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rrVHE plan of "The Century Dictionary " in- miliar examples are words ending in or or our ical arts and trades, and of the philological 
. J_ eludes three things : the construction of a (as labor, labour), in er or re (as center, centre), sciences, an equally broad method has been 
general dictionary of the English language in ige or ise (as civilize, civilise) ; those having a adopted. In the definition of theological and 
which shall be serviceable for every literary single or double consonant after an unaccented ecclesiastical terms, the aim of the Dictionary 
and practical use ; a more complete collection vowel (as traveler, traveller), or spelled with e or has been to present all the special doctrines of 
of the technical terms of the various sciences, with ce or ce (as hemorrhage, hcemorrhage) ; and the different divisions of the Church in such a 
arts, trades, and professions than has yet been so on. In such cases both forms are given, manner as to convey to the reader the actual 
attempted ; and the addition to the definitions with an expressed preference for the briefer intent of those who accept them. In defining 
proper of such related encyclopedic matter, one or the one more accordant with native legal terms the design has been to offer all the 
with pictorial illustrations, as shall constitute analogies. information that is needed by the general 

a convenient book of general reference. THE PRONUNCIATION reader^ and also to aid the professional reader 

About 200,000 words will be defined. The ,, ' * ,, i, , At ~i n ii , bv giv^g in a concise form all the important 

Dictionary will be a practically complete rec- No attempt has been made to record all the technical words and meanings. Special atten- 
ord of all the noteworthy words which have varieties of popular or even educated utter- tion hag algo been id to t he definitions of 
been in use since English literature has ex- an e > or to report the determinations made by the principal terms of painting, etching, en- 
isted, especially of all that wealth of new words different recognized authorities. It has been g,. 8V f n g and various other art-processes; of 
and of applications of old words which has necessary rather to make a selection of words are hitecture, sculpture, archteology, decorative 
sprung from the development of the thought to wh j ch alternative pronunciations should be art ceramics, etc? ; of musical terms, nautical 
and life of the nineteenth century. It will re- accorded, and to give preference among these an( | military i erms e tc. 
cord not merely the written language, but the according to the circumstances of each particn- 

spoken language as well (that isf all important i ar , case ! m w ? the general analogies and ENCYCLOPEDIC FEATURES, 

provincial and colloquial words) and it Vill in- tendencies of English utterance. The scheme The inclugion of go exte nsive and varied a 
elude (in the one alphabetical order of the Die- by which the pronunciation is indicated is quite vocabul the intro duction of special phrases, 
tionary) abbreviations and such foreign words simple, avwding over-refinement m the dis- and the f u ll description of things often found 
and phrases as have become a familia? part of crimmat on of sounds and being designed to eggential to an in tangible definition of their 

English speech. pXunc ^on back cr ) ( y names > would alone have ^ ven to this Diction - 

__ CTVM ,,, ary a distinctly encyclopedic character. It has, 

THE ETYMOLOGIES. DEFINITIONS OF COMMON WORDS. however, been deemed desirable to go some- 

The etymologies have been written anew on i n the preparation of the definitions of com- what further in this direction than these con- 
a uniform plan, and in accordance with the es- m on words there has been at hand besides ditions render strictly necessary, 
tablished principles of comparative philology, the material generally accessible to 'students Accordingly, not only have many technical 
It has been possible in many cases, by means o f the language a special collection of quota- niatters been treated with unusual fullness, 
of the fresh material at the disposal of the tions selected for this work from English books but much practical information of a kind which 
etymologist, to clear up doubts or difficulties of a n kinds and of all periods of the language, dictionaries have hitherto excluded has been 
hitherto resting upon the history of particular wh ich i 8 pro bably much larger than any which added. The result is that " The Century 
words, to decide definitely in favor of one of has hitherto been made for the use of an English Dictionary" covers to a great extent the field 
several suggested etymologies, to discard nu- dictionary, except that accumulated for the of the ordinary encyclopedia, with this princi- 
merous current errors, and to give for the first philoloical Society of London. Thousands of P al difference that the information given is 
time the history of many words of which the non-technical words, many of them occurring * or the most part distributed under the indi- 
etymologies were previously unknown or erro- in the classics of the language, and thousands vidual words and phrases with which it is con- 
neously stated. Beginning with the current of mea nings, many of them familiar, which nected, instead of being collected under a few 
accepted form of spelling, each important word have not hitherto been noticed by the diction- general topics. Proper names, both biograph- 
has been traced back through earlier forms to ar ies have in this way been obtained. The ical and geographical, are of course omitted, ex- 
its remotest known origin. The various prefixes arrangement of the definitions historically, in cept as they appear in derivative adjectives, as 
and suffixes useful in the formation of English the order in which the senses defined have en- Darwinian from Daridn, or Indian from India. 
words are treated very fully in separate articles, tered the language, has been adopted wher- The alphabetical distribution of the encyclo- 

ever possible. pedic matter under a large number of words 

HOMONYMS. _,jp onoTATIONS will, it is believed, be found to be particularly 

Words of various origin and meaning but _. . helpful in the search for those details which 

of the same spelling, have been distinguished ifl ese torm a very large collection (about are generally looked for in works of reference, 
by small superior figures (l, 2 3, etc.). In 200,000), representing all periods and 

numbering these homonyms the rule has been branches of English literature. The classics ILLUSTRATIONS, 

to give precedence to the oldest or the most of the language have been drawn upon, and The pictorial iii ustra tions have been so se- 
familiar, or to that one which is most nearly valuable citations have been made from less i ec ted and executed as to be subordinate to the 
English in origin. The superior numbers ap- famous authors m all departments of htera- text while poS8es8ing a considerable degree of 
ply not so much to the individual word as to ture. American writers especially are repre- independent suggestiveness and artistic value, 
the group or root to which it belongs, hence sented ?> ater fullness than in any similar To g cure tec hni?al accuracy, the illustrations 
the different grammatical uses of the same ^ ork : ^list of authors and works (and edi- have, as a rule, been selected by the specialists 
homonym are numbered alike when they are *JW cited will be published with the con- in charge of the various departments, and have 
separately entered in the Dictionary. Thus a eluding part of the Dictionary. in &n c | geg been examined by them in proofs, 

verb and a noun of the same origin and the DEFINITIONS OF TECHNICAL TERMS. The cuts number about six thousand, 
same present spelling receive the same superior M e h b devoted to the snecial 
number. But when two words of the same form termg o f the various sciences fine arts me MODE OF ISSUE, PRICE, ETC. 

the same radical origin now differ eon- chan ical arts, professions, and trades,' and " The Century Dictionary will be comprised 

siderably m meaning, so as to be used as dif- muoh care hag ' b ^ en bestowe d upon their treat- in about 6, 500 quarto pages. It is published 

ferent words, they are separately numbered. ment- Th ey h ave been collected by an extended by subscription and in twenty-four parts or 

THE ORTHOCR APHY search through all branches of literature, with sections, to be finally bound into six quarto vol- 

the design of providing a very complete and umes, if desired by the subscriber. These see- 
the great body of words constituting the manysided technical dictionary. Many thou- tions will be issued about once a month. The 
familiar language the spelling is determined sands of words have thus been gathered which price of the sections is $2.50 each, and no 
by well-established usage, and, however ac- have never before been recorded in a general subscriptions are taken except for the entire 
cidental and unacceptable, in many eases,_ it dictionary, or even in special glossaries. To work. 

may be, it is not the office of a dictionary like the biological sciences a degree of promi- The plan for the Dictionary is more fully de- 
this to propose improvements, or to adopt those nence has been given corresponding to the re- scribed in the preface (of which the above is in 
which have been proposed and have not yet m a rk a ble recent increase in their vocabulary, part a condensation), which accompanies the 
won some degree of acceptance and use. But The new material in the departments of biology first section, and to which reference is made, 
there are also considerable classes as to which and zoology includes not less than five thou- A list of the abbreviations used in the ety- 
usage is wavering, more than one form being sand words and senses not recorded even in mologies and definitions, and keys to pronun 
sanctioned by excellent authorities, either in special dictionaries. In the treatment of phy- ciations and to signs used in the etymologies, 
this country or Great Britain, or in both. Fa- sical and mathematical sciences, of themechan- will be found on the back cover-lining. 


which something runs its course, or lasts or is 
inli'iidrd to lust: as, ho was engaged fora /<// 
of five years; hi.s l< rm <>( ollirc h.i- expired. 

This laily, that was left at home, 
llnth wonder that the king ne come 
Houni, for hit was a longu term*. 

Chaucer, Death of Blanche, 1. 79. 

A spirit, 

To whom, for ccrtaine tearme of ycares, t' inherit 
His i ;t-' :uitl pleasure with itboiindant wealth, 
lie hath made sale of his soulcs dearest health. 

Timet' Whistle (E. E. T. 8.), p. 63. 

When a race lias lived its term it comeB no more again. 

/ M '<", Conduct of Life. 

Specifically (a) In universities, colleges, and schools, one 
of certain stated periods during which instruction is reg- 
ularly given to students or pupils. At the University of 
Cambridge, England, there are three terms in the univer- 
sity year namely, Michaelmas or October term, Lent or 
J anuary tenn, and Easter or midsummer term. At the Uni- 
versity of Oxford there are four terms namely, Michael- 
mas, Hilary, Easter, and Trinity. In American universi- 
ties and colleges there are usually three terms, beginning 
in September, January, and April, and called first, second, 
and third, or fall, winter, and spring terms respectively. 
(6) In law, the period during which a court of justice may 
hold its sessions from day to day for the trial of causes ; 
a part of the year in which the justices of the supe- 
rior common-law courts of general jurisdiction hold ses- 
sions of the courU, as distinguished from vacations, during 
which, on religious and business grounds, attendance at 
the courts cannot be required from parties or witnesses. 
The importance of the distinction between term time and 
vacation, In both American and English law, Is in the fact 
that for the just protection of the public a court can only 
exist and exercise its powers within the time as well as at 
the place prescribed by law ; and, while many ministerial 
acts, such as the bringing of actions, and the course of 
pleading, the entry of judgment, the issue of process, etc., 
can be carried on In the clerk's office upon any secular day, 
actual sessions of the court itself can only be held during 
term time. In England, before the present judicature act, 
the law terms were four in number namely, Hilary term 
(compare Uilaryma\ beginning on the llth and ending 
on the 31st of January ; Easter term, from about the 15th 
of April to the 8th of May ; Trinity term, from the 22d of 
May to the 1 "t h of June ; and Michaelmas term, from the 
2d to the 25th of November. These have now been super- 
seded as terms for the administration of justice by " sit- 
tings," bearing similar names. For the High Court of Jus- 
tice in London and Middlesex the Hilary sittings extend 
from the llth of January to the Wednesday before Easter, 
the Easter sittings from the Tuesday after Easter week to 
the Friday before Whitsunday, the Trinity sittings from 
the Tuesday after Whltsun week to the 8th of August, and 
the Michaelmas sittings from the 2d of November to the 
21st of December. 

In terme hadde he caas and domes alle 

That from the tyme of King William were falle. 

Chaucer, Gen. Pro!, to 0. T., 1. 328. 
There are not Ttrmet in Paris as in London, but one 
Terme only, that continueth the whole yeare. 

Coryat, Crudities, I. 40, sig. D. 
Doll. When begins the term? 

Chart. Why? hast any suits to be tried at Westminster? 
Dekker and Webtter, Northward Ho, L 2. 
I went to the Temple, it being Michaelmas Teanne. 

Evelyn, Diary, Oct 15, 1640. 

The law terms were formerly the great times of resort to 
London, not only for business, but pleasure. . . . Oreene 
calls one of his pamphlets . . . "A Peale of New Villa- 
nies rung out, being Muslcall to all Gentlemen, Lawyers, 
Farmers, and all sorts of People that come up to the 
Tntriin-." Nara. 

(c) An estate or interest in land to be enjoyed for a fixed 
period: called more fully tenn of yean, term /or yean. 
(<t) The period of time for which such an estate is held. 
() In Scot* law, a certain time fixed by authority of a 
court within which a party is allowed to establish by evi- 
dence his averment. 

7. An appointed or set time. [Obsolete ex- 
cept in specific uses below.] 

Yif that ye the trrme rekne wolde, 
As I or other trewe lovers sholde, 
I pleyne not, God wot, beforu my day. 

Chaucer, Good Women, 1. 2510. 

Merlin seide that the tennc drough faste on that it 
sholde be do. Merlin (E. E. T. S.), ill. 563. 

Specifically (o) A day on which rent or interest is pay- 
able. In England and Ireland there are four days in the 
year which are called terms, or more commonly quarter- 
days, and which are appointed for the settling of rents 
namely, Lady day, March 25th ; Midsummer, June 24th ; 
Michaelmas day, September 29th ; and Christmas, Decem- 
ber 2f>th. The terms in Scotland corresponding to these 
are Candlemas, February 2d ; Whitsunday, May 16th; Lam- 
mas, August 1st; and Martinmas, November llth. In Scot- 
land houses are let from May 28th for a year or a period 
of years. The legal terms in Scotland for the payment of 
rent or Interest are Whitsunday, May 16th, and Martin- 
mas, November llth. and these days are most commonly 
known as term. (6) The day, occurring half-yearly, on 
which farm and domestic servant* in Great Britain receive 
their wages or enter upon a new period of service. 

8. The menstrual period of women. 

In times past ... no young man married before he 
slew an cneniio, nor the woman before she had her termes. 
which time was therefore festiuall. 

Pimhat. Pilgrimage, p. 84". 

9. la math.: (a) The antecedent or consequent 
of a ratio. 

Proportionality consisteth at the least in three term. 
Euclid, Elements, tr. by Rudd (1651), bk. v., def. 9. (It Is 

[properly def. 8.) 

. t. *'_ 


(6) In algebra, a part of an expression joined to 
the rest by the sign of addition, or by that of 
subtraction considered as adding a negative 
quantity. Thus, in the expression z -f * y + z(u + t>), 
the first term is x" + , the second Is y, and the third Is 
z (u -f o), equivalent to the sum of two terms zu and zt>. 
10. In loijic, a name, especially the subject or 
predicate of a proposition; also, a name con- 
nected with another name by a relation ; a cor- 
relative. The word term, In Its Latin form terminus, was 
used by Boethius to translate Aristotle's opos, probably 
borrowed by him from the nomenclature of mathematical 
proportions. Aristotle says : " I call a term that Into which 
a proposition is resolved, as the predicate or that of which 
it is predicated." The implication is that a proposition is 
composed of two terms ; but this Is Incorrect. For, on the 
one hand, no complex of terms can make a proposition ; 
for a term expresses a mere abstract conception, while a 
proposition expresses the compulsion of a reality, and so 
Is true or false ; and, on the other hand, a proposition need 
contain but one term, as (the fool has said in his heart! 
' ' There Is no God " ; and Indeed the abstract or conceptual 
part of any proposition may be regarded as a single com- 
plex term, as when we express ">'o man IB mortal" in the 
form "Anything whatever IB either-non-man-or-mortal." 
Hence 11. A word or phrase expressive of a 
definite conception, as distinguished from a 
mere particle or syncategorematic word; a 
word or phrase particularly definite and expli- 
cit; especially, a word or phrase used in arecog- 
nized and definite meaning in some branch of 
Science. Thus, a contradiction In terms Is an explicit 
contradiction ; to express one's opinion in set terms IB to 
state It explicitly and directly. 

They mowe wel chlteren, as doon thise jayes, 
And in her termes sette her lust and peyne, 
But to her purpos shul they never atteyne. 

Chaucer, Canon's Yeoman's Tale, I. 387. 

A fool 

Who . . . rall'd on Lady Fortune in good terms, 
In good set tenn*; and yet a motley foul. 

Shak., As you Like It, 11. 7. 16. 

The more general tenn is always the name of a less com- 
plex idea, Locke, Human Understanding, III. vi. 32. 
When common words are appropriated as technical 
terms, this must be done so that they are not ambiguous 
in their application. 

Whewell, Phllos. Inductive Sciences (ed. 1840), L Ixx. 

12. />/. Propositions stated and offered for 
acceptance; conditions; stipulations: as, the 
terms of a treaty ; hence, sometimes, conditions 
as regards price, rates, or charge : as, board 
and lodging on reasonable terms; on one's own 
terms ; lowest terms offered. 

If we can make our peace 
I 'pun such large terms and so absolute. 

Shot., 2 Hen. IV., IT. 1. 186. 

13. ]>l. Relative position; relation; footing: 
with on or upon : as, to be on good or bad terms 
with ft person. 

Tls not well 

That you and I should meet upon such terms 
As now we meet Shak., 1 Hen. IV., v. 1. 10. 

I thought you two had been upon very good termt. 

B. Jonton, Eplcoene, L 1. 

14. pi. State; situation; circumstances; con- 

The tennt of our estate may not endure 
Hazard so near us. Shak., Hamlet, Hi. 3. 6. 

In the Relation of Hnmons Death, his Love is related 
too. and that with all the Life and Pathos imaginable. 
But the Description is within the Terms of Honour. 

J. Collier, Short View (ed. 169S), p. 29. 
[Shakspere uses terms often in a loose, periphrastical way : 
as, "To keep the termsot my honour precise," M. W. of w., 
U. 2. 22 (that is, all that concerns my honor); "In tennt 
of choice I am not solely led by nice direction of a maiden's 
eye " (that is, with respect to the choice). In other cases 
it is used in the sense of 'point,' 'particular feature,' 'pe- 
culiarity': as, "Ml terms of pity, 1 ' All's Well, 11 3. 178.] 
16. In astral., a part of a zodiacal sign in which 
a planet is slightly dignified ; an essential 
dignity Absolute term. See absolute. Abstract 
term, the name of a character or kind of fact, not of a 
thing. Thus, uniform acceleration is an abstract term, 
but material particle IB a concrete term. Act term. See 
act. Ampllate term, a term whose denotation is ex- 
tended beyond what ordinarily attaches to It Amplla- 
tlve term, a term which extends the denotation of an- 
other. Thus, in the sentence " No man works miracles, 
nor ever did," the last word did Is Bald to be an amplia- 
tine term, because it extends the denotation of man to 
the men who formerly lived. Attendant terms, long 
leases or mortgages held by the owner or his trustee as a 
distinct and additional title, to make his estate more se- 
cure. Jtobinson. Categorematic or categoreumatlc 
term, a tenn expressive of a definite conception. Clr- 
cumductlon of the term. See drcumductim. Com- 
mon term, a general name ; a name applicable to what- 
ever there may or might be having certain general char- 
acters. Complex term. See complex notion, under com- 
plex. Concrete term, the name of a thing : opposed to 
abstract tenn (which see, above). Conflictive, conso- 
nant, correlative terms. See the adjectives. Con- 
tradiction In terms. See contradiction, and def. 11. 
Definite term. See definite. Denominative term, a 
term consisting of a word plainly derived from another 
word. Discrete term. See discrete, \. Easter term. 
See def. 6 (a) and (ft). Equity term. See equity, Ex- 
ponible term, a tenn which must not be interpreted ac- 
cording to the general principles of language, hut which 


bears a peculiar meaning not U> he inferred from its for- 
mation. Such, for example, arc must f the phrases of the 
differential calculus, according to the theory of limits. 
Extreme term of a syllogism, one of (he terms which 
appears in the conclusion. Familiar term, a word or 
phrase which bears or has borne a scientifically i 
meaning, but which has been caught up by those who dr. 
not think with precision. Such arr dynamic, ntyctite, 
sanction, supply and demand, valuet (in painting), aiid 
so on. Finite term. Heejinite. Fixed term, 
haying a single well-settled meaning, a.i binmnial theorem, 
principle of excluded middle, /mjcliical rrtearch, life-insur- 
ance. General term, a term of court lirM by UK full 
bench, or a sufficient number of judges to represent the 
full bench, for the purposes chiefly of appellate jurisdic- 
tion. 1C. aj -Hilary term. See def. 8 (a) and (iii. In- 
definite term, .see indefinite. Intermediate terms. 
See intennediate. In terms, In precise definite words 
or phraseology ; In set terms ; In a way or by means of 
expressions that cannot be misunderstood ; specifically ; 
definitely. See def. 11. 

Passing ouer Tigris, (he] disturl>ed the Rotnane Frouince 
of Mesopotamia, deuouring in hope, and threatnlng in 
teanne*, all those Asian Proulncea. 

I'urchas, Pilgrimage, p. 356. 

In terms Of. (a) In the language or phraseology peculiar 
to (something else). (6) In modes of : a common misuse 
as applied to modes of thought (properly, a term la op- 
posed to an idea). 

Most persons, on being asked In what sort of terras they 
imagine words, will say "in termtof hearing." 

W. James, Prin. of Psychology, II. 63. 

Major term, that extreme of a syllogism which appears 
as the predicate of the conclusion. See ryllmjinH.Ki- 
chaelmas term. See def. 6 (a) and (M Middle term, 
that term of a syllogism which occurs in both premises, 
but not In the conclusion. Minor term, that extreme 
of a syllogism which appears as the subject of the conclu- 
sion. See syllogism Negative term, a term which de- 
termines its object by means of exclusions. Thus, imme- 
diate consciousness is a negative term, since it Indicates 
the most simple and direct mode of thought by excluding 
that which Is circuitous or sophisticated. Outstanding 
term, in the English law of real property, a term of yean, 
commonly one thousand or less, given, usually to trustees 
of a settlement, to secure, by way of lien or charge, Income 
or other payments to one or more of the family to whom 
the settler of the trust desired to secure them, as para- 
mount to his transfer of the estate subject thereto to a 
particular heir or other person. The effect of giving such 
a term in trust was, not to give the trustees possession 
immediate, but to give them the right to take the rents 
and profits, or to mortgage, etc., in case the principal 
grantee under the settlement failed to keep up the period- 
ical payments required. In the course of years, after all 
the payments required had been made, and the object of 
the term was accomplished, if it did not by the provisions 
of the deed then cease. It continued to be an outstanding 
term, although "satisfied," until by recent legislation the 
cessation of satisfied terms was provided for. Mean- 
while, it was usual for purchasers of land subject to an 
outstanding term to take an assignment of the term in 
such a way as not to merge It with the fee, but it, being 
thereafter "attendant upon the Inheritance," was an ad- 
ditional security for the title as against questions which 
might have arisen since the making of the settlement- 
Partial term, in the logical nomenclature of De Morgan, 
an undistributed term, or term not entirely excluded from 
any sphere by the proposition in which it occurs : opposed 
to total or distributed term. Both terms are partial In 
the propositions "Some X Is Y " and " Everything IB either 
an X or a Y." Both terms are total in the propositions 
"No X Is Y " and "Something Is neither X nor Y." The 
term X is partial and Y total in the propositions "Every 
Y Is an X 1 ' and "Some X is not Y. K Positive term 
privative connotatlve term, reciprocal terms, re- 
lative term, singular term. See positive, privative, etc. 
Simple term, a term not compounded of other terms by 
logical addition and multiplication. Speaking terms. 
See speak, v. t. Special term, a term of court Tield by a 
single judge : commonly used in reference to a court held 
without a Jury. Term Of art, a word or phrase having a 
special signification in a certain branch of knowledge. 
Term of a substitution. See substitution. Term of 
relation, a name or thing to which some other name or 
thing is considered as relative ; an object of relation. Thus, 
in the expression mother of a boy, toy Is the term of the 
relation of which mother is the subject Term of re- 
semblance*. See resemblance. Term Of similitude*. 
Same as term of resemblance. Tenn of thought, that 
which is the conclusion or upshot of reflection or deliber- 
ation. Terms In gross, terms vested in trustees for the 
use of persons not entitled to the freehold or inheritance. 
They pass to the personal representatives of the cestul que 
trust, are alienable, and are subject to debts, in the main, 
like legal estates. Minor. Terms Of sale. Seew&l. 
The general term of a series. See series. Third 
term, the minor term of a syllogism. So called owing to 
Aristotle's usual form of statement To bring to terms, 
to reduce to submission or to conditions. 

He to no Termt can bring 
One Twirl of that reluctant Thing. 

Conyreve, An Impossible Thing. 

To come to terms, to agree ; come to an agreement ; 
alao, to yield ; submit - To eat one's terms. See eat- 
To keep a term, to give attendance during a term of 
study. See the second quotation. 

He will get enough there to enable him to keep his 
terms at the University. 

Bp. W. Lloyd, In Ellis's Lit Letters, p. 188. 

A student, in order to keep a term, must dine in the hall 
of his inn three nights, if he be a member of any of the 
Universities of Oxford. Cambridge, Durham, London, 
Dublin, Queen's (Belfast), St. Andrew's, Aberdeen, Glas- 
gow, or Edinburgh. In all other cases he must dine six 
nights, being present In both Instances at the grace be- 
fore dinner, during the whole of dinner, and untlr the 
concluding grace shall have been said. Slater. 

To keep Hilary termt, to lie joyful or merry. 


This joy. when God speaks peace to the soul, is inef- 
fabile gaudlum. ... It gives end to all jars, doubts, and 
difference*, . . . and makes a man keep Hilary-term all 
his life. Ilee. T. Adams, Works, I. 68. 

To make terms, to come to an agreement. To speak 
in termt, to speak in precise language, or in set terms. 
See def. 11. 

Seyde I nat wel ? I can not speke in terme. 

Chaucer, Prol. to Pardoner's Tale, 1. 25. 
To stand upon one's terms) , to insist upon conditions : 
followed by iritJt. 

I had rather be the most easy, tame, and resigned be- 
liever in tjie most gross and imposing church in the world 
. . . than one of those great and philosophical minds who 
stand upon their terms with God. 

Dp. Atterbury, Sermons, II. viii. 

Total term. See partial term, above. Transcendent 
term, a term which signifies something not included un- 
der any of the ten predicaments, especially everything and 
nothing. Trinity term. See def. 6 (a) and (6). Vague 
term, a word or phrase sometimes used as a term, out 
without fixed meaning. = Syn. 11. Word, Ten 

expression are specific : every term is a ward; a phrase is 
a combination of wards generally less than a sentence ; an 
expression is generally either a word or a phrase, but may 
be a sentence. A term is, in this connection, especially a 
word of exact meaning : as, "phlebitis " is a medical term. 
See diction. 

term (term), v. t. [Early mod. E. also tearm; 
< term, n.] To name; call; denominate; des- 

A certeine pamphlet which he termed a cooling carde 
for Fhilautus, yet generally to be applyed to all louers. 

Lyly, Euphues, Anat. of Wit, p. 105. 

Britan hath bin anciently term'A Albion, both by the 
Greeks and Romans. Milton, Hist. Eng., i. 

terma (ter'ma), w. ; pi.- termata (-ma-ta). [NL. 
(B. G. Wilder, 1881), < Gr. rtpua, a limit, termi- 
nus.] The lamina terminalis, or terminal lam- 
ina, of the brain; a thin lamina between the 
pruecommissura and the chiasma, constituting 
a part of the boundary of the aula. See cut 
under sulcus. 

termagancjr (ter'ma-gan-si), . [< termagan(t) 
+ -cy.] The state of being termagant; turbu- 
lence; tumultuousness. 

termagant (ter'ma -gant), n. and a. [Early 
mod. E. also Termagaunt, also Turmagant, also 
Ternagaunt; < ME. Termagant, Termagaunt, < 
OF. Tervagant, Tervagan, "Tarvagant, also *Tri- 
vagant, Trijmgant, < It. Trivigante, Trivagante, 
Tervagante, etc.; prob. a name of AT. origin 
brought over by the Crusaders. Of the vari- 
ous theories invented to explain the name, one 
refers it, in the It. form Trivagante, to lunar 
mythology, < L. tres (tri-), three, + vagan(t-)s, 
ppr. of vagare, wander ; i. e. the moon wander- 
ing under the three names of Selene (or Luna) 
in heaven, Artemis (or Diana) on the earth, and 
Persephone (Proserpine) in the lower world.] 
I. n. 1. [cop.] An imaginary deity, supposed 
to have been worshiped by the Mohammedans, 
and introduced into the moralities and other 
shows, in which he figured as a most violent 
and turbulent personage. 

Child, by Termagaunt, 
Hut-It thou prike out of myn haunt, 
Anon I sle thy stede. 

Chaucer, Sir Thopas, 1. 99. 

I would have such a fellow whipped for o'erdoing Ter- 
magant; it out-herods Herod. Shak., Hamlet, ill. 2. 15. 


termata, . Plural of terma. 

termatic fter-mat'li), a. and . [< termd(t-) 
+ -/(,'.] I. a. Pertaining to the terma, or lam- 
ina terminalis of the brain. 

II. n. The termatic artery, a small vessel 
arising from the junction of the precerebral ar- 
teries, or from the precommunicant when that 
vessel exists, and distributed to the terma. the 
adjacent cerebral cortex, and the genu. New 
York Med. Jour., March 21, 1885, p. 325. 

term-day (term'da), n. [< ME. terme-day; < 
term + drty/ 1 .] 1. A fixed or appointed day. 

He had broke his terme-day 
To come to her. 

Chaucer, Death of Blanche, 1. 730. 
2. Same as term, 7 (a) or (6). 3. Specifi- 
cally, one of a series of days appointed for 
taking special and generally very frequent ob- 
servations of magnetic or meteorological ele- 
ments at different stations, in accordance with 
a uniform system. 

termer (ter'mer), n. [< term + -eel.] i. One 
who travels to attend a court term ; formerly, 
one who resorted to London in term time for 
dishonest practices or for intrigues the court 
terms being times of great resort to London 
both for business and for pleasure. 

Salewood. Why, he was here three days before the Ex- 
chequer gaped. 

Rear. Fie, such an early termer' 

Middleton, Michaelmas Term, 1. 1. 
2. In law, same as termor. 
Termes (ter'mez), n. [NL. (Linnams, 1748), < 
LL. termes, a wood-worm: see termite.'] 1. An 
important genus of pseudoneuropterous in- 
sects, typical of the family Termitidee. it in- 
cludes those termites or white ants which have the head 
large, rounded, and with two ocelli, the prothorax small 
and heart-shaped, the costal area free, and the plantula 


a, larva ; 

bores in 


Beywood, Royal King (Worki ed. Pearson, 1874, VI. 23). 

White Ant (Termes ftavipcs). 

t>, winged male ; <:. worker ; rf, soldier ; e, large female ; 
f, nymph. (Lines show natural sizes.) 

It is a wide spread genus of many species. T. 
of North America is a well-known example which 
the timbers of dwellings, particularly south of the 
of Washington, and often causes great annoyance, 

.._, Imp. Diet. 

2f. A turbulent, brawling person, male or fe'- tena-fee (term'fe), re. In law, a fee or certain 

male. sum allowed to an attorney as costs for each 

This terrible termagant this Nero this Pharaoh tem his clien t's cause is in court. 

Bp. Bale, Yet a Course at the Eo'myshe Foxe, f'ol. 39 b terminable (ter'mi-na-bl), a. [= It. termina- 

[(1543). (Latham.) bile, < L. as if *terminabilis, < terminare, termi- 

Wealth may do us good service, but if it get the mas- na te : see terminate.'] Capable of being termi- 

dTmn oZel^toour'own'gXs 111 ' tfrmayant; we con - ? a . ted 5 Stable ; coming to an end after a cer- 

tain term: as, a terminable annuity. 

i-bl-nes), n. The 

If she [woman] be passionate, want of manners makes 
her a termagant and a scold, which is much at one with 
Lunatic. Defoe (Arber's Eng. Garner, II. 267). 

II. a. Violent; turbulent; boisterous; quar- 
relsome; scolding; of women, shrewish. 

Jwas time to counterfeit, or that hot termagant Scot 
Had paid me scot and lot too. Shak., 1 Hen. IV., v. 4. 114. 

Yet it is oftentimes too late with some of you young 
termagant, flashy sinners you have all the guilt of the 
intention, and none of the pleasure of the practice. 

Hath any man a termagant wife? 

Barham, Ingoldsby Legends, I. 136. 
termagantly (ter'ma-gant-li), adv. In a ter- 
magant, boisterous, or scolding manner; like a 
termagant; outrageously; scandalously. Tom 
Brown, Works, II. 148. (I)aries.) 

-******** y VVJM. iJ.-|_icjll.yj w, (I III! /t, [_\ J? . ttM'fH 1 1i f 1 1 

= Pr. termenal = S'p. Pg. terminal = It. termi- 
nate, < LL. terminalis, pertaining to a boundary 
or to the end, terminal, final, < L. terminus, a 
bound, boundary, limit, end: see term, termi- 
nus."] I. a. 1. Of, pertaining to, or forming 
the terminus or termination of something; 
forming a boundary or extreme limit; pertain- 
ing to a term (see term, 1 and 2): as, a terminal 
pillar; the terminal edge of a polyhedron; the 
terminal facilities of a railway. 2. In bot., 
growing at the end of a branch or stem ; ter- 
minating: as, a terminal peduncle, flower, or 
spike. 3. In logic, constituted by or relating 
to a term. 4. Occurring in every term ; repre- 
senting a term. 

If he joins his College Boat Club ... he will be called 
upon for a terminal subscription of 1 at least. 

Dickem's Diet. Oxford, p. 52. 


5. In anat. and zofil., ending a set or series 
of like parts; apical: as, the middle sacral ar- 
tery is the terminal branch of the abdominal 
aorta ; the last coccygeal bone is the terminal 
one of the coccyx ; a terminal mark or spine ; 
the terminal joint of an antenna. See cuts un- 
der Colaspis and Erotylus Terminal alveolus, 
an air-sac,or pulmonary alveolus. Terminal dementia, 
dementia forming the final and permanent stage of many 
cases of acute insanity, such as mania, melancholia, or 
other psychoneurosis. Terminal figure. Same as ter- 
minus, 3. Terminal margin of the wing, in entom., a 
portion of the wing-margin 
furthest removed from the 
base, between the costal or 
anterior and the posterior 
margin. Terminal mo- 
raine. See moraine. 
Terminal mouth, in en- 
tom., a mouth situated at 
the end of the head, as 
in most Coleoptera. Ter- 
minal pedestal, a name 
often given to a pedestal 
which tapers toward the 
bottom. The name is in- 
:x:irt, as such a pedestal 
is of gaine shape and not 
terminal shape. Termi- 
nal quantity, the quan- 
tity of a term, as universal 
or particular. The phrase 
implies that the quanti- 
ties of a proposition attach 
to the terms; but this is 
incorrect. The quantities 
really belong to the sub- 
jects, or purely designated 
elements, and not to the 
terms, or conceptual ele- 
ments. Thus, in the prop- 
osition "Everyman is son 
of a woman" there are 

three terms but only two Terminal Pedestal, 

quantities, because only 

two subjects. Terminal stigma. See stigma, 6. Ter- 
minal value, terminal form, in math., the last and 
most complete value or form given to an expression. 
Terminal velocity, in the theory of projectiles, the 
greatest velocity which a body can acquire by falling free- 
ly through the air, the limit being arrived at when the re- 
tardation due to the resistance of the air becomes equal 
to the acceleration of gravity. 

II. n. 1. That which terminates ; the extrem- 
ity; the end: especially, in dec*., the clamping- 
screw at each end of a voltaic battery, used for 
connecting it with the wires which complete the 

For convenience we shall express this fact by calling the 
positive terminal the air-spark terminal. 

J. E. H. Gordon, Elect, and Mag., II. 95. 
2. In crystal., the plane or planes which form 
the extremity of a crystal. 3. A charge made 
by a railway for the use of its termini or stations, 
or for the handling of freight at stations. 

The cost of collection, loading, covering, unloading, and 
delivering, which are the chief items included under the 
determination of terminals, falls upon the railways for most 
descriptions of freight. Contemporary Kev., LI. 82. 

Terminalia 1 (ter-mi-na'li-a), n. pi. [L., neut. 
pi. of (LL.) terminalis, pertaining to boundaries 
or to Terminus : see terminal.] In Horn, antiq., 
a festival celebrated annually in honor of Ter- 
minus, the god of boundaries. It was held on 
the 23d of February, its essential feature being 
a survey or perambulation of boundaries. 

ref. to the crowd- 
ing of the leaves at the ends of the twigs ; < LL. 
terminalis, pertaining to the end, terminal : see 
terminal.'} A genus of plants, of the order Com- 
bretaceee and suborder Combreteae. It is character- 
ized by apetalous flowers consisting mainly of a cylindri- 
cal calyx-tube consolidated with the one-celled ovary, five 
calyx-teeth surmounting a somewhat bell-shaped border, 
and ten exserted stamens in two series. The ovary contains 
two or rarely three pendulous ovules, and ripens into an 
ovoid angled compressed or two- to five-winged fruit which 
is very variable in size and shape and contains a hard one- 
seeded stone. There are about SKI species, nativesof thetrop- 
ics, less frequent in America than in the Old World. They 
are trees or shrubs, usually 
with alternate entire and 
petioled leaves crowded at 
the ends of the branches. 
The small sessile flowers 
are green, white, or rarely 
of other colors, usually 
forming loose elongated 
spikes often produced from 
scaly buds before the 
leaves. They are often tall 
forest-trees, as T. lattfolia, 
the broadleaf, a common 
species in Jamaica, which 
reaches 100 feet. A sweet 
conserve, known as chebu- 
la, is made from the fruit 
in India. For several spe- 
cies of the wingless sec- 
tion Myrobalanus, see my- 
robalan. T. Catappa, the 
(Malabar) almond, in the 
West Indies also c&untry 


almond. Is n handsome tree from SO to 80 feet high, with 
horizontal whorlcd braiii'hes, producing a large white al- 
mond-like seed, eaten raw or roasted ;nnt ootBMMd to 
the filbert In taste; it is a native of India, Arabia, and 
tropical Africa, cultivated In many warm regions, natural- 
ized in America from Cuba to (iuiana. In Mauritius two 
species, T. nn'inet\Mia and T, MauritiaiM, known as /ate 
btneoin, yield a fragrant resin used as Incense. Ink is 
mailf in India from the astringent galls which form on 
thetwigsof T. Chelnild. M;m> -peril's produce a valuable 
wood, .is '/'. tfiiu'ntnxa, for which see saj. T. bclerica, the 
liabrla nr inyrobiihm-wood, is vallialile in Inilia for making 
planks, canoes, etc.; T. Chelmla, known as hurra, and T. 
otolata, knoun &schwjalain, are used in making furniture. 
'/'. iilii/ini, the deUa-madoo of I'ejtn, is a source of masts 
and spais for ships. The latter and T. Arjuna, the urloon 
"f India, with about a dozen other species, are sometimes 
separated as a genus 1'rntaptera, on account of their re- 
markable leathery egg-shaped fruit, which Is traversed 
lengthwise by from ttve to seven equidistant and similar 

Terminaliacese (ter-mi-na-li-a'se-e), n. pi. 

[NL. (.lumiir St. Ilihiiiv, 1805), < Terminali&+ 

-acete.] A former order of plants, now known 

as Comliretaeese. 
terminally (tor'mi-nal-i), adv. Withrespectto 

a termination ; at the extreme end. 
terminantt(ter'mi-nant),n. [<L. terminan(t-)s, 

ppr. of terminare, terminate: see terminate.] 

Termination; ending. 

Neither of both are of like tmninant, either by good or- 
thography or in natnrall sound. 

Puttenham, Arte of Eng. Poesie, p. 67. 

terminate (ter'mi-nat), v. ; pret. and pp. ter- 
minated, ppr. terminating. [< L. terminatux, pp. 
of terminare, set bounds to, bound, limit, end, 
close, terminate,< terminus, abound, limit, end: 
see term, terminus. Cf. tfrmine.] I. trans. 1. 
To bound; limit; form the extreme outline of ; 
set a boundary or limit to; define. 

It Is no church, at all, my lord ! it Is a spire that I have 
built against a tree, a Held or two oft, to terminate the 
prospect. One must always have a church, or an obelisk, 
or a something, to terminate the prospect, you know. 
That's a rule in taste, iny lord ! 

Caiman, Clandestine Marriage, II. 

She was his life, 

The ocean to the river of his thoughts, 
Which terminated all. Byron, The Dremn. 

2. To end; put an end to. 3. To complete; 
put the closing or finishing touch to; perfect. 

During this interval of calm and prosperity, he [Michael 
Angelo] terminated two figures of slaves, destined for the 
tomb, in an incomparable style of art. 

J. S. Harford, Michael Angelo, I. xl. 
= 8yn, 2. To close, conclude. 

II. in trans. 1. To be limited in space by a 
point, line, or surface ; stop short ; end. 

The left extremity of the stomach [of the kangaroo] is 
bind, and terminates in two round cul-de-sacs. 

Owen, Anat, 9 226. 

2. To cease ; come to an end in time ; end. 
Human aid and human solace terminate at the grave. 
D. Webster, Speech commemorative of Adams and 
[Jefferson, Aug. 2, 1826. 

The festival terminated at the morning-call to prayer. 
E. W. Lane, Modern Egyptians, II. 205. 

terminate (ter'mi-nat), a. [< L. terminatus, 
pp. : see the verb.] Capable of coming to an 
end; limited; bounded: as, a terminate deci- 
mal. A terminate number is an integer, a mixed 
number, or a vulgar fraction. See interminate. 

termination (ter-nii-na'shon), . [< OF. tcr- 
niinatiiin, vernacularly terminaison, F. terminai- 
xriii = Sp. terminacion = Pg. terminaq&o = It. 
t<rm in/done, < L. terminatio(n-), a bounding, 
fixing of bounds, determining, < terminare, pp. 
terminatus, bound, limit: see terminate.'] 1. 
Bound; limit in space or extent: as, the ter- 
mi nation of a field. 2. The act of limiting, or 
setting bounds; the act of terminating; the act 
of ending or concluding: as, Thursday was set 
for the termination of the debate. 3. End in 
time or existence: as, the termination of life. 

From the termination of the schism, as the popes found 

their ambition thwarted beyond the Alps, it was diverted 

more and more towards schemes of temporal sovereignty. 

Uattam, Middle Ages, II. 7. 

4. In gram., the end or ending of a word; the 
part annexed to the root or stem of an inflected 
word (a case-ending or other formative), or in 
general a syllable or letter, or number of let- 
tcrs, at the end of a word. 5. Conclusion; 
completion; issue; result: as, the affair was 
brought to a happy termination. 6. Decision; 
determination. [Bare.] 

We have rules of justice in us; to those rules 
Let us apply our angers; you can consider 
The want in others of these termination*, 
And how unfurnish'd they appear. 

Fletcher (and another). Love's Pilgrimage, ii. 1. 

7. That which ends or finishes off, as. in ar- 
(hitfctiire. a finial or a pinnacle. 8f. Word; 


She speaks poniards, and every word stabs ; If her breath 
were as terrible as her terminations, there were no living 
near her; she would Infect to the north star. 

SI:,,L Much Ado, li. 1. >:*;. 

Q. The extremity of a crystal when formed by 
one or more crystalline faces. A crystal whose 
natural end has been broken off is said to be 
without termination. 

terminational (ter-mi-ua'shpn-al), a. [< ter- 
minatiiiH + -al.} Of, jirrtniiiitig to, forming, or 
formed by a termination ; specifically, forming 
the concluding syllable. 

Terminational or other modifications. 

Craik, Hist Eng. Lit, I. 62. 

terminative (ter'mi-na-tiv), a. [= F. termina- 
tif = Sp. Pg. It. terminatico; as terminate + 
-in: ] Tending or serving to terminate ; defini- 
tive ; absolute ; not relative. 

This objective, terminatine presence flows from the foe- 
cundity of the Divine Nature. 

Bp. Run, Discourse of Truth, 1 15. 

terminatively (ter'mi-na-tiv-li), adv. In a 
terminative manner; absolutely; without re- 
gard to anything else. 

Neither can this be eluded by saying that, though the 
same worship be given to the Image of Christ as to Christ 
himself, yet it is not done In the same way ; for it Is tir- 
minaKvely to Christ or God, but relatively to the Image : 
that is, to the image for God's or Christ's sake. 

Jer. Taylor, Dissuasive from Popery, I. ii. S 11. 

terminator (ter'mi-na-tor), w. [< LL. termina- 
tor, one who limits, < L. terminare, terminate: 
see terminate.] 1. One who or that which ter- 
minates. 2. In astron., the dividing-line be- 
tween the illuminated and the unilluminated 
part of a heavenly body. 

Except at full-moon we can see where the daylight 
struggles with the dark along the line of the moon's sun- 
rise or sunset. This line is called the terminator. It Is 
broken in the extreme, because the surface is as rough as 
possible. //. W. Warren, Astronomy, p. 155. 

terminatory (ter'mi-na-to-ri), a. [< terminate 
+ -ory.] Bounding; limiting; terminating. 

terminet (ter'min), r. *. [< ME. terminen, ter- 
myncn, < OF. terminer = Sp. Pg. terminar = It. 
terminare, < L. terminare, set bounds to, bound, 
determine, end: see terminate. Cf. determine.'] 

1. To limit; bound; terminate. 

Eningia had in owlde tyme the tytle of a kf ngedome. . . . 
It is termined on the north srde by the southe line of 
Ustobothnia, and is extended by the mountaynes. 
R. Eden, tr. of Jacobus Ziglerus (First Hooks on America, 

[ed. Arber, p. 308). 

2. To come to a conclusion regarding ; deter- 
mine ; decide. 

Fonlis of ravyiie 

Han chosen first by playn eleccioun 
The terselet of the faucon to diffyne 
Al here sentence, as hem leste to termyne. 

Chaucer, Parliament of Fowls, L 580. 

terminer (t6r'mi-ner), n. [< OF. terminer, inf. 
used as a noun: see termine.] In law, a deter- 
mining: as, oyer and terminer. See court of 
oyer and terminer, under oyer. 

termini, n. Plural of terminus. 

termininet,"- [Appar. an error for termtnant.] 
A limit or boundary. 

All jointly move upon one axletree, 
Whose terminine [var. termine] is termed the world's wide 
pole. Marlowe, Faustus, II. 2 (ed. Mullen). 

terminism (ter'mi-nizm), n. [< L. terminus, a 
term (see term), + -I.SHI.] 1. In tonic, the doc- 
trine of William of Occam, who seeks to reduce 
all logical problems to questions of language. 
2. In theol., the doctrine that God has assigned 
to every one a term of repentance, after which 
all opportunity for salvation is lost. 

terminist (ter'mi-nist), n. [< termin-ism + -ist. ] 
An upholder of the doctrine of terminism, in 
either sense. 

terminological (ter*mi-no-loj'i-kal), a. [< ter- 
iiiiiiiilni/-!/ + -ic-al.] Of or pertaining to termi- 

terminologically (ter*mi-no-loj'i-kal-i), adv. 
In a terminological manner; in tne way of 
terminology; as regards terminology. F. B. 
Winglow, Obscure Diseases of Brain and Mind. 

terminology (ter-mi-nol'o-ji), n. [= F. termi- 
nologie, < L. terminus, a term, + Gr. -fayia, < 
Myeiv, speak: see -olog/y.] 1. The doctrine or 
science of technical terms ; teaching or theory 
regarding the proper use of terms. 

They are inquiries to determine not so much what is. as 
what should be, the meaning of a name ; which, like other 
practical questions of terminoloijy, requires for its solution 
that we should enter . . . into the properties not merely 
of names but of the things named. 

J. S. Ma, Logic, I. viii. 7. 

2. Collectively, the terms used in any art, sci- 
ence, or the like ; nomenclature : as, the termi- 


noloi/y of botany. It is sometimes restricted to the 
terms employed to describe the characters of things, a* 
distinguished from their names, or a ntnnenclatitre. 866 
nomenclature, 2, and compare cttcalntlary. 

Hence botany required not only a ll.xed system of names 
of plants, but also an artilk ial 8) ti m (if phrases fitted to 
describe their parts : not only a Nomenclature, hut also a 

Whewell, I'hllos. of Inductive Sciences, I. p. IxL 

terminthust (ter-min'thus), .; pi. 
(-thi). [NL., < Gr. rlpiuvHor,, earlier form of rc- 
piftivffof, terebinth: see terebinth.] In (/</., n 
sort of carbuncle, which assumes the figure and 
blackish-green color of the fruit of the turpen- 

terminus (ter'mi-nus), n. ; pi. termini (-ni). [L. 
terminus, a bound, boundary, limit, the god of 
boundaries, the end: see term.] 1. A boun- 
dary ; a limit ; a stone, post, or other mark used 
to indicate the boundary of a property. 2. 
[flip.] In Bom. myth., the god of boundaries; 
the deity who presided over boundaries or land- 
marks. lie was represented with a human head, but 
without feet or arms, to Intimate that he never moved 
from whatever place he occupied. 

3. A bust or figure of the upper part of the 
human body, terminating in a plain block of 
rectangular form; a 

half-statue or bust, 
not placed upon but 
incorporated with, 
and as it were imme- 
diately springing out 
of, the square pillar 
which serves as its 
pedestal. Termini are 
employed as pillars, balus- 
ters, or detached orna- 
ments for niches, etc. 
Compare gaine. Also call- 
ed term and terminal fiy- 

4. Termination; lim- 
it; goal; end. 

Was the Mosaic econo- 
my of their nation self-dis- 
solved as having reached 
its appointed terminus or 
natural euthanasy, and 
lost itself in a new order 
of things? 

De Quincey, Secret Socie- 
ties, ii. 

6. The extreme sta- 
tion at either end of 
a railway, or impor- 
tant section of a rail- 
way .-6. The point Areta *giS8SitBS 1 i ? - 1 " 
to which a vector car- 

ries a given or assumed point Terminus ad 
quem, the point to which (something tends or is direct- 
ed) ; the terminating-point.- Terminus a quo, the point 
from which (something starts) ; the starting-point 
termitarium (ter-mi-ta'ri-um), n. ; pi. termita- 
ria (-a). [NL., < Termes (Termit-) + -arium.] 

1. A termitary; a nest or mound made by ter- 
mites, or white ants. Those of some tropical species, 
built on the ground, are a yard or two in height, and of 
various forms. Others are built In trees, and are globular 
or irregular in shape ; from these central nests covered 
passages run in all directions, as far as the insects make 
their excursions, and new ones are constantly being con- 
structed, the termites never working without shelter. 

2. A cage or vessel for studying termites under 
artificial conditions. 

Last night I took a worker Kutermes from a nest In my 
garden and dropped It Into the midst of workers In my ter- 
P. H. Dudley, Trans. New York Acad. Scl., VIII. Ivi. 108. 

termitary(ter'mi-ta-ri), n.; pi. termitaries (-riz). 
[<NL. termitarium, q.v.] A termitarium. H.A. 

termite (ter'mit). n. [< NL. Termes (Termit-), 
a white ant, < LL. termes (termit-), < L. tarmes 
(tarmit-), a wood-worm, prob. < terere, rub: see 
trite.] A white ant; any member of the Ter- 

Tennitidse (ter-mit'i-de), n. pi. [NL. (West- 
wood, 1839),< Termes (Termit-) + -ida.] A fam- 
ily of insects; the white ants, placed in the or- 
der Pseudoneuroptera, and according to Brauer 
forming, with the Psocidse and Mallophaga, the 
order Corrodentia. The termite form is an old one, 
geologically speaking, occurring in the coal-measures of 
Europe. At the present day, although mainly tropical, 
species are found in most temperate regions. Each exists 
in several forms. Besides the winged male and female 
(the latter losing her wings after impregnation), there are 
curiously modified sexless forms known as soUieri and 
workers, the former possessing large square heads and long 
jaws, the latter heads of moderate size and small jaws. 
TJie true impregnated females grow to an enormous size 
and lay many thousands of eggs. Great damage is done 
by these insects in tropical countries to buildings, furni- 
ture, and household stores. See cut under Terme. 


termitine (tei-'mi-tiii), . and n. [< trrmitc + 
-iHf 1 .] I. a. Resembling or related to white 
ants ; belonging to the Termitidse. 
II. >i. A white ant; a termite. 

termitophile (ter'mi-to-fil), . [< NL. "termito- 
philus: see tcrmitopliilous.~] An insect which 
lives in the nests of white ants. Insects of sev- 
eral orders are found in those nests, notably 
members of the rove-beetle genus Philotermes. 

termitophilons (ter-mi-tof'i-lus), a. [< NL. 
"tcrinitopliilua, < terines (tcrmit-), termite, + Gr. 
<jii/.clv, love.] Fond of termites : noting insects 
which live in the nests of white ants. E. A. 
Schicars, Proe. Entom. Soc., Washington, 1. 160. 

termless (term'les), a. [< term + -less.'] 1. 
Having no term or end; unlimited; boundless; 
endless; limitless. 

Ne hath their day, ne hath their blisse, an end, 
But there their termelesse time in pleasure spend. 

Spenser, Hymn of Heavenly Love, 1. 75. 

2. Nameless ; inexpressible ; indescribable. 


His phoenix down began but to appear 
Like unshorn velvet on that termless skin. 

Shalt., Lover's Complaint, 1. 94. 

termly (term'li), a. [<tem + -ly l .~\ Occurring, 
paid, etc., every term. 

The clerks are partly rewarded by that mean also [petty 

fees], . . . besides that termly fee which they are allowed. 

Bacon, Office of Alienations. 

termly (term'li), adv. [< term + -lyV.~\ Term 
by term ; every term. 

The fees, or allowances, that are termly given to these 
deputies, receiver, and clerks, for reconipence of these 
their pains, I do purposely pretermit. 

Bacon, Office of Alienations. 

If there was any particular thing in the business of the 
house which you disliked, ... I would . . . put it in or- 
der for you termly, or weekly, or daily. Scott, Rob Roy, ii. 

termor (ter'mor), n. [< term + -or 1 .] In law, 
one who has an estate for a term of years or 
for life. Also termer. 

term-piece (term'pes), n. Same as term, 5. 

termysont, >* Termination. Piers Plowman 
(C), iv. 409. 

tern 1 (tern), H. [Also tarn; < Dan. terne = 
Sw. tnrna = Icel. therna, a tern. Some connect 
tern 1 with ME. tame, theme, girl, maid-servant, 
G. dirne, etc. (see theme); but the connec- 
tion is not obvious.] A bird of the family 
Laridx and subfamily Sterninee; a stern or sea- 
swallow. Terns differ from gulls in their smaller aver- 
age size (though a few of them are much larger than some 
gulls), slenderer body, usually long and deeply forked tail, 
very small feet, and especially in the relatively longer and 
slenderer bill, which is paragnathons instead of hypog- 
nathous (but some of the stouter terns, as the gull-billed, 
are little different in this respect from some of the smaller 
gulls, as of the genus Chroicocephalus). To the slender form 
of the body, with sharp-pointed wings and forflcate tail, 
conferring a buoyant and dashing flight, the terns owe 
their name sea-swallow. The characteristic coloration is 
snow-white, sometimes rose-tinted, with pearly-blue 
mantle, silver-black primaries, jet-black cap, and coral- 
red, yellow, or black bill and feet ; some terns (the noddies) 
are sooty-brown. A few are chiefly black (genus Hydro- 
chelidon) ; some have a black mantle (Sterna fuliffinosa, 
the sooty tern, type of the subgenus Haliplana) ; the genus 
Gygis is pure-white ; and Inca is slaty-black, with curly 
white plumes on the head. Several species abound in 
most countries, both inland over large bodies of water and 
coastwise, and some of them are almost cosmopolitan in 
their range. The sexes are alike in color, but the changes 
of plumage with age and season are considerable. The 
eggs, two or three in number, and heavily spotted, are 
laid on the ground (rarely in a frail nest on bushes), gen- 
erally on the shingle of the sea-shore, sometimes in a tus- 
sock of grass in marshes. Most terns congregate in large 
numbers during the breeding-season. (See egg-bird.) The 
voice is peculiarly shrill and querulous ; the food is small 
flshes and other aquatic animals, procured by dashing 
down into the water on the wing. From 60 to 75 species 
are recognized by different ornithologists, mostly belong- 
ing to the genus Sterna or its subdivisions. See phrases 
below. Aleutian tern, Sterna aleutica, a tern white 
with very dark pearl-gray upper parts, a white crescent 
in the black cap, and black bill. It resembles the sooty 
terns. Arctic tern, Sterna paradisea, or S. arctica, or 
S. macrura, a tern with extremely long and deeply forked 
tail, very small coral- or lake-red feet, lake- or carmine- 
red bill, rather dark pearl-blue plumage, little paler be- 
low than above, and black cap. It is from 14 to 17 inches 
long according to the varying development of the fila- 
mentous lateral tail-feathers, and about SO In extent of 
wings. This tern chiefly inhabits arctic and cold temper- 
ate parts of both hemispheres. Its synonymy is intri- 
cate, owing to confusion of names with the common and 
roseate terns, and the description of its varying plumages 
under specific designations. Black tern, any tern of the 
genus Hydrochelidon ; specifically, H. fissipes or larifar- 
mis. The white-winged black tern is U. Imcoptera. The 
whiskered black tern is H. leucoparia. There are others. 
These are marsh-terns of most parts of the world, with 
semipalmate feet, comparatively short and little-forked 
tail, extremely ample as well as long wings, black bill, 
dark feet, and most of the plumage of the adults black or 
of some dark ashy shade. Boys's tern, the Sandwich 
tern, one of whose former names was Sterna boysi, after 
Dr. Boys of Kent, England. Bridled tern, Sterna (Hali- 
plana) ansesthetica, a member of the sooty tern group, 
found in some of the warmer parts of the world. The 


frontal Innule Is very long, the feet are scarcely more 
than semipalmate, and the length is 14 or 15 inches. 
Cabot's tern, the American Sandwich tern, which Dr. 
Cabot once named Sterna acuflavida. Caspian tern, 
Sterna (Thalasseus') caspia; the imperial tern. It is the 
largest tern known, being from 20 to 23 inches long, and 4 
to 4J feet in spread of wings ; it is white, with pearl mantle, 
black cap and feet, and red bill. It is widely distributed 
in Asia, America, and elsewhere. The name S. tschegrava 
was given to it by Lepechin, before Pallas named it caspia. 
Cayenne tern, Sterna (Thalasseus) maxima, formerly S. 
cayennensis or cayana, the largest tern of America except 
the imperial, 18 or 20 inches long, and from 42 to 44 in ex- 
tent. It is white, with pearl mantle, black cap and feet, 
and coral or yellow bill. It inhabits much of both Amer- 
icas, and is common along the Atlantic coast of the United 
States. See cut under Thalasseus. Common tern, Ster- 
na hirundo, a bird of most parts of the world, about 14J 
inches long, 31 in extent, and with pearly-white under 
parts, pearl mantle, black cap, coral feet, and vermilion 
black-tipped bill. It is needlessly named Wilson's tern. 
Also called gull-teaser, kirr-mew, picket, picktarny, pirr, 
rippock, rittock, scray, spurre, tamy, tarret, tarrock. 
See cut under Sterna. Ducal tern, the Sandwich tern. 
Coues, 1884. Elegant tern, Sterna (Thalasseus) elegans, 
a bird of South and Central America and the Pacific 
coast of the United States, resembling the Cayenne tern. 
W. Oambel. Emperor tern. See emperor. Fairy 
tern, a fairy-bird; one of the least terns. Forster'S 
tern. Sterna forsteri, an American tern abounding in 
the United States and British America. It closely re- 
sembles but is distinct from the common tern, as was 
first noted in 1834 by Thomas Nuttall, who dedicated it 
to John Reinhold Forster. Greater tern, the common 
tern. Gull-billed tern, a marsh-tern, Sterna (Qelo- 
chelidon) anglica : so called from its thick bill. See cut 
under Qelocttelidon. Havell'8 tern, Forster's tern in 
immature plumage. Audubon, 1839. Hooded tern, a 
rare name of the least tern. Imperial tern, the Ameri- 
can Caspian tern, Sterna (Thalasseus) imperator. Coues, 
1862. Kentish tern, the Sandwich tern. Least terns, 
the small terns which constitute the subgenus Sternula, 
of several species. That of Europe is S. minuta; of Amer- 
ica, 5. antiUarum; of South Africa, 5. balsenarum, etc. 
They are the smallest of the family, of the usual colora- 
tion, but with a white crescent in the black cap, yellow 
bill tipped with black, and yellow or orange feet ; the tail 
is not deeply forked ; the length is 9 inches or less. See cut 
under Sternula. Marsh-tern, (a) The gull-billed tern. 
(b) A black tern ; any member of the genus Hydrochelidon. 
See cut under Bydrochelidon. Noddy tern. Seenoddj/i, 
2, and Anous. Panay temt, an old name of the bridled 
tern, considered a distinct species under the name Sterna 
panaymsii. Latham, 1786. Paradise tern, the roseate 
tern : a name derived from Sterna paradisea of Briinnich, 
1784, which is of doubtful identification, and probably 
means the arctic tern. Portland tern, a young arctic 
tern : named from the city of Portland in Maine. B. 
Kidgway, 1874. Princely tern, theelegant tern. Couei, 
1884. Roseate tern. See roseate. Royal tern, the 
Cayenne tern. W. Oambel. Sandwich tern Sterna (Tha- 
lasseus) cantiaca, a tern originally described from Kent, 
England, and in some of its forms found in most parts of 
the world. It has many technical names. The American 

Ternate Leaves. 

I. Of Cytisus La. 
burnum. a. Of Sil- 
fhittm trifoliatum. 

Sandwich Tern (Sterna cantiaca}. 

form has been distinguished as S. aniflarula. This is one 
of the smallest of the large terns (section Thalasseus), and 
has a long and slender black bill tipped with yellow, black 
feet and cap, pearl mantle, and the general plumage white, 
as usual. It is 15 or 16 inches long. Sea-tern, a name of 
several terns, especially of the large species of the section 
Thalasseus, which are mainly maritime. Short- tailed 
tern. See short-tailed. Sooty tern. See sooty. Suri- 
nam tem, an old name of the common black short-tailed 
tern of North America, Hydrochelidon fissipes, called H. fis- 
sipes surinamensis when it is subspecincally distinguished 
from its European conspecies a. fissipes. Trudeau's 
tern, S. trudeaui, a South American tern supposed by Au- 
dubon (1839) to occur also in the United States. It is of 
about the size of the common tern, of a pearly-bluish 
color all over, whitening on the head, and with a yellow or 
orange bill.-- Whiskered tern, Hydrochelidonleucoparia 
(after Natterer in Temminck's "Manual," 1820), one of the 
black terns, with a large white stripe on each side of the 
head. Wilson's tern. See com man tem. 
tern 2 (tern), a. and n. [= F. terne, a three (in 
dice), three numbers (in a lottery), = Pr. terna 
= Sp. terna, terno = Pg. It. terno, n., a set of 
three, < L. ternus, pi. terni, three each, < tres, 
three (tec, thrice): see three.] I. a. Same as 

II. n. 1. That which consists of three things 
or numbers together; specifically, a prize in a 
lottery gained by drawing three favorable num- 
bers, or the three numbers so drawn. 
She'd win a tern in Thursday's lottery. 

Mrs. Browning, Aurora Leigh, vii. 
2. In math., a system of three pairs of con- 
jugate trihedra which together contain the 


twenty-seven straight lines lying in a cubic 

tern 3 (tern), . [Origin uncertain.] A three- 
masted schooner; a three-master. [Local, New 

ternal (ter'nal), a. [< ML. tcrnalis (used as a 
noun), < L. terni, by threes: see te- 2 .] Con- 
sisting of three each; threefold Ternal prop- 
osition. See proposition. 

ternary (ter'na-ri), . and n. [= F. terna in- = 
Pr. ternari = >p. Pg. It. terario,<. LL. ternarius, 
consisting of threes, < L. terni, by threes: see 
tern 2 .'] I. a. Proceeding by threes; consisting 
of three : as, a ternary flower (that is, one hav- 
ing three members in each cycle) ; a ternary 
chemical substance (that is, one composed of 

three elements). Ternary compounds, in oldchem., 
combinations of binary compounds with each other, as of 
sulphuric acid with soda in Glauber's salt. Ternary 
cubic. See cubic. Ternary form, in music. Same as 
rondo form (which see, under rondo). Ternary mea- 
sure or time, in music. Same as triple rhythm (which 
see, under rhythm, 2 (6)). Ternary quadrics. See 

II. n.; pi. ternaries (-nz). Thenumberthree; 
a group of three. 

Of the second ternary of stanzas [in " The Progress of 
Poetry "J, the first endeavours to tell something. 

Johnson, Gray. 

Ternatan (ter-na'tan), a. [< Ternate (see def.) 
+ -an.'] Of or pertaining to Ternate, an island, 
town, and Dutch possession in the East Indies : 
specifically noting a kingfisher of the genus 

ternate (ter'nat), a. [< NL. ternatus, ar- 
ranged in threes, < L. terni, by threes: see 
ter a .] Arranged in threes; 
characterized by an arrange- 
ment of parts by threes ; in bot., 
used especially of a compound 
leaf with three leaflets, or of 
leaves whorled in threes, if 
the three divisions of a ternate leaf 
are subdivided into three leaflets each, 
the leaf is biternate, and a still further 
subdivision produces a triternate leaf. 
See also cut of Thalictntm, under leaf. 

ternately (ter'nat-li), adv. In a 
ternate manner; so as to form groups of three. 

ternatisect (ter-nat'i-sekt), a. [< NL. ternatus, 
in threes, + L. secure, pp. status, cut.] In bot., 
cut into three lobes or partial divisions. 

ternatopinnate (ter-na-to-pin'at), . [< NL. 
ternatus, in threes, + L. pinnatus, feathered : 
see pinnate."] In bot., noting a compound leaf 
with three pinnate divisions. 

terne 1 )-, n. A Middle English form of tarn 1 . 

terne 2 (tern), . [Short f or terne-plate.'] Same 
as terne-plate. 

terne-plate (tern'plat), n. [< F. terne, dull, 
+ E. plate.] An inferior kind of tin-plate, in 
making which the tin used is alloyed with a 
large percentage of lead. It is chiefly used for roof- 
ing, and for lining packing-cases to protect valuable 
goods from damage in transportation by sea. 

ternery (ter'uer-i), n.; pi. ferneries (-iz). [< tern 1 
+ -ery.] A place where terns or sea-swallows 
breed in large numbers. 

ternion (ter'ni-on), n. [< LL. ternio(n-), the 
number three, < L. terni, by threes : see tern 2 .] 
If. A group of three. 

So, when Christ's Glory Isay would declare, 
To expresse Three Persons in on Godhead are, 
He, Holy, Holy, Holy nam'd, To show 
We might a Ternion in an Vnion know. 

Heywood, Hierarchy of Angels, p. 72. 

2. In bibliography, a section of paper for a book 
containing three double leaves or twelve pages. 

They say that a given manuscript is composed of qua- 
ternions and of temions, but it never occurs to them either 
to describe the structure of a quaternion, or to say how 
we can distinguish the leaves one from another. 

Amer. Jour. Philol., VII. 27. 

Ternstrcemia (tc-rn-stre'mi-a), . [NL. (Lin- 
na3us filius, 1781), named after the Swedish 
naturalist Ternstrom.'] A genus of polypeta- 
lous plants, type of the order Ternstrvemiacese 
and tribe Ternstrwmiex. It is characterized by 
bracted flowers with free sepals, imbricated petals united 
at the base, smooth basiflxed anthers, and a superior ovary 
with an undivided style and two to three cells each usu- 
ally with two ovules pendulous from the apex. The fruit 
is indehiscent, its seeds large and hippocrepiform, with 
fleshy albumen and an inflexed embryo. There are about 
40 species, mostly of tropical America, with is or 6 in warm 
parts of Asia and the Indian archipelago. They are ever- 
green trees and shrubs, with coriaceous leaves and re- 
curved lateral peduncles which are solitary or clustered 
and bear each a single rather large flower with numerous 
stamens. T. obnvalis is known in the West Indies as scar- 
letseed, and other species as ironwood. The genus is some- 
times known by the name Dtipinia. 

Ternstroemiaceae (tcrn-stre-mi-a'se-e), n. pi. 
[NL. (De Candolle. 1823), < Ternstrcemia + 


-in-fit.] An order of polypetnlous plants, of 
the series Tlntliniiijliireennil colmrl Hiit/i/i mli*. 
It is characterized by usually bisexual and racemed dow- 
ers with numerous stamens, and by alternate coriaceous 
mi'livH. il leaves without btipules; but some genera are 
exceptional in their paniclcd, solitary, or unisexual flow- 
era and opposite or digitate leaves. It includes about 
310 species of 41 genera classed in c, tiibi , natives of the 
trnpii >. i -[)< i:illy in America, Asia, and the Indian ar- 
chipelago, and sometimes extending northward in east- 
ern Asiu and America. They arc troe or shrubs, rarely 
climbers, with feather-veined leaves which are entire or 
more often serrate. The regular, usually 5-merous flow- 
ers are often laixe and handsome, the fruit fleshy, cori- 
aceous, or woody, or very often a capsule with a per* 
sistent central columtlla. The seeds are borne on a pla- 
centa which Is frequently prominent anil fleshy or spongy, 
usually with a curved, bent, hippocreplfonn, or spiral em- 
bryo. The types of the principal tribes are Terngtraemia, 
Marcgrama, Saunntja, (Jartlonia, and Ilonnelia. See also 
st'inrii.t, and Camellia, which includes the tea-plant, the 
most important plant of the order. 

Ternstrcemieae (tern-stre-mi'e-e), [NL. 
(Mirbel, 1813), < Tenmtra'miii'+ -tee.} A tribe 
of plants (see Tcrnstra-miacex), including 8 
genera, of which Ternstrcemia is the type, dis- 
tinguished by their imbricated petals, basi- 
flxed anthers, and one-flowered peduncles. 

terpene (ter'pen), H. [A modified form of tere- 
bene.] Any ono of a class of hydrocarbons hav- 
ing the common formula C 10 H 16 , found chiefly 
in essential oils and resins. They are distinguished 
chiefly by their physical properties, being nearly alike In 
chemical reactions. With their closely related derivatives 
they make up the larger part of roost essential oils. 

terpentinet, n. An obsolete form of turpentine. 

terpodion (ter-po'di-on), . [< Qr. rfpveiv, de- 
light, + <i>firi ! a song: see ode 1 .] A. musical 
instrument invented by J. D. Buschmann in 
1816, the tones of which were produced by fric- 
tion from blocks of wood. It was played by 
means of a keyboard. 

Terpsichore (terp-sik'o-re), n. [< L. Terp- 
sichore, < Gr. Tep^txApn (Attio T?epijiix6pa), Terp- 
sichore, fern, of repyixopof, delighting in the 
dance, < rfpneiv, fut. rfpipt-iv, enjoy, delight in, 
+ xp6f, dance, dancing: see chorus."} In classi- 
cal myth., one of the Muses, the especial com- 
panion of Melpomene, and the patroness of the 
choral dance and of the dramatic chorus devel- 
oped from it. In the last days of the Greek religion 
her attributions became restricted chiefly to the province 
of lyric poetry. In art this Muse is represented as a grace- 
ful figure clad in flowing draperies, often seated, and n MI - 
ally bearing a lyre. Her type is closely akin to that of 
Erato, but the latter is always shown standing. 

Terpsichorean (terp'si-ko-re'an), a. and n. [< 
Terpsichore + -em.] I. a', leap, or I. c.] Relat- 
ing to the Muse Terpsichore, or to dancing and 
lyrical poetry, which were sacred to this Muse : 
as, the terpsichorean art (that is, dancing). 
II. . [(. c.] A dancer. [CoLloq.] 

Terpsiphone (terp-si-fo'ne), n. [NL. (C. W. L. 
Gloger, 1827), <Gr. rfp^tf, enjoyment, delight, + 
^uvri, voice.] Agenus of Old World Muscicapidx. 
The leading species is the celebrated paradise flycatcher, 
T. paraditea, remarkable for the singular development of 
the tail. This bird was originally figured and described 
more than a century ago by Edwards, who called it the 
pied bird o/ paradier. It was long mistaken for a bird 
of Africa, as uy Levaillant, who figured it under the name 

Paradise Flycatcher (TVr*- 
siflumt fariaista), male ; k- 

lie in background. 

tchitrec-bt (the original of Lesson's genus Tchi- 
trea)', it has also been placed in the larger gen- 
era MiiKieapa, Muteipeta, and AftMcicorn of the 
early writers of the present century. It is na- 
tive of India and Ceylon. The adult male is 
chiefly pure-white and black, with glossy steel- 
green head, throat, and crest; the bill Is bine, 
the mouth is yellow, and the eyes are brown. 
The total length is about 17 Inches, of which 
12 or 13 inches belong to the two middle tail- 
feathers, the tail with this exception being 

64 Inches, the wing less than 4 Inches. The female Is quite 
different, only 7 Inches long, without any peculiarity of 
the tail, and with plain rufous- brown, gray, and white col- 
ors, the crest, however, being glossy greenish-Mark. A 
similar species of the Indian archipelago is T. ajfinu. T. 
miiinta, belongs to Madagascar; and there are about a 
dozen other species of this beautiful and varied genus, 
whose members are found from Madagascar across Africa 
and India to China, Japan, the Malay peninsula, Java, Su- 
matra, Borneo, and Floret. 

terpuck (ter'puk), w. [< Russ. terpuki, lit. a 
rasp ; so called on account of the roughness of 
the scales.] A fish of the family Chiridx (or 
Hexagram mida), as Bctayrtrmmus lagoceplialux 
and //. octoyrammus. Sir John Richardson. 

terra (tcr'jj), . [= F. terre = Sp. tierra = Pg. 
It. terra, < L. terra, earth, land, ground, soil; 
orig. 'tersa, 'dry laud,' akin to torrere, dry, or 
parch with heat, Gr. rfpofoOat, become dry: see 
thirst, and cf. torrent.] Earth, or the earth: 
sometimes personified, Terra : used especially 

in various phrases (Latin and Italian) Terra 

alba ('white earth 'X pipe-clay. Terra a terra*. [ = 
F. terre d terre = Sp. tierra a tierra = It terra a terra, 
close to the ground, lit. 'ground to ground.'] An artificial 

fait formerly taught horses in the manege or riding-school, 
t was a short, half-prancing, half-leaping gait, Ihe horse 
lifting himself alternately upon the fore and hind feet, 
and going somewhat sidewise. It differed from curveU 
chiefly in that the horse did not step so high. It is much 
noticed In the horse-market literature of the seventeenth 
and eighteenth centuries. 

I rid first a Spanish Hone, a light Bay, called Le Su- 
perbe, a beautiful horse. ... He went In corvets for- 
wards, backwards, sideways, . . . and went Terra a Terra 
Perfectly. The second Horse I Eld was another Spanish 
Horse, ... a Brown-Bay with a White star in his Fore- 
head ; no Horse ever went Terra a Terra like him, so just, 
and so easle ; and for the Pirouette, etc. 

Cavendish (Earl of Newcastle), New Method of Dressing 
[Hone* (1667), Preface. 

Terra caripsa, tripoll or rottenstone. Terra di Si- 
ena. Seetirtma. Terra flrma, firm or solid earth; dry 
land, In opposition to water ; mainland or continent, in 
opposition to Insular territories. Terra incognita, an 
unknown or unexplored region. Terra Japonica ('':< 
pan earth 'X gambler : formerly supposed to be a kind of 
earth from Japan. Terra mertta, turmeric. Terra 
nera (It , 'black earth'), a native unctuous pigment, used 
by the ancient artists In fresco, oil, and tempera painting. 
Terra noblllst, an old name for the diamond. Terra 
orellana. Same as arnatto, 2. Terra pouderosa, ba- 
rytes or heavy-spar. Terra slelUata, or terra Lem- 
nla, temnlan earth. See under Lemnian. Terra verde 
(It, 'green earth 'X either of two kinds of native green 
earth used as pigments in painting, one obtained near 
Verona, the other In Cyprus. The former, which li very 
useful in landscape-painting in oil, is a sillcious earth 
colored by the protoxld of Iron, of which it contains about 
20 per cent. Also terre verte. 

terrace 1 (ter'as), n. [Early mod. E. also terras, 
tarras, tnrrasse; < OF. terrace, tcrrasse, a ter- 
race, gallery, F. terrasse,< It. terraccia, terrazzo, 
a terrace, < terra, < L. terra, earth, land: see 
terra.] 1. A raised level faced with masonry 
or tuff; an elevated flat space: as, a garden 
terrace; also, a natural formation of the ground 
resembling such a terrace. 

This is the tamute where thy sweetheart tarries. 

Chapman, May-Day, III. 3. 

List, list, they are come from hunting ; stand by, close 
under this terra*. 

//. Jiiiimm, Every Man out of his Humour, II. 1. 

Terrace*, flanked on either side by jutting masonry, cut 
clear vignettes of olive-hoary slopes, with cypress-shad- 
owed farms in hollows of the hills. 

J. A. Symondi, Italy and Greece, p. 68. 

2. In ;/"'., a strip of land, nearly level, extend- 
ing along the margin of the sfea, a lake, or a river, 
and terminating on the side toward the water in 
a more or less abrupt descent; a beach; a raised 
beach. Also called in Scotland a carse, and in 
parts of the United States where Spanish was 
formerly spoken a mesa, or meseta. Terraces are 
seen In many parts of the world, and vary greatly In width, 
height, and longitudinal extent, as well as in the mode of 
their formation. Marine terraces, or raised beaches, have 
usually been caused by the elevation of the land, the preex- 
isting beach having been thus lifted above the action of 
the water, and a new one formed at a lower level. Raised 
beaches, terraces, or ancient sea-margins of this kind form 
conspicuous features In the coast topography of various re- 
gions, as of Scandinavia, Scotland, and the Pacific coast of 
North and South America. Some river- and lake-terraces 
may have been formed by the upheaval of the region where 
they occur ; but a far more important and genera! cause of 
their existence is the diminution of the amount of water 
flowing in the rivers or standing in the lakes a phenom- 
enon of which there are abundant proofs all over the world, 
and the beginning of which reaches back certainly into 
Tertiary times, but how much further is not definitely 
known, since the geological records of such change of cli- 
mate could not be preserved for an indefinite period, and 
very little is known in regard to the position of rivers, or 
bodies of water distinctly separated from the ocean, at any 
remote geological period. Rarely called a bench. 

This stream runs on a hanging terrace, which in some 
parts is at least sixty feet above the Barrady. 

Poeocke, Description of the East, II. i. 123. 

3. A street or row of houses running along the 
face or top of a slope : often applied arbitrarily, 

terras films 

as a fancy name, to ordinary streets or ranges 
of houses. 4. The flat roof of a house, as of 
Oriental and Spanish houses. 5t. A balcony, 
or open gallery. 

There Is a rowe of pretty little tarrauei or raylea be- 
twixt every window. Cvryal, Crudities, I. 218. 

As touching open galleries and terrace*, they were de- 
vised by the t! reeked, who were wont to cover their homes 
with such. ll'Mand, tr. of Pliny, xxxvl. 25 

6. Ill marblc-wurkiiiii, a defective spot in mar- 
ble, which, after being cleaned out, in filled with 
some artificial preparation. Also tcrrasse. 
terrace 1 (ter'as), v. t. ; pret. and pp. terraced, 
ppr. terracing. [< terrace, n.] To form into a 
terrace; furnish with a terrace. 

Methlnks the grove of Baal I see 
In terraced stages mount up high. 

Vj/er.To Aaron Hill. 

terrace' 2 (ter'as), . [Also terrasg, terrasse, tar- 
race, tarris, tarras; = MD. terras, tiras, D. tras, 
rubbish, brick-dust, = G. tarras, trass, < It. ter- 
raccia, rubble, rubbish, < terra, earth : see ter- 
race^. Cf. trass.] A variety of mortar used 
for pargeting and the like, and for lining kilns 
for pottery. 

They [the kilns) plastered within with a reddish mortar 
or (arm. Utter n/ 1677, In Jewftt's Ceramic Art, I. 40. 

Tarrace, or Terrace, a coarse sort of plaister, or mortar, 
durable In the weather, chiefly used to line basons, cis- 
terns, wells, and other reservoirs of water. 

Chamben, Cyclopaedia (ed. 17S8). 

terra-cotta (ter'a-kot'tt), . [= F. terre cuite, < 
It. terra cotta, < TL. terra cocta, lit. baked earth : 
terra, earth: cocta, fern, of coctus, pp. of co- 
quere, cook, bake : see coct, cook 1 .] 1. A bard 
pottery made for use as a building-material and 
tor similar purposes, of much finer quality and 
harder baked than brick ; in the usual accepta- 
tion of the term, all unglazed pottery, or any ar- 
ticle made of such pottery. It differs in color ac- 
cording to the ingredients employed. The color Is usually 
the same throughout the paste ; but terra-cotta is made 
also with an enameled surface, and even with a surface spe- 
clally colored without enamel. Earthenware similar to 
this, but from materials chosen and prepared with spe- 
cial care, Is made in the form of artistic works, as bas- 
reliefs, statuettes, etc. 

2. A work in terra-cotta, especially a work 
of art: specifically applied to small figures 
(statuettes) or figurines in this material, which 
have held an important place in art both in an- 
cient and in modern times, and are of peculiar 

Teira-cotta. A Greek Statuette from Tanagra. 4th century B.C. 

interest in the study of Greek art, which is pre- 
sented by them in a more popular and familiar 
light than is possible with works of greater pre- 
tensions. See Tanagra figurine (under^wn'wf), 
and see also cut under Etruscan. 

Grecian Antiquities, Terra-Cotton, Bronzes, Vases, etc. 
Athemewn, No. 3303, p. 202. 

terracultural (ter-ii-kul'tur-al), a. [< terracul- 
ture + -al.] Of or pertaining to terraculture ; 
agricultural. [Rare.] 

terraculture (ter'a-kul-tur), M. [Irreg. < L. ter- 
ra, earth, + cultiira, culture.] Cultivation of 
the earth; agriculture. [Rare.] 

terras filius (ter'e fil'i-us). [L.: terra, gen. of 
ttrm, earth; filing, son.] 1. A person of ob- 
scure birth or of low origin. 2t. A scholar at 
the University of Oxford appointed to make 
Resting satirieal speeches. He often indulged 
in considerable license in his treatment of the 
authorities of the university. 

terras films 

The assembly now return'd to the Theater, where the 
Terra Jilius (the Universitie Buffoone) entertain 'd the au- 
ditorie with atedious, abusive, sarcastieal rhapsodic, most 
unbecoming the gravity of the Universitie. 

Evelyn, Diary, July 10, 1669. 

terrage 1 (ter'aj), . [< F. terre (< L. terra), 
earth, + -age. 'Ct.terage.] A mound of earth, es- 
pecially a small one, as in a flower-pot, in which 
plants can be set for household decoration. 
terrage 2 (ter'aj), n. [Also ferriage; < OF. ter- 
rage, field-rent, < terre, land: see terra.] In 
old Eng. law, an exaction or fee paid to the 
owner of the land for some license, privilege, 
or exemption, such, for instance, as leave to 
dig or break the earth for a grave, or in setting 
up a market or fair, or for freedom from service 
in tillage, or for being allowed an additional 
holding, etc. 

terrain (te-ran'), n. [Also sometimes terrane; 
< F. terrain, terrein, ground, a piece of ground, 
soil, rock, = It. terreno, < L. terrenum, land, 
ground, prop. neut. of terrenus, consisting of 
earth, < terra, earth : see terra, terrene.] A part 
of the earth's surface limited in extent; a region, 
district, or tract of land, either looked at in a 
general way or considered with reference to its 
fitness or use for some special purpose, as for 
a building-place or a battle-field: a term little 
used in English except in translating from the 
French, and then with the same meaning which 
it has in the original. The word is, however, also used 
in various idiomatic expressions, in translating a number 
of which the English word " ground " is most properly em- 
ployed: as, "gagnerdu terrain," to gain ground; "perdre 
du terrain," to lose ground, favor, or credit; also with 
various metaphorical significations: as, "etre sur son 
terrain," to have to do with, or to speak of, that with 
which one is thoroughly familiar ; " Bonder le terrain," 
examine the conditions, or look into the matter, etc. As 
used by French geologists, the word terrain has a some- 
what vague meaning, and is usually limited by some qual- 
ifying term : as, "terrain &e transition," "terrain primitif." 
This word was introduced into English geological litera- 
ture by the translator of HumboldtVEssaiGeognostique," 
where it was used, as he remarks, "because we have no 
word in the English language which will accurately ex- 
press terrain as used in geology by the French." Also 
spelled (but rarely) terrane. 

Hocks which alternate with each other, and which are 
found usually together, and which display the same re- 
lations of position, constitute the same formation ; the 
union of several formations constitutes a geological series 
or a district (terrain) ; but the terms rocks, formations, 
and terrains are used as synonymous in many works on 

Humboldt, Geognostical Essay on the Superposition of 
[Rocks (trans.), p. 2. 

This term [terrane] is used for any single rock or con- 
tinuous series of rocks of a region, whether the formation 
be stratified or not. It is applied especially to metamor- 
phlc and igneous rocks, as a basaltic terrane, etc. 

J. D. Dana, Man. of Geol. (rev. ed.), p. 81. 

terramara (ter-a-ma'ra), .; pi. terramare (-re). 
[< It. terra amara, bitter earth (a term used in 
the vicinity of Parma) : terra, < L. terra, earth ; 
amara, fern, of amaro,< L. amarus, bitter.] Any 
stratum or deposit of earthy material contain- 
ing organic or mineral matter (such as bones or 
phosphates) in sufficient quantity to furnish a 
valuable fertilizer ; hence, a deposit containing 
prehistoric remains, as fragments of bones and 
pottery, cinders, etc., of similar character to the 
deposits called in northern Europe Mtchen-mid- 
dens. There are large numbers of these terramare on 
the plain traversed by the Via Emilia between the Po and 
the Apennines ; some of them are intermediate in char- 
acter between the kitchen-middens of Denmark and the 
palafittesof Switzerland, appearing to mark sites of settle- 
ments originally built on piles in shallow lakes (or perhaps 
on marshy ground subject to frequent inundation), which 
have gradually become desiccated while the stations con- 
tinued to be occupied. 

terrane, . See terrain. 

terranean (te-ra'ne-an), a. [< L. terra, earth, 
+ -an + -e-an (after subterranean, mediter- 
ranean, etc.).] Being in the earth ; belonging 
to the earth, or occurring beneath the surface 
of the earth. 

The great strain on the trolley wire which would be a 
necessary incident of terranean supply renders such a 
system impracticable. Elect. Rev. (Amer.), XVm. i. 9. 

terraneous (te-ra'ne-us), a. [< L. terra, earth, 
+ -an + -e-ous (after subterraneous).] In bot., 
growing on land. 

terrapenet, . An obsolete variant of terrapin. 

Terrapenes (ter-a-pe'nez), . pi. [NL. : see 
terrapin.] A subdivision of Emydea (which 
see), in which the pelvis is free, the neck bends 
in a vertical plane, and the head may be al- 
most completely retracted within the carapace. 
Huxley. The group contains such genera as Emys, Cis- 
tudo, Chelydra, Cinosternum, and Staurotypus. The other 
subdivision of Emydea is Chelodines. See cuts under 
Cinosternum, Ctsfwdo, and terrapin. 

terrapin (ter'a-pin), . [Formerly also tera- 
pin, terrapene,'turpin; supposed to be of Amer. 


Ind. origin.] 1. One of several different fresh- 
water or tide-water tortoises of the family 
Emydidx; specifically, in the United States, 
the diamond-back, Halademmys or Malacoclem- 
mys palustris, of the Atlantic coast from New 

Diamond-backed Terrapin (Malt 

lys palustris). 

York to Texas, famous among epicures. See 
diamond-backed turtle (under diamond-backed), 
and Malaclemmys. In trade use the sexes are distin- 
guished as hi'lt and* cow, and small ones as little bulls and 
heifers respectively. Those under 5 or 6 inches in total 
length of the under shell are termed cuttings, of which it 
takes from 18 to 24 or more to make a "dozen." Those 
of 6 inches and more are counts or counters, of 12 to the 
dozen. Only the cows reach 6J to 7 inches in this mea- 
surement ; these are known to dealers as full counts, and 
are especially valuable because they usually contain eggs ; 
the bulls are tougher as well as smaller, and of less market 

2. Some other tortoise or turtle: as, the ele- 
phant terrapin of the Galapagos. 3. A dish 
made of the diamond-back. 

Terrapin is essentially a Philadelphia dish. Baltimore 
delights in it, Washington eats it, New York knows it, 
but in Philadelphia it approaches a crime not to be pas- 
sionately fond of it. J. W. Forney, The Epicure. 
Alligator terrapin. See alligator-terrapin. Diamond- 
backed terrapin, the diamond-backed turtle. See dia- 
mond-bacltrd, and def. 1. Elephant terrapin. See ele- 
phant tortoise, under tortoise. Mud-terrapin, any mud- 
turtle, as of the genus Cinosternum. [U. 5. ] Painted 
terrapin or turtle, Chrysemys picta, of the United States. 
See Chrysemys. Pine-barren terrapin, the gopher of 
the southern United States, Testudo Carolina. Red-bel- 
lied terrapin, Chrysemys rubriventris or Pseudemys ru- 
gosa; the potter or red-fender. See cut under slider. 
Salt-marsh or salt-water terrapin, in the United 
States, one of several different Emydidse of salt or brack- 
ish water, among them the diamond-back and slider. See 
cut above, and cut under slider. Speckled terrapin, 
the spotted turtle, Chelopus guttatus, a small fresh-water 
tortoise of the United States, whose black carapace has 
round yellow spots. Yellow-bellied terrapin, Pseu- 
demyt scabra, of southern parts of the United States. 

terrapin-farm (ter'a-pin-farm), . A place 
where the diamond-back is cultivated. 

terrapin-paws (ter'a-pin-paz), n. sing, and pi. 
A pair of long-handled tongs used in catching 
terrapin. [Chesapeake Bay.] 

terraquean (te-ra'kwe-an), a. [< terraque-ous 
+ -an.] Terraqueous. [Rare.] 
This terraquean globe. Macmillaris Mag., III. 471. 

terraqueous (te-ra'kwe-us), a. [< L. terra, 
earth, -I- aqua, water (see aqueous).] Consist- 
ing of land and water, as the globe or earth. 

I find but one thing that may give any just offence, and 
that is the Hypothesis of the Terraqueous globe, where- 
with I must confesse my self not to be satisfied. 

Kay, in Letters of Eminent Men, II. 159. 

terrart, . Same as terrier^. 

terrarium (te-ra'ri-um), n.; pi. terrariums, ter- 
raria (-umz, -a) . [< L. terra, earth : a word mod- 
eled on aquarium.] A vivarium for land ani- 
mals; a place where such animals are kept 
alive for study or observation. 

Herr Fischer-Sigwart describes the ways of a snake, Tro- 
pidonotus tesselatus, which he kept in his terrarium in 
Zurich. Science, XV. 24. 

terras 1 t, n. An obsolete form of terrace 1 . 
terras 2 (te-ras'), n. Same as trass. 
terrasphere (ter'a-sfer), . [Irreg. < L. terra, 

earth, + Or. agalpa, sphere.] Same as tellurian. 
terrasse, n. Same as terrace^. 
terre 1 !, v. t. Same as tor 2 . 
terre 2 t, v. t. [< F. terrer, < terre, earth: see 

terra. Cf. inter, atter.] To strike to the earth. 

"Loe, heere my gage" (he terr'd his gloue); 
"Thou know'st the victor's meed." 

Warner, Albion's England, Hi. 128. 

terreent (te-ren'), n. See tureen. 
terreityt (te-re'i-ti), n. [< L. terra + -e-ity.] 
Earthiness. [Rare.] 


The aqueity, 
Terreity, and sulphureity 
Shall run together again, and all be annull'd. 

B. Jonson, Alchemist, ii. 1. 

terrelt (ter'el), . [Also terrella, terella; < NL. 
terrella, dim. of L. terra, earth : see terra.] A 
spherical figure so placed that its poles, equa- 
tor, etc., correspond exactly to those of the 
earth, for showing magnetic deviations, etc. 
terrellat (te-rel'a), n. Same as terrel. 

I was shew'd a pretty Terrella, described with all y 
circles, and shewing all y magnetic deviations. 

Evelyn, Diiiry, July 3, 1656. 

Terrell grass. A species of wild rye, or lyme- 
grass, Elymns Virginicus, a coarse grass, but 
found useful for forage in the southern United 
States: so named from a promoter of its use. 

terremotet (ter'e-mot), . [ME., < OF. terre- 
mote, < ML. terree motus, earthquake: L. terrse, 
gen. of terra, earth; motus, movement, < movere, 
pp. motus, move : see motion.] An earthquake. 

All the halle quoke, 
As it a terremote were. Gower, Conf. Amant., vi. 

terremotive (ter-e-mo'tiv), a. [< terremote + 
-ive.] Of, pertaining to, characterized by, or 
causing motion of the earth's surface ; seismic. 

We may mark our cycles by the greatest known par- 
oxysms of volcanic and terremotive agency. 

Whewett, Philos. of Inductive Sciences, X. iii. 4. 

terrene 1 (te-ren'), and . [= Sp. Pg. It. ter- 
reno, < L. terrenus, of, pertaining to, or consist- 
ing of earth (neut. terrenum, land, ground: see 
terrain), < terra, earth, land: see terra.] I. a. 
Of or pertaining to the earth ; earthly ; terres- 
trial: as, terrene substance. 

I beleue noght that terrene boody sothlesse 
Of lusty beute may haue such richesse, 
So moche of swetnesse, so moche of connyng, 
As in your gentil body is beryng. 

Bom. of Partenay (E. E. T. S.), 1. 417. 

These thick vapours of terrene affections will be dis 

persed. Jer. Taylor, Works (ed. 1835), I. 386. 

I would teach him . . . that Mammonism was, not the 

essence of his or of my station in God's Universe, but the 

adscititioua excrescence of it ; the gross, terrene, godless 

embodiment of it. Carlyle. 

II. . The earth. [Rare.] 

Over many a tract 

Of heaven they march'd, and many a province wide, 
Tenfold the length of this terrene. Milton, P. L., vi. 78. 

terrene 2 t, * See terrine, tureen. 
terrenelyt, adv. [ME. terrenly; < terrene 1 + 
-ly 2 .] As regards lands. 

I Hym make my proper enheritour, 
For yut shall he be wurthy terrenly. 

Rom. of Partenay (E. E. T. 3.), 1. 6014. 

terrenity (te-ren'i-ti), n. [< terrene 1 + -ity.] 
The state or character of being terrene ; world- 

Being overcome . . . debases all the spirits to a dull 
and low terrenity. Feltham, Resolves. 

terreoust (ter'e-us), a. [= Sp. Pg. It. terreo, < 
L. terreus, earthen, < terra, earth : see terra. Cf. 
terrosity.] Earthy ; consisting of earth. 

According to the temper of the terreous parts at the bot- 
tom, variously begin intumescencies. 

Sir T. Browne, Vulg. Err. 

terre-plein (tar'plan), n. [F., < terre, earth, + 
plein tor plain, level, flat : see terra and plain 1 .] 
1. In fort., the top, platform, or horizontal sur- 
face of a rampart, on which the cannon are 
placed. 2. The plane of site or level surface 
around a field-work. 

terresityt, . See terrosity. 

terrestret, a. [ME., < OF. (and F.) terrestre = 
Pr. Sp. Pg. It. terrestre, < L. terrestris, of or be- 
longing to the earth, < terra, earth : see terra. 
Cf. terrestrial.] Terrestrial; earthly. 

Heere may ye se, and heerby may ye preve, 
That wyf is niannes helpe and his contort, 
His Paradys terrestre, and his disport. 

Chaucer, Merchant's Tale, 1. 88. 

terrestreity (ter-es-tre'i-ti), . Admixture of 

Sulphur itself ... is not quite devoid of terrestreity. 
Boyle, Mechanical Hypotheses. 

Terrestres (te-res'trez), n. pi. [NL., pi. of L. 
terrestris, of or belonging to the earth : see 
terrestre, terrestrial.] In ornith., one of three 
series into which birds were formerly divided, 
containing the rasorial and cursorial forms: 
contrasted with Aereee and Aquaticte: more ful- 
ly called Aves terrestres. 

terrestrial (te-res'tri-al), a. and n. [< ME. 
terrestriall, < OF. terrestrial, < L. terrestris, of or 
belonging to the earth (see terrestre), + -al.] 
I. a. 1. Of or pertaining to the earth; exist- 
ing on the earth ; earthly : opposed to celestial: 
as, terrestrial bodies; terrestrial magnetism. 


Vnto mortal] dt>th me to tunic ye ahold, 
Kyxlit us a u "in. in born here natm-ull. 

A Irllliiiine thyilg, Wonuill lit 111 home-, 

To end of rny iliiys here terrettriall. 

Kim. of Partenay (E. E. T. 8.), 1. 822. 
There uru ulso eeh ->,i.i:il Uiilien, anil bodies terrentrial. 

1 ( or. xv. 40. 

2. [{('presenting or consisting of the earth: as, 
a or tlio terri-xtriiil glol>c. !"><'<' ;/'"'' 4. 

\\ h:it though, in soh'iim tiilence, all 
Move ruuml this ilmk, tirri-ttriul ball? 

Addition, ode, The Spacious Firmament. 

3. Pertaining to the world or to the present 
state; sublunary; worldly; mundane. 

A genius bright and base, 
Of tow'rlng talenU and terrestrial alms. 

Young, Night Thoughts, vi. 

4. Pertaining to or consisting of land, as op- 
posed to water, or of earth. 

The terrestrial substance, destitute of all liquor, remain- 
oth alone. Holland, tr. of Plutarch, p. 598. 

I did not confine these observations to land, or terres- 
trial parts of the globe, but extended them to the fluids. 


5. In zool., living on the ground; confined to 
the ground ; not aquatic, arboreal, or aerial ; 
terricolous. Specifically (a) In ornith., rasorial or cur- 
sorial; belonging to the Terrejftren. (b) In conch., air- 
breathing or piilmonate, as a snail or a slug, (c) Belong- 
ing to that division of isopods which contains the wood- 
lice, sow-bugs, or land-slaters. 

6. In /ml., growing ou laud, not aquatic ; grow- 
ing in the ground, not on trees. Terrestrial 
gravitation, magnetism, radiation, refraction, tele- 
scope. See the nouns. Terrestrial-radiation ther- 
mometer. See thermometer. 

II. n. 1. An inhabitant of the earth. 

But Heav'n, that knows what all terreitriali need, 
Repose to night, and toil to day decreed. 

I'- nit, n. in Pope's Odyssey, xix. 682. 

2. pi. In zool.: (a) A section of the class Aces, 
the Terrestres. (ft) The pulmonate gastropods, 
(c) A division of isopods. 

terrestrially (te-res'tri-al-i), adv. 1. After a 
terrestrial or earthly manner. 2. In zool., in 
or on the ground; on land, not in water: as, to 
pupate terrestrially, as an insect. 

terrestrialness (te-res'tri-al-nes), . The state 
or character of being terrestrial. Imp. Diet. 

terrestrifyt (te-res'tri-fi), r. *. [< L. terrestris, 
of the earth, 4- facere, make (see -fy).] To re- 
duce to earth, or to an earthly or mundane state. 
Though we should affirm . . . that heaven were but 
earth celestitled, and earth but heaven terrestrifed. 

Sir T. Browne, Vulg. Err., iv. 13. 

terrestrious (te-res'tri-us), a. [< L. terrestris, 
of the earth (see terrestre), + -ous.] 1. Of or 
belonging to the earth or to land; terrestrial. 

The reason of Kircherus may be added that this varia- 
tion proceedeth, not only from terregtruna eminences and 
magnetical veins of the earth, laterally respecting the nee- 
dle, but [from] the different coagmentation of the earth 
disposed unto the poles, lying under the sea and waters. 
Sir T. Browne, Vulg. Err., ii. 2. 

The British capital Is at the geographical centre of the 
terregtrioitg portion of the globe. 

(.'. P. ilarth, Lects. on Eng. Lang., Int., p. 24. 

2. Pertaining to the earth ; being or living on 
the earth ; terrestrial. 

The nomenclature of Adam, which unto terrestriout ani- 
mals assigned a name appropriate unto their natures. 

Sir T. Browne, Vulg. Err., ill. 24. 

[Obsolete or rare in both uses.] 

terret, territ (tor'ot, -it), n. [Origin obscure.] 
One of the round loops or rings on a harness- 
pad through which the driving-reins pass. See 
outs under harness and pad-tree. 

terre-tenant, ter-tenant (tar'-, ter'ten'ant), . 
[< OF.*tfrre-te}iinit,<. tcrre, land, + tenant, hold- 
ing: see terra and tenant.] In law, one who is 
seized of or has the actual possession of laud 
as the owner thereof; the occupant. 

terre verte (tar vart). [F.: tcrre, earth; rerte, 
fern, of vert, green : see terra and vert."] Same 
as terra rerde (which see, under terra). Burnt 
terre verte, an artists' color, obtained by heating the 
natural tcrre verte, changing it to a transparent muddy 
brown, with little or none of the original green tone re- 

terrible (ter'i-bl), a. [< F. terrible = Pr. Sp. 
terrible = Pg. terrivel = It. terribile, < L. terri- 
bilix, frightful. < terrere, frighten. Cf. terror, 
deter.] 1. That excites or is fitted to excite 
terror, fear, awe, or dread; awful; dreadful; 

Terrible as an army with banners. Cant. vl. 10. 

Altogether ft [a hurricane] looks very terrible and amaz- 
ing, even beyond expression. Dumpier, Voyages, II. iii. 71. 

2. Excessive ; tremendous : severe ; great : 
chiefly used colloquially : as, a terrible bore. 

I began to be in a terrible fear of him, and to look upon 
myself as a dead man. Abp. Tilloteon. 

(!_' 17 

The bracing air of the headland give* a terrible appe- 
tite B. Taylor, Lands of the Saracen, \>. _. 
Terrible Infant, a noisy, rough, passionate, or Incon- 
venicntly outspoken child [for K. enjant terrible], 

Poor Reginald was not analytical, . . . like certain pc- 
d:intinili-K wh" figure iii story as children. He was a ter 
rible infant, not a horrible one. 

C. lleade, Love me Little, i. 

= 8yn. 1. Terrlflc, fearful, frightful, horrible, shocking, 

terribleness (ter'i-bl-nes), n. The character 
or state of being terrible; dreadfulness; for- 
midableness: as, the terribleness of a sight. 

Having quite lost the way of nobleness, he strove to 
climb to the height of terribltnfxf. 

Sir P. Sidney, Arcadia, Ii. 

teniblizet (ter'i-MIz), . i. [< terrible + -ize.] 
To become terrible. [Bare.] 

Both Camps approach, their bloudy rage doth ri -<. 

And even the face of Cowards ternblize. 

Syleetter, tr. of Du Bartas's Weeks, 1L, The Vocation. 

terribly (ter'i-bli), adv. In a terrible manner, 
(a) In a manner to cause terror, dread, fright, or awe ; 
When he arlseth to shake terribly the earth. ISH.ii.-Jl. 

(6) Violently ; exceedingly ; greatly ; very. [Chiefly col- 

The poor man squalled terribly. 

Swift, Gulliver's Travels, I. 2. 

Terricolse (te-rik'o-le), n. pi. [NL., pi. of L. 
terricola, a dweller upon earth : see terricole.] 
1. In entom., a division of dipterous insects. 
Latreillr, 1809. 2. A group of annelids, con- 
taining the common earthworm and related 
forms : distinguished from Limicolee. 

terricole (ter^-kol), a. [= F. terricole = Sp. 
terricola = Pg. It. terricola, < LL. terricola, a 
dweller upon earth, < L. terra, earth, + colere, 
inhabit.] In hot., growing on the ground: espe- 
cially noting certain lichens. Also terricolous, 

With respect to terricole species [of lichens], some prefer 
peaty soil, . . . others calcareous soil. 

Encyc. Brit., XIV. 582. 

terricoline (te-rik'o-lin), a. [< terricole + 
-ine 2 .] Same as terricolous. 

terricolous (te-rik'o-lus), a. [< LL. terricola, a 
dweller upon earth (see terricole), -t- -out.] 1. 
Terrestrial; inhabiting the ground; not aquatic 
or aerial : specifically, belonging to the Terrico- 
Ise. 2. In hot., same as terricole. 

terriculamentt, [= Pg. terriculamento, ter- 
ror, dread, < LL. terriculamentum, something 
to excite terror, < L. terriculum, also terricula, 
something to excite terror, < terrere, frighten : 
see terrible.] A cause of terror; a terror. 

Many times such terriculamente may proceed from nat- 
ural causes. Burton, Anat. of Mel., p. 669. 

With these and snch-like, either torments of opinions 
or tfrricttlitmentg of expressions, do these new sort of 
preachers seek ... to scare and terrifle their silly secta- 
tors. Bp. Oauden, Tears of the Church, p. 1US. (Dariet.) 

terridam (ter'i-dam), n. [E. Ind.] A cotton 
fabric originally made in India. 

terrier 1 (ter'i-er), n. [Formerly also tarrier, 
tarier; < ME. terrere, tcrryare, < OF. terrier, in 
chien terrier, a terrier-dog. < ML. terrnrius, of the 
earth (neut. terrarium, >OF. terrier, the hole or 
earth of a rabbit or fox, a little hillock), < L. 
terra, earth, land: see terra. Cf. terrier 2 .] One 
of several breeds of dogs, typically small, ac- 
tive, and hardy, named from their propensity 
to dig or scratch the ground in pursuit of their 
prey, and noted for their courage and the acute- 
ness of their senses. Terriers are of many strains, 
and occur in two leading forms, one of which is shagtry, 
as the Skye, and the other close-haired, as the black-and- 
tan. They are much used to destroy raU, and some are 
specially trained to rat-killing as a sport. 

The eager Dogs are cheer'd with claps and cryes, . . . 
And all the Earth rings with the Terryet yearning. 

Sylixtiter, tr. of Du BarUs's Weeks, II., The Decay. 

My terriers, 
As it appears, have seized on these old foxes. 

Maaingtr, City Madam, v. 3. 

The persecuted animals [rats] bolted above-ground ; the 
terrier accounted for one, the keeper for another. 

Thadreray, Vanity Fair, xlv. 

Black-and-tan terrier, the ordinary English terrier. 
English terrier, a general name of the smooth-haired 
terriers, of several breeds, as the common black-and-tan. 
Fox-terrier, one of different kinds of terriers trained 
or used to unearth foxes. Maltese terrier, a very small 
terrier, kept as a pet or toy. Scotch terrier, a general 
name of the shaggy lop-eared terriers, of several breeds, 
as the Skye, etc. Skye terrier, a variety of the Scotch 
terrier, of rather small size, and very shaggy. Toy ter- 
rier, sechiy. Yorkshire terrier,avariety,.fthe.-eotih 
terrier. (See also bvll-terrier.rat-territr.) 
terrier 2 (ter'i-er), . [Formerly also terrar; < 
OF. tirrii r. in ;w/n'<r trrrii r, a list of the names 
of a lord's tenants, < ML. terrariux. as in t, rrn 
rius liber, a book in which landed property is 


described, < terrariun. of land : see terrier 1 .] In 
l<nr: (<i) Formerly, a collection of acknowledg- 
ments of the vassals or tenants of a lordship, 
including the rents and services they owed to 
the lord, etc. (6) In modern usage, a book or 
roll in which the lands of private persons or 
corporations are described by their site, boun- 
daries, number of acres, etc. 

In the Exchequer there Is a terrar of all the glebe lands 
In England, made about 11 Edward III. CmcrU. (Latham.) 

It [ Domesday] is a terrier of a gigantic manor, letting 
out the lands held In demesne by the lord and the lands 
held by his tenants under him. 

K. A. Freeman, Norman Conquest, V. 4. 

terrier 3 ! (ter'i-er), . [< ME. tarryovr, tarrere, 
tarrer, < OF. terriere, tarriere, tariere, an auger, 
< 'tarrer (in pp. tarre, tare), bore, < L. terebrare, 
bore : see terebrate.] A borer, auger, or wimble. 

With tarrere or gymlet nerce ye vpward the pipe ashore. 
Babee* Book (E. E. T. ), p. 121. 

terrific (te-rif'ik), a. [= Sp. terrifico = Pg. It. 
terrifico, < L. terrificus, causing terror, < terrere, 
frighten, terrify, + -ficus, <. facere, make.] Cans- 
ing terror; fitted to excite great fear or dread ; 
dreadful : as, a terrific storm. 

The serpent . . . with brazen eyes 

And hairy mane terrific. Milton, P. L., vll. 407. 

terrifical (te-rif'i-kal), a. [< terrific + -al] 
Terrific. [Rare.] 

terrifically (te-rif'i-kal-i), adv. In a terrific 
manner: terribly; frightfully. 

tenifledly (ter'i-fid-li), adr. In a terrified man- 

terrify (ter'i-fi), r. (. ; pret. and pp. terrified, 
ppr. terrifying. [= F. terrifer = Sp. Pg. terrifi- 
car, < L. terrificare, make afraid, terrify, < ter- 
rere, frighten, + facere, make (see -fy)-] 1. To 
make afraid; strike with fear; affect or fill 
with terror; frighten; alarm. 

When ye shall hear of wars and commotions, be not ier- 
rifled. Luke xxl. 9. 

This Is the head of him whose name only 
In former times did pilgrims terrify. 
Bunyan, Pilgrim's Progress, II., Doubting Cattle. 

Girls, sent their water-Jars to fill, 
Would come back pale, too terrified to cry, 
r.rr;uis<' they hriil Imt si-rn him I'IMIU th-' hill. 

William Morris, Earthly Paradise, I. S44. 
2f. To make terrible. 

If the law, instead of aggravating and terrifying sin, 
shall give out license, it foils itself. Milton. 

=SyTL 1. To scare, horrify, appal, daunt. See a/raid. 
terrigenous (te-rij'e-nus), a. [< L. terrigena, 
one born of the earth, < terra, earth, + -genus, 
produced : see -genous.] Earth-born ; produced 
by the earth. 
Terrigenous deposits In deep water near land. 

Katun, XXZ. 84. 

Terrigenous metals, the metallic bates of the earth, as 
barium, aluminium, etc. 

terrine (te-ren'), n. [Also terrene, terreen, and 
corruptly tureen; = G. terrine, < F. terrine, an 
earthen pan or jar, < ML. terrineus, made of 
earth, < L. terra, earth: see terra.] 1. An 
earthenware vessel, usually a covered jar, used 
for containing some fine comestible, and sold 
with its contents: as, a terrine of pat4 de foie 

Tables loaded with terrene*, filigree, figures, and every- 
thing upon earth. H. Walpolt. 

Specifically 2. An earthen vessel for soup ; a 
tureen (which see). 

Instead of soup in a china terrene. It would be a proper 
reproof to serve them up offal in a wooden trough. 

V. Kmar, Winter Evenings, Ivli. 

territ. n. See terret. 

Territelae (ter-i-te'le), n. Same as Territelaria . 

Territelaria (ter'i-te-la'ri-ft), . pi. [NL.. < L. 
terra, ground, + tela, web, + -aria?.] A divi- 
sion of spiders, including those which spin un- 
derground webs for their nests, as a trap-door 
spider. The group contains all the tetrapneumonons 
forms, and corresponds to the Mygalidst, or theraphose*. 
Also Territtlse. 

territelarian (ter'i-te-la'ri-an), a. and n. I. a. 
Pertaining to the Territelaria. 
II. H. Any member of this group. 

territorial (ter-i-to'ri-al), a. [= F. territorial 
= Sp. Pg. territorial ='lt. territoriale, < LL. ter- 
ritorialis, of or belonging to territory, < L. terri- 
torium, territory: see territory.] 1. Of or per- 
taining to territory or land. 

The territorial acquisitions of the East-India Company 
. . . might be rendered another source of revenue. 

Adam Smith, Wealth of Nations, v. 3. 
A state's territorial right gives no power to the ruler to 
alienate a part of the territory in the way of barter or eaJe, 
as was done In feudal times. 

Woottey, Introd. to Inter. Law. | 52. 


2. Limited to a certain district: as, rights may 
be personal or territorial. 8. [cap.] Of orper- 
taining to one of the Territories of the United 
States: as, a Tcrri torlal governor; the Territo- 
rial condition Territorial system, that system of 
church government in which the civil ruler of a country 
exercises as a natural and inherent right supremacy over 
the ecclesiastical affairs of his people. It was developed 
in the writings of the German jurist Christian Thomasius 

territorialism (ter-i-to'ri-al-izm), . [< terri- 
torial + -ism.] The territorial system, or the 
theory of church government upon which it is 
based. Compare cottegialism, episcopalism. 

territorially (ter-i-to-ri-al'i-ti), . [< territo- 
rial + -ity.] Possession and control of terri- 

Scarcely less necessary to modern thought than the idea 
of territoriality as connected with the existence of a state 
is the idea of contract as determining the relations of in- 
dividuals. W. Wilson, State, 17. 

territorialize (ter-i-to'ri-al-iz), r. t. ; pret. and 
pp. territorialized, ppr. territorializing. [< ter- 
ritorial + -ize.] 1. To enlarge or extend by 
addition of territory. 2. To reduce to the 
state of a territory. 

territorially (ter-i-to'ri-al-i), adv. In respect 
of territory ; as to territory. 

territoried (ter'i-to-rid), a. [< territory + -ecfi.] 
Possessed of territory: as, an extensively terri- 
toried domain. 

territory (ter'i-to-ri), n.; pi. territories (-riz). 
[< OF. territorie, F. territoire = Sp. Pg. terri- 
torio = It. territoro, territorio, < L. territorium, 
the land around a town, a domain, district, ter- 
ritory, < terra, earth: see terra.] 1. The ex- 
tent or compass of land and the waters thereof 
within the bounds or belonging to the jurisdic- 
tion of any sovereign, state, city, or other body ; 
any separate tract of land as belonging to a 
state; dominion; sometimes, also, a domain or 
piece of land belonging to an individual. 

But if thou linger in my territories 

Longer than swiftest expedition 

Will give thee time to leave our royal court> 

By heaven ! my wrath shall far exceed the love 

I ever bore my daughter or thyself. 

Shalt., T. G. of V., iii. 1. 163. 

Those who live thus mewed up within their own con- 
tracted territories, and will not look abroad beyond the 
boundaries that chance, conceit, or laziness has set to their 
inquiries. Locke, Conduct of the Understanding, 3. 

Gentlemen, I thought the deck of a Massachusetts ship 
was as much the territory of Massachusetts as the floor on 
which we stand. Emerson, West Indian Emancipation. 

2. Any extensive tract, region, district, or do- 
main : as, an unexplored territory in Africa. 

From hence being brought to a subterranean territorie 
of cellars, the courteous friars made us taste a variety of 
excellent wines. Evelyn, Diary, May 21, 1645. 

3. [cap.] In the United States, an organized di- 
vision of the country, not admitted to the com- 
plete rights of Statehood (see state, 13). Its gov- 
ernment is conducted by a governor, judges, and other 
officers appointed from Washington, aided by a Territorial 
legislature. Each Territory sends one delegate to Congress, 
who has a voice on Territorial matters, but cannot vote. 
Territories are formed by act of Congress. When a Ter- 
ritory has sufficient population to entitle it to one repre- 
sentative in the National House of Representatives, it is 
usually admitted by act of Congress to the Union as a 
State. Nearly all the States (except the original thirteen) 
have passed through the Territorial condition. There are 
now (1891) four organized Territories Utah, New Mexi- 
co, Arizona, and Oklahoma ; and there are also two un- 
organized Territories the Indian Territory and Alaska. 
Several countries of Spanish America have a system of 
Territories analogous to that of the United States. 

The territory is an infant state, dependent only till it is 
able to walk by itself. 

E. A. Freeman, Amer. Lects., p. 351. 

The nation has never regretted delay in erecting a ter- 
ritory into a state. The Nation, Jan. 28, 1886. 
Cell territory, in anat. and phyeiol.. the range of extra- 
cellular substance supposed to be influenced by each in- 
dividual cell of any tissue. Virchow. Territory of & 
Judge, in Scots law, the district over which a judge's ju- 
risdiction extends in causes and in judicial acts proper to 
him, and beyond which lie has no judicial authority. = Syn. 
1 and 2. Quarter, province. 

terror (ter'qr), n. [Formerly also terrour; < F. 
terreur = Pr. Sp. Pg. terror = It. terrore, < L. 
terror, great fear, dread, terror, < terrere, put in 
fear, frighten, make afraid.] 1. Extreme fear 
or fright ; violent dread. 

The sword without and terror within. Deut. xxxii. 25. 

Be sure, and terrour seiz'd the rebel host. 

Milton, P. L., vi. 647. 
Panting with terror, from the bed he leapt. 

William Morris, Earthly Paradise, I. 383. 

2. A person or thing that terrifies or strikes 
with terror; a cause of dread or extreme fear: 
often used in humorous exaggeration. 



terrosityt, [< "ferrous (< F. tcrrcux = Pr. 
tf'i-ros, < L. terrosvs, full of earth, earthy, < 
terra, earth: see terra, and cf. terreous) + -it//.] 

Rhenish wine . . . hath fewer dregs and less terresity 
(read terrosity] or gross earthliness than the Glared wine 
hath. W. Turner (Arber's Eng. Garner, II. 114). 

King of terrors. SeeMnjri.-ReignofTerror,in/>c<;A ^_^ ... FOri Bin obscure 1 1 A tex- 

Ai'rf that period of the rtot Revolution during which the 'erry (lei i;, M. iv/ngui uie.j j.. f. 

country was under the sway of a faction who made the ex- *'' *"**" " f ' "" =' lk "" ^ 
ecution of persons of all ages, sexes, and conditions who 
ionsidered obnoxious to their measures one of the 

Rulers are not a terror to good works, hut to the evil. 

Rom. xiii. 3. 

There is no terror, Oassius, in your threats. 

Sfai*.,J.C.,iv.S. 66. 

That bright boy you noticed in my class, who was a ter. 
ror six months ago, will no doubt be in the City Council 
in a few years. Harper's May., LXXVIII. 933. 

cardinal principles of their government. This period may 
be said to have begun in March, 1793, when the revolution- 
ary tribunal was appointed, and to have ended in July, 1794, 
with the overthrow of Robespierre and his associates. Also 
called The Terror. = Syn. 1. Apprehension, Fright, etc. See 

terrort (ter'or), v. t. [< terror, n.] To fill with 
terror. [Rare.] 

They, terror'd with these words, demand his name. 

Heywood, Hierarchy of Angels, p. 515. 

terror-breathing (ter'or-bre*THing), a. In- 
spiring terror; terrifying. [Rare.] 

Through the stern throat of terror-breathing war. 

Drayton, Mortimer to Queen Isabel. 

terror-haunted (ter'or-han"ted), a. Haunted 
with terror; subject "to visitations of extreme 
fear. [Rare.] 

Till at length the lays they chanted 
Reached the chamber terror-haunted. 

Longfellow, Norman Baron. 

terrorisation, terrorise, etc. See terrorization, 

terrorism (ter'or-izm), n. [= F. terroristne = 
Sp. Pg. It. terrorismo; as terror + -ism.] Resort 
to terrorizing methods as a means of coercion, 
or the state of fear and submission produced 
by the prevalence of such methods. 

tile fabric of wool or silk, woven like velvet, but 
with the loops uncut. 

The furniture was in green terry, the carpet a harsh, 
brilliant tapestry. Howells, Annie Kilburn, xi. 

2. In rope-making, an open reel. E.H. Knialit. 
Terry poplin. 'See poplin. Terry velvet, uncut 

Tersanctus (t6r'sangk"tus), n. [< L. ter, thrice 
(see ter), + sanctus, holy (see saint): so called 
because it begins with the word Sanctus, said 
thrice.] Same as Sanctus. 

terse 1 (ters), . [= Sp. Pg. It. terso, < L. ter- 
sus, wiped off, clean, neat, pure, pp. of tergere, 
wipe, rub off, wipe dry, polish.] It. Wiped; 
rubbed; appearing as if wiped or rubbed; 

Many stones also, both precious and vulgar, although 
terse and smooth, have not this power attractive. 

Sir T. Browne, Vulg. Err., ii. 4. 

2f. Refined; accomplished; polished: said of 
Your polite and terse gallants. Massinger. 

3. Free from superfluity ; neatly or elegantly 
compact or concise ; neat; concise. 

In eight terse lines has Phtedrus told 
(So frugal were the bards of old) 
A tale of goats : and clos'd with grace 
Plan, moral, all, in that short space. 

If. Whitehead, The Goat's Beard. 

Let the injury inflicted under this terrowm be appre- t ,',..,,. ^ , -,. T 
ciated, and full compensation awarded on the district by tersely (ters U), aav. If. 11 
the Judge of Assize or of County Court, and the barbarism ' 

will die~out. Fortnightly Reo., N. 8., XL. 212. 

terrorist (ter'or-ist), n. [= F. terroriste = Sp. 
Pg. terrorista; as terror + -ist.] One who fa- 
vors or uses terrorizing methods for the accom- 


Fastidious Brisk, a neat, spruce, affecting courtier, . . . 
speaks good remnants ; . . . swears tersely and with va- 
riety. B. Jonson, Every Man out of his Humour. 

2. In a terse manner; neatly; compactly; con- 

plishment of some object, as for coercing a cisely. 

government or a community into the adoption terseness (ters'nes), n. 1. Ihe state or prop- 
_c 1 : : j. . 1~;_ . ~ v erty of being terse; neatness of style; com- 
pactness; conciseness; brevity. 

of or submission to a certain course ; one who 
practises terrorism. Specifically (a) An agent or 
partizan of the revolutionary tribunal during the Reign 
of Terror in France. 

Thousands of those hell-hounds called terrorists, whom 
they had shut up in prison on their last revolution as the 
satellites of tyranny, are let loose on the people. 

Burke, A Regicide Peace, iv. 

(&) In Russia, a member of a political party whose purpose 
is to demoralize the government by terror. See nihilism, 

Under George the First, the monotonous smoothness of 
Byron's versification and the terseness of his expression 
would have made Pope himself envious. 

Maeaulay, Moore's Byron. 
2. Shortness. [Rare.] 

The cylindrical figure of the mole, as well as the com- 
pactness of its form, arising from the terseness of its 
limbs, proportionally lessens its labour. 

Paley, Nat. Theol., xv. 

Whether such wrongs and cruelties are adequate to ex- torsion (ter'shqn), . [< L. tergere, pp. tersus, 
case the violent measures of retaliation adopted by the wipe.1 The act of wiping or rubbing ; friction ; 
terrorists is a question to which different answers may be - * J 
given by different people. 

G. Kennan, The Century, XXXV. 755. 

terroristic (ter-o-ris'tik), a. [< terrorist + -ic.] 
Of or pertaining to terrorists. 


He [Boyle] found also that heat and tersion (or the clean- 
ing or wiping of any body) increased its susceptibility of 
[electric] excitation. Encyc. nt., VIII. 3. 

ter-tenant, . See terre-tenant. 

The Century XXXV.'sa terttol (ter'shal), a. and . [< L. *tertialis, < ter- 
tiits. third: sesterce.] I. a. Of the third rank or 
terrorization (ter"Qr- 1 -za'shpn), . [< terrorize row ' among the flight-feathers of a bird's wing; 
+ -atwn,] The act of terrorizing or the state tertiarv a g s a qu iitfeather. 
of being terrorized. Also spelled terrorisation. n A te iary flight-feather; one of 
ierrorize (ter'or-iz), v. t ; pret. and pp. terror- ^ j fyrtbrn, of a bird's wing of 
izea. T)t)r. terrortzma. 1 = F. terronxcr = Pff. K . i ' _v."?-i. . . j.u. _ii 


ized, ppr. terrorizing. [= F. terroriser = Pg. 
terrorizar; as terror + -ize.] To fill with ter- 
ror; control or coerce by terror; terrify; appal. 
Also spelled terrorise. 

Secret organizations, which control and terrorize a dis- 
trict until overthrown by force. 

The Century, XXXVI. 840. 

The people are terrorised by acts of cruelty and violence 
which they dare not resist Edinburgh Jiev.,CLXllI. 567. 

terrorizer (ter'or-i-zer), n. One who terrorizes. 
Also spelled terroriser. 
Gortchakoff, Ignatieff, and other Panslavonic terrorisers 


bird's wing of the 

third set, which grow on the elbow or upper 
arm ; one of the tertiaries. The word was intended 
to signify only the third set of flight-feathers, in the same 
relation to the humerus that the secondaries bear to the 
ulna, and the primaries to the manus ; but in practice two 
or three of the innermost secondaries are called tertials 
when in any way distinguished from the rest. Also tertiary, 
tertiary feather. See cuts under Mrrfi and coeert, n., 6. 

The two or three longer innermost true secondaries, 
growing upon the very elbow, are often incorrectly called 
tertials, especially when distinguished by size, shape, or 
color from the rest of the secondaries. 

Cones, Key to N. A. Birds, p. 113. 

of the Germans. 

terrorless (ter'or-les), o. [< terror + -Jess.] 
1. Free from terror. 

How calm and sweet the victories of life, 
How terrorless the triumph of the grave ! 

Lowe, Bismarck, II. 152. tertian (ter'shan), a. and n. [I. a. < ME. ter- 

cian, < L. tertidnus, of the third (day), < tertius, 
third : see terce. II. n. < ME. tercian, terciane, 
< OF. tertiane = Sp. terciana = Pg. tergSa, < 
L. tertiana (sc. febris), a tertian fever, fern, of 

2. Harmless. [Rare.] 

Some human memories and tearful lore 
Render him terrorless; . . . dread him not ! 

Poe, Silence. 

terror-smitten (ter'or-smit"n), . Smitten or 
stricken with terror; terrified. 

terror-stricken, terror-struck (te^or-strik''!!, 
ter'or-struk),^). a. Stricken with terror ; terri- 
fied';' appalled. 

terror-Strike (ter'or-strik), . t. To smite or 
overcome with terror. [Rare.] 

He hath baffled his suborner, terror-struck him. 

Coleridge, Remorse, iv. 2. 

u. let Ittlltu ^HC. JVUI ts), a Lcitiaii J rw, iciii. vi 

Shelley, Queen Mab, vi. tertianus, of the third (day): see I.] I. a. Oc- 

curring every second day : as, a tertian fever. 

If it do, I dar wel leye a grote 
That ye shul have a fevere terciane. 

Chaucer, Nun's Priest's Tale, 1. 139. 
Double tertian fever. See feveri. Tertian ague, in- 
termittent fever with a paroxysm every other day. Ter- 
tian fever. See feveri . 

II. N. 1. A fever or other disease whose 
paroxysms return after a period of two days, 
or on the third day, reckoning both days of 
consecutive occurrence ; an intermittent whose 
paroxysms occur after intervals of about forty- 
eight hours. 


By how much u hectic fever is harder to ho cured than 
a tertian, . . . by BO much U It harder to prevail upon a 
triumphing lust than upon its tlrsi insinuations. 

fer. Tmiliir. orks (ed. 1HS5X I. 110. 

2. In iirj/ini-liiiililiiiii, a stop consisting of a 
tierce and a larigot combined. 3f. A measure 
of 84 gallon-., ih.' third part of a tun. Xtutittr 
af Ili'iinj VI. 4. A curve of the third order. 

third : see tertian.'] I. a. 1 . Of the third order, 
rank, or formation; third. 2. [Usually cap.] 
In f/il.. <>!', pertaining to, or occurring in the 
Tertiary. See II. (a). 

In a word, in proportion as the age of a tertiary forma, 
tlon is more inudurn, so also is the resemblance greater 
of Its fossil shells to the testaceous fauna of the actual 
seas. Lyell, Elements of Geology (1st ed., 1838), p. 283. 

3. In in-ill Hi., game as tertial: distinguished 
from Kecondnry and from primary. See cuts 
under bird 1 and covert, ., 6. 4. [cap. or I. c.~\ 
Belonging or pertaining to the Tertiaries. See 
II. (b). 

Ouido burled him [Dante] with due care in a stone urn 
in the burying ground of the Franciscans, who loved him, 
and in whose tertiary habit he was shrouded in the su- 
preme hour. V and Q., 7th ser., XI. 389. 

Tertiary alcohol. See alcohol, s. Tertiary color, a 
color produced by the mixture of two secondary colors, 
as citrine, ruset, or olive. See II. (cX Tertiary fea- 
ther. Same as tertial. Tertiary syphilis. See syphilis. 
II. n. One who or that which is tertiary, 
or third in order or succession. Specifically 
(a) [cop.] In geol., that part of the series of geological 
formations which lies above the Mesozolc or Secondary 
and below the Quaternary ; the " Caenozoic " of some au- 
thors, while others include in this division both Tertiary 
and Quaternary. The term Tertiary belongs to an early 
period In the history of geology, the entire series having 
been divided Into Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary. The 
term transition was afterward introduced (see transition), 
and Quaternary still later; hut the Quaternary has been 
considered by some as being rather a subdivision of the 
Tertiary, since It seems to have been of relatively short 
duration, and not anywhere preceded by any break to 
be compared In importance with that wnich in various 
regions characterizes the passage from Mesozolc to Ter- 
tiary. The Tertiary was divided by Lyell into three groups 
or systems, the basis of this classification being the per- 
centage of living species of MoUusca in each group ; these 
divisions were designated by him as the Eocene. Mio- 
cene, and Pliocene, to which a fourth was added later 
by Beyrich, namely the Oligocene, intercalated between 
the Eocene and Miocene. This scheme of subdivision is 
still accepted as convenient and philosophical, although 
strict regard is not paid to the precise percentages of liv- 
ing species indicated by Lyell. The subdivisions of these 
larger divisions which have been found necessary in dif- 
ferent regions vary considerably in number and charac- 
ter. The break between the Cretaceous and the Tertiary 
in northwestern Europe is, on the whole, very marked in 
character ; in various other parts of the world it is much 
less apparent The more Important and striking features 
of the Tertiary may be very concisely summed up aa fol- 
lows : evidence of the greatly increasing importance of the 
surface of the land as compared with that of the water, as 
shown by the local and detrital character, and the small 
and rapidly varying thickness, of the deposits, together 
with the rapidly increasing development of a land-fauna 
and -flora ; the uplifting of the great mountain-chains of 
the i'h ii.r. an operation performed on a gigantic scale, 
gome parts of the early Tertiary having been raised to 
an elevation of nearly 20,000 feet above the sea-level ; the 
almost entire disappearance of many of those forms of 
animal life which were prominent during the Mesozoic 
epoch, as of the cephalopoda, the gigantic reptiles, and 
especially the development of the Mammalia in ever-in- 
creasing numbers and diversity of type; the very much 
diminished importance both as respects numbers and 
size of many of those forms of vegetable life which were 
most prominent in pre-Tertlary times, such as the ferns, 
the lyeopods, and the cycads, and the development of mod- 
ern forest vegetation, in which the dicotyledonous angio- 
sperms play a very important part ; the zonal distribution 
of life and climate ; the evidence, furnished in abundance 
in various parts of the world, of a marked diminution in 
temperature going on through Tertiary times, the proof 
of which, if begun before the Tertiary, could only be ob- 
tained with great difficulty, if at all, owing to the small 
relative Importance of the land-areas ; and, finally, the 
appearance of man upon the earth, an event which took 
place, so far as is known from present available evidence, 
some time before the close of the Pliocene. See also Post* 
tertiary. Quaternary, and recent, 4. (b) [cop. ] A member of 
the third order(terri w ordo de p<enitentia) of monastic bod- 
ies. An order of this kind was first organized by St. Fran- 
cis of Assisi. It was instituted as a sort of middle term 
between the world and the cloister, and members were re- 
quired to dress more soberly, fast more strictly, pray more 
regularly, hear mass more frequently, and practise works 
of mercy more systematically than ordinary persons living 
in the world. The Dominicans also have their third order, 
and the example was followed by various other monastic 

The Order of St. Francis had, and of necessity, its Terti- 
aries, like that of St. Dominic. 

Milman, Latin Christianity, ix. 10. 

