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Full text of "The century of inventions of the Marquis of Worcester. From the original ms. with historical and explanatory notes and a biographical memoir"

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" A practical mathematician, who has quickness to seize a 
hint, and sagacity to apply it, might avail himself greatly of 
these scantlings. It is extremely probable, that Savery took 
from the Marquis the hint of the Steam Engine, for raising 
water with a power made by fire, which invention alone 
would entitle the author to immortality." Granger's Biog. 
Hist. vol. v. p. 278. 

" Here it may not be amiss to recommend to the atten- 
tion of every mechanic the little work entitled a ' Century of 
Inventions/ by the Marquis of Worcester, which, on account 
of the seeming improbability of discovering many things 
mentioned therein, has been too much neglected ; but when 
it is considered that some of the contrivances apparently not 
the least abstruse, have, by close application been found to 
answer all that the Marquis says of them, and that the first 
hint of that most powerful machine, the Steam Engine, is 
given in that work, it is unnecessary to enlarge on the utility 
of it." Trans, of' the Society of Arts, vol. iii. p. 6. 























&c. &c. &c. 


As a connecting link in the History 
of the STEAM ENGINE, I know that your at- 
tention has been directed to the Marquis of 
that its merits were duly appreciated by you 
at a very early period of Life. That these 
Illustrations of one of the most valuable sci- 
entific productions of the seventeenth cen- 
tury, may deserve your favourable notice, 

( vi ) 

and prove an acceptable present to the ex- 
tensive class of Readers which your patriotic 
exertions are now so rapidly adding to the 
Scientific World, is the sincere wish of, 

Dear Sir, 
Your faithful and obliged 

humble Servant, 

London Institution, 
Feb. 6th, 1825. 









THERE are few persons who have suffered 
more from party zeal, or gained less from 
historic candour, than the noble subject of 
the following brief memoir. Indeed no 
regular biographer has yet appeared to do 
justice to his zealous exertions in the cause 
of his unfortunate but misguided master, or 
his still more patriotic efforts for the advance- 
ment of scientific knowledge. All, however, 
who have in any shape alluded, either to 
the political principles, religious tenets, or 
scientific acquirements of the Marquis of 
Worcester, appear to have been guided 


rather by a spirit of fanatic intolerance, or a 
wish to clear King Charles from the heavy 
responsibility which attached to instructions 
given under his own hand and seal, when 
the Marquis was employed in Ireland. These 
then appear to have been the concurring 
causes, that have so long withheld from the 
noble Author the veneration his memory so 
justly merits ; and we now proceed to follow 
him through his short but active career in 
public life. 

Edward, sixth earl and second Marquis 
of Worcester, was born at Ragland near 
Monmouth ; and his family, who had long 
been distinguished for the most devoted 
loyalty, possessed the largest landed estate 
of any nobleman attached to the British 
court. His grandfather Edward, fourth Earl 
of Worcester, enjoyed in a most distin- 
guished degree the favour of Queen Eliza- 
beth, and her successor King James. In 
1593, he was instituted Knight of the Garter, 
and received a pension of fifteen hundred 
pounds per annum for life. Sandford de- 
scribes him as " a great favourer of learning 


and good literature :" he died in the 79th 
year of his age, at Worcester House, in the 
Strand ; and was buried in Ragland church. 

Henry, the fifth earl, and father of the 
Marquis, succeeded to the title and estates 
in 1628: the family revenue derived from 
those in Monmouthshire alone, at this period 
amounting to upwards of twenty-thousand 
pounds per annum. In 1642, the year in 
which he was created Marquis of Worcester, 
he raised and supported an army of 1500 
foot, and near 500 horse-soldiers, which were 
placed under the command of his son Lord 
Herbert, the subject of this Memoir. 

During the civil commotions, Charles 
made several visits to Ragland castle, where 
he was entertained with the greatest mag- 
nificence,* and on those occasions particu- 
larly distinguished the young Lord Herbert. 

* Some idea of the almost REGAL splendour of the 
noble possessor of Ragland castle at this period, and 
an interesting picture of baronial manners in the early 
part of the seventeenth century, may be found in the 
following authentic document, which has been ac- 
curately copied from the original MS. 


On an open rupture taking place between 
the King and Parliament, his Majesty in- 
vested Lord Herbert with the command of 
a large body of troops then raising in his 
native country, and an opportunity was soon 
offered for calling his military talents into 


At eleven o'clock in the forenoon the castle gates 
were shut, and the tables laid, viz. two in the dining- 
room, three in the hall, one in Mrs. Watson's apart- 
ment, where the chaplains eat, (Sir Toby Matthews 
being the first,) and two in the house-keeper's room, 
for the ladies women. 

The EARL entered the dining-room attended by his 

As soon as he was seated, Sir Ralph Blackstone, 
steward of the house, retired. 

The comptroller, Mr. Holland, attended with his 
staff, as did the sewer, the daily waiters, and many 
gentlemen's sons, with estates from two to seven hun- 
dred pounds a year, who were bred up in the castle : 
and my lady's gentlemen of the chamber. 
At the first table, sat 

The noble family, and such of the nobility as came 

At the second table, in the dining-room, sat 

Knights and honourable gentlemen, attended by 


action. Prince Rupert, shortly after the 
battle of Marston Moor, directed his atten- 
tion towards the Marches of Wales, which 
awakening the jealousy of the Parliamentary 

In the hall, at the first table, sat 

Sir Ralph Blackstone, Steward The Comptroller. 
The Secretary The Master of the Horse The Master 
of the Fish Ponds, my Lord Herbert's preceptor, with 
such gentlemen as came there under the degree of a 
knight, attended by footmen, and plentifully served 
with wine. 

At the second table in the hull, served from my Lord's 
table, and with other hot meats, sat 

The Sewer, with the gentlemen waiters, and pages, 
to the number of twenty-four. 

At the third table in the hall, sat 

The Clerk of the Kitchen, with the yeomen, officers 
of the house, two grooms of the chamber, &c. 
The other officers of the household, were 

Chief Auditor Clerk of the Accounts Purveyor of 
the Castle Ushers of the Hall Closet Keeper 
Gentlemen of the Chapel Keeper of the Records 
Master of the Wardrobe Master of the Armoury 
Twelve master Grooms of the Stables, for the War 
horses Master of the Hounds Master Falconer- 
Porter and his man two keepers of the Home Park 
two keepers of the Red deer Park and footmen, grooms, 
and other menial servants, to the number of one hun- 
dred and fifty! 


General Massey, he by a feigned counter- 
movement surprised the city of Monmouth, 
which had always been considered as the key 
of South Wales, and thus threw the in- 
habitants of Ragland into the greatest con- 
fusion and alarm. 

On the first intelligence of the fall of 
Monmouth reaching the Marquis, he de- 
spatched Lord Herbert with a considerable 
body offerees, who joining a troop of cava- 
liers from Godridge, lodged themselves un- 
discovered behind a rising ground near that 
city. A party of about forty men, who 
volunteered for the occasion, were headed 
by Lord Herbert, and proceeded to recon- 
noitre the town. Having climbed an earthen 
redoubt which had been thrown up by the 
Parliamentary forces, they passed the ditch 
and fell upon the guard, who were imme- 
diately put to the sword, and a few seconds 
more sufficed for breaking the port-chain 
and forcing an entry for the horse, who, 
having by this time joined their brave com- 
rades, entered the town at full gallop ; sur- 
rounding the main guard, the whole of whom 


they took prisoners. The result of this 
brilliant and chivalrous enterprise was the 
capture of Colonel Broughton, four captains, 
as many lieutenants and ensigns, the com- 
mittee, all the private soldiers, and a con- 
siderable quantity of arms and ammunition. 
So signal a display of bravery and devo- 
tedness to the royal cause in the young 
cavalier procured from his Majesty the 
warmest commendations ; and in the month 
of January, 1644, he had the honour to 
receive his first commission to negotiate 
with the Irish Catholics ; while at the same 
time he was recommended by the king to 
the Earl of Ormonde, as one whose loyalty 
might be relied upon. With regard to his 
Lordship's fitness for this appointment, there 
can be but one opinion: educated among 
Catholics, and as such not likely to excite 
the same suspicions as would naturally attach 
to any negotiation with their avowed enemy, 
the Earl of Ormonde, and possessing con- 
siderable influence at the court of Rome, he 
seemed peculiarly qualified to fill the office 
of mediator; and having become popular 


with the people at home by his known libe- 
rality and patriotism, the appointment was 
not likely to excite much dissatisfaction on 
the part of the Puritans. 

The deranged state of his Majesty's affairs, 
which were now growing desperate from the 
continued advantages of the rebels in Ire- 
land, and his still more violent and fanatic 
subjects at home, rendered it necessary 
that some sacrifices should be made to con- 
ciliate the Irish Catholics; as he would 
thus procure a powerful and efficient force 
to aid him against the Covenanters. In 
proof of his anxiety on this subject, there 
were no less than eight letters written by 
the king himself, beside those of his secre- 
taries, pressing for a speedy adjustment of 
the differences that had so long agitated the 
sister kingdom. 

The first commission under the great seal 
was dated the sixth of January, and furnished 
the Marquis with full power to levy any 
number of men in Ireland or elsewhere ; to 
make governors efforts, &c.; and to receive 
the king's rents. Upon the twelfth of March 


following, the Marquis received another 
commission, equally as extensive as the pre- 
ceding ; a copy of which is preserved by 
Rushworth, in his Collections, which we here 


" CHARLES, by the grace of God, of 
England, Scotland, France, and Ireland, 
Defender of the Faith, &c., to our trusty 
and well beloved cousin, EDWARD Earl of 
Glamorgan, greeting. We, reposing great 
and especial trust and confidence in your 
approved wisdom and fidelity, do by these 
presents, as firmly as under our Great Seal, 
to all intents and purposes, authorise, and 
give you power to treat and conclude with 
the confederate Roman Catholics in our 
kingdom of Ireland, if upon necessity any 
be to be conscended unto, wherein our lieu- 
tenant (the Earl of Ormonde) cannot so well 
be seen in, as also not fit for us at present 
publicly to own. Therefore we charge you 
to proceed according to this our warrant 
with all possible secrecy ; and for whatso- 


ever you shall engage yourself, upon such 
valuable considerations as you in your judg- 
ment shall deem fit, we promise, upon the 
word of a king and a Christian, to ratify and 
perform, the same that shall be granted by 
you and under your hand and seal ; the said 
confederate Catholics having by their supplies 
testified their zeal to our service : and this 
shall be in each particular to you a sufficient 

" Given at our Court at Oxford, under 
our Signet and Royal Signature, the twelfth 
of March, in the twentieth year of our reign, 
sixteen hundred and forty-five."* 

* His lordship was created Earl of Glamorgan a few 
days prior to his departure for Ireland, and Carte, 
who in every point in which Charles was concerned, 
invariably concealed whatever tended to cast a stain 
on the king's character, and whose gross partiality in 
this particular instance we shall hereafter more fully 
notice, has even questioned the propriety of the Mar- 
quis's assuming the title of Earl of Glamorgan. To 
support this argument, it is said that his Majesty 
ordered Secretary Nicholas to acquaint the Earl of 
Ormonde, " that, the patent for making Lord Herbert 
Earl of Glamorgan had never passed the great seal ;' ; 
and the apologist for Charles, anxious to make the most 


Who, it may be asked after perusing this 
document, will be hardy enough to pro- 
nounce with Hume that " the king was inca- 
pable of dissimulation?" especially when 
coupled with his Majesty's subsequent de- 
claration to both Houses of Parliament ; in 
which he expressly says, that the Marquis, 
having made an offer to raise forces in Ire- 
land and conduct them into England for his 
service, had a commission to that purpose ; 
"but then," adds the king, " it was to that 
purpose only, and not to treat of any thing 
else without the privity and direction of the 
Lord Lieutenant." 

What degree of credit ought to be given 
to the latter part of his Majesty's declara- 
tion, is pretty plainly shewn by the follow- 

of this equivocation in the king, adduces it as an ob- 
jection to the authenticity of the Irish commission. 
Sandford, however, who in an intimate acquaintance 
with the history of the royal grants was surpassed by 
none, says, " that there now remains in the signet office 
a bill, under the royal sign manual at Oxford, if a 
patent did not thereupon pass the great seal, in order 
to his creation into the honour of Earl of Glamorgan.' 7 


ing letter to the papal legate, which fully 
accords with the instrument we have just 
quoted of the twelfth of March : 


Hearing of your resolution for Ire- 
land, we do not doubt but things will go well, 
and that the good intentions began by means 
of the last pope, will be accomplished by the 
present, by your means in our kingdoms of 
Ireland and England, you joining with our 
dear cousin the Earl of GLAMORGAN ; with 
whom whatever you shall resolve we shall 
think ourselves obliged to, and perform it at 
his return. His great merits oblige us to 
this confidence, which we repose in him 
above all, having known him above twenty 
years ; during which time, he hath always 
signally advanced himself in our good esteem, 
and by all kind of means carried the prize 
above all our subjects. This being joined 
to the consideration of his blood, you may 
well judge of the passion which we have 
particularly for him, and that nothing shall 
be wanting on our part to perfect what he 


shall oblige himself to in our name, in con- 
sideration of the favours received by your 
means. Confide therefore in him : but in 
the meanwhile, according to the directions 
we have given him, how important it is that 
the affair should be kept secret, there is no 
occasion to persuade you, since you see that 
the necessity of the thing requires it. This 
is the first letter which we have ever wrote 
immediately to any Minister of State of the 
Pope, hoping it will not be the last; but 
that after the said earl and you shall have 
concerted your measures, we shall openly 
shew ourself, as we have assured him. 
Your Friend, 


From our Court at Oxford, 
30th April, 1645. 

The earl's negotiation had hitherto gone 
on prosperously, and there was good reason 
to suppose that he would shortly have 
brought the rebels to a complete concur- 
rence with his Majesty's views, when a most 
unexpected accident disconcerted the whole 


of his schemes. An attempt having been 
made by the Irish upon Kilkenny about the 
end of October, 1645, in which the titular 
Archbishop of Tuam had a command; the 
rebels were beaten and the prelate killed, in 
whose baggage was found a copy of the 
treaty which his Lordship had entered into 
with the confederate Catholics and the pope's 
nuncio. Of this discovery immediate infor- 
mation was furnished to the Parliament, 
then sitting, which had invariably expressed 
the greatest aversion to any concession being 
made to the Catholics ; and the matter be- 
came so public, that the Lords Ormonde 
and Digby found it necessary to do some- 
thing towards the vindication of his Majesty's 
honour, and to preserve appearances with 
the Parliament. 

The council having met on the twenty- 
sixth, Lord Digby appeared at the board} 
and accusing the Earl of Glamorgan of high 
treason, moved that he should be immedi- 
ately committed to the castle. On the 
following day he was examined by a com- 
mittee of the council, when he exonerated 


his Majesty, and requested that the whole 
blame of the matter might be attributed to 
him ; as he had consulted with no one on 
the subject, but the parties with whom he 
had made the agreement.* 

When the intelligence of his lordship's 
imprisonment reached Kilkenny, where the 
supreme council then held their sittings, the 
Catholics were thrown into the greatest 
confusion, and some insisted on an imme- 
diate recourse to arms for his enlargement. 
These proceedings, however, were soon 
stayed by the friends of the Earl of Ormonde, 
and his lordship was shortly afterwards re- 

* There is scarcely to be found on record, a more 
enthusiastic instance of loyalty and self-devotion than 
was exhibited by his lordship on this occasion ; for with 
the damning proofs which he then possessed of his 
Majesty's complete concurrence and participation in 
the whole matter, there could not for an instant have 
been a doubt of his own honourable acquittal. There 
was also a certain assurance of procuring the favour of 
the Parliament : who required nothing more than these 
documents to colour the proceedings they were then 
meditating, and which, indeed, afterwards formed one 
of the principal charges against this ill-fated monarch, 


leased on bail. As soon as this was effected 
he repaired to Kilkenny, in order to expe- 
dite the embarkation of a force amounting 
to about three thousand men, which had 
been raised for the relief of Chester; and, 
had there been a sufficient co-operation on 
the part of the general council, they might 
have sailed time enough to have afforded 
the most essential service to the royal cause ; 
but after repeated delays on their part, in- 
telligence was brought of the loss of that 
important city; and the Marquis, finding 
that his further stay in Ireland was attended 
with considerable hazard to his own life, 
without any commensurate benefit to his 
Majesty, resolved on embarking for France, 
where he was soon after joined by the exiled 

Immediately after his lordship's depar- 
ture for the continent, the parliamentary 
forces under Sir Thomas Fairfax appeared 
before Ragland ; and being refused admis- 
sion by the venerable old Marquis, their 
hostile approaches were carried on with 
great vigour, in spite of repeated sallies from 


the fortress. The gallant veteran, however, 
finding the garrison, which at first consisted 
of only 800 men, reduced to less than half 
that number, surrendered on honourable 
terms on the 17th August. Notwithstand- 
ing the pledge given by Sir Thomas Fairfax, 
the conditions of capitulation were most dis- 
gracefully violated, and the Marquis was 
committed to the custody of the Black Rod, 
where he languished till the December 
following; when he expired in the eighty- 
fifth year of his age, and was buried in St. 
George's Chapel at Windsor. 

In the mean time the fortifications of Rag- 
land were destroyed, and all the timber in 
the parks was cut down, and sold by the 
committee of sequestrations. The lead alone 
that covered the castle was sold for 6,000 
pounds, and the loss to the family in the 
house and woods, has been estimated at not 
less than 100,000 pounds! 

From the destruction of Ragland castle 
by the Parliamentary forces, till the begin- 
ning of 1654-, the earl's name scarcely occurs 
in the political history of those times ; but 


about that period, we find him attached to 
the suit of Charles II., who then resided at 
the court of France: and in the following 
year he was dispatched by the exiled mo- 
narch to London, for the purpose of pro- 
curing private intelligence and supplies of 
money, of which the king was in the greatest 
need. He was, however, speedily discovered 
and committed a close prisoner to the Tower, 
where he remained in captivity for several 

Some idea of the state of indigence to 
which the Marquis was now reduced may 
be formed from a perusal of the following 
Letter, directed to the celebrated Colonel 
Copley, who was, it appears, one of the noble 
Author's supporters. 

" Dear Friend, 

" I knowe not with what face to 
desire a curtesie from you, since I have not 
yet payed you the five pownds, and the 
mayne businesse soe long protracted, where- 
by my reallity and kindnesse should with 
thankefullnesse appearc ; for though the 


least I intende you is to make up the somme 
allready promised, to a thousand pownds 
yearly, or a share ammounting to farr more, 
(which to nominate before the perfection of 
the woorke were but an individuum vagum, 
and therefore I deferre it, and vp'on rioe 
other score,) yet, in this interim, my dis- 
apointments are soe great, as that I am 
forced to begge, if you could possible, ey ther 
to helpe me with tenne pownds to this bearer, 
or to make vse of the coache, and to goe to 
Mr. Clerke, and if he could this daye helpe 
me to fifty pownds, then to paye yourself 
the five pownds I owe you out of them. 
Eyther of these will infinitely oblige me. 
The alderman has taken three days time to 
consider of it. Pardon the great troubles I 
give you, which I doubt not but in time to 
deserve by really appearing 

" Your most thankful friend 


28th of March, 1656. 

" To my honored friend 

Collonell Christopher Coppley, 


On the king's restoration, the Marquis of 
Worcester was one of the first to congratu- 
late his Majesty on the happy event, though 
the situation of the unfortunate nobleman 
was little bettered by the change ; indeed it 
appeared but as the signal for new persecu- 
tions, as one of the earliest public acts of 
that ungrateful monarch may be character- 
ized as an invidious attempt to set aside the 
just claims of his earliest and best friend. 

In 1660 the House of Lords appointed a 
committee to consider of the validity of a 
patent granted to the Marquis of Worcester 
in prejudice to the Peers, upon the first in- 
timation of which his Lordship sent a mes- 
senger to the committee then sitting, stating 
his willingness to surrender it, and it was 
shortly afterwards presented to the House 
by his son Lord Herbert. 

In 1663 appeared the first edition of the 
noble Author's Century of Inventions, and 
on the 3d of April in the same year, a bill 
was brought in for granting to him and his 
successors the whole of the profits that 


might arise from the use of an engine, de- 
scribed in the last article in the Century* 
Of the merits of the Century of Inven- 
tions as a literary composition but little can 
with justice be said; whether, however, as 
a scientific production, it deserves the cha- 
racter that has been given of it by men more 
celebrated for their literary attainments, 
than for scientific knowledge, the reader, 
after a perusal of the work, will readily de- 

* Lord Orford describes this bill to have passed on 
the " simple affirmation of the discovery that he (the 
Marquis) had made;" but his lordship's palpable want 
of candour in this statement will be apparent when it 
is known that there were no less than seven meetings 
of committees on the subject, composed of some of the 
most learned men in the house, who, after considerable 
amendments, finally passed it on the 12th of May. 
Vide, Journals of the Lords and Commons for 1663-4. 

f A popular author, to one of whose mistatements 
we alluded in a preceding note, describes the Marquis 
as " a fantastic projector," and his " Century as an 
amazing piece of folly." Having however, in the notes 
appended to this work, fully demonstrated not only 
the practicability of applying the major part of the in- 
ventions there described, but the absolute application 


The Marquis likewise published a work 
entitled " An Exact and true Definition of the 
most stupendous Water-commanding Engine, 
invented by the Right Honourable (and de- 
servedly to be praised and admired) Edward 
Somerset Lord Marquis of Worcester, and 
by his Lordship himself presented to his most 
excellent Majesty Charles II., our most 
gracious Sovereign." This was published 

of many of them, though under other names, to some 
of the most useful purposes of life ; we shall leave it to 
the public to judge, whether the man who first dis- 
covered a mode of applying steam as a mechanical agent, 
an invention alone sufficient to immortalize the age in 
which he lived, deserves the name of a fantastic pro- 

The second edition of the " Century" was published 
in 1746; the third in 1767: while the fourth, which 
may be considered as the best edition, is a reprint from 
the first, and is furnished with an appendix " containing 
an Historical Account of the Fire Engine for Raising 
Water." It is dated Kyo, near Lancaster, June 18, 
1778. The fifth is a reprint from the Glasgow copy, 
" by W. Bailey, Proprietor of the Speaking Figure, 
now showing, by permission of the Right Hon. the 
Lord Mayor, at No. 42, within Bishopsgate," 1786. 
The sixth edition was confined to 100 copies, and 
dated London 1813. 


in a small quarto volume consisting of only 
twenty-two pages, and is now become ex- 
tremely rare. 

