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Full text of "The Century dictionary : an encyclopedic lexicon of the English language: prepared under the superintendence of William Dwight Whitney"

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THE CENTURY DICTIONARY 

PREPARED UNDER THE SUPERINTENDENCE OF 

WILLIAM DWIGHT WHITNEY, PH. D., LL. D. 

PROFESSOR OF COMPARATIVE PHILOLOGY AND SANSKRIT IN YALE UNIVERSITY 



THE plan of " The Century Dictionary " in- 
cludes three things : the construction of a 
general dictionary of the English language 
which shall be serviceable for every literary 
and practical use ; a more complete collection 
of the technical terms of the various sciences, 
arts, trades, and professions than has yet been 
attempted ; and the addition to the definitions 
proper of such related encyclopedic matter, 
with pictorial illustrations, as shall constitute 
a convenient book of general reference. 

About 200,000 words will be denned. The 
Dictionary will be a practically complete record 
of all the noteworthy words which have been 
in use since English literature has existed, espe- 
cially of all that wealth of new words and of 
applications of old words which has sprung 
from the development of the thought and life 
of the nineteenth century. It will record not 
merely the written language, but the spoken 
language as well (that is, all important provin- 
cial and colloquial words), and it will include 
(in the one alphabetical order of the Diction- 
ary) abbreviations and such foreign words and 
phrases as have become a familiar part of 
English speech. 

THE ETYMOLOGIES. 

The etymologies have been written anew on 
a uniform plan, and in accordance with the es- 
tablished principles of comparative philology. 
It has been possible in many cases, by means 
of the fresh material at the disposal of the 
etymologist, to clear up doubts or difficulties 
hitherto resting upon the history of particular 
words, to decide definitely in favor of one of 
several suggested etymologies, to discard nu- 
merous current errors, and to give for the first 
time the history of many words of which the 
etymologies were previously unknown or erro- 
neously stated. Beginning with the current 
accepted form of spelling, each important word 
has been traced back through earlier forms to 
its remotest known origin. The various prefixes 
and suffixes useful in the formation of English 
words are treated very fully in separate articles. 

HOMONYMS. 

Words of various origin and meaning but 
of the same spelling, have been distinguished 
by small superior figures (1, 2 , 8 , etc.). In 
numbering these homonyms the rule has been 
to give precedence to the oldest or the most 
familiar, or to that one which is most nearly 
English in origin. The superior numbers ap- 
ply not so much to the individual word as to 
the group or root to which it belongs, hence 
the different grammatical uses of the same 
homonym are numbered alike when they are 
separately entered in the Dictionary. Thus a 
verb and a noun of the same origin and the 
same present spelling receive the same superior 
number. But when two words of the same form 
and of the same radical origin now differ con- 
siderably in meaning, so as to be used as dif- 
ferent words, they are separately numbered. 

THE ORTHOGRAPHY. 

Of the great body of words constituting the 
familiar language the spelling is determined 
by well-established usage, and, however ac- 
cidental and unacceptable, in many cases, it 
may be, it is not the office of a dictionary like 
this to propose improvements, or to adopt those 
which have been proposed and have not yet 
won some degree of acceptance and use. But 
there are also considerable classes as to which 
usage is wavering, more than one form being 
sanctioned by excellent authorities, either in 
this country or Great Britain, or in both. Fa- 



miliar examples are words ending in or or our 
(as labor, labour), in er or re (as center, centre), 
in ize or ise (as civilize, civilise) ; those having a 
single or double consonant after an unaccented 
vowel (as traveler, traveller), or spelled with e or 
with <K or oe (as hemorrhage, luemorrhage) ; and 
so on. In such cases both forms are given, 
with an expressed preference for the briefer 
one or the one more accordant with native 
analogies. 

THE PRONUNCIATION. 

No attempt has been made to record all the 
varieties of popular or even educated utter- 
ance, or to report the determinations made by 
different recognized authorities. It has been 
necessary rather to make a selection of words 
to which alternative pronunciations should be 
accorded, and to give preference among these 
according to the circumstances of each particu- 
lar case, in view of the general analogies and 
tendencies of English utterance. The scheme 
by which the pronunciation is indicated is quite 
simple, avoiding over-refinement in the dis- 
crimination of sounds, and being designed to 
be readily understood and used. (See Key to 
Pronunciation on back cover.) 

DEFINITIONS OF COMMON WORDS. 

In the preparation of the definitions of com- 
mon words, there has been at hand, besides 
the material generally accessible to students 
of the language, a special collection of quota- 
tions selected for this work from English books 
of all kinds and of all periods of the language, 
which is probably much larger than any which 
has hitherto been made for the use of an English 
dictionary, except that accumulated for the 
Philological Society of London. Thousands of 
non-technical words, many of them occurring 
in the classics of the language, and thousands 
of meanings, many of them familiar, which 
have not hitherto been noticed by the diction- 
aries, have in this way been obtained. The 
arrangement of the definitions historically, in 
the order in which the senses denned have en- 
tered the language, has been adopted wher- 
ever possible. 

THE QUOTATIONS. 

These form a very large collection (about 
200,000), representing all periods and 
branches of English literature. The classics 
of the language have been drawn upon, and 
valuable citations have been made from less 
famous authors in all departments of litera- 
ture. American writers especially are repre- 
sented in greater fullness than in any similar 
work. A list of authors and works (and edi- 
tions) cited will be published with the con- 
cluding part of the Dictionary. 

DEFINITIONS OF TECHNICAL TERMS. 
Much space has been devoted to the special 
terms of the various sciences, fine arts, me- 
chanical arts, professions, and trades, and 
much care has been bestowed upon their treat- 
ment. They have been collected by an extended 
search through all branches of literature, with 
the design of providing a very complete and 
many-sided technical dictionary. Many thou- 
sands of words have thus been gathered which 
have never before been recorded in a general 
dictionary, or even in special glossaries. To 
the biological sciences a degree of promi- 
nence has been given corresponding to the re- 
markable recent increase in their vocabulary. 
The new material in the departments of biology 
and zoology includes not less than five thou- 
sand words and senses not recorded even in 
special dictionaries. In the treatment of phy- 
sical and mathematical sciences, of the mechan- 



ical arts and trades, and of the philological 
sciences, an equally broad method has been 
adopted. In the definition of theological and 
ecclesiastical terms, the aim of the Dictionary 
has been to present all the special doctrines of 
the different divisions of the Church in such a 
manner as to convey to the reader the actual 
intent of those who accept them. In denning 
legal terms the design has been to offer all the 
information that is needed by the general 
reader, and also to aid the professional reader 
by giving in a concise form all the important 
technical words and meanings. Special atten- 
tion has also been paid to the definitions of 
the principal terms of painting, etching, en- 
graving, and various other art-processes ; of 
architecture, sculpture, archeeology, decorative 
art, ceramics, etc. ; of musical terms, nautical 
and military terms, etc. 

ENCYCLOPEDIC FEATURES. 

The inclusion of so extensive and varied a 
vocabulary, the introduction of special phrases, 
and the full description of things often found 
essential to an intelligible definition of their 
names, would alone have given to this Diction- 
ary a distinctly encyclopedic character. It has, 
however, been deemed desirable to go some- 
what further in this direction than these con- 
ditions render strictly necessary. 

Accordingly, not only have many technical 
matters been treated with unusual fullness, 
but much practical information of a kind which 
dictionaries have hitherto excluded has been 
added. The result is that "The Century 
Dictionary" covers to a great extent the field 
of the ordinary encyclopedia, with this princi- 
pal difference that the information given is 
for the most part distributed under the indi- 
vidual words and phrases with which it is con- 
nected, instead of being collected under a few 
general topics. Proper names, both biograph- 
ical and geographical,'are of course omitted, ex- 
cept as they appear in derivative adjectives, as 
Darwinian from Darwin, or Indian from India. 
The alphabetical distribution of the encyclo- 
pedic matter under a large number of words 
will, it is believed, be found to be particularly 
helpful in the search for those details which 
are generally looked for in works of reference. 

ILLUSTRATIONS. 

The pictorial illustrations have been so se- 
lected and executed as to be subordinate to the 
text, while possessing a considerable degree of 
independent suggestiveness and artistic value. 
To secure technical accuracy, the illustrations 
have, as a rule, been selected by the specialists 
in charge of the various departments, and have 
in all cases been examined by them in proofs. 
The cuts number about six thousand. 

MODE OF ISSUE, PRICE, ETC. 

" The Century Dictionary" will be comprised 
in about 6,500 quarto pages. It is published 
by subscription and in twenty-four parts or 
sections, to be finally bound into six quarto vol- 
umes, if desired by the subscriber. These sec- 
tions will be issued about once a month. The 
price of the sections is $2.50 each, and no 
subscriptions are taken except for the entire 
work. 

The plan of the Dictionary is more fully de- 
scribed in the preface (of which the above is in 
part a condensation), which accompanies the 
first section, and to which reference is made. 

A list of the abbreviations used in the ety- 
mologies and definitions, and keys to'pronuu- 
ciations and to signs used in the etymologies, 
will be found on the back cover-lining. 



THE CENTURY CO., 33 EAST 17 ST., NEW YORK. 



bice 

formerly dusky, dnrk (cf. OF. n:ur Ms, dark 
blue, m-< bin, dark f;r<-i>u, F. fci'.v lilmn; wliily 
brown), =Pr. W= l(. f/r/i<i, grayish, prob. = Pg. 
fc.ri, brown, dusky; cf. Ml.. " bit.viHx, fcalu," 
i. e.. fallow, in an AS. glossary. Tlio sunn- 
word (F. Itise = I'r. bixn = It. dial. bixn = Bret. 
Ai^ = Swiss lii.if, hiini-) was applied to the. 
north or northeast wind, from the accompany- 
ing darkness, like L. ntjiiib>, < ut/uUus, dark, 
dusky: sec hisr. The origin of the word is 
uncertain. J A name given to two colors used 
iu painting, one blue, the other green, both 
native carbonates of copper. Inferior kinds f 
till-in arc iilsn prepared UtlflcUUy. Thi' former is often 
r:illr.l iii.Hmtain-bliie, tho laitrr inouiituiii-greeii, mala- 
chite-green, etc. Al*o r.illol l>ia<lettu. 

lir.iuiul sm:ilt-<, blue verditer, anil other pigments have 
parted under the name of bin,: ; which has thcrcfinv ii 
come a very equivocal pigment, and its name nearly obso- 
lete : nor is It at present to be found in the shops, although 
niilrh t-oiiiuieiiileil by old u ritris oil the art. 
Field's (Jfinniiiar o/(Voi<n'ii>/ (Davidson's ed., 1877), p. 61). 

Bicellaria (bi-se-la'ri-ii), . [NL., < L. bi-, 
two-, + cella, cell, + -aria.] A genus of chilo- 
stomatous gymnolieraatous polyzoans, typical 
of the family lih-i Unriiiln-. 

BicellariidSB (bl"sel-a-ri'i-de), n. pi. [NL., < 
liii-i'l/firiii + -Ida:.] A family of ChHostomnta. 

bicellular (bi-sel'u-lar), . [< W-2 + cellular.] 
Having two cells ; consisting of two cells. 

Bicelluli (bl-sel'u-li), n. i>l. [NL., < L. bi-, two-, 
+ NL. cellula, dim. of L. cella, cell.] A group 
of heteropterous hemipterous insects contain- 
ing bugs of the division Geoeorisa or Auro- 
corisa, which have two basal cells of the mem- 
branous hemielytra. [Not in use.] 

bicensal (bi-sen sal), a. [< bi- 2 + census + -al.] 
In ijcom., consisting of two ovals, real or imagi- 
nary, finite or infinite. 

bicentenary (bi-sen'te-na-ri), a. and . [< it- 2 
+ centenary.] I. a. Relating to or consisting 
of two hundred, especially two hundred years ; 
bicentennial: as, a bicentenary celebration. 

II. n. 1. That which consists of or compre- 
hends two hundred (commonly the space of 
two hundred years). 2. A two hundredth an- 
niversary. 

Part of the enthusiasm of a bi-centenary. 

The American, VI. 23. 

bicentennial (bi-sen-ten'i-al), a. and n. [< bi-'* 
+ centennial.'] I. a. 1. Consisting of or last- 
ing two hundred years: as, a bicentennial pe- 
riod. 2. Occurring every two hundred years. 
II. n. The two hundredth anniversary of 
an event ; a bicentenary. 

bicephalic (bi-se-fal'ik or bi-sef'a-lik), a. [< 
L. bi-, two-, + Gr. Keipa^r/, head: see cephalic.] 
Having two heads ; bicephalous ; specifically, 
ornamented with two heads or busts, as an 
engraved gem or the like. Jour. Archieol., 
XXIX. 311. 

bicephalous (bi-sef'a-lus), a. [As bicephalic 
+ -OK*.] Having two heads. 

biceps (bi'seps), a. and M. [< L. bicei>s (bicipit-), 
< bi-, two-, -f caput, head.] I. a. Two-headed, 
or having two distinct origins : specifically, in 
limit., applied to certain muscles. 

II. n. 1. In anat., a muscle havingtwo heads 
or origins; specifically, the biceps brachii. 2. 
Figuratively, strength or muscular develop- 
ment. 3. Muscular strength of the arm; 
ability to use the arm effectively : from such 
strength or ability depending on the devel- 
opment of the biceps muscle. Biceps brachii, 
or bleeps humeii, the two-headed muscle of the arm, 
arising I'.v its loiii: head from the glcnoid fossa, and by its 
short head from the coracoid process of the scapula, and 
inserted into the tuberosity of the radius. It is a strong 
flexor and supinator of the forearm, and a guide to the 
lirachlal artery in surgieal operations upon that vessel. 
See ellt under iiuurl'-. - Biceps fellioris, the two-headed 
muscle of the thigh, arising by its long head from the tube- 
rosity of the ischium, und by its short head from the shaft 
of the femur, and inserted into the head of the fibula, its 
tendon forming the outer hamstring. Its action is to flex 
the leg upon the thigh. 

bicessis (bl-ses'is), . [L., < bic-, a reduced 
form of viyinti, = E. twenty, + as (ass-), an as, a 
unit : see as*.} In Rom . metrology, twenty asses. 

bichet, . [< F. bichc, OF. also bisse = Wal- 
loon ink = mod. Pr. bicho = It. dial, becia, a 
laud or roe ; of uncertain origin.] A kind of 
fur ; the skin of the female deer. 

bichir (bich'r), w. [Native name.] A re- 
markable living ganoid fish, I'dli/jitcriis bichir. 
of the family Puluptcriiltc and order Croxxo- 
/it< n/</ii. inhabiting the Nile and other African 
rivers, attaining a length of 18 inches, and 
esteemed as food. See 1'olypterus. 

In the system of fuvier, the bichir was placed among 
the bony tlshes, in the vicinity of the herrings. One of 

35 



545 

the most Interesting features In connection with the flsh 
Is that, in the ymmir, e\tiTii;d yills nre pn-s* nt 
other s|M-<-ii-*, r. srne^;drnsi* jind f. eixllii herl, are 
known. All live In the deeper pools, and apparently 
hury tliriiiM-lvr* in the slime and oo/e on th-- bottom, 
where tin-} feed "II Hi-hex and utlliT ilc|liatie animals. 

,s'M,i./. \dt. Ilitt., III. 98. 

bichlorid, bichloride (bi-klo'rid, -rid or -rid), H. 
A compound in which two equivalents of chlo- 
rine are combined with a base: as, a bichlmiil 
of meri-ury. 

bicho-da-mar (be'cho-dii-mar'), n. [Pg., lit. 
worm of the sea, sea-slug.] Same as beche- 
<li -IHI-I-. 

bichord (bi'kord), a. and n. [< bi-% + chord.} 
I. n. Having two chords. 

II. w. In music, a general name for an in- 
strument having two strings tuned in unison 
for each note, as the mandolin and several 
other instruments of the lute or guitar class. 

bichromate (bi-kro'mat), n. [< W- 2 + chro- 
mate.] A compound containing twice as much 
chromic acid, combined with the same amount 
of base, as the normal chromate contains. 
Bichromate m- blchromlc battery. See ceH, a 

bichromate (bi-kro'mat), . t. ; pret. and pp. 
bichmmntcil, ppr. bichromating. [< bichromate, 
n.] Same as bichromatize. 

The gelatine mass may be bichromated after it is set by 
soaking It in a solution of bichromate of potassium or 
ammonium. Sci. Ainer. (N. S.), LVI. 161. 

bichromatic (bi-kro-mat'ik), a. [< bi-2 + 
chromatic.] Same as dichromatic. 

bichrqmatize (bi-kro'ma-tiz), . t. ; pret. and 
pp. bichromatized, ppr. "biehromatizing. [< bi- 
chromate, n., + -MM To treat with a bichro- 
mate, especially bichromate of potassium. 
Also bichromate. 

The film of a liithniiiMtiml gelatine, used as a photo- 
graphic negative. Ure, Diet., II. -299. 

bichromic (bi-kro'mik), . [< bichrom(ate) + 
-ic.] Pertaining to or using a bichromate. 

In the construction of the induction balance a bickro- 
mil- battery is used. Science, IX. 190. 

bichy (bich'i), n. [Appar. a native name.] A 
name sometimes given to the Cola acvminata, 
a tree of the natural order Sterculiacea: See 
cola-nut. 

biciliate (bi-sil'i-at), a. [< bi-* + citiate.'] Hav- 
ing two cilia. 

The tilciliale swarmspores that escaped were observed 
for some hours under the microscope. 

Tram. Roy. Soc. of Edinburgh, XXXII. 597. 

bicipital (bi-sip'i-tal), a. [< L. biceps (bicipit-), 
two-headed (see b"iceps), + -al.~\ 1. Having 
two heads; two-headed. [Rare.] 2. In anat. : 
(a) Having two heads or origins, as a muscle. 
See biceps, (b) Pertaining to the biceps mus- 
cles. 3. In bot., dividing into two parts at the 
top or bottom. 

Also bicipitous. 

Bicipital fascia, an expansion of the tendon of the bi- 
ceps urachii into the deep fascia of the forearm. Bicipi- 
tal groove, a furrow along the upper part of the humerus, 
in which the tendon of the long head of the biceps muscle 
lies. See cut under humenu. Bicipital ridges, the lips 
of the bicipital groove. 

bicipitosus (bi-sip-i-to'sus), . ; pi. bicipitosi 
(-si). [NL., < L. biceps (bicipit-), two-headed : 
see biceps.] The bicipital muscle of the thigh ; 
the biceps femoris. 

bicipitous (bi-sip'i-tus), a. Same as bicipital. 
IHciiiitoiii serpents. Sir T. Browne, Vulg. Err., ill. IS. 

bicircloid (bi-ser'kloid), n. [< 6i-2 + circle + 
-o(rf.] A curve generated by the uniform mo- 
tion of a point around the circumference of a 
circle the center of which itself uniformly de- 
scribes a circle. 

bicircular (bi-ser'ku-lar), a. [< W-2 + circu- 
lar.] Composed of of similar to two circles. 
Bicircular oval, a real branch of a bicircular quartic. 
Bicircular quartic, a quartic curve which passes twice 
through each or the circular points at infinity, having thus 




Fig. i. 

Bicircular Quartic. 

Curve of firat genus, first division ; two real ovals with focal circle 
and central hyperbola. 

an essential analytical similarity to a pair of circles, which 
it also somewhat rt'st-mblcs to the t\vt'. Fur the purpose 
of trucing it, it may be defined as the envelop of all the 
circles having their centers on a fixed ellipse or hyper- 




Fig. 2. 

First genus, second 
division ; one real 
ovaL 




Fig. 3. 
Second genus, no- 
dal curve. 




Fig. 4- 

d eent 
dalci 



bickerer 

hols, and rutting a fixed circle i>rihK<uially. This < ircle In 
called the/wa^ rin-i,\ IMTHIIA.- r m with the 

fixed conic aru fm-i <>( tin- quartSc. 

The latter has, lieeiilcH, two double 

f'H-l, which are the foci "f the i-nnie. 
Tin- i>erpen<li< nl:us from t!,,- imt- i 
of the f'tcal i ircle to the as>nijit"t' s 
of the conn- ,ue Ktanui-nt.-, "I th'- 
quartic. (Sec ni;. 1.) The Intenec- 
tloiu of the fi>cal circle Kith th-- 
quartic are cyclic yuiiilt <fi Oie lat- 
t*r. There are three Renera ( foj. 
circular iiuartles. 'Hie flrat embraces 
all the hicuraal fonna, and these are 
curves of the eighth clan. For these then 
focal circles and two Imaginary ones. The two real conies 
of centers are an ellipse and a confoeal hyperbola. There 
are four real foci and four real cyclic points. This genm 
has two divisions. In the first, the four real foci are con. 
cyclic, and the real curve consists uf two ovals, one of which 
lies without or within the other, accord- 
ing as the four real foci are on a central 
ellipse or hyperbola. Fig. 1 shows the 
latter case, and fig. 3, modified so as to 
make the upper part like the lower, 
would show the former. Bfcircular 
quartics of this division have the prop- 
erty that three points can be taken so 
that the distances rj, r 2 , r-i, of any iwint 
of the curve therefrom shall be express- 
able by an equation ar\ + frrg + cry 0. 
The second division of the first genus embraces curves 
whose four real foci lie In two pairs or two focal circles. 
These real curves consist of single ovals, as In fig. 2. The 
second genua comprises unlcursat curves with one node 
(besides those at the circular points). 
They are of the sixth class. There is 
one real and one Imaginary focal circle. 
The node may be a crunode with an 
outloop (shown by slightly modifying 
fig. 2 in the upper part) or with an In- 
loop, as in fig. 3 ; or it may be an ac- 
node without or within the oval. The 
third genus contains curves with an 
ordinary cusp. These are of the fourth 
class. There is but one focal circle and 
but one focus. The cusp may point out- 
ward, as in fig. 4, or Inward, as in a modification of fig. 3. 
bicker 1 (bik'er), r. [Early mod. E. also becker, 
< ME. bicheren, bikkeren, bekeren, bikeren, appar. 
a freq. in -er; origin unknown. The W. bicra, 
fight, is appar. from the E.] I. in trans. If. 
To exchange blows ; skirmish ; fight off and on : 
said particularly of the skirmishing of archers 
and slingers. 
Two eagles had a conflict and Indurcd together. 

Holland, tr. of Suetonius, p. 243. 

2. To quarrel; contend in words; engage in 
petulant altercation ; wrangle. 
Those petty things about which men cark and bicker. 

Barroic. 
Tho' men may bicker with the things they love. 

Tennynon, Geraint. 

Hence 3. To make a brawling sound ; make 
any repeated noisy action ; clatter. 
Meantime unnumber'd glittering streamlets played, . . . 
That, as they bickered through the sunny shade, 
Though restless, still themselves a lulling murmur made. 
Thonuon, Castle of Indolence, ill. 26. 

4. To run rapidly; move quickly ; quiver; be 
tremulous, like flame or water. 

I make a sudden sally 
And sparkle out among the fern, 
To bicker down a valley. 

Trnnyiton, The Brook. 

There is a keen relish of contrast about the bickering 
flame as it gives an emphasis beyond Gherardo della Notte 
to loved faces. Luirelt, Study Windows, p. 38. 

6. To make a short rapid run. [Middle Eng. 
and Scotch.] 

II. trans. To strike repeatedly. 
bicker 1 (bik'er), H. [< ME. biker, beker: see 
bicker 1 , v.] 1. A fight, especially a confused 
fight. 
Bickera were held on the Calton Hill. Campbell. 

2. A quarrel ; an angry dispute ; an alterca- 
tion. 

If thou say nay, we two shal make a In/cter. 

Chaucer, Good Women, 1. 2680. 

3. A confused or rapid succession of sounds ; 
a rattling or clattering noise. 

A bicker of musketry-fire rattled down in the valley, in- 
termingled with the wild yells and defiances of the bill- 
men, who were making a chapao or night attack on the 
camp. Arch, t'orbcx, Souvenirs of some Continents, p. 194. 

4. A short rapid run or race ; a staggering run, 
as from loss of equilibrium. [Middle Eng. and 
Scotch.] 

Leeward whiles, against my will, 
I took a bicker. 

Burnt, Death and Dr. Hornbook. 

bicker 3 (bik'er), . [Var. of beaker, q. v.] A 
bowl or dish for containing liquor, properly one 
made of wood; a drinking-cup; also, specifi- 
cally, in many parts of Scotland, a wooden dish 
made of staves and hoops, like a tub, for hold- 
ing food. [Prov. Eug. and Scotch.] 

bickerer (bik'er-er), H. One who bickers, 
engages in petty quarrels. 



or 




bickering 546 

bickering (bik'er-ing), n. [< ME. bikcring, bicornous (bi-k6r'nus), a. [< bicorn + -ous.] 
verbal n. of bikcren : see bicker 1 , .] If. Askir- Having two horns or antlers ; crescent-shaped; 
mish. especially, in anat., having two prolongations 

Then was the war shivered, as it were, into small frays likened to horns. 

and bickerings. Hilton, Hist. Eng. (ed. 1851), ii. 55. j. ne ] e tt er y ; O r bicornons clement of Pythagoras. 

2. Petulant contention; altercation. Sir T. Browne, Vulg. Err., v. 19. 

There remained bickerings, not always carried on with bicornuate 
the best taste or with the best temper, between the man- 
agers of the impeachment and the counsel for the defence. 
Macaulay, Warren Hastings. 



bid 



as the stamens of a flower Bicyclic chuck. See 

chuck*. 

C 2 (bi-sik'lik), a. [< bicycle + -ic.] Ee- 






.~,~~_B v f ,, . . --Jyele + -ing.] 

The art or practice of riding on a bicycle. 



bickermentt (bik'er-ment),,, 
-ment.] Contention; conflict Spenser. 

bickern (bik'ern), . [Also by popular etym. 
fcicWioni, and WeWron, beak-iron,^ v., also rofc- 
iron; prop, Mcorn, early mod. E. bi/ckorne, by- 
come, < F. ftfaon*. a bickern (cf OF. bfoorag < 
ML. bicorna, bicornus, atwo-handled cup), = Sp. 
Pg. bigornia = It. Wcoritfa, a bickern < L. fc- 
cornia, neut.pl. of btcorms, two-horned: see 6- 
corn.] 1. An anvil with two projecting, taper- 





point.] 

cusps. Specifically applied (a) In geom., to a curve 
having two cusps, (b) In human anat., (1) to the premo- 
lar teeth or false molars, of which there are two on each 
side above and below, replacing the milk-molars ; (2) to the 
mitral valve guarding the left auriculoventricular orifice 
of the heart, the corresponding right orifice being guarded 
by the tricuspid valve, (c) In entom. , to a claw or mandible 



,__,, _. [< bi- 2 + cornnte. 

Cf. bicorn.] Two-h'orned; bicornous; specifi- 
cally, in bot., having two horn -like processes, 
as the fruit of Trapa bicornis. 
licorporal (bi-kor'po-ral), a. [< L. bicorpor, 
later bicorporcus, double-bodied, < bi-, two-, + 
corpus (corpor-), body.] In her., same as bicor- 
porate. Bicorporal Sign, in astral., a zodiacal sign 
whose figure represents two animals, namely, Pisces, Gem- 

_ j _. . .___ , , ini, or Sagittarius. 

ing ends; hence, one such end ; a beak-iron. bicorporate (bi-kor'po-rat), a. 

2. Medieval milit., a name for the martel-de- [< bi- 2 + corporate, a.] In her., 
f er, in allusion to its double head, of which one having two bodies : said of a 
side was made pointed and the other blunt ; beast or bird used as a bearing, 
any similar double-headed weapon or tool. Bicosceca (bi-ko-se'ka), n. [NL., 

3. Any iron implement ending in a beak : as irreg. < Gr. /Jococ, a wine-jar, a 
if a contracted form of beak-iron (which see). bowl, + okof, a house.] Same 

Also beckern. as Bicceca. 

bickiron (bik'I"ern), n. Same as bickern, beak- bicrenate (bi-kre'nat), a. [< bi- 2 
iron. + crenate.'] In bot., doubly crenate: applied to 

biclavate (bi-kla' vat), a. [< bi- 2 + clavate.] crenate leaves when the crenatures are them- 
Doubly clavate ; consisting of two club-shaped selves crenate. 
bodies. bicrescentic (bi-kre-sen'tik), a. [< bi- 2 + 

Bicoeca (bi-se'ka), n. [NL., < Gr. /3/fcof, a drink- crcscentie.'] Having the form of a double cres- 
ing-bowl (see beaker), -fokof, house.] A genus cent. 

of infusorians, typical of the family Bicaecida!. bicrural (bi-kro'ral), a. [< bi- 2 + crural.] 
Previously written Bicosceca. Having two legs, or two elongations resem- 

Biccecidae (bi-se'si-de), n. pi. [NL., < Bicceca bling legs. 

+ -idee.] A family of sedentary animalcules, bicuspid (bi-kus'pid), a. and n. [< NL. bicus- 
They are ovate or pyriform in shape, with a usually more pig l.pid-), < L. bi-, two-, + cuspis (cuspid-), a 
or less projecting anterior lip-like prominence, are soli- ~_i_i -i T TJT : * ~: ~ 
tary or assdciated in colonies, and secrete separate horny 
sheaths or loricse, which are mostly stalked. They have 
two terminal flagella, one long and one short, transparent 
parenchyma, no distinct oral aperture, and the endoplast 
and one or more contractile vesicles usually conspicuous. 
Reproduction results from transverse subdivision and by 
the separation of the body into a mass of sporular ele- 
ments. They inhabit both fresh and salt water. 

bicollateral (bi-kp-lat'e-ral), a. [< bi- 2 + col- 
lateral.] In bot., having the two sides alike: 
applied to a fibrovascular bundle in which the 
woody portion lies between two layers of li- 
ber, or vice versa. 

In Cucurbita, Solanum, and others the bundles are bi- 
collateral. Encyc. Brit., XII. 18. 

bicolligate (bi-kol'i-gat), a. [< L. bi-, two-, + col- 
ligatus, bound togeth- 
er: see bi- 2 and colli- 
gate, v.] In ornith., 
palmate, but not toti- 
palmate; having the 
three front toes unit- 
ed by two webs. 

bicolor (bi'kul-or), a. 
[< L. bicolor, of two 

colors, < bi-, two-, + color, color.] Same as bi- 
colored. 

bicolored (bl'kul-ord), a. [< bi- 2 + colored. 
Cf. L. bicolor, of two colors.] Of two colors, as 
a flower. 

bicolorous (bi-kul'o-rus), a. Same as bicolored. 

biconcave (bi-kon'kav), a. [< bi- 2 + concave.] 
Hollow or concave on both sides ; doubly con- 
cave, as a lens. See lens. 

biconic, biconical (bi-kon'ik, -i-kal), a. [< bi- 2 
+ conic, conical.] Doubly conical; resembling 
two cones placed base to base. 

[The] eggs of the Grebes, . . . which also have both 
ends nearly alike but pointed, are so wide in the middle 
as to present a biconical appearance. 

Encyc. Brit., III. 775. 

biconjugate (bi-kon'jo-gat), a. [< bi- 2 + con- 
jugate.] 1. In pairs; placed side by side. 
2. In bot., twice paired, as when each of the 
divisions of a forked petiole bears a pair of 
leaflets. 

biconsonantal (bi-kon-so-nan'tal), a. Com- 
posed of or containing two consonants. 

biconvex (bi-kon'veks), a. [< bi- 2 + convex."] 
Convex on both sides; doubly convex, as a 
lens. See lens. 

Of the various forms of lenses we need only consider 
the bi-convex and bi-concave. Lommel, Light, p. 89. 

bicoquett, n. Same as bycocket. Fairholt. 
bicorn (bi'kdrn), a. [< L. bicornis, two-horned, 

< bi-, two-, + cornu = E. horn. Cf. bickern.] 

Having two horns ; bicornous. 



rides on a bicycle. 
A troop of 
and . . . file 

bid (bid), . ; pret. bade, bad, or bid, pp. bidden 
or bid, ppr. bidding. [Under this form two 
verbs, orig. distinct in form and sense, have 
been confounded from the 12th century or ear- 
lier: (1) Bid 1 , ask, pray, < ME. bidden (pret. 
bad, pi. beden, baden, pp. beden, biden), ask, 
pray, invite, wish, and also (by confusion with 
bid 2 ) command, < AS. biddan (pret. bad, pi. 
bcedon, pp. beden), ask, pray, invite, in some 
cases equiv. to command, = OS. biddian = 
OFries. bidda = D. bidden = OHG. bittan, MHG. 
G. bitten = Icel. bidhja = Sw. bedja = Dan. becle 
Goth, bidjan (pret. bath, pi. bedum, pp. bi- 
dans) (cf . Goth, bidagwa, a beggar, and AS. becle- 
cian, beg: see beg 1 ), perhaps = Gr. -\/ *m6 (orig. 
*0!0) in ireideiv, iriSelv, persuade, move by en- 
treaty, mid.- wei6sc8cu, mOccBai, be persuaded, 
obey, trust, = ii.fidere, trust. Hence, from the 
AS., E. bead; from the L., E. faith, fidelity, 
affy, affidavit, confide, confident, infidel, perfidy, 
etc. (2) Bid 2 , command, order, direct, pro- 
pose, offer, etc., < ME. beclen, beoden (which 
would regularly give E. *beed or "bead), com- 
mand, order, offer, announce, also invite (pret. 
bead, bed, bead, pi. beden, boden, pp. boden), 
< AS. beddan (pret. bead, pi. budon, pp. boden), 

u. vv-, KV-, vw^/n, V vw/^.v H - / , command, order, offer, announce, threaten, 
a. Having two points, fangs, or etc., = OS. biodan = OFries. biada = D. bieden 

= OHG. biotan, MHG. G. bieten = Icel. bjodha 
= Sw. bjuda = Dan. byde = Goth, biudan (pret. 
bauth, pi. budmn, pp. budans; only in comp., 
anabiudan, command, faurbiudan = E. forbid), 
command, offer, announce, etc., = Gr. -\/ *Kvi) 
(orig. *0w), in mivBdveadcu, irvKadai, learn by 



i-';; --TV ^. ore. <, miv, , 

^forceps deniistfTor^wifh asking/ask,' = Skt. V &<& (orig. "M 
ing bicuspid teeth. awake, understand (see Buddha) ; cf . 




Bicolligate. Foot of Duck. 



having two pointed proce, 
bicuapidate. Bicuspid " 
curved beaks for extract! 

II. n. One of the premolars or false molars 
in man, of which there are in the adult two on 
each side, above and below, between the canines 
and the true molars. They are the teeth which suc- 
ceed and replace the milk-molars of the child. Also bi- 
cuspis. 

bicuspidal (bi-kus'pi-dal), a. Same as bicus- 
pid : the usual form of the word in geometry. 

bicuspidate (bi-kus'pi-dat), a. [< bi- 2 + cus- 
pidate. Cf. bicuspid.] Same as bicuspid. 

bicuspis (bi-kus'pis),. ; pi. bieuspides (-pi-dez). 
[NL. : see bicuspid.] Same as bicuspid. 

bicycle (bi'si-kl), n. [< L. bi-, two-, + cyclus, < 
Gr. KtJ/cAof, a circle, a wheel: see cycle.] A 
modification of the two-wheeled velocipede, 




Bicycle. 

consisting originally in a great increase in the 
relative size of the driving-wheel, by means of 
which the body of the rider is brought more 
nearly over the center of this wheel, and the 
action of the feet in moving the treadles be- 
comes more nearly that of walking. In some bi- 
cycles the positions of the wheels in the velocipede are 
reversed, the smaller preceding the larger, and steering 
it ; there are also other forms. Bicycles are provided with 
brakes, signal-bells, ete., and attain great speed. 
bicycle (bi'si-kl), v. i. ; pret. and pp. bicycled, 
ppr. bicycling. [< bicycle, n.] To ride on a bi- 
cycle. 

1 (bl-sik'lik), a. _ [< L. bi-, two-, + cy- 



'mo , kijuvuiuuo. uiv/yuilv* ^<JI-BIJ^ iiJV, ** L N LJt ut ~j ijwu-, T^ uy- 

bicorned (bl'kdrnd), a. [< bicorn + -ed 2 .] Bi- clus (see cycle) + -ic.] Consisting of or having 



coraute. 



be 

OBulg. 

budeti,loe awake. From AS. beddan come boda, 
E. bode, a messenger, bodian,T&. bode, announce, 
portend, AS. bydel, E. beadle, etc.: see bode 1 , 
bode 2 , beadle. While some senses of bid are 
obviously those of AS. biddan, and others ob- 
viously those of AS. beddan, no formal sepa- 
ration can conveniently be made. The mod. 
forms correspond to those of AS. biddan, the 
senses chiefly to those of AS. beddan.'] I. trans. 

1. To ask; request; invite. 

Go ye therefore into the highways, and as many as ye 
shall find bid to the marriage. Mat. xxii. 9. 

Provide the feast, father, and bid the guests. 

Shak., T. of the S., ii. 1. 

2. To pray; wish earnestly or devoutly ; hence, 
to say by way of greeting or benediction : as, 
to bid good-day, farewell, etc. 

Neither bid him God speed. 2 John 10. 

3. To command ; order or direct ; enjoin. 

And Peter answered him and said, Lord, if it be thou, 
bid me come unto thee on the water. Mat. xiv. 28. 

I was bid to come for you. Shak., As you Like it, i. 2. 

Because God his Father had not bidden him to do it, 
and therefore He would not tempt the Lord his God. 

Kingsley. 

[Occasionally a simple infinitive follows: as, "the lady 
bade take away the fool," Shak., T N., i. 5.] 

4. To offer ; propose : as, to bid a price at an 
auction. 

The king will bid you battle presently. 

Shak., 1 Hen. IV., v. 2. 

Four guineas ! Gad's life : you don't bid me the price of 
his wig. Shendan, School for Scandal, iv. 1. 

In buying Books or other Commodities, 'tis not always 
the best way to bid half so much as the seller asks. 

Selden, Table-Talk, p. SO. 

5. To raise the price of in bidding; increase 
the amount offered for : with up : as, to bid up 
a thing beyond its value. 6. To proclaim; 
make known by a public announcement ; de- 
clare: as, "our bans thrice bid," Gay, What 
d'ye Call it? To bid beads, to pray with beads. See 
bead. 

All night she spent in bidding of her bedes. 

Spenser, F. Q., I. x. 3. 

To bid defiance to. See defiance. To bid the banns. 
See banns. To bid the or a baset. See base?. = Syn. 
1. Invite, S^tmmon. etc. See call. 

II. intrans. To make an offer; offer a price: 



two circles; specifically, in bot., in two whorls, as, to bid at an auction. 



bid 

Antagonism.-. between ilitt'crriil powers in till' State, or 

lll!hT<-1ll lartioll-, h;t\i' rall^ril Mil- MI Mfhrrof tlle]U t' t'i'l 

for popular support, with the rcMilt ol i-ipular 

power. //. >'//(<, i'rin. oi 

TO bid fair, to open or <>ti* r a uuoil prospect ; seem likeh . 

bid (bid), . An offer of a price; specifically. 
an offer made or the price offered at an auction : 
us. to increase another's ImL 

bidactyl (bi-dak'til), (i. [< L. It-, two-, + Or. 
tdnTi'/'iii . linger, toe.] Same as didaclyl. 

bidagova (bid-ii-go'vii), . [Braz.] The name 
given in Brazil to a substitute for coffee pre- 
pared from the seeds of the Cii.if.-ni ncciilciitnli.-.: 



,->i. 

bidale (bid'al), H. [< bid, invite, + ali:] An 
entertainment to which persons were invited 
for the purpose of contributing to the relief of 
some une in distress. [Prov. Lug.] Also writ- 
ten hiiltill. 

I hr'fe was an antient Custom called a Bid- Alt or Bid- 
dcr-Ali-, trom tlie Saxon Hidden \ln'd<lun], to pray or Blip- 
plicate, when any honest Man decayed in his Rstate, was 
srt up a^ain by the li)>eral Benevolence and Contribution!* 
of Friends at a Feast, to which those Friends were bid or 
invited. It was most used in the \Vest of England, and 
in gome Comities called a Uelp Ale. 

Bra/id'* /'op. Antiif. (1777), p. 339, note. 

bidarkee (bi-diir'ke), n. [Also written bidarka : 
native name.] A boat of skins \ised by the 
Aleutian Islanders. 

There are three miles to traverse to reach the nearest 
river, ami here I trusted myself to one of the far-famed 
aidarkirx. b'tirtniijhtly Ree., XLI. 399. 

biddable (bid'a-bl), a. [< bid + -able.'} Obe- 
dient to a bidding or command ; willing to do 
what is bidden ; complying; docile. 

She is exceedingly attentive and useful ; . . . Indeed, 
I never saw a more biddable woman. 

Dicken*, Domlfey and Sou, viii. 

A more gentle, biddable invalid than the poor fellow 
made can hardly be conceived. 

//. Kintffili'ii, Kiivenshoe, xliv. 

biddance (bid'ans), w. [< but + -ance,] Bid- 
ding; invitation. [Rare.] 
bidder (bid'er), >t. [< ME. bidder, biddere ; 
< bid, ask, offer, + -eri.] One who bids; spe- 
cifically, (a) one who begs; (ft) one who com- 
mands or orders ; (c) one who asks or invites ; 
(il) one who offers to pay a specified price for 
an article, as at a public auction. 

llitlili'rx at the auction of popularity. Burke. 

biddery-ware (bid'e-ri-w3r), >i. Same as biilri. 
bidding (bid'ing), ii. [ME. bidding, biddings ; 
verbal n. of bid in both the original senses.] 
1 . Invitation ; command ; order ; a proclama- 
tion or notifying. 

At his second bidding darkness tied. 

Milton, f. L., 111. 712. 

They had chalked upon a slate the psalmes that were to 
be sung, so that all the congregation might see it without 
the bidding of a Cleark. Keelyn, Wary, Aug. 19, 1641. 

Henry . . . nominated Richard Henry Lee and Gray- 
son for the two senators from Virginia, and they were 
chosen at bis bidding. Bancroft, Hist. Const., II. 354. 

2. The act of making an offer at an auction: 
as, the biddini/ was lively. 
bidding-prayer (bid'ing-prar), n. [See be- 
low.] In England, the prayer before the ser- 
mon. As directed in the 5">th canon of the Church of 
England, this is a form in which the preacher calls on ttie 
congregation to pray for the church catholic, the sover- 
eign, and diltcreut estates of men. A similar form of 
prayer preceding the sermon has been in use since long 
before the Reformation. At first it was called Uiddiny / 
the bcddx (literally, praying of the prayers), after the 
Reformation bidding of tne common prayer*, bidding (of) 
prayers or prayer (the last word being object of the first); 
but after the sixteenth century the word biddimi came 
to be popularly regarded as an adjective, or the phrase 6iV(- 
lufi ]<i-i/'-r as a quasi-compound, a prayer which bids or 
directs what is to be prayed for. A collect is now generally 
substituted for the bidding-prayer (and sometimes enllr.l 
by the same name), but on special occasions, and in 
cathedrals and at university sermons, the bidding-prayer 
is always used. LiturgiologtsU often designate the ,l< .1 
con's litanies of the primitive and the Ureek Church as 
bidding-prayer*. See ectfne and litattft. 

Our people, as of yore, may all join their priest and 
say along with him, before he begins his sermon, the 
truly Catholic petitions of the hiddimi-iirain'r. 

i:<'k, Church of" our Fathers, ii. ::.M. 

biddy 1 (bid'i), .; pi. biddies (-iz). [E. dial, and 
U. b., perhaps of imitative origin. Cf. chicka- 
biddy.] A familiar name for a hen. 

Biddy 2 (bid'i), . [Dim. of Bridget, a fern. 
proper name, usually {riven in honor of St. 
Bridget (Ir. and Gael, lirir/hid (gen. Srii/liidc. 
Bride, whence the form St. Bride), < 'hrii/li. 
strength), who lived in Ireland in the f>th ami 
6th centuries.] An Irish female domestic; a 
servant-girl. [Colloq., U. 8.] 

bide (bid), v. ; pret. and pp. bode, ppr. biding. 
L< -Ml'., biili a, < AS. bidan (pret. bad, pi. bidon, 
pp. biden) = OS. 6id=OFries. bida = D, bei- 



547 

'i:n- OHO. bitini. Ml l(i. hit,-,,, (i. dial. bciten = 
[eel. hidlut = Sw. biiln = Dan. hie = (loth. In i- 
linn, wail. Cf. Ir. Jiithiin, I wait, = Uael. J'cith, 
wait. See n/iiili^ and abmlr. ] I. iiitraim. If. 
To remain in expectation ; wait. 2. To be or 
remain in a place or state; wait. 

In whose cold blood no spark of lion 

Shak.,3 Hen. VI., i i 

Safe In a ditch he bidet, 
U'ith twenty trenched gashes "II hit* head. 

filnlk.. .Macliflh, iii. 4. 

3. To dwell ; reside. 

All knees to tliee shall how, of them that bidr 
In heaven, or earth, or under earth In hell. 

Miltnn, I 1 . I.., iii. 3-.il. 

And Lancelot saw that she withheld her wish, 
And bvtte among them yet a little space 
Till he should learn It. 

Tfiuiftxoif, Lancelot and Klaine. 

II. trans. 1. To wait for; await. 
He has the elements of greatness within him, and he 
patiently bidet his time. Preteott. 

I will hid,' you at King Tryggve's hill 
Outside the city gates. 

William Murrii, Earthly 1'aradise, I. 9. 

2. To endure; suffer; bear. 

Poor naked wretches, wheresoe'er you are, 
That bide the pelting of this pitiless storm. 

Skat., Lear, lit 4. 

oh, humble me ! I cannot bide the joy 
That in my Saviour's presence ever flows. 

Jones Very, Poems, p. 58. 

Bidens (bi'denz), . [NL., < L. bidens, having 
two teeth: see bident.] 1. A genus of herba- 
ceous composite plants, closely related to Dah- 
lia and to Coreopsis, having achenes armed 
with two or more rigid, persistent, retrorsely 
barbed awns. They are coarse, useless weeds, but 
some of the species have conspicuous yellow flowers and 
are known as bur-marigolds. The persistency with which 
the achenes adhere to clothing and the coats of animals 
has given rise to the common name of beyyar" it-tick* or 
bey<jar'*-lic.f. The root and seeds of B. biyinnata, known 
as Spanish needles, have had an ill-founded reputation as 
emmenagogues and as a remedy for acute bronchial affec- 
tions. 

2. In ;ool., a genus of hawks with two-toothed 
beak ; same as IHodon or Barpagus (which see). 
Spix, 1834. 

bident (bi'dent), . [< L. biden(t-)s, OL. dui- 
den(t-)s, with two teeth, < bi-, dui-, = E. twi-, 
two-, + den(t-)s= E. tooth. Cf. trident.'] 1. 
In arckaeol., an instrument or a weapon with 
two prongs. Hence 2. Any two-pronged in- 
strument. 

The conversion of the bident Into a trident, by which, 
instead of two, you chalk three for one. 

Foote, in Jon Bee's Samuel Foote, cv. 

bidental (bi-den'tal), a. [< L. Uden(t-)s, with 
two teeth (see bident), + -al.~] Same as ftfrfew tare. 

bidental (bi-den'tal), . [L., so called from 
the animal sacrificed at its consecration (< ii- 
dcn(t-)s, an animal for sacrifice whose two rows 
of teeth are complete), or from the forked light- 
ning (a sense of bidental in ML.), < biden(t-)s, 
with two teeth or prongs : see bident.] InKom. 
until/., a monument marking a place that had 
been struck by lightning, it consisted of a wall, not 
roofed, carried around the site, which was considered 
to be sacred and neither to be trodden nor looked upon, 
and often resembleda raised well-curb. Such monuments 
were consecrated by the pontiffs, or, later, by the harus- 
pices, by the sacrifice of a sheep or other victim, and 
were probably given in charge of guardians, themselves 
called bidfntateg. 

bidentate (bi-den'tat), a. [< L. biden(t-)g, hav- 
ing two teeth (see bident), + -ate 1 .] Having 
two teeth or processes like teeth ; two-toothed. 
Other forms are bidentated, bidental, bidentiitl. 
and (rarely) bidcnted. 

bidential (bi-den'shal), a. Same as bidentate. 

bidenticulate (bi-deii-tik'u-lat), a. [< 6i-2 + 
denticulate. Cf. bidentate.] Having two mi- 
nute teeth. 

bidery (bid'e-ri), n. See bidri. 

bidet (bi-det v ; F. pron. be-da'), w. [< F. fti- 
det (>prob. It. bidetto), a small horse; of un- 
known origin.] 1. A small horse; formerly, 
in the British army, a horse allowed to each 
trooper or dragoon for carrying his baggage. 

For joy of which I will . . . mount my bidet in a dance, 
and curvet upon my curtal. B. Jonton, Chloridia. 

2. The basin of a water-closet so made that, 
in addition to the ordinary places of entrance 
of water- and discharge-pipe, there is a contri- 
vance for washing or administering injections : 
sometimes made as a separate article of bed- 
room furniture. 

bid-hook (bid'huk), n. [A variant of ftead- 
linnl:.] \iint., a small kind of boat-hook. 

bidigitate (bi-dij'i-tat), a. [< bi-? + digitate.] 
Having two digits, or two nnger-like processes. 



biens6ance 

biding (bi'ding), . [< >IK. lading, bi/dyni/ ; ver- 
bal n. of liide.} 1. An nwiiitinir: c.\p-i-t..- 
2. KeHidciK-e; habitation. 

At Antwerp has my constant bottiy l>een. 

/."'(, Jane Shore, I. i 

bidiri, . See bidri. 

bidogyn (bi-do'gin), . [\V., a dagger: see un- 
der oodMn.] In Celtic ,///</. , a dagger. 

bidri, bidry, bidree (bid'ri, bid-re';, . [An- 
glo-lnd., alwo bidery, bidiri, < Hind, li/itri, < 
Hiilnr, a town in the state of Hyderabad, In- 
dia.] A kind of ornamental metal-work of In- 
dia, consisting essentially of dama^-ening of 
silver upon some metal ground which is made 
black by coating it with certain chemicals, in. 
alloy used as the basis of the damascene work varies in 
composition in different hicalities ; it may lie either bronze 
or brass, in the latter case sometimes containing a very 
large p< -i > - nt .1 . -I /inr. Also called buldert/ 

bidri-ware, bidri- work, . Same as biilri. 
bid-standt (bid'stand), 11. A cant term for a 
highwayman. 

Why, I tell yon, sir: he has lieen the only ttid-stand 

that ever kept Newmarket Salisbury-plain, Hockley i' 

the Hole, Uads-hill, and all the high places of any request. 

/.'. Joiison, F.very Man out of his Humour, iv. 4. 

biduous (bid'u-us), a. [< L. biduun, < bi-, two-, 
+ dies, day.] Lasting two days only, as some 
flowers. 

bieberite (be'ber-it), . [< Bieber (see def.) + 
-ite 2 .] Native cobalt sulpnate or cobalt vitriol : 
a decomposition-product of other cobalt min- 
erals found at Bieber, near Frankfort-on-the- 
Main. 

bielaga, The Russian stuigeon,Aeinenser huso. 

bield (beld), n. [Now only North. E. and 8c., 

in 8c. also written beild, biel; early mod. E. 

bield, beeld, etc., < ME. beeld, beld, belde, < AS. 

byldo (= OHG. baldi, MHG. belde = Goth, bal- 

thei), boldness, courage, < beald, bold : see bold.] 

If. Boldness; courage; confidence; feeling of 

security. 2f. Resource; help; relief; means 

of help or relief ; support ; sustenance. 

For fuid thou gettis nane uther l>,'il<l, 

But ult the herbls upon the Held. 

Sir D. Lyndfay, The Monarchic, L 1087. 

3. Shelter; refuge; protection. 

This bosom soft shall t>e thy beeld. 

Fairfax, tr. of Tas^>, xvi. 49. 

The random beild o' clod or stane. Burn*. 

Folk maun liow to the bush that they seek britil frae. 

Hogg, Brownie, ii. 197. 

4. A place of shelter. 

These evil showers make the low bush better than no 
beild. Scott, Monastery, I. UL 

bield (beld), r. [Now only North. E. and Sc., 
in Sc. also written beild, biel, etc. ; early mod. 
E. bield, beeld, etc., < ME. bcelden, belden, < AS. 
bieldan, byldan (= OS. beldjan = OHG. balden, 
MHG. belden = Goth, balthian, intr.), make 
bold, < beald, bold: see bold, n., and cf. bold, 
r.] I. trans. If. To make bold; give courage 
or confidence to. 2. To defend; protect; shel- 
ter. 
Scorn not the bush that beildi yon. 

Scntt, Monastery. I. xiv. 

Il.t intrans. To be bold or confident; grow 
bold or strong. 

bieldy (bel'dT), a. [Sc., also written beildy, < 
bield + -y.] Sheltered from the weather; af- 
fording shelter. 

His honour being under hiding lies a' day, and whiles 
a' night, In the cove in the dern hag ; . . . it's a beildy 
enough bit. Scott, Waverley, II. xxviii. 

biemarginate (bi-e-mar'ji-nat), a. [< M- 2 + 
emarginate.] In eiitoni., having two emargina- 
tions or concavities in the margin. 

Wen, bienly, bienness. See bein, etc. 

biennial (bi-en'i-al), . and H. [< L. bienninm, 
a space of two years, < bicnnis, lasting two years 
(> biennalig, adj.), < W- + annns, year: see W- 2 
and tinniinl.] I. ". 1. Happening or taking 
place once in two years: as, biennial games. 

I consider biennial elections as a security that the sober 
second thought of the people shall be law. A HIM (1788). 

2. Continuing or lasting for two years ; changed 
or renewed every two years: said especially of 
plants. 

II. w. 1. A plant which requires two seasons 
of growth to produce its flowers and fruit, 
growing one year and flowering, fruiting, and 
dying the next. 2. An exercise, as a college 
examination, occurring once in two years. 
Sometimes also MMMMMd 

biennially (bi-en'i-al-i), adc. Once in two 
years; at the return'of two years. 

bienseance (F. pron. byan-sa-ons'), n. [F-> < 
bienteant, becoming, seemly, < bien (< L. bene), 
well, + aeaiit, becoming, seemly, lit. sitting, 



ppr. 



bienseance 648 

of seoir, sit, befit, < L. sedcrc = E. sit.] biferous (bif 'e-rus), a. [_<JL.lifer, bearing twice 



fieceney; decorum; propriety; seemliness. 

The rule of observing what the French call the Men- 
seance in an allusion has been found out of later years, 

cou.^ionsoft^d. 



(< 61-, twice, "+ ferre = E. bear 1 ), + -ous.'] In 
&ofc, bearing flowers or fruit twice a year, as 
some plants ill warm climates. 



big 

madness of discourse, 
That cause sets up with and against thyself ! 
Ili-fold authority ! Shak., T. and 0., v. 2. 



u^uiic*, n. Plural of bifolimn. 

bifoliate (bi-fo'li-at), . [< bi- 2 + foliate.] In 



ciety. W. R. Greg, Misc. Essays, 2d ser., p. 219. 

bienvenuet (F. pron. byaii-ve-nu'), . [Early 
mod. E. also lenvenue, ME. lienvenu, < OF. 
(and F.) lienvenue, < 6ie, well, + venu, com- 
ing, pp. oivenir, < L. venire, come.] 1. Wel- 



a dial, corruption of 
beefing, <. beef +' -ing :"so called from the red 
color of the apple.] 1. An excellent cooking- 
apple cultivated in 



apple crushed into a flat round cake. 
bifid (bi'fid), a. [< L. liftdus, forked, < li-, two-, 
+ findere (Jid-), cleave, divide, = E. lite, q. v.] 



divided half-way down into two parts; open 
ing with a cleft ; divided by a linear sinus, with 
straight margins. 

It will be observed that each of the simple cells has 
a bifid wart-like 



come. 

They by this have met him, 
And given him the bienvenu. 

Massinyer, The Picture, ii. 2. 

2. A fee exacted from a new workman by his 
fellows, especially in printing-offices. 

A new bien venu, or sum for drink, was demanded of 
me by the compositors. I thought it an imposition, as I 
had paid it below [to the pressmen]. 

Franklin, Autobiography. 

bier (ber), n. [The present spelling is perhaps 
in imitation of the F. Here; early mod. E. reg. 
leer, < ME. leere, leer, lerc, < AS. leer (= 
OFries. lere = OS. Idra = D. boar = OHG. 
bara, MHG. bare, G. bahre (> Pr. lera = F. 
Here) = Icel. barar, mod. lorur, pl., = Sw. 
bar = Dan. laare), a bier, < leran (pret. lair, 
pl. lieron), bear. Cf . L. feretrum, < Gr. ftperpov, 
and E. larrow 2 , from the same ult. root. See ^fla^ inflated (bif'i-dat, -da-ted), a. [< L. 



late.] In lot., having two leaflets: applied to 

a compound leaf. 
bifolium (bl-fo'li-um), n.; pl. bifolia (-a). [NL., 

< L. li-, two-, + folium, leaf.] In math., a plane 

curve having two folia or depressions. See cut 

under bitangent. 
bifollicular (bi-fo-lik'u-liir), a. [< li- 2 + fol- 

licular.~\ In lot., having a double follicle, as 



+ Jindere (M-, ceave, ve, = . e q. v. apocyn - ace(ms p i ants . 

Cleft or divided into two parts ; forked, as bi f or ^ te (bi-fo'rat), a. [< L. li- + foratus, per- 

the tongue of a snake _; specifically, in lot., f o " ated ' of ^ rare = E. ftorcl.] In lot., 

(\i-\*ii\cir\ }-\ ft 1 f-'wo xr rlrW7i int. ft t.wn Tlfl.TTifi ! OT>PT1- -. * . .2 j_* , .tl, 



Bifid circle, a circle cut at the extremities of a diameter 
by another circle, in regard to which it is said to be bifid. 
-Bifid substitution, in math., a substitution Delating 
to pairs of 8 letters as (' 
rule that the whole 8 an 

of 4, and that every pair both ._ 

to the same set of 4 is to be replaced by the other pair 
of the same set of 4, while the rest of the pairs remain 
unchanged. 



having two pores or perforations, as the an- 
thers of a rhododendron. Also biforous. 
biforine (bif'o-rin), . [< L. biforis. two- 
doored, < bi-, two-, +/ons = E. door."] In lot., 
a minute oval sac found in the interior of the 
green pulpy part of the leaves of some arace- 
ous plants, with an aperture at each end through 



, ., which raphides are expelled. 

arftolfdis?m g P uTsn e ed dl i n n?o b 2 y seis Biforipalk (bi-fo-ri-pal'a), . [NL., < L. U-, 
ir both members of which belong two-, -r 



Specifically -2. A framework on which a bifldi ' y t y (b i-fid'i-ti), n. [< foi/id + -%.] 
se, or the coffin containing it, is laid be- ut * ^ gtat( v of ^ ei bifld> 

jjfl^j. (bi-fi'lar), a. and n. 

L. tfto, thread : see/fe3] 
-'-'. 



bear 1 .] If. A frame, usually of wood, on which 
to carry a load; a barrow; a litter; a stretch- 

corpse> 

fore burial; also, one on which it is carried to 

the grave by hand. 

After Mass was done, the priest walked down and stood 
by the bier whereon lay stretched the corpse. 

Rock, Church of our Fathers, ii. 306. 

3. A count of forty threads in the warp or 
chain of woolen cloth. Imp. Diet. 
bier-balkt (ber'bak), n. [< bier + balk 1 , a 
ridge, a path.] A balk left in a field for the 
passage of funerals. 
A broad and sufficient bier-balk. 

Homily for Rogation Week, iv. 

bier-right (ber'rit), n. An ancient ordeal, in 
which those who were suspected or accused of 
murder were required to approach and touch 



to lifidus: see bifid."] Same 



The 



[< 6- 2 + 
- 



, . foris E.' door, + palla, mantle.] 

An order of bivalve mollusks, supposed to be 
distinguished by having two openings in the 
mantle, one for the foot and the other for ex- 
crement. It was thus based on a misconception. 
Its constituents were the Mytilacca and Naya- 
des. Latreille. 

biforked (bi'fdrkt), a. [< bi- 2 + forked. Cf. 
bifurcate."] Having two forks or prongs ; two- 
T fv, forked : as, " a biforJced beam," Soutliey. 

- ^ .. -, - a - Tw - thread - biform, biformed (bl'f&rm, -fonnd), a. [< L. 

ed ; having two threads Bifllar magnetometer, 7,;/;,,...,;-,, / 7,,- t wo . + forma shar>e 1 Having 

^X^?tt;^i^ 

Bifllar suspension, an important contrivance for mea- bifCTlnity (bi-for mi-ti), n. [< oyorm T -ity.} 
suring horizontal couples or forces of rotation, first used rjijjg s t a te of being biform ; a doubleness of 
in ttie bifllar magnetometer. The needle, bar, disk, or f n 

other body which the couple to be measured is to turn is ,Vi ,,--, .. o T.-* t 

suspended at equal distances from and on opposite sides blforOUS (bl-fo'rus), a. bame as olforate. 
of its center of gravity by two equally long threads from bifoveolate, bifoveolated (bl-fo've-o-lat, -la- 
two fixed points on one higher level. Thus, under the te( j\ a r( fo_2 + f ove olate.~\ In e'niom., hav- 
influence of gravity alone, the suspended body comes to iZZ''*-. Jx,,r,rl a i,allnw nW r fnvpm on tho 
equilibrium with the two threads in a vertical plane, ing two round Shallow pitl 
When it is turned through any angle about a vertical surface. 

[L. : see lifront.] Same 
as F ' " 



en s , 

axis through its center, its weight tends to restore it to bifrons (bi'fronz), a. 
its original position; and the moment _of this force of as ^front. 



the corpse of the murdered person as it lay on %%"J^ > $^*^%^^ bifront (bi'frunt), a, [< L lifron(t-)s having 



the bier. If when touched the corpse bled, this was 
supposed to indicate the guilt of the person touching it. 

biest, biestings, . See beestings. 

bietle (be'tl), . [Amer. Ind.] A kind of 
jacket, made of an entire deer-skin, worn by 
the women of the Apaches. L. Hamilton, Mex. 
Handbook, p. 49. 

bifacial (bl-fa'shial), a. [< li- 2 + facial] 1. 
Having the opposite surfaces alike. 2. In lot., 
having the opposite faces unlike: as, the bi- 
facial arrangement of the parenchyma or green 



the weight of the suspended body. This moment in- 
creases with the angle of displacement up to 90'" ; conse- 
quently, if the force to be measured is not too great, it 



the old position beng o 

lating the magnitude of the force. 



two foreheads (an epithet of Janus), < bi-, two-, 
+ fron(t-)s, forehead, front.] Having two 



ting the 

II. n. A micrometer fitted with two threads. 
bifilarly (bi-fi'lar-li), adv. In a bifilar man- 
ner ; by means of two threads : as, " supported 
bifilarly," S. P. Thompson, Elect, and Mag., p. 
298. 

pulp upon the two faces of a leaf. Also dorsi- bifistular, bifistulous (bi-fis'tu-lar, -lus), a. 
ventral. 3. Having two fronts or principal [< &i-2 + fistular, fistulous.] Having two tubes 
faces ; specifically, having two human faces or channels. 

turned in opposite directions, as a medal or an biflabellate (bi-fla-bel'at), a. [< li- 2 + flabel- 

late.] In entom.,' having short joints, as an 



the means of calcu- Same as lifront. 

bifurcate (bi-fer'kat), v. i.: pret. and pp. lifur- 
cated, ppr. bifurcating. [< ML. lifurcatus, pp. 
adj., two-forked (cf. L. lifurcus, two-forked), 
< L. ii-, two-, + furcatus, forked: see furcate.'} 
To divide into two forks or branches. 

The central trunk which runs up the foot-stalk bifur- 
cates near the centre of the leaf. 

Darwin, Insectiv. Plants, p. 247. 

At present the Gulf Stream bifurcates in mid-Atlantic, 
one branch passing north-eastwards into the Arctic re- 
gions, whilst the larger branch turns south-eastwards by 
- , - . , the Azores. J. Crott, Climate and Cosmology, p. 148. 

3T5j!&2S25ftS bifurcate, bifurcated (bi-fer'kat, -ka-ted), a. 



with a very long, somewhat flattened process, 
the processes lying close together, so that the 
whole organ is somewhat fan-like. It is an 
extreme modification of the bipectinate type. 



bifurcately (bl-fer'kat-li), adv. In a bifurcate 



image 
bifara (bif'a-ra), n. [It., also liffara, pifara, 

piffero, a pipe : see pipe.] In organ-luildina, a 

stop the pipes of which are either two-mouthed 

or sounded in pairs, and are so tuned that the 

two tones emitted differ slightly in pitch, thus 

producing a wavy tone. Also called piffero, biflagellate (bi-fla-jel'at), a. [< bi- 2 + flagel- ^S^l\ m rhi f p r ka / sh 

undamaris, celestina, etc. lum + -ate 1 ."] Having two whip-like appen- lft >->- n : 

bifarious (bi-fa'ri-us), a. [< L. bifarius (= dages or flagella : as, a biflagellate infusorian. 

Gr. di^ao-iof), twofold, < bi- + -farius, < fa-ri Tne <. hooked Monad " is another bi-flagellate form. 

(= Gr. <jM-vat), speak. Cf. multifarious."] Di- W. B. Carpenter, Micros., 420. 

vided into two parts ; double; twofold. Specifi- biflecnode(bi-flek'nod),w. [IrregXL. 6i-, twice, 

caUy-(a)In6o(.,pointingintwoways,orarrangedjutwo -f fl ec (terc), bend, + nodus, node.] In math., a 

node or point at which a curve crosses itself, 
and which is at the 



same 

time a point of inflection, or 
a point where the direction 
of the bending changes. 
This is a singularity found 
among quartic and higher 
curves. 




opposite rows, as leaves that grow only on opposite sides 
of a branch. (6) In zool., two-rowed ; two-ranked ; dis- 
tichous or dichotomous, as the hairs of a squirrel's tail, 
or the webs of a feather. 

bifariously (bi-fa'ri-us-li), adv. In a bifarious 
manner. 

bifasciate (bl-fag'i-at), a. [< bi- 2 + fasciate."] 
In zool., having' two transverse or encircling 
bands of color. 

Bifaxaria (bi-fak-sa'ri-a), n. [NL., < LL. 64/00:, biflorate (bi-flo'rat), a. [< 
two-faced, < 6J-, , two-, + fades, face.] Agenus bi- 2 + florate.] In lot., bearing two flowers. 
of polyzoans with two rows of cells facing in biflorOUS (bi-flo'rus), a. [< NL. Mflorus, < L. bi-, 
opposite directions, typical of the family Bifax- two-, + flos (fior-), flower.] Same as liflorate. 
ariidce. bifocal (bi-fo'kal), a. [< li- 2 + focal.] Having 

Bifaxariidss (bi-fak-sa-ri'i-de), n. pl. [NL., < two foci. 

Bifaxaria + -ida:.] A family of chilostomatous bifoil (bi'foil), n. [< li- 2 + foil 3 , leaf.] An 
polyzoans, typified by the genus Bifaxaria. The old and synonymous name of the British plant 
cilary or zoarium is rigid, biserial, and variously branched; fwavTilnrlp 1 4<ttfrn mtntfi 
the cells or zouicia are alternate, closely connate back to , .Y a A ^-%-^f rx 7, 2 + f^ 

back, and lacing in opposite directions. Eleven existing DlIOlQ (bi told), a. l<. bi-* -t- -/oM.J 
species are known. double ; of two kinds, degrees, etc. 



Twofold ; 



[< bifurcate 

+ -ion.'] 1. A forking or division into two 
branches ; separation into two parts or things ; 
in optics, same as double refraction. See refrac- 
tion. 2. A point at which forking occurs ; one 
or both of the bifurcating parts. 

bifurcous (bi-fer'kus), a. [< L. llfurcus, two- 
forked, < li-, two-, + furca, a fork.] Same as 
lifurcate. 

big 1 (big), a. [< ME. lig, bigg, bigge, lyg, etc., 
powerful, strong, large ; origin unknown. The 
E. dial, bug, bog, proud, important, self-suffi- 
cient, agrees partly in sense, but appears to 
be unrelated: see bog 3 , bug*."] If. Of great 
strength or power. 2. Having great size ; large 
in bulk or magnitude, absolutely or relatively. 

Methinks he seems no biyyer than his head. 

Shak., Lear, iv. 6. 

The world wagged on in its accustomed way, bringing 
all manner of changes big and little. W. Black. 

3. Great with young; pregnant; ready to give 
birth ; hence, figuratively, full of something im- 
portant ; ready to produce ; teeming. 

At length thu momentous hour arrives, as big with con- 
sequences to man as any that ever .struck in his history. 
Everett, Orations, p. 81. 



big 

4. Distended; full, as of grief, passion, cour- 
age, determination, goodness, etc. 

Thy heart is big ; get thce apart and weep. 

, J. (.'., iii. 1. 



Formyself, I tind my heart t<m /"'</; I fed I have not pa- 
tience to limk on, whilst you run these forbidden com -. s. 
l:,;m. BM /'''-, Kiim and V) King, iii. :i. 

5. Tumid; inflated, as with pride; hence, 
haughty in air or mien, or indicating haughti- 
ness ; pompous ; proud ; boast fill : as, big looks ; 

bill words. 



.-, Ill 

The large white-heart cherry, red on one side 
and white on the other, 
bigaster (bi-gas'ti-r), n. [< L. bi-, two-, + Gr. 

-,ua->,i>, belly.] Same as biventer. 
big-bellied (big'bel'id), . 1. Having a large 
or protuberant belly. 

He [William Kufu] was in stature somewhat below the 
usuul stee, an<) /.//'" !>/ </. -'. Ui.it. Kng. 

2. Advanced in pregnancy. [Vulgar.] 
big-boned (big'bond), a. Having large bones; 
stout; very strong. 



Big-boned, and large of linii), with sinews strong. 

Itryilrn, Pal. and Are., Hi. 45. 



lie In ^an [o look hi'i, and take niiuhtily upon him. 

Hii-ij't, Tale of a Tub, Iv. 

6. viivMt us regards influence, standing, wealth, big-cornedt(big'k6rnd),a. Having large grains. and North". Eng.] 
ete. [Colloq.] ^ Big game. See .; i . Big tree, 

t hr mammoth tree, .sv./i/i/n( <//-M, if' ", l< mi iti on the slopes 
of the Sirira Nevada, central California, particularly ill 
the "big-tree grove" in ( 'alaveras county. =Syn. 2. Large, 
ete. (sec 'n't'"'). 1'iilky, huge, massive. 5. Loity, pompous, 

:l!TO._;l!lt, illl]lllltant. 

big 2 , bigg- (big), v. [< ME. biggen, byggen, < 
Icel. byggja, older form byggva (= Sw. bygga 
= Dan. bygge = AS. biiian), build, dwell in, in- 



biglandular 

biggin 1 ' (big'in), H. [Named from the inventor, 
Mr. I ii i ii 1 1 n, about 1800.] A kind of coffee-pot 
containing a strainer for the infusion of the 
coffee, without allowing the grounds to mix 
with the infusion. N. E. D. 

bigging (big'ing), n. [Also biggin, < ME. big- 
giiig, a building. < biggrit, build: see big^.] A 
building; a habitation; a home. [Scotch and 
North. Eng.] 

biggont, . An obsolete spelling of biggin 1 . 

biggonet (big'o-net), n. [Also bigonct, after 



eijuiv. OF. bi-i/iiiiii I ; dim. of biggnii, biggin 1 , a. 
v.] A cap or head-dress; a biggin. [Scotch 



The strength of big-corn d powder. 

Dryden, Annus Mirahilis, II. 149. 

Bigelovia (big-e-16'vi-a), H. [NL., named after 
Dr. Jacob liigelow (17(57-1879), a physician and 
botanist of Boston, U. 8. A.] A genus of Com- 
posite, nearly related to Solidago, containing 
over 30 species, natives of western North Amer- 



And gi'e to me my bijgonet, 

My bishop'* satin gown, 
For I maun tell the bailie's wlfo 

That Colln's come to town. 

Jean Adaiiu, There's noe Luck. 



habit, a secondary form of bua (pret. pi. bjoggn) 
= AS. buan, dwell: see IH-I, bmrt-r, boor.] I. 
trims. If. To inhabit; occupy. 2f. Reflex- 
ively, to locate one's self. 3. To build; erect; 
fashion. [Scotch and North. Eng.] 
ii /,/./-/.(/ liar they a higly bour 
Kast liy (lie roaring slrmi'L 
Kiine the Red, uiul White l.illii. in child's Ballads, V. 174. 

Il.t in traits. To dwell; have a dwelling. 

big", bige 3 (big), n. [Sc. and North. E., more 
commonly bigg, early mod. E. also bygg, byggc, 
late ME. byge, < Icel. bygg = Sw. bjitgg = Dan. 
byg, barley, = AS. beow, grain, ult., like the 
remotely related 6(</ 2 ( bigg*, < y bu, grow, be, 
Skt. y' ohu, be, Gr. tj>i>?o3ai, grow: see be 1 .] A 
kind of winter barley cultivated in northern 
Europe, especially in Scotland ; properly, four- 
rowed barley, Honleum vulgarc, inferior to but 
hardier than H. licxastichon, of which it is some- 
times called a variety. See bear 9 . 

biga (bi'gil), n. [L., sing, from earlier pi. 
bigiv, a pair of horses, a chariot or car drawn 
by them, contr. of bijugw, fern. pi. of bijugus, 
yoked two together, < bi-, two-, 4- jugum = E. 
yoke.] In Rom. antiq., a chariot or car drawn 
by two horses abreast. 

bigamt (big'am), n. [< ME. bigam, < OF. btg- 
(tinc, < LL. bigamus, twice maiiied: see big- 
amy.] A bigamist. 

Some parts thereof teach us ordinances of some apostle, 
as the law of bigamy, or St. Paul's ordaining that a biyain 
should not be a deacon or priest. 

Bp. J'ecock, in his Life by J. Lewis, p. 286. 

bigamist (big'a-mist), n. [< bigamy + -ist.] 

Oue who has committed bigamy, or had two 

or more wives or husbands at once. 

Lantech the prime bigamist and corrupter of marriage. 

Donne, Hist, of the Septuagint, p. 202. 

bigamous (big'a-mus), a. [< LL. bigamus: 
see bigamy. ] Of or pertaining to bigamy; 
guilty of bigamy ; involving bigamy : as, a big- 
IIIIUHIX marriage. 

And very good reading they (the novels of our grand- 
motheral were too in their way, though ft was not the 
way of the bigammm und murderous school that has come 
after them. A'. A. Rec., CXXIII. 223. 

bigamy (big'a-mi), H. [< ME. bigamie, < OF. 
liii/iimic, < ML. bigumia, bigamy, < LL. bif/<im/<x, 
twice married, a bigamist (equiv. to Gr. mya/ioc, 
> Styajiia, bigamy), < L. bi- (= Gr. it-), twice, + 
yiipof, marriage.] 1. Literally, double mar- 
riage ; remarriage during the existence of a 
former marriage ; in late, the offense of having 
two or more wives or husbands at the same 
time. To constitute the offense, which by statute law 
is a felony, it is necessary, by the law of many jurisdic- 
tions, that tiie accused should have actual or constructive 
knowledge that the tlrst wife or husband was still living 
when tile second one was taken, and that the second mar- 
riage should have lu-i'll one solemnised under tile forms of 
la, and not merely an informal marriage resting on the 
contract of the parties, or their holding out each other to 
the world us himliand and wife. Where these elements of 
knowledge ami of formality are wanting, the second mar- 
riage is still generally invalid, but not bigamous in the 
criminal sense. 

2f. Second marriage ; remarriage of a widow 

Ol 1 ' widower. In the er.rly church, before the establish- 
ment of clerical celibacy, such remarriage on the part of 
a man was generally regarded as an impediment to holy 
order*. Marriage with a widow is called bigamy by .sliak- 
spere in Iticlmtd III., iii. 7. 

bigarade (big'a-rad), n. [F.] The bitter or 
Seville orange, I'itrus Aiirtintitini, variety />/</"- 
ratlin. 

bigaroon (big-a-rou'), H. [With term, altered 
in E., < F. hii'/iirri'ini. white-heart cherry (cf. 
liiijurnin; motley, medley, mixture). < liii/'iirn-r, 
Mveak, checker, variegate; of disputed origin.] 



lea. They are mostly fiuffrutesceut or shrubby, with nar- 
row and entire leaves, and small rayless heads of yellow 
iln\\i is. />', <> n-'ta, from the Iwrders of Mexico, is one 
of the sources of a drug calli il //niiitna. 

bigemina, . Plural of bigeminitm. 

bigeminate, bigeminated (bi-jem'i-nat, -na- 
ted), a. [< bi-'f+ geminate. Cf. L. bigeminus, 
doubled.] Twin-forked; doubly paired; bi- 
conjugate: in hot., said of a decompound leaf 
having a forked petiole, with a pair of leaflets 
at the end of each division. 

bigeminum (bl-jem'i-num), n.; pi. bigcmina 
(-nii). [NL., neut. of L. bigeminus, doubled, < 
bi-, twice, + gcminus, twin.] One of the cor- 
pora bigemina or twin bodies of the brain ; one 
of the anterior pair (nates cerebri) of the cor- 
pora quadrigemina ; one of the optic lobes, 
when there are only two, instead of four as in 
the higher mammals. Wilder. 

big-endian (big-en'di-an), n. and o. I. n. A 
member of the Lilliputian party in Swift's 
"Gulliver's Travels" who maintained, in op- 
position to the little-endians, that boiled eggs 
should be cracked at the big end ; hence, one of 
any corresponding set of disputers about trifles. 
II. a. Pertaining or relating to the big end 
of an egg, or any equally foolish matter, as a 
subject of controversy. 

bigener (bi'je-ner), n. [L., hybrid, mongrel, < 
61-, two-, + genus (gener-), kind: see genus.] A. 
cross between two species of different genera ; 
a mule. 

bigeneric (bl-je-ner'ik), a. [As bigener + -ic : 
see 6(- 2 and generic.] Having the characters 
of two different genera ; having the character 
of a bigener. 

bigential (bl-jen'shal), a. [< ML. bigen(t-)s, of 
two nations, < bi-, two-, + gen(t-)s, a nation.] 
Comprising two tribes or peoples. 

big-eye (big'I), n. A fish of the genus Priacan- 
tnus and family Priaeanthida; : so called from 
its very large round eyes. 

big-foot (big'fiit), . [Tr. of the generic name 
Megapodius.] A book-name of a mound-bird 
of the genus Megapodius. 

bigg 1 !, . An obsolete spelling of big 1 . 

bigg 2 , v. Seeing*. 

bigg 3 , n. See big 3 . 

biggah, H. See bega. 

biggen (big'n), v. [< big 1 + -en 1 .] I.f trans. 
To make big ; increase. 

II. mtraits. 1. To grow big; become larger. 
[Dialectal.] 2. To gain strength after con- 

. linemen!. [North. Eng.] 

The gossips regularly wish the lady a good biggening. 
Brodcett, North Country Words, p. 16. 

bigger (big'er), . [< big*, bigg*, + -er 1 .] A 
builder. [Scotch.] 

biggin 1 (big'in), n. [Also written biggen, big- 
i/nii, early mod. E. also bt/ggen, begin, < OF. be- 
ij HI n, mod. F. bfyuin = It. beghino, a cap, so 
named from that worn by the nuns called Re- 
giiines, ME. begine, bcggin (early mod. E. bigin, 
biggayne, etc.): see Beguin.] I. A child's cap. 
2. A nightcap. 

Brow with homely biggin bound. 

'Shak., 2 Hen. IV., iv. 4. 
An old woman's big-jin for a nightcap. 

Massinger, The Picture, iv. 2. 

3. In England, the coif of a Serjeant at law. 

4. A head-dress worn in the later middle ages, 
and throughout the seventeenth century, by 
both men and women. That worn by women 
was broad at the top, with projecting corners, 
like ears. 

biggin 2 (big'in), n. [Another form of piggin, 
q. v.] A small wooden vessel ; a can. 



bigha (big'ii), n. Same as bega. 

bighead (blg'hed), . A local name of a Cali- 
fornian species of sculpin, AorpflMMMbyi mar- 
moratus, a fish of the family Cottidtr. Also call- 
ed l-llbf-OH. 

bighorn (big'hfirn), n. 1. The Rocky Moun- 
tain sheep, Ofis montana: so called from the 
immense size of the horns, which resemble those 
of the argali, but are shorter and comparatively 
stouter and not so spiral. The animal In other re- 
spects resembles and is closely related to the argali, of 




Bighorn of the Rocky Mountains (Ovis montana). 

which It is the American representative. In color it Is 
grayish-brown, with whitish buttocks, like the other wild 
sheep. It stands altout 3i feet high at the withers, and 
is very stoutly built. It inhabits the higher mountain 
ranges of the western Tnited States from New Mexico 
and southern California northward, down nearly or quite 
to sea-level in the higher latitudes, and is abundant in 
suitable localities in Colorado, Wyoming, Montana, Idaho, 
etc. It is much hunted for its nesh, which makes excel- 
lent mutton. Like other wild sheep, ft is gregarious. 

2. The great fossil Irish elk of the peat-bogs, 
Cervus megaeeros. [Rare.] 

bight (bit), n. [< ME. byeht, b>/gt, < AS. byht, 
a bend, a corner (=D. bocht = Q. bueht, a bay, 
bight, = Sw. Dan. bugt, bend, bight of a rope, 
a bay) ; cf. byge, a bend, angle, < bfigan (pp. 
bogen), bend, bow: see bow 1 , and cf. the ult. 
identical E. bought 1 , bout 1 , and the related bail 1 , 
a ring, hoop: see bout 1 .] If. Abend or bend- 
ing; an angle, especially in a living body, as 
of the elbow, or the inward bend of a horse's 
chambrel, or the bend of the fore knees. 2. 
A loop of a rope, in distinction from the ends; 
any bent part or turn of a rope between the 
ends. 

They put the bight of a rope round Ben's neck and slung 
him right up to the yard-arm. 

S. 0. Jeuxtt, Deephnven, p. 95. 

3. A narrow bay or recess in a sea-coast be- 
tween comparatively distant headlands ; a long 
and gradual bend of a coast-line : used especial- 
ly in the names Bight of Benin and of Biafra 
in Africa, and the Great Australian Bight (on 
the south coast). 

The spangle dances In lii'jhi and bay. 

Tennyton, .Sea-Fairies. 

On the warm bight* of the Florida shores. 

D. Q. Mitchell. Bound Together, ill. 

4. A similar bend in the shore of a river or a 
bav, or recess in a mountain ; a bay-like inden- 
tation. [Rare.] 

In the very bite or nook of the bay there was a great 
Inlet of water. 

De Foe, Voyage around the World. (JV. K. D.) 

Bowline on a bight See incline. 
bight (bit), r. t. [<%//,,.] To fold or double 

so as to make one or more bights, 
biglandular (bi-glan'du-lar), a. [< W-2 + 
Having two glands. 



biglot 

biglot (bi'glot), a. [< L. hi-, two-, + Gr. yAur 
tongue.] In two languages; bilingual. N.E.I). 
[Rare.] 

biglyt (big'li), adv. [< ME. bigly, powerfully, 
bravely; < big 1 + -?*] In a tumid, swelling, 
blustering manner; haughtily; arrogantly. 

He brawleth bigly. Sir T. More, Works, p. 701. 

bigmouth (big'mouth), n. A fish of the family 
f'cntrarcliida 1 , Chasnobryttusgiilosiis. Also called 
irnrmouth. See cut under Centrarchidce. 
bigness (big'nes), 11. [< bigl + -ness.'] The state 
or quality of being big; largeness of propor- 
tions; size, whether large or small; bulk, ab- 
solute or relative. 

Hayle of suche bygnesse that it slewe both men and 
beestys. Fabyan, I. 238. 

Their legs are both of a bigness. Shak., 2 Hen. IV., ii. 4. 
The biijness and uncouth deformity of the camel. 

Sir R. L' Estrange. 

Large oak, walnut, hickory, ash, beech, poplar, and 
many other sorts of timber, of surprising bigness. 

Bcecdey, Virginia, ii. If 2. 

Bignonia (big-no'ni-a), n. [NL., named after 
Bignon, librarian to Louis XV.] A genus of 
plants of many species, natural order Bigno- 
niaceee, natives of the warmer portions of the 
new world. The species are characterized by a twin- 
ing or climbing stem, frequently in the tropics reaching 
the tops of the highest trees, with divided leaves and often 
magnificent trumpet-shaped flowers. In the stems of 
some species the wood is so arranged as to have a cross- 
like appearance in section. The most northern species, 
B. capreolata of the southern United States, is frequent- 
ly cultivated in gardens, and others are ornaments of 
greenhouses. B. Chica of South America yields an orange- 
red coloring matter called chico (which see). 

Bignoniacese (big-no-ni-a'se-e), n. pi. [NL., 
< Bignonia + -acea.] A natural order of mono- 
petalous dicotyledonous plants with irregular 




650 

ly and unreasonably wedded to a particular 
religious or other creed, opinion, practice, or 
ritual ; a person who is illiberally attached to 
any opinion, system of belief, or party organi- 
zation ; an intolerant dogmatist. 

In philosophy and religion the bigot* of all parties are 
generally the most positive. Watts. 

The bigotx of the iron time 
Had called his harmless art a crime. 

Scott, i. of L. It., Int. 

The existence of genuine piety amid serious errors is 
forgotten, or rather rejected, by certain illiberal minds, 
the bigots of exclusive ecclesiastical hypotheses, who, in 
maintaining that "out of the church there can be no salva- 
tion," would have us believe that there is none out of their 
own. Is. Taylor, Spiritual Despotism, 10. 

II. t ft. Same as bigoted. 

In a country more Urjot than ours. 

Dryden, Ded. of Limberham. 

bigoted (big'ot-ed), a. [< bigot + -ed 2 .] Having 
the character of a bigot ; obstinately and blind- 
ly wedded to a particular creed, opinion, prac- 
tice, or ritual ; unreasonably and intolerantly 
devoted to a system of belief, an opinion, or a 
party. Also rarely spelled bigottea. 

A more abject, slavish, and bigoted generation. Steele. 

So nursed and bigoted to strife. Byron. 

A bigoted Tory and High Churchman. 

Macaulay, Hist. Eng.,xvii. 

bigotedly (big'ot-ed-li), adv. In a bigoted 

manner; with irrational zeal. 
bigoticalt (bi-got'i-kal), a. [< bigot + -ical.] 

Bigoted. 

Some bigotieal religionists. 

Cudworth, Intellectual System, p. 18. 

bigotry (big'ot-ri), n. ; pi. bigotries (-riz) . [< F. 
bigoterie, < fagot.] The character or mode of 
thought of a bigot ; obstinate and unreasona- 
ble attachment to a particular creed, opinion, 
practice, ritual, or party organization; exces- 
sive zeal or warmth in favor of a party, sect, 
or opinion; intolerance of the opinions of 
others. 

Those biyvtriet which all good and sensible men despise. 

Pope. 

Were it not for a bigotry to our own tenets, we could 
hardly imagine that so many absurd, wicked, and bloody 
principles should pretend to support themselves by the 
gospel. Watts. 

James was now a Roman Catholic. Religious bigotry 
had become the dominant sentiment of his narrow and 
stubborn mind. Macaiilay, Hist. Eng., ii. 

=Syn. Credulity, Fanaticism, etc. (see superstition), nar- 

row-mindedness, prejudice, intolerance. 
bigroot (big'rot), n. The name in California 

of species of Megarrhisa, a cucurbitaceous vine 

the roots of which grow to an immense size. 
big-SOUnding (big 'soun" ding), a. Having a 

pompous sound. 



Big-s 



unding sentences and words of state. 

Bp. Hall, Satires, i. 3. 



b "' 



BigHoniacea. 



. 

Flowering Branch of Trumpet-creeper ( Tecoma rtidicatu 
opened follicle of same, showing: seeds; t>. seed of Catalpa bi 
oides. 'From Le Maout and Decaisne's " Traiti general de ota- 
nique.") 

flowers, a pod-like fruit, and winged seeds 
without albumen. They ave trees or shrubby climb- 
ei-s or twiners, natives chiefly of warm regions, and are 
especially abundant in South America. Of the many 
genera, the best known are Bignonia, Tecoma (the trum- 
pet-creeper), including some trees that furnish hard and 
close-grained woods, Crescentia (the calabash-tree), and 
Catalpa of the United States. 

bignoniaceous (big-np-ni-a'shius), a. In hot., 
pertaining to or having the characters of the 
Bignonificetc. 

bigoldt (bi'gold), n. The yellow oxeye or corn- 
marigold, Chrysanthemum segetnm. Gerard. 

bigot (big'pt), n. and a. [First at end of 16th 
century, < F. bigot, a bigot, a hypocrite, < OF. 
liigot; of disputed origin. Under this form two 
or more independent words appear to have 
been confused, involving the etym. in a mass 
of fable and conjecture. Whatever its origin, 
bigot, as a vague term of contempt, came to be 
confused with Begiiin and Beghard. This con- 
fusion appears in ML. Bigutti, Biguttce, used in 
the 15th century as equivalents of Beghardi and 
Beguiiia;. See Beghard and Bcguin.] I. n. If. 
A hypocritical professor of religion; a hypo- 
crite; also, a superstitious adherent of reli- 
gion. N. E. D. 2. A person who is obstinate- 



big-swollen, big-swoln (big'swo'len, -swoln), 
a. Greatly inflated; swelled to great bulk; 
turgid; ready to burst. 
My big-ncoln heart. Shale., 3 Hen. VI., ii. 2. 

biguttate(bi-gut'at), a. [< M-2 + guttate.] 
In zool., marked with two small spots. 

bigwig (big'wig), 11. [< big 1 + wig, in refer- 
ence to the large wigs worn in Great Britain 
by judges and others in authority.] A great 
man ; a person of consequence ; one high in au- 
thority or rank. [Slang.] 

Her husband was a member of the Chamber of Deputies, 
a Conseiller d'Etat, or other French biy-ivig. 

Thackeray, Newcomes, xlvi. 

bigwigged (big'wigd), a. Pompous; solemnly 
authoritative. 

Towards nightfall comes the chariot of a physician and 
deposits its biyu'itiged and solemn burden. 

Hawthorm, Twice-Told Tales, 1. 

bihamate (bi-ha'mat), a. [< 6i- 2 + hamate.] 
Doubly hooked ; having two hooks. 

The bihamate "spicules of the sarcode" so character- 
istic of the genus Esperia and its allies. 

Sir C. W. Thomson, Depths of the Sea, p. 113. 

bihourly (bi-our'li), . and adv. [< 6i- 2 + 
hourly.] Every two hours; once every two 
hours: as, bihourly observations. 

bihydroguret (bi-hi-drog'u-ret), n. [< W-2 + 
hydrog(en) + -uret.] A compound of hydrogen 
with a non-metallic or negative element or 
radical, in the proportion of two atoms of hy- 
drogen to one atom or group of the other mem- 
ber of the compound. 

bijou (be-zho"), . [F. ; of unknown origin.] 
1. A jewel; specifically, a jewel of gold richly 
wrought in the metal itself without the aid of 
precious stones. See bijouterie. Hence 2. 



bilander 

An object of beauty of small size ; something 
delicately pretty ; any relatively small charm- 
ing object. 

bijouterie (be-zhb'tre), . [F., < bijou.] Jew- 
elry ; small ornaments for personal decoration ; 
specifically, jewelry of gold richly adorned In 
the metal itself, with little or no use of precious 
stones. 

bijoutry (be-zho'tri), it. Same as bijouterie. 

bijugate (bi-jo'gat), a. [< W-2 + jugate.] 1. 
In mi mis., bearing two profile heads, one of 
them overlapping the other. See cut under ac- 
eolated. 2. In bot., having two pairs of leaf- 
lets or pinnse : used of pinnated leaves. 

bijUgOUS (bi-jb'gus), a. [< L. bijiigus, yoked 
two together: see biga.] Same as bijugate. 

bijugue (bi'jog), n. [< L. bijugus, yoked two to- 
gether: see bijugous.] A double bottle consist- 
ing of two complete vessels attached to each 
other by strips of the same material, so that 
they form one piece. 

bike (bik), n. [Sc., also written byte, < ME. 
bike, Injke, a hive.] A nest of wild bees, hor- 
nets, or wasps. 

The smelle of my son is lyke 

To a feld with flouris. or hony byke. 

Ttiirneley Mysteries, p. 4.3. 

bikh (bik), n. The name given by the natives 
of Nepal to a most virulent poison derived 
from the roots of Aconitum fcrox and proba- 
bly other species of aconite, and to the roots 
themselves ; Nepal aconite. Also called high, 
bixlnita, or bixk. 

bikos (bi'kos), n. ; pi. bikoi (-koi). [Gr. /Time,: 
see beaker.] In Gr. antiq., a form of earthen- 
ware vase, usually of large size, used, like other 
large vases of similar character, for storing pro- 
visions, liquids, etc. It was shaped like a stamnos 
with handles, and is mentioned also as made of small 
size, sometimes in glass, to serve as a drinking-vessel or 
a perfume-jar. 

bikshu (bik'sho), . [Skt. bMTtshu.] A Bud- 
dhist mendicant monk. 

bikshuni (bik'sho-ne), . [Skt. bliikxHiini.] A 
Buddhist nun. 

bil (bil), n. [Also called billard and billet ; ori- 
gin obscure ; perhaps connected with billet?, a, 
stick or club.] A local English name of the 
coal-fish, Follaehius virens. 

bilabe (bi'lab), n. [< L. bi-, two-, + labium, lip.] 
In stirg., an instrument for removing small for- 
eign bodies from the bladder through the ure- 
thra. 

bilabiate (bi-la'bi-at), a. [< 6-2 + labiate.] 

1. Possessing, or having the appearance- of 
possessing, two lips: in bot., 

applied to an irregular corolla 
or calyx whose lobes are so 
arranged as to form an upper 
and a lower lip. This character 
prevails in the natural order Labiates, 
and is frequent in some other orders. 

2. In conch., having the outer 
lip doubled by a thickening 
behind the margin or true lip. 

bilabiation (bl-la-bi-a'shon), 

n. [< bilabiate + -ion.] The 

quality or condition of being 

two-lipped, or having two lips ; 

a bilabiate formation. Amer. 

Jour. fSci., 3d ser., XXIX. 319. 
bilaciniate (bi-la-sin'i-at), a. 

iatc.] In bot., doubly laciniate. 
bilalo (bi-la'16), n. '[Also written gttilala; a 

native name.] A two-masted passenger-boat, 

about 65 feet long and 10 feet broad, peculiar 

to Manila bay. It carries an outrigger for use when 

the wind blows fresh, and has a large cabin behind the 

mainmast. 

bilainellate (bi-lam'e-lat), a. [< bi- 2 + lamel- 
late.] Doubly lamellate ; having two lamellae ; 
specifically, in bot., composed of two plates and 
as many stigmas and placentas, or bearing two 
plates, as the lip of some orchids. 

bilamellated (bi-lam'e-la-ted), a. Same as bi- 
lamellate. 

bilaminar (bl-lam'i-nar), a. [< fii- 2 + laminar.] 
Consisting of two thin plates or lamina' ; two- 
layered. 

bilaminate (bi-lam'i-nat), a. [< bi-" + lami- 
nate.] Having two plates or lamina;. 

bilan (F. pron. be-loii'), n. [F., < LL. bitaiur 
(sc. libra), a balance: see balance.] A'balance- 
sheet : the name given in Louisiana to a book 
in which merchants keep account of their assets 
aud liabilities. 

bilandt, . See bi/land. 

bilander (bil'au-der or bi'lan-der), n. [Also by- 
lan<lcr (cf. F. liclaiidre), < D. bijlandcr, < by, = 




Bilabiate Calyx and 
Corolla of Salvia 
(sage). 

[< W- 2 + lacin- 




bilander 

E. byl, + land = E. land.] A small merchant 
vessel with two masts, and the mainsail bent 

to the whole 
length of a 
yard, hanging 
fore and aft, 
and inclined 
to the horizon 
at an angle 
of about 45 
degrees, the 
foremost low- 
er corner, 
called the 
in:'!., being 
secured to a 
ring-bolt in 
the deck, and 
the after- 
most, or sheet, 
to the taffrail. l<Y\v vessels are now rigged in this 
manner. Tin.* bilamler is a kind of liny, manageable by 
four or five men, and used chiefly In the canals of the Low 
Countries. 

Why choose we, then, like bilandert to creep 
Alimt: the coast, ami land in view to krt p'.' 

liriiitm, Hind and Panther, i. 128. 

bilateral (bi-lat'e-ral), a. [< NL. bilateralis, < 

L. hi- + latus (later-), side: see lateral.'] 1. 

Having two sides; of or pertaining to two 

sides ; two-sided. 

The liil/ttfi-itt movements escape in cases of hemiplegia 
in spitr >f dt^trnction of some of the nervous arrange- 
ments representing them. Pop. Sri. Mo., XXV. 176. 

2. Iii bot., having the sides different. 

The vegetation in all Hepatica) is bilateral that is, dif- 
ferently developed on the upper and under sides. 

Butt, nf III. State Laboratory. II. 6. 

3. In biol. , having the sides symmetrical Bilat- 
eral contract, in late, a contract which hinds the parties 
to perform reciprocal obligations each toward the other. 
Kapalje and Lawrence. Bilateral restriction, in logic, 
the restriction of a proposition at once in its subject and 
in its predicate, as in the following example: All triangle 
is all trilateral ; some triangle is some trilateral. Bilat- 
eral symmetry, the symmetry of right and left halves 
or other parts of the body ; sinistrodextral symmetry ; 
transverse antitypy. Also called lateritypy. 

In both the foregoing cases it is the bilateral iymmetrtj 

which is so peculiarly characteristic of locomotive power. 

W. B. Carpenter, Prln. of Physiol. 

Bilateralia (bl-lat-e-ra'li-ii), n. pi. [NL., neut. 
pi. of bilateralis: see bilateral.'] 1. A collec- 
tive name of those animals which exhibit bilat- 
erality or bilateral symmetry, as of right and 
left sides. J.A.Ryder. 2. A division of Am- 
bulnrrtiria represented by Balanoglossus alone, 
contrasted with other echinoderms which are 
called Itadiat-a. Metscnnikoff. 

bilateralism (bi-lat'e-ral-izm), n. [< bilateral 
+ -ism.] The state or quality of being bilate- 
ral: bilateral symmetry. 

bilaterality (bi-lat-e-ral'i-ti), n. [< bilateral 
+ -ity.] Same as bilateralism. 

bilaterally (bi-lat'e-ral-i), adv. In a bilateral 
manner; on both sides: as, a Waterally sym- 
metrical larva. 

bilateralness (bi-lat'e-ral-nes), n. [< bilateral 
+ -wiwt.J The state or quality of being bilat- 
eral ; bilateralism ; in zool., bilateral symmetry. 
In the Sycamore and the Vine we have a cleft type of 
leaf in which a decided bilateralneng of form co-exists 
with a decided bilateralnejts of conditions. 

a. Spencer, Prin. of Biol., 229. 

bilberry (bil'ber-'i), .: pi. bilberries (-iz). 
[Formerly also spelled bill-berry and bull-berry. 
The last form, if not simulated, is prob. right, 
< buffi- + berryi. Another species, the red 
whortleberry, is named cowberry, and the NL. 
name of the genus, Vaccinium, means 'cow- 
berry.' The word bull enters into the names 
of several other plants, as bullweed, bullirort. 
bulrush. Cf. hartberry, another name for bil- 
ln fry. But the relation of the equiv. Dan. bolle- 
fertr, also simply boUe, whortleberry, to Dan. 
biill, a castrated bull (cf. Icel. boli = Norw. bol 
= E. bull 1 ), is not clear. The usual Dan. term 
for bull is tyr = Sw. tjur = Icel. ttjorr = E. 
steer. The name blaeberry is of different origin : 
see blaeberry.] 1. A shrub and its fruit, t'ae- 
Cinium Jtyrtillu.-: In s, ,,tbm,l the bilberry is usually 
called tteeotrnf, from its blaf. or dark-blue color. ' See 
Vaccinia in aiiil n-h'irtli'bfrry. 

2. A name sometimes given in the United 
States to the fruit of the shad-bush, Amrlati- 
i-ltiir t'liiiinlfiiKig... Bog-bilberry, \'aeeinium uliyi- 

iivsinn of the i nitcd stall's and Knrope.-- Dwarf bil- 
berry, I', artpitositin. Jamaica bilberry, i*. tut-i-i<iii>- 

nul'-. 

bilbo 1 (bil'bo), .; pi. bilboes or -bos (-boz). 
[Early mod. E. also bilboic, bilboe, bilboa, prop. 
a sword of Bilbao (in E. formerly Bilboa) in 



551 



bilifulvin 



Spain, such swords being, like those of Toledo bileve 1 !, i 1 . See bcl' 
(see Toledo), held in high esteem for their tern- bileve'-'t, r. See btlim. 

per.] 1. Formerly, a sword or sword-blade, bilge (bilj), n. [In 17th century also bildqe 
famous for extreme elasticity, made in Bilbao and bill/trje^ ; var. of bulge: see bulge.] 1. The 
in Spain. wider part or bolly of a cask, which is usually 

Compass'd like a good bilbo in the circumference of a in the middle. 2. The breadth of a ship 8 
peck, hilt to point, heel to head. 

N/,,,*-., M. W. of W., Hi. 6. 

Hence 2. Any sword. [Poetical.] 

At Poitiers bath'd their bilboe* in French blood. 

Drat/ton, Polyolbion, xvi. 72. 

bilbo 2 (bil'bo), .; pi. bilboes or -bos (-boz). 
[Early mod. E. also bilbotp, bilboe, usually in 
pi. ; prob. so named, like bilbo 1 , from Bilbao 
in Spain; but direct evidence is lacking.] A 



Bilboes, from the Tower of London. 

long bar or bolt of iron having sliding shackles 
and a lock, formerly used to confine the feet 
of prisoners or offenders, especially on board 
ship : usually in the plural. 

Mi'thought I lay 
Worse than the routines in the bilboes. 

ShaJc., Hamlet, v. 2. 

bilbo-mant (bil'bo-man), . A swordsman. 
You are much bound to your bilbo-men ; 
I am glad you are straight again, captain. 

Beau, and Fl., King and No King, v. 3. 

bilboquet (bil-bo-kef), n. [Also dial., in def. 
2, bilooketch, bilbocatch, bilverketcho, etc., < F. 
bilboquet, OF. billeboquet, billebauquet ; origin 
obscure.] If. A gardener's measuring-cord or 
-line. Cotgrave. 2. The toy called cup-and- 
ball. 3t. An 8-inch mortarfor throwing shells. 
4. An implement for curling hair, fairholt. 

bilcock (bil'kok), . [Also called bidcock, < 
bil- or bid- (origin unknown) + cock 1 .] The 
water-rail of Europe, Ballus aquaticus. 

bildt, bildert. Old spellings of build, builder. 

bildstein (bild'stin). n. [G., < bifd, image, fig- 
ure (< MHG. bilde, < OHG. bilidi (= OS. MUM 
= OFries. 'biletite, byld = D. beeld = Sw. be- 
late (also bild, prob. borrowed) = Dan. billede, 
billed), prob. < M- = E. AS. bi-, bu-, + lid = OS. 
lith = Goth, lithus = E. lith, a limb, member: 
see by-, be- 1 , and lith), + stein = E. stone.] Same 
as agalmatolite. 

bile^Hbil), . [Early mod. E. also byle, < ME. 
bile, byle (occasionally bid, beel, > E. beal, prop, 
a dial, form: see beal 1 ), < AS. byle = OFries. 
beil, bel = MD. bule, D. buil = LG. bule, biile = 
MHG. biule, G. beitle, bile, = Icel. beyla = Sw. 
bula = Dan. bule, bugle, a swelling; cf. Icel. 
bola = Sw. bold = Dan. byld, a blain, a blister ; 
< Teut. / "bul. seen in causal form in the Goth. 
tifbauljan, puff up : cf . boll 1 . Bile is the true E. 
form, still retained in the vernacular speech; 
but, owing to a confusion with the verb 601/2 
(or perhaps with the D. form buil, pron. nearly 
as E. boil), the word has taken in mod. literary 
E. the corrupt form 6oi7. See boil 1 .'] An in- 
flamed tumor; a boil. See boil 1 . 

bile 2 (bil), . [< F. bile, < L. bilis, bile, anger; 
atra (or nigra) bilis, equiv. to Gr. fAffjMta, 
black bile: see atrabile, melancholy.] 1. A 
yellow bitter liquid secreted by the liver and 
collected by the biliary ducts to be conveyed 
into the duodenum, iu most important constituents 
are the bile-salts, sodium glycocholate and sodium tauro- 
cliohitc, and the bile-pigments, bilirubin and biliverdin, 
with cholesterin. The uile renders the contents of the 
duodenum alkaline. It aids the emulsionizing of the 
fats, apparently by increasing the solubility of soaps, 
assists the passage of the fats through the intestinal 
walls, and stimulates peristalsis. Also called gall. 
2. Figuratively, ill nature; peevishness; bit- 
terness of feeling : because the bile was fancied 
to be the seat of ill humor. 

Xothing appears to have stirred his bile so much at 
Yuste as the proceedings of some members of the board 
of trade at Seville. Pretcott. 

Black bile. See atrabile. 

bile 3 t, . An obsolete form of bill 1 . 

bilection (bi-lek'shpn), H. Same as bolection. 

bile-cyst (bil'sist), '. In anat., the gall-bladder. 

bile-duct (bil'dukt), n. A duct or canal con- 
veying bile; a gall-duct. 

bile-pigment (bil'pig'ment), n. One of the 
coloring matters in the bile. Bilirubin is the chief 
coloring matter in the bile of carnivorous animals and of 
man ; bilicertlin is the greenish pigment in the bile of 
herbivorous animals. A considerable numlwr of other 
bile-pigments have been described, some of which are prob- 
ably mixtures of pigments, and others oxidation or reduc- 
tion products not existing in the living body. 

bilestone (bil'ston), . A biliary calculus or 
gallstone. 




II.,- ' I!/.;-. 



1 | M/.-. 



bottom, or that part of her floor which ap- 
proaches a horizontal direction, and on which 
she would rest if aground. 

bilge (bilj), r. ; pret. and pp. bilged, ppr. bilg- 
ing. [< bilge, n.] I. intrans. 1. Naut., to suf- 
fer a fracture in the bilge ; spring a leak by a 
fracture in the bilge. 2. To bulge or swell out. 
EE. trans. To break or stave in (the bilge or 
bottom of a ship). 

bilge-board (bilj'bord), . In ship-building, 
one of the boards used to cover the timbers 
where the bilge-water collects. 

bilge-coad (buj'kod), n. Same as bilgetrays. 

bilge-free (bilj'fre), a. Naut., so stowed on 
beds that no weight rests on the bilge: said of 
a cask. 

bilge-keel (bilj'kel),n. ^btlge + keefl-.] Naut., 
a piece of timber fastened edgewise under 
the bottom of a ship, for 
the purpose of keeping 
her from rolling heavily 
and from drifting to lee- 
ward. Also called bilge- 
piece. 

bilge-keelson (bilj'kel'- 
son), . A timber ex- 
tending fore and aft in a 
ship, inside the bilge, to 
strengthen the frame. 

bilge-piece (bili'pes), . 

lt1A l-nV /YtTl.'~*l A n~l 




A. A. Bilce-keeU. 

Same as bilge-keel. 



bilge-plank (bilj'plangk), . Naut., one of 
the thick planks which run round the bilge of 
a ship, both inside and outside. 

bilge-pump (bilj'pump), n. Xaut., a pump for 
removing Dilge-water from a ship. 

bilge-water (bilj'wa'ter), n. Naut., water 
which enters a ship and lies upon her bilge or 
bottom. If allowed to remain, it acquires an 
offensive penetrating smell Bilge-water dis- 
charge, a device for discharging bilge-water automati- 
cally. 

bilgeways (bilj'waz), n. }>l. Naut., a series of 
timbers placed on each side of a vessel on the 
launching-ways, to assist in supporting her 
hull iu launching. Also called bulgeways and 
bilge-coad. See cut under launch. 

bilgy (bil'ji), a. [< bilge + -yl.] Having the 
properties (as the smell, etc.) of bilge-water. 

Bilharzia (bil-har'zi-a). . [NL., named after 
Theodor Bilharz, an old helminthologist.] A 
genus of the order Trematoidea, or fluke-worms, 
endoparasitic in the blood-vessels of man, espe- 
cially in the urinary organs, the ova escaping 
through an ulceration which the presence of 
the parent causes. The animal is dioecious, the male 
being the larger and retaining the female in a gynieco- 
phore or canal formed by an Involution of the edges of 
the concave side of the body. 

biliary (bil'i-a-ri), a. [= F. biliaire, < NL. 
liilioris, < L. bilis, bile.] 1. Belonging to the 
bile ; conveying the bile : as, a biliary duct. 
2. Bilious. [Rare.] Biliary calculus, a concre- 
tion which forms in the gall-bladder or bile-ducts; gall- 
stone. These calculi are usually composed for the most 
part of cholesterin. Biliary colic, see colic. Biliary 
duct. See duel. 

biliation (bil-i-a'shon), n. [< NL. fti7mHo(n-), 
< L. bilis, bile.] The excretion of bile. Dun- 
nlison. 

bilicyanin (bil-i-si'a-nin), . [< L. bilis, bile, 
+ E. eyanin.] A product of the oxidation of 
bilirubin which appears blue in an acid and 
violet in a neutral solution. See bilirubin. 

bilifulvin (bil-i-ful'vin), n. [< L. bills, bile, + 
fulrus, fulvous. ] An old name for more or less 
impure bilirubin. 



bilifuscin 

bilifuscin (bil-i-fus'in), n. [< L. Mis, bile, 4- 
J'UHCIIK. fuscous, + -i2.] A substance described 
as existing in very small quantities in gall- 
stones. It is of a dark-green color, insoluble in water, 
chloroform, and ether, soluble in alcohol and alkalis, 
and reacts with nitric acid like bilimbin. Its formula is 
CiflHaoNaOj. 

bilihumin (bil-i-hu'min), n. [< L. bilis, bile, + 
humus, ground, + -i 2 .] The insoluble black- 
ish residue left after bile or gallstones have 
been exhausted by ether, water, chloroform, 
alcohol, and dilute acids. 

bilimbi, bilimbing (bi-lim'bi, -bing), n. [Also 
bilimby, blimbing, repr. Tamil bilimbi, Malay bi- 
limbiiKj, Singhalese Win.] The native name of 
the fruit of an East Indian tree-sorrel, Aver- 
rhoa Bilimbi. It is very acid, but is much 
esteemed when made into syrup, candied, or 
pickled. See Averrhoa. 

bilimentt, . [Also billiment, belliinent, etc., by 
apheresis for habiliment.] An ornamental part 
of a woman's dress; especially, the attire of 
the head or neck. 

Then beganne alle the gentylwomen of Yngland to were 
Krenche whoodes with bellementtes of golde. 

Citron, of Qrey Friars (1558), ed. Camden Soc. 

Biliuient lace, an ornamental lace used in the sixteenth 
century for trimming. 

bilin (bil'in), n. [< L. bills, bile, + -in 2 .] The 
mixture of sodium glycocholate and taurocho- 
late isolated from the bile, constituting a gum- 
my mass of a pale-yellow color. 

bilinear (bi-lin'e-ar), a. [< 6i- 2 + linea, line, + 
-or.] Consisting of or having reference to two 
lines : as, bilinear coordinates. 

bilineate (bl-lin'e-at). a. [< L. W-, two-, + 
linea, line, + -atel.] In zool., marked with two 
lines, generally parallel. 

bilineated (bl-lin 'e-a-ted), a. Same as bilineate. 

bilingual (bi-ling'gwal), a. [< L. bilinguis, 
speaking two languages, < bi-, two-, + lingua 
= E. tongue, language.] 1. Containing or ex- 
pressed in two languages ; recorded in two ver- 
sions of different language. 

I endeavored by the help of a bilingual inscription to 

determine the values of certain of the Hittite characters. 

A. H. Sayce, Pref. to Schliemann's Troja, p. xxiii. 

2. Speaking two languages or a mixture of two. 
[Rare.] 

Large numbers of Chinese, Arabs, and Africans, who 
come to India for a short or long time, and become prac- 
tically bilingual. R. N. Oust, Mod. Langs. E. Ind., p. 16. 

bilinguar (bl-ling'gwar), a. Same as bilingual. 

bilinguist (bi-ling'gwist), n. [< L. bilinguis 
(see bilingual), after linguist.] One who speaks 
two languages. Hamilton. 

bilingUOUS (bl-ling'gwus), a. [< L. bilinguis : 
see bilingual.] Having two tongues, or speak- 
ing two languages. Johnson. 

bilious (bil'yus), a. [< L. biliosus, full of bile, < 
bills, bile: see bile 2 .] 1. Of or pertaining to, or 
partaking of the nature of, bile. 2. In pathol., 
noting, subject to, or characterized by a dis- 
ordered condition of the system, once supposed 
to depend on a derangement of the secretion of 
bile, marked by anorexia, furred tongue, a bad 
taste in the mouth, dull headache, drowsiness, 
disturbed sleep, with general malaise and de- 
pression. It is peculiarly amenable to mercurial ca- 
thartics. This state seems to depend on a subacute dys- 
pepsia, with possibly a derangement of the elaborative 
functions of the liver. 

3. Suffering from biliousness. 4. Figurative- 
ly, choleric; testy; cross. 

Controversy seems altogether to have been the very 
breath of his nostrils ; he was called, and not without rea- 
son, " bilious Bale." A. W. Ward, Eng. Dram. Lit., 1. 105. 
At constant quarrel with the angry and bilious island 
legislature. Emerson, West Indian Emancipation. 

Bargain struck, 

They straight grew bilious, wished their money back, 
Repented them, no doubt. 

Browning, Ring and Book, I. ^Ifi. 

biliousness (bil'yus-nes), n. [< bilious + -ness] 
The condition of being bilious. 

biliphsein (bil-i-fe'in), . [Also written bili- 
pliein, biliphain, < L. bilis, bile, + Gr. <txu6f, 
dusky, dun-gray, + -iifi.] A name formerly 
given to an impure bilirubin. Also cltolopluein . 

biliprasin (bil-i-pra'sin), . [< L. bilis, bile, + 
prasum, a leek (see prase, prason), + -j'n 2 .] A 
bile-pigment found in human gallstones and 
in the bile of neat cattle, and regarded by some 
authorities as identical with bihverdin. 

bilipurpin (bil-i-per'pin), n. [< L. bilis, bile, 
+ purp(ura), purple color, + -in 2 .] A purple 
compound obtained from biliverdin. See bilc- 
pigment. 

bilirubin (bil-i-ro'bin), . [< L. Mis, bile, + 
rub(er), red, + -in 2 .] A red bile-pigment, the 



552 

chief coloring matter of human bile and that 
of carnivorous animals, to which the formula 
C 1 gH 18 N 2 O 3 has been given, when isolated it 

forms an orange-red powder or red rhombic prisms. It is 
insoluble in water, little soluble in alcohol and ether, but 
readily soluble iu chloroform or alkalis. 
biliteral (bl-lit'e-ral), a. and n. [< L. bi-, two-, 
+ litera, Kffer,"letter : see literal.] I. a. Con- 
sisting of two letters: as, a biliteral root in 
language. Sir W. Jones. 

Although we may call all these verbal bases roots, they 
stand to the first class in about the same relation as the 
triliteral Semitic roots to the more primitive biliteral. 

Max Miitter, Sci. of Lang., p. 263. 

II. n. A word, root, or syllable formed of 
two letters. 

-bility. [F. -bilite = Sp. -bilidad = Pg. -bilidaclc 
= It. -bilita, also in older form F. -blete, OF. 
-blete (> ME. -blete), etc., < L. -Ulita(t-)s (ace. 
-bilitatem), < -bili-s (E. -ble) + -ta(t-)s (E. -ty), 
being the termination of nouns from adjectives 
in -bilis : see -ble] A termination of English 
nouns from adjectives in -ble, as in nobility, 
capability, credibility, etc., from noble, capable, 
credible, etc. See -able. 

biliveM, bilive 2 t. See belice*-, belice*. 

biliverdin (bil-i-ver'din), n. [< Ij. bilia, bile,+ 
F. verd (see vert), green, + -i 2 .] The green 
pigment found in the bile of herbivorous ani- 
mals, to which the formula 01^20^05 has 
been given. It is produced artificially by the 
oxidation of bilirubin. See biliprasin. 

bilk (bilk), v. t. [Origin obscure; appar. slang; 
by some supposed to be a minced form of balk*. 
Cf. the senses of bilk, n] 1. In cribbage, to 
balk or spoil any one's score in his crib. 2. 
To frustrate or disappoint. 3. To deceive or 
defraud; leave in the lurch; cheat: often with 
of: as, to bilk one of his due ; to bilk a credi- 
tor; "don't you bilk me," Spectator. 4. To 
evade or escape from ; dodge ; elude. 
I don't intend to bilk my lodgings. Fielding. 

He cannot drink five bottles, bilk the score, 
Then kill a constable, and drink five more. 

Cowper, Progress of Error, 1. 193. 

bilk (bilk), w. [See the verb.] 1. In cribbage, 
the spoiling of one's score in the crib. 2f. 
Nothing; vain words. 

Tub. He will have the last word, though he talk bilk 
fort. 

Hugh. Bilk! what's that? 

Tub. Why, nothing ; a word signifying nothing, and 
borrowed here to express nothing. 

B. Jonson, Tale of a Tub, i. 1. 

Bilk is said to be an Arabick word, and signifies no- 
thing ; cribbidge players understand it best. 

Blount, Olossographia (ed. 1681), p. 85. 

[To call a word "Arabic" or "Hebrew" was and still i.s 
a way of dignifying slang or jargon.] 
3. A trick; a fraud. [Bare.] 4. A cheat; a 
swindler. 

bilkt (bilk), a. [See the verb.] Fallacious; un- 
reliable. 

To that [Oates's plot] and the author's bilk account of it 
I am approaching. Roger North, Examen, p. 129. 

bill 1 (bil), n. [< ME. bill, bil, bille, bile, < AS. 
bile, beak, also used of an elephant's proboscis ; 
not found in other 
Teut. languages ; prob. 
connected with bilft. 
The Ir. Gael, bil, beak, 

n mouth, is appar. of E. 

" origin.] 1. The beak or 
neb of a bird, it consists 

:,> of the upper and lower man- 
dibles, so far as these are 
sheathed in horn. The ap- 
posed edges of the mandibles 
are the tomia; the line of 
apposition, the commissure; 
the highest middle length- 
wise line of the upper mandi- 
ble, the culmen or ridge ; and 
the corresponding line of the 





Diagram of Bill. 

a, upper mandible ; , culmen ; lower mandible, the gonvs or 

c , nasal fossa ; d, nostril ; e, com- fr --; rj-t.. ., - , f % 

missural point; /, upper tomi- JJJ t ln .f "f /"S? , 1S a 

urn ; f, rictus ; *, forehead ; i, P't, usually close to the base 

ramus : j. lower tomium ; *, of the upper mandible, in 

gonys; /, lower mandible, which the nostrils open; a 

sheath at the base of the 

bill is the cere. The leading shapes of the bill among 
birds are technically expressed by derivatives and com- 
pounds of runtrutn (which see), as conirostral, dentiros- 
tral, tenuirostral, flssirostral, curvirostral, pressirostral. 
longirostral, cultrirostral, lamellirostral, etc. ; and many 
other descriptive terms are equally technical in this ap- 
plication. 

The bill is hand and mouth in one; the instrument of 
prehension. As hand, it takes, holds, and carries food or 
other substances, and in many instances feels ; as mouth, it 
tears, cuts, or crushes, according to the nature of the sub- 
stances taken; assuming the functions of both lips and 
teeth, neither of which do any recent birds possess. 

Coues, Key to N. A. Birds, p. 100. 



a, conirostral ; b, dentirostral ; c , tenuirostral ; d, fissirostral ; e, longi- 
rostral ; /, pressirostral ; f, cultrirostral ; h, lamellirostral. 

2. The beak, snout, rostrum, or jaws of sundry 
other animals, as turtles, cephalopods, many 

bill 1 (bil), V. i. [< ME. Ullen, peck as birds, < 
bil, bile, beak: see bill 1 , n] 1. To join bills or 
beaks, as doves ; caress in fondness. 

Doves, they say, will bill, 
After their pecking and their murmuring. 

B. Jonmn, Catiline, ii. 1. 

2f. To rub the bill. [Bare.] 

Thanne geth he [the eagle] to a ston, 

And he biUeth ther on, 

Billeth til his bee biforn 

Haveth the wrengthe [crookedness] forloren. 

Bestiary, in Old Eng. Misc. (ed. Morris), p. 82. 

Bill and COO, to kiss and caress and talk nonsense, as 

lovers : a phrase derived from the habits of doves. 

Come, we must interrupt your billing and cooing awhile. 

Sheridan, The Rivals, iv. 2. 

bill 2 (bil), n. [< ME. bill, bille, bil, a pick or 
mattock, poet, a sword, < AS. bil, bill (only 
poet.) = OS. bil, a sword, = MD. bille = OHG. 
bill, fern., MHG. bil, neut., G. bille, a pick to 
sharpen millstones, = Sw. bill, a 
plowshare; prob. connected with 
bilfi, a beak, and perhaps ult. with 
Skt. y bhid, split, cleave. Associ- 
ated in sense with these words and 
somewhat confused with them, but 
etymol. distinct, are OHG. bilial, bi- 
f, bil, MHG. biliel, bil, G. beil = 
_ MD. bijl, an ax, hatchet, = Dan. bil 
= Sw. bila ; prob. = Icel. bildr, bilda, 
an ax ; cf . Ir. Gael, biail, ax, hatchet. 
In sense 5. bill 2 may be an applica- 
tion of bill 1 .] If. In the earliest 
use, a kind of broadsword. 2. An 
obsolete military weapon, consist- 
ing of a broad hook-shaped blade, 
old English having a short pike at the back 
Bin. time of and another at the summit, fixed 
to a long handle. It was used until the 
fifteenth century by the English infantry, especially in 
defending themselves against cavalry, and to the end of 
the seventeenth century by civic guards or watchmen, etc. 
They were formerly sometimes called brown-bills or black- 
bills, probably because not brightened, but colored like 
the modern rifle-barrel. 

I cannot see how sleeping should offend, only have a 
care that your bills be not stolen. Shak., Much Ado, iii. 3. 

Make us a round ring with your bills, my Hectors, 
And let us see what this trim man dares do. 

Beau, and Ft., Philaster, v. 4. 

3. A cutting instrument with a blade hook- 
shaped toward tho point, or having a concave 
cutting edge, used by plumbers, basket-mak- 
ers, gardeners, and others. Such instruments, when 
used by gardeners for pruning hedges, trees, etc., are called 
hedge-bills or bill-hooks. See bill-hook. 

The shomaker must not goe aboue his latchet, nor the 
hedger meddle with any thing but his bil. 

Ltily, Eupluies, Anat. of Wit, p. 203. 

4. A pickax; a mattock. 5. 2faut.: (a) The 
point or extremity of the fluke of an anchor. 
(b) The end of compass- or knee-timber Bows 
and bills. See botf-. 

bill 3 (bil), w. [< ME. bille, a letter, writing, 
< AF. bille, < ML. (Anglo-L.) billa, a writing, 
also a seal, another form of bulla, a writing, an 
edict, prop, a sealed writing, a particular use 
of bulla, a seal, stamp, same as L. bulla, a boss, 
knob, stud, bubble ; hence bull 2 , of which bilfi 
is a doublet.] It. A writing of any kind, as a 
will, a medical prescription, etc. ; a billet. 

His bill 
Iii which that he iwriten had his will. 

Chaucer, Merchant's Talc, 1. 693. 

The Patient sendeth for a Physician, who feeleth his 
Pulse and . . . then prescribeth a Receipt in a Bill. 

Comenius, Visible World, p. 183. 
2f. A written petition ; a prayer. 
And thanne come Pees into parlcment and put forth a bille, 
How Wronge a^eines his wille had his wyf taken. 

1'ifri Plowman (B), iv. 47. 



bill 

3. In lau; a mime fjivon lo several papers in 
lawsuits; particularly, when used alone, to the 

hill in c</lilll/ or bill <;/' iliilli-tln/iil (see below). 
It is a statement ot complaint, an, I couuiii- th, t:ic( com- 
plained i>f, the diiniUKi' unstained, and a petition orprocesa 
anainst I he defendant tor redivs.-. It is used both inequity 
ami in criminal cases. In Sw low, Trr summary appll- 
i :ilioii in writing by way of prtition tii the Court of Ses- 
Ion, Is called 

4. In i-<i in., a written statement of the names, 
quantities, and prices of articles sold by one 
person to another, with the date of sale, or a 
statement of work done, witli the amount 
churned; un aeemnit of money claimed for 
goods supplied or services rendered. 

U |iy, plea.se, nia'uiii, it is only thy little bill, a very 
small arrount, I wanted tht'c to settle. 

Quoted iii IM!II llllaii<l'it Sydney Smith, vil. 

6. An acknowledgment of debt ; a promissory 

note: now obsolete except us sometimes used, 
especially in the United States, for bunk-note. 
See 10. 6. A bill of exchange (which see, 
below). 7. Any written paper containing a 
statement of particulars : as, a bill of charges 
or expenditures; a bill of fare or provisions, 
etc. 8. A form or .draft of a proposed statute 
presented to a legislature, but not yet enacted 
or passed and made law. In some cases statutes are 
calli'il ixih, but usually they are qualified by some de- 
scription : as, a bill of attainder. 
9. A paper written or printed, and intended 
to pave public notice of something, especially 
by being exhibited in some public place : an ad- 
vertisement posted ; a placard. 10. A bank- 
note : usually with its amount : as, a five-dollar 
bill. [U. S.J Accommodation bill. See accommo- 
dation. Appropriation bill. See appropriation. Aft. 
proved bill or note. See iippnwi. Bank post-bill, 
a bill for a sum not less than 10 issued by the Bank 
of England without charge, payable at seven days' sight 
and accepted at time of drawing, for convenience in re- 
mitting l>\ post. Bills of this kind originated in 1738, 
\vhen mail-robberies were frequent in England, and are 
not now in use. Bill In equity, in an equity suit, the 
pleading in which the plaintiff sets forth the circum- 
stances on which he bases his claim for relief. It corre- 
sponds to the complaint or declaration at common law. 
Bill Of adventure, a writing signed by a merchant. 
ship-owner, or master to show that goods shipped on board 
a certain vessel are at the venture of another person, he 
himself being answerable only for their delivery. Bill Of 
credit, (a) A letter sent by an agent or other person to 
a merchant requesting him to give credit to the bearer for 
goods or money, (b) Paper issued by the authority and 
on the faith of a State to be circulated as money. The 
Constitution of the United States (Art. I. 10) provides 
that no State shall emit bills of credit, or make anything 
but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of debts. 

Mr. Bancroft shows by a careful upturning of the colo- 
nial records that bills of credit were nothing else than 
Government legal- tender notes. The Century, XXXII. 160. 
Bill Of debt, an old term including promissory notes and 
bonds for the payment of money. Bill Of entry, a writ- 
ten account of goods entered at tile custom-house, whether 
imported or intended for export. Bill Of exceptions. 
See exception. Bill Of exchange, an order in writing, 
addressed by one person to another, to pay on demand or 
at a fixed or determinable future time a certain sum in 
money to a specified person or to his order. Every com- 
pleted bill of exchange should bear on its face the follow- 
ing : (a) three names, namely, those of the drawer, the 
drawee, and the payee ; (6) the sum to be paid ; (c) two 
dates, namely, the date of drawing and a time for pay- 
ment or the means of determining the time, as where the 
bill is payable at sight or a certain time after sight, that 
is, presentment ; (d) the place where It is drawn. If the 
drawer ami drawee are the same person, even in legal 
effect of name, as where a corporation by one officer 
draws on itself by naming another officer, as such, as the 
payee, the paper is not a bill of exchange, but a mere 
draft or promissory note. The drawer and the payee, 
however, may be the same, as where one draws to his own 
order and indorses to a third person. If the paper is not 
payable absolutely, as where it is expressed to be paya- 
ble only out of a particular fund, it is not a bill of ex- 
change ; but a payment absolutely ordered may be di- 
rected to be charged to a particular account of the drawer. 
The words " value received" are usually inserted, but are 
not essential to validity. The drawee of a bill becomes 
liable by accepting it. usually done by writing his name 
across its face, and be is thereafter called the accepter; but 
a bill is negotiable before acceptance. In a foreign bill 
of exchange, the drawer and drawee are residents of differ- 
ent countries. In this respect, in the United States, the 
residents of the dilteretit states are foreign to one another. 
Bills Of exchange acts, a short name by which are 
known several British statutes (1871, 1H7H, and 1882), the 
last of which en, titles the whole body uf British law re- 
lating to negotiable piper. B1H of fare, in a hotel or 
restaurant, a li>t of dishes to be served in tine course at a 
regular meal, or which may be ordered. BUI Of health, 
a certificate signed by a consul or other authority as to 
the health of a ship's company at the time of her clear- 
ing any port or place. A cl> itn hill imports that the ship 
sail-''! at a time when no infectious disorder was supposed 
to e\i-t; a Miv/rfc,/ or ti'in-h- d hill imports that there 
were rumors of such a disorder, but that it had not ap- 
l>r:n et! ; iiftnil hill, or tile absence of a clean bill, imports 
that the place of departure was infected when the vessel 
left. Bill of Indictment, see imiietuift.--wi of 
lading, a receipt for goods delivered to a carrier for 
transportation. It is usually of ^omls shipped on Iniard 
of a vessel and signed liy the master of the vessel, ac- 
knowledging the receipt of the goods, and usually prom- 
ising to deliver them in good condition at the place di. 



568 

rrctcd, dangers of thr sea, the art of <Jod, perils of war, 
etc., rxccpt<-<i. In !"[ i'_-n Hint.- tln-> ;u r u>ii;ill> drawn 
up In triplirat-'s. i>m- "t' wliiHi ^"o tn (lit- .-liipprr, one to 
tin- conngnee, ;md "ii.- is ivt;iint_'d by the maMrr. "ftm 
abbreviate! It. L. Bills Of Lading Act. a liritish stat- 
ute of l-i..." t , \r--tiM_' n-lit> under bills of lading in th<- 
consignee or itnlni --r. !>uf i>-.-i-\iny rik'ht of *toppji^c in 
tnmtiitu ami claims for freight. Similar statutes in otln r 
jurisdictions are variously known. Bill Of mortality. 
S. . mm tniitif. Bill Of parcels, :m account Kiv--u by tin- 
seller to the buyer, cuiitaininu particulars of the oo.g 
bought and <>f their prices; an invoice. BUI of particu- 
lars, a writing setting forth in detail the partteiuan of a 
nutter stated in a more, general form in a pleading. Bill 
Of Rights. (") An logUlb statute of Itw* (1 Win. and 
Mary, Sess. 2, c. 2)deelarinu r the rights and liberties of the 
subject, and settling the *u<v.^siMi, of tbtefOW&la William 
of'Oraimc and Mary, and to the rightful heirs of the lat- 
ter, but excluding any beinj; Konntn Catholics; it also 
provided that Protestants might have in their possession 
anus for defense suitable to their conditions. (/;) A simi- 
lar statement or declaration of personal rights in the 
constitution of a State of the American Union, and incor- 
porated in the amendments to the Constitution of the 
United States. BUI Of sale, a formal instrument for 
the conveyance or transfer of personal chatteU, as house- 
hold furniture, stock in a shop, shares of a ship, or the like. 
It is often given to a creditor in security for money bor- 
rowed, or an obligation otherwise incurred. When it ex- 
pressly empowers the receiver to Bell the goods if the 
money is not repaid with interest at the appointed time, 
or the obligation not otherwise discharged, the contract 
is commonly called in the United States a chattel tnort- 
gage, not a bill of sale. Bills of sale acts, a name given 
to several English 8tatutes(lB78, 1S79, 1882, and 1883), regu- 
lating bills of sale, especially when given without trans- 
ferring possession of the property, and requiring a schedule 
and registration, for the prevention of fraud on creditors. 

BUI Of sight, a form of entry at a custom-house by 
which goods respecting which the importer haa not the 
full particulars may be provisionally landed for examina- 
tion. Bill of stores, a license granted at a custom-house 
to merchant -ships to carry stores and provisions for their 
voyage duty-free. Bill Of sufferance, a coasting license 
to trade from port to port without paying customs duty, 
the dutiable goods being loaded and landed at sufferance 
wharfs. BUI payable, bill receivable, a bill of ex- 
change, promissory note, or other commercial paper. It 
is called a bill payable by the person who is to pay it, and 
a bill receivable by the person who holds it. Separate ac- 
counts under these names are usually kept in mercantile 
books. Blacks tone 's Hard-labor Bill, an English stat- 
ute of 1779 (19 Geo. III., c. 74) relating to the transporta- 
tion, imprisonment, and punishment of convicts. It es- 
tablished " penitentiary houses," required that prisoners 
should be put to severe work according to their ability 
and be separately connned when at rest, and prescribed 
minute regulations for their care and control. Bland 
Silver Bill, a United States statute of 1878 (20 Stat, 25) : 
so called from its author, Kichard P. Bland, a member of 
the House from Missouri. It reestablished the silver dol- 
lar containing 412} grains troy of standard silver as a legal 
tender; but its special feature was a clause requiring the 
Treasury to purchase every month not less than two mil- 
lion nor more than four million dollars' worth of silver 
bullion and to coin it into dollars. Boston Port Bill, an 
English statute of 1774 (14 Geo. III., c. 19) incited by the 
destruction of tea in Boston harbor. It closed the port of 
Boston to trade, allowing the admission only of food and 
fuel brought from other parts of America. Creditor's 
bill. See creditor. Deceased Wife's Sister Bill, a bill 
repeatedly introduced into the British Parliament to ab- 
rogate the rule of English law which forbids a widower U) 
marry the sister of his deceased wife. Owing to opposi- 
tion, chiefly on the part of the clergy, it has not up to this 
time (1889) become a law. Deficiency bill, (a) A short 
loan or advance made to the British government by the 
Bank of England whenever the taxes received are insuf- 
ficient to pay the dividends due on government stocks. 
(b) A legislative hill appropriating an amount of money 
required to make up the deficiency of a previous appro- 
priation which has proved inadequate. Exchequer 
bill. See exchequer. General Deficiency Bill, the 
name of that one of the appropriation bills passed by 
Congress which covers the deficiencies of previous appro- 
priation bills. Home-Rule Bill, a bill introduced into 
the British Parliament by Mr. Gladstone, in 1886, to pro- 
vide a separate parliament for Ireland. It was defeated 
in its second reading, June 7, 1886. Jew Bill, an English 
statute of 1753 (repealed in 1754) enabling Jews who were 
foreigners to be naturalized without first partaking of the 
sacrament. Kansas-Nebraska Bill, an act of the Uni- 
ted States Congress of 1854 for the organization of the Ter- 
ritories of Kansas ami Nebraska- It abrogated that pro- 
vision of the Missouri compromise of 18*20 which forbade 
slavery north of latitude 36' 30* (the southern boundary of 
Missouri), left the decision of all questions as to slavery 
in the Territories or States formed from them to the rep- 
resentatives of the people residing there, extended the 
fugitive-slave law to these Territories, and allowed appeal 
in cases affecting the title to slaves from the local courts 
to the United States Supreme Court. The political conse- 
quences of the bill were most important, causing the de- 
struction of the Whig party and the struggle between the 

roslavery and antislavery parties for the control of the 
erritories, which culminated in the war of secession and 
the total abolition of slavery. Original bill in equity, 
in fair, a bill of complaint originating a litigation; one 
not connected with a previous bill, as distinguished from 
one growing out of a matter before litigated in the court 
by the same person standing in the same interests. Pen- 
dleton BUI, a United states statute of l^'i (> Stat., 403) 
regulating mid improving the civil service: so called after 
its promoter. Senator lieorge H. Peiidleton of Ohio. It 
provides far tm competitive examination of applicants for 
olhre, and their appointment to vacancies according to 
their grade as established )v the examining i-Mininission. 

Poland Bill, a United States statute of 1S74 (18 Stat, 

Q called after it author, Luke P. Poland, a member of 
the House of Representatives from Vermont, the design of 
which was to render etfeetive the authority of the "iti.-ers 
ami courts of the United states in the Territory of I lah. 
by prescribing the duties uf the United States marshal 



billet 

and attorney , the jurisdiction "f the courts, tin- impanel- 
ing of jurii-s, appeals, etc.- -Private bill, ana< tof a legis- 
lature which deals with f .1 -.iiiL-lr individual 
or awociation, or of a ^ronj, of m,!i\ iduals. as distinguish- 
ed (rum -aitccting tin- community generally, or all ]T- 

olis of a specified claw) or 1m ality. It i regarded rather 
as In the nature of a judicial award or decree than as ft 
statute or law. To enter a bill abort. See enter. To 
note a bill of exchange. SIT jmte, r. f. (For other 
not,-, I I, ill, on ],:irtii nlar subjects, such as Kr.form Hill, tee 
ih, v. ord characterizing tin- liill. KorothiTs l>< < r known 

t.y the term <!>!. *ttn!. , etc., 866 those Words. ) 

bill 3 (bil), r. t. [< bills, .] i. TO enter in a 
bill ; make a bill or list of; charge or enter in 
an account for future payment : as, to bill goods 
or freight to a consignee ; to bill passengers in a 
stage-coach; to bill a customer's purchases. 
See book, r. t. 

Parties in the United States having uond to ship to 
i 01, ;i may, as heretofore, have tin in i,ill,:l to Yokohama 
by American or other lines and then rebilled to Corea. 

U. S. COM. Rep., No. 73, p. cxil. 

2. To advertise by bill or public notice ; an- 
nounce on a play-bill: as, he was billed to 
appear as Othello. 

bill 4 (bil), n. [Var. of E. dial, beel, beal, < leal, 
v., var. of bell*.] A bellow or roar: applied to 
the boom of the bittern. 

The bittern's hollow bill was heard. 

Wordmmrth, Evening Walk. 

billage 1 (bil'aj), n. [E. dial., prob. < ML. bir- 
legia: see by-late.] A method of settling dis- 
putes about boundaries by arbitration. [Local, 
Eng. (Kent).] 

billage^t, and v. A corruption of bilge. 

billard (bil'Srd), n. [See bil.] A local Eng- 
lish name of the coalfisb. 

Billbergia (bil-ber'ji-ii), n. [NL., named after 
J. Gr. Billberg, a Swedish botanist.] A genus 
of epiphytic plants, natural order Bromeliacea;. 
There are 20 species, with crowded spinosely serrate leaves 
and panicled or racemose flowers. They grow on trees in 
tropical America, and have been Introduced Into hothouses 
for the sake of their beautiful and fragrant flowers. 

bill-board 1 (bil'bord), n. K bilft + board.] 
Naut., a projection sheathed with iron placed 
abaft the cathead, 
for the bill of the an- 
chor to rest on. See 
anchor-lining. 

bill-board" (bil'- 
bord), n. [< bills + 
board.] A board or 
tablet on which ad- 
vertising bills or pla- 
cards may be posted. 

bill-book (biVbuk), 
n. A book in which 
a merchant keeps a 




I, Bill-board ; 3, Bill-port. 



record of the details of his bills of exchange, 
promissory notes, etc., payable and receivable. 

bill-broker (bil'brp'ker), n. One whoso busi- 
ness it is to negotiate the discount of bills of 
exchange, either simply as agent or by buying 
and selling again, with or without a guaranty. 
[British.] 

bill-Chamber (bil'cham"bcr), n. [< bilP + 
chamber.] A department of the Court of Ses- 
sion in Scotland in which one of the judges 
officiates at all times during session and vaca- 
tion. All proceedings for summary remedies or for pro- 
tection against some threatened action, as, for example, 
interdicts, begin in the bill-chaml>er. The process of se- 
questration or bankruptcy issues from this department of 
the court. 

billed (bild), a. [ME. billid; < bilfl + -e(P.] 
Furnished with or having a bill or beak: used 
chiefly in composition : as, a short-billed bird. 

billementt, n. See biliment. 

billeti (bil'et), . [< ME. billette, < AF. billette 
(ML. billeta, F. billet, billette), dim. of bilk, a 
writing: see bill 3 .] 1. A small paper or note in 
writing ; a short letter or document. 

I got your melancholy Lillet liefore we sat down to din- 
ner. Sterne, Letters, Ixxxiv. 

2. A ticket given by a billet-master or other 
officer directing the person to whom it is ad- 
dressed to provide board and lodging for the 
soldier bearing it. 