(c) A color, as russet, citrine, or olive, produced by the mix- 
ture of two secondary colors. Tertiaries are grays, and 
are either red-gray, blue-gray, or yellow-gray when these 
primaries are in excess, or violet-gray, orange-gray, or 
green-gray when these secondaries :iru in OM-I-SS. Fair- 
holt, (d) Same as tertial. 


tertiate (U-r'shi-at), c. /. ; pret. and pp. terti- 
ated, ppr. tcrtiathii/. [< L. trrtiiitus, pp. of ter- 
tian:, do every third day, do for the third time, 
< tertius, third: see terce.'] 1. To do for the 
third time. Johnson. 2. In gun., to examine, 
as a piece of artillery, or the thickness of its 
metal, to test its strength. This is usually 
done with a pair of caliper compasses. 

To tertiate a piece of ordnance Is to examine the thick- 
ness of the metal, In order to Judge of Its strength, the 
position of the trunnions, etc. WinCim. Mil. Diet. 

tertium quid (ter'shi-um kwid). [L. : tertium, 
neut. of tertiiis, third; quid, something, some- 
what, neut. of indef. pronoun <juis, somebody: 
see what, //.) 1. Something neither mind 
nor matter; especially, an idea regarded as not 
a mere modification of the mind nor a purely 
external thing in itself. Hence 2. Some- 
thing mediating between essentially opposite 

tertium sal (ter'shi-um sal). [L. : tertium, 
neut. of ter tius, third .; sal, salt.] Inoldchem., 
a neutral salt, as being the product of an acid 
and an alkali, making a third substance differ- 
ent from either. 

Tertullianism (tfer-tul'yan-izm), . The doc- 
trine and discipline of the Tertullianists, in- 
volving special rigor as to absolution of peni- 
tents, opposition to second marriages, etc. 

About a year after this, he [Mr. Cotton] practically ap- 
peared in opposition to Tertullianitm, by proceeding unto 
a second marriage. Cotton Mather, Mag. Chris., III. 1. 

Tertullianist (ter-tul'yan-ist), n. [< Tertullian 
(LL. Tertullianus) + -1st.'] A member of a 
branch of the African Montanists, of the third 
and fourth centuries, holding to the doctrines 
of Montanism as modified by Tertullian. The 
divergence of the Tertullianists from orthodoxy seems to 
have been much less marked than that of the original 
Asiatic Montanists. They called themselves " Pneumat- 
ics," or spiritual men, ami the Catholics "Psychics," nat- 
ural or sensual men. 

teruncius (te-run'shi-us), .; pi. teruncii (-i). 
[L., three twelfths of an as (see a**), hence 
a trifle, < ter, three times, thrice, + uncia, the 
twelfth part of anything : see ounce*.] An an- 
cient Roman coin, being the fourth part of the 
as, and weighing 3 ounces. 

teru-tero (ter'8-ter'o), n. [S. Amer.; imitative 
of the bird's note.] The Cayenne lapwing, 

Tessa ria 

The lawe and peace he kept'-, urn! c'.nserued, 
Which him vplicld, that he was neuer over tented. 
J. llardyng, Chum, of Eng. (<<!. Kills, 1812), p. 75. 

2. To turn down or back; roll or fold over. 

tervee, ' . See terry. 

tervy (ter'vi), r. I. [Also lirrn, liirni-, turri/. 
Ct. tcrve.] To struggle ; kick or tumble about, 
as to get free. Jlnliiinll. [Prov. Eng.] 

teryt, . A Middle English spelling of Irtn-i/. 

terza-rima (ter'tsii-re'ma), n. [< It. U r:n rinui : 
terza, fern, of tcrzo, third'; rinia, rime : see t, na 
and rime 1 .] A form of verse in iambic rhythm 
used by the early Italian poets, in it the lines con- 
sist of ten or eleven syllables, and are arranged in sets of 
three that are closely connected. The middle line of th< 
first tlercet rimes with the first and third lines of the second 
tiercel, the middle line of the second tiercet rimes with 
the first and third lines of the third tlercet, and so on. 
At the end of the poem or canto there Is an extra line 
which has the same rime as the middle line of the preced- 
ing tiercet. In this form of verse Dante's "Divina Corn- 
media" is written. The most conspicuous example of its 
use in English literature is Byron's "Prophecy of Dante." 

terzetto (ter-tset'6), . [It., < terzo, third: see 
terce.] In music, a composition for three voices; 
a vocal trio. 

tesa (to'zii). n. See teesa. 

teschenite (tesh'en-it), n. [< Teschen, a town 
in Austrian Silesia, + -t<e 2 .] The name given 
by Hohenegger to certain eruptive rocks inter- 
calated and intrusive in the Cretaceous on the 
borders of Silesia and Moravia, and which have 
been the subject of discussion among geologists 
since 1821 . Tschermak described them in 1866, and con- 
sidered them as belonging to two quite different groups, 
one of which included rocks identical with or analogous to 
the plcrites, while for the other he adopted Hohenegger's 
name. The bitter group (the teschenites of Tschermak) 
have again been divided by Rosenbusch, who refers a part 
of them to the diabases, while the other portion Is consid- 
ered by him to have been originally essentially a mixture 
of plagioclase and nephelin, but now greatly altered, and 
accompanied by various accessory constituents. Rocks 
of somewhat similar character have been described from 
various other regions, as from the Caucasus and Portugal, 
and have been supposed to consist in part of nephelin. 
The question of the composition of the teschenites still re- 
mains obscure, since one of the latest investigators (Rohr- 
bach) maintains that none of the rocks described under 
that name contains nephelin. 

tesho-lama (tesh'6-la'ma), n. [Tibetan.] One 
of the two lama-popes of the Buddhists of Tibet 
and Mongolia, each of whom is supreme in his 
own district, the other being the dalai-lama, 
who, though nominally his equal, is really the 
more powerful. Also called bogdo-lama. See 

Tesia (te'si-a), n. [NL. (Hodgson, 1837), from 
a Nepaulese name.] A generic name under 
which Hodgson originally, and after him other 
writers, described several small wren-like birds 
of India, later determined to represent different 
genera and conventionally referred to the 7V- 
meliidte. Hodgson in 1841 proposed to replace the name 
Tesia by Anura, which, however, being preoccupied, was 
by him in 1845 changed to Pnoepyya; and at the same 
time he proposed a new generic name Oligura for some of 
the birds he had before called Tesia. The result is that (a) 
some authors discard Tesia, and separate its species into 
the two genera Pnoepyga and Oligura, while (0) most au- 
thors use Tesia for the species of Oliffura, and put there 
the other birds which had been called Teeia. The species 
of Tesia in sense (ft) are S in number T. caKaneicoronata, 

Teru-tero (Btlotwp tents cayexntttsis\. 

or spur-winged plover, Vanellus or Belonopterus 
cayennensis, a South American bird of the plov- 
er kind. It resembles the common pewit, but Is easily 
distinguished. The wings are spurred, and there is a mi- 
nute hallux. The back and wings are resplendent with 
metallic iridescence of violet-green and bronze ; the breast 
is black ; the lining of the wings is white ; the head Is 
crested. During incubation it attempts to lead enemies 
away from its nest by feigning to be wounded, like many 
other birds. The eggs are esteemed a delicacy. Its wild 
and weird notes often disturb the stillness of the pampas, 
tervet, t'. [ME. terven, tercien, < AS. 'ttfrfian, 
in comp. getyrfian (= OHQ. zerben), fall. Cf. 
tone, terry, topsyturvy. Also in comp. overterve, 
ME. overterven, used awkwardly in one passage 
with toppe preceding, as if "top-overtene (an ex- 
pression appar. connected with the later topsy- 
terty, now topsyturvy, q. v.). Cf. terry, tirfe.] 
I. intrans. To fall ; be thrown down. 

And I schal crye ri^tfnl kyng, 

Ilk man haue as the seme, 
Th' rist schul ryse to ryche reynynge, 

I'ruyt and treget to helle schal ten*. 

Holy Rood (ed. Morris), p. 207. 

II. trans. 1. To dash down ; cast ; throw ; in 
composition with over, to overthrow ; overturn. 

Ovyr (tyr)vyn (m\rr tyrryn, K. ouerturnen, S. H. ouyr- 
titruyn,t.). Subverto, everto. .Prompt .Pare. (1440), p. 873. 
So dred they liyni, they durst no thing ouer tenie 
Againe his lawe nor peace. 

J. Haniyng, Chron. of Eng. (ed. Ellis, 1812), p. 47. 

Testa (Olifura) fastatttiffroaafa. 

T. cyaneiventrit, and T. supernliaris ; they belong to the 
eastern Himalayan region and southward. Compare the 
figure here given with that under Pnofpyija. 

tessarace (tes-a-ra'se), n. [< Gr. rlaaapif, four, 
+ ant/, a point."] A tetrahedral summit. 

tessaradecad (tes'a-ra-dek'ad), n. [< Gr. rta- 
aapec, four (see four), + dmaf (fcicat-), the num- 
ber ten: see deMf.] A group of fourteen in- 
dividuals; an aggregate of fourteen. Farrar. 

tessarescaedecahedron (tes-a-res-e-dek-a-he'- 
dron), n. [LGr. TfoaaptaKaiieK&eSiwv, < Gr. rta- 
oapcoitaiSeKa, fourteen (see fourteen), -r- iSpo, 
base or face of a polyhedron.] A solid having 
fourteen faces. The ciiboctahedron, the truncated 
octahedron, and the truncated cube are examples of such 
bodies. See Archimedean foKd, under Archimedean. 

Tessaria (te-sa'ri-8), . [NL. (Ruiz and Pa- 
von, 1794), named after L. Tessari, professor 


of botany at Ancona.] A genus of composite 
plants, of the tribe In-uloideee and subtribe Plu- 
clieiiiese. It is distinguished from the related genus 
Pluchea by hoary or silky and shrubby stems bearing 
small cymose or corymbose heads with an ovoid involucre 
of two kinds of bracts, the outer somewhat woolly, the 
inner scarious and often shining. The 5 species are all 
American, and chiefly of temperate or mountainous parts 
of the west coast from Chili to California. They resemble 
species of Qnaphalimn or life-everlasting in their frequent 
white-woolly clothing ; their leaves are alternate entire 
and toothed ; their flowers are purplish and small, and 
are sometimes very numerous. See arrow-wood. 
tesseledt, See tesselled. 

For the wals glistered with red marble and pargeting of 
divers colours, yea all the house was paved with checker 
and tesseled worke. Enottes's Hist. Turks (1003). (Nares.) 

tessella (te-sel'a), n. ; pi. tesxellee (-e). [< L. 
tessella, a small square stone, dim. of tessera, a 
square, tessera : see tessera.] Same as tessera. 

tessellar (tes'e-lar), a. [< LL. tessettarius, one 
who makes tessellae, < L. tessella, a little cube 
or square : see tessella.] Made up of tesserse. 
See tessellated. 

Tessellata (tes-e-la'ta), n. pi. [NL., neut. pi. 
of L. tessellatus, checkered: see tessellate.] 1. 
A group of tessellate Paleozoic sea-urchins, sy- 
nonymous with Palsechinoidea. 2. Tessellated 
crinoids; an order of Crinoidea, having the ca- 
lyx formed entirely of calcareous plates, and 
the oral surface without ambulaeral furrows, as 
in the genera Actinocrinus and CyatTiocriiius. 

tessellate (tes'e-lat), v. t. ; pret. and pp. tessel- 
lated, ppr. tessellating. [< L. tessellatus, made 
of small square stones, checkered, < tessella, a 
small square stone : see tessella.] To form by 
inlaying differently colored materials, as a 
pavement; hence, to variegate. 

It was the affectation of some to tesselate their conver- 
sation with antiquated and obsolete words. 

Lecky, Europ. Morals, I. 335. 

tessellate (tes'e-lat), a. In zool., same as tessel- 
lated, 3. 

tessellated (tes'e-la-ted), a. [< L. tessellatus, 
made of small square stones, checkered (see 
tessellate), + -ed 2 .] 1. Formed of small pieces 
of stone, glass, or the like, generally square or 
four-sided in plan, and long in proportion to 
their breadth. See tessera, 1. 2. In bot., check- 
ered; having the colors arranged in small 
squares, thus resembling a tessellated pave- 
ment. 3. In zool., checkered or reticulated 
in a regular manner, by either the coloration 
or the formation of the parts of a surface, (a) 
Having colored patches resembling mosaic work or a 
checker-board. (6) Divided by raised lines into square 
or angular spaces, (c) Having distinct square scales. 
Tessellated cells, flattened epithelial cells united at 
their edges intopavementepithelium. Tessellated epi- 
thelium. Same as pavement epithelium. See epithelium. 
Tessellated work, inlaid work composed of square 
or four-sided pieces, or tesserae. Mosaic in the ordinary 
senses is comprised in this. 

tessellation (tes-e-la'shon), n. [< tessellat(ed) 
+ -ion.] 1. The act or art of making inlaid 
work with tesserse. 2. The work so produced. 
Additions to the old glass tessellation in the pulpit. 

Planche, in Jour. Brit. Archseol. Ass., XV. 138. 

tessera (tes'e-ra), n. ; pi. tesserss (-re). [= F. 
tessere = Sp." teisera = Pg. It. tessera, < L. tes- 
sera, a small cube or square of stone, wood, 
etc., a cube, die, tablet, tessera, ticket, token, 
< Gr. rfaaapec;, Ionic 
reaaeptf, four: see 
four.] 1. A small 
piece of hard ma- 
terial, generally 
square in plan, 
used in combina- 
tion with others 
of similar charac- 
ter for making mo- 
saics. Tesserae are 
small in surface, 
and are thick in 
proportion, and 
therein differ from 
tiles, which are 
large and flat. 2. 
A die for playing 

fames of chance. 
. A small square 
of bone, wood, or 
the like used in 
ancient Borne as a 
ticket of admission 
to the theater, etc. 
4. Same as tessera Jiospitalis (which see, be- 
low). [Rare.] 

The fathers composed a form of confession, not as a 
prescript rule of faith to build the hopes of our salvation 

Tesserae, shown separately and com- 
bined in mosaic. (From a Roman 
pavement discovered in London.) 


on, but as a tesxera of that communion, which, by public 
authority, was therefore established upon those articles. 
Jer. Taylor, Works (ed. 1835), II. 321. 
Tessera frumentarl, in Ram. antiq., a ticket entitling 
the holder to a dole of bread, corn, or other provisions. 
Tessera hospitalis, in Rom. antiq., a pledge of mutual 
friendship, wnich was broken in twain, as is a coin by 
modern lovers, and one half retained by each person. It 
served as a means of recognition and a pledge of admis- 
sion to hospitality between the families and descendants 
of the friends. 

As in Greece, the connexion [between host and guest in 
Rome] often became hereditary ; and a tessera hvxpilalix 
was broken between the parties. Encyc. Brit., XII. 308. 

Tessera mllitaris, in Ram. antiq., a small billet of wood 
on which the watchword was inscribed for distribution to 
the soldiery, and on which was sometimes written an or- 
der or an address of the commanding officer. Tessera 
nummaria, a ticket entitling the holder to a dole of 
money. One engraved in Caylus's Recueil is marked Ar. 
xii. (that is, 12 silver coins or denarii). Tessera thea- 
tralis, in Rom. antiq., the ticket or check by which ad- 
mission to the theater was granted : one found at Pompeii 
fixes the seat which the holder was to occupy by the num- 
ber of the cuneus, the row, and the seat. 

tesseraic (tes-e-ra'ik), a. [< tessera + -ic.~\ 
Same as tesselt'ar. [Bare.] 

tesseral(tes'e-ral),a. [(.tessera + -al.] 1. Same 
as tessellar. "[R"are.] 2. In crystal., same as 

tesserariant (tes-e-ra'ri-an), a. [< L. tessera- 
rius, of or pertaining to a tessera (< tessera, a 
tessera), + -an.'] Of or pertaining to play or 
gaming: as, the tesserarian art. 

tessitura (tes-si-to'rii), n. [It., texture, = E. 
texture.] In music, of a melody or a voice-part, 
that part of its total compass in which the great- 
er number of its tones lie. To voices of moderate 
cultivation it is more important that the tessitura, or aver- 
age field of the tones, should be convenient than that all 
extreme tones should be avoided. 

tessular (tes'u-lar), . [Irreg. for "tesserular, 

< L. tcsserula, dim. of tessera, a tessera.] lu 
crystal., same as isometric. 

test 1 (test), n. [< ME. test, teest, teste = G. test, 

< OF. test, F. let = Sp. tiesto = Pg. It. testo, 
an earthen vessel, esp. a pot in which metals 
were tried, < L. testum, also testu, the lid of an 
earthen vessel, an earthen vessel, an earthen 
pot, in ML. esp. an earthen pot in which metals 
were tried; cf. testa, a piece of burned clay, a 
potsherd , an earthen pot, pitcher, jug ( see test'^) ; 
C *tersttts, pp. of the root seen also in terra for 
"tersa, dryland: see terra, thirst. Cf. test 2 .] If. 
An earthen pot in which metals were tried. 

Our cementing and fermentacioun, 
Our ingottes, testes, and many mo. 
Chaucer, Prol. to Canon's Yeoman's Tale, 1. 266. 
Put It [gold] in a teste made accordynge to the quantitie 
of the same, and melt it therin with leade whiche yowe 
shall consume partely by vapoure and partely with draw- 
ynge it owt by the syde of the teste. 
R. Eden, tr. of Vannuccio Biringuccio (First Books on 
[America, ed. Arber, p. 366). 

Specifically 2. The movable hearth or cupel 
of a reverberatory furnace, used in separating 
silver from lead by cupellation (see cupel), ac- 
cording to the method usually followed in Eng- 
land. It consists of an oval wrought-iron frame, about 
5 feet long and 2i wide, crossed by several iron bars on 
the bottom, thus forming a receptacle for the finely pow- 
dered bone-ash with which the frame is filled, and in which 
a cavity is scooped out to hold the melted metal while it is 
being cupeled. The test rests on a car, on which it is 
wheeled into its place under the reverberatory furnace 
when ready for use. The hearth of the German cupellation 
furnace, on the other hand, is fixed in its place, but is cov- 
ered by an iron dome, which can be lifted off by the aid 
of a crane. 

3. Examination by the test or cupel ; hence, any 
critical trial or examination : as, a crucial test. 

Let there be some more test made of my metal, 
Before so noble and so great a figure 
Be stamp'd upon it. Shak., M. for M., i. 1. 49. 

Thy virtue, prince, has stood the test of fortune. 
Like purest gold. Addison, Cato, iv. 4. 

Many Things when most conceal'd are best ; 
And few of strict Enquiry bear the Test. 

Congreve, tr. of Ovid's Art of Love. 

4. Means of trial; that by which the presence, 
quality, or genuineness of something is shown ; 

Unerring Nature . . . 

Life, force, and beauty must to all impart, 

At once the source, and end, and test of Art. 

Pope, Essay on Criticism, 1. 73. 

With the great mass of mankind, the test of integrity in 
a public man is consistency. Macaulay, Sir W. Temple. 

5. [cap.] The Test Act of 1673. See phrase be- 

Our penal laws no sons of yours admit, 
Our Test excludes your tribe from benefit. 

Dryden, Hind and Panther, lii. 830. 

6. In chem., a substance which is employed to 
detect the presence of any ingredient in a com- 
pound, by causing it to exhibit some known 


property; a substance which, being added to 
another, indicates the chemical nature of that 
other substance by producing certain changes 
in appearance and properties; a reagent: thus, 
infusion of galls is a test of the presence of iron, 
which it renders evident by the production of 
a black color in liquids containing that metal ; 
litmus is a test for determining the presence of 
acids when uneombined or in excess, as its blue 
color is turned red by acids. 7. Judgment; 
discrimination; distinction. 

Who would excel, when few can make a test 
Betwixt indifferent writing and the best ? Dryden. 

S. An apparatus for proving light hydrocarbon 
oils by heat, to find the temperature at which 
they evolve explosive vapors ; an oil test. E. 
H. Knight Bbttger's sugar test, a test for sugar in 
urine, consisting in boiling with a solution of sodium car- 
bonate and basic bismuth nitrate. If sugar is present, a 
black precipitate is produced. Breslau's test, the pla- 
cing of the stomach and intestines of a dead new-born in- 
fant in water immediately after removal. It was formerly 
supposed their floating was a proof that the child had been 
born alive. Bryce'S t68t, a test of the genuineness of a 
vaccination by revaccinating at another point. If the first 
vaccination is genuine the second vaccination will, if made 
a short time after the first, follow an accelerated course, 
though dwarfed in size ; or if it is made later, say after the 
fifth day, the second inoculation will notdevelop. Catop- 
tric test, a former method of diagnosing cataracts by 
means of the changes observed in the reflected images of a 
light held in front of an eye affected by cataract, as differ- 
ing from those of a normal eye. Day's blood test, a test 
for blood in which the suspected stain is treated first with 
fresh tincture of guaiacum and then with hydrogen per- 
oxid in watery or ethereal solution. If blood be present 
a sapphire-blue stain is produced. Ehrlich's test. Same 
&a Ehrlich's reaction (which see, under reaction). Physi- 
ological test. See physiological. Reinsch's test, a test 
for the presence of arsenic, which consists in heating the 
suspected solution slightly acidified with hydrochloric 
acid, with a strip of bright metallic copper immersed in it. 
The arsenic is deposited as a gray film. Rosenthal's 
test, a test by means of electricity for cavies of the spine. 
SchirFs test, a means of detecting uric acid or a urate 
by silver nitrate. Test Act, an English statute of 1673. 
It made all ineligible to hold office under the crown who 
did not take the oaths of supremacy and allegiance, or re- 
ceive the sacrament according to the usage of the Church 
of England, or subscribe the Declaration against Transub- 
stantiation. It was directed against Roman Catholics, but 
was applicable also to Dissenters. It was repealed in 1828. 
Test types, letters of various sizes used by oculists in 
testing vision. The test of conceivability, of Incon- 
ceivability. Seeconceivability, inconceivability. To take 
tie test, to submit to the Test Act ; take the sacrament 
in testimony of being a member of the Church of England. 
= Syn. 3 and 4. Proof, ordeal, criterion.- See inference. 
test 1 (test), v.t. [< test 1 , n.] 1. In metal., to 
refine, as gold or silver, by means of lead, in a 
test, by the removal by scorification of all ex- 
traneous matter, or in some other way. 

Not with fond shekels of the tested gold. 

Shak., M. for M., ii. 2. 149. 

2. To put to the test ; bring to trial and exam- 
ination ; compare with a standard ; try : as, to 
test the soundness of a principle; to test the 
validity of an argument ; to test a person's loy- 
alty; to test the electrical resistance of a wire. 

The value of a belief is tested by applying it. 

Leslie Stephen, Eng. Thought, I. 20. 

3. Specifically, in chem., to examine by the use 
of some reagent. 

test 2 (test), n. [Early mod. E. teste; < OF. teste, 
F. tete = Sp. Pg. It. testa, a shell, the head, < 
L. testa, a piece of earthenware, a tile, etc., a 
potsherd, an earthen pot, pitcher, jug, etc., a 
shell of shell-fish and testaceous animals: see 
tesft. The later E. uses are technical, and di- 
rectly from the L.] If. A potsherd. 

Then was the teste or potsherd, the brasse, golde, & 
syluer redacte into duste. Joye, Expos, of Daniel, ii. 

2. In gool., the hard covering of certain ani- 
mals; a shell; a lorica. Tests are of various tex- 
tures and substances, generally either chitinous, calcare- 
ous, or silicious, sometimes membranous or fibrous. See 
shell, 2, and skeleton, 1. Specifically (a) The outermost 
case or covering of the ascidians, or Tunicata. It is ho- 
mologous with the house of the appendicularian tunicates, 
and is remarkable among animal structures in that it is im- 
pregnated with a kind of cellulose called tunicin. See cuts 
under Salpa and cyathozoaid. (6) The shell of a testaceous 
mollusk ; an ordinary shell, as of the oyster, clam, or snail, 
(c) The hard crust or integument of any arthropod, as a 
crustacean or an insect. (d) The hard calcareous shell of 
an echinoderm, as a sea-urchin, (e) The shell of any fora- 
minifer. (/) The lorica or case of an infusorian. 

3. In bot., same as testa, 2. 

test 3 t (test), n. [< L. testis, a witness. Hence 
ult. test 3 , v., attest, contest, detest, obtest, protest, 
testimony, etc.] 1. A witness. 

Prelates and great lordes of England, who were . . . 
testes of that dede. 

Berners, tr. of Froissart's Chron., II. cci. 

2. Testimony; evidence. 

To vouch this is no proof, 
Without more wider and more overt test. 

Shak., Othello, L 8. 107. 


t08t ;i (test ). c. [< F. tfstrr = Sp. Pg. te.v/r = 
It. testari; < L. testari, bear witness, testify, < 
ti-xtix. one who attests, a witness: see ti-st'-i. n. \ 
I. trims. In Inn-, to attest and date: as, u writ- 
ing duly ti'sli-d. 

II. iiitrniix. To make a will or testament. 
("Old Kiitf. and Scotch. J 

A wifu has power to test without the consent of her hus- 
band. Bell. 

testa (tes'tii), n.; pi. fi-xttr (-t&). [L.: see test 2 .] 
1. In *oc>7., a test. 2. In hot., the outer integu- 
ment or coat of a seed : it is usually hard and 
brittle, whence the name, which answers to seed- 
ulii'll. See wvW, I. Also test, x/n rinixlirin, and 
i IIJU/H n>i. !1. [I'"/'.] A name of the star Vega. 

testable (tes'ta-bl), a. [< OF. testable = It. 
testabile, < L. testabilis, that has a right to tes- 
tify, < testari, testify: see tests, v .] i. That 
may be tested. 2. In law: (a) Capable of be- 
ing devised or given by will or testament, (ft) 
Capable of witnessing or of being witnessed. 

Testacea (tcs-ta'se-ii), . pi. [NL., neut. pi. 
of L. testaceuy, consisting of tiles, covered with 
a shell: see testaceous.] A group of testaceous 
animals : variously used, (at) The third order of 
l'i r/i' in the Linnean system, Including the testaceous 
mollusks, or shell-fish. (6t) An order of acephalous mol- 
Insks in the Cuvierian system : distinguished from the 
Nuda or ascidlans, which Cuvier treated as mollusks ; the 
bivalves, otherwise called Conchijera. (c) A suborder of 
thecosomatous pteropods, Including all having calcareous 
shells, (d) In Protozoa, lobose amooblform protozoans 
which secrete a testa or shell, through perforations of 
which pseudopodla protrude, .\rrelln and Vij/lugia are 
well-known representative genera. 

testacean (tes-ta'se-an), . and n. [< testace-ons 
+ -.] I. 11. Having a test or shell ; belong- 
ing to any group of animals called Testacea. 
II. . A member of the Testacea,in any sense. 

Testacella (tes-ta-sel'ii), n. [NL. (Lamarck, 
1801), dim. of L. testaceus, consisting of tiles: 
see Testacea.] The typical genus of Testaeel- 
lidse, having the shell very small. 

Testacellidse (tes-ta-sel'i-de), n. pi. [NL., < 
Testacella + -idse.] A family of geophilous pul- 
mouate gastropods, typified 
by the genus Testacelln. They 
are without a jaw, with the radular 
teeth elongated, acuminate, and 
more or less pen-like but curved, 
and with the shell small and Inca- 
pable of inclosing the soft parts. It 
is a small family of chiefly Eurasl- 
atic carnivorous species, which feed 
U]xm worms and slugs. They are sometimes called bur- 
routing sluijs. 

testaceography (tes-ta-se-og'ra-fi), n. [< Tes- 
tacea + Gr. -ypapia, < yptujieiv, write.] The de- 
scription of or a treatise on testaceous animals, 
as mollusks; descriptive testaceology. 

testaceology (tes-ta-se-ol'6-ji), n. [< Testacea 
+ Gr. -Aoyia, < ),eyeiv, speak: see -ology.] The 
science of testaceous mollusks: conchology; 

testaceous (tes-ta'shius), a. [= F. testae^ = 
Sp. Pg. It. tentucco, < L. testaceus, consisting 
of tiles or sherds, having a shell, < testa, tile, 
shell: see tes< 2 .] 1. Of or pertaining to shells, 
or testacean animals, as stiell-fish; testacean. 
2. Consisting of a hard continuous shell or 
shelly substance ; shelly : thus, an oyster-shell 
is testaceous. 3. Having a hard shell, as oys- 
ters, clams, and snails: distinguished from crus- 
taceous, or soft-shelled, as a lobster or crab. 
4. Derived or prepared from shells of mollusks 
or crustaceans: as, a testaceous medicine; a 
pearl is of testaceous origin. 5. In hot. and 
zool., dull-red brick-color; brownish-yellow, or 
orange-yellow with much gray. 

testacy (tes'ta-si), n. [< testa(te) + -jf.] In 
/-. the state of being testate, or of leaving a 
valid testament or will at death. 

testacyet, [< L. testaceus: see testaceous.] 

Nowe yote on that scyment clept testacye 
Sex fynger thicke, and yerdes is noo synne 
To all to flappe it with. 

Palladius, Husbondrie (E. E. T. S.), p. 156. 

testae, . Plural of testa. 

testament (tes'ta-ment), w. [< ME. testamrnt. 
< OF. (and F.) (MtoMMl = Pr. testament = Sp. 
Pg. It. ti'stnmrnto = G. Dan. Sw. testament, < L. 
testamentuiH, the publication of a will, a will, 
testament, in LL. one of the divisions of the 
Bible (an incorrect translation, first in Tertnl- 
liiin, of tir. tadfnf, a covenant (applied in this 
sense to the two divisions of the Bible), also, in 
another use, a will, testament), < tivtari, be a 
witness, testify, attest, make a will: see li:<1'->. 
('.] 1. In luir. a will ; a disposition of property 
or rights, to take effect at death. Originally will, 


InEngllshlaw, signified such adlsposltion of re '. 

testament such a disposition uf personal jiru|MTly. W'ill 
now Includes both, and testament is rarely used in modem 
law, except In the now tautological phrase la* will and 

Ttltacella ntattrti. 

f, mantle ; t, snell. 

"Fare well," quuth the frerc, "for y mot hethen fondcn 

[(CD limn |, 

And nyen to an houswlfe that hath vs hequethen 
Ten pound** in hfr tntttimfitt." 

Pien Plmtman't Crede (E. E. T. 8.), L 410. 

The succession of the crown, it was contended, had been 

limited, by repeated testament* of their princes, to male 

heirs. Preseott, Ferd. and Isa., IL 4. 

2. A disposition of the rights of two parties, 
defining their mutual relation, and the rights 
conceded by one to the other ; a covenant, es- 
pecially between God and his people. Hence 

3. (a) A dispensation : used especially of the 
Mosaic or old dispensation and of the Christian 
or new. (6) [cap.'] A collection of books con- 
taining the history and doctrines of each of 
these dispensations, and known severally as 
the Old Testament and the New Testament. The 
word testament In the authorized version of the Bible al- 
ways represents the Greek word <iagiji> (elsewhere ren- 
dered 'covenant 1 ), which In curly Christian Latin and reg- 
ularly in the Vulgate is rendered 'testaraentum,' perhaps 
from its use In Ileb. Ix. 15-20. In this passage the Idea of 
a covenant as involving In ancient times a sacrifice with 
shedding of blood is blended with that of a last will made 
operative by the death of the testator. In Mat. xxvi. 28 and 
parallel passages the phrase "blood of the new tegtament" 
IsconnectedwIththecupintheLord'sSupper. In2Cor. 111. 
14 the expression "reading of the old testament " shows the 
transition of meaning to our application of the title "// 
Tegtament to the Hebrew Scriptures. (Compare 1 Mac. 1. 
57.) When used alone the word commonly means a copy 
of the New Testament : as, a gift of Bibles and Testaments. 

She having Innocently learn'd the way 
Thro' both the serious Testament* to play. 

./. Ileaumnnt. Psyche, I. 70. 

In its pre-Christian stage the religion of revelation Is 
represented as a covenant between the spiritual God and 
His chosen people the Hebrews. In accordance with this, 
and in allusion to Jer. xxxi. 31, Jesus speaks of the new 
dispensation founded in His death as a new covenant (1 
Cor. xl. 25). Hence, as early as the 2d century of our era, 
the two great divisions of the Bible were known as the 
books of the Old and of the New Covenant respectively. 
Among Latin-speaking Christians the Greek worn for cove- 
nant was often incorrectly rendered testament, and thus 
Western Christendom still uses the names of the Old and 
New Testaments. Encyc. Brit., III. 834. 

Derogatory clause in a testament. See rfotw. In- 
officious testament. See inofficious. Mancipatory 
testament, a kind of testament allowed by the early Ro- 
man law, and continued in use till the middle ages In the 
form of a public and irrevocable conveyance of the testa- 
tor's estates, rights, privileges, and duties : also called the 
testament with copper and scales, from the formality of pro- 
ducing a scale for the uncoined copper money of ancient 
Rome. Maine. Military testament. See military. 
Pretortan testament, a will allowed by the Pretorlan 
edicts, by which legacies could be made, and the transfer 
could be directed to be kept secret till death. Maine. 

testamental (tes-ta-men'tal), a. [< LL. testa- 
mentalis, of or pertaining io a will, < L. testa- 
i>ientni,n will: see testament.} Relating to or of 
the nature of a testament or will: testamentary. 

The testa-mental cup I take, 
And thus remember thee. 
Montgomery, According to thy gracious word. 

testamentarily (tes-ta-men'ta-ri-li), adr. By 
testament or will. 
The children . . . were turned out testamentarily. 

R. D. Btactmare, Cripps the Carrier, L 

testamentary (tes-ta-men'ta-ri), a. [= F. tes- 
tamentaire = Sp. Pg. It. testamentario, < L. tes- 
tamentarius, of or belonging to a will, < testa- 
mentum, a will: see testament.'] 1. Relating or 
pertaining to a will or wills ; also, relating to ad- 
ministration of the estates of deceased persons. 

He is In the mater as souverain juge and ordinarie prln- 
cipalle under the Pope in a cause testamentarie, and also 
by cause the wllle of my said Lord is aproved in his court 
before his predecessour. Paston Letters, I. 373. 

This spiritual jurisdiction of testamentary causes is a 
peculiar constitution of this island ; for in almost all other 
(even In popish) countries all matters testamentary are 
under the jurisdiction of the civil magistrate. 

Blactotone, Com., III. vil. 

2. Given or bequeathed by will. 

How many testamentary charities have been defeated by 
the negligence or fraud of executors ! Bp. Attertntry. 

3. Set forth or contained in a will. 

To see whether the portrait of their ancestor still keeps 
its place upon the wall, in compliance with his testamen- 
tary directions. Hawthorne, Seven Gables, xviii. 

4. Done or appointed by, or founded on, a last 
will or testament: as, testamentary guardians 
(that is, guardians appointed by testament or 
will) Letters testamentary. See letter*. 

testamentate (tes-ta-men'tat), r. i. [< testa- 
n/i at + -<//<-.] To make a will or testament. 

testamentation (tos ta-nieii-ta'shou), . [< 
ti'ntiitiu-iit + -atiiin.] The act or power of giv- 
ing by will. [Rare.] 


By this law the right of testamentation is uken away, 
which the liifnior n-iiiires had always enjoyed. 

Burke, Tracts on the Popery Laws, II. 

testamentize* iti s'ta-men-tiz), r. i. [< I<.<IH- 
iiinit + -/-<. ] T<> make a will or testament. 
llr[l.eolinr, l>ih|iuf St. Asaph] asked leave of King !''!- 

ward the Kil>t to iimki'u Kill, . . . bMMM Wddl MUOPI 

in that age might not trstamrntiie without royal assent 
l-'nll,f, Worthies, Denbighshire, III 

testamur (tcH-tu'mer), n. [80 called from 
the opening word. I... li-.itimiur, we certify, 1st 
pers. pi. pres. ind. of tt-Kt-m. testify, certify: 
see test*, r.] A certificate given to an Kni;lish 
university student, certifying that he has -n<- 
..ssl'nlly passed certain examination. 

Outside in the quadrangle collect by twos and threes the 
friends of the victims waiting for the re-opening of the 
door, and the distribution of the testamurs. These testa 
murs, lady readers will be pleased to understand, are cer- 
tificates under the hands of the examiners, that your sons, 
brothers, husbands, perhaps, have successfully undergone 
the torture. T. llmjhet, Tom Brown at oxford, II. I. 

Before presenting himself for this Examination, every 
Candidate most show to the Professor of Music either his 
Testamur for Responslons or ... 

Oxford University Calendar, 1890, p. 72. 

testate (tes'tat), a. and . [< L. testatus, pp. 
of testari, bear witness, declare, make a last 
will: see test 3 , r.] I. n. Having made and 
left a valid will or testament. 
Persons dying testate and intestate. Ayli/e, Parcrgou 
II. n. 1. In late, one who has made a will or 
testament ; one who dies leaving a will or tes- 
tament in force. 2f. Witness; testimony. 

But thinkes to violate an oath no sin, 
Though calling testates all the Stygian gods? 
Asywood, Jupiter and lo( Works, ed. Pearson, 1874, VI. 278). 

testation (tes-ta'shon), . [= Sp. testacion = 
It. testazione, < L. testatio(n-), < testari, pp. ten- 
tatus, make a will: see testate.'] 1. A witness- 
ing; a bearing witness; witness. 

How clear a testation have the Inspired prophets of God 
given of old to this truth ! 

Bp. Hall, Satan's Fiery Darts Quenched. 

2. A giving by will. 

In those parts of India In which the collective holding 
of property nas not decayed as much as it has done in Lower 
Bengal, the liberty of testation claimed would clearly be 
foreign to the indigenous system of the country. 

Maine, Village Communities, p. 41. 

testator (tes-ta'tor), n. [=. F. testateur = Sp. 
Pg. testador = It. "testatore, < L. testator, one who 
makes a will, I.I,, also one who bears witness, 
< testari, bear witness, make a will: see testate, 
tesfl.] One who makes a will or testament ; 
one who has made a will or testament and dies 
leaving it in force. 

testatrix (tes-ta'triks), n. [= F. testatrice = 
It. testatrice, < LL. testatrix, fern, of L. testator, 
one who makes a will : see testator.] A woman 
who makes a will or testament; a woman who 
has made a will or testament and dies leaving 
it in force. 

testatum (tes-ta'tum), n. [L., neut. of testa- 
tus, pp. of testari, make a will : see testate.] One 
of the clauses of an English deed, including a 
statement of the consideration money and the 
receipt thereof, and the operative words of 
transfer. Also called the witnessing or opera- 
tive clause. 

test-box (test'boks). w. In teleg., a box contain- 
ing terminals to which telegraph-wires are con- 
nected for convenience of testing. 

teste (tes'te), n. [So called from the first word 
in the clause, "Teste A. B. ..." 'A. B. being 
witness': testt, abl. of testis, a witness: see 
test 3 .'] In law, the witnessing clause of a writ 
or other precept, which expresses the date of 
its issue. Wharton. See irrit. The word is also 
In general use, In connection with the name of a person 
or a treatise, to indicate that such person or treatise is 
the authority for a statement made. 

tester 1 (tes'ter), n. [< test* + -er*.] 1. One 
who tests, tries, assays, or proves. 2. Any in- 
strument or apparatus used in testing: as, a 
steam-gage tester; a vacuum-tester. 

tester 2 (tes'ter), . [Early mod. E. also tester, 
testor; < ME. tester, testcre', teester, a head-piece, 
helmet, tester for a bed, < OF. testiere, a Dead- 
piece, the crown of a hat, etc., F. tfticre = Pr. 
tesliera = Sp. testera = Pg. testeira = It. testitra, 
a head-piece, < L. testa, a shell, ML. the skull, 
head: see tes< 2 .] 1. A canopy. 

He to' Aiure Tetter trimm'd with golden marks, 
And richly spangled with bright glistring sparks. 

Sylvester, tr. of Du Bartas's Weeks, I. 4. 

Specifically (a) The frame which connects the tops of 
the posts in a four-post bedstead, and the material 
stretched upon it, the whole forming a sort of canopy. 
Beddes, testar*. and pillowes besemeth nat the halle. 
Sir T. Elyot, The Uovernour, I. 1. 


Causing his servant to leave him unusually one morn- 
ing, locking hiuiselfe in, he strangled himselfe with his 
cravatt upon the bed-tester. Evelyn, Diary, Aug. 18, 1673. 
(6) In arch., a flat canopy, as over a pulpit or a tomb. 

A tester of scarlet embroidered with a counterpoint of 
silksay belonging to the same. 

Slrype, Eccles. Mem. (ed. 1822), II. i. 201. 

2f. A head-piece ; a helmet. 

The sheeldes brighte, testers and trappures. 

Chaucer, Knight's Tale, 1. 1642. 

Half-tester bedstead, a bedstead having a canopy of 
about half its length, and therefore supported by the posts 
at the head only. See bedstead. 

tester 3 (tes'ter), n. [Early mod. E. testern, tes- 
terne, testorn, also testril, altered forms (later 
reduced to tester, in conformity with tester 2 ) of 
teston.-seeteston. Hence ult. tizzy.'] A name 
given to the shillings coined by Henry VIII., 
and to sixpences later (compare teston) ; also, 
in modern slang, a sixpence. 

There 's a tester; 
Nay, now I am a wooer, I must be bounteful. 

Beau, and Fl., Honest Man's Fortune, iii. 3. 

They say he that has lost his wife and sixpence has lost 
a tester. Swift, Polite Conversation, i. 

The demand on thy humanity will surely rise to a tester. 
Lamb, Chimuey-Sweepers. 

tester-cloth (tes'ter-kloth), n. The material 
used to cover the frame of the tester and form 
the canopy of a four-post bedstead. 

testeret, [See tester 2 .'] Same as testiere. 

testernt (tes'tern), re. Same as tester 3 . 

testernt (tes'tern), u. t. [< testern, .] To pre- 
sent with a testern or sixpence. 

To testify your bounty, I thank you, you have testerned 
me ; in requital whereof, henceforth carry your letter your- 
self. Shak., T. G. of V., i. 1. 153. 

testes. n. Plural of testis. 

test-glass (test'glas), . A small glass vessel, 
usually cylin- 
drical or nearly 
cylindrical in 
form, generally 
having a spout 
or beak and a 
foot : it has 
sometimes a 
graduated scale 
on the side. 

testlbrachial (tes-ti-bra'ki-al), a. [< testibra- 
chi(um) + -al.~] Of the character of, or per- 
taining to, the testibrachium. 

testibrachium (tes-ti-bra'ki-um), n. ; pi. testi- 
brachia (-a). [NL. (Spitzka, 1881), < L. testis, 
testicle, 4- brachium, arm.] The prepeduncle, 
or superior cms, of the cerebellum; the so- 
called process from the cerebellum to the tes- 
tis of the brain. 

testicardine (tes-ti-kar'din), a. Of or pertain- 
ing to the Testicardines. 

Testicar dines (tes-ti-kar'di-nez), n. pi. ' [NL., 
< L. testa, shell, + cardo (cardin-), hinge: see 
cardinal."] A prime division of brachiopods, 
including those which have a hinged calcareous 
shell : opposed to Eeardines : same as Arthro- 

testicle (tes'ti-kl), re. [= F. testicule = Pr. tes- 
ticul = Sp. testiculo = Pg. testiculo = It. testi- 
colo, testiculo, < L. testiculus, dim. of testis, tes- 
ticle.] One of the two glands in the male which 
secrete the spermatozoa and some of the fluid 
elements of the semen; a testis. Cooper's irri- 
table testicle, a testicle affected with neuralgia. 

testicond (tes'ti-kond), a. [< L. testis, testicle, 
+ condere, hide, conceal.] Having the testes 
concealed that is, not contained in an ex- 
ternal pouch or scrotum. Most animals are tes- 
ticond, but the word denotes more particularly mammals 
of this character, as the cetaceans and some others. 

testicular (tes-tik'u-liir), a. [= F. testiculaire 
= It. testicolare, < Li testiculus, testicle: see testi- 
cle."] 1 . Of or pertaining to a testicle or testis : 
as, testicular inflammation. 2. In bot., same as 
testieulate. Testicular artery, the spermatic artery. 
Testicular cord. Same as spermatic cord (which see 
under cord 1). Testicular cyst, a retention-cyst of a 
seminal tubule. Also called seminal cyst. Testicular 
duct, the vas deferens. Testicular veins, small veins 
collecting the blood from the testes, and emptying into 
the spermatic veins. 

testieulate (tes-tik'u-lat), a. [< LL. testiculatus, 
having testicles, shaped like a testicle, < L. testi- 
culus, testicle: see testis.'] 1. Of the rounded or 
ovoid shape of a testicle. 2. Having a pair of 
testicle-like formations. 3. Iniot: (a) Shaped 
like a testicle. (5) Having a pair of organs so 
shaped, as the tubers of Orchis mascula. Also 
testicular, testiculated. 

testiculated (tes-tik'u-la-ted), a. [< testieulate 
+ -ed 2 ."] In bot., same as testieulate. 

ere viollet , e . Dllc . s .. 

du Mobilier franijais.") 


testiere (tes-ti-ar'), [OF. : see tester 2 ."] A 

piece of armor for a horse, covering the head, 

and differing 

from the cham- 

fron in cover- 

ing the head 

more complete- 

ly, having ear- 

pieces, etc. 
testift, a. Mid- 

dle English 

form of testy. 
testiflcate (tes- 

tif 'i-kat), n. [< 

L. testificatus, 

pp. of testifi- 

cari, testify: 

see testify! In 

SCOtS law, S, 

solemn written 

assertion, not on oath, formerly used in judicial 


He had deposited this testi/icate and confession, with the 
day and date of the said marriage, with his lawful supe- 
rior Boniface, Abbot of Saint Mary's. Scott, Abbot, xxxviii. 

testification (tes"ti-fi-ka'shon), n. [< OF. tes- 
tification = Sp. testification = Pg. testificafao = 
It. testificazione, < L. testificatio(n-), testifying, < 
testificari, testify : see testify.'} The act of tes- 
tifying, or giving testimony or evidence ; a wit- 
nessing; testimony; evidence. 

Those heavenly mysteries wherein Christ imparteth 
himself unto us, and giveth visible testification of our 
blessed communion with him. 

Hooker, Eccles. Polity, v. 36. 

testificator (tes'ti-fi-ka-tor), n. [< L. as if *tes- 
tiftcator, < testificari, testify : see testify."] One 
who testifies; one who gives witness or evi- 
dence ; a witness. 

testifler (tes'ti-fl-er), . [< testify + -er^.~] One 
who testifies ; one who gives testimony or bears 
witness to anything ; a witness. Evelyn, True 
Religion, II. 196. 

testify (tes'ti-fi), v. ; pret. and pp. testified, ppr. 
testifying. [< ME. testifien, < OF. testifier = 
Sp. Pg. testificar = It. testificare, < L. testificari, 
bear witness, < testis, a witness, + facere, make 
(see -/#).] I. intrans. 1. To bear witness; 
make declaration, especially for the purpose of 
communicating to others a knowledge of some 
matter not known to them, or for the purpose 
of establishing some fact. 

Jesus . . . needed not that any should testify of man, 
for he knew what was in man. John ii. 25. 

The eye was placed where one ray should fall, that it 
might testify of that particular ray. 

Emerson, Self-Reliance. 

2. In law, to give testimony, under oath or sol- 
emn affirmation, in a cause depending before a 

One witness shall not testify against any person to cause 
him to die. Num. xxxv. 30. 

However many nations and generations of men are 
brought into the witness-box, they cannot testify to any- 
thing which they do not know. 

W. K. Cliford, Lectures, II. 200. 

3. To serve as evidence; be testimony or proof. 

Ah, but some natural notes about her body, 
Above ten thousand meaner moveables, 
Would testify, to enrich mine inventory. 

Shak., Cymbeline, ii. 2. 30. 

II. trans. 1. To bear witness to; affirm or 
declare as fact or truth. 

We speak that we do know, and testify that we have 
seen, and ye receive not our witness. John iii. 11. 

I testified the pleasure I should have in his company. 

Goldsmith, Vicar, iii. 

2. In law, to state or declare under oath or 
affirmation, as a witness, before a tribunal. 

3. To give evidence of ; evince; demonstrate; 

Prayers are those "calves of men's lips," those most 
gracious and sweet odours, . . . which being carried up 
into heaven do best testify our dutiful affection. 

Booker, Eccles. Polity, v. 23. 

4. To make known ; publish or declare freely. 
Testifying both to the Jews, and also to the Greeks, re- 

pentaiice toward God, and faith toward our Lord Jesus 
Christ. Acts xx. 21. 

testill (tes'til), n. [< NL. *testilla, dim. of L. 
testa, a potsherd: see test 2 ."] In bot., same as 

testily (tes'ti-li), adv. In a testy manner ; fret- 
fully; peevishly; with petulance. 

testimonial (tes-ti-mo'ni-al), a. and n. [< F. 
testimonial = Sp. testimonial = It. testimoniale, < 
LL. testimonialis, of or pertaining to testimony, 
< L. testimonium, testimony: see testimony."] 
I. a. Relating to or containing testimony. 


A clerk does not exhibit to the bishop letters missive or 
testimonial testifying his good behaviour. 

Ayliffe, Paragon. 

Testimonial proof, proof by testimony of a witness, as 
distinguished from evidence afforded by a document. 
II. n. If. A will; a testament. 

To dispossesse 

His children of his goodes, & give her all 
By his last dying testimonial^ 

Times' Whistle (E. E. T. S.), p. 135. 

2f. A certificate ; a warrant. 

That none of the said reteyned persons in Husbandrye, 
or in any the Artes or Sciences above remembred, after the 
tyme of his Reteynor expired, shall departe foorthe of one 
Cytye, Towne, or Parishe to another, . . . onles he have a 
Testimoniall under the Scale of the said Citie or Towne 

Laws of Elizabeth (1562), quoted in Ribton-Turner's 
[Vagrants and Vagrancy, p. 101. 

3f. A mark ; token ; evidence ; proof. 

A signe and solemne teslimoniall of the religious ob- 
servance which they carried respectively to the whole ele- 
ment of fire. Holland, tr. of Plutarch, p. 613. 

4f. A statement; a declaration; testimony. 

I must giue the Kings Kingdomes a eaueat here, con- 
cerning vagabonding Greekes, and their counterfeit Testi- 
monials: True it is, there is no such matter as these lying 
Rascals report vnto you. W. Lithgow, Travels, iii. 

5. A writing certifying to one's character, con- 
duct, or qualifications; a certificate of worth, 
attainment, excellence, value, genuineness, etc. 
6. A tangible expression of respect, esteem, 
admiration, appreciation or acknowledgment 
of services, or the like. [Colloq.] 

The late lamented O'Connell, . . . over whom a grateful 
country has raised such a magnificent testimonial. 

Thackeray, Virginians, xi. 

The portrait was intended as a testimonial, " expressive 
... of the eminent services of Mr. Boxsious in promot- 
ing and securing the prosperity of the town." 

W. Collins, After Dark, p. 45. 

Testimonial of the great seal Same as quarter-seal. 
testimonialize -(tes-ti-mo'ni-al-iz), v. t. ; pret. 
and pp. testimonialized, ppr. testimonializing. 
[< testimonial + -ize.~] To present with a tes- 
timonial. [Rare.] 

People were testimonialisinct his wife. 

Thackeray, Newcomes, Ixiii. 

testimony (tes' ti-mo-ni), n. ; pi. testimonies 
(-niz). [= F. temoin '= Pr. testimoni = Sp. tes- 
timonio = Pg. testimunho = It. testimone, tes- 
timonio, < L. testimonium, testimony, < testis, a 
witness: see test 3 ."] 1. Witness; evidence; 
proof or demonstration of some fact. 
I'll give you all noble remembrances, 
As testimonies 'gainst reproach and malice, 
That you departed lov'd. 

Fletcher (and anotherl), Nice Valour, iv. 1. 
I swear by truth and knighthood that I gave 
No cause, not willingly, for such a love : 
To this I call my friends in testimony. 

Tennyson, Lancelot and Elaine. 

2. In law, the statement or declaration of a wit- 
ness; oral evidence; a solemn statement or dec- 
laration under oath or affirmation, made as evi- 
dence before a tribunal or an officer for the pur- 
poses of evidence ; a statement or statements 
made in proof of something. 3. Tenor of dec- 
larations or statements made or witness borne ; 
declaration : as, the testimony of history. 

As to the fruits of Sodom, fair without, and full of 
ashes within, I saw nothing of them ; tho', from the testi- 
monies we have, something of this kind has been pro- 
duced. Pococke, Description of the East, II. i. 37. 

Who trusts 

To human testimony for a fact 
Gets this sole fact himself is proved a fool. 

Browning, Ring and Book, II. 824. 

4. The act of bearing witness ; open attesta- 
tion; profession. 

Thou ... for the testimony of truth hast borne 
Universal reproach. Hilton, P. L., vi. 33. 

The two first [Quakers in New England] that sealed 
their testimony with their blood were William Robinson, 
merchant of London, and Marmaduke Stevenson, a coun- 
tryman of Yorkshire. 

Sewel, History of the Quakers (1856), I. 290. 

5. A declaration or protest. 

Shake off the dust under your feet, for a testimony 
against them. Mark vi. 11. 

Alice Rose was not one to tolerate the coarse, careless 
talk of such a woman as Mrs. Brunton without uplifting 
her voice in many a testimony against it. 

Mrs. Gaskell, Sylvia's Lovers, xxxix. 

6. In Scrip. : (a) The law of God in general ; 
the Scriptures. 

The testimony of the Lord is sure, making wise the sim- 
ple. Ps. xix. 7. 

The testimonies of God are true, the testimonies of God 
are perfect, the testimonies of God are all sufficient unto 
that end for which they were given. 

Hooker, Eccles. Polity, ii. 8. 

(6) Specifically, the two tables of the law (ta- 
bles of the testimony) ; the decalogue. 


Thou shall put into the ark the tntimmy which I shall 
give thec. Ex. xxv. 16. 

Immediate, indirect, mediate testimony. BM HP 
adjectives.- Perpetuation of testimony. *<< txrpet- 
uatiun. - Tables of the testimony. *< > tnUf.- Testi- 
mony Of diSOWnment, an official dOOUMat ismuM hy 
tlK'inontlily meeting of the. Socli-ty of ! i irml* t<i anmnniri 
the expulsion of a member of the meeting. =8yn. 2. Depo- 
Bltlon, atteBtatlon. 1, 2, and 4. Proof, etc. See evidence. 

testimony! (tes'ti-mo-ni), v. t. [< testimony, n.] 
To witness. 

Let him bo but testimonied in bis own hringings-forth, 
and he shall appear to the envious a scholar, a statesman, 
and a soldier. Shale., M. for M., 111. 2. 153. 

testiness (tes'ti-nes), n. The state or charac- 
ter of being testy; irascibility; petulance. 

Macrobius saith there is much difference betwixt ire 
and kgttiiexse : bycanse ire groweth of an occasion, and 
tfstinesse of euil condition. 

Guevara, Letters (tr. by Hellowes, 1677X P. 114. 

testing-box (tes'ting-boks), n. Same as test- 

testing-clause (tes'ting-klftz), . In Scots laic, 
the clause in a formal written deed or instru- 
ment by which it is authenticated according 
to the forms of law. It is essentially a statement of 
the name and designation of the writer, the number of 
pages in the deed, the names and designations of the wit- 
nesses, the name and designation of the person who penned 
the deed, and the date and place of signing. 

testing-gage (tes'ting-gaj), . A gage for as- 
certaining pressure, as of gas in a soda-water 
bottle, etc. E. B. Knight. 

testing-hole (tes'ting-hol), n. In the steel- 
cementation process, same as tap-hole (c). 

testing-slab (tes'ting-slab), n. A plate of white 
glazed porcelain having cup-shaped depres- 
sions, for the examination of liquids which give 
colored precipitates. 

testis (tes'tis), n.; pi. testes (-tez). [L.] 1. A 
testicle. 2. Some rounded formation likened 
to a testicle : as, the testes of the brain Aberrant 
duct of the testis. See aberrant. Mediastinum tes- 
tls. HeettwrfiatfmMw. Pia mater testis. Same as (u- 
nica easculota. Testis cerebri(the testicle of the brain), 
the postopticua; one of the posterior pair of the optic 
lobes or corpora quadrigemlna. See quadrigeminout, 2. 
Testis mullebris, a woman's testicle that is, the ovary. 

test-meal (test'mel), n. A meal of definite 
quantity and quality given with a view to ex- 
amining the contents of the stomach at a later 
hour, and thus determining the normal or ab- 
normal condition of the gastric functions. 

test-meter (test'me'ter), n. An apparatus for 
testing the consumption of gas by burners. 

test-mixer (test'mik'ser), n. A tall cylindrical 
bottle of clear glass, with a wide foot and a 
stopper. It is graduated from the bottom up into equal 
parts, and is used for the preparation and dilution of test- 
alkalis, test-acids, etc. E. II. Knight. 

testo (tes'to), . [It., = E. text.} In music, 
same as (a) theme or subject, or as (6) text or 

test-object (test'ob'jekt), n. In micros., a 
minute object, generally organic, whereby the 
excellence of an objective, more particularly 
as to defining and resolving power, may be 
tested, only superior objectives being capable 
of showing such objects, or of enabling their 
markings or peculiar structure to be clearly 
seen. The muscular fibers of the Mammalia, parti of 
the eye of Ashes, scales of the wings of insects, and the 
shells or frustules of the Diatonuuxce are very generally 
employed. See test-plate. 

testont (tes'ton), n. [< OF. (and F.) Sp. tes- 
ton (= It. testone), a coin, so called from hav- 
ing the figure of a head, < teste, head : see 
testf. Cf. testers.] 1. A silver coin of Louis 
XII. of France. 2. A name given both offi- 
cially and popularly to the shilling coined by 
Henry VIII., from its resemblance in appear- 
ance and value to the French coin. The value 
of the coin was reduced later to sixpence. Also 

Threepence; and here 's a teston; yet take all. 

Middletan, Blurt, Master-Constable, II. 2. 

The book he had it out of cost him a teston at least. 

B. Joneon, Every Man in his Humour, Ir. 1. 

testone (tes-to'ne), . [< It. testone: see tes- 
tnii.] A silver coin worth about 1*. 4d. (32 
United States cents), formerly current in Italy. 

testoont, M. Same as teston. Cotgrave. 

testornt (tes'torn), . Same as tester*. 

test-paper (test'pa'per), M. 1. In chem., a pa- 
per impregnated with a chemical reagent, as 
litmus, and used for detecting the presence of 
certain substances, which cause a reaction and 
a change in the color of the paper. 2. In law, 
a document allowed to be used in a court of 
justice as a standard of comparison for deter- 
mining a question of handwriting. [U. S.] 


test-plate (test'plat), w. 1. A glass plate with 
a bund, or usually a series of bands, of VIMV 
finely ruled lines, used in testing the resolving 
power of microscopic objectives, particularly 
of high powers. The best known are those ruled by 
Nobcrt (hence called Jfoberti platei); one of these, the 18- 
band plate, has a series of 19 bands, ruled at rate* varying 
from 11,300 to 112,000 lines to the Inch. The linest band 
of another plate is ruled at the rate of about 200,000 lines 
to the Inch. Moller's test-plate has a series of 20 or more 
test dlatom-frustules with very fine striations, In some 
cases running up to nearly 100,000 per Inch. 
2. In ceram., a piece of pottery upon which the 
vitrifiable colors are tried before being used 
on the pieces to be decorated, usually a plate 
with the different colors painted on its rim. 

test-pump (test 'pump), n. A force-pump used 
for testing the strength or tightness of metal 
cylinders, etc. It has a pressure-gage attached to Us 
discharge-pipe, means for connecting the latter with the 
pipe, etc., to be tested, a check-valve or cock for prevent- 

ing regurgitation through the discharge-pipe, and gener- 
ally also a cistern of moderate capacity for holding a sup- 
ply of water for the pump-barrel, In which Utter works 

^ ' 

a solid plunger operated uy a hand-lever. The pump 
supplied with lifting-handles or with wheels for moving 
it easily about to any position In a ihop. 

testrilt (tes'tril), n. Same as tester^. 

Sir Toby. Come on ; there is sixpence for you ; let ' have 
a song. 
Sir Andrew. There 's a tettril of me, too. 

SAat., T. N., a S. 34. 

test-ring (test'ring), . See tesfl. 
test-spoon (test'spon), M. A small spoon with 

a spatula-shaped handle, used for taking up 

small portions of flux, powder, etc., as in chem- 

ical experiments. E. H. Knight. 
test-tube (test'tub), n. 1. A cylinder of thin 

glass closed at one end, 

used in testing liquids. 

2. A chlorometer. 

Test-tube culture. See ctrf- 


test-types (test'tips), n. 
pi. Letters or words 
printed in type of dif- 
ferent sizes, used to de- 
termine the acuteness of 

testudinal (tes-tu'di- 
nal), a. [< L. testudo 
(-din-), a tortoise (see 

testudo), + -al.] Pertaining to or resembling 
a tortoise. 

Testudinaria (tes-tu-di-na'ri-S), n. [NL. (Salis- 
bury, 1824), < L. testudo (-din-), a tortoise, + 
-aria.] A genus of monocotyledonous plants, 
of the order Dioscoreaceee. It Is distinguished from 
Diotcorea by its downwardly winged seeds and its large 
hemispherical tessellated tuber or rootstock, which Is ei- 
ther fleshy and solid or woody, and rises above the ground, 
forming a globular mass sometimes 4 feet in diameter, its 
outer woody or corky substance becoming cracked Into 
large angular protuberances resembling the shell of a 
tortoise. (See tortoise-plant. ) The 2 species are natives of 
South Africa. They are lofty climbers with slender twin- 
ing stems, alternate leaves, and small racemose flowers, 
which are dioecious and spreading or broadly bell-shaped. 
with a three-celled ovary becoming in fruit a three-winged 
capsule. They are known as elephant' s-joot and as Hottm- 

testudinarious (tes-tu-di-na'ri-us), a. Resem- 
bling tortoise-shell in color; mottled with red, 
yellow, and black, like tortoise-shell. 

f estudinata (tes-tu-di-na'tS), [NL. (Op- 
pel, 1811), neut. pi. of L. testudinatus: see testu- 
dinate.] 1 . An order of Beptilia, having tooth- 
less jaws fashioned like the beak of a bird, 
two pairs of limbs fitted for walking or swim- 
ming, and the body incased in a bony box or 
leathery shell, consisting of a carapace and a 
plastron, to the formation of which the ribs and 



All the cranial bones are united by sutures, excepting the 
articulation of the lower jaw. The pelvis consUta as usual 
of Ilium, Ischluni, and publs, hut It has a peculiar shape, 
and is generally discrete from the sacrum. The penis Is 
single and intraoloacal, and the anus Is a longitudinal ch-ft. 
Also called Chrlmiia. See also cuts under Atpidonrctes, 
carapace, CMunia, Chelunidir, leatneroaclc, plastron, J'leu- 
riutpniutylia, Pyxi*, ttider, terrapin, and Tettudo, 4. 
2. In a restricted sense, one of three suborders 
of Chelonia, contrasted with Athecte&nA Triony- 
choidea, and containing the whole of the order 
i-\ci-|,ting thr Xiiliiiri/nliil;i- :mil tlic '/'/ iiiiii/i'hidte. 

testudinate(tes-tu'di-nat),a. and w. [<L. testu- 
iliiintuK, < ti'stiiiln (-din-), a tortoise: see testudo.] 
I. o. 1. Resembling the carapace of a tortoise; 
arched; vaulted; fornicated. Also testtidinated. 
2. Of or pertaining to the Testudinata; che- 
II. 11. One of the Testudinata or Chelonia. 

testudinated (tes-tu'di-na-ted), a. [< testudi- 
n<ite + -t(P.] Same as testudinate, 1. 

testudineal (tes-tu-din'e-al ), . [< testudine-ottH 
+ -til.] Same ns tmtuiliiial. 

testudineous (tes-tu-din'e-us), a. [< L. testu- 
ili HI-US, of or pertaining to a tortoise or tortoise- 
shell, < tentutln (-din-), a tortoise: see testudo.] 
Resembling the carapace of a tortoise. 

Testudinidae (res-tu-din'i-dS), n. pi. [NL., < 
Textudo (-din-) + -rf.] A family of crypto- 
dirous tortoises, named from the genus Testudo. 
containing numerous genera, both fossil and 
recent, the latter found in all temperate and 
tropical regions except the Australian. The 
plastron has the typical number of nine bones, the cara- 
pace has epidermal scutes, the nuchal bone is without a 
costfform process, and the caudal vertebra; are proccelous. 
It has been by far the largest family of the order, Includ- 
ing several genera usually put in other families, but is now 
oftener restricted to hum-tortoises with high, arched, and 
vaulted carapace and short clubbed feet. Cherrida is a 
synonym. See cuts under pyxit and Tertudo, 4. 

testudo (tes-tu'do), n.: pi. testudines (-di-nez). 
[L., a tortoise-shell, a defensive cover so called, 
< testa, a shell, etc.: see test*.] 1. Among the 
ancient Romans, a defensive cover or screen 
which a body of troops formed by overlapping 

Tectudo of Roman Soldiers. Column of Trajan, Rome. 

TtitMtta elrphanlcfMS, one of the TtstHdinata. 

dorsal vertebrae are specially modified; the 
turtles and tortoises. The carapace is usually cov- 
ered with hard horny epidermal plates called tvrtotoe-thtU. 
There Is no tme sternum, its place being taken by a num- 
ber of bones, typically nine, which compose the plastron, 
or under shell. The dorsal vertebra are Immovably flxed. 

above their heads their oblong shields when in 
close array. This cover somewhat resembled the back 
of a tortoise, and served to shelter the men from missiles 
thrown from above. The name was also given to a struc- 
ture movable on wheels or rollers for protecting sappers. 
Formerly also called mail. 

2. A shelter similar in shape and design to the 
above, employed as a defense by miners and oth- 
ers when working in ground or rock which is lia- 
ble to cave in. 3. In med., an encysted tumor, 
which has been supposed to resemble the shell 
of a turtle. Also called talpa. 4. [cap.] [NL.] 
In herpet., the typical genus of Testudinidte, of 
widely varying'hmits with different authors, 
and much confused with Cistttdo. It now contains 
such tortoises as T. grxea of Europe and some others. See 
cut on following page, also that under Tcttudinata. 
5. In anat., the fornix : more fully called testu- 
do cerebri. See cerebrum. 6. In anc. music, a 
species of lyre : so called in allusion to the lyre 
of Mercury, fabled to have been made of the 
shell of the sea-tortoise. The name was also 
extended in medieval music to the lute. 


Common European Tortoise ( Ttstudo grfcca). 

testule (test'ul), . [< L. testula, dim. of testa, 
& shell, etc. : see test 2 , 2. ] In bot., the silicified 
crust of a diatom, usually called the fnstule. 

testy (tes'ti), a. [Early mod. E. testie, teastie; 
< ME. testif, < OF. testu, F. Utu, heady, head- 
strong, testy, < teste, head: see test 2 .] Irrita- 
ble; irascible; choleric; cross; petulant. 

Hardy and testy, strong and chivalrus. 

Chaucer, Troilus, v. 802. 

I was displeased with myself ; I was testy, as Jonah was 
when he should go preach to the Ninevites. 

Latimer, Sermon bef. Edw. VI., 1650. 

Must I stand and crouch 
Under your testy humour? Shak., J. C., iv. 3. 46. 

Thou testy little dogmatist, 
Thou pretty Katydid ! 

0. W. Holmes, To an Insect. 

= Syn. Pettish, touchy, waspish, snappish, peevish, sple- 
netic, captious, peppery. 

tet (tet), n. Same as tit 1 . 

tetanet, [< L. tetanus: see tetanus.] Teta- 
nus. Donne, Letters, xiv. 

tetanic (te-tan'ik), a. and . [= F. tetanimie 
= Sp. tetdnico = Pg. tctanico,<. L. tetanictis,< Gr. 
rerovocof, affected with tetanus, < reravof, teta- 
nus: see tetanus.'] I. a. Pertaining to, of the 
nature of, or characterized by tetanus Tetan- 
ic spasm, tonic spasm of the voluntary muscles, as seen 
in tetanus, strychnic poisoning, or the first stage of a typi- 
cal epileptic attack. 

II. . In med., a remedy which acts on the 
nerves, and through them on the muscles, as nux 
vomica, strychnia, brucina, etc. If taken in over- 
doses tetanics occasion convulsions and death. 

tetaniform (tet'a-ni-form), a. [< L. tetanus, 
tetanus, + forma, form.] Of the nature of or 
resembling tetanus ; tetanoid. 

tetanigenous (tet-a-nij'e-nus), a. [< L. tetanus, 
tetanus, + gignere, produce.] Producing teta- 
nus, or spasms similar to those of tetanus. 

tetanilla (tet-a-nil'a), n. [NL., dim. of teta- 
nus.'] 1. Tetaiiy. 2. An affection (paramyoc- 
lonus multiplex) characterizedby a clonic spasm 
of groups of voluntary muscles, often symmet- 
rical, which ceases during sleep. Althaus. 

tetanin (tet'a-7iin), . [< tetanus (see def.) + 
-Jw2.] A toxin (C 14 H 30 N 2 O4) obtained from 
cultures of the Bacillus tetani. 

tetanization (tefa-ni-za'shon), n. [< tetanize 
+ -ation.] The production of tetanus; the 
application of a rapid succession of stimuli to 
a muscle or a nerve such as would produce 
tetanic contraction in a muscle. 

tetanize (tet'a-niz), c. t, ; pret. and pp. tetanized, 
ppr. tetanizing. [< tetan-us + -ize.~\ To pro- 
duce tetanus in. 

tetanoid (tet'a-noid), a. and . [< Gr. TeTameiSt/c, 
like tetanus, < rfrat'Of, tetanus, + fidof, form.] 
I. a. Resembling tetanus Tetanoid pseudo- 
paraplegia. Same as spastic spinal paralysis (which see, 
under paralysis). 

II. n. An attack of tetanus or some similar 
spasmodic disease. 

tetanomotor (tet"a-no-m6'tor), n. [< L. tetanus, 
tetanus, lit. a stretching, -f- motor, a mover.] 
An instrument devised by Heidenhain for 
stimulating a nerve mechanically by causing 
an ivory hammer attached to the vibrating 
spring of an induction-machine to beat upon it. 

tetanotoxin (tet"a-no-tok'sin), n. [< tetanus 
(see def.) + toxin.] ' A toxin (C 5 H U N) ob- 
tained from cultures of Bacillus tetani. 

tetanus (tet'a-nus), n. [NL., < L. tetanus, teta- 
nus, < Gr. riravos, spasm, tetanus, lit. a stretch- 
ing, tension (cf . reravof , stretched), reduplicated 
from reiveiv (-\/Tev, rav), stretch: see tend 1 .] 1. 
A disease characterized by a more or less violent 
and rigid spasm of many or all of the muscles 
of voluntary motion. The varieties of this disease 
are (1) trismm, or lockjaw; (2) opisthotonos, where the 
body is thrown back by spasmodic contractions of the 
muscles ; (3) empnsthotmnas, where the body is bent for- 

posure to cold or by some irritation of the nerves in con- 


sequence of local injury by puncture, incision, or lacera- 
tion : hence the distinction of tetanus into idiopathic and 
traumatic. Lacerated wounds of tendinous parts prove, 
in warm climates, a very frequent source of these com- 
plaints. In cold climates, as well as in warm, lockjaw (in 
which the spasms are confined to the muscles of the jaw or 
throat) sometim es arises in consequence of the amputation 
of a limb, or from lacerated wounds. Tetanic affections 
which follow the receipt of a wound or local injury 
usually prove fatal. Tetanus is also distinguished, ac- 
cording to its intensity, into acute and chronic. It has 
been observed among domesticated animals, such as the 
horse, ox, sheep, pig, and dog. It is usually the sequel of 
wounds and injuries. It may follow the operation of cas- 
tration, and appeal' after parturition in cows. In the horse 
injuries of the foot are most frequently the cause of teta- 
nus. The disease is caused by a characteristic bacillus, 
the same in animals as in man. 

2. In physio!., the state or condition of pro- 
longed contraction which a muscle assumes 
under rapidly repeated stimuli. 

The term tetanus applies primarily to the muscle only ; 
but the application of rapidly repeated shocks to the nerve, 
such as would produce "tetanic contraction " of the mus- 
cle, may be called the "tetanization of a nerve," . 

O. T. Ladd, Physiol. Psychology, p. 106. 

Artificial tetanus, a state of the system induced by cer- 
tain poisons, as strychnia, brucina, or the salts of either, 
in which the symptoms of intense tetanus are exhibited. 

tetany (tet'a-ni), n. [< L. tetanus, tetanus: 
gee tetanus.'] A disease characterized by ir- 
regularly intermittent tonic spasms of various 
groups of muscles, more commonly those of the 
upper extremities, unaccompanied, as a rule, 
by fever. It is seen most frequently in individuals be- 
tween fifteen and thirty-five years of age. Among the 
causes of the affection are mentioned pregnancy, lacta- 
tion, exposure to cold and wet, intestinal irritation, and 
mental shock. It sometimes occurs as a sequel to scarlet 
fever and other diseases of childhood. The disease sel- 
dom results fatally, except when the muscles of respira- 
tion are profoundly affected. 

tetartohedral (te-tar-to-he'dral), a. [< Gr. n- 
raprof, fourth (< rfoo-apef, four: 'see fourth, four), 
+ 'idpa, a seat, a base.] In crystal., having one 
fourth the number of planes requisite to com- 
plete symmetry. 

tetartohedraliy (te-tar-to-he'dral-i), adr. In 
a tetartohedral form or arrangement. 

tetartohedrism (te-tar-to-he'drizm), . [< te- 
tartohedr(al) + -ism.'] In crystal., the state or 
property of being modified tetartohedrally, or 
of being characterized by the presence of one 
fourth of the planes required by holohedral 
symmetry. It can most simply be regarded as result- 
ing from the application of the two methods of hemi- 
hedrism, and hence is possible in the isometric, tetrag- 
onal, and hexagonal systems, in which the two kinds of 
hemihedrism are observed. Practically it has been noted 
in a few substances crystallizing in the isometric system, 
and in a number belonging to the hexagonal system. In 
the latter there are two kinds : the first is called rhombo- 
hedral tetartohedrism-, when the resulting tetartohedral 
form is a rhombohedron, as, for example, with dioptase 
and phenacite ; and the second trapezohedral tetartohe- 
drism, when the resulting form is a trigonal trapezohe- 
dron : this is characteristic of quartz and cinnabar, and 
is important as being connected with the phenomena of 
circular polarization. 

tetartoprismatic (te-tar"to-priz-mat'ik), a. 
[< Gr. riraprof, fourth, -f- 7rp!a/ia(T-), prism : see 
prismatic.] In crystal., same as triclinic. 

tetartopyramid (te-tar-to-pir'a-mid), n. [< Gr. 
Tfrap-rof, fourth, + nvpaulf, pyramid: see pyra- 
mid.] A quarter-pyramid: said of the pyrami- 
dal planes of the triclinic system, which appear 
in sets of two (that is, one fourth the number 
required by a complete pyramid). 

tetaug(te-tag'), n. Sameastato</. Imp. Diet. 

tetcht, ". A variant of tacheS. 

tetchily, tetchiness, etc. See techily, etc. 

tSte (tat), H. [F., head: see test?.] False hair; 
a kind of wig or cap of false hair. 

Her wig or tete . . . thrown carelessly upon her toilette. 
Graves, Spiritual Quixote, iii. 20. (Latham.) 

tSte-a-t&te (tat'a-taf), adv. [F., face to face, 
lit. 'head to head': tete, head; a (< L. ad), to; 
tete, head : see test 2 .] Face to face ; in private ; 
in close confabulation. 

The guests withdrawn had left the treat, 
And down the mice sat tete-a-tete. 

Pope, Imit. of Horace, II. vt. 197. 
Lord Monmouth fell into the easy habit of dining in his 
private rooms, sometimes tUe-d-tete with Villebecque. 

Disraeli, Coningsby, viii. 1. 

tte-a-tte (tat'a-taf), [< tete-a-tete, adv.] 
Private; confidential; with none present but 
the persons concerned: as, a tSte-a-tete con- 
versation Tete-a-tete set, a set of table utensils 
intended for two persons only. 

t&te-a-tete (tat'a-taf), n. [P., a private inter- 
view, < tte-a-ttte, face to face: see tete-a-tete, 
ado.] 1. A private interview; a friendly or 
close conversation. 

Of course there was no good in remaining among those 
damp, reeking timbers now that the pretty little Kte-a- 
tttf was over. Thackeray, Philip, xiv. 


2. A short sofa, on which only two persons can 
comfortably sit. 

The sofa of this set was of the pattern named tete-a-tete, 
very hard and slippery. 

C. F. Woolson, Jupiter Lights, xiii. 

tete-de-mouton (tat 'de -mo 'ton), . [F., lit. 
'sheep's head': tte, head (see test' 2 ) ; de, of; 
motiton, sheep : see mutton.] A head-dress, 
common in the seventeenth century, in whicli 
the hair was arranged in short, thick, frizzled 

tete-de-pont (tat'de-pon'), n. [F.: ttte, head 
(see test 2 ); de, of ; pont, bridge: see pons.] In 
fort., a work that defends the head or en- 
trance of a bridge nearer the enemy. See 

tetel (tet'el), . [Ar.] A large bubaline ante- 
lope of Africa, Alcelaphus tora, with strongly 
divergent and ringed horns. 

tetert, Middle English form of tetter. 

tether (teTH'er), n. [Formerly or dial, tedder; 
< ME. tedir, tedyre (not found in AS.) = OFries. 
tiader, tieder, NFries. tjudder, tjodder = MD. 
tudder, tnycr = MLG. tuder,_ tudder, LG. toder, 
tuder, tider, tier = Icel. tjodhr = Sw. tjuder, 
OSw. tinther = Dan. to'ir, tether; perhaps, with 
formative -ther (as in rudder^, formerly rother, 
etc.), < AS. tedn, etc., draw, lead: see tee 1 , 
tie 1 , tott'l. According to Skeat, of Celtic ori- 
gin, < Gael, teadhair, a tether; but this Gael. 
form is prob. itself of E. origin ; no similar Ir. 
or W. form occurs, and very few words of com- 
mon Teut. range are of Celtic origin. The Gael, 
term may, however, be independent of the E., 
being appar. related to taod, a halter, rope, 
chain, cable, taodan, a little cord, Ir. tead, teud, 
a cord, rope, W. tid, a chain, Manx teod, teid, 
a rope.] A rope, chain, or halter, especially 
one by which a grazing animal is confined 
within certain limits: often used figuratively, 
in the sense of a course in which one may move 
until checked ; scope allowed. 

The bishops were found culpable, as eating too much 
beyond their tether. Hooker, Eccles. Polity, vii. 23. 

Then in a tether hell swing from a ladder. 

Battle of Sheriff- Muir (Child's Ballads, VII. 162). 

We live joyfully, going abroad within our tedder. 


tether (teTH'er), v. t. [< tether, n.] To con- 
fine, as a grazing animal, with a rope or chain 
within certain limits; hence, to tie (anything) 
with or as with a rope or halter. 

The Links of th' holy Chain which tethers 
The many Members of the World togethers. 

Sylvester, tr. of Du Bartas's Weeks, i. 2. 

And, it was said, tethered his horse nightly among the 

graves in the church-yard. Irving, Sketch-Book, p. 444. 

tether-stick (teTH'er-stik), n. The stake, peg, 
or pin to which a tether is fastened. 

His teeth they were like tether sticks. 

Eempy Kaye (Child's Ballads, VIII. 140). 

Tethyidae (te-thi'i-de), . pi. [NL., < Tethys 
+ -idee.] A family of polybranchiate nudi- 
branchiate gastropods, typified by the genus 
Tethys, and characterized by the absence of a 
tongue. The body is depressed, the mantle is indis- 
tinct, the tentacles are two, and branchial plumes alter- 
nate with papillae along the back. 

Tethys (te'this), n. [NL. (Linnseus, 1740), < 
Gr. T>70('f, Tethys, a sea-goddess.] A genus of 
nudibranchiates, typical of the family Tethyidsp. 

te-totum, n. See tee-totmn. 

tetra-. [< Gr. rerpa-, combining form of TETTO- 
pff, Ttaaapcf, Doric rerropei;, rtropff, etc., neut. 
Tscaapa, etc., = L. quattuor, four: see/own Cf. 
qwadri-.] A prefix in compounds derived from 
the Greek, signifying 'four': as, iefrochord, 
tetragon, tefrarch, tetraraerous, teirapetalous, 

tetrablastic (tet-ra-blas'tik), a. [< Gr. nrpa-, 
four, + /j/laordf, a germ.] Having four ger- 
minal layers or blastodermic membranes, as an 
embryo namely, an endoderm, ectoderm, and 
an inner and outer layer of mesoderm, or soma- 
topleure and splanchnopleure. Such a four-layered 
germ is the common case of animals which have a true 
ccelom or body-cavity. 

tetrabrach (tet'ra-brak), n. [< LGr. rerpd- 
[jpaxvs, of four shorts, < Gr. rerpa-, four, + ftpaxi-f 
= L. brevis, short.] In anc. pros., a foot con- 
sisting of four short times or syllables ; a pro- 
celeusmatic. Also tetrabrachys. 

tetrabrachius (tet-ra-bra'ki-us), n.; pi. tetra- 
brachii (-1). [NL.,"< Gr. rerpa-, four. 4- L. 
biaehium, an arm.] In teratol., a monster with 
four arms. 

tetrabranch (tet'ra-brangk), a. and n. I. <i. 
Having two pairs of gills, as a eephalopod ; be- 


longing to tlie '/"< inilimiirliiiitu. or having their 

II. a. A cephalopod of the order Tetriilinni- 
fliintii, MS mi ammonite or a pearly nautilus. 
Tetrabranchiata (tet-ra-bnmg-ki-ii'tii), . i>i. 

[NL., neut. pi. of tftriihrnnchiatun: sec ti'trn- 

mx 1 ten ,, 




Pearly Nautilus (M 

.'. funnel ; At, shell-muscle : >' \ . 
ntle ; br, br.inchi.e ; gn, nlda- 

(.'. hood 

mental gland ; r, r' , position of ren;il appen- 
dages ; tint*, horny rinp ; <n\ ovary ; fal, ovl- gland ; sfh , siphuncle ; ftt, black^part 
of shell under mantle ; 
cartilaginous skeleton i 

, process of the 
to the funnel. 

order (if <'i-/il{<i- 
III/HII/II, named 
by Owen from 
the two pairs of 
gill-plumes, or 
I'teiiidiul bran- 
i-liin'. Theneph- 
riitla arc also two 
pairs ; two visceri- 
cardiac oriflces 
open upon the ex- 
terior; and the ovi- 
ilii.-ls and >]i< i m 
ducts are [min-ii. 
hut the left is ru- 
dimentary. There 
are many sheathed 
clrcumoral tenta- 
cles, not lieltriliK 
suckers, two hol- 
low eyes, two ol- 
factory organs, no 
ink-hag, and a 
large many-cham- 
bered shell, straight or coiled. The order has Included 
both ammonold and nautilold forms, but has also been 
restricted to the latter. They abounded In former times, 
aft is shown by the immense number and variety of fos- 
sils, hut are now nearly extinct, being represented by the 
pearly nautilus only. See also cut under nautilui. 

tetrabranchiate (tet-ra-brang'ki-at), n. and . 
[< NL. tetriilirinicliiatus, < Gr. rcrpa-, four, + 
ftp&YXia, gil's.] Same as tetrabranch. 

tetracamarous (tet-ra-kam'a-rus), a. [< Gr. 
rfrpa-, four, + Ka/iapa, a vault.] In hot., hav- 
ing four closed carpels. 

tetracarpellary (tet-ra-kftr'pe-la-ri), a. [< Gr. 
rrrpa-, four, -I- NL. carpellum, carpel, + -ary.] 
In hot., having four carpels. 

Tetracaulodon (tet-ra-ka'lo-don), n. [NL. 
(Godman), < Gr. rerpa", four, + ratvidf, stem, + 
bfol'f, tooth.] A genus of mastodons. See 

Tetracera (te-tras'e-rji), n. [NL. (Linneeus, 
1737), so called from' the four horn-like carpels 
of the original species; < Gr. rrrpa-, four, + x/pac, 
horn.] A genus of polypetalous plants, of the 
order Dilleiiinfex and tribe Delinieie. It is charac- 
terized by flowers in terminal panicles, each usually with 
five spreading sepals, as many petals, numerous stamens, 
and three to five acuminate carpels, usually shining, coria- 
ceous, and follicular in fruit, and containing one to five 
seeds surrounded by a lacerate aril. There are about 36 
species, widely scattered through the tropics. They are 
shrubby climbers, or rarely trees, smooth or rough-hairy, 
with parallel feather-veined leaves and the panicles most- 
ly yellow and loosely many-flowered. Several species are 
sometimes cultivated as greenhouse climbers ; several are 
used as astringents, as the decoction of T. oblonyata In 
Brazil, and In Cayenne the infusion of T. Tiijarea, the 
tigarea, or red creeper. T. aln^fotia, the water-tree of 
Sierra Leone, is so named from the clear water obtained 
by cutting its climbing stems. 

Tetraceras (tc-tras'e-ras), . [NL. (Hamilton 
Smith, 1827), also fetraceros, Tetraccrus, < Gr. 
Terpantpuf, four-honied, < rrrpa-, four, + nfpac, 
horn.] A genus of four-horned Borida, as T. 
quadricornis, an Indian antelope. The female 
is hornless. See cut under niriiir-deer. 

Tetracerata (tet-ra-ser'a-tft), n. pi. [NL., pi. of 
"tetraccrtis: see fetraceras.] One of two fami- 
lies of De Blainville's (1825) poly branchiate 
Paracephalophom, consisting of various gen- 
era, not all of which were properly grouped to- 
gether. They are mostly nudibranchiate or notobran- 
chiate gastropods. The family is contrasted with Vice- 
rota. Also Tetracera. 

tetracerous (te-tras'e-rus), n. [< Or. - 
put, four-horned, < reran-, four, + xepat, horn.] 
In conch., having four horns or feelers, as a 

Tetracha (tet'ra-ka), n. [NL. (Hope, 1838), < 
Gr. rirpax , in. four parts, < TCT/XJ-, four.] A 
notable genus of tiger-beetles, of the family ( '/- 
cimli li<l;c. comprising about 50 species, mainly 
South American and West Indian, a few. how- 
ever, inhabiting Australia, North America, 
southern Europe, and northern Africa. They have 
the hind coxee contiguous, the eyes large and prominent, 
and the third joint of the maxillary palpi longer than the 
fourth. T. carolitKi and T. virffinuxt, two large handsome 
metallic beetles, are found in the 1'nited States; the latter 
is crepuscular, and both are noted enemies of certain in- 
jurious larva;. See cut under tiger-beetle. 

tetrachaenium (tet-ra-ke'ni-um), n. ; pi. tftni- 
rlnniiii (-ii). [Also ti-triii-hiiiiinn: < Gr. rerpa-, 
four, + xairetv. open.] In hot., a fruit formed 
by the separating of a single ovary into four 
nuts, us in the l.liinta>. Ili-nslmr. [Hare.] 


Tetrachaetae (tet-ra-ke'te>, . pi. [NL.. pi. of 
ti-triii-li.rtii* : see ti tnn-li.-rt'iiix.] A division of 
br.ichycoron.s IHjili-ni. containing those tlie* 
which' are tetraehjetous: correlated with l>i- 
i-lnrlii- and lit .rni'lurta. 

tetrachastous (tet-ra-ke'ttis), a. [< Gr. rerpa-, 
four. + xa'ini, mane : see clueta.] Having the 
haustellum composed of four (not of t wo or six) 
pieces, as n fly; of or pertaining to that divi- 
sion of brachycerous dipterous insects whose 
haustellum is of this character: correlated w ith 
itirlifl'tniis and liexaclisetoun. See cuts under .\i/c- 
I>IIIIK and Afili'fi/i. 

tetrachiru8(tet-ra-ki'ru). n.;T>\.tetrachiri(-ri). 
[NL., < Gr. n ru&xetp, four-handed, < rerpa-. four, 
-T- xf'p, hand.] In teratol., a monster with four 

tetrachord (tet'ra-k6rd), n. [= F. tetracorde, 
< Gr. nrpaxopoof, having four strings, < rerpa-, 
four, + xopSI], a string, chord : see chord.'] In 
mimic: (a) An instrument with four strings. 
(6) The interval of a perfect fourth, (c) A dia- 
tonic series of four tones, the first and last of 
which are separated by a perfect fourth. The 
tetrachord was the unit of analysis in ancient music, like 
the hexachord In early medieval music, or the octave in 
modern music. It Is asserted that originally the term was 
applied to a series consisting of a given tone, its octave, 
its fourth, and a tone a fourth below the octave (as, 
1,1;, A, I'-); but in its usual form ft was a diatonic series. 
Three varieties were recognized, differing in the position 
of the semitone. The Dorian tetrachord had the semi- 
tone at the bottom, the Phrygian in the middle, and the 
Lydian at the top, thus : 

Dorian, ~ * 
Phrygian, * 
Lydian, - * - * w 

Of these the Dorian was regarded as the chief or standard. 
Scales were made up by adding tetrachords together. 
When successive tetrachords had a tone In common, they 
were called conjunct; when they were separated by a 
whole step, ili*juHct (thus, E-A, A-D would represent 
the former, and E-A, B-E' the latter). Octave-scales 
were made up of two disjunct tetrachords, the separating 
interval being called the diazeuctic tone. (See rmxfri , 7 (a).) 
'I In- completed system of tones finally adopted by the 
Greeks embraced a total compass of two octaves, extend- 
ing upward from a tone probably nearly equivalent to the 
second A below middle C, as tones are now named. The 
various tones of this system were distributed among five 
tetrachords, and named accordingly, as follows : 

I Extreme. 

Distinct , 

J a b e d 


' Conjunct. 1 Middle. 1 Lowest. 

'f TY |* r r r , EEEE 

S2 ! m J 
hi j k I tn n o p q 



a, nete hyperbpla-on ; <*, paranete hyperbolaeon ; t, trite hyperU> 
l.r-nii ; d, nete diezeugmenon ; r, patanete diezeugmenon ; /, trite 
diezeuffmetion ; g, paramese ; h, nete syneinmenon ; I, paianete sy- 
Ttenimenon ; ; . trite synemmeoon ; i, tnese ; /, lichanos mcsun ; m, par- 
hypate meson ; n, hypate meson ; e, lichanos hypatcn ; /, parhypate 
hypaton ; g, hypate nypaton ; r, proslambanomenos. The terms tty- 
pcrbotmon, ditMtMfmrHett, syntmmerttm, mesa*, and hyfaton are 
really genitives plural, but are sometimes loosely used as names of 
the tetrachords. 

It should further be noted that the Greeks recognized two 
other varieties of tetrachords the chromatic, consisting 
of two semitones and a minor third, and the enharmonic, 
consisting of two quarter-tones and a major third. The 
tetrachord is more or less recognized in modern music, 
the major scale being conceived of as made up of two dis- 
junct Lydian tetrachords, and the minor scale of two dis- 
junct tetrachords, the lower Phrygian, and the upper 
either Dorian (In the descending minor) or Lydian (in the 

tetrachordal (tet'ra-k6r-dal), a. [< tetrachord 
+ -a/.] In music, pertaining to a tetrachord, 
or consisting of tetrachords: as, the tetraclionlti/ 

musical theory of the Greeks Tetrachordal 

system, a name applied to one of the early forms of the 
tonic sol-fa system of teaching music. 

tetrachordon (tet-ra-k6r'don), w. [NL.: see 
tetrachord."} A musical instrument in which, 
while it has strings and a keyboard, like the 
pianoforte, the tones are produced from the 
strings by pressing them, by means of the digi- 
tals, against a revolving cylinder of india-rub- 
ber covered with rosin. Compare liarmonichord, 
hurdy-gurdy, and keyed riolin (under keyed). 

tetrachotomous (tet-ra-kot'o-mus), a. [< Gr. 
rtrpaxa, in four parts (<! rer/ia'-, four), + -ro/iof, < 
rffivetv, rafifiv, cut.] In :oi>l. and hot., doubly 
dichotomous; arranged in four ranks or rows"; 
iinadrifarious; divided into four parts, or into 
sets of four; quadripartite. 

tetrachronous (te-trak'ro-nus), a. [< Or. rt- 
rpaxpovof, of four times, < rerpa-, four, + xp> n f, 
time.] In anc. pros., having a magnitude of four 
primary or fundamental times: tetraseinir. 

tetracladine (tet-ra-klad'in), a. [<Gr. myz-, 
four, + E. <-/<idi>ie.~\ Cladose, or branching into 


a number of variously shaped processes, as a 
caltrop or sponge-picnle of the tetraxon type. 
/;,--/.-. lini.. XXI I. 417. 

tetracladose (tet-ra-kla'dos), a. [< Gr. rcrpa-, 
four. + 10. i-lniliini .} Same as tetracladine. 

tetracoccous (tet-ra-ke.k'un), n. [< Gr. rerpa-, 
four, + MMA<, berry.] In lot., having four 
cocci or carpels. See cut under coccus. 

tetracolic (tet-ra-ko'lik), n. [< tetracol(mi) + 
-if.] In anc. proa., consisting of four cola or 

tetracolon (tet-ra-ko'lon), M.; pi. tetracola (-IB). 
[LL., < Qr.reTpaKu'Aov, neut. of TerpaitMor.,<. nrfta-, 
four, + KU'/JW, a limb, a member: see eotonl.] In 
inn: rlict. and pros., a period consisting of four 

Tetracoralla (tct'ra-ko-ral'ft), . pi. [NL., < 
Gr. rerpa-, four, + lOpiMiav, coral.] A division 
of corals, corresponding to the Rugosa. 

tetracoralline (tet-ra-kor'a-lin), a. [< Tetra- 
coralla + -iwr'.] Of or pertaining to the Tetra- 
i-nnillii: rugose, as a stone-coral. See Cyathtix- 


tetract(tet'rakt), a. [< Gr. Ttrpa-, four,+ axrif, 
a ray, beam.] Having four rays, as a sponge- 
spicule; quadriradiate. See cut under sponge- 


tetractinal (te-trak'ti-nal), a. [< tetractine + 
-a/.] Having four rays, as a sponge-spicule. 

tetractine (te-trak'tin), a. [As tetract + -tne 1 .] 
Having four rays, or being quadriradiate, as a 

tetractinellid (t-trak-ti-nel'id), a. and . I. 
a. Pertaining to the Tetractinellida, or having 
their characters. 
II. n. A member of the Tetractinellida. 

Tetractinellida (te-trak-ti-nel'i-dft), n. pi. 
[NL., < Gr. rerpa-, four, + a*r<f (OKTIV-), ray, + 
-ella + -i<la : see tetract.] In Spllas's classifica- 
tion of sponges, the second tribe of Silicifpon- 
yiie, contrasted with Monaxonida, including 
those Demospongix which possess qnadriradi- 
ate or tritene spicules or lithistid scleres. It 
includes the great majority of existing sponges, and is 
divided into Choristiila and Lit/Mida. 

tetractinellidan (te-trak-ti-nel'i-dan), a. [< 
TetractincJIida + -an.] Same as tetractinellid. 

tetractinelline (te-trak-ti-nel'in), a. [< Te- 
Irni'tinill(iiln) + -ine 1 .] Same as tetractinellid. 

tetractomy (te-trak'to-mi), . [Properly "tet- 
rachotomy (of. dichotomy, tetrachotomoutt), < Gr. 
Ttrpaxa, in four parts, + -rofiia, a cutting, < ri/t- 
vttv, Tafieiv, cut.] A division into four parts. 

The one key to St. Paul's meaning is the principle that, 
besides body and soul which make up man's natural be- 
ing regenerated man possesses spirit, the principle of 
supernatural life. This has been somewhat unfairly called 
Bull's theory, and accused of making up a Utractomy 
body, soul, spirit, and Holy Spirit. 

Speaker s Commentary, 1 Thes. v. 23. 

tetracyclic (tet-ra-sik'lik), a. [< Gr. rtrpa-, 
four, T a-fic/of, ring.] In bot., having four cir- 
cles or whorls of floral organs : said of flowers. 

tetrad (tet'rad), n. [< Gr. rerpac, (-a<5-), the 
number four, < rerpa-, four: see tetra-.'} 1. The 
number four; also, a collection of four things. 
Also quadrad. 2. In chem.,nn atom the equiv- 
alence of which is four, or an element one atom 
of which is equivalent, in saturating power, to 
four atoms of hydrogen. 3. In morphology, a 
quaternary unit of organization resulting from 
individuation or integration of an aggregate of 
triads. See triad, iluad. 

tetradactyl. tetradactyle (tet-ra-dak'til), o. 
and M. [ ' Gr. re TpadaicTv/jor, , having four fingers 
or toes, < rerpa-, four, + <5dcTvtaf , a finger, toe : 
see dactyl.] I. a. Having four fingers or toes; 
quadridigitate : noting either (o) the fore feet 
or the hind feet of a quadruped, or (6) a four- 
toed bird, or (c) a quadruped only (when four- 
toed before and behind). 
II. n. A four-toed animal. 

tetradactylity (tet'ra-dak-til'i-ti), M. [< tetra- 
ilnct\jl + -iti/.] Tetradactyl character or state. 
\titiire, XLIII. 329. 

tetradactylous (tet-ra-dak'ti-lus), a. [< tetra- 
dactyl + -OM.] Same as tetradactyl. 

tetrad-deme (tet'rad-dem), w. A colony or 
aggregate of undifferentiated tetrads. See 
triad-ileme, dyad-dcme. Encyc. Brit., XVI. 843. 

tetradecapod (tet-ra-dek'a-pod), a. and n. [< 
Gr. rtrpa-, four. + Aena, ten, + JTOI'Y (irof!-) = E. 
foot.] I. a. Having fourteen feet; of or per- 
taining to the Trtritdrrunoda. 
II. . A member of the Tetradecapoda. 

Tetradecapoda (tet'ra-de-kap'6-d&), . ///. 
[NL.: see MrwiMqpodJ Fourteen-footed crus- 
taceans; an order of I'rnslacra corresponding 



to Artlirostntcii. The multiarticulate cephalo- 
thorax has seven thoracic segments, each of 
which bears a pair of legs. The order includes 
the isopods and amphipods. 
tetradecapodous (tet"ra-de-kap'o-dus), a. [< 
tetradecapod + -ous.] Same as tetradecapod. 

[< tetragon + 


one who has married four times, < Gr. rerpa-, tetragonous (te-trag'o-nus), a. 

four, + yAfiof, marriage. Cf. digamy.] A fourth -ous.] Same us tetragonal. 

marriage; marriage for the fourth time. [Rare.] tetragram (tet'ra-gram), n. [< Gr. 

He [Symeon Magisterj says that the lawfulness of te- P v > a word of four letters (not found in the 

tragamy was believed to have been revealed to Euthymius. sense of a figure of four lines'), < rtrpa-, four, 

Robertson, Hist. Christ. Church, IV. 3. + ypd/tfta, a line, letter : see granfi.] 1 . A word 

tetradiapason (tet"ra-dl-a-pa'zon), . [< Gr. tetragenous (te-traj'e-nus), a. [< Gr. rerpa-, of four letters. 2. In geom., a figure formed 

Ti-Tfia-, torn; + E. diapaso'ii.] In mvsi-e, the in- four, + -yevfc, < yiyveoDai, be born: see -gen. -ge- b . v four "ght lines. 

teryal of four octaves, or a twenty-ninth. Also nous.] In bacteriology, giving rise to square Tetragrammaton(tet-ra-gram'a-ton), n. [<Gr. 

octave, groups of four, as micrococci which divide in ri> rtTpayp^tftarmi, a word of four letters, < rerpa- 

two planes at right angles, and whose newly }p<W<zroc, _? fou . r letters : see tetragram.] A 
formed cells remain attached to one another. 
In investigating the etiology of tuberculosis, E. Koch found 
in a cavity of the lungs, in a case of phthisis, a peculiar mi- 
crococcus in square groups of four, enveloped in a trans- 
parent capsule. This micrococcus was named Micrococ- 
cus tetragenws (whence the term tetragenous). 

complex of four letters : applied to the mystic 
name Jehovah (see Jehovah) as written with four 
Hebrew letters, and sometimes transferred to 
other similar combinations. 

When God the Father was pleased to pour forth all his 
glories, and imprint them upon his holy Son in his exal- 
tation, it was by giving him his holy name, the Tetragram- 
maton, or Jehovah made articulate. 

Jer. Taylor, Works' (ed. 1835X I. 744. 
It follows from all this that the true representative of 
the Tetragrammaton is the name itself, whether the form 
preferred be Jahveh, or the venerable and euphonious 

e fourth square, < Gr. rerpdywof/four-cornered; square, . Nineteenth Century, XX. 97. 

n eccles. neu t. rerpdyuvov, a square, < rerpa-, four, + vuvla, Wtragyn (let ra-jin), n. [< Gr. rerpa-, four, + 
> < a female (in mod. hot, a pistil).] In Jo*., 

The constituents of the colony turned out to be a tetra- 
genous microbe quite distinct from the plain atmospheric 
micrococcus with which he had thought it could be iden- 
tified. Science, XI. 283. 

called quadruple diapason, quadruple 
and quadruple eighth . 

tetradic (te-trad'ik), a. [= OF. tetradique; < 
LGr. rerpa&Kdf, tetradic, < Gr. rerpdf (-a(!-), a tet- 
rad.] 1. In anc.pros. : (a) Comprising four dif- 
ferent rhythms or meters : as, the tetradic epip- 
loce. (6) Consisting of pericopes, or groups 
of systems each of which contains four unlike 
systems: as, a tetradic poem. 2. Of or per- 
taining to a tetrad. Also tetratomic. 

tetradite (tet'ra-dit), n. [< tetrad + -ite'*.] 

One who has soine special relation to the num- tetragon (tet'ra-gon), n. [< F. tetragone = Sp. 
ber four, (a) One who regarded four as a mystic num- tetrdgono = Pg. It. tetragono, < L. tetragonum, a 
ber. (6) Among the ancients, a child born in the 
month or on the fourth day of the month, (c) In - 

S']TQuarUe V cTm n an eSfOUrg d8intheg d ' <<0 angle, corner.] I/In geom.; a figure having ... -x- , , 

tetradrachm ~ra-dram), n. [< L. tetra- >nr angles; a quadrangle; a quadrilateral.-^ ^l^l^te^awn^ ^ PI8tUS; * 
drachmum, < Gr. nrpUpaxpZ, a piece of four 2. In astral., an aspect of two planets with re- ^-trkWia. '?' nl rm 

gard to the earth when they are distant from ietragynia (tet-ra-jm i-a), n. pi. [NL.: see 
each other 90, or the fourth part of a circle ; f r W-J ., An . ? rder of plants in several of the 
quartile aspect; square. classes in the Linnean system, comprehending 

tetragonal (te-trag'o-nal), . [< tetragon + -al.] * hose P lants which have four P isti 's. as the 

1. In geom., pertaining to a tetragon; having . ? ^ ' 

four angles or sides. 2. In bot. and eool., four- tetragyman (tet-ra-jm i-an), i, [< tetragyn + 

angled; having four longitudinal angles. 3 '"'"] In bot -' navin g the characters of the 

Square; quartile. Sir T. Browne.- Tetragonal J2*" W " te; tetragynous. 

spheroid, a tetrahedron with isosceles faces. Telrag- tetragynous (te-traj i-nus), a. [ < tetragyn + 

onal stem, a stem that has four sides, as in many Labi- -Otis.] Having a gynoacium of four carpels. 

atse. Tetragonal system, in crystal., that system in tetrahedral (tet-ra-he'drall a TAlsn tftrnp 

which the three axes are at right angles to each other, but d r< d-<tftrfil}f<lr,n,+ nl \ 1 Pfirtainl 

the two equal lateral axes differ in length from the ver- Ul <> tetranearon-r -al. ] 1. Pertaining to a 

ticalaxis. See crystallography. Also dimetric, quadratic, tetrahedron. 2. In crystal.: (a) Having the 

monodimetric, etc. form of the regular tetrahedron. (6) Pertain- 

tetragonel (te-trag'o-nel), a. [Heraldic F.: ing or relating to a tetrahedron, or to the system 
see tetragonal.] In her., represented as a four- of forms to which the tetrahedron belongs : as, 
sided solid shown in perspective : thus, apyra- tetrahedral hemihedrism (see hemihedrism). 
mid is distinguished from a pile or point by be- 
ing represented in perspective, two sides show- 
ing, and is often blazoned a tetragonel pyramid. 

Tetragonia (tet-ra-go'ni-a), n. [NL. (Lumfeus, 
1737),<Gr.rerpoyiJwa,the'spindle-tree(socalled . . -. -. 

from its square fruit), < Tcrpayume, square: see tetrahedrally (tet-ra-he dral-i), adv. 
tetragon.] A genus of plants, of the order Fi- rahedral form. Also tetraedrally. 
coidete, distinguished from Mesembryanthemum, tetrahednte (tet-ra-he drit), . 
the other genus of its tribe, Mesembryese, by 

drachmas, < re- 
rpa-, four, + 
dpaxpii/, a drach- 
ma : see drach- 
ma.] A silver 
coin of ancient 
Greece, of the 
value of four 
drachmas. See 

Silver tetra- 

drachms of ^Enos. 
R. P. Knight. 


n. [< Gr. re- 
rpdrfv/^of, four- 
fold, + -ife2.] 
Native bismuth 
telluride, con- 
taining also 
some sulphur, a 
mineral occur- 
ring in foliated 
masses of a pale 
steel-gray color 
and brilliant 
metallic luster. 
Also called tel- 
luric bismuth, 
tellur - bismuth, 

Tetrahedral angle, in geom., a solid angle bounded or 
inclosed by four plane angles. Tetrahedral coordi- 
nates. See coordinate. Tetrahedral garnet, helvite : 
so called because, while related to garnet in composition, 
it occurs in tetrahedral crystals. Tetrahedral group 
See group*. 

In a tet- 

[< tetrahedron 
+ -ite't.] A mineral often occurring in tetrahe- 

its apetalous flowers, it includes about 20 species, d l al JV ai ^ (whence the name), also massive, 
mainly natives of the Cape of Good Hope, with others in t an iron-black color and brilliant metallic lus- 


Tetradrachm of Athens, about 220 - 196 
B. c. British Museum. (Size of the ori- 

and bornine. 

tetradymous (te-trad'i-mus). a. [< Gr. .. 
<5i)/iof, fourfold, < rerpa-, four: see tetra-.] In 
bot., having every alternate lamella shorter than x 
the two contiguous to it, and one complete la- tetragonismt (te-trag o-mzm), n. 


eastern Asia, Australia, and South America. They are 
somewhat fleshy herbs or undershrubs with weak or pros- 
trate stems, bearing alternate entire leaves, and axillary 
greenish-yellow or reddish flowers. The fruit is a drupe 
or nut, often prominently winged, angled, or horned, con- 
taining a bony stone with from one to nine one-seeded 
cells. By Lindley the genus was made the type of a former 
order Tetragoniacess. See Australian and New Zealand 
spinach (under spinach), and compare fat-hen and soda. 

ter. It is essentially a sulphid of copper and antimony, 
but the antimony may be replaced by arsenic or less fre- 
quently by bismuth, and the copper may be replaced by 
silver (in the variety freibergite), mercury (in the variety 
schwatzite), also iron, zinc, lead, and in small amounts 
cobalt and nickel. It is commonly called Fahlerzm Ger- 
many (whence the English fahl-are). It is sometimes an 
important silver ore. 

tetrahedroid (tet-ra-he'droid), n. [< tetrahe- 
dron + -oid.~\ A quartic surface the 

, ^-UL^CUC ia - .- . [NL- tetra- dron + -oid.] A quartic surface the envelop 

mella terminating a set of every four pairs of O ontsmus (John Bernoulli, 1696), < tetragon + of a quadric surface touching eight given lines ; 

short and long: said of an agaric ; also, havine m *l w ^ The 1 ua( irature of any curve. a surface obtained by a homographic transfer- 

tf\.i*. n^llr. ^.. , I-* _ . .1 TT " I OT.1*Q tftVnnna fi-cli--*n-m\ r nn*\c.\ TXTT ;O:.. Ai _ J.T 4. . -rr 




. Jardme, 

four cells or cases combined. 

Tetradynamia (tefra-di-na'mi-a), [NL., 

The fifteenth class in the Linnean system"fom- ^ ial - barbets ' belonging to the American Capi- the sixteen double planes pass'by'fours "aquar- 

onops (tet-ra-go'nops), M. [NL. (Sir 
rdme, 1855), < Gr. rcrpdyuvoc, square, 
f aee.] A remarkable genus of scanso- 

mation of the wave-surface ; a Kummer's sur- 
face whose sixteen nodes lie in fours upon the 
faces of a tetrahedron through whose summits 

prehending those plants which bear hermaph- 
rodite flowers with six stamens, four of them 
longer than the other two. it was divided into 2 
orders Siticvlosa, of which the common garden-cress and 
shepherd s-purse are examples, and SUiauosa, of which the 
mustard and cabbage are examples. AU the plants of this 
class are now included in the natural order Cntdfene. 

tetradynamian (tefra-di-na/mi-an), a. [< 
Tetradi/namia + -an.] 'In bot., having the char- 
acters of the Tetradynamia; tetradynamous. 

tetradynamous (tet-ra-din'a-mus), a. [< Gr. 
rerpa-, four, + Svva/ucj' power. Cf. Tetradyna- 
mia.] Having six stamens, four longer ar- 
ranged in opposite pairs, and two shorter, in- 
serted lower down: a relation found only in 
the flowers of Cruet/eras. See cut under stamen . 

tetraedral, tetraedron (tet-ra-e'dral, -dron) 
Same as tetrahedral, tetrahedron. 

Tetragameliae (tet"ra-ga-me'li-e), [NL., 
< Gr. rerpa-, four, + yarffaoc, of a wedding, < 
yauoc, a wedding.] A division of rhizostoma- 
tous discomedusans having the four subgenital 
pouches distinct: opposed to Monogamelix. 

tetragamelian (tetra-ga-me'li-an), a. Per- 
taining to or having the characters of the Tet- 

tomnse. It is characterized by the peculiar metagna- 
ilsm of the beak, the under mandible having two angu- 

Tttragonops rhamphastinus. 

lar points which overlap the tip of the upper. There are 

tic surface cut by each of the planes of a tetra- 
hedron in pairs of conies in respect to which 
the three summits in this plane are conjugate 
points, and such that one of the points of inter- 
section of the conies (and therefore all) is a node 
of the surface : so named by Cayley in 1846. 
tetrahedron (tet-ra-he'drqn),n.; pi. tetrahedra, 
tetrahedrons (-dra,"-dronz). [Also tetraedron; 
= F. tetraedre = Sp. Pg. te- 
traedro, < Gr. rerpa-, four, + 
fSpa, seat, base.] A solid 
comprehended under four 
plane faces; especially, the 
regular tetrahedron, or tri- 
angular pyramid having its 
base and sides equilateral 
triangles. In crystallography and 
in geometry the tetrahedron is re- 
garded as a hemihedral form of the 
octahedron, four of whose faces 
form the plus, and the four alter- 
nate faces (two above and two be- 
low) the minus tetrahedron. The 
figures represent the tetrahedron 
in the position required to exhibit 
its relation to the octahedron. See 
hemihedral. Orthogonal tetra- 

2- . mi i . v.f.f*'*. *iw <uc rii'mim (irtn 

species, T. rhamphastinus of Ecuador and T. frantzi hedron a tetrahedron The" pairs of 
tetragamy (te-trag'a-mi), n.. [< MGr. rerpaya- & SJ% ^5?^J^1S& whose opposite edges are at right angles-mother words, 

Ilia, the marrying a 'fourth time, < *Tt~rpdyaftoc, 

tiveness of a toucan, is singularly variegated with black 
white, ashy, golden-brown, orange-red, and scarlet. 

the planes through these edges and the shortest line be- 
tween them are at right angles. Such a tetrahedron is die- 


tlnguisherl by having nn orthocenter. Polar tetrahe- 
dron, a tetrahedron the planes of which are tlu- polars of 
the vertices of another tetrahedron. Tetrahedron Of 
MbbiUSjOiie of a pair of tetrahcilra each inscribed in the 

oilier. -Truncated tetrahedron, a solid formed i..v cut- 

tin : ol! r:irli enniri of a tetrahedron l>y a plane parallel to 

'I ..... pji.isile laee to BUell HIl extent as In leave tllO faCCS 

regular hexagons. At the truncated purtH there areregn- 
l;n triangles. II i.s one of the thirteen Archimedean solids. 

tetrabezahedral (tot-ra-hok-sa-he'dral), a. [< 
tetrphexakedron + -<il.] Having the form of a 
t etni In '.\:i lii 'droii. Also tetrakignexokedral. 

tetrahexahedron ('dron), . [< 

^ iiv. nr/xi-, four, + tf, six, + 

different possibilities 

fi'pn, seat, base (see .. K/.- 
/Iron).] A solid bounded by 
twenty-four equal triangular 
faces, four corresponding to 
each face of the cube. In crys- 
tallography this solid belongs to 
the Isometric system. In geometry 
the name is especially applied to 
that variety in which all the adja- 
cent faces are equally inclined to 
one another. Also called tetrakixhfxahcdrun, and some- 
times fluoroid, as being a form common with fluor-spar, 
tetrakishexahedron (tet'ra-kis-hek-sa-he'- 
ilron). n. [< Gr. rerpdmf, rerpam, four times, + 
10. lir.m/icilron.] Same as tetrahexahedron. 
tetralemma (tet-ra-lem'a), n. [< Gr. rerpa-, 
four, + ty/i/M, a proposition: see lemma.] A 
dilemma in which four differ 
are considered, 
tetralogy (te-tral'o-ji i. ii. [= V. tftniliniii; < 
Gr. rerpa)M-yia, a group of four dramas, < TIT/HI-, 
four ; + Xoxof, speech.] A group of four dra- 
matic compositions, three tragic and one sa- 
tyric, which were exhibited in connection on 
the Athenian stage for the prize at the festi- 
vals of Bacchus. The term has been extended to a 
group of four operatic works treating of related themes, 
and intended to be performed in connection, 
tetralophodont (tet-ra-lof'6-dout), a. [NL., 
(. Gr. rerpa-, four, + /o^of, ridge, + o<iorf (orfovr-) 
= E. tooth.] Having that dentition which is 
characteristic of the true mastodons, whose 
molars are four-ridged. 

tetramastigate (tet-ra-mas'ti-gat), a. [< Gr. 
rerpa-, four, + /laoril- (fiaorty-), a whip, + -ate 1 .] 
Having four flagella, as an infusoriau. 
Tetrameles (te-tram'e-lez), H. [NL. (Robert 
Brown, 18126), from its 4-merous flowers; < Gr. 
riroa, four, 4- /'/nf, a limb, member.] A ge- 
nus of plants, of the order Datiscete, charac- 
terized by apetalous dio>cious flowers, with four 
calyx-lobes and four elongated stamens or four 
styles.- The only species, T. midijiora, Is a native of 
India, Ceylon, and .lava. It is a tall tree the only tree 
in an otherwise entirely herbaceous order; it bears broad 
long-petioled deciduous leaves, preceded by numerous 
small flowers in long and slender panicled racemes. It is 
known in India && jungle-bendy, and in Java as icetiwng- 

Tetramera (te-tram'e-ra), n. pi. [NL., neut. 
pi. of tetramerus : see tetntmrrous.] Inentom.: 
(a) In Latreille's system, 
a division of Coleoptern, 
containing those beetles 
all of whose tarsi are 
usually or apparently 
tetramerous or four- 
jointed. Also called 
Cryptopcntamera and 
Pseudotetramera. (b) A 
prime division of the 
iiymenopterous family 
Clialriiliilir, comprising 

six subfamilies in which rf"gedtani of other 7V>" 
the tarsi are four-jointed. 

tetrameral (te-tram'e-ral), a. [< tetramcr-oiis 
+ -al.] Four-parted; having parts in fours; 
t rtramerous, as a polyp ; of or pertaining to the 

Tetrameralia (te-tram-e-ra'li-a), n. pi. [NL. : 
sci' tstrttmaral.] The tetrameral polyps, as a 
subclass of scyphotnedusans distinguished from 
()ctonirr<iliii, and composed of the three orders 
Ctili/ci>:<>n. 1'irnmi'diixx, and Cubomedusee. 

tetramerism (te-tram'e-rizm), . [< tetram- 
rr( <>.*) + -imii.] In :ool. and hot., division into 
four parts, or the state of being so divided: 
four-pnrtodiu'ss. Amrr. \dt., XXII. 941. 

tetramerous (te-tram'e-rus), a. [< NL. te- 
trumi-rux, < Gr. rerpauepfc, four-parted, < rerpa-, 
four, + uepof, part.] Consisting of or divided 
into four parts; characterized by having four 
parts. Specincally~() In 6o.,having the parts in fours: 
as, a Mrameroui flower (that is, one having four members 
in each of the floral whorls). It is frequently written 4- 
inermu. (b) In zoiil.: (1) Four-parted: especially noting 
an actinozoan having the radiating parts or organs ar- 
ranged in fours or multiples of four. Compare htxam- 
erma. (i) In entomology, having four joints, as the tar- 

I. I a 

itnxiiicta ; 3, 


BUS of an insect ; having four-jointed tarsi, as a hectic or 
chalcld ; of or pertaining to the7Vfrarru>rrt. see cuts nndei 
PJtytOJRMda and '/' tunitpra. 

tetrameter (ii'-tram'e-ter), . and n. [< LL. te- 
h'limi ti-iiH, < (Jr. riT/iii/iir/inf, having four mea- 
sures, neut. nrp&fitrpav, a verse of four mea- 
sures, < nrpa-, four, + /tirpov, measure.] I. n. 
Having four measures. 

II. a. In iii'os., a verse or period consisting 
of four measures. A trochaic, Iambic, or anapestic 
tetrameter consists of four dipodies (eight feet). A te- 
trameter of other rhythms is a tctrapody, or period of 
four feet. The name is specifically given to the trochaic 
tetrameter cataloctlc. An example of the acatalectlc te- 
trameter is 

(luce upon ft | midnight dreary, I as I pondered | weak 
and weary. Pae, The Raven. 

tetramorph (tet'ra-morf ), H. [< Gr. rerpa/io/xfof, 
four-shaped, fourfold, < rerpa-, four, + popQ'/, 
form.] In t'liri.ttiini art, the union of the four 
attributes of the evangelists in one figure, 
winged, and standing on winged fiery wheels, 
the wings being covered with eyes. It is the 
type of unparalleled velocity. Fairliolt. 

tetrander (te-tran'der), n. [< Gr. rerpa-, four, 
+ avijp (avSp-), male (in mod. bot. a stamen).] 
In hot., a monocli- 
nous or hermaphro- 
dite plant having 
four stamens. 

Tetrandria (te- 
tran'dri-ft), n, pi. 
[NL. : see tetran- 
drr.] The fourth 
class of plants in 
the Linnean sys- 
such as have four 
stamens. The orders 
belonging to this class T <tr<,<tri.- 
are Monof/ynia, Jhrjynut, 
Tetrayynia. The teazel, dodder, and pond-weed are ex- 

tetrandrian (te-tran'dri-an), a. [< tetrander + 
-ian.] In bot., belonging to the class Tetran- 
dria ; tetrandrous. 

tetrandrous (te-tran'drus), a. [< tetrander + 
-ous.] In hot., having four stamens; charac- 
teristic of the class Tetrandria. 

tetrant (tet'rant), n. [< Gr. rerpa-, four, + 
-ant.] A quadrant. IFcale. [Rare.] 

Tetranychidse (tet-ra-nik'i-de), n. pi. [NL., 
< Tetratiychu* + -idle.] A family of mites, 
containing those forms known as spinning- 
mites, and founded on the genus Tetrant/chux. 
In common with the Trambidiidx or harvest-mites, the 
Tetranycliidsf have an appendiculate terminal palpal 
joint, but are smaller and more highly colored than the 
harvest-mites, and are plant-feeders exclusively. Next to 
Tetranychu*, Bryobia is the most noticeable genus. B. 
pratt'iutis frequently enters houses in the United States in 
enormous numbers in the fall. 

Tetranychus (te-tran'i-kus), n. [NL. (Dufour, 
1832), prop. Tetraonychus, < Gr. rerpa-, four, + 
6vv (otn'x-), claw.] A very large and wide- 
spread genus of spinning-mi tes,havinglegs with 
seven joints, the feet short and curved, and the 
mouth with a barbed sucking-apparatus. It con- 
tains minute yellowish or reddish species, most of which 
spin more or less of a web on the under side of leaves, 
and are noted as injurious to vegetation. The so-called 
red-spider, a cosmopolitan hothouse pest, is T. lelarius. 

Tetrao (tet'ra-o), n. [NL., < L. tetrao, < Gr. 
rerpduv, a pheasant, a grouse.] The leading ge- 
nus of Tetraonidx, formerly including all the 
grouse, but subsequently variously restricted, 
now to the capercaillie, T. urogallus, and some 
closely related species. See cut under 


snow-partridge (tee Z^rm) ; they are Indifferently known 
as maw-phfOMnti, iiuite-cixla, and tnow-chvliori, one of 
them ti ing also specified as the clion/' T. cas- 

pius; three other xpeciesare named 7'. hiinalaueiin*, T. 
allaicuf, and T. tiljrtamu. The whole i genus 

Is from Asia Minor to western China, but only in mountain- 
ranges at altitudes up to l>,im feet. In some respects 
the genus approaches Tetraophatit (which see). The size 
is large, the male*, attaining a length of two feet or mot.- ; 
the sexes are nearly alike in plumage, which Is of varied 
dark coloration. The birds frequent open rocky places, 
generally In flocks, and nest on the ground, laying 6 to II 
eggs of an olive color with reddish spots. Also called 

tetraqnid (tet'ru-o-nid), a. and . I. a. Of or 
pertaining to tho Tftrnniiiiln , or grouse family. 
II. n. Any grouse, or other member of the 

Tetraonidae (tet-ra-on'i-de). [NL., < Tet- 
rao( n-) + -idx.] A family of gallinaceous birds, 
of the order (lulling, of which the type is the 
genus Tetrao; the grouse family, having the 
tarsi and nasal fosste more or less completely 
feathered. The leading genera besides Tetrao are Ly- 
mna, Canact (or Dcndragapug), Falcipennit, LayojMi, Cen- 
trocercwt, I'edicecctfjt, Cupidonia (or Tjftnpanuchwt), and 
RonaMt. They are confined to the northern hemisphere, 
and include, besides the birds usually called grmae, the 
capercaillie, prairie-hen, sage-cock, ptarmigan, and others. 
The family has been used in a more comprehensive sense, 
including then an indefinite number of genera of par- 
tridges, quails, and similar birds. See cuU under black- 
cock, Botiasa, Canaff, capercailzie, Centrocemu, Cupidonia, 
grmue, Oreortyx, partridge, Pedioecetts, &n& ptarmigan. 

Tetraoninae (tefra-o-ni'ne), [NL., < 
Tetrao(n-), a grouse, H- -inte.] The grouse fam- 
ily, Tetraonidx, rated as a subfamily of gallina- 
ceous birds, or a restricted division of that fam- 
ily in its widest sense. 

tetraonine (tet'ra-o-nin), a. Of or pertaining 

' to the Tetraoninse. ' 

The true (lallinic offer two types of structure, "one of 

which may be called Galllne, and the other Trtranninf." 

Eneyc. Brit., XVIII. 838. 

Tetraonomorphae (tet"ra-o-no-m6r'fe), n. pi. 
[NL., < Gr. Ttrpauv, a grouse, + /iop<t>r/, form.] 
In Sundevall's system of ornithological clas- 
sification, a cohort of Gallinse, consisting of the 
sand-grouse (I'teroclidse) and grouse proper 

Tetraonychidae, Tetraonychus. More correct 
forms of Tetranycltidie, Tetranychux. 

Tetraoperdix (tet'ra-o-per'diks), n. [NL.,< tr. 
rerpAui; a grouse, + Trfpfif, a partndge.] In 

tetraodion (tet-ra-6'di-on), w. [< MGr. rerpa- 
<f6iav, < Gr. rerpa-, four, + ^xJi;, ode.] In the 
fir. Ch., a canon of four odes. 

Tetraodon, tetraodont, etc. See Tetrodon,etc. 

Tetraogallus (tet'ra-o-gal'us), . [NL. (J. E. 
Gray, 1833-4), < L. tetrao, a grouse, + gallus, 
cock.] A genus of snow-partridges. These birds 
are near relatives of Lerva nivicola, another species of 

Snow.partridgc ( Tetrttogalltts kimalaytnsis'*. 

ornith., same as Lerva. 

Tetraophasis (tet-ra-of'a-sis), n. [NL. (Jules 
Verreaux, 1870), < Gr. rerpduv, a grouse, + Qaotf, 
the river Phasis, with ref. to jtmfftf, pheasant: 
see pheasant.] A ^enus of gallinaceous birds 
peculiar to Tibet, with one species, T. obscurus, 
in some respects intermediate between pheas- 
ants and grouse. It is about 20 inches long, 
and of dark-brown and -gray colors, alike in 
both sexes. 

tetrapetalous (tet-ra-pet'a-lus), a. [< Gr. 
rerpa-, four, + Tnfro/lov, leaf (petal).] In bot., 
having four petals. 

tetrapnarmacon (tet-ra-far'ma-kon), n. [NL., 
a\sotetrapharmacum; < Gr. Terpa^dpftoKov, a com- 
pound of wax, resin, lard, and pitch, neut. of re- 
rpa<l>Ap/iaKof, compounded of four drugs, < rerpa-, 
four, + Q&piioKav, drug : see pharmacon.] An 
ointment composed of wax, resin, lard, and 

tetrapharmacum(tet-ra-far'ma-kum), n. Same 
as telrapharmariin. 

tetraphony(tet'ra-fo-ni), . [< Gr. m-pa-, four, 
+ 0uii>/, voice.] In early medieval music, di- 
aphony for four voices. 

Tetrap'hyllidea (tet'ra-fi-lid'e-a), w. pi. [NL. , 
< Gr. Tfrpa-, four, + Qifaov, a leaf.] A division 
of Cestoidea, including tapeworms of various 
fishes, in which the head is furnished with four 
lobes, suckers, or tentacles, or in any way dis- 
tinguished by fours into sets of parts or organs. 
The group includes the genera Tetrarhynchtit, 
Echineibothrium, and Acantliobothrium. 

tetraphyllidean (tet'ra-fi-lid'e-an), a. Of or 
belonging to the Tetraphi/llided. " 

tetraphyllous (tet-ra-fiT'us), a. [< Gr. rerpa-. 
four, + ^;//or, a leaf.] In bot., four-leaved ; 
consisting of four distinct leaves or leaflets. 

Tetrapla (tet'ra-pla), n. [< Gr. rtrpaT^o, neut. 

El. of rtrpairUof, rtrpairAwf, fourfold, < rerpa-, 
>ur, + -!r?opc, -fold.] An edition of the Bible 
in four versions. The name is specially given to a 
work by Origen, containing the Greek versions of Aquila, 
Symmachus, and Theodotion and the Septuaglnt Com- 
pare Htxapla, Octapla. 

Tetrapleura (tet-ra-plo'ra). H. pi. [NL., < Gr. 
rerpa-, four. + -/n/m\ a rib.] Those organic 
forms which are tetrapleural : distinguished 
from IHplrnrn. 


tetrapleural (tet-ra-plo'ral), a. [As Tctrapleura 
+ -al.] In proniorpltology, zygopleural with 
four autimeres. Haeckel. 

Tetrapneumona (tet-rap-nu'mo-na), n. pi. 
[NL., neut. pi. of *tetra}/neumo>tus: see tetrap- 
neuiiionoug.] 1. A division of Arnneina, or true 
spiders, having four lungs, four spinnerets, and 
eight approximated ocelli : distinguished from 
IHpueumones. It consists of the mygalids or thera- 
phoses, the bird-spiders of South America, the tarantu- 
las of North America, and the trap-door spiders. Also 

2. A group of holothurians, represented by the 
genus lihopalodina, having four water-lungs 
(whence the name), Schmarda. Also called 
Decacreiiidia, Dtptostomidm, and Rhopalodinse. 

n. |X tetrapneumon-ous + -ian.] I. . Of or 
pertaining to the Tetrapneumona. 

II. n. A spider belonging to the Tetrapneu- 

tetrapneumonous (tet-rap-nu'mo-uus), a. [< 
NL. "tetrapneumonus, < Gr. rerpa-, four, + irvci'- 
/<uv,alung: see pneumonia.] Having four lungs. 
Specifically (a) Having four water-lungs, or respiratory 
trees. (6) Raving four lung-sacs, as a spider. 

tetrapod (tet'ra-pod), a. and n. [< Gr. rerpa- 
novf (-Trorf-), also rerpairodrif, four-footed, < rerpa-, 
four, + Troi'f (7ro(S-) = E. foot.'} I. a. Four-foot- 
ed; quadruped; specifically, haying only four 
perfect legs, as certain butterflies; of or per- 
taining to the Tetrapoda. 

II. . A four-footed animal ; a quadruped ; 
specifically, a member of the Tetrapoda. 

Tetrapoda (te-trap'o-da), w. pi. [NL.: see tet- 
rapod.] In entom., a division of butterflies hav- 
ing the first pair of legs more or less reduced 
and folded, not fitted for walking. 

tetrapodichnite (tet"ra-po-dik'nit), n. [< NL. 
Tetrapodichnites, < Gr. Terpdirovf, four-footed 
(see tetrapod), + Ixvof, a track, footstep: see 
iehnite.] In geol. , the footprint of a four-footed 
animal, as a saurian reptile, left on a rock. 
See iehnite. 

Tetrapodichnites (tet-ra-pod-ik-ni'tez), n. 
[NL. (Hitchcock): see tetrapodichnite.'] A hy- 
pothetical genus of animals whose tracks are 
known as tetrapodichuites. 

tetrapodous (te-trap'o-dus), a. [< tetrapod + 
-ous.] Same as tetrapod. 

tetrapody (te-trap'o-di), n. [< Gr. rerpanodia, 
a measure or lengtn of four feet, in pros, a te- 
trapody, < Terpdirovf , having four feet : see tetra- 
pod.] A group of four feet ; a colon, meter, 
or verse consisting of four feet. Amer. Jour. 
Philol.,X. 225. 

tetrapolis (te-trap'o-lis), n. [< Gr. rerpanoAtf, a 
district having four cities, prop, adj., having 
four cities, < rerpa-, four, + mSfof, a city.] A 
group or association of four towns ; a district 
or political division characterized by contain- 
ing four important cities. See tetrapolitan. 

" The garden opposite Euboia's coast " was inhabited by 
the Apolline Tetrapolis. 

Harrison and Verrall, Ancient Athens, p. xcvii. 

tetrapolitan (tet-ra-pol'i-tan), a. [< NL. tetra- 
politaniis, < tetrapolis, a group of four cities: 
see tetrapolis.] Of or belonging to a tetrapo- 
lis, or group of four towns; specifically [cap.], 
relating to the four towns of Constance, Lindau, 
Memmingen, and Strasburg Tetrapolitan Con- 
fession, a confession of faith presented at the Diet of 
Augsburg in 1530 by the representatives of the four cities 
named above. It resembled the Augsburg Confession, but 
inclined somewhat to Zwinglian views. 

tetraprostyle (tet-ra-pro'stil), a. [< Gr. rerpa-, 
four, + irpoimwlof , with pillars in front : see pro- 
style.] Noting a cla/ssical tem- 
ple having a portico of four 
columns in front of the cella 
or naos. 

tetrapteran (te-trap'te-ran), 
a. and n. [< tetrapter-ous + 
-an.] I. a. Having four wings, 
as an insect ; tetrapterous. 

