only theyrntuwAaencm, 
which they weare long. 

Spenser, State of Ireland (Globe ed.), p. 635. 

Will you have your mtutachoes sharpe at the ends, like 
shoemakers aules ; or hanging downe to your mouth like 
goates flakes? Lyly, Midas, 1IL -I. 

2t. A long ringlet hanging beside the face, a 
part of a woman's head-dress in the seventeenth 
century. 3. In zool. : (a) Hairs or bristles 
like a mustache; whiskers; rictal vibrissw; 
mystaces. (b) A mystacine, malar, or maxil- 
lary stripe of color in a bird's plumage Mus- 
tache monkey, the CercopUhenu cephus, of western 
Africa. Mustache tern, Sterna leueoparia. OU mug- 
tacne Itr. F. rieUte moustache], an old soldier. 

Do you think, O blue-eyed banditti. 
Because you have scaled the wall. 
Such an old mustache as I am 
Is not a match for you all? 

LongfeUmr, Children's Hour. 

It was, . . . perhaps, no very poor tribute to the stout 
old moustache I Marshal Soult 1 of the Republic and the Em- 
pire to say that at a London pageant his war-worn face 
drew attention away from Prince Esterhazy's diamonds. 
J. McCarthy, Hist. Own Times, I. 

mustache-cup (mus-tash'kup), M. A cup for 
drinking, made with a fixed cover over a part 
of its top, through which a small opening is 
made, allowing one to drink without dipping 
liis mustache into the liquid. 

mustached, moustached (mus-tashf), a. [< 
mustache + -erf2.] Wearing a mustache. Also 
mustachioed. 

The gallant young Indian dandies at home on furlough 
immense dandies these, chained and moustached. 

Thackeray, Vanity Fair, Ix. 

mustachial, moustachial (raus-tash/i-al), . 
[< mustache + -in/.] Resembling a mustache: 
applied (by erroneous use) to a patch of con- 
spicuous color on the lower mandible of a wood- 



iiecker. 
662. 



mustachial 

Also i>i>/xtcil. KHCIJC. Brit., XXIV. mustard-leaf (mus'tard-lef), . 

tard-paper. 



mustachio(mus-tash'i6),)i. Same as mustache, mustard-paper (mus'tard-pa"per), 

4._v:j /,= +<,i,';;w)i /. r( nuatarhin coated with mustard in a solution of gtitta- 



[< mustachio 



mustachioed (mus-tash'iod), a 

+ -erf 2 .] Same as mustached. 
mustang (mus'tang), . [Origiu obscure.] 



1. 



a form of sinapism used for counter- 
irritation. 



muster 

Same as IHHX- Mustelinffi 1 (mus-te-li'ne), w. pi. [NL., < Mu*- 
tela + -ilia:} The leading subfamily of Mnstr- 
liil', typified by the genus Mustela. The teeth arc 
88 or 34, according to the number of premolars, and of un- 
equal numbers in the two jaws. The upper molar is sin- 

or with the longest axis transverse. The back upper pre- 



Paper 



of small horses used in the western United States and 
Territories are mustangs or their descendants. See bronco 
and cayuse. 
2. An officer of the United States navy who 



ThewilVhorse of "the pampas' and prairies of mustard-plaster (mus'tard- P las''ter), . Same ^"^tffi^^gESS^ 

America. It is descended from stock of Spanish im- as miistai ct-poulttce. 

portation, and has reverted to the feral state. The mus- mustard-pot (mus'tard-pot), u. A covered ves- 

tangs live in troops, are very hardy, and are often caught se j f or holding mustard prepared for the table. 

and broken for use. Mian ponies _and the Carious kmas ^ coyer haying an opening f or the hand l e of 

a mustard-spoon. 
mustard-poultice (mus'tard-p61"tis), n. Apoul- 

. . tice or plaster made of equal parts of ground 

entered the regular service from the merchant m ustard and linseed-ineal (or flour). It is a 
service after serving through the civil war, in- powerful rubef acient and counter-irritant. Also 
stead of graduating from the Naval Academy, called mustard-plaster and sinapism 
[Slang.] -Mustang grape. See cutthroat, 1. _ mustard-seed (mus'tiird-sed), n. 

mustanger (mus'tang-er), n. One whose busi- o f mustard, 
ness is to lasso or catch mustangs. [Western 
U. S.] 

The business of entrapping them [mustangs] has given - f . . . 

rise to a class of men called mustanqers, ... the legiti- 3 A very fine kind of shot used by onutholo- mon spineless dogfishes of Europe and North 

gists and taxidermists for shooting birds with America and some other related small sharks, 
least injury to the plumage ; dust-shot. The musteline 1 (mus'te-lin), a. and n. [= It. vnis- 



The kingdom of heaven is like to a grain of multard 
teed, . . . which indeed is the least of all seeds. 

Mat. xiii. 31. 



sectorial, followed tiy a tubercular molar. The postorbital 
process is moderately developed ; the anteorbital foramen 
is small. The bony palate is produced far back of the 
molars, the posterior nares are thrown into one, and the 
auditory bulla) are much inflated. The feet have bent 
phalanges and retractile claws ; the digits are slightly or 
not at all webbed ; and progression is digitigrade or sub- 
plantigrade. The external appearance and the economy 
of the species are very variable, for they range from the 
smallest and most slender of weasels to the great, stout, 
shaggy wolverene. There are 4 leading genera: Oulo, 
Galiftis, Mugtela, and Putorius, or the wolverenes, grisons, 
martens, and weasels. See cuts under wolverene, Galictis, 
1. The seed golem, and marten. 

Mustelinae 2 (mus-te-li'ne), n. i>l. [NL., < Mus- 
telus + -ino;.] A subfamily of sharks of the 
family GaJeorhinido! or Carchariidce, corre- 
sponding to Mustelidce 2 . It contains the corn- 



mate border-ruffians of Texas. Olmsted, Texas, viii. 

mustard (mus'tard), n. [Early mod. E. also mus- 

terd; < ME. mti'starde, mostard = D. mostaard, 

mostart, mosterd = MLG. mostart, mttstert = 

MHG. musthart, mos- 

tert (Or. mostrich), < 

OF. moustarde, F. 

moutarde (= Pg. It. 

mostarda; cf. Sp.wios- 

taza), mustard, orig. 

pounded mustard- 
seed mixed with must 

or vinegar, < OF. 

moust, (. L. mustum, 

must: see )wsi 2 .] 1. 

A plant of the genus 

Brassica, formerly 

classed as Sinapis. 

The ordinary species are 

B. nigra, the black mus- 
tard; B. alba, the white 

mustard ; and B. Sinapis- 

trum, the wild mustard or 

charlock. The black and 
white mustards are largely 
cultivated in Europe and 
America for their seed (see 
def. 2). B. juncea, the In- 
dian mustard, is used for 
the same purposes. The 
seed of the charlock is inf e- 
rior.butyieldsagood burn- 
ing-oil. All the species 
mentioned yield oils fit for lamps or for use as food, and, 
in Asia especially, the Indian and various other sorts are 
raised in large quantities for the sake of this product. The 
leaves of various mustards form excellent antiscorbutic sal- 
ads. (See Brassica and charlock.) The " tree " which grew 
from "a grain of mustard seed," mentioned in Luke xiii. 
19, was probably the true mustard, Brassica nigra, which 
attains in Palestine a height of 10 or even 15 feet ; accord- 
ing to Royle and others, the tree meant is Saloadora Per- 
sica, a small tree bearing minute berries with pungent 
seeds, which bear the same name in Arabic as mustard. 
2. The seed of mustard crushed and sifted (and 
often adulterated), used in the form of a paste 
as a condiment, or, in the form of a poultice 
(sinapism), plaster, or prepared paper (mus- 
tard-paper), as a rubefaeient. 
Now mustard and brawn, roast beef and plumb pies, 
Were set upon every table. 




tellino, < L. mustelinus, mustellinus, belonging to 
a weasel, < mustela, a weasel: see Mustela.} I. 
a. 1. Resembling a marten or weasel; of or 
pertaining to the Mustelince, or, in a broader 
sense, to the Mustelidce or weasel family. 2. 
Specifically, tawny, like a weasel in summer ; 
fawn-colored. 

II. n. A musteline mammal; a member of 
the Mustelince. 



name includes No. 10 shot and finer numbers. 
A small bird, that would have been torn to pieces by a 
few large pellets, may be riddled with mustard-seed and 
yet be preservable. Cows, Key to N. A. Birds, p. 4. 

mustard-shrub (mus'tard-shrub), n. A West 
Indian shrub, Capparis ferruginea, bearing pun- 
gent berries. 

mustard-spoon (mus'tard-spo'n), n. A spoon 
for serving mustard, usually of small size, and 

with a round, deep bowl set at right angles to musteline 2 (mus'te-lin), a. and n. [< Mustelus 
the handle. + -me 1 .] I. a. Dogfish-like; of or pertaining 

mustard-token (mus'tard-t6"kn), n. Some- to the Mustelince. 
thing very minute, like a mustard-seed. H. n. A musteline fish. 

I will rather part from the fat of them [the calves of his Mustelini (mus-te-ll'ni), n. pi. [NL., < Muste- 
legs] than from a mustard-token's worth of argent. / Ms + -//.] In icnth., in Bonaparte's system of 

Massinger, Virgin-Martyr, ii. 2. c i ass j ncat i O ii (1837), same as Mustelmoft. 

mustardvillarst, mustredevilliarst, . [Also nmsteloid (mus'tf-loid), a. and . I. a. Of or 

(ME.) mystyrddevylters; perhaps so called from relating to the Mustelidce; weasel-like. 
Moustierriller, a town in France.] A kind of JI. n . A mammal of the family Mustelidce. 

mustela, 
nus 

shes. 




i, part of the inflorescence of 
mustard (Brassica ni'jfra). a, a 
leaf, c., flower cut longitudinally, 
the petals removed, b, a pod. 



of mustyrddevytters. Paston Letters, III. 214. 

mustee (mus-te'), n. Same as mestee. 

Mustela (mus-te'la), n. [NL., < L. mustela, 
also mustella, a weasel, also a fish so called, < 
mus, a mouse, = Gr. fivf, mouse: see mouse.'} 
The typical genus of Mustelidce, formerly nearly 
coextensive with the family,but now restricted; 
the martens and sables. The species are of medium 
and rather large size, with moderately stout form ; sharp 
curved claws ; tail longer than the head, bushy, terete, or 
tapering ; soles furry with naked pads ; pelage full and soft 
but not shaggy, and not whitening in winter ; progression 
digitigrade; and habits arboreal and terrestrial, not fos- 
sorial or aquatic. There are 38 teeth, or 4 more than in 
Putorius, and the lower sectorial tooth usually has an ad- 
ditional cusp. The leading species are the marten or pine- 
marten, M. martesoT abietum; the beech-, stone-, or white- 
breasted marten, M.faina; the Russian sable, M. abellina; 
the American sable, M. americana; and the fisher, pekan, 
or Pennant's marten, M. pennanti. See cuts under marten 
and fisher, 2. 

Musteli (mus-te'li), n. pi. [NL. , pi. of Muste- 
lus.'} In ichth., same as Mustelidce^. Miillerand 
Henle, 1841. 



Robin Hoods Birth (Child's Ballads, V. 346). MustelidSB 1 (mus-tel'i-de), n. pi. [NL., < MtlS- 



3. One of numerous mustard-like plants, almost 
all cruciferous : used with a qualifying word. 
See names below. Buckler-mustard, (a) A plant 
of the cruciferous genus Biscutella, whose seed-vessels as- 
sume a buckler-like form in bursting. (6) Clypeola Jon- 
thlaspi. Durham mustard, the ordinary flour of mustard 
prepared by a process, first employed at Durham, Eng- 
land, of crushing between rollers, pounding, and sifting. 
Frenqll mustard, mustard prepared for table use by 
the addition of salt, sugar, vinegar, etc. It is milder 
than the ordinary preparation. Garlic-mustard, an 
Old World crucifer, Sisumbrium Alliaria, having when 
bruised the scent of garlic. Mithridate mustardt. (a) 
Properly, the mithridate pepperwort, Lepidium campes- 



tela + -idee.'] A family of arctoid fissiped car- 
nivorous quadrupeds of the order Force, subor- 
der Fissipedia, and series Arctoidea, typified by 
the genus Mustela, having only one true molar 
in the upper jaw, and one or two in the lower 
jaw, with the last upper premolar normally sec- 
torial. The family is represented in most parts of the 
globe, except the Australian region, and reaches its high- 
est development in the northern hemisphere. There are 
about 20 genera, representing 8 subfamilies : Mustelinae, 
martens, weasels, etc.; MeUivorinae, ratels; Melince, bad- 
gers; Helictidintz ; Zorillince, African skunks; Mephitinae, 
American skunks ; Lutrince, otters ; and Enhydrince, sea- 
otters. See cuts under marten, badger, Helictit, skunk, En- 



(re." (b) Sometimes, erroneously, the pennycress, Thlaspi 

arvense. Britten and Holland, Eng. Plant-Names. Oil hydris, and otter. 

of mustard, allylthiocarbionide, CS.N.C 3 H5, a volatile, Mustelidae 2 (mus-tel'i-de). . />/. 



pungent^ and irritating oil formed in mustard by fer- 
mentation when it is wet. See myronate. Tansy-mus- 
tard, the American plant Sisymbrium camscens. Tower- 
mustard, Arabis per.foliata ; also, A. Turrita.-Trea.Cle- 
mustard, a plant of the genus Erysimum, especially E. 
chfiranthmdes. Wild mustard, the charlock, Brassica 
Sinaptetrum. Wormseed-mustard, Erysimum cheiran- 
thoidei. (See also hedge-mustard.) 



tehis + -idee.} A family of sharks, typified by the 
genus Mustelus, having a nictitating membrane, 
and the small teeth frequently so set as to form 
a kind of pavement. The group is now commonly 
regarded as a subfamily of Oaleorhinidm or Carchariiilce. 
See cuts under Gateorhinus and Carcharinus. 




mustard. 

Gray. 

All the little stock-in-trade of the local sea-coal dealer, - - ' - 
pepperer, vnfstarder, spicer, butcher, , . . are included 

[in the Schedules of Assessment for Taxes on Movables]. *"f + -rcM A group i 
S. Dowell, Taxes in England, I. 80. as Mustelince 2 . Giin flier. 



ncm'de'd Mustelina 2 (mus-te-li'na), n. pi. [NL., < ; 
hii teluu -T- -iiifi' 2 .~\ A group of Carcliariida' : s 



Mus- 

same 



Cuvier, 1817. 
muster (mus'ter), . [Early mod. E. also mons- 
ter; < ME. musteren, mustren, moustren = MD. 
monstern, D. monsteren = MLG. munsteren = G. 
mustern = Sw. ntonstra = Dan. monstre, < OF. 
mostrer, mustrer, monstrer,-~F. montrer = Sp. Pg. 
mostrar = It. mostrare, < L. monstrare, show, < 
monere, admonish: see monstration, monster. 
Cf. muster, .] I. trans. 1+. To show; point; 
exhibit. 

He mustered his miracles amonge many men, 

And to the pepull he preched. York Plays, p. 481. 

So dide Galashin that often was he shewed, and mustred 
with the fynger on bothe sides. 

Merlin (E. E. T. S.\ iii. 407. 

2. To bring together into a group or body for 
inspection, especially with a view to employ- 
ing in or discharging from military service ; in 
general, to collect, assemble, or array. Com- 
pare muster, n., 3. 

The! moustred and assembled all the peple that thei 
myght gete. Merlin (E. E. T. S.), iii. 560. 

Gentlemen, will yon go muster men? 

SAat.,ich. II., ii. 2. 108. 

Wherewith Indignation and Griefe mustering greater 
multitudes of fearefull, vnquiet, enraged thoughts in his 
heart. Purchas, Pilgrimage, p. 359. 

All the gay feathers he could muster. 

Sir K. L' Estrange. 

To muster In, to muster Into service, to bring before 
the enrolling officers and register the names of ; receive as 
recruits. To muster out, to muster out of service, to 
bring together, as soldiers, that they may be discharged ; 
discharge from military service. To muster the watch, 
to call the roll of the men in a watch. To muster up, 
to gather ; collect ; summon up : now generally in a fig- 
urative sense : as, to muster up courage. 

To muster up our Rhimes, without our Reason, 
And forage for an Audience out of Season. 

Congreve, Pyrrhus, Prol. 

One of those who can muster itp sufficient sprightliness 
to engage in a game of forfeits. IJazlitt. 

= Syn. 2. To call together, get together, gather, convene, 
congregate. 

II. intrans. It. To show; appear. 

Vndir an olde pore abyte [habit] regneth ofte 
Grete vurtew, thogh it mostre poorely. 
Book i'f Precedence (E. E. T. S., extra ser.), i. 105. 

2. To assemble; meet in one place, as soldiers ; 
in general, to collect. 

And so they went and wo.-rfra/ before the Castil of Arde, 
the whiche was well fnmysshed with Englysshemen. 

Berners, tr. of Froissart's Chron.. I. ccliv. 



muster 

Why does my blood thus mutter to my heart? 

, M. lor M., ii. 4. 31. 



Trump iiur pibroch summon here 
Miuteriny clan, of uudron tramping. 

.v.-.)N, I,. .,f th.- [., 1.81. 
What marvels manifold 
- , mi'il Mlently to mutter! Lowell, Gold Egg. 

muster (mus'ter), n. [Early mod. E. also 1111111.1- 
/( /, iiinir.itcr; < ME. moustre (= MD. monster 
= MLG. L(!. ii/niif-lt'i- = G. muxli-r = S\v. Dan. 
miiii/tter), < OF. nioxlre, mimxtre, F. moiitre = 
I'tf. It. in / IK I i-ii, < ML. nioiistra (after Kom.), a 
review, a show, < L. monxtrare, show: see ;.-- 
<er, t'.] 1. A show; a review; an exhibition; 
in modern use, an exhibition in array; array. 

He desyred his grace to take the muster of hyni, and to 
see him shoote. 

Hall, quoted in Strutt's Sports and Pastimes, p. 130. 
The moat untowardly among them [boys in Devon and 
Cornwall | will not as readily give you a mutter (or trial) of 
this exercise as you are prone to require ft. 

Strutt, .Sports and Pastimes, p. 140. 

There was a splendid lunch laid out in the parlor, with 
all I lir old silver In mutter, and with all the delicacies that 
Boston confectioners and caterers could furnish. 

//. B. Slowe, Oldtown, p. 567. 

2. A pattern ; a sample. 

Forasmuch as It is reported that the Woollen clothesdied 
in Turkic bee most excellently died, you shall send home 
into this realme certaine Motvstert or pieces of Shew. 

Hakluytt Voyage*, II. 162. 

These nmn-inilliners generally require what they call a 
mutter, or pattern, which they . . . reproduce exactly. 
Tiiiti'-x. American in Japan (1857), p. 183. 

3. A gathering of persons, as of troops for 
review or inspection, or in demonstration of 
strength; an assembling in force or in array; 
an array; an assemblage. 

The mene peple that hadde no myster of bateile, the 
kynge made hem to a-bide by an hill, and made a muttre 
of armed peple. Merlin(E. E. T. S.), ill 658. 

Of the temporal grandees of the realm and of their wives 
and daughters the mutter was great and splendid. 

Macaulay. 

A gathering of happiness, a concentration and combina- 
tion of pleasant details, a throng of glad faces, a imttter of 
elated hearts. Charlotte Bronte, Shirley, xv. 

4. A register or roll of troops mustered ; also, 
the troops enrolled. 

Ye publish the musters of your own bands. 

Hooker, F.ccles. Polity. 

That Mustapha was forced to remoue, missing fortle 
thousand uf his first musters. Purchas, Pilgrimage, p. 280. 

5. In hunting, a company or flock of peacocks. 
Strutt. 

According to the most ancient and approved treatise on 
hunting, I must say a muster of peacocks. 

W . Irving, Christinas Day. 

Tarpaulin muster, a joint contribution by a number of 
persons: a whalers' expression. To pass muster, to pass 
inspection ; pass without censu-e, as one among a number 
on inspection ; be allowed to pass. 

Double-dealers may pass mutter for a while; but all 
parties wash their hands of them in the conclusion. 

Sir n. L'Estrange. 

muster-book (nms'ter-buk), n. A book in which 

muster-rolls are written. 

musterdt, An obsolete spelling of muxtanl. 
muster-day (mus'ter-da), . A day appointed 

for militia-training in bodies collected from dif- 

ferent places. [New Eng.] 

General Klngsland of Dnnwlch ordered our people to 
attach themselves to the Dunwlch Company. One or two 
muster-days passed, and nothing was done. 

S. Judd, Margaret, ill. 

muster-file (mus'ter-fil), H. Same as muster- 

roll. 

muster-master (mils' ter-mas*ter),n. Formerly, 
one charged with taking account of troops, anil 
<>H heir arms and other military apparatus. He 
reviewed all the regiments and inspected the muster-rolls. 
The chief officer of this kind was called muster-matter- 
general. 

My muster-master 
Talks of his tactics, and his ranks and nles. 

B. Jonton, Staple of News, Iv. 1. 
The Mtister-matter-yenfral, or the review of reviews. 

Qoldmith, Citizen of the World, 1L 

muster-roll (raus'ter-rol), . 1. A list or re- 
turn of all troops, including all officers ami sol- 
diers actually present on parade, or otherwise 
accounted for, on muster-day; hence, any simi- 
lar list. 

It may be thought I seek to make a great mwster-roU of 
sciences. Bacon, Advancement of Learning, ii. 2BS. 

2. A similar register kept on shipboard, in 
wliieli are recorded the names of the ship's eom- 

|iany. Descriptive muster-roll, a quarterly return 
made to the Bureau of Equipment ami lUvruitiiig of the 
Nnvy l>i>]iartnuMit from every t'nited States vessel of war, 
specifying the names, rating, date, pl:uv. and term of en- 
listment, place of birth. au r e. previous naval service, and 
minute personal description, of each of the ri > \\ . 



3913 

mustilert (mus'ti-ler), . [< OF. niiixtilii-ri, in 
pi. lunstflii ri-s, armor for the calf of the leg, < 
iiiuxirl, IHII.I/I-II; the calf of the leg.] A piece 
of defensive armor used in the fifteenth cen- 
tury, said to have been a stuffed doublet like 
the gambeson. 

mustily(mus'ti-li), adv. 1. In a musty manner; 
moldily ; sourly. 

These clothes smell muttily, do they not, gallants? 

Fletcher (and another), Falte One, lit 2. 

2f. Dully; heavily. 

Apollo, what's the matter, pray, 
You look so muttily to-day '( 
Cotton, Burlesque upon Burlesque, p. 225. (Dana.) 

mustiness (mus'ti-nes), . The state or qual- 
ity of being musty or sour; moldiness; damp 
foulness. 

musto (mus'to), . [Sp. Pg. It. mosto, < L. 
muxtum, must: see must*.] Same as musft. 

mustredevilliarst, . See muslardnllars. 

musty (mus'ti), a. and n. [A var. of moistij, 
conformed to the orig. noun musft: see moisty, 
moist, ts/ 2 .] I. a. 1. Moldy; sour: as, a 
in null/ cask ; / usty corn or straw ; musty books. 

Being entertained for a perfumer, as I was smoking a 
musty room, comes me the prince and Claudlo. 

Shot., Much Ado, I. 3.61. 

Astrology's 
Last home, a musty pile of almanacs. 

Whittier, Bridal of Pennacook, ProL 

2. Having an ill flavor ; vapid : as, muxty wine. 
3. Dull; heavy; spiritless; moping; stale. 

The proverb Is something musty. 

Shak., Hamlet, iii. 2. 369. 
On her birthday 

We were forced to be merry, and, now she 's musty, 
We must be sad, on pain of her displeasure. 

Massinger, Duke of Milan, II. 1. 

II. H. Snuff having a musty flavor. 

I made her resign her snuff-box for ever, and half drown 
herself with washing away the stench of the musty. 

Stale, Tatler, No. 79. 

Mutty, a cheap kind of snuff, also mentioned In Tatler, 
No. 27. It derived its name from the fact that a large 
quantity of musty snuff was captured with the Spanish 
Fleet at Vigo In 1702, and musty-flavoured snuff, or mutty, 
accordingly became the fashion for many succeedlngyears. 
A. Dobson, Selections from Steele, p. 464, note. 

musty (mus'ti), r. )'. [< musty, a."\ To become 
musty. 
Dost think 't shall musty f Shirley, Gamester, ii. 2. 

mutability (mu-ta-bil'i-ti), n. [= F. mutabilite 
= Sp. mutabilidad = Pg. mutabilidade = It. mu- 
tabilitci, < L. mutabilita(t-)s, changeableness, < 
miitabilis, changeable : see mutable.'] The state 
or quality of being mutable, (a) The quality of be- 
ing subject to change or alteration In either form, state, 
or essential qualities. 

Wherefore this lower world who can deny 
But to be subject still to Mutability? 

Spenser, K. Q., VII. viL 47. 

(6) Changeableness. as of mind, disposition, or will ; In- 
constancy; instability: as, the mutability of opinion or 
purpose. 

Nice longing, slanders, 'mutability, 
All faults that may be named. 

Shale., Cymbeline, ii. 5. 2ti. 

mutable (mu'ta-bl), n. [In older E. muable; < 
OF. muable, F. muable = Pr. mutable, mudable 
= Sp. mudable = Pg. mudnvel = It. mutabile, 
< L. mtitabilix. changeable, < mtitarc, change: 
see mute*.] 1. Capable of being altered in 
form, qualities, or nature; subject to change; 
changeable. 

Honorable matrimonle, a loue by al lawes allowed, not 

mutable- nor encombred with . . . value cares 4 passions. 

I'l'tt.iiliniii Arte of Eng. Poesie, p. 40. 

The race of delight la short, and pleasures have mutable 
faces. Sir T. Broime, Christ. Mor., ii. 1. 

2. Changeable or inconstant in mind or feel- 
ings; unsettled; unstable; liable to change. 

That man whiche is mutable for-euerye occasyon mustc 
nedes often repente hjnn. 

Sir T. Elyot, The Oovernour, ill. 19. 
For the mutable, rank-scented many, let them 
Regard me as I do not flatter, and 
Therein behold themselves. Shak., Cor., iii. 1. 66. 

= Syn. 1. Alterable. 2. Unsteady, wavering, variable, 

Irresolute, tickle, vacillating, 
mutableness (mu'ta-bl-nes), H. Same as miitn- 

liilitii. 

mutably (mfl'ta-bli), adr. Changeably. 
mutacism (mu'ta-sizm), n. Same as myta- 



mutage (mu'taj), H. [< F. mutage, < muter, stop 
the fermentation of must, < OF. mut, F. muet, 
dumb. < !.. Hindi.*, dumb: see mutel, r.] Apro- 
cess for checking the fermentation of the must 
of grapes. It Is accomplished either by diffusing sul- 
phurous aeid fnmi ignited sul|>hur in the cask t-ontainlntt 



mutchkin 

the must, or l<y a>l<linK to it a small quantity of sulphite of 
lime. 

mutandum(mu-tan'dum), n.; pi. mutanda (-dft). 
[L., neut. gerundive of mutare, change: MM- 
ifc- 2 .] A thing to be changed: chiefly used 
in the plural. 

mutant (mu'tant), a. [< L. mutun(t-)x, ppr. of 
inn/are, change: see mute 2 , mutate.} Jneutom., 
said of a perpendicular part the apex of which 
licnds over. 

mutate (mu'tat), r. ; pret. and pp. mutated, ppr. 
m a tn ti nil. [< I .. 111 it tn lux, pp. of mutare, change : 
see mute'*.] I. tninx. 1. To change. Specifi- 
cally 2. In phonetic*, to change (a vowel- 
sound) by the influence of a vowel in the fol- 
lowing syllable. See mutation, 3. 

It is extremely probable that all subjunctive! originally 
had mutated vowels. 

H. Sweet, Trans. Phllol. Soc., 1876-6, p. 548. 

II. intntiiK. To change; interchange. 

Bradley, I have reason to know, mutates with Brackley. 
A", and Q., 7th let., VL 66. 

mutate (mu'tat), . [< I... mutatun, pp. : see the 
verb.] Changed, 
mutation (mu-ta'shon), H. [< ME. miitaciouii, 

< OF. mittaciou, mutation, F. ;te<ioH = 8p. mu- 
tacion Pg. mutac&o = It. mutazione, < L. /- 
tatio(n-), a changing, < mvtarr, pp. mutatux, 
change: see <e2.] l. The act or process of 
changing; change; variableness. 

Wenest thon that thise niutacimins of fortune fleten 
withouten governour? Chaucer, Boethlus, L prove 6. 

While above In the variant breezes 
Numberless noisy weathercocks rattled and sang of inn- 
tut i" n. Longfellow, Evangellne, 1. 1. 

2. Rotation; succession. 

There spak God first to Samuelle, and schewed him the 
iiiiituriimu of ordre of ITesthode, and the mlsterle of the 
Sacrement. Marulemlle, Travels, p. 106. 

3. In phonetics, the change of a vowel through 
the influence of an a, i, or in the following 
syllable : proposed for rendering German i- 
laut into English. H. Ktceet. 4. In music: (a) 
In medieval solmizatioii, the change or passage 
from one hexachord to another, involving a 
change of the syllable applied to a given tone. 
(6) In violin-playing, the shifting of the hand 
from one position to another. 5. The change 
or alteration in a boy's voice at puberty. 6. In 
French law, transfer by purchase or descent. 
7t. A post-house. 

Neere or upon these Causeys were seated . . . mutations; 
for so they called in that age the places where strangers, 
as they jimmied, did change their post horses, dranght- 
beasta, or wagons. Holland, tr. ofC'amden, p. 66. (Danes.) 

mutation-Stop (mu-ta'shon-stop), n. In organ- 
buiWinij, a stop whose pipes produce tones a 
fifth or a major third above the proper pitch of 
the digital struck (or above one of its octaves). 
When the tone Is a fifth, the stop is called a quint ; when 
it is a third, the stop Is called a tierce ; other names are 
tvxlfth, namrtl, larigot, etc. Mutation-stops, like mixture- 
-top-, which are partly of the same nature, contribute 
much to the harmonic breadth of heavy combinations. 

mutatis mutandis (mu-ta'tis mu-tan'dis). [L.: 
mutatis, abl. of mitlatus, pp., and mutandis, abl. 
of mutandttni, gerundive of mutare, change : see 
m n tn tinn.} Those things having been changed 
which were to be changed ; with the necessary 
changes. 

mutative (mu'ta-tiv), a. [< OF. mutatif; as 
mutate + -ire."] Mutatory. 

He does not appear to know the difference . . . between 
mood and tense. ... To the indicative mood he give* a 
precative tense (sic), to the imperative mood a mutatipe 
tense (sic). Atheiurttm, No. 3184, p. 686. 

mutatory (mu'ta-to-ri), a. [< LL. mutatoriux, 
belonging to changing, < L. mutator, a changer, 

< mutare, change: see mutation.'} Changing; 
mutable; variable. 

mutch (much), H. [< MD. mutxe, earlier almutse, 
amiit.ii. D. mute = OHG. almuz, armuz, MHG. 
mut:e, G. miitze, a cap, hood, < ML. almutia, ar- 
miitin: see amioe 2 .] A cap or coif worn by 
women. [Scotch.] 

On the top of her head 
Is a mutch, and on that 
A shocking bad hat. 

Barhaw, Ingoldshy Legends, I. 62. 

mutchkin (much 'kin), n. [< mutch + -kin. 
Cf. D. mutsje, a little cap, a quartern, dim. of 
mute, a cap: see mutch.} A liquid measure in 
Scotiand,containing four gills, and forming the 
fourth part of a Scotch pint. 

Come, bring the tither lauteUnn In, 

And here 's for a conclusion, 
To every New Light mother's son, 

From this time forth, Confusion. 

Burnt. The Ordination. 



mute 

mute 1 (mut), a. and . [< ME. meat, mewet, < 
F. miiet = Sp. Pg. mudo = It. >to, < L. mutnx. 
dumb; cf. Skt. miika, dumb; appar. < mu, L. 
niu, Gr. uv, a sound uttered with closed lips: 
see mum'-, etc.] I. a. 1. Silent; not speaking; 
not uttering words. 

Whan thei were alle to-geder, thei were alle stille and 
mewet as though thei hadde be dombe. 

Merlin (E. E. T. S.), ii. 172. 



3914 

mute 2 t (mut), r. [Also meute (and moult, molt, 
wont), < L. mutare, change, contr. of *movitare, 
freq. of movere, move: see move. Cf. molft, 
mew 3 ."] I. intrans. To change the feathers; 
mew ; molt, as a bird. 
II. trans. To shed; molt, as feathers. 
Not one of my dragon's wings left to adorn me! 
Have I muted all my feathers ? 

Fletcher and Shirley, Night- Walker, iv. 4. 



But I was mute for want of person I could converse with, mute 3 
Dampier, Voyages, II. i. 100. 



2. Incapable of utterance; not having the 
power of speech ; dumb ; hence, done, made, 
etc., without speech or sound. 

With mute caresses shall declare 
The tenderness they cannot speak. 

Bryant, Crowded Street. 

He felt that mule appeal of tears. 

WhMier, Witch's Daughter. 

3. In gram, and philol. : (a) Silent; not pro- 
nounced: as, the b in dumb is mute. (6) Involv- 
ing a complete closure of the mouth-organs in 
utterance : said of certain alphabetic sounds : 
see II., 2. 4. In mineral., applied to metals 
which do not ring when struck. 5. In entom., 
not emitting audible sounds : opposed to sonant, 
stridulating, shrilling, etc. : said of insects. 6. 
Showing no sign ; devoid; destitute. [Bare.] 

I came into a place mute of all light. 

Longfellow, tr. of Dante's Inferno, v. 28. 

In mutet, to one's self ; inwardly. 

to mewet spake I so that nought asterte 
By no condicion, worde that might be Irani, '. 

Court of Love, 1. 148. 

Mute swan, the European Cygnus olor.To Stand mute, 
in law, to make no response when arraigned and called on 
to answer or plead. 

Regularly, a prisoner is said to stand mute when, being 
arraigned for treason or felony, he either (1) makes no an- 
swer at all ; or (2) answers foreign to the purpose, or with 
such matter as is not allowable, and will not answer other- 
wise ; or (3), upon having pleaded not guilty, refuses to 
put himself upon the country. Blacketone, Com., IV. xxv. 
= 8yn. 1 and 2. Dumb, etc. See silent. 

II. n. 1. A person who is -speechless or 
silent; one who does not speak, from physical 
inability, unwillingness, forbearance, obliga- 
tion, etc. (a) A dumb person ; one unable to use articu- 
late speech from some infirmity, either congenital or ac- 
quired, as from deafness ; a deaf-mute. (6) A hired atten- 
dant at a funeral. 

The hatchment must be put up, and mutes must be 
stationed at intervals from the hall door to the top of the 
stairs. Ashton, Social Life in Reign of Queen Anne, I. 47. 

(c) In some Eastern countries, a dumb porter or door- 
keeper, usually one who has been deprived of speech. 

Either our history shall with full mouth 
Speak freely of our acts, or else our grave, 
Like Turkish mute, shall have a tongueless mouth, 
Not worshipp'd with a waxen epitaph. 

SAa*., Hen. V., i. 2. 232. 

(d) In theaters, one whose part is confined to dumb-show ; 
also, a spectator ; a looker-on. 

Yon that look pale and tremble at this chance, 
That are but mutes or audience to this act. 

Shak., Hamlet, v. 2. 845. 

(e) In law, a person who makes no response when ar- 
raigned and called on to plead or answer. 

To the Indictment here upon he [John Biddle] prays 
Council might be allowed him to plead the illegality of it ; 
which being denied him by the Judges, and the Sentence of 
a mute threatened, he at length gave into Court his Excep- 
tions ingrossed in Parchment. 

Wood, Athenas Oxon., II. 304. 

2. In gram, and philol., an alphabetic utter- 
ance involving a complete closure of the mouth- 
organs; a cheek; a stop; an explosive. The 
name is especially appropriate as applied to the surd or 
breathed consonants, (, p, k, since these involve a momen- 
tary suspension of utterance, no audible sound being pro- 
duced during the continuance of the closure, whose char- 
acter is shown only by its explosion upon a following 
sound, or, much more imperfectly, by its implosion upon 
a preceding sound ; but it is also commonly given to the 
corresponding sonant or voiced consonants, d, b, g, and 
even to the nasals, n, m, ng. 

3. In music: (a) In stringed musical instru- 
ments of the viol family, a clip or weight of 
brass, wood, or ivory that can be slipped over 
the bridge so as to deaden the resonance with- 
out touching the strings; a sordino. (6) In met- 
al wind-instruments, a pear-shaped leathern 
pad which can be inserted into the bell to 
check the emission of the tone. 

mute 1 (mut), v. t.; pret. and pp. muted, ppr. 
muting. [< mute*-, n."] I. In music, to deaden 
or muffle the sound of, as an instrument. See 
mute' 1 -, n., 3. 

Beethoven mutes the strings of the orchestra in the slow 
movement of his 3rd and 6th P. F. Concertos. 

Grove's Diet. Music, II. 439. 

Her voice wa: musically thrilling in that low muted 
tone of the very heart, impossible to deride or disbelieve. 
G. Meredith, The Egoist, xxxv. 
2. To check fermentation in. See mutage. 



i 3 (mut), n. [Formerly also meute; < ME. 
mute, *meute, < OF. muete, meute, mute, an in- 



iitti'Vt/, y/tcttte, \ vy-L . HtitcM;, NWWWI *) o" 

closure for hawks, a mew, also a kennel for 
hounds, the lodge of a beast (as the form of a 
hare, etc.), a shift or change of hounds, a pack 
of hounds, = It. muta, a shift of hounds, a pack 
of hounds, < ML. muta, a mew, mota (after 
Rom.), a pack of hounds, etc.; the same in 
form as OF. muete, meute, ML. mota, a mili- 
tary rising, expedition, revolt, sedition, etc., < 
ML. muta, a change, < L. mutare, change, and 
ult. < L. movere, pp. motus, move: see mute 2 
and mew 3 .} 1. A mew for hawks. 

The cloisters became the camps of their retainers, the 
stables of their coursers, the kennels of their hounds, the 
meutes of their hawks. ililman. 

2f. A pack of hounds. 

Thenne watz hit lif vpon list to lytheu the houndez, 
When alle the mute hade hym met. 
Sir Oau-ayne and the Green Knight (E. E. T. S.), 1. 1720. 

3f. The cry of hounds. 

Hit watz the myriest mute that euer men herde. 
Sir Gawayne and the Green Knight (E. E. T. S.), 1. 1915. 

mute* (mut), V. ; pret. and pp. muted, ppr. 
muting. [< ME. mitten, mueten, < OF. mutir, 
esmeutir, esmeltir, F. emeutir = It. smaltare, 
mute, dung, < OHG. smelzan, MHG. smelzen, 
G. schmelzen = MD. smelten, smilten, smelt, 
liquefy : see smelt.} I. intrans. To pass excre- 
ment : said of birds. 

For you, Jacke, I would have you imploy your time, till 
my comming, in watching what houre of the day my hawke 
mutes. Return from Parnassus (1606). (Nares.) 

I could not fright the crows 
Or the least bird from muting on my head. 

B. Jonson. 

II. trans. To void, as dung: said of birds. 

Mine eyes being open, the sparrows muted warm dung 
into mine eyes. Toblt li. 10. 

mute 4 (mut), n. [< Mittie*, t).] The dung of 
fowls. 

And nigh an ancient obelisk 
Was raised by him, found out by Fisk, 
On which was written, not in words, 
But hieroglyphic mute of birds, 
Many rare pithy saws. > 

S. Butler, Hudibras, II. iii. 400. 

mute 5 (mut), n. [Origin obscure.] See the quo- 
tation. [Prov. Eng.] 

A mule of the male kind out of a she-ass by a horse, 
though some will have it that a mule so bred is termed 
a mute without reference to sex. HaUiwell. 

mute-Milt, " An obsolete form of moot-hill. 

mutely (mut'li), adv. In a mute manner; si- 
lently ; without uttering words or sounds. 

muteness (mut'nes), . The state of being 
mute; dumbness; forbearance from speaking, 
or inability to speak. 

muti (mo'ti), n. [Appar. < Hind, muth, Prakrit 
mutthi, fish, hand.] A small Indian falcon, 
Microliierax ccerulescens, carried in the hand in 
falconry. 

mutic (mu'tik), a. [< OL. muticus, curtailed: 
see mutieous."] Same as mutieous, 2. 

Mutica (mu'ti-ka), n.pl. [NL., neut. pi. of OL. 
muticus, curtailed : see niuticbus.'] One of the 
divisions of the Entomophaaa, or insectivorous 
Edentata, established for the reception of the 
South American ant-eaters of the genera Myr- 
mecopJtaga and Cyclothurus. 

mutieous (mu'ti-kus), a. [< OL. muticus, cur- 
tailed, docked; cf. L. mutilus, maimed : see mu- 
tilate.] 1. In bot., without any pointed process 
or awn: opposed to mucronate, cuspidate, aris- 
ta te, and the like. 2. In ro67., unarmed, as a 
digit not provided with a claw, the shank of a 
bird not furnished with a spur, or the jaw of a 
mammal without teeth: opposed to unguiculate, 
calcarate,' dentate, etc. Also mutic. 

mutigigella (mu"ti-ji-jel'a), n. [NL., from a 
native name (f).] The Abyssinian ichneumon, 
Herpestes mutigigella. 

Mutilatat (mii-ti-la'ta), n.pl. [NL., neut. pi. 
of L. mutilatus, pp. of mutilare, mutilate: see 
mutilate.'] An old division of mammals formed 
for those which have no hind limbs, as the ce- 
taceans and sirenians. 

mutilate (mu'ti-lat), v. t.; pret. and pp. muti- 
lated, ppr, mutilating. [< L. mntilatus, pp. of 



Mutilla 

mutilare (> It. mutilare = Sp. Pg. mutilar = 
F. mutiler), maim, < mutilus, maimed; cf. Gr. 
fiirv'Aof, /tiiTUof, curtailed.] 1. To cut off a 
limb or any important part of; deprive of any 
characteristic member, feature, or appurte- 
nance, so as to disfigure; maim: as, to mutilate 
a body or a statue ; to mutilate a tree or a pic- 
ture. 

Oonsalvo was affected even to tears at beholding the 
mutilated remains of his young and gallant adversary. 

Prescott, Ferd. and Isa., ii. 12. 

Of the nine pillars of the upper verandah only two re- 
main standing, and these much mutilated, while all the six 
of the lower storey have perished. 

J. Feryusson, Hist. Indian Arch., p. 141. 

2. Figuratively, to excise, erase, or expunge 
any important part from, so as to render in- 
complete or imperfect, as a record or a poem. 

As I haue declared you before in my preface, I will not 
in any worde wyllinglye mangle or mutilate that honour- 
able man's worke. Sir T. More, Works, p. 1291. 

Among the mutilated poets of antiquity, there is none 
whose fragments are so beautiful as those of Sappho. 

Addison. 

= Syn. 1. Mutilate, Maim, Cripple, Mangle, Diifgure. 
Mutilate emphasizes the injury to completeness and to 
beauty : as, to mutilate a statue. Maim and cripple note 
the injury to the use of the members of the body, maim 
suggesting perhaps more of unsightliness, pain, and actual 
loss of members, and cripple more directly emphasizing 
the diminished power of action : as, crippled in the left arm. 
Manyle expresses a badly hacked or torn condition : as, 
a mangled finger or arm. Disfigure covers simply such 
changes of the external form as injure its appearance or 
beauty : one may be fearfully mangled in battle, so as to 
be disfigured for life, and yet finally escape being mutilat- 
ed or maimed, or even crippled. 2. Mutilate, Garble, Mis- 
quote. To mutilate is to take parts of a thing, so as to 
leave it imperfect or incomplete ; to garble is to take parts 
of a thing in such a way as to make them convey a false 
impression ; to misquote is to quote incorrectly, whether 
intentionally or not : as, to mutilate a hymn ; to garble a 
passage from an official report ; to garble another's words ; 
to minyuote a text of Scripture. Garble has completely lost 
its primary meaning. 

mutilate (mu'ti-lat), a. and . [= F. inutile 
= Pg. mutilado = It. mutilate, < L. mutilatus, 
pp. of mutilare: see mutilate, v."] I. a. If. Same 
as mutilated,. 

He ... caused him to be ... shamefully mutulate. 
Sir T. Elyot, The Governour, iii. 6. 

Cripples, mutilate in then- own persons, do come out per- 
fect in their generations. Sir T. Browne, Vulg. Err., vli. 2. 

2. Specifically, deprived of hind limbs, as a 
cetacean or a sirenian. See Mutilata. 

II. n. A member of the Mutilata; a cetacean 
or a sirenian. 

mutilated (mu'ti-la-ted), p. a. [< mutilate + 
-erf 2 .] 1. Deprived of some important or char- 
acteristic part. 2. In entom., cut short ; great- 
ly abbreviated Mutilated elytra or wine-cov- 
ers, those elytra or wing-covers which are so short as to 
appear aborted, as in some Orthoptera and Coleoptera. 
Mutilated wheel, in mach., 
a form of gearing consisting 
of a wheel from a part of the 
perimeter of which the cogs 
are removed, usually em- 
ployed to impart an inter- 
mittent motion to other cog- 
wheels, or a reciprocating 
motion to a rack-bar. E. H. 
Knight. 

mutilation (mu-ti-la'- 
shon), n. [< F. mutila- 
tion = Sp. mutilacion = 
Pg. mutilayao = It. mu- 
tilazione, < LL. mutila- 

tio(n-), < L. mutilare. Forms of Mutilated Gearing. 

mutilate: nee mutilate.) 

The act of mutilating, or the state of being 
mutilated; deprivation of a necessary or im- 
portant part, as a limb. 

Mutilations are not transmitted from father unto son. 
Sir T. Browne, Vulg. Err., vii. 2. 

The loss or mutilation of an able man is also a loss to 
the commonweal. Raleigh, Hist. World, V. iii. 2. 