The soldiers distributed themselves among the houses 
of the most opulent citizens, no one escaping a billet who 
was rich enough to receive such company. 

Motley, Dutch Republic, II. 547. 

Hence 3. The place where a soldier is lodged ; 
lodging; accommodation. 4. The place (mark- 
ed by a numbered hammock-hook) assigned to 
each of the crew of a man-of-war for slinking 
his hammock. Hence 5. A place, situation, 
position, or appointment: as, he is looking 
for a, billet. [Vulgar.] 6f. A ballot or vot- 
ing-paper Act Of Billets (Scotch Parliament. 1662X 
a measure by which the twelve persons exempted from 



billet 

the Kind's Indemnity were to be chosen by secret voting. 
X E 1). Billet de change. [F.] In law, a contract to 
furnish a bill of exchange ; a contract to pay the value of 
a bill of exchange already furnished. Bouvier. Every 
bullet has its billet, every bullet has , its destination as- 



554 



billowy 



field. Also called Wlety_ counter-billety. (b) billingsgate (bil 'ingz-gat), [Formerly also 



Strewed all over with billets. It is usual to 
arrange the billets alternately, each coming 
under a space, and the reverse. 
- - [< toll* (cf. its L. name, 



direct (a sold'ier) by a ticket or note where to 
lodge ; hence, to quarter or place in lodgings, 
as soldiers in private houses. 

Retire thee : KO where thou art billeted. 

Skak., Othello, ii. 3. 

If at home any peace were intended us, what meant 
those billeted Soldiers in all parts of the Kingdom, and 
the design of German Horse, to subdue us in our peace- 
full Houses? Milton, Eikonoklastes, ix. 

The rude, insolent, unpaid and therefore insubordinate 
soldiery were billeted in every house In the city. 

Motley, Dutch Republic, II. 289. -foill-hawk (bil'hak), n. 

II. intrans. To be quartered; lodge: spe- go called from a certain resemblance to a hawk's 



bill. 



cifieally applied to soldiers. 

He billets in my lodgings. Dr. Prideatix, To Abp. Ussher. bill-head (bil'hed), n. [< bill 3 + head.] A 
billet 2 (bil'et), n. [Also tollot, < ME. toilette, printed paper containing the jiame^address. 



Billinsgate, Jieelingsgate, < ME. liellinges sate, 
i. e., Billing's gate (cf. AS. Rilling, a patro- 
nymic name), the name of one of the ancient 
gates of the city of London, and of a fish- 
market near it, noted for the foulness of the 
language used there.] Profane or scurrilous 
language or abuse ; blackguardism. 

See garpike. 2. The skipper, Scorn beresox salt- Satire is nothing but ribaldry and billingsgate. 

nis, a synentognathous fish of the family Scorn- Addison, Papers. 

beresocidai or family Exoc&ttdtt. Also called pillion (bil'yon), n. [F., contracted from *to- 

million, < L. bi-, twice (second power), + F. mil- 
lion, million.] 1. In Great Britain, a million 
of millions : as many millions as there are units 
in a million (1,000,000,000,000). 2. In France 
and the United States, a thousand millions 
(1,000,000,000). [The word trillion was introduced into 
French in the sixteenth century, in the sense of a million 
to the second power, as a trillion was a million to the third 
power. At that time numbers were usually pointed off 
in periods of six figures. In the seventeenth century the 
custom prevailed of pointing off numbers in periods of 
three and this led to the change in the meaning of the 
word trillion in French. The words billion, trillion, etc., 



saury. 3. The spear-fish, Tetrapturm albidus, 
of the family Histiophoridas. It has a prolonged 
beak like a swordflsh, and occurs along the eastern cpast 
of the United States and in the Caribbean sea. 
4. One of the garfishes, Tylosurus longirostris, 
of the family Belonidis. See garfish, and cut 
under Belonidce. 

A form of saw-tooth, 



liulpt < OF bil'lete Tf toilette also tollot, a block and business of a person or firm, etc., with did not apparently come into use in English until a later 
bylet, <. U* . OUiew, *. ' < e > j " " ' , , . J^TL ft( ,, . ollr ,t, ; writing, date, for Locke ("Essay on the Human Understanding, 



n 



an account in writing, 

x f [< WH2 + hook.] A 

form of small hatchet curved inward 
at the point of the cutting edge, used 
for pruning trees, hedges, and the 
like, and by sappers and miners to cut 
pickets, rods, and withes for gabions, 
fascines, hurdles, saprollers, etc. 

He slept on the ground, or on the hard floor, with a W- l,illi ar (l n. See billiards, 
let of wood for his pillow. Prescott, Ferd. and Isa., n. B. {|J{g!|i: ball (bil 'yard-bal), n. A 
2. In her., a bearing in the form of a small small roun( j i vory ball used in play- 
rectangle, usually set with the long sides verti- j billiards, 
cal. The number, position, and tincture must always be Wlflard-cloth (bil'vard-kloth), . A 

i *%, ; n ., t .... t ;, ..i aVutiiro M***XMI* ** vw** \ j ., ti 



orTog of wood, diminutives of tolle, < ML. billus, space below for 
a log, a stock of a tree ; origin unknown. Cf. bill-hook (bil'huk), n. 
billiards.] 1. A small stick of wood ; especial- 
ly, a stick of wood cut for fuel. A billet of fire- 
wood must, by a statute of Elizabeth, measure 3 feet 4 
inches in length. Bundles of billets are called billet-wood. 
What shall these billets do? be pil'd in my wood-yard? 
Beau, and Fl., King and No King, v. 3. 



specified : thus, the illustration shows 
three billets azure in chief. Billets 
should always be represented fiat, with- 
out shadow or relief. See bricks, 4. 
3. In arch. : (a) An ornament 
much used in early medieval 
work, consisting of an imitation 
of a wooden billet, or a small 
section of a rod, of which a se- 
ries are placed at regular inter- 
vals in or upon a molding, usu- 



L 

Bill-hook. 



Three Billets azure 
in chief. 



green woolen cloth, piece-dyed, 

from 72 to 81 inches wide, manufactured to 
cover billiard-tables. 

billiard-cue (bil'yard-ku), n. The tapering 
stick with which "billiard-players strike the 
balls. 

billiardist (bil'yar-dist), n. [< billiard-s + -ist.] 
One skilled in the game of billiards ; a profes- 
sional billiard-player. 



date, for Locke ("Essay on the Human Understanding," 
ii. 16, 6, 1690) speaks of the use of trillion as a novelty. 
The English meaning of the word is thus the original and 
most systematic. The word billion is not used in the 
French of eyery-day life, one thousand millions being 
called a milliard.] 

billionaire (.bil'yon-ar), n. [< billion + -aire, 
as in millionaire.] " One who possesses property 
worth a billion reckoned in standard coin of 
the country. [Bare.] 

One would like to give a party now and then, if one 
could be a billionaire. 0. W. Holmes, Elsie Vernier, vii. 

billman (bil'man), n.; pi. tollmen (-men). [< toW 
+ man.] 1. A soldier or civic guardsman of 
former times armed with a bill. 
In rushed his bill-men. Mir. for Mags., p. 427. 

A biUnum of the guard. Saville, tr. of Tacitus, i. 24. 
When the bill-men saw that the fire was overaw'd, and 
could not doe the deed [burn the martyr], one of them 
steps to him, and stabs him with a sword. 

Milton, Prelatical Episcopacy. 

2. A laborer who uses a bill for cutting. 
[Rare.] 



billiard-marker (bil'yard-mar''ker), n. 1. One billon (bil'on), n. [F., copper coin, base coin, 



ally a concave molding. See cut under billet- w o attends on players at billiards and records a mint for such coin (= Pr. billo = Sp. vellon = 



molding, (b) A checker. 4. A short strap t ne progress of the game. 2. An apparatus 
used for connecting various straps and portions f or registering the points and games scored at 
of a harness. 5. A pocket or loop into which Billiards. 



Pg. bilhao = It. biglione; ML. billio(n-), bil- 
lon), orig. a 'mass' of metal, < bille, a log: see 
billet*. Ullot. In older E. form (by confusion) 



the end of a strap is inserted after passing billiards (bil'yar&z), n - [Formerly also spelled bullion: seebullion 2 .] 1. Gold or silver alloyed 



bloom ; a short billiard, billyar'ds (-Hi-, -lly-, to indicate the f or- 
ire section, and mer pronunciation of F. -11-), billards, etc. ; < F. 

*'T\I!O " A Killof 7 "77 J l~Il >~r.r1r. TIT 1 1 \ m.A lnTn\a -Frwmml^r r. V^ll_ 



through a buckle. 6. A small bloom; a short 

bar of iron or steel, with a square i 

of smaller size than an ordinary "pile." A billet UHard, billiards, billiard-table, formerly a bil- 
is rolled of the size and weight required for the finished ii ar( J-cue, orig. a stick with a curved end,< bille, 
article which is to be produced from it. Billet and zig- , . ' ? vfmtl(T o+ock of a tree (see 7"'- 
zag, a frequent molding in medieval architecture, consist- a log of wood, a young StOCK^ OI a tree ^see p 

ingof atoms ornamented by a]' *- 

billet, a moderate-sized billet, f< 

in circumference. Single billet 

ly, bylaw, 7$ inches in circumference. i WU-UO.DU uxxicu, 

a large billet, formerly, by law, 14 inches in circumfer 

ence. 




bill 3 .] A game played by two or more persons, 
on a rectangular table of special construction 



with copper in large proportions, so as to make 
a base metal. 

In many continental countries the smaller currency has 
been made of a very low alloy of silver and copper, called 
billon. . . . According to an analysis performed at the 
Owen's College chemical laboratory, one part of silver and 
three of copper. Billon is still being coined in Austria. 
Jevons, Money and Mech. of Exchange, p. 125. 

2. Coin struck from an alloy over half copper. 
[F., dim. of tolle : see billeft.] 



billet 3 (bil'et), n. [Cf. billard and bil.] A ( see billiard-table), with ivory balls, which the bm , bir6) ;, r Early mo d. E. also bellow; 

1 ,,1 'O II^.'U ~ ..,-,,, yi-P 4-1-i n simil _-R t?Vl HO Tin /HO llXT _1 . n "U-n ,..,.., i ,,. J-4-P ,. I I , .!.- /1O11 CO "trt OT TT If ft WiiAV \.__'7_^l-,.,' T.I 



players, by means of cues, cause to strike 
against each Other. Formerly in the United States 
the game was played with four balls on a table having six 
pockets, the players scoring both for caroms and for driv- 
ing the balls into the pockets. (See carom.) This is nearly 
the present English game. Since, however, expert players 
could continue an inning at the game thus played almost 
without limit, the pockets were dispensed with and count- 
ing was made to depend entirely upon caroms. Later, pro- 



liich only three balls are used, and this was mod- 
champions' game, in which a line, called a balk- 



local English name of the coal-fish, especially 
when one year old. 

billet-cable (bil'et-ka"bl), n. [< biltetf + cable.] 
A molding occurring in early medieval archi- 
tecture, consisting of a torus or cable orna- 
mented with billets. 

billet-doux (bil-e-do'), n.; pi. billets-doux. [F. ; 

lit., sweet letter: billet, see billeft, n. ; dowx, < L. 

dulcis, sweet.] A love-note or short love-letter. 

Valentine's Day kept courting pretty May, who sate next 

him, slipping amorous billets-doux under the table. 

Lamb, New Year's Coming of Age. 

billeted (bil-e-ta'), a. [F. billete, -ee, < toilette: 
see billet^.] In her., same as billety. 

billet-head (bil'et-hed), n. [< billef + head.] 
1 . Nant. : (a) A cylindrical piece of timber fixed 

in the bow or stern of a whaling-boat, round the Cus hi n before touching any otner can. line singular 
which the line is run out when the whale darts form, billiard, is occasionally used, and is always employed 
off after being harpooned. Also called bollard, 
(b) Same as scroll-head. 2. A loggerhead. 

billeting-roll (bil'et-ing-rol), n. [< billeting 
(< billefi, a stick, + -ingl) + roll.] A set of 

rollers having flattening and edging grooves, billiard-table (bil yard- 
used in rolling iron into merchantable bars. 

billet-master (bil'et-mas"ter), n. One whose 
duty is to issue billets to soldiers. 

billet-molding (bil'et-moFding), n 
any molding ornamented 
with billets. 

billets-doux, . 
of billet-doux. 

billety (bil'e-ti), a. [See 
billetee.] la her.: (a) Di- 
vided into billets: same 



prob. < Icel. bylgja (through an unrecorded 
ME. *bylge) = Sw. bo'lja = Dan. bolge, a billow, 
= OD. bolglie, bulghe = LG. bulge = OHG. 
*bulga, MHG. G. bulge, a billow, prob. related 
to OHG. bidgd, MHG. G. bitlge, a bag ; ult. < 
AS. (etc.) belgan, swell, swell up, whence also 
belloics, belly, etc. Cf. bulge.] A great wave 



fessional players adopted what is known as the French O r surge of the sea, occasioned usually by a 



pla 
game, in whi 

ifledtothec/._ ^ -, _ 

line, is drawn crossing each corner of the table diagonally, 
within which two counts only can be made. Experts now 
play also cuvhion-caroms, in which the cue-ball must touch 
the cushion before hitting the second object-ball, or hit the 
second ball again on a return from the cushion ; the balk- 
line game, which is the same as the champions' game, but 
with balk-lines 14 inches from the cushion all round the 
table ; and the bank-game, in which the cue-hall must hit 
the cushion before touching any other ball. [The singular 



In arch., 



violent wind : much used in figurative applica- 
tions, and often, especially in the plural, as 
merely equivalent to wave : as, the billows of 
sorrow rolled over him. 

You stand upon the rivage and behold 
A city on the inconstant billows dancing. 

SA<ifc.,Hen. V.,iii. (cho.). 

Strongly it bears us along, in swelling and limitless bil- 
lows. Coleridge, tr. of Schiller, Homeric Hexameter. 
= Svn. See wave. 

billow (bil'6), v. [< billow, .] I. intrans. To 
swell ; rise and roll in large waves or surges. 

The black-browed Marseillese . . . do billow on towards 
the Tuileries, where their errand is. 

Carlyle, French Rev., II. iv. 7. 

II. trans. To raise in waves or billows. 
Young. 

[Pp. of billow, f.] 



Plural -r' 



as barrypaty : said of the 




in composition. 

With aching heart, and discontented looks, 
Returns at noon to billiard or to books. 

Cmvper, Retirement.] 

?**.i*Mu.v.-vw.t W / --- -- table on 

which the game of billiards is played, it is made 

of mahogany or other hard wood, of strong and heavy 

construction, and has a raised cushioned ledge all round, , V M/-J\ 

the area thus formed consisting of a bed of slate or marble DlllOWed (Dllou), p. (I. 

covered with fine green cloth. The size varies, the smallest Swelled like a billow. 

common size being 10 by 5 feet, and the largest 12 by 6 feet. 

Some tables are provided with six pockets, one at each cor- 

ner and one in the middle of each of the long sides ; others 

have four pockets : but billiard-tables are now, except in 

Kiiiiland, commonly made without pockets. 

billicock, n. See billycock. 

billing (bil'ing), n. [Ppr. of fciH 1 , i:] A caress- 

Wi *""& V , O/l ,. L1 ,,T 7 ! -,. >t C IlrtU K1I11I1J3CO VI 

ing after the fashion of doves ; love-making : g,. eat d ome bulging fro 
as, "your billings and cooings," Leigh Hunt. 



,.-'6-i), ff. [<WBow + -#lJ Swell- 
ing or swelled into large waves; full ot bil- 
lows or surges ; having an appearance or effect 
as of billows: as, "the tollowie ocean," Chap- 
man, Odyssey, v.; billowy flames. 
We had glimpses of the billowy Campagna, with the 

''-"~ ' its rim. 

Lou-ell, Fireside Travels, p. 205. 



bill-poster 
bill-poster (bil'pos'ter). w. Ono whose busi- bilocular 



5f>r> bin 

'u-lar), a. [< L. M-, two-, + bimestrial (bi-mes'tri-al), a. [< L. bimettris, 



ill-poster (UrpM'tte). . One whose busi- bilocular (i>i-iok'u-iar), a. [< " '"-. .-. + DUE p* . 

ness it is to post up bills and advertisements, loculux, a cell IOCUM. a place), + -ar 3 .] Divid- of two months' duration, < In-, two-, + 



Also called bill-sticker. 
bill-scale (bil'skal), . Tin hard scale or nib 

on the tip of the beak of a chick, aiding it to 

peck the shell in order to make its escape from 

the egg. 

bill-sticker (bil'stik'er), n. Same as bill-pouter. 
billy 1 (!>il'i), ; pi- billies (-iz). [Also spelled 

billir ; of unknown origin. The sense is rather 



ed into two cells, or 
containing two cells 
internally : as, a bilo- 
mlar pericarp. 

biloculate (in-lok'u- 
lat), a. [As bilocul-ar 
+ -ate 1 .] Same as 
Monitor 



too definite to be considered an application bilophodont (bi-lof '- 
, Dick, and Harry") o-dont), a. [< L. bi-, 



(like "Jack," "Jill," "Tom, 
of the familiar proper name Billy, dim. of Bill, a 
ciiiTuptiouof H'ill, which is short for iniliam.] 
A comrade ; a companion ; a brother in arms, 
trade, and the like; a fellow; a young man. 
[Scotch and North. Eng.] 




; section of 
rhich each 
of the two cells i$ also bilocelUte. 



Dilocellate. Enlarged 
a bilocellate anther, in wl 



two-, + Gr. '/.tHjKif, a 

crest, + odoi'f (odovr-) 

=r E. tooth.] Having 

two transverse crests on a molar tooth, as the 

tapirs, dinotheriids, and kangaroos. 

The bilophodont sub-type becomes more marked In Di- 
notherium and in the anterior small molar of Mastodon. 
Owen, Anat. Vert., III. 343. 
billy 2 (bil'i), .; pi. billies (-iz.). [A slang word, biloQUial (bi-16'kwi-al), a. [< L. bi-, two-, + 

i ,, , ,.| i .1 no ii r\n vtiniila i QT\T\1is*a frinTt f\f tYlf* f milittT* i 1_. _*A .': I ...:.! "\ O ...... t- 1 ,.,. *m 



When chapman billing leave the street. 

Buna, Tarn o' Shanter. 



month.] Happening every two months ; con- 
tinuing two months. 

Dante became one of the six priors (June, 1300), an 
office which the Florentines had mule bimextrial in its 
tenure, In order apparently to secure at leant six coustitu- 
tiimal clmnccs "f revolution In the year. 

/."///. Aiiifliu my l'.<"'kd, 2d Ber., p. 11. 

bimetallic (bi-me-tal'ik), a. [< F. biHii'tttlln/n, . 
< bi- (< L. bi-, two-) + m&WHgW; or < to- 2 + 
metallic. This word and its derivatives are of 
recent origin, M. Cernuachi having been the 
first to use bimetullique in 1HC9. and bimetallic in 
1876. JV. E. I).] Of or pertaining to two met- 
als; specifically, pertaining to the use of a 
double metallic standard in currency. See bi- 
metallism. 

The fallacy that prices depend directly on the volume 

of currency, that a bi-metaltic standard is practicable, etc. 

.V. A. Ket., CXXVII. 352. 



perhaps a particular application of the familiar i oqui 8 p ea k ; after co'Hog Mia/.] Speaking with 
proper name BMy : see billy*, and cf . betty and two dift eren t voices. N. E. D. 
jimmu. Cf. also F. bille, a stick or stock, under biloquist (bil'o-kwist), n. [As biloqutal -r -ist.] 
billet 2 and billiards.'} 1. Stolen metal of any Qne who can speak with two different voices. 



kind. [Slang.] 2. A small metal bludgeon 

that may be carried in the pocket ; hence, a 

policeman's club. [Slang.] 3. A stubbing- 

machine. See slubber. 
billy-biter (bil'i-bl"ter), n. [< Billy, a familiar 

name, + biter.} A name for the blue titmouse, 

I'arun curulcus. Macgillivray. [Local, Brit- 

ish.] biltong biltongue (bil'tong, -tung), n. [8. 

Billy-blind (bil'i-blind), n. 1. In ballads, the African D. biltong, < D. bil, buttock, pi. rump, 

name of a benevolent household demon or fa- 

miliar spirit. Also written Billy Blind. 2. 

[I. c.] The game of blind-man's buff. N. E. D. _ 

billyboy (biTi-boi), n. [Appar. a humorous bimaculate 

application of Billy boy (< billy 1 + boy), a fa- 

miliar phrase of address ; but prob. an accom. 
this form 



to 

of some 

other name.] 
A flat-bot- 
tomed, bluff- 
bowed barge, 
of very light 
draft, espe- 
cially built 
for the navi- 
gation of the 
river Humber 
England 




bimetallism (bi-met'al-izm), n. [< bimetall-ic 
+ -ism.] The use of two metals as money at 
relative values set by legislative enactment; 
the union of two metals in circulation as money 
at a fixed rate. Specifically, that system of coinage 
which recognizes both coins of silver and coins of gold 
as legal tender to any amount, or the concurrent use of 
coins of two metals as a circulating medium at a flxed 
relative value. 

Tills coinage was superseded by the bimetallic (gold and 
silver) coinage of Croesus, and biinetallimi was the rule in 
Asia down to Alexander's time In the flxed ratio of one to 
thirteen and a half between the two metals. Academy. 

bimetallist (bi-met'al-ist), . [< bimetall-ic + 
-ist. Cf. bimetallism".] One who advocates the 

. ...., m' use of a double metallic standard in currency. 

for lean meat cut into thin strips and dried in bimetallistic (bi-met-a-lis'tik), a. [< bimetal- 
the sun. list + -ic.] Pertaining or relating to bimetal- 

bimaculated (bi-mak'u-lat, -la- H 8m . Contemporary Her. 

ted), o. [< M- 2 + maculate.'] Having two bimodular (bi-mod'u-lar), o. [< bimodulus + 
spots; marked with two spots Bimaculated -ar 3 .] 1. Pertaining to the bimodulus. 2. 
duck. Ana* ijlocitatu or Querquedula bimaaUata, a Euro- Having two moduli. 

bimodulus (bi-mod'u-lus), n. ; pi. Mmoduli (-Ii). 
[NL., < bi- 2 + modulus.'] In math., the double 



E. D. 

(bil'sft), . [E. Ind.] A fine kind of 

tobacco grown in the district of Malwa in cen- 
tral India. 

(ilsted (bil'sted), n. [Appar. a native name.] 
Another name of the American sweet-gum tree, 
Liquidambar Styraciflua. 



_______ ..... ...,, ____ .. 

+ iong = E. tongue.] A South African name 



by Cuvier and mos naturalists until quite re- dor, 

cently. The order is now practically abolished, since it pearing twice a month. 

has been shown that, zoologically and morphologically, bimUCronate (bi-mu'kro-nat), a. [< 6i- 2 + mii- 
man differs less from the anthropoid apes than these apes - ' 

The custom is now to revert in 



do from most monkeys. 

this particular to the classification of Linuceus, who in- 
cluded man with the apes, monkeys, and lemurs in one 
order, Primatet. The zoological rank now usually assigned 
to the genus Homo is that of the type of a family Hoini- 
nidoe or Anthropid<e, the term Biinana being used, if at 
all, as the name of a superfamily or suborder, by means of 



in _ 

and its Tribu- 
taries. Sea-go- Billyboy. 

Ing billyboys are which man alone is thus contrasted with Simitr. 

generally clincher-built and sloop-rigged, but some are bimanet (bi'man), a. [< F. bimane, < NL. bi- 
canal-built and schooner-rigged. Many carry a square maHM . see bi ma now>.] Same as bimanput. 

bimanus, 
hand. 

Cf. Bimana.'] 
Two-handed and two-footed, or bimanmu and biped. 

Lawrener, Lectures, p. 159 (Ord MS.). 

Specifically 2. In zoiil., belonging to or hav- 
ing the characters of the Bimana. 



Tinge, TSO that it can be lowered when passing under bimanOUS (bi'ma-nus), o. [< NL. 

two-handed, < L. bi-, two-, T mqnus, 



a. r< 

PVO-, + 
1 . Having two hands. 



[< L. bi-, two-, + 
Cf. manual.] 



In- 



topsail and lee-boards. The mast is fitted to the deck by 
a hinge, 
a bridge. 

You look at the clustered houses, and at the wharves 
with the black old billyboys squattering alongside. 

W. C. Ruxtell, Sailor's Sweetheart, ii. 

billycock (bil'i-kok), n. [Origin obscure.] A 

stiff, round, low-crowned felt hat: often called , UK *^ .,.,,,..,...- .. ~*, ~, 
a. billycock hat. Also spelled billicock. [Collpq.] bimanual (bi-man'u-al), a. 

billy-gate (bil'i-gat), . The moving carriage manus (manit-), hand, + -al. 
in a slubbing-machine. volving the employment of both hands. 

billy-goat (bil'i-got), . A familiar name for bimarginate (bi-miir' ji-nat). a. [< W- 3 + 
a he-goat, as nanny-goat is for a she-goat. marginate.] In conch., furnished with a dou- 

billy-piecer (bil'i-pe"s6r), 11. In tcoolen-manuf., ble margin as far as the tip. 
a child who pieces or joins together roving on bimbo (bim'bo), n. A kind of punch, drunk as 
a carding-engine called a billv or slabbing- a liqueur, made with six lemons and a pound 
billy. [Not used in U. S.] 

billy-roller (biri-rd'ler), H. In iroolcn-manuf., 

a wooden roller in the slubbing-machine, under bimedial 
which cardiugs are passed, and by which they 
are slightly compressed. 

billy-web (bil'i-web), w. A name given in 
Honduras to the wood of a little-known timber- 
tree. 

bilobate (bi-16'bat), o. [< M- 2 + lobate.] Hav- 
ing or divided into two lobes: as, a bilobatf 
leaf. 

bilobed (bi'lobd), a. Same as bilobate. 

bilobular (bi-lob'u-lar), a. Same as bilobate. 

Round or bilubitlar structures of very variable si/r. 

/Vci/, Histol. and Ilisto-chein. (trans.), p~ 29. 

bilocation (bi-lo-ka'shpn), n. [< W- 2 + loca- 
tion.] The power of being in two places at 
the same time. See extract. 

The word bilvc.ation has been invented to express the 
miraculous faculty possessed by certain saints of the 

Roman Church, of being in two places at once. TliTnori"irl" nVnip'rt'i 

K. B. Tylm; Prim. Culture, I. 404. ">" 

bilocellate (bi-lo-sel'at), a. [< bi- 2 + lorellu* 
+ -atel.] In bot., divided into two locelli or 
secoudary cells. See cut in next column. 



cronate.] In zool., having two mucros or angu- 
lar projections : as, bimucronate elytra. 

bimuscular (bi-mus'ku-liir), a. [< 6i- 2 + muscu- 
lar.] In conch., having two adductor muscles, 
as some bivalves ; dimyarian. 

Bimusculosa (bi-mus-ku-16'sa), n. pi. [NL., 

< L. bi-, two-, + musculosus, muscular, < mus- 
culug, muscle.] In conch., an order of bivalve 
n K 'Husks: synonymous with Dimyaria. Uould, 
1841. 

bin 1 (bin), . [< ME. binne, bynne, byn, a re- 
pository for grain or bread, usually a manger, 

< AS. b'inn, a manger. Origin uncertain; per- 
haps, like D. benne, ben, = G. benne, a basket- 
wagon, = It. henna, a sleigh, cart, = F. bannr, 
benne, a basket, creel, pannier, basket-wagon, < 
ML. benna, a basket, a namper, appar. the same 
as L. benna, quoted as an old Gaulish name for 
a kind of vehicle; cf. W. ben, a cart, waggon.] 
1. A box or inclosed place used as a repository 
for any commodity: as, a corn-6ii; a coal-Wi. 
2. One of the open subdivisions of a cellar 
for the reception of wine-bottles. 

Also spelled binn. 



of sugar to a quart of brandy and a quart of bin i (bin r r . ,.. ' t- and pp . binned, ppr. bin- 
water. ,,,-, ((/ . [< J,- H I J TO put into or store in a bin : 

limedial (bi-me'di-al), w. [< 6i-2 h medial; as, to Wn Uquor. 
tr. of Gr. <i,o ftaav, from two medials.] In bin 2 t (bin), adv. andnrew. [=E. dial, and Sc. 



anc. math., a line compounded of two medials. 
If these latter make a rational rectangle, the compound 
is called a Jirgt binirdial ; if they make a medial rec- 
tangle, the compound is termed a tecond bimedial. In 
modern language this would be expressed by saying that 
a bimedial is a quantity of the form (y*a + yb) ^c, where 
a, b, and c are commensurable. It is a first or a second 
I'lmi ilial according as a b c is or is not a perfect square. 
bimembral (bi-mem'bral), a. [< L. binifmbris. 
< bi-, two-, + membruni, member.] Consist inj: 
of two members, as a sentence. Gibbs. 



ben (see ben 1 ), < ME. binne, binnen, bitinon, < 
AS. binnan, ONorth. binna (= OS. 'binnan = 
OFries. binna = D. binnen = MHG. G. binnen), 
within. < be-, by, + innaiij within: see 6c- 2 and 
iHi; cf. bun.] 1. adt. Within; inside. 

II. prep. 1. Of place, within; inside of; in. 
2. Of time, within ; during. 
inSf, r. A shortened form of been, past partici- 
pie, and obsolete infinitive and present indica- 



of two members, as a sentence. Gis. pe, an oso ii - 

bimenet, r. t. A Middle English form of bemoan, tive plural, of be. Bin is the ordinary pronun- 

- 



bimensal (bi-men'sal), a. [< L. bi-, two-, + 
mi nuts, a month. Cf. bimestrial.] Occurring 
once in two months; bimonthly. 

Bimeria (bi-me'ri-a), . [NL., < L. bi-, two-, 
+ Gr. uipof, part.^ A genus of hydrozoans, 
typical of the family Jiitucriiilu: 

"'., n. pi. [NL., < Bi- 

mfria + -idir.] A family of tubularian hydro- 
zoans, typified by the genus liimiria. The polyp- 
stock is covcrcil with ;i perisarc. the generative buds are 
sessile, and the tentacles of the polyps are simple. 



ciation in the United States of the past partici- 
ple been. 

Out of whom tBeda] cheifly hath bin gatherd since the 
Saxons arrival, such as hath bin deliverd, a scatterd story 
pickt out heer and there. Milton, Hist. Eng., iv. 

With cv'ry think- that pretty hi,, 
My lady sweet arise. 

Skat., Cymbeline, ii. 3 (song). 
Blushes that Mn 
The burnish of no sin. 
Crathate, Wishes to his supposed Mistress. 
A fresh as Mn the flowers in May. Petle. 



bina 

bina (be'na), . [< Hind. bin. Cf. been*.'] An 

East Indian guitar with seven strings. Also 

called i-ina. 

binacle, . See binnacle. 
binal (bl'nal), a. [< ML. binalis, double, < L. 

liini, two 'by two: see binary."] Twofold; 

double; binary: as, "binal revenge," Ford, 

Witch of Edmonton, iii. 2. 

The attempt of the French to compel the use of the 
decimal system shows the difficulty of such an undertak- 
ing. Popular necessities compelled the introduction of 
binal divisions. Pop. Sci. Mo., XIII. 423. 

binariant (bi-na'ri-ant), u. A solution of the 
differential equation, bDa + cDb +, etc., = 0. 

binary (bi'na-ri), a. and n. [< L. biiiarius, 
consisting of two things, < bini, pi. (rarely 
sing, binus), two by two, two, < bis, double : 
see fej-2. Cf. between.'] I. a. I. Twofold; 
dual; double; twain; twin; paired: said of 
anything which is composed of two things or 
considered as divided into two things. 2. In 
bot., having the organs in twos : applied to 
flowers : equivalent to dimerous Binary arith- 
metic, that system, invented by Leibnitz, in which two 
figures only, and 1, are used in lieu of ten, the cipher 
being placed as in common arithmetic, but denoting mul- 
tiplication by 2 instead of by 10. Thus, 1 is one ; 10 is 
two ; 11 is three ; 100 is four ; 101 is five ; 110 is six ; 111 is 
seven; 1000 is eight; 1001 is nine; 1010 is ten. Binary 
classification, binary system, in zool., one which di- 
vides a group of objects into two series, as the class of 
birds into two subclasses, Altrices and Prcecoces ; a dichot- 
omous arrangement : opposed to quinary, etc. Binary 
compound, in chem., a compound of two elements, or of 
an element and a compound performing the function of 
an element, or of two compounds performing the functions 
of elements, according to the laws of combination. Fara- 
day assigns as the distinctive character of a binary com- 
pound that it admits of electrolysis. Binary cubic. See 
cubic. Binary engine, an engine having the piston of 
one cylinder impelled by steam which, being exhausted 
into another part of the apparatus, communicates its un- 
utilized heat to some volatile liquid at a lower tempera- 
ture ; the vapor of this second liquid, by its expansion in a 
second cylinder, yields additional force. Binary enun- 
ciation, in logic, a categorical proposition whose verb is 
not to be : as, Socrates dies. Usually called a proposition 
ofse ynd adjacent. Binary form, or binary quantic, 
in alg., a homogeneous function of two variables; as: 

ax + by, 

az2 + bxy + cy? 

ax* + bx2y + cxy* + dyS, etc. 

So binary cubic, quartic, etc. Binary form, in music, 
a movement based upon two subjects or divided into two 
distinct or contrasted sections. Binary logarithms, a 
system of logarithms contrived and calculated by Euler 
for facilitating musical calculations. In this system 1 is 
the logarithm of 2, 2 of 4, etc., and the modulus is 1.442- 
695 ; whereas in the kind commonly used 1 is the loga- 
rithm of 10, 2 of 100, etc., and the modulus is .43429448. 
Binary measure, in music, the measure used in com- 
mon time, in which the time of rising in beating is equal 
to the time of falling. Binary nomenclature, binary 
name, in zool. and bot., a binomial nomenclature or bino- 
mial name. See binomial. Binary number, a number 
which is composed of two units. Binary scale, the scale 
of notation used in binary arithmetic. Binary star, a 
double star whose members have a revolution around 
their common center of gravity. Binary theory of 
salts, the theory which regards salts as consisting of two 
elements, a basic or electropositive, which may be a metal 
or a radical, and an acid or electronegative element or rad- 
ical: as, potassium nitrate, K-N0 3 ; potassium acetate, 

K-C2H;,0 . 

II. n. ; pi. binaries (-riz). A 
whole composed of two ; a dyad. 

To make two, or a binary, . . . add 
but one unto one. 

Fotherby, Atheomastix, p. 307. 

binate (bi'nat), a. [< NL. bina- 
tus, < L. bini, two and two : see 
binary.} In 60*., being double or 
in couples ; having only two leaflets to a peti- 
ole ; growing in pairs. 

binaural (bin-a'ral), a. [< L. bini, two and 
two, + auris = E."eew-l.] 1. Having two ears. 
2. Pertaining to or involving the use of both 
ears ; fitted for being simultaneously used by- 
two ears : as, a binaural stethoscope, which 
has two connected tubes capped by small ear- 
pieces. 

There is even a kind of bitiaural audition, by means of 
which we judge imperfectly of direction of sound. 

Le Conte, Sight, p. 265. 

binching (bin'ching), n. [Appar. a dial, form 
of benching. Cf. dial, birik, benk = bench.} In 
coal-mining, the bed or rock on which a layer of 
coal rests. [Somersetshire, Eng.] 

bind (bind), v. ; pret. bound, pp. bound (for- 
merly bounden, now only attrib.), ppr. binding. 
[< ME. binden (pret. band, bond, later bounde, 
pi. bounden, bounde, pp. bounden), < AS. bindan 
(pret. band, pi. bundon, pp. bitnden) = OS. bin- 
dan = OFries. binda = D. binden = OHG. lin- 
tan, MHG. G. binden =Icel. binda = Sw. binda 
= Dan. binde = Goth, bindan, bind, tie, = Skt. 
\f bandh, orig. *bhandh, bind, tie. The same root 
prob. appears in L. of-fend-ix, of-fend-imentum, 




Binate Leaves. 



556 

the knot of a band, Gr. Tretnua (for *irev6ua, 
*$ev6pa), a rope. See btauP-, band?, bend 1 , 
bend 2 , etc., bond}, bundle, etc.] I. trans. 1. To 
make fast (to, on, or upon) with a band or bond 
of any kind. 

Thou shall bind them for a sign upon thine hand. 

Deut. vi. 8. 

Bind the chariot to the swift beast. Micali i. 13. 

2. To unite by any legal or moral tie ; attach by 
considerations of love, duty, interest, obliga- 
tion, etc.: as, bound in the bonds of matrimony ; 
bound by gratitude, duty, debt, etc. 

Distrust and grief 
Will bind to us each Western chief. 

Scott, L. of the L., ii. 30. 

3. To put in bonds or fetters ; deprive of lib- 
erty or of the use of the limbs by making fast 
physically. 

Bind him hand and foot, and take him away. 

Mat. xxii. 13. 

He took Paul's girdle, and bound his own hands and 
feet, and said, ... So shall the Jews at Jerusalem bind 
the man that owneth this girdle. Acts xxi. 11. 

4. To restrain ; hold to a particular state, 
place, employment, etc. 

He bindeth the floods from overflowing. Job xxviii. 11. 

I have no official business to bind me. 

Macaulay, in Trevelyan, II. vii. 

5. To hinder or restrain (the bowels) from 
their natural operations ; make costive ; con- 
stipate. 6. To fasten around anything ; fix in 
place by girding or tying : as, to bind a cord 
round the arm. 

I, maiden, round thee, maiden, bind my belt. 

Tennyson, Holy Grail. 

7. To encircle with a band or ligature ; gird ; 
confine or restrain by girding: as, "bind up 
those tresses," Shale., K. John, iii. 4. 

A fillet binds her hair. Pope, Windsor Forest, 1. 178. 

8. To swathe or bandage; cover and swathe 
with dressings : with up. 

He healeth the broken in heart, and bindeth up their 
wounds. Ps. clxvii. 3. 

Give me another horse, bind up my wounds. 

Skak., Rich III., v. 3. 

9. To form a border or edge on, for the pur- 
pose of strengthening or ornamenting ; edge : 
as, to bind a wheel with a tire ; to bind a gar- 
ment or a carpet. 

Her mantle rich, whose borders round 
A deep and fretted broidery bound. 

Scott, Marmion, vi. 3. 
Black cliffs and high, 

With green grass growing on the tops of them, 
Binding them round as gold a garment's hem. 

WUliam Morris, Earthly Paradise, I. 172. 

10. To tie or fasten (loose things) together 
with a band, cord, or tie ; tie up into one bun- 
dle or mass : as, to bind sheaves of grain. 1 1 . 
To fasten or secure within a cover, as a book 
or pamphlet. See bookbinding. 12. In fen- 
cing, to secure (the sword of an adversary). 
See binding, n., 3. 13. To cause to cohere; 
cement; knit; unite firmly: as, to bind the 
loose sand. 

The sooner to effect, 
And surer bind, this knot of amity, 
The Earl of Armagnac . . . 
Proffers his only daughter to your grace 
In marriage. Shak., 1 Hen. VI., v. 1. 

God has so bound society together that if one member 
suffer, all suffer. J. F. Clarke, Self-Culture, p. 60. 

Have enough oil in the colours to bind them. 

Workshop Receipts, 1st ser., p. 423. 
Binding the ink to prevent its smearing. 

Workshop Receipts, 2d ser., p. 343. 

14. To place under obligation or compulsion: 
as, all are bound to obey the laws. 

This ring I gave him, when he parted from me, 
To bind him to remember my good-will. 

Shak.,T. G. of V., iv. 4. 

'Tis true, by my father's will, I am for a short period 
bound to regard you as his substitute. 

Sheridan, School for Scandal, iii. 1. 

15. To put under legal obligation : often with 
over: as, to bind a man over to keep the peace. 
Specifically 16. To indenture as an appren- 
tice: often with out. 

Sly mother she wanted to bind me out to a blacksmith. 
Mrs. Stoice, Oldtown, p. 83. 

To bind hand and foot. See hand. To bind in, to 

inclose ; surround. 

Bound in with the triumphant sea. 

Shak., Kich. II., ii. 1. 
A costly jewel . . . bound in with diamonds. 

Shak., 2 Hen. VI., iii. 2. 

To bind up in, to cause to be wholly engrossed with ; ab- 
sorb in; connect intimately with : chiefly in the passive. 
Seeing that his life is bound up in the lad's life. 

Gen. xliv. 30. 



binding 

II. intrant. 1. To cohere ; stick together. 

2. To become indurated, hard, or stiff: as, 
clay binds by heat. 3. To be obligatory or of 
force. 

Those canons or imperial constitutions which have not 
been received here do not bind. Sir M. Hale. 

4. To tie up anything; specifically, to tie up 
sheaves. 

They that reap must sheaf and bind. 

Shak., As you Like it, iii. 2. 

5. In falconry, to seize a bird in the air and 
cling to it: said of a hawk. 

bind (bind), . [< bind, v. In third sense, cf. 
liunrtte, and see tie, n. In the botanical sense, 
< ME. bynde, a climbing stem, esp. woodbine, 
ivy ; chiefly in comp. as wudebinde, woodbind. 
The word, by its use in comp., has suffered cor- 
ruption to bine, Sc. bin-, ben- : see bine 1 , woodbine, 
bearbine, etc., and the compounds of bind be- 
low.] 1. A tie or band; anything that binds. 
Specifically (a) A connecting timber in a 
ship, (b) In music, a tie, slur, or brace. 2. 
In coal-mining, indurated, argillaceous shale 
or clay, such as frequently forms the roof of 
a coal-seam: same as bend 1 , 12,. and baft, 10. 
[Eug.] 3. A unit of tale. A bind of eels is 
250. A bind of skins is 32, or of some kinds 40. 
[Eng.] 4. Bounds; limit; stint: as, I am at 
my bind. [Scotch.] 

Their bind was just a Scots pint overhead, and a tappit- 
hen to the bill, and no man ever saw them the waur o't. 
Scott, St. Ronan's Well, I. i. 

5. A climbing stem; a bine; specifically, a 
stalk of hops. See bine 1 . 
The whyle God of his grace ded growe of that soyle 
The fayrest bynde hym [Jonah) abof that ever burne wyste. 
Alliterative Poems (ed. Morris), iii. 444. 

binder (bin'der), n. [< ME. bynderj, < AS. bin- 
dere, < bindan, bind: see bind, v., and -er 1 .] 1. 
A person who binds. Specifically () One 
who binds books ; a bookbinder. (6) One who 
binds sheaves. 2. Anything that binds, in any 
sense of that verb. 3. In bricklaying, a header 
which extends partly through a wall ; a bonder. 
4. In carp., a tie-beam; a binding-joist serv- 
ing as a transverse support for the bridging- 
joists above and the ceiling-joists below. 5. 
An attachment to a sewing-machine for folding 
an edge or a binding. 6. In agri.: (a) An at- 
tachment to a reaper for tying the bundles of 
grain. (6) A separate horse-power machine for 
gathering up and binding grain already cut. 
7. An arrester or stop for the shuttle of a loom. 
8. A temporary cover for loose sheets of mu- 
sic, papers, etc. 9. pi. Same as binding, 4. 
Binders' board, thick, smooth, calendered pasteboard 
used for the covers of books. 

binder-frame (bln'der-fram), n. In mach., a 
hanger sivpporting shafting, and having adjust- 
able bearings by which the position of the pul- 
leys can be regulated to suit the direction of 
the motion of the belts. 

bindery (bin'der-i), n.; pi. binderies (-iz). [< 
bind, v., + -ery.~] A place where books are 
bound. 

bindheimite (bind'hi-mit), n. [< Hindheim (a 
German chemist) + -tie 2 .] An amorphous an- 
timoniate of lead produced by the decomposi- 
tion of antimonial minerals, especially jame- 
sonite. 

binding (bin'ding),p. a. [Ppr. of bind, j>.] 1. 
Serving to bind, fasten, or connect; making 
fast. 2. Having power to bind or oblige ; obli- 
gatory: as, a binding engagement. 

Civil contracts may be held binding although made by 
lunatics. E. C. Mann, Psycho!. Med., p. 87. 

3. Astringent. 4. Causing constipation; con- 
stipating. [Cplloq.] 

binding (bin'ding), H. [Verbal n. of bind,.] 1. 
The act or action of making fast, securing, unit- 
ing, etc., in any sense of the verb bind: as, the 
binding of prisoners; wire that serves for bind- 
ing. 2. Anything that binds; a bandage; the 
cover of a book, with the sewing and accom- 
panyingwork; something that secures the edges 
of cloth or of a garment. 3. In fencing, a 
method of securing the adversary's sword, con- 
sisting in crossing it with a pressure, accom- 
panied with a spring of the wrist. 4. pi In 
ship-building, the beams, transoms, knees, wales, 
keelson, and other chief timbers used, for con- 
necting and strengthening the various parts of 
a vessel. Also called binders. 5. The condi- 
tion assumed by adhesive soils in hot dry sea- 
sons; a similar condition in the soil of flower- 
pots in which plants have been kept too long or 
too dry ; closeness, dryness, or hardness of tex- 
ture. 6. Tn Hindi., the prevention of free mo- 



binding 

tion in one part of a machine by the siigiring or 
any deviation from ;i straight line M|' ,-inotln r 
portion. 7. A projection of a part of a slnn-- 
ture or machine by whicli parts intended to 
touch arc prevented from coining into perfect 
contact. 8. \iint., a wrought -iron riiii,- around 
a dead-eye. Binding-cloth, a dyed and stumiicil 
fabric used fur tin- l.iii. tin.- "i I m.iks. Binding-joists, 
beams in lliiuiini,' ulii< It support tin- bridging-joists above 
iiinl tin- ..i alow. Binding-piece, a piece 

naded lietueen two opposite beams or joints, to prevent 
lateral ili-ik'i-tiuu; a strutting- or strainim: piece. Blnd- 



Ing-rafter, a longitudinal timber i\ liieh supports the roof- 

ratters between Ille riill^e allil tile eaves or llle rolllll ailil 




Binding-scrcw. 



tin- cave. see imriiii. Binding -strake, in 

n, !. a tlliek .strakin^ wait-, placed uliele it call be bolted 

tn km !>, ete. Binding-wire, a win- uiiule of very soft 

iron, used to eoniieet pieces \vhlch ure to IK; soldered to- 

gether. - Extra binding. See fxmn<iatra, under found ; . 

-Half binding, in iHaMiiinliii'i. a leather back ami pa 

pcreii iioani sides. --Quarter binding, in l>vaki>i/i:iin-i. 

a chc:ip leather or cloth back with hoard Hides cut tln-li 

with the leaves. -Three-quarter binding, in in,ki>ht<i- 

i'l'i. a leather back of extra width with leather corners 

ami papered hiiard sides. 
bindingly (bin'ding-li), adv. Ill a binding man- 

ner; MO as to bind. 
bindingness (bm'ding-nes), n. [< binding, p. a., 

+ -HC.VS.] The quality of being binding or ob- 

ligatory. 

The unconditional bindingneti of the practical reason. 

Coleridge. 

binding-post (biu'ding-post), n. In an elec- 
trical apparatus, a small post having a hole 
into which a wire is inserted, or through which 
it passes and is held by a screw. 
binding-screw (bm'ding-skrO), . 1. A screw 
designed to bind and fasten two parts of any 
adjustable tool or apparatus, as the blade of 
a bevel; a set-screw; espe- 
cially, a screw set in at right 
angles to another, either 
abutting against it or tight- 
ening the female, so as to 
prevent the male from turn- 
ing. 2. In elect., a simple 
arrangement by which two 
electrical conductors maybe 
brought into metallic con- 
nection. (See cut.) A sim- 
ilar stationary arrangement 
is called a binding-post Binding-screw clamp, a 
combined clamp and set-screw used to connect a wire with 
the elements of a galvanic battery. 
bind-rail (bind'ral), n. 1. In engin., a piece 
to which the heads of pipes are secured. 2. 
A timber cap or tie placed on top of a group 
of piles, to nold them together and make a 
support for floor-beams. 
bindweb (biud'web), n. In anat., neuroglia. 
bindweed (blnd'wed), . [Also bineweed; early 
mod. E. byittleweed; < bind + weed 1 .] The com- 
mon name for plants of the genus Convolciilu*. 
especially of C. arvensis, C. (or Calystegia) se- 
/liinn, and C. (or Calystegia) Soldanella Black 
bindweed, (a) /V.wmim Conpolvulii*. (6) jTamtw coin- 
mvnuot Europe. Blue bindweed, the bittersweet, Sola- 
tium Dulcamara. Rough bindweed, a species of smilax, 
Smilaj; aspera. 

bindwith (bind'with), . [< bind + irjr7.2.] A 
name given to the plant Clematis Vitalba (the 
traveler's joy), from its stems being used to bind 
up fagots. 

bindwood (blnd'wud), n. [< bind + wpoefi.] 
A Scotch name for ivy, from its entwining or 
binding itself around stronger plants, etc. 
bine 1 (bin), . [A dial, form of bind, n., now 
accepted in the botanical use, esp. in com- 
pounds, as woodbine, hopbine, bearbine: see hi ml, 
n.] The slender stem of a climbing plant. 

\Vhcii burr and bi tie. were gathered. 

Tennyson, Aylmer's Field. 
bine'-' (bin), H. See boyn. 
binervate (bl-ner'vat), a. [< fti-2 + nervate.'] 

1. Two-nerved; especially, in bot., having two 
longitudinal ribs: applied to certain leaves. 

2. Til cntom., having two nervures or veins, as 
an insect's wing. 

Billet's function. See fwm-tinn. 

bing 1 (bing), H. [< Mfe. bing, binge, liengt; < 
Icel. /iin</>- = S\v. binge, aheap; also," with trans- 
ferred sense, Dan. bing, a bin. Cf. 6ii, with 
which binghns prob. been confused.] 1. Aheap 
or pile of anything: as, a bing of corn, potatoes, 
coal, ore, etc. 2. A definite quantity of lead 
ore, ec|ual to 8 hundredweight. [North. Eng.] 

bing'- 2 (bing), i<. i. To go. [Old slang.] 

Bin;; out and tour, yc anld devil. 

St-ntt, tiny Mannering, I. x\\iii. 

binge (binj), r. ('. ; pret. and pp. hinged, ppr. 
bingeiny. [Sc. , also bccngc, beenje, appar. formed 




557 

by fusing In ml and (;/</<.] 1. To make a low 
obeisance; courtesy. 2. To cringe; fawn. 

bing-ore ( bing'or), . Lead ore in small lumps. 
I HMI,'. I 

bingstead (bing'stcd), . In mining, the place 
where bing-ore is .stored ready to go to the 
smelter. [North. Eng.J 

bink (bingk), H. [Sc. and North. E.; < ME. 
liinl.; lt/nb; \ar. of In nl;, limb; itnassibilated 
form of bench, q. v. Cf. /;///.', bank$.] 1. A 
bench; a seat. 2. A wooden frame, fixed to 
the wall of a house, for holding dishes. 3. 
A bank; an acclivity. 4. In cotton-manuf., a 
stock of cotton composed of successive layers 
from different bales; a bunker. In supplying 
cotton to the machinery, the stock is raked down In such 
a manner as to mix the material thoroughly. 

binn, n. See 6m 1 . 

binna (bin's). [Sc., = be na, be not: = E. 
mil, adv. Cf. dinna, do not, winna, will not.] 
Be not. 

binnacle (bin'a-kl), n. [Also written binacle, a 
corruption of earlier bittacle, bitticlc, < Pg. &ifa- 
I'n/ii = Sp. />it<icora = F.Ktibita- 
cle, a binnacle, orig. an abode, 
< L. habitaculum, a little dwell- 
ing, < habitare, dwell : see habi- 
tation.'] A framework or case 
on the deck of a ship, in front 
of the steersman, and also in 
various other positions, con- 
taining a nautical compass, 
and fitted with lights by which 
the compass can bo read at 
night. Men-of-war generally carry 
two steering-binuacles, one on each 
side of the steering-wheel, for the 
steering-compasses, and an azimuth 
binnacle in a convenient place to 
hold the azimuth compass. 

binnacle-list (bin'a-kl-list), 
Binnacle. " -A. list of the sick men on 

board a man-of-war, placed in 
the binnacle for the information of the officer 
of the deck. 

Binneya (bin'e-yii), n. [NL., after Binney, an 
American naturalist.] A genus of land-snails, 
family Hclicidte, peculiar to Mexico and Cali- 
fornia. The shell is too small to contain the whole body, 
so that when the animals retreat, as they do at the up 
proach of the dry season, the parU of the body which 
would otherwise be exposed are covered and protected by 
the ^really enlarged epiphragui. 

binnick, n. See beiinick. 

binnite (bin'it), . [< Binn (see def.) + -Jfc2.] 
A sulphid of arsenic and copper occurring in 
isometric crystals in the dolomite of the Bin- 
nenthal, or valley of Binn, in the canton of 
Valais, Switzerland. 

binnogue (bin'nog), . A head-dress formerly 
worn by the women of the Irish peasantry, 
described as a kind of kerchief. Planche. 

binny (bin'i), n.; pi. binnies (-iz). [Appar. of 
native origin.] A fish (Barbus bynni) of the 
family Cyprinidce, related to the barbel. It in- 
habits the Nile. 

binocle (bin'o-kl), n. [= F. binoclc = Sp. bino- 
eolo, < L. bini, two and two, double, + oeulus, 
eye : see ocular."] A dioptric telescope, fitted 
with two tubes for the use of both eyes at once : 
also used for opera-glass. 

binocular (bi-nok'- or bin-ok'u-liir), a. [< L. 
bini, double, + ocuhts, eye, + -ar 2 . Cf. binocle.] 
1. Having two eyes: as, "most animals are 
binocular,' 1 Dcrliam. Also binocidate. [Rare.] 
2. Referring to both eyes; suited for the 
simultaneous use of both eyes: as, a binocular 
telescope or microscope. 

The want of binocular perspective in paintings interferes 
seriously with the completeness of the illusion. 

Le Contt, Sight, p. 144. 
Binocular microscope. See microscope. 

binocularity (bi-nok- or bin-ok-u-lar'i-ti), n. 
[< binocular + -iVi/.] Binocular quality or con- 
dition ; the simultaneous employment of both 
eyes. Le Conic. 

bihocularly (bi-nok'- or bin-ok'u-lSr-li), adr. 
By means of two eyes; in such a manner as to 
be viewed by both eyes. 

The rctii-nlaiioii procnts itself in clear relief, when 
viewed binociilarly with a suttk-iently high power. 

If. IS. Carpenter, Micros., 276. 

If these two photographs be binocularly combined, . . . 
they ought to and must produce a visual effect exactly like 

an aetllal uhjert or seene. Le CoHle, Sight, p. TJ7. 

binoculate (bi-nok'- or bin-ok'u-lat), a. [< L. 

bini, double, + oculus, eye, + -ate' 1 .] Same as 

iiiniH-iiliir, 1. 
Binoculus (bi-nok'u-lus), n. [NL., < L. bini. 

two and two, + iicul nx. eyi'.] 1. A genus of 

brauchiopod crustaceans. " See A/iua. '2. 2. A 



binomialism 

genus of iieuropteroiis injects, of (lie family 
Kplitnifl-iitti: l.nlrnlli; ]KI)L>. 3. [I. C.] All 

X-sliaped bandage for maintaining dressings 

on both eyes. Also called iHiii'lit/mlmus. 
binodal (bi-no'dal), . [< L. bi-, two-, + nudnx, 

knot, node, + -/.] Having two nodes or joints. 
binode (bi'nod), n. [< L. bi-, two-, + nodus, 

knot.] 1. In ninth., a singular!"' of .-i siirtace 





Fi e . 3- 

Binode and Neighboring Parts of the Surface 3 = xy. 
Fig. i. View in the direction of the axis of t. Fig. a. Sections 
parallel to the axis uf jr. Fig. 3. Sections inclined 45* to the axes of 
x aodjf. 

consisting of a point at which there are two 
tangent planes. In the surface shown in fig. 
1 each of these planes is tangent 
along the whole length of a line ; but 
this circumstance is not a necessary 
concomitant of the singularity. 2. 
A crunode formed by the crossing of 
two branches of a curve. 

binodose,binodous(bi-n6'd6s,-dus), cm 
a. [< L. bi-, two-, + nodus, knot, ""' 
+ -ose, -ous.'] In zoo'l., having two knot-like 
swellings. 

binomial (bi-no'mi-al), a. and . [< ML. bi- 
itomius, tr. of Or. in 6vo bvopaTuv, having two 
names (< L. bi-, two-, + nomen, name), + -al; 
the fuller form would be binominal, q. v.] I. a. 
1. In alg., consisting of two terms connected 
by the sign + or ; pertaining to binomials. 
2. In zool. and bot. : (a) Using or having two 
names: applied to the system of nomencla- 
ture introduced by Linmeus. in which every 
plant and animal receives two names, one in- 
dicating the genus, the other the species: as, 
Felis leo. the lion; Bellis perenni*. the daisy. 
The generic word Is always written first, and with a capital 
initial letter; it is, or is taken as, a noun. 'I he specific 
word follows, and is usually an adjective, or used adjec- 
tively, though it may tie a noun. In zoology the practice 
is now to write all specific words with a lower-case (or 
small) initial, though substantive and personal and geo- 
graphical words are often written with a capital, which 
is the common practice in botany. Hence (h) Con- 
sisting of two names: as, binomial terms. Also 
binominal. Binomial coefficient, the numerical co- 
efficient of any term in the development ut(x -t-yf, where 
n is any whole tmmHer. Binomial development, 
a development by the binomial theorem. Binomial 
equation, an algebraical equation consisting of two 
terms: as, ajr6z-=o. Binomial theorem, the the- 
orem invented by Sir Isaac Newton for raising a binomial 
to any power, or for extracting any root of it by an ap- 
proximating infinite series. According to this theorem, 
we have : 



H. H. 1. In alg., an expression or quantity 
consisting of two terms connected by the sign 
+ or , denoting the sum or the difference of 
the two terms : as, a + 6, 3a 2c, a" + b, i- 
- -y/ y. 2. In zodl. and hot., a name consisting 
of two terms, generic and specific, as the proper 
name of a species, the generic always preced- 
ing the specific word: as, Felis leo, the lion. 
binomialism (bi-no'nii-al-izm), H. [< binomial + 
-ism.] 1. The binomial method of nomencla- 
ture, especially in zoology and botany, 2. 
Tlie doctrine or use of that method. 

Also binoiniiilily, 



The biostatical and the biodiinamieal i. e., the consid- 
eration of the structure ready to act, and the considera- 
tion of the structure acting. 

G. II. Lewes, Probs. of Life and Mind, I. 119. 




(bi'o-jen), . [< Gr. /#of, life, + -x//f, 
producing:' see -gen.] A hypothetical soul- 
stuff; the substance of a supposed spiritual 
body ; the od of organic life. Cones. 
biogenation (bl"o-je-na'shon), n. [< biogen + 
-ation.] The state or quality of being affected 
by biogen ; animation ; vitalization. 

All animals are probably also susceptible of bioyeiuition, 
which is the affection resulting from the influence of bio- 
gen. Cowi, Key to If. A. Birds, p. 192. 

~ " Gr. ftiof, " 



binomialist 558 

binomialist(bi-n6'mi-al-ist), n. [< binomial, n., biodynamical (bi'o-di-nam'i-kal), a. 

+ -ist.] One who use's the binomial system of biodynamic. 

nomenclature in zoology and botany. See bi- 
nomial, a., 2. 
binomiality (bi-no-mi-al'i-ti), n. [< binomial 

+ -iti/.] Same as biitnuiiali/nii. 
binomially (bi-uo'mi-al-i), adv. 

manner ; after the binomial method 

clature in zoology and botany. opposed'to biostatics. 

binominal (bl-nom'i-nal), . [< L. bmomims, - " 

having two names (< bi-, two-, + iionien, name), 

+ -rtf.J Same as binomial, 2. 
binominated (bi-nom'i-na-ted), a. [< L. bi-, 

two-, + nominatus, named (see nominate), + 

-ed?.] Having two personal names. 
binominoust (bi-nom'i-nus), a. [< L. binomi- 
als: see binominal.] Having or bearing two 

names. 
binormal (bl-nor'mal), . [< bi-~ + normal] 

In math., a normal to two consecutive elements biogenesis (bi-o-jen'e-sis), it. 

of a curve in space ; a nor- t: ~ 

mal perpendicular to the 

osculating plane, 
binotate, feinotated (bi- 

no'tat, -ta-ted), a. [< L. 

bi-, two, -t- nota, mark, + 

-flfc 1 , -ated.] In zool., mark- 
ed with two dots, 
binotonous (bl-not'6-nus), 

a. [< L. bini, two by 

two (see binary), + tonus, 

note, tone (see tone) ; after 

monotonous.] Consisting 

of two tones or notes : as, 

a binotonous sound, 
binous (bi'nus), a. [< L. 

binus, usually in pi. bini, 

two and two, double: see binary and between.] 

Double ; in a pair ; binate. 
binoxalate (bi-nok'sa-lat), n, [< L. bini, two 

and two (see binary), + oxalate.] In diem., 

an oxalate in which only one of the hydrogen 

atoms of the acid is replaced by a metal. 



biomagnetic 

Same as biography (bi-og'ra-fi), .; pi. biographies (-fiz). 
[= P. biograpMe, < LGr. purypa+ia, biography, < 
*thoypdifo<; (> ML. biographus, > P. biograjihe, a 
biographer), < Gr. fiiof, life, + yiiafetv, write.] 

1 . The history of the life of a particular person . 
There is no heroic poem in the world but is at bottom 

a biography, the life of a man. Carlyle, Essays. 

2. Biographical writing in general, or as a de- 
partment of literature. 

This, then, was the first great merit of Montesquieu, 
that he effected a complete separation between biography 
nnil history, and taught historians to study, not the pecu- 
liarities of individual character, but the general aspect of 
the society in which the peculiarities appeared. 

Buckle, Civilization, I. xiil. 

3. In nnt. hist., the life-history of an animal or 
a plant. = Syn. 1. Biography, Memoir. When there is 
a difference between these words, it may be that memoir 
indicates a less complete or minute account of a person's 
life, or it may be that the person himself records his own 
recollections of the past, especially as connected with his 

wn life ; in the latter case memoir should be in the plural. 




-t- -/beats, generation: see genesis.] I. The biokinetics (bi"6-ki-net 'iks), n. [< Gr. [)iof, 
genesis or production of living beings from liv- ijf e< + kinetics.] That part of biological science 
mg beings ; generation in an ordinary sense : which treats of the successive changes through 
the converse of spontaneous generation, or abio- w hich organisms pass during the different 
genesis. Various methods in which biogenesis is known stages of their development, 
to occur ;give rise to special terms, as gamogmerii, parthe- biologian (bi-o-16'jian), n. [< biology + -ian.] 

^ThT'doctrine which holds that the genesis A hiolocnst. 

of living beings from living beings is the only 

one of which we have any knowledge, and 

which investigates or speculates upon the facts 

in the case upon such premises : the opposite 

of abiogenesis. 3. Same as biogeny, 1. 



Binomial. The full lines 
show a cylinder with a helix 

nonnais u ^rh=d a o n ,id w n,, b es biogenesis* '(bl-O-jen'e-sist) n. "['< 

+ -ist.] One who favors the theory ot biogen- 
esis. Also called biogenist. 
biogenetic (bi"o-je-net'ik), a. 



to which systematists and biolo- 
ng vertebrate forms. 

The Century, XXXI. 352. 

j'ik), a. [< biology + -ic.] Same 



v the tangents and prin- 
cipal normals at the same 
two points of the helix and 
the axis of the cylinder. 



sense 2, < biogen),' utter genetic.] 1. Of or per- 
taining to biogenesis or biogeny in any way: 
as, a biogenetic process; a biogenetic law or 
principle. 
This fundamental bioyenetic law. Haeckel (trans.). 



2. Consisting of biogen ; done by means of bio- 

binoxid, binoxide (bi-nok'sid," -sid or -sid), . gen ! relating to the theory of biogen Cov.es. 
[< L. bini, two and two (see binary), + oxid.] biogenetically (bi"o-je-net i-kal-i), adv. In a 
In eliem., same as dioxid. ntic manner b 



The interpretation of structure ... is aided by two 
subsidiary divisions of biologic inquiry, named Compara- 
tive Anatomy (properly Comparative Morphology) and 
Comparative Embryology. //. Spencer. 

[< biogenesis (in biological (bi-o-loj'i-kal), a. 1. Pertaining to 
biology or the science of life. 

They [the discoveries of Cuvier] contain a far larger por- 
tion of important anatomical and biological truth than it 
ever before fell to the lot of one man to contribute. 

Whewell, Hist. Induct. Sciences, I. 629. 

The prick of a needle will yield, in a drop of one's blood, 
material for microscopic observation of phenomena which 



binoxyde, . See binoxid. 



biogenetic manner; by means of or according 
to the principles of biogenesis or biogeny. 



, . . 

bintt. A Middle English and Anglo-Saxon con- biogenist (bi-oj'e-mst), . 
tracted form of bindetlt, the third person singu- . Same as bwgenesist. 
lar of bind. 



[< biogeny + -ist.] 



lie at the foundation of all biological conceptions. 

Huxley, Pop. Scl. Mo., XI. 070. 

2. In zooL, illustrating the whole life-history 
of a group or species of animals : as, a biologi- 
cal collection of insects. 



binturong (bin'tu-rong), n. The native name, 
and now the usual book-name, of Arctietis bin- 
turong, an Indian prehensile-tailed carnivorous 
mammal of the family Vwerridai and subfamily 
Arctictidinw. Also called Ictides ater or /. at- 
bifrons, and formerly Viverra binturong. See 
Arctietis. 

binuclear (bi-nu'kle-ar), a. [< fit- 2 + nuclear.] 
Having two nuclei or central points. 

binucleate (bi-nu'kle-at), a. [< W- 2 + nucle- 
ate.] Having two nuclei, as a cell. 

binucleolate (bi-nu'klf-6-lat), a. [< ftp + 
nucleolate.] In biol., having two nucleoli: ap- 
plied to cells. 

bio-. [NL. etc. bio-, < Gr. /3/of, life, akin to L. 
vivus, living (> rita, life: see vivid, vital), = bioera 
Goth, kwius = AS. cwicu, E. quick, living : see ,",* 
quick.'] An element in many compound words, 
chiefly scientific, meaning life. 

bio-bibliographical (bl"6-bib"li-o-graf i-kal), 
a. [< Gr. fiiof, life 
ing of or dealing 
writings of an author. 

bioblast (bi' 6 -blast), n. [< Gr. /3/o f , life, + 
if, a germ, (. [iAaardveiv, bud, sprout, grow.] 



same mogenesisc. biologically (bl-o-loj'i-kal-i), adv. In a biologi- 

blOgeny Jbi-oj e-ni) . [< Gr By bfe + "J^^ Wording to the doctrines or prin- 



-ycveia, generation: see -geny. Cf. biogenesis.] 
1. The genesis or evolution of the forms of 



cal manner ; according to the doctrines or prin- 
ciples of biology. 



That which was physically defined as a moving equilib- 
ly as a balance of functions. 
//. Spencer, Data of Ethics, 39. 



rium we define biologically as a balance of functions. 



matter which manifest the phenomena of life. 
It is divided into two main branches : ontogeny, or the 
genesis of the individual organism, and phytogeny, or the 
genesis of the species, race, stock, or tribe to which the 
individual belongs. Also biogenesis. 

2. The science or doctrine of biogenesis; the 

history of organic evolution. As in the preced- 

ing sense, it is divided into ontogeny, or germ-history, or biologist (bl-ol O-jist), . [< biology + -1st.] 

the history of the embryological development of the indi- One skilled in, or a student of, biology. 

iDecieJ? biologizet (bi-ol'o-jiz), v. t. [< biology + -ize.] 



Ethics, if positive, must rest on some empirical data. 
These data are furnished partly by history, partly by hu- 
man nature, either biologically or psychologically consid- 
ered. -V. A. Rev., CXX. 255. 



sidiary science of pathology. On the other hand, Biftgeny 




One who writes a biography, or an account of 
the life and actions of a particular person; a 
T'jT*""" V-l Y- 7l ?~i rn~"~i' writer of lives. 

life, + bibhogniphical.] Treat- biographic (bl-o-graf 'ik), . [< biography + -ic.] 
the Pertaining to or of the nature of biography. 

To all which questions, not unessential in a biographic 
work, mere conjecture must for most part return answer. 

fjf.uu i u^, u> germ, \ fj/mu HJ.VLLV. (Jim, ouiuuu, giv** . j Carlyle, Sartor Resartus, p. 95. 

In biol., a formative cell of any kind ; a minute biographical (bi-6-graf 'i-kal), a. Relating or 



mass of bioplasm or protoplasm about to be- 
come a definite cell of any kind. Thus, osteoblasts, 
white blood-corpuscles or leucocytes, lymph-corpuscles, 
etc., are all biohlaste. 

bioblastic (bi-o-blas'tik), a. [< bioblast + -ic.] 
Of, pertaining to, or of the nature of bioblasts. 

biocellate (bi-o-sel'at), a. [< ii- 2 + ocellate.] 



pertaining to the life of an individual; dealing 
with or containing biographies : as, biographi- 
cal details ; a biographical dictionary. 

The historian should rarely digress into biographical 
particulars except in as far as they contribute to the 
clearness of his narrative of political occurrences. 

Sir J. Mackintosh, Sir Thos. More. 



n. One who prac- 
tises~mesmerism. 

biologie, < Gr. /3/of, 
,k (see -ology) ; cf. Gr. 
who represents to the 
" life and living things 
in the widest sense; the body of doctrine re- 
specting living beings; the knowledge of vital 
phenomena. 

It is remarkable that each of these writers [Treviranus 
and Lamarck] seems to have been led, independently and 
contemporaneously, to invent the same name of ISiology 
for the science of the phenomena of life. . . . And it is 
hard to say whether Lamarck or Treviranus has the pri- 
ority. . . . Though the first volume of Treviranus' " Bio- 
logie " appeared only in 1802, he says . . . that he wrote 
the first volume . . . about 1798. The " Recherches," 
etc., in which, the outlines of Lamarck's doctrines are 
given, was published in 1802. 

Huxley, Science and Culture (Am. ed., 1882), p. 302. 

2. In a more special sense, physiology; bio- 
physiology; biotics. 3. In a technical sense, 
the life-history of an animal : especially used 




biochemic (bi-o-kem'ik), a. [< Gr. ftiof, life, + 
chemic.] Of or pertaining to the chemistry of 



netism, so called. Von Keicltenbach. 

biodynamic (bi'o-di-nam'ik), a. [< Gr. fiiof, 

life, + dynamic.] Of or pertaining to the doc- 

trine of vital force or energy ; biophysiological. 



Want of honest heart in the Biographusta of these Saints 
. . . betrayed their pens to such abominable untruths. 

Fuller, Worthies, iii. 

biographize (bi-og'ra-fiz), r. t. ; pret. and pp. 
biographized, ppr. biographizing. [< biography 
+ -ize.] To write the biography or a history of 
the life of. [Bare.] 

Now do I bless the man who undertook 
These monks and martyrs to biographize. 

Southey, St. Oualberto, st. 25. 



as the resolution of an organism into its constit- 
uent parts, and consequently the destruction 
of the phenomena of life. 

biolytic (bi-o-lit'ik), a. [< Gr. /3/of, life, H 
/.VTIKOC, able' to loose, < /.irnif, verbal adj. of 
7.vtv, loose.] In mod., tending to the destruc- 
tion of life as, a biolytic agent. 

biomagnetic (bi"6-mag-net'ik), a. [< Gr. /3/or, 
life, + magnetic.] Pertaining or relating to 
biomagnetism. 



biomagnetism 

biomagnetism (M-fl-mg'ne-tini), . [< <Jr. 
piof, fife, + mni/ni'liniii.] Animal magnetism. 
See niii'iiit'lixiii. Knuitli. 

biometry (bi-om'e-tri), n. [< Gr. jiior, life, + 
-/in/iia, < i" ~i', a measure.] Tlio ineasnre- 
ment of life; s|>eeini-;illy, tin- cali-ulation of 
the probable ilnralicm of human life. 

biomorphotic (In <>-inr-fot'ik), a. [< NL. ln'i- 
nutrphiitiriix, < (ir.' ,</.;, life, 4- MUr. uop&urri- 
icdf , fit for shaping, < Gr. 'popjurtf. verbal adj. of 
ftoix^ovv, shape, < /iop<t>f/, form, shape.] In <- 
tiiiii., having an active pupa, ll'rxtiroiiit. 

Biomorphotica (i'i o-mor-fot'i-kii), n. pi. [NL., 
neut. pi. of btontorphotietu : see lii<>mni-/>li<iii<-.\ 
In en torn., a name proposed by Westwood for 
those insects of the old order Xriirnpti-ni hav- 
ing au active pupa. They are now generally 
known as Pgetiaonevroptera, 

bionomy (bi-on'o-mi), n. [NL., <Gr. /?/of, life, 
+ voftof, law: see name.'} 1. The science of the 
laws of life, or of living functions; dynamic 
biology. 

He [ComteJ also employs the UTIU Inmtmnn as enilu-ii- 
clng the general science of the laws of living fum-ticm-. ..r 
dynamic biology. L. t\ Want, Uynani. Sociul., I. 13). 
2. In anthropology, the third and final or deduc- 
tive and predictive stage of anthropobiology. 
0. T. Alumni. 

biophagous (bi-of 'a-gus), a. [< Gr. /3i'oc, life, + 
Qayeiv, eat.] Feeding on living organisms : ap- 
plied especially to insectivorous plants. 

biophysiograpny (M'6-fiz-i-og'ra-fi), . [< Gr. 
/Ji'of, life, 4- pkysiograpky.] The physical nat- 
ural history of organized beings; descriptive 
and systematic zoology and botany, as distin- 
guished from physiological zoology and botany, 
or biotics ; organography : distinguished from 
liinphyttiolngy. 

biophysiological (bi' / 6-nz*i-o-loj'i-kal), . [< 
biopliyKioliit/y + -i'm/.] Of or pertaining to bio- 
physiology. 

biophysioiogist (bl'o-flz-i-ol'o-jist), n. [< bio- 
pliysiolot/y + -ist.] A student of biophysiology ; 
a student of biology, or an expert in the science 
of biotics. Pop. Sci. Mo., XXII. 169. 

biophysiology (bi'6-fiz-i-ol'o-ji), n. [< Gr. tiiof, 
life, 4 physiology.'] The science of organized 
beings, embracing organogeny, morphology, 
and physiological zoology and botany : distin- 
guished from biophysiography. 

bioplasm (bi'o-plazm), . [< Gr. /ftof, life, 4- 
7r/too7/a, anything fonned, < TrUaaetv, form.] 
Living and germinal matter ; formative, as dis- 
tinguished from formed, matter. The term was 
introduced by Prof. L. S. lieale, about 1S72, for the state 
or condition of protoplasm in which it is living and ger- 
minating. 

Bioplasm . . . moves and grows. ... It may be cor- 
rectly called living or forming matter, for by its agency 
every kind of living thing is made, and without it, as far 
as is known, no living thing ever has teen made ; . . . but 
the most convenient and least objectionable name for it is 
living plasma or bwpltuia Oiot, life, irAaa/ia, plasm, that 
which is capable of being fashioned). 

Bealf, Bioplasm, 14. 

bioplasmic (bi-o-plaz'mik), a. [< bioplasm + 
-ic.] Consisting of or pertaining to bioplasm. 

bioplast (bi'o-plast), n. [< Gr. fiiof, life, + 
TMoorof, verbal adj. of irl.aaaeiv, mold, form.] 
A particle of bioplasm; a living germinal cell, 
such as a white blood-corpuscle or a lymph- 
corpuscle ; an amoaboid ; a plastidule. 

In many diseases these bioplast* of the capillary walls 
are much altered, and in cholera I huve found that num- 
bers of them have been completely destroyed. 

Beak, Bioplasm, 298. 

bioplastic (bi-o-plas'tik), a. [< Gr. jiiof, life, 
+ -AaoTHcor: see plastic.] Pertaining to or of 
the nature of a bioplast. 

biordinal (bi-6r'di-nal), a. and n. [< 6j-2 + 
di-ilinal.] I. a. Of the second order. 

II. n. In math., a differential equation of 
the second order. 

biostatical (bi-o-stat'i-kal), a. [< Gr. pinf, 
life, + arariKor, causing to stand: see tttnti<:\ 
Of or pertaining to biostatics. 

No philosophic biologist now tries to reach and modify 
a vital force, but only to reach and modify those /<- 
flatifal conditions which, n hen ronsi. luring them as causes, 
and condensing them all into a single expression, he calls 
Vitality, or the Vital Fonvs. 

G. II. heuvK, Probs. of Life and Mind. I. ii. 2. 

biostatics (bi-o-stat'iks), H. [PI. of biont<itii- . 
see -ics.] That branch of biology which deals 
with the statical and coexistent relations of 
structure and function: opposed to biodyiiani- 
tcvs and bit>lihi< i ti<'n. 

biotaxy (bi'o-tak-si), H. [< Gr. /3/oc, life, 4 
-rafia, < riij-ff, arrangement: see tactic.] The 
classification, arrangement, or coordination of 
living organisms, according to the sum of their 



fiofl 

morphological characters; a biological system; 
taxonomy. 

biotic (bi-ot'ik), a. Same as biniiml. 

biotical (bi-ot'i-kal), a. [< Gr. /fcunicor, relat- 
ing to life (< /?jfc, verlial adj. of fitoiiv, live, 
< liia; life), + -a/.} Of or pertaining to life, 
or to biotics ; biophysiological. 

Tin 1 liiuiii-iil artititics "f mutter. T. Ntrrr>i limit . 

Organization and bivtical functions arise from the nat 
iinil operations of forces Inhcretit in . I. inrntal matter. 

H'. II. Cariientrr, (>,. ,.f Anal, and I'hys., III. l.M. 

biotics (bi-ot'iks), w. [< Gr. Jiwrmof, pertaining 
to life : see biotical.'] The science of vital func- 
tions and manifestations ; the powers, proper- 
ties, and qualities peculiar to living organisms ; 
vital activities proper, as distinguished from the 
chemical and physical attributes of vitality. 

These activities are often designated as vital ; but since 
this word is generally made to include at the same time 
other manifestations which are simply dynamical or 
rlii-micnl, I have . . . proposed for the activities charac- 
teristic of tlie organism the term biotics. T. Sterry fht/it. 

biotite (bi'o-tit), n. [< J. B. Biot (1774-1862). a 
French physicist, + -t<e 2 .] An important mem- 
ber of the mica group of minerals. See iie. 
It occurs in hexagonal prisms, sometimes tabular, of a 
Mark or dark-green color. It is a silicate of aluminium 
and iron with magm'sium and potassium, and is often 
called marfnem'ti mica, in distinction from Muscovite or 
)mta*h mica. It is sometimes divided into two varieties, 
called atwmite and meroxetie, which are distinguished by 
-ij'tiral characteristics. 

biotome (bl'o-tom), . [< Gr. plot, life, + Torf, 
a cutting, section : see anatomy,] A term ap- 
plied by Cobbold to a life-epoch in the develop- 
ment or some of the lower animals, as Entozoa. 

biovulate (bi-6'vu-lat), . [< W-2 + ovulate.] 
In hot., having two ovules. 

bipaleolate (bI-pa'le-6-lat), . [< M- 2 + paleo- 
late.] Having two paleolee or diminutive scales 
(lodicules), as the flowers of some grasses. 

bipalmate (bi-pal'mat), a. [< 6i- 2 + palmate.] 
In bot., doubly or subordinately palmate. 

biparietal (bi-pa-ri'e-tal), a. [< 6i- 2 + parietal.] 
Pertaining to both parietal bones. Biparietal 
diameter, the diameter of the skull from one parietal 
eminence to the other. 

biparous (bip'a-rus), a. [< L. bi-, two-, + pa- 
rere t bring forth.] 1. Bringing forth two at 
a birth. 2. In bot., having two branches or 
axes : applied to a cyme. 

biparted (bi-par'ted), a. [< W- 2 + parted. Cf. 
bipartite.] 1. In 7iw., bipartite: applied to any- 
thing cut off in the form of an indent, showing 
two projecting pieces. 2. In zoo'l., divided in- 
to two parts ; bipartite. 

bipartible (bl-par'ti-bl), . [< 6i-2 + partible.] 
Divisible into two parts. Also bipartite. 

bipartient (bi-par'ti-ent), n. and n. [< L. bipar- 
tien(t-)s,f>iiT.ofbipartire: see bipartite.] I. a. 
Dividing into two parts ; serving to divide into 
two Bipartient factor, a number whose square di- 
vides a given number without remainder. 

II, n. In math., a number that divides an- 
other into two equal parts without remainder: 
thus, 2 is the bipartient of 4. 

bipartile (bi-par'til), a. [< L. bi-, two-, + LL. 
partilis, < L. partire, part : see part, v.] Same 
as bipartible. 

bipartite (bl-par't!t), a. [< L. bipartite, pp. 
of bipartire, divide into two parts, < &-. two-, 
+ partire, divide : see 
part, r.] 1. In two 
parts ; having two 
correspondent parts, 
as a legal contract or 
/ writing, one for each 

party; duplicate. 

\ The divine fate is also 

bipartite. 

Cwivmrth, Intellectual 
(System, Pref., p. 1. 

2. In bot., divided 

| nt f tW ? P 8 " 8 Dear - 

ly to the base, as 
the leaves of many 
passion-flowers.- Bipartite curve, in 31-01/1., a curve 
consisting of two distinct continuous series of poinU. 

Bipartiti (bi-par-ti'ti), n. pi. [NL., pi. of L. 
iHjuu-tituM: we bipartite.] In Latreille's system 
of classification, a group of carnivorous Coleop- 
/ / << i-nntaining fossorial caraboid beetles. 

bipartition (bi-par-tish'on), n. K L. bipartire 
(see bipartite), after partition.] The act of di- 
viding into two parts, or of making two cor- 
respondent parts. 

bipaschal (bi-pas'kal), a. [< L. bi-, two-, + 
LL. jiii.i,-liii, passover':' see paschal.] Including 
or relating to two consecutive passover feasts: 
ap)>lied by theologians to the scheme of chro- 
nology which limits Christ's public ministry to 




Bipinnaria 

a period containing only two passover anni- 

versaries. 

About the length . . . [ofChii n.-trv! Hi. r. 

are (besides the isolated and 'l>-< i'l. !!> . i mneous view of 
IreniEus) three theories, allowing rapo m--ly one, two, or 
three years and a frw nn>utliH. atxl 'I, -i-nai. .1 a- 

IHI*I-IIII!, tripax-tial, ami i|ii:i.lri|,a^fh:il -rlirni.-', a-'niil 
iny to the number of I'assmi r,i. 

Squill. Ili-l. CIiri.,1. i ln.i. Ii I. S 10, iv. 

bipectinate (bi-pek'ti-uat), . [< W- 2 + pec- 
iiinili'.] Having two margins toothed like a 
comb: used especially in botany and zoiilogy. 
Bipectinate antennae, m Mtom., mtmtm in in.-ii ih. 
bodies of the joints are short, but with l/otli .-id. .- I.IM 
liingeil into more or lew slender procesoes. which are 
turned obliquely outward, giving the whole organ a 
feather-like api>earance, as in many moths. This form i> 
often called pMtAMte; 1'iit this word is properly used 
where the processes are on one side of the joint only. 

biped (bi'ped), a. and n. [< L. bijtcs (biped-) (= 
Gr. diVot? (Smot-) : see dipody), two-footed/ bi-, 
two-, + pes (ped-) = E. foot. if. ./'""'"'/'"' 
centijx-il, nllipr<l.] I. a. 1. Having two feet. 
An helpless, naked, Upeil beast. Byrom, An Epistle. 
2. In herpet., having hind limbs only. 
II. ". An animal naving two feet, as man. 

bipedal (bl'ped-al), a. [< L. bipedalis, measur- 
ing two feet, < bi-, two-, + peg (ped-), foot. Cf . 
biped.] 1. Of or pertaining to a biped; hav- 
ing or walking upon two feet. 

The erect or bipedal mode of progression. 

K. D. Copt, Origin of the Fittest, p. 335. 

2f. Measuring two feet in length. 
bipedality (bi-pe-dal'i-ti), w. [< bipedal + -ity.] 

The quality of being two-footed. 
Bipeltata (bi-pel-ta y ta), . pi. [NL., neut. pi. 

of bipeltatus: see bipeltate.} A term adopted 

by Cuvier from Latreille as a family name for 

sundry organisms known as glass-crabs, of a 

certain genus called Phyllosoma by Leach. 

The forms in question are larva- < if scyllaroid crustaceans. 

See ylaM-crab, Phyllotttmiata. [Not in use.] 
bipeltate (bi-pel'tat), a. [< NL. bipeltatus, < L. 

bi-, two-, + pelta, shield: see 6/- 2 and peltate.] 

1. In zoot., having a defense like a double 

shield. 2. Of or pertaining to the Bipeltata. 
bipennate, bipennated (bl-pen'at, -a-ted), . 

[< L. bipennis, bipinnis, two-winged, < fti- 4- 

penna, pinna, wing: see pen 1 .] 1. Having 

two wings: as, "bipennated insects," Derham, 

Phys. Theol., viii. 4, note. 2. In hot., same 

as bipinnate, (a). 

bipennatifld, . See bipiiinatijid. 
bipennis (bi-pen'is), n. ; pi. bipennes (-ez). 

[L., prop. adj. (sc. securis, ax), two-edged ; 
confused with bipen- 
nis, bipinnis, two- 
winged, but accord- 
ing to Quintilian 
and other Latin 
writers a different 
word, < bi-, two-, + 
'penntts or 'piniuts, 
sharp. Cf. pin 1 and 
penf.] An ancient 
ax with two blades, 
one on each side of 
the handle. In art it Is 
a characteristic weapon 
often depicted ill the 
hands of the Amazons. 

and also attributed to Hephrostus or Vulcan. 

Bipes (bi'pez), n. [NL., < L. bipes, two-foot- 

ed: see biped.] 1. A genus of lizards, of the 

family Anquida or Gerrhonotida; : by some 

united with Ophisaurus. Oppel, 1811. 2. A 

genus of lizards, of the family Scincida;: now 

called Scelotes. The species are African; the 

S. bipes inhabits South Africa. Merrem, 1820. 
bipetalous (bi-pet'a-lus), a. [< 

6i- 2 + petalous.] Having two 

flower-leaves or petals. 
Biphora (bi'fo-rji), n. pi. [NL., 

< L. bi-, two-, '4- Gr. -<Mw, < 

Qtpeiv = E. ftearl.] A group of 

ascidians, such as the Salpida: 

The term is sometimes used as the 

name of an order of the class ftiuira- 

ta or Ascidia, containing the familir* 

Salpida and DuliMdtr. characterized 

by their single ribbon-like brandiia. 

They are free-swimming forms with 

the sexes distimt. 
biphore (bi'for), n. [< Biphora. ] 

One of the Biphora. 
Bipinnaria Cbi-pi-na'ri-ft), n. 

[NL., < L. bi-, two-, + pinna, 

penna, wing: see pewl.] A 

genenc name given to the bi- 

lateral larval form of some 

echinoderms, as a starfish, ' fi*ina; lower. 

under the impression that it Sf" 




Bipennis. 
I From a Greek red-figured vase, i 




Slages rf derel(>1> . 
mem of a larval aste. 




Bipinnaria 

was a distinct animal : nearly the same as 
Brachiolaria. The term is retained to designate 
such larvse or stage of development. See also 
cut under Asteroid' c. 

bipinnate, bipinnated (bi-pin'at, -a-ted), a. 
(X 6i- 2 + pinnate. Cf. bipeiinate.'] Doubly pin- 
nate, (a) In bot., applied to a pinnate leaf when its divi- 
sions are themselves again pin- 
nate. Also bifwiuiate and bipen- 
nated. (b) In zool. t having op- 
posite pinnae ; feathered on two 
opposite sides of a main or axial 
line : in entom,, specifically ap- 
plied to certain feathery forms 
of antenna). See antenna, (c) In 
atiat., having the fleshy fibers 
inserted on opposite sides of a 
tendinous intersection : said of 
a muscle. The rectus femoris 
muscle is an example. 

bipinnately (bi-pin'at-li), 
adv. In a bipinnate man- 

Bipmnate Leaf. 

ner. 

bipinnatifid, bipennatifid (bi-pi-, bi-pe-nat'i- 
fid), a. [< W-* + pinnatifid, peimatifid.] In 
bot., doubly pinnatifid; having the primary and 
secondary divisions of the leaves pinnatifid. 

bipinnatiform (bi-pi-nat'i-f6rm), a. [As bi- 
pinnate + -form.'] Doubly pinnate in form ; 
bipinnate: as, a bipinnatiform muscle. 

bipinnatipartite (bl-pi-nat-i-par'tit), a. [As 
bipinnate + "L. partitas, divided: see partition.'] 
Bipinnatifid, but having the divisions extend- 
ing to near the midrib. 

bipinnatisect, bipinnatisected (bi-pi-nat'i- 
sekt, -sek-ted), a. [As bipinnate + L. sectus, 
cut: see section."] In bot., twice divided pin- 
nately. 

The leaf is said to be bipinnatifld, bipinnatipartite, or 
bipinnatisected. Bcntley, Botany, p. 153. 

biplanar (bi-pla'nar), a. [< L. bi-, two-, + 
plamts, plane.] Lying or situated in two planes. 

biplane (bi'plan), . In math., the pair of co- 
incident planes to which the tangent cone of a 
node reduces, when that node is a binode. 

biplicate (bi'pli-kat), a. [< bi- 2 + plicate."] 
Doubly folded; twice folded together, trans- 
versely, as the cotyledons of some plants. 
Henslow. 

biplicity (bi-plis'i-ti), n. [< L. biplex (biplic-) 
(equiv. to duplex, in a glossary) (< bi-, twice, + 
plicare, fold) + -ity. Cf. duplicity."] The state 
of being biplicate or twice folded ; the quality 
of being twofold ; doubling. Roget. [Rare.] 

bipolar (bi-po'iar), a. [< bi- 2 + polar.] 1. 
Doubly polar ; having two poles. 

The best modem metaphysicians, with rare exceptions, 
are now agreed that, whatever may be the case with ulti- 
mate existences, the phenomena we deal with are bipolar, 
on the one side objective and on the other subjective ; and 
these are the twofold aspects of reality. 

G. 11. Lewes, Probs. of Life and Mind, II. ii. 29. 
Specifically 2. In anat., having two process- 
es from opposite poles : said of certain nerve- 
cells. 

bipolarity (bi-po-lar'i-ti), n. [< bipolar + -ity.] 
The state of being bipolar ; double polarity. 

Bipont, Bipontine (bi'pont, bi-pon'tin), a. [< 
NL. Sipontinus, < Bipontium (a tr. of German 
Zweibrucken, F. Deux-Ponts, lit. two bridges), 
< L. bi-, two-, + pon(t-)s, bridge.] Of or per- 
taining to Bipontium (the Latin name of Zwei- 
brucken or Deux-Ponts) in Rhenish Bavaria: 
applied to editions of the classics the printing 
of which was begun there in 1779. 

biporose (bi-po'ros), a. [< L. bi-, two-, + 
porus, a pore.] Having two pores; opening 
by two pores, as the anthers in the genus Cas- 
sia and most Erieaceas. 

Bipositores (bi-poz-i-to'rez), n. pi. [NL., < 
L. bi-, two-, + positor, layer.] In ornith., an- 
other name for the Columbts, an order of birds 
including all the pigeons and doves : so called 
because these birds for the most part lay only 
two eggs. [Not in use.] 

biprism (bi'prizm), n. [< bi- 2 + prism."] A 
prism with two refractive edges each of small 
angle, its cross-section being an obtuse-angled 
isosceles triangle. 

bipulmonary (bl-pul'mo-na-ri), a. [< bi- 2 + 
pulmonary.] In Arachnida, having only one 
pair of pulmonary sacs : opposed to quadripul- 
monary. 

bipunctate (bl-pungk'tat), a. [< bi- 2 + punc- 
tate.] Having two punctures or spots. 

bipunctual (bi-pungk'tu-al), a. J< bi- 2 + 
/iiiiictual, in the literal sense.] Having two 
points Bipunctual coordinates. Svecmirdinntc. 

bipupillate (bi-pii'pi-lat), a. [< M-2 + pupil- 
tote.] Having a double pupil: in en turn., said 
of an eye-like spot on the wing of a butterfly 



560 

when it has within it two dots or pupils of a 
different color. 

bipyramidal (bi-pi-ram'i-dal), a. [< bi- 2 + 
pyramidal.] In crystal., having the form of 
two pyramids joined base to base, as quartz 
crystals. 

biquadrate (bi-kwod'rat), n. [< bi- 2 + quad- 
rate.] Same as biquadratic. 

biquadratic (bi-kwod-rat'ik), a. and n. [< bi- 2 
+ quadratic.] I. a. Containing or referring 
to a fourth power, or the square of a square ; 
quartic. The word quartic has now completely super- 
seded blniuidratic, except in the following phrases. Bi- 
quadratic equation, an equation with one unknown 
quantity the highest power of which contained in the 
equation is the fourth. Biquadratic equations are always 
susceptible of algebraic solution ; equations of higher 
degrees are generally capable only of numerical solution. 
Biquadratic function, involution. See the nouns. 
Biquadratic parabola, in geom., a curve line of the 
third order, having two infinite legs tending the same 
way. Biquadratic root of a number, the square root 
of the square root of that number. Thus, the square root 
of 81 is 9, and the square root of 9 is 3, which is the bi- 
quadratic root of 81. 

II. n. In math., the fourth power, arising 
from the multiplication of a square number 
or quantity by itself. Thus, 4 x 4 = 16, which is the 
square of 4, and 16 x 16 = 256, the biquadratic of 4. 

biquarterly (bl-kwar'ter-li), a. [< bi- 2 + 
quarterly."] Properly, happening or appearing 
once every two quarters, or semi-annually, 
but sometimes used in the sense of semi-quar- 
terly, twice in each quarter. [Rare.] 

biquartz (bi'kwartz), n. [< bi- 2 + quartz.] A 
double quartz plate used in a form of saccha- 
rimeter (which see). It consists of two semicircular 
plates of quartz joined in a vertical line ; the two halves 
are so taken that they respectively deviate the plane of 
polarization of incident plane-polarized light through 90' 
in opposite directions. 

biquaternion (bi"kwa-ter'ni-on), . [< bi (see 
def.) + quaternion.] 1. In math., an imaginary 
quaternion; a quantity expressible in the form 
a + bi + cj + dk, where i, j, k are three mu- 
tually perpendicular vectors, and a, b, c, d are 
real or imaginary numbers. This is the sense in 
which Sir W. R. Hamilton used the word. He distin- 
guished such a quantity from a real quaternion, because 
the whole algebraic procedure with imaginary quaternions 
is different from and more difficult than that with real 
quaternions, instead of being essentially the same but 
more easy, as is the case with ordinary imaginary alge- 
bra as compared with real algebra. 
2. The ratio of two rotors. This meaning was given 
to the word by \V. K. Clifford, who conceived that Hamil- 
ton's biquaternions did not deserve a separate name. In 
this sense a biquaternion is the sum of two quaternions 
belonging to different systems, so that their product van- 
ishes. 

biquintile (bi-kwin'til), n. [< bi- 2 + quintile.] 
In astrol., an aspect of the planets when they 
are distant from each other by twice the fifth 
yart of a great circle, that is, 144 or twice 72. 

biradiate, biradiated (bi-ra'di-at, -a-ted), a. 
[< bi- 2 + radiate.] Having two rays: as, a bi- 
radiate fin. 

birambi (bi-ram'bi), n. [Native name.] The 
fruit of the Averrhoa Bilimbi, a plant of British 
Guiana, from which an excellent preserve is 
made. 

biramose (bi-ra'mos), a. Same as biramous. 

Six pairs of powerful biramose natatory feet. 

Encyc. Brit., VI. 652. 

biramOUS (bi-ra'mus), a. [< L. bi-, two-, + 
ramus, a branch.] Possessing or consisting of 
two branches j dividing into two branches, as 
the limbs of cirripeds. H. A. Nicholson. 

birch (berch), n. [= Sc. and North. E. birk, < 
ME. birch, bireJte, birke, < AS. birce, bierce, 
byrce (= OHG. bircha, piricha, MHG. G. birke), 
weak fern., parallel with berc, beorc (= MD. 
berck, D. berk (berken-boom) = Icel. ojork (in 
comp. birki-) = Sw. bjork = Dan. birk), strong 
fern., = OBulg. brcza = Russ. bere:a = Lith. 
berzhas, birch, = Skt. bhurja, a kind of birch. 
Root unknown ; connected by some with AS. 
beorht, OHG. beraht, etc., bright, white, shin- 
ing, in allusion to the color of the bark. Not 
connected with L. betula, birch: see Betula."] 
1. A tree or shrub belonging to the genus Be- 
tula (which see). The birches have smooth, lami- 
nated outer bark and close-grained wood, which in some 
species is hard and tough, taking a flue polish, and is used 
in the manufacture of furniture and for many other pur- 
poses. The white, gray, or poplar birch, Betula alba, the 
principal European species, is a small tree, but is put 
to many uses, especially iu the old world. The bark is 
used for tanning and thatching, and yields an oil which 
is said to be used to give .Russia leather its peculiar odor; 
spruce-oil is also used for this purpose. The leaves, as 
well as the sap and oil, are used in the treatment of vari- 
ous chronic diseases, and the wood is used for fuel and 
many other purposes. Several varieties of this species, as 
the weeping, cut-leafed, and purple birches, are much 
cultivated for ornament. The cauoe- or paper-birch of 



bird 

North America, B. papyrtfera, is a large tree with a very 
tough, durable bark, which is largely used by the Indiana 
in the manufacture of canoes and teute. The timber is 
valuable. The yellow or ^ray birch, B. lutca, is one of 
the most important deciduous trees of the northern At- 
lantic forests, growing to a very large size; its wood is 
heavy, very strong, and hard. The black, sweet, cherry-, 
or mahogany-birch, B. lenta, has a very spicy, aromatic 
bark, yielding a volatile oil identical with oil of winter- 
green, and its heavy, dark-colored wood is largely used 
for making furniture and in ship-building. Other promi- 
nent species are the red or river-birch, B. niyra, of the 
Southern States, and the black birch, B. occidental!*, of 
the Rocky Mountains and westward. Several shrubby 
species are widely distributed in mountainous and arctic 
regions, reaching a higher latitude than any other decidu- 
ous tree, as the alpine birch (B. nana), the low or dwarf 
birch (B. pumila), and the scrub birch (B. glandulom). 
2. A birch rod, or a number of birch-twigs 
bound together, sometimes used for punishing 
children. 3. A birch-bark canoe. Lowell. 
Jamaica or West Indian birch, or gumbo-limbo, a 
species of Bttrsera, B. tjuntmifem, a small tree with ex- 
ceedingly soft, light, and spongy wood, yielding a kind of 
gum elemi, which is used as a remedy for goutand as the 
chief ingredient of a valuable varnish. 

birch (berch), v. t. [< birch, n.] To beat or 
punish with a birch rod; flog. 

From the child sentenced to be birched, to the assassin 
doomed to lose his life. Higyinmn, Eng. Statesmen, p.270. 
There I was birched, there I was bred, 
There like a little Adam fed 
From Learning's woeful tree '. 

Hood, Clapham Academy. 

birch-broom (berch'brom'), H. Acoarse broom 
made of the twigs and small branches of the 
birch-tree, used for sweeping stables, streets, 
etc. 

birch-Camphor (berch'kam'for), n. A resin- 
ous substance obtained from the bark of the 
black birch. 

birchen (ber'chen), a. [= Sc. birken, birkin, < 
ME. birchen, birkin, < AS. *bircen (Somner) (= 
D. LG. berken = OHG. Urchin, MHG. G. birken), 
< birce, birch : see birch.] Of or pertaining to 
birch; consisting or made of birch: as, "birchen 
brooms," Beau, and fl., Loyal Subject. 

We say of a wanton child, ... he must be annoynted 
with byrchin salve. 

Tyndale, Works (1573), p. 166. (N. E. D.) 
His beaver'd brow a birchen garland wears. 

Pope, Dunciad, iv. 141. 

birch-oil (berch'oil), n. An oil extracted from 
birch-bark, said to be used in preparing Russia 
leather. 

birch-water (berch'wa*ter), n. The sap of the 
birch. See birch-wine. 

birch-wine (berch 'win), n. A fermented li- 
quor made from the sap of the birch-tree, which 
is collected in the spring throughout the moun- 
tainous and wooded districts of Germany and 
Scandinavia. It is called by names which signify birch- 
water or birch-wine in the different languages. It is said 
to be possessed of diuretic and antiscorbutic properties. 

bird 1 (berd), n. [< ME. bird, herd, byrde, a me- 
tathesis of the usual form brid, bred, bryd, pi. 
briddes, a bird, also, as orig., the young of any 
bird, < AS. brid, pi. briddas (ONorth. bird, birit- 
as), the young of any bird. Origin unknown; it 
can hardly be connected with brood, as usually 
stated. Possibly the form bird is the more 
orig. form, standing for "byrd, < boren, born, 
p. of beran, bear; cf. byrde, (well-) born, ge- 
yrd, birth, of same origin : see birthl. For the 
metathesis, cf. that of bird 2 . For the devel- 
opment of sense, cf . the history of pullet and 
pigeon. The common Teut. word for ' bird ' 
(def. 2) is fowl, now restricted iu English: see 
fowl.] If. The young of any fowl. 
Being fed by us, you used us so 
As that ungentle gull the cuckoo's bird 
Useth the sparrow. Shak., I Hen. IV., v. 1. 

2. A feathered vertebrate animal of the class 
Aves, frequently included with reptiles in a su- 
perclass Sauropsida, but distinguished by hav- 
ing warm blood, by being covered with fea- 
thers, and by having the fore limbs so modified 
as to form wings. See Aves. 3. Any small 
feathered game, as a partridge, quail, snipe, or 
woodcock, as distinguished from water-fowl, 

etc Aerial birds. See aerial. A little bird told 
me, I heard in a way I will not reveal. 

Imagine any one explaining the trivial saying, "A little 
bird told tne," without knowing of the old belief in the 
language of birds and beasts. 

E. B. Tylor, Prim. Culture, I. i. 

Aquatic birds. See airuatic. Arabian bird, the fab- 
ulous phenix. sw A rabiini. Baltimore bird, see uri- 
ole. Bird-conjurer. See conjurer. StrA of freedom. 
the American bald eagle. [An Americanism.] Bird Ot 
Jove, the eagle. Bird of Juno, the peacock. -Bird of 
Minerva, tb. owl. Bird of night, the owl. Bird of 
Paradise, (a) One of the ParoafceuftB, oscim- passi-rim- 
birds, ivlatol to the corvine and stumoid passerines, 
cnntiiit'd to the I'upuan ri-^inn. ami lon^ famous lor mag- 
nificence of plumage and for the extraordinary devel- 



pp 
by 



bird 



661 



t I 

v\r. 



' ,J -*~ 

-T.-I^*'^ *~*^"^ 

-" 




*rs 



? 



Topography <if a Mini. 
I, foreh 
6. himl he 
lo, interscapul 
upper part of . 

per tali-coverts; 15, tail; 16, 



(From Coues'b " Key to North American Birds.") 



:head f AWM) : 3, lore ; 3, circuinocular region ; 4, crown (vertex}; 5, eye ; 
head (occiput}; 7. nape (Httcka}; 8, hind neck (cervix}; 9, side of neck ; 
^capuhir region ; 1 1, aorsnm, or back proper. Including ro : , netattm, or 



- thets bright, rumrli/, etc.: BeeferiViVi.] 

|; ^/-~-< ^'^Z^**' A maiden ; a girl ; a young woman. 

Tber nis no bvijrtl' so briht in honre . . . 
That hen [she| ne schal fade as n llmir. 

Kai-lii KH : I. /'"//'. (e.l. Furuivall), p. l."l. 
Hire cheerc was simple, as Irintr in I r. . 

l!,,iii. ".! ' th,- HII*,; 1. 1014. 

And by my word the Umnie bird 
In danger shall not tarry. 

"iii'll, Lord Vllln's Daughter. 

|ln this, as in other modern instances, the 
word is archaic, and is probably associated 
with ///(/' as a term of endearment.] 

bird-baiting (berd'ba'ting), . The 
catching of birds with clap-nets. 
I'ii lilimi. 

bird-bolt 1 (berd'bolt), n. [< Wrrfi + 
bolt 1 .} A blunt-headed arrow for the 
longbow or crossbow, formerly used 
for snooting birds. It was intended 
to stun without piercing. 

bird-bolt a (berd'bolt), . [A corrup- 
tion of burbot.] A local Knglish 

. back proper, including; . ,. or "ame of the burbot .Mult;, lota. 

rt of body proper, including ro. it. and 13; 13. rump (urafyfium} ; r4, up- blTd-CajC6 (berd kal), H. A portable 
coverts; ML Mil ; 16, under tail-coverts (crfsium ]; 17. tarsus: 18. abdo- *" >*" , . , .' 
men; 19 hind toe (kalltix); x>,r<islr*u,n, including 18 and 34 ; 3r. outer or fourth UICIOSUIO IO1 I 

toe; 93, middle or third toe; 33. side of body-. 34. breast (//**): 35. primaries; bird-Call (Iterd'kal). . An inStTO- 

36. secondaries ; 37. lertiaries (Nos. 35, ao, and 37 ..re all rf.if> 1 38. primary cov- ^ " \ u .. " f v _ hir.U 

erts; *>, alula, or bastard iny. 30. greater coverts ; 3 r. median coverts; 33. lesser ineUt lor imitating tU6 Cry OI DirUS 

covens; u. "- tiun.it, including 37, ami 38 ; ^.^'^'"'"^"jj"^'^' 1 ''^' i in order to attract or decoy them. 
!^ofcolralMn,orwrM^/lm^nIUIIo(u^lll*lldlbl^4>.tM It is generally a short metal pipe, having a 

i ni.tinliblc; 42,4wo < j; 43, apex, or tip of bill: 44, totnia, or cutting cd^es circular plate at each end pierced with a 

of the hill ; 41. culmrn, or riik-c- of upper mandible, corresponding to Bonys; 46, side sma n ) lo l c 

bird-catcher (berd'kach'er), . One 

opuient of some of the feathers In most species. There who or that which catches birds, as a person, a 
are about forty species of birds of Paradise, one of the bird or an insect. 

most beautiful of which, Parttdinea, attoda, is also the best i*_j _ rt 4. rt i.4 .- /Vi&i./1 / 1ranh'iTi<y > \ Th** a*t nf 
known: it was called apxle from the fable that it was bird-Catching (I **" |" g Vh i , f 55 
always on the wing and Wl no feet, a notion which was catching birds or wild fowls, either for food or 

pleasure, or for their destruction when perni- 
cious to the husbandman. 

bird-dog (berd'dpg), n. A dog used by sports- 
men in the field in hunting game-birds, 
bird-duffer (berd'duf'er), . A dishonest deal- 
er in birds, who "makes up" his wares, either 
by painting the plumage of live birds, or by 
fabricating bird-skins, affixing false labels, 
etc. 

birdet, A Middle English form of bird. 
birder (ber'der), n. [< late ME. byrder ; < MnP, 
. i., + -er 1 .] If. A bird-catcher; a fowler. 

As the byrder beguyleth the byrdes. Viva. 

2. One who breeds birds. 3. A local English 
name of the wild cat. A r . E. D. 
bird-eye (berd'i), a. See bird's-eye. 
bird-eyed (berd'Id), . Having eyes like those 
of a bird ; quick-sighted ; catching a glimpse as 
one goes. 

Where was your dear sight, 
When It did so, forsooth ! what now i bird-tiled' 

B. Jomtm, Volpone, ill 2. 

to reach naturalisU were without feet, these having been bird-fancier (berd'fan'si-er), w. 1. One who 
removed in preparing the skins. The packets of beautiful " , .,].,,,..: ; r ,. a rinir or eollectinff birds 
orange and yellow plumes wcrn as ornaments are from taKes pleasui ing Dirus, 

this species and a near relative. /. iniiwr. I'.miuiuiiva especially such as are rare or curious. 2. A 
is a still more gorgeous bird. The king bird of Paradise, dealer in the various kinds of birds which are 
' :, is one of the most magnificent. .SV/itV- Vent i 







Bird of Paradise (Paradista afoda) 
strengthened by the fact that the specimens which used 



also given to a few species which are excluded from the 
technical definition of I'linnlineida! (which sec), (b) In 
uxtnni.. a southern constellation. See Apus, 1. Bird Of 
passage, a migratory bird ; a migrant ; a bird which regu- 
larly passes in tile spring from a warmer to a colder cli- 
mate. anl liark in the fall. See iiti^i-'ilnm am! i.<,-j</j<l,'*i-.-i. 
Bird Of peace, the dove, with reference to the story of 
Noah. --Bird of prey, any member of tile order Raptorcx 
or Aivipftrfti, as the "hawk, eairle. owl, etc. Bird of the 
year, a bird less than a year old. - Bird of wonder, the 
phenlx. Birds of a feather, persons of similar tastes and 

other of persons of like proclivities. Early bird, an early- 
riser ; one w hotels up betimes in the morning : in allusion 
t<> the proverb, "The early bird catches the worm." Man- 



calleil by chapman, a traveler in southern Africa. To 
hear a bird slug, to receive private communication ; be 
informed privately or secretly. 

I heard a bird so >/. Shak., -i Hen. IV., v. 5. 

1 If/ml ,i l>inl tinii, they mean him no I^IMK! nttiee. 

Fletcher, Uiyal Subject, iv. i 



bird 1 (berd), c. i. [< fc/n/i, .] 1. To catch 
birds; go bird-shooting or fowling. 

I do invite >"ii tu-nmn-ow innvniim to my house to break- 
fast : after, we'll a-Mi -itiiKi touctlier. 

Shalt., M. W. of \V., iii. :i. 

Hence 2f. To look for plunder ; thieve. 

V>i in. Tiiese tlay "\. is 

Xin-. That arc tiirdiii't in men's purses. 

/>'. .liittxiiii, Aleliemisl, v. ::. 

bird-t (liei'd), . [Ho. liinl, bunt, ete.j < MK. 
bird. In i'il. imi'il, bi/nl, etc.. u transpositioo f 

tin' soinewliiit less foiiinuin lirid, liridi', etc.. 
prop, a bride, Init miieh useil in poetry in I lie 
general sense of maiden,' 'girl,' with the epi- 
86 



bird-foot (berd'fut), a. Divided like a 
foot; pedate, as the leaves of the bird-foot 
violet, Viola, pedata. 

birdgazer (berd'ga'zer), n. [< bird 1 + gazer ; 
a tr. of L. auspex: see auspex.] An augur or 
haruspex. 
Acclus Savins, the great birdgazer of Rome. 

Treirnertne of the Christian Iteliyivn, p. 401. 

bird-house (berd'hous), n. A box, pen, or small 
house for birds; a place in which birds are 
housed. 

birdie 1 (ber'di), n. [< ft.'rrfl + dim. -ie\] 1. A 
childish diminutive of bird 1 . 2. A term of 
endearment for a child or a young woman. 

birdie 15 (ber'di), . A name about Aberdeen, 
Scotland, of the young halibut. 

birding-piecet (ber'ding-pes), . A fowling- 
piece. .s'/mA., M. W. of W., iv. 2. 

My Ixml Hinchlngbroke, I am told, hath Iiad a mis- 
chance to kill his lioy by his birdinij-piece going off as he 
was a-fowling. Pepyt, Diary, I. 420. 

bird-lime (benl'lim), . A viscous substance 
prepared from the inner bark of the holly, Ilex 
.[quifiiliiiiii, used for entangling small birds in 
order to capture them, twigs being smeared 
with it at places where birds resort or are like- 
ly to alight. 



Holly is of so \ is 

the bark of it. 



L juice, as they make birdlime of 
Bacini. Nat. Hist., 692. 



Nut /lii-'l-ifi/i,' nr Idcali pitell produce 
\ more teiuu iotis mass of clammy juice. 

llrinli'ii, tr. of Virgil's Oeorgics, iv. r.7. 

birdlime (Uenl'lini), v. t. To smear with bird- 
lime. 



bird's-nest 

When the In-art in thus binl-linifd, then it cleave* to 
everything it meet* with. 

in, A Christian's Un.wth, ii. :(. 

bird-louse (berd'lous), . One of a kind of lice 

which infest the plumage of birds. Tin- genera 

:iM'l -I'M [ s are nilliif|,,us. They are lui'stlv deplailcil 
parasitic insccU of the order J/" H I constitute 

nii'st of that order. 

birdman (berd'man), n. ; pi. birdmcn (-men). 
[< bird 1 + ia.] 1. A bird-catcher; a fowl- 
er. 2. An ornithologist. 3. One who stuffs 
birds. 

birdnest (berd'nost), f. i. To hunt or search 
for the nests of birds. 

bird-net (berd'net), M. A net used for catch- 
ing birds. 

bird-organ (berd'or'gan), H. A small barrel- 
organ used in teaching birds to whistle tunes. 

bird-plant (berd ' plant), H. A lobeliaceous 
plant, Ueterotoma lobelioides, from Mexico, with 
yellow irregular flowers somewhat resembling 
a bird. Also called canary-bird Jlotccr. 

bird's-bread (berdz'bred), n. A name of the 
common stonecrop, to-tin m m-r, . 

bird-seed (b6rd'sed), n. Small seeds used for 
feeding birds, as those of hemp or millet ; more 
specifically, the seed of Plialaris Canarieiisis, or 
canary-grass. 

bird's-eye (berdz'l), . and a. I. n. 1. In hot. : 
() The pheasant's-eye, Adonis aiitumnalu. (b) 
The speedwell, Veronica Cliamadrys : BO named 
from its bright-blue flower, (c) A species of 
primrose, Primula farinosa. 2. A fine kind 
of tobacco, partly manufactured from the leaf- 
stalks of the plant, and forming, when ready 
for use, a loose fibrous mass with thin slices 
of stalk interspersed, the latter marked some- 
what like a bird's eye. Red bird's-eye, the herb- 

robert, Geranium Hobertianum. 

II. a. 1. Seen from above, as if by a flying 
bird ; embraced at a glance ; hence, general ; 
not minute or entering into details: as, a 
bird's-eye landscape ; a bird's-eye view of a sub- 
ject. 

Thereupon she took 
A bird's-eye view of all the ungracious past. 

Tennyjton, Princess, il. 

2. Resembling a bird's eye; having spots or 
markings somewhat resembling birds' eyes. 

He wore a blue bird'i-nje handkerchief round his neck. 
Huyht*, Tom Brown at Oxford, xviil. 

Bird's-eye crape , diaper, limestone, maple, etc. See 
the nouns. Bird's-eye view, a mode of perspective 
representation in which portions of country, towns, etc., 
appear as they would if viewed from a considerable ele- 
vation. 

bird's-foot (berdz'fut), . 1. A common name 
for several plants, especially papilionaceous 
plants of the genus (trnithnpm, their legumes 
being articulated, cylindrical, and bent in like 
claws. 2. The name of a spurge, Euphorbia 
Ornithonus, of the Cape of Good Hope Bird's- 
foot trefoil, the popular name of Lotut cm niculatut : so 
called because its legumes spread like a crow's foot. See 
MM. 

bird's-mouth (berdz'mouth), M. In carp., an 
interior angle or notch cut across the grain at 
the extremity of a piece of timber, for its re- 
ception on the edge of another piece. 
bird's-nest (berdz'nest), . 1. A name popu- 
larly given to several plants ; from some sug- 
gestion of a bird's nest m their form or manner 
of growth, (a) Xeuttia Xidusavi*. a British orchid found 
in beech woods : so called because of the mass of stout in- 
terlaced fibers which form its roots, (ft) Mwuitnijia HJ/IIO- 
pityt, a parasitic ericaceous plant growing on the roots of 
trees 111 ftr woods, the leafless stalks of which resemble a 
nest of sticks, (c) A*- 
plentiful Sitlun, from 
the manner in which 
the fronds grow, leav- 
ing a nest-like hollow 
in the center, (d) The 
wild carrot, Davcun 
Carota, from the form 
of the ninU.1 in fruit. 
2. Same as crow's- 
nest. 3. fil. An 
article of com- 
merce between 
Java and China, 
consisting of the 
gelatinous brack- 
ets which the 
swifts of the fam- 
ily t'i/i>ttlidte and 
genus Ciillocalia 
attach to cliffs, 
and on which they 
build their nests. 
These so-called bird's- 

lietsi'i-ist pnncipnl- 

(,in.War,., .1; r. w/,.r,,i 1y of the inspissated 




bird's-nest 

saliva (if the birds, anil are much esteemed by the Chinese, 
who use them in making the well-known bird's-nest soup. 
Bird's-nest fungus, any species of fungus belonging 
to the group Xiditlariaceee, which resemble small nests 
containing i'ggs. Also called bird's-nrxt peziza. 

bird-spider (berd'spi"der), n. A large hairy 
spider of the family Tlieraphosidtc and genus 
Arieularia (often called Mi/gale). A. ariculnria, 
a native of tropical America, is able to capture 
and kill small birds. See cut on preceding page. 

bird's-tares, bird's-tongue (berdz'tarz, -tung), 
n. Names of the species of Omitlioglossum, a 
genus of bulbous plants from the Cape of Good 
Hope. The name bird's-tonaue is also applied to the 
door-weed, Pvlyaonum aviculare, from the shape of its 
leaves, and sometimes to the keys of the European ash, 
Frajrin ux t'xcelitutT, 

bird-tick (berd'tik), n. A name of some pupip- 
arous dipterous insects which infest the plu- 
mage of birds, creeping quickly about among 
the feathers. A good example is Olfersia ameri- 
cana, which is found on many species of birds. 

bird-witted (berd'wit'ed), a. Having only the 
wit of a bird ; passing rapidly from one subject 
to another ; nighty. 

If a child be bird-witted, that is, hath not the faculty of 
attention, the nmthematicks giveth a remedy thereunto. 
Bacon, Works, I. 161. 

birectangular (bi-rek-tang'gu-lar), a. [< bi- 2 
+ rectangular. ] Having two right angles : as, 
a birectangular spherical triangle. 

birefractive (bi-re-frak'tiv), a. [< bi- 2 + re- 
fractire.} Same as birefringent. 

birefringent (bl-re-frin'jent), a. [< bi- 2 + re- 
fringent.} Doubly refractive ; possessing the 
property of separating a ray of light into two 
rays by double refraction. See refraction. 

bireme (bi'rem), n. [< L. biremis, < bi-, two-, 
+ remus, an oar.] An ancient galley having 
two banks or tiers of oars. 

A few were biremes, the rest stout triremes. 

L. Wallace, Ben-Hur, p. 149. 

biretta (bi-ret'a), . [Also birretta, berretta; 
< It. berretta =' Sp. Mrreta = Pr. berreta, bar- 
reta = F. barette (> E. barret 2 ), fern. ; in masc. 
form, Pr. birret = 
Cat. baret = F. beret 
(see beret), < ML. bir- 
rettum, birrctum, al- 
so bereta, etc., dim. 
of birrux, a hood or 
cape, LL. a cloak: 
seebirrits.'] 1. Origi- 
nally, any small cap 
worn as distinctive 
of a trade or pro- 
fession; afterward, 
a scholastic cap, or 
such as was worn 
indoors by mem- Biretta. 

bers of the learned 

professions; now, in the Bo>. Cnth. CIt., the 
ecclesiastical cap. This last is square, and has three 
and sometimes four norns or projections on top, crossing 
It at equal angles, and frequently having a tuft or tassel 
where the horns meet in the middle. For priests and the 
lower orders its color is black, and for bishops also, at 
least in Rome, though elsewhere they commonly wear 
one of violet, corresponding with the color of the cassock ; 
for cardinals it is red. It seems to have been introduced 
in offices of the church when the amice ceased to be worn 
over the head in proceeding to and from the altar at mass. 
2. By extension, a Tunis cap ; a smoking-cap. 

birgandert, n. See bergander. 

birnomboidal (bl-rom-boi'dal), a. [< bi- 2 + 
rhomboidal.} Having a surface composed of 
twelve rhombic faces, which, being taken six 
and six, and prolonged in idea till they intercept 
each other, would form two rhombohedrons. 

birimose (bl-ri'mos), a. [< L. bi-, two-, + rima, 
a chink.] Opening by two slits, as the anthers 
of most plants. 

birk 1 (b6rk), i. Northern English and Scotch 
form of birch. 

Shadows of the silver birk 

Sweep the green that folds thy grave. 

Tennyxon, A Ltirge, i. 

birk 2 (berk), r. i. [Se.; origin obscure; cf. 
Icel. berk/a, bark, bluster.] To give a tart an- 
swer; converse in a sharp and cutting way. 
Jamieson. 

birken (ber'ken), . Northern English and 
Scotch form of birchen. 

birkent (ber'ken), t-. t. [< birkeii, a., or Irirkl 
+ -en 1 .] To beat with a birch or rod. 

They ran up and clown like furies, and birkeiud those 
they met with. 

Christian Rdiyitnis Ajrpfftl, p. 91. 
birkie (ber'ki), a. and . [Se., also spelled bir- 
ky; of. Wf# 2 .] I. a. Lively; spirited; tart iu 
speech. 




562 

II. n. 1. A lively young fellow; a self-as- 
sertive fellow. 

Ye see yon birkie ca'd a lord, 
Wha struts, an' stares, an' a' that. 

Burnt, For A' That. 

2. Beggar-my-neighbor : a game at cards. Auld 
birkie, old boy. [Colloq.] 

birl 1 (berl), v. [Se. and E. dial., also burl, < 
ME. birleii, byrlen, < AS. byrelian, byrlian, bir- 
lian (> Icel. byrla), pour out drink, < byrcle (> 
Icel. byrli), a cupbearer, butler (perhaps con- 
nected with OS. biril = OHG. biril, a basket), 
prop, a carrier, bearer, < beran, bear: see fiear 1 .] 

1. trans. 1. To pour out (wine, etc.) for. 

Dame Elynour entrete 
To byrle them of the best. 

Skelton, Elynour Rummyng, 1. 269. 

2. To supply or ply with drink. 

II. intraiis. To drink in company; carouse. 
[A modern forced use.] 

birl 2 (berl), i'. [Appar. imitative; cf. birr 2 , 
bur 2 , whirl, whir, tirl, etc.] I. intrans. To 
move or rotate rapidly ; make a noise like that 
made by wheels moving rapidly over stones or 
gravel. 

II. trans. To cause to rotate ; twirl or spin 
(as a coin) in the air or on a table, as in pitch- 
and-toss ; hence, to toss out (a coin or coins) 
on the table as one's contribution ; contribute 
as one's share in paying for drinks: as, "I'll 
birl my bawbee," Scotch song. 

birlaw, birley, birlie, . See byrlaw. 

birlawman, birlieman, birlyman, . See byr- 
laieman. 

birlin (ber'lin), . [Also birlinn, birling, berlin, 
berling; < Gael, birlinn, bioirlinn, a barge or 
pleasure-boat.] A kind of boat used in the 
Hebrides, rowed with from four to eight long 
oars, but seldom furnished with sails. 

There's a place where their berlinx and gallies, as they 
ca'd them, used to lie in lang syne. 

Scott, Guy Mannering, xl. 
Sailing from Ireland in a birlinn or galley. 

Quoted in N. and Q., 6th Ber., XII. 7. 

birling 1 (ber'ling), . [Verbal n. of birfl, t>.] 
A drinking-match. 

The Tod's-hole, an house of entertainment where there 
has been mony a blithe birliiig. Scott. 

birling 2 (ber'ling), . Same as birlin. 

birn 1 (bern), . [Sc. : see burn 1 .'] A stem of 
dry heather; specifically, one of the stems of 
burnt heath wnich remain after the smaller 
twigs have been consumed, as in moor-burning. 

birn 2 (bern), n. [< G. birne, a pear, dial, bir, < 
MHO. bir, pi. birn, < OHG. bira = L. pirum, pi. 
jiira, whence also ult. E. pear, q. v.] That part 
of an instrument of the clarinet class into which 
the mouthpiece fits : so called from its shape. 

birny (ber'ni), a. [< birn 1 + -y 1 .] Abounding 
in birns. [Scotch.] 

birostrate, birostrated (bi-ros'trat, -tra-ted), 
a. [< bi- 2 + rostrate.'} Having a double beak, 
or process resembling a beak. 

birotation (bi-ro-ta'shon), . [< bi- 2 + rota- 
tion.'] Double rotation or rotatory power. The 
name was given by Dubrunfaut toa phenomenon exhibited 
by some sugar, which possesses a rotatory power that is at 
first nearly equal to twice the normal amount, but gradu- 
ally diminishes and remains constant when the normal 
power is reached. The sugar having this property is called 
birotatory dextrose. 

birotatory (bl-ro'ta-to-ri), a. [< bi- 2 + rota- 
tory.} Possessing double rotatory power. See 
birotation. 

birotine (bir'o-tin), . [Origin uncertain.] A 
kind of silk from the Levant. 

birotulate (bi-ro'tu-lat), a. [< L. bi-, two-, + 
rotula, a little wheel: see roll.} Having two 
wheels or disks connected by a common axis. 

birr 1 (ber; Sc. pron. ber), n. [Sc., also bir, ber, 
beir, bere, btir,burr, etc., < ME. bir, byr, byrre, 
burre, bur, < Icel. byrr (= Sw. Dan. 66V), a fa- 
voring wind, < bera (= AS. beran), bear: see 
bear 1 .'] If. A strong wind. 2. The force of 
the wind; impetus; momentum. 3. A thrust 
or push. 4. Force; vigor; energy. [Scotch 
and North. Eng.] 

birr 2 (ber), v. i. [Sc., also bir, ber, etc., appar. 
imitative, like bur 2 , burr 2 , and birl 2 , q. v.] To 
make a whirring noise ; make a noise like that 
of revolving wheels, or of millstones at work. 
[Scotch.] 

birr 2 (ber), w. [<WT 2 ,f.] 1. A whirring noise. 
2. Strong trilling pronunciation. See bur 2 . 
[Scotch.] 

birretta, . See biretta. 

birrus (bir'us), n. ; pi. birri (-1). [LL., a cloak of 
wool or silk, orig. of a reddish color, worn to 
keep oft' rain, < OL. burrus, red (f ), < Gr. 



birth-hour 

older Trvprr6f, red, flame-colored; cf. xvpa6f, a 
fire-brand, usually referred to nvp = E. Jire. 
Hence ult. biretta, berretta, etc. (see biretta), 
barrel, bureau, etc.] 1. Under the Roman em- 
pire, and later, a cloak with a hood worn as 
an outer garment for protection from the wea- 
ther. It was strictly a heavy and rough garment, woven 
of coarse wool in its natural color; but after a time cloaks 
of the same form and name came to be made of fine qual- 
ity also. 

2. A species of coarse thick woolen cloth used 
by the poorer classes in the middle ages for 
cloaks and external clothing. 

birse (bers), n. [Sc., also birs, < ME. brust, < 
AS. byrst = OHG. burst, bursta, MHG. borst, 
biirst, borste, G. borste = Icel. burst = Sw. 
borst = Dan. borste, bristle; the primitive of 
bristle, q. v.] A bristle; collectively, bristles. 
[Scotch.] To Bet up one's birse, to put one on his 
mettle ; put one in a towering passion. 

birsle (ber'sl), v. t. ; pret. and pp. birsled, ppr. 
birsling. [Sc., also brissle, brusle = E. brvstle, 
make a crackling noise: see brvstle 1 .] 1. To 
scorch or toast, as before a fire: as, to birsle 
one's self or one's shanks before the fire. 2. 
To parch or broil : as, to birsle peas or potatoes. 
[Scotch.] 

birt (bert), H. [Also written burt, and formerly 
bert, byrt; also brit, bret, q. v.] A local Eng- 
lish name of the turbot, Psetta maxima. 

birt-fish (bfert'fish), n. Same as birt. 

birth 1 (berth), n. [Early mod. E. also berth, 
< ME. birth, berth, byrtli, births, burthe, byrthe 
(appar. assimilated to Icel. *byrdhr,l&teTburdhr 
= OSw. byrtli, Sw. bord = Dan. byrd), reg. ME. 
byrde, burde, < AS. gebyrd (= OFries. berd, berth 
= OS. giburd = D. geboorte = OHG. giburt, MHG. 
G. geburt = Goth, gabaurths, birth, nativity; 
cf. Ir. brim = Gael, breith, birth ; Skt. bhriti), 
with formative -d (and prefix ge-), < beran, 
bear: see bear 1 .} 1. The fact of being born ; 
nativity. 

Had our prince 

(Jewel of children) seen this hour, he had pair'd 
Well with this lord ; there was not full a month 
Between their births. Sliak., W. T., v. 1. 

2. By extension, any act or fact of coming into 
existence; beginning; origination: eta, the birth 
of Protestantism. 

After an hour's strict search we discover the cause of 
the reports. They announce the birth of a crevasse. 

Tyndall, Korms of Water, p. 68. 

3. The act of bearing or bringing forth ; par- 
turition: as, "at her next birth," Milton, Ep. 
M. of Win., 1. 67. 4. The condition into which 
a person is born ; lineage ; extraction ; descent : 
as, Grecian birth ; noble birth : sometimes, ab- 
solutely, descent from noble or honorable pa- 
rents and ancestors : as, a man of birth. 

He [James] had an obvious interest in inculcating the 

superstitious notion that birth confers rights anterior to 

law and unalterable by law. Slacaulay. 

5. That which is born ; that which is produced. 

Poets are far rarer births than kings. 

B. Jonnon, Epigrams. 

Others hatch their eggs and tend the birth till it is able 

to shift for itself. Addiion, Spectator, No. 120. 

Lines, the birth of some chance morning or evening at 

an Ionian festival, or among the Sabine hills, have lasted 

generation after generation. 

J. II. Xetcuum, Gram, of Assent, p. 75. 
6f. Nature; kind; sex; natural character. 
N. E. D. 7f. In astrol., nativity; fortune. 
A cunning man did calculate my birth, 
And told me that by water I should die. 

Shak., 2 Hen. VI., iv. 1. 
New birth, regeneration (which see). 
birth 2 , n. See berth 2 . 

birth-childt (berth'child) , . A child ascribed to 
the domain of its birth, or to the ruler of it : as, 
" Thetis' birth-child" (Shak., Pericles, iv. 4), that 
is, one born on the sea, the domain of Thetis. 
birthday (berth'da), n. and a. [ME. birthdai, 
birthcday (cf. AS. gcbyrd-da>g) ; < birth 1 + day.} 
I. 11. The day on which a person is born, or the 
anniversary of the day ; hence, day or time of 
origin or commencement. 

This is my birth-day, as this very day 
Was Cassius born. Shak., J. C., v. 1. 

Those barbarous ages past, succeeded next 
The birth-day of invention. Coir/ier, Task. i. 

II. a. Relating or pertaining to the day of 
a person's birth, or to its anniversary: as, a 
birthday ode or gift; birthday festivities, 
birthdomt (berth'dum), n. [< birth 1 , + -dom.} 
Privilege of birth; that which belongs to one 
by birth ; birthright. Ultal: 
birth-hour (berth 'our), . The hour at which 
one is born. 

Worse than a slavish wipe or :i liiftli-tunir'x blot. 

Shak., Lucrece, 1. 537. 



birthing 

birthing, . Sec />> i'ti/in</. 
birthland (bteth'lwid), . Tho land of one's 
birth, or where one was born. 
In tha direction of their in,tl<l,in,i. 

,/.', Sartor Resartus, p. 104. 

So may the dead return t" tln-ir Mrihlniul. 

Tl,.-<;,,t,n;i, XXVI. 47. 

birthless (berth'les), a. [< birtltl + -less."] 
Not of good or honorable birth ; of low or com- 
mon lineage. Smlt. 

birth-mark (berth'miirk), it. Some congenital 
mark or blemish on a pel-son's body; a straw- 
berry-murk; a mole ; a namis. 

M.iat |iart of tills noble lineage carried upnn tlirir bmly 
cvrii fnr a iiatiiiall birth-mark, fnmi their nmther s womb, 
a snake. North, tr. of I'lutarch, p. 17. 

birthnight (berth'nit ), M. Tho night of the ilay 
on which a person is born ; the anniversary of 
that night. 

birthplace (borth'plas), n. The place of one's 
birth; the town, city, or country where a per- 
son is born; more generally, place of origin. 

birth-rate (berth'rat), 11. "The proportion of 
births to the number of inhabitants of a town, 
district, country, etc., generally stated as so 
many per thous:in<i of tlio popul'ation. 

An increase in prosperity, as measured by the frirth- 
rate, is accompanied by a decrease in tin- ratio of Imy- 
birtbs, anil vice versa. /'/' .*>'<. .""., XXVI. :t27. 

birthright (berth'rit), n. Any right or privi- 
lege to which a person is entitled by birth, 
such as an estate descendible by law to an 
heir, or civil liberty under a free constitution; 
specifically, the right of primogeniture. 

And they sat before him, the flrst-liorn according to his 
birlhriijhl, and the youngest according to his youth. 

den. xliii. 33. 

For Titan (as ye all acknowledge must) 
Was Saturnes elder brother by birthriyht. 

ajpMW, K. IJ., VII. vl. 27. 

We were very nearly dead, . . . and my Idea of happi- 
ness was an English beefsteak and n bottle of pale ale ; 
for such a luxury I would most willingly have sold my 
birthright at that hungry moment. 

Sir N. W. Knkfr, Heart of Africa, p. 284. 

birthrqot (berth'ro't), . In hot., a name given 
to various species of Trillium, especially T. 
pendulum, the roots of which are reputed to be 
astringent, tonic, and alterative, and to have 
a special effect upon the uterus and connected 
organs. Also called birthwort, and corruptly 
betlinmt and bathwort. 

birth-Bin (berth/sin), n. Sin from birth; origi- 
nal sin. [Hare.] 
Original or liirth tin. Book of Common Prayer. 

birth-Song (berth'sdng), . A song sung at a 

birth, or in celebration of a birth or birthday. 

A joyful birth-tony. Fitz-Gtoffry, Blessed Birthday, p. 45. 

birth-Strangled (berth'strang'gld), a. Stran- 
gled or suffocated at birth. 
Finger of tirth-stranglnl babe. Shot., Macbeth, iv. 1. 

birthwort (borth'wert), n. [< birth* + icorfl."] 
In hot. : (a) The common name of the European 
species of Aristolochia, A. Clentutitis, from its 
supposed remedial powers in parturition, and 
from it transferred to some American species, 
which are more usually known as snakeroot. 
(l>) Same as birtliroot. 

bis (bin), adv. [L., twice, for *duis, < rfiio = E. 
two ; in compounds, bi- : see bi- 2 .] Twice, (a) 
In accounts, tatmlar statements, books, etc., used to de- 
note a duplicate or repetition of an item or numl>er or 
page : as, p. 10 bit. (b) In music, a term indicating that a 
passage or section is to lie repeated, (c) An exclamation, 
used like encore, as a request for the repetition of a mu- 
sical performance, etc. i./) As a prefix, twofold, twice, two : 
in this sense it generally becomes bi-. See bi--, 

bisa, biza (bG'/.iU, . [Native name. 1 A coin 
used in Pegu in British Burma, worth about 
27^ cents. 

bisaccate (bi-sak'at), a. [< W- 2 + saccate; cf. 
L. bimcfiitni, a saddle-bag: see bixacrin."] Hav- 
ing two little bags or pouches attached : used 
especially in botany. 

bisaccia (be-ziich'a), n. [It. bisaecia, a saddle- 
bag, < L. bisaccium, pi. bisacciii, saddle-bag, 
< bi-, two-, + saccits. a bag : see sack*."] A 
Sicilian measure of capacity, equal to 1.94 
hnshels. 

bisannualt (bis-an'u-al), a. [= F. bisannuel; < 
L. bix, twice, -f E. niiiiiinl, V.iinnucl."] Same as 

hit lltlidl. 

biscacha (bis-kach'ii). . Same as rixcarlin. 
biscalloped (bi-ekol'upt), n. [< hi-- + -,//- 

Infii-il.] Finished in or ornamented with two 

scallops ; liilolmte. 
Biscayan (bis'kii-an), n. and . [Formerly 

also Itixnin. Biskaine; < Itixnuj. Sp. \'i;citya. 

See /{.s-,/ci.| I. ,i. Pertaining to liiscay, one 



563 

of the three Basque provinces of Spain, or to its 
people. 

II. w. 1. A native or an inhabitant of Biscay. 
2. [/.<.] Milit.: (<i) A long anil heavy mus- 
ket, usually carried on a permanent pivot, for 
use on fortifications or the like. [Obsolete.] 
(6) A heavy bullet, usually of the size of an 
egg ; one of the separate balls of grape- or 

biscoctiform (bis-kok'ti-form), n. [< L. as if 
bixi-iM-tii.i, biscuit ((.bis, twice, + coctux, cooked : 
see biscuit), + forma, form.] In hot., biscuit- 
shaped : as, hixcoctiform spores. Tuckerman. 

biscornet, . Same as bictirn. 

biscotin (bis'ko-tin), n. [F., < It. hisnottino, 
dim. of bixi-ntto = F. biscuit: see biscuit."] A 
confection ma<le of flour, sugar, marmalade, 
and eggs; sweet biscuit. 

biscroma (bis'kro-ma), n. [It., < bis-, twice-, 
+ cronia, a quaver: see croma."] In music, a 
semiquaver; a sixteenth-note. 

biscuit (bis'kit), n. [Early mod. E. also bisket; 
< ME. bysket, biscute, bysquyte, besquite (= D. 
beschuit,' > Dan. brxkojt), < OF. brscoit, bcscuit, 
later biscut, F. liiscuit = Pr. bescucit = Sp. biz- 
nii'liH = Pg. biscouto = It. biscotto, lit. twice 
cooked, < L. bis, twice, + coctus, pp. of coquere, 
cook.] 1. A kind of hard, dry bread, consist- 
ing of flour, water or milk, and salt, and baked 
in thin flat cakes. The name is also extended 
to similar articles very variously made and fla- 
vored. See cracker. 

As dry as the remainder binciiit 
After a voyage. Mule., As you Like it. il. 7. 

2. A small, round, soft cake made from dough 
raised with yeast or soda, sometimes shortened 
with lard, etc. [U. S.] 3. In ceram., porce- 
lain, stoneware, or pottery after the first bak- 
ing, and before the application of the glaze. 
Formerly bisque.- Meat biscuit, a preparation con- 
sisting of the matter extracted from meat by boiling, com- 
bined with flour, and baked in the form of biscuits. 

biscuit-oven (bis'kit-uv'n), . In ceram., the 
oven used for the first baking of porcelain, 
bringing it to the state known as biscuit. 

biscuit-root (bis'kit-rot), n. A name given to 
several kinds of wild esculent roots which are 
extensively used for food by the Indians of the 
Columbia river region, especially to species of 
Camassia and Peucedanum. 

biscutate (bi-sku'tat), a. [< bi- 2 + scutate."] 
In hot., resembling two shields or bucklers 
placed side by side ; having parts 
of such a character. 

bisdiapason (bis*di-a-pa'zon), n. 
[< bis + diapason."] "In music, an 
interval of two octaves, or a fif- 
teenth. 

bise (bez), n. [F. : see Wee.] A 
dry cold north and northeast 
wind, prevailing especially in 
Provence and the Rhdne valley, 
and very destructive to vegeta- 
tion, so that " to bo struck by the 
bise" has become a proverb in 
Provence, meaning to be over- 
taken by misfortune: nearly the 
same as mistral. 

bisect (bi-sekf), v. t. [< L. bi-, 
two-, T sectus, pp. of secare, cut : 
see section."] To cut or divide into two parts; 
specifically, in geom., to cut or divide into two 
equal parts. One line bisectt another when it crosses 
it, leaving an equal part of the line on each side of the 
point of intersection. 

He exactly bisects the effect of our proposal. Gladttone. 

An inevitable dualism bisect* nature, so that each thing 

is a half, and suggests another thing to make it whole : as, 

spirit, matter ; man, woman. Emerson, Compensation. 

Bisecting dividers. See divider.- Bisecting gage. 

See gage. 

bisection (bi-sek'shpn), n. [< bisect, after sec- 
tion.} 1. The act of bisecting, or cutting or 
dividing into two parts ; specifically, the act of 
cutting into two equal parts ; the division of 
any line, angle, figure, or quantity into two equal 
parts. 2. One of two sections composing any- 
thing, or into which it may be divided: as, 
" one whole bisection of literature," De Quincey, 
Herodotus Bisection of the eccentricity, in at- 
tr<in.. a contrivance of the Ptolemaic system of astronomy 
by which tile center of the orliit of every superior planet 
and of Venus is placed midway between the earth and the 
center uf the eqnailt, 

bisectional (bi-sek'shon-al), a. Pertaining to 
or of the nature of bisection. 

bisectionally (bi-sek'shon-al-i), adr. By bisec- 
tion ; so as to bisect, or divide into two parts, 
especially equal parts. 