II. . An insect which has 
four wings. 

tetrapterous (te-trap'te-rus), 
a. [< Gr. TETpaTn-fpof, four- 
winged, < rcrpa-, four, + irrepov, 
wing.] Having four wings, as 
a fruit or stem (see wing); te- 

Tetrapteryx (te-trap'te-riks), 

w. [NL.(Thunberg, 18lg),<Gr. _ , 

rerpa-. four, + irrcpvf, wins. 1 '*"* a - The sam ' c ' 

A ' T ' , P V transversely cut. 

A generic name under which 

the Stanley crane of South Africa has been 

separated from Anthropoides as T. paradiseus. 

i. Tetrapterous Fruit 
of Hali-sia utrap- 


tetraptote (tet'rap-tot), n. [< Gr. 
with four cases, < rerpa-, four, + XTUOIC; (TTTUT-), 
a case in grammar.] In gram., a noun that has 
four cases only. 

Tetrapturus (tet-rap-tu'rus), n. [NL. (Rafi- 
nesque, 1810), for * Tetrapterurus, < Gr. rtrpa-, 
four, + KTepov, wing, fin, + oiipa, tail: in allu- 
sion to the wing-like caudal keels.] A genus 
of Histiophoridee, including certain sailnshes, 
sometimes specified as spear-fishes and hill- 
fishes. The type is the Mediterranean T. lie- 
lone; another species is T. albidiix. See cut 
under spear-fish, 2. 

tetrapyrenoilS (tet"ra-pi-re'nus), a. [< Gr. TC- 
rpa-, tour, + Ttvptfv, the stone of a fruit: see 
pyrene.] In bot., having four pyrenes orstones. 

tetra<iuetrous(te-trak'we-trus),a. [<Gr. rerpa-, 
four, + L. -quetriis, as in triquetrus, three-cor- 
nered: see triquetrous.] In bot., having four 
very sharp and almost winged corners, as the 
stems of some labiate plants. 

tetrarch (tet'rark or te'trark), n. and a. [< 
ME. tetrark, < OF. tetrarque, tetrarche, F. te- 
trarque = Sp. It. tetrarea = Pg. tetrarcha, < L. 
tetrarches, < Gr. Ttrpapxr/f, a leader of four com- 

fanies, a tetrarch, < rerpa-, four, + apxeiv , rule.] 
. n. 1. In the Roman empire, the ruler of the 
fourth part of a country or province in the East ; 
a viceroy; a subordinate ruler. 

Herod being tetrarch of Galilee. Luke lit. 1. 

2. The commander of a subdivision of a Greek 

I condemn, as every one does, his inaction after the 
battle of Cannec ; and, in his last engagement with Africa- 
inis, I condemn no less his bringing into the front of the 
center, as became some showy tetrarch rather than Han- 
nibal, his eighty elephants, by the refractoriness of which 
he lost the battle. 

Landor, Imag. Conv., Scipio, Polybius, and Panaatius. 

II. t " Four principal or chief. [Rare and 
Tetrarch elements. Fuller. 

tetrarchate (tet'rar-kat), n. [< tetrarch + 
-ate 3 .] The district governed by a Roman tet- 
rarch, or the office or jurisdiction of a tetrarch. 

tetrarchical (te-trar'ki-kal), a. [< tetrarch + 
-ic-al.] Of or pertaining to a tetrarch or tet- 

tetrarchy (tet'rar-ki), .; pi. tetrarchies (-kiz). 
[= F. tetrarchie = Sp. tetrarqtiia = Pg. It. te- 
trarchia, < L. tetrarchia, < Gr. rerpapxia, the 
power or government of a tetrarch, < rerpapxtf, 
a tetrarch : see tetrarch.] Same as tetrarchate. 

tetrascelus(te-tras'e-lus), n.; pi. tetrasceli (-11). 
[NL., < Gr. rerpaaKtMis, four-legged, < Tirpa-, 
four, + ovct/of, leg.] In teratol., a monster with 
four legs. 

tetraschistic (tet-ra-skis'tik), a. [< Gr. rerpa-, 
four, + axiapa, a cleft, division.] In biol., 
tending to divide into four parts, or marked by 
such division. Encyc. Brit., XIX. 834. 

tetraselenodont (tet*ra-se-le'no-dont), a. [< 
Gr. rcrpa-, four, + ae'Ai/vrj, moon, + bdovf (6<Wr-) 
= E. tooth.] Having four crescentic ridges, as 
a molar; characterized by such dentition, as a 
ruminant. Amer. Nat., May, 1890. 

tetrasemic (tet-ra-se'mik), a. [< LL. tetra- 
semus, < Gr. Terpaari/uif, < rerpa-, four, + 07^0, a 
sign, arijielov, a sign, mora: see disemic.] In 
anc.pros., containing or equal to two semeia or 
morse : as, a tetrasemic long (double the usual 
long) ; a tetrasemic foot (dactyl, anapest, spon- 

tetrasepalous (tet-ra-sep'a-lus), a. [< Gr. re- 
rpa-, four, + NL. sepalum, sepal.] In bot., hav- 
ing four sepals. 

tetraspaston (tet-ra-spas'tqn), n. [< Gr. rerpa-, 
four, + oTrdv, pull', stretch: see spasm.] A 
machine in which four pulleys act together. 
[Rare.] Imp. Diet. 

tetraspermous (tet-ra-sper'mus), a. [< Gr. 
rerpa-, four, + a-n-ep/ia, seed: see sperw 1 .] In 
bot., four-seeded; producing four seeds to each 
flower, or in each cell of a capsule. 

tetraspherical (tet-ra-sfer'i-kal), a. [< Gr. 
rerpa-, four, + aifiaipa, sphere: see spherical.] 
Relating to four spheres. 

tetrasporange (tet'ra-spo-ranj), n. [< NL. tetra- 
s/ioruiiaiiim.] In bot, same as tetrasporaii(/ii/m. 

tetrasporangium (tet"ra-spo-raii'ji-um), n. ; 
pi. tetrasporangia (-a). [NL.,'< Gr. rerpa-, four, 
+ NL. sporangium, "q. v.] In bot., a sporangi- 
um or cell in which tetraspores are produced. 

tetraspore (tet'ra-spor), w. [< Gr. rerpa-, four, 
+ o-TTopd, seed: see spore 2 .] In bot., an asexu- 
ally produced spore of florideous alga? : so called 
from the circumstance that usually four are 


produced by the division of the mother-cell. 
See spore 2 , cruciate 1 , 2, bispore, Floridtx. Also 
called s]iherospore. See cut under Algse. 

tetrasporic (tet-ra-spor'ik), a. [< tetraspore 
+ -ic.] In bot., composed of tetraspores. 

tetrasporoUS (tet'ra-spo-rus), a. [< tetraspore 
+ -oils.] In bot., of the nature of or having 

tetrastich ( tet'ra-stik), n . [Formerly also tetra- 
stic; < L. tetrasiichon, a poem in four lilies, < 
Gr. Terpdarixov, neut. of re Tpdorixof , in four rows 
or lines, < Tcrpa-, four, + arixof, row, line : see 
stich. Cf. distich, etc.] A group of four lines; 
a period, system, stanza, or poem consisting of 
four lines or four verses ; a quartet. Compare 

I will . . . conclude with this TetrasKc, which my 
Brain ran upon in my Bed this Morning. 

Hmcell, Letters, I. i. 29. 

tetrastichlc (tet-ra-stik'ik), .. [< tetrastich 
+ -ic.] Pertaining to or constituting a tetra- 
stich or tetrastichs; consisting of tetrastichs, 
or groups of four lines. Atheneeum, No. 3300, 
p. 123. 

tetrastichous (te-tras'ti-kus), a. [< Gr. Terpa- 
artxof, in four rows or lines: see tetrastich.] 1. 
In hot., four-ranked; having four vertical rows: 
as, a tetrastichous spike, which has the flowers 
so arranged. 2. In :oi>l., four-rowed. 

tetrastigm (tet'ra-stim), ._ [< Gr. rerpa-, four, 
+ criyiia, a mark, a point.] A figure formed 
by four points in a plane with their six con- 
necting right lines. 

tetrastodn (te-tras'to-on), n. ; pi. tetrastoa (-a). 
[< MGr. TerpdoToov, an antechamber, neut. of 
Terpaoroof, having fourporticos,< Gr. -erpa-, four, 
+ orod, a portico: see stoa.] 
In arch., a courtyard with por- 
ticos, or open colonnades, on 
each of its four sides. Britton, 
Diet, of Arch, and Archseol. of 
Middle Ages. 

tetrastyle (tet'ra-stil), a. and 
n. [< L. tetrastylos (as a noun, 
tetrastylon), < Gr. rFTpdoru/oc, 
having four columns in front, < 
yrpa- four, + or^f column.] Plan of Tetrastyle 
I. a. In anc. arch, and kindred Temple of Fortuna 
styles, having or consisting of virillSl Rorae - 
four columns. Specifically (a) Having a portico of 
four columns front, as the temple of Fortuna Virilis at 


Tetrastyle Portico. North Porch of the Erechtheum, Athens. 

Rome. (6) Having the ceiling or roof supported by four 
columns or pillars. 

There are two tetrastyle halls, one of which, erected by 
Darius, is the most interesting of the smaller buildings 
on the terrace. J. Fergvuon, Hist. Arch., I. 193. 

II. n. A structure having four pillars ; a com- 
bination or group of four pillars. 

An organ of very good workmanship, and supported by 
a Tetrattyle of very beautiful Gothic columns. 

Defoe, Tour through Great Britain, I. 373. (Davies.) 

tetrasyllable (tet"ra-si-lab'ik), a. [As tetra- 
si/llnh(le) + -ic.] Consisting of four syllables. 

tetrasyllabical (tet"ra-si-lab'i-kal), a. [< tetra- 
si/llnbie + -cl.] Same as tetrasyllable. 

tetrasyllable (tet'ra-sil-a-bl), . [= F. tetra- 
xyllabe = Sp. tetrasilabo, < Gr. reTpacrM/la/3of, < 


Tirpa-, four, + m'/./, a syllable: see syllable.] 

A won I consisting of four syllables. 

tetrasymmetry (tet-ra-sim'e-tri), . In l>it>l., 

thai symmetry wlm-li may be expressed by 
tetramcral division into like or equal parts; 
symmetrical letramt'risni, as of some crinoids. 
(';>!. .lnr., XLV. ii. :iJ. [Hare.] 

tetrathecal (tet-ra-tho'kal), n. [< Or. rrrpa-, 
tour, + i/iiy, case': sec Ilii-ni.] In /<?.. liaving 
four locnlamenis or ea\ itios in the ovary. 

tetratheism (tel'i-a-the -i/.m), n. [< Or. rerpa-, 
four, + "<;, god. 4- -IXHI.] In tin-til., the doc- 
trine that in the (iodhead there are, in addition 
to the Divine Ksscncc. three persons or indi- 
vicluali/.alions the Father, the Sou, and the 
Holy Spirit making in the Godhead three 
and One instead of three in one. 

tetratheite (tet'ra-the-it), . [< Or. Tfrpa-, four, 
+ Ufni;. gixl. + -i//-.] One who believes in tet- 

tetrathionlc (tet'ra-thi-on'ik), . [< Or. rerpa-, 
four, -4- Oeiov, snlphiir, + -1C.] Containing four 
atoms of sulphur Tetratnionlc acid, an unstable 
aciil, ll._.s,i i,.. It Is a colorless odorless acid liquid. 

tetratomic (tet-ra-tom'ik), a. [< Gr. Terparo- 
fios, fourfold (< rrrpa-, four, + -ro/iof, < rfyveiv, 
ra/telv, cut), -f -><.] Same as tetradlc. 

tetratone (tet'ra-ton), n. [< Gr. rtrpArovof, hav- 
ing four tones or notes, < 707x1-, four, + rover, 
tone.] In music, an interval composed of four 
whole steps or tones that is, an augmented 
fourth. Compare tritone. 

tetratop (tet'ra-top), . [< Or. rrrpa-, four, + 
rojrof, a place.] The four-dimensional angu- 
lar space inclosed between four straight lines 
drawn from a point not in the same three-di- 
mensional space. 

tetraxial (te-trak'si-al), . [< Gr. rtrpa-, four, 
+ L. mis, axis.] Having four axes, as the spic- 
ules of some sponges. 

tetraxile (te-trak'sil), a. Same as tetraxial. 

tetraxon (te-trak'sou), u. and . (X Gr. rerpn-, 
four, + a^uv, axis,' axle.] I. n. Having four 
axes, as a sponge-spicule ; tetraxial. 
II. n. A sponge-spicule with four axes. 

tetraxonian (tet-rak-so'ni-an), o. Same as 
MrajcoH. .liner. Nat., XXI. 9^8. 

Tetraxonida (tet-rak-son'i-da), n. pi. [NL. : 
see tetrujcon.] A group of sponges, a subor- 
der of Chondrosjtongiie or Spicutixpongix, char- 
acterized by the isolated tetraxial spicules. 
It contains the lit Ii 1st ids and choristids, in all 
about 12 families. 

tetrict (tct'rik), a. [< OF. tetrique = Sp. tetrico 
= Pg. It. tetrico, < L. tetricus, teetricus, harsh, 
sour, < tieter, offensive, foul.] Froward; per- 
verse; harsh; sour; crabbed. 

In a thick and cloudy air (saith Lemnlns) men are 
/./,;<, sad, and peevish. Burton, Anat. of Mel., p. 151. 

tetricalt (tet'ri-kal), ii. [< tetric + -al.] Same 
as tctrir. 

The entangling perplexities of school-men; the obscure, 
tetrical, nnd contradictory assertions of Popes. 

Rev. T. Adanu, Works, I. 92. 

tetricalnesst (tet'ri-kal-nes), . The state or 
quality of being tetric; frowardness; perverse- 
ness; crabbedness. Up. Oauden. 

tetricityt (te-tris'i-ti), n. [< L. tatricita(t-)x, 
gravity, seriousness, < tsptricttx, harsh, sour, se- 
rious: seetefrie.] Crabbedness; perverseness ; 
tctricalness. Hiiiley, 1731. 

tetricoust (tet'ri-kus), o. [< L. ttetricus : see 
MnV.l Same as tetric. Bniley, ITL'T. 

Tetrodon (tet'ro-don), n. [NL. (Linnseus, 1766), 
orip. /' t r<n>iln>i (Linneeus. 1758); < Gr. rerpa-, 
four, + Moi'f (O&IVT-) = E. ti>oth.~\ 1. A genus of 
plectoguath fishes, typical of the family Tetro- 
iti>titiil f T. The species are numerous in warm seas. T. 
turgidtu is an aliundant blower, puffer, or swell-toad of 
the Atlantic coast of the United States, attaining a foot 
in length. See cut under baUottn-fifth, 
2. [/. <.] A fish of this genus or of the family 
7V -Irniliniliilir. 

tetrodont (tet'ro-dont), a. and n. [< NL. Tetro- 
rfon(f-).] I. ii.'lii irlitli.. having (apparently) 
four teeth ; of or pertaining to the Tetrodontida. 
II. H. Same as tetrnilini, _. 
Also h trtiiHlitiit. 

Tetrodontidae (tet-ro-don'ti-de), 11. pi. [NL., 
< Tetrnilnn(t-) + -id;r.~\ A family of plectog- 
nath fishes, of which the typical genus is Tet- 
rodon; those globe-fishes whose jaws present 
the appearance of four large front teeth, owing 
to tlie presence of a median suture in each jaw. 
The species figured in the next euliimn in illustration of 
tlie family is fnuinl tn tile Attuntie m:ist of the United 
States as far north as Cape rod. Also Tftraodvntidsr. See 
also cut under baUoon-fiih. 

RabUt fiih, or Smooth Puffer (Lafotitkalut l*aifat*t), member 

of the I'flrcntontitim 
(From Report of U. S. Fish Commission.) 

tetryl (tet'ril), u. [< Gr. rerpa-, four, + -/.] 
The hypothetical radical C 4 H 9 , the fourth mem- 
berof the C H II. JM , scries: same as hiityl. 

tetrylamine (tet'ril-am-in), n. [< tetryl + am- 
ine7\ A colorless transparent liquid, having a 
strongly ammoniacal and somewhat aromatic 
odor.and producing dense white fumes with hy- 
drochloric acid: CiHgNH2- It is produced by the 
action of potash on butyl eyanate. It baa basic properties, 
and forms crystalline salts. Also called butylamine. 

tetrylene (tet'ri-len), n. [< tetryl + -ene.] 
Oil-gas (C^Hg); a gaseous hydrocarbon of the 
olefine series, first obtained by the distillation 
of oil. . See coal-gax. Also called butylene. 

tettt (tet), n. [Origin obscure; cf. tate.] A 
plait; a knot. 

At Ilka fett of her horse's mane 
Hung fifty siller hells and nine. 
Thumat the Rhymer (Child's Ballads, I. 100). 

tetter (tet'er), . [Formerly also tcttar ; < ME. 
teter, tetci-e, < AS. teter, tetter; cf. OHG. :itaroli, 
MHG. ziteroch, G. dial, zitteroch, zittrich (cf. G. 
/ mat), tetter; cf. Skt. dadru, dadruka, cuta- 
neous eruption, miliary herpes, Lith. dederine, 
herpes, tetter, scurf, LL. derbif>sw>, scabby.] 

1 . A vague name of several cutaneous diseases, 
as herpes, eczema, and impetigo. 

A most Instant tetter liark'd about, 
Host lazar-llke, with vile and loathsome crust, 
All my smooth body. Shale., Hamlet, L 5. 71. 

Tls a Disease. I think, 
A stubborn Tetter that's not cur'd with Ink. 

Cvivjrevt, Husband his own Cuckold, Prol. 

2. A cutaneous disease of animals, which 
spreads on the body in different directions, and 
occasions a troublesome itching. It may be 
communicated to man Blister tetter, pemphi- 
gus. Crusted tetter, impetigo. Eattoi tetter, lu- 
pus. Humid or moist tetter, eczema. Scaly tetter, 

tetter (tet'er), r. t. [< tetter, .] To affect 
with or as with the disease called tetter. 

Those measles 
Which we disdain should tetter us. 

Shot., Cor., ill. 1. 79. 

tetter-berry (tet'er-ber''i), . The common 
bryony, Bryonia dioica, esteemed a cure for 
tetter. [Prov. Eng.] 

tetterous (tet'er-us), a. [< tetter + -ous.] Hav- 
ing the character of tetter. 

Noli-me-tangere, touch me not. Is a tetterous eruption, 
thus called from it soreness or difficulty of cure. 

Quincy. (Latkam.) 

tetter-tottert (tet'er-tot'er), r. i. Same as tit- 

tetterwort (tet'er-wert), n. The larger celan- 
dine, Chelidiinium majus, so named from its use 
in cutaneous diseases; also, in America, some- 
times the bloodroot, Sangninaria Canadensis. 

tettiga (tet'i-gS), . Same as tettix, 1. 

Tettiginae (tet-T-ji'ne), [NL.,< Tcttix (-iy-) 
+ -i.] A prominent snbfamily of short- 
horned grasshoppers, or Acridiidx, containing 
the forms sometimes known as grouse-locusts. 
They are small species In which the pronotum is length- 
ened posteriorly into a projection as long as the wings, 
or longer. They are very active, and are found abundantly 
in low wet meadows and along watercourses. The princi- 
pal genera are Tettix, Tettiyidea, and Batradiedra. Also, 
as a family, Tettigida. 

Tettigonia (tet-i-go'ni-ft), n. fNL. (Linnaeus, 
1748), < Gr. rims (7(-r/j-), a cicada.] A very 
large and somewhat loosely characterized ge- 
nus of leaf-hoppers, typical of the family Trtti- 
!/iiiidir. The British Museum catalogue gives 
1 _7 species, from all parts of the world large- 
ly, however, from South America. 

tettigonian (tet-i-go'ni-an). H. [< TeUigonia + 
-an.] A leaf-hopper of the genus Tettigonia or 
some related genus. 

Tettigoniidse (tet'i-go-ni'i-de), n. pi. [NL., < 
Tettigiinin + -idir.] A large and important fam- 
ily of leaf -hoppers, typified by the genus Ti-tti- 
</<ihi. They are small to medium-siied forms with lona 
bmties, an expanded faee, tiristle-shaped anteiiniF placed in 
n cavity heiiratll the rim nf the vertex, anil iK-elli upon the 
vertex. It Is a wide-spread grtiup, occurring most abun- 
dantly In tropical regions. Species of /"rororwn and Diedrn- 


cejihala Injure mips In the United Stater, and members of 
the fiiiniiT KI-IHI-. secrete large quantitlrs of very liquid 
liniietilew, pr'iducliiK the phenomena of no called "weep- 
ing trees." Also Tettigonladx, TrttiymMa. 

tettisht (tet'isli), ii. Hame as tenti.--li. 

tettix itet'iks). a. [ir. T-7Ti;, a cicada.] 1. A 
cicada. 2. (''(/).] [NL.] A genus of Arridi- 
ni.-i . or short-homed grasshoppers, typical of 
the subfamily Tettiginir, and having the prono- 
tnni horizontal and the antcnnie thirteen- or 
fonrteen-jointcd. Nine npccies are known in 
the United States. 

tettyt (tct'i). n. [Cf. I- tiixl,, liiitixh.] Techy; 
peevish; irritable. 

If they lose, though It lie but n trifle, . . . they are so 
cholerlck and tftty that no man may i>eak with them. 

Burton, Anat. of Mel., p. 119. 

tench, teugh (tiich), . A dialectal (Scotch) 
form of li'iii/h. 

Unco thick In the soles, u ye may weel mind, forbye 
being '!/;// in the upper-leather. 

Seatt, Old Mortality, xxvill. 

tenchit (tm-h'it), . [An imitative name. Cf. 
in irit and tewhit.] The lapwing, KantHiw cris- 
tutiix; the pewit. [Scotch.] 

Teucrian (tu'kri-an), . and n. [< L. Tencri, Tev- 
cria (see def.), 4-' -.] I. . Relating to the 
ancient Trojans (Teucri) or to the Troad. 

II. H. One of the Teucri; one of the inhabi- 
tants of ancient Teucria, or the Troad; a Trojan . 

Teucrium (tu'kri-um), n. [NL. (Bivinus, 1690; 
earlier in Matthioli, 1554), < L. teucrion, < Gr. 
Tcvuptov, germander, spleenwort; appar. con- 
nected with Trtxpoc, Teucer, and so said to have 
been used medicinally by Teucer, first king of 
Troy.] A genus of gamopetalous plants, of the 
order fMbiatie and tribe Ajuyoidete. It Is charac- 
terized by flowers with a short corolla-tube, a prominent 
lower lip, the other lobes small and Inconspicuous, and 
the four stamens far exserted from a posterior fissure. It 
Includes almost 100 species, scattered over many temper- 
ate and warm regions, especially near the Mediterranean. 
They are herbs or shrubs of varied habit ; the leaves are 
either entire, toothed, or cut, and the flowers are in axil- 
lary clusters, or terminal spikes, racemes, or heads. The 
species are known in general as germander (which see, 
and compare poly, and herb mantle, under herb). Eng- 
land and the United States contain each 4 different spe- 
cies, of which 7'. Caitadeiutr, the common American ger- 
mander, of low open 
ground and fence- 
rows from jtonada to 
Texas anor Mexico, 
bears an erect spike 
of rather conspicuous 
reddish-purple flow- 
ers. T.Cuben*e,vrli\e\y 
ili-ti iiniteil from the 
West Indies. Texas, 
and California to 
Buenos Ayres, repre- 
sents the section of the 
genus with small soli- 
tar)' flowers in theaxils 
of incised or multind 
leaves. The other 
American species are 
western or southwest- 
ern. Many species 
were once highly es- 
teemed in medicine, 
but are now discarded; 
especially the three 
following, which are 
widely dispersed 
through Europe and 
Asia: T. Cham/eitry*, 
the wall-germander, 
once used for rheuma- 
tism and as a febrifuge ; T. Scordtum, the water-german- 
der, a creeping marsh-plant with the odor of garlic when 
bruised, once used as an antiseptic, etc. ; and T. Seoro- 
dimia, the wood-, garlic-, or mountain-sage, a very bitter 
plant resembling hops In tast and odor. (See cut under 
7>iWi/ii(7i/im, and compare, ainbrrmf and feorttivm. ) Many 
other species have a pleasant fragrance. T. Marwm, the 
cat-thyme, is In use for its scent, and is remarkable u a 
sternutatory. T. eorymbonim of Australia Is there known 
as litorire. T. brttinitum, the Madeira hetony, with loose 
spikes of fragrant crimson flowers, and several other spe- 
cies from Madeira, are handsome greenhouse shrubs. T. 
frutiea'u, the tree- germander of Spain, and T. racemmtm, 
a dwarf evergreen of Australia, are also occasionally cul- 
tivated, and many annual species are showy border-plants. 

teugh (tiich), (i. See tench. 

Teut. Aii abbreviation of Teutonic. 

Teuthidae (tu'thi-de), n. pi. FNL.. < Teuthis + 
-ifjp.] 1. In concli., a family of decacerons 
cephalopoda, named from the genus Tenthis: 
synonvmous with Loliyinidie. 2. In ichth., 
same as Teiithidiittr. De Kay, 1842. 

tenthidan (tu'thi-dan), a. and H. [< Teutliidte + 
-nil.] I. a. Of or pertaining to the Teuthid*. 
II. . A member of the Teuthidjf. 

Teuthididae (tiVtlnd'i-de). . //. (SI,., < Teti- 
tln<. J. + -idif.] A family of aoanthoptervgian 
fishes, named from the genus Teuthix, ana vari- 
ously constituted, (o) Same as TruthidaMta. Bona- 
parte, 1831. (ft) Same as Siyanidjr. (c) Same as Acanlhu- 

Part of the Flowering Stem of 
American Germander ( TrUft-iMm Catta. 
re}, a. a (lower. 


'. r. 

teuthidoid (tu'thi-doid), rt. and H. I. (i. 1. In 

(<//.. same as teiitkidan. 2. In iclilh., of or 
pertaining to the Teutliididx, in any sense; 
having the characters of the Teuthidoidea. 

II. n. Inichth., a member of the TeutkididtB, 
in any sense, or of the Teuthidoidea. 
Teuthidoidea (tu-thi-doi'de-a), . pi. [NL.,< 
Teuthis (Teuthid-) + -oidea.] A superfamily 

% f, i 1 J- J.U T 1U.1ULUO. Ol'U. 

of acanthopterygian fishes, including Ue leu- . , (ta) v r Algo t>(e . < ME tewcnj a va r. of 
tltidiitx and the Siganidx, having the undivided to)m , E toe: see tew 1 .] I. trans. 1. To beat, 
post-temporals coossified with the skull, and the mix or pou nd ; prepare by beating, etc. [Pro- 

:il_:^r, i4njl rifVi +lid fna.Yl 1 1 VIPH i * T n m . i 1 J.1 


ter, etc.; render conformable to German cus- 
toms, ideas, idioms, or analogies. 

The European Continent is to-day protesting against 
being Tevtonized, as energetically as it did, at the begin- 
ning of this century, against a forced conformity to a Gal- 
lic organization. 

O. P. Marsh, Lects. on Eng. Lang., Int., p. 8. 

II. intrans. To conform to German customs, 
idioms, etc. 

i Also tue : . - - 

I. trans. 1. To beat, 

intermaxillaries united with the maxillaries. 
Teuthis (tu'this), n. [NL., < Gr. Tev8ic, a sort of 

cuttlefish.] 1. In conch., a genus of cephalo- 

pods, giving name to the Teuthidee: synonymous 

with Latino. 2. In ichth., a Linnean genus of 

fishes, variously taken, (a) As identical with Acan- 

thurus. (b) As identical with Sigamis. In each accep- 
tation it gives name to a family Teuthididas (which see). 
teuthologist (tu-thol'o-jist), n. [< teutlwlog-y 

+ -int.'] A student of the cephalopodous mol- 

teuthology (tu-thol'o-ji), n. [< Teuthis + Gr. 

-Xoyia,</ l /7i', speak: see -ology.~] Thatdepart- 

ment of zoology which relates to cephalopods. 
Teuton (tu'ton), n. [= F. Sp. Teuton = G. Teu- 

tonen, pi., <"L. Teutoni, Teutones, pi., a peo- 
ple of Germany ; from an OTeut. word repre- 
sented by Goth, thiuda = OHG. diot = AS. 

thedd, etc., people: see Dutch.'] Originally, 

a member of a Germanic tribe first mentioned 

in the fourth century B. c., and supposed to 

have dwelt near the mouth of the Elbe. The 

Teutons, in alliance with the Cimbri, invaded the Roman 

dominions, and were overthrown by Marius, 102 and 101 

B. c. ; hence the name was ultimately applied to the Ger teW 2 t (tu), . 

manic peoples of Europe in general, and at present isoften (.h ft m 

used to include Germans, Dutch, Scandinavians, and those " v . i ,. n 

of Anglo-Saxon descent, as when we speak of Teutons as Dorothea. The fool shall now fish for himself. 

nnnnm'il to Celts AHee. Be sure, then, 

Tprrtnrrip rtii ton'ikl a and n f- F Teutonioue His tew be tith and 8trongl and next ' " 8wear '"e. 
leutonic (tu-ton IK;, a. ana n. \_ i . t noniquc He , n catch no fl8h else 

= Sp. Teutonico = Pg. Teutomco (cf. G. Teuto- Fletcher, Monsieur Thomas, i. 3. 

niseh), < L. Teutonicus, < Teutoni, Teutones, a tewart (tu'art), . Same as tooart. 
tribe of Germany.] I. a. Of or belonging to tewel (tu'ei), n. [< ME. tewel, tewelle, tuel, < 
the Teutons ; of or belonging to the peoples of O F. fuel, tuyel, tuifl, tueil, F. twyau = Pr. Sp. 
Germanic origin; in the widest sense, pertain- tllde j t a p j pe . o f Teut. origin; cf. LG. tiite, > G. 
ing to the Scandinavians, and to the peoples tiite ^ deute ^ rfwtej a pipe.] If. A pipe ; a funnel, 
of Anglo-Saxon origin, as well as to German as for 8mo k e . Chaucer. 2. Same as twyer. 
races proper Teutonic cross, a cross potent: so tewhlt (te-hwif), n. [Imitative, like teuchit, 

__11 _ J 1 1 _ V.,...,,. *li'K..{l ( .Q '-I.--, -J ft.\ J 

iljft i i pewit, etc.] Same as pewit (b). See cut under 
r. p., \ P ,_, lapwing. [Local, British.] 
B, a I I tewing-beetle (tu'ing-be'tl), . A spade- 

shaped instrument for tewing or beating hemp. 
[Prov. Eng.] 

tewtaw (tu'ta), v. t. [A redupl. of tew 1 , or < 
tew 1 + tew 1 .] Same as tewA, 1; especially, to 
beat (hemp) in order to separate the fibers. 

vincial or trade use.] 2. To taw, as leather. 
Wright. [Prov. Eng.] 3. To work; prepare 
by working; be actively employed in or about. 
[Prov. Eng.] 4f. To scourge; beat; drub. 

Down with 'em ! 
Into the wood, and rifle 'em, lew 'em, swinge 'em! 

Fletcher, Beggars' Bush, iii. 2. 
5f. To haul ; pull ; tow. 

Men are labouring as 'twere summer bees, 
Some hollowing trunks, some binding heaps of wood, . . . 
Which o'er the current they by strength must tew; 
To shed that blood which many an age shall rue. 

Drayton, Barons' Wars, ii. 20. 
6. To lead on ; work up. 
H'as made the gayest sport with Tom the coachman, 
So tew'd him up with sack that he lies lashing 
A butt of malmsey for his mares ! 

Fletcher, Wit without Money, ill. 1. 

II. intrans. To work; keep busy; bustle. 
Also too. [Prov. Eng. and U. S.] 

The phrase tooin' round, meaning a supererogatory ac- 
tivity like that of flies. Lowell, Biglow Papers, 2d ser., Int. 

The minister began to come out of his study, and want 
to tew 'round and see to things. 

II. B. Stowe, Oldtown, p. 63. 

[A var. of tow 2 .] A tow-rope or 

Teutonic Knights. See Teutonic Order. 

Teutonic or Germanic languages, 

tribe of tongues, belonging to the great 

Aryan or Indo-European family, which has 

been divided into three great sections, viz. : 

(1) Gothic or Moesogothic, the language 

used by Wulflla (Ulfllas) in his translation 

of the Scriptures, made in the fourth century for the Goths 

of Mcesia ; (2) German, subdivided into Low German and .-.-, _, - 

High German the Low German tribe of tongues being J-" rov - 8'J , , . _, 

the Anglo-Saxon or English, Old Saxon, Friesic or Frisian, Texan (tek san), O. and n. [< Texas (see def.) 

Dutch and Flemish, and Low German proper (Flatt- + -an.] I. d. Of or pertaining to the State of 

Texas Texan armadillo. See Tatusia, and cut under 

peba. Texan fever, see Texas fever. Texan pride, 
the Drumraond phlox. Phlox Drummondii, a bright garden 
annual, native in Texas. 
II. n. A native or an inhabitant of Texas, 

Deutsch), while the High German has been divided into 
three periods, viz., Old High German, Middle High Ger- 
man, and modern German; (3) Scandinavian, comprising 
Icelandic or Old Norse, Norwegian, Danish, and Swedish. 
See Gothic, German, Anglo-Saxon, etc. Teutonic or 
Germanic nations, the different nations of the Teutonic 
race. These are divided into three branches : (1) the High 
Germans of Upper and Middle Germany, with the Ger- 

. . 

one of the southern States of the United States, 
bordering on Mexico. 

mans of Switzerland and the greater part of those in t -_ a _ ftpf'saBl n TSn called in allusion to the 
the Austrian empire; (2) the Low German branch, in- texas (tec sas),m. | 

eluding the Frisians, the Low Germans, the Dutch, the State of Texas.] A structure on the hurricane- 
Flemings, and the English descended from the Jutes, deck of a steamboat, containing the cabins for 
Angles, and Saxons who settled in Britain ; (3) the Scan- tlle o ffi eer s. The pilot-house is On top of it. 
dmavian branch, including the Icelanders, the Norwe- r - , TT a n 
gians, the Danes, and the Swedes. Teutonic Order, a Lwrajn u. o.j 

military order founded at Acre in Palestine, 1190, and con- Texas blue-grass, buckthorn, Cardinal, gOOSB, 
flrmed by the emperor and the Pope. Its chief objects crackle. See blue-grass, etc. 
were at first the care of sick and wounded pilgrims and Tg x og fever Texail fever A specific fever 

n e 

II. n. The language, or languages collec- ing within a certain permanently infected area, 



texto = It. testo, < L. textus, a fabric, texture, 
structure, composition, context, text (cf. tex- 
tum, a fabric, also the style of an author, neut. 
of textus, pp.), < tej-ere, pp. textus, weave, = 
Skt. V taksh, cut, prepare, form (see tectonic).'] 

1. A discourse or composition on which a note 
or commentary is written ; the original words 
of an author, in distinction from a paraphrase 
or commentary. 

His coward herte 

Made him amis the goddes text to glose, 
When he for ferde out of Delphos sterte. 

Chaucer, Troilus, iv. 1410. 

King George the Second and I don't agree in our expli- 
cation of this text of ceremony. Walpole, Letters, II. 194. 

Very close study is everywhere manifest, but it is very 
doubtful whether the difficulties emphasized in many 
cases ought to be considered sufficient cause for changing 
the text. The faulty and awkward expressions may be 
chargeable to the author himself. 

Amer. Jour. Philol., X. 252. 

2. Specifically, the letter of the Scriptures, 
more especially in the original languages; in a 
more limited sense, any passage of Scripture 
quoted in proof of a dogmatic position, or taken 
as the subject or motive of a discourse from the 

Your flock, assembled by the bell, 
Encircled you to hear with reverence 
Your exposition on the holy text. 

Shak.,-23en. IV., iv. 2. 7. 

How oft, when Paul has serv'd us with n text, 
Has Epictetus, Plato, Tully preach'd ! 

Cmnper, Task, ii. 539. 

3. Any subject chosen to enlarge and comment 
on; a topic; a theme. 

No more ; the text is foolish. Shak., Lear, iv. 2. 37. 

The maiden Aunt 

Took this fair day for text, and from it preach'd 
An universal culture for the crowd. 

Tennyson, Princess, Prol. 

4. In roeal music, the words sung, or to be sung. 
5. The main body of matter in a book or manu- 
script, in distinction from notes or other mat- 
ter associated with it; by extension, letter- 
press or reading-matter in general, in distinc- 
tion from illustrations, or from blank spaces or 
margins: as, an island of text in an ocean of 

If the volume is composed of single leaves, perhaps of 
thin text and heavy illustrations. 
W. Matthews, Modern Bookbinding (ed. Grolier Club), p. 24. 

6. A kind of writing used in the text or body 
of clerkly manuscripts; formal handwriting; 
now, especially, a writing or type of a form pe- 
culiar to some class of old manuscripts ; spe- 
cifically, in her., Old English black-letter: as, 
German or English text; a text (black-letter) 
E or T. An Old English letter often occurs as a bearing 
or part of a bearing, and is blazoned as above. See also 
black-letter. Compare church text and German text. 
Fair as a text B in a copy-book. 

Shak., L. L. L., v. 2. 42. 

Chapel text. See chapel. Church text. See church. 
German text. See Germans. To cap texts. See 

textt (tekst), v. t. [< text, M.] To write in text- 
hand or large characters. 

Truth copied from my heart is texted there. 

IHtddleton and Dekker, Spanish Gypsy, iii. 3. 

O then, how high 

Shall this great Troy text up the memory 
Of you her noble praetor ! 

Dekker, London's Tempe. 

text-book (tekst'buk), n. 1. A book contain- 
ing a text or texts, (a) A book with wide spaces be- 
tween the lines of text for notes or comments. (6) A 
book containing a selection of passages of Scripture ar- 
ranged for reference: more generally termed Bible text- 

lively, of the Teutonic or Germanic peoples. 
Abbreviated Teut. 

Teutonicism (tu-ton'i-sizm), n. [< Teutonic + 
-ism.] A Teutonic idiom or mode of expres- 
sion ; a Germanism. Imp. Diet. 

Teutonism (tu'ton-izm), n. [< Teuton + -ism.'] 

1 . Teutonic or Gfermanic character, type, ideas, 
spirit, peculiarities, etc. 

The Danes and Norsemen poured in a contingent of 
Teutomsm, which has been largely supplemented by Eng- 
lish and Scotch efforts. 

Huxley, Critiques and Addresses, p. 178. 

2. An idiom or expression peculiar to the Ten- 

including the greater part of the southern Unit- 
ed States, to cattle north of this area when the 
former are taken north during the warm season 
of the year. Cattle taken from the North into this in- 
fected area may likewise contract the disease. The infec- 
tious principle is conveyed to the soil, whence susceptible 
animals are infected. The period of incubation varies 
from ten to fifty days or more. The disease begins with 
a high fever, which may continue from a few days to a 
week or more, when the animal succumbs ; or the fever 
may subside and a slow recovery ensue. A characteristic 
symptom noticed chiefly in severe and fatal cases is the 
presence of hemoglobin in the urine, giving it a deep 
port-wine color. In some outbreaks jaundice is observed. 
After death the spleen is found enormously enlarged and 

tonic peoples; a German idiom or peculiarity. jS^^5Sfc^SS&te 
The translator has done Ins part of the work well, al- , Dairies of central Texas. 

, - ,, ,,,10,,+ tio roolai r\f nentrnl 

though we detect distinct Teutonimm here and there """: abundant on the prairies Ol cennai 

Philosmihiral Vnn Mi Mr XXVTIT IK lts > slender stem, narrow leaves, and small yellow heads 

ay., 5th ser., XXVUi. 42o . jt a c]oae 8uperfldal reaemblance to flax. 

Teutonization (tu"ton-i-za'shqn), n. [< Ten- Texas millet. Same as concho-grass. 

ionize + -ationj] The act of Teutonizing. Texas sarsaparilla. Same as menispermnm, 2. 

Teutonize (tu'ton-iz), v.; pret. and pp. Teuton- Texas snakeroot. See snakeroot. 

ized, ppr. Tetitonizing. [< Teuton + -ize.] I. text (tekst), n. [< ME. text, texte, tixle, ti/xt, 

trims. To make Teutonic or German in charac- < OF. (and F.) texte = Pr. texte, test = Sp.Pg. 

2. A book used by students as a standard work 
for a particular branch of study; a manual of 
instruction ; a book which forms the basis of 
lectures or comments. 3. Same as libretto, 1. 

textevangelium (teks"te-van-je'li-um), . 
[ML.] Same as Textus, 2. 

text-hand (tekst'hand), . A large, uniform, 
clerkly handwriting: so called from the large 
writing formerly used for the text of manuscript 
books, in distinction from the smaller writing 
used for the notes. 

textile (teks'til), n. and n. [= F. textile, < L. 
textilis, < textuin, something woven: see text.~\ 
I. a. 1. Of or pertaining to weaving: as, the 
textile art. 2. Woven, or capable of being 
woven; formed by weaving: as, textile fabrics; 
textile materials, such as wool, flax, silk, cotton. 
Textile cone, in conch., one of the oonc-shells, Comts 
textile, whose colors suggest a woven fabric. 
II. ii. 1. A woven fabric. 

The placing of the tangible parts in length or transverse, 
as in the warp and the woof of textiles. 

Bacon, Nat. Hist., 846. 


2. A material suitable for weaving into a tex- 
tile fabric: us, liciiij) iiinl nthrr li-j-lili-n. 

The Joiinuil of the Society of Arts reports the discovery 
of a new textile on the shores of the ('u.spiiiii. This plant, 
called km. ill by the natives, . . . attains a In iu'lit of ten 
M, Science, XIII. 81. 

textlet (tekst'let), M. [< ti-xt + -l<t.\ A short 

or small text. Ciirlijlr, Sartor Ues:irliis, i. 11. 

| l(;u-e. ] 
text-man (tekst'man), . A man ready in the 

quotation of texts, or too strict in adherence 

to the letter of texts. [Hare.] 

But saith he, Are not the Clergy members of Christ? 
why should not each member thrive alike? Carnall text- 
man! As If worldly thriving were one of the privileges 
wee have by being in Christ ! 

Mil/,i,i, Apology for Smcctymnuiis. 

Textor (teks'tor), H. [NL. (Temminck, 1828), 
< L. teitor, a weaver, < texerc, weave : see trj-t. ) 
A genus of African weaver-birds, of the family 
I'/IM-I iil.T. There are several species. The best-known Is 
the ox-bird, T. albirogtrin (commonly called T. alecto), black 


Whllc-hillcil 0.bird ( Ttxter altiinslrisl. 

with a white bill, and 8j Inches long. The others have 
coral-red bills, as T. niaer (or erythrorhynchut), which is 8J 
Inches long. Also called Atecto, Dertroidei, Bubalornia, 
and Alectrvmiit. 

textorial (teks-to'ri-al), o. [< L. textoriits, of or 
pertaining to weaving, < te.rtor, a weaver, < 
texere, weave: see text.'] Of or pertaining to 
weaving. [Bare.] 

From the cultivation of the textorial arts among the 
orientals came Darlns's wonderful cloth. 

T. Warton, Hist. Eng. Poetry, 111. 178. 

Textor's map-projection. See projection. 
text-pen (tekst'pen), n. A kind of metallic 

pen used in engrossing, 
textrine (teks'trin), a. [< L. textrinus, of or 

pertaining to weaving, contr. from " textorinus, 

< textnr, a weaver: see textorial.'] Of or per- 
taining to weaving or construction; textorial. 
Derham, Physico-Theol., viii. 6. [Rare.] 

textual (teks'tu-al), a. and H. [< ME. trj-tutl. 

< OF. (and P.")' textuel = Sp. Pg. textual = It. 
testtiale, < L. as if "textittilix, < textus, text: see 
text.] I. a. 1. Of, pertaining to, or contained 
in the text : as, textual criticism ; textual errors. 

They seek ... to rout and disarray the wise and well- 
couched order of St. Paul's own words, using a certain tex- 
tual riot to chop off the hands of the word presbytery. 

Milton, On Def. of Hunib. Remount., i 5. 

Textual Inaccuracy Is a grave fault In the new edition 
of the old poets. Lowell, Study Windows, p. 801. 

2f. Based on texts. 

Here shall your majestie find . . . speculation Inter- 
changed with experience, positive theology with polemi- 
cal, textual with discursorfe. Sp. Uail, Works, Ded. 

3f. Acquainted with texts and capable of quot- 
ing them precisely; learned or versed in texts. 

This meditacloun 
I putte it ay under correci-inun 
Of clerkes, for I am nat textuel; 
I take but the sentens, trusteth wel. 

Chaucer, Prol. to Parson's Tale, 1. 56. 

Textual commentary. See commentary, 1. 

H.t a- One versed in texts; a textualist. 

Wherefore they were called Karaim, that is Bible-men, 
or Textualls, and in the Roman tongue they call them 
Saduces. Purehag, Pilgrimage, p. 143. 

textualism (teks'tu-al-izm), 11. [< textual + 

-I.V/H.] Strict adherence to the text, 
textualist (teks'tu-al-ist). H. [< textual + -wf.] 

1. One who is well versed in the Scriptures, 
and can readily quote texts. 

How nimble textualist&nA grammarians for the tongue 
the Rabbins are, their comment* can witness. 

J.i : iM,i,i,,i, Miscellanies, vi. 

2. One who adheres strictly to the letter of 

textually (teks'tu-al-i), adv. In or as regards 
the text ; according to the text. 

A copy In some parts textually exact. 

Lowell, Among my Books, 'Jd SIT., p. :i. 

textuary (teks'tu-:i-ri), n. and n. [< L. /. 
+ -"''.'/. I I. ". 1. <>f or pertaining to the text : 

He extends the exclusion unto twenty days, which In 
the textuary sense is fully accomplished in one. 

Sir T. Browne, Vulg. Err., III. 16. 

2f. Having the authority or importance of a 
text ; that ranks as a text, or takes chief place ; 
regarded as authoritative, or as an authority. 

I see no ground why his reason should be textuary to 
ours, or that Ood Intended him an universal headship. 


Some who have had the honour to be textuary in divin- 
ity are of opinion that it shall be the same spedtlcal tire 
with ours. Sir T. Browne, Keliglo Medici, I. 50. 

II. . ; pi. textuarirn (-riz). 1. A textualist; 
one who adheres strictly to the text. 2t. An 
expounder or critic of texts ; a textual exposi- 
tor or critic. 

In Lake xvi. 17, 18. ... this clause against abrogating 
Is inserted Immediately before the sentence against di- 
vorce, as If It were called thither on purpose to defend the 
equity of this particular law against the foreseen roihness 
of common textuariet. Milton, Tetrachordon. 

The greatest wits have been the best textuariet. 

Swift, To a young Poet. 

textuelt, ". A Middle English form of textual. 
textuistt (teks'tu-ist), n. [< L. textus, text, + 
-int.] One who adheres too strictly to the let- 
ter of texts; a textualist. 

When I remember the little that our Saviour could pre- 
vail about this doctrine of charity against the crabbed 
textuitti of his time, I make no wonder. 

Hilton, Divorce, To the Parliament 

Textularia (teks-tu-la'ri-a), . [NL. (LVOr- 
bigny, 1826), < L. *textula, dim. of textus, text, + 
-aria.] The typical genus of the family Textu- 

textularian (teks-tu-la'ri-an), n. and n. [< 
Textularia + -an.] I. a. Belonging to or hav- 
ing the characters of Textularia in a broad sense; 
textularidean. W. B. Carpenter, Micros., $ 458. 
II. H. A textularian foraminifer. 

Textularidea (teks'tu-la-rid'e-S), [NL., 

< Textularia + -irf-ea.] The fextulariidee ad- 
vanced to the rank of an order, and divided into 
Textularina, Buliminina, and Cassidulinina. 

textularidean (teks'tu-la-rid'f-an), a. and n. 
[< Textularidea + -an.'] I. a. Textularian in 
a broad sense ; of or pertaining to the Textula- 
II. >'. A textularian in a broad sense. 

TextulariidSB (teks'tu-la-ri'i-de), . pi. [NL., 

< Textularia + -idx.'] 'A family of perforate 
foraminifers, typified by the genus Textularia. 
The test Is arenaceous or hyaline, with or without a per- 
forate calcareous basis, and the chambers are normally ar- 
ranged in two or more alternating series, or spiral and 
labyrlnthic. Dimorphous and trimorphous forms may 
also be found. 

textural (teks'tur-al), a. [< texture + -al.] Of 

or relating to texture: as, textural differences 

between rocks. 
It may be the result of congestion or Inflammation of 

the nerve, ... or of other textuml changes. 

Quoin, Med. Diet., p. 52. 

Textural anatomy. See anatomy. 
texture (teks'tur), n. [< F. texture = Pr. tex- 

ura, tezura = Sp. Pg. textura = It. testura, < L. 

lextura, a weaving, web, texture, structure, < 

texere, pp. textus, weave : see text."] It. The art 

or process of weaving. 

God made them . . . coats of skin, which, though a nat- 
ural habit onto all before the invention of texture, was 
something more unto Adam. 

Sir T. Browne, Vulg. Err., T. 25. 

2. Anything produced by" weaving; a woven 
or textile fabric of any sort; a web. 

His high throne, which, under state 
Of richest texture spread, at the upper end 
Was placed in regal lustre. Milton, P. 1.., x. 440. 

Others, apart far in the grassy dale, 
. . . their humble texture weave. 

Thornton, Spring, L 641. 

3. The peculiar or characteristic disposition of 
the threads, strands, or the like which make 
up a textile fabric: as, cloth of loose texture. 

4. By extension, the peculiar disposition of 
the constituent parts of any body its make, 
consistence, etc.; structure in general. 

In the next place, it seems to be pretty well agreed 
that there is something also in the original frame or tex- 
ture of every man's mind which, independently of all ex- 
terior and subsequently Intervening circumstances, and 

< \< n of his radical frame of body, makes him liable to 
be differently affected by the same exciting causes from 
what another man woula be. 

Benthatn, Introd. to Morals and Legislation, vf. 29. 
The iiiiinl must have the pressure of incumbent duties, 
or It will grow lax and spongy in texture for want of it. 

O. W. Holmet, Old Vol. of Life, p. 231. 


\\lirti scenes are detached from the texture of a play, 
each scene inevitably low* i.nn-tliini:of the effect which, 
fu the dramatist's conn |IJOM, )H longed to it as part of 
"a single action. " /.., II. JI-. 

0. In bint., a tissue; the character or mode of 
formation of tissues. 6. In the fine arts, the 
surf ace quality of animate or inanimate objects, 
natural or artificial, which expresses to the eye 
the disposition and arrangement of their com- 
ponent t issues. cavernous texture. See oiwrnoui. 
-Texture of rocks, the modr of aggregation of the 
mineral substances of which rocks are composed. It tr- 
ial es U> the arrangement of their parts viewed on a smaller 
scale than that of their structure. The texture of rocks 
may be compact, earthy, granular, scaly, slaty, etc. See 

texture (teks'tur), r. t. ; pret. and pp. textured, 
ppr. tistitriiiii. [< ti-j-tniT, n.] To form a tex- 
turo of or with; interweave. [Rare.] 

textureless (teks'tur-les), a. [< texture + -less.] 
Having no discernible structure; amorphous: 
as, a texturclesx membrane. 

texturyt (teks'tu-ri), a. [< texture + -yl.] 
Same as texture, 1. 

textus (teks'tus), n. [< L. textus, text: see 
text.~\ 1. The text of any book, especially of 
the Bible or of a part of it: as, the Textus'Re- 
ceptus (see phrase below). 2f. A book con- 
taining the liturgical gospels. 

The book of the gospels, or trxtui, had, in general, a 
binding of solid gold, studded with gems, and especially 
pearls, and was used for being kissed; the other, the 
gospel-book, which served for reading out of, was often 
as richly adorned. 

Rock, Church of our Fathers, in. U. 192. 

Textus ReceptUS, the received text of the Greek Testa- 
ment Strictly speaking this name l>elongs to the Elzevir 
edition of 1633, to which the printers had prefixed the state- 
ment "Texlum ergo babes nunc ah omnibus receptum" 
(You hare now therefore the text received by all). This 
text Is founded chiefly upon Erasmus's editions. The name 
Is, however, loosely applied to any similar text, such u 
that on which the authorized version of the New Testa- 
ment is based. The Textus Receptus represents Greek 
manuscripts of late date. 

textus-case (teks'tus-kas), n. A case for a tex- 
tus, or book of the gospels : usually a decorative 
case of the middle ages, or older, as of stamped 
leather, silver, or silver-gilt. 

text-writer (tekst'ri'ter), n. If. One who, 
before the invention of printing, copied books 
for sale. Encye. Diet. 2. A writer of text- 
books and compends: as, a legal text-icriter. 

The notion that the extraordinary harshness of the Hin- 
doo text-writen to widows is of sacerdotal origin. 

Maine, Village Communities, p. 64. 

teylett, n. See tillett. 

teyl-tree (til'tre), n. Same as teil-tree. See 

teynet, A Middle English variant of tain. 

teyntet, . An occasional Middle English form 
of tent*. 

th. A common English digraph. See Ti. 

Th. 1. An abbreviation of Thursday. 2. In 
chem., the symbol for thorium. 

-th 1 . [< ME. -th, -t,--eth, < AS. -tit, -t, etc., of 
various origin : see etymologies of words con- 
taining this formation.] A suffix used in form- 
ing abstract nouns from adjectives or verbs, as 
in health from whole or heal, stealth from steal, 
filth from/on/, tilth from till, grou-thtroraffroie, 
truth, troth, from trtttor trow, drouth from dry, 
highth from high, etc. It is little used as a modern 
formative, the more recent examples, like WotrtA, tpilth, 
being chiefly poetical. The words In which It occurs are 
mostly old, ana accordingly often differ somewhat, In their 
modern form, from the modern form of the original ad- 
jective or verb, as tilth from /oiii, drouth from dry, etc. In 
many cases the relation of the noun In -th to Its original 
verb is more remote, and Is to be explained by the history 
of the particular word, as In death from the original form 
of die, ruth from rue, etc. In certain positions the -th 
becomes -t, and sometimes -d. Some modern forms in -t 
coexist with forms in -th, as drought, height, beside the 
now archaic drouth, highth; and In some -I has replaced 
the earlier -M, as In right. In many nouns -th Is of other, 
and often obscure, origin, as In north, touth, both, etc. 

-th 2 . [Also -eth ; < ME. -th, -eth, -the, -ethe,< AS. 
-tlia, -the (-o-tha), etc., =L. -<M, = Gr. -rof, etc. : 
an adj. formative (orig. identical with the su- 
perl. suffix -f, in -fn-t), used to form ordinal from 
cardinal numerals: see the etymologies of the 
ordinals concerned.] A suffix (-eth after a 
vowel) used in forming ordinal from cardinal 
numerals, as in fourtli, fifth, sixth, etc.. tteen- 
tiitli, tliirtiith, hundredth, thousandth, millionth, 
etc. It appears as -d In third, and was formerly -t in 
Jin, rixt, etc., now fifth, rixth. etc. In Jtnt the suffix Is 
the superlative -*t. In eighth, pronounced as if spelled 
'eightth, the radical ( Is anomalously omitted In spelling. 

-th 3 . [< ME. -th, -eth,< AS. -c th.-,ith. -inth = D.-t 
= G. -t, etc.] A suffix (in older form -eth) used 
in forniin-r the third person singular (and in 
Middle English all persons plural) of the pres- 


ent indicative of verbs, as in siiit/cth, hopfth, 
etc., or hath, doth, etc. It remains in archaic use, 
in poetical and scriptural language, the ordinary modern 
form being -, -es, as in tings, hopes, has, dues, etc. In 
Middle English and Anglo-Saxon use it was often con- 
tracted with a preceding radical d or ( into (, as fint for 
findeth, sit for siteth, sitttth, etc. 

tha 1 t, <i<li'- A Middle English variant of thti 1 . 

tha'-'t, pron. An obsolete form of the 1 and they 1 . 

thaar, . See thar 3 . 

thack 1 (thak), . An obsolete or dialectal 
(Scotch) form of thatch Under thack and rape, 
under thatch and rope : said of stacks in the barn-yard 
when they are thatched in for the winter, the thatch be- 
ing secured with straw ropes; hence, figuratively, snug 
and comfortable. [Scotch.] 

thack 1 (thak), v. An obsolete or dialectal 
(Scotch) form of thatch. 

thack 2 t (thak), v. t. [< ME. thal-kcn, < AS. thac- 
eian = Icel. thjokka, later also thjaka = Norw. 
tjaaka, strike, beat; cf. Icel. thykkr, a thump, 
blow. Cf. aucack and whack.] To strike; 
thump; thwack. Chaucer. 

thack 2 t, a. [< ME. thacce: see thacW, r.] A 
stroke ; a thwack. 

For when thacces of anguych watz hid in my sawle, 
Thenne I remembred me ryjt of my rych lorde, 
Prayande him for peW his prophete to here. 

Alliterative Poems (ed. Morris), iii. 325. 

thacker (thak'er), n. An obsolete or dialectal 
form of thatcher. 

thae (THa), pron. A Scotch form of tho%, obso- 
lete or dialectal plural of the 1 and that. 

thaff (thaf), n. Same as teff. 

thaht, conj. A Middle English form of though. 

thakket, . t. A Middle English form of thack 2 . 

thalamencephal(thal-a-inen'se-fal), M. [< thal- 
amencephalon.] Same as thalamencephalon. 

thalamencephalic (thal-a-men-se-fal'ik or 
-sef'a-lik), a. [< thalameiicephal + -ic.] Of or 
pertaining to the thalamencephalon ; dience- 

thalamencephalon (thaFa-men-sefa-lou), n. 
[NL., < Gr. 6aJM/x>c, an inner chamber, + e-yitt- 
0<zAof, the brain : see thalamus and encephalon.] 
The parts of the brain about the third ventricle 
developed from the hinder part of the first pri- 
mary cerebral vesicle, including the thalami, 
the optic tracts and chiasma, the infundibulum 
and cerebral part of the pituitary body, the 
corpora albicantia, the conarium, the ependy- 
mal part of the velum iiiterpositum, a lamina 
cinerea, and other structures. Also called di- 
encephahn, interbrain, 'tween-brain. See cuts 
under Elasmobranchii, encephalon, Rana, Petro- 
myzontidx, and cerebral. 

thalami, . Plural of thalamus. 

thalamia, n. Plural of thalamium. 

thalamic (tbal'a-mik), a. [< thalamus + -ic.] 
Of or pertaining to the optic thalamus Thal- 
amic commissure of the brain, the middle, soft, or gray 
commissure; the medicommissure. 

Thalamiflorae (thal"a-mi-fl6're), n. pi. [NL. : 
see thalamifloroiis.] A group of orders of poly- 
petalpus plants, constituting the first of three 
divisions called series by Beutham and Hooker. 
It is distinguished from the others, the Disci/torse and 
Calyciflaree, by the usual insertion of the petals, stamens, 
and pistils on the receptacle, not on a disk or on the calyx. 
In these orders the sepals are usually distinct, herbaceous, 
imbricate, or valvate, and free from the ovary ; and the 
receptacle is small and elevated or stalk-like. The group 
embraces the 6 cohorts Kanales, Parietales, Polygalinte, 
Caryophyttinm, Guttiferales, and Malvales, including 35 or- 
ders, in 20 of which the stamens are commonly numerous, 
in the others more often definite. 

thalamifloral (thal"a-mi-flo'ral), a. [< thala- 
mlflorous + -al.] In "hot., having the petals and 
stamens arising immediately from the torus or 
thalamus ; belonging to or characteristic of the 

thalamiflorous (thal"a-mi-fl6'rus), a. [< NL. 
thalamiflorus. < L. thalamus (< Gr. Dala/io;), a 
bed, + flos (flor-), flower.] In hot., same as 

thalamite (thal'a-mlt), . [< Gr. 9a7.aiij.TtK (see 
def.), < BMauof, an inner chamber, the lowest 
part of the hold of a ship: see thalamus.] In 
Gr. atitiq., a rower of the lowest of the three 
tiers of oarsmen in a trireme. See thraiiite and 

Behind the zygite sat the HuOamite, or oarsman of the 
lowest bank. Encyc. Brit., XXI. 80. 


cailia.] The cavity of the thalamencephalon; 

the thalamic ccelia, commonly known as t lie- 

third ventricle of the brain. 
thalamocrural (thaFa-mo-kro'ral), a. [< NL. 

thalliums, q. v., + crural.] Pertaining to the 

thalamns and the cms cerebri. 
Thalamophora (thal-a-mof'o-ra), n. pi. [NL., 

< Gr. ttUajUOf, an inner chamber, + -( 

. j 

tpfpeiv = E. bear 1 .] A name proposed by Hert- 
wig (1819) for the foraminifers, or those rhizo- 
pods which possess a skeleton, or which are 
invested by a chitinous test or covered by sili- 
cious or arenaceous particles: thus equivalent 
to and conterminous with Foraminifera. 
thalamus (thal'a-mus), n.; pi. thalami (-ml). 
[NL., also OuUamos; < L. thalamus, < Gr. fta/.a- 
uof, an inner chamber, a bedroom, a bed.] 1. 
In Gr. archeeol., an inner or private room; a 
chamber; especially, the women's apartment 
(Homeric); a sekos. 

The thalamos in Asiatic temples. 

C. 0. Miiller, Manual of Archicol. (trans.), 288. 

The walla of quarry-stones bonded with clay were simi- 

lar to walls which were "found by many hundreds in all 

the five prehistoric cities of Troy, in the treasuries of 

Mycenaj, in the thalainos of Orchomenos," etc. 

Appleton's Ann. Cyc., 1886, p. 34. 

2. In anat. : (at) The apparent origin of a cra- 
nial nerve ; the place where a nerve emerges 
from or leaves the brain. (6) Specifically, the 
optic thalamus; the thalamus of the optic 
nerve ; the great posterior ganglion of the cere- 
brum, forming the lateral wall of the cere- 
bral ventricle, and connected with its fellow 
by the middle commissure of the brain. See cut 
under cerebral. 3. Inbot. : (a) The receptacle 
or torus, (b) Same as thallus Anterior, infe- 
rior, internal, and posterior peduncles of the thal- 
amus. Seepeduiuile. Nucleus externus thalami. See 
nucleus. Thalamus nervi optici, or thalamus opti- 
CUfl, the optic thalamus. See def. 2 (ft). 

Thalarctos (tha-lark'tos), n. [NL., irreg. for 
T/iii/dHsarctos.] Same as Thalassarctos. 

Thalassarachna (tha-las-a-rak'na), n. [NL. 
(Packard, 1871), < Gr. ffaXaaaa" the sea, + 
apaxvr/, spider.] A genus of marine mites be- 
longing to the ffydrachnidse, a family of water- 
mites. T. verrilli is dredged in 20 fathoms off 
Eastport, Maine. 

Thalassarctos (thal-a-sark'tos), n. [NL. (also 
Thalarctos (J. E. Gray, 1825) and Thalarctus), 
< Gr. Bd^aaaa, the sea, + dp/croc, bear.] That ge- 
nus of I'rsidee which contains the polar bear, 
T. maritimus. See cut under bear 2 . 

Thalasseus (tha-las'e-us), n. [NL. (Boie, 
1822), < Gr. 6a7Jaaaei'f, a fisherman, < 8aAaaoa, 
the sea.] A genus of Sterninse, or subgenus of 

thalamium (tha-la'mi-um), 11. ; pi. 
(-a). [NL., < L'. thalamus, < Gr. 6d'/.afiof, an in- 
ner chamber, a bedroom, a bed : see thalamus.'] 
In hot., a fruit-bearing organ or cavity, (a) A re- 
ceptacle containing spores in certain algee. (6) The hy- 
incnium of fungi, or one of its forms, (c) The disk of li- 

thalamoccele (thal'a-mo-sel). H. [< Gr. Oa'Aa- 
.uof, au inner chamber, '+ noiMa, a hollow : see 

Royal Tern ( Thalasseus ntaximHS). 

Sterna, containing those large terns whose 
black cap extends into a slight occipital crest, 
and whose feet are black. See Sterna and tern 1 . 

Thalassia (tha-las'i-a), n. [NL. (Solander, 
1806), so called from their habitat; < Gr. 6aMa- 
aia, fern, of BaUaoioi;, of the sea, < QaAaaaa, the 
sea.] A genus of plants, of the order Hydro- 
charidees, type of the tribe Th(ilassie&. It is char- 
acterized by'unisexual two-leaved one-flowered slightly 
tubular spathes, the long-pedicelled male flower with 
three ovate petaloid segments and six long erect anthers, 
the female at first nearly sessile and with a long-beaked 
ovary which matures into a globose roughened fruit de- 
hiscent into many ascending or stellate lobes. The two 
species are plants growing submerged in the sea, with long 
thong-like leaves from an elongated creeping rootstock ; 
T. teitudinum, of the West Indies, known as turtle graft 
and manattt-yrass, is a gregarious rosulate plant of the 
sea-bottom, with linear leaves about a foot in length. 

thalassian (tha-las'i-an), n. [< Gr. da7.aooios, 
of the sea, < ffa)\anaa, tie sea.] Any sea-turtle. 

thalassic (tha-las'ik), . [< Gr. Ba7.aaaa, the 
sea, + -ic.] '1. In zool., living in the high 
seas; pelagic; marine. 2. Of, pertaining to, 
or restricted to the smaller bodies of water 
called seas, as distinguished from oceanic. 

The commercial situation of the trading towns of North 
Germany, admirable so long as the trade of the world was 


chiefly potamic or thalassic in character, lost nearly all 
its value when at the opening of the sixteenth century com- 
merce became oceanic. The Academy, Oct. 26, 1889, p. 265. 
Thalassic rocks. See littoral rocks, under littoral. 

Thalassicolla(tha-las-i-korii), ii. [<Gr.6d/, 
the sea, + IM'/'/II, glue.] Th'e typical genus of 
Thalaxxirollida'. T. ptlttgicu is an example. 

Thalassicollidae (tlm-las-i-kol'i-de), [NL., 
< Thakusteotla + -idx.] A family of unicapsu- 
lar or moiiocyttarian radiolarians of the order 
Peripylxa, of spherical form, with single nu- 
cleus, and the skeleton wanting or represented 
only by loose silicious spieules. Representa- 
tive genera are Tlialaxxicolla and Thalassosphie- 
ra. Also Thalassieollea. 

thalassicollidan (tha-las-i-kol'i-dan), a. and 
n. [< TlialaxHicnHidep + -an.] I. a. Pertaining 
to the Thalassicollidee, or having their charac- 
II. n. A member of the Thalassicollidee. 

Thalassidroma (thal-a-sid'ro-ma), n. [NL. 
(N. A. Vigors, 1825), irreg. < Gr.'fld/aomz, the sea, 
+ Apo/ioc, running.] A genus of small petrels: 
formerly including those, like the stormy pet- 
rel, T. pelagica, now placed in the restricted 
genus I'rocellaria. 

Thalassieae (thal-a-si'e-e), n. pi. [NL. (Ben- 
tham and Hooker, 1883), < Thalassia + -eee.] 
A tribe of plants, coextensive with the series 
Marinas (which see). 

Thalassina (thal-a-sl'nii), n. [< Gr. Bdfaaea, 
the sea.] The typical genus of Thalassinida>, 
containing such forms as T. scorpionoides. See 
cut under Thalassinidee. 

thalassinian (thal-a-sin'i-an), a. and n. [< 
Thalasxina + -ian.] " I. a. Of or pertaining to 
the Thalassinidse. 

II. . A burrowing crustacean of the family 

Thalassinidae (thal-a-sin'i- 
de), . pi. [NL., < Tlialax- 
sina + -idee.] A family of 
macrurous decapod crusta- 
ceans, typified by the genus 
Thalassina. They have the po- 
dobranchiee completely divided or 
reduced to epipodites, the pleuro- 
branchiae not more than four and 
not posterior, and the branchiae 
with foliaceous as well as filamen- 
tous processes. They are remark- 
able for the length of the abdomen 
and the softness of the test, and 
are of burrowing habits. They 
are commonly known as scorpion- 

Thalassiophyta (tha-las-i- 
of'i-ta), n. pi. [NL., < Gr. 
floAdomof, of or belonging to 
the sea (< Bafacaa, the sea), 
+ </>vr6v, a plant.] A name proposed by La- 
mouroux for Alg, but inapplicable from its be- 
ing too restricted excluding all fresh-water 

thalassiophyte (tha-las'i-o-fit), . [See Tlxt- 
lasniophyta.] In hot., a plant of the Thalassi- 
ophjita; a seaweed ; an alga. 

Thalassoaetus(tha-las-o-a'e-tus), n. [NL., 
orig. T/iallasoaftus (Kaup, 1845), later TJialla- 
saetus (Kaup, 1845), Thalassaetiis (Kaup, 1847), 
T/mZassae<w*(Reicnenbach,1850), <Gr. HaAaaaa, 
the sea, + afr<5f, an eagle.] A genus of sea- 
eagles, in which the tail has fourteen rectrices, 
as T. pelagicus, of Kamchatka and Alaska. 
See cut under sea-eagle. 

Thalassochelys (thal-a-sok'e-lis), . [NL. 
(Fitzinger), \Gr. 6al.aaaa, the sea, + ^t/lt'f, a 
tortoise.] A genus of chelonians, of the family 
t'lieloniidse; the loggerhead turtles. 

thalassocracy (thal-a-sok'ra-si), n. Same as 

We read of Minos, the legendary Cretan ruler, with his 
thalassocracy, and we think chiefly of war, not of com- 
merce yet the power of Minos would have been of little 
moment unless to protect commerce. 

Amer. Jour. Anhseol., VI. 440. 

thalassocraty (thal-a-sok'ra-ti), n. [< Gr. 6a- 
/laaaoKparia, mastery of the sea, < Ba/.aaaoKparclv, 
rule the sea, < 6d/.aooa, the sea, + uparelv, rule.] 
Sovereignty of the seas. [Rare.] 

He [Polycrates] was also the first to lay claim to the 
sovereignty of the ^Egean Sea, or thalasxocraty , which at 
that time there was none to dispute with him. 

Encyc. Brit., XXI. 249. 

thalassographer (thal-a-sog'ra-fer), H. [< th<il- 
assoyraph-ij + -cr 1 .] One who occupies him- 
self with the study of the phenomena of the 
ocean: same as oceanographer. 

thalassographic (thft-las-d-graf'ik), a. [< thal- 
i/sxn(/m/ili-i/ + -/<.] Relating to or concerned 
with thalassography : same as oce<uio<jr<tpltic. 


The Held of work opened to naturalists by i 
graphic surveys is of the greatest Importance. 

A. AyaHxiz, Tlireu Cruises of the Itlake, 1. vii. 

thalassography (thal-a-sog'ra-li), n. [Of. MGr. 
tlu'/tinnii; JUI^IIH ;, Jeseribiiij; t lie sea ; <(>r. Ihi/.tioaa, 
the sea, + j^ii^r/i 1 , write.] The science of the 
ocean; oceanography; that branch of physical 
geography which has to do with the phenomena 
of the ocean. 

The need of some simple word to express the science 
which treats of oceanic basins lias led to the construction 
of this term [thalfln>ti)(fT(iphif\. 

A. AyuKHij, Three Cruises of the Blake, I. i. 

thalassometer (Hml-a-som'o-ter), M. [< Gr. 
iin/iinmi, the sea, + utrpw, measure.] A tide- 

Thalassophila (thal-a-sof'i-lii), . pi. [NL., of 'tlialamophilii.i: see t/tn lassOpkUOHt.] 
A suborder or other group of pulmonate gas- 
tropods, living on sea-shores or in salt-marshes, 
as the WpkoMrMdlB and .tni/>hibolidx. 

thalassophilous (thal-a-sof'i-lus), a. [< NL. 
"thalaxiHiiiliilitu, < Gr. HA'/.aaaa, the sea, + ij>t).eiv, 
love.] Fond of the sea; inhabiting the sea: 
specifically noting the Thalassophila. 

thale-cress (thalTcres), n. [< "thale (abbr. < 
Tluiliaiia: see def.), so called from a German 
physician Thai or Thaliux, + cress.'] The mouse- 
ear cress, Thaliana, a low slender 
herb of the northern Old World, naturalized in 
the United States. 

Thaleichthys(thal-e-ik'this), H. [NL. (Girard, 
1859), < Gr., blooming, + i^c, a fish.] 
A genus of argentiuoid fishes, related to the 
smelts and caplins. T. pacificus is the candle- 
fish or eulachon. See cut under candle-fish, ]. 

thaler (ta'ler), . [< G. thaler, a dollar: see 
dollar.-] A 
large silver 
coin current 
in various Ger- 
man states 
from the six- 
teenth cen- 
tury. The tha- 
ler of the present 
German empire 
is equivalent to 
three marks, and 
Is worth about 
3& English (72 


1. Asubgenus 
of Purpitni. 
Adams, 1858. 
2. A curious 
genus of ich- 
of the sub- 
family Pim- 
plinse, notable 
for their size 
and the great 
length of the 
ovipositor. The 
larvm live exter- 
nally upon those 
of horntails and 
wood-boring bee- 
tles, and the long 
ovipositor of the 
adult enables it 
to bore for a con- 
siderable distance through solid wood. T. atrata and T. 
tunntor are common parasites ot Tremex columba iu the 
lulled States. Holmgren, 18511. 

Thalia (tha-li'ji), . [= F. Thalie, < L. Thalia, 
sometimes Thalea,<.Qr.Qafeia, one of the Muses, 
< tfn/ria, luxuriant, blooming, < ffdi'/.eiv, be luxu- 
riant or exuberant, bloom.] 1. In (Jr. myth., 
the joyful Muse, to whom is due the bloom of 
life. She Inspired gaiety, was the patroness of the ban- 
quet accompanied by song and music, and also favored 
rural pursuits and pleasures. At a late period she became 
the Muse of comedy, and to the Romans was little known 
in any other character. In the later art she is generally 
represented with a comic mask, a shepherd's crook, and a 
wreath of ivy. See cut in next column, and cut under 
mask*, i. 

2. The twenty-third planetoid, discovered by 
Hind in London iu 1852. 3f. In zool. : (a) A 
genus of salps, giving name to the Thalix or 
Tliii/inciti : same as Sal/>a, 1. (b) A genus of 
coleopterous insects. Hope, 1838. 

Thaliacea (tha-li-a'se-a), . pi. [NL. (Menke, 
1830), < Thalia (in allusion to its phosphores- 
cence: see Thalia) + -<v.] A division of 
tunicates, containing the free-swimming forms, 
or the salps and doliolids : distinguished from 
A.iriiliafi'a. Also Thaliir, Thaliudie, Thalida, 
Thai i i !(.. 


Thaler of LQneburg. 1547. British Museum. 
(Size of original.) 

thaliacean. (tha-li-a'se-an), a. and w. I. a. Of 
or pertaining to the lhaliacea. 

II. n. A member of the Thaliacea, as a salp 
or doliolid. 

Thalian (tha-li'an), a. and w. [< Thalia + 
-an.] I. a. 1. Of or relating to Thalia, espe- 
cially considered as the Muse of pastoral and 
comic poetry; comic. 2. [<". e.] In 067., same 
as thaliacean. 
II. n. Same as thaliacean. 

Thalictrtun (tha-lik'trum), . [NL. (Tourne- 
fort, 1700), < L. thalictrum, thalitruum, < Gr. 
6al.iK.Tpav, a plant, prob. Thalictrum minus ; per- 
haps so called from the abundant early bright- 
green foliage, < OdM.etv, be luxuriant : see thai- 
lug."] A genus of plants, of the order Ranuncu- 
laeeee and tribe A nemoneee. It Is distinguished from 
the similarly apetalous genus Anemone by its lack of an in- 
volucre. It includes about 70 species, mostly natives of 
the north temperate or frigid regions, with a few In tropi- 
cal India, the Cape of flood Hope, and the Andes. They 
are delicate or tall herbs with a perennial base, and orna- 
mental ternately decompound leave* of many leaflets, 
which are often roundish and three-lobed, suggesting 
those of the columbine or maidenhair fern (see cut e un- 
der lea/). The flowers are commonly small, polygamous, 
and panicled, pendulous in T. divicwn and T. minus, and 
reduced to a raceme in T. aininum. They consist chiefly 
of four or five greenish, yellowish, purple, or whitish se- 
pals ; the several or many carpels commonly become com- 
pressed etalked tailless achenes : the anthers are usually 
long and exserted or pendent, giving the inflorescence a 
graceful feathery appearance, and are especially conspicu- 
ous in T. aquilty\folium and T. Jtavum from their yellow 
color. The species are known in general as meadow-rue ; 
3 are natives of England, and 10 or more of the United 
States ; the former T. anemonaides, the rue-anemone, a fa- 
vorite early spring flower of the eastern and central United 
States, is now classed as A nemone thalictroide*, or by some 
as Anemonella ttialictroidts. (See cut under apocarpous.) 
A few dwarf species are used for borders or rock-work, as 
'/'. minus and T. aininum, the latter native of the moun- 
tains of Europe and Asia, as also of the Rocky Mountains, 
and reaching latitude 66 X. About 24 of the taller spe- 
cies are In cultivation, especially T. glaucum of Spain and 
the Austrian '/'. aqutlemfolittm, known as Spanish-tuft and 
feathered or tufted columbine. T. polygamum (formerly 
T. Carnvti), a conspicuous ornament of wet meadows in 
the United States, reaches the height of 4, sometimes 7. 
feet T.flamin is known in England t fen-rue ot maiden- 
hair rue, and as false, monk's, or pour-man's rhubarb. T. 
foliolotum, the yellowroot of the Himalayas, produces tonic 
and aperient roots used iu India in intermittent fevers. 

thalllC (thal'ik), a. [< thallium + -ic.] In 
client., of, pertaining to, or containing thalli- 
um: as, thallic acid. 

thallifonn (thal'i-fdrm), a. [< NL. thallus, q. v., 
+ L. forma, form.] In hot., having the form of 
a thallus. 

thalline (thal'in), a. [< Gr. BaM-ims, of or per- 
taining to a green shoot,< BalMf, a green shoot : 
see thallus.'] In bot., relating to, of the char- 
acter of, or belonging to a thallus Thalline 

exclple. See exeiple. 

thallious (thal'i-us), a. [< thallium + -ous.~] 
Same as that/it: 

thallite (thal'it), n. [< Gr. 6a?Ms, a green 
shoot (see thallus), + -ite 2 .] Same as i/ii<loti-. 

thallium (thal'i-um), n. [NL., so called in allu- 
sion to the green line it gives in the spectrum, 
which led to its discovery ; < Gr. floA/d? , a green 
shoot: see thalhi.i.] Chemical symbol, Tl ; 
atomic weight, 204.2. A rare metal which was 
discovered in the residuum left from the distil- 
lation of selenium by Crookes, in 1861, and was 


lirsl supposed to contain tellurium, but after- 
ward proved, liy the aid of (lie spectroscope, to 
lie new. Thallium as prepared artificially has a bluish- 
white tint and the luster of lead. It is malleable, and so 
soft that It can be scratched with the nnger-iiail. Its 
specific gravity IB 11.8. Thallium Is somewhat widely 
distributed, but never occurs in laige quantities, 'the 
rare mineral called croolcegitt, found In Sweden, is an alloy 
of thallium, selenium, and copper, with a little silver. 
Thallium seems to be present in both linn ami eop|)ei 
pyrites from various localities, and it is from the tine- 
dust from sulphuric-acid works in which pyrites in burned 
that the metal is chiefly obtained. Thallium Is chemical- 
ly classed with the metals of the lead group, hut its reac- 
tions are in certain respects very peculiar and exception- 
al. It has been employed in the manufacture of glass, 
and is said to furnish a glass of extraordinary brilliancy 
and high refractive power. 

thallium-glass (thal'i-um-glas), n. Glass iu 
which thallium is used instead of lead, to give 
density and brilliancy. Compare crystal, 2. 

thallodic (tha-lod'ik), a. [< thnllwi + -<>,!,- 
(-/lid) + -i<:] In but., of or pertaining to the 
thallus ; thalline. 

thallogen (thal'o-jen), n. [< Gr. Oa'/.'/jf, a 
young shoot (see thallus), + -;<rw?f, producing: 
see -yen.~\ In hot., game as titallo)>hyte. 

thallogenous (tha-loj'e-nus), a. [< tliallni/,,1 
+ -oun.] In hot., of or belonging to the thal- 

thalloid (thal'oid), a. [< thalluit + -oi>/.] In 
lint., resembling or consisting of a thallus. 
Thalloid hepaticae, hepaticw In which the vegetative 
body does not consist of a leafy axis. 

thallome (thal'om), . [< thallus + -ome(-oma).'] 
In bot., a thallus ; a plant-body undifferentiated 
into members, characteristic of the Thallophyta. 

Thallophyta (tha-lof'i-tft), n. pi. [NL., pi. of 
thallaphytum : see thallophttte.} A subkingdom 
or group of the vegetable kingdom, embracing 
the Myxomycetes, IHatomacete, 8chi:ophyta, Al- 
ga, and Fungi the lower cryptogams, as they 
are still most frequently called. They are planta 
In which the vegetative body usually consists of a thallus, 
which shows no differentiation Into stem, leaf, and root, 
or if there is such differentiation it Is hut rudimentary. 
In regard to complexity of structure, they set out from 
the simplest forms which show no outward distinction of 
parts, and ascend through numberless transitions to more 
and more complex forms of cell and tissue, but even in 
the higher forms they are never differentiated into the 
sharply separated systems of tissue that characterize the 
higher plants. They never have either true vessels or 
woody tissue. In regard to the modes of reproduction, 
they are In as great variety as are the grades of structural 

complexity, ranging from the forms which are propagated 
by simple flsslon to forms that have the sexes as clearly 
differentiated and almost as perfect and complex as are to 

be found In the higher plants. Compare Bryophyta, Pteri- 
dophyta, SpermnphyUt, and Connophyta. 
thallophyte (thal'o-Ht), w. [< NL. thallophy- 
tum, < Gr. 8aA./.6f, a green shoot, + ifivrov, a 
plant.] A plant of the subkingdom Thallophy- 
ta ; one of the lower cryptogams. 

Arboreal plants having structures akin to those of thai- 
lophytes. Pop. Set. Mo., XXXII. 792. 

thallophytic (thal-o-fit'ik), a. [< thallophyte 
+ -M-.J In bot., of or pertaining to the Thal- 
lophyta or thallophytes. 

thallose (thal'os), a. [< tliallus + -one.'] In 
bot.. same as tltalloid. 

thallUB (thal'us), w. [NL., < L. thallus, < Gr. 
toA/Ar, a young shoot or twig,< fldW-nv, be luxu- 
riant, bloom, sprout.] In hot., a vegetative 
body or plant-body undifferentiated into root, 
stem, or leaves; the plant-body characteristic 
of the Thallophyta. Also Ihalamus. See cut 
under applanate Filamentous thallus. Same u 
frutieulfae thallus. Follaceous or frondose thallus, 
in lichens, a flat more or less leaf-like tliallus which 
spreads over the surface of the substratum, but is at- 
tached at only a few points and can be easily separated 
therefrom without much injury. Frutlculose thallus, 
in lichens, a thallus which Is attached to the substratum 
by a narrow base only, from which it grows upward as a 
simple or more or less branched shrub-like body. Strati- 
fied thallus. Sec ttratijied. 

Thalmudt, Thalmudistt, . Obsolete forms of 
Talmud, Talmudist. 

thalweg (G. pron. tal'vech), . [G., < thai, val- 
ley, + tcea, way.] A line upon a topographical 
surface which is a natural watercourse, having 
everywhere the direction of greatest slope, and 
distinguished by having the lines of straight 
horizontal projection which cut it at right an- 
gles on the upper sides of the curves of equal 
elevation to which they are tangent. 

Thammuzt (tham'uz), . Same as Tamniii:. L'. 
Milton, P. L., i. 446, 452. 

thamnium (tham'ni-um), n. [NL., < Gr. 6a/i- 
viov, dim. of ffauvof, a bush, shrub, < 6a>av6f, 
equiv. to Baufiof, crowded, thick, close-set, < 
"aa/ilf, in pi. Qaufec, thick, close-set; cf. Baua, 
often.] In bot., the branched bush-like thal- 
lus of fruticulose lichens. 


Thamnobia (tham-no'bi-ji), H. [NL. (Swain- 
sou, 1831), < Gr. Ba/tvos, a bush, + /3/of, life.] 
A genus of Indian chat-like birds, T. fulicata is 
6} inches long in the male, glossy blue-black, with chestnut 
under tail-coverts, and a white wing-patch; it inhabits 
central and southern India and Ceylon. A second species 
is T. cambaieneis, of central and northern India. Also 
called Saxicoloides. 

thamnophile (tham'no-fil), . [< NL. T/iam- 
iiophilim, q. v.] A bush-shrike. _ . 

Thamnophilinae (tham"no-n-H'ne), it. pi. [NL., 
< ThaiunophilHn + -iftSf.] If. In Swainson's 
classification, a subfamily of Laniidse or shrikes, 
containing the thamuophiles or bush-shrikes. 
It was a large and heterogeneous assemblage of some os- 
cine with non-oscine birds, mostly species with a stout 
dentirostral bill, and considered by the old authors to be 

2. A subfamily of Formicariidee, contrasted 
with Formicarniix and Grallariinse, containing 
formiearioid passerine birds with robust hooked 

Head of Bush-shrike (Batara cinerea), a typical member of the 
Ttiamnophilinse, about one half natural size. 

bill like a shrike's and moderate or short tarsi, 
characteristic of the Neotropical region. They 
spread from Mexico to the Argentine Republic, but are 
wanting in Chili and Patagonia, and are also absent from 
the Antilles. The genera are ten, and the species numer- 
ous, collectively known as bush-shrikes, and playing the 
same part in the regions they inhabit as the true shrikes. 

thamnophiline (tham-nof'i-lin), a. [< Tliam- 
nophilinse, q. v.] Of or pertaining to the Tltam- 

Thamnophilus (tham-nof 'i-lus), n. [NL. 
(Vieillot, 1816), < Gr. 6d/tvof, a bush, shrub, + 
0tfe<v, love.] 1. The most extensive genus of 
bush-shrikes. With its several sections and synonyms 
it is considered to cover more than 50 species, exclusive 
of many others which have from time to time been 
wrongly placed in it. T. doliatus, upon which the name 
was originally based, is a characteristic example. 
2. A genus of coleopterous insects. Schiinherr, 

than (than), adv. and conj. [Early mod. E. also 
then, in both uses (now used exclusively as an 
adverb) ; < ME. than, than, thanne, thonne, < AS. 
than, than, usually thanne, thonne, thesnne, then, 
than, = OS. than = OFries. than, dan = D. dan 
= MLG. dan, den = OHG. danna, MHG. danne, 
denne, G. dann, adv., then, denn, conj., for, then, 
= Goth, than, adv. and couj. ; with an obscure 
formative -n, -ne, from the pronominal stem tlia 
in the, that, there, etc. : see the, that.] I. adv. 
At that time ; then. See then. [Old and prov. 

Thanne gart sche to greithe gaili alle thinges. 

William of Palerne (E. E. T. S.), 1. 4274. 
Forthe than went this gentyll knyght, 
With a carefull chere. 
Lytell Oeste of Robyn Hode (Child's Ballads, V. 49). 

II. conj. A particle used after comparatives, 
and certain words which express comparison 
or diversity, such as more, better, other, other- 
wise, rather, else, etc., and introducing the sec- 
ond member of a comparison. Than has the same 
case (usually the nominative) after it as it has before it, in 
accordance with the syntactical rule that "conjunctions 
connect . . . the same cases of nouns and pronouns " : as, 
he is taller than I (am) ; I am richer than he (is) ; " thrice 
fairer than (I) myself (am) " (Shak., Venus and Adonis, 1. 7) ; 
they like you better than (they like) me. 
Thenne was ich al so fayn as foul of fair monvenynge 
Gladder than gleo-man [is] that gold hath to gyf te. 

Piers Plowman (C), xii. 103. 

Among them that are born of women there hath not 
risen a greater than John the Baptist ; notwithstanding 
he that is least in the kingdom of heaven is greater than 
he- Mat. xi. 11. 

I will sooner trust the wind 
With feathers, or the troubled sea with pearl, 
; Than her with any thing. 

Beau, and Fl., Philaster, v. 5. 
This age, this worse then iron age, 
This sincke of synne. 

Times' Whistle (E. E. T. S.), p. 2. 

I am better acquainted with the country than you are. 

Cotton, in Walton's Angler, ii. 225. 

He [King John] had more of Lightning in him than [he 

had] of Thunder. Baker, Chronicles, p. 76. 

There is no art that hath bin . . . more soyl'd and slub- 

ber'd with aphorisming pedantry then the art of policie. 

Mttton, Reformation in Eng., ii. 

He desires to be answerable no farther than he is guilty. 
Swift, Tale of a Tub, Apol. 

The late events seem to have no other effect than to 
harden them in error. Prescott, Ferd. and Isa,, ii. 7. 


No sooner the bells leave otf than the diligence rattles in. 
Browning, l : p at a Villa. 

A noun -clause introduced by that sometimes follows than : 
as, I had rather be a sufferer myself than that you should 
be ; and the that is now and then omitted in poetry. 
Since I suppose we are made to be no stronger 
Than faults may shake our frames. 

Shalt., M. for M., ii. 4. 133. 

Sometimes the preceding comparative is left to be inferred 
from the context ; sometimes it is omitted from mere care- 
lessness. A noun or a pronoun after than has a show of 
analogy with one governed by a preposition, and is some- 
times blunderingly put in the objective case even when 
properly of subjective value : as, none knew better than 
him. Even Milton says than whom, and this is more usual : 
for example, than whom there is none better. 

thanage (tha'naj), n. [< thane + -age.'} (a) 
The dignity or rank of a thane ; the state of be- 
ing a thane, (b) The district or territory owned 
or administered by a thane ; also, the tenure by 
which the thane or baron held it. 

thanatography (than-a-tog'ra-fl), n. [< Gr. 
BdvaTOf, death, + -ypa<j>ia, < ypaifeiv, write.] A 
narrative of one's death: distinguished from 
biography, a narrative of one's life. Thackeray, 
Catharine, vi. [Rare.] 

thanatoid (than'a-toid), a. [< Gr. "Bavaroudiji,, 
contr. davarhSris, "resembling death, < Odvarof, 
death (fhi/attEiv, Qavelv, ^ 6av, die), + eMof, form.] 
1. Resembling death; apparently dead. Dun- 
glison. 2. Deadly, as a venomous snake. 

thanatology (than-a-tol'o-ji), n. [< Gr. Bavarof, 
death, + -hoyia, < Aeyetv, say: see -otogy.~\ The 
doctrine of death ; a discourse on death. 

thanatophidia (than"a-to-fid'i-a),.^?. [NL., < 
Gr. Bdvarof, death, + NL. ophidia.] Venomous 
or poisonous snakes in general, as the cobra, 
the asp, the adder, etc. The name is scarcely tech- 
nical in zoology, though so employed by Fitzinger ("Sys- 
tema Reptilium," 1843); it was also used by Fayer for his 
work treating of such serpents of India. It corresponds 
in fact, however, to the two suborders Solenoglypha and 
Proteroglypha, or the crotaliform and cobriform ophidi- 
ans, and is sometimes written with a capital. 

thanatophidian (than"a-t6-fid'i-an), a. and 11. 
[< thanatophidia + -an.] 1. a. Of or pertain- 
ing to the thanatophidia. 
II. n. Any one of the thanatophidia. 

thanatopsis (than-a-top'sis), n. [< Gr. Bdvaroc, 
death, + oiptf, a sight, view, < -\/ OTT in oifxaBai, 
f ut. of opdv, see : see optic.] A view or contem- 
plation of death. Bryant. 

thane (than), . [< ME. thane, thein, theign (ML. 
tliainus), < AS. thegen, thegn, a soldier, atten- 
dant, servant of the king, a minister, nobleman, 
= OS. thegan = OHG. degan,*&n attendant, ser- 
vant, soldier, disciple, MHG. degen, a soldier, = 
Icel. thegn, a soldier, warrior, freeman, = Goth. 
*thigns (not recorded); perhaps = Gr. TCKVOV, 
child, hence in Tent, boy, attendant, soldier, 
servant (cf . AS. mago, child, boy, servant, man : 
see mai/2) ; with formative -n (-no-), orig. pp., 
from the root seen in Gr. TIKTCIV, TCKCIV, beget, 
bring forth, rikof, birth, Skt. toJca, child. Oth- 
erwise akin to AS. thedw = OHG. diu = Goth. 
thins (thiwa-, orig. thigwa-): see thew 1 . The 
proper modern form would be *thain, parallel 
with rain, main 1 , sain, rail, sail, tail, etc.] In 
early Eng. hist., a member of a rank above that 
of the ordinary freeman, and differing from that 
of the athelings, or hereditary ancient nobility. 
The distinguishing marks of all thanes were liability to 
military service and the ownership of land. Of the various 
classes of thanes the chief was that of king's thanes, whose 
members were subject to no jurisdiction but that of the 
king. The rank increased in power about the time of Al- 
fred, and about the reign of Athelstan any freeman who 
owned five hides of land or had made three sea-voyages 
was eligible to thanehood. The thanehood corresponded 
nearly to the knighthood after the Norman Conquest. In 
the reign of Henry II. the title fell into disuse. In Scotland 
the thanes were a class of non-military tenants of the 
crown, and the title was in use till the end of the fifteenth 
century. The notion derived from Boece, and adopted by 
Shakspere in "Macbeth," that the Scotch thanes were all 
transformed into earls, has no historical foundation. In 
some recent historical works the Anglo-Saxon thegn is used 
in its strict Anglo-Saxon sense. 

The fully qualified freeman who has an estate of land 
may be of various degrees of wealth and dignity, from the 
ceorl with a single hide to the thegn with five hides. 

Stubbs, Const. Hist., 37. 

With the rise of kingship a new social distinction began 
to grow up, on the ground, not of hereditary rank in the 
community, but of service done to the king. The king's 
thegns were his body-guard, the one force ever ready to 
carry out his will. They were his nearest and most con- 
stant counsellors. As the gathering of petty tribes into 
larger kingdoms swelled the number of eorls in each 
realm, and in a corresponding degree diminished their 
social importance, it raised in equal measure the rank of 
the king's thegns. A post among them was soon coveted 
and won by the greatest and noblest. 

J. R. Oreen, Making of Eng., p. 179. 

thanedom (than'dum), . [< thane + -<?.] 
1. The district held or administered by a 


Now, from the mountain's misty throne, 

Sees, in thanedom once his own, 

His ashes undistinguished lie, 

His place, his power, his memory die. 

Scott, L. of L. M., v. 2. 

2. The power, and especially the judicial func- 
tions, of a thane: as, the thanedom of Macbeth, 
thanehood (than'hiid), H. [< thane + -hood.'] 

1. The office, dignity, or character of a thane. 
2. The collective body of thanes. 

That later nobility of the thegnhood, which, as we have 
seen, supplanted the ancient nobility of the eorls. 

E. A. Freeman, Amer. Lects., p. 3C7. 

thane-land (than'land), n, 1. Land held by a 

Thane-lands were such lands as were granted by charters 
of the Saxon kings to their thanes, with all immunities 
except the threefold necessity of expedition, repair of 
castles, and mending of bridges. Cotvell. 

2. The district over which the jurisdiction of 
a thane extended. 

thaneship (than'ship), n. [< thane + -ship.] 
Same as thanehood. 

Thanet beds. [From Isle of Thanet, in Kent, 
England.] In geol., a series of beds of pale- 
yellow and greenish sand, having a thin layer 
of flints at the bottom, and resting directly on 
the Chalk, thus terming the base of the Tertiary 
in the London Basin, to which this formation is 
peculiar. The thickness of the series varies from 20 to 

00 feet. The fossils which the Thanet beds contain are 
marine, and are varied in character; mollusks are espe- 
cially abundant. 

thangt, n. A Middle English form of thong. 
thank (thangk). n. [< ME. thank, thonk, < AS. 
thane, thonc, thought, grace, favor, content, 
thanks (= OS. thane = OFries. thonk, thank = 
D. dank = MLG. dank, danke = OHG. MHG. 
danc, G. dank = Icel. thokk (thakk-), for orig. 
* thonk ("thank-), = Sw. tack = Dan. tak = Goth. 
thagks, thought), < "thincan (pret. *thanc), etc., 
think : see think 1 . For the phonetic relation of 
thank to think, cf. that of song 1 (Sc. sang) to 
sing; for the connection of thought, cf. min s 
(Q. minne, etc.), thought, remembrance, love.] 
If. Grateful thought ; gratitude; goodwill. 

This encres of hardynesse and myght 
Com him of love, his ladyes thank to winne. 

Chaucer, Troilus, iii. 1777. 
He seide, "In thank I shal it take." 

Rom. of the Rose, 1. 4577. 

2. Expression of gratitude ; utterance of a 
sense of kindness received; acknowledgment 
by words or signs of a benefit or favor con- 
ferred : now used almost exclusively in the 

To some y* are good men God sendeth wealth here also, 
and they glue hem great thanke for his gift, and he re- 
wardeth them for the thanke to. 

Sir T. More, Cumfort against Tribulation (1573), fol. 35. 
If ye love them which love you, what thank have ye? 

Luke vi. 32. 

O, good men, eate that good which he hath giuen you, 
and giue him thanks. Purchas, Pilgrimage, p. 257. 

[The plural thanks was sometimes used as a singular. 
What a thanks I owe 
The hourly courtesies your goodness gives me ! 

Fletcher and Masainger, A Very Woman, iii. 5.] 
Thanks, a common elliptical expression or acknowledg- 
ment of satisfaction or thankfulness. 

Thanks, good Egeus ; what 's the news with thee? 

Shak., M. N. 1)., i. 1. 21. 
To can or con thank t. See cani. 
thank (thangk), v. [< ME. tJianlcen, thonJcen, < 
AS. thancian, thoncian = OS. thancon = OFries. 
thonkia = D. danken = MLG. danken = OHG. 
danchon, MHG. G. danken = Icel. thakJca = Sw. 
tacka = Dan. takke, thank; from the noun. Cf. 
think 1 ."] I. trans. To express gratitude to, as 
for a favor or benefit conferred; make ac- 
knowledgments to, as of good will or service 
due for kindness bestowed. 

Gretly y thonk God that gart me a-chape. 

William of Palerne (E. E. T. S.), 1. 1248. 

Heavens than* you for 't ! Shak., Tempest, i. 2. 176. 

I humbly thanked him for the good Opinion he pleased 

to conceive of me. ffowell, Letters, I. iv. 24. 

1 thank you, or colloquially abbreviated thank you, a 
polite formula used in acknowledging a favor, as a gift, 
service, compliment, or offer, whether the same is ac- 
cepted or declined. Like other polite formulas, it is often 
used ironically. 

A nne. Will 't please your worship to come in, sir ? 
Slen. No, / thank you, forsooth, heartily. 

Shak., M. W. of W., i. 1. 277. 

I Will thank you, a polite formula introducing a request : 
as, / will thank you to shut the door ; / iritt thank you for 
the mustard. To thank one's self, to have one's self 
to thank, to be obliged to throw the blame on one's self ; 
be solely responsible : used ironically, and generally in 
the imperative. 

Weigh the danger with the doubtful bliss, 
And thanlt yourself if aught should fall amiss. 



II. t iiitriiH.i. To give thanks. 
Which we toke IIH denouiu t- u roinlr. ;ui<l Ituiiike ac- 
cordyng. Hir It. Uuijlforde, I'ylKOmw p. '''> 

thanker ('kiT), . [< (///. + -<!.] One 
who "ivos llninks; a giver of thanks. 

I hopu he may long cuntliiue to feel all the value of such 
a reconciliation, lie is a very liberal thanktr. 

Jane Awttvu, F.mimt, It. 

thankest, . [ME., gen. of tlnuil, IIM-I| ndvc-r- 
biully with the poss. pronouns, meaning 'of liis, 
her, their, my, tny, your, our accord': see tlninl;. \ 
A form used only in I he phi-uses hi.*, tliy, etc., 
l/iinil.-cs, of liis, thy, etc., accord; voluntarily. 

Kul sooth i seycl that love ne lordshipe 
\Vol might, liis thankfs, have no felaweshipe. 

Chaucer, Knight's Tale, 1. 768. 

Thyne herto shal so ravysshed be 

That nevere thou woldest, ltd thankis, lete 

Ne removen for to see that swete. 

Rom. of Ike Rote, 1.2463. 

thankful (thangk'fiil), a. [< ME. "thankful, < 
AS. thancfull, < thane, thank: see thank and 
-ful.] 1. Impressed with a sense of kindness 
received, and ready to acknowledge it; grate- 

? unto him, and bless his name. Pa. c. 4. 

At I am a gentleman, I will live to be thankful to thee 
for't. SAo*.,T. N.,iv. 2.89. 

It is no improper Comparison that a thankful Heart is 
like a Box of precious Ointment, which keeps the Smell 
long after the Thing Is spent. //...//, Letters, ii. 23. 

2. Expressive of thanks; given or done in token 
of thanks. 

Give the gods a tltankful sacrifice. 

Shot., A. and C., 1. 2. 167. 

Again and again the old soldier said his thankful prayers, 
and blessed his benefactor. Thackeray, Philip, xvii. 

3f. Deserving thanks; meritorious; acceptable. 

Tumaccus thought him selfe happie that he had pre- 
sented owre men with such thankeful gyftes and was ad- 
mitted to theyr frendshippe. 

Peter Martyr (tr. in Eden's First Books on America, 

[ed. Arber, p. 141). 
Thank may you have for such a thankful part. 

Sir P. Sidney (Arber's Eng. Garner, I. 550). 

4t. Pleasing; pleasant. 

They of late years have taken this pastime vp among 
them, many times gratifying their ladies, and often times 
the princes cf the realme, with some such thankfull nov- 
eltle. Puttenham, Arte of Eng. Poesie, Ii. (Danes.) 

= Syn. 1. See grateful. 

thankfully (thangk'ful-i), adv. [< ME. tltnnl;- 
fitltirhe; < thankful + -lyt.] In a thankful 
manner; with grateful acknowledgment of fa- 
vors or kindness received. 

His ring I do accept most thankfully. 

Shak., M. of V., iv. 2. 9. 

thankfulness (thangk'ful-nes), n. The state or 
character of being thankful : acknowledgment 
of a favor received : gratitude. 
thankingt, n. [< ME. thanlynge, < AS. thancung, 
< tliaiifian, thank: see thank, v.~] An expres- 
sion of thanks. 

Therto yeve hem such thankyntjes. 

Ram, of the ROK, 1. 6041. 

Thanne he wente prevylly, alle be nyghte, tille he cam 
to his folk, that weren fulle glad of his comynge, and 
maden grete thankynges to God Inmortalle. 

Mandfvitte, Travels, p. 227. 

thankless (thaugk'les), a. [< thank + -less.} 

1. Unthankful; ungrateful; not acknowledg- 
ing kindness or benefits. 

That she may feel 

How sharper than a serpent's tooth it is 
To have a thankless child ! Shak., Lear, i. 4. 311. 

2. Not deserving thanks, or not likely to be re- 
warded with thanks: as, a thankless task. 

But whereunto these thankless tales in vain 
Do I rehearse? Surrey, .Eneid, ii. 125. 

The Sun but thankless shines that shews not thee. 

Congreve, Tears of Amaryllis. 
= SyTL See grateful. 

thanklessly (thangk'les-li), adv. In a thank- 
less manner; without thanks; ungratefully; 
in a grudging spirit. 

The will of God may be done thanklessly. 

Bp. Hall, Jehu with Jehoram and Jezebel. 

thanklessness (thangk'les-nes), . The state 
or character of being thankless ; ingratitude. 

Not to have written then seems little less 
Than worst of civil vices, thnnklrxxiirt*. 

i>imne, To the Countess of Bedford. 
= Syn. Sea grateful. 

thanklyt (thangk'li), adi: [< thiink + -ly*.~\ 
Thankfully. [Rare.] 

He giueth frankly what we thtiiMn spend. 

Sylrexter, tr. of Du Bartas's Weeks, i. 3. 

thank-offering (tliangk'of er-ing). ii. An offer- 
ing made in ancient Jewish rites as an expres- 
sion of gratitude to God; a peace-offering. 


A thousand thank offering* an <lu>- 1>< tii.ii I'tovidence 
which has delivered our tuition from these absurd iniqui- 
ties. '. 

thanksgivet dhaiif-'ks-^iv'). r. t. [A back-for- 
inittion, < tliiiiil.sf/iriii;/.] To offer in token of 

To thanks/ice or blesse a thing In a way to a sacred use 
he took U> be an offering of it to God. 

J. Mede, Diatribe, p. S3. (Latham.) 

thanksgiver (tlmngks-giv'er), . [< thank*, pi. 
of tlmtik, + ijin r. \ One who gives thanks, or 
acknowledges a benefit, a kindness, or a mercy. 
Wherefore we flnd (our never-to-be-forgotten) example, 
the devout thanksyioer, David, continually declaring tbe 
great price he set upon the divine favours. 

Harrow, Works, I. vlli. 

thanksgiving (thangks-giv'ing), n. [< thanks, 
pi. of titanic, + giving.'] 1. The act of render- 
ing thanks or of expressing gratitude for favors, 
benefits, or mercies; an acknowledgment of 
benefits received: used in the Old Testament 
for acknowledgment by the act of offering, 

If he offer It for a thanksgiving, then he shall offer with 
the sacrifice of thanbujimny unleavened cakes. 

Lev. vii. 12. 

Kvery creature of God Is good, and nothing to be re- 
fused, If It be received with thanksgiving. 1 Tim. iv. 4. 

2. A public celebration of divine goodness ; spe- 
cifically [cop.], in the United States, Thanks- 
giving day (see the phrase below). 

Great as the preparations were for the dinner, every- 
thing was so contrived that not a soul in the house should 
be kept from the morning service of Thanksgiving in the 
church, and from listening to the Thanksgiving sermon, 
In which the minister was expected to express his views 
freely concerning the politics of the country, and the 
state of things In society generally, in a somewhat more 
secular vein of thought than was deemed exactly appro- 
priate to the Lord's day. //. B. Stuwe, Oldtown, p. 340. 

3. A form of words expressive of thanks to God ; 
a grace. 

There 's not a soldier of us all that. In the thanksgiving 
before meat, do relish the petition well that prays for 
peace. Shak., M. for M., i. 2. 15. 

General Thanksgiving, in the Book of Common Prayer, 
a form of thanksgiving, preceding the last two prayers 
of morning or evening prayer or of the litany, for the 
general or ordinary blessings of life : so called as distin- 
guished from the forms provided for special persons and 
occasions.- Thanksgiving day, a day set apart for a 
public celebration of divine goodness ; specifically, in the 
United States, an annual festival appointed by proclama- 
tion, and held usually on the last Thursday of November. 
It is celebrated with religious services and social festivi- 
ties. The first celebration was held by the Plymouth Col- 
ony in 1621, and the usage soon became general In New 
England. After the revolution the custom gradually ex- 
tended to the Middle States, and later to the West, and 
more slowly to the' South. Since 1863 its observance 
has been annually recommended by the President. The 
Great Thanksgiving, in early and Oriental liturgies, a 
form ascribing praiseto God for the creation of the world 
and his dealings with man, now represented by the pre- 
face and part of the canon. See preface, 2. 
thanksworthyt (thangks'wer'Tiu), a. Same as 

This seemeth to us in our case much thanksworthy. 
Bp. Ridley, in Bradford's Letters (Parker Soc., 1863), II. 168. 

thankworthiness (thangk'wer'THi-nes), . 
The state of being worthy of thanks. 

thankworthy (thangk'wer'THi), a. [=G.dank- 
wtirdig; as thank + worthy."] Worthy of or de- 
serving thanks; entitled to grateful acknow- 

Nowe wherein we want desert were a thanltewarthy 

labour to expresse ; but, if I knew, J should haue mended 

my selfe. Sir P. Sidney, Apol. for Poetrie. 

For this Is thankworthy. It a man for conscience toward 

God endure grief, suffering wrongfully. 1 Pet. IL 19. 

thank-you-ma'am (thangk'u-mam), n. [Also 
thank-you-mam; so called in humorous allusion 
to the sudden bobbing of the head (as if making 
a bow of acknowledgment) caused by the jolt- 
ing when a vehicle passes over the ridge.] A 
low ridge of earth formed across a road on the 
face of a hill to throw to one side downflowing 
rain-water, and thus to prevent the wasting of 
the road. It also serves to check downward movement 
of a vehicle and afford relief to the horses both in going 
up and in going down the hill. Also called water-bar. 
[Colloq.,U. S.] 

We jogged along very comfortable and very happy, 
down steep hills crossed by abrupt and Jerky thnnk-ymt- 
mains. Seribner's Mag., VUI. 565. 

thannah (than'S), n. Same as tana 1 . 

thannet, <idr. A Middle English form of than 
and thru. 

Thapsia (thap'si-a), n. [NL.. (Tournefort, 
1700), < L. tlinpsia,"< Or. Qa-tyia, Sdywc, a plant 
used to dye yellow, said to have been T. Gar- 
j/iiiiifa, brought from the island or peninsula 
of Thapsus. Sicily; < Bail/or, L. Thu/*. Thap- 
sus.] 1. A genus of umbelliferous plants, of 
the tribe IMXI i-/>ilii'tf. It is characterized by a fruit 
with lateral secondary ridges dilated into broad wings. 


the other ridges filiform, ml the seed Hat. There are 4 

specie- tlU \li'llt>-n:ilir:i]i region. , >|., , hilly to 

tlie v, ' st. mil ext'-niiiiiK to the inland of Madeira, u : 
species have a hard and often tall and conspicuous ihrabby 
i-.iml.-x. They are perennials, or perhaps sometimes bicn 

1, the upper part of the stem with the umbel of Tftaftia Garfanita; 

a, a leaf; a, the fruit. 

nials, bearing pinnately decompound leaves with plnnatl- 
titl segments, and yellowish, whitish, or purplish flowers 
In compound umbels of many rays, usually without in- 
volucre and with the Involucels small or wanting. For 
T. Garganica, see deadly carrot (under carrot), also atadul- 
cit, later), resin of thapsia and btm-iuifa resin (under rerin). 
For T. decipiens, a remarkably palm-like species, see black 
parsley, under parsley. For T. (ilonizia) edulis, see carrot- 

2. [/. c.] A plant of this genus. 

This thapsia, this wermoote, and elebre, 
Cucumber wild, and every bitter kynde 
Of hri In- is nought for hem. 

Palladius, Husbondrie (E. E. T. *.), p. :{-. 
Thapsia plaster. See plaster. 
thar ! (THar), adv. An obsolete or dialectal form 
of there. 

thar 2 t, r. See tharfl. 

thar 3 (thar), n. [Also thaar and tahr; E. Ind.] 
A wild goat of the Himalayas, Copra Jemlaica, 
also called imo and serow. The small horns curve 
directly backward, and the male has a mane of long hair 
on the neck and shoulders. 

tharborought (thar'bur-6), n. A corruption of 

I myself reprehend his own person, for I am his grace's 
tharborouyh. Shak., L. L. L., i. 1. 185. 

tharcake (thar'kak), . [Also thardcake; for 
'tluirfcakc. < tharf* + cake 1 .] A cake made 
from meal, treacle, and butter, eaten on the 
night of the 5th of November. [Prov. Eng.] 
tharf't, P. t. and . [Also darf; < ME. tharf 
(often thar, dar, by confusion with forms of 
dare), inf. thurfen, < AS. thearf, inf. thurfan = 
OFries. thurf, inf. thurra = OHG. durfan = Icel. 
thurfa = Sw. tarfea = Goth, thaurban, have 
need, = D. durven = G. dvrfen, dare : see dare 1 . ] 
To need; lack. 

Whanne these tyding were told to themperour of rome 
he was gretly a-greued, no gome thort him blame. 

William of Palerne (E. E. T. S.), 1. 1070. 
Tf we mon trwe restore, 
Thenne thar mon drede no wathe. 
Sir Gawayne and the Green Knight (E. E. T. S.X 1. 2354. 

Neee, I pose that he were, 
Thow thruste [pret.] nevere ban the more fere. 

Chaueer, Trollus, ill. 572. 

tharf 2 !, a. [< ME. therf, < AS. theorf= OFries. 
therre = MD. derf= OHG. derb, MHG. derp = 
Icel. thjarfr, unleavened.] Unleavened. Wyrlif. 
Also the! make here Sacrement of the Awteer of Thrrf 
Bred. Mamlerillt, Travels, p. IS. 

Thargelia (thar-ge'li-a), n. )>l. [< Gr. Oaprflia 
(sc. lepa), a festival of Apollo and Artemis (see 
def.), < Odm^Aof, equiv. to 6a).voioc,, in neut. pi. 
BaU'aia, offerings of first-fruits made to Arte- 
mis.] In Gr. until/., a festival celebrated at 
Athens on the 6th and 7th of the month Tharge- 
lion, in honor of Delian Apollo and of Artemis. 
On the first day of the festival (probably not every year) 
there was an expiatory sacrifice of two persons, for the 
men and the women of the state respectively, the victims 
being condemned criminals ; on the second day there were 
a procession and a contest for a tripod between cyclic 
choruses provided by ehoragi. 

Cases of adoption were very frequent among the Greeks 
ami Romans. . . . In the interest of the next of kin, whose 
rights were affected by a case of adoption, it was provided 
that the registration should be attended with certain for- 
malities and that it should take place at a fixed lime 
the festival of the Thargelia. Bncyc. Brit., I. 163. 

Tharos Butterfly (Phyciodes tharos) t 
natural size. 



Thargelion (thar-ge'li-on), n. [< Gr. 
< QapylfAia, the festival Thargelia: see Thar- 
yelia.'] The eleventh month of the ancient 
Attic calendar, containing thirty days, and 
corresponding to the last part of May and the 
first part of June. 

tharldomet, Same as thraldom. 

tharm (thiirm), w. [Early mod. E. also therm, 
Sc. thairm; < ME. tharm, therm, < AS. thearm = 
OFries. therm, thirm = D. MLG. darm = OHG. 
daram, MHG. G. darm = Icel. tharmr = Sw. 
Dan. farm, gut, = L. frames, way, = Gr., 
tharm, gut; cf. rpr/pa, hole, ear, < rerpaiveiv 
(/ rpa), bore through.] An intestine ; an en- 
trail; gut. [Obsolete or dialectal.] 

Eustathius . . . doth tell that in old time they made 
their bow-strings of bullocks' thermes, which they twined 
together as they 
do ropes. 

Ascham, Toxophi- 

[lus (ed. 1864), 

[p. 103. 

When I am tired 
of scraping thairm 
or singing bal- 

Scott, Redgaunt- 
(let, letter XL 

tharos (tha'- 
ros), n. The 
pearl crescent, 
Phyciodes tharos, a small American butterfly 
varied with black, orange, and white. 
Thaspium (thas'pi-um), n. [NL. (Nuttall, 1818), 
transferred from Thapsia, a related genus.] A 
genus of umbelliferous plants. It is characterized 
by its conspicuous calyx-teeth, 
long styles without a stylopo- 
dium, and fruit with most or all 
of the ribs prominently winged, 
and with the oil-tubes solitary in 
the intervals. It includes 3 spe- 
cies, all natives of the United 
States, known as meadow- 
parsnip. They are handsome 
tall and smooth perennial 
herbs, with ternately divided 
leaves composed of broad ser- 
rate leaflets, and compound 
umbels of yellow flowers with- 
out involucres, and with the in- 
volucels formed of a few minute 
bractlets; one variety, T. aure- 
um, var. atropurpureum, bears 
dark-purple flowers. One spe- 
cies, T. pinnatifidum., is a native 
of the South Appalachian re- 
gion ; the others, T. aureum and 
T. barbinode (see cut under peti- 
ole), are widely diffused through 
the eastern and central United 
States. T. aureum and its vari- 
ety trifoliatum have been com- 
monly confounded with the cor- 
responding species of Zizia, re- 
spectively Z. aurea and Z. cor- 
data (referred by some to Carum), which they resemble 
closely in flower and leaf, but differ from in their winged 
fruit and later blooming. 

that (SPHat), pron. or a. ; pi. those (THOZ). [Also 
dial, thet; < ME. that, thet, < AS. that, that, the, 
= OS. that = OFries. thet, dat = MD. D. dat 
= MLG. dat, that, = OHG. MHG. G. das, the, 
= Icel. that, the, = Dan. (let, the, = Sw. det, 
this, = Goth, thata, the ; neut. of the demonst. 
pron. which came to be used as the def. art., 
AS. masc. se, fern, seo, neut. thset, ME. and 
mod. E. in all genders, the : see further under 
the 1 . Hence that, conj, and adv.'] A. demonst. 
pron. or a. 1. Used as a definitive adjective 
before a noun, in various senses, (a) Pointing to 
a person or thing present or as before mentioned or sup- 
posed to be understood, or used to designate a specific 
thing or person emphatically, having more force than the 
definite article the, which may, however, in some cases be 
substituted for it. 

It shall be more tolerable for Sodom and Gomorrha in 
the day of judgment than for that city. Mat. x. 15. 

Touch but my lips with those fair lips of thine. 

Shak., Venus and Adonis, 1. 115. 

David indeed, by suffering without just cause, learnt 
that meekness and that wisdom by adversity which made 
him much the fitter man to raigne. 

Wilton, Eikonoklastes, xxvii. 

That House of Commons that he could not make do for 

him would do to send him to the Tower till he was sober 

Walpole, Letters, II. 8. 

(6) Frequently in opposition to this, in which case it refers 
to one of two objects already mentioned, and often to the 
one more distant in place or time : frequently, however, 
mere contradistinction is implied: as, I will take this 
book, and you can take that one. 

Of Zion it shall be said, this and that man was born in 
ner - Ps. Ixxxvii. 5. 

(c) Pointing not so much to persons and things as to their 
qualities, almost equivalent to such, or of such a nature 
and occasionally followed by as or that as a correlative. 

There cannot be 
That vulture in you, to devour so many. 

Shak., Macbeth, iv. 3. 74. 

Flowering Plant of Mea- 
dow-parsnip (Tftasfium 
barbinode}. a, the carpels. 


Whose love was of that dignity 
That it went hand in hand even with the vow. 

Shak., Hamlet, i. 6. 49. 

Majesty never was vested to that degree in the Person 
of the King as not to be more conspicuous and more au- 
gust in Parliament, as I have often shown. 

Miltun, Ans. to Salmasius. 

2. Used absolutely or without a noun as a de- 
monstrative pronoun, (a) To indicate a person or 
thing already referred to or implied, or specially pointed 
at or otherwise indicated, and having generally the same 
force and significance as when used as an adjective: as, 
give me that; do you see that? 

Foretell new storms to those already spent. 

Shak., Lucrece, 1. 1589. 

What springal is that' ha ! Shirley, Love Tricks, ii. 1. 
From hence forward be that which thine own brutish 
silence hath made thee. 

Milton, Church-Government, Pref., il. 
She has that in her aspect against which it is impossible 
to offend. Steele, Spectator, No. US. 

(b) In opposition to this, or by way of distinction. 
If the Lord will, we shall live, and do this or that. 

Jas. iv. 15. 
This is not fair ; nor profitable that. 

Dryden, tr. of Persius's Satires, iv. 19. 
A hundred and fifty odd projects took possession of his 
brain by turns he would do this, and that, and t'other 
he would go to Rome he would go to law he would 
buy stock . . . he would new fore-front his house, and 
add a new wing to make it even. 

Sterne, Tristram Shandy, iv. 31. 

When this and that refer to foregoing words, this, like the 
Latin hie or the French ceci, refers to the last mentioned, 
the latter, and that, like the Latin file or the French cela, 
to the first mentioned, the former. 

Self-love and reason to one end aspire, 
Pain their aversion, pleasure their desire ; 
But greedy that its object would devour, 
This taste the honey and not wound the flower. 

Pope, Essay on Han, ii. 89. 

In all the above cases, that, when referring to a plural 
noun, takes the plural form those : as, that man, those men ; 
give me that, give me those ; and so on. (c) To represent 
a sentence or part of a sentence, or a series of sentences. 
And when Moses heard that, he was content. Lev. x. 20. 
[That here stands for the whole of what Aaron had said, or 
the whole of the preceding verse.] 
111 know your business, Harry, that I will. 

Shak., 1 Hen. IV., ii. 3. 83. 
Upon my conscience, 
The man is truly honest, and that kills him. 

Fletcher, Valentinian, iv. 3. 
If the Laymen will not come, whose fault is that? 

Selden, Table-Talk, p. 87. 

Certain or uncertain, be that upon the credit of those 

whom I must follow. Milton, Hist. Eng., i. 

They say he's learn'd as well as discreet, but I'm no 

judge of that. Steele, Lying Lover, i. 1. 

You are a foolish bribble-brabble woman, that you are. 

Sir R. Howard, The Committee, iii. 1. 

Yet there still prevails, and that too amongst men who 

plume themselves on their liberality, no small amount of 

the feeling which Milton combated in his celebrated essay. 

H. Spencer, Social Statics, p. 167. 

That sometimes in this use precedes the sentence or 
clause to which it refers. 

That be far from thee, to do after this manner, to slay 
the righteous with the wicked. Gen. xviii. 25. 

That here represents the clause in italics. It is used also 
as the substitute for an adjective : as, you allege that the 
man is innocent ; that he is not. Similarly, it is often used 
to introduce an explanation of something going before : as, 
"religion consists in living up to those principles that 
is, in acting in conformity to them." (d) Emphatically, 
in phrases expressive of approbation, applause, or encour- 

Why, that's my dainty Ariel ! Shak., Tempest, v. 1. 95. 

That 's my good son ! Shale., R. and J., ii. 3. 47. 

Hengo. I have out-brav'd Hunger. 

Car. That 's my boy, my sweet boy ! 

Fletcher, Bonduca, iv. 2. 

(e) As the antecedent of a relative : as, that which was 

And die, unhallow'd thoughts, before you blot 
With your uncleanness that which is divine. 

Shak., Lucrece, 1. 193. 

(/) By the omission of the relative, that formerly some- 
times acquired the force of what or that which. 
Thogh it happen me rehercen eft 
That ye ban in youre fresshe songes sayd. 

Chaucer, Good Women, 1. 79. 

We speak that we do know, and testify that we have 
seen. John iii. 11. 

The good of my Countrey is that I seeke. 

Capt. John Smith, Works, II. 179. 

(g) With of, to avoid repetition of a preceding noun : as, 
his opinions and those of the others. 

I would desire my female readers to consider that, as 
the term of life is short, that of beauty is much shorter. 

Addison, Spectator, No. 89. 

(A) Withcmd, to avoid repetition of a preceding statement. 
God shall help her, and that right early. Ps. xlvi. 5. 
And all that. See all. That present. See present^. 
That timet. See timei. To put this and that toge- 
ther. See puti. 

B. rel. pron. Used for who or which. That in 
this use is never used with a preposition preceding it. 
but may be so used when the preposition is transposed to 


the end of the clause ; thus, the man of whom I spoke, the 
book /mm which I read, the spot near which he stood, the 
pay for which he works ; but not the man of that 1 spoke, 
etc., though one may say, the man that I spoke of, the 
book that I read from, the place that he stood near, the 
pay that he works for, and so on. When the relative 
clause conveys an additional idea or statement, or is 
parenthetical, who and which are in modern English rather 
to be used than that: thus, "James, whom I saw yester- 
day, told me, " but not ' ' James that, etc. " That more often 
introduces a restrictive or definitive clause, but who and 
which are frequently used in the same way. See who. 

Lord God, that lens ay lastand light, 

This is a ferly fare to feele. York Plays, p. 58. 

Treuli, treuli, Y seye to 3011, the sone may not of hym 

silt do ony thing, but that thing that he seeth the fadir 

doynge. Wyclif, John v. 19. 

This holi child seynt Johun, 
That baptisid oure lord in flom Jordon 
With ful deuout & good deuocioun. 

Hymns to Virgin, etc. (E. E. T. S.), p. 58. 
And Guthlake, that was King of Denmarke then, 
Provided with a navie mee forlead. 

Mir. for Mags., 1. 184. 
If I have aught 
That may content thee, take it, and begone. 

Beau, and Ft., Maid's Tragedy, v. 4. 
He that was your conduct 
From Milan. Shirley, Grateful Servant, i. 2. 
You shall come with me to Tower Hill, and see Mrs. 
Quilp.Ourt is, directly. Dickens, Old Curiosity Shop, vi. 
In the following extract that, who, and which are used 
without any perceptible difference. 

Sometime like apes, that mow and chatter at me 
And after bite me, then like hedgehogs, which 
Lie tumbling in my barefoot way and mount 
Their pricks at my footfall, sometime am I 
All wound with adders, who with cloven tongues 
Do hiss me into madness. Shak., Tempest, ii. 2. 10. 
With the use of that as a relative are to be classed those 
cases in which it is used as a correlative to go or such. 

Who 'B so gross, 
That seeth not this palpable device ? 

Shak., Rich. III., iii. 6. 11. 
Who so firm that cannot be seduced? 

Shak., J. C., i. 2. 318. 
Such allow'd infirmities that honesty 
Is never free of. Shak., W. T., i. 2. 263. 

That as a demonstrative and that as a relative pronoun 
sometimes occur close together, but this use is now hardly 

That that is determined shall be done. Dan. xi. 36. 
That that is is. Shak., T. N., iv. 2. 17. 

But for the practical part, it is that that makes an an- 
gler: it is diligence, and observation, and patience, and an 
ambition to be the best in the art, that must do it. 

/. Walton, Complete Angler, p. 191. 
Frequently used in Chaucer for the definite article, before 
one or other, usually when the two words are put in con- 

That on me hette, that othir dede me colde. 

Chaucer, Parliament of Fowls, 1. 145. 
That . . . he\ - who ; that . . . his (or her)\ = whose ; 
that . . . Mmt = whom ; that . . . they) = who ; which 
that\ whom. 

My hertes loie, all myn hole plesaunce, 
Whiche that y same, and schall do faithfully 
With treue Entente. 

Political Poems, etc. (ed. Furnivall), p. 40. 

A Knight ther was, and that a worthy man, 
That fro the tyme that he first bigan 
To ryden out, he loved chivalrye. 

Chaucer, Gen. Prol. to C. T., I 44. 
Now fele I wel the goodnesse of this wyf, 
That bothe after her deeth and in her lyf 
Her grete bountee doubleth her renoun. 

Chaucer, Good Women, 1. 521. 

This man to you may falsly been accused, 
That as by right him oghte been excused. 

Chaucer, Good Women, 1. 351. 

[That came in during the twelfth century to supply the 
place of the indeclinable relative the, and in the fourteenth 
century it is the ordinary relative. In the sixteenth cen- 
tury, which often supplies its place ; in the seventeenth 
century, who replaces it. About Addison's time, that had 
again come into fashion, and had almost driven ichich and 
who out of use. 

Morris, Historical Outlines of Eng. Accidence, p. 132.) 

that (snat), eonj. [< ME. that, thet, < AS. that 
= D. dat = OHG. MHG. daz, G. dass = Goth. 
thata, that; orig. the neut. pron. or adj. that 
used practically as a def . article qualifying the 
whole sentence: see that, pron.'] 1. Introdu- 
cing a reason: in that; because. 

Thus I speak, not that I would have it so ; but to your 
shame. Latimer, Sermon of the Plough. 

Not that I loved Csesar less, but that I loved Rome more. 
Shak., J. C., Iii. 2. 23. 
Streams of grief 

That I have wrong'd thee, and as much of joy 
That I repent it, issue from mine eyes. 

Beau, and Fl., Philaster, v. 5. 
It is not that I love you less 
Than when before your feet I lay. 

Waller, The Self-Banished. 

Weep not that the world changes. Bryant, Mutation. 
2. Introducing an object or final end or pur- 
pose: equivalent to the phrases in order Hint, 
for the purpose that, to the effect that. 


Treat It kindly, that It may 
Wish nt leant with us tu stay. 

Cnii-li'ii. The I'.ph'iire, 1. 9. 
The life Wood of the slain 
I'.HII . il out where thousands die that one may reign. 

/;/./<//</, < 'hiistmas In 1x75. 

3. Introducing a result or consequence. 
The Imerne, with his bare sword, here hyiu to detlic, 
7V..// hu fclle of his fole flat to the ground : 

l>,-*lriirtii,n ,;/ 7V..I/ (V.. K. T. S.), 1. 4M. 

I neuer heard the oldu song of Percy and Dnglas that I 
found not my heart inoom-d more thtm with .1 Trumpet. 

Mr 1'. Siilnrii, Apul. for 1'oetrii'. 

Learning huth that wonderful! power In It elfe that it 
can soften and temper the most sterne and savage nature. 
>>./>./-, State of Ireland. 
Is cheating grown so common among men, 
And thrives so well here, that the gods endeavour 
To practise it above? 

Beau, and Fl., Thierry and Theodore!, iv. -2. 

What have I done 

Dishonestly in my whole life, name It, 
'nmt you should put so base a business to me? 

/;.."'. ami /'<., King and No King, Hi. S. 
I knew him to be so honest a man '/"/' I could not re- 
ject his proposal. Swift, Uulliver's Travels, iil. 1. 

4. Introducing a clause as the subject or ob- 
ject of the principal verb, or as a necessary 
complement to a statement made. 

"I'is a causeless fantasy. 
And childish error, that they are afraid. 

.S'Aat., Venus and Adonis, 1. 898. 
You gave consent n,nt, to defeat my brother, 
I should take any course. 

Fletcher, Spanish Curate, iv. 1. 

This is moat certain, that the king was ever friendly to 
the Irish rapists. Milton, Eikonoklastes, ill. 

The Naragansett men told us after I//.// thirteen of the 
Pequods were killed, and forty wounded. 

Winthrop, Hist New England, I. 233. 
I have shewed hefore that a mere possibility to the con- 
trary can by no means hinder a thing from being highly 
credible. /,';/. Wilkiiu. 

It is a very common expression //"// such a one is very 
good natured, but very passionate. 

Steele, Spectator, No. 488. 

The current opinion prevails that the study of Greek 
and Latin Is loss of time. >'.//'/, Modern Education. 

0. Seeing; since; inasmuch as. 
There Is something in the wind, that we cannot get in. 

Shalt., C. of E., ill. I. e. 
Where is my father, that you come without him ? 

Beau, and Ft., Laws of Candy, II. 1. 

6. Formerly often used after a preposition, 
introducing a noun-clause as the object of the 
preposition : as, before that he came, after that 
they had gone, etc., where at present the that 
is omitted and the preposition has become a 
conjunction; also, by mistaken analogy with 
such cases, that was occasionally added after 
real conjunctions, as n-ln H that, tcltere that. 

Go, litil bill, and say thoue were with me 
This same day at myne vp-Ryssinge, 
Where that y he-sought god of mercl 
Tho to haue my souereln in his kepeing. 

Political Poems, etc. (ed. Furnlvall), p. 40. 
After thai things are set in order here. 
We'll follow them. Shak., 1 Hen. VI., II. i 32. 

Take my soul . . . 
Be/ore that England give the French the foil. 

Shot., 1 Hen. VI., v. S. 23. 
What would you with her if that I be she? 

Stale., T. G. of V., Iv. 4. 116. 
Since that my case is past the help of law. 