The laws against mutilation of cattle laws really di- 
rected against the damage done to a beast which in a per- 
fect state was the general medium of exchange ... 
prove that such a mode of payment was still common in 
the opening of the eighth century in Wessex. 

J. R. Green, Conq. of Eng., p. 218. 

mutilator (mu'ti-la-tpr), M. [< F. mutilateur = 
Pg. mutilador = It. mutilatore, < L. as if *mu- 
tilator, < mutilare, mutilate: see mutilate.] One 
who mutilates. 

The ban of excommunication was issued against the Ex- 
arch [Eutychius of Ravenna], the odious mutilator and de- 
stroyer of those holy memorials. 

Milman, Latin Christianity, iv. 9. 

Mutilla (mu-til'ii), n. [NL. (Linna>us, 1758).] 
The typical genus of Mutillida, characterized 
by the simple antennae of both sexes, and the 
ovate eyes, more or less acutely emarginate in 
the male. It is a very large and wide-spread genus, 




Mutilla 

of which about 50 F.uropfun :iinl '.< American species are 
catalogued. M. occitlenlalii is said to din deep noles and 
store them with insects. The larval habits are Imperfectly 

Mutillidse (mu-til'i-de). . ]>( [NF.... < Miitilln 
+ -nlit:] A family of fosHorial liyrnenopterous 
insects I'oumlcil by l/i'itoh in 1817, known as 
Military inilx. The females are wingless, witliout ocelli, 
anil armed with a powerful stintf , the males are winged 
with few r\i rptimis. About lf>o species are known in the 
I niicdstati'x; thryinv must abundant In theSouth. Their 
luiiits are mainly diurnal, though the African species of 
ltn,,/ii are nocturnal. Nearly all the species make a 
iTrakini: noise when alarmed. This is produced by the 
friction of tlie abdominal segments. About a dozen gen- 
era have been described. A common Texan species is 
known us the mir-k-illfr ant. Also called Mutilladas, Mu- 
tillnriir, Mutaiida, Mutillides. MutOKtes. 

mutiloust (mu'ti-lus), a. [= It. mutilo, < L. 
nntiiliiH, maimed: see mutilate, t\] Mutilated; 
defective; imperfect. [Rare.] 

The abscission of the most sensible part, for preserva- 
tion of a inutilou* and imperfect body. 

Jer. Taylor, Works (ed. 1886), I. 250. 

inutinet, mutint (mu'tin), n. and a. [< OF. nni- 
lin. iiiriitiH, F. mutin, a mutineer, (.mutin, meu- 
lin, mutinous, tumultuous; as a noun, also a 
sedition, mutiny (= Sp. matin = Pg. motim, a 
mutiny), < meute, a sedition: see wiwte 3 .] I. it. 
A. ii i in i in cf. 

Methought I lay 
Worse than the mutiites in the bilboes. 



II. (I. Mutinous. 



. 
Shot., Hamlet, v. _'.. 



Suppresseth mutin force and practicke fraud. 

Misfortune! of Arthur (1587). (Kara.) 

inutinet (mu'tin), r. i. [< F. mutiner (= Sp. 
Pg. a-motinar = It. ammutinare (cf. G. men- 
tern), mutiny, < mutin, mutinous: see muline, .] 
To mutiny. 

Kails at his fortunes, stamps, and mutines, why he is not 
made a councillor, and called to affairs of state. 

/;. Jonson, Eplcume, i. 1. 

For the giddy favour of a mutininy rout Is as dangerous 
as thir furle. Milton, Hist. Eng., ii. 

He staleth the legion at Bebriacum, being hardly wlth- 
holden from mutining, because he would not lead them 
to fight. Sir U. Sarnie, tr. of Tacitus, p. 65. 

mutineer (mu-ti-ner'), n. [Formerly also mu- 
tiner; < OF. muf utter, a mutineer, < mutin, mu- 
tinous, a mutiny: see /<<.] One guilty of 
mutiny; especially, a person in military or 
naval service (either in a man-of-war or in a 
merchant vessel) who openly resists the au- 
thority of his officers, or attempts to subvert 
their authority or in any way to overthrow due 
subordination and discipline. 

The morrow next, before the Sacred Tent 
This Mutiiier with sacred Censer went. 
Sylvester, tr. of Du Bartas's Weeks, ii., The Lawe. 
Murmurers are like to mutiiunt, where one cursed vil- 
lalne may be the rulne of a whole camp. 

Breton, A Munuurer, p. 8. (Danes.) 

mutineer (mu-ti-uer'), r. i. [< mutineer, .] 
To mutiny; play a mutinous part. 

But what's the good of mutinctritvj? continued the 
second mate, addressing the man in the fur cap. 

Daily Telegraph (London), Nov. 26, 1881. (Encyc. Diet.) 

mutinert, * An obsolete form of mutineer. 

muting 1 (mu'tiug), n. [Verbal n. of mute*, t'.] 
The act or process of damping or deadening 
the sound, as of a musical instrument. 

A more complete mutiny by one long strip of buff lea- 
ther, the "sourdine." Encyc. Brit., XIX. 70. 

muting 2 (mu'tiug), . [Verbal n. of mute*, .] 
The act of passing excrement: said of fowls: 
also, the dung of fowls. 

With hooting wild, 

Thou causest uproars ; and our holy things, 
Font, Table, Pulpit, they be all defll'd 
With thy broad iinttiii'ix. 

Dr. H. More, Psychozoia, II. 119. 

mutinous (mu'ti-nus), a. [< mutine + -CMS.] 
1 . Engaged in or disposed to mutiny ; resisting 
or disposed to resist the authority of laws and 
regulations, especially the articles and regula- 
tions of an army or a navy. Sec mutiny. 

A voyage the natural difficulties of which had been much 
augmented by the distrust and mutinoui spirit of his fol- 
lowers. Prescott, Ferd. and Isa,, i. 18. 

2. Seditious. 

Then brought he forth Sedition, breeding stryfe 
In troublous wits, and mutinous uprore. 

Spenser, F. Q... V. U. 48. 

He Is verie seditious and mutinous In conuersation, pick- 

ing qimrrells with euerlc man that will not magnifle and 

applaud him. Nash, Haue with you to Saffron- Walden. 

The city was becoming mutinous. Macaulay. 

3. Rebellious: petulant: misrli'u>vous. = syn. 1. 
Refractory, insubordinate, riotous, rebellious. See iiwur- 
rtction. 

mutinously (mu'ti-nus-li), adv. In a mutinous 
manner; seditiously. 



3015 

A woman, a young woman, a fair woman, wu to govern 
a people In nature mutinously proud, and always before 
used to hard governoure. Sir P. Sidney. 

The vakeel wavered, and to my astonishment I heard the 
accusation made ngalnrt him that . . . the whole of the 
escort had i/iutt/imwfv conspired to desert me. 

sir ,s'. VT. Halter, Heart of Africa, p. 171. 

mutinousness (nm'ti-mis-nes), . The state of 
liciiiK mutinous; seditiousncss; resistance or 
the spirit of resistance to lawful authority, es- 
pecially among military and naval won. 
mutiny (mu'ti-ni), .; pi. mutinies (-niz). [< 
mutine.~\ 1. Forcible resistance to or revolt 
against constituted authority on the part of 
subordinates; specifically, a revolt of soldiers 
or seamen, with or without armed resistance, 
against the authority of their commanding offi- 
cers. 

Their mutinies and revolts, wherein they show'd 
Most valour, spoke not for them. 

Sna*., Cor., lil. 1. 126. 

By military men mutiny U understood to Imply extreme 
Insubordination, as Individually resisting by force or col- 
lectively opposing military authority. lees. 

2. Any rebellion against constituted authority ; 
by statute under British rule, any attempt to ex- 
cite opposition to lawful authority, particularly 
military or naval authority, or any act of con- 
tempt directed against officers, or disobedience 
of their commands; any concealment of muti- 
nous acts, or neglect to take measures toward 
a suppression of them. 

If this frame 

Of heaven were falling, and these elements 

In mutiny had from her axle torn 

The stedfast earth. Milton, V. L. , ii. 926. 

In every mutiny against the discipline of the college he 

was the ringleader. llacaulay, Samuel Johnson. 

3f. Tumult ; violent commotion. 

And, In the mutiny of his deep wonders, 
He tells you now, you weep too late. 

Keait. and Fl. 

They may see how many mutinies, disorders, and dis- 
sentlons haue accompanied them, and crossed their at- 
tempts. Quoted in ('"/'' John Smith's Works, L 104. 

4. Discord: strife. 

A man of complements, whom right and wrong 
Have chose as umpire of their mutiny. 

Shale., L. L. L, I. 1. 170. 

Indian mutiny, Sepoy mutiny, a revolt of the Sepoy or 
native troops in British India, which broke out at Meerut 
May 10th, 1857, and spread through the flanges valley and 
Central India. The chief Incidents were the massacres of 
Europeans at Cawnpore and elsewhere, the defense of 
Lucknow, and the siege of Delhi. The revolt was sup- 
pressed In 1858, and a consequence or result of it was 
the transference of the administration of India from the 
East India Company to the crown. Mutiny Act, a series 
of regulations enacted from year to year after 1689 by the 
British Parliament for the government of the military 
forces of the country, merged in the Army Discipline and 
Regulation Act of 1879 and in the Army Act of 1881. 
Mutiny of the Bounty, a mutiny of the sailors of 
H. M/S. Bounty, commanded by William Uligh, which 
took place In the Pacific ocean in 1788 under the lead 
of Fletcher Christian. A part of the mutineers settled 
In Pltcalrn Island, and were long Roverned by John Adams. 
Descendants of the mutineers and of Tahftians still occupy 
the island. = Syn. 1 and 2. Sedition, Revolt, etc. See in- 
surrection. 

mutiny (mu'ti-ni), r. '.; pret. and pp. muti- 
nied, ppr. mutinying. [< mutiny, n.] To revolt 
against lawful authority, with or without 
armed resistance, especially in the army or 
navy; excite or be guilty of mutiny, or muti- 
nous conduct. 

The same soldiers who In hard service and In battle are 
in perfect subvention to their leaders, In peace and luxury 
are apt to mutm.v and rebel. South, Sermons, II. Iv. 

Mutisia (mu-tis'i-ii). . [NL. (Carolns Lin- 
naeus films, 1781), 'named after its discover- 
er, Jose Celestino Mutis (1732-1808), a South 
American botanist.] A genus of erect or climb- 
ing shrubs, type of the tribe Alutisiacea:, charac- 
terized by pistillate flowers, plumose pappus, 
alternate leaves commonly ending in a tendril, 
and large solitary heads with the flowers pro- 
jecting. There are about 3 species, all South American, 
commonly leaf-climbers, with large purple, pink, or yellow 
flowers, many highly ornamental in the greenhouse. 

Mutisiacese (mu-tis-i-a'se-e), n. i>l. [NL. (Lea- 
sing, 1832), < Miitisia + -arete."} A tribe of shrubs 
and herbs of the order Composite, typified by 
the genus Mutixia, and distinguished by two 
prolonged tails at the base of the anthers and 
a two-lipped corolla. It Includes s subtribes and 52 
genera, mostly In South America anil Mexico, also in Afii< a 
and Asia north to Japan. Five genera are found w iiliin 
the limits of the I'nitcd States, chiefly in the extreme 
south and southwest. 

mutism 1 (mu'tizm), . [= F. iiiiitinnic: as umi/ ' 
+ -ism.] The state of being mute or dumb; si- 
lence. 

Paulina was awed by the savants, but not quite to 
inittixin; she couversed modestly, dimiji-nth. 

Charlotte Bronte, Villette, xxvii. 



mutton 

mutism 2 (mu'tizm), ii. [= F. mutisme; as 

miitc^ + -i*m.] Sumo us vintage. 
mutive (imVtiv), n. [< in n Ii-" + -ive. Cf. mu- 
iiiiire.'} Changeful; mutable. [Kare.] 
Where while on traytor sea, and mid the mutirr wlnde*. 
A Herrings Taylc (1598). (.Vans.) 

mutter (mut'er), v. [< ME. iiiutcren, moleren 
= G. muttern (cf. LO. //<./<;, >*</), mut- 
ter, whisper; cf. It. dial, miittire, call, L. ;(- 
in i, HI n I in, miittiT; ult. imitative, like mum 1 , 
murmur, etc.] I. intraiiit. 1. To utter words 
in a low tone and with compressed lips, as in 
complaint or sullenness ; murmur ; grumble. 

Ko man dare accuse them, no, not so much u mutter 
against them. Burton, Anat. of Mel., p. '213. 

She, ending, waved her hands : thereat the crowd, 
Mutttriny, dissolved. Tennyson, Prlneen, Iv. 

2. To emit a low rumbling sound. 
The deep roar 
Of distant thunder muttrn awfully. 

Shelley, Queen Mab, L 4. 

n. trans. To utter with imperfect articula- 
tion, or in a low murmuring tone. 

Your lips have spoken lies, your tongue hath muttered 
perversenesa. Isa. llx. S. 

There are a kind of men so loose of soul 
That In their sleeps will mutter their affairs. 

Shalr., Othello, III. 3. 417. 

mutter (mut'er) . [< mutter, r.] A murmur 
or murmuring; sullen or veiled utterance. 

I hear some mutter at Bishop Laud's carriage there i in 
Scotland! that it was too haughty and pontifical. 

Binrell, Letters, I. vL 23. 
Without his rod reversed, 
And backward mutters of dissevering power, 
We cannot free the Lady that sits here 
In stony fetters flx'd. Milton, C'omus, 1. 817. 

mutteration (mut-e-ra'shon), n. [< mutter, r., 
+ -flftow.] The act of muttering or complain- 
ing. [Rare.] 

So the night paaed off with prayings, hoplngs, and a lit- 
tle mutteration. 

Sichardmn, Sir Charles Grandlson, IV. 282. (Daviet.) 

mutterer (mut'er-er), n. One who mutters; a 
grumbler. 

The words of a mutterer, saith the Wise man, are as 
wounds, going into the innermost parts. 

Barrow, The Decalogue, Ninth Commandment. 

muttering (mut'er-ing), . [Verbal n. of mut- 
ter, t'.] The sound made by one who mutters; 
grumbling; mumbling: as, an angry muttering. 

It (the relinquishing of some places) would take away 
the mutterings that run of Multiplicity of Offices. 

Umcetl, Letters, I. iv. 18. 

Those who saw [Pitt] . . . In his decay . . . say that his 
speaking was then ... a low, monotonous muttering. 

Macaulay, William Pitt. 

mutteringly (mut'er-ing-li), adv. In a mutter- 
ing manner; without distinct articulation. 

mutterous (mut'er-us), a. [< mutter, v., + 
-OHS.~\ Muttering; murmuring; buzzing. 

Like bees . . . that . . . toyle with mutterous humbling. 
filanihumt, .Kntid, i. VIS. 

mutton (raut'n), H. [< ME. niotoii. motoiin, 
mutoutt, motane, molton, mutton, < OF. mototi, 
moutvn, mutton, molton, F. mouton = Pr. mutin, 
motto, moto = It. montone = Cat. motto = It. 
montone, dial, moltone, < ML. multo(n-), mol- 
to(n-), monto(n-), montoiiux, a wether, a sheep, 
also a coin so called; cf. Ir. molt = Gael, mult 
= Manx mult = W. mollt = Bret, maout, meul, 
a wether, sheep; the Celtic words are appar. 
not orig., but from the ML.; the ML. may be 
connected with mod. Pr. mout, Swiss mot, mutt, 
castrated, mutilated (cf. mod. Pr. eabro movln. 
a goat deprived of its horns, L. rapra mutita); 
prob. < L. mutilus, maimed, mutilated. In this 
view ML. multo(n-), molto(n-) was orig. a cas- 
trated ram or. less prob., a ram deprived of its 
horns: a rustic word displacing the common 
L. aries, a ram, and extended to mean 'sheep 
in general.'] 1. A sheep. [Obsolete or ludi- 
crous.] 

The hynde In pees with the leon, 
The wolfe in pees with the milton. 

Goirfr, Conf. Amant., Prol. 

The wolf In fleecy hosiery . . . did not as yet molest her 

[the lamb], being replenished with the mutton her mamma. 

Thackeray, Newcomes, i. 

2. The flesh of sheep, raw or dressed for food. 
The molon boyled Is of nature and complexion sangnyne, 

the whlche. to my jugement. is holsome for your grace. 
Du Guez, p. ion, quoted In Babees Book (E. E. T. s.\ 
[Index, p. 102. 

3. A loose woman; a prostitute. [Slang.] 
The old lecher hath got holy mutton to him, a nunne, 

my lord. Greene, Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay. 

4. An Anglo-French gold coin : so called from 
its being impressed with the image of a lamb. 

See miiiiti'H and </;/'-'. Davies. 



mutton 

Reckon with my father about that; . . . he will pay you 

gallantly ; a French mutton for every hide I have spoiled. 

Scott, Fair Maid of Perth, vi. 

Laced mutton^, a loose woman. [Slang.] 

I. a lost mutton, gave your letter to her, a laced mtitton ; 
and she, a laced mutton, . . . gave me, a lost mutton, no- 
thing for my labour ! Shale., T. G. of V., i. 1. 102. 

Cupid hath got me a stomach, and I long for laced mut- 
ton. Middleton, Blurt, Master-Constable, i. 2. 

mutton-bird (mut'n-berd), . A bird of the 
family Procellariida; and genus (Estrelata; one 
of several kinds of petrels found in the southern 
seas, as CE. lessoni, which is also called white 
night-hawk. See cut at (Estretota. 

mutton-chop (mut'n-chop'), n. and a. I. n. A 
rib-piece of mutton for broiling or frying, hav- 
ing the bone cut, or chopped off at the small 
end. The name is also extended to other small 
pieces cut for broiling. 

II, a. Having a form narrow and prolonged at 
one end and rounded at the other, like that of 
a mutton-chop. This designation is especially applied 
to side whiskers when the chin is shaved both in front and 
beneath, and the whiskers are trimmed short : also called 
mutton-cutlet whiskers. 

muttonert, motonert, n. A wencher ; a mutton- 
monger. Lydgate, p. 168. (Ealliwell.) [Slang.] 

mutton-fish (mut'n-fish), . 1. A fish of the 
family Lycodidw, Zoarces anguittaris. It is of a 
stout eel-like form, with confluent vertical fins and an in- 
terrupted posterior interval in the dorsal where the rays 




Mutton-fish (Zoarces an^ttillarii). 

are replaced by short spines. The color is generally red- 
dish-brown mottled with olive. It is an inhabitant of the 
eastern American coast, from Delaware to Labrador, and 
is used as food. Also called conger-eel, ling, and lamper- 
eel. 

2. A kind of ormer or ear-shell, Haliotis iris, of 
New Zealand. 

mutton-fist (mut'n-fist), . A large, thick, 
brawny fist. 

Will he who saw the soldier's mutton-fist, 
And saw thee maul'd, appear within the list 
To witness truth? 

Dryden, tr. of Juvenal's Satires, xvi. 45. 

mutton-ham (mut'n-ham), . A leg of mutton 
salted and prepared as ham. 

muttonhead (mut'n-hed), . A dull or stupid 
person. 

mutton-headed (mut'n-hed"ed), a. Dull ; stu- 
pid. 

A lion an animal that has a majestic aspect and noble 
antecedents, but is both tyrannical and mean, mutton- 
headed and stealthy. P. Robinson, Under the Sun, p. 194. 

mutton-legger (fhut'n-leg // er), n. A leg-of- 
mutton sail ; also, a boat carrying this style of 
sail. 

mutton-mongert (mut'n-mung"ger), n. One 
who has to do with prostitutes; a wencher. 
[Slang.] 

Is 't possible the lord Hipolito, whose face is as civil 
as the outside of a dedicatory book, should be a mutton- 
monger? Dekker and Middleton, Honest Whore, ii. 

mutton-thumper (mut'n-thum"per), " A bun- 
gling bookbinder. [Slang, Eng.] 

muttony (mut'n-i), a. [< mutton + -y 1 .] Re- 
sembling mutton in flavor, appearance, or other 
of its qualities ; consisting of mutton. 

mutual (mu'tu-al), . [< F. mutuel (= Sp. mu- 
tual), with suffix -el, E. -al, < OF. mutu = Sp. 
mutuo = Pg. It. muttto, < L. mutuus, reciprocal, 
in exchange, borrowed, < mutare, change, ex- 
change: see mute 2 .] 1. Reciprocally given and 
received; pertaining alike or reciprocally to 
both sides; interchanged: as, mutual love ; to 
entertain a mutual aversion. 

To take away all such mutual grievances, injuries, and 
wrongs, there was no way but only by growing unto com- 
position and agreement amongst themselves. 

Hooker, Eccles. Polity, i. 10. 

A contract of eternal bond of love, 
Conflrm'd by mutual joinder of your hands. 

Shak., T. N., v. 1. 160. 

And many were found to kill one an other with mutuall 
combats. Purchas, Pilgrimage, p. 158. 

Among uneqnals what society 
Can sort, what harmony, or true delight? 
Which must be mutual, in proportion due 
Given and received. Maton, P. L., viil. 385. 

We ... do conceive it our bounden duty, without de- 
lay, to enter into a present consociation amongst ourselves 
tor mutual help and strength in all future concernment. 
Winthrop, Hist. New England, II. 122. 
Who buried their mutual animosities in their common 
detestation against the creditors of the Nabob of Arcot. 
Burke, Nabob of Arcot's Debts. 



3916 

Love between husband and wife may be all on one side, 
then it is not mutual. It may be felt on both sides, then 
it is mutual. They are mutual friends, and something 
better ; but if a third person step in, though loyal regard 
may make him a friend of both, no power in language can 
make him their mutual friend. 

JV. and Q., 7th ser., VI. 192. 

2. Equally relating to or affecting two or more 
together; common to two or more combined; 
depending on, proceeding from, or exhibiting 
a certain community of action; shared alike. 

Allide with bands of mutuall couplement. 

Spenser, F. Q., IV. iii. 52. 
High over seas 

Flying, and over lands, with mutual wing 
Easing their flight. Milton, P. L., vii. 429. 

In this manner, notwithoutalmostni(oZ tears, I part- 
ed from him. Evelyn, Diary, Aug., 1673. 

3. Common: used in this sense loosely and 
improperly (but not infrequently, and by many 
writers of high rank), especially in the phrase 
a mutual friend. 

I have little intercourse with Dr. Blair, but will take 
care to have the poems communicated to him by the in- 
tervention of some mutual friend. 

Blacklock, 1786, quoted in N. and Q., 7th ser., V. 298. 
Sir Walter Scott, writing to Messrs. Hurst, Robinson & 
Co., under date Feb. 26, 1822, says, I desired our mutual 
friend, Mr. James Ballantyne, &c. 

Quoted in N. and Q., 7th ser., V. 298. 

"By the by, ma'am," said Mr. Boffin, . . . "you have a 
lodger? ... I may call him Our Mutual Friend." 

Dickens, Our Mutual Friend, ix. 

Mutual accounts, accounts in which each of two parties 
has one or more charges against the other. Mutual 
contract. See contract. Mutual distinction, one 
which separates its two members equally from each 
other, and not like a distinction between whole and part. 
Mutual gable, Induction, etc. See the nouns. 
Mutual promises, concurrent and reciprocal promises 
which serve as considerations to support each other, un- 
less one or the other is void, as where one man promises 
to pay money to another, and he, in consideration thereof, 
promises to do a certain act, etc. Wharton. Mutual 
will. See will. =Syn. See reciprocal. 

mutualism (mu'tu-al-izm), . [< mutual + 
-4sm.] A symbiosis in which two organisms 
living together mutually and permanently help 
and support one another. (DeBary.) Lichens 
are examples among plants. 

mutualist (mu'tu-al-ist), n. [= F. mutualiste; 
as mutual + -isi.] In zool., one of two com- 
mensals which are associated, neither of which 
shares the food of or preys upon the other. E. 
Van Beneden. 

mutuality (mu-tu-al'i-ti), . [= F. mutualite; 
as mutual + -ity.] 1. The state or quality of 
being mutual; reciprocity; interchange. Thus, 
a contract that has no consideration is said to 
be void for want of mutuality. 

There is no sweeter taste of friendship than the cou- 
pling of souls in this mutuality, either of condoling or com- 
forting. Sir P. Sidney, Arcadia, iii. 

In both [parts of an organic aggregate or of a social ag- 
gregate], too, this mutuality increases as the evolution ad- 
vances. H. Spencer, Prin. of Sociol., 217. 

2f. Interchange of acts or expressions of affec- 
tion or kindness; familiarity. 

When these mutualities so marshal the way, hard at 
hand comes the master and main exercise. 

Shak., Othello, ii. 1. 267. 

His kindnesses seldom exceed courtesies. He loves not 
deeper mutualities. 

Bp. Earle, Micro-cosmographie, A Plausible Man. 

mutually (mu'tu-al-i), adv. 1. In a mutual 
manner; reciprocally; in a manner of giving 
and receiving. 

A friend, with whom I mutually may share 
Gladness and anguish, by kind intercourse 
Of speech and offices. J. Philipn, Cider, i. 

There sat we down upon a garden mound, 
Two mutually enfolded ; Love, the third, 
Between us, in the circle of his arms 
Enwound us both. Tennyson, Gardener's Daughter. 

2. Equally or alike by two or more ; conjointly ; 
in common. [Held to be an erroneous use: 
see mutual, 3.] 

So then it seems your most off enceful act 
Was mutually committed. 

Shak., M. for M., ii. 3. 27. 

mutuary (mu'tu-a-ri), n. ; pi. mutuaries (-riz). 
[= Pg. mutuario, a borrower, < LL. mutuarius, 
mutual, < L. mutuus, borrowed, mutual: see 
mutual.] In law, one who borrows personal 
chattels to be consumed by him in the use, and 
returned to the lender in kind. 

mutuatet (mu'tu-at), v. t. [< L. mutuatus, pp. 
of mutuare (> It. mutuare = Pg. mutuar}, bor- 
row, < mutuus, borrowed: see mutual.] To bor- 
row. 

Wliiche for to set themselfes and their band the more 
gorgeously forward had mutuate and borowed dyuerse 
and sondry summes of money. 

Hall, Henry VII., an. 7. (HaUiwell.) 



muzzle 

mutuationt (mu-tu-a'shqn), n. [= Pg. mutua- 
gao = It. mutuazione, < L. mutuatio(n-), a bor- 
rowing. < mutuare, pp. mutuatus, borrow, < mu- 
tuus, borrowed: see mutual.] The act of bor- 
rowing. 

mutuatitioust (mu''tu-a-tish'us), . [< LL. 
muttiatitius, borrowed, < L. mutuare, borrow: 
see mutilation.] Borrowed; taken from some 
other. 

The mutuatitioui good works of their pretended holy 
men and women. 

Dr. H. More, Antidote against Idolatry, x. 

mutule (mu'tul), n. [= F. mutule = It. mutulo, 
< L. mutulus, a mutule, modillion.] In arch., 
a projecting piece in the form of a flat block 




m m, Greek Mutules. 2. nr' **', Roman Murules. 



under the corona of the Doric cornice, corre- 
sponding to the modillion of other orders. The 
mutules are placed one over every triglyph and metope, 
and bear on the under side guttee or drops, which repre- 
sent the heads of pegs or treenails in the primitive wood- 
en construction, to the rafter-ends of which the mutules 
correspond. See cut under gvtta. 

mutuum (mu'tu-um), n. [L., a loan; neut. of 
mutuus, borrowed: see mutual.] In Scots law, 
a contract by which such things are lent as are 
consumed in the use, or cannot be used with- 
out their extinction or alienation, such as corn, 
wine, money, etc. 

muwett, A Middle English form of mute 1 . 
Chaucer. 

mux 1 (muks),. t. [A var. of mix*, confused with 
muss 1 , mush 1 .] To botch; make a mess of; 
spoil: often with an indefinite it: as, he muxen 
it badly that time. [Colloq.] 

By vice of mismanagement on the part of my mother and 

Nicholas Snowe, who had thoroughly muxed up everything. 

B. D. Blacktnore, 1,0111:1 Doone, Ixii. 

mux 1 (muks), n. [< mux 1 , v.] Work performed 

in an awkward or improper manner ; a botch ; 

a mess : as, he made a mux of it. rColloq.] 
mux 2 (muks), n. [A var. of mix?.] Dirt ; filth : 

same as mix 2 . [Prov. Eng.] 
muxy (muk'si), a. [< mux" 2 + -y 1 .] Muddy; 

murky. Also muclcsy. [Prov. Eng.] 

The ground . . . was . . . soaked and sodden as we call 
it, mucksy. Jt. D. Blackmore, Lorna Doone, xlvi. 

Muzarab (mu-zar'ab), n. A variant of Mo- 
znrab. 

Muzarabic (mu-zar'a-bik), a. A variant of 
Mozarabic. 

muzhik (mo-zhik'), . [Russ. muzhiku, a peas- 
ant.] A Russian peasant. Also written mu- 
jik, moujik. 

There stood the patient bearded muzhik (peasant) in his 
well-worn sheep-skin. D. M. Wallace, Russia, p. 405. 

Muzio gambit. See gambit. 
muzz (muz), v. i. [Prob. a dial. var. of mime."] 
To muse idly ; loiter foolishly. 

If you but knew, cried I, to whom I am going to-night, 
and who I shall see to-night, you would not dare keep me 
muzzing here. Mme. D'Arblay, Diary, 1. 158. (Danes.) 

muzzelthrush (muz '1 -thrush), n. Same as 
mistlethnish. [Prov. Eng.] 

muzziness (muz'i-nes), n. [< muzzy + -urss.] 
The state of being muzzy. 

muzzle (muz'l), n. [Early mod. E. also muzle, 
musle, mousle, musell, wozell ; < ME. mosel, < 
OF. musel, museau, muzeau (F. museau), orig. 
"morsel (> Bret, morzeel, muzeel) = Pr. mvrsel, 
mursol (ML. reflex musellus, musellum; cf. Gael. 
muiseal, < E.), the muzzle, snout, or nose of a 
beast, mouth, opening, aperture, dim. of OF. 
muse, mouse = Pr. mus = It. muso, muzzle, < L. 
morsus, a bite, ML. also the muzzle of a beast 
(ML. musum, mitsus, after OF.): see morse 2 , 
morsel.] 1. The projecting jaws and nose of 
an animal, as an ox or a dog ; the snout. 

It [the hogfish] feedeth on the grasse that groweth on 
the banks of the Riuer, and neuer goeth out; it hath a 
mouth like the muzell of an Oxe. 

Purchas, Pilgrimage, p. <i!)7. 

His [William the Testy's] nose turned up, and the cor- 
ners of his month turned down, pretty much liketheit- 
zle of an irritable pug-dog. Irving, Knickerbocker, p. 210. 
The creature laid his muzzle on your lap. 

Tennyson, Princess, ii. 



muzzle 

2. The mouth of a thing: the end for entrance 
or discharge : applied chiefly to the end of a 
tube, as the open end of a gun or pistol. 3. 

Anything which 
prevents an ani- 
mal from biting, 
as a strap around 
the jaws, or a sort 
of cage, as of wire, 
into which I lie muz- 
zle (def. 1) is in- 
serted. 

With golden muzzlet all 
their mouths were 
bound. 

Dryden, Pal. and Arc., 
(111. 68. 

4 In armor ftn Muzzle of War-horse, forming part 
. J BniKrTj an of the bards or defensive armor ; 16th 

openwork covering century. 
for the nose, used for the defense of the horse, 
and forming part of the bards in the fifteenth 
and sixteenth centuries. 5. A piece of the 
forward end of the plow-beam by which the 
traces are attached: same as bridle, 5 Muzzle- 
energy, the energy of a shot when it leaves the muzzle of 

a gun, expressed by the formula 





wt>2 



* foot-tons 

32.10 X 4880 

of energy, w representing the weight of shot in pounds and 
v the velocity in feet per second. Muzzle-velocity, in 
inin., the velocity, In feet per second, of a projectile as it 
leaves the muzzle of a piece. See velocity. 

muzzle (rnuz'l), .; pret. and pp. muzzled, ppr. 
muzzling. [Early mod. E. also muzlf, mouslc, 
mouzle, mosel, etc., < ME. muselen, < OF. (and F. ) 
moseler, < "mosel, musel, muzzle: see muzzle.] 

1, trans. 1. To bind or confine the mouth of in 
order to prevent biting or eating. 

As Osye bigan to speke, 

Thou schalt museu hellecheke 

And hell barre tin hand schal breke. 

Uoly Rood (E. E. T. S.), p. 213. 

Thou shalt not muzzle the ox when he treadeth out the 
corn. Dent xxv. 4. 

My dagger muzzled, 
Lest it should bite its master. 

SAofc.W. T..L2. 166. 

2. Figuratively, to gag; silence. 

How wretched is the fate of those who write ! 
Brought muzzled to the stage, for fear they bite. 

Dryden, Prol. to Fletcher's Pilgrim. 

The press was muzzled, and allowed to publish only the 
reports of the official gazette. Harper 1 ! Mag. , LXXVI. 92. 

3f. To mask. Jamieson. 

They danced along the kirk-yard ; Geillie Duncan, play- 
ing on a trump, and John Finn, muzzled, led the way. 

Newetfrom Scotland (1M>1). 

4f. To fondle with the closed mouth ; nuzzle. 

The nurse was then muzzling and coaxing of the child. 

Sir R. L'Eftrange. 

6. To grub up with the snout, as swine do. 
Halliwell. [Prov. Eng.] 6f. To handle or pull 
about. 
He ... so mousled me. Wycherley, Country Wife, IT. 3. 

Muzzle the pegt. Same as mumMe-tfie-pey. = Syu. Muffle, 
etc. See gag, v. t. 

II. intrans. 1. To bring the muzzle or mouth 
near. 

The hear muzzles and smells to him. Sir R. L' Estrange. 

2. To drink to excess; guzzle. Halliwell. [Prov. 

Eng.] 3. To loiter; trifle; skulk. Hullhrell. 

[Prov. Eng.] 
muzzle-bag (muz'1-bag), n. Naut., a painted 

canvas cap litted over the muzzle of a gun at 

sea, to keep out water, 
muzzle-lashing (muz'l-lash'ing), w. \nnt., ;i 

rope used to lash the muzzle of a gnn to the 

upper part of a port when housed, 
muzzle-loader (muz'l-16'dur), . A gun which 

is loaded from the muzzle: opposed to breech - 

limder. 
muzzle-loading (muz'l-16'ding), a. Made to 

be loaded at the muzzle: said of a gun. 
muzzle-sight (mnz'1-sit), n. A sight placed on 

or near the muzzle of a gun ; a front sight, 
muzzle-strap (muz'l-strap), n. Astrap buckled 

over the mouth of a horse or other animal to 

prevent biting: it is a substitute for a muzzle, 
muzzy (muz'i), a. [Appar. var. of *,<//. < 

' + -i/i. ('!'. mu;:.] Dazed ; stupid ; tipsy. 

Mr. L., a sensible man of eighty-two, ... his wife a 
dull initzzii old creature. 

Mm*: D'Arblay, Diary, I. 306. (Datiet.) 

Very muzzy with British principles and spirits. 

ISlllm-r, My Novel, xii. 31. 

my (nil), jiron. [< Ml), iin/ii, mini; mi/in; < AS. 
niin, of me, as a poss., mine: the final bein^ 
lost as in (I for, thy for tliim; etc.: sec mine' 1 .'] 
Belonging to me: as. this is my book: always 



3917 

used attributively, mine being used for the pred- 
icate . Formerly mine was more usual before a vowel, and 
my before a consonant, but my now stands before both : as, 
my book ; my own book ; my eye. 

Therfore may no man in that Contree seyn, This Is my 
Wyf : ne no Womman may seye, This ii mm ilnsbonde. 
Mandeville, Travels, p. 178. 

I would sit In my Isle (I call it mine, after the use of 
lovers), and think upon the war. and the loudness of these 
far-away battles. /{. L. Sterentan, Memoirs of an Islet. 

Mya 1 (mi'ft), n. [NL., < L. mya for *myax, < 
(ir. uvaf, a sea-mussel, < fiiif, a muscle, mussel, 
mouse : see 
mouse, mus- 
cle 1 .] A ge- 
nus of bivalve 
shells to which 
very different 

limits have Common Clam (<U>. arauri,). 

beeuaSSlgned. a.anterioradductor muscle; 0, posterior ad- 
Rv TintiiptiH nn ductor muscle; f, heart; d, mantle with its 

mero, s snedes fllnBC ' bod "' /; f ' * f "' branch!* ; 
merous species 4 mouth ; >, one of the labial tentacles ; >. ei- 
belonging to dlf- halent siphon ; /, branchial siphon. 

ferent families 

were included in it. By later writers It was successively 
restricted : Retzius, in 1788, limited it to the (Tnionidct, 
but by subsequent authors it was used for the Mya arenaria 
and related species, and as such it is universally adopted 
at the present time. M. arenaria is the common clam or 
cob of the coasts of the northern hemisphere. M. truncata 
Is a second species, truncated behind. 

Mya- (mi'a), n. [NL., more prop. "Myia, < Gr. 
uvia, rarely ftva, a fly: see Musca.] A genus of 
flies. 

mya 3 , n. Plural of myon. 

mya-. See myio-, myo-. 

Myacea, Myaceae (mi-a'se-S, -e), n. pi. [NL. 
(Menke, 1830), < Mya + -acea, -acew.] 1. A 
family of bivalves: same as Myida;. 2. A su- 
perfamily or suborder of bivalves constituted 
for the families Myida;, Corbulida;, Saxicavida; 
and related types. 

Myadse (mi'a-de), n. pi. [NL., < Myai + -adce.] 
In conch. : (a) In earlier systems, a group of 
bivalve shells, or siphouate lamellibranchiate 
mollusks, related to the cob or clam, Mya, in- 
cluding numerous genera, such as Tellina, Ana- 
tina, Lutraria, Pandora, etc., now separated 
into different families. (6) Same as Myida. 

myalgia (im-al'ji-ii), n. [NL., < Gr. //if, mus- 
cle, + fiAyoc, pain.] Inpathol., a morbid state 
of a muscle, characterized by pain and tender- 
ness. Its pathology is obscure. Also called myo- 

dynia and muscular rheumatism Myalgia Itun- 

balis, lumbago. 

myalgic (mi-al'jik), a. [< myalgia + -ic.] Of 
or pertaining to mvalgia; affected with myal- 
gia. Quain, Med. Diet., p. 1212. 

myall, myall-tree (mi'al-tre), w. One of sev- 
eral Australian acacias, affording a hard and 
useful scented wood. The Victorian myall is Acacia 
homalophylla. It has a dark-brown wood, sought for turn- 
ers' work, and used particularly for tobacco-pipes; from 
its fragrance the wood is sometimes called violet-wood. 
Another myall is A. acuminata of western Australia, its 
wood scented like raspberry, and making durable posts 
and excellent charcoal. Others are A. pendula and -I. 
glaucexent, the latter prettily grained but less fragrant. 

Myaria (mi-a'ri-a), n. pi. [NL. : see Mya 1 .] A 
family of bivalves : same as Myida: in its more 
comprehensive sense. [Formerly in general 
use, but now abandoned.] 

myarian (mi-a'ri-an), a. and n. [< Myaria + 
-an.] I. a. Pertaining to or resembling a 
clam; of or pertaining to the Myaria. 
II. n. A clam, or some similar bivalve. 

niyasthenia (mi-as-the-ni'a), n. [< Gr. /tit, mus- 
cle, + aadevfta, weakness : see asthenia.] Mus- 
cular debility. 

myasthenic (mi-as-then'ik), a. Affected with 
myasthenia. 

mycchet, See mitch. 

mycele (mi-sel'), [< NL. mycelium.] Same 
as mycelium. 

mycelial (ml-se'li-al), a. [< mycelium + -al.] 

Of or pertaining to mycelium Mycelial layer. 

Same as membranous mycelium. Mycelial strand. 
Same as.fl'frroi mycelium. 

mycelioid (mi-se'li-oid). . [<NL. myceli(um) + 
-aid.] In bot., resembling a mushroom. 

mycelium (mi-se'li-um), n. [NL., < Gr. /II-OK, 
a fungus, + ?)/loc, nail, wart, an excrescence on 
a plant.] The vegetative part of the thallus of 
fungi, composed of one or more hyphae. The 
vegetative system of fungi consists of filiform branched or 
nnbranched cells called hypha?, and the hypha? collectively 
form the mycelium. Also mycele. See cuts under Funyi, 
mold, mildew, ergot, and ti>.iu*t,-m,,t. -Flbrlllose myce- 
lium. Same as Jibr<ms tiiijcclntiii. Fibrous mycelium, 
mycelium in which the hyphic form, by their union, elon- 
gated branching strumis. - Filamentous my celiuxn, my- 
celium of free hyphie \vhieh :uv ;tt niM-t 1. -i ly intci woven 
with one another, but without forming bodies of definite 
shape and outline. De Bary. Floccose mycelium. 



Mycetozoa 

Same as JUamentout mycelium. Membranous myceli- 
um. See membranaui. 

Mycetales (mi-se-ta'lez), . ill. [N!>. (Berke- 
ley. l."i"), < Mycetes^.] A former division of 
ci-y]itogamou8 plants, including fungi and li- 
chens. 

Mycetes 1 (mi-se'tez), n. [NL., < Gr. /ww/njc, a 
bellower, < uvuaaOat, bellow ; cf . L. muaire, bel- 
low: Beemugient.] The typical and only genuw 
of Mycetitue, establUbed by Illiger in 1811 ; the 
howlers: a synonym of Aluatta of prior date. 
There are several specie*, as H. wninut, inhabiting the 
forests of tropical America from Guatemala to Paraguay. 
See cut under hauler. 

Mycetes'^ (mi-se'tez), n. pi. [NL.. < Gr. /ivarret, 
pi. of HVIOK, a fungus, mushroom.] The plants 
now called fungi : a term proposed by Sprengel. 

Mycetinae (mi-so-ti'ne), n. pi. [NL., < Mycetets 1 
+ -ino!.] A subfamily of Cebidte, represented 
by the genus Mycetes; the howling monkeys, 
howlers, or alouates. They are platyrrhlne monkeys 
of tropical America, having the cerebrum so short that it 
leaves the cerebellum exposed behind, the Incisors \. Hi 
cal.andthehyoid bone and larynx enormously developed, 
the former being expanded and excavated into a hollow 
drum, a conformation which gives extraordinary strength 
and resonance of voice. They are the largest of Ameri- 
can monkeys, nearly Sfeet In length of head and body, In- 
cluding legs, with long prehensile tail and non-apposable 
thumb. 

mycetogenetic(mi-se''to-je-net'ik), a. Inbot., 
produced by fungi. 

Phenomena of deformation by Fungi may be termed my- 
cetoyenetic metamorphosis. De Bary, Fungi (trans. X p. 308. 



mycetogenOUS (mi-se-toj'e-nus), a. [< Gr. 
(uvtarr-), a fungus, + -yevtK, producing: see -ye- 
nous.] Same as mycttogenetic. 

mycetology (mi-se-tol'o-ji), . [< Gr. HVKIK (ftv- 
K?rr-), a fungus, T -foyia, < '/.tyfiv, speak: see 
-Igy-] The science of fungi: same as my- 
cology. 

mycetoma (mi-se-to'mft), n. [NL., < Gr. /n'/f 
(fivio/T-), a fungus, + -oma.] 1. A chronic dis- 
ease of the feet and hands occurring in Hindu- 
stan. The foot (or hand) becomes riddled with sinuses 
which discharge pale-yellow masses of minute bodies re- 
sembling fish-roe (pale or ocbroid form of mycetoma), or 
dark masses resembling gunpowder (dark or melanoid 
form). In the latter the fungus Chionyphe Carttri has been 
found. The disease lasts for decades, and the only relief 
seems to be in the amputation of the affected member. 
Also called Madura foot, Madura diseasr, /unytu dueate, 
and funrrai foot of India. 

2. [coj).] In eiitom., a genus of coleopterous in- 
sects. 

mycetophagid (mi-se-tof'a-jid), . and n. I. 
a. Of or relating to tne Mycetophagida. 
H. . One of the Mycetophagida; 

Mycetophagidae (mi-se-to-faj'i-de), . pi. 
[NL., < Mycetophagug + -id<r.] A family of 
clavicom Coleoptera, typified by the genus My- 
cetophaaus. They have the dorsal segments of the abdo- 
men partly membranous, the ventral segments free, the 
tarsi four-jointed, the wings not fringed with hair, the 
anterior coxee oval and separated by the corneous proster- 
num, the head free, and the body depressed. The species 
live in fungi and under the bark of trees. The family is 
small, but of wide distribution, containing about 10 genera 
and less than 100 species. The beetles of this family are 
sometimes distinguished as hairy funffut-beetle* from the 
Erotylida, in which case the latter are called nnuothfun- 
trtu -beetle*. 

mycetophagous (mi-se-tof'a-gus), a. [< NL. 
Mycetophaguif, < Gr. ^i*w (f lvia f T -), a fungus, + 
*ajriv, eat.] Feeding on fungi ; fungivorous. 

Mycetophagus (mi-se-tof'a-gus), w. [NL. (Hell- 
wig, 1792) : see mycetophagous.] The typical ge- 
nus of Mycetophagida;. About 30 species arc known ; 
all feed on fungi; 12 Inhabit North America, and the rest 
are found in temperate Europe. 

Mycetophila (mi-se-tof i-ia), n. [NL., < Gr. 
UVIOK (/iviarr-), a fungus, -r- <f>i)j)f, loving.] 1. 
The typical genus of Myceto]ihilida; founded by 
Meigen in 1803. The lame live in fungi and decaying 
wood. The genus is large and wide-spread ; over 100 spe- 
cies are European, and 3) are described from North Amer- 
ica. Also Mycrthophila, Mycetopkyla. 

2. A genus of tenebrionine beetles, erected by 
Gyllenhal in 1810, and comprising a number of 
European and North American species, 14 of 
which inhabit the United States. The genus is 
the same as Hycetocharu of Latreille, 1825, and the latter 
name Is commonly used, Mycetophila being preoccupied 
In Diptera. 