Biscutate Leaf 
( Diotiaa musfi- 



bishop 
bisector (W-sok'tor), . [M,., < L. W-, two-. 

+ victor (see xrrtiir): 1). us if < biicct 4- -r.j 
A line drawn through the vertex of a triangle 
so as to bisect 
either the oppo- 
site side (lnx-- 
tor of tin- xitlr) 
or the angle (bi- 
sector of till' Illl- 
i/li-, or in tit mil 
bisector), or to 
bisect the exter- 
nal angle form- 
ed by the adja- 
cent sides (<v- 
ternal hisiclur). 
Thus, In the figure, 
AT.r being the triangle, AD is the bisector of the side 
111- ; Ai: is the internal bisector, and AK the external bi- 
sector, of the angle A. 

bisectrix (bi-sek'triks), n.; pi. bisectrices (bl- 
sek-tri'sez). [NL., fern, of bisector : see bisec- 
tor."] 1. In crystal., the line which bisects the 
angle of the optic axes. That bisecting the acute 
angle is called the acute, bitei-trij-. tin- I'thrr is the obtu*e 
biwctrix. These are also called the jit-nt mean tine (or me- 
dian line) and the necond mean line respectively. The 
bisectrix, or mean line, is said to lie jmnitire or nrqatire, 
according to the character of the double refraction. Sen 
refraction. 

2. In geom., same as bisector Dispersion of 
the bisectrices. See dujierrion. 

bisegment (bi-seg'ment), n. [< 6i- 2 + sen- 
mint.'} One of the parts of a line which has 
been bisected, or divided into two equal parts. 

bisegmental (bi-seg-men'tal), a. [< W- 2 + 
xegment + -al.] Consisting of two segments. 
The btiettmcntal constitution of the region in question. 

Ji. tf. WiMrr. 

biseptate (bi-sep'tat), a. [< li- 2 + septum + 
-afei.] Having two septa or partitions. 

biserial (bl-se'ri-al), a. [< 6i-2 + serial.} Con- 
sisting of or arranged in two series or rows ; bi- 
farious ; distichous. Also biscriate. 

Thus we are led to the bixerial arrangement of the 

chain l>ers, which is characteristic of the Textularian group. 

W. R. Carpenter, Micros., { 457. 

Blaerial perianth, in but., a perianth consisting of both 
calyx and corolla. 

biserially (bi-se'ri-al-i), adv. In a biserial 
manner or order; in a double row. Also bi- 
scriatcly. 

The chambers are arranged biterialli/ along a straight 
axis. H . B. Carpenter, Slicros., 4S2. 

biseriate (bi-se'ri-at), a. [< W-2 + seriate."] 

Same as biserial. 
biseriately (bl-se'ri-at-li), adv. Same as 61- 

serially. 
The anterior tarsi of the males arc dilated and Wwri- 

ately sqiiamulose. Horn. 

biserrate (bi-ser'at), a. [< ^ W- 2 + serrate.'] 1. 
In bot., doubly serrate: said of leaves the ser- 
ratures of which are themselves serrate. 2. 
In / ntiim., having two small triangular teeth 
placed close together, like the teeth of a saw. 
[Rare.] Biserrate antennae, antennae in which the 
joints are compressed and triangular, each attached to the 
center of the base of the preceding one by one of iU points, 
so that both sides of the organ present a serrate outline. 

bisetigerous (bi-se-tii'e-rus), . [< W- 2 + se- 
tigeroux."] In entom., having two terminal setto 
or bristles ; bisetose. 

bisetose (bi-se'tos), a. [< W- 2 + setose."] In 
zool. and hot., furnished with two setas or bris- 
tle-like appendages. 

hisetous (bi-se'tus), a. Same as bisetose. 

bisette (bi-zef), n. [F. (cf. rnasc. biset, a rock- 
dove), coarse brown stuff, dim. of OF. bise, 
dark-brown or gray.] A narrow French lace. 

bisexed (bi'sekst), a. [< 6i- 2 + sex + -^d 2 .] 
Same as bisexual. 

bisexoust (bi-sek'sus), a. [< L. W-, two-, + 
seius, sex. Cf. bisexual."] Same as bisexual. 

Thus may we also concede that hares have been of both 
sexes, and some have ocularly confirmed it, but that the 
whole species or kind should Iw bitexou* we cannot af- 
firm. Sir T. Broirtte, Vulg. Err., ill. 17. 

bisexual (bi-sek'su-al\ a. [< W- 2 + sexual."] 
Having the organs of both sexes in one indi- 
vidual: of two sexes; hermaphrodite, in 6o<., 
said of nowers which contain l <th stamen and pistil with- 
in the same perianth, and of mosses having antheridia 
and archegonia in the same involucre ; syncecious. Also 
Mm*. 

bish, bishma (bish, bish'ma.). w. Same as bikh. 

bishop (bish'up), n. [< ME. bishop, bisshop, 
Inschop, oishtip, byshop, etc., < AS. biscop, btg- 
ceop = OFries. biskop = OS. biskop = D. his- 
t/chop = OHG. biscof, MHO. G. bischof= Icel. 
bixkup = Sw. bixko/i = Dan. biskop, bittp = It. 
recor = Sp. obix/m = 1'g. bisjiii = F'r. n'ukes = 
OF. cn-xi/iti; ri.ii/ in-, F. iri'ijin = (iael. nixbuig 



bishop 



564 



bishop's-weed 




ed unto the Shepherd and Bithvp of your souls. 

1 Pet. ii. 26. 

2. In the earliest usage of the Christian church, 
a spiritual overseer, whether of a local church 
or of a number of churches; a ruler or director 
in the church. See elder and presbyter. 

Pan! and Timotheus ... to all the saints in rhrist 
Jesus which are at Phllippl, with the bixhrips and deacons. 

Philip, i. 1. 

The English version has hardly dealt fairly in this case 
with the sacred text, in rendering eVio-icojroB?, verse 28 
(Acts xx.), "overseers"; whereas it ought there, as in 
all other places, to have been "bishops"; that the fact 
of elders and bishops having been originally and apostoli- 
cally synonymous might be apparent to the ordinary Eng- 
lish reader, which now it is not. 

Dean AlJ'onl, Greek Test., Acts xx. 17. 

Bishops and Presbyters, literally overseers and elders, 
are universally admitted to be terms equivalent to a con- 
siderable extent, and often, at least, applied to the same 
officers. Smith, Student's Eccles. Hist., p. 17(1. 

3. From an early time, an overseer over a 
number of local churches ; particularly, in the 
Greek, Oriental, Roman Catholic, and Angli- 
can churches, the title of the highest order in 
the ministry. See eniscopncy. The origin of the 
office of bishop in the Christian church is a matter of 
dispute. The terms bishop and presbyter appear 



-ial or ceremonial seat of the bishop in the chancel or choir 




', condition: see bishop and -hood.] The of- 
fice, dignity, or rank of bishop, 
bishoplyt (bish'up-li), a. [< ME. bisslioply, etc., 
< AS. bisceojilic : see liix/ioji and -fy 1 .] Bishop- 
like; episcopal. 

If he preach . . . before a bishop, then let him treat 
of bislioply duties and orders. 

iMtimer, 1st Sermon bef. Edw. VI. (1549). 
Episcopal, which has supplanted bishoply,ts only a Latin 
word in an English dress. Trench, Study of Words, p. 164. 

bishoplyt (bish'up-li), adr. [< bishop + -ly 2 .] 
In the manner of a bishop. 

bishop-ray (bish'up-ra), . 1. A raioid sela- 
chian of the family Myliobatidtr, JKIobatis (or 
Ntoasodon) nurinar'i, of tropical and subtropical 
seas, sometimes wandering in summer north- 
ward along the coast of the United States to 

iishop's Throne and Synthronus. basilica of Torcello, near Venice. Virginia. Its disk is twice as wide as long, and is 

brownish diversified with small round pale spots. 

Llral church of his diocese. In the o \nv fih nf tVio o-orma ~ 
i the Oreek Church and in some vi, ,T, : ?7,,. . ^ S 




HMU VMtuoUf no onn in me \nceiv v uuruftl ilJiil ill BUlllt i_ v /v* 1 / *i \ m i a -n i 

Roman Catholic churches, it stood behind the altar in the DlSnOpriC ( Dish up-rik), n. [Early mod. E. also 



imyi. Cardinal bishop. See eanlinal. Case of the 



A virtuous woman should reject marriage as a good 



seven bishops, a famous English trial, in 1688, of the pri- 




nlence of government. (See pope.) 

also has archbishops and metropoltt __ 

cordate, the nomination of Roman Catholic bishops is some- 
times made by the temporal power ; the former electlo: 



cally instituted forconve viena me uiucese; oppotrcu to uu ussiHiaiti, cvaajuiu), ' 

f ) The Anglican Church "'istionary, or ilhwant bishop.- Ecumenical bishop, bishop S-cap (bish'ups-kap). n. 

oiitans. By virtue of con- See MttHienfcai.- Itinerant . bishop i,a bishop not having species of Mitella (M. (libbi/lla a 

:i Catholic bishops is some- LISH'LSF*?" Jurisdiction, but possess ng joint ,^ t , lra i o .. dpr ,TJfi-r whl 



A name of two 

^_ __.._ and M. receda), 

authority with others over all the'churcnes^rthS same u ? l ^ ral T ? 1 '? i er J f$0 aflS * bich are natives 

by the clergy" remains "in some cathedraVchapters" but ot e*ni^tion. The bishops of the Methodist and Moravian ot the United htates: so called from the form 
more commonly names are proposed by the fellow-suffra- < -: ll " rc , he8 e itinerant bishops.- Suffragan bishop, (a) of the pod. Also called miterwort. 
gans and metropolitan, andby the clergy of the diocese A bl '" 1 P consecrated to assist another bishop who is dis- Anu bishop's-mps have golden rings 

to be provided for, to the Pope, who directly appoints and a , ble , d -i v a f' iUlie88 ' ( r < ? the . r , cause . ; an SSF 1 7 bi8hop ' Lomiffllm; Prel. to Voices of the Night 

in any case confirms the new bishop. In England bish- He Sj*h 'C " 1 M?* 8 ! bisho P '" Ilavin 8 no P wer to hi 




to another is said to be translated; the"church contain" church""fo7ifirrn "rAwliJi> 
ing hi. cathedra or episcopal. throne ^s called^aW^raJ, C ; 



and the local jurisdiction indicated by this throne, and 
the city or locality in which this stands, together with the 
diocese or territory attached to it, his see, to which he is 



Donne, Poems, p. 172. 



wide form of sleeve formerly worn by women : 
so named from its resemblance to the full 
sleeve, drawn in at the wrist, worn 
can bishops. 





officer of the Aaronic or lesser priesthood, presides over it, 
ministers in outward ordinances, conducts the temporal 
business of the church, and acts as judge on transgress- 
ors. Often abbreviated lip. See ehorepiscopits and vicar 
apostolic. 



. . 

as bishop, 7 () 2. A name of the miter- 
shell, Mitra episcopalis, of the family Mitrida. 
bishop-stoolt (bish'up-stOl), n. ' 




similar umbelliferous plant, /J/-O/I/CM/' rujiil- 
the u jo ,van, Car,,,,, a*. 



bishop's-wort 
blshop's-wort (bish ' ups- \vcrt), ii. A name 

given to the do vil-in-a-busli, \i</i lln l>miitisrt mi, 
:iinl to bcliiny, Slui'lii/.i Hi tiii/i<-<i. 

bishop-weed, u. See / .//>/<'.< v/w. 
bisilicato (W-l'i-k4t), . [< hi-- + siiiaiti-. \ 

1. A salt formed by I lie union of a base anil a 
silicic acid containing two atoms of silicon. It 
may bo a bibasic or a polyliasic iiciil. 2. A 
salt of meinsilicic nci<l, HoSiOo. in which the 
ratio of oxygon atoms combined with tho base 
anil silicon respectively is as 1:2: for example, 
calcium motiisilicHtc itlie mineral wollaston- 
ite), CaSiO 3 or CaO.8iO 2 . 

bisiliquous' (M-dl'i-kwus), . [< hi-" + nili- 

i/iiniiit. ] In hot., having two noils. 
bisinuate 0>i -sin'u-at), . [< />/-- + sinuate.] 

In :<><>l., having two concave curves mooting in 
a convex curve: as, a liisiiuiuli 1 margin. 

bisinuatioil (bi-sin-u-a'shon), . [< bisiuuatc, 
nl'ler siiiiintioii.] In niliiin., the state of being 
liisinnale ; a iloublo curve on a margin. 

bisk', a. See bisque^. 

bisk-, bisque" (bisk), . [< F. bisque, odds at 
play, a fault at tennis; cf. It. liisca, a gaming- 
house; origin unknown.] Odds at tennis-play ; 
specifically, a stroke allowed to the weaker 
player to equalize the parties. 

bisk :t (bisk), . Same as liilcli. 

biskett (bis'ket), ii. A fonner spelling of bis- 
cuit. 

Biskra bouton, Biskra button. Same as Alep- 

iir> nlrrr (which see, under ulcer). 

bismar, . See bisuier%. 

Bismarck brown. See brown. 

bismet, An apheretic form of abixnie. 

bismerH, . [ME., also bismar, bisemer, etc.; < 
AS. lilxmt-r, bismor (= OS. bismer = OHG. bi- 
mnir, reproach, opprobrium, derision, abuse), 
< hi- (accented), by, + -smer, perhaps con- 
nected with MHG. SHiicrcn, smile, AH.amercian, 
E. smirk, and nit. with E. smile, hence orig. a 
laughing at, ridicule. Hence the verb bismeri- 
an,bixiiiriini, reproach, deride, abuse.] 1. Abu- 
sive speech: as, "bakbitynge and bismer," 
Piers rioirmitn (B), v. 89. 

Kill of linker, ami of ItixHfnutrt: 

1'liiiiift'i; Reeve's Tale, 1. 4f>. 

2. A person worthy of seom. 

bismer-, bismar (bis'mer, -mar), 11. [Also writ- 
ten bi/smn; bismort; sometimes bi/tsimar; < Icel. 
hisinari = OSw. bismare, Sw. bemnau = Dan. bw- 
mcr = MI). /itHi'iHii- Mljli. licnaiter, bisenter, a 
steelyard, balance ; < Lett, besmens, besmeiv, 
l.illi. beziiieiiax, HUSH, bameiiu, Pol. be-inian, a 
balance.] A balance or steelyard used in the 
northeast of Scotland, and in the Orkney and 
Shetland islands. 

bismer 3 (bis'mer), ii. [Origin uncertain.] The 
name in tho Orkney islands of the sea-stickle- 
back, Spiimehia nili/aris. 

bismerpund (bis'mer-pond), ii. [Dan., < bis- 
mrr, a steelyard, -t- pitud = E. pound.] A 
weight used in Denmark, equal to 6 kilograms 
precisely, or 13 pounds 3J ounces avoirdu- 
pois. It was formerly ono three-hundredth part 
less. 

bismillah (bis-mil'ii), iuterj. [Turk. Ar. fci- 
'sni-illah, in tho name of Allah: see Allah.] In 
God's name: an adjuration or exclamation 
common among Moslems. Sometimes written 
lii:irHnli. 

bismite (bi/.'mit), . [< bism(utli) + -i> 2 .] 
Native oxid of bismuth, or bismuth ocher. 

bismore (bis'mor), i. Same as bismer 2 . 

bismuth (bi/'muth), ii. [= P. bismuth, < G. 
bismuth, now commonly icisiinit, irismuth, orig. 
irissmiit/i : of mod. (17th century) but unknown 
origin.] Chemical symbol, Bi; atomic weight, 
208; specific gravity, 9.6 to 9.8. A metal of a 
peculiar light-reddish color, highly crystalline, 
and so brittle that it can be pulverized, its cry* 
tallinc form is rhonihohedral, closely approximating that. 
of the cube. It "rciirs native ill imperfect crystallizations, 
nliform shapes, ami disseminated particles, in the crystal- 
line rucks ; also as a stilphurct, and in coinliination with 
tellurium ami some other metals, anil in various oxidized 
comhiiiiitii.n-. Ill-' native metal and the carbonate (ln~ 
inutile) arc tlie chief important sources of the bismuth of 
commerce. I'ntil recently, almost the entire supply of 
the metal came from Scbnwberg in Saxony, when- it oc- 
cars in ronihination with ores nt colialt, arsenic, and sil- 
ver. Nearly all the liismnth of commerce contain* .it 
least a trace ot" M!\,T. iMsinnth is a remarkable metal in 
that its -pcciHc uravitj is dilninisheil, instead of In-ill^ in 
creased, by pressure. It is the most dlanugnetio of the 
iiii'taK It m-i's :it a r< miji.'irativelv low temperature 
i. and is volalili/ed at a white heat. Alloys of bis- 
muth with tin and lead fuse at a tempi ratnre consideralih 
less than that of boiling water. (See .V- /rlmi * and /,'" * 
iHftal*. under metal.) Alloys of the same mct.iK with 
the addition oi i adiiiinm fuse at still lower temperatures ; 



565 

one prepared by Llpowltz remains perfectly fluid At 140*. 
These alloys have been used to some extent for cliches and 
for atereotyphiK, but are now- of little practical iiiipm 
tancu. The chief uses o( higmntli an- as a medicine and an a 
ro- MII tic. For these pur|x>cs it is prepared in the form of 
the snbnitratc called in thcnld pharmaceutical language 
niftytKf't <">,/ i*,,itrtlii. The cosmetic, in jireparinu which 
the basic chlorid has also bci-u employeU, is known as 
pearl-powder or blanc d*Bntfne. r.ismuth haft of Inte 
years l>eeii much experimented with as a possible com po 
in-lit of useful alloys, for several of which patents have 
been Issued ; but no one of these alloys Is known to have 
rr. in., into -i ni I'.il ii-c. I'.ismiith has also been used to a 
limited extent in the manufacture of highly refractive 
Klass, and of strass (which see). It is used with antimony 
In the thermo-electric pile or battery. (Sec thermo^Ue- 
ifii-iti/.) It has also bcyini to lie used to some extent In 
the manufacture of pm vdaiii. for the purpose of fctving to 
its surface a peculiar colorless, Irised luster, which can 
also be had of various colors when other metals are u-i <! 
in combination with the bismuth. This metal is one for 
which the demand is extremely Huctiiatini;, hut on the 
whole increasing; and. as its ores have now hen- U-en dis- 
covered in large quantity, its price has been more variable 
than that of any other metal, with the possible exception 
of nickel, running between .">.'> cents and !*5 a pound. The 
total consumption of the metal Is probably between :'. ."> 
and 50 tons a year, and it comes chiefly from the i'.iv.- 
gfhirge (Iwtween Saxony anil Bohemia), France, South 
\nh rica, and New South Wales. It was called by tin al 
chemists, while in their uncertain condition of knowledge 
as to its nature, by various names, as marauila anjenlm, 
piiuubiuii '"('/. mit. gtannnin ciitfreum, etc. ; also called 
formerly in French rinin tie <ilai-r. corrupted in English 
into lin-i/lotxe. Bismuth-blende, the mineral eiilytitc 
(which see). Bismuth-glance, an ore of Iiismuth. rri* 
::,!,, h!*niiitli-<iluiu:i- is a sulphid of bismuth or bfsmuth- 
inite, and aficular liitninHi-iflnnre is the same as nfeill-' 
ore or aikinitf. Blsmutn ocher, the mineral bismite.- 
Bismuth silver. See nymtoMm nif. - Butter of bis- 
muth, an old name for the uhlorid of bismuth. Flowers 
of bismuth, a yellow-colored oxid formed by the subli- 
mation of bismuth.-- Magistery of bismuth, the snimi- 
trate or basic nitrate ofbisniuth. Telluric bismuth, 
the mineral tetradymtte. 

bismuthal (biz'muth-al), a. [< bigmuth + -al.~\ 
Pertaining to or composed of bismuth. 

bismuthic (biz'muth-ik), . [< bismuth + -ic.] 
Of bismuth: as, bijoniithif oxid and biftiniitltic 
acid. 

bismuthid (biz'muth-id), n. [< bismuth + -iV/ 2 .] 
An alloy of bismuth with another metal. 

bismuttiiferous (biz-muth-if'e-rus), . [< bis- 
muth + -i-feroHS.'] Containing bismuth. 

Bitnml hifcriMs calcium carlwuatc yields only a violet 
fluorescence, differing little from that produced without 
the bismuth. Sci. Amrr. Supp., XXII. MSI. 

bismuthin, bismuthine (biz'muth-in), . [< 
bixiinith + -in a , -lnA] See bismiitliiiiilc. 

bismuthinite (bix,-muth'i-nit), w. [< bismutlt- 
In + -i7<> 2 .] Native bismuth sulphid, a mine- 
ral of a lead-gray color and metallic luster oc- 
curring in acicular crystals, also massive, with 
a foliated or fibrous structure. It resembles 
stibnite, with which it is isomorphous. 

bismuthite, . See bismutite. 

bismuthous (biz'muth-us), a. [< bismuth + 
-OH.] In client., combined with bismuth as a 
triad: as, biswuthou.i oxid, Bi 2 Oa. 

bismutite, bismuthite (biz'mut-it, -muth-it), 
n. [< bismuth + -/7<- 2 .] A hydrous carbonate 
of bismuth. 

bismutosphaerite (biz'mut-o-sfe'rit), . [< bix- 
mitth + (Jr. o-^a/)o, sphere, +'-if 2 .] Anhydrous 
bismuth carbonate (Bi 2 Cp5), sometimes occur- 
ring in spherical forms with radiated structure. 

bisogniot, bisognot (bi-so'nyo), n. [Also writ- 
ten besognio, bfssnync, bessogno, bczoian, etc. ; 
< It. bixogno, need, a needy fellow, beggar.] A 
person of low rank ; a beggar. 
Spurn'il out by grooms like a Iwse Umann. 

CAff;>ma, Widow's Tears, i. 4. 

Heat the />.>*'//.> that Ho hid in the carriages, finnnr. 
He that would refuse to swallow a dozen healths on 
such an evening, is a base besomtin, and a puckfoist, and 
shall swallow six inches of my dagger. 

Xi-i-tt. Kcnilworth, I. xviil. 

bison (bi'son), . [=r D. bison = G. bison = Sw. 
bison = Dan. biaon (-oxc), < F. bison = Pr. l>i:oii 
= Sp. bisoiite = Pg. bisSo = It. binsonte, < L. 
bison(t-) (first in Pliny and Seneca), > Gr. 
ftiaiM (in Pausanias) ; prob. from OTeut. : cf. 
OHG. irisHiit, irixinit. iiixiiit, MHG. G. irixmt 
= Icel. (perhaps borrowed) risuntlr, bison, = 
AS. ircxeiHl, a wild ox; origin uncertain.] 1. 
The aurochs, or bonasus, a European wild ox : 
hence applied to several similar animals, re- 
cent and extinct. 2. Biaon or Bos americiiniix. 
improperly called the buffalo, an animal which 
formerly ranged over most of the United States 
and much of British America in countless num- 
bers, now reduced to probably a few thousands, 
and apparently soon to become extinct as a wild 
animal. It formerly extended into some of the Atlantic 
States, as Virginia : the contraction of the area of its habi- 
tat and the reduction of its numbers have pine on steadily 
with tlft advance of Knropeau occupation ; the construc- 
tion of the Union racinc railroad cut the great herd In 



bissextile 

two, leaving a wnithern r Texan hcnl, rhlefly In tho re- 

I the Stftki-il I'liHH-.. ;niil .1 n'.rllnTii nr VfllowKtnnr 

Ml- "irinkatrllruitii lirnf. in tin- iT-jntl '( tllf ll]i|HT MlMOllri 
:iinl nnrttiwitnl. 'I'll* 1 ;miin;il r< MnUH tfat ftBKNdW (wU< I' 
M-I-), hut i* r..Mi<lrr:il>!y 'in:ill i : (In- hump in very hiuli 
and large; the himt piartci's an- Mylit ; the tail f-* atN>ut 




--fife 



American Blww ( RtrfM ttmtricnnw). 

2fi inches loin:, ending in a wisp of hairs of aliout 6 Inches 
additional ; the horns, .-]. cially in the male, are short, 
thick, and much curved ; the head is carried very low; the 
long shaggy hair of the fore parts sometimes sweeps the 
ground ; the -olor is blackish in fresh pelages, more brown 
or gray in worn ones and In aged individuals; the calves 
are reddish. Formerly the hair-covered skins were much 
used as rolies. but only the cows were killed for them. 
the hides of the hulls being not easily manageable. In 
summer, after shedding its hair, the animal is nearly 
naked. 

3. [cap.} [NL.] A genus or subgenus of the 
family Jioridtr, including the aurochs, R. botia- 
sus (see cut under aurochs), the American bi- 
son, B. amcricanus, and several related fossil 
species, as B. Intifrons. 

bisonant (bi'so-nant), n. [< bi-" + sonant. Cf. 
LL. bisoiiHs, sounding twice.] Having two 
sounds, as an alphabetical letter. 

bisontine (bi'son-tin), n. [< NL. bisontinus, < L. 
bison(t-), bispii.] Bison-like; related to or re- 
sembling a bison ; belonging to the genus Bison. 

bispherical (bi-sfer'i-kal), a. [< 6t- 2 + spheri- 
cal.] Composed of two spheres. 

The second form (of Schizoptiyttv] is bixpherical: the 
spherical cell has grown and become contracted, or In- 
dented in the middle, forming two united granules. 

ftfirnrt. III. 157. 

bispinose (bi-spi'nos), a, [< fci- 2 + spinose.] 
In zool. and bot., having two spines. Bispinose 
elytra, in rnlnni., those having each two apical, spine-like 
processes. 

bispinous (bi-spi'nus), a. [< W- 2 + sjriiiotis.] 
Same as bispinosf. 

bispiral (bi-spi'ral), a. [< 6i- 2 + siriral.] Con- 
taining two spiral fibers ; doubly spiral : ap- 
plied to the elaters of some Hepaliete. 

bispore (bi'spor), . [< bi- 2 + spore.] One of 
a pair of spores formed by the division of a 
vegetative cell in red alga?, F/oritlea'. It is the 
same as a tetraspore, except as regards num- 
ber. See tetraspore. 

bisporous (bi-spo'rus), a. [< bi-- + spot-aits.] 
Containing or bearing two spores. 

bisque 1 (bisk), w. [See biscuit.'] In ceram.: (a) 
Formerly, same as biscuit, 3. (b) A variety of 
unglazed white porcelain used for statuettes 
and other small figures. 

bisque 2 (bisk), . [F., crawfish soup; origin 
unknown.] In cookery, a soup made of meat or 
fish slowly stewed until all the strength is ex- 
tracted, and thickened with finely minced or 
shredded forcemeat ; specifically, such a soup 
made from crabs, crawfish, shrimps, and the 
like. Also spelled bisk. 

bisque-*, . See 6iA- 2 . 

bissabol (bis'a-bol), n. Same as besahol. 

bisse 1 (bis), ii. [< OF. bisse, aii adder.] In 
her., a snake borne as a charge. 

bisse 2 (bis), . [E. Ind.] A weight used in 
Pondicherry, a French possession in India. It 
is exactly '2'j French pounds, or about 3 pounds 
2 ounces avoirdupois. 

bisselt, ' A variant of bez;le. 

bissemaret, . An unusual Middle English 
form of buimcrl. 

bissett, n. Same as biwttf. [Scotch.] 

bissez (bis'seks). ii. [< L. bis, twice, + ser = 
E. six.] A musical instrument of the guitar 
kind having twelve strings, the pitch of the up- 
per six of which could be altered by stopping 
on frets. It was invented in 1770, but never 
extensively used. 



bisseitt, . [< ME. bisext, < L. bisrjctus. 
tn.t (se. ilie, day), an intercalary day, <W-, bis, 
twice, + sextus = E. sixth : so called because 
the sixth day before the calends of March was 
reckoned tirice in every fourth year. See bis- 
sistux.] The intercalary day in leap-year. 

bisseztile (bi-seks'til), . and . [<'ML. bif- 
su-tiliit, bisextitin (sc. annus, year), leap-year, < 
L. bisextus, bissextiis : see bissext.] I. a. Con- 
taining the bissextus or intercalary day: ap- 



bissextile 

plied to those years which have 366 days, the 
extra day being inserted in the month of Febru- 
ary. See bixxfj-tnn. This occurs every fourth year, 
taken as each year of which the number is divisible by 4 
without remainder. Inasmuch, however, as a year of StioJ 
days exceeds the true length of a solar astronomical year 
by 11 minutes and 14 seconds, amounting to an error of a 
day in 128 years, it was provided in the QregorlftD calendar 
that the intercalary day should be omitted iu all cente- 
nary years except those which are multiples of 400. 
II. n. A leap-year (which see). 

bissextus (bi-seks'tus), n. [L. : see bissext, and 
of. bisse xtile.] The extra or intercalary day in- 
serted by the Julian calendar in the mouth of 
February every fourth year, in order to make 
up the six hours by which (it was reckoned) the 
natural or solar year exceeds the common year 
of 365 days. This extra day was provided for by reckon- 
ing twice the sixth day before the calends (or first) of March 
(or the sixth day from the calends of March, both days in- 
cluded, reckoning backward from the succeeding month, 
as was the custom of the Romans), the "sixth" (or first 
sixth) day proper thus corresponding to February 25th, 
according to our reckoning, and the extra sixth, or "second 
sixth," to our February 24th. Since 1662, when the Angli- 
can liturgy was revised, the 29th day of February has been, 
more conveniently, regarded as the intercalated day in all 
English-speaking countries. In the ecclesiastical calen- 
dars of the countries of continental Europe, however, the 
24th day of February is still reckoned as the bissextus or 
intercalary day. 

bissont (bis'ou), a. [Also E. dial, beesen, bee- 
zcn; < ME. bisen, bisne, ONorth. bisene, blind, of 
uncertain origin ; perhaps < AS. bi, be, by, + 
"sene, "syne, as in gesyne, adj., seen, visible, < 
seon, see. Cf. D. bijziend, short-sighted, < by, 
= E. by, + ziend, ppr. of :ien, = E. see ; G. bei- 
sichtig, short-sighted, < bei, = E. by, + sicht = 
E. sight.'] Blind or purblind; blinding: as, 
"bisson rheum," Shak., Hamlet, ii. 2. 

What harm can your frisson conspectuities glean out of 
this character? Shak., Cor., ii. 1. 

bistephanic (bi-ste-fan'ik), a. [< bi- 2 + stepha- 
nion + -ic.] In craniom., pertaining to both 
stephanions: as, bistephanic diameter. 

bister, bistre (bis'ter), . and a. [= G. biester 
= Sw. bister, bister, < F. bistre, a dark-brown 
color. Origin uncertain ; prob. not connected 
with G. dial, biester, dark, gloomy, = D. bijster, 
confused, troubled, = Icel. bistr = Sw. bister 
= Dan. bister, angry, fierce.] I. n. In paint- 
ing, a brown pigment extracted from the soot 
of wood. To prepare it, soot (that of beech is the best) 
is put into water in the proportion of two pounds to a gal- 
lon, and boiled half an hour ; after standing to settle, and 
while hot, the clearer part of the fluid must be poured off 
to remove the salts, and the sediment (which is bister) 
evaporated in dryness. It has been much used as a water- 
color, particularly by the old masters, for tinting drawings 
and shading sketches, before India ink came into general 
use for such work. In oil it dries very slowly. 
II. a. Of the color of bister; blackish-brown. 

bistered, bistred (bis'terd), a. [< bister, bis- 
tre, + -erf 2 .] Of the color of bister; swarthy; 
browned. 

The beak that crowned the bistred face 
Betrayed the mould of Abraham's race. 

0. W. Holmes, At the Pantomime. 

bistipulate (bi-stip'u-lat), a. [< 6i-2 + stipu- 
late.] Same as bisti/mled. 

bistipuled (bl-stip'uld), a. [< bi- 2 + stymied.] 
In bot., having two stipules. 

bistort (bis'tort), n. [= F. bistorte = It. bis- 
torta, < NL. bistorta, < L. bis, twice, + torta, 
fern, of tortus, pp. of torquere, twist: see tort.] 
A plant, Polygonwu Bistorta, so called because 
of its twisted roots : popularly called snakeweed 
and adder's-wort. Alpine bistort is a dwarf allied spe- 
cies, alpine and arctic, P. viviparum. 

bistournage (bis'tor-naj), . [F., < bistourner 
(= It. bistornare), twist, deform by twisting, < 
bis-, bes-, a pejorative prefix (prob. ult. < L. 
bis, twice), + tourner, turn.] In vet. surg., an 
operation which consists in twisting the testi- 
cles of bulls and other male animals round the 
cord, so as to produce atrophy, but leave the 
scrotum intact: a form of castration or gelding. 

bistoury (bis'to-ri), .; pi. bistouries (-riz). [< 
F. bistouri, a bistoury, < OF. bistorie, a dagger, a 
bistoury. Origin uncertain ; commonly conjec- 
tured to be so called from Pistorium, It. Pistoja, 
a town in Tuscany, whence also the E. words 
pistol and pistole.] A small, narrow surgical 
knife, with a straight, convex, or concave edge, 
and a sharp or blunt point, used for making 
incisions and for other purposes. 

bistre, bistred. See bister, bistered. 

bistriate (bi-stri'at), a. [< bi- 2 + striate.] In 
bot. and entom., marked with two parallel strire 
or grooves. 

bisturris (bis-tur'is), n. ; pi. bistrtrres (-ez). 
[ML., < L. bis, twice, + turris, a tower: see tur- 
ret, tower.'] One of a series of small towers 



566 

upon a medieval fortification-wall ; a bartizan : 
sometimes equivalent to barbican 1 . See cut 
under bartizan. 

bisulct (bi'sulk), a. [< L. bisulcus, two-fur- 
rowed : see bisulcous.] Same as bisulcate. 

bisulcate (bi-sul'kat), a. [< bi-" + sulcatc.] 
1. Having two furrows or grooves. 2. In 
zool., cloven-footed, as oxen, or having two 
hoofed digits, as swine Bisulcate antennae, an- 
tenna; in which the joints are longitudinally grooved on 
each side. 

bisulcoust (bi-sul'kus), a. [< L. bisulcus, two- 
furrowed, < bi-, two-, + sulcus, furrow.] Same 
as bisulcate. 

Swine, . . . being bisulcous, . . . are farrowed with 
open eyes, as other bisulcous animals. 

Sir T. Browne, Vulg. Err., vi. 0. 

bisulphate (bi-sul'fat), n. [< bi- 2 + sulphate.] 
In chem., a salt of sulphuric acid, in which one 
half of the hydrogen of the acid is replaced by 
a metal. 

bisulphid (bl-sul'fid), . [< bi- 2 4- sulphid.] A 
compound of sulphur with another element or 
radical, forming a sulphid which contains two 
atoms of sulphur to one atom of the other mem- 
ber of the compound: as, carbon bisulphid, CS%. 
Bisulphid Of carbon (CS 2 ), a compound of carlwn and 
sulphur which forms a colorless mobile liquid, having usu- 
ally a fetid odor, due to impurities, and a sharp aromatic 
taste. It is insoluble in water, but soluble in alcohol and 
ether. It is used in the arts as a solvent for vegetable 
oils and for caoutehouc. Taken internally, it is a violent 

!)oison. Externally it is used as a counter-irritant and 
ocal anesthetic. Bisulphid prism, a prism tilled with 
carbon bisulphid. 

bisulphite (bi-sul'fit), , [< bi- 2 + sulphite.] 
In cliem., a salt of sulphurous acid, in which 
one half of the hydrogen of the acid is replaced 
by a metal. 

bisulphuret (bi-sul'fu-ret), n. [< bi- 2 + sul- 
phuret.] In chem., a compound of sulphur and 
another element, containing two atoms of sul- 
phur. 

bisunique(bis-u-nek'), n. [< bis + unique.] A 
name given about 1850 to a reversible jacket, 
coat, or the like, made with two faces. 

bisyllabic (bi-si-lab'ik), a. [< bi- 2 + syllabic.] 
Composed of two syllables; dissyllabic. 

The verbal steins exhibit bisyllabism with such re- 
markable uniformity that it would lead to the impression 
that the roots also must have been bvtyllabic. 

Smith's Bible Diet., art. Confusion of Tongues. 

bisyllabism (bl-sil'a-bizm), n. [< bisyllub-ic + 
-ism.] The state or quality of being bisyllabic, 
or of having two syllables, 
bisymmetrical (bi-si-met'ri-kal), a. [< bi- 2 + 
symmetrical.] Bilaterally symmetrical ; having 
bisymmetry. 

bisymmetry (bi-sim'e-tri), n. [< bi- 2 + sym- 
metry.] Tne state of being bilaterally sym- 
metrical ; correspondence of right and left 
parts, or of the two equal sections of anything. 
bit 1 (bit), n. [Also in some senses occasionally 
bitt; early mod. E. bit, bitt, bitte, bytte, < ME. 
byt, byte, bite, < AS. bite (= OFries. biti, bite, bit 
= OS. biti = MD. bete, D. beet = LG. bet = OHG. 
MHG. biz, G. biss, strong masc., = Icel. bit = 
Sw. 6e = Dau. bid, neut.), a bite, act of biting, 
< bitan (pp. biten), bite: see bite. In ME. and 
mod. E. (as well as in some other languages) 
confused in spelling and sense with bit 2 , which 
is from the same verb, but with an orig. differ- 
ent formative. In the general sense, now rep- 
resented by bite, n., directly from the mod. 
verb: see bite, n. The concrete senses are 
later, and are expressed in part by forms with 
other suffixes: cf. ME. bitte, bytte, bytt = MLG. 
bete, bet, bitte, bit, LG. bit, neut., = Sw. bett, 
neut., bridle-bit, = G. gebiss, neut., bridle-bit 
(= AS. gebit, biting); cf. Icel. bitill, bridle-bit; 
AS. gebiKtel, bridle-bit, < AS. baitan, gebcetan, 
bit, curb: see baifi, and 
cf. bitt. The other con- 
crete senses are recent.] 
It. The act of biting; a 
bite. 

You may, if you stand close, 
be sure of a bit, but not sure 
to catch him. 

/. Walton, Complete Angler, 
[p. 55. 



bit 

2f. The action of biting food; eating; grazing. 
3t. The biting, cutting, or penetrating action of 
an edged weapon or tool. 4. The biting, catch- 
ing, holding, cutting, or boring part of a tool. 
Specifically (a) The cutting Made of an ax, hatchet, 
plane, drill, etc. (b) pi. The blades of the cutter-head of a 
molding-machine. c) pi. The jaws of a pair of tongs, (d) 
The part of a key which enters the lock and acts on the 
bolts and tumblers. 

5. A boring-tool used in a carpenter's brace. 
Bits are of various kinds, and are applied iu a variety of 
ways. The similar tool used lor metal, and applied by 
the drill-bow, ratchet, brace, lathe, or drilling-machine, is 
termed a drill, or drill-bit. See auger, borer, drill, center- 
bit, gmine-bit, <juill-bit, rose-bit, shell-bit, spoon-bit, and 
phrases below. 

6. The metal part of a bridle which is inserted 
in the mouth of a horse, with the appendages 
(rings, etc.) to which the reins are fastened. 

Those that tame wild horses . . . 
Stop their mouths with stubborn bits, and spur them 
Till they obey the manage. Shak., Hen. VIII., v. 2. 

7. The joint of an umbrella. 8. A hammer used 
by masons for dressing granite and for rough 
picking. 9. In music, a short piece of tube 
used to alter slightly the pitch of such wind-in- 
struments as the trumpet, cornet-a-pistons, etc. 
Annular bit. See annular. Baldwin bit, a bit hav- 
ing two mouthpieces, used for controlling vicious horses. 
Brace-bit, a bit intended to be used with a brace. 



Chifney bit, a curb-bit having a short movable arm con- 
nected with the cheek-piece, just above the mouthpiece, 
for receiving the check-straps of the bridle, while the 




Expanding Bit. 





Spiral Bits. 



a, Countersink Bit; , Handing 
Center-bit. 



strap or gag-rein is attached to the short arm of the 
cheek-piece. E. H. Kniyht. Coal- boring bit, a boring- 
bit having an entering point and a succession of cutting 
edges of increasing radius. Copper bit or bolt, a name 
given to a soldering-iron. Cornish bit, a lathe-drill in 
which the cutter is inserted diametrically in a mortise at 
the end of the drill-stock. Ducknose bit, a boring-bit 
the end of which is bent horizontally into a semicircular 
form. Duck'8-bill bit, a wood-boring tool which has 
no lip, the screw cylinder forming the barrel of the tool 
ending in a sharp-edged rounding part which forms the 
cutter: used in a brace. Expanding bit, a boring-tool 
of which the cutting diameter is ad- 
justable. German bit, a wood-boring 
tool with a long elliptical pod and a 
screw-point. It is used in a brace, and 
makes a taper toward the end of the hole 
when not driven entirely through the 
wood. Half-round bit, or cylinder- 
bit, a drill used for hard woods and met- 
als. Its section is a semicircle, the cut- 
ting edges at end and side making an 
angle of 85 or 86. Hanoverian bit, a 
cheek-bit for horses having on the long 
or lower arm two or more loops for reins, 
and at the extremity of the short cheek 
a loop which receives the leather cheek ; 
there is a rein-ring at the cheek-piece. Hessian bit a 
peculiar kind of jointed bit for bridles. Plug-center 
bit, a boring-tool having a cylinder of metal in the center 
instead of a point. The cylinder fits a hole ready made, 
and the bit countersinks or removes the metal above it. 
Silt-nose bit. Same as nose-bit. To take the bit In 
the teeth, to hold the bit between the teeth, so that it 
cannot hurt the mouth when pulled upon, and run ; be- 
come unmanageable : said of a horse, and, figuratively, of 
persons. Twisted bit, a boring-tool formed of a bar bent 
into a spiral, as in the auger. 

bit 1 (bit), v. t. ; pret. and pp. fitted, ppr. 'bitting. 
[< bit 1 , n.] To put a bridle upon ; put the bit 
in the mouth of (a horse) ; accustom to the bit ; 
hence, to curb ; restrain. 

bit 2 (bit), n. [< ME. lite, a bit, morsel, < AS. 
bita, a bit, piece bitten off (= OFries. bita = 
D. beet, a morsel, beetje, a small portion, = 
MLG. bete, bet, LG. beten = OHG. bizzo, MHG. 
bizze, G. bisse, bissen = Icel. biti = Sw. bit = 
Dan. bid, a morsel), weak masc., < bitan (pp. 
biten), bite : see bite, v., bite, n., and bit 1 , with 
which bit 2 has been in part confused.] If. A 
portion of food bitten off ; a mouthful ; a bite. 
2. A morsel or a little piece of food. 
Follow your function, go ! and batten on cold bits. 

Shak., COT., iv. 5. 
Dainty bits 
Make rich the ribs, but bankerout the wits. 

S/iffA-., L. L. L., I. 1. 

Hence 3. A small quantity of food; a modi- 
cum or moderate supply of provisions: as, to 
take a bit and a sup. [Dialectal.] 

He desires no more in this world but a bit and a brat ; 
that is, only as much food and raiment as nature craves. 
Scotch Presbyterian Eloquence, p. 36. 

4. A small piece or fragment of anything ; a 
small portion or quantity ; a little : as, a bit of 
glass ; a bit of land ; a bit of one's mind. The 
word is often used in certain phrases expressive of ex- 
tent or degree ; thus, "a bit older" means somewhat old- 
er, older to some extent ; " not a bit," not a whit, not in 
any degree ; " a good bit older," a good deal older ; " a bit 
of a humorist," somewhat of a humorist, etc. It is used 
depreciatingly or compassionately : as, a little bit of a 
man ; bits of children, that is, poor little children. 

His majesty has power to grant a patent for stamping 
round bitx of copper. Sirift. 

There arc se\ eral bits at Valmontone to delight an artist, 
especially at the entrance of the town, where a magnifi- 
cent fragment of the ancient wall forms the foreground 
to some picturesque houses. A. 0. C. Hare, 



bit 

Your caw in not a hit clearer Minn it wu seven years 
ago. Ai'l'iitlni"'. 

My yiiiiK companion was a l>it of a poet, a '"'' of an ar- 
tist, a I'H l a nillMciall, anil . . . it lift of all :i< t"I - 

I'. //<-*. (iillHTt linrney, I. I. 

5. Crisis; nick of time. [Scotch.] 6. A small 
piece of ground ; aspoi. [Scotch.] 

It's a bleldy eniMmh ''. >'"". "'avcrley. II. xxlii. 

7. Any small coin : as, a fourpenny-fciV .- a six- 
penny-bit. Specifically, the name nf a Mmill \\ct In- 
dian coin wortD ahont 10 cents; also, in part* of the 
1'nited Males, ..( a silver coin formerly current (in some 
state* railed a .!/ sii'im .<!< ill< ifi), of the value of 124 cents; 
now, ehicllj in tin' \\e.,t, the Mini of 12J uentn. 

With nix lni.1 in his pocket anil an axe upon his shoul- 
der. The Century, XXVII. 29. 

A bit of blood. See Muni. A long bit. fifteen cents. 
I Western r. .-.. A short bit, ten cenU. [Western I. s. | 
Bit by bit, little liy little ; iinperceptilily. 

Anil, bit try bit, 
'I'll'' rurinintr years steal all from us but woe. 

Lowell, Comm. Ode. 

To give a bit of one's mind, to speak out frankly what 
one think* of a person or a transaction ; express one's can- 
did conviction unrestrained by reserve or delieacy : gener- 
ally to the person himself, and in unflattering terms. 

He had given the house what was called o bit of his mind 
on the subject, and he wished very much that he would 
give them the whole. 

Lord Campbell, London Times, April 12, 1884. 
= Syn. 4. Scrap, fragment, morsel, particle, atom. 

bit :t (bit). Preterit and occasional past partici- 
ple of bite. 

bit't. A Miilille English and Anglo-Saxon con- 
traction of bitltletli, third person singular indi- 
cative present of bid. 

bit B t, An obsolete spelling of bitt. 

bitt, n. A Middle English form of butfl. 

bitangent (bl-tan'jent), n. [< W- 2 + tangent.] 
In math., a double tangent; a straight line 
which touches a given curve at 
two points. If in denotes the degree 
and n the class of a eurve, then (n Hi) 
(n 4- in - 9) is the excess of the number 
of its bitariKcnts over the number of its 
double points. -Isolated bitangent, a BHangem to cas- 
real line tangent to a curve at two ima- 
ginary point*. 

bitangential (bi-tan-jen'shal), a. [< bitangent 
+ -ial.] In math., pertaining to a bitangent. 
Bitangential curve, a curve which passes through the 
points of contact of the nitangents of a given curve. 

bitartrate (bi-tar'trat), . [< W- 2 + tartrate.] 
A tartrate which contains one hydrogen atom 
replaceable by a base.- potassium bitartrate. 

Same as I'ream of tartar, or ai-iitif (which see). 
bit-brace (bit'bras), n. A tool for holding 
and turning a boring-bit ; a brace ; a bit-stock. 
Bit-brace die, a small screw-cutting die used with a 

bitch (bich), . [< ME. bicche, biche, < AS. 
bicce, also bicge, = Icel. bikkya = Norw. bikkje, 
a bitch. Cf . G. betze, petse, a bitch, and P. biche, 
a bitch, also a fawn. The relations of these 
forms are undetermined.] 1. The female of 
the dog; also, by extension, the female of other 
canine animals, as of the wolf and fox. 2. A 
coarse name of reproach for a woman. 

John had not run a-madding so long had it not been 
for an extravagant bitch of a wife. 

.li-hiithiiiit, John Bull, p. 9. 

bitcheryt (bich'e-ri), n. [< bitch + -ery.] Vile- 
ness or coarseness in a woman ; unchastity or 
lowilncss in general. 

bitch-wood (Inch/wild), n. The wood of a le- 
guminous tree, Lonchnearpits latifoliux, of the 
West Indies and tropical South America. 

bite (lilt), r. ; pret. bit, pp. bitten, sometimes bit. 
ppr. biting. [< MM. hitrii (pret. but, boot,fi[.biten, 
pp. biten), < AS. bit/in (pret. bat, pi. biton, pp. 
&/'/<) = OS. 6i<rt=:OFries. bita = T>. bjjten = 
MLO. biti-n. l-(i. liiti'ii =()HG. bi:nn, MHG. bi- 
:<n, <;. /( /.( = Icel. bita = 8w. bita = Dan. 
bitlr = Goth, beitan, bite, = L. findcre (W-0, 
cleave, = Skt. -\/ bhitl, divide. From the AS. 
come bite. H., W.I, /,-', bitter^, beetle*, beetle^; 
to the Icel. are due bait 1 , and prob. bitt; from 
L. fiiiili-ff come fissile, fissure, bifid, etc.] I. 
trans. 1. To cut, pierce, or divide with the 
teeth : as, to bite an apple. 

The fish that once was caught new bait il hardly bull-. 
.s>'nv. K. (?.. II. i. I. 

2. To remove with the teeth; cut away l>y bit- 
ing: with off, <>nt, etc. : as, to bite off a piece of 
an apple, or bitr a piece nut of it ; to hiti- off 
one's nose to spite one's face. 

I'll bitf my tonyuc <>nt. ere it pime a traitor. 

/.'-re. >tti>l /'/.. \\ it at Several \\eajH.ns, iv. 1. 

3. To grasp or grip with the teeth; press the 
teeth strongly upon: as, to bite the thumb or 
lip. (See phrases below.) 

There Faction roar, Kcliellion bite her chain. 

1'oiie, Windsor Forest, 1. 421. 



567 

4. To sting, as an insect : as, to bo bittfn by a 
flea. 6. To cause a sharp or smarting pain in ; 
<aii.se lo smart : as, pepper hi leu the mouth. 

6. To nip, as with frost ; blast, Might, or injure. 

Like an envinns sneapiiJK frost, 
That Mtei the Hrst-liorn Infants of the pi ini: 

Shalt., L I.. I.., I. 1. 

All three of them are desperate ; their great guilt, 
Like poison given to work a great time after, 
Now Kins to bilr the spirit*. Shalt., Tempest, iii. 3. 

7. To take fast hold of; grip or catch into or 
on, so as to act with effect : get purchase from, 
as by friction : as, the anchor lull's the ground ; 
the file tuti.f the iron ; the wheels luti- the rails. 

The last screw of the rack having Keen turned so often 
that its purchase crumbled, and it now turned and turned 
with notliing to bitf. Dickem. 

8. In etching, to corrode or eat into with aqua- 
fortis or other mordant, as a metal surface 
that has been laid bare with an etching-needle : 
often with in : as, the plate is now bitten in. 

9. To cheat; trick; deceive; overreach: now 
only in the past participle : as, the biter was bit . 

The rogue was bit. Pope, Moral Essays, iii. 364. 

At last she played for her left eye ; . . . this too she lost ; 
however, she had the consolation of biting the sharper, 
for he never perceived that it was made of glass till it be- 
came his own. Golitmiiith, Citizen of the World, cii. 
To bite the dust or the ground, to fall ; he thrown or 
struck down ; be vanquished or humbled. 

His vanquished rival was to bite the duat before him. 

Ditraeli. 

To bite the glove. See glove. To bite the lip, to press 
the lip between the teeth in order to repress signs of an 
ger, mirth, or other emotion. (Compare to bite the tongue.) 
To bite the thumb att, to intuit or defy by putting 
the thumb-nail into the mouth, and with a jerk making 
it knack. 

I will bite my thumb at them, which is a disgrace to 
them, if they bear it. Shot., R. and J., i. 1. 

To bite the tongue, to hold one's tongue ; repress (an- 
gry) speech ; maintain fixed silence. (Compare to bite the 
lip, and in hold one's tongue.) 

So York must sit, and fret, and bite hut tonffue, 
While his own lands are bargain'd for and sold. 

Shak.,-2Hen. VI., i. 1. 
= 8yn. See eat. 

il. in trans. 1. To have a habit of biting or 
snapping at persons or things: as, a dog that 
bites; a biting horse. 2. To pierce, sting, or 
inflict in jury by biting, literally or figuratively. 

It [wine] biteth like a serpent and stiugeth like an adder. 

Prov. xxiii. 82. 

Look, when he fawns he bites ; and when he bite*, 
His venom tooth will rankle to the death. 

Shalt.. Rich. III., i. 3. 

Smiling and careless, casting words that bit 
Like poisoned darta. 

Will in HI Morrii, Earthly Paradise, II. 327. 

3. To take a bait, as a fish: either literally or 
figuratively. 

Bait the hook well : this flsh will hitr. 

Shalt., Much Ado, ii. 3. 
We'll bait that men may bitr fair. 

Fletcher, Wildgoose Chase. 

4. To take and keep hold ; grip or catch into 
another object, so as to act on it with effect, 
obtain purchase or leverage-power from it, and 
the like: as, the anchor bites; cog-wheehj bite 
when the teeth of one enter into the notches 
of the other and cause it to revolve. 

In dry weather the roads require to be watered before 
l>eing swept, so that the brushes may bitr. Mayhew. 

To bite at, to snap at with the teeth ; hence, figuratively, 
to snarl or carp at ; inveigh against. 

No marvel, though you bite so sharp at reasons, 
You are so empty of them. Shalt., T. and C., ii. 2. 
To bite In. (a) To corrode, as the acid used in etching. 
I'-) To repress one's thoughU, or restrain one's feelings. 
bite (bit), H. [< late ME. byte, bite (bite), tak- 
ing the place of earlier bite (bite), in mod. E. 
bit (see wt 1 ); from the verb.] 1. The act of 
cutting, piercing, or wounding with the teeth 
or as with the teeth: as, the bite of a dog; the 
bite of a crab. 2. The seizing of bait by a 
fish : as, waiting for a liiti-. 

I have known a very good fisher angle diligently four 
or six hours for a river carp, and not have a bite. 

I. Walton, Complete Anu'ler. 

3. A wound made by the teeth of an animal or 
by any of the biting, piercing, or stinging or- 
gans of the lower animals: as, a dog's Iii if : a 
mosquito-W<c .- a flea-Wte. 

Their venom 'il bitr. liriiiltn, tr. of Virgil'* Oeorgics. 

4. As much as is taken at once by biting; a 
mouthful : as, a bite of bread. 

Itetter one bitr at forty, of Truth's bitter rind. 
Than the hot wine that gushed from the vlntageof twenty : 
/.""./'. Life of Blonde). 

5. Food; victuals: as, three days without 
either bite or sup. 6. The catch or hold that 
one object or one part of a mechanical appa- 
ratus has on another; specifically, in a file, the 



bltnoben 

ronjfhnpRR or power of abrasion: as, the bitt of 
an anchor on the ground; thefciteof the wh-eU 
of a locomotive <m (lie rails. 

The shorter the hiir of a cniuhar, the greater is the 
power nain- d. 

'. Xlltthi'ii'*, CettillK I'll ill the World, p. 119. 

7. In etching, the corrosion effected by the acid. 
8. In printing, an imperfection in a printed 
sheet caused by part of the impression being 
received on the frisket or paper mask. 9t. A 
cheat; a trick; a fraud. 

I'll teach you a way to outwit Mrs. Johnson ; it i* a 
new-fangled way of bein^ wtttv, and they call it a bitr. 

Mfft To a Kri'end of Mrs. Johnson, 1708. 

lOf. A sharper; one who cheats. Johnton. 
His bark la worse than his bite. See tern . 
biteless (bit'les), a. [< bitf, n., + -/*.] With- 
out bite; wanting in ability or desire to bite ; 
harmless. 
Chilled them [midges] speechless and bitrlett. 

The Century, XXVII. 780. 

bitentaculate (bi-ten-tak'u-lat), a. [< *-'-' + 
tentaculated Having two tentacles, or a pair 
of organs likened to tentacles. 

The gonophore contained in a gonaugium, somewhat 
like that of Laomedea, is set free as a ciliated liitrntaru- 
Intr body. lluxleti, Anat. Invert, p. 120. 

biter (bi'ter), . [ME. biter, bitere; < bit + 

-!.] 1. One who or that which bites; an 

animal given to biting; a fish apt to take bait. 

Great barkers are no Intern. Camden. 

A Iwld biter. I. Walton, Complete Angler. 

2. One who cheats or defrauds ; also, formerly, 
one who deceives by way of joke. 

A biter is one who tells you a thing you have no reason 
to distielieve in itself, and, if you give him credit, laughs 
In your face, and triumphs that he has deceived yon. 

Spectator, No. 504. 

biterminal (bi-ter'mi-nal), n. [Tr. of Or. tit Sva 

.'.l",;r; -,,,;.] A IlillOlllin I lilM' J a line that 18 ill'' 

sum of two incommensurable lines. 

biternate (bi-ter'nat), a. [< 6i- 2 + termite.] 
In tot., doubly ternate, as when each of the 
partial petioles of a ternate leaf bears three 
leaflets. 

bite-aheept (bit'shep), n. [So MLG. bitcschdp, 
G. biss-xchuf, with the same allusion.] A once 
favorite pun upon bishop, as if one who bites 
the sheep which he ought to feed. JV. E. D. 

bitheism (bi'the-izm), n. [< W- 2 + theism.] 
Belief in two gods, specifically a good and an 
evil one; dualism. [Rare.] 

bit! (be'te), n. [E. Ind.] An East Indian name 
for species of Dalbergia, especially D. lattfolia, 
one of the East Indian rosewoods. 

biting (bi'ting), n. [< ME. biting; verbal n. of 
bite, r.] 1 . The action of cutting, piercing, etc., 
in any sense of bite. 2. The corroding action 
of a mordant upon a metal plate, wherever 
the lines of a design, drawn upon a prepared 
ground, have been laid bare with a needle, as 
in etching, or the surface is alternately stopped 
out and exposed, as in aquatint. 

biting fbl'ting), p. a. [Ppr. of bite, r.] 1. Nip- 
ping; keen: as, biting cold; biting weather. 

The western breeze. 

And years of biting frost and biting rain, 
Had made the carver's labor wellnigh vain. 

William .Worm, Earthly Paradise, I. 32ft. 

2. Severe; sharp; bitter ; painful : as, a "bit- 
ing affliction," tihal:, M. W. of W., v. 5. 3. 
Acrid; hot; pungent: as, a biting taste. Hence 
4. Sharp; severe; cutting; sarcastic: as, a 
biting remark. 

Tliis wag a nipping sermon, a pinching sermon, a biting 
sermon. Latimer, Sermon nef. Edw. VI., 1550. 

Pope'* provocation was too often the mere opportunity 
to say a biting thing, where he could do it safely. 

/."".//. Among my Books, 1st *er., p. 70. 

biting-dragon (W ting-drag 'on), . An old 
name for tarragon, Artemisia IJracmtculus. 

bitingly (bi'ting-li), adv. In a biting manner; 
sarcastically ; sneeringly. 

bitingness(bi'ting-nes), w. Pungency; acridity. 

bit-key (bit'ke), . A key designed to fit a 
permutation-lock, the steps of which are form- 
ed by movable bits. See lock. 

bitless (bit'les), a. [< bifl, ., + -less.] With- 
out bit or bridle. 
Bitlemt Numidfan horse. Fatuhaicr, .Kncid, iv. 

bitlingt (bit'ling), n. [< bift + dim. -ling.] A 
very small bit or piece. 

bitmoutht (bit'mouth), H. The bit or iron put 
into a horse's mouth. Bdilxj. 

bitnoben (bit -no 'ben), n. [A corruption of 
the Hind, name bit lat-an, or bi<l laran : ft, bid 
(cerebral t or <f) is of uncertain meaning; lanm, 
dial. l<il>tin, Inn, tun, etc., < Skt. laviina, salt.] A 




bitnoben 

white saline substance obtained from India, a 
chlorid of sodium or common salt fused with 
myrobalan and a portion of iron. Bitnoben has 
been used in India from times of high antiquity, and is 
applied to an infinite variety of purposes. It is regarded 
there as a specific for almost every disorder. 

bito-tree (be'to-tre), . Same as hajilij. 

bitouret, A Middle English form of bit- 
ter '!. 

bit-pincers (bit'pin"serz), n. pi. 
Pincers with curved jaws, used 
by locksmiths. 

bit-Stock (bit'stok), n. The han- 
dle or stock by which a boring- 
bit is held and rotated; a car- 
penter's brace. 

bit-Strap (bit'strap), n. A short 
strap connecting the bit to a short 
check-bridle or to a halter. E. H. 
Knight. 

bitt (bit), n. [Formerly, and still 
occasionally, written bit, but usu- 
ally in pi. bitts, bits, early mod. E. 
beetes; hence F. bittes, formerly 
bites, pi., = Sp. bitas, pi., = Pg. 
abitas, pi., = It. bitte, pi., bitts. Origin uncer- 
tain; connected in sense, and, in the early 
mod. E. spelling beetes, in form, with Sw. be- 
ting = Dan. beding, a bitt, bitts, > D. beting = 
Gt. bating, a bitt ; with compounds, Sw. beting- 
bult = Dan. bedingsbolt, a bitt-bolt ; D. beting- 
hmiten, pi., = G. batingliolzer, pi., bitts (D. iiout 
= Gt. holz, wood). Sw. beting, = Dan. beding, 
means lit. 'baiting, pasturing,' as a horse, by 
tethering it (= AS. bceting, beting, a rope, a 
cable), < Sw. beta = Dan. bede = Icel. beita, 
bait, pasture, = AS. bcetan, bridle, rein in, curb, 
orig. causal of Sw. bita = Dan. bide = Icel. bita 
= AS. bitan, bite : see bait 1 , bite, bit 1 . The ML. 
bitus, a whipping-post, and Icel. biti, a cross- 
beam in a house, a thwart in a boat, are, for 
different reasons, prob. neither of them the 
source of the E. word.] Naut., a strong post 
of wood or iron to which cables are made fast. 
Bitts are fastened to the deck, generally in pairs, and are 
named according to their uses : as, riding-6M, towing- 
bitts, windlass-Mtts, etc. 

bitt (bit), v. t. [< bitt, .] Naut,, to put round 
the bitts : as, to bitt the cable, in order to fasten 
it or to let it out gradually. The latter process 
is called veering away. 

The chain is then passed through the hawse-hole and 
round the windlass, and bitted. 

K. H. Dana, Jr., Before the Mast, p. 73. 

bittaclet (bit'a-kl), . The earlier form of bin- 
nacle. 

bitter 1 (bit'er), a. and . [< ME. bitter, biter, 
< AS. biter, bitor (= OS. bittar = D. MLG. LG. 
bitter = OHG. bittar, MHG. G. bitter = Icel. 
bitr = Sw. Dan. bitter = Goth, (with irreg. ai 
for i) baitrs), bitter, < bitan, bite : see bite.'] I. 
a. 1 . Having a harsh taste, like that of worm- 
wood or quinine. Formerly the word was applied to 
pungent and to salt things, as well as to those to which it 
is now nearly always restricted. 

All men are agreed to call vinegar sour, honey sweet, 
and aloes bitter. Burke, Sublime and Beautiful. 

Hence 2. Unpalatable; hard to swallow, lit- 
erally or figuratively : as, a bitter pill ; a bitter 
lesson. 

But thou art man, and canst abide a truth, 

Tho' bitter. Tennyson, Balin and Balan. 

3. Hard to be borne; grievous; distressful; 
calamitous : as, a bitter moment ; bitter fate. 

Nailed 
For our advantage on the bitter cross. 

Shale., 1 Hen. IV., i. 1. 

4. Causing pain or smart to the sense of feel- 
ing ; piercing ; painful; biting: as, bitter cold; 
' ' the bitter\>l&st," Dryden. 5. Harsh, as words ; 
reproachful ; sarcastic ; cutting ; sharp : as, "bit- 
ter taunts," Shak., 3 Hen. VI., ii. 6. 

Hastings complained in bitter terms of the way in which 
he was treated. Macaulay, Warren Hastings. 

6. Cherishing or exhibiting animosity, hate, 
anger, or severity ; cruel ; severe ; harsh ; 
stern: as, " bitterest enmity," Shak., Cor., iv. 4; 
. "bitter enemies," Watts, Logic. 7. Evincing 
or betokening intense pain or suffering : as, a 
bitter cry. 

Our bitter tears 
Stream, as the eyes of those that love us close. 

Bryant, The Ages, i. 

Bitter ale, bitter beer. See (tie. Bitter-almond oiL 
See almond-oil. Bitter ash, bark, cucumber, etc. See 
the nouns. Bitter principles, a term applied to certain 
products arising from the action of nitric acid upon ani- 
mal and vegetable matters, and having an intensely bitter 
taste. Very many plants contain peculiar, often crystal- 
lizable, compounds, having a bitter taste, which are often 
doubtless the active medicinal principle of the vegetable 



568 

in which they occur. The term is now restricted to the 
brown amorphous bitter extract, generally not of definite 
composition, obtained from many plants by boiling in wa- 
ter, evaporating to dryness, and treating with alcohol to 
remove resin, etc. To the bitter end, to the last and 
direst extremity ; to death itself. = Svn. 3. Grievous, dis- 
tressing, afflictive, poignant. 
II. n. 1. That which is bitter ; bitterness. 

Hi no conne deme [judge] betuene zuete [sweet] and 
byter. Ayenbite of Jnwit, p. 82. 

The sick man hath been offended at the wholesome bit- 
ter of the medicine. Scott, Abbot, I. 65. 

Some bitter o'er the flowers its bubbling venom flings. 
Byron, Childe Harold, i. 82. 

Specifically 2. A bitter medicine, as a bitter 
bark or root, or an infusion made from it. See 
bitters. 

bitter 1 (bit'er), . t. [< ME. biteren, < AS. U- 
terian (= OHG. bittaren, MHG. G. bittern), < 
biter, bitter: see bitter 1 , a.] To make bitter; 
give a bitter taste to ; embitter. [Rare.] 

Would not horse-aloes bitter it [beer] as well? 

Wolcot (P. Pindar). 

bitter 2 (bit'er), . [< Utt + -er 1 .'] Naut., a 
turn of a cable round the bitts. 

bitter 3 t (bit'er), n. An old form of bittern 1 . 

bitter-blain (bit'er-blan), . A name given in 
Guiana to a scrophulariaceous herb, Tandellia 
diffusa, which is used as a remedy in fever and 
liver-c omplaints. 

bitter-bloom (bit'er-blom), n. The American 
centaury, Sabbatia angularls, a gentianaceous 
herb, used as a simple bitter in the treatment 
of fevers, etc. 

bitter-bush (bit'er-bush), n. The name in Ja- 
maica for Eupatorium nervosum, which is em- 
ployed as a remedy in cholera, smallpox, and 
other diseases. 

bitter-earth (bit'er-erth), n. [< bitter + earth ; 
= G. bitter-erde.'] Calcined magnesia. 

bitter-end (bit'er-end), n. [< bitter* + end.~\ 
Naut., that part of a cable which is abaft the 
bitts, and therefore within board, when the ship 
rides at anchor. 

bitter-grass (bit'er-gras), n. The colic-root of 
the United States, Aletris farinosa. 

bitter-head (bit'er-hed), n. A local name in 
parts of Ohio for the calico-bass, Pomoxys spa- 
roides. 

bitter-herb (bit'er-erb), n. 1. The European 
centaury, Erythraia centaurium. 2. The bal- 
mony of the United States, Chelone glabra. 

bittering (bit'er-ing), n. [Verbal n. of bitter 1 , 
.] 1. Same as bittern 2 , 2. 2. The acquiring 
by wine of a bitter flavor, due to the formation 
of brown aldehyde resin or other bitter sub- 
stance, from age or high temperature. 

bitterish (bit'er-ish), a. [< bitter 1 + -ish 1 .] 
Somewhat bitter; moderately bitter. 

bitter-king (bit'er-king), n. [< bitter 1 + king."] 
A shrub or small tree of the Moluccas, Soula- 
mea amara, natural order Polygalacea;, all parts 
of which are intensely bitter and are reputed 
to possess antiperiodic properties. 

bitterling (bit'er-ling), n. [< bitter + -ling 1 .'] 
A cyprinoid fish, Eliodem amarus, of the fresh 
waters of central Europe. It resembles a bream in 
form, but the anal fln is comparatively short(with 12 rays), 
the lateral line is imperfect, and the female has a long ex- 
ternal urogenital tube. 

bitterly (bit'er-li), adv. [< ME. bitterly, bitter- 
liclie, < AS. biterlice, adv. (< *biterlie, adj., = 
D. bitterlijk = Icel. bitrligr = Dan. bitterlig = 
G. bitterlich, adj.), < biter + -lice: see bitter 1 , a., 
and -Iy 2 .~\ In a bitter manner, (a) Mournfully; 
sorrowfully ; in a manner expressing poignant grief or re- 
morse. 
And he went out and wept bitterly. Mat. xxvi. 75. 

Everybody knows how bitterly Louis the Fourteenth, 
towards the close of his life, lamented his former ex- 
travagance. Macaulay, Mill on Government. 

(b) In a severe or harsh manner ; sharply ; severely ; an- 
grily : as, to censure bitterly. 

The Almighty hath dealt very bitterly with me. 

Ruth i. 20. 

bittern 1 (bit'ern), n. [Early mod. E. also bit- 
torn, bitturn, with irreg. suffixed -n; earlier 
bitter, bittor, bittour, bytter, bitoure, buttour, 
bewter, boter, buture, etc. (E. dial, bitter-bump, 
butter-bump, Sc. buter, butter) ; < ME. bitter, 
bitoure, byttoure, butturre, butor, botor, botore, 
etc., = D. Flem. butoor, formerly also putoor, < 
OF. butor, mod. F. butor, = It. bittore (Florio), 
a bittern, = Sp. bitor, a bittern, also a rail 
(bird), < ML. butorius, a bittern: (1) errone- 
ously supposed by some to be a corruption of 
a L. *botaurus (whence the NL. Botaurus, as- 
sumed as the name of the genus), as if < bos, ox, 
+ taurus, a bull, applied by Pliny to a bird that 




Common Bittern (Beta 



bitters 

bellows like a bull ; (2) also erroneously iden- 
tified by some with ML. Mtorius, biturius, 
which, with a var. pintorus, is explained in 
AS. glosses by 
wrenna, wrcen- 
na (> E. wren), 
and once by 
erdling (> E. 
arling) ; but 
(3) prob. a var. 
of L. butio(n-) 
(> Pg. butio), 
a bittern a 
word supposed 
to be of imita- 
tive origin, re- 
lated to bubere, 
cry like a bit- 
tern, bubo, an 
owl, etc. Cf. 
the equiv. E. 
dial. 'butter- 
bump, Sc. mire- 
drum, E. dial. 
bog-bull,F . tau- 
reau ifetang, 
' bull of the 
swamp,' boeitf 
de marais, G. 
moosockse, '-ox 
of the marsh,' etc. ; and see boom 1 , bump 2 , bull 1 , 
bawl 1 , bellow, etc.] 1. A European wading bird, 
of the family Ardcidce and subfamily liotauri- 
nce; the Botaurus stellaris, a kind of heron, it 
is about 2 feet long, is speckled, mottled, and freckled 
with several shades of blackish-brown, buff, etc., lives 
solitary in bogs and morasses, has a hollow guttural cry, 
and nests usually on the ground. 

As a Iritore bumbleth in the mire. 

Chaucer, Wife of Bath's Tale, 1. 116. 
Where hawks, sea-owls, and long-tongued bittonrs bred. 

Chapman. 

2. Any heron of the subfamily Botaurince. The 
American bittern is Botaurutf muyitans or B. lentiyino- 
sus. The very small rail-like herons of the genera Ar- 
detta, Ardeola, etc., are called little or least bitterns ; the 
European species is Ardetta minuta,: the North American, 
A. exilis ; and there are others. The tiger bitterns are 
beautifully striped species of the genus Tigrisoma, as T. 
brasiliensis. 

bittern 2 (bit'ern), . [Appar. a dial, form 
(through *bitterin) of bittering, < bitter 1 + 
-4ng 1 .'] 1. In salt-works, the brine remaining 
after the salt is concreted. This, after being ladled 
off and the salt taken out of the pan, is returned, and, 
being again boiled, yields more salt. It is used in the 
preparation of Epsom salt (the sulphate of magnesia) and 
Glauber salt (the sulphate of soda), and contains also 
chlorid of magnesium, and iodine and bromine. 
2. A very bitter compound of quassia, cocculug 
indicus, licorice, tobacco, etc., used for adul- 
terating beer. Also called bittering. 
bitterness (bit'er-nes), n. [< ME. bitternesse, 
biternesse, < AS. biternys, < biter + -nys: see bit- 
ter 1 , a., and -ness.'] The state or quality of be- 
ing bitter, in any of the senses of that word. 

She was in bitterness of soul. 1 Sam. i. 10. 

Shall we be thus afflicted in his wreaks, 
His fits, his frenzy, and his bitterness $ 

Shak., Tit. And., iv. 4. 

The bitterness and animosity between the commanders 
was such that a great part of the army was marched. 

Clarendon. 

The bitterness of anger. Longfellow. 

In the gall of bitterness, in a state of extreme impiety 
or enmity to God. Acts viii. 23. Root of bitterness, 
a dangerous error or schism tending to draw pel-sons to 
apostasy. Heb. xii. IB. =Syn. Acrimony, Asperity, Harsh- 
ness, etc. (see acrimony), spite, ill will, malignity, heart- 
burning ; grief, distress, heaviness. 

bitternut (bit'er-nut), . The swamp-hickory 
of the United States, Carya amara. Its nuts 
are very thin-shelled, with an intensely bitter 
kernel. 

bitter-root (bit'er-rot), n. 1. The big-root, Me- 
garrliiza Californica. 2. The Lewisia redivira, 
a plant which gives its name to the Bitter Root 
mountains lying between Idaho and Montana. 
3. Dogbane, Apocynum androsaniiifoliuiii. 

bitters (bit'erz), n. pL [PI. of bitter 1 , ..] 1. 
Bitter medicines generally, as cinchona, qui- 
nine, etc. 2. Specifically, a liquor (general- 
ly a spirituous liquor) in which bitter herbs 
or roots are steeped. Bitters are employed 
as stomachics, anthelminthics, and in vari- 
ous other ways Angostura bitters, a bitter tonic, 
much used in the West Indies as a preventive against ma- 
larial fevers and the like. Originally made at Angostura 
or Ciudad Bolivar, a city in Venezuela, it is now made 
also at Tort of Spain, Trinidad. Prairie bitters, a 
beverage common among the hunters and mountaineers 
of western America, made with a pint of water and a 
quarter of a gill of buffalo-gall. It is considered by them 
an excellent medicine. 



bitter-salt 

bitter-salt (bit 'er-s.-ilt ), M. [< bitterl + salt, >,. : 

= <(. hi/it'i-xiiL 1). liiiiii niii.\ Kpsom salt; 

i shim sulphate. 
bittersgall (birer/.-gal), . AM old Knylisii 

name lor the fruit of tint wild crab, I'yrnx 
tun I ii n. 

bitter-spar (bit'er-spar), . Rhomb-spar, a 

]nini-r:il crystallizing in rhombohedrons. ll U 
the same as dolomite, or carbonate of calcium 
Mild magnesium. 

bitter-stem, bitter-stick d>ii'er-stem. -stick), 

a. Thi 1 cliiretta of India. Ophelia t'liinitu. a 
gcntiaiiaceons plant furnishing a valuablo bit- 

tt'P toll I'-. 

bitter-sweet (bit'er-swet), a. and n. I. n. 
Uniting bitterness and sweetness; pleasant 
and painful at the same time. 

i in.' by mif the frenh-stirred memories, 
So bittrr-xiivet, llickere.l ami dii'il away. 

\y attain MorriH, Earthly Paradise, I. 139. 

II. n. That which is both bitter and sweet : 
as, the hitter-sweet of life. 

1 iiave known some few, 

And read of more, who turn- had their dose, and ill -e|i, 
Of those sharp bitter-xiceftx. 

II. Jiini, Sail shepherd, i. -. 

bittersweet (bit'er-swet), . 1. The woody 
nightshade, Solatium Dulcamara, a trailing 
plant, native of Europe and Asia, and natural- 
ized in the United States. Its root and bran. -lie* 



999 

vent the chain from jumping off while veering. 
See cut under bitt-xtii/i/it r. 
bitt-stopper (bit 'stop er>. . \<nit., a rope or 




.ni'l Bitt-stoppei on Chain-cable, a, bitt-pin. 




, 

nibby, fatxe, orcliiiiliiiifi bittersweet of the Tnited States 
the Cela*tnix ncatuten-x, also known as the xtajT-tret. 



Flowering: branch of the Climbing Bittersweet (Ctlastrui start- 
dtnsi t with fruit ami flower nn larger scale. [From Cray's "Genera 
of the Plants of the United States.) 

when chewed produce first a hitter, then a sweet taste: 

they have long been used as a remedy in various skin-dis- 

eases. Its small scarlet berries, resembling red currants. 

though not absolutely poisonous, are not wholesome. The 

Hhni 

is th 

2. Same as bitter-sweeting. 

bitter-sweetingt (bit'er-swe'ting), H. A variety 
of apple. 
Thy wit is a very hitler Meeting. Shut., R. and J., 11. 4. 

bitter-vetch (bit'er-yech), . A name popu- 
larly applied to two kinds of leguminous plants : 
(</) to Krmim Jirvilia, a lentil cultivated for 
fodder; and (6) to all the species of the genus 
Orobus, now included in the genus Lathyriis. 
Common bitter-vetch is L. macrorrhizus. 

bitter-weed (bit'er-wed), . A name given to 
American species of ragweed, Ambrosia <irtc- 
niisiii'foliii and .1. Iriliil/i. 

bitter-WOOd (bit'er-wud), w. 1. The timber of 
Xylopia tjlabra, and other species of the same 
genus. All of them are noted for the extreme 
bitterness of their wood. 2. A name applied to 
the quassia woods of commerce, the West Indian 
I'ii-rn nn cxcetsa and the Surinam (Jna.txia iniia- 
ra. See quassia. r wwte bitter-wood, of Jamaica, 

it llH'liaeeOUS tlVC. Tt'it'llilift XjHI/l'li'lill''*. 

bitterwort (bit'er-wert), n. Yellow gentian, 

(iriiliini/i hitm, and some other species: so 

called from their remarkably bitter taste. 
bitt-head (bit'hed), n. ffaut., the upper part 

of a bill. 
bitting-harness (bit'ing-har'iies), H. A har- 

ness used in training colts. 
bitting-rigging (bit'ing-rig'iug), . A bridle. 

surcingle, liack-sti-ap, and crupper placed on 

young horses to give them a good carriage. 
bittle (bit'l), n. A Scotch and Knglish dia- 

lectal form of licctli-l. 
bittlin (bit'lin), . [E. dial. : perhaps for *bit- 

tliiiii. < bitt. hit* (= butt'*) + dim. -ling.'] A 

milk-bowl. Grose. 
bittock (bit'ok). H. [< 6i(2 + aim. -Oct.] A 

little bit; a short distance. Scott; Mrs. (inn : 

[Scotch.] 

bittort, bittourt, . Obsolete forms of bittern 1 . 
bitt-pin (bit'pin), n. Xaitt.. a large iron pin 

placed in the head of the cable-bitts to pre- 



chain stopper made fast to the bit t s, and used 
to hold a cable while bitting or unbitting it. 

bituberculate, bituberculated (bi-tu-ber'kci- 
lat, -la-ted), a. [< fct- a + ti<berculate.j In m- 
tom., having two tubercles or small blunt ele- 
vations. 

bitumet (bi-tum'), n. [< F. bitume, < L. bi- 
t n iiii-n : see bitumen.] Bitumen: as, " hellebore 
and black bitume," Mai/. 

bitume (bi-tum'). v. t.; pret. and pp. bitui/ted, 
ppr. liitiiminq. [< bitumr, .] To cover or be- 
smear with bitumen; bituminate. 

We have a chest beneath the hatches, caulked and bi- 
Inmnl. Shot., Pericles, ill. 1. 

The basket of bulrushes for the Infant Moses, when 
thoroughly bitumed, was well adapted to the purpose for 
which it was made. W. M. Thmiuivn, Land and Book. 

bitumen (bi-tu'men), n. [Early mod. E. also 
bittumen, betttmen (also bitume, lietume, betune: 
see bitume) = F. bitume = Pr. betum = Sp. betun 
= Pg. betume = It. bitume, < L. bitumen.'] The 
name given by Latin writers, especially by 
Pliny, to various forms of hydrocarbons now 
included under the names of asphaltum, maltha, 
and petroleum (see these words). Bitumen, as used 
by artiste, is a mixture of asphaltum with a drying-oil. It 
produces a rich brown transparent surface, but is liable to 
crack and blacken. Bitumen process, in phnloy., an 
early method of producing pictures resting upon the prop- 
erty of sensitiveness to light possessed by asphaltum or 
bitumen of Judrea. The process has received a modem 
application in some systems of photo-engraving. Sec 
photography, and Gillet process, under photo-eivjraviw.r. 
- Elastic bitumen. See elatrrite. 

bituminate (bi-tu'mi-nat), v. t. ; pret. and pp. 
hituniinated, ppr. bituminating. [< L. bttunii- 
natus, pp. of oituminare, impregnate with bitu- 
men, < bitumen (bitumiti-), bitumen.] 1. To 
cement with bitumen. 

Rituiitinatt'd walls of Babylon. Felthain, Resolves, i. 46. 

2. To impregnate with bitumen, 
bituminiferous (bi-tu-mi-nif'e-rus), a. [< L. 
bitumen, bitumen, + ferre ="E. feme 1 .] Pro- 
ducing bitumen. 

Tin- bitumini/ermtx substance known as boghead ('an- 
nel [coal]. IT. A. IHillei; Elem. of Chem., 1537. 

bituminization (bi-tu'mi-ni-za'shon), n. [< 61- 
tumini:e + -a/io/i.] The transformation of or- 
ganic matters into bitumen, as the conversion 
of wood by natural processes into several va- 
rieties of coal. Also spelled bituminization. 

bituminize (bi-tu'mi-niz), . t. ; pret. and pp. 
Intuminised, ppr. bituminizing. [< bitumen (bi- 
titmin-) + -rc.] To form into or impregnate 
with bitumen. Also spelled bituminise. 

bituminous (bi-tu'mi-nus), a. [= F. bituati- 
m'Hjr, < L. bituminosus, < bitumen (bitumiti-), bitu- 
men.] 1. Of the nature of or resembling bitu- 
men. 2. Containing bitumen, or made up in 
part of the hydrocarbons which form aspnal- 
tum, maltha, and petroleum. See petroleum. 
Near that bltuniinonn lake where Sodom Mamed. 

Milton, P. L., X. 66i 

Bituminous cement, or bituminous mastic, a cement 
or mastic in which bitumen, especially in the form of as- 
phalt, isthe most important iii<-:r<'<lifnt : it is used for roofs, 
piivviiii'nts. list. ins. etc. -Bituminous coal, soft coal, or 
coal which burns with a bright-yellow flame. Soft coal, 
semibituminotis coal, and hard coal, or anthracite, are the 
three most important varieties of coal. .See ctml. Bitu- 
minous limestone, limestone containing bituminous 
matter. It is of a brown or black color, and when rubbed 
emits an unpleasant odor. That of Dalmatia is so charged 
with bitumen that it maybe cut like soap. Bituminous 
shale, "i- bituminous schist, an argillaceous shak- nun li 
impregnated with bitunu'ii. and very common in various 
geological formations, especially in the Devonian and 
Ixwer Silurian. Before the discovery of petroleum in 
Pennsylvania it was worked to some extent for the pro- 
duction of iiarathn and other useful products. Bitumi- 
nous springs, springs impregnated with petroleum, 
naphtha, etc. 

biunguiculate (bi-ung-gwik'u-lat), a. [< &i-2 
-I- uHfjuiculate.'] Having two claws, or two 
parts likened to claws; ooublv hooked. 

biunity (bl-u'nj-ti), . [< bi-% + unity.] The 
state or mode of being two in one, as trinity 
is the state of being three in one. 



bivious 

biuret (bi'u-ret). . [< bi-* + urea: Bee -uret.] 
A compound (<'..,! l,r,N ;l ( >._. 4- II 2 O) formed by 
exposing urea to :i lii^'h temperature for a long 
time. It forms crystals readily soluble in water 
and alcohol. 

bivalence (bi'va- or biv'a-lens), . In chftn., 
a valence or saturating power which is doable 
that of the hydrogen atom. 

bivalency (bi'va- or biv'a-len-si). n. Same 
as liirttlfiiff. 

bivalent (bi'va- or biv'a-leut), n. [< L. bi-, two-, 
+ i-dli'n(t- )*, having power. Cf. n/ninilent.] 
In I'll/ in., applied to an element an atom of 
which can replace two atoms of hydrogen or 
other urii valent element, or to a radical which 
has the same valence as a bivalent atom. Thus. 



calcium In Its chlorid, Cal'lj, replaces two atoms of hvili.. 
yen in hyilrochloric cid, lli"'l ; the bivalent radical methy- 
len, i 'H.J. In its chlorid, rir.i I L .. shows the saine valence. 



bivalve (bi'valv), a. and n. [= P. bivalve, < L. 
hi-, two-, + rtilra, door, in mod. sense 'valve.'] 
I. a. 1. Having two leaves or folding parts : 
as, a bivalve speculum. 2. In :oiil., having 
two shells united by a hinge. 3. In lot., hav- 
ingtwo valves, as a seed-case. 

II. . If. pi. Folding doors. 2. In zoiil., a 
headless lamellibranch mollusk whose shell has 
two hinged valves, which are opened and shut 

by appropri- 

c xfei ate muscles: 

opposed to 
univalve. In 
rare cam, as 
/'/"</'/-. there are 
also accessory 
valves besides 
the two principal 
mi' f. See cut 
under accfxxurii. 
Familiar exam- 
ples are the 
oyster, scallop, 
mussel, etc. 
These belong to 
tte uluhoiiatc 
division of bi- 
valves ; the clam, 
cob, cockle, ra- 
zor-shell, and 
many others are 
siphonate. The 




Bivalve Shell of Cytksrta cftuntt. 
A, right valve ; fi, left valve ; C, dorsal mar- 
gin : D, ventral margin ; / . anterior side or 
Front margin ; F. posterior side or hinder mar- 
gin : (.. umbo ; //, hinge and hinge-teeth : f. 
cardinal tooth ; x, x, lateral teeth ; 7, ligament, 
ligament pit or groove ; y. lunule; A", anterior 
muscular impression ; /., posterior muscular im- 
pression; ,*/, pallial impression ; .V, abdominal 
impression ; ' '. pallial sinus. 

picklock belongs to the genus I'holas. The ship-worm, 
Teredo, is also technically a bivalve. See lamellibranth. 
3. In hot., a pericarp in which the seed-case 
opens or splits into two parts. Equilateral bi- 
valve. See equilateral. 

bivalved (bl'valvd), a. [< fti-2 + valued. Cf. 
bivalve.} Having two valves. Also bivalvous. 

Bivalvia (bi-val'vi-a), N. pi. [NL., neut. pi. of 
bivalvius, < L. bi-, two-, + tatva, door, in mod. 
sense 'valve.' Cf. bivalve.} A term formerly 
used for all the bivalve shells or lamellibran- 
chiate mollnsks, but now superseded by the 
class names Aeepliala, Conchifera, and Lamelli- 
branchiata. 

bivalvous (bi-val'vun), a. [< bivalve + -OH*.] 
Same as bivalved. 

bivalvular (bi-val'vu-lar), a. [< bivalve, after 
valvular.} Having two valves: said especial- 
ly of the shells of certain mollusks and of the 
seed-vessels of certain plants. See bivalve. 

bivascular (bi-vas'ku-far), a. [< L. bi-, two-, 
+ vtinciilitm, a small vessel ; after vascular.] 
Having two cells, compartments, or vessels. 

bivaulted (bi'val-ted), a. [< fti-2 -f- vaulted.] 
Having two vaults or arches. 

biventer (bi-ven'ter), n. [NL., < L. bi-, two-, 
+ venter, belly.] A muscle of the back of the 
neck, so called from having two fleshy bellies, 
with an intervening tendinous portion. It Is com- 
monly distinguished from other bi ventral or digastric mus- 
cles as the bioenter cervicis. It occurs in man, various 
mammals, birds, etc. Also called bigatter. 

biventral (bi-ven'tral), a. (X hi- 2 + ventral.} 
Digastric ; having two bellies, as a muscle. 
See biventer. 

biverb (bl'verb), H. [< L. bi-. two-, + verbum, 
word.] A name composed of two words. 

biverbal (bi-ver'bal), a. [< 6t-2 + verbal. Cf. 
binrb.] Kelating'to two words ; punning. 

As some stories are said to be too good to IK- true, it may 
with equal troth be asserted of this biarrbal allusion, that 
It is too good to be natural. Lamb, Popular Fallacies. 

bivial (biv'i-al), a. [< L. biriiu (see Wrtotw) 
+ -al. Cf. trivial.} 1. Going in two direc- 
tions. 2. In echinoderms. of or pertaining to 
the bivium: as, the bivial (posterior) ambu- 
lacra. Huxley. 

bivioust (biv''i-us), a. [< L. bivius, having two 
ways, < 6i-, two-, + ri = E. troy.] Having 
two ways, or leading two ways. 

Biviout theorems, and Janus-faced doctrines. 

Sir T. Bnmie, Christ. Mor., IL 3. 



bivittate 



570 



bivittate (bi-vit'at), a. [< bi-~ + ritta + -ate 1 .] bizcacha (bith-ka'cha), w. Same as viscaclia. 

1. In but., having two vittas or oil-tubes: ap- bizelt, ". An obsolete form of bezel. 

jilied to the fruit of some I'mltcllifcrn: 2. In Bizen ware. Soe pottery. 

zoiil., marked with two longitudinal stripes. bizlet, '' Same as liczzlc. 
bivium (biv'i-um), . [NL., neut. of L. biriun: bizmellaht (biz-mel'a), interj. Same as bismil- 

see bivioiis.~\ In cchinoderms, the ambulacra of lull. 

the two posterior arms or rays taken together bizygomatic (bi-zi-go-mat'ik), a. [< 6i- 2 + 

and distinguished from the three anterior rays zyyomatic.] Pertaining to the two zygomatic 

collectively. See trivium, and cut under Spa- arches : as, the bizygomatic breadth. 

taugoida. bjelkite (biel'kit), n. [< Bjelke (see def.) + 

In the fossil genus Dysaster this separation of the am- -t'fe 2 .] A variety of the mineral COSalite from 

bulacra into trivium and bivium exists naturally. the Bjelke mine, Nordmark, Sweden. 

Huxley, Anat. Invert., p. 488. fct b s. Abbreviations of book, books. 
bivocalized (bi-vo'kal-izd), a. Placed between B. L. An abbreviation (a) of Bachelor of Laic ; 

two vowels. (6) in com., of bill of lading. 

bivouac (biv'o-ak), . [Also binouack, in 18th blab 1 (blab), 



century occasionally biouac, biovac, bihovac, < 

F. bivouac, formerly biouac, orig. bivac, prob. < 

G. dial. (Swiss) beiiraclit, a patrol of citizens 



pret. and pp. blabbed, ppr. 
blabbing. [In ME. only in the freq. form 
(which is preferred for such words ; cf. babble, 
gabble, gabber, jabber, etc.), but the derived 



V" mmfm */ ~-. - jn ^ yWVVW) */l*(/Vt>f , JWWf . VW*Jm WU.li LUC UCJ.1 VCU 

added in time of alann or commotion to the noun Uabbe, a blab, telltale, occurs : see blab 1 , 



regular town watch (cf. G. beiwache, a keep- 
ing watch), < bei, =E. by, + *wacht, G. wache = 
E. watch, .] An encampment of soldiers in the 
open air without tents, each soldier remaining 
dressed and with his weapons by him ; hence, 
figuratively, a position or situation of readi- 
ness for emergencies, or a situation demanding 
extreme watchfulness. 

We followed up our victory until night overtook us 
about two miles from Port Gibson ; then the troops went 
into bivouac for the night. 

U. S. Grant, Personal Memoirs, I. 484. 
In the world's broad field of battle, 

In the bivouac of Life, 
Be not like dumb, driven cattle ! 
Be a hero in the strife ! 

Longfellow, Psalm of Life. 

bivouac (biv'o-ak), i\ i. ; pret. and p 



. . . d pp. bivou- Wab i (b i ab) n . 

' " *' e "~ 



n., and blabber 1 , v. ] I. trans. To utter or tell 
in a thoughtless or unnecessary manner (what 
ought to be kept secret) ; let out (secrets). 
Oh, that delightful engine of her thoughts, 
That blabb'd them with such pleasing eloquence. 

Shak., Tit. And., iii. 1. 
Yonder a vile physician, blabbing 
The case of his patient. 

Tennyson, Maud, xxvii. 3. 

II. intrans. To talk indiscreetly ; tattle ; tell 
tales. 
You're sure the little milliner won't blab > 

Sheridan, School for Scandal, iv. 3. 
But letters, however carefully drilled to be circumspect, 
are sure to blab, and those of Pope leave in the reader's 
mind an unpleasant feeling of circumspection. 
Low " 



camp in the open air without tents or cover- 
ing, as soldiers on a march or in expectation 
of an engagement. 

We passed on for about half a mile in advance, and 
bivouacked on some rising ground. 

Sir S. W. Baker, Heart of Africa, p. 180. 

The Chasseurs Normandie arrive dusty, thirsty, after a 
hard day's ride, but can find no billet-master. . . . Nor- 
mandie must even bivouac there in its dust and thirst. 



veil, Study Windows, p. 427. 
ME. blabbe : see blab 1 , v.} 
A babbler; a telltale; one who betrays secrets, 
or tells things which ought to be kept secret. 

Good merchant, lay your fingers on your mouth ; 
Be not a blab. Greene, James IV., v. 

Excluded 

All friendship, and avoided as a blab, 
The mark of fool set on his front ! 

Milton, S. A., 1. 495. 

Show me a very inquisitive body, I'll show you a blab. 
Sir R. L' Estrange. 

..., ... "" Fre " ch R f, v - blab*t (blab), *. [Another form of bkb, blob.} 

(be wa), u. [Jap., = Chinese < pi-pa, the A bubble . a b i ister ; a swelling. 
Chinese medlar.] The loquat ; the fruit of the blab 2 t (b ^ b) t .. ;. or ' L r< b i a & n i To u 
PhotmmJapomca. out or up . make swoll e n L as the cheeks, 

biwa- (be wa), n. [Jap., = Chinese pi-pa, a blabber^ (blab'er), r. i. [< ME. blaberen, stam- 
guitar ] A Japanese musica instrument with mer ta lk without reason, blabber, blab, = LG. 
M ^" n gs,_ resembling a flat mandolin U(Mern = G . plappern> ' blab babble ' = Dau . 

biweekly (bi-wek li), a. and adv. [< bi-2 + i ta 66,- e b l abber , gabble : imitative words, prob. 
weekly.} I. a. Occurring or appearing every in part ' of i n< j e p|n dent origin . Similar forms 
two weeks: as, a biweekly magazine. Sometimes o f imitative origin are Swfdial. bladdra, blaf- 

fra, prattle, D. LG. G. blaffen (> E. bla" 



erroneously used in place of xemiweekly, for or occurring 
twice in a week. 



yelp ; OHG. blabbigoit, MHG. blepzen, babble ; 
ML. blaberare, for L. blaterare, babble ; Gael. 
blabaran, a stammerer, blabhdach, babbling, 
plabair, a babbler; E. blather, blether 1 , bab- 
ble, etc.] 1. To speak inarticulately; babble; 
mumble. 



II. adv. Fortnightly. 
biwepet, " An obsolete form of bcweep. 
Bixaceae (bik-sa'se-e), n. pi. [NL., < Bixa, the 

typical genus, + -acece.'} A natural order of 

polypetalous exogenous plants, nearly related 

to the Violacew. They are mostly shrubs or trees, 

natives of file warmer regions of the globe, and of little 

economic importance. There are about 30 genera, mostly 

small. The most prominent species is Bixa Orcllaiia, 

yielding arnotto. See cut under amotto. 
bixin (bik'sin), n. [< Bixa + -2.] l. The or- 

ange-coloring principle (C 16 H 2 eO 2 ) of arnotto, 

a vermilion-red powder, insoluble in water or ,, ,, ,,.,,,., 

ether, but soluble in alcohol and benzol 2 blabber 1 (blab er), K. [< blabber*, (;.] A tat- 

A variety of arnotto, having from six to ten 1 



Mow you may see how easie it is to speak right, and not 
to blabber like boors in any speech. 

Wodroephe, Fr. and Eng. Gram. (1623), p. 126. 

2. To tell tales; blab; talk idly. 3. To fib; 
falter. Skinner. 4. To whistle to a horse. 
Skinner. 



times the coloring power of common arnotto, 

from quicker extraction. 
biza, n. See bisa. 

bizardt (biz'ard), n. Same as bizarre. 
bizarre (bi-zar'), a. and n. [F. (formerly also 

bigearre, bijarre), strange, capricious, formerly 



tier; a telltale. 

'Tis fairies' treasure, 
Which but reveal'd, brings on the blabber's ruin. 

Mastringer and Field, Fatal Dowry, iv. 1. 

blabber 2 (blab'er), a. [< ME. blaber, blabyr. 
Cf. Wa&2, Ueb, blob, blobber, blubber, etc.] 
Swollen; protruding: as, 6Za66er-lipped ; blab- 
ber cheeks. 



iotesqul' 



Roger Xorth, Life of Lord Guilford i in 
Matter and Motions are bizarr things, humoursome and 
capricious to excess. Gentleman, Instructed, p. 559. 

These paintings . . . depended from the walls not only 
in their main surfaces, but in very many nooks which the 
Kimm architecture of the chateau rendered necessary. 

TT . . , r " e ' Tales > J - 36a - 

II. , A variety of carnation m which the 

white ground-color is striped with two colors, 



blabbing (blab'ing), pa. [Ppr. of blab\ .] 
Havln g the character of a blab; talking indis- 

' tl'J.f.M'' aS ',"lS Ual)bin O eastern 
scout," Mtltoll, Conius, 1. 138. 

black (blak), . and n. [< ME. blak, blek, blekc, 
< AS. blax (in def. inflection blaca, blace, some- 
times with long vowel blaca, blace, and thus 
confused with lilac, blcec, ME. blake, etc., shin- 
ing, white (see Weafci), = OHG. (in comp.) blah, 
= (with appar. diff. orig 



Bizarre q 



A S. blue = MLG. black, LG. Oak = MHG. black 



black 

= Icel. blck = Sw. Mack = Dan bla'k, ink: see 
blcck) ; prob. from a verb repr. secondarily by 
D. blaken, burn, scorch, freq. blakcrcn, scorch, 
MLG. (> G.) blaken, burn with much smoke, LG. 
vcrblckketi, scorch as the sun scorches grain ; 
perhaps akin to \j.flagrare, Gr. <j>'/.i -j civ, burn : see 
flagrant, flame, phlegm. Hence blatch, bleck, 
bletch, bleach^; but not connected, unless re- 
motely, with bleak 1 , bleach 1 , q. v.] I. a. 1. 
Possessing in the highest degree the property 
of absorbing light; reflecting and transmitting 
little or no light ; of the color of soot or coal ; 
of the darkest possible hue; sable; optically, 
wholly destitute of color, or absolutely dark, 
whether from the absence or from the total ab- 
sorption of light : opposed to white. 

I spy a black, suspicious, threat'ning cloud. 

Shak., S Hen. VI., v. 3. 
On either hand, as far as eye could see, 
A great black swamp and of an evil smell. 

Tennyson, Holy Grail. 

A black body is one which absorbs every ray which falls 
on it. It can, therefore, neither reflect nor transmit. A 
mass of coke suggests the conception of such a body. 

Ta.it, Light, 307. 

Hence 2. Characterized by the absence of 
light; involved or enveloped in darkness. 

In the twilight, in the evening, in the black and dark 
night. Prov. vii. 9. 

And, beauty dead, black chaos comes again. 

Shak., Venus and Adonis, 1. 1020. 

3. Dismal; gloomy; sullen and forbidding : as, 
a black prospect. 4. Destitute of moral light 
or goodness; evil; wicked; atrocious: as, black 
deeds. 

"Thou art," quoth she, " a'sca, a sovereign king, 
And, lo, there falls into thy boundless flood 
Black lust, dishonour, shame, misgoverning." 

Shak., Lucrece, 1. 664. 

During stages in which maintenance of authority is 
most imperative, direct disloyalty is considered the black- 
tut of crimes. //. Spencer, Prlii. of Sociol., 532. 

5. Calamitous; disastrous; bringing ruin or 
desolation: as, black tidings; black Friday. 

Black tidings these, . . . blacker never came to New 
England. Hawthorne, Twice-Told Tales, II. 

6. Deadly; malignant; baneful: as, a black 
augury. 

Taking thy part, hath rush'd aside the law, 

And turned that black word death to banishment. 

Shak., R. and J., iii. 3. 

7. Clouded with anger: frowning; threaten- 
ing; boding ill: as, black looks. 

She hath abated me of half my train ; 

Look'd black upon me ; struck me with her tongue. 

Shak., Lear, ii. 4. 

8. Wearing black or dark clothing, armor, etc. : 
as, Edward the Slack Prince; black friars. 

9. Stained with dirt; soiled; dirty: as, black 
hands. [Colloq.]-Black Act, Black acts. See art. 
Black amber. Same as jet. Black and blue, having 
the dark livid color of a bruise in the flesh, which is ac- 
companied with a mixture of blue. See blue and blae. 

Mistress Ford ... is beaten black and blue, that you 
cannot see a white spot about her. 

Shak., M. W. of W., iv. 5. 

Black and tan, having black hair upon the back, and 
tan or yellowish-brown upon the face, flanks, and legs, as 
some dogs : said specifically of a kind of terrier dog, and 
sometimes used elliptically as a substantive. 

Consider the St. Bernards and the mastiffs, the pugs 
and the bull-dogs, the black-aml-taiis and the King Char- 
lies. Pop. Sci. Mo., XXVIII. 599. 
Black antimony, art, assembly, bead-tree, bear- 
berry, etc. See under the nouns. Black belt, that region 
of the southern United States, comprising portions of 
South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Loui- 
siana, in which the ratio of the colored population to the 
white is (,-reatest. Black bile. See atrabile. Black 
bindweed, book, canker, chalk, death, etc. See the 
nouns. Black drink, a decoction of the leaves of Ilex 
cassine., used by the Indians of the southern I'nited States 
as a medicine and as a drink of ceremony. Black eartn. 
See earth. Black Flags, bands of irregular soldiers in- 
festing the upper valley of the Red River in Tomniln. 
They were originally survivors of the Taiping rebellion in 
China ; increased by the accession of various adventurers, 
they fought against the French in their ware with Annam 
about 1873-85. Black Friday, frost, etc. See the nouns. 
Black glass, a glass made in Venice of sand, sulphur, and 

Eld of manganese. It is of a deep-black color. Black 
en. See hagden. Black Hand, an anarchistic 
y in Spain composed of members of the laboring 
classes. JIany of its members in southern Spain were 
arrested and imprisoned in 1883. Black Harry, Black 
Will, local names in the United States of the sea-bass, 
Centropristes . fa mw. Black herring. See herring. 
Black in the flesh, and waxed andlrfack In the grain, 
terms applied to skins curried on the inner and outer sides 
respectively. The former is applied to the 1 uppers of 
men's shoes, and the latter of women's. Black japan. 
See japan. Black Maria, a closely covered vehicle, usu- 
ally painted black, used in conveying prisoners to and 
from jail. Black martin, Monday, naphtha, ocher, 
etc. See the nouns. Black rent, exactions formerly 
levied by native chieftains in Ireland, particularly upon 
districts where English were settled. 



black 

Reside* the payment of Um-l,- mil. the commons nf Ire- 
lalld Were oppre-si-d by innumerable exacte 

BaffietU, Ireland under the Tndon. 

Black rot, rust, sec the nouns. Black silver. >" 
>t,- l ,l,ii,iit,: Black-spot, idlMMeofroM im-h. - ehara, 

ten/.ed liy diffuse, dark colored .-|>N mi tin- np|" 1 siirlacc 
of till' leaves. II is caused by a parasitic fillrjus. .{it'-i-miui 

Hutu: Black sugar, Spanish licorice. [Scotch.] Black 
tin. Sec //. Black ware, BemeMooaur (which 

sec, under iniMln- Black witch. Bee ant. |Kor :i IIMIH- 
U-r of compounds with I'lin-k as tlieir tlrst membl 
In-low ; in many of these eases it is -cucrally |irintt'il a-s a 
separate word.) 

II. H. 1. Black color; the darkest color, 
properly (lie negation of all color: the opposite 
of irliilc. rii,' darkness Hi' this color aii.ses from the 

circumstance that till' substances composing or proillli 'ill- 
it, as in a pigment or lv. absorb all tin' rays uf li^lit ami 
ri-tli-i't niiiu'. In heraldry this hue or tincture is termed 
unlil''. 

2. A Mark .lye or pigment: as. blacks and 
grays. 3. A black part of something, as that 
of tin- eye; sped lie-ally, the opening in the iris; 
the pupil : in opposition to the white. 

Tin: Mm* or sight <it the eye. Xi'r A'. Digby. 

4. Black clothing, especially when worn as a 
sign of mourning : as, to be in black : sometimes 
used in the plural. 

H has now put olf 

Tin' flllH-ral Muck your rich hi-ir wears with joy, 
When he pretends tu weep for his ih-ail father. 

Mrtrhft; Spanish Curate, I. 1. 
should I not put mi Mm /,.< when each one here 
Comes with his cypress and devotes a tear'.' 

ll?i-i-iek. Death of II. Lawcs. 

6. /*/. Funeral drapery, consisting of hangings 
of black cloth. 6t. A mute; one of the hired 
mourners at a funeral. 

I do pray ye 

To give me leave to live a little longer. 
You stand about me like my lilack*. 

t'li-tchff, MOMS. Thomas, iii. 1. 

7. A member of one of the dark-colored races ; 
a negro or other dark-skinned person. 8f. One 
with the face blacked or disguised; specifi- 
cally, a deer-stealer ; a poacher. 

The Waltham titaehi at length committed such enormi- 
ties, that government was forced to interfere, with that 
severe anil sanguinary act. eallrii the "Black Act." 

Gilbert White, ilist. of Selborue, vii. 

9. A small flake of soot ; smut: usually plural. 
A fox out of doors that tastes of Macks and smells of de- 

composed frost. Sir C. Young. 

Can I help U if the blacks will fly, and the things must 

lie rinsed again V 1). Jert-oitt, Caudle Lectures, xvil. 

10. A dark stain or smear. 11. pi. Ink used 
in copperplate printing, prepared from the 
charred husks of the grape and the residue of 
the wine-press. 12. In printing, any mark on 
the paper between the lines or letters caused 
by the rising of the leads, etc., to the level of 
the type: commonly in the plural. Aniline 
black, a i-olor produced liy dyers ilirertly upon the fiber 
itself, by the oxidation of the hydrochtohd of aniline with 
bichromate of potash. It is a very iiermanent dye. 
Animal black. Same as imnf-Maelt. Brunswick black. 
Same as japan lafijwr (which see, under jtifttin). Chem- 
ical black, a color formerly obtained in dyeing cotton hy 
boiling gallnuts in pyroligneous acid, adding " nitrate of 
iron" and flour. Chrome-black, a color produced in 
dyeing cotton or wool by mordanting with bichromate of 
potash and dyeing with logwood. Common black, a 
color produced hy dyeing with logwood, sumac, fustic, 
and a mixture of green and blue vitriol. Copperas- 
black, a color produced in dyeing inferior carpets, etc., 
hy mordanting with a mixture of ferrous sulphate and 
i ' ippcr sulphate and dyeing with logwood. Cork-black, 
a black obtained by burning cork in closed vessels. 
Drop-black, a better .u r rade of Imne-blaek ground in wa- 
ter and in this pasty state formed into drops and dried. 
Frankfort black, a pigment formerly made by burn- 
ing the lees of wine, but now merely a better grade of 
iMine-tilack. Also called tli'i-innn black. Gas-black, a 
species of lampblack obtained by burning natural gas in 
small jets against a revolving iron cylinder. German 
black. Same as Frankfort War*-. Hart's black, a 
black made from harts' horns. Hydrocarbon black. 
Same as Mf-itaei. - In black and white, (a) In writ- 
ing or print: as, to put a statement /;/ IJ'h-k nm/ :rt,ifi. 
(b) In the Hue arts, with no colors but black and white. 
The term is often extended to include (as in exhibitions 
of "works in black and white ) monochromes of any 
sort, as sepia drawings. Iron-black, a powder con.-i^i- 
ingof finely divided antimony obtained by precipitating 
it from its solution in an aeid by means of metallic zinc. 

Logwood-black, in ilii.in : i, a black obtained by mor- 
danting the cotton with a salt of iron and then dyeing 
with a decoction of logwood. -Mineral black. See 
mineral. Plate-black, a combination of lampblack and 
Itone-black in various proportions, used in plate-printing. 
-Sedan black, an intense Mark color produced l>y lir-t 
dyeing cloth bine with woad, thru washing it in water 
containing logwood and sumac, and boiling it lor several 
hours in a liquor to which a solution of iron sulphate is 
added. Spanish black, a black pigment obtained from 
bunitcork. Vine-black, same uNu*-Mwk,ik, i (See 
k. irurit lilni-k. l,in,j<lil'i<-l;, />e<u-A WiicA", and filati- 



571 

blacking and brushing them. 3. To blacken; 
stain; sully; defame. | Rare.] 

Thou Mil,-/,., // nail's charai NT. de\.,ured si 

bread. 8tmt, distrain Shandy, ill. 34. 

ToblackdOWn("""'-), totar and blaek(a ship's rigging). 
II. intrant. 1. To become black; take on a 
black color. 2f. To poach. See litack, n., ~. 
blackamoor (blak'a-mor), . [Also formerly 
blackuioor, lilnckit iiiiin . hliii-/.i limn , -moor, etc., 
8c. bliicki/inoref orig. and prop. blaekmoor, 
black Moor, < black + Mom: The inserted a 
is meaningless; of. blackarised.] A negro; a 
black man-or woman. 

I care not an she were a black-a-mottr. 

Skak., T. and C., 1. 1. 

I am sure I hated your poor dear uncle liefore marriage 
as if he d been a l>lacl[-a-moor. Shrridan, The Rivals, i. 2. 

blackavised (blak'a-visd), a. [8c., also blai-k- 
iirii-nl, btaekavifed; < Muck + K. rw, face, vis- 
age, + -V. The inserted a is meaningless ; 
cf. blackamoor.'] Dark-complexioned. 

I would advise her Uackamceil suitor to look out; if 
another comes with a longer or clearer rent-roll, he's 
dished. Charlotte Bronte, Jane Eyre, \i\. 

blackback (blak'bak), u. 1. The great black- 
backed gull, Litrux niiirinus. Kingsley. Also 
called saddle-back, coffin-carrier, and cob. 2. 
A local Irish name (about Belfast) of the com- 
mon flounder. 

blackball (blak'bal), . 1. A blacking com- 
position used by shoemakers, etc. Also called 
heel-ball. 2. A name applied to both the smut 
and the bunt of wheat. 3. An adverse vote. 
See blackball, r. t. 

blackball (blak'bal), r. t. To reject (as a can- 
didate for election to membership or office in 
any club, society, etc.) by placing black balls 
in the ballot-box; exclude or defeat by ad- 
verse vote ; also, simply to vote against. See 
ballafl, ., 3. 

If you do not tell me who she Is directly, yon shall never 
get into White's. I will blackball you regularly. 

Duraeli, Young Duke, II. ii. 

blackballing (blak'bal-ing), n. [Verbal n. of 
blackball, r.J The act of rejecting or voting 
against a candidate by the use of black balls. 

Your story of the blackballiwj amused me. 

Lamb, Letter to B. Barton. 

blackband (blak'band), it. In mining and 
metal. ^a kind of iron ore, which consists essen- 
tially of carbonate of iron intimately mixed 
with coal. It Is a very important oreof iron, especially 
in Scotland, where Its true nature was discovered about 
the beginning of the present century. Often called black- 
batul ironstone. 

black-bass (blak'bas'), n. 1. A centrarchoid 
American fish of the genus Microuterus. The body 
is oblong ; the dorsal tin is low, especially the spinous por- 
tion of it, which is separated from the soft part by an emar- 
ginatiou ; the anal flu is shorter than the soft part of the 
dorsal, with three small spines ; and the caudal tin is emar- 
ginatc. The color is dark, and the cheeks and opereules 
are crossed hy three dark oldiqiie stripes. Two species are 
known, the large-mouthed black-bass, Micropter\t mlino- 
/'/'x, extending from Canada and the great lakes south- 
west into Texas and southeast into Florida, ami the small- 
mouthed black-bass, ilicroi>terug dvloinieu, ranging from 



black-brush 

blackberry (bluk'bcr i), .: pi. iilnckberriet 
(-iz). [< AIK. llal.lii i-ii', lilnl, //;(/-,< AS. blac- 
ln /-a . prop, written apart, I'luc In /''. pi. blact 
lii-rinn . sc-i' lilncl; anil /;///'. | 1. The fruit of 
those species of Kuliux in which the reci-pta 
cle becomes juicy ami falls utT with the drupe- 
lets, in distinction from the raspberry. The 
In ii . i],al Knropcaii -juries is 11. /ruticomf*. In the 
nilid Mai.'.- time aiv -e\i nil kinds, as the high black- 
berry, /(. viltoxun, some varieties of whieh ale extensively 
cultivated; the low blackberry or dewlieny. A'. Caiiadeu- 
*i'*; the bush-blackberry, it. lnn>il>*. of the Southern 
; the running swamp-blacklH-rry, ti. h I'x/w/tw ; and 
I In -and-lilacklicm. R.CUnt\foUu In M-otland generally 
called bramble, and in the est oi >i.itLind !,lnrk /,i/i/ or 
black-lnde. 

2. In some parts of England, the black currant, 
minx nil/rum. 

blackbeirr3,ing (blak'ber*i-ing), w. [< blackberry 
+ -ij/l, as if from a verb blackberry. See the 
quot. from Chaucer, below.] The gathering of 
blackberries Oo a blakeberyed', a doubtful phrase 
oecurring once in Chaucer in the Pardoner's Tale: 
I rckke never, whan that ben heryed, 
Though that her sullies {/ a Uakcbrrycd. 
(Skeat explains blaktbtryal. apparently a past participle, 
as a verbal substantive, and the whole phrase as meaning 
"go a blackberrying," that is, go where they please. The 
grammatical explanation is doubtless correct : but the 
context seems to show that the phrase is a humorous eu- 
phemism for "go to hell. "| 

blackbird (blak'berd), . 1. The English 
name of a species of thrush, Merula merula, 
Turdus nicrula, or Merula tulgaris, common 
throughout Europe. U is larger than the common or 





. 

black (blak), c. [< ME. blacken. blaken : < black. 
.] I. trans. 1. To make black; blacken or put 
a black color on ; soil: stain: a s. to bid clone's 
hands. 2. To clean and polish (shoes, etc.) by 



Small-mouthed Black-hass {\ticroflerus folomitu). 

the great lakes southward to South Carolina anil Arkansas. 
Both are highly esteemed for their game qualities, but the 
small-mouthed is regarded by most anglers as superior. 
The sexes during the breeding season consort In pairs, 
clear a subcircular sinit near the shore for a nest, and 
guard the eggs till hatched. Both species, but especially 
the small-mouthed, have received the attention of pisci- 
culturists and lieen introduced into foreign countries. In 
some parts of the state of New York the small-mouthed is 
specifically called the black-bass and the large-mouthed 
the llswego or green bass. Other names given U> one or 
iMith species are trout, in the south, and, locally, cAud, 
nun/" >. nift-nt-batty, and Welshman. 
2. A local name, along portions of the Pacific 
coast of the United States, of a scorpsenoid 
fish. flMMttcUtni Hiclunops, or black rock-fish. 

black-beetle (bfak'be'tl), An English name 
of the common cockroach of Great Britain, 
Blatta (I'eriiilaueta) orientalist, a large black 
orthopterous insect, of the family Bla ttidte. See 
cut under Illtittiila: 

blackbelly (blak'bel'i), . A local name in 
Massachusetts of a variety of the alewife, 



European Blackbird \.\ftrtt/a merula). 

song thrush ; the male is wholly black, except the bill and 
the orbits of the eyes, which are yellow ; the female is dark 
rusty-brown. The male has a fine, rich, mellow note, but 
its song has little compass or variety. Also called mtrle 
and ouzel. 

2. In America, a bird of the family Jcteridte 
(which see). These birds have no relation to the Euro- 
pean blackbird, but are nearer the old-world starlings. 
There are very many species of the family, to several of 
which, as the bobolink, the oriole, and the meadow. lark, 
the term blackbird ia not specifically applied. The lead- 
ing species are the several crow-blackbirds, of the genera 
(juixcalu* and Scttlecoithaijvx, and the marsh-blackbirds, 
Afjebxus and Xanthacefthalttjt. The common crow-black- 
bird is Q. purpurfwt ; the common red-winged marsh- 
blackbird, A. prueniceiu ; the yellow-headed blackbird, .V. 
icterocfphalii*. See cut under Atfeltritux. 

3. In the West Indies, the ani, Crotoiihana ani, 
of the family Cuctilitl<t, or cuckoos; the sa- 
vanna-blackbird. See cut under ani. 4. A 
cant term on the coast of Africa for a slave. 

blackboard (blak'bord), ii. 1. A board painted 
black, used in schools, lecture-rooms, etc., 
for writing, drawing, or ciphering with chalk. 
Hence 2. Any prepared surface, as of plaster 
or slate, used for the same purpose. 

blackbonnet (blak'bon'et), . One of the 
names of the reed-bunting. [Local, Scotland.] 

blackboy (blak'boi), n. The common name 
of the Australian grass-tree, .\antliorrlttca ar- 
borea, etc., a juncaceous plant with a thick 
blackened trunk and a terminal tuft of wiry, 
grass-like leaves. The different species yield an 
abundance of fragrant resin, either red, Known as black- 
'. or yellow, called acaroid gvtn. 

blackbreast (blak'brest), . 1. A name of the 
red-backed sandpiper, Tringa alpina, variety 
tnnericana. 2. A local name in the United 
States of the black-bellied plover, Squatarola 
In If tii-ii. 

black-browed (blak'broud), a. Having black 
eyebrows; gloomy; dismal; threatening: as, 
"a black-broicetl gust," Dryden. 

black-bmsh (blak'brush), a. A term used only 
in the phrase black-brush iron ore, a brown 
hematite or limonite, found in the Forest of 
Dean. England, and used chiefly for making 
tin-plate. 



blackbur 

blackbur (blak'ber), w. A local name in the 

United States of the plant li> imi xirictum. 

black-burning (Warbte'ning), </. Scandal- 
ous: used only in the phrase bliick-bnrnini/ 
sJiamc. [Scotch.] 

blackcap (blak'kap), w. 1. One who wears a 
black cap. 2. A name given to various birds 
having the top of the head black, (a) The 
European Mack-capped warbler, Sylvia atricapilla. (6) 
The European titmouse, Pant* major. (<) The American 
lilack-cappetl fly-catching warbler, Myio&taeta putrilliis, 
also called Wtiton't blackcap, (if) The chickadee, Pana 
atricapillw. (e) The black-headed gull. Lams rulHiurulus. 
3. The cattail reed, Typha latifolift.4. A pop- 
ular name of the plant and fruit of the black- 
fruited raspberry, Knbus occidentalis, occurring 
wild in many portions of the United States, and 
also cultivated in several varieties. Also called 
thimbleberry. 5. An apple roasted until it is 
black. 

black-capped (blak'kapt), a. Having black 
on the top of the head : applied to sundry birds. 
See blackcti/i. -. 

black-cat (blak'kat), n. A name of the fisher, 
pekan, or Pennant's marten, Mugtelapennan ti, a 
large blackish marten peculiar to the northerly 
parts of North America. Also called black-fox. 
See cut under fisher. 

black-cattle (blak'kafl), . Cattle reared 
for slaughter, in distinction from dairy-cattle : 
used without reference to color. [Great Britain.] 

blackcoat (blak'kot), w. 1. One who wears a 
black coat : a common and familiar name for a 
clergyman, as redcoat is, in England, for a sol- 
dier. 2. pi. A name given to the German 
reiters, or mercenary troops, in the sixteenth 
and seventeenth centuries, from their black 
armor and dress. 

blackcock (blak'kok), n. The male black- 
grouse or black-game; the heath-cock; a 
grouse, Tetrao tetrix, or Li/rurits tetrix, of the 




Blackcock {Lyriirtis Itfrfx}. 

family Tetraonida; found in many parts of Eu- 
rope. It is mostly black, with a lyrate tail. The female 
is called a stray hen, and the young are called poult*. 

black-damp (blak'damp), n. Carbon dioxid 
gas, which is found in greater or less quantity 
in all collieries, being given off by many coals, 
either mixed with fire-damp, or separately, or 
produced in various other ways, as by the ex- 
halations of the men, by fires, and by explo- 
sions of fire-damp. Also called choke-damp. 

black-dog (blak'dog), H. If. A bad shilling or 
other base silver coin. 2. Hypochondria; the 
blues. [Slang in both senses.] 

black-draught (blak'draft), H. A popular pur- 
gative medicine, consisting of an infusion of 
senna with Epsom salts. 

black-drop (blak'drop), n. A liquid prepara- 
tion of opium in vinegar or verjuice. Also 
called vinegar of opium. Lancaster black-drop, 
:i solution of opium in verjuice with sugar and nutmeg. 
Also called Quaker black-drop. The black-drop of the 
I'nited States Pharmacopoeia, Acetum opii, is similar, ex- 
cept that dilute acetic acid is used. 

black-duck (blak'duk), . 1. The black sco- 
ter, (Edeiuiit nii/ra, one of the sea-ducks or 
Fidignliiue. See cut under scoter. 2. The 
dusky duck of North America, Anas obscura, 
one of the Anatinw, or river-ducks, and a near 
relative of the mallard. The male is mostly black- 
ish, with white lining of the wings and a violet speculum ; 
the female is not so dark. 

black-dye (blak'dl), . A compound of oxid 
of iron with gallic acid and tannin. 

blacken (blak'n), . [ME. blaknen, blackoiien; < 
black, a., + -el.] I. intrans. To grow black 
or davk. 



572 

Air blackened, rolled the thunder. Dryden. 

II. trans. 1. To make black ; darken. 
The little cloud . . . grew and spread, and hlacffcnt'il 
the face of the whole heaven. South. 

2. Figuratively, to sully ; make infamous ; de- 
fame ; cause to appear immoral or vile : as, 
vice blackens the character. 

To this system of literary monopoly was joined an un- 
remitting industry to blacken and discredit in every way 
... all those who did not hold to their faction. 

Burke, Rev. in France. 

blackener (blak'ner), n. One who blackens. 

blackening (blak'ning), n. Any preparation 
used to render the surf ace of iron, leather, etc., 
black. See blacking. 

blackening (blak'ning), . Blackish; approach- 
ing black : as, in lichens, a biatorine exciple is 
colored or blackening, but not coal-black. 

blacker (blak'er), n. One who blacks or 
blackens. 

black-extract (blak'eks"trakt), H. A prepara- 
tion from cocculus indicus, used in adulterat- 
ing beer. 

blackey, . See blacky. 

blackfin (blak'fiu), n. 1. A local name of the 
smolt or young salmon of the first year. 2. A 
local English name of the little weever. 3. A 
whitefish, Coregonus nigripinnis, of the deep 
waters of Lake Michigan, conspicuous by its 
hlackish fins, but otherwise resembling a Cisco. 

blackfish (blak'fish), n. [< black + fish. Cf. 
MLG. blackviscli, LG. blakfish, > G. blackflscli, 
inkfish.] 1. A name of several fishes, (a) A 
local English name of the female salmon about the time of 
spawning. (6) A name of the tautog, Tautoga onitix. See 
cut under tautog. (c) A local Alaskan name of Dallra 
pectoralin, a fish which alone represents the suborder 
Xenomi. See Dallia. (d) A local name in New England of 
the common sea-bass, Centroprigtix furcus : also applied to 
other species of the same genus, (e) A name of a Euro- 
pean scombroid fish, Centrolophus pompilun. (/) A lo- 
cal name in the Frith of Forth, Scotland, of the tadpole- 
fish, Raniceps trlfurcatus. Parnell, Mag. Zool. and Bot.. 

1. 104. 

2. A name of several delphinoid cetaceans, 
especially of the genus Gtobicephahis. Also 
called black-whale. 

black-fisher (blak'fish'er), w, [< blackjisli, 1 
(a), + -pel.] A poacher; one who kills salmon 
in close time. [Scotch.] 

By recruiting one or two latitudinarian poachers and 
black-Jisherif, Mr. H. completed the quota of men which 
fell to the share of Lady B. Scott. 

black-flea (blak'fle), n. A coleopterous insect 
injurious to turnips; the Haltica nemorum of 
naturalists. Also called turnip-flea. 

black-fly (blak'fli), w. 1 . A small dipterous in- 
sect, Simuliuiu molestum, with a black body 
and transparent wings, abounding in moun- 
tainous and wooded parts of New York, New 
England, and northward, and exceedingly an- 
noying to both 7nan and beast. It is closely 
related to the buffalo-gnat. See FSimulium. 
2. The bean-plant louse, Aphis faba: 

blackfoot (blak'fut), . 1. A kind of matri- 
monial go-between, who in a friendly way acts 
as introducer, and generally facilitates the ear- 
lier stages of courtship. [Scotch.] 2. [cnw.] 
One of a certain tribe of North American In- 
dians, the most western division of the Algon- 
kin stock. [In this sense the plural is properly 
Blackfoots, but commonly Blackfeet.] 

black-fox (blak'foks), n. Same as black-cat. 

black-friar (blak'fri'iir), n. [So called from the 
distinctive black gown. Cf. gray-friar, whitc- 
/nnr.] A friar of the Dominican order. Also 

called a predicant or preaching friar, and in France Jaco- 
bin. See Dominican. [Properly written as two words.] 

black-game (blak'gam), n. See blackcock and 
arotas, 

black-grass (blak'gras), . 1. A dark-colored 
rush (Juncus (lerardi) of salt-marshes. [U. 8.] 
2. A species of foxtail grass, Alopccurus 
ni/iTxtiH. [Eng.] 

blackguard (blag'ard), w. and a. [< black + 
guard. See def.] I. H. If. In collective senses 
(properly as two words) : () The scullions and 
lowest menials connected with a great house- 
hold, who attended to the pots, coals, etc., and 
looked after them when the household moved 
from one place to another. 

A lousy slave, that within this twenty years rode with 
the Mack guard in the duke's carriage 'mongst spits and 
dripping-pans '. Webster, White Devil, i. 2. 

(6) A guard of attendants, black in color of 
the skin or dress, or in character. 

Pclagius, Celestius, and other like heretics of the devils 
blackguard. Fuller, Defence (1683), x. 386. (N. E. V.) 

(c) The idle criminal class ; vagabonds gener- 
ally. 



blacking 

How prevent your sons from consorting with the black- 
guard ? 

A. Tvfkfi; I.i<-'ht of Nature (1768), II. 143. (A'. K. D.) 

(d) The vagabond children of great towns; 
"city Arabs," who run errands, black shoes, 
or do odd jobs. 2. A man of coarse and offen- 
sive manners and speech ; a fellow of low char- 
acter; a scamp; a scoundrel. 

The troops which he commanded were the greatest 
blackguards on the face of the earth. 

C. V. Yonge, Life of Wellington, xxvi. 

II. a. If. Belonging to the menials of a 
household; serving; waiting. 

Let a blackguard boy be always about the house to send 

on your errands, and go to market for you on rainy days. 

Stt'ift, Directions to Servants, Cook. 

2. Of bad character ; vicious ; vile ; low ; worth- 
less : said of persons and things. 

Marking certain things as low and blackguard, and cer- 
tain others as lawful and right. T. Hughe*. 

3. Scurrilous; abusive; befitting a blackguard : 
as, blackguard language. 

blackguard (blag ard), v. [< blackguard, .] 

1. trans. To revile in scurrilous language. 

I have been called names and blackguarded quite suffi- 
ciently for one sitting. Thackeray, Xewcomes, xxix. 

H.t intrans. To be, act, or talk like a black- 
guard ; behave riotously. 

And there a batch o' walter lads, 
Blackguarding frae Kilmarnock, 

For fun this day. Burns, Holy Fair. 

blackguardism (blag'ard-izm), n. [< black- 
i/niird + -ism.'] The conduct or language of a 
blackguard; ruffianism. 

This ignominious dissoluteness, or rather, if we may 
venture to designate it by the only proper word, black- 
guardiim, of feeling and manners, could not but spread 
from public to private life. 

ilacaulay, Hallam's Const. Hist. 

blackguardly (blag'ard-li), a. [< blackguard 
"*" -ty ] Characteristic of a blackguard ; ras- 
cally ; villainous : as, a blackguardly business. 

blackguardry (blag'ard-ri), '. [< blackguard 
+ -ry.~\ Blackguards or scoundrels collectively. 
[Rare.] 

black-gum (blak'gum), . A North American 
tree, Ayssa multiflora, 40 to 70 feet high, bearing 
a dark-blue berry. The wood is strong, tough, and 
linwedgeable, and is largely used for the hubs of wheels, 
for yokes, etc. Also called pepperidge and sour-gain. 

blackhead (blak'hed), . 1. A popular name 
of the scaups or sea-ducks of the genus Aithyia: 
as, the greater and lesser blackheads, A. marila 
and A. affinis. See scaup. 2. A local name 
in the United States of the black-headed min- 
now, or fathead, Pimphales promelas. 

blackheart (blak'hart), n. 1. A species of 
cherry of many varieties: so called from the 
fruit being somewhat heart-shaped and having 
a skin nearly black. 

The unnetted black-hearts ripen dark, 
All thine, against the garden wall. 

TeiiHuxoH, The Blackbird. 

2. A wood obtained from British Guiana, suit- 
able for use in building and in furniture-mak- 
ing. 

black-hearted (blak'har"ted), a. Having a 
black or malignant heart. 

black-helmet (blak'hel"met), n. A shell ob- 
tained from a species of mollusk, and used by 
cameo-cutters. McE/ratlt, Com. Diet. 

black-hole (blak'hol), . A dungeon or dark 
cell in a prison ; a place of confinement for sol- 
diers ; any dismal place for confinement by 
way of punishment. 

There grew up ... [an academic] discipline of unlim- 
ited autocracy upheld by rods, and ferules, and the black- 
hole. II. Silencer, Education, p. 98. 

The black-hole Of Calcutta, the garrison strong-room 
or black-hole at Calcutta, measuring about 18 feet square, 
into which 14B British prisoners were thrust at the point 
of the sword, by the Xawah Siraj-ud-Danla, on June 20, 
175S. The next morning all but 23 were dead from suffo- 
cation. 

black-horse (blak'h&rs), . A local name of 
the Missouri sucker, Cyclcptus c longatiis, of the 
family Catontninida;. 

blacking (blak'ing), n. [Verbal n. of black, r.] 

1. A preparation for blacking boots and shoes, 
usually made of powdered bone-black, sperm- 
or linseed-oil, molasses, sour beer or vinegar, 
oil of vitriol, and copperas. Throughout the mid- 
dle ages boots were worn of the brown color natural to 
the leather, or of a dark-red color, not unlike the modern 
Russia leather. There is mention of blacking as early as 
the beginning of the seventeenth century. 

2. In leather-working, any one of a number of 
preparations used in dyeing or staining leather 
black. 3. The name given by founders to a 
black wash, composed of clay, water, and pow- 




blacking 

dcred charcoal, with which cores and loara- 
iiinlils are coated, to give tin- requisite smooth- 
ness to the surfaces which conic into contact 
with the incited metal. Brass blacking, 11 dead- 

blac.k uriiUllll -ntal sill-lace for I ,,11 Itrasa-Wiirk. It is 

made by pllltlKiim the hl:i - into :i mixture if ;i strong In 
liltiuli of nilr.it'- id' silver w ilh ;i solution of nitrate of cop 
pt-r. iinil heathi'.: it. nftiT Vtthdnwal, until tin- desired 
depth of color is ol.lain. d. 

blackish (lilak'ish), (i. [<Nacfc + -A1.] Some- 
what black; moderately black or dark. 

Mcuin to !,, .* i/i. ll,JI,ii,,l.\r.,,\ I'lim ri. 1:1 

black-jack (blak'jak), . 1. A capacious drink- 
ing-cup or can formerly 
made of waxed leather, 
but, now of thin metal, 
i he outside being ja- 
panned black, except 
the edge, which is left 
bright, in imitation of 
the ancient leathern 
black-jacks with silver 
rims. 

Then! 1 * a Dead-sea of 
drink in the cellar, in which 
goodly vessels lie wrecked ; 

and in the middle of this i.catbem Biack-j.icks. 

deluge appear the tops of 

Mucous and ttlark-iack*, like churches drowned in the 
marshes. Rtan. antl AV., .Scornful Lady, 11. _'. 

2. The ensign of a pirate. 3. A Cornish miners' 
term for the common ferruginous zinc sulphid, 
of which the inineralogical name is sjihalerite, 
and the common name blende. Also called false 
!/nli IKI. 4. Caramel or burnt sugar used for 
coloring spirits, vinegar, coffee, etc. 5. A 
trade-name for adulterated butter. 6. A local 
English name of the coalfish, I'ollachius virens. 
7. A common name in the United States for 
a species of oak, Quercitx niyra, and also, in the 
Gulf States, for Q. Catesbm, small trees of little 
value except for fuel. 8. The larva of a saw- 
fly, Atlnilin cciitifulia or A. spinarum, one of the 
Ti-iithrcdiniilir, destructive to turnips. Also 
called niyyer. /. <>. ll'rstirood. [Local British.] 
9. A kind of hand-weapon consisting of a 
short elastic shaft having at one end a neavy 
metal head cased in netting, leather, etc. 

black-knot (blak'not), . 1. A fast knot: op- 
posed to ruiiHiiiii-knot. 2. A species of pyre- 
nornycetous fungus, Sphteria morbosa, which at- 
tacks plum-trees and some varieties of cherry, 
forming large, black, knot-like masses upon 
the branches. 

black-lead (blak'led'), . 1. Amorphous gra- 
phite; plumbago. See graphite . (Black-leail U a 
misnomer, ;is the mineral contains no lead.) 
2. A pencil made of graphite. 

Sir, I have ben bold to note places with my black-leade, 
. . . and peradventnre some expressions may be advan- 
tageously altered at your leasure. 

Krrliin. Letter to Mr. E. Thurland. 

blacklead (blak'led'), r. f. [< Mack-lead, .] 
To cover with plumbago or black-lead; apply 
black-lead to. 

The deposit would not spread over a black-leadrd sinta. -e 
in the liquid. (J. Gore, Electro-Metall., p. 112. 

Blackleading-machlne, an apparatus for applying pow- 
ilered graphite to the surface of stereo molds previous tt> 
coiitinn them with copper. 

blackleg (blak'leg), . [< black + le ; >. The 
allusion in def. 3 is not clear; some suppose 
the term was orig. applied to racing men who 
wore black top-boots. The term black is now 
understood in an opprobrious sense ; cf. black- 
</<'</.] 1. A disease in cattle and sheep which 
affects the legs; symptomatic anthrax. See 
anthrajf. 2. A severe form of purpura. 3. 
One who systematically tries to gain money 
fraudulently in connection with races, or with 
cards, billiards, or other games; a rook; a 
swindler. The term implies the habitual frequcntim: 
of pliti r^ \\ here wafers are maile and yames of chance are 
played, anil the seeking of subsistence by dishonorable let- 
ting. but does not always imply direct cheating. Some- 
times i ontracted to /. <i. 

4. Same as Muck-nob. 

The poliee were us, ,1 t,. watch the strikers ur to protect 
the Wfi<-i--/<- : /v. as those are called who work outside the 
Union movement It. '. l/int,,n. Kill;. Had. Leaders, p. 333. 

blacklegism (blak'leg-i/.m), ii. |< Mackli-n + 
-ixiii.] The profession or practices of a black- 
leg; cheating; swindling, limtliifx Mini. 

black-letter (blak'let en, . and '. I. n. \ 
name now given to the Gothic or Old English 
letter, whicli was introduced into Kngland about 
the middle of the fourteenth century, and was 

the character generally used in manuscripts and 
in the tirst printed books. It is still, with vari- 
ous modilications. in common use in Germany. 

(Chis is blacfc-lrttiT. 



573 

II. a. Written or printed in black-letter: 
as, a lilnck-li tti r manuscript or book. Black- 
letter day, any da> inscribed in the ancient calendars in 
black letter t>pe. ;LS distinguished from the more im|<or 
tant, wlii' ti were entered in led letter; hence, a holy day 
of all Interim-dial ucler and dignity ; an inauspicious day, 
.i- M|I| .1 t... a - 'I l-'ll' > or anspi'-iniis day. 

black-liquor (blak'lik'or), . A crude acetate 
of iron prepared from scrap-iron and crude 
acetic acid, very generally used in dyeing as a 
mordant instead of green copperas. 

black-list (blak'list), ii. 1. A list of default- 
ers: specifically applied to printed lists of in- 
solvents and bankrupts, published officially. 

Private lists, however, of a more -can-hint; eliara. 1 
furnished by certain societies and private Individual- t 
-lib-, ribcrs.' with the view of affording protection against 
i-ad debts, frauds, etc. 

2. Any list of persons who are for any reason 
deemed objectionable by the makers or u-er> 
of the list, as for political or social miscon- 
duct, for joining in or assisting a strike, etc. 

3. Xaut., a list kept on board a man-of-war of 
delinquents to whom extra duty is assigned as 
a punishment. 

blacklist (blak'list), r. t. [< black-list, .] To 

place on a black-list, 
blackly (blak'li), a<lr. With a black or dark 

appearance; darkly; atrociously. 

l.astlj stood Warn-, in u'littcrinu arm- yclild, 

With visage grim, sterne looks, ami Harkrlii hewed. 

Sackvitlt, Ind. to Mir. for Mags. 

Deeds so blackly grim and horrid. 

FtUhavt, Resolves, II. 31. 

black-mackt, . [Early mod. E. ; < black + 
mack (uncertain).] A blackbird. 

blackmail (blak'mal), n. [Lit. black rent (cf. 
black rent, under black); < black + mail, rent: 
see mail 3 .] 1. A tribute of money, corn, cat- 
tle, or the like, anciently paid, in the north of 
England and in Scotland, to men who were al- 
lied with robbers, to secure protection from 
pillage. Blackmail was levied in the districts bordering 
the Highlands of Scotland till the middle of the eighteenth 
century. 

Hence 2. Extortion in any mode by means 
of intimidation, as the extortion of money by 
threats of accusation or exposure, or of unfa- 
vorable criticism in the press. It usually implies 
that the payment is involuntary, and the ground for de- 
manding it unlawful or pretended and fraudulent. 
3f. Kent paid in produce, or in baser money, 
in opposition to rent paid in silver. 

blackmail (blak'mal), v. t. [< blackmail, .] 
To extort money or goods from, by means of 
intimidation or threats of injury of any kind, 
as exposure of actual or supposed wrong-doing, 
etc. See the noun. 

black-match (blak'mach), . Same as amadou. 

blackmoort (blak'mor), w. Same as blacka- 
moor. Beau, and Ft. 

black-moss (blak'mos), w. The Spanish moss, 
Tillandsia mneoides, of the southern United 
States : so called from the black fiber that re- 
mains after the outer covering of the stem is 
removed. It is used as a substitute for horse- 
hair in mattresses, etc. 

blackmouth (blak'mouth), ii. A foul-mouthed 
person ; a slanderer. [Kare.] 

blackmouthed (blak'moutht), a. Slanderous; 
calumnious ; foul-mouthed. 

Whatever else the most Itlack-tuouth'tl atheists charged 
it with. KUliHybeck, Sermons, p. 118. 

black-mullet (blak'mul'et), . A local name 
about Chesapeake Bay of a sciseuoid fish, Men- 
ticirrn.t iirbulonus. See cut under kingfish. 

black-neb (blak'neb), H. 1. A name of the 
carrion-crow. 2f. A person accused of sympa- 
thy with the principles of the French Revolu- 
tion ; a democrat. [Scotch.] 

Little did I imagine tliat I was giving cause for many to 
think me an enemy to the king ami uovernment. Kilt so 
it was Many of the heritors considered me a black-nrb, 
though I knew it not. Ualt, Annals of the Parish, p. 388. 

blackness (blak'ues), n. [< black + -nenn.1 

1. The quality of beiug black; black color; 
darkness. 

His faults, in him. seem as the spots of heaven, 
More tlery by night's Matltnnu. Shale., A. amlC., i. 4. 
Illiifkiifsn as a solid wall. Tenniimn, 1'alace of Art. 