His lordship survived the publication of 
this work but two years ; as he died in retire- 
ment near London upon the third of April 
1667. His remains were conveyed with 
funeral solemnity to the cemetery of the 
Beaufort family in Ragland church ; where 
he was interred on Friday the nineteenth of 
the same month, near the body of his grand- 
father, Edward Earl of Worcester. The 
coffin was placed in an arched stone vault, 
with the following inscription on a brass 
plate : 

" Depositum Illustrissimi Principis Ed- 
wardi Marchionis et Comitis Wigorniae, 
Comitis de Glamorgan, Baronis Herbert de 
Raglan, Chepstow et Gower, nee non sere- 
nissimo nuper Domino Regi Carolo primo, 
Southwallia3 locum tenentis: qui obiit 
apud Lond. tertio die Aprilis, An. Dom. 





THE manuscripts from whence the an- 
nexed documents have been selected, are 
now in the possession of his Grace the Duke 
of Beaufort ; and the Editor would be want- 
ing in justice to another distinguished mem- 
ber of the same noble family, did he omit to 
acknowledge the great kindness which he 
has received from Lord Granville Somerset, 
who has materially assisted the Editor in 
illustrating the labours of his very ingenious 



I heerew th send you the rest of my 
dispatches for Ireland, whether I praye 
hasten, time beeing most considerable. I 
am sensible of the dangers y u will undergoe, 
and y e greate trouble and expences you must 
be at, not being able to assiste y w who 
have already spent aboue a Million of 
Crowns in my service, neither can I saye 
more then I well rememb r to have spoke and 
written to you that allready words could not 
expresse your merits nor my gratitude: and 
that next to my wife and children I was most 
bound to take care of you. whereof I have 
besides others particularly assured yo r Cosin 
Biron as a person deare unto you. What 
I can further thinke at this pnt is to send 
y w the Blue Ribben, and a Warrant for the 
Title of Duke of Somerset both w ch accept 
and make vse of at your discretion, and if 
you should deferre y e publishing of either 
for a whyle to avoyde envye, and my being 
importuned by others yet I promise yo r An- 
tiquitie for y e one and your Pattent for y e 
other shall beare Date with the Warrants. 


And rest assured, if God should crosse me 
w th your miscarrying I will treate your Sonne 
as myne owne, and that y 11 labour for a deare 
freind as well as a thankefull Master when 
tyme shall afford e meanes to acknowledge, 
ho'v much I am 

Yo r most assured reall constant 
and thankfull freind 

Charles R. 

Oxford Feb. 12, 1644. 

Oxford this seconde of January 1644 
Severall Heades whereupon you our 
Right trusty and right welbeloved 
Cosen Edward Earle of Glamorgan 
may securely proceede in execution 
of our Commands. 

First you may ingage y r estate, interest 
and creditt that we will most really and 
punctually perforate any our promises to the 


Irish, and as it is necessary to conclude a 
Peace suddainely, soe whatsoever shall be 
consented unto by our Lieutenant the Mar- 
quis of Ormond, We will dye a thousand 
deaths rather than disannull or breake it, 
and if vpon necessity any thing be to be 
condescended unto, and yet the Lord Mar- 
quis not willing to be scene therein, as not 
fitt for us at the present publickely to owne, 
doe you endeavour to supply the same. 

If for the encouragement of the Lord 
Marquis of Ormond you see it needefull to 
have the Guarter sent him, or any further 
favour demonstrated from vs vnto him, we 
will cause the same to be performed. 

If for the advantage of our service you 
see fitt to promise any titles, even to the 
Titles of Earles in eyther of our Kingdomes, 
vpon notice from you we will cause the same 
to be performed. 

For the Maintenance of our Army vnder 
y r Confaund we are gratiously pleased to 
allowe the Delinquentes estates where you 
overcome, to be disposed by you, as alsoe 


any our revenues in the sayd places, Cus- 
tomes or other, our profitts, woods and the 
like w th the contributions. 

Whatever Townes or places of importance 
you shall thinke fitt to possesse you shall 
place Com" aunders and Governours therein 
at y r pleasure. 

Whatever Order we shall sende you (w ch 
you are only to obey) We give you leave to 
impart the same to y r Counsill at Warr and 
if they and you approve not thereof We 
give you leave to replye, and soe fan shall 
we be from taking it as a disobedience, that 
we conf aunde the same. 

At y r returne we will accept of some 
officers vpon y r reconfendation, to the ende 
noe obstacle or delay may be in the exe- 
cution of y 1 desires in order to our service, 
and our confaunds in that behalfe. 

At y r Returne you shall have y e Confaund 
of South Wales, Herefordshire, and Glo- 
cester-shire of the Welsh-side returned to 
you in as ample manner as before. 

In y r abscence we will not give creditt or 


countenance to any thing, w ch may be pre- 
iudiciall to y r Father, you, or yours 
C. R. 


I wonder, you are not yet gone 
for Ireland ; but since you have stayed all 
this time, I hope these will ouertake you, 
whereby you will the more see the great 
trust and confidence I repose in your integ- 
rity, of which I have had soe long and soe good 
experience; commanding yow to deale with 
all ingenuity and freedome with our Lieu- 
tenant of Ireland the Marquis of Ormond, 
and on the word of a King and a Christian I 
will make good any thing, which our Lieu- 
tenant shall be induced unto upon your per- 
suasion : and if you find it fitting, you may 
privately shew him these, which I intend not 
as obligatory to him, but to myselfe, and for 
both your encouragements and warrantise, 
in whom I repose my cheefest hopes, not 
having in all my Kingdomes two such sub- 
jects; whose endeauours joining, I am con- 


fident to be soone drawen out of the mire, I 
am now enforced to wallow in; and then 
shall I shew my thankfullnesse to you both, 
and as you have nuer failed mee, soe shall 
I neuer faile you, but in all things shew how 
much I am 

Oxforde the 12th 
of March 1644. 


I am confident that this honest 
trusty bearer will give you good satisfaction 
why I have not in euerie thing done as you 
desired, the wante of Confidence in you 
beeing so farre from beeing y e cause thereof 
that I am euery daye more and more con- 
firmed in the trust that I have of you, for 
beleeve me it is not in the power of any to 
make you suffer in my opinion by ill Offices, 
but of this and diuers other things I have 
given so full Instructions that I will saye no 
more, but that I am 

Yo r most assured constant freind 

Oxford 26 Feb. 1645. 



I am glad to heare that you are 
gone to Ireland and assure y u that as my 
selfe is nowyse dishartened by our late mis- 
fortune so neither this Country; for I could 
not have expected more from them, then 
theye have now freely undertaken though I 
had come hether absolute Victorious w ch 
makes me hope well of y e neighbouring 
Sheeres. So that (by y e grace of God) I 
hope shortly to recover my late losse with 
aduantage if such succours come to me from 
that Kingdome w ch I have reason to expect, 
but the circumstance of time is that of thegreat- 
est consequence, beeing that which is cheef- 
liest and earnestliest recommended you by 
Your most assured reall constant 


Her ford 23 June 1645. 


I have no time nor do you expect 
that I should make unnecessary repetitions 


to you wherefore referring you to Digby for 
business this is onlie to giue you assurance 
of my constant freindship to you which con- 
sidering the generall Defection of common 
honesty is in a sorte requisite howbeit I 
knowe y u cannot be but confident of my 
making good all instructions and promises to 

Y r most assured constant freind 


Oxford 5 Aprile 1646 


Nous henriette Marie de bourbon 
Regne de la grande Bretagne auons par 
1'ordre du Roy notre tres honore Seigneur 
et Mary fait deliurer es mains de notre tres 
cher et bien ame cousin Edouard Somer 'et 
Comte et Marquis d Worcester un collier 
de Rubis contenant dix gros Rubis et cent 
soixante perles enchassees et confilees en or 
entre les dits Rubis comme aussy deux gros 
diamans 1'un appelle Sancy et 1'autre le Por- 


tugal, confessans qu'outre les tres grandes de- 
penses faites par luy, pour le dit Roy notre 
tres honore Seigneur, il nous a encore fourny 
trois cens soixante et dix mil liures tournois 
outre les tres grancls seruices qu'a ce present 
mesme il nous fait qui sont au moins d'egale 
consequence, au regard de quoy nous faisons 
scauoir que le dit collier et Diamans sont 
totalement pour en disposer par luy soit par 
uente on engagement, sans que nous, ou 
aucun en notre nom puisse en faire aucune 
demande, Rechercher ou troubler aucune 
personne qui achetera ou prestera argent 
sur les dits Joyaux cy dessus nommez en 
temoignage de quoy rious auons Signe et 
fait mettre notre Seel Royal a cette presente 
a notre Cour a St Germain en Laye ce 
Jourdhuy 20 May mil six cens quarente 

L. S. 

(The Royal Arms.) 


To the Kinges most Exelent Mai iie The 
humble Petition of all the Deputy 
Lieutenants Justices of the Peace the 
Knights fy Burgises for Parliam* 
setting for the Countie of Monmouth 
indeede of all the Gentry fy Co- 
monalty Freehoulders and other in- 
habitence within the said Countie 
nemine contradicente but una voce 
most humbly 

That whereas y e Right hon ble our 
very good Lord the now Earle and Mar- 
quisse of Worcester after about twenty yeares 
absence comforteth and honoureth us w th 
his p r sence to y e great satisfaction of all 
your Maj ties most loyall & devote d subjects, 
Wee become most humble petition" to your 
Gratious and most sacred Maj tie that you 
wilbe pleased to incuredge his Exelency to 
make his cheife residance heer, which by 
longe and suffitient experience wee well 
know will much conduce to your Maj ties 
intherest, and seruice, and to the good and 
great satisfaction not onely of this but of 


all y e adjacent Counties, his Lords p having 
always been a disinterested Governor and 
freind to us all, as most espetially a most 
faithfull zealouse and powerfull promoter of 
seruices to y e Crowne, yett with care and 
sweetnesse euer shewed towards your Maj ties 
Loyall subjects, and nowayes partiall to 
those of his owne perswation and religion, 
where ever his Excelency hath had command 
looking but vpon his kings intherest and y e 
peoples justifiable pretentions neither can 
his greatest enimies make appeare y e least 
profe to y fi contrary. 

May itt therefore please yo\ir most Exce- 
lent Maj tie vpon this our most humble peti- 
tion suplycat 5 to Joyne his Lords?? with his 
most deseruing sonne, the Lord Herbert, in 
the Liuetenancie of this Countie, and wee 
esteeme it wille soe far from derogateing 
from my Lord his Sonne who we must hon r 
that it wilbe an adifon of coumfort and hon r 
to his LordsPP to have his beloued father 
Joyned with him, as his Grandfather was 
with his Father the Lord Privie Scale, that 
wise and stout Privie counsellor: his Lords? 1 " 


great grandfather and predecessor neither 
doe wee looke with lesse awfullriesse and 
respect vpon our now Lord Marquisse of 
Worcester, if he reside amonghst us in a 
poore Grange of his then whilst he dwelt in 
his most sumptuous Castle of Ragland, like 
a Prince attended, esteemeing his now pouer- 
tie in respect of his then opulancie, but as a 
badge of Loyaltie, and as readilie and cheer- 
fully shall wee obey his commands who our 
harts attend, as much as then, if Impower d 
by your Gratious Maj tie to bee our Joynt 
Lord Lieutenant which hon r and power wee 
most humbly begg may be againe conferred 
upon his Excelency. 

And wee shall euer pray, &c. 

May it please y r Grace 

The obiections yow were pleased 
to make against the owning and subscribing 
y e Letter to his Ma tie were as I humbly con- 
ceaue y r Graces resolution not to trouble y c 


King for any money businesse euen in your 
owne behalfe much lesse in an others, and 
secondly that as for Creations you had 
absolutely promised his Ma tie you would not 
importune him againe, to the furst I answeare 
that this is to save the Kings Coffirs, since 
certainely if eyther honor or conscience 
should take place his Ma tie ought to saue 
me harmelesse from the six thousand pound 
Confest and proued to be y e Crownes Debt, 
soe happyly now vpon his Head by your 
Graces noe lesse prudent and valerous then 
dutyfull endeauours blest by Devine Proui- 
dence neuer intending the ruine of his best 
deseruing subiects, and y e only promoting of 
his ribells, which the child unborne may rue 
if not timely preuented, and as a wise Privye- 
Counsillor y 1 Graces part is to minde his 
Ma tie soe of, as not totally to disharten I will 
not say disgust his good subiects well de- 
sarueing yet that as far as loyalty and Reli- 
gion will giue them leaue, and I am sory his 
Ma tie should bedd a diew to workes of super- 
ergation and loue in his subiects and most 
Certinely they are not his best Councellers 


who aduise him to it, and y r Grace will be 
most Commendable in douing the Contrery, 
and at long running the King will loue you 
best for it, soe that this obiection of y r Grace 
I humbly conceave to be totally solued. 

As for the seconde y r Graces promise not 
to speake for any more Creations be pleased 
to vnderstand it rightly, and you are noe 
motioner of this, you doe but lay before him 
my reasonable Petition therein, such as in- 
deed my Lord Chancellor was pleased to 
thinke soe fitting as he once vndertook it 
for me, and I am confident will thanke y r 
Grace for reuiuing of it and in my Con- 
science soe will y e King too in graunting of 
it, for I cannot haue soe meane a thought of 
his Ma tie but that against the hayre he hath 
binne forced to bistow honoure to the 
highest degree upon five member men 
and vpon irth as subscribed to his father 
of happy memory his death, and that he 
will thinke mutch to countinance him who 
only assisted his late Ma' ie to flye from theyr 
compulsion of him to agree to such acts as 
would have lefet him selfe our now Gratious 


King y e sucessior of a title of a King of three 
Kingdoms but to the substance of noe one 
of them. It was I furnished his Ma tie with 
money to goe (to) Theobalds to goe to 
Yorke when the then Marquis of Hamble- 
ton refused to pay three hundered pound 
for his Ma tie at Theobalds only to deliuer 
him to the Parliament, as he had donne the 
Earle of Strafford, and to * * * the * * * 
Parliament, It was I carried him money to 
sett vp his standard at Yorke, and procured 
my father to giue the then s r John Byron 
five thousand pound to rayse the first Regi- 
ment of Horse, and kept a table for aboue 
twenty Officers at Yorke, which I vnderhand 
sent thether to keepe them from takeing 
Conditions from y e Parliament, and soe were 
ready to accept his. It was I vittled the towre 
of London & gaue fiue and twenty hundred 
pound to y e then Lieutenant s r John Byron 
my Cosin Germain by my first wifes side. 
It was I raysed most of the Menne at Edge- 
hill fight, and after I was betrayed at 
when soe many Gentlemen of Quality were 
taken and of twenty fiue thousand men first 


& last by me raysed Eight thousand men 
disperssed by the Contriuance of such as 
called themselues y e Kings good subiects, 
and some of them rewarded for it, they were 
my men weekely payed without takeing a 
farthing contribution because the country 
tottered, who tooke in the forest of Deane, 
Goodredge Castle, Monmouth, Chepstowe, 
Carlyon and Cardiff from y e Parliament 
forces, in w ch and y e Garrison of Ragland I 
can bring profe of aboue an hundered and 
fifty thousand pounds expended, and in 
ready Money first & last to y e Kings owne 
Purse aboue as much more, and of aboue 
thirty five thousand Pounds Receaued by 
my father and me Comunely Armes in forty 
forty two and forty three I have not now 
fiue and tw r enty hundered and that clogged 
well, twenty thousand Pounds Crying Debts 
that keepe me not only from a competent 
maintenance but euen from sleepe, I speake 
not heare of aboue three hundered thow- 
sands pounds which it hath cost y e Noble- 
men Knights and Gentlmen which ridd 
in my Life Guarde for ther comporting 


they makeing amongst them aboue three- 
score thousand Powntis yearly of Land of 
inheretance and I vpon my interest with 
seauen Countys had begune an Engagement 
of above three hundered thousand Pounds 
yearly land of inhiretance against my returne 
with men from beyonde the sea in which 
endeauours my charges have beine vast, 
besides hazard by sea euen of shipwracke 
and by Land of deadly encounters, I doe 
not trouble y r LOP with, but all this being 
true to a tittle as vpon my word and honour 
dearer to me then my life I advouche it, I 
cannot doubt but y r Grace will call for a 
peane to signe y c Letter, and if you please 
sende this together with it, and rest assured 
that if the King refuse my request I will 
neuer importune you more, nor euer sett my 
foote into his Ma tics Court againe vnlesse ex- 
pressly comanded by him for his seruice, 
otherwise I will only heartyly pray for him 
but neuer hereafter shall I or any freind of 
mine engage for him further, then y e simple 
duty of a Loyall subiect sitting quiettly at 
home noe ways breake the peace or dis- 


obying the wholsom lawes of the land, and 
god seande him better and more able sub- 
iects to searve his Ma tie then my selfe, wil- 
linger I am sure he cannot, and I beseeche 
y r Grace to pardon me if passion hath a 
little transported me beyonde good man- 
ners, and lay what pennance you please vpon 
me soe it tende not to lessen y r Graces be- 
liefe that I am 

Y 1 Graces 
Most really denoted freind 

and seruant ever to obey you 


Dec. 29th, 1665. 

My deare Lord, my heart is yet full 
froughted and I can say much more for my- 
selfe, were I not ashamed of giueing y r Grace 
soe great a trouble with my scribling, which 
I will thus ende, promising to smoother as 
long as may be my deplorable condition, and 
worse vsage, but it will at last fly ouer the 
whole world to the disheartining of all zelous 
and Loyall subiects, vnlesse such a true 
hearted Englishman and fathful seruant as 

a 2 


y r Grace doe awaken his Ma tie out of the 
leturgie my eriimies have cast him not to 
be sensible of what I have done or suffered. 
Cardinall Mazarine presented me to his King, 
with these woords " S r who soeuer hath 
Loyalty or Religion in recommendation must 
honour this well Borne Person," and Queene 
Mother now Dowager hath often sayd to 
have heard her husband say that next to her 
and his Children he wass bound to take a 
care of me of whom it may be now verified 
qui iacet in terra non habet vnde cadet, I am 
cast to the Ground I can fall noe lower.* 

To the Kings most Excellent Majesty, 
The most humble Petition of Edward 
Marquis of Worcester. 

That yo r petitioner overwhelmed 
with the very, very much he hath to say, 
fearefull too long to detaine y r sacred Ma** 
therewith from the more serious affaires hum- 

* The above Letter, as appears by the envelope, was 
directed to his Grace the Duke of Albermarle, 


bly prayeth that you wilbe pleased to refer 
him to be heard by the Lord high Chan- 
cellor of England, The Lord privie seale, 
The Duke of Alnferle, the Earle of Lother- 
dale, the Lord Arlington, the Lord Ashley, 
and Mr. Secretary Morris, or to such of 
them, or other persons, as yo r Ma^ shall 
thinke fitt, and that vppon their Report yo r 
Ma fc y will vouchsafe to doe with yo r petitioner, 
or to yo r petitioner, what they in the peti- 
tioners behalfe, and congruous to yo r service 
shall finde reasonable, and consonant with 
yo r petitioners meritts or demeritts, the peti- 
tioner most intirely submitting to your will 
and pleasure, Casting himselfe vppon yo r 
Ma e y es goodnesse, noe wayes standing vppon 
his deserts, though really found never soe 
many not thought of, or hetherto kept from 
yo r Ma e y es knowledge, your peti r doth not 
say through envy or malice, since perhaps 
through ignorance such ignorance notwith- 
standing as the divines call ignorantia crassa, 
but whatsoever in quality or number, his 
services were, they were but due to such a 
gratious King and Master as yo r 


Father of happy memory was to yo r peti- 
tioner, and to yo r incomparable selfe, and 
therefore acknowledgeth they fall farr shorte 
of his true loyalty and devotion to either and 
being once rightly made knowne and p r sented 
to yo r sacred Maiesty yo r petitioner pro- 
miseth himselfe noe lesse incouragement for 
the future from your Ma fc y nor lesse abilities 
in himselfe to become as useful as formerly, 
and as disinterresedly to serve you, Neither 
shall any thing for the future dismaye, or in 
any kinde deterr, your petitioner, from that 
his resolution, but from the bottome of his 


He shall ever pray, &c. 


Att y c Court att Hampton Court Jan. 29th 


His Ma^ is graciously pleased to referr 
and reconfend the Peticoner to bee heard 
by the within named Lords Referrees or to 
any fower or more of them, and they to give 
their Report to his Ma^ as soon as conve- 
niently may bee. 




I did not thinke I should have had 
the occation to have troubled you with an 
other Letter but I am soe little sattisfyed 
with yours in what I required conscerninge 
my monyes that I cannot thinke a survilous 
paper an equal ballance for soe waighty and 
iust a debt : I confesse I have hard of a new 
way to pay ould debts but certainly this is 
the newest, I belieue your Ladiship is one 
of the first that euer tryd it : itt may bee al a 
mode, but truely I doe not like the fashion, 
though itt may bee others doe : To answare 
your Letter, first for your Religion I medle 
not with itt It conscerns not mee ; if I have, 
certainely I have done rather an hon r to itt 
then an iniury: for I belieu'd soe well of 
your Religion that itt tought noe man to 
distroy his faith, Hon r , and Christianety ; 
which my Lord hath done in his engagement 
to mee I onely speake of him I pray you 
Maddam lett mee aske, what is hon r if 
broken ? tis easely answared noe hon r , what 
is itt to pretend a faith in Jesus Christ, to be 
call'd a Christian, and to breake that faith, 


and likewise forfitt that Christianety, he's 
noe Christian and whereas you say I wronge 
the memory of the late Kinge (I know 
not upon what grounds) Maddam you doe 
mee wronge, I serve the memory of that 
Royall Martyr, equall to any hee that lives : 
I pray you did his Ma tie euer engage his 
faith, hon r , and Christianety, to pay any 
debts, where in he fail'd; Maddam vnder 
fauour I must say you doe his incomparable 
ashes iniury. You likewise tell mee noe 
gallant pearson wilbeleiue but that my Lord 
will pay mee when hee hath itt, tis a large 
extent, and for ought I know may reach to 
Dooms day ; tis small satisfaction to expect 
a certaine debt att such an vncertaine pay- 
ment. Maddam you haue the priueledge 
of a Woeman in speakinge of my Loyalty, 
noe man can, nor dare tax itt, for my pub- 
lishinge any thinge that consoernes your 
Lord, tis his owne actions that causeth mee 
to report those truths : You say my Lord 
hath spent more in his Ma tics seruice than 
any Protestant, I dare say there has beinc 
ten thousand loyall faithfull Protestants hath 


spent as much : where of I am one, for wee 
have spent, and lost all wee had to our pro- 
portions, tis as much as hee (the widowes 
mite will make itt good) and in soe doinge 
wee did but our dutyes, and wee ought not 
to obraide the King with itt, tis vnhandsome 
to expect Sallery for a lawfull duty. Your 
Ladyship saith that I reported my Lord 
gaue mee counterfitt plates, I confesse hee 
gaue mee some plates, and forced them upon 
mee, hee likewise borrowed them of mee 
againe, resoluinge to returne them within 
too dayes, but he hath not restored them to 
this day, I heare since that my Lord hath 
sould them : I hope hee will confesse that 
noe man of Hon r did euer such an action 
before, allthough he was ready to starue, 
and for his giuinge mee false plate, I must 
deny itt for I neuer said itt, but this I did 
say, that when I was at his Lordsp's house 
he showed mee some plates, that was not 
the same that hee had formerly giuen mee 
for the first was beaten, and the latter was 
cast, if that was counterfitt, I sayd itt, and 
that ile iustify. for your friuolous paper, I 


dare say your reconcil'd iudgment doth re- 
pent the sendinge of itt, I have shewed it to 
diners of your religion, and they condemne 
you for itt, likewise the paper, nor can the 
Kinge of Englande giue you thanks for itt. 
But his royall Mother beinge a Roman 
Catholique, my hon r and admiration of her 
doth silence my penn in answeringe that 
scandalous paper. 