Mycetophilidae (nii-se-to-fil'i-de), . pi. [NL., 
< Mycetophila + -ida;.] A family of nemocer- 
ous dipterous insects, typified by "the genus My- 
cetophila; the agaric-gnats, fungus-gnats, or 
fungus-midges. There are many hundred species, of 
small or minute size, agile and saltatorlal, having few- 
veined wings without discal cell, long coxa-, sparred tibia', 
and usually ocelli. The lame are long slender grabs, like 
worms, and feed on fungi, whence the name. Also Myce- 
tnphiliiltt, MycetaphUinor, Mycetophiloida. 

Mycetozoa (mi-se-to-zo'ft), . pi. [NL., pi. of 
inij,-ito;ooH.] A group of fungus-like organisms, 



Mycetozoa 

amounting at the present time to nearly 300 
species. The larger number of them are contained in 
the division Myxamycetes, or slime-fungi, together with 
the smaller one distinguished by Van Tieghem under the 
name of Acratiece. (De Bary.) Their nutrition is sapro- 
phytic, and the organs of reproduction are sufficiently like 
those of fungi to allow the same terminology to be ap- 
plied to them. The vegetative body, however, differs 
widely, being a naked protoplasmic mass. See Myxomy- 
cetex. 

mycetozoon (mi-se-to-zo'on), n. [NL., < Gr. 
[ii'Mif (fivurrr-), a fungus, + ?ov, animal.] Any 
member of the Mycelozoa. 

The naked protoplasm of the Mycetozoon's plasmodium. 
Encyc. Brit., XIX. 832. 

mycoderm (mi'ko-derm), n. [< Mycoderma, 
q. v.] A fungus of the genus Mycoderma. 

Mycoderma (mi-ko-der'ma), n. [NL., < Gr. 
fivKrif , a fungus, + Aepfia, skin : see derm.] A ge- 
nus or form-genus under which certain of the 
fermentation-fungi are known. See fermenta- 
tion, and mother^, 2. 

mycodermatoid (mi-ko-der'ma-toid), a. [< 
Mycotierma(t-) + -aid.] Same as mycodermic. 

mycodermic (ml-ko-der'mik), o. [< Mycoder- 
ma + -ic.] Of or pertaining to the genus My- 
coderma. 

mycodermitis (mi"ko-der-mi'tis), n. [NL.. < 
Gr. [iv/cot;, mucus, + dipfia, skin, + -His.] In- 
flammation of a mucous membrane. 

mycologic (mi-ko-loj'ik), a. [< mycolog-y + 
-ic.] Same as mycological. 

mycological (mi-ko-loj'i-kal), a. [< mycologic 
+ -al.] Relating to mycology, or to the fungi. 

mycolpgically (mi-ko-loj'i-kal-i), adv. In a my- 
cological manner ; from a mycological point of 
view. 

mycologist (mi-kol'o-jist), n. [< mycolog-y + 
-ist.] One who is versed in mycology. 

mycology (mi-kol'o-ji), . [= F. mycologie; < 
Gr. ffincr/f, a fungus, + -/(oyia, < tiiyeiv, speak : see 
-ology.] The science of fungi, their structure, 
affinities, classification, etc. Also called fun- 
gology and mycetology. 

mycophagist (mi-kof a-jist), M. [< mycophag-y 
T -ist.] One who eats fungi. 

mycophagy (ml-kof'a-ji), n. [< Gr. /IVKIK, a 
fungus, + -fayia, < fydyeiv, eat.] The eating of 
fungi. 

The divine art of mycophagy reached a good degree of 
cultivation. Pop. Sci. Mo., XXXIV. 408. 

mycoprotein (mi-ko-pro'te-in), . [< Gr. /WXTC, 
a fungus, + E. protein.] A gelatinous albu- 
minoid compound closely allied to protoplasm, 
of which the putrefaction-bacteria are com- 
posed. 

The bacteria consist of a nitrogenous, highly refractive, 
usually colorless substance, protoplasm or mycoprotein, 
Imbedded in which glistening, oily-looking granules can 
sometimes be observed. 

W. T. Redfield, Relations of Micro-Organisms to Disease, 

[p. 5. 

Mycorrhiza (mi-ko-ri'za), . [< Gr. itfaoK, 
a fungus, + piC,a, root.] A fungus-mycelium 
which invests the roots of certain phsenogams, 
especially Cupuliferai and some other forest- 
trees. It is believed to aid them in absorbing nutri- 
ment from the soil a case of symbiosis. See symbiosis. 

mycose (mi'kos), n. [< Gr. PVIOK, a fungus, + 
-ose.] A peculiar kind of sugar (Cj^E^Ou -f 
2H 2 O) contained in the ergot of rye, and also 
in trehala manna, produced by a species of in- 
sect (Echinops) found in the East. It is soluble 
in water, does not reduce copper-solutions, and is convert- 
ible sugar. Also called trehalose. 



3918 

Mydaus (mid'a-us), . [NL., irreg. < Gr. pvdav, 
be damp or wet, < [ivSot;, damp, wet, clamminess, 
decay.] A genus of fetid badgers, of the family 
Mustelida; and subfamily Melince, including the 
stinking badger of Java, or Javanese skunk, M. 
javanensis or M. meliceps. See tcledu. 

myddingt, An obsolete spelling of midding. 

Uiydget, " An obsolete spelling of midge. 

mydriasis (mi-dri'a-sis), . [L., < Gr. uvopiaatf. 
undue enlargement of the pupil of the eye.] 
In med., a morbid dilatation of the pupil of the 
eye. 

mydriatic (mid-ri-at'ik), a. and n. [< mydri- 
(asin) + -atic 2 .] I. a. Pertaining to or causing 
mydriasis. 
II. n. A drug which causes mydriasis. 

myelasthenia (mi-el-as-the-ni'a), n. [NL., < 
Gr. /jDfXof, marrow, + aatteveia, weakness: see 
asthenia.] In pathol., spinal exhaustion; spinal 
neurasthenia. 

myelatrophia (mi'el-a-tro'n-a), n. [NL., < Gr. 
ujK/Wf, marrow, + arptxtiia, atrophy : see atrophy.] 
In pathol., atrophy of the spinal cord. 

Myelencephala(mi // el-en-sef'a-la), n.pl. [NL., 
ueut. pi. of myelencephalus: see myelencepha- 
lous.] In Owen's classification, same as Verte- 
brata. [Not in use.] 

myelencephalic (mi-el-en-se-fal'ik or -sef 'a- 
lik), a. [< myetencephal-on + -ic.] 1. Of or 
pertaining to the cerebrospinal axis ; cerebro- 
spinal. 2. Of or pertaining to the medulla 
oblongata. See myelencephalon. 3. Same as 
myelencephalous. 

myelencephalon(mi"el-en-sef'a-lon), n. [NL., 
< Gr. pveMi;, marrow, + ty/0aAof, brain: see 
encephalon.] 1. The cerebrospinal axis; the 
brain and spinal cord taken together and con- 
sidered as a whole. Owen. 2. The hindmost 
segment of the encephalon ; the afterbraiu or 
metencephalon, more commonly called the me- 
dulla oblongata. See cuts under encephalon and 
brain. Huxley. 

myelencephalous (mi"el-en-sef'a-lus), a. [< 
NL. myelencephalus, < Gr. /vlof, marrow, + 
eyK<t>aAof, brain: see encephalon.] Having a 
brain and spinal cord ; cerebrospinal. Also my- 
elencephalic. 

myelin, myeline (mi'e-lin), . [< Gr. /iw/iof, 
marrow, + -in'J, -ine 2 .] In anat., the white sub- 
stance of Schwann, or medullary sheath of a 
nerve. 

inyelitic (mi-e-lit'ik), n. [< myelitis + -ic.] Of 
or pertaining to myelitis; affected with mye- 
litis. 

myelitis (mi-e-li'tis), . [NL., < Gr. /n>e'/,6f, 
marrow, + -itis.] In pathol., inflammation of 
the spinal cord. Anterior cornual myelitis. See 
cornual. 

myelocele (mi'e-lo-sel), n. [< Gr. /we/ldf, mar- 
row, + Kift.r], tumor.] A variety of spina bifida. 

myelocerebellar (mr'e-16-ser-e-berar), a. [< 
Gr. pvA6s, marrow, + L. cerebellum, cerebellum : 
see cerebellar. ] Pertaining tothecere bellum and 
the spinal cord : as, the myelocerebellar tract. 

myelocoele (mi'e-lo-sel), n. [NL., < Gr. /iueAof, 
marrow, + icotf.of, hollow.] The entire cavity 
of the myelon or spinal cord, consisting primi- 
tively of a syringocosle with a posterior dilata- 
tion termed rhombocrele. See cut under spinal. 

myelocyte (ml'e-lo-sit), n. [< Gr. /ive/^f, mar- 
row, + Kvrof, cell.] Same as myocyte. Nature, 
XLI. 72. 




half natural size. 



parasites in or on any portion of the body. 2. 
The presence of parasitic fungi together with 
the morbid effects of their presence ; the dis- 
ease caused by them. 

mycotic (mi-kot'ik), a. [< mycosis (-ot-) + -ic.] 
Of or pertaining to mycosis. Lancet. 

Mycteria (mik-te'ri-a), . [NL., < Gr. fivurfip, 
nose, snout, < /tvaoeaSai (in comp.), blow the 
nose; cf. L. mungere, blow the nose: see mu- 
cus.] A genus of storks, of the family Cico- 
niidce and the subfamily Ciconiince, having the 
head and neck mostly bare of feathers, ana the 
bill enormously large and recurved. M. ameri- 
cana is the jabiru. Certain Old World storks are some- 
times included in Mycteria, sometimes called Xenorhyn- 
ch-m and Ephippiorhynchus. See cut under jabiru. 

mydaleine (ml-da'le-in), n. [< Gr. [ivda'Aeof, wet, 
dripping, < pvdav, be' damp or wet: see Mydaus.] 
A poisonous ptomaine obtained from putrefy- 
ing liver and other organs. 

Mydas, n. See Midas 2 . 

Mydasidae (mi-das'i-de), . pi. Same as Mi- 
didce, 2. 



The hyphse of lichens, 
elastic, containing lichenine, not becoming pu- 
trid by maceration, with no faculty of penetrat- 
ing or involving, while the hyphee of fungi are 
caducous, soft, flexile, with thin walls, etc. 

myeloid (mi'e-loid), a. [= F. myeloide, < Gr. 
*pveAoEi6>/f, contr. [weUiSris , like marrow, < pvMf. 
marrow, + dSog, form.] Medullary. 

myeloma (mi-e-16'ma). n. ; pi. myelomata (-ma- 
ta). [NL.,< Gr. foxMfj marrow, + -oma.] A 
giant-celled sarcoma. 

myelomalacia (mi"e-lo-ma-la'si-a), . [NL., < 
Gr. /iuc/lof, marrow, + //a?,a/ci'a, 'softness: see 
malacia.] In pathol., softening of the spinal 
cord. 

myelomeningitis (mi"e-16-men-in-jl'tis), . 
[NL., < Gr. jUUEAof, marrow, + NL. meningitis, 
q. v.] In pathol., spinal meningitis. 

myelon (m!'e-lon), . [NL., < Gr. pvMv, neut., 
earlier /ivM<;, m., marrow.] The spinal cord; 
the part of the cerebrospinal axis which is not 
the brain. See cuts under spine, spinal, and 
Pharyngobranchii. 



Myiagra 

myelonal (mi'e-lon-al), a. [< myelon + -al.] 
Of or pertaining to the myelon. 

myelonic (mi-e-lon'ik), a. [< myelon + -ic.] 
Same as myelonal. Encyc. Brit., XVI. 680. 

myeloplax (mi'e-lo-plaks), n. [< Gr. /ivMs, mar- 
row, + irXdf , anything flat and broad.] A large 
multinucleated protoplasmic mass, occurring 
in the marrow, especially in the neighborhood 
of the osseous substance. These masses, also called 
osteoclasts or giant celts, are concerned in the process of 
bone-absorption. 

Myelozoa (ml'e-lo-zo'a), n.pl. [NL. (Geoffroy 
St. Hilaire, 1852),' < Gr" ,uw/lof, marrow, + Cyo", 
an animal.] A class of vertebrated animals with 
a spinal cord or myelon, but no brain or skull. 
They are the acrauial or acephalous vertebrates, repre- 
sented by the lancelet or amphioxus. See cuts under 
laiicelet. 

myelozoan (mi"e-lo-z6'an), a. and n. I. a. Of 
orpertaining to the Myelozoa. 
II. n. A member of the Myelozoa. 

Mygale (mig'a-le), n. [NL., < F. mygale, < L. 
my gale, < Gr. ' fivyc&rj, nvyaf.tq, pvoy(ikri, field- 
mouse, < /iif, mouse, + yt&trj, yatij, a weasel.] 
1. A Cuvierian genus of insectivorous quadru- 
peds, the desmans: later changed to Myogale or 
Myogalia. Cumer,lB50. 
2. The leading ge- 
nus formerly of the 
now disused family My- 
galidce. Thisgenusinclud- 
ed the very largest and hair- 
iest spiders, in the United 
States known astarantulas, 
a name which in Europe 
belongs to quite a different 
kind. The common taran- 
tula of the southwestern 
United States was called M . 
hentzi, a hairy brown spe- 
cies of large size and much 
dreaded. M. avicularia is 
a former name of the South 
American bird-spider, able 
to prey upon small birds, 
but under this designation 
several large hairy spiders have been confounded. It is 
now placed in theisenus Eurypelma. M. javanica and M. 
sumatreHgis inhabit the countries whence their names are 
derived. They inhabit tubular holes in the ground, under 
stones, or beneath the bark of trees. The bite is very pain- 
ful and even dangerous. See cuts under Arariida, arach- 
nidial, and chelicera. Latreille, 1802. 

Mygalidas (mi-gal'i-de), n.pl. [NL.,< Mygale + 
-idie.] A former family of spiders, typified by 
the genus Mygale. It included the largest known spi- 
ders, with four pulmonary sacs, eight eyes clustered to- 
gether, and great mandibles which work up and down. 
Mygale, Cteniza, and Atypus were leading genera. The 
American tarantulas, the trap-door spiders, and others be- 
longed to this family. Synonymous with Tlieraphogidcu. 
See Territelaria. 

Mygalina (mig-a-li'na), n. pi. Same as Myoga- 
lm<K. 

myghtt, myghtet. Obsolete spellings of might 1 , 
mighfi. 

myghtyt, An obsolete spelling of mighty. 

mygranet, mygreynet, . Middle English 
forms of migraine, for megrim. 

Myiadestes (ml"i-a-des'tez), . [NL., improp. 
for "Myiedestes, < dr. fivia, a fly , + <5f or^f , an eat- 
er, <tfav = L. edere=E.eat.] The leading genus 
of Myiadestina;, containing most of the species. 
M. toiviisendi inhabits thewestern part of the United States. 
It is of a dull brownish-ash color, paler below, the wings 
blackish with tawny variegations, the tail blackish, some of 
the feathers tipped with white, the bill and feet black, the 
eye surrounded with a white ring. The bird is 8 inches 
long, the wing and tail each about 4 ',. It is an exquisite 
songster, and nests on the ground or near it, building a 
loose nest of grasses, and layingabout four eggs of a bluish- 
white color with reddish freckles, 0.95 of an inch long by 
0.67 broad. Several other species inhabit the warmer 
parts of America. 

Myiadestinae (mi"i-a-des-ti'ne), n. pi. [NL., < 
Myiadestes + -inas.] An American subfamily 
of oscine passerine birds, typified by the genus 
Myiadestes, usually referred to the Turdida, but 
also placed in the Ampelidw; the fly-catching 
thrushes. The bill is short, much depressed, wide at base, 
and deeply cleft. The feet are small, with booted tarsi and 
deeply cleft toes, of which the lateral ones are of unequal 
length. There are ten primaries, the first spurious, and 
twelve narrow tapering rectrices ; the tail is double-round- 
ed; the head is subcrested; the plumage is somber, spot- 
ted in the young ; the sexes are alike. There are about 12 
species, belonging to the genera Mttiadeftes, Cicldopsis, and 
Platycichla, all but one of them inhabiting ( 'entral Amer- 
ica, South America, and the West Indies. Theyare frugiv- 
orous and insectivorous, and highly musical. 

myladestine (mi"i-a-des'tin), n. Pertaining to 
the Hyiadestinte, or having their characters. 

Myiagra (mi-i-ag'ra), H. [NL., < Gr. fivia, a fly, 
+ ay pa, hunting (taking).] The typical geiuis 
of Myiagrttue, founded by Vigors and Horsfield 
in 1826. It contains some 20 species of small flycatchers 
wilh very broad flat bills and copious rictal vihrissaj, in- 
habiting the Austromalflyan and Oceanian regions. M. 
ritbiculu is a characteristic example. 



Myiagrinse 

Myiagrinae (ini'i-ii-gri'ne), H. pi. [NL., < .)///- 
iagra + -imr.'] A subfamily of Mtuoieagida, 
typified by the genus Mi/ini/rn, named by Caba- 
uis in 1850. 

MyiarchUB (mi-i-iir'kns), . [NL., < Gr. pvia. 
a lly, + apxAf, a loader, chief, commander.] 
A notable genus of tyrant flycatchers of the 
family Tyrtinnitlii: U is attypically of olivaceous 
i>li >nition with yellow belly and dunky wings and tail, 
lioth varied with rufous tints, and no colored patch on the 
rniwn, which is slightly crested. There arc numerous 
species, inhabiting America from (,'anada to I'araguay, 
known a ash-throated or rufous tailed flycatchers. The 
best-known U the common great crested flycatcher of the 
United States, M. crinitu*, which Is abundant in woodlands, 
is of quarrelsome disposition, has a loud harsh voice, and 
habitually uses snake-skins in its nest. M. cinrmtctiu is 
a similar species of the southwestern parts of the United 
States. M. lairrenci Is a much smaller species of Texas 
and Mexico. I/, validiu inhabits the West Indies, and 
there are many others In subtropical and tropical Amrricu. 

Myidae(mi'i-de),n.;>/. NL.,<.a/>ai + -!</.] A 



,.. .,. -. 

family of dimyarian bivalves, typified by the 
genus Mya, to which various limits have been 
assigned. A most restricted, it comprises those which 
have the mantle open in front only for the foot and ex- 
tended backward into a sheath covered by a rugous epi- 
dermis for the siphons, which are elongate and united to 



3919 

n hlf, rn>/* nnd xtiiuf-ratf*, hut they are not to be conf<>mi<l- 
ed with true sting rays of the family TTyyonida. (6) In 
i.iiHthn - MM< in u family of Batindei, containing Mftti"- 
batidix (a) and Ceplialiqjteridae. 

myliobatine (mil-i-ob'a-tin), a. Pertaining to 
the tfyUobattda. or having their characters. 

Myliobatis (rail-i-ob'a-tis), u. [NL., < Gr. 
/w'/ii>f (so. ?J8of, a stone), a millstone (< pi>hi, 
mill, millstone: sr.> mil/l), + .lurir, a Hat flsh, 
the skate.] The typical genus of Myliobatida:, 
with tessellated teeth adapted for grinding, 
whence the name. M. aquila is an example. 
See cut under eagle-ray. 

myliobatoid (mil-i-ob'a-toid), . and n. I. a. 
Pertaining to the Myliobatida;, or having their 
cliaracters. 
II. H. One of the Mijliolxitiiln . 

myllet, An obsolete spelling of mill' 1 . 

mylnert, . An obsolete form of miller. 

Mylodon (mi'lo-don), n. [NL., < MGr. pv).66ovf 
(-oSavT-), a molar tooth, a grinder, < Gr. /ti)->i, a 
mill, + odotf (Moir-) = E. tooth.] 1. Agenusof 
gigantic extinct sloths from the Pleistocene, 



myodynamia 
mynt, /'/ <i. A Middle Kiij_'lis|] form of miue 1 , my. 




Mya trurtcata. 

near their ends ; the foot small and linguiform ; the two 
pairs of branchiae elongated, but not extended into the 
branchial siphon : the shell inequivalve, having subme- 
dian umbones, gaping at the ends, its left or smallest valve 

Provided with a flattened cartilage process; and the pal- 
al sinus deeply excavated. It Is a group of generally 
large bivalves, some of which are of considerable econom- 
ical value. They are known as c&#, dam*, gapiny'dain*, 
and yapers. Also Myadce, ilyaeea. 

Myiodioctes (mi"i-o-di-ok'tez), n. [NL., < Gr. 
/iwo, a fly, -t- SiiiK-nK, a pursuer: see LHoctes."] A 
genus of fly-catching warblers of the family Syl- 





Wlbon's black. tapped Fly-catchme Warbler (.Uyurtuxta 
tusilliu]. 

vicolidce and the subfamily Setopliagince, founded 
by Audnbon in 1839. Three species are well-known 
and abundant birds of the United States. These are the 
hooded warbler, M. initratux ; the Canadian, At. canadeiun#; 
and Wilson's black-capped, M.pwnUui. 

myitis (mi-i'tis), . [NL., < Gr. /tiif, a muscle, 
T -id's.] In pathol., inflammation of a muscle. 
Also, improperly, myositia. 

mylt, n. An obsolete spelling of iwi'H 1 . 

Mylabridse (mi-lab'ri-de), . pi. [NL. (Leach, 
1817), < Mylabris + -iXVu.] A family of blister- 
beetles named from the genus Mylabris, now 
usually merged in Cantharidir. 

Mylabris (mil'a-bris), . [NL. (Fabricius, 
Ii75), < Gr. ftvfaftpif, also fivAaypif and ftvMucplf, 
a kind of cockroach in mills and bakehouses, 
cf. [tvfaiipif, a millstone, < piifai, a mill.] A ge- 
nus of blister-flies of the family Cantharidir, or 
the type of a family Mi/labridtr. There are several 
species possessing vesicatory properties, and used as can- 
tnarides, such as M. ctcAorn and M. indica. The genus is of 
great extent, with over 250 species, almost confined to the 
Old World, and distributed through Europe, Asia, and Af- 
rica. M chrysimts and '/. dimidiata are the only geo- 
graphical exceptions, and there is some doubt about thcir 
position. The elytra cover the abdomen, the mandibles 
are short, and the antenntc, inserted above the epistomal 
suture, are gradually enlarged toward the tip. These bee- 
tles are often of large size, and the coloration is yellow 
bands or spots on a black ground, or vice versa. They fly 
in the bright sunlight and frequent low ground. 

mylet, A Middle English form of mill . 

Myliobatidse (mil'i-o-bat'i-de), . pi. [NL., < 
Milliobitti.t + -/die.] ' A family of ray-like se- 
lachians, typified by the genus Myliobatis; the 
eagle-rays or whin-ravs. (n) A family of masticn- 
rous rays with a very broad disk formed by the expanded 
pectoral (Ins, cephalic flns developed at the end of the 
snout, and Intanooktiw hex:<Koi]iil teeth, set like a pavt*- 
ment in the jus, About m species are known, chieliy 
from tropical seas. Their broad pointed pectoral-like 
wings give tlu'ln thf iKiuiv ,-n<if,' r<ni, nnd from theuhip- 
llke tail armed with :i sniue near the base they arc called 



Skeleton of Mylodon. 

having teeth more or less cylindrical and in 

structure resembling those of the extant sloths. 

M. rotwstus is a well-known species from South America. 

The animal was large enough to browse on the foliage of 

trees. 

2. [1. c.] An animal of this genus. 

mylodont (mi'lo-dont), u. and n. I. a. Per- 
taining to the mylodons, or having their char- 
acters. 
H. n. A mylodon. 

myloglossus (mi-lo-glos'us), M. ; pi. myloglogi 
(-1). [NL., < Gr. fiiifji, a mill, a molar tooth, a 
grinder, + y).i>aaa, the tongue.] A muscular 
slip accessory to the styloglossus, passing from 
the angle of the jaw or the styloinaxillary liga- 
ment to the tongue. 

mylohyoid (im-16-hi'oid), a. and . [< Gr. 
ui'ty, a mill, a molar tooth, + E. hyoid.] I. a. 
Pertaining to the molar teeth and to the hyoid 

bone. Mylohyoid artery, a branch of the Inferior 
dental, which runs In the mylohyofd groove and ramifies 
nnder the mylohyoid muscle. Mylohyoid groove and 
ridge, a groove and a ridge along the Inner surface of the 
lower jaw-bone In the course of the mylohyoid vessels and 
nerve. Mylohyoid muscle, the mylohyoid. See cnt 
under mtuwte. Mylohyoid nerve, a branch of the Infe- 
rior dental accompanying the artery of the same name 
to the mylohyoid muscle and the anterior belly of the di- 
gastric. 

H. n. The mylohyoideus, or the mylohyoid 
muscle, which extends between the mylohyoid 
ridge on the under jaw-bone and the hyoid 
bone, forming much of the muscular floor of 
the mouth. 

mylohyqidean (mi*16-hi-oi'de-an), a. Same as 
nii//iiliyoid. 

mylohyoideus (mi'lo-hi-oi'de-us), .; pi. my- 
lohyoidei (-1). [NL. : see myloliyoid.] The my- 
lohyoid muscle. 

Mymar (mi'mar), n. [NL., < Gr. pvfiap, a dial, 
form of uufiap,toT fiuuof, blame, Momus: see Mo- 
*.] The typical genus of Mymarintp. They 
have the tarsi four-jointed, the abdomen distinctly petio- 
late, and the anterior wings widened only at the tip. Two 
species are known, both European. Currw, 1832. 

Mymaridae (mi-mar'i-de), n. pi. [NL., < My- 
iinir + -iilir.~\ The Mi/niarime rated as a fam- 
ily. Halii1<iy,1i > 40. Also Mymares, Myniarides, 
Miinnirili ". 

Mymarinse (mi-ma-ri'ne), n. pi. [NL., < My- 
iinir + -incr.'] A subfamily of the hymenopter- 
ous family Proctotrynida;, containing some of 
the smallest insects known. The front tibia? have 
but one spur, the mandibles are dentate, the antenna: rise 
above the middle of the face, and the very delicate hind 
wings are almost linear. These insects are nil parasitic, 
many of them on bark-lice. One of the smallest, Alaptus 
exeina, measures 0.17 millimeter in length. 

mymarine (mi'ma-rin), a. and 11. I. a. Pertain- 
ing to the My inn riiKi; or having their characters. 
II. . A member of the Mymarince. 



myna, mynah, ". See ii;m-'. 

mynchent, . Sec miiiche*. 

myncheryt, . See ,/</,./,/. 

myndet, An obsolete spelling of mind 1 . 

mynet. An obsolete form of iwiiiel , miiufl. 

myngt, ''. An obsolete fonn of min</l, mi</'-'. 

mynheer (inin-liar'), [< D- wy hcer (= U. 
mfin herr), sir, lit. 'my lord': see my and lifrr.] 
1. The ordinary title of address among Dutch- 
men, corresponding to niri'ii hi-rr ainonc Her- 
mans, and to sir or Mr. in English use. Hence 
2. A Dutchman. [Colloq.] 

mynnet, a. A Middle English form of wiin 2 . 

mynourt, . A Middle English form of miner. 

mynstert, mynstret, . Middle English forms 
of minxler. 

mynstralt, mynstralciet, etc. Middle English 
forms of niiiixlri I. atO. 

myntt. An obsolete form of mint 1 , mint 2 , mint 3 . 

myo-atrophy (mi-o-at'ro-fi), n. [< Gr. five, mus- 
cle, + 'irixxfta, atrophy: see atrophy.] Miiwn- 
lar atrophy. 

myoblast (mi'o-blast), n. [< Gr. fiif, muscle, 
+ /J/aorof, gerin.] A cell which gives rise to 
muscular fibers ; the formative cell-element of 
muscular tissue. Myoblasts are sometimes known by 
the name of neurftmtucular cell*; and when in sheets or 
layers they are called rnuxcle-cpttlielittin. A myoblast may 
be either in parlor wholly converted intoa muscular HbrlL 

myoblastic (mi-o-blas'tik), . [< myoblast + 
-ic.] Of or pertaining to myoblasts, or to the 
process of forming muscle from myoblasts. 

myocardial (mi-o-kar'di-al), . [< myocardi(uin ) 
P -/.] Of or pertaining to the myocardium. 

myocarditis (mi'o-kar-di'tis), n. [NL., < myu- 
cnrdium + -<!.] ' In pathol., inflammation of 
the myocardium. 

myocardium (ml-o-kiir'di-um), n. [NL., < Gr. 
fivf, muscle, + Kabila = E. heart.'} The muscu- 
lar substance of the heart. 

myocomma (mi-6-kom'a), . ; pi. myocommata 
(-a-tft). [NL., < Gr. t)f (//wif), a muscle, + KHU/IH. 
that which is cut off: see comma.'] A primitive 
division of myoblasts or muscle-epithelium 
into longitudinal series corresponding to the 
segments of the axis of the body ; a muscular 
metamere; a myotome. Thus, one of the serial 
flakes of the flesh of a flsh, very obvious when the fish Is 
baked or boiled, is a myocomma. The arrangement is 
generally obscured by ulterior modifications in the higher 
vertebrates, but even in man, for example, the series of 
intercostal muscles between successive ribs, and those be- 
tween contiguous vertebra, represent origiual myocom- 
mata. 

myocyte (mi'o-sit), . [NL., < Gr. pi'f (//vof), 
a muscle, -I- icrrof, a hollow, cell.] A muscle- 
cell; the formative cellular element of the con- 
tractile tissue of most sponges. They are of 
various shapes, usually slenderly fusiform with 
long filamentous ends. Sollag, Encyc. Brit., 
XXII. 419. Also tnyclocyte. 

Myodes (mi-6'dez), n. [NL., < Gr. fivtiftK, 
mouse-like, < /tvf, mouse (= E. mouse), + eliof, 
form.] A genus of lemmings of the family J/- 
n'<f<pand the subfamily Antcolintr. The skull is 
massive and depressed, with a cygoroatic width equal to 
two thirds its length. The species are of small size and 
stout compact form, with very obtuse hairy muzzle, small 
ears, short rabbit like tail, large fore claws, and mollipllose 
pelage of variegated colors, which does not turn white in 
winter. They are arctic animnls, sometimes swarming in 
almost incredible numbers. The common or Norway lem- 
ming is M. leminus; that of Siberia is M. obtnrit. from 
which the corresponding animal of arctic America is 
probably not distinct ; and some others are described. 
The lemmings which turn white In winter belong to a 
different genus, Ounicu/tu. See cnt nnder temminy. 

Myodocha (mi-od'o-kip, . [NL. (Latreille, 
1807), < Gr. //Dodojof, harboring mice, < /i>c, 
mouse, + iixtaOai, receive, harbor.] A genus 
of heteropterous insects, typical of the sub- 
family Myodochina;. Four species are known, three 
of which are Mexican, while the other, M. icrripa, it 
found in the eastern United States. 

Myodochinse (mi-od-o-ki'ne), n. pi. [NL. (Stal, 
1874, as Myodochina), (. Myodocha + -in<r.] A 
subfamily of heteropterous insects of the fam- 
ily Li/iitriila: Thirty-seven genera have been described, 
of which twenty-six inhabit North America. 

myodome (mi'6-dom), n. [< Gr. //if, a muscle. 
f&i/iof, chamber: seerfoniei.] A tubular cham- 
ber or recess within the cranium of most osse- 
ous fishes for the insertion of the rectus muscles 
of the eye. It Is isolated from the brain-cavity by the 
development of a platform from the baslocclpltal contin- 
uous with horizontal ridges diverging from the prosotics. 

Myodome (muscular tube) developed and the cranial cav- 
ity open in front. Uill, Amer. Kat, XXII. 357. 

myodynamia (mi'o-di-na'mi-8), n. [NL., < Gr. 
WI'T. nmsrle, + iiva/af, power: see dynamic.] 
Muscular force. 



myodynamics 

trnriirnaniipai'Tni<'n rli Ti im'iks) [X Gr uvc 
myodynamiCS (m < -namiks),. "**ptt 

muscle 4 E. dynamics.] Ine mechanic 
muscular action. 

mvodvnamometer (mi-o-di-na-mom'e-ter), w. 
KGr uk -muscle + E dynamometer ] An in- 

' 



3920 myoscope 

resence or absence of certain muscles of the legs of birds, eye,' i. e. blinking, < piviv, close, + &ip (u^-), 
or c , llssini;iito ry purposes, invented by A. H. Garrod who ' ] A short-sighted person. Also myops. 
used the symbols A, B, X, and Y to denote the ambiens^J , f ,j r< Gr w, muscle, + 

semitendinosus, accessory semitendinosus. and semimem- myopnan mVl VQ^ 7^ol 

branosus respectively: thus, a bird with the myological -0ow/f, < (jmtveadai, appear.] Ihe layer d 
formula A, B, X, has the first three of these muscles and o ped m many Infusoria that contains muscle- 



p 
P o 



-6-din'i-a) . [NL., < Gr. //if, 
Same as 



who is versed in myology; a myologica 



A part or an apparatus of 
h- 



part 
matous. 

Myogale (ml-og'a-le), n. [NL., < Gr. p 
nvya't.ij, a shrew-mouse, < //if, a mouse, + , ., 
contr. ya^ij, a weasel. Of. Mygale.] The typi- 
cal genus of the subfamily Myogalina;, contain- 
ing the aquatic desmans, musk-moles, musk- 
shrews, or muskrats of the Old World, M . mos- 
chata of Russia and M. pyrenaica of the Pyre- 
nees. The former is the giant of the Talpidee, some 16 
inches long, with a proboscis, webbed feet, and a long scaly 
tail vertically flat, like that of a muskrat, and used simi- 
larly in swimming. In the smaller species the tail is round, 
and the proboscis still longer. The dental formula of both 
is 3 incisors, 1 canine, 4 premolars, and 3 molars in each 
upper and lower half-jaw. Also Mygale and Myogalea. 
Sec cut under desman. 

Myogalidse (mi-6-gal'i-de), n. pi. [NL.,< Myo- 
gale + -idee.] The Myogalina; rated as a family 
of Insectivora. See Myogale, Myogalina;. 

Myogalina (mi"o-ga-li'ne), n. pi. [NL.,< Myo- 
yale + -ina!.] Asubfamilyofinsectivorous mam- 
mals of the family Talpidee. There is no accessory 
carpal ossicle, the clavicle and humerus are moderately 
long, the manubrium sterni is moderate, and the scapula 
has a metacromion, the fore limbs being thus fitted for 
simple progression, not specially fossorial. The incisors are 
fewer than in any other Talpidce, being 2 in each upper and 
lower half -jaw, or 2 in each upper and 1 in each lower half- 
jaw. The group contains the genera (or subgenera) My- 
ogale, Galeospalax, Scaptonyx, Uropsilus, Urotrichus, and 
Neurotrichus, all but the hist confined to the Old World. 
They are known as desmans, musk-moles, and musk-shrews. 
Galernyince is a synonym. Also Mygalina. 

myogaline (mi-og'a-lin), a. Pertaining to the 
Myogalina', or having their characters. 

myogenic (ml-o-jen'ik), a. [< Gr. ^if, muscle, 
+ yivof, origin.] Of muscular origin. 

myoglobulin (mi-o-glob'u-lin), n. [< Gr. //if, 
muscle, + E. globulin.] A globulin obtained 
from muscle. It coagulates at a lower tempera- 
ture than paraglobulin. 

myogram (mi'o-gram), w. [< Gr. //if, muscle, 
T ypa////a, a writing, a line: see gram?.] The 
tracing of a contracting and relaxing muscle 
drawn by a myograph. 

myograph (mi'o-graf ), n. [< Gr. //if, muscle, + 
ypd(j>fiv, write.] An instrument for taking tra- 
cings of muscular contractions and relaxations. 

myographer (mi-og'ra-fer), . [< myograpli-y 
-r -e;-l.] One who describes muscles or is versed 
in myography. 

myographlC (mi-6-graf'ik), a. [= F. myogra- 
"-) = It. -' Jr - 



s 1 < ? ce a " the P articulars were to write a whole 
' yo ^cheyne, Phil. Prin. of Natural Eeligion. 

( mi 6'mi I , pi myoma ta (-ma-ta) 
c muscle +'-o fa 1 A 



as a myophore ; provided with a myophore, as 
mollusk. 



cavernosum, myoma teleangiectodes. Myoma Isevi- 
cellulare, a myoma composed of smooth muscular fiber. 
Also called liotnyoma. Myoma Striqcellulare, a myo- 
ma composed of striated muscular tissue. Also called 
rhabdomyoma. Myoma teleangiectodes, excessively 
vascular myoma. 

myomalacia (mi"o-ma-la'si-a), n. [NL., < Gr. 
//if, muscle, + fiaXaKia, softness: see malacia.] 
Morbid softening of a muscle such as might 
be induced by an embolus of the nutrient ar- 
tery. Myomalacia cordis, softening of the myocar- 
dium from obstruction of the coronary arteries. 

myomancy (mi'o-man-si), n. [< Gr. //if, mouse, 
+ [lavreia, divination, < //dvnf, prophet: see 
Mantis.'] A kind of divination or method of 
foretelling future events by the movements of 
mice. 

Some authors hold myomancy to be one of the most an- 
cient kinds of divination, and think it is on this account 
that Isaiah (Ixvi. 17) reckons mice among the abominable 
things of the idolater. Sees, Cyc. 

myomantic (mi-o-man'tik), a. [As myomancy 

to myomancy. 



myophysical (mi-o-fiz'i-kal), o. 
+ -"' - 1 erta l n . m ^ myophysics. 

s^'e 
, . see physic 

ihe pnysics c ne. 

Such out8 tanding questions of myophyeics as the pre-ex- 
jgtence of muscular currents, the presence of a parelectro- 
tonic laver the num v> e r and nature of cross-disks, etc. 

<j. 5. Hall, German Culture, p. 221. 



, 

myomatOUS (mi-om a-tus), a. [< myoma(t-) + 
- s.] Pertaining to, of the nature of , or affect- 
ed with a myoma 

myomectomyCml-o-mek'to-mi),?!. [< NL. myo- 
, 4- Gr. ?o^, a cutting out.] Removal of 
a uterine myoma by abdominal section. 

myomere (mi'6-mer), n. [< Gr. fii>f, a muscle, 
+ uipof, a part'.] A muscular metamere ; amy- 
oco^a ofmyotome. 
The rudimentary myotomes or myomeres of the tail. 

Encyc. BnZ.XXIV. 186. 

myomorph (mi'6-m6rf ), n. A member of the 
Muomorplta; a murine rodent, 

Myomorpha (ml-o-mor'fa), w. pi. [NL.. < Gr. 
/tvf, a mouse, + fiopf!/, form.] A superfamily 
of simplicidentate rodents ; one of three prime 
divisions of Glires simplieidentati, containing 
the murine rodents, the others being JJystri- 
comorplia and Sciuromorplia. They have no post- 
orbital processes, slender zygomatic arches, the angular 
andible springing from the lower edge of the 



myopia (mi-6'pi-a),. , . 

"ftimria, also [ivawiaaic; (Galen), < ,u{wi/>, short- 
sighted: see myope.] Short-sightedness; near- 
sightedness: the opposite -of hypermetropia. In 
this condition^ parallel rays of light are brought to a focus 
before they reach the retina, the accommodation being re- 
laxed ; the near-point and far-point of distinct vision ap- 
proach the eye. Also called brachymetropia. 

myopic (ml-op'ik), a. [< myop-y + -ic.] In 
patliol., of or relating to myopia ; affected with 
myopia; short-sighted; near-sighted. Also 
brachymetropic. 

myopolar (mi-o-po'lar), , [< Gr. //if, muscle, 
+ ffoAof , pole : ' see pole, polar.] Pertaining to 
the poles of muscular action, or to muscular 
polarity. 

Correcting for the movement of the indifference point 
along the myopolar tract. Amer. Jour. Peychol., I. 186. 

Myoporacese (mi-op-o-ra'se-e), n. pi. 
(Lindley, 1835), < Gr. fii>etv, close, + vopof, 



pore 

(see pore' 2 ), + -acea>.~] Same as Myoporinea;. 
Myoporinese (mi-op-o-rin'e-e), n. pi. [NL. (B. 
Brown, 1810), < Myoporum 4- -in-ea;.] Anorderof 
dicotyledonous gamopetalous shrubs of the co- 
hort Lamiales, typified by the genus Myoporum . 



pertaining to myography.-2. Obtained with a 
myograph: as, a myograpMc tracing. 

myographical (mi^/afi-kal) 1 [< m yo- 

graphic + -al] Same as myOOrapMe. 
myographically (mi-o-graf'l-kal-l), adv. By 
means of the myograph. 

myograpbion (ml-o-graf'i-on), . [NL., < Gr. 

[tie, muscle, + fpa^ieiv, write.] A myograph. 
myographist (mi-og'ra-flst), . [< myograph-y 

+ -i,9i.] A myographer. 
myography (mi-og'ra-fi), n, [= P. myographie 

= Sp. miografia = Pg. myographia = It. mio- 

flro^a, < Gr. //6 f , muscle, + - W afa, < ypd^c, 

write.] Descriptive myology; the description 

of muscles. 
myohematin (mi-o-hem'a-tin), . [< Gr. //if, 

muscle, + E. hematin.] The specific pigment 

of muscle. Also myoha-matin. 
myoid (mi'oid), a. [< Gr. /m>e<%, contr. //ixM 

(cf. Myodes), like a mouse (taken in sense of 

'like a muscle'), < //if, a mouse, muscle, + 

etiof, form.] Resembling muscle. 
myoidema (mi-oi-de'ma), n. [NL., < Gr. //if, 

muscle, + oW?//a, a swelling/ oi3v, swell.] The 

wheal brought out by a smart tap on a muscle 

in certain conditions of exhaustion. 
myolemma (mi-o-lem'a). n. [NL., < Gr. //if, 

muscle, + M/I/M, peel, < ihrew, peel: see lepis.] 

Sarcolemma. 
myologic (mi-o-loj'ik), a. [= Pg. myologieo = 

It. miologico; as myolog-y + -ic.] Same as iy- 

olofiical 
myological (ml-o-loj'i-kal), . [< m.yologlc + 

-M.] Of or pertaining to myology. Myologi- 

cal formula, in orntth., a formulated statement of the 



or two seeds in each cell, drupaceous fruit, axillary flowers, 
and usually alternate leaves. There are 5 genera and about 
80 species known, mainly Australian. 

myoporineous (mi-op-o-rin'e-us), a. Belonging 
to, resembling, or pertaining to the Myoporinea: 

Myoporum (mi-op'o-rum), n. [NL. (Banks and 
Solander, 1797), so called in allusion to the spots 
covering the leaves, which suggest pores closed 
with a semi-transparent substance ; < Gr. ftveiv, 
close, + Tropof, a pore.] A genus of plants, 
type of the order Myoporinea', characterized by 
somewhat bell-shaped flowers and ovary-cells 
one-ovuled. About 20 species are known, ranging from 



dormice; 



icde fu: 
skullcaps; Mrid*. 



i of Australia 



(fossil); Dipodidce, Jerboas ; and Zapodidce, jumping deer- 
mice. See cute under mole-rat, Muridce, Geomyidce, and 
deer-mouse. 

myomorphic (ml-o-m6r'fik), a. [< Myomori>lia 
+ -ic. ] Murine in form or structure ; pertaining 
to the Myomorpha, or having their characters. 

myomotomy (mi-o-mot'o-mi), n. [< NL. myo- 
ma + Gr. ro//7, a cutting.] Removal of a uterine 
myoma by abdominal section; myomectomy. 

myon (mi'on), n.; pi. mya (-a). [NL., < Gr. 
ftvuv, a cluster of muscles, < /n'f , a muscle : see 
muscle 1 .] Any individual unit of musculature ; 
a muscular integer. Cones, The Auk, V. 104. 

mypnicity (mi-o-nis'i-ti), n. [< *myonic (< Gr. 
/ivov, a muscular part of the body) (see myon) 
+ -ily.] The characteristic property of living 
muscle, namely its power of contracting. 

myonosus (mi-on'o-sus), n. [NL., < Gr. //if, 
muscle, + vcfoof, disease.] In pathol., a disease 
of the muscles. 

myopalmUS (mi-o-pal'mus), n. [< Gr. //if, mus- 
cle, + 7raA//<if, a vibration, quivering, < iraXfaiv, 
poise, vibrate, quiver.] A twitching of the mus- 
cles ; subsultus tendinum. 

myopathic (mi-o-path'ik), a. [< myopatl>-y + 
-ic.] Of or pertaining to myopathy. 

myopathy (mi-op'a-thi), n. [< NL. myopathta, 
< Gr. //if, muscle, '+ -jrdfeia, < Trafof, disease.] 
Disease of a muscle. 

myope (ml'op), . [= F. myope = Sp. miope = 
Pg. myope = It. miope, < LL. myops (mi/op-), < 
Gr. //MJI/> (fjvuTr-), short-sighted, lit. 'closing the 



of he 



Mai 



dalwood, hence the name tastard sandalwood. 

Myopotamus (mi-o-pot'a-mus), M. [NL., < Gr. 
//if (//i5f), mouse, + vofa/iof, river. Cf. hippo- 
potamus,] A Soutli American genus of hystri- 
comorphic rodents of the family Ododotitiiln 
and the subfamily Echimyince; the coypous. 
There is but one species, M. coypvs. See cut 
under coypou. 

myops (mi'ops), n. [LL.: see myope.] Same 



opsid (mi-op'sid), a. [NL., irreg. < Gr. 

** e]og v + ^ vision.] Having the cornea 

^ tne eye ' clos e,j go that the water does not 

touch the lens as certa i n decapod cephalopods: 

opposed to oiqopsid 

myosarcoma (mi"6-sar-k6'ma), . ; pi. mi/^ar- 
fomote (-ma-ta). '[NL., < Gfr. //if, muscle, + 
capKuua. a fleshy excrescence: see sarcoma.'] 
^ ;)aW(O? a tumO r composed in part of muscu- 
lar and in t of sarcO matous tissue. 

myosarcoma tous (mi' / 6-sar-kom'a-tus), a. [< 
m,,osarconi(i(t-) + -ous."] Of, pertaining to, or 
a g of . te(1 wit ], mvosarcoma 

myoscope (mi'6-skop), w. [< Gr. //if, muscle, 
% mo _* \. ipw - -, 2n apparatus or instrument 
for the obgervation of muscular contraction. 