2. Moral darkness; atrocity or enormity in 
wickedness. 

n, i a world of light and beauty 
*V11 the MwftMM "f his crime. 

Wltittier, Slave Ship. 

black-nob iblak'nob). ii. An opprobrious name 
given in Kiighind by trades-unionists to a work- 
man who is not a member of a trades-union; a 
knobstick. Also called blackleg. 



black-snake 

Report* Were sill. milled tr-im III'- \arioll* workfl, which 
slio. d that all tbe men einpl"\ed h\ UK iron companies 
were on strike, with the -\' .],(!- i ' not/*. 

newspaper). 

black-peopled iblak'pe'pld). . Inhabited by 
black person*: as. lilm-l. -/. o/iWempire,' 1 .San- 
</./.-. Christ's I'jission. 

black-pigment (Mak' pi^' merit j. ,/. A fine, 
light, carlionacenii* substance, or lampblack, 
prepared idi ielly fort he manufacture of print ers' 
ink. It is obtained by burning common coal-tar. 

black-plate (bUk'pwt), . siieet-inm plate 
before it is tinned. 

black-pot (blak'pot), . It. A beer-mug; 
hence, a toper. 2. The name given in Knu'- 



to a variety of crockery made in Denmark. 
It la exposed while burning to a \ery i>troii({ and dense 
smoke, which penetrates its substance and answer* the 
purpose of ghi/.ing. Such pots are cheap and wholeiome 
cooking-vessels, having none of the Inconveniences of 

Kad-i;la/ed u:i|e. 

black-pudding (blak'piid'ing), H. A kind of 
sausage made of blood ami suet, seasoned with 
salt, pepper, onions, etc., sometimes with the 
addition of a little oatmeal. Also called blooil- 

IIKtltlilll/. 

black-quarter (blak'kwar'ter), H. [< black + 
quarter, the shoulder.] A disease in animals; 
symptomatic anthrax. See anthrax. 

black-rpd (blak'rod), . In England, the usher 
belonging to the order of the Garter, more 
fully styled gentleman usher of the black rod: 
so called from the black rod which he carries. 
He U of the king's chamber and usher of Parliament. His 
deputy is styled the yeoman usher. They are the otllcial 
messengers of the House of Lords ; and either the gentle. 
man or the yeoman usher summons the Commons to tin- 
House of Lords when the royal assent is given to Mils, 
and also executes orders for the commitment of persons 
guilty of breach of privilege and contempt. The name is 
also given to similar functionaries In the legislatures of 
the Dominion of Canada and other British colonies. 

black-root (blak'rdt), n. 1. Culver's root or 
Culver's physic, feronica Viryimca. 2. Pterii- 
caulon pycnostachyum, a perennial herbaceous 
composite plant of the pine-barrens of the 
southern United States. 

black-salter (blak'sal'ter), N. One who makes 
black-salts. 

black-salts (blak'salts), w. )il. Wood-ashes 
after they have been lixiviated and the so- 
lution has been evaporated until the mass has 
become black. [U. S.] 

black-sampson (blak'samp'son), M. A popu- 
lar name in the United States for the species 
of Echinacea, the thick black roots of which 
were formerly supposed to have powerful me- 
dicinal virtues. 

blackseed (blak'sed), ti. The nonesuch, J/frfi- 
eayit lupulina : so called from its black, seed- 
like pods. 

black-shell (blak'shel), w. A univalve shell 
of the family Haliotidte, inhabiting the Pacific 
ocean. See extract. 

The black-thill ... is so called localise, when polished, 
it throws out a very dark shade, full, however, of beauti- 
ful rainbow tints exquisitely blended. 

M. S. LauxM, British Edible Mollusca, p. 182. 

blacksize (blak'siz), r. t.; pret. and pp. blaet- 
sizcd, ppr. blacknizi>uj. In leatttcr-tcorking, to 
cover with a coat of stiff size and tallow. The 
size is laid ou with a soft brush or sjHmge, ami the leather 
is then well rubbed with a glass slicker, after which it 
receives a final gloss from a little thhi size applied with a 

blacksmith (blak'smith), . [< late ME. black- 
smith, < Mark (in ref. to iron or black metal) 
+ smith. Cf. whitesmith.] 1. A smith who 
works in iron and makes iron utensils ; an 
ironsmith ; especially, in the United States, one 
who makes horseshoes and shoes horses. 2. 
[A translation of a native name.] In ornith., 
a name of the bare-necked bell-bird of Bra- 
zil, Ckagmorhynchux iiuilicullis. 3. In iclith., a 
pomacentroid fish, Chromis i>iini-tiiiiiini.t. hav- 
ing conical teeth in two or more rows in each 
jaw, a blackish color with violet luster above 
relieved by greenish edgings of some of the 
scales, and bluish-black tins with small brown 
spots. It is not uncommon along the southern 
coast <>f California. 

blacksmithing (blak'smith'ing), H. [< black- 
xiu ith + -'.</'. ] The trade or process of work- 
ing in iron. 

black-snake (blak'snak'), w. 1. A name of 
various serpents of a more or less black color. 

The most noteworthy are: <u) \ s.-l|K-nt. /,W.<.-<imV,,i IIIM- 
>tii,-t,,f.tif the (amih C,iti>lifi,l,r,t,t black color, not \cn 
onions, but attaining a larire si/e. and |*issessini: ureat 
strength and agilit). M> that it is capable of exerting much 
..... istnetm- force. It climlis trets ca-ih. i> oiu-n I! feet 
ill length, and is common in the I idled States east of the 
\li--i--ip pi si.me other relate. I spe, ies receive the same 
name. ((/) A colubroid snake, Cvlubtr obtolettu, differing 



574 



blade 



black-snake 

from the former by having keeled instead of smooth black-Work (blak'werk), , Iron wrought by bladder-ketmia (Mad'er-ket'-'nii-S) n A cul- 
scaics and preferrinl highlands : also known as the maun- blacksmiths : so called in distinction from that tivated annual species of plants, of the genus 
tain Mark-make m\ racer, (c) A colubroid snake^ Oetjo- ^^^^ b y whitesmiths Hibiscus, H. Trionum, with a bladdery calyx. 

)lackwort (blak'wert), n. 1. The comfrey, V1 - JJ ' 

Symphytiim officinale. 2. An English name of 

the whortleberry, the fruit of I'accinium Myr- 



(c) A colubroid snake, Ociio- 

Itltll l*6lw-o.l..^ ...... . V^ ** , . , " .' - . 

phis ater, of active habits, peculiar to the island of Jamal- 




blacky (blak'i), n. ; pi. blackies (-iz). [Also less 
prop, blackey; dim. of black. Cf. darky.'} I. 
A black person; a negro. 2. A name used 



bladder-nose (blad'er-noz), . A name of the 
hooded seal, Cystopliora cristata. Encye. Brit., 
XXI. 582. 

bladder-nosed (blad'er-nozd), a. Having an 
inflatable bladdery appendage on the snout: 
applied to the so-called hooded seal, Cystopliora 
cristata. 



Black-snake (Bascatiion constrictor). 



f\. wiamn. u^i ov/i-i * A*^ji*w . . -i , \ i rni i 

colloquially for any black bird or animal, as a bladder-nut (blad'er-nut), w. 1. The popular 

rook. name of plants of the genus Staphylea, natu- 

I wonder if the old blacking do talk. T. Hughes. 

blacky-top (blak'i-top), n. A name of the 

stonechat, Saxienla or Pratincola rubicola. Mac- 

gillivray. [Local British.] 
blad 1 (blad), v. t. ; pret. and pp. bladded, ppr. 

bladding. [Also bland; perhaps imitative. Cf. 

dad 2 , beat, thump.] 1. To slap; strike with 

violence; beat. 2. To maltreat. [Scotch.] 
blad 1 (blad), n. [< Wad 1 , .] A slap; a flat 

blow. 



ca It reaches a length of about 5 feet, (d) A poisonous 
snake of the family Xajidtc, Pxcudechis porphyriacus, 
inhabiting low marshy places in nearly every part of Aus- 
tralia. It is black above, with each scale of the outer 
lateral series mostly red, and with ventral shields mar- 
gined with black, (e) A venomous snake of the family 

A'ajiJa, Iloptoeephalus cnrtm or H, fuscus, inhabiting --- i--" J rA , u / ^, n j\ ., . 

Australia and Tasmania. It is the common black-snake blad 2 (blad), n. [Also bland; prob. < Otorfi, V. , 
of Tasmania. cf. dad 2 , a large piece, with dad, beat, thump.] 

2. A kind of cowhide or horsewhip made with- ^ piece; a fragment; a large piece or lump, 
out distinction of stock and lash, braided and [S eo tch.] 

tapering from the butt to the long slender end, -^[ & ^s (blad), n. [Appar. = E. blade = Sw. Dan. 

' A portfolio; a blotting-book or 
[Scotch.] 

er), n. [So. also blather, blether; 

< ME. bladder, blader, bleddcr, bleder, bladdre, 
bleddre, bledre, < AS. bladdre, prop, with long 





Bladder-nut. Flowering node of Stnphylta tri/olia. 
lit; *, section of same. ( From Gray's " Genera of the Plants 
of the United States.") 



Symptomatic an- 



black-spaul (blak'spal), n. 

thrax. See anthrax. 
Blackstone's Hard-labor Bill. See 
black-strap (blak' strap), n. A name of vari- 

ous beverages, (n) In the United States, a mixture of 



ral order Sapindacea;, given on account of their 
inflated fruit-capsule. The European S. ]rinnata and 
the S. trifolia of the Atlantic States are occasionally cul- 

^ , tivated as ornamental shrubs. Central Asia, Japan, and 

bladder (= MD. blaider, D. blaar JjLUtt. Oil Cali f orllia lmve also each a peculiar species. 

ous beverages, () In the United States, a mixture of dere, LG. bladerc, bledder, blare = OHG.bla.tara, 3 A name sometimes given to the pistachio, 
spirituous liquor, generally rum or whisky, with molasses blattara, bldtra, MHG. bldtere, blatter, (i. blatter pistacia vera. 
and vinegar. = Icel. bladhra = Sw. bldddra = Dan. bltere, bladder-pod (Vtlad'er-pod), n. 1. A name of a 

A mug of the right black-strap goes round from lip to bladder), with suffix -Are, < bldwan, blow: see leguminous plant of southern Africa, Physolo- 
P- Hawthorne, Twice-Told Tales, II. 6tow i.] 1. A thin, elastic, highly distensible &;,, with bladdery pods. 2. In the United 

(6) A sailors' term for any strong, dark-colored liquor : an d contractile muscular and membranous sac states, Vesicaria Sliortii, a cruciferous plant 
ueafcoTs'ts dark-red fornling that port ion of the urinary passages in ^fa globose capsules, 

black-rtripe (blak ' strip), n. Same as black- which urine, constantly^secreted^by t^ejdd- bladder : senna (blad 'er- sen* a), . A species 



strap. 

blacktail (blak'tal), n. 1. A percoid fish, the 
Acerina cernua. More generally called ruff or 
pope. See ruff. 2. A common name among 
hunters (a) of the black-tailed deer or mule- 
deer, Cariacus macrotis (see mule-deer); (b) of 
the Columbian deer, C. columbianus : in both 
cases in distinction from the common or 
white-tailed deer, C. virginianus. 3. In India, 
a name of the chikara or ravine-deer, Tragops 
bennetti. 

blackthorn (blak'thorn), . 1. The sloe, Pru- 
nus spinosa. See sloe. 2. A walking-stick 
made of the stem of this shrub. 
n. 



neys, is retained until it is discharged from the 
body. Such a vesicle is specially characteristic of mam- 
mals, its size and shape varying with the species. Its cavity 
is primitively that of the allantois. It is lined with mu- 
cous membrane, is more or less invested with peritoneum, 
and is supplied with vessels and nerves. 
2. Any similar receptacle, sac, or vesicle, com- 
monly distinguished by a qualifying prefix. See 
air-bladder, brain-bladder, gall-bladder, swim- 
bladder. 3. Any vesicle, blister, bleb, blain, 
or pustule containing fluid or air. 4. In bot. : 
(a) A hollow membranous appendage on the 
leaves of Utricularia, filled with air and float- 
ing the plant, (b) A cellular expansion of the 
substance of many algee filled with air. See 



of Colutea, C. arborescens, natural order Legu- 
minosae, frequently cultivated, it is a shrub with 
yellow flowers and bladder-like pods, a native of southern 
Europe. It derives its name of senna from its popular 
use as a purgative. Also called bastard Kenna. 
bladder-snout (blad'er-snout), n. The common 
bladderwort, Utricularia imlgaris: so named 
from the shape of the corolla. 

form (blad'er-werm), n. A tape- 
its cystic stage ; a hydatid or scolex. 
See cystic, and cut under Tania. 
lladderwort (blad'er-wert), . The common 
name of members of the genus rtricularia, 
slender aquatic plants, the leaves of which are 
furnished with floating-bladders. See Utricu- 



black-tongue (blak'tung), . A form of an- cut under air-cell. 5. Anything inflated, emp- /an - a 
thrax exhibiting dark bloody vesicles and ul- ty, or unsound: as, "bladders of philosophy," Bladder-wrack (blad'er-rak) n. A seaweed, 

ii A_ ,_ 4.1. J., , ..IT,..,*;,,,, 1, ,,,.,,, C. l>,if,l. f,:.t,,i. C!n 4- svnin4- AfnvilnnJ^ A +, nt +1-IA U*'\A\* * OfVAi V, -*t 



cerating spots on the tongue, affecting horses 
and cattle. See anthrax. 

black-turpeth (blak'ter"peth), n. Mercury di- 
oxid or suboxid, Hg^O: commonly called the 
gray, ash, or black oxid. 

black-varnish tree. See Rhus and Melanor- 
rhcea. 

black-wad (blak'wod), n. An ore of manga- 
nese used as a drying ingredient in paints. 

Blackwall hitch. See hitch. 

black-ward (blak'ward), n. Under the feudal 



Rochester, Sat. against Mankind. -Atony of the 



(blad'er), v. t. [< bladder, .] 1. To 

put up in a bladder : as, bladdered lard. 2. To 
puff up; fill, as with wind. [Rare.] 

A hollow globe of glass that long before 
She full of emptiness had bladdered. 

G. Fletcher, Christ's Victory and Triumph. 

bladder-blight (blad'er-blit), . See blight. 
bladder-brand (blad'er-brand), n. Same as 



bunt*, 1. 

system, a subvassal who held ward of the bladder-campion (blad'er-kam"pi-on), n. The 
king's vassal. popular name of the plant Silene inflata: so 

black-wash (blak'wosh). M. 1. A lotion com- called from its inflated calyx, 
posed of calomel and lime-water. 2. Any bladdered (blad'erd), p. a. Swelled like a blad- 
wash that blackens. der; puffed up; vain. 

Dryden, Epic Poetry. 



Remove . . . the modern layers of black-ieash, and let A blaildered greatness. 

the man himself . . . be seen. **** bladder . fern (blad'er-fern), . The common 

name of Cystopteris, a genus of ferns : so called 
from the bladder-like indusium. 
Five species are known ; Great Britain 
and North America have three each, 
and of these two are common to both 
countries; the flfth occurs in Silesia 
and the Carpathian mountains. 

bladder-gastrula (blad ' er - 
gas"tro'-la), v. Same as peri- 
tiastrula. 

purple color, and is very valuable for furniture and carv- bladder-green (blad'er-gren), 
ing, as well as for cart-wheels, gun-carriages, etc. Also '' ame M*ap-07W. 
called East Indian rosewood. bladder-herb (blad'er-erb), n. 

2. The wood of the Acacia Melanoxylon, the The winter-cherry, Physalis Al- 
most valuable timber of Australia, noted for kekengi : so called from its in- 
its hardness and durability . 3. In the West flated calyx. 
Indies, the name given to the black mangrove, bladder-kelp (blad'er-kelp), . 1. Same as 
Avicennia nitida, a small tree of sea-coast marsh- bladder-wrack. 2. A seaweed of the California 
es, with very heavy, hard, and dark-brown or coast, of the genus Nereocystis, having an ex- 
nearly black wood. The tree is also found in ceedingly long stem which dilates above into 
southern Florida. a bladder several feet in length, 



8. In molding, a clay wash to which powdered 
charcoal has been added. See blacking, 3. 

black-water (blak'wa"ter), . A disease of 
sheep. 

black- whale (blak'hwal), n. A delphinoid ce- 
tacean, Globicephalus svineval, more generally 
called blackfish. 

blackwood (blak' wild), n. 1. The wood of a 
large leguminous tree of the East Indies, Dal- 
bergia latifolia. It is extremely hard, mostly of a dark 




Bladder-fern. Pin- 
nule of Cystopteris 
fragilis, with hooti- 
shaped indusia. 



Fucus vesiculosus : so named from the floating- 
vesicles in its fronds. Also called bladder-kelp, 
sea-oak, and sea-wrack. See Fucus. 

bladdery (blad'er-i), a. [< bladder + -yl.~\ 
Thin, membranous, and inflated or distended, 
like a bladder ; vesicular ; blistered ; pustular. 
Bladdery fever. Same as pemphitjuit. 

blade (blad), n. [< ME. blad, blade, bladde, a 
leaf of grass or corn (not found in the general 
sense of 'leaf'), commonly the cutting part of 
a knife or sword, the sword itself, < AS. bltxd 
(pi. bladu, blado), a leaf, broad part of a thing, 
as of an oar (= OS. Wad = OFries. Med = D. 
blad = MLG. blat, LG. blad = OHG. MHG. blat, 
G. Wort = Icel. Wad/i = Sw. Dan. Wad, a leaf), 
perhaps, with orig. pp. suffix -d (as in sad, cold, 
old, loud, etc.), < blowan (i/*Wa, *Wo), blow, 
bloom, whence also E. bloom 1 , blossom, akin 
to L. flos (flor-), -> E. flower. To the same ult. 
root belongs perhaps L. folium = Gr. ^ivlAov, 
leaf : see folio, foil 1 . The reg. mod. E. form 
would be Mod (like sad, glad, etc.); the long 
vowel is due to the ME. inflected forms, blade, 
etc.] 1. The leaf of a plant, particularly (now 
perhaps exclusively) of gramineous plants; also, 
the young stalk or spire of gramineous plants. 
But when the blade was sprung up and brought forth 
fruit, then appeared the tares also. Mat. -viii. -'". 

Whoever could make . . . two blades of grass to grow 
. . . where only one grew before, would ilt S.TVI I >etter of 
mankind . . . than the whole race of politicians. 

Sirift, (inlliver's Travels, u. 7. 

The varying year with ,/. ami sheaf. 

'/'<// Ki/*i>u, Day-Dream. 

2. In bot., the lamina or broad part of a leaf, 
petal, si'pal. etc., us distinguished from the 
' or I'iKiMalk. See cut under It-itf. 3. 



Anything resembling a blade, (a) A sword ; also, 
the Hat, thin, cutting part of a knife or other cutting-t 



g-tool. 



blade 



If ere your Made* 
Had point or prowess, prove them now. 

.!/... ..r, l-alla Ronkli. 

The famous Damascus blade*. M t. >."nr,l in the time 
of the Crusaders, an- made liere no longer. 

/;. Tiiiili'i; l-aiids "( !!" Saracen, p. I'M. 

(It) The broad, flattened part of certain instruments mid 

utensils, as ..f an our, a paddle, a spade, etc . 

The W.i./.' of her light t.ur threw oil its shower of spray. 

H7,,t/..',, r.hdul "f rennaeoofc. 

(c) A hroad flattened part of a Lone: as, a Jaw-Matte ; 
spccillcally, tile ftrapnla or thoaldn blade. 

Atrides' lailc-e did g.M. 
I'yliemen's should. -r in the blade. 

Chapman, Iliad, \: 

Id) The front (hit part of the tongue. //. .SV.W Hand- 
book of Phonetics. (.> A commerda] name for the loot 
lar-e plates on the Bides, ami the five large plates in the 
middle "I the upper shell of the sea-turtle, which yield 
the best tortoise shell. (/') That Unit) of a level which is 
movalile on a pivot at the joint, in order that it may he 
adjusted to include any angle between it ami the stock. 
(.0 The float or vane of a propeller or paddle-wheel. (h) 
The weh or plate of a saw. (i) The edge of a sectorial 
tooth (j) In enlnm., one of the Hut, two-edged plates 
forming the sword-like ovipositor of certain Orthoptern 
and Bomoptm ; in a wider sense, the ovipositor Itself. 

4. A dashing or rollicking fellow; a swaggerer; 
a rakish fellow ; strictly, perhaps, one who is 
sharp and wide awake: as, "jolly blades," Lve- 
lyn, Memoirs, i. 

The soldiers of the city, valiant Uadts. 

B. Jmuon, Magnetlck Lady, in. 4. 
A hrisk young fellow, with his hat cocked like a fool 
behind, as the present fashion among the blades is. 

Pepyt, Diary, III. 142. 

He saw a turnkey in a trice 
Fetter a troublesome blade. 

Coleridge, The Devil's Thoughts. 

5. One of the principal rafters of a roof . Oicilt. 
blade (blad), r.; pret. and pp. Waded, ppr. 

binding. [< ME. Marten (= MLG. Uaden = Sw. 

bldda, thin out plants); from the noun.] I. 

trans. 1. To take off the blades of (herbs). 

[Now only prov. Eng.] 2. To furnish with a 

blade; fit a blade to.-To blade lit, to nght with 

blades or swords. 
II. intraiis. To come into blade; produce 

blades. 

As sweet a plant, as fair a Bower is faded, 
As ever In the Muse's garden bladed. 

I". Fletcher, Eliza, an Elegy. 

blade-bone (blad'bon), n. The scapula or shoul- 
der-blade. 

bladed (bla'ded), p. a. [< blade + -ed*.] 1. 
Having a blade or blades, as a plant, a knife, 
etc.: as, "bladed grass," Shak., M. N. D., i. 
1; "bladed field," Thomson, Summer, 1. 57. 
2. Stripped of blades or leaves. 3. In mineral., 
composed of long and narrow plates like the 



575 

blady (bla'di), n. [< Mfide + -y*.] Consisting 
of blades; provided with blades or leav.- : 
as, "the Mady grass," Ifrayton, Polyolbion, 

blae (bia or ble), a. and n. [Sc. and North. K. ; 
also written him, !>/,</, hl,ii/:< ME. bin, blnn. 
the north, dial, form (after Icel. blur, ilark- 
blue, livid, = Sw. Ma = Dan. blaa, blue) corre- 
sponding to the reg. southern Mo, Moo, MM, 
Move, mod. E. dial. hloir, < AS. "Maw (in deriv. 
blaticen, bluish) = OFries. 1,1,1 IT, bldit = MD. bla, 
Wan later blacuic, D. blatiuw = ML(i. liliiir, LG. 
blau = OHG. Ma,, (l,l,iir-). MHG. hid (Mair-), 
G. blau (whence (from OHG.) ML. Mdrus, >It. 
biaro = OSp. blavo = Pr. blau, fern, bkiva, = Ot . 
and mod. P. bleu, > M K. hi, , blew (perhaps in 
part < AS. *Waiw (as in bltemen) for Maw), mod. 
E. blue, q. v.), blue, prob. = L. .flatus, yellow 
(color-names are unstable in application): see 
blue.] I. a. 1. Blue; blackish-blue; livid; 
also, bluish-gray; lead-colored : a color-name 
applied to various shades of blue. 2. Livid; 
pale-blue : applied to a person's complexion, as 
affected by cold, terror, or contusion 



Oh ! sire, some of you will stand with a Mae countenance 
before the tribunal of Ood. * Brute. 



II. n. [Commonly in pi. Maes; also written 
Maize, blaze.] In coal-mining, indurated argil- 
laceous shale or clay, sometimes containing 
nodules of iron ore. The same term is also 
applied to beds of hard sandstone. 

blaeberry (bla'ber'i), n. ; pi. blaeberries (-iz). 
[Sc. ; also spelled Meaberry, blayberry; < blae 
+ berry, after Icel. bldber = Sw. bl&bar = Dan. 
blaabier : see bilberry.] The Scotch name of the 
bilberry. 

blae-linen (bla 'liu 'en), n. A slate-colored 
linen beetled in the manufacture. Also blay- 

bisesiitas (ble'si-tas), n. [NL., < L. blow*, 
lisping, stammering; cf. Gr. /3/Uuoof, crooked, 
bandy-legged.] 1. Stuttering or stammering. 
2. An imperfection of speech consisting in 
the substitution of d for t, b for p, etc. See psel- 
Ksmus. [Rare.] 

blafft, i'. ' [Prob. < D. blaffen = MLG. LG. 
blaffrii, bark ; cf. ME. wlaffen, and baffen, E. 
fcajfi, bark: all appar. imitative.] To bark. 

Seals which would rise out of the water, and bla/ like a 
dog. Capl. Cowley, Voy. (1729), p. 6. (A. i'. D.) 



blamelessly 

blakeling (blak'ling), . [K. dial., < Make, yel- 
low, + -lingi.] The yellow bunting, llnlli- 
mll. [North. K.ng.l 

blamable. blameable (bla'ma-bl), a. [< blame 
+ -iihl,'.\ Deserving of blame or censure; 
faulty ; culpable ; reprehensible ; censurable. 

Such feelings though Miiiiinbl, , were natural and not 

wholly in. v u-:iM. " "<''.<", Mist. KICK., ii. 

blamableness, blameableness (bla'ma-bl- 
nes), n. The state or quality of being blama- 
ble; culpability; faultiness. 

If we are to measure degrees of blameableneu, one 
wrong must I* set off against the other. 

Edinburgh Hex., CLXIV. 450. 

blamably, blameably (bla'ma-bli), adv. In 
a blamable manner; culpably. 

I took occasion to observe, that the world in gen- 

eral began to be blamealili/ indifferent as to doctrinal 
matters" Ql,l*,ititli. Vj.-ar, xlv. 

blame (blam), r. t. ; pret. and pp. blamed, ppr. 
h/,imiii<j. [< ME. blumen = MI), blamen (also 
hlniHcren, D. Mameren), < OP. blasmcr, l,i<- 
F. bldmer = Pr. blasmar = OSp. blaxmar = 
It. biaximare, < LL. Masplieiiiare, speak ill of, 
blame, also blaspheme, < Gr. /i'/aa^a/fulv, speak 
ill, whence the full E. form blaspheme, q. v.] 1. 
To express disapprobation of ; find fault with ; 
censure: opposed to praise or commend. 

No lesse is to be Mam'd their odd pronouncing of Latlne, 
so that out of England none were able to understand or 
endure It. Xvelyn, Diary, May 13, 1861. 

We Named him, and with perfect justice and propriety, 
for saying what he did not mean. 

Macaulatj, Sadler s Ref. Refuted. 

Formerly it might be followed by of. 



blaffert (blaf'fert), n. [< MHG. blaphart,pla- 
nhart, plappert = MLG. Maffcrt = MD. blaf- 
ferd, Uaffaert (ML. Ma/ardus), a silver com 




jviitj uiujjufst * V^IU-AJ. v*i*^/ 

with a blank face, < Waffaert, having a blank 
or plane face, < blnf, having a blank or broad 
face : see blu/ 1 .] An old silver coin of Cologne, 
worth about 4 cents. 

blaflum (blaf'lum), H. [Also bleflum. Cf. be- 
fluni.] Deception; imposition; hoax. [Scotch.] 

blague (blag), . [F. J Humbug ; vain boast- 
ing ; pretentious falsehood. 

blague (blag), r. . ; pret. and pp. blagued, ppr. 
Mayaing. [< F. blaguer, humbug, hoax; from 
the noun.] To humbug; boast; lie jestingly 



She la Belgian shopkeeper] laughed, and said I Magttfd. 
The Bread-WiHiien, vi. 



Bladed Structure, Cyanite. 



blade of a knife : as, Mailed structure. 4. In 

her., used when the stalk or the blade of any 

kind of grain is borne of a color different from 

the ear or fruit : as, an ear of corn or, bladed 

vert, 
blade-fish (blad'fish), 11. A name in England 

of the hairtail, Tricliinrii.i 1,-jiturus. 
blade-metal (blad'met'al), . Metal forsword- 

blades. Milton. 
blade-mill (blad'mil), M. A mill for grinding 

off the rough surfaces of tools preparatory to 

polishing I hem. 

blade-ore (blaU'or), . A general name for 
the species of seaweed belonging to the genus 
l.iiuiinaria (which see). 

blader (bla'der), 11. It. One who makes 
swords. 2f. A swordsman. 3. In composi- 
tion with numerals, a tool having the number 
of blades indicated by the prefix: as, three-Wa- 
,1,-r. [Colloq.] 

bladesmitht (bUd'smith), . [< ME. bladxniyth, 
< html, blade, + tmitli.] A sword-cutler. York 

Flow, 

blade-spring (blad'sprint;), . A form <rf spring 

used to lioldiiistoii-rin^'s in place. 

hour :irms. whieh serve a. ilouble purliose. eonnec-tins; 
the boss with the top and bottom ot the piston, andearry- 
ing ut their extremities the ltladt-*i>rituj*. 

Camiiiii, Meeh. KnKineering, p. 142. 



blain (blan), Ji. [< ME. blane, Maun, bleyn, 
blein, < AS. Megen (= D. Mein = LG. bleien = 
Dan. Megn), perhaps, like Madder, ult. from the 
root of blawan, blow, puff: see Mow*.] 1. A 
pustule ; a blotch ; a blister. 

Botches and blains must nil his flesh emboss. 

Miltun, P. L, xli. 180. 

2. A bubble of water. 3. In farriery, a blad- 
der growing on the root of the tongue against 
the windpipe, and tending to cause suffocation. 

blaize, )>' See Mae, n. 

blakt Dlaket, . Middle English forms of Mack: 

blake (blak), . [E. dial., < ME. Make, Wok, 
the northern form corresponding to the reg. 
southern early ME. Moke, bloc, < AS. Mac (var. 
blaic, > ME. Mechc, mod. E. Meaeli 1 , adj., also 
prob. without assibilation ME. 'bleke, mod. E. 
<A-1: see bleach*, a., and bleak*) (= OS. hlfk 
= D. Meek = MLG. blek = OHG. Wei A, MHG. 
G. Meich = Icel. Meikr), shining, white, pale, < 
bliean (pret. Mac), shine, gleam: see Nut*.] 1. 
Pale ; pallid ; wan ; of a sickly hue, as the com- 
plexion ; of a pale-green or yellow hue, as vege- 
tation. 2. Yellow, as butter, cheese, etc. 3. 
Bleak; cold; bare; naked. JiaUiwcll. [North. 
KM-. ] 

blaket, <' '/ I Ml-'., hliikni. the- northern form 
corresponding to the reg. southern early ME. 
blokm, < AS. li!(ici<in. bci'ome pale, < Mac, pale: 
see Make, a.] To become pale. 



Tomoreus he blam'd <>/ inconsiderate rashness. 

Knnllen, Hist. Turks. 

2. To charge ; impute as a fault ; lay the re- 
sponsibility of: as, he blames the failure on 
you. [Colloq.] 3f. To bring reproach upon ; 
blemish; injure. 

This 111 state in which she stood ; 
To which she for his sake had weetingly 
Now brought herselfe, and blam'd her noble blood. 

Spemer, f. Q., VI. Hi. 11. 

[In such phrases as he ii to blame, to blame, by an old 
and common construction, has the passive meaning 'to 
lie blamed, blamable.' Compare a haute to let, hire, baud; 
grain ready to cut, etc. 

You were to blame, I must be plain with you. 

Shak., M. of V., v. 1. 

I was to blame to be so rash ; I am sorry. 

Fletcher, Spanish Curate, ill. 4. 

In writers of the Elizabethan period it was often written 
(oo blame, blame apparently being mistaken for an adjec- 
tive.]=8yn. 1. To reprove, reproach, chide, upbraid, 
reprehend. See decry. 

blame (blam), . [< ME. blame = MD. blame, 
D. blaam, < OF. Masme, P. bldme (= Pr. Masme 
= OSp. Pg. Masmo = It. biasimo), < blasmer, y., 
blame: see blame, r.] 1. An expression of dis- 
approval of something deemed to be wrong; 
imputation of a fault ; censure; reprehension. 
Let me liear the blame for ever. Gen. xliii. i. 

2. That which is deserving of censure or dis- 
approbation ; fault ; crime ; sin. 

That we should lie holy and without Name before him. 

Kph. 1. 4. 

3. Culpability; responsibility for something 
that is wrong: as, the Wawe is yours. 4f. 
Hurt; injury. 

And I the blow] glauneing downe his shield from blame htm 
fairly blest. Speiuer, V. tj., I. ii. 18. 

blameable, blameableness, blameably. See 

blamable, blamableness, blamably. 
blameful (blam'ful), a. [< blame, n., + -ful.] 

1. Meriting blame; reprehensible; faulty; 
guilty; criminal: as, "blameful thinges," Chau- 
cer, Melibeus. 

Thy mother took into her blameful bed 
Some stem untutor'd churl. 

Shak., 2 Hen. VI., ill. 2. 

2. Faultfinding; blaming: as, a blameful look 
or word. JtaMM, 

blamefnlly (blam'ful-i), adv. In a blameful 
manner, 
blamefulness (blam'ful-nes), H. [< blameful 

+ -ness.] The state of being blameful, 
blameless (blam'les), a. [ME. blameles ; < 
hhiine + -less.] Not meriting blame or censure ; 
without fault; undeserving of reproof; inno- 
cent; guiltless: as, "the HMtaiM Indians," 
Thomson, Memory of Lord Talbot. 
We will be biamele** of this thine oath. Josh. ii. 17. 
Wearing the white flower of a lAamelea* life. 

Tennymn, Ded. of Idylls. 

= Syn. Kanltleisa.lrTeproaehal.le. unimpeachable, unsul- 
lied, spotless stall. I.-"", until. II. ished. 

blamelessly (blain'les-li), adr. Ill a blaun-l.-ss 
manner; without fault or crime ; innocently. 



blamelessness 

blamelessness (blam'les-nes), . The state or 

quality of being blameless ; innocence ; purity. 

Thy white btontetonMH accounted blame. 

Tennyson, Merlin and Vivien. 

blamer (bla'mer), . One who blames, finds 
fault, or censures: as, "blainers ot the times," 
Donne, To Countess of Bedford, iii. 
blameworthiness (blam ' wer " Tiii - nes) , n. [< 
blameworthy + -ness.] The quality of being 
blameworthy ; blamableuess. 

Praise and lilame express what actually are, praisewor- 
thiness and Manmmrthinem what naturally ought to be, 
the sentiments of other people with regard to our charac- 
ter and conduct. 

Adam Smith, Theory of Moral Sentiments, iii. 3. 
Blame I can bear, though not blamewarthines. 

Bromihiff, King and Book, I. 140. 

blameworthy (blam' wer "TH!), . [< ME. 
blameworthy, < blame + worthy.'] Deserving 
blame ; censurable ; culpable ; reprehensible. 
That the sending of a divorce to her husband was not 
blaiiieimrthy , he affirms, because the man was heinously 
vicious. Milton, Divorce, ii. 22. 

blanc (blangk; F. pron. blon), n. [OF. Wane, 
a silver coin (see def. 2), < blanc, a., white : see 
blank.] 1. A silver coin, weighing about 47 



576 

Blanch lion, anciently, the title of one of the pursuivants 
of arms. 

II. n. If. Same as blanc, 3. 2+. A white 
spot on the skin. 3. In mining, a piece of ore 
found isolated in the hard rock. B. Hunt. 



[Eng.] 
blan 




Obverse. Revei 

Blanc of Henry VI.. British Museum. ( Size of the 



riginal. ) 



grains, struck by Henry VI. of England (1422- 
1461) for his French dominions. Sometimes 
spelled blank or bland: 
Have you any money ? he answered, Not a blanck. 

B. Jonson, Gayton's Fest. Night. 
2. A French silver coin, first issued by Philip of 
Valois (1328-1350) at the value of 10 deniers, 
or sV livre. Under King John the Good (1350-1364) 
the blanc was coined at 5 deniers. Under Charles VI. and 





Obverse. Reverse. 

Blanc of Charles VI. of France, British Museum. ( Size of the original. } 

his successors the blauc was worth 10 deniers, and the 
demi-blanc 5 deniers. From Louis XI. to Francis I. a 
grand blanc was issued worth 12 deniers, or -^ livre, and 
a petit blanc of one half that value. After the time of 
Francis I. the grand blanc was no longer coined ; but the 
petit blanc was retained as a money of account, and was 
reckoned at 5 deniers, or -% livre ; it was commonly called 
simply blanc. The blanc was coined according to both the 
tournois and the parisis systems, the latter coins, like 
others of the same system, being worth one quarter more 
than those of the same name in the former system. 
3. A white paint, especially for the face. 4. 
A piece of ware such as is generally decorated, 
sold or delivered without its decoration. At the 
Sevres and other porcelain-factories pieces not quite per- 
fect in shape are sold undeeorated, but bearing a special 
ineffaceable mark, which distinguishes them from those 
finished in the factory. 

5. A rich stock or gravy in which made dishes 
or entries are sometimes served. Blanc d'ar- 
gent, a pigment, the carbonate of lead, or white lead, usu- 
ally found in commerce in small drops. Blanc fixe, an 
artificially prepared sulphate of barium, made by dissolv- 



as an adulterant of paper, pigments, etc. 

blancard (blang'kard), n. [F., < blanc, white 
(see blank), + -ard.] A kind of linen cloth 
manufactured in Normandy : so called because 
the thread is half blanched before it is woven. 

blanch 1 (blanch), a. and n. [Also written 
blench; < ME. blanche, blaunche,< OF. blanche, 
fern, of blanc, white: see blank, .] I. a. If. 

White; pale. 2f. Same as blench 2 Blanch 

farm. See l/laitc/i-farm. Blanch fevert IF. "tirrm 
blanches, the agues wherewith maidens that have the 
green-sickness be troubled," Co(y /], literally, pide 
fever; hence, to have the blanch fatter is either to be in 
love or to be sick with wantonness. 

And som, thou seydest hadde a blattche fevere, 
And preyedest God he sholde nevere ke'vere. 

Chaucer, Troilus, i. !)l(i. 



blanch 1 (blanch), v. [Early mod. E. also 
blaunch; < ME. blaunchen, blanchen, < OF. blan- 
cMr (F. blanchir), < blanc (> ME. blank, blanch), 
white: see blank.'] I. trans. 1. To make white; 
whiten by depriving of color ; render colorless : 
as, to blanch linen. 2. In hort., to whiten or 
prevent from becoming green by excluding the 
light : a process applied to the stems or leaves 
of plants, such as celery, lettuce, sea-kale, etc. 
It Is done by banking up earth about the stems of the 

Slants, tying the leaves together to keep the inner ones 
om the light, or covering with pots, boxes, or the like. 
3. To make pale, as with sickness, fear, cold, 
etc. 

Keep the natural ruby of your cheeks, 
When mine are blanch'd with fear. 

Shot., Macbeth, iii. 4. 

4f. Figuratively, to give a fair appearance to, 
as an immoral act; palliate; slur; pass over. 

They extoll Coustantine because he extol'd them; as 
our homebred Monks in their Histories blanch the Kings 
their Benefactors, and brand those that went about to be 
their Correctors. Milton, Ref. in Eng., i. 

Blanch over the blackest and most absurd things. 

TilloUon, Works, I. SO. 

5. In cookery, to soak (as meat or vegetables) 
in hot water, or to scald by a short, rapid boil- 
ing, for the purpose of producing firmness or 
whiteness. 6. In the arts, to whiten or make 
lustrous (as metals) by acids or other means ; 
also, to cover with a thin coating of tin. TO 
blanch almonds, to deprive them of their skins by im- 
mersion in hot water and a little friction, after their shells 
have been removed. 

One word more, and I'll blanch thee like an almond. 

Fletcher, Wife for a Month, i. 2. 
= Syn. 1 and 2. Etiolate, etc. See whiten. 
fl. intrans. To become white ; turn pale. 
The ripple would hardly blanch, into spray 
At the feet of the cliff. Tennyson, The Wreck. 
Drew his toil-worn sleeve across 

To brush the manly tear 
From cheeks that never changed in woe, 
And never blanched in fear. 

O. W. Holmes, Pilgrim's Vision. 

blanch 2 ! (blanch), v. [A corruption of blench}, 
simulating blanch*, turn pale : see blench*."] 

1. trans. To shun or avoid, as from fear ; evade. 
The judges . . . thought it ... dangerous ... to ad- 
mit ifs and ands to qualifie the words of treason, whereby 
every man might expresse his malice and blanch his dan- 
ger. Bacon, Hen. VII., p. 134. 

By whose importunitie was the saile slacken'd in the 
first encounter with the Dutch, or whether I am to blanch 
this particular? Evelyn, To my Lord Treasurer. 

II. intrans. To shrink; shift; equivocate. 
Books will speak plain when counsellors blanch. 

Bacon, Of Counsel. 

blanched (blaneht), p. a. Whitened; deprived 
of color; bleached. 

And still she slept an azure-lidded sleep, 
In blanched linen, smooth, and lavender'd. 

Keats, Eve of St. Agnes, xxx. 

Specifically applied to coins and silver articles contain- 
ing copper which have been submitted to the action of hot 
dilute sulphuric acid, to dissolve a part of the copper of the 
alloy on the surface, and leave a film or coating richer in 
silver. Blanched copper, an alloy of copper and arse- 
nic, in about the proportion of 10 of the former to 1 of the 
latter. It is used for clock-dials and thermometer- and 
barometer-scales. It is prepared by heating copper clip- 
pings with white arsenic (arsenious acid), arranged in al- 
ternate layers and covered with common salt, in an earth- 
en crucible. 

blancher 1 (blan'cher), n. [Early mod. E. also 
blauncher, < ME. blancher ; < blanch* + -er*.~\ 
One who blanches or whitens, in any sense of 
the verb blanch*. 

blancher 2 t (blan'cher), n. [Early mod. E. also 
blauncher, blaunsher, etc. ; < blanch? (= blench*) 
+ -er*.] 1. One who turns aside or causes 
to turn aside ; a perverter. 

These blaiicherx will be ready to whisper the king in the 

ear, and to tell him that this abuse is hut a small matter. 

Latitner, Sermon of the Plough. 

2. One stationed for the purpose of turning 
game in some direction ; a sewel (which see). 

Zelmane was like one that stood in a tree waiting a 
good occasion to shoot, and Gynecia a blancher which 
kept the dearest deer from her. Sir P. Sidney, Arcadia, i. 

And there we found one Mr. Greenfield, a gentleman of 
Buckinghamshire, gathering up part of the said books' 
leaves (as he said), therewith to make him sewels or 
tiliimixltrrei to keel) the deer within tile wood, thereby 
to have the better cry witli his hounds. 

Laiitun, in K. W. Dixon's Hist. Oh. of Kiift., iv. 

3. One who starts or balks at anything. N.M.I). 
blanch-farm, blanch-ferm, n. [< OF. blanche 

ferine, lit. white rent: see blanch*, a., and 



blandiloquence 

farm.'] Rent paid in silver instead of in ser- 
vice or produce ; also, a kind of nominal quit- 
rent, paid with a small piece of silver or other- 
wise. Also written blench-farm, blench-fenn, 
and blench-firm. 

blanch-holding (blanch ' hoi " ding), n. A 
Scotch tenure by which the tenant is bound to 
pay only a nominal or trifling yearly duty to 
his superior, as an acknowledgment of his 
right, and only if demanded. Also written 
bleneh-holding. 

blanchimeter (blan-ehim'e-ter), n. [Irreg. 

< blanch + meter. Cf. altimeter.] An instru- 
ment for measuring the bleaching power of 
oxymuriate (chlorid) of lime and potash. 

blanching (blan'ching), n. The act of render- 
ing blanched or white; specifically, any pro- 
cess applied to silver or other metals to impart 
whiteness and luster. 

blanching-liquor (blan'ching-lik"or), n. The 
solution of chlorid of lime used for bleaching. 
Also called blcaching-liquid. 

blanckt, a. and n. An obsolete spelling of blank. 

blanc-mange, blanc-manger (bla-monzh', 
-mpn-zha'), n. {The p rese nt spelling and pron. 
imitate the mod. F. Also written blamange, bio- 
mange, blumange, bhiemange, according to the 
current pronunciation; early mod. E. also blauc- 
manger, blowmanger, etc., < ME. blamanger, blaic- 
manger, blammanger, blanmanger, blankmangcr, 
blancmanger, etc., a preparation of different 
kinds; < OF. (and F.) blanc-manger (= Sp. 
manjar bianco), lit. white food, < blanc, white, 
+ manger, eating, prop, inf., eat: see blank 
and manger.'] In cookery, a name of different 
preparations of the consistency of jelly, vari- 
ously composed of dissolved isinglass, arrow- 
root, corn-starch, etc., with milk and flavoring 
substances. It is frequently made from a marine alga, 
Chondrua crispus, called Irish moss, which is common on 
the coasts of Europe and North America. The blanc- 
tnatiffer mentioned by Chaucer in the General Prologue to 
the Canterbury Tales, 1. 387, was apparently a compound 
made of capon minced with flour, sugar, and cream. 

bianco (blang'ko), n. [Sp., < bianco, a., white : 
see blanlc.'} A grade of cochineal-bugs, often 
called silver-whites, from their peculiar lus- 
trous appearance, in distinction from the black 
bugs or zacatillas. They are picked into bags and 
immediately dried in a stove, while the others are first 
thrown into hot water. 

bland 1 !, v. t. [Early mod. E. (Sc.), < ME. blan- 
den, blonden, < AS. blandan (pret. blednd, pp. 
blanden) =OS. blandan = OHG. blantan = Icel. 
blanda = Sw. blanda = Dan. blande = Goth, blan- 
dan (redupl. verb, pret. baibland, pp. blandans), 
mix; rare in AS., and in later use superseded 
by blend*, q. v.] To mix; blend. 

bland 1 (bland), . [(1) ME., < AS. bland (= 
Icel. bland), mixture (Icel. i bland, in union, to- 
gether), < blandan, mix; (2) < Icel. blanda, a 
mixture of liquids, esp. of hot whey with water, 

< blanda = AS. blandan, mix, blend : see bland*, 
i'.] If. Mixture ; union. 2. An agreeable 
summer beverage prepared from the whey of 
churned milk, common among the inhabitants 

of the Shetland islands In bland*, together; 

blended. 

bland 2 (bland), a. [< L. blandus, caressing, 
soft, agreeable, flattering, perhaps orig. *mlan- 
dus, akin to mollis, mild, Skt. mridit, Gr. /lelAt- 
X<%, E. wild, etc.: see mild, moll.'] 1. Mild; 
soft; gentle; balmy. 
Exhilarating vapour bland. Milton, P. L., ix. 1047. 

The weather . . . being for the most part of a bland and 
equal temperature. Prescott, Ferd. and Isa., i. 14. 

2. Affable; suave; soothing; kindly: as," bland 
words," Milton, P. L., ix. 855. 

His manners were gentle, complying, and bland. 

Goldsmith, Retaliation, 1. 140. 

Bland the smile that like a wrinkling wind 
On glassy water drove his cheek in lines. 

Tennyson, Princess, i. 

3. Mildj free from irritating qualities: said 
of certain medicines: as, bland oils. 4. Not 
stimulating: said of food. = Syn. Mild, etc. See 
gentle. 

b'land 2 t, >'. t. [Early mod. E. (Sc.), < ME. 
blanden, blonden, blannden. = MD, blniidrn, < 
OF. blandir (> also E. blandish, q. v.), < L. blan- 
diri, flatter, caress: nee blandish."] To flatter; 
blandish. 

blandationt (blan-da'shou), n. [< L. as if 
*bliintJatin(ii-), equiv. to" blanilitin, < blandiri, 
pp. biiindiliin, flatter: see hlttndisli.'] A piece 
of flattery; blandishment. Camden. 

blandiloquence (blan-dil'o-kwens), n. [< L. 
blaiidiloqiiriitiH, < blandiloqueii(t-)s, speaking 



blandlloquence 

flatteringly, < blanduit, flattering, + loquen(t-)s, 
ppr. of Tor/Mi, speak.] Fair, mild, or flatter- 
ing speech ; courteous language ; compliment. 
[Rare.] 
blandimentt (blan'di-ment), n. [= Sp. blau- 

diniii'ntii = It. hhtndimtiiiii, < Jj. bliiiiiliiiirntuin,(. 
liliniiliri, flatter: see blandish.'] Blandishment; 
allurement ; enticement. 

Allure no man with suasions and hlandimtnti. 

Up. Burnet, Injunctions to the Monasteries, 
Itemp. Hen. VIII., I., App. 

blandiset, '' A Middle English form of blandish. 
blandish (lilan'dish), p. [< ME. blaundislten, 
blandisen, < OF. blandiss-, stem of certain parts 
of blandir= Pr. Sp. blaiidir = It. blantlire, < L. 
blandiri, flatter, caress, < blandus, caressing, 
gentle, bland : see bland", a.] I. trims. 1. To 
Hatter ; caress ; coax or cajole with complai- 
sant speech or caressing act. 2. To render 
pleasing, alluring, or enticing. 

In former days a country-life, 

Fur so time-honoured poets sing, 
Free from anxiety and strife, 
Was Unn/lix/i'd by perpetual spring. 

/- O. Cooper, Retreat of Aristippus, Ep. i. 

3. To offer or bestow blandly or caressingly: 
as, to blandish words or favors. [Bare and 
archaic in all uses.] 

Il.t intrttns. To assume a caressing or blan- 
dishing manner. 

How she blandishing 

r.y Dunsmore drives along. 

Drayton, Polyolbioii, xiii. 318. 

blandished (blan'disht), p. a. Invested with 
flattery, cajolery, or blandishment. 

Mustering all her wiles, 
With blamlish'd parlies, feminine assaults. 

Milton, S. A., 1. 403. 

blandisher (blan'dish-er), n. One who blan- 
dishes ; a flatterer. 

blandishing (blan'dish-ing), n. [< ME. blan- 
disingc; verbal n. of blandish.'] Blandishment. 
Double-hearted friends, whose blandishing* 
Tickle our ears, but sting our bosoms. 

J. Beaumont, Psyche, vi. 3. 

blandishing (blan'dish-ing), a. [< ME. blaun- 
dysltiny ; ppr. of blandish.] Mild; soothing. 

The see hath eke his ryght to be somtimc calm and 
I'linniii iixliiii'j with smothc water. 

Chaucer, Boethlus, ii., prose 2. 

blandishment (blan'dish-ment), n. [< OF. blan- 
dissemcnt, < blandir: see blandish and -ment.'] 

1. Speech or action expressive of affection or 
kindness, and tending to win the heart ; an art- 
ful caress ; flattering attention ; cajolery ; en- 
dearment. 

As thus he spake, each bird and beast behold 
Approaching two and two ; these cowering low 
With blaii<li*hment : each bird stoop'd on his wing. 

jtfitton, P. L., vili. 351. 
Blandishments will not fascinate us. 

D. Webster, Speech, Bunker Hill. 

2. Something bland or pleasing; that which 
pleases or allures. 

The rose yields her sweet* blandishment. 

Habington, Castara, ii. 
The blandishments of early friendships. 

Longfellow, Hyperion, Iv. 6. 

blandly (bland'li), adv. In a bland manner; 
with suavity ; mildly ; gently, 
blandness (bland'nes), . [< bland + -ness.] 
The state or quality of being bland ; mildness ; 
gentleness ; soothinguess. 

Envy was disarmed by the blandne of Albemarle's 
temper. Macaulay, Hist. Eng., xxiii. 

blandurilla(blan-du-rira),n. [8p.,dim.of blan- 
dura, softness, a white paint used by women, 
< blando, soft, bland, < L. blandus: see bland*, 
.] A fine soft pomatum made in Spain. 

blank (blangk), a. and . [Early mod. E. also 
bliinc, blanck; < ME. blank, fern, blanche (see 
blanch 1 , a.), < OF. blanc, fern, blanche, white 
(= Pr. blanc = Sp. bianco = Pg. branco = It. 
bianco; ML. blaaeus), < OHG. blanch, MHG. 
blanc, Or. blank, shining, bright (= MLG. blank 
= D. blanl: = Sw. Dan. blank, shining, = AS. 
"blanc, only in poet, deriv. blanca, a white or 
gray horse, ME. blanke, blonke, Sc. blank; cf. 
Icel. blaJckr, poet., a horse, steed) ; usually re- 
ferred to a Teut. verb "blinkan (pret. *blanl;), 
shine, which, however, is not found in the 
older tongues: see blink. In the sense of a 
coin (II., 7, 8), OF. blanc, MLG. blank, MD. 
blanrkc (ML. Matica), orig. with ref. to the color 
of silver.] I. a. 1. White or pale: as, "the 
blanc moon," Milton, P. L., x. 656. 

Blank as death in nmrMe. Tennyson, Princess, i. 

2. Pale from fear or terror ; hence, dispirited ; 
dejected : confounded ; confused. 
37 



577 

Adam, soon as lie heard 
The fatal trespass done by Eve, amazed, 
Astouied st.HHl ami blank. Milton, P. L, Ix. 890. 
Iti old woman wox half i>l>m<-l: those wordes to hoare. 
Spenter, V. Q., III. iii. 17. 

3. Empty or unoccupied ; void ; bare. 

So blacken'd all her world in secret, blank 
And waste it seem'd and vain. 

Tenwjum, Princess, vli. 
Now slowly falls the dull blank night 

Bryant, Rain-Dream. 

Specifically (a) Free from written or printed characters ; 
not written upon : as, a blank book ; blank paper ; blank 
spaces. ('>) Not tilled up : applied to legal, banking com- 
mercial, or other forms: as, a blank check or order; a 
1,1,1 iik ballot ; a blank bond, (c) Of uniform surface ; un- 
relieved or unbroken by ornament or opening : as, a blank 
wall. ((/) Empty of result*, of interest, etc. : as, a blank 
outlook for the future. 

4. Without con tents; especially, wanting some 
part necessary to completeness : as, blank car- 
tridges, that is, cartridges containing powder 
but no ball. 5. Vacant in expression; exhib- 
iting perplexity, real or feigned; nonplussed; 
disconcerted. 

Never be blank, Alonzo, 
Because this fellow has ouUtript thy fortune. 

Fletcher, Rule a Wife, II. 2. 

The Danuell of Burgundie, at sight of her own letter, 
was soon blank, and more ingenuous then to stand out- 
facing. Milton, Elkonoklastes, xxi. 



6. Complete; utter; unmitigated: as, 
stupidity," Percival. 

All but the suffering heart was dead 
For him abandoned to blank awe, 
To vacancy, and horror strong. 

Wordsworth, White Doe of Rylstone, vi. 

7. Unrimed : applied to verse, particularly to 
the heroic verse of five feet without rime, such 
as that commonly adopted in English dramatic 
and epic poetry Blank bar, bond, cartridge, 
charter, door, flange, Indorsement, wheel, etc. See 
the nouns. 

II. n. 1. Any void space or vacant surface; 
a space from which something is absent or 
omitted; a void; a vacancy: as, a blank in 
one's memory ; to leave blanks in writing. 

I cannot write a paper full as I used to do, and yet I 
will not forgive a blank of half an inch from you. Swift. 

From the cheerful ways of men 
Cut off, and for the book of knowledge fair 
Presented with a universal blank 
Of nature's works, to me expunged and rased. 

Milton, P. L., iii. 48. 

2. A piece of paper prepared for some spe- 
cial use, but without writing or printed matter 
on it. 

The freemen signified their approbation by an inscribed 
vote, and their dissent by a blank. Palfrey. 

3. A form or document containing blank spaces ; 
a document remaining incomplete till some- 
thing essential is filled in. 

And daily new exactions are devls'd 

As blanks, benevolences, and I wot not what. 

SAoi., Rich. II., H. 1. 

4. In parliamentary usage, provisional words 
printed in italics in a bill, the final form of 
which is to be settled in committee. 5. A 
ticket in a lottery on which no prize is indi- 
cated; a lot by wnich nothing is gained. 

In a lottery where there are (at the lowest computation) 
ten thousand blanks to a prize, It la the most prudent 
choice not to venture. 

Lady M. W. Montagu, Letters, Jan. 28, 1753. 

6. In archery, the white mark in the center of 
a butt or target at which an arrow is aimed ; 
hence (archaically), the object toward which 
anything is directed ; aim ; target. 

As level as the cannon to his blank. 

Shak., Hamlet, Iv. 1. 
Let me still remain 
The true blank of thine eye. 

Shiik., Lear, I. 1. 

Quite beyond my arm, out of the blank 
And level of my brain. Shak., W. T., il. 8. 

7. Same as blanc, 1. 8. A small copper coin 
formerly current in France. 

Refuse not a marvedi, a blank. 

Middleton and Rowley, Spanish Oypsy, II. 1. 
9. A piece of metal prepared to be formed into 
some finished object by a further operation: 
as, a blank for a file or a screw; specifically, in 
coining, a plate or piece of gold or silver, cut 
and shaped, but not stamped. 10. A blank 
verse. 

Five lines of that number, 
Snch pretty, begging blanks. 

Beau, and Fl., PhDaster, II. 2. 
lit. A weight, equal to jjnVtnt of a grain, 
blank (blangk), r. t. [< blank, .] It. To make 
blank ; make white or pale ; blanch. 

Blount anise and left the hall, while Raleigh looked 
after him with an expression that blanked for a moment 
his bold and animated countenance. 

Scott, Kenilworth, I. ivii. 



blanketing 

2t. To confuse ; put out of countenance ; dis- 
concert; nonplus. 

Despoil him, . . . 

And with confusion Mnnk his worshippers. 

Milton, S. A.. I. 471. 

3t. To frustrate ; make void ; bring to naught. 
All former purposes were blanrked. 

Nprnsrr, State of Ireland. 

4. A common euphemistic substitute for damn, 
referring to t he blank or dash which is common- 
ly substituted in printing for that word when it 
is used as a profane expression. [Slang.] 

blank-book (blangk'buk), n. A book of ruled 
or unruled writing-paper for accounts, memo- 
randa, etc. 

blanket (blang'ket), n. [< ME. blanket, blan- 
ket, < OF. blanket (F. blanchet, ML. blankettis, 
blanchetus), also fern, blankete, blanguette, dim. 
of blanc, white: see blank, .] It. A coarse 
woolen fabric, white or undyed, used for cloth- 
ing. 2. A large oblong piece of soft, loosely 
woven woolen cloth, used for the sake of its 
warmth as a bed-covering, or (usually made 
of coarser material and closer texture) as a 
covering for a horse when standing or exposed 
to cold, and sometimes worn as a garment, es- 
pecially among rude or uncivilized people. 
3. In printing, a sheet of woolen cloth, white 
baize, or rubber, laid between the outer and 
inner tympana of a hand-press, or on a ma- 
chine-cylinder, to moderate and equalize the 
pressure on the type. 4. In cloth-printing, the 
cover of the printing-table. 5. Same as blan- 
quette, 4. 6. In paper-making, an endless felt 

upon which the pulp is laid A wet blanket, one 

who or that which damps, depresses, or disappoints any 
hope, expectation, or enjoyment. 

"But," nald the chairman, and that "but" was the 
usual ttft blanket. Dickens. 

Born on the wrong side of the blanket, of illegiti- 
mate birth. 

blanket (blang'ket), r. t. [< blanket, n.~] 1. 
To cover with a blanket or as with a blanket : 
as, to blanket a horse. 
Ill ... blanket my loins. Shak., Lear, II. S. 

Blanketted like a dog, 
And like a cut-purse whipt. 

Matrinyer, Parliament of Love, iv. 5. 
The importance of the blanketing action of our atmo- 
spheric constituents has been In no way over-stated. 

Science, V. 450. 

2. To toss in a blanket by way of punishment 
or practical joke. 

We'll have our men blanket 'em i' the hall. 

Ii. Jonson, Epfccene, v. 4. 

3. To take the wind out of the sails of, as the 
sails of one vessel when it is passing close to 
windward of another. 

B's helmsman will be apt to sail his boat as close to the 
wind as possible, and try to "claw to windward." and 
prevent A from blanketing him. 

Qualtrough, Boat Sailer's Manual, p. 135. 

blanket-bar (blang'ket-bar), n. AII iron bar 

used to keep the blanket of a printing-press in 

place, 
blanket-clause (blang'ket-klaz), w. A general 

or indefinite clause framed so as to provide for 

a number of contingencies. 

Suitable annual appropriations . . . require no Wan- 
ket~clausc to justify or cover them. 

Report of Sec. V. S. Treasury, 1886, I. ill. 

blanketrdepqsit (blang'ket-de-poz'it), n. The 
name given in some parts of the Cordilleran 
mining region, especially in Colorado and Utah, 
to deposits of ore occurring in a form having 
some of the characters of those elsewhere des- 
ignated as flat sheets, bedded veins, beds, or flat 
masses. They are frequently intercalated between rocks 
of different litholojrical character and origin, in which 
case they partake of the nature of contact-deposits. The 
occurrences of ore at Leadville are of this nature. 

blanketeer (blang-ket-er'), . [< blanket + 
-per.] It. One who tosses in a blanket. 2. 
One of the radical reformers of Lancashire 
who, on March 10th, 1817, at a meeting in St. 
Peter's Fields, Manchester, decided to march 
to London with a petition for parliamentary re- 
form, each man having a rug or blanket strapped 
on his shoulder, so that he might bivouac on the 
road if necessary. 

blanketeer (blang-ket-er'), r. i. [< blanketeer, 
.] To act as a blanketeer. 

Tills epistle awaited her at Beamish's inn on returning 
from her blanketeering adventure. 

The Husband Hunter (1830), iii. 230. (X. and Q.. 
[7th ser.. II. S.) 

blanketing (blang'ket-ing), n. 1. Coarse 
woolen cloth of which blankets are made. 
2. A supply or quantity of blankets. 3. The 



blanketing 

process of obtaining gold by collecting it as 
it comes from the stamps on a blanket or in a 
blanket-sluice. 4. pi. The gold so obtained. 
6. The operation of tossing in a blanket as a 
punishment or a joke. 

That affair of the blanketing happened to thee for the 
fault thou wast guilty of. 

Smollett, tr. of Don Quixote, iii. 5. 

blanket-leaf (blang'ket-lef), . The common 
niullen, Verbascwn Thapsus. 

blanket-mortgage (blang'ket-m6r"gaj), TO. A 
mortgage intended to cover an aggregation of 
property, or secure or provide for indebtedness 
previously existing in various forms. 

blanket-sheet (blang'ket-shet), n. A large 
newspaper in folio form. Amer. Bookmaker. 

blanket-sluice (blang'ket-slos), n. In mining 
and metal., a long trough or sluice in which 
blankets are laid for the purpose of collecting 
the particles of gold or amalgam which pass 
over them as the material flows from under the 
stamps. 

blankillo (blang-kil'o), . Same as blanquillo, 1. 

blanking-press (blang'king-pres), . A stamp- 
ing-press used to cut out blanks. 

blankly (blangk'li), adv. 1. In a blank or va- 
cant manner ; vacuously ; aimlessly. 2. Di- 
rectly ; point-blank ; flatly ; utterly. 
We in short blankly deny the possibility of loss. 

Fortnightly Sev., N. S., XL. 540. 

blankness (blangk'nes), n. [< blanJc + -ness.] 
The state or quality of being blank. 

There was nothing external by which he [Casaubon] 
could account for a certain blankness of sensibility which 
came over him just when his expected gladness should 
have been most lively. George Eliot, Middlemarch, I. 94. 

Blanquefort (blonk'fort), n. [F. Blanquefort, 
a town in Gironde, France.] A red wine grown 
in the department of Gironde in France. 

blanquette (blon-kef), n. [F., dim. of Wane, 
white. Cf. blanket.] 1. In cookery, a white 
fricassee ; also, a minced dish, as of cold veal. 
2. A kind of crude soda, obtained at Aigues- 
Mortes, in France, by the incineration of Sal- 
sola Tragus and S. Kali. 3. A kind of white 
sparkling wine made in southern France, often 
called blanquette de Limoux. 4. A large va- 
riety of pear. Also written blanket. 

blanquil (blang-keT), n. Same as blanquillo. 

blanquillo (blang-ke'lyo), n. [Sp., a small 
coin, < blanquillo, whitish, dim. of bianco, white : 
see blank, a.] 1. A small copper coin equiva- 
lent to about 6 centimes, or a little over 1 cent, 
current in Morocco and on the Barbary coast. 
Also blankillo. 2. A name of a fish of the 



678 

MHG. bleren, Vlerren, cry aloud, bleat, G. War- 
ren, blarren, pldrren, roar, bellow, bleat, blare ; 
prob. an imitative word.] I. intrans. 1. To 
roar; bellow; cry; low. [Now chiefly prov. 
Eng.] 2. To give forth a loud sound like a 
trumpet; give out a brazen sound; bellow. 

Warble, bugle, and trumpet blare. 

Tennyson, Welcome to Alexandra. 

II. trans. To sound loudly ; proclaim noisily. 

And such a tongue 
To Mare its own interpretation. 

Tennyson, Lancelot and Elaine. 
blare 1 (blar), n. [< blare 1 , v.] 1. A roaring; 
loud or bellowing noise. 

Whitman . . . sang the blare and brawn that he found 
in the streets. Stedman, Poets of America, p. 355. 

2. Sound like that of a trumpet. 

And his ears are stunned with the thunder's blare. 

J. R. Drake, Culprit Fay. 
With blare of bugle, clamor of men, 
Roll of cannon and clash of arms. 

Tennyson, Duke of Wellington. 

3. The bleat of a sheep, the bellowing of a 
calf, or the weeping of a child. [Prov. Eng.] 

blare 2 (blar), . [Origin unknown.] Naut., a 
paste of hair and tar used for calking the seams 
of boats. 

blare 3 (blar), . [Swiss.] A petty copper 
coin, of about the value of 2 cents, struck at 
Bern, Switzerland. 

Blarina (bla-ri'na), . [NL. ; a nonsense- 
name.] A genus of American shrews, with 32 
or 30 colored teeth, concealed ears, and short 
tail. It is the short-tailed mole-shrew of North America, 



blasphemy 





Blanquillo (Caittotatilits tnicrops . 



Mole-shrew (Blarina brrvicauda). 

of which there are several species, of two subgenera, Bla- 
rina proper, with 32 teeth, and Soriciscus, with 30 teeth. 
The best-known is B. brevieauda, the common mole- 
shrew of the United States, one of the largest of the fam- 
ily Soricidx. 

blarney (blar'ni), n. [Popularly referred to 
Castle Blarney, near Cork in Ireland, in the 
wall of which is a stone (the "Blarney stone") 
said to endow those who kiss it with unusual 
facility and unscrupulousness in the use of flat- 
tery and compliment.] Exceedingly compli- 
mentary language ; flattery; smooth, wheedling 
talk ; pleasing cajolery. 

The blarney 's so great a deceiver. 5. Lover. 

Madame de Stael was regretting to Lord Castlereagh 
that there was no word in the English language which 
answered to their "Sentiment." "No," he said, "there 
is no English word, but the Irish have one that corre- 
sponds exactly, blarney ! " Caroline Fox, Journal, p. 121. 



blarney (blar'ni), v.t. [< blarney, n.] To talk 

genus Caulolatilus and family LatiMce, such over or beguile by wheedling speeches; flatter; 
na r* ,./,.-,,.:..!,.. r< .,;,,....,... A ~ r* * . humbug with agreeable talk. 



, 

as C. chrysops, C. microps, or C. princeps. c. mi- 
crops is of moderately elongate form, and has 7 dorsal 
spines and 25 rays, is of a reddish color marked with yellow, 
and has a yellow band below the eyes and a dark axillary 
blotch. It inhabits the Caribbean sea and the southern 
coasts of Florida, and is esteemed for the table. C. prin- 
ceps is a closely related species, olivaceous with bluish re- 
flections, occurring along the southern Californian coast, 
where it is known as blanquillo and whitefish. 

Blaps (blaps), n. [NL.] A genus of beetles, 
generally referred to the family Tenebrionida, 
but by some taken as the type of a family 
Blapsid(B. Blaps mortisaga is a common European spe- 
cies, called churchyard beetle in 
Great Britain ; B. tmicmnnta is 
found in kitchens and cellars ; B. 
sulcata is dressed with butter and 
eaten by Egyptian women to make 
them grow fat. 

Blapsidse (blap'si-de), n. pi. 
[NL., < Slaps + -ida.] A 
family of atracheliate hete- 
romerous beetles, generally 
merged in Tenebrionidce, 
comprising nocturnal black- churchyard Beetle 
beetles of moderate size, the ( Ma !g e ' )l 




The General has yet to learn that my father's country- 
men (I have ever felt proud of my descent from an Irish- 
man), though they sometimes do blarney others, are yet 
hard to be blarneyed themselves. 

J. Buchanan, in Curtis, II. 63. 

blast, n. [Invented by Van Helmont (1577- 
1644). Cf. gas.] A subtle kind of matter sup- 
posed by Van Helmont, a Dutch mystic philos- 
opher, to be radiated from the stars and to 
produce effects opposite to those of heat. 

blase (bla-za'), a. [F.,pp. of blazer, cloy, satiate, 
blunt, of uncertain origin.] Exhausted by en- 
joyment, especially by sensuous pleasures; 
having the healthy energies exhausted ; weary 
and disgusted with life. 

blash (blash), v. t. [An imitative word, assimi- 
lated to plash, splash, dash, flash, etc.] 1. To 
dash or splash with a quantity of liquid ; drench . 
2. To pour in suddenly and in great quantity. 
[Scotch and North. Eng.] 

blash (blash), n. [< blash, v.] 1. A dash or 
plash, as of rain falling in sheets. 

A snaw storm came down frae the mountains, . . . noo 
a whirl, and noo a blash. J. Wilson, Noctes Ambros. 



wings of which are gener- 
ally obsolete and the elytra fused together. 
They frequent damp places, and when seized discharge in 
self-defense a liquid of a peculiar and penetrating odor. 
blare 1 (blar), v. ; pret. blared, ppr. blaring. [So. 
also blair, early mod. E. blear (Sc. bleir) ; < late 

ME. bleren, earlier bloren i(see blare*), and prob. _.. ,_,_. ^^,., 
laren, cry weep, = MD. blaren, blaeren, low, blashy (blasb/i), a. [< blash + -yi.] 1. Char- 
sat, = MLG. blarren, LG. blarren, blaren = actenzed by sudden drenching showers ; delug- 



. . , . 

2. A quantity of thin, watery stuff, especially 
an excessive quantity: as, a blash of tea. 3. A 
broad blaze or flare. 

[Prov. Eng. and Scotch.] 

Slash-boggart, a goblin who appears and disappears in 
a Hash. See bogr/ardi. [Scoteh.] 



ing; wet: as, blashy weather; blashy walking. 
2. Thin; weak; watery; of poor quality: ap- 
plied to food or drink. 
[Prov. Eng. and Scotch.] 

blasphematoryt (blas-fe'ma-to-ri), a. [< blas- 
pheme + -atory. Cf . LL. blasphemator, a blas- 
phemer.] Blasphemous. 

blasphemet (blas'fem), a. and n. 1 [ME., also 
blasfeme, < OF. blasfeme (mod. F. blaspheme), 

< ML. blasfemus, LL. blasphemus, < Gr. 
a<tiuof, evil-speaking, < /3/lao-, prob. for /3 
(cf. /3/ld^f, damage, injury, harm) (< /3/W;n-m>, 
damage, harm, injure), + QqfBi,- speech (= L. 
fama, fame), < $av<u = L. fart, speak.] I. a. 
Blasphemous. 

II. n. A blasphemer. Wyclif. 
blasphemet (blas'fem), n.2 [ME. blaspheme, 
blasfeme, blafeme, < OF. blafeme, blaspheme, 
mod. F. blaspheme = Pr. blaspheme, (. LL. blas- 
phemia (ML. also blasfemia), < Gr. f&aa<jn]nia, 
evil-speaking, < /JAar/^^of, evil-speaking : see 
blaspheme, a. From the same source, through 
the vernacular OF. blasme, comes E. blame, n., 
q. v.] Blasphemy. 

In blasfeme of this goddis. 

Chaucer, Envoy to Scogan, 1. 15. 

blaspheme (blas-fem'), v. ; pret. and pp. blas- 
phemed, ppr. blaspheming. [< ME. blasfemen, 

< OF. blasfemer, mod. F. blasphemer = Pr. Sp. 
blasfemar = Pg. blasphemar = Olt. blasfemare 
(mod. It. blastemiare, bestemmiare), < LL. blas- 
phemare, < Gr. p^aatpqiiteiv, speak evil of, </&d- 
o-^of, evil-speaking : see blaspheme, a. From 
the same verb, through the vernacular OF. blas- 
mer, comes E. blame, v., q. v.] I. trans. 1. To 
speak impiously or irreverently of (God or sa- 
cred things). See blasphemy. 

Thou didst blaspheme God and the king. 1 Ki. xxi. 10. 

God, how long shall the adversary reproach? shall the 

enemy blaspheme thy name for ever? Ps. Ixxiv. 10. 

So should thy goodness and thy greatness both 
Be question 'd and blasphemed without defence. 

Milton, P. L., iii. 16S. 

2. To speak evil of ; utter abuse or calumny 
against; speak reproachfully of. 

You do blaspheme the good, in mocking me. 

Shak., M. for M., i. 5. 

II. intrans. 1. To utter blasphemy; use pro- 
fane or impious words; talk profanely or dis- 
respectfully of God or of sacred things : follow- 
ed by against. 

He that shall blaspheme against the Holy Ghost hath 
never forgiveness. Mark iii. 29. 

2f. To rail; utter abusive words. Greene. 
[Bare.] 

blasphemer (blas-fe'mer), n. [< ME. blasfe- 
mere, < blasfemen, blaspheme.] One who blas- 
phemes ; one who speaks of God or of religion 
in impious and irreverent terms. 

Must . . . each blasphemer quite escape the rod, 
Because the insult's not on man but God? 

Pope, Epil. to Satires, ii. 195. 

blasphemeress (blas-fe'mer-es), n. [< Uas- 
phemer + -ess.] A female blasphemer. [Rare.] 
A diabolical blasphemeresge of God. 

Hall, Hen. VI., an. 9. 

blasphemous (blas'fe-mus), a. [< LL. blasphe- 
mus (ML. also blasfemus, > ME. blasfeme, blas- 
pheming, a blasphemer), < Gr. /3^aa<t>r/^of, evil- 
speaking: see blaspheme, a.] 1. Uttering, con- 
taining, or exhibiting blasphemy; impiously 
irreverent toward God or sacred things: as, 
" blasphemous publications," Bp. Porteus, Lec- 
tures, I. i. 

We have heard him speak blasphemous words against 
Moses and against God. Acts vi. 11. 

Mythologies ill understood at first, then perverted into 
feeble sensualities, take the place of representations of 
Christian subjects, which had become blasphemous under 
the treatment of men like the Caracci. Jiuskin. 

[Formerly accented on the second syllable, as below. 
Oh argument blasphemous, false, and proud ! 

Milton, P. L., v. 809.] 

2f. Abusive; defamatory; railing, 
blasphemously (blas'fe-mus-li), adv. Impi- 
ously; profanely. 

Terribly curseth and blasphemously sweareth he never 
committed any such act. Stow, Queen Mary, an. 1557. 

blasphemy (blas'fe-mi), .; pi. blasphemies 
(-miz). [< ME. blasfemie = Sp. blasfemia = Pg. 
blasphemia = Olt. blasfemia, < LL. blasphemici, < 
Gr. J3^aa<j>r/^ia,< [ftaafyiiiof : see blaspheme, a., blas- 
pheme, M. 2 ] 1. In Old Testament usage, any 
attempt to diminish the reverence with which 
Jehovah's name was invested as the Sovereign 
King of the Jews, or to turn the hearts of the 
people from their complete allegiance to him. 



blasphemy 

It was a crime answering to treason in our own time, and 
wan carefully defined an, I rigorously punished l>y the Mo- 
saic laws. It wag of thi,-* crime tliat Jesus wan a 
untl for it eomleimieil, because he assumed tlie divine 
character and accepted divine honors. 

For a good work wo stone thee not, but fur blasphemy ; 
and bcue that than, being a man, inakest thyself God. 

John x. Si. 

Hence 2. Any impious or profane speaking 
of God or of sacred things ; reproachful, con- 
temptuous, or irreverent words uttered impi- 
ously against God or religion. 

Hlas/ihemy is an Injury offered to God, by denying that 
which is due ainl heloriKing to him, or attributing to him 
that which is not agreeable to his nature. Limit!. 

Blasphemy mmiizable by common law is described by 
BUoUtojM to he "denying the being or providence of 
God, contumelious reproaches of our Saviour Christ, pro- 
fane scomng at the Iloly Scripture, or exposing it to con- 
tempt or ridicule " ; by Kent as " maliciously reviling 
God or religion"; and by Chief Justice Lemuel Shaw as 
" speaking evil of the Deity with an Impious purpose to 
derogate from the Divine Majesty, and to alienate the 
minds of others from the love and reverence of God." 
Blasphemy is punished as a crime or a misdemeanor by 
the laws of many nations. In the Roman Catholic Church, 
language irreverent toward the Virgin Mary and the 
saints is also held to be blasphemy. 
3. Evil speaking or abusive language against 
anything held sacred: as, "blasphemy against 
learning," Bacon, Advancement of Learning, i. 
(Latham.) 4. An indecent or scurrilous ut- 
terance, as distinguished from fair and respect- 
ful discussion; grossly irreverent or outrage- 
ous language. 

That in the captain's but a choleric word, 
Which in the soldier is Hat blasphemy. 

Shak., M. for M., il. 2. 

fit. A blasphemer; a blasphemous person. 
[Bare.] 

Now, blasphemy, 
That swear st grace o'erboard, not an oath on shore. 

Shot., Tempest, v. 1. 

= Syn. Blasphemy, Profanity, agree in expressing the ir- 
reverent use of words, but the former is the stronger, and 
the latter the wider. Profanity is language irreverent to- 
ward God or holy things, covering especially all oaths that, 
literally interpreted, treat lightly the attributes or acts of 
God. Blasphemy is generally more direct, intentional, and 
defiant in its impiety, and is directed toward the moat sa- 
cred things in religion. 

And he [the dragon] opened his month in blasphemy 
against God, to blaspheme his name, and his tabernacle, 
and them that dwell in heaven. Rev. xiii. 6. 

If indecency and profanity, inspired by "potations pot- 
tle-deep," were heard anywhere with peculiar emphasis 
and shameless vociferation, it was at the board of Eng- 
land's prime minister [Sir Robert Walpole}. 

Whipple, H. Fielding. 

blast (blast), n. [< ME. Wast, blest, < AS. bliest 
(=OHG. blast, MHG. G. blast = Icel. blastr= Sw. 
blast = Dan. blcest), a gust of wind, a blowing, 
< 'bliesan (= D. blazen = MLG. blasen = OHG. 
bldsan, MHG. blasen, G. blasen = Icel. bldsa = 
Sw. HAsa = Dan. 6tee=Goth. blesan (in comp.), 
blow, breathe, > E. blaze^, q. v.), akin to old- 
wan, blow: see blow 1 , v. Perhaps ult. connect- 
ed with AS. blamt, a flame, W<w. a flame, > E. 
blaze 1 , q. v.] 1. A blowing ; a gust or puff of 
wind ; especially, a strong and sudden gust. 
Rede that boweth downe at every Matt. 

Chaucer, Trollus, ii. 
Blasts that blow the poplar white. 

Tennyson, In Memoriam, Ixxii. 

2. A forcible stream of air from the mouth, 
from bellows, or the like. 

At the blast of his mouth were the rest of the creatures 
made, and at his bare word they started out of nothing. 
.v/;- T. Broime, Religio Medici, 1. 36. 

Hence 3. A jet of exhaust-steam thrown into 
a smoke-stack to assist the draft. 4. In metal., 
the air forced into a furnace for the purpose of 
accelerating combustion. A furnace Is said to be n 
blagt when it is in operation, out of blast when stopped, 
either temporarily or permanently. 

5. The sound made by blowing a wind-instru- 
ment, as a horn or trumpet ; strictly, the sound 
produced by one breath. 

One Mast upon his bugle-horn 
Were worth a thousand men. 

Scott, L. of the L., vi. 18. 

6. Any sudden, pernicious, or destructive in- 
fluence upon animals or plants ; the infection 
of anything pestilential ; a blight. 

Blast* and fogs upon thee ! Shot., Lear, L 4. 

Of no distemper, of no blast he died, 

But fell like autumn fruit that mellowed long. 

Dryiien, (Edipus, Iv. 1 

Hence 7. Any withering or destructive in- 
fluence ; a curse. 
By the blast of God they perish. Job iv. 9. 

8. The product of a blast or blight ; a bud which 
never blossoms. 



579 

As in all gardeins, some flowers, some weedes, and as in 
al trees, some blossom*, some Masts. 

Lyly, Euphues, Anat. of Wit, p. 19fl. 

9. The charge of gunpowder or other explosive 
used at one firing in blasting operations. 

10. The explosion of inflammable air in a 
mine. 11. A flatulent disease in sheep. 12. 
A smoke of tobacco. [Scotch.] At one Mast, at 

in, . For a blast*, for once. Hot blast, air raised to a 
high temperature and forced into a blast-furnace in smelt- 
ing, and especially in the manufacture of pig-iron. The 
plan of heating the blast originated with Mr. James Beau- 
mont Neilson of Glasgow, and a patent was issued to him 
in 1828. The Introduction of the hot blast has had an im- 
portant influence on the development of the iron busi- 
ness, since by this method the amount of fuel required Is 
considerably lessened. In full blast, in full operation 
referring to a blast-furnace when worked to its fullest ex- 
tent or capacity. 

The business of the day was in full blast. 

C. D. Warner, Roundabout Journey, p. 166. 

- Syn. Gust, etc. See wind, n. 

blast (blast), r. [< ME. Hasten, blow, breathe 
hard ; trans., blow, as a trumpet ; < blast, a blow- 
ing: see liln.it, n.] I. intrans. 1. To blow; puff; 
breathe hard ; pant. [Scotch and Middle Eng- 
lish.] 

Dragouns . . . 

That grisely whlstleden and blatten 
And of her mouthe fyre outcuten. 

Kiny Alisaunder, 1. 6348. 
To puffen and to blast f. 

Chaucer, House of Fame, 1. 1866. 

2. To smoke tobacco. [Scotch.] 3. To boast; 
brag; speak ostentatiously. Scott. [Scotch.] 

4. To wither; be blighted. 

Blasting in the bud, 
Losing his verdure, even in the prime. 

Shot., T. G. of V., 1. 1. 

5. To burst as by an explosion ; blow up. 

This project 

Should have a back, or second, that might hold, 
If this should blast In proof. Shot., Hamlet, Iv. 7. 

II. 'ran*. If. To blow forth or abroad; 
hence, to utter loudly; proclaim. 2. To break 
or tear to pieces (rocks or similar materials) by 
the agency of gunpowder or other explosive. 
In the ordinary operations of mining the rocks are at- 
tacked, or broken into fragments of manageable size, by 
blasting. 

He spoke ; and, high above, I heard them blast 
The steep slate-quarry. Tennyson, Golden Year. 

3. To confound or stun by a loud blast or din ; 
split; burst. [Rare.] 

Trumpeters, 
With brazen din blast you the city's ear. 

Shale., A. and C., iv. 8. 
I have seen you stand 
As you were blasted 'midst of all your mirth. 

Beau, and Fl., Maid's Tragedy, iii. 2. 

4. To blow or breathe on so as to injure, as 
a sudden gust or destructive wind; cause to 
fade, shrivel, or wither; check the growth of 
and prevent from coming to maturity and pro- 
ducing fruit ; blight, as trees or plants. 

Seven thin ears, and blasted with the east wind. 

Gen. xli. 6. 
Say . . . why 
Upon this blasted heath you stop our way? 

Shot., Macbeth, L 3. 
Since this I live to see, 
Some bitter north wind Hast my flocks and me ! 

Fletcher, Faithful Shepherdess, iii. 1. 

5. To blight or cause to come to nothing, as by 
some pernicious influence ; bring destruction, 
calamity, or infamy upon ; ruin : as, to blast 
pride, hopes, reputation, happiness. 

With Hecate's ban thrice blasted. Shot., Hamlet, 111. _'. 

The prosecutor urged that this might Mast her reputa- 
tion, and that it was in effect a boasting of favours which 
he had never received. Attitimii, Cases of False Delicacy. 

He shows himself . . . malicious if he knows I deserve 
credit and yet goes about to Mast it. Stillinyjteet. 

6. To curse; strike with the wrath of heaven. 

His name be ever blasted ! 
For his accursed shadow has betrmy'd 
The sweetness of all youth. 

Fletcher, Double Marriage, T. 1 

Calling on their Maker to curse them, . . . Malt them, 
and damn them. Macaulay, Hist Eng., lit. 

blast-, -blast. See blasta-. 

Blastactinota (blas-tak-ti-no'ta), n. pi. [NL., 
< Gr. BOmnttt a germ (see blasius), + iuertvu/r^, 
furnished with rays : see actinote.] A class of 
radiate animals: same as Blastoidea. Bronn, 
1860. 

blastaea (blas-te'S), . [NL., < Gr. /ttooror, a 
germ: see blastus.} The hypothetical parent 
form of the Blast&ida. 
We call this the Planaea or Klastoea. 

llaeckel, Kvol. of Man (trans.), II. 61. 

blastsead (blas-te'ad), n. [< blasttfa + -o<Jl.] 
1. Same as blasta-id. 2. One of certain exis- 



blasting 

tent animals, as the Norwegian llimmer-ball, 
which permanently resemble a blastula or pla- 
nula. 

blastaeid (blas-te'id), n. One of the hypotheti- 
cal Htiixta'idte. 

Blastaeida (blas-te'i-de), n. /. [NL., < blas- 
tcea + -a In . \ A hypothetical group of animals 
having permanently the form of a blastula, 
planula, or vesicular morula. Less correctly 
written Blagtamdtx. 

blast-box (blast'boks), n. A chamber into 
or through which the air of a blowing-engine 
passes. 

These hearers may connect at their front ends In any 
desired manner with the blast-pipe, and at their rear ends 
with a Mast-lioje. Un, Diet., IV. 468. 



blasted (l)lHs't cd ),/... 1. Confounded; exe- 
crable; detestable: used as a milder form of 
imprecation than damned. 

Some of her own blasted gypsies. 

Scott, Guy Mannering, II. 13. 

2. In In- 1:, deprived of leaves: said of a tree 
or a branch. 

blastelasma (blas-te-las'mS). n. ; pi. blastelas- 
mata (-ma-tft). [NL., < Gr. /ttaorof, a germ (see 
<x), + 'lfaa/ia, a (metal) plate, < cfaiiveiv 
, drive, strike, beat out.] In embryol., a 
secondary germ-layer ; a germ-layer, as the 
mespderm, appearing, if at all, after the for- 
mation of the two primary layers called en- 
dodenn and ectoderm, or blastophylla. 

blastema (blas-te'ma), n. ; pi. btastemata (-ma- 
tft). [NL., < Gr. fiManitia, a shoot, sprout, 
< fihaarelv. jftjaar&vtiv. sprout, bud, shoot.] 1. 
In lint. : (a) Originally, the axis of an embryo, 
consisting of the radicle and the growing- 
point at its summit, (b) In later use, the ini- 
tial point of growth from which any organ or 
part of an organ is developed, (c) Sometimes, 
the thai Ins of cryptogamous plants. 2. In 
iinat. and phys., the bioplasm or protoplasm of 
a germinating ovum; the substance of the 
blastomeres, blastoderm, etc. ; granular forma- 
tive material. [The term is now being super- 
seded by more special names of substances 
and stages of germination.] 

blastemal (blas-te'mal), a. [< blastema + -al.] 
Of or pertaining to blastema; rudimentary: as, 
blastemal formations. 

blastematic (blas-te-mat'ik), a. Blastemic. 

blastemlc (blas-tem'ik), a. [< blastema + -e.] 
Pertaining to blastema; consisting of blas- 
tema ; bioplasmic ; bioplastic. 

blast-engine (blast'en'jin), . 1. A ventilat- 
ing-macnine used, especially on shipboard, to 
draw off foul air. 2. A machine for producing 
a blast by compressing air for use m urging 
the fire of a furnace. 

blaster (blas'ter), n. One who or that which 
blasts, in any sense of the verb. 

I am no blaster of a lady's beauty, 

Nor bold intruder on her special favours. 

Fletcher, Rule a Wife, L 1. 

Blasteroidea (blas-te-roi'de-a), n. pi. [NL.] 
Same as Blastoidea. 

blastful (blast'ful), a. [< blast + -//.] Full 
of blasts ; exposed to blasts ; windy. 

blast-furnace (blast 'fer'nas), n. A furnace, 
usually vertical, or a so-called shaft-furnace, 
in which ores are smelted by the aid of a blast 
of air. See furnace. 

blast-gate (blast'gat), n. The valved nozle or 
stop-cock of a blast-pipe. 

blast-hearth (bl&st'harth), n. The Scotch ore- 
hearth for reducing lead ores. 

blast-hole (blast :'hol), n. 1. In mining, the 
hole through which water enters the bottom or 
wind-bore of a pump. 2. The hole into which 
a cartridge is inserted in blasting. 

blasti, . Plural of blastus. 

blastide (blas'tid or -tid), n. [< Gr. /ftaorof, 
a germ, + -iVfe 2 .] In biol., a minute clear 
space on the segments of the fecundated ovum 
of an organism, which is the primary indica- 
tion of the cytoblast or nucleus. 

blastie (blas'ti), n. [< blast + dim. -te.] A 
blasted or shriveled dwarf ; a wicked or trouble- 
some creature. Burns. [Scotch.] 

blasting (bias' ting), n. [< ME. blastynge ; verbal 
n. otblast, v.] 1. A blast; destruction by a 
pernicious cause ; blight. 

I have smitten you with biastinff and mildew. 

Amo IT. 8. 

2. The operation of splitting rocks by gun- 
powder or other explosive Blasting-corn pounds, 

substances used in blasting. The more important are 



blasting 

guncotton, blasting-gelatin, blasting-powder, dunlin, dyna- 
mite, gunpowder, haloxj lin, and lithofracteur. See these 
words. 

blasting (blas'ting), p. a. [Ppr. of blast, v.] 
Affecting with injury or blight ; destructive. 

A blasting and a scandaluus breath. 

Sliah., M. for M., v. 1. 

blasting-cartridge (blas'ting-kar'trij), . A 
cartridge containing a substance to be used in 
blasting. Such cartridges are made with various de- 
vices to prevent premature explosion, and are commonly 
exploded by means of electricity. 

blasting-fuse (blas'ting-fuz), . A fuse con- 
sisting of a cord the axis of which has been 
filled with fine powder during the manufacture. 
This burns slowly and gives the workmen time 
to get to a safe distance before the explosion. 

blasting-gelatin (bias ' ting -jel" a- tin), n. A 
blasting-compound consisting of 7 parts of gun- 
cotton and 4 of camphor dissolved in 89 parts 
of nitroglycerin. Also called nitrogelatin and 
explosive gelatin. 

blasting-needle (blas'tin^-ne*dl), n, A slen- 
der, tapering rod which is inserted into the 
powder and kept in its place during the opera- 
tion of tamping, in preparing a blast, its object 
is to preserve a channel through which the match may 
reach the powder or other explosive. At the present day 
the use of the needle is almost entirely done away with, 
the so-called safety-fuse, or simply fuse, being used in its 
place. Also called, in England, a sternmer. 

blasting-oil (blas'ting-oil), n. Same as nitro- 
glycerin. 

blasting-tube (blas'ting-tub), n. India-rubber 
tubing employed to hold a charge of nitro- 
glycerin. 

blast-lamp (blast'lamp), n. A. lamp in which 
combustion is assisted by an artificially pro- 
duced draft of air. 

blastmentt (blast'ment), n. [< blast, v., + 
-merit.] Blast; a sudden stroke of some de- 
structive cause. 

In the morn and liquid dew of youth 
Contagious blastments are most imminent. 

Shak., Hamlet, 1. 3. 

blast-meter (blast'me''ter), n. An anemome- 
ter placed at the nozle of a blowing-engine. 

blast-nozle, blast-orifice (blast'noz"!, -oi'i- 
fis), n. The fixed or variable orifice in the 
delivery end of a blast-pipe. 

blasto-. [< Gr. /3/krorof , a germ, sprout, shoot : 
see blastus.] An element in technical terms 
meaning germ: written before a vowel blast-, 
also terminally -blast. 

blastocarpous (blas-to-kar'pus), a. [< Gr. Q/JI- 
<?r6f, a germ, sprout, 'shoot, sucker, equiv. to 
ffoaarriiia (see blastema), + /co/Mrof, fruit.] In 
bo t., germinating inside the pericarp: applied 
to certain fruits, such as the mangrove. 

blastocheme (blas'to-kem), w. [< Gr. /Waordf, 
germ, + l>X1^a, yenicle, < bx&v, carry, hold, 
sustain, freq. of ix etv t hold, have.] In zool., 
one of the special generative buds of the Me- 
dusa?; a medusiform planoblast which gives 
origin to the generative elements, not directly, 
but through the medium of special sexual buds 
which are developed from it. Allman. 
. blastoccele (blas'to-sel), n. [< Gr. p'Aaarof, a 
germ, + KoiAof, hollow.] In embryol., the cavity 



580 



bias' 




Free-swimming Ciliated Embryo (Plamila) of Ascttta mirabilit, 
one of the Calcispongia. outside and in optical longitudinal section. 
e, epiblast ; t, hypoblast ; v, blastocoele. 

of a vesicular morula; the hollow interior of 

a blastula or blastosphere. Bee gastrulation. 

Also blastoccelom, blastoccetoma. 
The ovum, after impregnation, becomes a morula, with 

n central cleavage-cavity, or blastoccele. 

Huxley, Anat. Invert., p. 106. 
blastocoelic (blas-to-se'lik), a. [< blastoccele + 

-c.] In embryol, pertaining to a blastocoele; 

contained in a blastocoele: as, a blastoccelic fluid, 
blastocoelqm, blastocoeloma (blas-to-se'lom, 

bias " to - se - 16 ' ma), n. [NL. blastocaloma, as 

blastocoele + -om.] Same as blastocoele. 
blastocolla (blas-to-kol'a), n. [NL., < Gr. 

/ttaorof, a germ, + x&Ua. glue.] The balsam 

covering the leaf-buds of some plants, as of 

Populus balsamifera. 



Itocyst (blas'to-sist), . [< Gr. /Jaaordf, a 
germ, + /ci>orif, bladder (cyst).] The germinal 
vesicle. N. E. D. See blastoderm. 

blastoderm (blas'tp-denn), n. [< Gr. /3/la<rrof, 
a germ, + dtp/m, skin : see derm.] In embryol., 
the primitive membrane or layer of cells re- 
sulting from the subdivision of the germ (the 
segmentation of the vitellus or yolk), it is further 
differentiated in all Metazoa into at least two membranes 
or cell-layers, an inner and an outer, the eudoderm and 
the ectoderm ; and still further modified in most Metazoa 
by the production of a third layer, the mesoderm, between 
the other two. The outer layer is also called epiblast ; the 
inner, hypoblast ; the middle, mesoblast. See extract un- 
der Metazoa, and cut under cyathozooul. 

blastoderma (blas-to-der'ma), n. ; pi. blastoder- 
mata (-ma-ta). [NL'.] Same as blastoderm. 

blastodermal (blas-to-der'mal), a. [< blasto- 
derm + -a?.] Same as blasto'dermie. 

blastodermata, . Plural of blastoderma. 

blastodermatie (blas"to-der-mat'ik), a. [< blas- 
toderma(t-) + -c.] Saine as blastodermic. 

blastodermic (blas-to-der'mik), a. [< blasto- 
derm + -ic.~] Of or pertaining to the blastoderm. 
Also blastodermal, blastodermatic Blastodermic 
disk, in embryol., the germ-disk of an impregnated mero- 
blastic egg which has undergone segmentation of the vitel- 
lus ; a flattened morula capping a portion of the food-yolk. 
Blastodermic membrane, the blastoderm. Blasto- 
dermic vesicle, the vesicular blastoderm in mammalian 
embryos. 

blastodisc (bias ' to -disk), n. [< Gr. /3/laordf, a 
germ, + d/raoc, a disk : see disk?] An aggrega- 
tion of formative protoplasm at one pole of the 
fertilized ovum. 

The fertilised ovum . . . consists of a ... yolk, at 
one pole of which is a mass of protoplasm forming the 
blastodisc. 

J. T. Cunningham, Microscopical Science, No. ci. 5. 

blastogenesis (blas-to-jen'e-sis), . [< Gr. 
/JAaorof, a germ, + ytveou;, generation.] In biol., 
reproduction by gemmation or budding. 

blastogeny (blas-toj'e-ni), n. [< Gr. /3/uzorof, a 
germ, + -jheta, generation: see -geny.~] The 
germ-history of an individual living organism; 
the history of the evolution of a body as a 
whole, as distinguished from histogeny and or- 
ganogeny, which relate to the special germ-his- 
tory of the tissues and organs. It is a term used 
by Haeckel for one of the subdivisions of morphogeny, it- 
self a division of ontogeny. 

blastoid (blas'toid), a. and n. [See Blastoidea.] 
I. a. Having the characters of or pertaining 
to the Blastoidca : as, a blastoid crinoid. 

II. n. An echinoderm of the group Blas- 
toidea. 

Blastoidea (blas-toi'de-ii), n. pi. [NL., < Gr. 
/3/uz<7Top, a germ, -t- etoof, form.] A group of 
fossil pelmatozoan echinoderms without arms, 
with ambulacra fringed on each side by pointed 
appendages in close relation with side-plates, 
which rest on or against a subambulacral lan- 
cet-plate pierced by a canal which lodges a 
water-vessel, and with hydrospires arranged in 
10 or 8 groups limited to the radial and inter- 
radial plates. The group was (a) originally proposed 
by Say in 1825 as a family ; (i>) accepted by Leuckart in 1848 
as an order ; (c) by Roemer in 1852 as a suborder ; (d) by 
Brown in 1860 as a class ; (e) by others as a subclass ; and 
(/) modified by Etheridge and Carpenter in 1886 as a 
class divided into two orders, Segulares and Irregulares. 
The species range from the Upper Silurian to the Car- 
boniferous. Also Blasteroidea. 

blastomere (blas'to-mer), n. [< Gr. /3/Wrdf, 
a germ, + ptpof, a part.] In embryol., one of 
the segments or derivative cells into which the 
vitellus or yolk of an ovum of one of the Meta- 
zoa divides after fecundation. See cut under 
gastrulation. 

blastomeric (blas-to-mer'ik), a. [< blastomere 
+ -ic.~\ Pertaining' to or of the nature of a 
blastomere ; characterized by segmentation of 
the yolk or vitellus. 

blastoneuropore (blas-to-nu'ro-por), n. [< 
blastp(pore) + neuropore."] A transient ori- 
fice in the embryo of some animals, resulting 
from the fusion of a neuropore with the blasto- 
pore. See neuropore. 

blastophore (blas'to-for), n. [< Gr. jUaaro^, a 
germ, + -Qopof, -bearing, < Qtpetv = E. Sear*.] 
The passive portion of a sperm-cell or spermo- 
spore which does not give rise to spermatozoa. 

blastophyllum (blas-to-fil'um), n. ; pi. blasto- 
phylla (-a). [NL., < Gr. /Waorof, a germ, + 
0M?.m> = L. folium, a leaf.] In embryol., either 
one of the two primary germ-layers of a gas- 
trula of the Metazoa; an endodenn or an ecto- 
derm. 

blastophyly (blas-tof'i-li), . [< Gr. /JXaordf, 
a germ, + (j>v?.t/, tribe.] The tribal history of 
persons or of individual living organisms. 
Haeckfl. 



blastus 

BlastopOlypidse (bias " to -po- lip' i-de), n. pi. 
[NL., < "Slastopolypus (<'Gr.'/3/.ao-rdV, a germ, + 
Kokinrovt, polyp) + -tcte.] A family of Sydro- 
polypince, f orming colonies of zooids, which at- 
tain different shapes, adapting themselves to 
different parts of the work that has to be per- 
formed by the whole. There are always alimentary 
zooids or trophosomes and generative zooids or polypo- 
styles in one colony. The alimentary zooids never mature 
the genital products, this duty devolving exclusively on 
the polypostyles. 

blastoporal (blas-to-po'ral), a. [< blastopore 
+ -a/.] Of or pertaining to a blastopore ; blas- 
toporie. 

blastopore (blas'to-por), n. [< Gr. /Wanrof, 
germ, + mipof, passage, pore.] In embryol., 
the aperture of mvagmation of a blastula or 
vesicular morula which has become a gastrula ; 
the orifice of an archenterou; the primitive 
combined mouth and anus of a gastrtea-f orm ; 
an archreostoma. See cut under gastrulation. 

As this unfolding, or invaginatipn of the blastoderm, 
goes on, the pouch thus produced increases, while its ex- 
ternal opening, termed the bloilopore, . . . diminishes in 
size. Huxley, Crayfish, p. 209. 

blastoporic (blas-to-por'ik), a. [< blastopore 
+ -jc.j Pertaining to a blastopore: as, & blas- 
toporic area. A. Hyatt. 

blast-orifice, n. See blast-nozle. 

blastospnaera (blas-to-sfe'ra), n.; pi. blasto- 
sphxra! (-re). [NL.] ' Same as blastosphere. 

blastosphere (blas'to-sfer), n. [< NL. blasto- 
sphara, < Gr. /3/kz<rrdfJ germ, + a<j>alpa, sphere.] 
In embryol.: (a) A hollow sphere (vesicular 
morula) composed of a single layer of blasto- 
meres or derivative cells, inclosing a central 
cavity or blastoCfflle. The blastomeres of one hemi- 
sphere of the vesicle may have proceeded from the macro- 
mere ; of the other, from a micromere. See these words. 
The blastomeres arrange themselves into a hollow 
sphere, the blaitosphere. Huxley, Anat. Invert., p. 415. 

(6) By Haeckel restricted to the {*erm-vesicle, 
vesicular embryo, or blastodermic vesicle of 
the Mammalia, which follows after gastrula- 
tion, and is called by him a gastrocystis, or in- 
testinal germ-vesicle. Also called blastula. 

blastospneric (blas-tp-sfer'ik), a. [< blasto- 
sphere + -ic.] Pertaining to a blastosphere: 
as, blastospheric cells. 

blastostylar (blas-to-sti'lar), a. [< blastostyle 
+ -ar.~\ Pertaining' to a blastostyle. 

blastostyle (blas'to-stil), n. [< Gr. /3/aordf, a 
germ, + orivlof, a pillar: see style 2 ."] In zool., 
a columniform zooid destined to give origin to 
generative buds ; a long simple zooid, without 
mouth or tentacles. Also called gonoblastidium. 
In some blastostylea, during the development of the 
buds- of the gonophores, the ectoderm splits into two 
layers. . . . Into the interspace between these two, the 
budding gonophores project, and may emerge from the 
summit of the gonangium thus formed. 

Huxley, Anat. Invert., p. 119. 

blast-pipe (blast'pip), n. The exhaust-pipe of 
a Steam-engine. In locomotives and in some station- 
ary steam-engines it is directed into the smoke-stack, 
with the effect of inducing a strong draft. 

blast-recorder (blast're-k&r'der), . A con- 
trivance for recording automatically the time 
during which a hot-blast stove is in blast or 
Out of blast. It is operated by clockwork, and is de- 
signed to give an uninterrupted record of the work and 
rest of a number of stoves for a week. 

blast-regulator (blast'reg /i 'u-la-tqr), n. In 
milling, a governor for controlling the blast of 
a grain-separator. 

blastula (bias 'tu- la), n. ; pi. blastula: (-le). 
[NL., dim. of Gr. /fAaorof, a germ: see blas- 
tus."] In embryol. : (a) An embryo of one of the 
Metazoa, in the stage in which it consists of 
a sac formed of a single layer of cells. (6) In 
Haeckel's vocabulary of embryology, same as 
blastosphere, (b). 

blastulapore (blas'tu-la-por), . [Prop. *blas- 
tulopore, < NL. blasiiilajq. v., + L. porus, pore.] 
The pore or orifice of a blastula. 

blastulation (blas-tu-la'shon), . [< blastula + 
-ation."\ In embryol., the process by which a 
germ becomes a blastula ; the conversion of a 
germ into a blastula. See blastula. in most ani- 
mals it precedes the process of gastrnlation (which see), 
and consists in the conversion of a solid mulberry-mass of 
cleavage-cells (morula proper) into a hollow sphere or 
blastosphere (vesicular morula). In case it follows gas- 
trulation, as in a mammal, it consists in the conversion of 
what is called a kinogenetic metajtastrula (which see) into 
a physiologically similar but morphologically different 
hollow ball, commonly known as the bl'astodermic vesicle. 

blastus (blas'tus), n.; pi. blasti (-ti). [NL., < 
Gr. jUXatrnif, a germ, bud, sprout, shoot, < PAO- 
araveiv (/JAacrr-), bud, sprout, grow, prop, of 
plants, but also of animals.] In bot., the 
plumule of grasses. 



blasty 



blasty (blas'ti), a. [< bluet + -u 1 .} 1. Stormy ; 
gusty: as, a blasty day. [Prov. Eng. and 
Scotch.] 2. Causing a blast or blight upon 
vegetation : as, "a blasty noon," Boyle, Works, 
III. 154. 

blatancy (bla' tan-si), . [< blatant: see -ancy.} 
Blatant quality. 

blatant (bla'tant), a. [Also written blattanl ; 
one of Spenser's words, in blatant beast, per- 
haps a mere alliterative invention ; otherwise 
intended for 'blatund, Sc. blaitaiid, archaic 
ppr. til' li/iiti'-i, vnr. of bleat.'] Bellowing; bawl- 
ing; noisy; loud-talking or loud-sounding. 



y, ttmt blatant wont, whicl) tiauiiU some military 
initi'K like the bray of the trumpet. Irving. 

Blatant (or blattant) beast, calumny ; scandal : sym- 
bolized I'y spciisiT us a dreadful fiend, with a thousand 
tongues, iK'KotU'ii of Cerberus and Chhmcra. Spenter, 

r. Q., vi. i. 7. 

The Isle of Dogges where the frlutnnt beast doth rule 
anil ralgne. Return /rmn Parnattua (1806), v. 4. 

blatantly (bla'tant-li), adv. In a blatant man- 
ner. 

blatcht, [< ME. blacche, appar. < AS. "blcecce 
(not found), < blur, black: see blui-k, and cf. 
lilftcli.] Blacking. 

blatcht, v. t. [< ME. "blacchen, bUecehen ; from 
the noun. Cf. black, v., and bletch, v. Not con- 
nected with blotch, q. v.] To smear with black- 
ing; black. 

No man can like to be smutted and Matched in his face. 
Uartnar, tr. of Beza'g Sermons, p. 195. 

blate 1 (Mat), a. [Formerly also written blait, 
bleat; appar. < ME. (Sc.) blate, < AS. bldt, 
pale, ghastly; cf. OHO. bleizza, lividness.] 
If. Pale; ghastly. 2f. Dull; spiritless; stu- 
pid. 3f. Blunt; curt. 4. Bashful; diffident. 
[North. Eng. and Scotch.] 

The youngster's artless heart o'erflows wi' joy, 
But blate and laithfu' scarce can weel behave. 

Burm, Cottar's Saturday Night. 
Says Lord Mark Car, " Ye are na blate 
To bring us the news o' your ain defeat 
Get out o' my sight tins morning." 

Jacobite Ballad, Johnnie Cope. 

blate 2 (blat), a. [Also written blait; appar. 
< ME. blete, naked, bare, < AS. bleat, miserable 
(naked!), = OFries. blat, NPries. bleat, naked, 
miserable, = MD. blot, D. bloot, naked, bare, = 
MLG. blot, naked, bare, miserable, mere, = 
OHG. MHO. bloz, G. blosa, naked, bare, mere. 
Cf. bloft.~\ Naked; bare. [Scotch.] 

blate 8 (blat), v. ; pret. and pp. blated, ppr. Mat- 
ing. [Appar. a dial. var. of bleat (formerly 
pron. as blate). Cf. blatant.'] I. inh-nnx. To 
babble ; prate. 

II. trans. To babble or prate about. 
He blates to me what has passed between other people 
and him. P'py>, Diary (ed. 1879), IV. 46. 

blateratet, v. . [< L. blateratns, pp. of blate- 
rare, babble. Cf. blatter."] To babble. 

blateration (blat-e-ra'shon), n. [< LL. blate- 
ratio(n-), < L. blaterare, babble: see blaterate."] 
Senseless babble. [Bare.] 

blather (blaTH'er), v. i. [Sc. also blether, = 
Icel. bladhra, talk inarticulately, talk nonsense 
(bladhr, nonsense), =G. dial, bladdern, talk non- 
sense ; partly imitative, and the same as blat- 
ter, q. v.] To talk nonsense. 

blather (blaTH'er), n. [So. also blether; cf. 
Icel. bladhr, nonsense; from the verb.] 1. 
Nonsense; foolish talk. 2. A person who 
talks nonsense. 

blatherskite (bhmi'er-slrit), n. [Also in Sc. 
blethers/cite, bletherskate; < blather, blether, + 
skate, a term of contempt.] 1. One who talks 
nonsense in a blustering war; a blusterer. 
Hence 2. A good-for-nothing fellow; a 
"beat." [Scotch and Amer.] 

blathery fbla^H'e-ri), a. and . [So., < blather 
+ -y 1 .] I. a. Unsubstantial ; trashy. 

II. n. That which is unsubstantial, trashy, 
or deceptive. . 

Blatta 1 (blat'a), n. [L., an insect that shuns the 
light, a cockroach, etc.] 1. The typical genus 
of the family Blattida;: formerly coextensive 
with the family, but now greatly restricted. 
Thus, the cockroach or common black-beetle, introduced 
from the East into Europe and America, is Blatta (Peri- 
plnncta) oriental!*. See cut under Blattid<r. 
2. [/. c.] A member of this genus. 

blatta 2 (blat'ii), n. [ML.] A purple silk inter- 
woven with gold, used in the early middle ages. 
Rock, Textile Fabrics. 

blatteant (blat'e-an), a. [< blatta^ + -ean.] 
Purple ; of a purple color. 

blatter (Wafer), . . [= G. dial, blattern, 
bladdern, prate ; cf . L. blaterare, blacterare, talk 
nonsense, blatire, babble (cf. blaterate) ; cf. 
blather, blate 3 , bleat, blab, blabber, babble, brab- 




ganglia ; a, mouth : *, eso- 
phagus ; t, ingluvies or 
crop ; et, proventriculus ; 
e, pyloric ca-ca : /, chylific 
ventricle ; g, insertion of 
Malpi^hian C.EC.I ; A. in- 
testine : i, rectum ; 1, salt* 
vary receptacle ; L sali- 
vary Rlanu ; lt>. labrum ; 
cerebral ganglia; v. 
-, cercL 



vulva ; . 



581 

bit, prattle, etc., all more or less imitative.] 1. 
To give forth or produce a quick succession of 
slight sounds; patter: as, "the rain lilutti //," 
Jeffrey. 2. To speak or prate volubly; rail or 
rage. [Bare.] 

However envy list to blatter 
against him 

Spenter, State of Ireland. 

blatter (blat'er), n. [< blat- 

'</. r.} 1. A rattling or clat- 
tering noise (as of boards 

falling). 2. A volley of 

clattering words, 
blatterer (blat'er-er), . 

One who blatters; a noisy 

blustering boaster, 
blattering (blat'er-ing), n. 

[Verbal n. of blatter, v.} 

Senseless blustering, 
blatteroont (blat-e-ron'), n. 

f < L. blatero(n-), a babbler, 

< blaterare, babble : see blat- 
ter.'} A senseless babbler. 

I trusted T. P. with a weighty se- 
cret, conjuring him that it should 
not take air and go abroad, . . . 
but It went out of him the very 
next day. ... I hate such blat- 
teroont. lloicfU, Letters, II. 75. 

Blattidae (blat'i-de), n. pi. 
[NL., < Blatta 1 + -idee.] A 
family of cursorial orthop- 
terous insects, the cock- 
roaches, coextensive with 
the division Blattina or sub- 
order Cursoria, or even the 
order Dicty op tera. They have a idi"iViV.'bdominisc 
flattened, lengthened, ovate body, "tfonofiioart^lv'tnor'aci 
with head retracted into the large 
shield-like prothorax; long, fila- 
mentous, many-jointed antenna? ; 
long, strong cursorial legs, with 
setose tiliiiu ; 5-jointed tarsi, with 
an accessory joint or plantula be- 
tween the claws ; large coriaceous 
fore wings which overlap, and 
longitudinal folded hlud wings, 
both sometimes undeveloped In 
females. The genera, species, and Individuals are numer- 
ous, and are found in all parts of the world. Some attain 
a very large size in the tropics. They are mostly noc- 
turnal, or lire in dark places, and most of them are 
omnivorous. When numerous they cause much annoy- 
ance and injury, as in bakeries, granaries, etc. See also 
cut under Jnsecta. 

blattiform (blat'i-fdrm), a. [< L. blatta, a 
cockroach, T forma, form.] Having the form 
of a blatta or cockroach. 

Blattina (bla-ti'nft), . pi. [NL., < Blatta 1 + 
-ina 2 .] A group of cursorial orthopterous in- 
sects, including only the family Blattida: : same 
as Cursoria, 2. 

blattoid (blat'oid), a. [< Blatta 1 + -aid.} Per- 
taining to or having the characteristics of the 
Blattidtz ; like a cockroach. 

blaubok. n. See blauwbok. 

blaud (blad), n. [Sc., also Mail, perhaps same 
as blade (see blad 3 and blade): but cf. Gael. 
bladh = Ir. bladh, a part.] 1. A large piece of 
anything; a considerable portion; a flat piece 
of anything. 2. A slap ; a blow or stroke. 

blaufish (bla'fish), n. [< "blau, prob. same as 
Sc. bla, blae, dark, livid (see 6toe), + fish.} Ac- 
cording to Pennant, a name of the blackfish, 
Centrolophus pompilus. Se cut under Centra- 
lophus. 

blauncht, An obsolete form of blanch 1 . 

blauwbok (blou'bok), n. [D., lit. blue buck. 

< 6/oido (blaauw), = E. blue, + bok = E. bud: 1 .} 

1. The Dutch colonial name of a South African 
antelope, Hippotragus (or JEgoceros) leucophams, 
given on account of its bluish appearance, 
caused by the dark hide showing through light 
hair. It is related to the oryx, addax, etc., and has 
rather large horns curving backward. Also called blue- 
buck, blue antelope, and etaac. 

2. A small South African antelope with very 
short straight horns and heavy hind quarters. 

Also spelled blaubok. 

blaver, blavert (bla'ver, -vert), . Corrupt 
forms of blaicort. [Scotch.] 

Your gloves shall be o' the green clorer 

Come lockerln' to your hand, 

Well dropper o'er wi' blue blavert, 

That grow amang white land. 

Gardener Lad (Anon.). 

blaw (bla), v. ; pret. blew, pp. blown, ppr. blaw- 
iag. [Sc., = E. blow 1 .} I. intrans. To blow ; 
breathe ; publish ; brag ; boast ; magnify in nar- 
rative To blaw In one's lug, to cajole; flatter a 
person. Hence, blaw-in-my-lug, a flatterer ; a wheedler. 
Scott. 

II. trims. To flatter; coax. 



blaze 

blawort (Ma'wi'-H), n. [Sc., also blartrt, bla- 
'' i . q. v., < bla, blue, blue, + wort 1 : see blae 
and trori 1 .] 1. The blue corn-flower; the 
bluebottle. 2. Thf round-loatV.l 1>. 11-tlower. 
.In in if son. 

blay 1 (bla), n. [Also writ ten '<'<// ; < ME. 'blaye, 
*b"cye, < AS. blcege = D. blei = G. bleihe, a blay.J 
A local English name of the bleak. 

blay-', ". and n. Same as blae. 

blayberry, n. Same as blaeberry. 

blay-linen, . Same as blue-linen. 

blaze 1 (blay.), . [Early mod. E. also 6to.se (Sc. 
/ .// 1 :i; earlier blese) ; < ME. 6to*c, a flame, < AS. 
liiii:-" 1 , blase, a flame, torch, = MLG. LG. bias = 
M I N i. Mix, a torch (cf. AS. blast, a flame) ; akin 
to blaze*, q. v., but only remotely, if at all, to 
blaze*, q. v. The AS. forms blysa, blysige, a torch, 
etc., belong to another root: see blush.} It. A 
torch; a fire-brand. 2. A flame; a flaming 
fire ; a conflagration. 

To heaven the Maze uprolled. Vroly. 

What heaps of books and pamphlets I now we shall 

have a glorious blu:e. Hawthorne, Old Manse, L 

3. Figuratively, brilliant sunlight; effulgence; 
brilliance : as, the blaze of day. 

As thy beautie hath made thee the blaze of Italy, so wil 
thy lightnesse make thee the bye word of the worlde. 

l.ii/i/, Euphues, Aunt, of Wit, p. 102. 

O, dark, dark, dark, amid the blaze of noon ! 

Mill:,!!, S. A., I. 80. 

4. A sudden kindling up or bursting out, as of 
fire, passion, etc. ; an active or violent display ; 
wide diffusion. 

In his tilaze of wrath. .SVm*., T. and C., Ir. 5. 

The main blaze of it Is past, bat a small thing would 
make It flame again. Shak., Cor., Ir. 3. 

5. In the game of poker, a hand (now seldom 
or never used) consisting of five court-cards, 
ranking between two pairs and three of a kind: 
so called in allusion to the blaze of color dis- 
played in a blaze, on fire ; In flames.- like blazes, 
furiously; in or to an excessive degree. [Low.] 

The other little ones used to cry like blazes. Mayhew. 

The horse was so maddened by the wound, and the 
road so steep, that he went like blazet. 

De Quinctij, Spanish Nun, p. 24. 

The blazes, hell ; perdition. Hence, to yo to blazet, to 
go to perdition, or to the deuce. [Slang. ] = 8yn. 2. Glare, 
etc. Seeyfaww, 71. 

blaze 1 (blaz), r. ; pret. blazed, ppr. blazing. 
[Early mod. E. also blase (= Sc. bleeze, blese) ; 
<. ME. blasen, blaze; from the noun.] I. in- 
trans. 1. To burst into flame; burn with a 
bright flame or fervent heat; flame: either 
literally or figuratively. 

Two red fires In lioth their faces blazed. 

Shak.. Lucrece, 1. 1353. 
Starry lamps and blazing cressets. Hiltiin, P. L., I. 728. 

2. To send forth a bright light; shine like 
flame or fire : as, a blazing diamond. 

I lift mine eyes, and all the windows tilaze 
With forms of saints and holy men who died. 

Longfellow, Sonnets on the Divlna run. media, Ir. 

The cupola blazet with gigantic archangels, stationed 
in a ring beneath the supreme figure and fare <if Christ. 
</. -I. Symondit, Italy and Greece, p. 169. 

3. To be conspicuous ; shine brightly with the 
brilliancy of talents, heroic deeds, etc. [Poetic.] 

Mighty names 
Hare blazed upon the world and passed away. 

Bryant, Fifty Year*. 

To blaze away, to Are away ; keep on firing (with guns 
or artillery) ; work vigorously or with enthusiasm. See 
atrny, 12. To blaze out. (n) To throw out dame or 
light; shine forth, (d) To go out with a flare, (c) To 
break nut with passion or excitement ; speak or act vio- 
lently. -To blaze up, to hurst Into flame, and hence into 
passion, anger, etc. 

U. trans. 1. To set in a blaze. [Rare.] 
Take him in and blaze the oak. Hood. 

2. To temper (steel) by covering it while not 
with tallow or oilj which is then burned off. 

3. To cause to shine forth ; exhibit vividly. 

Fiery eyes blaze forth her wrong. 

Shak., Venus and Adonis, L 218. 
So spake the Father ; and, unfolding bright 
Toward the right hand his glory, on the Son 
Blazed forth unclouded deity. Milton, P. L., x. 65. 

To blaze outt, to bum out ; figuratively, exhaust in a 
blaze of passion or excess. 

blaze 2 (blaz), v. t. ; pret. and pp. blazed, ppr. 
blazing. _ [< ME. blasen, blow, as a trumpet, < 
A8. "blicsan, blow (= MD. blaescn, D. blazen, 
blow, sound a trumpet, = MLG. blasen = OHG. 
Mason, MEG. blasen, G. blasen = Icel. blasa = 
Sw. bldsa = Dan. blase, blow, = Goth, blesan, 
in comp. ufblesan, puff up); prob., with forma- 
tive -s, from the root *bla of blawan, blow, 
breathe : see bluic 1 , and cf. blast. In the later 



blaze 

senses confused with blazon, q. v.] If. To 

blow, as from a trumpet. 

With Ills blakc clarioun 

He gan to blanen out a soun 

As lowde as beloweth wynde in helle. 

Chaucer, House of Fame, 1. 1802. 

Hence 2. To publish; make well kuown; 
announce in a public manner. 

Till we can find a time 

To blaze your marriage. Shak., R. and J., iii. 3. 
To tell you truth, lady, his conceit was far better than 
I have blazed it yet. 

Beau, and Fl., Wit at Several Weapons, ii. 2. 
Such inusick worthiest were to blaze 
The peerless highth of her immortal praise. 

Milton, Arcades, 1. 74. 

3f. To disclose ; betray ; defame. 

To cover shame, I took thee ; never fear 
That I would blaze myself. 

Beau, and Fl., Maid's Tragedy, ii. 1. 

4. In her., to blazon. See blazon, n., 1 and 2. 

You should have blazed it thus : he bears a tierce sable 
between two tierces or. Peacham. 

Braggadochio . . . did shew his shield, 
Which bore the Sunne brode blazed in a golden field. 
Spenser, F. Q., V. iii. 14. 

blaze 2 (blaz), n. [< blaze 2 , v.~\ Publication; the 
act of spreading widely by report. [Poetic.] 

For what is glory but the blaze of fame ? 

Milton, P. K., iii. 47. 

blaze 3 (blaz), n. [= D. bles = MLG. blesse = 
MHG. Masse, G. bldsse = Icel. blest = Sw. bias 
and blasa = Dan. blis, a white spot or streak on 
the forehead (G. blouse also paleness) ; from the 
adj. represented by OHG. bias, whitish, MHG. 
bias, bald, pale, weak, G. blass, pale, wan, orig. 
' shining' ; connected with blaze 1 , a torch, flame : 
see blaze 1 ; cf . Icel. blasa, lie open to view.] 1. 
A white spot on the face of a horse, cow, ox, 
etc. See cut under blesbok. 
A square blaze in his [a sacred ox's] forehead. 

Coutley, Plagues of Egypt, note to st. 10. 

2. A white mark made on a tree, as by remov- 
ing a piece of the bark, to indicate a boundary, 
or a path or trail in a forest. [Orig. American.] 
3. A local English name of the bleak. 
blaze 3 (blaz), v. t.; pret. and pp. biased, ppr. 
blazing. [= MLG. blesset, pp. ; < blaze 3 , .] 

1. To mark with a white spot on the face, as 
a horse : only in the perfect participle blazed. 

2. To set a mark on, as a tree, usually by cut- 
ting off a piece of its bark, so as to show a 
white spot. 

As for me, the son and the father of Uncas, I am a blazed 
pine in the dealing of the pale-faces. 

Cooper, Last of Mohicans, xxxiii. 

3. To indicate or mark out, as by cutting off 
pieces of the bark of a number of trees in suc- 
cession: as, to blaze a path through a forest. 

Champolliou died in 1832, having done little more than 
blaze out the road to be traveled by others. Nott. 

blaze 4 (blaz), n. [E. dial, (not found in ME. 
or AS.), = MLG. blase, a bladder, = OHG. bld- 
o, MHG. blase, G. blasen, a bladder, bubble, 
blister, pimple ; from the verb blaze? (= OHG. 
Mi I.IK n, MHG. G. blasen), blow : see blaze%, and 
cf. blast and blister.'] A pimple. [Prov. Eng.] 

blaze 5 (blaz), n. [Origin uncertain.] Same as 
brash 1 , 4 (a). 

blaze 11 (blaz), n. pi. Irregular spelling of blaes, 
plural of blae. See blae, n. 

blazer 1 (bla'zer), n. [< blaze 1 + -er 1 .] 1. Any- 
thing that blazes, or is intensely luminous or 
hot: as, the day was a blazer. 2. A dish under 
which there is a receptacle for coals to keep it 
hot. 3. A bright-colored loose coat, usually of 
flannel, worn by tennis- and cricket-players. 

The origin of the word is as follows : The uniform of 
the Lady Margaret Boat Club of St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge, is bright red, and the Johnian jackets have for 
many years been called Mazers. Up to a few years ago 
the inaccurate modern use of blazer for a jacket of any 
other colour than red was unknown. 

N. and Q., 7th ser., III. 486. 

blazer 2 (bla'zer), . [< Maze* + -er 1 .] 1. One 
who blazes ; one who publishes and spreads re- 
ports: as, "blazers of cryme," Spenser, P. Q., 
II. ix. 25. 2f. Ablazoner. 

blazer 3 (bla'zer), n. [< blaze^ + -erl.] One 
who blazes a tree. 

blazingly (bla'zing-li), adv. In a blazing man- 
ner. 

blazing-star (bla' zing-star'), n. 1. In her., a 
comet used as a bearing. It is represented bend- 
wise as a star of six points with a tail streaming from it. 
2. A name in the United States for several 
very different plants, (a) The Aletris farinosa, a 
low herbaceous plant, natural order Htemodoraceae, with 
whitish mealy flowers. The roots are bitter, and have 
some repute in medicine. Also called colic-root, (b) The 



582 

starwort (Chamcelinum Carolinianum), natural order Li- 
liacete, the roots of which yield a bitter tonic, (c) A spe- 
cies of Liatris, L. squarrosa, natural order Composites, one 
of the many popular remedies for rattlesnake-bites. 

3. A stampede of pack-mules or other animals 
from a central point. [Western U. S. slang.] 

blazon (bla'zn), H. [< ME. Mason, blasoun, a 
shield, = MD. blasoen, D. blazoen, < OF. blason, 
blazon (= Pr. blezo, blizo = Sp. blason = Pg. bla- 
sSo, brasSo = It. btosone), a shield with a coat of 
arms painted on it, the coat of arms itself (the 
Pr. and Sp. terms mean also honor, glory, fame) ; 
usually referred to MHG. blasen, OHG. blasan, 
blow, hence sound a trumpet, proclaim, blaze 
(see blaze 2 ) ; by some to blaze 1 ; but the orig. 
sense 'shield,' with other facts, is against such 
derivation. In ME. and mod. E. blaze 2 and 
blazon are of course associated in thought.] 1. 
In her., a shield with arms on it ; armorial bear- 
ings; a coat of arms; a banner bearing arms. 

The chief functionaries of city and province, ... all 
marching under emblematical standards or time-honored 
blazons. Motley, Dutch Republic, III. 633. 

2. A description in technical language of ar- 
morial bearings. Peculiar and fantastic changes in- 
troduced by certain heralds are chiefly in the blazon, and 
not in the graphic representation : thus, when the arms of 
nobles are described by precious stones (sapphire instead 
of azure, topaz instead of or, and the like), or when the 
arms of sovereigns are described by the planets, the 
description only is peculiar, the drawing and coloring of 
the achievement being of the same character as those of 
ordinary bearings. 

3f. Interpretation; explanation. 
I think your blazon to be true. Shak., Much Ado, ii. 1. 

4. Publication; show; celebration; pompous 
display, either by words or by other means. 

But this eternal blazon must not be 

To ears of flesh and blood. Shak., Hamlet, i. 6. 

blazon (bla'zn), v. t. [= MD. blasoenen = G. 
blasoniren, < F. blasonner, blazon, = Sp. blaso- 
nar, blazon, brag, boast, = It. blasonare, blazon 
(ML. blazonare) ; from the noun. Cf. blaze? in 
similar senses.] 1. To explain in proper her- 
aldic terms (the arms or bearings on a shield). 

King Edward gave to them the coat of aims which I am 
not herald enough to blazon into English. Addismi. 

2. To depict (armorial bearings) according to 
the rules of heraldry. [An incorrect use of 
the word, not recognized by heralds.] 3. To 
inscribe with arms, or some ornament ; adorn 
with blazonry. 

The blood-red flag of the Sacred Office . . . blazoned 
upon either side with the portraits of Alexander and of 
Ferdinand. Motley, Dutch Republic, II. iii. 166. 

What matter whose the hillside grave, 
Or whose the blazoned stone? 

Whittier, The Countess. 

4. To deck; embellish; adorn as with bla- 
zonry. 

Then blazons in dread smiles her hideous form. 

Garth, The Dispensary, ii. 

The bottom of the valley was a bed of glorious grass, 
blazoned with flowers. 

B. Taylor, Lands of the Saracen, p. 280. 

5. To display: exhibit conspicuously; make 
known; publish. 

For better farre it were to hide their names, 
Than telling them to blazon out their blames. 

Spenser, Teares of the Muses. 
Blazoning our injustice everywhere. 

Shak., Tit. And., iv. 4. 
And blazon o'er the door their names in brass. 

Byron, Don Juan, xi. 31. 

6. To proclaim or publish boastingly; boast of. 

My friend Lancelot is not a man to blazon anything. 

Irving, Salmagundi, p. 124. 

blazoner (bla'zn-er), . 1. One who blazons ; 
a herald. 2. One who publishes or proclaims 
with strong or extravagant praise. 

blazoning (bla'zn-ing), n. In her., the art of 
describing armorial bearings. See blazon, n. 

blazonment (bla'zn-ment), n. [< blazon + 
-ment.~\ The act of blazoning; emblazonment. 

blazonry (bla'zn-ri), n. [< blazon + -ry.] 1. 
The art of describing or explaining coats of 
arms in proper heraldic terms and method. 

Bob has done more to set the public right on this Im- 
portant point of blazonry than the whole College of Her- 
alds. Lamb, Newspapers Thirty-five Years ago. 

2. Emblazonry; decoration in color, as with 
heraldic devices ; brilliant decoration ; splen- 
dor. 

The gorgeous building and wild blazonry of that shrine 
of St. Mark's. Jtuskin. 

So much subtler is a human mind than the outside 
tissues which make a sort of blazonry or clockface for it. 
George Eliot, Middlemarch, 1, 12. 

3. Figuratively, display. 



bleach-field 

blazy (bla'zi), a. [< blaze 1 -f -y 1 .'] Burning 
brightly; blazing: as, a blazy fire. [Bare.] 

blet, A Middle English form of blee. 

-ble. [ME. -ble (-bel, -bil, -byl, -bid), < OF. -ble, 
mod. F. -ble = Pr. Sp. -ble = Pg. -vel = It. -bile, 
< L. -bilis, ace. -bilem, a suffix (< -bi- + -li-s), 
forming adjectives, usually with a passive sig- 
nification, from verbs ending with one of the 
vowels -a, -e, -i, -4, -6, -u, being the root- or 
stem-vowel or (as usually -f) a mere insertion, 
as in admird-bilis, dele-bilis, sepeli-bilis, cred-4- 
bilis, ignd-bilis, mp-bilis, volu-bilis, etc. ; rarely 
from perfect participles, as in flex-i-bilis, plaus- 
f-bilis, etc. See further under -able. Adjec- 
tives in -ble are accompanied by adverbs in 
-bly, contr. from -ble-ly, and nouns in -ble-ness 
or, according to the L., in -bil-ity, as credi-ble, 
credi-bleness, credi-bility. In many words the 
term, -ble is of different origin, as in nimble, 
hamble, humble, marble, parable, syllable, etc., 
divided etymologically nimb-le, humb-le, etc.. 
the real term, being -le, of various origin.] 
A suffix of Latin origin, occurring in adjectives 
having originally a passive signification, which 
is retained more or less fully in adjectives ac- 
companied by verbs derived from the infinitive 
or perfect participle (English -ate or -it) of the 
same Latin verb, as in commendable, admirable, 
dissoluble, etc., habitable, imitable, tolerable, navi- 
gable, etc., 'credible, etc., but is not obvious in 
adjectives not accompanied by such verbs, as 
in equable, delectable, horrible, terrible, ignoble, 
voluble, feeble, etc. In English it is felt and used 
as a suffix only with the preceding vowel, -able 
or -ible. See -able, -ible. 

blea 1 , a. and n. See blae. 

blea 2 (ble), n. [Origin uncertain; perhaps < 
blea 1 = blae, pale (see blae). Cf. Sc. blae, blay, 
rough parts of wood left in sawing or boring.] 
The part of a tree immediately under the bark; 
the alburnum or white wood. [Bare.] 

bleaberry, . Same as blaeberry. 

bleach 1 (blech), v. [< ME. blechen, < AS. blcecan 
(= D. bleeken = OHG. bleichen, MHG. G. blei- 
clwn = Icel. bleikja = Sw. bleka = Dan. blege), 
make white, cause to fade (cf. bldcian, become 
white or pale), < bide, pale, bleak: see bleak 1 , 
blake.~\ I. trans. To make white or whiter by 
removing color; whiten; blanch; make pale; 
specifically, to whiten (as linen, etc.) by wash- 
ing and exposure to the action of the air and 
sunlight, or by chemical preparations. See 
bleaching. 

Immortal liberty, whose look sublime 
Hath bleached the tyrant's cheek in every varying clime. 
Smollett, Ode to Independence. 

The bones of men, 
In some forgotten battle slain, 
And bleached by drifting wind and rain. 

Scott, L. of the L., iii. 5. 

The robed and mitred apostles, bleached and rain-washed 
by the ages, rose into the blue air like huge snow figures. 
H. James, Jr., Trans. Sketches, p. 210. 
= Syn. Blanch, etc. See whiten. 

II. intrans. 1 . To become white in any man- 
ner ; become pale or colorless. 

Along the snows a stiffened corse, 
Stretched out and bleaching in the northern blast. 

Thomson, Winter, 1. 321. 

2. To become morally pure. [Rare.] 
bleach^, a. [< ME. bleche (bleche), < AS. blSc, 
var. of bide, pale: see bleak 1 , Wake, and cf. 
bleach 1 , i>.] 1. Pale. 2. Bleak. 
bleach 1 (blech), n. [< ME. bleche, < AS. blwco, 
paleness, < bide, pale: see bleak 1 ."] If. A dis- 
ease of the skin. Holland, tr. of Pliny. 2. 
[< bleach 1 , .] An act of bleaching; exposure 
to the sun or other bleaching agency or influ- 
ence. 

What is known as ' ' the three-quarter bleach " with flax. 
Sci. Amer., N. S., LVI. 249. 

bleach 2 t (blech), n. [A var. of bletch, q. v.] 
Blacking; any substance used for blacking. 
Cotgrave. 

bleacher (ble'cher), . 1. Oue who bleaches; 
one whose occupation is to whiten cloth. 2. 
A vessel used in bleaching. 3. A large shal- 
low wooden tub, lined with metal, used in dis- 
tilling petroleum ; a settling-tub. 

bleachery (ble'cher-i), n. ; pi. bteacheries (-iz). 
[< bleach 1 , v., + -ery.~\ A place for bleaching; 
an establishment where the bleaching of tex- 
tile fabrics, etc., is carried on. 

Young reprobates dyed in the wool with perversity are 
taken into a kind of moral bleachery and come out white 
as lambs. 0. W. Holmes, Old Vol. of Life, p. 354. 

bleach-field (blech'feld), . A field where cloth 
or yarn is bleached. 



bleaching 

bleaching (ble'ehing), H. [Verbal n. of bltarli 1 . } 
Tho art or process of freeing textile fibers and 
fabrics, and various other substances (such as 
materials for paper, ivory, wax, oils), from 
their natural color, and rendering them white, 
or nearly so. The ancient method of blenching by 
exposing to the action of the suns rays, ami fivqui'iit 
wettlnx, li:i^ In i-ii nearly superseded, :it 1' ast where the 
business Is prosecuted on a large scale, by more compli- 
cated processes in connection with powerful chemical 
preparations. Animitf these preparations, the chief are 
chlorin ami sulphurous acid, the latter being employed 
more especially in tlie case of animal nbers(silk and wool), 
while cotton, tiav. ami other vegetable fibers are operated 
upon with chlorin, the bleaching i" both cases being pre- 
mini by certain cleansing processes. Glass is bleached 
by the use of chemical agents, usually braunite, saltpeter, 
arscnious acid, and minium or red lead. 

bleaching-liquid (ble'ching-lik'wid), n. A 
liquid for bleaching; specifically, blanching- 
liquor. 

bleaching-powder (ble'ching-pou"der), n. A 
powder made by exposing slatted lime to the 
action of chlorin ; chlorid of lime, it may be 
regarded as a mixture of slaked lime and a double salt of 
calcium chlorid and calcium hypochlorite. It is the prin- 
cipal agent used in bleaching textile fabrics, and is also a 

powerful disinfectant. 

bleak 1 (blek), a. [Also assibilated bleach 
(obs.), dial, bltike, q.v. ; < ME. bleke (assibilated 
bleche) (also bleike, prob. due to Icel.), earlier 
blake, blak (i.e., blak, different from bldk, black, 
though to some extent Confused with it), pale, 
wan, < AS. bloc (var. bUeo, whence prob. ult. E. 
bleach 1 , a., q. v.), pale, wan, also bright, shining 
(= OS. blek, pale, shining, = D. bleek = MLG. 
blek, LG. blek = OHG. bleih, MHG. G. bleich = 
Icel. bleikr = Sw. blek = Dan. bleg, pale, wan), < 
Wean (pret. bide, pp. bliceji), shine, = OS. blikan 
= OFries. blika, shine, = D. blijken (pret. bleek), 
appear, = Icel. blikja, blika, shine, = OHG. blih- 
han, shine (MHG. blican, G. bleichett, grow pale, 
mixed with weak verb bleichen, bleach: see 
bleach 1 , v.), akin to Skt. / bhraj, shine, and 
perhaps to Gr. <j>"Aiyuv, burn, blaze, ^A<5f, flame, 
Li.flamma, flame, fulgere, shine, etc. : see flame, 
fulgent, phlegm, phlox, etc. Related E. words 
are blank, blink, bleach 1 , perhaps hind:, and 
bright 1 .] If. Pale ; pallid ; wan ; of a sickly hue. 
With a face dedly, bleyk, and pale. Lydgate. 

She looked as pale and as ble.uk as one laid out dead. 

Foxe, Martyrs (Agnes Wardall). 

2. Exposed to cold and winds ; desolate ; bare 
of vegetation. 

Say, will ye bless the bleak Atlantic shore? 

Pope, Cho. to Brutus. 
Wastes too bleak to rear the common growth of earth. 

Wordsworth. 

It Is rich land, but upon a clay, and in a very bleak, 
high, exposed situation. Qray, Letters, I. 268. 

8. Cheerless; dreary. 

Her desolation presents us with nothing but bleak and 
barren prospects. Addison. 

4. Cold; chill; piercing; desolating. 
Entreat the north 
To make his bleak winds kiss my parched lips. 

Shak., K. John, v. 7. 
The night was bleak ; the rain fell ; the wind roared. 

Macaulay, Hist Eng., ix. 

bleakH, [< bleak 1 , a.; var. of bleach 1 .] I. 
trans. To make white or pale ; bleach. 
H. intrans. To become white or pale. 

bleak 2 (blek), n. [Early mod. E. bleke, dial. 
blick; = Icel. bleikja = OHG. bleicha, MHG. 
blicke; from the adj. bleak (Icel. bleikr, OHG. 
bleih), from the pale color of its scales (see 
bleak 1 ). The synonymous term blay 1 , < AS. 
bliege = D. blei = G. bleihe, is not directly con- 
nected with Weafc 2 .] An English name of a 
small cyprinoid fish, Albttrnus lucidus. Other 
forms of the name are blrik. blick. Also called 
blay. 

bleak 3 !, r. t. [Var. of bleach* and black, v.] 
To blacken ; darken. Cotgrave. 

bleakish (ble'kish), a. [< bleak 1 + -ish 1 .] 
Moderately bleak; somewhat bleak. 
A northerly or bleakish easterly wind. 

Dr. O. Cheyne, Ess. on Health. 

bleakly (blek'li), adv. In a bleak manner or 
situation: as, the wind howls bleakly. 
Neere the sea-coast they bleakely seated are. 

May, tr. of Lucan, iv 

bleakness (blek'nes), n. [< Meak 1 + -nets.] 
The quality of being bleak; coldness; desola- 
tion: as, "the bleakness of the air," Addison. 

The landscape will lose its melancholy bleakness and 
acquire a beauty of its own. 

Haicthorne, Twice-Told Tales, II. 

bleaky (ble'ki), a. [Extended form of blenk 1 ,!!.] 