Your Ladiships humble Servant 

Paris Ape 3 


Forr the Right Hon ble the Marchioness 
of Worcester these 


Jesus -f- Mi"a September 6 1670 

The Grace of the Holy-ghost be with you. 

The great esteeme and honour 

w ch I have euer had for your Ladys? hath 


all waise made mee prompt and willing to 
serve you to the best of my power, without 
the bias of selfe interest, as your selfe can 
witnesse ; And because I feare that at pre- 
sent, your Honour hath noe one, that in the 
greate concernes, which you have in hand, 
will tell you the truth, as it often happens to 
persons of greate quality : I have thought it 
the part of my Priestly function, and fidelity 
towards yo r Ho r : (haveing first in my poore 
prayers, humbly commended it to Aim: God) 
to represent unto you, that w ch all your 
friends know to bee true, as well as my selfe, 
and would be willing that your LadysP should 
know it likewise. 

Aim: God hath Madam put you into a 
happy, and flourishing condition, fitt and 
able to serue God, and to doe much good 
to your selfe and others ; and your LadysP 
makes yourselfe unhappy, by seeming not to 
be contented with your condition but trou- 
bling your spiritts with many thoughts of 
attayning to greater dignityes and riches. 

Madam all those that wish you well, are 
greeued to see your LadysP to bee allready 


soe much disturbed & weakened in your 
iudgment & in danger to loose the right use 
of your reason, if you doe not tymely endea- 
uour to preuent it, by ceasing to goe on 
with such high designes, as you are vppon, 
which I declare to you, in the faith of a 
Priest to bee true : The cause of your pre- 
sent distemper, and of the aforesayd danger, 
is doubtlesse, that your thoughts and ima- 
gination are very much fixed on the title of 
Plantagenet, and of disposing yourselfe for 
that greate dignity by getting of greate sums 
of money from the king, to pay your deceased 
Lords debts, and enriching your selfe by the 
great Machine and the like. Now Madam 
how vnproper such undertakings are for 
your L. and how vnpossible for you to effect 
them, or any one of them, all your friends 
can tell you if they please to discover the 
trueth to you. 

The ill effects that flow from hence are 
many : as the danger of looseing your health 
and iudgment by such violent application of 
your fancies in such high designes and am- 
bitious desires ; the probability of offending 


Aim: God and preiudising your owne soule 
thereby : the advantage you may thereby 
give to those who desire to make a prey of 
your fortune, and to rayse themselves by 
ruining of you : the spending greate sums of 
money in rich and sumptuous things w ch are 
not suteable to the gravity of your Ladys? 
and present condition of Widdow-hoode 
and mourning for your deceased Lord. 

Although it bee certine, that it is a greate 
temptation which you are now vnder, and 
very dangerous and hurtfull both to your 
temporall and eternall happynesse; yet I 
confesse that the Devil, to make his sugges- 
tion the more preualent, doth make vse of 
some motives that seeme plausible, as of pay- 
ing your Lords debts, of founding of monas- 
terys, and the like, and that your Ladys? 
hath the Kings favour to carry on your 
designes. But Madam it is certine that 
the King is offended with your comeing to 
the Court, and much more with your preten- 
tion to the title of Plantaginet; and it is dan- 
gerous to provoke him any farther : And for 
paying of Debts and founding of Monaste- 


ryes, wee all know that your L. can neuer 
bee in a better condition to doe it, than now 
you are ; and as you are not bound to doe 
such things, so they are not expected from 
you ; but wee all applaud your pious inclina- 
tions herein, of w ch you will not loose the 
merit with Aim: God but our apprehensions 
are, least you should by your Ladys? 3 inor- 
dinate designes bring your selfe into such a 
condition, as not to bee able to helpe your 
friends nor your selfe. 

Bee pleased Madam now to give mee 
leave to suggest some waie how the ap- 
proaching dangers may bee prevented, by 
changing the objects of your affections, and 
insteede of temporal!, to seeke after eternall 
riches, and honors, which your age doth 
assure you are not far off; for w ch you may 
dispose yourselfe, before death comes, by 
retiring into the countrey for some time, 
from the distractions of the Court, where 
you may haue the advice and directions of 
some learned Priest, in whose vertue you 
may wholey confide, and bee guided by him, 
for your internall quiet & security. Many 


places may soone be found out, that are fitt 
for that purpose: At Hammersmith Mrs. 
Bedingfield a very vertuous & discreete per- 
son, and of your Ladys ps acquaintance, hath 
lately taken a faire house & garden, & hath 
but a small family. In some such place your 
Ho r might likewise haue the aduice of some 
well experienced Doctor, for the health of 
your person, and the benefitt of good ayre 
and of quietnesse, would much conduce to 
your health: And soe by Aim. Gods blessing, 
you may recouer from that most pernicious 
distemper of bodey and mind, vnto w ch every 
one seese you to bee very neere approching, 
and may live many yeares with your owne 
fortune & dignity in greate honour and hap- 
pynesse & bee the author of many good 
workes of piety & Charity to the glory of 
God & eternall saluation of your owne soule. 
Thus dear Madam I have ventured to de- 
clare a great trueth to you, w ch was before 
a secrett only to your selfe. I know that I 
run the hazerd of incurring your displeasure, 
if your Ladys? should not reade the candor 
of my intentions, w ch in my Letter I intend 


towards you : but my assurance of haveing 
herein performed a duty w ch I owe to my 
God, and the hope I have that you will take 
it well as I intend it, have encouraged mee 
to doe it, and to subscribe myselfe 
Honored Madam 

Your humb. Ser. in C. J. 



The Lord Marquesse of Worcester's 
ejaculatory and extemporary thanks- 
giving Prayer, when first ivit/i his 
corporal eyes, he did see finished a 
perfect trial of his Water-command- 
ing Engine, delightful and useful to 
whomsoever hath in recommendation 
either knowledge, profit, or pleasure. 

OH ! infinitely omnipotent God ! whose mer- 
cies are fathomlesse, and whose knowledge 
is immense, and inexhaustible ; next to my 
creation and redemption I render thee most 
humble thanks from the very bottom of my 
heart and bowels, for thy vouchsafing me, 
(the meanest in understanding,) an insight in 
soe great a secret" of nature, beneficent to 
all mankind, as this my water commanding 
engine. Suffer me not to be puffed upp, O 
Lord, by the knowing of it, and many more 
rare and unheard off, yea unparalleled in- 
ventions, tryals, and experiments. But hum- 
ble my haughty heart, by the true knowledge 
of myne own ignorant, weake, and unworthy 


nature : proane to all euill, O most mercifull 
Father my creator, most compassionating 
Sonne my redeemer, and Holyest of Spiritts, 
the sanctifier, three diuine persons, and one 
God, grant me a further concurring grace 
with fortitude to take hould of thy good- 
nesse, to the end that whatever I doe, una- 
nimously and courageously to serve my king 
and country, to disabuse, rectifie, and con- 
vert my vndeserved, yet wilfully incredulous 
enemyes, to reimburse thankfully my cre- 
ditors, to reimmunerate my benefactors, to 
reinhearten my distressed family, and with 
complacence to gratifie my suffering and 
confiding friends, may, voyde of vanity or 
selfe ends, be only directed to thy honour 
and glory everlastingly. Amen. 







As at present I can call to mind to have tried and 
perfected, which (my former Notes being lost) 
I have, at the instance of a powerful Friend, 
endeavoured now in the Year 1G55, to set these 
down in such a way, as may sufficiently instruct 
me to put any of them in practice. 

Artis et Nature proles. 





" SCIRE meum nihil est, nisi me scire 
hoc sciat alter," saith the poet, and I most 
justly in order to your Majesty, whose satis- 
faction is my happiness, and whom to serve 
is my only aim, placing therein my " summum 
bonum" in this world : be therefore pleased 
to cast your gracious eye over this summary 
collection, and then to pick and choose. I 
confess, I made it but for the superficial sa- 
tisfaction of a friend's curiosity, according 
as it is set down; and if it might now serve 


to give aim to your Majesty how to make 
use of my poor endeavours, it would crown 
my thoughts, who am neither covetous nor 
ambitious, but of deserving your Majesty's 
favour, upon my own cost and charges, yet, 
according to the old English proverb, " It is 
a poor dog not worth whistling after." Let 
but your Majesty approve, and I will ef- 
fectually perform to the height of my under- 
taking : vouchsafe but to command, and with 
my life and fortune I shall cheerfully obey, 
and maugre envy, ignorance and malice, 
ever appear 

Your Majesty's 

Passionately-devoted, or otherwise disin- 
terested Subject and Servant, 









BE not startled if I address to all, 
and every of you, this Century of Summary 
Heads of Wonderful Things, even after the 
dedication of them to his most excellent 
Majesty, since it is with his most gracious 
and particular consent, as well as indeed no 
ways derogating from my duty to his sacred 
self, but rather in further order unto it, 
since your Lordships, who are his great 


Council, and you, Gentlemen, his whole king- 
dom's Representatives (most worthily wel- 
come unto him) may fitly receive into your 
wise and serious considerations, what doth 
or may publicly concern both his Majesty 
and his tenderly-beloved people. 

Pardon me, if I say, (my Lords and Gen- 
tlemen) that it is jointly your parts to digest 
to his hand, these ensuing particulars, fit- 
ting them to his palate, and ordering how 
to reduce them into practice, in a way use- 
ful and beneficial, both to his Majesty and 
his kingdom. 

Neither do I esteem it less proper for me 
to present them to you in order to his Ma- 
jesty's service, than it is to give into the 
hands of a faithful and provident steward, 
whatsoever dainties and provisions are in- 
tended for the master's diet; the knowing 
and faithful steward being best able to make 
use thereof to his master's contentment, 
and greatest profit, keeping for the morrow 
whatever should be overplus or needless for 
the present day, or at least to save some- 


thing else in lieu thereof. In a word, (my 
Lords and Gentlemen,) I humbly conceive, 
this simile not improper, since you are his 
Majesty's provident stewards, into whose 
hands I commit myself, with all properties 
fit to obey you; that is to say, with a heart 
harbouring no ambition, but an endless aim 
to serve my King and Country: and if my 
endeavours prove effectual, (as I am confi- 
dent they will,) his Majesty shall not only 
become rich, but his people likewise, as 
treasurers unto him ; and his peerless Ma- 
jesty, our King, shall become both beloved 
at home, and feared abroad ; deeming the 
riches of a King to consist in the plenty en- 
joyed by his people. 

And the way to render him to be feared 
abroad, is to content his people at home, 
who then with heart and hand are ready to 
assist him; and whatsoever God blesseth 
me with to contribute towards the increase 
of his revenues, in any considerable way, I 
desire it may be imployed to the use of his 
people ; that is, for the taking off such taxes 


or burthens from them as they chiefly groan 
under, and by a temporary necessity only im- 
posed on them ; which being thus supplied, 
will certainly best content the King, and sa- 
tisfy his people ; which, I dare say, is the 
continual tend of all your indefatigable pains, 
and the perfect demonstrations of your zeal 
to his Majesty, and an evidence that the 
kingdom's trust is justly and deservedly re- 
posed in you. And if ever Parliament ac- 
quitted themselves thereof, it is this of yours, 
composed of most deserving and qualified 
persons ; qualified, I say, with your affection 
to your Prince, and with a tenderness to his 
people ; with a bountiful heart towards him, 
yet a frugality in their behalfs. 

Go on therefore chearfully (my Lords and 
Gentlemen) and not only our gracious King, 
but the King of Kings will reward you, the 
prayers of the people will attend you, and 
his Majesty will with thankful arms embrace 
you. And be pleased to make use of me 
and my endeavours to enrich them, not my- 
self; such being my only request unto you, 


spare me not in what your wisdoms shall 
find me useful, who do esteem myself not 
only by the act of the Water-commanding 
Engine (which so chearfully you have past) 
sufficiently rewarded, but likewise with cou- 
rage enabled to do ten times more for the 
future ; and my debts being paid, and a com- 
petency to live according to my birth and 
quality settled, the rest shall I dedicate to 
the service of our King and Country by your 
disposals: and esteem me not the more, or 
rather any more, by what is past, but what's 
to come; professing really from my heart, 
that my intentions are to outgo the six or 
seven hundred thousand pounds already sa- 
crificed, if countenanced and encouraged by 
you, ingenuously confessing, that the melan- 
choly which hath lately seized upon me (the 
cause whereof none of you but may easily 
guess) hath, I dare say, retarded more ad- 
vantages to the public service than modesty 
will permit me to utter : and now, revived by 
your promising favours, I shall infallibly be 
enabled thereunto in the experiments extant, 


and comprised under these heads, practica- 
ble with my directions by the unparalleled 
workman both for trust and skill, Caspar 
KaltofF's hand, who hath been these five and 
thirty years as in a school under me em- 
ployed, and still at my disposal, in a place 
by my great expences made fit for public 
service, yet lately like to be taken from me, 
and consequently from the service of King 
and kingdom, without the least regard of 
above ten thousand pounds expended by 
me, and through my zeal to the common 
good; my zeal, I say, a field large enough 
for you (my Lords and Gentlemen) to work 

The treasures buried under these heads, 
both for war, peace, and pleasure, being in- 
exhaustible; I beseech you pardon me if I 
say so ; it seems a vanity, but comprehends 
a truth ; since no good spring but becomes 
the more plentiful by how much more it is 
drawn ; and the spinner to weave his web 
is never stinted, but further inforced. 

The more then that you shall be pleased 


to make use of my Inventions, the more in- 
ventive shall you ever find me, one invention 
begetting still another, and more and more 
improving my ability to serve my King and 
you ; and as to my heartiness therein there 
needs no addition, nor to my readiness a 
spur. And therefore (my Lords and Gen- 
tlemen) be pleased to begin, and desist not 
from commanding me, till I flag in my obe- 
dience and endeavours to serve my King and 
Country : 

For certainly you'l find me breathless first t'expire, 
Before my hands grow weary, or my legs do tire. 

Yet abstracting from any interest of my 
own, but as a fellow-subject and compatriot 
will I ever labour in the vineyard, most 
heartily and readily obeying the least sum- 
mons from you, by putting faithfully in exe- 
cution, what your judgments shall think fit 
to pitch upon amongst this Century of Ex- 
periments, perhaps dearly purchased by me, 
but now frankly and gratis offered to you, 
Since my heart (methinks) cannot be satis- 


fied in serving my King and Country, if it 
should cost them any thing: as I confess 
when I had the honour to be near so obliging 
a master as his late Majesty of happy memo- 
ry, who never refused me his ear to any 
reasonable motion : and as for unreasonable 
ones, or such as were not fitting for him to 
grant, I would rather to have died a thou- 
sand deaths, than ever to have made any 
one unto him. 

Yet whatever I was so happy as to obtain 
for any deserving person, my pains, breath 
and interest imployed therein satisfied me 
not, unless I likewise satisfied the fees ; but 
that was in my golden age. 

And even now, though my ability and 
means are shortened, the world knows why 
my heart remains still the same ; and be 
you pleased (my Lords and Gentlemen) to 
rest most assured, that the very complacency 
that I shall take in the executing your com- 
mands, shall be unto me a sufficient and an 
abundantly-satisfactory reward. 

Vouchsafe therefore to dispose freely of 


me, and whatever lieth in my power to per- 
form; first, in order to his Majesty's service; 
secondly, for the good and advantage of the 
Kingdom ; thirdly, to all your satisfactions, 
for particular profit and pleasure to your 
individual selves, professing that in all and 
each of the three respects I will ever de- 
mean myself as it best becomes, 

My Lords and Gentlemen, 

Your most passionately bent fellow sub- 
ject in his Majesty's service, corn-pa- 
triot for the public good and advantage, 
and a most humble Servant to all and 
every of you, 



No. Page. 

1. SEALS abundantly significant .... 1 

2. Private and particular to each Owner . 5 

3. A one line Cypher ib. 

4. Reduced to a Point 7 

5. Varied significantly to all the 24 Letters ^ 8 

6. A mute and perfect Discourse by Colours 9 

7. To hold the same by Night . . . . ib. 

8. To level Cannons by Night .... 12 

9. A Ship-destroying Engine ib. 

10. How to be fastened from aloof and under 

Water 13 

11. How to prevent both 14 

12. An unsinkable Ship ib. 

13. False destroying Decks 15 

14. Multiplied Strength in little Room . . 16 

15. A Boat driving against Wind and Tide ib. 

16. A Sea-sailing Fort 17 

17. A pleasant floating Garden . . . 18 

18. An Hour-glass Fountain 20 

19. A Coach-saving Engine 21 

20. A Balance Water- work 22 

21. A Bucket Fountain ...... 23 



No. Page. 

22. An ebbing and flowing River .< . . 24 

23. An ebbing and flowing Castle Clock . 25 

24. A Strength-increasing Spring . . . 26 

25. A double drawing Engine for Weights 27 

26. A to and fro Lever ....'... ib. 

27. A most easy level Draught .... 28 

28. A portable Bridge . . . . . ... ib. 

29. A moveable Fortification 29 

30. A rising Bulwark 30 

31. An approaching Blind 31 

32. An universal Character . . . . . 32 

33. A Needle Alphabet ...... 39 

34. A knotted String Alphabet . . . . ib. 

35. A Fringe Alphabet ...... 40 

36. A Bracelet Alphabet ib. 

37. A pinked Glove Alphabet .... 40 

38. A Sieve Alphabet ib. 

39. A Lanthorn Alphabet ib. 

40. An Alphabet by the Smell . . . . ib. 

41. Ditto Taste ib. 

42. Ditto Touch .... 42 

43. A variation of all and each of these . 43 

44. A Key-Pistol ........ ib. 

45. A most conceited Tinder-box ... 44 

46. An artificial Bird . . 45 

47. An Hour Water Ball ib. 

48. A screwed ascent of Stairs . . . .46 

49. A Tobacco-tongs engine . . . . . 48 

CONTENTS. Ixxxiii 

No. Page. 

50. A Pocket-ladder 48 

51. A Rule of Gradation ...... 49 

52. A mystical jangling of Bells * . ib. 

53. An hollowing of a Water Screw ... 51 

54. A transparent Water Screw . ... ib. 

55. A double Water Screw 52 

56. An advantageous change of Centres . 53 

57. A constant Water-flowing and ebbing mo- 

tion 55 

58. An often discharging Pistol .... 57 

59. An especial way for Carabines ... 58 

60. A Flask Charger ib. 

61. A way for Musquets 59 

62. A way for a Harquebus, a Crock . . ib. 

63. For Sakers and Minyons ib. 

64. For the biggest Cannon . . . . . 60 

65. For a whole side of Ship-musquets . , ib. 

66. For guarding several Avenues to a Town 61 

67. For Musque toons on Horseback . . 62 

68. A Fire Water work ib. 

69. .A triangle Key 64 

70. A Rose Key . 65 

71. A square Key with a turning Screw . ib. 

72. An Escutcheon for all Locks . . . . ib. 

73. A transmittible Gallery 67 

74. A conceited Door 68 

75. A Discourse woven on Tape or Ribbon -ib. 
70. To write in the dark 69 


No. Page. 

77. A flying Man . . . ..;'..;.. . 69 

78. A continually going Watch . . . . 76 

79. A total locking of Cabinet Boxes . . 78 

80. Light Pistol Barrels ib. 

81. A Comb conveyance for Letters . . . ib. 

82. A Knife, Spoon, or Fork conveyance . 79 

83. A Rasping Mill ib. 

84. An Arithmetical Instrument . . . . ib. 

85. An untoothsome Pear ..'.... 80 

86. An imprisoning Chair ...... 81 

87. A Candle Mould .82 

88. A Coming Engine . 84 

88. A Brazen Head 85 

89. Primero Gloves 89 

90. A Dicing Box ib. 

91. An artificial Ring-horse 90 

92. A Gravel Engine 93 

93. A Ship raising Engine 94 

94. A pocket Engine to open any Door . 95 

95. A double Cross Bow ib. 

96. A way for Sea Banks 96 

97. A perspective Instrument 98 

98. A semi-omnipotent Engine .... 99 

99. A most admirable way to raise Weights ib. 

100. A stupendous Water-work . . . .100 





No. I. 

SEVERAL sorts of seals, some showing by 
screws, others by gauges, fastening or un- 
fastening all the marks at once : others, by 
additional points and imaginary places, pro- 
portionable to ordinary escutcheons and 
seals at arms, each way palpably and punc- 
tually setting down (yet private from all 
others, but the owner, and by his assent) the 
day of the month, the day of the week, the 
month of the year, the year of our Lord, 


the names of the witnesses, and the indivi- 
dual place where any thing was sealed, 
though in ten thousand several places, toge- 
ther with the very number of lines contained 
in a contract, whereby falsification may be 
discovered, and manifestly proved, being 
upon good grounds suspected. 

Upon any of these seals a man may keep 
accounts of receipts and disbursements, from 
one farthing to an hundred millions, punc- 
tually showing each pound, shilling, penny, 
or farthing. 

By these seals, likewise, any letter, though 
written but in English, may be read and un- 
derstood in eight several languages ; and in 
English itself, to clear contrary and different 
sense, unknown to any but the correspond- 
ent, and not to be read or understood by 
him neither, if opened before it arrive unto 
him; so that neither threats, nor hopes of 
reward, can make him reveal the secret, the 
letter having been intercepted, and first 
opened by the enemy. 



The use of sigili or " autograph seals" is very 
ancient, indeed we find them mentioned by the 
prophet Jeremiah (chap. xxii. v. 10); these, 
however, were invariably engraved on the collets 
or stones of rings, and it was not till a much 
later date that hand stamps were applied to that 
purpose. In England, the first sealed charter 
extant is that of Edward the Confessor, upon his 
founding Westminster Abbey; and many of our 
English kings used them, from an inability to 
affix any other kind of signature : this indeed is 
candidly acknowledged by Caedwalla, a Saxon 
king, who says, at the conclusion of one of his 
charters, " proprid manu pro ignorantid literarum 
signum sanctce crucis expressi et subscripsi." 