Shak., Lucrece, 1. 1022. 
U'lifn that mine eye Is famish'd for a look. 

Shale., Sonnets, xlvii. 

7. Sometimes used in place of another con- 
junction, in repetition. [A Gallicism.] 

Albeit Nature doth now and then . . . commit some 
errors, and that sometimes the things shee formcth haue 
too much, and sometimes too little, yet deliuereth she 
nothing broken or disseuered. 

t'ergtegan, Restitution of Decayed Intelligence (ed. 1628X 

[p. 98. 

8. Used elliptically to introduce a sentence or 
clause expressive of surprise, indignation, or 
some kindred emotion. 

That a brother should 

Be so perfidious ! Shot., Tempest, 1. 2. 67. 

O God, that men should put an enemy in their mouths 

to steal away their brains ! Shale., Othello, II. 3. 291. 

9. Used as an optative particle, or to introduce 
a phrase expressing a wish: would that: usually 
with O! 

O, that you bore 

The min'l that I do ! Shak.. Tempest, II. 1. 267. 
This was the very first suit at law that ever I had with 
any creature, and that it might be the last ! 

Kerlyn, Diary, May 26, 1871. 

Forthatt. See .for. In that. Sec in'. How that. See 
tioif. So that. 8eeol.~ Though thatt. See though- 
that (THat), adr. [< that, jimn. or <i. ; abbr. 
of such phrases as to flint t.rti nt. tu Hint //r</m.J 
To that extent ; to that degree ; to such a de- 
gree; so: as, I did not go that far; I did not 


care that much about it : the comparison being 
with something previously said or implied, as 
in tin- preceding examples: used colloquially 
to express emphasis. A similar Scotch use of the 
word, following a negative, corresponds t<> the Latin ila 
(as In Cicero's win ita initlti): as, no that bad; nae that 
far awa'. 

Ye think ray muse nae that 111-faurd. 

Skinner, MUc. Poetry, p. 109. (Jamiaan.) 
This was carried with that little noise that for a good 
space the vigilant Bishop was not awak'd with It. 

lip. Hackrt, Abp. Williams, ii. 67. (Dariet.) 

Death ! To die ! I owe that much 
To what, at least, I wan. Bnicninij, I'aracelsus, Iv. 
Women were there, . . . because Mr. Elsmere had been 
" that good " to them that anything they could do to oblige 
him "they would, and welcome." 

Mr*. Humphry Ward, Robert Elsmcre, xllx. 

thatch (thach), e. [Also dial, (and historically 
more orig.) tlteteh, assibilated form of thuck. 
thcck, also theak, theek (still in dial, use) ; < ME. 
thacchen, thecclten, < AS. thecean = OS. tkwimi 
= OFries. thrkka, <lfkkn = I), dfkken = MLG. 
decken = OHG. dachjan, decchan, MHO. G. 
decken = Icel. thekja = Sw. tacka = Dan. tiekke. 
thatch, dirkke, cover, = Goth, "thakjaii, cover; 
associated with the noun, AS. tlniT. etc., a roof, 
thatch, etc. (see thatch, n.) ; = L. teaere, cover, 
= Gr. *rt)'f/c, also, with initial a-, orcyttv, cover. 
From the L. vert) are ult. E. tect, protect, tegu- 
ment, intrijumi-nt, tile 1 , etc. From the D. form 
of the verb is E. deck, p.] I. trans. To cover 
with or as with thatch. 

knowledge ill-Inhabited, worse than Jove in a thatched 
house : Shak., As you Like it, Hi. :;. 10. 

Thro' the thick hair thet thatch'd their browes 
Their eyes upon me stared. 

Drayton, Muse's Elysium, Iv. 
They theeleit It o'er wi' birk and brume, 

They theckit It o'er wi' heather. 
Bailie Bell and Mary Gray (Child's Ballads, III. 127). 
That lofty Pile, where Senates dictate Law, 
When Tatius reign'd, was poorly thatch'd with Straw. 

Congrm, tr. of Ovid's Art of Love. 
II. intrans. To thatch houses. 
And somme he taujte to title, to dyche, and to thecche. 
Fieri Plouman (B), xlx. 232. 
To plough, to plant, to reap, to rake, to sowe. 
To hedge, to ditch, to thrash, to thetch, to mowe. 

Spenter, Mother Hub. Tale, 1. 2U4. 

thatch (thach), H. [Assibilated form of tlnn-l. 
(still in dial, use), < ME. thak, pi. thakkeg, roof, 
thatch, < AS. thiec = D. dak = OHG. dah, MHG. 
dafh, covering, cover, G. dach, roof, = Ice). 
thak = Sw. tak = Dan. tag, roof, akin to Gr. 
rfj-of, roof, L. toga, robe ('covering'), tegula, 
tile, tiKjnrium, a hut, etc. (from the root seen 
in tegere), and (with initial *) to Gr. OTF-J >i, roof, 
Lith . stogas, roof : see thatch, tr.] 1. The cov- 
ering of a roof or the like, made of straw or 
rushes, and iu tropical countries of cocoauut- 
leaves and other long and thick-growing palm- 
leaves. The material Is laid upon the roof to the thick- 
ness of a foot or more in such manner that the fibers run 
In the direction which the rain-water should take, and are 
held In place by cords which secure the upper part of 
each bundle, or in some similar manner. Long strips of 
wood loaded with stones are also used to keep thatch In 
place, and to resist the action of wind. 

They would ever In houses of thacke 
Here lives lead, and wcare hut blacke. 

Itte nf Ladies, 1. 1778. 
O, for honour of our land, 
Let us not hang like roping icicles 

1 P'.n our houses' thatch, whiles a more frosty people 
Sweat drops of gallant youth in our rich fields f 

Shak., Hen. V., ill. 6. 24. 

2. One of the palms Calyptrogyne tiirarteii and 
Copernicia tectorum, whose leaves are used in 
thatching. See also specific names below, and 
thatch-palm M* or bull thatch. Same as royal 
palmetto () (whicn see, under palmetto). Brickley 
thatch, brittle thatch, silver thatch. Same as <- 
ver-top palmetto (which see, under palmetto). Palmetto 
thatch. Same as silk-top palmetto (which see, under 

thatched-head (thacht'hed), n. One whose 
hair is matted together: formerly applied con- 
temptuously to an Irishman, from nis thickly 
matted hair. See glib^. 

Ere ye go, sirrah Thatch' d-head, would'st not thou 
Be whipp'd, and think it Justice? 

I a mi. and Fl., Coxcomb, ii. 

thatcher (thach'er). n. [Also dial, thacker, thrck- 
er; < ME. "thacclnre, tinker. < AS. thecere (= D. 
dekkrr = OHG. defhari. MHG. (i. decker = Dan. 
lirkki-r), a thatcher, < theccan, thatch: see thatch.] 
One whose occupation is to thatch houses. 

You merit new employments daily ; 

Our thatcher, ditcher, gard'uer, bally. Sw\fl. 

thatch-grass (Ihadi'^nis), H. Grass or grass- 
like plants used for thatching; specifically. 
/.'/(-;/<<( di-Hxtii (lli.tliii t'liiiHdrii/ii'tdliiiii), of the 
Ili:ttiiin-x, found at the Cape of Good Hope. 


thatching (Ilnidi'iiig), . [Verbal n. of thnti-li, 
'.J 1. Tin- act or process of applying tlmtcli, 
as to a roof. 2. The fibrous material of which 
thatch is compos.-. I. ;is stniw. 

thatching-fork 'tlmrl, 'inn-fork), H. A fork 
with a long luindlc, by whii-li tin- biimllcs of 
Mtraw, or tin- like, for tlialc-liiii^' are brought up 
to the roof, tlirilt. 

thatching-spade (thai-h'in^-spa.l), n. Same 
as tlifllrliin<[-fnrk. 

thatch-palm (thach'pam), n. One of various 
jialins whose leaves are suitable for thatching, 
purlieiiliirly in the West Indies the royal pal- 
metto. .\/;<// iiinliriirnliffr<i.i\i\ in Lord Howe's 
Island (Australia) Ilinrin l-iirnliriiiiin. See 
thatch and thatch-tree. 

thatch-rake (thach'rak), n. A utensil for rak- 
i IIL; or combing straight the straw or other ma- 
terial used in thatching, consisting of astraight 
bar in which curved teeth or points are set. 
In heraldry It Is represented with five or six such curved 
teeth toward one end, the other end being left free as if 
for use as a handle. 

thatch-sparrow (thach'spar'6), n. The com- 
mon sparrow, Passer domesticiix. Also thack- 
itparrotc. See cut under I'asner. [Local, Eng.] 

thatch-tree (thach 'tre), n. The cocorite and 
other thatch-palms. 

thatchwood-work (thach'wud-werk), n. In 
hydraul. rni/in., a method of facing embank- 
ments exposed to the wash of waves or current 
with underbrush held in place by strong stakes 
and cross-pins. K. If. Anight. 

thatchy (thach'i), a. Of thatch; resembling 
thatch. Compare Spartina. 

thattet, i>ron. and </. [ME., a fusion of that, 
the: that, con/., the, wm/.J That. Chaucer. 

thaught (that), n. Same as ffto/fl, thwart?. 

thaumasite (tha'ma-sit), . .[< Gr. Oav/iatnv, 
wonder, marvel (< Sav/M, a wonderful thing, a 
wonder), + -ite'A] A mineral occurring in mas- 
sive forms of a dull-white color, consisting of 
the silicate, carbonate, and sulphate of cal- 
cium with water. The name has reference to 
its unusual composition. 

thaumatogenist (tha-ma-toj'e-nist), n. [< 
thaumatoyen-y + -.] One who supports or 
believes in thaumatogeny: opposed to nomo- 
<ieni#t. (hceii. [Rare.] 

thaumatogeny (tha-ma-toj'e-ni), . [< Gr. 
6avfta(r-), a wonderful tHing, a wonder, + -ytveia, 
< -yevi/c., producing : see -j/ewy.] The fact or the 
doctrine of the miraculous origin of life : op- 
posed to nmiiogeny. [Bare.] 

Nomogeny or Thaumatoyeny f 

Owen, Anat. of Vert., III. 814. 

thaumatography (tha-ma-tog'ra-fi), . A de- 
scription of the wonders of the iiatural world. 

thaumatolatry (tha-ma-tol'a-tri), n. [< Gr. 
6aifia(T-), a wonderful' thing, + ZaTpcia, wor- 
ship.] Excessive admiration for what is won- 
derful ; admiration of what is miraculous. Imp. 
IHct. [Bare.] 

thaumatrope(tha'ma-tr6p), . [Irreg. tor'thau- 
matotriipc, < Gr. 6ai>/ia(T-), a wonder, + rpoVof, a 
turning.] An optical apparatus dependent for 
its effects upon the persistence of retinal im- 
pressions. It consists of a cylinder or disk upon which 
is depicted a series of Images representing periodic phases 
of the same picture. When the disk or cylinder is rapidly 
revolved, the image of one phase persists while the image 
of the next falls upon the retina ; so that the object seems 
to go through a scries of movements. 

thaumaturge (tha'ma-teri), n. [= F. thauma- 
tunje = Sp. taumaturgo, < ML. thauiiHiturf/tix, < 
Gr. 6avfiarovp}6f, wonder-working, < 0aiym(r-), a 
wonder, + 'Ipyttv, work : see work.'] A worker 
of miracles; a wonder-worker; one who deals 
in wonders or (alleged) supernatural works. 

lie Is right also in comparing the wonderful works of 
Mohammed (who, however, according to the repeated and 
emphatic declaration of the Koran, was by no means a 
tkaumaturye) with the Mosaic and Christian miracles. 

The Academy. 

thaumaturgi, . Plural of thaumaturgtm. 

thaumaturgic (tha-ma-ter'jik), a. [< thauma- 
tnrii-u + -jr.] Of or pertaining to miracles or 
wonders; having the characteristics of a mira- 
cle ; miraculous ; also, in contempt, magical. 

The foreign Quack of Quacks, with all his thaumaturgic 
Hemp-silks, Lottery-numbers, Beauty-waters. 

Carli/le, Oagllostro. 

thaumaturgical(tha-m%-ter'ji-kal), a. [< thau- 
mutiinjic + -at.] Same as thauniaturgic. 

China works, frames, Thaumaturvieal motions, exotick 
toyes. Burton, AnaU of MeL. p. 279. 

thaumaturgics (tha-ma-ter'jiks), H. ;>7. [PI. of 
Iliniiiniitiiri/ic (see -io*j.] Miraculous or mar- 
velous acts; feats of magic or legerdemain. 


thaumaturgism (tha-ma-ter'jizm), . Magic, 
us a pretended science ; "tliaumaturgy (which is 
the better word). 

thaumaturgist (tha'ma-ter-jist), . [< thau- 
iiuitiirg-y + -ist.] Same as thaumaturge. 
Cagliostro, Thaumaturgist, Prophet, and Arch-Quack. 
Carlyle, Diamond Necklace, xvi. 

thaumaturgus(tha-ma-ter'gus), .; pi. thauma- 
turyi (-JI). [ML., < Gr. 6av[iaTt>vp}'6f, wonder- 
working: see thaumaturge.] A thaumaturge 
or thaumatuvgist: used especially as a title of 
Gregory Thaumaturgus (bishop of Nescaasarea 
in Pontus in the third century), from the nu- 
merous and wonderful miracles ascribed to him. 
Nature, the great Thaumaturgus, has in the Vocal Mem- 
non propounded an enigma of which it is beyond the scope 
of existing knowledge to supply more than a hypotheti- 
cally correct solution. Edinburgh Jtev., CLXIV. 283. 

thaumaturgy(tha'ma-ter-ji),. [= F.thauma- 
turgie, < Gr. tiavftarovpyia, a working of wonders, 
< dav/MTovpyos, wonder-working: see thauma- 
turge.] The act of performing something won- 
derful or marvelous ; wonder-working; magic. 
But in those despotic countries the Police is so arbi- 
trary ! Cagliostro's thaumaturgy must be overhauled by 
the Empress's physician ... is found nought. 

Carfyle, Cagliostro. 

His reporters . . . are men who saw tkaumaturgy in all 
that Jesus did. M. Arnold, Literature and Dogma, v. 

thave, n. See tlieave. 

thaw (tha), v. [Also dial, thow ; < ME. tltawen, 
thowen, < AS. thdwian = D. dooijen = OHG. 
towan, douwen, dowen (doan), MHG. touwen, 
touwen, G. tauen, thaw, digest, = Icel. theyja 
(cf. tha, a thaw, theyr, a thaw) = Sw. too, = 
Dan. to (Goth, not recorded), thaw; root un- 
certain.] I. intrans. 1. To pass from a frozen 
to a liquid or semi-fluid state ; melt ; dissolve : 
said of ice or snow ; also, to be freed from frost ; 
have the contained frost dissolved by heat : said 
of anything frozen. 

Dire hail which on firm land 
Thaws not. Milton, P. L., ii. 590. 

2. To become so warm as to melt ice and 
snow; rise above a temperature of 32 Fahren- 
heit : said of the weather, and used imperson- 
ally. 3. To be released from any condition, 
physical or mental, resembling that of freez- 
ing; become supple, warm, or genial; be freed 
from coldness, embarrassment, formality, or 
reserve; unbend: often with out. 

The bog's green harper, thawing from his sleep, 
Twangs a hoarse note and tries a shortened leap. 

O. W. Holmes, Spring. 

Arthur took a long time thawing, . . . was sadly timid. 
T. Hughes, Tom Brown at Rugby, ii. 2. 

II. trans. 1. To reduce from a frozen to a 
liquid state, as ice or snow; also, to free from 
frost, as some frozen substance : often with out. 
2. To render less cold, formal, or stiff; free 
from embarrassment, shyness, or reserve; make 
genial: often with out. 
Thaw this male nature to some touch of that 
Which . . . drags me down ... to mob me up with all 
The soft and milky rabble of womankind. 

Tennyson, Princess, vi. 

With a hopeless endeavor to thaw him out and return 
good for evil, I ventured to remark that . . . the gen- 
eral had, during the evening, highly entertained us by 
reading some of his (Mr. P.'s) poetry. 

J.Je/erson, Autobiog., xii. 
=Syn. 1. Dissolve, Fuse, etc. See melti. 
thaw (tha), n. [= Icel. tha (also theyr) = Sw. 
Dan. to, a thaw ; from the verb.] 1. The melt- 
ing of ice or snow ; also, the melting by heat of 
any substance congealed by frost. 

Still, as ice 
More harden'd after thaw. 

MUton, P. L., xii. 194. 

If the Sun of Righteousness should arise upon him, his 
frozen heart shall feel a thaw. 

Bunyan, Pilgrim's Progress, ii. 

2. Warmth of weather, such as liquefies or 
melts anything congealed. 

She told me ... that I was duller than a great thaw. 

Shak., Much Ado, ii. 1. 252. 

The day after our arrival a tftaiv set in, which cleared 
away every particle of snow and ice. 

B. Taylor, Northern Travel, p. 24. 

3. The state of becoming less cold, formal, or 
reserved Silver thaw, glazed frost; the frozen sur- 
face which is occasionally produced at the beginning of a 
thaw, or when a fall of rain or mist occurs while the air- 
temperature at the earth's surface is below 32 F. 

thaw-drop (tha'drop), n. A drop of water 
formed by melting snow or ice. 

She gave me one cold parting kiss upon my forehead, 
like a thaw-drop from the stone porch it was a very 
frosty day. JXckens, Bleak House, iii. 

thawless (tha'les), a. [< thaw + -less.] With- 
out a thaw ; not thawing : as, a thaicless winter. 


The winter gives them [flowers) rest under thawless se- 
renity of snow. 
Kiuskin, in St. James's Gazette, Feb. 9, 1886. (Encyc. Diet.) 

thawy (tha'i), a. [< thaw + -y 1 .] Growing 
liquid ; thawing ; inclined to thaw. 

Of a warm thauy day in February, the snow is suddenly 
covered with myriads of snow fleas. 

The Century, XXV. 679. 

the 1 (THe, THe, or THe), def. art. [< ME. the, < 
AS. the, rare a's an article but common as a rela- 
tive, f . thed, also rare, neut. theet, the ; the usual 
forms being se, m., seo, f., thset, neut., with the 
base the (tha-) appearing in all the oblique forms 
(gen. thsss, m., thiere, f., tlixs, neut.; dat. tharn, 
thsere, tham; ace. thane or thone, tha, theet; 
instr. thy or the, thiere. thy or the; pi. for all gen- 
ders, nom. ace. tha, gen. thdra, dat. instr. thdm, 
th&m) ; = OS. the = OFries. thi, the, = D. de = 
MLG. LG. de = OHG. MHG. der, diu, daz, G. der, 
die, das, the, that, = Icel. that, the, = Sw. den, 
this, = Dan. den, the, = Goth, sa, m., so, f., 
thata, neut. (see that) = Lith. tas, ta, that, = 
Russ. totu, ta, to, that, =L. -te in iste, ista, istud, 
that, = Gr. o, i], r6 = Skt. tat, it, that; from a 
pronominal (demonstrative) base ta, Teut. tha, 
'that,' the common base of many pronominal 
adjectives and adverbs, as that, they (their, 
them), this, these, those, thus,JShe 2 , there, then, 
than, thence, thither, though, etc., correlative 
to similar demonstrative forms in h-, as here, 
her, hence, hither, and interrogative and rela- 
tive forms in wh- (who, what, why, where, when, 
whence, whither, etc.). In some cases, as in the 
father, the tone, the arises from a merely me- 
chanical misdivision of thet other, thet one, i. e. 
that other, that one (see tother, tone 2 ). It may 
be noted that initial th (AS. lp or 5) is in the and 
all the words of this group pronounced TH, while 
in all other cases it is in mod. E. always pro- 
nounced th.] 1. A word used before nouns 
with a specifying or particularizing effect, op- 
posed to the indefinite or generalizing force of a 
or an : as, the gods are careless of mankind ; the 
sun in heaven; Wiedayisfair; long Ii ve the king! 

Zuych [such] wyt zet the holy gost ine herte. 

AyeiMte oflnwyt (E. E. T. S.), p. 251. 
In a somere seyson, whan softe was the sonne. 

Piers Plowman (C), i. 1. 
Out went '/"' taper as she hurried in. 

Keats, Eve of St. Agnes. 

2. A word used before a noun to indicate a 
species or genus : as, the song of the nightin- 
gale : used in generalization : as, the man that 
hath no music in himself. 

The mellow plum doth fall, the green sticks fast. 

Shak., Venus and Adonis, I. 527. 

3. A word used with a title, or as part of a 
title : as, the Duke of Wellington ; the Right 
Honorable the Earl of Derby; the Lord Brook; 
the Reverend John Smith. Frequently, with more 
or less of technical accuracy, the is omitted, especially 
when the distinctive title is not followed by of: as, Earl 
Grey, Viscount Palmerston. With the designation Lord, 
as applied to a peer of any rank, the is generally omitted : 
the Marquis of Salisbury, for instance, is frequently styled 
Lord Salisbury. In Scotland and Ireland, the is sometimes 
placed before family names with somewhat of the force of 
a title, indicating the head of the clan or family : as, the 
Macnab ; the O'Donoghue. 

At last the Duglas and the Perse (Percy] met, 
Lyk to [two] captayns of myght and of mayne. 
The Hunting of the Cheviot (Child's Ballads, VII. 35). 
I became acquainted with the Mulligan through a dis- 
tinguished countryman of his, who, strange to say, did not 
know the chieftain himself. . . . The greatest offence that 
can be offered to him is to call him Mr. Mulligan. 

Thackeray, Mrs. Perkins's Ball. 

4. Indicating the most approved, most desira- 
ble, most conspicuous, or most important of its 
kind: as, Newport is tlie watering-place of the 
United States : in this use emphatic, and fre- 
quently italicized. The is often placed before 
a person's (especially a woman's) name, to in- 
dicate admiration or notoriety (a colloquial 
use): as, the Elssler. 

Joel Burns was a rich man, as well as the man cf the 
place. R. B. Kimball, Was He Successful? vi. 

5. Before adjectives used substantively, denot- 
ing: (a) An individual: as, she gazed long on 
the face of the dead. 

The dead 
Steer'd by the dumb went upward with the flood. 

Tennyson, Lancelot and Elaine. 

(6) A class, or a number of individuals: as, the 
good die first; do not mix the new with the old. 
Now this, . . . though it make the unskilful laugh, can- 
not but make the judicious grieve. 

Shak., Hamlet, iii. 2. 29. 

(c) An abstract notion : as, the beautiful. 
One step above the sublime makes the ridiculous. 

T. Paine, Age of Reason, ii. 


6. Denoting that which is well known or famed: 
as, the prodigal son. 

Like the poor cat i' the adage. Shak., Macbeth, i. 7. 45. 
Cry, like the daughters of the horseleech, " Give ! " 

Tennyson, Golden Year. 

7. Used distributively to denote any one sepa- 
rately: as, the fare is a dollar the round trip. 

So muche money as will byy the same [gunpowder] after 
xiij' 1 the pound. 

Sir H. Knevett (1588), quoted in H. Hall's Society in the 

[Elizabethan Age, App. ii. 

The country inn cannot supply anything except bran- 
died sherry at five shillings the bottle. 

Mortimer Collins, Thoughts in my Garden, I. 85. 

8. Used in place of the possessive pronoun to 
denote a personal belonging: as, to hang the 
head and weep. 

Is there none of Pygmalion's images ... to be had 
now, for putting (Aehand in the pocket? 

Shall., M.. forM.,iii. 2. 49. 

Voltaire is the prince of buffoons: ... he shakes 
the sides ; he points the finger ; he turns up the nose ; he 
shoots out the tongue. Macaulay, Addison. 

9. Used to denote a particular day in relation 
to a given week, or to some other day of the 
same week. [Obsolete or colloq.] 

I mene, if God please, to be at Salisburie the wekes-daie 
at night before Easterdaie. 

SirJ. PopAam(1582), quoted in H. Hall's Society in the 

[Elizabethan Age, App. ii. 

Mrs. Proudie had died on the Tuesday, . . . and Mr. 
Robarts had gone over to Sllverbridge on the Thursday. 
Trollope, Last Chronicle of Barset, Ixviii. 

10. Used before a participial infinitive, or 
gerund, followed by an object: the article is 
now omitted in this construction. 

He alter'd much upon the hearing it. 

Shak., 2 Hen. IV., Iv. 5. 12. 

11. Used before the relative which: now an 

Clerkes of holikirke that kepen Crystes tresore, 
The which is mannes soul to saue. 

Piers Plowman (B), x. 474. 

[The is generally pronounced as if a syllable (unaccented) 
of the following word (a proclitic), and its vowel is accord- 
ingly obscured, before a consonant, into the neutral vowel- 
sound of her or but, very lightly sounded (quite like the 
French "mute e ") ; before a vowel, often in the same man- 
ner, but more usually with the short i sound of pin, only 
less distinct; when emphatic, as the long e of thee. In 
poetry, before a word beginning with a vowel-sound, the 
vowel of the generally may slide into that of the next word, 
and form with it one metrical syllable ; metrically the e is 
accordingly often cut off in printing. The same Bo-called 
elision (synalephe) often took place in Middle English, the 
being written with the following noun as one word : as, 
themperour, the emperor. 

Th' one sweetly flatters, th' other feareth harm. 

Shak., Lucrece, 1. 172. 

In Middle English manuscripts the was often written, as 
in Anglo-Saxon be, with the character )> ; in early print this 
character was represented by a form nearly like y, and 
later printers actually used y instead, }ie, erroneously 
printed )x as if contracted, like J>' for that, being printed 
ye or y, but always pronounced, of course, the. Modern 
archaists often affect ye for the, and many pronounce it as 
it looks, "ye." 

And on ye Tewsday at nyght we passed by the yle of 
Pathemos. Sir R. Guyl/orde, Pylgrymage, p. 14. 

We afterwards fell into a dispute with a Candiot con- 
cerning the procession of y Holy Ghost. 

Evelyn, Diary, June, 1645.) 

the 2 (THe, THe, or THe), adv. [< ME. the, thi, < 
AS. the, thy = OS. thin, diu, weakened te, de as 
an enclitic in des te, des de = D. des te = MLG. 
deste, duste = MHG. deste, dest, G. desto (cf . AS. 
thses the) = Dan. des, desto = Sw. dess, desto = 
Icel. thvi, thi = Goth, the, instr. of thata (AS. 
thxt): see that, the^.~] Used to modify adjec- 
tives and adverbs in the comparative degree: 
(a) Correlatively, having in the first instance a relative 
force, = by how much, and in the second a demonstrative 
force, = by so much : as, the sooner the better ; the more 
the merrier. 

The mightier man, the mightier is the thing 
That makes him honour'd, or begets him hate. 

Shak., Lucrece, I. 1004. 
And the sooner it 's over the sooner to sleep. 

Kingsley, The Fishermen. 

(6) Used without correlation, it signifies in any degree ; in 
some degree ; as, Are you well ? The better for seeing you. 
Al for loue of owre lorde, and the bet to loue the peple. 

Piers Plowman (B), xi. 169. 
Thou shalt not be the worse for me ; there 's gold. 

Shak., T. N., v. 1. 30. 
the 3 t, v. i. See thee 1 . 

the*t, conj. A Middle English form of though. 
the 5 t, A Middle English form of thigh. 
Tliea (the'a), n. [NL. (Linnteus, 1737): see 
tea'.] A former genus of plants, now included 
as a section under Camellia, and comprising the 
species yielding tea. See cuts under ti^. 
T-head (te'lid),. 1. A cross-bar fastened at 
its middle to a chain, as a watch-chain, trace- 
chain, etc., for use as a fastening by passing it 


endwise through a hole, riiifr, or link and then 
turning it into a poHition which prevents its 
withdrawal. 2. Aslmrl liar welded <>r riveted 
to the end of another bar at a right unglo, as in 
a form of anchor for masonry. 

theandric (the-an'drik), ii. [< <ir. tovdpwrff, 
bring tioth God anil mail. < " , god, + nvi/p 
(viip-), man.] Uelatiiifj to or existing by the 
union of the divine and human natures, or by 
the joint agency of the divine and human na- 
tures: as, tlio /Imnii/i'if operation (the harmoni- 
ous eoiipenition of the two natures in Christ). 

theanthropic (thi-an-throp'ik), u. [< tin-nii- 
tlin>i>-i/ + -ic.] Both di vino and human; being 
or pertaining to the (iod-nmn. 

The written word of God, like Christ, the personal Word, 
la thfanthropic in uriu'in, nature, and aim, and can only foe 
fully understood und appreciated under this twofold char- 
acter. Seha/, Christ and Christianity, p. 11. 

theanthropical (the-an-throp'i-kal), a. [< tlic- 
<i n Hi route + -/.] Same as MMMMTOpfo. 

theantnropism (the-an'thro-pizm), . [< tlmni- 
tlir<i/i-ii + -I.V/H.] l'. The union or combination 
of the divine and human natures; also, belief 
in such a union or combination. [Bare.] 2. 
The deification of man, or the humanizing of 
divinity. [Rare.] 

The anthropomorphism, or theanlhropitm, as I would 
rather call ft, of the Olympian system. Gladstone. 

theanthropist (the-an'thro-pist), . [< thean- 
throp-y + -ist.~\ One who advocates the doc- 
trine of theanthropism. [Rare.] 

theanthropophagyt (the-an-thro-pof'a-ji). " 
[< Gr. Oedvttpuxos, the god-man (see Misanthropy), 
+ tyayuv, eat.] See the quotation. 

Cardinal Perron . . . says that they [the primitive 
Christians] deny anthropophagy, out did not deny thean- 
thropophaay saying, " that they did not eat the flesh, nor 
drink the blood of a mere man, but of Christ, who was God 
and man " : which is so strange a device, as I wonder it 
could drop from the pen of so great a wit 

Jer. Taylor, Real Presence, xii. f 14. 

theanthropy (the-an'thro-pi), n. [< F. thean- 
thropie, < Gr. OeavS/tuiria, (. Sfavfipwrof, the god- 
man, < 0tof, god, + avSpunos, man.] Same as the- 
anthropism. 1. 

thearchic (the-iir'kik), a. [< thearch-y + -ic.] 
Divinely sovereign or supreme, 
thearchy (the'Sr-ki), i. ;.pl. thearchics (-kiz). 
[< Gr. Oeapxia, the supreme deity, prop, rule of 
God, < 6e6f, god, + apxetv, rule.] 1. Govern- 
ment by God; also, theocracy. 2. A body of 
divine rulers ; an order or system of deities. 
Rank of Athene In the Olympian Thearchy. 

Gladstone, Nineteenth Century, XXII. 79. 

The attributions assigned to the head of the Thearchy. 

Contemporary Jiev., LIII. 183. 

theater, theatre (the'a-ter), n. [Early mod. 
E. reg. theater, sometimes theatre; < ME. the- 
atre, < OF. theatre, F. thtdtre = Sp. It. teatro 
= Pg. theatro = Q. Dan. theater = Sw. teater, < 
L. theatrum, < Gr. Bearpov, a place for seeing 
shows, a theater, < Btdauai, view, behold, < 6ta, 
a view, sight. Cf. amphitheater. The proper 
modern spelling is theater (as in amphitheater, 
diameter, etc.); it so appearsin Cotgrave (1611), 
Minsheu (1617, 1625), Sherwood (1632), Bullokar 
(1641), Cockeram (1642), Blount (1670), Holyoke 
(1677), Hexhain (1678), etc. The spelling thea- 
tre appears to have obtained currency in the 
latter part of the 17th century and since (Coles, 
1708, Johnson, 1755; both theater and theatre 
in Bailey, 1727, etc.), owing to the constant 
and direct association of the word with the 
modern F. theatre (itself a false form in respect 
to accent).] 1. A building appropriated to 
the representation of dramatic spectacles ; a 
play-house. Among the Greeks and Romans theaters 
were among the most important and the largest public 
edifices, very commonly having accommodation for from 
10,000 to 40,000 spectators. The Greek and Roman theaters 
resembled each other in their general distribution, the 
Roman theater being developed from the Greek with 
the modifications, particularly about the orchestra and 
the stage, due to the difference from the Greek of Roman 
dramatic ideals. The auditorium, including the orchestra, 
was commonly in general plan a segment of a circle, usu- 
ally a half-circle in Roman examples, greater than a half- 
circle in Greek, and was not, unless very exceptionally, 
covered by a roof or awning. It was termed cawa by the 
Romans and or*oi' by the Greeks. The seats were all 
concentric with the orchestra, and were intersected by 
diverging ascents or nights of steps, which divided the 
auditorium intnweilire-shaped compart mt'iits(rni, K*PI'- 
oes), and :dso by one longitudinal passage or more (see dia- 
zmno). The stage of the Roman theater formed the chord 
of the segment, and was called the scena {ax-ijv^\ The 
Greek theater of the great dramatic period in the fifth 
rentiiry n. r. h:ul no stage, tile action taking place iti the 
orchestra, or space below the seats, in which actors and 
chorus figured together, the orchestra proper being a cir- 
cle in the center of which stood the ttiinnele, or altar of 
Dionysus. The Romans appropriated the orchestra for 
the seats of the senators. The later Greek theaters had 


stages, at first wholly beymd the eiivlr nf ll rdiestra; 

lint miii'-r the K-'inan iloinin:itin in lireece the stage of 
nearly all the (ireek theaters was moved forward until 
at last it occupied the position adopted by the Romans 

Interior of Roman Theater of A&pendos. Asia Minor. 

themselves. Besides these essential part* there were the 
Aoytior, proscenium, or pulpitum. the stage proper, and 
the postscenium, or structure behind the stage, in which 
parts the Greek and Roman theaters differed consider- 
ably. Almost all surviving Greek theaters were profound- 
ly modified tn Roman times, but the original disposition 
can still be followed in several, as those of Epidaurus and 
Sicyon. Scenery, In the modern sense of the word, was 
little employed, but the stage machinery became elaborate 
with the advance of time. In the early days of the mod- 
ern theater the buildings were only partially roofed, and 
the stage but scantily it at all provided with scenery. The 
Interior of the theaters of the present day is usually con- 
structed on a horseshoe or semicircular plan, with several 
tiers of galleries round the walls. The stage has a slight 
downward slope from the back, and is furnished with mov- 
able scenes, which give an afr of reality to the spectacle 
which was unsought in the ancient theater. See box-, cur- 
tain, orchestra, parquet, pit, postscenium, proscenium, scene, 
stage, stall*, thymete. 

As for their theairr* In halfe circle, they came to be by 
the great magnificence of the Romain princes and people 
somptuously built with marble & square stone in forme 
all round, A were called Ampitheaters, wherof as yet ap- 
pears one amog the anciet rulnes of Rome. 

Pvttenham, Arte of Eng. Poesle, p. 29. 
The world by some, A that not much amisse, 
Vnto a Theater compared Is, 
Vpon which stage the goddes spectatours sitt, 
And mortals act their partes as best doth fltt. 

Times' Whistle (E. E. T. 8.), p. W8. 
As In a theater the eyes of men, 
After a well grac'd Actor leaues the Stage, 
Are Idely bent on him that enters next 

Shot., Rich. II. (fol. 1623X v. 2. 

Sceaw-stow. A Theater, a Shew-place, a beholding-place. 
Verstegan, Restitution of Decayed Intelligence (ed. 1628), 

|p. 231. 

2. A room, hall, or other place, with a plat- 
form at one end, and ranks of seats rising step- 
wise as the tiers recede from the center, or 
otherwise so arranged that a body of spectators 
can have an unobstructed view of the platform. 
Places of this description are constructed for public lec- 
tures, academic exercises, anatomical demonstrations, 
surgical operations before a class, etc. : as, an operating 

Stately theatres, 

Bench'd crescent-wise. In each we sat, we heard 
The grave Professor. Tennyson, Princess, IL 

3. A place rising by steps or gradations like the 
seats of a theater. 

Shade above shade, a woodic Theatre 
Of stateliest view. 

Milton, P. I.. (1st ed.), IT. 141. 
Helps the ambitious hill the heavens to scale, 
Or scoops in circling theatres the vale. 

Pope, Moral Essays, iv. 60. 

4. A place of action or exhibition ; a field of 
operations ; the locality or scene where a se- 
ries of events takes place or may be observed ; 
scene; seat: as, the theater of war. 

Men must know that In this theatre of man's life it is 
reserved only for God and angels to be lookers on. 

Bacon, Advancement of Learning, ii. 
This City was for a long time the Theatre of Contention 
between the Christians and Infidels. 

MaundreU, Aleppo to Jerusalem, p. 54. 

5. The drama ; the mass of dramatic literature ; 
also, theatrical representation; the stage: as, 
a history of the French theater. 

But now our British theatre can boast 
Drolls of all kinds, a vast unthinking host ! 

Addison, Prol. to Steele's Tender Husband. 

6. An amphitheater; hence, a circular reser- 
voir or receptacle ; a basin. [Rare.] 

A cascade . . . precipitating Into a large theatre of 
water. Evelyn, Diary, May 5, 1745. 

Patent theater, in England, a theater, as the Covent 
Garden and Drury Lane theaters, established by letters 
patent from the crown. Doran, Annals of the Stage, I. 387. 

theater-goer (the'a-ter-go'er), n. One who 
frequents theaters. 

theater-going (the'a-ter-gd'ing), . The prac- 
tice of frequenting theaters. 

theateriant, [< theuttr + -inn.'] An actor. 


(Players 1 meane) Theateriant, pom-h-mouth Stage- 
walkers. ueJcker, Satiromastix. 

theater-party (the'&-t_er-par'ti;. /'. An .-nt.] 

tainment where the invited guests first .line and 
then ir<> in a party to a theater, or o tirst to a 
theater and afterward to supper. [I'. S.J 

A little dinner at the Cafd Anglais or at tho Bristol 
Restaurant, with a box to follow at the Krancals or the 
Criterion, doubtless Is a good kind of a thing enough in 
its way, but is a mere colorless adumbration of a New 
York theatre-party. 

Arch. Foroes, Souvenirs of some Continents, p. 160. 

theater-seat (the'a-ter-set), . An ordinary 
double car-seat having two separate seat-bot- 
toms. Cur-Builder's Diet. 

Theatin, Theatine (the'a-tin), n. and n. [< F. 
Th<'-atin,< XL. Thentinns,'< L. Theatf(It.Chieti), 
a place in Naples.] I. a. Of or pertaining to 
the Theatins. 

II. n. One of a monastic order of regular 
clerks founded at Rome in 1524, principally by 
the archbishop of Chieti in Italy, with the pur- 
pose of combatingthe Reformation. Besides tak- 
ing the usual monastic vows, the Theatins bound them- 
selves to abstain from the possession of property and from 
soliciting alms, and to trust wholly to Providence for sup- 
port expecting, however, that this support would be de- 
rived*from the voluntary contributions of the charitable. 
Then- were also Theatin nuns. The order flourished to 
some extent in Spain, Bavaria, and Poland, but its influ- 
ence Is now confined chiefly to Italy. Also TeaXn. 

theatralt (the'a-tral), a. [= F. thedtral = Sp. 
teatral = Pg. theatral = It. leatrale, < L. thta- 
tralis, of or pertaining to a theater, < theatrum, 
a theater: see theater.'] Of or pertaining to a 
theater. Blount. 1670. 

theatric (the-afrik), a. [< LL. theatricun, < 
Gr. deaTpuiuf, '< dtaTpav, a theater: see theater.] 
Same as theatrical. 

Therefore avaunt all attitude, and stare, 
And start theatric, practis'd at the glass ! 

Cowper, Task, ii. 431. 

It is quite clear why the Italians have no word but recj- 
tare to express acting, for their stage is no more theatric 
than their street. Lowell, Fireside Travels, p. 260. 

theatrical (the-at'ri-kal), a. and n. [< theatric 
+ -al.~] I. a. 1. Of or pertaining to a theater or 
scenic representations; resembling the manner 
of dramatic performers: as, theatrical perform- 
ances; theatrical gestures. 

Sheridan's art, from its very beginning, was theatrical, 
if we may use the word, rather than dramatic. 

Mr.'. Oliphant, Sheridan, p. 54. 

2. Calculated for display ; extravagant; showy; 
pretentious: as, a theatrical flourish. 

Dressed in ridiculous and theatrical costumes. 

Fortnightly Ret., N. 8., XLIII. 8. 

3. Artificial; affected; assumed. 

How far the character in which he (Byron) exhibited 
himself was genuine, and how far theatrical, it would 
probably have puzzled himself to say. 

Macaulay, Moore's Byron. 

Theatrical perspective, the doctrine of the Imitation 
of effects of distance by means of stage scenery; espe- 
cially, the geometrical theory of such scenery. 

II. n. 1 . pi. All that pertains to a dramatic 
performance; also, a dramatic performance 
itself: applied usually to amateur perform- 
ances: as, to engage in private theatricals (a 
dramatic performance in a private house). 

In a general light, private theatricals are open to some 
objection. Jane Austen, Mansfield Park, xlll. 

2. A professional actor. 

The next morning we learned from the maid that Mac- 
beth's blasted heath was but a few miles from Nairn ; all 
the theatricals went there, she said. 

Harper's Mag., L-XXVII. 945. 

theatricalise, <' t. See theatric<ili:r. 

theatricalism (the-at'ri-kal-izm), n. [< theat- 
rical + -wm.] 1. The theory and methods of 
scenic representations. 2. Stagiuess; artifi- 
cial manner. 

theatricality (the-at-ri-karj-ti), n. [< theatri- 
cal + -ity.] The state or character of being 
theatrical; theatrical appearance; histrionism. 
The very defect* of the picture, its exaggeration, its 
theatricality, were especially calculated to catch the eye 
of a boy. Kingsley, Alton Locke, vi. 

theatricalize (the-at'ri-kal-iz), v. t.; pret. and 
pp. theatricalized, ^ ppr. theatricalizing. [< the- 
atrical + -irr.] To render theatrical; put in 
dramatic form; dramatize. Also spelled the- 

I think I shall occasionally theatricalize my dialogues. 
Mme. D'Arblay, Diary, I. 63. 

theatrically (the-at'ri-kal-i\ adv. In a theat- 
rical manner; in a manner befitting the stage. 
Dauntless her look, her gesture proud, 
Her voice theatrically loud, 
And masculine her stride. 

Pope, Imit. of Earl of Dorset, Artemisia. 

theatricalness (the-at'ri-kal-nes), n. Theat- 


theatromania (the'a-tro-ma'ni-ft), w. [< Gr. 
tti-tiTpov, theater, + /jovia, madness.] A mania or 
excessive fondness for theater-going. [Rare.] 
Previously, the Church had with praiseworthy impartial- 
ity excluded not only actors of all kinds, but also those who 
were addicted to theatromania, from the benefits of the 
Christian community. A. W. Ward, Eng. Dram. Lit., 1. 11. 

theave (thev), H. [Also thace; perhaps < W. 
dafad, a sheep, ewe.] A ewe of the first year. 
[Prov. Eng.] 

thebaia (the-ba'iii), . [NL., < L. Thebse, < Gr. 
Qjjjiat, Or/fill, Theo'es : said to be so named from 
the extensive use of opium in Egypt.] Same 
as thebaine. 

Thebaic (the-ba'ik), a. [< L. Thebaicus, pertain- 
ing to Theb'es, < Thebse, Thebes: see Theban.] 
Same as Theban. 

thebaine (the'ba-in), n. [< thebaia + -i<? 2 .] 
An alkaloid, Ci9H 21 NO 3 , obtained from opium. 
It is a white crystalline base having an acrid taste, and 
analogous to strychnine in its physiological effects. Also 
called thebaia, paramorphine. 

Theban (the'ban), a. and . [= F. Thebain, < 
L. Tlifba nun, of or pertaining to Thebes, < Thebse, 
Thebe, < Gr. 9?/3ai, Q/i[)v, Thebes.] I. a. 1 . Relat- 
ing to Thebes, an ancient city of Upper Egypt, 
on the Nile, and a center of Egyptian cunliza- 
tion. 2. Relating to Thebes, in antiquity the 
chief city of Boaotia in Greece Theban year, in 
one. chron,, the Egyptian year, which consisted of 365 days 
6 hours. 

II. n. 1. An inhabitant of Thebes in Egypt. 
2. An inhabitant of Thebes in Greece. 

Thebesian (the-be'si-an), a. [< Thebesius (see 
def.) + -an.]' Described by or named from 
the German anatomist Thebesius (eighteenth 

In the heart [of the porpoise] the fossa ovalis is distinct, 
but there is neither Eustachian nor Thebesian valve. 

Huxley, Anat. Vert, p. 347. 

Thebesian foramina, small openings into the right 
auricle, and it is said elsewhere in the heart. Many are 
merely small recesses ; others are the mouths of small 
veins, the vense minima? cordis, or Thebesian veins. The- 
besian valve, the coronary valve of the right auricle of 
the heart. Tnebesiau veins, veins bringing blood from 
the substance of the heart into the right auricle through 
the Thebesian foramina. 

theca (the'ka), . ; pi. thecse (-se). [NL., < L. 
tlteca, < Gr. W/nr/, a case, box, receptacle, < 
Tidsvat, put, set, place : see rfol. From the L. 
word, through OF., come E. tick 3 and tie 2 , q. v.] 

1. Acase;box; sheath. Specifically (a) In Rom. 
antiq., a case for the bulla worn by boys around the neck. 
(6) Eccles., the case or cover used to contain the corporal ; 
the burse, (c) In bot., a case or sac ; in a general sense, the 
same as capsule. Specifically (1) An anther-cell. (2) The 
capsule or sporogonium of a moss. (3) The sporangium of 
a fern. (4) A form of the fructification of lichens, (d) In 
anat. and zool., a sheath ; a vaginal structure ; a hollow 
case or containing part or organ, inclosing or covering 
something as a scabbard does a sword : variously applied. 
(1) The loose sheath formed within the vertebral canal 
by the dura mater ; the theca of the spinal cord ; the 
theca vertebralis. (2) One of the fibrous sheaths in which 
the tendons of the muscles of the fingers and toes glide 
back and forth. (3) The sheath or case of the proboscis of 
dipterous insects, of disputed homology. It has been va- 
riously regarded as a labrum, as a labium, as these two 
coalesced, and as a modification of the galea. (4) The 
horny covering of an insect-pupa. (5) In AMivtzoa, a 
corallite or cup-coral, together with the associate soft 
parts ; the cup, formed of calcareous substance, about the 
base and sides of an actinozoan ; the cup, cone, or tube 
containing a polypite, itself sometimes contained in an 
epitheca. See endotheca, epitheca, aporose. 

2. [cup.] A genus of pteropods, having a 
sheath-like shell, typical of the family Tltetidse. 
Sowerby, 1845. Also named Ilyolithes (Eich- 
wald, 1840). Theca foUlCUll, the external connective- 
tissue capsule inclosing a Graanan follicle. Theca ver- 
tebralis. See def. 1 (d) (IX above. 

Thecaglossa, n. pi. See Thecoglossee. 

thecal (the'kal), a. [< theca + -al] Of the na- 
ture of, or pertaining to, a theca, in any sense ; 
vaginal; theciform. 

thecaphore (the'ka-for), n. [= F. thecaphore, 
< Gr. fli/nri, case, +"-0opof, < Qepeiv = E. bear 1 .] 
In bot. : (a) A surface or receptacle bearing a 
theca or thecep. (6) The stipe upon which a 
simple pistil is sometimes borne, being mor- 
phologically the petiole of the carpellary leaf, 
as in the caper and the goldthread. 

thecasporal (the-ka-spo'ral), a. [< theeaspore 
+ -al.] In bot., of or pertaining to a theca- 
spore; thecasporous; ascosporous. 

theeaspore (the'ka-spor), n. [< theca + spore.] 
In hot., an ascospore; a spore produced in a 
theca, or closed sac. 

thecaspored (the'ka-spord), a. [< theeaspore 
+ -e<f'.] In bot., provided with thecaspores. 

thecasporous (the-ka-spo'rus), a. [< theca + 
.ipore + -OIK.] Having thecaspores, or spores 
borne in thec ; ascosporous. 

thecate (the'kat), , [< theca + -ate*.] Hav- 
ing a theca; contained in a theca; sheathed. 


Thecidse (the'si-de), n. pi. [NL.,< Theca + 
-ii/.r.] A family of thecosomatous pteropods. 
typified by the genus Theca. 

Thecidiidse (the-si-di'i-de), H. pi. [NL., < The- 
ci(li(um) + -idle.] A family of arthropomatons 
brachiopods, typified by the genus TI/iTidiitm. 
They have lobed arms, interlocked valves, and the neural 
valve attached in adult life. There are 2 living species, 
In the Mediterranean and the West Indies, and nearly 40 
extinct species, going back to the Trias. 

Thecidium (the-sid'i-um), n. [NL. (Sowerby, 
1844), < Gr. Sr/n>!, case : see theca.] A genus of 
brachiopods, typical of the family Thecidiidse. 

theciferous (the-sif'e-rus), n. [< NL. theca, 
theca, + Ij.ferre (= E. bear 1 ) + -ous.] In bot., 
bearing thecaj or asci. 

theciform (the'si-fdrm), a. [< NL. tlteca, theca, 
+ Li. forma, form.] Forming or resembling a 
sheath; thecal in aspect or office. Hujcley, 
Anat. Invert., p. 137. 

thecium (the'sium), . ; pi. thecia (-sia). [NL., 

< Gr. f>i/K>/, case: see theca.] 1. In lichens, that 
part of the apothecium which contains the or- 
gans of the fruit. Eneyc. Brit., XIV. 554. 2. 
Same as hymenium. 

theck (thek), v. A dialectal form of thatch. 

Thecia (thek'la), . [NL. (Fabricius, 1807); 
prob. from therein, name Thecia, Tltekla.] A 
large and important genus of butterflies, con- 
taining the forms com- . . 
monly known as hair- ^&^ \ / 
streaks, typical of the 
subfamily Theclinee of 
the Lycsenidse. They are 
small brownish butterflies 
with rather stout bodies, 
short palpi, antenna; reach- 
ing to the middle of the 

fore wings, and usually one Tktda nifhon. natural size. 

or two slender tails (some- 
times mere points) projecting from the hind wings near 
the anal angle. Forty-five species inhabit North America. 

theclan (thek'lan), a. [< Thecia + -o3.] Of 
or pertaining to the genus Thecia. Stand. Nat. 
Hist., II. 478. 

thecodactyl, thecodaetyle (the-ko-dak'til), a. 

and . K Gr. WIKTI, case, + odimflof, digit : see 
dactyl.] I. a. Having thecal digits, as a gecko; 
having thick toes whose scales furnish a sheath 
for the claw. See cut under gecko. 
II. n. A thecodactyl gecko. 

thecodactylous (the-ko-dak'ti-lus), a. Same as 

Thecodactylus (the-ko-dak'ti-lus), . [NL. 
(Cuvier, 1817, as Tliecadactylus): see thecodac- 
tyl.'] A genus of gecko-lizards. See gecko. 

thecodont (the'ko-dont), a. and n. [< Gr. 67107, 
case, + Motif (bdovr-) = E. tooth.] I. a. Hav- 
ing the teeth lodged in alveoli : said of certain 
Lacertilia, as distinguished from those whose 
dentition is acrodont or pleurodont. 
II. H. A thecodont lizard. 

Thecodontia (the-ko-don'shi-a), n. pi. [NL. : 
see thecodont.] A group of dinosaurs with 
thecodont dentition and amphicoelous verte- 

Thecodontosaums (the-ko-don-to-sa'rus), n. 
[NL., < Gr. 6^/Kri, case, + 'Movf (OOOVT-), = E. 
tooth (see thecodont), + aavpof, lizard.] A ge- 
nus of thecodont reptiles whose remains were 
found in the dolomitic conglomerate of Red- 
land, near Bristol, in England : now referred to 
a family Anchisavridse. 

Thecoglossae (the-ko-glos'e), n. pi. [NL., < Gr. 
(tyiui, case, + yl.uoaa, tongue.] A group of liz- 
ards, characterized by the smooth sheathed 
tongue. It has included the monitors. In 
Cope's system it contains only the Agamidx. 
Also Thecaglossa. 

thecoglossate (the-ko-glos'at), a. [< Theco- 
glossie + -ate 1 .] Pertaining to the Tliecoglossse, 
or having their characters. 

Thecomedusae (theko-me-du'se), [NL., 

< Gr. (H]Kri, a case, + NL. Medusse, q. v.] A 
class of coelenterates, founded by Allman upon 
Stephanocyphus mirabilis. 

Thecophora (the-kof'o-ra), n. pi. [< Gr. %?, 
case, + -0opof, < $tpeiv = E. bear 1 .] 1. An or- 
der of hydroids. 2. A suborder of Testudinata, 
contrasted with Athecee, and containing all the 
tortoises whose carapace is perfect. 

Thecosomata (the-ko-so'ma-ta). [NL., 
neut. pi. of thecosomatus : see thecosomatous.] 
An order of Pteropoda, having a mantle-skirt 
and shell: contrasted with Gi/mnosomata. Most 
pteropods are of this order, which is represented by such 
families as CymtndiMie, Tkecidif, Hyaleidie, and Limacin- 

thecosomate (the-ko-so'mat), . Same as the- 


thecosomatous (the-ko-som'a-tus), a. [< NL. 
tkeeosomatttt, < Gr. fl>fKJi, case, + n<j/ra(r-),body.] 
Having the body sheathed in a mantle-skirt, as 
a pteropod ; of or pertaining to the Tliccosomtitii. 

thecosome (the'ko-som), . A thecosomatous 

thecostomous (the-kos'to-mus), . [<Gr.W//o?, 
a case, + OTU/UI, mouth.] Inentom., having the 
sucking parts of the mouth inclosed in a sheath. 

thedamt, thedomt, thedomet, Same as thee- 

thee 1 ^ (the), r. i. [< ME. theen, then, or without 
the inf. suffix thee, the, < AS. thedn, thion, ge- 
theoii, be strong, thrive, = OS. 'thiltan, found 
only in the derived factitive thengian, complete, 
= D. gedyen, thrive, prosper, succeed, = OHG. 
gidihan, MHG. gedihen, G. gedeihen = Goth, ga- 
theihmt, increase, thrive ; orig., as the old parti- 
cipial form AS. ge-thungen shows, with a nasal 
suppressed (as usual before h), AS. 'thiiihan; 
cf. Lith. tenku, tefcti, have enough; Ir. tocad, W. 
tynged, luck, fortune.] To thrive; prosper. 

To traysen her that trewe is unto me, 
I pray God let this counseyl never the. 

Chaucer, Troilus, iv. 439. 
Quod Coueitise "And alle folk were trewe, 
Manye a man schulde neuere thee." 

Hyinm to Virgin, etc. (E. E. T. S.), p. 63. 
[Especially common in the phrase also or so mote I tkf.e, 
so may I prosper. 

Lasse harm is, so mote I the, 
Deceyve hem, than deceyved be. 

Rom. of the Rose, 1. 4841. 

The form theeeh, from thee ich, is also found in the phrase 
so theeeh, so may I thrive ; also so theek. 

By cause our fyr ne was nat maad of beech, 
That is the cause, and other noon, so theeeh. 

Chaucer, Prol. to Canon's Yeoman's Tale, 1. 376.] 

thee 2 (THe), pron. The objective case of thott. 
thee 3 (THe), pass. pron. [A dial. var. of thy, 

or, as among the Friends, a perverted use of 

the obj. thee.] Thy : as, where 's thee manners f 

[Prov. Eng. and U. S.] 
theedomt (the'dum), n. [< ME. thedom, thedome, 

thedam; < tliee% + -dom.] Success; prosperity; 


What, yvel thedam on his monkes snowte ! 

Chaucer, Shipman's Tale, 1. 406. 

Now thrift and theedom mote thou haue, my awete barn. 
Babees Book (E. E. T. S.), p. 47. 

theek (thek), v. See thack-1, thatch. 

theeker (the'ker), n. An obsolete or dialectal 
form of tliatcher. 

theetsee(thet'se),. [Also thitsee, thietsee, thet- 
see ; native name in Pegu.] The black varnish- 
tree, Melanorrhaea usitata. See varnish-tree. 

theezan tea (the'zan te). Sageretia theezaiis. 
See Sageretia. 

theft, thefet, thefelyt. Old spellings of thief*, 

theft (theft), n. [< ME. thefte, tliiefthe. theof- 
the, thiufthe, < AS. theofth, thyfth '(= OFries. 
thiuvethe, thim-ede, thiufthe, tiefte= Icel. thyj'th, 
theft), with abstract formative -th, as in stealth, 
etc., altered to t, as in height, etc., < thedf, thief: 
see thief 1 .'] 1. The act of stealing; in law, lar- 
ceny (which see): compare also robbery. 

For thefte and riot they been convertible. 

Chaucer, Cook's Tale, 1. 31. 
He who, still wanting, though he lives on theft, 
Steals much, spends little, yet has nothing left. 

Pope, ProL to Satires, 1. 183. 

The term theft in modern English law is sometimes used 
as a synonym of larceny, sometimes in a more comprehen- 
sive sense. Eneyc. Brit., XXIII. 232. 

2. Something stolen ; a loss by stealing. 

If the theft be certainly found in his hand alive, whether 
it be ox, or ass, or sheep, he shall restore double. 

Ex. xxii. 4. 

If he steal aught the whilst this play is playing, 
And 'scape detecting, I will pay the theft. 

Shak., Hamlet, iii. 2. 94. 
Reset of theft. See reseti. 

theft-boott (theft'bot), n. [Also theft-bote, Sc. 
tltiftbote; < theft + boot 1 .] In law, the receiv- 
ing of one's goods again from a thief, or a com- 
pensation for them by way of composition , upon 
an agreement not to prosecute : a form of com- 
pounding felony. 

We hae aneugh, and it looks unco like theft-boot, or 
hush-money, as they ca' it. 

Scott, Heart of Mid- Lothian, xlviii. 

theftuous (thef 'tu-us), a. [Formerly also thief- 
teous, thefteoiiH, Sc. also thifteous, thiftous; < 
theft + -W-4MM.J Of the nature of theft; thiev- 
ish. [Rare.] 

Was not the thefteou* stealing away of the daughter 
from her own father the first ground whereupon all this 
great noise hath since proceeded? 

King James I., To Bacon, Aug. 23, 1617. 


By means of its iwlnliiK ""'I thr.nuiiu* routs It [Sacco- 
lina] Imbibes automatically its m.ui islnnent ready-pre- 
pared from llie Imtly of the crab. 
//. Itriniiniiiiul, Xatuml Ijiw in tin; S|.irltiiiil World, ; 

Rebellion* tu all labor and pettily <hrttu<ni*. like Un- 
English gypsies. The GMWH x \\ II. INS. 

theftuously(thef'tu-us-li), mli-. [Formerly also 
tliitj'tmiiisly ; < tlnj'timii* + -///-'.] By theft; 
thievishly. [Ixnrr.J 

i in.- little villainous Turkey knob breasted rogue came 
thu-nfouxln to snatch away Borne of my lardons. 

Ifrauhart, tr. of Rabelais, II. 14 

Any citizen occupying immovables or holding movables 
as his own, provided they wen- n n.-:iptii.l.- and he had 
not taken th.-in tlii'!tu<ui*lit. ac<)nii-ed a quirftary right, 
. . . simply on the strength of his pu.sHesM., n 

Eitcifc. Bril.,XX. 890. 

thegither (ftii'-givii'i'r), a<li: A Scotch form 
of IIK/I llu T. 

thegn, a. The Anglo-Saxon fonn of thane, used 
in some historical works. See thane, 

thegnhood, . Samo as thanehood. 

theic (the'ik), n. [< NL. thea, tea, + -ic.] One 
who is addicted to the immoderate use of tea ; 
a tea-drunkard. Med. News, XLIX. 305. 

theiform (the'i-fdrm), a. [< NL. thra, tea,+ L. 
forma, form.] Like tea. 

theight, foiij. and adr. A Middle English vari- 
ant of tbnuyh. 

theina (the-I'nft), n. Same as tln-im-. 

theine (the'in), ". [< NL. theina, thea, tea.] A 
bitter crystallizable volatile principle (CgHjo 
N4O 2 ) found in tea, coffee, and some other 
plants, tea yielding from 2 to 4 per cent. It Is 
considered to he the principle which gives to tea its re- 
freshing and gently stimulating qualities: same as ca/fin. 

their (Tuar), y>. Sec HH-I/I. 

theirs (THSrz), pron. See flieyl. 

theism 1 (the'izm), n. [= F. iheisme = Sp. teig- 
mii = Pg. theixniti = It. teismn =0. thi-ixiinin. < 
NL. V/iri.six, < Or. Oc6f, god. The Gr. 05f can- 
not be brought into connection with L. ilritx, 
god, except by assuming some confusion in one 
case or the other: see tleiti/.] Belief in the ex- 
istence of a God as the Creator and Ruler of the 
universe. Theism assumes a living relation of God to 
his creatures, but does not define it. It differs from de- 
Ism in that the latter is negative, and involves a denial of 
revelation, while the former is affirmative, and underlies 
Christianity. One may be a thclst and not be a Christian ; 
hut he cannot be a Christian and not be a theist. 

Thinking . . . that it would be an easy step . . . from 
thence [the assault of Christianity | to demolish all religion 
and theiitm. Cudwvrth, Intellectual System, Pref. 

Speculative theixin is the belief in the existence of God 
in one form or another ; and I call him a theist who be 
lieves in any God. 

Theodore Parker, Views of Religion, p. 50. 

theism 2 (the'izm), H. [< NL. thea, tea, + -jxw.] 
A morbid affection resulting from the excessive 
use of tea. 

Thevnn belongs, rather, to that class of diseases in which 
morphinism, caifeism, and vanill'sm are found. 

Science, VIII. 183. 

theist (the'ist), . [= F. theitte = Sp. trista = 
Pg. thri.ttn = It. teista, < NL. 'theista, < Gr. 0cof, 
god : see theism^.] One who believes in the ex- 
istence of a God ; especially, one who believes 
in a God who sustains a personal relation to his 
creatures. In the former sense opposed to athe- 
ist, in the latter to deist. 

Averse as I am to the cause of theism or name of deist, 
when taken in a sense exclusive of revelation, I consider 
still that, in strictness, the root of all Is theism ; and that 
to be a settled Christian it is necessary to be first of all n 
good tlii-i*i Shajtejibtiry, The Moralists, I. i 

No one Is to be called a Theixt who does not believe in 
a Personal God, whatever difficulty there may be in defin- 
ing the word " Personal." 

J. B. Newman, Gram, of Assent, p. 119. 

theistic (the-is'tik), a. [< tlirist + -if.] Per- 
taining to theism or to a theist; according to 
the doctrine of theists. 

It was partly through political circumstances that a 
truly tln-iti/i- idea was developed out of the chaotic and 
fragmentary ghost theories and nature-worship of the 
primeval world. J. Figke, Idea of God, p. 72. 

Theistic Church, a church founded In London In 1871 
for tlio purpose of promulgating the views of the Rey. 
< v , i\ -, \ ' which the decision of the Privy Council (1870) 
has debarred him from preaching as vicar of Healaugh." 
Its theological basis is a simple theism. Encyc. Diet. 
Theistic idealism. .Same as Btrktleinn itlealitm (which 
-<<-, under idealism). 

theistical (tbf-in'ti-kal), . [< tlirixti? + -al.] 

Snnir .-is tin igtic. 

That future state which, I suppose, the thrittieal philos- 
ophers ilid not believe. 

Warburtnn, Divine Legation, ill. 2. 

Thelephora (the-lef'o-rin. H. [NL. (Ehrhart, 
1787), < Gr. ft// if. :i ti-nt. + ^rpt-ir = E. /<;)'.] 
A genus of hymenoinycrtons fungi, typical of 
the family Tlirli-/ilmri;i-. They arc coriaceous fungi. 


having Inferior or amphigcnous hyincnla, clavatc basldla, 
rarcl} globose tclr;is],.,n-s and globi^c spores. There are 
;ili..ut Mo *|iecies, anioni: tin-in T. i>fn;lliila, which in 
somewhat Injurious to the jK-ar, eating into the bark. 

Thelephoreae (thi'l-e-fo'K--.-). . />/. [Nh., < 
Tin It )ilinr<i 4- -<&.] A family of hymenomyce- 
tous fungi, typified bv the genus Tlit'li'/ilmm. 

thelephoroid (the-lef'o-roid), a. [< Tin-It i> Im 
rn + -<>i<t.~\ In bot., resembling, characteriKtic 
of, or belonging to the genus Thtlijilmrti or the 
family 'rhtl</i/n>rete. 

Thelotrema (thel-o-tre'mS), n. [NIj. (Acha- 
rius, 1810), < Gr. ft/)'/, a teat, + rpijua, a perfo- 
ration, depression, alluding to the shape of the 
apothecia.] A large genus of gymnocarpous 
lichens, of the family I*ecanorri, having an ur- 
ceolate apothecium and a crustaceous uniform 

thelotrematous(thel-6-trem'a-tu8), a. [< Tllo- 
in niii(t-) + -OHM,'] In bot., same as thelotrcnimd. 

thelotremoid (thel-o-tre'moid), a. [< Thelo- 
tfcma + -oirf.] In bot., of the nature of, or be- 
longing to, the genus Thelotrema. 

Thelphusa (thel-fu'sft), n. [NL. (Latreille, 
1819), prop. "TelphusaoT *T>ielpu.ia, < Gr. T- 
ifiovaa, QtAiravea, a city in Arcadia.] A genus of 


fresh-water crabs, typical of the family Thfl- 

lilnixidie, as the common river-crab, T. fluviati- 

titt, of Europe, or T. depressa. See river-crab. 

thelphusian (thel-fu'shi-an), a. and n. [< NL. 


Thelphuxa + -inH.] I. a" Relating or pertain- 
ing to the genus Thelphusa ; belonging to the 

II. . A fiuviatile crab of the genus Tliel- 
nh IIMI or family Thelphunidse. 

Thelphusidae (thel-fu'si-de), . pi. [NL.,< Thel- 
pliu/M + -idae.1 A family of fluviatile short- 
tailed ten-footed crustaceans, typified by the 
genus Thclphuxa ; the fresh-water crabs. 

thelyblast (thel'i-blast), . [< Gr. Bifivs, female, 
+ /Maordf , germ.] A female genoblast (which 
see) : opposed to arsenoblast. C. S. Minot, Proc. 
Bost. Soc. Nat. ffist., XIX. 170. 

thelyblastic (thel-i-blas'tik), a. [< thelyblast 
+ -tc.] Having the character of a thelyblast. 

thelycum (thel'i-kum), n. ; pi. tlirlyca (-ka). 
[NL., < Gr. <V.VKOC, feminine, < fty/twf, of fe- 
male sex, female, < Odeiv, suckle.] A peculiar 
structure on the ventral surface of the pereion 
in the female of some crustaceans. C. Spence 

Thelygoneae (thel-i-go'ne-e), . pi. [NL. (Du- 
mortier, 1829), < Thclytjonum + -ete.] A tribe 
of plants, of the order Urticaceee. It consists 
of the genus Thrlyaniium. 

Thelygonum (the-lig'6-num), n. [NL. (Lin- 
nffius, 1737), < L. tlicli/flonnii, < Gr. Oijhvyfaiav, 
name of several plants, as Satyrium, so called 
from reputed medicinal properties, neut. of 
0>l'A.v)6rof, producing female offspring, < fty/lwc, 
female, + -yovof, producing: see -gony."] A ge- 
nus of plants, formerly known as Cynocrambc, 
constituting the tribe Thelygoneie in the order 
I'l'ticin'riF. It is characterized by numerous straight 
anthers and an erect ovule. T. Cyru>cramt>e (Cj/nncrambe 
prostrata), the only species, known as dog's-cabbaffe, is 
found throughout the Mediterranean region, where It Is 
used Ifke spinach. It is a procumbent fleshy branching 
annual, with ovate entire leaves and small axillary flow- 
ers, and has somewhat purgative properties. 

Thelymitra (the-lim'i-trii), n. [NL. (Forster, 
1776), so called from the hooded or cup-like body 
formed of wings on the column near the stigma ; 
< Gr. ft/tvutTptK, having a woman's girdle or head- 
band, < ofjl.vs, female, + /tirpa, a girdle, head- 
band, turban: see miter.'] A genus of orchids, 
of the tribe Xeottiete and subtribe Diuridete. 
It Is characterized by flowers with an inferior lip similar 
to the spreading sepals and petals, an erect rostellum 
broadly hollowed and stlgmatic In front, and stem with a 
single leaf. There are about 20 species, all Australian 
except three or four which are natives of New Zealand, one 
of them, T. ./nratrir-a, widely diffused throughout Austra- 
lasia and Malaysia. They are slender terrestrial herbs 
from (.void tubers, having a leaf varying from linear to 
ovate, and a raceme usually of numerous flowers with 


shorter bract*. T. mida. known as Ttnnanian hyacinth, 
rambles the (WcMBMI piiicheUut, or swamp-pink, of the 
r lilted State*. 

Thelyphonidae (ih.-l-i-fon'i-de), . pi. [NL., < 
'I'liiiit/iliiiitHx + -nl;i'.] A family of pulmonate 
Ariii-lnnilii, of tin' order I'riliinil/ii or I'/tri/iii-lii. 
They have the Hcgin.-t>te<l al'.loiti.-ii .lixt in. t from theceph- 
alottiorax and teriniiiuting in a very long setlform post- 
aliiloinen or tail, somewhat like a scorpion's, but slen- 
il.-rei anil nuiny-jitinted and not ending in a sting : the first 
pair of legs long, slender, and somewhat palpiform ; the 
pcdipalps long and stout anil ending In <-h. late claws ; and 
eight eve*. Tin- L'.-n.-ral aspect of the Th'lilfih'inidx is 
that of scorpions, which they superficially resemble more 
nearly than they do the <.therniemlie ra(/'Arj/n<djr) of their 
own order. They are known as irhip-acvrpwiu. See cut 
under 1'edipalpi. 

Thelyphonus(the-lif'o-nu8), n. [NL. (Latreille, 
1806), < Gr. ft/Ai*, female, + -^orof, < *ftvttv, 
slay.] The typical genus of Thflyphtiniitte, con- 
taining such species as '/'. i/ii/<iiiti-n.t. See cut 
under I'tili/ml/ii. 

thelytokous (the-lit'o-kus), a. [< Gr. ft?Xtf, 
female, + -roicof,' riicrtiv, TCKC'IV, bear, produce.] 
Producing females only : noting those parthe- 
nogenetic female insects which have no male 
progeny : opposed to arrlienotokous. 

them (Tllem), pron. See they 1 . 

thema (the'ma), n. ; pi. tlicmata (-mii-tii). [NL., 
< Gr. 8cfia, theme: see theme.] 1." A thesis. 

His Thema, to be maintained, Is that the King could not 
break with the King of France because he had sold him- 
self to him for Money. 

Royer Xorth, Eiamcn, III. vL i 74. (Darin.) 

2. Same as theme, 8. 3. In logic, an object of 
thought namely, a term, proposition, or argu- 
ment. Also theme. 

thematic (the-raat'ik), a. and n. [< Gr. OefiaTt- 
n6f, < Of/ia, theme : see tlieme.] I. a. 1. In mu- 
sic, pertaining to themes or subjects of compo- 
sition, or consisting of such themes and their 
development: as, thema tic treatment or thematic 
composition in general. Counterpoint Is the techni- 
cal name for thematic composition of the strictest kind ; 
but many passages In works not contrapuntal as a whole 
are truly thematic. 

2. In philol., relating to or belonging to a 
theme or stem. 

Almost all adjectives in German admit of use also as 
adverbs, iu their unlnflected or thematic form. 

Whitney, German Grammar, $. 383. 
Thematic catalogue, a catalogue of musical works in 
which not only the names and numbers are given, but 
also the opening themes of the works or of their several 
sections or movements (in musical notation). 

II. n. That part of logic which treats of the- 
mata, or objects of thought, 
thematical (the-mat'i-kal), a. [< thematic + 
-"'. ] Same as thematic. Athenteum, No. 3262, 
p. 579. 

tnematically (the-mat'i-kal-i), adv. In a the- 
matic manner; with regard to a theme or 
themes. Athenseum, No. 3248, p. 125. 
thematist (the'ma-tist), . [< Gr. f//a(r-), 
theme, + -ist. Cf . Be/iarKciv, lay down, propose, 
take for a theme.] A writer of themes, 
theme (them), . [Early mod. E. also theam ; 
now altered to suit the L. form; < ME. feme, 
teeme, < OF. temr, tcfeme, theme, F. theme = Pr. 
thcata = Sp. tema = Pg. thema = It. tema = G. 
thema, < L. thema, < Gr. Of/ia, what is laid down, 
a deposit, a prize, a proposition, the subject of 
an argument, a primary word or root, a military 
district, a province, < TiStvai (/ fle), set, place, 
dispose: seerfoi. Cf. thesis,'] 1. A subject or 
topic on which a person writes or speaks; any- 
thing proposed as a subject of discourse or dis- 
Ac ich wlste neucre freek that . . . 

. . . made eny sarmon. 

That took this for his temr and told hit with oute glose. 
Piers Plotcman (C), xrl. 82. 
When a soldier was the theme, my name 
Was not far off. Shot., Cymbeline, Hi. 3. 59. 

Fools are my theine, let satire be my song. 
Byron, English Bards and Scotch Reviewers, 1. >', 

2t. That which is said or thought on a given 

Alone, It was the subject of my theme; 
In company I often glanced It. 

Shot., C. of E., v. 1. 65. 
3f. Question; subject; matter. 

Why, I will Hi-lit with him upon this theme 
Vntil my eyelids will no longer wag. 

ShaJr., Hamlet, v. 1. 289. 

4. A short dissertation composed by a student 
on a given subject; a brief essay; a school 
composition ; a thesis. 

Forcing the empty wits of children to compose thrme*, 
verses, and orations, which arc the acts of ripest judg- 
ment. Hilton, Education. 

The making of thftnr*. as Is usual In schools, helps not 
one jot toward it [speaking well ami t<> the purpose). 

Locke, Education, f 171. 


5. In i/liilnl., the part of a noun or verb to 
which inflectional endings are added; stem; 

The variable final letters of a noun are its case-endinga ; 
the rest is its t/teme. 

F. A. March, Anglo-Saxon Gram., 60. 

6. In nnigic, same as subject. The terra is some- 
times extended to a short melody from which 
a set of variations is developed. 7t. That by 
which a thing is done; an instrument; a means. 

Nor shall Vanessa be the theme 
To manage thy abortive scheme. 

Swf/t, Cadenus and Vanessa. 

8. A division for the purpose of provincial 
administration under the Byzantine empire. 
There were twenty-nine themes, twelve in 
Europe and seventeen in Asia. Also thema. 

The remaining provinces, under the obedience of the 
emperors, were cast into a new mould ; and the jurisdic- 
tion of the presidents, the consulars, and the counts was 
superseded by the institution of the themes or military 
governments, which prevailed under the successors of He- 
raclius. Gibbon, Decline and Fall, liii. 

9. In logic, same as thema, 3.=Syn. 1. Topic, Point, 
etc. (see subject), text. 

themelt, A Middle English form of thimble. 

themert (the'mer), n. One who sets or gives 
out a theme. Tarlton's Jests, p. 28. (F. Hall.) 

Themis (the'mis), n. [< L. Tliemis,< Gr. 6f/us, 
law, justice personified, Themis, the goddess 
of justice and right, < riBevai (/ 0c), set, place, 
dispose: see theme.'] 1. A Greek goddess, the 

Eersoniiication of law, order, and abstract right; 
ence, law and justice personified. 

Such thine, in whom 

Our British Themis gloried with just cause, 
Immortal Hale. Couyer, Task, iii. 257. 

2. The twenty-fourth planetoid, discovered by 
De Gasparis at Naples in 1853. 
Themistian (the-mis'ti-an), n. [< LL. Themis- 
tius, founder of the sect, -f- -I'CTO.] One of a body 
of Christians also called the Agnoetee. See Ag- 
noetee, 2. 

themselves (THem-selvz'), pron., pi. of himself, 
hc,rself,itself, andusedlike these words. [< them 
+ selves, pi. of self.'] See himself. 
then (THen), adv. and coxj. [Early mod. E. also 
thenne; also than, thanne ; < ME. then, thenne, 
thene, than, thanne, < AS. thsenne, thanne, thonne, 
then, rel. when, after comparatives than ; = OS. 
thanna = OFries. thenne, thanne = D. dan = 
OHG. MHG. danne, G. dann, also OHG. danna 
MHG. denne, G. denn = Goth, than, then: see 
than.'] I. adv. 1. At that time: referring to a 
time specified, either past or future. 

Ich for-gat jouthe, and gorn in-to etde. 
Thenne was Fortune my foo for al here fayre by-heste. 

Piers Plowman (C), xiii. 14. 

Now I know in part ; but then shall I know even as also 

I am known. 1 Cor. xiii. 12. 

When thou canst get the ring upon my finger, . . . then 

call me husband ; but in such a ' ' then " 1 write a " never. " 

Shak., All's Well, iii. 2. 62. 

2. Afterward; next in order; soon afterward 
or immediately. 

First be reconciled to thy brother, and then come and 

offer thy gift. Mat. v. 24. 

First the blade, then the ear, after that the full corn in 

the ear. Mark iv. 28. 

Their ranks began 

To break upon the galled shore, and than 
Retire again. Shak., Lucrece, 1. 1440. 

3. At another time : as, now and then, at one 
time and another. 

Sometime the flood prevails, and then the wind ; 
Now one the better, then another best. 

Shale., 3 Hen. VI., ii. 5. 10. 
Now shaves with level wing the deep, then soars 
Up to the fiery concave towering high. 

Milton, P. L., ii. 634. 

By then, (a) By that time : as, Return at four, I shall be 
ready by then. 
All will be ended by then. 

Swift, To Mrs. Johnson, Feb. 23, 1711-12. (JodreU.) 
(i>t) By the time when or that : then in this phrase having 
the force of a relative. 

This evening late, 6y then the chewing flocks 
Had ta'en their supper on the savoury herb, . . . 
I sat me down to watch. Milton, Comus, 1. 540. 

Every now and then. See everyi. Now and then. 
See now. Till then, until that time. 

Till then who knew 
The force of those dire arms? 

Milton, P. L., i. 93. 

II. conj. 1. In that case; in consequence; 
therefore; for this reason. 

So then they which be of faith are blessed with faithful 
Abraham. Gal. iii. 9. 

If God be true, then is his word true. 

J. Bradford, Letters (Parker Hoc., 1S53), II. 245. 
He calls the conscience Gods sovrantie ; why then doth 
he contest with God about that supreme title? 

Milton, Eikonoklastes, xv. 


Pan't we touch these bubbles then 

But they break? Brmming, In a Year. 

Then is often used in offering a substitute for a word or 
statement rejected. 
Fal. Good morrow, good wife. 
Quick. Not so, an 't please your worship. 
Fal. Good maid, then. Shak., M. W. of W., ii. -2. 35. 

2f. Than. See than But then, but on the other 

hand; but notwithstanding; but in return. 

He is then a giant to an ape ; but then is an ape a doc- 
tor to such a man. Shak., Much Ado, v. 1. 205. 
= Syn. L Wherefore, Accordingly, etc. See therefore. 
then (Tiien), a. [An ellipsis for then being.] 
Then being; being at that time. 

Our then Ambassador was there. 

J. D. (Arber's Eng. Garner, I. 643). 

It was the letter of the noble lord upon the floor, and 
of all the king's then ministers. Burke, Amer. Taxation. 

01 quite another stamp was the then accountant, John 
Tipp. Lamb, South-Sea House. 

thenadays (THen'a-daz), adv. In those days; 
in time past : opposed or correlative to nowa- 
days. [Rare.] 

The big, roomy pockets which our mothers wore under 
their gowns there were no dresses thenadays. 

N. and Q., 7th ser., X. 154. 

thenal (the'nal), n. [< then(ar) + -al.] Same 
as thenar. 

thenar (the'nar), n. and a. [NL., < Gr. ffevap 
(= OHG. tenor, MHG. tener, also OHG. tenra, 
MHG. tenre), the flat of the hand.] I. n. In 
OHO*, and zool., the palm of the hand or sole of 
the foot; the ball of the thumb; the vola. 

II. a. Of or pertaining to the thenar. 
Thenar muscles, those muscles which form the fleshy 
mass of the ball of the thumb, acting upon the meta- 
carpal and basal phalangeal bone of the thumb, as dis- 
tinguished from the hypothenar muscles, which similarly 
act upon the metacarpal bone and first phalanx of the 
little finger. See hypothenar and thumb. Thenar 
prominence or eminence, the ball of the thumb. 

thenardite (the-nar'dit), n. [Named after L. 
J. de Thenard (1777-1857), a French chemist 
and peer of France.] Anhydrous sodium sul- 
phate (Na 2 SO 4 ). It occurs in crystalline coatings at 
the bottom of some lakes at Espartinas (near Madrid), in 
South America, and in extensive deposits in Arizona. It is 
used in the preparation of sodium carbonate. 

Thenard's blue. Same as cobalt blue (which 

see, under blue). 
thence (THens), adv. [< ME. thens, thense, 

thennes, thennus, thannes; with adv. gen. -es 

(see -ce 1 ), < thenne, thence: see thenne^. Cf. 

hence, whence.] 1. From that place. 

Also a lityll thense ys the place wher ower Savyor Crist 
taught hys Discipulis to pray. 

Torkington, Marie of Eng. Travell, p. 29. 

When ye depart thence, shake off the dust under your 
feet. Mark vi. 11. 

2. From that time ; after that. 

There shall be no more thence an infant of days. 

Isa. Ixv. 20. 

3. From that source; from or out of this or 
that; for that reason. 

Thence comes it that my name receives a brand, 
And almost thence my nature is subdued 
To what it works in, like the dyer's hand. 

Shak., Sonnets, cxi. 

Their parents, guardians, tutors, cannot agree ; thence 
all is dashed, the match is unequal. 

Burton, Anat. of Mel., p. 550. 
Not to sit idle with so great a gift 
Useless, and thence ridiculous, about him. 

Maton, S. A., 1. 1501. 

4. Not there; elsewhere; absent. 

They prosper best of all when I am thence. 

Shak., 3 Hen. VI., ii. 5. 18. 
From thence, fro thencet, thence : a pleonasm. 

Aftre gon Men be Watre ... to Cypre, and so to Athens, 
and fro thens to Costantynoble. Mandevitte, Travels, p. 55. 

All mist from thence 

Purge and disperse. Milton, P. L. , iii. 53. 
Those who were mounting were dashed upon the rocks, 
and /ran thence tumbled upon the plain. 

Irving, Granada, p. 54. 

thenceforth (wnens' forth'), adv. [t ME. 
thennesforth; < thence + forth*.] From that 
time forward. 

If the salt have lost his savour, ... it is thenceforth 
good for nothing. Mat. v. 13. 

From thenceforth, thenceforth : a pleonasm. 
And/rom thenceforth Pilate sought to release him. 

John xix. 12. 

Resolving from thenceforth 
To leave them to their own polluted ways. 

Milton, P. L. , xii. 109. 

thenceforward (THens'fdr'wiird), adv. [< 
thence + forward 1 .] From that time or place 

Thencefoneard oft from out a despot dream 
The father panting woke. 

Tennyson, Aylmer's Field. 


thencefrom (THens'from'), ooV. [< thence + 

from.] From that place. /y. Diet. 
thenneM, adr. and conj. An old spelling of 


thenne 2 t, <'<' [< ME. theunc, ttaMM, thonne, 
flieonne, earlier thanene, thanen, theoneiie, < AS. 
thanon, theoiien, thonon (=OHG. danninia, daii- 
HIIII. dunlin, MHG. G. dannen), thence; with for- 
mative -nan, -non, < *tha, the pronominal base 
of that, this, etc., then, than, etc. Hence thence.] 
From that place ; thence. 

Lat men shette the dores and go thenne, 
Yet wol the fyr as faire lye and brenne 
As twenty thousand men myghte it biholde. 

Chaucer, Wife of Bath's Tale, 1. 285. 

thennesfortht, adv. A Middle English form of 

thenceforth. Chaucer. 

thentoforet, <tdr. [< then + toforc; cf. hereto- 
fore.] Before then. 
Bishop Atterbury had thentofore written largely. 

Disney, Life of Sykes (1785), quoted in N. and Q., 6th 

[ser., X. 147. 

Theobroma (the-o-bro'ma), 71. [NL. (Linnseus, 
1737), < Gr. 0fOf, god (see theism), + fipu/ja, food: 
see broma.] 1. A genus of trees, of the order 
Sterculiacex and tribe Bilttneriese. It is charac- 
terized by flowers with inflexed petals each with a spatu- 
late lamina, and anthers two or three in a place between 
the staminodes or lobes of an urn-shaped stamen-column. 
The 15 species are natives of the warmer parts of America. 
They are trees with large oblong undivided leaves, and 
small lateral solitary or clustered flowers. For T. Cacao, 
the principal species, see cacao and chocolate. 
2. \l. c.] A plant of this genus Oil of theo- 
broma. See oil. 

theobromine (the-o-bro'min), 7i. [< Theobroma 
+ -ine' 2 .] A crystalline alkaloid (C^Hg^Ojj), 
forming salts with acids, volatile and very bit- 
ter. In composition it is nearly related to thein or caf- 
fein. It is found in the seeds of Theobroma Cacao. 

theochristic (the-o-kris'tik), . [< Gr. 6e6xpic- 
rof, anointed by God (< 6e6f, god, + ^/worof, 
anointed: see Christ), + -ic.] Anointed by 
God. [Rare.] 

theocracy (the-ok'ra-si), n.; pi. theocracies (-siz). 
[= F. theoci-atie =" teocracia = Pg. theocracia 
= It. teocrasia,<. NL. *theocratia,< Gr. BfoKparia, 
the rule of God, < feof, god, + -Kparia, < KpaTElv, 
rule.] 1. A form of government in which God 
is recognized as the supreme civil ruler of the 
state, and his laws are taken as the statute-book 
of the kingdom. 2. A state so governed : usu- 
ally applied, with the definite article, to the 
Jewish commonwealth from the time of its or- 
ganization under Moses until the inauguration 
of the monarchy under Saul. 

Thus, the Almighty becoming their king, in as reala sense 
as he was their God, the republic of the Israelites was 
properly a Theocracy. Warburton, Divine Legation, v. 2. 

theocrasy (the-ok'ra-si), . [< Gr. 0cof, god, + 
Kpaatf, a mixing or blending: see crasis.] 1. 
In one. pliilos., the intimate union of the soul 
with God in contemplation, which was consid- 
ered attainable by the newer Platonists. Simi- 
lar ideas are entertained by the philosophers 
of India, and by many religious sects. 2. A 
mixture of the worship of different gods. 

theocrat(the'o-krat),M. [=F. theocrate; <theo- 
crat-ic : of. democrat, etc.] A member of a the- 
ocracy ; one who rules in a theocracy. 

theocratic (the-o-krat'ik), a. [= F. theocra- 
tique = Sp. teocrdtico = Pg. theocratico = It. 
teocratico, < NL. 'theocraticus, < "theocratia, the- 
ocracy: see theocracy.] Of, pertaining to, or 
of the nature of a theocracy. 
And the elder Saints and Sages laid their pious framework 

By a theocratic instinct covered from the people's sight. 

LoweU, Anti-Apis. 

The Kingdom of God existed at the outset in a national 
form, in the form of a theocratic state. 

G. P. Fisher, Begin, of Christianity, p. 7. 

theocratical(the-o-krat'i-kal), a. [< theocratic 
4- -al.] Same as theocratic. G. P. Fisher, Be- 
gin, of Christianity, p. 124. 

theocratist (the-ok'ra-tist), n. [< theocrat + 
-1st.] One who emphasizes the principle of 
authority, placing revelation above individual 
reason, and order above freedom and progress, 
and explains the origin of society as a direct 
revelation from God. Encyc. Brit., III. 286. 

Theocritean (the-ok-ri-te'an), a. [< Theocritus. 
< Gr. Qe6icptTOf,, Theocritus' (see def.), + -e-an.] 
Pertaining to or in the manner of Theocritus 
of Sicily (third century B. c.), the founder of 
the Greek idyllic school of poetry; pastoral: 

In England the movement in favor of Theocritean sim- 
plicity ulm-h hsul been introduced by Spenser in the Shep- 
herd's Calendar was immediately defeated by the success 
of Sir Philip Sidney's Arcadia. Enciic. Brit., XVIII. 346. 

theodicaea, theodicea (tli<V'<~Mli-se'ii), . [NL.] 

Siuiir us Ili/'nilii'i/. Kni-i/i: liri/., XIX. s-jn. 

thoodicean (the o-<li-sc'an), a. [< NL. tln-n- 
iiic.Tn (sco theodicy) + -/m.\ Of or pertaining 
to theodicy. 

theodicy (the-od'i-si), . [Also thcn/lii-ic, tln-<>- 
ilir;i-ii, tlnndii-i n , \'\ lln'iMlii-iT,(. Nli. llnnilK'.'rn 
(Leibnitz). < <!r. Wir, god, + Sinn, riglit, justice 
(>(!//,;, just).] An exposition of (lie theory 
of divine Providence with a view to the vindi- 
c.-itii.ii Hi' tin' nt tributes, piirtieulii'rly of the, 
holiness and justice, of (J<l, in establishing 
the present order of tilings, in which evil, moral 
as well MS physical, largely exists. The word in 
this sense was used by Leibnitz in a series of essays, In 
which br maintained that mctaphyical evil is necessary 
to mural beings, that physical evil is a means of a greater 
good, ami thai moral evil was permitted by God as neces- 
sary to the best possible world, as a Bet-off to moral good, 
which it increases by contrast. 

The second [part of the work] will . . . he speculative, 
and will contain a new theodicee, and what will perhaps ap- 
pear to many a new basis of morals. 

Coleridge, To Sir George Beaumont (Memorials of 
[Coleorton, I. 45). 

theodolite (the-od'o-lit), . [Formerly theode- 
lili'; sometimes theodelet; G. Dan. theodolit; = 
F. theodolite = Sp. teodolita = It. teodolito (all < 
E.) ; < NL. "theodolitus, first in the form theode- 
litus (L. Digges, " Pantoinetria," 1571), defined 
as "a circle divided in 360 grades or degrees, 
or a semicircle parted in 180 portions"; origin 
unknown. The word has a Or. semblance, but 
no obvious Gr. basis. It has been variously 
explained: (a) < Gr. tieaoOat, see, + 6<i<5f, way, + 
/tirof, smooth, even, plain ; (6) < Gr. (teaoQai, see, 
-f- Sokix^i long; (c) < Gr. mlv, run, + tJoA^of, 
long; (d) < Gr. dcaaffat, see (ma, a seeing), + 
Anvioc, slave; (e) "the O delitus" or "delete," 
i. e. the O crossed out, a fanciful name imagined 
to have been given in view of the circle marked 
off in degrees by numerous diameters, giving 
the effect of a circle or " O "' erased ; with other 
equally futile conjectures. (/) A recent ex- 
planation makes it a corrupt form of alidade.] 
A surveying-instrument for measuring hori- 
zontal angles upon a graduated circle. It may 
also be provided with a vertical circle, and If this la not 
very much smaller than the horizontal circle, the instru- 
ment is called an altazimut h. If it is provided with a deli- 
cate striding level and is in every way convenient for as- 
tronomical work, it is called a universal instrument. A 
small altazimuth with a concentric magnetic compass is 
called a surveyors' transit. A theodolite in which the whole 
instrument, except the feet and their connections, turns 
relatively to the latter, and can be clamped in different po- 
sitions, is called a repeating circle. The instrument shown 
in the figure follows the system of the United States Coast 
Survey of attaining simplicity of construction by adapta- 
tion to a single purpose in this case to the measurement 
of horizontal angles only. This instrument is low and con- 
sequently very steady. Within the upright pillar isa trun- 
cated cone of steel, and upon this and fitting to it turns 


micrometer-screw. The illumination for these micro- 
scojMjs JKmiule through their objectives by light brought, 
ic ..... ilinij to the plan of Messrs. Brmmer, by primus from 
a point vertically over the axis, where* horizontal ground 

d by 

glass is bung in the daytime and a lamp with a porcelain 
shade at night, mi that the Images of the lines plowed by 
the graver ill the polished surface of the circle shall not 
be displaced by oblique illumination. 
tached to an arm from 

a ring about the brass up 

amp is 


bears upon the circular guard outside the circle proper. 
The tangent screw is contrived so as to eliminate dead 
million. The at in carrying the clamp is balanced by an- 
other bearing a small finding microscope. Theodolites 
are made upon manifold models ; but the one figured in 
preceding column is a good example of a modern first- 
class instrument. 

theodolite-magnetometer ( the - od '6 - lit- mag- 
ne-tom'e-t6r), n. An instrument employed as 
a declinometer to measure variations in decli- 
nation, and as a magnetometer in determina- 
tions of force. 

theodolitic(the-od-o-lit'ik), a. [< theodolite + 
-ic.] Of or pertaining to a theodolite; made 
by means of a theodolite. Imp. Diet. 

Theodosian (the-6-do'gian), a. and n. [< Theo- 
dosius, < Gr. 6odoo)f, a man's name (lit. 'gift 
of God,' < 6e6f, god, + 6601*;, gift: see dose\ + 
-an.] I. a. Pertaining to any one named Theo- 
dosius, particularly to either of the emperors 
Theodosius I. (379-395) and Theodosius n. 
(408 - 450) __ Theodosian code. See code. 

II. n. One of a body of Russian dissenters 
who purify by prayer all articles purchased 
from unbelievers: so called from their founder, 
Theodosius, a Russian monk in the sixteenth 

Theodotian (the-o-do'shian), n. [< Theodotus, 
< Gr. 6e<5<5orof , a man's name (lit. ' given by God, ' 

Theodolite, constructed by Bnmner Brothers of Paris. 

the hollow brass pillar carrying the telescope and micro- 
scopes. Except for an excessively thin layer of oil, the 
brass movable part bears directly on the steel, and its 
weight tends to keep it centered. The pressure is relieved 
by a small plate of some elasticity fastened to the mov- 
able part over the axis and adjustable with screws. It is 
thus made to turn, as nearly as possible, about a mathe- 
matical line. This is the conical bearing of Oambey. The 
base, which is as low as possible, consists of a round cen- 
tral part, and three arms having screw-feet with binding- 
screws. A circular guard for the circle (indistinguishable 
from tile latter in the figure) forms a part of the base. The 
graduated circle is made slightly conical, so that the mi- 
croscopes may be more convenient. This circle, with its 
eight radii and interior ring, forms one solid casting, which 
bears upon the steel axis conically. It is held in place, 
in imitation of an instrument by Stackpole of New York, 
by the pressure of a ring above, which can readily be loos- 
ened so as to permit the circle to be turned round alone. 
The telescope is provided with a filar micrometer, with 
a view of facilitating reiterated pointings a new prin- 
ciple of much value. The instrument is leveled by means 
of a striding level. There are four micrometer micro- 
scopes (although some jieodesists insist upon an odd num- 
ber), made adjustable so that one division of the circle 
shall be very nearly covered by two and a half turns of the 

, god, + (Sordf, verbal adj. of iiSovai, give), 
+ -tan.'] One of a party of anti-Trinitarians 
or Monarchians, followers of Theodotus the 
Tanner, of Byzantium, about A. D. 200, who 
taught that Christ was a mere man. 
theogonic (the-o-gon'ik), a. [< theogon-y + 
-ic.] Of or relating to theogony. 

The theogonic and cosmogonlc notions of Homer and 
Hesiod. Uebmceg, Hist. Philosophy (trans.), I. 24. 

theogonismt (the-og'o-nizm), n. [< theogon-y 
+ -ism.] Theogony.' Imp. Diet. 

theogonist (the-og'o-nist), n. [< theogon-y + 
-is<.J One who'is versed in theogony. Imp. Diet. 

theogony (the-og'o-ni), n. [= F. fheogome = 
Sp. teogonia = Ps.'theogonia = It. teogonia, < L. 
theogonia, < Gr. Seoyovia, a generation or gene- 
alogy of the gods, < 0tof, god, + -yovia, < yaws, 
generation : see -gony."] That branch of non- 
Christian theology which teaches the genealogy 
or origin of the deities; in a particular sense, 
one of a class of poems which treat of the gen- 
eration and descent of the gods: as, the ancient 
Greek theogony of Hesiod. 

He [Epicurus] means the evil Genius and the good Ge- 
nius in the theogony of the Persians. 
Landor, Imag. Conv., Epicurus, Leontlon, and Ternissa. 

In the hymns of the Rig- Veda we still have the last 
chapter of the real Theogony of the Aryan races. 

Max Mutter, Sci. of Lang., 2d ser., p. 429. 

theol. An abbreviation : (a) of theological ; (b) 
of theology. 

theolog, n. See theolngne. [Colloq.] 

theologal (the-ol'o-gal), . [= F. theologal = 
Sp. teologal = Pe.' theologal, theological, a the- 
ologal, = It. teologale, < NL. *theotogaliy, < L. 
theologus, theologue: see theologue."] Same as 
canon theologian (which see, under theologian). 

theologaster (the-ol'o-gas-ter), n. [< L. theolo- 
gus, a theologue', + dim. -outer."} A quack in 
theology; a shallower pretended theologian. 

This sorely distresses our theologatter : yet, instead of 
humbling himself under the weight of his own dulness. 
he turns, as is his way throughout, to Insult the Author of 
The Divine Legation. 

Warkurton, On Several Occasional Reflections, i., App. 

theologate (the-ol'6-gat), n. [< ffL.'theologa- 
tus, < L. theologus, theologue: see theologue and 
-ate 3 .'] The theological course of a student or 
novice preparing for thepriesthood of the Ro- 
maii Catholic Church. Worcester. 

theologer (the-ol'6-jer), n. [< theolog-y + -erl.] 
A theologian^ [Rare.] 

Can any sound Theologer think that these great Fathers 
understood what was Gospel, or what was Excommunica- 
MMII Milton, Reformation in Eng., i. 

The ancient tradition, insisted on by heathen priests 
and theologers, is but a weak foundation. 

Hume, Nat Hist, of Religion, xi. 

theologian (the-o-16'jian), a. and n. [= F. 
tlii'nli><li< n = Pr. theologian : as LL. tlieologia, 
theology, + -an.] I. n. Theological. [Rare.] 


II. ". 1. A mail skilled in theology, espe- 
cially Christian theology; a divine. 

A Tftettl'Hjian, from the school 

i if Cambridge on tin- Charles, was there; 

Skilful alike with tongue and pen. 

Long/ellou*, Wayside Inn, Prelude. 

1'he priest made by a sacred caste belongs to the caste 
that made him , but the great theologian, though sprung 
out of one chinch, belongs to all the Churches, supplies 
them with truth, learning, literature. 

Contrmjwrarit Hen., LI. 21!i. 

2. A professor of or writer on theology ; any 
person versed in theology: as, the lawyer wan 
a very respectable theologian Canon theologian, 
In the Rom. Cath. Ch.. a lecturer on theology and Holy 
Scripture who is attached to a cathedral church, or other 

. church having a large body of clergy. Also called theol- 
ogai and theoiaffu*. 

theologic (the-o-loj'ik), . [= F. fheologique = 
Sp. taili'iijico = Pg. tlieologico = It. teologico, < 
LL. theologicus, < Gr. 0eoXoj<ic, of or pertain- 
ing to theology, < Btofoyia, theology: see theol- 
ogy.] Same as theological. 

In those days the great war of theology which has al- 
ways divided New England was rife, and every man was 
marked and ruled as to ilia opinions, and the theologic lines 
passed even through the conjugal relation, which often, 
like everything else, had its Calvinistlc and Ita Arminian 
side. //. /' Stowe, Oldtown, p. 63. 

theological (the-o-loj'i-kal), a. [< theologic + 
al.] 1. Pertaining to theology or divinity: as, 
theological criticism ; a theological seminary. 

Solemn themes 
Of theological and grave import. 

Cowper, Task, v. 662. 

2. Based upon the nature and will of God as 
revealed to man. 

It may be wondered, perhaps, that In all this while no 
mention has been made of the theological principle : mean- 
ing that principle which professes to recur for the stan- 
dard of right and wrong to the will of God. 

Bentham, Introd. to Morals and Legislation, 11. 18. 

The theological virtues [faith, hope, and charity] presup- 
pose a knowledge of the revealed nature of God as a con- 
dition of their exercise, while the moral virtues issue in 

such a knowledge. Blunt, Diet. Theology, p. 797. 

Theological ceremonial law. See ?<''. 

theologically (the-o-loj'i-kal-i), adv. In a the- 
ological manner ; according to the principles of 
theology ; in respect to theology. 

theologies (the-o-loj'iks), n. [PI. of theologic 
(see -to*).] The essence of theology. [Rare.] 

What angels would those be who thns excel 
In theologies, could they sew as well ! 

Young, Love of Fame, v. 374. 

theologise, theologiser. See theologize, theolo- 

theologist (the-ol'9-jist), . [< thcolog-y + -ist.] 

Same as theologian. [Rare.] 
There be diners conjectures made by the Theologixts, 

Why men should doubt or make question whether there 

be a God or no. Hcywood, Hierarchy of Angels, p. 82. 

theologium (the'o-lo-ji'um), n. [NL., < Gr. 8eo- 
fayeiav (see def.), < 8e6$, god, + foyelov, a place 
for speaking, < Aojof, word, speech, < Myctv, 
speak, say.] A small upper stage or balcony 
in the scene or stage-structure of the ancient 
theater, on which the impersonators of divini- 
ties sometimes appeared. 

theologize (the-ol o-jiz), r. ; pret. and pp. the- 
ologized, ppr. theologizing. [= Sp. teologizar; 
as theolog-y + -ize.] I. trans. To render theo- 

School-divinity was but Aristotle's philosophy theolo- 
giied. OlanriUe, I're-existence of Souls, Iv. (Latham.) 

II. intrans. To theorize or speculate upon 
theological subjects ; engage in theological dis- 

The mind of the Church must meditate, reflect, reason, 
philosophize, and theologize. 

Schaf, Christ and Christianity, p. 49. 

Also spelled theologise. 

theologizer (the-ol'6-jl-zer), w. [< theologize + 
-*rJ.] One who theologizes; a theologian. 
Also spelled theologiser. [Rare.] 

theologue (the'o-lpg), . [Also theolog; < F. 
theologue = Sp. tedlogo = Pg. theologo = It. teo- 
logo = G. theolog = Sw. Dan. teolog, < L. tl'<i- 
logus, < Gr. SeoMyoc., one who speaks of the gods 
(as Homer, Hesiod, Orpheus) or of the divine 
nature, in later use, eccles., a theologian, a di- 
vine ; prop, adj., speaking of God or of the gods, 
< 0eoc, god, + Myeiv, speak: see -ology."] 1. A 
theologian. [Now rare.] 

The cardinals of Rome, which are theologuei, and friars, 
and schoolmen, have a phrase of notable contempt and 
scorn towards civil business. Bacon, Praise (ed. 1887). 

2. A theological student. [Colloq.] 

The theologuet of the Hartford Seminary frequently find 
striking examples of practical theology in their mission 
work. Religious Herald, April 15, 1886. 


theologus (the-ol'o-gus), n. ; pi. tlieotoyi (-ji). 
[L. : see thcoloyue'.] 1. A theologian. 

Theoloiji who may have expounded sacred legends. 

Encyc. Brit., VIII. 468. 

2. Same ;ix cuiiiiii theologian (which see, under 

theology (the-ol'o-ji), . [< ME. theologie, < 
OF. Oteoloffie, F. theologie = Pr. teologia = Sp. 
teologia =' Pg. theologia = It. teologia = D. G. 
theologie = Sw. Dan. teologi, < LL. theologia, < 
Gr. feo/loyi'a, a speaking concerning God, < 0ro- 
JWj'Of, speaking of God (see theologue), < foof, 
god, + /.f}eiv, speak.] The science concerned 
with ascertaining, classifying, and systematiz- 
ing all attainable truth concerning God and his 
relation to the universe ; the science of religion ; 
religious truth scientifically stated. The ancient 
Greeks used the word to designate the history of their 
gods ; early Christian writers applied it to the doctrine of 
the nature of God ; Peter Abelard, in the twelfth century, 
first began to employ it to denote scientific instruction con- 
cerning God and the divine life. Theology differs from re- 
ligion as the science of any subject differs from the subject- 
matter itself. Religion in the broadest sense is a life of 
right affections and right conduct toward God ; theology is 
a scientific knowledge of God and of the life which rever- 
ence and allegiance toward him require. Theology is di- 
vided, in reference to the sources whence the knowledge is 
derived, into natural theology, which treats of God and di- 
vine things in so far as their nature is disclosed through 
human consciousness, through the material creation, and 
through the moral order discernible in the course of his- 
tory apart from specific revelation, and revealed theology, 
which treats of the same subject-matter as made known 
in the scriptures of the Old and the New Testament. The 
former is theistic merely; the latter is Christian, and in- 
cludes the doctrine of salvation by Christ, and of future 
rewards and punishments. In reference to the ends sought 
and the methods of treatment, theology is again divided 
into theoretical theology, which treats of the doctrines and 
principles of the divine life for the purpose of scientific 
and philosophical accuracy, and practical theology, which 
treats of the duties of the divine life for immediate prac- 
tical ends. Theology is further divided, according to sub- 
ject-matter and methods, into various branches, of which 
the principal are given below. 

Ac Theologie hath tened me ten score tymes, 

The more I muse there-inne the mistier it seemeth. 

Piers Plowman (B), x. 180. 

Theology, what is it but the science of things divine? 
Hooker, Eccles. Polity, iii. 8. 

Theology, properly and directly, deals with notional ap- 
prehension ; religion with imaginative. 

J. H. Newman, Gram, of Assent, p. 115. 

Ascetical theology. See ascetical. Biblical theology. 
that branch of theology which has for its object to set 
forth the knowledge of God and the divine life as gath- 
ered from a large study of the Bible, as opposed to a 
merely minute study of particular texts on the one hand, 
and to a mere use of philosophical methods on the other. 
-Dogmatic theology, that department of theology 
which has for its object a connected and scientific state- 
ment of theology as a complete and harmonious science 
as authoritatively held and taught by the church. Exe- 
getical theology. See exeyetical. Federal theology, 
a system of theology based upon the idea of two covenants 
between God and man the covenant of nature, or of 
works, before the fall, by which eternal life was promised 
to man on condition of his perfect obedience to the moral 
law, and the covenant of grace, after the fall, by which sal- 
vation and eternal life are promised to man by the free 
grace of God. Kloppenburg, professor of theology at Fran- 
eker in the Netherlands (died 1852), originated the system, 
and it was perfected (1648) by John Koch (Cocceius), suc- 
cessor of Kloppenburg in the same chair. See Cocceian. 
- Fundamental theology, that branch of systematic 
theology which vindicates man's knowledge of God by the 
investigation of its grounds and sources in general, and 
of the trustworthiness of the Christian revelation in par- 
ticular, and which therefore includes both natural theol- 
ogy and the evidences of Christianity. Genevan the- 
ology. See Genevan. Historical theology, the sci- 
ence of the history and growth of Christian doctrines. 
Homlletlc theology. Same as homiletics. Liberal 
theology. See liberal Christianity, under liberal. Mer- 
cersburg theology, a school of evangelical philosophy 
and theology which arose about the year 1836, in the the- 
ological seminary of the German Reformed Church at 
Mercersburg in Pennsylvania. It laid emphasis on the 
incarnation as the center of theology, on development as 
the law of church life, on the importance of the sacra- 
ments of baptism and the Lord's Supper as divinely ap- 
pointed means of grace, and on Christian education of the 
youth of the church. Monumental theology See 
monumental. Moral theology, a phrase nearly equiva- 
lent to moral philosophy, denoting that branch of practi- 
cal theology which treats of ethics, or man's duties to his 

The science of Moral Theology, as it was at first called, 
and as it is still designated by the Roman Catholic di- 
vines, was undoubtedly constructed, to Ihe full know- 
ledge of its authors, by taking principles of conduct from 
the system of the Church, and by using the language and 
methods of jurisprudence for their expression and expan- 
s ' on - Maine, Ancient Law, p. 337. 


Pastoral theology. See pastoral. Polemical theol- 
ogy, the learning and practice involved in the endeavor 
to defend by scientific and philosophical arguments one 
system of theology, or to controvert the positions of other 
and opposing theological systems. Rational theology. 
See rational.- Scholastic theology. See scholastic. 
Speculative theology, a system of theology which pro- 
ceeds upon human speculation, as opposed to one which 
proceeds upon an acceptance of knowledge restricted to 
what has been revealed in the Bible. Systematic the- 
ology, a general term for all arranged ana classified know- 
ledge of God and his relations to the universe, having for 
its object the vindication of the reality of man 'B knowledge 
of God, in opposition to agnostic philosophy, by the in- 
vestigation of the grounds and sources of such knowledge 
in general and of the trustworthiness of the Christian rev- 
elation in particular, and the ascertaining, formulating, 
and systematizing of all that is known respecting God and 
his relations to the universe, in such form as to make 
manifest its scientific trustworthiness. Systematic the- 
ology presupposes exegetical, Biblical, and historical the- 
ology, and is the basis of applied or practical theology. 

Systematic or Speculative theology . . . comprehends 
Apologetics, Dogmatics, Symbolics, Polemics, Ethics, and 
.statistics. Scha/, Christ and Christianity, p. 4. 

theomachist(the-om'a-kist),. [< theon/aclt-y + 
-ist.] One who rights against God or the gods. 

theomachy (the-om'a-ki), n. [< Gr. Oeofiaxia, 
a battle of the gods, < (feof, god, + ptixq, bat- 
tle, < [idxeoffat, fight.] 1. A fighting against 
the gods, as the mythological battle of the 
giants with the gods. 2. A strife or battle 
among the gods. Gladstone, Juveutus Mundi, 
vii. 3. Opposition to the divine will. 

Lucius Sylla, and infinite other in smaller model, . . . 

would have all men happy or unhappy as they were their 

friends or enemies, and would give form to the world ac- 

cording to their own humours, which is thetrue theomachy. 

Bacon, Advancement of Learning, ii. 

theomancy (the'o-man-si), n. [< Gr. deo/iavreia, 
soothsaying by inspiration of a god, < 6e6f, god, 
+ fMvrtia, divination.] Divination drawn from 
the responses of oracles, or from the predictions 
of sibyls and others supposed to be inspired im- 
mediately by some divinity. Imp. Diet. 

theomania (the-o-ma'ni-a), n. [NL., < Gr. 6m- 
ftavia, madness caused by God, inspiration, < 
<feC, god, + fiavia, madness : see mania.] Insan- 
ity in which the patient imagines himself to be 
the Deity, or fancies that the Deity dwells in 
him; also, demonomania. 

theomaniac (the-o-ma'ni-ak), n. [< theomania 
+ -ac."] One who exhibits theomania. 

theomantic (the-o-man'tik), a. [< theomaitcy 
(theomant-) + -ic.] Pertaining to or having the 
characteristics of theomancy. 

White art, a theomantic power, 
Magic divine. 

Middleton and Rowley, World Tost at Tennis. 

theomorphic (the-o-mor'fik), . [< Gr. Oe6/iop- 
(j>of, having the form of a god, < 6e6f , god, + fiopfyfi, 
form.] Having the form, image, or likeness of 
God. Blunt, Diet. Theology, p. 324. 

theomorphism (the-o-mor'fizm), n. Theomor- 
phic character. Fortnightly Rev., V. xxxix. 63. 

theo-mythology (the"o-mi-thol'o-ji), n. [< Gr. 
6e6(, god, + fivSohoyia, mythology.] See the 

Thus it has been with that which, following German ex- 
ample, I have denominated the Theo-mythology of Homer. 
By that term it seems not improper to designate a mixture 
of theology and mythology, as these two words are com- 
monly understood. Theology I suppose to mean a sys- 
tem dealing with the knowledge of God and the unseen 
world; mythology, a system conversant with the inven- 
tions of man concerning them. 

Gladstone, Studies on Homer and the Homeric Age, II. 2. 

Theopaschite (the-o-pas'kit), n. [< LGr. 6co- 
imoxlTai, < Gr. 0f<5f, god, -I- iraaxciv, suffer, + 
-ite 2 . ] In t heol. , one who holds that God suffered 
and was crucified in Christ's passion. Philologi- 
cally the word may be made to include the Patripassians. 
who identified God the Father with God the Son, and 
therefore held that God the Father was crucified. It is in 
actual use, however, restricted to designate the Monophy- 
sites. Also Theopassian. 

The liturgical shibboleth of the Monophysites was 
"God crucified," which they introduced into the Trisa- 
gion : hence they are also called Theopaschitei. 

Scha/, Christ and Christianity, p. 62. 

theopaschitism (the-o-pas'kl-tizm), w. [< 
Tlieopaschite + -ism."] The doctrine peculiar to 
the Theopaschites. 

theopathetic (the"o-pa-thet'ik), a. [< thco- 
path-y, after pathetic.] Of or pertaining to 
theopathy. See the second quotation under the- 

theopathic (the-o-path'ik), a. [< theopath-y + 
-ic.] Same as theopathetic. 

Mystical theology. See mystical. Natural theology 
See def. above. New England theology, that phase or 
those phases of Puritan theological thought characteristic 
of the Congregational and Calvinistic churches of New 
England. New theology, a name popularly given to a theopathy (the-op'a-thi), n. [< Gr. fftof, god, 

^Jwff7SSS SSteSS . ^*s-.if*f- silfferi ^ : pt^ Emo- 

churches. As an intellectual movement it has much in 
common with the Broad Church movement in the Church 
of England. In its philosophy the new theology partakes 
of Greek, the old theology of Latin Christian thought. 


tion excited by the contemplation of God; piety, 
or a sense of piety. [Rare.] 

The pleasures and pains of theopathy, ... all those 
pleasures and pains which the contemplation of God and 


his attributes, and of our relation to him, raises up in the 
minds of different persons, or in that of the same person 
lit different times. Hartley, On Man, I. iv. 5. 

theophanic (the-o-fan'ik), (i. [< theophaii-y + 
-ic.] Relating to a theophany; pertaining to 
an actual appearance of a god to man. 

The notion of angels as divine armies is not like that of 
the individual "messenger" closely connected with the 
theuphamc history. W. R. Smith, Encyc. Brit., II. 27. 

theophany (the-of 'a-ni), n. [= OF. theojiliauie, 
llim/ilmine, thiphaitic, thijiliainc, F. thivphroiic = 
Olt. tlteojairia, teofania = G. tlteophanie, < ML. 
tlieophailia, theofania, < Gr. ffeotydveia, 6e<xpdvin, 
< ffeof, god, + (jiaiveaffai, appear.] 1. A mani- 
festation of God or of gods to man by actual 
appearance. The term is applied specifically to the 
appearance of God to the patriarchs in angelic or hu- 
man form, and to Christ's nativity, baptism, and second 

The Creator alone truly is ; the universe is but a sublime 
tkeophany, a visible manifestation of God. 

Milman, Latin Christianity, viii. 5. 

The surest means of obtaining a knowledge of the [Ho- 
meric] gods, and of their will, was through their direct 
personal manifestation, in visible tlienplmnu'H. 

0. P. Fifher, Begin, of Christianity, p. 84. 

2. [cap."] The festival of the Epiphany, 
theophilauthropic (the-o-fil-an-throp'ik), a. 
[< theophilnnthrop-y + -ic.] Of or pertaining 
to theophilanthropism or the theophilanthro- 
pists ; uniting love to God with love to man. 

The theophilanthropic ideas of the Society for the Diffu- 
sion of Useful Knowledge. 

Contemporary Rev., XLIX. 341. 

theophilanthropism (the*o-fi-lan'thro-pizm), 
H. [< theophilanthrop-y + -ism.] Love to both 
God and man; the doctrines or tenets of the 
theophilanthropists. Also thenpliilan thropy. 

theophilanthropist (the ' o -fi -Ian ' thro -pist), 
. [< tJitopliilanthrop-y + -ist.] 1. One who 
practises or professes theophilanthropism. 
2. One of a society formed at Paris in the 
period of the Directory, having for its object 
the establishment of a new religion in place of 
Christianity, which had been abolished by the 
Convention. The system of belief thus at- 
tempted to be established was pure deism. 

theophilanthropy (the"o-fi-lan'thro-pi), . [< 
Gr. rei5f , god, + (pumfipuma, love to man : see 
philanthropy.] Same as theophilanthropism. 

theophile (the'o-fil), . [< Gr. fedf, god, + 
$i>.tiv, love. Cf. Gr. 6e6<j>i?.ot, dear to the gods.] 
One who loves God. [Rare.] 

Afflictions are the Proportion [portion] of the best Theo- 
phties. Hawaii, Letters, ii. 41. 

theophilosophic (the-o-fil-o-sof'ik), a. [< Gr. 
0fdf, god, + ifi^Maoijita, p'hilosophy, + -ic.] Com- 
bining, or pertaining to the combination of, 
theism and philosophy. 

Theophrasta (the-o-fras'ta), n. [NL. (Lin- 
naeus, 1737), < L. Tlteophrastus, < Gr. 8%>aorof, 
Theophrastus, a Greek philosopher (about 373- 
288 B. c.).] A genus of plants, type of the tribe 
Theophrastese in the order Myrsinex. It is char- 
acterized by a cylindrical corolla bearing on its base five 
extrorse anthers and as many scale-shaped staminodea. 
There are 3 species, all natives of Hay ti. They are smooth 
shrubs, with a robust erect trunk, and spreading spiny- 
toothed leaves crowded toward the top. The large white 
flowers are compactly clustered in short racemes. Many 
species once included in this genus are now separated 
under the name Clavija (Ruiz and Pavon, 1794). T. Ju- 
sisri is cultivated under glass for its handsome leaves ; in 
Hayti, where it is known as le petit coco, a bread is pre- 
pared from its pounded seeds. 

Theophrasteae (the-o-fras'te-e), w. pi. [NL. 
(H. G. L. Reichenba'ch, 1828), < Theophrasta + 
-ex.] A tribe of gamopetalous plants, of the 
order Myrsinese, characterized by the presence 
of staminodes on the base of the corolla. It in- 
cludes 5 genera of shrubs or small trees, principally na- 
tives of tropical America, of which Theophrasta (the type), 
Clavija, and Jacquinia are the chief, two species of the 
last-named occurring within the United States. 

theopneustic (the-op-nus'tik), a. [< theopneus- 
t-ii + -ic."] Given by inspiration of the Spirit 
of God. Imp. Diet. 

theopneusty (the'op-nus-ti),. [=F. (Mopneus- 
tie, < Gr. 6toirvcvaTof, inspired of God, < Gr. 616$ , 
god, + *7rvra7r<5f, inspired, < nvelv, breathe, blow.] 
Divine inspiration ; the supernatural influence 
of the Divine Spirit in qualifying men to re- 
ceive and communicate revealed truth. 

theorbistt (the-or'bist), n. [< theorbo + -ist.] 
A performer on the theorbo. 

theorbo (thf-or'bo), . [= F. theorbc, tcorbc = 
Sp. tiorba, <. It. tiorl>a, a musical instrument: 
origin unknown.] A musical instrument of 
the lute class, having two necks, the one above 
the other, the lower bearing the melody strings, 
which were stretched over a fretted finger- 


board, ami tho III^MT In-siring th> ftOOOmiMUli- 

nifiit strings or "dijipiiMons," which wriv iln p- 
er in pitch, and wen- phm-d without Itfing 
stopped. The nmnnerand tuning nf tin- string v;ui ! 
considerably, as did tin: size and stiupe of tlir iiiNtruiurnt 

;is :i vvlinlr. llir (lirorlto WHS Illllctl lifted ill the SCVCtl- 

trriith century for BOOOflipntnMDt* of all kinds, and was 
HII important constituent of the orchestra of the j>< i \<l. 
M.iny lutes were made over Into thum-lms l>y I la- addition 

of 11 rU'CMlld Mrrk. Thr r*M-nti:iI <liltr! rtirrs lirt \vccil the 

TlimrliD, the archill te, and the rhitarrnnu npjuai to be 
rtiiuil). tliuiiKh their gem-nil slmpr \:iiir,| < m -i.i. i;i!.]\ ; 
and tin tcuii'-h \\nv u.-cd more or less interchangeably. 
Also called cithartt bijwja, or dnublf-twckfd lute. 

s.Mnr, Unit drlinht to touch the sterner wiry chord. 

The t'ythrmi, the I'andore, and the theorbo strike. 

Drayton, Polyolbion, iv. 361. 

theorem (the'o-rem), n. [== F. thcurbmc = Hp. 
= It. 

teorcma = <. theo- 
rem, < I Jp flu ore tna = Or. Qehpjjita, a sight, specta- 
cle, a principle contemplated, a rule, theorem, { 
fh-ufHtv, look at, view, contemplate, < 0rtyJf, a 
Hpectator, < OeaoQai, see, view. Of. theory.] 1. 
A universal demonstrable proposition, in the 
strict sense, a theorem must be true; It cannot be self- 
evident ; it must be capable of being rendered evident by 
necessary reasoning and not by Induction merely ; and it 
must be a universal, not a particular proposition. But a 
proposition the proof of which Is excessively easy or In- 
volves no genuine diagrammatic reasoning Is not usually 
called a theorem. 

The schoolmen had framed a number of subtile anil in- 
tricate axioms and theorem*, to save the practice of the 
Church. Bacon, Superstition (ed. 1887). 

By my thetrremg, 

Which your polite and terser gallants practise, 

I re-refine the court, and civilize 

Their barbarous natures. 

Ma*ariiHjer, Emperor of the East, i. 2. 

2. In gcom.) a demonstrable theoretical propo- 
sition. There is a traditional distinction between a 
problem, and a theorem, to the effect that a problem is 
practical, while a theorem is theoretical. Pappus, who 
makes this distinction, admits that it is not generally ob- 
served by the Greek geometers, and It has not been in 
general use except by editors and students of Euclid. It 
is recommended, however, by the circumstance that a 
theorem in the general and best sense is a universal propo- 
sition, and as such substantially a statement that some- 
thing is impossible, while the kind of proposition called in 
geometry a problem is a statement that something is pos- 
sible ; the former demands demonstration only, while the 
latter requires solution, or the discovery of both method 
and demonstration. 

I hope that it may not be considered as unpardonable 
vanity or presumption on my part if, as my own taste has 
always led me to feel a greater interest in methods than 
in results, so it is by methods, rather than by any theorems 
which can be separately quoted, that I desire and hope to 
be remembered. Sir W. Hamilton. 

Abel's theorem, the proposition that if we have several 
functions whose derivatives can be roots of the same al- 
gebraic equation having all its coefficients rational func- 
tions of one variable, we can always express the sum of 
any number of such functions as the sum of an algebraic 
and a logarithmic function, provided we establish be- 
tween the variables of the functions in question a certain 
number of algebraic relations: named after Niels Henrik 
Abel (1802-29), who flrst published it in 1826. Addition 
theorem, a formula for a function of a sum of variables, 
such as 

sin (a + b) = sin a cos 6 i cos a sin b. 

Arbogast's theorem, a rule for the expansion of func- 
tions of functions, given in 180U by JL F. A. Arbogast 
(1759-1803X Aronhold's theorem, one of a number of 
propositions constituting the foundations of the theory 
of ternary cubics, given in 1849 by 3. ll Aronhold (born 
1819), the founder of modern algebra. Bayes'S theo- 
rem, tho proposition that the probability of a cause is 
equal to the probability that an observed event would 
follow from it divided by the sum of the corresponding 
probabilities for all possible causes. This fallacious rule 
was given by Rev. Thomas Bayes In 1703. Becker's 
theorem, the proposit ion that in all moving systems there 
is a tendency to motions of shorter period, and that if 
there is a sufficient difference in the periods compared this 
tendency is a maximum : given by O. F. Becker In 1886. 

Beltraml's theorem, the proposition that the center 
of a circle circumscribed about a triangle is the center of 
gravity of the centers of the inscribed and fsmlu-u i in-lrs. 

Berger's theorem, one of a number of theorems re- 
lating to the limiting values of means of whole numbers, 
given by A. Berger in 1880. One of these theorems is that 
for ii ' the average sum of the divisors of ;t Is ,> -/j. 
Bernoulli's theorem, (a) The doctrine that the relative 
frequency of an event in a number of random trials U-nds 
as that number is increased toward the probability of it, or 
its relative frequency in all experience. This fundamental 
principle, which is not properly a theorem, was given by 
Jacob Bernoulli (1654- 1705X (6) The proposition that the 
velocity of a liquid flowing from a reservoir is equal to 
what it would have if it were to fall freely from the level 
in the reservoir ; or, more generally, if p is the pressure, 
p the density, V the potential of the forces, q the resultant 
velocity, A a certain quantity constant along a stream- 
line, tlit-n -. 

(x) \ 
'"(* + A) + *'"(*) \ 


proposition, given by J. L. K. Bertrand (born 1822X 
Bettl'a theorem, the proposition that the loci of the 
I ii >ii its of a surfaec for wbieh the hum on the one hand and 
tin- iliit.-n iireon the otber of the geodetic distances of two 
fixed curves on the surface are constant form an orthogonal 
system : given by K. lletti in 1*5K, and by .1. \\ i in 
In more general form in IWM. Bezout's theorem, tin 
proposition that the degree of the equation resulting from 
the elimination of a variable between two equations Is 
equal to the product of the degrees of these equations, 
which was shown by E. Bezout (1730-83) In 1779. 
Binet's theorem, (a) The proposition that the princi- 
pal axes for any point of a rigid body are normals to 
three quadric surfaces through that point confocal with 
the central ellipsoid: given by J. P. M. Binet (1786-1856) 
in 1811. (b) The generalized multiplication theorem of 
determinants (1812). Binomial theorem. Hee bino- 
mial. Bltontl'B theorem, one of certain metrical theo- 
rems regarding the intersections of conies demonstrated 
by v. N. Bltonti in Is7n. Boltzmann'a theorem, the 
proposition, proved by I. Boltzmann in 1HU8, that the 
mean living force of all the particles of a mixed gas will 
come to be the same. Boole's theorem, the expansion 

* (* + A) $(*) =B, (2' 1)2 ! 
B.(2' 1)41 \ 
4B.(z" 1)61 

given by the eminent English mathematician George 
Boole (1815-64). Bour's theorem, the proposition that 
helicoids are deformablc into surfaces of revolution : given 
in 1862 by the French mathematician J. E. E. Bour (1832- 
1866). Brlanchon's theorem, the proposition that the 
lines joining opposite vertices of a hexagon circumscribed 
about a conic meet in one point : given by C. J. Brianchou 
(born 1785, died after 1823) in 1806. It was the earliest ap- 
plication of polar reciprocals. Sudan's theorem, the 
Sroposltion that if the roots of an algebraic equation are 
iminished first by one number and then by another, there 
cannot be more real roots whose values lie between those 
numbers than the number of changes of sign of the co- 
efficients in passing from one to the other : given and 
demonstrated In 1811 by the French mathematician Bu- 
diui. -Burmann'B theorem, a formula for developing 
one function in terms of another, by an application of 
Lagrange's theorem. Cagnoll'B theorem, in spherical 
trigon,, the formula for the sine of half the spherical ex- 
cess in terms of the sides : given by the Italian astrono- 
mer Andrea Cagnoli (1743-1816). Cantor's theorem, 
the proposition that if for every value of x greater than a 
and less than b the formula holds that limit (A.- sin nx 
-f B cos nx) = 0, then also limit A = and limit 1!,, 
= 0: given by O. Cantor in 1870. Camot'B theorem. 

(a) The proposition that if the sides of a triangle ABC 
(produced if necessary) cut a conic, AB In C* and C", AC 
In B' and B", BC In A' and A", then AB' x AB" x BC 1 x 
BC" x CA' x CA" = CB' x CB" x BA' x BA" x ACT x AC'. 