- 

eiia of muscles retained in their noi-mal environment and 
connections. Jam. of Roy. Micros. Soc., 2d ser., VI. i. 47. 



myosin 

inyosin (mi'o-sin), . [< Gr. "", muscle, + 
our + -in-. J A globulin, the chief ingredient 
which separates from muscle-plasma on eoag- 

lllilliiin. It Is a plotciil hotly funning all ula.-tii; :mni]- 

phous non-tlbrons mass. [Dfloloble In pun- \\;ilrr hut M;I<I- 
ily soliiiili- iii ;> I" I" \"'i cent. ?:ilt lolntion. It begins t<> 
XMgOlata at flfi c. It is insoluble In a saturated salt solu- 
li. in. 
An we know that the reagents In question dissolve the 

|)rrllli:ir mnStillK-llI ill IIIHSclr, Ill'loxin, it l to he COII- 

rl in it-it lti:tt tin- intri'M-ptal substance is dik-tly roaijiosril 
of niiiMin. Huxley, Crayfish, p. 186. 

myosis (ml-o'sis), . [NL., < Gr. pveiv, close, 

be shut, as the eye.] Abnormal contraction of 

the pupil of the eye. 
myositlC (mi-o-sit'ik), ti. [< NL. mi/osis (-it-) 

T -ic.] In tiicd., pert >tiniug to myosis; causing 

contraction of the pupil: said of certain medi- 

cines, as opium. 
myositis (mi-o-si'tis), n. [NL., irreg. < (ir. 

/it>f (/mil;), a muscle, + -itis.] In puthol., in- 

flammation of a muscle; niyitis. 
Myosotis(rai-o-s6'ti8),. [NL.(Dillenius, 1719), 

< L. HI i/oxotis, also myiiKotu, < Gr. fivoourif. also 
/IVUOUTOV, also as two words //nof oi<c, [tv6f uric, the 
plant mouse-ear, forget-me-uot, < fi'uf, gen. ^vof, 
mouse, + oif (<""-), ear.] A genus of dicotyle- 
donous gamopotalous plants of the natural or- 
der linrtiiiiiirti" and the tribe Boragets, known 
by the flowers without bracts, their rounded 
lobes convolute in the bud. More than 40 species 
are scattered widely over colder regions. They are small 
plants with alternate leaves, usually weak stems, and ra- 
cemes of blue, pink, or white flowers. M . palustris is the 
true forget-me-not, but the name is extended to the whole 
genus. $eeforget-mc-jiot, 2, mouse-ear, and scorpion-grass. 
See also cut under circinate. 

myospasmus (rai-o-spaz'raus), w. [NL., < Gr. 

fivf, mouse, + avaafiof, spasm.] Spasm or cramp 

of a muscle. 
myotatic (mi-o-tat'ik), a. [< Gr. pvf, muscle, 

+ rdaif (TOT-), tension, < Teivetv (-I/TO), stretch: 

see tend.] Pertaining to the tension of a mus- 

cle. Myotatic contraction, contraction produced by 
suddenly stretching the muscles, as by blows on their ten- 
dons. Also called tendon-reflex, deep-reflex, or tendon-jerk. 
Myotatlc Irritability, the property of responding to 
sudden stretching by a contraction : said of a muscle. 

myotic (mi-ot'ik), a. and . [< myottis (-ot-) + 
-ic'.] I. a. Pertaining to or causing myosis, or 
contraction of the pupil. 
II. . A drug which causes myosis. 

myotility (mi-o-til'i-ti), w. [For 'myomotility, 

< Gr. //tic, muscle, 4- E. motility.] Contractil- 
ity of muscles ; myonicity. 

myotome (mi'o-tdm), . [= F. myotome, < Gr. 
five, muscle, + rtftveiv, rafitlv, cut.] 1. A mus- 
cular segment or metamere; a myocomma. 
See cut under Pharyngobraiichii. 

In the lowest Vertebrata . . . the chief muscular sys- 
tem of the trunk consists of the episkeletal muscles, 
which form thick lateral mosses of longitudinal fibres, 
divided by transverse intermuscular septa into segments 
(or Myotomes) corresponding with the vertebra. 

Huxley, Anat. Vert., p. 45. 

2. An instrument for dividing a muscle. 

myotomic (mi-o-tom'ik), . [< myotome, or my- 
iiloiii-y, + -ic.] 1. Divided or dividing into 
myotomes ; of or pertaining to a myotome. 
2. Of or pertaining to myotomy. 

myotomy (mi-ot'6-mi), . [= F. myotomie = 
Pg. iiii/nt'iiiiiii = It. miotomia, < Gr. uiif (fiv6(), 
muscle, + Tt/tvttv, ra/idv, cut.] 1. Dissection 
of muscles ; muscular anatomy. 2. A surgical 
operation consisting in the division of muscle. 

myotonic (ml-o-ton'ik), a. [As myotii-y + -/<-.] 
I Vrtaining to muscular tone, or myotony. 

myotony (rai-ot'o-ni), n. [< Gr. //t>o, muscle, 
f rovof, tension : see tone."] Muscular tone. 



Myoxidae (mi-ok'si-de), n.jil. [NL.,< 
-M'.] A family of myomorphic rodents ; the 
dormice. They have no caecum, a long hairy tall, large 
eyes and ears, small fore limbs, and a general resemblance 
to small squirrels, In habits as well as in form. There arc 
4 genera Myoxus, Muscardintis, Bliomy,&rn\ Graphittnus. 
The absence of a i-rocmn is unique among liodentia. 

Myoxinae (mi-ok-si'ne), n. )il. [NL., < Myntiot 
+ -in<f.] The dormice as a subfamily oi' Mn- 
riilii: See Hfyiuritlii: 

myoxine (mi-ok'sin), a. Havingthe characters 
of a dormouse : resembling a dormouse. 

Myoxus (mi-ok'sus), n. [NL., < LGr. /">of <5c, Gr. 
/m.ijor, the dormouse, < fiif, mouse (the second 
element is uncertain).] A genus of dormice 
of the family Mytucida; having a distichous 
bushy tail ami simple stomach. M. tills of Eu- 
rope is the type. See cut under tltiriiiniixr. 

myreM, " A Middle Kn^lish s|ielling of mire 1 . 

myre'-'t, ''. i. A Middle English spellingof /''. 

myriacanthous (niir'i-a-kan'tlms). . [= F. 
nii/i'itifiiiitlic, < Gr. /ivpiof, numberless (see /.'//'- 
tad), + axavOa, thorn, spine.] Having very mi- 



3021 

morons spines: specifically applied to fish of 

the genus Mi/ri<ir<inlliii*. 

Myriacanthus (mir'i-a-kan'thus), . [NL., < 
I ir. Hiyoj-, numberless, + anavtia, thorn, spine.] 
A genus of rays founded by Agassiz in 1837. 
They abounded in the Lias. 

myriad (mir'i-iid), . and a. [= P. myriadr = 
Pg. myriada = It. iniriinlr, < Gr. fivpiat; (ftvpiai-), 
a number of ten thousand, < pvpiof, numberless, 
countless ; as a def. numeral, /ivpioi, pi., ten 
thousand.] I. . 1. The number of ten thou- 
sand. 

Thou sent, brother, how many thousands, or rather 
how many myriads, that is, ten thousands, of the Jews 
there are which believe. Up. Pearson, Expos, of Creed, II. 

2. An indefinitely great number. 

But, 0, bow fallen ! how changed 
From him, who In the happy realms of light, 
Clothed with transcendent brightness, didst outshine 
Myriads, though bright ! Milton, P. U, I. 87. 

Tho' world on world in myriad myriads roll 
Round us, each with different powers. 

Tenaymn, Death of Wellington. Ix. 

H. a. Numberless; innumerable; multitu- 
dinous ; manifold. 

Then of the crowd ye took no more account 
Than of the myriad cricket of the mead, 
When Its own voice clings to each blade of grass, 
And every voice is nothing. 

Tennyson, Lancelot and Elaine. 

myriad-minded (mir'i-ad-min'ded), a. Of vast 
intellect or great versatility of mind. 
Our myriad-minded Shakspere. Coleridge, Biog. Lit., xv. 

Myriaglossa (mir'i-a-glos'S), n. pi. [NL., 
prop. * Myrwglossa, < LGr. fivpioyfaiGoof , of num- 
berless tongues, < //vjMof.numberless, T ylMoaa, 
tongue : see gloss%.] Those mollusks whose 
admedian (lateral) teeth are indefinite in num- 
ber (forty to fifty), and which have a median 
tooth. Encyc. Brit., XVI. 641. 

myriagram, myriagramme (mir'i-a-gram), M. 
[< F. myriagramme, prop, 'myriogramme, < Gr. 
[ti'pioi, ten thousand, + LGr. ypa/i/ja, a small 
weight: see gram 2 .] In the metric system, a 
weight of 10,000 grams, or 22.0485 pounds 
avoirdupois. 

myrialiter, myrialitre (mir'i-a-le'ter), . [= 
Pg. myriolitm = It. mirialitro, < F. myrialitre, 
prop, "myriolitre, < Gr. /ikpiot, ten thousand, + 
F. litre, liter : see liter?.] A measure of capa- 
city, containing 10,000 liters, or one decastere, 
equal to 2,642 United States gallons. 

myriameter, myriametre (mir'i-a-me'ter), w. 
[= Pg. myriametro = It. miriametro, < P. my- 
riametre, prop. * myriometre, < Gr. /il'piot, ten 
thousand, + P. metre, meter: see meter 3 .] In 
the metric system, a measure of length, equal 
to 10 kilometers, or 6.2138 English miles, or 6 
miles 376 yards. 

myrianide (mir'i-a-nid), w. [< NL. Myrianida 
(see def.), < Gr. ftvpios, numberless.] A marine 
worm of the family Syllida;, Myrianida pinni- 
gera, with the head rounded in front, three 
clavate antennas, and the segments white trans- 
versely marked with yellow. It is a littoral 
European species, about 1| inches long, re- 
markable for its reproduction. 

The Myrianide discloses a ... wonderful history, for 
of this beautiful worm the posterior half becomes self-di- 
vided into as many as six parts, each of them acquiring 
the cephalic appendages of the original before they take 
leave and separate themselves. In this condition the 
worm wanders about with a concatenated train behind of 
six big-bellied mothers. 

Johnston, British Non-parasitical Worms, p. 193. 

myriapod (mir'i-a-pod), a. and . [Prop, myri- 
opoil, < F. myriapode, myriopode, 
\ NL. "myriopus (-pod-), < MGr. 
nvpi6ir<nf, having ten thousand 
feet, < Gr. nvptot, ten thousand, 
+ Trof'c (TO<!-) = E. foot.] I. a. 
Having very numerous legs; 
specifically, pertaining to the 
Myriapoda, or having their 
characters. 

II. w. A member of the Myri- 
11 1 '"<l<i ; a ceutiped or milleped. 

Also in i/riti iiodan. ie?JC!i *it 

Myriapoda (mir-i-ap'o-dft), n. >). a chiiog- 

pl. of *myriopus : see myriapod.] A class of ar- 
ticulate animals of the isubkingdom Arthro/mtlii : 
the centipeds and millepeds. They have a long 
worm-like body of cylindrlc or flattened form, composed 
of from 10 to more than 2tX> rings or segments, scarcely or 
not at all differentiated into thorax and abdomen ; a dis- 
tinct head ; and one or two pairs of legs to each somite 
of the body. There is a pair of aiitt-nint-. and the jaws are 
mandiblllate. Respiration S tracheal. through small 
pores or spiracles along the sides of the body. Reproduc- 
tion is oviparous or ovoviviparous, and the sexes are 



myringitis 

ilistinct. There is no proper in<-t:n ]>liosls, but the 

young have fewer segments and legs than the adulta, the 
normal number being acquired by successive molts. Ex- 
cluding the pauropods and malncopods, the Myriapoda 
occur under two well defined types, forming two orders 
the Hhiliiyiuttha or Diptopoda, mlllepedn or gally-worm>. 
and the Ckilopada or Synynatha, centlpeda. See cuts un- 
der crntiped, milleped, cephalic, batilar, and myriapod. 

myriapodan (mir-i-ap'o-dan), a. and . [< /;/- 
rin/Hnl + -mi.} Same as myriapod. 

myriapodous (mir-i-ap'o-dus), a. [< ///;-/<i/i</ 

+ -.<.v.] Same as miii-inpntl. 

myriarcll (mir'i-ark), . [< Gr. /ivpiapxw, !"'!"- 
apx<K, commander of ten thousand men,< /// /", 
ten thousand, + apxtf, ruler, < &px f t v , rule.] A 
commander of ten thousand men. 

myriare (mir'i-ar), . [= Pg. myriare, < F. 
myriare, < Gr. firpioi, ten thousand. + F. tin; 
are: see arc 2 .] A land-measure of 10,000 ares, 
or 1,000,000 square meters, equal to 247.105 
acres. 

Myrica (mi-ri'ka), n. [NL. (Linneeus, 17117), 
< Gr. pvplitn the tamarisk.] A strongly marked 
genus of shrubs constituting the order Myri- 
cacca;, and characterized by staminate catkins, 
an ovary with one cell and one ovule, and the 
seed not lobed. About 35 species are known, found In 
temperate or warm climates, nearly throughout theworld. 
The waxy-crusted berries of M, cer\fera, which abounds 
In the coast-sands of the Atlantic United States, yield bay- 





b 

Bayberry. or Wax-myrtle (Myrica ctri/tra). 

i, branch with male catkins ; 3. branch with female catkins ; a, a 
male catkin on a larger scale ; f>, a male flower ; f, a female flower ; it. 
fruit with the incrustation ot wax : e, the nut with incrustation removed. 

berry-tallow, formerly in considerable use for candles, and 
employed as a domestic remedy for dysentery. Various 
other species, as M. cord\folia of South Africa, afford a 
useful wax. Some yield edible fruits, as .W. Nagi, the 
yangmei of China, the sophee of East Indian mountain 
regions, and M. t'aya of Madeira. The genus Myrica, 
readily recognized by the peculiar nervation of its leaves, 
is very abundant In the fossil state, and more than 150 
fossil species have been described, found in the Cretaceous 
and Tertiary formations of nearly all parts of the world 
in which these formations are found to contain vegetable 
remains. 

Myricaceae (mir-i-ka'se-), n.pl. [NL. (Lind- 
ley, 1836), < Myrica + -acece?] An order of 
dicotyledonous apetalous plants of the series 
Unisexualex, consisting of the genus Myrica. 

myrica-tallow (mi-ri'ka-tal'6), n. Same as 
nuirtlt'-tcai. 

myricin, myricine (mi-ri'sin), n. [< Myrica + 
-in-, -iiM'2.] One of the substances of which wax 
is composed. Myricin Is the matter left nndissolved 
when wax Is boiled with alcohol. It constitutes from SO 
to 30 per cent, of the weight of beeswax, and is a grayish- 
white solid, a palmitate of mellssyL 

myricyl (mi-ri'sil), n. [< Myrica + -yl.] Same 
as inilissyl. 

",et, a. A Middle English form of merry 1 . 
_,.ina (mi-ri'nH). n.pl. [NL., < Gr. ut',wof 
(var. ftapivof, as il < L. marinus). a sea-fish. Cf. 
Mttrama.~\ In Gtinthers system, a group of 
31ra-nid(l' platy.trliisttr. They have gill-openings 
separated by an interspace, nostrils labial, tongue not free, 
and end of tall surrounded by the tin. The genus contains 
about 14 tropical or subtropical eels. 

Myrinae(mi-ri'ue), n.pl. [NL..< Mynis + -itm:] 
A subfamily of Opliirlitliyiiln: having the tail 
surrounded by a tin as is usual in eels: con- 
11 -a -.ted with 



myringitis (mir-iu-ji'tis), . [NL., < myringa, 
the membrana tympani, + -itis.] In patliol., 
inflammation of the membrana tympani. 



Myriolepidinae 

Myriolepidinae (mir'i-o-lep-i-di'ne), n. />/. 
[ML., < Myriolrpis (-id-) + -ina<.] A subfamily 
of Cliiriilir exemplified by the genus Myriolepis. 



3922 

ments, a single ovary-cell and ovule, and alter- 
nate leaves. About 80 species are known, mainly in 
tropical Asia and America. They are aromatic trees, with 



myrobalan 

mouth, long worm-like protrusile tongue, short stout 
limbs, hairy body, bushy tail, and hind feet pentadactyl or 
tetradactyl. The family is divided into MyrmecophayiruK 
and Cycliiturince. 




. 

nut, dali, dottee-ivood, and nutmey. 
2. [I. c.~\ In phar., the kernel of the seed of 
Myristica fragrans. It is aromatic and some- 
what narcotic. See cut un- 
der arillode. 3. Inro67., a 
genus of gastropods. 
son, 1840. 



having their characters. 
II. n. A myriolepidine chiroid fish. 

Myriolepis (mir-i-ol'e-pis), w. [NL., < Gr. fi'v- 
ptoi, ten thousand, + Zeiric, a scale.] The typi- 
cal genus of Myriolepidine. These fishes are 
covered with many small scales on most parts 
of the body, head, and fins. Lockington, 1880. 

myriophyllite (mir'i-o-fil'it), n. [< LGr. /tvpi6- Myristicaceae (mi-ris-ti- 
0t>/.Aof, with numberless leaves (see myriophyl- ka'se-e), n. pi. [NL. 
lous), + ^ite 2 .] A kind of fossil root with nu- (Lindley, 1835), < Myris- 
merous fibers, found in the coal-measures. tica + -acea?.] Same as 

myriopliyllous (mir"i-o-fil'us), a. [< LGr. /ivpi6- Myristicea'. 
<j>v/.'Aa$, with numberless leaves, < Gr. fivpiof, Myristiceae(mir-is-tis'e-e), 
numberless, + foUov, leaf.] Literally, having n. pi. [NL. (Endlicner, 
ten thousand leaves; specifically, in bot., hav- 1836), < Myristica + -ea;.] 
ing a large number of leaves. A natural order of dicoty- 

Myriophyllum (mir"i-o-firum), M. [NL. (Vail- ledouous apetalous plants 
lant, 1719) (L. myriofikytton), < LGr. pvpicxjivA- of the series Micrembrycte, 
MV, spiked water-milfoil, neut. of /ivpifyvMof, consisting of the genus My- 
wi th numberless leaves: see myriopliyllous. Cf. ristica. 

!/*. 7 T A _ _J J? A__T i _ J - . i 




Myristica melongetta. 



very long claw. There are 3 species the maned ant- 
bear, M. jutiata; the collared tamandu, T. bivittata; and 
the yellow tamandu, T. lonyicaudata. 
myrmecophagine (mer-me-kof 'a-jin), a. and . 

1. a. Pertaining to the Myrmecop'hagirue, or hav- 
ing their characters. 

II. M. A member of the Myrmeeoj>Jiaginer. 

myrmecophagOUS (mer-me-kof'a-gus), a, [< 
NL. myrmecophagus, < Gr. /ti'p/a/f;"(/nip/a!K-), ant, 
+ iftayelv, eat.] Ant-eating; specifically, of or 
pertaining to the Myrmecopliagidai. 

Myrmecophila (mer-me-kof M-la), n. [NL., < 
iiiyrmeeopliiltis: see myrmecopliilous."] 1. A ge- 
nus of crickets of the family Gryllidce, -which 
live in ant-hills, and closely resemble cock- 
roaches in form, though they are of diminutive 
size and great activity. M. pergandei is a North 
American species. M. acervorum is the commonest Euro- 
pean species ; another is M. ochracea. 

2. pi. J7. c.~\ Mynnecophilous insects : a gener- 



ibu iiuuiwoiitroa leaves; ammwrwum/iivue, UT. rwmca. ! 3 nft r f , n *,!, i & *? V. 

milfoil.] A genus of dicotyledonous plants, Myristicivora (mi-ris-ti-siv'6-ra), n. [NL.: see cltion ^A ' r^?^ ," M f H f !^ P " 

the water-milfoil, belonging to the pofypeta- firisticivorovsj A genus of fiWgeons of $^%^%*^ *$* 

1OUR Orflei' /JfmY/////'_ <'hjirnct.ori7fM rw an rkTTQVTr rhrt cii nfaivii l\r t!a*WMnMMjJ^jm lm n ~ 4.1,,. ^ :1 .* 1 r-j , ' J 



lous order Halorageie, characterized by an ovary 
with two or four deep furrows. About 15 species 
are known, growing submerged in fresh water throughout 



the axils of the usually dissected leaves. 

myriopod, Myriopoda.etc. More correct forms 

of myriapod, etc. 
myriorama (mir*i-o-ra'ma), n. [NL., < Gr. 

ftvptof, numberless, + opa/ia, view, < opav, see.] - . 

A picture made up of interchangeable parts myrkt, a 

which can be harmoniously arranged to form "'" 

a great variety of picturesque scenes. The 

parts are usually fragments of landscapes on 

cards 
myrioscope (mir'i-o-skop), M. [< Gr. /ivpios, - 

numberless, + cKoirelv, view.] 1. A variation cobes regarded as a family. 



,,- , . ^ f o -"*"""' "- "v*w lOpreKentatives of coleopti 

the subfamily Carpopiiagina?, having the tail menopters, lepidopters, dipters, orthopters, and homop- 

short and the plumage black and white ; the tere > e8 P e eially the first-named of these ; and some arach- 

nutmeg pigeons nidans also come in the same category. 

myristiciVorous (mi-ris-ti-siv'o-rus), a. [< m ,^!l P^ 1 ? u /^ m6r : m t^ f ; i : lu8 )'^; < , NL ,- 
NL. Myristica + Li.vorare, devour.] Devour- 
ing or habitually feeding upon nutmegs. 

myristin (mi-ris'tin), n. [< myrist(ic) + -in^.] 



myrmecophiliis, < Gr. pbpfei/f (ftvp/it/K-), ant, + </>!- 
?.of , loving.] Fond of ants : applied to insects 
which live in ant-hills, also to plants which are 
cross-fertilized or otherwise benefited by ants. 
In the preface to the descriptions of his exceedingly 
beautiful and well-known myrmecophilous plants, Beccari 
puts forward the very view taken by Prof. Henslow. 

Nature, XXXIX. 172. 
myrmecobe (mer me-kob), . An animal of Myrmeleon (mer-me'le-on), n. [NL. (Linns- 

tfagSrVierfc* - * saattss\tisr5 

LJVb., <. JUyimecoonts + -ida'.] The myrme- immaculatw is the best-known American species. M. ev- 



. 

The crystalline constituent of oil of nutmeg : a 
glyceride of myristic acid. 

., and r. A Middle English form of 



of the kaleidoscope, consisting of a square box Myrmecobiinae (mer-me-ki 
having a sight-hole in front, and two plane mir- [NL., < Myrmecobius + -line. 



ko-bi-i'ne), . pi. 



spec 
rop&usKnAM.formicarius are found in Europe. 



rors at the rear arranged at a suitable angle. 

On horizontal rollers a piece of embroidery o 

mental pattern is caused to traverse the 

box, when the multiplied images coalesce 

ner as to form geometrical patterns. 

2. A form of this device used for exhibiting 



i -I1U /. /(. Utt mtf , , . 

subfamily of Myrmeleonida (mer-me-le-on i-de), n. pi. 

Dasyuridd, sometimes elevated to rank as a L NL ->< Myrmeleon + -ida:.] The ant-lion fam-. 
dery or other oriia- family Myrmecobiidw. containing the single ge- y * piauipennine neuropterous insects. Also 
the bottom of the nus Myrmecobius, and distinguished fromZ)<5w- Myrmecoleo)iid<B, Myrmecoltontidce, Myrmeleon- 
chaman- ,-iffi by the long extensile tongue and larger !~f> Mjrmeleonides, MyrmeKonida-. See artt- 



number of molar teeth. 



carpets; a carpet-exhibitor. The mirrors are so myrmecpbune (mer-me-ko'bi-in),^. and_ . 
arranged as to repeat a carpet-pattern in its correct re- 
lations, and thus snow from a small piece how the carpet 
will look when laid down. It is sometimes supplied with 



the different patterns in turn. 
myriosporous (mir"i-o-spo'rus), a. [< Gr. 



lion. 

Myrmica (mer-mi'ka), n. [NL., < Gr. , 
(fivpfjTin-), ant.] The typical genus of Myrmici- 
da; and of Myrmicinai, established by Latreille 
in 1802. It contains some of the commonest 
and best-known species, as the red ants. 



a. Pertaining to the Myrmecobiida!, or having 
their characters. 
II. M. A_ member of the Myrmecobiidai. 

r>TT / ijj.v uiciu-*x*iv/ T i-i D^/tv;.iimj 0,0 i in~ i cu. .im>. 

1 Aee Myrmicidae (mer-mis'i-de), n.pl. [NL.,<Jfyr- 
of the " liea + - ! ' (te -] A family of stinging ants of the 



nus of insectivorous marsupials, typical 



- _ - j.- / i L* VJ " f" / r* v t fJ^vuM. tm^/it4jj.-ij (j T iJi^OiJ. VI. ! I 1C , j-_ ' ., _ tJ CJ 

numberless, + o-^opof, a seed.] In lot., con- subfamily Myrmecobiinte. The tongue is protrasile or , S y me ^optera, founded by Leach in 1817 

tainiug or producing a great number of spores. and vermiform, as in other ant-eaters. The teeth are more th e genus Myrnnca, and distinguished from 
inwiot.i/* /mi_iQ ' +iii-\ ft r/ n,r.. u .' n j.. - _~ T T\- 



myristic (mi- ris'tik), a. [< Myristica,] De- 
rived from or related to nutmeg.- Myristic acid, 
an acid (C 14 II 2 80 2 ) found in spermaceti, oil of nutmeg 
and some other vegetable oils, generally as a glyceride 
myristin. 

Myristica (mi-ris'ti-ka), n. [NL., < LGr. /tvp:- 
<rr<if, fit for anointing, < Gr. [tvpifctv, anoint, < 




numerous than in any other extant mammalian quadrupedT all other ants by the two-jointed instead of 
a. fasctalits, of Australia, is about the size of a squirrel, of onp-iointerl rvntinlA nf tlio oVirlnTnoTi 

5&nsua ss ^jsS s ^^ ral-KS^V. < ^ 

on ants, and is known by the name of ant-eater. mica + -ina;.] The Myrmicida; as a subfamily 

2. InetoH.,agenusof dermestid beetles, erect- of Formicida;. 

ed by Lucas in 1846. The only species is M. myrmicine (mer'mi-sin), a. Having the char- 

agilis, an active little black beetle, one twelfth acters of the Myrmicidce; pertaining to the Myr- 

of an inch long, found in ants' nests in Algeria, micidce. 
Myrmecoleon (mer-me-ko'le-on),w. [NL.,<Gr. Myrmidon (mer'mi-don), re. [= F. myrmidon, 

/jvppjtihwv, ' ant-lion,' < ubpfafi (fivpfiqn-), ant, + < L. Jtfi 

Mov, lion.] Bee Myrmeleon. pie of 1 

myrmecological (mer"me-ko-loj'i-kal), a. [< 

myrmecolog-y + -ical.] Of or relating to ants. 

Myrmecologuxd studies. Nature, XXXIII. 240. 

mynnecology (mer-me-kol'o-ji), n. [< Gr. [ivp- 

fiS (ftvp/oiK-), an ant, + -%i>yla, < liiyeiv, speak: 

see -ology.] That branch of entomology which 

treats of ants. 
Myrmecophaga (mer-me-kof'a-ga), n. 



[NL., 



Myrmidones, < Gr. MvpfuMvef, a warlike peo- 
ple of Thessaly, sing. MvpuMv (see def . 1).] 1. 
One of a warlike ancient Greek people of Phthi- 
otis in Thessaly, over whom, according to the 
legend, Achilles ruled, and who accompanied 
him to Troy. Hence 2. [I. c.] A devoted and 
unquestioning or unscrupulous follower; one 
who executes without scruple his master's com- 

mands.-Myrmidons of the law, bailiffs, sheriffs' offl- 
cers, policemen, and other inferior administrative officers 
of the law. [Colloq.] 



t n * ** \ " oir/7 L*'^-", 01 Lne law. lUOuOQ. 

i em The ZSS^nK ''^r^'T^T^ I fo " nd ' '"- household treasures In possession of 

Li,f^L c ii enu L f ? 1 i t :!5 t ? r8 i ? f &e famil y the u^ /* ^ m*** 

Myrmidonian (mer-mi-do 



B 
a. th 



Iranch of Nutmetf (Myristica fragrans), with male Dowers. 
1C female flower ; b, the stamens of the male flower ; c, the fruit. 



v, an unguent: see myronic.] 1. A genus 
of apetalous trees, constituting the order My- 
risticeai, and characterized by dioecious regular 
flowers with a three-lobed calyx and united fila- 



.. v ,, , Edentata, and xenar- 

thral.2. In oritf(.,agenus of ant-birds: same 
as Formicarins. 

myrmecophage (mer'me-ko-faj), n. An ant- 
eater of the genus Myrmeoo'phaga. 

Myrmecophagidae (mer"me-ko-faj'i-de), n. pi. 
[NL., < Myrmecophaga + -ida;.] ASouth Amer- 
ican family of vermilinguate edentate quadru- 
peds, typified by the genus Myrmecophaga, and 
alone representing the suborder Vermilingnia of 
the order Edentata or Bruta ; the ant-eaters or 
ant-bears. They are entirely toothless, with tubular 



a), a. 

dons. 

Some beam of comfort yet on Greece may shine, 

If I but lead the Myrmidonian line. 

Pope, Iliad, xvi. 57. 

myrobalan (ml-rob'a-lan), M. [Formerly also 
mirobolan, myrobolan, 'myrobolam, myrabolan, 
mirabolan, etc. ; < F. myrobolan = Sp. mirabo- 
lano = Pg. myrobolano = It. mirabolano, < L. 
myrobalanum, < Gr. ftvpoftal.avoc, < firpov, an un- 
guent, + /3d/!<n>of, acorn, or similar fruit.] The 
dried drupaceous fruit of several species of 
Tcrminuiia, chiefly T. Bellerica and T. Cliebula, 



rayrobalan 



3923 



myself 



puor, 111,11 imisam 01 i TU. 

h-seed (imVscd), n. The balsamic seed 



Aoro-nu<. l the product of r.ct(rt/ia" but tin- other kinds myrr 




Minde -gdiddim; ^ i uit, that can vn-olde a Man. The myrrhy lands. Browning, Waring, L fl. 

Sylwler, tr. of 1m llartas's Weeks. 11., The Sehlsme. Myr8inaceB (me r-si - na ' 8f -), . pi. [NL. 

These barks lade out . . . Myrabolan* dric and condite. (f,imllev, 1835), < Myrsine 4 -acea:} Same as 

UaUuytH oyay^ll. UO. , / , /rv ,,,,;,; 

myronate (mi'ro-nat), w. [< myron(ir) + -fiti j .] myrsinaceous (mer-si-na'shius), a. Belong- 
A salt of myronic acid. Potassium myronate, a ing to, resembling, or pertaining to the natural 
glucoside found in the seeds of black mustard, which, orm-r Niir+mtn- ( Mif'-^ii""'' "'). 

ie ami "iTu'tV mustard. " Myrsine (mer'si-ne), /*. [NL. (Linnfflus, 1737), 

myronic (mi-nm''ik), . ' [= F. MMVUimt^ ir. '<' /"'iriv>i, a myrtle: see myrtle.} A genus of 
///,.,, un unguent, perfume, any sweet juice dicotyledonous gamopetalous shrubs and trees, 
distilling from plants and used for unguents type of the natural order Myrstnea- known by 
or perfumes.] An epithet used only Tn the its single seed immersed in the placenta, and 

EsSLfttaaF acld - " acw foand ln ^^^^Ks^Sff^^ 

"fV""5""^ ft , ^ small flowers, and sm,x,th rigid leaves, usually evergreen. 



myropolistt (mi-rop'o-list), . [< Gr. ,<,>,;ru- jj-^V^^ w id el y distributed in Africa, is called African 

HK, a dealer in perfumes, < /U'pai', perfume, + boxor myrtle. M. melanovhleot of the Cape of Good: Hope 

Tru/Uiv, sc'l 1. 1 One who sells unguents or per- has a tough close-grained wood used in wagon-work, and 

fiimnrv Johnson has been named Cape beech. M. Utta of the West Indies 

myrosfn (mi'ro-sin), n. [< ,n,,r(onic) + -0*+ ^ l $i3^tt&XXSZ* 

-in".} A nitrogenous ferment contained in the i,,to norida. 

seeds of black mustard, and possibly in horse- Myrsinese(mer-sin'e-e), n. pi. [NL. (Bentham 

radish-root. By its action potassium myronate am l Hooker, 1876), (.'Myrsine + -e<e.} Anatural 

is decomposed, forming potassium sulphate, order of trees and shrubs of the cohort Primit- 

' jose, and oil of mustard. lales, typified by the genus Myrsine, and char- 

oxylon(mi-rok'si-lon),. [NL. (C.Linnreus, acterized by its indehiscent fruit, one-celled 

s,1781),<Gr./iiV>ov,asweetjuicefromplants, ovary with free central placenta, and two or 

+ fi'Xoi', wood.] A genus of trees of the order more ovules. About 500 species In 23 genera are known. 

Lequminosie and the tribe SOfktma, distill- all tropical. Both their usually white or pink flowers and 

guished by a one-seeded pod winged at the their alternate leaves are fllled with resinous glands, 

base and anthers longer than the filaments, myrtt, . [ME. mtrt; < L. myrtus, myrtle: see 

About 6 species are known, all South American, having the myrtle.} Myrtle. 

leaves and whitish flowers much as in the related Mijrii- Tbe 8eed , mirt u tnat tholl ma igt |t gete, 

tpermuin. For species, see balsam of Peru, balsam o/Tiilu, Of birch ofyvy crabbe, and wild olyve, 

and Brazilian balsam (all under balsam), myrrh-seed, and Leteyeve hem noweandnowe for channgeof mete. 

(Juiitquino. __ _ ,. . ., faUadius, Husbondrie (E. E. T. 8.), p. 21. 

myrrh 
L. 




of the polypetalous cohort Myrtalex, typified 




myrra 
MHG. 

OV.mirre, V Myrrh,- = Sp. mirra = Pg. myrrha - u . d ^^ fe ^ numer . 

= It. nun* < L. myrrha, murrha mnrra, < Gr. * ^ J j J . h t eii ^ . 

u,>ppa mvrrh, the balsamic juice of tlu 'Arabian ite dotted and with a ra ^gi, la l vein, 

myrtle, < Ar. murr (= Heb. mor), myrrh, < murr, Th ^ re ^ al)ou ' t ^ ^ of 76 genera e and 4 tribeg> 

bitter. Cf. Marah.} 1 . A gummy resinous exu- natives of warm climates, usually with racemed flowers 

lation from several species of Commiphora (Bal- and pervaded by a fragrant volatile oil : some are valuable 




1 lie in V i r II ui i5v;i IJM in t. n no uimunuao MUKWU uuii.i - _ , _ - _ 

from this plant. For a second kind, see besabol. A third myrtaceous (nier-ta shius), (l. [< L. myrta- 
is from the same plant as the balm of Oilead (which see, ceus, of myrtle, < myrtus, myrtle : see myrtle.} 
Sd^S^AlSr Crt, is e an J astrlnge I n a t r {o,dc. Al It i. ^ *?<'<>*> resembling, or pertainingto the nat- 
also used for Incense, perfumery, and minor purposes, ural order jlyrtacete. 

The myrrh carried by the Ishmaelites into Egypt is MyrtaleS (mer-ta' lez), ii.pl. [NL. (Lindley, 
thought to have been the same as ladanum. See Com- i$33), < Myrtus, q. v.] A cohort of the polypcta- 
miphom, and compare bdellium. loug ger j es Calyciftora, known by its undivided 

They [the wise men] saw the young child with Mary his gty i e an d two or more ovules in each cell of the 
tanunce'"' 'and 4^" ^ *"" 'itiVS ?vW. "hich is united to the calyx, or included 



A royal oblation of gold, frankincense, and myrrh Is still 
annually presented by the queen on the feast of Epiphany 

~rit., XVII. 121. 



in it. It comprises 6 orders, of which Myrtacea Is the 
chief and Otwjrariece the best-represented In the United 
States. 

Myrteae (mer'te-e), n. pi. [NL. (A. L. de Jus- 
sieu, 1825), < Myrtus + -ee.] A tribe of shrubs 
and trees of the order Myrtacea; typified by the 
genus Myrtus, and characterized by an ovary 
of two or more cells, the fruit an indehiscent 
berry or drupe, and the leaves opposite and dot- 

Tngtoor obtained from myrrh: as.myrrtiVacid. ted. It includes 18 genera, among them Eugenia 
myn-hin (mer'in), . [< myrrh + -2.] The ((-'love, etc.) and Psidium (guava). 

fixed resin of myrrh. myrtiform (mer'ti-fonn), a. [= P. myrtiforme 

myrrhine (mer'in), a. See mnrrine. = !> mirtiforme = Pg. myrtiforme = It.mirti- 

Myrrhis (mir'is), n. [NL. (Scopoli, 1760), < .torn; < L.myr,myrtle, + /orm<7,fonn.] Re- 

L myn-liis, Hiurris, < Gr. pvppic, a plant, sweet sembhug myrtle or myrtle-bernes. -Myrtiform 



2. The sweet cicely of Europe. See Myrrhis. 
[Eng.] India myrrh. Same as besabol. Turkey 
myrrh, a former commercial name of the true myrrh. 
myrrhlC (mir'ik), a. [< myrrh + -ic.] Pertain 



and the tribe Amminea. known by its long- 
beaked narrow fruit alinost 



America is a long cultivated (traceful plant with white 
Mowers in compound umbels, finely divided leaves, and 
pleasant-flavored roots and stems. The only otherspecies 
is Jf. occidcntale (perhaps better Qtycosoma), found in Ore- 
gon, etc. 

myrrhol (mir'ol), . [< myrrk + -ol.} The vola- 
tile oil of myrrh. 

myrrhophore (mir'o-for), n. [< Gr. pi'ppa, myrrh, 
T -^K)/)OC, bearingX 9^V >f/v = E. 6ertrl.] Myrrh- 
bearer; specifically, in the (ir. Cli. and in the 
fine arts, a name given to one of tin- Marys who 
came to see the sepulcher of Christ. They are 
usually represented as bearing vases of myrrh. 



the lesser kind of 

It. niirtillo), dim. of myrte, mvrte,^F. myrte, Sp. 

mi/rt), < L. myrtus, miirtus, myrta, murta, < Gr. 
ttvpTos (also fivpaivri, /ivpplvy), < Pers. murd, the 
myrtle.] 1. A plant of the genus Myrtus, 
primarily M. mmmnnis, the classic and favorite 
common myrtle. It is a bush or small tree with shin- 
ing evergreen leaves and fragrant white flowers, common 
in the Mediterranean region. In ancient times It was sa- 
cred U) Venus, and its leaves formed wreaths for bloodless 
victors : it was also a symbol of civil authority. It Is used 
in modern times for bridal wreaths. The plant Is an un- 
important astringent. Its aromatic berries have been used 
to flavor wine and in cookery. Its flowers, as also its leaves, 
afford perfumrs, the latter used in sachets, etc. Its hard 
mottled wood la prized in turnery. M. Lmnal and X. Meli 



i, branch with (lowers of myrtle (.\tyrlnt ttmmtmit'i ; a. branch 
wilh fruits i a, verticil section of a Sower ; , caljK, term, and pistil ; 
c t the fruit ; tt, vertical section of the seed, showing the embryo. 

hi Chill furnish valuable hard timber. M. Xummularia, 
the cranberry-myrtle, is a little trailing vine with edible 
berries, found from Chill southward. 
2. A name of various similar plants of other 
genera of the myrtle family (Myrtacea'), and of 
other families, many unrelated Australian 
myrtle (besides true myrtles), the lillypllly (which see). 
Blue myrtle. See Ceannthtu. Bog-myrtle, candle- 
berry-myrtle, the sweet-gale. See gaie^ and Myriea. 
Crape-myrtle. See Indian lilac, under lilac. Dutch 
myrtle, (a) The sweet-gale. [Prov. Eng.) (6) A broad- 
leafed variety of the true myrtle. Fringe myrtle, the 
myrtaceous genus Chamtflaufium of Australia,- Jews' 
myrtle. See Jews' myrtle. Juniper myrtle, the Aus- 
tralian genus Verlicordia. Myrtle flag, grass, ' >r sedge, 
names Tn Great Britain of the sweet-flag, alluding to Its 
scent. Otahelte myrtle, one or more species of the 
euphorblaceoas genus Securineya. Peach myrtle, the 
myrtaceous genus Hypodamma of Australia. Running 
myrtle, more often simply myrtle, a name of the com- 
mon periwinkle. (U. 9.1 Sand-myrtle, a smooth, dwarf 
shrub, Leiophyttum buxifolium of the Ericacete, found in 
the eastern United States. Tasmania myrtle. See Fa- 
gut. Wax-myrtle, Myrica cer\fem. 

myrtle-berry (mer'tl-ber'i), n. The fruit of 
the myrtle. 

myrtle-bird (mer'tl-berd), n. The golden- 
crowned warbler or yellow-rump, Dendraeca co- 
ronatfi. It Is one of the most abundant of the warblers 
In most parts of the United States and Canada, is migra- 
tory and Insectivorous, breeding In the far north, and win- 
tering In most of the Slates east of the Mississippi. It 
is about 5A inches long, slaty-blue streaked with black, 
below while streaked with black, the throat and large 
blotches In the tall white, the rump, a crown-spot, and 
each side of the breast bright-yellow, bill and feet black. 

myrtle-green (mer'tl-gren), n. A rich pure 
green of full chroma but low luminosity. 

myrtle-wax (mer'tl-waks), n. The product of 
the Myrica cerifera. Also called myrica-taUov. 

Myrtus (mer'tus), n. [NL. (Tournefort, 1700). 
< L. myrtus, < Gr. ftt'prof, myrtle : see myrtle.} 
A genus of shrubs, type of the natural order 
Myrtacea and of the tribe Myrtea-. It ls charac- 
terized by the numerous ovules In the usually two or three 
ovary-cells, small cotyledons, and the calyx-lobes fully 
formed In the bud. There are over 100 species, mostly in 
South America beyond the tropics, some in tropical Amer- 
ica, and a dozen In Australasia. The typical spei les, how- 
ever, M. communis. is native in Asia, and has long been 
naturalized in southern Europe. See myrtle. 

Myrus (mi'rus), n. [NL., < Gr. //lywf , a kind of 
sea-eel.] A genus of eels, typifying the sub- 
family MyriiHe. 

myself (mi-self'), pron. [<ME. my sejfe, me 
selfe, my selre, me Helve, my-selven, < AS. gen. 
min selfes, dat. me selfum, ace. me selfne, nom. 
ic selfa; being the pron. ic, me, with the adj. 
self in agreement: see nel and self. Cf. Afm- 
self. } An emphatic or reflexive form of the first 
personal pronoun 7 or me, either nominative or 
(as originally) objective. In the nominative tt Is 
always used for emphasis, in apposition with /or alone; 
In the objective It is either reflexive or emphatic, being, 
when emphatic, usually in apposition with me. Compare 
himself, henetf, etc. 

He Is my lege man telly thou knowes. 
For holly the londes that he has he holdes of mi-selve. 
William of Palerne (E. E. T. 8.), 1. 117.=.. 

I wol myselrtn gladly with yon ryde. 

Chaucer, Gen. Prol. to C. T., L 80S. 
I had as lief not be as lire to be 
In awe of such a thing as I myteff. 

Shalt., 1. C., L 2. 96. 
Which way I fly Is hell; m.virf/am hell. 

MOton, P. L., iv. 75. 

.V!i*r(f will mount the rostrum in his favour, 

And strive to gain his pardon. Additon, Cato, II. i 



myself 

The fact Is, I was a trifle beside myself or rather, out of 
in (/(/'. as the French would say. 

Charlotte Bronte, Jane Eyre, 11. 

myselvent, /"' A Middle English variant of 

) l/XClf. 

Mysidae (mis'i-de), n.pl. [NL., < Mysis + -itlii:] 
A family of schizopod podophtlialmic crusta- 
ceans, typified by the genus Mysis; the opos- 
sum-shrimps. The abdominal region is long, jointed, 
and ended by caudal swimmerets ; there are six pairs of 
ambulatory thoracic limbs, to which the external gills are 
attached, and which also function us a kind of brood-pouch 
in which the eggs are can-led about, whence the vernacu- 
lar name. 

Mysis (mi'sis), . [NL., < Gr. piiait, a closing 
the lips or eyes, < fi'veiv, close, as the lips or 
eyes.] The typical genus of Mysidce, founded 
by Latreille in 1802. M. chameleon is a com- 
mon species of the North Atlantic. See opos- 
sum-shrimp. 

mysophobia (mi-so-fo'bi-a), n. [NL., < Gr. /'- 
o-of, uncleanness, '+ <t>6j3o, flight, panic, fear.] 
A morbid fear of contamination, as of soiling 
one's hands by touching anything. 

mystacial (mis-ta'si-al), a. [< mystax (mystac-) 
+ -ial.J Same as m'itstachial. 

Mystacina (mis-ta-si'na), n. [NL., < Gr. jUt'oraf, 
the upper lip, the beard upon it (see mystax), 
+ -MMI*.] A genus of molossoid emballonurine 
bats. The tail perforates the interf emoral membrane and 
lies upon its upper surface ; the middle finger has three 
phalanges ; the wing membrane has a thickened leathery 
edge ; the soles of the feet are expansive and somewhat 
sucker-like ; and the pollex and hallux have each a supple- 
mentary claw. The single species, N. tuberculata, is con- 
fined to New Zealand, composing with Chalinolobus the 
whole indigenous mammalian fauna. The peculiarities 
of the genus cause it to be made by some authors the type 
of a subfamily Mystaeince. 