The nearest approach to a corresponding seal 
that occurs prior to the sixteenth century, is that 
described in a decree of Cardinal Otto, who was 
papal legate in 1237, by which the bishops were 
to bear on their seals their title, office, dignity, 
and even their proper names. About this period 
mottos were likewise generally introduced, but 
none of those before the publication of the noble 
author's work were at all adapted for secret cor- 
respondence ; or, in fact, had they any mode of 
combining moveable characters in the matrix for 
the purpose of varying the impression. The prin- 
ciple upon which those described by the Marquis 
must have been formed is simply this: a frame 
similar to those in which seals are generally 
mounted having been first prepared, a number of 
moveable circles may be made to slide within each 
other on one common centre. If three are em- 


ployed, they should be engraved with the nume- 
rals, the alphabet, and, if intended for secret wri- 
ting, the third circle may be furnished with any 
arbitrary signs that may suggest themselves. 
These, by means of a key, of which both the cor- 
responding parties must possess a duplicate, may 
be combined to form the day of the week, month, 
year, &c. 

It would be found very useful in preventing 
and detecting the mistakes v which so frequently 
occur in the delivery of letters, if the seals in com- 
mon use were provided with at least two of these 
revolving circles, with the day of the month and 
hour of the day engraved on their face, parallel 
to the stone. A particular part of the arms or 
cipher being used as an index hand, it would then 
show the precise hour the letter was sent, without 
the trouble of dating, &c. 

In engraved seals where coats of arms are used, 
it will be obvious that the seal must be larger 
than those generally in use, as the circles must 
be made to revolve round the outer extremity of 
the stone, and their usefulness will be considera- 
bly diminished. With regard to the possibility 
of forming a key by which writing in any lan- 
guage may be deciphered, we have the following 
curious anecdote, furnished by the late learned 
and ingenious Mr. Astle, keeper of His Majesty's 
Records: he states, on the authority of a noble 
Lord, deceased, that the late Earl Granville, 
while Secretary of State, told him, that when he 
came into office he had his doubts respecting the 
certainty of deciphering. That he wrote down 
two or three sentences in the Swedish language, 
and afterwards put them into such arbitrary 


marks or characters, as his mind suggested to 
him ; that he sent the paper to Dr. Willes, who 
returned it the next day, and informed his lord- 
ship, that the characters he had sent to him 
formed certain words, which he had written be- 
neath the cipher, but that he did not understand 
the language; and Lord Granville declared, that 
the words were exactly those which he had first 
written, before he put them into cipher. 

No. II. 

How ten thousand persons may use these 
seals to all and every of the purposes afore- 
said, and yet keep their secrets from any 
but whom they please. 


As the mode of deciphering inscriptions, dates, 
&c. formed by these seals, depends on a key, 
the formation of which is arbitrary, and rest- 
ing entirely upon the fancy or ingenuity of its 
composer; it follows, that the smallest variation 
from the one originally intended for that purpose, 
will entirely destroy the effect of the proposed 

No. III. 
A cipher and character so contrived, that 


one line, without returns and circumflexes, 
stands for each and every one of the twenty- 
four letters ; and as ready to be made for 
the one letter as the other. 


Of this and the following invention, the noble 
author has left to the curious in the stenographic 
art, his own definition; a manuscript, in the 
Marquis's hand-writing, having been preserved 
in the Harkian Collection, appended to an original 
copy of the Century of Inventions, in which he 
explains the system upon which these two articles 
are founded. The MS. alluded to is thus enti- 
tled: " An Explanation of the most exact and 
most compendious way of Short-hand Writing; 
and an Example, given by way of Questions and 
Resolves upon each significant Point, proving how 
and why it stands for such and such a Letter, in 
order, alphabetically placed in every page." 
Eibl. Harl No. 2428. 

The above work is accompanied with engraved 
brass plates ; and his system, which is simple and 
easy of attainment, may be thus described: A 
sheet of paper must first be prepared, with a 
given number of horizontal rows of small octa- 
gons, somewhat resembling the chequers on a 
draft-board. Straight lines are then to be drawn 
from the centre towards the sides of these squares, 
in different positions, and of various lengths, for 
each letter in the alphabet. Thus, A is a short 
horizontal stroke, made to the right hand, and not 


touching the side ; E, A, and W, are represented 
by a similar stroke in the opposite direction, but 
varying in their lengths. By a similar method 
the author suggests, in the following article, that 
we may write with a dot, or single point only, 
placed in a given situation in the octagon ; vary- 
ing the position for each letter, as is at present 
done in music, the paper being prepared with 
ruled lines, or it may be simplified by the use of 
coloured inks for the vowels and consonants. 

No. IV. 

This invention refined, and so abbreviated, 
that a point only showeth distinctly and sig- 
nificantly any of the twenty-four letters ; 
and these very points to be made with two 
pens, so that no time will be lost, but as one 
finger riseth, the other may make the fol- 
lowing letter, never clogging the memory 
with several figures for words, and combina- 
tions of letters ; which, with ease and void 
of confusion, are thus speedily and punc- 
tually, letter for letter, set down by naked 
and not multiplied points. And nothing can 
be less than a point, the mathematical defini- 
tion of it being cujus pars nulla. And of a 


motion, equally as swift as semiquavers or 
relishes, yet applicable to this manner of 

Vide the preceding article. 

No. V. 

A way, by a circular motion, either along 
a rule or ring-wise, to vary any alphabet, 
even this of points, so that the self same 
point, individually placed, without the least 
additional mark or variation of place, shall 
stand for all the twenty-four letters, and not 
for the same letter twice in ten sheets writing ; 
yet as easily and certainly read and known, 
as if it stood but for one and the self same 
letter constantly signified. 


The gauge, in this case, must accompany the 
letter to be deciphered, and, when circular, made 
to resemble a map-meter. By noticing the number 
of lines passed over by this instrument, and com- 
paring the index-hand with the dots, a sufficiently 
intelligible though certainly complex cipher may 
be formed. 


No. VI. 

How, at a window, as far as eye can dis- 
cover black from white, a man may hold 
discourse with his correspondent, without 
noise made or noise taken ; being, accord- 
ing to occasion given and means afforded, 
ex re natd, and no need of provision before- 
hand ; though much better if foreseen, and 
means prepared for it, and a premeditated 
course taken by mutual consent of parties. 


The telegraph, though not generally used in 
Europe till the commencement of the French 
revolution, appears to have been well known to 
the ancients. Polybius describes a method of 
communication, which was invented by Cleoxe- 
nus, which answered both by day and night. 
Kircher and Scott likewise allude to its use ; but 
the description given by the Marquis is evidently 
superior to any that had preceded him; and, in- 
deed, must have nearly resembled that in use at 
the present period. 

No. VII. 

A way to do it by night as well as by day, 
though as dark as pitch is black. 



The allusion here to a telegraphic communica- 
tion is likewise sufficiently evident; though it is 
obvious that, for night signals, it will become ne- 
cessary to substitute rockets or reflecting lamps 
for the painted boards. 

Among the signs for nightly information at a 
distance, those by fire are extremely common, and 
have been used by the Chinese, Persians, and 
other nations, in the remotest times. This spe- 
cies of communication is affirmed by Diodorus 
Siculus to have been practised by Medea in her 
conspiracy with Jason, which carries us back three 
thousand and seventy years; and although there 
must be some uncertainty on this question, Pliny, 
in his " History," lib. vii. cap. 56, says, it origin- 
ated with Sinon. " Specularem significationem 
Trojano bello Sinon invenit." This was the sig- 
nal upon which Sinon agreed to unlock the wooden 
horse in the siege of Troy, about 1184 years be- 
fore Christ: 

" Flammas cum regia puppis 


Virgil. Mn. lib. ii. 256. 

And, after the taking of Troy, ,<Eschylus relates, 
that Agamemnon immediately apprized his queen, 
Clytemnestra, of that event by a similar method ; 
which, we suppose, must have been done either 
by men placed at certain distances with lighted 
torches, which they held up in succession, or by 
a considerable number of fires on the tops of hills, 
denoting the simple fact previously agreed on be- 


tween the parties. See Onosander's Strategicus, 
cap. 25, where this practice is described. 

The fire-signals of the Greeks and Romans are 
also slightly mentioned by Quintus Curtius, Livy, 
Caesar, Herodotus, Homer, and Thucydides ; 
likewise by Vegetius and Frontinus ; but still more 
in detail by Polybius and ^Eneas Tacticus ; the 
latter of whom was contemporary with Aristotle, 
and has left a valuable fragment on the duties of 
a general, (translated into Latin by Casaubon,) 
wherein are many curious remarks on the subject 
of secret correspondence. The Greek signals 
were much improved by Polybius, who, in his 
history, (lib. x. cap. 45. p. 296. torn. iii. Lips. 
1790. edit. Joh. Schweighaeuser,) attributes the 
invention to Cleomenes and Democritus, or (more 
correctly) to Cleoxenus and Democlitus, in words 
thus rendered: " Postrema ratio, cujus auctores 
sunt Cleoxenus et Democlitus, sed quam nos cor- 
reximus, certa definitaque est, adeo ut quidquid 
exortum fuerit negotii, id possis certo facere no- 
turn." Prior to that period, the information com- 
municated by torches, flags, smoke, or otherwise, 
was very limited, and it was requisite to settle 
beforehand what each signal should mean ; where- 
as Polybius showed how to correspond alphabeti- 
cally, and to give or receive any species of intel- 
ligence, without this previous concert. The plans 
of ./Eneas Tacticus had never arrived at such per- 
fection, and were therefore of comparatively small 
use; though, without doubt, he at least equalled 
any of his predecessors in the facility of his tele* 
graphic communications. 


No. VIII. 

A way how to level and shoot cannon by 
night as well as by day, and as directly, 
without a platform or measures taken by 
day, yet by a plain and infallible rule. 

No. IX. 

An engine, portable in one's pocket, which 
may be carried and fastened on the inside of 
the greatest ship, tanquam aliud agens, and, 
at any appointed minute, though a week 
after, either of day or night, it shall ir- 
recoverably sink that ship. 


To prepare this dangerous instrument, it is 
merely necessary to connect a gun-lock with a 
common bomb shell, filled in the usual manner, 
and a small clock attached; which will at any 
given time discharge the lock, and cause the shell 
to explode: the tremendous effects of which in 
the cabin or hold of a vessel may easier be con- 
ceived than described. 


No. X. 

A way, from a mile off, to dive and fasten 
a like engine to any ship, so as it may punc- 
tually work the same effect, either for time 
or execution. 


Mr. Fulton, of the United States, the inventor 
of the Torpedo, recommends the use of a gun-har- 
poon for fixing this destructive engine on the side 
of a ship ; but this plan appears liable to two objec- 
tions : the resistance that would be offered by the 
water, should the harpoon be fired from a consi- 
derable distance ; and the certainty of discovery 
from the report of the cannon, on a near approach 
to the hull of the vessel. The methods most eli- 
gible for this object appear to be, either to let the 
machine float with the tide, and by striking against 
the side of the vessel discharge a gun-lock ; or 
else, by employing a diving-bell, pass beneath the 
surface of the water. In proof of the practicability 
of the latter plan, about the time of the attack 
made by the English at Boulogne, Buonaparte 
caused a small diving vessel to be made, which, 
at a preconcerted signal, lowered its masts, yards, 
&c. ; and by admitting a certain quantity of 
water sunk it to the required depth ; it was then 
impelled forward by means of a circular paddle 
or wheel turned within the vessel, and upon the 
air becoming foul or exhausted, the vessel was 
raised to the surface by means of pumps or drop- 
ping of ballast. It appears more than probable, 
that this is the species of vessel to which the 
Marquis alludes. Hook, in his Philosophical Col- 
lections, No. 2, describes an air-vessel possessing 
similar properties with the above. 


No. XI. 

How to prevent and safeguard any ship 
from such an attempt by day or night. 


A safe and easy method of preventing the 
dreadful consequences attendant on the explosion 
of this tremendous machine, may be found in the 
use of a strong net, resembling that used in the 
salmon fishery ; which must be kept at the re- 
quired distance from the vessel by floating buoys 
placed for that purpose. It will also be necessary 
to fix a bell upon the upper extremity of each 
buoy, which will, by its ringing on a calm night, 
discover the approach of any hydrostatic vessel ; 
and should the weather be stormy, the attempt 
must end in the destruction of the sub-marine 

No. XII. 

A way to make a ship not possible to be 
sunk, though shot at an hundred times 
between wind and water by cannon, and 
should she lose a whole plank, yet, in half 
an hour's time, should be made as fit to sail 

as before. 


Provided the hull of the vessel be composed of 
a number of small divisions, similar to the life 


preservers constructed by Mr. Daniel, it will 
scarcely be possible to sink it, especially if a large 
sheet, well prepared with oakum, be drawn under 
the vessel in the event of a fracture occurring, as 
the pressure of the water on the surface of the 
vessel will force the canvass into the chasm, and 
allow of the necessary reparation. The latter 
method has been adopted in the navy for several 

No. XIII. 

How to make such false decks, as in a 
moment should kill and take prisoners as 
many as should board the ship, without 
blowing the real decks up, or destroying 
them from being reducible ; and, in a quar- 
ter of an hour's time, should recover their 
former shape, and to be made fit for any 
employment without discovering the secret. 


At about six inches from the fixed deck, and 
supported by cross beams, it will be necessary to 
raise an artificial one of thin planks, under which 
must be previously placed a number of small iron 
boxes, open at the top, and filled with powder, 
connected with each other by a train. The in- 
stant this is fired, the upper, or false deck, will 
blow up en masse, without affecting in the slightest 
degree the permanent deck beneath. 


No. XIV. 

How to bring a force to weigh up an an- 
chor, or to do any forcible exploit in the 
narrowest or lowest room in any ship, where 
few hands shall do the work of many ; and 
many hands applicable to the same force, 
some standing, others sitting, and, by virtue 
of their several helps, a great force aug- 
mented in little room, as effectual as if there 
were sufficient space to go about with an 
axle-tree, and work far from the centre. 


The application of an endless screw, or worm, 
appears the most advantageous mode of increasing 
power in a small space ; and it possesses the ad- 
ditional advantage of remaining stationary at any 
point without the assistance of the ratchet and 

No. XV. 

A way how to make a boat work itself 
against wind and tide, yea, both without the 
help of man or beast ; yet so, that the wind 
or tide, though directly opposite, shall force 
the ship or boat against itself; and in no 


point of the compass, but it shall be as effec- 
tual as if the wind were in the poop, or the 
stream actually with the course it is to steer, 
according to which the oars shall row, and 
necessary motions work and move towards 
the desired port, or point of the compass. 


A Panemore, or globular wind-mill, erected in 
the centre of a ship, has been proposed for the 
turning of two wheels or paddles, placed on the 
bows, which would thus impel the vessel forward 
in any required direction. The panemore, which 
was invented by M. Desquinemare, consists of a 
kind of globe placed on the top of a mast, on 
which it always turns round with the wind. In 
consequence of the ingenious adjustment of the 
curves which it presents in all its points, the 
rotary motion is always in the same direction, be 
that of the wind as it may ; and their utmost vio- 
lence, instead of being detrimental to its action, 
only augments its power. The means of the in- 
strument increasing in a cubical ratio when the 
wind doubles its velocity ; and by doubling the 
surface its power is increased eight- fold. 

No. XVI. 

How to make a sea-castle, or fortification, 
cannon-proof, capable of a thousand men, yet 


sailable at pleasure to defend a passage, or, 
in an hour's time, to divide itself into three 
ships, as fit and trimmed to sail as before ; 
and even whilst it is a fort or castle, they 
shall be unanimously steered, and effectually 
be driven by an indifferent strong wind. 


Scheffer, in his treatise entitled De Militid Na- 
vali, describes a vessel of a somewhat similar 
construction : it was composed of four floating 
tanks, or parts of vessels, which could at pleasure 
be joined together by means of bolts. Bomb- 
proof batteries of prodigious force were used by 
the Spaniards in their attack on Gibraltar, in 1782. 
Their upper decks were at an angle of about 
forty-five degrees, and composed of successive 
layers of oak-planking and raw hides. These 
offered an irresistible barrier to the shot and 
shells commonly used, till General Elliot decided 
on the application of red-hot balls, which, by 
burning a passage through the outer layers, 
quickly communicated to that part of the hold 
used as a depository for powder, &c., and the 
consequence was, the entire destruction of this 
immense flotilla. 

No. XVII. 

How to make upon the Thames a floating 
garden of pleasure, with trees, flowers, ban- 


queting-houses, and fountains, stews for all 
kind of fishes, a reserve for snow to keep 
wine in, delicate bathing places, and the 
like ; with music made by mills ; and all in 
the midst of the stream, where it is most 


The most celebrated gardens of this descrip- 
tion were those made by the Mexicans on the 
great lake which surrounds the capital ; here they 
planted trees, and cultivated maize, pepper, and 
other plants necessary for their support. In pro- 
gress of time, as these floating fields grew nume- 
rous from the industry of the people, they formed 
among them gardens for flowers and other odo- 
riferous plants, which were employed in the wor- 
ship of their gods, and which served also for the 
recreation of the nobles. Every day of the year, 
at sun-rise, innumerable vessels, laden with va- 
rious kinds of flowers and herbs, cultivated on the 
water, arrived by the- canal, at the great market- 
place of the capital. 

To form their floats, they first plait or twist 
willows, with roots of marsh plants, and upon 
this foundation they place the mud and dirt which 
they draw from the bed of the lake. When the 
owner of a garden wishes to change his situation, 
to remove from a disagreeable neighbour, or to 
come nearer his own family, he gets into his 
little vessel and tows the plantation after him. 


Vide Nov. His. de Mexico par le Abbe Francesco 
Saverio Clavigero. 

The floating pleasure bath moored in the River 
Thames, near Westminster Bridge, is supported 
by empty casks; and this plan, if assisted by 
mooring-chains, may be applied to garden^ of any 
reasonable extent, even in the broadest and most 
rapid rivers. 


An artificial fountain, to be turned like 
an hpur-glass, by a child, in the twinkling 
of an eye, it yet holding great quantities 
of water, and of force sufficient to make 
snow, ice, and thunder ; with the chirping 
and singing of birds, and showing of several 
shapes and effects, usual to fountains of 


That a fountain may be made upon the prin- 
ciple of an hour-glass, and that when the upper 
division is exhausted, the lower may be elevated 
by a crank and lever, the fluid passing through 
the centre of its axis, we may easily conceive ; but 
how a fountain of water can produce snow, ice, 
thunder, and the singing of birds, is a circum- 
stance not easy to be comprehended. 


No. XIX. 

A little engine, within a coach, whereby 
a child may stop it, and secure all persons 
within it, and the coachman himself, though 
the horses be never so unruly, in full career ; 
a child being sufficiently capable to unloose 
them, in what posture soever they should 
have put themselves, turning never so short ; 
for a child can do it in the twinkling of an 


There are but few persons who will disallow the 
utility of .an invention, whose object is to prevent, 
as much as possible, the frequent and terrible ac- 
cidents which occur from the present mode of 
attaching horses to carriages, and other vehicles ; 
that these might in a great measure be avoided, 
by the application of the Marquis's invention, and 
a legislative enactment to secure its adoption, there 
can be no doubt. 

To accomplish this very desirable object, a bar, 
of equal length with the axle-tree, to which is 
fixed the pole and traces ; must be furnished with 
three iron bolts made to fit a like number of soc- 
kets in the axle-tree ; and from which, the addi- 
tional bar may be readily raised, by the application 
of a common lever : either by the pressure of the 
driver's foot, or by a string made to communicate 
with the body of the vehicle. For a chaise the 


apparatus will be no less simple, with the ex- 
ception of a small resting bar, or foot, which it 
will be necessary to discharge by the same lever 
which sets at liberty the horse, and' by this means 
prevent the sudden jerk, that must otherwise occur 
in a two wheeled carriage. 

No. XX. 

How to bring up water balance-wise, so 
that as little weight or force as will turn a 
balance, will be only needful, more than the 
weight of the water within the buckets, which 
counterpoise and empty themselves one into 
the other, the uppermost yielding its water 
(how great a quantity soever it holds) at the 
same time when the lowermost taketh it in, 
though it be an hundred fathom high. 


An engine answering the above description may 
be composed of a series of ladles or buckets, the 
handles of which being hollow will admit a passage 
for the water by elevating the bucket end. A 
number of these, sufficient for the required height, 
must be fastened in a frame ; each ladle being sus- 
pended by a fulcrum so balanced that when filled with 
water, they may remain in equilibrio. The whole of 
the buckets thus constructed may be connected by 


rods passing from the top of the machine to the 
lowest handle, and the continued series so placed, 
that the handle of the one bucket will empty itself 
into the reservoir of the succeeding one, so that 
by alternately raising and depressing the rods the 
water is raised to the top of the machine. 

No. XXI. 

How to raise water constantly with two 
buckets only, day and night, without any 
other force than its own motion, using not 
so much as any force, wheel, or sucker, nor 
more pullies than one, on which the cord or 
chain rolleth, with a bucket at each end. 
This, I confess, I have seen and learned of 
the great mathematician Clavius's Studies 
at Rome, he having made a present thereof 
unto a cardinal; and I desire not to own 
any other man's inventions; but if I set 
down any, to nominate likewise the inventor. 


The construction of an hydraulic engine with 
powers nearly similar to this, may be thus de- 
scribed : two buckets of unequal size must be first 
suspended by a flexible chain turning on a double 


roller or pulley; so that one bucket will be ele- 
vated to the required height, while the other reaches 
the level of the water to be raised ; a small stream 
of water must then be made to communicate with 
the largest bucket, which will speedily be depressed 
and descend to the lower level, while the opposite 
bucket will discharge its contents into a cistern or 
reservoir at the top of the machine : the larger 
bucket being likewise emptied by striking against 
a projecting beam placed there for that purpose. 

Mr. Sarjeant has described a very simple and 
powerful machine for raising water, nearly similar 
in point of principle to the above. An engraving 
of Mr. S.'s engine, together with an account of its 
construction, is inserted in the Trans, of the Soc. 
of Arts, vol. xix. p. 255. 

No. XXII. 

To make a river in a garden ebb and flow 
constantly, though twenty foot over, with a 
child's force, in some private room, or place 
out of sight, and a competent distance from 


The very ingenious canal lock lately invented 
by Peter Bogaerts, Esq., appears fully calculated 
for effecting this object. In this lock, which from 
its simplicity is no less useful than economical, a 
small portion of water is made to assist in dis- 
placing several tons of that element, and there is na 


doubt but a child's force would raise double the 
quantity of water described by the Marquis. In 
the model lately exhibited, a weight of seven 
pounds was made to raise 1 cwt. of water more 
than four feet in a few seconds. 