(b) The proposition that in the Impact of Inelastic bodies 
vis viva is always lost, (c) The proposition that In ex- 
plosions vis viva is always gained. These theorems are 
all due to the eminent mathematician General L. K. M. 
Carnot (1753-1823), who published (a) In 1803 and (b) and 

(c) In 1786. (<i) The proposition that the ratio of the max- 
imum mechanical effect to the whole heat expended in an 
expansive engine is a function solely of the two temper- 
atures at which the heat is received and emitted: given 
In 1824 by Sadi Carnot (1790-1832) : often called Carnot 'i 
principle. Case fa theorem, the proposition that If 
S , = 0, S, = 0, 8., = are the equations of three circles, 
and if /,, I , /, are respectively the lengths of the com- 
mon tangents from contact to contact of the last two, the 
flrst and last, and the first two, then the equation of a 
circle which touches all three circles is 

given by Daniel Bernoulli (1700 -82) in 1733. Bertrand's 
theorem, the proposition that when a dynamical system 
receives a sudden impulse the energy actually aei|iiired 
exceeds the enemy by any other motion consistent with 
tin- conditions of the system and obeying the law of en- 
ergy, by an amount equal to (he energy of the motion 
which must be compounded with the supposed motion to 
produce the actual motion: an extension of a known 

given by John Casey in 1866. Catalan's theorem, the 
proposition that the only real minimal ruled surface is the 
square-threaded screw-surface x = a arc tan (y z) : named 
after E. c. Catalan (born 1814). Cauchy's theorem, 
(a) The proposition that if a variable describes a closed 
contour In the plane of imaginary quantity, the argument 
of any synectic function will In the process go through 
its whole cycle of values as many times as it has zeros or 
roots within that contour. (6) The proposition that If 
the order of a group Is divisible by a prime number, then 
It contains a group of the order --of that prime. The 
extension of this that if the order of a group Is di- 
visible by a power of a prime, it contains a group whose 
order is that power is called Cauchu and Sy/<w' theorem, 
or simply Sylme'* theorem, because proved by the Norwe- 
gian L. Sylow in 1872. If) The rule for the development 
of determinants according to binary products of a row 
and a column, (rf) The false proposition that the sum of 
a convergent series whose terms are all continuous film - 
tions of a variable is itself continuous, (e) Certain other 
theorems are often referred to as Cauchy's, with or without 
further specification. All these propositions are due to 
the extraordinary French analyst, Baron A. L. Cauchy 
(1789-1857). Cavendish's theorem, the proposition 
that if a uniform spherical shell exerts no attraction on 
an interior particle, the law of attraction is that of the 
inverse square of the distance : given by Henry Caven- 
dish (mi-1810). Cayley's theorem, the proposition 
that every matrix satisfies an algebraic equation of Its 
own order : also called the prinfipal proposition of ma- 
trices: given by the eminent English mathematician Ar- 
thur Cayley. Cesaro'a theorem, the proposition that if 
the vertices A, B, C of one triangle lie respectively on the 
sides (produced if necessary) B'C, CA', A B' of a second 
triangle, which sides cut the sides of the flrst triangle in 
the points A", B", C" respectively, and if S be the area of 
the flrst triangle, S' that of the second, then 

CB". BA". AC" - AB". BC". CA" 
_ A&BOjU s- B 

\ l:.i;< .c-A-'SJ' " 

given by E. Cesaro in 1885. It is an extension of Ceva's 
theorem. Ceva'S theorem, the projmsitton that if the 
straight lines connecting a point with the vertices of 
a triangle AKi' meet the opposite sides in A', B', C". the 
product of the segments CB' x BA' x AC' is equal to 


the product All / lir - ('A : given by (iiovannl C'eva In 
UI78. Chasles's theorem, thu proposition that of a 
unidlmenilonal family of conies In a plane the number 
which satisfy a simple riindiiii.n is expressible in the form 
aM . 0i', where a and B depend solely on the nature of the 
K. n, ulnIi-M it tin- number of conies of the family 
passing through an arbitrary point, and v is the number 
I..IL li.-d I.) 1111 arbitrary line : given In 1-1:1 by VI. Chasles 
(l73-lKu) without proof. Clairaut's theorem, the 
proposition that if the level surface of the earth Is an 
elliptic spheroid symmetrical about the axis of rotation. 
then the compression or clllptlclty Is equal to the ratio 
of ) the equatorial centrifugal force less the excess of 
polar over equatorial gravity to the mean gravity : given 
in 1743 by Alexis Claude Clairaut (1718-65). Clapey- 
ron's theorem, the proposition that If a portion of a 
horizontal beam supported at three points A, B, C has uni- 
form loads ur, and if ... on the parts AB and BC respectively, 
the lengths of which are respectively I, and / , and if 
a, 0, ? are the bending moments at the three points of 
support, then 

given by B. P. E. Clapeyron (1799-1868): otherwise called 
the theorem of three moment. Clausen's theorem. 
Same as Stavdt't theorem. Clausius's theorem, the 
proposition that the mean kinetic energy of a system 
in stationary motion is equal to Its virial : given by R. 
J. E. Clanslus (born 1822) In 1870: otherwise called the 
theorem of the virial. Clebsch'B theorem, the propo- 
sition that a curve of the nth order with Un 1) (n 2) 
double points is capable of rational parametric expression : 
given in 1866 by R. F. A. Clebsch (1833-72). Clifford's 
theorem, the proposition that any two lines in a plane 
meet in a point, that the three points so determined by 
three lines taken two by two lie on a circle, that the four 
circles so determined by four lines taken three by three 
meet in a point, that the five points so determined by 
five lines taken four by four lie on a circle, that the six 
circles so determined by six lines taken five by five meet 
In a point, and so on indefinitely : given in 1871 by W. K. 
Clifford (1845-79). CorlOlis'B theorem, the kinematl- 
cal proposition that the acceleration of a point relative to 
a rigid system is the resultant of the absolute accelera- 
tion, the acceleration of attraction, and the acceleration 
of compound centrifugal force : named from Its author, Q. 
ci. Corioiis (1792-1843X Cotesian theorem. Same as 
Cftten'g properties of the circle (which see, under circle). 
Coulomb's theorem, the proposition that when a con- 
ductor is in electrical equilibrium the whole of Its elec- 
tricity Is on the surface: given by C. A. Coulomb (1736- 
1806). Crocchl's theorem, the proposition that if K/> 
denotes what (x, + ,+ + xm)f becomes when the 
coefficients of the development are replaced by unity, and 

given by L. Crocchl in 1880. Crofton's theorem, the 
proposition that if L be the length of a plane convex con- 
tour, O its inclosed area, du> an element of plane external 
to this, and t the angle between two tangents from the 
point to which dw refers, then 

/( - sin *) d. = }L - n : 

given by Morgan W. Crofton In 1868. Certain symbolic 
expansions and a proposition in least squares are also so 
termed. Culmann'a theorem, the proposition that the 
corresponding sides of two funicular polygons which are In 
equilibrium under the saraesystem of forces cut one another 
on a straight line. D'Alembert'a theorem, the proposi- 
tion that every algebraic equation has a root : named from 
Jean le Rond d'Alembert (1717-83). See also D'Alem- 
bert'i principle, under principle. Dandelln'a theorem, 
the proposition that if a sphere be Inscribed in a right 
cone so as to touch any plane, Its point of contact with 
that plane is a focus and the intersection with that plane 
of the plane of the circle of contact of sphere and cone is 
a directrix of the section of the cone by the first plane : 
named from (. P. Dandelin (1794-1847), who gave it in 
1827 : hut he Is said to have been anticipated by Quetelet. 
The theorem that the locus of a point on the tangent of a 
fixed conic at a constant distance from the point of con- 
tact is a stereograph ic projection of a spherical conic is 
by Dandelin. Darboux's theorem, the proposition that 
if V is a function of x having superior and Inferior limits 
within a certain interval of values of x, and if this inter- 
val iscut up into partial intervals !, I,, . . . I*, in which 
the largest values of y are respectively M , M,, . . . M*, 
then MI will tend toward a fixed limit as the num- 
ber of Intervals is increased, without reference to the 
mode of dissection : named from its author, J. G. Dar- 
boux De Molvre'a theorem, (a) The proposition that 
(cos 9 -t- i sit ) = cos n + i sin n : better called De 
Moivre't fortpula. (b) Same as De Mnirre'i property of the 
circle (whicR see, under circle), (c) A certain proposition 
in probabilities. All these are by Abraham De Moivre 
(1667-1754). Desargues's theorem, (a) The propo- 
sition that when a quadrilateral is inscribed in a conic 
every transversal meets the two pairs of opposite sides 
and the conic in three pairs of points in involution. 
(b) The proposition that if two triangles ABC and A I; ( 
are so placed that the three straight lines through cor- 
responding vertices meet In a point, then also the three 
points of intersection of corresponding sides (produced if 
necessary) lie in one straight line, and conversely. Both 
were discovered by Girard Desargues (1593- 1662). Des- 
cartes's theorem. Same as Detcartet'i rule of ami 
(which see. under rwfri). Diophantus's theorem, the 
uroposition that no sum of three squares of integers Is a 
sum of two such squares: given by a celebrated tf reek arith- 
metician, probably of the third century- - Dostor'B theo- 
rem, the proposition that in a plane triangle, where 6, c 
are two of the sides. A the angle included between them, 
and the inclination of the bisector of this angle to the 
side opposite, 


O C 


named from G. Dostor, by whom it was given in 1870. 
Certain corollaries from this in regard to the ellipse 
and hyperbola are also known as Dostor's theorems. 
Du Bois Reymond's theorem, the proposition that if 
/a is a function of limited variation between a. = A and 
a = B, and if <K, n) is such a function that/ A <f>(, )da 
(where 6 is any number between A and B) has its modulus 
less than a fixed quantity independent of b and of n, and 
that when n increases indefinitely the integral tends to- 
ward a fixed limit G for all values of b between A and B, 
then /",/. #, Xl wil1 tend uniformly to G/(A + 0)if 
B > A; and to G/(A - 0) if B < A : named from the German 
mathematician Paul du Bois Reymond. Dupin S theo- 
rem the proposition that three families of surfaces cut- 
ting 'one another orthogonally cut along lines of curva- 
ture: given by Charles Dupin (1784-1873). Earnshaw's 
theorem, the proposition that an electrified body placed 
in an electric field cannot be in stable equilibrium. 
Eisenstein's theorem, the proposition that when y in 
the algebraic equation fyx, y) = is developed in powers 
of x, the coefficients, reduced to their lowest terms, have 
a finite number of factors in the denominator: given in 
1862 by F. G. M. Eisenstein (1823-52).-Euler'S theo- 
rem, (a) The proposition that at every point of a surface 
the radius of curvature p of a normal section inclined at 
an angle t to one of the principal sections is determined 
by the equation 

so that in a synclastic surface p, and p, are the maximum 
and minimum radii of curvature, but in an anticlastic 
surface, where they have opposite signs, they are the two 
minima radii. (b) The proposition that in every polyhe- 
dron (but it is not true for one which enwraps the center 
more than once) the number of edges increased by two 
equals the sum of the numbers of faces and of summits, 
(c) One of a variety of theorems sometimes referred to 
as Euler's, with or without further specification : as, the 
theorem that (xd/Ax + yA/Ay)rf(x, )' = Vfa y) ; the 
theorem, relating to the circle, called by Kuler and others 
Fermat i geometrical theorem; the theorem on the law of 
formation of the approximations to a continued fraction ; 
the theorem of the 2, 4, 8, and 16 squares ; the theorem 
relating to the decomposition of a number into four posi- 
tive cubes. All the above (except that of Fermat) are due 
to Leonhard Euler (1707 -83X Exponential theorem. 
SeeraooTUiiittai. Fagnanos theorem, a theorem given 
by Count G. C. di Fagnano (1682-1766) in 1716, now gen- 
erally quoted under the following much-restricted form: 
the difference of two elliptic arcs AA', aa', whose extremi- 
ties A and a, A' and a' form two couples of conjugate 
points, is equal to the difference of the distances from the 
center of the curve to the normals passing through the 
extremities of one of the two arcs. Fassbender's theo- 
rem, the proposition that if a, p, y are the angles the bi- 
sectors of the sides of a triangle make with those sides, 
then cot a 4 ; cot p + cot y = 0. Format's theorem, (o) 
The proposition that if p is a prime and a is prime to 
p, then a f ~ * 1 is divisible by p. Thus, taking p = 7 
and a = 10, we have 999999 divisible by 7. The following 
is commonly referred to as Format's theorem generalized : 
if a is prime to n and <n is the totient of n, or number of 
numbers as small and prime to it, then o^" 1 is di- 
visible by . This and the following are due to the won- 
derful genius of Pierre Fermat (1608-65). (6) One of a 
number of arithmetical propositions which Fermat, owing 
to pressure of circumstances, could only jot down upon 
the margin of books or elsewhere, and the proofs of which 
remained unknown for the most part during two centuries, 
and which are still only partially understood especial- 
ly the following, called the last theorem of Fermat: the 
equation x -I- y = z, where n is an odd prime, has 
no solution in integers, (c) The proposition that, if from 
the extremities A and B of the diameter of a circle lines 
AD and BE be 
drawn at right an- 
gles to the diame- 
ter, on the same 
side of it, each 
equal to the 
straight line AI or 
BI from A or B to 
the middle point 
of the arc of the 
semicircle, and if 
through any point 

C in the circumference, on either side of the diameter 
AB, lines DCF, ECG be drawn from D and E to cut AB 
(produced if necessary) in F and G, then AG a + BF 2 = AB 2 : 
distinguished as Fermats geometrical theorem. This is 
shown in the figure by arcs from A as a center through G 
and from B as a center through F meeting at H on the 
circle, (d) The proposition that light travels along the 
quickest path. Feuerbach's theorem, the proposition 
that the inscribed and three escribed circles of any tri- 
angle all touch the circle through the mid-sides : given 
in 1822 by K. W. Feuerbach (1800-34). The circle, often 
called the Feuerbach or nine-point circle, also passes 
through the feet of perpendiculars from the vertices 
upon the opposite sides and through the points midway 
between the orthocenter and the vertices. Its center bi- 
sects the distance between the orthocenter and the cen- 
ter of the circumscribed circle. Fourier's theorem, 
the theorem that every rectilinear periodic motion is re- 
solvable into a series of simple harmonic motions hav- 
ing periods the aliquot parts of that of their resultant : 
named after the French mathematician Baron J. B. J. 
Fourier (1768-1830). Fundamental theorem of alge- 
bra, the proposition that every algebraic equationhas 
a root, real or imaginary. Fundamental theorem of 
arithmetic, the proposition that any lot of things the 
count of which in any order can be terminated is such 
that the count in every order can be terminated, and 
ends with the same number. Galileo's theorem, the 
proposition that the area of a circle is a mean propor- 
tional between the areas of two similar polygons one cir- 
cumscribed about the circle and the other isoperimetrical 
with it : given by Galileo Galilei (1564-1642). Gaussian 
or Gauss's theorem, a name for different theorems re- 
lating to the curvature of surfaces, especially for the 
theorem that the measure of curvature of a surface de- 


pends only on the expression of the square of a linear 
element in terms of two parameters and their differential 
coefficients. Geber'S theorem, the proposition that in 
a spherical triangle ABO, right angled at C. if b is the leg 
opposite B, then cos B = cos b sin A : believed to have 
been substantially given by an Arabian astronomer, Jabir 
ibn Aflah of Seville, probably of the twelfth century. 
Geiser's theorem, the proposition that two forms whose 
elements correspond one to one are projective : given by 
C F. Geiser in 1870. Goldbaeh's theorem, the propo- 
sition that every even number is the sum of two primes : 
named after C. Goldbach (1690-1764), by whom it is said 
to have been given. Graves's theorem, the proposi- 
tion that a pen stretching a thread loosely tied round an 
ellipse will describe a confocal ellipse : not properly a 
theorem but an immediate corollary from a theorem by 
Leibnitz, drawn by Dr. Graves in 1841, and named after 
him as his most important achievement. Green's theo- 
rems certain theorems of fundamental importance in 
the theory of attractions, discovered by George Green 
(1793-1841). They are analytical expressions of the fact 
that the accumulation of any substance within a given 
region is the excess of what passes inward through its 
boundary over that which passes outward. Guldin'B 
theorems, two theorems expressing the superficies and 
solid contents of a solid of revolution: named after a 
Swiss mathematician, Guldin (1577-1643); but the theo- 
rems are ancient. Hachette's theorem, the proposition 
that any ruled surface has normal to it along any genera- 
tor a hyperbolic paraboloid having for directrices of its 
generators three normals to the regulus through three 
points of its given generator : given in 1832 by J. N. P. 
Hachette (1769-1834). Hauber's theorem, the logical 
proposition that if a genus be divided into species in two 
ways, and each species in one mode of division is entirely 
contained under some species in the second mode, then 
the converse also holds : given in 1829 by K. F. Hauber 
(1775-1851). Henneberg's theorem, the proposition 
that the necessary and sufficient condition that a minimal 
surface admitting a plane curve as its geodesic should be 
algebraic, is that this line should be the development 
of an algebraic curve : given in 1876 by L. Henneberg. 
Herschel's theorem, (a) The development 

Format's Geometrical Theorem. 

given in 1820 by Sir J. F. W. Herschel (1792-1872). (b) 
The proposition that forced vibrations follow the period 
of the exciting cause. Hess'S theorem, the proposition 
that the herpolhode has neither cusp nor inflection : given 
by W. Hess in 1880, and constituting an important correc- 
tion of notions previously current among mathematicians. 
See herpolhode. Hippocrates's theorem, the proposi- 
tion that the area of a lune bounded by a semicircle and 
a quadrantal circular arc curved the same way is equal 
to that of the isosceles right triangle whose hypotenuse 
joins the cusps of the lune : named from its discoverer, 
the great Greek mathematician Hippocrates of Chios. 
Holdltch's theorem, the proposition that if a rod moves 
in a plane so as to return to its first position, and if A, B, 
C are any points fixed upon it, the distances AB, BC, CA 
being denoted by c, a, b, and if (AX (BX (C) are the areas 
described by A, B, C respectively, then 

o(A) + XB) + c(C) = Trabc : 

given by the Rev. Hamnet Holditch (born 1800). Ivory's 
theorem, the proposition that the attraction of any homo- 
geneous ellipsoid upon an external point is to the attrac- 
tion of the confocal ellipsoid passing through that point 
on the corresponding point of the first ellipsoid, both at- 
tractions being resolved in the direction of any principal 
plane, as the sections of the two ellipsoids made by this 

S lane and this according to whatever function of the 
istance the attractions may vary. Jacobi's theorem. 
(a) The proposition that a function (having a finite num- 
ber of values) of a single variable cannot have more than 
two periods. (6) The proposition that an equilibrium el- 
lipsoid may have three unequal axes, (c) One of a variety 
of other propositions relating to the transformation of 
Laplace's equation, to the partial determinants of an ad- 
junct system, to infinite series whose exponents are con- 
tained in two quadratic forms, to Hamilton's equations, to 
distance-correspondences {or quadric surfaces, etc. All 
are named from their author, K. G. J. Jacob! (1804-51). 
Joachlmsthal's theorem, the proposition that if a 
line of curvature be a plane curve, its plane makes a con- 
stant angle with the tangent plane to the surface at any 
of the points where it meets it : given in 1846 by F. Jo- 
achimsthal (1818-61). Jordan's theorem, the proposi- 
tion that functions of n elements which are alternating 
or symmetrical relatively to some of them have fewer 
values than those which are not so; but this has excep- 
tions when ?i is small. Lagrange's theorem, (a) A rule 
for developing in series the values of an implicit function 
known to differ but little from a given explicit function : 
if z = x + afz, then 


theorem. Laurent's theorem, a rule for the develop- 
ment of a function in series, expressed by the formula 

where the modulus of x is comprised between R and R': 
given by P. A. Laurent (1813-54). Legendre's theo- 
rem, the proposition that if the sides of a spherical tri- 
angle are very small compared with the radius of the 
sphere and a plane triangle be formed whose sides are 
proportional to those of the spherical triangle, then each 
angle of the plane triangle is very nearly equal to the 
corresponding angle of the spherical triangle less one 
third of the spherical excess. This is near enough the 
truth for the purposes of geodesy : given by A. M. Legendrc 
(1752-1833). Leibnitz's theorem, a proposition con- 
cerning the successive differentials of a product : namely, 


3 uv = (D + D*)" mi 


is equal to the same after development of (D + Vv)" by 
the binomial theorem, where D denotes differentiation as 
if u were constant, and Dv differentiation as if v were con- 
stant. Lejeune-Dlrichlet's theorem, a proposition dis- 
covered by the German arithmetician P. G. Lejeune-Di- 
richlet (1805-59), to the effect that any irrational may be 
represented by a fraction whose denominator in is a whole 
number less than any given number n with an error less 
than mn. Lexell's theorem, one of two propositions 
expressing relations between the sides and angles of poly- 
gons: given in 1775 by A. J. Lcxell (1740-84). Lhuilier's 
theorem, the proposition that if a, 6, c are the sides of a 
spherical triangle and E the spherical excess, then 

tan 3 JE = tan i(o + 6 + c) x tan J(a + 6 - c) 
xtanj(a-o-t c) x tanJ(-<* + M c): 

given by S. A. J. Lhuilier (1750-1840). Listing's theo- 
rem, an equation between the numbers of points, lines, 
surfaces, and spaces, the cyclosis, and the periphraxis of a 
figure in space: given in 1847 by J. B. Listing. Also called 
the census theorem. Lueroth's theorem, the proposi- 
tion that a Riemann's surface may in every case be so con- 
structed that there shall be no cross-lines except be- 
tween consecutive sheets. McClintock's theorem, a 
very general expansion formula by E. McClintock. 
MacCullagh's theorem, the proposition that a trian- 
gle being inscribed in an ellipse, the diameter of its cir- 
cumscribed circle is equal to the product of the elliptic 
diameters parallel to the sides divided by the product 
of the axes : discovered by the Irish mathematician 
James MacCullagh (1809-47), and published in 1866. 
Maclaurin and Braikenridge's theorem, the propo- 
sition that n fixed points and n-1 fixed lines in one plane 
being given, the locus of the vertex of an n-gon whose 
other vertices lie on the fixed lines while its sides pass 
through the fixed points is a conic : given by Colin Mac- 
laurin and G. Braikenridge in 1735. Maclaurin's gen- 
eral theorem concerning curves, the proposition that 
if through any point O a line be drawn meeting a curve in 
n points, and at these points tangents be drawn, and if any 
other line through O cut the curve in R, R', R", etc., and 
the system of n tangents in r, r', r", etc.. then the sum of 
the reciprocals of the lines OR is equal to the sum of the 
reciprocals of the lines Or. Maclaurin's theorem, a 
formnla of the differential calculus, for the development 
of a function according to ascending powers of the vari- 
able : named after the Scotch mathematician Colin Mac- 
laurin (1698-1746). It is an immediate corollary from Tay- 
lor's theorem, and is written 

(6) The proposition that the order of a group is divisible 
by that of every group it contains : also called the fun- 
damental theorem of substitutions. Both by J. L. Lagrange 
(1736-1813). Lambert's theorem, (a) The proposition 
that the focal sector of an ellipse is equal to 

Area ellipse 

, where 


- F"0.*3 

Malus's theorem, the law of double refraction : given 
in 1810 byE. L Malus (1775-1812). Mannheim's theo- 
rem. Same as Schonemann's theorem (which see, below). 
Mansion's theorem. Same as Smith's theorem (which 
see, below). Matthew Stewart's theorem, one of 
sixty-four geometrical propositions given in 1746 by 
the philosopher Dugald Stewart's father (1717-85), es- 
pecially that if three straight lines drawn from a point 
O are cut by a fourth line in the points A, B, C in or- 
der, then (OA)'BC - (OB)-AC + (OC)"AB = AB. BC. CA. 
Menelaus's theorem, the proposition that if a triangle 
QRS is cut by a transversal in C, A, and B, the product of 
the segments QA, RB, SC is equal to the product of the 
segments SA, QB, RC : given by the Greek geometer Mene- 
laus, of the first century. Meusnier's theorem, the 
proposition that the radius of curvature of an oblique sec- 
tion of a surface is equal to the radius of curvature of the 
normal section multiplied by the cosine of the inclination 
to the normal : given in 1775 by J. B. M. C. Meusnier de 
la Place (1754-93). Minding's theorem, a certain prop- 
osition in statics. Miguel's theorem, the proposition 
that if five straight lines and five parabolas are so drawn 
in a plane that each of the latter is touched by four of the 
former, and vice versa, then the foci of the parabolas lie on a 
circle : given by A. Miquel. Mittag-Leffler's theorem, 
the proposition that if any series of isolated imaginary 
quantities, a,,, a , , . . . a,,, etc. , be given, and a correspond- 
ing series of functions, ij/ , ^i, >("', etc '> ' tne form 

"in }*=! v/(r+ r'+c)/a, and sin ix'=Jl / ( 1 " + '"' -")/> 

r and rl being the focal radii of the extremities, c the 
chord, and a the semiaxis major, (b) A proposition re- 
lating to the apparent curvature of the geocentric path of 
a comet. Both are named from their author, J. H. Lambert 
(1728-77). Lancret's theorem, in solid geometry, the 
proposition that along a line of curvature the variation 
in the angle between the tangent plane to the surface and 
the osculating plane to the curve is equal to the angle 
between the two osculating planes. Landen's theorem, 
the proposition that every elliptic arc can be expressed 
by two hyperbolic arcs, and every hyperbolic arc by two 
elliptic arcs: given in 1755 by John Landen (1719-90). 
Laplace's theorem, a slight modification of Lagrange's 

a monodromic function /z can always be found having for 
critical points t , o,, . . . , etc., and such that 

<t>n being a function for which a is not a critical point : 
given byG. Mittag-Leffler. Multinomial theorem. See 
multinow ial. Newton's theorem, (a) The proposition 
that if in tile plane of a conic two lines be drawn through 
any point parallel to any two fixed axes, the ratio of the 
products of the segments is constant: given by Sir Isaac 
Newton (1642 - 1726) in 1711. (6) The proposition that the 
three diagonals of a quadrilateral circumscribed about a 
circle are all bisected by one diameter of the circle. 
Painvin's theorem, the proposition that a tetrahedron 


of which a vertex is pole of the opposite base relatively 
tii a uuudric Hiirfucc, t lint bane being a conjugate ti i:mnk' 
irh.tivu to its section "f the i[ti;uliir, (M a rmijiiKiit' 1 ti'ii;i 
hetlron. Pappus's theorem. ("t I in- pmiHihition 
If a qiiudntiiKlu is Inscribi'tl in a < unjr, tin- |n<><ln< t <>f the 
distances of any point on the curve from one pair of op- 
posite sides in to the product of its distances from nn- 
utlicr such p;iit' in a constant mtjo : BO ciillt.-d owing to Ita 
connection with 1'nppua'B problem. (/>) One of the two 
propositions that the Hurface of a solid of revolution is 
ccmal to the product <-f tin* perimeter "f the Kenerntintf 
plane figure by the U'litfth of tho path described by the 
center of gravity, and that the volume of such a solid it* 
rr,u:il to the ari'ft of the plane HKiir multiplied by the 
mime length of path. Various other theorems contained 
In Mir collection of the Greek mathematician Pappus, of 
the third century, are Home-times called by his name. 
Particular theorem, a theorem which extends only to a 
particular quant ity. -Pascal's theorem., the proposition 
that the three intersections of pairs of opposite sides of a 
hexagon inscribed in a conic lie on a straight line: given 
by Uluise Pascal (1623-62) in 1640. The hexagon itself is 
called a rattcat'n hexagon or hexagram, and the straight 
line is called a Pascal'* line.- Ptcard's theorem. () 
The proposition that every function which In the whole 
plane of imaginary quantity except in /' straight lines is 
uniform and continuous, la equal to the sum of /> uniform 
functions, each of which has but one such line. (6) A cer- 
tain proposition concerning uniform functions connected 
by an algebraic relation. Pohlke'fl theorem, the prop- 
osition that any three limited straight lines drawn in a 
plane from one point form an oblique parallel projection 
of a system of three orthogonal and equal axes : given by 
II. K. 1'ohlke in 1853. Also known aa the fundamental thto- 
rein of axtmometry. Polsson's theorem, a rule for form- 
Ing Integrals of a partial differential equation from two 
given integrals. Polynomial theorem. Svtpolynwnial. 
Poncelet'S theorem, (a) The proposition that if there 
be a closed polygon Inscribed In a given conic and circum- 
scribed about another given conic, there Is an infinity of 
such polygons, (b) The proposition that a quantity of the 
forniR = Vu*-' 4- 1?' 1 * can not differ from aw + fin by more than 
Rtan* |, where a = cos(0 + c)/cot* 4v = sin (0 + cVcot' K 
- j{w 0), tan ** > a/a > tan 9. Both were given by Gen- 
eral J. V. Poncelet(l788-1877). Ptolemy's theorem, the 
proposition that if four points A, B, C, D lie on a circle 
In this cyclical order, then AB. CD + AD. BC = AC. DB. : 
given by the Egyptian (ireek mathematician of the second 
century, Claudius Ptolemy. Pulseux's theorem, the 
proposition that a function of a complex variable which 
is thoroughly uniform and satisfies an algebraic equation 
whose coefficients are rational integral functions of the 
same variable, is a rational function of that variable : 
named after V. A. Pulseux (1S2O-83X by whom it was 
given In 1861. Pythagorean theorem, the Pythagorean 
proposition (which see, under Pythagorean), Recipro- 
cal theorem, a theorem of geometry analogous to an- 
other theorem, but relating to planes instead of points, 
and vice versa, or In a plane to straight lines instead of 
points, and vice versa. Thus, Pascal's and Brlanchon's 
theorems are reciprocal to one another. Ribaucour's 
theorem, given a pseudospherical surface of unit curva- 
ture, if in every tangent plane a circle of unit radius be 
described about the point of contact as center, these cir- 
cles will be orthogonal to a family of pseuaospherlcal 
surfaces of unit radius belonging to a triple orthogonal 
system of which the other two families are envelops of 
spheres: given by A. Ribaucour in 1870. Riemann's 
theorem, a certain theorem relative to series of corre- 
sponding points for example, that two protective series 
of points He upon curves of the same deficiency. In it - 
generality the proposition is called the theorem yf Rie- 
m /.in and Koch, or of Riemann, Roch, and Nother. It was 
first given by G. F. B. Rlemann (1823-67) In 1857, generally 
demonstrated by Koch in 1865, and extended to surfaces 
by Nother in 1880. Robert's theorem, (a) The propo- 
sition that the geodesies joining any point on a quadric 
surface to two umbilics make equal angles with the lines 
of curvature at that point: given, with various other 
propositions relating to the asymptotic lines ami lines of 
curvature of uuadrics, by Michael Roberts in 1846. (6) The 
proposition that if a point be taken on each of the edges 
of any tetrahedron and a sphere be described through each 
vertex and the points assumed on the three adjacent edges, 
the four spheres will meet in a point: given by Samuel 
Roberts in 1881. Rodrigues's theorem, the proposition 

t "~ M *+"* 

to 2 iv* 
~ l 


numbers at least aa small as p and prime to It : given in 
1876 by the eminent Irish m;ttht m;itician II. J. s. Smith 
*l). The theorem as generalized by I'aul Mansion 
in 1877 Is called Smith and Mansum't theorem. Stall (it s 
theorem, tin [H"p<>-itin that any Bernoulli number, I!.,, 
is equal to an integer minus 

2-' I a-'+0-'+ . A-', 

where a, 0, etc., are all the prime numbers one greater 
than the double of divisor* of n: given In 1M" by K. . 
c. von staudt (1788-187).- Steiner's theorem, one of a 
large number of propositions In geometry Riven by Jakob 
Mrim-r (17IK1- 18&H), who was probably the greatest geo- 
metrical genius that ever lived ; but the necessities of 
life prevented the publication of by far the greater part 
of his discoveries, until his health was shattered, and most 
of those that were printed (in 1820 and the following years) 
were given without proofs, and remained an enigma to 
mathematicians until 1862, when I.ulul Cremona demon- 
strated most of them. Stirling's theorem, the prop- 
osition that 

given by James Stirling (1690- 1770). Sturm's theorem, 
a proposition in the theory of equations for determining 
the number of real rooU of an equation between given 
limits : given by the French mathematician J. C. K. Sturm 
(1803 - 66) in 1835. Sylow's theorem. Sec Conchy''. theo- 
rem((>), above. Sylvester's theorem, (a) An extension 
of Newton's rule on the limits of the roots of an algebraic 
equation, tin The proposition that every quaternary cubic 
Is the sum of the cubes of five linear forms, (e) The prop- 
osition that if A,, A 9 , etc., are the latent roots of a matrix 
in, then 

given by the great algebraist J. J. Sylvester (born 1814). 
Tanner's theorem, a property of pfafflans, 

given by H. U. L. Tanner In 1879. Taylor's theorem, 
a formula of most extensive application in analysis, dis* 
covered by Dr. Brook Taylor, and published by him in 1715. 
It is to the following effect : let u represent any function 
whatever of the variable quantity x; then If x receive any 
increment, as A, let u become '; then we shall have u' = 

du_ A d-u A^ d'u A' du A' 

Hx ' I + ~axf ' i! + ~dx* TsT + "d* 1 " ' fH* + 

where d represents the differential of the function u. 
Theorem of aggregation. See aygregatian. Uni- 
versal theorem, a theorem which extends to any quan- 
tity without restriction. Wallis's theorem, the prop- 
osition that 

ir/2 = (2',f3'X(4 1 /5').(6 1 /7').(8'/(>'X etc., 
named after the discoverer, John Wallls (1616-1708). 
Weierstrasa's fundamental theorem, the proposition 
that every analytical function subject to an addition 
theorem is either an algebraic function, or an algebraic 
function of an exponential, or an algebraic function of the 
Weierstrasslan function <> : given by Karl Weierstrass 
(born 1816).- Weingarten'g theorem. See Bettft theo- 
rem, above. Wilson's theorem, the proposition that If 
p is a prime number, the continued product 1.2.3. . . 
( /' 1) increased by 1 is divisible by p, and if not, not : 
discovered by Judge John Wilson (1741-93), and published 
by Waring. Wronskl's theorem, an expansion for a 
function of a root of an equation. Yvon-Villarceau's 
theorem, a general proposition of dynamics, expressed 
by the formula 

Rolle's theorem, the proposition that between any two 
real roots of an equation, algebraic or transcendental, if 
the first derived equation is finite and continuous in the 
interval, It must vanish an odd number of times : given 
iniosflby Michel Uolle (1662-1719). Scherk's theorem, 
the proposition that the Eulerian numbers iti Arabic no- 
tation end alternately with 1 and fi. Scho' nemann s 
theorem, the proposition that if four points of a rigid 
body slide over four fixed surfaces, all the normals to sur- 
faces that are loci of other points of the body pass through 
two fixed straight lines: published under Steiner's aus- 
pices in 1855, but not noticed, and rediscovered by A. 
Mannheim in I860 (whence long called Mannheim'* the- 
orem); but Schoncmann's paper was reprinted in Bor- 
< hanlt's Journal in 1880. Slonlmsky's theorem, the 
proposition that if the successive multiples of a number 
expressed in the Arabic notation are written regularly 
under one another, there are only 28 different columns of 
figures whicli have to be added to the last figures of the 
successive multiples of a digit to get the numbers written 
in any n ninil n liiuni. - Sluze's theorem, the proposi- 
tion that the volume of the solid generated by the revo- 
lution of a common cisaoid about its asymptote is equal 
to the volume of the juiehor-riiiK' Kent-rated by the revolu- 
tion of the primitive circle about the same axis. This 
theorem, which is true for any kind of cissoid. and is sus- 
ceptible of further ranenllation, was given in Ides by the 
Baron de sluze (162 - sr). Smith's theorem the propo- 
sition that S (1, 1) (2, 2) ... (n, n) = 41. *i . . . n, 
where tin- left-hand side is a symmetrical determinant, 
(p, q) denoting the greatest common divisor of the Inte- 
gers p and q, and ./.p being the totient of p, or number of 

where c is the velocity, r the radius vector of the point 
whose mass Is m and Its coordinates x, y. z, while X, Y Z 
are the components of the force, /the force, and A the 
distance of two particles : given in 1872 by A. J. F. YTon- 
Villarceau (1813-83). It much resembles the theorem 
of the virial. = Syn. See inference. 
theorem (the'o-rem), v. t. [< theorem, M.] To 
reduce to or formulate as s theorem. [Bare.] 
To attempt theorising on such matters would profit lit- 
tle ; they are matters which refuse to be theoremed and 
diagramed, which Logic ought to know that she cannot 
speak of. Carlyte. 

theorematic (the'o-re-mat'ik), a. [< Gr. 6eu- 
ptlftartK^, of or pertaining to a theorem, < 6cu- 
prifia, a theorem: see theorem.] Pertaining to 
a theorem ; comprised in a theorem ; consisting 
of theorems: as, theorema tic truth. 

theorematical (the'o-re-mat'i-kal), a. [< theo- 
rematic + -/.] Same as theorematic. 

theorematist (the-o-rem'a-tist), n. [< Gr. Oeu- 
ptlfia(T-), a theorem, + -is<.] One who forms 

theoremic (the-o-rem'ik), a. [< theorem + -c.] 

theoretic (the-o-ret'ik), a. and n. [= F. theo- 
rttique, < NL. "theoretical, < Gr. deuprrrutdf, of or 
pertaining to theory, < ffcupia, theory: see the- 
<iry.~} I, a. Same as theoretical. 

For, spite of his fine theoretic positions. 
Mankind is a science defies definitions. 

Burnt, Fragment Inscribed to C. J. Fox. 

II. M. Same as theoretics. .*>'. //. //</</#, 
Time and Space, $ 68. [Rare.] 
theoretical (the-o-ret'i-kal), a. [< theoretic + 
-nl.] 1. Having the object of knowledge (0cu- 
prrr6) as its ciui: concerned with knowledge 
only, not with accomplishing anything or pro- 
ducing anything; purely scientific; speculative. 


This Is the original, proper, and best meaning of the word. 
Aristotle divides nil knowledge into productive tart) and 
unproductive (xcience), and the latter Into that which alms 
at accomplishing something (practical science) and that 
which alms only at understanding Its object, which is the. 
ontical tcicnrc. Thin distinction, which has descended to 
-in times (but with practical science and art joined toge- 
ther), diminishes in Importance as science advances, all 
the sciences finding practical applications. 

Weary with the pursuit of academical studies, he I('.,l 
lins) no longer confined himself to the search of theoreti- 
cal knowledge, but commenct-d, the scholar of humanity, 
to study nature In her works, and man in society. 

Langhorne, On Collins's Ode, The Manners. 

2. Dealing with or making deductions from im- 
perfect theory, and not correctly indicating the 
real facts as presenting themselves in experi- 
ence. All the practical sciences that have been pursued 
with distinguished success proceed by deductions from 
hypotheses known not to be strictly true. This Is the ana- 
lytical method, of which modern civilization is the fruit. 
In some cases the hypotheses are so tar from the truth that 
the results have to receive corrections. In such cases the 
uncorrected result is called theoretical, the corrected re- 
mit practical. 

What logic was to the philosopher legislation was to 
the statesman and moralist, a practical, as the other was 
a theoretical, casuistry. 

StuNu, Medieval and Modem Hist, p. 211. 

3. In Kantian terminology, having reference 
to what is or is not true, as opposed to practi- 
cal, or having reference to what ought or may 
innocently be done or left undone. -Theoretical 
agriculture, arithmetic, chemistry. See the nouns. 
Theoretical cognition, cognition either not In the Im- 
perative mood or not leading to such an imperative; 
knowledge of what the laws of nature prescribe or admit, 
not of what the law of conscience prescribes or permits. 
Theoretical geometry. See geometry. Theoretical 
Intellect. See intellect, 1. Theoretical logic. Same 
as abstract logic (which see, under l<*jic). Theoretical 
meteorology, philosophy, proposition, reality, rea- 
son, etc. See the nouns. 

theoretically (the-o-ret'i-kal-i), adr. In a the- 
oretic manner ; in or by theory ; from a theoret- 
ical point of view ; speculatively : opposed to 

theoretician (the'p-re-tish'an), n. [< theoretic 
+ -ian.J A theorist; a theorizer; one who is 
expert in the theory of a science or art. 

theoretics (the-o-ret'iks), n. [PI. of theoretic 
(see -tcs). ] The speculative parts of a science. 
With our Lord himself and his apostles, as represented 
to us In the New Testament, morals come before contem- 
plation, ethics before theoretic*. H. B. Wilton. 

theoric 1 ! (the'o-rik), a. and n. [I. a. = F. the- 
orique = Sp. teorico = Pg. theorico = It. tcorico, 
< ML. theoriciis, < Gr. BeapiKof, of or pertaining 
to theory, < Bcupla, theory: see theory. II. w. 
Also theorick, thenrique, < ME. theorik, theorike, < 
OF. theorique, F. theorique = Sp. teorica = Pg. 
theorica = It. teorica, < ML. thcorica (sc. ars), < 
Gr. Beu/Mnof, of or pertaining to theory: see I.] 

1. a. Making deductions from theory, especially 
from imperfect theory; theorizing. Also (Aeon- 

Your courtier theoric is he that hath arrived to his 
farthest, and doth now know the court rather by specula- 
tion than practice. I!. Jonson, Cynthia's Revels, If. 1. 

A man but young, 

Yet old In judgment ; theoric and practlc 
In all humanity. 

ilatrinycr and Field, Fatal Dowry, 11. 1. 

II. n. 1. Theory; speculation; that which 
is theoretical. 

The bookish theoric, 
Wherein the toged consuls can propose 
As masterly as he ; mere prattle, without practice, 
Is all his soldiership. Shot., Othello, I. 1. 24. 

An abstract of the theorick and practlck In the /Escula- 
plan art. B. Jonton, Volpone, II. 1. 

2. A treatise or part of a treatise containing 
scientific explanation of phenomena. 

The 4 pin tie shal ben a theorik to declare the moevynge 
of the celestial bodies with the causes. 

Chaucer, Astrolabe, Prol. 

theoric 2 (the-or'ik), a. [< Gr. Oeuptxuf. of or per- 
taining to public spectacles, ra fcupua, or rb 8ru- 
ptxov, the theoric fund (< ffeupia, a viewing: see 
theory. Cf. theoric 1 ).] Of or pertaining to 
public spectacles, etc Theoric fund. In Athenian 
antiq. , same as theoricon. 

theoricalt (the-or'i-kal), a. [< Uteorici + -a/.] 
Same as theoric 1 . 

I am sure wisdom hath perfected natural disposition In 
you, and given you not only an excellent theoricaf discourse, 
but an actual reducing of those things Into practice which 
are better than you shall find here. 

Rev. T. Admnt, Works, III., p. xlL 

theoricallyt (the-or'i-kal-i), adv. Theoretically ; 

He is very musicsll, both theoricatty and practically, 
and he had a sweet voyce. 

Aubrey, Lives (William Holder). 

theoricon (the-or'i-kon), H. [< Gr. Ocuput6i>, 
neut. of Bcupixof, of or pertaining to public 


spectacles: see theorie' 2 .'] In Athenian antiq., 
a public appropriation, including, besides the 
moneys for the conduct of public festivals and 
sacrifices, supplementary to the impositions 
(liturgies) on individuals for some of these pur- 
poses, a fund which was distributed at the rate 
of two obols per person per day to poor citizens, 
ostensibly to pay for their seats in the theater 
or for other individual expenses at festivals. 
Also, in the plural form, theoriea. 

Before the end of the Peloponnesian War the festival- 
money (theoricon) was abolished. Encyc. Brit., VII. 68. 

theoriquet, n. Same as theorie 1 . 

theorisation, theorise, etc. See theorization, 

theorist (the'o-rist), . [< theor-y + -ist.~\ One 
who forms theories ; one given to theory and 
speculation; a speculatist. It is often used 
with the implication of a lack of practical ca- 

The greatest theorists in matters of this nature . . . have 
given the preference to such a form of government as that 
which obtains in this kingdom. 

Addison, Freeholder, No. 51. 

Truths that the theorist could never reach. 
And observation taught me, I would teach. 

Cowper, Progress of Error, 1. 11. 

That personal ambition ... in which lurked a certain 
efficacy, that might solidify him from a theorist into the 
champion of some practicable cause. 

Hawthorne, Seven Gables, xii. 

theorization (the"o-ri-za'shgn), n. [< theorize 
+ -at-ion.] The act or the 'product of theoriz- 
ing; the formation of a theory or theories; 
speculation. Also spelled theorisation. 

The notorious imperfection of the geological record 
ought to warn us against . . . hasty theorization. 

Pop. Sci. Mo., XII. 117. 

theorize (the'o-riz), r. '. ; pret. and pp. theo- 
rized, ppr. theorizing. [< theor-y + -ize.~] To 
form a theory or theories; form opinions solely 
by theory ; speculate. Also spelled theorise. 

The merest artisan needs to theorize, 1. e. to think to 
think beforehand, to foresee; and that must be done by 
the aid of general principles, by the knowledge of laws. 
/. F. Clarke, Self Culture, p. 139. 

theorizer (the'o-ri-zer), . [< theorize + -er 1 .] 
A theorist. Also spelled theoriser. 

With the exception, in fact, of a few late absolutist 
theorizers in Germany, this is, perhaps, the truth of all 
others the most harmoniously re-echoed by every philoso- 
pher of every school. Sir W. Hamilton. 

theorizing (the'o-ri-zing), . [Verbal n. of 
theorize, r.] The act or process of forming a 
theory or theories ; speculation. 

Whatever may be thought of the general theorizings of 
the last two, it is clear that their method is not the pa- 
tiently inductive one of Darwin. 

Pop. Sci. Mo., XXXV. 754. 

theorizing (the'o-ri-zing), p. a. Speculative. 

Gallatin had drifted further than his school-mate from 
the theorizing tastes of his youth. 

H. Adams, Albert Gallatin, p. 519. 

theory (the'o-ri), w. ; pi. theories (-riz). [Early 
mod. E. theorie; < OF. theorie, F. theorie = Sp. 
teoria = Pg. theoria = It. teoria = D. G. theorie 
= Sw. Dan. teori, theory, < L. theoria, <Gr. 6ea- 
pia, a viewing, beholding, contemplation, spec- 
ulation, theory, < Beupeiv, view, behold, < 6eup6f, 
spectator: see theorem.] 1. Contemplation. 

The pens of men may sufficiently expatiate without 
these singularities of villany; for, as they increase the 
hatred of vice in some, so do they enlarge the theory of 
wickedness in all. Sir T. Browne, Vulg. Err., vii. 19. 

2. Perception or consideration of the relations 
of the parts of an ideal construction, which is 
supposed to render completely or in some mea- 
sure intelligible a fact or thing which it resem- 
bles or to which it is analogous ; also, the ideal 
construction itself. Thus, political economists, in or- 
der to explain the phenomena of trade, suppose two or 
three men, actuated by calculation of interests aloue, to be 
placed on a desert island, or some other simple situation. 
The perception of how such men would behave constitutes 
a theory which will explain some observed facts. In pre- 
cisely the same way, an engineer who has to build a ma- 
chine or a bridge imagines a structure much more simple 
than that which he is to make, and from the calculation 
of the forces and resistances of the ideal structure which 
is theory, infers what will best combine economy with 
strength in the real structure. 

The Queen confers her titles and degrees. . . . 
Then, blessing all : "Go, children of my care ! 
To practice now from theory repair." 

Pope, Dunciad, iv. 680. 

They [the English] were much more perfect in the theory 
than in the practice of passive obedience. 

Macaulay, Sir James Mackintosh. 

3. An intelligible conception or account of how 
something has been brought about or should be 
done. A theory, in this sense, will most commonly, 


though not always, be of the nature of a hypothesis; but 
with good writers a mere conjecture is hardly dignified by 
the name of a theory. Theory is often opposed to fact, as 
having its origin in the mind and not in observation. 

Conjectures and theories are the creatures of men, and 
will be found very unlike the creatures of God. 

Reid, Inquiry into Human Hind, i. 1. 

Divine kindness to others is essentially kindness to my- 
self. This is no theory; it is the fact confirmed by all ex- 
perience. Channing, Perfect Life, p. 89. 

The distinction of Fact and Theory is only relative. 
Events and phenomena, considered as particulars which 
may be colligated by Induction, are Facts ; considered as 
generalities already obtained by colligation of other Facts, 
they are Theories. 

Whewett, Philos. Induct. Sciences, I. p. xli. 

For she was cramm'd with theories out of books. 

Tennyson, Princess, Conclusion. 

4. Plan or system ; scheme; method. [Bare.] 

If they had been themselves to execute their own theory 
in this church, . . . they would have seen, being nearer. 
Hooker, Eccles. Polity, v. 29. 

5. In math., a series of results belonging to 
one subject and going far toward giving a 
unitary and luminous view of that subject: 
as, the theory of functions. 6. Specifically, 
in music, the science of composition, as dis- 
tinguished from practice, the art of perform- 
ance Ampere's theory, an electrodynamic theory 
proposed by Andre Marie Ampere, according to which 
every molecule of a magnetic substance is supposed to be 
traversed by a closed electric current. Before magnetiza- 
tion the combined effect of these currents is zero, but by 
the magnetizing process they are supposed to be brought 
more or less fully into a parallel position ; their resultant 
effect is then equivalent to a series of parallel currents tra- 
versing the exterior surface of the magnet in a plane per- 
pendicular to its axis and in a certain definite direction, 
which when the south pole is turned toward the observer is 
that of the hands of a watch. These hypothetical currents 
are called theAmperian currents. This theory is based upon 
the close analogy between a solenoid traversed by an elec- 
tric current and a magnet. (See solenoid.) Ampere con- 
ceived that the magnetic action of the earth is the result of 
currents circulating within it, or at its surface, from east 
to west, in planes parallel to the magnetic equator. Anti- 
phlogistic theory. See antiphlogistic. Atomic theory. 
See atomic. Automatic theory. Same as automatism, 2. 

Binary theory of salts. See binary. Brunonlan 
theory. See Brunonian. Carnot's theory, the theory 
that heat is an indestructible substance which does work 
by a fall of its temperature, as water does work by descend- 
ing from one level to another. See Carnot's principle, under 
principle. Cell or cellular theory. See cell. Contact 
theory of electricity. See elecirifUy. Corpuscular 
theory. See %A(i,i. Daltonian atomic theory. See 
Daltonian. Derivative, dynamic, eccentric theory. 
See the adjectives. Electromagnetic theory of light. 
See%Ad, l. Erosion, germ, Grotlan theory. See 
the qualifying words. Governmental theory of the 
atonement. See atonement, 3 (o). Lunar, mechani- 
cal, mosaic, mythical theory. See the adjectives. 
Naturalistic theory. See mythical theory. Newtoni- 
an theory of light. Seelighti, l. Organic, Plutonic, 
ppriferan, reflex, retribution theory. Nee the quali- 
fying words. Satisfaction theory of the atonement. 
See alonement,3 (a). Solar theory. See solarium. Sub- 
limation theory. See sublimation. The bow-wow and 
pooh-pooh theories of language. See language. 
Theory of cataclysms or catastrophes. See cataclysm. 

Theory of chances. See probability. Theory of cog- 
nition, of development, of divisors, of emission, of 
equations, of exchanges, of faculties, of forms, of 
functions, of incasement, of numbers, of parallels, 
of preformation, of projectiles. See cognition, etc. 
Theory of special creations. See creation. Undula- 
tory theory of light. See Kghti, l. Young-Helmholtz 
theory of color. See color. =Syn. 3. Theory, Hypothesis, 
Speculation. (See def. 8.) Speculation is largely the work 
of the imagination, being often no more than the raising 
of possibilities, with little reference to facts ; hence the 
word is often used contemptuously. 

theosoph (the'o-sof), n. [= F. theosophe = Sp. 
tedsofo, < ML. theosophus, a theologian, < LGr. 
(eccl.) 8c6ao<t>of, wise in things concerning God, 
< (fe<5f, god, + oo<t>6<;, wise. Cf. theosophy.] A 

Within the Christian period we may number among the 
Theosophs Neo-Platonists, &c. Chambers's Encyc. , IX. 400. 

theosopher (the-os'o-fer), . [< theosoph-y + 
-er 1 .] A theosophist. 

Have an extraordinary care also of the late Theosophers, 
that teach men to climbe to Heaven upon a ladder of lying 
figments. N. Ward, Simple Cobler, p. 18. 

The ascetic, celibate theosopher. ffingsley, Hypatia, xxii. 
theosophic (the-o-sof'ik), a. [< theosoph-y + 
-ic.] Same as ttieosophical. 
theosophical (the-o-sof'i-kal), a. [< theosophic 
+ -al.] Of or pertaining to theosophy or the- 

A theosophical system may also be pantheistic, in ten- 
dency if not in intention ; but the transcendent character 
of its Godhead definitely distinguishes it from the specu- 
lative philosophies which might otherwise seem to fall 
under the same definition. Encyc. Brit., XXIII. 278. 

From the end of the year 1783 to the beginning of the 
year 1788 there existed a society entitled " The Theosophi- 
cal Society, instituted for the Purpose of promoting the 
Heavenly Doctrines of the New Jerusalem, by translating, 
printing, and publishing the Theological Writings of the 
Honourable Emanuel Swedenborg. " 

N. and <?., 7th ser., XI. 127. 


theosophically (the-o-sof'i-kal-i), adv. In a 
theosophie manner; toward, or from the point 
of view of, theosophy. 

The occurrence being viewed as history or as myth ac- 
cording as the interpreter is theosophically or critically 
inclined. W. 11. Smith. 

theosophism (the-os'o-fizm), n. [< theoaojili-i/ 
+ -ism.] Theosophical tenets or belief. 

Many traces of the spirit of Theomphism may be found 
through the whole history of philosophy ; in which no- 
thing is more frequent than fanatical and hypocritical 
pretensions to Divine illumination. 

Enfield, Hist. Philosophy, ix. 3. 

theosophist (the-os'o-fist), n. [< theosoph-y + 
-ist.] One who'professes to possess divine il- 
lumination; a believer in theosophy. 

I have observed generally of chymists and theosophists, 
as of several other men more palpably mad, that their 
thoughts are carried much to astrology. 

Dr. H. More, A Brief Discourse of Enthusiasm, xlv. 

Theosophist [is| a name which has been given, though 
not with any very definite meaning, to that class of mys- 
tical religious thinkers and writers who aim at displaying, 
or believe themselves to possess, a knowledge of the di- 
vinity and his works by supernatural inspiration. In this 
they differ from the mystics, who have been styled theo- 
pathetic, whose object is passively to recover the sup- 
posed communication of the divinity and expatiate on the 
results. The best-known names at this day of the theo- 
sophic order are those of Jacob Bbhme, Madame Guyon, 
Swedenborg, and Saint-Martin. Schelling and others, who 
regarded the foundation of their metaphysical tenets as 
resting on divine intuition, have been called theosophists, 
but with less exactness. 

Brande and Cox, Diet. Sci., Lit., and Art. 

theosophistical (the-os-o-fis'ti-kal), a. [< tlie- 
osopliint + -ic-al.] theosophical.' 
theosophize (the-os'o-fiz), v. i. ; pret. and pp. 
theosophized, ppf. thfosophizing. [< theosoph-i/ 
+ -i:e.~] To treat of or practise theosophy. 
theosophy (the-os'o-fi), w. [= F. theosophie, < 
LGr. ffeoaotyia, knowledge of things divine, wis- 
dom concerning God, < feooo^op, wise in things 
concerning God: see theosoj>h.~\ Knowledge 
of things divine; a philosophy based upon a 
claim of special insight into the divine nature, 
or a special divine revelation. It differs from moat 
philosophical systems in that they start from phenomena 
and deduce therefrom certain conclusions concerning God, 
whereas theosophy starts with an assumed knowledge of 
God, directly obtained, through spiritual intercommunion, 
and proceeds therefrom to a study and explanation of phe- 

But Xenophanes his theosophy, or divine philosophy, is 
most fully declared by Simplicius. 

Cudtcorth, Intellectual System, p. 377. 

Theosophy is distinguished from mysticism, speculative 
theology, and other forms of philosophy and theology, to 
which it bears a certain resemblance, by its claims of direct 
divine inspiration, immediate divine revelation, and its 
want, more or less conspicuous, of dialectical exposition. 
It is found among all nations Hindus, Persians, Arabs, 
Greeks (the later Neo-Platonism), and Jews (Cabala) and 
presents itself variously under the form of magic (Agrip- 
paof Nettesheim, Paracelsus),or vision (Swedenborg, saint 
Martin), or rapt contemplation (Jacob Boehme, Oettinger). 
Scha/-Herzog, Encyc., p. 2348. 

The philosophies or theoeophies that close the record of 
Greek speculation. E. Caird, Philos. of Kant, p. 17. 

It is characteristic of theosophy that it starts with an ex- 
plication of the Divine essence, and endeavours to deduce 
the phenomenal universe from the play of forces within 
the Divine nature itself. Encyc. Brit., XXIII. 278. 

Theosophy is but a recrudescence of a belief widely pro- 
claimed in the twelfth century, and held to in some form 
by many barbaric tribes. Amer. Jour. Psychol., I. 546. 

theotechnic (the-o-tek'nik), a. [< theotechn-y 
+ -ic.] Of or pertaining to the action or inter- 
vention of the gods; operated or carried on by 
or as by the gods. 
Erring man's theotechnic devices. 

Piazzi Smyth, Pyramid, p. 5. 

The theotechnic machinery of the Iliad. Gladstone. 

theotechny (the'o-tek-ni), n. [< Gr. feof, god, 
+ rtxvi/, art: see technic.~\ In lit., the scheme 
of divine intervention; the art or method of 
introducing gods and goddesses into a poetical 

The personages of the Homeric Theotechny, under which 
name I include the whole of the supernatural beings, of 
whatever rank, introduced into the Poems. 

Gladstone, Juventus Mundi, vii. 

theotheca (the-o-the'ka), n. [NL., < Gr. 8e6$, 
god, + $7107, receptacle.] In the Horn. Cath. 
Ch., same as monstrance. [Rare.] 

TheotocOS (the-ot'o-kos). n. [< LGr. feoroKOf, 
bearing God, mother of God, < Gr. Se6f, god, + 
Tixretv, TfKftv, bring forth, engender.] The mo- 
ther of God : a title of the Virgin Mary. Also 

theowt, . A Middle English variant of thetr 1 . 

thert, tuli'. A Middle English form of there. 

theraboutent, </' A Middle English form of 
t/icri'tiboiit. Chaucer. 

theragaint, adv. A Middle English form of 
thereayain. ( 'liaueer. 


theralite ahor'a-lit), w. See 

tberapeusis (thet-*-pfl'l), . [NL.,< <!r. <>>- 

pajrti'iir, cure : x-c tin i -n/H-ii/ic. ] Therapeutics. 
Therapeutae (tlicr -;i -pu'tc), . />!. [NL., < <!r. 
Hi fHt-eiTiK, an attendant, ii servant: see tin ni 
/M'Hlic.] According toanrienl tradition. ;i mys- 
tic ami ascetic Jewish sect in Kgypt, of the first 

therapeutic (tlii-r-a-pn'tik). u. and . [= F. 

tin rii/u iilii/iir = Sp. trm/ii'-iitim = I'g. t/n rii/irii- 
licn = [t. li-riijii iiiii'ii,^ XI,. ilii'rn/ii i/lh'us, curing, 
healing (I'eiii. tin rn pruln'/i, sc. cx), < (ir. 6epa- 
miT/t,iu- (t'em. // tli/at-i I-TIKI/, the art of medicine), 

< llepa-ii'T'/r, ono who waits on another, an atten- 
dant. < tliiMwhir, wait on, attend, serve, cure, 

< tlrpairue, an attendiint, servant.] I. a. Cura- 
tive; pertaining to the healing art; concerned 
in discovering and applying remedies for dis- 
eases. Also therapeutical. 

Theratieutick or curative physfck we term that which 
restored] the pntient unto sanity, anil taketh away diseases 
actually affecting. Sir T. Browne, Vulg. Err., iv. 13. 

All his profession would allowe him to be an excellent 

anatumivt, but I never heard any that admired his Hum- 

"' MTI.V. Aubrey, Lives (William Harvey). 

II. n. [//>.] One of the Therapeutse. Pri- 

il> tln.r. 

therapeutics (ther-a-pu'tiks), . [PI. of tli.;-,i- 
lii 'tit if, (see -ic*).] That part of medicine which 
relates to the composition, the application, 
and the modes of operatiou of the remedies 
for diseases. It not only Includes the adminlstmiinn 
of medicines properly so called, hut also hygiene and die- 
tetics. or tin: application of diet and atmospheric and other 
non-medicinal influences to the preservation or recovery 
of health. 

therapeutically (ther-a-pu'ti-kal-i), adv. In a 
therapeutic manner; in respect to curative 
qualities; from the point of view of therapeu- 

therapeutist (ther-a-pu'tist), w. [< tHerai-i<- 
t( /r.x) + -int.} One who is versed in the theory 
or practice of therapeutics. Also therapist. 

theraphose (ther'a-fos), . and a. [< P. thfra- 
/iliour (NL. Therai>hosa, neut. pi.), appar. < Gr. 
Hi/pi'upiw, a dim. of (h//>iov, a wild beast.] I. 
H. One of a division of spiders instituted by 
Walckenaer, containing large quadripulmonary 
spiders which lurk in holes, as the mygalids and 
the trap-door spiders; any latebricole spider 
(see Latebrleolm). This division corresponds to the 
genus Mygale in a former broad sense, and to the modern 
Tetrapneumona (which see). 

II. (i. Noting a spider of the group above de- 

therapist (ther'a-pist), w. [< therap-;/ + -int.] 
S.-i me as lln rn/>i -iitixt. Medical ffeirn, XLIX. 510. 

therapod (ther'a-pod), a. and . An erroneous 
form of iheropdil. 

Therapon (ther'a-pon), n. [NL. (Cuvier and 
Valenciennes, 1829), < Gr. otp&xuv, an atten- 
dant, servant.] The typical genus of the fam- 

ThcrafoH /Ac,//-. 

ily Thentitonitla, containiug such species as T. 

Theraponidae(ther-a-pon'i-de), n.pL [NL. (Sir 
J. Richardson, 1848), < Therapon + -id*.] A 
family of percoideous acanthopterygian fishes. 
represented by the genus Tkerafon and related 

theraponoid (the-rap'o-noid), a. and n. [< 
Tlii-rii/ioii + -old.] I. <t. Resembling a fish of 
the genus Therapon ; of or pertaining to the 

II. >i. Any 7iiember of this family. 

therapy (ther'a-pi), n. [= P. theranie, < Gr. 
(>>t><i-t;H, a waiting on, service, < f)epa-mn, 
serve, iitienil: see tliii;i/H-ntic.] The treatment 
of disease; therapeutics; therapeusis: now used 
chiefly in compounds: as, ncuroM<T;>y. 

therbefornet, <idr. A Middle English form of 
therein inf. 

there (inar), adr. and roiij. [< ME. tin;;, tlnr, 
tlnu; . linn: tliorr. < AS. Iliifr. tin;' OS. tln'ir = 
OFries. ther, der = MD. daer. D. dmir = Ml-C. 
dar. LG. tl,,ir = OHU. <t,ir. MHG. <lf,r, <l. (I. 
da (dar-) = Icel. thar = Sw. der = Dan. di-r = 


< i< it \\.thnr (for the expected *ther), there, in tlmt 
place ; orig. a locative form (nearly like the dat. 
and instr. fern. sing, theere) of the pronominal 
stem *tha, appearing in the, that, etc., also in 
tlii'ii, etc. Cf. here 1 , ichere ; Skt. tarhi, then, 
knrhi, when. In comjp. there is the adverb 
in its literal use, or, in tlnnin. llnTefor, etc., 
in a quasi-pronominal use, therein being ' in 
that (sc. place),' thereby being 'by that (sc. 
means),' etc. There is therefore explained by 
some as really the dat. fern. sing, of the AS. def. 
art., but such use of a fern, form (instead of 
the expected neuter), in such a way, is unex- 
ampled ; and the explanation cannot apply to 
the similar elements here- and where- as used 
in composition.] I. adr. 1. In or at a definite 
place other than that occupied by the speaker ; 
in that place ; at that point : used in reference 
to a place or point otherwise or already indi- 
cated or known: as, you will find him there 
(pointing to the particular place) ; if he is in 
Paris, I shall see him there. It is often opposed to 
here, there generally denoting the place more distant ; but 
in some cases the words when used together are employed 
merely In contradistinction, without reference to near 
ness or distance. 

Stand thou there, or sit here under my footstool. 

Jas. ii. 3. 

You have a house 1' the country ; keep you there, sir. 

Fletcher, Loyal Subject, i. 8. 
All life Is but a wandering to find home; 
When we are gone, we're there. 

Ford andDeUrer, Witch of Edmonton, Iv. 2. 

Of this the it,, r, born Emperour Adrian received his 
name. Sandys, Travailes, p. '. 

Darkness there might well 
Seem twilight here. Milton, P. L., vi. 11. 

2. Into that place ; to that place; thither: af- 
ter verbs of motion or direction : as, how did 
that get there t I will go there to-morrow. 

My heart stands armed in mine ear, 
And will not let a false sound enter there. 

Shak., Venus and Adonis, 1. 780. 
There was Lord Belfast, that by me past 
And seemed to ask how should I go there f 

Thackeray, Mr. Molony's Account of the Ball. 

3. At that point of progress ; after going so far 
or proceeding to such a point : as, you have said 
or done enough^ you may stop there. 4. In that 
state or condition of things ; in that respect. 

To die, to sleep -. 
To sleep : perchance to dream : ay, there 's the rub. 

Shak., Hamlet, III. 1. c,:.. 
Mary. Of a pure life* 

Kenard. . . . Yea, by Heaven . . . You are happy in 
him there. Tennyton, Queen Mary, I. 5. 

5. Used by way of calling the attention to 
something, as to a person, object, or place : as, 
there is my hand. 

Some wine, within there, and our viands ! 

Shale., A. and C, ill. 11. 73. 

6. Used as an indefinite grammatical subject, 
in place of the real subject, which then follows 
the verb, increased force being thus secured : 
so used especially with the verb to be : as, 
there is no peace for the wicked. 

A Knight thtr tnu, and that a worthy man. 

Chaucer, Gen. Prol. to C. T., 1. 43. 
And God said, Let there be light ; and there wu light. 

Gen. I. 3. 
There appears a new face of things every day. 

Bacon, Political Fables, ix., Eipl. 
There seems no evading this conclusion. 

U. Spencer, Social Statics, p. 433. 

7. Used like that in interjectional phrases: 
such as, there's a darling! there's a good boy! 

Grandam will 

Give it a plum, a cherry, and a fig : 
There 's a good grandam ! 

Shak., K. John, U. 1. 1S. 
Do your duty, 
There 's a beauty. 

W. S. Gilbert, Fairy Curate. 
8t. Thfnc.-. 

For in my paleys, paradys, in persone of an addre, 
Falsellche thow fettest there thynge that I lotted. 

Fieri I'lmcman{B), rriU. 384. 

All there. See all. Here and there. See here*. 
Here by there*, here and there. Spenter. Neither 
here nor there. See Awei. That . . . there, a collo- 
quial pleonasm intended to emphasize the demonstrative 
use of that before Its noun : as, that man there. In Illiterate 
speech the noun is often transposed after there: as, that 
there boy. To get there, to succeed in doing something ; 
be successful. [Slang. ) 

II. t roiij. (;</. adr.) Where. 

For I herde onys how Conscience it tolde. 
That there a man were crystened by kynde he shulde be 
buryed. Piert Ploirman (B\ xl. 86. 

She is honoured over al Iher she froth. 

Chaucer, Prol. to Wife of Bath's Tale, 1. -287. 
There come is, sette hem XV foote atwene, 
Anil XXVthn. as I:m.l.- is lene. 

I'alladiui, Hllsbondrie (E. E. T. .\ p. 77. 


there (THSr), inter/. [By ellipsis from see there, 
Inn/; there, go there.~\ Used to express: (a) Cer- 
tainty, confirmation, triumph, dismay, etc. : as, 
therel what did I tell youT 

Let them not triumph over me. Let them not say in 
their hearts. There .' there! so would we have It. 

Boot / Commun frayer, Psalter, Pa. xxxv. 26. 

Why, there, there, there, there! a diamond gone, cost me 

two thousand ducats! Shak., M. ofV., iii. 1. 87. 

(6) Encouragement, direction, or setting on. 

Enter divers spirits, in shape of dogs and hounds, and 
hunt them about. . . . 

Prof. Fury, Fury ! there, Tyrant, then! hark! 

Shak., Tempest, Iv. 1. 267. 

(c) Consolation, coaxing, or quieting, as in 
hushing a child: as, there! there! go to sleep, 
thereabout (TuSr'a-tKmt/)* adr. [< ME. there- 
ulinutr. tin rii/iniilt', ihiirahnutr ; < there + about.] 
If. About that; concerning that or it. 

Er that I go 
What wol ye dine? I wol go thereaboute. 

Chaucer, Summoner's Tale, 1. 129. 
And they entered In, and found not the body. . . . And 
It came to pass, as they were much perplexed thereabout, 
behold, two men stood by them In shining garments. 

Luke xxlr. 4. 

2. Near that place; in that neighborhood. 

He frayned. as he ferde, at frekec that he met, 
If thay hade herde any karp of a knygt grene. 
In any grounde thar-abm/te, of the grene chapel. 
Sir Gatmyne and the Green Knight (E. E. T. S.), L 70S. 

3. Near that number, quantity, degree, or time : 
as, a dozen or thereabout; two gallons or there- 
about. In this and the last sense also tin ,- - 

There Is a lake of fresh water three myles In compasse, 
In the midst an Isle containing an acre or thereabout. 

Quoted In Copt. John Smith't Works, L 106. 

thereabouts (THar'a-bouts'), adr. [< thereabout 
+ adv. gen. -.] Same as thereabout, 2 and 3. 

Some weeke or thereabout. 

Ueywood, Fair Maid of the West (Works, ed. 1874, II. 275). 
She could see the Interior of the summer-house. . . . 
Clifford was not thereabout*. 

Hawthorne, Seven Gables, xvl. 

thereafter (?Har-af ter), adv. K ME. therefter, 
tharafter (= OS. tharafter = OFries. therefter, 
derefter = D. daarachter = 8w. Dan. derefter); 

< there + after.'] If. After that ; after them. 

Wol he have pleynte or teres or I wende? 
I have yuogh, If he therefter sende. 

Chaucer, Trollus, iv. 861. 

2. After that; afterward. 

And whan thow hast thus don, departe for god, and for 
thy soule all thy tresuur, for thow malste not longe thrr- 
after lyven. Merlin (E. E. T. S.), L 92. 

And all at once all round him rose in fire, . . . 
And presently thereafter follow'd calm. 

Tennyion, Coming of Arthur. 

3. According to that; after that rule or way; 
after that sort or fashion ; accordingly. 

The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom ; a 
good understanding have all they that do thereafter. 

Book of Common Prayer, Psalter, Pa. cxi. 10. 

Well perceavlng which way the King enclin'd, every one 
thereafter shap'd his reply. Milton, Hist. Eng., IT. 

4t. According. 
Shal. How a score of ewes now ? 

Sil. Thereafter as they be ; a score of good ewes may be 
worth ten pounds. Shak., 2 Hen. IV., 111. 2. 56. 

Tell me, If food were now before thee set, 
Wouldst thou not eat? Thereafter as I like 
The giver, answer'd Jesus. Milton, P. R., It. 321. 

thereagaint, adv. [< ME. theragayn, theragen, 
theron $sen ; < there -f- again.'] Thereagainst. 

Wlthouten hym we have no myght certeyn, 
If that hym list to stonden theraoat/n. 

Chaucer, Friar's Tale, 1. 190. 

thereagainst (THar'a-gensf ), adr. [< ME. I her- 
aijaines; < there + against.] Against it; in op- 
position to it. 

God ti/;i. lictli us how fearful a thing It Is to wound our 
conscience and do anything thereagainit 

J. Bradford, Letters (Parker Soc,, 1853X II. 126. 
Its ends are passed through the side pieces of the frame 
and tightened thereagainit ny nuts. 

C. T. Davit, Bricks and Tiles, p. 229. 

thereamong (THar' a-mung'), adt. [< ME. t her- 
among; < there + among.] Among them. 
Spread the slow smile thro' all her company. 
Three knights were thereamong; and they too smiled. 
Tennyton, Pelleas and Ettarre. 

thereanent (THar'a-nenf), adr. [< there + 
uncut.] Concerning that; regarding or respect- 
inir that matter. [Scotch.] 

thereast (<FHar-az').ooj. [< ME. thereas, theras; 

< there + o*l.] Where. 

And there at I haue doone A-mys, 

Mercy. Ihesn, I wylle Amende. 

Political Poemt. etc. (ed. Furnivall), p. 188. 
Whanne he was come thrr at she was, 
Myrabell came. Uenerydet (E. E. T. S.), 1. 790. 


thereat (THar-af), wit. [< ME. tlierat, there- 
ate; < there + at.] 1. At that place. 

Wide is the gate, and broad is the way, that leadeth to 
destruction, and many there be which go in thereat. 

Hat. vii. 13. 

2. At that time ; upon that. 

Thereat once more he moved about. 

Tennyson, Passing of Arthur. 

3. At that thing or doing; on that account. 
Every error is a stain to the beauty of nature ; for which 

cause it blusheth thereat. Hooker. 

Bending his sword 

To his great master ; who, thereat enraged. 
Flew on him. Shale., Lear, iv. 2. 75. 

thereaway (THar'a-wa*), ad. [< there + away.'] 

1. From that place or direction; thence. 

D'ye think we dinna ken the road to England as weel as 
our fathers before us? All evil conies out o' thereaway. 
Scott, Black Dwarf, viii. 

2. In those parts; there; thereabout. [Col- 

There be few wars thereaivay wherein is not a great 
number of them [Zapolets] in both parties. 

Sir T. More, Utopia (tr. by Robinson), ii. 10. 

therebefore (THar'be-for'), adv. [< ME. therU- 
foore, therbifore, therbeforne; < there + before.] 
Before that time ; previously. 

To hym gaf I al the lond and fee, 
That ever was me geven therbtfoore. 

Chaucer, Prol. to Wife of Bath's Tale, 1. 631. 

thereby (THar-bi'), adv. [< ME. therby, therbi 
(= OFries. therbi = D. daarbij = MLG. darin = 
G. dabei) ; < there + byl.] 1. By that ; by that 
means; in consequence of that. 

By one death a thousand deaths we slay ; 
There-by we rise from body-Toomb of Clay ; 
There-by our Soules feast with celestiall food ; 
There-b'y we com to th' heav'uly Brother-hood. 
Sylvester, tr. of Du Bartas's Weeks, ii., The Decay. 

2. Annexed to that ; in that connection. 

Quick. Have not your worship a wart above your eye? 
Fent. Yes, marry, have I ; what of that? 
Quick. Well, thereby hangs a tale. 

Shak., M. W. of W., i. 4. 159. 

3. By or near that place ; near that number, 
quantity, or degree. 

Therby ys an other howse that sumtyme was a fayer 
Churche of Seynt Anne. 

Torkington, Diarie of Eng. Travell, p. 31. 
I ... found a chapel, and thereby 
A holy hermit in a hermitage. 

Tennyson, Holy Orail. 

therefor (THar-for'), adv. [< ME. therefor; a 
form of therefore, now used only as if a modern 
formation, < there + for, for that: see there- 
fore.] For this or for that ; for it : as, the build- 
ing and so much land as shall be necessary 

therefore (in defs. 1, 2, 3, THar-for'; in def. 4, 
THar'for, sometimes THer'for), ado. [< ME. 
therfore, therfor, tharfore, thorfore, tliorvore (= 
OFries. therfore (= D. daarvoor = MLG. dar- 
vore = G. da fur = Sw. derfor = Dan. derfor); < 
there + fore. Cf. therefor.] If. For that; for 
this ; for it ; therefor. 

Also, that alle the costages that be mad aboute hym be 
mad good of the box, gif he were nat of power to paie 
therfore hymself. English Oitds (E. E. T. S.), p. 7. 

We fetched her round at last. Thank the Lord there- 
fore. Tennyson, Queen Mary, iv. 3. 

2f. In return or recompense for this or for that. 
We have forsaken all, and followed thee ; what shall 
we have therefore' Mat. xix. 27. 

An if I could [tell], what should I get therefore' 

Shak., M. N. D., iii. 2. 78. 

3f. For that purpose or cause. 

The! anoynten here Hondes and here Feet with a juyce 
made of Snayles and of othere thinges, made therfore. 

MandevUle, Travels, p. 169. 

The! wende verily that fendes were fallen a-mong the 
hoste. But thel were so bolde and so chiualrouse that 
ther-fore thei wolde not be discounted. 

Merlin (E. E. T. S.), iii. 625. 

4. For this or for that reason ; on that account : 
referring to something previously stated ; con- 
sequently; by consequence. 

In Normandy there's little or no Wine at all grows, 
therefore the common Drink of that Country is Cyder. 

Howell, Letters, ii. 64. 

I have married a wife, and therefore I cannot come. 

Luke xiv. 20. 

The largeness of this short text [Render therefore to all 
men their dues] consists in that word therefore ; therefore 
because you have been so particularly taught your par- 
ticular duties, therefore perform them, therefore practise 
them. Donne, Sermons, ix. 

He blushes ; therefore he is guilty. Spectator. 

Line for line and point for point, your dominion is as 
great as theirs, though without flne names. Build, there- 
fore, your own world. Emerson, Nature, p. 92. 
= Syn. 4. Therefore, Wherefore, Accordingly, Consequently, 
Then, So. All these words draw a conclusion or infer 


a consequence from what immediately precedes; they 
are all affected by their derivation or original mean- 
ing. Therefore, for this or that reason, on that account ; 
wherefore, for which reason, on which account. There- 
fore is the most formal of the words, and is consequently 
most used in mathematics, logic, and elaborate argument. 
The use of wherefore for therefore is not to be commended, 
as it is considered a Latinism to use a relative pronoun or 
its derivative for a demonstrative or its derivative in car- 
rying on a thought ; the development of this principle is 
modern, and gives to the demonstrative use of wherefore 
a tone of quaintness. Accordingly and consequently are 
more common in essay and narrative writing ; then and 
so in conversation, where brevity is most studied. The 
last four are more used to indicate practical sequences. 
therefrot (THar-fro'), adv. [< ME. therefro; < 
there + fro.] From that. 

And hudden [hid] here egges whan thei there-fro wente, 
For fere of other foules. Piers Plowman (B), xi. 345. 

therefrom (THar-from'), adv. [< ME. therfram, 
tliarfrom ; < there + from.] From that. 

Analytical reasoning is a base and mechanical process, 
which takes to pieces and examines, bit by bit, the rude 
material of knowledge, and extracts therefrom a few hard 
and obstinate things called facts. 

T. L. Peacock, Nightmare Abbey, vi. 

theregaint, adv. [ME. thergeyn, thorgen, ther- 
ien ;< there + gtiinS. Of. thereagain.] There- 


If men wolde thergeyn appose 
The nakid text and lete the glose. 

Rom. of the Rose, 1. 6555. 

theregatest, adv. [ME. ther-gatis; < there + 
gate' 2 ' + adv. gen. -es.] In that way. 
A seede that vs sail saue, 

That nowe in blisse are bente. 
Of clerkis who-so will crane, 
Thus may ther-gatis be mente. 

York Plays, p. 95. 

therehencet (mar -hens'), adv. [< there + 
hence.] From that place, or from that circum- 
stance ; thence ; also, on that account. 

Hauing gone through France, hee went therehence into 

Egypt. Hakluyt's Voyage*, II. 4. 

Therehence, they say, he was named the son of Amlttai. 

Bp. John King, On Jonah, p. 9. 

therein (THar-in') ; adv. [< ME. therinne, ther- 
ynne, thssrinne, thrinne, thrin, < AS. tharinne (= 
OS. tharinna = OFries. therin = D. daarin = 
MLG. darinne = MHG. darin, drln,_G. darin = 
Sw. dentine = Dan. derinde), < tliser, there, + 
inne, in: see there 1 and in 1 .] 1. In that place, 
time, or thing. 

And [ I ] sawe a toure, as ich trowede, truth was ther-ynne. 
Fieri Plmvman (C), i. 15. 

To thee all Angels cry aloud ; the Heavens, and all the 
Powers therein. Book of Common Prayer, Te Deum. 

2. In that particular point or respect. 

Therein thou wrong'st thy children mightily. 

Shak., 3 Hen. VI., iii. 2. 74. 

thereinafter (THai-in'af'ter), adv. [< therein 
+ after.] Afterward in the same document; 
later on in the same instrument. 

thereinbefore (THar-in'be-f or'), adv. [< there- 
in + before.] Earlier in 'the same document; 
at a previous point in the same instrument. 

thereinto (THar-in'to), adv. [< there + into.] 
Into that, or into that place. 

Let them which are in Judsea flee to the mountains ; 
. . . and let not them that are in the countries enter 
thereinto. Luke xxl. 21. 

theremidt, adv. [ME. thermid, tharmid, thor- 
mid; < there + mid 2 .] Therewith. 

He bad Bette go kutte a bowh other tweye, 

And bete Beton ther-myd bote hue wolde worche. 

Piers Plowman (C), vi. 136. 

thereness (THar'nes), n. [< there + -ness.] The 
quality of having location, situation, or exis- 
tence with respect to some specified point or 

Could that possibly be the feeling of any special where- 
ness or thereness > W. James, Mind, XII. 18. 

thereof (THar-ov'), adv. [< ME. therof, there- 
offe, tharof(= OFries. therof '= Sw. Dan. deraf) ; 
< there + of.] 1. Of that ; of it. 

In that partie is a Welle, that in the day it is so cold 
that no man may drynke there ofe. 

Mandeville, Travels, p. 156. 

In the day that thou eatest thereof, thou shalt surely die. 

Gen. Ii. 17. 
2f. From that circumstance or cause. 

It seems his sleeps were hinder'd by thy railing, 
And thereof comes it that his head is light. 

Shak., C. of E., v. 1. 72. 

thereologist (ther-e-ol'o-jist), n. [< thereolog-y 
+ -ist.] One who is versed in thereology. 

thereology (ther-e-ol'o-ji), . [Irreg. < Gr. 
flepeiv for depairevav, serve, attend (the sick), + 
-~/j>-)ia, < teyetv, speak: see -ology.] The art of 
healing ; therapeutics. 

thereon (<SHar-on'), adv. [< ME. theron, tharon, 
theroite (= OFries. theroii, deron = I), dtiuratin 


= MLG. daran = OHG. darana, WRG.dar ane, 
G. daran); < there + on 1 .] On that. 

Lyme and gravel comyxt thereon thou glide. 

Palladim, Husbondrie (E. E. T. S.\ p. 15. 
These arm'd him in blue amis, and gave a shield 
Blue also, and thereon the morning star. 

Tennyson, (jareth and Lynette. 

thereout (THar-ouf), adv. [< ME. theremite, 
thermite, therute; < -there + out.] 1. Out of 

Therefore fall the people unto them, and thereout suck 
they no small advantage. 

Book of Common Prayer, Psalter, Ps. Ixxiii. 10. 

2. On the outside; out of doors; without, 
[Obsolete or Scotch.] 

And alle the walles beth of Wit to hold Wil thereoute. 
Piers Plomnan (A), vi. 77. 

Voydeth your man, and let him be theroute. 

Chaucer, Canon's Yeoman's Tale, 1. 125. 

3f. In consequence of that ; as an outcome of 
that; therefore. 

And thereout have condemned them to lose their lives. 
Sir P. Sidney, Arcadia, iii. 

thereovert, adv. [< ME. therover, tharover (= 
D. daarorer = MLG. darover = G. dariiber = 
Sw. derofver = Dan. derorer) ; < there + over.] 
Over that. 

And over the same watir seynt Eline made a brygge of 
stone whiche ys yett ther over. 

Torkington, Diarie of Travell, p. 27. 

there-right (THar-rit'), adv. [< ME. there + 
right, adr.] 1. Straight forward. Halliwell. 
[Prov. Eng.] 2. On the very spot ; right there. 
SalliiceU. [Prov. Eng.] 

therese (te-res'), n. [So called from Maria 
Theresa (?).] A kerchief or veil of semi-trans- 
parent material, worn by women at the close 
of the eighteenth century. 

therethencet (THar-thens'), adv. [< ME. ther- 

thens; < there + thence.] Thence; from that. 

He ther-thens wende towarde Norbelande. 

Rom. of Partenay (E. E. T. g.), 1. 8350. 

therethorought (Tiiar-thur'd), adv. [< ME. 
therthorw, thsertlnirli, tharthurh ; < there + thor- 
ough.] Same as therethrough. 

Sorwe to fele, 
To wite ther-thorw what wele was. 

Piers Plowman (C), xxl. 231. 

therethrough ('fHar-thr8'), adv. [A later 
form of therethoroitgh, Cf. through 1 , thorough.] 
Through that; by that means. 

Ye maun be minded not to act altogether on your ain 
judgment, for therethrough comes sair mistakes. 

Scott, Heart of Mid-Lothian, xliii. 

Blowing air therethrough until the carbon is ignited. 

The Engineer, LXXI. 42. 

theretillt (THar-til'), adv. [< ME. ther til, ther- 
tille, thortil (= Sw. dertill = Dan. dertil); < 
there + tilP.] Thereto. 

It was hard for to come thertille. 

Rom, of the Rose, 1. 3482. 

thereto (THar-to'), adv. [< ME. therto, tharto 
(= OS. tharto = OFries. therto, derto = D. daar- 
toe = OHG. darasiio, tharazuo, MHG. darzuo, 
G. dazu); < there + to 1 .] 1. To that. 

As the euangelistwytuesseth whan we maken festes, 
We sholde nat clypie [invite] kynghtes ther-to ne no kyne 
ryche. Piers Plowman (C), xiii. 102. 

2. Also ; over and above ; to boot. 

A water ... so depe and brode and ther-to blakke. 

Merlin (E. E. T. S.), ii. 350. 
I would have paid her kiss for kiss, 
With usury thereto. Tennyson, Talking Oak. 

theretofore (THar'to-for'), adv. [< thereto + 
fore.] Before that time: the counterpart of 
heretofore. [Bare.] 

They sought to give to the office the power theretofore 
held by a class. N. A. Rev., CXLIII. 238. 

thereunder (THar-un'der), adv. [< ME. thtr- 
under, thorunder (= OS. tharundar = OFries. 
therunder = D. daaronder = MHG. drundei: 
G. darunter= Sw. Dan. derimder) ; < there + tin- 
der.] Under that. 

Those which come nearer unto reason find Paradise 
under the equinoctial line ; . . . judging that thereunder 
might be found most pleasure and the greatest fertility. 
Raleigh, Hist. World, I. iii. 7. 

thereunto (snar-un'tB), adv. [< there + unto.] 

Either St. Paul did only by art and natural industry 
cause his own speech to be credited ; or else God by mir- 
acle did authorize it, and so bring credit thereunto. 

Hooker, Eccles. Polity, iii. 8. 

thereupt, d". [ME. theriippe, thi-r/i/i/x', t 
< there + u/i.] Same as tlt<-n-u)>im. 

thereupon (?'Har"u-pou'),Of?t). [<ME. therupon, 
theruppon ; < there + upon.] 1. Upon that. 


And the coast shall be fur the remnant of the house of 
Juilah, they shall feed therriiin,n. Zcph. ii. 7. 

2. Ill consequence of lli:il : liy rc:iM>n (if that. 

Here is nlo fre<|iiei)tly Blowing a curtainc tall riant, 
whose stalke tieiiiK all <>ti. i mm n>il with a red rinde, Is 

n,,'l-' : lll,un tlTIIH-ll lllr 1V<1 WITtl. 

c<il,t. ./"/in Xiiu'tli, Works, II. 113. 

3. Immediately after that; without delay; in 
sequence, but not necessarily in consequence. 

The Hostages tire dflivcrfil up to K. Edward, who 
brought tltriii int Kn^lam! ; and thereupon King John is 
li'inniinibly conilut t ' 

Baiter, Chronicles, p. 12S. 

He '//' //'/<",( . . . without more ado sends him adrift. 
R. Clioate, Addresses, p. 400. 

Thereva (ther'e-va), . [NL. (Latreille, 1796), 
irreg. < Or. fhipci'etv, hunt.] The typical genus 
of the Tlicmitlif, containing medium-sized 
slender dark-colored flies. About 20 species are 
known in North America. 


Vyntariakt Is also nowe to make. 

What goode dooth It? His wyne, aysel [vinegar], or grape, 

or ryndi' of his scions yf that me take, 

The bite of every bcest me shall escape. 

I'nltadiun, liusboudrie (E. E. T. H.), p. lot). 

theriaca (tlie-ri'ii-kii), . Same as theriac. 
theriacal (tof-n'^qp), n. [< theriac + -al.] 
Pertaining to theriac ; medicinal. 

The virtuous [bezoar] Is taken from the beast that feed- 
eth upon the mountains, where there are theriacal herbs. 
/.-'./, Nat II 1st., | 49B. 

therial (the'ri-al), a. [< theri(ae) + -al] Same 
as theriac. 

therianthrppic (the'ri-an-throp'ik), a. [< Gr. 
ttypiov, a wild beast, + avOpuiroc,, man, + -ic.] 
Characterized by imagination or worship of su- 
perhuman beings represented as combining the 
forms of men and beasts. 

Purified magical religions, in which animistic ideas still 
play a prominent part, but which have grown up to a 

Therevidas (the-rev'i-de), . pi. [NL. (West- **"**"*>* polytheism. Kncyc. Brit., x sen. 

wood, 1840), < Thereva 4- -idee.] A family of Theridiidse (the-ri-di'i-de), n. pi. [NL.,< The- 

ridium + -idee.'] A family of retitelarian spi- 
ders, typified by the genus Theridmm. Most 
of them spin webs consisting of irregularly intersecting 
threads. Many species are known, and 19 genera are 
represented in Europe alone. 

Theridium (the-rid'i-um), n. [NL. (Walcke- 
naer, 1805), < (Jr. (h/pidtov, a little animal.] A 
genus of spiders, typical of the family Theri- 

Therina (the-ri'nS), n. [NL. (Httbner, 1816, as 
Therinia), t Gr. m/p, a wild beast.] A genus 
of geometrid 
moths, of the 
subfamily En- 
nominee, hav- 
ing the wings 
broad and 
slightly angu- 
lar and the 
male antennae 
plumose. The 
few species are 
ocherous or whit- 
ish In color. /' 
fervidaria Is com- 
mon throughout 

the northern Thtrlna /trviJarut, natural site. 

United States 

and Canada, and occurs as far south as Georgia, where its 
larva feeds on the snowdrop-tree. In the north it feeds 
on spruce. 

theriodont (the'ri-o-dont), a. and n. [Also 
therodont; < Gr. Oypiov. a wild beast, + OOOI'T 
(OOOVT-) = E. tooth.] I. a. Having teeth like 
a mammal's, as a fossil reptile ; specifically, of 
or pertaining to the order Theriodontia. 
II. n. A member of the Tlteriodontia. 

Theriodontia (the'ri-o-don'shi-S), [NL. : 
see theriodont.] An order of extinct Septilia, so 
called from the resemblance of the dentition 
in some respects to that of mammals. There was 
in some forms a large laniariform canine tooth on each 
side of each jaw. separating definable Incisors from the 
molar teeth. The head somewhat resembled a turtle's ; 
the vertebra were amphlcalous. the limbs ambulatory 
with well-developed pectoral and pelvic arches; the hu- 
merus had a supracondylar foramen. Many genera have 
been described from the Permian and Triassic of Africa, 
as Dicunodon, Cytwdraco, Tigrimtchut, and Galesaurus. 
The original application of the term has been modified by 
subsequent discoveries; it has become an inexact syn- 
onym of Therotnorpha, and has been used instead of Pely- 
cosauria. Also Theriodonta and Therudontia. See cut 
under Dicynodon. 

theriomancy (the'ri-o-man-si), n. [< Gr. (hipiov, 
a wild beast, + fiavreia, divination.] Divina- 
tion by observation of beasts. 

Theriomorphat (the'ri-o-m6r'fii), w. pi. [NL., 
neut. pi. of theriomorphus : see theriomorphous.] 
In Owen's system of classification, one of three 
suborders of Batrachia, contrasted with Ophio- 
morpha and Ichthyomorpha. See Theromorpha. 
Also Therimorpha. 

theriomorphic (the'rj-o-m6r'fik), a. [< Gr. 
6i/piov, a wild beast, + fioptpt/, form.] Having 
the form of a wild beast. Encyc. Brit., XVII. 
150. [Rare.] 

theriomorphous (the'ri-o-mdr'fns), a. [< NL. 
Otfriomorphus, < Gr. thipi6popfos, having the form 
of a beast, < (hipiov, a wild beast, + popQn, form.] 
1. Beast-like; resembling an ordinary quadru- 
ped or mammal : as, the theriomorphotus rept iles 
of the Permian period. 2. Specifically, of or 
pertaining to the Theriomorpha. 

theriopod (the'ri-o-pod), a. and n. Same as 

theriotomy (the-ri-ot'o-mi), n. [< Gr. Bqpiov, a 
wild beast, T -Topia, < rtpvtiv, ra/ieiv, cut.] The 
dissection of beasts; the anatomy of other ani- 
mals than man ; zotitomv. 

therlt, r. A Middle English form of 


therm't, ". Si-e llmrm. 

therm- (therm), . [In its old use, usually in 

plural lln-niiia, < OF. (and K.) tliirinrx = Sp. 

ti I-IHIIX = 1'g. llirniKiK = It. trrmr, pi., < L. 

tin mar, nl., < (!r. HI'II/UU, hot baths, pi. of 

predaceous flies resembling the Asilidee, but 
having the labium fleshy instead of horny. Their 
larvno live In earth and decaying wood, and are either 
carnivorous or herbivorous. The adult flies feed mainly 
upon other dlpters, for which they lie in wait upon leaves 
and bushes. About 200 species are known. They are 
sometimes called leaf-nosed flies. 
therewhilet (THar-hwir), adv. [< ME. ther- 
while, thenchyle; < there + while.} 1. Mean- 
while ; the while ; presently. 

Tin r-u'li ill- en tred in thre maydenes of right grete bewte, 
wher-of tweyne were ueces vn-to Agrauadaln. 

Merlin (E. E. T. 8.), Hi. 607. 
2. For that time. 

So have I doon in erthe, alias ther-whyle .' 
That certes ... he wol my gost exyle. 

Chaucer, A. B. C., L 54. 

therewhilest (?Har-hwilz'), adv. [< ME. ther- 
ichiles; as thercwhile + adv. gen. -es.] During 
the time; while. 

Therwhilet that thilke thinges ben idoon, they ne myhte 
nat ben undoon. Chaucer, Boethius, v. prose 6. 

therewith (THar-wiTH'), adv. [< ME. therwith 
(= Sw. dervid = Dan. derved) ; as there + with.] 

1. With that. 

He :mr 3ow fyue wittes 
For to worshepen hym ther-mth. 

Fieri Plowman (C\ II. 16. 

I have learned, in whatever state I am, therewith to be 
content. Phil. iv. 11. 

2. Upon that ; thereupon. 

"I take the privilege, Mistress Ruth, of saluting you." 
. . . And therewith I bussed her well. 

A'. It. Blacinnore, Lorna Doone, 1. 

therewithal (THar-wiTH-al'), adv. [Formerly 
also therewithall ; < there + withal.] It. With 
that; therewith. 

Knowing his voice, although not heard long sin, 
She sudden was revived therewithall. 

Spenter, F. Q., VI. xi. 44. 
2f. At the same time. 

I bewayle mine own vnworthynesse, and therewithal do 
set before mine eyes the lost time of my youth mispent. 
Oascaiyne, Steele Glas (ed. Arber), Ep. Ded., p. 42. 
Well, give her that ring, and therewithal 
This letter. ShaJc., T. G. of V., tv. 4. 90. 

3. Iii addition to that ; besides; also. 

He was somewhat red of Face, and broad Breasted ; short 
of Body, and therewithal fat. Baiter, Chronicles, p. 80. 
Strong thou art and goodly thereinthal. 

Tennyson, Gareth and Lynette. 

therft, a. See tharf. 

therfrot, therfromt, xdr. Middle English forms 
of therej'rn, therefrom. 

thergaint, adv. A Middle English form of there- 

theriac (the'ri-ak), a. and . [I. a. < L. theri- 
iii'im, < Gr. Or/puuiAf, of or pertaining to wild 
beasts, < dt/plov, a wild beast, a beast, animal, 
a poisonous animal, esp. a serpent, dim. (in 
form) of Qi/p, a wild beast. II. n. < ME. "therial't, 
Uriah; tariake,<. OF. tlieriaque, F. theriaque = 
Pr. tiriaea = Sp. teriaca, triaca = Pg. theriaga = 
It. teriaca,<. L. theriaca, ML. also teriaca, tiriarn, 
tyriai-ii, < Gr. fh/piaKr/ (sc. avritioTnt), an antidote 
against the (poisonous) bites of wild beasts, 
esp. serpents (neut. pi. OrjptaKa, sc. ^ap/iam, 
drugs so used\ fern, of 8r/ptaKoc,, of or pertaining 
to wild beasts : see I. The same word, derived 
through OF. and ME., appears as treacle, q. v.] 
I. .. Same as tlicrim-nl. 

II. ". A composition regarded as efficacious 
against the bites of poisonous animals ; par- 
ticuliirly, tlirriin-a .Imlriniuichi, or Venice trea- 
cle, which is a compound of sixty to seventy or 
more dnigs, prepared, pulverized, and reduced 
by the agency of honey to an electuary. 

heat, < mpfiof, warm (= L. formux, warm), < 
titpeiv, make hot or dry, burn, j If. Ahotbath; 
by extension, any bath or pool. 

O cleer Therna, 

If so your Wares be cold, what Is It warms, 
Nay, burns my hart? 
Sylveiter, tr. of Du Bartas's Weeks, II., The Trophies. 

2. In physics, a thermal unit, the water-gram- 
degree or (small) calory, the amount of heat re- 
quireil to raise one gram of water at its maxi- 
mum density through one degree centigrade. 

thermae (ther'me), [L., < Gr. Itl-p/itu, hot 
baths, pi. of Hi Jin n . heat: see ////'-'.] Hot 
springs or hot baths ; particularly, one of the 
public bathing-establishments of the ancient 
Greeks and Romans, which were universally 
patronized, and of which abundant remains 
survive, the chief of them in Home. The ancient 
battu were originally of the simplest character, but with 
the advance of time became, after the Periclean age, more 
and more luxurious. Among the Komans their use did 
not become general until toward the close of the repub- 
lic, but was a popular passion throughout the empire. In 
their fully developed form the Roman thermae were of great 
size and lavish magnificence, including dressing-rooms, 
reservoirs, basins of hot and cold water, hot-air chambers, 
court* for exercising, gardens for rest, lecture-rooms, li- 
braries, and every other elaboration of architecture and 
of luxury. See plan under bath' . 

thermal (ther'mal), a. [= F. thermal = Sp. 
termal = Pg. thermal = It. termale, < NL. 'tlier- 
malix, < Gr. "< /",. heat, pi. Ofpfiai, hot baths: see 
therm 2 .] 1. Of or pertaining to heat. 2. Of 
or pertaining to thermae. 

Next in splendour to the amphitheatres of the Romans 
were then- great thermal establishments: In size they 
were perhaps even more remarkable, and their erection 
must certainly have been more costly. 

J. Fergutton, Hist. Arch., I. 381. 

Thermal alarm, a name applied to a variety of sig- 
nals or alarms for Indicating a rise in temperature, as a 
hnt-l*'ariiuj alarm, a tejnptrature alarm, or a thermo-elec- 
tric alarm (see thermo-electric). Thermal analysis, the 
analysis of the radiation from any source, as the sun or 
an electric light, with a view to determining the relative 
intensity of the luminous and non-luminous rays or the 
distribution of heat in different parts of the spectrum. 
Thermal capacity, chemistry, equilibrium. See the 
nouns. Thermal equator, the line along which the 
greatest heat occurs on the earth's surface. It travels 
northward and southward through the year with the mo- 
tion of the sun, but, on account of the influence of the 
larger land-masses in the northern hemisphere, ft never 
mores more than a short distance Into the southern hemi- 
sphere except over Australia. Thermal springs, ther- 
mal waters, hot springs. See spring, 7. Thermal unit. 
See unit. 

thermally (ther'mal-i), adr. In a thermal man- 
ner; with reference to heat. 

therm-ammeter (ther-mam'e-ter), n. [< Gr. 
Sip/it/, heat,+ E. ammeter.] An instrument for 
measuring the strength of an electric current 
(in amperes) by means of the heat which it 

thermantidote (ther-man'ti-dot), n. [< Gr. 
fffpfil, heat,+ avriiorov. antidote : see antidote.] 
An apparatus used in India for cooling the air. 
It consists of a revolving wheel fitted to a window, and 
usually inclosed In wet tatties, through which the air Is 

Low and heavy punkahs swing overhead; a sweet 
breathing of wet khaakhas grass comes out of the tlirr- 
O. A. Mackay, Sir All Balm, p. 112. (Y-ilr and Bttrnell.) 

thermatology (ther-ma-tol'o-ji), n. [< Gr. 
6ep/a/, heat, + -Xoyw, < Myccv, speak : see -ology.] 
In med., the science of the treatment of dis- 
ease by heat, and specifically by thermal min- 
eral waters ; balneology. 

Thermesia (ther-me'si-S), w. [NL. (Httbner, 
1816), < Gr. 6fp/ui, heat: see therm.] A genus 
of noctuid moths, typical of the family Therme- 
siidee, comprising a number of slender geometri- 
form species, mostly from tropical regions. 

Thermesiida (ther-me-si'i-de), n. pi. [NL. 
(Guen6e, 1852), < Thermesia + -idee.] A large 
family of noctuid moths of the pseudodeltoid 
group, distinguished mainly by their non-angu- 
late wings. About 40 genera besides Thermetia hare 
been placed in this family, which Is represented in all 
parts of the globe except urope. 

thermetrograph (ther-met'ro-graf), n. Same 

as tliermometroi/raph. 
thermic (ther'mik), a. [= F. thermiaue } < Gr. 

Oipftjj, heat: see therm*.] Of or relating to 

heat; thermal: as, thermic conditions. Ther- 

mic anomaly. See anomaly. Thermic balance. Same 

as bolometer. Thermic fever, sunstroke. 
thermically (tlier'ini-kiil-i). mlr. In relation to 

or as affected by heat ; in a thermic manner. 



The cases hitherto reported hardly justify positive state- 
ments as to the exact situation of thermieaUy active 
nerves. Medical A'eics, LII. 567. 

thermidt, adr. A Middle English form of there- 

Thermidor (ther-mi-ddr'; F. pron. ter-me-d6r'), 
n. [< F. tliermidor, irreg. < Gr. Kp/iri, heat, + 
Sopov, gift.] The eleventh mouth of the French 
republican calendar (see calendar), beginning, 
in 1794, on July 19th, and ending August 17th. 

Thermidorian (ther-mi-do'ri-an), a. and n. [< 
F. thermidorieii ; as Thermidor + -i-an.] I. a. 
Of or pertaining to the Thermidorians. See II. 
II. . One of the more moderate party in the 
French revolution, who took part in or sympa- 
thized with the overthrow of Robespierre and 
his adherents on 9th Thermidor (July 27th), 

thermo-aqueous (ther"mo-a'kwe-us), a. [< Gr. 
dep/u?i, heat, + L. aqua, water:' see aqueous."] 
Of or pertaining to heated water, or due to its 

thermobarograph (ther-mo-bar'o-graf), n. [< 
Gr. Bf/j/ai, heat, + E. barograph."] An appara- 
tus combining a thermograph and a barograph 
in one interdependent instrument. 

thermobarometer (ther"mo-ba-rom'e-ter), n. 
[< Gr. Sspiiii, heat, + E. barometer.] 1. A ther- 
mometer which indicates the pressure of the 
atmosphere by the boiling-point of water, used 
in the measurement of altitudes. 2. A siphon- 
barometer having its two wide legs united by 
a narrow tube, so that it can be used either in 
its ordinary position as a barometer or in the 
reversed position as a thermometer, the wide 
sealed leg of the barometer then serving as the 
bulb of the thermometer. 

thermo-battery (ther'mo-bat'er-i), H. A ther- 

thermocautery (ther-mo-ka'ter-i), .. [< Gr. 
Bcpftr/, heat, + E. cautery.] A form of actual 
cautery in which the heat is produced by blow- 
ing benzin-vapor into heated spongy platinum 
on the inside of the cauterizing platinum-point. 

thermochemical (ther-mo-kem'i-kal), a. [< Gr. 
Oepfai, heat, + E. chemical.] Of or pertaining to 
thermochemistry, or chemical phenomena as 
accompanied by the absorption or evolution of 

thermochemist (ther-mo-kem'ist), . [< Gr. 
6cpfj.ii, heat, + E. chemist.] One who is versed 
in the laws and phenomena of thermochemis- 
try. Nature, XLIII. 165. 

thermochemistry (ther-mo-kem'is-tri), . [< 
Gr. Uipftn, heat, + E. chemistry.] That branch 
of chemical science which includes all the va- 
rious relations existing between chemical ac- 
tion and heat. 

thermochrose (ther'mo-kros), . Same as 

thermochrosy (ther'mo-kro-si), n. [< Gr. Bfpiai, 
heat, + xpuatf, coloring, < xpa&iv, touch, impart, 
tinge, color: see chromatic.] The property pos- 
sessed by radiant heat of being composed, like 
light, of rays of different refraiigibilities, vary- 
ing in rate or degree of transmission through 
diathermic substances. This property follows from 
the essential identity of the invisible heat-rays of rela- 
tively long wave-lengths and the luminous rays, or light- 
rays. Sometimes called heat-color. See radiation and 

thermo-COUple (ther'm6-kup"l), H. [< Gr. Btpfui, 
heat, + E. couple] A thermo-electric couple. 
See thermo-electricity. Philos. Mnq., 5th ser., 
XXIX. 141. 

thermo-current (ther'm6-kur"eut), n. [< Gr. 
ffep/ttl, heat, + E. current 1 .] The current, as 
of electricity, set up by heating a compound 
circuit consisting of two or more different 

thermod (ther'mod or -mod), n. [< Gr. Bepfiri, 
heat, + od 3 .] Thermic od; the odic or odyllic 
force of heat. See od s . Von Beichenbach. 

thermodynamic (ther"mo-di-nam'ik), a. [< Gr. 
Oepttq, heat, + 6vva/Mt;, power: see dynamic.] 
Relating to thermodynamics; caused or oper- 
ated by force due to the application of heat. 
Thermodynamic function. See function. 

thermodynamical (ther'mp-dl-nam'i-kal), a. 

[< thermodynamic + -al.] Of or pertaining to 
thermodynamics. Philos. Mag., 5th ser., XXVII. 

thermodynamically (ther // mo-di-nam'i-kal-i), 
adv. In accordance with the' laws of thermo- 
dynamics. Jour. Franklin Inst., CXXVIII. 467. 

thermodynamicist (ther"mo-di-nam'i-sist), n. 
[< thermodi/namic + -ist.] A student of ther- 
modynamics; one versed in thermodynamics. 


The mechanical equivalent of heat the familiar " J" 
of thennodynamicists. The Academy, Oct. 26, 1880, p. 273. 

thermodynamics (ther"mo-di-nam'iks), n. [Pi. 
of thermodynamic (see -ics).~] The general math- 
ematical doctrine of the relations of heat and 
elasticity, or of temperature, volume, pressure, 
and mechanical work. The consideration of moving 
forces, though suggested by the form of the word, does 
not enter into the subject to any considerable extent. 

Thermodynamics. In a strict interpretation, this branch 
of science, sometimes called the Dynamical Theory of 
Heat, deals with the relations between heat and work, 
though it is often extended so as to include all transfor- 
mations of energy. Either term is an infelicitous one, for 
there is no direct reference to force in the majority of 
questions dealt with in the subject. 

Tail, Encyc. Brit., XXIII. 283. 

Laws of thermodynamics. The first law is the propo- 
sition that a given amount of heat measured by the pro- 
duct of the absolute temperature, the mass heated, and 
its specific heat is equivalent to and correlated with a 
given amount of mechanical work measured by the pro- 
duct of a force (as the mass of a body multiplied by the 
acceleration of gravity) into a distance through which 
the point of application is driven back against the force. 
The second law is the proposition that heat tends to flow 
from a hotter to a colder body, and will not of itself flow 
the other way. 

The principle of the conservation of energy when applied 
to heat is commonly called the First Law of Thermody- 
namics. It may be stated thus: when work is transformed 
into heat, or heat into work, the quantity of work is me- 
chanically equivalent to the quantity of heat. Admitting 
heat to be a form of energy, the second law asserts that it 
is impossible, by the unaided action of natural processes, 
to transform any part of the heat of a body into mechani- 
cal work, except by allowing heat to pass from that body 
into another at a lower temperature. 

Clerk Maxwell, Heat, p. 152. 

thermo-electric (ther"mo-e-lek'trik), a. [< Gr. 
Kpfj-tl, heat, + E. electric.] ' Pertaining to ther- 
mo-electricity : as, thermo-electric currents. 
Thermo-electric alarm, an electrical apparatus de- 
signed to indicate the rise of temperature beyond a cer- 
tain desired point, as, for instance, to show when the 
bearings of shaftings are overheated, or when a room is 
too warm from overheating or in danger from fire. 
Thermo-electric couple. See thermo-electricity. Ther- 
mo-electric force, the electromotive force produced by 
a thermo-electric couple, or thermopile. Thermo-elec- 
tric height. See the quotation. 

The name " thermoelectric height "has been introduced 
to denote the element usually represented by the ordi- 
nates of a thermoelectric diagram. 

J. D. Everett, Units and Physical Constants, Pref., ix. 

Thermo-electric multiplier, the combination of a ther- 
mopile and a galvanometer as a 
set of apparatus for the measure- 
ment of differences of tempera- 
ture of radiant heat, etc. Ther- 
mo-electric series. See thermo- 

thermo-electrically (ther"- 
mo-e-lek'tri-kal-i), adv. In 
accordance with the laws of 
thermo-electricity. Encyc. 
Brit., VIII. 94. 
thermo-electricity (ther"- 
Tno-e-lek-tris'i-ti). n. [< Gr. 
ffep/ii/, heat, + E. electricity."] 
The electric current pro- 
duced in a circuit of two or 
more dissimilar metals, or 
in a circuit of one metal different parts of 
which are in dissimilar physical states, when 
one of the points of union 'is heated or cooled 
relatively to the remainder of the circuit; also, 
the branch of electrical science which treats of 
electric currents so produced. If, for example, a 
bar of bismuth and one of antimony are soldered toge- 
ther and the point of union is heated while their other 
extremities are connected by a wire, it is found that an 
electric current passes from bismuth to antimony, and 
through the wire from antimony to bismuth. Such a pair 
of metal bars is called a thermo-electric couple or pair, and 

it is found that the 
thermo - electromo- 
tive force, as it is 
called, is, for a cir- 
cuit composed of the 
same pair of metals, 
proportional to the 
difference of temper- 
ature between the 
hot and the cold 
junction. It is found, 
further, that it dif- 
fers for different metals ; and the list of the metals, ar- 
ranged in order according to the direction of the current 
generated, is called the thermo-electric series (analogous to 
the electromotive series in voltaic electricity) : for exam- 
ple, bismuth, lead, zinc, copper, iron, antimony. If more 
than one couple are employed, the whole electromotive 
force is the sum of the separate forces for the successive 
junctions. A number of couples of the same two metals 
joined together form a thermo-electric battery, or ther- 
mopile ; they are arranged so that one set of junctions can 
be heated while the other is kept cool. When connected 
with a delicate galvanometer, the thermopile can be used 
to detect and measure very small differences in tempera- 
ture, as especially small differences in radiant heat; for 
this purpose one end of the thermopile is generally coat- 

Thermo-electric Multi- 


ed with lampblack so as to absorb the heat incident upon 
it, and a cone of polished brass may be added to collect 
more heat. Thermo-electric couples give a comparatively 
low electromotive force, which has, however, great con- 
stancy if the two sets of junctions are kept at a uniform 
temperature. What is called the Peltier phenomenon or 
effect is the rise or fall of temperature at the junction of 
two different metals due to the passage of an electric 
current from one metal to the other across the junction. 
This thermal effect is distinct from the rise of tempera- 
ture due to the electrical resistance of the metals, and 
changes sign when the direction of the current across the 
junction is changed. 

thermo-electrometer (ther"mo-e-lek-trom'e- 
ter), n. [< Gr. Oipfi?/, heat, + E. electrometer.] 
An instrument for ascertaining the heating 
power of an electric current, or for determin- 
ing the strength of a current by the heat it pro- 

therm o-electromotive(ther"m6-e-lek-tro-m6'- 
tiv), a. [< Gr. 6ep/jr/, heat, + E. electromotive."] 
Pertaining to thermo-electricity Thermo-elec- 
tromotive force. Same as thermo-electric force (which 
see, under thermo-electric). 

thermo-element (ther"m6-ere-ment), n. A 
thermo-electric couple. See thermo-electricity. 

thermo-excitory (ther"m6-ek-si't9-ri), a. [< 
Gr. Oepfir/, heat, + E. excite + -ory.~] Causing 
the production of heat in the body. 

thermogent (ther'mo-jen), n. [< Gr. Bipfir/, heat, 
+ -yevi/f, producing: see -gen.] The fluid for- 
merly supposed to exist which was known as 
caloric (which see). 

thermogenesis (ther-mo-jen'e-sis), n. [< Gr. 
0?p[u;, heat, + yevfaif, production.] The pro- 
duction of heat; specifically, the production 
of heat in the human body by physiological 

thermogenetic (ther"mo-je-net'ik), a. Same 
as thermogenic. Boston Med. and Surg. Jour. 

thermogenic (ther-mo-jen'ik), n. [As therma- 
e/en + -ic.] Of or pertaining to the production 
of heat ; producing heat Thermogenic centers, 
nervous centers whose function is to stimulate the pro- 
duction of heat in the body. Thermogenic fibers, ner- 
vous fibers conveying impulses which increase the produc- 
tion of heat in the body. Thermogenic substance, a 
substance which is associated with the production of heat 
in the body. 

thermogenous (ther-moj'e-nus), a. [As ther- 
mogen + -os.] Producing heat. 

thermogram (ther'mo-gram), . [< Gr. 6tp/ai, 
heat, + ^pafifia, a mark, writing.] The record 
made by a thermograph. 

thermograph (ther'mo-graf), . [< Gr. Sepfiii. 
heat, T fp&ttiv, write.] An automatic self- 
registering thermometer. A variety of forms have 
been used, involving different principles and methods, 
(a) In the photographic method mercurial thermometers 
are used in the following manner : near the top of the 
mercury in the stem an air-bubble separates the column ; 
by the action of a system of lenses the light from a lamp 
passes through the air-bubble, and throws the image of 
the bubble on the surface of a revolving cylinder upon 
which is wrapped a sheet of sensitized paper; no other 
light except the ray passing through the bubble enters 
the dark chamber containing the cylinder, and a photo- 
graphic registration is therefore made of the oscillations 
of the mercury-column. (6) In the metallic thermograph 
the actuating instrument is a metallic thermometer whose 
indications are made to yield any desired degree of sensi- 
tiveness by a lever or levers which give motion to a re- 
cording pen. To an iron frame (see the cut) are fastened 
the thermometer-strips, the clock, the adjustments of 
the recording lever, and the perforated protecting case. 
The clock rotates a metallic disk once a week. A paper 
chart is fastened to the disk and rotates with it. The chart 
is divided into fourteen equal spaces, the dark spaces in- 
dicating night-time. These spaces are subdivided to 
indicate hours. The recording lever traces with an ink 
pen a line upon the paper chart, according as the metallic 
thermometer bends as affected by the heat or cold. The 

Thermo-electric Couple. 

thermometer is composed of two strips of metal of differ- 
ent expansibilities. The curve thus traced over the con- 
centric lines of the paper chart which indicate degrees 


enables the temperature at any time during the week and 
the rate of variation to )>< iici'iin.tdy determined, (c) In 
the electric ci HI t;u-t mcthml a mercurial thennometer hav- 
ing a LITHC bull) and an iMilurjjfd sicm lu^ tin- upper end 
uf the mi" li'i't "| n, :MJI| M linr ]il;ii i in nil win- is made to 
dt'M-riid in tin- tllhc by clockwork at rri;ul:ir inN-rvuls. 
When the win: num's in mntac-i witli tin- top of the mer- 
cury, an electric circuit isclnsril, and tin- distant'*' i* iv- 
gistercd which the platininn win; hus di-si-nidrd in <>nl<T 
to touch the mercury mirfucf. This nu'Miud JH used in 
the instruments of Huiigli and ^ci-chi (/) In UP- manom- 
eter thermograph the actuating instrument is an air- or 
gas-tliermumeter. The vr^s.-l r.nit:iiniiiK air is conn* rtrd 
by a line lulu- with a rrgistcriug apparatus, of which vaii- 
ous forms have been duvlned. Changes of temperature 
produce changes of pressm v in tin- inclosed gas, and these 
change* of pressure are tin- subject of measurement and 
registration. The scale of the thermogrtun is evaluated in 
degrees either by a theoretical formula or by actual com- 
parisons. The instruments of Schreiber and Sprung be- 
long to this class. () A still further form, not belonging 
strictly to any of the preceding classes, is illustntt. .1 b> 
the Kit hard thermograph. Its thermometer is a Bourdon 
tube tilled with alcohol, to which is attached a lever car- 
rying the registering pen. With a rise of temperature 
the differential expansion produces a change of shape of 
the tube, accompanied by a corresponding change in posi- 
tion of the lever and registering pen. A high degree of 
sensitiveness and consequent accuracy Is attained by this 

thermography (thfr-mog'ra-fl), . [< Or. 6epfui, 
heat, + -yfxuftia, < ypfyetv, write.] Any method 
of writing which requires heat to develop the 

thermo-inhibitory (thOr'mo-in-hib'i-to-ri), a. 
[< Gr. 0/v9. heat, + K. MWWtorjf.] Noting 
nerves whose function is to stop or inhibit the 
production of heat in the body. 

tnermojunction (ther'mo-jungk y shon), w. [< 
Gr. Oepfii?, heat, 4- K. j'tnrfiun.] The point of 
union of the two metals of a thermo-electric 

thermokinematics (ther-mo-kin-e-mafiks), n. 
[< Gr. Qepfity heat, + E. kinematics.] The theory 
of the motion of heat. See the quotation. 

The science of heat has been called Thennotics, and 
the theory of beat as a form of energy is called Thermo- 
dynamics. In the same way the theory of the equilib- 
rium of heat might be called Thermostatics, and that of 
the motion of heat ThennnHnfmaticn. 

Clerk Maxwell, Heat, Int., i. 9. 

thermology (ther-mol'o-ji), . [< Gr. Mppi, 
heat, + -Aova, < Wywv, speak: see -ology.] The 
science of heat. 

M. Le Com to terms it |the science of heat] Thermology. 
Whetoell, 1'hilos. of Induct. Sciences, I. p. Uxii. 



thermolysis (ther-mol'i-sis), M. [< Gr. 
heat, + /./'Off, loosening, dissolving.] 1. Same 

The heat supplied has the effect of throwing the mole- 
cule into such agitation that the mutual affinity of the 
atoms cannot retain them in union. This is the process 
of Dissociation or Thermolysis. 

A. Daniell, Prln. of Physics, p. 319. 

2. The dispersion of heat from the body, by 
radiation, conduction, evaporation, and the 
warming of excreta and dejecta. 

thermolytic (ther-mo-lit'ik), a. and M. [< ttter- 
molyxix (-////-) 4- -iV.] I, o. Of or pertaining 
to thermolysis, in either sense ; heat-discharg- 
ing. Med. Nines, LII. 393. 

II. n. A substance or agent having to do 
with the discharge of heat from the body. 

thermolyze (ther'mo-liz), r. t. ; pret. and pp. 
therinoly-eti, ppr. thermolyzing. [< thermolysis 
(ct. analyze).] To subject to thermolysis; dis- 
sociate by the action of heat. 

thermomagnetic (ther'mo-mag-net'ik), a. [< 
Gr. drpftt/, heat, + E. magnetic.] Pertaining to 
the effect of heat as modifying the magnetic 
properties of bodies. 

thermomagnetism (ther'mo-mag'net-izm), n. 
[< Gr. Oepf"/, heat, + E. maijnetiitm.] Magnet- 
ism resulting from, or as affected by, the ac- 
tion of heat. . 

thermometer (ther-mom'e-ter), . [= F. tlnr- 
mometrv = Sp. termometre, termtimetro = Pg. 
tin rmiiiiii tro = It. tcrniomctro = D. G. Dan. ther- 
mometer = S\v. termouietcr, < NL. "therniOHie- 
trnm. <Gr. Sip/ty, heat, + /icrpov, measure.] 1. 
An instrument by which the temperatures (see 
temperature and Iherminui try) of bodies are as- 
certained, founded on the common property 
belonging to all bodies, with very few excep- 
tions, of expanding with heat, the rate or 
quantity of expansion being supposed to be 
proportional to the degree of heat applied, and 
hence indit-ating that degree. The expanding 
substance may be a liquid, as mercury or alcohol : a gas, 
as in the air-thermometer (which see); or a solid, as 
in the metallic thermometer (see below). The ordinary 
thermometer consist* of a slender glass tube with a 
small bore, containing in general mercury or alcohol ; 
this expands or contracts by variations in the tempera- 
ture of the atmosphere, or on the instrument being 
brought into contact vvilh any other body, or being im- 
mersed in a liquid or gas which is to be examined, ami the 

ate of the atmosphere, the body, liquid, or gas, with re 
rd to lir:ii, is imliratnl l>y a -Mir cither ajiplinl to the 
tutu- or i n^iaved on its exterior surface. The thermom- 
eter was invented by Galileo at some date prior to Hill, 
and was developed by his pupils through the flrttt thirty 
"!' Ilie .seventeenth century. In Kill tin- H'-renl MH 
nhilosophers wen- u.sini; a thei inometer consisting of a 
finlb Illlrd with ak-nliu], with sealed stem, and graduated 
on the stem according to an arbitrary scale, of which the 
divisions were, approximately, fiftieths of the volume of 
the bulb. Sagredo adopted a scale uf 300 divisions, like 
tin- ^i adini i-Hi ni a rjfelr, and fixed the application of the 
word dtijree to the thenuometrlc spaces. No means of 
o.inpuring observations made with thermometers con- 
taining different fluids and of different manufacture were 
possible until Fahrenheit adopted a graduation between 
two fixed temperatures. For the zero of hib scale Fahren- 
heit adopted the lowest temperature observed by him In 
the winter of 17UU, and for his upper fixed point he took 
the temperature of the body, ana marked it 90. By this 
system of numeration the temperature of melting Ice be- 
came 32, and the boiling-point of water 212. This is the 
scale of the Fahrenhrit th- rnnniieter commonly used by 
English-speaking peoplesand in Holland. Del'Isle, about 
1730, first used the melting-point of ice and the boiling- 
point of water as the fixed points of the thermometric 
scale, and they gradually came to be universally accepted. 
In lifaumw't thermometer (formerly largely used lu Ger- 
many and Russia, but now being superseded) the space 
between the freezing-point and the boiling point of WL.UT 
Is divided into 80 equal parts, the zero being at freezing. 
In the centiyrade thermometer, used widely throughout 
Europe, and very extensively In scientific investigations 
everywhere, the space between the freezing-point and the 
boiling-point of water is divided into 100 equal parts or 
degrees, the freezing-point being zero and the boiling- 
point 100*. The absolute zero of temperature is the logi- 
cal beginning of a thermometric scale, but since ther- 
mometric temperatures are primarily relative, the zero- 
point Is arbitrary, and the Fahrenheit, Reaumur, and 
centigrade thermometers present the different systems 
of numeration that have come into use. The following 
formula; give the conversion of these scales : Let F, R, and 
C represent any temperature as given hy the three scales 
respectively, then F = R x f H 32 s = C x $ + 32. The 
xtaiulard mercurial thermometer consists of a slender 
tube with capillary bore hermetically sealed at the top, 
and terminating at its lower end In a bulb tilled with 
mercury. The melting-point of ice and the boiling-point 
of water at standard pressure are determined on the 
tube, and the intermediate space is subdivided Into equal 
parts. The graduations are extended above and below 
the fiducial points, and finally the tube is calibrated, and 
outstanding errors of the graduation are determined. 
Ordinary thermometers covering any desired small range 
of temperature are graduated by comparison with a stan- 
dard. For extreme degrees of cold, thermometers filled 
with spirit of wine must be employed, as no degree of cold 
known Is capable of freezing that liquid, whereas mercury 
freezes at about 39 below zero on the Fahrenheit scale. 
On the other hand, spirit of wine is not adapted to high 
temperatures, as It is soon converted Into vapor, where- 
as mercury does not boll till its temperature Is raised to 
660 F. Mercury thermometers designed for measuring 
temperatures up to 400 C. (752* F.^are made by filling the 
stem and an upper bulb above the stem with nitrogen. 
The mercury expands against the increasing pressure of 
the nitrogen, and its boiling-point is raised thereby. Tem- 
peratures higher than this limit are usually obtained with 
air- or steam- thermometers and other forms of pyrometer 
(which see). The air- (or ga#-)thennometer consists of a 
quantity of pure dry air or gas contained in a reservoir such 

used (1) the constant-pressure thennometer. in which the 
gas is maintained at constant pressure and its varying 
volume measured ; (2) the constant-volume t/iennometer, in 
which the Increase of pressure under constant volume is 
measured. This is the ordinary form in which the in- 
strument is used. For accuracy it is decidedly superior 
to the mercury thermometer, and has been adopted as 
the ultimate standard to which all other thermometers 
are referred. In the metallic thennometer, as generally con- 
structed, temperature is measured by the change in form 
of composite metal bars, due to their differential expansion 
(hence more properly called bimetallic thennometer). One 
of the early forms was that of Breguet, which consists of 
a fine spiral bar made of platinum, gold, and silver. One 
end of the spiral is fixed, the other end being connected 
with a simple mechanical device to convert the curving 
or torsion of the bar under changes of temperature into 
the movement of an index over a dial having a scale mark- 
ed In a circle upon it The same principle, with variations 
In the mechanical application, is now much used in the 
construction of thermographs. For indicating very slight 
variations of temperature a thermo-electric Junction or the 
bolometer is employed. 

The thennometer discovers all the small unperceivable 
variations in the coldness of the air. 

0toM0tj Essays, ill. (an. 1676). (Jlichardton.) 

2. Hence, figuratively, anything which (rough- 
ly) indicates temperature. 

These fixed animals [corals], and the reefs which they 
elaborate, are among the best of living thermometer*. 

Gill, Proc. Biol. Soc. of Washington, 1885, II. 35. 
Aspiration thermometer, one in which the tempera- 
ture of the air is obtained by drawing air in with a venti- 
lating-fan through a tube, and causing it to flow rapidly 
over a thermometer, or over wet- and dry-bulb thermom- 
eters, placed therein. This method, first described by 
I'.elli In 1837, has been followed and developed in the in- 
strument of Assmann. Attached thermometer, one 
fastened to the tube of a barometer for indicating the tem- 
perature of its mercury. Axilla thermometer. See 
axilla. Bl-metal thermometer, a thennometer com- 
posed of a bar of two metals or alloys, having different 
rates of expansion, brazed t<igether and sometimes lout 
into the form of a spiral. The compound bar Is fastened 
riirictly at one end, the other end being connected with a 
simple mechanical device to convert the curving or tor- 
sion of the bar under changes of temperature into the 


movement of an index over a dial having a scale marked 

ui It. Celsius thermometer, a therm 

duced by Celsius In 17ttti<and used to a limited extent), in 
whieh the zero of the scale was placed at the ten. |. en, tin, 
of lioiling water and UK/ at the taOMntafad melting 
Id , plus ( + ) and minus ( ) degrees In llBMplMffa < m 
peiatuiuH heini: thus avoided. This wan a centigrade 
eii!e, I, nt nut that of tie ntigrade theiiiniin 

eter, which was introduced by l.innMi. Centigrade 
thermometer, see d.f. i. Chromatic thermom- 
eter, an arrangement of glass plates, .li \i-.i! hy sir 
i>avld Itrewster, exhibiting the <litteicnee bet \se-n their 
temperature and that of an object with which they are 
brought In contact by the different hues of 1 1 
light produced In the plates. Chromo thermometer, 
an instrument used to raise the temperature of petro- 
leum at the rate of 20* In fifteen minutes : used for pur- 
poses of tenting. Clinical thermometer, a small maxi- 
mum self registering mercurial thermometer used in oh- 
taining the temperature of the body. In IU usual form the 
range of scale Is 25' F., or less, and graduation li carried to 
one fifth of a degree. A very sensitive clinical Instrument, 
called the hutf-iniiititt thermometer, has a bulb of small di- 
ameter and an extremely fine liore. in which the mercury 
is rendered visible by a lens-fronted stem. Conjugate 
thermometer. Same as differential thermometer. 
Deep-sea thermometer, a registering tbermomuUT 
used to ascertain the temperature of the sea at any depth. 
The Instrument consists of the thermometer proper set In 
a metallic frame. The form of thermometer now used U 
that of Negretti and Zambra. It consists of a mercury 
thermometer whose stem, of wide bore, terminates In a 
small pyrlform sac. The stem Is contracted and con- 
torted just above the bulb, and when the Instrument is In- 
verted, the mercury -column breaks at this point, and flows 
down into the tube, which is graduated in the inverted po- 
sition. An overflow-cell prevents mercury from the bulb 
from entering the stem if there is a rise of temperature. To 
protect it from pressure, the thermometer U hermetically 
sealed in a strong glass tube, the part of which surrounding 
the bulb contains a quantity of mercury secured by a ring 
of india-rubber cement. By means of mechanism In Its 
frame, the thermometer is made to turn over at any de- 
sired depth, and the temperature at the instant of Inversion 
remains recorded in the tube until the Instrument is read 
and reset. For small depths, the instrument is reversed 
by a weight which is sent down the sounding-line. For 
great depths, the reversal is effected by means of the rev- 
olution of a small propeller, which is set in motion by the 
water so soon as the thermometer is drawn upward. 
Deville's air-thermometer, a form of air-thermometer 
used for measuring very high temperatures the thermo- 
metric substance, the air, being contained in a porcelain 
bulb capable of resisting the heat of a furnace. Differ- 
ential thermometer, an instrument for measuring very 
small differences of temperature. The earliest form, In- 
vented and named by Sir John Leslie, consists of a I -shaped 
tube, each end of which terminates in a bulb. The bend 
of the tube contains a colored liquid : the upper parts of 
the tube and the bulbs are filled with confined air. When 
one of the bulbs Is at a higher temperature than the other, 
the liquid in the adjacent stem is driven down by the high- 
er pressure, and rises in the opposite branch. The differ- 
ence in height is proportional to the difference in ternpera- 
t ure of the two bulbs. The instrument is now used only as 
a thermoscope. Earth-thermometr, one designed for 
ascertaining the temperature of the ground at different 
depths. Three types have been employed (a) a ther- 
mometer of large bulb and very long stem, so that, al- 
though buried many feet in the ground, the top of the 
liquid column extends above the surface (temperatures 
at depths of twenty feet have been obtained by this); 
(b) an ordinary thermometer inclosed in a wooden tube 
and other non-conducting packings, which can be sunk 
to any desired depth, the temperature of the thermom- 
eter being assumed not to change during the short time re- 
quired to draw it up and make the reading ; (c) (1 ) thermo- 
electric junctions; (2) the electrical-resistance method. 
Electric thermometer, (a) An apparatus for mea- 
suring small differences of temperature, based on the ac- 
tion of a thermopile. See thenno-eltctricity. (6) A ther- 
mometer whose action is based on the variation of elec- 
trical resistance produced by changes of temperature In a 
metallic conductor. The difference in the resistance be- 
tween a current passing through a conductor of known 
and one of unknown temperature gives the difference 
of temperature between the two. Also called differen- 
tial -remittance thermometer. The most delicate form In 
which the principle is applied is the bolometer. Fah- 
renheit thermometer. See def. i. Kinnersley's, 
thermometer, an apparatus sometimes used to illus- 
trate the sudden expansion of air through which a dis- 
charge of high-potential electricity has taken place. It 
consists of two connected tubes partially filled with wa- 
ter ; the larger one contains above the water-surface two 
knobs, and when the spark Is formed between them the 
water is forced up to a higher level In the smaller tub. 
Maximum thermometer, one that registers the maxi- 
mum temperature to whicn it is exposed. Three types 
have come into use in connection with the mercurial ther- 
mometer, (a) The Rutherford maximum has a light mov- 
able steel Index at the top of the mercurial column. The 
tube is placed horizontal, and as the temperature rises 
the mercury pushes the index before it. When the tem- 
perature falls, the Index Is left in situ to mark the po- 
sition of the maximum. (6) In Phillips s maximum, a 
small bubble of air makes a break in the upper part of the 
mercurial column. When the temperature beginsto fall, 
the detached portion of the column is left behind to regis- 
ter the highest temperature, (c) The N'egrettl maximum 
has the bore of the tube partly closed by a constriction 
just above the bulb. In rising temperatures mercury Is 
forced from the bulb past the constriction, but when the 
temperature falls the mercury cannot readily return to 
the bulb, and the top of the mercurial column indicates 
the maximum temperature. In order to reset the ther- 
mometer to the current air-temperature, the mercury is 
forced back into the bulb by whirling the instrument on 
a swing-pin. This form of maximum is used at the sta- 
tions of the I'nited state:- Weather 1:111 can. -Mercury 
thermometer. See def. i. Metallic thermometer. 
See def. 1. Metastatlc thermometer, a very sensi- 
tive mercurial thermometer, having an apical cavity 


into which :uiy desired part of the mercury can be drawn 
off. This device enables the thermometer to be used over 
a wide range of temperature, and the scale to be gradu- 
ated to small fractions of a degree, without increasing the 
length of the stem. For each different state of the instru- 
ment, the temperature corresponding to some part of the 
scale must be determined by comparison with a standard 
thermometer. Methyl-butyrate thermometer, one 
in which the thermometric substance ia methyl butyrate. 
Sir William Thomson, Encyc. Brit., XI. 569. Minimum 
thermometer, a thermometer that registers the mini- 
mum temperature to which it is exposed. The alcohol 
minimum, devised by Rutherford in 1794, is now univer- 
sally used. The registration is effected by a light steel or 
glass index enlarged and rounded at the end, and wholly 
immersed in the column of alcohol. When the tempera- 
ture falls, the index is carried toward the bulb by the sur- 
face-tension at the end of the contracting liquid column, 
and when the temperature rises the alcohol flows around 
and past the index, leaving it to mark the lowest temper- 
ature. Optical thermometer, a thermometer proposed 
by Conm for the study of high temperatures, based on the 
principle that in certain crystals the amount of the rota- 
tion of the plane of polarization depends on the tempera- 
ture. As quartz can be submitted to a wide range of tem- 
perature, it is considered to be specially adapted for the 
application of this method in determining high tempera- 
tures. Overflowing or mercurial-weight thermom- 
eter 1 , a mercury-thermometer consisting of a bulb with a 
short piece of tine stem perfectly filled with mercury at 
C. Any higher temperature is determined by weigh- 
ing the quantity of mercury expelled, instead of by mea- 
suring it volumetrically, as in the ordinary mercurial stem- 
thermometer. Radiation thermometer. See terres- 
trial-radiation thermometer and solar-radiation thertnom- 
eter. Reaumur thermometer. See del. 1. Regis- 
tering thermometer, a self-registering thermometer; 
a maximum or minimum thermometer. Six's ther- 
mometer, a self-registering thermometer, invented by 
J. Six in 1781, combining in one instrument the registra- 
tion of maximum and minimum temperatures : for many 
years very widely used, but now generally superseded by 
separate maximum and minimum instruments. Sling- 
thermometer, a thermometer with which the tempera- 
ture of the air is obtained by whirling the instrument in 
the free air. The resulting rapid convection brings the tem- 
perature of the thermometer into close accordance with 
the temperature of the air. Solar-radiation thermom- 
eter, a thermometer for measuring the intensity of solar 
radiation. A form frequently adopted for this purpose is 
the blade-bulb thermometer in vacuo, first suggested by Sir 
John Herschel. It consists of a sensitive mercurial ther- 
mometer having the bulb and about an inch of the stem 
covered with lampblack. The whole is inclosed in a glass 
tube, of which one end is blown into a large bulb in the 
center of which is fixed the bulb of the thermometer, and 
the tube is then exhausted of air. The thermometer-bulb 
thus prepared absorbs all the solar heat that falls upon 
it, and loses none by convection. With the black-bulb 
thermometer there is frequently used a bright-bulb ther- 
mometer similarly incased. This has its bulb covered 
with polished silver, or some equivalent coating, which re- 
flects most of the radiation that falls upon it. The differ- 
ence between the readings of these two instruments is as- 
sumed to measure the intensity of solar radiation. Sub- 
marine thermometer. Same as deep-sea thermometer. 
Terrestrial-radiation thermometer, a minimum ther- 
mometer used to register the cooling of the earth's surface 
below the temperature of the air by nocturnal radiation. 
The bulb of the thermometer is generally shaped with 
special regard to obtaining a high degree of sensitiveness. 
Also called nocturnal-radiation thermometer. Upsetting 
thermometer, a form of mercurial thermometer devised 
by Negretti and Zambra for registering the temperature 
at any desired time. The registration is effected by in- 
verting the instrument, after which it remains unaltered 
until it is reset. By means of clockwork, the upset may 
be made to occur automatically at any desired time, and 
a series of such thermometers constitutes a method for 
obtaining hourly temperatures. The instrument finds its 
principal use as a deep-sea thermometer. See above. 
Water-steam thermometer, a proposed form of ther- 
mometer in which the thermometric substance is satu- 
rated water-vapor, and in which the temperature is given 
from the pressure of the vapor as measured by the height 
of the water-column it can support. Wet-bulb ther- 
mometer. See psychrometer. 

thermometric (ther-mo-met'rik), a. [= F. 
thermometrique ; as thermometer + -ic.] 1. Of 
or pertaining to a thermometer : as, the thermo- 
metric scale or tube. 2. Made by means of a 
thermometer: as, thermometric observations. 
Thermometric steam-gage, a form of steam-gage which 
shows the amount of pressure in a boiler by the degree of 
expansion of a fluid at the temperature produced by the 
pressure. E. 11. Knight. 

thermometrical (ther-mo-met'ri-kal), a. [< 
thermometric + -al.] Same as thermometric. 
Boyle, Works, II. 466. 

thermometrically (ther-mo-met'ri-kal-i), adv. 
In a thermometrical manner; by means of a 

thermometrQgraph (ther-mo-met'ro-graf), . 
[= F. thermometrographe, < 6r. Sippi, heat, + 
titrpov, measure, + ypaijietv, write.] Aself-regis- 
tering thermometer, especially one which reg- 
isters the maximum or minimum temperature 
during long periods. Also thermetrograph. 

thermometry (ther-mom'e-tri), n. [< Gr. dip/it/, 
heat, + -perpia, < perpov, measure.] The art of 
measuring temperature. A numerical unit of tem- 
perature difference is derived from the measurable physi- 
cal effects produced in bodies by heat for example, linear 
expansion, volumetric expansion, change of gaseous elas- 
;lc pressure, and change in electric resistance. In the 
customary use of the thermometer, changes in tempera- 
ture are assumed to be directly proportional to the ob- 


served changes in the thermometric material, and tempera- 
ture units are denned in terms of the particular material 
and phenomenon adopted. The thermometric unit at pres- 
ent (1891) adopted by the International Bureau of Weights 
and Measures is one centigrade degree, or the hundredth 
part of the fractional increase of pressure of a volume of 
pure dry gas originally at a pressure of one standard at- 
mosphere, and heated from the standard freezing-point 
to the standard boiling-point of water. With this unit, in- 
crements of temperature are closely proportional to in- 
crements of heat, and the air- (or gas-)thermometer of con- 
stant volume is the adopted instrumental standard. The 
air-thermometer, however, is not adapted to ordinary uses, 
and it is the object of thermometry to obtain comparable 
temperatures with convenient and portable instruments. 
The expansion of liquids is closely proportional to succes- 
sive increments of heat, and is taken as the basis of the 
usual secondary thermometric standards. It should be 
observed, however, that in general the subject of measure- 
ment is not the simple expansion of the liquid, but the 
differential expansion of the liquid and the glass bulb in 
which it is contained ; and from the standpoint of pre- 
cise thermometry it is in this uncertain, irregular, and 
varying behavior of the glass that the principal residual 
discrepancies of normal mercurial thermometers lie. The 
most important of these sources of error in mercurial 
thermometers is a change in the zero-point with time and 
with the temperatures to which the thermometers are ex- 
posed. This change depends upon the nature of the glass. 
Glass of special composition is now used in the construc- 
tion of thermometers, which will practically eliminate 
this source of error. The method of graduating ther- 
mometers between two fiducial points, instead of by vol- 
ume, was an advance in construction adopted by Fahren- 
heit that first made possible the construction of compara- 
ble thermometers. The adoption later of the freezing- 
point and the boiling-point of water for these two standard 
temperatures brought different kinds of thermometers 
into substantial agreement. In the recent progress of 
precise thermometry, residual sources of error have been 
discovered, and outstanding discrepancies have been in- 
vestigated, so as to render possible the reduction of all 
observed temperatures to the thermodynamic scale. 

thermomotive (ther-mo-mo'tiv), a. [< Gr. Gipjat, 
heat, + E. motive.] Broadly, pertaining to or 
derived from molar motion produced by heat, 
as in any heat-engine, but more particularly 
used with reference to heat-engines in which 
motion is derived from air or other gas expanded 
by heat: as, thermomotive i power; thermomotive 
effect ; thermomotive efficiency. 

thermomotor (ther-mo-mo'tpr), n. [< Gr. Oepfir/, 
heat, + LL. motor, a mover.") A heat-engine, 
particularly a so-called caloric engine, or an air- 
engine driven by the expansive force of heated 
air. Compare gas-engine, heat-engine, and ca- 
lorie engine (under caloric). 

thermomultiplier (ther-mo-mul'ti-pli-er), n. 
[< Gr. Kpuri, neat, + E. multiplier.] Same as 
thermopile. See the quotation. 