Bleak; open; unsheltered; cold; chill. [Rare.] 

The bleaht top of rugged hills. 

Drydrn, tr. of Virgil's Oeorgics, 111. 



There seems a hideous fault blazed in the object. 

taster, v. 1. 



583 

blear 1 (bier), v. [< ME. bleren, make dim or 
rheumy, in reference to the eyes, esp. iu the 
phrase blear one's eyes, i. e., deceive, hood- 
wink one; rarely intrans., blink; cf. Dan. 
Wire, also plire, blink, = 8w. plira, dial, blira, 
and blura, blink (cf. dial, olirra fair augu, 
quiver before the eyes, of summer heat), = 
LG. jil n nil, /ill/an, jil'fn (also bleer- in bleer- 
oged = E. blear-eyed, q. v.), blink; cf. G. dial. 
blerr, an ailment of the eyes.] I. trans. 1. To 
affect (the eyes) with flowing tears or rheum 
so that the sight is dimmed and indistinct; 
make rheumy and dim: as, "blered her eyes," 
Piers Plowman. 

To his bleared and offended sense, 
' it blazed in the ' 

B. Jonton, Poei 
Tease the lungs and blear the sight. Cowper, Task, iu. 
2. To blur, as the face with weeping ; obscure ; 
obfuscate. 

Stern faces bleared with immemorial watch. 

Lowell, Cathedral. 

To blear one's eyest, figuratively, to deceive; hood- 

wink; blind. 

They wenen that no man may hem blgile, 
But by my thrift, yet shal I blere her eye. 

Chaucer, Reeve's Tale, 1. 129. 

Entlsing dames my patience still did prone, 
And blear'd mine eye*. 

Oaseoigne, The Fruits of Fetters. 

Il.t intrans. To have bleared or inflamed 
eyes ; be blear-eyed. 

blear 1 (bier), a. and n. [Not an orig. adj., but 
assumed from blear-eyed, where blear is directly 
from the verb. See blear-eyed.] I. < . 1 . Sore 
or dim from a watery discharge or other super- 
ficial affection : applied only to the eyes. 

A wit that can make your perfections so transparent, 
that every Uear eye may look through them. 

B. Jonson, Every Man in his Humour, Iv. 1. 

Half blind he peered at me through his blear eyes. 

Layard, Nineveh and Babylon, i. 



2. Producing dimness of vision; blinding. 
[Obsolete or poetical.] 

Power to cheat the eye with blear illusion. 

Milton, Comus, 1. 166. 

3. Dim; indistinct; confused in outlines. 
[Rare.] 

II. " Something that obscures the sight. 
[Scotch.] 

Nor is the blear drawn easy o'er her e'e. 

.1 . Bon, Heleuore, p. 91. 

blear 2 ! (bier), v. [< ME. bleren; origin ob- 
scure.] I. trans. To thrust (out); protrude: 
with out. 

[They] stood staring and gaping upon Him, wagging 
their heads, writhing their mouths, yea blearing out their 
tongues. /'V. Andrewt, Sermons, ii. 173. 

H. in iranx. To thrust out the tongue in mock- 
ery. 
He baltyrde, he bleryde, he braundyschte ther-after. 

Morte Arthure (E. E. T. S.X 1. 782. 

blearedness (bler'ed-nes), . [< bleared, pp. 
of blear 1 , + -ness.] The state of being bleared 
or blurred with rheum. Holland. 

blear-eye (bler'i), w. [Rather from blear-eyed, 
a., than from blear 1 , a., + eye. Cf. LG. bleer-oge, 
pliir-oge. blear-eye, from the adj. See blear- 
eyed.] In null., a disease of the eyelids, con- 
sisting in chronic inflammation of the margins, 
with a gummy secretion from the Meibomian 
glands; lippitude. Also called blear-eyedness. 

blear-eyed (bler'id), a. [< ME. blereyed, bler- 
eighed, etc., < bleren, blear, + eye, eighe, eye; 
cf. Dan. plir-ojet = LG. bleer-oged, also pliir- 
oged, blear-eyed, of similar formation. Cf . also 
LG. blarr-oged, with noun blarr-oge, due to con- 
fusion with blarren, cry, howl, weep, = G. War- 
ren, bkrren, usually pfa'rren, roar, bellow, = E. 
blare 1 ; but there is no etymological connection. 
See blear 1 .] 1. Having sore eyes ; having tho 
eyes dimmed or inflamed by flowing tears or 
rheum; dim-sighted. 

Crook-back'd he was, tooth-shaken, and ttrar^y'd. 

SackMle, Ind. to Mir. for Mags. 

2. Wanting in perception or understanding; 

short-sighted. 
blear-eyedness (bler'id-nes), n. Same as bltar- 

i-i/r. 
bleariness (bler'i-nes), n. [< bleary + -ness.] 

Blearedness. 
blearnesst (bler'nes), n. [< blear 1 , a., + -ness.] 

The state of being blear. Udall, Mark x. 
blear-witted (bler'wit'ed), a. Dull ; stupid. 

They were very blear-witted, i' faith, that could not dis- 
cern the gentleman in him. 

B. Junton, Every Man out of his Humour, v. 2. 



bleed 

bleary 1 (bler'i), a. [< blearl + -y 1 .] 1. Bleared ; 
rheumy ; dim : as, bleary red eyes. 2. Blurred ; 
confused; cloudy; misty. 

(>h give me hack my native hills, 
If bleak or bleary, grim or gray. 

Cumbtrland Ballad. 
bleary 2 , n. See bleery. 

bleat (blet), v. i. [< ME. bleten, < AS. blStan 

= D. blaten, bleeten = MLG. LG. bleten = OHG. 

M<i:an, MHG. bldzen, G. dial, blassen, blatzen, 

bleat ; cf. G. bloken, bleat, bellow (see balk?, 

bolk), L. balare, bleat (see balant), Gr. <>'/- 

Xaafat, bleat, jfaixjli Dor. /ftaxci, a bleating : all 

perhaps ult. of imitative origin, like baa, q. v.] 

To cry as a sheep, goat, or calf ; also, as a snipe. 

Then suddenly was heard along the main 

To low the ox, to Meat the woolly train. 

Pope, Odyttey, ill. 

bleat (blet), . [< bleat, v.] The cry of a 
sheep, goat, or calf; also, of a snipe. 

The bleat of Hocks, the breath of flowers. 

Mnir, Harebell 
And got a calf . . . 
Much like to you, for you have just his bleat. 

Shak., Much Ado, v. 4. 

bleater (ble'ter), . An animal that bleats; 
specifically, a sheep. 

In cold, stiff soils the blratfr* oft complain 

Of gouty alls. John Dyer, Fleece, L 

bleauntt, n. [ME., also written bleeaunt, ble- 
hand, bliand, blihand ; =MLG. 6/tanf (with term, 
varied from orig. )= MHG. blialt, bliat,<OF. 
bliaut, bliaud, bliat, earlier blialt (mod. F. dial. 
Mn mil.; biaude: see blouse) = Pr. iilml, bliau, 
bliaut, blizaut = Sp. Pg. lirinl : ML. blialdus, 
bliaudus, blisaudus, a kind of tunic ; origin un- 
known.] A garment common to both sexes 
in the eleventh, twelfth, and thirteenth cen- 
turies. As wom by women, it was a tunic placed over 
the chemise, usually with long and loose sleeves, and held 
by a girdle, except perhaps when a garment was worn 
above it. That for men was worn as an outer garment 
and especially over the armor, in which case it is hard 
to distinguish it from the tabard, which afterward re- 
placed it. For mounted men it was divided nearly to the 
girdle, to enable the rider to sit in the saddle. 
A blewe bleaunt obofe brade him al ovir. 

King Alisaunder, p. 167. 
Blysnande whyt wata hyr bleaunt. 

Alliterative Poenu (ed. .Morris), i. 163. 

bleb (bleb), n. [Another form of blob, q. v.] 

1. A blister or pustule. 2. A bubble, as in 
water or other fluid, or in a substance that has 
been fluid, as glass. 

Arsenic abounds with air bleb. Kirwan. 

blebby (bleb'i), a. [< bleb + -y 1 .] Full of 
blebs, blisters, or bubbles. 
[Mcionite] fuses ... to a white blebby glass. 

Dana, System of Mineral. (1868), p. SIS. 

bleek (blek), n. [Also (in def. 1) assibilated 
bletch; < ME. blek, bleke, appar. < AS. bltec (= 
Icel. blek = Sw. black = Dan. fetefc, ink), prop, 
neut. of the adj. bla;c, black: see lilm-l.-. n.] 1. 
Any black fluid substance, as black ink, black- 
ing for leather, or black grease. 2. Soot; 
smut. 3f. A black man. 4. A local English 
name of the coalfish, Pollachius rirens. 

[Now only prov. Eng. or Scotch.] 
bleckbok (bleVbok), . Same as bleekbok. 
bled (bled). Preterit and past participle of 
bleed. 

bleet (ble), n. [< ME. Wee, 6te, Weo, < AS. bleoh, 
blioh, usually contr. bled, blid, color, hue, com- 
plexion, = OS. bli = OFries. bit, blie, North 
Fries, blay, color.] Color; hue; complexion. 
Thou art bryght of Nee. Kylamour, L 833. 

I have a lemman 
As bright of Nee as is the silver moon. 

Greene, George-a-Green. 
White of Nee with waiting for me 
Is the corse in the next chambere. 

Mrs. Brotrniny, Romaunt of the Page. 

bleed (bled), r. ; pret. and pp. bled, ppr. bleed- 
ing. [< ME. bleden, < AS. bledan. bleed (= 
OFries. bleda = D. Woerfeii = LG. bidden = 
OHG. bluotan, MHG. G. bluten, = Icel. blttdha 
= Sw. bloda = Dan. blade), < blod, blood : see 
blood, and cf. bless 1 .] I. intrans. 1. To void or 
emit blood; drop, or run with, blood: as, the 
wound bled profusely ; his nose bleeds. 

Many npon the seeing of others Need . . . themselves 
are ready to faint, as if they bled. Bacon. 

2. Figuratively, to feel pity, sorrow, or an- 
guish; be filled with sympathy or grief: with 
for: as, my heart bleeds for him. 

Take your own will ; my very heart bleeds for thee. 

Fletcher (and another). Queen of i'orillth, iL $. 
I bleed inwardly for my lord. Shak., T. of A., L t. 

3f. To come to light: in allusion to the old 
superstitious belief that the body of a murdered 



bleed 

person would begin to bleed if the murderer 
approached it. 

The murdering of her Marquis of Ancre will yet bleed, 
as some fear. Howell, Letters, I. i. 19. 

4. To shed one's blood ; be severely wounded 
or die, as in battle or the like. 

Cwsar must bleed for it. Shak., 3. C., il. 1. 

5. To lose sap, gum, or juice, as a tree or a vine. 

For me the balm shall bleed, and amber flow. 

Pope, Windsor Forest, 1. 393. 

6. To pay or lose money freely; be subjected 
to extortion of money : as, they made him bleed 
freely for that whim. [Slang.] 7. in dyeing, 
to be washed out: said of the color of a dyed 
fabric when it stains water in which it is im- 
mersed. O'Neill, Dyeing and Cal. Printing, p. 
105. 8. To leak; become leaky. 

The defects in the plates, whose presence may not even 
be suspected, become exposed, and being attacked anew 
by the acids in the water used for washing out the boiler, 
which are not neutralized by the soda, are caused to 
bleed. It. Wilson, Steam Boilers, p. 174. 

9. To yield; produce: applied to grain. 
[Scotch.] 

II. trans. 1. To cause to lose blood, as by 
wounding; take blood from by opening a vein, 
as in phlebotomy. 2. To lose, as blood; emit 
or distil, as juice, sap, or gum. 

A decaying pine of stately size bleeding amber. Miller. 

8. To extort or exact money from; sponge 
on: as, the sharpers bled him freely. [Slang.] 

He [Shaykh Masud] returned in a depressed state, hav- 
ing been bled by the soldiery at the well to the extent of 
forty piastres, or about eight shillings. 

R. F. Burton, El-Medinah, p. 360. 

4. In dyeing, to extract the coloring matter 
from (a dye-drug). Napier. 5. In bookbind- 
ing, to trim the margin of (a book) so closely 

as to mutilate the print To bleed a buoy 

(naut.\ to let out of a buoy water which has leaked into 
It. To bleed the brakes, in alocomotive, to relieve the 
pressure on the air-brakes by opening the bleeding-valve 
or release-cock of the brake-cylinder. 

bleeder (ble'der), w. 1. One who lets blood. 
2. A person who is naturally predisposed to 
bleed. See hemophilia. 

bleed-hearts (bled'harts), . The scarlet lych- 
nis, Lychnis Chalcedonica. 

bleeding (ble'ding), . [Verbal n. of bleed, v.] 
1. A running or issuing of blood, as from the 
nose ; a hemorrhage ; the operation of letting 
blood, as in surgery. 2. The drawing of sap 
from a tree or plant. 3. In bookbinding, an 
excessive trimming down of the margins of a 
book, which cuts into and mutilates the print. 

bleeding-heart (ble'ding-hart), . 1. In Eng- 
land, a name of the wall-flower, Cheiranthus 
Cheiri. 2. A common name of some species 
of Dicentra, especially D. spectabilis from 
China, from the shape of the flowers. 3. A 
name sometimes applied to cultivated forms of 
Coloeasia with colored leaves. 

bleeding-tooth (ble'ding-toth), n. A common 
name of a shell of the family Neritidce, Nerita 
peloronta, the toothed columella of which has 
a red blotch suggesting the name. See Nerita. 

bleekbok (blek'bok), n. [D., < bleek, = E. 
bleak 1 , pale, + bok = E. buck 1 , a goat.] The 
Dutch colonial name of the ourebi, Scopophorus 
ourebi, a small pale-colored antelope of South 
Africa, related to the steinboks. Another form 
is bleekbok. 

bleery (bler'i), . A burning brand ; a fagot. 
Also spelled bleary. [Scotch.] 
Scowder their harlgals de'ils wi' a bleary. Hogg. 

bleeze 1 (blez), w. and . A Scotch form of blaze*. 

bleeze 2 , v. i. ; pret. and pp. bleezed, ppr. bleez- 
ing. To become slightly sour, as milk. [Scotch.] 

bleifcif, a. See bleak 1 . 

bleik 2 t, n. See bleak*. 

bleint, n. A Middle English form of blain. 

bleis. n. pi. See blae, n. 

bleit 1 , bleit 2 (blat), a. Same as blate 1 , Hate*. 
[Scotch.] 

blellum (blel'um), n. [Appar. imitative of 
senseless babble. Cf. blether 1 . ] An idle, sense- 
less, talking, or noisy fellow. [Scotch.] 
A blethering, blustering, drunken blellum. 

Burns, Tarn o' Shanter. 

blemish (blem'ish), v. t. [< ME. blemisshen, 
blemissen (see -is7 2 ), wound, injure, spoil, < OF. 
blemiss-, stem of certain parts of blemir, blesmir 
(F. blemir, grow pale, =Pr. blesmar, strike, soil), 
< bleme, blcsme, pale, wan; origin uncertain.] 
1. To damage or impair (especially something 
that is well formed, or in other respects excel- 



684 

lent) ; mar or make defective ; destroy the per- 
fection of ; deface; sully. 

Vanish ; or I shall give thee thy deserving, 

And blemish Cicsar's triumph. Shak., A. and C., iv. 10. 

Sin is a soil which blemisheth the beauty of thy soul. 

It. Brathwaite. 

2. To impair morally; tarnish, as reputation 
or character; defame; stain: as, to blemish 
one's fair fame. 

On a general review of the long administration of Has- 
tings, it is impossible to deny that, against the great crimes 
by which it is blemished, we have to set off great public 
services. Macaulati, Warren Hastings. 

blemish (blem'ish), n. [< blemish, v.] 1. A 
defect, flaw, or imperfection ; something that 
mars beauty, completeness, or perfection. 

As he hath caused a blemish in a man, so shall it be done 
to him again. Lev. xxiv. 20. 

Naught had blemish there or spot, 
For in that place decay was not. 

William Morris, Earthly Paradise, I. 35& 
2. A moral defect or injury; reproach; dis- 
grace ; that which impairs reputation ; imputa- 
tion. 

That cleare she dide from blemish criminal!. 

Spenser, F. Q., II. i. 37. 

That you have been earnest should be no blemish or 
discredit at all unto you. Hooker. 

blemished (blem'isht). p. a. Having a fault or 
blemish; specifically, in her., broken or cut 
short: said of a cross, weapon, or the like, 
used as a bearing. 

blemishless (blem'ish-les), a. [< blemish, n., 
+ -less.} Without blemish; spotless; perfect; 
without defect. 

A life in all so blemishless. Feltham, Lusoria, xxxvii. 
blemishment (blem'ish-ment), n. [< blemish, 
n., + -merit.] Damage; flaw; impairment. 
For dread of blame and honours blemishment. 

Spenser, F. Q., IV. il. 36. 

blemmatrope (blem'a-trop), n. [< Gr. /3A,u/z, 
look, glance, eye (< "/3/l&rv, look), + rpciretv, 
turn.] An apparatus for illustrating the va- 
rious positions of the eye. 

blench 1 (blench), v. [In early mod. E. some- 
times spelled blanch by confusion with blanch, 
make white (see blanch 1 and blanclfi) ; < ME. 
blenchen, also blenken, occasionally blinchen, 
turn aside, evade, disconcert, usually intrans., 
shrink back, give way, < AS. blencan (= Icel. 
blekkja), deceive, supposed to be a causal form 
of 'blincan, blink (cf. drench 1 , causal of drink), 
but the latter verb does not occur in the older 
language : see blink. For the sense ' deceive,' 
cf. blear one's eyes, deceive, under blear 1 .] I. 
intrans. 1. To shrink; start back; give way; 
flinch; turn aside or fly off. 

Though sometimes you do blench from this to that. 

Shak.,M. forM., iv. 6. 
I'll tent him to the quick ; if he but blench, 
I know my course. Shak., Hamlet, It. 2. 

I know his people 

Are of his own choice, men that will not totter 
Nor blench much at a bullet. 

Fletcher, The Pilgrim, v. 3. 

2. To quail : said of the eye. 

Il.t trans. 1. To deceive; cheat. 2. To 
draw back from; shirk; avoid; elude; deny 
from fear. 

He now blenched what before ... he affirmed. Evelyn. 

3. To hinder or obstruct; disconcert; foil. 
The rebels besieged them, winning the even ground on 

the top, by carrying up great trusses of hay before them 
to hli'iifh the defendants' sight and dead their shot. 

6. Carew. 

blench 1 t (blench), n. [<. blench 1 , v.] 1. A deceit; 
a trick. 2. A sidelong glance. 

These blenches gave my heart another youth. 

Shak., Sonnets, ex. 

blench 2 (blench), a. or adv. [A variant form 
of blanch 1 , a. : see blanch 1 and blank.] Upon 
or based upon the payment of a nominal or 
trifling yearly duty : applied to a sort of tenure 
of land : as, the estate is held blench of the crown. 
See blanch-holding. 

blench 2 (blench), v. [Var. of blanch 1 , partly 
phonetic and partly by notional confusion with 
blench 1 .] I. intrans. To become pale ; blanch. 

II. trans. To make white ; blanch, 
blencher (blen'cher), n. [< blench 1 , v. : see 
blaneher 3 .] If. A scarecrow, or whatever 
frightens or turns aside or away. Sir T. Elyot. 
2t. In hunting, one placed where he can turn 
the deer from going in a particular direction ; a 
blancher. 

I feel the old man's master'd by much passion, 
And too high-rack'd, which makes him overshoot all 
His valour should direct at, and hurt those 
That stand but by as blenchers. 

Fletcher (and another), Love's Pilgrimage, ii. 1. 



blend-water 

3. One who blenches or flinches. 

blench-flrmt (blench'ferm), n. Same as blanch- 
farm. 

blench-holding (blench'hol"ding), n. Same as 
blanch-holding. 

blend 1 (blend), v. ; pret. blended, pp. blended 
or blent, ppr. blending. [< ME. blenden, mix, 
sometimes intrans., a secondary form of blan- 
den,< AS. blandan, a strong verb (= OS. blandan 
= Icel. blanda = Sw. blanda = Dan. blande = 
OHG. blantan, MHG. blandcn = Goth, blandan), 
mix: see bland*-.] I. trans. 1. To mix to- 
gether in such a way that the things mixed be- 
come inseparable, or cannot easily be separated. 
In particular : (a) To mix (different sorts or qualities of 
a commodity) in order to produce a particular brand, kind, 
or quality : as, to blend teas ; to blend tobacco, (ii) To mix 
so intimately or harmoniously that the identity or individ- 
uality of the things mixed is lost or obscured in a new 
product : as, many races are blended in the modern Eng- 
lishman. 

Rider and horse, friend, foe, in one red burial blent. 
Byron, Childe Harold, iii. 29. 

Blended and intertwisted in this life are the sources of 
joys and tears. De Quincey. 

I blend in song thy flowers and thee. 

Whittier, First Flowers. 

(c) To cause to pass imperceptibly into one another ; 
unite so that there shall be no perceptible line of division : 
as, to blend the colors of a painting. 
2f. To mix up in the mind ; confound (one 
thing with another). 3t. To stir up (a liquid); 
hence, to render turbid ; figuratively, disturb. 
4f. To pollute by mixture; spoil or corrupt. 

And all these stormes, which now his beauty blend. 

Spenser, Sonnets, Ixii. 
And thy throne royall with dishonour blent. 

Spenser, Mother Hub. Tale, 1. 1330. 

= Syn. Sfix, etc. See mingle. 

il. intrans. 1. To mix or mingle; unite in- 
timately so as to form a harmonious whole; 
unite so as to be indistinguishable. 

And Rupert's oath, and Cromwell's prayer, 

With battle thunder blended. Wh&tier, The Exiles. 

Changed seemed all the fashion of the world, 
And past and future into one did blend. 

William Morris, Earthly Paradise, I. 349. 

2. To pass imperceptibly into each other : as, 
sea and sky seemed to blend. 

The distant peaks gradually blended with the white at- 
mosphere above them. Tyndall, Glaciers, p. 196. 

It would clearly be advantageous to two varieties or 
incipient species if they could be kept from blending, on 
the same principle that, when man is selecting at the 
same time two varieties, it is necessary that he should 
keep them separate. Darmn, Origin of Species, p. 248. 

blend 1 (blend), n. [< blend 1 , v.] 1. A mixing 
or mixture, as of liquids, colors, etc. : as, tea 
of our own blend. 2. The brand, kind, or 
quality produced by mixing together different 
sorts or qualities of a commodity: as, a fine 
blend of tea ; the finest blend of whisky. 

blend 2 t, v. t. ; pret. and pp. blended, blent, ppr. 
blending. [< ME. blenden, < AS. blendan (= 
OFries. blenda, blinda = Dan. blawde = LG. 
blennen = OH.G. blentjan, blenden, MHG. G. blen- 
den), make blind; factitive verb of blind, blind: 
see blind 1 , a. andv.] To blind; deceive. 

This multiplying blent [blindeth] so many oon. 

Chaucer, Canon's Yeoman's Tale, 1. 380. 
Reason blent through passion. Spenser, F. Q., II. iv. 7. 

blendcorn (blend'kdrn), . [< blend 1 + corn. 
Cf. Dan. dial, blandekorn.] Wheat and rye 
sown and grown together. N. E. D. 

blende (blend), n. [Also blend ; blind, blinde; < 
G. blende, blende, < blenden, blind, dazzle : see 
blend 2 .] An ore of zinc ; a native sulphid of zinc, 
but commonly containing more or less iron, 
also a little cadmium, and sometimes rarer ele- 
ments (gallium, indium). Its color is mostly brown 
and black, but when pure it is yellow or even white. The 
word blende is also eniployed in such compound terms as 
manganese-blende, zinc-blende, ruby-blende, to designate 
certain minerals (sulphids of the metals) characterized by a 
brilliant non-metallic luster. Also called sphalerite, false 
ijalena, and by English miners mock lead and black-jack. 

blender (blen'der), n. One who or that which 
blends ; specifically, a brush made of badgers' 
hair, used by grainers and artists in blending. 
See blending. 

blending (blen'ding), . [Verbal n. of blend 1 , 
v.] The act or process of combining or min- 
gling. Specifically, in painting : (a) A method of laying 
on different tints so that they may mingle together while 
wet and fuse into each other insensibly. (6) The process 
of causing pigments to melt or blend together by passing a 
soft brush of fltch or badgers' hair, called a blender or soft- 
ener, over them with a delicate, feathery touch. 

blendous (blen'dus), a. [< blende + -ous.] In 
mineral., pertaining to or consisting of blende. 

blend-water (blend'wa'ter), . A distemper 
of cattle. Also called more-hough. 



Blenheim 

Blenheim(blen'em), H. [Prom Blenheim House, 
erected by the English Parliament for the Duke 
of Marlborough in recognition of his military 
sen-ires, mid especially of his great victory at 
lUniliiiiii, (i. Blindhfiin, in Bavaria, Aug. 13, 
1704.] One of a breed of dogs of the spaniel 
kind, preserved in perfection at Blenheim 
House, near Oxford, England, since the begin- 
ning of the eighteenth century. 

Blenheim orange, wig. See the nouns. 

blenkt, c. /. [A \ ur. of Mink, q. v. ; partly con- 
fused with /i!< H, //!.] 1. To shine; gleam; glit- 
ter. 2. To glance ; give a look. 

Scarslie . . . lumiiK' the leisure to blent upon liny 
paper. .lm* I., hi 1) Israelis Amen, of Lit., II. 147. 

blennadenitis (blen'ad-e-ni'tis), n. [NL., < 

Gr. [ifavvof, ifacvva, mucus, + iiAi/r, a gland, + 

-ilix. ('!'. ittlfititix.'] In pathol., inflammation 

of the mucous glands. 
blennelytria (blen-e-lit'ri-ft), . [NL., < Gr. 

(i'/.ivvof, mucus, + thvrpov, sheath (vagina).] 

Same as leucorrliea. 
blennenteria (blen-en-te'ri-a), n. [NL., < Gr. 

fj'Aevvoc, mucus, + lirrepov, intestine.] Inpathol., 

a mucous flow from the intestines. 
blennentery (blen'en-te-ri), . Same as blen- 



blenniid (blen'i-id), n. A fish of the family 

li/Cltllii/l/l'. 

Blenniidas (ble-ni'i-de), n. ]>l. [NL., < Blcnnitix 
+ -iWrt'.] A family of fishes, typified by the 
genus B/ennius, adopted by various authors 
with different limits. In OUnther's system of dassi- 




Blenny (B/tnniits fetttetrHgint). 

ncatlon it is a family of Acaiithoptcrygii blfnni(forie, 
having the ventral tins Jugular anil composed of a few 
rays (sometimes absent), a prominent anal papilla, anil 
few or no anal spines. 

blenniiform (blen'i-i-f6rm), a. Pertaining to 
or having the characters of the Blenniijbrmes ; 
having the form of a blenny. 

Blenniiformes (blen*i-i-f6r'mez), n. pi. [NL., 
< L. bltniiitis, blenny, + forma, form.] In 
Gunther's classification of fishes, a division 
of Acanthopterygii, having the body low, sub- 
cylindrical or compressed, and elongate (rare- 
ly oblong); the dorsal fin long; the spinous 
portion of the dorsal, if distinct, very long, as 
well developed as the soft portion, or more so ; 
the whole fin sometimes composed of spines 
only; the anal more or less lengthened; the 
caudal subtruncate or rounded, and the ven- 
trals thoracic or jugular, if present. 

Blenniinse (blen-i-I^ie), . pi. [NL., < Blcnninx 
+ -tn<E.] A subfamily of Blenniida;, typified by 
the genus Bleiniius, to which various limits have 
been assigned. 

blennioid (blen'i-oid), o. and . [< L. blennius, 
blenny, + -o/rf.] I. a. Like a blonny; blennii- 
form. Also blcnnoid. 

IL H. A fish of the family Blenniida;; a blen- 
niid. Kir J. Richardson. 

Blennioidea (blen-i-oi'de-S), n. j>l. [NL., < 
Blenniits + -oidea.'] A superfamily of acanthop- 
terygian fishes, nearly equivalent to Blenniida;. 
The principal families are the Blenniida!, Clint- 
da;, Muranioidida;, Stichaiida:, and Anarrhicha- 



685 

blennometritis (blen'6-me-tri'tis), n. [NL., 

< (Jr. [1/ii'vos, mucus, + metritis, q. v.] In pa- 
llinl.. mucous flow accompanying metritis. 

blennophthalmia(blen-of-thal'mi-a), n. [NL., 

< Gr. fi'Aiwor, mucus, + NL. ophthalmia.} In 
/HI llnil., inflammation of the mucous membrane 
of the eye; conjunctivitis. 

blennorrhagia (blen-o-ra'ji-ft), n. [NL., < Or. 
fitewof, mucus, + -payia, \ pirfvvvat, burst, 
break.] In pathol., a discharge of mucus; spe- 
cifically, gonorrhea. 

blennorrhagic (blen-o-raj'ik), a. [< blennor- 
rhaijia + -ic.] Pertaining to, characterized by, 
or suffering from blennorrhagia. 

blennorrhea (blen-o-re'a), n. [NL., < Gr. Sltv- 
vof, mucus, + poia, a flow, < peiv, flow.] In 
pathol., a flow of mucus. The term 1> appUcable to 
an Increased discharge from any of the raucous surface*, 
but is usually restricted to that from the urethra ami v:i 
gina, gonorrhea. Also spelled lilemwrrhtea. 

blennorrheal (blen-o-re'al), a. [< blcnnorhea 
+ -at.] Pertaining to "or characterized by 
bleunorrhea. Also spelled blennorrhaial. 

blenny (blen'i), n. ; pi. blennies (-iz). [< L. blen- 
nius : see Blennius.'] A fish of the genus Blc-n- 
niiiy, of the family Blenniida;, and especially of 
the subfamily Blenniina: 

blennymenitis (blen*|-me-ni'tis), n. [NL., < 
Gr. fiAivmf, mucus, + v/t^v, membrane, + -itis.'] 
In pathol., inflammation of a mucous mem- 
brane. 

blens (blenz), n. [E. dial., also blinds: see 
def. 2.] 1. A local English name of the com- 
mon cod. 2. A Cornish name of the bib, a 
fish of the cod family. The fob is said to have been 
so named from a sort of loose bag capable of inflation and 
resembling a bleb or blain, which is fonned of an outer 
layer passing from the cheeks over the eye, and a second 
layer passing over the eyeball. Day. 

blent 1 (blent). Past participle of blend 1 . 
blent 2 t. Preterit and past participle of blend 2 . 

Chaucer. 
blepharadenitis (blef-a-rad-e-ni'tis), n. [NL., 

< Gr. fihiipapov, eyelid, + 00171' (aiev-), gland, + 
-itis.~\ la pathol., inflammation of the Meibo- 
mian glands. Also written blepharoademtis. 

blepharal (blef'a-ral), a. [< Gr. /}%t<t>apov, eye- 
lid, + -n/.] Pertaining to the eyelids. 

blepharedema (blef-a-re-de'mft), n. [NL., < 
Gr. fi^fipanov, eyelid, + oifr/ua, swelling : see 
edema.'} In pathol., edema of the eyelids. 

blepharitis (blef-a-ri'tis), n. [NL., < Gr. /?- 
<t>apov, eyelid, + -itis. Cf. Gr. fiteipaplTic, adj., of 
or on the eyelids.] Inpathol., inflammation of 
the eyelids. 

bleph'aroadenitis (blef ' a - ret - ad - e - ni ' tis), . 
[NL.] Same as blepharadenitis. 

blepharophimosis (blefa-ro-fi-mo'sis), n. 
[NL., < Gr. tf/.i(j>apov. eyelid, 4- Qiuaatf, a muz- 
zling, shutting up of an orifice, <. ifu/jovv, muz- 
zle, shut up, < <t>t/t6c, a muzzle.] In pathol., 
congenital diminution of the space between the 
eyelids. Dunglison. 

blepharophthalmia (blefa-rof-thal'nii-a), H. 
[NL., < Gr. tilt ijiapov, eyelid, + injiBa/.fiia, oph- 
thalmia.] In pathol., conjunctivitis accom- 
panied by blepharitis. 

blepharophthalmic (blef'a-rof-thal'mik), a. 
Pertaining to blepharophthalmia. 

blepharoplastic (blef'a-ro-plas'tik), o. Per- 
taining to blepharoplasty. 

blepharoplasty (blef'a-ro-p'as'ti), n. [< Gr. 
/jMfapov, eyelid, + xfaurr6f, verbal adj. of 



bless 




Blennioidei (blen-i-oi'de-l), n. pi. [NL.] A 
family of acanthopterygian fishes: synony- 
mous with Blenniida;. Agassis. 

Blennius (bleu'i-us), . [L., also blendius and 
blcndea, < Gr. fitewof, a blenny, < [fttwos, also 
fiMwa, mucus, slime : in reference to the mucous 
coating of its skin.] The typical genus of the 
family Hlcintiiila', originally containing numer- 
ous species now dispersed in many different 
genera: the term is at present restricted to 
those species which are closely related to the 
common blenny of Europe. See cut under 
/>'/< iiniidte. 

blennogenic (blen-o-jen'ik), a. [As l>ienn<>iie>i- 
oiix + -ic.] Generating mucus ; muciparous. 

blennogenous(ble-noi'e-nus), a. [<Gr. i&iwof, 
mucus, + -yntif, producing: see -genotm.] In 
mill., producing or generating mucus. 

blennoid (bleu oid), a. [X Gr. (ft.twof, mucus, 
+ <!of, form.] Besemblmg mucus. 



, form, mold.] In surg., the operation 
of making a new eyelid from a piece of skin 
transplanted from an adjacent part. 

blepharoplegia (blef'a-ro-ple'ji-a), n. [NL., 
< Gr. ,i/.i<t>apov, eyelid, + ^vr/, a stroke.] 
Same as ptosis. 

blepharoptosis (blef'a-rop-to'sis), n. [NL., < 
Gr. /3/U^apov, eyelid, + XTUOIC, a fall.] Same 
as ptosis. 

blepharorhaphy (blef'a-ro-raf 'i), n. [NL., < 
Gr. jm<t>apov, eyelid, + paipri, a sewing, seam, < 
pdrrrctv, sew.] The surgical operation of unit- 
ing the edges of the eyelids to each other, as 
after enueleation. 

blepharospasm (blef'a-ro-spazm), n. [< Gr. 
pl^apov, eyelid, + a-aaafi^, a spasm.] Spasm 
of the orbicular muscle of the eyelid. 

blepharostenosis (blef 'a-ro-ste-no'sis), . 
[NL., < Gr. fftlipapov, eyelid, + arevoaif, a nar- 
rowing, < artvovv, contract, narrow, < oTtfof, 
narrow.] In pathol., a diminution of the space 
between the eyelids, not of congenital origin. 
See blepharophimosis. 

blesbok, blessbok (bles'bok). >t. [Also Eng- 
lished lit<xxhi-k ; < D. blesbok, <bles, = E. blaze*, 



+ bok = E. buck 1 .'] A largo bubaline or alcela- 
phine antelope of South Africa, Damalis or 
Aleelaphws albifrons. with a white face or blaze. 

bleschet, ' See blesh. 

blesht, v. t. [ME. blesshen, bleschen, blessen, 
blissen, prob. of LG. origin: MD. blessclim, 
blusschen, D. blusschen = LG. bluschen, quench, 
extinguish, appar. contr. of "beleschen, < be- + 
MLG. leschcn = MD. lesschen = OHG. lesken, 
MHG. leschen, G. loschen, put put, causal of 
OHG. leskan, MHG. leschen (G. loschcii), go out, 
as fire; prob., with present-formative -sk (= 
AS. -sc, E. -sh, as in thresh, wash, etc.), from 
the root of AS. lecgan, OHG. legen, etc., lay: 
see lay*-.] To quench ; extinguish ; put out (a 
fire). 
Btrschyn [var. bleuhyn], or qwenchyn, extlnguo. 

Prompt. Pan., p. 39. 

bless 1 (bles), v. t. ; pret. and pp. blessed or blrut, 
ppr. blessing. [< ME. blessen, blessien, blescen, 
bletsien (also blissen, etc. ),< AS. bletstan, bledsian 
= ONorth. blcedsia, gi-bl&dsia, bless (> Icel. 
bletza, bleza, mod. blessa, bless), originally 
"blodison, which may have meant 'consecrate 
the altar by sprinkling it with the blood of the 
sacrifice' (Sweet), lit. make bloody, < blod, 
blood, with verb-formative -s, as in ctiensian, 
cleanse, minsian, grow small (see cleanse and 
mince). Confused in ME. and since with the 
unrelated lilixx ; hence the ME. parallel forms 
blissen, blissien,bliscen ; and see blessfully, bless- 
fulness.] 1. To consecrate or set apart to 
holy or sacred purposes ; make or pronounce 
holy: formerly occasionally used of persons. 

And God blessed the seventh day, and sanctified it. 

(let). II. 3. 

2. To consecrate (a thing) by a religious rite, 
as with prayer and thanksgiving; consecrate 
or hallow by asking God's blessing on : as, to 
lilixx food. 

Where the master la too resty or too rich ... to bltxs 
his own table. .Villon, Elkonoklastes. 

And now the bishop had ''' the meat. 

Sauthry, Bishop Bruno. 

3. To sanctify (one's self) by making the sign 
of the cross, especially as a defense against 
evil influences or agencies : used reflexively. 

Aryse be tynie oute of thi bedde. 
And Wynne thl brest & thl forhede. 

liabftt Book (E. E. T. 8.X p. 17. 

When they heard these words, some . . . Mest Hum- 

ttelceg with toth hands, thinking . . . that he had been a 

devil disguised. L'rquliart, Rabelais, 1. 85. (.V. E. D.) 

I fancy I see you bless yourself at this terrible relation. 

Lady M. W. Montayti, Letters, II. 47. (X. E. D.) 

4t. To defend; preserve; protect or guard 
from evil ; reflexively, to guard one's self from ; 
avoid; eschew. 

And, were not hevenly grace that did him liifssf, 
lie had beene pouldred all, as thin as flowre. 

Sixnter, V. Q., I. vii. 12. 

Bless me from this woman ! I would stand the cannon. 
Before ten words of hers. 

Fletcher, Wildgoose Chase, L S. 

And therefore God bless us from that [separation by 
death], and I will hope well of the rest. 

Arabella Stiiart, In D'Israeli's Curios, of Lit, II. 277. 

5. To invoke or pronounce a blessing upon 
(another or others); commend to God's favor 
or protection. 

And Isaac called Jacob, and blessed him. Gen. xxviii. 1. 

A thousand timea I blent him, as he knelt beside my bed. 

Tennyson, May Queen. 

6. To confer well-being upon; bestow happi- 
ness, prosperity, or good of any kind upon; 
make happy, prosperous, or fortunate ; prosper 
with temporal or spiritual benefits : as, a nation 
blessed with peace and plenty. 

The Lord thy God shall blest thee in all that thou doest. 

Dent. XT. W. 
Heaveu bless your expedition. Shalt., t lien. IV., L 2. 



bless 

If I do well I shall be blessed, whether any bless me or 
not. Selden, Table-Talk, p. 17. 

7. To favor (with); make happy or fortunate 
by some specified means: as, blessed with a 
good constitution ; blessed with filial children. 

You will to your lute, I heard you could touch it cun- 
ningly ; pray bless my ears a little. 

Shirley, Witty Fair One, i. S. 

Mrs. Bull . . . blessed John with three daughters. 

Arbuthnot, John Bull (1765), p. 30. (N. E. D.) 

8. To praise or extol (a) as holy or worthy of 
reverence, or (b) as the giver of benefits ; ex- 
tol or glorify with thankful acknowledgment 
of benefits received. 

Bless the Lord, O my soul : and all that is within me, 
bless His holy name. Ps. ciii. 1. 

I am content with this, and bless my fortune. 

Fletcher, Wlldgoose Chase, iii. 1. 

9. To esteem or account happy; congratulate ; 
felicitate : used reflexively. 

The nations shall bless themselves in him. Jer. iv. 2. 

Bless not thyself only that thou wert born in Athens. 

Sir T. Browne, Christ. Mor., i. 35. 

[Often used in exclamations with various shades of mean- 
ing departing more or less widely from the literal sense : 
as, God blesx me ! bless you ! bless the mark ! etc.] God 
bless the mark. See mart. Not to have a penny to 
bless one's self with, to be penniless : in allusion to the 
cross on the silver penny (cf. Ger. Kreuzer), or to the prac- 
tice of crossing the palm with a piece of silver. N. E. D. 
To be blessed, a euphemism for to be damned: as, I'm 
Weisedifhedidn'trunaway; I'm blessed it I know. [Slang.] 

I'm blessed if I don't expect the cur back to-morrow 
morning. ilarryat, Snarleyyow, II. xi. 

An emphatic and earnest desire to be blessed if she 
would. Dickens, Oliver Twist, xiii. 

To bless one's self. () To felicitate one's self ; exult. 
(6) To ejaculate "Bless me," "God bless me," or the like. 
To bless one's stars, to congratulate or felicitate one's 
self. 

bless 2 t (bles), v. t. and i. [< ME. blessen, blyssen, 
blechen, strike, wound, < OF. blecier, blechier, 
F. blesser, wound, injure; of uncertain origin, 
perhaps < MHG. ze-bletzen, cut to pieces, < ze-, 
Gr. zer- (= AS. to-, E. to- 2 ), apart, + bletz, blez, 
OHG. bletz, a patch, a piece.] 1. To wound; 
hurt ; beat ; thump. Skelton. 2. [Appar. a de- 
flection of sense 1. Some fancy that it refers 
to "the old rite of blessing a field by directing 
the hands to all parts of it" (see btess 1 ).] To 
wave; brandish. 

He pi-iked in formest 

& blessed so with his brigt bront aboute in eche side 
That what rink so he raugt he ros never after. 

William of Palerne, 1. 1191. 
His sparkling blade about his head he blest. 

Spenser, F. Q., I. viii. 22. 
blessbok, n. See blesbok. 
blessed (bles'ed or blest; as pret. and pp. com- 
monly pronounced blest, and often so written), 
p. a. [Pp. of bless 1 .'] 1. Consecrated; holy: as, 
the blessed sacrament. 

I ... dipped my finger in the blessed water. 

Marryat, Phantom Ship, i. (N. E. D.) 

2. Worthy of adoration : as, the blessed Trinity. 

run, prevent them with thy humble ode, 
And lay it lowly at his blessed feet. 

Milton, Nativity, 1. 26. 
Jesus, the Christ of God, 
The Father's blessed Son. 

Bonar, Hymns of Faith and Hope. 
8. Enjoying supreme happiness or felicity; 
favored with blessings ; highly favored ; happy ; 
fortunate : as, "England's blessed shore," Shak., 
2 Hen. VI., iii. 2; the blessedest of mortals. 

The days are coming in the which they shall say, Blessed 
are the barren. Luke xxiii. 29. 

Farewell, lady; 
Happy and blessed lady, goodness keep you ! 

Fletcher, Loyal Subject, iv. 1. 
Man never Is, but always To be, blest. 

Pope, Essay on Man, i. 96. 

Specifically 4. Enjoying spiritual blessings 
and the favor of God; enjoying heavenly feU- 
city; beatified. 
Blessed are the merciful : for they shall obtain mercy. 

Mat. v. 7. 
Reverenc'd like a blessed saint. Shak., 1 Hen. VI., iii. 3. 

5. Fraught with or imparting blessings; be- 
stowing happiness, health, or prosperity. 

The quality of mercy . . . is twice bless' d; 
It blesseth him that gives, and him that takes. 

Shak.,M. of V., iv. 1. 
Thou blessed star, I thank thee for thy light. 

Fletcher, Faithful Shepherdess, ii. 2. 

6. Bringing happiness; pleasurable; joyful: 
as, a most blessed time; "a blessed sight to 
see'Tepys, Diary, May 23, 1660. 7. Endowed 
with or possessing healing virtues. 

I have . . . made familiar 
To me and to my aid the bless'd infusions 
That dwell in vegetives, in metals, stones. 

Shak,, Pericles, iii. 2. 



586 

8. By euphemism: Cursed; damned; con- 
founded : a term of mitigated objurgation, and 
often merely emphatic without objurgation: 
as, the blessed thing gave way ; our blessed sys- 
tem of caucusing; he lost every blessed cent he 
had. Blessed bell. See belli. Blessed thistle. See 
thistle. Tne blessed, the saints in heaven ; the beatified 
saints. 

The state also of the blessed in Paradise, though never 
so perfect, is not therefore left without discipline. 

Milton, Church-Government, i. 1. 

blessed-herb (bles'ed-erb), n. [A tr. of ML. 
lierba benedicta, > E. herb-bennet.] The com- 
mon European avens, Geum urbanum. 

blessedly (bles'ed-li), adv. In a blessed man- 
ner; happily; in a fortunate manner ; joyfully. 

One day we shall blessedly meet again never to depart. 
Sir P. Sidney, Arcadia, iii. 

blessedness (bles'ed-nes). n. [< blessed + -ness.] 
The state of being blessed; happiness; felicity; 
heavenly joys ; the favor of God. 

His [Wolsey's] overthrow heap'd happiness upon him ; 
For then, and not till then, he felt himself, 
And found the blessedness of being little. 

Shak., Hen. VIII., iv. 2. 

Nor lily, nor no glorious hyacinth, 

Are of that sweetness, whiteness, tenderness, 

Softness, and satisfying blessedness, 

As my Evanthe. Fletcher, Wife for a Mouth, i. 1. 

It is such an one as, being begun in grace, passes into 
glory, blessedness, and immortality. South. 

Single blessedness, the unmarried state ; celibacy. 

Grows, lives, and dies, in single blessedness. 

Shak., M. N. D., i. 1. 

=Syn. Felicity, Bliss, etc. (see happiness), joy, beatitude, 
blesser (bles'er), n. One who bestows a bless- 
ing ; one who blesses or causes to prosper. 

God, the giver of the gift, or blesser of the action. 

Jer. Taylor, Holy Living, 4. 

blessfully (bles'ful-i), adv. [For blissfully, by 
confusion of bless 1 with bliss; so ME. blesful, 
and even blessedful, as variations of blissful. 
See bless 1 and bliss.] Blissfully. [Bare.] 

Of these many are blessfvlly incognizant of the opinion, 
its import, its history, and even its name. 

Sir W. Hamilton. 

blessfulness (bles'ful-nes), n. [For blissfulness. 
Cf. blessfully.] Blissfulness. Drant. [Bare.] 

blessing (bles'ing), n. [< ME. blessinge, bles- 
sunge, etc., < AS. bletsung, JZedsMnjr, verbal n. of 
bletsian, bless: see bless 1 .] 1. The act of in- 
voking or pronouncing happiness upon another 
or Others; benediction. Specifically, in the Latin 
and Greek churches, the act of pronouncing a benediction 
on the laity or inferior clergy, performed by a bishop or 
other priest In the Roman Catholic Church, the blessing 
is now given with all the fingers joined and extended, but 
formerly with 
the thumb and 
the first two fin- 
gers of the right 
hand extended 
and the two 
remaining fin- 
gers turned 
down. In the 
Greek Church, 
the thumb and 
the third finger 
of the same hand 
are joined, the 
other fingers be- 
ing extended. 
Some Eastern 
writers see in 
this position a 
symbol of the Greek sacred monogram of the name of 
Christ. In either case the three fingers (or two fingers 
and thumb) extended symbolize the Trinity. In the An- 
glican Church, either the former or the present Latin ges- 
ture is used. 

2. The form of words used in this invocation 
or declaration ; a (or the) benediction. 3. The 
bestowal of divine favor, or of hallowing, pro- 
tecting, or prospering influences: as, to ask 
God's blessing on any undertaking. 4. A tem- 
poral or spiritual benefit ; anything which makes 
happy or prosperous ; something to be thank- 
ful for; a boon or mercy: as, the blessings of 
life, of health, or of civilization; it is a bless- 
ing we fared so well. 

Nature's full blessings would be well dispensed. 

Milton, Comus, 1. 772. 

5. Euphemistically, a curse ; a scolding ; a cas- 
tigation with words. To ask a blessing, to say grace 
before a meal. 

blest (blest), pret., pp., and jp. a. A contracted 
form of blessed. 

blet (blet), v. i. ; pret. and pp. bletted, ppr. blet- 
ting. [< F. blettir, become 'sleepy,' < blette, 
'sleepy,' applied to a pear (une poire blette), 
fern, of a disused masc. "blet, < OF. bkt, fern. 
blette, soft, mellow, overripe; cf. equiv. blcche, 
bleqne, applied also to an overripe apple (Cot- 




\ 



Latin Church (old use). Greek Church. 

Position of Hand in Blessing. 



blight 

grave), also blesse, blosse, blot (Roquefort). The 
relations of these forms, and their origin, are 
uncertain.] To become "sleepy" or internally 
decayed, as a pear which ripens after being 
picked. 

Its [the medlar's] fruit is hard, acid, and unfit for eating 
till it loses its green colour and becomes bletted. 

Encyc. Brit., XII. 271. 

bletcht, v. t. [The assibilated form of Week, 
v. Cf. blotch, black.'] To black; make black. 
Levins. 

bletcht, n. [The assibilated form of bleak, u. 
Cf. btetclt, v.] Blacking. Levins. 

blether 1 (bleTH'er), . i. Same as blaflier. 

blether 1 (bleTH'er), . Same as blather. 

Stringin 1 blethers up in rhyme. Burns, The Vision. 

blether 2 (bleTH'er), n. A Scotch form of blad- 
der. 

bletherskate (bleTH'er -skat), . Same as 
blatherskite. 

bletonism (blet'on-izm), . [So called from M. 
Bleton, a Frenchman living at the end of the 
18th century, who was said to have this fac- 
ulty.] The pretended faculty of perceiving 
and indicating subterraneous springs and cur- 
rents by peculiar sensations. 

bletonist (blet'on-ist), n. [See bletonism.'] One 
who possesses or pretends to possess the fac- 
ulty of bletonism. 

bletting (blet'ing), n. [Verbal n. of blet, v.] 
The slow internal decay or "sleepiness" that 
takes place in some fruits, as apples and pears, 
after they are gathered. Lindley. 

bleu-de-roi (ble'de-rwo'), n. [P., king's blue: 
bleu (see blue) ; de, < L. de, of ; roi, king : see 
roy."] In ceram., the name given to the cobalt- 
blue color in European porcelain, first pro- 
duced in Sevres. It is sometimes uniform, and some- 
times mottled or marbled. It was one of the flrst colors 
used in European porcelain decoration. 

blevet, v. t. A Middle English contraction of 
beleave. 

blew 1 , blew 2 (bio). Preterit of blow 1 , blow%. 

blew 3 t, a- See blue. 

blewart (ble'wart), . [So. Cf. blawort.] In 
Scotland, the germander speedwell, Veronica 
Chamaidrys. 

blewits (blo'its), n. [Prob. same as bluets, pi. 
of bluet, a name applied to several different 
flowers.] The popular name of Agaricus perso- 
natus, an edible purplish mushroom common in 
meadows in autumn. 

bleymet, . [< F. bleime, of same sense, re- 
ferred by some to bUtne, formerly blaime, OF. 
bleme, blesme, pale: see blemish.'] An inflam- 
mation in the foot of a horse, between the sole 
and the bone. Bradley. 

bleynt, An obsolete spelling of blain. 

bleyntet. An obsolete preterit of blench 1 . 

Therwithal he bleynte and cryede, A ! 

Chawer, Knight's Tale, L 220. 

bliandt, . See bleaunt. 

bliaust, bliautt, n. See bleaunt. 

blickH, v. i. [In mod. E. appar. only in dial. 
blickent, shining, bright, orig. (as in 2d extract 
below) ppr. of blick; (a) < ME. blikken, bKkien, 
bltken,< AS.'blician = MD. blicken, shine, gleam, 
D. blikken, twinkle, turn pale, = MLG. blicken, 
shine, gleam, = Q-. blickeu, glance, look, = Icel. 
blika, shine, gleam, = Sw. blicka, glance, look ; 
a weak verb, in ME. mixed with the orig. strong 
verb (6) bliken, < AS. blican (pret. bide, pp. bli- 
cen) = OS. blikan, shine, gleam, = OFries. blika 
(pp. bliken), appear, = MD. bliken, D. blijken, 
look, appear, = OHG. blihhan (in comp.), MHG. 
blichen, shine, gleam ; perhaps = OBulg. blis- 
kati, sparkle, = L. fulgere, shine, lighten, = 
Gr. faeyeiv, burn : see fulgent, phlegm, phlox. 
Hence ult. (from AS. blican) E. bleak 1 , bleach 1 , 
q. v. Cf. blink, blank.] To shine ; gleam. 

Bryst blykked the bem of the brode heuen. 

Alliterative Poems (ed. Morris), ii. 603. 

The blykkande belt he here theraboute. 
Sir Gawayne and the Green Knight (ed. Morris), 1. 2486. 

blick 1 (blik), . [< G. blick = D. Dan. blik, a 
look, glance, twinkle, flash, = MLG. blick, 
gleam, sheen; from the verb: see blick 1 , v.] 
The brightening or iridescence appearing on 
silver or gold at the end of the cupeling or re- 
fining process. Raymond, Mining Glossary. 

blick 2 (blik), n. [E. dial, var.of Wcfc2.] Same 
as bleak%. 

blickey, blickie (blik'i), . A small pail or 
bucket. [New Jersey.] 

blight (bllt), . [First certain instances in Cot- 
grave and Sherwood, 17th century; later also 



blight 

spelled Mite. Origin unknown ; the various ex- 
planations offered all tail for luck of evidence.] 

1. Some influence, usually hidden or not con- 
spicuous, that nips, blasts, or destroys plants ; 

a diseased sliite . 1 phmts caused by the condi- 
tion of the soil, atmospheric influences, insects, 
parasitic plants, etc. ; smut, mildew, or the like. 
In botany it is sometimes n .-.tin t. -.1 to a flags of minute 
parasitic fungi, the Erysipltaci'ii, ulii.-h mow upon the 
surf ace of leaves or stems without .-iitei-int; the tissues, and 
pnidnee nwliithdi appearance, but is frequently utplleaalio 
U> th4>se of other group* which arc destructive to crops. 
The garden fears no blight, and needs no fence. 

Courper, Task, vi. 772. 

2. Figuratively, any malignant or mysterious 
influence that nips, blasts, destroys, or brings 
to naught ; anything which withers hope, blasts 
one's prospects, or checks prosperity. 

A bliijlit seemed to have fallen over our fortunes. 

Disraeli. 

The biting presence of a petty degrading care, such as 
casts the blight of irony over all higher effort. 

George KIM, Mlddlemarch, II. 178. 

3. In med. : () A slight facial paralysis in- 
duced by sudden cold or damp. (6) See blights. 
Bladder-blight, a disease of peach-trees caused by the 
parasitic fungus Exoatc\u i/r/oruiaiw, which produces in- 
Hated distortions iu the leaves. See Exoaixux. Fear- 
blight, an epidemic disease attacking pear-trees, also 
known as jire-bliqht, and wlu-n ulfeeting the apple and 
quince as tvrig-bliiiht, caused by a microscopic fungus. 
jlicrococcu* amylovorus, one of the bacteria. Also called 
anthrax and tnin-scald. 

blight (but), v. t. [< blight, n.] 1. To affect 
with blight; cause to wither or decay; nip, 
blast, or destroy. 

A cold and wet summer blighted the corn. 

Emerton, Misc., p. 68. 

2. To exert a malignant or baleful influence 
on; blast or mar the beauty, hopes, or pros- 
pects of ; frustrate. 

The standard of police Is the measure of political justice. 
The atmosphere will blight it, it cannot live here. 

Lamb, Artificial Comedy of Last Century. 

blight-bird (blit'berd), n. A bird, as a species 
of Zosterops, useful in clearing trees of blight 
and of insects. 

blighted (bli'ted), p. a. Smitten with blight ; 
blasted. 

blighting (bli'ting), p. a. Producing the ef- 
fects of blight. 

I found it [Tintoretto's house] had nothing to offer me 
but the usual number of commonplace rooms In the usual 
blighting state of restoration, llowells, Venetian Life, xv. 

blightingly (bli'ting-li), adv. By blighting; 
with blighting influence or effect. 

blights (blits), n. pi. [See blight, n.] A name 
given in some parts of the United States to cer- 
tain forms of urticaria or nettle-rash. 

bliket, * [ME. bliken and bliken : see 
To shine; gleam. 

blikent, . [ME. blikncn (= Icel. blikna), < 
bliken, shine: see blike, bitch 1 .] 1. To become 
pale. 2. To shine. 

blimbing (blim'bing), n. Same as bilimbi. 

blin 1 t (Win), c. [< ME. blinnen, rarely bilinnen, 
usually iutrans., < AS. blinnan, intrans., cease, 
contr. of 'belinnan (= OHG. bilinnan), (. be- + 
IIHIHIII. ME. liiiiini, mod. dial. tin. Sc. lin, linn. 
leen, cease, = Icel. linna = Dan. linne, linde = 
OHG. "tinnan, in bi-linnan above, and MHG. 
ge-linnen = Goth, "linnan, in af-linnan, leave 
off.] I. intrunx. To cease; leave off. 

I 'gan cry ere I Win, 
O, her eyes are paths to sin ! 

Greene, Penitent Palmer's Ode. 

II. trans. To put a stop to. 

For nathemore for that spectacle bad 

Did th' other two their cruell vengeaunce Win, 

But both attonce on both sides him bestad. 

>>...->-, F. y., III. v. 22. 

blinH (blin), . [< ME. blin, < AS. blinn, cessa- 
tion, < blinndn, cease: see the verb.] End; 
cessation. /'. Jonson. 

blin- (bliu), a. A Scotch form of blind. 

blind 1 (blind), a. [< ME. blind, blynd, < AS. 
blind = OS. blind = OFries. blind = D. blind = 
OHG. MHG. Mint, G. blind = Icel. blindr = Sw. 
blind = Dan. blind = Goth, blinds, blind ; cf. 
Lit It. blendeas, blind, Lett, blenst, see dimly. 
OBulg. bledii, pale, dim; with factitive verb 
AS. li/i-iiil/ui, i-ii-., make blind (see blend 2 ). The 
supposed connection with AS. blandan, etc., E. 
bland 1 , as if 'with confused sight,' is doubtful.] 
1. Destitute of the sense of sight, whether by 
natural defect or by deprivation, permanently 
or temporarily ; not having sight. 

They be Wind leaders of the blind. Mat. \v. n. 

Hence 2. Figuratively, lacking in the fac- 
ulty of discernment; destitute of intellectual, 



587 

moral, or spiritual sight ; unable to understand 
or judge. 

I am full i.l'itni' in Poet* Arto, 

thereof 1 i an no skill : 
All > 11. ..[in n. . I put apart, 

follouinu' inyiif ..\vni- wyll. 
lih,,df. Bated Nurture (E. E. T. 8.), p. 71. 
At a solemn procession I have wept abundantly, while 
my consorts, blind with opposition mid prejudice, ha\. 
fallen into an access of scorn and laughter. 

Burnt, K.I]-:. > Medici,!. :t. 
He fought his doubts and gather' d strength, 
He would not make his judgment blitid. 

'A.,,,,,/,-,,,,, In Memoriam, xcvl. 

3. Not directed or governed by sight, physical 
or mental; not proceeding from or controlled 
by reason: as, blind groping; blind tenacity. 

That which is thought to have done the Bishops hurt, 
Is their going about to bring men to a Mind obedience. 

SeUlen, Table-Talk, p. 23. 

Specifically 4. Undiscriminating ; heedless ; 
inconsiderate; unreflecting; headlong. 

His feare of God may be as faulty as a blind zeale. 

Milluu, Elkonoklastea, Ix. 

This plan la recommended neither to blitul approbation 
nor to blind reprobation. Jay. 

5. Not possessing or proceeding from intelli- 
gence or consciousness; without direction or 
control; irrational; fortuitous: as, a Wind force 
or agency; blind chance. 8. Filled with or en- 
veloped in darkness; dark; obscure; not easily 
discernible: as, a Wind corner. [Archaic.] 

The Wind cave of eternal night. Shak., Rich. IIL, T. 3. 
The blind mazes of this tangled wood. 

Milton, Comus, 1. 181. 

Mr. Pierce hath let his wife's closet, and the little Mi ml 
bedchamber, and a garret, to a silk-man for 601. fine, and 
301. per annum. /'<W, Diary, II. 459. 

Hence 7. Difficult to see, literally or figura- 
tively ; hard to understand ; hard to make put ; 
unintelligible: as, blind outlines ; Mind writing; 
/"'.'/."/ reasoning. 
Written in such a queer blind . . . hand. 

Hawthorne, Grandfather's Chair. 

8f. Unlighted: as, blind candles. 9. Covered; 
concealed from sight ; hidden. 

On the Wind rocks are lost. Dryden. 

10t. Out of sight or public view; out of the 
way; private; secret. 

A Wind place where Mr. Goldsborough was to meet me. 
Pejnjt, Diary, Oct. 15, 1881. 

I was forced to go to a Wind chophouse, and dine for 
tenpence. Swift, Journal to Stella, Letter 5. 

11. Without openings for admitting light or 
seeing through: as. a Wind window; "blind 
walls, Tennyson, Godiva. 12. Not serving 
any apparent purpose ; wanting something or- 
dinarily essential to completeness ; not fulfil- 
ling its purpose : as, a blind shell, one that 
from a bad fuse or other reason has fallen with- 
out exploding. 13. Closed at one end ; having 
no outlet ; ctecal : as, a blind alley. 

Blind processes . . . from both the sides and ends of 
the air-bladder. Owen, Aunt. Vert, 

Offenders were supposed to be incarcerated behind an 
iron-plated door, closing up a second prison, consisting of 
a strong cell or two and a Wind alley some yard and a 
half wide. Dickent, Little Don-it, vi. 

Blind arcade. See arcade. Blind arch. See orcAl. 
Blind area, a space about the basement of a house 
designed to prevent moisture from reaching the walls of 
the building ; an ambit. Blind axle. See axle. Blind 
beetle, a name given to two insects : (a) the cockchafer 
(llelolontha vulyaris), so called because it flies against 
persons as if it were blind ; (6) ft small chestnut-colored 
beetle destitute of eyes, found in rice. Blind blocking. 
See blocking. Blind buckler, the stopper of a hawse- 
hole. Blind bud, an abortive bud; a bud that bears 
no bloom or fruit Hence plants are said by florists '> 
,</ Wind when they fail to form flower-buds. Blind 
coal, coal altered by the passage of a trap dike through 
or near it. iEng.] Blind copy, in printing, obscurely 
written copy; any copy hard to read. Blind door. *ee 
Wind window, below. Blind fire, fuel arranged on the 
grate or fireplace in such a manner as to be easily Ignited 
on the application of a lighted match. Blind holes, 
holes, as in plates to be riveted, which are not coincident. 
Blind lantern, a dark or unlighted lantern. Blind 
level, in mining, a level or drainage gallery which has a 
vertical shaft at each end and acts as an inverted siphon. 
Blind plants, abortive plants ; plants, as of the cabbage 
ami other members of the genus Brasgica, which have 
failed to produce central buds. Blind side, the weak 
or unguarded side of a person or thing. 
All people have their blind side their superstitions. 

Lamb, Opinions on Whist. 

Blind spot, the point in the retina, not sensitive to light, 
at which the optic nerve enters the eye. Blind stitch, 
(a) A stitch taken on the under side of any fabric in such a 
way that it is not seen. (M Ornamental sewing on leather, 
designed to be seen on only one side of the material. 
Blind story, (a) A pointless talc. (6) Same as M//I./ 
story. Blind tooling. See tooling. Blind vessel, in 
'/".<... :i vessel u ith an opening on one side only. Blind 
window, door, in nn-li., a feiitnre of design introduced 
I'.T tlie sake "f symmetry nr harm. my. itlentieal in treat- 
ment and ornament with u true window or door, but 
closed with a wall. 



blind-born 

blind 1 (blind), r . [< ME. Winden, become blind, 
make blind, deceive (= D. blinden = OFries. 
lilmdii = OHG. blinden, become blind, == Dan. 
blindc = Goth, ga-blindjan, make blind), < blind, 
a., blind. The more common ME. verb is that 
represented by blend?, q. v.] I. trans. 1. To 
make blind ; deprive of sight ; render incapable 
of seeing, wholly or partially. 

Tlie curtain drawn, his eye* begun 
To wink, being blinded with a greater light. 

SKak., Lucrece, L 875. 

2. To dim the perception or discernment of; 
make morally or intellectually blind. 

And tli. .11 shall take no gift : for the gift Uindeth the 
wise, and perverteth the words of the righteous. 

Ex. xxilL 8. 
Superstition hath blinded the hearts of men. 

Burton, Anat of Mel., p. SW. 
Whom passion hath not blinded. 

Tennyson, Ode to Memory, v. 

3. To render dark, literally or figuratively; 
obscure to the eye or to the mind ; conceal. 

Such darkness blindt the sky. Dryden. 

The state of the controversy between us he endeavoured, 

with all his art, to Wind and confound. Stiilingjleet. 

4. To dim or obscure by excess of light ; out- 
shine; eclipse. [Bare.] 

Thirsil, her beauty all the rest did blind, 
That she alone seem'd worthy of my love. 

P. Fletcher, Piscatory Eclogues, vi. 
Thy sweet eyes brighten slowly close to mine. 
Ere yet they Wind the stars. Tennyson, Tithonus. 

6. In road-making, to fill with gravel, as inter- 
stices between stones; cover with gravel or 
earth: as. to Wind road-metal. 6. In. gunnery, 
to provide with blindages.- Blinded battery. 

See battery. 

II. intrans. To become blind or dim. 
That ho [the, a pearl] Mynden of ble in bour ther ho lyggra, 
No-hot wasch hir wyth wourchyp in wyn as ho askes. 

Alliterative Poem(ed. Morris), 11. 1126. 

blind 1 (blind), n. [< blind], v.} 1. Anything 
which obstructs the sight, intercepts, the view, 
or keeps out light. 

If I have an ancient window overlooking my neighbour's 

ground, he may not erect any Wind to obstruct the light. 

Blaclatone, Com., II. 26. 

Specifically (a) A screen of some sort to prevent too 
strong a light from shining in at a window, or to keep 
people from seeing in ; a sun-screen or shade for a win- 
dow, niade of cloth, laths, etc., and used either Inside or 
outside. (6) One of a pair of pieces of leather, generally 
square, attached to a horse's bridle on either side of his 
head to prevent him from seeing sidewise or backward; a 
blinder or blinker, (c) A strong plank shutter placed In 
front of a port-hole as soon as the gun has been discharged. 

2. Something intended to mislead the eye or 
the understanding by concealing, or diverting 
attention from, the principal object or true de- 
sign ; a pretense or pretext. 

Making the one a Wind for the execution of the other. 
Decay qf Christ. Piety. 

3. A hiding-place ; an ambush or covert, es- 
pecially one prepared for concealing a hunter 
or fowler from his game. 

So when the watchful shepherd, from the Wind, 
Wounds with a random shaft the careless hind. 

Dryden, .-Eneid, iv. 

4. Milit., a kind of bomb-proof shelter for men 
or material ; a blindage. A tingle blind is commonly 
made of three strong perpendicular posts with planks be- 
tween them, covered with plates of iron on the outside, 
rendering them shot-proof. It Is used as a protection to 
laborers in the trenches. A double blind Is made by filling 
large wooden cheats with earth or bags of sand. 

5. In the game of poker, the stake deposited 
in the pool previous to the deal Stamped In 
the blind, in bookbinditw, said of ornaments to be printed 
in ink when the pattern is first stamped with a heated die, 
preparatory to a second stamping in ink of the same de- 
sign over the lust. Venetian blinds, window-blinds or 
-shades made of thin light laths or strips of wood fixed on 
strips of webbing. 

blind 2 (blind), n. Same as blende. 

blindage (blin'daj), n. [< Winrfi + -one.'} 1. 
Milit., a blind; a screen made of timber and 
earth, used to protect men in a trench or cov- 
ered way ; also, a mantelet. 

When a trench has to be pushed forward in a position 
where the command of the dangerous point Is so great 
that it cannot be sheltered from the plunging fire by 
traverses, it is covered on the top and on the sides by fas- 
cines and earth supported by a framework, and is termed 
a blindage. Farrow, Mil. Encyc. 

2. A hood so arranged that it can be made 

to cover the eyes of a horse if he essays to run 

away, 
blindage-frame (blin'daj-fram), n. A wooden 

frame used in the construction of a blindage 

to support fascines, earth, etc. 
blind-ball (blind'bal), n. Same as btindman's- 

bitff. 2. 
blind-born (bllnd'born), a. Born blind; con- 

genitally blind. [Rare. ] 



blind-born 

A person ... is apt to attribute to the blind-born . . . 
such habits of thought ... as his own. 

Whately, Rhetoric. 

blinde (blind), . Same as blende. 

blinded (bliu'ded), a. 1 . Provided with blinds, 
blinders, or blindages : as, a blinded house ; 
blinded batteries. 2. Having the window- 
shades drawn down ; with the blinds closed. 

I found the windows were blinded. 

Addison, Tatler, No. 120. 

He paced under the Minded houses and along the vacant 
streets. R. L. Stevenson, The Dynamiter, p. 13. 

blindedly (blin'ded-li), adv. As if blinded. 

blinder (olln'der), n. 1 . One who or that which 
blinds. 2. A blind or blinker on a horse's bri- 
dle. 

blind-fast (blind'fast), . The catch or fas- 
tening of a blind or shutter. 

blind-fish (blind'fish), n. 1. A cave-fish, one of 
the Amblyopsidw, having eyes rudimentary and 
useless for vision. The best-known is the Amblyopsis 
sjielteus, or blind-fish of the Mammoth Cave of Kentucky ; 
another is Typhlichthys sttbterraneus. Amblyopsis spe- 
lueus attains occasionally a length of 3 to 5 inches ; it has 
rudimentary and functioiiless eyes, and ventral fins small 
and of 4 rays each. The color is pale as if bleached. It 
inhabits the subterranean streams of Kentucky and Indi- 
ana, especially those in the Mammoth Cave. Typhlichthys 
subterraneus is a much smaller species and destitute of 
ventral this. It is an occasional associate of the Ambly- 
opsis. See cut under Amblyopsis. 
2. A myzont of the family Myxinida, Myxine 
glutinosa; the hag. [Local, Eng.] 

blindfold (blind'fold), a. [Earlymod. E. blind- 
fold, blindfeld, blyndfield, etc., < ME. blind- 
felled, -feld, -fuld, pp. of blindfellen, blindfold : 
see blindfold, .] 1. Having the eyes covered 
or bandaged, so as to be unable to see. 
To be spit in the face and be bofet and blyndfuld, alas ! 

Audelay, p. CO. 

2. Haying the mental eye darkened; hence, 
rash ; inconsiderate ; without foresight : as, 
"blindfold fury," Shak., V. and A., 1. 554. 

Fate's blindfold reign the atheist loudly owns. 

Drydcn, Suum Cuique. 
3f. Obscure; dark. 

If execution be remisse or blindfold now and in this par- 
ticular, what will it be hereafter and in other books? 

Milton, Areopagitica, p. 27. 

blindfold (blind'fold), v. t. [Early mod. E. Hind- 
fold, blindfeld, blindfield, blindfell (the second 
element being altered by confusion with fold, 
wrap up), < ME. blindfellen, blinfellen, blyndfellen 
(pret. blindfelde, pp. blindfelled, -feld, -folde), < 
blind, blind, + fellen, fell, strike: see blind and 
fell*-.] If. To strike blind ; to blind. 2. To 
coyer the eyes of; hinder from seeing by cov- 
ering the eyes. 

Thauh thu thin eien vor hia luv . . . blindfellie on 
eorthe. Ancren Riwle, p. 106. 

"When they had blindfolded him, they struck him on the 
face. Luke xxii. 64. 

blindfold (blind'fold), n. [< blindfold, .] A 
disguise ; a ruse ; a bland. See blind 1 , n., 2. 

The egotism of a Roman is a blindfold, impenetrable as 
his breastplate. L. Wallace, Ben-Hur, p. 106. 

blindfolded (blind'fol"ded), p. a. [Pp. of blind- 
fold, v.~\ Having the eyes covered; hindered 
from seeing. 

blind-Harry (blind'har'i), n. 1. A name for 
blindman's-buff. 2. A name for a puff-ball. 

blinding (blin'ding), n. [Verbal n. of blind 1 , v.] 
1. The act of making blind. 2. A layer of 
sand and fine gravel laid over a road which 
has been recently paved, to fill the interstices 
between the stones. 

blinding (blin'ding), p. a. [Ppr. of blind}, v.~] 
Making blind ; depriving of sight or of under- 
standing: as, a blinding storm of rain. 
Sorrow's eye glazed with blinding tears. 

Shak'., Rich. II., ii. 2. 

blindingly (blln'ding-li), adv. In a blinding 
manner; so as to blind. 

blind-ink (bllnd'ink), n. A writing-ink de- 
signed for the use of blind persons. On being 
applied to the paper, it swells, forming raised characters 
which can be read by the touch. 



blindless (blind'les), a. [< blind*, n., + - 
Without a blind or shade. 



s.] 



The new sun 
Beat thro' the blindless casement of the room. 

Tennyson, Geraint. 

blind-lift (blind'lif t), . A metal hook or catch 
on a sliding window-blind, by means of which it 
can be raised or lowered. Also called blind-pull. 
blindly (blmd'li), adv. [< ME. blyndly, < AS. 
blindlice, < blind, blind.] 1 . In a blind manner ; 
as a blind person ; without sight. 2. Without 
reasoning; without discernment; without re- 
quiring reasons; without examination; reck- 
lessly : as, to be led Mindly by another. 



588 

England hath long been mad and scarr'd herself ; 
The brother blindly shed the brother's blood, 
The father rashly slaughter'd his own son. 

Shah., Rich. III., v. 4. 

How ready zeal for interest and party is to charge 
atheism on those who will not, without examining, sub- 
mit, and blindly swallow their nonsense. Locke. 
blindman (blind'man), .; pi. bUnclmcn (-men). 

1. A clerk in a post-office whose duty it is to 
decipher obscure or illegible addresses on let- 
ters. [Eng.] Called blind-reader in the United 
States. 2. A blind or blinded person : used as 
a single word in certain phrases and names. 
Blindman's ball, blindman's bellows. See blindman's- 
buf, 2. Blindman's holiday, the time, just before the 
lamps are lighted, when it is too dark to work, and one is 
obliged to rest ; twilight ; gloaming. 

What will not blind Cupid doe in the night, which is 
his blindman's holiday ? 

Nashe, Lenten Stuffe (Harl. Misc., VI. 167). 

Indeed, madam, it is blindman's holiday ; we shall soon 
be all of a colour. Sieift, Polite Conversation, iii. 

blindman's-buff (bllnd'manz-buf), n. [< blind- 
man's + buff, a buffet, blow.] 1. A game in 
which one person is blindfolded and tries to 
catch and identify some one of the company. 
Sometimes called blindman-buff. 

My light's out, 
And I grope up and down like blind-man-buf. 

Fletcher and Shirley, Night- Walker, ii. 2. 
As once I play'd at Blind-man's Buff, it hupt 
About my Eyes the Towel thick was wrapt ; 
I miss'd the Swains, and seiz'd on Blouzalind, 
True speaks that ancient Proverb, " Love is Blind." 
Gay, Shepherd's Week, i. 95. 

2. A name of certain puff-balls of the genera 
Sovista and Lycoperdon. Also blindman's ball 
or bellows, and blind-ball. 

blindness (blind'nes), n. [ME. blindnes, -nesse, 
< AS. blindnysse; < blind + -ness.'] 1. The state 
of being blind, (a) Want of sight. (6) Want 
of intellectual discernment ; mental darkness ; 
ignorance ; heedlessness. 

Whensoever we would proceed beyond these simple 
ideas, we fall presently into darkness and difficulties, and 
can discover nothing farther but our own blindness and 
ignorance. Locke. 

2f. Concealment. 

Muftle your false love with some show of blindness. 

Shak.,C. of E., iii. 2. 

blind-officer (bllnd'ofi-ser), n. Same as blind- 
man. 1. [Eng.] 

blind-pull (blind'pul), n. Same as blind-lift. 

blind-reader (blind're'der), n. In the United 
States postal service, a clerk whose duty it is to 
decipher obscure or illegible addresses on mail- 
matter. 

blinds, n. See blens. 

blind-snake (blind'snak), n. A snake of the 
family Typhlopidw. 

blind-Stile (blind'stil), n. The stile of a blind. 
Blind-stile machine, a machine for making the mor- 
tises and tenons in 
blinds, and for bor- 
ing the holes for 
the slats. 

blindstitch 
(blind'stieh), . 
t. To sew or 
take stitches in 
(anything) in 
such a way that 
they will show 
only on one side 
of the thing 
sewed or stitch- 
ed, or not at all. 

blind-story 
(blind ' sto * ri), 
n. In medieval 
church-arch., 
the triforium : 
properly re- 
stricted to such 
examples as 
possess no ex- 
terior windows, 
as opposed to 
the clerestory, 
from which the 
chief lighting of the interior is derived. 

blindworm (blind' werm),i. [ME. blyndwormc. 
-wurme (= Sw. Dan. blindorm) ; < blind + worm.'] 
A small European lizard, Anguis fragilis, of the 
family Anguidw, having a slender limbless body 
and tail, like a snake, rudimentary shoulder- 
girdle, breast-bone, and pelvis, a scaly skin, 
concealed ears, and small eyes furnished with 
movable lids : so called because supposed to be 
a sightless worm, a notion as erroneous as is the 
supposition that it is poisonous. Also called 
orvet and slow-worm. 



blinkard 





black 
ag' 



Blind-story. Triforium of Lincoln 
Cathedral. 



blink (blingk), v. [= Sc. blink, blenk; < ME. 
blynken, rare and appar. only as var. of blenlc- 
en (see blenk, blench); not found earlier (though 
an AS. "blincan appears to be indicated by the 
causal verb blencan, deceive, > E. blench^) ; = D. 
blinken = G. blinken = Sw. blinka = Dan. blinke, 
shine, twinkle, blink, nasalized forms parallel 
with D. blikken = G. blicken = Sw. blicka = 
Dan. blikke, look, glance, from a strong verb 
repr. by AS. blicaii, shine : see blick 1 , blike, 
bleak^; and cf. blench^ and blink, re.] I. in- 
trans. 1. To wink rapidly and repeatedly; 
nictitate. 

A snake's small eye blinks dull and sly. 

Coleridge, Christabel, ii. 

He blinked with his yellow eyes, that seemed 
All sightless and blank to be. 

C. Thaxter, Great White Owl. 

2. To see with the eyes half shut or with fre- 
quent winking, as a person with weak eyes; 
hence, to get a glimpse ; peep. 

Show me thy chink, to blink through with mine eyne. 
Shot., M. N. D., v. 1. 

3. Figuratively, to look askance or indiffer- 
ently. 

Why then ignore or blink at moral purpose ? 

Hag. of Art, March, 1884. 

4. To intermit light; glimmer: as "a blinking 
lamp," Cotton, An Epigram. 5. To gleam tran- 
siently but cheerfully ; smile ; look kindly. 
[Scotch and prov. Eng.] 6. To become a lit- 
tle stale or sour : said of milk or beer. [Prov. 
Eng. and Scotch.] 

II. trans. If. To deceive; elude; shun. 2. 
To see or catch sight of with half-shut eyes; 
dimly see ; wink at. 

I heard the imp brushing over the dry leaves like a 
ick snake, and, blinking a glimpse of him, just over 
in yon big pine, I pulled as it might be on the scent. 
Cooper, Last of the Mohicans, v. 

3. Figuratively, to shut one's eyes to; avoid 
or purposely evade ; shirk : as, to blink a ques- 
tion. 

How can I blink the fact? 

Browning, Ring and Book, II. 214. 

Understand us. We blink no fair issue. . . . We have 
counted the cost. W. Phillips, Speeches, p. 34. 

4. To balk at ; pass by ; shirk : as, a dog that 
never blinked a bird. 

In fear he conies there, and consequently " blinks his 
birds." Dogs of Great Brit, and America, p. 240. 

5t. To blindfold; hoodwink. Landor. 
blink (blingk), n. [< ME. blink, a glance, = Sw. 
blink = Dan. blink; from the verb.] 1. A glance 
of the eye ; a glimpse. 

Loj this is the first blinke that ever I had of him. 

Bp. Hall, Works, II. 108. 

2. A gleam; ajglimmer; specifically, the gleam 
or glimmer reflected from ice in tie polar re- 
gions: hence the term ice-blink (which see). 

Not a Mink of light was there. Wordsworth, Sonnets, vii. 

After breakfast this morning, I ascended to the crow's 
nest, and saw to my sorrow the ominous blink of ice 
ahead. Kane, Sec. Grinn. Exp., I. 49. 

And where north and south the coast-lines run, 
The blink of the sea in breeze and sun. 

Whittier, Prophecy of Samuel Sewall. 

3. A very short time ; a twinkling : as, bide a 
blink. [Scotch.] 4t. A trick; a scheme. 5. 
pi. Boughs thrown to turn aside deer from their 
course ; also, feathers, etc., on a thread to scare 
birds. If. E. D. 6. A fishermen's name for 
the mackerel when about a year old. See spike 
and tinker. 

blinkardt (bliug'kard), . [< blink + -ard, as 
in drunkard, dotard.] 1. A person who blinks 
or sees imperfectly; one who squints. 

Among the blind the one-eyed blinkard reigns. 
Char, of Holland, in Harl. Misc. (ed. 1810), V. 613. 

For I was of Christ's choosing, I God's knight, 
No blinkard heathen stumbling for scant light. 

Swinburne, Laus Veneris. 

2. That which twinkles or glances, as a dim 
star which appears and disappears. 



blinkard 



689 
II. intrant. To be in heat, as a ewe. 



In some parts we sec many glorious nnd eminent stars, 

in others few of any ivinnrkulilc ureatness, and, in some, 

none but Mnb.nl. and otacnr. .,nL OKy , p. 237. BliSSUS (blis'us), n. [NL.] A genus of lift- 

3. One who lacks intellectual perception. Skel- eropterous insects, the type of the_subfn,ly 

<on. 4. ()no who wilfully shuts his eyes to 

what is happening; one who blinks facts. 

[Sometimes used attributively.] 
blink-beer (blingk'ber), M. [< blink, v., I., 6, + 

IH-I-I-. ] Beer kept unbroached (ill it is sharp. 
blinker (blin^'ker), H. 1. One who blinks. 2. 



blithesome 

larger than peas, others u much u an MM h In <l!ametr. 

ling to Percy, theme blisters are probably due to the 

r, an.tion of 11 part of the protoxid uf Iron existing In 

the mass In the form of a silicate of the protoxld, and the 

consequent i-ic.luii ( r;irl>ni<- c.xld. The proccw ls a 

very old one. 

blistery (blis'tt-r-i), a. [< blister -f -yl.] Full 
of blisters. Hooker. 



tad with lii* club him nil about so NHL 
That he which way to turne him scarcely wist 

Spenser, F. Q., VI. viiL 13. 



a horse's head to prevent him from seein 
sidewise or backward ; a blind or blinder ; 
hence, figuratively, any obstruction to sight or 
discernment. 

Nor bigots who but one way see, 
Through blinkers of authority. 

M. Oreen, The Grotto. 

Horses splashed to their very Winter*. Dickens. 

blink-eyed (blingk'id), a. Having blinking or 
winking eyes. 

The foolish Mink-eyed boy. Qatcmgne, Hearbea. 

blinking (bling'king), n. In sporting, the fault 
in dogs of leaving the game as soon as it is 
found. 

The vice of blinking has been caused by over-severity In 
punishment for chasing poultry, etc. 

Days o.f Great Britain and America, p. 240. 

blinking-duckweed (blhiK'king-chik'wed), n. 
The Montia fontana, a small marsh-herb, natu- 
ral order PortulacacecB : so called from its small 
half-closed flowers looking out from the axils 
of the leaves. Also called blinks. 

blinkingly (bling'king-li), a<J>. In a blinking 
or winking manner; evasively. 

Death, that fatal necessity which so many would over- 
look, or Minkinglji survey, the old Egyptians held con- 
tinually before their eyes. Sir T. Browne, Mummies. 

blinks (blingks), n. [< blink, n. ; a quasi-plural 
form.] Same as blinking-chickweed. 

blinky(bling'ki), a. [< blink + -y 1 .] Prone to 
blink. 
We were just within range, and one's eyes became quite 



mon name of several succulent-leafed plants, 
chiefly of the genus Chenoiodium (or Blitum), 



BlisxiiKi'. B. leucopterus is the common chinch- 
bug. See cut under chinch-bug. 
blistt. Obsolete preterit of bless* and bless*. 

Dlltt, 'I. 

bliteH, . See blight. 

blite a (blit), n. [Also blit and early mod. E. 

linker (bling'ker), M. 1. One wtioDlinKs. tf. , ,. . ,,,. , t ,, x , Sarlv m o bins- Mitte, bleit, blete ; < F. blette = Pr. bledn = Cat. 

UuTof two leather flaps placed on the sides of Vjffif,^ $ ^ b tofe and ^perhaps 'blystel, blet = Sp. bledo,<l..bUtum: seeBKfum.J Acom- 
o ,/,' l,Arl t.n nrPVBnt, him from seeinc < A S. *Wy*W = MD. Muysfrr, a blister (but the 

AS. form is not found, and the ME. may be 
taken from OF. blestre, blostre, a swelling (cf. 
bloustre, bloutre, blotte, a clod, blosse, a, swelling 
due to a bruise), of MD. or Scand. origin) ; of. 
Icel. bldstr, a swelling (in the medical sense), 
lit. a blast, a blowing, = AS. blaist, a blowing, 
blast; cf. bladre, a blister, bladder, etc B. ,,. 

blaas, G. blase, a bbster,^ etc., E. dial. buu*P, blithe (bliTH or blith), o. and it. 
n., a pimple, etc. ; ult. 
bid wan, etc., blow: see 

blow 1 .] 1. A thin vesicle on tne SKin, con- compositio_ 

taining watery matter or serum, whether oc- _ D_ bujd et ftKi = &HG." blidi, MHG. blide = 
casioned by a burn or other injury, by a vesi- j ce ) O ndi,r = Sw. blid = Dan. blid = Goth. 
catory, or by disease ; a pustule. It is formed () bleiths 
by disintegration and effusion of serum into some of the ,,;,. -, 



'Blitum. The strawberry-blite, I 

am capitatum, Is so called from its red fleshy clusters of 
fruit The coast-bllte, C. maritimum, Is found in saline 
localities. The sea-bllte, Sitada marilima, Is m chcno- 
podlaceoiu coast-plant with nearly terete or cylindrical 
fleshy leaves. 

dlithe (bliTH or blith), o. and it. [< ME. blithe. 
t. from the root of AS. bliithe, < AS. blithe, joyful, glad, kind, gentle, 
ee bladder, blast, blaze*, peaceful, = OS. blithi = OFries. 'blide (in 
aside on the skin, con- composition blid-skip.joy), North Fries. Mi<l 



softer epidermal layers, or (b) by an effusion of serum be- 
tween tne epidermis and corium. 
2. An elevation made by the lifting up of an 
external film or skin by confined air or fluid, 
as on plants, or by the swelling of the sub- 
stance at the surface, as on steel. 3. Some- 
thing applied to the skin to raise a blister, as 
a plaster of Spanish flies, mustard, etc., as a 
means of counter-irritation ; a vesicatory. 4. 
In castings of different materials, an effect 
caused by the presence of confined bubbles of 
air or gas. o. A distortion of peach-leaves 
causedby the fungus Exoascus deformans; blad- 
der-blight. See Exoascus. Also called blister- 
ing. Flying blister, a blister applied for a time too 

.. v .. M j. -, , -. - short to cause vesication. 

Minky watching for the flash from the bow. blister (blis'ttr), V. [< blister, II.] I. trans. I. 

W. H. Russell, London Times, June 11, 1861. Tn rn -.A _ hlist ' o - blister s on. as bv a burn, 



blirt (blert), 11. [A var. of blurt.] An outburst 
of wind, rain, or tears; specifically, naut., a 
gust of wind and rain. [Scotch.] 
blirty, blirtie (bler'ti), a. [< blirt + -yi.] 
Characterized by blirts or gusts of wind and 
rain: as, a blirty day. [Scotch.] 
bliss (blis), n. [< ME. Mis, blisse, < AS. blis. bliss, 
contr. of the unusual blids, blitte (= OS. blidsea, 
btitzea, Wizza), joy, < blithe, joyful, blithe : see 
blithe, and cf. bless 1 , with which the word has 
been notionally associated.] 1. Blitheness; 
gladness; lightness of heart. 2. The highest 
degree of happiness, especially spiritual joy; 
perfect felicity ; supremo delight; blessedness: 
often, specifically, the joy of heaven. 

How sweet a thing it Is to wear a crown, 

Within whose circuit Is Elysium, 

And all that poets feign of Wi and Joy. 

Shat., 3 Hen. VI., i. 2. 
All my redeem'd may dwell in joy and blitt. 

Milton, P. L., xi. 43. 

=Syn. Felicity, Blessedness, etc. (see happineti), trans- 
port, rapture, ecstasy, hlissfulness. 

blissful (blis'fiil), a. [< ME. blisful; < bliss + 
-ful.] 1. Full of, abounding in, enjoying, or 
conferring bliss; full of felicity: as, "blissful 
joy." Siienser, F. Q. ; " blissful solitude," Milton, 
P. L, lii. 69. 

The bliisful shore of rural ease. 

Thornton, Liberty, v. 
Ever as those blissful creatures do I fare. 

Wordsworth. 

2t. [Cf. blessfuL] Blessed; holy. 

blissfully (bfis'ful-i), adv. [< ME. blissfuliche, 
etc., < blisfitl + -lithe, -ly 2 .] In a blissful man- 
ner; happily. 

blissfulness (blis'ful-ues), n. [< ME. blisful- 

, -<vw< , < hli.ifnl + -if", -ness.) The stale 



To raise a blister or blisters on, as by a burn, 
medical application, or friction: as, to blister 
one's hands. 2. To raise filmy vesicles on by 
heat: as, too high a temperature will blister 
paint; blistered steel. See blister-steel. 3. Fig- 
uratively, to cause to suffer as if from blisters ; 
subject to burning shame or disgrace. 

Look, here conies one : a gentlewoman of mine, 

Who, falling in the flaws of her own youth, 

Hath blistefd her report Shak., M. for M., 11. 3. 

II. intrans. To rise in blisters, or become 
blistered. 

If I prove honey-mouth'd, let my tongue Muter, 

Shot., W. T., ii. i 
The house walls seemed 
Blistering in the sun, without a tree or vine 
To cast the tremulous shadow of Its leaves. 

Whittier, Prel. to Among the HilU. 

blister-beetle (blis'ter-be'tl), n. A popular 
name of beetles of the family Metoida, de- 
rived from the pecu- 
liar poison (canthar- 
idin) which is con- 
tained in their tis- 
sues. This poison, when 
brought into contact with 
the skin, produces blis- 
ters, and on account of 
this vesicatory property 
the dried beetles are 
largely used in medicine. 
In their earlier states the 
blister-beetles are para- 
sitic on grasshopper-eggs 
or in the cells of mason- 
bees. The imagosof many 
American species are of- 
ten very injurious to fleld- 




Ash-gray Blister-beetle (Mafrot-i- 
jis ctMerfti). (Vertical line show* 
natural size. ) , ft.male and female 
antennae, enlarged. 



and garden-crops. The 
developmentofthelarva, 

which assumes successively several forms, is very remark- 
able. See hinvrmetamorphosiit and Epicauta. 

or quality of being blissful ; exalted happiness : j^^J (blis'terd), p. a. Having the disease 
sun fol.n.t.v : fullness of lov. >> g^ Bee &*r, n., 5. 

blister-fly (blis'Wr-fli), n. A beetle, also known 
as the Spanish fly, used in blistering; one of 

- - - .v ,. ; the blister-beetles. See Cantharis. 

_ A subfamily of heteropterous insects, blistering (blis'ter-ing), a. and n. I. a. Cans- 
of the family Lj/gaifo, typified by the genus ^ or tiding to cause blisters. -Blistering fly. 
BUttua. See cut under chincn-buy. same as blMer-fy. 

IJ. n. Same as blister, 5. 



supreme felicity ; fullness of joy. 

God is all-sufficient and incapable of admitting any ac- 
cession to his perfect btiftgfulness. Barrow, Works, I. viii. 

Blissinae (bli-si'ne), H. j>l. [NL., < Blissia + 



cut under chinrli-bii;i. 
blissless (blis'les), a. [< bliss + -less.} Desti- 



merciful, kind; root uncertain: see 
bliss.]' I. a. If. Kind; kindly. Levins (1570). 
2. Glad: merry; joyous; sprightly; mirth- 
ful; gay: in colloquial use only in Scotland: 
as, "I'm blithe to see you." 

Ful blithe . . . was every wight 

Chaucer, Gen. Prof, to C. T., I 848. 

No Urk more blithe than he. 

Bictersta/, Love in a Village, I. 2. 

Hail to thee, if A spirit! 
Bird thou never wert 

Shelley, Ode to a Skylark. 

3. Characterized by or full of enjoyment; 
gladsome : said of things. 
O ! how changed since yon Mitli? night ! Scott. 

Blithe would her brother's acceptance be. 

Tennyson, Maud, x. 2 

In June 'tis good to He beneath a tree 
While the blithe season comforts every sense. 

iMi-rll, Under the Willows. 
=8yn. Cheerful, light-hearted, elated, buoyant 

il.t n. 1. A blithe one. 2. Kindness; 
goodwill; favor. 3. Gladness: delight, 
blithet (bliTH or blith), v. [ME. blithen (= 
OHG. bliden, rejoice, be blithe, = Goth, bleith- 
jam, gableithjan, be merciful, pity); from the 
adjj I. intrans. To be blithe or merry. 
n. trans. To make blithe ; gladden. 
The prince of planetig that proudely is night 
Sail brace furth his bemes that otire bclde blithes. 

York Plays, p. 123. 

blithe (bliTH or blith), adv. [< ME. blithe, 
blythe, < AS. blithe, adv., < blithe, a.: see 
blithe, a.] If. Kindly. 2. Gladly; blithely, 
blitheful (bliTH'- or blith'ful), a. [< ME. 
blitheful, blithfut, < blithe, n., kindness, favor (= 
Icel. blidha), + -ful.] If. Kindly. 2. Glad; 
joyous; joyful. [Poetic.] 

The seas with blitheful western blasts 
We sail'd amain. 

Greene and Lodge, Looking Glass for Loud, and Eng. 

[Samuel] Lover, a versatile artist, Uithrj'ul humorist 

and poet Steilman, Viet. Poets, p. 258. 

blithely (bliTH'- or blith'H), adv. [< ME. 
blitheliche, blcthely, -liche, etc., < AS. blitheliee 
(= OHG. blidlicho), < blithe + -lice : see blithe, 
a., and-fyS.] If. Kindly. 2. Gladly; joyful- 
ly ; gaily. 

bl'ithemeat (bliTH'- or blith'met), n. [8c., < 
blithe, glad, + meat.] The entertainment or 
refreshment provided at the birth or christen- 
of a child. [Scotch.] 

(bli'THen or -then), r. t. [< blithe, a.. 
+ -<?!. Cf. blithe, v.] To make blithe. [Bare.] 

blitheness (bliTH'- or blith'nes), n. [< ME. 
blithencAie, < AS. blithncs, < blithe + -nes : see 
blithe, a., and -ness.] The state of being blithe ; 
gaiety; sprightliness. 

The delightfulness and btithenea of their [poets'] com- 
positions. Sir A". Digby, On the Soul, ill. 

Legend told of his [Eadward's] pious simplicity, his 
Withrnetu and gentleness of mood. 

J. H. Green, Conq. of Eng., p. 7. 

blithesome (bliTH'- or blith'sum), a. [< Witt*- 
+ -some.'] Full of blitheness or gaiety : gay ; 



tute of bliss ; wretched ; hapless : as, "my bliss- blister-plaster (blis'tfer-plas'ter), n. A plaster merry ; cheerful ; causing joy or gladness. 

/,.-,- Lit " v'/,- /' ViV//>>/ \Ti"iiii"i M ~t w . . . ,; .1, I;.I L . . 1 . .. i .rn 11, 1 t.i v-ii<i> a 1ili<ti-T' fti.__ . ii , 



less lot," >S'ir P. Kidney, Arcadia, iii. o f Spanish flies, designed to raise a blister. 

blissom (blis'um), a. [< Icel. blaxma, in heat blister-steel (blis't6r-stel), n. Steel made by 
(said of a ewe or goat), = OD. blegme.'] In the carburization of bar-iron in a converting- 
heat, as a ewe. [Prov. En^.] furnace, the iron being heated in contact with 

blissom (blis'um), c. [< blissom, .] I. trans, charcoal. See cementation. After the conversion 
To couple with a ewe : said of a ram. Into steel, the bars become covered with blisters, some not 



On blithesome frolics bent Thornton, Winter. 

The rising sun, emerging from amidst golden and pur- 
ple clouds, shed his blithesome rays on the tin weather- 
cocks of Communipaw. Irving, Knickerbocker, p. 109. 

Charmed by the spirit alternately tender and bKUif- 
tome, of Procter's songs. Sfwm, Viet. Poeta, p. 110, 



blithesomeness 

blithesomeness (bliTH'- or blith'sum-nes), M. 
[< blithesome + -ness.] The quality of being 
blithesome; gaiety. 

A glad blithesomeness belonged to her, potent to conquer 
even ill health and suffering. New Princeton Rev., II. 78. 

Blitum (bli'tum), n. [L., < Gr. fik'nav, a cer- 
tain plant used as a salad.] A genus of plants, 
natural order Chenopodiaceoe, now included in 
Chenopodium. See blite^. 
blivet, adv. A Middle English contraction of 
bcliveZ. Chaucer. 

blizzard (bliz'ard), n. [An expressive word, 
originating in the United States, appar. at first 
locally on the Atlantic coast (see first quot.), 
and carried thence to the West, where, in a 
new application, it came into general notice 
and use in the winter of 1880-81. The word 
is evidently a popular formation, and is prob. 
based, with the usual imitative variation ob- 
servable in such formations, on what to the 
popular consciousness is the common root of 
blaze, blast, blow (the latter notions at least be- 
ing appar. present in the familiar third sense). 
In the orig. sense a blizzard is essentially a 
" blazer," of which word, indeed, it may be con- 
sidered a manipulated form: see blaze 1 , and cf. 
blaze%, blast, bluster.'] 1. [Appar. the earliest 
sense, but not recorded, except in the figura- 
tive use, until recently.] A general discharge 
of guns ; a rattling volley ; a general "blazing 
away." See extract. 

Along the Atlantic coast, among the gunners who often 
hunt in parties stationed near together behind blinds, 
waiting for the flocks of migratory birds, the word bliz- 
zard means a general discharge of all the guns, nearly but 
not quite together a rattling volley, differing from a 
broadside in not being quite simultaneous. This use of 
the word is familiar to every longshore man from Sandy 
Hook to Currituck, and goes back at least forty years, as 
my own memory attests. . . . The longshore men of 
forty years ago were all sailors, and many of them had 
served in the navy. That they may have learned the word 
there is rendered probable by the rather notable accuracy 
with which they always distinguished between a blizzard 
and a broadside. This points to a nautical origin of the 
word, though it made no progress in general use till it 
struck the Western imagination as a term for that con- 
vulsion of the elements for which "snow-storm," with 
whatever descriptive epithet, was no adequate name, and 
the keen ear of the newspaper reporter caught it and gave 
it currency as " reportorial " English. 

2V. Y. Evening Post, March 24, 1887. 

Hence 2. Figuratively, a volley; a sudden 
(oratorical) attack; an overwhelming retort. 
[This seems to be the sense in the following passage, where 
Bartlett explains the word (" not known in the Eastern 
States," he says) as " a poser."] 

A gentleman at dinner asked me for a toast ; and sup- 
posing he meant to have some fun at my expense, I con- 
cluded to go ahead, and give himandhis likes a blizzard. 
David Crockett, Tour Down East, p. 16. 

3. A gale or hurricane accompanied by intense 
cold and dry, driving snow, common in winter 
on the great plains of the States and Territories 
of the northwestern United States east of the 
Rocky Mountains, especially Dakota, and in 
Manitoba in British America, it is described in 
the "American Meteorological Journal" as "a mad rush- 
ing combination of wind and snow which neither man nor 
beast could face." 

Whew ! how the wind howls ; there must be a terrible 
blizzard west of us, and how ill-prepared are most frontier 
homes for such severe cold. Chicago Advance, Jan. 8, 1880. 

blizzardly (bliz'ard-li), a. Blizzard-like ; re- 
sembling a blizzard. [Rare.] 

bloak, . See bloke. 

bloat 1 (blot), a. [Formerly also blote, < ME. 
blote (uncertain), possibly < AS. bldt, pale, livid 
(see Hate 1 ), but prob. a var, or parallel form 
of bloute (see bloatf) = Icel. blautr, soaked, = 
Sw. blot = Dan. blod, soft, = Norw. blaut, soft, 
wet; cf. Icel. blautr fiskr, fresh (soft) fish, op- 
posed to hardhr fiskr, dried (hard) fish, = Sw. 
blotfisk, soaked fish, = Norw. blotfisk; Icel. 
blotna = Sw. blotna = Norw. blotna, to soften. 
See blate 1 and bloater, and cf. 6toa( 2 .] Cured 
by smoking: as, a bloat herring. See bloater. 

Lay you an old courtier on the coals like a sausage, or a 
bloat herring. B. Jonson, Mercury Vindicated. 

bloat 1 (blot), v. t. [Appar. < 6/00*1, a .] TO cure 
by smoking, as herrings. Formerly spelled blote. 
I have more smoke in my mouth than would blote 
A hundred herrings. Fletcher, Island Princess, ii. 6. 

bloat 2 (blot), a. [Earlier blotct (as orig. in the 
passage cited from Shakspere, where bloat is 
an 18th century emendation, though it occurs 
elsewhere in 17th century), blowte, bloute, prob. 
< Icel. blautr = Sw. blot, soft, etc. : see bloat 1 , 
and ef. Mate 1 . The word is now regarded as 
pp. of bloat*, .] Puffed; swollen; turgid: as 
"the bloat king," Shak., Hamlet, iii. 4. [Now 
only in rare literary use.] 



590 

bloat 2 (blot), v. [< bloat^, a.] I. trans. To 
make turgid or swollen, as with air, water, etc. ; 
cause to swell, as with a dropsical humor ; in- 
flate ; puff up ; hence, make vain, conceited, etc. 

His rude essays 
Encourage him, and bloat him up with praise. 

Dryden, 1'rol. to Circe. 
And then began to bloat himself, and ooze 
All over with the fat affectionate smile 
That makes the widow lean. Tennyson, Sea Dreams. 

H. intrans. To become swollen; be puffed 
out or dilated ; dilate. 
If a person of firm constitution begins to bloat. 

Arbuthnot. 

bloated (blo'ted), p. a. [Pp. of bloatf, v.] 1. 
Swollen; puffed up; inflated; overgrown, so 
as to be unwieldy, especially from over-indul- 
) in eating and drinking; p 



gence i 

" a bloated mass," Goldsmith. 



pampered: as, 



Grotesque monsters, half bestial, half human, droppim; 
with wine, bloated with gluttony, and reeling in obscene 
dances. Macatday, Milton. 

2. Connected with or arising from self-indul- 
gence : as, ' ' bloated slumber," Mickle, A Sonnet. 
3. Inordinately swollen in amount, posses- 
sions, self-esteem, etc.; puffed up with pride 
or wealth: as, a bloated estate; bloated capi- 
talists: a bloated pretender. 

bloatedness (blo'ted-nes), n. [< bloated + 
-ness.] The state of being bloated ; turgidity; 
an inflated state of the tissues of the body; 
dilatation from any morbid cause. Arbuthnot. 

bloater (blo'ter), . [< bloat 1 + -er 1 .] An 
English name for a herring which has been 
steeped for a short time, slightly salted, and 

Sartially smoke-dried, but not split open. 
Ob (blob), n. [Also bleb, Sc. bleb, bleib, blab, 
blob; cf. blobber, blubber.] 1. A small globe of 
liquid; a dewdrop; a blister; a bubble; a small 
lump, splotch, or daub. 

Hawed rubies and emeralds, which have no value as 
precious stones, but only as barbaric blobs of colour. 

Birdwood, Indian Arts, II. 9. 

2. The bag of a honey-bee. [Prov. Eng.] 3f. 

The under lip. Halliwell. [Rare.] 4. Acot- 

toid fish, Uranidea richardsoni, a kind of mill- 

er's-thumb On the blob, by word of mouth. [Slang.] 

blobber (blob'er), n. Same as blubber. 

blobber-lip (blob'er-lip), n. Same as blubber-lip. 

His blobber-lips and beetle-brows commend. 

Dryden, tr. of Juvenal's Satires, iii. 
blobber-lipped (blob'er-lipt), a. Same as blub- 
ber-lipped. 

blobby (blob'i), a. [< blob + -i/ 1 .] Like a 
blob ; abounding in blobs. 

blob-kite (blob'klt), . A local English name 
of the burbot. 

blob-lipped (blob'lipt), a. [See blob.] Same 
as blubber-lipped. 

blob-talet (blob'tal), n. A telltale ; a blabber. 

These blob-tales could find no other news to keep their 

tongues in motion. Bp. Socket, Abp. Williams, ii. 67. 

block* (blok), n. [< ME. blok, a block (of wood) ; 
not in AS., but borrowed from LG. or OF. : MD. 
bloc, block, D. blok = MLG. block, LG. blok = 
OHG. bloh, MHG. block, G. block = Sw. block = 
Norw. blolck = Dan. blok (= Icel. blokk, Haldor- 
sen), > ML. blocus, OF. and F. bloc; all in the 
general sense of ' block, log, lump, mass,' but 
confused more or less with the forms cited un- 
der block%. There are similar Celtic forms : W. 
floe, a block, = Gael, ploc, a round mass, blud- 
geon, block, stump of a tree, = Ir. ploc, a 



bung, blocan, a little block, perhaps akin to 
blogh, Olr. blog, a fragment, from same root as 
E. break and fragment (see plug); but the rela- 
tion of these to the Teut. forms is uncertain. 
The senses of block 1 and block 2 run into each 
other, and some identify the words.] 1. Any 
solid mass of matter, usually with one or more 
plane or approximately plane faces: as, a block 
of wood, stone, or ice ; sometimes, specifically, 
a log of wood. 

Now all pur neighbours' chimneys smoke, 
And Christmas Modes are burning. Wither. 

What sculpture is to a block of marble, education is to 
an human soul. Spectator, No. 215. 

2. A solid mass of wood the upper surface of 
which is used for some specific purpose, in 
particular (a) The large piece of wood on which a butcher 
chops meat, or on which fire-wood is split. 
Hard by, a flesher on a block had laid his whittle down. 
Macaulay, Virginia. 

(b) The piece of wood on which is placed the neck of a per- 
son condemned to be decapitated. 
The noble heads which have been brought to the block. 

Everett. 

Slave ! to the block ! or I, or they, 
Shall face the judgment-seat this day ! 

Scott, Kokeby, vt 31. 



block 

(e) A piece of hard wood prepared for cutting by an en- 
graver, (d) The stand on which a slave was placed when 
being sold by auction, (e) In falconry, the perch whereon 
a bird of prey is kept. 

3. A mass of wood or stone used in mounting 
and dismounting ; a horse-block. 4. A mold 
or piece on which something is shaped, or placed 
to make it keep in shape. In particular (a) The 
wooden mold on which a hat is formed ; hence, some- 
times, the shape or style of a hat, or the hat itself. 

He wears his faith but as the fashion of his hat ; it ever 
changes with the next black. Shak., Much Ado, i. 1. 

The blocks for his heade alters faster than the Feltmaker 
can fitte him, and thereupon we are called in scorne Block- 
heades. Dekker, Seven Deadly Sins, p. 37. 

(!>) A wooden head for a wig ; a barber's block ; hence, 
sometimes, the wig itself. 

A beautiful golden wig (the Duchess never liked me to 
play with her hair) was on a block close by. 

Bulwer, Pelham, xxiii. 

5. A person with no more sense or life than a 
block ; a blockhead ; a stupid fellow. 

What tongueless blocks were they ! 

Shak., Rich. III., iii. 7. 

6. In ship-building, one of the pieces of timber, 
or supports constructed from such pieces, upon 
which the keel is laid. 

" Thus," said he, " will we build this ship I 
Lay square the blocks upon the slip. " 

Longfellow, Building of the Ship. 

7. The solid metal stamp used by bookbinders 
for impressing a design on a book-cover. 8. 
A piece of wood fitted into the angle formed by 
the meeting edges of two other pieces. 9. A 
wooden rubber covered with thick felt, used 
in polishing marble. 10. A piece of wood or 
metal serving as a support, (a) In a sawmill, one 
of the frames supporting and feeding the log to the saw. 
(b) In vehicles, a piece, generally carved or ornamented, 
placed over or under the springs of a carriage, (c) In 
printing, the piece on which a stereotype plate is fastened 
to make it type-high. 

11. A mechanical contrivance consisting of 
one or more grooved pulleys mounted in a cas- 
ing or shell, which is furnished with a hook, 
eye, or strap by which it may bo attached : it is 




i, a, single and double blocks with rope strap ; 3, 4, double and 
single blocks with irOD strap ; 5, metallic block ; 6. snatch-block ; 7, 
secret block ; 8, clump-block ; o, tail-block ; 10, fiddle-block. 

used to transmit power, or change the direction 
of motion, by means of a rope or chain passing 
round the movable pulleys. Blocks are single, 
double, treble, or fourfold, according as the number of 
sheaves or pulleys is one, two, three, or four. A running 
block is attached to the object to be raised or moved ; a 
standing block is fixed to some permanent support. Blocks 
also receive different names from their shape, purpose, 
or mode of application. Those to which the name dead- 
et/es has been given are not pulleys, being unprovided with 
sheaves. Many of the blocks used in ships are named after 
the ropes or chains which are rove through them : as, bow- 
line blocks, clue-line and clue-garnet blocks. They are made 
of either wood or metal. See clue-garnet, and cut under 
cat-block. 

12. A connected mass of buildings: as, a block 
of houses. 13. A portion of a city inclosed 
by streets, whether occupied by buildings or 
consisting of vacant lots. 

The new city was laid out in rectangular blocks, each 
block containing thirty building lots. Such an average 
block, comprising 282 houses and covering 9 acres of 
ground, exists in Oxford Street. It forms a compact 
square mass. Quarterly Jtev. 

14. On the stock-exchange, a large number of 
shares massed together and bought or sold in 
a lump Antifriction block. See '//><>/;,,. Be- 
tween the beetle and the block. See beetle^. Block 
and block, the position of two blocks of a tackle when 
drawn close to each other. Also called tin blocks. The 
act of drawing the blocks apart is called fleeting the 
purchase. Block-and-cross bond. See (xmdi. Block 
and tackle, the pulley-blocks and ropes used for hoist- 
ing. Block brake. See brakes. Block cornices and 
entablatures, ornamental features, corresponding in 
position to classical cornices and entablatures, in archi- 
tectural elevations not composed of the regular orders. 



block 

Center-plate block, a pi' 1 ' f wood placed beneath the 

center-plate of a car-truck to bring it to the required 
height. Clllp of the old block, s,, ,;, v ,i. Dead 
block, "lit: of tllr pair of block* |>]aceil, one "ii each side 
of the draw-Inn- "f a railroad-car, to lessen the concussion 
when two cars rmni' together after the bnlfer-springs are 
compressed. Differential block, a double block hav- 
ing sheaves of different sizes. K. II. K niyht, Erratic 
block. See . . ratlc. Fly-block, num.. a movable block 
In a purchase or compound tackle like a Spanish burton. 
Hydraulic block. Bee' Long- tackle block, 

a pulley-block hiivinn two sheaves in the same plane, one 
above the oilier. Made block, a pulley-block formed oi 
several pieces. Nlnepln block, a bloek shaped some- 
what like a nine], in. with a single sheave pivoted at the 
top and bottom that it may accommodate itself to the 
motion of the rope for which it serves as a guide. It 
Is placed under the cross-pieces of the bltts on a vessel. 
Purchase block, it double-strapped block with two scores 
in the shell, used for moving heavy weights on shipboard. 

Rouse-about block, a large snatch-block. Thlck- 
and-thln block, a addle-block. 
block 1 (blok), v. t. [< block*, . Cf. block*, 
v. f.] 1. To strengthen or support bv blocks ; 
make firm, as two boards at their inferior angle 
of intersection, by pieces of wood glued to- 
gether. 2. To form into blocks. 3. To mold, 
shape, or stretch on a block : as, to block a hat. 
4. In bookbinding, to ornament by means of 
brass stamps; stamp: as, to block the boards 
of a book. [Eng.] 5. In calico-printing, to 
press up or apply to the blocks containing the 
colors. 6. To straighten and toughen by lay- 
ing on a block of wood and striking with a 
narrow, flat-faced hammer; planish: said of 
saw-blades To block down, to force sheet-metal, 
without breaking it, into a die, in cases where the irregu- 
larities of the mold are so great that the metal is likely to 
be torn, by covering it with a block of lead, which is then 
carefully hammered. The yielding of the lead gives a 
slow drawing action to the metal beneath it. enabling it 
to be gradually brought to its bed. To block In, in stat- 
uary or painting, to outline roughly or bring approxi- 
mately to the desired shape ; form the outlines, founda- 
tion, or general plan of any work, disregarding the details ; 
execute roughly. 

The next step is to Mcfc in the shadows in their general 
forms, dividing the whole head into two distinct masses 
of light and shade. F. Fowler, Charcoal Drawing, p. 40. 

To block out, to form the plan or outlines of; sketch. 

But Washington had some hand In blocking out this re- 
public. S. Lanier, The English Novel, p. 50. 

block 2 (blok), n. [In this sense the noun, in 
E., is in most senses due rather to the verb: 
see block?, v. The orig. noun is found once in 
ME. blok, an inclosed space ; cf. OF. bloc, bar- 
rier, post, wall (>OF. bloquer, F. bloquer, stop, 
block : see the verb ; the mod. F. bloc goes with 
block 1 ): MD. block, post, stocks (of. btocklands, 
an inclosed piece of ground, ditch, swamp, 
MLG. block, post, stocks, LG. blokland, an in- 
closed swamp), = OFries. *blokk, in comp. 
block-syl, a sluice; OHG. biloh, confinement 
(MHG. block, a kind of trap, G. block, stocks, 
prison), < W-, = AS. bi-, be-, E. be- 1 , + loh, 
MHG. G. loch, a confined space, hole, dun- 
geon, = AS. loc, E. lock, a place shut in, etc. : 
see lock 1 . Confused more or less with the forms 
cited under block 1 , with which it is by some 
identified. See the verb following.] 1. Any 
obstruction or cause of obstruction; a stop; 
a hindrance ; an obstacle. 

The good gods assuage thy wrath, and turn the dregs of 
it upon this varlet here ; this, who, like a block, hath de- 
nied my access to thee. Shak., Cor., v. 2. 

Hence 2. The state of being blocked or 
stopped up ; a stoppage, as of carriages : as, a 
block on a railway ; a block in the street. Block 
system, a system of working railway traffic, according to 
which the line is divided into sections of a mile or more, 
with a signal and telegraphic connection at the end of 
each section ; the principle of the system being that no 
train is allowed to leave any one section till the next 
succeeding section is entirely clear, so that betwe- n tv\o 
successive trains there is preserved not merely a definite 
interval of time, but also a definite interval of space. 
block 2 (blok), v. t. [Associated with the noun 
block 2 , but orig. (as an E. word) < OF. bloquei; 

F. bloquer (> also Pr. blocar = Sp. Pg. bloquear 
= It. bloccnre), block, blockade, stop up, < OF. 
bloc, block, barrier, obstruction : see Woofc*, n . 
Cf. D. blokkeren = S\v. blockera = Dan. blok- 
kere = G. blockicmt, blockade; D. blokken = 

G. blacken, study hard, plod, = LG. blokken, 
stay at home and study or work, orig., it seems, 
lock one's self in; MLG. blacken, put into the 
stocks.] 1. To hinder passage from or to; 
prevent ingress or caress; stop up; obstruct 
by placing obstacles in the way : often follow- 
ed by up : as, to block up a town or a road. 

With moles would block the port. 

Bowf, tr. of Lucan's Pharsalia, Ii. 

There is no small despair, sir, of their safety, 
Whose ears are blocked up against the truth. 

Fletcher (and othert). Bloody Brother, Iv. 1. 



was on every side blockaded by the 
Macaulay, Warren Hastings. 



591 

Weak saints being as formidable impediments as the 
strong sinners, both blocking the ways of amendment. 

Alcott, Tablet*, p. MX 

2. In base-ball and cricket, to stop (a ball) with 
the bat without knocking it to a distance. 3. 
In foot-ball, to stop (a player) when running 
with the ball. 

blockade (blo-kad'), n. [Cf. D. blokkade = G. 
blockade = Sw. blockad = Dan. blokkade, from 
the E. ; from the verb block? (F. bloquer) + -ade* ; 
cf. stockade, barricade, palisade, etc. Cf. Sp. 
bloqueo, Pg. bloqueio, It. blocco, also bloccatura, 
blockade, from the verbs corresponding to 
block?, q. v.] 1. The shutting up of a place, 
particularly a port, harbor, or line of coast, by 
hostile ships or troops, so as to stop all ingress 
or egress, and to hinder the entrance of sup- 
plies of provisions, ammunition, or reinforce- 
ments. 

The word blockade properly denotes obstructing the pas- 
sage Into or from a place on either element, but is more 
especially applied to naval forces preventing communi- 
cation by water. Wooltey, Introd. to Inter. Law, $ 186. 
Hence 2. A hindrance to progress or action 
caused by obstructions of any kind Paper 
blockade, a constructive blockade ; a blockade estab- 
lished by proclamation, without the actual presence of a 
force adequate to make it effectual. To break a block- 
ade. See break. to raise a blockade, to remove or 
break up a blockade, either by withdrawing the ships or 
troops that keep the place blocked up, or by driving 
them away from their respective stations. To run a 
blockade, to pass through a blockading squadron and 
enter the port blockaded by it. 

blockade (blo-kad'), v. t.; pret. and pp. block- 
aded, ppr. blockading. [< blockade, n.] 1. 
To subject to a blockade ; prevent ingress or 
egress from by warlike means. 

The building . 
insurgents. 

Hence 2. To shut in by obstacles of any kind ; 
block; obstruct. 

Every avenue to the hall was blockaded. 

Pretcott, Ferd. and Isa., ii. 19. 

blockader (blo-ka'der), n. One who or that 
which blockades; especially, a vessel employed 
in blockading. 

Having a good pilot and little depth, she could general- 
ly run well inside of the blockaderi. 

J. R. Soley, Blockade and Cruisers, p. 160. 

blockade-runner (blo-kad'run'er), . A per- 
son or a vessel engaged in the business of run- 
ning a blockade. 

blockage (blok'aj), n. [< block? + -age.] Ob- 
struction ; the state of being blocked up or ob- 
structed. 

blockan (blok'an), n. [Appar. due to E. black. 
Cf. bleck. Ir. blocan means ' a little lump. 1 ] A 
local Irish (County Down) name of the young 
coalfish. 

block-and-block (blok'and-blok'), a. See block 
and block, under block 1 , n. 

block-bond (blok'bond), n. In bricklaying, an 
arrangement in which headers and stretchers, 
or bricks laid lengthwise and across, succeed 
each other alternately. Also called garden- 
bond. 

block-book (blok'btik), n. A book printed from 
blocks of wood having the letters or figures cut 
on them in relief. Specifically, a kind of small book 
so printed in Europe before the invention of movable 
types, consisting generally of coarsely cut religious or 
historical pictures, with illustrative texts or descriptions 
In Gothic letters. 

The next step in the progress of wood engraving, subse- 
quent to the production of single cuts. . . . was the appli- 
cation of tin- art to the production of those works which 
are known to bibliographers by the name of block-books. 
Chatto, Wood Engraving, p. 58. 

block-coal (blok'kol), . A peculiar kind of 
coal, found in the Indiana coal-fields, which 
breaks readily into large square blocks, and is 
used raw, or without coking, in the smelting of 
iron. 

block-colors (blok'kul'orz), ii. pi. Colors laid 
on with blocks, as in block-printing. 

blocker (blok'er), n. 1. One who blocks: used 
specifically in hat-making, shoemaking, book- 
binding, etc. 2. A blocking-tool or -machine. 

block-furnace (blok'fer'nas), n. Same as 
bloomeru. 

blockhead (blok'hed), . [< block* + head; cf. 
block 1 , w.,5.] If. A head-shaped piece of wood 
used as a block for hats or wigs. Hence 2f. 
A head containing no more intelligence or 
sense than a block ; a blockish head. 

Your wit ... is strongly wedged up in a block head. 

Shak., Cor., U. 3. 

Are not you a Portuguese born, descended o' the Moors. 
and came hither into Seville with your master an arrant 
tailor, in your red bonnet and your blue jacket, lousy; 
though now your block-Head be covered with the Spanish 
bloek? Fletcher (and another), Love's Cure, iL 1. 



blockish 

That I could not think of this as well as he '. 
O, I could beat my Infinite blockhead. 

II. Joiuon, The Devi] is an Ass, ill. 1. 

3. A person possessing such a head ; a stupid 
f i -I low; a dolt; a person deficient in under- 
standing. 

Madam, 'twere dulness paut the Ignorance 
< >i common Mockhradit not to understand 
Whereto this favour tends. 

Ford, Love's Sacrifice, L t. 
I In hookful blockhead, ignorantly read, 
With loads of learned lumber in his heiuL 

1'npe, Essay on Criticism, 1. 612. 

blockheaded (blok'hed-ed), a. [< black* + 
head + -eit?.] Stupid ; dull : as, "a blockheaded 
boy,'' .Sir K. L'Kxtrtmge. [Bare.] 

blockheadism (blok'ned-izm), n. [< blockhead 
+ -ism.'] The character of a blockhead; stu- 
pidity. [Bare.] 

Reduced to that state of blockheaditm which Is so con- 
spicuous in his master. C. Smart. 

blockheadly (blok'hed-li), o. K blockhead + 
-fy 1 .] Acting like a blockhead ; densely stupid: 
as, "some blockheadly hero," Dryden, Amphi- 
tryon, i. 2. [Rare.] 

blockhouse (blok'hous), n. [< block? + house; 
= D. blokhuis, OD. blockhuys = MLG. blockhtis 
= G. blockhaus (> F. blockhaus) = Dan. btokhux 
= Sw. lit IK-/, has. blockhouse, older form blocus; 
orig. a house that blocks a passage, though 
later taken as a house made of logs (< block* 
+ Itoiixi ).\ Originally, a detached fort block- 
ing the access to a landing, a mountain 
pass, narrow channel, etc. ; in later use, an edi- 
fice of one or more stories, constructed chiefly 
of hewn timber, and supplied with loopholes 

for musketry 
and sometimes 
with embra- 
sures for can- 
non. When of 
more than one 
story, the upper is 
made to overhang 
the lower, and is 
furnished with 
machicolations or 
loopholes in the 
overhung floor, so 
that a lunging fire 
can be directed 
against the enemy 
in close attack. When a blockhouse stands alone, it con- 
stitutes an independent fort, a form which is often very 
useful in a rough country ; when It is erected in the in- 
terior of a fleldwork, it becomes a retrenchment or re- 
doubt. Stockades are sometimes called blockhouses, 
blockiness (blok'i-nesy, . In photog.. the state 
of being blocky; indistinctness and uneven- 




Blockhou&e. 
a, a, loopholes for musketry. 



blocking (blok r ing), n. [Verbal n. of block*, .] 

1. The act of blocking, or the state of being 
blocked, in any sense of the verb block*, specifi- 
cally (a) The impressing, either in gold or Ink, or with- 
out color, of a design on the covers of a book : in the 
United States usually called stamping, (b) The process of 
bend i UK leather into shapes for the fronts or soles of boots. 

2. Blocks used to support anything temporarily. 
3. A small rough piece of wood fitted in 
and glued to the interior angle formed by two 
boards, in order to strengthen the joint be- 
tween them Blind blocking, 

in bookbinding, blind stamping ; the 
process of decorating a book by pres- 
sure, usually with heat, but without ^ 
the use of Ink or gold-leaf. f t * 

blocking-course (blok ' ing- 
kors), n. In arch., a plain 
member of square profile, 
either a single course of stone, r\ 

Or built Up Of brickS Or the a blocking-conne- 

like to the required height, *. cornice : <. r.ce of 
surmounting a cornice in the "*"' 
Roman ana Renaissance styles. Its vertical 
face is usually in the plane of the wall or frieze 
below the cornice. 

blocking-hammer (blok 'ing- ham 'er), n. A 
hammer used in straightening saw-blades. 

blocking-kettle (blok'ing-ket'l), n. In hat- 
making, the hot bath in which felts are soften- 
ed before being blocked. 

blocking-machine (blok'ing-ma-shen'), . An 
apparatus for pulling, forming, pressing, and 
blocking the bodies of hats; a olocker. 

blocking-press (blok'ing-pres), . A press 
used for stamping designs on book-covers: 
known in the United States as a stamping-press. 

blockish (blok'ish), a. K block* + -w*i.] Like 
a block ; stupid ; dull ; deficient in understand- 
ing: as, "blockish Ajax," Shak., T. andC., i. 3. 
Beauty, say we, U the mainUiner of valour. Who Is so 
blunt as knows it not? who is so Woc*i*A as will not and 
may with justice defend It? 

Ford, Honour Triumphant, ii. 



blockish 

Destitute of Beda : left only to obscure and blockifth 
Chronicles. Milton, Hist. Eng., iv. 

blockishly (blok'ish-li), adv. In a blockish or 
stupid manner: as, "so blockishly ignorant," 
Hakluyt, Voyages, II. ii. 174. 

blockishness (blok'ish-nes), . Stupidity; 
dullness: as, "incurable blockishness," Whit- 
lock, Manners of English People, p. 140. 

block-like (blok'lik), a. Like a block ; stupid. 

Am I sand-blind ? twice so near the blessing 
I wouUl arrive at, and blocklike never know it. 

Fletcher, Pilgrim, iv. 1. 

block-machine (blok'ma-shen"), n. A machine, 
or an assemblage of machines, for making the 
shells and sheaves of the wood blocks used for 
ship-tackle. 

block-plane (blok'plan), n. A plane the iron 
of which is set very obliquely to the direction 
in which it is moved, so that it can plane across 
the grain of the wood. 

block-printed (blok'prin'ted), a. Printed from 
blocks. See block-printing. 
block-printing (blok' printing), n. 1. The 
act, process, or art of printing from blocks of 
wood on which the letters or characters have 
been carved in relief; specifically, the Chinese 
method of printing books, and that employed 
to some extent in Europe before the invention 
of movable types. See block-book, 2. The pro- 
cess of impressing patterns on textile fabrics, 
especially calicos, by means of wooden blocks 
having the pattern cut in relief on their sur- 
face and charged with color. A similar method 
is frequently used in printing paper-hangings. 

block-ship (blok'ship), n. 1. A ship used to 
block the entrance to a harbor or port. 2. An 
old man-of-war, unfit for operations in the open 
sea, used as a store-ship or receiving-vessel, 
etc. ; a hulk. 

block-tin (blok'tin), n. [< block* + tin; = D. 
bloktin = Sw. bloclctenn.] Metallic tin after 
being refined and cast in molds. 

block-trail (blok'tral), n. The solid trail of a 
gun-carriage. The stock is made either of a single 
piece of timber or of two longitudinal pieces properly 
secured together. [Eng.] 

block-truck (blok'truk), n. A three- or four- 
wheeled hand-truck for moving heavy boxes, 
without handles or shafts. 

blocky (blok'i), a. [< 
block' + -#!.] Inphotog., 
haying the appearance of 
being printed in blocks, 
from an unequal distribu- 
tion of light and shade. 

blodbendet, . In phlebotomy, a tape or narrow 
bandage, usually of silk, used to bind the arm 
before or after blood-letting. 

blodite (bled'It), n. [< Blode (name of a chem- 
ist) + -its 2 ."] A hydrous sulphate of magne- 
sium and sodium, found in the salt-mines of 
Ischl in Upper Austria, and elsewhere. 

bloke (blok), n. [Also spelled bloak; a word 
of obscure origin.] Man; fellow: a term of 
disrespect or contumely. [Slang.] 

blomary, n. Same as bloomery. 

blond (blond), a. and n. [= D. G. Dan. blond 
(MHG. blunt), < OF. F. blond, fern, blonde, light, 
fair, = Pr. blon = Sp. Hondo = It. biondo, < 
ML. bloudiis, blundus (glossed flavus), yellow. 
Origin unknown. The supposed connection 
with AS. blonden-feax, gray-haired, lit. having 
mixed hair, < blonden, blanden, pp. of blandan, 
mix (see blend 1 ), + feax, hair, is hardly prob- 
able.] I. a. Of a light golden-brown or golden 
color: applied to hair; hence, light-colored; 
fair : applied to complexion, and by extension 
to persons having light hair or a fair complex- 
ion: as, "Godfrey's blond countenance," George 
Eliot, Silas Marner, iii. =syn. fair, etc. See white. 
II. n. 1. A person with blond hair and fair 
complexion. 2. Blond-lace (which see). 
Lydia. Heigh-ho ! What are those books by the glass ' 
Lucy. The great one is only " The Whole Duty of Man," 
where I press a few blonds, ma'am. 

Sheridan, The Rivals, i. 2. 

blonde (blond), a. and . The feminine of blond. 
She was a fine and somewhat full-blown blonde. 

Byron, Don Juan, xiv. 42. 

blonde-cendree (blond- son -dra'), [F., < 
blond, fern, blonde, blond, + cendre, fern, cen- 
dree, ash-colored, ashy, < cendre, < L. cinis 
(ciner-), ashes.] Ash-colored: applied to hair 
which is light-brown in color, and without red 
or yellow tints. 

blond-lace (blond'las), n. Lace made of silk, 
originally of unbleached silk (from the yellow- 
ish color of which the name arose), now of 





Human Blood-corpus- 
cles, magnified 325 diam- 
eters. 



692 

white, black, or colored silk, manufactured at 
Chantilly and other places in France. The 
name has also been given to a kind of thread- 
lace. 

blond-metal (blond' met "al), 11. A peculiar 
variety of clay-ironstone o'f the coal-measures 
occurring near Wednesbury in Staffordshire, 
England. 

blondness (bloncl'nes), re. [< blond + -ness.] 
The state of being blond; fairness of com- 
plexion. 

With this infantine blondness showing so much ready, 
self-possessed grace. George KIM, Middlemarch, xvi. 

blonkett, and n. A variant of blunket. 

blood (biud), n. [= Sc. bluid, blude; < ME. 
blood, blond, blud, Hod, < AS. blod (= OS. Mod 
= OFries. blod = D. bloed = MLG. blot, LG. 
blood = OHG. bluot, MHG. bluot, G. Nut = Icel. 
blodh = Sw. blod = Dan. blod = Goth, bloth), 
blood ; perhaps, with formative -d (-th), from 
the root of blowan, E. blow z , bloom, flourish, 
with reference to either life or color.] 1. The 
fluid which circulates in the arteries and veins. 
From it the solid tissues take their food and oxygen, and 
into it they discharge their waste products. The blood 
is red in vertebrates, except amphioxus, and colorless, 
red, bluish, greenish, or milky in other animals. In pass- 
ing through the lungs (see emulation) it is oxygenated 
and gives up carbon dioxid ; then, after passing through 
the heart, it is carried as arterial blood by the arteries 
to the tissues ; from the tissues it is returned to the heart 
through the veins, deprived of its nutrient properties, as 
venous blSod. The venous blood of the Craniota is dark- 
red, the arterial bright-scarlet. The specific gravity of 
human blood in health is about 1.055. The blood con- 
sists of a fluid pale-yellow plasma and semi-solid corpus- 
cles ; the latter constitute between 
one third and one half of it ; they 
are of two kinds, red and white. 
In a cubic millimeter of healthy 
human blood there are about 
6,000,000 corpuscles, the red being 
to the white on the average about 
as 350 to 1. The red corpuscles are 
flat disks, non-nucleated and al- 
most always round in mammals, 
and nucleated and almost always 
oval in other Craniota. Their di- 
ameter averages in man about 7.5 
micromillimeters (,An inch), while in Amphiuma tridac- 
tylum the longer diameter is 67.2 micromillimeters (,J 3 
inch). Their color is due to hemoglobin, which constitutes 
about 90 per cent, of their dried substance. The white 
corpuscles are nucleated, slightly larger than the red in 
man, and exhibit active amoeboid movements. Animal 
blood is used in clarifying sugar, in making animal char- 
coal, as a manure, and in many other ways. 

2. Blood that is shed; bloodshed; slaughter; 
murder. 

I will avenge the blood of Jezreel upon the house of 
Jehu. Hos. i. 4. 

So wills the fierce avenging sprite, 
Till blood for blood atones. 

Hood, Dream of Eugene Aram. 

3. The responsibility or guilt of shedding the 
blood of others. 

His blood be on us, and on our children. Mat. xxvii. 25. 

4. From being popularly regarded as the fluid 
in which more especially the life resides, as 
the seat of feelings, passions, hereditary quali- 
ties, etc., the word blood has come to be used 
typically, or with certain associated ideas, in a 
number of different ways. Thus (at) The vital 
principle ; life. 

Romeo slew him, he slew Mercutio ; 

Who now the price of his dear blood doth owe ? 

Shak., R. and J., ill 1. 

(6) Fleshly nature ; the camal part of man, as opposed to 
the spiritual nature or divine life. 

All frailties that besiege all kinds of Wood. 

Shak., Sonnets, cix 
For beauty is a witch, 
Against whose charms faith melteth into Wood. 

Shak., Much Ado, ii. 1. 

(c) Temper of mind; natural disposition; high spirit; 
mettle ; passion ; anger : in this sense often accompanied 
with cold or warm, or other qualifying word. Thus, to 
commit an act in cold blood is to do it deliberately and 
without sudden passion. Hot or warm blood denotes a 
temper inflamed or irritated ; to warm or heat the blood 
is to excite the passions. 

Our bloods 
No more obey the heavens. 

Shak., Cymbeline, i. 1. 
Strange, unusual blood, 
When man's worst sin is, he does too much good ' 

Shak., T. of A., iv. 2. 

Blest gods, 
Make all their actions answer to their bloods. 

B. Jonson, Sejanus, iii. 1. 

The words "coercion" and "invasion" are much used 

in these days, and often with some temper and hot Mood. 

Lincoln, in Raymond, p. 80. 

(d) A man of flre or spirit ; a hot spark ; a rake. 

The gallants of these times pretty much resembled the 
bloods of ours. Goldsmith, Reverie at Boar's Head Tavern. 

(e) Persons of any specified race, nationality, or family 
considered collectively. 



blood 

Indian blood, thus far in the history of this country, has 
tended decidedly toward extinction. 

Quoted in Pop. Sci. Mo., XXVI. 233. 
(/) Birth ; extraction ; parentage ; breed ; absolutely, high 
birth ; good extraction : often qualified by such adjectives 
as yvod, bane, etc. 

A prince of blood, a son of Priam. 

Shak., T. and C., iii. 3. 

Good blood was indeed held in high respect, but be- 
tween good blood and the privileges of peerage there was 
no necessary connection. Pedigrees as long, and scutch- 
eons as old, were to be found out of the House of Lords 
as in it. Macaulay. 

[In this sense the word is often used of the pedigree of 
horses. 
She's a fine mare, and a thing of shape and blood. 

Caiman, Jealous Wife, ii. 1.] 

(17) One who inherits the blood of another; child; col- 
lectively, offspring ; progeny. 

The world will say He is not Talbot's blood 
That basely fled, when noble Talbot stood. 

Shak., 1 Hen. VI., iv. 5. 

(A) Relationship by descent from a common ancestor ; 
consanguinity ; lineage ; kindred ; family. 

I hope I do not break the fifth commandment, if I con- 
ceive I may love my friend before the nearest of my 
blood. Sir T. JBroil-ne, Religio Medici, ii. 5. 

And politicians have ever, with great reason, considered 
the ties of blood as feeble and precarious links of political 
connection. A. Hamilton, Federalist, No. 24. 

Nearer in Mood to the Spanish throne than his grand- 
father the Emperor. ilacaulay, Hist. Eng., xxiii. 
It is a maxim that none shall claim as heir who is not 
of the Mood (i. e., kindred) of the purchaser. 

Wharton, Law Lex. 

5. That which resembles blood: the juice of 
anything, especially if red : as, " the blood of 
grapes." Gen. xlix. 11. 6f. Adisease in cattle. 

7. A commercial name for red coral A bit 

of blood, an animal of good pedigree ; a thoroughbred. 

Bad blood. 111 blood, disagreement ; disunion ; strife ; 
angry feeling ; unfriendliness. 

Partly to make bad blood, . . . they instituted a method 
of petitioning the king that the parliament might meet 
and sit. Roger North, Life of Lord Guilford, ii. 25. 

Hot words passed on both sides, and ill blood was plen- 
tifully bred. Swift, Battle of Books. 
Baptism of blood. See baptism. Blood on bread. 
See bloodj/ bread, under bloody. Blue blood, aristocratic 
blood ; blood flowing in the veins of old and aristocratic 
families. The phrase is said to have originated in Spain, 
from a notion that the blood of some of the oldest and 
proudest families, having never been tainted by intermix- 
ture with that of the Moorish invaders, was of a bluer 
tint than that of the common people. 

The very anxiety shown by the modern Spaniard to 
prove that only the sangre azul, blue-blood, flows through 
his veins, uncontaminated by any Moorish or Jewish 
taint, may be thought to afford some evidence of the in- 
timacy which once existed between his forefathers and 
the tribes of eastern origin. Prescott. 

Corruption of blood. See attainder, 1. Dissolution 
of the bloodf. See dissolution. Doctrine of blood- 
atonement. See atonement. flesh and blood, (a) The 
body as the seat of human passions and desires ; human 
nature : as, it was too much lor flesh and blood to endure. 
(4) Offspring ; progeny ; child or children : as, one's own 
fletih and blood should be preferred to strangers. Flower 
of blood, froth of blood, names used in commerce to 
denote coral of certain degrees of hardness and brilliancy 
of color. For the blood of himt, for the life of him. 
Fresh blood, blood of another strain ; hence, new mem- 
bers, or new elements of vigor or strength ; persons of new 
or fresh ideas and ways of thinking : as, fresh blood is 
needed in the management of the party. Half blood, 
relationship through one parent only, as that of half 
brothers or sisters, or of persons of the same race on one 
side and different races on the other. In blood, in a 
state of perfect health and vigor : properly a term of the 
chase. 

But when they shall see, sir, his crest up again and the 
man in blood, they will out of their burrows like conies 
after rain. Shak., Cor., iv. 5. 

In cold blood, in hot blood. See 4 (c), above. Man 
Of blood, a murderous or bloodthirsty man ; a murderer. 

The secret'st man of blood. Shak., Macbeth, iii. 4. 

Out Of blood, in bad condition ; without vigor ; lifeless : 
said of hounds. The blood, royal family or lineage : as 
princes of the blood. To be let blood t. (n) To have a 
vein opened for the withdrawal of blood as a remedy in 
sickness. 

You look as you were not well, sir, and would be 
Shortly let blood. Fletcher, Beggars' Bush, v. 2. 

(6) To be put to death. 

Commend me to Lord William : tell him . . 
His ancient knot of dangerous adversaries 
To-morrow are, let blood at Pomfret-castle 

Shak., Rich. III., iii. 1. 

To let blood, in snrg., to draw blood from (any one) by 
opening a vein. 

He is feverish, and hath sent for Mr. Pearce to let him 
Pepyt, Diary, I. 374. 
To restore to or in blood, to free from the conse- 
quences of attainder ; readmit to the privileges of one's 
birth and rank. To run in the blood, to be hereditary 
in the family, nationality, or race. To the bloodt, to 
the quick ; through the skin. 

I could not get on my boots, which vexed me to the 
blood. Pepys, Diary, I. 332. 

Whole blood, relationship through both father and 
mother. See half blood, above. Young blood, young 
people generally ; the younger members of a community, 
party, etc. 



blood 

blood (bind), r. t. [< blood, .] It. To let 
blood from; bleed by opening a vein. Jului- 
goii. 2f. To stain with blood. 

lli'iidi out their spears afar, 
Anil Uiml their points to prove their |i;utn<Tshi]i in war. 

Ifttft-'/i. I-;ilil. - 

Hence 3. To give u taste of blood ; inure to 
the sight of blood. 