To set a clock as within a castle, the water 
filling the trenches about it; which shall 
show, by ebbing and flowing, the hours, 
minutes, and secotids, and all the compre- 
hensible motions of the heavens, and coun- 
terlibration of the earth, according to Co- 


A tide-mill was several years back exhibited 
in the Museum of that very ingenious mechanic, 
Mr. G. J. Hawkins ; and a similar prime mover has 
been suggested for the purpose of winding a clock 
for a bell signal station on the Northern coast of 
England. An astronomical machine as described 
by the Marquis, must be provided with two barrels, 
each possessing a maintaining power sufficient for 
the correct performance of the whole. In addition 
to the line that supports the weight, or maintain- 
ing power, each barrel must be provided with a 
revolving pulley resembling those used for old 
thirty-hour clocks ; with chains passing over their 


axis ; and the chains being attached to large floats 
of wood will be alternately raised or depressed by 
the ebbing and flowing of the tide ; and thus in 
succession wind up the weights which form the 
maintaining power of the clock. The clepsydrse, 
or hydraulic clock, was in general use among the 
ancients, and a stream of water was frequently 
employed to give motion to planetary machines. 

No. XXIV. 

How to increase the strength of a spring 
to such a degree as to shoot bombasses 
and bullets of an hundred pound weight a 
steeple height, and a quarter of a mile off 
and more, stone bow-wise, admirable for 
fire-works and astonishing of besieged cities, 
when, without warning given by noise, they 
find themselves so forcibly and dangerously 


The strength of a compound spring formed of 
two metals may, by the application of heat, be 
increased to any given power. Rationale. Iron 
possessing an expansive power of -g 1 ^-, and brass 
being only g^, the weaker metal will be bent by 
that whose power of expansion is greater, and the 
impulse of the spring increased in an equal ratio. 


No. XXV. 

How to make a weight, that cannot take 
up an hundred pound, and yet shall take up 
two hundred pounds, and at the self same 
distance from the centre; and so, propor- 
tionably, to millions of pounds. 


This is indeed paradoxical, and so completely 
contrary to every established principle or rule in 
science, that we may fairly set it down among the 
number of those inventions which, by partaking 
so highly of the marvellous, have contributed to 
bring the whole Century into disrepute. 

No. XXVI. 

To raise a weight so well and as forcibly 
with the drawing back of the lever, as with 
the thrusting it forwards ; and by that means 
to lose no time in motion or strength. This 
I saw in the arsenal at Venice. 


The mere application of a crank, such as is used 
for the foot-lathe, acting upon a drum and fly- 


wheel, with a chain attached to move a second 
lever or upright sliding bar, will fully effect the 
object here described. 


A way to remove to and fro huge weights, 
with a most inconsiderable strength, from 
place to place. For example : ten ton with 
ten pounds, and less ; the said ten pounds 
not to fall lower than it makes the ten ton 
to advance or retreat upon a level. 


A weight attached to an ordinary crane may be 
moved with the utmost facility; and it is well 
known that the employment of friction wheels 
furnishes a ready medium of conveyance for masses 
of iron and stone of the greatest magnitude. 


A bridge, portable upon a cart, with six 
horses, which, in a few hours' time, may be 
placed over a river half a mile broad, where- 
on, with much expedition, may be trans- 
ported, horse, foot, and cannon. 



A portable bridge, or rather ferry boat, calcu- 
lated for crossing wide and deep rivers, was fre- 
quently employed in ancient warfare, and is still 
used for the conveyance of horses and passengers 
in many parts of Europe. The apparatus for this 
purpose may readily be attached .to the banks of 
the most rapid river, as it merely consists in the 
employment of. two ropes or wires, tightened by 
means of a winch, on which slide pullies connected 
with a large floating tank or waggon, that is after- 
wards intended to be employed as a medium of 
conveyance. The apparatus being thus prepared, 
a communication may readily be opened by means 
of two cords between the opposite banks of the 

No. XXIX. 

A portable fortification, able to contain 
five hundred fighting men, and yet, in six 
hours' time, may be set up and made cannon 
proof, upon the side of a river or pass, with 
cannon mounted upon it, and as complete as 
a regular fortification, with half-moons and 



It is difficult to attempt an elucidation of this 
or the following articles ; but the annexed extract 
from the General Evening Post for 1747 appears 
to throw some light on No. XXX. 

" On the llth instant, Mr. James Allis was 
presented to the Royal Society, with a new invented 
cannon, which charges and discharges both at one 
time, and twenty times in a minute : he had their 
thanks, and a handsome present." 

No. XXX. 

A way, in one night's time, to raise a bul- 
wark, twenty or thirty foot high, cannon 
proof, and cannon mounted upon it ; with 
men to overlook, command and batter a 
town ; for, though it contain but four pieces, 
they shall be able to discharge two hundred 
bullets each hour. 


Vide the preceding Article. 

Since writing the above, the Editor has been 
called to witness the effects of highly elastic vapour 
applied to the propelling of leaden bullets, in an 
apparatus contrived by Mr. Perkins ; arid these 
destructive missile engines are capable of dis- 


charging nearly two hundred bullets, in one six- 
tieth part of- the time described by our author in 
the present Article. 

No. XXXI. 

A way how safely and speedily to make 
an approach to a castle or town-wall, and 
over the very ditch, at noon-day. 


A wheel carriage, of sufficient strength to sup- 
port an heavy iron tower, must first be provided. 
It may be constructed of thick wrought iron, with 
door, &c., of the same material, and hung round 
with sand-bags, through the interstices of which 
may project from six to eight small guns to protect 
it from musquetry. The most eligible method of 
moving the tower appears to be by fixing small 
handles to the axles of the wheels, which may be 
turned at pleasure by those within the walls. To 
prevent any attempt of the enemy w T ho may sally 
forth to drag the machine within the walls of the 
town, c., it will be adviseable to arm the wheels 
with long steel studs, which, when the handles are 
fastened within, will render it immoveable. 

This tower, though but of little use in modern 
warfare, appears well adapted for reconnoitring 
the walls of a fortified town, and, if fixed upon a 
hollow iron vessel, will possess the further advan- 
tage of crossing rivers and moats. Nearly similar 
machines are described by Vitruvius, and other 
authors who treat on military engineering. 



How to compose an universal character, 
methodical and easy to be written, yet intel- 
ligible in any language ; so that if an Eng- 
lishman write it in English, a Frenchman, 
Italian, Spaniard, Irish or Welchman, being 
scholars, yea, Grecian or Hebritian, shall as 
perfectly understand it in their own tongue 
as if they were English, distinguishing the 
verbs from the nouns, the numbers, tenses, 
and cases, as properly expressed in their own 
language as it was written in English. 


The great difficulty which the .various con- 
trivers of a universal character or philosophical 
language have hitherto had to encounter, from the 
Marquis of Worcester and Bishop Wilkins down 
to M. Lodowick, appears to have arisen rather 
from the difficulty attendant on engaging the 
several nations to use it, than in inventing the 
most convenient character. 

The real character of Bishop Wilkins, which 
there is every reason to suppose strongly resem- 
bled that of his contemporary the Marquis, was 
repeatedly recommended by Dr. Hook, who, to 
engage the world in the study of it, published 


some curious inventions of his own, tending to its 
illustration. But the most accurate notice on the 
history of pasigraphy yet published appeared in 
the Sped, du Nord for May, 1798. The anony- 
mous author of this interesting memoir commences 
by a brief inquiry into the nature and utility of the 
universal character, and then proceeds with this very 
just eulogium on our immortal countryman Bacon. 
It is generally allowed that Lord Bacon of Ve- 
rulam comprehended nearly the whole circle of 
human knowledge at the period in which he lived, 
and foresaw most of the discoveries which have 
since been made. He laid the foundation of an 
Encyclopaedia, and was very near discovering vari- 
ous important philosophical results, such as the 
weight of the air, &c. If we open his book on the 
progress of the sciences, we shall find the notion 
of a pasigraphy in the chapter entitled The Instru- 
ment of Discourse. " It is possible to invent such 
signs," says he, " for the communication of our 
thoughts, that people of different languages may, 
by this means, understand each other ; and that 
each may read immediately in his own language, a 
book which shall be written in another." But Bacon 
di(J not think of confining this to twelve charac- 
ters : on the contrary, he requires a great number, 
at least as many as the number of radical words ; 
on which head he quotes the example of the Chi- 
nese ; " and although," adds he, " our alphabet 
may appear more commodious than this method 
of w y riting, the thing itself nevertheless is well 
deserving of attention. The problem relates to 
the signs by which thoughts may be rendered 
current ; and, as money may be struck of other 



materials as well as gold and silver, it is possible 
likewise to discover other signs of things as well 
as letters and words." 

Des Cartes, in his third letter to father Mer- 
cennus, discusses the invention of a Frenchman, 
whom he does not name, but who, by means of a 
certain language and an artificial writing, pretended 
to understand all the different idioms. He re- 
marks on this subject, that it would be very pos- 
sible to compose a short and convenient grammar, 
with general signs, which should render all foreign 
languages intelligible. 

In the year 1661, John Joachim Becher pub- 
lished a Latin folio, the title of which was " Cha- 
racters for the Universal Knowledge of Languages : 
a Stenographic Invention hitherto unheard of." 
This unheard of invention consists of a method by 
which a native of any country may make himself 
understood by all foreigners by writing in his own 
language, and be enabled also to comprehend what 
they write in theirs. It was truly at that time a 
thing unheard of; for Becher, being the first who 
had given a complete treatise on this art, may be 
considered as the inventor.* 

He begins his work by a series of highly inte- 
resting observations upon general grammar, and 
the fundamental relations of all languages with 
regard to each other. He gives a learned com- 
parative table of the relations and harmony of the 
Latin, the Greek, the Hebrew, the Arabian, the 
Sclavonian, the French, and the German. This 
work cannot be too highly esteemed, and assuredly 
was not unknown to the author of the work Du 
Monde Primitif. A Latin dictionary then follows, 
in which every word corresponds with one or 


more Arabic numeral figures arbitrarily taken. 
Every number is assumed as distinctive, or de- 
noting the same word in all languages ; and con- 
sequently nothing more is required than to com- 
pose a dictionary for each, similar to that which 
he has given for the Latin. 

There is likewise a table of declensions and 
conjugations, which presents certain determinate 
numbers for all the cases, moods, tenses, or per- 
sons. By means of this general disposition, when 
a Frenchman is desirous of writing to a German 
the following phrase, La guerre est un grand mal 
(war is a great evil), he seeks in his index, guerre, 
etre, grand, mal ; and he writes the correspondent 

13, 33, 67, 68. 

The sentence might be understood by these four 
characteristic numbers ; but, to leave no room for 
ambiguity, he says, Guerre is the nominative case, 
and finds, as the characteristic of the nominative, 
the Arabic figure 1 . Est is the third person sin- 
gular of the indicative mood, present tense, of 
which the characteristic is 15. To grand, and to 
mal, belong likewise the figure 1, for the nomina- 
tive case ; he will therefore write 

13.1 | 33.15 ! 67.1 | 68.1 | 

where the numbers are separated by small vertical 
bars to prevent confusion. It may easily be con- 
ceived how, by the inverse method, the German 
will find in his tables the words denoted by the 
ciphers, which will form Der krieg ist em grosses 

This invention of Becher, which is the same 
thing nearly with regard to language, as algebra 


is to arithmetic, is possessed of considerable sim- 
plicity, and even a few hours practice will render 
it easy. A great variety of attempts on this prin- 
ciple may be found in Sturmius, Essais d' Experi- 
ences Curieuses. 

In the same year, George Dalgaru, an English- 
man, published in London a work of which the 
prolix title is sufficient to show its object. It runs 
thus, " The Art of Signs, or an Universal Character 
and Philosophical Language, by Means of which, 
Men of the most different Idioms may, in the 
Space of two Weeks, learn to communicate, whe- 
ther by Word of Mouth or by Writing, all their 
Thoughts, as clearly as in their Mother Tongue. 
Besides which, young Persons may therein learn 
the Principles of Philosophy, and the Practice of 
true Logic, more speedily and more readily than 
in the ordinary philosophic Writings." The book 
of Dalgaru is written in Latin, and Beckman 
accuses him of extreme pedantry. His characters 
likewise were ciphers. 

Joachim Frisichius, professor at the Gymnasium 
at Riga, was employed on a similar attempt, 
his object being to introduce a natural, rational, 
and universal language, of which some sheets 
printed at Thorn in 1681 contain the only speci- 
men extant. The death of the author interrupted 
his labours. He purposed to call his new lan- 
guage Ludovicean, in honour of Louis XIV., under 
whose patronage he pursued his labours ; a prince 
whose generosity was extended to the learned of 
all countries. 

Athanasius Kircher also published a work on 
this subject, entitled " A New and Universal 
Polygraphia, deduced from the Art of Combina- 


tion," and by means of which, says Morhoff, (Poly- 
histor, 1. ii. c. 5.) he who understands one language 
only may correspond in writing with all the nations 
of the earth. 

It would perhaps be unjust to pass in silence 
the little-known work of father Besnier, a Jesuit, 
who, in a book entitled La Reunion des Langues, ou 
I Art de les apprendre toutes par une seuk, printed 
at Paris in 1674, has furnished many important 
hints for the cultivation of this branch of language. 

The most remarkable work, however, which 
has been written on this subject, is that for which 
we are indebted to Bishop Wilkins, the brother- 
in-law of Cromwell : it is entitled, " An Essay 
towards a Real Character and a Philosophical Lan- 
guage, London, 1668." It is divided into four 
parts: 1st, Considerations on the various lan- 
guages, their defects and imperfections, from 
which a philosophic language ought to be exempt. 
2dly, Philosophical inquiries respecting all the 
things and notions to which proper names ought 
to be assigned. Sdly, The organic science of 
native grammar considered as the necessary means 
of representing simple ideas in discourse. 4thly, 
The application of the general rules to every cha- 
racter and language. Examples, &c. This con- 
cise outline sufficiently shows the importance of 
the work. 

In his appendix, the author explains the utility 
of a method of writing without alphabetic charac- 
ters, by means of si^ns, which are to be used to 
denote all the principal ideas, the relative attri- 
butes being designated by small strokes added at 
right, acute, or obtuse angles, to the right or left } 
&c. Of principal or chief ideas he admits but 


forty, under which he ranges all the others, by 
that means forming a series of categories. His 
new language is calculated to afford great facility 
of comprehension, and new openings to the various 
processes of science. 

After so many attempts, more or less philoso- 
phical, and of different degrees of perfection, with 
others probably of which we know nothing, we 
must not overlook the efforts of the celebrated 
Leibnitz. His History and Development of a 
Characteristic Universal Language is very gene- 
rally known. Leibnitz considered his universal 
characteristic as the art of inventing and judging. 
He stated his conviction that an alphabet might 
be formed, and of this alphabet such words as 
would afford a language capable of giving mathe- 
matical precision to all the sciences. " Men may 
thus acquire," says he, "as it were, a new organ, 
which would add energy to their moral faculties, 
as the microscopic lens increases the power of the 
eye. The compass is not more highly valuable 
to the navigator, than this philosophical language 
would be to him who embarks on the sea of reason 
and experiments, which is now so full of danger." 

In concluding this brief sketch, it may be 
enough to notice the ingenious method of the Abbe 
de 1'Epee, who, by means of various gestures, dic- 
tated to his various deaf and dumb pupils certain 
discourses, which they wrote with equal readiness 
in four languages. 


To write with a needle and thread, white, 
or any other colour, upon white, or any other 


colour, so that one stitch shall significantly 
show any letter, and as readily and as easily 
show the one letter as the other, and fit for 
any language. 

Vide Article LXXV. 


To write by a knotted silk string, so that 
every knot shall signify any letter, with comma, 
full-point, or interrogation; and as legible 
as with pen and ink upon white paper. 


This very ingenious mode of secret writing is 
the most simple of any suggested by our author. 
A silk string of considerable length having been 
provided, it will be necessary to furnish the per- 
sons corresponding with a key or graduated gauge, 
by means of which the writing will be rendered 
intelligible. Having procured a duplicate or cor- 
responding gauge it may then be commenced, 
^ of an inch being allowed for the first letter, 
^ for the second, f for the third, and so on, in 
equal proportions, through the whole alphabet. 
Should this arrangement be found to extend the 


line to an inconvenient length, it may be advisable 
to form a certain number of changes on three 
different lengths, as in No. LII. ; though the 
former way is the least difficult. 

No. XXXV. 

The like by the fringe of gloves. 


The principle of this and the four following 
Articles is the same as the preceding, with this 
difference, that in the first, the letters, or words, 
are formed by knotting the fringe, to which the 
gauge is afterwards applied; in the second, and 
most desirable way, the beads are set to the 
required distance ; by the third, the gloves are 
pierced or pricked in rows, according to the divi- 
sions on the gauge ; and by the fourth and fifth, 
the rows of parallel holes in a sieve or lantern 
are stopped at the required distances, and the 
gauge applied as before. 

By stringing of bracelets. 


By pinked gloves. 



By holes in the bottom of a sieve. 


By a lattin or candlestick lantern. 

No. XL. 

By the smelL 


Pegs of sandal, cedar, and rose woods, may be 
so varied, that a person writing in the dark will, 
by the smell, readily distinguish the formation of 
words and sentences. 

No. XLI. 

By the taste. 


For writing by the taste, it will be necessary to 
immerse an equal number of the pegs or beads in 
weak solutions of alum, aloes, common salt, or 
any other liquid whose taste is sufficiently pungent 


or aromatic, to be distinguished when dry, on ap- 
plying the tongue to them for that purpose. 

No. XLII. 

By the touch. 

By these three senses, as perfectly, dis- 
tinctly, and unconfusedly, yea, as readily as 
by the sight. 


This object may be readily attained by the use 
of raised moveable types and the heavy pressure 
of an iron pen or mallet. 

A mode of corresponding by the touch has been 
suggested by M. Haiiy, and by this means the 
blind have been fully instructed, not only in the 
rudiments of language, but also in the liberal arts 
and sciences. M. Haiiy's method of preparing 
the books, &c., which is simple and easy of attain- 
ment, is as follows : when the types have been 
arranged and fixed, a page of very strong paper is 
moistened, so as to be capable of receiving and 
retaining impressions, and laid upon the types; 
and then by the operation of a press or hammer, 
frequently repeated over the surface, the impres- 
sion of the type is made to rise on the opposite 
side of the paper ; and it continues, when dry, not 
only " obvious to the sight," but to the touch, and is 
not easily effaced. On the upper side of the paper, 


the letters appear in their proper position ; and 
by their sensible elevation above the common sur- 
face, the blind may easily read them with their 
fingers. For epistolary correspondence it will be 
necessary to moisten the paper and use a metal 


How to vary each of these, so that ten 
thousand may know them, and yet keep the 
understanding part from any but their cor- 


This may be effected by changing the order 
of their arrangement, which can only be ascer- 
tained by a previous examination of a key chosen 
for that purpose. 

No. XLIV. 

To make a key of a chamber door, which 
to your sight hath its wards and rose-pipe 
but paper thick, and yet at pleasure, in a 
minute of an hour, shall become a perfect 
pistol, capable to shoot through a breast- 
plate, commonly of carabine proof, with 
prime, powder, and fire-lock, undiscoverable 
in a stranger's hand. 



The rose-pipe must in this case be formed like 
the sliding tubes of a telescope ; that next the 
wards being furnished with a screw at the inner 
and capable of holding the whole of them toge- 
ther. A small quantity of detonating powder 
being first placed within, the pipe may be readily 
discharged by tightening of the screw. 

No. XLV. 

How to light a fire and a candle, at what 
hour of the night one awaketh, without 
rising or putting one's hand out of bed. 
And the same thing to be a serviceable pistol 
at pleasure ; yet, by a stranger, not knowing 
the secret, seemeth but a dexterous tinder- 


The pistol tinder-box may readily be made to 
perform the whole of what is here described. A 
bell rope attached to the trigger will suffice to 
elicit fire, which, communicating with a quick-match 
or fusee, will quickly ignite and produce the re- 
quired light. If the fire is previously prepared 
with wood or some other combustible material, and 
a small quantity of inflammable spirits sprinkled 
over it, the slightest spark will throw the whole 
into a blaze. For the latter qualification men- 


tioned by the noble author, a pistol barrel may 
easily be secreted under the tinder. 

The inflammable air-lamp contrived by Volta 
possesses similar properties : a stream of hydrogen 
gas being inflamed by the spark from an electro- 
phorus. Vide Brande's Manual of Chemistry, vol. i. 
p. 240. 

No. XLVI. 

How to make an artificial bird to fly which 
way and as long as one pleaseth, by or against 
the wind, sometimes chirping, other times 
hovering, still tending the way it is designed 


In the year 1810, two birds were exhibited at 
the museum of the late Mr. Merlin; these per- 
formed nearly all the evolutions described by the 
Author : with this exception, however, that they 
were supported by fine wires ; and a similar bird 
was exhibited in London in the year 1786. Vide 
llth Art. in the Century. 


To make a ball of any metal, which, thrown 
into a pool or pail of water, shall presently 
rise from the bottom, and constantly show, 


by the superficies of the water, the hour of 
the day or night, never rising more out of the 
water than just to the minute it showeth of 
each quarter of the hour ; and if by force 
kept under water, yet the time is not lost, 
but recovered as soon as it is permitted to 
rise to the surface of the water. 


A metal ball graduated on the surface, in the 
same manner as the index stem to an hydrometer, 
with a balance to preserve its equilibrium, must 
first be exhausted of air, which being effected, the 
water may be allowed to enter by a small aperture, 
and it will gradually sink till the vessel is filled : 
this, if the ball is about 1 2 inches in diameter and 
the aperture of a proportionate size, will not take 
place in less than twelve hours. 


A screwed ascent, instead of stairs, with 
fit landing places to the best chambers of 
each story, with back stairs within the noel 
of it, convenient for servants to pass up and 
down to the inward rooms of them, unseen 
and private. 



It is most probable that the Marquis here al- 
ludes to the geometrical staircase now in such 
general use, with the addition of a small flight of 
stairs in the centre, in lieu of the common handrail, 
which being surrounded by a partition of boards, 
would readily serve as a private communication 
with the upper stories : sufficient space being left 
between the ceiling and under side of the principal 
staircase to admit of a passage to the inner rooms. 
Since writing the above, the Editor has seen a more 
explicit account of this species of staircase. It oc- 
curs in " Evelin's Memoirs," vol. i. page 59, and 
forms part of that learned and amusing author's 
tour through France in 1644. The following is 
an extract. " Quitting our barke, we hired horses 
to Blois, by way of Chambourg, a famous house 
of y e King's, built by Francis I. in the middle of 
a solitary parke, full of deere ; the enclosure is a 
wall. I was particularly desirous of seeing this 
palace, from the extravagance of the design, espe- 
cially the stayrecase, mentioned by Palladio. It is 
said that 1800 workmen were constantly employed 
in this fabric for twelve yeares ; if so, it is won- 
derfull that it was not finish'd, it being no greater 
than divers gentlemen's houses in England, both 
for roome or circuit. The carvings are very rich 
and full. The stayrecase is devised w th four en- 
tries or ascents, which cross one another, so that 
though four persons meete, they never come in 
sight, but by small loope-holes, till they land. 
It consists of 274 steps (as I remember), and 


is an extraordinary worke, but of far greater ex- 
pense than use or beauty." 

No. XLIX. 