The discoveries of Oersted and Seebeck led to the con- 
struction of an instrument for measuring temperature in- 
comparably more delicate than any previously known. To 
distinguish it from the ordinary thermometer, this instru- 
ment is called the thermomultiplier. 

W. R. Grove, Con. of Physical Forces, iii. 

thermonatrite (ther-mo-na'trit), . [< Gr. 
Otpfiri, heat, + E. natron + -ite'*.] Hydrous 
sodium carbonate (Na2CO 3 + H 2 O), occurring 
chiefly as an efflorescence in connection with 
saline lakes. 

thermo-pair (ther'ino-par), . [< Gr. Bepfiri, 
heat, + E.jKM'r 1 .] A thermo-electric element 
or couple. See thermo-electricity. 

thermopalpation (ther"mo-pal-pa'shon), n. [< 
Gr. Bepfi-r/, heat, + L. palpatio(n-), a stroking: 
see palpation.] Palpation of the surface of the 
body to determine temperature, especially to 
determine topographical differences of temper- 
ature with a view to determine the position and 
condition of internal organs. 

thermophone (ther'mp-fon), . [< Gr. 0fftui?, 
heat, -f 0ov#, a sound.] An electrical instru- 
ment in which sounds are produced by the 
changes in the circuit due to variations of tem- 

thermopile (ther'mo-pll), n. [< Gr. etp/tr/, heat, 
+ E. pile 2 .'] A thermo-electric battery, espe- 
cially as arranged for the measurement of small 
quantities of radiant heat. See thermo-electri- 

thermoregulator (ther-mo-reg'u-la-tor), . [< 
Gr. IKpiiTi, heat, + E. regulator.] A device for 
regulating the temperature of a heating-appa- 

thermoscope (ther'mo-skop), n. [= F. thermo- 
scope = Sp. It. termoscopio, < Gr. fffp/Jt, heat, + 
aKo-xeiv, view, examine.] An instrument or a 
device for indicating variations in temperature 
without measuring their amount. The name was 
first applied by Count Rumford to an instrument in- 
vented by him, resembling the differential thermometer 
of Leslie. Out of an indefinite number of thermoscopes, 
a class of chromatic thermoscopes may be mentioned in 
which changes in temperature are indicated by changes 
in the shade or the color of a substance coated with cer- 
tain chemical preparations. These have been used to 
some extent for indicating a rise in temperature caused 


by the heating of a journal in machinery. Thermoscopes 
consisting of a tube containing air or mercury, and hav- 
ing an adjustable scale, or a scale limited to a few de- 
grees, are used in machines for testing lubricants, in ap- 
pliances for physical research, as in Osborne's esthermo- 
scope, and in diagnosis, as in Dr. Seguin's thermoscope 
for detecting minute variations in the temperature of the 

thermoscopic (ther-mo-skop'ik), a. [< thermo- 
scope + -ic.] Pertaining to the thermoscope ; 
made by means of the thermoscope : as, ther- 
moscopic observations. Grove. 

thermoscopical (ther-mo-skop'i-kal), a. [< 
thermoscopic + -a/.] Same as thermoscopic. 

thermosiphon (ther-mo-si'fon), n. [< Gr. 6ep/ai, 
heat, + aitfuv, siphon.] An arrangement of si- 
phon-tubes serving to induce circulation of 
water in a heating apparatus. 

thermostat (ther'mo-stat), n. [< Gr. Qeppi, 
heat, + oraTof, verbal adj. of unavai, stand: see 
static.] An automatic instrument or apparatus 
forregulatingtemperature. It is essentially a mod- 
ideation of the thermometer, so arranged that, in place 
of indicating thermal variations, it controls the source of 
heat or of ventilation, and thus indirectly regulates the 
temperature. One of the earliest forms of thermostat 
was that devised by Dr. Ure. It consisted of a bar com- 
posed of two metals, say steel and copper, having differ- 
ent degrees of expansion under the same temperature. 
This bar, when fixed in position, was made by simple me- 
chanical means to open a furnace-door, move a damper, 
or open a window, by means of the bending of the bar 
under the influence of an increase in heat, other forms 
of this thermostat have since been used to make or break 

a, base; b, involute expansion-strip, composed of two metalshaviny 
different coefficients of expansion, as brass and steel : f, adjustment- 
screw, forming part of an electric circuit whenever b is expanded by 
heat so as to touch the point of the screw ; </, </, conducting wires. 

an electric current, and thus move an armature that con- 
trols a damper, steam-valve, or other heat-regulating 
mechanism. Another form consists of a balanced ther- 
mometer that, under the movements of the mercury in a 
tube pivoted in the center in a horizontal position, would 
rise or fall, and thus control a damper or flre-door. An- 
other form consists of a thermometer resembling a thermo- 
electric alarm (see thermo-electric), except that the closing 
of the circuit by the rise of the mercury in the tube oper- 
ates a fire-door or damper in place of sounding an alarm. 
Where a thermostat is merely used to ring a bell, it is 
called a thermostatic alarm. A very simple and yet deli- 
cately responsive form is a slender bar of gutta-percha, 
fixed at one end, and attached at the other to a lever, which 
is caused to act by the expansion or contraction of the 
bar. Another form of thermostat consists of a bent tube 
partly filled with mercury. The heat expands the air in 
the larger end of the tube and displaces the mercury, and 
this in turn moves a piston controlling, by means of some 
mechanical device, a steam-valve or damper. Another 
form, used with steam-heating fumaces, consists of an 
elastic diaphragm in a cylinder, the pressure of the steam 
against the diaphragm serving to move a piston that con- 
trols the damper of the furnace. Such appliances are 
also called heat-reffulators. More recently, the name has 
been given to fusible plugs used to control automatic 
sprinklers, a rise in the temperature causing the plug to 
melt and release the water. This, however, is only a trade 
use of the word. 

thermostatic (ther-mo-stat'ik), a. [< thermo- 
stat + -ic.] Pertaining to the thermostat; 
characterized by the presence of a thermostat ; 
involving the principle of the thermostat. 

thermostatically (ther-mo-stat'i-kal-i) , adv. By 
means of a thermostat: as, a thermostatically 
adjusted radiator. 

thermostatics (ther-mo-stat'iks), n. [PI. of 
thermostatic (see -ics).] The theory of the equi- 
librium of heat. See the quotation under tl/er- 

thermotaxic (ther-mo-tak'sik), a. [Prop. *ther- 
motactic; (. thermotaxis (-tact-) + -ic.] Lnphys- 
iol., pertaining to regulation of the tempera- 
ture of the body, or the adjustment of thermo- 
genesis and thermolysis so as to produce a 
certain temperature. 

thermotaxis (ther-mo-tak'sis), . [NL., < Gr. 
6fppr], heat, + ragif, order, arrangement.] The 
regulation of the bodily temperature, or the 
adjustment of thermogenesis and thermolysis 
so as to secure a certain temperature. 

thermotelephone (ther-mo-tel'f-fon), n. [< Gr. 
8ep/iti, heat, + E. telephone.] 1. A telephone 
receiver in which the changes of length, due to 


change of tcmperal lire, of ;i line wire through 
whicli tlic currents arc made lo pass actuate 
tlie ]ilioiiic diaphragm. 2. A telephone trans- 
niiller in wliicli a red-hoi wire forming part of 
the 1 primary circuit of an induction-coil has its 

remittance changed by tlie sound-vibrations. 

thus inducing ciirreuls ill the secondary wliicli 

are sent to line. 

thermotensile (thcr-mo-ten'sil), a. fir. Hi/>/i>/, 
heat, + K. tensile.] licliiting to tensile force 
as affected by changes of temperature. Klahorate 
ihrriiiuteiiBilo experiments on Iron and steel, especially 
with ivtrrrnrr lo IM >ilrr- i run, lirivrli.Tti made, and their 
ie-iiltK tabulated, this licini! n matter of great practical 


thermotic (ther-mot'ik), a. [< Gr. Bipun, heat, 
+ -otic.] Of or relating to heat ; resulting from 
or dependent on heat. 

In the spectrum of a (lint-glass prism the apex of the 
thematic curve that is to say, the place of greatest heat- 
effect Is situated . . . outside the apparent spectrum 
in the ultra-red region. Lommel, Light (trans.), p. 201. 

thermotical (thcr-mot'i-kal), a. [< thermal ir 
H- -nl.] Same as thermotic. Wnewell, Hist. 
Induct. Sciences, X. 1, $ 4. 

thermotics (ther-mot'iks), n. [PI. of thermotic 
(see -ic).] The science of heat. 

In the History of the Sciences, I have named it [the 
Science of Heat] Ttirrntiittcx, which appears to me to agree 
better with the analogy of the names of other correspond- 
ing sciences, Acoustics and Optics. 

U'lifirell, Phllos. Induct Sciences, I. Ixrli. 

thermotropic (ther-mo-trop'ik), a. [< Gr. Oep/ui, 
lieat, + Tpomit6f, < rptmiv, turn : see tropic.] In 
lot., exhibiting or characterized by thermotro- 

Curvatures dependent upon temperature are called 
thermotrapic. Goodale, 1'hysiol. Bot. , p. 3K4. 

thermotropism (ther-mot'ro-pizm), n. [< ther- 
motrop-ic + -ism.] In hot., the phenomenon 
of curvature produced in a growing plant-or- 
gan by changes of temperature. Organs which 
curve toward the source of heat are called positively ther- 
motropic, and those which curve away from the source of 
heat, negatively thermotropic. 

thermdtype (ther 'mo -tip), . [< Gr. Otpuq, 
heat, + rwrof, impression: see type.'] A pic- 
ture-impression, as of a slice of wood, obtained 
by first wetting the object with dilute acid, as 
sulphuric or hydrochloric, then printing it, and 
afterward developing the impression by heat. 

thermotypy (ther'mo-tl-pi), . [As thermotype 
+ -y 3 .] The act or process of producing a 

thernet, . [ME., also tame, < Icel. therna = 
Sw. tarnti = Dan. terne = OHG. thiarna, 
diorna, MHG. dicrnc, dime, G. dime, a girl.] 
A girl; a wench. 

As sengle knave and sengle tarne, 
Whan they synne togedyr O erue. 

MS. Harl. 1701, f. 49. (HaUiwtU.) 

thcrodont (the'ro-dont), a. and n. Same as the- 
riitilmi t. 

Therodontia (the-ro-don'shi-a), n. pi. [NL.] 
Same as Tlteriodontia. 

theroid (the'roid), a. [< Gr. tti/p (%>-), a wild 
beast, + fMof , form.] Having animal propensi- 
ties or characteristics. 

The animal mind of the theroid idiot is accompanied by 
appropriate animal peculiarities of body. 

Nineteenth Century, Sept, 1888, p. 353. 

therologic (the-ro-loj'ik), a. [< therolog-y + 
-ic.] Pertaining to therology. 

therological (the-ro-loj'i-kal), a. [< therologic 
+ -al.] Same as therologic. 

therologist (the-rol'o-jist), n. [< therolog-y + 
-int.'] A student of the Mammalia; a mam- 
malogist. Tlie Academy, Aug. 25, 1877. 

therology (the-rol'o-ji), n. [< Gr. W/p (%>-), 
a wild beast, + -f,oyla, < Mfta. speak: see 
-oloijy.] The science of mammals; mammal- 
ogy or mastology: substituted lately on the 
ground that ninmmiilin/i/ is a hybrid word. 

theromorph (the'ro-morf), n. One of the 

Theromorpha (the-ro-m6r'fa), n. pi. [NL., < 
Gr. %> (8r/p-), a wild beast, -f uopty'i, form.] An 
order of fossil reptiles, of the Permian period, so 
called from certain resemblances they present 
t o mammals. The quadrate bone is fixed ; the ribs arc 
two-headed; the precoracoid is present, and the coracoid 
is reduced in size, with free extremity ; the vertebnn are 
amphicralous, and the pubic bones are entirely anterior to 
the ischia; and there Is no obturator foramen. Some of 
the Theromorpha were made known by Owen under the 
name Therinlontia. These remains were from t'upe i'nl- 
ony, but the Theruwtrrpha have mostly been studied by 
rope from remains found in the Permian of Texas. The 
order is itiviitrtl by Cope into Anomotlnntia and /V/i/r"- 
Ktiiiriu. Src these words. Also, rarely, Theromora. 

theromorphia (the-ro-mor'ti-a), . [NL.. < < ir. 
9i/p (%)-), a wild beast, + uop$>i, form.] In 


liiiiiiini limit,, an abnormality in structure re- 
sembling I'M' norm in lower animals. 

theromorphic 1 (thc-ro-mor'fik), . |< Tlieru- 
mitrpliii T -ic.] Theromorphotis. 

theromorphic- (the-ro-mor'fik). it. [< therti- 
mnr/iltiti + -ir.] Abnormally resembling in 
anatomical structure the lower animals. 

theromorphous (the-ro-mor'fus), a. [< Thcro- 
iiiorpltii + -iinn.] Pertaining to the '1'lieriininr- 
jilin, or having their characters. 

theropod (tho'ro-pod), a. and . [< Gr. (ti/p 
(0>/p-), a wild beast, + iroi'f (iron-) = E. foot.] 
I. a. Having feet like those of (mammalian) 
beasts, as a dinosaur; of or pertaining to the 
Tin i'1/ioda. 

II. n. A carnivorous dinosaur of the order 
Also theriopod, and (erroneously) therapod. 

Theropoda (the-rop'o-dft), n. pi. [NL. : see 
theropod.] An order of extinct carnivorous 
dinosaurs, having digitigrade feet with prehen- 
sile claws, very small fore limbs, hollow limb- 
bones, cavernous vertebrae, premaxillary teeth, 
and united pubes. They were of large or gigantic size 
and predaceous hablta, and in the structure of the feet re- 
sembled quadrupeds rather than birds (see Ornithopoda), 
whence the name. There are several families, as Meyalo- 
tauridx, Zandodmitidjr, A mphisauridtr, and Labromuri- 
(iff. Also, incorrectly, Therapoda. 

theropodous (the-rop'6-dus), a. Same as the- 
ropoS. Geol. Jour., XLV. i. 44. 

thersitical (th6r-sit'i-kal), a. [< Thcrsites (L. 
Tliersites, < Gr. QfpaiTr/c) + -ic-al.] Resembling 
or characteristic of Thersites, a scurrilous char- 
acter in Homer's Iliad ; hence, grossly abusive ; 
scurrilous; foul-mouthed. 

There Is a pelting kind of thtrtitieal satire, as black as 
the Ink 'tis wrote with. Sttrne, Tristram Shandy, ix. 14. 

therstt, ". A Middle English form of durst. 

Octovian, 1. 681. Halliujell. 
thesaurert, [< ML. thesauraritta, treasurer, 

< L. thesaurarius, pertaining to treasure, < the- 
saurus, treasure: see thesaurus and treasure, 
and cf. treasurer.] A treasurer. 

To my loving frendes Sir Thomas Boleyne Knight, The- 

tourer of the Kinges Oraces most honorable lloushold, 

and Sir HenryGuldeford, Knight Comptroller of the same. 

.1 '/'. Warhatn, in Ellli's 1 1 i.-t. Letters, 3d ser., I. 367. 

thesaurus (the-sa'rus), n. [< L. thesaurus, OL. 
thensaurus, thensaurum, < Gr. OriaavpAs, a store 
laid up, treasure, a treasure-house, storehouse, 
chest : see treasure, the old form of the word, 
derived through OF. and ME.] A treasury ; a 
store ; especially, thesaurus rerborum, or simply 
thesaurus, a treasury of words; a lexicon. 

In a complete themunu of any language, the etymology 

of every word should exhibit both its philology and 1U 

linguistics, Its domestic history and its foreign relations. 

0. P. North, l.crts. on Eng. Lang., iii. 

these (?Hez), a. and pron. Plural of this. 
Theseion, Theseum (the-se'on, -um), . [NL., 

< Gr. Qt/ofiov, Ofyxiov, < Oqaeiif, Theseus.] A 
temple or sanctuary of the Athenian hero-king 
Theseus, especially a temple built in Athens, 
about 460 B. c., to receive the bones of Theseus, 
then brought home from Scyros ; at the present 
time, specifically, a beautiful hexastyle perip- 
teral Doric temple of Pentelic marble, dating 

The so-called Theseion. at Athens, from the southwest. 

from the second half of the fifth century B. c., 
still standing in Athens at the foot of the 
Acropolis and Areopagus. Its Interior arrange- 
ments and its sculptured decoration have suffered much, 
but it is notwithstanding the most perfect surviving ex- 
ample of a Oreek temple, and exhibits all the refinements 
of Doric architecture at its culmination. This temple Is 
now identified with practical certainty as that of Hephes- 
tus (Vulean); it was certainly not the temple of Theseus. 
See also cut under op&hodomot. 

thesicle (the'si-kl). n. [Dim. of thesis.] A little 
or subordinate thesis; a proposition. [Bare.] 
Imp. Diet. 

Thesieae ' . . /'' |M-. (Bcntham 

and Hooker,' 1880). < Tl-xi<i,,i + -i :i. \ A tribe 
of apetalous plants, of the order >'<///<;..;<, 
the sandaluooil family. It is characterized by lt> 
small nut like fruit, and perianth-tube prolonged above 
the Inferior ovary and without a conspicuous disk. It in- 
cludes 5 genera of herbs and low nndershrubs. of whicli 
Therium ii the type ; the others arc mainly natives of 
South America or South Africa. 

thesis (tlie'sis), .; pi. theses (-sez). [=F. tlitse 
= Sp. texiM = Pg. these = It. test = (i. thesis, 
these, < L. thrxix, < Gr. Ilinii;, a proposition. :i 
statement, a thing laid down, thesis in rhetoric, 
thesis in prosody (from the setting down of the 
foot in beating time) ; cf. 6cr6f, placed. < nttrmi 
(/ 0t), put, set: see do 1 . Cf. theme, from the 
same Gr. verb.] 1. The formulation in ad- 
vance of a proposition to be proved ; a posi- 
tion; a proposition which one advances and 
offers to maintain by argument against objec- 

Antitheta are Throe* argued pro et contra (for and 
against]. Bacon, Advancement of Learning, II. 

In all the foreign universities and convents there are 
upon certain days philosophical theses maintained against 
every adventitious disputant Qoldtmith, Vicar, xx. 

Hence 2. An essay or dissertation upon a spe- 
cific or definite theme, as an essay presented 
by a candidate for a diploma or degree, as for 
that of doctor. 

Then comes the struggle for degrees, 
With all the oldest and ablest critics ; 
The public them* and disputation. 

Longfellow, Golden Legend, vl. 

3. A theme; a subject propounded fora school 
or college exercise ; the exercise itself. 4. (n) 
A premise assumed and not proved, although 
not self-evident; either a postulate or a defini- 
tion. (6) The consequent of a hypothetical 
proposition. [Rare.] 5. In musical rhyth- 
mics, a heavy accent, such as in beating time 
is marked by a down-beat. See rhythm. 6. 
In pros. : (a) Originally, and in more correct 
recent usage, that part of a foot which receives 
the ictus, or metrical stress. (6) In prevalent 
modern usage, the metrically unaccented part 
of a foot. See arsis, 1. 7. In one. rhet., a 
general question, not limited to special persons 
and circumstances: opposed to a hypothesis, or 
question which is so limited. 8. In rhet., the 
part of a sentence preceding and correlated to 
the antithesis. [Rare.] 

The style of Junlus Is a sort of metre, the law of which 
Is a balance of thesis and antithesis. 

Coleridge, Table-Talk, II. 218. 

= 8yn. L Topic, Point, etc. See mbject, 
Thesium (the-si'um), K. [NL. (Linnaeus, 1737), 
L. name of 'T. Linophyllon, so called, accord- 
ing to Athenwus, because Theseus crowned 
Ariadne with it ; < Gr. Q//oeiav, neut. of Qfaeiof, 
belonging to Theseus, < Qt/an^, Theseus.] A 
genus of plants, type of the tribe Tliesiete in 
the order Santalacex. It Is characterized by linear 
or scale-like leaves, and bisexual flowers with small ovate 
or oblong anthers and a nliform, often flexuous or zigzag 
placenta. There are over 100 species, widely distributed 
through the Old World, chletiy in the temperate parts, 
and with 2 species in Brazil. They are herbs, often with 
a hard or shrubby base, and frequently parasitic by the 
root. The leaves are small and alternate. The scentless 
flowers are borne in a spike or a simple or compound ra- 
ceme. T. Linophyllon, a small white-flowered plant of 
English pastures, is called bastard toadflax. 

Thesmophoria (thes-md-fo'ri-a), n. pi. JX Gr. 
8ea/uxp6pia (pi.), < BeauoQopoc,, law-giving, < mafi6f, 
law (< Tifffvai, lay down : see thesis), -r -4o/f, < 
ftpeiv = E. bear*.] An ancient Greek festival 
with mysteries, celebrated by married women 
in honor of Demeter (Ceres) as the "mother 
of beautiful offspring." Though not confined 
to Attica, it was especially observed at Athens 
and Eleusis. 

In the Thftmophoria, as well as the pigs' flesh myste- 
rious sacred objects were In use, made of the dough of 
wheat, and in the shape of forms of snakes and men. 

Harrison and Verrall, Ancient Athens, p. zxxv. 

Thesmophorian (thes-mo-fo'ri-an), a. [< Thes- 
mophorta + -an.] Of or pertaining to the Thes- 

Thesmophoric (thes-mo-for'ik), a. [< Thesmo- 
phoria + -<;.] Same as' Tliesmophorian. Encyc. 
Brit., XVH. 127. 

thesmothete (thes'mo-thet), . [< F. thenmo- 
ihitf, < Gr. deouaBtTiK,'* lawgiver, < foa/tof, law, 
+ BCTIK , one who lays down, < nHMt, put, set : 
see thesis.] A lawgiver; a legislator; one of 
the six inferior archous at Athens. 

thesocyte (the'so-sit), n. One of certain re- 
serve cells which have been described in sev- 
eral sponges. Encyc. Brit., XXII. 420. 


Thespesia (thes-pe'si-a), . [NL. (Correa, 
1807), so called from the beauty of the flow- 
ers; < Gr. Ssairioiw;, divinely sounding, hence 
ineffable, divine ; 
doubtfully ex- 
plained as < Coif, 
god, + itTTcif, 2d 
pers. pi. impv. la- 
mTc, say, speak.] 
A genus of plants, 
of the order Malva- 
cees and tribe Hi- 
biseeee. It is char- 
acterized by flowers 
with three to live small 
bractlets, a club-shap- 
ed or but slightly di- 
vided style, and a five- 
celled ovary. There 
are about 6 species, na- 
tives of tropical Asia, 

the Pacific islands, and Thtsfesia fafulnta. 

Madagascar. They are 

trees or tall herbs, with entire or angulate leaves, and 
handsome flowers, commonly yellow. Two species, T. 
Lampas and T. popidnea, are remarkable for their black- 
dotted seed-leaves. The latter is a tree sometimes 50 feet 
high, planted for shade in India, and known as umbrella- 
tree and bendy-tree, and in Guiana as seaside mahoe. It 
bears a dense head of foliage, and large yellow flowers 
with a purple center, changing before evening to purple 
throughout, and perishing. Its flowers and fruits yield a 
dye, its seeds a thick deep-red oil known as Portia-nut 
oil, and its bast a useful fiber made into sacks and wrap- 
pings ; its wood is used to make boats and furniture. 
Thespian (thes'pi-an), . and n. [= F. Thes- 
pien, < Gr. Biamof, of or pertaining to Thespis, 

< Qeamf, Thespis (see def.).] I. a. Of or re- 
lating to Thespis, a semi-legendary Greek poet 
of Icaria in Attica, often called the father of 
tragedy ; relating or pertaining to dramatic act- 
ing in general; dramatic; tragic: as, the Thes- 
pian art, the drama. The great impulse given to 
the drama by Thespis consisted in the adjunction to the 
old dithyrambic chorus of Dionysus of a single actor who 
might appear successively in several r61es. The first pub- 
lic contest of Thespis is assigned to the year 636 B. C. 

Said we not it was the highest stretch attained by the 
Thespian Art? Carlyle, French Rev., II. i. 12. 

The race of learned men : 
... oft they snatch the pen, 
As if inspired, and in a Thespian rage ; 
Then write. Thomson, Castle of Indolence, i. 52. 

II. n. An actor. [Colloq.] 

There would be no useful end obtained by following the 
Thespians in their manifold wanderings . . . 

W. Dunlap, Hist. Amer. Theatre, ii. 

The angry Lord Chamberlain . . . clapped the unoffend- 
ing Thespian [Powell] for a couple of days in the Gate 
House. Doran, Annals of the Stage, I. 93. 

Thessalian (the-sa'lian), a. and n. [< L. Thes- 
salia, < Gr. Geoxra/Ua, Attic Qerra'Ala, Thessaly, 

< QeaaaUf, Attic QtrraUr, Thessalian.] I. a. 
Of or pertaining to Thessaly, a district lying 
south of Macedonia and east of Epirus. Since 
1881 the greater part of it belongs to the mod- 
ern kingdom of Greece. 

II. re. An inhabitant of Thessaly. 
Thessalonian (thes-a-16'ni-an), a. and n. [< 
L. Tliessalonica, < Gr. 'Qftraa&wiiai, Thessalonica, 

< 6e<T(7a/ldf, eerraAof, Thessalian (QeaaaUa, At- 
tic QfTTaUa, Thessaly), + v'uai, victory.] I. a. 
Of or pertaining to Thessalonica, an important 
city of Macedonia. 

fl. . A native or an inhabitant of Thessa- 
lonica Epistle to the Thessalonians, the title of 
two of the Pauline epistles in the New Testament. The 
main theme of both epistles is the second coming of Christ. 

theta (the'tii), n. [< L. theta, < Gr. ftjro, the letter 
0, 0,#, originally an aspirated t; in modern Gr. 
and in the E. pron. of ancient Gr., pronounced 
as E. f/i.] A letter of the Greek alphabet cor- 
responding to the English th in thin, etc. it was 
sometimes called the unlucky letter, because it was used 
by the Judges in passing condemnation on a prisoner, it 
being the first letter of the Greek flir-arot, death. Theta 
function, a name applied to two entirely different func- 
tions, (a) A sort of complication of an exponential func- 
tion, being expressed by a series from n = oo to ji = + oo 
of terms the logarithm of each of which is n'-'o + 2 na. A 
theta function ofseveral variables, z,,x 2 , . . . 3,1, is Z exp. 
(* + 2m,, xn), where is a quadratic function of the con- 
stants m,, 7n 2 , . . . m a . (6) A function which occurs in 
probabilities, and is expressed by the integral fet-dt. 

thetch 1 (thech), v. An obsolete or dialectal 
form of thatch. 

thetch 2 (thech), n. [A dial, corruption oi fetch"*, 
vetch.'] The common vetch, Viciasativa; also, 
Vioia sepium and Luthijrus macrorhizus. Brit- 
ten and Holland. [Prbv. Eng.] 

thethent, ndv. [ME., also thi/then, thithen, theden, 

< Icel. thadhan, thedhan (= Dan. deden), thence; 
akin to E. thenne%, thence: see thcnnc^ Thence. 

Sothely fra thythen inryses a gret lufe. 

Bampole, Prose Treatises (E. E. T. S.), p. 2. 


b'fro thethen the lycour belyue launchit doun evyn. 

Destruction of Troy (E. E. T. S.), 1. S790. 

thetic (thet'ik), a. [< Gr. Hmn6c, positive; cf. 
0to(f, a laying down, < TiSevat (\/ lie), put, place : 
see thesis.] In anc. proa. : (a) Pertaining to 
the thesis, or metrically accented part of a foot. 
(6) Beginning with a thesis: opposed to ima- 

theticalt (thet'i-kal), a. [< thetic + -al.'] Laid 
down ; prescriptive ; arbitrary. 

This law that prohibited Adam the eating of the fruit 
was merely thetical or positive, not indispensable and nat- 
ural. Dr. H. More, Def. of Lit. Cabbala, ii. 

Thetis (the'tis), re. [< L. Thetis, < Gr. QfTtf. 
see def.] 1. In classical myth., a marine god- 
dess, who became the spouse of the mortal Pe- 
leus, despite her efforts to escape him by count- 
less Protean transformations, and was by him 
the mother of Achilles. 2. The seventeenth 
planetoid, discovered by Luther at Bilk in 1852. 

thetsee (thet'se), w. Same as theetsee. 

theurgic (the-er'jik), a. [= F. thenryiqiie = 
Sp. teurgico = Pg. theurgico =It. teurgico, < LL. 
theurgicus, < Gr. 6covpyiKOf, < 6covp-,ia, theurgy: 
see theurgy.] Pertaining to theurgy, or the 
power of performing supernatural things. 

The soul of the mystic would have passed into the world 
of spiritual existences ; but he was not yet blessed with 
theuryic faculties, and patiently awaited for the elect. 

/. D' Israeli, Amen, of Lit., II. 294. 

Theurgic hymns or songs, songs used in incantation, 
theurgical (the-er'ji-kal), a. [< theurgic + 

-n?.] Same as theurgic. 
theurgist (the'er-jist), [=F- theurgiste; as 

tlieurg-y + -int.'] One who believes in theurgy, 

or practises a pretended magic. 
As if there be any irrational demons, as the theuryists 

affirm. Cud-worth, Intellectual System, p. 864. 

theurgy (the'er-ji), n. [= F. theuraie = Sp. 
teuryia = Pg. theurgia = It. teurgia, < LL. theur- 
gia, < LGr. Bempyia, a divine work, a miracle, 
magic, sorcery, < feotipyof, one who does the 
works of God, a priest, < Gr. 0cof, god, + *epyeiv, 
work.] The working of some divine or super- 
natural agency in human affairs; a producing 
of effects by supernatural means ; effects or 
phenomena brought about among men by spir- 
itual agency. Specifically (a) Divine agency, or di- 
rect divine interference, in human affairs or the govern- 
ment of the world. 

Homer, with the vast mechanism of the Trojan war in 
his hands, and in such hands, and almost compelled to 
employ an elaborate and varied theurgy, . . . was in a po- 
sition of advantage without parallel for giving form to the 
religious traditions of his country. Gladstone. 

(6) A system of supernatural knowledge or powers believed 
by the Egyptian Platonists and others to have been com- 
municated to mankind by the beneficent deities, and to 
have been handed down from generation to generation 
traditionally by the priests, (c) The art of invoking dei- 
ties or spirits, or by their intervention conjuring up 
visions, interpreting dreams, prophesying, receiving and 
explaining oracles, etc.; the supposed power of obtaining 
from the gods, by means of certain observances, words, 
symbols, etc., a knowledge of the secrets which surpass 
the powers of reason a power claimed by the priesthood 
of most pagan religions. 

Porphyry and some others did distinguish these two 
sorts, so as to condemn indeed the grosser, which they 
called magick or goety ; but allowed the other, which 
they termed theurgy, as laudable and honourable, and as 
an art by which they received angels, and had communi- 
cation with the gods. 

Hallyu'ell, Melampronrea (1682), p. 51. 
It may appear a subject of surprise and scandal . . . 
that the Grecian mysteries should have been supported by 
the magic or theurgy of the modern Platonists. 

Gibbon, Decline and Fall, xxiii. 

(a) In mod. magic, the pretended production of effects by 
supernatural agency, as contradistinguished from natural 

the vet, n. [ME.; cf. ihevetliorn.] Bramble. 
Theve, brusch [var. there, brusch]. 

Prompt. Pan., p. 490. 

theve-thornt, n. [ME., also theovethorn, also 
thethorn, < AS. thefethorn, thefantltoru, thife- 
thoni, a bramble, Christ's-thorn, < "thefe (appar. 
connected with thyfel, a bush) + thorn, thorn.] 
A bramble, probably Rubtts fruticosits. 

Befor that joure thornes shulden vnderstonde the theue 
thornc; as the lyuende, so in wrathe he shal soupe them vp 

Wyclif, Ps. Ivii. 10. 

Thevetia (the-ve'shi-a), H. [NL. (Linnams, 
1737), named' after Aii'drS Ttievet (1502-90), a 
French monk and traveler.] A genus of plants, 
of the order Apocynacese, tribe I'liimerie/r, and 
subtribe Cerberese. It is characterized by a glandular 
calyx and a fu nnel-shaped corolla with its lobes sinistrorse- 
ly overlapping. There are about 4 species, natives of trop- 
ical Asia, Madagascar, and the islands of the Pacific. They 
are smooth shrubs or small trees, with alternate leaves, and 
large yellow flowers in terminal cymes. For T. neriiMia 
commonly cultivated in tropical America as a garden shrub 
or for hedges, see qiiashy-qttagfier. 


thewH, . [ME. thru-, theme, < AS. theow = OHG. 
tliii = Goth, thins, a bondman, slave, servant. 
Cf. thane.] A bondman; a slave. 

Migti men & menskful were thei in here time, 
<fe feithful as here fader to fre <t to thewe. 

WOKam of falerm (E. E. T. 8.), 1. 5614. 

thewH, " [ME., < AS. theow, servile, < thrdir. 
a bondman, servant: see theicl, .] Bond; 

thew^t, [ME. thewen, < AS. thewan; thywan, 
theowan (= MD. tlouicen = MLG. duwen = MHG. 
rUitJica, (tulien, fliinri'n), oppress, < thedtc, a bond- 
man: see thewi, .] To oppress; enslave. 
thew 2 t (thu), n. [< ME. thew, earlier theaic, 
usually in pi. thewes, < AS. thedw, custom, man- 
ner, behavior, = OS. thau = OHG. dau, *thau, 
also "gadau, kathau, discipline. Cf. thew 3 .] 
Custom; habit; manner; usually in the plural, 
customs; habits; manners; morals; qualities; 
moral traits; conditions. 
Leue aone, this lessoun me lerde my fader, 
that knew of konrt the theieet, for koarteour was he long. 
William of Palerne (E. E. T. S.), 1. 342. 
Nftthelees it oghte ynough sutlist 
With any wyf, if so were that she hadde 
Mo goode thewes than hire vices badde. 

Cliaueer, Merchant's Tale,!. 298. 

thew 3 (thu;, n. [Usually in the plural thews; 
a transferred use of thews, manner, bearing, 
hence bodily form, appearance as showing 
strength; pi. of theu>%; or simply a develop- 
ment of the rare ME. sense 'strength' of the 
game theic 2 .] A muscle; a sinew: used gener- 
ally in the plural. 

Of maine and of theautee. 

Layanwn, 1. 6361. (Stratwann.) 
Care I for the limb, the thewes, the stature, bulk, and 
big assemblance of a man ! Shak., 2 Hen. IV., iii. 2. 276. 
He [must] gain in sweetness and in moral height, 
Nor lose the wrestling thews that throw the world. 

Tennyson, Princess, vii. 

thew 4 t (thu), n. [ME. thewe; origin obscure.] A 

cucking-stool ; perhaps, also, a form of pillory. 

Thewe, or pylory. Collistrigium. Prompt. Pan., p. 490. 

For them [women] the thew or the tumbrel . . . was 

reserved. Encyc. Brit., XIX. 96. 

thew 3 (thu). An old or provincial or artificial 
preterit of thaw. 

First it blew, 
Then it snew. 
Then It thew. Old nine. 

thewed 1 ! (thud), a. [< ME. thewed; < thew^ 
+ -ed 2 .] Endowed with moral qualities; be- 
haved; mannered. 

Therto so wel fortuned and thewed 

That through the world her goodnesse is yshewed. 

Chaucer, Complaint of Mars, 1. 180. 
Yet would not seeme so rude, and thewed ill, 
As to despise so curteous seeming part. 

Spenser, F. Q., II. vi. 26. 

thewed 2 (thud), a. [< thew'* + -ed 2 .] Having 
thews, muscle, or strength. 

Till at the last a fearful beast was master, 
Amazing thewed, with fourfold plate-like horns. 

C. De Kay, Vision of Nimrod, iv. 

thewless (thu'les), a. [< thewS + -less.] Weak ; 

thewy (thu'i), a. [< thewZ + -#1.] Sinewy; 
brawny; muscular. 

There were burly, weather-beaten faces under powder 
and curls ; broad, hard hands in kid gloves ; thewy, red 
elbows, that had plied brooms, shuttles, cards, in lace ruf- 
fles. S. Jvdd, Margaret, i. 10. 

they 1 (THa), pron. pi. [< ME. they, thei, thai, 
partly of Scand. origin (see below), partly < 
AS. ihd = OS. Ma, tide = OFries. tlid = D. de 
= LG. de = OHG. din, die, de, MHG. G. die = 
Icel. their = Goth, thni; pi. of AS. the, etc., that, 
the : see that, thei. The ME. they was declined 
in midland and southern ME. thus: npm. they, 
etc., gen. hire, here, hir, her, dat. hem; in north- 
ern ME. nom. they, thei, thai, gen. thair, thaire, 
ther, dat. ace. ttiaim, tham, them ; in Orm. nom. 
thegg, gen. theggre, dat. ace. theggm; orig. forms 
of the def. art^, AS. nom. ace. pi. thd, gen. tlidra, 
thsera, dat. tliient, tham. The AS. thu, tlidrn, thdm 
retained the demonstrative force till late in ME. ; 
the northern dialects, however, began through 
Danish influence to use them, or rather the 
Danish forms and the AS. forms together, as 
the plural. Cf. hel, site, it. Cf. Icel. nom. their, 
gen. theiru, gen. dat. theim, they, their, them, 
as the pi. of hanti. hon, he, she.] The plural 
pronoun of the third person. It stands fora plural 
noun or pronoun preceding, or in place of one not ex- 
pressed when pointed out by the situation. It is without 
gender-forms, (a) Nom. they. 

And when thai saw the fyr on brede, 
In thaire hertis than had thai drede ; 
Vnto the queue al gun thai cry. 

Hnly Rood (E. E. T. S.\ p. 93. 


Wlthlokke* eiiillc lenrledl us Hi'-:/ were Icyd In nresse. 
Chiiurrr, (JiMi. I'rul. lot 1 . T. <cd. Morris), 1. 81. 

Thei dldu Ills comaundcincnt, :iml i to-gedcr, thri 

thru and two stiuyrcs only. Merlin (K. 1'.. T. ,s.x iii M... 

They of lUly salute you. Hcb. xlll. 24. 

I hese .lie //,. K Vlhieh eaillc "III iif tfiva' lribnl:llioa. 

Kev. vli. 14. 

(ft) Poss. MrtV. Of or hi'lonaing to thorn : now always |.iv. 
ceiling the ilium, with the value of an attributive adjec- 


Pantasilia come pertly with hir pure iinii.liics, . . . 
(All Ihiiin- colouria hy form' were of clcane white). 

IMnirtwn <>j TniH (E. E. T. 8.X 1. 10970. 
Some glory i" their liirth, some in tlu-ir iikill. 
Sunn- in '/!<! wr:ilth. MHIII- in their bodies' f' >i > > 

Shak., Sonnets, xci. 

As If (Sod were so beholden to us for our Rood deeds as 
to be bound for llu-ir sakes to forgive us our 111 ones ! 

Bp. Atierbury, Sermons. I. II. 

.Sometimes fonnerly used alone, with the value now given 

to ilieirt. 

M> clothinn keeps me full as warm as (An'r, 
My meates unto my taste as pleasing are. 

Wither, Motto, C 8 I), repr. (.Yam.) 

(c) Poss. theim. That which belongs to them: always used 
without the noun, and having the value of a nominative 
or an objective. 

Belfagor and Belyal and Belssabub als 
Heyred hem as hyjly as lumen wer thai/ret. 

Alliterative Poems (ed. Morris), II. 1527. 
This love of theirs myself have often seen. 

Shale., T. O. of V., lit 1. 24. 
Nothing but the name of teal appears 
'Twlxt our best actions and the worst of thein. 

SirJ. n, a l:ii in. Cooper's H ill. 

(d) ObJ. (ace.), MOM. 

Bot If we may with any gyn 

Mak Main to do dedly syn ; 

Than with thain wil I wun and wake. 

Holy Rood (E. E. T. .), p. 96. 

h'.n cilery off Maim was full wysc and sage. 

limn, nf I'artenay (E. E. T. 8.), 1. 1824. 
Let him and them agree it ; they are able to answer for 
themselves. Jer. Taylor, Works (ed. 183SX II. 236. 

() ObJ. (dat.), fAnn. 

Give than wlue to drink. Jer. XXXT. 2. 

(/) Used for those. [Now provincial, Eng. and U. 8.) 
As if between them twain there were no strife. 

Shot., Lucrece, 1. 405. 

Let they ministers preach till they 'in black In the face. 
Kiivjuley, Westward Ho, xxx. 
Like Hi, in big hotels 
Where they shift plates, au' let ye live on smells. 

totrelt, Bigfow Papers, 2d ser., II. 
They say, H is said : then meaning persons generally. 
We must not run, they i)/, into sudden extreams. 

.Vttenn, Reformation In Eng., II. 

They M<J he will come far ben, that lad ; wha kens but 
he may come to be Sub- Prior himself? 

Scott, Monastery, xiii. 


took part in characler. with boisterous mirth 
and miiHtc, and bearing attributes of the god; 
sometimes a political, commercial, social, or 
benevolent association or gild (i/wn'or); specifi- 
cally, the mythological band of nymphs, mae- 
nads, satyrs, etc., forming the personal cortege 
of Dionysus, and often represented in sculp- 
ture and painting. See Itni'i-lmn. 
Thibaudia ithi-ba'di-ji), . [ML. (Pavon, 1818), 
named after a French botanist, Tliilinml do 
Chanvallon, who traveled in the West Indies 
in I7f)l.] 1. A genus of gamopetalous pi: 
type of the tribe Thibaudiefem the order !'"<- 
i-iiii/irex. It is characterized hy racemose flowers with 
small bracts, a short calyx-tube, with live-toothed border, 
:incl ten elongated anthers, far surpassed by a membra 
nous extension into straight narrow tubes which open 
Icngthwiwhy chinks. The 2 species, T. floribwuia and T. 
Itchinclienn*, are natives of the Andes, the United States 
of Colombia, and Pcm. They are shrubs, sometimes witli 
high-climbing stems, bearing alternate evergreen entire 
l> ;i\es with very oblique veins, and numerous pedlcelled 
scarlet flowers In axillary crowded racemes, sometimes 
tipped with green or yellow. These and also a few species 
of related genera are known in cultivation as thibaii'li". 
2. [/. <.] A plant of this genus. 

Thibaudieae uhi-ba-di'e-e). . i>l. [Nl.. (Ben- 
thatn and Hooker, 1876), < ZSwNMM + -<?#.] 
A tribe of gamopetalous plants, of the order 
1'iin-iiiiiii-rfe. It Is characterized by rather large and 
usually thick and fleshy or coriaceous flowers with short 
fllaments which are commonly contiguous or connate. 
It Includes 17 genera, of which Thibaudia Is the type : 
principally mountain shrubs, many of them natives of 

thibet, Thibetan, etc. See tibet, etc. 

thible (tbib'l), H. [Also thibel, thicel, thceril, 
tlii-iril, theedk ; dial, variants of dibble 1 .'] 1. A 
dibble. Halliicell. [Prov. Eng.] 2. A stick 
used for stirring broth, porridge, etc. ; a pot- 
stick. [Prov. Eng. or Scotch.] 

The thible ran round, and the . . . handfuls of meal 
fell Into the water. K. Bronte, Wuthering Heights, xiii. 

3f. A slice; a skimmer; a spatula. Imp. Diet. 
thick (thik), a. and . [< ME. thicke, thikkc, 
tln/kke, rarely thig, < AS. thicce = OS. OFries. 
th'ikki = MD. ditke, D. dik = MLG. dick = OHG. 
diechi, MHG. dik, dicke, G. dick = Icel. thykkr 
(older forms thjokkr or thjokkr) = 8w. tjok 
Dan. tyk (Uoth. not recorded); cf. Olr. tiug (< 
*tigu), thick. Cf. tight 1 .} I. a. 1. Having rel- 
atively great extent or depth from one surface 
to its opposite ; being relatively of great depth, 
or extent from side to side: opposed to thin. 

Thre hundred elne was It |the ark] long, 

Nalld and sperd, thiij and strong. 

llcnesi* and Exndut (E. E. T. S.), 1. 564. 

Thou art waxen fat; thou art grown thick. 

Deut. xxxli. IB. 


Hot* euer-more .rra|ih' u-kei. ami cries, 

" Where was Eualac?" the stoar was so thikke. 

Jo*i>h ../ Arimnili,, 1 1 . i:. I . s.x p. 18. 

If the Sun Is incommodious, we have thick folding Shut- 
ters on the out-Side, and thin ones within, to prevent 
that X. Bailey, tr. of Colloquies of Erasmus, I. 198. 

said to be sometimes 4 feet round the curve, 
1 1 feet about the base, their tips spreading 3$ 
I'cet apart. The animal stands nearly 4 feet high at the 
shoulder. This sheep is a near relative of the argall and 
of the Rocky Mountain bighorn. It Inhabit* high hilly 
plains, runs with great speed, and is found in flocks of 
from 30 to 40, but is still very imperfectly known. 

thiasos, . See tliiiixiix. 

thiasote (thi'a-sot), H. [< Gr. 6Wur//f. a thin- 
sot e. < (liana , a band or company: sec tliiiixiix. ] 
\ member of or a participant in a thiasus. 

thiasUS, thlaSOS (thi'a-sus, -sos), . ; pi. tliiuxi 
(-si). [Gr. ft'ooof, a band or company isce del'. '. ] 
In (Jr. nntiq., a band or company assembled 
in honor of a divinity; especially, a Diouysiac 
band or procession iu which men and women 

they 2 t, eiij. and adv. A Middle English variant 
of tl<oiu/li. 

thian-shan (thian'shan'), [Named from a 
range of mountains in central Asia.] A cen- 
tral Asian wild sheep, Orf t>oti, notable for the 2. Having (a specified) measurement in a di- 
enormous size of the male's horns, which are rection perpendicular to that of the length and 

breadth; measuring (so much) between oppo- 
site surfaces: as, a board one inch thick. 

The walles of the gallery are about two yardes thiett at 
the least. Coryal, Crudities, I. S3. 

Of Fruits, he reckons the lacapucaya, like a pot, as big 
as a great bowle, two fingers thicke, with a couer on It, 
within full of Chesnuts. Punhat, Pilgrimage, p. 843. 

3. Having numerous separate parts or indi- 
viduals set or occurring close together; dense; 
compactly arranged. 

He is the pyes patronn and pntteth it In hire ere, 
That there the thorne Is (AiMwrt to buylden and bredc. 
fieri Plmeman (li), xii. 228. 

We supposed him some French mans sonne, because he 
had a MiVAv hlacke bush beard, and the Salvages seldome 
haue any at nil. 

Quoted in Capt. John Smith'i Works, 1. 184. 

We caught another snow-storm, so Ihiek and blinding 
that we dared not venture out of the harbor. 

B. Taylor, Northern Travel, p. 16. 

4. Having relatively great consistency; also, 
containing much solid matter in suspension or 
solution; approaching the consistency of a 
solid ; inspissated : as, thick cream ; thick paste ; 
often of liquids, turbid; muddy; cloudy. 

I can selle 

* Hothe dregges and draffe, and drawe it at on hole, 
ThUtkt ale and thinnc ale. Piero Pltncman(B), xix.398. 
Forth gusht a stream of gore blood thick. 

Spenter, F. Q., II. 1. 39. 
Make the gruel thick and slab. 

Shak., Macbeth, iv. 1. 32. 

At the end, or snout, of the glacier this water issues 
forth, not indeed as a clear bright spring, but as a Mirilr 
stream laden with detritus. Hurley, Physiography, p. 161. 

5. Heavy; profound: intense; extreme; gretit. 

Mo>.>- sitlien held up is bond, 

And thikkf tlierknesse earn on that lond. 

Qenerii and Exodiu (E. E. T. S.), 1. 3102. 

Hangs upon mini 

Pericles, v. 1. 286. 

6. Oliscurc; not clear; , 'specially, laden with 
clouds or vapor; misty ; foggy : noting the at- 
mosphere, the weather, < tc. 

It continued thick and twlsterons all the night. 

U'iiillinqi, Hist. New Kngland, I. 22. 

Again the i-Tcnlng closes, in thick and sultry air; 
There 'i thunder on the mountains, the storm is gathering 
there'. Bryant, Count of (ireicir. 

7. Mentally dull; stupid; devoid of intelli- 
gence: as, to have a tliiek head. 

He a good wit ? hang him, baboon ! his wit 's as Mict as 
Tewksbury mustard. >/."*. 2 Me,, IV., il. 4. 262. 

What If you think our reasons thick, and our ground of 
separation mistaken'.' 1'enn, Liberty of Conscience, v. 

8. Mentally clouded; befogged; slow, weak, or 
defective in sense-perception, sometimes in 
moral perception : as, to be thick of sight, hear- 
ing, etc. : said of persons or of the organs of 


The people muddied, 

Thick and unwholesome in their thoughts and whispers. 
Shak., Hamlet, Iv. 5. 82. 
My sight was ever thick ; 
. . tell me what thou uotest about the IUM. 

Shak., J. i : . T. 3. 21. 
I am thick of hearing, 
Still, when the wind blows southerly. 

ford. Broken Heart, II. 1. 
A cloudlike change. 

In passing, with a grosser film made thick 
These heavy, horny eyes. 

Tennyfon, St. Simeon Stylites. 

9. Indistinct in utterance; inarticulate; not 

He rose and walked up and down the room, and Anally 
spoke In a Mi<*, husky voice, as one who pants with emo- 
tion. H, B. Stone, Oldtown, p. 460. 

10. Abounding; filled; plentifully supplied: 
followed by Kith (formerly of or for). 

The Westerne shore by which we sayled we found all 
along well watered, bnt very mountanous and barren, 
the vallies very fertill, but cxtreame thicke of small wood 
so well as trees. 

Quoted in Capt. John Smith' t Works, I. 176. 

His reign (Henry III.'s) was not onely long for continu- 
ance, flfty-slx years, but also thick jor remarkable muta- 
tions happening therein. Fuller, Ch. Hist., III. iv. 24. 
The air was thick ut'M falling snow. 

Bryant, Two Travellers. 

She looked up at Eve, her eyes thick irith tears. 

Harper', May., LXXVI1I. 44P. 

11. Numerous; plentiful; frequent; crowded. 
Thei were so Ihikke and so cntacched ech amonge other, 

that mo than a thousand till In to the river. 

Merlin (E. E. T. S.), IL 28C. 

These (Oxen and Klne] were . . . exceeding Ihiclre from 
the one end of the Market place ... to the other. 

Coryat, Crudities, I. Sf-. 

The brass hoof'd steeds tumultuous plunge and bound, 
And the Ihirk thunder beats the lab'rlng ground. 

J'ope, Iliad, xl. 19S. 
Lay me, 

When I shall die, within some narrow grave, 
Not by itself for that would be too proud 
But where such graves are thicket!. 

Bnnrning, Paracelsus. 

12. Being of a specified number; numbering. 

There is a guard of spies ten thick upon her. 

11. Jonson, Volpone, I. 1. 

13. Close in friendship; intimate. [Colloq.] 


Could conjure, tell fortunes, and calculate tides, . . . 
And was thought to be thick with the Man in the Moon. 
Barham. Ingoldshy Legends, I. 270. 

Don't you be getting too tliirk with him he 's got his 
father's blood in him too. 

Genrge Eliot, Mill on the Floss, ii. 6. 

Half-thick file. See /fel . Thick coal, a bed of coal In 
the Dudley district, England, averaging about thirty feet 
in thickness, "a source of enormous wealth to the dis- 
trict <///(>. Thick focalold, homeoid. Intestine. 
See the nouns. Thick limestone. Same a* wor-iimc. 
ton*. Thick register. See retrutcri, 5 (6). Thick 
squall. See wpiaHl. Thick Stuff, in thip building, a 
general name for all planking above 4 inches in thickness. 

All the timber, Midr-tu/, and plank to lie fresh-cut. 

La*lett, Timber, p. 76. 

Thick 'un, a sovereign ; also, a crown, or five shillings. 
Sometimes written thiclntn. (Cant) 

I will send a few thictum to bring you 

If you like . 
. . to Start. ' 

Cornhillilaa., VI. 64*. 

If he feel that it were better for him to quaff the flow - 
ing howl, and he has a drought within him, and a friend 
or a thirk 'un to stand by him, he is a poor weak cross- 
grained fool to refuse. 

Percy Clarke, The New Chum in Australia, p. 143. 

Through thick and thin, over smooth or rough places ; 
with or without obstruction : despite nil opposition; un- 
waveringly ; steadily. 


When the horse was laus, he gynneth gon . . . 

Forth with " We hee " Oatrgh thikke aiul Uatrah therme. 

Chaucer, Kceve's Tale, 1. 146. 
Through thick and thin, through mountains and through 


Those two great champions did attonco purscw 
The fearefull damzell. Spenser, F. Q., III. iv. 46. 

To lie daily, through thick and thin, and with every vari- 
ety of circumstance and detail which a genius fertile in 
fiction could suggest, such was the simple rule prescribed 
liy his [Alexander Farnese's] sovereign [1'hilip II.]. 

Motley, Hist. Netherlands, II. 311. 

To lay it on thick, to exaggerate ; be extravagant, es- 
pecially in laudation or flattery. [Colloq.] 

He had been giving the squire a full and particular ac- 
count k la Henslowe of my proceedings since I came. 
Henslowe lays it on thick paints with a will. 

Mrs. Humphry Ward, Robert Elsmere, xviii. 

II. . 1. The thickest part of anything, 
(a) That part which is of longest measurement across or 
through ; the bulkiest part. 

The freke . . . 

Braid out a big sword, bare to hym sone 
With a dedly dynt, & derit hym full euyll 
Throgh the thicke of the thegh. 

Destruction of Troy (E. E. T. S.), 1. 9021. 

An' blacksmith 'e strips me the thick ov 'is airm, an 'e 
sbaws it to me. Tennyson, Northern Cobbler. 

(6) The densest or most crowded part ; the place of great- 
est resort or abundance. 

Achimetes ... in the thick of the dust and smoke 
presently entered his men. Knolles. 

I am plain Elia no Selden, nor Archbishop Usher- 
though at present in the thick of their books. 

Lamb, Oxford In the Vacation. 

He has lived in the thick of people all his life. 

W. M. Baker, New Timothy, p. 104. 

(c) The spot of greatest intensity or activity. 

He dressed as if life were a battle, and he were appointed 
to the thick of the fight. T. Winthrop, Cecil Dreeme, iv. 

2. The time when anything is thickest. 

In the thick of question and reply 

I fled the house. Tennyson, The Sisters. 

3. A thicket; a coppice. [Obsolete or prov. 

They must in fine condemned be to dwell 
In thickes vnseene, in mewes for minyons made. 
Gascoigne, Philomene (Steele Glas, etc., ed. Arber, p. 118). 
Eft through the thicke they heard one rudely rush, 
With noyse whereof he from his loftie steed 
Downe fell to ground, and crept into a bush. 

Spenser, F. Q., II. iii. 21. 

4. A stupid person; a dullard; a blockhead; 
a numskull. [Colloq.] 

I told you how it would be. What a thick I was to come ! 
T. Hughes, Tom Brown at Rugby, 1. 7. 

thick (thik), adv. [< ME. thicke, thikke, < AS. 
thicce, thick; from the adj.] In a thick man- 
ner, in any sense. 
Quo for thro may nojt thole, the thikker he sufferes. 

Alliterative Poems (ed. Morris), iii. 6. 
He bethought hym full thicke in his throo hert, 
And in his wit was he war of a wyle sone. 

Destruction of Troy(E. E. T. S.), 1. 147. 

The Tree is so thikke charged that it semethe that it 

wolde breke. Mandevitte, Travels, p. 168. 

Speaking thick, which nature made his blemish, 
Became the accents of the valiant. 

SAffl*.,2Hen.IV., ii. 3. 24. 
Plied thick and close as when the fight begun, 
Their huge unwieldy navy wastes away. 

Dryden, Annas Mirabilis, cxxv. 
Thick beats his heart, the troubled motions rise 
(So, ere a storm, the waters heave and roll). 

Pope, Iliad, xn. 648. 
So thick they died the people cried, 
"The gods are moved against the land." 

Tennyson, The Victim. 

Thick and threefold, in quick succession, or in great 

They came thick and threefold for a time, till an experi- 
enced stager discovered the plot. Sir R. L' Estrange. 

thick (thik), v. [< ME. thicken, thikken, < AS. 
thiccian, make thick, < thicce, thick: see thick, 
] I. trans. To make thick; thicken, (a) To 
make close, dense, or compact ; specifically, to make com- 
pact by fulling. 

You may not forget to send some Western karseis, to 
wit dozens, which be thicked well. 

Hakluyt's Voyages, I. 358. 

That no cap should be thicked or fulled in any mill un- 
till the same had been well scoured and closed upon the 
bank, and half-footed at least upon the foot-stock. 

Fuller, Worthies, Monmouthshire. (Richardson.) 
(6) To increase in depth or girth ; swell the proportions 
of (a solid body); fatten. 

He [Pliny] writes also that caterpillars are bred by a 
dew, incrassated and thicked by the heat of the sun. 

Sec. T. Adams, Works, I. 79. 
(c) To give firmer consistency to ; inspissate. 

With sheeps milke thicked & salted they dresse and tan 
their hides. Hakluyt's Voyages, I. 99. 

The Night-Mare Life-in-Death was she, 
Who thicks man's blood with cold. 

Coleridge, Ancient Mariner, iii. 

(dt) To make obscure or dark ; hence, to hide ; conceal. 

Hauing past three days and three nightes, forsaking all 
high wayes, thicked my self in the great desert, and being 
utterly tired, . , . and no lesse in feare of them that 
should seek mee, I conueyed my selfe into a great caue. 
Guevara, Letters (tr. by Hellowes, 1577), p. 144. 

II. intrans. To become thick. 

But see, the Welkin thicks apace, 
And stouping Phebus steepes his face. 

Spenser, Shep. Cal., March. 

thick-and-thin (thik'and-thin'), a. 1. Ready 
to go through thick and thin; thorough; de- 
voted : as, a thick-and-thin supporter ; a thick- 
and-thin advocate of a measure. 2. Having 
one sheave thicker than the other. Thick-and- 
thin blocks were formerly used as quarter- 
blocks under a yard. 

thickback (thik'bak), n. A kind of sole-fish, 
Solea variegata. [Local, Eng.] 

thickbill (thik'bil), n. The bullfinch, Pyrrhula 
vulgaris. See cut under bullfinch. [Prov. Eng.] 

thick-brained (thik'brand), a. Stupid ; thick- 
skulled ; thick-headed. 

The thick-brain'd audience lively to awake. 

Drayton, Sacrifice to Apollo. 

thick-coming (thik'kum"ing), a. Coming or 
following in close succession; crowding. 

She is troubled with thick-coming fancies, 
That keep her from her rest. 

ShaJc., Macbeth, v. 3. 38. 

thicken 1 (thik'n), v. [= Icel. thykkna = Sw. 
tjockna = Dan. tykne, become thick ; as thick 
+ -en 1 .] I. intrans. To become thick or 
thicker, (a) To grow dense. 

Through his young woods how pleased Sabinus stray'd, 
Or sate delighted in the thickening shade, 
With annual joy the reddening shoots to greet. 

Pope, Moral Essays, iv. 90. 

No swelling twig puts forth its thickening leaves. 

Jones Very, Poems, p. 105. 

(&) To become deeper or heavier ; gain bulk. 

The downy flakes, . . . 
Softly alighting upon all below, 
Assimilate all objects. Earth receives 
Gladly the thickening mantle. 

Cowper, Task, iv. 330. 

(c) Of a liquid, to approach more nearly a state of solidity ; 
gain firmer consistency; also, to become turbid or cloudy. 
(<f) To become dark or obscure ; specifically, of the wea- 
ther, etc., to become misty or foggy. 

Thy lustre thickens, 
When he shines by. Shak., A. and C., ii. 3. 27. 

The weather still thickening, and preventing a nearer 
approach to the land. Cook, Third Voyage, vi. 3. 

Through the thickening winter twilight, wide apart the 
battle rolled. W hittier, Angels of Bnena Vista. 

(e) To grow more intense, profound, animated, intricate, 
etc. ; become complicated. 

Bayes. Ay, now the Plot thickens very much upon us. 

Pret. What Oracle this darkness can evince? 
Sometimes a Fishers Son, sometimes a Prince. 

Buckingham, The Rehearsal, iii. 2. 

The combat thickens like the storm that flies. 

Dryden, JEneid, is. 908. 
A clamour thicken'd, mixt with inmost terms 
Of art and science. Tennyson, Princess, ii. 

(/) To gain in number or frequency ; hence, to crowd ; 

The gath'ring murmur spreads, their trampling feet 
Beat the loose sands, and thicken to the fleet. 

Pope, Iliad, ii. 184. 

I have not time to write any longer to you ; but you 
may well expect our correspondence will thicken. 

Walpole, Letters, II. 245. 

The differences . . . became . . . numerous and com- 
plicated as the arrivals thickened. 

Dickens, Dombey and Son, xiv. 
(g) To become indistinct. 

Under the influence of which (port), . . . though the 
heart glows more and more, there comes a time when the 
brow clouds, and the speech thickens, and the tongue re- 
fuses to act. W. Besant, Fifty Years Ago, p. 121. 

II. trans. To make thick or thicker, (a) To 
make dense, close, or compact; specifically, to full, as 

About which a bright thickned bush of golden haire did 

Which Vulcan forg'd him for his plume. 

Chapman, Iliad, xix. 368. 

Youngest Autumn, in a bower < 

Qmpe-thicken'd from the light, and blinded 
With many a deep-hued bell-like flower. 

Tennyson, Eleanore. 

(!>) To increase in depth, or distance between opposite 
surfaces; hence, figuratively, to make stouter or more 
substantial ; strengthen. 

This may help to thicken other proofs 
That do demonstrate thinly. 

Shak., Othello, iii. 3. 430. 
Now god-like Hector . . . 

Squadrons on squadrons drives, and tills the fields 
With close-rang'd chariots, and with thicken'd shields. 

Pope, Iliad, viii. 261. 


(c) Of liquids, to increase the consistency of; inspissate: 
as, to thicken gravy with flour ; also, to render turbid or 

Whilst others thicken all the slimy dews, 
And into purest honey work the juice. 

Addison, tr. of Virgil's Georgics, IT. 

Water stop'd gives Birth 
To Grass and Plants, and thickens into Earth. 

Prior. Solomon, i. 

(d) To obscure with clouds or mist; befog. 

Now the thicken'd sky 
Like a dark ceiling stood ; down rush'd the rain. 

Milton, P. L., xi. 742. 

(e) To make more numerous or frequent; redouble: as, 
to thicken blows. 

thicken 2 (thik'en), w. A spelling of thick 'mi 
(which see, under thick, a.). 

thickener (thik'ner), n. [< thicken^ + -cr 1 .] 
One who or that which thickens; specifically, 
in calico-printing, a substance used to give to 
the mordant or the dye such consistency as 
will prevent it from spreading too much, or to 
add to the weight of the fabric in the process 
of dyeing. Various materials are used, as gum arabic, 
gum Senegal, gum tragacanth, jalap, pipe-clay, dextrine, 
potato- and rice-starch, sulphate of lead, sugar, and mo- 
lasses, but wheat-starch and flour are the best. 

thickening (thik'ning), n. [Verbal n. of thick- 
en, ).] 1. The act or process of making or 
becoming thick. 

The patient, as years pass on, shows other evidences of 
the gouty diathesis, such as ... gouty thickenings of the 
cartilages of the pinna. Lancet, 1890, II. 116. 

2. A substance used in making thick ; specifi- 
cally, in dyeing and calico-printing, same as 

Only two mineral thickenings are at present employed : 
namely, kaolin and pipe-clay. 

W. Crookes, Dyeing and Calico-printing, p. 17. 

3. That which has become thick. 

Many small miliary deposits existed all over the peri- 
toneum, resembling the whitish-yellow thickenings often 
found on the capsule of the spleen. Lancet, 1890, I. 403. 

thicket (thik'et), n. [< ME. "thicket,. < AS. 
thiccet (pi. thiccelu), a thicket, < thicce, thick: 
see thick.] A number of shrubs, bushes, or 
trees set and growing close together ; a thick 
coppice, grove, or the like. 
As when a lion in a thicket pent, 
Spying the boar all bent to combat him, 
Makes through the shrubs and thunders as he goes. 
Peele, Polyhymnia, 1. 124 (Works, ed. BuUen, II. 293). 

thicketed (thik'et-ed), a. [< thicket + -ecft.'} 
Abounding in thickets ; covered with thick 
bushes or trees. 

These fields sloped down to a tiny streamlet with densely 
thicketed banks. H. Hayes, Sons and Daughters, xviii. 

thickety (thik'et -i), a. [< thicket + -yi.] 
Abounding in thickets. [Rare.] 
thick-eyed (thik'Id), a. Dim -eyed; weak- 

Thick-eyed musing and cursed melancholy. 

Shak., 1 Hen. IV., ii. 3. 49. 

thickhead (thik'hed), n. 1. A stupid fellow; 
a blockhead; a numskull. 2. laornith.: (a) 
A shrike-like bird of the subfamily Pachyce- 
phalinee. See cut under Pachycephala. (ft) A 
scansorial barbet of the subfamily Capitoninee. 
Coues. See cut under Capita White-throated 
thickhead. Same as thunder-bird, 1. 

thick-headed (thik'hed"ed), . 1. Having a 
thick or bushy head. 

Bring it near some thick-headed tree. 

Mortimer, Husbandry. (Latham.) 

2. Having a thick skull ; dull ; stupid ; dolt- 
ish. 3. In Crustacea, pachycephalous ; of or 
pertaining to the Pachycephala Thick-headed 
mullet, shrike, etc. See the nouns. 

thickknee (thik'ne), n. A bird of the family 
(Edicnemidx; a thick-kneed plover, or stone- 
plover. The common thickknee of European countries 
is (Edicnemus crepitans, also called Norfolk plover and by 
other names. See stone-plover, and cut under (Edicne- 

thick-kneed (thik'ned), a. Having thick knees 
that is, haying the tibiotarsal articulation 
swollen or thickened, as the young of many 
wading birds: specifically noting the birds of 

, the family (Edicnemidx. See cut under CEdic- 
ncinits. Thick-kneed bustard, a thickknee: it is not 
a bustard. 

thickleaf (thik'lef), . A plant of the genus 

thick-leaved (thik'levd), a. Having thick 
leaves; also, thickly set with leaves. 

The nightingale, among the thick-leac'd spring 
That sits alone in sorrow. 

Fletcher, Faithful Shepherdess, v. 8. 

thick-legged (tliik'leg // fd or -logtl), a. Having 
thick legs, as an insect. Thick-legged lily-bee- 
tles, the Layriidse, as distinguished from the Crioceridx. 


thick-lipped (thik'lipt), . Having thick lips, 
as a negro; Inbroid, us a lisli; I hickened around 
the edges, as an ulcer Thick-lipped perch. Sec 

JH'Tl'lt 1 . 

thicklips (thik'lips), H. A person having thick 
lips a characteristic of the negro race: used 

What n full fortune does the thick lips owe, 

If he can cany 't thus ! Shak., Othello, i. 1. 68. 

thickly (thik'li), ndr. Ill a thick manner, in 

any sense of the word thirl;; densely; closely; 
deeply; abundantly; frequently. 

thickness (thik'nes'), . |< MK. IMJautM, < AS. 
lliiriir.i, < oWrrr, thick: see tliicl:'] 1. The state 
or property of being thick, in any sense; spe- 
cifically, that, dimension of a solid body which 
is at right :ingles both to its length and to its 
breadth : the third or least dimension of a solid. 

Sox fyngre thlckc a floore thereof thou pave 
With lyme and asshcs nilxt with cole and sande, 
A flake above in thikncxse of thyne hande. 

I'alladilit, Illlsbondrie (E. E. T. 8.), p. 13. 

The height of one pillar was eighteen cublta; . . . and 
the thickness thereof was four fingers. Jer. Hi. 21. 

2. That which is thick; the thick of anything; 
the dense, heavy, deep, or solid part. 

The chambers were In the thickness of the wall of the 
court toward the east. Ezek. xlii. 10. 

This enormous thickness of nearly three miles of Old 
Red Sandstone. J. CroU, Climate and Cosmology, p. 270. 

3. A fold, layer, or sheet, as of cloth or paper. 

4. In founding, the sand or loam placed tem- 
porarily in a mold while it is being prepared 
for casting. It is afterward removed, and its 
place is filled with the molten metal. 

thickness (thik'nes), t'. t. [< thickness, .] To 
reduce to a uniform thickness before dressing 
to shape : said of boards and timber. [Trade 

thick-pleached (thik'plecht), a. Thickly in- 

The prince and Count Claudio, walking In ^thick-pleached 
alley In my orchard, were thus much overheard by a man 
of mine. Shak., Much Ado, 1. 2. 10. 

thick-set (thik'set), . and . I. a. 1. Set, 
growing, or occurring closely together; dense; 

His eyeballs glare with Ore, suflfus'd with blood ; 
His neck shoots up a thick set thorny wood. 
Drtfden, tr. of Ovid's Metamorph., vlii., Meleager and 
[Atalanta, 1. 23. 

Live long, ere from thy topmost head 
The thick-set hazel dies. 

Tennyson, Will Waterproof. 

2. Thickly studded; abounding; plentifully 

With windows of this kind the town of Curzola is thick- 
set In every quarter. E. A. Freeman, Venice, p. 214. 

3. Heavily or solidly built ; stout ; especially, 
short and stout. 

At Orantham, 1 believe, he sat up all night to avoid 
sleeping in the next room to a thick-set squinting fellow, 
In a black wig and a tarnished gold-laced waistcoat. 

Scott, Rob Roy, III. 

Laying a short, thickset linger upon my arm, he looked 
up In my face with an investigating air. 

Bulirer, Pelham, xxxvi. 

Thick-set cord, a kind of thick-set of which the surface 
is ribbed like that of corduroy. 

II. . 1. A close or thick hedge. 2. Very 
thick or dense underwood; bush; scrub. 3. 
A kind of fustian having a nap like that of vel- 
veteen. It is used for clothes by persons en- 
gaged in manual work. 

thick-sighted (thik'si'ted), a. Dim of sight; 

Whereas before she could see some furniture >M her 
house, now she could perceive none : she was erst thick- 
sighted, but now purblind. Ken. T. Adams, Works, I. 388. 

thickskin(thik'skin), it. and a. I. it. One who 
has a thick skin that is, one who is insensible 
to or not easily irritated by taunts, reproaches, 
ridicule, or the like ; a rude, unimpressible per- 

The shallowest thick-skin of that barren sort. 

Shak., M. N. D., ill. >. 13. 

II. a. Same as 

Nor can I bide to pen some hungry scene 
For thick-skin ears, and undiscerning eyne. 

Bp. Hall, Satires, I. 8. 

thick-skinned (thik'skind), a. 1. Having a 

thick skin or rind: as, a thii-k-/skinnrd animal; a 
thick-skinned orange. 2. Specifically, in .-<"'</.. 
pachydermatous, as a rhinoceros ; belonging to 
tin 1 I'tiflii/ili-rii/iitit. 3. Insensible to reproach, 
ridicule, or insult : dull: stolid. 

He is too Ihifk-tHnnfil to mind eloquent and indignant 
criticism. The American, IX. 387. 


thickskull (tliik'sknl), H. A dull person; a 

thick-skulled (thik'skuhl), n. Dull; heavy; 

stupid ; slow t o learn. 

This downright lighting fool, this thick-skulled hero. 

I>ryilen. All for Love, 111. 1. 

thick-Stamen (thik'stii'men), n. See I'urlii/ 

thick-starred (thik'stard), a. Strewn thickly 
with stars. [Rare.] 

In some wynters nyht whan the armament Is clere and 
thikkc-strrred. Chaucer, Astrolabe, II. 28. 

thick-tongued i thik'tungd), a. Having a thick 
tongue ; specifically, in lierpet., pachyglossate. 

thick-wind (thik'wind), . Impeded respira- 
tion of the horse, somewhat louder and less free 
than normal breathing. This may be due to roaring, 
to asthma (heaves), or to encroachment upon the lungs of 
a distended stomach or pregnant uterus. 

thick-winded (thik'win'ded), a. Affected with 

thick-wind, as a horse. 

thick-witted (thik'wit'ed), a. Dull of wit; 
stupid; thick-headed. 

A pretty face and a sweet heart . . . often overturn a 
thick-tritted or a light-headed man. 

The Century, XXVI. 388. 

thicky (thik'i), (i. [< thick + -yl.] Thick. 

It was neere a thicky shade, 

That broad leaues of Beech had made. 

Greene, Descrlp. of the Shepherd and his Wife. 

thidert, ndr. A Middle English form of thither. 


thief 1 (thef), n. ; jpl. thietex (thevz). [Early mod. 
E. also theef; < ME. theef, thef (pi. themes, thet-es, 
tln/i-rrg, thifeg), < AS. theof (pi. theofas) = OS. 
thiof = OrVies. thwf, tief = D. diff= MLG. def 
= OHG. diob, MHG. die},, G. dieb = Icel. thtofr 
= Sw. (// = Dan. tyv = Goth, thiufs (thiitb-), 
thief: root unknown. Hence thiece, theft.] 1. 
A person who steals, or is guilty of larceny or 
robbery; one who takes the goods or property 
of another without the owner's knowledge or 
consent; especially, one who deprives another 
of property secretly or without open force, as 
opposed to a robber, who openly uses violence. 
In the authorized version of the Bible, however, and in 
the older literature generally, thief is used where we now 
say robber. 

The othre byeth the little thyeues, thet steleth Ine the 
house bread, wyn, an othre thingea. 

Ayenbitc of Intryt (E. E. T. S.\ p. 38. 

A certain man went down from Jerusalem to Jericho, 

and fell among thieves, which stripped him of his raiment 

Luke x. 30. 
Draw forth thy weapon, we are beset with thieves. 

Shot., T. of the 8., Hi. 2. 238. 

The class that waa called "travelling thieves," who, with- 
out being professional cracksmen, would creep Into an 
unprotected house or rob a hen-roost. 

Nineteenth Century, XXVI. 771. 

2. A person guilty of cunning or deceitful 
acts; a lawless person; an evil-doer: used in 

Angelo Is an adulterous thief. Shak., M. for M., r. 1. -I". 

3. An imperfection in the wick of a candle, 
causing it to gutter. [Prov. Eng.] 

Where you see a thief In the candle, call presently for 
an extinguisher. Bp. Halt, Remains, p. 48. (Latham.) 

If there bee a theefe In the Candle (as wee used to say 
commonly), there is a way to pull It out, and not to put 
out the Candle, by clapping an Extinguisher presently 
upon it. Hoirell, Forrelnc Travel!, 1642 (ed. Arber), p. 77. 

4. A tin can to which a small line or becket is 
attached, used as a drinking-cup by sailors. It 
is made heavier on one side, so that it will cap- 
size when it is dropped in the water. 5. A 
thief-tube. 6. Same as hermit-crab. [Local, 
U. S. ] Bait-thief, a fish that takes the bait from a book 
without getting eaught. [Fishermen's slang.] Thieves' 
Latin. See /."'-".Thieves' vinegar, a kind of vinegar 
made by digesting rosemary-tops, sage-leaves, etc., in vine- 
gar, formerly believed to be an antidote against the plague. 
It derived its name and popularity from a story that four 
thieves who plundered the dead during the plague ascribed 
their impunity to this infusion. It has been long disused as 
worthless. =Syn. Pilferer, Pirate(see robber), pickpocket, 
cutpurse. Sec pillage, n. 

thief 2 (thef), H. [< ME. there, < AS. thefe, the 
bramble: see thcve, there-thorn.] The bramble 
R ubus fruticoniis. Compare there-thorn, lirit- 
ti n find Holland. [Prov. Eng.] 
thief-catcher (thef'kach'er), M. One who 
catches thieves, or whose business is to detect 
thieves and bring them to justice. 

My evenings all I would with sharpers spend, 
And make the thief-catcher my bosom friend. 


thief-leader (thef le'der), n. One who leads 
away or takes a thief. [Rare.] 

A wolf passed by as the thief-leaders were dragging a 
fox to execution. Sir R. L'Ettrange. 

thieflyt ithf-no. '/<. [< MK. //<. //-/. / 

tkmeli, tliirilii-li. 11,',,/hr/,, : ' lliiifl + -ly-.\ 
Like H thief: hence, stealthily : -ecrellv. 
Theuetich Y am had awry fro the ioond <>f Hebrew. 

>/,/, On. \\. U. 

In the night ful theejty gan he stalke. 

Chaucer, <;<M>'| \\H,,I>II, I. 1781. 

thief-stolen (thef'sto'ln), . stolen liy a thief 
or thieves. | Rare.] 

Had I been <Au/-*M', 
A my two brothers, happy ! 

Shak., I'yiiilieline, I. 8. 5. 

thief-taker (thef ta'ker), . One whose buni 
ness it is to find and take thieves and 
them to justice ; a thief-catcher. 
thieftCOUSlyt, ndr. Same as thrt'lii'insli/. 
thief-tube (thef tub), . A sampling-tube; a 
tube which may be inserted in a bung-hole. 
and, when filled with the liquid in the cask, 
withdrawn with its contents by placing the 
thumb over the upper end. 
thietsee, . See theetsee. 

thieve (thev), t'.; pret. and pp. tliiirtd, ppr. 
thieving. [< ME. 'theren, < AS. tlieojian, thieve, 
< (/ierf/athief:see (AiV/1.1 I. intning. Tobea 
thief; practise theft; steal; prey. 

He knows not what may thiece upon his senses, 
Or what temptation may rise. 

Shirley, Love's Cruelty, I. 1. 
Or proul In courts of law for human prey, 
In venal senate Uiieec, or rob on broad highway. 

Thomson, Cattle of Indolence, 1. 13. 

II. trant. To take by theft; steal. 

My mother still 
Affirms your Psyche thieved her theories. 

Tennyson, Princes*, Hi. 

thieveless (thev'les), a. [Cf . theickss.] Cold ; 
forbidding. Jamieson. [Scotch.] 

Wl' thiertlra sneer to see his modish mien, 
lie, down the water, gi'es him this guid-e'en. 

Burns, Brigs of Ayr. 

thievery (thev'er-i), w. ; pi. thiercriett (-iz). 
[= OKries. dererie = G. diebcrei = Svr.tlufreri 
= Dan. tyreri; as thieve + -cry.] 1. The act 
or practice of stealing; theft. 

Xnaverie, Villanle, and Thienerie '. I smell it rank, she ' 
stoln, she 'a gone directlie. Brmne, Northern*. ii. 0. 

We owe a great deal of picturesqueness to the quarrels 
and thieveries of the barons of the M iddle Ages. 

/yoirrfi, Fireside Travels, p. 254. 

2. That which is stolen. 

Injurious time now with a robber's haste 
Crams his rich thierery up, he knows not how. 

Shak., T. and C., Iv. 4. 45. 

thieves. . Plural of thief. 

thievish (the'vish), a. [= D. diefsch = MLG. 
devisch = G. diebisch; as thief 4- -i&l.] 1. Ad- 
dicted to, concerned in, or characterized by 
thievery ; pertaining in any manner to theft. 

Or with a base and boisterous sword enforce 
A thievish living on the common road. 

MhKk., As you Like it, II. 3. 33. 
O MiiVnx/i Night. 

Why shouldst thon, but for some felonious end, 
In thy dark lantern thus close up the stars? 

Miltini, Conills, 1. 199. 

2. Stealthy; furtive; secret; sly. 
He sltteth lurking In the thievish corners of the streets. 
Book of Common Prayer, Psalter, Vs. x. 8. 
Thou by thy dial's shady stealth mayst know 
Time's thievish progress to eternity. 

Shale.. Sonnets, KM ii 

thievishly (the'vish-li), tide. In a thievish 
manner; like a thief; by theft. 

thievishness (the'vish-nes), n. The state or 
character of being thievish. Bnilry, 1727. 

thig (thig), r. ; pret. and pp. thigged, ppr. tliii/- 
ijiiifi. [< ME. thiijijen, < AS. thirgnn, tliicgeau, 
take, receive, partake of, = OS. tUgffiau, tliiij- 
gean = OHG. dilckan, tliiehan. thiyyen, MHG. 
dii/en = Icel. thigoja, get, receive, receive hos- 
pitality for a night, = Sw. tigga = Dan. tiyy. 
beg as a mendicant. The E. form and sense 
are due rather to Scand. The reg. form from 
AS. thicgan would be "tliiilye.] I. traiix. To 
beseech; supplicate; implore: especially, to 
ask as alms; beg. Compare thiyycr. 
And now me bus, as a beggar, my bred for to thigye 
At dores vpon dayes, that dayres me full sore. 

Destruction of Troy (E. E. T. S.\ 1. 13M. 

II. intrans. To make supplication ; specifical- 
ly, to profit by or live on the gifts of others: 
take alms. See the quotation under sorn. 

They were fain to thi;ry and cry for peace and good-will. 
Pittcottie, p. .';. (Jamiemi.) 

fProv. Eng. and Scotch in both uses.] 
thigger (thig'er), n. [Also Sc. thiijgar, Shet- 
laml tiygar; = Sw. tiyynri- = Dan. tigger, abeg- 
gnr; as Ihiy + -rrl.] One who thigs; a beg- 


gar; especially, one who solicits a gift (as of 
seed-corn from one's neighbors), not on the 
footing of a mendicant, but in a temporary 
strait or as having some claim on the liberality 
of others. [Scotch.] 

thigh (thi), n. [< ME. 'thigh, tliili, tliig, thy, 
then, the, thegh, thelt, theg, theo, < AS. the6h, theo 
= OS. tltio = OFries. thiach, Fries, tjea = MD. 
diege, dieghe, die, dye, dije, D. dije, dij = MLG. 
deck, dee, de = OHG. dioli, dieh, MHG. diech 
(dieh-) =Icel. thjo, thigh; connection with thick 
and theel uncertain.] 1. That part of the leg 
which is between the hip and the knee in man, 
and the corresponding part of the hind limb 
of other animals; the femoral region, deter- 
mined by the extent of the thigh-bone or fe- 
mur ; the femur. The fleshy mass of the thigh con- 
sists of three groups of muscles : the extensors of the leg, 
in front ; the flexors of the leg, behind ; the adductors of 
the thigh, on the inner side together with a part of the 
gluteal muscles, extended on to the thigh from the but- 
tocks. The line of the groin definitely separates the thigh 
from the belly in front ; and the transverse fold of the but- 
tocks (the gluteofemoral crease) similarly limits the thigh 
behind when the leg is extended. The inner or adduc- 
torial muscles are especially well developed in women. 
The thigh of most mammals and birds is buried in the 
flesh of what appears to be the trunk ; so that the first 
joint of the hind leg which protrudes from the body is 
beyond the knee-joint. There are some exceptions to this 
rule, as the thigh of the camel and elephant. Many rep- 
tiles and batrachians have extensive thighs well marked 
from the trunk, as ordinary lizards, frogs, newts, etc. No 
thigh is recognized as such in fishes. Bee cuts under mus- 
del and Plantiarada. 

Like the bee, . . . 
Our thighs pack'd with wax, our mouths with honey. 

Shak., 2 Hen. IV., iv. 6. 77. 

2. In ornith. : (a) The flank, or the feathers 
overlying this region of the body, correspond- 
ing to the thigh proper, which is deeply buried 
in the common integument of the body. (6) 
Loosely, the next joint of the leg ; the cms ; 
the drumstick: especially said when the fea- 
thers of this part are conspicuous in length or 
in color, as the "flag" of a hawk. 3. In en- 
torn,, the third joint or segment of any one of 
the six or eight legs of a true insect, or of an 
arachnidan; the femur, between the trochan- 
ter and the tibia or shank. In some insects, as 
grasshoppers, locusts, crickets, and such saltatorial forms, 
the thigh is much enlarged, and forms with the tibia a 
letter A, reaching high above the body ; such thighs are 
technically called incrassate femora. The three pairs of 
thighs of a six-legged insect are distinguished as anterior, 
middle, and posterior. See cut under coxa. 
4f. The lower and larger part of the stalk of a 
plant ; the stock or trunk. 

The vyne hie and of fecunditee 

In brannches VIII ynough is to dilate, 

Aboute his thegh lette noo thing growing be. 

Palladim, Husbondrie (E. E. T. 8.), p. 70. 

thight.r. t. [ME. thyen; < thigh, ,] To carve 
(a pigeon or other small bird). 

Thye all maner of small byrdes. 

Babees Book (E. E. T. 8.), p. 265. 

thigh-bone (thi'bon), n. The single bone of 
the thigh of any vertebrate; the femur (which 
see for description). In man it is the longest and 
largest bone of the body. See cuts under digititjrade, fe- 
mur, and the various names of mammals, birds, etc., cited 
under the word skeleton. 

thighed (thid), . [< ME. y-thied; < thigh + 
-ed2.~\ Having thighs : especially used in com- 
position : as, the red-thighed locust, Caloptenus 
femur-rubrum. See cut under grasshopper. 

The best is like a bosshe ythied breefe. 

Palladius, Husbondrie (E. E. T. 8.), p. 69. 
The additions to the Zoological Society's Gardens dur- 
ing the past week include ... a wliite-thighed Colobus. 

Nature, XLII. 303. 

Thighed metapodlus, Metapodius femoratus, a large 
predaceous reduvioid bug, 
common in the southern 
United States, and noted as a 
destroyerof injurious insects, 
particularly the cotton-worm, 
Aletia xylina, and the army- 
worm, Leucania unipuncta. 

thigh-joint (thi' joint), 

it. The coxa, or coxal 

articulation, usually 

called hip-joint (which 

thilkt (THilk), pron. adj. 

[Also contr. thick, thic ; 

< ME. thilk, Mike, thylke, 

thtilke, < AS. thylc, thyl- 

lic, thillic, that, that 

same, the same (= Icel. 

tlmlikr = Sw. aesslikes 

= Dan. deslige, such), < thy, instr. of theet, that, 

the, -I- -lie, E. -fyl : see like*, -lyl, and cf. such, 

which (whilk), which have the same terminal 

element.] This same; that same; that. 

Thighed Metapodius (.Metapc- 
ctius /emoratus). 


To rekene with hymself, as wel may be, 
Of thilke yeer, how that itwith hym stood. 

Chaucer, Shipman's Tale, 1. 79. 

Did not ttiillt bag-pipe, man, which thou dost blow, 
A Farewell on our soldiers erst bestow ? 

Peele, An Eclogue. 

thill (thil), n. [Also dial, fill; < ME. thille, 
tin/lie, < AS. thill (?), a board, plank, stake, 
pole, = OHG. dili, m., dilla, f., MHG. dille, dil, 
G. diete, a board, plank. = Icel. thilja, a plank, 
deal, a rower's bench, = Sw. tilja = Dan. tilje, 
a pole, stake, beam; akin to AS. thcl, a board, 
plank, = MD. dele, D. deel, a board, plank, floor, 
= MLG. LG. dete , a board, plank, floor, etc. : 
see dealt, the same word received through the 
D.] 1. A shaft (one of a pair) of a cart, gig, 
or other carriage. The thills extend from the 
body of the carnage, one on each side of the 
horse. See cut under sleigh, 

And bakward beth they thilles made full sure, 
As forwarde hath a drey, and in that ende 
An meke oxe that wol drawe & stonde & wende 
Wel yoked be, and forwarde make it fare. 

Palladius, Husbondrie (E. E. T. 8.), p. 159. 

2. In coal-mining : (a) The surface upon the 
tram runs, (b) The under-day. See under- 
day. [Prov. Eng.] 

thill-coupling (thirkup'ling), . A device for 
fastening the shafts of a vehicle to the front 
axle. E. H. Knight. 

thiller (thil'er), . [Also dial, filler; < thill + 
-ei' 1 .] A thill-horse. Compare wheeler. 

Five great wains, . . . drawn with five-and-thirty strong 

cart-horses, which was six for every one besides the thiller. 

Urquhart, tr. of Rabelais, ii. 2. 

thill-horse (thil'hors), n. [Also dial, fill-horse, 
sometimes spelled irreg. phillhorse ; < ME. thil- 
hors, tliylle hors; (. thill + horsel.] A horse 
which goes between the thills or shafts and 
supports them. Palsgrave. 

thill-jack (thil'jak), n. A tool for connecting 
the thills of a carriage to the clips of the axle. 
E. H. Knight. 

thill-tug (thil'tug), n. A loop of leather de- 
pending from the harness-saddle, to hold the 
shaft of a vehicle. E. H. Knight. 

thimble (thim'bl), n. [Also dial, thimmel, tliim- 
ell, thummel; < ME. thimbil (with excrescent 
l> as in thumb), "thumel, < AS. thymel, a thim- 
ble, orig. used on the thumb (as sailors use 
them still) ; with suffix -el, < thuma, thumb ; cf . 
(with diff. meaning) Icel. thumall, thumb : see 
tliumb^.~\ 1. An implement used for pushing 
the needle in sewing, worn on one of the fin- 
gers, usually the middle finger of the right hand. 
It is generally bell-shaped, but as used in some trades is 
open at the end. The sailmakers' thimble (usually spelled 
thummel) consists of a kind of ring worn on the thumb, 
and having a small disk like the seal of a ring, with small 
depressions for the needle. 

Hast thou ne'er a Brass Thimble clinking in thy Pocket? 
Congrem, Way of the World, iii. 3. 
I sing the Thimble armour of the fair ! 

Ramsay, The Thimble. 

2. In tnecli., a sleeve, skein, tube, bushing, or 
ferrule used to join the ends of pipes, shafting, 
etc., or to fill an opening, expand a tube, cover 
an axle, etc. It is made in a variety of shapes, and is 
called thimble -joint, thimble-coupling, thimble-skein, etc. 
See cut under coupling. 

3. Naut., an iron or brass ring, concave on the 
outside so as to fit in a rope, block-strap, crin- 
gle, etc., and prevent chafe, as well as to pre- 
serve shape ; also, an iron ring attached to the 

end of drag-ropes Clue thimble, a metal sheath 
or guard serving to prevent wear or chafing of the rope 
forming the eye of a sail. Fairy thimble, the fox- 
glove, Digitalis purpurea. Britten and Holland. [Prov. 
Eng.] Thimble and Bodkin Army, in Eng. hist., a 
name given by the Royalists during the Civil War to the 
Parliamentarian army, in contemptuous allusion to an al- 
leged source of their supplies. See the quotation. 

The nobles being profuse in their contributions of plate 
for the service of the king [Charles I.] at Oxford, while on 
the parliamentary side the subscriptions of silver offerings 
included even such little personal articles as those that 
suggested the term the Thimble and Bodkin Army. 

S. Dowett, Taxes in England, II. 3. 

Witches'-thimble, the fox-glove, Digitalis purpurea. 
The name is also given to several other plants. Britten 
and Holland. [Prov. Eng.] (See also cartrine-thimble.) 

thimbleberry (thim'bl-ber'i), . ; pi. thimble- 

licn-ies (-iz). See raspberry, 2. 
thimble-case (thim'bl-kas), M. A case for con- 
taining a thimble, or two or more thimbles of 
different patterns for different kinds of work. 
A myrtle foliage round the thimble-ease. 

Pope, The Basset Table. 

thimble-coupling (thim'bl-kup'ling), n. See 

thimble-eye (thim'bl-i), . The thimble-eyed 
mackerel, or chub-mackerel, Scomber colias. 


thimble-eyed (thim'bl-Id), n. Having eyes re- 
sembling a thimble: used of the chub-mackerel. 

thimbleful (thim'bl-ful), . [< thimble + -/.] 
As much as a thimble will hold; hence, a very 
small quantity. 

Yes, and measure for measure, too, Sosia ; that is, for a 
thimble-full of gold a thimble-full of love. 

Dryden, Amphitryon, iv. 1. 

thimble-joint (thim'bl-joint), . A sleeve-joint 
with an interior packing, to keep the joints of 
a pipe tight during expansion and contraction. 
E. H. Knight. 

thimble-lily (thim'bl-lil"i), . An Australian 
liliaceous plant, Slandfordia nobilis, with ra- 
cemed flowers of a form to suggest the name. 

thimbleman (thim'bl-man), n. ; pi. thimblemen 
(-men). Same as thimbleriyger. 

As the thimble-men say, ' ' There 's a fool born every min- 
ute." Mayhew, London Labour and London Poor, I. 385. 

thimble-pie (thim'bl-pi), . Chastisement by 

' ;h a thim- 

.. To make thim- 
ble-pie. See the quotation. 

means of a sharp tap or blow given with 
ble on the finger. [Prov. Eng.] To ma 

Years ago there was one variety [of thimble] which 
little boys and girls knew as "dame's thimell." It was 
in constant use in the making of " thimell-pie," or "thim- 
my-pie t " the dame of the little schools then common in 
all villages using her thimble a great iron one upon 
the children's heads when punishment was necessary. 
This was called thimell-pie making, and the operation was 
much dreaded. N.- and Q., 7th ser., IX. 95. 

thimblerig (thim'bl-rig), n. A sleight-of-hand 
trick played with three small cups shaped like 
thimbles, and a small ball or pea. The ball or pea 
is put on a table and covered with one of the cups. The 
operator then begins moving the cups about, offering to 
bet that no one can tell under which cup the pea lies. 
The one who bets is seldom allowed to win. 

I will . . . appear to know no more of you than one of 
the cads of the thimble-rig knows of the pea-holder. 

T. Hook, Gilbert Gurney, vii. 

A merry blue-eyed boy, fresh from Eton, who could do 
thimble-ng, "prick the garter," "bones" with his face 
blacked, and various other accomplishments. 

Whyte Melville, White Rose, II. iv. 

thimblerig (thim'bl-rig), . ; pret. and pp. tltim- 
blerigged, ppr. thimblerigging. [< thimblerig, -.] 
To cheat by means of thimblerig, or sleight of 

thimblerigger (thim'bl-rig'er), n. [< thimble- 
rig + -eri.] One who practises the trick of 
thimblerig; a low trickster or sharper. Also 

thimblerigging (thim'bl-rig'ing), n. [Verbal 
n. of thimblerig, t\] The actor practice of play- 
ing thimblerig ; deception or trickery by sleight 

The explanations of these experts is usually only clever 
thimble-rigging. J. Burroughs, The Century, XXVII. 926. 

thimble-skein (thim'bl-skan), . In a vehicle, 

a, axUtree ; b, hub ; c, thimble-.skcin ; rf, nut. 

a sleeve over the arm of a wagon-axle, as dis- 
tinguished from a strap-skein. E. H. Knight. 

thimbleweed (thim'bl-wed), n. An American 
anemone, Anemone rirginiana. It is a plant 2 or s 
feet high with whitish flowers on long upright peduncles, 
the fruiting heads having the form and markings of a thini- 
ble. Rudbeckia laciniata has also been thus named. 

thimet, See thyme. 

thimmel, . A dialectal form of thimble. 

thin 1 (thin), a. [< ME. thiiine. thynne, tlii'iinr, 
t/i untie, < AS. thynne = MD. D. dun = MLG. 
dunne, LG. dunn = OHG. tlniini, tlnunii, MHG. 
diinne, G. dunn = Icel. thunur = Sw. tunn = Dan. 
tynd = Goth. *thnnnws (not recorded), thin, = 
MHG. tuueivenge; =W. tcneit= Gael. Ir. tana = 
OBulg. tinuM = Russ. tonku (with a deriv. suf- 
fix) = L. tennis, thin, slim, =Gr. *rnwf (in comp. 


and deriv.), also mmi'ir (for "TavaFof, ill eomp. 

). stretched nut. slim. linitf. tliin. t;i|ier. 
= Skt. limn, stretched oiit,tliiii: "rig. 'Mi-etched 
mil,' ciiiuiecied with ;i verb seen in AS. lln-ni- 
ini, "llii-niiiiii, in rniiiji. it-tin niiin = OHO. den- 

liilll. Mild, ilillfll, d. ill'lllli-H = (iotll. "tlllllljilll. 

in coinp. iif-tliiiiijiin, stretch out (a secondary 
form of AS", 'tin HIIH, dr.), = I,, tniilin. stretch 
( iriii-i-r. hold), = 0r. Ttivttv, stretch, = Skt.-x/ /", 
stretch, etc. A very prolific root; from the L. 
adj. are ult. E. tnuioiis, It-unit;/, ulli niintr, ex- 
l,-iiii<ilr, etc., and from the L. verb root are ult. 
E. tfinli. ulti'iiil, iiiti nil. etc., li'iiilnn, etc. (gee 
Ifiiill r. from the (Jr., linn-, tonic, etc.. tii-nin, lu- 
st. i, elc.J 1. Very narrow in all diameters; 
slender; slim; long and fine: as, a thin wire; 
:i i lii a string. 

Then the priest shall see the plague; and, behold, if 
. . . there tit- in i( a yellow thin hair, then the priest shall 
prnnonm-e him unclean. Lev. MM. 30. 

r. Hues I In- blind Fury with the abhorred shears, 
Anil silts the (Aiii-spun life. Milton, Lyeldas, 1. 76. 

2. Very narrow in one diameter; having the 
opposite surfaces very near together; having 
little thickness or depth ; not thick ; not heavy : 
as, thin paper; thin boards: opposed to thick. 

Kerue not thy brede to thynne, 
Ne breke hit not on twynne. 

Babea Boole (E. E. T. 8.), P- 1- 

I'm a cold ; this white satin Is too thin unless It be cut, 
(or then the sun enters. 

Deleter and Webster, Northward Ho, Iv. 4. 

The Judge had put on his tltinnat shoes, for the birch- 
bark canoe has a delicate floor. 

C. F. tfoobon, Jupiter Lights, iv. 

3. Having the constituent parts loose or sparse 
in arrangement ; lacking density, compactness, 
or luxuriance ; rare ; specifically, of the air and 
other gases, rarefied. 

The men han thynne Berdea and (ewe Heres ; but t In i 
ben longe. MandeviUe, Travels, p. 207. 

These our actors, 

As I foretold you, were all spirits, and 
Are melted Into air, Into thin ah". 

Shale., Tempest, Iv. 1. 160. 

And woods, made thin with winds, their scatter'd honours 
mourn. Dryden, tr. of Horace's Odes, I. xxlx. 04. 

4. Hence, easily seen through; transparent, 
literally or figuratively ; shallow ; flimsy ; slight : 
as, a thin disguise. 

I come not 

To hear such flattery now, and in my presence ; 
They are too thin and bare to hide offences. 

Shak., Hen. VIII., v. 3. 125. 

Throned in the centre of Ills thin designs, 
Proud o( a vast extent of flimsy lines ! 

Pope, Prol. to .Satires, 1. 93. 

We bear our shades about us; self-depriv'd 
Of other screen, the (Am umbrella spread. 

Cmcper, Task, i. 260. 

5. Having slight consistency or viscosity : said 
of liquids: as, thin syrup j thin gruel. 6. De- 
ficient in some characteristic or important in- 
gredient; lacking strength or richness; spe- 
cifically, of liquors, small : opposed to strong. 

I couthe si-Hi- 

Hothe dregges and draf, and draw at one hole 
Thlcke ale and thynne ale. 

Pirn Plowman (C), xxil. 40-i 

If I hud a thousand sons, the first humane principle I 
would teach them should be to forswear thin potations. 

Shalt., 2 Hen. IV., iv. 8. 1S4. 
When banes are craz'd, an' bluld is thin. 

Burns, First Epistle to Davle. 

7. Of sound, lacking in fullness ; faint, and of- 
ten somewhat shrill or metallic in tone. 

Thin hollow sounds, and lamentable screams. Dryden. 

In a clear voice and thin 
The holy man 'gan to set forth the faith. 

William Aforrut, Earthly Paradise, II. 287. 

8. Limited in power or capacity; feeble; weak. 

My tale Is doon, (or my wytte Is thi/nnr. 

Chaucer, .Merchant's Tale, I. 438. 

On the altar a thin flickering flame 
Just showed the golden letters of her name. 

William Harris, Earthly Paradise, I. 384. 

9. Meager; lean; spare; not plump or fat. 
And the seven thin ears devoured the seven rank and 

full ears. Gen. xll. 7. 

No meagre, muse-rid mope, adust and thin. 
In a dun night-gown of his own loose skin. 

Pope, Dunciad, II. 37. 
His face is growing sharp and thin. 

Tennyson, Death of the Old Year. 

10. Limited in quantity or number; small or 
infrequent; scanty. 

You are like to have a thin and slender pittance. 

Shak., T. of the 8., Iv. 4. 61. 
The thin remains of Troy's afflicted host 
In distant realms may seats unenvled find. 

Ail'lixntt, tr. of Monu-t-'s Oilrs. iii. X 


Mr. l'owi-11 has a very full congregation, while we hmve 
a very thin h"ii>--. .>''/- sprrt;iii, NI>. t; 

11. Scantily occupied or furnished; bare; 
empty: used absolutely or with of. 

The cheerfulness of a spirit that is blessed will make a 
thin table become a delicacy. 

Jer. Taylor, Holy Living, II. 0. 

The University being thin this Vacation time, the con- 
tributions designed for me go on but slowly. 

Ken. Simon OcHey (Ellis's Lit. Letters, p. 353). 

When a nation abounds In physicians, it grows thin of 

people. Addison, Spectator, No. 21. 

12. Having no depth: said of a school of fish. 
13. Having insufBcient density or contrast to 
give a good photographic print or a satisfactory 
image on the screen; weak: said of a negative 
or a lantern-slide Thin register. See re<ji*tert, 5 
(6). Through thick and thin. See <Aic*.-Too thin, 
failing to convince ; easily seen through ; not sufficient to 
impose on one. 

thin 1 (thin), adv. [< Muni, a.] Thinly. 

Ere you come to Edinburgh port, 
I trow thin guarded sail ye be. 
Sang of the Outiatr Murray (Child's Ballads, VI. r,). 

thin 1 (thin), i). ; pret. and pp. thinned, ppr. thin- 
ning. [< ME. thynnen, < AS. ge-thynnan, make 
thin, < thynne, thin : see thin 1 , a.] I. trans. To 
make thin, (a) To attenuate ; draw or spread out thin ; 
hence, to reduce In thickness or depth : as, to (Atn a board 
by planing. 

How the blood lle> upon her cheek, all spread 

As thinned by kisses ! Browning, Pauline. 

(b) To make less dense or compact ; make sparse ; specifi- 
cally, to rarefy, as a gas. 

Who with the ploughshare clove the barren moors, . . . 
Thinned the rank woods. 

Wordneorth, Off Saint Bees' Heads. 

(c) To reduce In consistency or viscosity : said of liquids : 
as, to thin starch. ('/) To reduce in strength or richness : 
as, to thin the blood. (?) To make lean or spare. 

A troublous touch 
Thiiiu'il or would seem to (Ai' her in a day. 

Tennyson, Aylmer's Field. 
(.' ! To reduce In numbers or frequency. 

One half of the noble families had been thimn-if by pro- 
scription, llallam, Middle Ages, ill. s. 

Many a wasting plague, and nameless crime, 
\ml bloody war that thinned the human race. 

Bryant, Death of Slavery. 
(</) To make bare or empty. 

The oppressive, sturdy, man-destroying villains . . . 
Thin il states of half their people, lltair. The Grave. 
For attempting to keep up the fervor of devotion for so 
long a time, we have thin, ml our churches. 

Sydney Smith, In Lady Holland, 111. 

II. intrans. To become thin, (a) To diminish 
in thickness ; grow or become thin : with out, a\cay, etc. : 
thus geological strata are said to (Am out when they grad- 
ually diminish In thickness till they disappear. (S) To 
become less dense, compact, or crowded ; become sparse ; 
hence, to become scattered ; separate. 

The crowd in Rotten Row begins to thin. 

Bultcer, My Novel, v. 4. 

My hair is thinning away at the crown, 
And the silver fights with the worn-out brown. 

W. S. Ottbert, Haunted. 

thin 2 t, pron. A Middle English form of thine. 

thine (THin), pron. [In defs. 1 and 2 orig. gen. 
of thou; < ME. thin, tliyn, < AS. thin (= OS. 
OFries. thin = OHG. MHG. din, G. dein, deiner 
= Icel. thin = Goth, theina), gen. of thu, thou: 
see thou. In def. 3 merely poss. (adj.), < ME. 
thin, thi/n, < AS. thin = OS. thin = OFries. thin, 
din = MD. dijn = OHG. MHG. ([in, G . dein = Icel. 
Minn, thin, tlritt = Sw. Dan. dm = Goth, tlieinn, 
thine; poss. adj. Hence, by loss of the final 
consonant, thu. For the forms and uses, cf. 
mine 1 .] If. Of thee; the original genitive of 
the pronoun limn. 

To-mo(r)we ye sholen beu weddeth. 
And, maugre thin, to-gidere beddeth. 

Hanlole (E. E. T. S-X 1. 1127. 

2. Of thee ; belonging to thee. Compare mine 1 , 2. 
Ich haue for-gyue the meny gultes and my grace graunted 
Bothe to the and to thyne in hope thow sholdest a mcnile. 

Pirn Plowman (C), iv. 135. 
0, if to flght for king and commonweal 
Were piety In thine, it is In these. 

SAo*., Tit. And., i. 1. 115. 

3. Belonging or pertaining to thee: in this 
sense a possessive, (a) Used predicatlvely. 

"Mi sone," heo sede, "hanethis ring, 
Whil he is thin w dute nothing 
That fur the brenne, lie adrenche se." 

King [torn (E. E. T. S.\ p. 51. 
A drope o( blode if atte thon tine 
We glf 3011 dome, the wrange is thine. 

Holy flood (E. E. T. 9.), p. 111. 

Thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory, for 
ever. Mat vi. 18. 

"Take thou my robe," she said, "for all is thine." 

Tennyson, Holy Grail. 

(ft) Used attributively, with the forceof an adjective : com- 
monly preferred before a vowel to thy, and now used only 
In that situation. 


All.- thine castles 
Ich habbe we) tutored. 


si then alle than other lymej lapped (ul clene, 
Thenne may thou se thy saujor .V his sete ryche. 

Alliterative Poem* (ed. Morris), 11. 175. 

Drink to me only with thin* eye*. B. Jonton, To Cella. 
Mine and thine, a uhnw not mi; tin- division of property 
among different owners, and Iniiiljing the right of indi- 
vidual ownership; mcum and tunin. 

Amonge them [Cubans] the lande Is as common as the 
sonne and water; And that Myne and Thyne (the teedes 
of all myscheefe) haue no jilao- ilh tln-m. 

Peter Martyr (tr. In Eden's First Books on America, ed. 

[Arber, p. 7s). 

I Thine, like thou, Is now used only in poetry, In solemn 
discourse, always In prayer, provlncially In England, and 
In the common language of the Friends. In familiar and 
- .minou language your and your* are always used In the 
singular number aa well as the plural.] 
thing 1 (thing), . [< ME. tliiixj, tliyng, < AS. 
thing, sometimes thincg, thine, a thing, also a 
cause, sake, office, reason, council, = OS. 
OFries. thing = D. ding = OHG. dine, MHG. 
iliin; (i.tlini/ = Icel. thing, a thing (rare), pi. 
articles, objects, things, valuables, jewels, also 
an assembly, meeting, parish, district, county, 
shire, parliament, = Sw. Dan. ting = Goth. 
'thigg (not recorded) ; cf. AS. deriv. thingian, 
make an agreement, contract, settle, compose 
(a quarrel), speak, = G. dingen, hold court, 
negotiate, make a contract (bedinqen, make 
conditions, stipulate) ; prob. related to Goth. 
iheihs (tor'ttiinhsl), time. L. tempos, time: see 
tense*, temporal 1 . For the development of 
sense, cf. AS. sacu (= G. sache, etc.), conten- 
tion, strife, suit, cause, case, thing (see sake 1 ) ; 
also L. rea, a cause, case, thing, L. causa, a 
cause, case, ML. and Horn. (It. coxa = F. chose), 
a thing. The sense 'a concrete inanimate ob- 
ject' is popularly regarded as the fundamental 
one, but a general notion such as that could 
hardly be original.] 1. That which is or may 
become the ooject of thought; that which has 
existence, or is conceived or imagined as having 
existence; any object, substance, attribute, 
idea, fact, circumstance, event, etc. A thing 
may be either material or ideal, animate or in- 
animate, actual, possible, or imaginary. 

The! gon gladly to Cypre, to reste hem on the Lond, or 
elles to bye thinau that thel have nede to here lyvynge. 
Mandenlle, Travels, p. 29. 

We were as glad of day lyght as euer we were of any 
thynge in all our lyues. 

Sir K. Guyl/orde, Pylgrymage, p. 73. 

Scripture indeed teacheth thinyt above nature, rAi/i< 
which our reason by Itself could not reach unto. 

Hooter, Eccles. Polity, ill. 8. 
Consider not the things of this life, which is a very 

Rrlson to all (iod's children, but the thin;t* of everlasting 
fe, which is our very home. 

J. Bradford, Letters (Parker Soc., 185SX H. 64. 
So prevalent a Thin-i Is Custom that there is no alter- 
ing of a Fashion that has once obtaln'd. 

A r . Bailey, tr. of Colloquies of Erasmus, I. 371. 
He [Pepys] must always be doing something agreeable, 
and, by way of preference, two agreeable (Ai/iy at once. 
H. L. Stecfnson, Men and Kooks, p. 290. 
In more limited applications (a) A particular existence 
or appearance which is not or cannot be more definitely 
characterized ; a somewhat ; a something. 

What, has this Ikitvj appear 'd again to-night? 

5AoJr., Hamlet, i. 1. 21. 

A ihiwi which Adam had been pused to name ; 
Noah had refused it lodging in his ark. 

Pope., Satires of Donne, iv. 25. 

The round /Ai'n<7 upon the floor is a table upon which the 
dishes of their frugal meal were set. 

/;. Curznn, Monast. in the Levant, p. 84. 

(6) A living being : applied to persons or animals, either In 
admiration, tenderness, or pity, or in contempt : as, a poor 
sick tliin:i ; a poor foolish thing. 

For Floriz was so fair jonglini! 
And Blauncheflur so suete thin;i. 

Kiny Horn (E. E. T. S.X p. 71. 
Thing of talk, begone ! 
Begone, without reply. 

Ford, Broken Heart, II. 3. 

The poor thimj sighed, and, with a blessing, . . . turned 
from me. Addition, 

The seeming-Injured simple-hearted thing 
Came to her old perch back. 

Tennyson, Merlin and Vivien. 

(<0 A material object lacking life and consciousness. 

He himself 
Moved haunting people, things, and places. 

Tennymm, Enoch Arden. 

Things differing In temperature, colour, taste, and smell 
agree in resisting compression, in filling space. Because 
of this quality we regard the wind as a thing, though It 
has neither shape nor colour, while a shadow, though it 
has both but not resistance. Is the very type of nothing. 
ness. J. Ward, Encyc. Brit., XX 57. 

(d) That which Is done ; an act, doing, undertaking, busi- 
ness, affair, etc. ; also, something which is to be done; a 
duty or task ; In the passage from Chaucer, below, in the 
plural, prayers or devotions. 


The folk of that Ccmtree begynnen alle hire thinpet In 
the newe Mom 1 ; and thei worschipen nioche the Mone and 
tlic Sonne, and often tyme kuelen azenst hem. 

Mandeeille, Travels, p. 248. 

Daun John was risen in the morwe also, 
And in the gnrdyn walketh to and fro, 
And hath his thinges seyd fill curteisly. 

Chaucer, Shipman's Tale, 1. 91. 

A sorry thing to hide ray head 

In castle, like a fearful maid, 

When such a fleld is near. 

Scott, Marmion, v. 34. 

(e) A composition, as a tale, a poem, or a piece of music : 
used informally or deprecatingly. 

I wol yow telle a lytel thyng in prose 
That oRhte liken yow, as I suppose. 

Chaucer, Prol. to Tale of Melibeus, 1. 19. 
A pretty kind of sort of kind of thing, 
Not much a verse, and poem none at all. L. Hunt. 
(/) [Usually pi.} Personal accoutrements, equipments, 
furniture, etc.; especially, apparel; clothing; in particu- 
lar, outdoor garments ; wraps. 

And hem she yaf hir moehles and hir thing. 

Chaucer, Second Nun's Tale, 1. 540. 
I suppose you don't mean to detain my apparel I may 
have my things, I presume? Sheridan, The Duenna, i. 3. 
The women disburdened themselves of their out-of-door 
things. Mrs. Gaskell, Mary Barton, ii. 

(g) pi. In lair, sometimes, the material objects which can 
be subject to property rights; sometimes, those rights 
themselves. The distinction which is often made between 
corporeal and incorporeal things is a consequence of the 
confusion of these two meanings. Things real comprehend 
lands, tenements, and hereditaments, including rights 
and profits issuing out of land ; things personal compre- 
hend goods and chattels ; and things mixed are such as 
partake of the characteristics of the two former, as a title- 
deed, (h) pi. Circumstances. 

There ensued a more peaceable and lasting harmony, 
and cons.. it of things. Bacon, Physical Fables, i., Expl. 
Things are in the saddle, 

And ride mankind. 
Emerson, Ode, inscribed to W. H. Cbanning. 

2. A portion, part, or particular; an item; a 
particle; a jot, whit, or bit: used in many ad- 
verbial expressions, especially after or in com- 
position with no, any, and some. See nothing, 
anything, something. 

Ector, for the stithe stroke stoynyt no thyng, 
Gryppit to his gode sword in a grym yre, 
Drof vnto Diomede, that deryt hym before. 

Destruction of Troy (E. E. T. S.). 1. 7431. 

What he commandeth they dare not disobey in the least 

thing. Capt. John Smith, Works, I. 144. 

We have setters watching in corners, and by dead walls, 

to give us notice when a gentleman goes by, especially if 

he be any thing in drink. 

Swift, Last Speech of Ebenezer Elllston. 

3f. Cause; sake. 

Luue him [thy neighbor] for godes thing. 

Old Eng. Homilies (ed. Morris), I. 07. 
An mine gode song for hire thinge 
Ich turne sundel to murni[n]ge. 

Owl and Nightingale (ed. Wright), 1. 1585. 

A soft thing. See sort. Fallaciesin things. See fal- 
lacy. Rights Of tilings, in law, rights considered with 
reference to the object over which they may be asserted. 
The clean thing. See clean. The thing, the proper, 
desired, or necessary proceeding or result ; especially, that 
which is required by custom or fashion. 

A bishop's calling company together in this week [Holy 
Week] is, to use a vulgar phrase, not the thing. 

Johnson, in Boswell, an. 1781. 

It was the thing to look upon the company, unless some 
irresistible attraction drew attention to the stage. 

Doran, Annals of Stage, I. 182. 

The question [of a state church], at the present junc- 
ture, is in itself so absolutely unimportant ! The thing is, 
to recast religion. 

M. Arnold, Literature and Dogma, Pref. 

Flattered vanity was a pleasing sensation, she admitted, 
but tangible advantage was the thing after all. 

Whyte Melville, White Rose, I. v. 

Thing-in-itself (translating the German Ding an sich), a 
noumenon. Thing of naught or nothing, a thing of 
no value or importance ; a mere nothing ; a cipher. 

Man is like a thing of naught ; his time passeth away like 
a shadow. Book of Common Prayer, Psalter, Ps. cxliv. 4. 

Ham. The King is a thing 

Guil. A thing, my lord ! 

Ham. Of nothing. Shall. , Hamlet, iv. 2. 30. 

Things in action, legal rights to things not in the pos- 
session of the claimant. To do the handsome thing 
by, to treat with munificence or generosity. [Manv analo- 
gous phrases are formed by the substitution of other ad- 
jectives for handsome : as, to do the friendly proper 
square, or right thing by a person.) [Colloq.] 

You sec I'm doing the handsome thing by you, because 
my father knows yours. 

T. Hughes, Tom Brown at Rugby, i. 5. 

To know a thing or two, to be experienced or knowing 
hence, to be shrewd or sharp-witted. [Colloq.] 

My cousin is a sharp blade, but I think I have shown 
him that we in Virginia know a thing or two. 

Thackeray, Virginians, xviii. 

To make a good thing of, to derive profit from: as to 
make a good thing of stock-jobbing. [Colloq. ] 
thing 2 (ting), 11. [Not from AS. thing, a coun- 
cil, but repr. Icel. tiling, an assembly, confer- 


ence, = Sw. Dan. ting, a court, a place of as- 
sembly, a legal trial: see thing 1 . Cf. hasting.] 
In Scandinavian countries and in regions large- 
ly settled by Scandinavians (as the east and 
north of England), an assembly, public meet- 
ing, parliament, or court of law. Also ting. 
See Althing, Landsthing, Storthing, Folkething. 

Likewise the Swedish King 

Summoned in haste a Thing, 

Weapons and men to bring 

In aid of Denmark. 
Longfellow, Wayside Inn, Saga of King Olaf, xvii. 

The change of the English name "moot" for the gather- 
ing of the freemen in township or wapentake into the 
Scandinavian thing, or ting, ... is ... significant of the 
social revolution which passed over the north with the 
coming of the Dane. 

J. K. Green, Conquest of England, p. 115. 

thingal(thing'al), a. [< thing* + -al.] Belong- 
ing or pertaining to things; real. [Rare.] 

Indeed he [Hinton] possessed no true ajsthetic feeling 
at all ; there is probably not a single word in all that he 
wrote which indicates any sense of what he would prob- 
ably call " thingal beauty." Mind, IX. 898. 

thingamy (thing'a-mi), ?i. Same as thingummy, 
T-hinge (te'hinj), "n. A door-hinge in the shape 
of the letter T, of which one leaf, a strap, is 
fastened to the door, and the other, short and 
wide, is fixed to the door-post, 
thinger (thing'er), n. [< thing* + -er*.] A 
realist; one who considers only things or ob- 
jects; a practical or matter-of-fact person. 
[Rare and affected.] 

Those who were thingers before they were mere thinkers. 
Gerald Massey, Natural Genesis, I. 16. 

thinghood (thing'hud), n. [< thing* + -hood.] 
The condition or character of being a thing. 

The materialism that threatens the American Church is 
not the materialism of Herbert Spencer. It is the ma- 
terialism . . . that puts thinghood above manhood. 

L. Abbott, The Century, XXXVI. 624. 

thinginess(thing'i-nes), n. [< thingy + -ness.] 
1 . The quality of a material thing ; objectiv- 
ity; actuality; reality. 2. A materialistic or 
matter-of-fact view or doctrine ; the inclination 
or disposition to take a practical view of things. 
[Recent in both senses.] 

thingraan (ting'man), n.; pi. thinginen (-men). 
[< Icel. thingmadhr (-mann-), a member of 
an assembly, a liegeman, < thing, assembly, 4- 
madhr = E. man: see tiling^ and man.] In early 
Scandinavian and early Eng. hist., a house-carl. 
See house-carl. 

Then there rode forth from the host of the English 
twenty men of the Thingmen or House-carls, any one 
man of whom, men said, could fight against any other 
two men in the whole world. 

E. A. Freeman, Old Eng. Hist., p. 301. 

thingumajig (thing'um-a-jig"), n. [A capri- 
cious extension of thing*. Cf. thingumbob.] 
Same as thingumbob. 

He got ther critter propped up an' ther thingermajig 
stropped on ter 'im. The Century, XXXVII. 913. 

thingumbob (thing'um-bob), n. [Also dial. 
thing it in ebob ; < thing* + -/ (a quasi-L. term.) 
+ 606, of no def. meaning. Cf. thingtimajig, 
thingummy.] An indefinite name for any per- 
son or thing which a speaker is at a loss, or is 
too indifferent, to designate more precisely. 
[Colloq. or vulgar.] 

A lonely grey house, with a thingumebob at the top; a 
servatory they call it. Bulwer, Eugene Aram, i. 2. 

A polyp would be a conceptual thinker if a feeling 
of "Hollo! thingumbob again!" ever flitted through its 
mind. W. James, Prin. of Psychology, I. 463. 

thingummy (thiug'um-i), n. [Also thingamy; 
a capricious extension of thing, as if < thing* 
+ -urn (a quasi-L. term.) + -y%. Cf. thing- 
umbob.] Same as thingumbob. 

What a bloated aristocrat Thingamy has become since 
he got his place ! 

Thackeray, Character Sketches (Misc., V. 343). 

" And so," says Xanthias, in the slovenly jargon of gos- 
sip, "the thingummy is to come off?" "Yes," replies 
Aeacus in the same style, "directly; and this is where 
the thingumbobs are to work." Classical Rev., III. 269. 

thin-gutt (thin'gut), re. A starveling. [Low.] 
Thou thin-gut ! 
Thou thing without moisture ! 
ifassinger, Believe as you List, iii. 2. (Latham.) 

thin-gutted (thin'guf'ed), a. Having a thin, 
lean, or flaccid belly, as a fish. 
A slim thin-gutted fox. Sir S. L' Estrange. 

thingy (thing'i), a. [< tMng* + -y*.] 1. Ma- 
terial ; like a material object ; objective ; actu- 
al; real. 2. Materialistic; practical; given 
to thinginess; pragmatical: as, a thingy per- 
son or view. [Recent in both uses.] 


think 1 (thingk), r. ; pret. and pp. thniight, ppr. 
thinking. [< ME. thinken, tlii/nkcn, prop, tlicnkm, 
also assibilated tlienchcn (pret. thought, tlioughtc, 
pp. thought), ( AS. thencan,tliencean (pvet. thohte, 
pp. thoht) = OS. thenkian OFries. tlianka, tlien- 
kia, tensa = OHG. denchan, MHG. denken, G. 
denken, think, = Icel. thekkja, perceive (mod. 
Icel. thenkja = Sw. tanka = Dan. ttenke, think, 
are influenced by the G.), = Goth, thagl.jim. 
think; connected with AS. thane, etc., thought, 
thank (see thank); orig. factitive of a strong 
verb, AS. *thincan, pret. * tlianc, pp. "thiinn n. 
which appears only in the secondary form, 
tlujncan (pret. thuhte, etc.). seem: see think-, 
which has been more or less confused with 
think*. Cf. OL. tongere, know, t(igiti(n-). 
knowing. For the relation of the mod. form 
think* to AS. thencan, cf. that of drink and 
drench* to AS. drencan, and of sink, tr., to AS. 
sencan.] I. trans. 1. To judge; say to one's 
self mentally; form as a judgment or concep- 

'Twere damnation 
To think so base a thought. 

Shale., M. of V., ii. 7. 60. 

Again thought he, Since heretofore I have made a con- 
quest of angels, shall Great-heart make me afraid? 

Bunyan, Pilgrim's Progress, ii. 

" What a noble heart that man has," she thought. 

Thaekeray, Vanity Fair, Ixvi. 

2. To form a mental image of; imagine: often 
equivalent to recollect ; recall ; consider. 

"Thenke," quod the lewe, "what I thee dede 
When thou was with vs in that stede." 

King Horn (E. E. T. S.), p. 92. 
Ther nas no man so wys that koude thenche 
So gay a popelote, or swich a wenche. 

Chaucer, Miller's Tale, 1. 67. 

Vlfyn that is wise and a trewe knyght hath ordeyned 
all this pees, and the beste ordenaunce that eny can 
thynke. Merlin (E. E. T. S.), i. 80. 

If parts allure thee, think how Bacon shined, 
The wisest, brightest, meanest of mankind. 

Pope, Essay on Man, iv. 281. 

3. To cognize; apprehend; grasp intellectu- 

The animal perceives no "object," no "causal nexus," 
not being able to form such abstractions from his feel- 
ings. If man is gifted with another power, and thinks an 
"object " or a "causal nexus," it is because he can detach 
and fix in signs, rendering explicit what is implicit in 
feeling. G. H. Lewes, Probs. of Life and Mind, II. iii. 5. 

We think the ocean as a whole by multiplying mentally 
the impression we get at any moment when at sea. 

tT. James, Prin. of Psychology, II. 203. 

4. To judge problematically; form a concep- 
tion of (something) in the mind and recognize 
it as possibly true, without decidedly assenting 
to it as such. 

Charity . . . thinketh no evil [taketh not account of 
evil, R. V.]. 1 Cor. xiii. 5. 

He sleeps and thinks no harme. 

Milton, Church-Government, ii., Con. 

5. To purpose; intend; mean; contemplate; 
have in mind (to do) : usually followed by an 
infinitive clause as the object. 

When he seid all that he thought to seye, 
Ther nedid noo displeasur to be sought. 

Generydes (E. E. T. S.), 1. 204. 
No hurte to me they thinke. 
Taming of a Shrew (Child's Uallads, VIII. 184). 
I think not to rest till I come thither. 

/. Walton, Complete Angler, p. 20. 