It was mo.,! important too that his troops should he 
blooded. Mtt'-'iiilnit, Hist. Kng., ix. 

Mr Ithr ileerhouud) must he made steady from all 
"riot," and, if possible, should ) tiikrn up in i-ouph-s 
t" tin iti-uth of ;i di'iT nun- nr t \virr mid blooded, so as to 
ni;ik' tiiin nndiTrttaiiil thr niitinv nf the seent. 

Dnijit nf (rr>'(tt llrititin anil Anfrti-n, p. ->.'1\. 

4f. To boat the blood of ; excite ; exasperate. 

Tin- ;iu\ili)iry fmvi's of French and Enjiliwh were nmrli 
hlixnl-'il unr ayainst iinothiT. Bttfon, Hist. Hen. VII. 

5f. To victimize ; extract money from (a per- 
son); ble<>d. [Slang.] 

blood-baptism (blud'bap'tizm), . A term 
applied by the early Christians to the martyr- 
dom of those converts who had not been bap- 
tized. See baptism of Mood, under baptism. 

blood-bespotted (blud'be-spot'ed;, a. Spot- 
ted with blood. 
O btood-benputlfd Neapolitan. Shak., 2 Hen. VI., v. 1. 

blood-bolteredt (blud'bol'terd), a. [< blood + 
boltcretl, pp. of bolter, a rare word: see bolter*.] 
Clotted or clogged with blood. 

The blood-bolter'd Banquo smiles upon me. 

Shak., Macbeth, iv. 1. 

In Warwickshire, when a horse, sheep, or other animal 
perspires much, and any of the hair or wool becomes 
umtteil into tufts with grime and sweat, he is said to be 
boltered ; and whenever the blood issues out and coagu- 
lates, forming the locks into hard clotted bunches, the 
beast is said to be Wood -bull t red. 

II. X. lludmn, note on Macbeth, iv. 1, 123. 

blood-bought (blud'b6t), a. Bought or ob- 
tained at the expense of life or by the shed- 
ding of blood, as in the crucifixion of Christ. 

blood-cell (blud'sel), n. A blood-corpuscle, 
especially an oval nucleated one. See blood. 

In many Nemertina the blood-cell* have a red colour 
(Borlasia). Qeyenbaur, Comp. Anat. (trans.), p. 172. 

blood-consuming (blud'kon-su'ming), a. Life- 
wasting; deathlv: as, " blood-consuming sighs." 
Shak., 2 Hen. V'l., iii. 2. 

blood-corpuscle (blud'k6r"pus-l), n. One of 
the corpuscles of the blood; a blood-cell or 
blood-disk. See blood. 

blood-cups (blud'kups), n. pi. A name given 
to the discomycetous fungus Peziza eoccinea, in 
reference to the bright-red color of its cup-like 
forms, and also to some allied species of 1'eziza. 

blood-disk (blud'disk), n. A red, disk-shaped, 
non-nucleated blood-corpuscle, such as the 
mammalia possess. 

blood-drier (blud'dri'er), n. One who pre- 
pares blood for use in sugar-refining and for 
other purposes. 

blood-drinking (blud'dring'king), a. Drink- 
ing blood. Specifically, in Shakspere (o) Taking in 
or soaked with blood: as, "this detested, dark, blood- 
drinlciny pit," Tit. Anil. li. 8. (b) Bloodthirsty : as. "my 
blood-ilrinkiiuj hate," 1 Hen. VI., 11. 4. (c) I*reyingon the 
blood or life ; wasting : as, " blood-drinking sighs," 2 Hen. 
VI., iii. 2. 

blooded (blud'ed), a. [< blood, n., + -e<P.] 
1. Of pure blood, or good breed; thorough- 
bred; derived from ancestors of good blood; 
having a good pedigree: said of horses and 
other stock. 2. Having blood of a kind noted 
or specified : used in composition : as, warm- 
blooded animals. 3. Figuratively, character- 
ized by a temper or state of mind noted in the 
prefix : used in composition : as, a cold-blooded 
murder ; a hot-blooded answer. 

blood-finch (blud'finch), n. A name of the 
small finch-like birds of the genus Lagenostieta, 
as L. minium, known to bird-dealers as the lit- 
tle Senegal. 

blood-fine (blud'fiu), n. Same as blood-wite. 

blood-flower (blud'flou'er), n. 1. The popular 
name of some of the red-flowered species of 
HtenuinthiiH, a genus of bulbous plants, natives 
of the_ Cape of Good Hope. 2. The name in 
the West Indies of .Isclfpias Cura,<isarica, a spe- 
cies with crimson flowers, common in tropical 
latitudes. 

blood-frozen (Mud'fro'zn), a. Havingthe blood 
I'ro/.en ; chilled, fiveiiaer, F. Q., I. ix. 25. 

blood-guiltiness (blud'gil'ti-nes), . [< blood- 
guilty + -iir.ix.] The guilt or crime of shed- 
ding blood. Ps. li. 14. 

He hath confessed both to Ood and man the Uoodyti-M- 
iness of all this war to lie upon his own head. 

Milton, Eikonoldastos, xU. 
38 



blood-guiltless (blud'^ilflcs), n. Free from 
the K'li't '"' 'Time of shedding Mood ; not guilty 
of murder. If'til/mlr. [Hare.] 

blood-guilty (Mud'gil'ti), a. Guilty of murder; 
responsible for the death of another. 

life. 

Fairfnjc, tr. of i;ilfrry of l;tillogne, xll. 66. 

blood-heat (blud'het), . A degree of heat 
equal to that of human blood, that is, about 
99 F. (though commonly marked on thermom- 
eters as 08). 

blood-horse (Mud'hors), . [< blood, 4 (f), + 
Jiow.] 1. A horse of a breed derived origi- 
nally from a cross with the Arabian horse, 
combining in a remarkable degree lightness, 
strength, swiftness, and endurance. 2. A 
blooded horse. 

blood-hot (blud'hot), a. As warm as blood at 
its natural temperature. 

bloodhound (blud'honnd), n. [< ME. blod- 
honnd, -hand (= D. bloedhond = MLG. bldtlninl 
= Q. /i/ u /li a, ni =_ Dan. Sw. blodhund); < blood 
+ hound.] 1. A variety of dog with long, 
smooth, and jjendulous ears, remarkable for the 
acuteness of its smell, and employed to recover 
game or prey which has escaped, tracing a 
wounded animal by the blood it has spilled 
(whence its name), or by any other effluvium 
or ha lit us left on a trail which it follows by 
scent. There are several varieties of this animal, as 
the English, the Cuban, and the African bloodhound. 
Bloodhounds are often trained not only to the pursuit of 
game, but also of man, as of fugitive criminals; In the 
United States they were formerly employed In hunting 
fugitive slaves. 

2. Figuratively, a man who hunts for blood ; 
a relentless persecutor. 

Wide was the ruin occasioned by the indefatigable zeal 
with which the bloodhounds of the tribunal followed up 
the scent. Pracott, Ferd. and Isa., I. 12. 

bloodily (blud'i-li), adv. In a bloody manner ; 
cruelly ; with a disposition to shed blood. 

O proud death ! 

What feast is toward in thine eternal cell, 
That thou so many princes, at a shoot, 
So bloodily hast struck? slink.. Hamlet, v. '. 

bloodiness (blud'i-nes), n. [< bloody + -ness.] 

1. The state of being bloody. 2. Disposition 
to shed blood. 

Thiii bloodiness of Saul's Intention. 

Delany, Life of David, I. 8. 

bloodingt (blud'ing), n. A blood-pudding. 
blood-islands (blud'i'landz), n.pl. laembryol., 

the isolated red patches in the vascular area 

of the embryo, in which red blood-corpuscles 

are in process of development. 
blood-leech (blud')ech). n. One of the Hiru- 

dtnea which sucks blood, as the common medi- 

cinal leech. 
bloodless (blud'les), a. [< ME. blodles, < AS. 

blodleds (= D. bloedeloos = G. blutlos = Icel. 

blodhlaus = Sw. Dan. blodlos), < blod, blood, + 

-leds, -less.] 1. Without blood; drained of 

blood ; dead from loss of blood. 
The bloodiest carcass of my Hector. Dryden, .Bneld. 

2. Pale or colorless from defect of blood; pal- 
lid: as, bloodless lips. 3. Free from blood- 
shed; unattended by blood : as, a bloodless vic- 
tory ; "with bloodless stroke," Shak., T. N., ii. 5. 

Carrying the bloodless conquests of fancy over regions 
laid down upon no map. 

'. Among my Books, 1st SIT., p. 243. 



4. Without spirit or energy. 

Thou bloodless, brainless fool. 

Fletcher, Double Marriage. 

6. Cold-hearted : as, bloodless charity or cere- 
mony. 

bloodlessness (blud'les-nes), n. [< bloodless 
+ -ness.] The state or condition of being 
without blood, or of being deficient in blood ; 
anemia. 

If a man were placed on a revolving table, with his feet 
toward the centre, the blood in his liody would be urged 
towards his head ; and this has actually been proposed as 
treatment in bloodlesmess of the brain. 

A. DanieU, 1'rin. of Physics, p. 143. 

bloodlet (blud ' let), v. i. [< ME. blodleten, < 
AS. blodltetan (cf. Icel. MMMttM. pp.), < blml, 
blood, + lietan, let: see let 1 .] To bleed; let 
blood; phlebotomize. [Bare.] 

bloodletter (blud'let'er), n. [< ME. blodletter, 
-leter, < AS. blodlietere, < blodl&tan, bloodlet.] 
One who lets blood, as in diseases ; a phlebot- 
omist. 

bloodletting (blud'let'ing), n. [< ME. blod- 
li iiiii/. -Ii tiin</f, < blodli-tfii. bloodlet. Cf. G. blut- 
IH.WII, bloodletting.] In med., the act of letting 
blood or bleeding by opening a vein, as a reme- 
dial measure in the treatment of disease ; phle- 
botomy. 



bloodshedding 

blood-mare (Mud'inSr). n. A mare of blooded 

breed; ;i female Mood-horse. 
blood-money (blud'mun'i), H. Money paid as 

the price of mood, (a) r,,,,,],, n-;.ii r, urd (,,r 

biinu'inx iil'.'iit tin- li.'iith of HiK.thi-r. ritbi-t 

capital charge against linn ..i 

as will lead t" > mmi-lion. ,/,, r,,,np< n-m n.n f.rnn.-ilv, 

and still in MHIH- Bon-CbrMlu rmintrirs, puiil to tin- m-.u 

..r kin f.,r Hi. killiiiL'. .ta relative, 
blood-pheasant (blud'fez'ant), n. A bird of 

the genus Illniiiiiiu (which see), 
blood-plaque (blud'plak), n. Same as blood- 

biood-plate (blud'plat), n. One of the minute 
discoidal bodies found in large numbers in the 
blood of mammals. They are from one fourth to onr 
half the size of the ml corpuscles, and are many tiint-n MM m 
lilllm-rollH tlnin tin- whitr rorpiuu-lfs. Si-i- Moor/ anil blood- 

<-,l,-[ll/* I'll'. AN'. <:ll]'-ll I,: ,,1,11, ././II-'. 1,1 II,,,,.,,, .!!,.) .... 

puscles or elementary particles of Ziiititiermann. 

blood-poisoning (blud 'poi'zn- ing), n. See 

toxennn. 
blood-pudding (blud 'pud 'ing), n. Same as 

lilitt'f.'-jmttiitHif. 

blood-red (bl'ud'red), a. [< ME. blodrede, < AS. 

h/mlredd (= D. bloedrood = G. blutroth = Icel. 

blodhraudhr = Sw. Dan. blodriid), < blod, blood, 

+ redd, red.] Blood-colored ; red with blood. 

He wrapped his colours round his breast, 

On a Mood-red field of Spain. llemant. 

Blood-red hand, in her., the badge of Ulster. See badgcl 
and baronet. 

The event which was to place the blood-red hand of the 
Newcorae baronetcy on his own brougham. 

Thackeray, Newcomes. 

Blood-red heat, the degree of heat, shown by the color, 
required to reduce the protuberances on coarse iron by the 
hammer, after it has l>een brought to its sha|te, to prepare 
It for filing. Small pieces of iron are often brought to this 
heat preparatory to punching. 

blood-relation (blud're-la'shon), n. One re- 
lated by blood or descent ; a kinsman. 

blood-relationship (blud're-la'shon-ship), n. 
Consanguinity ; kinship. 

The hypothesis of differing gradations of Mood -relation- 
ship. Clatu, Zoology (trans.), p. 157. 

bloodroot (blud'rot), n. 1. The tormentil (Po- 
tentilla TormentilUi) of Europe and northern 
Asia: named from the color of its root, which 
is rich in a red coloring 
matter. It is also rich in 
tannin, and has been used 
as an astringent. 2. The 
common name in the Unit- 
ed States of a papavera- 
ceous herb, Sunguinaria 
Canadfnsis.one of the earli- 
est spring flowers. Its fleshy 
roots yield a dark-red juice, are 
bitter and acrid, and contain a 
peculiar alkaloid, sanguiuarin. 
It is used in medicine as a stiiuu* 
lant, expectorant, and emetic. 

blood-sacrifice (blud'sak'- 
ri-fis), n. A sacrifice made 
with shedding of blood ; 
the sacrifice of a living 
being. 

Cannot my body, nor blood-sacri- 

fce, 
Entreat you to your wonted fur- Bloodroot is 

therance? ct*w). 

Shak., 1 Hen. VI., v. 3. 

blood-shakent (blud'sha'kn), a. Having the 
blood set in commotion. B. Jonson. 

bloodshed (blud'shed), n. [Due partly to 
bloodshedding, and partly to the phrase blood 
shed as used in such sentences as "I feared 
there would be bloodshed," "there was much 
blood shed," etc., where shed is the pp. agreeing 
withstood. See blood &uA shed 1 .] 1. The shed- 
ding or spilling of blood ; slaughter ; destruc- 
tion of life : as, " deadly bloodshed," Shak., K. 
John, v. 3. 

In my view of the present aspect of affairs, there need 
be no bloodshed or war. Lincoln, in Raymond, p. 105. 

2f. The shedding of one's own blood; specifi- 
cally, the death of Christ. 3f. A bloodshot 
condition or appearance ; an effusion of blood 
in the eye. 

bloodshedder (blud' shed 'er), n. One who 
sheds blood ; a murderer. [Rare.] 

He that defrandeth the laborer of his hire b a Hood- 
<ln ,1,1, f. Kcclu*. xxxiv. 22. 

bloodshedding (blud 'shed 'ing), n. K ME. 
bloileohedyiige, < blod + shedynge, shedding.] 
1. The shedding of blood; the crime of shed- 
ding blood or taking human life. 

In feight and blodeshcdt/nyes 
Vs used gladly clarionyngea. 

Chaucer, House of 




bloodshedding 

These hands are free from guiltless bloodshfil<liii?/. 

Male., 2 Hen. VI.,' iv. 7. 

2f. The act of shedding one's own blood. 
bloodshot (blud'shot), a. Bed and inflamed 
by a turgid state of the blood-vessels, as in cer- 
tain weak or excited states : said of the eye. 

Retiring late, at early hour to rise, 

With shrunken features, and with bloodshot eyes. 

Crabbe, Works, V. 21. 

bloodshottent (blud' shot *n), a. Bloodshot. 
Johnson. 

bloodshottennesst (blud'shot"n-nes), n. The 
state of being bloodshot. 

The enemies of the church's peace could vex the eyes 
of the poor people ... to UoodMOtteniMM and fury. 

/. Walton, Life of Hooker. 

blood-sized (blud'sizd), a. Sized or stiffened 

with blood: as, "the blood-sized field," Fletcher 

(and another), Two Noble Kinsmen. [Bare.] 
blood-spavin (blud'spav"in), n. A dilatation 

of the vein that runs along the inside of the 

hock of a horse, forming a soft swelling, 
blood-spiller (blud'spil"er), n. One who spills 

or sheds blood ; a bloodshedder. Quarterly Rev. 

[Bare.] 
blood-spilling (blud'spil"ing), n. [< ME. 

blodcspy Iling ; < blood + spilling.] The act of 

spilling or shedding blood; bloodshedding. 

TBare.] 
blood-Stain (blud'stan), n. A spot or trace of 

blood. 
bloodstain (blud'stan), v. t. [< blood-stain, n. ; 

but due rather to blood-stained.] To stain with 

blood. Byron. [Bare.] 
blood-Stained (blud'stand), a. Stained with 

blood; guilty of bloodshed or slaughter. 

The beast of prey, blood-stain' 'it, deserves to bleed. 

Thomson, Spring, 1. 358. 

blood-stanch (blud'stanch), n. One of the 
various names given to the common fleabane, 
Erigeron Canadensis, from its use in arresting 
hemorrhages. 

blood-stick (blud'stik), n. A stick weighted at 
one end with lead, used for striking the fleam, 
or veterinary lancet, into a vein. 

bloodstone (blud'ston), n. [< blood + stone; 
= D. blocdsteen = G. blutstein = Dan. Sw. blod- 
sten.] 1. A variety of hematite, having a finely 
fibrous structure and a reniform surface. The 
color varies from dark steel-gray to blood-red. It was 
extensively employed in ancient times, many of the Baby- 
lonian and Egyptian intaglios being in this material ; now 
it is much less used, except for signet-rings, and as a polish 
for other stones and metals. 

2. A variety of quartz having a greenish base, 
with small spots of red jasper, looking like 
drops of blood, scattered through it. This kind 
of bloodstone is also called heliotrope. 

blood-stranget, [A compound having no ob- 
vious meaning, as to its second element, in E., 
and hence (being appar. only a book-name) 
prob. an adaptation of some foreign name, per- 
haps of an unrecorded G. *blutstrenge, < blut, 
= E. blood, + strenge, tightness, strictness, < 
streng, tight, strict, strong, = E. strong: see 
strong and string. The name would have refer- 
ence to the (supposed) styptic qualities of the 
plant. See N. E. D.] The mousetail, Myosurus 
minimus. 

blood-Stroke (blud'strok), n. Apoplexy from 
encephalic hemorrhage or congestion. 

bloodsucker (blud'suk'er), n. [< ME. blood- 
soukere = D. bloodzuiger = MHG. bluotsuger = 
Dan. blodsuger = Sw. blodsugare; < blood + 
sucker.] 1. Any animal that sucks blood, as a 
leech, a mosquito, etc. 2. A name of a com- 
mon agamoid East Indian lizard, Calotes versi- 
color, perhaps so called from the reddish hue 
of the throat, as it does not suck blood. 

3. A cruel or bloodthirsty man; hence, one 
who sucks the blood of or preys upon another; 
an extortioner ; a sponger. 

God keep the prince from all the pack of you ! 
A knot you are of damned bloodsuckers. 

Shale., Rich. III., iii. 3. 
Thou art a villain and a forger, 
A blood-sucker of innocence, an hypocrite. 

Beau, and Fl., Knight of Malta, i. 3. 
blood-sucking (blud'suk"ing), a. Sucking or 
drawing blood; preying on the blood: &s,"blood- 
sucking sighs," Shak., 3 Hen. VI., iv. 4. 
blood-swelling (blud'swel"ing), n. Same as 
liematocele. 

blood-swollen (blud'swoln), a. Swelled or suf- 
fused with blood: as, "their blood-swoln eyes," 
May, tr. of Lucan's Pharsalia, vi. 
bloodthirstiness (blud'thers"ti-nes), . [< 
bloodthirsty + -ness.] Thirst for blood ; a pro- 
pensity for shedding blood ; a desire to slay. 



594 

He governed with a cruelty and bloodthirstiness that 
have obtained for him the name of the northern Nero. 

Brougham. 

bloodthirsty (blud ' there ' ti), a. [< blood + 
thirsty;=D. bloeddorstig = G. blutdiirstig = "Da,Ti. 
Sw. blodtorstig.] Eager to shed blood; mur- 
derous: as, "his bloodthirstie blade," Spenser, 
F. Q., I. viii. 16; " bloodthirsty lord," Shak., 1 
Hen. VI., ii. 3. 

Even the most bloodthirsty monsters may have a sincere 
partiality for their own belongings, paramour or friend or 
child. //. A". Oxen/taut, Short Studies, p. 60. 

blood-tree (blud'tre), n. In the West Indies, a 
native arborescent species of Croton, C. gossypi- 
folius, which yields a kind of kino sometimes 
called dragon's-blood. 

blood-vascular (blud'vas'ku-lar), a. Vascular 
with blood-vessels ; permeated with blood-ves- 
sels ; pertaining to the circulation of blood. 
Blood-vascular gland. See gland. Blood- vascular 
system, the system of blood-vessels ; the circulatory sys- 
tem of vessels containing blood: distinguished from water- 
vascular system. 

blood-vessel (blud'ves"el), n. Any vessel in 
which blood circulates in an animal body, 
whether artery, vein, or capillary. 

blood-warm (blud' warm), a. Warm as blood; 
lukewarm. 

blood-warmed (blud'warmd), a. Having one's 
blood warmed by excitement, as by a bloody 
contest. [Bare.] 

He meets the blood-warmed soldier in his mail. 

J. Baillu. 

blood-witet (blud'wit), . [< ME. blodwite, < 
AS. blodwite, < blod, blood, + mite, fine, pen- 
alty: see blood and wife. Used only histori- 
cally; sometimes improp. bloodwit.] In anc. 
law : (a) A. wite, fine, or amercement paid as a 
composition for the shedding of blood. 

The bloodwite, or compensation in money for personal 
wrong, was the first effort of the tribe as a whole to regu- 
late private revenge. 

Quoted in //. 0. Forbes's Eastern Archipelago, p. 474. 

(6) The right to such compensation, (c) A riot 
in which blood was shed. 

bloodwood (blud'wud), n. 1. A name given to 
logwood, from its color. 2. In Jamaica, a tree 
of the natural order Ternstroemiaccte, Laplacea 
hwmatoxylon, with dark-red wood. 3. In Aus- 
tralia, a name of species of Eucalyptus, espe- 
cially E. corymbosa, yielding the Australian 
kino. 4. A large timber-tree of India, Lager- 
strannia Flos-Kegince, natural order Lythracece, 
with soft but durable blood-red wood, which is 
largely used for boat-building and ship-knees. 
Also called jarool-tree. 

blood-worm (blud'werm), n. The active blood- 
colored or scarlet larva of the species of Chi- 
ronomus, found in the rain-water of tanks and 
cisterns. 

bloodwort (blud'wert), n. [< ME. blodwurt, 
blodwerte (applied to several plants), < AS. 
"blod-wyrt (= Sw. blodort), < blod, blood, + 
wyrt, wort.] A name applied to various plants, 
as (a) the bloody dock, Rumex sanguineus, a spe- 
cies of dock with the stem and veins of the 
leaves of a blood-red color; (6) the dwarf elder, 
Sambucus Ebulus; (c) in the United States, the 
Hieracium venosmn, the leaves of which are 
veined with red. 

bloody (blud'i), a. [Early mod. E. also bloudy ; 
< ME. blody, bhidy, blodi, etc., < AS. blodig (= 
OS. blodag = OFries. blodich = D. bloedig = 
OHG. bluotac, MHG. bluotec, G. blutig = Icel. 
blodhigr = Sw. Dan. blodig), < blod, blood : see 
blood and -y 1 .] 1. Of, of the nature of, or per- 
taining to blood; containing or composed of 
blood: as, a bloody stream; "bloody drops," 
Shak., As you Like it, iii. 5. 2f. Existing in 
the blood. 

Lust is but a bloody fire. Shak. , M. W. of W. , v. 5 (song). 

3. Stained with blood; exhibiting signs or 

traces of blood: as, a bloody knife. 4. Of the 

color of blood ; blood-red. 

Unwind your bloody flag. Shak., Hen. V., i. 2. 

5. Cruel; murderous; given to the shedding of 
blood, or having a cruel, savage disposition. 

The boar, that bloody beast. 

Shak., Venus and Adonis, 1. 899. 

He was a bloudye man, and regarded not the life of her 
subjectes noe more then dogges. Spenser, State of Ireland. 

6. Attended with or committing bloodshed; 
marked by cruelty : as, a bloody battle. 

This Ireton was a stout rebell, and had ben very bloudy 
to the King's party. Evelyn, Diary, March 6, 1852. 

7. Concerned with or portending bloodshed; 
sanguinary. 

No magtcke arts hereof had any might, 
Nor bloody wordes of bold Enchaunters call. 

Spenser, F. Q., I. vii. 36. 



bloom 

8. In low language : (a) Excessive ; atrocious ; 
heinous : as, he's a bloody fool, or a bloody ras- 
cal, (b) Used as an intensive expletive, espe- 
cially in negative expressions : as, there wasn't 
a bloody soul there Bloody bill. Same as .force- 
bill (which sec, under .fuw). Bloody bread, blood on 
bread, blOOd Of the host, an appearance resembling 
drops of blood which sometimes occurs upon bread and 
other starchy substances. The red pigment is a product 
of either of two microscopic fungi growing in the sub- 
stance discolored. One of them is Micrococcm prodigiosun, 
belonging to the bacteria, and the other Saccharomyces 
fflutiiius, one of the yeast fungi. Bloody Chasm. See 
chasm. Bloody flux, dysentery. Bloody hand, (a) A 
hand stained witll the blood of a deer, which, in the old 
forest laws of England, was sufficient evidence of a man's 
trespass against venison in the forest, (b) Same as badge 
of Ulster. Seeforttfyrel. Bloody murrain. Same as symp- 
tomatic anthrax (which see, under anthrax). Bloody 
Shirt. See shirt. Bloody statute, a name by which the 
English statute of 1539, the Act of the Six Articles, is 
sometimes referred to. See the Six Articles, under article. 
= Syn. 6. See sanguinary. 

bloody (blud'i), v. t.; pret. and pp. bloodied, 
ppr. bloodying. [< bloody, a. Cf. AS. geblode- 
gian (= OHG. bluotagon, bluotegon), < blodig, 
bloody.] To stain with blood. 

With my own wounds I'll blood;/ my own sword. 

Bean, and Fl., Philaster, iv. 4. 

bloody (blud'i), adv. [< bloody, a.] Very; ex- 
ceedingly; desperately: as, "bloody drunk," 
Dryden, Prol. to Southerne's Disappointment. 
[Vulgar.] 

"Are you not sick, my dear?" . . . "Bloody sick." 

Svri/t, Poisoning of Cnrll. 

bloody-bones (blud'i-bonz), . A nursery 
name of a bugbear. 

Why does the Nurse tell the Child of Raw-head and 
Bloudy-bones, to keep it in awe ? Selden, Table-Talk, p. 99. 

Are you Milan's general, that 
Great bugbear Bloody-bones, at whose very name 
All women, from the lady to the laundress, 
Shake like a cold fit? 

Beau, and Fl., Woman-Hater, iii. 1. 

bloody-eyed (blud'i-id), a. Having bloody or 

cruel eyes. Lord Brooke. 
bloody-faced (blud'i-fast), a. Having a bloody 

face or appearance. Shak. 
bloody-fluxed (blud'i-flukst), a. Having a 

bloody flux; afflicted with dysentery. 

The bloody-fluxed woman fingered but the hem of his 
garment. Bp. Hall, Remains, p. 90. 

bloody-man's-finger (blud'i-manz-fing'ger), n. 
The cuckoo-pint, Arum macitlatum : so called 
from its lurid purple spadix or flower-spike. 
See cut under Arum. 

bloody-minded (blud'i-min"ded), a. Having 
a cruel, ferocious disposition ; barbarous ; in- 
clined to shed blood. 

She is bloody-minded, 
And turns the justice of the law to rigour. 

Beau. and. Fl., Laws of Candy, v. 1. 

bloody-nose beetle. See beetle^. 
bloody-red (blud'i-red), a. Bed with or as with 
blood; blood-red. 

Housing and saddle bloody-red, 
Lord Marmion's steed rush'd by. 

Scott, Marmion, vi. 27. 

bloody-sceptered, bloody-sceptred (blud ' i- 
sep'terd), a. Having a scepter obtained by 
blood or slaughter. [Bare.] 
An untitled tyrant, bloody-sceptr'd. Shak. , Macbeth, iv. 3. 

bloody-warrior (blud'i-wor"i-er), n. A dark- 
colored variety of the wall-flower, Cheiranthus 
Cheiri. 

bloom 1 (blom), n. [= Sc. bltime; early mod. E. 
bloome, blome, bloume; < ME. blom, blome, < AS. 
*bloma, a blossom (not found in this sense, for 
which reg. blast ma, blostm (see blossom), but 
prob. the original of which bloniti, a mass of 
iron ( > E. bloom 2 ), is a deflected sense ; the ME. 
maybe in part from the Scand.) (=OS. blomo = 
late OFries. blcem, blam, NFries. blomme = MD. 
bloeme, D. bloem, f., = MLG. blome = OHG. 
bluomo, m., bluoma, f., MHG. bluome, m.,f., G. 
blnme, f ., = Icel. blomi, m., blom, neut., = Norw. 
blom = Sw. blomma, f ., = Dan. blomme = Goth. 
bloma, m., a flower), with formative -m (orig. 
'-man), < bloican, etc., E. blow 2 , bloom, whence 
also bled, bleed, > ME. blede (= MLG. blot = OHG. 
MHG. bluot, MHG. pi. bliiete, G. bliite),_ a flower, 
blossom, fruit, and AS. blostma, blostm, > E- 
blossom, and perhaps AS. blod, E. blood; also 
from the same ult. root, L. flos (Jlor-), > ult. E. 
flower, flour : see these words.] 1. A blossom ; 
the flower of a plant, especially of an orna- 
mental plant ; an expanded bud. 

While opening blooms diffuse their sweets around. 

Pope, Spring, 1. 100. 

Now sleeps the humming-bird, that, in the sun, 
Wandered from bloom to bloom. Bryant, May Evening. 



bloom 

2. The state of blossoming; the opening of 
flowers in general; flowers col ]rr lively : M.S. the 
plant is in bluom, or covered with lilnnm. 

Anrirni pr;ir tivr* tlmt with spriiiK-tinie hurst 
Into surh breadth of htmim. 

Hi IK, nl, Amnim Hi'' 'I'm .. 

3. A state of he-all li ;uid growth promising 
higher perl'rctioii; a, nourishing condition; a 
palmy lime: as, the hlmiiii of youth. 

He look d, iinil MIW n iTfiitinv heavenly fair, 

III Miami lit MtUtll, and "f il elinnilillg air. 

Dtyd r, \N iteof Hath, 1. 531. 

Ill (Mil' Silil Wol'M'.s I'r.^t /'/"",,/. Ti'ltnilHinl, Tile lllnok. 

4. The rosy line on the cheek indicative of 
youth and health; a glow; a flush. 

And such a lovely blimni, 
l>isd:iinliu: nil adulterated aids of art, 
Kept 11 pri-prtiiiil spring upon liri face. 

Matniiujer, I'nnatural I'oinhat, II. 3. 

5. A name sometimes given to minerals having 
a bright color : as, the rose-red cobalt bloom, or 
erythrite, etc. 6. A powdery deposit or coat- 
ing of various kinds, (a) The delicate, powdery, 
waxy coating U|HHI certain fruits, as grapes, plums, etc., 
and leaves, as of the cabbage. 

The finest qualities of our nature, like the bloom on 
fruits, can be preserved only by the most delicate han- 
dling. Thoreau, \Valden, p. 9. 
(ii) The powdery appearance on coins, medals, and the 
like, when newly struck, (f) In paintiiiit, a cloudy ap- 
pearance on the surface or varnish, (d) The yellowish 
fawn-colored deposit from the tanning-liquor on the sur- 
face of leather, and penetrating it to a slight depth. 

In tanning it (rock chestnut-oak bark] is used unmixed, 
and gives a beautiful bloom. C. T. Davis, Leather, p. 119. 

7. A fine variety of raisin. 

These raisins [dried on the vines] are muscatels or 
bloom*. Ure, Diet., III. 692. 

bloom 1 (blom), v. [< ME. Women (= MLG. 
blomen = Norw. bloma, blown), bloom ; from the 
noun.] I. tntrnns. 1. To produce or yield blos- 
soms ; flower, literally or figuratively. 
Tin first time a tree bloometh. Bacon, Nat. Hist. 

The Lotos bloom* below the barren peak. 

Tennyson, Choric Song, vili. 

2. To glow with a warm color. 3. To be in a 
state of healthful beauty and vigor ; show the 
beauty of youth ; flourish; glow. 

Hearts are warm'd and faces bloom. 

Tennyson, In Memoriam, Epll. 

A better country blootns to view, 
Beneath a brighter sky. Logan, A Tale. 

II. trans. 1. To put forth, as blossoms. 

Behold, the rod of Aaron . . . bloomed blossoms, and 
yielded almonds. Num. xvii. 8. 

2. To impart a bloom to ; invest with luster or 
beauty. 

Rites and customs, now superstitious, when . . . chari- 
table affection bloomed them, no man could justly have 
condemned as evil. Hooker, Eccles. Pol. 

bloom 2 (blom), n. [Not found in ME., but in 
late AS. ; < AS. bloma, a bloom of metal (glossed 
massa or metallum ; cf . bloma oththe ddh, ' bloom 
or dough' (of metal): incites bloma, a bloom of 
iron ; gold-nldma, lit. 'gold-bloom,' applied once 
(as elsewhere gold-hard, 'gold-hoard,' 'trea- 
sure') figuratively to Christ as incarnated); 
not found in other languages in this sense, 
and prob. a particular use of "bloma, a flower, 
which is not found in AS. in that sense : see 
bloom 1 . The reference may have been to the 
glowing mass of metal as taken from the fur- 
nace: but this sense as recorded is only re- 
cent.] A roughly prepared mass of iron, nearly 
square in section, and short in proportion to 
its thickness, intended to be drawn out under 
the hammer or between the rolls into bars. 
Some blooms are made directly from the ore In blooni- 
eries. but most of them by shingling the puddled balls 
from the pmldliiitf-furnttce. See bloomery, blooming-mill, 
,fin->j'-, iind puddle, v. 

bloomary, . See bloomery. 

bloomed (blomd), a. Covered with blooms or 
blossoms. 

bloomer 1 (blo'mer), . [< blooml, f., + -er l .~\ 
A plant which blooms. 

This "Illy" of Scripture \Xiimphaa lotus] was a prolific 
bloomer. X. aiul Q., 7th ser., III. 25. 

bloomer 2 (blo'mer), a. and n. [After Mrs. 
Bloomer : see def.] I. a. Having the charac- 
ter of the style of female dress introduced by 
Mrs. Bloomer of New York in 1849-50: as, a 
bloomer costume; a bloome r hat. 
II. M. 1. A dress or costume for women, 



595 

dressed in bloomfrs. 4. A woman who assumes 
such a dress. 

bloomerism (blo'mer-i/.m), H. [< blomufr- + 
ixni. ] The wearing or adoption of a dress sim- 
ilar to that recommended by Mrs. Bloomer. 
Hee bloomer^, n., 1. 

bloomer-pit (blB'mer-pit), n. A tan-pit in which 
hides are placed to be acted upon by strong 
ooze, a process which produces a bloom upon 
the skin. 

bloomery (blo'mer-i), H. ; pi. bloomeries (-iz). 
[Less prop, bloomary, blomary, early mod. E. 
bloiitfirie; <. bloom't + -ery.] An establishment 
in which wrought-iron is made by the direct 
process, that is, from the ore directly, or with- 
out having been first produced in the form of 
cast-iron. The direct process was the original one by 
which wrought-iron was made wherever that metal wits 
employed, and Is still in use among nations where modern 
metallurgical methods are not yet introduced, especially 
in Burma, Borneo, and Africa; it Is also employed, though 
to a very limited extent, in Europe and In the I" nited States, 
especially In the Chaniplain district of New York. The 
iron made in bloomeries is obtained in the form of blooms 
(sec t,liHiui~), Also called block-furnace. 

bloom-hook (blom'huk), n. A tool for han- 
dling metal blooms. Also called bloom-tongs. 

blooming 1 (blS'ming), n. [Verbal n. of bloom 1 , 
p.] 1. A clouded or smoked appearance on the 
surface of varnish ; bloom. 2. In dyeing, the 
addition of an agent, usually stannous chlorid, 
to the dye-bath, toward the end of the operation, 
for the purpose of rendering the color lighter 
and brighter. Also called brightening. 

blooming 1 (blo'ming), ^>. a. [Ppr. of bloom 1 , r.] 

1. Blossoming; flowering; showing blooms. 

And, ere one flowery season fades and dies, 
Designs the Mourning wonders of the next. 

Covrper, Task, vl. 197. 
Now May with life and music 
The blooming valley fills. 

Bryant, The Serenade. 

2. Glowing as with youthful vigor; showing 
the freshness and beauty of youth. 

The lovely Thais, by his side, 
Sate like a blooming Eastern bride. 

Dryifen, Alexander's Feast, 1. 10. 

3. Flourishing; showing high or the highest 
perfection or prosperity. 

The modern [aral>e&que] rose again In the blooming 
period of modern art. Fairholt, Diet, of Art, p. 87. 

4. Great ; full-blown ; ' blessed,' ' blamed,' 
'darned,' etc.: as, he talked like a blooming 
idiot. [Slang.] 

blooming 2 (blo'ming), H. [< bloom? + -in;/ 1 .] 
In metal., same as shingling. 

bloomingly (bl6'ming-li), adr. In a blooming 
manner. 

blooming-mill (blo'ming -mil), n. A mill in 
which puddled balls of iron are squeezed, roll- 
ed, or nammered into blooms or rough bars, 
and thus prepared for further treatment in the 
rolling-mul proper. 

bloomingness (blo'ming-nes), M. The state of 
being blooming; a blooming condition. 

blooming-sally (blB'ming-sal'i), n. The wil- 
low-herb, Epifobiitm angustifolium. 

bloomless (blo'm'les), a. [< blooml + -less; = 
Norw. blomlaus.] Having no bloom or blossom. 

bloom-tongs (blSm'tdngz), n. pi. Same as 
bloom-hook. 

bloomy (blb"mi), a. [= D. bloemig = G. blumig 
= Sw. blommig; < bloom 1 + -y 1 .] 1. Full of 
bloom or blossoms ; flowery. 

We wandered up the bloomy land, 
To talk with shepherds on the lea. 

Bryant, Day-Dream. 

2. Having a bloom, or delicate powdery ap- 
pearance, as fresh fruit. 

What though for him no Hyhla sweets distill, 

Nor bloomy vines wave purple on the hill? Campbtll. 

3. Having freshness or vigor as of youth. 

What if, In both, life's bloomy flush was lost, 
And their full autumn felt the mellowing frost? 

Crabbe, Works, I. 89. 

blooth (bloth), n. An English dialectal varia- 
tion Of lili in- 1 1,. 

blore 1 (blor), r. t. ; pret. and pp. blared, ppr. 
blaring. [< ME. bloren, weep, a var. of blaren, 
blare: see Stare 1 .] To cry; cry out; weep; 
bray : bellow. [Prov. Eng.] 

blore 2 t (blor), n. [Prob. a var. of blare 1 (after 
Wore 1 ), affected by 6/oifi.] The act of blow- 
ing; a roaring wind; a blast. 

Like nule and raging waves roused with the fervent blore 
Of th' east and south winds. Chapman, Iliad, ii. 122. 



blot 

blossom (blos'um), n. [Early mod. E. 
bloKxiim, < MK. liliixxiinii , Miixxiim, usually bloxmi; 
earlier hlnslim . < AS. blnxtiim. lili^ilimn . some- 
times contr. blosma (once Maxim, (.'hissed by L. 
flos, appar. an error for bluxnui), weak mafic., 
lilitxtni, strong masc., flower, blossom (=OD. 
bloxem, 1). hloixiiii Ml.ii. bin.-.! HI. lilnxxi HI), a 
blossom, flower, with suffixes -st + -ma, < / 'bid, 
in AS. blowan, blow, bloom (see bloic 2 ) ; Ings 
prob. < "bids- (= L. florere, "Jlosere), extended 
stem of blowan, blow. The first suffix ap- 
pears in MHG. bluont, a blossom, the second 
in ME. blome, E. bloom' 1 , etc., and both, trans- 
posed, in Icel. blomstr = Sw. blomxli r = Dan. 
li!,, nix', a flower; cf. "L.flos (Jlor-), a flower: 
gee blow 1 * and flower. ~\ 1. The flower of a 
plant, usually more or less conspicuous from 
the colored leaflets which form it and which 
are generally of more delicate texture than the 
leaves of the plant. It Is a general term, applicable 
to the essential organs of reproduction, with their appen- 
dages, of every species of tree or plant. 
2. The state of flowering or bearing flowers ; 
bloom: as, the apple-tree is in blossom. 3. 
Any person, thing, state, or condition likened 
to a blossom or to the bloom of a plant. 

And there died, 
My Icarus, my UoMvm, in his pride. 

Shak., 1 Hen. VI., Iv. 7. 
This heiuity in the blossom of my youth . . . 
I sued and served. 

Fletcher and Maxxiiigfr, Very Woman, iv. 8. 

4. A color consisting of a white ground 
mingled evenly with sorrel and bay, occurring 
in the coats of some horses. 5. The outcrop of 
a coal-seam, usually consisting of decomposed 
shale mixed with coaly matter; also, some- 
times, the appearance about the outcrop of any 
mineral lode in which oxidizable ores occur. 
Tfl nip In the blossom. See m';>. 
blossom (blos'um), r. i. (X ME. blossomen, bios- 
men, < A8. blostmian (= D. bloesemen), < blost- 
ma, blossom: see blossom, n.~\ To put forth 
blossoms or flowers ; bloom ; blow ; flower : 
often used figuratively. 

Fruits that Uoisorn first will first be ripe. 

SAot., Othello, II. S. 

They make the dark and dreary hours 
Open and blossom into flowers ! 

Ijontjfellow, Golden Legend, I. 

blossomed (blos'umd), a. Covered with blos- 
soms ; in bloom. 

Blosmmed furze, unprofttably gay. 

Guliiiiiii/ti, Ik s. VII. 

Not Ariel lived more merrily 
Tnder the btossom'd bough, than we. 

Scott, Marmion, iv., Int. 

blossomless (blos'um-les), a. [< blossom + 
-less.] Without blossoms. 

blossom-pecker (blos'um-pek'er), n. A book- 
name of sundry small pariue birds of Africa, of 
the restricted genus An thoscopus : as, the dwarf 
blossom-pecker, A. minutus. 

blossom-rifler (blps'um-ri'fler), n. A name of 
species of sun-birds or honey-suckers of the 
genus Cinnyrin, as r. auxtralix of Australia. 

blossomy (blos'um-i), a. [ME. blossemy, blos- 
my; < blossom + -y 1 .] Full of or covered with 
blossoms. 

A Uotsemy tre is neither drye ne deed. 

Chaitctr, Merchant's Tale, I. 219. 

The flavor and picturesque detail of Shakespeare's W<x- 
*<nnii descriptions. Stedman, Viet. I'oets, p. 106. 

blot 1 (blot), n. [< ME. blot, Matte, a blot ; ori- 
gin unknown. By gome connected with Icel. 
blettr, blot, spot, spot of ground, Dan. plet, a 
blot, speck, stain, spot, plette, v., speck, spot, 
Sw. plotter, a gcrawl, plottra, scribble; but 
these forms have appar. no phonetic relation 
to the E.] 1. A spot or stain, as of ink on 
paper; a blur; a disfiguring stain or mark: as, 
"one universal blot," Thomson, Autumn, 1. 1143. 
2. A scoring out; an erasure or oblitera- 
tion, as in a writing. 3. A spot upon charac- 
ter or reputation ; a moral stain ; a disgrace ; a 
reproach ; a blemish. 

A lie Is a foul blot in a man. Ecclus. xx 24. 

If there has been a blul in my family for these ten gen- 
erations, it hath been discovered by some or other of my 
correspondenU. Steelr, Tatler, Xo. 164. 

4. Imputed disgrace or stain ; defamation : as, 
to east a blot upon one'g character. 

He that rebuketh a wicked nun getteth himself a blot. 

Pror. U. 7. 



the distinctive features of which are a short 

skirt, loose trousers buttoned round the ankle, blosmet, n. and r. A Middle English form of blot 1 (blot), _i\_; pret. and pp. blotted, ppr. fttof- 
and a broad-brimmed, low-crowned hat. Spe- 
cifically 2. A bloomer hat. 3. pi. The arti- 
cles composing a bloomer costume : as, to be 



blosmyt, a. A Middle English form of blos- 
somy. 



ting. [< ME. ololteti; from the noun.] I. 
trails. I. To spot, stain, or bespatter, as with 



ink, mud, or any discoloring matter. 



blot 

Oh ! never may the purple stain 
Of combat blot these fields again. 



Bryant, Battle of Bennington. 

2. Figuratively, to stain as with disgrace or 
infamy; tarnish; disgrace; disfigure. 

Blot not thy innocence with guiltless blood. Rme. 
Take him ! farewell : henceforth I am thy foe ; 
And what disgraces I can blot thee with look for. 

Beau, mul Fl., Maid's Tragedy, iii. 1. 

3. To obliterate so as to render invisible or 
not distinguishable, as writing or letters with 
ink : generally with out : as, to blot out a word 
or a sentence. 

To blot old books and alter their contents. 

Shot., Lucrece, 1. 948. 

Hence 4. To efface; cause to be unseen or 
forgotten; destroy; annihilate: followed by 
out: as, to blot out a crime, or the remembrance 
of anything. 

Will not a tiny speck very close to our vision blot out 
the glory of the world, and leave only a margin by which 
we see the blot? George Eliot, Middlemarch, I. 458. 

Blotting out the far-away blue sky, 

The hard and close-packed clouds spread silently. 

William Morris, Earthly Paradise, III. 336. 

5. To darken or obscure ; eclipse. [Bare.] 

He sung how earth blots the moon's gilded wane. 

Cowley. 

The moon, in all her brother's beams array'd, 
Was blotted by the earth's approaching shade. 

Rowe, tr. of Lucan's Pharsalia, i. 

6. To dry by means of blotting-paper or the 
like. 

The ship-chandler clutched the paper, hastily blotted It, 
and thrust it into his bosom. 

O. A. Sala, The Ship-Chandler. 

II. intrans. 1. To obliterate something writ- 
ten. 

E'en copious Dryden wanted or forgot 
The last and greatest art, the art to blot. 

Pope, Imit. of Horace, II. i.'&SO. 

2. To become blotted or stained : as, this paper 
blots easily. 

blot 2 (blot), n. [First at the end of the 16th 
century ; origin unknown. Plausibly referred 
to Dan. Wot = Sw. blott, bare, exposed ; cf . Dan. 
blotte = Sw. blotta, lay bare, expose one's 
self; Sw. blottstdlla = D. blootgtellen, expose 
(the Scand. forms are prob. of LG. origin, < 
D. bloot, bare, naked, exposed) ; but there is 
no historical evidence for the connection.] 
In backgammon: (a) A single exposed piece 
which is liable to be forfeited or taken up. 
(b) The exposure of a piece in this way To 
hit the blot, to take a single exposed piece in the game 
of backgammon : often used figuratively. 

Mr. Ellis hits the blot when he says that " absolute cer- 
tainty and a mechanical mode of procedure, such that all 
men should be capable of employing it, are the two great 
features of the Baconian system." 

The Nation, April 24, 1884, p. 369. 

blotch (bloch), n. [Not found in ME., or in 
other languages ; appar. a var. of blot 1 , affected 
in sense and form by botch 1 , a pustule, and 
perhaps by dial, blatch, q. v.] 1. A pustule 
upon the skin. 

Blotches and tumours that break out in the body. 

Spectator, No. 16. 

2. A spot of any kind, especially a large irregu- 
lar spot or blot ; hence, anything likened to a 
mere spot or blot, as a poor painting; a daub. 

Green leaves, frequently marked with dark blotches. 

Treasury of Botany. 

3. A disease of dogs. 

blotch (bloch), v. t. [< blotch, n.'] To mark 

with blotches ; blot, spot, or blur. 
blotchy (bloch'i), a. [< blotch + -yl.] Having 

blotches ; disfigured with blotches : as, " his 

big, bloated, blotchy face," Warren. 
blotet, a. and v. Obsolete spelling of bloaft. 
blotter (blot'er), n. 1. A piece of blotting- 

paper or other device for absorbing an excess 

of ink or other fluid, used especially in writing. 

2. In com., a waste-book in which are record- 

ed all transactions in the order of their occur- 

rence. 3. The current record of arrests and 

charges in a police office: called in Great 

Britain a charge-sheet. 
blottesque (biot-esk'), . and . [< blot + 

-esque.~\ I. a. In painting, executed with heavy 

blot-like touches. 

II. n. A painting executed in this style. 
blottesquely (blot-esk'li), adv. In a blottesque 

manner; with blot-like touches: as, to paint 

blottesquely. 
blotting-bbok (blot'ing-buk), n. 1. A book 

formed of leaves of blotting-paper. 2. In 

'o;., a blotter. See blotter, 2. 
blottingly (blot'ing-li), adv. By blotting. 



596 

blotting-pad (blot'ing-pad), . A pad consist- 
ing of several layers of blotting-paper, which 
can be successively removed as they become 
soiled or saturated with ink. 

blotting-paper (blot ' ing - pa " per), n. A bibu- 
lous, unsized paper, used to absorb an excess of 
ink from freshly written paper without blur- 

blotty (blot'i), a. [< bloti + -yi.] Full of 
blots. 

blouse (blouz), n. [Also less prop, blowse ; < 
F. blouse, of uncertain origin, by some identified 
with F. dial, blaude, biaude, a smock-frock, < OF. 
bliaut, bliaud, pi. blimts, bliauz, an upper gar- 
ment: see bleaunt. But the connection is pho- 
netically improbable.] 1. A light loose upper 
garment, made of linen or cotton, worn by men 
as a protection from dust or in place of a coat. 
A blue linen blouse is the common dress of 
French workingmen. 

Lelewel was a regular democrat. He wore a blouse when 
he was in Paris, and looked like a workman. 

H. S. Edwards, Polish Captivity, I. 270. 

2. A loosely fitting dress-body worn by women 
and children. 

bloused (blouzd), a. [< blouse + -ed 2 .] Wear- 
ing a blouse. 
There was a bloused and bearded Frenchman or two. 

Kingsley, Alton Locke, xxxiii. 

blout 1 ti and v. Same as bloaft. 

blout 2 !, . [Appar. < D. bloot, bare, naked, with 
perhaps some confusion as to form with Icel. 
blautr, soft, wet. Cf. blot*, Mate*, and bloat*.] 
Bare: naked. Douglas. (Jamieson.) [Scotch.] 

blout^ (blout), n. [Appar. imitative, after blow*, 
blast, etc.] The sudden breaking of a storm ; 
a sudden downpour of rain, hail, etc., accom- 
panied by wind. Jamieson. [Scotch.] 

blow 1 (bio), v. ; pret. blew, pp. blown (also dial. 
and colloq. pret. and pp. blowed), ppr. blowing. 
[= Sc. blow, < ME. blowen, blawen (pret. blew, 
blewe, bleu, bltve, bin, pp. blown, blowen, bloun, 
blawen), < AS. bldwan (strong verb, pret. bledw, 
pp. blawen), blow, = OHG. bldhan (strong verb, 
pp. bldhan, bldn), blow, also blden, blajan, 
MHG. blcewen, blaijen, G. bldhen (weak verb), 
blow, puff up, swell, = L. flare, blow. From 
the same root, with various formatives, come 
E. blaze 2 , blast, bladder, perhaps blister, and, 
from the L., flatus, afflatus, flatulent, inflate, 
etc.] I. intrans. 1. To produce a current of 
air, as with the mouth, a bellows, etc. 2. To 
constitute or form a current of air, as the wind. 



A keen north wind that, blowing dry, 
Wrinkled the face of deluge. Milton, P. L., xi. 842. 

3f. To make a blowing sound ; whistle. 4. To 
pant ; puff ; breathe hard or quickly. 
Here's Mistress Page at the door, sweating and blourina. 
Shak., M. W. of W., iii. 3. 

5. To give out sound by being blown, as a horn 
or trumpet. 

There let the pealing organ Mow. 

Milton, II Penseroso, 1. 161. 

6. To spout as a whale. 

A porpoise comes to the surface to Wow. 

Huxley, Anat. Vert., p. 348. 

7. To explode, as gunpowder or dynamite ; be 
torn to pieces by an explosion : with up : as, the 
magazine blew up. 8. To boast ; brag. [Col- 
loq.] 

You blow behind my back, but dare not say anything to 
my face. Bartlett, Diet, of Americanisms, p. 48. 

9. In founding, to throw masses of fluid metal 
from the mold, as a casting, when, insufficient 
vent having been provided, the gases and 
steam are unable to pass off quietly __ Blowing 
Off, in tngin., the process of ejecting water or sediment 
from a boiler by means of a current of steam passing 
through the blow-off pipe. Blowing through, in engin., 
the act of removing the air from the cylinders, valves, 
etc., of a steam-engine by a jet of steam previous to set- 
ting the engine in motion. Blow-through valves are fit- 
ted for this purpose. To blow down, to discharge the 
contents of a steam-boiler. To blow not and cold, to 
be favorable and then unfavorable; be irresolute. To 
blow in, to start up a blast-furnace, or put it in blast 
TO blow Off, to escape with violence and noise : said of 
steam, gas, etc. To blow out, to be out of breath, or 
blown. To blow over, to pass over ; pass away after the 
force is expended ; cease, subside, or be dissipated : as, 
the present disturbances will soon bloiv over. 

A man conscious of acting so infamous a part, would 
have undertaken no defence, but let the accusations, 
which could not materially affect him, blow over. 

Goldsmith, Bolingbroke. 

To blow short, to be broken-winded : said of a horse.- 
To blow the buck's hornt. See buck*. To blow up. 
(a) See 7, above. (6) To arise, come into existence, or in- 
crease in intensity: said of the wind, a storm, etc. 

II. trans. 1 . To throw or drive a current of 
air upon ; fan : as, to blow the fire. 



blow 

I with blowinrj the fire shall warm myself. 

Shak., T. of theS.,iv. 1. 

2. To drive or impel by means of a current of 
air: as, the tempest blew the ship ashore. 

North-east winds blow 
Sabacan odours from the spicy shore. 

Milton, P. L., iv. 161. 
Along the grass sweet airs are blown. 

D. G. Kossetti, A New Year's Burden. 

3. To force air into or through, in order (a) 
To clear of obstructing matter, as the nose. 
(b) To cause to sound, as a wind-instrument. 

Hath she no husband 
That will take pains to blow a horn before her? 

Shak., K. John, i. 1. 
The bells she jingled and the whistle blew. 

Pope, R. of the L., v. 94. 

4. To form by inflation ; inflate ; swell by in- 
jecting air into : as, to blow bubbles ; to blow 
glass. 5. To empty (an egg) of its contents 
by blowing air or water into the shell. 6. To 
put out of breath by fatigue : as, to blow a 
horse by hard riding. 

Blon*iny himself in his exertions to get to close quarters. 

T. U:iln-*. 

7. To inflate, as with pride ; puff up. [Poetic 
when up is omitted.] 

Look, how imagination blows him. Shak., T. N., ii. 4. 

8. To spread by report, as if "on the wings of 
the wind." 

She's afraid it will be Mown abroad, 
And hurt her marriage. B. Jonson, Alchemist, ii. 1. 
Through the court his courtesy was blown. Dryden. 

9. To drive away, scatter, or shatter by fire- 
arms or explosives : now always with modifying 
words (up, away, to pieces, etc.) : as, to blow the 
walls up or to pieces with cannon or gunpowder ; 
but formerly sometimes used absolutely. 

And 't shall go hard, 

But I will delve one yard below their mines, 
And blow them at the moon. Shak., Hamlet, iii. 4. 

10. To deposit eggs in ; cause to putrefy and 
swarm with maggots ; make fly-blown : said of 
flies. 

Rather on Nilus' mud 
Lay me stark naked, and let the water-flies 
Blow me into abhorring ! Shak., A. and C., v. 2. 

To blow a coal. See coal. To blow one's own trum- 
pet, to sound one's own praises. To blow out. (rc) To 
extinguish by a current of air, as a candle, (b) To destroy 
by firearms : as, to blow out one's brains ; to blow an ene- 
my's ship out of the water. To blow up. (a) To fill with 
air ; .swell : as, to blow up a bladder or a bubble. 

In summe, he is a bladder blown vp with wind, which 
the least flaw crushes to nothing. 

Bp. Earle, Micro-cosmographie, A Selfe-conceited Man. 

(b) To inflate ; puff up : as, to blow up one with flattery. 

Blown up with high conceits ingendering pride. 

Milton, P. L., iv. 809. 

(c) To fan or kindle : as, to blow up a contention. 

His presence soon blown up the unkindly fight. 

Dryden. 

(d) To burst in pieces by explosion : as, to blow up a ship 
by setting fire to the magazine, (e) Figuratively, to scat- 
ter or bring to naught suddenly : as, to blow tip a scheme. 
(/) To scold ; abuse ; find fault with. (Colloq.] 

He rails at his cousin, and blows up his mother. 

Barham, Ingoldsby Legends, I. 295. 

Lord Gravelton . . . was blowing up the waiters in the 
coffee-room. Bulwer, Pelham, iv. 

(g) To raise or produce by blowing. 

This windy tempest, till it blow up rain, 
Held back his sorrow's tide, to make it more. 

Shak., Lucrece, 1. 1788. 

To Wow upon, (a) To bring into disfavor or discredit ; 
render stale, unsavory, or worthless. 

Since that time, . . . many of the topics, which were 
first started here, have been hunted down, and many of 
the thoughts blown upon. Goldsmith, Essays, Preface. 

Till the credit of the false witnesses had been Mown 
upon. Macaulay, Hist. Eng. 

(b) To turn informer against : as, to blow upon an accom- 
plice. [Slang.] 

blow 1 (bio), n. [< Motel, t,.] 1. A blowing; a 
blast ; hence, a gale of wind : as, there came a 
blow from the northeast. 2. The breathing or 
spouting of a whale. 3. In metal.: (a) The 
time during which a blast is continued, (b) That 
portion of time occupied by a certain stage of a 
metallurgical process in which the blast is used. 
Tims, the operation of converting cast-iron into steel by 
the Bessemer process is often spoken of as "the blow," 
and this first portion is sometimes called the "Bessemer 
blow " or the blow proper, the second stage being denomi- 
nated the "boil," and the third the " fining." 
4. An egg deposited by a fly on flesh or other 
substance ; a flyblow. 

blow 2 (bio), v. pret. blew, pp. blown, ppr. 
blowing. [< ME. blowen (pret. *blnrr, lilt-on. 
pp. blown, h/iiu-t H, blow), < AS. blmrun (pret. 
bleow, pp. i/t'bliiirni), blossom, flower, flourish. 
= OS. bio/an = OFries. bloia = D. hlocijen = 
OHG. bluojan, MHG. bliiejen, bliicn, G. hliilioi. 
blow, bloom, = L. florere (a secondary form), 



blow 

hloom, flourish ; of. flds (flor-), a flower. From 
tlic same root, with various fonnatives, corae 
htiHinil (ami prob. /</<</'-'), htoiuaim, lilmrtli, 
liliHxl, and, from tho b., Jlmn-i; Hour, llmirixli. 
('(tlin'i'Kci', etc.] I. intninx. 1. To blossom or 
put forth flowers, as n plant; open out, as a 
flower: as, a \\v\\-hlou rose. 

How Mum the citron nnne. Milton, P. L., V. 22. 

To mi' the meanest Mciwer that iilum can give 
Thoughts that do often lie' t ..... leep fur tears. 

ii ,,iti*n'>.,th. ode to Immortality. 

2. Figuratively, to flourish ; hloom ; become 
perfected. 

II. trun-s. To make to blow or blossom; cause 
to produce, as flowers or blossoms. [Poetic.] 

The odorous hanks, that '/"" 
Flowers of more mingled hew. 

MHiuH, ('oniiu, 1. 993. 
For these Favonius here shall Wow 
Mew flowers. R. Jonimi, Masque at Highgatc. 

blow 15 (blo), n. [< Moic*, r.] 1. Blossoms in 
general; a mass or bed of blossoms: as, the 
lil: in- is good this season. 

He (relieved he eould show me such a Mow of tulips as 
was not to be matched in the whole country. 

Adduon, Tatler, No. 218. 

2. The state or condition of blossoming or 
flowering ; honce, the highest state or perfec- 
tion of anything; bloom: as, a tree in full blow. 

Her beuuty himlly yet in its full Mow. 

, Sir Charles Grandison, I. ii. 




blow 3 (blo), . [Early mod. E. also blowe, blot, 
< late ME. (Sc.) blnw; origin uncertain. Plau- 
sibly explained as from an unrecorded verb, 
ME. "blewcn, < AS. "blcowan (strong verb, pret. 
"bledw, pp. "blowen) = MD. bloween, blai'/nn n, 
strike, beat, D. blouwen, beat, esp. beat or 
break flax or hemp, = MLG. bluicen, LG. bUiuen 
= OHG. bliuiran, oilman, MHG. bliitwen, liliin n. 
G. blaurn, beat, drub (in G. and LG. modified 
under association with blau, blue, as in 'beat 
black and blue '), = Goth, bliggwan, strike, beat ; 
not related to L. flit/ere, strike, beat ( > ult. E. 
afflict, inflict, etc.), flagellum, a flail (> ult. E. 
flail, flagellate, etc.). The absence of the verb 
from ME. and A8. records is remarkable (the 
ordinary AS. word for 'strike' was slcdn, > E. 
slay), but the cognate forms favor its exis- 
tence.] 1. A stroke with the hand or fist or a 
weapon ; a thump ; a bang ; a thwack ; a knock ; 
hence, an act of hostility: as, to give one a 
blow; to strike a blow. 

He struck so plainly. I could too well feel his Wow*; 
and withal so doubtfully that I eould scarce understand 
them. Shale., C. of E., ii. 1. 

2. A sudden shock or calamity; mischief or 
damage suddenly inflicted: as, tne conflagra- 
tion was a severe blow to the prosperity of the 
town. 

It was a dreadful blow to many in the days of the Re- 
formation to tind that they had been misled. 

Pop. Set. Mo., XXVI. 243. 
At a blow, by one single action ; at one effort ; suddenly. 

Every year they gain a victory, and a town ; hut if they 
are once defeated they lose a province at a Mow. l> 
Opposed or solid blow, in inetal-workinfl. a blow which 
stretches ur thins the metal ; unopposed or hollow 
blow, a Mow which tends t thicken and bend it. To 
catch one a blow. See catch. To come to blows, to 
engage in combat, whether the combatants be individuals, 
armies, fleets, or nations. 

In 1756 Georgia and South Carolina actually caine to 
Moint HIT the navigation of the Savannah river. 

J. Fitf, Amer. Pol. Ideas, p. 95. 

blow-ball (blo'bal), n. The downy head of the 
dandelion, salsify, etc., formed by the pappus 
after the blossom has fallen. 

llrr t Trailing would not bend a blade of grass, 
Or shake tin- downy htuit'-htill from his stalk! 

B. Jonmn, Sad Shepherd, L 1. 

blow-cock (blo'kok), n. A cock in a steam- 
boiler by means of which the water may be 
partly or entirely blown out when desired. 

blowen (blo'en), . [Also blowing ; equiv. to 
hloimx, a form of blowze, q. v.] A showy, flaunt- 
ing woman ; a courtezan ; a prostitute. For- 
merly also blntrrias ami lilmriiuj. [Low slang.] 

blower 1 (blo'er), n. [< ME. ' bt<nn-r. hlmr, ;r, < 
AS. lilnii'i'ri; < liliiiftm, blow: see blote 1 ."] 1. 
One who blows. Specifically (a) One who is em- 
ployed in ;i blow mg-honae for smelting tin. Cornwall, (b) 
In a glass-factory, the workman ho blows the melted 
glass into shape. 

2. A screen or cover of metal fitted to an open 
fireplace in such a way that when it is pla.-nl 
in position access of air to the chimney is 
closed except from the bottom, or through the 
tire itself: used to promote combustion, espe- 
cially when tho lire is first kindled, by concen- 
trating the draft upon the substance to be 



597 

ignited. 3. In null-mining, an escape, under 
pressure and with high velocity, of gas or fire- 
damp from the coal. Such escapes are sometimes 
sinMeii and of short duration ; but they occasionally con- 
tinue for weeks and sometimes for years. 
4. A man employed in a mine in blasting. 5. 
A machine for forcing air into a furnace, mine, 
cistern, hold of a ship, public building, etc., to 
assist in drying, evaporating, and the like; a 
blowing-machine. See blowing-engine, Mowing- 
machine. 6. A marine animal, as a whale, 

which spouts up water. 7. 

One who brags; a boaster. 

[.Slang.] Blower and spread- 
er, a machine uniting the aetion f 
Iteaters and blowers in forming cot- 
ion into a lap. Hydraulic blow- 
er. See hydraulic. Oscillating 
blower, a blower having one or 
more blades hinged or pivoted at 
one edge, and vibrating through an 
Rotary Blower. arc of a circle. Rotary blower, a 
.-/, ff, cams ; C, box. blower similar in construction to a 
rotary pump. It has vanes the mo- 
tions of which are governed by cam-faces, or which are 
shaped in various ways to Interlock, inclosing between 
themselves and the casing volumes of air, which they car- 
ry forward. 

blower 2 (blo'er), n. [< blow*, ., + -ri.] A 
plant that blows. If, E. I). 
blowesst (blo'es), n. [A form of 6 Joioee, per- 
haps in simulation of blow 1 , with fern, suffix.] 
Same as blowen. 

blow-fly (blo'fli), n. The common name of 
Musca (Calliphora) romitoria. Sarcophaga car- 
narirt, and other species of dipterous insects, 
which deposit their eggs (flyblow) on flesh, and 
thus taint it. Also called flesh-fly. See cut 
under flesh-fly. 

blow-gun (blo'gun), . A pipe or tube through 
which missiles are blown by the breath. Those 
used by certain Indians of South America are of wood, 
from 7 to 10 feet long, with a bore not larger than the 
little finger; through them are blown poisoned arrows 
made of split cane or other light material, from a foot to 
15 inches in length, and wound at the butt with some 
fibrous material so as to fit the bore of the blow-gun. A 
similar blow-gun is in use among the Dyaks of Borneo. 
Also called Mow-tube and blowpipe. 
blow-hole (blo'hol), n. 1. The nostril of a 
cetacean, generally situated on the highest part 
of the head. In the whalebone whale< the blow-holes 
form two longitudinal slits, placed side by side. In por- 
poises, grampuses, etc., they are reduced to a single cres- 
cent-shaped opening. 

2. A hole in the ice to which whales and seals 
come to breathe. 3. Same as air-hole, 2. 4. 
In steel-manitf., a defect in the iron or steel, 
caused by the escape of air or gas while solidi- 
fication was taking place. 

The following experiments were made in order to pre- 
pare solid steel without Mow-holes by the crucible process, 
which would give a good resistance and a proper elonga- 
tion. Ure, Diet., IV. 836. 

blowing 1 (blo'ing), n. [Verbal n. of blow 1 , r.] 
A defect in china caused by the development 
of gas, by the reaction upon each other of the 
constituents of the glaze, or by a too strong 
firing. 

blowing 1 (blo'ing), . a. [Ppr. of blow 1 , r.] 1. 
Causing a current of wind ; breathing strongly. 
2. In the following phrase, liable to be 
blown about. Blowing lands, lands whose surface- 
soil is so light as to be liable, when dry, to be blown away 
by the wind. 

blowing'-t (blo'ing), n. Same as blowen. 
On a lark with black-eyed Sal (his blowing). 

Byron, Don Juan, \ i. 19. 

blowing-Charge (blo'ing-charj), n. In gunnery, 
a smallcharge of powder in a shell, sufficient to 
blow out the fuse-plug but not to burst the shell. 
It is used in tiring for practice, or for testing time-fuses 
when it is desired to recover the shells and use them 
again. If It is desired to fill the cavity of the shell, coal- 
dust is added to the charge to increase its volume. 

blowing-cylinder (blo'ing-sil'in-der), . The 
air-cylinder of a blowing-engine or other form 
of blast-machine. 

blowing-engine (blo'ing-en'jin), n. 1. A mo- 
tor used for driving a blower or blowing-ma- 
ehino. 2. A combined motor and blower. 

blowing-fan (blo 'ing-fan), n. A revolving 
wheel with vanes, used to produce a blast. 

blowing-furnace (blo'ing-fer'nas), H. A fur- 
nace in which partially formed glassware may 
be placed to be softened when it becomes cooled 
and stiff in working; sometimes, the secondary 
furnace following the melting-furnace. 

blowing-house (blo'ing-hous), . A house in 
which the process of smelting tin ore is car- 
ried on. 

blowing-iron, . Same as blowpipe, 1. 

blowing-machine (blo'iiig-ma-snen'), n. Any 
apparatus for creating a blast of air, as for 



blowpipe 

ventilating, urging tiros in boilers or furnaces 
in glass-making, cold storage, removing dust, 
etc. See blower, 5. piston blowing-machine, a 

form of blow ing-mai bin.- in which the air is e\|~ lied 
from a cylindi r by a reciprocating piston. A,'. //. Ii 

blpwing-pipe (t>16'ing-pip), n. A glass-blower's 

pipe; a pout re. 
blowing-pot (blo'ing-pot), n. In tho manufac- 

ture of pottery, an apparatus for distributing 

slip over the ware before burning. 
blowing-snake (blo'ing-snak), n. A non-ven- 

omous snake of the family Cohibrultv and genus 

Ilitirodon, notable for the noise it maKi 

the depression of its anterior parts and the ex- 

pulsion of air. The best-known species is //. 

pliitt/rrliiiiHs of the eastern United States, whi'-h 

is also called buckwheat~nose nake, xprcading- 

adder, et. 
blowing-tube (blo'ing-tub), n. In glcum-work- 

ing, a tube 4 or 5 feet long, with a bore varying 

in size according to the character of the work, 

used in blowing glass. 
blow-milk (blo milk), n. Milk from which the 

cream is blown off ; skimmed milk. [Eng.] 
blown 1 (blon), p. a. [< ME. blowen, blawen,<. AS. 

hln a-, a. pp. of oldwan : see blow 1 .'] 1. Swelled; 

inflated. 

No Mount ambition doth our arms incite. 

Sltak., Lear, iv. 4. 
I come with no blown spirit to abuse you. 

Bra. and Ft., Little French Lawyer, Hi. 2. 

2. Spongy or porous from the presence of bub- 
bles of air or gas: said of metal castings. 3. 
Stale from exposure, as to air or flies ; hence, 
tainted; unsavory: as, 6to- drink (obsolete) ; 
blown meat ; a blown reputation. See flyblown. 

4. Out of breath ; tired ; exhausted : as, " their 
horses much blown," Scott. 

'Zounds! I am quite out of breath Sir, I am come to 
Whew ! I beg pardon but, as you perceive, I am devilish- 
ly Mown. Column the 1 otinyer, Poor Gentleman, iii. 3. 

5. In farriery, having the stomach distended 
by gorging green food: said of cattle. 6. 
Emptied by blowing, as an egg. 

blown 1 ' (blon), p. a. [< ME. blowen, < AS. 
"blowen, gcblvwen, pp. of blowan: see Mow'*.] 
Fully expanded or opened, as a flower: as, 
"the blown rose." Shak., A. and C., iii. 11. 

blow-pff (blo'of), a. Pertaining to or used in 
blowing off (which see, under blow 1 , v., I.). 

The blow-of apparatus consists, in fresh-water boilers, 
simply of a large cock at the l>otton> of the lioilcr. 

KatMiie, Steam Engine, $ .105. 

Blow-off cock, a faucet in the blow-off pipe of a steam- 
boiler. Blow-off pipe, a pipe at the foot of the boiler 
of a steam-engine, communicating with the ash-pit (or 
with the sea in marine boilers), and furnished with a cock, 
the opening of which causes the water and the sediment 
or brine to be forced out by the steam. 

blow-out (blo'out), n. A feast ; an entertain- 

ment; a great demonstration; aspree. [Colloq.] 

The Russian [sailors] . . . had celebrated their Christ- 

mas eleven days before, when they had a grand blotc-uut. 

R. H. Dana, Jr., Before the Mast, p. 28B. 

blow-over (blo'o'ver), n. In glass-making, the 
surplus glass, which, when a vessel is blown in 
a mold, is forced out above the lip of the mold. 

blowpipe (blo'pip), n. and . I. n. 1. An in- 
strument by which a 
driven through 



. . . . . 

current of air or gas is 



the flame of a 
lamp, candle, or 
gas-jet, to di- I ~ Blowpipe.. 

rect the flame * common blowpipe ; . GahnS blowpipe. 
, made with chamber near the let. 

upon a sub- 
stance, in order to fuse it, an intense heat be- 
ing created by the rapid supply of oxygen and 
the concentration of the name upon a small 
area. In its simplest form, as used, for example, by gas- 
fitters, It is merely a conical lulu- of brass, glass, or other 
substance, usually about " inches long, 1 inch in diameter 
at one end, and tapering so as to have a very small aper- 
ture at the other, within > inches or so of which ft is 
bent nearly at a right angle. The blowpipe of the min- 
eralogist is provided with a small chamlicr near the jet. 
In which the moisture from the mouth collects. The 
current of ah* is often formed by a pair of Itellows in- 
stead of the human breath, the instrument l>eing fixed 
in a proper frame for the purpose. The most powerful 
blowpipe is the oxyhydrogen or compound blowpipe, an 
instrument in which oxygen and hydrogen tin the propor- 
tions necessary for their combination), propelled by hydro- 
static or other pressure, and coming from separate reser- 
voirs, are made to form a united current in a capillary 
orifice at the moment when they are kindled. The heat 
produced is such as to consume the diamond and to fuse 
or vaporize many substances refractory at lower tempera- 
ture*. The blowpipe Is used by goldsmiths and jewelers 
in soldering, by glass-blowers in softening and shaping 
glass, and extensively by chemists and mineralogist* in test- 
ing the nature and composition of substances. Also called 
by workmen a Mmnny-inm. 

2. Same as Wow-jrun.-Alrohydrogen blowpipe, a 
modification of the oxyhydrogen blowpipe. 



blowpipe 

II. fl. Relating in any way to a blowpipe, or 




r j. j ,_._._ .-j- .^ _,..._, __ 

the blowpipe; conduct chemical experiments 
or perform mechanical operations by means of 
the blowpipe. 

blow-pointt (blo'point), n. A game supposed 
to have consisted in blowing small pins or ar- 
rows through a tube at certain numbers. 

Shortly boys shall not play 
At span-counter or Mow-point, but shall pay 
Toll to some courtier. Donne, Satires, iv. 

blowse 1 , n. See blouse. 

blowse 2 , . See blowze. 

blpwser (blou'zer), n. [E. dial.] In pilchard- 
Jishing, on the south coast of England, one of 
the men engaged in landing and carrying the 
fish to the curing-houses. Encyc. Brit., IX. 254. 

blowth (bloth), n. [< Umifi + -tli, after grow th, 
< grow.'] Bloom or blossom; blossoms in a col- 
lective sense ; the state of blossoming. [Now 
only dialectal in S. W. England (in the form 
blooth) and in New England.] 

The seeds and effects . . . were as yet but potential, and 

in the blowth and bud. Raleigh, Hist. World, I. ix. 3. 

With us a single blossom is a blow, while blowth means 

the blossoming in general. A farmer would say that there 

was a good blowth on his fruit-trees. 

Lowell, Biglow Papers, 2d ser., Int. 

blow-through (blo'thro), a. Pertaining to or 
used in the process of blowing through (which 

see, under blow 1 , v., I.) Blow-through cock, a 

faucet through which the air that may be contained in a 
steam-chamber is blown out when steam is admitted. 
Blow-through valve, a valve in the opening through 
which steam enters a condensing steam-engine, used in 
blowing through. 

blow-tube (blo'tub), ?i. 1. A hollow iron rod, 
from 5 to 6 feet long, by blowing through which 
a glass-blower expands the semi-fluid metal 
gathered on its further end while shaping it on 
the marver. 2. Same as blow-gun. 
blow-up (blo'up), n. [From the phrase to blow 
up: see blow^, v., II.] 1. A scolding: a quarrel. 
[Colloq.] 

The Captain . . . gave him a grand blow-up, in true 
nautical style. R. H. Dana, Jr., Before the Mast, p. 22. 
2. One of the rooms in a sugar-refinery, usu- 
ally on the top floor, where the raw sugar is 
first melted Blow-up pan, in sugar-re/ining, the 
pan in which the raw sugar, after being sifted, is placed 
with water to be dissolved. At the bottom of the pan is 
a perforated steam-pipe through which steam blows up 
through the solution ; hence the name of the pan and of 
the room in which the operation is carried on. 
blow-valve (blo'valv), n. The snifting-valve 
of a condensing-engine. 

blow-well (blo'wel), n. In some parts of Eng- 
land, a popular name for an artesian well. 

At Merton in Surrey, at Brighton, at Southampton, all 
along the east coast of Lincolnshire, and in the low dis- 
trict between the chalk wolds near Loiith and the Wash, 
Artesian borings have long been known, and go by the 
name of blow-wells among the people of the district. 

Encyc. Brit., II. 646. 

blowy (blo'i), a. [< blow''- + -yi.] Windy; 
blowing; breezy. 

blowze (blouz), n. [Also spelled blowse, blouse, 
blouze, E. dial, blawse; cf. blowess. Origin un- 
certain.] If. A beggar's trull ; a beggar wench ; 
a wench. 

Wed without my advice, my love, my knowledge, 
Ay, and a beggar, too, a trull, a blowse ! 

Chapman, All Fools, iv. 1. 

Venus herself, the queen of Cytheron, ... is but a 
blowze. Shirley, Love Tricks, iii. 6. 

2. A ruddy, fat-faced wench ; a blowzy wo- 
man: applied in Shakspere to an infant. 
Sweet blowse, you are a beauteous blossom sure. 

Shak., Tit. And., iv. 2. 

blowzed(blouzd),n. [< blowze + -ed2.] Blowzy; 
made ruddy and coarse-complexioned, as by ex- 
posure to the weather; fat and high-colored. 

I don't like to see my daughters trudging up to their 
pew all blowzed and red with walking. 

Goldsmith, Vicar, x. 
Huge women blowzed with health and wind and rain. 

Tennyson, Princess, iv. 

blowzillg (blou'zing), a. [< blowze + -ing?.] 
Blowzy; flaunting; fluffy: as, "that blowing 
wig of his," J. Baillie. 

blowzy (blou'zi),n. [< blowze + -yl.] 1. Ruddy- 
faced; fat and ruddy; high-colored. 
A face made blowzy by cold and damp. 

George Eliot, Silas Marner, xi. 
2. Disheveled ; unkempt : as, blowzy hair. 
B. L. R. An abbreviation of breecli-loading 
rifle or breech-loading rifled : used in the tech- 
nical description of guns. 

In naval service B. L. R. guns of cast-iron, strengthened 
by rings, have been employed, ranging from 70 to 800- 
pounders. Encyc. Brit., II. 665 



598 

blubt (blub), v. [Var. of blob; cf. blubber.] 

1. trans. To swell ; puff out. 

My face was blown and blub'd with dropsy wan. 

Mir. for Mags., p. 112. 

II. intrans. To swell; protrude. 
blubber (blub'er), v. [Also blubber; < ME. Uub- 
ren, bloberen, weep, earlier bubble, boil, as wa- 
ter in agitation. Cf. G. dial, blubbern, cast up 
bubbles, as water, LG. herut blubbern, bab- 
ble, chatter. Appar. an imitative word, hav- 
ing, like many such, a freq. form. The short 
forms blub and blob are modern. Cf. blub, blob, 
blab, bleb.] I. intrans. 1. To weep, especially 
in such a manner as to swell the cheeks or dis- 
figure the face ; burst into a fit of weeping : used 
chiefly in sarcasm or ridicule. 

Even so lies she, 
Blubbering and weeping, weeping and blubbering. 

Shak.,R. and J., iii. 3. 

Hector's infant blubber'd at a plume. Mrs. Browning. 
2f. To bubble ; foam. 

Ther faure citees wern set, nov is a see called, 
That ay is drouy & dym, & ded in hit kynde, 
Bio, blubrande, & blak, vnblythe to liege. 

Alliterative Poem* (ed. Morris), ii. 1017. 

II. trans. To disfigure with weeping, 
blubber (blub'er), n. [Also blabber; < ME. blub- 
ber, a bubble, bluber, blober, surge, agitation of 
water, bubble: see the verb.] If. A bubble. 
At his mouth a blubber stode of fome. 

Henryson, Test, of Creseide, 1. 192. 

2. The fat of whales and other cetaceans, from 
which train-oil is obtained. The blubber lies under 
the skin and over the muscles. The whole quantity yield- 
ed by a large whale ordinarily amounts to 40 or 60 hun- 
dredweight, but sometimes to 80 or more. 

3. A gelatinous substance ; hence, an acaleph 
or sea-nettle; a medusa. 4. [< blubber, v.] 
The act or state of blubbering: as, to be in a 
blubber. 5. One who blubs. Carlyle. 

blubbered (blub'erd), p. a. [Pp. of blubber, v.] 
Swollen; big; turgid: as, a blubbered lip; "her 
blubbered cheeks," Dryden, Ceyx and Alcyone, 
1. 392. 

blubberer (blub'er-er), n. One who blubbers. 

blubber-lip (blub'er-lip), n. [< blubber + Up.] 
A swollen lip; a thick lip, such as that of a 
negro. Also written blobber-lip. 

His blubber-lips and beetle-brows commend. 

Dryden, tr. of Juvenal's Satires, iii. 

blubber-lipped (blub'er-lipt), a. [ME. blaber- 
lipped; < blubber + lip + -ed*.] Having blub- 
ber-lips. Also written blobber-lipped: as, "a 
blobber-lipped shell," N. Grew. 

blubber-spade (blub'er-spad), . [< blubber 
(whale's blubber) + spade.] A keen-edged 
spade used to remove the layer of blubber which 
envelops a whale's body. 

blubbery (blub'er-i), a. [< blubber + -yi.] 
Resembling blubber; fat, as a cetacean. 

blucher (blo'cher), n. A strong leather half- 
boot or high shoe, named after Field-marshal 
von Blucher, commander of the Prussian army 
in the later campaigns against Napoleon. 

He was, altogether, as roystering and swaggering a 
young gentleman as ever stood four feet six, or something 
less, in his bluchers. Dickens, Oliver Twist. 

bludgeon (bluj'on), n. [Not found before 
1730 (Bailey); origin unknown. A plausible 
conjecture connects it with D. bludsen, blutsen, 
bruise, beat (parallel with butsen with same 
meaning: see botch%). The E. word, if from 
this source, may have been introduced as a 
cant term in the Elizabethan period, along 
with many other cant terms from the D. which 
never, or not until much later, emerged in 
literary use.] A heavy stick, particularly one 
with one end loaded or thicker and heavier 
than the other, used as an offensive weapon. 

Arms were costly, and the greater part of the fyrd 
came equipped with bludgeons and hedge-stakes, which 
could do little to meet the spear and battle-axe of the 
invader. J. R. Green, Conq. of Eng., p. 127. 

blue (bio), a. and n. [Early mod. E. reg. blew, 
blewe, rarely blue; < ME. blew, blewe, occasion- 
ally bluwe, blue, blwe, blu, bleu, possibly < AS. 
*bl(ew (in deriv. blwwen, bluish) for *blciir 
(whence the reg. ME. bio, bloo, mod. E. dial. 
blow, north. ME. bla, blaa, mod. north. E. and 
Sc. blae, blea, after the Scand. : see blae) (cf . 
E. mew, < AS. mmo, a gull) ; but more prob. 
from, and in any case merged with, OF. bleu, 
blef, mod. F. bleu = Pr. blau, fern, blava = QSp. 
blavo, Sp. Pg. blao = It. biavo (obs. or dial.) 
(cf. mod. It. blu,< F. or E.),< ML. bldvus, bldvius, 
< OHG. blao (blaw-), MUG. bid (blaw-), G. blau 
= MD. blaeuw, D. blaauw = OFries. blaw = 
MLG. bla, bldtc, blauwe, LG. blau, blaag, blue, = 



blue 

AS. *bldw (above) = Icel. bldr = Sw. bid = Dan. 
blaa, blue, livid (see blue); perhaps = L. Jldvus, 
yellow (color-names being variable in applica- 
tion). Some of the uses of blue originally be- 
longed to the parallel form blae in the sense of 
'livid,' as in black and blue.] I. a. 1. Of the 
color of the clear sky; of the color of the 
spectrum between wave-lengths .505 and .415 
micron, and more especially .487 to .460, or of 
such light mixed with white ; azure ; cerulean. 
2. Livid; lead-colored: said of the skin or 
complexion as affected by cold, contusion, or 
fear (see blae) : hence the phrase black and blue. 
See black. 3. Figuratively, afflicted with low 
spirits; despondent; depressed; hypochondria- 
cal ; having the blues. 

E'en I or you, 
If we'd nothing to do, 
Should find ourselves looking remarkably blue. 

Barham, Ingoldsby Legends, II. 10. 
Sir Lucius looked blue, but he had hedged. 

Disraeli, Young Duke, ii. 5. 

4. Dismal ; unpromising : applied to things : as, 
a blue lookout. [Colloq.] 5. Inflexible ; rigid ; 
strict in morals or religion; puritanic: as, a blue 
Presbyterian : often in the form true blue (which 
see, below). 6. [With ref. to blue-stocking, q. 
v.] Learned; pedantic: applied to women. 

Some of the ladies were very blue and well informed. 

Thackeray. 

7. Indecent: obscene: as. blue stories. [Colloq.] 

Black and blue. See Mac*. Blue antelope. Same 
as blauit'bok. Blue asbestos. See crocidohte. Blue 
ashes, a hydrated basic copper carbonate, prepared arti- 
ficially. It is found native (" mountain blue ") in Cum- 
berland, England. Blue beech. Same as water-beech. 

Blue bindweed, blood, bream, carmine, clay, etc. 
See the nouns. Blue copperas. Same as Milestone. 
Blue flesh-fly. Same as bluebottle, 2. Blue funk, ex- 
treme nervousness or nervous agitation ; nervous appre- 
hension or dread. Blue glass, glass colored with cobalt 
manganese. Blue ground. Same as blue rock (b or c). 

Blue lake, a pigment similar to Antwerp blue. Blue 
magnetism, that which characterizes the south pole of 
a magnet. Blue malachite. See malachite. Blue met- 
al,copper at a certain stage in the process of refining. 

Blue milk, Monday, etc. See the nouns. Blue 
OCher. See ocher. Blue pole, the south pole of a mag- 
net. Blue pulp, a name of various mixtures known to 
calico-printers and -dyers, made up of yellow prussiate of 
potash and protochlorid or bichlorid of tin and water. 
Blue ribbon. See ribbon. Blue rock, (a) The name 
in parts of Irejand of an are naceous shale, (b) In Austra- 
lia, the volcanic (basaltic) m aterial in places overlying the 
Tertiary auriferous gravels, (c) The bluish-colored matrix 
in which the South African diamonds are often found em- 
bedded. It is a kind of breccia. Blue sand, a cobalt 
smalt used by potters for painting blue figures on pottery. 
Blue shark. See shark. Blue verdlter. Same as 
Bremen blue (see below). Blue vitriol. See vitriol. 
Tq burn blue, to burn with a bluish flame like that of 
brimstone. True blue (that is, genuine, lasting blue: 
blue being taken aa a type of constancy, and used in this 
and other phrases often with an added allusion to some 
other sense of blue], constant ; unwavering; stanch; ster- 
ling ; unflinching ; upright and downright : specifically 
applied to the Scotch Presbyterians or Whig party in tiie 
seventeenth century, from the color (blue) adopted by the 
Covenanters in contradistinction to the royal red. 

II. n. 1. The color of the clear sky or of 
natural ultramarine, or a shade or a tint re- 
sembling it; azure. See I., 1. 2. A dye or pig- 
ment of this hue. The substances used as blue pig- 
ments are of very different natures, and derived from va- 
rious sources ; they are all compound bodies, some being 
natural and others artificial. See phrases below. 
3. Bluing. 4. The sky; the atmosphere. [Po- 
etic.] 

I came and sat 

Below the chestnuts, when their buds 
Were glistening in the breezy blue. 

Tennyson, Miller's Daughter. 

5. The sea; the deep sea. [Poetic.] 6. A 
member of a party, or of any company of per- 
sons, which has adopted blue as its distinctive 
color. 7. The heavy winter coat of the deer. 
See phrase in the blue, below. 8. A butterfly 
of the family Lyccenida;, found in Great Britain 
and other parts of Europe. 9. [Short for blue- 
stocking.] A pedantic woman. 

Next to a lady I must bid adieu 
Whom some in mirth or malice call a blue. 

Crabbe. 

Alexandria blue, a pigment used by the ancient Egyp- 
tians, composed of the silicates of copper and lime. Also 
called Bi/iiiitian blue. Alizarin blue, Ci 7 H 9 NO 4 , a coal- 
tar color used for dyeing, prepared by heating iiitro-aliza- 
rin with glycerin and sulphuric acid, and afterward wash- 
ing with water. It occurs in commerce as a dark-violet 
paste containing about 10 per cent, of dry substance, and is 
used in wool-dyeing and calico-printing in place of indigo, 
under certain conditions. Also called anthracene bhu 1 . 

Alkali blue, in dyeing, a coal-tar color used for bright- 
blue shades on silk and wool, but ur.suitod for cotton, 
because it will not combine with acid mordants. It con- 
sists essentially of the sodium salt of monosulphonic acid 
of rosaniline blue, and is applied in a slightly alkaline 
bath (hence the name). Also called fast blue and Guern- 
*v;/ Wee.- Aniline blue, a generic name for spirit-blue, 
soluble blue, ami alkali blue. See these terms. Anthra- 



blue 

cene blue, same ^ .>'. .,,.,. I,/H?. Antwerp blue, a 
I'russian hint 1 made somewhat lighter in color f>\ tin 1 a>l 
dition of alumina. It is more greenish than l'rnh.tian blue. 
Also culled llniirii'in lit"'', iiiinrni/ "> . Armenian 
blue, a pigment used by the ani-irnls, probabt.v a native 
ultramarine. Azure blue, a name given to various pig- 
luellU, Mird as cobalt blue, ultramarine, ali'l carbonate of 
copper. BaalC blue, a more can-fully prepare, I .spirit- 
Hue of tin- first kind, See .*7-iVj' />'//,-. Also called j,nL- 
Mil' 1 . Berlin blue. Sumaas^uwtai />/, but usually a 
little lighter in color. Also i-alk>il */.-.(-/<.. Blackley 
blue. BameuMiuMiJitu (). Bremen blue, a by hat 
ed eoppei o\nl formed by precipitating nitrate of copper 
with Mine. It is mostly used for ire.vo painting, and re- 
tains its Mile color iiniler artificial li'Jit. A I -i i call. 'i I './" 
wrditer. Cerulean blue, a pigment composed of the 
oxids of tin ami cobalt. It retain, its bine color by artifi- 
cial light. Chemtc blue, a term nscil by dye-re for a very 
acid solution of iinli^o in sulphuric acid which i e-nulil. - 
.xiMiuy bine. China blue, a coal-tar color similar to 
soluble bine, used in 'hem-. Chinese blue, a pigment 
similar In Prussian blue, but when liry ami in a lump torni 
having a peculiar rcililish-bronze cast. Its tints are purer 
than those of Prussian blue. -Cobalt blue, a pure blue 
tending toward cyan-blue and of high luminosity. Also 
called // ii nifdri/ blue, Leithner'n blue, and 7'nrij* /</"-. 
Coupler's blue, a coal-tar color used In dyeing. It la a 
spirit -iniliiline, and is the hydrochlorid of some color-baae, 
such us triplicnyl-viohuiUine. It yields a dark-blue color 
not unlike indigo, and can be dyed on wool, silk, and cut- 
ton. Also callc'Ui-'"'/'/'/" '"<//, Klbcrfeld blue, Kitubaix ttlu>'. 

Cyanlne blue. Same its Lfiich'sblue. Distilled blue, 
a purilieil solution of sulphate of indigo. Dumont's blue, 
a carefully prepared smalt used by decorators of china. 

Egyptian blue. Same as Alexandria blue. Elberfeld 
blue. Same as Coupier'n Mite. Eschel blue. Same as 
Ktnu'f. Fast blue. Same as alkali blue. Fluorescent 
resorclnal blue, a coal-tar color used In dyeing, pre- 
pared by dissolving a/o resorufin in potash, adding bro- 
mine, ami precipitating with hydrochloric uciil the hex- 
abroni-<li;i/o resot ulinale, and converting this into the so- 
diuni salt. It dyes wool and silk a fast blue with a red 
fluorescence, especially in artificial light. Also called re- 
Borcin blue. French blue. Same as artificial ultrama- 
rine (which see. under ultramarine). Qentlana blue. 
Same as spirit-blue. Gold blue, a color similar to purple 
ofCassius. See purple. Guernsey blue. Same as alkali 
blue. Guimet blue. Same as artificial ultramarine 
(which see, under ufti-umariiit'). Haarlem blue. Same 
a Antwerp blue. HumbOldt blue. Same as xpirit-Mue. 

Hungary blue, same as mbalt bl tie. Imperial blue. 
same as x/iirit-Miir. -Indian blue. Same as indigo. 
Intense blue, a pigment made by reflniiiK indigo. In 
the blue, wearing the blue coat, as a deer. 

There is a bluish shade observed on the common deer, 
which Is so prevalent as to have given the winter coat the 
general appellation of the blue among frontiersmen and 
hunters, who say the deer is in the red or the blue, as he 
may lie in the summer or the winter coat. 

J. D. Calm, Antelope and Deer of America, p. 149. 

Leltch'a blue, a compound of cobalt blue and Prussian 
blue. Also called cttanine blue. Lelthner's blue. Same 
aa cobalt blue. Lyons blue, one of the commercial 
names of spirit-blue. Mineral blue. Same <u Antwerp 
blue. Monthier's blue, a special kind of Prussian blue, 
in the making of which ammonia is used. Mountain 
blue. Sec azurite. Napoleon blue, a blue color dyed 
on silk by means of basic ft- rric sulphate and yellow prus- 
siate of potash, forming a Prussian blue. Also called Ray- 
mond'* Mm-. Native Prussian blue. Same as blue other 
(which sec, under OC/KT). Navy blue. Same as soluble 
blue (6). Nemours blue, a color produced In dyeing, by 
first dyeing with sandal-wood and afterward with indigo, 
giving a purple hue by reflected light. Neutral blue, 
a coal-tar color used in dyeing, the hydrochlorid of the 
color-base safrauiue. It ia useful only In dyeing cotton. 
New blue. Same as artificial ultramarine, or, in coal-tar 
colors, same as neutral blue. Night blue, (a) Same as 
Victoria blue, but of a purer shade, (ft) Soluble blue, 
(c) Any blue that is free from violet, and retains a true 
blue color in artificial light. Paris blue, (a) Same as 
cobalt blue, (fc) A somewhat light shade of Prussian blue. 

Parma blue, a spirit-blue of the first kind, with a de- 
cided violet tone. Paste blue. () Sulphate of indigo, 
(fr) Prussian blue in a pasty state. Permanent blue. 
Same as artificial ultramarine (which see, under ultra- 
iiutriii,-). Prussian blue, a pigment made by precipi- 
tating ferric sulphate with yellow prussiate of potash, 
forming a ferrocyatiide of iron. It is a cyan-blue like that 
of the spectrum of wave-length .4SO micron ; its chroma Is 
strong, but its luminosity is low. Sometimes called royal 
I'l'"- Raymond's blue. Sumo as Xapoleon blue. Re- 
boulleau's blue. 8meas&ftiiri/wrfA bin?. Resorcin 

blue. Same as //N.,,W,V/// / viv//m Ml/*-. RoUbalX 

blue. Same as f'.ni/,/w* blue. -Royal blue. Same as 
ttmalt. In dyeing, Prussian blue is sometimes so named. 

Sanders or aaunders blue, a corrupt name for the 
French '-.-in /,w >,!, ".^(ultramarine ashes). Saxony blue, 
the sulphlndigotic acid of commerce, prepared by dissolv- 
ing indigo in concentrated sulphuric acid, and nsed for 
dyeing on wool ami silk. It is brighter in color than that 
obtained from the indigo-vat, but is not BO fast either to 
light or to tlie action of soap. - Schwelnfurth blue, a 
pigment miulo by fusing together copper nrseniute, potas- 
sium arseniate, and niter. The product soon turns blue 
when mived with oil. Also called Kflnmlleau'i blue. 
Soluble blue, (a) A coal-tar color used in dyeing, ob- 
tainetl by beating a spirit-blue with sulphuric acid, and 
the product with oxalic acid. Such blues are soluble in 
water, in distinction from the fpMC-MM. which are solu- 
ble only in alcohol. Also called ISIarklfii Hue. (b) A 
Prussian blue to which has been added an excess of prus- 
siatc ot ]itash. Also called lia/l-Nue, nai'v blur. The 
blues. (") ICoutraction for MlM-dntb.] Low spirits; 
melancholy ; despondency ; hypochondria. See blni'-'t> <- 
Us. (b) [cnjt. ] The name popularly given to the English 
regiment properh called the Ko\a! Horse Cuards, or o\- 
foril H!<><'*. tlrst mustered in lotll, ami so called from their 
blue uniforms. To be a blue, to have won one's blue 
(which see. below). (F.ng.l To win one's blue, to be 
chosen to represent a university (Oxford or Cambridge) or 
school (Harrow or I'.tou) in athletic contests: from the 



599 

ilistineth, colors (dark blue for Oxford and Harrow, and 
light bine for i [iinln jil-e and Eton) adopted by students 
at those institutions. |Kng. ] Ultramarine blue. See 
K/i'it unu-i, f. Vat-blue, sai: Vic- 

toria blue, a coal-tar color nsc'l in dvein^'. It is a dark- 
blue powder soluble in water, ami can be dyed on uool, 
silk, or cotton. Violet-blue, a blue tending toward 

violet, the color of tile spectrum betuecll a\e-li ni;tli- 

.460 to .415 micron, or of such light mixed with white. 
Wine-blue, umocyan, used as a coloring matter for red 
wines. 

blue (WO), v. ; pret. and pp. blued, ppr. bluing. 
[< Hue. .] I. trans. To make blue; dye a 
blue color; color with bluing; make blue by 
heating, as metals, etc. 
Il.t intrant. To blush. 

blueback (blo'bak), n. 1. A local English 
name (current in Yorkshire) of the coal-fish, in 
allusion to the bluish color of the back. 2. 
The blue-backed salmon or nerka, Oncorhynchus 
nerka, known in Idaho as the red-fish. 3. In 
Maryland aud Virginia, the glut-herring; a 
herring-like fish, Clupea cestivalis, without vo- 
merine or palatine teeth, with the lower jaw 
projecting but little, and the peritoneum black- 
ish. It is much like the alewife, but of less 
value. 4. A local name in Maine of the blue- 
backed trout, Salrelinus oquassa. 

bluebell (blo'bel), n. The popular name of 
several different plants: (a) In Scotland, of 
Campanula rotund (folia, a plant bearing a loose 
panicle of blue bell-shaped flowers. See hare- 
bell, (ft) In England, of Scilla nutans, the wild 
hyacinth, from the shape of its drooping flow- 
ers, (c) Of the grape-hyacinth, Muscari botry- 
oides. (rf) Occasionally, of other plants with 
blue bell-shaped flowers. 

blueberry (blo'ber'i), n. ; pi. blueberries (-iz). 
[< blue + berry 1 . Cf. blaeberry.'] In America: 
(a) The fruit of several species of Vaccinium, 
ordinarily distinguished from the various kinds 
of huckleberry by its blue color and smaller 
seeds. The swamp or tall blueberry is the f'ac- 
cinium corymbosum ; the low blueberry, V.vacil- 
lans ; and the dwarf blueberry, V. Pennsyl- 
vanicum. See bilberry, (b) Another name of 
the cohosh, Caitlophyllum thalictroides. 

bluebill (blS'bil), n. A scaup duck; the black- 
head (which see). 

blue-billy (blo'bil'i), n. [< blue + billy, per- 
haps the proper name Billy used familiarly, as 
in other instances : see billyl, billyl.~\ Inmetal., 
the residuum from pyrites, roasted for the man- 
ufacture of sulphuric acid, or for the extrac- 
tion in the moist way of the copper which it 
contains. This residuum, consisting mainly of peroxid 
of iron, is largely used as fettling in the puddUng-fur- 
naces in parts of England. 

bluebird (blo'berd), n. [In 17th century, bletr- 
bird.~\ 1. An American oscine passerine bird, 
of the genus Sialia, of which blue is the chief 
color. There are several species. The common or Wil- 
son's bluebird, Sialia tiaU*. InhabiU eastern North Amer- 
ica. It is about 64 inches long, blue above and dull-red- 
dish and white below. In most parts of the United States 
it is a harbinger of spring, coming with a melodious song. 
It nests in holes, and lays plain pale-bluish eggs. The 
western or Mexican bluebird S. mcxicana, is very similar, 
but has a reddish patch on the back, and the throat blue. 
The arctic or Rocky Mountain bluebird, S. arctica, is a 
larger species, of a paler blue than the others, fading into 
white below, without any red. 
2. Some other bird of a blue color: as, the 
fairy bluebird of Java, Irene turcosa. 

blue-black (blo'blak), a. and n. I. a. Of a 
bluish-black color. 

II. n. 1. A name of ivory-black, from its 
bluish hue ; a color resembling ivory-black. 
2. A well-burnt and levigated charcoal pre- 

Sared from vine-twigs. Also called rme-black. 
ueblawt (blO'bla), . [Also written blue- 
blow, early mod. E. blewblaw, < 6/cir, blue, + 
*blair, appar. a varied form of blue or blae (ME. 
bla, etc.), later modified to blow.'] An old name 
of the bluebottle, Centaurea Cyanus. 

blue-blazer (blS'bla'zer), n. A sweetened and 
flavored drink made of Scotch whisky and 
water mixed, after being set on fire, by pour- 
ing back and forth between two mugs. 

blue-blind (WS'blind), a. Unable to distin- 
guish the color blue from other colors. 

From the rarity and, in many cases, the entire absence 
of reference to blue In ancient literature, Gelger . . . 
has maintained that, even as recently as the time of Ho* 
mer, our ancestors were blut-blintl. 

Sir J. Lubbock, Pop. Sci. Mo., XXI. 200. 

blueblowt, . See blueblaw. 

bluebonnet (blo'bon'et), . 1. A name for 
the blue titmouse, Parus caruleus. Also called 
blueca/>. Macnillirray. 2. In fcof., same as 
liln/'lmttlc. 1. 3. A name given to the soldiery 
of Scotland when it was a separate kingdom, 



bluefish 

f nun tin- color of their lioiniets; also,any Scotch- 
man: generally aw two words. Also blurm/i. 

Kngland Khali many a day 
Tell of the bloody fray 
When the nine Hniine!* came over the Border. 

tottj Halla.t. Monastery, an. 

bluebottle (WO'bot'l), n. [In def. 1 with ref . 
to the blue funnel-shaped florets arranged in a 
hottli'-^liapeil involucre or whorl.] 1. In hot., 
Centum i a ( 'I/IIHM, a composite plant, a weed in 
Europe, cultivated for ornament in America. 
Also called bluebonnet and hl/ac/i/i. 2. In 
a dipterous insect with a blue abdomen, of the 
family Mitscirhr and genus .!/., or ' 'iilli/ihora. 
Also popularly called beef-ea tcr and blucjlenh-fiy. 

Inder tin- term Wr/*''H/? at least two Slieciei) are In- 
eluded [in England], namely, Mnsca voniltoria and M. 
erythrocephala. They both have the under surface of the 
head red. si,i,,,l. Hut. lli*t., VI. 95 

3. A policeman, a beadle, or other officer wear- 
ing a blue dress. [Slang.] 

bluebreast (blS'brest), . Same as bluethroat. 

bluebuck (blO'buk), n. [Tr. of D. blauwbok.] 
Same us liliiinrhok. 

bluebush (blO'bush), n. A Mexican shrub, Ce- 
<i unlit us ir.iiri-iix, with abundant blue flowers. 

bluebuttons (blo'but'onz), M. Same as blue- 
I'nji. '.\ (a). 

bluecap (blO'kap), . 1. A fish said to be of 
the salmon kind, with blue spots on its head. 
Imp. Diet. 2. Same as bluebonnet, \. 3. In 
hot. : (a) Some blue-flowered species of Scabi- 
osa, as f>. succisa and >S. arrengis. (b) The blue- 
bottle, Centaurea Cyanus. 4. Same as blue- 
bonnet, 3. 

A thousand Hue-cap* more. Shot., 1 II. n. IV., 1L 4. 
5. In coal-mining, a blue or brownish halo 
around the flame of the safety-lamp, indicat- 
ing the presence of a dangerous quantity of 
fire-damp. 

bluecoat (blS'kot), H. A person who wears a 
blue coat, especially as a uniform or livery. 
Specifically (a) A serving-man, especially in the house 
of an English country gentleman. The blue coat and 
badge were formerly the common livery of all the male ser- 
vants and attendants in a large establishment. (6) A sol- 
dier in the army of the l.'nited States. Bluecoat boy, a 
pupil of Christ's Hospital, London, a foundation dating 
from the time of Edward VI., the lienenciaries of which, 
who are young hoys, still wear the dress common to boys 
at that time, or a slight modification of it, consisting of a 
long blue coat girded with a leather lielt, knee-breeches, 
yellow stockings, and low shoes. Their head-dress is what 
is called a muffin-cap (which see), but generally they wear 
no caps, even in the coldest weather. 

blue-cod (blO'kod), n. A chiroid fish, OpAio- 
don elonaatus, of the Pacific coast of the United 
States, better known as cultus-eod. 

blue-creeper (WS'kre'per), M. A graceful twin- 
ing plant of Tasmania, Comespernia rolubile, 
natural order Polygalacea:, bearing an abun- 
dance of bright-blue flowers. 

blue-curls (blO'kerlz), M. A low labiate plant 
of the United States, Trichoxtema dichotomum, 
with blue flowers and very long coiled fila- 
ments. 

blue-devils (blO'dey'lz), n. pi. [See blue, a., 
3, 4.] 1. Low spirits; depression of mind. 
2. [With allusion to the apparitions of such 
delirium.] Delirium tremens. 

blue-disease (blo'di-zez' ), . Same as cyanosis. 

blue-eyed (blo'id), a. Having blue eyes : as, 
"the blue-ei/ed Norseman," Longfellow, Tales 
of a Wayside Inn Blue-eyed grass, in '-'., the 

name in the I'nited States of species of .S'i*yrinfAiutn. 
Blue-eyed Mary, the name of a hoiaginaceoui plant, 
Omphalodejt rrrna, of Europe, with small blue flowers, 
resembling the forget-me-not. 

bluefln (blo'fin), n. A local name in 'the 
United States of the lake-herring or whitefish 
of Lake Michigan, Coregonus nigripinnis. See 
Cisco. 

bluefish (lild' fish). H. 1. The usual name of a 
fish of the family Pomatomida; the Pomatomus 
saltatrix, also called tailor, skipjack, bluc-snaj>- 
per, and green-fish, it is of compressed subfuslform 
shape, greenish or bluish altove and silvery below. It 




s taltatrixl. 
(From Report of U. S. Fish Commission. 1884-! 

sometimes attains a length of about 3 feet, though it I* 
usually much smaller. It \* common in many seas, but U 
best known along the Atlantic coast of the I'nited States. 
Its teeth are small but trenchant, and the fish is exceed- 
ingly ravenous ami destructive to other fishes. It affords 
excellent sport, and IU flesh is esteemed for the table. 



bluefish 

2. An occasional (New England) name of the 
common cunner, Ctenolabrus adspcrsus. See 
cwmer. 3. A Calif ornian scia?noid fish, Cyno- 
scion parripinne, related to the weakfish of the 
eastern United States. 4. A pimelepteroid 
fish of the Pacific coast of the United States, 
G-irelld nit/ric/iiis, of a bluish-brown color, with 
tricuspid incisors in an outer row, and a band 
of smaller teeth within. 5. A West Indian 
and Floridian labroid fish, Platyglossus radiattis, 
with 9 dorsal spines, cheeks and opercles naked, 
and well-developed posterior canines. The adult 
is azure-blue, with a longitudinal band on the anal fln and 
a blue margin on the dorsal. 

blue-glede (blo'gled), n. An English name of 
the ring-tailed harrier, Circus cyaneus. Also 
called blue-kite and blue-hawk. 

blue-gown (blo'goun), n. One of a former order 
of paupers in Scotland, also called the king's 
beadsmen, to whom the king annually distrib- 
uted certain alms on condition of their praying 
for his welfare. Their number was equal to the num- 
ber of years the king had lived. The alms consisted of a 
blue gowu or cloak, a purse containing as many shillings 
Scots (pennies sterling) as the years of the king's age, and 
a badge bearing the words " Pass and repass," which pro- 
tected them from all laws against mendicity. Edie Ochil- 
tree, in Sir W. Scott's novel " The Antiquary," is a type of 
the class. The practice of appointing beadsmen was dis- 
continued in 1833. 

blue-grass (blo'gras), n. [< blue + grass. Cf. 
Icel. bld-gras (Geranium pratenge).] In bot., 
the name of several species of Poa. The blue- 
grass of England is P. compressa ; of Kentucky, jP. pra- 
tenxis. highly valued in the United States for pasturage 
and hay ; and of Texas, P. arachnifera. The red-tooped 
blue-grass of Montana and westward is P. tenutfofia. 
Blue-grass region. See grass. 

blue-gum (blo'gum), n. 1. In pathol., a blue 
coloration of the free edge of the gums, fre- 
quent in cases of lead-poisoning. 2. The blue- 
gum tree Blue-gum tree, the Eucalyptus t/lobulus, 
an important tree of Australia, of extremely rapid growth, 
and known to have attained a height of 360 feet. It is 
reputed to be a preventive of malaria, and is now largely 
planted in California and other countries. Its leaves are 
odoriferous when bruised, and are used as a febrifuge. 

blue-haflt (bio/ haf " it), n. A local Scotch 
name of the bird better known as the hedge- 
chanter, Accentor modularis. See cut under 
Accentor. 

blue-hawk (blo'hak), n. 1. Same as blue-glede. 
2. The adult peregrine falcon, Falco pere- 
grinus. 3. The American goshawk, Astur atri- 
capillus. 

blue-hearts (blo'harts), . The common name 
of Buchnera Americana, natural order Scrophu- 
lariacece, a perennial herb with deep-purple 
flowers. 

blue-hot (blo'hot), a. Blue with heat : said of 
a body at so high a temperature that the more 
refrangible rays, that is, the blue and violet, 
preponderate in its total radiation, so that the 
light it emits appears blue. 

blueing, . See bluing. 

blue-jack (blo'jak), . A species of oak, Quer- 
cus cincrea, a small tree with hard, strong, and 
heavy wood, found on the coasts of the south- 
ern United States. 

blue-jacket (bio' jak"et), n. 1 . In the naval ser- 
vice, a sailor as distinguished from a marine: 
so called from the color of his jacket. 2. A 
name given in the United States to hymeuop- 
terous insects of the family Sphegida. The pre- 
dominant color is blue. The best-known are the Pelopceus 
ccemleux, a northern species, and the Chlorion cyaneum, 
whose range is more to the south. Both are known un- 
der the collective name of mud-daubers. See cuts under 
AmmophUa, digger-wasp, and mud-dauber. 

blue-John (blo'jon), n. The local name in Der- 
byshire, England, of a blue variety of fluor- 
spar. 

Blue John was a name given by the miners who first 
discovered it to a variety of fluor spar, in order to distin- 
guish it from Black Jack, which is an ore of zinc. 

N. and Q., 6th ser., XII. 508. 

bluejoint-grass (blo'joint-gras), n. A common 
name in the United States of two stout bluish- 
stemmed grasses, Deyeuxia (Calamagrostis) Ca- 
nadensis, and, west of the Eocky Mountains, 
Agropyrum alaucum. 

blue-kite (b'lo'kit), . Same as blue-glede. 

blue-laid (blo'lad), a. In paper-making, having 
a blue tinge : said of a class of laid papers. 

blue-laws (blo'laz), n. pi. A supposititious 
code of severe laws for the regulation of re- 
ligious and personal conduct in the colonies of 
Connecticut and New Haven ; hence, any rigid^ 
Sunday laws or religious regulations. The asser- 
tion by some writers of the existence of the blue laws has 
no other basis than the adoption by the first authorities of 
the New Haven colony of the Scriptures as their code of 
law and government, and their strict application of Mosaic 
principles. 



600 

blue-leg (blo'leg), n. [A sportive adaptation 
of blue-stocking, .] A blue-stocking ; a literary 
person. 

When Madame de Staei resided at Coppet, it was her 
custom to collect around her in the evening a circle of 
literati, the blue legs of Geneva, by some one of whom an 
essay, a disquisition, or a portion of a work in progress, 
was frequently read aloud to entertain the rest. 

Southty, The Doctor, i. 84. 




blueling (blo'ling), w. [< blue + -ling 1 .] A small 
butterfly of the genus Polyommatus or Lyccena, 
notable for its blue color. 

bluely (blo'li), adv. With a blue color. Swift. 

blue-mantle (blo'man/tl), n. The title of one 
of the English pursuivants-at-arms. The ofBce 
was instituted either by Edward HI. or by Henry V., and 
named in allusion to the robes of the order of the Garter, 
or, as some suppose, to the color of the arms of France. 

blue-mass (blo'mas), n. A drug made by rub- 
bing up metallic mercury with confection of 
roses until all the globules disappear. Of this 
blue-pills are made. 

blue-metal (blo'mef'al), w. See blue metal, un- 
der metal. 

blue-mold (blo'mold), n. A common minute 
fungus, Penicillium erustaceum, of bluish or 
greenish color, 
found on moldy 
bread and a 
large number 
of foods and 
other substan- 
ces. The myceli- 
um or spawn sends 
up numerous slen- 
der filaments or hy- 
phae, which branch 
at the top and bear 
chains of repro- 
ductive cells or co- 
nidia. In rare cases 
spores are pro- 
duced in asci. 

blueness (blo'- 
nes), . [< blue 
+ -ness.] The 
quality of be- 
ing blue in any 
sense. 

blue-nose (blo'noz), . 1. A native of Nova 
Scotia: a colloquial designation, in allusion 
either to the hue given to the noses of its in- 
habitants by its severe winter, or to a kind of 
potato so named which is largely produced 
there. Haliburton. 2. A Nova Scotian vessel. 

blue-Ointment (blo'oinf'ment), n. Mercurial 
ointment. 

blue-paidle (blo'pa"dl), . A Scotch name of 
the lumpsucker. 

blue-paper (blo'pa'per), n. Paper sensitive to 
light, prepared by floating white paper on a 
solution of potassium ferrocyanide. it is used 
for copying maps and plans, printing photographic nega- 
tives, etc. After exposure to light during a proper inter- 
val beneath the subject to be reproduced, the print is 
finished by immersion in several changes of clean water, 
which dissolves from the paper that part of the ferro- 
prussiate which has not been acted upon by light, and 
brings out a fine blue color in place of the original dull 
gray or greenish color, in those portions of the surface 
which have been affected. Called in the trade blue-pro- 
cess paper. 

blue-perch (blo'perch), . 1. A local name of 
the common New England cunner, Ctenolalirus 
adspersus. See cut under cunner. 2. A Cali- 
fornian embiotocoid fish, Ditrema laterals, a 
kind of surf-fish. 

blue-peter (blo'pe'ter), n. [< blue + peter, 
orig. repeater : 
see peter, re- 
peater.] Naut., a 
blue flag having 
a white square 
in the center, 
hoisted at the 
fore royalmast- 
head of mer- 
chant vessels as 
a signal that the 
ship is ready to 
sail, to recall 
boats, etc. 

A large brand-new red ensign pulling in rich color at 
the halliards at the peak, and blue Peter lazily fluttering 
above the fore-royaJ-yard. 

W. C. Russell, A Strange Voyage, iv. 

blue-pie (blo'pi), n. One of the species of 

Asiatic jays of the genus Urocissa. 
blue-pigeon (bio ' pij ' on), n. A name for a 

sounding-lead. 
blue-pike (blo'pik), . A local name in the 

United States of the wall-eyed pike-perch, Sti- 

zostedwn (or Lucioperca) vitreum. 




Blue-peter. 



bluet 

blue-pill (blii'pil'), n. A pill made from blue- 
mass. 

blue-pipe (blo'pip), n. The common lilac. 
Kay. 

blue-pod (blo'pod), n. The name in California 
of species of Godetia, natural order Onat/racece, 
noxious weeds, with showy purple flowers. 

blue-poker (blo'po'ker), n. The pochard, FH- 
Kgula (or Aythya) fcrina. See pochard. [Lo- 
cal in Great Britain.] 

blue-pot (blo'pot), . A black-lead crucible 
made of a mixture of coarse plumbago and clay. 

blue-pox (blo'poks), n. Malignant pustule. 

blue-print (blo'print), n. An impression pro- 
duced by blue-printing. 

blue-printing (blo'prin"ting), n. A method of 
photo-printing by the agency of paper sensi- 
tized with ferroprussiate of potash. See blue- 
paper. 

blue-racer (blo'ra"ser), . A local name in the 
western United States of a variety of the com- 
mon black-snake, Jiascanion constrictor flavi- 
ventris. 

blue-rock (blo'rok), w. A popular name of the 
commonest variety of domestic pigeon, Colnm- 
ba livia, of a bluish color, with two black bands 
on the wings. 

blue-ruin (blo'ro'in), n. A cant name for gin, 
rum, etc., especially when bad. 

bluesides (blo'sidz), . A half-grown harp- 
seal, Phoca gronilandica. 

blue-snapper (bl6'snap*'er), n. A local name 
in Massachusetts of the bluefish, Pomatomus 
saltatrix. 

blue-spar (blo'spar), , Azure-spar ; lazulite. 

bluestart (blo'start), n. [< blue + startf, tail: 
= G. blausterz. Cf. redstart = G. rothsterz.] 
A name of the blue-tailed warbler, lanthia cy- 
anura. 

blue-Stem (blo'stem), n. The name of some 
coarse but useful grasses in the United States, 
chiefly Andropogon furcatus east of the Rocky 
Mountains, and Agropyrum glaucum further 
westward. 

blue-Stocking (blb"stok"ing), a. and n. I. a. 
Wearing blue stockings; specifically, wearing 
blue or gray worsted stockings, as opposed to 
those of black silk worn in court or ceremonial 
dress ; hence, not in full dress ; in plain dress, 
(a) Applied to the Little Parliament of 1663. 

That Bleic-stocleinff Parliament, Barebone Parliament, a 
companie of fellowes called togeather by Cromwell. 
Sir J. Bramston, Autobiog. (ed. 1845), p. 89. (JV. E. D.) 
((>) Applied to assemblies held in London about 1750 at 
the houses of Mrs. Montague and other ladies, in which 
literary conversation and other intellectual enjoyments 
were substituted for cards and gossip, and which were 
characterized by a studied plainness of dress on the part 
of some of the guests. Among these was Mr. Benjamin 
Stillingfleet, who always wore blue stockings, and in ref- 
erence to whom, especially, the coterie was called in de- 
rision the "Blue-stocking Society" or the " Blue-stocking 
Club," and the members, especially the ladies, " blue- 
stockingers," "blue-stocking ladies," and later simply 
"blue-stockings" or "blues." 

II. n. 1. A member of the "Blue-stocking 
Club," especially a woman (see above) ; by ex- 
tension, any woman with a taste for learning or 
literature ; a literary woman : originally used 
in derision or contempt, and implying a neglect 
on the part of such women of their domestic 
duties or a departure from their "proper 
sphere"; now hardly used except historically or 
humorously. 2. A name of the American avo- 
set, Eecurrirostra americana. See avoset. [Lo- 
cal, U. 8.] 

blne-stockingism (blo'stok'ing-izm), . [< 
blue-stocking + -ism.] The character, manner, 
or habits of a blue-stocking ; female learning 
or pedantry. 

blue-stone (blS'ston), . 1. Sulphate of cop- 
per, or blue vitriol. Also called blue copperas. 
2. A name given to a more or less argilla- 
ceous sandstone of bluish color, extensively 
quarried at various points along the Hudson 
river, and used for building purposes and for 
flagging. Most of the quarries of this rock are in the 
Lower Silurian (Hudson river group), but the important 
ones at Maiden are in the Devonian (lower part of the 
Portage group). [In this sense commonly as one word.] 

bluet (blS'et), . [(1) < ME. bluett, Monet, < F. 
(OF.) bluette, a kind of woolen cloth, prop. fern, 
dim. of bleu, blue. (2) Also bleu-et, blcirit, < F. 
bluet, " blew-blaw, blew-bottle, corn-flower, 
hurt-sickle" (Cotgrave), masc. dim. of bleu, 
blue: see blue and -et. ] If. A kind of woolen 
cloth of a bluish color. 2. In bot., a name 
given to several plants with blue flowers: (a) 
to the bluebottle, Centaurea Cytnius ; (b) in the 
United States, to Houstonia '(formerly Oh/oi- 
latidia) cairulea ; (c) to a species of bilberry. 



bluet 

3. In ornith., a humming-bird <if the subgenus 
Mojtilinna, as tho Mexican It. Iruriitix, or the ( 'all 
forniaii It. j-iniliisi, one of tlie queen-hummers, 
bluetail (blii'tal). . An American lizard of 
the family Kriiiriilit 1 , Kumin-.i (/uin</ue-liiiiiilii>i 
or fanciii tint, with a lilue tail, inhabiting the 
southern and middle United Slates. It is the 
most northern species of the genus. 

bluetangle (blO'ouw'gl), . The blue buckle- 
hern- of the 1'nited States. Hiii/lns.niriit J'mn- 
itoKtt. Also called ilmi/il/ -Inrri/. 

bluethroat (blo'throt), n. A small sylviine 
bird of the genus Ci/itiicciilii, inhabiting north- 
ern Europe and Asia, and occasionally found 




t \iyanfcitla SHecica}. 



also in Alaska; a kind of redstart or red- 
tailed warbler, having a spot of rich blue on 
the throat. There are two species or varieties, 
C. suecica and C. wolfi. Also called bluebreast 
and liliir-tliniiilril redstart. 

blueweed (blo'wed), n. The viper's bugloss, 
Echiiim vitlgiirr, a foreign weed with snowy 
blue flowers which has been introduced into 
the United States. 

bluewing (blo'wing), . The blue-winged teal 
of North America, (Jucryuedula discors, a very 
common small duck with blue wing-coverts, 
much esteemed for the table. See cut under 
teal. 

bluewood (bld'wud), n. A small tree or shrub, 
Condalia oboritta, of the natural order Khamna- 
eem, found in Texas and westward, often form- 
ing dense chaparral or thickets, it makes an 
effective hedge. The wood is hard and very heavy, of a 
light-red color, and the berries are edible. 

bluey (blo'i), a. [< blue + -y 1 .] Somewhat 
blue; bluish. Southey. 

bluff 1 (bluf ), a. and n. [Origin unknown ; per- 
haps connected with MD. blaf (Kilian), flat, 
broad, as in lilnf aeiisicli t, a broad flat face, blaf- 
faert, one who has u flat broad face, a coin with 
a blank face (see blaffcrt) (also a boaster, but 
in this sense prob. a different word, equiv. to 
mod. D. blaffer, < blaffea, bark, yelp: see bluff). 
The suggested D. origin is favored by the nau- 
tical associations of the word. There is prob. 
no connection with bluff?.] I. a. 1. Having or 
presenting a broad, flattened front, as a ship 
with broad bows and nearly vertical stem. 2. 
Rising abruptly and boldly, as a high bank on 
the shore of a sea, lake, or river ; presenting a 
bold and nearly perpendicular front, as a coast- 
line or a range of low hills. 

The rock Tabra, a bluf, peninsular prominence that juta 
out from the bottom of the I'litf. 

Atkins, Voyage to Guinea, p. 102. 
8. Broad and full : specially applied to a full 
countenance, indicative of frankness and good 
humor. 

His broad, bright eye, and Mujf face, . . . like the sun 
on frost work, melted down displeasure. //. S. Riddfll. 

I lence 4. Rough and hearty ; plain and frank ; 
somewhat abrupt and unconventional in man- 
ner. 

Blu/ Harry broke into the spence, 
And turn'd the cowls adrift. 

Tamyttm, Talking Oak. 

In ripeness of mind and bluff heartiness of expression, 
he [Dryden] takes rank with the best. 

I.<'ii','ll, Among my Books, 1st ser., p. 79. 

5. Blustering ; pompous ; surly ; churlish. [Ob- 
solete or provincial.] 

A pert or bint)' important wight. Armstrong, Taste. 
To Stand bluff t, t.. stand tlrm or stiff. A". K. II. 

II. . [First used in the American colonies 
in the 18th century.] A hill, bank, or headland 



601 

with a steep, broad face; a high bank prevent 
ing a steep or nearly pei-pemlieular front, 
especially one on the 'shore of a sea, lake, or 
river; also, a steep rise between bottom-land 
and a higher table-lam 1. 

Bt-ach, MM/, and a\e, a<U, a ' Whitlier. 

Round the hills from Ww/to /. 

Tennyson, (iolden Year, 

bluff-' (bluf), r. [E. dial, also l,l,ifl, blindfold; 
origin uncertain, perhaps from two or more 
sources. The sense of 'deceive or impose up- 
on' may come from that of 'blindfold, hood- 
wink,' but cf. Sc. "get the bluff," be taken in; 
prob. of LG. origin: LG. Vtytn, nrlilnffi //. l>. 
rn-liluffen, > G. rerbliiffen = Dan. fitrbliiffe, baf- 
fle, confound, stupefy. In popular apprehen- 
sion prob. often associated with bluf 1 , it., as if 
' assume a bluff or bold front.'] I. trans. If. 
To blindfold or hoodwink. Bailey. 2. In the 
game of poker, to deceive or impose upon (an 
opponent) by betting heavily on a worthless 
hand, or by acting in such a way as to cause 
the other players to believe that one's hand 
is stronger than it really is, in order to make 
them throw up their cards or stay out of the 
betting. Hence 3. To daunt or deter from 
the accomplishment of some design by boast- 
ful language or demeanor; repulse or frighten 
off by assuming a bold front, or by a make- 
believe show of resources, strength, etc. : fre- 
quently followed by off: as, to bluff off & dun. 
[Chiefly U. S.] 

II. intrann. 1. In the game of poker, to bet 
heavily and with an air of confident assurance 
on a poor hand, in order to deceive an oppo- 
nent and cause him to throw up his cards. 
Hence 2. To assume a bold, boastful front, 
so as to hoodwink an opponent as to one's 
real resources, strength, etc. 

bluff'- (bluf), . [E. dial, also bluffer, a blinker: 
see the verb.] 1. A blinker for a horse. 2. A 
game at cards j poker. [U. S.] 3. The act of 
deceiving or influencing, as in the game of 
poker, by a show of confident assurance and 
boastful betting or language; hence, language 
or demeanor intended to blind, frighten, or 
daunt an opponent in anything. 

bluff-bowed (bluf 'boud), a. Naut., broad, full, 
and square in the bows. 

bluffer (bluf 'er), . One who bluffs. 

bluff-headed (bluf'hed'ed), a. Ifaut., having 
an upright stem, or one with but little rake 
forward. 

bluffly (bluf 'li), adv. In a bluff manner; blunt- 
ly; in an unconventional or offhand way. 

bluffness (bluf'nes), n. The quality of being 
bluff; blunt ness: frankness; abruptness. 

No such bluff III'M of meaning is implied in the Greek. 
Bushnell, Sermons on Living Subjects. 

bluffy (bluf'i), a. [< bluffl, n., + -yi.] 1. Hav- 
ing the character of a bluff ; precipitous or steep. 

We could see the syenites we had just left again crop- 
ping out much less bluffii, and terminating the table-land 
to the eastward by a continuous line, trending generally 
northwest and southeast. Kane, Sec. Grinn. Exp., II. 343. 

2. Inclining to bluffness in appearance or man- 
ner. 

bluft (bluft), r. f. [5 dial.: see bluff*.] To 
blindfold. [Prov. Eng.] 

blufter(bluf'ter).. [< bliift + -eri.] A blink- 
er. [Prov. Eng.] 

bluid (blttd), n. A Scotch form of blood. 

bluing (blo'ing), n. [Verbal n. of blue, r.] 1. 
The act of making blue ; specifically, the pro- 
cess of giving a blue color to iron and other 
metals by heating. 2. A blue tint given to 
iron by boiling in a bath of hyposulphite of soda 
and acetate of lead. 3. The indigo, soluble 
Prussian blue, or other material, used in the 
laundry to give a bluish tint to linen. 
Also spelled blueing. 

bluish (blo'ish), a. [< blue + -wfti.] Blue in 
a small degree ; somewhat blue. 

bluishly (bld'ish-li), adv. In a bluish manner. 

bluishness (bl6'ish-nes), it. The quality of be- 
ing bluish ; a small degree of blue color. 

bluism (blo'izm), n. [< blue, a., 6, n., 9, + 
-i.nn.~] Blue-stockingisin. 

A wife so well known in the gay and learned world, 
without one bit of ... Unixm about herself. 

T. Hook, Oilbert Carney. II. iv. 

blumanget, . See blanc-mnniji; 

blunder (blun'der), c. [< ML. blondren, blun- 



blunderbuss 

the doubtful sense of 'stagger, stumble,' < led. 
liliiinln. doze, = S\v. lihniilii = Dan. liliniilr. doze. 
slumber; <!'. [eel. liliimllir = Sw. Ilan. lilmnl. ;< 
doze, imp. <!.////. | I. iii/nnir.. 1. To m..\, 
or act blindly, stupidly, or without direction or 
steady guidance; flounder; stumble: frequent- 
ly with on or nlinii/. 

Bayard the blinde, 
That Uniulrflh forth 

Chauref, ( 'uiion 's Yeoman n Tale, 1. 408. 
It is one thing U> forget matter of fart anil another t" 
Uniuleraini the reason of it. >., 11. L'Entrange. 

Here lie I, 'lights the weekly news to con, 
And mingle comments as he blunder 

Crabbe, The Si --|iap< r. 

2. To make a gross mistake, especially through 
mental confusion; err widely or stupidly. 
Was there a man dismay 'd? 
Not tho' the soldier knew 
Some one had bluiuter'd. 

Tennyion, charge of the Light Brigade. 

II. trim*. If. To mix (things) confusedly; 
confuse. 
lie blunders and confounds all these together. 

XtiUingJleft. 

2t. To confound; confuse; distract; cause to 
make blunders: as, "to blunder an adversary," 
IHtton, On the Resurrection, p. 63. 3t. To in- 
jure or destroy by blundering; mismanage: 
as, "to darken or blunder the cause," Ditto*, 
On the Resurrection, p. 211. 4. To do or 
make faultily or erroneously; make mistakes 
in through ignorance or stupidity; bungle. 
[Rare.] 

[Inscriptions] usually of very liarbaroui work and blun- 
dered. B. V. Head, llistoria Numormn, p. 687. 

Some flue pilgrim-flasks of blue and green have WMII- 
dered copies of hieroglyphs and representations of Egyp- 
tian deities incised in the moist clay. 

Encye. Brit., XIX. 606. 

The banker's clerk who was directed to sum my cash- 
account, I'!"*"!, >/ it three times. teott, Antiquary, vi. 

6. To ntter thoughtlessly or in a blundering 
manner; blurt out: generally with out: as, to 
blunder out an excuse. 

blunder (blun'der), H. [< ME. blunder, blonder, 
error, misfortune, < blunderen, bloiidren, blun- 
der, v.] A mistake made through precipitance 
or mental confusion ; a gross or stupid mistake. 

It is worse than a crime ; it is a Munder. 

Memoirs of FoucM (trans.). 

The "Magnalla" has great merits; it has, also, fatal 
defects. In its mighty chaos of fables and blundrrt and 
misrepresentations are of course lodged many single facts 
of the utmost value, if. C. Tyler, Hist. Am. i. Lit., II. SS. 
= Syn. Error, SUttakf, Blunder, Bull. An errar is a wan- 
dering from truth, primarily in impression, judgment, or 
calculation, and, by extension of the idea, in conduct ; it 
may be a state. A mistake is a false judgment or choice ; 
it does not, as error sometimes does, imply moral ohlinuity, 
the defect Iwiug placed wholly 1 u the wisdom of the actor, 
and in its treatment of this defect the word is altogether 
gentle. Blunder is a strong word for a mistake which is 
stupid, a gross error in action or speech. A bull is a blun- 
der in language^ Involving generally a very obvious and 
comical contradiction ; but the word is sometimes applied 
to any particularly inapt or ludicrously Inappropriate re- 
mark. 

Speculative error*, which have no influence on the life 
and conversation, cannot be near so dangerous as those 
errors which lead men out of the way of their duty. 

J. Blair, Sermon, In Tylers Amer. Lit., II. 284 

In general, pride is at the bottom of all great mistakes. 
Rtulrin, Tnie and Beautiful. 

It was the advice of Schomberg to an historian, that he 
should avoid being particular in the drawing up of an 
army . . . ; for that he had observed notorious blunder* 
and absurdities committed by writers net conversant in 
the art of war. Additwn. 

Lord Orford pronounced this to be the liest bull he had 
ever heard : " I hate that woman," said a gentleman, look- 
ing at one who had been his nurse, "I hate that woman, 
for she changed me at nurse." 

Mis* Edgevwth, Essay on Irish Bulls. 

blunderbuss (bluu'der-bus), . [In 17th cen- 
tury also blunilcrbus and btunderbuuli ; appar. a 
modification, prob. with humorous allusion to 
its blundering or random action, of D. dondcr- 
bus (= Q. donnerbiichse), a blunderbuss, < don- 
der (= G. donner = E. tliunder) + bus, a box, 
urn, barrel of a gun, same as buis, a tube, pipe, 
= G. biichse, a box, pot, barrel of a gun, pipe, 
etc., = E. fcoj: 2 . Cf. the equiv. G. bluiidri-liiirli.il; 



n, a freq. form of uncertain origin, perhaps 
of double origin: (1) prop, blondrrn, freq. of 
liloHilt'ii. lilinidi'H. mix (see bland 1 , r. ); ('_') prop. 
blunitrrn. t'req. of bluiitli-n, which occurs once in 



in imitation of the E., but prob. with a thought 
of jilunder, baggage, lumber (E. plunder), in al- 
lusion to its heaviness. A charter of James I. 
(1617) mentions " plantier-buxsr, alias blantcr- 
bus&e," as equiv. to harqucbuxe, but the first ele- 
ment here is different, ult. < L. jilnnlun-, plant 
(fix). Cf. Sc. blunyierd, an old gun, any old 
rusty weapon.] 1. A short gun or firearm 
with a large bore and funnel-shaped muzzle, 
capable of holding a number of balls or slugs, 
and intended to be used at a limited range 



blunderbuss 




Blunderbuss. Armory, Tower of London. 



without exact aim. It has been long obsolete 
in civilized countries. 2. A stupid, blunder- 
ing person. 

blunderer (blun'der-er), n. [< ME. "blunderer, 
or blunt warkere [worker]" (Prompt. Parv.), 
< blunderen, blondren, blunder, v.] One who 
blunders, (a) One who flounders about blindly or 
bunglingly in his work: as, "meer Blunderers in that 
Atomick Physiology," Cudworth. (N. E. D.) (b) One 
who, through carelessness or want of capacity, makes 
gross mistakes. 

blunderhead (blun'der-hed), n. [< blunder + 
head. Cf. dunderhead.] A stupid fellow; one 
who blunders. 
This thick-skulled blunderhead. Sir R. L' Estrange. 

blunderingly (bluu'der-ing-li), adv. In a blun- 
dering manner; by mistake. 



602 

From the back the shore of Sicily curves with delicately 
indented bays toward Messina : then come the straits, 
and the blunt mass of the Calabriau mountains terminat- 
ing Italy at Spartivento. 

J. A. Symonds, Italy and Greece, p. 204. 

4. Rough in manner or speech ; rude ; unpol- 
ished; hence, abrupt in address or manner; 
plain-spoken ; unceremonious : applied to per- 
sons. 

I am no orator, as Brutus is ; 

But, as you know me all, a plain blunt man. 

Shak., J. C., iii. 2. 

Tliou'rt honest, blunt, and rude enough, o' conscience. 
Ford, Lover's Melancholy, iv. 2. 

6. Plain; plain-spoken; unceremonious or un- 
conventional ; direct; free from circumlocu- 
tion : as, blunt truths ; a blunt bearing. 
In blunt terms, can you play the sorcerer ? Coleridge. 

To his blunt manner and to his want of consideration 
for the feelings of others he owed a much higher reputa- 
tion for sincerity than he at all deserved. 

Macaulay, Hist. Eng., vi. 
6. Hard to penetrate. [Rare.] 
I find my heart hardened and blunt to new impressions. 

Pope. 
7t. Faint. 



blush 

scure or sully (a thing) with something which 
i from its fairness or 1 



The tyro who had so blunderingly botched the business. 
T. Hook, Gilbert Gurney, I. iii. 

Reckless perversions of meaning, whether intentionally 
or blunderingly made. N. A. Ren., CXXIII. 205. 



Such a burre mygt make myn herte blunt. 

Alliterative Poeins (ed. Morris), i. 176. 
= Syn, 4. Brusk, bluff, uncivil, rude, uncpurteous. 

II. n. If. A blunt sword for fencing; a foil. 
blunge (blunj), v. t. ; pret. and pp. blunged, ppr. 2. A needle of a grade shorter and less sharply 
blunging. [Appar. a popular formation, after pointed than a sharp. See needle. 3. [Slang, 
plunge, with ref. to the plunging action of the and perhaps of different origin.] Money ; ready 
instrument used.] To mix (clay) with a blun- money. 

? er - "Well, how goes it?" said one. "I have been the 

blunger (blun'jer), it. [< blunge + -erl. Cf. rounds. The blunt's going like the ward-pump." 

plunger.] An instrument used for mixing clay Disraeli, Coningsby, ix. 

in potteries. It is shaped like a shovel, but has a blunt (blunt), v. [< blunt, a.] I. trans. 1. 

larger blade, and a cross-handle by which it is wielded. To make blunt, as an edge or point ; dull the 

The name ta also sometimes given to different varieties of edge or point of, as a knife or bodkin, by making 



; pug 

blunging (blun'jing), n. [Verbal n. of blunge, 
v.] The process of mixing clay in potteries. 
The proper amount of the clay and the necessary quantity 
of water are placed in a trough, and mixed with a blun- 
ger, until reduced to a homogeneous mass. In large pot- 
teries this work is sometimes done by the machine called 
a pug-mill. 



it thicker. 

A less deadly sword, of which he carefully blunted the 
point and edge. Macaulay, Addison. 



intrans. To blench 



Jamieson. 



tion of 

blink; turn aside. 

II. trans. To spoil; mismanage. 
[Scotch.] 

blunk 2 (blungk), n. [Cf. blunket.] In plural, 
linen or cotton cloths for printinir; calicos. 
[Scotch.] 



Knowledge neither blunts the point of the lance, nor 
weakens the arm that wields a knightly sword. 

Ticknor, Span. Lit., I. 334. 

2. To weaken or deaden, as appetite, desire, 
or power of the mind ; impair the force, keen- 
ness, or susceptibility of. 

Blunt not his love. Shak., 2 Hen. IV., iv. 4. 

To blunt or break her passion. 

Tennyson, Lancelot and Elaine. 
II. intrans. To become blunt : as, the blade 
blunts easily. 



blunkeri (blung'ker) K blunW v II + Wtfcead (blunt'hed), n. An East Indian ser- 
-eri.] A bungler; one who spoils everything P 6 ' Am ^yeephalus boa, of the family Coin- 
lie meddles with. [Scotch.] ' ^ ldce and subfamily Lcptognatlurue, of Java, 

Borneo, etc. 

Dunbos is naemair a gentleman than the blunker that's Klnn+incr frilim'tint^ i fVoi-Viol-r, f ; ; * 
biggit the bonnie house doun in the howm. DiUnting (Wun ting), . [Verbal n. of blunt, 

Scott, Guy Mannering, iii. *'] * Tn e act of dulling. 2. Something 



blunker 2 (blung'ker), n. [< bluntf + 
calico-printer. [Scotch.] 
blunkett, a. and n. [Early mod. E. also blon- 



^ that dulls or blunts. [Rare.] 



Not impediments or bluntings, but rather as whetstones, 
to set an edge on our desires. 

Somewhat blunt. 

i-nes), n. [< bluntish + 
i of bluntness. 
Our bloncket liveryes bene all to sadde Tempered with an honest bluntishness. 

Spenser, Shep.'cal., May. Wood ' **g> Oxon. (ed. 1815), II. 582. 