A portable engine, in way of a tobacco- 
tongs, whereby a man may get over a wall, 
or get up again, being come down, finding 
the coast proveth insecure for him. 


It is not very easy to discover to what the noble 
author here alludes : if by tobacco-tongs, he means 
a combination of levers such as is used by gardeners, 
to gather choice fruit or lop the upper boughs of 
trees, the mode of applying them is extremely 
easy. A number of short pieces of brass, jointed 
together, and made to resemble a row of trellis 
work, may, by distending the joints in an hori- 
zontal direction, be made to go in the smallest 
compass ; and again, by closing the arms, the 
machine will be elevated. An ingenious mechanic 
has constructed a Jire-escape upon this principle, 
of which a model is preserved in the Museum of 
the Society for the Encouragement of Arts, &c. t 

No. L. 

A complete light portable ladder, which 
taken out of one's pocket, may be by himself 


fastened an hundred feet high to get up by 
from the ground. 


A number of light brass tubes, each having a 
socket to receive the end of the preceding joint, 
may be raised to any given height, and with the 
assistance of small loops of cord will fully answer 
the purpose here described. It will be necessary 
to have a small stud at one end of each joint, with 
a narrow slit at the end of the following tube to 
receive it, which being carried on in a right angle 
for about twice its width, will on being turned 
round serve as a key to prevent the joints sepa- 

No. LI. 

A rule of gradation, which, with ease and 
method, reduceth all things to a private 
correspondence, most useful for secret intel- 


Vide Article V. 

No. LIL 

How to signify words, and a perfect dis- 
course, by jangling of bells of any parish 


church, or by any musical instrument within 
hearing, in a seeming way of tuning it, or 
of an unskilful beginner. 


By varying the order of arrangement, the whole 
alphabet may readily be rung on three bells ; and 
these, being formed into sentences by short pauses 
between each word, will fully serve for distant 
conversation. For musical instruments, it is 
merely changing keys for bells, and the same 
purpose may be answered without the trouble of 
forming changes upon so small a number of fixed 
tones. A table is subjoined, by the use of which 
a combination of three bells is made to express 
the whole alphabet : 

A represented by 111 O represented by 222 

B ..... 112 P 223 

C 113 Q 231 

D 121 R 232 

E ..... 122 S 233 

F 123 T 311 

G 131 V 312 

H 132 U 313 

I 133 W 321 

K . . . 211 X 322 

L 212 Y 323 

M 213 Z 333 

N . 221 


No. LIII. 

A way how to make hollow and cover a 
water-screw, as big and as long as one pleas- 
eth, in an easy and cheap way, 


A leathern water-pipe, such as is used by the 
firemen, being nailed in a spiral form round a 
long circular pole, is the cheapest and most sim- 
ple method yet discovered of making the Archi- 
medean screw. 

No. LIV. 

How to make a water-screw tight, and 
yet transparent, and free from breaking; 
but so clear, that one may palpably see the 
water, or any heavy thing, how and why it 
is mounted by turning. 


This may be readily effected either by making 
a coarse screw in the usual manner, and covering 
it with horn, or by fitting a spiral tube of glass on 
a wooden cylinder, and filling up the interstices 
with wax or any hard cement so as to project 


beyond the glass tube : this appears the most 
eligible method, though the former is the most 

M. A. Rochon has likewise proposed a most 
ingenious substitute for the use of horn in the 
construction of the Archimedean screw, and other 
hydraulic instruments. It is formed (like the 
safety lamp of Sir H. Davy) of a coarse wire 
gauze which, on being immersed in pure fish- 
glue or size, forms when varnished a cheap and 
durable substitute for the use of glass. 

No. LV. 

A double water-screw, the innermost to 
mount the water, and the outermost for it 
to descend more in number of threads, and 
.consequently in quantity of water, though 
much shorter than the innermost screw, by 
which the water ascendeth, a most extra- 
ordinary help for the turning of the screw 
to make the water rise. 


This appears one of those extraordinary slight 
of hand discoveries in which the noble author is 
too apt to indulge ; and though we may readily 
admit that two water-screws may be most ad- 
vantageously employed in turning of any water- 



wheel, where an abundant supply is found at the 
top of the machine, it yet requires a greater share 
of penetration than we choose to take credit for, to 
discover how a larger quantity of water can de- 
scend than has been previously raised, or, if so, 
how the machine could be at all applied to the 
raising of water. 

No. LVI. 

To provide and make, that all the weights 
of the descending side of a wheel shall be 
perpetually farther from the centre than 
those of the mounting side, and yet equal 
in number and heft of the one side as the 
other. A most incredible thing, if not seen, 
but tried before the late king of happy and 
glorious memory, in the Tower, by my di- 
rections ; two extraordinary ambassadors 
accompanying his Majesty, and the Duke 
of Richmond, and Duke Hamilton, with 
most of the court attending him. The 
wheel was fourteen feet over, and forty 
weights of fifty pounds a-piece. Sir Wil- 
liam Belford, then Lieutenant of the Tower, 
can testify it, with several others. They all 
saw, that no sooner these great weights 


passed the diameter line of the upper side, 
but they hung a foot farther from the centre ; 
nor no sooner passed the diameter line of 
the lower side, but they hung a foot nearer. 
Be pleased to judge the consequence. 


The celebrated problem of a self-impelling 
power, though denied by Huygens and de la Hire, 
who have attempted to demonstrate its fallacy, 
has yet been supported by some of the most cele- 
brated among the ancient as well as modern phi- 
losophers. Innumerable have been the machines 
to which the idea of the perpetual motion has given 
birth ; but the most celebrated among the mo- 
derns is the Orffyrean wheel. This machine, ac- 
cording to the description given of it by M. 
Grsevesande, in his (Eiwres Philosophiqucs, con- 
sisted of a large circular wheel or drum, twelve 
feet in diameter, and fourteen inches in depth. 
It was composed of a number of thin deals, the 
spaces between which were covered with wax 
eloth, in order to conceal the interior parts of it. 
On giving the wheel, which rested on the two 
extremities of an iron axis, a slight impulse in 
either direction, its motion was gradually accele- 
rated ; so that after two or three revolutions it is 
said to have acquired so great a velocity as to 
make twenty-five or more turns in a minute : and 
it appears to have preserved this rapid motion 
for the space of two months, during which time 
the Landgrave of Hesse, in whose chamber 


it was placed to prevent a possibility of collu- 
sion, kept his own seal on the outer door. At 
the end of that time it was stopped to prevent 
the wear of the materials. Grsevesande, who 
had been an eye-witness to the performance of 
this machine, examined all the external parts 
of it, and was convinced that there could not be 
any communication between it and the adjacent 
rooms. Orftyreus, however, having been in- 
formed of the ill-timed curiosity of the professor, 
and incensed at the refusal of a premium of twenty 
thousand pounds, which he had made a sine qad 
non for disclosing the mechanism of its construc- 
tion, broke the whole apparatus into atoms, and 
his life was soon after sacrificed to chagrin at his 
disappointment. The analogy between the Mar- 
quis's description and the Orffyrean wheel is 
sufficiently evident ; and the experiment having 
been made in the "Tower, more than fifty years 
prior to the attempt of the German mechanic, it 
is more than probable that the idea was derived 
from the noble author's work. 

No. LVII. 

An ebbing and flowing water-work in 
two vessels, into either of which, the water 
standing at a level, if a globe be cast in, 
instead of rising, it presently ebbeth, and so 
remaineth, until a like globe be cast into the 
other vessel, which the water is no sooner 


sensible of, but that the vessel presently 
ebbeth, and the other floweth, and so con- 
tinueth ebbing and flowing, until one or both 
the globes be taken out, working some little 
effect besides its own motion, without the 
help of any man within sight or hearing : 
but if either of the globes be taken out, 
with ever so swift or easy a motion, at that 
instant the ebbing and flowing ceaseth ; for 
if, during the ebbing, you take out the 
globe, the water of that vessel presently 
returneth to flow, and never ebbeth after, 
until the globe be returned into it, and then 
the motion beginneth as before. 


This invention, which is evidently more a mat- 
ter of curiosity than of real utility, is no doubt 
effected upon the principle of an ebbing and flow- 
ing spring ; the throwing in of the ball, by causing 
a commensurate rise of the water, fills a syphon, 
and sets the water-work in motion, but as the 
effect of this would cease after the two vessels 
attained an equilibrium, the machine must be 
assisted by a moving power attached to one or 
both of the vessels, as the Marquis merely says, 
that it may be performed " without the help of 
any man wit kin sight or hearing" 



How to make a pistol to discharge a dozen 
times with one loading, and without so much 
as once new priming requisite ; or to change 
it out of one hand into the other, or stop 
one's horse 


An attentive examination of this and the sub- 
sequent articles has suggested what appears an 
improvement of considerable importance in the 
principle of modern fire-arms. The expense at- 
tendant on the manufacture of double barrelled, 
guns, and the inconvenience which arises from 
their additional weight, have hitherto prevented 
their coming into general use, though their utility in 
the field is very generally allowed. An economi- 
cal gun uniting all the advantages of the one, 
with the lightness and portability of the other, 
must therefore be considered as a desideratum of 
the first importance. To effect this, a common 
gun barrel must be pierced with the required num- 
ber of touchholes, at a sufficient distance to allow 
of an equal number of charges. A detonating 
magazine guulock may then be made to slide on 
the lower part of the barrel, with a parallel rat- 
chet and click to fix precisely opposite the touch- 
hole to be inflamed. The gun must then be 
loaded by a graduated ramrod, the powder of 
each charge being brought opposite its proper 


touchhole. After the first discharge, the cock 
must be moved back one tooth of the ratchet, 
and this motion continued till the whole are ex- 
ploded, each hole being covered successively by 
a plate attached to the lock. 

No. 60 is evidently performed by filling a cy- 
lindrical flask, made the same size as the barrel, 
with the required number of charges and after- 
wards forcing the whole of them into the barrel. 

Nos. 61 and 67 may be performed by filling 
a flask previously made to fit the breech of the 
musket, and forcing forward each successive 
charge by a screw or lever, in the same manner 
as the charging is effected in a magazine air-gun. 

No. LIX. 

Another way, as fast and effectual, but 
more proper for carabines. 

Fide Article LVIII. 

No. LX. 

A way, with a flask appropriated unto it, 
which will furnish either pistol or carabine 
with a dozen charges in three minutes' time, 
to do the whole execution of a dozen shots, 
as soon as one pleaseth, proportionably. 

Vide Article LVIII. 


No. LXI. 

A third way, and particularly for mus- 
kets, without taking them from their rests 
to charge or prime, to a like execution, and 
as fast as the flask, the musket containing 
but one charge at a time. 

Fide Article LVIII. 

No. LXII. 

A way for a harquebuss, a crock, or ship 
musket, six upon a carriage, shooting with 
such expedition, as, without danger, one 
may charge, level, and discharge them sixty 
times in a minute of an hour, two or three 

Vide Article LVIII. 


A sixth way, most excellent for sakers T 
differing from the other, yet as swift. 

Vide Article LVIII. 


No. LXIV. 

A seventh, tried and approved before the 
late king (of ever blessed memory), and an 
hundred lords and commons, in a cannon of 
eight inches and half a quarter, to shoot 
bullets of sixty- four pounds weight, and 
twenty-four pounds of powder, twenty times 
in six minutes ; so clear from danger, that, 
after all were discharged, a pound of butter 
did not melt, being laid upon the cannon 
britch, nor the green oil discoloured that 
was first anointed and used between the 
barrel thereof, and the engine having never 
in it, nor within six foot, but one charge at 
a time* 

Vide Article XXIX, 

No. LXV. 

A way that one man, in the cabin, may 
govern a whole side of ship muskets, to the 
number (if need require) of two or three 
thousand shots. 



The plan of this and the following Articles, 
though not of much practical utility, may yet be 
acted upon with a certainty of success. The pow- 
der may be ignited by the means of a powerful 
electrifying machine made to communicate with 
each separate piece, and the charging must be 
performed by conducting wires or rods made to 
act upon the magazine lever described in Article 

Since writing the above, an article has appeared 
on the subject in one of the French Journals, of 
which the following is a translation : At two 
o'clock in the afternoon M. Bouche made an ex- 
periment in the Jardin des Plantes at Paris, to try 
the effect of electricity applied to gun batteries. 
Instead of guns he had fixed about one hundred 
rockets on long sticks, disposed in the garden. 
The rockets were all connected by an iron wire, 
and the same spark produced a spontaneous ex- 
plosion. The concourse of people was very great, 
the weather being remarkably fine. This new 
invention is not intended to increase the destruc- 
tive powers of those formidable weapons ; but it 
is expected to afford the means of using them 
without exposing gunners to the fire of the enemy. 

No. LXVI. 

A way, that against the several avenues 
to a fort or castle, one man may charge fifty 


cannons, playing and stopping when he 
pleaseth, though out of sight of the cannon, 

Vide last Article. 


A rare way likewise for muskettoons, fast- 
ened to the pommel of the saddle, so that 
a common trooper cannot miss to charge 
them, with twenty or thirty bullets at a time, 
even in full career. 


When first I gave my thoughts to make guns 
shoot often, I thought there had been but one 
only exquisite way inventible ; yet, by several 
trials, and much charge, I have perfectly tried 
all these. 


An admirable and most forcible way to 
drive up water by fire, not by drawing or 
sucking it upwards, for that must be, as the 
philosopher calleth it, infra sphceram ac- 
tivitatis, which is but at such a distance* 


But this way hath no bounder, if the vessels 
be strong enough ; for, I have taken a piece 
of a whole cannon, whereof the end was 
burst, and filled it three-quarters full, stop- 
ping and screwing up the broken end, as 
also the touchhole ; and making a constant 
fire under it, within twenty-four hours it 
burst and made a great crack : so that hav- 
ing found a way to make my vessels, so that 
they are strengthened by the force within 
them, and the one to fill after the other, 
have seen the water run like a constant foun- 
tain stream, forty feet high ; one vessel of 
water, rarefied by fire, driveth up forty of 
cold water : and a man that tends the work 
is but to turn two cocks, that one vessel of 
water being consumed, another begins to 
force and refill with cold water, and so suc- 
cessively, the fire being tended and kept 
constant, which the self-same person may 
likewise abundantly perform in the interim 
between the necessity of turning the said 


Vide Article C,, to which is prefixed a brief 


historical and descriptive account of that stupen- 
dous machine, the Steam-engine. 

No. LXIX. 

A way how a little triangle and screwed 
key shall be capable and strong enough to 
bolt and unbolt, round about a great chest, 
an hundred bolts through fifty staples, two 
in each, with a direct contrary motion, and 
as many more from both sides and ends, 
and at the self-same time shall fasten it to 
the place, beyond a man's natural strength 
to take it away ; and, in one and the same 
turn, both locketh and openeth it. 


This invention, with its two following modifica- 
tions, is evidently intended to operate on the prin- 
ciple of applying a screw for the purpose of forcing 
die lock bolt, in lieu of using the handle of the 
key as a lever for that purpose. That this plan 
might be applied to locks generally, there can be 
no doubt, and by a similar contrivance the large 
keys at present in use for outer doors, iron chests, 
&c. might be advantageously reduced to the size 
described by the noble author. By employing 
the escutcheon mentioned in No. LXXII. these 
locks would be equally safe and much more simple 


than those in common use. For the latter part 
of the Article, any ingenious smith may make a 
lock with an hundred bolts ; and to fasten it to 
the place, the power of a screw key is abundantly 
sufficient to force an iron bar through a staple 
previously fixed in the floors 

No. LXX. 

A key, with a rose-turning pipe, and two 
roses pierced through endwise; together 
with several handsomely contrived wards, 
which may likewise do the same effects. 

No. LXXI. 

A key, perfectly square, with a screw 
turning within it, and more conceited than 
either of the rest, and no heavier than the 
triangle screwed key, and doth the same 


An escutcheon, to be placed before any 
of these locks with these properties. 

1. The owner (though a woman) may, 
with her delicate hand, vary the ways of 


coming to open the lock ten millions of times, 
beyond the knowledge of the smith that 
made it, or of me who invented it. 

2. If a stranger open it, it setteth an alarm 
a going, which the stranger cannot stop 
irom running out ; and, besides, though 
none should be within hearing, yet it catch- 
eth his hand, as a trap doth a fox; and 
though far from maiming him, yet it leaveth 
such a mark behind it, as will discover him 
if suspected ; the escutcheon, or lock, plain- 
ly shewing what money he hath taken out 
of the box, to a farthing, and how many 
times opened since the owner had been at it. 


The two principal properties of this escutcheon 
may be readily contrived ; and the first of them 
has, in fact, been already applied to a very inge- 
nious padlock, invented by Mr. Marshall, and 
for which the Society of Arts voted him a reward 
often guineas. In Mr. M.'s escutcheon the let- 
ters or figures commonly used in the ring padlock 
allow an almost endless variety of changes, and 
the owner may in one minute alter the arrange- 
ment in such a manner that even the maker would 
experience as much difficulty to open it, as an 


entire stranger to its construction. To render 
the combination of letters variable, the characters 
must not be engraved upon the outside of the rol- 
lers themselves, but upon a thin brass hoop made 
to fit on its outer surface ; and a spring fastened 
to the roller, and pressing upon the inside of the 
hoop, will cause a sufficient degree of friction to 
make them move together. 

The other part of this invention is equally sim- 
ple with the preceding. An alarum, such as is 
attached to a clock, may easily be wound up prior 
to closing the box ; and the lid provided with a 
chamfered bolt or staple, capable of effecting its 
discharge when the box is opened. 

To register the amount of money taken from 
the box, it will be necessary either to place each 
distinct piece of money in separate divisions, or 
to put a number together in one deep recess ca- 
pable of admitting but one piece to pass at a time. 
As the pieces are shaken out, they will in their 
passage raise a lever capable of moving a wheel 
one division in the passage of each piece. 

The Bank of England have a method somewhat 
similar for registering the number of notes work- 
ed from the printing press of that establishment- 


A transmittable gallery over any ditch or 
breach in a town-wall, with a blind and pa- 
rapet, cannon proof. 

F 2 



A door, whereof the turning of a key, 
with the help and motion of the handle, 
makes the hinges to be of either side, and 
to open either inward or outward, as one is 
to enter or to go out, or to open in half. 


By making the handle act on a lever communi- 
cating with the hinges, they may be raised from 
their sockets on the required side ; and to open 
in half, it is merely necessary to joint them in 
the centre. 

No. LXXV. 

How a tape or riband-weaver may set 
down a whole discourse, without knowing a 
letter, or interweaving any thing suspicious 
of other secret than a new-fashioned riband. 


The evident analogy between this Article and 
No. XXXIII. will be apparent on the slightest 
view, and in general principle it is similar to Nos. 
XXXIV. XXXV., &c. It may be performed 
either by making the stitches of a given length, 


varying the distance to distinguish the different 
letters of the alphabet ; or, by any arbitrary shape 
which may be previously agreed upon by the 
parties corresponding. These arrangements being 
made, the silk weaver will have nothing more to 
do, than set his loom to the required pattern. 


How to write in the dark, as straight as 
by day or candle-light. 


Two planes of ebony of equal length and 
breadth, similar to the paraUel ruler, and joined 
at each end by racks, the side of which being 
graduated to the width of the line intended will 
serve as a certain guide, and by the use of this 
instrument a blind person may write with the 
greatest accuracy. If ivory tablets or a slate is 
used, a fine wire drawn with a steel point may 
be readily felt by the point of the pencil. 


How to make a man to fly : which I have 
tried with a little boy of ten years old, in 
a barn, from one end to the other, on a 



Innumerable are the schemes that have been pro- 
posed by the learned at different periods, to ena- 
ble man to support himself in the air by the means 
of artificial wings, c. and some, indeed, of these 
ingenious contrivances have formed the labours 
of the most distinguished mechanical geniuses, 
which are recorded in the early annals of science. 

Bacon, and an Italian priest named Francisco 
Lana, endeavoured to accomplish it by means of 
two thin hollow globes, exhausted of air, which 
being considerably lighter than that fluid, were 
intended to sustain a chair suspended to their 
lower extremity, and on which the aeronaut might 
be seated. But Dr. Hook, in a work published 
some time after the Prodrome of Lana, plainly 
showed the fallacy of the attempt, though without 
in the least attempting to deny the possibility of 
eventually effecting this object. 

Bishop Wilkins, who was also a disciple of the 
flying system, describes a species of land-sailing 
vessels or chariots, which were then commonly 
used in China : and it is rather a curious fact that 
a German Count, possessing as much of modesty 
as the generality of foreign mechanics, has lately 
given to the public, as his own, an invention which 
has been known in Europe, and occasionally em- 
ployed in Asia> for the last four hundred years. 

But of all the plans that have hitherto been de- 
vised, those only which have mechanic power as 
their basis appear to have any chance of success. 
This may be considered as an unerring datum to 
guide the future experimentalist, the certainty of 
which is fully demonstrated by a comparison of 


the powers of the human frame with those of the 
feathered tribe : for it has been calculated by an 
ingenious anatomist, that the muscles which move 
the wings downwards in a bird in many instances, 
constitute not less than the sixth part of the weight 
of the whole body ; while those of a man are not 
one hundredth part so large. By the use of springs, 
however, wound to a certain degree of tension, 
prior to embarking upon the intended expedition, 
and acting upon cranks working the wings, the 
same power as that possessed by the feathered 
race may be obtained, and the springs may be 
readily made to draw more than fifty times their 
weight. By this means a whalebone, or other 
light carriage, may be raised, though it would be 
but for a short time, as it would not be in the 
power of the aeronaut to wind the springs so 
quick as the machine would require. 

From this, then, it will be seen that, to produce 
the effect necessary for this species of navigation, 
it is only requisite to have a first mover, which 
will produce more power, in a given time, in pro- 
portion to its weight, than the animal system of 

High pressure steam-engines have been made 
to operate by expansion only, and they, it appears, 
might be constructed so as to be light enough for 
this purpose. In that case, however, it will be 
evident that the usual plan of a large boiler must 
be given up, and the principle of injecting a pro- 
per charge of water into a series of tubes, form- 
ing the cavity of the fire, must be adopted in lieu 
of it. 

The following estimate will show the probable 


weight of such an engine with its charge for one 


The engine itself, from 90 to 100 

Weight of inflamed coals in a ") 
cavity presenting about 4 feet > 25 
surface of tube 3 

Supply of coal for 1 hour 6 

Water for ditto, allowing steam ~) 
of one atmosphere to be i-gW r ^2 
the specific gravity of water ) 


It may at first view appear superfluous to in- 
quire further relative to a first mover for aerial 
navigation ; but lightness is of so much value in 
this instance, that it is proper to notice the proba- 
bility that exists of using the expansion of air by 
the sudden combustion of inflammable powders or 
fluids with great advantage. The French have 
experimentally shown the great power produced 
by igniting inflammable fluids in close vessels ; 
and several years ago, an engine w r as made in this 
country to work in a similar manner, by the in- 
flammation of spirit of tar. 