Mystacinae (mis-ta-si'ne), n. pi. [NL., pi. of 
Mystacina."] A group of molossine Emballonu- 
ridce, represented by the genus Mystacina. 

mystacine (mis'ta-sin), a. Having the charac- 
ters of Mystacina; pertaining to the Mystacina;. 

mystagogic (mis-ta-goj'ik), a. [< mystagog-ue + 
-ic.~\ Having the character of. relating to, or 
connected with a inystagogue or mystagogy; 
pertaining to the interpretation of mysteries. 
Jer. Taylor, Rules of Conscience, iii. 4. 

mystagogical (mis-ta-goj'i-kal), a. [< mysta- 
gogic + -al.] Same as mystagogic. 

mystagogue(mis'ta-gog), n. [<T.mystagoguc= 
Sp. mistagogo = Pg. mi/stagogo = It. mistagogo, 

< L. mystagogus, < Gr. faxmtjVf^tt one introdu- 
cing into mysteries, < /IVOTW, one initiated (see 
mystery 1 ), + ayeiv, lead (> &yoy6s, a leader).] 1. 
One who instructs in or interprets mysteries; 
one who initiates. 2. Specifically, in the ear- 
ly church, the priest who prepared candidates 
for initiation into the sacred mysteries. Smith, 
Diet. Christ. Antiq. 3f. One who keeps church 
relics and shows them to strangers. Bailey. 

mystagogus (mis-ta-go'gus), n.; pi. mystagogi 
(-JI). [L. : see mystagogue.] Same as mysta- 
gogue. 

That true interpreter and great mystagogus, the Spirit 

of God. Dr. U. More. 

mystagogy (mis'ta-gp-ji), n. [< F. mystagogie, 

< Gr. /ivarayuyia, initiation into mysteries, < 
fivarayuyof, one who introduces into mysteries : 
see mystagogue.] 1. The principles, practice, or 
doctrines of a mystagogue ; the interpretation 
of mysteries. 2. In the Gr. Ch., the sacraments. 

mystax (mis'taks), n. [NL., < Gr. /it'oraf, the 
upper lip, a mustache : see mustache.] In en- 
tom., a brush of stiff hairs on the lower part of 
the face, immediately over the mouth-cavity ; 
it is conspicuous in certain Diptera, especially 
of the family Asilidce. 

mystert, n. See mister^. 

mysterial (mis-te'ri-al), a. [< OF. misterial = 
It. misteriale, < ML. misterialis, mysterialis (LL. 
in adv. myslerialiter), mysterious, pertaining to 
a mystery, < L. mysterium, a mystery: see mys- 
terjl.] Containing a mystery or an enigma. 
Beauty and Love, whose story is mysterial. 

B. Jonson, Love's Triumph. 

mysteriarcb. (mis-te'ri-Srk), . [< LL. myste- 
riarches, < Gr. fivaT!;pidpx>K, one who presides 
over mysteries, < /ivaTypiov, mystery (see mys- 
tery 1 ), + apxof, chief, < ap%etv, rule.] One who 
presides over mysteries. 

mysterious (mis-te'ri-us), a. [Formerly also 
misterious; = F. mysterieux = Sp. misterioso = 
Pg. mysterioso = It. misterioso, full of mystery, 

< L. mysterium, mystery: see mystery!.] I. 
Partaking of or containing mystery ; obscure ; 
not revealed or explained ; unintelligible. 

By a silent, unseen, mysterious process, the fairest flower 
of the garden springs from a small insignificant seed. 

Bp. Home, Works, IV. xxix. 



3924 

God moves in a mysterious way 

His wonders to perform ; 
He plants his footsteps in the sea 

And rides upon the storm. 

Cmvper, Light Shining out of Darkness. 

2. Expressing, intimating, or implying a mys- 
tery: as, a mysterious look; his manner was 
very mysterious and important. =Syn. Mysterious, 
Mystic, Cabalistic, dark, occult, enigmatical, incompre- 
hensible, inscrutable. Mysterious is the most common 
word for that which is unknown and excites curiosity and 
perhaps awe ; the word is sometimes used where mystic 
would be more precise. Mystic is especially used of that 
which has been designed to excite and baffle curiosity, 
involving meanings in signs, rites, etc., but not with suffi- 
cient plainness to be understood by any but the initiated. 
Mystic is used poetically for mysterious; it may imply the 
power of prophesying. The meaning of cabalistic is shaped 
by the facts of the Jewish Cabala. The word is therefore 
applicable especially to occult meanings attributed to writ- 
ten signs. 

mysteriously (mis-te'ri-us-li), adv. In a mys- 
terious manner; by way of expressing or im- 
plying a mystery ; obscurely : as, he shook his 
head mysteriously. 

mysteriousness (mis-te'ri-us-ues), n. 1. The 
quality of being mysterious; obscurity; the 
quality of being hidden from the understanding 
and calculated to excite curiosity or wonder. 

2. That which is mysterious or obscure. Jer. 
Taylor. 3. The behavior or manner of one 
who wishes or affects to imply a mystery: as, he 
told us with vmcbmysteriousnessto wait and see. 

mysterizet (mis'te-riz), v. t. [< myster-y + -ize.] 
To interpret mystically. 

The Cabalists, . . . mysterizing their ensigns, do make 
the particular ones of the twelve tribes accommodable 
unto the twelve signs in the zodiack, and twelve months 
in the year. Sir T. Browne, Vulg. Err., v. 10. 

mystery 1 (mis'te-ri), n.; pi. mysteries (-riz). 
[Formerly also mistery; < ME. mysterie = F. 
mystere = Sp. misterio = Pg. mysterio = It. mis- 
terio, < L. mysterium, < Gr. [ivorr/pim, secret doc- 
trine or rite, mystery, < /ivarrie, one initiated, < 
ftvc'tv, initiate into the mysteries, teach, instruct, 
< jivnv, close the lips or eyes, < uv, a slight sound 
with closed lips.] 1. pi. In ancient religions, 
rites known to and practised by certain initi- 
ated persons only, consisting of purifications, 
sacrificial offerings, processions, songs, dances, 
dramatic performances, and the like : as, the 
Eleusinian mysteries. Hence 2. (a) In the 
Christian Church, especially in the early church 
and in the Greek Church, a sacrament. This name 
originally had reference partly to the nature of a sacrament 
itself as concealing a spiritual reality under external form 
and matter, and partly to the fact that no catechumen was 
instructed in the doctrine of the sacraments (except par- 
tially as to baptism) or admitted to be present at their 
administration except through baptism as an initiation. 
(6) pi. The consecrated elements in the eucha- 
rist; in the singular, the eucharist. 

My duty is to exhort you ... to consider the dignity 
of that holy mystery [the Holy Sacrament), and the great 
peril of the unworthy receiving thereof. 

Book of Common Prayer, Communion Office, First 
[Exhortation. 

(c) Any religious doctrine or body of doctrines 
that seems above human comprehension. 

They counte as Fables the holie misteries of Christian 
Religion. Ascham, The Scholemaster, p. 82. 

Great is the mystery of godliness. 1 Tim. iii. 16. 

3. In general, a fact, matter, or phenomenon 
of which the meaning, explanation, or cause is 
not known, and which awakens curiosity or in- 
spires awe; something that is inexplicable; an 
enigmatic secret. 

'Twas you incensed the rabble : 
Cats, that can judge as fitly of his worth 
As I can of those mysteries which heaven 
Will not have earth to know. Shak., Cor., iv. 2. 35. 

Over whose actions the hypocrisy of his youth, and the 
seclusion of his old age, threw a singular mystery. 

Macaulay, History. 

Mystery does indeed imply ignorance, and in the re- 
moval of both the principle of curiosity is involved ; but 
there may be ignorance without mystery. 

Mark Hopkins, Essays, p. 10. 

4. A form of dramatic composition much in 
vogue in the middle ages, and still played in 
some parts of Europe in a modified form, the 
characters and events of which were drawn from 
sacred history. 

Properly speaking, Mysteries deal with Gospel events 
only, their object being primarily to set forth, by an illus- 
tration of the prophetic history of the Old Testament, and 
more particularly of the fulfilling history of the New, the 
central mystery of the Redemption of the world, as accom- 
plished by the Nativity, the Passion, and the Resurrection. 
A. W. Ward, Eng. Dram. Lit., I. 23. 

mystery' 2 t (mis'te-ri), n. ; pi. mysteries (-riz). 
[Commonly confused with mystery^, to which it 
has been accom. in spelling; prop, mistery, < 
ME. misterie, mysterie, for mister, mistere, mys- 



mysticism 

ter, mcstcr, etc., a trade, craft, etc., ult. < L. 
ministerimn, office, occupation: see mister'*.] 
Occxipation; trade; office; profession; calling; 
art; craft. 

Preestes been aungeles, as by the dignitee of hir mys- 
terye. Chaucer, Parson's Tale. 

Gouernour of the mysterie and companie of the Mar- 
chants aduenturers for the discouerie of Regions. 

llakluyt's Voyages, I. 2U6. 

'Tis in the malice of mankind that he thus advises us 
|to stealj ; not to have us [thieves] thrive in our mystery. 
Shak., T. of A., iv. 3. 456. 

mystic (mis'tik), a. and .. [Formerly also mis- 
tick, mystick; < F. mystique = Sp. mistico = Pg. 
mystico = It. mistico,<. L. mysticus,< Gr. uvariKof, 
secret, mystic, < /ivoryc., one who is initiated : see 
mystery 1 ?] I. a. 1. Pertaining to any of the 
ancient mysteries. 

The ceremonial law, with all its mystic rites, ... to 
many, that bestow the reading on it, seems scarce worth 
it ; yet what use the apostles riade of it with the Jews ! 
Boyle, Works, II. 278. 

2. Hidden from or obscure to human know- 
ledge or comprehension ; pertaining to what is 
obscure or incomprehensible; mysterious; dark ; 
obscure; specifically, expressing a sense com- 
prehensible only to a higher grade of intelli- 
gence or to those especially initiated. 

And ye five other wandering fires, that move 

In mystic dance not without song, resound 

His praise. MUtcm, P. L., v. 178. 

3. Of or pertaining to mystics or mysticism. 

No mystic dreams of ascetic piety had come to trouble 
the tranquillity of its humanistic devotion. J. Caird. 

4. In the civil law of Louisiana, sealed or 
closed: as, a mystic testament Mystic hexa- 
gram. See hexagram, 2. Mystic recitation, the reci- 
tation of those parts of the Greek liturgy which are ordered 
to be said in a low or inaudible voice, like the secreto of the 
Western offices : opposed to the ecphoneses (see ecphone- 
sis, 2). = Syn, 2 and 3. Cabalistic, etc. See mysterious. 

II. n. One who accepts or preaches some 
form of mysticism; specifically [cap.], one who 
holds to the possibility of direct conscious and 
unmistakable intercourse with God by a species 
of ecstasy. See Quietist, Pietist, Gichtelian. 
mystical (mis'ti-kal), a. [< mystic + -al.~\ Same 
as mystic. 

Almighty God, who hast knit together thine elect in 
one communion and fellowship in the mystical body of 
thy Son. 

Booh of Common Prayer, Collect for All Saints' Day. 

The mystical Pythagoras, and the allegorizing Plato. 

7. D'Jsraeli, Amen, of Lit., II. 399. 

'Tis the sunset of life gives me mystical lore, 
And coming events cast their shadows before. 

Campbell, Lochiel's Warning. 

Mystical body of the church. See body. Mystical 
fan. See fabeUum. Mystical sense of Scripture, a 
sense to be apprehended only by spiritual experience. 
Mystical theology, the knowledge of God or of divine 
things, derived not from observation or from argument, 
but wholly from spiritual experience, and not discrimi- 
nated or tested by the reason. 

mystically (mis'ti-kal-i), adv. In a mystic 
manner, or by an act implying a secret mean- 
ing; in Greek liturgies, in a low or inaudible 
voice; secretly. See mystic recitation, under 
mystic. 

mysticalness (mis'ti-kal-nes), n. The quality 
of being mystical. Bailey, 1727. 

Mysticete (mis-ti-se'te), n.pl. [NL., irreg. for 
"mystacocete, < Gr. /rforaf, the upper lip (see 
mustache), + nfjTos, pi. K^TI?, a whale: see Cete3.~\ 
A suborder of Cete or Cetaeea, having no teeth 
developed, the upper jaw being provided with 
baleen plates ; the balsenoid whales or whale- 
bone-whales: opposed to Denticete. The supra- 
maxillary bone is produced outward in front of the orbits, 
the rami of the lower jaw remain separate, the nasal bones 
project forward, and the olfactory organs are well devel- 
oped. There are two families, BalOfnopteridas and Balce- 
nidce. See cut under Balcenidce. 

mysticete (mis'ti-set), a. [< NL. Mysticete,] 
Having baleen instead of teeth in the upper 
jaw; belonging to the Mysticete. 

mysticism (mis'ti-sizm), n. [= F. mysticisms 
= Sp. misticismo = Pg. mysticimiio = It. misti- 
cismo; as mystic + -ism.] 1. The character of 
being mystic or mystical; mysticalness. 2. 
Any mode of thought, or phase of intellectual or 
religious life, in which reliance is placed upon 
a spiritual illumination believed to transcend 
the ordinary powers of the understanding. 
The lofty mysticism of his [Plato's] philosophy. 

D. Stewart, Philos. Essays, ii. 5. 

Mysticism Is a phase of thought, or rather perhaps of 
feeling, which from its very nature is hardly susceptible of 
exact definition. It appears in connection with the en- 
deavor of the human mind to grasp the divine essence or 
the ultimate reality of things, and to enjoy the blessed- 
ness of actual communication with the Highest. 

Encyc. Brit., XVII. 128. 



mysticism 

3. Spccilieally. ;i I'm in of religious lie lief which is 
fouui lr<i upon spiritual experience, not discrim- 

inateil or lesleil iiml systemati/.cil in thought. 
M i/<tt>-;xtii :inil rii'"'""'"'" lepteseat opposite poles of 
th>-M[,i-_<\ rationalism rt'^:u ilinu' the reason as the highest 
furillly i 'f IM;UI ami Ihr ,,,!, arbiter in ill matters of rell- 
i-.ii, .l.ntriiie; myslieism, mi the othe.r hand, dcrlaring 
i h.tt spiritual truth eauliot lie apprehended by the logical 
(acuity. nor adequately expressed in terms of the unilei- 
.stainliiij/. 

mystick't, " anil . An obsolete spelling of 

ttt Ifsttf. 

mystick- (mis'tik), . Hame as migtieo. 

Two or three picturesque harks, called myiticJn, with 
long latine sails, were glming down It. 

Col. Intng, A Visit to Palos. 

mystification (mis'ti-fi-ka'shon), a. [= V. mi/.t- 

tijil-ll/illll = I'o;. Hiynl(lictli;iili;a.Hiy/li(l'y + -lltiilH. I 

1. The act of mystifying; something designed 
to mystify; the act of perplexing one or playing 
on one's credulity; a trick. 

It was impossible to say where jest began and earnest 
riiili'il. You read in constant mistrust lest you might be 
the victim of a myntijicatian when you least expected one. 

Edinburgh Rev. 

2. The state of being mystified. 
mystiflcator (mis'ti-fi-ka-tor), . [< mystify, af- 

ter F. tyxt(ii<-ittritr.] One who mystifies. 
mystify (mtt'ti-fl). t>. t.; pret.andpp. mystified, 
ppr. iHijxtifii'ui<i. [< F. mystijier = Pg. iuyxt(ii- 
I'nr, irreg. < Gr. [ivoTi/<6f, mystic, + L. -fic<tre, < 
,l'nci ;<, make: sec -/>/.] To perplex purposely ; 
play on the credulity of; bewilder; befog. 

Mr. Pickwick . . . was considerably miintijietl by this 
very unpolite by-play. Dickem, Pickwick, ii. 

Mystropetaleae (mis*tro-pe-ta'le-e), n.pl. [NL. 
(J. D. Hooker, 1856), < Mystropetalon + -ete.] A 
tribe of dicotyledonous plants of the apetalous 
order Ralanophorew, consisting of the genus 



Mystropetalon (mis-tro-pet'a-lon), w. [NL., 
(Harvey, 1839), < Gr. [ivar/mv, fti'OTpo*;, a spoon, 
+ TthafMv, a leaf: see petal.} A genus of leaf- 
less root-parasites, constituting the tribe Mys- 
tropctitli-a; of the order liii/iiniipliorca'. it is known 
by the two or three free stamens, cubical pollen-grains, 
and two lipped stamlnate and bell-shaped pistillate flow- 
ers. It contains two South African species, fleshy scaly 
herbs, without green color, producing a dense head of 
flowers. 

mytacism (rai'ta-sizm), n. [Also, erroneously, 
metaeism ; = F." metacisme, prop, mytacisme 
Pg. meticismo, < LL. mytacismus, also mcetacin- 
mus, erroneously matacismus, < LGr. fivraiuafi6f, 
fondness for the letter ft, < Gr. [ti>, the letter //.] 
A fault of speech or of writing, consisting of 
a too frequent repetition of the sound of the 
letter m, either by substituting it for others 
through defect of utterance, or by using sev- 
eral words containing it in close conjunction. 

mytanet, myteynet, " Middle English forms 
of mitten. 

mytet, A Middle English spelling of wiitel, 
mite*. 

mytert, ". and c. A Middle English spelling of 
mtttr. 

myth (mith), . [Formerly also mythe; = F. 
mgtlie = Sp. inito = Pg. nti/tlio = ft. mito (D. 
G. Dan. mythe = 8w. myt),<. LL. mythos, NL. my- 
tliux, < Gr. /ififlof, word, speech, story, legend.] 
1. A traditional story in which the operations 
of natural forces and occurrences in human 
history are represented as the actions of indi- 
vidual living beings, especially of men, or of im- 
aginary extra-human beings acting like men; 
a tale handed down from primitive times, and 
in form historical, but in reality involving ele- 
ments of early religious views, as respecting 
the origin of things, the powers of nature and 
their workings, the rise of institutions, the his- 
tory of races and communities, and the like ; a 
legend of cosmogony, of gods and heroes, and 
of animals possessing wondrous gifts. 2. In 
a looser sense, an invented story ; something 
purely fabulous or haying no existence in fact ; 
au imaginary or fictitious individual or object: 
as, his wealthy relative was a mere myth; his 
having gone to Paris is a myth. Myth is thus 
often used as n euphemism for fiilxrii noil or lie. 
= Syn. 1. Myth, FaNe, Parable. See the quotation. 

What is a mythi A myth is, in form, a narrative ; resem- 
hlinu'. in this respect, the fable, parable, and allegory. 
But, unlike tlirsf, the idea or feeling from which the HUM 

springs and whirh, in :i sense, it embodies, is not reflectively 
distinguished from the narrative, butrather is blended with 
it ; the latter being, as it were, the native form which the 
idea or sentiment spontaneously assumes. Moreover, there 
is no consciousness, on the part of those from whom the 
ninth emanates, that this product of their fancy and feeling 
is fictitious. The /<7We is a ttetitious story, contrived to 
inculcate :i metal SM the jun-iilil,' is a similitti'le fiameil 
for the express purpose of representing abstract truth to 
1M7 



3925 

the Imagination. 1'iith/iiW. I imrnUr are the result of 

COnScioUS invent inn. Ill U>tll, 1h< -\ Milvliral ch;ii;n ti ] i'l 

the narrative is distincth I i"in the unilh, on 

the conttaiy, the element n] Irl jheiation is utterly absent. 
Mine is nn i|iie,ti,,nini: "f its reality, no criticism or In- 
quiry on the ixiiiit, bill the must jmpli umellectiug faith. 
0. 1'. HM*r, supernatural origin of Christianity, vi. 

mythet, An obsolete spelling of iiii/lh. 

myth-history (inith'his -to-rii, //. History in- 
terspci'seil with fable; mythicul history. 

mythi, . I'lural of mi/tlmx. 

mythic (mith'ik). ii. [= F. ini/tlii:/in S]>. 
initial = 1'g. niiiHiii-n = It. inilir<i(l>. Ii. lillltllixrll 
= Dan. mytltisk = Sw. mytixl:), < I/, iiiythirux, < 
Or. fivOikin; pertaining to a myth, legendary, < 
piitht, a mytn: see myth.] Same as mifiliiml. 

mythical (raith'i-kal), a. [< mythic + -al.~\ 1. 
Kelating to or characterized by myths; de- 
scribed in a myth; existing onlv in a myth or 
myths; fabulous; fabled; imaginary. 

A comparison of the histories of the most different na- 
tions shows the mythical period to have been common to 
all ; and we may trace in many quarters substantially the 
same miracles, though varied by national characteristics, 
and with a certain local cast and colouring. 

Leclry, Kurop. Morals, I. 874. 

2. Untrue; invented; false. 

The account of pheasants being captured by poachers 
lighting sulphur under their roostlng-trees appears very 
mythical. The Academy, June 15, 1839, p. 411. 

Mythical theory. In theol., the theory, developed by the 
German theologian D. F. Strauss, that the miracles and 
other supernatural events of the Bible are myths : opposed 
to the naturalistic theory, that they may be explained as 
natural phenomena, and to the supernatural theory, that 
they were the results of and witnesses to a supernatural 
power working on and through nature. 

mythically (mith'i-kal-i), adv. In a mythical 
manner; by means o? mythical fables or alle- 
gories. Ruskin. 

mythicist (mith'i-sist). . [< mythic + -it.] 
One who asserts that persons and events ap- 
pearing or alleged to be supernatural are im- 
aginary or have for their basis a myth. 

The mathicist says that the thoughts of the Jewish mind 
conjured up the divine Interference, and imagined the 
facts of the history. Princeton Jtec., July, 1879, p. 162. 

mythicizer (mith'i-si-zer), n. [< 'mythicize (< 
mythic + -ire) + -rl.] A mythicist. 

The history of the birth of our Lord and His forerunner 
affords apparent advantage to the mifthicizer beyond the 
other parts of the New Testament, where the events are 
closer to the narrators. Contemporary Rev., \ 1.1 X . 184. 

mythist (mith'ist), . [< myth + -if.] A maker 
of myths. 

When poets, and mythixts, and theologists of antiquity 

were accustomed to weave just such fancies as they pleased. 

The Independent (New York), June 18, 1862. 

mythogenesis (mith-o-jen'e-sis), w. [< Gr. /tv- 
Oof, a myth, + yivfai's, production.] The pro- 
duction of or the tendency to originate myths. 

The cause of the extraordinary development in man of 
mythogenesis, as of other faculties, was "an external im- 
pulse/' " a radical change In the conditions of existence of 
primitive man." Hind, XII. 623. 

mythographer (mi-thog'ra-fer), n. [< mytho- 
<jr<tph-y + -er 1 . J A framer or writer of myths ; 
a narrator of myths, fables, or legends. 

The statues of Mars and Venus, I imagine, had been 
copied from Fulgentius, Boccaccio's favourite mythogra- 
pher. B'orton, Hist. F.ng. Poetry, I., Addenda. 

mythography (mi-thog'ra-fi), w. [< Gr. /iv6o- 
}pa$ia, legend- writing, < /ivOoypaijior, a writer of 
legends or myths, < ^Wtef, a myth, + yptifciv, 
write.] 1. Representation of myths in graphic 
or plastic art; art -mythology. 

Mythoffraphy, or the expression of the Myth in Art, moved 
on pari passu with mythology, or the expression of the 
Myth in Literature : as one has reacted on the other, sols 
one the interpreter of the other. 

C. T. Newton, Art and Archieol., p. 22. 

2. Descriptive mythology. O. T. Maxim. 
mythologer (rai-thol'o-jer), H. [< mytholog-y 

+ -rrl.~\ A mythologist. 
mythologian (mith-o-16'ji-an), n. [< mytholoyy 

T -.] A mythologist. 

Quite opposed to this, the solar theory, is that proposed 
by Professor Kuhn, and adopted by the most eminent 
mythologians of (Germany. Max M itUer. 

mythologic (mith-o-loj'ik), a. [< F. mytholo- 
gique = Sp. mitoMi/ieo = Pg. mythologico = It. 
mitologieo, < LL. mytlinlniiicus, < Gr. /JtifoAoywof, 
pertaining to mythology or legendary lore, < 

//i^oAo; ia, mythology : sec inytliiiliMiy.'] ' Same as 
iiii/tliitli>ifii'(il. 

mythological (rnith-o-loj'i-kal), a. [< mytlio- 
luilii- + -ill.] Kclatins; to mythology; proceed- 
ing from mythology; of the nature of a myth: 
fontiiining myths: fabulous: us, a 
account ol ion. 



Mytilacea 

The mythological inteipn tali t thai I purposely 

.,n, it. i/i, Hist. World, II. xvl. li. 

mythologically (itiitlt-ii-loj'i-kiil-i), i/'-. In a 

mythological manner: by reference to mvtliol- 
K V ! '>' ''"' employment of myths. 

mytholbgise, mythologiser. "s. mi/iiinii,,/, , . 

in i/ f hi ili ft ft 

mythologist (mi-tlioro-jwt), a. [After F. /////- 
ihiilni/ixti =. Sp. HiittiiiiiiKttt = Pg. tiytkologitta 

=. It. miliilniiixlii: as ini/tliiilnii-y + -int.] < >m- 
who is versed in mythology; one who writes 
on mythology or explains myth*. 
mythologize(nii-iliol'o-ji/),i-.; pret.andpp. my- 
thuliiij >:<:<!, ppr. mytiwoaimng, [< F. iitytliiiln- 
yitter; as uiythufay-y + -i^c.] I. intrans. 1. To 
construct or relate mythical history. 

The supernatural element In the life of .St. Catharine 
may be explained partly by the mytholmjMng adoration of 
the people, ready to And a miracle In every act of her they 
worshipped, partly by her own temperament and modes 
of life. J. A. Symondt, Italy and Greece, p. 67. 

2. To explain myths. 
II. trans. 1. To make into a myth. 
This parable was immediately mytholoffiscd. 

Sw\ft, Tale of a Tub, Author's Pref. 

2. To render mythical. 

Our religion is geographical, belongs to our time and 
place; respect* and iiiuthulni/iif' some one time, and place, 
and person, and people. 

Kmtrton, \. A. Rev., CXXVL, 414. 

3. To interpret in relation to mythology. 
[Bare.] 

Ovid's Metamorphosis Knglishlzed, Mythologized, and 
Represented in Figures. 

Sandyt, title of tr. of Ovid's Metamorph. 

Also spelled mytholofjixe. 

mythologizer (mi-thol'o-ji-zer), n. One who 
or that which mythologizes. Also spelled my- 
tholoi/iser. 

Imagination has always been, and still is, in a narrower 
sense, the great mytlioloyizer. 

Lmcett, Among my Books, 1st ser., p. 85. 

mythologliet (mith'o-log), w. [< Or. pvOoc,, a 
myth, T -/loj'Of, < /.tyeiv, say.] A myth or fable 
invented for a purpose. [Rare.] 

May we not . . . consider his history of the fall at an 
excellent mythologue to account for the origin of human 
evil? Dr. A. Qeddes, Pref. to Trans, of the Bible. 

mythology (mi-thol'o-ji), w. ; pi. mytholoaien 
(-jiz). f< F. mythologic = Hp. mitoloijia = Pg. 
mythologia = It. mitologia, < LL. mythologia, < 
Gr. uvOoto-yia, legendary lore, < fivitoc,, a myth 
+ -Aoy/a, < Aeyetv, say: see -ology.] 1. The 
science of myths; the science which investi- 
gates myths with a view to their interpretation 
and to discover the degree of relationship ex- 
isting between the myths of different peoples; 
:; Iso, the description or history of myths. The 
study of surviving myths among F.uropean nations and of 
the imperfectly developed mythic systems of barbarous or 
savage races is usually accounted part of the study of folk- 
lore. 

2. A system of myths or fables in which are 
embodied the convictions of a people in regard 
to their origin, divinities, heroes, founders, etc. 
See myth. 

mythonomy (mi-thon'o-mi), . [< Gr. pvQof, a 
myth, + voftvs, law.] The deductive and pre- 
dictive stage of mythology. O. T. Maxon. 

mythopeic, mythopoeic (mith-o-pe'ik), a. [< 
Gr. fimoTfoi6f, making mythic legends, < nv6o$, 
a myth, legend, + notclv, make.] Myth-mak- 
ing; producing or tending to produce myths; 
suggesting or giving rise to myths. Also myth- 
opoetic. 

Though we may thus explain the mythopaeic fertility of 
the Greeks, I am far from pretending that we can render 
any sufficient account of the supreme beauty of their chief 
epic and artistical productions. QroU, Hist. Greece, L 16. 

mythopeist, mythopoeist (mith-o-pe'ist), n. 
[As mythopeic -f -ist.] A myth-maker. 

The Vedic mythopttitt is never weary of personifying 
this particular part of celestial nature [the dawn]. 

Keary, Prim. Belief, p. 145. 

mythoplasm (mith'o-plazm), H. [< Gr. //i "in. , 
myth. + xZaofioc,, anything molded, a fiction, 

< xMieaeiv, mold, fabricate.] A narration of 
mere fable. 

mythopceic, mythopoeist. See mythopeic, myik- 
iijii i.- 1. 

mythopoetic (raith'o-po-et'ik), a. [< Gr. pvfoc,, 
myth, + TToarriKdf, capable of making: Bee po- 
etic.] Same as mythopeic. 

mythus (uii'thus), .; pi. mythi (-thi). [NL., 

< Gr. /lifof, myth: see myth.] Same as myth, 1. 
Mytilacea (mit-i-la'se-S'), . i>1. [NL. (Cuvicr. 

1817), < .\fi/titux + -ni-fii.] 1. The mussel fam- 
ily, in a broad sense; the Mytiliittr. in De Blaln- 
ville's classification (18SS) this family consisted of Mytav* 
(Including Modiola and Lithodomut) and Pinna. 



Mytilacea 

2. A superfamily or suborder of bivalves, com- 
prising the families Myttiida;, Avictilidce, 1'ra- 
xinidw, and those differentiated from them, 
raytilacean (mit-i-la'se-an), a. and n. I, . 
Mussel-like; mytiloid or" mytiliform; pertain- 
ing to the Mytilacea. 

II. n. A mussel or somo similar shell ; any 
member of the Mytilacea. 

mytilaceous (mit-i-la'shius), a. [< NL. Mi/tilim 
+ -aceous.] Resembling a mussel ; mytiliform ; 
mytiloid ; of or pertaining to the Mytilacea. 
Mytilaspis (mit-i-las'pis), n. [NL. (Targioni- 
Tozzetti, 1868), < Gr. [tvritof, a sea-mussel, + 
aoirlc, a round shield.] A large and important 
genus of scale-insects, of the homopterous 
family Coccidce and subfamily Diaspinte. They 
belong among the armored scales,* and have the scale 
long, narrow, more or less curved, with the exuvise at the 
anterior extremity. The genus is cosmopolitan, as are 
many of its species. M. pomarwm is the common oyster- 
shell scale-insect of the apple. Some discussion has arisen 
respecting the precedenceof this genus or Lepidosaphes of 
Shimer, proposed in January, 1868, but most systematists 
retain Mytuaspis as the generic name. See cut under 
scale-insect. 

Mytilidae (mi-til'i-de), . pi. [NL. (Fleming, 
1828), < Mytilus + -idee.'] A family of byssif- 
erous (byssogenous) asiphonate bivalve mol- 
lusks, typified by the genus Mytilus; the mus- 
sels. The shell is equivalve, inequilateral, thickly coated 
with epidermis, with a weak and generally toothless hinge 
and marginal ligament. The animal is dimyarian, with a 
large posterior and a small anterior muscle ; the mantle 
is united by its margins behind into a fringed rudiment 
of an anal siphon. A well-developed byssus is always 
present The species are mostly marine. Mytilus, Modi- 
olus t and Lithodomus are representative genera. These 
and their allies constitute the subfamily Mytilintf. See 
cuts under Mytilus, Modiola, Dreissenidce, and date-shell. 

mytiliform (ml-til'l-form), a. [< L. mytilus (see 
Mytilus), a mussel, + forma, form.] Shaped like 
a mussel-shell ; resembling a mussel ; mytiloid. 

MytiliiicB (mit-i-li'ne), n. pi. [NL., < Mytilus 
+ -t<B.] A subfamily of J/;/ttK<te, represented 
by the genus Mytilus and closely related forms. 

mytilite (mit'i-l'lt), n. [< NL. Mytilus + -ite'*.] 
A fossil mussel-shell like, or supposed to be, a 
member of the genus Mytilus, or referred to an 
old genus Mytilites. 

mytiloid (mit'i-loid), a. and . [< L. mytilus 
(see Mytilus), a mussel, + Gr. fMuf, form.] I. 
a. Like a mussel ; mytiliform ; of or pertaining 
to the MytiUdas. 

II. TO. A member of the family Mytilidce; a, 
mussel. 

mytilotoxine (mit"i-lo-tok'sin), M. [< Gr. fivri- 
/lof, a sea-mussel, + Tof(uc6v), poison, + -f 2 .] 
A leucomaine (CpHj^NO^) found in the com- 
mon mussel. It is an active poison. 

Mytilus (rait'i-lus), n. [NL.,< L. mytilus, mitu- 
IHS, < Gr. fivrDiOf, /urvtof, a sea-mussel, < ptif, a 
shell-fish: see mouse and niche."] 
A genus of bivalves to which 
very different limits have been 
assigned. In modern systems it is 
the typical genus of MytUidce, character- 
ized by its terminal umbones. M . tiu- 
Ite is the commonest mussel, found on 
most coasts, adhering by the byssus in 
multitudes to rocks, submerged wood, 
etc. They are often used for food, 
sometimes cultivated, and used in large 
quantities for manure. Also written 
Mylillus, Mytulus. 

myxa (mik'sii), .: pi. myxce 
(-se). [NL., < Gr. ptofr, nostril, 
beak, also mucus: see mucus.'] 
In ornith., the terminal part of 
the under mandible of a bird, 
as far as the symphysis or gonys extends, cor- 
responding to the dertrum of the upper mandi- 
ble. [Little used.] 

myxedema (mik-se-de'ma), n. [< Gr. fii>^a, mu- 
cus, + E. edema."] 'A disease having the follow- 
ing characters : (i) An increase and degeneration of 
connective tissue over the body, so that it yields an ex- 
traordinary quantity of mucin, and hence an edematoid 
condition of the skin, which does not, however, pit on pres- 
sure. This is accompanied by dystrophy of epidermic 
structures and failure of dermal secretions ; anaesthesia, 
paresthesiac neuralgias, and digestive troubles also are 
complained of. (2) Muscular and mental sluggishness 
which may advance to extreme dementia; subnormal tem- 
perature in most cases, and high arterial tension in many. 
(3) Atrophy or other disease of the thyroid gland. The 
disease usually occurs in women over forty years of age 
but has been observed in men and children. Its course is 
chronic, lasting six years and upward, and progressive, with 
occasional halts and sometimes temporary improvement. 

myxedematous (mik-se-dem'a-tus), a. [< myxe- 
dema(t-) + -mix."] Pertaining to, of the nature 
of, or affected with myxedema. 




3926 

Myxine (mik-si'ue), . [< Gr. /iif, slimr, + 
-itie 2 .'] A genus of myzonts which have a very 
slimy body and attach themselves to fishes by 
means of their sucker-like mouth, typical of 
the family Myxinida;; the hags. See cut un- 
der Afljr 1 , 3. 

Myxinida (mik-sin'i-de), ji. pi. [NL., < Myxine 
+ -id(e.~\ A family of hyperotretous marsipo- 
branchs, cyclostomes, or myzonts, represented 
by the genus Myxine. (a) In Gill's ichthyological 
system, hags with six pairs of branchial sacs which open 
by ducts confluent with an inferior median canal discharg- 
ing by one aperture. These hags have an elongate eel-like 
form, and live in the colder waters of both the northern 
and the southern hemisphere. They are destructive to 
other fishes. Often when a fish is caught upon the line, 
they bore into the body and feed upon the flesh. They 
are known as hags, hagflshes, slime-eels, and suckers. (6) In 
Gunther's system, a family of cyclpstomatous fishes whose 
nasal duct penetrates the palate, including the Myacinidce 
proper and the Heptatremidx or BdeUogtomidos. 

myxinoid (mik'si-noid), a. and n. I. a. Per- 
taining to the Myxinida! or Myxinoidcu , or hav- 
ing their characters. 

II. n. A myzont () of the family Myxinida; 
or Myxinoida", or (6) of the order Myxinoidea. 

myxochondroma (mik^so-kon-dro'ma), n.; pi. 
myxocliondromata (-ma-ta). [NL., < Gr. /"''|a, 
mucus, + NL. cnondroma, q. v.] A tumor com- 
posed of mucous tissue mixed with cartilage; 
myxoma united with chondroma. 

myxofibroma (mik"so-fl-br6'ma), n.; pi. myxo- 
fibromata (-ma-ta). [NL., < Gr. /ivl-a, mucus, 
4- NL. fibroma, q. v.] A tumor composed of 
mucous mixed with connective tissue. 

Myxogastres (mik-so-gas'trez), TO. pi. [NL. 
(Fries), < Gr. /"'fa, mucus, + yaarlip, stomach.] 
Same as Myxomycetes. 

myxogastric (mik-so-gas'trik), a. [< NL. Myxo- 
r/astr-es + -ie.] Same as myxogastrous. 

myxogastrous (mik-so-gas'trus), . [< NL. 
Myjcogastr-es + -os.] Pertaining to the Myxo- 
gastres. 

myxolipoma (mik"6o-li-p6'ma), .; pi. myxoli- 
pomata (-ma-ta). fNL., < Gif. //tfa, mucus, + 
NL. lipoma,'q. v.] A tumor composed of mu- 
cous mixed with fatty tissue. 

myxoma (mik-so'ma), TO. ; pi. myxomata (-ma- 
ta). [NL., < Gr. //('fa, mucus, + -oma."] A tu- 
mor consisting of mucous tissue that is, 
a tissue with round, fusiform, or stellate cells 
in a transparent, semifluid, intercellular sub- 
stance containing a large amount of mucin. 
Also called collonema. 

myxomatous (mik-som'a-tus), a. [< myxoma(t-) 
T -ous. ] Pertaining to a myxoma ; affected with 
myxoma. 

Myxomycetaceae (mik-so-ml-se-ta'se-e), M. pi. 
[NL., < Myxomycetes + -acea!.~] Same as Myxo- 
mycetes. 

Myxomycetes (mik'so-mi-se'tez), n.pl. [NL., 
< Gr. ftvja, mucus, + fii'Kqc, pi. fivur/rcc, a mush- 
room, fungus.] A group of fungus-like organ- 
isms, the slime-molds or slime-fungi, belong- 
ing, according to the classification of De Bary, 
to the Mycetozoa, and numbering about 300 
species. They form slimy yellow, brown, or purple 
(never green) masses of motile protoplasm during the 
period of active growth, and are then destitute of cell- 
wall and nucleus. Under certain conditions they secrete 
a cellulose wall and pass into a resting state. This rest- 
ing state is brought about either by the absence of the 
requisite moisture, producing larger, somewhat irregular 
masses, the so-called sclerotium stage, or when the plas- 
modium seems to have concluded its vegetative period, 
the protoplasm then becoming heaped into a mass which 
breaks up internally into a large number of rounded bod- 
ies, the spores, each one of which is provided with a cell- 
wall. Under proper conditions these spores burst their 
walls and become motile nucleated masses of protoplasm 
(swarm-spores) which divide separately by simple fission. 
After a few days two or more of these swarm-spores coa- 
lesce and form new plasmodia, which differ only in size 
from the original. They occur on decaying logs, tan-bark, 
decaying mosses, etc. See Mycetozoa. 

myxomycetous (mik"so-mi-se'tus), a. [< NL. 
Myxomycetes + -ous."] Pertaining to the Myxo- 
mycetes. 

myxont (mik'son), n. [< L. myxon, myxo(n-), < 
Gr. //if ow, also /iff /vof, a smooth sea-fish, a kind 
of mullet, appar. < //if a, mucus : see mucus."] A 
mullet of the family Mugilidas. 

myxopod (mik'so-pod), . and a. [< NL. niyxo- 
pus (-pod-), < Gr. /ifcfa, mucus, + 7rot>f (TTOI?-) = 
E. foot.'] I, n. A protozoan animal possessing 
pseudopodia, as distinguished from a mttNl/i/u- 
pod, one which has cilia or fiagella; one of the 
Myxopoda. See cut under Protomyxa. 
II. a. Same as myxopodous. 



Myzostomum 

Myxopoda (mik-sop'o-da), n.pl. [NL.: see 
myxopod.'] Protozoans whose locomotive ap- 
pendages assume the form of pseudopodia: 
synonymous with Rliizopoda. Huxley. 

myxopodous (mik-sop'o-dus), a. Of or per- 
taining to the Myxopoda; possessing pseudo- 
podia. Also myxopod. 

myxosarcoma (mik"so-sar-k6'ma), . ; pi. myx- 
osarcomahi (-ma-ta). ' [NL., < Gr. //ifo, mucus, 
+ adpKu/ia, a fleshy excrescence : see sarcoma.'] 
A tumor composed of mucous and sarcomatous 
tissue. 

myxosarcomatous (mik // so-sar-kom'a-tus), a. 
[< myxosarcoma(t-) + -ous.] Pertaining to a 
myxosarcoma. 

Myxospongiae (mik-so-spon'ji-e), n.pl. [NL., 
< Gr. fii'^a, mucus, + onoyyid, a sponge: see 
sponge.'] A division of the Spongtda or Porifera, 
established for the reception of the genus Hali- 
sarca, consisting of certain gelatinous sponges. 

myxospore (mik'so-spor), 71. [< Gr. /jifa, mu- 
cus, + <7jro/x>f, seed.] In certain fungi, a spore 
produced in the midst of a gelatinous mass, 
without evident differentiation of ascus or ba- 
sidium as in aseospores or basidiospores. 

myxosporous (mik-so-spo'rus), a. [< myxo- 
spore + -ous."] Containing, producing, or re- 
sembling a myxospore. 

myxotheca (mik-so-the'ka), n. ; pi. myxothecw 
(-se). [NL., < Gr. pnffe, mucus, + ftfra?, a sheath.] 
The inferior unguicorn of a bird's bill, or horny 
sheath of the end of the lower mandible, corre- 
sponding to the dertrotltfca of the upper man- 
dible. 

Myzomela (mi-zom'e-la), n. [NL., < Gr. /jiv- 
(uv, mutter, + //f/lof, song.] The typical ge- 
nus of Myzomelinue, containing most of the spe- 
cies of the subfamily, nearly 30 in number. 
The bill is long and slender, and curved ; the tail is two 
thirds as long as the wing ; the coloration of the males 
is chiefly black and red, with or without yellow on the 
under parts, and that of the females is generally plain 
olive above. M. cardinalis is known as the cardinal 
honey-eater; M. sanc/uinoleata as the sanguineous or 
cocJvtneal creeper; the former inhabits New Hebrides, the 
latter Australia. 

Myzomelina (mi-zom-e-H'ne), n.pl. [NL., < 
Myzomela + -mat."] A subfamily of Melipha- 
the 



', typified by the genus Myzomela. 

myzomeline (mi-/.om'e-lin), a. Pertaining to 
the Myzomelina;, or having their characters. 

myzont (mi'zont), a. and TO. [< NL. myzon (in 
pi. Myzontes), < Gr. fii-^wv (/wfovr-), ppr. of fti>- 
&iv, suck.] I. a. Sucking or suctorial, as a 
lamprey or hag; of or pertaining to the Myzon- 
tcs; cyclostomous or marsipobranchiate, as a 
fish. 

II. . Any member of the Myzontes; a lam- 
prey or hag. 

Myzontes (ml-zon'tez), n.pl. [NL., pi. of my- 
zon: see myzont."] A class of vertebrates in 
which the skull is incompletely developed and 
there is no lower iaw. The brain is distinctly de- 
veloped. The heart is also well developed, and partitioned 
into an auricle and a ventricle. The gills have a pouch- 
like form. In the adult the mouth is circular and suc- 
torial. The Myzontes are the lampreys and hags, repre- 
senting two orders, Hyperoartia and Hyperotreta. Also 
called Cyclostomi, Marffipobranchii, and Monorhina. 

Myzostomida (mi-zo-stom'i-da), n.pl. [NL., 

< Myzostomum + -id'a."] An order of doubtful 
affinities, referred by some to the worms and 
by others approximated to the mites. It com- 
prises symmetrical animals provided with an external 
chitinous cuticle, five pairs of movable parapodia, each 
with a hook and supporting rod, and an alimentary canal 
wfthoral and anal apertures, through which latter the eggs 
are extruded. They are parasitic on and in crinoids. Also 
JHyzostomata. 

Myzostomidae (mi-zo-stom'i-de), . pi. [NL., 

< Myzostomum + -idtt.~] A family of Myzosto- 
mida with ramified alimentary canal, parapodia 
connected by muscles which converge to a cen- 
tral muscular mass, body-cavity divided into 
paired chambers by incomplete septa, and usu- 
ally four pairs of suckers. They are hermaphrodite 
or dioecious ; the ova are evacuated through a cloaca ; and 
the male generative apertures are situated laterally. 

myzostomous (mi-zos'to-mus), a. Of or per- 
taining to the Myzostomida or having their 
characters. 

Myzostomum (ml-zos'to-mum), n. [NL., < Gr. 
uv&tv, suck, + oTo)/a, the mouth.] The typical 
genus of Myzostomidw, comprehending certain 
small creatures which are parasitic upon cri- 
noids. They are not over one fifth of an inch in length, 
and have the form of a flattened disk. Sitlxild, 1843, after 
Myiostoma of Leuckart, 1827. 




1. The fourteenth letter 
and eleventh consonant in 
the English alphabet, hav- 
ing a corresponding place 
also in the alphabets from 
which ours comes. The com- 
parative scheme of forms in these 
alphabets and In the Egyptian (see 
A) la as follows: 



Hierogl 



I'heiu- 

. l.ltl. 



Early 

Greek and Latin. 