II. n. A kind of cloth; apparently the same bluntly (blunt'li), adv. If. Stupidly . 2. With- 



ket, bloncket, blancket, < ME. blanket (a.), blun- vi t - , 

ket, also plunket, plonkcte (n.), appar. < OF D * unTlls 5 

blanquet, var. of btonehet, dim. of blanc, white: ^ m ^ M D1U w ' -.- v, 

see blanket, which is thus a doublet of blunket.] Dluntishness (blun tish-n 

I. a. Gray; grayish or light-blue. *"** A sll ght degree o 



as blanket, 1. 



. 
out sharpness or tenuity; obtusely: as, bluntly 



, 
blunt (blunt), a. and . [< ME. blunt, blont, of serrate. 3. In a blunt manner; abruptly; 



an edge or point, dull, not sharp ; of manner, 
rude; of mind, dull, stupid, blind; prob. < AS. 
*blunt, found in the deriv. Blunta, a man's name 
(cf. the mod. E. surnames Blunt, Blount). The 
sense of 'dull, stupid,' appears to be the orig. 
one (see the quotation from the Omnium), 
pointing to a connection with Icel. blunda = 
Sw. blunda = Dan. blunde, doze, slumber. Cf. 
J'Mwrfer, and the sense of blunt in the quotation 

edge, 



without delicacy, or the usual forms of civil- 
ity; in an abrupt, offhand, or curt manner; 
without circumlocution : as, to tell a man some- 



m , aim e sense or muni in tne quota 
from the Prompt. Parv. under blunderer.] 
a. 1. Obtuse, thick, or dull, as an angle, e< 



Fathers are 

Won by degrees, not bluntly as our masters 
Or wronged friends are. 

Dekker and Ford, Witch of Edmonton, i. 1. 

(blunt'nes), n. [< blunt + -ness.] 
The state or quality of being blunt, (o) Want of 
sharpness; dullness; obtuseness. ()/) Plainness, direct- 
ness, or abruptness of address ; want of ceremor ' 



To keep up Friendship, there must be little Addresses 
and Applications, whereas Bluntnest spoils it quickly. 

Selden, Table-Talk, p. 23. 



or point; having an obtuse, thick, or dull edge llers ; rudeness of manner or address: as, "hon 

or point, as a foil, sword, pencil, etc.- not "***'" Dr y aen; "Muntness of speech," Boyle. 

sharp or acute. "^ * ^"^ --*- ! - ^-- ---- ' 

No doubt the murtherous knife was dull and blunt, 
iill it was whetted on thy stone-hard heart 

Shak., Richard III., iv. 4. blunt-witted (blunt'wif'ed), a. [< blunt + 

An individual act of wrong sometimes gives a sharp ""'* + -ed 2 . Cf.ME. "blunt of wytte," Prompt. 

to a blunt dagger. O. W. Holmes, Emerson, xiii. Parv.] Dull ; stupid. 
2. Dull in understanding; slow of discernment. 
Unnwis mann iss bluniit and blind 



Blunt-witted lord, ignoble in demeanour ! 

Shak., 2 Hen. VI., iii. 2. 



iff herrtess eghe sihhthe (of heart's eyesight ] blur (bier), v. ; pret. and pp. blurred, ppr. blur- 

rt==rs^a^ S*5fe5i6355 



o rvuj. *-. * T_ cuiduo , ueucuteu Luriu ui oicttr. early mod. J^. 

.Obtuse ; free from sharp angularities, pro- bkre (see Weorl), but it may be an independent 

formation. Ct. bio fl, blotch!] I. trans. 1. To ob- 



jections, or corners. 



The usually mirrored surface of the river was blurred 
by an infinity of raindrops. Hau'thorne, Old Manse, I. 

2. To sully; stain; blemish: as, to blur one's 
reputation. 

Never yet did base dishonour blur our name, 
But with our sword we wip'd away the blot. 

Shak., 2 Hen. VI., iv. 1. 

3. To obscure without quite effacing; render 
indistinct ; confuse and bedim, as the outlines 
of a figure. 

One low light betwixt them burn'd, 
Blurr'd by the creeping mist. 

Tennyson, Guinevere. 

4. To dim the perception or susceptibility of ; 
make dull or insensible to impression : as, blur- 
red eyesight; to blur the judgment. 

Her eyes are blurred with the lightning's glare. S. Drake. 
To blur out, to efface. 

We saw forked flashes once and again . . . lighting up 
the valleys for a moment, and leaving the darkness blacker 
... as the storm blurred out the landscape forty miles 
away. J. A. Symonds, Italy and Greece, p. 228. 

To blur over, to obscure by a blur; put out of sight. 

II. intrans. To make blurs in writing. 
blur (bier), n. [< blur, v.] 1. A smudge or 
smear, such as that made by brushing writing 
or painting before it is dry; a blot which par- 
tially defaces or obscures. 2. Figuratively, 
a blot, stain, or injury affecting character, rep- 
utation, and the like. 

Her raillyng sette a greate blurre on myne honestie and 
good name. Udall, tr. of Erasmus, Luke xviii. 

These blurs are too apparent in his Life. 

Milton, Reformation in Eng., i. 

3. A blurred condition; a dim, confused ap- 
pearance; indistinctness. 

The eye learns to discriminate colors, and shades of 
color, where at first there was only a vague blur of feeling. 
G. H. Lewes, Probs. of Life and Mind, II. ii. 10. 
blurry (bler'i), a. [< blur, n., + -yl.] Full of 
blurs ; confused and indistinct. 
blurt (blert), v. [= Sc. blirt (see blirt) ; appar. 
imitative, with the initial sound as in blow 1 , 
blast, blask, bluster, etc., and the final sound 
as in spurt, spirt, squirt, etc.] I. trans. 1. To 
utter suddenly or inadvertently; divulge un- 
advisedly : commonly with out. 

Others . . . cannot hold, but blurt out those words 
which afterwards they are forced to eat. Hakewill. 

And yet the truth may lose its grace, 
If blurted to a person's face. 

Lloyd, The Nightingale. 

At last to blurt out the broad, staring question of, 
" Madam, will you marry me? " 

Goldsmith, She Stoops to Conquer, ii. 

2f. To treat contemptuously. 

And, I confess, I never was so blurted, 
Nor never so abus'd. 

Fletcher, Wildgoose Chase, ii. 2. 
To blurt att, to speak contemptuously of ; ridicule. 

None would look on her, 
But cast their gazes on Marina's face ; 
Whilst ours was blurted at. Shak., Pericles, iv. 4. 

II. intrans. 1 . To puff or emit the breath ex- 
plosively as in sleep, or contemptuously as in 
saying "pooh"; puff in scorn or with a con- 
temptuous expression of the lips. 2. To burst 
out weeping. 

blurt (blert), n. [< blurt, v.] A sudden puff or 
emission of the breath, especially in contempt, 
as when saying "pooh." 

blush (blush), v. [< ME. blushen, blnsclten, 
bh/schen, glow, rarely blush, usually look, 
glance, prob. < AS. Mi/scan, bliscan (glossed 
rntilare), glow, = MLG. bloschen, LG. bliisken, 
blush ; cf. AS. *blysian, in comp. ablisian for 
*ablysian, blush (verbal n. dblysung, dblysgung, 
blushing), = MD. blosen, D. blozen = MLG. 
blosen, blush ; connected with AS. blysa, blisa, 
also blysige, a torch, *blys (in comp. bcelblys), a 
flame, = MLG. blus, LG. bluse, a flame, = Sw. 
bloss = Dan. blus, a torch; LG. blusen, set on 
fire, inflame, = Sw. blossa, blaze, = Dan. blusse, 
blaze, flame, blush in the face; from the noun. 



glance ; look. [In these senses only in Middle 
English ; but see blush, n., 1, 2.] 

Tyl on a hyl that I asspyed 

<fc Munched on the burglie, as I fortli ilrened. 

Allil'-mlii'f Poems (ed. Morris), i. 979. 

3. To become red in the face ; redden all over 
the face : especially from modesty, embarrass- 
ment, confusion, or shame. 

Ask him a question, 
He blushes like a girl, and answers little. 

Fletcher, Rule a Wife, i. 1. 



blush 

In tile IIIVMIKV of the ,*luiMic]r:<.s anti lUit'ltlrtllinK the 
yollllK offender is ashamed to litllxh. ,^inKlfi\ 

4. To appear as if blushing; rxliiliit :i red or 
roseate hue; bloom freshly or inode.it ly. 

Tilt' Sim t heaven. Ml< llu'll-lit, w as loth til Set, 

lint stay'd, and imule (In 1 western welkin Vi//<. 

Slink., K. John, v. fi. 
Knll many a Mom T i-, limn t" Uu,li unseen. 

Urnii, Elegy. 

5. To be ashamed: with nl or for. 

He hliiMfifn fur the ili.sirmenuoiisness <if tin- must de- 
voteil oiship|ier uf s|ieeLilati\ e truth." 

Whi/iiil,; KM. and Rev., I. 19. 

II. Iriiim. 1. To make red. [Rare.] 

Which IMooilj . . . ne'er retnrneth 
To WKX/I mid beautify the eheok again. 

Shale., 2 Hen. VI., ill. 2. 

2. To express, show, or make known by blush- 
ing, or by a change of color similar to a blush. 
[Rare and poetical.] 

Pass the happy news, 
Blush it thru tlie Went. 

Tennyson, Maud, \vii 

blush (blush), n. [< ME. blusch, gleam, glimpse ; 
from the verb.] If. A gleam. 

To hide u lilisful bln*ch of the bryst snnne. 
Sir tl'iiratiH,' <tn<l tin- tii-t'ci, Kiti'iltt (eil. Morris), 1. 520. 

2. A glance; glimpse; look; view: obsolete 
except in the phrase at first bluxli. 

At the first blush we thought they had beene shippes 
come from France. Haklui/t's Voyages, III. 330. 

This sounds, at Jirxt blush, very neat, if not even very 
profound ; but a closer examination dissolves it into 
nothing. BiUiotkeca Sacra, XLI1I. 618. 

3. Look ; resemblance : as, she has a Hush of 
her father. [North. Eng.] [Hence, collective- 
ly, an assembly, company, in the isolated ex- 
ample, a blush of boycn = a company of boys 
("Book of St. Albans").] 4. The suffusion of 
the cheeks or the face with a red color through 
confusion, shame, diffidence, or the like. 

If impious acts 

Have left tllee blood enough to make a blush, 
I'll paint it on thy cheeks. 

Fletcher, Spanish Curate, ill. 3. 

Her blush of maiden shame. Bryant, Autumn Woods. 
5. A red or reddish color ; a rosy tint. 
And light's last blushes tinged the distant hills. 

Lord Li/ttelton, Uncertainty, i. 

To put to the blush, to cause to Mush or be ashamed. 
blusher (blush'er), n. One who blushes, or is 
given to blushing. 

Muhittoes are often great Mwtherx, blush succeeding 
blush over their faces. 

Varu'iit, Express, of Emotions, p. 320. 

blushett (blush'et), n. [< blush + -et.~\ A little 
blusher ; a modest young girl. 

(Jo to, little blmhft. B. Jonson, Entertainments, 

blushful (blush'ful), rt. [< blush + -/w,.] Full 
of blushes. 

From his |the sun's] ardent look the turning Spring 
Averts her blushful face. Thomson, Summer, 1. 7. 

The true, the blushful Hippocrene. 

Keats, Ode to Nightingale. 

blushfully (blush 'ful-i), adv. With many 
blushes. 

blushing (blush'ing), n. [Verbal n. of blush, r.] 
The act of becoming red in the face through 
modesty, confusion, or shame ; suffusion with 
a roseate tint. 
The blttshiiujs of the evening. 

J. Si*iuxr, Prodigies, p. Hit. 

Blujthinff is the most peculiar and the most human of 
all expressions. Monkeys redden from passion, but it 
would require an overwhelming amount of evidence to 
make us Ix'lievc that any animal could blush. 

Daru-in, Express, of Emotions, p. 310. 

blushing (blush 'ing), p. a. [Ppr. of blush, i\] 
1. Modi-st; bashful; given to blushing or suf- 
fused with blushes : as, a blushing maiden. 2. 
Freshly blooming; roseate, literally or figura- 
tively. 

The dappled pink and Itltuthiiiff rose. 

Prior, The Garland. 
To-day he puts forth 

The tender leaves of hope, to-morrow blossoms, 
And bears bis Mimliimi honours thick upon him. 

Shot., Hen. VIII.. iii. 2, 

blushingly (blush'inir-U), adv. In a blushing 

manner ; with blushes ; modestly, 
blushless (Mush'les), a. [< blush + -less.] 

Without a blush; unblushing; past blushing; 

impudent; barefaced; shameless: as, "blusli- 

li'ns crimes," Sniii/i/x. 
blushwort (blush'wert), n. A name given to 

cultivated species of JEscliynanthus. 
blushy (blush'i), a. [< blush + -i/l.] Like a 

blush ; having the color of a blush. [Rare.] 

Blossoms of apples . . . are blusln/. 

Bacon, Nat Hist., S 507. 



603 

bluster (blus'teri, r. [Origin obscure. Hardly 
connected with ME. bluxtcrcn, wander about 
aimlessly, = L(i. hluxii-m. ///<>/<;, flutter about 
anxiously; but prob. one of the imitative words 
attached loosely to what is felt to be the com- 
mon root of blow 1 , blast. The E. Fries, liliixti-m, 
bluster, freq. of bliissi'ii, var. of blasen (= E. 
blaze'*), blow, is appar. a parallel fonnation.] 

1. in trans. 1 . To roar and be tumultuous, as 
wind; blow boisterously: as, the storm blus- 
ters without. 

Bluster the winds and tides. 

Tennyson, Fair Women. 

2. To be loud, noisy, or swaggering ; swagger, 
as a turbulent or boasting person ; utter loud 
empty menaces or protests. 

Your ministerial directors blustered like tragic tyrants 
here. Burke, American Taxation. 

Let your demagogues lead crowds, lest they lead armies ; 
let them bluster, lest they masaacre. 

Macaulay, Conversation between Cowley and Milton. 

3t. [Only in ME. ; perhaps a different word. 
Cf. LG. blustcrn, blistern, flutter in alarm.] To 
wander or run about aimlessly. 

That thay blustered as blynde as bayard wats euer. 

Alliterative Poem* (ed. Morris), ii. 886. 

II. trans. 1. To compel or force by mere 
bluster. [Rare.] 

He meant to bliuter all princes into a perfect obedi- 
ence. Fuller. 

2. To utter with bluster, or with noise and vio- 
lence : generally with out or forth. 

Bloweth and blustereth out . . . blasphemy. 

Sir T. More, Works, p. 374. 

To bluster down', to blow down with violence, as of 
the wind. 
By a tempestuous gust bluster down the house. 

Seasonable Sermons, p. 26. 

bluster (blus'ter), M. [< bluster, v.} 1. The 
noise of a storm or of violent wind ; a blast ; a 
gust. 

The skies look grimly 
And threaten present blusters. 

Shot., W. T., iii. 3. 

2. A boisterous blast, or loud tumultuous noise. 
The brazen trumpet's bluster. Swi/f, Prometheus. 

3. Noisy but empty talk or menace ; swagger ; 
boisterous self-assertion. 

A coward makes a great deal more bluster than a man 
of honour. Sir R. L'Kstranye. 

The real weather gods are free from brag and bluster. 
The Century, XXV. 674. 

= Syn. 3. Turbulence, boasting, bragging, bullying, 
blusteration (blus-te-ra'shon), n. [< bluster + 
-ation.] Noisy boasting; blustering; boister- 
ous conduct. [Prov. Eng. and Amer.] 
blusterer (blus'ter-er), n. One who or that 
which blusters ; especially, a swaggerer ; a 
bully ; a noisy, boastful, or boisterous fellow. 
Sometime a bliuiterer, that the ruffle knew 
Of court, of city. Shots., Lover's Complaint, 1. 58. 

blustering (blus'ter-ing), p. a. [Ppr. of blas- 
ter, r.] 1. Stormy; windy; tempestuous: as, 
blustering weather ; "a blustering day," Xhak., 
I Hen. IV., v. 1. 2. Noisy; violent; self-as- 
serting; swaggering: as, a blustering fellow. 

A policy of blustering menace and arrogant Interference. 
N. A. Ken., XXXIX. 410. 

blusteringly (blus'ter-ing-li), adv. In a blus- 
tering manner. 

blusterous, blustrous (blus'ter-us, -trus), a. 
[< bluster + -ous.] 1. Noisy; tempestuous; 
rough; stormy. 

Now, mild may be thy life ! 
For a more blust'rous birth had never batie. 

Shot., Pericles, iii. 1. 

2. Violent; truculent; swaggering, 
blustery (blus'ter-i), a. [< bluster + -yl.] Blus- 
tering; blusterous; raging; noisy. 

A hollow, blustery, pusillanimous, and unsound [char- 
acter]. Carlyle, Life of Sterling. 

blustrous, a. See blusterous. 
-bly. A termination of adverbs. See the ety- 
mology of -ble. 



boar 

i-. iiiniilii-i, (with an added element) Icel. 
hnilhir, et.-.. MK. ///. Imlln; m.id. K. Imtli : 
see 6or*.] The earlier word for hoik. 
bo 2 (bo), iiiti-rj. [Also writtm Imli :ind formerly 
also boe; a mere rxcluinutinn. Cf. I), "hij lean 
boe >incli li.-i .: I/HIM," i-<|ni\ . tn E. "he cannot 
say bo to a goose." Cf. 6ool.} An exclamation 
used to inspire surprise or fright; especially, a 
cry uttered oy children to frighten their fellows. 
Also boo. 

I'll rather put on my flashing red noe and my fUmliiK 
face, ami dime wrapped In * calf skin, and cr) 
I'll fray the scholar, I warrant tl 

IM Pit,,,. Wily !!<-uuil, ,1, 

Not able to say bo! to a goose, very !<iii.i, , timid 
b. 0. A common abbreviation in stock-ex- 
change reports and documents of buyer's op- 
tion : as, fc. o. 3 (that is, at the buyer's option 
within 3 days). 

boa l")'ii ), . | M... < L. I; >,i, also IHII-II. ap- 
plied to 'a large serpent; perhaps < bos (boe-), 
an ox, in allusion to its large size : see Bos and 
bovine."} 1. [C<J;A] In her/>et., a genus of very 
large non-venomous serpents, of the family 
Boidte, notable for their power of constriction. 
It was formerly nearly coextensive with the modern fam- 
ily, and Included all the boas, anacondas, etc., but Is now 
restricted to certain South American species congeneric- 




Boa (Sea 



with Boa constrictor. The genus includes some of the 
largest known serpents (sometimes more than 20 feet 
long), capable of enveloping and crushing mammals as 
large as a deer. 

2. In ordinary language, some large serpent, 
as a boa-co7istrictor, anaconda, or python ; any 
member of the family Jioid<e or Pythonidtc. 3. 
A long and slender cylindrical wrap of fur, worn 
by women round the neck. 

boa-constrictor (bo'ii-kon-strik'tor), M. A 
name popularly applied to any large serpent 
of the family Boitla; or 1'ythonida: : same as 
boa, 2. 

boalee (bo'a-le), . [< boyari, the Bengalese 
native name.] A fish of the family fiiluridee, 
H'allago attu, which has been also named .Si/u- 
rus boalix, inhabiting the fresh waters of India 
and Burma. It has a long IxKly. deeply cleft mouth, 
forked caudal, very long anal, and small dorsal. It attains- 
a length of at>out feet, and is edible. 

In India the jawbone of the bnalee nsh (Silurus Imalls) 
is employed by the natives alwut Docca. The teeth, 
being small, recurved, and closely set. act as a tine comb 
for carding cotton. 

Siminotuls, Com. Products of the Sea, p. 255. 

Boanerges (bo-a-ner'jez), n. )il. [LL., < Gr. Bo- 
avepytf, from an Aramaic form equiv. to Heb. 
bne hargem, sons of thunder (< fine, pi. of ben, 
son, + ha, the, + ra'am, thunder), or to the 
synonymous Heb. bne regexh.'] 1. Sons of thun- 
der : a name given bv Christ to two of has dis- 
ciples, James and John, sons of Zebedee. 

And he sumamed them Boanrryes, which is. The sons 
of thunder. Mark ill. 17. 



Hence 2. sing. A name sometimes given to a 
vociferous preacher or orator. 
boar 1 (bor), n. and a. [Early mod. E. also liore ; 
< ME. boor, bore, bor, < AS. Mr = OS. ber (-suin, 
swine) = D. beer = MLG. ber, LG. ber = OHG. 
her, MHG. ber, a boar, G. bar, a young boar. 

lype (blip), . [Origin uncertain.] 1. A Cf- Buss, frororw, a boar.] I. w. 1. The male 
shred; a piece of skin rubbed off. Burns. 2. of swine (not castrated). 2. A military engine 



A stroke or blow. [Scotch.] 

blythet, a. An obsolete spelling of blithe. 

B. M. An abbreviation of Bachelor of Medicine. 

B. M. E. An abbreviation of Bachelor of Min- 
ing Engineering. 

B. Mus. An abbreviation of Bachelor of Music. 

boH, a., pron., and conj. [ME., also boo, < AS. 
bd, fern, (in ME. common and neut.), with begen 
(ME. bcgeii. In ii-ii, lifi/iti; bayne, beie, beye, baye), 
masc., bu, neut., = Goth, bai, m., ha, neut., = 
(with a prefix) L. ai-?>o = Gr. aii-oa, both (see 



used in the middle ages. Grose __ Ethiopian wild 

boar. Same as halluf. Wild boar < SIM rrr>/i or aprr). 
an ungulate or hoofed mammal, family S\n<tir, the origi- 
nal of the tame hog. Wild Niars are found in most parU 
of Europe, excepting the British islands (where, how ever. 
they formerly abounded), and also in the greater part of 
Asia, and on the Barbary coast of Africa. The wild boar 
differs in several respects from the tame species ; its body 
is smaller, its snout longer, and Its ears (which are always 
black) rounder and shorter ; its color is iron-gray, inclin- 
ing to black. The tusks, formed by the enlarged canine 
teeth, are larger than those of the tame boar, l>eing some- 
times nearly a foot in length. The chase of the wild Iwar 
is one of the most exciting sports of Europe and India. 



boar 




Wild Boar (Sus scrofa). 

In heraldry the wild boar is represented with large tusks 
and open mouth. 

II. a. Male : as, a boar squirrel. 
boar 2 t, boar 3 t. Obsolete spelling of bore 1 , 

bore 2 . 

board (bord), . [Under this form and the cog- 
nate forms in the other languages are merged 

two different words : (1) ME. bord, board, borde, 

< AS. bord, a board, plank, table, shield, = OS. 

bord = OFries. bord = D. bord = MLG. bort, 

LG. board = Icel. bordh = OHG. MHG. bort, Q. 

bord, bort = Sw. and Dan. bord = Goth, baurd 

(in fotu-baurd, 'footboard,' footstool), neut., a 

board, plank, table (in AS. also shield); (2) 

ME. bord, board, borde, < AS. lord (= OS. bord 

- D. boord = MLG. bort, LG. board = OHG. 

MHG. bort, G. bord = Icel. bordh = Sw. Dan. 

bord), masc. (and, by confusion with the pre- 
ceding, neut.), border, brim, rim, side, esp. 

side of a ship. From the Teut. comes F. bord 

= OSp. borda, Sp. bordo = Pg. bordo = It. 

bordo, side, edge, esp. in the nautical use, 

whence in E. some uses of board, n. and v., 

after the F. Hence border, etc. Connection of 

the two original words is uncertain. Another 

form of AS. bord, a plank, appears transposed 

in AS. bred, a board, flat surface, E. dial, bredf, 

a board, = OD. bred, D. berd, a floor, = OHG. 

MHG. bret, G. brett, a board, plank, = Sw. 

brdde = Dan. brcedt, board. Not connected with 

broad, as is usually supposed. Cf. Ir. Gael. 

Corn, bord = W. bord and bwrdd, a board, 

table.] 1. A piece of timber sawed thin, and 

of considerable length and breadth compared 

with the thickness. The name is usually given to 

pieces of timber (in this and similar forms called lumber precedence at table. 



board-wages 

In his next pithy symbol I dare not board him, for he 
passes all the seven wise Masters of Greece. 

Milton, Apology for Smectymnuus. 

9f. To border on ; approach. 

The stubborne Newre whose waters gray 
By fair Kilkenny and Kosseponte boord. 

Spenser, F. Q., IV. xi. 43. 

To board out. (a) To exclude with boards or by board- 
ing, (b) To send out to board ; hire or procure the board 
of elsewhere: as, to board out a child or a horse. To 
board up. (a) To stop or close by putting up boards : as, 
to board up a road, (b) To shut in with boards : as, to 
board up a flock of chickens, (c) To case with boards : as, 
to board up a room or a house. 

II. intrans. 1. To take one's meals, or be 
supplied with both food and lodging, in the 
house of another, at a fixed price. 

We are several of us, gentlemen and ladies, who board 
in the same house. Spectator, No. 296. 

2. Naut., to tack. 

boardable (bor'da-bl), a. [<board, v., + -able.'] 

w us UIH.IGI BI.UWU u MVP. mill HUB me uuiu u cuvereu omy Capable of being boarded, as a ship, 
with paper, in distinction from one which is covered with board-clip (bord'klip), n. A spring-clasp for 
cloth or leather. The boards were at first made of wood, holding shppts of naripr iinnn a hnnrrt rlpt m- 
but are now made of hard-pressed rough paper-stock and n la J n S stl OI paper upon a Doard, desk, or 

shredded rope. Often abbreviated to bds. printer's case. 

The boards used in bookbinding are formed of the pulp board-cutter (bord'kufer), n. A bookbinders' 
obtained from refuse brown paper, old rope straw or machine for cutting millboards for the covers 

rous. and backs of books. 

Ure, Diet., 1. 421. boarder (bor'der), n. One who boards, (a) One 
who gets his meals, or both meals and lodging, in the 
house of another for a price agreed upon. 

There's a boarder in the floor above me ; and, to my tor- 
ture, he practises music. Smollett, Humphrey Clinker. 
(b) pi. On a man-of-war, the officers and men detailed to 
attack an enemy by boarding. They are armed with cut- 
lases and pistols. 

Heading for the steamer, he formed his boarders on the 
bow. J. R. Soley, Blockade and Cruisers, p. 183. 



604 

a knife-board. 7. A tablet; especially, a tab- 
let upon which public notices are written, or 
to which they are affixed: as, a notice-&o?'d; 
a bulletin-board. 8. A table, tablet, or frame 
on which games are played: as, a chess- or 
backgammon-Sort^; a bagatelle-board. 9. pi. 
The stage of a theater: as, to go upon the 
boards, to leave the boards (that is, to enter 
upon or leave the theatrical profession). 

Our place on the boards may be taken by better and 
younger mimes. Thackeray. 

There is not never was any evidence that Lodge, who 
was a very meagre dramatist, ever trod the boards. 

N. and Q., 6th ser., XI. 107. 

10. A kind of thick stiff paper; a sheet form- 
ed by layers of paper pasted together ; paste- 
board: usually employed in compounds: as, 
c&rdboard, 'millboard, Bristol-ftoaro?. Hence 

11. In bookbinding, one of the two stiff covers 
On the sides of a book. By a book in boards is usually 
to be understood a book that has the boards covered only 



, 
other vegetable material more or less fibrous. 



12. pi. In printing, thin sheets of very hard 
paper-stock placed between printed sheets in 
a press to remove the indentation of impres- 
sion : distinctively called press-boards. 13. 
Naut. : (a) The deck and interior of a ship or 
boat : used in the phrase on board, aboard. (6) 
The side of a ship. 



Now board to board the rival vessels row. Dryden. 

(c) The line over which a ship runs between boarding (bor'ding), n. [Verbal n. of board, 
tack and tack. 14. In mining, as generally t ,.] 1. Wooden boards collectively, 
used in England: (a) Nearly equivalent to 
breast, as used among Pennsylvania miners. 
See breast, (b) An equivalent of cleat, in York- 
shire, when the coal is worked parallel to the cleat, it is 
said to be worked board or bord, the more usual term else- 
where being face on: when worked at right angles to the 
cleat, the term used is end on. Academy board. See 



ar ami breast, under pillar.- Board of control direc- 
tors, equalization, health, ordnance, trade, etc. See 
the nouns. Board on board, board and board (naut.), 



The supply of material, wood, and boarding for build- 
ing, repairing, or constructing public and sacred build- 
ings. Seebohm, Eng. Vil. Communities, p. 299. 

2. Boards put together, as in a fence or a floor. 
3. The operation of rubbing leather with a 
pommel or grainiug-board to make it granular 

Bs le ' W* ha t s b f ee y haved ' ^bed. 

. dried - 4 - The act of entering a ship, es- 
pecially by assault. 5. The practice of obtain- 
mg one's food, or both food and lodging, in the 




he United States) more than 4J inches wide and less 
than 2 inches thick. Thicker pieces of the same form 
are called planks, and narrower ones battens. When 
boards are thinner on one edge than on the other, they 
are called feather-edged boards ; and to riven pieces of 
this kind, not more than 3 feet long, used for roofing the 
name board is exclusively applied in the southern United 
States. 
But ships are but boards, sailors but men. 

Shale., M. of V., i. 3. 

2. A table, especially as being used to place 
food on. 

Fruit of all kinds . . . 
She gathers, tribute large, and on the board 
Heaps with unsparing hand. Milton, P. L., v. 343. 

Hence 3. (a) That which is served on a 
board or table ; entertainment; food; diet. 
Sometimes white lilies did their leaves afford, 
With wholesome poppy-flowers, to mend his homely board. 
Dryden, tr. of Virgil's Oeorgics, iv. 

They . , . suffer from cold and hunger in their flreless 
houses and at their meagre boards. 

Howells, Venetian Life, xxi. 

(b) Provision for a person's daily meals, or 
food and lodging, especially as furnished by 
agreement or for a price : applied also to the 
like provision for horses and other animals. 
Board without lodging is often distinguished either as 
day-board or table-board. 

4. A table at which a council or the session 
of a tribunal is held. 

I wish the king would be pleased sometimes to be pres- 
ent at that board ; it adds a majesty to it. Bacon. 

Better acquainted with affairs than any other who sat 
then at that board. Clarendon. 

Hence, by metonymy 5. A number of per- 
sons having the management, direction, or 
superintendence of some public or private of- 
fice or trust : as, a board of directors ; the board 
of trade ; the board of health ; a school-board. 

The honourable board of council. Shak., Hen. VIII., i. 1. 

Boards partake of a part of the inconveniences of larger 
assemblies. Their decisions are slower, their energy less 
their responsibility more diffused. They will not have the 
same abilities and knowledge as an administration by sin- 
8 le men. A. Hamilton, Works, I. 154. 

6. A flat slab of wood used for some specific 
purpose: as, an izoning-board ; a hake-board; 



Ful ofte tyme he hadde the bord bygonne 
Aboven alle naciouns in Pruce. 



To 



boarding-clerk (bor'ding-klerk), n. The em- 
ployee of a custom-house agent or shipping 
firm whose duty is to communicate with ships 
Chaucer, Gen. Prol. to C. T., l. 52. on their arrival in port. [Eng.] 
e board, (a) Naut., said of a mast which is boarding-house (bor'ding-hous), n. A house of 

one's name e <ni y ttie boards! afcamteWge'T'mTCrslty^ restaurant, where persons are furnished with 

to remain a member of a college : in allusion to the custom board tor a fixed price. 

there of inscribing the names of members on a board or boarding-joist (bor' ding-joist), n One of the 

tack e when a Jhrffs worS^to^iZwlnl.-ToVake a ^ 1StS in n&ked floorin g to whicn the boards are 
good board, to get well on in a stretch to windward. fastened. 

To make a half board (naut.), to luff into the wind till boardmg-macnine (bor'ding-ma-shen"), n. A 
the headway ceases, and then to fill away on the same machine for rubbing the sill-face of leather to 
tack.- To make a stern board, to force a ship astern ra i se tne grain. 

ly. To sweep the board, in 3oH7i<7, S totake C everytlifi'i"; boarding-nettings (bor'ding-nef'ingz), n. pi. 
pocket all the stakes. Nettings of small rope or wire fixed around the 

board (bord), v. [< board, n. In sense 8, bulwarks of a ship to prevent her from being 
after F. aborder, come to, accost : see aboard' 2 , boarded. See netting. 

abordl, .] I. trans. 1. To cover with boards ; boarding-officer (bor'ding-of'i-ser), n. An offi- 
inclose or close up with boards ; lay or spread cer of the custom-house who boards ships on 
with boards : often with up, in, or over. 2. In their arrival in port in order to examine their 
leather-manuf., to rub (leather) with a pommel papers and to prevent smuggling, 
or graining-board, in order to give it a granu- boarding-pike (bor'ding-plk), n. A short pike 
lar appearance, and make it supple. used in naval warfare in boarding or in repel- 

If after " stoning out " the leather should require soften- ling boarders. See Jialf-pilce. 
ing, it is boarded. C. T. Davis, Leather, p. 431. boarding-school (bor'ding-skol), n. A school 

3. To place at board : as, he boarded his son which provides board for its pupils ; a school 
with Mrs. So-and-so. 4. To furnish with food, at which the pupils are fed and lodged, 
or food and lodging, for a compensation: as, board-rack (bord'rak), n. In printing, a rack 
his landlady boards him at a reasonable price, for sliding shelves (called letter-boards) on 

He was ... boarded and lodged at the houses of the which to lay away composed type, 
farmers whose children he instructed. board-rule (bord'rol), n. A figured scale for 

Ining, Sketch-Book, p. 421. finding the number of square feet in a board, 
5. To come up alongside of (in order to at- without calculation. 

tack); fall aboard of. 6. To go on board of board-school (bord'skol), n. In Great Britain, 
(a vessel). Specifically (a) To embark. (6) To hail a school under the management of a school- 
(c) < To'eiiter'b BC force ^ * CU j tom ."j loU8e or other <B cer - board consisting (except in London) of from 5 

You board an enemy to capture her, and a i 
receive news or make communications. 

7f. To put on board ; stow away. 
The seamen call ; shall we board your trunks? 

Middleton and Rowley, Changeling, i. 1. 

8f. To approach; accost; make advances to. 
Him the Prince with gentle court did bord. 

Spenser, F. Q., II. ix. 2. 



to 15 members, elected by the rate-payers of a 
' m $Men scn o1 district; a public elementary school. 

board-wages (bord'wa"gez), n, sing, and ]>l. A 
fixed payment made to domestic servants in 
lieu of board, especially when it is necessary 
for them to live out during the temporary ab- 
sence from home of their employers. 



Not enough is left him to supply 
Board-wanes, or a footman's livery. 



Dryden. 



boar-fish 

boar-fish (boVlish I, . A name npgiliril to vari- 
ous dissimilar lislics which have a projcrtinu' 

SIHillt. (a) In Kli-laml, tlir l'n/,na n/ifr, a flsll c.f till' 

flllllily l':l/:r:u:/,l'. ll h;l, Illr power lif I'M I'Tlcl i UK tlll<l 

roritrartiiu its [jiniilli at ill. \\ lieu t<\t<'ii<li->l the mouth 
takes the form of a lion's snout, uliclinr the name. It ia 




V 

Boar.fish (Cafms afrr). 

6 inches long, ami inhabits the Mediterranean and At- 
lantic northward to the British coasts. (6) In New Zea- 
land, tile Ctittii.-, un.'l ,-nliit, a species of the family '/.< unlit 1 . 
It Is related to the John-dory, lint has a rough skin and i 
destitute of hirer platen and the black lateral spots, (c) 
lu southern Australia ( Melbourne, etc.), the 1'entace.ropsis 
refurvirostrijt, a species of the family P&Uaccrotidec. It is 
esteemed as a food-fish. 

bearish (bor'ish), a. [< boar + -ishi.] Of or 
pertaining to a boar ; resembling a boar ; swin- 
ish; sensual; cruel. 

In his anointed llcgh stick !it-i ./> fangs. 

NA.iA-., Lear, III. 7. 

boar-spear (bor'sper), n. [< ME. boresper, < 
AS. barspere, < bar, boar, + sperc, spear.] A 
spear used in hunting boars, 
boar-stag (bor'stag), n. A gelded boar, 
boar's-tusk (borz'tusk), n. A common name 
given to shells of the genus Dentalium. J. B. 
Sowerby, Jr. 

boart (bort), . Same as bort. 
boast 1 (bost), t'. [< ME. bosten, boosten, < bost, 
boast: origin unknown. The W. bostio, bos- 
tian = Corn, bostyc = Gael, bostl, boast, are 
from the E.] I. intrans. If. To threaten; ut- 
ter a threat. 2. To brag; vaunt; speak vain- 
gloriously or exaggeratedly, as of one's own 
worth, property, deeds, etc. 

Boottte not myche, it is but waast ; 

Bl boostynge, men mowe foolls knowe. 

Batiees Book (E. E. T. S.), p. 54 

By grace are ye saved through faith ; . . . not of works, 
lest any man should boast. Eph. ii. 8, 9. 

3. To glory or exult on account (of); speak 
with laudable pride. 

I boat of yon to them of Macedonia. 2 Cor. ix. 2. 

4. To be possessed, as of something remarka- 
ble or admirable : often used jocosely. 

It (the cathedral] does not appear so rich as the small- 
est church, but boasts of a little organ, which sent forth 
singularly inharmonious cries. 

Daririn, Voyage of Beagle, I. 4. 

= SyiL To bluster (about), vapor, crow (about a thing, or 
over a person), swell, talk big, put on airs. 

II. trans. 1. To brag of; speak of with 
pride, vanity, or exultation : as, to boast what 
anns can do. 

But let him boast 
His knowledge of good lost, and evil got. 

Milton, P. L., xi. 86. 
He boasts his life as purer than thine own. 

Tennyson, Balin and Balan. 

2. To glory or exult in possessing ; have as a 
source of pride : often in a jocose sense : as, the 
village boasts a public pump. 

God be thanked, the meanest of His creatures 
Boast* two soul-sides, one to face the world with, 
One to show a woman when he loves her. 

l!i-"irtiinff, One Word More. 

3. To magnify or exalt ; make over-confident ; 
vaunt : with a reflexive pronoun. 

They that trust in their wealth, and boast themselves In 
tlie multitude of their riches. Ps. xlix. 0. 

Boast not thyself of to-morrow. Pror. xxvii. 1. 

Many there be that ttoast themselves that they have 
faith. Lutlmrr, 4th Serm. bef. Edw. VI. (1548). 

boast 1 (bost). . [< ME. boost, bost: see the 
vi't-b. The \V. bost (= Corn, bost = Ir. and 
(iat'l. boml), a boast, is from the E.] If. 
Clamor; outcry. 

He erakkede fm^t and svvor it was nat so. 

I'luiiiivr, Iteeve's Tale, 1. 81. 

2f. Threatening; menace. 3. Brag; vaunt- 
ing; language expressive of ostentation, pride, 
or vanity. 

Reason ami morals ? and where live they most, 
In Christian comfort or in Stole boast f 

/''/''"". Kuthusiasm. 

4. A cause of boasting: occasion of pride, 
vanity, or laudable exultation : as, Shakspere, 
the Imaxt of English literature. 

His Candle is ahvayi s a lonurr sitter vp then billiselfr. 
and thr Mx/ of his Window at Midnight. 

/'/'. /''! >'t' : , Miero-cosmographir. A Cirteiiilerto Learning. 
= Syn. Vaunt, brag. See boastinyl. 




Boasting-chisels. 



605 

boast 2 (host), r. t. [Origin unknown; perhaps 
a 'omiption of bosh*, q. v.] 1. In masonry, 
to dress off t In- surface of a stone with a broad 
chisel and mallet. 2. In .//<., to reduce or- 
naments or other work to their general contour 
or form, preparatory to working out the details. 

boast 2 (bost), n. [Appar. in allusion to the 
ball's nibbing or scraping the wall; < boastf, 
p.] In tennis, a stroke by which the ball is 
drivi'ii against the wall of a court at an acute 
angle. The nibbing against the wall makes 

thr ball spilt. 

boastancet, . [< boast 1 + -ance.'] Boasting. 

f 'lutucer. 
boaster 1 (bos'ter), . [< ME. hosier, bostour, 

< bosten, boast.] One who boasts, glories, or 

vaunts with exaggeration, or ostentatiously ; a 

bragger. 
boaster 2 (bos'ter), w. [< boast* + -eri.] A 

broad chisel used in rough-hewing and dressing 

off the surface of a stone ; a boasting-chisel, 
boastful (bost'ful), a. [< ME. bostful, < host, 

boast, + -fvl.} Given to boasting ; vaunting; 

bragging. 

Boatl/vl and rough, your first son is a squire. 

Pope, Moral Essays, 1. 151. 
Let boastful eloquence declaim 
Of honor, liberty, and fame. 

Whitticr, Prisoner for Debt. 

boastfully (bost'ful-i), adv. In a boastful 
manner. 

boastfulness (bost'ful-nes), . [< boastful + 
-ness."\ The state or quality of being boastful. 

boasting 1 (bos'ting), n. [< ME. hosting; verbal 
n. of boasft, .] A glorying or vaunting; boast- 
ful or ostentatious words ; bragging language. 
When boasting ends, then dignity begins. Young. 

= Syn. Brag, bravado, bluster, swagger, swaggering, rain- 
glory, rodomontade, parade, vaporing, rant. 
boasting 2 (bos'ting), . [Verbal n. of boas ft, 
t.] jLIn masonry, the process of dressing the 
surface of a stone with a broad 
chisel and mallet. 2. In sculp. 
and carving, the act of cutting 
a stone roughly with a boasting- 
chisel, so as to give it the general 
contour of a statue or an orna- 
ment. Also called scabbling. 
boastingly (bos'ting-li), adv. In an ostenta- 
tious manner ; with boasting, 
boastive (bos'tiv), a. [< boast* + -ive.] Pre- 
sumptuous; boastful. SJtenstone. [Rare.] 
boastless (bost'les), a. [< boasfl + -fcss.] 
Without boasting or ostentation. [Rare.] 

Diffusing kind beneficence around, 
Boastless, as now descends the silent dew. 

Thomson, Summer, 1. 1644. 

boat (bot), . [< ME. boot, bate, bot, < AS. bat = 
Icel. beit (rare), a boat; appar. not found as an 
orig. word elsewhere, being in the later lan- 
guages appar. borrowed from ME. or AS. ; 
namely (from ME.), MD. and 0. 600* = MLG. 
hot, LG. boot (> G. boot), and (from AS.) Icel. 
batr = Sw. bat = Dan. baad, also W. bad = Ir. 
Imil = Gael. Im/ii, and ML. batus, battue, It. 
batto = OF. bat; with dim. It. battello = Sp. 
batel = Pr. batelh = OP. hotel, F. bateau : see 
bateau.'] 1. A small vessel orwater-craft ; espe- 
cially, a small open vessel moved by oars. The 
forms, dimensions, and uses of boats arc very various. The 
In at - in use In the United Statw naval service are steam- 
launches, launches, steam-cutters, cutters, barges, gigs, 
whale-boats, and dinghies. 

2. Any vessel for navigation : usually described 
by another word or by a prefix denoting its use 
or mode of propulsion : as, a packet-feoat, pas- 
sage-front, steamftoflt, etc. The term is frequent- 
ly applied colloquially to vessels even of the 
largest size. 3. Any open dish or vessel re- 
sembling a boat: as, a gravy-ftoaf; a butter- 
boat. 

The crude red [In the decomposition of aniline] has left 
a violet deposit in the bottom of the boat* in which it was 
<-"<>led. Pop. Set. Mo., XXV. 207. 

4. In the Bom. Cath. Ch., the vessel contain- 
ing the incense to be placed in the thurible 
when needed. Ail In the same boat, all engaged 
in the same enterprise ; all in the same condition, espe- 
cially unfortunate condition ; all to have the same fate 
or fortune. Boat-compass, see compats. High boat. 
See hinh. Paper boat, a light boat, used especially for 
racing and sporting purposes, made of sheets of manila 
paper, or of paper made from superior unbleached linen 
stock. The first sheet is fastened to a model which cor- 
responds to the interior of the boat, and coated with ad- 
hesive varnish : another sheet is thru put over the first ; 
and so on until a sntticient thii kni'ss is obtained. 

boat (bot ), r. [<lu><,t, .] I. tniii*. 1. To trans- 
port in a boat: as, to 6o( goods across a lake. 
2. To provide with boats. [Rare.] 



boat's-gripes 

Our little ArnoU not boat"' likr tin- Thames. 

II" 1. 8. 

To boat the can, t< take them out of tin- rowlocks 
MdnaM them fore ami aft on the thwarts. 
II. intrans. To go in a boat ; row. 

I boated over, ran 
My < raft aijroiiN.I. 

inn, Edwin Morris. 

beatable (bo'ta-bl), n. [< bo<it + -able.1 Navi- 
gable by boats or small river-craft, 
boatage (bo'taj), . [< boat + -Of/e.] 1. Car- 
riage by boat, or the charge for carrying by 
boat. 2t. Boats collectively . 3. The aggre- 
gate carrying capacity of the boats belonging 
to a ship. 

It Is generally assumed that sufficient bnataye Is invari- 
ably provided. AV/;,,/,/,,-.,/, /;. .. cxv. 108. 

boatbill (bot'bil), n. A South American bird, 
Coehlearia (or (,'aneroma) cochlearia, related to 
tho true herons: so named from the shape and 




Boatbill (Cancroma cochlearia . 

size of the bill, which is very broad and much 
vaulted. The boathill is about the size of and somewhat 
resembles a night-heron (apart from the bill), but is the 
type of a distinct subfamily, Cancromina (which see). 
Also called Ixtat-billrd heron and sapactHt. 

boat-builder (bot'bil'der), n. One who makes 
boats ; a boatwright. 

boat-fly (bot'fli), . An aquatic heteropterous 
hemipterous insect of the family Xotonertida-, 
which swims upon its back. See Xotonecta. 
Also called back-swimmer and boat-insect. 

boat-hook (bot'huk), n. A brass or iron hook 
and spike fixed to a staff or pole, used for pull- 
ing or pushing a boat. Also called gaff-setter, 
setting-pole, pole-hook, and hitcher. 

boat-house (bot'hous), n. A house or shed for 
storing boats and protecting them from the 
weather. 

boating (bo'ting), n. [Verbal n. of boat, r.] 

1. The act or practice of rowing or sailing a 
boat, especially as a means of exercise or 
amusement. 2. Transportation by boats. 3. 
A punishment in ancient Persia, consisting in 
fastening an offender on his back in a boat and 
leaving him to perish or be eaten by vermin. 

boat-insect (bot'in'sekt), n. Same as boat-flu. 

boationt (bo-a'shon), n. [< L. as if 'boatio(n-), 
equiv. to boatus, a crying out, < boare, earlier 
bovare, = Or. jioav, cry out, roar, bellow.] A 
reverberation; a roar; loud noise. [Rare.] 

The guns were heard . . . aliont a hundred Italian 
miles, in loud boationt. Drrham, Physico-Theology. 

boat-keeper (bot'ke'per), . 1. One of the 
crew of a ship's boat left in charge of it during 
the absence of the others. 2. One who keeps 
boats for hire. 

boatman (bot'man), i.; pi. boatmen (-men). 1. 
A man who manages or is employed on a boat; 
a rower of a boat. 

The iKKituiaii piled the oar, the bo*t 
Went light along the stream. Sotitkey. 

2. A hemipterous insect of the family CoritUm 
and genus A'otaneeta. 

boat-racing (bot'ra'sing)j . A trial of speed 

between boats ; racing with boats, 
boat-rope (bot'rop), n. A rope to fasten a 

boat, usually called a painter. 




Bors-gripe. 

boats-gripes (bots'grips), n.pl. Lashings used 
to secure boats hoisted at the davits. 



boat-shaped 

boat-shaped (bot'shapt), n. Having the shape 
of a boat; navicular; cymbiform; hollow like 
a boat, as (in bat.) the valves of some pericarps. 
Specifically, in ornitli., applied to tile tail of certain birds, 




Boat-shaped. Tail of a Crackle, 

as the boat-tailed grackle, (Juicalm major, in which the 
plane of the feathers of each half meets that of the other 
half obliquely, slanting downward and toward the me- 
dian line, and thus induces a reentrance or hollow of the 
upper surface and a salience or keel below. 
boat-shell (bot'shel), . The English name of 
the shells of the genus Cymbium or Cymba, be- 
longing to the family J'olittida'. See cut under 
Cymbium. 

boat-skid (bot'skid), n. Naut., a piece of wood 
fastened to a ship's side to prevent chafing 
when a boat is hoisted or lowered. 
boatsmant (bots'man), w. [< boafs, poss. of 
boat, + man ; = T). bootsman = Sw. bdtsman = 
Dan. baadxman, boatswain.] 1. A boatswain. 
2. A boatman. 

boat-song (bot'sdng), . A vocal, or occasion- 
ally an instrumental, musical composition, 
either intended actually to be sung while row- 
ing or sailing or written in imitation of a song 
thus used. See barcarole. 

boatswain (hot 'swan; colloq. and in naut. 
use, bo'sn), n. [Also colloq. and naut. boson 
(formerly in good literary use) ; early mod. E. 
boatswain, boatson, boteswayne, < late ME. bot- 
swayne; < boat + swain, in the sense of 'boy ser- 
vant.' The alleged AS. "batswdn is not author- 
ized.] 1. A subordinate officer of a ship, who 
has charge of the rigging, anchors, cables, and 
cordage. It is his duty also to summon the crew for any 
evolution, and to assist the executive officer in the neces- 
sary business of the ship. His station is always on the fore- 
castle, and a silver call or whistle is the badge of his office. 

2. A jiiger or skua; any bird of the genus 
Lestris or Stercorarius. 

Dr. Bessels killed three fork-tailed gulls, and two 6o(- 
mvaiiu. C. F. Hall, Polar Expedition, p. 388. 

3. A name of birds of the genus Pkaethon. See 
tropic-bird Boatswain's mate, an assistant of a boat- 
swain. Boatswain's mates inflicted corporal punishment 
before it was abolished. 

boat-tailed (bot'tald), a. Having the tail boat- 
shaped. See boat-shaped. 
boattails (bot'talz), n. pi. In ornitli., a name 
sometimes given to the American grackles, 
subfamily QuiscaUna;, family Icteridte, from the 
fact that their tails are boat-shaped. See cut 
under boat-shaped. 

boatwright (bot'rit), , A boat-builder. 
bob 1 (bob), H. [Under the form 606 are in- 
cluded several words of obscure origin, mostly 
colloquial and without a definite literary his- 
tory, and in consequence now more or less con- 
fused in sense as well as in form. The differ- 
ent senses, in their noun and verb uses, have 
reacted on each other, and cannot now be en- 
tirely disentangled. Bofti, ., a cluster, etc., 
= Sc. 606, bob, a cluster, bunch, nosegay, < 
ME. bob.bobbc, a cluster; cf. Icel. bobbi, a knot 
(nodus, Haldorsen), and Gael, babag, a cluster, 
baban, a tassel, fringe. In senses 5J 6, 7, rather 
from 6o61, v. t., 1; in senses 10, 11, 13. 606 is 
short for bob-wig, bob-stick, bob-sled, q. v.] 1. 
A bunch; a cluster; a nosegay. [Now chiefly 
Scotch.] 
Vynes . . . with wondere grete bobbis of grapes 

MS. in Halliwell. 

The rose an' hawthorn sweet I'll twine 
To make a bob for thee. Hogg, The Hay-makers. 
2f. The seed-vessel of flax, hops, etc. 3 Any 
small round object swinging or playing loosely 
at the end of a cord, line, flexible chain, wire 
rod, or the like Specifically- (a) A little pendant or 
ornament so attached ; an ear-drop. 

In jewels dressed, and at each ear a bob. 

Dryden, tr. of Juvenal's Satires, vi 
Those Indians who are found to wear all the gold they 
have in the world in a bob at the nose. 

Goldsmith, Citizen of the World lii 



606 

a deer's tail ; . . . strips of red flannel or red feathers are bob 3 } 
sometimes added, . . . forming a kind of tassel, with the * 
points of the hooks projecting at equal distances. 

The Century, XXVI. 383. 
(ff) A float or cork for a fish-line. 
4. A small wheel made entirely of a thick piece 
of bull-neck or sea-cow leather, perforated for 
the reception of the spindle, used for polishing 
the inside of the bowls of spoons and the con- 
cave portions of other articles. 5f. The words 
repeated at the end of a stanza ; the burden of 



bobbin 

), v. t. ; pret. and pp. bobbed, ppr. 606- 
,..;,. L , ME. bobben, < OF. bober, mock, de- 
ceive, cheat.] 1. To mock; deride; insult. 

So by siche feynyd myraclis men by gylenhemsilf and 
dispisen God, as the tormentours that bobbulen Crist. 

Rel. Antiq., ii. 47. 
2. To deceive; delude; cheat. 

Play her pranks and bob the foole. 

Turberville, A Pretie Epigram. 



3. To gain by fraud or cheating. 



You're bobb'd ; 'twas but a deed in trust. 
a song. Middleton (and others), The Widow, v. 1. 

" To bed, to bed," will be the 606 of the song. 

Si> R. L' Estrange, Fables. 

6. A short jerking action or motion: as, a 606 anew., wneno, v. i. 

of the head. 7. In change-ringing, a set of bob 3 (bob), n. [< bob^, v. Cf. OF. bobe, mocking, 
changes which may be rung on 6, 8, 10, or 12 deception.] A taunt; a jeer or flout; a trick. 

bells. That nine on fi bells is called n hnh ii>- - nn 8 



Gold, and jewels, that I bobb'd from him. 

Shak., Othello, v. 1. 



bells. That rung on fl bells is called a bob minor; on 8 
bells, a bob major; on 10 bells, a bob royal; and on 12 
bells, a bob HUMOMIA 

8. A triangular or four-sided frame of iron or 
wood, vibrating on an axis, by the aid of which 
the motion of the connecting-rod of an engine 
is communicated to a pump-rod, the former 



Let her leave her bobs; 
I have had too many of them ; and her quillets. 

Fletcher, Tamer Tamed. 

I am beholding to you 
For all your merry tricks you put upon me, 
Your bobt, and base accounts. 

10 ' M [i r . in 1 1 n ,1 1 1 > i LU a ^jump-ruu, me loruier Fletcher, Wildgoose Chase, iii. 1. 

being usually horizontal, the latter vertical or To give the bob tot, to make a fool of ; impose upon 
considerably inclined.-9. A dance. [Scotch.] It can be no other [1)llslnes8 , 

But to give me the bob. 

tlaxeinger, Maid of Honour, iv. 5. 

bob 4 (bob), n. [< ME. bobbe, an insect men- 
tioned in connection with spiders and lice ; = 
Sw. bobba, a certain insect, buprestis. Perhaps 
the same word as bob 1 , a bunch, of which a dial, 
sense is 'ball'; cf. attercop, a spider, lit. 'poi- 
son-head' or 'poison-bunch'; cf. also pill-beetle. 
Cf. Icel. bobbi, a snail-shell; komast i bobba, 
get into a puzzle.] A louse; any small insect. 
Halliwell. [Prov. Bug.] 

' The 



- - i, 

O what'n a bob was the bob o' Dunblane. 

Jacobite Song. 

10. A particular kind of wig; a bob-wig. 

A plain brown bob he wore. 

Shenstone, Extent of Cookery. 

He had seen flaxen bobs succeeded by majors, which in 
their turn gave way to negligent, which were at last total- 
ly routed by bags and ramilies. Goldsmith, Richard Nash. 

11. A shilling. Formerly bobstick. [Slang.] 
"Well, please yourself," quoth the tinker; "you shall 

have the books for four 606." . . . " Four 6068 four shil- 
lings: it is a great sum," said Lenny. .*.... ,t,.*. ii iuv. .uug.j 

Bvlwer, My Novel, iv. 5. bobac, bobak (bob'ak), n. [Pol. bobak.] 

12. An infantry soldier: as, the light bobs : pos- Polish marmot, Arctomys bobac. 

sibly so called because soldiers were enlisted Bobadil (bob a-dil), n. [The name of a boast- 
in England with a shilling. [Slang.] 13. A }3J character m Ben Jonson's "Every Man in 
seat mounted on short runners, used either for J 1 "' Humour."] A blustering braggart, 
pleasure coasting or for the conveyance of Bobadllian (bob-a-dil'ian), a. Pertaining to 
loads over ice or snow : a sled. r American T or resembling a Bobadil, or a blustering fellow 



a se. merican.] , userng eow 

as cushion-dame. Dry bob, wno "jakes pretenses to prowess, 
boy who devotes himself to Bobadilism (bob'a-dil-izm), n. [< Bobadil + 



Bob at the bolster. Same as 

at Eton College, England, a boy ,. U c<ui*re umurcu 10 uuuavuuE 
cncket or foot-ball: in opposition to vet bob, one who -ism 1 B 
makes boating his principal recreation. Oscillatine or v-v-id 

gbob. Same as balance-bob. v v ' "' 



Blustering conduct or braggadocio. 
See bobac. 



who or that which bobs. 



vaguely imitative, and not directly connected 



2. One who fishes 



with a bob. 3. One of the artificial flies of au 



with the noun.] 



I. trans. 1. To cause a short 




.. __ -. j A . H omvi *> -Lvy v><*u.oc a> ou\JHi 

jerky motion of; effect by a short jerking move- a ?? ler s cast - 

ment: as, "he bobbed his head," Irving; to 606 bobber 2 t, n. [< bob% + -erl.] 1. One who scoffs. 

a courtesy. Bitter taunters, dry bobbers, nyppinge gybers, and 

When Ionian shoals skorneful mockers of others. 

Of dolphins bob their noses through the brine. Tmichntone of Complexion* (1675). 

Keats, Endymion, i. 2. A deceiver. 

2. To cut short; dock: often with off: as, to bobbery (bob'er-i), n.; pi. bobberies (-iz). [Pop- 

606 or bob off a horse's tail. ularly regarded as a native E. term, < ftoftl, v. 

II. tntrans. 1. To act jerkily, or by short bob^,v., + -ery, but really of Anglo-Indian ori- 

quick motions ; move or play loosely, in a sway- gin, being an accom. of Hind, bap re, O father! 

mg or vibrating manner: as, to 606 against a a common exclamation of surprise : bap, father 

person ; to bob up and down, or back and forth, re, a vocative particle expressing surprise.] A 

as a pith-ball or other object, or a person. squabble; a row; a disturbance: as, to kick up 

A birthday jewel bobbing at their ear. Dryden. a bobbery. [Colloq. and vulgar.] 

2. To make a jerky bow or obeisance. . I heard something yesterday of his kicking up a bobbery 

He rolled in upon two little turned legs and having in tlle kitenen - Barham, Ingoldsby Legends, I. 36. 

^ 

3 - 4 - ? an ' 



SaaSI ittTW&S* le e "? of a Pendulum, plumb- 
line, and the like. (c)The movable weight on the graduat- 
ed arm of a steelyard, (d) A knot of worms, rags, or other 
ures, fixed to a string, with or without a look and used 
in angling. () Formerly, a grub or larva of a beetle uled 
xor DEIC. . 

Yellow bobs turned up before the plough 
Are chiefest bait with cork and lead enough 

J. Dennys, Secrets of Angling, ii.'(1613). 
(/) A gang of fish-hooks. 

The 606 . is formed by tying three hooks together 
back to back, and covering their shanks with a portion of 



, as for eels, or by giving the 

jerking motion in the water. 
I'll bob for no more eels. Shirley, Hyde Park, v. 2. 

These are the baits they bob with. 

Beau, and Fl., Captain, iii. 4. 

bob 2 (bob), v. t. ; pret. and pp. bobbed, ppr. bob- 
bing. [< ME. bobben, strike. Origin obscure, 
perhaps in part imitative; cf. bob*, v . Cf. Sc. 
606, a mark or butt.] 1. To strike; beat. 

With the bit of his blade he babbit him so . 
He clefe him to the coler. 

Destruction of Troy (E. E. T. S.), 1. 7316. 
I'll not be bob'd in th' nose. 

Fletcher, Mons. Thomas, ii. 2. 
2. To jog; shake; nudge. 

Mr. Harley bobbed me at every line to take notice of 

le beauties. Swift, Journal to Stella, Letter 6. 

bob 2 t (bob), n. [< 6o6 2 , t\] A shake or jog; 

a blow: as, " pinches, nips, and bobs," Ascham, 

The Scholemaster. 

He that a fool doth very wisely hit 
Doth very foolishly, although he smart, 
Not to seem senseless of the 606. 

Shat., As you Like it, ii. 7. 



a tassel, fringe, babag, a cluster, tassel. This 
would bring bobine into connection with E. dial. 
bobbin, a small fagot (unless this is a var. of 
bobbin = bavin 1 ), and bobbin, a little knob hang- 
ing by a string attached to a latch. See fto&l.] 
1. A reel or spool for holding thread. Specifi- 
cally (a) One of the weights used to steady the threads 
in pillow-lace making, each bobbin having a slender neck 
around which a part of the thread is wound ; formerly made 
of bone, but now commonly of wood, (b) A spool with a 
head at one or both ends, intended to have thread or yarn 
wound on it, and used in spinning, in weaving, and in 
sewing-machines. 

Hence 2. Either of the two spool-shaped parts 
of an electromagnet, consisting of a central core 
of soft iron wound around with a considerable 
length of fine insulated copper wire. 3. A 
narrow tape or small cord of cotton or linen. 
4. A hank of Russian flax, consisting of 6, 
9, or 12 heads, according to the quality Bob- 
bin and fly-frame, (a) A machine used in cotton-man- 
ufacture for taking the sliver as received from the draw- 
ing-frame and converting it into roving or slulibing ; tliis 
is the first or coarse frame, (b) A machine which takes 
the stubbing from the first frame and converts it into a 
coarse yarn. 



bobbin 

bobbin (bob'in), r. t. [< bobbin, .] To wind 
on bobbins or spools, as thread. 

bobbinet (bob-in-cl' or bob'in-et), n. A com- 
mon contracted form of hobbin-in-1, 

bobbing (bob'ing), n. [E. dial, also Imlibinn : 
verbal n. of litilii, t:, II., 4.] The act or opera- 
tion of lisliinu' with a bob. 

bobbin-net (bob-in-net'), . A machine-made 
cotton netting, consisting of parallel threads 
which form the warp, upon which two systems 
of. oblique threads are laid in such a way that 
each of the oblique threads makes a turn around 
each of the warp-threads, producing a nearly 
hexagonal mesh. See tulle. Often contracted 
to boli/iim I. 

In 1808, Mr. John Heathcoat obtained a patent for a 
bobbin a,'! nuohbie, being the first successful attempt to 

pindiirr l>> marliiiin > mi imitation of pillow lace. 

A. Barlow, Weaving, p. 380. 

bobbin-winder (bob'in-winMer), n. A ma- 
chine for winding thread or yarn upon a bob- 
bin, spool, or shuttle, having a device for dis- 
tributing the thread in such a manner as to 
form in winding any desired shape. 

bobbin-work (bob'm-werk), n. Work woven 
with bobbins. 

bobbish (bob'ish), a. [Of. bob*, t'.] Hearty; 
in good spirits and condition. [Colloq.] 

bobble (bob'l), r. i. ; pret. and pp. hobbled, ppr. 
bobbliin/. | Froq. of t >o l>l, v. Cf. bubble*.] To 
bob up and down ; move with continual bob- 
bing. [Colloq., Eng.] 

bobble (bob'l), n. [< bobble, .] The move- 
ment of agitated water. [Colloq., Eng.] 

bobby (bob'i), .; pi. bobbies (-iz). [A slang 
term, from Bobby, dim. of Bob, familiar form of 
Robert, in allusion to Sir Robert Peel. Also 
called peeler, from his surname,] A policeman : 
a nickname first given to the members of the 
police force established under Sir Robert Peel's 
act (passed in 1829) for improving the police in 
and near London. 

bob-cherry (bob'cher'i), n. [< bob 1 + cherry.] 
A child's play consisting in catching with the 
teeth a cherry or other fruit hung from the ceil- 
ing, lintel of a door, or other high place, as it 
swings to and fro. 

bob-fishing (bob 'fish* ing), n. Same as clod- 
Jinhing. 

bobizationt (bo-bi-za'shon), n. [< bo + hi, syl- 
lables used in singing, Hf- -z-ation.] In music, 
in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, a 
general term for the various methods of naming 
the tones of the scale (for convenience of refer- 
ence and accuracy of singing) by syllables. See 
solmization, bebization, bocedization, dameniza- 
tion, labecedixation. 

bob-lincoln (bob-ling'kon), n. [Also boblincon, 
bob-o-lincoln, as if it were Bob o' Lincoln, and 
hence still further expanded to Robert of Lin- 
coln, in allusion to tne proper names Robert 
(see bobby) and Lincoln ; a fanciful imitation of 
the bird's note. Now usually bobolink, q. v.] 
The bobolink. 

The luxurious little boMiiicini revels among the clover 
blossoms of the mcoilows. Irviny, Knickerbocker, p. 147. 
Over the mountain-side or mead, 
Robert of Lincoln is telling his name. 

Bryant, Robert of Lincoln. 

bobolink (bob'o-lingk'), n. [Also boblink, and 
earlier boblincolii, boblincon (see above) ; an 
imitation of the bird's note.] An American 
oscine passerine bird, of the family Icteridtr 
and subfamily Aaelannai, the Dolichonyx oryzi- 
vorus, named from its hearty voluble song in 



607- 

male wears the black livery only In the breeding wa- 
gon, and Is only thru in SOUK, lit 1 molu in iniiKmnmt r 
or In August, acquiring a plumage like that of tin- fi-malr. 
lloth Hexes are then known as renl-hinln in tin- Middle 
States, as riff-bint* In tin- Soiith<-rn stales, and aa butter. 
t,;l.< in Jamaica. Ill thf sjiriny tin- male iu-i|ilircs his 
Mark ami Imtt -ml without inoltirm any feathers : win-in-.- 
th< riinv<t iH.pnlar notion, baaed, however, on erroneoiu 
premises, that the reed-birds turn into bobolinks in the 
spring. The bird Is abundant in moat of the I'nited 
States, and is a regular migrant, ln-ci-.lnm on the ground 
In meadows in the Northern States and Canada. In tin- 
fall, when fat ami flocking in the marshes to frt-d U|MMI 
wild oats (Zizania), it Is much esteemed for the table. 
Also called Imb-lin&iln, facetiously Kobrrt / Lineoln (tee 
t>h-[inrnln), kunk-l>lit,-kl>ir<l , from its coloring, wllich re- 
sembles that of the skunk, and ineinlvink. 

The crack-brained bobolink courts his crazy mate, 
Pouted on a bulrush tipsy with his weight. 

0. '. Holme*, RurliiK. 

bob-sled (bob'sled), n. A sled consisting of a 
body resting on two short sleds called Dobs, 
placed one behind the other. Bob-sleds are used 
for the transportation of Umber, etc., and, when of lighter 
build for coaating, are also called ttonbl,--runn,'ni or simply 
bob*. [American.] 

bob-sleigh (bob'sla), n. A sleigh constructed 
upon the same principle as a bob-sled. [U. 8.] 

bobstay (bob'sta), . [< bob 1 + stay 1 .'] Xttnt., 
one of two or three ropes or chains extending 
from the outer end of the bowsprit to the cut- 




bock-beer 

jor premise is a particular in-irutivi-, the minor 
a universal affirmative, and the- conclusion a 
particular negative proposition: as, Some pa- 
triarchs (Enoch, Elijah) are not mortal; but 
all patriarchs are men; hence, some men are 
not mortal. Of the seven letters which coiii|M<se the 
word, five are signllicant. Tin- three vowels, o, a, o, indi- 
cate the quality of the premise* and < In. ion . /, shows 

that tlie mood U to be reduced to barbara of the flint flg- 

nrt-; ,-, that the i r.liirti. .1 The wonl 

was probably invented by I'etrns Hispanus. See muud'*. 
2. A prison : so called from the old north gate 
of Oxford, which had this name and was at one 
time used as a prison. Xares. 

Was not thUIAchan) aseditioua fellow? Was he not 
worthy to be cast In bocardo or little-euc 1 

Latitner, Sermons, (ol. 10.", C. 

bocasine (bok'a-siu), n. [Early mod. E. also 

/Htri'<i.--nif, liiii'i'iixhi i hilc Ml-). Iml.i. ,</>. ' I'. /mi' 
coffin, now boucasitin = It. boccaccino = Sp. 60- 
I'lirin, bocaci = Pg. bocacim, buckram, < Turk. 
bolidtti, boghdsi, cotton cloth.] If. A linen stuff 
woven so fine as to look like silk. 2. At the 
present day, in the Levant, a kind of cotton 
cloth. Schuyler. 

bocca (bok'ft), n. [It., = Sp. Pg. boca = F. 
boitche, < L. bucca, cheek, esp. as puffed out: 
see bucca.] The round hole in a glass-furnace 
by which the fused glass is taken out. 

boccaccio (bo-ka'chio), n. [It., one having a 
large mouth, boccuccia, t., a large ugly mouth, 
< bocca, mouth (< L. bucca, cheek : see bucca), 
+ aug. -accio: see -ace. Hence the surname 
Boccaccio.'] A name given by the Italians 
about San Francisco to the Ijcbastodes pauci- 
spinis, a scorpeenoid fish of California. It has very 
small scales and a projecting lower jaw, attains a length 
of 30 inches, and Is a good food-fish, abundant in rather 
deep water along the coast. 

boccale (bo-kii'le), n. [It. : see bocal.] A liquid 
measure used in most parts of Italy, before the 
introduction of the metric system, for wine and 
oil. Its capacity in different cities is shown in 
the following table : 




eryxfivrus). 



spring. The male is about 7J inches long, black, with a 
buff nape, and much white or pale ash on the back and 
winns ; the tail-feathers are very acute. The female is 
smaller, yellowish, darker alwve, and streaked. The 



a. Bowsprit ; t, Bobstay. 

water. Their function is to hold the bowsprit 
down in its place, and counteract the upward 
strain exerted by the headstays Bobstay holes, 
holes in the fore part of the knee of the head in a ship, 
formerly serving to secure the bobstay. Wtale. Bob- 
stay piece, a t imi't-r fastened to the main piece of the 
head in a snip, to which the tiobstay is secured. Bob- 
stay plates, iron plates by which the lower ends of the 
bobstays are secured to the stem. 

bobstickt (bob'stik), n. [< bob* + stick; the 
application is not clear.] A shilling; a bob. 
[Slang.] 

bobtail (bob'tal), . [< bob*, u., or bob*, r., I., 

2, + tail 1 .] 1. A short tail, or a tail cut short. 
2t. A contemptible fellow ; a cur. X.E.D. 

3. Collectively, the rabble: used in contempt, 
most frequently in the phrase rag-tag and bob- 
tail. 4. A kind of short arrow-head. Pianette. 

bobtailed (bob'tald), a. [< bobtail + -ed?.] Hav- 
ing the tail cut short : as, " a bobtailed cur," Sir 
R. V Estrange Bobtailed car, a small street-car de- 
signed to be used without a conductor or guard, and drawn 
usually by one horse. (Local, U. S.) 

bobtail-wig (bob'tal-wig'), n. A wig with a 
short cue, worn in the seventeenth century. 

bob- white (bob'hwif), . [So called from its 
note.] A name of the bird Ortyjc viryiniantui, 
commonly known in America as the quail or 
partridge. See cut under quail. 

In the North and East, he Is called Quail ; in the South 
and West, he is Partridge ; while everywhere he is known 
as /;..'- HI,,/,-. 

A. M. Mayer, Sport with Gun and Rod, p. 663. 

bob-wig (bob'wig), n. [Short for bobtail-wig.] 
A bobtail- wig. 
A lnili.in' : i and a black silken bag tied to It 

Atidistm, Spectator, No. 129. 

bocaget, A by-form of boscage. 

bocal (bo'kal), n. [= D. bokaal = G. pokal, < 
F. bocal = Sp. Pg. bocal = It. boccale; cf. ML. 
bucalis, baucalis, < Gr. /iaviatfuc, also KafcoAif, a 
vessel in which wine or water is cooled; cf. 
LGr. tlavKcdMv, also navxAZiov, a narrow-necked 
vessel that gurgles when water is poured in or 
out : said to be imitative ; cf . Gr. 3avKa).av, lull, 
sing a lullaby.] 1. A cylindrical glass vessel 
with a short, wide neck and large mouth, used 
to contain anatomical specimens and the like, 
preserved in spirits. 2. The mouthpiece of a 
brass musical instrument, as a horn, a trumpet, 
or a trombone. 

bocan, w. Same as bucan. 

bocardo (bo-kiir'do), n. [An artificial term.] 
1 . In logic, the mnemonic name of that mood 
of the third figure of syllogism in which the ma- 





Liters. 


British 
Qts. 


U. S. 
gu. 


Bologna 


1.255 


1.10 


1.33 


Florence for wine 


.1.14O 


1.00 


1.20 


" oil 


1.044 


0.92 


1.10 


Leghorn 


1.064 


0.94 


1.12 


Modena for wine 


.1.697 


1.49 


1.79 


Nice for wine 


0.6B4 


0.60 


0.72 


Rome for wine, old . . 


l.l'.t: 


1.31 


1.58 


" new . . , 


.1.823 


i.ao 


1.92 


for oil, old 


.1.992 


1.76 


2.10 


" new .... 


.2.053 


1.81 


2.17 


Trieste for wine, old . 


.1.847 


1.63 


1.95 


" -new 


.1.415 


1.25 


1.49 


Turin 


0.884 


0.60 


0.72 


Venice 


1.012 


0.89 


1.07 



boccamela (bok-a-me'la), n. [NL.] A kind of 
weasel found in southern Europe, I'utoriug boc- 
camela. 

boccarelt, See bockerel. 

boccarella (bok-a-rel'a), . [It., < bocca, q. v.] 
A small aperture in a glass-furnace, made on 
each side of the bocca ; a nose-hole. 

boccarett, " See bockerel. 

Boccius light. See light*. 

Bocconia (oo-ko'ni-a), n. [NL.; named after 
a Sicilian botanist, Paolo Boccone, 1633-1704.] 
A genus of tall, coarse, herbaceous plants, nat- 
ural order I'apareracea; with large lobcd leaves 
and large panicles of flowers, some species are 
cultivated, as It. Jajnniea and B. rardata from China, but 
rather for their ornamental habit than for their flowers. 

bocet, . Same as bogite?. 

bocedizationt (bd-se-Kii-za'shon), n. [< bo + 
ce + di (see def.) + -z-atioii'.] In music, the 
application of the syllables bo, ce, di, ga, In, 
ma, ni to the tones of the scale : a system in- 
troduced about 1550 by the Belgian musician 
Waelrant. 

bochet, n. A Middle English form of botch*. 

bochka (boch'kS), . [Russ.] A Russian li- 
quid measure, containing 40 vedros, or about 
130 gallons. 

bock (bok), r. i. [8c., = bake*, q. v. ; < ME. 
bocken, boken, belch, vomit, also croak; var. of 
bolk, ME. bolkcH, belch : see hoik.] 1. To retch ; 
vomit. 2. To gush intennittingly, as liquid 
from a bottle. Burns. 

bock-beer (bok'ber), n. [Also, as G., bocktritr, 
G. also simply bock, popularly associated with 
bock, a goat, = E. buck*, but in fact shortened 
from Eimbockbier, now Einbecker bier, from 
Eimbock, Eimbeck, now Eiiibeck, a town in Prus- 
sia formerly famous for its beer.] A double- 
strong variety of German beer, darker in color 
than the ordinary kinds, less bitter in taste, and 
considerably more intoxicating. It is brewed 
in December and January, and is drunk in May. 



bockelet 

bockelett, . See bockcrcl. 

bockerelt (bok'e-rel), . [Also written boc- 
atrrl, with fern!' forms bockeret and boccaret, 
also bockelet, dim. forms of unknown origin; 
possibly from the same source (OF. ftoc) as 
bii/i'lifi', <>F. hnkirr, hoitkir-r, F. bonclier ; cf. E. 
biitclii r-hii-d. tlie great gray shrike.] The male 
of a kind of falcon, the female being designated 
bockeret or boccaret. 

bockerett, See bockerel. 

bockey (bok'i), . [Prob. < D. bakje, a small 
bowl or vessel, dim. of bak : see backZ. ] A bowl 
or vessel made from a gourd. [New York.] 

booking 1 (bok'ing), M. A coarse woolen drug- 
get or baize, named from Booking, in Essex, 
England, where it was first made. 

booking 2 (bok'ing), . [< D. booking (= MHG. 
biickinc, G. bucking), a smoked herring, appar. 
< bok (= E. buckl), a goat, + -ing.'] A red her- 
ring. Crabb. 

bocklandt, w. See bocktnd. 

bockmant, See bocman. 

bock-pot (bok'pot), n. Same as bucks. 

boclandt, . [That is, bocland, the early ME. 
and AS. form of bookland.] Same as bookland. 

bocleti " An obsolete form of buckle^. 

bocmant, [That is, boeman, the early ME. 
and AS. form (recorded only in legal (ML.) 
documents) of bookman.] A holder of book- 
land (which see). 

boco-WOOd (bo'ko-wud), n. The wood of a le- 
guminous tree, Bocoa Provaeensis, of Guiana. 
It is very hard and dark-colored, and is much 
used for furniture, and for carving and turning. 

bodach (bo'dach), n. [Gael., a churlish old 
man, a rustic, = Ir. bodach, a rustic, clown.] 
1. An old man. Scott. 2. A local British 
name of the small ringed seal, Fhoca fostida. 

bodark (bo'dark), . [Corruption of F. bois 
(Care, lit. bow-wood: see bois, bush*, and arc*, 
arc/i 1 .] A local name for the Osage orange, or 
bow-wood. Also spelled bowdark. See Madura. 

boddice, . See bodice. 

boddle 1 , . See bodle. 

boddle 2 ,". [E. dial. ; origin obscure.] A small 
iron instrument used by woodmen for peeling 
oaks and other trees. Hattiwett. [North. Eng.] 

boddum (bod'um), . [E. dial, and Sc.] A 
dialectal form of bottom'-. 

bode 1 (bod), w. [In mod. E. archaic, early ME. 
bode, < AS. boda (= OFries. boda = OS. bodo = 
D. bode = OHG. 60 to, MHG. G. bate = Icel. bodhi 
= Sw. Dan. bud), a messenger, < beddan (pp. 
boden), announce: see bid, and cf. beadle, also a 
noun of agent from the same verb.] A mes- 
senger; a herald; one who announces or con- 
veys a message. 

bpde 1 (bod), v. ; pret. and pp. boded, ppr. bod- 
ing. [< ME. boden, bodien, < AS. bodian (= 
OFries. bndin = Icel. bodha = Sw. b&da = Dan. 
be-bude), tell, announce, < boda, a messenger: 
see bode^, n., and cf. bode?, n. Hence forebode, 
q. v.] I. traits. If. To announce; proclaim; 
preach. 2f. To decree; command; bid. 3. 
To announce beforehand; prognosticate; pre- 
dict; presage. [Archaic.] 

Prophet of plagues, for ever boding ill. 

Pope, Iliad, i. 182. 

4. To portend ; augur ; be an omen or indica- 
tion of ; betoken : with a non-personal subject. 

In the gross and scope of my opinion, 

This boden gome strange eruption to our state. 

Shak., Hamlet, i. 1. 
I pray God, his bad voice bode no mischief ! 

Shak., Much Ado, ii. 3. 

Upon which he mounted, and his horse wept : and then 
he saw clearly how this should bode his death. 

De Quinceif, tr. of Cretan Ballad. 

5. To forebode or have a presentiment of (ill, 
or coming disaster). 

And my soul, dark-stirred with the prophet's mood, 
Bodes nothing good. 

J. S. Blackie, tr. of .Eschylus, ii. 229. 
= Syn. 4. To augur, betoken, portend. 

II. intrans. 1. To promise; portend: with 

well or ill : as, this bodes well for your success. 

2. To presage something evil; be of evil omen. 

I would croak like a raven ; I would bode, I would bode 

Shak., T. and C., v. 2. 

Fear for ages had boded and mowed and gibbered over 
government and property. Emerson, Compensation. 

bode 2 (bod), . [< ME. bode, bod, a command, 
an announcement, a bid, price offered, < AS. 
lioil, usually gebod (or bebod) (= OFries. Imil = 
OS. gibod = D. gebod, a command, bod, a bid, 
offer, = OHG. gabot, MHG. G. gebot, hot = led. 
bodh = Sw. Dan. bud, a command, etc.), < beo- 
dan (pp. boden), announce, command, bid: see 



608 

bid, and cf. bode*, v.~\ If. A command; an 
order. 2f. An announcement; a message. 

The owle eke, that of detli the bode briiigetli. 

Chaucer, Parliament of fowls, 1. 343. 

3f. Omen; premonition; augury. 

If no fate 
Have an unlucky bode. Shirley, Love in a Maze, v. 6. 

4f. A foreboding; presentiment. 5. A bid; 
the price offered by a buyer or asked by a sel- 
ler. [Scotch.] 

Ye should never tak' a fish-wife's first bode. 

Scott, Antiquary, xxxix. 

bode 2 (bod), v. t. ; pret. bode, pp. boden, ppr. bod- 
ing. [< ftode 2 , M., 5.] To bid for; make an offer 
for; buy. [Scotch.] 

bode 3 (bod). Preterit and past participle of bide. 

bode 4 t (bod), n. [< ME. bode, bade, a stop, delay, 
< biden (pret. bode, bod, bad), bide. Cf. abode 1 , 
re., of similar formation.] A stop; delay. 

Withouten bode his heste she obeyed. 

Chaucer, Anelida and Arc., 1. 119. 

bode 5 t, bodent, pp. [ME. forms of the pp. of 
beden, bid, command: see bid.'] Bidden; com- 
manded. 

bodeful (bod'ful), a. [< bode*, n., + -//.] Omi- 
nous; threatening; foreboding. 
Uttering the dismal bodeful sounds of death. J. Baillie. 
Poor Weber almost swooned at the sound of these 
cracked voices, with their bodeful raven-note. 

Carlyle, French Rev., I. iii. 8. 

Lady Macbeth hears not so much the voice of the bode- 
ful bird as of her own premeditated murder, and we are 
thus made her shuddering accomplices before the fact. 

Lowell, Among my Books, 1st ser., p. 186. 

bodega (bo-de'ga), . [Sp., < ML. apotheca: 
see apothe'c.] A wine-cellar, or a shop where 
wine is sold from the wood; a wine-vault. 

A wine bodega near the Grand Theatre caught fire. 

New York Herald. 

bodementt (bod'ment), re. [< bode 1 , v., + 
-ment.] An omen; portent; prognostic; a 
foreshowing: as, "sweet bodements!" Shak., 
Macbeth, iv. 1. 

bodent, PP- See bode 5 . 

boden (bo'den), a. [Sc., also written bodin, 
and formerly boddin, < ME. (Sc.) bodyn, bodin, 
appar. a particular use of boden, pp. of ME. 
beden, bid (see bid); but the sense suggests 
some confusion with boun, ready: see boun, 
bound*.] Accoutred; armed; fitted out; pro- 
vided; prepared. 

The Baron of Avenel never rides with fewer than ten 
jack-men at his back, and oftener with fifty, bodin in all 
that elfeirs to war, as if they were to do battle for a king- 
dom. Scott, Monastery, II. 181. 

Bodenheimer ( bo ' den - hi - mer), re. [< Soden- 
heim, a village near Mainz.] A white wine 
grown near Mainz in Germany. 

Bode's law. See law. 

bode-wash (bod'wosh), . [Corruption of F. 
bois de vaclie, lit. cow's wood, or idiomatically 
"buffalo-chip."] The dried dung of the Amer- 
ican bison or buffalo, used for fuel. Bartlett. 
See buffalo-chip. 

bodge 1 (boj),t>.i. [Another form of botch*, v.] To 
boggle ; botch ; patch. [Obsolete or dialectal.] 
All the actions of his life are like so many things body'd 
in without any naturall cadence or connexion at all. 

Bp. Earle, Micro-cosmographie, An Affected Man. 

bodge 1 ! (boj), w. [Another form of botch 2 .] A 
botch ; a patch. 

Taking revenge on Thomas Sash, Gabriell Harvey taxes 
him with having forged "a misshapen rabblement of ab- 
surd and ridiculous words, the proper bodges of his new- 
fangled figure, called foolrisme." 

F. Hall, Mod. Eng., p. 110. 

bodge 2 t (boj), v. i. [Appar. a var. of budge 1 .'] 
To midge; give way: used only in the passage 
cited. 

With this, we charg'd again : but out, alas ! 

We bodg'd again. Shak., 3 Hen. VI., i. 4. 

bodgerM (boj'er), . [< bodge + -er l ; var. of 

botcher 1 .] A botcher. 

bodger 2 (boj'er), n. [Appar. a var. of badger^, 

q. v.] A peddler; a hawKer. [Prov. Eug.] 

bodhisat (bo'di-sat), n. Same as bodhisattva. 

The beings who will in due course become Buddhas are 
called Bodhisat. They are numberless. 

S. Hardy, Manual of Buddhism. 

bodhisatship (bo'di-sat-ship), n. In Budilhixm. 
the highest degree of saintsnip. See bodhisatt- 
rn. Also spelled bodisatship. 

The leaders of the Great Vehicle [that is, the Mahayana 
development of Buddhism] urged their followers to seek 
to attain, not so much to Arhatship, which would involve 
only their own salvation, but to Bodisatship, by the at- 
tainment of which they would be conferring the blessings 
of the Dhamma [law of Buddha] upon countless multi- 
tudes in the long ages of the future. 

Kncyc. Brit., XIV. 22. 



bodily 

bodhisattva (bo-di-sat'va), w. [Skt. (> Sin- 
ghalese bodhisat, bodisat, Jap. bosatsu, Chin. 
poosah), < bodhi, intelligence, wisdom (< / 
bndh, know : see Buddha), + sattra, being, es- 
sence, < sant (= L. ens), being, ppr. of / as, be : 
see be 1 .] In Buddhism of the northern school, 
or the later development called the Mahayana, 
one of a numerous class of beings who, having 
arrived at supreme wisdom (bodhi), have to pass 
through human existence only once more be- 
fore attaining to Buddhahood, or complete en- 
lightenment, and entrance into Nirvana. Among 
Singhalese Buddhists called bodhiat and bottixat, among 
the Chinese poosah, and among the Japanese lm*<i'*i'i. 

bodhi-tree (bo'di-tre), . Same as bo-tree. 

bodice (bod'is), . [Sometimes spelled boddice, 
formerly bodies, being orig. pi. of body . Cf . cor- 
set.] If. A sort of inner stays or corset, laced 
in front, worn by women, and sometimes by 
men : also called a pair of bodies, or a bodies. 
2. An outer laced garment, covering the waist 
and bust, worn by women in some European 
styles of costume, often as an ornament. 3. 
More generally, the close-fitting waist or body 
of a gown. 

bodiced (bod'ist), a. [< bodice + -ed 2 .] Clothed 
in a bodice ; furnished with a bodice. 

Slim her little waist, 
Comfortably bodiced. 

Thackeray, Peg of Limavaddy. 
They appear habited in bodiced guwns. 

Archceol. Jour., XXXV. 256. 

bodied (bod'id), a. [< body + -c<V.] Having 
body, or a body, of the kind indicated by the 
context : used chiefly in composition : as, an 
able-bodied man. 

I was told by a very good judge who tasted it [wine 
made from wild grapes], that it was a pleasant, strong, 
and tM-bodied wine. Bemrley, Virginia, ii. H 15. 

bodieron (bo-di-e'ron), n. [Origin obscure.] A 
local name on the Pacific coast of the United 
States of sundry fishes of the family Chiridte 
and genus Sexagrammus. Also called rock- 
trout, rock-cod, sea-trout, boregat, and starling. 
See cut under Hexagrainmus. 

bodikin t (bod'i-Wn), . [< body + dim. -kin.] 
A diminutive of body, forming part of the ex- 
clamatory phrase "odd's bodikin," a corruption 
of God?s body. Also spelled bodykin. 
Pol. My lord, I will use them according to their desert. 
Ham. Odd's bodikin, man, better. Shak., Hamlet, ii. 2. 

bodiless (bod'i-les), a. [< body + -less.] Hav- 
ing no body or material form ; incorporeal : 
as, "phantoms bodiless and vain," Swift. 

Man is a concrete whole. He is neither a soulless body 
nor a bodiless soul. N. A. Rev., CXX. 289. 

bodiliness (bod'i-li-nes), n. [< bodily + -ness.'] 
Corporeality. Minsheu. 

bodily (bod'i-li), a. [< ME. bodily, bodili, bodi- 
liche, etc.; < body + -ly 1 .] 1. Pertaining to or 
concerning the body; of or belonging to the 
body or to the physical constitution ; not men- 
tal; corporeal: as, bodily dimensions; bodily 
exertions ; bodily pain. 

You are a mere spirit, and have no knowledge of the 
bodily part of us. Toiler, No. 15. 

Since we are creatures with bodies, if we desire to ex- 
press a real sentiment of reverence for anyone, we must 
use some bodily act some form of words or gestures. 

Mivart, Nature and Thought, p. 233. 

2f. Having a material body. 

There are three bodily inhabitants of heaven ; Henoch, 
Elijah, our Saviour Christ. 

Bp. Hall, Rapture of Elijah (Orel MS.). 

= Syn. 1. Bodily, Physical, Corjmral, Corjioreal. Bodily 
generally means connected with the body or a body, and 
is frequently opposed to mental: as, bodily pains, bodily 
strength. Physical in this connection is often the same as 
bodili/, but may cover everything that is material, as op- 
posed to mental or spiritual : as, physical distress. Cor- 
poral relates to the body in its outward bearings : as, cor- 
poral punishment ; corporeal, to its substance, being op- 
posed to spiritual or immaterial: as, corporeal existence. 
We speak of Shakspeare's mind, but Jonson starts up al- 
ways in bodily proportions. W hippie, Ess. and Rev., II. 26. 
Dr. Beddoe . . . believes that wherever a race attains 
its maximum of physical development it rises highest in 
energy and moral vigour. Danrin, Descent of Man, I. 111. 
The poor beetle, that we tread upon. 
In corporal sufferance finds a pang as great 
As when a giant dies. >/</,.. M. for M.. iii. 1. 

When [the soul] is freed from all corporeal alliance, 
then it truly exists. Xenophon (trans), Cyrus the Elder. 

bodily (bod'i-li), adv. [ME. bodily, -H. -lirli ; < 

body + -fy 2 .] 1. Corporeally; in connection 

with a body or matter; in the flesh; in person. 

It is his human nature, in which the Godhead dwells 

bodily. Wutit. 

2. In respect to the entire body or mass; en- 
tirely; completely: as, to carry a thing away 
bodily. 



bodln 

bodin (bo'dinj, a. Same us ' 

boding (bo'ding), >i. [< MK. 
(mien, preaching, < AS. hadiing, preaching, ver- 
bal u. of Iwdittii, announce, bode: see bode 1 , t'.] 

1. An omen; a prognostic; a foreboding pre- 
monition ; presentiment. 

Illninoii^""//////-', and fealful expeetations. 

/;/i. tt'imi. Sermon. .Ian. :, inn. 

The minds of men were Mini with dismal hating* at 
some inevitable evil, /v. -m//, Kerd. and laa., i. 8. 

2. Prediction; prophecy of evil. Coleridge. 
boding (boMiiij,'), i>. a. [Ppr. of bodet, .] 

Foreboding; ominous. 

So Joseph, yet & youth, expounded well 
Tin- boon0 dream, and did th' event foretell. 

Dryden, To J. Northlelgh. 
Nor knew what signify'd the ladimj sign, 
Hut found the powers displeas'd, and fear'd the wrath 
divine. Driiden, Pal. and Arc., lit 

You miuht have lieard ... a cricket sins, 
An owlet flap Ilia bodimj wing. Scott, Marnilon, v. 20. 

bodingly (bo'ding-li), adv. Ominously; por- 
tentously. 

All Is so bodingly still. Lowell, Summer Storm. 

bodisat, . Same as bodltixattra. 
bodisatship, . See bodltisatsliip. 
bodkin 1 (bod'kiu), . [Early mod. E. also bod- 
1,-iin; luitkiii, Imidken- (cf. 8c. lioikin), < ME. 
linili'ki/ii. earlier Iwydckyn, boidcki/n ; origin un- 
known. The Celtic forms. W. bidotjyii, bidogan 
(with accent, on second syllable), dim. of bidog 
= Gael, biodtig = Ir. bidcog, a dagger (cf . W. 
pid = Gaol, bind, a point), are not near enough 
to be regarded as the source of the E. word.] 
If. A small dagger; a stiletto. 

Who would bear the whips and scorns of time, . . . 

When he himself might his quietus make 

With a bare (.,/*/.- Shak., Hamlet, iii. 1. 

Out with your bodkin, 
Your pocket-dagger, your stiletto ; out with It. 

Beau, and t'l., Custom of the Country, ii. 3. 

2. A small pointed instrument of steel, bone, 
or ivory, used for piercing holes in cloth, etc. 

With knyf or boydekin. Chaucer, Heeve's Tale, 1. 40. 

3. A similar but blunt instrument, with an eye, 
for drawing thread, tape, or ribbon through a 
loop, hem, etc. 4. A long pin-shaped instru- 
ment used by women to fasten up the hair. 

The bodkin, comb, and essence. Pope, K. of the L. , Iv. OS. 
5. A thick needle or straight awl of steel, used 
by bookbinders to make holes in boards and 
to trace lines for cutting. 6. A printers' tool 
for picking letters out of a column or page in 
correcting To be, alt, ride, or travel bodkin, to 
sit as a third person between two others on the seat of it 
carriage suited for two only. 

He's too big to travel bodkin between you and me. 

Thackeray, Vanity Fair. 

bodkin'^t, " A corruption of bandekin. 

bodkin-work (bod'kin-werk), n. A rich trim- 
ming formerly used for garments : probably a 
corruption of baudckin. 

bodle (bod'l), N. [Sc., also written boddle; said 
to be derived from the name of a mint-master 
named liotli- 
well. Ct.atcli- 
ison and 

bawbee.'] A 
Scotch cop- 
per coin first 
issued under 
Charles II., 
and worth at 
that time 2d. 
Scotch, cl- 
one sixth of an English penny; hence, a very 
small coin. The name turner was also applied 
to it. 

I care not a brass boddle for the feud. 

Xcott, Abbot, II. xlli. 

Bodleian (bod-le'an or bod'le-an), a. Of or 
pertaining to Sir Thomas Bodley, who began 
in 1597 the restoration of the public library of 
Oxford University, hence since called the Bod- 
li'inii Library; also, belonging to that library: 
as, Bodleian manuscripts. 

bodragt, bodraget, [Also written hard mi/ 
(and Tiorilntging), simulating E. border; appar. 
a corruption of some Ir. word; cf. Ir. Inini/l/i- 
rrmlli, disturtw uer. Imndri; tumult.] An in- 
cursion; a raid. 

No u;i\linu lliiTi- ii"i \\ret, hednesse is heard, . . . 
N" nightly tux/i-iurx, nnr no line and crie*. 

Spriurr. t'nlin Clout. 1. Sl.">. 

[In some editions printed Inn-di-ni/x. } 
bod-worm (bod'werm). " Same as bolt-irorm. 
body ( bod'h. n. : pi. Inulirs (-iz). [< ME. body, 

budi. < AS. hiiili,/. body, = OHG. botali, bohicli, 

:ty 




Obverse. Reverse. 

Bodle of Charles II., British Museum. (Size 

of the original.) 



600 

MIK1. boteeli, boticli, body; perhaps akin to 
OIK;, bohihliti, MHG. boteche,botcch,G.lmttirli, 
a large vessel, tub, vat ; but this may come 
from another source, that of boofi. The Qael. 
bodhtii;/, body, is from E.] 1. The physical 
structure of an animal; the material organized 
substance of an animal, whether living or dead, 
in distinction from the soul, spirit, or vital 
principle. 

For of the soule the bodie forme doth take, 
For sonic is forme, and dnth the budi' make. 

Spenser, H> mm- in Honour of llcautie, 1. 182. 

2. The main portion of an animal, tree, etc. ; 
the trunk, as distinct from the head and limbs 
or branches; in ichth., often used for the whole 
fish exclusive of the fins. 3. The part of a 
dress which covers the body, as distinct from 
the parts which cover the arms or extremities ; 
in female dress, a bodice ; a waist. 

Their bodiet were of carnation cloth of silver, richly 
wrought. B. Joruton, Masque of Hymen. 

4. The main, central, or principal part of any- 
thing, as of an army, country, building, etc., 
as distinguished from subordinate or less im- 
portant parts. 

Learn to make a body of a limb. ,S/i*., Rich. II., ill. 2. 

The van of the king's army was led by the general . . .; 
In the body was the king and the prince. Clarendon. 

Specifically (a) In a blast-furnace, the core or main por- 
tion between the top, or opening at the throat, and the 
boshes. (&) In mwnc : (1) The whole of the hollow part of 
a string. instrument, designed to Increase its resonance, 

(2) All that part of a wind-instrument that remains after 
removing its appendages, mouthpiece, crooks, and bell. 

(3) The higher resonant part of an organ-pipe, above the 
reed or the mouth, which causes the air to vibrate, (c) 
The shank of a type, as determining its size : as, minion 
on nonpareil body, (d) The main part of a tool ; the main 
part of a blade, as of a sword, as distinguished from the 
heel and point, etc. (e) That part of a wagon, railroad- 
car, etc., which contains the load. 

6. The main portion; the bulk of anything; 
the larger part ; the majority : as, the body of 
the people are opposed to the measure. 6. 
The person ; an individual as recognized by 
law : as, body execution ; held in body and 
goods. [Chiefly legal.] 7. A person ; a hu- 
man being: now generally combined with any, 
every, some, or no : as, somebody, nobody. 

There cannot a poor body buy a sack of coals, but it 
must couie through their hands. 

Latinur, 2d Serm. bef. Edw. VI., 1650. 
A body would think so, at these years. 

B. Jomon, Cynthia's Keveli, iv. 1. 
Gin a body meet a body, 
Comin' thro' the rye. Burnt, Song. 

But human bodiet are sic fools, 
For a' their colleges an' schools. 

Hums, The Twa Dogs. 
A dry, shrewd kind of a body. Irriny. 

8. A number of individuals spoken of collec- 
tively, usually associated for a common pur- 
pose, joined in a certain cause, or united by 
some common tie or occupation; an incorpo- 
rated or other aggregate : as, a legislative body ; 
the body of the clergy ; a body corporate. 

So please you, my lord, it is a body of horse and . . . 
there is a still larger lt<i of foot behind it. 

Barham, Ingoldsby Legends, I. 86. 

The trading body may lie a single individual in one case ; 
it may lie the whole inhabitants of a continent in another ; 
it may be the individuals of a trade diffused through a 
country in a third. Jemnn, Pol. Econ., p. 96. 

9. A material thing; anything having inertia. 
See matter. 10. In geom., any solid having the 
three dimensions, length, breadth, and thick- 
ness. 1 1. A united mass ; a number of things 
or particulars taken together ; a general collec- 
tion ; a code ; a system : as, a body of laws. 

I have, with much pains and reading, collected out of 
ancient authors this short summary of a botty of philoso- 
phy and divinity. Swift, Tale of a Tub, ii. 

He was furnished with every requisite for making an 
extensive body of natural history. 

Ooldtmith, fret, to Brookes's Nat. Hist. 

The mind unequal to a complete analysis of the motives 
which carry it on to a particular conclusion . . . is swayed 
and determined by a body of proof, which it recognizes 
only as a body, and not in its constituent part*. 

J. II. Xewman, Gram, of Assent, p. 281. 

12. A certain consistency or density; sub- 
stance; strength, as opposed to thinness, weak- 
ness, transparency, or flimsiness : as, wine, pa- 
per, ct<'.. of good In n I ;/. As applied to paints, body 
denotes opacity or density, as opposed to transparency. 

It was a fragrant Port, with plenty of body and a large 
proportion of soul. '/'. \\'intliri<. (Veil llreeme. \iii. 

13. In music, the resonance of a tone, whether 
instrumental or vocal Adipose body, astral 
body. see the adjective-. Bodies of Arantlua. See 

' .\i-<ini<<. under corjnts. Body center-plate, -i 
metal plate on the liody-bolster of a car. It rests upon a 
similar plnte on the eenter of a trnek. The eenter-liolt or 
kinf-in.it passe* through these plates. Body corporate. 
See btHlii iH'Htii-. Body hand-rail, see haivl-rail.- 



f 
( 



body-color 

Body of a column, the part between the base and the capi- 
tal : I hi -shaft. Body 01 a gun, thai part of thi-iiim whi' -h 
Is situated In-hind the ttnnniou-. Body Of a Place, in 
fort.: (a) The works next to and surroundum a loun, in 
tile form of a pohi 

inelosed "illini tin- mlen.ii uoiku nl a fnrtiln atii.n. 
Body of the fornix - Body politic, tin- 

whole body of I- "pie living under an iili, al 

Kovenillient : Used ill eulltl adi-l met Inn nratt, 

an association of persons legally incorporated for the pi 
motion of some specific object. A body ftUt 
porate U a municipality governed according to a legiala- 
tlve act of incorporation, and thus poMeiung corporate 
political powers. 

We may fairly conclude that the body jiolitie cannot sub- 
sist, any more than the animal body, without a head. 

J. Adatiu, Works, IV. 379. 

Cavernous bodies, centrobaric body, ciliary body. 
See the adjectives. Descent ot bodies. -See deter at. 
Deviation of a falling body. n Diplo- 

matic body. St diplomatic. Elementary body 
imwrif.--- Fifth body, tie It element, the sub- 

stance of the heavenly bodies, according to the Aristo- 
telians. Fixed bodies, genlculate bodies, hetero- 
geneous body, main body, etc. See the adjeetlvn.- 
Hathematlcal body, a body In sense 10. Mystical 
body of the church, the aggregate of believers as e,,n 
stunting the bride ,,f rimst Okenlan body, olivary 
body. See the adjeetives. - Regular body, a polyhedron 
in wnich the relations of an) one Ian .<.!-< ,t summit are 
the same as those of any other. Pythagoras enumerated 
the live regular bodies (the gpkrrt is not included among 
them) : the tetrahedron, the cvbe, the octahedron, thedode- 
cahcdron, and the \conahedron. These are often called 
the Jirf bodiet simply; also the comnical bodie*. because 
Timams of Locri held that the tetrahedron is tile shape 
of lire, the octahedron of air, the icosahedron of water, 
the cube of earth, and the dodecahedron of Clod : also 
the I'latonic bodieit, because mentioned by Plato in his 
dialogue "TlniEcus." Four other regular bodies which 
envelop the center more than once were discovered by 
Kepler and by Poinsot. These are name, I by Cayley the 
mat KOfahedron, the nrtat dodecahedron, the great stel- 
lated dodecahedron, and the innall gtcllated dodecahedron. 
For illustrations of all these bodies, see nolid. Irregu- 
lar bodies, such as are not bounded by equal and like 
surfaces. The bodies seven, in alchemy, the metals 
corresponding to the plain t-. 

The bodies *even, eek, lo hem heer anon : 
Sol gold is, and Luna silver we threpe [call], 
Mars yren, Mercurie quiksilver we clepe, 
Saturnus leed, and Jupiter is tin, 
And Venus coper. 

Chaucer, ITol. to Canon s Yeoman's Tale, 1. 272. 
body (bod'i), v. t. ; pret. and pp. bodied, ppr. 
bodying. [< body, .] 1. To provide with a 
body; embody. 2. To form into a body or 
company. 

A new exotick way of bodying, that U, formally cove- 
nanting and verbally engaging with them and to them 
beyond the baptismal! bond and vow. 

Bp. Gauden, Tears of the Church, p. 37. 
3. To represent in bodily form; exhibit in 
tangible form or outward reality : with/or<A. 

As imagination bodies forth 
The forms of things unknown, the poet's pen 
Turns them to shapes, and gives to airy nothing 
A local habitation and a name. Skat., M. N. U., T. 1. 
Bodied forth the tourney high, 
Held for the hand of Emily! 

Scott, Rokeby, vi. 26. 

body-bagt (bod'i-bag), n. A bag to sleep in. 

body-bolster (bod'i-bol'ster), n. A cross-beam 
of wood, iron, or the two in combination, on 
the under side of a railroad-car, which supports 
it and transmits its weight to the truck. The 
upper end of the king-bolt, which forms the pivot for the 
truck, is fastened to a body-bolster. 

body-cavity (bod'i-kav'i-ti), n. In zoiil., the 
general or common cavity of the body, as dis- 
tinguished from special cavities, or those of 
particular organs; the coelom or coaloma. in 
vertebrates the body-cavity is formed by the splitting of 
the mesoblast into its somatopleural and splanchnopleu- 
ral layers, and consists of the cavities of the thorax, ab- 
domen (divided or not by a diaphragm), and pelvU. 

body-cloth (bod'i-k!6th), n. A clcth for the 
boofy ; specifically, a large rug or cloth for cov- 
ering a horse. See body-clothes, 2. 
Before the window were several horses in body-cloth*. 
Buhner, Pelhani, Ixi. 

body-clothes (bod'i-kloTHz), .;</. 1. Garments 
for the body, intended to be worn by day. as 
distinguished from bedclothes. [This use of the 
word appears to be confined in recent times to 
Scotland.] 2. Coverings for a horse or other 
animal: properly, body-cloths. See body-cloth. 

I am informed that several asses are kept In body*lothe* 
and sweated every morning upon the heath. Additun. 

body-coat (bod'i-kot), . 1. A close-fitting 
coat. 2. In coucli-jitiiiiting, a coat of paint 
made opaque by the admixture of white lead, 
laid on oefore the transparent coats. 

body-Color (bod'i-kul'pr), n. In /Minting, a 
pigment possessing Ixxly or a high degree of 
consistence, substance, and covering power. 
In water-color jtaiHtiny, works are said to lie executed in 
body-color* when, in cOBtndUUnotlon to the more com- 
mon mode of proceeding by transparent tints and washes, 
the pigments are mixed with white and thus rendered 
opaque. 



body-guard 

body-guard (bod'i-gard), . One who protects 
or defends the person; a life-guard; collec- 
tively, the guard charged with the protection of 
some person, as a prince or an officer; hence, 
retinue ; attendance ; following. 

It might possibly be convenient that, when the Parlia- 
ment assembled, the King should repair to Westminster 
with a body-guard. Macaulay, Hist. Eng., ix. 

body-hoop (bod'i-hop), M. A band securing the 
arris pieces of a built mast. 

body-horse (bod'i-hors), . A shaft-horse. 
[Prov. ug.] 

body-loop (bod'i-lop), . A strap or iron arm 
connecting a wagon-body with the gearing. 

body-louse (bod'i-lous), n. A kind of louse, 
the Pediculus corporis or P. vestimenti, which 
is parasitic on man. It is generally found on the 
body, or concealed in the clothing, while the Pediculux 
capitix, or head-louse, infests the head. 

body-plan (bod'i-plan), n. In ship-building, 
a plan upon which are projected the intersec- 
tions of the sides of the vessel with transverse 



610 

of species yield tenacious fibers, used for making ropes, 
twine, net, and sewing-thread. The most important spe- 
cies is B. nivea, a shrubby plant of China and the East In- 
dies, which affords the valuable rhea-flber or grass-cloth 





c 

Body-plan. 

A, after-body ; B, fore-body ; C, C, center-line ; A D, load-line ; 
K, E, base-line. 

vertical planes passing through certain fixed 
points, the intersections with the fore-body 
being shown upon one side and those with the 
after-body on the other. 

body-post (bod'i-post), n. 1. An upright tim- 
ber in the sill and plate of a freight-car, form- 
ing one of the vertical members of the frame 
of the body. It corresponds to the window- 
posts in a passenger-car. 2. A post at the 
forward end of the opening in the deadwood 
of a steamship, within which the screw turns. 

body-servant (bod'i-ser"vant), n. A servant 
who waits upon or accompanies his employer ; 
a valet ; a personal attendant. 

body-snatcher (bod'i-snach'er), n. One who 
secretly disinters the bodies of the dead as sub- 
jects for dissection, or for the purpose of exact- 
ing a ransom ; a resurrectionist. 

body-snatching (bod'i-snach"iug), M. The act 
of robbing a grave to obtain a subject for dis- 
section. 

body-varnish (bod'i-var"nish), it. A thick and 
quick-drying copal varnish, used for carriages 
and other objects that are to be polished. 

body-wall (bod'i-wal), n. In zool., the general 
envelop or parietes of a body, especially of a 
low organism ; a cell-wall. 

body-whorl (bod'i-hwerl), H. The last-formed 
and generally largest whorl of a univalve shell. 
See univalve. 

Boedromia (bo-e-dro'mi-a), n.pl. See Boe'dro- 
mipn. 

Boedromion (bo-e-dro'mi-on), . [Gr. Bo^dpo- 
fu&v. the month in which were celebrated the 
'BariapAfua, < /3or/Sp6ftiOf, /3or/Sp6/jof, giving succor 
(SorjSpofielv, to run to a cry for aid), < jioij, Dor. 
poa, a shout, cry (< foav, to cry: see boation), 
+ -dpo/iof, < ipafieiv, run.] The third month of 
the Athenian year, corresponding to the latter 
part of September and the early part of Octo- 
ber. During this month the festival called Boedromia 
was celebrated, in commemoration of the succor given by 
Theseus against the Amazons. 

boef 1 t, An obsolete form of beef. 

boef 2 t, inter j. See buf. 

Boehm flute. See flute 1 , \. 

Bcehmeria (b6-me'ri-a), n. [NL., after G. B. 
Boehmer or Bohmer, a German botanist of the 
18th century ; cf . G. Bo'hme, a Bohemian, Boh- 
men, Bohemia.] A genus of dicotyledonous 
plants, natural order Urticacece, allied to the 
nettle, but without its stinging hairs. A number 



The Ramie-plant (SeeHtntria nivea}. 

fiber, also known under its Malay name of ramie. It has 
been long in cultivation in China and India, and success- 
ful attempts have been made to cultivate it in the United 
States. The species B. Puya, from which the Puya-flber 
is obtained, is now referred to the genus Maoutia. See 
grass-cloth. 

boeotarch (be-6'tark), n. [< L. Bceotarches, < 
Gr. BmuTapxif , < BOJTOZ, Boaotia, + ap%6<; , ruler : 
see arch-.] One of the chief magistrates of the 
Boeotian confederacy. Two were chosen by 
Thebes, and one by each of the other members 
of the league. 

Pelopidas and two others of the liberators were elected 
baeotarchs, or chief magistrates of Bceotia. 

Encyc. Brit., XVIII. 479. 

Boeotian (be-6'shian), a. and n. [< L. Bceotia, 
< Gr. Eoturia, Boaotia, Bo(ur/o<, the Boeotians.] 

1. a. 1. Pertaining to Boeotia, a division of 
central Greece, noted for its thick atmosphere, 
which was supposed to communicate its dull- 
ness to the intellect of the inhabitants. Hence 

2. Dull; stupid; ignorant; obtuse. 

II. n. 1 . A native or an inhabitant of Boeotia. 
Hence 2. A dull, ignorant, stupid person. 

Boeotic (be-ot'ik), a. Belonging to or charac- 
teristic of Boeotia or the Boeotians ; Boeotian : 
as, the Bceotic dialect. 

Boer (bor), . [Also written Boor, < D. boer, a 
farmer, a peasant: see boor.] The name given 
to the Dutch colonists of South Africa, who 
are principally engaged in agriculture or cattle- 
breeding. 

boffle (bof '!), v. A dialectal form of baffle. 

bog 1 (bog), . [Formerly bogge, < Ir. bogach =. 
Gael, bogan, a bog, morass, < Ir. Gael, hog, soft, 
moist, tender, in comp. bog-.~\ 1. Wet, soft, 
and spongy ground, where the soil is composed 
mainly of decayed and decaying vegetable mat- 
ter; a quagmire covered with grass or other 
plants; a piece of mossy or peaty ground; a 
moss. 

All the infections that the sun sucks up 
From boffg, fens, flats, on Prosper fall, and make him 
By inch-meal a disease ! Shak., Tempest, ii. 2. 

2. A little elevated piece of earth in a marsh 
or swamp, filled with roots and grass. Web- 
ster. [Local, U. S.] Bog-asphodel. See asphodel. 

-Bog-bilberry. See bilberry. Bog-iron ore, an im- 
pure ore of iron, essentially a hydrous oxid, of which the 
mineralogical name is limonite : found frequently at the 
bottom of lakes and in swampy localities, and usually of 
very recent origin. = Syn. 1. Quagmire, etc. See marsh. 
bog 1 (bog) r. ; pret. and pp. bogged, ppr. bog- 
fling. [< bog 1 , n.] I. trans. To sink or sub- 
merge in a bog, or in mud and mire: used 
chiefly in the passive, to be bogged. 

Bid him to be gone 
As far as he can fly, or follow day, 
Rather than here so boytfed in vices stay. 

B. Jonson, Underwoods, xxxii. 
'Twas time ; his invention had been bogged else. 

B. Jmuion, Every Man out of his Humour, iii. 8. 
Of Middleton's horse three hundred men were taken, 
inwl one hundred were togged. 

Whttelock, Memoirs (1682), p. 580. 

II. intrans. To sink or stick in a bog ; hence, 
to flounder among obstacles ; be stopped. 
bog 2 (bog), ji. [Earlymod. E. bogge, appar. a var. 
of the equiv. bug 1 , ME. bugge, connecting the 
latter with the equiv. boggle 1 , bogle, bogy, bog- 
i/ard 1 : see these words.] A specter; a bugbear. 

To take bogt, to boggle; shy; shrink. 

bog 3 (bog), H. and . [E. dial., formerly also 
bogge, earlier in deriv. form bogi/idi?, q. v. Cf. 



boggle 

, big 1 .] I. a. Bold; sturdy; self-sufficient; 
petulant; saucy. 

II. . Brag; boastfulness. Halliwcll. [Prov. 
Bug.] 

bog 3 (bog), . ; pret. and pp. bogged, ppr. bog- 
ging. [< bog' A , a. or .] I. intrans. To boast. 
[Prov. Eng.] 

Il.t trans. [Perhaps of other origin.] To 
provoke. 

bog 4 (bog), c. i. [E. dial.; origin unknown.] To 
ease the body by stool. 

boga (bo'ga), n. Same as bogue 2 . 

bog-bean (bog'ben), . The common name of 
the Menyauthes trifoliata, a gentianaceous bog- 
plant, a native of the more temperate parts of 
the northern hemisphere, it is a bitter tonic. The 
fringed bog-bean is an aquatic plant of the same order, 
Limnantheuimu nymphceoides, with large yellow fringed 
flowers. Also called buck-bean. 

bogberry (bog'ber'i), n. ; pi. bogberries (-iz). 
The cranberry, Vacciniuni Oxycoccus. 

bog-blitter (bog'bluV'er), n. [See bog-bluiter.] 
Same as bog-bumper. [Scotch.] 

bog-bluiter' (bog'blo'ter), n. [Also bog-bluter, 
bog-blitter ; <. bog + Se. bluiter, bluter, make a 
rumbling noise, blurt, also speak foolishly (in 
last sense cf. blatter, blather, blether 1 ).'] Same 
as bog-bumper. [Scotch.] 

bog-billl (bog'bul), . [Cf. Botaurus and bit- 
tern 1 .'] A name of the. bittern, Bota/irus stel- 
laris, from its habitual resorts and its hollow, 
booming cry. See cut under bittern. 

bog-bumper (bog'bum"per), . A name of the 
bitterns or heron-like birds of the genus Botau- 
rus (especially B. lentiginosus), in allusion to 
the sound made by the male in the breeding 
season. This sound seems "to be uttered in a deep 
choking tone," and has been compared by Nuttall to the 
syllables "pomp-au-gur." Also bog-jumper, and iu Scot- 
land bog-blitter, bttg-bluiter. 

bog-butter (bog'bufer), n. A fatty sperma- 
ceti-like mineral resin, composed of carbon, 
oxygen, and hydrogen, found in masses in peat- 
bogs. 

A large copper basin consisting of small pieces riveted 
together and several wooden kegs containing bog-butter 
were recently found at a depth of 7 feet in a peat-moss, 
Kylealsin, Skye. Nature, XXX. 181. 

bog-earth (bog'erth), n. An earth or soil com- 
posed of light silicious sand and a considerable 
portion of vegetable fiber in a half-decomposed 
state. It is employed by gardeners for pro- 
moting the growth of flowers. 

boger (bo'ger), n. [Origin obscure.] A name 
in Cornwall, England, for the half-grown sea- 
bream, Pagclh/s centrodontus. 

bogey 1 , bogeyism. See bogy, bogyism. 

bogey 2 , . See bogie 2 . 

bogga (bog'a), H. [E. Ind.] An East Indian 
measure of land, equal to three fifths of an 
acre. 

boggard 1 , boggart (bog'ard, -art), n. [E. dial, 
and Sc., also written bogart, and formerly bug- 
gard, baggard; appar. a var., with term, -ard, 
of boggle 1 , bogle ; in f orm as if < bog% + -ard : 
see boggle 1 , bogle, 6o</ 2 , bug 1 .] 1. A specter, 
goblin, or bogy, especially one supposed to 
haunt a particular spot. 

The belief in elves and boyartx which once was universal. 
J. Fwke, Idea of God, p. 60. 

2f. Any object, real or imaginary, at which a 
horse shies. A". E. D. 3. Figuratively, a bug- 
bear ; a thing of fear. 

boggard 2 t, . [As bog* + -ard.] A privy. 

boggifyt, c. t. [< bog 1 + -i-fy.] To make boggy. 

boggingt (bog'ing), . [Early mod. E., per- 
haps a var. of 'bagging for bodging, verbal n. 
of badge 2 ; cf. badger 2 .] Peddling; hawking. 

jv: E. D. 

boggish 1 (bog'ish), a. [<6of/ 1 + -ish 1 .] Boggy. 



boggish 2 t 



[ME., written boggisshe, bog- 



gysche; < bog s (not found in ME.) + -igJi 1 '.] 
Bold; puffed up; boastful. 

boggle 1 , n. A dialectal form of bogle. 

boggle 2 (bog'l), c. ('. ; pret. and pp. boggled, ppr. 
boggling. [Early mod. E. also bogle, bttggel, < 
boggle 1 = bogle, a specter, with ref. to the shy- 
ing of a horse at unusual objects; cf. ME. boge- 
len, occurring but once, in the sense of 'deny,' 

1. e., scare off.] 1. To take alarm; start with 
fright; shy, as a horse. 

When a sinner is flrst tempted tu the i-oininleaiun of a 
more gross and notorious sin. lijs conscience is apt to 
boggle and start at it, he doth it with great difficulty and 
regret. Tittotson, Works, I. x. 

We start nml />i-/?'' ;| t fvury unusual appearance. 

QrmwiHc. 

2. To hesitate ; stop, as if afraid to proceed, or 
as if impeded by unforeseen difficulties ; waver; 



boggle 

shrink. 3. To play fast and loose ; dissemble ; 
(|iiil>I)le; equivocate. 

When Mlnilii'iriril to his l:i-t end It wai* II" ttnii- for 

him to /.;(.;/. Will! till- "Olid. llmi-rll. 

4. To bungle; be awkward; iniiko clumsy at- 
tempts. 

boggle" (l)og'l), . 1. The act of shying or t;<k- 
ing alarm. 2f. Objection; scruple; demur. 

The Uuti-'h iio make a furthi-r b^ilr with us alwmt two 
ir three things. I'- ;"/*, Diary, 1M7. 

3. A bungle; a botch. [Colloq.] - Boggle-de- 

botCll, DOggledy-bOtCh, a i->ni|ili-ti- Iwtch ..r lumdc. 

boggle-' (bog'l), . [Origin uncertain; perhaps 
sunn- us IMM/I/II ', /null/'. :> scarecrow.] A pitcher 
or jug wrought in the figure of a man, not un- 



611 

Bogoda (bo-go'dii), n. [NL.] A genus of East 

Iniliiin fishes, considered by some as typical of 

a family HiM/mlniilfi or Jtni/mli 'tin . 
Bogodidae (bo-god'i-dc), w. jit. [NL., < Jlogoda 

+ -iV/rt'.] A family of percoideous fishes: sy- 

nonymous with 



like a toby or tnby-piicher. 
lf-d), . A 
moor-buzzard, 



. 
bog-glede (liog'sjlf-d), . A Scotch name of the 



boggier (bog'ler), . [< boggle 2 + -er 1 .] 1. A 
doubter ; a timorous man. 2f. A jilt ; one false 
in love. 

You have been a boggier ever, .itmk., A. and i '., ill. 11. 
3. One who bungles or is clumsy in doing 
things. 

bogglisht (bog'lish), a, [< boggW + -is/i.] 
Doubtful ; wavering. 

Nothing ia more sly, touchy, and tH><i<jli*ti . . . than that 
opinion . . . of the many or common people. 

Jer. Taylor ('/), Artif. Handsomeness, p. 172. 

boggy (bog'h, . [< bug 1 . >i., + -y 1 .] Contain- 
ing bogs ; full of bogs ; like or having the char- 
acter of a bog. 

Quencli'd in a bogifii Syrtls, neither sea 

Nor good dry land. Milton, P. L., ii. 939. 

boggybo (bog'i-bo), . [North. E. dial.] A 

dialectal form of bugaboo. 
Boghead coal. See coal. 
boghouse (bog'hous), . [< bogl + house.} A 

privy. Johnson. 



bogie ' 



See bogy. 



bogie-, bogey' J (bp'gi), . [Of uncertain origin. 
Sometimes explained from bogie*, bogy, a fiend, 
the bogie eoal-wagon when first introduced 
being so called, it is said, because, from its 
suddenly turning when people least expected 
it, they used to exclaim that the new wagon 
was ' Old Bogy ' himself. But this is mere in- 
vention. See bogle.'] 1. A name first given 
at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, in England, to a coal- 
wagou or truck so constructed as to turn easily 
in moving about the quays; a trolly. 2. An 
English term for a four-wheeled truck support- 
ing the front part of a locomotive engine, or 
placed one under each end of a railway-car- 
riage, and turning beneath it by means of a 
central pin or pivot, to facilitate the passing 
of sudden curves. 3. In a saw-mill, a small 
carriage running on a transverse track on a 
log-carriage, used to change the position of the 
log in relation to the saw. 

bogie-engine (bo'gi-en'jin), n. A locomotive 
used in moving cars and making up trains at 
a railroad station. The driving-wheels and cyl- 
inders are on a truck which turns freely on a 
center-pin. 

bog-jumper (bog'jum'per), . Same as bog- 
biuiiiH'i'. 

bog-land (bog'land), n. and . I. . Boggy or 
marshy land: as, to reclaim a piece of bog-laud. 
II. a. Living in or pertaining to a marshy 
country. [Rare.] 

Kai'h brings his love a boylaiul captive home. 

liriiiifH, Prol. to Prophetess, 1. 31. 

bogle (bo'gl), u. [Also dial, boggle, Sc. bogle, 
ln>i/ill. luii/il. ,i specter, hobgoblin; prob. of Cel- 
tic origin; cf. W. bicgwl, bygwl, a threat, men- 
ace, bygel, a bugbear, scarecrow, hobgoblin, 
Inrg, a specter, > E. bug 1 : see bug 1 and bugbear. 
Cf. //</'-'. hiii/i/anll. and G. bogge, boggel-muitii, 
a bogy, bogle.] A phantom; a specter; a hob- 
goblin; n bogy: :i bugbear. 

boglet (bog'let). ii. [< />'/' + -let.] A little 
bog; a boggy place or spot of small extent. 

And of this tufty. flagity ground, lacked with IKI^ and 
hutlrtt. K. H l .nun Doone, p. 432. 

bog-manganese (bog'mang'ga-nez). ii. Same 
us tend. 

bog-moss (bog'mds), ii. Peat-inoss. See Sphag- 
num. 

bog-oak (bog '6k), it. Trunks and large 
branches of oak found embedded in bogs and 
preserved by the antiseptic properties of peat. 
It is of u shining Mack or ebony color, or of a deep ureen 
ish-gray, miitili'd and shading into black, derived from it* 
impregnation with iron, and i^ frequently eonverteil into 
iirnami-ntal pieces of furniture and smaller ornament*, a- 
hrooches, e:nrin-- etc. VK.i called /-/-irood. 



Bogomile (bog'6-mil), . [Cf. Russ. bogu, God; 
nii/ii.ili, grace.]' One of a medieval Cathanst 
sect, having its principal seat in Bulgaria, anti- 
i-U-rical in its polity, dualistic in its doctrine, 
and in general similar to the Docette and the 
ManichiDans. The views and practices of the Bogo- 
miles were very fanatical. They were little known, and 
by tonic are supposed to have become extinct noon after 
tii, execution of their leader, Basil of PhilipjKipolis, at 
< 'ointantinople, in 111S. 

Bogomilian (bog-o-inil'i-an), a. Pertaining to 
the Hogomiles or their doctrines. 

bog-orchis (bog'dr'kis), n. A low orchid of 
boggy places. See Malaxig. 

bog-ore (bog'&r), . Same as bog-iron ore. 

Bogota bark. See bark*. 

bog-rush (bog'rush), n. 1. The name of va- 
rious cyperaceous plants. See ruah. 2. Some 
small undetermined species of warbler. [Lo- 
cal, Great Britain.] 

bog-spavin (bog'spav'in), . In farriery, an 
encysted tumor on the inside of the hough of a 
horse, containing a gelatinous matter. 

bog-sucker (bog'suk'er), . A name of the 
woodcock of North America, Philohela minor. 

bog-trotter (bog'trot'er), n. One who trots 
over bogs, or lives among bogs; especially, a 
contemptuous appellation given to the Irish 
peasantry, probably from the skill shown by 
many of them in crossing the extensive bogs 
of the country by leaping from tussock to tus- 
sock, where a stranger would find no footing, 
and from the frequent use they make of this 
skill to escape from the soldiery, the police, etc. 

bog-trotting (bog'trot'ing), a. " Trotting among 
bogs, or, more usually, living among bogs : as, 
a bog-trotting Irishman. 

Beware of bog-trotting quacks. 

Ooldtmith, ritm-n of the World, Ixvlil. 

With his Inherited Irish poverty ... not to rise In this 
world, he nor his posterity, till their wading webbed dwj- 
trotting feet get talaria to their heels. 

Thoreau, Waldeu, p. 22S. 

bogueM (bog), v. i. [Prob. < Sp. bogar, row (cf. 
bogar a sotavento, row to leeward), = Pg. Pr. 
vogar = It. vogare = F. roguer, row, sail, > 
rogue, E. rogue, q. v.] \<mi ., to drop off from 
the wind ; edge away to leeward with the wind, 
as some vessels of inferior sailing qualities do. 
TO bogue in, to "sail In"; take a hand; engage In a 
work. [Local, >ew England.) 

[A farmer says :] " I don't git much done thont I boyue 
right in along th my men." 

ij not ed by I. mi; II. Biglow Papers, 2d ser., Int. 

bogue 2 (bog), . [< OF. bogue, formerly also 
bocque, = Pr. buga = Sp. Pg. boga = It. boca, 
boghe (Florio), now boga, < ML. boca, for L. box 
(hoc-), < Or. /?<if, contr. of /3<Saf, a certain sea- 
fish, so named from the sound it makes.] An 
acanthopterygian fish, Box vulgar^, of the fami- 
ly Sparitkf, found in the Mediterranean, on the 
west coast of Africa, and in rare cases on the 
coasts of Britain. The body is oblong and compressed, 
the head and mouth are small, the teeth notched, the eyes 
large, and the general coloring is brilliant. Also called 
'"><' and } ><i'iit . 

bogue 3 (bog), n. [OF., = F. bouche : see eni- 
bogue .] A mouth ; an embouchure. Used specifi- 
cally in the name the Rogue, the principal niouth of the 
Canton river In China (also called Boca Titjri*, the Tiger's 
Mouth). 

boguest (bo'gest), H. [E. dial., appar. barguest 
varied toward bogy 1 : see these words.] A spec- 
ter; a ghost. [Prov. Eng. (Yorkshire).] 

bogus 1 (bo'gus). n. and a. [A slang word, of 
wnich many conjectural explanationsliave been 
offered, e. g., that it is a corruption of bagasse, 
sugar-cane refuse, etc. Dr. Samuel Willard of 
Chicago, in a letter to the editor of the New 
Eng. Diet., "quotes from the ' Painesville (Ohio) 
Telegraph' of July 6 and Nov. 2, 1827, the word 
liogus as a substantive applied to an apparatus 
for coining false money. Mr. Eber D. Howe, 
who was then editor of that paper, describes 
in his 'Autobiography' (1878) the discovery of 
such a piece of mechanism in the hands of a gang 
of coiners at Painesville in May, 1827 ; it was 
a mysterious-looking object, and some one in 
the crowd styled it a 'bogus,' a designation 
adopted in the succeeding numbers of the pa- 
per. Dr. Willard considers this to have been 
short for tuiitrnlxiiiHs, a word familiar to him 
from his childhood, and which in his father's 
time was commonly applied in Vermont to any 



Bohemian 

ill-looking object: he points out that tfintara- 
bobs is given in Halliwell as a Devonshire word 
for the devil. liot/ux seems thus to be related 
to IKM/I/, dr." (.V. /:. it.) The E. dial, word 
may have been transported to New England 
and undergone there the alteration to which 
such terms are subject.] I.f n. An apparatus 
for coining counterfeit money. 

II. a. Counterfeit; spurious; sham: origi- 
nally applied in the United States to counter- 
feit money, but now to anything based on sham 
or fable pretense: as, a ft<i/. claim; a bogus 
government. 

But our boffli* theologians, who systematically convert 
the tine gold of the gospel Into glittering tinsel, and sell 
It for lucre, occupy the highest seats In our synagogues. 
//. Jama, Sul. and .Shad!, p. 177. 

bogus 2 (bo'gus), n. [Origin uncertain ; perhaps 
a use of bogus 1 . Some refer it to bagasse, su- 
gar-cane refuse.] A liquor made of rum and 
molasses. Bartlett. [U. 8.] 

bog-violet (bog'vi6-let), n. The butterwort. 
[Prov. Eng. (Yorksnire).] 

bog- wood (bog'wud), . Same as boij-oak. 

bogwort (bog'wert), n. [<6o(/i + iror? 1 .] Same 
as cranberry. 

bogy, bogey 1 (bo'gi), .; pi. bogie*, bogeyg 
(-giz). [Also written bogie; a comparatively 
recent word, appar. a var. (perhaps arising 
from nursery speech) of bogle, or from the same 
source: see bogle.} 1. The devil: often as a 
quasi-proper name, and usually with en epithet 
(in this use with a capital) : as, Old Bogy. 
I am bogey, and frighten everybody away. 

TriacJceray, Newcomes. 
2. A hobgoblin ; a bugbear. 

The humble Northumbrian bogie who "flitted" with the 
farmer when he removed his furniture. 

Encyc. Brit., II. 2W. 

There is no reasoning . . . with men to whom party 
considerations are of the first moment, and who feel bound 
to discover bogiet In every measure adopted by the party 
In power. Sir O. Wolteley, N. A. Rev., CXXVIII. 136. 

bogyism, bogeyism (bo'gi-izm), n. f< bogy, 

bogey^, + -igmT] 1. That which pertains to or 

is characteristic of a bogy. 2. Belief in or 

dread of sprites or goblins. Thackeray. 

bo-hacky (bo-hak'i), . [E. dial.] A donkey. 

Halliiccll. [Prov. Eng. (Yorkshire).] 
bohea (bo-he'), . [C Chinese Woo-ye or Voo- 
ye, the name of two ranges of hills in the prov- 
ince of Fuhkien, China, where the tea-shrub is 
largely grown, and whence tea was first im- 
ported into England in 1666. In the dialects 
of Fuhkien b is used for w and u.] 1. A gen- 
eral name for tea. 

To part her time 'twixt reading and bohea, 
To muse, and spill her solitary tea. 

/'../. Ep. to Miss Blonnt. II. 15. 
For if my pure libations exceed three, 

I feel my heart become so sympathetic, 

That I must have recourse to black Bohea. Byron. 

By way of entertainment In the evening, to make a party 

with the sergeant's wife to drink bohea tea, and play at 

all-fours on a drum-head. Sheridan, St. Patrick's Day, 1. 2. 

2. An inferior kind of black tea, grown on the 
Woo-ye hills of China, or tea of a similar qual- 
ity grown in other districts of the same country. 
See tea. 

Bohemian (bo-he'mi-an), H. and a. [= F. Bo- 
hemien, a Bohemian, and in a secondary signi- 
fication a gipsy, < Boheme, ML. Bohemia, the 
country of the Bohemi, Boihemi, or Boicmi, 
Latinized form repr. by O. Bdhmett, Bohemia, 
< L. Hail, a people of ancient Gaul, of whom a 
portion settled in what is now Bohemia, + 
'-hern, OHG. heim = E. home.] I. 11. 1. A na- 
tive or an inhabitant of Bohemia, a crownlaud 
and kingdom of the Austrian empire. 2. A 
follower of John Huss ; a Hussite. 3. [F. 60- 
hemien, because the first of that wandering race 
that entered France were believed to be Bo- 
hemians or Hussites, driven from their native 
country.] A gipsy. 

"How! of no country?" repeated the Scot. "No," 
answered the Bohemian, "of none. I am a Zlngaro, a 
Bohemian, an Egyptian, or whatever the Europeans, in 
their different languages, may choose to call our people, 
but I have no country." Scoff, Q. Durward, \vi. 

4. A person, especially an artist or a literary 
man, who leads a free and often somewhat 
dissipated life, having little regard to what so- 
ciety he frequents, and despising convention- 
alities generally. [Sometimes without a cap- 
ital.] 

By Bohrmian I do not mean to be uncomplimentary. I 
mean merely a class of persons who prefer adventure and 
speculation to settled industry, and who do not work well 
In the harness of ordinary life. Fronde, Sketches, p. 217. 

5. The ancient tongue of Bohemia, a member 
of the Slavic branch of the Aryan family. 




Bohor (Cervicafra bohor}. 



Bohemian 

II. n. 1. Of or pertaining to Bohemia or its 
language. 2. Of or pertaining to, or charac- 
teristic of, the so-called Bohemians ; uncon- 
ventional ; free from social restraints : as, a 
Bohemian life. 3. In ornith., erratic; wander- 
ing; irregularly migratory ; of unsettled habits. 
Bohemian bole. See dote-'. Bohemian Brethren, 
the popular name of a religious denomination which de- 
veloped from the followers of Peter Chelczicky in the fif- 
teenth century. It reached its greatest influence in the 
sixteenth century, and was suppressed by Ferdinand II. in 
the seventeenth century in Bohemia and Moravia, but 
lingered in Poland and Hungary. It was revived in the 
eighteenth century as the Moravian Church. The mem- 
bers of the denomination called themselves the Unity 
of Brethren (Unitas Fratrum). Bohemian glass. See 
glagi. Bohemian pheasant. See pheasant. Bohe- 
mian waxwlng, Bohemian chatterer, a bird, the 
Ampelitt fjarrulu*, so called from the extent and irregu- 
larity of its wanderings. See waxwing. 

Bohemianism (bo-he'mi-an-izm), . [< Bohe- 
mian, n., 4, + -ism."] The life or habits of a 
Bohemian, in the figurative sense. See Bohe- 
mian, n., 4. 

bohor (bo'hor), H. A variety of reedbuck of 
western Afri- 
ca, the Cervi- 
capra bohor, a 
kind of ante- 
lope. 

boiar, n. See 
boyar. 

boid (bo'id), it. 
A snake of the 
family Boidce; 
a boa or ana- 
conda. 

Boidae (bo'i- 
de), n. pi. 
[NL., < Boa 
+ -idee.'] A 
family of non- 
venomous ophidian reptiles, with two mobile 
hooks or spurs, the rudiments of hind legs, near 
the anus. The name has been adopted with varying 
limits, and latterly generally restricted to American spe- 
cies: (1) Colubrine snakes with the belly covered with 
narrow, elongate shields or scales, nearly resembling 
those of the back, and with spur-like rudimentary legs on 
each side of the vent. It included the Soidte as well as 
Pythonidce, Charinidce, and Tortricidw of recent ophi- 
ologists. (2) Eurystomatous serpents with rudiments of 
posterior extremities. It included the Boidre, Pythonida>, 
and Charinidae. (3) Eurystomatous serpents with rudi- 
mentary posterior appendages, coronoid bone in lower 
jaw, no supraorbital, but postorbital, bones in cranium, 
and with teeth developed in the premaxillary. In this 
limited sense there are still many species peculiar to the 
warmer regions of America, and among them are some of 
gigantic size, such as the boa-constrictor and anaconda, 
Eunectes munnuA They sometimes attack animals of a 
large size and kill them by constriction round the body. 
See cuts under boa and python. 

boil 1 (boil), n. [Early mod. E. also boile, boyle, 
a corrupt form of bile 1 , due to a supposed con- 
nection with boift: see bile 1 ."] An inflamed 
and painful suppurating tumor ; a furuncle. 

boil 2 (boil), v. [Early mod. E. also boyl, boyle, 
< ME. boilen, boylen, < OF. ooillir, F. bou'illir 
= Pr. bttlhir, buillir, boil, = Sp. bullir, boil, also 
as Pg. bulir, move, stir, be active (see budge 1 ), 
= It. bollire, boil, < L. bnllire, also bullare, bub- 
ble, boil, < bulla, a bubble, any small round 
object (see bulla), > E. bull?, bill'3, bullet, bul- 
letin, etc. Cf. ebullition."] I. intrans. 1. To 
bubble up or be in a state of ebullition, espe- 
cially through the action of heat, the bubbles 
of gaseous vapor which have been formed in 
the lower portion rising to the surface and es- 
caping: said of a liquid, and sometimes of the 
containing vessel : as, the water boils ; the pot 
boils. The same action is induced by diminished pres- 
sure, as when water boils under the exhausted receiver 
of an air-pump, or when carbon dioxid liquefied under 
high pressure boils upon the removal of the pressure. See 
Mling-point and ebullition. 

2. To be in an agitated state like that of boil- 
ing, through any other cause than heat or dimin- 
ished pressure ; exhibit a swirling or swelling 
motion ; seethe : as, the waves boil. 

He maketh the deep to boil. Job xli. 31. 

3. To be agitated by vehement or angry feel- 
ing; be hot or excited: as, my blood boils at 
this injustice. 

Then boiled my breast with flame and burning wrath. 

Surrey, ^Eneid, ii. 

The plain truth is that Hastings had committed some 
great crimes, and that the thought of those crimes made 
the blood of Burke Ml in his veins. 

ifacaulay, Wan-en Hastings. 

4. To undergo or be subjected to the action of 
water or other liquid when at the point of 
ebullition: as, the meat is now boiling. To boil 
away, to evaporate in boiling. To boil over, to run 
over the top of a vessel, as liquor when thrown into vio- 



612 

lent agitation by heat or other cause of effervescence ; 
hence, figuratively, to be unable, on account of excite- 
ment, indignation, or the like, to refrain from speaking ; 
to break out into the language of strong feeling, especial- 
ly of indignation. To boil up, to rise or be increased in 
volume by ebullition : as, paste is ready for use aa soon as 
it has once boiled up ; let it bail up two or three times. 

II. tram. 1 . To put into a state of ebullition ; 
cause to be agitated or to bubble by the ap- 
plication of heat. Hence 2. To collect, form, 
or separate by the application of heat, as sugar, 
salt, etc. 3. To subject to the action of heat 
in a liquid raised to its point of ebullition, so 
as to produce some specific effect; cook or 
seethe in a boiling liquid: as, to boil meat, 
potatoes, etc. ; to boil silk, thread, etc TO boil 

clear, in soap-manuf., to remove the excess of water from 
soft soap by boiling it. A concentrated lye is employed 
to shorten the time of evaporation. To boil down, to 
reduce in bulk by boiling ; hence, to reduce to smaller 
compass by removal of what can best be spared ; con- 
dense by elimination. 

After a while he [Bowles] developed a talent for con- 
densing into brief and readable form the long and heavy 
articles in which the great political papers of the day dis- 
charged their thunder. On these he began to practice 
that great art of boiling down which his paper afterward 
carried to such perfection. O. S. Merriam, S. Bowles, I. 23. 

To boil dry, in sugar-manuf., to reduce the thin juice 
to thick juice by boiling it until it reaches the point of 
crystallization. 

boil 2 (boil), . [< boiV, i:.] 1. The state or act 
of boiling; boiling-point: as, to bring water to 
a. boil. [Colloq.] 2. That which is boiled ; a 
boiling preparation. N.E.D. [Rare.] At the 
boil, boiling ; at the boiling-point : as, the solution should 
be kept at the boil for at least half an hour. 

boilary, . See boilery. 

boiled (boild), p. a. 1. Raised to the boiling- 
point. 2. Prepared by being subjected to 
the heat of boiling water : sometimes substan- 
tively (from its use as a heading on bills of 
fare) for meat dressed or cooked by boiling: 
as, "a great piece of cold boiled," Dickens, 
Christmas Carol. 

boiler (boi'ler). u. 1. A person who boils. 2. 
A vessel in which anything is boiled. Specifi- 
cally (a) A large pan or vessel of iron, copper, or brass, 
used in distilleries, potash-works, etc., for boiling large 
quantities of liquor at once, (6) A large vessel of metal 
in which soiled clothes are boiled to cleanse them ; a 
wash-boiler. 