It appears that eighty drops of this fluid raised 
eight hundred weight to the height of 22 inches ; 
hence a one-horse power may consume from 10 
to 12 pounds per hour, and the engine itself need 
not exceed 50 pounds weight. 

Probably a much cheaper engine of this sort 
might be produced by gas-light apparatus, and 
by firing the inflammable air generated, with a 


due portion of common air, under a piston. Upon 
some of these principles it is perfectly clear that 
force can be obtained by a much lighter apparatus 
than the muscles of animals or birds, and there- 
fore in such proportion may aerial vehicles be 
loaded with inactive matter. Even the high pres- 
sure steam-engine doing the work of six men, 
and only weighing equal to one, will readily raise 
five men into the air, but by increasing the mag- 
nitude of the engine ten, fifty ; or even five hun- 
dred men may equally well be conveyed. 

Having rendered the accomplishment of this 
object probable upon the general view of the sub- 
ject, it will now be necessary to point out the 
principles of the art itself. The whole problem 
is confined within these limits, viz. To make a 
surface support a given weight by the application 
of power to the resistance of the surrounding at- 

Many experiments have been made upon the 
direct resistance of air by Mr. Robins, Mr. Rouse, 
Mr. Edgeworth, Mr. Smeaton, and others. The 
result of Mr. Smeaton's experiments and ob- 
servations was, that a surface of one square foot 
met with a resistance of one pound, when it tra- 
velled perpendicularly to itself through air at a 
velocity of 21 feet per second. 

Having ascertained this point, had our tables 
of angular resistance been complete, the size of 
the surface necessary for any given weight would 
easily have been determined. Theory, which 
gives the resistance of a surface opposed to the 
same current in different angles, to be as the 
squares of the sine of the angle of incidence, is 


of no use in this case ; as it appears, from the ex- 
periments of the French Academy, that in acute 
angles, the resistance varies much more nearly to 
the direct ratio of the sines, than as the squares 
of the sines of the angles of incidence. The flight 
of birds will prove to an attentive observer, that, 
with a concave wing apparently parallel to the 
horizontal path of the bird, the same support, 
and of course resistance, is obtained. And hence 
it appears that, under extremely acute angles with 
concave surfaces, the resistance is nearly similar 
in them all. 

Six degrees was the most acute angle, the re- 
sistance of which was determined by the valuable 
experiments of the French Academy ; and it gave 
^Q of the resistance, which the same surface would 
have received from the same current when per- 
pendicular to itself. Hence then a superficial 
foot, forming an angle of six degrees with the 
horizon, would, if carried forward horizontally 
(as a bird in the act of skimming) with a velocity 
of 23*6 feet per second, receive a pressure of T 4 ^ 
of a pound perpendicular to itself. And if we 
allow the resistance to increase as the square of 
the velocity, at 27 '3 feet per second it would re- 
ceive a pressure of one pound. 

The flight of the corvus frugilegus, or rook, du- 
ring any part of which it can skim at pleasure, is 
(from an average of many observations) about 34>'5 
feet per second. The concavity of the wing may 
account for the greater resistance here received, 
than the experiments upon plain surfaces would 

The angle made use of in the crow's wing is 


much more acute than six degrees : but in the 
observations that will be grounded upon these 
data, it may safely be stated that every foot of 
such curved surface, as will be used in aerial na- 
vigation, will receive a resistance of one pound, 
perpendicular to itself, when carried through the 
air in an angle of six degrees with the line of its 
path, at a velocity of about 34 or 35 feet per second. 
The next object is to apply what has been 
advanced to the theory of aerial navigation ; and 
the following description will convey a just idea 
of the best method of effecting it. Suppose a 
sail to be made of thin cloth, of a firm texture, 
containing two hundred square feet ; and that 
the weight of the man and the apparatus is 200 
pounds. Then if the wind blow with a velocity 
of 35 feet per second, in a certain direction, at 
the same time that a cord in that direction sus- 
tains a tension of 2 libs, from being fixed to the 
machine, the whole apparatus will be suspended 
in the air. But it is perfectly indifferent whether 
the wind blow against the plane, or the plane be 
propelled by any means against the air with an 
unequal velocity. Hence, if this machine were 
drawn forward by the cord under a tension of 
2 libs, and with a velocity of 35 feet per second, 
the whole would be suspended in an horizontal 
path. Now, if, instead of this cord, any other 
propelling power were generated in the same di- 
rection, and with the same intensity, an equiva- 
lent effect would be produced, and aerial naviga- 
tion accomplished. Vide Bishop Wilkinss Math* 
Magic. Hook's Philosophical Collections. Sir G 
Cay ley on Aerial Navigation. 



A watch to go constantly, and yet needs 
no other winding from the first setting on 
the cord or chain, unless it be broken, re- 
quiring no other care from one than to be 
now and then consulted with, concerning 
the hour of the day or night ; and if it be 
laid by a week together, it will not err much ; 
but the oftener looked upon, the more exact 
it showeth the time of the day or night. 


For a pocket watch it will be necessary to em- 
ploy a small balance, with a nut attached to its 
axis and communicating with the fusee, the con- 
tinued vibration of which will, by winding the 
watch, give it nearly all the advantages of a per- 
petual prime mover. Should the time-piece be 
placed in a fixed case it will require a communica- 
tion between the joint of the door and the fusee, 
and this may likewise be readily applied to the 
case of a hunting watch. 

Mr. Gout's pedometer not only marks the time, 
but the number of paces passed over from one 
place to another : this is accomplished by means 
of a chain or string passing to the leg of the wearer, 
or to the wheel of a chariot, which is made to ad- 


vance the index hand one division at each eleva- 
tion of the foot : thus, on the same dial, exhibiting, 
at one view, both time and distance. The same 
pedometer will, by a proper application to the 
saddle, ascertain every pace a horse takes, and 
it may be made to change its performance in a 
second, should the horse in the course of mea- 
suring go from one pace to another. 


A way to lock all the boxes of a cabinet 
(though never so many) at one time, which 
were, by particular keys appropriated to each 
lock, opened severally, and independent the 
one of the other, as much as concerneth the 
opening of them, and by these means cannot 
be left open unawares. 


This suggestion, which is both ingenious and 
useful, might be advantageously adopted in every 
description of cabinet or chest now in use ; it may 
be performed either by cranks and wires, or 
by sliding, bolts and levers communicating with 
each lock : the latter way, though attended with 
greater expense, is by far the most durable. 

Another and more simple mode offers itself in 


the use of a series of spring locks, which may be 
closed by the pressure of the lid, unconnected 
with any other mechanism. 

No. LXXX. 

How to make a pistol barrel no thicker 
than a shilling, and yet able to endure a 
musket proof of powder and bullet. 


It requires no great share of ingenuity to ac- 
complish this object, as an examination of modern 
fire-arms will fully testify ; many pocket pistols 
that are manufactured at the present period, being 
at least as thin as those described by the noble 


A comb-conveyance carrying of letters 
without suspicion, the head being opened 
with a needle screw, drawing a spring to- 
wards one ; the comb being made but after 
an usual form, carried in one's pocket. 

A pocket comb and portable spoon, as described 


in this and the following article, with double sides 
to conceal any letter, paper, &c. are too simple to 
need a particular description. 


A knife, spoon, or fork, in an usual port- 
able case, may have the like conveyances in 
their handles. 


A rasping-mill for hartshorn, whereby a 
child may do the work of half-a-dozen men, 
commonly taken up with that work. 


A variety of engines have been invented for 
this purpose, many of which are capable of effect- 
ing the saving of labour described by the Marquis, 
as at that period (1663) the process was usually 
effected by rubbing the horn or ivory over a com- 
mon iron grater. 

No. LXXXiy. 

An instrument whereby persons, ignorant 
in arithmetic, may perfectly observe numera- 


tion and subtraction of all sums and frac- 


Sir Samuel Morland has published a detailed 
account of two instruments of this kind in a tract 
entitled, The Description and Use of two Arithmetic 
Instruments, &c. London, 1673. The Roman 
Abacus and Chinese Swan-pan are also instruments 
of a like description. 

The Abacus was variously contrived; that chiefly 
used in European countries was made by drawing 
any number of parallel lines at pleasure, at a dis- 
tance from each other, equal to twice the diameter 
of a calculus or counter. This placed on the 
lowest line, signified 1 ; on the second, 10; on 
the third, 100 ; on the fourth, 1000 ; on the fifth, 
10,000; and so on. In the spaces between the 
lines, the same counters signified half of what 
they represented on the next superior line ; viz. 
in the space between the first and second lines, 5 ; 
between the second and third, 50 ; between the 
third and fourth, 500 ; and so on. The abacus 
was also divided cross-wise into areolce, and by 
this means subtractions were performed. The 
calculating instrument of Mr. Babbage is how- 
ever much superior to any other contrivance yet 


A little ball, made in the shape of a plum 
or pear, which, being dexterously conveyed 


or forced into a body's mouth, shall present- 
ly shoot forth such, and so many bolts of 
each side and at both ends as, without the 
owner's key, can neither be opened nor filed 
off, being made of tempered steel, and as 
effectually locked as an iron chest. 


The steel fangs with which this instrument is 
furnished must, like the bolt of a common latch, 
be chamfered from the point, so that, on its being 
inserted within the teeth, the bolts will instanta- 
neously spring out ; and no power short of the 
key previously made to fit the wards of the lock 
will suffice to free those who are thus ensnared. 
This is evidently one of those discoveries which, 
though practicable in itself, appears better calcu- 
lated for swelling the catalogue of the noble Au- 
thor's inventions, than for any beneficial result 
likely to accrue to the public from its discovery. 


A chair made a-la-mode, and yet a stranger, 
being persuaded to sit down in it, shall have 
immediately his arms and thighs locked up, 
beyond his own power to loosen them. 

Chairs of this description are stated to have 


been employed by the monks in the darker ages 
of Christianity ; and were originally designed for 
the purpose of entrapping those who, possess- 
ing more courage, or less of prudence than their 
neighbours, ventured to penetrate the mysteries 
of papal seclusion. They were formed like a 
common arm-chair, and provided with two levers 
at the extremity of the arms ; and the same num- 
ber were fixed immediately below the seat. These, 
on pressing the cushion, were immediately dis- 
charged like a man-trap : four powerful springs 
acting on the levers for that purpose ; and so 
firmly will the occupant of a chair of this de- 
scription be fixed, that it will take the united force 
of four or five persons to free the prisoner. A 
similar chair was exhibited at the Villa Borgfiese, 
Rome, in 1644 " They shew'd us also a chayre 
w ch catches any who sitts downe in it so as not to 
be able to stir out, by certairie springs concealed 
in the armes and back thereoff which at sitting 
downe surprizes a man on the suddaine, locking 
him in by the armes or thighs, after a true tretche- 
rous Italian guise." Vide Evelyn's Memoirs, vol. i. 
p. 107. 


A brass mould to cast candles, in which 
a man may make five hundred dozen in a 
day, and add an ingredient to the tallow, 
which will make it cheaper, and yet so that 
the candles shall look whiter and last longer. 



The usual method of dipping store candles is 
subject to many objections, though the expense 
attendant on casting those called moulds has hitherto 
been an impediment to their general manufacture. 
A more simple method now offers itself, which is 
equally advantageous and economical. A quan- 
tity of drawn tubes being first cut into the given 
lengths, metal collars must then be soldered on 
the extremity of each length, with an orifice of 
sufficient size to allow the tallow and wick to pass 
through the whole series of tubes. They must 
then be connected together by a screw cut in each 
alternate end, and the whole, thus formed, passed 
through a steam pipe of sufficient size to prevent 
the tallow chilling in its passage through the 
moulds. When cold, each joint of the mould 
must be separately unscrewed and the candles 
separated by a sharp knife. 

A means of purifying the tallow, and as such, 
of rendering the candles whiter and more durable, 
likewise suggests itself in the following simple 
process. The vat, or copper, containing the melted 
tallow, must be provided with a shower bath 
placed immediately over the surface, to which must 
be attached a reservoir of cold water : this, by the 
action of a lever, maybe thrown through the grating 
of the bath, and falling upon the tallow, will, in its 
passage, carry to the bottom of the vat the whole 
of the carbonised animal matter and other impu- 
rities with which it is charged. After allowing a 


few minutes for the lighter fluid to rise, the water 
may then be drawn off, by a cock placed at the 
bottom of the vat for that purpose, and the same 
process repeated till the tallow is fit for use. 


An engine, without the least noise, knock, 
or use of fire, to coin and stamp lOOlbs. in 
an hour, by one man. 


Antoine Boucher appears to have been the first 
engraver who used the fly-press for the multiply- 
ing of metallic impressions from an engraved ma- 
trix. This ingenious mechanic was employed by 
Henry the Second of France, and the first money 
was struck with it in that kingdom about the mid- 
dle of the sixteenth century ; it was soon^however 
laid aside on account of the great expense attend- 
ant on its use, and the old method of striking 
with the hammer was again resorted to. Queen 
Elizabeth also had milled money coined in Eng- 
land about the same period ; but it did not con- 
tinue for more than ten years; and it was not till 
1662, that the screw press was finally established 
in the mint of this kingdom. The accelerated 
motion of a screw, although possessing many ad- 
vantages over the old method, does not appear 
fully to answer the above description, as the noise 


attendant on its use is certainly very considerable ; 
it is probable therefore, that the hydrostatic press, 
or a powerful lever worked by a crank, was in- 
tended by the noble author as a substitute for 
this useful machine. 

It appears probable that the insertion of this 
Article originated in an ignorance of the plan for- 
merly proposed by Boucher, which appears of all 
others best adapted for the purpose of coming 
with rapidity, and which was not at that period 
acted upon in England ; on the discovery of which 
the following Article was substituted by the noble 
author ; and appeared in the first printed edition 
of the Century. 


How to make a brazen or stone head, in 
the midst of a great field or garden, so ar- 
tificial and natural, that though a man speak 
never so softly, and even whispers into the 
ear thereof, it will presently open its mouth, 
and resolve the question in French, Latin, 
Welsh, Irish, or English, in good terms, ut- 
tering it out of his mouth, and then shut it 
until the next question be asked. 



Albertus Magnus, a celebrated philosopher of 
the thirteenth century, is said to have constructed 
an automaton which not only performed all the 
apparent motions of life, but absolutely answered 
questions. It is recorded of Thomas Aquinas, 
that, having accidentally seen the head, he was so 
terrified that he broke it in pieces, upon which 
Albert exclaimed : Periit opus triginta annorum ! 
Though this appears one of the earliest instances 
of a speaking automaton constructed by one of 
the laity, there is no doubt but that the method 
of conveying answers to various interrogatories, 
by the agency of concealed pipes or a speaking 
trumpet, was practised at a very early period. 
That the impostor Alexander, however, caused 
his ^Esculapius to speak in this manner is expressly 
related by Lucan. He took, says this author, 
instead of a pipe, the gullet of a crane, and trans- 
mitted the voice through it to the mouth of the 
statue. But the invention of the invisible girl, 
which may be considered as an improvement on 
the oracular responses of the darker ages, infi- 
nitely surpassed any of those hitherto recorded. 

This very ingenious apparatus was publicly ex- 
hibited both at Bristol and in London for a con- 
siderable period, during which time no discovery 
was made of its internal mechanism; and it is 
probable that its construction would have remain- 
ed a secret to all but the exhibitors, but for the 
ingenuity of Mr. (now Professor) Millington, who, 
in a course of Lectures delivered in the winter of 
1806, explained the manner in which it was per- 


The visible part of the apparatus connected with 
the invisible girl was thus constructed : first a ma- 
hogany frame resembling a bedstead, having at 
the corners four upright posts about five feet high, 
was united by a cross-rail near the top, and two 
or more cross-rails near the bottom, to strengthen 
the frame, which was about four feet square. 
The frame thus constructed was placed upon the 
floor, and to the top of each of the four pillars 
were attached as many strong bent brass wires 
converging towards the top, where they were se- 
cured by a crown and other ornaments. From 
these wires a hollow copper ball was suspended 
by slight ribbons, so as to cut oflf all possible com- 
munication with the frame. The globe thus sup- 
ported was supposed to contain the invisible being, 
as the voice apparently proceeded from the interior 
of it : and for this purpose, it was equipped with 
four trumpets, placed round it in a horizontal 
direction, and at right angles to each other ; the 
trumpet mouths coming to within about half an 
inch of the respective cross-rails of the frame 
surrounding them. 

When a question was proposed, it was asked 
from any side of the frame, and spoken into one 
of the trumpets, and an answer immediately pro- 
ceeded from the whole of them, so loud as to be 
distinctly heard by the inquirer, and yet so distant 
and feeble, that it appeared as if coming from a 
very diminutive being. In this the whole o f the 
artifice consisted; and the variations we r e so con- 
trived that the answer might be returned in several 
languages, a kiss might be returned, the breath 
producing the voice was felt, and songs were sung, 


accompanied by the piano-forte, &c. To produce 
this illusion, the sound was conveyed by a tube, in 
a manner similar to the old and well known con- 
trivance of the speaking bust ; the invisible girl only 
differing in one circumstance; that an artificial 
echo was produced by means of the trumpets and 
hollow globe, in consequence of which the sound 
was completely revers d. 

In the invisible girl the orifice of the tube was in 
one of the handrails just opposite the mouth of 
one of the trumpets, the opening being concealed 
by reeds and other mouldings ; the tube itself, 
which was about half an inch in diameter, ran 
through half the handrail, then down one of the 
corner posts, and from thence under the floor 
till it reached a large deal case almost similar to 
an inverted funnel, along the side of which it rose 
till it came nearly into contact with the ear of the 
confederate, who with a piano-forte, &c. was 
concealed in this case. Any question asked by a 
voice directed into one of the trumpets was im- 
mediately reflected back from the concave interior 
surface of the globe to the orifice of the tube, 
along which it was conveyed so as to be distinctly 
heard by the person in the deal case, who returned 
the requisite answer, which appeared to come pre- 
cisely from the interior of the globe. A small 
hole closed with glass was likewise left through 
the deal case and side wall of the apartment, by 
means of which the concealed person had an op- 
portunity of observing and commenting upon any 
circumstance which occurred in the room. 



White silk, knotted in the fingers of a pair 
of white gloves, and so contrived without 
suspicion, that, playing atprimero at cards, 
one may, without clogging his memory, keep 
reckoning of all sixes, sevens, and aces, which 
he hath discarded, and without foul play. 


That sliding knots or rings may be formed on 
the fringe of silk or other gloves, by which 
means a reckoning can be kept, may easily be 
conceived ; but it is scarcely too much to aver 
that an undue advantage taken of an Opponent, 
even at cards, savours very much of foul play, 
if not absolute cheating. 

No. XC. 

A most dexterous dicing-box, with holes 
transparent,, after the usual fashion, with a 
device so dexterous, that with a knock of 
it against the table, the four good dice are 
fastened, and it looseneth four false dice, 
made fit for this purpose. 



There are few who profess the science of cheat- 
ing at cards or dice, or to be encouragers of those 
who do; and it may fairly be conceded that 
there are not two periods in our regal annals, 
m which this detestable meanness had become 
fashionable enough to sanction a nobleman in in- 
scribing to the King and his Parliament a method 
by which it might be advantageously effected. 

No. XCI. 

An artificial horse, with saddle and capa- 
risons fit for running at the ring, on which 
a man being mounted, with his lance in his 
hand, he can at pleasure make him start, 
and swiftly to run his career, using the de- 
cent posture with bon grace, may take the 
ring as handsomely, and running as swiftly 
as if he rode upon a barbe. 


Any person who is acquainted with the various 
automaton figures that have been constructed by 
those celebrated mechanics, Vaucanson, Kempe- 
len, and Maelzel, will readily admit the possibility 
of making a horse of this description ; nor should 
we too readily undervalue those mechanical pur- 
suits, which, though not of any immediate national 


advantage, have formed the employment of one 
of the greatest potentates of modern Europe.* 

The most celebrated of the modern automata 
were those made by Vaucanson, and which are 
thus described by Beckman : 

" One of them, which represented a flute-player 
sitting, performed twelve tunes, and, as we are as- 
sured, by wind issuing from its mouth into a Ger- 
man flute, the holes of which it opened and shut 
with its fingers." 

".The second was a standing figure, which in 
like manner played on the Provencal shepherd's 
pipe, which it held in its left hand, and with the 
right beat upon a drum." 

" The third was a duck, of the natural size, 
which moved its wings, exhibited all the gestures 
of that animal, quacked like a duck, drank water, 
ate corn, and then, after a little time, let drop 
behind it something that resembled the excrement 
of a duck."f 

Of these automata, or rather androides, the flute- 
player of Vaucanson is the only one of which a 
correct description has been preserved ; a parti- 
cular account of its mechanism having been pub- 
lished in the Memoirs of the French Academy. 
The figure was about five feet six inches high, 
and was placed upon an elevated square pedestal. 

* CHARLES V., after his abdication, retired to the monas- 
tery of St. Justus, in Estramadura, where he amused himself, 
during the latter period of his life, in the making of auta- 
matons, in which he was assisted by a very ingenious artist 
named Turriano. 

t History of Inventions, vol. Hi. p. 326. 


The air entered the body by three separate pipes, 
into which it was conveyed by nine pairs of bel- 
lows, which expanded and contracted in regular 
succession, by means of an axis of steel turned 
by the machine. The three tubes, which conveyed 
the air from the bellows, after passing through 
the lower extremities of the figure, united at the 
chest; and ascending from thence to the mouth, 
passed through two artificial lips. Within the 
cavity of the mouth was a small moveable tongue, 
which by its motion at proper intervals, admitted 
or intercepted the air in its passage to the flute. 
The fingers, lips, and tongue derived their specific 
movements from a steel cylinder turned by clock- 
work. The cylinder was divided into fifteen equal 
parts, which by means of pegs, pressing upon a 
like number of levers, caused the other extremi- 
ties to ascend. Seven of these levers directed 
the fingers, having rods and chains fixed to their 
ascending extremities ; which, being attached to 
the fingers, made them to ascend in proportion 
as the other extremity was pressed down by the 
motion of the cylinders, and vice versa. Three of 
the levers served to regulate the ingress of the 
air, being so contrived as to open and shut, by 
means of valves, the communication between the 
lips and reservoir, so that more or less strength 
might be given, and a higher or lower note pro- 
duced as occasion required. 

The lips were directed by four similar levers ; 
one of which opened them to give the air a freer 
passage ; another contracted them ; a third drew 
them backward, and the fourth pushed them for- 
ward. The remaining lever was employed in the 


direction of the tongue, which by its motion shut 
or opened the mouth of the flute. The varied 
and successive motions performed by this ingeni- 
ous androides, were regulated by a contrivance 
no less simple than efficacious. The axis of the 
steel cylinder or barrel was terminated by an end- 
less screw composed of twelve threads, above 
which was placed a small arm of copper, with a 
steel stud made to fit the threads of the worm, 
which, by its vertical motion, was continually 
pushed forward. Hence, if a lever was moved, 
by a peg placed on the cylinder, in any one revo- 
lution, it could not be moved by the same peg in 
the succeeding revolution in consequence of the 
lateral motion communicated by the w r orm. By 
this means the size of the barrel was considerably 
reduced ; and the statue not only poured forth a 
varied selection of instrumental harmony, but ex- 
hibited all the evolutions of the most graceful 

No. XCII. 