The value of the character has been the same through the 
whole history of its use. It stands for the "dental " nasal, 
the nasal sound corresponding to d and I, as does m to ft 
and p, and ng to g and k. This sound, namely, implies for 
Its formation the same check or mute-contact as d and t, 
with sonant vibration of the vocal cords as in d, and fur- 
ther with unclosure of the passage from the mouth into 
the nose, and nasal resonance there. Among the nasals, 
It Is by far the most common in English pronunciation 
(more than twice as common as m, and eight times as com- 
mon as ivj). While all the nasals are semlvocalic or li- 
quid, n is the only one which (like I, but not more than 
half as of ten) is used with vocalic value in syllable-making : 
namely, in unaccented syllables, where an accompanying 
vowel, formerly uttered, is now silenced : examples are 
token, rotten, open, lesson, reason, oven; such form, on an 
average, about one In eight hundred of English syllables. 
The sign n has no variety of sounds : but before ch, i, in 
the same syllable (as in inch, hinge) it takes on a slightly 
modified a palatalized character; and similarly it is 
gutturalized, or pronounced as ng, before k and g (hard), 
as in ink.finger; and its digraph ny (see G) is the usual rep- 
resentative of the guttural or back-palatal nasal, which 
in none of our alphabets has a letter to Itself. .V is doubled 
under the same circumstances as other consonants, and in 
a few words (as kiln, damn, hymn) is silent. In the pho- 
netic history of our family of languages, n Is on the whole 
a constant sound : that is to say, there is no other sound 
Into which it passes on a large scale ; but its loss, with 
accompanying vowel-modincatlon, has been a frequent 
process. 

2. As a medieval numeral, 90, and with a stroke 
over it (N), 90,000. 3. In chem., the symbol 
for nitrogen. 4. [I. c. or cap.~\ In math., an in- 
definite constant whole number, especially the 
degree of a quantic or an equation, or the order 
of a curve. 5. An abbreviation (a) of north 
or northern; (b) [/. c.] of noun (so used in this 
work) ; (c) [J. c.] of neuter; (d) [. c.] of nail (or 
iinil.-i), a measure. 

na (nil), adv. An obsolete or dialectal (Scotch) 
form of no 1 . 

Na. In chem., the symbol for sodium (NL. na- 
trium). 

N. A. An abbreviation (a) of North America, or 
North American; (b) of National Academy, or 
National Academician; (c) in microscopy, of 
numerical aperture VSIT objective). 

naamt, An archaic form of nanft. 

naambarr (nam'bar), n. [Australian.] The 
prii'kly ten-troo. Mfliileiien Kti//iliclinidcit, of New 
Smith Wales. It is a tall tree with hard wood, almost 
imperishable under ground, the bark in thin layers, used 
for thatching, etc. 

nab 1 (nab), r. t.; pret. and pp. nabbed, ppr. nab- 
bing. [Formerly a,\sok>uib, as var. of knap 1 ', but 
also nap, < Sw. nappa = Dan. nappe, catch, 
snatch at, seize: see ria/).] To catch or seize 
suddenly or by a sudden thrust and grasp, (a) 
To seize and make off with : as, to nab a purse, (ft) To cap- 
ture or arrest: as, he was tutbbed by the police. [Colloq.] 
Ay, but if so be a man 's nabbed, you know. 

Goldsmith, Good-natured Man, lit. 

nab 2 (nab), n. [For knab, var. of knap'*, as knob 
of knop. Cf. loel. nabbi, a knob, knoll.J 1. The 
summit of a mountain or rock ; any piece of 
rising ground : same as knob (c). 

Will you just turn this nab of heath, and walk into my 
house? B. Bronte, Wuthering Heights, xxl. (Danes.) 

2. The cock of a gun-lock. K. //. Knit/lit. 

3. A projecting box screwed to the jamb of a 
door, or to one door of a pair, to receive the 
latch or bolt, or both, of a rim-lock. 4t. A hat ; 
a head-covering. 

Kite. O(T with yonr hat ! 
Pear. Ise keep on my nab. 

FartpiJiar, Recruiting Officer, II. 3. 



There were those who preferred the Nab, or trencher 
hat, with the brim Hupping over their eyes. 

fielding, Jonathan Wild, II. 0. (Davit*.) 

Nabalus (nab'a-lus), n. [NL. (Cassini, 1826); 
according to Gray so called (in allusion to its 
lyrate leaves) < Or. v&ftta, a harp; according 
to others, from a N. Amer. name for the rattle- 
snake-root.] An important section of Prettan- 
tiies, containing all the American species, long 
regarded as a distinct genus of plants, the rat- 
tlesnake-roots. 

Nabataean, Nabatean (nab-a-te'an), a. and . 
[Also Nabathaan; < LL. Nabattn, Nabathtei, < 
Gr. Na/3oraM, also No/3dra<, < Heb. Nebhaydth : 
see def.] I. a. Of or pertaining to the Naba- 
i ii'ii s: as, Nabat<ean kings; Nabakean inscrip- 
tions. 

II. n. One of the Arab people dwelling in an- 
cient times on the east and southeast of Pales- 
tine, often identified with the people mentioned 
in the Old Testament under the name of Xebai- 
oth (Isa. Ix. 7), and in the first book of Macca- 
bees (v. 25) as Xabathites. Their ancestor Nebajoth 
is spoken of as the first-born of l8hmael(Oen. xxv. 13). They 
are referred to In Assyrian inscriptions of the seventh cen- 
tury B. c. , but the period of their greatest historical impor- 
tance was the century Immediately preceding and that im- 
mediately succeeding the Christian era. They seem to 
have been for a long time the chief traders between Egypt 
and the valley of the Euphrates. Important Nabatican 
inscriptions have been recovered, and the rock-inscrip- 
tions In the valleys around Mount Sinai have been attrib- 
uted to them. 

Nabathite (nab'a-thit), M. [As Nabath(<ean) + 
-ite 2 .] Same as Nabata-an. 

nab-cheatt, . [< ft 2 , 4, -I- cheafi.] A cap; a 
hat. 

Thus we throw up our nab-cheats, first for joy. 

Fletcher, Beggar's Bush, ii. 1. 

nabee (nab'e), . [. Iml. ] Same as hil.-ii. 

nabk (nabk), n. [Ar. (f).] One of the plants 
which is alleged to have furnished the crown 
of thorns, Zi:yph\is Spina-Christi, a bush of 
northern Africa and adjacent parts of Asia. 

nabob (na'bob), i. [Also (in defs. 1, 2) naicab; 
cf. F. nabob = Sp. nabob = Pg. nababo = It. iia- 
ba = G. nabob, a nabob (def. 3), < E.; < Hind. 
nawwdb, a deputy governor, < Ar. nawvab, pi. 
(used as sing., as a title of honor) of ndi&(> Turk. 
naib), a deputy, viceroy ; cf . naicb, supplying the 
place of another.] 1. A viceroy or governor of 
a province in India under the Mogul empire : as, 
the nabob of Oudh ; the nabob of Surat. The na- 
bob was, properly speaking, a subordinate pro- 
vincial governor, wno acted under a soubah or 
viceroy. 2. An honorary title occasionally 
conferred upon Mohammedans of distinction. 
3. An Anglo-Indian who has acquired great 
wealth and lives in Eastern luxury; hence, any 
very rich and luxurious man. [Colloq.] 

He that goes out an insignificant hoy in a few years re- 
turns a great Nabob. 

Burke, On Fox's E. I. Bill (Works, ed. 1852, III. 506). 

The Indian adventurer, or, as he was popularly called, 

the Nabob, was now a conspicuous and a very unpopular 

figure in Parliament. Lecky. Eng. In 18th Cent., xiii. 

nacarat (nak'a-rat), n. [< F. nacarat, < Sp. Pg. 
iiiii-antiln, < Sp. ndcar, Pg. nacar, mother-of- 
pearl, nacre: see nacre.] 1. Alight-red color: 
scarlet. 

A small box I had bought for its brilliancy, of sometroplc 
shell of the colour called nacarat. C. Bronte, Villette, xxix. 

2. A crape or fine linen fabric dyed fugitively 
of this tint, and used by women to give a rose- 
ate hue to their complexions. Brande. 

nachet, An obsolete variant of natch*. 

nache-bonet, . An obsolete variant of natcli- 

lnu : . 

nacker , . Another spelling of knacker?. 
nacket (nak'et), n. [Cf. OF. naquer,bite, gnaw.] 

1. A small cake or loaf. 2. A luncheon; a 

piece of bread eaten at noon. 

Trlptolemus . . . seldom saw hah* so good a dinner as 

his guest's luncheon, . . . and even tin- lady herself . . . 

"could not but say that the young gentleman's nacket 

looked very good." Scott, Pirate, xi. 

S927 



3. A small parcel or packet. [Scotch in all 
uses.] 

nacre (na'ker), n. [Formerly naker ; < F. nacre, 
OF. nacaire = Pr. necari = 8p. ndcar, ndcara = 
Pg. nacar = It. naccaro, nacehera, ynacchera. na- 
cre, < ML. nacara, nacrr, nacrum, a pearl-shell, 
nacre; cf. Kurdish nakdra, an ornament of dif- 
ferent colors, nacre, < Ar. nakir, hollowed out, 
mil i-iil. small round hollow, niikuni, hollow out ; 
Heb. ndkar, dig, nekdrdh, a pit. Cf. naker 1 .'] 
Mother-of-pearl. Nacre of commercial value is ob- 
tained from many sources, as the top-shells (Tvrbinida). 
tower-shells (Trocluda), earshells (Ualiotida), river-mus- 
sels (Unitiuida), pearl-oyster shells (Aviculida), etc. 

nacr6 (nak-ra ), a. [F., < nacre, nacre: see 
nacre.] Having an iridescence resembling that 
of mother-of-pearl; nacreous: a French word 
applied in English to decorative objects: as, 
nacre" porcelain. 

nacreous (na'kre-us), a. [< nacre + -o.] 1. 
Consisting of, resembling, or pertaining to 
nacre or mother-of-pearl : as, a nacreous luster ; 
a nacreous layer. 2. Producing or possessing 
nacre, as shells which have a certain luster or 
lustrous laver on their inner surface. 

naddet, nadt. Contracted Middle English forms 
of ne hadde, had not. Chaucer. 

naddert (nad'er), n. [< ME. nadder, naddre, ned- 
dre, an adder: see adder 1 .] The earlier form 
of adder 1 . 

U servant traytour, false, hoomly bewe, 
Lyk to the naddre [var. nedder] in bosom sly, untrewe. 
L'haucer, Merchant s Tale, 1. 542. 

The! speke not, but thel maken a maner of hlssynge, as 
a Neddre dothe. MandeviUe, Travels, p. 205. 

nadir (na'der), . [< ME. nadir, < OF. nadir, 
nadair, F. nadir = Sp. Pg. It. nadir, < Ar. Pers. 
nazir, in full narir asgamt, nadir, lit. corre- 
sponding to the zenith, < nazir, alike, corre- 
sponding (< nazara, be alike), + as-samt, the 
zenith, the azimuth: see azimuth, zenith.] 1. 
That point of the heavens which is vertically 
below anv station upon the earth, it is diametri- 
cally opposite to the zenith, or point of the heavens verti- 
cally above the station. The zenith and the nadir are thus 
the two pole* of the horizon, the nadir being the Inferior 
pole. 

The two theories differed as widely as the zenith from 
the nadir In their main principles. 

Hawthorne, Bllthedale Romance, vil. 

Hence 2. The lowest point; the point of ex- 
treme depression. 

The reign of William the Third, as Mr. Hallam happily 
says, was the Nadir of the national prosperity. 

Macaulay, UiUam's Const. Hist. 

Nadir of the sun, in aitron., the axis of the conical shad- 
ow cast by the earth. Crabb. I Hare-] 

nadir-basin (na'der-ba'sn), n. A vessel of 
mercury used for observing the nadir with a 
meridian-circle. 

nadorite (nad'or-it), n. [< Nador (see def.) + 
-ite 2 .] A mineral containing antimony, lead, 
oxygen, and chlorin, occurring in brownish or- 
thorhombic crystals at Djebel-Nador in Algeria. 

nadst, n. [A form of adz, due to misdivision of 
an aj.] An adz. 

An ax and a nods to make troffe for thy bogs. 

Turner, Husbandrle, p. 36. 

nae (na), a. A Scotch form of no 2 . 

naenia, . See nenia. 

naething (na'thing), n. A Scotch form of no- 
thin/i. 

naeve, neve 4 (nev), n. [< L. ncevus, mole, a birth- 
mark, spot, blemish : see neru.] 1. A blemish 
on the skin, as a mole or blotch ; a birth-mark; 
a mi' vns. 

So many spots, like tumt, our Venus soil? 

Drydm, Death of Lord Hastings, 1. 55. 

Hence 2. A blemish of any kind. 

Besides these outward litre* or open faults, errors, there 
be many Inward Infirmities. Burton, Anat, of Mel., p. 539. 

naevi, . Plural of HOT**. 
naevoid (ne'void). a. [< nterus + -oid.] Re- 
sembling a nsevus. 



neevose 

(ne'vos), . [< Nlj. *TOXM: sor 
] Saino as nrrriiiut. 

nseVOUS (ne'vus), . [< NL. *M(IT</.V,V, < L. 1111- 
nix, mole, wart, a birth-mark: see naxus.] 
Spotted, as if marked with naavi. 

naevus (ne'vus), n. ; pi. <P! (-vi). [L., a mole, 
wart, birth-mark, spot, a blemish, prob. for 
"giKEVus, < ^ gna, produce, bear, ingnatiis, na- 
IHX, born, nasci, be bom: see natal 1 , few 2 .] 1. 
A congenital local discoloration of the skin, in- 
cluding nsevus vascularis and neevus pigmento- 
sus. Also called birtlt-mark, mother's mark, and 
nanjus maternus. Compare mole 1 . Hence 2. 
In zool., a spot or mark resembling a nrevus. 
Naevus plgmentosus, a pigmented mole; a spot of ex- 
cessive pigmentation on the skin, with more or less hy- 
pertrophy of corium, epidermis, or epidermal structures 
(hairs). The pigment is found both in the rete mncosnm 
and in the corium. NS9VUS pilosus, a pigmented mole 
with an excessive growth of hair. Also called ncevuspi- 
laris. Nsevus spilus, a smooth pigmented mole. Nse- 
vus unius lateris, a pigmented mole of a kind the dis- 
tribution of which corresponds to that of one or more 
cutaneous nerves. Also called papSloma neuropathicum. 
Nrovus vascularis, a vascular nsevus, an angioma of 
the skin or skin and subcutaneous tissue, which may or 
may not rise above the level of surrounding skin, may be 
from a bright-red to a dark-purple color, according to its 
depth, and may be small or very extensive. Also called 
strawberry-mark and claret-cheek. Naevus verrucoaus, 
a pigmented mole with a warty surface. 

nag 1 (nag), !. ; pret. and pp. nagged, ppr. nag- 
ging. [Also written knag ; prop, (orig.) gnag, 
related to gnaw as drag to draw ; cf . Sw. Norw. 
nugga, gnaw, nibble, tease ; a secondary form 
of the verb represented by gnaw, q. v.] I. 
trans. 1. To nick; chip; slit. Halliwell. [Prov. 
Eng. ] 2. To irritate or annoy with continued 
scolding, petty faultfinding, or urging ; pester 
with continual complaints ; torment ; worry. 

You always heard her nagging the maids. 

Dickens, Ruined by Railways. 

Is it pleasing to ... have your wife nag-nagging you 
because she has not been invited to the Lady Chancellor - 
ess's soiree or what not ? 

Thackeray, Lovel the Widower, iii. 

II. intrans. To scold pertinaciously; find 
fault constantly. 

Forgive me for nagffinrj ; I am but a woman. 

C. Reade, Cloister and Hearth, xcvii. 

nag 1 (nag), n. [< nag 1 , v.] A nick ; a notch. 

A tree they cut, wi' fifteen naggs upo' ilk side. 

Jock o' the Side (Child's Ballads, VI. 83). 

nag 2 (nag), n. [Formerly also neg, Sc. naig, 
early mod. E. nagge ; < ME. nagge, < MD. 
negge, negghe, D. negge, a small horse ; akin to 
iteigli 1 , q. v.] 1. Ahorse, especially a poor or 
small horse. 

He neyt as a nagge at his nosethrilles ! 

Destruction o/ Troy (E. E. T. S.), 1. 7727. 
Like the forced gait of a shuffling nag. 

Shak., 1 Hen. IV., iii. 1. 186. 

I saw but one horse in all Venice, . . . and that was a 
little bay nagge. Coryat, Crudities, I. 287. 

2f. A worthless person ; as applied to a woman, 
a jade. Sltak., 2 Hen. IV., ii. 4. 205. [Slang.] 

Yon ribaudred nag of Egypt [Cleopatra], 
Whom leprosy o'ertake ! 

Shak., A. and C., iii. 10. 10. 
Gull with bombast lines the witless sense 
Of these odd nagg, whose pates' circumference 
Is flll'd with froth. 

Marston, Scourge of Villainy, vi. 64. 

nag 3 (nag), . [Cf. knag.] A wooden ball used 
in the game of shinty or hockey. [North of 
Ireland. ] 

Naga, n. See Naja. 

Nagari (na'ga-re), n. [Skt. nagari (Hind. na- 
gri), dem-nayari (Hind, dev-ndgri) ; < nagara, 
city, town.] An Indian alphabet especially 
well known as used for Sanskrit. Also called 
Deva-nagari. 

The most important group of Indian alphabets is the 
Nagari, or, as it is usually called, the Devanagari. 

Isaac Taylor, The Alphabet, II. 349. 

nagdana (uag-da'na), ii. [E. Ind.] A resin of 
a deep transparent red color, from an unde- 
termined burseraceous tree of India, it exudes 
freely during the hot months, and much finds its way into 
the ground, whence it is dug after the tree has disap- 
peared. Also called loban. Spans' Encyc. Manuf. 

naget, n. A Middle English variant of natch*. 

nagelfluh (na'gel-flo), n. [G. dial., < nagel, 
nail, + fltih, the wall of a rock.] In Switzer- 
land, a coarse conglomerate forming a part of 
the series called the Molasse by Swiss geolo- 
gists. These rocks are of Oligocene Tertiary age, and 
are conspicuously displayed in the Right and its vicinity. 
Sometimes culled yumpfwlite. 

nagesar, . Same as Htti/kriKtuir. 

nagger (nag'er), n. [< nag 1 + -eel.] <j ue wno 
nags; a scold; a tease. 



3928 

Haggle (iiiiK'l). ''. '.: pret. and pp. ,/<//"/. ppr. 
Haggling. [Freq. of nag 1 , v. (?).] To toss tin- 
head in a stiff and affected manner. Halthn !/. 

naggont (nag'on), . [Dim. of w</ 2 .] Same as 
nay*. [Bare.] 

Wert thou George with thy nagrjon, that foughtst with 
the draggon, or were you great Pompey, my verse should 
bethumpe ye, if you, like a javel, against me dare cavil. 
./oft?! Taylor, Works (1630). (Nares.) 

naggy 1 (nag'i), . [Otaj/ 1 + -y 1 .] 1. Inclined 
to nag or pester with continued complaints 
or petty faultfinding. 2. Irritable. Halliwell. 
[Prov. Eng.] 

naggy 2 (nag'i), n. ; pi. nangies (-iz). [Dim. of 
nag'*.] A little nag. 

Yet here is [a] white-footed nagie, 
I think he'll carry baith thee and me. 

Dick o' the Cow (Child's Ballads, VI. 80). 

nagkassar (nag-kas 'iir). . [Also nagesar, nag- 
kesur, nagkushur; < Hind, nagesar, the plant Me- 
sua ferrea or its flowers, the Indian rose-chest- 
nut. ] One of two allied Indian trees, Ochrocar- 
pus (Calysacdon) longifolius and Mesua ferrea ; 
also, and more commonly, their flower-buds, 
which are used by the natives for perfume and 
for dyeing silk yellow and orange: once im- 
ported into England. The former species is also 
called suriga Nagkassar-oll. See Mesua. 

nagor (na'gor), n. [African.] 1. The Senegal 
antelope, Cenicapra redtinca, a rietbok or reed- 




Nagfor (Cervicapra rettunca). 

buck of western Africa, having the horns curved 
forward. Also called wanto. 2. [cap.] A ge- 
nus of reedbucks : synonymous with Cermcapra. 
Ogilby. 

nag-tailed (nag'tald), o. [Appar. < nag 1 + tail 1 
+ -ed 2 .] Having the tail nicked or docked. 

In 1799 nag-tailed horses were ordered to be ridden [by 
the cavalry regiment Scots Greys]. 

N. and Q., 7th ser., VIII. 34. 

nagyagite (naj'a-git), n. [< Nagyag (see def.) 
+ -ite*.] A native telluride of lead and gold. 
It occurs usually in foliated masses (and hence is also call- 
ed foliated tellurium), rarely crystallized, and of a blackish 
lead-gray color and brilliant metallic luster. It is found at 
Nagyag in Transylvania and elsewhere. 

nahor-oil (na'h6r-oil), n. [E. Ind.] See Mesua. 

Naia, . See Naja. 

Naiad (na'yad), . [= F. naiade, < L. Naiax 
(Naiad-), pi. Naiades, = Gr. NnMf , pi. Nalid&f, a 
water-nymph, < vdtiv, flow, akin to vavf, a ship : 
see nave 2 .] 1. In Gr. and Horn, myth., a water- 
nymph ; a female deity presiding over springs 
and streams. The Naiads were represented as beauti- 
ful young girls with their heads crowned with flowers, 
light-hearted, musical, and beneficent. 
2. [/. c.] In bot., a plant of the genus Naias; 
also, sometimes, any plant of the Naiadacea;. 

Naiadacese (na-ya-da'se-e), n.pl. [NL. (Lind- 
ley, 1845), < Naias (Naiad-) + -accce.] An or- 
der of monocotyledonous water-plants, of the 
series Apocarpeai, typified by the genus Naias, 
and characterized by a free ovary without en- 
velops or with a herbaceous perianth, usually 
of two or four segments. About 120 speciesare known. 
in 16 genera, growing in fresh or salt water. They have 
small flowers, often in terminal spikes, submerged or float- 
ing leaves or both, with parallel veins, and often with pe- 
culiar sheathing stipules in their axils. The largest genus 
is Potamagelon, the pond-weeds. The arrow-grass, ditch- 
grass, and grass-wrack also belong here. Also Naiadaf, 
Naiades. 

naiadaceous(na-ya-da'shius),. Iii bot., of, per- 
taining to, or of the nature of the Naiadacea:. 



Suiting Plant of 

.Vaiasjlexilis. 

a, the fruit. 



nail 

Naiadae (na'ya-de), n./il. Same us \iiiinliir<-ii\ 

Naiadeae (na-yad'f-e), w. />/. [N'U (Agardh. 

1822), < Nit/a* (Naiarl-) + -ete.'] A tribe of 

Naiadacna', consisting of the genus Naias; the 

naiads or water-nymphs. 

Naiades (nii'va-dez), n. pi. [L., < Gr. Nm<!tf, 
pi. of Na'idf (} L. Ntiias), a water-nymph: see 
Naiad.] 1. In Gr. and Horn, myth., the Naiads. 

Circe with the sirens three, 
Amidst the flowery-kirtled Naiades. 

Milton, Comus, 1. 254. 

2. [NL.] In l>ot., same as Naiadacea: A. I,, 
de Jitxsieu, 1789. 

naiant (na'yant), a. [< OF. natant, naant, ppr. 
of naier, naer, < L. nature, swim: see natant.] 
In lier., in the attitude of swim- 
ming: said of a fish used as a 
bearing. See cut under n/i/nnl. 

Naias (na'yas), n. [NL. (Linnae- 
us, 1737), < L. Naias, < Gr. Naiof, 
a Naiad or water-nymph: see 
Naiad.] A genus of immersed 
aquatic plants, type of the order 
Naiadacea; and the tribe Naiadew, 
known by the axillary flowers and 
a solitary carpel with one basilar 
ovule. There are about 10 species, in 
fresh water, both tropical and" temper- 
ate. They are usually delicate plants, 
with a filiform creeping rootstock, slen- 
der linear leaves, and minute flowers in 
the axils. The species are called naiad 
or irater-nymph. 

Naididae (na-id'i-de), n. pi. [NL., 
< Nais (Naid-) + -idee.] A fam- 
ily of oligocheetous annelids, rep- 
resented by the genus Nais. They 
are small aquatic or limicoline worms 
with a delicate thin skin and colorless 
blood, abundant in fresh-water pools. 
Though they lay eggs in the ordinary 
way, they also have a remarkable mode 
of asexual reproduction by a process of 
budding, through which one individual 
becomes two. See cut under Nate. 

naif (na-ef ' ), a. [= D. naif, naief 
= G. Sw. Dan. naif; < F. naif, < L. nativus, 
native, rustic, simple : see native.] 1. Ingenu- 
ous; artless; natural: the masculine form, name 
being the corresponding feminine (but used 
also, in English, without regard to gender: see 
naive). 2. Having a natural luster: applied 
by jewelers to precious stones. 

nail (nal), n. [Early mod. E. alsonayle; < ME. 
naile, nayle, neile, < AS. ncegel (in inflection 
naigl-), a nail of the finger or toe, a nail of metal, 
= OS. nagal = OFries. neil, nil = T>. nagel = MLG. 
LG. nagel = OHG. nagal, MHG. G. nagel, a nail 
of the fingerortoe,anail of metal, = Icel. nagl = 
Sw. nagel = Dan. negl, a nail of the finger or toe, 
= Icel. nagli = Sw. nagel = Dan. nagle = Goth. 
"nagls (in deriv. verb ga-nagljan, fasten with 
nails), a nail of metal; cf. OBulg. noguti=8erv. 
nokat = Bohem. ticket = Pol. iiogiec = Buss, no- 
goti= Lith. iiagas, a nail, claw, = Skt. naklia, a 
nail of the finger or toe. Not related, or related 
only remotely, by a doubtful transposition, with 
Olr. inga, Ir. ionga = lj. ^tngms=GT. 6vuf (bmx-), 

. a nail, claw (see ungulate, onyx). The sense of 
'a nail of metal' occurs early (in Goth., etc. ), but 
it is derived from that of a ' nail ' or ' claw.'] 1 . 
A thin, flat, blunt layer of 
horn growing on the up- 
per side of the end of a 
finger or toe. A nail, tech- 
nically called unguis, consists 
of horny substance, which is 
condensed and hardened epi- 
dermis, the same as that form- 
ing the horns, hoofs, and claws 
of various animals. A claw is a sharp curved nail ; a hoof 
is a blunt nail large enough to inclose the end of a digit. 
The white mark at the base of the human nail is called 
the lumda. 
Pare clene thy nailes. Babeta Book (E. E. T. S.X p. 28. 

With their sharp Nails, themselves the Satyrs wound. 
Congreve, Death of Queen Slary, 

2. In entoni., the uncus. 3. In ornith., the 
hard horny end of the bill of any lamellirostral 
bird, as a duck or goose. It is usually quite distinct 
from the skinny part of the bill, and resembles a human 
finger-nail. A similar formation, but more claw-like, oc- 
cupies the end of the upper mandible of various other 
water-birds, as the pelican. 

4. The callosity on the inner side of a horse's leg 
nearthe knee or the hock. 5. A pin or slender 
piece of metal used for driving through or into 
wood or other material for the purpose of hold- 
ing separate pieces together, or left projecting 
that things may be hung on it. Nails usually ta- 
per to a point (often Munt), are flattened transversely at 
the larger end {the head), and are rectangular or round 
in section. Very large and heavy n:iils :ire called Bribes ; 



Cross-section of Human Nail, 

enlarged. 

f>, the nail ; a, lateral fold of 
skin ; c, bed of the nail, with its 
ridges. 



nail 

mill a small am I thin null, with u heiul 1'iit -nlill> ik'tlni-il, 
i8 called .\in,i,i. 'I In i. :u r i In,, leading distinctions of 
Iron nails as respects the modMof mAnoiauturc -r<>i"i!,i 

mi, :ui,l runt. Sails are saiii t" IK- 7-pimnil nails, 8-pound 




Naik. 
(i, rose-nail : sharp point, flat head showing facets, square 1 



.ink i 



Mil : lt.it {Miint, Miu.irc -.li.oiL ; < , < I.IM>-II.II| : bastard (medi- 
um) thickness, barbed lieait. s'|u.ire shank ; a. clout-nail t fine [x.int, 
ri.it i::icular head, round shank; t, cmintcrcluitt-n.iil -. countersunk 
h< i.l. II. ii j.nmt. K.niiM sh.ink ; /, ilii;-ii.iil : f.u i-icil head, roun<l 
shank, fine point; g, kent. hurdle n.ul l.n>i Him rote-head, Hat 
shank, spear-point, fore linching; h, rose-clinch nail: rose-head, square 
point, either clinched or riveted down on a washer or rove ; i, tn.rse- 

lill countaiwnk head, square shank, line- point; j. brad: 
billed head, square shank, fine point. 

nails, etc., according as 1,000 of the variety in question 
weigh 7 pounds or 8 pounds, etc.; hence such phrase* as 
sixpenny, eii/Min'nnii, mid tenpenny nails, in which penny, 
It Is saiil, retains Its old meaning of pound weight. 

And In the mydys of the Sterr ys on of naylis that ower 
Savyr Crist was crucifyed with. 

Torkington, Dlarie of Eng. Travell, p. 4. 

How many a vulgar Cato has compelled 
His energies, no longer tameless men, 
'lo mould a pin, or fabricate a nail? 

Shelley, Queen Mali. v. 9. 

6. A stud or boss ; a short metallic pin with a 
broad head serving for ornament. 7. Same as 
shooting-needle. 8. A unit of English cloth- 
measure, 2J inches, or ]' - of a yard. Abbre- 
viated H. 9. A weight of eight pounds: gen- 
erally applied to articles of food. Halliwell. 
[Prov. Eng.] Countersunk nail, a nail having a 
cone-shaped head, like that of a screw. Cut nail, a nail 
made by a nail-machine, as distinguished from a wrought 
or forged nail. On the nail, on the spot ; at once ; im- 
mediately ; without delay or postponement : as, to pay 
money on the nail. [This phrase is said to have originated 
in the custom of making payments, in the Exchange at 
Bristol, England, and elsewhere, on the top of a pillar 
called "the nail.") 

What legacy would you bequeathe me now. 
And pay it OH the nail, to tly my fury V 

Fletcher, Spanish Curate, r. 2. 

To drive the nail. See drive. To hit the nail on the 
head, to hit or touch the exact point : used In a figurative 
sense. 

Venus tels Vulcan, Mars shall shooe her steed, 
For he it is that hits the naile o' the- head. 

Wits' Keereatioia (1054). (Xarei.) 

To put or drive a nail In one's coffin. See coffin. 
nail (mil), c. /. [< ME. miili'ii, mii/lcii, < AS. no;- 
glinn =OS. iifglian =D. MLG. nagelen = OHG. 
Hiii/nlen, MHG. imiii-li-ii, (i. ninjeln = Sw. naala 
= Dan. luigle = Goth, ga-iiiigljan, fasten with 
nails; from the noun.] 1. To fix or fasten with 
a nail or with nails; drive nails into for the 
purpose of fastening or securing: often with a 
preposition and an object, or with an adverb, to 
denote the result : as, to nail up a box ; to nail a 
shelf to the wall; to nail doicn the hatches; to 
imil a joist into place; to nail it buck. 

ij. lytell bynches by euery syde, on by the chymuey, on 
nayled to the walle. English Gilds (E. E. T. S.), p. 327. 

Take your arrows, 
And nat7 these monsters to the earth t 

Fletcher (and another), Sea Voyage, 111. 1. 

2. To stud with nails. 

The rivets of your anus were nail'd with gold. Dryden. 

3. Figuratively, to pin down and hold fast; 
make secure: as, to nail a bargain. 

We had lost the boats at Oondokoro, and wo were now 
nailed to the country for another year. 

Sir S. W. Baiter, Heart of Africa, xxli. 

4. To secure by a prompt action ; catch. [Col- 
loq.] 

Mrs. Oglcton had already ntiilett the cab, a vehicle of all 
others the best adapted for a smii: tlitt:ition. 

Barnaul, InjroMsliy Legends, I. '25. 

5. To make certain; attest; confirm; clinch. 

Ev'n ministers, they ha'e been kenn'd, 

In holy rapture, 
A rouslni; wind at times to vend, 

\n' null 't wi' Scripture. 

Sunn, Death and Doctor Hornbook. 

6. To trip up; detect and expose, as in an error. 
[Colloq.f 

When tlii v r:mie to talk of places in town, you saw at 
once how I nailed them. Ooldsmith, Vicar, xii. 

7t. To spike (a cannon). 8. .\iiat., to spoil; 
trust rate the purpose nf: make unlucky: as, to 
imil the trip (that is, spoil the voyage). To nail 
to the counter, to put (a counterfeit coin) out of circula- 
tion by fastening it ith a nail to the counter of a shop; 
hence, tigm-utivf]), to 4X] :uul thus render in- 

nocuous: us. to nail a lie to the counter, [rolloq.] 



3929 

A few-familiar facts . . . have been suffered to pass cur* 
rent so long that It U time they should be nailed to the 
counter. 0. W. Holmes, Med. Essays, p. 07. 

nail-bone (nal'bon), . 1. The lacrymal bone, 
or os iingiiis: so called from its size and shape 
in man, in which respects it resembles a thumb- 
nail. See liii-ri/iiKil, H., and cut under*/, nil. 2. 
The terminal phalanx of a digit which bears a 
nuil. 

nailbourne (nal'born), n. [Formerly also nmjl- 
linrin ; < imil (f) + fMwm->, burn 2 .] An inter- 
mittent spring in the Cretaceous, and espe- 
cially in the Lower Greensand; a channel 
filled at a time of excessive rainfall, when the 
plane of saturation of the chalk rises to a higher 
level than usual. The running of one of these bourns 
was formerly considered "a token of derthe, or of peaty- 
lence, or of grete batayle." Also called simply bourn and 
bourne both In Kent and Surrey ; also bourn and muter- 
bourn In Hants and further west The term tenant Is also 
used in Hampshire and West Sussex, and gipsy in York- 
shire. 

nail-brush (nal'brush), 11. A small brush for 
cleaning the finger-nails. 

nailer (na'ler), n. [< nail + -er 1 .] 1. One who 
nails. 2. One whose occupation is the mak- 
ing of nails; also, one who sells nails. 

As nailers and locksmiths their fame has spread even to 
the European markets. Disraeli, Sybil, 111. 4. 

naileress (na'ler-es), . [< nailer + -ess.] A 
female nail-maker. Hugh Mil- 
ler. [Rare.] 

nailery (na'ler-i), n.; pi. nailer- 
ies (-iz). [< nail + -try.] An 
establishment where nails are 
made. 

Near the bridge is a large almshouse 
and a vast naUeru. 

Pennant. (Latham. ) 

nail-extractor (ual'eks-trak*- 

tor), n. An implement in 

which are combined nipping- 
claws for grasping the head of 

a nail and a fulcrum and lever 

for drawing it from its socket. 
nail-fiddle (nal'fid'l), . A 

German musical instrument, 

invented in 1750, consisting of 

a graduated series of metallic 

rods, which were sounded by 

means of a bow. 
nail-file (ual'fil), . A small 

flat single-cut file for trimming 

the finger-nails. It forms part of 

the furniture of a dressing-case, or Is 

cut on the blade of a penknife or nail- crum, rests'upon the 

scissors. board or Aaor f '"> 

nail-head (nal'hed),. 1. The S*lyf S 
head of a nail.-S. In arch., a g^/Jj'J 
medieval ornament. See nail- the movement of the 

lii-inlcil.- Nail-head spar, a vari- MJMJ'SSS 
ety of calcite, so named in allusion to the nail, 
the shape of the crystals. 

nail-headed (nal'hed'ed), a. 1. Shaped so as 
to resemble the head of a nail. 2. Ornament- 
ed with round spots whether in relief or in col- 
or, as textile fabrics Nail-headed characters. 
Same as arrow-headed characters 
(which see, under arrow-headed). 
Nail-headed molding, in arch., a 
form of molding common In Eo* 
manesque architecture, so named 
from being cut Into a series of 
quadrangular pyramidal projections 
resembling the heads of nails. 

nailing-machine (na'liug-ma- 
shen*), n. A machine for 
forcing or driving nails into 
place, (a) In carp., a feeding- 
tube for the nails, connected with a 
plunger or reciprocating hammer. 
(M In shoeinaking, a power-machine 
closely allied to the shoe-pegger, 
used to drive small metallic nails or 
brads into the soles of shoes. 

nail-machine (nal'ma-sheii*), n. A power- 
machine for making nails, spikes, brads, or 

tacks. 

nail-maker (nal'ma'ker), n. One who makes 

nails: a nailer; a person engaged in any capa- 
city in the manufacture of nails. 

nail-plate (uaTplat). n. A plate of metal roll- 
ed to the proper thickness for cutting into nails. 

nail-rod (nal'rod). . A strip split or cut from 
an iron plate to be made into wrought nails. 

nail-selector (nal'se-lek'tor), . A machine, 
or an attachment tii a nail-machine, for auto- 
matically throwing out headless or otherwise 
ill-formed nails and slivers. 

nail-tailed inal'tald). n. Having a horny e\- 
i-ivscencc on the end of the tail: as. the iniil- 
/iiilul kangaroo. .V/ocrc/uw nmjiiifii'. 



naively 

nailwort dial' w.'-rt), ;/. It. A plant. /),/, 
limn: al-o. *n nfi'ii/ii Iriilin-ljilili -. ii'Hird. 
2. A plant of tin'' gWtlU riiriniii'-liiii. 

nain (nan), a. [Sc., < mini- '", misiliviil< 
IHI/ niiin: see ///, ii''.] Own. Hl naln, hi 
own. 

nainsell (nftn'tel), /'. [< ;< (./, misili- 

Villeil IIS IHI/ HIlillKlll . .m If. Si I- 

mini.] Own self. [Highland Scotch.] 

Her (his| naintell didna mak ta road an shentlemans 
llklt grand roads, she suld hac plded at clasco. 

Scott, Rob Boy, xxx. 

nainsook (nan'suk), . [< Hind. MfcUMJU. In- 
dian muslin; cf. nuiini. sprigged muslin. J A 
kind of muslin similar to jaconet, but thicker. 
originally made in Bengal. It is made both 
plain and striped, the stripe running the length 
of the stuff. 

nainzook. " Same as iinii<*i"i/:. 

NaiS ( mi' is .), n. [NL., < L. Nats, < Gr. No/f, var. 
of Namr, L. Saias, a water-nymph: see \nintl. ] 
1. The leading genus of AniWiV/Vc, having the 





d 

Nail -extractor. 

a, handle ; A ami < . 

ntagonulng levers 

ith clinchers, c and 

f, acting as a ful- 




Natesant 

Demi-lion nais&aut 
from a fes&e. 




Nail-headed Mold. 
ing. Ducal palace, 
Venice. 



Afel* frotescidta. much enlarged. 

prostomium elongated into a proboscis, the dor- 
sal parapodia simply filamentous, and the ven- 
tral hamulate. A . proboscide a is an example. 
Also called Ktylaria. 2. [I.e.] A worm of this 
genus. 

naissant (na'sant), a. [< F. nainsaiit, < L. na- 
seen(t-)n, being born, nascent: 
see nascent.] Nascent; newly 
born or about to be born or 
brought forth ; specifically, in 
her., rising or coming forth : said 
of a beast which is represented 
as emerging from the middle of 
an ordinary as a f esse, and in this 
way differing from innuant. 

Under pressure of the Revolution, 
which It was expected would give birth 
to the Empire, the German Sovereigns in 1848 had made a 
show of clubbing together, so to speak, for a navy which 
should defend the naissant Empire's coasts. 

Lowe, Bismarck, I. 184. 

nait't, . [ME. nait, nayt, < Icel. neytr, fit, fit 
for use : cf. ncyta, use (see nait 1 , t?. ), < tijota (= 
AS. nedtan, etc.), use: see note'A] Fit; able. 
Of all his sones for sothe, that seinely were holdyn, 
Non was so noble, ne of nait strenght, 
As Ector, the i Mist, & aire to hym selnyn. 

Destruction of Troy (E. E. T. 8.), 1. 3878. 

nait't, '. '. [ME. naiten, naytcn, < Icel. neylii. 
use, make use of, < ujota, use : see nait 1 , .] To 
use; employ. 

The burd bowet from the bede, broght hym In haste 
An ymage full nobill, that he ttaite shulde. 

Destruction qf Troy (E. E. T. 8.), 1. 776. 

nait-t, f. '. [ME. naiten, not/ten, < Icel. neita (= 
Dan. naigte), deny, < nei, nay: see nay. Cf. nite, 
and nay, c.] To deny ; disclaim. 
He shal nat nayte ne denye his symii-. 

Chaucer, Parson's Tale. 

naithlesst, ade. A form of iiitthi-li-xx. 
naitlyt (nat'li), orfc. [ME., < naift, a., + -ty*.] 
Fully; completely. 

All his nauy full nobill naytly were lost, 
And i ft i- fro the rynke. 

Destruction of Troy (E. E. T. S.\ 1. 13112. 

naive (nU-ev'), a. [< F. natrr, fern, of tiaff(ct. 
>uiif),<. L. iiittifits, native, rustic, simple: see 
Native.] 1. Simple; unsophisticated; ingenu- 
ous; artless. 

Little Lilly . . . would listen to his conversation and 
remarks, which were almost as naire and unsophisticated 
as her own. Harryat, Snarleyyow. 

2. In iiliilii*.. nnreflective : uncritical, 
thought Is characterized by making deductions fiom prop- 
ositions never consciously asserted. =8jTL 1. frank. In 
ffcnuous, etc. See candid. 

naively (nii-ev'li), ntlr. hi a naive manner: 
with native or unaffected simplicity. 

She divided the flsh into thieo parts: . . . helped (7ay 
to the head, me to the middle, and, making the rest nnu-li 
the larL'i-st p:u-t. to<ik it herself, and crietl. \ 
111 be content with my own tail. 

Pope, Letter to Several Ladlea. 



naiivet6 

naivet6 (na-ev-ta'), n. [F., < LL. nativito(t-)s, 
nativeness: see nativity, naif, noire.] Native 
simplicity; a natural unreserved expression of 
sentiments and thoughts without regard to con- 
ventional rules, and without weighing the con- 
struction which may be put upon the language 
or conduct. 

Mrs. M'Catchley was amused and pleased with his fresh- 
ness and na'ivett, so unlike anything she had ever heard 
or seen. liulwer, My Novel, v. 8. 

naivety (na-ev'ti), n. [< naive + -ty.~\ Same 
as naivete. 

Naja (na'ja), . [NL., also Naia, Naga, < Hind. 
nag, a snake.] A genus of very venomous ser- 
pents, of the family Elapidce or made the type 
of a family Najidce, having the skin of the neck 
distensible into a kind of hood, the anal scute 
entire, the urosteges two-rowed, and no post- 
parietal plates; the cobras. The common cobra of 
India is N. tripudians; the asp of Africa is N. haje. See 
cute under asp2 and cobra-de-capello. 
Najidae (naj'i-de), n.pl. [NL., < Naja + -idee.] 
A family of very venomous serpents, of the order 
Ophidia, typified by the genus Naja; the cobras. 
naket (nak), v. t. [ME. naken, < AS. nation, 
also be-nacian (rare), make naked : see naked.] 
To make naked. [Rare.] 
O nyce men, why mice ye yowre backes? 

Chaucer, Boethius, iv. meter 7. 
Come, be ready, nake your swords, 
Think of your wrongs ! 

Toumeur, Revenger's Tragedy, v. 

naked (na'ked), a. [< ME. naked, < AS. nacod, 
naced, naked (> nwced, nakedness), = OFries. 
nakad, naked = D. naakt = MLG. naket, nakent, 
nakendich = LG. naked, nakd = OHG. nacchut, 
naKhut, nachot, MHG. nacket, nackent, G. nackt, 
nackend (dial, also nackig, nachtig) = Icel. nok- 
vidhr, later naktr = Goth, nakwaths = Ir. nochd 
= W. noeth = L. nudus (for *novdus, "noavidus ?) 
(> It. Sp. Pg. nudo = F.nu = E. nude), also with 
diff. term. OFries. naken = Icel. nakinn = Sw. 
naken = Dan. ni>gen = Skt. nagna, naked; these 
being appar. orig. pp. forms in -erf 2 and -en 1 re- 
spectively; but no verb appears in the earliest 
records (the verb nake being a back formation, 
of laterorigin); also, akintoOBulg. nagu= Serv. 
nag = Bohem. nahy = Pol. nagi = Russ. nagot = 
Lith. nogas = Lett. noks, naked; root unknown.] 

1. Unclothed; without clothing or covering; 
bare ; nude : as, a naked body or limb. The word 
is sometimes used in the English Bible and in other trans- 
lations in the sense of scantily clad that is, having no- 
thing on but a short tunic or shirt-like undergarment, with- 
out the long sheet-like mantle or outer garment. 

There we wesshe vs and bayned vs all nakyd in the wa- 
ter of Jordan, trustynge to be therby wesshen and made 
dene from all our synnes. 

Sir R. Guyl/orde, Pylgrymage, p. 42. 
And he left the linen cloth, and fled from them naked. 

Mark xiv. 52. 

2. Without covering; especially, without the 
usual or customary covering; exposed; bare: 
as, a naked sword. 

The Ban and the kynge Bohors com on with swerdes 
naked in her handes, all blody, and chaced and slough all 
that thei myght a-reche before hem. 

Merlin (E. E. T. S.), iii. 409. 

In his hand 

He shakes a naked lance of purest steel, 
With sleeves turn'd up. 

Beau, and Fl., Knight of Burning Pestle, iii. 2. 
Specifically (a) In tot., noting flowers without a calyx, 
ovules or seeds not in a closed ovary (gymnosperms), stems 
without leaves, and parts destitute of hairs. (6) In zoiil., 
noting mollusks when the body is not defended by a calca- 
reous shell, (c) In entom., without hairs, bristles, scales, 
or other covering on the surface. 

3. Open to view, (a) Not inclosed : as, a naked fire. 
(b) Figuratively, not concealed ; manifest ; plain ; evident ; 
undisguised : as, the naked truth. 