Many of the colonists at Boston thought to remove, or 
did remove, to England. 

Emerson, Hist. Discourse at Concord. 

6. To hold as a belief or opinion ; opine ; be- 
lieve; consider. 

The better gowns they have on, the better men they 
think themselves. In the which thing they do twice err ; 
for they be no less deceived in that they think their gown 
the better than they be in that they think themselves the 
better. Sir T. Wore, Utopia (tr. by Robinson), ii. 7. 

Thinking vs enemies, [they] sought the best aduantage 
they could to fight with vs. 

Capt. John Smith, Works, II. 227. 

Besides, you are a Woman ; you must never speak what 
you think. Congrece, Love for Love, ii. 11. 

7. To feel: as, to think scorn. [Obsolete or 

Loue lelii what thou lonest al mi lif dawes, 
& hate heigeli in hert that thou hate thenkest. 

William of Palerne (E. E. T. S.), 1. 4720. 

Scho fand all wrang that sould hene richt, 

I trow the man thought richt grit schame. 
Wyf of Auchtirmuchty (Child's Ballads, VIII. 121). 

8. To modify (an immediate object of cogni- 
tion) at will ; operate on by thought (in a speci- 
fied way). 

Meditation here 
May think down hours to moments. 

Couyer, Task, vi. 85. 


In this development i"f srii'litillr ithiral notliimi], rrll- 
Ki"H i:l flinx<'llH KIM Will Mil tin- rl Ideal tfllllk : HIM I* exist 

ill men :ilnr ami an- th"'jht into tin; wntl<l. 

.V. !/ I'ri/ifi-ton lii'i'., I. 152. 

To think little of, to think nothing of, to m:.k- mil.- 
or no account of; have little or no hMltauon about: a-, 
In; think* nothing of walking his thirty miles a day. 7V 
think no i,n>,,' itf is a qutisi-eonipttrutive form of to think 

IKithilrl <>l. 

Tin- \\ rstrni people, apparently //i//iA- no more of throw- 
ing down ;i ruilroud, if they want to go anywhere, than a 

eiMtsel VatiVe l'.:l- I >'l Mel line* of taking Illl Illlileellst H 1 1 1 ei I 

walk ariosH eonntry. Harper's Mti<j., LXXVI. 'jofi. 

To think one's penny silver. See penny. To think 
out. i") To gain a clear roncc-|>tiun or uniU-rstRliding of, 
liy following a line of thought. 

Jcvonn'a idea of Identity is very difficult; I can hardly 
suppose it to be th"i'<tlif <"'. 

II. Boeanquet, Mind, XIII. 300. 
(o) To devise ; plan ; project. 

It is at least possible that if an attempt to Invade Eng- 
land on carefully thought-out tines were made, the world 
would be equally surprised by the result. 

HirtnvjIMy Ree., N. S., XLIII. 166. 

(r) To solve by process of thought : as, to think out a chess 
problem. To think scorn oft. See ocorii. To think 
small beer of. See forri.=Syn. 6. To Judge, suppose, 
hold, count, account. See conjecture. 

II. (utmiis. 1. To exercise the intellect, as 
in apprehension, judgment, or inference; exer- 
cise the cognitive faculties in any way uot in- 
volving outward observation, or the passive 
reception of ideas from other minds. In this 
sense- the verb think is often followed, by on, "/. about, 
etc., with the name of the remote object sought to be 
understood, recalled, appreciated, or otherwise Investi- 
gated by the mental process. 

Nothlnge lefte the! vn-tolde that the! cowde on thenke. 
Merlin (E. E. T. S.), II. 370. 

Thijnke ouer thl synnos be-fore domic and of thl freeltes 
that thou fallls In like day. 

llampvle. Prose Treatises (E. E. T. S.), p. 30. 
And inakith his herte as hard as stoon ; 
Thanne thenkith he not on heuen blie. 

Hymns to Virgin, etc. (E. E. T. S.), p. 92. 
How we shall carry ourselves in this business Is only to 
be thought upon. Delcker and Webster, Northward Ho, i. 1. 
MnrMr thought the gudewife to hersell, 

Yet ne'er a word she spak. 

Get up and Bar the Door (Child's Ballads, VIII. 127). 
And Peter called to niliul the word that Jesus said unto 
him. . . . And when he thought thereon, lie wept. 

Mark xiv. 72. 

As I observed that this truth I thini, hence I am was 
BO certain and of such evidence that no ground of doubt, 
however extravagant, conld be alleged by the Sceptics 
capable of shaking it, I concluded that I might, without 
scruple, accept It as the first principle of the Philosophy 
of which I was In search. 

Descartes, Discourse on Method (tr. by Veltch), p. 33. 


Sordello rose to think now ; hitherto 
Ho had perceived. Browning, Sordetlo. 

To think is pre-eminently to detect similarity amid di- 
versity. J. Sully, Outlines of Psychol., p. 331. 

When scarce aught could give him greater fame, 
He left the world still thinking on his name. 

WOliaM Mvrrit, Earthly Paradise, I. 427. 

2. To imagine: followed by o/or OH. 

And he had also In his Gardyn nllc maner of Foules and 
of Bestes, that ony man myghte thrnke on, for to have pley 
or desport to beholde hem. Mandecille, Travels, p. 278. 

TiM, I say, their Misfortune not to have Thought of an 
Alphabet. Lister, Journey to Paris, p. 49. 

3. To attend (on); fasten the mind (ou): fol- 
lowed by of. 

That we can at any moment tliink of the same thing 
which at any former moment we thought of is the ultimate 
law of our intellectual constitution. 

W. Jamet, Prin. of Psychology, II. 290. 

4. To entertain a sentiment or opinion (in a 
specified way): with of: as, to tliink highly of 
a person's abilities. 

But now I forbear, lest any man should think of me 
above that which he seeth me to be. 2 Cor. xii. 6. 

Think of me as you please. Shak., T. N.. v. 1. 317. 

Justice she thought o/as a thing that might 
Balk some desire of hers. 

H'illi'iM Morrii, Earthly Paradise, III. 104. 

6. To have a (specified) feeling (for); be af- 
fected (toward) ; especially, to have a liking or 
fondness: followed by of. 

.Marie Hamilton 's to the kirk gane, 

\YT riblH)ns in her hair; 
The King thought mair o' Marie Hamilton 
Than ony that were there. 

The Queen'i itarie (Child's Ballads, III. 115). 

To think good. See wood. To think long, (o) To 
long ; yearn : usually followed by after or for. 

Aftir his lone me thrnkith long, 
For lie hath inyne ful dere y-boii3te. 

Iliiinns to Virgin, etc. (E. E. T. S.), p. 9. 
Have I thotiiiht ti>n;r to see this morning's face, 
And doth it give me such a sight as this? 

Shak., R. and J., iv. 5. 41. 
Ae bit I canno' eat, father, . . . 
I ill I *er my inithri and slater dear, 
Kor lany for them I think. 

r<;i.-/ Akin (Child's Ballads, I. 185). 


(b) To think tin- timr IMIIK; lieeonie wi-m-y or impatient, 
i -I" eially in \vailiiiu fur s., mi-thing. 

I'.nt gin ye like to ware the time, then ye 
How u' the matter stood shall vlvely see ; 
"I'w ill may be keep us baith fiae thinking long. 

Ron, Ilelenore, p. W. (Jamittmi.) 
[Obsolete or provincial In )>oth senses.} 
Syn. 1. To contemplate, reason. 

think 1 (thingk), . [< W/i;i/.', r.] A thinking; 

He thinks nmny a long think. 

Brvmung, Ring and Book, VII. 914. 

think- (thingk), v. i. [< ME. thinktii, thaiken. 
also assibilated tliinclieii, lltitnclten (pret. tltukle, 
thugte, tl<ztt; tltatiltte), < AS. thyiican = OS. 
tlniiikiitii = OFries. thiiika, thiuxziu, tinsit = 
OHO. dunclian, MHO. diinken, G. dunktii = !<( -1. 
thykkjn = Sw. tycka = Dan. tykkes = Goth. 
thiiilkjan, seem, appear: see think 1 , with which 
think'* has been more or less confused.] 1. To 
seem; appear: with indirect object (dative). 
[Rare except in met/links, methougltt.] 

If It be wykke, a wonder thynketk me, 
Whenne every torment and adverslte. 
That cometh of him, may to me savory thynke. 

Chaucer, Trolltu, 1. 405. 

Ye thenke as that ye were in a dreme, and I mervelle 
moche of youre grete wfsdome where it is bc-come. 

Mrrtin (E. E. T. S.), 11. 228. 
The beggers craft thynkynge to them inoott good. 

Barclay, Ship of Fools, I. 303. 

The watchman said, Me thinketh the running of the fore- 
most Is like the running of Ahlmaaz. 2 Sam. xvill. 27. 

2f. To seem good. 

All his (Priam's) sonnes to sle with sleght of your honde ; 
Thaire riches to robbe, & there rife goodis ; 
And no lede for to lyue, but that horn selfe [i. e., to the 
Greeks themselves] thinff<\ 

Destruction of Troy (E. E. T. S.), I. 4486. 

thinkable (thing'ka-bl), . [< think l + -<ti>le.] 
Capable of being thought ; cogitable ; conceiv- 

A general relation becomes thinkable, apart from the 
many special relations displaying it, only as the faculty 
of abstraction develops. 

H. Spencer, Prin. of Psychol., 1 488. 

thinker (thing'ker), n. [< think 1 + *!. J One 
who thinks ; especially, one who has cultivated 
or exercised to an unusual extent the powers 
of thought. 

A Thinker; memor. Cath. Any., p. 383. 

The Democrltlcks and Epicureans did Indeed suppose 
all humane cogitations to In- caused or produced by the 
Incursion of corporeal atoms upon the thinker. 

Cuduvrth, Intellectual System, p. 781. 

He considered himself a thinker, and was certainly of a 
thoughtful turn, but, with his own path to discover, had 
perhaps hardly yet reached the point where an educated 
man begins to think. llatrthorne. Seven Gables, xii. 

thinking (thing'king), H. [< ME. "thenking, 
thenching ; verbal u. of think*, r.] 1. The men- 
tal operation performed by one who thinks. 

Thinking, In the propriety of the English tongue, signi- 
fies that sort of operation of the mind about its ideas 
wherein the mind is active. 

Locke, Human Understanding, II. i\. 1. 

2. The faculty of thought; the mind. 

Has Page any brains? hath he any eyes? hath he any 
thinking f Shak., M. W. of W., ill. 2. 31. 

3. That which is thought; a thought, idea, be- 
lief, opinion, notion, or the like. 

I prithee, speak to me as to thy Mnkingi. 

Stak., Othello, ill. S. 131. 

The idea of the perpetuity of the Roman Empire entered 
deeply Into the Christian thinking of the middle ages. 

0. P. t'ifher. Begin, of Christianity, p. 41. 

thinkingly (thing'king-H), arfc. With thought 
or reflection ; consciously ; deliberately, 
thinly (thin'li), ativ. [< tltinl + -fy2.] In a 
thin manner; with little thickness or depth; 
sparsely; slightly; not substantially. 

At the unexpected sight of him |his brother], Elidure, 
himself also then but thinly accompanied, runns to him 
with open Arms. Miiton, Hist. Eng., I. 

The West Is new, vast, and thinly peopled. 

D. Webtter, Speech, Plttsburg, July, 1833. 
The characters are thinly sketched, the situations at 
once forced and conventional. 

Xiaeteenth Century, XXIV. 586. 

thinner (thin'er), n. [< /Aiw 1 + -eri.] One who 
or that which thins. 

thinness (thin'nes), . [< ME. thynnesse, < AS. 
tlii/itnys, < thynnc, thin: see thin 1 and -M*M.] 
The state or property of being thin. 
Like those toys 

Of glassy bubbles, which the gamesome boys 
Stretch to so nice a thinnas through a quill. 

Donne, Progress of the Soul, ill. 

thinnify (thin'i-fi), <. t. : l>rct. and pp. tliiuni- 
lit'il. ppr. Iliini/ifi/iiii/. [< f/n'i + -i'-///.] To 
iniikc thin. [Rare.] 


The In art doth ill its left side ventricle so the 
blood that it thereby obtains the name of spiritual. 

I'.'./nhiirt. tr. of Rabelais, ill. I. 

thinnishdliiii'ifli), <(. [< //n// 1 + -//<'. ] Some- 
what thin. 

ThinocoridaB (iliin-<>-k<>r'i-di'). . jil. [XL.. < 
'I'lnoiM-iii-iiK + -iil/e.] A family of liniii-olinr 
and somewhat clmradrio- 
morphic birds of South 
America, represents I liy 
the genera ZMMMWM and 
.l/lii/li.--. Their nearest rela- 
tives are the sheathbllls, with 
which they have been combined 
In the family Chumididje. The 
palatal structure is peculiar in 
the broadly rounded vomer, the 
form and connections of which 
recall the eglthognathous pal- 
ate ; there are no naslpteryuolds ; 
the nasals are schizorhinal ; sn- 
perorbital fossteare present ; the 
carotids are two in number; and 
the ambiens, femorocaiidal, sem- 
Itendlnosns, and their accesso- 
ries are present. In general out- 
ward appearance these birds re- 
semble quails or partridges, and 
they were formerly considered to 
be gallinaceous rather than llmlcoline. They nest on the 
ground, and lay colored eggs. There are two or three spe- 
cies of each of the genera, of southern parts of the conti- 
nent, extending Into the tropics only in elevated regions. 
The birds have been singularly called trinyoid yrouge. 

thinocorine (thi-iiokVi-riu), . Characteristic 
of or pertaining to the Thinocoridte. Stand. Xitt. 
Hint., II. 92. 

Thinocorus (thi-nok'6-rus), u. [NL. (Eseh- 
scholtz, 1829), also TlnochoriiH (Lesson, 1830), 
also Tliiiiocliorus (Agassiz, 1846), also Tliyini- 
ehorus, Tliinocoris; prop. "Thinocoryx, < Gr. Hiy 
(6tv-), the shore, + nopvf, the crested lark.] 
The leading genus of Thinocoritlir : the lark- 
plovers, as T. ruiiiieiroms, the gachita, of the 



h.iif times tuiural 

/*. prcmaoiury; mx r . 
maxilbpalatinc : TO. IvoaJ 
""'"" off in rmm : 

' "" : ' 

l.ark-plover { 7 hino(i>rt<s in^mt. 

Argentine Republic, Chili, and other southerly 
parts of the Neotropical region. This singular bird 
Is common on dry open plains. In flocks. On the ground 
it resembles a quail, but Its flight is more like that of 
a snipe. It nests on the ground, and lays pale stone-gray 
eggs heavily marked with light and dark chocolate-brown 
spots. Other species are described, as /'. inyge, but they 
are all much alike. The genus is also called Ocypetes{or 
Oiypetet) and Ityt. 

thinolite (thin'6-llt), . [< Gr. ft'c (Otv-), shore, + 
/./(tef, stone.] A pseudomorphous tufa-like de- 
posit of calcium carbonate, crystalline in form. 
It is found In great quantities on the shores of Pyramid 
Lake, Nevada, and at other points within the area of the 
great Quaternary lake called Lake Lahontan. Its original 
character is as yet uncertain. 

thin-skinned i tlii n'ski ml). . 1. Having a thin 
skin; hence, unduly sensitive; easily offended ; 

Ring's vanity was very thin-tikinned, his selfishness 
easily wounded. Thackeray, Philip, Iv. 

2. Having merely a thin superstratum of good 
soil : said of laud. Hull! in II. 
thin-skinnedness (thin'skind-nes), . The 
state or quality of being thin-skinned ; ovi r- 

This too great susceptibility, or lliinMnnednet*, as It 
has been called, is not confined to us. 

/.. C<us, France, its King, etc. (ed. l-tl\ p. .M. 

thio-acid (thi-o-as'id), M. [< Gr. Briuv, sulphur. 
+ E. a fid.] A designation somewhat loosely 
applied to certain acids derived from others 
by the substitution of sulphur for oxygen, gen- 
erally but uot always in the hydroxyl group. 

thio-arsenic (thi-o-ar'se-nik), a. [< Gr. tff/or, 
sulphur. + apacvik6v, arsenic.] Contaiiiing sul- 
phur and arsenic: applied only to certain ar- 
senic acids (see below). Thlo-arsenlc add, an 
arsenic acid in which sulphur may be regarded as sul>- 
slituted for oxygen. There are three of these acids, not 
known in the free state, but having well-defined salts. 
Their formula are ll|As.S : , I|..AsS : ., 11 


thio-ether (tlri-6-e'ther), w. [< Gr. Beiov, sul- 
phur, + E. ether.'] A compound, analogous to 
an ether, in which the alkyl radicals are com- 
bined with sulphur instead of oxygen ; an alkyl 
sulphid. Thus (C 2 Hs) 2 S is a thio-ether analo- 
gous to (C 2 H 6 ) 2 O, which is ordinary ether. 

thiophene (thi'o-fen), . [< Gr. Beiov, sulphur, 
+ E. p1ie(ol).~] A compound, C 4 H 4 S, related 
to benzene, and forming a large number of de- 
rivatives analogous to those of benzin. It may 
be regarded as benzene in which one of the three acetylene 
groups CHCH has been replaced by sulphur. It is a 
colorless limpid oil having a faint odor, and boils at 164 F. 

thiosulphate (thi-o-sul'fat), n. [< Gr. Oeiov, 
sulphur, 4- E. sulphate.'] A salt of thiosulphurie 

thiosulphuric (thi"o-sul-fu'rik), a. [< Gr. fidav, 
sulphur, + E. sulphuric.] Noting the acid de- 
scribed below Thiosulphuric acid, an acid differ- 
ing from sulphuric acid in that the oxygen of one hydroxyl 
group is replaced by a sulphur atom. Thus, sulphuric acid 
has the formula S0 2 .(OH) 2 , while that of thiosulphuric 
acid is S0 2 .OH.SH. The acid itself has not been isolated, 
but it forms a number of stable crystalline salts, formerly 
called hyposulphites. 

thir (THer), prow. pi. [< ME. thir, < Icel. their, 
they, theirsi, these: see this, they 1 .'] These. 
[Obsolete or dialectal.] 

And sen sekenes es sent to the 
Thir men sail noght vnserued be. 

Italy Rood (E. E. T. S.), p. 85. 
Thir breeks o' mine, my only pair, 
That ance were plush, o' guid blue hair. 

Burnt, Tain o' Shanter. 
Thir and thae, these and those. [Scotch.] 

third 1 (therd), a. and n. [Also dial, thrift; < 
ME. thirde, thyrde, thryd. thridde, thredde, < AS. 
thridda (ONorth. thirda, thirdda) = OS.thriddio 
= D. derde = MLG. dridde, drudde, LG. drudde 
= OHG. dritto, MHG. G. dritte = Icel. thridhi, 
thridhja = Sw. Dan. tredie = Goth, thridja = 
W. tryde = Gael, treas = L. tertius (> It. terzo 
= Sp. tercio = Pg. terfo = OF. tiers, ters, F. tiers, 
> E. tierce, terce) = Gr. rpirof (with slightly dif- 
ferent suffix) = Skt. tritiya, third; with ordinal 
formative -th > -A (see -ih 2 ), from the cardinal, 
AS. threo, etc., three : see three. From the L. 
form are ult. E. terce, tercel, tierce, etc., tertian, 
tertiary, etc.] I. a. 1. Next after the second : 
an ordinal numeral. 

The thridde nyght, as olde bookes seyn. 

Chaucer, Knight's Tale, 1. 605. 
The thirden tune that it play'd then . . . 
Was " Wae to my sister, fair Ellen." 

The Turn Sisters (Child's Ballads, II. 243). 

2. Being one of three equal subdivisions: as, 
the third part of anything Propositions of third 
adjacent. See adjacent. Tne third hour, the third of 
twelve hours reckoned from sunrise to sunset ; the hour 
midway between sunrise and noon ; specifically, the ca- 
nonical hour of terce. Among the Jews the third hour 
was the hour of the morning sacrifice. Third base. 
See base-ball, 1. Third cousin, the child of a parent's 
second cousin ; a cousin in the third generation. Third- 
day, Tuesday, as the third day of the week : so called by 
the Friends. 

At Harlingen [a monthly meeting should be established] 
upon the third third-day of the month. 

Penn, Travels in Holland, etc. 

Third estate. See estate.- Third father, a great-grand- 
father. Halliwell. (Prov. Eng.] Third figure, in logic. 
See figure, 9. Third house, the lobby which connects it- 
self with a legislature (so called because the latter common- 
ly consists of two houses). (Political slang, U. S.) Third 
Inversion. See inversion (c). Third nerve, in anat., 
that one of the cranial nerves, in order from before back- 
ward, which comes off from the brain next after the optic 
or second nerve ; the oculimotor. Third of exchange. 
See first of exchange, under exchange. Third opponent] 
in Louisiana law, one interposing for relief against judi- 
cial sale of property in an action to which he was not a 
party. Third order, perfection, person. See the 
nouns. Third point. See tierce point, under tierce. 
Third possessor, in Louisiana law, one who acquires 
the title to property which is subject to a mortgage to 
which he is not a party. Third Staff, in music (or the 
organ, the staff used for the pedal part. Third-year 
man, a senior sophister. See sophister, S. 

II. n. 1. One of three equal parts into which 
a unit or total may be divided. 

I forgeue to sou the pricis of salt, and forxeue ... the 
thriddit of seed. WycHf, 1 Mac. x. 29. 

To thee and thine hereditary ever 
Remain this ample third of our fair kingdom. 

Shalt., Lear, i. 1. 82. 

2. pi. In Eng. and Amer. law, the third part of 
the husband's personal property, which goes to 
the widow absolutely in the case of his dying 
intestate leaving a child or descendant, given 
(with various qualifications) by the common 
law and by modern statutes. The word is some- 
times, however, loosely used as synonymous with dower, to 
denote her right to one third of the real property for life. 

3. The sixtieth of a second of time or arc. 
Divide the natural day into twenty-four equal parts, an 

hour into sixty minutes, a minute into sixty seconds a 
second into sixty thirds. Holder, On Time 


4. In music: () A tone on the third degree 
above or below a given tone; the next tone 
but one in a diatonic series, (ft) The interval 
between any tone and a tone on the third de- 
gree above or below it. (c) The harmonic 
combination of two tones at the interval thus 
defined, (d) In a scale, the third tone from 
the bottom; the mediant: solmizated mi. The 
typical interval of the third is that between the first and 
third tones of a major scale, which is acoustically repre- 
sented by the ratio 4 : 5. Such a third is called major; a 
third ahalf-step shorter is called minor or lesser; and one 
two half-steps shorter is called diminished. Major and 
minor thirds are classed as consonances ; diminished thirds 
as dissonances. In ancient and in early medieval music, 
however, the major third was dissonant, because tuned ac- 
cording to the Pythagorean system, so as to have the ratio 
64 : 81 ; such a third is called Pythagorean. The interval 
of the third is highly important harmonically, since it de- 
termines the major or minor character of triads. See triad 
and chord. 

5. In base-ball, same as third base. See base- 
ball, 1. Thirds card, a card 1$ by 3 inches, the size 
most used for a man's visiting-card. [Eng.] 

third 1 (therd), v. t. [< third 1 , a.] To work at 
or treat a third time : as, to third turnips (that 
is, to hoe them a third time). Halliwell. [Prov. 

third 2 (therd), n. [A transposed form of thread, 
thrid 1 .] Thread. [Prov. Eng.] 

For as a subtle spider, closely sitting 
In centre of her web that spreadeth round, 
If the least fly but touch the smallest third, 
She feels it instantly. 

A. Brewer, Lingua (ed. 1617), iv. 6. (Hares.) 

Your compensation makes amends, for I 
Haue giuen you here a third of mine owne life [Miranda]. 
Shak., Tempest (folio 1623), iv. 1. 3. 

third-borough (therd'bur'o), n. [Also third- 
borow, thridoorro, tharborongh; < third 1 + ftor- 
ough 1 as in headborouoh .] A constable, or an 

Hobb Andrw he was thridborro; 

He bad horn, Pesse ! God gyff horn sorro ! 

For y mey arrest yow best. 

Hunttyng of the Hare, 199. (Halliwell.) 

I know my remedy ; I must go fetch the third-borough. 

Shak., T. of the S., Ind., i. 12. 

third-Class (therd'klas), a. Belonging to the 
next class after the second : specifically noting 
the third grade of conveyances or accommoda- 
tions for travel. -Third-class matter, in the postal 
system of the United States, printed matter other than 
newspapers or periodicals, sent through the mails by the 

thirdendeal (ther'du-del), . [< ME. threden- 
flel, thriddendele, < AS. thridda dxl(=TAHG. drit- 
teil, G. drittel = Sw. tredjedel = Dan. trediedel), 
the third part: see third 1 and deal 1 , and cf. 
halfendeal.] If. The third part of anything; 
specifically, a tertian, as the third part of a tun. 

The flstulose and softer lete it goone 
To cover with, and tweyne of lyme in oon 
Of gravel mynge, and marl in floode gravel 
A thriddendele wol sadde it wonder wel. 

Palladium, Husbondrie (E. E. T. S.), p. 14. 

In the Hot. Parl. A. D. 1423, mention is made of a "thre- 
dendels, or tercyan," 84 gallons of wine, or the third part 
of a "tonel." Prompt. Pan., p. 117, note 1. 

2. A liquid measure containing three pints. 
Bailey, 1731; Halliwell. [Doubtful.] 

thirding (ther'ding), n. [< third* + -ing 1 . Cf. 
thriding, riding 2 .'] 1. The third part of any- 
thing; specifically, the third part of the grain 
growing on a tenant's land at his death, in some 
places due to the lord as a heriot. Bailey, 1731 . 
Also in plural. 2. A custom practised at the 
English universities, where two thirds of the 
original price is allowed by the upholsterers to 
students for household goods returned to them 
within the year. Halliwell. 3. Same as riding 2 . 
Vrry, MS. Additions to Ray. (Halliwell.) 

thirdly (therd'li), adv. [< third 1 + -7y2.] I n 
the third place. 

thirdpenny (therd'pen*i),. [< third 1 + penny.'] 
In Anglo-Saxon law, a third part of the fines im- 
posed at the county courts, which was one of 
the perquisites of the earl of the district. 

third-rate (therd'rat), a. I. Of the third rate 
or order. For the specific naval use, see rate 2 , 
n. , 8. Hence 2. Of a distinctly inferior rank, 
grade, or quality : as, a third-rate hotel ; a third- 
rate actor. 

From that time Port Royal fell prostrate from its posi- 
tion of a great provincial mercantile centre into that of a 
third-rate naval station. Harper's May., LXXX. 381. 

thirdsman (therdz'man), n.; pi. thirdsmen 
(-men). [< thirds for third + man.'] An um- 
pire; an arbitrator; a mediator. 

Ay, but Mac Callum More's blood wadna sit down wi' 
that; there was risk of Andro Ferrara coming in thirds- 
>'. Scott, Heart of Mid-Lothian, xxiv 


thirl 1 (therl),)). [Also thurl; < ME. thirl, thirll, 
therl, thyrl, *thorl, thurl,(. AS. tln/rel, a hole, per- 
foration, < thyrel, adj., perforated, pierced, orig. 
'thyrliel = OHG. durihhil, diirchil, MHG. dur- 
chel, durkel, perforated, pierced; with forma- 
tive -el, from the root of AS. thurh, etc., thor- 
ough, through: see thorough, through. Hence 
thirl 1 , v. t and by transposition thrill 1 , 11. and v., 
andincomp.nosethirl, nostril.'] 1. A hole; an 
opening ; a place of entrance, as a door or a 
window. [Prov. Eng. or Scotch.] 

Thise byeth the vif gates of the cite of the herte, huerby 
the dieuel geth in ofte ine the vif therles of the house. 

Ayenbite of Inunit (E. E. T. S.), p. 204. 

If thou ware in a myrke house one the daye, and alle 
the thirties, dores, and wyndows ware stokynethat na sone 
myght enter. MS. Lincoln A. i. 17, f. 241. (Halliwell.) 

2. In coal-mining, a short passage cut for ven- 
tilation between two headings ; a cross-hole. 
Also thirling stoop and thirl. See sloop*. 
thirl 1 (therl), t'. [< ME. thirlen, thirl/en, thyrl- 
en, therlen, thurlen, thorlen, < AS. thyrlian, thirl- 
ian, thyrelian, bore, < thyrel, a hole, perforation : 
see thirl 1 , n. Cf. thrill 1 , a transposed form.] 

1. trans. 1. To pierce; bore; perforate; drill. 

Themi thurled thay ayther thik side thurj, bi the rybbe. 
Sir Gau'ayne and the Green Knight (E. E. T. S.), 1. 1357. 
That he was myghtful and meke, and mercy gan graunte 
To hem that henge hym hye and bus herte therlede. 

Piers Plowman (C), ii. 171. 

2. To produce, as a hole, by piercing, boring, 
or drilling. 

As also that the forcible and violent push of the ram had 
thirled an hole through a corner-tower. 

Ammianus Marcellinus (1609). (Nares.) 

3. Figuratively, to penetrate ; pierce, as with 
some keen emotion ; especially, to wound. 

So harde hacches [aches] of loue here hert hadde thirled 
That ther nas gle vnder God that hire glad mijt. 

William of Palerne (E. E. T. S.), 1. 826. 
The fond desire that we in glorie set 
Doth thirle our hearts to hope in slipper hap. 

Mir. for Maas., p. 495. (Nares.) 

4. To cause to vibrate, quiver, or tingle; 

There was ae sang, amang the rest ; . . . 
It thirl'd the heart-strings thro' the breast. 

Burns, First Epistle to J. Lapraik. 

II. intrans. 1. To make a hole, as by pier- 
cing or boring. 

So thirleth with the poynt of remembraunce 
The swerd of sorowe. 

Chaucer, Anelida and Arcite, 1. 211. 
Schalkes they schotte thrughe schrenkande maylez, 
Thurghe brenys browdene brestez they thirllede. 

Morte Artliure (E. E. T. S.), 1. 1858. 

2. To vibrate; quiver; tingle; thrill. 

Nor that night-wandering, pale, and watery star 
(When yawning dragons draw her thirling car . . .). 

Marlowe and Chapman, Hero and Leauder, i. 108. 
And then he speaks with sic a taking art, 
His words they thirle like musick thro' my heart. 

Ramsay, Gentle Shepherd, i. 2 (song 5). 

3. In coal-mining, to cut away the last web of 
coal separating two headings or other work- 
ings. Gresley. 

[Prov. Eng. or Scotch in all senses.] 
thirl 2 (therl), v. t. [For *therl, a transposed 
form of thrill?, threl, a var. of thrall, v.] To 
thrall, bind, or subject; especially, to bind or 
astrict by the terms of a lease or otherwise : as, 
lands thirled to a particular mill. See thirlage. 

The inhabitants of the village and barony of Kinross 
were not more effectually thirled (which may be translated 
enthralled) to the baron's mill than they were to the 
medical monopoly of the chamberlain. Scott, Abbot, xxvi. 

thirl 2 (therl), n. [Cf. thirP, v.] In Scots law, 
a tract of land the tenants of which were 
bound to bring all their grain to a certain mill : 
same as sucken. 

thirlable (ther'la-bl), a. [< ME. tliirlabUle; < 
thirl 1 + -able."] Capable of being thirled ; pene- 
trable. Halliwell. [Obsolete or provincial.] 

thirlage (ther'laj). . [< thirl* + -age.] In 
Scots law, a species of servitude, formerly very 
commonin Scotland, and also prevalent in Eng- 
land, by which the proprietors or other posses- 
sors of lands were bound to carry the grain 
produced on the lands to a particular mill to be 
ground, to which mill the lands were said to be 
thirled or astricted, and also to pay a certain 
proportion of the grain, varying in different 
cases, as a remuneration for the grinding, and 
for the expense of the erection and mainte- 
nance of the mill. Also called wym-l. 

thirledt (tlui-ld), . [< ME. thirled, thurlfd, 
llutrliil : < thirl 1 + -rd-.] Having thirls or open- 
ings; specifically, having nostrils. 


Tlmin- ITI s nhurte and whurppe, thaire een steep, 
Thaiiv iiH>rs tfii'i-lfil \vyile iind patent be. 

I'lillndius. HnslMindrlu (E. E. T. H.). p. l:i:(. 

thirling (ther'ling), M. [Also thurUiig; < ME. 
Iliiiiiitni/r. < AS. thi/rrliiiiii, verbal n. of 

U II.-, 

thirstineSS (tliers'ti-nesi. //. Tin' state of be- 
iin; thirsty ; tliirst. Hnili-i/. 1727. 

d), w. A iliiilectal form of thros- 

thirstless(therst'les),. [< f/n>< + -/<*.] Hav- 
ing no thirst. 

Thus as It falls out among men of thirstiest minds In 
their fortunes. 

Dp. Reynolds, On the Passions, p. ML (Latham.) 

thirstlewt, a. [ME. lliur.itli-ir; < thirst + -/ 
as in drunkrlnr.~\ Thirsty. Lydgutr, Minor 
Poems, p. 75. 

iiiinnif, \ ftu. iityi v, " " ;t , , 

.mi. perforate: see Mir/ 1 , r.J 1. The act of 
boring or perforating. 2. In mal-niiiiiiig, same 
as Wii'i'/ 1 , 2; in the lead-mines of the north of 
Kn^liind. a mark indicating the termination of 
;i Ml or pitch. K. Hunt. 

thirst (tlierst), n. [Early mod. E. or dial, also 
i/icii.s-/. tlirist; < ME., thorst, thirst, also 

transposed thrixt, threat, thrust, < AS. thurst, thirsty '(thers'ti). a. [Early mod. E. and dial. 
tlutrsl = OS. = D. dorst = MLG. LG. 
<toi:il OHG. MHG. G. durst = Icel. thorsti 
= Sw. Dan. tiii-xt = Goth, thaurstei, thirst; 
with formative -t (-</-), from the verb seen in 
Goth, tliaiirajati, imperg.. thirst (thaurseith mik, 
I thirst) ; whence also AS, thyrre = OS. thvrri 
= MD. dorre, D. dor = OHG. durri, MHG. diirrt; 
G. diirr = Icel. thurr Sw. torr = Dan. tor = 
Goth, thaursiis, dry, withered; akin to Goth. 
thairsan, be dry, = L. torrere (orig. *torsere), 
parch with heat (cf. terra (" tersa), dry ground, 
the earth), = Or. ripaeaOat, become dry (rtpoai- 
vetv, dry up, wipe up), = Skt. ^/ tarsh, thirst; 
cf. Ir. tart, thirst, drought, etc. From the L. 
source are ult. E. torrent, torrid, terra, terrene 1 , 
terrestrial, inter 1 , etc.] 1. A feeling of dry- 
ness in the mouth and throat; the uncomfort- 
able sensations arising from the want of fluid 
nutriment; the uneasiness or suffering occa- 
sioned by want of drink ; vehement desire for 
drink. The sensations of thirst are chiefly referred to 
the thorax and fauces, but the condition Is really one 
affecting the entire body. The excessive pains of thirst 
compared with those of hunger are due to the tact that 
the deprivation of liquids Is a condition with which all 
the tissues sympathize. Every solid and every fluid of 
the body contains water, and hence abstraction or dimi- 
nution of the watery constituents Is followed by a gen- 
eral depression of the whole system. Thirst Is a common 
symptom of febrile and other diseases. Death from thirst, 
as of persons in a desert, appears to be invariably pre- 
ceded by acute mania. 

Than he commanded him to Presoun, and alle hU Tre- 


law, a thirteenth part of the rents of the year, 
or of movables, or both, granted or levied by 
way of tax. 3. In m.-, the interval, whether 
melodic or harmonic, between any tone and a 
tone one octave and six degrees distant from 
it; also, a tone distant by such an interval from 
a given tone; a compound sixth. 
thirtieth nher'ti-eth), . ami . [Altered t., 

suit the mod. form Ihirtij : < ME. thrittithi; thrit- 
tuthi . tl,rittii ; -ti; < AS. thritigotha, etc. ; as thirty 
+ -etlft.'] I, a. 1. Next after the twenty-ninth: 
an ordinal numeral. 2. Constituting any one 
of thirty equal parts into which anything is 

II. H. 1. Any one of thirty equal parts into 
which anything is divided. 2. In early Kng. 
l<iu; a thirtieth of the rents of the year, or of 
movables, or both, granted or levied by way 
of tax. 

thirty (ther'ti), a. and n. [Early mod. E. and 
dial, also thretty; < ME. thirty, thrifty, thritti. 
ihi'tty, thriti, < AS. thritig, thrittig = OS. thri- 
tiq = OFries. thritich, thritech = D. dertig = 
MLG. dortich, LG. dortig, diirtig = OHG. dri:ug, 
MHG. drizef,&. dreissig = Icel. thrjdtiu (cf. also 
thritugr, thri-togr) = Sw. trettio = Dan. tredire 
= Goth, threis tigjug; cf. L. triginta (> It. Pg. 
trenta = Sp. treinta = F. trente, > E. trenft) = 
The word "desert" is used, in the West, to describe alike Gr. rpianovra, dial. TpifiKovra = Skt. trineat, thir- 

lands in which the principle of life, if It ever existed, Is ..,,- 

totally extinct, and those other lands which are merely 

thirsty. The Century, XXXVIII. 298. 

3. Vehemently desirous; craving: with after, 
for, etc. 

To be thirsty after tottering honour. 

Shak., Pericles, iii. 2. 40. 
4t. Sharp; eager; active. 

We've been thirsty 
In our pursuit Ford, Fancies, i. 1. 

5. Causing thirst. [Rare.] 

Our natures do pursue, 
Like rats that ravin down their proper bane, 
A thirsty evil ; and when we drink we die. 

ty ; < ME. thursti, tliresti, thrixtt, < AS. 
tliiifntig, tli ri/sti<j = OFries. dorstig, torxtii/ = D. 
dorttig = MLG. dorstieh, LG. dorstig = OHG. 
durstag, MHG. durstec, G. durstig = Sw. Dan. 
torstig (cf. Icel. thyrstr), thirsty; as thirst + 
-w 1 .] 1. Feeling thirst; suffering for want of 

As cold waters to a thirsty soul, so Is good news from a 
far country. Prov. xxv. 25. 

What streams the verdant succory supply, 
And how the thirsty plant drinks rivers dry. 

Adduon, tr. of Virgil's Georgics, Iv. 

2. Dry ; parched ; arid. 

The parched ground shall become a pool, and the thirsty 
land springs of water. Isa, xxxv. 7. 

ty; as three + -<yl.] I. a. Being thrice ten, 
three times ten, or twentv and ten The Thirty 
Tyrants. 8ee tyrant. Thirty years' war, a series of 
European wars lasting from 1618 to 1648. They were car- 
ried on at first by the Protestants of Bohemia and vari- 
ous Protestant German states against the Catholic League 
headed by Austria. Afterward Sweden and later France 
joined the former side, and Spain became allied with the 

II. . 1. The number which consists of three 
times ten. 2. A symbol representing thirty 
units, as 30, XXX. or \ \ \ . 
thirtyfold (ther'ti-fold), a. Thirty times as 
much or as many. Mat. xiii. 8. 
Thirty-nine Articles. See article. 

Shak., M. for M., L 2. 134. thirty-one (ther'ti-wun'), n. A game resem- 
bling vingt-un, but with a longer reckoning. 

He Is discarded for a gamester at all games but one ami 
thirty. Earte, Microcosm. (Kares.) 

Rom.o/Partenay~(E.E.T!.$.),\.7K. MLG. 1 ' druttein, LG. dartein = OHG. dri:en, thirty-second (thr'ti-sek'ond), a. Second in 
Among sensations of Organic Life, I may cite TKrtt as MHG. drizehex, driven, G. dreixhn = Icel. thret- order after the thirtieth. 
remarkable for the urgency of its pressure upon the will. 

.1 . I'-iiiii. Emotions and Will, p. 318. 

2. Figuratively, an ardent desire for anything ; 

a craving. _ _ ^ ^ Ski* trayodaca, thirteen; as three + ten.} 


one i 

Over all the countrie she did rannge 
To sueke young men to quench her flaming thrust. 

Spenser, F. Q., III. Til. 50. 

Yet do their beating breasts demand the strife, 
And thint of glory quells the love of life. 

Adduon, The Campaign. 

thirst (therst), r. [Early mod. E. or dial, also 
tlirust, thrift; < ME. thirsten, thursten, trans- 
posed thristen, < AS. thyrstan = OS. thurgtiaii 
= D. dorsten = MLG. dorsten = OHG. dursteii, 
MHG. Qt. dursten, diirsten = Icel. thyrsta = Sw. 
tiirsta = ~ 
athirst '_ 

If thine enemy hunger, feed him ; if he thirst, give him 
drink. Bom. xli. 20. 

2. To have a vehement desire; crave. 

My soul thirsUth for God. Fs. xlii. 2. 

Although the beauties, riches, honours, sciences, vir- 
tues, and pcrfectionsof U men living were in the present 
possession of one, yet somewhat beyond and above all 
this there would still be sought and earnestly tUnttd for. 

I. semiquaver Thirty-second-note rest see *', 

Being three more than ten; consisting of 8(6). 

le more than twelve : a cardinal numeral. thirtytwo-mo (ther'ti-to mo), M [An E. read- 
II n. 1. The number which consists of the ig of 32mo, which stands for XXAlImo, a way 
- * ' - 

sum of twelve and one, or of ten and three. 
2. A symbol representing thirteen units, as III, 
XIII, or xiii. 3. A silver shilling worth 13 
pence, current in Ireland during the early part 
of the nineteenth century. 
F. A. M. is doubtless chronologically correct as to the 

of writing L. (') tricenimo secundo, ' in thirty- 
second.' So 16mo, 12mo, are read according to 
the E. numbers.] A leaf from a sheet of paper 
folded for a book regularly in thirty-two equal 
parts. Commonly written 32mo. When the sire of 
the sheet is not specified, the leaf is supposed to be a 
medium 32mo of the size 3 by 4; inches. A book made 

shilling in Ireland having been worth thirteen pence pre- up of , ucn jeaye, |, called a 3-2no. 

For It was a shillln' he gave me v glory be to God. No, 

I nlver heard it called a IMrteener before, but mother has. 

Quoted In Mayhete's London Labour and London Poor, 

[L 484. 

2. The thirteenth one of any number of things ; 
specifically, in ichiat, the last card of a suit left 
in the hands of a player after the other twelve 
have been played. 

lit mill Ciuucollj nrolru tv,l . ' - r -~y 

Hooter, Eccies. Polity, L ii. thirteen-lined (ther'ten'lind), a. Noting the 

lie thirsted for all liberal knowledge. 

Miltnit, Hist Eng., v. 

II. trims. To have a thirst for, literally or 
figuratively ; desire ardently ; crave : now usu- 
ally followed by an infinitive as the object. 

The eternal God must be prayed to, . . . who also grant 

thius, thit = MD. dene, dine, dit, D. dee:, deze, dit 
= MLG. desxe = OHG. diser, deser, MHG. diner, 
G. dieser (diese, t., dieses, dies, neut.) = Icel. 
thexsi, thessi, thetta = Sw. dentie, denna, delta = 
Dan. denne, dette = Goth, "this, this; < *tha, 
the pronominal base of the, that, etc., + -*, ear- 
lier -se, -si, prob. orig. identical with AS. se, etc., 
the (but by some identified with the impv. (AS. 
seo, OHG. se, Goth. m) of the verb see*). The 

leopard spermophile.or Hood's marmot, Spermo- "*><" ,,, 7/ x f 

1,1,1,1s fr&oJStf. a very common striped P 1 - f ..** [appears in two forms, these ME. 

philus tridecemlineatus, a very common striped 
and spotted ground-squirrel of North America. 
The allusion is to the number of stripes (representing the 
thirteen original States) In the flag of the United States, 
suggested by the markings of the animal. See cut under 

ib. -in omv ,>nrnestly to thirst his true doctrine, contained thirteenth (ther'tenth'), a. and w. [Altered to 

1.. V. ....... ....I ........ ..*! nl Li. ......i.., 11... .^ VA vw*w y L 

iii tin- sweet and pure fountains of his scriptures. 
I'liiuiate, Ans. to Sir T. More, etc. (Parker Soc. , 1850), p. 283. 
That unhappy king, my master, whom 
I so much thirst to see. Shak., W. T., iv. 4. 524. 
He seeks his Keeper's Flesh, and thirsts his Blood. 

Prior, Solomon, i. 

thirster (tliers'ti-r). H. [< thirst + -or 1 .] One 
\\liu or Unit which thirsts. 

Having seriously pleaded the case with thy heart, and 
nvnvntlv pkMik'il the case with Hod, thou hast pleaded 
thyself from ... a lover of the world to a thirtter nft<-r 
God. Baxter, Saints' Rest, Iv. IS. 

thirstily (tliers'ti-li), nilr. In a thirsty manner. 

Kruiu such Fountain he draws, diligently, thirttilii. 

Carli/If. Sartor Resartns, It. 3. 

suit the form of thirteen ; < ME. threttethe. also 
(after Icel.) threttende, < AS. thredtfotha = 
OFries. thredtiHda = D. dertiende = OHG. drit- 
ti'-fiido, MHG. dritzehende, drizehcnde, G. ilrri- 
5 = Icel. threttandi =Sw. trettonde = Dan. 

thes, thas) and those (< ME. that, < AS. than), 
the latter being now associated with that, of 
which the historical pi. is tho, now obs. Hence 
thus.'] I. a. That is now present or at hand: 
a demonstrative adjective used to point out with 
particularity a person or thing that is present 
in place or in thought. It denotes (a) Some person 
or thing that Is present or near in place or time, or Is nearer 
In place or time than some other person or thing, or has 
Just been mentioned or referred to, and Is therefore op- 

trettende = Goth, "thridjataihunda; as thirtnn 
+ -* 2 .] I. a. 1. Next after the twelfth: an 
ordinal numeral. 2. Constituting anyone of 
thirteen equal parts into which anything is di- 
vided Thirteenth cranial nervet, the chorda tym- 
pani regarded as distinct from the seventh or facial ni-ivc. 

II. w. 1. One of thirteen equal parts into 
which anything is divided. 2. In nirly /.'</. 

five hundred years ago, or one hundred yean earlier than 
that (city) ; this day ; this time of night ; these words. 

Of theise three Groynes sprang a Tree, as the Aun- 
gelle seyde that it scholde, and bere a Fruyt thorghe the 
whifhe Fruyt Adam scholde be saved. 

Mandmlle, Travels, p. 12. 

Frote youre visage with (Aw herbe, and youre nandes. 
Merlin (E. E. T. 3.), I. 7. 

In thys cite I abode Tewysday, all day and all nyght 
Torlmgtim, Diarie of Eng. Travell. p. 5. 


From the town you last CHine through, calle I Brailsford, 
it is five miles ; and you are not yet above half a mile on 
Hit* side. Cotton, in Walton's Angler, ii. 222. 

(b) Time just past or just at haml ; the last or the next. 
The reference, whether to past or to future, is determined 
by the circumstances ; this evening may mean either the 
evening now approaching, or next to come, or the evening 
now present, or the evening just past: as, it has occurred 
twice this year ; I shall take care not to fail Ihu (next) time. 
I n this connection //</> is sometimes used for these, the sum 
being reckoned up, as it were, in a total. 

The owle ek, which that hette Ascaphilo, 
Hath efter me shright al thin nyghtes two. 

Chaucer, Troilus, v. 320. 

I learn 'd in Worcester, as I rode along, 

He cannot draw his power this fourteen days. 

Shalt, 1 Hen. IV., iv. 1. 126. 

I have not wept this forty years ; but now 
My mother comes afresh into my eyes. 

Dryden, All for Love, i. 1. 

[In Shakspere the phrase this night occurs, meaning last 

Glow. My troublous dream this night doth make me sad. 
Duch. What dreaiu'd my lord ? tell me, and I'll requite it 
With sweet rehearsal of my morning's dream. 

Shale., 2 Hen. VI., i. 2. 2-2.] 

This . . . here. See Ari. This other i , the other. 

And hem liked more the melodye of this harpour than 
eny thinge that this other mynstralles diden. 

Merlin (E. E. T. S.), iii. 021. 
You denied to fight with me this other day. 

Shalt., W. T., v. 2. 140. 
This present. See present^. 

II. pron. This person or thing, (a) It denotes 
Some person or thing actually present or at hand : as, 
is this your coat ? Who ia this > 

This is a spell against them, spick and span new. 

B. Jonson, Bartholomew Fair, iii. 1. 
Fie, what an idle quarrel is this ; was this her ring ? 

Deltker and Webster, Northward Ho, i. 1. 

(li) Something that has just preceded or has been men- 
tioned or referred to. 

Alle thes were there wythoute fable, 
Wythoute ham of the rounde table. 

Arthur (ed. I'urnivall), 1. 179. 

When they heard this [the discourse of Peter] they were 

pricked in their hearts. Acts ii. 87. 

Suetonius writes that Claudius found heer no resistance, 

and that all was done without stroke ; but this seems not 

probable. Milton, Hist. Eng., ii. 

I know no evil which touches all mankind so much as 

this of the misbehaviour of servants. 

Sttele, Spectator, No. 88. 

(c) Emphatically, something that is to be immediately 
said or done : as, Let me tell you this: I shall lend you no 
more money. 

But know this, that if the goodman of the house had 
known in what watch the thief would come, he would 
have watched, and would not have suffered his house to 
be broken up. Mat. xxiv. 43. 

(d) Elliptically, this person, place, state, time, position, 
circumstance, or the like : as, I shall leave this [place or 
town] to-morrow ; this [state of affairs] is very sad ; I shall 
abstain from wine from this [time] on ; by this [time] we 
had arrived at the house. 

This [that is, this one] is so gentil and so tendre of herte 
That with his deth he wol his sorwes wreke. 

Chaucer, Troilus, iii. 904. 

I shall, between this and supper, tell you most strange 
things from Rome. Shak., Cor., iv. 3. 43. 

By this the vessel half her course had run. 

Dryden, tr. of Ovid's Metamorph., x. 95. 
When opposed to that, this refers to the person or thing 
that is nearer, that to the person or thing that is more 
distant; so, with things that have just been expressed, 
this refers to the thing last mentioned (and therefore 
nearer in time to the speaker), and that to the thing first 
mentioned (as being more remote). 

Two ships from far making amain to us : 
Of Corinth that, of Epidaurus this. 

Shalt., C. of E., i. 1. 94. 

A body of this or that denomination is produced. Boyle. 
Tltese will no taxes give, and those no pence 
Critics would starve the poetj Whigs the prince 

frnjien, Prol. to Southern's Loyal Brother, 1. 10. 
Some place the bliss in action, some in ease, 
Those call it pleasure, and contentment these. 

Pope, Essay on Man, iv. 22. 
This is sometimes opposed to the other. 

Consider the arguments which the author had to write 
(At*, or to design the other, before you arraign him. 

It was sometimes used elliptically for this is. 
This 'a good Fryer, belike. 

Shale., M. for M. (folio 1623), v. 1. 131. 

From this out. See from. To put this and that to- 
gether. Seejrnfi. 

this (THis), adi: [A var. of thus, or an ellip- 
tical use of for this. Cf. that, adr.~] For this 
thus. [Obsolete or colloq.] 

What am I, that thou shouldst contemn me this? 

Shalt., Venus and Adonis, 1. 205. 

None of the portraits mentioned by Walpole are 

dated thin early. 

<T. P. tforris, in Shakespeariana, May, 1881, p. 181. 
thisbe (thiz'be), H. [< NL. tliisbe, the specific- 
name, < Or. Bio/to/, a proper name.] The clear- 
winged moth Jlemaris thixhi: 


thisness (THis'nes), n. [< thin + -nfm<.~\ The 
state or quality of being this; hsecceity. 

thistle (this'l), n. [Formerly also or dial, this- 
sle; < ME. tliistel, tliixtile. thi/stylle (pi. thistles), 
< AS. thistel = D. distel = 'MLG. LG. distel = 
OHG. distiila, dixtil, MHG. G. distcl = Icel. 
thistiU = Sw. tintel = Dan. tidse I, thistle ; cf . 
Goth, deiuo in comp. wigadeino, 'way-thistle.'] 
One of numerous stout composite weeds, armed 
with spines or prickles, bearing globular or 

Upper part of stem 
heads ; a, a flower 
nchene with pappus. 


Common Thistle (Cnti its lanceolatus}. 
i, upper part of stem with heads ; 2, a leaf; a, achene with pappus. 

thickly cylindrical heads with purple, yellow, 
or white flowers and no rays, and dispersing 
their seed by the aid of a light globe of pappus. 
The name applies in general to the members of the genus 
Cnicus (including the former Cirsium), the common or 
plumed thistle, in which the pappus is plumose or fea- 
thered, of Carduus, the plnmeless 
thistle, in which the pappus is sim- 
ple, and of Onopordon, the cotton- 
thistle, also with qua! ifying words to 
plantsofothergenera. Argentine 
thistle*, an old name of the cotton- 
thistle. See Onopordon. Blessed 
thistle, one of the star-thistles, 
Centaurea (Cnicus) benedicta, once 
reputed to counteract poison. It 
is a low branching annual with 
lobed, weakly prickly leaves and 
light-yellow heads, 1J inches high, 
sparingly naturalized from Europe 
southward in the United States. 
Boar-thistle, a frequent variant of 
bur-thistle. Bull-thistle, a name 
^ in America of Cnicus lanceolatus 
- j& (see common thistle, below): cited 
also from Ireland. Canada this- 
tle, the usual name in the United 
States of Cnicttg aroensis, the corn- 
thistle, or creeping thistle, of Great 
Britain: a native of Europe and 
Asia, thence spread to North Amer- 
ica and other lands. It is less ro- 
bust than many other thistles, be- 
ing only a foot or two high and ra- 
ther slender, and bears very prick- 
ly pinnatifld leaves and numerous small purple-flowered 
heads. It is one of the very worst of weeds on account 
of its deep-laid, extensively creeping, and sprouting root- 
stock. Carllne thistle. See Carlina. Common this- 
tle, in general, a plant of the genus Cnicus; specifically, 
C. lanceolatus, the spear-, bur-, or bull-thistle. It is a stout 
branching plant from 2 to 4 feet high, with very prickly 
decurrent leaves and handsome purple heads a trouble- 
some weed, but without perennial creeping rootstock. 
Corn-thistle. See Canada thistle. Cotton thistle. See 
cotton-thistle, Oiwpordon, and Scotch thistle (below). Creep- 
ing thistle. See Canada thistle. Cursed thistle the 
creeping or Canada thistle. - Distaff- thistle, a thistle- 
like pl&nt,Carthamuslanatus,ot Europe and Asia : an erect, 
rigid, cobwebby species with large pale-yellow heads. 
Dwarf thistle. Same as stemless thistle-. Fish-bone or 
herring-bone thistle, Cnicus (Chamsepeuce) Casabonse, 
found on islands off the south coast of France. The name 
doubtless ailudes to the spines, borne in threes on the 
margin of the leaves. Friar's thistle. Same as friar 's- 
crovm. Fuller's-thistle, the teazel. -Globe thistle 
(a) See globe-thistle, (b) The artichoke. Golden thistle, 
a name for yellow-flowered species of the composite ge- 
nus Scolymus, one of which is the Spanish oyster-plant 
See oyster-plant. Hare- or hare's-thistle. Same as 
hare s-lettuce. Herring-bone thistle. See Mi-bone this- 
tle, above. Holy thistle. Same as blessed thistle. 

Get you some of this distilled Carduus Benedictus, and 
lay it to your heart. ... I meant, plain holy-thistle. 

Shak., Much Ado, iii. 4. 80. 

Horse thistle, (a) The common thistle (see horse-this- 
tle). (6t) The wild lettuce, Lactuca Scarivla, var. mrosa 
Hundred-headed thistle, or hundred thistle, an 
umbelliferous plant, Kryngium campestre, so called from 
the numerous flower-heads. Jersey thistle one of the 
star-thistles, Centaurea aspera (C. /xnnrrft). Lady's or 
Our Lady's thistle, (a) See millt-thittle and Silybum. 
I Same as blessed thistle. Mexican thistle, Cnicus 
larnuavunt) cmuptmuu, a tall plant with rigid spiny 
leaves, the heads 3 inches long, with yellow florets and 
scarlet involiu-ral scales.-Order of the Thistle (in 
full The Most Ancient ami Most KuUe Onler i,f the Thistle) 


a very old Scottish order which has often been i cnewed 
and remodeled, and is still in existence. The devices of 
the order are St. Andrew's cross, or saltier, and a thistle- 
flower with leaves; these enter into the different badges, 
the collar, star, etc. The motto is "Nemo me irnpnnu 
lacessit." The ribbon is green. Pasture-thistle, a low 
stout species, Cnicus pumilm, with from one to three very 
large purple, or rarely white, sweet-scented heads: found 
in the Atlantic United States. Saffron-thistle, the saf- 
flower. St. Barnaby's thistle, the yellow star-thistle, 
Centaurea solstitialis : so named as blooming about St. 
Uarnaby's day. Scotch thistle, a kind of thistle regaid- 
ed as the national emblem of Scotland, but the precise 
species to which the name properly belongs is not settled. 
Most authorities consider it to be the cotton-thistle, Ono- 
pordon A caul hium, though this is not native in Scotland ; 
others, the milk-thistle, Silybum (Carduus) Marianum; 
while some, with greater probability, refer it to the com- 
mon Cnicus lanceolatus. The thistle intended when the 
emblem came into use is uncertain, owing to the fact that 
the figures on old coins and in paintings were not meant 
to be botanically exact. See cuts above and under Onopor- 
don. Spear-thistle, the common thistle, Cnicus lanceo- 
latus: so called from its lance-shaped leaves. Stemless 
thistle, a European thistle, Cnicus acaulis, having a tuft 
of prickly spreading leaves and a few largish purple heads, 
scarcely rising above the ground. Also dvarf thistle, and 
locally pod-thistle. Swamp- thistle, a tall species, Cni- 
cus muticus, with single or few deep-purple heads on the 
branches : found in damp soil in the eastern United States. 
Swine-thistle. Same as smc-thistle. Syrian this- 
tle, Cnicus (Notabasui) Syriacus, of the Mediterranean re- 
gion. It is a plant from 1 to 4 feet high, with milky-veined 
leaves, the heads, one to three, on short axillary branches, 
each head embraced by a rigid pinnatifld spiny-pointed 
bract. Tall thistle, a common species of the United 
States east of the W ississippi, Cnicus altissimus, a branch- 
ing plant sometimes 10 feet high, the leaves covered with 
close white wool beneath, the flowers light-purple. Vir- 
gin Mary's thistle. Same as milk-thistle. Way-thistle 
the Canada thistle. Welted thistle, an Old World spe- 
cies, Carduus acanthoides, resembling the musk-thistle. 
Wolves'- or wolf 8-thlstlet, Carlina acaulis. Wool- 
ly-headed thistle. Same as friar's-cromi. Yellow 
thistle, Cnicus horridulus, of the Atlantic United States, 
a stout plant from 1 to 3 feet high, with very spiny leaves 
and pale-yellow or purple heads. (See also bm-tlMle, 
hedgehog-thistle, melancholy-thistle, melon-thistle, milk-this- 
tle, musk-thistle, pine-thistle, pod-thistle, sow-thistle, star- 
thistle, torch-thiitle.) 

thistle-bird(this'l-berd),a. TheAmericau gold- 
finch, Clirysomitrix or Spimis tristis, or another 
thistle-finch (which see). 

Among the occasional visitors to the yard were two 
American goldfinches, or thistle-birds. 

The Atlantic, LXVI. 200. 

thistle-butterfly (this'l-but'er-fli), . The 
painted-lady, Vanessa or Pyrameis cardui, a 
cosmopolitan butterfly whose larva feeds on 
the thistle. See cut under painted-lady. 

thistle-COCk (this'1-kok), . The common corn- 
bunting, Embertza miliaria. See cut under bunt- 
ing. [Prov. Eng.] 

thistle-cropper (this'l-krop'er), )/. The do- 
mestic ass ; a donkey. 

thistle-crown (this'l -krpun), n. [So named 
from the thistle on the coin.] An English gold 
coin of the reign of James I., current 1604-11, 
weighing about 30 grains, and worth 4.s-. or 4s. 
4frf. (about $1 or $1.10). 

thistle-digger (this'l-dig'er), w. A form of 
spade with a narrow, forked blade, with which 
the root of a 
thistle can be 
cut below the 
crown. A pro- 
jection from the 
back of the blade 
serves as a ful- 
crum, by the aid 
of which the sev- 
ered plant can be 
ried up. 
n. A Scottish 
silver coin, 
also called the 
double merit, is- 
sued in 1578 by 
James VI. It 
weighed 342.6 
grains troy, 
and was worth 
23*. Sd. Scotch 
(nearly 2*. 
English) at the 
time of issue. 

. The pappus 
of the thistle, 
by which the 
achenia are 
borne by the 
wind to great 
distances. See 
cuts under 

,,,; ... Thistle-dollar. British Museum. 

tmStle. (SizeoftheoriKiM.U.' 

Thistlf-merk of James VI. Brlthh 
Museum. (Size of the original.) 


Aallii.-'t: -/"'- in Hi' nyre doih Die, 
So vainly -bait limit (IK* ami fro lit tot. 

N/iriUfr, Mother Hub. Tale, I. 

First loves wen- apt to lloat away from memory as 
down* upon a Hummer bree/e. /'A.- I'eninri/, XI,. em. 

thistle-finch (this'l-linch), . One of several 
different fringilliuc birds which t'eeil In a no- 
table ex lent nil I he seeils of I 111- this! If a In I Va- 
rious relati-il colil]>osites. Thin name, or an equiv- 
alent, is traceable to the a<u4ci of Aristotle (compute 
the extract when iiniler thixtleicarp below), and covers 

mmteroiiH species of 
linnets, siskins, gold- 
tlnchcH, etc., of similar 
habits and of close- 
ly related suhgcneric 
groups, for the i xpla- 

natlon of which see 
xpiiitts. Also thistlf- 
tiir.l, mid formerly (Aw- 

fl' >i'<irp. 

Carduelis, a linnet, a 
ffomenclator (UiSS), p. 

[67. i //"///'"//.) 


(this' 1- inerk), u. 
A Scottish silver 
coin, issued in 160] 
by James VI. It 
weighed 104.7 
grains troy, and 
was worth 13s. 4rf. 
Scotch (13Jd. Eng- 
lish) at the time of 

(this'l-pl6ra),n. A 
plume-moth, Ptero- 
jihorus eardnid<ie- 
tylns, whose larva 
feeds on thistle- 
heads. [U. S.] 

thistle-tube (this'- 
1-tub), . In chem- 
ical glassware, a funnel-tube in which the flar- 
ing part of the funnel is connected with a bulb 
of considerably larger diameter, from the bot- 
tom of which a tube extends downward, thus 
presenting a profile strikingly similar to the 
stalk of a thistle and its composite flower 
(whence the name). 

thistlewarpt (this'1-warp), . [< thistle + warp. 
Cf. mnhl\fiiri>.~\ The goldfinch or siskin; a 

Two sweet birds, surnamed th' Acanthldes, 
Which we call Thistle-warps, that near no seas 
Dare ever come, but still in couples fly, 
And feed on thistle-tops, to testify 
The hardness of their first life in the last. 
Marlowe and Chapman, Hero and Leander, vL 277. 

thistly (this'li), a. [< thistle + -yi.] 1. Con- 
sisting of or abounding in thistles. 

The land, once lean, 
Or fertile only In its own disgrace, 
Exults to see its thistly curse repeal'd. 

Cowper, Task, vL 768. 

The ground Is thistly, and not pleasurable to bare feet. 
Ruslrin, Elements of Drawing, p. 218. 

2. Resembling a thistle or some attribute of a 
thistle ; prickly. 

The rough Hedg-hog . . . 
On 's tl,i*tlii bristles rowles him quickly in. 

Sylwster, tr. of Du Bartas's Weeks, i. G. 
A beautiful Maltese [cat] with great yellow eyes, fur as 
soft as velvet, and silvery paws as lovely to look at as they 
were thistly to touch. 

n. T. Cooke, Somebody's Neighbors, p. 48. 

thiswiset (THis'wiz), ade. [< this + -irwte.] In 
this manner; thus. 

Which text may thisicijte be understood : that, as that 
sin shall be punished with everlasting damnation in the 
life to come, even so shall it not escape vengeance here. 
Tyndale, Ans. to Sir T. More, etc. (Parker Soc., I860), p. 24. 

thithent, <idr. See, tin then. 
thither (THITH'IT), adr. [< ME. thider, tlujilcr. 
Ihyilin; tlniili r, tlmli r, thedur, tlnidere, < AS. 
t/iiila: thi/der = lce\. thiidlirn. thither; cf. Goth. 
thnthri'i, thence, then; < 'tha, the pronominal 
base of the, Unit, etc., + -der, a compar. suffix 
seen also in hither, irliitlier, after, i/oiider, etc. 
( 'f. Skt. /(//;, there, thither.] 1. To that place : 
opposed to hithi-r. 

Whan the kouherd com thM(er}e he konred lowe 
To bi-hold in at the hole win his hound berkyd. 

William of Palerne (E. E. T. 8.), I. 47. 

Wliere I am, thither ye cannot come. John vli. 34. 

2. To that point, degree, or result ; to that end. 

This wrestler shall clear all: nothiiiK remains but that 

1 kindle the bo\ Ihilli, r. Shall., As you Like it, i. 1. 179. 

Hither and thither, see hither. 
thither (TniTH'er).. [< (MAr, adv.] Being 

in that place or direction; lieiice. further: 


remote; opposite: opposed to hilln-r. 

They crossed from Broadway to the noisome street by 
the ferry', and in a little while had taken their places in 
the train on the tltithfr side of the water. 

llouxlli. Their Wedding Journey, ii. 

thither (THiTH'er), v. i. [< thither, ailr.] To 
go thither. [Rare.] To hither and thither. See 

thitherto (Tiimr-cr-td'), <nlr. [< thither + 
Int.] To that place or point ; so far. [Rare.] 

The workmen's petitions also laid particular stress on 
the point that by the thitherto prevailing laws the jour- 
neymen lawfully educated for their trade had acquired a 
right similar to property. 

Kmjlish Qildi(E. E. T. S.). Int., p. cxcll. 

thitherward (THiTH'er-wiird), tulr. [< MK. 
thiili nnir/l, thediricnrd, thytUrWitfd, thudertciird. 

< AS. thidertreard, < thider, thither, + -ireard, E. 
-ininl.\ Toward that place, point, or side ; in 
that direction. 

When thou goys In the gate, go not to faste, 
N'e hyderwerd ne thedcrtrard thi hede thou caste. 
Booke of Precedence (E. E. T. S., extra ser.), i. 48. 

Long he wander'd, till at last a gleam 
Of dawning light turn'd thitherward in haste 
His travell'd steps. Milton, f. 1.., iii. 600. 

thitherwards (TuiTil'er-wardz), adv. [< ME. 

thiilencards, < AS. thiderwearden, < thiderineard 

+ adv. gen. -e*.] Same as thitherward. 
thitlingt (THit'ling), n. [Origin obscure.] A 

Cities, hoi-roughs, baronies, hundreds, towns, villager, 

thilliiujg. Milton, Articles of Peace with the Irish, xviil. 

thitsee (thit'se), . See theetsee. 

thitto, See Sandoricum. 

thivel (thiv'l), n. Same as thible. 

Thlaspi (thlas'pi), n. [NL. (Malpighi, 1675; 
earlier in Matthioli, 1554), < L. thlagpi, < Gr. 
OMunn, OXaome, a kind of cress the seed of which 
was crushed and used as a condiment, < 0%av, 
crush, bruise.] A genus of cruciferous plants, 
type of the tribe Thlaxmdete. It is characterized by 
equal petals, stamens without appendages, and a sessile 
emargmatepod with laterally compressed winged or keeled 
valves, and two or more seeds In each cell. There are about 
30 species, natives chiefly of northern regions, both tem- 
perate and arctic. They are usually smooth annuals, some- 
times perennials, with a rosette of radical leaves, the stem- 
leaves with an auricled clasping base, and the racemed 
flowers either white, pink, or pale-purple. For T. aroense 
of Europe, see penny^ress, ana cuts under accumbent and 

Thlaspideae (thlas-pid'e-e), n. vl. [NL. (A. P. 
de Candolle, 1824), < Thlattpi (Thlagjrid-) + -.] 
A tribe of cruciferous plants, characterized by 
a silicle compressed contrary to the usually 
narrow partition, and by straight accumbent 
cotyledons. It includes 16 genera, of which 
Thlaspi (the type), Iberis (the candytuft), and 
Teesdalia are the most important. 

thlipsencephalus (thlip-sen-sef'a-lus), n. ; pi. 
thlijifsencepliali (-11). [NL., < Gr. 0/iV'f, pressure 
(see thlipsix), + ryistja/jac, brain.] In teratol.-, 
a monster the upper part of whose skull is ab- 
sent, as a result of abnormal intracranial pres- 
sure during fetal life. 

thlipsis (thlip'sis), n. [NL., <Gr. 6)j^i f , pres- 
sure, compression, < OMfietv, press, distress.] In 
med., compression of vessels, especially con- 
striction by an external cause ; oppression. 

tho 1 (THO), adt: and conj. [< ME. tho, tha, < AS. 
thd, then ; as a relative, when ; < 'tha, the pro- 
nominal base seen in the, that, etc.] I. inlr. 
Then ; thereupon. [Obsolete or prov. Eng.] 
Tho redde he me how Sampson loste his heres. 

Chaucer, ProL to Wife of Bath's Tale, 1. 721. 

Athen. He will enforce, If you resist his suit. 

Ida. What that Greene, Junes IV.. II. 

Il.t eonj. Wlien. 

'/7c. he was of nyne hundred 3er and two and thritti old, 
His strengthe fuylede of his limes. 

Holy Rood led. MorrisX p. 21. 

tho 2 t (THO), def. art. andiron. [< ME. the, tha. 

< AS. thd, pi. of se (the), se6, that, the def. art. : 
see the 1 .'] I. def . art. Tho (in plural); those. 

Out of the gospel he thu wordes caughte. 

Chaucer, Gen. Prol. to C. T., L 498. 

II. i>ro. Those; they. 

Been ther none othere matter resemblances 
That ye may likne youre parables to, 
But if a sely wyf be oon of tho? 

Chaucer, ProL U) Wife of Bath's Tale, 1. 370. 

tho'. tho 3 (THO), conj. A common abbreviated 
spelling of thoiigh. 

thoelt, a. An old spelling of thole 2 . 

thoft (THof), conj. [< ME. tlmf. tlmfe; a dial. 
form of tliiiui/h, the orig. guttural yh (h) chang- 
ing to /'. as also in ilirnrf. and as pronounced 
in rough, tnini/li. eU'.] Though. 


But yetdeghlt not the link. , rwhym den- llmllt. 

Deitni i i T. s.), i. auaa. 

There U not a soul of them nil, thnf In tuik'ht nut care 
a brass penny for you before, who will not till a bumper to 
your health now. J. BaMie. 

thoft 1 (tlioft), . [Hither a mod. var. of 

Iliiiui/lit*. itself u var. of the earlier thuft, or 

repri'seiiling the earlier thJ't unaltered, < ME. 

tliofl. < AS. IhoJ'lr (= Icei. thiililil = S\v. tuft 

= Dan. toftf), a rowing-bench; hence i/rilm/ln. 
a companion, orig. a companion on a rowing- 
bench ('thoft-fcllow'); cf. ME. fern, thnft,;,. 
tl/nlitiii, a handmaid.] A rowing-bench : used 
in the compound thoft-felloir. [Prov. Eng.] 
thoft- (thoft), n. A dialectal form of thou</liti, 
thoft-fellow (thoft'fel'6), n. [< //(//' +J'il- 
linr.\ A fellow-oarsman. Ilailiirill. [Prov. 

tholance (tho'lans), n. [< thiilf 1 + -anrr.'] 

Sufferance. Jamifxoii. [Scotch.] 
thole 1 (thol), r.; pret. and pp. thoted, ppr. thol- 

iii. [ < M K. //,.</<. tlmlien. < AS. thtilinn = ( )S. 

tholean, tholon = OFries. tholia = < 
MHG. dnin = Icel. thola = Sw. t<il,i = Dan. 
taale = Goth, thulan, suffer; akin to Gr. rff/vai, 
suffer (r'/tifiujv, miserable, wiAbrJat, much-suf- 
fering, Tol/iav, risk, suffer, etc.), L. tolerare, 
endure, tollere, bear, lift, raise (pp. latitg for 
"tlatitK, pret. tuli, used to supply the pret. and 
pp. of ferre, bear). Cf. tolerate, etc. Hence 
AS. gethpld = 1). gedutd = OHG. dull, MHG. 
dull, G. ge-duld, endurance, patience ; D. dulden 
= OHG. dultan, MHG. dulten, G. it,,!,!,-,,, suf- 
fer.] I. trans. 1. To bear; undergo; sus- 
tain ; put up with ; stand. 
The! pin-hen that penaunce is profitable to the soule, 
And what myschief and malese Cryst for man tholed. 

Piers Plowman (K\ till. 76. 

We've done nae ill, we'll thole nae wrang. 

/.../.. ../ W,,,,:,'!:,;,, i (Child's Ballads, VI. 17::i 

Thou goest about a-slghlng and a-moanlng in a way 
that I can't stand or thole. Mrs. Oaskell, Ruth, xvi. 

2. To experience ; feel ; suffer. 

God, that tholede passiun, 
The holde, sire, longe aliue. 

King Horn (E. E. T. 8.), p. 67. 
So muche wo as I have with you tholed. 

Chaucer, Friar's Tale, 1. 248. 

The long reign of utter wretchedness, the nineteen win* 
ters which England had tholed lor her sins. 

E. A. Freeman, Norman Conquest, V. 219. 

3. To tolerate; permit; allow. 

I salle hys commandement holde, 3 if Criste wll me thole! 
Morte Arthure (E. E. T. S.), 1. 4151. 
Trewly he Is on-lyue, 
That tholede the Jewes his tlessh to rifle, 
He LI.- vs fele his woundes fyue, 

Oure lorde verray. 

York Playt, p. 453. 

4. To admit of ; afford. 

He gaed to his gude wife 
Wf a' the speed that he coud (7n.iV 

Lochmaben Harper (Child's Ballads, VI. S). 

5. To give freely. Balliicell. 

n. intrans. 1. To endure grief, pain, mis- 
fortune, etc. ; suffer. 

Manne on uiolde, be ineke to me. 
And haue thy maker In thl mynde, 
And thynke howe I haue tlwlid for the. 
With pereles paynes for to be pyned. 

fork Playt, p. 372. 

2. To be patient or tolerant; bear (with) ; be 

Tlicnnc he thulged with hlr threpe. & thohd hlr to speke, 
& ho here on hym the belt, & bede hit hym swythe, 
A he granted. 
Sir Oawayne and the Oreen Knight (E. E. T. 8.X 1. 1869. 

3. To wait; stay; remain. Jamiesou; llalliin-ll. 
[Obsolete or prov. Eng. or Scotch in all uses.] 

tholeH (thol), n. [ME. thole (= Icel. thol); < 
thole 1 , r.] Patience; endurance; tolerance. 

For ic am god, gelus and strong, 
Min wreche Is hard, mln thole It long. 

Genesis and Exodus (E. E. T. 8.), 1. 349C. 

thole 2 (thol), . [Also thowl, thou-el, and for- 
merly thoel; early mod. E. tholle; < ME. thol, 
tholle, < AS. thol (glossed scalmm) = MD. dot, 
dolle, D. dol = LG. dolle, a thole, = Icel. thollr. 
a wooden peg, the thole of a boat, a pin, = 
Dan. <ol, a thole, pin. stopper; cf. Icel. thollr, 
also thiili (thiiU-), = Norw. toll, tall, a fir-tree, = 
Sw. tall, dial, tftl, a pine-tree.] 1. A pin in- 
serted in the gunwale of a boat, or in a similar 
position, to act as a ful- 
crum for the oar in row- ^^^^^^^^^^J 
ing. The oar is sometimes se- ^^^ 
cured to the thole by a loop of i ' i 

cordage ; but more frequently 

there are two pins between which the oar plays, In which 
case the thole is properly the pin against which the oar 
presses when the sttoke is made. It is common, however, 


to speak of the two together as the tholes. Also called 

They took us for French, our boats being fitted with 
thoelsnnd grummets for the oars in the French fashion. 
Marryat, Frank Mildmay, v. (Dames.) 
With what an unusual amount of noise the oars worked 
in the thowels ! Dickens, Great Expectations, liv. 

The sound of their oars on the tholes had died ill the dis- 
tance. Langfellm, Evangeline, ii. 2. 

2. The pin or handle of a scythe-snath. 3f. 
A cart-piii. 
Tholle, a cartpynne, chenille de charette. 

Palsgrave, p. 280. 

thole 3 (thol), n. [< L. tholus, < Gr. ftWof : see 
tholus.] Inarch.: (a) Same as tholus; some- 
times, a vaulted niche, or recess in a temple, 
where votive offerings were suspended. 
Let altars smoke, and tholes expect our spoils, 
Csesar returns in triumph ! 

J. Fisher, Fuimus Trees, iii. 2. 

(b) The scutcheon or knot at the center of a 
timber vault. 

tholemodt, [ME., < AS. tholemod (= Icel. 
tholinmddr; cf. Sw. tS,lmodig = ~Dstn.taaimodig), 
having a patient mind,< tholian, endure, + mod, 
mind, mood : see mood 1 .'] Patient; forbearing. 
The fyfte [deed of mercy] es to be tholemode when men 
mysdose vs. Religious Pieces (E. E. T. S.), p. 9. 

tholemodlyt, adv. [ME., < tholemod + -fy 2 .] 

He [God] abit tholemodliche, 

He fur-geft litliche. 

Political Poems, etc. (ed. Furnivall), p. 240. 

tholemodnesst, [ME., < tholemod + -ness.] 
Patience; forbearance; long-suffering. 

The uirtue of merci, thet is zorge and tholemodnesse of 
othremanne kuead and of othremanue misdede. 

Ayenbite of Inwyt (E. E. T. S.), p. 185. 

thole-pin (thol'pin), n. Same as thole' 2 , 1. 

Thollon prism. A form of prism sometimes 
used in spectrum-analysis, which gives a high 
degree of dispersion. It is a triple prism, consisting 
of a 90 prism of dense glass within, having an additional 
prism of small angle (say 15") cemented to each side with 
edges in reversed position to the central prism ; the com- 
pound prism would thus have an angle of 60. Also called 
Rutherfurd prism. 

tholobate (thol'o-bat), n. [< Gr. (MAof, a dome, 
+ /3ar<5f, verbal adj. of paivtiv, go, walk.] In 
arch., a substructure supporting a dome. 

tholus (tho'lus), n. ; pi. thoU (-11). [Also tholos; 
< L. tholus, < Gr. ftUof, a dome, a rotunda, any 
circular building.] In classical arch., any cir- 
cular building, as that designed by Polycletus 
at Epidaurus ; also, a dome or cupola ; a domed 
structure; specifically, at Athens, the round 
chamber, or rotunda, a public building con- 
nected with the prytaneum, in which the pryt- 
anes dined. 

The Thirty Tyrants on one occasion summoned him, to- 
gether with four others, to the Tholus, the place in which 
the Prytanes took their meals. G. H. Lewes. 

The Athenian Archaeological Society has excavated the 
tholos of Amyclee, near Sparta. Athenteum, No. 3264, p. 648. 

Thomaean, Thomean (to-me'an), n. [< LL. 
Thomas, < Gr. Gw^af, a Hebrew name.] Same 
as Christian of St. Thomas (which see, under 

Thomaism (to'ma-izm), n. Same as Thomism. 

Thomasite (tom'as-it), . [< Thomas, the name 
of the founder o? the sect, 4- -ite%.] Same as 

Thomas's operation. See operation. 

thomet, . An obsolete form of thumb 1 . 

Thomean, n. See Thomsean. 

Thomisidse (tho-mis'i-de), n. pi. [NL., < Tho- 
misus + -idle.] A family of laterigrade spiders, 
typified by the genus Thomisus. The species are 
numerous and wide-spread. They are mostly known as 
crab-spiders, from their peculiar manner of running side- 
wise or backward, as a crab is supposed to do, and also 
from their general shape, the body being broad and the 
legs, or some of them, being usually held bent forward and 
moved like.-those of the crustaceans whose appearance is 
thus suggested. 

Thomism (to'mizm), . [< Thom-as + -ism.] 
The doctrine of the followers of Thomas Aqui- 
nas, an eminent theologian of the thirteenth 
century (died 1274). Thomas Aquinas held two 
sources of knowledge faith and reason the doctrines 
of unconditional predestination and efficacious grace, and 
a physical as well as a moral efficacy in the sacraments ; 
and he denied the doctrine of the immaculate conception. 
His theology, embodied in his great work, "Summa Theo- 
logian," was based on a philosophical system rather than 
on either the Bible or the traditional teaching of the 
church. It was an attempt to reconcile Aristotelian phi- 
losophy with the Christian faith. It is of very high au- 
thority in the Roman Catholic Church, and its influence is 
great even outside of that church. Also Thomaism. 

Thomist (to'mist), . and a. [< Thom-as + -ist.] 
I. n. A follower of Thomas Aquinas. 

Scotists and Thomists now in peace remain. 

Pope, Essay on Criticism, 1. 444. 


Thomixts, .1 name often given to the followers of Thomas 
Aquinas, who, besides adopting the Aristotelian philoso- 
phy, in opposition to Duns Scotus, who held the Platonic, 
also taught the doctrines of Augustine on the subject of 
original sin, free grace, etc. He condemned the dogma 
of the immaculate conception, in opposition to Scotus. 
The two sects were also divided on the question of the 
sacraments, as to whether grace was conferred by them 
physically or morally the Thomixtn holding the former, 
the Scotists the latter. . . . The Thomists were Realists, 
while the Scotists were Nominalists ; and although the 
Roman see naturally inclined to favor the doctrines of 
the Scotists, the prestige of Aquinas was so great that the 
Thomists ruled the theology of the Church up to the time 
of the controversy between the Molinists and the Jansen- 
ists, when the views of the Scotists substantially pre- 

McClintock and Strom), Cyclopaedia of Biblical, etc. , Litera- 
ture, x. 373. 

II. a. Same as Thomistic. 

The recent revival in different countries of the Thomist 
philosophy, now again authoritatively proclaimed to be 
the sheet-anchor of Catholic doctrine. Mind, IX. 159. 

Thomistic (to-mis'tik), a. [< Thomist + -ic.~] 
Of or pertaining to the Thomists or Thomism. 

Yet in the Thomistic system the ancient thinker often 
conquers the Christian. Mind, XI. 445. 

Thomistical (to-mis'ti-kal),. [< Thomistic + 
-al.] In the manner of the Thomists, or of 
Thomas Aquinas; subtle; over-refined. 

How far, lo ! M. More, is this your strange Thomistical 
sense [interpretation] from the flat letter? 

Tyndale, Supper of the Lord (ed. Parker Soc.), p. 244. 

Thomisus (tko'mis-us), n. [NL. (Walckenaer), 
< Gr. Oauiaaeiv or 6u/iiftv, whip, scourge.] The 
typical genus of Thomisidse, or crab-spiders. 

Thomite(t6'rmt),. [< Thom-as + -ite*.] Same 
as Thomsean. 

Thpmomys (tho'mo-mis), n. [NL. (Maximilian, 
1839). < Gr. oa/tof, a heap, + ,uip = E. mouse.] 1 . 
One of two genera of Geomyidse or pocket-go- 
phers, differing from Geomys in having the up- 
per incisors smooth or with only a fine marginal 
(not median) groove. The external ears, though 
small, have a distinct auricle ; the fore feet are moderately 
fossorial ; and none of the species are as large as those of 
Geomys. They range from British America to Mexico, and 
from the Mississippi valley to the Pacific. The northern 
form is T. talpoides ; a western is T. tndbivorus, the camass- 
rat of the Pacific slope ; a southern is T. umbrinus; the 
smallest is described as T. clusius, of the Rocky Mountain 
region, about five inches long. In habits these gophers 
closely resemble the species of Qeomys. The generic name 
indicates the little piles of earth with which they soon 
dot the surface of the soft soil in which they work. See 
cut under camasg-rat. 
2. [I. c.] A member of this genus. 

I found also bones and fragments of the Elephas primi- 

genius, and the greater part of the skeleton of a Thorrwmys. 

Amer. Nat., Nov., 1889, p. 979. 

Thompson's solution of phosphorus. See so- 

thomsenolite (tom'sen-o-lit), . [Named after 
Dr. J. Thomsen of Copenhagen.] A hydrous 
fluoride of aluminium, calcium, and sodium, 
found with pachnolite and cryolite in Green- 
land, also in Colorado. 

Thomsen's disease. [Named after Dr. Thom- 
sen of Schleswig-Holstein, who was himself a 
sufferer from the disease, and the first to de- 
scribe it.] An affection characterized by ina- 
bility to relax at once certain groups of mus- 
cles that have been contracted after a period of 
rest. It runs in families, beginning very early 
in life. Also called myotonia congenita. 

Thomson effect. See effect. 

Thomsonian (tom-so'ni-an), a. and n. [< 
Thomson (Dr. Samuel Thomson, of Massachu- 
setts, 1769-1843) + -i-an.] I. a. Noting or 
pertaining to a system of botanical medicine, 
one of whose doctrines is that, as all minerals 
are from the earth, their tendency is to carry 
men into their graves, whereas the tendency 
of herbs, from their growing upward, is to keep 
men out of their graves. 
II. n. An adherent of the Thomsonian theory. 

Thomsonianism (tom-so'ni-an-izm), n. [< 
Thomsonian + -ism.] The principles of the 
Thomsonian school. 

The career of Thomson was unique, and even to this day 
Thomsonianism has its votaries, and lobelia and rum sweats 
are retained with the tenacity of old friends. 

Pop. Sri. Sews, XXIII. 61. 

thomsonite (tom'son-it), . [< Thomson (Tho- 
mas Thomson, a Scottish chemist, 1773-1852) 
4- -ite 2 .] A mineral of the zeolite family, occur- 
ring generally in masses of a radiated struc- 
ture, in spherical concretions or compact. It is 
a hydrous silicate of aluminium, calcium, and 

Thomson's electrometer, mirror-galvanom- 
eter, siphon-recorder, etc. See electrometer, 
galvanometer, etc. 


thong (thong), n. [<ME. thong, thuioiig, thwang, 
< AS. thwang, thwony (= leel. thvengr), thong, 
latchet, esp. of shoes, < *thwingan ('thwang in 
pret.), constrain: see twinge.'] A long nar- 
row strip of leather; a narrow strap, used as 
a fastening, a halter, reins, the lash of a whip, 
the latchet of a shoe, and in many other ways. 
See cut under snow-shoe. 

Queme quyssewes [cuisses] then, that coyntlych closed 

His thik thrawen thygez, with uaeonffa to-tachched. 

Sir Gawayne and the Green Knight (E. E. T. S.), 1. f>79. 

After cutte that pece into thwanges smal, 

Lete it not be brode, but narow as may be. 

Rom. o/Partenay (E. E. T. S.), 1. 568. 

A lethern thong doth serve his wast to girt. 

Times' Whistle (E. E. T. S.), p. 27. 

From the high box they [coachmen] whirl tliethony around, 
And with the twining lash their shins resound. 

day, Trivia, iii. 37. 

thong (thong), v. [< ME. tiiwongen; < thong, n.] 

I.t trans. To provide, fit, or fasten with a thong. 

Thonffede scheon. Ancren Riu'le, p. 362. 

II. intrans. 1 . To strike with a thong, or with 
a similar implement, as the lash of a whip. 

She has hit Mrs. Bonnington on the raw place, and smil- 
ingly proceeds to thong again. 

Thackeray, Lovel the Widower, iv. 

2. To rope ; stretch out into viscous threads or 

filaments. Halliwell. [Prov. Eng.] 
thong-seal, (thong'sel), n: The bearded seal, 

Eriynathus barbatus. See cut under Erignathus. 
thpngy (thong'i), a. [< thong + -yi.] Ropy; 

viscid. Halliwell. [Prov. Eng.] 
thonk, n. and . An obsolete or dialectal form 

of thank. 

thonwanget, n. See thumrange. 
thooid (tho'oid), a. and n. [< Gr. flu; (Su6c), a 

beast of prey of the wolf kind, + eMof, form.] 

1. a. Wolfish; resembling or related to the 
wolf; lupine: as, " the thooid or lupine series" 
of canines, W. H. Flower. 

II. w. A member of the thooid or lupine se- 
ries of canine quadrupeds, as a wolf, dog, or 
jackal : as, " thooids, or lupine forms," Huxley. 

thoom (thorn), n. A dialectal form of thumb 1 . 

Thor (th6r) ,n. [< Icel. Thorr, a contr. of * Thonrr 
= AS. Tliunor: see thunder and Tltursday.] 1. 
The second principal god of the ancient Scandi- 
navians, the god of thunder. He was the son of Odin, 
or the supreme being, and Jorth, the earth. He was the 
champion of the gods, and was called in to their assistance 
whenever they were in straits. He was also the friend of 
mankind, and the slayer of trolls and evil spirits. He al- 
ways carried a heavy hammer (mjolnir, the crusher), which, 
as often as he discharged it, returned to his hand of itself ; 
he possessed a girdle which had the virtue of renewing 
his strength. Thor is represented as a powerful man in 
the prime of life, with a long red beard, a crown on his 
head, a scepter in one hand, and his hammer in the other. 
Thursday is called after him, and his name enters as an 
element into a great many proper names. 

2. [NL.] In zool., a genus of macrurous crus- 
taceans. J. S. Kingsley, 1878 Thor's day. See 
Thursday. Thor's hammer. See hammer^. 

thoracabdominal (tho"rak-ab-dom'i-nal), a. 
[< thorax (thorac-) + abdomen: see abdominal.] 
Pertaining or common to the thorax and the ab- 
domen: as, the thoracabdominal cavity of any 
vertebrate below a mammal. 

thoracacromial (th6"rak-a-kr6'mi-al), o. [< L. 
thorax (thorac-), the thorax, + NL. acromion : 
see afromial.] Of or pertaining to the chest 
and the shoulder, or the thorax and the pecto- 
ral arch; acromiothoracic : specifically noting 
a group of muscles. Coves, 1887. 

thoracaorta (thd"rak-a-6r'ta), n. ; pi. thorac- 
aort& (-te). [NL., < tllorax (thorac-) + aorta.] 
The thoracic aorta, contained in the cavity of 
the thorax, and with which the abdominal aorta 
is continuous. See cut under thorax. Coves. 

thoracentesis (tho // ra-sen-te'sis), n. [NL., for 
"thoracocentesis, < L. thorax (thorac-), the tho- 
rax, + Gr. Kevrqatf, < nevreiv, puncture : see ceit- 
to'l.] The operation of puncturing the chest, 
as in hydrothorax or empyema, and withdraw- 
ing the contained fluid; paracentesis thoracis. 

thoraces, . Plural of thorax. 

thoracetron (tho-ra-se'tron), .; pi. thoracetrtt 
(-tra). [NL., < L. thorax (thorac-), the thorax, 
+ Gr. ffrpov, the abdomen.] The thorax, or sec- 
ond division of the body, of some crustaceans, 
as the king-crab: correlated with ccphaletron 
undpleon. Owen. 1872. 

thoracic (tho-ras'ik), a. and n. [= F. thrari<i<ii- 
= Sp. tordcico = Pg. thoracico = It. toracico, < 
NL. *thoracicus, < L. thorax (thorac-), the tho- 
rax: see thorax.] !..!. Of or pertaining to 
the thorax or chest : as, thoracic walls, contents, 
organs, or structures, (a) Contained in the thorax ; 
intrathoracic : as. the thoracic viscera, (b) Dorsal, as a 


vertebra which hears functional ring; entering into the 
fi>rm:itlon of the thorax: >pn-iti*:.illy imtinn surh vt-rtv- 
bne (all vertebra being ilnraul in one sense), (c) Pertain- 
iiiK to the Ill-mi ;n ii I i lii>i;ix of some ammaN ; < t'plKilothn- 
racIc: as, tht/racic appendages, (d) Att;ielu-<l to tin; tho- 
rax : as, thoracic limbs or appendages; the thoracic girdle 
(that is, the pectoral iirch, or ihoulder-giMl* of ii \rrh- 
hrnti-i: jHvton.l in pi^ition, as the ventral fins of some 
H-|M . (-) Pertaining to the I'mnt ;ind sides of the thorax 
"i tn the breast; pectoral: as, the mammary glands of 
111:111 an; thtinu'ic. </) Done <u effeutt-d by means of the 
thorax : as. th"fi,-i,- n^|iiraiinu. <//> Atffcting the thorax 
oriNoivuim: as, Moractc diseases, symptoms, or remedies. 
2. Having a thorax (of this or that kind); be- 
longing to tin- Tlmftti-irti: ;is, tlir thmwic cirri- 
peds. 3. Having the ventral fins thoracic in 
position; belonging to the Thordciri : as, a tho- 
rttt'ic fish. -Thoracic angles, the cornereof the thorax, 
or of the prothorax in insects with wing-covers. Thoracic 
aorta, that section of the aorta which traverses the cavity 
of the thorax. It extends from the origin of the vessel to its 
passage through the aortic orifice of the diaphragm, where 
it becomes the abdominal aorta. The term is also restricted 
to the straight or descending part of the aorta (excluding 
the arch). In this sense the tnoracic aorta begins where 
the arch ends, about opposite the fifth thoracic vertebra. 
The branches of the thoracic aorta are the pericardia!, 
bronchial (the nutrient vessels of the lungs), esophageal, 
postmediastiual, and the usually ten pairs of intercostals. 
SrtM uts under diaphragm and thorax. Thoracic artery, 
one of several branches given off by the axillary artery in 
the second and third sections of its course, and distributed 
chiefly to the pectoral muscles and adjacent soft tissues. 
Four such vessels are named in man as the superior, aero- 
mial, long, and alar. They are also called suprathoracit, 
acromiothoracic or thoracacromial or thoracico-acromial, 
loHtfithoracic, and alithwacic. Thoracic axis, the com- 
mon trunk of the acromiothoracic and superior thoracic 
arteries, when these are given otf together. Thoracic 
duct. See duct, and cut under diaphragm, Thoracic 
ganglia. See ganglion. Thoracic girdle, the pectoral 
girdle, or scapular arch. See cuts under epipleura, omonter- 
num, and sternum. Thoracic grooving, the longitudi- 
nal depressions along the sternum on either side in rachitic 
or pigeon-breasted children. Thoracic index, the ratio 
between the a ntero- posterior and transverse diameters of 
the thorax. Thoracic limbs, the fore limbs of a verte- 
brate ; the arms of a man, fore legs of a quadruped, wings 
of a bird, pectoral fins of a fish; the appendages of the scap- 
ular arch, or shoulder-girdle; in invertebrates, the appen- 
dages proper to the thorax, generally the ambulatory and 
chelate, as distinguished from abdominal appendages, 
mouth-parts, etc. 8ee cut under Aranrida. Thoracic 
nerves, (a) Anterior thoracic, two branches, the external 
and internal, arisingfrom the outer and inner cords of the 
brachlal plexus and distributed to the pec to rales muscles. 
(b) Posterior thoracic, a branch from the upper two or three 
nerves of the brachial plexus, passing on the side of the chest 
to be distributed to the serratus magnus. Also called long 
thoracic, and external respiratory nerve of Bell. Thoracic 
parietes, the walls of the chest; especially, the mova- 
ble front and sides of the chest, whose bony basis is the 
ribs and sternum. Thoracic region, (a) The extent 
or superficies of the thorax as a part of the body; some 
part of the thoracic walls, with reference to groups of 
muscles which lie upon them : as, the anterior or lateral 
thoracic region. (b) Especially, one of the several parts 

Thoracic Regions, bounded by thick black lines, 
r, r, right and left humeral ; a, 2, right and left subclavian ; 3, 3. 
right ana left mammary; 4, 4, right and left axillary ; 5, 5, right and 
left suhaxillary or lateral ; 6, 6, right and left scapular ; 7, 7, right 
and left ; 8, 8. right and left superior dorsai, or sub- 
scapular. The viscera of the thorax are indicated by dotted lines 
tf, diaphragm ; #, heart; r, lungs; rf, liver; t, kidneys ,f, stomach. 

into which the surface of the human thorax is divided or 
mapped out by certain imaginary lines, which to some 
extent denote the situation of the contained viscera, and 
thus serve for medical and surgical purposes. These re- 
gions, unlike some of the corresponding abdominnl re- 
gions, are all In pairs (right and left), in one nomenclature 
known as the humeral, stiMavian, mammary, axillary, 
scapular, iHterscapular, and ntbscapular. Thoracic re- 
gion Of the spine, that portion of the spine which is com- 
posed of thoiMrir vfitrhnc. Also called dorsal region. 
Thoracic shield, one of the three plates covering the 
thoracic rings in insect larvte. Thoracic vertebra, any 
vertebra which bears a developed rib entering Into the 
formation of a thorax. Also called dorsal vertebra. ThO- 
raclc viscera, the viscera contained within the cavity 
of the thorax namely, the heart, lungs, thymus, a sec- 
tion of the esophagus, thoracic duct, thoracic aorta, caval 
veins, and other large vessels. Transverse thoracic 
furrow, in many Diptera, "a suture crossing the meso- 
tborax and ending on each side a little before the base of 
the wing : its presence or absence, and form, are important 
characters in classification " (Oaten Sacken). 

II. n. 1. A thoracic structure: rsp<>riully. a 
thoracic artery or nerve, or a rib-bearing dor- 
sal vertebra. 2. A thoracic lish. 
Tuoracica(tho-ras'i-kii). ;/./)/. [XL., ueut. pi. 
of *thorarifii.f : see llinracif.] The principal 
group of the ('irrii>rdi<i, by some recogni. 


an order, consist ing of the ordinary Beguile and 
peilunculated cirripeils, or barnacles and acorn- 
shells, in which the abdomen is rudimentary 
and there are six thoracic segments with as 
many pairs of cirrone limbs. See Cirri/mlm. 

1.1 JHIS. lilllflllllX. 

thoracicabdominal, thoracicacromial, ". 
Same as t/ioracabdominal, thorararrniiiinl. 

Thoracicit (tho-ras'i-si). . pi. [NL., pi. of 
'thoraciciut: see thoracic.] In ichth., the third 
one of four Linnean orders of fishes (the others 
being Ajxiilin, Jiii/iiln rex, .lliitomiHiilfxi, charac- 
terized by the thoracic position of the ventral 
fins, which are placed beneath the pectorals. 
By Cuvier and others the term has been recognized with 
various limitations, but It Is no longer used in classifying 
Ashes, though the adjective thoracic remains as a descrip- 
tive terra In its original sense. 

thoracico-acromialis (th^-ras'i-ko-a-kro-mi- 
a'lis), n. ; pi. thoracico-acromiales (-lez). [X 1 .. . 

< "thoracicus, thoracic, + acromialis, acromial.j 
The acromiothoracic artery, a branch of the 
axillary, given off just above the pectoralis mi- 
nor, and dividing into three sets of branches. 

thoracicohumeral (tho-ras'i-ko-hu'me-ral), a. 
[< NL. "thoracicus, thoracic, + humeraliis, hume- 
ral.] Pertaining to the thorax and the hume- 
rus. or to the chest and the upper arm. 

thoracicohumeralis (tho-ras'i-ko-hu-me-ra'- 
lis), n. ; pi. thoracicohumerales (-lez). [NL.: 
see thoracicohumeral.] An artery, a branch of 
the thoracico-acromialis, which descends upon 
the arm with the cephalic vein in the interval 
between the great pectoral and deltoid muscles. 

thoraciform (tho-ras'i-fdrm), a. [< L. thorax 
(thorac-), the thorax, + forma, form.] In en- 
tom., noting the mesonotum when it is very 
large and forms the main part of the upper 
surface of the thorax, as in Diptera and most 

thoracipod (tho-ras'i-pod), a. and . [< L. 
thorax (thorac-), the thorax, + Gr. iroif (TTOO-) = 
E.foot.] I. a. Having thoracic limbs differen- 
tiated as ambulatory legs, as a crab or lobster; 
belonging to the Thoracipoda; malacostracous. 
II. n. A member of the Thoracipoda; a 
crustacean which walks on specialized thora- 
cic limbs (pereiopods); a malacostracan. 

Thoracipoda (tho-ra-sip'o-da), n. pi. [NL. : 
see thoracipod.] In some systems, a subclass 
or superorder of Crustacea corresponding to 
Malacostraca; the higher series of crustaceans, 
contrasted with the entomostracans or Gna- 
thopoda. The name refers to the fact that, the seven 
anterior or cephalic segment* being specialized for sensa- 
tion and nutrition, the next or thoracic segments distinc- 
tively subserve locomotion. The name is proposed as a 
substitute for Malacotfraca. Encyc. Brit., VI. 655. 

thoracipodous (tho-ra-sip'o-dus), a. [< tho- 
racipod + -OKA.] Same as thoracipod. 

thoracispinal (tho-ras-i-spi'nal), a. [< L. tho- 
rax (thorac-), the thorax, + snina, spine: see 
spinal.] Of or pertaining to tne thoracic sec- 
tion of the spinal column: as, a thoracispinal 
nerve. Coues. 1887. 

thoracodidymus (tho-ra-ko-did'i-mus), n. ; pi. 
thoracodidymi (-mi). [NL., < Gr. 8upa (BupaK-), 
thorax, + iiovfior,, double.] In teratol., a double 
monster the two bodies of which are joined at 
the thorax. 

thoracogastr odidymus (tho - ra - ko - gas - tro- 
did'i-mus), n.; pi. thoracogastrodidymi (-mi). 
[NL., < Gr. 96paf (6upax-), thorax, + yaorf/p, 
stomach, + iiiv/iof, double.] In teratol., a dou- 
ble monster with united thoraces and abdomen. 

thoracometer (tho-ra-kom'e-ter), n. [< Gr. fti- 
paf (BupaK-), the thorax, + fitrpav, measure.] An 
instrument for measuring the range of respira- 
tory movement of any point in the thorax. 

thoracopagUS (tho-ra-kop'a-gus), n. ; pi. thorn- 
copagi (-JI). [NL., (. Gr. 6apaf (0U/MK-), the tho- 
rax, -I- mi) of, that which is firmly set.] In tera- 
tol., a double monster with more or less fusion 
of the thoraces. 

thoracoplasty (tho-ra'ko-plas-ti), w. [< Gr. 
6uoaf (Oupan-), thorax, + v/.aaotiv, put in a cer- 
tain form.] Removal of a section of one or 
more ribs for the cure of a fistula of the chest- 
wall following empyema. 

Thoracostraca (tho-ra-kos'tra-kS), [NL., 

< Gr. ftipof (Oupan-), the thorax, + oarpaKOi; a 
shell.] In some systems, a division of mala- 
costracous crustaceans, including the podoph- 
thalmous or stalk-eyed crustaceans, as crabs, 
shrimps, prawns, and lobsters: nearly conter- 
minous with l'i>ilojihtli<i/ina. 

thqracOStracOUS (tho-ra-kos'tra-kus), ii. Per- 
taining to the Tlioriii-iixiriica. 


thoracotheca (tho-ra-ko-tlie'kii i. .: pi. tkora- 
eotii0em(-Mti). [NL.,<Grr.ft -). the tho- 

rax. + //,(,/,, a MM. 1 In niliiin.. the truiik-oase 
of a pnpn, or that part of t he integument which 
covers the thorax. Al-o i-ifintheea, 

thoracotomy (tho-ni-kot'o-mi), n. [< Gr. Oupal- 
(HufMt,-), the thorax, + -rn/iin, < ftuvttv, ra/Jiii', 
cut.) In ><./.. 111.- operation of free incision 
through the llionicic walls. Compare t/i-i, 


thorah, . See tornh. 

thoral (tho'ral), ii. (Prop, toral, < L. torn*, 
ML. erroneously tlmrux. a cushion, couch, bed: 
see torus.] Of or pertaining to the marriage- 
bed; nuptial; specifically, in palmiatri/, noting 
the line or mark of Venus on the hanu. 

thorax (tho'raks), M.; pi. thoraces (th^-ra'sSz). 
[< L. thorns (thoriic-), < (ir. tiupaf (Oupan-), a 
breastplate, also the part of the body covered 
by the oreastplate, the thorax.] 1. Inaiiat. and 
:i>iil.. a part of the trunk between the head or 
neck and the abdomen or tail, in any way distin- 
guished, as by containing the heart and lungs, 
by being inclosed with large ribs, or by bear- 
ing certain limbs not borne elsewhere. The name 
Is applied both to the walls and to the cavity of this 
part of the body, but not to the contents of the cavity, uid 
properly not to the thoracic appendages. In all verte- 
brates the thorax represent* several of the segments or 
somites of the body succeeding the cervical and succeeded 
by the abdominal or pelvic segments. It is generally de- 
nned by the elongation of several rilw and the connection 
of some or most of these with a breast-bone, the thoracic 
skeleton thusform- 

/ /' 

Ing a bony cage or 
frame which con- 
tains and defends 
the principal or- 
gans of circulation 
and respiration. In 
Invertebrates, how- 
ever, the thorax Is 
defined upon other 
considerations, (a) 
In man and all 
mammals the tho- 
rax Is sharply 


marked off from 
the rest of the 
trunk by the lack 


Cross-section of Human Chest Tiewed from 
above, showing heart, lungs, and great res 
sels in place. Each lung is invested with 

of deve'loned cer- pleura and the heart with pericardium : the 
A )iK.,>.r dark borders around the lungs aivl heart are 
lumbar c4 j Ue . , pkura and of pericardium ; Ihe 
interval between pleural cavities of oppo- 
site sides is the mediastinum ; the anterior 
mediastinum is entirely black ; the middle 
is occupied by the heart, the posterior by the 

ribs, and IU cav- 
ity is completely 
shut off from that 
of the abdomen 
by the diaphragm. 
The human thorax 
Is of conical figure, 
somewhat like the 

esophagus, etc 

XL, right lung; LI., left lung; RP and 
LP, two pulmonary veins; PA, pulmonary 
artery branching to each lung ; Ae, ascend- 
ing part of arch of aorta ; Ac' , descending 
aorta (intervening arch of aorta cut away) ; 

frustum of a cone, the line from Ao rests upon heart ; SC, 

d left 

bronchi, cut end of each presenting : <E, 
T, body of a too- 

narrowed above, nor vena cava : Br and Br, right and I 
lim-iit hotnw rf bronchi, cut end of each j 

. & sSfeSi?*' 

depth, and in 
cross-section somewhat cardiform or heart-shaped, from 
the Intrusion of the backbone. Its truncated apex pre- 
sents to the neck ; Its concave base IB formed by the 
diaphragm. The cavity is divided into a pah* of large 
pleural cavities, right and left, for the lungs, and a third 
submedlan pericardia! cavity for the heart. Where the 
opposite pleural cavities do not quite meet and fit, both 
before and behind, ts an interplenral Bpace, the anterior 
and posterior mediaatinal cavity, or premediastinum and 
poet mediastinum. Besides tne heart and lungs and 
their respective serous sacs (pericardium and pleura), the 
thorax contains many other structures, as the thoracic 
duct and thoracic aorta, many branches of the latter, etc. 
The thorax of other mammals differs from that of man 
chiefly in size, shape, degree of movability, etc., but not in 
actual structure or office, (b) In birds the thorax is rela- 
tively very capacious and expansive. The sternum is of 
enormous size ; long ribs frequently extend Into the sacral 
region, and others, shorter, Into the cervical region, so that 
the thorax encroaches In both directions. Its cavity is not 
shut off from that of the abdomen by any diaphragm. The 
ribs have a movable Joint between their vertebral and ster- 
nal parts, contributing to the expansibility of the chest. 
Most of the abdominal as well art proper thoracic viscera are 
actually inclosed by the thoracic walls. See cut under epi- 
plettra. (c) In those reptiles and batrachians which have 
breast-bones a thorax is distinguished much as it is in 
higher vertebrates. In serpents, which have no sternum, 
and whose ribs extend from head to tail, there is no distinc- 
tion between thorax and abdomen ; and the case is similar 
with turtles. In a few reptiles the thorax develops wing- 
like parachutes serving fora kind of flight, (d) In fishes 
a thorax, or a thoracabdominal region, is usually well 
marked by long ribs from a post anal solid and fleshy put 
of the body, but there IB no distinction of thoracic and ab- 
dominal cavities. The thorax may bear the pectoral fins, 
or these and the ventrals, or neither. 
2. In enfant., that part of the body which is 
situated between the head and the abdomen, 
and in adult insects alone bears the wings and 
leffS, when there are any. in the typical or hexapod 
insects the thorax is almost always a well-marked region, 
distinguished from the head in front and from the abdo- 
men behind by bearing the only locomotory appendages 
which these Insects possess iu the adult state namely, 
one or two pairs of wings and three pairs of legs. The thorax 
typically consists of three segments or somites of the 
IKM.V, one to each pair of legs, respectively named, from 
before backward, tne pnrfttnrax, the mftothorax, and the 
tnrtathorax, or sometimes the pry/Aorwjr, mfdithorax. and 


post-thorax. The hard crust of each of these segments 
may and normally does consist of a number of pieces or 
individual sclerites, on the dorsal or tergal, on the lateral 
or pleura), and on the ventral or sternal aspects. These 
sclerites are known as tergites, pleurites. and sterilizes; 
they have also other names, and many of the individual 
sclerites have specific designations. Thus, dorsal sclerites 
or parts of each segment may be known as pronotmn, 
mesonotwn, and metanotinn, and so with pleural and ster- 
nal sclerites of each thoracic segment. (See sderite, and 
cuts under wesothorax and metathorax.) In ordinary de- 
scriptive entomology the name thorax has two special re- 
strictions : (1) to the pronotum of coleopterous, hemipte- 
rous, and orthopterous insects ; and (2) to the large me- 
aothorax of dipterous insects (see thoradform). 

3. In Crustacea and Aracltiiirta, a part of the 
body in advance of and in any way distin- 
guished from the abdomen or tail, but usually 
blended with the head to form a cephalothorax. 
In ordinary arachnidans, as spiders, and in the higher 
crustaceans, as crabs, lobsters, shrimps, prawns, and craw- 
fishes, several segments of the body are more or less 
completely fused in one mass; and the limbs are often 
so gradually metamorphosed into mouth-parts that even 
these indicia fail to discriminate a thorax from the head 
in every case. Generally, however, the bearing of eight 
or ten legs, developed as ambulatory organs, serves to de- 
note a thorax. In many or most of the lower or entomos- 
tracous crustaceans a thorax is indistinguishable from 
the abdomen as well as from the head, and the character 
of its appendages does not always decide the case. See 
Decapoda, Tetradecapoda, Thoracipoda, thoracetron. 

4. A breastplate, cuirass, or corselet; more 
especially, the cuirass or corselet worn by the 
ancient Greek warriors, corresponding to the 
lorica of the Bomans. It consisted of a breastplate 
and a backpiece fastened by buckles, and was often richly 
ornamented. Cornute, dimerous, Isthmlate thorax. 
See the adjectives. RectUS thoracis. See rectos. 
Transversus thoracis. Same as sternocostalis. 

thoret, adv. An obsolete form of there. 

Thoresdayt, A Middle English form of 

Thoresenet, n. [ME., < Tliores, Thor's (see 
Thursday), + ene, even: see even 2 .'] The eve 
of Holy Thursday (Ascension day). 

Hii by gonne an holy Thoresene, then toun asaly ])ere 
Stalwardlyche 1 vaste ynou, noblemen is tht were. 
Rob. of Gloucester, p. 394 (quoted in Hampson, Medii JKvl 
(Kalendarium, II. 374). 

thoria (tho'ri-a), H. [NL.,< Thor.'] An oxid of 
thorium, Th0 2 . When pure it is a white powder, with- 
out taste, smell, or alkaline reaction on litmus. Its spe- 
cific gravity is 9.4. It is insoluble in all acids except sul- 

thoric (tho'rik), a. [< thorium + -i'c.] Of or 
pertaining to, or derived from, thorium. 

thorina (tho-ri'na), . [NL., < Thor + -inol.] 
Same as thoria. 

thorinum (tho-ri'num), n, [NL., < Thor + 
--.] Same as thorium. 

thorite (tho'rit), . [< Thor + -itet.~] A sili- 
cate of thorium, generally compact with con- 
choidal fracture, and of a black color, or, as in 
the variety orangite, orange-yellow, it is found 
in Norway in considerable quantity, especially in the 
neighborhood of Arendal. As found it always contains 
water, but the original mineral was doubtless anhydrous, 
and isomorphous with zirconium, silicate, or zircon. Some 
varieties of the mineral, called uranothorite, contain a con- 
siderable amount of uranium. 

thorium (tho'ri-um), n. [NL., < Thor + -ium.] 
Chemical symbol, Th; atomic weight, 231.9. 
The metallic base of the earth thoria, discover- 
ed by Berzelius, in 1828, in a mineral from Nor- 
way, to which the name of thorite is now given, 
and which consists essentially of the silicate of 
thorium. This earth has a)so been found in various other 
rare minerals. The metal thorium, as artificially prepared, 
resembles nickel in color, has a specific gravity of 7.66 to 
7.8, takes fire when heated in the air, and burns with a 
bright flame ; it dissolves readily in nitric acid, but only 
with difficulty in hydrochloric acid. Its chemical rela- 
tions place it in the same group with tin. Also thorinum. 

thorlt, *' An obsolete form of thirn. 

thorn 1 (thorn), n. [< ME. thorn, < AS. thorn = 

05. OFries. thorn = D. doom = MLG. dorn = 
OHG. MHG. G. dorn = Icel. thorn = Sw. torn 
= Dan. torn, tjorn = Goth, thaurnus, thorn, = 
OBulg. tr&nu = Serv. Bohem. trn = Pol. tarn, 
a thorn, = Russ. ternu, the blackthorn; cf. 
Skt. tarna, a blade of grass.] 1. A sharp ex- 
crescence on a plant: usually a branch, or the 
termination of a stem or branch, indurated, 
leafless, and attenuated to a point; a spine; 
a prickle. See spine, 1. 

O thin heaued wes set te crune of scharpe thornes, that 
with eauriche thorn wrang ut te reade blod of thin heali 
heaued. Wooing of Our Lord (Morris and Skeat, 1. 127). 

But ne're the rose without the thorn. 

Uerrick, The Rose. 

2. Figuratively, that which wounds or annoys; 
a cause of discomfort or irritation; a painful 

I am amazed, methinks, and lose my way 
Anion^ the thftrnn and dangers of this world. 

Shak., K. John, iv. 3. 141. 


3. One of numerous thorny shrubs or trees, 
especially the members of the genus Creitayiix, 
otherwise called haw. These are low trees or shrubs 
with abundant white blossoms, and small apple-like fruit 

Flowering Branch of Washington Thorn (Cratafas tordala). 
a, the fmit ; b, leaf, showing the nervation. 

sometimes edible. The wood is hard and close-grained 
In some species, as the hawthorn, useful for turnery and 
even for wood-engraving. Several acacias and various 
other plants receive the name. See hatcthorn, and specific 
names below. 

The rose also mid hire rude [redness], 
That cumeth ut of the thorne wude. 
Owl and Nightingale, 1. 444 (Morris and Skeat, I. 183). 

All about the thorn will blow 
In tufts of rosy-tinted snow. 

Tennyson, Two Voices. 

4. In zool., some sharp process, horn, or spine. 
See spine, 3. 5. Inetow.,one of certain geom- 
etrid moths : an English book-name. The little 
thorn is Epione aduenaria; the early thorn is 
Selenia illunaria. 6. In lace-making, a small 
pointed projection used to decorate the cor- 
don-net, etc. Compare spine, 5. 7. The Anglo- 
Saxon letter b, equivalent to th; also, the cor- 
responding character in Icelandic. 

The English letter thorn, ]>, survived and continued in 
use down to the 15th century, when it was transformed 
to y. Kncyc. Brit., XVIII. 160. 

A thorn in the flesh or side, a source of constant an- 

There was given to me a thorn [or stake, E. V., margin] 
in thellesh, the messenger of Satan to buffet me, lest I 
should be exalted above measure. 2 Cor. xiL 7. 

Buffalo-thorn, Acacia Latronum, of India, a low tree 
with an umbrella-like top when old, and bearing long 
prickles. Christ's thorn. See Christ's-thorn, Paliurus, 
and nebbuk-tree. In Germany the holly is said to be the 
Christ's-thorn. Cockspur-thorn, the American Cratae- 
gus Cms-galli, also called Newcastle thorn. It reaches the 
height of 30 feet, is of a table-like growth, and has dark 
shining leaves, and thorns 4 inches long. It is planted for 
ornament in Europe, being perhaps the best American 
species for the purpose, as it is also for hedging. Egyp- 
tian thorn, Acacia Arabica {A. vera), one of the gum- 
arabic trees. Elephant-thorn, Acacia tomentom. 
Evergreen thorn, the pyracanth, Crateegus Pi/racantha, 
of southern Europe. It is a favorite in culture for its lux- 
uriant evergreen foliage and abundant orange-scarlet fruit. 
Being of a spreading and trailing habit, it is in England 
often trained upon walls. Glastonbury thorn, a variety 
of hawthorn, Crateegus Oxyacantha, var. preecox, which 
puts forth leaves and flowers about Christmas. This va- 
riety is said to have originated at Glastonbury Abbey, Eng- 
land, and it was believed that the original tree was the staff 
with which Joseph of Arimathea aided his steps on his 
wanderings from the Holy Land to Glastonbury, where, 
according to tradition, he became the founder of the cele- 
brated abbey. Jerusalem thorn. See Parkinsonia. 
Jews' thorn. Same as Christ's-thorn. Karoo thorn, 
the karoo doorn or doom boom of South Africa, Acacia 
horrida, a tree with very sharp spines from J inch to 3 
inches long. Lily thorn, a plant of the West Indian 
rubiaceous genus Catesbeea, particularly C. spinosa with 
large yellow nodding flowers, and C. pamflora with small 
white flowers. These plants are spiny in the axils of the 
leaves. Newcastle thorn. See cockspur-thorn, above. 
Parsley-leafed thorn, the parsley-haw, Crateeyui apii- 
folia, of the southern United States. Pear-thorn. Same 
as pear-haw (which see, under haw). Pyracanth thorn, 
the evergreen thorn. Sallow-thorn. See Hippophae. 
Scarlet-fruited thorn, the scarlet or red haw, Cratairus 
coccinea, a small tree common northward in North Amer- 
ica, with finely cut-toothed leaves and small scarlet, bare- 
ly edible haws. Scorpion-thorn, scorpion's thorn. 
Same as scorpion-plant, 2. September thorn. See Sep- 
tember. Silkworm -thorn, a small Chinese tree, Cud- 
rania triloba, of the nettle family. Its leaves are con- 
sidered as good as those of the mulberry for silkworms, 
but are more difficult to gather on account of thorns. 
Thirsty thorn, Acacia Seyal. Walt-a-hlt thorn, the 
grapple-plant. Washington thorn, Crateegus cordata, 
found in Virginia, and thence southward and westward. 
It was formerly widely planted for hedges, being dissem- 
inated from near Washington city. See cut above. Way- 
thorn, the buckthorn, Rhamnus catharticus: so called 
as springing up along highways. [Prov. Eng.] White 
thorn, (a) In England, the common hawthorn : so called 
from its lighter bark in contrast with the sloe or black- 
thorn, (b) In the United States, sometimes, the scarlet- 
fruited thorn, (c) See Jlacrocnemmn. Willow-thorn. 
Same as Kallow-thorn. (See also blackthorn, buckthfirn, catn- 
fl's-thfrrn, mouse-thorn, orange-thorn.) 


thorn 1 (thorn), r. t. [< tl/iirn^, .] 1. To prick 
or pierce with or as with a thorn. [Rare.] 
I am the only rose of all the stock 
That never thorn'd him. 

Tennyson, Harold, i. 1. 
2. To fasten with a thorn. 
Somtimes the Plane, somtimes the Vine they shear, 
Choosing their fairest tresses heer and there ; 
And with their sundry locks, thorn'd each to other, 
Their tender limbs they hide from Cynthias Brother. 
Sylvester, tr. of Uu Bartas's Weeks, ii., The Handy-Urafts. 

thorn' 2 t (thorn), a. [Origin obscure.] Sup- 
plied (?). 

Ye'll eat and drink, my merry men a', 
An' see ye be weell thorn. 
Sir Patrick Spens (Child's Ballads, III. 339). 

thorn-t, ' ' [< tltorn'l, a.] To be supplied (?). 
When they had eaten and well drunken, 

And a' had thorn'd fine ; 
The bride's father he took the cup, 

For to serve out the wine. 
Sweet waiie and Fair Maisry (Child's Ballads, II. 335). 

thorn-apple (thorn'ap"!), H. 1. A plant of the 
genus Datura, chiefly I). Stramonium, The name 
refers to the large spiny capsule. See stramo- 
nium. 2. A fruit of some species of Cratxi/un 
or thorn-tree ; a haw; 
also, the tree itself. 

thornback (thorn'- 
bak), n. [< ME. 
tliombak. thornbake ; 
< thorni .+ 6acA-l.] 

1. A kind of ray or 
skate, Kaia clavata, 
common on the Brit- 
ish coasts, distin- 
guished by the short 
and strong spines 
which are scattered 
over the back and 
tail. It grows about 2 
feet long, and is very vo- 
racious, feeding on small 
flounders, herrings, sand- 

eels, crabs, lobsters, etc. Thornback (Raifi clavata). 

Many are taken every year, 

and the flesh is considered to be excellent. The female is 

in Scotland called maiden-skate. 

The spreading ray, the thornback thin and flat. 

J. Dennys (Arber's Eng. Garner, I. 166). 

2. The common British spider-crab, Maia squi- 
nado. Sometimes called king-crab. See cut 
under Maia. 

thornback-ray (thorn ' bak - ra), n. Same as 
thornback, 1. 

thornbill (thorn'bil), n. A humming-bird of the 

genus Khampho- 
micron : a book- 
name. These not- 
able hummers are 
large (averaging 
over four inches 
long), with broad 
forked tail, the gor- 
get pendent like a 
beard, and special- 
ly short sharp bill 
(whence both the 
generic and vernac- 
ular names). Six 
species are de- 
scribed, one of the 
best-known being 
Ii. heteropogon. 
They range from 

the Colombian 
States through Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia. The genus 
has three synonyms Chalcostigma, Lampropogon, and 

thorn-bird (thorn 'berd), H. A South Ameri- 
can dendrocolaptiue bird, originally Furnariit.* 
anitmbi (Vieillot, after Azara), now Anumbiux 
acuticaudatns (and rarely Spheno-pyaa anunibi). 

Thornbill {Rhamthomicron httcroposoifi. 

It is about 8 inches long, brown varied with black, white, 
and chestnut, and noted for the great size of the nest 
which it builds, of twigs and thorns, in bushes. It is a 
well-known Argentine type, a sort of large synallaxine 
liird \\itli short wings, stout feet, and sharp tail-fi'iithers. 


thorn-broom (tlioni'imim), . The furze, r/u 

thorn-bush (thorn'bush), u. A Hhrtib that pro- 
duces thorns. 

Tin- Imttlio] n is tin 1 moon ; I, the man in the moon ; this 
thurii-lnah, my thorit-lnuh. Shak., \\. N. D., v. 1. 283. 

thorn-devil (thorn '(lev" I), . A cortain spiny 
lizard, Molni-li Imrriitus. 

Thorn-devil (.Molofh horri.titt\. 

thorned(th6rnd), . [< thorn* + -erf2.~] Bear- 
ing thorns; thorny. 

Silvery-green with thorned vegetation, sprawling lobes of 
the prickly pear. The Atlantic, LXV. 207. 

thornen (thdr'nen), . [< ME. thoriien, thernen, 
< AS. thyrnen (= OFries. thornen = OHG. dur- 
tiin), of thorn, < thorn, thorn: see thorn 1 and 
-c'A] Made of thorns. 

thorn-headed (thorn'hed'ed), . Acantho- 
cephalous: as, the thorn-headed worms (the 
members of the order Acantliocephala). See 
cut under Aeanthocephalu. 

thornhogt (thdrn'hog), n. [ME., < thorn* + 
Aw/ 1 .] A hedgehog. Ayenbite of Inwyt, p. 66. 

thorn-hopper (thdrn'hop'er), n. A tree-hopper, 
Thrliii eratii'iji, which lives on the thorn and 
other rosaceous trees. 

thorn-house (thorn'hous), n. A salt-evaporat- 
ing house in which the brine is caused to trickle 
down over piles of brush or thorns, in order to 
give greater exposure for evaporation. 

thornless (thorn'les), a. [< thorn* + -lexx.~\ 
Free from thorns. 

Youth's gay prime and thorniest paths. 

Coleridge, Sonnet to Bowles. 

Thy great 

Forefathers of the thornlew garden, there 
.Shadowing the snow-limb'd Ere. 

Tennyson, Maud, xvili. 8. 

thorn-oyster (thorn'ois'ter), w. A thorny bi- 
valve of the family Spondylidee. See cut under 

thornstone (thorn'ston), n. In the manufac- 
ture of salt, a concretion of carbonates of lime, 
magnesia, manganese, and iron, and some chlo- 
rids, which accumulates in the thorns of a thorn- 

thorn-swine (thdrn'swin), . A porcupine. 

thorntail (thoru'tal), n. [< thorn* + tail*.'] 
A humming-bird of the genus (louldia, having 
long sharp tail-feathers (whence the genus is 
also called I'rymnaeantha). The one with the most 
spine-like rectrices is O. popelairei, 4} inches long, the 
male of a shining grass-green color, varied in some places 
with red, steel-blue, black, and white. It inhabits the 
United States of Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. 

thorn-tailed (thorn'tald), a. In herpet., hav- 
ing spinoso scales on the tail : specific in the 
phrase thorn-tailed agamas. See Uromastix. 

thorny (thor'ni), a. [< ME. thorny = D. doornif/ 
= MHG. domic, G. dornig ; as thorn* + -y*. The 
AS. formisttoi-ni/i<=G. dornieht.] 1. Abound- 
inginorcovered with thorns; producingthoms; 
prickly; spiny. 

The steep and thorny way to heaven. 

Shak., Hamlet, i 3. 48. 
And the thorny balls, each three in one, 
The chestnuts throw on our path. 

Rroirntng. By the Fireside. 

2. Characteristic of or resembling a thorn; 
sharp; irritating; painful. 

The sharp thorny points 
Of my alleged reasons drive this forward. 

Shot., Hen. VIII., ii. 4. 224. 
A sharp f Anrny-tnothed satirical rascal. 

//. Jotuon, Poetaster, iv. 1. 

3. In -~od7.,spinous; prickly; cchinate Thorny 

lobster, tin spiny lobster. See cut under Palimmu. 
Thorny oyster. Same as (Aorn-oi/iifcr. =Syn. 1. Spinose, 
spinous, briery, sharp. 

thorogummite (tho-ro-gum'it), H. [< thorium 
+ i/iimiHiti .] A mineral occurring in massive 
forms of a dull yellowish-brown color, and con- 
taininsrsilica ami tin- oxidsof uranium, thorium, 
and the metals of the cerium and yttrium groups. 
It is somewhat related to gtimmite, but is distinguished 
by containing thorium II occurs with trtulolinite and 
other rare minerals in Llano county, Texas. 

thorough (thur'6). i>re/>. and mlr. [Kiirly IIKM|. 
K. also tlioroir ; often written lirieily Ilioro'; < 
MK. thoroug, thiirini, thorn?. Ihoruli, tlmrn. 
tliorw, thorg, tlxin ,--h, I hurry, thumb, thourh, 
llinrijli, thurzh, Ihiiri-h, thiirlh, tlnnii, < AS. 
thurh, rarely and chiefly in comp. tln/rli, tlnrli. 
((North, thfrh = OS. iliurli, Iliuru = OFrit-H. 
Ihrni-li. trni-li. l''rics. trocli, also dor = MD. dear, 
door, D. rfoor = ML(>. ilun-li. </<>r = OHG. dnru/i. 
dhurah, durih, MHG. durrh, diir, (Jr. durch = 
Goth, thairli, thorough, through; orig., as the 
AS. (ONorth.) and Goth, forms indicate, with 
radical e (AS. therh, > "thenrli, > thurh) ; prob. 
orig. neut. ace. ('going through') of the adj. ap- 
pearing in OHG. dcrh, 'pierced,' whence also 
ult. AS. dim. thyrel (thyrhel) (= OHG. durhil, 
durihil, etc.), pierced, as a noun, thyrel, a hole 
(see thirl*, n.), and Goth, thairko, a hole (see 
thirl*, and cf. thurrock) ; perhaps ult. connect- 
ed with AS. thrinyan, etc., press, crowd (press 
through) : see thring, throng*. Hence, by trans- 
position, through 1 , the common modern form, 
differentiated from thorough as prep, and adv. 
For the form thorough,^ AS. thurh, cf. borough*, 
< AS. burh, and furrow, < AS. /wrA.] I. prep. 
Through. See through 1 , a later form of thor- 
ough, now the exclusive form as a preposition 
and adverb. 

He that wol thorghe Turkye, he gothe toward the Cytee 
of Nyke, and passethe thorghe the zate of Chlenetout. 

MandenUe, Travels, p. 21. 
Whan that dede was don deliuerli & sone 
Oode lawes thurth his lond lelly he sette. 

William of Palerne (E. E. T. 8.), 1. 5475. 

And thus we Sayled thorme the Gulf of Seynt Elene, other- 

wyse callyd the Gulf of Satalie, And com a long the Costes 

of Turkey, And ther we saw the Mowntaynes of Mace- 

donye. Torkington, Dlarie of Eng. Travell, p. 57. 

Over hill, over dale, 

Thorough bush, thorough brier, 
Over park, over pale, 

Thorough flood, thorough fire. 

SAa*., M.N. D.,11. 1. 8, 5. 

II. rtrfr. Through : as, thoroughgoing. See 
through*, adv. 

thorough (thur'6), . [(.thorough, adv.] 1. Go- 
ing through; through, in a literal sense: a form 
now occurring only m dialectal use or in certain 
phrases and compounds. See through*, a. 

Let all three sides be a double house, without thorough 
lights on the sides. Bacon, Building (ed. 1887). 

2. Going through, as to the end or bottom of 
anything; thoroughgoing. Hence (a) Penetrat- 
ing ; searching ; sharp ; keen. 

The intuitive decision of a bright 
And '//""<//;-' iL-'''l intellect to part 

Error from crime. Tennyson, Isabel, 

(ft) Leaving nothing undone; slighting nothing; not su- 

To be a thorough translator, he must be a thorough poet. 
Dryden, Translation. 

(e) Fully executed ; having no deficiencies ; hence, com- 
plete in all respects ; unqualified : perfect. 

Me seemes the Irish Horse-hoyes or Cuilles ... in the 
thorouyh reformation of that realme . . . should be cutt 
of. Spenser, State of Ireland 

Dark night. 

.Strike a full silence, do a thorout right 
To this great chorus. 

Beau, and ft., Maid's Tragedy, i. 
A Ih'ifnii'il, discussion of the evils and dangers of all 
paper money, by whomsoever issued. 

The Nation, XXI. 112. 
"/> Earnest; ardent [Rare.| 

She 's taen him in her arms twa, 
And glen him kisses thorough. 
The Braet o' Yarrow (Child's Ballads, III. 71). 
Thorough framing*, the framing of doors and windows. 
Thorough stress. See itreai. - Toll thorough. See 
thorough (thur'6), n. [< thorough, a. or adr.] 