3. A strong metallic structure in which steam 
is generated for driving engines or for other 
purposes. See steam-boiler. 4. Something, as 
a vegetable, that is suitable for boiling. [Rare.] 

boiler-alarm (boi'ler-a-larm'), n. A device 
for showing when the water in a steam-boiler 
is too low for safety. 

boiler-clamp (boi'ler-klamp), . A clamp used 
for holding the plates and parts of boilers to- 
gether, so that they can be drilled or riveted. 

boiler-feeder (boi'ler-fe'der), . An apparatus 
for supplying water to a steam-boiler. 

boiler-float (boi'ler-flot), n. A float connected 
with the water-feeding mechanism of a steam- 
boiler. It opens a supply-valve when the water falls to 
a certain point, and closes the valve when the water has 
attained the proper height. 

boiler-iron (boi'ler-I''ern), . Iron rolled into 
the form of a flat plate, from J to i inch in 
thickness, used for making boilers, tanks, ves- 
sels, etc. Also boiler-plate. 

boiler-meter (boi'ler-me'ter), H. A meter for 
measuring the quantity of water used in a 
steam-boiler. 

boiler-plate (boi'ler-plat), H. Same as ooiler- 
iron. 

boiler-protector (boi'ler-pro-tek"tor), 11. A 
non-conducting covering or jacket for a steam- 
boiler, designed to prevent radiation of heat. 

boiler-shell (boi'ler-shel), n. The main or 
outside portion of a steam-boiler. 

A steel boiler-shell may therefore be made of plates at 
least one-third less in thickness than a similar shell of 
wrought iron. R. Wilson, Steam Boilers, p. 49. 

boiler-shop (boi'ler-shop), ii. A workshop 
where boilers are made. 

boilery (boi'ler-i), n.; pi. boileries (-iz). [< 
boil 1 + -en/.] 1. A place or an apparatus for 
boiling. 2. A salt-house or place for evapo- 
rating brine. 3. In law, water arising from a 
salt-well belonging to one who is not the owner 
of the soil. 
Also boilary. 

boiling (boi'llng),jj. a. 1. At the temperature 
at which any specified liquid passes into a 
gaseous state; bubbling up under the action 
of heat: as, boiling water; boiling springs. 
2. Figuratively (a) Fiercely agitated; rag- 
ing: as, the boiling seas. (6) Heated; inflamed; 
bursting with passion : as, boiliiifi indignation. 
Boiling spring, a spring or fountain which gives out 
water at tile boiling-point or at a high temperature. The 



boist 

most remarkable tolling springs are the geysers, which 
throw up columns of water and steam ; but there art- 
many others in various parts of the world, often associ- 
ated with geysers, characterized only by ebullition and 
emission of steam. Some of the latter, as in California 
and >"ew Zealand, are strongly Impregnated with mineral 
matters and variously colored, while others are charged 
with liquid mud. See geyaer. 

boilingly (boi'ling-li), adv. In a boiling man- 
ner. 

The lakes of bitumen 
Rise boilingly higher. Byron, Manfred, i. 1. 

boiling-point (boi'ling-point), it. The tempera- 
ture at which a liquid is converted into vapor 
with ebullition ; more strictly, the tempera- 
ture at which the tension of the vapor is equal 
to the pressure of the atmosphere. Tins point 
varies for different liquids, and for the same liquid at dif- 
ferent pressures, being higher when the pressure is in- 
creased, and lower when it is diminished. Under the 
normal atmospheric pressure (see atmosphere) water boils 
at 212 F. (100 0., 80 B.), and it is found that the boiling- 
point varies .88 of a degree F. for a variation in the ba- 
rometer of half an inch. Hence water will boil at a lower 
temperature at the top of a mountain than at the bottom, 
owing to diminution in the pressure ; a fact which leads 
to a method of measuring the height of a mountain by 
observing the temperature at which water boils at the 
bottom of the mountain and at the top. At the top of 
Mont Blanc water boils at 185 F. Under a pressure of 
about -j-^ of an atmosphere water would boil at 40 F., 
while under a pressure of 10 atmospheres the boiling-point 
would be raised to 356 F. A liquid may be heated much 
above its true boiling-point without boiling ; but the 
superheated- vapor immediately expands until its temper- 
ature is reduced to the boiling-point. Hence, in deter- 
minations of the boiling-point, the thermometer is never 
immersed in the liquid, but in the vapor just above it. 
Kopp's law of boiling-points, the proposition that in 
certain homologous series of chemical substances each ad- 
dition of CH 2 is accompanied by a rise in the boiling- 
point of about 19.5 C. 

boin (boin), n. Another form of boyn. 
boine (boin), n. [E. dial. Cf. boin, boyn.~] A 
swelling. [Prov. Eng. (Essex).] 

This luan Vasilowich wich performing of the same cere- 
monie causeth his forehead to be ful of (joined and swell- 
ings, and sometimes to be black and blew. 

Haklmjt's Voyaijex, I. 224. 

boiobi, . See bqjobi. 

bois (F. pron. bwo), . [F., wood, timber, a 
wood, forest, < OF. bois, bos = Pr. base = Sp. 
Pg. bosque = It. bosco, < ML. boscus, buschus, a 
bush, wood, forest: see bush 1 , boscage, etc.] 
Wood: a French word occurring in several 
phrases occasionally found in English ; it also 
occurs as the terminal element in hautboy. 
Bois d'arc (F. pron. bwo dark). '[F. : bow, wood ; de, of : 
are, bow.] See bodark, bme-irood, and Madura. 

boisbrule' (F. pron. bwo-bro-la'), . [Canadian 
F., < F. bois, wood, + bnilc, pp. of brtilcr, burn, 
scorch.] Literally, burnt-wood: a name for- 
merly given to a Canadian half-breed. 

bois-chene (F. pron. bwo-shan'), . [F., oak- 
wood : bois, wood (see bois) ; chene, oak, < OF. 
chesne (chesnin, adj.), quesne (cf. ML. casnus), 
oak, < LL. quercinus, prop, adj., of the oak (cf. 
It. quercia, the oak, < L. quercea, fern, adj.), < 
L. quercus, oak.] Oak-wood: the name of a 
timber obtained from San Domingo, used in 
ship-building. McElratli. 

bois-durci (F. pi-on. bwo-diir-se'), n. [F.: bois, 
wood (see bois) ; dnrci, hardened, pp. of durcir, 

< L. durescere, harden, < durus, hard.] In com., 
an artificial hard wood made of a paste of 
blood and the sawdust of mahogany, ebony, 
and other fine-grained woods, molded into va- 
rious forms. When hardened it takes a high 
polish. 

boisseau (F. pron. bwo-so'), .; pi. boisseaux 
(-soz'). [F.: see bushel 1 ."] An old French dry 
measure, corresponding in name to the English 
bushel, but much smaller in capacity. The Paris 
boisseau is now reckoned at 12} liters (one eighth of a hec- 
toliter), or atout 2J gallons, which is a slight reduction 
from its capacity before the introduction of the metric 
system ; but in small trade the name is used for the de- 
caliter (one tenth of a hectoliter). In other parts of France 
the boisseau in old reckoning was generally much less 
than that of Paris. 

boistM, . [Early mod. E. also boost, Sc. buist, 

< ME. boist, boiste, also buist, bust, baste, bouste. 
bost (= Bret, boest), < OF. boiste, F. boite = 
Pr. bostia, < ML. bnstiti, a form of buxida, prop, 
ace., corrupted form of pyxida, ace. of busts, 
pyxis, a box: see box 1 , box*, ami Imxlicl 1 .'] A 
box ; especially, a box for holding ointment. 

Every boist full of thy letum ic. 

Chaucer, Prol. to Pardoner's Tale, 1. 21. 

boist" (boist), n. [E. dial., "perhaps a survival 
in a particular use of boist 1 , or a var. of boost 
for boose, nrop. a cow-stall : see boose 1 ."] A rude 
hut, such as those erected along the line of a 
railway for the temporary use of laborers: 
called in the United States a slinnti/. [Eng.] 



boisterous 

boisterous (bois'trr-ims), '(. [Early mod. E. 
also biiiix/i'iiiif, liiiantrouM, limrslrimx, hoititniiiH ; 
< late ME. boistroux, rough, coarse, a develop- 
ment, through the forms bnixltoiix. iMiyxtminx, 
of the earlier form bnixiiiux, which it has now 
superseded: sec l>ninl<iiix.] If. Rough ; coarse ; 
stout; stiff. 

The l atlltTII itlltsiiir, 'i.././- ,<",* US it Was, 

Gave way, ninl l>c-iit beneath her sirirt embrace. 

/>- IM|:I ninl Oolacardo, 1. 159. 

2f. Rough and massive; bulky; cumbrous; 
clumsy. 

Mis hi/*t,-iix rink s. liinii-il in the grownd, 
llr oiuM nut tv.nrii up a^ailu- sn light. 

* / "-user, r. Q., I. vlll. 10. 

3f. Rough in operation or action; violent; 
vehement. [Rare.] 

The In at iirr-.in, - tin. powerful and boisterous for them. 
u;,,,,i,,;i,;i. Es. towards a Nat. Ili-i. of the Earth. 

4. Rough and stormy: applied to the weather, 
the waves, etc. 5. Exposed to the turbulence 
of the elements: as, a boisterous headland; a 
boisterous passage. 6f. Fierce; savage; truc- 
ulent ; full of violence : as, boisterous war. 

Boist'nus Clifford, thnu hast slain 
The flower of Europe for his chivalry. 

Shak., 8 Hen. VI., ii. 1. 

7. Turbulent; rough and noisy; clamorous: 
applied to persons or their actions: as, a bois- 
terous man; boisterous merriment ; & boisterous 
game. 

They love a captain to ohey, 
Boisterous as March, yet fresh as May. 

Scott, Marmion, ill. 4. 

In the vigour of his physique, and an almost boisterous 
capacity for enjoyment, he was an English counterpart of 
the Scotch Christopher North. Edinburgh Rev. 

boisterously (bois'ter-us-li), adv. [< ME. boys- 
troKsly ; < boisterous + -ty 2 . Ct. boisttmsly.] In 
a boisterous manner; roughly; with noisy 
energy or activity. 

When you come next to woo, pray you, come not boister- 
ously. 
And furnish'd like a bear-ward. 

Fletcher, Wildgoose Chase, iv. 2. 
Halloo'd it as boisterously as the rest. 

Sternt, Tristram Shandy, ill. 20. 

boisterousness (bois'ter-us-nes), . [< bois- 
Icnnis + -nesx.] The state or quality of being 
boisterous; rough, noisy behavior; turbulence. 

Behaved with the bowterousnrss of men elated by recent 
authority. Johnson, Life of Prior. 

boistoust, a. [Early mod. E., also written boyg- 
tous, boisteous, boysteous, boistious, boystuous, 
etc., Sc. bounteous, busteous, etc.; < ME. bois- 
tous, boystous, buystous, etc. ; cf. mod. E. dial. 
(Cornwall) boiistous, boostis, boustis, bustious, 
fat, corpulent, hoist, corpulence (perhaps a 
back-formation, from the adj.); origin un- 
known. The ME. agrees in form with AF. 
boistous, OF. bmstfus, mod. F. boiteujr, lame, 
but no connection of sense is apparent. The 
W. bwystits, wild, ferocious, is perhaps from E.] 

1. Rude; rough; churlish; rustic; coarse: 
applied to persons. [The earliest recorded 
sense.] 

I am a boi/*tnus man, right thus say I. 

Chauctr, Manciple's Tale, 1. 107. 

2. Rough ; fierce ; savage. 

Myghtc nu lilonkes [horses] theme bere, thos biistmts 

churlles, 
Bot covercle camcllz of toures, enclosyde in maylez. 

Mrtf Arthurr (E. E. T. S.), 1. 615. 

3. Rough and massive ; bulky ; clumsy. [Still 
in dial, use.] 4. Coarse in texture; rough; 
stout; thick. 5. Loud; violent; boisterous. 

boistOUSlyt, '"''' [< ME. lioixtniixly, etc. ; < bois- 
tous + -lift.] Roughly; violently; boister- 
ously. 

boistousnesst, [< ME. boistousncsse, etc. ; < 
bnisttiiis + -iit-its.'] Roughness; violence; bois- 

ttTOUSlH'SS. 

bojobi, boiobi (boi-6'bi), n. [Native name.] 
The dog-headed boa, or Xiiilioxmua caninum, a 
South American snake, family BoMte, notable 
for the beautiful green color of its skin. It is 

distinguished by having smooth scales, the marginal scales 
of the mouth pitted, ami regular shi Ids i>n tin- snout. 

\l>ii railed nrin-tl tiilxnift. 

bokark (bo'kiirk), i. [Amer. Ind.] A basket 
of birch-bark, used by Lake Superior Indians 
to hold maple-sugar. 

boke 1 (l>6k), i\; pret. and pp. baked, ppr. bok- 

iiit/. [E. dial., also buck; in part a var. of 

finkc: seefti-A" J aml/iote 1 .] I. tranx. Tothrust; 

push; poke. [Eng.] 

Il.t intrant. To ilinist : push; butt. Solltind. 

boke-, r. A dialectal form of bock, bolk. 



613 

boke ' i link i, . In mining, a small run in pipes, 
found connecting the ore running through the 
vein. 11. Hunt. 

boke't, a. An obsolete spelling of book. 

bokelt, A Middle English form of buckle'*. 

bokelert, . A M ii Idle English form of buckler. 

bolar (bo'lar), a. [< 6ote 2 -I- -ar.] Pertaining 
to or of the nature of bole : as. bolar earths. 

bolaryt (bo'la-ri), a. [< bole% + -ary] Pertain- 
ing to bole or clay, or partaking of its nature 
and qualities. 
Consisting of a botary and clammy substance. 

Sir T. Browne, Vulg. Err., II. 8. 

bolas 1 1, . A Middle English form of bullace. 

bolas 2 (bo'las), H. sing, or /)/. [Sp., pi. of bola, 
a ball, < L. bulla, a bubble, any round object : 
see bulft, WHS.] A weapon of war and the 
chase, consisting of two or three balls of stone 
or metal attached to the ends of strong lines, 
which are knotted together, used by the Gau- 
chos and Indians of western and southern South 
America. It ii uned by throwing it in such a way that 
the line winds around the object aimed at, as the legs of 
an animal. A smaller weapon of the same sort la in use 
among the Eskimos for killing birds. 

The bolas, or balls, are of two kinds : the simplest, 
which is used chiefly for catching ostriches, constate of 
two round stones, covered with leather, and united by a 
thin, plaited thong, about eight feet long. The other kind 
differs only In having three balls united by thongs to a 
common centre. The Gaucho holds the smallest of the 
three In his hand, and whirls the other two around his 
head ; then, taking aim, sends them like chain shot revolv- 
ing through the air. The balls no sooner strike any ob- 
ject, than, winding round it, they cross each other and 
become firmly hitched. Darmn, Voyage of Beagle, 111. 50. 

bolbonact, . The satin-flower, Lunaria biennis. 

bold (bold), a. [< ME. bold, bald, < AS. beald, 
bald = OS. bald = D. boud, bold (= MLG. balde, 
bolde, adv., quickly, at once), = OHQ. bald, 
MHG. bait, bold (G. bald, adv., soon), = Icel. 
ballr = ODan. bold = Goth, "baltlis, bold (in 
deriv. balthaba, boldly, ///////=!;. bield, bold- 
ness, etc.). Hence bold, v., bifid, n. and r., 
and (from OHG.) It. baldo, OF. bald, baud, 
bold, gay : see bawd 1 ."] 1. Daring; courageous; 
brave; intrepid; fearless: applied to men or 
animals : as, bold as a lion. 

He has called him forty Marchmen bauld. 

Kinmont Willie, in Child's Ballads, VI. 61. 
Our speech at best is half alive and cold, 
And save that tenderer momenta make us bold, 
Our whitening lips would close, their truest truth untold. 
0. W. Holmes, To H. W. Longfellow. 

2. Requiring or exhibiting courage; planned 
or executed with courage and spirit : as, a bold 
enterprise. 

The bold design 
Pleased highly those infernal States. 

Milton, P. L., Ii. 386. 

3f. Confident; trusting; assured. 

I am bold her honour 
Will remain hers. Shak., Cymbeline, 11. 4. 

4. Forward ; impudent ; audacious : as, a bold 
huzzy. 

Men can cover crimes with bold, stern looks. 

Shak., Lucrece, 1. 1252. 

6. Overstepping usual bounds ; presuming up- 
on sympathy or forbearance ; showing liberty 
or license, as in style or expression : as, a bold 
metaphor. 

Which no bold tales of gods or monsters swell. 

But human passions, such as with us dwell, nailer. 

It Is hardly too bold to claim the whole Netherlands as 
in the widest sense Old England. 

/:. A. Freeman, Amer. Lects., p. 31. 

6. Standing out to view ; striking to the eye ; 
markedly conspicuous ; prominent : as, a bold 
headland ; a bold handwriting. 

Catachreses and hyperlwles are to be used judiciously, 
and placed in poetry, as heightening^ and shadows in 
painting, to make the figure bolder, and cause it to stand 
off to sight. Dryden. 

7. Steep; abrupt: as, a bold shore (one that 
enters the water almost perpendicularly). 

Her dominions have bold accessible coasts. HmntU. 
The coast [Virginia] is a bold and even coast, with regu- 
lar soundings, and is open all the year round. 

BcKrley, Virginia, II. 1 i 

8. Deep, as water, close to the shore; navi- 
gable very near to the land. 

The line [of soundings) was extended to Jacmel, showing 
bold water to the cape. Seienee, III. 591. 

To be bold > >r BO bold, to venture ; presume so far (as to 
do something). 

sir. let me be no bold as to ask you, 

Did vou yet ever see Baptista's daughter? 

Shot., T. of the S., t i 
I will be bold, since you will have it so, 
To ask a noble favour of vim. 

Bean. ,<,i,l I'l.. king and No King, IT. 1. 



bole 

To make bold, <> take the liberty ; use the freedom : ai, 
I hav> T'I rail on you. =Byn. 1. ittuntleu. 

doughty, valiant, manful, stout-hearted, intrepid, auda- 
cious, ail venturous. - 4. .Saucy, Impertinent, assuming, bra- 

boldt (bold), v. [< MK. l,<,l,lni, 1,1,1,1, H. tr. and 
intr., < AS. bealilinn, intr. be bold (=OHG. 
ltd, Ii n. MIHI. brlili-H, trans, make bold, = Goth. 
baltlijati, intr. be bold, dare), < beald, bold. Cf. 
liifltl. r., a parallel form (< AS. byltlan), and em- 
bolden.] I. trans. To make bold; embolden; 
encourage. 

Km this bull nen. 

It toucheth us. as France invadet our land, 
Not >.M the kiiiK. Shot., Lear, v. 1. 

II. in /rung. To become bold. 
For with that on encresede my fere, 
And with that othlrgan myn hcrle tmlde. 

Chaucer, Parliament of Fowb, 1. 144. 

bold-beatingt (bold'bfi'ting), a. Browbeating: 
as, " bold-heating oaths," Shak., M. W. of W.. 
ii. 2. 

boldent (bol'dn), r. t. [< bold + -<!. Cf. em- 
bolden.] To make bold; give confidence; en- 
courage. 

I am much too venturous 
In tempting of your patience ; hut am bolden'd 
Tinier your promls'd pardon. Shak., Hen. VIII., I. 2. 

bold-face (bold'fas), n. 1. One who has a 
bold face ; an impudent person. 

A sauce-box, and a bold-face, and a pert. 

Richardson, Pamela, xlx. 

2. In printing, same as full-face. 
bold-faced (bold'fast), a. Having a bold face ; 
impudent. 

The bold-faced athelste of this age. 

/;/<. Bramhall, Against Hobbes. 

boldheadt, . [ME. boldhede; < bold + head.] 
Boldness; courage. 

Ifallen is al his boldhedr. Owl and Xiohtingale, I. &14. 
boldine(bol'din),. [< boldo + -tn<>2.] An alka- 
loid extracted from the leaves of I'eumus liol- 
dus. See hoMo. 

boldly (bold'li), adv. [< ME. Mdly, boldliche, 
etc., < AS. bealdlice, baldlice (= OS. baldlieo = 
OHG. baldlieho), < beald, bold.] In a bold man- 
ner, (a) Courageously ; intrepidly ; fearlessly ; bravely. 
(b) With confident assurance ; without hesitation or doubt. 
(<> Vigorously ; strongly ; strikingly. (</) Impudently : 
insolently ; with effrontery or shamelessness. (e) Steeply ; 
abruptly ; conspicuously. 

boldness (bold'nes), 11. [< bold + -ness. For 
the earlier noun, see hield.] The quality of 
being bold, in any of the senses of the word. 
Great is my boldness of speech toward you. 2 Cor. vll. 4. 
Boldness is the power to speak, or do what we intend, 
before others, without fear or disorder. 

Locke, Human Understanding. 

The bitldness of the figures Is to be hidden sometimes by 
the address of the poet, that they may work then- effect 
upon the mind. Dryden. 

I cannot, with Johnson, interpret this word by fortitude 
or magnanimity. Boldness does not, I think, imply the 
nrmness of mind which constitutes fortitude, nor the ele- 
vation and generosity of magnanimity. .V. Webmtrr. 

boldo (bol'dd), n. [Chilian.] An aromatic ever- 
green shrub of Chili, Peumus Boldus (Boldoa 
fragrans), of the natural order Monimiaeeie. 
The fruit of the plant is sweet and edible, and the bark is 
used for tanning. The leaves and bark are also used In 
medicine. See boldine. 

bold-spirited (bold'spir'i-ted), a. Having a 
bold spirit or courage. 

bole 1 (Dol), H. [Early mod. E. also boat, boll; 
< ME. bole, < Icel. bolr, bulr, trunk of a tree, 
= OSw. bol, but, 8w. bAl, a trunk, body, = Dan. 
bul, trunk, stump, log, = MHG. Imle, G. bohle, a 
thick plank ; prob. akin, through the notion of 
roundness, to boll 1 , fcotr/i, ball 1 , etc. Bole is 
the first element of bulwark and of its perver- 
sion boulevard, q. v.] 1. The body or stem of 
a tree. 

Huge trees, a thousand rings of Spring 
In every bole. Tennyson, Princess, r. 

The nerves of hearing clasp the roots of the brain as a 
creeping vine clings to the bole of an elm. 

0. H". Holmes, Old Vol. of Life, p. 271. 

2. Anything of cylindrical shape ; a roll ; a pil- 
lar: as, boles of stone. [Rare.] 

Make It up into little long boles or routes. 

True Gentlemmant Delight (1676). 

3. A small boat suited for a rough sea. Imp. 
Diet. [Eng. ] 

bole- (bol), M. [< ME. bol (in bol armoniak, 
Armenian bole), < OF. bol, F. bol = Pr. Sp. bol 
= Pg. It. bolo, < L. liolus. clay, a lump, choice 
bit, nice morsel, < Gr. ,to/of, a clod or lump of 
earth.] 1. A general term including certain 
compact, amorphous, soft, more or less brittle, 
unctuous clays, having a eonchoidal fracture 
and greasy luster, and varying in color from 



bole 



614 



bolster 



^ lei, but 

iron to which they owe their color, and are used as pig- 
ments. The red letters in old manuscripts were painted 
with bole. Armenian bole is a native clay, or silicate of 
aluminium, containing considerable oxid of iron, formerly 
brought from Armenia, but more recently obtained in 
various parts of Europe. It is pale-red, soft and unc- 
tuous to the touch, and has been used as an astringent _ 

and absorbent, and also as a gjnwnt. **<*'** ""ff.T Tnative "o'ran inhabitant of Bolivia, bollman (bd'man), n. [< Icel bol, an abode, + 
^^'^SI^t^^^'fSfSKM boliviano (bo-liv-i-a'no), . . [Bolivian Sp.] E . ,.] In the Orkney and Shetland islands, 



or relating to Bolivia, or to the people of f ... f . . 

ivia a republic of South America, between of which are cut off; a pollard. [Kare.J 

_zil, Peru, Chili, and the Argentine Repub- bollito (bo-le't6),9(. [It., < bolhto, boiled, done, 

lie, now entirely inland, having lost its only port fermented, pp. of bollire, < L. bvllire, boil : see 

(on the Pacific) by war with Chili (1879-83). boil 2 .] A name given m Italian glass-works to 

Bolivian bark. See barks, an artificial crystal of a sea-green color. 




<CK, UOUK, UvWKf oclll^ luuvi. ^J. i/f'(*v, VVK/W; DOll-fOu V IJtfl * v "/l ' ui.5tr<i.->c uv iii^ii u 

bulke, < ME. bolken, a var. of earlier balken, E. bo ii o f the cotton-plant is liable, manifesting 
balk? : see balk 2 , belk, belch, and the forms there itself at first by a slight discoloration resem- 



as veterinary medicines in Europe. 

2t. A bolus ; a dose. Coleridge. [Rare.] 
bole 3 , 'i. Another spelling of boll 2 . 

bole* (bol), n. [Also spelled boal; of uncertain ^ n ~ a yf"e.y J. i,,trans. 1. To belch. 2. To rupture of the boll and the discharge of a pu- 

1. A small square recess or cavity in _ ri..*_j.ri. o m~ i. ....,.,. A TV ..-n.h ,f i_;j T* v i,,...., .,tt-,.;K,it,.,i tn vaTimio 



cited, all appar. imitative variations of one ori- 



origiu.] _. -, . 

a wall ; also, a window or opening in the wall 
of a house, usually with a wooden shutter in 



bling a spot of grease, and 
he boll and the 
It has been attributed to various 



vomit; retch. 3. To heave. 4. To gush out, trid mass. 

II. trans. To belch out; give vent to; ejacu- causes, 
late. [Obsolete or provincial in all uses.] boll-worm (bol'werm), n. 



The larva or cater- 




used. Also called bayle hilli. 

Close to the spot . . . there was a bole, by which is uuw , N mui. v <""> "<=". '" venoc *.** 

meant a place where in ancient times . . . miners used p-ii. ufhaaUtia nnff iin cf OHfi bolon MHG 

t,, smelt tLir lead ores. Apologia, vii. 170 (1785). go ^ '<{ffeP^ - "?' ' ^' 'S bolne), 



' . ' - T -* m -f rtj T\ i n Jl'llif worm. rH't 1 uui uiiuer a *. 

vessel, bud, = Icel. bolli, m., = Dan. bolle, a boj (b6m) . j. [< ME. bolnen (also bollen: 
bowl, < Teut. V'bul, swell, m causal form ^7^,3), <' l cel . U \ gna (= Sw . ^/ )m = Dan. 

/^i.l. ,.-/*/,,. I,,..*, -r^ttff 111-1 f.t I iTTli hs^lflD M Hl-J- '" __ , J, ^ , -1-1 - MT I 

, be swollen, < bolginn, prop. *bol- 




Bolcction-molding. 



swell. 



But after that his bodye began to balm with stripes, 
and that he could not abyde the scourges, which pearced 
J. Brende, tr. of Qnintiu Curtius, vi. 



, j lgl * earlier spelling. 

nal.] In foiHm,, a kmd of Um Kl - 7J ,. 1123 . 
molding which projects be- 
yond the surface of the work 2f. A vesicle or bubble.- 3. A rounded pod or 
which it decorates. It is used capsule of a plant, as of flax or cotton. See *>tta 

chiefly for surrounding panels in cut under cotton-plant. 4. A round knob. bolnt (boln), /;. a. bee bollen. 

doors, and in like positions. The word is generally used boll 1 (bol), r. 9. [< bolfl, 91,] To form into or Bologna phosphorus, sausage, Stone, Vial. 

attributively or in composition, as bolect-ion-molding. OT oduce bolls or rounded seed-vessels. See the nouns, 

bolectioned (bo-lek'shond), a. Having bolec- ' 

tion-moldings. ' Tne barle >' waa in tne ear > and the flax was bo " ed ; 

bolero (bo-la'ro), 91. [Sp.] 1. A Spanish dance 



, . 
in f time, accompanied by the voice and casta- boll 2 (bol), n. 



Bolognese (bo-lo-nyes' or -nyez'), a. [< It. .Bo- 
Ex, ix. 31. logncse (L. Bononiennis), < Bologna, L. Bononia, 
orig. an Etruscan town called Fclsina.] 



Per- 



, . , ^ol), [Sc-alsofio^-earlie^^fe, '^^^-^tf^^ie^ 

nets, intended to represent the course of love < ME. (Sc.) bolle, appar. < Icel. bollt, a bowl, It&1 famous during the middle ages for its 

also used for a measurej same word E. lmi ^ rgitV) or to a s ^ hool of painting founded 



from extreme shyness to extreme passion. 

Fandango's wriggle or bolero's bound. 

Byron, The Waltz. 

2. A musical composition for such a dance. 

boletic (bo-let'ik), a. [< Boletus + -ic.] Per- 
taining to or obtained from Boletus, a genus of 
mushrooms. 

Boletus (bo- 
le' tus), n. [L., 
a kind of mush- 
room, < Gr. 
ftiMrr/f, a kind 
of mushroom, < 
/3u^of, a lump 

Of earth, a Koltttts, entire and cut longitudinally. 

clod : see bole 2 .] 

An extensive genus of hymenomycetous fungi 




... andfc^X] An old Scotch dry measure, ^TbTLodovico Carracci ^feiO, anS 
also used in Durham Northumberland, West- algo cal f ed the Eeleetic Scho v ol from itg de . 

5?^Sfi ^hfte^she,^ X'SJoil dared intent (in the fulfilment of which it fell 
boll for grain varied in different shires from to 6J Win- very far short) to combine the excellences of 
Chester bushels, or even more, the standard sent from all other schools. 

Linlithgow being purposely made too large. See Jirlot. Boloenian (bo-16'nyan), a. [< It. Bologna.] 
The wheat-boll, also used for peas and beans, was gen- g &s BoJolfc_BlflBiBlII phosphorus. See 

phosphorus. Bolognian stone. See stone. 

' ' * n. [< Gr. /?oA#, a 
:^Xf(v, throw), + fie- 

rpav, a measure.] An instrument devised by 
Professor S. P. Langley of the United States 
for measuring very small amounts of radiant 
heat. Its action is based upon the variation of electrical 
resistance produced by changes of temperature in a metal- 
lic conductor, as a minute strip of platinum. This strip 



erally 4 to 4J Winchester bushels. The boll for potatoes 

was 8i to 9 Winchester bushels. But there was much va- * --- -* ,TT-~~I 7~i~-~V 

nation, with the substance measured, the locality, and bolometer (DO-lom e-ter), 
even the time of the year. Thus, in Kintyre the boll of throw, a glance, a rav (< 
grain was 9 Winchester bushels and 1 quart before Patrick- 
mas, but 16 Scotch pecks after that date. The statute 
boll contained 4 ttrlots. A boll of meal is now reckoned 
140 pounds avoirdupois. Boll of canvas, 35 yards. 
Boll of land, about a Scotch acre. 
bolPt, v. i. [Early mod. E., < ME. bollen, appar. 
an assimilated form of the equiv. bolnen, mod. 



t nymeuo, wwua i uigi, ~ - r," ;" 1 1 On? ho 2 To onns one a of an electric balance, and the change in 

generally found growing on the ground in woods E. boln: see boln.] 1. bame as < Hn. 4. L the strenjrti, O f the electric current passing through it be- 



and meadows, especially in pine woods. In Bole- increase. 

tui the pores are easily separable from the cap and from Bollandlst (bol'an-dist), 



cause of this change of resistance is registered by a deli- 
[From Bolland cate galvanometer. It indicates accurately changes of 
- - . . L. - o^j. F _ j t lias been used 



each other, while in the related genus Polyporm they are r 1596-1665) who iirst undertook the systematic temperature of much less than .0 

adherent to the cap, and are bound to each other by an . 1 _ ( - OT 1 o,I* O nrl nnhlinatinn nf mnrprial nl in the study of the distribution of heat-energy in the solar, 

interstitial tissue, & trama. A few species are edible. ^^l^L^L^^^jl, ^^^T ^ d , ^ *^' Also caUed thm " ic b " l e and 



boleyt (bo'li), 91. See booly. 

bolide (bo'lid or -lid), n. [< L. bolts (bolid-), 
a fiery meteor, < Gr. /3o/Uf (^oA5-), a missile, 
dart, < jiatf&tv, throw.] A brilliant meteor. 

bolint, An obsolete spelling of bowline. 
Slack the bolim there. 

Bolina (bo-H'na), n. [NL.] A genus of cteno- 
phoraus, typical of the family BoUnidai. 

Bolina is one of the most transparent of the comb-bear- 
ing medusa. The body is very gelatinous and highly 



phosphorescent. The s 



ready collected by his fellow-Jesuit Rosweyd, actinic balance. 

for the lives of the saints.] One of a series of bolometric (bo-lo-met'rik), a. Of or indicated 

Jesuit writers who published, under the title by the bolometer : as, bolometric measures. 

" Acta Sanctorum," the well-known collection bolongaro (bo-long-ga'ro), . [Origin un- 

of the traditions of the saints of the Roman known.] A kind of snuff made of various 

Catholic Church. See acta. grades of leaves and stalks of tobacco, ground 

,ies m. i. bollard (bol'ard), n. [Perhaps < bole* + -ard. to powder and sifted. 

Cf. pollard.']" 1. Naut., a strong post fixed ver- bolster (bol'ster), n. [Early mod. E. also bonl- 

tically alongside of a dock, on which to fasten s ter, Sc. bowster; < ME. bolstre, < AS. bolster = 

hawsers for securing or hauling ships. 2. ~ ' ' 
Same as billet-head, 1 (a). 



D. bolster = OHG. boh-tar, MHG. bolster, G. pol- 
ster = Icel. bolstr = Sw. bolster, bed, = Dan. 



S ori e o S bet whicht-ecSieliTrSg bollard-timber (bol'ard4im"ber), In ship- bolster, bed-ticking; wiih suffix -ster, < Teut. 



into two larger lappets 

vertically instead of horizontally. On account of the con- 
tractile powers of the body walls, Bolina can vary its out- 
lines very considerably; as a rule, however, when the 



building, a knighthead; one of two timbers or 
stanchions rising just within the stem, one on 
each side of the bowsprit, to secure its end. 



biil, swell (in'Goth. nfbitiiljaii, puff up), 
whence also boll 1 , etc.] 1. Something on 
which to rest the head while reclining ; specifi- 



T . " : Ti !3 -i .. i i ctUJll Blue Ul me uuwauni, LU aevuic iva cim. WI11C11 to rest lilt ilfau ^ line i^uiinini^ , Duwoxii" 

bod n y ,s seen from the side, ,t h^a,, oval or.eh,ngated ^^ ^^ ^ f obgolete fofm of ^^ ^^ ft ]on? cylindrical cughion 8t $j e( f with 



feathers, hair, straw, or other materials, and 




His mantle 
out like a sail. 

B. Jonson, King James's Coronation Entertainment. 



matico, and apar. See cut under apar. 
bolivar (bol'i-var), n. [Named after General 
Bolivar.] Same as boliviano. 

bollert, " Same as bowler'-. 

The receipt* for the fiscal year ending June 30, proximo, {."ii.^.''^ a <.,,,,/., 

cannot exceed oo.ooo.ooo w,v,,,v bolletne, . see bullytree. 

u. s. Com. Rep., No. ix. (1886), p. 162. bollimony, ". See bulUmong. 



ress, suc us n- rynrca o , ed 

bearers, formerly WOTB by women to support and putf out 
their skirts at the hips. 

A gown of green cloth made with holsters stuffed with 
wool. Quoted in N. and Q., 7th ser., III. 313. 

(6) A pad or quilt used to prevent pressure, support any 
part of the body, or make a bandage sit easy upon a wound- 



bolster 

ed part; a compress. (?) A cushioned or padded part of a 

saddle. ((/) \ailt. ,jit., pieces of soft w 1 covered with 

tend CUVas, placed under the eyes of the rigging t'i pre- 
vent chafing from the sharp edge of th< es. () 

A part of a bridge Intervening lietween the truss and the 
masonry. (/) In ,-ntifi-ii, the part of such Instruments and 
tools as knives, chisels, etc.. which adjoins the end of the 
handle ; alv, a met al lie plat'- on the end of a pocket-knife 
handle. (//) In </., block of wood on the carriage of 
a liege-gun, upon which the breech of the gun rests when 
It is moved, (li) liinn-li.. s&muiuibaliister, 2. (i) In I/H/X/V, 
the railed ridge which holds the tuning-pins of a piano. 
0) A cap-piece or sliorl timber placed al Ibe top of a post 

as a bearing fora string-piece, (t) A perforated l> n 

block upon which sheet -metal is placed to be punched. 
(0 A si 4 through which a spindle passes, (m) 

one of the loose 

w leu blocks 

against which the 
ends of the pole of 
the saw rest, (n) 
A bar placed trans- 
versely over the 
axle of a wagon or 
in the middle of a 
car-truck to sup- 



(11.-, 




Wagon-bolster. 
a, axle-bar ; I 1 , bolster. 



port the body, (o) One of the transverse pieces of an arch- 
centering, extending between the ribs and sustaining the 
voussoira during construction. Bob at the bolster. 
Same as auhiun-da-nce. Compound bolster, in car- 
buildiiui, a lx>lster formed of timbers stiffened by vertical 
Iron plates. 

bolster (bol'ster), v. t. [< bolster, n.~\ 1. To 
support with a bolster. 

Suppose I bolster him up In bed. 
Anil fix the crown again on his brow? 

K. B. Ni<iit<lnl, The King Is Cold. 

2. To prop ; support ; uphold ; maintain : gen- 
erally implying support of a weak, falling, or 
unworthy cause or object, or support based on 
insufficient grounds: now usually with up: as, 
to bolster up his pretensions with lies. 

Lord, what bearing, what bolsteriiiij of naughty mat- 
ters is this In a Christian realm 1 

Latimer, 5th Serm. bef. Edw. VI., 1549. 

Persuasions used to further the truth, not to boltter 
error. Hooker, Eccles. Pol., 111. $ 4. 

Still farther to appropriate and confirm the exciting 
narrative of this forgery, he had artfully bolstered It up 
by an accompanying anecdote. 

/. D' Israeli, Amen, of Lit., II. 416. 

3. To furnish with a bolster in dress; pad; 
stuff out with padding. 

Three pair of stays bolstered below the left shoulder. 

Taller, No. 245. 

bolsterer (bol'ster-er), n. One who bolsters; 
a supporter. 

bolstering (bol'ster-ing), n. [Verbal n. of bol- 
ster, t>.] A prop or support ; padding. 

bolster-plate (bol'ster-plat), n. An irou plate 
placed on the under side of the bolster of a 
wagon, to serve as a wearing surface. 

bolster-spring (bol'ster-spring), n. A. spring 
placed on the beam of a car-truck, to support 
the bolster and the body of the car. 

bolster-work (bol'ster-werk), n. Architec- 
tural features, or courses of masonry, which 
are curved or bowed outward like the sides of 
a cushion. 

bolt 1 (bolt), n. [< ME. bolt (in most of the 
mod. senses), < AS. bolt (only in the first sense : 
twice in glosses, " catapultns, speru, boltas," 
to which is due, perhaps, the erroneous sug- 
gestion that AS. bolt is a reduced form of L. 
catapulto, catapult) = MD. bolt, an arrow, later 
bout, D. bout, a pin, = MLG. bolte, bolten, LG. 
bolte, an arrow, pin, round stick, fetter, roll of 
linen, = OHG. MHG. bolz, G. boh, bolzen, an ar- 
row, a pin, = Icel. bolti, a pin, a roll of linen 
(Haldorseii), = Dan. bolt, a pin, band (the 
Scand. forms prob. from E. orLG.); appar. an 
orig. Teut. word with the primary meaning of 
' arrow ' or ' missile.'] 1 . An arrow ; especially, 
in archer i/, the arrow of a crossbow, which was 
short and thick as compared with a shaft. 
A fool's bolt la soon shot. Shnk., Hen. V., 111. 7. 

The infidel has shot his i*Ji* away, 

Till, his exhausted <[iiiver yielding none, 

He gleans the blunted ihutl that have recoil'd, 

And aims them at the shield of truth again. 

Cowjier, Task, vi. 878. 

2. A thunderbolt; a stream of lightning: so 
named from its apparently darting like a bolt. 

The butts that spare the mountain side 
His cloud-rapt eminence divide. 
And spread the ruin round. 

Cmi'/HT, tr. of Horace, Odes, H. 10. 

Harmless as summer lightning plays 

From a low, hidden cloud hy ni^ht, 

A light to set the hills ablaze, 

But not a bolt to smite. \Vliittier, KenozaLake. 

3. Aii elongated bullet for a rifled cannon. 

4. A cylindrical jet, as of water or molten 




i. Double-headed bolt. a. Eye-bolt. 3. Lewis bolt, a, head ; i, 
shank ; c, washer ; tt, nut ; e. e, pieces secured by the nut to the object 
// f, collar; t, barbed ihank surrounded by lead, Jr. 

glass. 5. A metallic pin or rod, used to 
hold objects together. It generally has screw- 
threads cut at one end, and 
sometimes at both, to receive 
a nut. 6. A movable bar 
for fastening a door, gate, 





a, carriage-bolt ; ft, tire- 
bolt ; c, wagon - skein 
bolt 



bolt 

bolt 1 (bdlt), v. [= Sc. boult, bout, bowt; < ME. bol~ 
nn, Inillin (in tlic latter form varying in one in- 
stance with pulten, mod. E. pelt 1 .a. v.), spring, 
start, also fetter, shackle ( = MHO. bulzen, go 
off like an arrow) ; the other senses are modern, 
all being derived from bolt 1 , n., in its two main 
senses of 'missile ' and ' pin for fastening ' : see' 
bolti, .] I. intrann. 1. To go off like a bolt or 
arrow ; shoot forth suddenly ; spring out with 
speed and suddenness : commonly followed by 
out : as, to bolt out of the house. 

Angry Cupid, totting from her eye*, 
Hath shot himself Into me like a flame. 

B. Jotuon, Volpone, 11. i 
This Puck seems but a dreaming dolt, . . . 
And oft out of a bush doth h,n. 

Drayttm, Nymphldla. 

2. To spring aside or away suddenly; start and 
run off; make a bolt. 

Stage-coaches were upsetting in all directions, horses 
were bolting, boats were overturning, and boilers were 
bursting. Kckrnt. 

The gun, absolutely the most useless weapon among us, 
could do nothing, even if the gunners did not bolt at the 
first sight of the enemy. O'Donopan, Herv, x. 

3. In politics, to withdraw from a nominating 
convention as a means of showing disapproval 
of its acts; hence, to cease to act in full accord 
with one's party ; refuse to support a measure 
or candidate adopted by a majority of one's col- 
leagues or party associates. [U. S. ] 

Mr. Raymond agreed, . . . after some hesitation, but 
with the understanding that, if it |the Philadelphia Con- 
- " "-""] fell under the control of the" ' 



makes a fastening by being shot into a socket 
or keeper. 7. An iron to fasten the legs of a 
prisoner; a shackle. 
Away with him to prison, lay h,l/* enough upon him. 

SAoi.TM. for M., v. 1. 

8. In firearms : (a) In a needle-gun, the slid- 
ing piece that thrusts the cartridge forward 
into the chamber and carries the firing-pin, it 
has a motion of rotation about its longer axis for the 
purpose of locking the breech-mechanism before tiring. 
(6) In a snap-gun, the part that holds the barrel 
to the breech-mechanism. 0. A roll or defi- 
nite length of silk, canvas, tape, or other tex- 
tile fabric, and also of wall-paper, as it comes 
from the maker ready for sale or use. 

Face. Where be the French petticoats, 
And girdles and hangers ? 

Sub. Here, in the trunk, 

And the bolti of lawn. B. Jonton, Alchemist, v. 2. 

10. A bundle, (o) Of straw, a quantity loosely 
tiedup. Also bolting or bolton. (b) Of osier rods, 
a quantity bound up for market, 3 feet around 
the lower band, (c) Of reeds, one of 3 feet in cir- 
cumference. [Eng.] 1 1 . The closed ends of 
leaves of an uncut Dook which present a double 
or quadruple fold. 12. The comb of a bobbin- 
net machine on which the carriages move. 
13. In woodworking : (a) A mass of wood 
from which anything may be cut or formed. 
(b) Boards held together, after being sawed 
from the log, by an uncut end or stub-shot. 
14f. A name for certain plants, as the globe- 
flower and marsh-marigold. 15. [In this and 
the next sense from the verb.] The act of 
running off suddenly ; a sudden spring or start : 
as, the norse made a bolt. 

The Egyptian soldiers, as usual, made an immediate 
bolt, throwing away their arms and even their clothes. 

E. Sartorius, In the Soudan, p. 65. 

16. In politics, the act of withdrawing from a 
nominating convention as a manifestation of 
disapproval of its acts ; hence, refusal to sup- 
port a candidate or the ticket presented by 
or in the name of the party to which one has 
hitherto been attached ; a partial or temporary 
desertion of one's party. [U.S.] 17. The act 
of bolting food Barbed bolt, a bolt with points pro- 
jecting outward, which bear against or enter into the sur- 
rounding material, and thus prevent iU withdrawal. 
Bolt and shutter. In cloclc-malrinij, an adjustment of a 
spiral spring in a turret clock, such that while the clock 
is winding there may be another spring in action to pre- 
vent a stoppage of the works. Bolt and tun. In her., a 
tern i applied to a bird-bolt in pale piercing through a tun. 
Bringing -to bolt, a bolt with an eye at one end and a 
screw-thread and nut at the other, used in drawing parts 
toward each other. Chain-plate bolt. Same as 
bolt. Copper bolt. See nipper bit. tinder <!. Coun- 



4f. To fall suddenly, like a thunderbolt. 

As an eagle 
His cloudless thunder bolted on their heads. 

Milton, S. A., 1. 1696. 

5. To run to seed prematurely, as early-sown 
root-crops (turnips, etc.), without the usual 
thickening of the root, or after it. 

II. trans. 1. To send off like a bolt or ar- 
row; shoot ; discharge. 2. To start or spring 
(game) ; cause to bolt up or out, as hares, rab- 
bits, and the like. 

Jack Ferret, welcome. . . 
What canst thou i,it us now? a coney or two 

B. Jonton, New Inn, iii. 1. 
8. To expel; drive out suddenly. 

To have been h,n,i/ forth, 
Thrust out abruptly into Fortune's way, 
Among the conflicts of substantial life. 

Wordsworth, Prelude, ill. 77. 

4. To blurt out; ejaculate or utter hastily. 

5. To swallow hurriedly or without chewing: 
as, to Imlt one's food. 

These treacherous pelleU are thrown to the bear, who 
bolti them whole. N. A. Rev., CXX. 39. 

6. [After I., 3.] In politics, to break away from 
and refuse to support (the candidate, the ticket, 
or the platform presented by or in the name of 
the party to which one has hitherto adhered) ; 
leave or abandon: as, to Imlt the presidential 
candidate. 

A man does not ''/' his party, but the candidate or can- 
didates his party has put up. Sometimes, though less 
properly, he is said to Ml the platform of principles It 
has enunciated. The essential point is, that the bolter 
does not necessarily, in fact does not usually, abandon 
the political organization with which he is connected. 
He not infrequently votes for some men upon its ticket, 
and at the same time hilt* others by "scratching" their 
names. A'. }'. Evening Pott, Aug. 20, 1887. 

7. To fasten or secure with a bolt or an iron pin, 
as a door, a plank, fetters, or anything else. 

8. To fasten as with bolts ; shackle ; restrain. 

It U great 

To do that thing that ends all other deeds ; 
Which shackles accidents, and bollt up change. 

Shak., A. andC., v. 2. 

That I could reach the axle, where the pins are 
Which hilt this frame ; that I might pull them out 

B. Joiuon, Catiline, 111 1. 

To bolt a fox, in fox-huntiny, when a fox has run to 
earth, to put a terrier into the hole, and, when he la 
heard barking, to dig over the spot from which the sound 
proceeds, and so get at the fox. 
bolt 1 (bolt), adr. [< bolti, . or c.] 1. Like a 
bolt or arrow: as, "rising bolt from his seat," 
G. P. R. James. 
There she sat unit upright ! 

Barhatn, Ingoldsby Legends. L 260. 
2. Suddenly; with sudden meeting or collision. 
[He) came bolt up against the heavy dragoon. 

Thackeray. 



nee ts. Dormant bolt, a door-bolt operated hy a special 



bowlt, boolt, 80. bout, boirt; < ME. batten, < OF. 
nulter. earlier buleter (mod. F. bluter; ML. re- 



key or knoi>. Key-head bolt, a iwlt with a projection baiter, earlier buleter (mod. F. bluter; ML. re- 
from the chamfer of its head to hold it so that it will not flex buletarc) for 'bureter (= It. burattare), 

*fifiW 5H "^ 



ImiiiliiKi. the bolts on the splinU'r-bar to which the traces 
are attached. 



cloth (cf. dim. buretel. bttrtel, mod. F. hliilmu 
= It. burattello, a bolter, meal-sieve: see 6oni- 



bolt 

teft) (= It. bitratto, a meal-sieve, a fine trans- 
parent cloth), dim. of bure, mod. F. bure, a 
coarse woolen cloth, < ML. burra, a coarse 
woolen cloth (whence also ult. E. borel, burrel, 
bureau), < L. burns, reddish: see burrel, bu- 
reau, birrus, biretta, etc. Cf. bunfi.~\ 1. To 
sift or pass through a sieve or bolter so as to 
separate the coarser from the finer particles, 
as bran from flour; sift out: as, to bolt meal; 
to bolt out the bran. 

This hand, 

As soft as dove's down, and as white as it ; 

... or the fann'd snow, 

That's bolted by the northern blasts twice o'er. 

Shak., W. T., Iv. 3. 

2. To examine or search into, as if by sifting; 

sift; examine thoroughly: sometimes with out, 

and often in an old proverbial expression, to 

bolt to the Iran. 

For I ne can not bolt it to the bran, 
As can the holy Doctor Augustiu, 
Or Boece or the Bishop Bradwardin. 

Chaucer, Nun's Priest's Tale, 1. 420. 

Time and nature will bolt out the truth of things. 

Sir R. L Estrange. 

The report of the committee was examined and sifted 
and bolted to the bran. Burke, A. Regicide Peace, iii. 



3. To moot, or brin 
as in a moot-court. 



forward for discussion, 
ee bolting?, 2. 



I hate when Vice can bolt her arguments, 
And Virtue has no tongue to check her pride. 

Milton, Comus, 1. 760. 

bolt 2 (bolt), . [Early mod. E. also boult, So. 
bout, bowt; < ME. bult, < bnlten, bolt.] 1. A 
sieve ; a machine for sifting flour. 2. In the 
English inns of court, a hypothetical point or 
case discussed for the sake of practice. 

The Temple and Gray's Inn have lately established lec- 
tures, and moots and boults may again be propounded 
and argued in these venerable buildings. 

X. and Q., 7th ser., III. 84. 

boltant (bol'tant), a. [< bolt 1 , v., + -ant.'] In 
her., springing forward: applied to hares and 
rabbits when represented in this attitude. 
bolt-auger (bolt'a'ger), n. A large auger used 
in ship-building to bore holes for bolts, etc. 
bolt-boat (bolt'bot), n. A strong boat that 
will endure a rough sea. 

bolt-chisel (b61t'chiz"el), n. A deep, narrow- 
edged cross-cut chisel. 

bolt-clipper (bolt'klip"er), w. A hand-tool fit- 
ted to different sizes of bolts, and used to cut 
off the end of a bolt projecting beyond a nut. 
bolt-cutter (bolt ' kut " er), n. 1. One who 
makes bolts. 2. A machine for making the 
threads on a screw-bolt; a bolt-threader or 
bolt-screwing machine. 3. A tool for cutting 
off the ends of bolts. 

boltel (bol'tel), n. [Also written boultel. early 
mod. E. (and mod. archaic) boutel, bowtell, also 
corruptly bottle; < late ME. boltell, bowtell; ori- 
gin uncertain ; perhaps < bolt 1 , an arrow, shaft, 
roll (with ref. to its shape; cf. shaft, in its 
architectural sense), + -el. Formations with 
the F. dim. suffix -el on native words were 
not usual in the ME. period, but this may be 
an artificial book-name. The 18th century boul- 
tin, boultine, seems to be an arbitrary varia- 
tion. Cotgrave has F. " bosel, a thick or great 
boultel (commonly) in or near unto the basis 
of a pillar."] 1. 'in arch., a convex molding 
of which the section is an arc of a circle ; a 
medieval term for the torus or roundel. 2. A 
rounded ridge or border used for stiffening a 
cover, dish, tray, or other utensil. 
Boltenia (bol-te'ni-a), n. [NL., after Dr. 
Bnlten, of Hamburg'.'] A genus of tunicates, 
by most recent authors referred to the family 
Cyntlmdce, but by a few made type of a family 
Bolteniidce. 

bolteniid (bol-te'ni-id), n. A tunicate of the 
family Bolteniidce. 

Bolteniidae (bol-te-ni'i-de), n. pi. [NL., < Bol- 
tenia + -idee.] A family of simple ascidians, 
typified by the genus Boltenia, having a pyri- 
form body supported upon a long peduncle or 
stalk. By most recent systematists it is de- 
graded to the rank of a subfamily of Cynthiidos. 
bolter 1 (bdTter), . [< bolt 1 , v., + -*.] One 
who bolts, in any sense of the verb. Specifically 
(a) One who bolts or turns aside ; a horse that bolts. (6) 
In politics, one who leaves the party, or refuses to sup- 
port the candidate, ticket, or platform of the party, to 
which he has been attached. [U. S.] 

Mr. Converse . . . had the indecency to denounce the 
twenty-seven as bolters from their party. 

The American, VIII. 100. 

bolter 2 (bol'ter), n. [Early mod. E. also boul- 
ter, < ME. bulter, bulture, < bulten, bolt, sift : see 
bolt? and -er 1 . Cf. OF. buleteor, sifter, < bukter, 



616 

sift. Cf. boultel' 2 .'} A sieve; an instrument or 
machine for separating bran from flour, or the 
coarser part of meal from the finer. 

Host. I bought you a dozen of shirts to your back. 

F al. Dowlas, filthy dowlas : I have given them away to 
bakers' wives, and they have made bolters of them. 

Shak., 1 Hen. IV., iii. 3. 

bolter 3 (bol'ter), n. [Also boulter, bulter: same 
as button}.] A kind of fishing-line. 

These hakes, and divers others of the fore-cited, are 
taken with threads, and some of them with the bolter, 
which is a spiller of a bigger size. 

R. Carew. Survey of Cornwall. 

bolter 4 t, v. i. and t. [A variant of baiter, clot, 
known chiefly in the compound blood-boltered. 
in Shakspere. See blood-boltered and baiter.] 
To clot. 

bolter-cloth (bol'ter-kloth), n. Cloth used for 
making bolters ; bolting-cloth. 
bolt-feeder (bolt'fe"der), n. An apparatus for 
controlling the supply of flour in a bolting- 
mill. 

bolt-head, bolt's-head (bolt'-, bolts'hed), n. A 
long straight-necked glass vessel for chemical 
distillations. Also called matrass and receiver. 

He 

Will close you so much gold, in a bolt's-head, 
And, on a turn, convey in the stead another 
With sublimed mercury, that shall burst in the heat. 
B. Jonson, Alchemist, iv. 4. 

bolt-hole (bolt'hol), n. In coal-mining, a short, 
narrow opening made to connect the main 
workings with the air-head or ventilating drift: 
used in the working of the Dudley thick seam, 
in the South Staffordshire (England) coal-field. 
See square-work. 

bolt-hook (bolt'huk), n. A check-rein hook 
bolted to the plates of a saddletree. 

bolti (bol'ti), n. [< Ar. boltuiy.] A fish of the 
family Cichlidce (or Chromididce), Tilapia (or 
Chromis) nilotica, found in Egypt and Palestine. 
It is an oblong fish, with 15 to 18 spines and 12 to 14 rays 
in the dorsal fin. The color is greenish olive, darker in 
the center of each scale, and the vertical flns are spotted 
with white. It is highly esteemed for its flesh, and re- 
garded as one of the best ol the Nile fish. Also called 
baity and bulti. 

bolting 1 (bol'ting), n. [Also written boltin, bol- 
ton; Cbolt 1 , n., + -ing 1 .] A bundle or bolt of 
straw: in Gloucestershire, 24 pounds. Also 
called bolt. [Eng.] 

bolting 2 (bol'ting), . [Also written boulting ; 
< ME. bultinge; verbal n. of bolt?, v.] 1. The 
act of sifting. 

Bakers in their linnen bases and mealy vizards, new 
come from boulting. 

ilarston and Barksted, Insatiate Countess, ii. 

2f. In the English inns of court, a private argu- 
ing of cases for practice Bolting-millstone, a 
lower stone having metallic boxes alternating with the fur- 
rows. These boxes contain wire screens, through which 
the meal escapes before it reaches the skirt. 

bolting-chest (bol'ting-chest), n. The case in 
which a bolt in a flour-mill is inclosed. 

bolting-Cloth (bol'ting-kloth), n. [< ME. bul- 
ting-cloth.] A cloth for bolting or sifting; a 
linen, silk, or hair cloth, of which bolters are 
made for sifting meal, etc. 

The finest and most expensive silk fabric made is bolting- 
cloth, for the use of millers, woven almost altogether in 
Switzerland. Harper's Mag., LXXI. 266. 

bolting-cord (bol'ting-k6rd), n. A stiff piece 
of rope having the strands unraveled at one 
extremity, used as a probang to remove any- 
thing sticking in an animal's throat. 

bolting-house (bol'ting-hous), n. A house 
where meal or flour is sifted. 

The jade is returned as white and as powdered as if she 
had been at work in a bolting-house. Dennis, Letters. 

bolting-hutch t (bol'ting-huch), n. A tub or 
wooden trough for bolted flour. 

Take all my cushions down and thwack them soundly, 

After my feast of millers ; . . . beat them carefully 

Over a bolting-hutch, there will be enough 

For a pan-pudding. 

Middleton (and another), Mayor of Queenborough, v. 1. 

bolting-mill (bol'ting-mil), n. A mill or ma- 
chine for sifting meal or flour, 
bolting-tub (bol'ting-tub), n. A tub to sift 
meal in. 

The larders have been searched, 
The bakehouses and boulting tub, the ovens. 

B. Jontuu. Mafjnetick Lady, v. 5. 

bolt-knife (bolt'nlf), n. A knife used by book- 
binders for cutting through a bolt or the folded 
leaves of a section. 

boltless (bolt'les), a. [< bolt 1 + -less.] With- 
out a bolt. 

bolton, w. A corruption of bolting 1 . 

boltonite (bol'tqn-it), n. [< Bolton, in Massa- 
chusetts, + -ite?.] A mineral of the chrysolite 
group, occurring in granular form at Bolton, 



bombace 

Massachusetts. It is a silicate of magnesium, 
containing also a little iron protoxid. 
bolt-rope (bolt'rop), n. A superior kind of 
hemp cordage sewed on the edges of sails to 
strengthen them. That part of it on the perpendicu- 
lar side is called the leech-rope ; that at the bottom, the 
foot-rope ; that at the top, the head-rope. To the bolt- 
rope is attached all the gear used in clewing up the sail 
and setting it. 

We heard a sound like the short, quick rattling of 
thunder, and the jib was blown to atoms out of the bolt- 
rope. R. H. Dana, Jr., Before the Mast, p. 254. 

bolt's-head, n. See bolt-head. 

boltsprit (bolt'sprit), .. A corruption of bow- 
tprit. 

bolt-Strake (bolt'strak), n. Naut., the strake 
or wale through which the fastenings of the 
beams pass. 

bolty, . See bolti. 

bolus (bo'lus), n. [< L. bolus, > E. bole?, q. v.] 
1. A soft round mass of anything medicinal, 
larger than an ordinary pill, to be swallowed 
at once. 2. Figuratively, anything disagree- 
able, as an unpalatable doctrine or argument, 
that has to be accepted or tolerated. 

There is no help for it, the faithful proselytizer, if she 
cannot convince by argument, bursts into tears, and the re- 
cusant finds himself, at the end of the contest, taking down 
the bolus, saying, " Well, well, Bodgers be it." Thackeray. 

bolyet, See booty. 

bom (bom), )). [Also boma, bomma, aboma; 
orig. a native name in Congo, subsequently ap- 
plied to a Brazilian serpent.] Same as aboma. 

bomah-nut (bo'ma-nut), n. [< bomah (native 
name) + nut.'] The seed of a euphorbiaceous 
shrub, Pycnocoma macrophylla, of southern 
Africa, used for tanning. 

Bomarea (bo-ma're-a), n. [NL., < Valmont de 
Bon/are, a French 'naturalist of the 18th cen- 
tury.] A genus of amaryllidaceous plants, na- 
tives of South America and Mexico. The roots 
are tnberiferous, the leafy stems frequently twining, and 
the flowers, which are often showy, in simple or compound 
umbels. There are over 50 species. See salsilla. 

bomb 1 !, " * [< ME. bomben, bumben, variant 
forms of bommen, bummen, > 2mm 1 , later boom 1 : 
see 6am 1 , boom 1 , and cf. bomb?, v.] A variant 
of boom 1 . 

What overcharged piece of melancholia 

Is this, breakes in betweene my wishes thus, 

With bombing sighs? 

B. Jonson, The Fortunate Isles. 

bomb 1 t, " [Var. of bum 1 , the earlier form of 
boom 1 . Cf. bomb 1 , r.] A great noise; a loud 
hollow sound; the stroke of a bell. 

A pillar of iron, . . . which if you had struck would 
make a little flat noise in the room, but a great bomb in 
the chamber beneath. Bacon. 

bomb 2 (bom or bum), n. [Early mod. E. also 
borne, also bombe, bombo, and (simulating boom 1 
= bomb 1 ) boomb; = G. bombe, < F. bombe = Sp. 
It. bomba, a bomb, < L. bombus, < Gr. /36ftj3o, a 
deep hollow sound ; prob. imitative, like bomb 1 , 
boom 1 , bum 1 , bumble, bump?, etc. The histori- 
cal pron. is bum.] 1. An explosive projec- 
tile, consisting of a hollow ball or spherical 
shell, generally of cast-iron, filled with a burst- 
ing charge, fired from a mortar, and 



Bomb. 
a, a, walls of 
shell-, i, fuse- 
hole ; c, cavity 
for powder. 



^ Uj^ usually exploded by means of a fuse 
/" ' ^k or tube filled with a slow-burning 
[if i ] compound, which is ignited by the 
', \ ,'"' exploding powder when Uw mortM 
is iliscliiii'KCcl. j;,.m!jsniiiy be thrown in 
such a direction as to fall into a fort, a city, 
or an enemy's camp, where they burst with 
grout violence, and often with terrible effect. 
The length and composition of the fuse must 
be calculated in such a way that the bomb 
shall burst the moment it arrives at the des- 
tined place. Bombs are now commonly termed shells, 
though shell in the sense of a projectile has a wider mean- 
ing. See shell. Also called bombshell. 
Hence 2. Anymissile constructed upon sim- 
ilar principles: as, a dynamite bomb. 3. In 
geol., a block of scoria ejected from the crater 
of a volcano. 

This deposit answers to the heaps of dust, sand, stones, 
and bombs which are shot out of modern volcanoes ; it is 
a true ash. Oeikie. 

4f. A small war-vessel carrying mortars for 
throwing bombs ; a bomb-ketch. 
bomb 2 t (bom or bum), r. t. [< bomb?, n.] To 
attack with bombs ; bombard. 

Villeroy, who ne'er afraid is, 

To Bruxelles marches on secure, 
To bomb the monks and scare the ladies. 

J'rivr, On taking Samur. 

bombacet, [Early mod. E. also bombase, 
bombage; < OF. bombace, < ML. bontliax (ace. 
bombacem), cotton : see Bombax. The form bom- 
bace subsequently gave way to bombast, q. v.] 
1. The down of the cotton-plant; raw cotton. 



bombace 

2. Cotton-wool, or wadding. 3. Padding; 

stuHing. l-'ullrr. 

Bombaceae (bom-ba'se-e), n. pi. [NL., < HIIM- 
lin.i- + -acca-,] An arboreous tribe or suborder 
of Mali'acca:, by some eoiiHiili-ri'd ;i distinct or- 
der, distinguished chiefly by the five- to eight- 
cleft stamineal column. There are ulxmt 20 small 
ircnem, principally tropical, including the baobab (Allan- 
*"ii<), tlie cotton-tree (f: l i>il<'iKl/-"/t anil llinnhax), the 

lltiri:tll (/>"//')>, rtc. 

boinbaceous (bom-ba'shius), . In Imt., relat- 
ing or pertaining to plants of the natural order 

Itnillhilri if. 

bombard (l)oni'- or bum'biird), n. [Early mod. 
10. also bum/Mini, < MK. biiinbarde, hoiubardc 
(in sense 4), < OF. bninburdi; a cannon, a mu- 
sical instrument, F. bombarde (= Sp. Pg. It. 
liiiiitbnrda, a cannon, It. bomhanlu, a musical 
instrument), < ML. bnmbiiriln, orig. an engine 
for throwing largo stones, prob. (with suffix 
-until, E. -ard) < L. bombus, a loud noise, in ML. 
a fireball, a bomb: see bomb^, .] 1. The name 
generally given in Europe to the cannon dur- 
ing the first century of its use. The earliest bom- 
bar, Is wen- more like mortars than modern cannon, throw- 
ins their shot (originally stone halls) at a great elevation ; 
many wen- npi-n at lioth ends, the shot heing introduced 
at the breech, which was afterward stopped by a piece 
wedded or bolted into place. 

Which with onr bombard*' shot, and basilisk, 

We rent in sunder. Marlum, Jew of Malta, v. 3. 

2. See bomhardelle. 3. A small vessel with 
two masts, like the English ketch, used in the 
Mediterranean; a bomb-ketch. 4. A large 
leathern jug or bottle for holding liquor. See 
black-jack, 1. 

That swoln parcel of dropsies, that huge bombard of 
sack. Shak., 1 Hen. IV., U. 4. 

Yond' same black cloud . . . looks like a foul bombard 
that would shed his liquor. N/..U-.. Tempest, ii. 2. 

They'd ha' beat out 
His brains with bombards. 

Middleton, Inner-Temple Masque. 

8f. Figuratively, a toper. Of. A medieval mu- 
sical instrument of the oboe family, having a 
reed mouthpiece and a wooden tube. The name 
was properly applied to a lame and low-pitched Instru- 
ment (whence the name bnmtiardon for a heavy reed-stop 
In organ-building) ; but it was also used for small instru- 
ments of the name class, which were known as basset-bom- 
bards and bombard! piccoli. 

7. pi. A style of breeches worn in the seven- 
teenth century, before the introduction of 
tight-fitting knee-breeches. They reached to the 
knee, and were probably so named because they hung 
loose and resembled the leathern drinking-vessels called 
bombards. 

8. [From the verb.] An attack with bombs; 
a bombardment. [Rare.] 

bombard (bora- or bum-bard'), v. [< F. bom- 
bunlor, batter with a bombard or cannon, < 
bombards, > E. bombard, a cannon: see bom- 
bard, n. The relation to bomb% is thus only 
indirect.] I. intrans. To fire off bombards or 
cannon. 

II. trans. 1. To cannonade; attack with 
bombs ; fire shot and shell at or into ; batter 
with shot and shell. 

Next she [France] intends to bombard Naples. 

Burke, Present State of Affairs. 

2. To attack with missiles of any kind; figura- 
tively, assail vigorously: as, to bombard one 
with questions. 

bombardellet (bom -bar-del'), [Dim. of F. 
//iimliiirili'.] A portable bombard, or hand-bom- 
bard ; the primitive portable firearm of Europe, 
consisting simply of a hollow cylinder with a 
touch-hole for firing with a match, and attach- 
ed to a long staff for handling. 

The first portable firearm of which we have any repre- 
sentation . . . was called the bombard or bombardelle. 

Am. Cyc., XII. 96. 

The Man on Foot, clad In light armor, held the bom- 
bardelle up. Pop. Set, Mo., XXVIII. 490. 

bombardier (bom- or bum-bar-der'), n. [For- 
merly also bumbarditr, bomlxirdi'cr; < F. botn- 
liiinUi-r (= Sp. bombardero = Pg. bombardeiro 
=. It. liiiiiiliiinlifro), < bombarde, bombard.] 1. 
Properly, a soldier in charge of a bombard or 
cannon; specifically, in the British army, a 
non-commissioned officer of the Royal Artil- 
lery, ranking next below a corporal, whose 
duty it is to load shells, grenades, etc., and to 
fix the fuses, and who is particularly appointed 
to the service of mortars and howitzers. 2. 
A bombardier-beetle. 3. A name of a Euro- 
pean frog, Boaibiiititnr ii/iiriin. 

bombardier-beetle (bom-bar-der'be'tl), . Tbe 
common name of many coleopterous insects, 
family Carabidft and genera Brachinius and Ap- 




Bombardler-bcetle (km- 




Uonibardoii. 



017 

tiini.i. found under stories. Wh.-n irritated, they are 
apt 1" expel violently from the anus a pungent, acrid n m. i 

a< rnmpaiiiril by a slight son ml. 

bombard-mant (bom'- 
biird-imin), . One who 
delivered liquor in bom- 
bards to customers. 
They miule room for a tunn- 
mam that brought bouge 
for a countrey lady. 

If. JOHSOII, Masques, Love 
IKcstonA 

bombardment (bom- or 
bum- bard 'ment), n. [< 
bombanl + -incut; = F. 
bombardi-mCHt.] A con- 
tinuous attack with shot 
and shell upon a town, 
fort, or other position ; the 
act of throwing shot and shell into an enemy's 
town in order to destroy the buildings. 

Oenoa is not yet secure from a Imnbardiiunt, though it 
is not so exposed as formerly. Aildimn, Travels In Italy. 

bombardot, n. Same as bombardon. 
bombardon, bombardone (bom-bar'don, bom- 
bar- do' ne), H. [< It. bombardone," aug. of 
bombardo : see bom- 
bard, n.] 1. A large- 
sized musical instru- 
ment of the trumpet 
kind, in tone not un- 
like the ophicleide. lu 
compass generally is from 
F on the fourth ledger-line 
below the bass staff to the 
lower D of the treble staff. 
It is not capable of rapid 
execution. 

2. The lowest of the 
sax -horns. 3. For- 
merly, a bass reed-stop 
of the organ, 
bombard-phraset 
(bom'bara-fraz), n. A 
boasting, loud-sound- 
ing, bombastic phrase. 
Their bombard-phrase , their foot and half-foot words. 

B. Jonsan, tr. of Horace's Art of Poetry. 
bombaset, H. See bombace. 
bombasin, bombasine, . See bombasine. 
bombast (bom'- or bum'bast, formerly bum- 
bast'), n. and a. [Early mod. E. also bttmbast; 
a var., with excrescent -t, of bombase, bombace : 
see bombace.'] I. n. If. Cotton ; the cotton-plant. 
Clothes mode of cotton or bombstt. 

Hakluyt's Foyapu, I. 93. 
Bombast, the cotton plant growing in Asia. 

B. Phillips, World of Words. 

2f. Cotton or other stuff of soft, loose texture, 
used to stuff garments ; padding. 
Thy body's bolstered out with bombast and with bags. 
Gascoiffne, Challenge to Beautie. 

Hence 3. Figuratively, high-sounding words ; 
inflated or extravagant language ; fustian ; 
speech too big and high-sounding for the oc- 
casion. 

Bombast is commonly the delight of that audience which 
loves poetry, but understands It not 

Dryden, Criticism in Tragedy. 

= Syn. 3. Bombast, Fustian, Bathos. Turgidness, Tumid- 
ness, Rant. " Bombast was originally applied to a stuff 
of soft, loose texture, used to swell the gannent. Fustian 
was also a kind of cloth of stiff, expansive character. 
These terms are applied to a high, swelling style of writing, 
full of extravagant sentiments and expressions. Bathos is 
a word which has the same application, meaning generally 
the mock-heroic that ' depth into which one falls who 
overleaps the sublime : the step which one makes in pass- 
ing from the sublime to the ridiculous." (De Mille, Ele- 
ments of Rhetoric, p. 225.) Bombast is rather stronger than 
.fmtifin. Turaidness and tumidnt** are words drawn 
from the swelling of the body, and express mere infla- 
tion of style without reference to sentiment. Rant is ex- 
travagant or violent language, proceeding from enthusiasm 
or fanaticism, generally in support of extreme opinions or 
against those holding opinions of a milder or different sort. 

The first victory of good taste is over the bombast and 
conceits which deform such times as these. 

Moravlay, Dryden. 

And he, whose fust fan's so sublimely bad, 
It is not poetry, but prose run mad. 

Pope, Prol. to Satires, 1. 187. 

In his fifth sonnet he [Petrarch] may, I think, be said to 
have sounded the lowest chasm of the Bathos. 

Macautay, Petrarch. 

The critics of that day, the most flattering equally with 
the severest, concurred in objecting to them obscurity, a 
general turgidness of diction, and a profusion of new- 
coined double epithets. Colendye, Biog. Lit, i. 

All rant about the rights of man, all whining and whim- 
pering about the clashing interests of body and soul, are 
treated with haughty scorn, or made the butt of contemp- 
tuous n.li. nli- tfUfftt, Ess. and Rev.. I. 2a 

n.f n. High-sounding; inflated; big with- 
out meaning. 

A tall metaphor in bombast way. Cuicfc.w, Ode, Of Wit 



bombinate 

bombast! (lx>m'- or bum'bAftt), r. (. [< /;///- 
imxt, n.] 1. To pad out; stuff, as a'dotiblt-t 
with cotton; hence, to inflate; swell out with 
high-sounding or bombastic language. 

Let them pretend what zeal they will, counterfeit re- 
ligion, blear the world's eyes, bombajtt themselves. 

;ii. of \I. I., p. 196. 

Then strives he to bnmlia.it his feeble line* 

With far-fetch'd phraae. Bp. Hall, Satires, I. 4. 

2. To beat ; baste. 

I will MI eniiacii an.l iiinbaste thee that thou ihalt not 
be able to sturre thyself. Palace of Pleasure (157U). 

bombastic, bombastical (bom- or bum-bas'tik, 
-ti-kal), . [< bombast, n., + -ic, -toil.] Char- 
acterized by bombast; high-sounding; inflat- 
ed; extravagant. 

A theatrical, bombastic, and windy phraseology. 

Burke, A Kegiclde Puce. 

He Indulges without measure In vague, bombastic dec- 
lamation. Macaulay, Sadler s Law of Population. 
-Syn. Swelling, tumid, stilted, pompons, lofty, grandilo- 
quent, liiu'h-tlown. 

bombastically (bom- orbum-bas'ti-kal-i), adv. 
In a bombastic or inflated manner or style. 

bombastry (bom'- or bum'bas-tri), . [< bom- 
bast + -ry.] Bombastic words ; fustian. 

BnmbastriimA buffoonery, by nature lofty and light, soar 
highest of all. Sin/f. Tale of a Tub, Int. 

Bombaz (bom'baks), n. [ML., cotton, a corrup- 
tion of L. bombyx: see Bombyx.'] 1. A genus of 
silk-cotton trees, natural order ifalracea;, chief- 
ly natives of tropical America. The seeds are cov- 
ered with a silky Him. but this is too short for textile 
uses. The wood Is soft and light. The fibrous bark of 
some species is used for making ropes. 
2f. ft. c. ] Same as bombazine. 

Bombay duck. See bummalo. 

Bombay shell. See shell. 

bombazeen (bom- or bum-ba-zen'), . Same 

as linnih<l~ni< . 

bombazet, bombazette (bom- or bum-ba-zet'), 
ii. [< bomba:(ine) + dim. -et, -ette.~\ A sort 
of thin woolen cloth. 

bombazine, bombasine (bom-or bum-ba-zen'), 
n. [Also bomba:in, bombasin, bombazeen, for- 
merly bitmbazine, bunibaxinc ; < F. bombasin 
(obs.) = Sp. bombast = Pg. bombazina (prob. 

< E.) = It. bambagino, < ML. bombasinum, prop. 
bombi/cinum, a silk texture, neut. of bombasi- 
nus, bombacinus. prop, (as L.) bonibycinus (see 
bombycine), made of silk or cotton, < bombax, 
prop, (as L.) bombyi, silk, cotton : see bombace, 
bombast, Bombax, Bombyx."] If. Raw cotton. 
JV. E. 1). 2. Originally, a stuff woven of silk 
and wool, made in England as early as the reign 
of Elizabeth; afterward, a stuff made of silk 
alone, but apparently always of one color, and 
inexpensive. 3. In modern usage, a stuff of 
which the warp is silk and the weft worsted. An 
imitation of it is made of cotton and worsted. 

Also spelled bombazeen, bombasin. 

bomb-chest (bom'chest), n. Milit., a chest fill- 
ed with bombs or gunpowder, buried to serve 
as an explosible mine. 

bombernickel (bom'b^r-nik'l), n. Same as 
jntmprrnickel. Imp. Diet. 

bombiate (bom'bi-at), n. [< bombi(c) + -ate*.] 
A salt formed by bombic acid and a base. 

bombic (bom'bik), a. [< L. bomb(yx), a silk- 
worm, + -ic.] Of or pertaining to the silkworm. 
Bombic add, acid of the silkworm, obtained from an 
acid liquor contained in a reservoir placed near the anus- 
The Honor is especially abundant In the chrysalis. 

Bombidae (bom'bi-de), . pi. fNL., < Bombiu + 
-wte.] A family of bees, typified by the genus 
Bombus; the bumblebees. [Scarcely used, the 
bumblebees having been merged in Apidte.~] 

bombilate (bom'bi-lat), r . i. ; pret. and pp. boiu- 
bilated, ppr. bnmbilating. [< ML. Itombilare (pp. 
bombilatiut), an erroneous form of LL. bombi- 
tare, freq. of "bombare, ML. also bombire, buzz, 

< L. bombus, a humming, buzzing sound. Cf. 
bomb 1 , 6oi/<2, bum 1 , bumble, etc.] To make a 
buzzing or humming, like a bee, or a top when 
spinning. A". A. Rev. [Rare.] 

bombilation (bom-bi-la'shon), n. [< bombilate : 
see -ation."] A buzzing or droning sound; re- 
port; noise. Also bombulation. [Rare.] 

To abate the vigour thereof or silence Its (powder sj bom- 
bulation. Sir T. Broirnt, Vnlg. Err., ii. s. 

bombilioust, a. See bombylious. 

bombilla (bom-bil'yft), n. [S. Amer. Sp., dim. 
of Sp. bomba, a pump: see pumpl.~\ A tube used 
in Paraguay for drinking mate, it to 8 or ' inches 
long, formed of metal or a reed, with a perforated bulb at 
one end, to prevent the tea-leaves from being drawn up 
into the mouth. 

bombinate (bom'bi-nat), r. i. ; pret. and pp. 
bombinatcd. ppr. bombinatiiig. [< ML. "bombi- 



bombinate 

natM, pp. of 'bombinare, erroneous form of LL. 
bombitare: see bombilate.] To buzz; make a 
buzzing sound ; bombilate. [Rare.] 
As easy and as profitable a problem to solve the Rabe- 

- 



618 

Sombyx commonly referred to this family are Saturnin, 
Attacits, Odonestis, Lasiocampa, and Eliswcampa. See cut 
under Bwnbyx. 

bombyciform (bom-bis'i-form), a. [< L. bom- 
byx (bombyc-), a silkworm, + forma, form.] 



laisian riddle of the bombimtiivj chimera with its poten- TT- V :" t i,p phnrartpTN of a bombvcid moth 
tial or hypothetical faculty of deriving sustenance from a *Z** l^f^^* r^T ,- T t 
course of diet on second intentions. 



Bombycilla (bom-bi-sil'a), n. [NL., < L. bom- 
Swinburne, Shakespeare, p. 199. gy X (bombyc-), silk, + -cilia, taken from Mota- 

bombination (bom-bi-na'shon), . [< bombi- cilia, in the assumed sense of : 'tail.'] A genus 
nate. Cf. bonMlatioti."] Buzz ; humming noise, of birds, the silktails or waxwings : same as Am- 

Bombinator (bom'bi-na-tor), n. [NL. (Mer- nelis in the most restricted sense. See Ampells. 
rein, 1820), < ML. *lmmUnare, buzz: see bombi- Bombycillid* (bom-bi-sil'i-de), n.pl. [NL., < 
nate.~\ A genus of European frogs, made typi- Bombycilla + -idce.~\ A family of birds, repre- 
cal of a family Bombinatoridce, now referred to sented by the genus Bombycilla : same as Am- 
the family Discoglossidai. B. igneus is the typi- pelidte in the most restricted sense. [Disused.] 
cal species, called bombardier. Bombycina (bom-bi-si'na), n. pi. [NL., < Bom- 

Bombinatoridae (bom"bi-na-tor'i-de), n. pi. byx (Bombyc-) + -ina.'] 'X tribe or superfamily 
[NL., < Bombinator + -idai.~] ' A family of anu- of moths containing the bombycids, as distin- 
rous batrachians, having a tongue, maxillary guished from the sphinxes on the one hand and 



C. W. Cable, Creoles of Louisiana, p. 153. 



ami Custoonatinda. ! gi^en; silk. 2. Of cotton, or of paper 

bomb-ketch (bom'kech),n. A small, strongly made of cotton . N . E. D. 
built, ketch-rigged vessel, carrying one mortar bombycinous (bom-bis'i-nus), a. [< L. bomby- 
or more, for service in a bombardment. Also JJJJg gee 6oTO U.jne.] j. si . en ; made of silk, 
called bomb-vessel. 2. Silky; feeling like silk. 3. Of the color 

! of the silkworm-moth; of a pale-yellow color. 

, , E. Daricin. 

bomb-lance (bom'lans), . A lance or harpoon Bombycistoma, Bombycistomus i (bom-bi-sis'- 
having a hollow head charged with gunpowder, to-ma, -mus), . [NL., < Gr. /%/3tf , silk, -r 
which is automatically fired when thrust into a <rroua, mouth.] Synonyms of Batrachostomus 
whale (which see). 

bombolo (bom'bo-16), n. [< It. bombola, a bombycoid (bom'bi-koid), a. Of or relating to 
pitcher, bottle, < b'omba: see lomb*.] A sphe- the Bombycida;. 
roidal vessel of flint-glass, used in subliming bombylll, n. Plural of bombylms. 
crude camphor. It is usually about 12 inches Bombyllldae (bom-bi-li i-de), n. pi. [NL., < 
in diameter. Also bumbelo, bumbolo. Bombylins + -id.(K.~\ A family of brachycerous 

bombous (bom'- or bum'bus), a. [< L. bombus, dipterous insects, of the section Tetracheetai 
*'--'- or Tanystomata; the humblenies. They have a 

long proboscis, the third antennal joint not annulate, 
three prolonged basal cells, and usually four posterior 
cells. The family is large, containing upward of 1,400 
species, found in all parts of the world. They usually have 
hairy bodies, are very swift in night, and are sometimes 
called flower-flits, from their feeding upon pollen and 
honey extracted by means of the long proboscis. The typi- 




Silkworm (Bomfy. 



0, about natural size. 



n., taken as adj.: see bomb^.] If. Booming; 
humming. 2. [< bomb% + -ous.] Convexly 
round, like a segment of a bomb; spherical. 

In some parts [of the integument of the Selachii], as for 
example on the head, they [the dermal denticles] often 
have a bombmw surface, and are set irregularly. 

Qegenbaur, Comp. Anat. (trans.), p. 423. 

bomb-proof (bom'prof), a. and n. I. a. Strong 



II. n. In fort., a structure of such design 
and strength as to resist the penetration and 



cal genus is Bombylius; other genera are Anthrax, Loma- 

*- * * ,. ~ tia, and Nemestrina. 

enough to resist the impact and explosive force bombylioust (bom-bil'i-us), a. [< Gr. J3ou/)v- 
of _bombs or shells striking on the outside. ? l( <;<. ; a bumblebee (see bombylius), + -ous.~] Buz- 

zing; humming like a bee. 

Vexatious, . . . not by stinging, . . . but only by their 
bombylious noise. Derham, Physico-Theol., iv. 14. 

bombylius (bom-bil'i-us), .; pi. bombylii (-i). [< 
Gr. (a) (3o[i[)vAi6c, or [Ip/ipiifaof, a narrow-necked 
vessel that gurgles in pour- 
ing; (b) I3o[t/3v2.i6f, a bumble- 
bee; < flofiSoc, a humming, 
buzzing: seebombus, bomb?.] 
1. In arclxEol., a form of 
Greek vase, of moderate 
size, varying between the 
types of the lekythos and 
the aryballus. It was used 
for containing perfumes, and 
also for pouring liquids, etc. 




Bomb-proof. 



the shattering force of shells. Such structures are 
made in a variety of ways, but are usually, at least in part, 
beneath the level of the ground. They may be entirely of 
metal, so shaped that shot and shell will glance from the 
surface without piercing them, or they may be of vaulted 
masonry, or even of timber covered and faced with mas- 
sive embankments of earth, the latter forming the most 
effective shield against modern projectiles. Bomb-proofs 
are provided in permanent and often in temporary forti- Tt , .. .... . 

fications to place the magazine and stores in safety during BombyX (bom Diks), n 



2. [cap.} [NL.] The t 
enus of the family - 



a bombardment, and also to afford shelter to the garrison 
or to non-combatants. 

We entered a lofty bomb-proof which was the bedroom 
of the commanding officer. 

W. H. Russell, London Times, June 11, 1861. 

bombshell (bom'shel), n. Same as bomb 2 , 1. 

bombus (bpm'bus), n. [L., < Gr. fSAftfiof, a 
buzzing noise : see bomb 2 .] 1. Inpathol. : (a) 
A humming or buzzing noise in the ears, (b) 
A rumbling noise in the intestines ; borboryg- 
mus. 2. [cap.'] A genus of bees, family Api- 
dai, containing the honey-producing aculeate . 
or sting-possessing hymenopterous insects com- 
monly called bumblebees. See bumblebee, and 
cut under Hymenoptera. 

bomb-vessel (bom'ves'el), n. Same as bomb- 
ketch. 

bombycid (bom' bi-sid), a. and n. I. a. Per- 
taining to or having the characters of the Bom- 
bycida!. 

Scent-organs in some bombycid moths. Science, VII. 505. 
II. n. One of the Bombycida;. 

Bombycidae (bom-bis'i-de), . pi. [NL., < Bom- 
byx (Bombyc-) + -id<e.] A family of nocturnal 
heterocerous Lepidoptera, or moths, important 
as containing the silkworm-moth, having the 



[L. 




bombyx (in ML. corruptly 
bombax : see bombace, bom- 
bast, bombazine), < Gr. f)6/i- 

fhj, a Silkworm, Silk, COt- Black-figured Bomby- 

ton; origin uncertain.] 1. 
A Linnean genus of lepidopterous insects, now 
the type of the family Bombycida;. The caterpillar 
of the Bombyx mori is well known by the name of silk- 
worm. When full-grown it is 3 inches long, whitish-gray, 
smooth, v.-ith a horn on the penultimate segment of the 
tody. It feeds on the leaves of the mulberry (in the 
United States also on those of the Osage orange), and 
spins an oval cocoon of the size of a pigeon's egg, of a 
close tissue, with very fine silk, usually of a yellow color, 
but sometimes white. Each silk-fiber is double, and is 
spun from a viscid substance contained in two tubular or- 
gans ending in a spinneret at the mouth. A single fiber 
is often 1,100 feet long. It requires 1,600 worms to pro- 
duce 1 pound of silk. Greek missionaries first brought 
the eggs of the silkworm from China to Constantinople in 
the reign of Justinian (A. D. 527-565). In the twelfth cen- 
tury the cultivation of silk was introduced into the kingdom 
of Naples from the Morea, and several centuries afterward 
into France. The silkworm undergoes a variety of changes 
during the short period of its life. When hatched it ap- 
pears as a black worm ; after it has finished its cocoon it 
becomes a chrysalis, and finally a perfect cream-colored 
insect or moth, with four wings. For other silk-spinning 
bombycids. see silkworm. See cut in next column. 
2. In conch., a genus of pulmonate gastropods. 

antennae bipectinate, the palpi small, and the Humphreys, 1797. [Not in use.] 
maxillre rudimentary. The limits of the family and bominablet, An abbreviated form of abom- 
conseiiueutly its definition vary much. Genera besides inable. 



Juliana Bemers, lady-prioress of the nunnery of Sopwell 
in the fifteenth century, informs us that in her time " a 
bomynable syght of monkes " was elegant English for " a 
large company of friars." 

O. P. Marsh, Lects. on Eng. Lang., viii. 

Bomolochida (bo-mo-lok'i-de), n. pi. [NL., < 
Bomolochus + -idee.'} 'A family of copepofl crus- 
taceans, of the group Siphonostomata, typified 
by the genus Bomolochiy. The species are few 
in number, and parasitic on fishes. 
Bomolochus (bo-mol'o-kus), . [NL., < Gr. /3u- 
fia>.oxoi, a beggar, low jester, buffoon, prop, one 
who waited about the altars to beg or steal 
some of the meat offered thereon, < /3u^<5f, an 
altar, -I- "koxav, lie in wait, < ?<i^of, ambush, lying 
in wait, < Acyetv, lay asleep, in pass, lie asleep, 
lie : see lay 1 , We 1 .] A genus of crustaceans, 
typical of the family Bomolochidce. 
bonH, ti. Obsolete form of ftowe 1 . 
bon' 2 t, " Obsolete form of boon 1 . 
bon s t, . Obsolete form of boon 3 . 
bon 4 (F. pron. bto), a. [F., < OF. bon, > ME. 
bone, mod. E. boon 3 , q. v.] Good: a French 
word occurring in several phrases familiar in 
English, but not Anglicized, as bon mot, bon ton, 
bon vivant, etc. 

bona (bo'na), n. pi. [L., property, goods, pi. of 
bonnm, a good thing, neut. of bonus, good. Cf . 
E. goods, a translation of bona.'] Literally, 
goods; in civil law, all sorts of property, mova- 
ble and immovable. 

bon accord (bon a-kdrd')- [F. : see 6on* and 
accord, .] 1. Agreement; good will. 2. An 
expression or token of good will The city of 
bon accord, Aberdeen, Scotland, Bon accord being the 
motto of the town's arms. 

bonace-tree (bon'as-tre), . [< bonace (uncer- 
tain) + tree.] A small tree of Jamaica, Daph- 
iiopsis tinifolia, natural order Thymeleaeea, the 
inner bark of which is very fibrous and is used 
for cordage, etc. Also called burn-nose tree. 
bona fide (bo'na fi"de). [L., abl. of bona fides, 
good faith: see bona fides."] In or with good 
faith ; without fraud or deception ; with sincer- 
ity; genuinely: frequently used as a compound 
adjective in the sense of honest ; genuine ; not 
make-believe. An act done bona fide, in law, is one done 
without fraud, or without knowledge or notice of any de- 
ceit or impropriety, in contradistinction to an act done 
deceitfully, with bad faith, fraudulently, or with know- 
ledge of previous facts rendering the act to be set up in- 
valid. Bona-flde possessor, in law, a person who not 
only possesses a subject upon a title which he honestly be- 
lieves to be good, but is ignorant of any attempt to contest 
his title by some other person claiming a better right. 
Bona-flde purchaser, in law, one who has bought prop- 
erty without notice of an adverse claim, and has paid a 
full price for it before having such notice, or who has been 
unaware of any circumstances making it prudent to in- 
quire whether an adverse claim existed. 
bona fides (bo'na fi'dez). [L.: bona, fern, of 
bonus (> ult. E. boon 3 ), good; fides, > ult. E. 
faith.'] Good faith; fair dealing. See bona 
fide. 

bonaget, bonnaget (bon'aj), . [Sc., appar. a 
var. (simulating bondage) of booiiage, q. v.] 
Services rendered by a tenant to his landlord 
as part payment of rent. 

bonaght, . [Early mod. E., also written 60- 
IHM/II, bonough, repr. Ir. bitttna, a billeted soldier. 
buanadh, a soldier.] -A permanent soldier. 
.V. E. D. 

bonaghtt, [Early mod. E., also l,oiniaght, 
Ixiiinuyht, etc., repr. Ir. bitanacltt, quartering of 
soldiers.] A tax or tribute formerly levied by 
Irish chiefs for the maintenance of soldiers. 
N. E. D. 
bonailt, bonailliet, [Sc.] Same as bonally. 



bonail 

On the brave vessel's gunwale 1 drunk his lionail 
And farewell ti> Mark. n/.i.\ Iliiih chief of Kintail. 

"'/, Farewell t .Maeken/ie. 

bonairt (bo-niir'), . [< ME. /<//;, /m/,v, 
boncri:; short for debonair, q. v.] Complaisant ; 
courteous; kind; yielding. 

lion/til- iillil I.IIXOIII to the llishnp (.f Koine. 

/,>. ./, ii-.'ll, [>cf. of Apol. lor church ,,f r.nt'.. ].. UK 

bonairtet, [ME., also bonairete, bonerte; short 

for ilfbonairh; q. v.] Complaisance; courtesy. 

CiHIill'rr. 

bonallyt (bo-ual'i), M. [Se., also written bomiil- 
lie, biniiinillii', hiiiiiinilli; linniiil, luiiiiinil : < !'./<. 
good, + dlk'i-, c> : xei> ''"'"'' iind tilli'i/ 1 .'] Good- 
si 1 : t'aivwoll : as, to drink one's bmialli/. 

bonang (bo-nang'), >' A Javanese musical in- 
strument, consisting of gongs mounted on a 
frame. 

bona notabilia (bo'iift no-ta-bil'i-ft). [Law 
L. : L. bona, goods ; itoiabilia, neut. pi. of not<i- 
bilis, to be noted : see bona and notable.] In 
lair, assets situated in a jurisdiction other than 
that in which the owner died. Formerly In Eng- 
land, when the goods, amounting to at least C>. were in 
another diocese than that In which their owner died, his 
will had to be proved before the archbishop of the province. 

bonanza (bo-nan'zjl), n. [< Sp. bonanza (= 
Pg. bonanza), fair weather at sea, prosperity, 
success (ir en bonanza, sail with fair wind and 
weather, go on prosperously) (cf. It. boitncci/i 
= Pr. bonassa, > F. bounce, a calm at sea), < 
L. bonus (> Sp. biteno = Pg. bom = It. buono = 
F. ban), good ; cf. OSp. malina, stormy weather 
at sea, < L. malux, bad.] 1. A term in common 
use iu the Pacific States, signifying a rich mass 
of ore: opposed to borrasca. Hence 2. A 
mine of wealth ; a profitable thing; good luck: 
as, to strike a bonanza. [Colloq., V. 8.] The 
Bonanza mines, specifically, those silver-mines on the 
Comstock lode in Nevada which yielded enormously for a 
few years. 

Bonapartean (bo'na-par-te-an), a. [< Bona- 
l>artc, It. Ilitonnpttrie, family name of Napo- 
leon.] Pertaining to Bonaparte or the Bona- 
partes: as, " Bonapartean dynasty," Craig. 

Bonapartism (bo'na-par-tizm), n. [< F. Bona- 
IKirtisme, < Bonaparte + -isme, -ism.] 1. The 
policy or political system of Napoleon Bona- 
parte and his dynasty. 2. Devotion to the 
Bonaparte family; adherence to the cause or 
the dynastic claims of the Bonapartes. 

Bonapartist (bo'na-par-tist), n. and a. [< F. 
BonapartiKte, < Bonaparte + -iste, -ist.] I. n. 
1. An adherent of the Bonapartes, or of the 
policy of Napoleon Bonaparte and his dynasty. 
2. One who favors the claims of the Bona- 
parte family to the imperial throne of France. 
II. a. Adhering to or favoring the dynasty, 
policy, or claims of the Bonapartes. 

bona peritura (bo'nil per-i-tu'ra). [Law L. : 
L. bona, goods; peritura, neut. pi. otperiturus, 
f lit. part, of perire, perish : see bona and per- 
ish."] In law, perishable goods. 

bona-robat (bo'na-ro'ba). . [It. buonarobba, 
" a good wholesome plum-cheeked wench " 
(Florio), lit. a fine gown, < buona, fern, of buono, 
good, fine. + robba, roba, gown: see bon<iii:, 
ooo 3 , and robe.'} A showy wanton; a wench 
of the town ; a courtezan. 
A bouncing bona-roba. B. Jonton, New Inn. 

Some prefer the French, 
For their conceited dressings ; some the plump 
Italian Innm-riilm*. Wett-lier, Spanish Curate, i. 1. 

Bonasa, Bonasia (bo-na'sa, -si-a), n. [NL. 
Cf. boiiafins.] A genus of gallinaceous birds, 
of the family Tetraonidae, containing especially 
B. betulina, the hazel-grouse of Europe, and B. 
umbella, the ruffed grouse, pheasant, or par- 
tridge of North America. They have a ruffle of 




610 

bonasus, bonassus (bo-na'sus, -nas'us), . 
[L. ftoMMM, < (>r. ,1<ivaaof or j}6vaaaof, the wild 
ox.] 1. The wild bison of Europe; the au- 
rochs (which see). 2. [cap.] [NL.] A ge- 
neric name of the bisons, and thus a synonym 
of Bixon (which see). 

bonbatzen (bon-bat'sen), . Same as but:. 

bonbon (bon'bon; F. pron. boii'boii), ;i. (!'., 

a reduplication of bon, good : see 6o*, fcoow 3 . 
Cf. equiv. E. f/iioilien.'] A sugar-plum; in the 
plural, sugar-confectionery. 

Ills grace, charmed with the lam-hint of his aunt and 
the kisses of his cousins, which were eveu sweeter than 
Hi. snuar-pliims, etc. llitraeli, Young Duke, I. 1. 

bonce (bons), n. [Origin obscure.] 1. A large 
marble for playing with. 2. A game played 
with such marbles, -iV. E. D. [Eng.] 

bonchieft, . [< ME. bonchef. boim-lnff, txton- 
fliii-f, < bone, good (see boon?), + chef, <///>;'. 
head, end, issue, prob. after analogy of mischief, 
q. v.1 Good fortune; prosperity. 

bon-chretien (F. pron. boii-kra'tian), n. [F., 
good Christian: see booifi and Christian.] A 
highly esteemed kind of pear. 

bond 1 (bond), . [< ME. bond, a variant of 
band, as Imml of hand, etc.: see band 1 .] 1. 
Anything that binds, fastens, confines, or holds 
together, as a cord, chain, rope, band, or ban- 
dage ; a ligament. 

I tore them [hairs) from their bondt. 

Shot., K. John, III. 4. 

Specifically 2. pi. Fetters; chains for re- 
straint; hence, imprisonment; captivity. 

This man doeth nothing worthy of death, or of bondt. 

Acts xxvi. 31. 

3. A binding or uniting power or influence; 
cause of union; link of connection ; a uniting 
tie : as, the bonds of affection. 

Farewell, thou worthy man ! There were two bondi 

That tied our loves, a brother and a king. 

MM. and /v.. Maid's Tragedy, v. 2. 

There Is a strong bond of affection between us and our 
parents. Sir T. Browne, Bellgio Medici, il. 14. 

I have struggled through much discouragement . . . 
for a people with whom I have no tie but the common 
bond of mankind. Burke, To Sir H. Langrishe. 

4. Something that constrains the mind or will ; 
obligation; duty. 

I love your majesty 
According to my bond, nor more nor less. 

Shale., Lear, L 1. 

Sir Aylmer, reddening from the storm within, 
Then broke all boiula of courtesy. 

Tennyson, Aylmer's Field. 

5. An agreement or engagement; a covenant 
between two or more persons. 

I will bring you into the bond of the covenant. 

Ezek. ix. 37. 
A bond offensive and defensive. 

Sir J. Melml (1610), Mem., p. 12. 

6. [< D. bond, league.] A league or confed- 
eration: used of the Dutch-speaking popula- 
tions of southern Africa. 7. In law, an in- 
strument under seal by which the maker binds 
himself, and usually also his heirs, executors, 
and administrators (or, if a corporation, their 
successors), to do or not to do a specified act. 
If it Is merely a promise to pay a certain sum on or before 
a future day appointed, it is called a tingle bond. But 
the usual form is for the obligor to bind himself, his exec- 
utors, etc., in a specified sum or penalty, with a condition 
added, on performance of which it is declared the obliga- 
tion shall he void. When such a condition Is added, the 
bond is called a penal bond or obligation. The person to 
whom the bond is granted is called the obligee, 

8. The state of being in a bonded warehouse 
or store in charge of custom-house or excise offi- 
cers : said of goods or merchandise : as, tea and 
wine still in bond. 9f . A surety : a bondsman ; 
bail. Pepys, Diary. 10. A certificate of owner- 
ship of a specified portion of a capital debt due 
by a government, a city, a railroad, or other 
corporation to individual holders, and usually 
bearing a fixed rate of interest. The bonds of the 
I'nited States are of two classes : (1) coupon bondt, both 
principal and interest of which are payable to bearer, 
and which pass by delivery, usually without indorsement ; 
(2) regutered bondi, which are payable only to the parties 
whose names are inscribed upon them, and can be trans- 
ferred only by indorsed assignment. 
11. In cnem., a unit of combining or satu- 
rating power equivalent to that of one hydro- 
gen atom. The valence of an element or group Is in- 
dicated by the number of its bonds. Thus, the carbon 
atom is said to have four bonds, that is, it may combine 
directly with four hydrogen atom* or their equivalents. 
Bonds are usually represented graphically by short dashes. 
For instance, the valence of a carbon atom may be repre- 



KutTed Grouse (Bonasa ttmMla}. 

feathers "n each side of the neck, a broad fan-shaped 
tail, partly feathered shanks, and a small rrot. They 
an woodland birds, noted for their habit of drumming, 
henc>- probably their name, the noise being likened to 

tilt- hellou inj; of a bull. 



bond 

inn- nvt'i' tin' iitluT ;i> the work is earned up, so 
that a homogeneous and coherent mass may 
be formed, which could not be the case if every 
vertical joint were over that below it. See 
I-IHI in-bond, cronx-ltond, heart-bond, and phrases 
below, (b) pi. The whole of the timbers dis- 
posed in the walls of a house, as bond-timbers, 
wall-plates, lintels, and templets. 13. The 
distance between the nail of one slate in a roof 
and the lower edge of the slate above it. Active 
bonds Arbitration bond. See arbitra- 

""". Average bond, in mark an under- 

taking in tile lorm I a bond, uhen t" tb> . .ijit.iin of a 
ship b\ . ..ii-n-h' .-s of cargo subject to general average, 
guaranteeing payment of their contribution h< n ascer- 
tained, provided delivery of Hi. ii ^..ods be made at once. 
."i'"-. Blank bond, a Imml formerly used In 
which the space for the creditor's name was left blank. 
Block-and-cross bond, a method of building In which 

tin outer fa f the wall is built In croM bond and the 

inner face in block-bond. Bond for land, bond for a 
deed, a bond iv, -n by the seller of land to one agreeing 
to buy it, binding him to convey on receiving the agreed 
price. Bond of caution. In Scat* law, an obligation by 
one person as surety for another either that he shall pay 
a certain sum or perform a certain act Bond of cor- 
roboratiOn, an additional obligation granted by the 
debtor in atwmd, by which he corroborates the original 
obligation. Bond of indemnity, a bond conditioned to 
indemnify the obligee against some loss or liability. 
Bond of presentation, in Scott law, a bond to present a 
debtor so that he may lie subjected to the diligence of his 
creditor. Bond of relief, In Scott law, a bond by the 
principal debtor granted in favor of a cautioner, by which 
the debtor hinds himself to relieve the cautioner from 
the consequences of his obligation. Collateral trust- 
bonds, bonds issued hy a corporation and secured, not, 
as is usual, by a mortgage on its own property, but by 
pledging or depositing In trust, on behalf of the bondhold- 
ers to lie secured, mortgage-bonds of other companies held 
by it as security. The interest paid on these collateral 
trust-bonds Is usually less than that received on the lionds 
pledged, the surplus l)elng used to form a sinking-fund for 
the redemption of the former. Consolidated bonds, 
the name commonly given to railroad bonds secured by 
mortgage on the entire line formed hy several consoli- 
dated roads, in contradistinction to divisional bondt, 
which are obligations of the consolidated company se 
fined by mortgage on some particular division of the rail- 
road. Convertible bonds, evidences of debt issued by 
a stock company which contain a provision that they may 
be converted at the holder's will into an equivalent amount 

of stock. Di- 
agonal bond, in 
biicktayinff, the 
simplest form of 
raking bond, In 
which the courses 
are all parallel to 
each other. Di- 
visional bonds. 
See under m- 
tolidated bondt, 
above. English 
bond, that Jispo- 
sitlon of bricks In 
a wall in which 
the courses are 
alternately com- 
posed entirely of 
neaders. or bricks 
laid with their heads or ends toward the face of the wall, 
and of stretchers, or bricks with their length parallel 

to the face of the _ 

wall. Flemish 
bond, that dis- 

rition of bricks 
a wall in 
which each course 
Is composed of 
headers and 

stretchers alter- 
nately. 

What Is In Eng- 
land called F Irm- 
iith bond Is un- 
known In Flan- 
ders, and Is prac- 
tised in the Brit- 
ish Isles alone. 
Encijc. Brit., IV. 
[461. 



-^r 


























H 








































































































n 


























i 




















































II 


























ii 




















































1 1 














































































i 




i 























English Bond. 

i, face of wall : 2, end of wall : I nrat- 
cource Ited ; 4. second-course bed. 










Flemish Bond. 

i. face of wall ; 2. end of wall : 3. first- 
course bed ; 4. second-course l>ed. 



Forthcoming bond, a Iwnd given by some one guaran- 
teeing that something shall lie produced or forthcoming 
at a particular time, or when called for. Garden-bond. 
Same as Mock-bond. General mortgage-bonds, the 
name commonly given to a corporate iiiort^aL'c. which, 
though nominally covering all i>n>i*rty of the company, Ii 
of inferior security because subject to prior mortgages of 
various kinds. Good bond, an expression used by car- 
penters to denote the firm fastening of two or morepieces 
together, by tenoning, mortising, or dovetailing. Herit- 
able bond, in Scott late, A bond for a sum of money, to 
which Is joined for the creditor's further security a con- 
veyance of land or of heritage, to lie held by the creditor 
In security of the debt. Herring-bone bond, in brick- 
laying, a kind of raking lioml In which the courses lie al- 
ternately at right angles to each other, so that every two 
courses, taken together, present an appearance similar to 
the backbone of a tish. Income-bonds, tumils of a cor- 



One or more pairs of bond belonging to one and the same 
atom of an element can unite, and, having saturated each 
other, become as it were latent. Frankland, Chemistry. 

12. In building: (a) The connection of one 
stone or brick with another made by lapping 



. , 

poration secured by a pledge of or lien upon the net in- 
come, after payment of interest upon senior mortgages. 
Cumulative income-bonds are those so expressed that, If 
the net surplus income of any year is not sufficient to pay 
full interest on the income-bond, the deficit is carried for- 
ward as a lien upon such Income in following years, until 
paid In full. Lloyd's bond, a form of legal Instrument 
devised by an English barrister named Lloyd, to enable 
railway and other corporate companies in England to In- 
crease their indebtedness without infringing ihe statute* 



bond 

under which they N ere incorporated and which prohibited 
borrowing. This end was accomplished by issuing bonds 
bearing interest for work done or for goods delivered. 
Passive bonds. See active bonds, under active. Quarry- 
stone bond, rubble masonry. Raking bond, a method 
of bricklaying in which the bricks are laid at an angle in 
the face of the wall. There are two kinds, diagonal and 
herring-bone. Registered bond, an obligation, usually 
of a state or corporation, for the payment of money, regis- 
tered in the holder's name on the liooks of the debtor, and 
represented by a single certificate delivered to the credi- 
tor. Running bond, in MMajfiiui, same as English 
bond. Straw bond, a bond upon which either fictitious 
names or the names of persons unable to pay the sum 
guaranteed are written as names of sureties. 



620 

4. Slavery or involuntary servitude ; serfdom. 

A sadly toiling slave, 

Dragging the slowly lengthening chain of bondage to the 
grave. Whittier, Cassandra Southwick. 



imprisonment; restraint of a 
person's liberty by compulsion. 

A day, an hour, of virtuous liberty 
Is worth a whole eternity in bondage. 

Addi&on, Cato, ii. 1. 

6. Figuratively, subjection to some power or 
influence: as, he is in bondage to his appetites. 

= Syn. 4. Slavery, etc. (see servititde), thraldom, serfdom. 

bond 1 (bond), o. [< bond*, n.] I. trans. 1. To bondage (bon'daj), v. t.; pret. and pp. bandaged, 
put in bond or into a bonded warehouse, as ppr . boiidaging.' [< bondage, n.] To reduce to 
goods liable for customs or excise duties, the bondage or slavery ; enslave. [Obsoleteorrare.] 
duties remaining unpaid till the goods are taken bondager (bon'da-jer), n. [< bondage, n., + 
out, but bonds being given for their payment : . er l.] In Scotland and the north of England, 
as, to bond 1,000 pounds of tobacco. 2. To O ne who rents a cottage on a farm and is 
grant a bond or bond and mortgage on : as, to bound, as a condition of his tenancy, to work 
bond property. 3. To convert into bonds : as, f or the farmer at certain seasons, such as tur- 
to bond a debt. 4. To place a bonded debt up- n i p -hoeing or harvest-time, or to supply a work- 
on : as, to bond a railroad. 5. In building, to e r from his own family, at current wages. See 
bind or hold together (bncks or stones in a wall) bondage, n., 2. 

by a proper disposition of headers and stretch- bond-COOper (bond'kup"er), n. One who has 
ers, or by cement, mortar, etc. See bond*, n., 12. charge of casks of wine and spirits held in bond. 
The lower parts of the palace- walls, which are preserved bond-creditor (bond'kred"i-tor), n. A creditor 
to a height of eighteen inches to three feet, consist of quar- w l, n is sppiirpd hv n hnnrl 
ry-stones bonded with clay. X. A. Rev., CXXXIX. 526. , W j J secured Dy a bond. 

Town-bonding acts or laws, laws enacted by several of ,?,;.f, D nW 9 t' ^"'v. V contracted 

the United States, authorizing towns, counties, and other under tlie obligation 01 a bond. 

municipal corporations to issue their corporate bonds for bonded (bon ded),JJ. a. [< bond*, V., + -ed 2 .] 1. 

the purpose of aiding the construction of railroads. Secured by bonds, as duties. 2 Put or placed 

II. intrans. To hold together from being inbond: as, bonded goods. 3. Encumbered; 

bonded, as bricks in a wall. mortgaged: as, heavily bonded property. 4. 

The imperfectly shaped and variously sized stone as Secured by or consisting of bonds : as, bonded 

)le can neither bed nor ^*^ Jv ^ debt-Bonded debt, that part of the_entire indebted- 



bond 2 (bond), n. and a. [< ME. bonde, peasant, 
servant, bondman. ME. bonde occurs in its 
proper sense of 'man of inferior rank,' also 
as adj., unfree, bond (> ML. bondus, AF. bond, 
bonde), < AS. bonda, bunda, a householder, 
head of a family, husband (see husband), < 



ness of a corporation, state, etc., which is represented 
by the bonds it has issued, as distinguished from floating 
debt. Bonded warehouse, or bonded store, a build- 



. , , - 

ing or warehouse in which imported goods subject to duty, 
or goods chargeable with internal-revenue taxes, are stored 
until the importer or bonder withdraws them for exporta- 
tion without payment of duty or tax, or makes payment 

.,, , .. TO .,, ,, of the duties or taxes and takes delivery of his goods. 

Icel. bondi, contr. of boandi, buandi, a husband- bonder 1 (bon'der), n. [< bond*, v., + -*.] 1. 
man, householder (= OSw. boandi, bondi, Sw. O 116 who bonds; one who deposits goods in a 
Dan. bonde, a farmer, husbandman, peasant), bonded warehouse. 2. In masonry, a stone 
prop. ppr. (= AS. buende) of bua = AS. Man which reaches a considerable distance into or 
dwell, trans, occupy, till. From the same root entirely through a wall for the purpose of bind- 
come boor, Boer, Sower 1 , bower, boun, bound*, in g it; together : principally used when the wall 
big 2 , and ult. be*. The same element bond oc- ia fa ced with ashler for the purpose of tying 
cursunfeltin/iMs&aMd, earlier husband: see/Mis- tne facing to the rough backing. Also called 
band. The word bond, prop, a noun, acquired bond-stone. See cut under ashler. 
an adjective use from its frequent occurrence bonder 2 (bon'der), n. [Erroneously < Dan. 
as the antithesis of free. The notion of send- Sw - Norw. bonde (pi. bonder) : see_ bond 2 , n.] 



tude is not original, but is due partly to the 
inferior nature of the tenure held by the bond 
(def. 2), and partly to a confusion with the un- 
related bond 1 and bound, pp. of bind."] I.f 



ment, a corporation, or an individual. 

The South had bonds and bondholders as well as the 
North, and their bondholders have memories as well as 
ours. N. A. Rev., CXXVI. 498. 



A yeoman of Norway, Sweden, or Denmark. 

The bonders gathered to the thing as the ceorls to the 
moot. J. R. Green, Conq. of Eng., p. 55. 

-_, . - Gradually arms were taken from the hands of the free- 

1. A peasant; a churl. 2. A vassal ; a serf; men and the bonders, and they sank to the condition of 
one held in bondage to a superior. Keary, Prim. Belief, p. 458. 

II. a. If. Subject to the tenure called bond- bonderman (bon'der-man), n. Same as bon- 
age. 2. In a state of servitude or slavery; der 2 . 

not free. bondfolk (bond'fok). n. [< ME. bondefolk (= 

Whether we be Jews or Gentiles, whether we be bond Sw. bondfolk = Dan. bondefolk) ; < bond 2 +folk.] 
or free - * Cor. xii. 13. Persons held in bondage. Chaucer. 

Riche & pore, free & bonde, that wol axe grace. bondholder (bond'hol'der), n. One who holds 
Hymns to the Virgin, p. 53. O r owns a bond or bonds issued by a govern- 
Lered men & lay, fre & bond of toune. ment. a cornoration. or an individual. 

Robert of Brimne, tr. by Langtoft, p. 171. 
Makyng them selues bonde to vanitie and vice at home, 
they are content to beare the yoke of seruyng straungers 
abroad. Ascham, The Scholemaster, p. 72. 

3f. Servile; slavish; pertaining to or befitting bondland (bond'land), n. [< bond 2 + land.] 
a slave : as, bond fear. Land held by bondage tenure. See bondage, 

bond 2 t (bond), v. t. [< bond 2 , n. or a.] To } 

subject to bondage. bondless (bond les), a. [< bond* + -less.] 

bondage (bon'daj), . [Early mod. E. also Without bonds or fetters ; unfettered. 
boundage; < ME. bondage, AF. bondage, ML. bondlyt, adv. [< bond 2 + -ly 2 .] As a serf or 
bondagium, an inferior tenure held by a bond slave > servilely. 

or husbandman : see bond 2 , n., 2. In mod. use bondmaid (bond'mad), n. [< bond 2 + maid.] 
associated with bond* and bound*.] 1. In old 
Eng. law, villeinage; tenure of land by per- 
forming the meanest services for a superior. 
Syche bondage shalle I to theym beyde, 
To dyke and delf, here and draw, 
And to do alle unhonest deyde. 

Tou-neley Mysteries, p. 57. 

2. In Scot, agri., the state of, or services due 
by, a bondager. See bondager. 

Another set of payments consisted in services called 
bondage These were exacted either in seed-time in plough- 
ing and harrowing the proprietor's land, or in summer in 
the carriage of his coals or other fuel, and in harvest in 



bone 

If thy brother ... be waxen poor, and bo wild unto 
thee, thou shalt not compel him to serve as a bond-ser- 
vant. Lev. xxv. 39. 

bond-service (bond'ser"vis), n. Service with- 
out hire, as of a bond-servant ; slavery. 
Upon those did Solomon levy a tribute of bond-service. 

1 Ki. ix. 21. 

bond-slave (bond'slav), n. A person in a state 
of slavery ; one whose person and liberty are 
subjected to the authority of a master; a slave ; 
a bondman. 

bondsman 1 (bondz ' man), n. ; pi. bondsmen 
(-men). [< bond's, pos's. of bond*, + man.] 
In law, a surety; one who is bound or who 
by bond becomes surety for another. 

bondsman 2 (boudz'man), .; pi. bondsmen 
(-men). Same as bondman, 2. 

bond-stone (bond'ston), . [< bond*, 12 (a), + 
stone.] Same as bonder*, 2. 

bondswoman (bondz'wum"an), n. ; pi. bonds- 
women (-wim"en). See bondwoman. 

The senators 
Are sold for slaves, and their wives for bondswomen. 

B. Jmwon, Catiline. 

bond-tenant (bond'ten"ant), n. [< bond 2 + 
tenant.] In law, a name sometimes given to 
copyholders and customary tenants. 

bond-timber (bond'tim"ber), n. [< bondi, 12 
(b), + timber.] One of the timbers placed in 
horizontal tiers at certain.intervals in the walls 
of buildings, for fixing battens, laths, and other 
finishings of wood, and for strengthening the 
wall longitudinally. Also called chain-timber. 

bonduc-seeds (bon'duk-sedz), n. pi. [< bonduc 
(< F. bonduc, < Ar. bonduq, a hazel-nut, for- 
merly applied to some other nut ; cf . Ar. funduq 
= Hind, finduq, < Pers. funduq, finduq, OPers. 
fendak, pendak, a filbert, perhaps = Skt. win- 
daka, dim. of pinda, a ball, lump, cake) + 
seeds.] The seeds of Caisalpiiiia Bonducella, a 
common leguminous climber on tropical shores. 
They are of a clear slate-color, and are used for necklaces, 
rosaries, etc. Also called nicker-nuts. 

bondwoman (bond'wum' i 'an), . ; pi. bondwomen 
(-wim'en). [< ME. bond-womman, < 6owde(see 
bond 2 ) + womman, woman.] A female slave. 
Also improperly written bondswoman. 

bone 1 (bon), n. [= So. bane, bain; < ME. boon, 
ban, ban, bane, < AS. ban, a bone, = OS. ben = 
OFries. ben = I), been = MLG. ben. LG. been = 
OHG. MHG. G. bein, a bone, = Icel. bein = Sw. 
ben = Dan. ben, been (D. G. Icel. Sw. and 
Dan. also in sense of 'leg'); perhaps akin 
to Icel. beinn, straight.] 1. An animal tissue, 




A female slave, or a female bound to service 
without wages. 
Thy bondmen and thy bondmaid*. Lev. xxv. 44. 

bondman (bond'man), n. ; pi. bondmen (-men.) 
[ME. bondeman = l)an. bondemand; < bond 2 + 
man.] 1. In old Eng. law, a villein, or tenant 
in villeinage. 

Sometimes a farmer when seed-time was over mustered 
his bondmen for a harvest of pillage ere the time came 
for harvesting his fields. J. R. Green, Conq. of Eng. p. 56 



cutting down his crop. Agric. Survey, Kincardineshire. 
[From the foregoi 



2. A man slave, or a man bound to service 
without wages. Also improperly written bonds- 
' S 0114 1 bllndt Same as blindman's-bvf 1. 



[From the foregoing extract it will be seen that formerly v^' A ,/ -,/' ^ N a8 "'!'"."!"' s -' m l>> * 

the system had place not only, as now, between fanner bond-paper (bond'pa*per), H. A kind of thin, 
and laborer, but also between proprietor and farmer.] uncalendered paper made of extra stock, used 

of. Obligation ; tie of duty ; binding power or f or printing bonds, etc. 

lnflueilce - bond-servant (bond'ser'vant), . A slave; one 

[e must resolve by no means to be enslaved and to lie wn <> is subjected to the authority of another, 
ught under the bondage of observing oaths. Smth. and who must give his service without hire. 



Microscopical Structure of Bone. 



A, cross-section showing two Hiiversian canals, a, a, and numerous 
corpuscles. *, b. B, longitudinal section showing a, a, a, Haversian 
canals, and b t many corpuscles. 

consisting of branching cells lying in an in- 
tercellular substance made hard with earthy 
salts (consisting of calcium phosphate with 
small amounts of calcium carbonate and mag- 
nesium phosphate, etc.), and forming the sub- 
stance of the skeleton or hard framework of 
the body of most vertebrate animals, when the 
earthy salts are removed, the remaining intercellular 
substance is of cartilaginous consistency, and is called 
ossein or bone-cartilage. 

Through the substance of bone are scattered minute 
cavities the lacunae, which send out multitudinous 
ramifications, the canaliculi. The canaliculi of different 
lacuna; unite together, and thus establish a communi- 
cation between the different lacuna;. If the earthy 
matter lie extracted by dilute acids, a nucleus may be 
found In each lacuna; and, . . . not unfrequently, the 
intermediate substance appears minutely tibrillated. . . . 
In a dry bone, the lacuna) are usually filled with air. 
When a thin section of such a bone is ... covered with 
water and a thin glass, and placed under the microscope, 
the air in the lacunae refracts the light which passes 
through them in such a manner as to prevent its reach- 
ing the eye, and they appear black. ... All bones, ex- 
cept the smallest, are traversed by sniiill canals, con- 
verted by side branches into a net-work, and containing 
vessels supported hy more or less connective tissue and 
fatty matter. These are called Haversian canals. 

II ii.i-li'ii find YtnniHtiix, I'hysiol., 3;iO. 



2. One of the parts which make up the *k 
ton or framework of vertebrate animals : as, a 
bone of the leg or head. Bones of cattle mid other 
animals are extensively used In the arts in forming knife- 
handles, buttons, combs, etc., ill making size, gelatin, 
lampblack, and animal charcoal, and for various other 
purposes. They are also extensively employed as a ma- 



bone 

nure for dry Bolls, with the very best effect, Itelng ground 
to dual, bruised, or broken Into small fragments in mills, 
or dissolved in sulphuric aeiil. I h. ^rcat utility of iwnes 
as a manure arises from the phosphaU- of linn- they sup 
ply to thf soil. 

3. ]>l. The bones of the body taken collectively; 
the skeleton ; In-nee, tin- lioilily frame; a body. 

Night hangs upon mini' eyes: my lumen would rest 
That hair but lulxuiril to attain this hour. 

Slink.. .1. ('., V. 6. 

4. pi. Mortal remains : the skeleton or bony 
structure being the moHt permanent part of a 
dead body. 

And Moses took the hum-* of Joseph with him : for he 
hail Htraitly sworn thr rhiMrrn of Israel, saying, God will 
surely visit you ; and ye shall carry up my bones away 
hence with you. Ex. xlll. 10. 

5. The internal shell of cuttlefishes of the fam- 
ily ScpiidtF, having the consistency of bone. 
Generally called cuttle-bone or cuttlefish-bone. 

6. Something made of bone, or of a substance 
resembling bone, as ivory, -whalebone, etc. 
(n) pi. Dice. [Slang or colloq.J 

He felt a little odd when he first rattled the bones. 

Disraeli, Young Duke, it. 6. 

Ib) pi. A name formerly given to the bobbins used in mak- 
ing lace, became made of bone. 

The spinsters and the knitters in the sun, 
And the free maids, that weave their thread with buitf.ii. 

Shak., T. N., U. 4. 

(c) pi. Pieces of bone, ivory, or wood, used in pairs, held 
between the fingers, and rattled together to produce a 
kind of music, or to keep time to music. 

I have a reasonable good ear in music ; let us have the 
tongs and the bone*. Slink., M. N. D., iv. 1. 

Peter rolling about in the chair like a serenader play- 
ing the bones. Mayhcw. 
(>0 A strip of whalebone used to stiffen stays, etc. 

7. pi. A person who performs with the bones. 
There were five of them Pell was bmte*. Muiiln '". 

8f. Half of the stake in the game of bone-ace 
(which see). 9. In coal-mining, slaty or clayey 
portions or partings in coal A bone to pick, 
something to occupy one ; a difficulty, dispute, etc., to 
solve or settle ; a cause of contention. Angular bone. 
.See a ni/ular. Articular bone. Same as articulare. 
Bag of bones. See ba//i. Bone of contention, a sub- 
ject of dispute or rivalry : probably from the manner in 
which dogs quarrel over a bone. 

While any flesh remains on a bone, it continues a bone 
of contention. Brooke, Fool of Quality, I. 249. 

Sardinia was one of the chief bouts of contention between 
Genoa and Pisa. Brougham. 

Bone porcelain, a name given t o II in' pottery In the com- 
position of which bone-dust has been used. Bones Of 
Berlin, in nn.it.. two small, triangular, turbinatcd bones, 
often found beneath the small opening of the sphenoidal 
sinus ; the sphenoida! spongy bones, or sphenoturbinals. 
Canaliculi of bone. See canaliculu*. Coracold, 
coronary, cotyloid, cranial bone. See the adjectives. 

Crazy bone, same as funnii-banf. Cuneiform, cy- 
lindrical, etc., bone. See the adjectives. Earth of 
bone. See earth. Epactal bone, in anal., the Wormian 
bone at the superior angle of the occipital }>one. Eth- 
moid bone. See ethmoid. Funny bone. 8ee/Hmj.v- 
bonc. Hyoid bone. Same as hyuid, n. Hyomandibu- 
lar, marsupial, etc., bone. See the adjectives.- Na- 
VlCUlar, occipital, etc., bone. See the adjectives. The 
ten bones, the ten Angers. 

By these ten bone*, my lords, he did speak them to me 
in the garret one ni^ht. Shak., 2 Hen. VI., i. 8. 

To be upon the bones of, to attack. [Rare and vulgar.) 

Puaa had a month's mind to be upon the bone* of him, 
but was not willing to pick a quarrel. Sir R. L'Estrange. 

To carry a bone In the mouth, to throw up a foam or 
spray under the bows : said of a ship. 

See how she leaps, as the blasts o'ertake tier, 
And speeds away with a bone in her mouth .' 

Longfellow, Golden Legend, v. 

To flnd bonea In, to be unable to swallow : in allusion to 
the occurrence of fish-bones in soup. To have a bone 
In One's leg, throat, etc.. to be unable to go, talk, etc.: 
a feigned excuse. To make no bones of, to make or 
have no scruples about, or in regard to. [Now only 
colloq.] 

Perjury will easily downe with him that hath made no 
bones of mnrther. Bp. Hall, Cases of Conscience. 

To put a bone In any one's hoodt, to break a person's 
head, or cut it off. Without more bones, without 
further olijertion or scruple. Wormian bones, small 
or irregular bones frequently found in the course of the 
sutures of the skull. They occur chiefly in the sutures 
between the parietala and other bones, and are of no de- 
terminate si/e. shape, or number. Sometimes there are 
iinne, sometimes several hundred. 
bone 1 (bon), I-.; pret. and pp. boned, ppr. bon- 
ing. [< bow 1 , .] I. trans. 1. To take out 
the bones of: as, to bone a turkey, a ham, etc. 

2. To put whalebone into. 3. To manure 
with bone-dust. 4. To seize; make off with, 
as a dog makes off with a bone ; get possession 
of ; appropriate ; steal. [Slang.] 

Why you were living here, and what you had boned, and 
who you bvnftl it from, wasn't it'.' /'/rAvn*. 

II. intrmiK. [Appar. < bone 1 , n., in allusion 
to the knuckle; of. the equiv. phrase knurkle 
iloirn (to n taskX] To apply one's self dili- 
gently; sot one's self determinedly to work: 



621 

as, to bnnf down to hard work ; he boned hard. 
[Slang.] 

bone'-, born-, bourn 3 (bon, born), v. t. [A 
word of uncertain form and origin, commonly 
bone (chiefly in the verbal n. lioniiin), but prob. 
orig. bourn, being appar. a particular (trade) 
use of bourn 2 , bourne'*, as a verb, limit: see 
bourn-, bourne*,'] To take the level of (a piece 
of land, a wall, carpentry-work, and the like) 
by means of an instrument. See boning. 

A few weeks ago a mason said to me, "Take a quint, 
please, and see If the ridge-piece in square and level ; 
bourn' it by the wall-plate." Bourne is in common use 
In this neignlHrtirhood twenty miles from Stratford-on- 
Avon. .V. and Q., 7th ser., lit. 05. 

bone :t t (bou), . A Middle English form of 
boonl. Chaucer. 

bone't (bon), a. A Middle English form of 
boon 2 . 

bone-acet (bon'as), . 1. A game at cards, in 
which the third card dealt to each person is 
turned up, and the player who has the highest 
card wins the bone, that is, half the stake. 
2. The ace of diamonds, the highest card in this 
game. 

bone-ache (bon'ak), . Pain in the bones. 

bone-ash (bou'ash), . Same as bone-earth. 

bone-bed (bon'bed), M. In geol., any stratum 
of rock which is largely made up of fragments 
of bones, or in which bones and teeth occur in 
such quantity as to be conspicuous. There are 
two especially well-known bone-teds in Europe. One, 
called the Ludlow, in England, is near the top of the Up- 
per Silurian ; although only a few inches in thickness, it 
Is continuous over an area of at least a thousand square 
miles ; it is full of fragments of fish-bones, crustaceans, and 
shells. The other bone-bed is on the Rhictic, at the top 
of the Trias ; this contains the bones and teeth of fishes, 
with coprolites, etc.; it is found both in England and in 
Germany. 

bone-binder (bon'bm'der), . A name for os- 
teocolla (which see). 

bone-black (bon'blak), M. The black carbo- 
naceous substance into which bones are con- 
verted by calcination in closed vessels. This 
kind of charcoal is employed to deprive various solutions, 
particularly syrups, of their coloring matters, and to fur- 
nish a black pigment. Artificial bone-black consists of 
woody matters impregnated with calcium phosphate dis- 
solved in hydrochloric acid, thus resembling the real bone- 
black in composition. Also called annual black, animal 
charcoal. Bone-black furnace, a furnace used in re- 
moving from bone-black, by burning, impurities collected 
in it during it.- use in filtration, decolorization, etc. 

bone-breaker (bon'bra'ker), . 1. A name of 
the giant fulmar petrel, Ossifraga gigantea. 
2. A book-name of the osprey, fish-hawk, or 
ossifrage, Pandion haliaetus. 

bone-breccia (bon'brecb/i-S), . In geol., a con- 
glomerate of fragments of Bones and limestone 
cemented into a rock by calcareous matter. 
Such deposits are of frequent occurrence In caverns which 
in prehistoric times were resorted to by man and wild 
beasts. 

bone-brown (bon'broun), . A brown pigment 
produced by roasting bones or ivory till they 
become brown throughout. 

bone-cartilage (bon'kar'ti-laj), . Inphysiol., 
same as ossein. 

bone-cave (bon'kav), M. A cave in which are 
found bones of animals of living or extinct 
species, or species living only in far distant lo- 
calities or a different climate within historic 
times, sometimes with the bones of man or other 
traces of his contemporaneous existence. 

The brick-earths also contain the remains of a species 
of lion (Fells spelrea), no longer living, but which is like- 
wise found in some of the bone-caves of this country. 

Huxley, Physiography, p. 2S3. 

boned (bond), p. . [< bone 1 + -erf 1 .] 1. Hav- 
ing bones (of the kind indicated in composi- 
tion) : as, high-/)0erf; strong-Oonerf. 2. In 
cookery, freed from bones : as, a boned fowl. 

bone-dog (bon'dog), n. A local English name 
of the common dogfish, Squalus acantiiias. See 
cut under dogfish. 

bone-dust (bon'dust), . Bones ground to dust 
for use as manure. See bone 1 , n., 2. 

bone-earth (bon'erth), . The earthy or min- 
eral residue of bones which have been calcined 
or burned with free access of air so as to destroy 
the animal matter and carbon, it is a white, po- 
rous, and friable substance, composed chiefly of calcium 
phosphate, and is used by assayers as the material for 
cupels and in making china, and for other purposes. Also 
called bone-ash. 

bone-eater (bon'e'ter), n. A sailors' corrup- 
tion of bonito. 

bonefiret (bon'fir), . See bonfire. 

bpne-fish (bon 'fish), . 1. A name of the lady- 
fish, macab6, or French mullet, Albula vulpes. 
See cut under Itnliifinli. 2. A fish of the fami- 



bone-spirit 

ly Teiithifliila' and K'eims Ti'iitliinnr .Ifiinthumt; 
a surgeon- or dnctnr-tiHii. 3. A name of tin 
common dogfish, Squnlnn in-nutliias, in southern 
New England. See cut under dogjifh. 
bone-flower (Mn'floo'er), n. In the north of 

Kngliind, the daisy, /'< Hi* //>/< //<-. 

bone-glass (bon'glas), H. A glass made by 
ii'lilnif,' to white i;l"ss from [II to L'II p. r cent, of 
white bone-earth, or a corresponding quantity 
of mineral phosphates. It is of a milk-white 
color, semi-opaque, and is used for lamp-shadoH, 
etc. 

bone-glue (bon'glS), n. An inferior kind of 
glue obtained from bones. 

bone-lace (bon'las), n. Lace, usually of linen 
thread, made on a cushion with bobbing, and 
taking its sole or chief decorative character 
from the pattern woven into it, as distinguished 
from point-lace : so named from the fact that 
the bobbins were originally made of bone. 

boneless (bon'les), a. [< ME. battles, < AS. 
bdnleds, < ban, bone, + -leas, -less.] Without 
bones; wanting bones : as, " his boneless gums," 
Shak., Macbeth, i. 7. 

bonelet (bon'let), . [< bone* + dim. -let.'] A 
small bone ; an ossicle : as, bonelets of the ear. 

Bonellia (bo-wl'i-a), n. [NL., named after 
Francesco Andrea 'tionelli, an Italian naturalist 
(died in 1830).] 1. A genus of chwtophorous 
gephyreans, related to Echiurus, and having, 
uke it, a pair of tubular ciliated organs opening 
communication between the rectum and the 
perivisceral cavity. It is provided with a single 
long tentacular appendage upon the head. 2. 
A genus of dipterous insects. Desvoidy, 1830. 
3. A genus of gastropodous mollusks. Des- 
hayes, 1838. 

bonelliid (bo-nel'i-id), n. A gephyrean of the 
family Boiiflliidtr. 

Bonelliidae (bo-ue-li'i-de), n. jil. [NL., < Bonel- 
lia + -ida- .] A family of gephyreans, typified 
by the genus Bonellia (which see). 

bone-manure (bon'ma-nur*), . Manure con- 
sisting of bones ground to dust, broken in small 
pieces, or dissolved in sulphuric acid. See 
bone 1 , n., 2. 

bone-mill (bon 'mil), n. A mill for grinding or 
bruising bones, used in the preparation of fer- 
tilizers. bone-black, etc. 

bone-naphtha (bdn'naf'tha), . A volatile li- 
quid, boiling at 150 F., obtained by the repeat- 
ed rectification of the more volatile portion of 
Dippel's oil. 

bone-nippers (bon'nip'erz), n. j>l. A strong 
forceps with cutting edges touching each other, 
used in cutting off splinters of bone and car- 
tilages. 

bone-oil (bon'oil), n. A fetid, tarry liquid ob- 
tained in the dry distillation of bone. See 
Dippers oil, under oil. 

bone-phosphate (bon'fos'fat), w. A commercial 
name for tricalcium phosphate, Ca3(POi)2j the 
phosphate which forms bone-tissue, and which 
makes up the larger part of the phosphatic 
rock of South Carolina and other localities. 

bone-pot (bon'pot), . 1. A cast-iron pot in 
which bones are carbonized: used in the man- 
ufacture of animal charcoal. 2. A common 
name of the ancient British funeral urns often 
found under ground in England. 

boneset (bon'set), r. i. ; pret. and pp. boueset, 
ppr. bonesetting. To set bones; practise the 
setting of broken bones. Wiseman. [Rare.] 

boneset (bou'set), . [< boneset, t: ; from its 
supposed properties.] 1. The thorough wort, 
Eupatorium perjbliatum. See u]>atorium. 2. 
In England, an old name for the comfrey, Sym- 
jilii/tii/n iiffidnale. 

bone-setter (bon'set'er), n. One whose occu- 
pation is to set broken and dislocated bones; 
one who has a knack at setting bones: gen- 
erally applied to one who is not a regularly 
qualified surgeon. 

bone-setting (bon'set'ing), n. [Verbal n. of 
boneset, r.] The art or practice of setting 
bones. 

bone-shark (bon'shark), . A common name 
along the New England coast of Cetorhinus 
iix. the basking-shark. See cut under 



, 

bone-shawt, ". Sciatica or hip-gout. X. E. D. 
bone-spavin (bon'spav'in), M. In farriery, a 

disease of the bones at the hock-joint. 
bone-spirit (bon'spir'it), . Crude ammonia- 

cal liquor containing various substances, ob- 

tained in the process of manufacturing charcoal 

from bones. 



bone-turquoise 

bone-turquoise (bon'ter-koiz' 1 '), n. A fossil 
bone or tooth colored bright-blue, probably by 
phosphate of iron : early used as an imitation 
of true turquoise. Sometimes called odontolltc. 

bone-waste (boa' wast), . The dust or refuse 
of bones after the gelatin has been extracted 
from them. 

bone-yard (bon'yard), n. 1. A knacker's yard. 
2. A graveyard. [Slang.] 3. In the game 
of dominoes, the pieces reserved to draw from. 

bonfire (bon'fir), 11. [Early mod. E. boonfire, 
bondfire, bounfire, later bnrnfire, but reg. bon- 
fire or bonefire, Sc. banefire ; < late ME. bonefyre, 
Sc. banefyre (the earliest known instance is 
"banefyre, ignis ossium," in the " Catholicon 
Anglicum," A. D. 1483) ; < bonel (Sc. bane, ME. 
bone, ban, bane, etc.) +fire. The vowel is short- 
ened before two consonants, as in collier, etc. 
The W. banffagl, also spelled bonffagl, a bonfire, 
as if < ban, lofty, + ffagl, flame, blaze, appears 
to have been formed in imitation of the E. 
word.] If. A fire of bones. 2f. A funeral 
pile ; a pyre. 3. A fire for the burning of here- 
tics, proscribed books, etc. Hence 4. Any 
great blazing fire made in the open air for 
amusement, or for the burning of brushwood, 
weeds, rubbish, etc. Specifically 5. A fire 
kindled, usually in some open and conspicu- 
ous place, such as a hill-top or public square, 
as an expression of public joy or exultation, or 
as a beacon. 

Ring ye the bels, to make it weare away, 
And bonejierg make all day. 

Spenser, Epithalamion, 1. 275. 

The Citizens and Subjects of Bohemia, . . . ioyfull that 
there was an Heyre apparant to the Kingdome, made Bone- 
flres and shewes throughout all the Cittie. 

Greene, Pandosto. 

There was however order given for bonfires and bells ; 
but God knows it was rather a deliverance than a tri- 
umph. Evelyn, Diary, June 6, 1666. 

bongar (bon'gar), n. [Native name.] A large 
venomous East Indian serpent : also called 
rock-snake. See Bungarus. 

Bongarus, n. See Bungarus. 

bongracet (bon'gras), n. [Early mod. E. also 
tone-, bond-, bonn-, bun-, boongrace, < F. bonne- 
grace, "the uppermost flap of the down-hang- 
ing tail of a French hood, whence belike our 
Boongrace" (Cotgrave) ; < bonne, fern, of bon, 
good, + grace (now grace), grace: see boon 3 
and (/race.] A shade formerly worn by women 
on the front of a bonnet to protect the com- 
plexion from the sun ; also, a large bonnet or 
broad-brimmed hat serving the same purpose. 
[My face] was spoiled for want of a bongrace when I was 
young. Beau, and Fl., The Captain, ii. 1. 

Ye wad laugh well to see my round face at the far end 
of a strae bongraot, that looks as nuickle and round as 
the middle aisle in Libberton Kirk. 

Scott, Heart of Midlothian. 

bongret, adv. and i>rep., orig.pJir. [Early mod. 
E. boun gree, < ME. bongre, <OF. (de) bon gre, 
(of) good will: see bont, boon 3 , and gree 2 , and 
cf. maugre.] I. adv. With good will :' now used 
only as French bun gre, in the phrase bon gre 
mal gre, willingly or unwillingly ; willy-nilly. 
II. prep. Agreeably to. 

bonhomie (bon-o-me'), n. [F., < bonliomme, a 
simple, easy man, < bon, good (see boon 3 ), + 
homiim, < L. homo, man. Cf. goodman.] Frank 
and simple good-heartedness ; a good-natured