All things are naked and opened unto the eyes of him 
with whom we have to do. Heb. iv. 13. 

"Robin," said he, " I'll now tell thee 
The very naked truth." 

The Kings Disguise (Child's Ballads, V. 380). 

The system of their [the ancients'] public services, both 

martial and civil, was arranged on the most naked and 

manageable principles. De Quincey, Rhetoric. 

4. Mere; bare; simple. 

Not that God doth require nothing unto happiness at the 
hands of men save only a naked belief. 

Hooker, Eccles. Polity. 

Most famous States, though now they retaine little more 
then a naked name. 

Quoted in Capt. John Smith's Works, I. 242. 
Much more, if first I floated free, 
As naked essence must I be 
Incompetent of memory. 

Tennyson, The Two Voices. 

5. Having no means of defense or protection 
against an enemy's attack, or against other in- 
jury; unarmed; exposed; defenseless. 



3930 

Thou hast no weapon, and perforce must suffer. 
Look in upon me then, and speak with me, 
Or, naked as I am, I will assault thee. 

Shak., Othello, v. 2. 258. 

Man were ignoble, when thus arm'd, to show 
Unequal Force against a naked Foe. 

Congrene, tr. of Ovid's Art of Love. 

6. Bare; unprovided; unfurnished; destitute. 

I am a poor man, naked, 

Yet something for remembrance ; four a-piece, gentlemen. 
Fletcher, Humorous Lieutenant, iii. 5. 
What strength can he to your designs oppose, 
Naked of friends, and round beset with foes? 

Dryden, Absalom and Achitophel, i. 280. 

Sea-beaten rocks and naked shores 
Could yield them no retreat. 

Cowper, Bird's Neat. 

7. In music, noting the harmonic interval of a 
fifth or fourth, when taken alone. 8. In law, 
unsupported by authority or consideration : as, 
a naked overdraft; a naked promise. Naked 
barley, a variety of Hordeumvulgare, sometimes called U. 
caeleste, superior for peeled barley, inferior for brewing. 
Naked beard-grass. See beard-grass. Naked bedt, a 
bed in which one lies naked : from the old custom (still 
common in Ireland and Italy, and nearly universal in 
China and Japan) of wearing no night-linen in bed. 

When in my naked bed my limbes were laid. 

Mir. for Mags., p. 611. 

And much desire of sleepe withall procured, 
As straight he gat him to his naked bed. 
Sir J. Harington, tr. of Ariosto, xvii. 75. (Nares.) 

Naked bee, any bee of the genus Nomada. Naked 
broom-rape, a plant of the genus AphyUon. See Oro- 
banchaceai. Naked bullet. See bullet. Naked eggs, 
in entom., eggs which are unprotected and are dropped 
loosely in the substance which is to furnish food to the 
larvse. Naked flooring, in carp. See flooring. Naked 
mollusk, a nudibranch. See Ntidibranchiata. Naked 
pupss, pupse which are not surrounded by a cocoon. 
Naked serpents, the csecilians, a group of worm-like am- 
phibians technically called Gymnophiona or Ophiomorpha. 
Stork naked, entirely naked. 

Truth . . . goes (when she goes best) stark naked; but 
falshood has ever a cloake for the mine. 

Dekker, Gull's Horne-Booke, p. 68. 



scope 

unsheltered, unguarded. 

naked-eyed (na'ked-id), a. Having the sense- 
organs uncovered, as a jelly-fish ; gymnophthal- 
matous: the opposite of hidden-eyed: as, the 
naked-eyed medusans. 

naked-lady (na'ked-la'di), n. The meadow- 
saffron, Colcliicum autnmnale : from the fact 
that the flower appears without any leaf. 

nakedly (na'ked-li), adv. [< ME. nakedlicne; 

< naked + -ly 2 .] In a naked manner; barely; 
without covering; absolutely; exposedly. 

You see the loue I beare you doth cause me thus nakedly 
to forget myselfe. 

Quoted in Capt. John Smith's Works, I. 210. 
How have you borne yourself ! how nakedly 
Laid your soul open, and your ignorance, 
To be a sport to all ! Fletcher, Mad Lover, 1. 1. 

nakedness (na'ked-nes), n. [< ME. nakednesse, 

< AS. ncecednes, < nacod, naced, naiced, naked: 
see naked and -ness.] The state or condition of 
being naked; nudity; bareness; defenseless- 
ness; undisguisedness. 

nakedwood (na'ked-wud), . One of two trees, 
Colubrina reclinata and Eugenia dichotoma, 
which occur from the West Indies to Florida. 

nakent (na'ken), v. t. [< nake + -en 1 .] To make 
naked. 

nakerH (na'ker), n. [< ME. naker, < OF. nacre, 
nacar, nacaire, nakaire, naquaire, etc., = Pr. ne- 
cari = It. naccaro, nacchera, < ML. nacara, < Ar. 
nakir, nakiir (> Pers. nakdra), a kettledrum, < 
nakir, hollowed out: see nacre.] A kind of 
drum ; a kettledrum. 

Pypes, trompes, nakeres, clariounes. 

Chaucer, Knight's Tale, 1. 1653. 

A flourish of Norman trumpets . . . mingled with the 
deep and hollow clang of the nakers. Scott, Ivanhoe, xxii. 

naker 2 t, " An obsolete form of nacre. 
nakerint, a. [ME., < naker 1 + -in 1 .] Of or 
pertaining to nakers or kettledrums. 
Ay the nakeryn noyse, notes of pipes. 

Alliterative Poems (ed. Morris), ii. 1413. 

nakeryt (na'ker-i), . Same as naker 1 . 
nakket, A Middle English form of neck. 
nalet, [In the phrase at the nale, atte nale, 

properly at then ale, at the ale-house: see ale.] 

An ale-house. See ale, 4. 

Make him grete feestes atie nale. 

Chaucer, Friar's Tale, 1. 49. 
nallt (nal), n. See nawl. 
namif. Preterit of mm 1 . 

nam 2 t, n. [ME., also name, < AS. ndm, naam 
(> ML. namium), a seizure, distraint (= Icel. 
warn = OHG. ndma, a taking, seizure, apprehen- 



name 

sion, leaving), < niman (pret. nam), take: see 
nim 1 .] In old law, distraint ; distress. 

The practice of Distress of taking nams, a word pre- 
served in the once famous law term withernam is attest- 
ed by records considerably older than the Conquest. 

Maine, Early Hist, of Institutions, p. 262. 

To take nams, to make a levy on another's movable goods ; 
distrain. 

In the ordinance of Canute that no man is to take nams 

unless he has demanded right three times in the hundred. 

Maine, Early Hist, of Institutions, p. 270. 

nam 3 t. A Middle English contraction of ne am, 
am not. Chaucer. 

namable, nameable (na'ma-bl), a. [< name 1 
+ -able.] Capable of being named. 

namation (na-ma'shon), n. [< ML. namare, dis- 
train,< namium, seizure, distraint: see am 2 .] 
In law, the act of distraining or taking a dis- 
tress. 

namby-pamby (nam'bi-pam'bi), . and a. [A 
varied dim. reduplication of Ambrose, in allusion 
to Ambrose Philips (died 1749), a sentimental 
poet whose style was ridiculed by Carey and 
Pope: see quotations.] I. n. Silly verse; weak- 
ly sentimental writing or talk. 

Namby-Pamby, or a Panegyric on the New Versification. 
Carey, Poems on Several Occasions (1729), p. 55. 

And Namby-Pamby be preferred for wit. 

Pope, Dunciad, iii. 322. 

[This line appears in various editions belonging to 1729. In 
later editions it reads : " Lo ! Ambrose Philips is preferr'd 
for wit."] 

Anotherof Addison'sfavourite companions was Ambrose 
Philips, a good Whig and a middling poet, who had the 
honour of bringing into fashion a species of composition 
which has been called, after his name, Namby Pamby. 

Macaulay, Addison. 

II. a. Weakly sentimental ; affectedly nice ; 
insipid; vapid: as, namby-pamby rimes. 
namby-pamby (nam'bi-pam'bi), v. t. [< nam- 
by-pamby, n.] To treat sentimentally ; coddle. 

A lady of quality . . . sends me Irish cheese and Iceland 
moss for my breakfast, and her waiting gentlewoman to 
namby-pamby me. Miss Edgeworth, Absentee, xvL 

name 1 (nam), . [< ME. name, nome,<. AS. nama, 
noma = OS. namo = OFries. nema, nama, noma 
= MD. naem, D. naam = MLG. name, LG. name 
= OHG. namo, MHG. name, nam, G. name, na- 
men = Icel. nafn (for *namn) = Sw. namn = Dan. 
navn = Goth, namo = L. nomen, for "gnomen 
(as in agnomen, cognomen) (> It. Pg. name = Sp. 
noinbre = Y. nom, OF. non, mm, noun, > E. noun), 
= Gr. Imofia, liw/ia, ovvofta (bvofiar-) (for "ofvofia, 
*byvt>iiav- f ) = Skt. naman (for *jndman ?) = Pers. 
ndm (> Hind, ndm), name; appar. lit. 'that by 
which a thing is known,' from the root *gno, 
Teut. *kna, Gr. yiyvuGKeiv, L. noscerc, "gnoscere 
= AS. cndwan, E. knoiv (see know 1 ), but this 
view ignores phonetic difficulties in the rela- 
tions of the above forms, and fails to explain 
the appar. cognate Ir. ainm, W. enw, and 
OBulg. ime" = Serv. ime = Bohem. jme, jmeno 
= Pol. imie = Russ. imya = OPruss.ewne,name. 
It seems probable that all the words cited are 
actually related, and that the appar. irregulari- 
ties are due to interference or conformation. 
From the L. form are ult. E. nominal, nominate, 
etc., cognomen, etc., noun, pronoun, renown, etc., 
with the technical norne^, nomen, agnomen, no- 
mial, binomial, etc.; from the Gr. are ult. E. syno- 
nym, paronym, patronymic, metronymic, etc., 
onym, mononym, polyonymous, etc. From the E. 
noun are name, v., neven.] 1. A word by which 
a person or thing is denoted ; the word or words 
by which an individual person or thing, or a 
class of persons or things, is designated, and 
distinguished from others; appellation; de- 
nomination ; designation. In most communities of 
European civilization at the present day the name a per- 
son bears is double consisting of the family name or sur- 
name and the Christian or distinctively personal name, 
which latter ordinarily precedes the surname, but in some 
countries stands last. Either of these name-elements may 
and (the personal name especially) often does consist of 
two or more names as component parts. An ancient Ro- 
man of historical times had necessarily two names, one 
distinguishing his family or gens, the nomen, or noinen gen- 
titiciitm, and the other, the prenomen, distinguishing the 
individual : as, Cams Marine that is, Caius of the gens of 
the Marii. Every Roman citizen belonged also to a faniilin, 
a branch or subdivision of his gens, and hence had or might 
have a third name, or cognomen, referring to the familia. 
This cognomen was always borne by men of patrician es- 
tate ; and in the case of men of distinction a fourth name or 
epithet (cognomen secundum, or agnomen) was sometimes 
added, in reference to some notable achievement of the 
individual : thus, Lucius Cornelius Scipio Asiaticus was 
Lucius, of the Scipio branch of the Cornelian gens, who 
had won personal distinction in Asia. Women as a rule 
bore only the feminine form of the nomen of their gens: as, 
Cornelia, Tvllia. But sometimes, especially at a compara- 
tively late date, they received also an individual preno- 
men, which was the feminine form of the preuomen of 



name 

the husband, or, still later, wan (riven to them, as in the 
case of boys, in infancy. 

Ye AldirniHll Hrhlil elepcne vpe ij. men lie' num.'. 

.(K. 1.. 'I. *.), p. 276. 

r.ut, Kodc si'', nenenes rne thi name? York Flay*, p. 474. 
If I may lie no fortunate to deserve 
I In ,I:I',H,' of iricnd from ym, I have enough. 

/;, pic, <n/<i l-'L, Law of dimly, li. 1. 

r.y the Tyranny of Tarqtiinlus Superbus (the last Ro- 
man KinK) the vi y Kainf of King became liateful to the 
r <>i>ii Comjreve, tr. of Juvenal's Satires, xi., note. 

There is a fault which, though conitnon, wants a name. 
It is the very contrary to procrastination. 

Steele, Spectator, No. S74. 

2. Figuratively, an imliviiliiiil as represented 
by liis name ; a person as existing in the mem- 
ory or thoughts of others. 

Neither Is there salvation in any uther ; for there is none 
other name under heaven given among men whereby we 
must be saved. Acts Iv. 12. 

3. That which is commonly said of a person ; 
reputation; character: as, a good name; a bad 
mi mi- ; \\ name for benevolence. 

A good name many folde ys more worthe then golde. 

Babees Soak (K. E. T. S.), p. 42. 

I know thy works, that thou hast a name that thou If vert, 
and art dead. ev. ill. 1. 

4. Renown; fame; honor ; eminence; distinc- 
tion. 

Than this son o( chosdroas 
In his lu-it euill angerd was 
That this cristen king had name 
More than he or his sire at hame. 

Holy Rood (E. E. T. 8.1, p. 124. 

What men of name resort to him ? 

Shak., Rich. III., Iv. 5. 8. 
Why mount the pillory of a book, 
Or barter comfort for a name? 

WhMur, To J. T. F. 

6. The mere word by which anything is called, 
as distinguished from the thing itself; appear- 
ance only, not reality: as, a friend in name, a 
rival in reality. 

Religion becomes but a moer name, and righteousness 
but an art to live by. StiUingfleet, Sermons, I. 11. 

And what is friendship but a name ! 

Goldsmith, The Hermit. 

6. Persons bearing a particular name or patro- 
nymic ; a family ; a connection. 

The able and experienced ministers of the republic, 
mortal enemies of his name, came every day to pay their 
feigned civilities. Motley. 

7. A person or thing to be remembered. 

I died a Queen. The Roman soldier found 

Me lying dead, my crown about my brows, 

A name for ever ! Tennyson, Fair Women. 

8f. In gram., a noun. 9. Right, ownership, 
or legal possession, as represented by one's 
name : as, to hold property in one's own name, 
or in the name of another, in this use the word 
usually Implies that where there is a recorded title it 
stands in the name referred to, but not necessarily that 
there is any record of title. A handle to one's name. 
See handle. Baptismal, binary, Christian name. 
See the adjectives. By the name Of, called ; known as : 
as, a man by the name of Strong : familiar as a legend on 
heraldic bearings. 

A Wyveni part-per-pale addressed 

Upon a helmet barred ; below 

The scroll reads By the name of Howe." 

Ldivifdluw, Wayside Inn, lYelmle. 

Generic name. See generic. Given name. Same as 
Christian name. In the name Of, or In (such a one's) 
name, (a) In behalf of; on the part of ; by the authority 
of : used often in Invocation, adjuration, or the like : as, it 
was done in the name of the people ; i/i the naint of com- 
mon sense, what do you mean? in God's name, spare us. 

You are to bid any man stand, in the prince's name. 

Slink., Much Ado, iii. 3. 27. 

A letter has been sent to these \olunteers [sixty eight 
English astronomers]. Inviting them, in the name of the 
Ainorienii i xpnl it ionary parties, to accept this much-need- 
ed assistance [that is, to sail with those inviting them]. 

R. A. Proctor, Light Science, p. 103. 
(M In the capacity or character of. 

He that receiveth a prophet in the name of a prophet 
Bhall receive a prophet s reward ; and he that receiveth a 
righteous man in the name of a righteous man shall re- 
ceive a righteous man's reward. Mat. x. 41. 

Being thus crammed in the basket, a couple of Ford's 
knaves . . . were called forth ... to carry me in the 
name of foul clothes to Datchet-lane. 

Shak., M. W. of W., iii. 5. 101. 

Maiden name. See maiden. Name of Christ, in Scrip., 
all those tilings we are commanded to recognize in .lesus 

and tu profess of his Messianic dignity, divine authority, 
memorable sufferings; the peeulinr services and blessings 
roufci i eil by him on m:m. si. far as these are believed, con- 
tVssrd ,.r rommrmleil. (Mat. x. -Ji! ; John i. 12; Acts v. 41.) 
com parr /,<ii/i<- ui '<;<><!. Name of God, in Scrip., nl! thosr 
qualities liy \vhieh (iotl makes himself known to men : the 
divine majesty and perfections, so far as these are ap- 
prehended or named, as his titles, his attributes, his will 
or purpose, his authority, his honor ami >:loi\, hi* \\nnl. 
his grare, his wisdom, jwiwer, atul goodness his worship 
or service, or (.'od himself. (I's. xx. 1, l\viii. 4, e\xiv. .-. ; 
John xvii. ii.) Specific name. See specific. To call 



3931 

names, see ca. To have one's name In the Gazette. 

.-, . ..,, n, . xo keep one s name on the boards, ta 
board. To take a name In vain, to use a name pro- 
fanely or lightly. 

Thou shall not takr the name of the I/ml thy God in mix. 

K.x. xx. 7. 

Who, never naming (>od except for gain, 
So never took that useful iutine in < 

Tennyson, Sea- Dreams. 

= 8yn. 1. Xmne. Appellation, Title, Deaf/nation, Itenomi- 
natwn, N////, . \nine. is the simplest and most general 
word for that by which any person or thing Is called : as, 
"His name is John," Luke I. 63. An appellation is a de- 
scriptive and therefore specific term, as plaint Louis; John's 
appellation was the Baptist ; George Washington has the 
appellation of Father of his Country. A title it an official 
or Honorary appellation, as reverend, bishop, doctor, colonel, 
duke. A designation is a distinctive appellation or title, 
marking the Individual, as Charles the Simple, James the 
Lea. Denomination is to a class what designation it to 
an individual : as, coin of various denomination*; a com 
mon use of the word is in application to a separate or in- 
dependent Christian body or organization. Style may be 
essentially the same as appellation, but it is now gener- 
ally limited to a name assumed or assigned for public use : 
as, the style of his most Christian Majesty ; they transacted 
business under the firm style of Smith 4 Co. 4. Repute, 
credit, note. 

name '(uani), ('.(.; pret. andpp. named, ppr. <- 
iny. [< ME. namen, < AS. gcnamian = OS. namon= 
O Fries, iwmia, nama, from the noun : see name 1 , 
it. The usual verb in older use was early mod. E. 
neven, nemne, < ME. nernen, nemnen, nemmen, < 
AS. nemnan, nemnian : see neven.'] 1. To dis- 
tinguish by bestowing a particular appellation 
upon; denominate; entitle; designate by a par- 
ticular appellation or epithet. 
She named the child Ichabod. 1 Sam. IT. 21. 

But the poet names the thing because he sees it, or 
comes one step nearer to it than any other. 

Emerson, The Poet. 

2. To mention by name ; pronounce or record 
the name of: as, the person named in a docu- 
ment ; also, to mention in general ; speak of. 

GentUl sir, cometh |come| forth, for I can not yet vow 
namen, and resceive here my doughter to be youre wif. 

Merlin (E. E. T. 8.), 11. 319. 
Wherever I am nam'd, 
The very word shall raise a general sadness. 

Fletcher, Wlldgoose Chase, iii. 1. 
If I should begin but to name the several sorts of strange 
fish that are usually taken In many of those rivers that run 
into the sea, I might beget wonder in you, or unbelief, 
or both. /. Walton, Complete Angler, p. 197. 

Good friend, forbear ! you deal in dangerous things, 
I'd never name queens, ministers, or kings. 

Pope, ProL to Satires, 1. 70. 
And far and near her name was named with love 
And reverence. Bryant, Sells. 

3. To nominate; designate for any purpose by 
name; specify; prescribe. 

Thou shalt anoint unto me him whom I name unto thee. 

1 Sam. xvL 3. 
He [a gossip] names the price for every office paid. 

Pope, Satires of Donne, IT. 162. 

Mr. Kadcliffe, the last Derwentwater's brother, is actu- 
ally named to the gallows for Monday. 

Walpole, Letters, II. 68. 

4. In the British House of Commons, to men- 
tion formally by name as guilty of a breach of 
the rules or of disorderly conduct calling for 
suspension or some other disciplinary measure. 
5. To pronounce to be ; speak of as; call. 

Celestial, whether among th- thrones, or named 
Of them the highest Milton, P. 1... xi. 296. 

To name a day or the day, to fix a day for anything ; 
specifically, to fix the marriage-day. 

I can't charge my memory with ever having once at- 
tempted to deceive my little wonmn on my own account 
since she named the day. Dickens, Bleak House, xlvli. 

= 8yn. 1. To call, term, style, dub. 

name'-'t, Woe <inft. 

nameable, a. See namable. 

name-board (nam'bord), . \aitt., the board 
on which the name of a ship is painted ; or, in 
the absence of such a board, the place on the 
hull where the name is painted. 

name-COUtht, a. [ME., also nomecutlte, nome- 
kmrtJie, < AS. iiitmi'ulli, well known, < nuiim, 
name, + rutli, known: see name and couth.] 
Known by name ; renowned ; well known. 

A ! nobill kyng A nomekotrtJie ! notes In your hert, 
And suffers me to say, Symple thof I be. 

Destruction of Troy (E. E. T. 8.X 1. 2G30. 

name-day (nam'da), n. The day sacred to the 

-aint whose name a person bears, 
name-father (nam'fa'<raer), M. 1. An inventor 

of names. [Rare.] 

I have changed his name by virtue of my own single au- 
thority. Knowest thou not that I am a great name-father? 
Kichardson, Clarissa Harlowe, IV. 45. (Dames.) 

2. Out- after whom a child is named. [Scotch.] 

nameless (nam'U-s), . [< MK. nami-li* (= I). 

ntinmlutix = MI,(i. itiimrloii = OHG. nanti>ln<. 



Mllii. IIIIHII In--, li. mi mi ii lug = Sw. namultix = 
l)an. mi ruin-.)-. ' muni + -ltxx.\ 1. Without a 
name ; not distinguished by an appellation: as, 
a nameless star. 

Thy Issue blurr'd with nameless bastardy. 

Skat., Lucrece, 1. 622. 
!>> hold a reverend sire, whom want of grace 
Has made the father of a nameless race. 

Pope, Moral Essays, 1. 233. 

2. Not known to fame ; obscure; ignoble; with- 
out pedigree or repute. 

To be nameless In worthy deeds exceeds sn Infamous 
history. Sir T. Broirne, Urn burial, v. 

AameJMt and hirthlms villains tread on the necks of the 
brave and long-descended. ."''' 

3. That cannot or should not be named: an, 
iKtnifliHs crimes. 4. Inexpressible; indescrib- 
able ; that cannot be specified or denned. 

For nothing hath begot my something grief : 
... 'tis nameless woe, I wot. 

Shak., Rich. II., II. 2. 40. 

From a certain nameles* awe with which the mad as- 
sumptions of the mummer had inspired the whole party, 
there were found none who put forth hand to seize him. 
I'M. Masque of the Red Death. 
He brought the gentle courtesies. 
The namtieu grace of France. 

n'hiltirr, The Countess. 

6. Anonymous: as, a nameless poet ; a nameletm 
artist. 

The other two were soniwhat greter parsonages, and 
natheles of their humilite content to be nameles. 

Sir T. More, Works, p. 57. 

Nameless creek, the place where anglers catch the larg- 
est fish, the locality of which is not divulged ; any or no 
place ; a kind of no-man's-land. [Slang. ] 

namelessly (nam'les-li), adv. In a nameless 
manner. 

namelessness (nam'les-nes), . The state of 
being nameless or without a name ; the state of 
being undistinguished. 

namelichet, nameliket, ''< Middle English 
forms of namely. 

namely (nam'h), adr. [< ME. namely, name- 
liche, namelike (= D. namelijk MLG. name- 
liken, nemeliken, nemelink = G. namentlich = Sw. 
ii(tineligen = Dtin. narnlig) ; < name + -ty 2 .] If. 
Expressly; especially; in particular. 

And sitte nallht to longe 
At noon, ne at no time ; and nameliche at soper. 

Piers Plowman (C), ix. 276. 
Hi the and namely woode lande best is hold 
For pastyning. 

rallnilim, Husbondrie (E. E. T. S.), p. 48. 

2. To wit; that is to say; videlicet. 

A vice near akin to cupidity, namely envy, I believe to 
be equally prevalent among the modern Egyptians, in 
common with the whole Arab race. 

E. W. Lane, Modern Egyptians, I. 398. 
The object of aversion Is realised at a definite point, 
namely when the pain ceases. 

J. Sully, outlines of Psychol., p. 582. 

name-plate (nam'plat), n. A plate bearing a 
person's name; specifically, a plate of metal, 
as silver-plate or polished brass, upon which 
a person's name is engraved, placed upon the 
door or the door-jamb of a residence or a place 
of business. 

namer (na'mer), n. [< name + -er 1 .] One who 
gives a name to anything, or who calls by name. 

Skilful Merlin, namer of that town [Caerraarthen]. 

Drayton, Battle of Aglncourt. 

name-saint (naru'sant), n. The saint after 
whom one is named ; a saint whose name one 
has as his baptismal name or as part of it. 

namesake (nam'sak), n. One who is named 
after or for the sake of another; hence, one 
who has the same name as another. 

I find Charles Lillle to be the darling of your affections; 
that you have . . . taken no small pains to establish him 
in the world : and, at the same time, have passed by his 
name-sake at this end of the town. Steele, Tatler, No. 142. 

It was supposed that, on her death-bed, Mrs. Egerton 
had recommended her Impoverished namesakes and kin- 
dred to the care of her husband. Bultrrr, My Novel, II. 5. 

name-son (nam'sun), . One who is named 
after another; a namesake. 
I am your name-son, sure enough. 

Smollett, Sir L. Greaves, ill. 

naming (na'miiig), n. [< ME. naming, verbal 
n. of name 1 , r.] The act of giving a name to any- 
thing: as, the nfl'nin;/ and description of shells. 

nammad, . Same as numml. 

nan't, . and proii. A Middle English form of 
iiinii '. 

nan 2 (nan), H. [A familiar use of the fern, 
name Xan, var. of Ann.] A small earthen jar. 
Hiillitcrll. [Prov. Eng.] 

nan 3 (nan), inferj. [By apheresis from .] 
Same as <i>iiin. [Prov. Eng. and U. S.] 



nanander 

nanander (na-nan'der), n. [NL., < L. nan im. 
a dwarf, + Gr. avijp (avop-), male.] Same as 
inicriiiiilir. 

nanandrous (na-nan'drus), a. [As nanander + 
-os.] Having short or dwarf male plants, as 
algffi of the order (Edogoniacea. Compare ma- 
crandrons. 

nan-boyt (nan'boi), n. [< Nan, a fern, name 
(see 2 ), + 60f/.] An effeminate man; a 
"Miss Nancy." 

The gittarn and the lute, the pipe and the flute, 
Are the new alamode lor the nan-toys. 

Merrie DroUerie, p. 12. (Dames.) 



3932 

ficial dwarfing or production of nanism in trees, 
especially as practised by the Japanese. 

Prof. Rein can be poetical without ceasing to be practi- 
cal as well. He is, perhaps, a little hard on the Japanese 
love of dwarfing, or Sanitation. 

The Academy, No. 888, p. 818. 

nankeen, nankin (nan-ken'), . [< Chinese 
Nanking, lit. 'southern capital,' a city of China 
now known as Kiang King fu, the capital of 
the province of Kiang-su and formerly the resi- 
dence of the court, where the fabric was ori- 
ginally manufactured.] 1. A sort of cotton 
cloth, usually of a yellow color, made at Nan- 



nape 

Tinipna = Goth. gn-nipnan, droop, despond. The 
Cuban negro napinapi, nap, sleep, is perhaps 
from E.] To have a short sleep ; be drowsy. 
Tho cam Sleuthe al by-slobered with two slymed eyen. 
" Ich most sitte to be shryuen," quath he, "or elles shal 
ich nappe." Piers Plowman (C), viii. 2. 

To catch or take one napping, (a) To come upon one 
when he is unprepared ; take at a disadvantage. 
Nay, I have ta'en you nappi-ny, gentle love. 

Shak., T. of the 8., iv. 2. 40. 



nancv(nan'si), re.; pi. nancies (-siz). [A famil- king in China. The peculiar color of these fabrics is 

natural to the cotton (Ow<m o. 



iar use of the fern, name Nancy, a dim. of Nan, 

a var. of Ann. Cf. reare 2 .] A small lobster. 

Halliwell. [Prov. Eng.] 
nancy-pretty (nan'si-prif'i), n. [A corruption 

of none-so-pretty.'] A plant, Saxifraga umbrosa. 
Nandidae (nan'di-de), re. pi. [NL., < Nandus 

+ -i(f<r.] A family of acanthopterygian fishes, 

typified by the genus Nandus, having different 

limits, (a) In Giinther's system, a family of Aeanthop- 

terygii perciforme* with'perfect ventrals, no bony stay for 

the preoperculum, and interrupted lateral line, (o) In 

later systems, restricted to the Nandina. 
nandin (nan'din), re. [Jap.] The sacred bam- 
boo, Nandina domestica. 
Nandina 1 (nan-di'nii), n. pi. [NL., < Nandus + 

-a 2 .] In Giiuther's classification, the second 

group of Nandidai, having no pseudobranehiee, 

five ventral rays, and palatine and vomerine nanninose, nannynose (uan'i-uos), re. 

teeth. It includes sundry East Indian fresh- as maninoae. 

water fishes. nanny 1 (nan'i), re.; pi. nannies (-iz). [Short for 

Nandina 2 (nan-di'iia), re. [NL. (Thunberg, nanny-goat.] A nanny-goat. 

1781), < nandin + -tea 1 .] A genus of plants of nanny 2 (nan'i), re. ; pi. nannies (-iz). [Origin 

the order Berberidece and the tribe Serberea', obscure.] In coal-mining, a natural joint, crack, 

characterized by its numerous sepals and pet- or slip in the coal-measures : nearly the same 

als. It consists of a single species, If. domeetica, a tree- as cleat 3 . Gresley. [Yorkshire, Eng.] 

like shrub with much-divided leaves and ample panicles nanny-berry (nan'i-ber"i), re. The sheepberry, 

of small white flowers; it is the sacred bamboo of China. Yibttrimni Lentaao. 
nlldint 1 7nan'di'n)T^'tnd re. [< Nandus + nanny-goat (nan'i-got), n [< Nanny, dim .of 

-ine*.] I.V Of 01 'pertaining to the Nandina. ^n aiem. name (see re 2 ), + jroa*. Cf . Mly- 

II. re. A fish of the group Nandina. !/*] A _ f , em ? le S oat - , 

nandine 2 (nau'din), re. [< Nandinia.'] A quad- nanoiQ (na m id), a. |<.ur. 



I took thee napping, unprepared. 

S. Butter, Hudibras, I. iii. 821. 

(b) To detect in the very act: hence the phrase in the 
quotation. 

Hand Napping that is, when the criminal was taken 
in the very act [of stealing cloth]. 

Defoe, Tour through Great Britain, III. 143. (Dames.) 

nap 1 (nap), . [< wopl, v.~] A short sleep. 

After dinner, ... we all lay down, the day being won- 
derful hot, to sleep, and each of us took a good nap, and 
then rose. Pepys, Mary, III. 189. 

2. pi. Trousers or breeches made of this ma- na p2 (nap), . [Var. of nop, < ME. noppe (the 

AS. "'hnoppa, in Somner, is not authenticated) 
= MD. noppe, D. nop (> OF. nope, noppe, F. dial. 
nope) = MLG. noppe, LG. nobbe, nubbe (cf . G. 
noppe) = Dan. noppe, nap of cloth : usually ex- 
plained as orig. knop or knob, but the forms cited 
forbid this identification.] 1. The woolly or 
villous substance on the surface of cloth, felt, 
or other fabric . It is of many varieties, as the uniform 
short pile of velvet, the knotted pile of frieze and other 
heavy water-proof cloths, etc. Compare ptte. 

Jack Cade, the clothier, means to dress the common- 



sum) of which they are made. Nankeen is now imitated 
in most other countries where cotton goods are woven. 
See cotton-plant and frmoi. 

His nether garment was of yellow nankeen, closely fitted 
to the shape, and tied at his ... knees by large knots of 
white ribbon. J. f. Cooper, Last of Mohicans, i. 



terial. 

Some sudden prick too sharp for humanity especially 
humanity in nankeens to endure without kicking. 

Bvltcer, My Novel, i. 2. 

Nankeen color, in dyeing, the shade of buff obtained 
from iron salts. 

nanmu (uan'mo), . [Chin.] A Chinese tree, 
Fersea Nanmu. Its wood is highly esteemed in China 
for house-carpentry, coffins, etc., on account of its durabil- 
ity and fragrance, and is exported to some extent. 



wealth . 



and set a new nap upon it. 

Shak., 2 Hen. VI., iv. 2. 7. 



Ay, In a threadbare suit ; when men come there 
They must have high naps, and go from thence bare. 

Chapman, Bussy d'Ambois, i. 1. 

2. Some covering resembling the nap of cloth. 

The velvet nap which on his wings doth lie. 

Spenser, Muiopotmos, 1. 333. 

3. A felted cloth used in polishing glass, marble, 
etc. 4. pi. The loops of the warp in uncut 
velvet, which, when cut, form the pile. 5. 
Dress; form; presentation. 

A new lauriat, who, for a man that stands upon paines 



, ,, w Firtnr Tri*m I iiwuvimn ** * ICW muimi., * *i o 

ruped of the genus Nandinia, N. binotata, a na ^],g{ n a. n om'e-Ius), n. [NL.,< Gr. vavof, and not wit, hath performed as much as ai 




In teratol., a mon- 



may doo that sets a new English nap on an olde Latine 
apothegs. Nashe, Pierce Penilesse (1582). 

nap 2 (nap), v. t. ; pret. and pp. napped, ppr. nap- 
ping. [< reaj) 2 , re.] To raise or put a nap on. 
iap*t (nap), n. [ME., also nep, < AS. hncep, 
hnwpp, once irreg. lina-pf, a cup, bowl, = D. nap 
= MLG. nap = OHG. hnapf, napf, napJi, MHG. 
naph, napf, G. napf (> ML. Jianapus, nappus, > 
It. nappo = OF. hanap, > E. hanap, and hanaper, 
hamper 2 , q. v.), a cup, bowl, beaker.] A beaker. 



Nandine {Nandinia binotata}. 



a dwarf, + /ii/j>s, a limb.] 
ster with a dwarfed limb. 

nanosaur (na'uo-sar), n. A small dinosaur of 
the genus Nanosaurus. 

Nanosaurus (na-no-sa'rus), ii. [NL., < Gr. va- 
M>f, a dwarf, + aaii/Mf, a lizard.] A genus of 
small dinosaurs, founded by Marsh in 1877. 
nanosomia (na-no-so'mi-a), 11. [NL., < Gr. va- 

vof, a dwarf, + 'aa/ia, body.] A dwarfing or ^ _ ^ ^ ^ ^ 

dwarfed state of the body; nanism; microso- n 'ap4'( n 'ap)^i.''YA~sYmpTer spelling of I- nap*, but 

in part perhaps < Icel. hnappr, a button, bevy, 

(nan pi), re. [< Nan,_a. tern, name (see cluster, a var. of knappr, a knob, button : see 

a protuberance; the top of 



nanpie (nan'pi), re. [< Nan, a fern, name (see 
handsome kind of paradoxure having a double ?>. +J?* 8 - Cf. magpie.] The magpie. Hal- 



v Aiiii j Littv ii ui u j. .:' J-TJ -p, -, 

row pf spots along the sides, inhabiting Guinea. ' T lw cl '- <- rov ; ,. n 'J , r , TT , , T 

Nandinia (nan-din'i-a), . [NL., from a native Nantest (nan'tez), n. pi. [NL pi. of L. reares 

na,ne ] A genus of viverriue quadrupeds of C""^>. PP r ' of " s .^ lm :.] In , V 1 f "^ n ; 

. c__:i-. & ,-j,.. ,._j ii .tj iif. nfflus s system of classification, the third order 



the family Viverridai and the subfamily Para- 
doxurina;; the nandines. J. E. Gray, 1864. 

nandu (nan'do), re. [S. Amer.] The South 
American ostrich, Riiea americana, and other 
species of that genus. Also spelled nandoo. 

Nandus (uan'dus), re. [NL.] The typical ge- 




third order 
lie Chon- 

drojiterugii of Artedi, or the sharks, rays, chi- 
mseras, and marsipobranchs, and some true 
fishes erroneously considered to be related to 
them. See Amphibia, 2 (a). 
lantokite, nantoquite (nan'to-kit), re. [<A r - 
toko (see def.) + -ite?.] A chlorid of copper 
occurring in white granular masses having an 
adamantine luster, found at Nantoko in Chili. 



A knob; a ^i 
a hill. " [Local, Eng.] 
nap ' (nap), v. t. ; pret. and pp. napped, ppr. imp- 
ping. [< Sw. nappa = Dan. nappe, catch, snatch 
at, seize. Prob. in part a simpler spelling pf 
knap 1 : see knap 1 , and cf. nab 1 . Hence, in 
comp., kidnap.'] To seize; grasp. [Prov. Eng.] 
nap 6 (nap), v. ; pret. and pp. napped, ppr. nap- 
ping. [A simpler spelling of knap 1 , perhaps in- 
volving also ult. AS. hna-ppan (rare), strike. See 
knap 1 .} I. trans. To strike. [Prov. Eng.] 
II. in trans. To cheat. 

Assisting the frail square die with high and low fulluins, 
and other napping tricks. 

Tom Brmvn, Works, III. 60. (Davies.) 



naos (ua'os), re. [< Gr. vaof , Ionic w?of , Attic vei 

f Eolic vavof, a temple, a sanctuary lit. a dwell- - , , A abbreviated form of 1tapo _ 

ing, < vaieiv, dwell, inhabit.] 1. In arclxeol., j^ % 

a temple, as distinguished from hieron, a shrine Nap ^ a (ll a.pe'a), n. [NL. (Linnteus, 1753), ' 

(chapel) or sanctuary (in this latter sense not i*"- f r", ,,i ',. 



nus of fishes of the family Nandidw, including a 

few East Indian species. 
nane (nan), a. and pron. A dialectal (Scotch) 

form of reoree 1 . 

nanest, adv. A Middle English form of nonce. 
nanga (nang'ga), n. [African.] A small harp 

having but three or four strings, used by the 

negroes of Africa ; a negro harp. 
nanism (na'nizm), . [= F. nanisme; as < L. 

)IHX (>F. >i<ii>t),<Gr. vavof, also vawof, a dwarf , 

+ -(>>.] Aberration from normal form by de- nap 1 (nap), 

crease in size; the character or quality of being nappiiiii, 



(chapel) or sanctuary ( 
necessarily implying the presence of any edi- 
fice). 2. In arch., the inclosed chamber or 
cella of an ancient temple, where were placed 
the statue and a ceremonial altar of the di- 
vinity. It is sometimes restricted to an innermost sanc- 
tuary of the cella, which, however, when present, is more 
properly called sekos or adytum. The open vestibule com 



L. napteus, ^ Gr. vairaiot;, of a wooded vale : see 
Nap<ean.~] A genus of dicotyledonous plants of 
the order Malvaceai and the tribe Mah-ete, known 
by its direcious flowers. It consists of a single spe- 
cies. N. diaica, the glade-mallow, a tall perennial with IIKI- 
ple-like leaves and abundant small white flowers, found, 
though rare, in limestone valleys in the eastern and cen- 
tral United States. See cut on following page. 



the epinaos. See cut under pron 

A passage round the naos was introduced, giving access 
to the chambers, which added 10 cubits to its dimensions 
every way, making it 100 cubits by 60. 

J. Fergusson, Hist. Arch., I. 215. 



dwarfed or pygmy; dwarfishness : opposed to 
gigantism. 

nanization (na-ni-za'shon), n. [< L. naimx. 
< Gr. ravof , a dwarf, + -i~e + -ation.] The arti- 



pret. and pp. napped, ppr. 
['< ME. nappen, < AS. hiiappian, Jinaip- ers close about midday. 



woodland vale.] Pertaining to the nymphs of 
dells and glens. Dryden. 

nap-at-noon (nap'at-non'), ii. The yellow 
goafs-beard, Tragopogon pratensis; perhaps 
also T. poi->-(f(ilins: so called because their flow- 
[Prov. Eng.] 



pian (e'f., with added formative, OHG. nnaffcx-n, nape 1 (nap), re. [< ME. nape; perhaps derived 
iniffi:iin, MHG. nafsen), slumber, doze; cf. hitip- from or identical with nap*, with orig. ref. to 
ian, bend, bow the head, also nipian (in pret. tin- slight protuberance on the back of the head, 
pi. nipeden), nod. slumber; Icel. hnipa, droop, above the neck; but this is doubtful.] 1. The 



nape 



3033 

pent me, cainphenc, lieiiznl, an<l other similar products In 
industrial nrl. being often superior, and ulay> much less 
< \|H UMVC. In this way it is n^ed in the maiiufaetnie "f 
i iihiuT goods, paints and varnishes, floor- and table-cloths; 
also by dyers and clothing- and glove-cleaners. In Its 
many applications for light and heat it is very largely tak- 
ing the place both of coal and crude oil for the maimfae- 
tnreof illuminating gas and for street-lighting by naphtha 
lamps, as well as for cooking by vapor-stoves In the use of 
the grade called stove-yatolcne. 

naphthalene (naf'tha-len), . [< naphtha + 
iil(i-iilml) + -cue.} A benzene hydrocarbon (Cjo 
Ho) usually prepared from coal-tar. It forms 
white crystalline leaflets, having a peculiar odor. It la 
used internally as an Intestinal antiseptic and as an expec- 
torant. It is Insoluble in water, soluble in alcohol and 
ether. Naphthalene derivatives form an Important group 
of coal-tar colors. Also naphthalin, naphthaline. -Naph- 
thalene red, a coal-tar color used in dyeing, obtained 
from naphthylaininc. belonging to the Inuuline class. It 
Is used for producing light shades on silk. Also known 
as ilaydala red. 

naphthalin (naf 'tha-lin), n. [< naphtha + 
iil(mlinl) + -,'*.] Same as naphthalene. 

naphthalize (naf'tha-liz), c. t.; pret. and pp. 
naphtlmli:iit, ppr. nnphthaHzinij. [< naphtha 
(cf. naphthalene) + -I- + -i:e.} To OMpngMte 
or saturate with naphtha; enrich (an inferior 
gas) or carburet (air) by passing it through 
naphtha. 
Furet kit owte the wi^henek^ the shuldurs before. nap hthameln (naf-tham'e-in), H. [< naphtha 

. . ..^ ' _^...._i.^-'_-'-i. P ' +am(ine) + -c- + -i?i 2 .] A coal-tar color used 

in dyeing, formed by oxidizing alpha-naphthyl- 
uniine. It is in some respects similar to aniline black, 
and produces grays and violets, but not very fast. Also 
called naphthalene violet. 

naphthol (uaf'thol), M. [< naphtha + -ol.} Any 
one of the phenols of naphthalene having the 
formula < ' | , , 1 1 -0 1 1 . One of the group, beta-naphthol, 
is an antiseptic, and is used locally in skin-diseases. Also 
called naphtholum and isonaphthol. Naphthol blue, a 
coal-tar color used in dyeing, prepared ny the action of 
nitroso-dimethyl-anilineonalpha-naphthol. Itgivescolors 




napping 

\. ver would he 

Appear I' the market-place, nor on him put 
The unufra vest u re of humility. 

Shale., Cor., II. I. 0. 

Naples yellow. SIT y<w. 

nap-meter ( iia] i 'me' ter), . A machine de- 
signed to test tin- wearing quality of cloth, u 
consists of a double-flanged wheel on which a piece of 
cloth attached to It is caused to rotate against rasps under 
a filed pressure. The number of rotations Is shown by 
counting-wheels and dials, and the endurance of the cloth 
Is shown by the number of rotations required to wear It 
threudbare. 

napoleon (ua-po'le-on), H. [< K. im/H'Ifon, a 
com so called after Napoleon Bonaparte.] 1. 
A modern French gold coin of the value of L'0 
francs, or slightly lest* than $4; a twenty-franc 



[lowering Branch of the Mule Plant of Nafaa rlioica 
a, female flower ; t>, fruit ; i. seed. 

back upper part of the neck, technically called 
n III-IKI : generally in the phrase nape of the </,. 




she tnrn'd ; the very itape of her white neck 

U as rosed with indignation. Tennyson, Princess, vi. 

2. The thin part of a fish's belly next to the 
head. A beheaded fish, split along the belly, 
shows a pair of napes. 

nape 1 (nap), v. t.; pret. and pp. naped, ppr. nap- 
iinj. [< nape 1 , n.} To cut through the nape of 
the neck. 

Take a pyke and nape hym and drawe hym in the bely. 
/. Walton, Complete Angler, p. 140, note. 



nape-t, [ME., < OF. nape, nappe, F. nappe, a 
cloth, table-cloth, sheet or surface (as of water, 



etc.), < ML. iiditiHi, napa, 1*. mappa, a cloth, a low. See yellow. 

napkin, a towel: see map*, and cf. napkin, naphtholue (naf'tho-hz), v. t 

aprwTj A table-cloth. impregnate with the .vapor of 

* J nrt t\Tirh*Tlawiia ( 1111 t-Mtil'u_Yn 



Tim ouer nape schalledowbulle balayde, 
To Hi" uttur syde be seluage brade. 



similar to indigo, moderately fast to light but sensitive to 
acids.- Naphthol green. See greeni. Naphthol yel- 
low. See yellow. 