1. That which goes through. Specifically (at) A 
thoroughfare ; a passage ; a channel. 

If any man would alter the natural course of any water 
to run a contrary way, . . . the alteration must be from 
the head, by making other thitrmtnh* and devices. 

.'. Bradford, Works (Parker Soc.), I. 303. (Dories.) 
(K) A furrow between two ridges. Ilalliirrll. [Prov. Eng.) 
(e) Same as perpend-*. 

2. In Brit, hist., in the reign of Charles I., the 
policy of Strafford and Laud of conducting or 
carrying through ('thorough') the administra- 
tion of public affairs without regard to obsta- 
cles. Hence the word is associated with their 
system of tyranny. 

The dark, gloomy countenance, the full, heavy eye, which 
meet us In Stratford's portrait, are the best commentary 
on his policy of Thorough. 

J. K. Oreen, Short Hist Eng., p. 509. 

thorough-bass (thur'6-bas), M. 1. In muxii; a 
figured bass, or basso continuo that is, a bass 
voice-part written out in full throughout an en- 
tire piece, and accompanied by numerals which 


inclieale si eiio^'ra phiciilly the Miceessixe chords 
of the harmony. 2. A sy.-tem of stenographic 
marks, especially numerald, thus used with a 
bass for the purpose of indicating the harmony . 
3. The science or art of harmonic composi 
lion in general: so called because of the prev- 
alence of such stenographic systems: a 1 
usage. The ordinary system uf thorough bass, that of 
numerals, appears am in a publication of Klchard Dcrlng 
In 1507, and Its earliest systematic presentation was by 
Viadana In 1612. In this system numerals are used to In- 
dicate the Intervals between each tone of the given bass 
and the constituent tones of the chord to which It belongs 
so far as is necessary for clearness. If Ibe ban tone Is 
the root of a triad, no numeral is used, unless, perhaps, 
In an opening chord, to mark the desired position of the 
soprano, or where a previous chord might occasion am- 
biguity. The first inversion of a triad Is Indicated either 

by ; or simply by 6; the second Inversion by ;. A sev- 
enth-chord is marked by 7 ; Its first Inversion by * or by I ; 
Its second Inversion by or by J; and Its third inversion 
'')' <> i. or simply 2. A chord of the ninth Is marked 0, 
etc. A suspension Is indicated by a numeral correspond- 
ing to its Interval from the bass, followed usually by a 
careful noting of the Interval of the resolution. In two 
successive chords having tones in common that are held 
over from one to the other in the same voices, the numer- 
als required to Indicate them In the first chord are given, 
and are followed in the second by dashes to mark their con- 
tinuance. Every chromatic deviation from the original 
tonality is Indicated. If the deviation occurs in a tone a 
third above the bass, a f, b, or 9 is generally used alone ; 
but If it affects a tone already indicated by a numeral, the 
accidental required is prettied to the numeral, except that, 
in place of a thus prefixed, it is customary to use a dash 
drawn through the numeral Itself (as ff or 4). A passage 
that Is to be performed without chords that Is, in uni- 
son or in octaves is marked fajtto solo, or t. s. It is 
practically possible to indicate in these ways every cle- 
ment in the most complicated harmonic writing, so that 
an entire accompaniment may l>e presented on a single 
staff. The interpretation of such a score requires a thor- 
ough knowledge of the principles of part-writing. In con- 
sequence of the wide-spread use of this system, the first 
Inversion of a triad Is often colloquially called a six-chord, 
the second inversion a fix-four chord, etc. 

thorough-bolt (thur'6-bolt), n. In mech., a bolt 
that passes through a hole and is secured in 
place by a nut screwed upon its projecting end : 
distinguished from a tap-bolt. 

thoroughboret, ' . i. [ME. thorouboren (= OHG. 
durliporon, MHG. durchborn, G. durchbohren); 
< thorouyh + bore*.'] To bore through; perfo- 
rate. R. Manning, Hist, of England (ed. Furni- 
vall), 1. 16184. 

thorough-brace (thur'6 -bras), w. A strong 
band of leather extending from the front ('- 
spring to the back one, and support ingthe body 
of a coach or other vehicle. E. H. Knight. 

thorough-braced (thur'6-brast), n. Provide'tl 
with or supported by thorough-braces. 

The old-fashioned thorough-braced wagon. 

8. O. Jevxtt, Country Doctor, p. II). 

thoroughbred (thur'o-bred), a. and . [Also 
throughbred; < thorough + bred.] I. a. 1. Of 
pure or unmixed breed, stock, or race; bred 
from a sire and dam of the purest or best blood. 
See II. 

Many young gentlemen canter up on Uiorovgh-bred 
hacks, spatter-dashed to the knee. 

Thackeray, Vanity Fair, xlr. 

Hence 2. Having the qualities character- 
istic of pure breeding; high-spirited; mettle- 
some ; elegant or graceful in form or bearing : 
sometimes applied colloquially to persons. 
3. Thoroughgoing; thorough. 

Your thoroughbred casuist is apt to be very little of a 
Christian. Preteott, Ferd. and Isa., II. 23, note. 

Gushing, scarce a man In years, 
But a sailor Umnughbred. 

The Century, XXXVIII. 7:in. 

n. ". An animal, especially a horse, of pure 
blood, stock, or race; strictly, and as noting 
horses, a race-horse all of whose ancestors for a 
given number of generations (seven in England, 
five in America) are recorded in the stud-book. 


In America the name is now loosely given to any animal 
that is of pure blood and recorded pedigree, or is entitled 
to be recorded in a stud-book, herd-book, or flock-register, 
and whose ancestry is known and recorded for five gener- 
ations of dams and six of sires. In the most restricted 
sense a thoroughbred is the English race-horse, with ances- 
try recorded in the stud-book ; a pure-bred is a similarly 
bred animal of another breed, with recorded ancestry in 
herd-books, stud-books, flock-books, or other pedigree- 
records. Sometimes applied colloquially to persons. 

In the [American] " Stud Book," I have laid it down as a 
rule that to pass a thoroughbred [be entitled to registry in 
the Stud Book, if a breeding animal] a horse must have 
at least six pure and known crosses, and for reasons there 
given have admitted mares one degree short of that stan- 
dard [that is, six generations for sires, and five for dams]. 
Wallace, Trotting Kegister, I. 14. 

Horse for horse, a thoroughbred is an animal of more 


It can hardly be that there ever was such a monster as 
a thorough-paced speculative Atheist in the world. 

Eeelyn, True Religion, I. 89. 

I never knew a thorough-paced female gamester hold 
her beauty two winters together. 

Addison, Guardian, No. 120. 

thorough-pin (thur '6-pin), n. A swelling in 
the hollow of the hock of the horse, appearing 
on both inner and outer aspects, and caused 
by distention of the synovial sheath of the 
flexor perforans tendon playing over the side 
of the joint; also, a similar swelling on the 
posterior aspect of the carpal joint, or so-called 
knee of the fore leg. 

thorough-shot (thur'6-shot), . Same as thor- 

Edinburgh Rev., CLXVI. 407. 

thoroughfare (thur'6-far), . [Also through- 
fare (q. v.); formerly sometimes thorough fair, 
thorowfair; < ME. thurghfare, < AS. thurhfarii, 
a thoroughfare, < thtirh, thorough, through, + 
faru, a going : see thorough and fare 1 .] 1 . That 
through which one goes; a place of travel or 

This world nis but a thurghfare ful of wo. 

Chaucer, Knight's Tale, 1. 1989. 
The courts are flll'd with a tumultuous din 
Of crowds, or issuing forth, or ent'ring in ; 
A thoroughfare of news. 

Dryden, tr. of Ovid's Metamorph., xiL 79. 

Specifically (at) A place through which much traffic 

This [Panama] is a flourishing City by reason it is a thor- 
oughfair for all imported or exported Goods and Treasure 
to and from all parts of Peru and Chili. 

Dampier, Voyages, I. 179. 

Those townes that we call thorowfaires haue great and 
sumptuous innes builded in them. 

Harrison, Descrip. of Eng., ill. 16 (Holinshed's Chron., I.). 
(i>) A road for public use ; a highway ; a public street, 
unobstructed and open at both ends. 

Not willing to be known, 
He left the barren-beaten thoroughfare. 

Tennyson, Lancelot and Elaine. 

(c) A strait of water, or a neck of land connecting two 
bodies of water, habitually traversed by wild fowl in 
migrating or passing to and from their feeding-grounds. 
Sportsman's Gazetteer. 
2. Passage; travel; transit. 

Hell and this world, one realm, one continent 

Of easy thoroughfare. Milton, P. JL, x. 393. 

thoroughfoot (thur'o-fut), n. The disarrange- 
ment in a tackle caused by one or both of the 
blocks having been turned over through the 
parts of the fall. 

thorOUghgatet (thur'o-gat), . [Early mod. E. 
also thorowgate; < thorough + gate'*.] A thor- 
That corner is no thorow gate. 

Terence in English (1014). (tfares.) 

thorough-girtt, a. [ME. thurgh-girt] Pierced 

Thurgh-yirt with many a grevous blody wounde. 

Chaucer, Knight's Tale, 1. 152. 

thorough-got (thur'6-go), v. t. [ME. tlmrhgon 
(cf. AS. thurhgangan; = G. dttrchgehen); < thor- 
ough + go] To go through. 

thoroughgoing (thur'o-go"ing), a. [< thorough, 
adv.,+ going. Cf. throughganging] Unquali- 
fied; out-and-out; thorough; 'complete. 

What I mean by " evolutionism " is consistent and thor- 
oughgoing uniformitarianism. 

Huxley, Pop. Sci. Mo., XXXI. 212. 
Admirers of Kant, Hegel, and Schopenhauer are as dif- 
ferent and marked individualities as thorough-going Epis- 
copalians, Methodists, Presbyterians. 

<?. S. Hall, German Culture, p. 300. 
= Syn. See radical. 

thorough-joint (thur'6-joint), n. In anat., a 
perfectly movable joint or articulation of bones ; 
diarthrosis of any kind ; arthrodia. Coucs. 

thorough-lightedt, a. Same as through-lighted. 

thoroughly (thur'o-li), adv. [< thorough + -lift. 
Cf. throughly] In a thorough manner; unquali- 
fiedly; fully; completely. 

thoroughness (thur'6-nes), n. [< thorough + 
-ness.] The condition or character of being 
thorough; completeness; perfectness. 

thoroughoutt, prep, and adv. [< ME. thorghe- 

plished; thorough-paced. 
Our thorough-sped republic of Whigs. Swift. 

thorough-stem (thur'6-stem), . Same as 

thorough-stitcht, adv. Same as through-stitch. 

thorough-Stonet (thur'6-ston), n. Same as 

thoroughwax (thur'o-waks), n. [Also thorow- 
wax and throw-wax; ^ thorough, through, + wax, 
grow, the stem appearing to grow through the 
leaf.] A plant, Bupleurum rotundifolium : same 
as hare's-ear, 1. 

thoroughwort (thur'6-wert), n. A composite 
plant, Eupatorium perfoliatum, common in east- 
ern North America. It has a stout hairy stem, 2 to 4 
feet high, with opposite leaves united at the base (con- 

Upper Part of the Stem with the Inflorescence of Thoroujfhwort 

{Eitpatorinm ferfoltatum }. 
it, a mature head ; b, achene with pappus. 

nate-perfoliate), the stem thus passing through the blade 
(whence the name). The flowers are white, many in a head, 
the heads in a large compound corymb. The leaves and 
tops form an officinal as well as domestic drug of tonic 
and diaphoretic properties, in large doses emetic and 
aperient. The name is extended to other species of the 
genus. Also boneset and Indian sage. 

thorowt, prep., adv., and a. An obsolete spell- 
ing of thorough. 

thorow-leaf (thur'6-lef), n. Same as thorough- 

thorow-wax (thur'6-waks), n. Same as thor- 

thorp (thdrp), n. [Early mod. E. also thorpe; 
< ME. thorp, throp, < AS. thorp (used esp. in 
names of places) = OS. OFries. thorp = D. 
MLG. dorp, a village, = OHG. MHG. G. dorf 
= Icel. thorp, a village, rarely farm, = Sw. torn, 
a farm, cottage, = Dan. torp, a hamlet, = Goth. 
thaiirp, a field. Connections uncertain ; cf. G. 
dial. (Swiss) dorf, visit, meeting. Cf. W. tref, 
village, = Olr. treb, settlement, tribe, village, 
connected with L. tribus, tribe : see tribe. On 
the other hand, cf. Icel. thyrpast, refl., press, 
throng, < thorp, a village, with Gr. rvpftri, L. turba, 
crowd, throng; AS. threp, throp, village; Lith. 
troba, building.] A group of houses standing 
together in the country; a hamlet; a village: 
used - l --'- a -- -- --- - ' 


Or else to call in from the fields and waters, shops and 
work-housen, from the inbred stock of more homely 
women and less filching thorps-men. 

Fairfax, Bulk and Selvedge (1674). (Halliwell.) 

thorter-ill (thor'ter-il), n. Same as Joupinri-UL 

Thos (thos), n. See Thous. 

those (THOZ), a. and pron. [PI. of that; ety- 
mologically the same as these, q. v.] See this 
and that. 

thosset (thos), n. An unidentified fish. 

The merchants of Constantinople . . . send their barkes 
vnto the riuer of Tanais to buy dried fishes, Sturgeons, 
Thosses, Barbils, and an infinite number of other fishes. 
HaMuyt's Voyages, I. 93. 

Thoth (tot or thoth), 11. [< Gr. Bud, Quifl, QM, < 
Egypt. Tehut] An Egyptian divinity whom 
the Greeks assim- 
ilated to their 
Hermes (Mer- 
cury). He was the 
god of speech and 
hieroglyphics or let- 
ters, and of the reck- 
oning of time, and the 
source of wisdom. He 
is represented as a hu- 
man figure, usually 
with the head of an 
ibis, and frequently 
with the moon-disk 
and -crescent. Also 

thothert. An ob- 
solete contraction 
of the other. 

thou (THOU), pron. 
[< ME. thou, thow, 
thu (in enclitic 
use attached to 
a preceding aux- 
iliary, tou, tow 
artow, art thou, 
hastou, hast thou, 

etc.), < AS. thU Ibis-headed Thoth, wearing the moon- 

(gen. thin, dat, the, f.'p^rStien^r chai "P m "' s 
ace. the, fllder and 

poet, thee, instr. the; pi. nom. ge (ye), gen. eower 
(your), dat. edw (you), ace. e6w, poet, edwic (you); 
dual. nom. git, gen. incer, dat. inc, ace. inc, incit) 
= OS. thu = OFries. thu = MD. du (mod. D. uses 
the pi. gij, = E. ye, for sing.) = MLG. LG. du = 
OHG. MHG. du, du, G. du = Icel. thu = Sw. Dan. 
du = Goth, thu = W. ti = Gael. Ir. tu = OBulg. ti 
= Buss, tui, etc., = L. tu = Gr. ai<, Dorjc TV = 
Skt. team, thou, orig."tra, one of the orig. Indo- 
Eur. personal pronouns (cf. /, he, the*, that, etc.). 
Hence thine, thy] A personal pronoun of the 
second person, in the singular number, nomina- 
tive case, the possessive case being thy or thine, 
and the objective thee: plural, ye or you, your, 
you. See thine and you. 

Wel sone, bute thu flitte, 
With swerde ihc the anhitte. 

King Horn (E. E. T. S.), p. 21. 
Thi aoule with synne is goostly slayn, 
And thou withoute sorewe thi synne tellis. 

Political Poems, etc. (ed. Furnivall), p. 199. 
Thou 'rt fallen again to thy dissembling trade. 

Beau, and Fl., Philaster, iv. 2. 
" what dost thee want of me, wild boar," said he 
Jovial Hunter of Bromsgrove (Child's Ballads, VIII. 146). 

I beg thee by the Filial Love 
Due to thy Father. Congrece, Hymn to Venus. 
O thou 1 bold leader of the Trojan bands, 
And you, confed'rate chiefs from foreign lands ! 

Pope, Iliad, xii. 69. 

In ordinary English use the place of thou has been taken 
by you, which is properly plural, and takes a plural verb. 
Thou is now little used except archaically, in poetry, pro- 
vincially, in addressing the Deity, and by the Friends, 
who usually say not thou but thee, putting a verb in the 
third person singular with it : as, thee is or is thee? 
thou that nearest prayer, unto thee shall all flesh come. 

Ps. Ixv. 2. 

The priest asked me, " Why we said Thou and Thee to 
people ? for he counted us but fools and idiots for speak- 
ing so." I asked him "Whether those that translated the 
scriptures, and made the grammar and accidence, were 
fools and idiots, seeing they translated the scriptures so, 
and made the grammar so, Thou to one, and Ymi to more 
than one, and left it so tons?" George Fox, Journal, 1665. 
And if thou marries a good un I'll leave the land to thee. 
Tennyson, Northern Farmer, X. S. 

The cok that orloge is of thorpes lyte. 

Chaucer, Parliament of Fowls, 1. 350. 

And thorghe out many othere lies, that ben abouten Inde 

Mandeville, Travels, p. 4. vmmctrr, parliament 01 fowls, 1. 350. 

thorough-paced (thur'6-past), a. Literally Der- , Son l e J the Yorkshire thorpes are still simply isolated 
fectly trained to go through all the pcSfble h!BS^S h ' not ' as in most cases - rown "" 
PaCe !l a , S f Wel !- traine 1 d h rse ; hence, perfect Isaac Taylor, N. and Q., 6th ser., XI. 437 

lengths; thoroughgoing; thorpsman (thorns'man), 
(-men). A villager. 

(a) equality, familiarity, or intimacy; (6) superiority on 
the part of the speaker ; (c) contempt or scorn for the per- 
son addressed (see thou, v.). 

I will begin at thy heel, and tell what thou art by inches, 
thou thing of no bowels, thou! Shale., T. and C., ii. 1. 54. 
thou (THOU), r. [< ME. thou-en (= Icei. thua = 
Sw. dua = ML. futtt'c; t-f. F. tntiti/cr) 1 , < thou, 
l-nii. Cf. thoiit] I. trans. To address as 
"thou": implying (except when referring to 


the ns:ii;e <>l the I'Yiemls) ramiliarily, wrath, 
scorn, eonteinpt, ete. 

She was neiiur licnl o much a> to Ihou any In anger. 
Stuoben, christnl (ilasire (New slink. S...M, p. log. 

Taunt him with the license of Ink : If them tlmu'si him 
Borne thrice, it shall M..I l>,- amiss. Shale., T. X., iii. -'. IK 

II. inti'iliix. To use Mm/, tln-i; tlii/. mill Mi/ir 
in discourse, as ilo the Friends. 
though (Tllo), rmij. and ttilr. [Also written 
lii-lolly tint', tlio; < .\IK. tlnnigh, tlioiighc, tlini/li. 
tlior, HIII/I, tluiip, thixi, tli, tliitnli, tint?, Hutu, tlniili, 
tltes, thei, thcig, theigk, etc., < AS. thedh, theli = 
os. llmh = OFries. thtii-h = I), dock = ML.G. 
rfw// = ollli. ,!!,, iluli, MIKi. </</,, G. rfof/* = 
Icel. </< = Sw. iliirk = Dan. ilnij = Goth, tlnuili, 
though (the Goth, form indicating a formation 
< "tint, pronominal base of that, etc., + -nil, an 
enclitic particle).] I. eonj. 1. Notwithstanding 
that; in spite of the fact that; albeit; while: 
followed by a clause, usually indicative, either 
completely or elliptically expressed, and not- 
ing a recognized fact. 

Thng the usse spac, frlgtede he [Balaam] nogt. 

Genesis and Exodus (E. E. T. 8.\ 1. 3978. 
Thaj Arther the hende kyng at herte hade wonder, 
He let no aemblaunt be sene. 

Sir Gawayne and the Oreen Knight (E. E. T. 8.), 1. 467. 
This child, the hit were jung, wel hit undented, 
For sell child is sone 1-lered ther he wole hco god. 

Hfe of Thomas Beket, p. 8. (HallimU.) 
He's young and handsome, though he be my brother. 

Beau, and Ft., Scornful Lady, III. 2. 
Her plans, though vast, were never visionary. 

Prescott, Ferd. and Isa., II. 16. 

2. Conceding or allowing that; however true 
it be that; even were it the case that; even if: 
followed by a subjunctive clause noting a mere 
possibility or supposition. 

I parfonrned the penaunce the preest me enloyned, 
And am fill sorl for my synnes. and so I shal enere 
Whan I thinke there-on, thevihe I were a pope. 

fieri Plowman (B), v. 600. 

We . . . charge noght his chateryng, thogh he chide euer. 
Destruction of Troy (E. E. T. 8-X 1. 1931. 

Nay, take all, 

Though 'twere my exhibition to a royal 
For one whole year. 

Fletcher, Spanish Curate, I. 1. 

What would It avail us to hare a hireling Clergy, though 
never so learned? Milton, On Def. of Humb. Remonst 

3. Hence, without concessive force, in the case 
that; if: commonly used in the expression as 
though . 

And schalle be youre Deffence in all aduersslte, 
At though that y were dayly In youre sight. 

Political Poem, etc. (ed. FurnlvallX p. 40. 

In the vine were three branches, and It was as though 

it budded. Gen. xl. 10. 

O, how can Love's eye !>e true, 
That is so vex'd with watching and with tears? 
No marvel, then, though I mistake my view. 

Shot., Sonnets, cxlvill. 
The beauty of her flesh ahash'd the boy, 
As tho* it were the beauty of her soul. 

Tennyson, Pelleaa and Ettarre. 

4. Nevertheless; however; still; but: followed 
by a clause restricting or modifying preceding 

Lecherle . . . Is on of the zeuen dyadlichezennes, thag 

ther liy zome bronchea thetne byeth nagt dyadlich zenne. 

Ayenbite of Inwyt (E. E. T. 8.), p. 9. 

Glad shall I be if I meet with no more such brunts; 

though I fear we are not got beyond all danger. 

Illinium, Pilgrim's Progress, i. 

As though. See def. 3. Though thatt, though. 
Though that my death were adjunct to my act, 
By heaven, I would do It. Shair., K. John, iii. 3. 57. 

What though (elliptically for what though the fact or 
case in no), what does that matter? what does It signify? 
need I (we, you, etc.) care about that? 

I keep but three men, . . . bnt what though f yet I live 
like a poor gentleman born. Shak., M. W. of W., 1. 1. 286. 
= 8yn. Although, Though, etc. (See although.) While, 
Though. See while. 

II. flrfr. Notwithstanding this or that; how- 
ever ; for all that. 

Would Katharine had never seen him though! 

Shale., T. of the 8., ill. 2. 26. 

I' fnith. Sneer, though, I am afraid we were a little too 
severe on sir Fretful. Sheridan, The Critic, I. 1. 

though-allt (THo'al), conj. [ME. though al, 
Hi < if nl, etc.: < though + all. Cf. altliouyh .] 

I am but a symple knave, 
Thofall I come of curtayse kynne. 

York Plays, p. 121. 
Xowe lokc on me, my lorde dere, 
Thnfall I put me noght in pres. 

York Plays, p. 122. 

thoughlesst (THo'les), conj. [ME. thanes; < 
though + -li:in as in unless.] Nevertheless; 
still: however. 


Thajle* the wone i- kneailuol, :ml m:iy wrl wendi- tn 
tenue dyadlich. Aycnuitnif Ii, .' i I I . s.), p. i;. 

thought 1 (thiit), a. [< MK. iliniit//it, thiniht, tlmlil, 

thug I, tllUgt, itllOgt, < AS. i/rtluihl, llUo tln-ulit, 

yetlteaht =: ( )S. i/itlm/it, (.. t hinking, belief, = D. 
'iji-il<trhte = OIK'i. -ilnlit. MIKi. il<ilit. {., thought, 
DHO.fNMtt (cf. OIK:. ,<./<//,/. M IK :.-/-//,/, 
G. iiiniiirlii, attention, devotion (= Goth. HH- 
ilittlinlit.i, attention), G. bedacht, deliberation) 
= led. Iliotli. tlinlti; thought, = Gotli. thiilttu*. 
thought (the above forms being more or less con- 
fused); with formative -t or -tti, < AS. tlitm-mi 
(pret. thohte), etc., think: see f/miJti.] 1. The 
act or the product of thinking, psychologically 
considered, thought has two elements one a series of 
phenomena of consciousness during an interval of time in 
which there li no noticeable interruption of the current 
of association by outward reactions (peripheral sensations 
and muscular efforts); the other a more or lew definite 
acquisition to the stock of mental possessions namely, a 
notion, which may repeatedly present itself and be recog- 
nized as Identical. The former of these elements Is the 
act of thinking as it appears to consciousness; the latter 
is the lasting effect produced upon the mind, likewise 
considered from the point of view of consciousness, (a) 
In the most concrete sense, a single step In a process of 
thinking; a notion; a reflection. 

" They are never alone," said I "that are accompanied 
with noble thoughts." Sir P. Sidney, Arcadia, I. 

Truth shall nurse her, 
Holy and heavenly thoughts still counsel her. 

Shale., Hen. VIII., T. 5. 30. 
Some to Conceit alone their taste confine, 
And glittering thoughts struck out at every line. 

Pope, Essay on Criticism, L 290. 
To me the meanest flower that blows can give 
Thoughts that do often lie too deep for tears. 

Wordsworth, Ode, Immortality. 

(6) The condition or state of a person during such mental 

Horn sat upon the grunde, 
In thujte he was Ihunde. 

King Horn (E. E. T. 8.), p. 32. 
Sir Bedlvere . . . paced beside the mere, 
Counting the dewy pebbles, flx'd In thought. 

Tennyson, Morte d'Arthur. 

(I A synonym of cognition in the common threefold divi- 
sion of modes of consciousness : from the fact that thought, 
as above described, embraces every cognitive process ex- 
cept sensation, which is a mode of consciousness more al- 
lied to volition than to other kinds of cognition. 

Feeling, thought, and action are to a certain extent op- 
posed or mutually exclusive states of mind. 

J. Sully, Outlines of Psychol., p. 657. 

(d) The objective element of the intellectual product. 
Thought always proceeds from the less to the more de- 
terminate, and, in doing so, it cannot determine any object 

nltively without determining It negatively, or determine 
egatively without determining It positively. 

E. Caird, Philos. of Kant, p. 313. 

Thought Is, in every case, the cognition of an object, 
which really, actually, existentially out of thought, Is ideal- 
ly, intellectually, Intelligibly within it; and just because 
within in the latter sense, Is it known as actually without 
In the former. Mind, No. 35, July, 1884. 

(e) A judgment or mental proposition, in which form the 
concept always appears. 

Thought pro per, as distinguished from other facts of con- 
sciousness, may be adequately described as the act of know- 
ing or judging things by means of concepts. 

Dean Hansel, Prolegomena to Logic, p. 22. 
(/) An argument, Inference, or process of reasoning, by 
which process the concept is always produced. 

Without entering upon the speculations of the Nominal- 
ists and the Realists, we must admit that. In the process 
of ratiocination, properly called thought, the mind acts 
only by words. 6. P. Marsh, Lects. on Eng. Lang., I. 
(g) A concept, considered as something which, under the 
influence of experience and mental action, has a develop- 
ment of its own, more or less Independent of individual 
caprices, and that (1) in the life of an Individual, and (2) 
in history : as, the gradual development of Greek thought. 
(hi The subjective element of Intellectual activity; think- 

By the word thmtght I understand all that which so takes 
place In us that we of ourselves are Immediately conscious 
of It Descartes, Prln. of Philos. (tr. by VeitchX i. i 0. 
(i) The understanding ; intellect. 

For our instruction, to impart 
Things above earthly thought. Milton, P. L. , vil 82. 

What never was seen or heard of may yet be conceived; 
nor is anything beyond the power of thought except what 
implies an absolute contradiction. 

Hume, Inquiry concerning Human Understanding, ii. 

2. An intention; a design; a purpose; also, a 
half-formed determination or expectation with 
reference to future action : with of: as, I have 
Rome thought of going to Europe. 

They have not only thotighlt of repentance, but general 
purposes of doing the acts of it at one time or other. 

StUlingJteet, Sermons, II. 111. 

The snn was very low when we came to this place, and 
we bad some thoughts of staying there all night ; but the 
people gave us no great encouragement. 

Pococlce, Description of the East, II. 1. 106. 

3. /il. A particular frame of mind ; a mood or 

I would not there reside, 
To put my father in impatient thoughts 
By being In his eye. SAa*., Othello, i. 3. 243. 


It glads me 
TII mid your thought* so even. 

B. Jonson, Catiline, ill. 1. 
4t. Dottbtj perplexity. 

Whan the Ionics vndlrstod that kynge Arthur was gon 
and lefte his londv, than tht-i haddc grete thought where- 
fore it myght be ; but no wise cowde tlu-i devise the cause. 
Merlin il I i. - , ii. ITi.. 

B. Care; trouble; anxiety; grid'. 
There Is another thynge . . . 
Which cause Is of my dtth for norwi; and thought. 

Chaucer, Trollus, 1. 479. 

In this thought and this anguyssh was the mayden by 

the conlurlson of Merlin. Merlin (E. E. T. .), ill. 008. 

Take no thought |be not anxious, R. V.] for your life. 

what ye shall eat, or what ye (hall drink. Mat. vi. 26. 

Gouzalea was done to death by Casca. Soto died of 

thought in Florida ; and ciulll wars eate vp the rest In 

Peru. Pvrchas, Pilgrimage, p. 871. 

6. A slight degree ; a fraction ; a trifle ; a little : 
used in the adverbial phrase a thought: as, a 
t/iuiii/lit too small. 

Here be they are every way as fair as she, and a thought 

fairer, I trow. B. Jonson, Cynthia's Revels, Iv. 1. 

Though I now totter, yet I think I am a thought better. 

Suift, Letter, Aug. 12, 1727. 

Elemental law of thought. See elemental. Free 
thought. See free. Objective thought See objec- 
tive reason, under utijectivf. Second thoughts, maturer 
or calmer reflection ; after consideration : as, on second 
thoughts, I will not speak of it. 

Is it so true that necund thoughts are best? 
Not first, and third, which are a riper first? 

Tennyton, Sea Dreams. 

Upon or with a thought, with the speed of thought : 
In a twinkling ; immediately. 

The tit is momentary ; upon a thought 

He will again lie well. Shale., Macbeth, III. 4. Si. 

I will be here again, even irtth a thought. 

Shalr.,J. C., v. 3. 18. 

What is my thought like ? a game In which one or 
more of the players think of a certain object, and the rest, 
through questions as to what that thought or object Is 
like, try to guess it. = 8yn. 1. (o) Feeling, etc. (see senti- 
ment); imagination, supposition. 
thought 2 (that). Preterit and past participle 

of MMfcl. 

thought 3 (that). Preterit of tMnV*. 
thought 4 (that), H. [Also thoirt; dial, form of 
thofft ; in part a corruption of Uncart 1 .] A row- 
er's seat; a thwart. [Prov. Eng.] 
The thought*, the seats of rowers In a boat. 

Diet. ap. Moor. (BaUiicell, under thtncts.) 

thoughted (thft'ted), . [< thought! + -frf2.J 
Having thoughts : used chiefly in composition 
with a qualifying word. 
Low-thoughtcd care. Milton, Comus, I. 6. 

Those whom passion hath not blinded, 
Subtle-fAoujiAted, myriad-minded. 

Trnniitmi, Ode to Memory. 
Shsllow.fAo0/iterf. and cold-hearted. 

It. Spencer, Universal Progress, p. 102. 

thoughtent (tha'tn). An old preterit plural 
(and irregular past participle) of think 1 . 

Be you thoughten 
That I came with no 111 intent. 

Shot., Pericles, Iv. 6. 115. 

thought-executing (that'ek'se-ku-ting), it. 
Effective with the swiftness of thought. Com- 
pare upon a thought, under thought 1 . 

You sulphurous and thoughtexecuting fires. 
Vaunt-couriers to oak-cleaving thunderbolts ! 

Shak., Lear, III. 2. 4. 

thoughtful (that'ful), a. [< ME. thoughtful, 
thiilitful, thoztful; < thought + -//.] 1. Occu- 
pied with thought; engaged in or disposed to 
reflection; contemplative; meditative. 
On these he mus'd within his thi> ; ihiful mind. 

Dryiien, .ttneid, viL S4". 

No circumstance is more characteristic of an educated 
and thoughtful man than that he is ready, from time to 
time, to review bis moral judgements. 

Fowler, 8haftesbury and Hutcheson, p. 91. 

2. Characterized by or manifesting thought; 
pertaining to thought ; concerned with or dedi- 
cated to thought. 

War, horrid war. your thoughtful walks invades. 
And steel now glitters In the Muses' shades. 

Pope, Choruses to Tragedy of Brutus, i. 7. 
Much in vain, my zealous mind 

Would to learned Wisdom's throne 
Dedicate each thoughtful hour. 

Akenside, Odes, il. 9. 

His coloring (In so far as one can judge of It by repro- 
duction) Is pleasing if not perceptibly thmi'/htful. 

The Xatian, XLVII MO. 

3. Mindful, as to something specified; heed- 
ful ; careful : followed by of or an infinitive. 

For this they have been thoughtful to Invest 
Their sons with arts and martial exercises. 

Shak., 2 Hen. IV., IT. 5. 73. 
Thoughtful of thy gain. 
Not of my own. J. Philips, Cider, I. 364. 

4. Showing regard or consideration for others; 
benevolent; considerate; kindly. 


And i>h ' what business had she to be so ungrateful and 
to try and thwart Philip in his thiM;/ht/ul wish of escorting 
them through the streets of the rough, riotous town 't 

Mrs. Gaskell, Sylvia's Lovers, iii. 

5. Full of care ; anxious ; troubled. 

thoughtful herte, plungyd in dystres. 

Lydgate, Life of Our Lady. (Hoppe.) 
Around her crowd distrust and doubt and fear, 
And thoughtful foresight and tormenting care. 


= Syn. 1. .Reflective, pensive, studious. 3. Considerate, 

thoughtfully (that'ful-i), adv. In a thought- 
ful or considerate manner; with thought or 

thoughtfulness (that'ful-nes), n. The state of 
being thoughtful; meditation; serious atten- 
tion; considerateness; solicitude. 

thoughtless (that'les), a. [< thought* + -less.] 

1. Devoid of or lacking capacity for thought. 

Just as a blockhead rubs his thoughtless skull, 
And thanks his stars he was not born a fool. 

Pope, Epil. to Howe's Jane Shore, 1. 7. 

A fair average human skull, which might have belonged 

to a philosopher, or might have contained the thoughtless 

brains of a savage. Huxley, Man's Place in Nature, p. 181. 

2. Unthinking; heedless; careless; giddy. 

He was lively, witty, good-natur'd, and a pleasant com- 
panion, but idle, thoughtless, and imprudent to the last 
degree. Franklin, Autobiog., p. 159. 

They cajole with gold 
And promises of fame the thoughtless youth. 

Shelley, Queen Mab, iv. 

That thoughtless sense of joy bewildering 
That kisses youthful hearts amidst of spring. 

William Morris, Earthly Paradise, I. 396. 
= Syn. 2. Heedless, Remiss, etc. (see negligent), regard- 
less, inattentive, inconsiderate, unmindful, flighty, hare- 

thoughtlessly (that'les-li), adv. In a thought- 
less, inconsiderate, or careless manner; with- 
out thought. 
In restless hurries thoughtlessly they live. Garth. 

thoughtlessness (that'les-nes), n. The state of 
being thoughtless, heedless, or inconsiderate. 

What is called absence is a thoughtlessness and want of 
attention about what is doing. Chesterfield. 

thought-reader (that're"der), n. A mind- 

We are all convinced that when mistakes are made the 
fault rests, for the most part, with the thinkers, rather 
than with the thought-readers. 

Proc. Soe. Psyeh. Research, I. 43. 

thpughtsick (that'sik), a. [< thought + sick.~\ 
Sick from thinking. 

Heaven's face doth glow ; 
Yea, this solidity and compound mass, 
With tristful visage, as against the doom, 
Is thought-sick at the act. Shak., Hamlet, iii. 4. 51. 

thoughtsome (that'sum), a. [< thought 1 + 
-some.'] Thoughtful. Encyc. Diet. 

thoughtsomeness (that' sum-nes), n. Thought- 
fulness. N. Fairfax, Bulk and Selvedge of the 
World. (Encyc. Diet.) 

thought-transfer (that'trans"fer), M. Same as 
telepathy. Pop. Sci. Mo., XXXV. 704. [Recent.] 

thought-transference (that'trans"fer-ens), n. 
Same as telepathy. [Kecent.] 

thought-transferential (that'trans-fe-ren"- 
shal), a. Of the nature of or pertaining to 
thought-transference; telepathic. Proc. Soc. 
Psych. Research, XVII. 461. [Recent.] 

thought-wave (that'wav), n. A supposed un- 
dulation of a hypothetical medium of thought- 
transference, assumed to account for the phe- 
nomena of telepathy. [Kecent.] 

Thous (tho'us), n. [NL. (J. E. Gray), also 
Tlios, < Gr. ftiof , 6u , a kind of wild dog : see 
thooid.] 1. A genus of canines, or a section 
of Cams, combining some characters of foxes 

Senegal Thous (Thous senegalcusis). 


with others of wolves. The group is not well marked, 
but has been made to cover several African forms which 
represent the peculiar South American fox-wolves, and 
come under the general head of jackals. Some of them 
arc brindled with light and dark colors on the back. Among 
them are T. anthus, the wild dog of Egypt ; T. variegatux, 
the Nubian thous ; T. mesomelas, the black-backed or Cape 
jackal; T. senegaleiws, the Senegal thous or jackal; etc. 
See also cut under jackal. 

2. [I. c.~] A jackal of this genus: as, the Sene- 
gal tltous. 

thousand (thou'zand), . and H. [< ME. thou- 
sand, thousend, tli.usend,_ < AS. thusend = OS. 
thusiind-ig = OFries. thusend, dusent = D. dui- 
zend = OLG. thusint, MLG. dusent, LG. dusend 
= OHG. thusunt, dusunt, tusent, MHG. tiisent, 
tmunt, G. tausend = Icel. thusund (also thus- 
liund, thushundradh, conformed to hund, hun- 
dradh, hundred) = Sw. tusen = Dan. tusende = 
Goth, thusundi, thousand. Though all numerals 
up to 100 belong in common to all the Indo-Eur. 
languages, this word for thousand is found only 
in the Teut. and Slav, languages: = OBulg. ty- 
sanshta = Serv. tisuca = Pol. tysiac = Russ. ty- 
siacha = OPruss. tusimtons (pi. ace.) = Lith. 
tukstantis = Lett, tukstots, etc. Possibly the 
Slavs borrowed the word in prehistoric times 
from the Tent.] I. a. Numbering ten hun- 
dred; hence, of an indefinitely large number. ' 

Themperour hire throli thonked many thousand sithe. 
William of Palerne (E. E. T. S.), 1. 5154. 

That Cry 

Which made me look a thousand ways 
In bush, and tree, and sky. 

Wordsworth, To the Cuckoo. 

II. ti. 1. The number ten hundred, or ten 
times ten times ten; hence, indefinitely, a great 
number. Like hundred, million, etc., thousand takes a 
plural termination when not preceded by a numeral ad- 

Ther com . . . xl Ml [people], what on horse bakke and 
on fote, with-oute hem that were in the town, whereof 
ther were vj"" ; but the story seith that in tho dayes fyve 
hundred was cleped a thousande. 

Merlin (E. E. T. S.), ii. 205. 

A thousand shall fall at thy side, and ten thousand at 
thy right hand. Ps. xci. 7. 

How many thousands pronounce boldly on the affairs of 
the public whom God nor men never qualified for such 
judgment ! Watts. 

2. A symbol representing the number ten hun- 
dred, as M, 1,000. 3. In brick-making, a quan- 
tity of clay sufficient for making a thousand 
bricks. C. T. Davis, Bricks and Tiles, p. 104. 

One of or In a thousand, an exception to the general 
rule ; a rare example or instance. 

Now the glass was one of a thousand. It would present 
a man, one way, with his own features exactly ; and turn 
it but another way, and it would show . . . the Prince of 
pilgrims himself. Bunyan, Pilgrim's Progress, ii. 

Upper ten thousand. See upper. 
thousandealt, [ME. thousandeelle ; < thou- 
sand + deal 1 . Cf . halfendeal, third- 
endeal.~] A thousand times. 
For in good feythe this leveth welle, 
My wille was bettre a thousandeelle. 
Oower, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 43. 

thousandfold (thou ' zand - fold), 

a. [< ME. thusendfold, ihusendfeld 

(= D. duizendvoud = G. tausendfa'l- 

tig = Sw. tusenfaldt = Dan. tusend- 

fold); <. thousand + -fold.] A thou- 
sand times as much, 
thousand-legs (thou'zand-legz), . 

Any member of the class Myria- 

poda, particularly one of the cnilo- 

pod order ; a milleped. The common 

household Cermatia (or Scutigera) forceps 

is specifically so called in some parts of 

the United States. See also cuts under 

milleped, myriapod, and Scutigera. 
thousandth (thousandth), a. and 

n. [Not found in ME. or AS. ; < 

thousand + -th 2 .'] I. a. 1. Last in 

order of a series of a thousand; 

next after the nine hundred and 

ninety-ninth : an ordinal numeral. 

2. Constituting one of a thou- 
sand equal parts into which any- 
thing is divided. 

II. n. One of a thousand equal 
parts into which anything is di- 

thoutt, v. t. [ME. thowten (= Dan. 
dutte) ; < thou, pron. Cf. yeet.~] 
To thou. A Th 

Thowtyne, or seyn thow to a maim le g s (A* 
(thowyn, or sey thu). Tuo. 

Prompt. Para., p. 492. ' 

thowH, pron. An obsolete form of thou. 
thow 2 t, H. A variant of 


, '. and it. A dialectal variant of tlmir. 
thowel, thowl, . Variants of tliule't. 
thowless (thou'les), . [A var. of thewles.i. Cf. 
thieveless.] Slack; inactive; lazy. [Scotch.] 
I will not wait upon the thowless, thriftless, fissenless 
ministry of that carnal man, John Halftext, the curate. 

Scott, Old Mortality, v. 




thowmbet, " An old spelling of i 

Thracian (thra'shan), a. and n. [< L. Thniciiix, 
Thracian, Thraci, Thrace, < Gr. QpaK/oc, Ionic 
Qpqtiuof, SpyKtof, Thraeian, < OffKf, Ionic Op//,7/, 
Thrace, < Qpaf, Ionic 6/jr/if, 6pf, a Thracian.] 
I. a. Of or pertaining to Thrace, a region in 
southeastern Europe (formerly a Roman prov- 
ince), included between the Balkans and the 
^Egean and Black Seas. 

The riot of the tipsy Bacchanals, 
Tearing the Thraeian singer in their rage. 

Shale., M. N. D., v. 1. 49. 

II. n. An inhabitant or a native of Thrace. 

thrackt (thrak), v. t. [Appar. < ME. *threkkeit. 

thrucchen, < AS. thrycean (= OHG. druccheii, 

MHG. drucken, drucken, G. drucken, etc.), press, 

oppress.] To load or burden. 

Certainly we shall one day find that the strait gate is 
too narrow for any man to come bustling in, thrack'd with 
great possessions and greater corruptions. 

South, Sermons, II. vi. 

thragget, *' t. Apparently an error for sJiragge 
(see shrag). 

Fell, or cutt'e downe, or to thragge. Succido. 

Huloet, Abecedarian (1552). (Nares.) 

thralt, a. An old spelling of thrall. 
thraldom (thral'dum), H. [Also thralldom, and 

formerly thraldoms; < ME. thraldom (= Icel. 

tlireeldomr = Sw. traldom = Dan. treeldom); 

< thrall + -dom.~] The state or character of 
being a thrall ; bondage, literal or figurative ; 

Every base affection 

Keeps him [man] in slavish t[h]raldome & subjection. 
Times' Whistle (E. E. T. S.), p. 93. 

"Such as are led by the Spirit of God, they are the sons 
of God," and not such as live in thraldom unto men. 

Hooker, Eccles. Polity, iii. 9. 

thralhoodt (thral'hud), n. [ME. thralhod, thral- 
hede; < thrall + -hood.] Thraldom. 

Thanne is mi thralhod, 
Iwent in to knijthod. 

King Horn (E. E. T. S.), p. 13. 

thrall (thral), n. and a. [< ME. thral, thrallc, 
threl, threlle (pi. thralles, thrales,threlles, threles), 

< late AS. thrail (pi. thrielas), < Icel. thrsell = 
Sw. tral = Dan. trxl, a thrall, prob. = OHG. 
dregil, drigil, trigil, trikil, a serf, thrall ; Teut. 
form *thragila (contracted in Scand.), perhaps 
orig. 'a runner,' hence an attendant, servant; < 
AS. thrsegian (= Goth, thragjan), run, < thrag, 
thrah, a running, course; cf. Gr. rpox'^of, a 
small bird said to be attendant on the croc- 
odile, < Tpo%oi;, a running, < rpe%eiv, run (see 
trochil, trochus, etc.). The notion that thrall 
is connected with thrill 1 , as if meaning orig. 
'thrilled' i. e. 'one whose ears have been 
thrilled or drilled in token of servitude' is 
ridiculous in theory and erroneous in fact. 
The AS. tlirSl, thrall, cannot be derived from 
thyrelian, thyrlian,ihiTl(see thirl 1 , thrill 1 ), and if 
it were so derived, it could not mean ' thrilled,' 
or 'a thrilled man.'] I. w. 1. A slave; a serf; 
a bondman ; a captive. 

And se thi sone that in seruage 

For mannis soule was made a thralle. 

Hymns to Virgin, etc. (E. E. T. S.), p. 1. 

In a dungeon deepe huge nombers lay 
Of caytive wretched thralls, that wayled night and day. 
Spenser, F. Q., I. v. 45. 

The actual slave, the thrall, the theow, is found every- 
where [in early Britain]. The class is formed and recruited 
in two ways. The captive taken in war accepts slavery as 
a lighter doom than death ; the freeman who is guilty of 
certain crimes is degraded to the state of slavery by sen- 
tence of law. In either case the servile condition of the 
parent is inherited by his children. 

E. A. Freeman, Encyc. Brit., VIII. 274. 

The thrall in person may be free in soul. 

Tennyson, Gareth and Lynette. 

2. One who is a slave to some desire, appe- 
tite, spell, or other influence; one who is in 
moral bondage. 

Hi ne byeth [they are not] threlles ne to gold, ne to zeluer, 

ne to hare caroyne [their flesh), ne to theguodes of fortune. 

Ayenbite of Imcyt (E. E. T. S.), p. 86. 

The slaves of drink and thralls of sleep. 

Shak., Macbeth, iii. 6. 13. 

3. Thraldom, literal or figurative ; bondage ; 
slavery ; subjection. 

The chafed Horse, such thrall ill-suffering, 
Begins to snuff, and snort, and leap, and fling. 
Sylvester, tr. of Du Bartas's Weeks, ii., The Handy-Crafts. 


Now ttiKm thi'y reiieh Newcastle jail, 
Anil tn tin' pris'ncr thus they i-ull ; 
"Sh'ipH tliull, wuki's thuil, .loek "' 'III' Side, 
Or IB Hum wearied o' Iliv Ihfnll'" 

Jack o Hi,- siiir (Child's Ballads, VI. 84). 
I saw pale kiiiK" anil prini-es too; . . . 
They cried "La lidlc i>;ime NIMH .Men i 
Hath the.' in tlirall!" 

Kriilt, La Belle Dame laiis Mcrci. 

4. A shelf or stand; a Htaml for ban-els. [I'mv. 

The dairy thrall* I might ha 1 wrote my name on 'em, 
when I come downstairs after my illnew". 

<;.-iir : is Klin!, Ailam Bfdis vi. (l>,ni,.-.) 

II. n. 1. Kii-l:iv. -d ; bond; subjugated. 
Thcr llberte losto, ther centre made thrall 
With that (era Kvant huge and comerous, 
llnrrililf, myghty, strong, ami orgulous. 

ii'ini. nf Partenay (E. E. T. 8.), 1. 4065. 
So the Philistines, the hotter to keep the Jews i/,ni/i and 
iiiHiiliji'i-tion, utterly bereaved them of all manner weapon 
ami artillery, ami left them nuked. 

Up. Jewel, Works, II. 672. 

2. Figuratively, subject; enthralled. 
Disposcth ay youre hertes to wlthstonde 
The feond that yow wolde make thrale and honde. 

Chaucer, Friar's Tale, 1. 362. 
He cometh not of gentle hlood 
That to his coyne is thrall. 

Babee Book (E. E. T. S.), p. 103. 

We govern nature in opinions, but we are thrall unto 
her in necessity. Bacon, Praise of Knowledge (ed. 1887). 

[Obsolete or archaic in both uses.] 
thrall (thral), v. t. [< ME. thralleu; < thrall, .] 

1 . To deprive of liberty ; enslave. 

For more precyous Catelle ne gretter Ransoum ne 
myghte he put for us than his hlessede Body, his precyous 
Blood, and his holy I.yf, that he thralled for ns. 

Mandevillt, Travels, p. 2. 

My husband's brother had my son 
Thrall'd in his castle, and hath starved him dead. 

'I':- a iiiiaiii, Gareth and Lynettc. 

2. Figuratively, to put in subjection to some 
power or influence ; enthrall. 

Love, which that BO soone kan 
The freedom of youre hertes to him thralle. 

Chaiifcr, Troilus, 1. 236. 

Not all thy manacles 

Could fetter so my heeles, as this one word 
Hath thralld my heart. 

Heywaod, Woman Killed with Kindness. 

thraller (thru'ler). n. [< thrall + -crl.] One 

who thralls. Kncife. Diet. 
thrallesst (thra'les), . [ME., < thrall + -ess.] 

A bondwoman. [Kare.] 
There [In Egypt) thow shall be sold to thin enemyea, Into 

thrallis and tltrallnaiui. WydiJ, Deut xxviii. 08. 

thrallful (thral'ful), o. [< tlirall + -ful.] En- 
thralled; slavish. 

Also the Lord accepted lob, and staid 
His Thrall-fiM State. 

Syloesttr, Job Triumphant, iv. 

thrang 1 (timing), n. A Scotch (and Middle 
English) form of throng*. 

thrang- (thrang), a. and adv. [A Scotch (and 
ME.) form of throng 2 .'] Crowded; much occu- 
pied; busy; intimate; thick. 

Twa dogs that were na thrany at hame 
Korgather'd ance upon a time. Buna, Twa Dogs. 
It will he hard for you to fill her place, especially on sic 
a thrang day as this. Scott, Old Mortality, iv. 

thranite (thra'nit), n. [= F. thrunitc, < Gr. 
Opavi-riK, a rower of the topmost bench (in a 
trireme), < ffpavo^, bench, framework, esp. the 
topmost of the three tiers of benches in a tri- 
reme.] In Gr. antiq., one of the rowers on tho 
uppermost tier in a trireme. Compare zeuifite 
and thala mite. 

thranitic (thra-nit'ik), a. [< thranite + -ic.~\ 
Of or pertaining to a thranito. Kncyo. Brit., 
XXI. 807. 

thrap (thrap), r. t. ; pret. and pp. tlirnpped, ppr. 
thraiifinij. [Perhaps a dial form otfrnp. Cf. 
dial, troth for trough (trof). The converse 
change is more common : filft for thill."] Xmit. , 
to bind on; fasten about: same aa/ro/i, 2. 

Tlie hull was so damaged that it had for some time been 

secured by cables \vlm-h wei r served or thrapird round it. 

Southeij, Nelson, lii., an. 1795. 

thrapple (thrap'l), n. Same as thropple. 
thrash 1 , < Sec thresh 1 . 

thrash", thresh- (thrash, thresh), n. [A var. 
of thrush** for rush 1 , as rosft 8 for rush*.'] A 
rush. [Scotch.] 

They wore twa bonnie lasses, 
\vb:i' hi^it a bower on yon burn-brae, 

An' theekit it o'er wi' tlir,i*l<> -. 
Bfixif Bell and Hart/ Gray (Child's Ballads, III. 127). 

thrashel, . See tin-niu-i. 
thrasher 1 , . See thresher*. 
thrasher- (thrash'er), . [Also thrmhi-r; a var. 
of thrusher (appar. simulating thrasher*, thrt-xli- 

er*)\ xi'i-tlirusliu: | A kind of throstle or thrush; 
specifically, in the t'nited States, ;i tlmish- 
likc liinl (if the geini.s llnriiiirhijnrliux, of which 
there are numer<mn species, related to the 
mocking-bird, and less nearly to the birds com- 
monly called thrushes. The best-known, and the 
only one found In the greater part of the United states, 
Is //. ru/tu, the brown thrush or brown thrasher, lo 


thratch (Ihracli), . [< thrateh, v.] The op- 
pressed and violent respiration of one in the 
agonies of death. (Seotch.] 

thrave, threave (thrav, threv), . [< ME. 

tlirm-', Ilii'i-i . Ihriili. < li-el. tlin-ti = Dan. trm; 
= 8w. dial, triin . 11 number of sheaves (cf. Sw. 



nfi-i; a pile of wood), perhaps orig. a handl'iil 
f. L. iiKini/iulus, a sheaf, lit. 'a handful': aee 
, < Icel. thrifa, grasp. Cf. Icel. thnf, a 

Drown I hr.ishcr i//,irfvrAjr*t/ius 

called windy mnrHu'j-Mrit from its color and shape and 
power of mimicry, in which latter respect it approaches 
the true mocker, Mimu* polyi/lottui. It* proper song, 
heard only from the male and in the breeding-season, Is 
loud, rich, skilfully modulated, and well sustained. This 
bird is very common in shrubliery and undergrowth, es- 
pecially southward. It is bright rufous above, nearly 
uniform ; below whitish shaded with pale flaxen-brown or 
cinnamon, and heavily marked with chains of dark-brown 
streaks, the throat Immaculate, with a necklace of oval 
spots. The length Is about 11 Inches, the extent only 13 or 
14, as the tail Is long and the wings are short. It builds 
in a bush, occasionally on the ground, a bulky nest of 
twigs, leaves, bark-strips, and rootlets, and lays from four 
to six eggs, whitish or greenish, profusely speckled with 
brown, aliout an Inch long and } inch broad. A similar 
but darker-colored thrasher is //. lojvjiro*tris of Texas. 
In New Mexico, Arizona, and California there are several 
others, showing great variation in the length and curva- 
ture of the bill, and quite different in color from the com- 
mon thrasher. Such are the curve-billed, //. cunirottrii i; 
the bow-billed, //. r. palmeri; the Aritona, //. bendirei; 
the St. Lucas, //. riiii-mix of Lower California; the Call- 

Head of California Thrasher {Harporhftt 
two thirds natural size. 


fornia, //. redimma; the Vuma, H. lecontei; and the crls- 
sal, //. cTutalu all found over the Mexican Ixirder. 

sin- sings round after dark, like a thrasher. 

S. .In, 1,1, Margaret, i. 6. 

Blue thrasher, the Bahaman Sfintocithla plumbea, a sort 
of thrush of a plumbeous color with black throat and red 
feet. Sage thrasher. See Mgc-thra*her, and cut under 

thrasher-shark, thrasher-whale. See thresh- 
er-shark, etc. 

thrashing, thrashing-floor, etc. See thresh- 
in;/, etc. 

thfashle, See tlircshel. 

thrasonical (thra-son'i-kal), a. [< Tlirano(n-), 
the name of a bragging soldier in Terence's 
"Eunuohus," < Gr. npaai<s, bold, spirited: see 
dare*.'] 1. Given to bragging; boasting; vain- 
glorious. Bacon. 2. Proceeding from or ex- 
hibiting ostentation ; ostentatious; boasting. 

There was never anything so sudden but the fight of two 
rams and Caesar's thratmiicnl brag of "I came, saw, and 
overcame." Shalt., As you Like it, v. 2. 34. 

Who In London hath not heard of his [Greene's] dissolute 
and licentious living 1 ; his ... vain-glorious and Thrn*,,n- 
icai braving? G. Harvey, Four Letters. 

thrasonically (thra-son'i-kal-i), adv. In a thra- 
sonical manner; boastingly. 
To brag thramnicalli/, to boast like Rodomonte. 

Juhnson (under rodomontade). 

thrastet. A Middle English preterit of thrust*. 
Thrasyaetus (thras-i-a'e-tus), n. [NL. (Cones, 
1 SS4 ), after earlier Tlira.>!aetos(G. B. Gray, 1837), 
Thrasaetvs (G. E. Gray, 1844); < Gr. Spaaif, bold, 
+ ornif, an eagle.] A genus of Falconidif, or di- 
urnal birds of prey, including the great crested 
eagle or harpy of South America, T. harpyia,one 
of the largest and most powerful of its tribe. 
See cut under Harpyia. 

thratch (thrach), r. i. [Perhaps an assibilatod 
form of thrark.'] To gasp convulsively, as one 
in the agonies of death. [Scotch.] 
If I but grip you by the collar. 
I'll gar you gape and glour, and gollar, 
All' lliral,-li an thraw for want of breath. 

llratlie, John o' Arnha'. (Jamunm.) 

loft where corn is stored.] 1. A sheaf ; a hand- 


(Enter Bawlolo with Servants, with rushes.) 
Come, strew this room afresh; ... lay me 'em thus, 
In fine, smooth Ihrracrt; look you, sir, thus In threaea. 
Chapman, Gentleman Usher, IL 1. 
His belt was made of myrtle leaves 
I'laitiii In small curious thnme*. 

SirJ. *<mn (Arber's Eng. Gamer, 1. 19). 

Specifically 2. Twenty-four sheaves of grain 
set up in the field, forming two stocks, or shocks 
of twelve sheaves each. 
Ac I have thougtes a threw of this thre piles, 
In what wode thel woxen and where that the! gmwed. 
I'iirt Plowman (In, xvL 66. 

I doubt na, whyles, bat thou may thieve ; 
What then? poor beastie, thou maun live! 
A daimen icker In a throve 
'H a sma' request. Burnt, To a House. 

3. The number of two dozen ; hence, an indefi- 
nite number; a considerable number. 

He sends forth (Aram of ballads to the sale. 

/(;/. Hall, Satires, IV. vi. 65. 

His Jolly friends, who hither come 
In (Arrant to frolic with him, and make cheer. 

/;. Jontm, Sad Shepherd, L 2. 

[Obsolete or dialectal in all uses.] 
thraw 1 (thra), r. [A Sc. (and ME.) form of 
throw*.'] I. trans. 1. To twist; hence, to 
wrench; wrest; distort. 

Ye '11 thraw my head aff my hanse-bane, 
And throw me In the sea. 

Young Redin (Child's Ballads, III. 16). 

He Is Imwed In the back, 

He 's lift,, /> a in the knee. 
Lord Salton and Auchanachie (Child's Ballads, II. 166). 

2. To cross; thwart; frustrate. 

When Shelhume meek held np his cheek, 

Conform to gospel law, man, 
Saint .Stephen's boys, wi' jarring noise, 
They did his measures thrav, man. 

Bum*, The American War. 

II. intrans. 1. To twist or writhe, as in 
agony; wriggle; squirm. 

And at the dead hour o' the night, 
The corpse began to thraw. 

Young Benjie (Child's Ballads, II. 302). 

The empty boat thrawed i' the wind, 
Against the postern tied. 

6. G. Roaetti, stratton Water. 

2. To cast; warp. 3. To be perverse or ob- 
stinate; act perversely. [Scotch in all uses.] 
thraw 1 (thra), n. [A Sc. form of throw*.'] A 
twist; a wrench. 

In Borrowstoonness he resides with disgrace, 
Till his neck stand in need of a thraw. 

Battle o/ Shmff-Muir (Child's Ballads, VII. 162). 

To rln after spnllzle, de'il be wi' me if I do not glTe your 
cralg a (Aroic. Scott, Waverley, xlvili. 

Heads and thraws, lying side by side, the feet of the 
one by the head of the other. 

thraw' 2 (thra), n. and v. A Scotch form of 
Hi rim-- for tlinii^ In the dead thraw. In the death- 
throes; in the last agonies; the phrase is also applied to 
any object regarded as neither dead nor alive, neither hot 
nor cold. Scott, Guy Mannering, .\\vii. 

thraw-*, n. A Scotch form of throw 3 . 

thraward, thrawart (thra'wSrd, -wftrt), a. 
[Appar. < thraw* + -ard (mixed with/rYitmrrf, 
froward (f)).] Cross-grained; perverse; stub- 
born; tough; also, reluctant. [Scotch.] 

I have kend the Law this niony a year, and mony a 
thrairart job I hae had wi' her tlrst and last. 

Scott, Heart of Mid-Lothian, xliL 

thraw-crook (thra'kruk), n. See throu-cro<>k. \ . 

thrawn (thran), }>. a. [A Sc. form of thrown; 
cf. thrair*.] 1. Twisted; wrenched; distort- 
ed ; sprained : as, a thrown stick ; a thratni foot. 
2. Cross-grained; perverse; contrary or con- 

"of what are you made?" "Dirt" was the answer uni- 
formly given. " Wull ye never learn to say dust, ye thratni 
decvll? Dr. J. Brown, Marjorie Kleniing. 

thread (thred), n. [Early mod. E. also thrl: 
also threeti, whence, with shortened vowel, tliriil : 
< ME. tlin-ril, tlirril. thmlr.< AS. o"irV/ = OFries. 
thrfrl = MD. ilrni'd, D. draad = OHG. MHG. 
ilrril. (i. draht, thread, wire, = Icel. thrddhr = 
Sw. trdd = Dan. traad = Goth, 'tlirethti (not re- 
corded), thread; lit. 'that which is twisted '(cf. 
twist, tu-ine, thread); with formative -d, < AS. 
thra-an, etc., twist, turn: see throtc*.] 1. A 


twisted filament of a fibrous substance, as cot- 
ton, flax, silk, or wool, spun out to considerable 
length. In a specific sense, thread is a compound cord 
consisting of two or more yarns firmly united together by 
twisting. The twisting together of the different strands 
or yarns txj form a thread is effected by a thread-frame, or 
doubling-arid- twisting mill, which accomplishes the pur- 
pose by the action of bobbins and fliers. Thread is used in 
some species of weaving, but its principal use is for sewing. 
The word is used especially for linen, as distinguished from 
sewing-silk and sewing-cotton, and as seen in the phrases 
thread lace and thread glove ; but this distinction is not 
original, and is not always maintained. Compare cuts un- 
der spinning-wheel and spinning-jenny. 

That riche ring ful redily with a red silk threde 
The quen bond als bliue a-boute the wolwes necke. 

William of Palerne (E. E. T. S.), 1. 4430. 
Also, cosyn, I pray you to sende me sum Norfoke threde to 
do a boute my nekke to ryde with. Paston Letters, I. 343. 
To a choice Grace to spin He put it out, 
That its fine thread might answer her neat hand. 

J. Beaumont, Psyche, iii. 24. 

2. A fine filament or thread-like body of any 
kind: as, a thread of spun glass; a thread of 

Sustaining a threed of Copper, reaching from one to an- 
other, on which are fastened many burning Lampes. 

Purchas, Pilgrimage, p. 288. 

3. The prominent spiral part of a screw. See 
cuts under screw and screw-thread. 4. In min- 
ing, a thin seam, vein, or fissure filled with ore. 
5. A very slender line applied on a surface: 
thus, in decorative art, thin and minute lines 
are so called to distinguish them from bands 
of color, which, though narrow, have a more 
appreciable width. 6. pi. In conch., the bys- 
sus. 7. A yarn-measure, the circumference 
of a reel, containing 1|, 2, 2, or 3 yards. 8. 
That which runs through the whole course of 
something and connects its successive parts; 
hence, proper course or sequence; the main 
idea, thought, or purpose which runs through 
something: as, the thread of a discourse or 

I would not live over my hours past, or begin again the 

thread of my days. Sir T. Browne, Religio Medici, i. 42. 

Wherefore to resume the thread of our course, we were 

now in sight of the Volcan, being by estimation 7 or 8 

leagues from the shoar. Dampier, Voyages, I. 120. 

If, after a pause, the grave companion resumes his thread 

in the following manner, "Well, but to go on with my 

story," new interruptions come from the left and the right, 

till he is forced to give over. 

Svnft, Polite Conversation, Int. 
9. A clue. 

And, scorning of the loyall virgins Thred, 
Haue them and others in this Maze mis-led. 

Sylvester, tr. of Du Bartas's Weeks, i. 1. 

10f. Distinguishing property; quality; degree 
of fineness. 

A neat courtier, 
Of a most elegant thread. 

S. Jonson, Magnetick Lady, i. 1. 

11. The thread of life. See phrase below. 

Thy match was mortal to him, and pure grief 
Shore his old thread in twain. 

Shak., Othello, v. 2. 206. 

He sees at one view the whole thread of my existence. 
Addison, Spectator, No. 7. 

Adam's needle and thread. See Adam. Gold thread. 
(a) A string formed by covering a thread, usually of yellow 
silk, with thin gold wire wound spirally around it. See 
wire, (b) A thin strip of gilded paper often used in Ori- 
ental brocaded stuffs, (c) Erroneously, gold wire, (d) 
See goldthread. Lisle thread, a fine hard-twisted linen 
thread, originally made at Lille (Lisle), in France, but now 
also made in Great Britain. It is used especially in the 
manufacture of stockings, gloves, etc, The thread of 
life, the imaginary thread spun and cut by the Fates : 
emblematic of the course and termination of one's exis- 
tence. See def. 11. Thread and needle. Same as 
thread-needle. Thread and thrum, figuratively, all; 
the good and the bad together. 

Fates, come, come ; 

Cut thread and thrum. 

Shak., M. N. D., v. 1. 291. 

Thread lace. See lace. Thread of the river, thread 
Of the Stream, the middle of the main current, which 
may be on one side or the other of the middle of the wate-. 
Henry Austin, Farm Law, p. 135. Three threads. See 

thread (thred), v. t. [Early mod. E. also thred; 
also threed, whence, with shortened vowel, thrid; 
< ME. threden; < thread, .] 1. To pass a thread 
through the eye or aperture of, as a needle. 
A sylver nedyl forth I drowe 
Out of an aguyler queynt ynowe, 
And gan this nedyl threde anone. 

Horn, of (he Rote, 1. 99. 

2. To string on a thread. 

Then they [beads] are threaded by children, tied in bun- 
dles, and exported to the ends of the earth. 

Harper's Mag., LXXIX. 262. 

3. To pass through with the carefulness and 
precision of one who is threading a needle, im- 
plying narrowness or intricacy in that which is 
passed through. 


They would not thread the gates. 

Shak., Cor., iii. 1. 124. 
He began to thread 

All courts and passages, where silence dead, 
Boused by his whispering footsteps, mnrmur'd faint. 

Keati, Endymion, ii. 

Such lived not in the past alone, 
But thread to-day the unheeding street 

Lowell, All-Saints. 

4. To form a spiral projection on or a spiral 
groove in ; furnish with a thread, as a screw : 
as, to thread a bolt. 

thread-animalcule (thred'an-i-mal"kul), n. A 
vibrio ; any member of the Vibrionidx. 

threadbare (thred'bar), a. [Early mod. E. also 
thrcdbare, tlircedebare ; < ME. thredbare, threed- 
bare, thredebare; < thread + 6rel.] 1. Hav- 
ing the thread bare ; worn so that the nap is 
lost and the thread is visible, either wholly or in 
certain parts : said of a piece of textile fabric, 
as in a garment, or of the garment itself. 

Lo, thus by smelling and threedbare array, 
If that men list, this folk they knowe may. 

Chaucer, Prol. to Canon's Yeoman's Tale, L 337. 
And he com in the semblaunce of an olde man, and 
hadde on a russet cote torne and all thredebare. 

Merlin (E. E. T. S.), ii. 261. 

A Jew never wears his cap threadbare with putting it 
off. Dekker, Gull's Hornbook, p 63. 

A suit of threadbare black, with darned cotton stockings 
of the same colour, and shoes to answer. 

Dickens, Oliver Twist, iv. 

2. Wearing threadbare clothes; shabby; seedy. 
A threadbare rascal, a beggar. 

B. Jonson, Every Man in his Humour, iii. 3. 

3. Well-worn ; much used ; hence, hackneyed ; 
trite : as, a threadbare jest. 

Yelverton is a good thredbare trend for yow and for odyr 
in thys contre, as it is told me. Paston Letters, II. 83. 
Where have my busy eyes not pry'd? O where, 
Of whom, hath not my threadbare tongue demanded? 
Quarles, Emblems, iv. 11. 

You could not bring in that thredbare Flourish, of our 
being more fierce than our own Mastiffs, . . . without 
some such Introduction. Milton, Aus. to Salmasius. 

threadbareness (thred'bar-nes), . The state 
of being threadbare. H. Mackenzie. 

thread-carrier (thred'kar'i-er), n. In a knit- 
ting-machine, a hook or eyelet on the carriage 
through which the yarn is passed. E. H. Knigh t. 

thread-cell (thred'sel), . 1. One of the lit- 
tle bodies or cavities of a coelenterate, as a 
jellyfish or sea-nettle, containing a coiled elas- 
tic thread that springs out with stinging effect 
when the creature is irritated; an urticating- 
organ; a nematocyst; a lasso-cell; a cnida. 
Thread-cells are highly characteristic of the coDlenterates, 
and some similar or analogous organs are found in certain 
infusorians. See cuts under cnida and neinatocyst, and 
compare trichocyst. 

2. An occasional name of a seed-animalcule or 
spermatozoon. Haeckel. 

thread-cutter (thred'kufer), n. 1. A small 
blade fixed to a sewing-machine, to a spool- 
holder, or to a thimble, etc., as a convenience 
for cutting sewing-threads. 2. A thread-cut- 
ting machine for bolts; a screw-thread cutter. 
See cut under screw-stock. E. H. Knight. 

threaded (thred'ed), p. a. Provided with a 

From the bastion'd walls, 
Like threaded spiders, one by one we dropt. 

Tennyson, Princess, i. 

threadent (thred'n), a. [Early mod. E. also 
"thredden, threadden; < thread -r- -en 2 .] Woven 
of threads ; textile. Also thridden. 

I went on shoare my selfe, and gaue euery of them a 
threadden point, and brought one of them aboord of me. 
Hakluyt's Voyages, III. 31. 
Behold the threaden sails, 
Borne with the invisible and creeping wind. 

Shak., Hen. V., iii., Prol., 1. 10. 

threader (thred'er), n. [< thread + -erl.] One 
who or that which threads; specifically, a con- 
trivance for threading needles. See needle- 

thread-feather (thred 'feTH-'er), n. A filo- 
plume. Seefeatiier. 

thread-fin (thred'fin), n. Any fish of the genus 
Polynemus: so called from the long pectoral 
filaments. See cut under Polynemus. 

thread-finisher (thred'fin"ish-er), n. A ma- 
chine in which linen or cotton thread is treated 
to remove the fluffy fibers that cling to new 
thread, to fasten down the loose fibers, and to 
polish the surface. 

thread-fish (thred'fish), M. 1. The cordonnier 
or cobbler-fish, Blepharis crinitus. 2. The cut- 
las-fish. See cut under Trichiunts. 

thread-flower (thred'flou"er), n. A plant of the 
genus Nematanthus, of the Gesneracese, which 


consists of 3 or 4 Brazilian climbing or epi- 
phytic shrubs with large crimson (lowers pen- 
dent on long peduncles, to which this name, as 
also that of the genvis, alludes Crimson thread- 
flower. See Poinciana. 

threadfoot (thred'fut), . An aquatic plant, 
I'odostemon ceratophyllus. 

thread-frame (thred'frftm), . In spinning, a 
machine combining yarns by doubling and 
twisting them, to make thread. 

thread-gage (thred'gaj), n. A gage for deter- 


mining the number of threads to the inch on 
screws and taps. E. H. Knight. 

thread-guide (thred'gid), . In a sewing-ma- 
chine, a device, as a loop or an eye, for guiding 
the thread when it is necessary to change the 
direction at any point between the spool and 
the eye of the needle. See cuts under sewing- 
machine. E. If. Knigh t. 

thread-herring (thred 'her "ing), n. 1. The 
mud-shad or gizzard-shad, Dorosoma cepedia- 
nnm. See cut under gizzard-shad. [Local, U.S.] 
2. The fish Opisthonema thrissa of the Atlan- 
tic coast of North America, chiefly southward. 

threadiness (thred'i-nes), n. Thready charac- 
ter or condition. Imp. Diet. 

thread-leaved (thred'levd), n. Having filiform 
leaves Thread-leaved sundew. See sundew. 

thread-mark (thred'mark), . A delicate fiber, 
usually of silk and of strong color, put in some 
kinds of paper made for use as paper money, as 
a safeguard against counterfeiting by means of 

thread-moss (thred'mos), n. A moss of the 
genus Bryum : so called from the slender seta 
which bears the capsule. 

thread-needle, thread-the-needle (thred'ne*- 
dl, thred'THe-ne'dl), n. [< thread, v. (+ the^), 
-f obj. needle.] A game in which children, espe- 
cially girls, stand in a row holding hands, and 
the outer one, still holding the one next, runs 
between the others under their uplifted hands, 
and is followed by the rest in turn. Also called 
thread and needle. 

thread-oiler (thred'oi'ler), n. An oil-cup or 
-holder screwed to the spool-wire of a sewing- 
machine, for oiling the thread, to cause it to 
pass more readily through leather or other 
thick, heavy material. E. H. Knight. 

thread-paper (thred'pa"per), n. 1. A strip of 
thin soft paper prepared for wrapping up a 
skein of thread, which is laid at length and 
rolled up in a generally cylindrical form. 

She has a lap-dog that eats out of gold ; she feeds her 
parrot with small pearls ; and all her thread-papers are 
made of bank-notes. Sheridan, The Rivals, i. 1. 

2. A variety of paper used for such strips. 

thread-plant (thred'plant), n. A plant afford- 
ing a fiber suitable for textile use ; a fiber-plant. 

thread-shaped (thred'shapt), a. In bot. and 
zool., slender, like a thread, as the filaments of 

Thread-tailed Swallow (Uro- 

many plants and ani- 
mals; filamentous; fili- 
form; filar. 

thread-tailed (thred'- 
tald), a. Havingthready 
or filamentous tail-fea- 


thcrs: speeilieally noting swallows of the genus 
I'l-niiiilii.-t. as I', 'lilij'rni*. Also iriri'-tniliil. 

thread-the-needle] . Si 'c tln-i-mi-im-iiii-. 
thread-waxer (thred ' wak ' scr), . In *iii- 

/iKiniiJ'., n trough containing shoemakers' wax, 
which is kept not by a lamp. II is attached to 
a sewing-machine, ami the thread is caused to 
pass through it. /.'. //. l\niiilil. 

thread-winder (thred'win'der), n. A machine 
for winding thread on s])Ools. 

threadworm (thrcd'werm), 11. A small round- 
worm or nematoid; a hairworm or gordian; 
11 filaria, or Guinea worm; especially, a pin- 
worm; one of the small worms infesting the 
rectum, particularly of children, as Oxyuris 
i-fi-iiiii-iiliiris. These resemble bits of sewing- 
thread less than an inch long. Si-e cuts under 
\niKilniili-ii and Otijurin. 

thready (thred'i),. [< thread + -y 1 .] 1. Ko- 
serahling or consisting of thread in sense 1, 
2, or !). 

I climb with bounding feet the craggy steeps, 
Peak-lifted, gazing down the cloven deeps, 
Where mighty rivers shrink to thready rills. 

K. H. Stoddard, The Castle In the Air. 

2. Containing thread ; covered with thread. 

From hand to hand 
The thready shuttle glides. Dyer, Fleece, ill. 

3. Like thread in length and slenderness; 
finely stringy; filamentous; fibrillar; finely 
fibrous. Thready pulse. Seejnitoi. 

threap, threep (threp), p. [Early mod. E. also 
threpe; <ME. tlircpen, thrxpen, < AS. thredpian, 
reprove, rebuke, afflict.] I. traits. 1. To con- 

Thou wilt not threap me, this whlnyard has gard many 
better men to lope than thou. Greene, James IV., Int. 

2. To aver or affirm with pertinacious repeti- 
tion; continue to assert with contrary obsti- 
nacy, as in reply to persistent denial : as, to 
threap a thing down one's throat. 

Behold how gross a Ly of Ugliness 
They on my face have threaped. 

J. Beaumont, Psyche, v. 227. 

3. To insist on. 

He threappit to see the auld hardened blood-shedder. 
Scott, St. Bonan's Well, xlv. 

4. To cry out; complain; contend; maintain. 

Some crye upon God, some other threpe that he bathe 
forgoten theym. /'/'. Fisher, Sermons. (Latham.) 

5. To call ; term. 

Sol gold is, and Luna silver we threpe. 
Chaucer, lYol. to Canon's Yeoman's Tale, 1. 273. 

II. in trans. 1. To indulge in mutual recrim- 
ination or contradiction; contend; quarrel; 
bandy words; dispute. 

The! thaste hym full thraly, than was ther no threpijng, 
Thus with dole was that dere vn-to dede dight, 
His bak and his body was boln.'cl for betyng, 
Itt was, I sale the for sot h. a sorowfull sight. 

York Plays, p. 430. 

It's not for a man with a woman to threepe. 

Take Thine old Cloak about Thee. 
2. To fight; battle. 

Than thretty dnyes throly the! Utrappit in feld, 
And mony bold in the bekur were on bent leuit ! 

Destruction o/ Troy (E. E. T. S.X 1. 8362. 

[Obsolete orprov. Eng. or Scotch in all uses.] 
threap, threep (threp), w. [< ME. threpe, threp ; 
< Wired/;, r.] It. Contest; attack. 

What ! thinke ye so throly this threpe for to leue? 
Heyue vp your herttes, henttes your arrays ; 
Wackyns vp your willes, as worthy men shuld. 

Destruction of Troy (E. E. T. .), 1. 9850. 

2f. Contradiction. 3. A vehement or pertina- 
cious affirmation ; an obstinate decision or de- 
termination. [Prov. Eng. and Scotch.] 

You would show more patience, and perhaps more pru- 
dence, if you sought not to overwork me by shrewd words 
and sharp threaps of Scripture. 

T.Cromwett, quoted In R. W. Dixon's Hist. Church 
[of Eng. , vii. 

He has taken a threap that he would have it finished be- 
fore the year was done. Carlyle. 

4. A superstitious idea or notion ; a freet. 

They'll . . . hae an auld wife when they're dying to 
rhyme owcr prayers, anil li.-illants, and charms, . . . rather 
than they'll hae a minister to come and pray wi' them 
that 'a an auld threep o' theirs. Scott, (! uy Mannering, xlv. 

To keep one's threap, to stick pertinaciously or obsti- 

nately to one's averments or assertions. Scott, Bride of 

Lamim-rii ..... r, \xvii. 

threasuret, . An obsolete form of 

threat (thret). . [< ME. tliri't, thrrte, thrset, 
tlimt, threat, < AS. tlirriit, a crowd, troop, pres- 
sure, trouble, calamity, threat (= Icel. thrnnt, 
trouble, labor), < tlin-iitun (pret. Ihn-ii/. pp. tlirn- 
tm). urge, afflict, vex, in comp. d-threotan, im- 


pers., vox. = 1). r--ilri<-ti n, vex, = OIK!, "ilrin- 
_-</, in romp, lii-ilrio-tin (MHG. bedriezen), ir- 
ilrin;iiH (Ml i< '* ://<), MHG. ver-drii-., . < i. 
rrr-ilrir.isrn, impers., vex, annoy, = Icel. thrjota, 
inipern., fail, = Dan. forlryilr, vex, repent, = 
doth, tlii-niiini, in iif-tliniitnn (= AS. d-thrco- 
'..), trouble, vex, = L. trudere, push, shove, 
crowd, thrust out, press, urge (> trudu, a pole 
to push with), = OBulg. truzda, vex, plague 
(tritilu, trouble). From the same verb or its 
compounds are the nouns Icel. tlirot, want, M 1 1 ' . 
urdrm, urdriit:e, vexation, rerdruz, G. verdrtws 
(= Dan. fortrsed), vexation, trouble. Hence 
Ihn-nt, v.', threaten. Cf. thrnxti. From the 
L. verb are ult. E. extrude, intrude, protrmli; 
etc., trusion, extrugion, etc.] If. Crowd ; press; 

The thratt was the mare. Laijamnn, \. 9701. 

2f. Vexation; torment. 

Then thrat most* I thole, & vnthonk to mede. 

Alliterative Poem* (ed. Morris), 111 55. 

3. A menace ; a denunciation of ill to befall 
some one ; a declaration of an intention or a 
determination to inflict punishment, loss, or 
pain on another. 

There Is no terror, Cassius, In your threat*. 

Shall., J. C., Iv. 3. W. 

Tls certain that the threat is sometimes more formida- 
ble than the stroke, and 'tis possible that the beholders 
suffer more keenly than the victims. Kmerton, Courage. 

4. In In if. any menace of such a nature and 
extent as to unsettle the mind of the person on 
whom it operates, and to preclude that free 
voluntary action which is necessary to assent. 
= Syn. 3. See menace, t. t. 

threat (thret), r. [< ME. threten, < AS. thredtian, 
press, oppress, repress, correct, threaten (= 
MD. droten, threaten), < thrcdt, pressure: see 
threat, n. Cf. threaten.'] I. trans. 1. To press; 
urge; compel. 

Fele thryuande thonkkeg he thrat horn to haue. 
Sir Gawtyne and the Green Knight (E. E. T. S.X 1. 1980. 

2. To threaten. 

Every day this wal they wolde threte. 

Chaucer, Good Women, 1. 754. 

II. in trans. To use threats ; act or speak men- 
acingly; threaten. 

K. Phi. Look to thyself, thou art in Jeopardy. 
K. John. No more than he that threats. 

Shot., K. John, ill. I. 347. 

Twere wrong with Rome, when Catiline and thou 
Do threat, If Cato feared. B. Jonson, Catiline, III. 1. 

[Obsolete or archaic in all senses.] 
threaten (thret'n),r. [< ME. thretnen; < threat 
+ -fit 1 .] I. intrans. 1. To use threats or men- 
aces; have a menacing aspect. 

An eye like Mars, to threaten and command. 

Shot., Hamlet, iii. 4. 67. 

2. To give indication of menace, or of impend- 
ing danger or mischief; become overcast, as 
the sky. 

I have long waited to answer your kind letter of August 
20th, In hopes of having something satisfactory to write 
to you ; but I have waited In vain, for every day our polit- 
ical horizon blackens and threatens more and more. 

T. A. Mann (Ellls's Lit. Letters, p. 437). 

II. trans. 1. To declare an intention of doing 
mischief to or of bringing evil on ; use threats 
toward ; menace ; terrify, or attempt to terrify, 
by menaces: with with before the evil threat- 

This letter he early bid me give his father, 

And threaten'd me ut'fA death, going In the vault, 

If I departed not and left him there. 

Shale., R. and J., v. 3. 276. 

Threaten your enemies, 
And prove a valiant tongue-man. 

Ford, Lady's Trial, 111. 3. 

2. To charge or enjoin solemnly or with menace. 

Let us straitly threaten them, that they speak henceforth 
to no man In this name. Acts Iv. 17. 

3. To be a menace or source of danger to. 

He threatens many that hath Injured one. B. Jonson. 

4. To give ominous indication of; presage; 
portend: as, the clouds threaten rain or a storm. 

Batteries on batteries guard each fatal pass, 
Threatening destruction. Addison, The Campaign. 

The feeling of the blow of a stick or the sight of a threat- 
ened blow will change the course of action which a dog 
would otherwise have pursued. 

Jfioart, Nature and Thought, p. 210. 

5. To announce or hold out as a penalty or 
punishment: often followed by an infinitive 


My master . . . hath threatened to put me Into ever- 
lasting liberty If I tell. Shale., M. W. of W., ill. 3. 30. 


He |a janizary | threatened to detain us. but at last per- 
mitted us to go on, and we staid that night at a Ian." 
vent near. Pocoeln; lie-triptiun of the East, II. I. 251. 

Threatening torments unendurable, 
If any barm through treai'h- i > l-r< 1) 

William Morris, Earthly Paradise, I. 1.'.:'. 

= 8yn. 4. Menace, Threaten (ee tnenace\ forebode, fore- 

threatener (thret'ner), n. [< tlirmteu + -cri.] 
One who threatens; one who indulges in threats 
or menaces. 

Threaten the threatener, and outface the brow 

of bragging horror. Shall., K. John, v. 1. 40. 

threatening (thret'ning), n. [< ME. threl- 
iniii/i' ; verbal n. of threaten, t'.] The act of 
one who threatens ; a threat ; a menace ; a 

They constrain him not with threatrninys to dissemble 
his mind, and shew countenance contrary to his thought. 
Sir T. Man, Utopia (tr. by Robinson), II. 11. 

threatening (thret'ning), p. a. 1. Indicating or 
containing a threat or menace. 

The threatening alliance between Science and the Revo- 
lution Is not really directed In favor of atheism nor against 
theology. J. R. Seeley, Nat. Religion, p. 41. 

2. Indicating some impending evil; specifi- 
cally, indicating rain or snow. Threatening 
letters, in law: (n) Letters threatening to publish a libel 
with a view to extort money. (6) Letters demanding 
money or other property with menaces, (r) Letters 
threatening to accuse any person of a crime, for the 
purpose of extorting money, (d) Letters threatening 
to kill a person. The precise definition of what facts 
constitute a penal offense In this respect varies much 
with the law in different Jurisdictions. =8yn. 1. Mena- 
cing, minatory. 

threateningly ( thret 'ning-li), adv. With a 
threat or menace ; in a threatening manner. 

threatful (thret'fnl), a. [< threat + -//.] 
Full of threats ; having a menacing appear- 
ance. [Bare.] 

He his thrcatfutl speare 
Gan fewter, and against her fiercely ran. 

Spenser, F. Q., IV. vi. 10. 

threatfully (thret'ful-i), adr. In a threatful 
manner; with many threats. Hood. 
threatingt (thret'ing), ti. [< ME. Hireling, 
threttinij, < AS. thredtuny, verbal n. of thredt- 
ian, threat: see threat, .] Threatening; 

Of al his thretting rekke nat a myte. 

Chaucer, I'rol. to Canon's Yeoman's Tale, 1. 145. 

threatless (thret'les), a. [< threat + -less.] 
Without threats ; not threatening. 

Thrrat-l>'K* their brows, and without braves their voice. 
Sylvester, tr. of I >u Bartas's Weeks, II., The Captaines. 

threave, M. See titrate. 

three (thre), a. and n. [< ME. thre, tlireo, thrie, 
thri, < AS. threo, thrid, thri, thry = OS. thrie, 
thria, threa = OFries. thre, thria, thriu = D. 
drie = MLG. dre, LG. dre = OHG. dri, drie, 
drio, driti, MHG. dri, driu, G. drei = Icel. thrir, 
thrjdr, thrju = Sw. Dan. trc = Goth, "threis, m., 
"thrijos. f., thrija, neut., = W. tri = Ir. Gael, tri 
= L. tres, m. and f., tria, neut. (> It. tre = Sp. 
Pg. tres = OF. treis, trots, F. trots), = Gr. Tpetf, 
m. and f., rp/a, neut., = Lith. trys = OBulg. 
Mye, etc., = Skt. tri, three. As with the other 
fundamental numerals, the root is unknown. 
Hence tAric 2 , thrice, third 1 , and the first element 
in thirteen and thirty."] I. a. Being the sum of 
two and one ; being one more than two : a car- 
dinal numeral. 

And there ben Gees alle rede, thrc sithes more gret than 
onre here : and thei han the Hed, the Necke, and the 
Brest alle blak. Xanderille, Travels, p. 291. 

I offer thee three things. 2 Sam. xxiv. 12. 

Axis of similitude of three circles. See oxui . Ba- 
shaw of three tails. See banhau: Geometry of three 
dimensions, see ijenmrtrii. Law of the three stages, 
in the philosophy of Comte, the assumption that the de- 
velopment of the human mind, in the history of the race 
and of the individual, passes through three stages : the 
theological. In which event* are explained by supernatural 
agencies : the metaphyrical, in which abstract causes are 
substituted for the supernatural ; and the putitirt, in 
which the search for causes is dropped, and the mind 
rests in the observation and classification of phenomena. 
Problem of three bodies, the problem to ascertain 
the movements of three particles attracting one another 
according to the law of gravitation. The problem has been 
only approximately solved in certain special cases. Sine 
of three lines which meet in a point, sine of three 
planes. scemW-'. Songpf the Three Holy Children. 
Bee on(7i. The Three Chapters, (o) An edict issued 
by Justinian, about A. D. 645, condemning the writings of 
Theodore of Mopsuestla, those of Theodoret in defense of 
Nestorius and against Cyril, and the letter of Ibaa to 
Marls. (6) The writings so condemned. The edict was 
intended to reconcile the Monopbysites to the church by 
seeming to imply a partial disapproval of the Council of 
Chalcedon, which had admitted Theodoret and Ihas, after 
giving explanations, to communion. The three Fs, the 
three demands of the Irish Land League namely,/rw sale, 
fiintyot tenure, and fair rent The three L's. Seeil. 


The three R's. Sec It.- The Three Sisters. See sis- 
ter. Three-armed cross, a figure composed of three 
lines parting from a common center, either in the form of 
a Y (see Y-cross), or composed of three hooka as if a figure 
in revolution, or of three arms broken at an angle, and 
bending all in the same direction. See trixkrle. Three- 
card monte. See numte. - Three-cylinder Steam-en- 
gine^^ triple expansion-cylinder steam-engine. See . <t<-tiu<- 
engine. Three-day fever, dengue. Three-em brace, 
in printing, a brace three ems wide. Three estates. 
See estate, . -Three-field system. See field. Three 
hours. SeeAoM/-. Three kings of Cologne. Seefrinj/i. 
Three-line letter, teprSueng, an initial letter which 
is the height of three lines of the face of the type of the 
text in which it is used. Three-mile limit, zone, or 
belt. Sec mile. Three-million bill. See million^. 
Three sheets in the wind. See a sheet in the wind, 
under sheets Three thirdst, three threadst, a mix- 
ture of three malt liquors, formerly in demand, as equal 
parts of ale, beer, and twopenny. Compare entire and 

Ezekiel Driver, of Puddle-dock, carman, having disor- 
der'd his pia nmter with too plentiful a morning's draught 
of three-threads and old Pharaoh, had the misfortune to 
have his cart run over him. 

Tom Brown, Works, II. 280. (Dames.) 

Three times three, three cheers thrice repeated. 

Again the feast, the speech, the glee, . . . 
The crowning cup, the three-times-three. 

Tennyson, In Memoriam, Conclusion. 

Before I sit down I must give you a toast to be drunk 
with three-times-three and all the honours. 

T. Hughes, Tom Brown at Rugby, 1. 6. 

Three treest, the gallows, formed by a transverse beam 

on two uprights. 

For commonly such knaues as these 
Doe end their lyves vpon three trees. 
Breton, Toyes of an Idle Head, p. 28. (Dames.) 

II. n. 1. A number the sum of two and one. 
2. A symbol representing three units, as 3, 
III, or iii. 3. A playing-card bearing three 
spots or pips Inverse rule of three. See inverse. 
Rule of three. Seerafei. 

three-aged (thre'ajd), a. Living during three 
generations. [Bare.] 

Great Atreus' sons, Tydides flxt above, 
With three-aged Nestor. Creech, tr. of Manilius. 

three-awned (thre'and), a. Having three awns. 
Three-awned grass, an American grass, Aristidapur- 

jntrascens; also, A. purpurea, purple three-awned grass. 

The latter is of some consequence as wild feed in the 

West. Also beard-grass. 
three-bearded (thre'ber"ded), a. Having three 

barbels: as, the three-bearded rockling, cod, or 

gade (a fish, Motella vulgaris). 
three-birds (thre'berds), n. A species of toad- 

flax, Linaria triornithophnrti (see toad-flux) ; 

also, Fogonia pendula. See Pogonia. 
three-bodied (thre'bod'id), a. Having three 

bodies. [Bare.] 
I Caia \l:nili:i, daughter to Cains Manlius, doe carie 

with me mine owne present, for I giue my condemned 

soule and life to the infernall three-bodycd Pluto. 

Guevara, Letters (tr. by Hellowes, 1577), p. 336. 

three-COat (thre'kot), a. Having or requiring 
three Coats, (a) In plastering, noting work which 
consists of pricking-up or roughing-in, floating, and a 
finishing coat. (b) In house-painting, noting work when 
three successive layers of paint are required. 

three-cornered (thre'kor"nerd), . 1. Having 
three corners or angles: as, a three-cornered 
hat. 2. In bot., triquetrous. Three-cornered 
constituency, a constituency in which, while three mem- 
bers are returned at one election, each elector can vote 
for only two candidates. This enables a large minority 
to elect one of the three members, the majority electing 
the other two. There were several British constituen- 
cies of this complexion from 1867 to 1885. 

three-decker (thre'dek"er), n. and a. I. n. A 
vessel of war carrying guns on three decks ; 
formerly, a line-pf-battle ship, such ships be- 
ing of that description in the sailing navy and 
the earlier naval classification after the intro- 
duction of steam. 

Before the gentlemen, as they stood at the door, could 
. . . settle the number of three-deckers now in commission, 
their companions were ready to proceed. 

Jane Austen, Mansfield Park, xli. 

II. . Having three decks : as, a three-decker 
ship; hence, having three stories, tiers, or lev- 
els, as a piece of furniture or an old-fashioned 
pulpit. [Colloq.] 

A three-decker sideboard, about 1700. 

S. If". Ogam, Antique Furniture, plate 32. 

three-dimensional (thre'di-men"shon-al), a. 

Same as tridimensifmiil . 
three-farthings (thre'far"THingz), . An Eng- 

lish silver coin of 

the value of three 

farthings (1-J cents), 

issued by Queen 

Elizabeth. On the ob- 

verse were the queen's 

bust and a rose. It was 

Museum. (Size of uorigin 


to be cracked. 


Jly face so thin 

That in my ear I durst not stick a rose. 
Lest men should say, "Look, where three-farthings goes!" 
Shak., K. John, i. 1. 143. 

He values me at a crack'd three-farthings, for aught I 
see. B. Jonson, Every Man in his Humour, ii. 1. 

threefold (thre'fold), a. and n. [< ME. tlirc- 
I'old, tlirrorolrl, llirej'fil<l,< AS. tlirifrnld, thrie- 
't'f-Hld, tlirirfuld, tli reofeald (= OFrics. Hirtfnld = 
MLG. dreralt, drivdlt = OHG. drifatt, MHG. 
drive/It = Icel. threfaldr; also, with added adj. 
termination, = D. drievoudig = OHG. drifalt, 
MHG. drivalt, dnraltec, G. dreifaltig = Sw. tre- 
fuldig = Dan. trefoldig), < threo, three, + -feald, 
E. -fold-.} I. a. Consisting of three in one, 
or one thrice repeated ; multiplied by three ; 
triple : as, threefold justice. 
A threefold cord is not quickly broken. Eccles. iv. 12. 
II. . The bog-bean, Menyanthes trifoliata. 
threefold (thre'fold), adv. In a threefold man- 
ner ; trebly ; thrice : often used in an intensive 
way, with the sense of 'much' or 'greatly.' 
Alas, you three, on me, threefold distress'd, 
Pour all your tears ! Shak., Rich. III., ii. 2. 86. 

Thick and threefold. See thick. 
three-foot (thre'fut), a. [< ME. "threfote, < AS. 
thriefet, thryfet, tlirjjfete, three-foot; as three + 
foot. Cf. tripod.] 1. Measuring three feet: 
as, a three-foot rule. 2. Having three feet; 

When on my three-foot stool I sit. 

Shak., Cymbeline, iii. 3. 89. 

three-footed (thre'fut'ed), a. [< ME.*threfoted, 

< AS. thryfotad, three-footed; as three + foot 
+ -erf 2 .] Having three feet: as, a three-footed 

three-girred (thre'gerd), a. Surrounded with 
three hoops. Burns. [Scotch.] 

three-halfpence (thre'ha'pens), . An Eng- 
lish silver coin of the value of three halfpence 
(3 cents), issued by Queen Elizabeth; also, a 
silver coin of William IV. and Queen Victoria, 
formerly issued for circulation in Ceylon. 

three-handed (thre'han'ded), a. 1. Having 
three hands. 2. Done, played, etc., with three 
hands or by three persons: as, three-handed eu- 
chre. Three-handed boring. See boring. 

threeheadt, [ME. threhed (= G. dreiheit); 

< three + head.] Trinity. 

A God and ane Lord yn threhed, 
And thre persons yn anehede. 

Religious Pieces (E. E. T. 8.), p. 59. 

three-hooped (thre'hdpt), a. Having three 
hoops Three-hooped pot, a quart pot. See Aoopi, 5. 
The three-hooped pot shall have ten hoops ; and I will 
make it felony to drink small beer. 

Shak., 2 Hen. VI., iv. 2. 72. 

three-leaved (thre'levd), a. In hot., having 
three leaves or leaflets, as many species of Tri- 
folium; trifoliate or trifoliolate Three-leaved 
grass, an old book -name for clover. Three-leaved ivy. 
see poison-ivy. Three-leaved nightshade, a plant of 
the genus Trillium. 

three-light (thre'llt), . A chandelier or can- 
delabrum with three lamps for candles. 

threeling (thre'ling), . Same as trilling, 2. 

three-lobed (thre'lobd), a. In hot., zoitl,, and 
mutt., having three lobes; trilobate Three- 
lobed malope. See Malope. 

three-man (thre'man), a. Requiring three men 
for its use ov performance. 
Fillip me with a three-man beetle. 

Shak., 2 Hen. IV., i. 2. 256. 
A three-man songt, a song for three voices. 
Thret-man-song-men all. Shak., W. T., iv. 3. 43. 

three-masted (thre'mas"ted), a. Having three 

three-master (thre'mas"ter), n. A three-mast- 
ed vessel, especially such a schooner. 

three-nerved (thre'nervd), a. In hot., having 
three nerves; triple-nerved. 

threeness(thre'nes), n. [< three + -ness.] The 
character of being three. 

three-out (thre 'out), n. One of three equal 
parts of two glasses, as of gin or ale ; a third 
part of two portions or helpings. [Colloq., 
Great Britain.] 

On one side a little crowd has collected round a couple 
of ladies, who, having imbibed the contents of various 
three-outs of gin and bitters in the course of the morning, 
have at length differed on some point of domestic arrange- 
ment. Dickens, Sketches, Scenes, v. 

threep, '. and . See threap. 

three-parted (thre'par"ted), a. Divided into 
three parts ; tripartite : as, a three-parted leaf. 

threepence (thre'pens, colloq. thrip'ens), n. 1. 
A current English' silver coin of the value of 
three pennies (6 cents), issued by Queen Vic- 

toria. Usually called tiuvepetmy-fiece or thrce- 

)>riiHil. A silver coin of the same denomination was 
ootmd hy Kdwnnl VI. and by subsequent sovereigns till 

Obverse. Reverse. 

Threepence of Elizabeth. British Museum. (Size of the original.) 

1662, from which time till the reign of Victoria the three- 
pence was struck only as maundy money and not for gen- 
eral circulation. 

2. The sum or amount of three pennies. 
What monstrous and most painful circumstance 
Is here, to get some three or four gazettes, 
Some threepence in the whole ! 

B. Jonson, Volpone, ii. 1. 

threepenny (thre'pen'i, eolloq. thrip'en-i), a. 
and n. I. . Worth three pence only; hence, 
of little worth. 
II. n. Same as threepence, 1. 

threepenny-piece, . Same as threepence, 1. 

three-per-cents (thre'per-sents), . pi. Govern- 
ment stocks paying three percent.; specifical- 
ly, "that portion of the consolidated debt of 
Great Britain which originated in 1752 in conse- 
quence of some annuities granted by George I. 
being consolidated in one fund with a three per 
cent, stock formed in 1731" (Kithell, Counting- 
House Dictionary). 

three-pilet (thre'pil), . [< three + pile 4 , 6.] 
Three-piled velvet. 

I have served i'rince Florizel, and in my time wore three- 
pile. Shak., W. T., iv. 3. 14. 

three-piledt (thre'pild), a. [< three + pile*, 6, 
-f- -$.] Having a triple pile or nap, as a cost- 
ly kind of velvet (called three-pile) ; hence, fig- 
uratively, having the qualities of three-pile. 

Three-piled hyperboles, spruce affectation. 

Shak., L. L. L., v. 2. 407. 

three-ply (thre'pli), a. Threefold; consisting 
of three parts or thicknesses. Especially (a) 
Noting thread or cord composed of three yarns or strands. 
(b) Noting textile fabrics consisting of three webs woven 
one into the other : as, a three-ply carpet, (c) In manufac- 
tured articles, consisting of three thicknesses, as of linen 
in a three-ply collar or cutf. 

three-pound piece (thre'pouud pes). An Eng- 
lish gold coin of the value of 3 (about 814.52), 

Three pound Piece. British Museun 

(Size of the original.) 

struck by Charles I. during the civil war A. D. 

1642-1644. Specimens weigh over 421 grains. 

three-quarter, three-quarters (thre'kwar'ter, 

-terz), . Involving anything three fourths of 
its normal size or proportions ; specifically, not- 
ing a size of portraiture measuring 30 inches 
by 25, or a portrait dolincated to the hips only. 


There was Wollaston, a jxirtntit painter, who could only 
cimnimiul five guineas fur a lltrf- 'jiittrtrr* ritnvux. 

./. AsMmi. Social l.ifi- in I:.-|KII "I ijur.-n AIIIH-, II. 1-2. 

Three-quarter binding. s. < iiimiiwi. Three-quar- 
ter fiddle c.r violin. BM Wi/i. 
three-quartered (thrS'kw&r'terd), <i. In /;-.. 

turned so ;ii lo lie nearly all'i-onte. I HI I showing 
:i p.-ni n|' tin 1 flunk: noting an animal used aH u 
three-ribbed (tlnc'riini), . In hot., having 

three rilis: Iricoslate: us, n tlirii-ril>lil\esS. 

threescore (thre'skor), . [_< ilinc + score 1 .] 
Thrice iweniy: sixty: as, threescore years: of- 
ten used wit limit its noun. 

Tttret'Kctrre and ten I can remember well. 

.sVv<., Mm.-li.-tli, II. 4. 1. 
OIK- man has reach't hi- sixty yeera, but he 
Of all thus.- Hiri'i' score has not liv'.i halfe three. 

llerrick. On Himself. 

Tin- brave soldier had already numhered, nearly or quite, 
hi threescore years and ten. 

Hawthorne, .Scarlet Letter, Int, p. 21. 

threesome (thre'sura), a. [< three + -gome.} 
Triple; danced by three persons. [Scotch.] 
There 's threesome reels, there 's foursome reels, 
There 's hornpipes and strathspeys, man. 

Burns, The Exciseman. 

three-square (thre'skwar), a. See square^. 
three-suited (thre ' su * ted), a. Having only 
three suits of clothes, or wearing three suits of 
clothes (referring to a custom, once prevalent 
among the peasantry of Germany, of putting on 
their whole wardrobe on festival occasions, one 
suit over another). [Rare.] 

A knave ; a rascal ; an eater of broken meats ; a base, 
proud, shallow, beggarly, three-suited, hundred-pound, 
filthy, worsted-stocking knave. Shale., Lear, if. 2. 10. 

three-thirdst, . See three thirds, under three. 

three-thorned (thre'thdrnd), a. Having three 
thorns or a triple thorn. Three-thomed acacia, 
the honey-locust, Gleditschifl triacanthtts : so called from 
its savage triple or still more compound thorn. 

three-valved (thre'valvd), a. In bot., having, 
or opening by, three valves. 

three-way (thre'wa), a. Having or governing 
three openings or passages: generally noting 
a special form of pipe-connection, valve, stop- 
cock, etc Three-way place, in ornOA., an extraves- 
tibular chamber of the Inner ear, at the point where the 
three semicircular canals have a cavity In common. Cows, 
Key to N. A. Birds, p. lull. 

threisshfoldt, . A Middle English form of 


thremmatology (threm-a-tol'o-ji), n. [< Or. 
t)/>e/i[ia(T-), a nursling (< Tptyeiv', nourish), + ->.o- 
yia, < Myeiv, speak: see -ology.~\ In biol., the 
science of breeding or propagating animals and 
plants under domestication, of their congenital 
variations under these circumstances, and of 
the perpetuation of such variations. See me- 
thodieal selection, under selection. 

Darwin's introduction of threi.nnalolo<ty into the domain 
of scientific biology was accompanied by a new and special 
development of a branch of study which had previously 
been known as teleology. Eiuyc. Brit., XXIV. 80S. 

threne (thren), . [Early mod. E. also threane; 
< L. Uirenns, < Gr. Bpf/vof, lamentation, < OpclaOat, 
cry aloud.] A threnody; also, lamentation. 
[Obsolete or archaic.] 

The prophet in his Ihrenes weeps that " they which were 
brought up in scarlet embrace dung-hills." 

Rev. T. Adams, Works, II. 198. 
That City's sombre Patroness and Queen, 
In bronze sublimity she gazes forth 
Over her Capital of teen and threw. 

J. Thomson, City of Dreadful Night, xxL 

threnetic (thre-net'ik), n. [< Gr. Bptivr/riKof, 
of or pertaining to wailing, < Opf/vof, wailing, 
lamentation: see threne.'] Same as threnetieal. 

threnetical (thre-net'i-kal), a. [< thrmetic + 
-at.} Sorrowful; mournful. 

Among all threnetienl discourses on record, this last, be- 
tween men overwhelmed and almost annihilated by the 
excess of their sorrow, has probably an unexampled char- 
acter. Carlyle. 

threnode (tlire'no.l), w. [< Gr. 8p>iv<?dia, a la- 
menting: see threnody.] Same as threnody. 

As a ihi-i n"tii\ nothing comparable to it [M. Arnold's 
"Thyrsls") had then appeared since the "Adonais" of 
sh.-ll.-.v. Sttdtnan, Viet Poets, p. 99. 

threnodial (thre-no'di-al), a. [< threnody + 
-ill.] Of or pertaining to a threnody; elegiac. 
Sniitliii/. The Doctor, cxxxiii. 

threnodic (thre-nod'ik), n. [< threno<l-y + -c.] 
Same as !liff ttniiiul. 

threnodist (thrcn'o-.list), n. [< threnod-y + 
-ist.] A writer of threnodies; a composer of 
dirges. Imp. Diet. 

threnody (thren'tMli), ?/.; pi. tlircnotlieit (-diz). 
[Also threnode; i. Gr. OpnitpMa, a lamenting, < 
c/i', 1 '". wailing, lamentation. + Mr'/, a song, ode: 
see threne and orfpl.] A song of lamentation ; 


a dirge; especially, a poem composed for the 
occasion of the funeral of some personage. 

threpet, '' An obsolete form oftlireiiii. 

threpsology (threp-sol'i}-ji), H. [< Gr. 6XV"f, 
a feeding, nourishment (< Tpljetv, nourish), + 
-fayia, < Mytiv, speak: see -ology.] The science 
uliich treats of the nutrition of living organ- 

thresh 1 , thrash 1 (thresh, tin-ash), t>. [IJoth 
fonus are in common use, both being histori- 
cally justifiable, but thresh is more original, 
more in accordan.-i- with analogy (cf. mesh 1 , 
dial, mash, fresh, etc.), and the form prevalent 
in literary use ; thrash is more colloq. and is ac- 
cordingly the form generally used in the colloo,. 
or humorous use 'beat, drub' (see the defini- 
tions); < ME. threshen, thresehen, thregsen (pp. 
throxhen, throschcn), < AS. "threxcan, reg. trans- 
posed thergcnn, thierscan (ONorth. therttea, theer- 
sca, theargca, tharsca) (pret. "thirrsc, pp. *thor- 
scen) = MD. dregchen, dregschen, dersschen, dors- 
gchen, dorgchen, D. dorschen = MLG. droschen, 
LG. drosken = OHG. dreskan, MHG. dresclief, G. 
dregchen = Icel. thregkja = Sw. troska = Dan. 
tferxke=Goth.thriskan, thresh, tread out (corn). 
Hence It. trescare, trample, dance, OF. trexche, 
a circular dance. Cf. Litn. traskcti, rattle, clap, 
make a cracking noise, OBulg. Iriexhtiti, strike, 
= liuss. trcshehiiti, crash: OBulg. triesku = 
Russ. tresku, a crash, OBulg. troska, a clap of 
thunder, a stroke of lightning, etc.] I. trans. 

1. To beat out or separate the grain or seeds 
from, by means of a flail or a threshing-machine, 
or by treading with oxen: in this sense com- 
monly thresh. 

And zuo hit is of the hyeape of huete y-thorsse. The 
comes byeth benethe and thet chef a-boue. 

Ayenbite of Invyt (E. K. T. 8.), p. 18. 
And his son Gideon threshed wheat by the winepress, to 
hide it from the Mldlanitea. Judges vi 11. 

First thrtuh the coni, then after burn the straw. 

Shalt., Tit. And., II. S. 123. 

2. To beat soundly, as with a stick or whip ; 
drub; hence, to beat in any way : in this sense 
commonly thrash. [Now colloq.] 

Full many wounds in his corrupted flesh 
He did engrave ; . . . but ale more fresh 
And tierce he still nppeard, the more he did him thrrth. 
Sptnttr, F. Q., III. vii. S-2. 

I could find a man of a smaller scale 
Could thrash the pedlar and also thee. 
Bold Pedlar and Robin Hood (Child's Ballads, V. 256). 
Do you remember his flght with Ringwood? What an 
infernal bully he was, and how glad we all were when 
Brackley thraihed him ! Thackeray, Philip, xl. 

II. intrans. 1. To practise threshing; beat 
out grain from straw with a flail or a threshing- 
machine: in this sense commonly thresh. 
Some I j in.- 1 sowe and some tyme I threnche. 

Piers Plowman (to), v. 5f>S. 

2. To beat about; labor; drudge; toil. 

I rather would be Mrcvius, thranh for rhymes 
Like his, the scorn and scandal of the times. 

Dryden, tr. of Juvenal's Satires, x. 194. 

3. To throw one's self about; toss to and fro: 
usually with about: iu this sense commonly 

He (a whale) was enveloped in the foam of the sea that 
his continual and violent thraMng almit in the water had 
created around him. The Century, XL. 618. 

thresh 2 , w. See thrash*. 

threshel,thrashel(thresh'l,thrash'l), n. [Also 
thrashle ; < ME. 'threshel, < AS. therncel, thfr- 
seol (= OHG. driscil, MHG. G. drischel), a flail, 
< therscan , thresh : see thresh ' . ] An instrument 
to thresh or thrash with ; a flail. [Prov. Eng.] 

thresher 1 , thrasher 1 (thresh'er, thrash'er), n. 
[< ME. threxchare, < AS. *therscere (= MD. dor- 
Ki'lier = MHG. G. drescher = Sw. torskare = Dan. 
tfersker), < therscan, thresh: see thrcshl.] 1. 
One who threshes: in this and the next sense 
commonly thresher. 2. A threshing-machine. 
The portable and small engines and Utrathers . . . were 
the staple of the Sheaf Works. The Knyinerr, LX.X. 89. 

3. A sea-fox; a kind of shark, Aloptas nlpes, 
so called from the enormous length of the up- 
per division of the heterocercal tail, with which 
it threshes the water. See cut under 

In this sense more commonly tlimxln r. 

About the Islands [Bermudas] are seen many Whale*, at- 
tended with the Sword-Fish and the Thresher. The Sword- 
Fish with his Sharp and needle-like Fin |jaw] pricking him 
into the belly when he would dive and sink int tl 
and, when he starts up from his woundes, the Thresher 
illi bis Club Kins [tail ! beats him down again. 

Xamuel Clarke, Four Chicfest Plantations of the English 
[in America (1878) (I. Bermuda), p. -_T. 

4. A member of an Irish Catholic organization 
instituted in ISOfi. One of the principal objects was 
to resist the payment of tithes. Their threats and warn 


lug* were ilirned "Captain Thresher." In this tense only 

//,,. -I.. . I:,,,, />> 

thresher'^ (thresh'er), w. See OflMfaf*. 

thresher-shark (thresb'er-shark), . Same as 

tliri:ihi />, :!. More eominoiily tlirtixltcr-ghark. 

thresher-whale (tliresh'er-hwal), w. A killer, 
as the common Orca yladiator of the Atlantic. 
More coiiiiiiiiiily thrnsln r-nlnili . 

threshing (llin-sh'ing), w. The operation by 
which grain is separated from the straw. This 
fijMTatlou is performed in various ways, as by the feet of 
animals, by a flail, or by a threshing-machine. The first 
mode was that employed in tin- ages of antiquity, and it 
Is still practised in the south of Europe and In I'enla and 
India. Also thrashing. 

threshing-floor (thresh'ing-flor), n. A floor or 

a n -a nn which grain is beaten out. In Eutcrn 
countries, from the earliest agea, tlu-eshing-floor* were in 
the open air ; but In colder and moiiter climates MI. -I. 
floors must be under cover, as in a bam. Also IhratMnff- 
He winnoweth barley to night in the thntMng floor. 

Ruth ill. I 

Delve of convenient depth your thrashingjtoor ; 
With tempered clay then till and face it o'er. 

Dryden, tr. of Virgil's Ueorglcs, I. 268. 

threshing-machine (thresh'ing-ma-shen'), . 
In agri., a steam-, water-, or horse-power ma- 
chine which in its most complete form beats 
the grain from the ears of cereals, separates the 
grain from the straw, and winnows it from the 
chaff. .Such machine* are sometimes fixture* In barns or 
mills. The more common types are portable, and Include 
straw-carriers or elevators, separators, and wlnnowlng-ap- 
paratus in one machlne.underthegeneral nameof thresher. 


a, feed-board ; b, cylinder ; e, concave or breasting ; d, beater ; r. 
straw-rack :/, rock -lever operating straw-rack : jp, pitman; A. crank ; 
i, f.m ; *, conveyer-sieve I /.shoe-sieve: **, casing for (Train-auger ; 
n, elevator for receiving grain from the auger ana carrying it up to 
the measuring-apparatus : . elevator which carries the tailings to the 
tailing-spout A which delivers them to the feed-board to be again 
passed through the cylinder. 

The first threshing-machines were made by Hohlfleld of 
Saxony (1711), Henzles of Scotland (1732X and Stirling of 
Scotland {176&X None of these appear to have been more 
than experimental. The first practical commercial thresh- 
ing-machine was made by Melkle of Scotland (1786) and 
consisted essentially of two parts, a revolving cylinder 
moving in a breasting, and armed with slats that served 
a* beaters to break the grain from the head, and revolving 
cylinders armed with rakes that shook the straw to loosen 
the grain from the broken head*. The grain fell between 
curved slats or through perforated breasting under the 
cylinders, and the straw and chaff were thrown out at the 
end of the machine. These features are retained, though 
greatly modified, in modern English and American thresh- 
ing-machines. In American machines the revolving beater 
with slats has given place to a cylinder armed with radial 
teeth and moving in a breasting, also armed with teeth, so 
that the ears are subjected to a tearing and rubbing action. 
English machine* still retain thecylinderwith slats. The 
breasting under the cylinder is a screen through which 
the larger part of the grain falls as fast a* It is loosened 
from the heads. A variety of separators, agitators, shak- 
ing screens, and conveyers have taken the place of the 
original cylinder* with rakes used to separate the grain 
from the straw, and winnowlng-machines, straw-elevators, 
conveyers, and screening-apparatus have been added, so 
that now the complete thresher is a complex mill for per- 
forming the whole series of operations from the feeding 
of the grain to the stacking of the straw and the sort- 
ing, weighing, and delivery of the grain, chaff, etc. The 
threshing-machine has been modified so as to adapt ft 
also to clover, flax, and other seed*, see conveyer, elevator, 
and separator. Also thrathiag-maehine, thresher, thrtuher, 

threshing-mill (thresh'ing-mil), n. Same as 
Hi n xli / mi-machine. 

threshing-place (thresh'ing-plas), n. A thresh- 
ing-floor. 2 Sam. xxiv. 16. 

threshold (thresh'old), H. [Early mod. E. also 
tln-1'.thouM; dial, also throshel, tlirexhfod, 8c. 
tlin-xliieitrt, tlirexlnrort; formerly also trestle 
(Florio), by confusion with trettie 1 , var. thres- 
tle, a frame; < ME. 'threshold, threshold, 
thresshewold, threxirotd, threstrotde, threxwold, 
threonrold, thrigirald, therstrald, threshefold, 
thressfold, threisshfold, < AS. *threscold, thers- 
cold, tlirexctrald, tiMTMMsU. theorsacold, thrers- 
irnld, tliridj-inihl. tlii-rsirotd, theresvold, theri- 
im!,l, thirj-old = MLG. dreskelff, LG. driissel = 
OHG. (trixcitfli, drixtjufli, thrisrvfti, driscirili, 
tlirixi-iiliilf. drixi-fiflf, ' trixchiiril, MHG. drischu- 
rel, rlriixi'liMiih/l. tlitrscltiifel, G. dial, iirixelitiuti-1. 
ilrifi-lnhl. ,lrixi-liiirtl. triixrlihiiW, drigsujle = 
Icel. thri'xkjiildr. thrrxkoldr (with numerous vari- 


atious in inflection), mod. tlirogknl(ir(also threps- 
Igoldr, simulating tlirep, a ledge) = Sw. troskel, 
dial. traskuld = Norw. treskald, treskaU, treskjel, 
treskcl = Dan. tserskel, threshold; the variations 
of form indicate that the terminal element was 
not understood; it is prob. therefore a some- 
what disguised form of a suffix, the formation 
being prob. < AS. 'threscan, tlierscan, thresh, 
tread, trample, + -old, corruptly -wold, a trans- 
posed form of an old formative -o-tlilo-, ap- 
pearing also as -thol, -thel; the lit. sense being 
then 'that which is trodden on,' i. e. 'a tread' 
(cf. tread, the part of a step or stair that is 
trodden on), thcrscan, thresh, being taken in 
the sense 'tread, trample' (as in Goth.). In 
the common view the second element -wold is 
supposed to stand for AS. weald, North, wald, 
wood, and the compound to mean 'a piece of 
wood trodden on' ; but AS. weald does not mean 
' wood, timber' (the proper sense being ' a wood, 
a forest' : see wold 1 ), and it would not take the 
form -wold, much less -old, in the AS. period, 
except by corruption (it is possible, however, 
that some thought of weald led to the otherwise 
unexplained alteration of -old to -wold); more- 
over, the element corresponding to weald does 
not appear in the other Teut. forms. A third 
view explains the threshold as orig. "a thresh- 
ing-floor, because in ancient times the floor at 
the entrance was used for threshing" (Cleasby 
and Vigfusson); but the threshing could not 
have been accomplished on the narrow sills 
which form thresholds, and it was only in com- 
paratively few houses that threshing was done 
at all.] 1. The plank, stone, or piece of timber 
which lies at the bottom of a door, or under 
it, particularly the door of a dwelling-house, 
church, temple, or other building; a door-sill; 
hence, entrance; gate; door. 

Ther with the nyghtspel seyde he anon rightes 

On foure halves of the hous aboute, 

And on the thresshfold of the dore withoute. 

Chaucer, Miller's Tale, 1. 296. 
Still at hell's dark threshold to have sat watch. 

Milton, P. L., x. 594. 
Forward leaped she o'er the threshold, 
Eager as a glancing surf. Lowell, The Captive. 

2. Hence, the place or point of entering or be- 
ginning; outset: as, he is now at the threshold 
of his argument. 

The fair new forms 

That float about the threshold of an age, 
Like truths of Science waiting to be caught. 

Tennyson, Golden Year. 

3. In psychol., the limit below which a given 
stimulus, or the difference between two stim- 
uli, ceases to be perceptible. Compare schwelle. 
Dweller on the threshold. See dweller. Stimulus 
threshold. See stimulus. 

threshwoldt, thresshfoldt, n. Middle English 
forms of threshold. 

Threskiornis (thres-ki-6r'nis), n. [NL. (G. R. 
Gray, 1841 or 1842), also, by error, Thereschiornis 
(Brehm, 1855), < Gr. Bpriansia, dpijama, worship, 
< tpqaicefxtv. hold in religious awe, venerate, < 
Bprjanoi;, religious, + opvig, bird.] A genus of 
ibises, or a section of the genus Ibis, based on 
the sacred ibis of Egypt, commonly called Ibis 
religiosa, but named T. lethiopicus by Gray, who 
restricted Ibis itself to certain American forms 
(after Moehriug, 1752). As Moehring is inadmissible 
in binomial nomenclature, most authors use Ibii for this 
genus, of which Threskiornis thus becomes a strict syn- 
onym. The species named is one of the most famous of 
birds, venerated by the ancient Egyptians on theological 
grounds, and in a new light awesome to modern Britons 
as the vahan or vehicle of the British Ornithologists' 
Union. It is white, with bill, head, and upper part of the 
neck black, and a large black train of decomposed fea- 
thers overrides the tail. This bird is the prototype of 
the ibis-headed deities frequently represented in Egyptian 
religious art. 

threstet, . A Middle English form of thrust 1 . 

threstillt, n. An obsolete form of throstle. 

threstle (thres'l), n. [A corruption of trestle 1 , 
appar. simulating three (cf. thribble, for treble, 
triple).] In her., a three-legged stool. Compare 
trestle 1 , 3. 

threstulet, n. An old form of trestle. 

threswoldt, . A Middle English form of thresh- 
old, Chaucer. 

threte. A Middle English form of threat. 

threttenet, a. An obsolete form of thirteen. 

thretty, a. An obsolete or dialectal form of 

threvet, ". A Middle English variant of thrave. 

threw (thro). Preterit of throw 1 . 

threyet, adv. A Middle English form of thrie$. 

thribble (thrib'l), a. [A dial. var. of triple, 
treble, simulating three, thrice.'] Treble ; triple 
threefold. [Prov. Eng.] 


thrice (thris), ode. [< ME. thries, thryes, thrives 
(= MHG. dries), with adv. gen. -es, < thrie, three : 
see time 2 . Cf. once 1 , twice.] 1. Three times. 

And in that same Gardyn Seynt Petre denyed oure Lord 
thryes. Mandeville, Travels, p. 13. 

JVince-blessed they that master so their blood. 

Shak., M. N. D., i. 1. 74. 

Thrice he assay'd, and thrice, in spite of scorn, 
Tears such as angels weep burst forth. 

Milton, P. L., i. 619. 

2. Hence, iii a general sense, repeatedly; em- 
phatically; fully. 

Thrice is he armed that hath his quarrel just. 

Shak., 2 Hen. VI., iii. 2. 233. 

thrice-COCk (thiis'kok), . [A corruption of 
* thrush-cock.] The mistlethrush. [Prov. Eng.] 
thrid 1 ! (thrid), n. [A var. of thread through 
the form tlireed, the long ee being shortened as 
in breeches, threepence, been, etc.] Same as 

And make his bridle a bottom of thrid, 
To roll up how many miles you have rid. 

B. Jonson, Masque of Queens. 

thrid 1 (thrid), v. t. ; pret. and pp. thridded, ppr. 
thridding. Same as thread. [Obsolete or ar- 

Uncle, good uncle, see ! the thin starv'd rascal, 
The eating Roman, see where he thrids the thickets ! 

Fletcher, Bondnca, iv. 2. 

"Glory to God," she sang, and past afar, 
Thridding the sombre boskage of the wood. 

Tennyson, Fair Women. 

thrid 2 (thrid), a. A Middle English or dialectal 
form of third 1 . 

thridace (thrid'as), n. [F., < NL. thridacium, 
q. v.] Same as thridacium. 

thridacium (thri-da'si-um), n. [NL., < L. thri- 
dax (-oc-), < Gr. BpiSal- (-an-), Attic ffpiSaKhr/, let- 
tuce.] The inspissated juice of lettuce, differ- 
ing from lactucarium in being obtained by ex- 
pression instead of incision, and in not being 
concreted. In England it is derived from Lactuca m- 
rosa, wild lettuce, in France from garden lettuce ; the lat- 
ter article is sometimes called French lactucarium. 

thriddet, a. Third. Chaucer. 
thriddent. a. Same as threaden. 
thriddendelet, Same as thirdendeal. 
thrie 1 !, A Middle English form of three. 
thrie 2 t, thryet, adv. [ME., also threye, threowe, 
thrien, < AS. thritca, thrywa, thriga(= OS. thriwo 
thriio = OFries. thria, thrija), three times, < 
thred, thrie, three: see three.] Three times; 

This nyght thrye 
To goode mote it tome of you I mette. 

Chaucer, Troilus, ii. 89. 

Fetter, I saye thee sickerlye, 
Or the cocke have crowen thrye 
Thou shalle forsake my companye. 

Chester Plays, ii. 26. (HalliweU.) 

thriest, adv. A Middle English form of thrice. 

thrifallow (thri'fal-6), v. t. [Also thryfallow, 
trif allow; < ME. thrie, thrye, thrice (see Wine 2 ), 
+ fallow*. Cf . twifallow.] To plow or fallow 
for the third time before sowing. Tusser. 

thrift (thrift), n. [< ME. thrift, < Icel. thrift 
(= Sw. Dan. drift), thrift, < thrifa (refl. thri- 
faslc), thrive : see thrive.] If. The condition 
of one who thrives; luck; fortune; success; 

"Goode thrift have ye," quod Eleyne the queene. 

Chaucer, Troilus, ii. 1687. 
No, let the candied tongue lick absurd pomp, 
And crook the pregnant hinges of the knee 
Where thrift may follow fawning. 

Shak., Hamlet, iii. 2. 67. 

2. Frugality; economical management ; econo- 
my ; good husbandry. 

The rest, . . . willing to fall to thrift, prove very good 
husbands. Spenser, State of Ireland. 

It is one degree of thrift ... to bring our debts into 
as few hands as we can. Donne, Sermons, ix. 

3. [A particular use, with ref. to vigorous 
growth.] A plant of the genus Armeria, of the 
order Plumbagineee, a genus much resembling 
Statice, the marsh-rosemary, except that the 
flowers are gathered into globular heads. The 
common thrift is A. mlgaris (A. maritima), a plant 
abounding on the shores, also in the mountains, of the 
northern Old World, found also on the western coast of 
North America, and appearing again in the southern hem- 
isphere beyond the tropics. It grows in tufts of several 
leafless stalks from a rosette of many narrow radical 
leaves. The flowers are pink or sometimes white, dis- 
posed in dense heads. The plant is often cultivated for 
borders. Old or local names are lady's^unhian, sea-pink, 

the Mediterranean region, is highly recommended 'for 
gardens, but is somewhat tender. 


Their slender household fortunes (for the man 
Had risk'd his little), like the little thrift, 
Tremhled in perilous places o'er a deep. 

Tennyson, Sea Dreams. 

4. Same as thrift-box Lavender thrift, a name 
for species of Statice, especially S. Limonium.fiickly 
thrift, a plant of the genus Acantholimon, of the Plum- 
bagitiex, of which some species, as A. glurnaceum, are 
choice border-plants. TO bid good thriftt, to wish well 
to ; congratulate. Chaucer. Syn. 2. Frugality, etc. See 

thrift-box (thrift'boks), n. A small box for 
keeping savings; a money-box. Also called 
appren tice-box. 

thriftily (thrif ti-li), adv. [< ME. thriftily; < 
thrifty + -/# 2 .] 1. In a thrif ty manner ; fru- 
gally; carefully; with the carefulness and pru- 
dence which characterize good husbandry; 

Hee hurd tell of a towne thriftily walled, 
A citie sett by peece with full siker wardes. 

AKsaunder of Macedoine (E. E. T. S.), 1. 1208. 

2f. Punctiliously; politely. 

A yong clerk romynge by hymself they mette, 
Which that in Latin thriftily hem grette. 

Chaucer, Franklin's Tale, 1. 446. 

thriftiness (thrif 'ti-nes), . [< thrifty + -ness.] 
The character of being thrifty; frugality; good 

Indeed I wonder'd that your wary thriftiness, 
Not wont to drop one penny in a quarter 
Idly, would part with such a sum so easily. 

Tomkis ('/), Albumazar, iii. 1. 

thriftless (thrift'les), . [< thrift + -less.] 1. 
Having no thrift, frugality, or good manage- 
ment ; profuse ; extravagant. 

He shall spend mine honour with his shame, 
As thriftless sons their scraping fathers' gold. 

Shak., Rich. II., v. 3. 69. 

She had a vocation to hold in check his thriftless pro- 
pensities. E. Eggleston, The Graysons, xxiv. 

2f. Producing no gain ; unprofitable. 

What thriftless sighs shall poor Olivia breathe ! 

Shak., T. N., ii. 2. 40. 

thriftlessly (thrift'les-li), adv. [< thriftless + 
-ly 2 .] In a thriftless manner ; extravagantly. 

thriftlessness (thrift'les-nes), . The quality 
or state of being thriftless. 

thrifty (thrif 'ti), a. [< ME. thrifty (= Sw. Dan. 
driftig); < thrift + -y 1 .} 1. Characterized by 
thrift; frugal; sparing; careful; economical; 
saving; using economy and good management. 

Thou dost impudently to make a thrifty purchase of 
boldnesse to thy selfe out of the painfull merits of other 
men. Milton, Church-Government, ii., Int. 

Thrifty housewives and industrious spinsters. 

Irving, Knickerbocker, p. K3. 

2. Thriving; flourishing; successful; prosper- 
ous; fortunate. 

He is as wys, discret, and as secree 
As any man I woot of his degree, 
And therto manly and eek servisable, 
And for to been a thrifty man right able. 

Chaucer, Merchant's Tale, 1. 668. 

The houses were large and comfortable, and the people 
had a thrifty, prosperous, and satisfied air. 

S. Taylor, Northern Travel, p. 44. 
3f. Well-husbanded. 

I have five hundred crowns, 
The thrifty hire I saved under your father. 

Shak., As you Like it, ii. 3. 39. 
Keep them from wronging others, or neglect 
Of duty in themselves ; correct the blood 
With thrifty bits and labour. 

Fletcher, Faithful Shepherdess, v. 5. 

4f. Showing marks of thrif t ; expensive; rich. 
Why is my neighebores wyf so gay? 
She is honoured over al ther she gooth ; 
I sitte at hoom, I have no thrifty clooth. 

Chaucer, Prol. to Wife of Bath's Tale, 1. 238.- 

5f. Useful; profitable. 

Good men, herkeneth everich on, 
This was a thrifty tale for the nones. 

Chaucer, Prol. to Shipman's Tale, 1. 3. 
= Syn. 1. See economy. 

thrill 1 (thril), v. [< ME. thrillen, thryllen, a 
transposed form of thirlen, thyrlen, E. thirl: see 
thirl 1 . Cf. trilll, drill 1 .] I. trans. If. To 
bore; pierce; perforate; drill; thirl. Compare 
thirfl-, 1. 

He cowde his comyng not forbere, 
Though ye him thrilled with a spere. 

Rom. of the Rose, 1. 7634. 

2. To penetrate or permeate with a sudden 
wave of feeling, as of pleasure, pity, remorse, 
etc.; affect or fill with a tingling emotion or 
sensation. Compare thirl 1 , 2. 

A servant that he bred, thritt'd with remorse, 
Opposed against the act. Shak., Lear, iv. 2. 73. 

How calm a moment may precede 
One that shall thrill the world forever! 

A. Dommett, Christmas Hymn. 

His deep voice thrillrd the awe-struck, listening folk. 
William Morris, Earthly Paradise, I. 415. 


3t. To hurl. 

i nil wull-trlde Nymphs like wild Kids cllm'd thosi- hils, 
And thnl:l their urniwlu lavelins after him. 
Ueyicood, Pelopoea and Alope (Works,