To saturate or 
naphtha. 

naphthylamine (naf-thil'a-min), n. [< naph- 
tha + Gr. My, wood, matter, + amine.} A 



Babees Book (E. E. T. s.), p. 321. chemical base (CioH<7NH 2 ) obtained from ni- 
i- tronaphthalene by reducing it with iron-filings 



nd acetic acid. It occurs In fine crystals, insoluble 



nape-crest (nap'krest), n. A bird of the Afri- 
can genus ScMtOfMs. E. Blyth. 

napee (na-pe'), . [Burmese (T).] A prepara- 
tion, half pickled, half putrid, of a fish resein- tain coal-tar dyes, 
bliug the sprat, highly esteemed as a condiment naphthylic (naf-thil'ik), a. [< naphtha + -yl 
by the Burmese. -f -.] Containing or relating to naphthalene. 

napelline (ua-pel'iu), /. [< NL. Napellus (see napier-cloth (na'per-kldth), . A double-faced 

def.) + -ine?.} An alkaloid obtained from the cloth, having one side of wool, and the other 

root of Aconitum yapelliin. of goat's hair from Cashmere or of vicuna-hair 

napery (na'per-i), . [Formerly also nappery, O r -wool from South America. 

nappwie, napry; < ME. naperye, < OF. napcrie, Napierian (ua-pe'ri-an), . [< Napier (see 

F. napprrie, < nappe, a cloth, a table-cloth: sec def.) + 4am] Of or pertaining to John Napier 

napeV.} 1. Linen cloths used for domestic pur- (1550-1617), famous as the inventor of loga- 

ppses, especially forthe table; table-cloths, nap- rithms. See logarithm. Also Keperian. 

kins, etc. Napier's analogies, rods (or bones), etc. See 

Good son, loke that thy napery be soote& also f eyre Aclene, analogy, rod, etc. 

Bordclothe, towelle & napkyn, foldyn alle bydene. napifolioUS (na-pi-fo'li-us), a. [< L. napus, a 

Babee, Book (K S ), p. 120. - + ^J & ^^ " Havi ^ leav ^ 8 uke 

Tis true that he did eat no meat on table-cloths; out t noge o f fjj e turnin 

of mere necessity because they had no meat nor nttpery. _ . . . 

" - *' - ~ ^-' i- - -~ napllorm (na pi-iorm), a. [s L. napus, a turnip 

(see neep%), + forma, form.] Having the shape 
of a turnip that is, enlarged in the upper part 
and slender below : as, a najoiform root, 
napkin (uap'kin), . [< ME. napki/ii ; < nape% 
+ -A'iw.] 1 . A handkerchief ; a kerchief of any 
kind. 

And dip their itapkiia in his sacred blood. 

Shak., J. C., ill. 2. 138. 
And take a napkin in your hand, 
And tie up baith your bonny een. 

Clerk Sauiulers (Child's Ballads, II. 46% 
She hang ae nn;h';i at the door, 

Another in the ha' : 
And a* to wipe the trickling tears 
Sae fast as they did fa'. 

Fair Annie (Child's Ballads, III. 196). 

2. A small square piece of linen cloth, now 
usually damask, used at table to wipe the lips 
and hands and to protect the clothes. 

Set your napkyns and spoones on the cupbord ready, 
and lay euery man a trencher, a napkyn, A a spone. 

Kabees Book (E. E. T. S.), p. & 

Here is thy pound, which I have kept laid up in a nap- 
kin. Luke xU. 20. 
The tuiiikha white, the carpet red : 
The guests withdrawn had left the treat. 

Pope, Imit. of Horace, II. vl. 196. 

napkin-ring (nap'kin-ring), . A ring in which 
a table-napkin may be held folded or rolled up 
when not in use. 



Three tables were spread with napenj, not so fine as sub- 
stantiaL Lamb, Chimney-Sweepers, 

2t. Linen worn on the person; linen under- 
clothing 

And seeyour napn, be cleane, & sort euery thing by it 
selfe, the cleane from the foule. 

Babees Book (E. E. T. S.), p. 86. 

Thence Clodlus hopes to set his shoulders free 
From the light burden of his naperti. 

Bp. Hall, Satires, V. L 88. 



napha-water (na'fji-wa''ter), . A fragrant 

perfume distilled from orange-flowers, 
naphew (uiV'I'u). . See imrnr. 
naphtha (naf'tha or nap'tliii), . [Formerly 

also naptha, uajihta; =F. naphte = Sp.It. miftn 

= Pg. uaphta, < L. iitiphtliti. < ir. I'dipBa, also 

vd<p8af, a kind of asplialt or bitumen (see def.).] 

1 . In ancient writers, a more fluid and volatile 
variety of asphalt or bitumen. Pliny hesitates 
about Including naphtha with bitumen, on account of its 
volatility and inlluintnability. 

It [nn oil in which arrows were steeped] was composed 
of Nai>M:< Pmchas, Pilgrimage, p. S4B. 

stiiny lamp* and Mazing cressets, fed 
With napMlin anil asphaltus, yielded light 
As from a sky. Milton, P. L., i 729. 

2. In modern use. an artificial volatile colorless 
liquid obtained from petroleum, it is a general 

term applinl to the imnlin>ts of the distillation ..f crude 

petroleum between gasolene and ivtined oil. llrdinary naplfiSS (nilll'Ies). fl. [< MHp- + -li:ix.] 1. Hav- 

pctroleiim n<i yieliU from r, to 12 per cent, of this mate- . * tBvtili. f-iln-irs 2 Min-li 

rial.thes,,,Tillr._.,aNitvn(whi,-hUfrn,nTlJ'to(iO'(Beaninel. "'K "" "'!'. '" ""> t' 

Naphtha a>. a s .hent has largely taken the place of tur- worn : deprived of its nap by wear : threadbare. 



Obverse. Revene. 

Napoleon. (Size of the original.) 

piece, or piece de vingt francs. See louin. 2. 
A French modification of the game of euchre, 
played by not more than six persons, every one 
for himself. The American Hoyte, Also nap. 

Napoleon blue, gun. etc. See blue, etc. 

Napoleonic (na-po-le-on'ik), a. [< \aimlton 
(see def. ) + -j'c.] Of, pertaining to, or charac- 
teristic of either of the emperors Napoleon (Na- 
poleon I. (Bonaparte), born 1768 or 1769, died 
1821, and Napoleon III., born 1808, died 1873). 
or their dynasty. 

Napoleonism (na-po'le-pn-izm), . [< Xapo- 
lean + -ism.'} 1 .' The political system, theory, 
methods, etc., of the Napoleonic dynasty, or 
its traditions. 2. Attachment to the Napole- 
onic dynasty; Bonapartist partizanship : same 
as Bonapartism. 

Moritz Carrlere, hi bis able and fascinating book on 
"The Moral Order of the World," begins with thanksgiv- 
ing for the downfall of A'apoleonim. 

fT. A. Rn., CXXVII. 457. 

Nappleonlst (na-po'le-on-ist), n. [< \apoleon 
+ -int."] A supporter 'of the Napoleonic dynas- 
ty: same as Bonapartist. 

napoleonite (na-po'le-on-it), . [< Xapoleon 
+ -fe2.] A granitoid rock composed of aiior- 
thite and hornblende with a little quartz, these 
being concentrically grouped so as to form lay- 
ers of alternately lighter and darker shade. It 
is a variety of corsite. Also sometimes called 
orbicular diorite. 

nappe (nap), . [F., a cloth, table-cloth, sheet 
or surface (as of water, etc.): see n;>e 2 .] A 
surface swelling out from a point in the form 
of a cone or hyperboloid about its vertex Jet- 
nappe, a nappe funned by a jet impinging normally on 
the rounded end of a rod. 

The dimensions of the apparatus may be varied to suit 
lets of ilitf eren t sizes ; It is highly desirable, however, that 
tin- /'' nappe should well overlap the inner margin of the 
ring-shaped electrode. Science, VII. 501. 

napper 1 (nap'er), n. [< nap 1 + -tr 1 .] One 
who naps or slumbers. 

napper' 2 (nap'er), . [< nap? + -er 1 .] An im- 
plement used to nap or smooth cloth or knitted 
goods. Specifically (a) A mallet or beetle for this 
purpose, (o) A machine by which knitted goods are 
cleaned, napped, and surfaced. It consists essentially of 
a roller on which the goods are stretched and brushed 
with a card or teazel, to remove specks, burs, seeds, etc., 
to raise the nap, and restore the softness and pliancy of 
which the fabric has been deprived by washing. 

napper 3 (nap'er), w. [< Mope 2 + -pr 1 .] In Eng- 
land, the holder of an honorary office at a Coro- 
nation or other royal function. The office is con- 
nected with that of chief butler, and Is marked by the 
carrying of a napkin. 

Rev. George Herbert applied for the office of Kapptr, 
which was refused. 

Litt of Claim* to Serrire at Coronation o/ Geo. IV. 

napperer (nap'i'-r-i-r). n. [< Hiiper(i/) + -erl.] 

1. A person who makes or supplies napery. 

2. Saini' as >in/i : 

napperty (uap'er-ti). . Same as knapperts. 
napperyt, '< An obsolete form of napery. 
nappiness (nap'i-nes), H. [< nappy- + -ness.} 

The quality of being nappy, or having a nap; 

abundance of nap, as on doth. 
napping (nap'ing), . [Verbal n. of <//'-. r.J 

In hiit-iiiiil.iini. a -hiM-t nf partially felted fur 

before it is united to the hat-body. /-'. //. 

K nil/lit. 



napping-machine 

napping-machine (nap'ing-ma-shen"), n. A 
machine for raising, trimming, or shearing the 
nap of cloth. 

nappy 1 (nap'i), a. andn. [Prob. < nap 1 + -y 1 .} 

1. a. 1. Heady; strong: applied to ale or beer. 
Nappie ale, so called because, if you taste it thoroughly, 

it will either catch you by the nape of the neck or cause 

you to take a nappe of sleepe. Minsheu. 

With nappy beer I to the barn repair'd. 

Gay, Shepherd's Week, Tuesday, 1. 56. 

But most, his rev'rence loved a mirthful jest : 
Thy coat is thin ; why, man, thou 'rt barely dressed ; 
It 's worn to th' thread : but I have nappy beer; 
Clap that within, and see how they will wear ! 

Crabbe, Works, I. 130. 

2. Tipsy; slightly elevated or intoxicated with 
drink. [Obsolete or Scotch.] 

Wee are to vexe you mightely for plucking Elderton out 
of the ashes of his ale, and not letting him enjoy his nappie 
muse of ballad-making to himselfe. 

If ash, Foure Letters Confuted. 

The carles grew nappy. Patie's Wedding. (Jamieson.) 
II. n. Strong ale. [Scotch.] 

An', whiles, twalpennie-worth o' nappy 

Can mak the bodies unco happy. 

Burns, The Twa Dogs. 

nappy 2 (nap'i), a. [< nap 2 + -yl.} Covered 
with nap ; having abundance of nap on the sur- 
face : as, a nappy cloth. 
Thou burre that onely slickest to nappy fortunes ! 

Marston and Webster, Malcontent, ii. 3. 

nappy 3 (nap'i), a. [< nap for knapl, break, 
+ -i/l.] Brittle ; easily broken. [Scotch.] 

nappy* (nap'i), n. ; pi. nappies (-iz). [Dim. of 
nap.] A round dish of earthenware or glass 
with a flat bottom and sloping sides. 

napront, n. An obsolete and more original 
form of apron. 

naptakingt (nap'ta/'king), n. [From the phrase 
to take napping : see <yA, v.} A taking by sur- 
prise, as when one is not on his guard; an un- 
expected onset when one is unprepared. 

ffaptakings, assaults, spellings, and firings have, in our 

forefathers' days, between us and France, been common. 

R. Carew, Survey of Cornwall. 

napthat, n. An obsolete form of naphtha. 

nap-warp (nap' warp), . A secondary or outer 
warp, used in material which is to have a vel- 
vety surface, to furnish the substance for the 
nap or pile. 

nart, adv. A Middle English form of near 1 . 

naraka (nar'a-ka), n. [Hind.] In post-Vedic 
Hind. myth, and in Buddhism, the place of tor- 
ture for departed evil-doers, represented as 
consisting of numerous hot and cold hells, 
which have been variously described. 

narceia (nar-se'ia), n. [NL., < L. narce = Gr. 
vapiai, numbness,' torpor.] Same as narceine. 

narceine (uar'se-in), n. [< L. narce, numbness, 
torpor, + -ine$.} An alkaloid (C^HjgNOg) 
contained in opium. It is sparingly soluble in water 
and alcohol. It forms fine silky inodorous bitter crys- 
tals. Narceine is sometimes used in medicine as a substi- 
tute for morphine. 

narcissine (niir-sis'in), a. [< L. narcissinus, < 
Gr. vapKiaaivof, of the narcissus, < va/miaaoi;, 
narcissus : see narcissus.'] Relating to or re- 
sembling plants of the genus Narcissus. 

narcissus (nar-sis'us), n. [= F. narcisse = 
Sp. nareiso = Pg. It. narcisso, < L. narcissus = 
Pers. narcjis = Gr. vdpKiaaoc, a plant, a narcissus, 
so called from its narcotic, qualities, < vdann, 
numbness, torpor: see narcotic.'} 1. A plant 
of the genus Narcissus. See cut under cyathi- 




Polytinthus \\ir. 



(Narcissus Tazetta). 



3934 

form. 2. leap.} [NL.] Agenusof monocoty- 
ledonous plants of the order AmaryQMacea 
and the tribe Amarytteie, known by its undivid- 
ed cup-shaped corona. There arc about 20 species, 
mainly European, with narrow upright leaves from a coat- 
ed bulb ; they are favorite garden-plants, mostly hardy, 
bearing their conspicuous yellow or white, often fragrant, 
blossoms in early spring, also much employed for forcing. 
N. poeticm, the poet's narcissus, has white flowers, the 
crown, edged with pink, scarcely projecting from the 
throat. N. biflorus, with the scapes two-flowered and 
the crown forming a short cup, is the primrose peerless 
of the old gardeners. N. Polyanthus and N. Tazetta, with 
varieties, have the flowers numerous, and are called Poly- 
anthus Narcissus. N. odorus and others furnish oils or es- 
sences to the perfumer. For other species, see bell-Jtmver, 
2, da/odil, jonquil, butter-and-eggs, and hoop-petticoat. See 
also cuts under da/odil and jonquil. 
S. In her., a flower composed of six petals, or a 
sort of hexafoil or architectural ornament of six 
lobes, used as a bearing. 

narcolepsy (nar'ko-lep-si), n. [< NL. nar- 
co(sis) + E. (epi)lepsy.} 1 . A condition charac- 
terized by a tendency to fall into a short sleep 
on all occasions. 2. Petit mal, when present- 
ing a simple brief loss of consciousness. 

narcoma (nar-ko'ma), n. [< Gr. vapiai, numb- 
ness, + -oma.} Stupor produced by narcotics. 

narcomatous (nar-kom a-tus), a. [< narco- 
ma(t-) + -CMS.] Pertainingto or of the nature 
of narcoma. 

Narcomedusae (nar"ko-me-du'se), n. pi. [NL., 
< Gr. vapx.n, numbness, + NL. Medusa : see Me- 
dusa, 2.] In Haeckel's classification, an order 
of Hydromedusce, in which the marginal bodies 
or sense-organs are tentaculicysts, and the 
genitalia are in the wall of the manubrium 
or in pouch-like manubrial outgrowths. Also 
spelled NarkomeduscK. 

narcomedusan (nar"ko-me-du'san), a. and n. 
I. a. Pertainingto the Narcomeciusce, or having 
their characters. 
II. n. A member of the Narcomedasw. 

narcose (iiar'kos), a. [< Gr. vdprni, numbness, 
+ -ose.} Narcotic. 

narcosis (nar-ko'sis), n. [NL., < Gr. rapKuaif, a 
benumbing, < vapnovv, benumb, render uncon- 
scious: see narcotic.'} Inpathol., the stupefy- 
ing effect of a narcotic ; narcotism Nussbaum's 
narcosis, the condition produced by a dose of morphine 
followed by the administration of chloroform. 

narcotic (niir-kot'ik), a. and . [< Gr. vapnart- 
K6f, making stiff or numb, narcotic, < vapitwv, 
benumb, < vapKn. numbness, torpor, perhaps 
orig. "avapKrj, related to E. snare and narrow 1 .] 

1. a. 1. Having the power to produce stupor. 

Narcoticlte medicines bee those that benum and stupifle 

with their coldnesse, as opium, hemlocke, and such like. 

Holland, tr. of Pliny, Explanation of the Words of Art. 

2. Consisting in or characterized by stupor : as, 
narcotic effects. 

II. n. A substance which directly induces 
sleep, allaying sensibility and blunting the 
senses, and which, in large quantities, pro- 
duces narcotism or complete insensibility. Opi- 
um, Cannabis Indica, hyoscyamus, stramonium, and bella- 
donna are the chief narcotics, of which opium is the most 
typical. 

Direct narcotics . . . either produce some specific effect 
upon the cerebral grey matter, or have a very decided ac- 
tion on the blood-supply of the brain. 

Quain, Med. Diet., p. 1018. 

narcotical (nar-kot'i-kal), a. [< narcotic + -/.] 
Same as narcotic. 

narcotically (nar-kot'i-kal-i), adv. After the 
manner of a narcotic; by means of a narcotic. 

narcoticalness (nar-kot'i-kal-nes), . The 
property of being narcotic, or of operating as a 
narcotic. 

narcoticness (nar-kot'ik-nes), n. Same as nar- 
coticalness. Bailey, 1727. 

narcotine (nar'ko-tin), n. [<.narcot(ic) + -ine 2 .} 
A crystallized alkaloid of opium, C 2 2H 2 sNO7. 
It is white, odorless, and tasteless. It was at first sup- 
posed to be the narcotic principle of opium, but this has 
been shown to be a mistake, as narcotine is possessed of 
little if any narcotic power. It is said to be sudorific and 
antipyretic. 

narcotinic (nar-ko-tin'ik), a. [< narcotine + 
-ic.] Pertaining to narcotine: applied to an 
acid formed when narcotine is heated with 
potasli. 

narcotism (nar'ko-tizm), M. [< narcot(ic) + 
-ism.'] The influence exerted by narcotics, or 
the effects produced by their use. 

narcotize (nar'ko-tiz), v. t. ; pret. and pp. nar- 
cotized, ppr. tuircotizint/. [< ntircot(ic) + -tee.] 
To bring under the influence of a narcotic ; af- 
fect with stupor. 

nard (niird), n. [< ME. narde, < OF. (and F.) 
nard = Sp. Pg. It. nardo = OHG. narda, MHG. 
G. narde, <L. arafs= Gr. vdpdoc, uard, < IVrs. 



narrable 

nard, < Skt. nalada, Indian spikenard.] 1. A 
plant : same as spikenard. See Nardostachys. 

Or have smelt o' the hud of the brier? 

Or the nard in the fire? 

B. Jonson, Devil is an Ass, ii. 2. 

2. An aromatic unguent prepared from this 
plant. 

While the Hebrew in his sumptuous Chamber 
Disports himself, perfum'd with Nard and Amber. 
Sylvester, tr. of Du Bartas's Weeks, ii., The Decay. 

3. Same as mat-grass, 2. See also Nardus. 

4. A European plant, Valeriana Celtica, for- 
merly used in medicine ; also, one of other spe- 
cies of valerian. 

nard (nard), v. t. [< nard, n.} To anoint with 
nard. 

She took the body of my past delight, 
Narded and swathed and balm'd it for herself. 

Tennyson, Lover's Tale, i. 

nardine (niir'din), a. [< nard + -tne 1 .] Per- 
taining to nard; having the qualities of spike- 
nard. 

nardoo (nar-do'), n. [Native Australian.] An 
Australian plant, Marsilea Drummondii (M. ma- 
cropus of Hooker). Its spores or spore-cases are 
pounded by the natives, and made into gruel and por- 
ridge. 

Nardostachys (nar-dos'ta-kis), n. [NL., < Gr. 
vapSdoraxif, spikenard, < vapdof, nard, -t- araxvf, 
an ear of grain, a spike : see nard and stachys.} 
A genus of aromatic plants of the order Valeri- 
anacew, known by its purple flowers with four 
stamens. There are 2 species, natives of the Himalayas, 
with thick fragrant rootstocks, producing long narrow 
leaves and dense clusters of flowers. See jatamanei and 
spikenard. 

Nardus (niir'dus), n. [NL. (Linnseus, 1737), an 
arbitrary transfer of L. nardus Gr. vapiof, 
nard : see nard.} A genus of plants of the or- 
der Gramineai and the tribe Hordece, known by 
the absence of the empty glumes and of the 
stalklet beyond the flower. There is but one 
species, N. stricta. See mat-grass, 2. 

nare (nar), n. [< L. naris, a nostril, usually in 
pi. nares, the nostrils, the nose, akin to nasus, 
nose : see nasal, nose 1 . Hence narel."] A nos- 
tril ; especially, the nostril of a hawk. 

Yet no nare was tainted, 
Nor thumb, nor finger to the stop acquainted, 
But open, and unarmed. 

/;. Jonson, Epigrams, cxxxiii. 

narelt (nar'el), n. [Also narrel; < OF. narel, < 
L. naris, nostril : see nare.} A nostril. Cotgrave. 

nares, Plural of naris. 

narghile, nargileh (nar'gi-le), . [Also nar- 
gile, nargili; = F. nargMlc]i,naryuiW; < Turk. Ar. 
((. Pers.) narghile, a kind of pipe (see def.), orig. 
made of cocoanut-shell,< E. Ind. nargil, a cocoa- 
nut-tree : see nargil,'} An Eastern tobacco-pipe 
i n which the smoke passes through water before 
reaching the lips, the water being contained in a 
receptacle originally of cocoanut, now often of 
glass, porcelain, or metal. (Compare sheesheh.) 
The stem is a long flexible tube, often called a 
snake. See kalian. 

nargil (niir'gil), . [E. Ind.] In southern Hin- 
dustan, the cocoanut-tree. Simmonds. 

narial (na'ri-al), a. [< L. naris, nostril (see 
nare), + -al."} Of or pertaining to the nostrils ; 
narine : as, the narial openings or passages. 

naric (nar'ik), a. Same as narial. 

naricorn (nar'i-k6rn), n. [< L. naris, nostril, -f- 
eornu, horn.] The horny nasal sheath of the 
beak of some birds, overlying or incasing the 
nostrils, as in petrels and albatrosses ; the rhi- 
notheca, or nasal case : in some birds, as alba- 
trosses, it is a separate piece. 

The naricorn or rhinotheca is [in the albatross] an ir- 
regularly convoluted little scroll. 

Coves, Proc. Phila. Acad., 1866, p. 276. 

narif oral (uar'i-f orm), o. [< L. naris, a nostril, 
+ forma, form.] Shaped like a nostril; re- 
sembling a nostril in form. 

narina (na-ri'na), n. [NL., < L. naris, a nostril : 
see nare.} An African trogon, Hapalodermn 
narina. 

narine (na'riu), . [= F. narine; as L. naris. a 
nostril (see nare), + -ine 1 .} Of or pertaining to 
the nostrils; narial. 

naris (na'ris), . ; pi. nares (-rez). [L., nostril : 
see nare.} A nostril. Anterior nares, the external 
nostrils. Posterior nares, the internal opening of the 
nai ial passages into the pharynx, behind the soft palate. 
Also called choance. See cuts under skull-, Crocodilia, and 
sinus. 

Narkomedusse, H. i>t. See Narcomedutce. 
narlt, n. An obsolete form ot ffnarP-. 
narr. An abbreviation of narratio. 
narrablet (uar'a-bl), a. [= Sp. narrable, < 
L. narrabilis, < narrare, relate, report: see 



narrable 
inn-rate.'] Capable of being related, told, or 

lllUTlltril. I ni'l:'i fillll. 

narras-plant (nar'as-plant), n. [< S. African 
iiiirnis + K. /!/<//.] A very peeulinr c-nciiilii- 
taueouH plant of South Africa, Acanthosicyox 
Itnrriitii, K r "V>'i"K on snmly downs near tho sea. 
Without leiiveH jiri'l mrn <{ with stout spines, it forms 
Impenetrable thickets of tin- height of a num. The fruit 
li abundant, as largo a a m:il! mclim, the pulp white and 
delicate, very refreshing and wholesome. The seeds also 
are eaten by the natives. 

narrate (na-rat' or nar'at), . t. ; pret. and pp. 
inn-mint, ppr. narrating. [< L. narratus, pp. 
of narrare ( > It. narrare = Pg. Sp. Pr. narrar = 
F. narrer), relate, make known, for "gnarrare, 
</</, seen also iu E. know. Cf.ii. yntint.-*. 
knowing: see giniritu.\ To tell, rehearse, or 
recite in detail ; relate the particulars or inci- 
dents of ; relate in speech or writing. 
I may aptly narrate the apologue. Sir E. Coke. 

When I have least to narrate to speak in the Scottish 
phrase I am most diverting. 

liir.hardmn, Clarissa Harlowe, VI. 223. (Daviei.) 

= Syn. Describe, Narrate (see deseribe\ detail, recount, re- 
peat. 

narratio (na-ra'shi-6), n. [L.: see narration.] 
In eifil law, an account or formal statement in 
pleading, setting forth the facts constituting 
the plaintiff's cause of action : used to some ex- 
tent at common law. Abbreviated narr. 

narration (na-ra'shon), n. [= F. narration = 
Pr. narratio = Sp. tiarracion = Pg. narraySo = 
It. narrasione, < L. narratio(n-), a relation, a 
narrative, < narrare, relate: see narrate."] 1. 
The act of recounting or relating in order the 
particulars of some action, occurrence, or affair ; 
a narrating. 

In the narration of some great design, 
Invention, art, and fable, all must Join. 
Drydenand Soaine, tr. of Horace's Art of Poetry, III. 160. 

The power of diffusion without being diffuse would seem 
to be the highest merit of narration, giving It that easy 
flow which is so difficult. Lowell, Study Windows, p. 278. 

2. That which is narrated or recounted; an 
orderly recital of the details and particulars of 
some transaction or event, or of a series of 
transactions or events ; a story or narrative. 

The great disadvantage our historians labour under is 
too tedious an interruption by the Insertion of records in 
their narration. Felton. 

Specifically 3. In rliet., that part of an ora- 
tion in which the speaker makes his statement 
of facts. The narration Is to be distinguished from the 
proposition (prothesis) or statement of the subject. Be- 
sides the principal narration or narration proper (the 
diegesis), ancient rhetoricians distinguished subordinate 
forms of narration the catadiegesis, epidiegesis, hypodie- 
gesls, piiradiegesis, and prodiegesis. Oblique narra- 
tion. See oblique. = Syn. 2. Account, Relation, Narrative, 
etc. See account. 

narrative (nar'a-tiv), a. and n. [= F. narra- 
tif = Sp. Pg. It. narrativ o, < L. narratwus, suit- 
able for relation, < narrare, pp. narratus, re- 
late: see narrate.} I. a. 1. Of or pertaining 
to narration or the act of relating the details of 
a transaction or an event: as, narrative skill. 
2. Given to narration or the telling of stories 
and the recounting of incidents and events. 
[Rare.] 
The tattling c|ii:iHH of age ... is always narrative. 

Dryden, Orig. and Prog, of Satire. 

II. n. 1. That which is narrated; aconnected 
account of the particulars of an event or trans- 
action, or series of incidents ; a relation or nar- 
ration ; a story. 

By this narrative you now vmlerstand the state of the 
question. Bacon, Hist. Hen. VTI., p. 58. 

The Narrative is a mere imitation of history. 

Bacon, Advancement of Learning, ii. 143. 

Snnu' write a narrative of wars, and feasts 

Of heroes. Cowper, Task, ill. 139. 

2. The art of narrating or recounting in de- 
tail: as, he is very skilful in nurrutiri: 

The principles of the art of narratiee must be equally 
observed. H. L. Stevenson, A Humble Remonstrance. 

Narrative of a deed, in Scots lam, that part of a deed 
which describes the grantor and the person In whose 
favor the deed is granted, and states the cause of granting. 
= Syn. 1. Account, Relation, Narrative, etc. See account 

narratively (uar'a-tiv-li), adv. In or by a nar- 
rative or narration. 

narrator (na-ra'tor), n. [= F. narrateur, OF. 
iiarreur = Sp. Pg. narrador = It. narraton; < 
\i. narrntor.il narrator, < narrinr. pp. narrntuK, 
relate: see niirniti:'] 1. One wno narrates; 
one who reeoiinN or states facts, iletaiU. dr. 
Hee is but a narratur of ullirr men's opinions. 

Dp. Mountai/u, Appeal to C'sosar, i. 

2. In the older oratorios ami )>:issions, the per- 
sonage who sings the historical parts of the text. 



3935 

so as to give the proper setting for the dramatic 
and lyric numbers. 

narratoryt (nar'a-to-ri), a. [< narrate + -ory.] 
Of the nature of narrative ; consisting of nar- 
rative. 

Now Letters, though they be capable of any Subject, 
yet commonly they are either Karratory, Objurgatory, 
Consolatory, Monitory, or Congratulatory. 

Howell, Letters, I. i. 1. 

narre't, An obsolete spelling of ;/<//-. 
Levins. 

I narre, as a dogge dothe whan he is angred. Palsgrave. 
Sarre lyke a dogge whych is madde. IluloeL 

narre' J t, a. A Middle English form of near 1 . 

narrow 1 (nar'6), a. and n. [< ME. narotc, na- 
rotce, naretce, nance, naru, < AS. ntaru (neartc-) 
= OS. naru, naro, narowo, narrow, = OFries. 
"iiaro (in deriv. nara, oppression) = D. naar, 
dismal, ghastly, frightful, sorrowful, depressed, 
= MLG. nare, nance, LG. naar, dismal, ghastly, 
= OHG. 'naru (*narw-), in deriv. narwa, narwo, 
MHG. narwe, G. narbe, a closed wound, a near; 
cf. Icel. njorva-sund, 'narrow strait' (applied to 
the Strait of Gibraltar); perhaps ong. with 
initial s, akin to ynare. Certainlynot connect- 
ed with near 1 .] I. a. 1. Of little width or 
breadth ; measuring relatively little from side 
to side ; not wide or broad : as, a narrow chan- 
nel or passage; a narrow ribbon. 

By little It [the land) cometh in, and waxeth narrower 
towards both the ends. 

Sir T. More, Utopia (tr. by RobinsonX ii. 1. 

Strait is the gate, and narrate is the way, which leadeth 
unto life. Hat. \ ii. 14. 

The narrow seas that part 
The French and English. 

Shak., M. of V., IL 8. 28. 

Those small Perquisites that I have are thrust up into 
a little narrow Lobby- Huirell, Letters, I. vi. 89. 

2. Limited as regards extent, resources, means, 
sentiment, mental view, scope, individual dis- 
position, or habits, etc. (a) Small; confined; cir- 
cumscribed. 

Had I not beene brought into such a narrow com passe of 
time. Coryat, Crudities, I. 144. 

It is a large subject [the dissensions at Rome], but I shall 
draw it into as narrow a compass as I can. 

Su\ft, Nobles and Commons, HI. 

(&) Straitened ; limited; impoverished: as, narrow fortune. 

Socinios embraced the Catholic religion from convic- 
tion, and studied It with great application, as far as his 
narrow means of Instruction would allow him. 

Bruce, Source of the Nile, II. 308. 

(c) Contracted; lacking breadth or liberality of view; 
illiberal; bigoted. 

I hold not so narrow a conceit of this virtue as to con- 
ceive that to give alms is only to be charitable. 

Sir T. Browne, Religio Medici, 11. 3. 

The hopes of good from those whom we gratify would 
produce a very narrow and stinted charity. Bp. Smalridge. 

There is no surer proof of a narrow and Ill-Instructed 
mind than to think and uphold that what a man takes to 
be the truth on religious matters is always to be pro- 
claimed. M. Arnold, Literature and Dogma, Pref. 

(d) Niggardly; avaricious; covetous. 

To narrow breasts he comes all wrapt in gain. 

Sir P. Sidney. 

3. Close ; bare ; so small or close as to be al- 
most inadequate; barely sufficient: as, a nar- 
row majority or escape (that is, a majority so 
small or an escape so close as almost to fail of 
being a majority or an escape). 

The Lords, by a narrow majority, . . . adopted the same 
declaration. Brougham. 

The Republican majority in the lower house is very nar- 
rnii: It comprises eighteen Southern members. 

The Xation, XLVII. 463. 

4. Close; near; accurate; scrutinizing; care- 
ful ; minute. 

I hate her more 

Than I love happiness, and plac'd thee there 
To pry with narrow eyes into her deeds. 

Beau, and /'(., Philaster, ill. 1. 

These two, far off, 

Shall tempt thee to Just wonder, and, drawn near, 
Can satisfy thy narrotcent curiosity. 

Shirley, Love In a Maze, ii. 2. 
But first with narrow search I must walk round 
This garden, and no corner leave unspied. 

Milton, P. L., IT. 628. 

5. Restricted or brief, with reference to time. 

From this narrow time of gestation [may] ensue a minor- 
ity or smallness in the exclusion. 

Sir T. Browne, Vulg. Err., lit 6. 

Narrow circumstances. See circumstance. Narrow 
cloths. See cloth. Narrow gage. See gage?, 2 (a). 
The narrow sea or seas, the English Channel, or, specif- 
ically, the Strait of Dover. 

Kei-p thees two townes [Calais and Dover], sire, to your 

magestee 
As your twein eyen, to keep the narow tee. 

Libcll of Jinyluhe Polieye, 14S6 (ed. Hertzberg). 



narrowness 

Antonio hath a ship of rich lading wrecked on Ua nar- 
row teas; the Goodwins, I think they call the place. 

Shot., M. of V., 111. 1. 4. 

Far beyond, 

Imagined more than Ken, the tklrU of France. . . . 
"God bleu the narrow tea which keeps her off." 

Teiuiynun, ITlnuess, Conclusion. 
Syn. 1 and 3. Cramped, pinched, icanty, mean. 
II. n. 1. A strait; a narrow passage through 
a mountain, or a narrow channel of water be- 
tween one sea or lake and another ; a sound ; 
any contracted part of a navigable river or har- 
bor: used chiefly in the plural : as, the Xarroiex 
at the entrance of New York harbor. 

The sea-current, especially observable In narrow*, like 
tlie Hellespont. Amer. Jour. Philnl., LX. Wo. 

2. A contracted part of an ocean current : usu- 
ally in the plural : as, the narrows of the Gulf 
Stream at the south point of Florida. 3. pi. 
In coal-mining, roadways or galleries driven at 
right angles to drifts, and smaller than these in 
section. Gresley. [North. Eng.] 
narrow 1 (nar'6), adv. [< ME. narwe, < AS. 
neartre, narrowly, < nearu, narrow: see narrow 1 , 
a.] Narrowly. [Rare.] 

Vndlr his lift side y my silt stood. 
And aftir his smile ful naru:; a-spled. 

Hymni to Virgin, etc. (E. E. T. 8.), p. 48. 

narrow 1 (nar'6), r. [< ME. narowen, narwen, < 
AS. nearwian, niriran, make narrow, become 
narrow, genearwian, make narrow, < nearu, nar- 
row: see narrow*, a.] I. trans. 1. To make 
narrow or contracted; reduce in breadth or 
scope: as, to narrow one's sphere of action. 

At the Straits of Magellan, where the land Is norrotred, 
and the sea on the other side, it |the needle) varieth but 
fle or six [degrees]. Sir T. Browne, Vulg. Err., IL 2. 

Harrow not the law of charity, equity, mercy. 

Sir T. Bromu, Christ. Mor., L 11. 

Desuetude does contract and narrow our faculties. 

Government of the Tongue. 

One science [theology] is Incomparably above all the 
rest, where it is not by corruption narrowed into a trade. 

Locke. 

Who, born for the universe, narrowed his mind, 
And to party gave up what was meant for mankind. 

Ooldtmith, Retaliation. 

Specifically 2. In knitting, to reduce the num- 
ber of stitches of : opposed to widen : as, to 
narrow a stocking at the toe. 

II. intrant. 1. To become narrow, literally 
or figuratively. 

Following up 
The river as it narrow'd to the hills. 

Tennyson, Princess, Hi. 

2. In the manege, to take less than the proper 
ground in stepping, or bear out insufficiently to 
the one hand or the other: said of a horse. 

3. In knitting, to reduce the number of stitches, 
either by knitting two together or by slipping 
one and binding it over the next : as, when you 
reach this point you must narrow, 

narrow'-'t, a. See wary. 

narrower (nar'o-er), n. One who or that which 
narrows or contracts. 

narrow-gage (nar'6-gaj), a. In railroadx, of a 
gage less than the standard gage of 4 feet S^ 
inches. 

narrowing (nar'6-ing), . [Verbal n. of nar- 
row 1 , t 1 .] 1 . In knitting, the act of reducing the 
breadth of the work, as by throwing t wo stitches 
into one. 2. The part of the work which has 
been thus narrowed or contracted. 

narrowly (nar'6-li), adv. [< ME. "narireliche, 
ncruhUclie, < AS. nearulice, narrowly, < nearu, 
narrow: see narrow 1 , a.] 1. With little breadth, 
extent, or scope ; restrictedly as regards breadth 
or scope. 

He does not think the church of England so narrowly 
calculated that It cannot fall In with any regular species 
of government. Sie\ft, Sentiments of a Ch. of Eng. Man, ii. 

2. Sparingly; with niggardliness. 3. Close- 
ly; with careful or minute scrutiny; attentive- 
ly; carefully: as, narroicly watched, inspected, 
or seen. 

\Vu will wjitch the bishop narrowly, 
Lest some other way he should ri<)<-. 
KiMn Ilovd and the Bishop of Bert/ord (Child's Ballads, 

[V. 296X 
Look well, look narrowly upon her beauties. 

Fletcher, Beggar s Bush, Iv. 6. 

4. Nearly; within a little; by a small distance. 

His ancestor was a brave man. and narrowly escaped be- 
ing killed in the civil wars. Sleele, Spectator, No. 109. 

narrow-minded (nar'6-mm'ded), n. Of con- 
fined views or sentiments: liijroted; illiberal. 

narrow-mindedness iiKn-Vj-niin'ded-nes), . 
The quality of being narrow-miii'li .1. 

narrowness ( nar'o-ni's ).. [OIK. <// 
< AS. iiKii-Hiicn.1. narrowi)' <. narrow: 



narrowness 

see narrow*, a.] The quality or condition of 
being narrow, in any sense of that word. 

narrow-nosed (nar'6-nozd), a. In zool., catar- 
rhiue : specifically applied to the Catarrhina or 
Old World apes and monkeys. 

narrow-SOUled (nar'6-sold), . Illiberal; de- 
void of generosity. 

narrow-work (iiar'o-werk), n. In coal-min- 
ing, all the work done in the mine in the way 
of opening it, previous to the removal of the 
pillars : nearly the same as dead-work, or that 
which is done preparatory to beginning to take 
out the coal. 

narry, . See nary. 

nartt. A contracted form of ne art, art not. 

Narthecium (nar-the'si-um), . [NL. (Mohring, 
1742), < Gr. vdpOtit, a tall hollow-stemmed um- 
belliferous plant : see narthex.] A genus of 
herbs of the order Liliacece, type of the tribe 
Nartheciece, known by its single style, stiff open 
flowers, and rigid linear leaves in two ranks, 
rising from a creeping rootstock. There are 4 spe- 
cies, of north temperate regions, with yellow flowers in ra- 
cemes. The name boy-asphodel, applied to the genus, be- 
longs especially to N. ossifmgum, the Lancashire aspho- 
del of England, and JV. Americanum, a rare plant of New 
Jersey. 

narthex (uar'theks), n. [NL., < L. narthex, < Gr. 
vapBrii;, a tall hollow-stemmed umbelliferous 
plant (L. ferula), also a waiid of this plant, a 
case, casket; in LGr. also as in def. 1.] 1. 
A part of an early Christian or an Oriental 
church or basilica, at the end furthest from the 
bema or sanctuary, and nearest to the main en- 
trance. It was originally separated from the nave merely 
by a railing or screen ; but after the earliest Christian cen- 
turies it was generally divided from the church proper by 
a complete wall, in which were the main entrance-doors 
to the church, the narthex thus forming a capacious and 
lofty vestibule of the full width of the church. In primi- 
tive times the narthex waa the part of the church to which 
the catechumens, the energurnens, and the class of peni- 
tents called audientes or hearers were admitted. Some- 
times it was set apart for the women of the congregation. 
Occasionally it was double, in which case the inner division 
was called the esonarthex and the outer division the exo- 
narthex. In the church-building of western Europe, in 
certain types of monastic churches, notably in those of the 
Benedictines and Cistercians, the narthex persisted until 
the end of the twelfth century, and often formed a very 
important architectural feature, as in the splendid example 
in the great abbey-church of Vezelay, France. Also called 
antechurch, antenave, pronaos. See diagram under bema. 
2. In antiq., a small box or casket for unguents 
or perfumes. 3. [cap.'] An old genus of um- 
belliferous plants, now referred to Ferula. See 
asafetida. 

narwet, a. and adv. A Middle English form of 
narrow 1 . 

narwhal (nar'hwal), n. [Also narwhale, normal; 
= F. narval = Gr"narwal, < Sw. Dan. narhval = 
Icel. nahvalr, a narwhal; the Icel. form is appar. 
lit. ' a corpse-whale,' < nar (nom.; in comp. -), 
a corpse, + hvalr = E. whale, and is usually sup- 
posed to be so called from its pale color; but 
the term seems unusual, and the form does not 
suit the Sw. Dan. narhval. The name may be 
a native (Greenland?) term adapted to Icel.; 
of. Greenland anarnak, a kind of whale. Of. wal- 
rus, AS. horshwcel, in which the element whale 
appears.] A cetacean, Monodon monoceros, of 
the family Delphinida! and the subfamily Del- 



3936 

senses modern, < F. nasal = Sp. Pg. nasal = 
It. nasale, < NL. nasalis, of the nose, < L. - 
sws=E. nose 1 : see nose 1 .] I. a. 1. Of or per- 
taining to the nose or nostrils ; narial; rhinal. 
2. Uttered with resonance in the nose, or 
with admission of the expelled air into the 
nasal passages, by relaxation or dropping of 
the palatal veil that shuts them off from the 
pharynx. A nasal sound uttered with complete closure 
of the month-organs is a nasal stop, or check, or mute, or 
oftenest called a nasal merely : such in English are ?i 
m, ng, uttered respectively in the mouth-positions of a, 
b, g. There are apt to be in any language as many such 
as there are positions of mute-closure ; thus, in Sanskrit 
there are five. A nasal uttered in a vowel-position of the 
mouth-organs is a nasal vowel : such are the French an, 
on, in, tin, the Portuguese do, etc. Nasal semivowels are 
also possible. And 
sometimes the di_V f ST 

whole utterance 
is rendered more 
or less nasal (the 
"nasal twang") by 
habitual relaxa- 
tion of the velar 
closure. 

^W-aininr* i-n section just to one side of septum : left-hand 
pertaining tO ng - jre outer wall of right cavity ; right-hand 

the nasus or ' 
clypeus. Na- 
sal bone, a nasal. 



nash-gab 





PA 

Nasal Fossa of Man, 



figure, outer wall of right cavity ; right 
figure, inner or right wall of left cavity, being 
the left side of the median septum. 
/, olfactory nerve, its filaments passing 




Kahau, or Proboscis-monkey (Nasalis larvatus 



See II., s. Na- 
sal canal, crest, 



through 2, cribriform plate of ethmoid, t< 
ramify upon Schneiderian membrane (/ 



brain-cavity of th 



low interior or cav- 

ity of the nose. In man the nasal fossa; are right and left, 
separated by the nasal septum, and each is subdivided into 
three fossfe or meatus, superior, middle, and inferior. 



nasality (na-zal'i-ti), n. [< nasal + -ity.] The 
state or quality of being nasal. 

The Indian sound differs only in the greater nasality of 
the first letter. Sir W. Jones, Orthog. of Asiatick Words. 

nasalization (na"zal-i-za'shon), n. [< nasalize 
j?"paiate + -ation.'] The act of nasalizing or uttering 
with a nasal sound. 

. nasalized, 
To 

as the sound of a letter or syllable 
by modification or addition. 

II. intrans. To speak or pronounce with a 
nasal sound ; speak through the nose. 




(ft) In ornith., the depressions upon the bill of a bird in nasa lly (na'zal-i), adv. In"a nasal manner; by 
which the external nostrils open. These are usually well- " 



m'ark'edTosTee'at'or near the base ofthe bill, on either side or through the nose. 

of the culmen, naked or filled in with feathers, or arched nasard (naz ard), n. [= bp. nasarao, 

over by an operculum or nasal scale ; their characters are sard, an organ-stop (cf . OF. nasart, 

often of zoological importance. See cuts and diagram un- rt f ^ helmet which protected th 

derftiK. Nasal helmet, the helmet of the early middle ?____._,., .. ,\ / ^ ".._ 

ages to which a nasal was attached. See II., 1. Nasal 

index. See craniometry. Nasal meatus. See meatus. 



F. na- 

nazart, 
e nose: 

< L. nasus = E. wose 1 .] 
In organ-building, a mutation-stop, usually sim- 



L. nasus (F. nez), nose : see nose. 
Mean; foolish. Daisies. 



Cf. nasard.'] 



What ! such a nazardly Pigwiggen ! 

Cotton, Burlesque upon Burlesque. 



Nasal plate, in herpet., one of the special plates of the j] ar to the twelfth. Also nasarde, and corrupt- 
head of a reptile through or between which the nc i ly nassar ^ na zard, nazad, nasat. 
NM^ a sc^ 1 'i^^^, P th?hornyTp^ium e o""w 1 rd ; 8 nasardly (naz'ard-li), a. [< *nasard, appar. < 
nostril ; a naricorn ; a rhinotheca. Nasal septum, the OF. nasarde, a flout, mock, a rap on the nose, < 
partition between the right and left nasal fossa;, in man ' 
complete and consisting of the perpendicular plate of 
the ethmoid bone or mesethmoid, the vomer, and a large 
cartilage called triangular. Nasal spine, a spinous 
process of bone of the nose. Three such are named in 

I ppor < Ung'7he a two nSal^nes^V^'a''^^''^ median nascency (nas'en-si), re. [= F. naissance = Pr. 
process of each maxillary bone, together forming one naissensa, naysensa, naisquenza = OSp. nascen- 
spine which projects^ the basejrf the outerjiostrils or c j a _ {(-_ naseenza, < L. nascentia, birth, origin, < 

nascen(t-)s, ppr. of nasci, be born: see nascent.'] 
Origin, beginning, or production. 

.lascent (nas'ent),