A screw, made like a water-screw, but the 
bottom made of iron-plate spadewise, which, 
at the side of a boat, emptieth the mud of 
a pond, or raiseth gravel. 


The Archimedean screw, though hitherto only 
applied ,to the raising of water, appears to be 


equally applicable to many other purposes ; as the 
procuring of sand from pits, taking dry goods of 
small dimensions from carts or barges, clearing 
rivers, &c. though in that case it will be necessary 
to make the lower end of the machine in a conical 
form, gradually increasing the size of the orifice 
from the point to its upper extremity, in order to 
prevent the materials from clogging the screw, 
which would otherwise occur. 

The dredging macltine worked by a steam-en- 
gine, and employed in the Thames for a similar 
purpose, is well known. 


An engine, whereby one man may take 
out of the water a ship of five hundred tons, 
so that it may be caulked, trimmed, and re- 
paired, without need of the usual way of 
stocks, and as easily let it down again. 


Beckman, in his History of Inventions, says, 
that a machine of this description was invented 
by a citizen of Amsterdam, in the year 1C90, and 
was by him called the water camel. It consisted 
of two half ships, and on the deck of each were 
placed horizontal windlasses from which proceeded 
ropes made to pass under the keel of the vessel 
intended to be raised. The two sides of the 
camel having been sunk by the admission of wa- 


ter, the ropes were drawn tight, and the pumps 
being put in motion, the vessel was gradually 
raised to the surface. It appears to have been 
principally employed in crossing the bar of the 

No. XCIV. 

A little engine, portable in one's pocket, 
which placed to any door, without any noise, 
but on crack, openeth any door or gate. 


The simple engine called a Jack, used for the 
purpose of raising great weights, with small ma- 
nual exertion, appears to be admirably calculated 
for this purpose ; and its even uniform motion is 
evidently described by the noble author. 

Ramelli has also given a description of several 
very curious instruments for the same purpose. 
Vide Artificiose Machini, p. 255, &c. 

No. XCV. 

A double cross-bow, neat, handsome, and 
strong, to shoot two arrows, either together, 
or one after the other so immediately, that 
a deer cannot run two steps, but, if he miss 


of one arrow, he may be reached with the 
other, whether the deer run forward, side- 
ward, or start backward* 


The cross-bow, though long since superseded 
in point of general utility by the invention of fire- 
arms, might still be found a useful auxiliary in 
the sports of the field, and as such, it has been 
thought advisable to notice what appears to be 
the plan on which this instrument must be con- 
structed. To fire two arrows in immediate suc- 
cession, it will be necessary either to attach a se- 
cond bow to the under side of the stock, which, 
after discharging one arrow, may immediately 
be reversed, and the second fired. Or, where a 
bow of sufficient length is used, the string may 
communicate the required degree of impetus to 
two arrows in succession, a stud being previously 
prepared for its reception, about half-way down 
the stock, from which it may readily be liberated 
for the second discharge. 

No. XCVI. 

rt A way to make a sea-bank so firm and 
geometrically strong, that a stream can have 
no power over it ; excellent likewise to save 
the pillar of a bridge, being far cheaper and 
stronger than stone walls. 



The break-water erected by Mr. Rennie at Ply- 
mouth is, in its results, precisely what the noble 
author has here described. The plan of its con- 
struction is this : a mass of stone in blocks, of 
about three feet in diameter, is thrown promis- 
cuously into the sea, and left to find their own base, 
the extremity of which is generally about seventy 
yards. This sea-wall has been carried about 
eight hundred fathoms in length, and the total 
expense attendant on its erection is estimated at 
1, 150,000. In 1766, Mr. Smeaton also applied 
loose stones to strengthen the middle piers of 
London bridge, which was the means of preserving 
that venerable structure from the almost certain 
ruin which threatened it. 

But the most economical sea-bank yet con- 
structed was executed at Rye, in 1804, under 
the superintendence of the Rev. Daniel Pape, cu- 
rate of that place. 

The dam or bank was formed in its lower part 
in two parallel ridges close to each other, like 
the double roof of a house, which were covered 
over, first with straw, and then with hazel faggots 
about thirteen feet long ; and the whole was then 
pinned down with piles, which were united to each 
other at their heads by pieces put across the 
direction of the faggots. When this bank was 
completed, Mr. Pape formed another bank, on 
the top of the preceding, by filling up the in- 
terval between the two ridges, and covering the 
whole in the manner above described. All this 
was accomplished in one tide, and when completed 
it fully answered the purpose for which it was 



An instrument, whereby an ignorant per- 
son may take any thing in perspective, as 
justly, and more so than the most skilful 
painter can do by the eye. 


Vitruvius is the first author who directly treats 
on this branch of the fine arts, though there can 
be no doubt but the ancients fully understood its 
most essential rules, which they must have prac- 
tised at a very early period in the decoration of 
their theatres. Vitruvius, in the proem to his se- 
venth book, informs us, that Agatharchus of Athens 
noticed the subject, when preparing a tragic scene 
for a play exhibited by ^Eschylus : but the prin- 
ciples of the art were more distinctly taught by 
Democritus and Anaxagoras, the disciples of the 
former painter. 

Pietro del Borgo, early in the fourteenth century, 
constructed a very ingenious machine, which was 
afterwards employed by Albert Durer for the 
above purpose. It consisted of a transparent ta- 
blet, through which the object being viewed from 
a small aperture, the artist contrived to trace the 
images which the various rays of light emitted 
from them would make upon it. 

Mr. Ferguson has also described a machine 
for this purpose, the invention of which he ascribes 
to Dr. Bevis. But the most simple and efficient 
instrument yet discovered for large objects is 


the camera obscura and camera lucida ; both of 
which fully answer the description given by the 
noble author. 


An engine, so contrived, that working the 
primum mobile forward or backward, upward 
or downward, circularly or cornerwise, to 
and fro, straight, upright or downright, yet 
the pretended operation continueth and ad- 
vanceth ; none of the motions above men- 
tioned, hindering, much less stopping the 
other ; but unanimously, and with harmony 
agreeing, they all augment and contribute 
strength unto the intended work and opera- 
tion; and therefore I call this a semi-om- 
nipotent engine, and do intend that a model 
thereof be buried with me. 

No. XCIX. 

How to make one pound weight to raise 
an hundred as high as one pound falleth, 
and yet the hundred pounds descending doth 
what nothing less than one hundred pounds 
can effect. 

Ji 2 


No. C. 

Upon so potent a help as these two 
last mentioned inventions, a water-work is, 
by many years' experience and labour, so 
advantageously by me contrived, that a 
child's force bringeth up, an hundred feet 
high, an incredible quantity of water, even 
two feet diameter. And I may boldly 
call it, the most stupendous work in the 
whole world: not only with little charge to 
drain all sorts of mines, and furnish cities 
with water, though never so high seated, 
as well to keep them sweet, running through 
several streets, and so performing the work 
of scavengers, as well as furnishing the in- 
habitants with sufficient water for their pri- 
vate occasions : but likewise supplying the 
rivers with sufficient to maintain and make 
navigable from town to town, and for the 
bettering of lands all the way it runs ; with 
many more advantageous, and yet greater ef- 
fects of profit, admiration, and consequence : 
so that deservedly I deem this invention to 


crown my labours, to reward my expenses, 
and make my thoughts acquiesce in way of 
further inventions. This making up the 
whole Century, and preventing any further 
trouble to the reader for the present, mean- 
ing to leave to posterity a book, wherein, 
under each of these heads, the means to 
put in execution and visible trial all and 
every of these inventions, with the shape 
and form of all things belonging to them, 
shall be printed by brass plates. Besides 
many omitted, and some of three sorts wil- 
lingly not set down, as not fit to be di- 
vulged, lest ill use may be made thereof, 
but to show that such things are also within 
my knowledge, I will here in myne owne 
cypher sett down one of each, not to be con- 
cealed when duty and affection obligeth me. 

In bonum publicum, et ad majorem Dei gloriam. 


The three last inventions may justly be con- 
sidered as the most important of the whole " Cen- 
tury," and when united with the C8th article, they 
appear to suggest nearly all the data essential for 


the construction of a modern steam-engine. The 
noble author has furnished us with what he calls 
a " definition" of this engine; and although it is 
written in the same vague and empirical style, 
which characterises a large portion of his Inven- 
tions, it may yet be considered as affording addi- 
tional proofs of the above important fact. 

The Marquis's " definition" is exceedingly rare, 
as the only copy known to be extant is preserved 
in the British Museum. It is printed on a single 
sheet without date, and appears to have been 
written for the purpose of procuring subscriptions 
in aid of a Water Company, then about to be 

" A stupendous, or a water-commanding en- 
gine, boundless for height, or quantity, requiring 
no external, nor even additional help or force to 
be set, or continued in motion, but what intrinsi- 
cally is afforded from its own operation, nor yet 
the twentieth part thereof. And the engine con- 
sis teth of the following particulars: 

' A perfect counterpoise, for what quantity 
soever of water. 

* A perfect countervail, for what height soever 
it is to be brought unto. 

' A primum mobile, commanding both height 
and quantity, regulator- wise. 

' A vicegerent or countervail, supplying the 
place, and performing the full force of man, wind, 
beast, or mill. 

' A helm or stern, with bit and reins, where- 
with any child may guide, order, and control the 
whole operation. 

' A particular magazine for water, according 
to the intended quantity, or height of water. 


' An aqueduct, capable of any intended quan- 
tity or height of water. 

' A place for the original fountain or river to 
run into, and naturally of its own accord incor- 
porate itself with the rising water, and at the 
very bottom of the aqueduct, though never so 
big or high. 

' By divine providence, and heavenly inspira- 
tion, this is my stupendous water-commanding 
engine, boundless for height and quantity. 

' Whosoever is master of weight, is master of 
force ; whosoever is master of water, is master 
of both : and consequently to him all forcible ac- 
tions and atchievements are easie.' 

It may now be adviseable to trace the history 
of the steam-engine through some of its earlier 
modifications ; and we shall find that, although 
the present form of this stupendous machine al- 
most deserves the title of an invention, yet that 
many steps have been taken, and much labour 
and much ingenuity expended, before it was 
brought to that point from which the more mo- 
dern improvements may be said to have begun. 
And whilst we admire the genius of those who 
have perfected the application of a mighty power, 
let us not refuse the tribute of praise to those, 
who first pointed out that such a power existed. 


The first apparatus of this description, of which 
any authentic account has been preserved, was 
suggested by Hero of Alexandria, and consisted 
of a vessel F in which steam was generated by 
the application of external heat. The ball G was 
supplied with the elastic vapour thus procured, 
by means of the bent pipe E B, a steam tight joint 
being provided for that purpose. Two tubes 
bent to a right angle at A and D, are the only 
parts open to the air, and as the steam rushes 
out from very minute apertures, a rotatory mo- 
tion is produced. An account of this apparatus 
is preserved in Hero's Spiritalia, published by the 
Jesuits in 1693 ; and a copy of this highly curious 
work, with a Latin translation prefixed, is now 
in the Library of the London Institution. 



A modification of Hero's apparatus is repre- 
sented beneath : 

It was constructed by Mr. Styles for the use 
of the Editor in his public lectures. The circular 
tube a is in this case supported by the upright 
pillar c d; and the flame of alcohol in the trough , 
by generating high pressure steam, which rushes 
from the apertures e, produces a rotatory motion. 


Brancas's revolving apparatus, as will be seen 
by reference to the diagram in the preceding page, 
was still more simple than that contrived by Hero. 
A copper vessel filled with water, (in the original 
figure made in the form of an ornamental head,) 
was furnished with a pipe c, through which the 
steam was propelled, and striking against the 
vanes of the float wheel d, readily gave motion 
to a pestle and mortar, which was employed in 
the alchemist's laboratory. 

The only w r ork in which a description of this 
engine has been preserved, was published in 1629 ; 
it is exceedingly rare, and the above diagram is 
engraved from a copy in the possession of Major 

A slight examination of the principle upon 
which this simple apparatus is constructed, will 
shew that no very considerable force could have 
been obtained ; as the steam passing through the 
atmosphere in its passage to the wheel, must, to 
a certain extent at least, be converted into water. 

After the publication of the work by Brancas, 
more than thirty years elapsed ere the publication 
of the Marquis's " Century" recalled the attention 
of the scientific world to this important subject; 
and this invention, which he states as having been 
completely carried into effect, was evidently very 
different from that of his predecessors. 

It is said that the Marquis, while confined in 
the Tower of London, was preparing some food 
in his apartment, and the cover of the vessel, 
having been closely fitted, was, by the expansion 
of the steam, suddenly forced off and driven up 
the chimney. This circumstance attracting his 
attention, led him to a train of thought, which 
terminated in the completion of his " water-corn- 



manding engine."* Of the Marquis's invention no 
record has been preserved beyond the articles to 
which we have already alluded in the present 
work : and in the absence of other data, the Editor 
readily introduces Professor Millington's design 
for an engine on similar principles ; and which, 
with a few alterations, might be made available 
for the purposes recommended by our author. 

* Vide Historical and Descriptive Account of the Steam- 
engine, by C. F. Partington, p. 6. 


In this diagram, g represents a strong and close 
vessel or boiler to contain water, set in brick work 
like a common copper, with a fire-place r under- 
neath it, having a chimney s. The boiler thus con- 
structed, is intended to afford the means of pro- 
ducing steam : and if we conceive two casks or 
strong hollow vessels of any form to be placed 
under the surface of the water, near the boiler, 
as at t and v, and that each of these vessels has a 
valve opening into it in its lower part as u u, and 
two pipes w ?, proceeding from the upper part of 
the vessels to the top of the steam boiler q, while 
two other pipes x x proceed from the lower parts 
of these vessels into a cistern y, forty feet above 
the level of the water ; an apparatus thus con- 
structed will nearly form the water-commanding 
engine, for if the vessels t and v are both filled 
with water by the valves u u, and the cock z be 
opened after the steam has accumulated in the 
boiler, the elastic fluid thus generated will instantly 
rush down into the vessel t, and when the sur- 
face of the water is heated expel the whole of 
its contents up the pipe a x, into the cistern jy, 
where it will be retained by a valve opening up- 
wards in any part of that pipe, as at' a. This done, 
the cock z must be shut, and after permitting the 
steam to accumulate for a short time, that at b 
must be opened, and the steam will rush into 
the vessel v and perform a similar office, c be- 
ing the valve to prevent the return of the water. 
When the steam is shut off from the vessel t, the 

elastic fluid which had previously been introduced 

rill be condensed by 
media round it, and thus a vacuum will be pro- 

to expel the water, will be condensed by the cold 


duced in the vessel t, consequently a part of the 
water in which it is immersed will rush into it by 
the valve u, and occupy the whole internal cavity, 
thus putting it in a state of preparation for a se- 
cond opening of the cock z, by which its contents 
will be again discharged into the cistern y, and so 
of the two vessels alternately ; for while v is emp- 
tying, t will be filling, and vice versa, which agrees 
with the Marquis's account when he says, " that 
the man is but to turn two cocks, that one ves- 
sel of water being consumed, another begins to 
force," &c. 

The above suggestion for an engine capable of 
raising water may be still further improved by 
adding a suction pipe to the valves u u, and the 
pressure of the atmosphere will increase the work- 
ing power of the engine more than thirty feet : 
and should a less height be required, the forcing 
pipe may be shortened in a proportionate degree : 
indeed this fact was attended to by the next per- 
son who claims the honour of having invented the 
steam-engine, to which it may now be adviseable 
to direct the reader's attention, 



The engine suggested by Savery for the pur- 
pose of raising water, consisted of a boiler a fur- 
nished with a safety valve v. The steam-vessel r 
was connected with the well H, by a suction pipe 
n ; and when water was to be raised the vessel r 
was filled with steam, which rushing in, soon ex- 
pelled the air : when that was completely effected, 
the communication with the boiler was closed, 
and the steam condensed, which diminishing its 
bulk, formed a vacuous space within the vessel ; 
the pressure of the atmosphere then operating 
upon the surface of the water in the well, drove 
it up the pipe. In this form of the apparatus, the 
inventor was seldom able to raise water more than 
thirty feet : and when a greater altitude was requir- 
ed, it was effected by the impellent force of high 
pressure steam. This was accomplished by the as- 
cending pipe k, which was sometimes carried sixty 
feet higher than the steam-vessel s ; and a refer- 
ence to the great expansive force of steam will 
show that this operation must be attended with 
considerable danger. After condensing the steam 
and filling the vessel r with water, a new supply 


of steam was then introduced, which pressing on 
the surface of the water, drove it up the pipe k ; 
and it will be evident that the pressure on the 
internal surface of the boiler must be propor- 
tioned to the height of the column of water thus 
raised by the steam. 

The principal objection to this form of the en- 
gine arises from the great consumption of fuel, 
a considerable portion of the caloric employed in 
the generation of the steam being absorbed in 
heating the new surface of cold water last raised 
from the well ; and where great heights are 
required, there appears no mode of completely 
obviating this objection. Should it, however, be 
required merely to raise water about thirty feet, 
there are few contrivances more economical or 
better adapted for general use. 

While speaking of Savery's apparatus it may 
be adviseable to notice the very ingenious adap- 
tation of the same principle to the construction of 
a gas engine, by Mr. Brown. In the latter case 
a vacuum is formed by the introduction of an in- 
flamed jet of carburetted hydrogen gas, which 
consumes the oxygen, and rarefies the nitrogen, 
by the increase of temperature which ensues. 
The vacuum thus produced is much more perfect 
than would at first view have been supposed, from 
the nature of the process resorted to by the pa- 
tentee ; but the economy of employing carburet- 
ted hydrogen gas as a substitute for condensible 
vapour is still somewhat problematic.* 

* Since writing the above, the Editor has seen a report 
on Mr. Brown's engine by Professor Millington, in which it 
is distinctly stated that the apparatus is fully adapted to the 
purpose for which it is intended. 



To more fully understand the nature of Mr. 
Brown's engine, it may be better to revert to a 
diagram, which will sufficiently explain its gene- 
ral principles. 

In the above view, the cylinders c and d, are 
the vessels in which a vacuum is alternately ef- 
fected ; g i g and h j h are two pipes, leading into 
the lower cylinders x x, shewn in the next page, 
from which the water rises along those pipes to 
fill the vacuum cylinders alternately. The water 
thus supplied is discharged through the pipes B 
into the tank or trough z, where it falls upon the 
overshot water-wheel, and, by the rotatory motion 
thus produced, gives power to such machinery as 


may be connected to it. The water runs from 
the wheel along a case surrounding the lower 
half, into a reservoir t?, from which the lower 
cylinders x x, are alternately supplied. 

The gas is supplied to the cylinders by the 
pipes k k k, which must be, of course, attached to 
a gasometer, or some other reservoir of gas. The 
gas also passes along the small pipe / / (which 
communicates also with the gasometer), and being 
lighted at both ends of that pipe, is kept con- 
stantly burning in order to ignite the gas within 
the cylinders. 

The gas being admitted along the pipe fc, the 
flame from the pipe / is now freely communicated 
to the gas in the cylinder, through the orifice, by 
the opening of the sliding valve s, which is raised 
by the arm r, lifted by the rod o by means of the 

The water in the reservoir v passing down one 
of the pipes w, into one of the lower cylinders x, 
causes the float y in that cylinder, to rise, and, 
pushing up the rod o, raises the end b of the 
beam, which, of course, draws up with it the cap 
f, and forces down the cap e of the other cy- 
linder c. 


The alternate action of each cylinder is pro- 
duced by chains and rods, attached to a glass or 
iron vessel p, more than half filled with mercury, 
and turning upon a pivot ; each end receives its 
movements of elevation and depression from the 
rise and fall of the projecting arms q, by the ac- 
tion of the beam above ; the mercury within 
flowing to the lower end, giving an impetus, and 
thus regulating the supply of gas to the cylinders, 
and the movement of the slide in the trough v. 
By this action the water from the reservoir flows 
down the pipe w, into the vessel x, and produces 
the elevation of the float y and the rod n, and 
raises the cap e by the ascent of the beam at a. 

The motion thus produced in one part of the 
machinery, operates upon the corresponding 
parts on the other side, and hence a correspond- 
ing motion is obtained : the slider in the trough v, 
moved by the action of the mercurial tube p, being 
removed from its position, allows the water to 
fall into the other pipe w ; and, as it ascends, 
suffers the float y to descend, and rising into the 
main cylinder, then lifts again the beam at b, and 
its connexions, and forces down the cap e on the 
top of the other cylinder. 

When the vacuum is produced in the cylinders, 
the air must be admitted to allow the water to be 
discharged, and the caps to be raised : this is 
effected by a sliding valve in the air-pipe m m, 
acted upon by chains t t, attached to the floats 
in the reservoir, and as motion is given to them, 
the valve is made to fly backwards and forwards, 
so as to allow the free admission of atmospheric 

Chains u u, with suspended weights, open the 



cocks in the pipe k k, and produce the alternate 
flow of the gas, and regulate and modify its sup- 
ply. In the pipes g i g, and h j h, are clacks to 
prevent the return of the water, when the air is 
admitted into the cylinders. 

A piston may be worked as is above described, 
with the machinery attached ; but it may also be 
worked in a distinct vessel so as to communicate 
with several cylinders, arid, consequently, several 
pistons may work at the same time, the air and 
vacuum valves being opened and closed by similar 
means to those adapted to work the induction and 
eduction valves of steam-engines. 

The atmospheric engine comes next in order, 
and its claim to practical utility is of a very early 

The cylinder 6, is in this engine placed over a 
boiler , and if we suppose the piston p made to 
i 2 


fit air-tight, it will be evident, that it must be dri- 
ven up by the action of the steam beneath, should 
a sufficient supply of heat be applied ; when this 
is effected, the condensible vapour may be reduced 
to its original bulk, by the introduction of water 
from the cistern i. In the working engine how- 
ever, the ascent of the piston is effected by the 
action of the lever e g, acting on the fulcrum f. 
To the end g of this lever or working beam is 
attached the pump-rod h, and it will be evident 
that whenever that preponderates over the piston 
p, that the latter must be drawn up. On the re- 
admission of the steam, a new supply of conden- 
sing water is introduced by turning the cock /, 
and the pressure of the atmosphere above the 
piston being unbalanced by any resistance be- 
neath, the end e is again depressed, and the 
pump-rod again elevated. The pipe g is em- 
ployed to carry off the condensing water, which 
would otherwise accumulate within the cylinder ; 
and the small forcing pump, with its rod v s, sup- 
plies the condensing cistern , by the pipe t. 

At the beginning of the last century, the at- 
mospheric engine had made considerable progress 
in the mining districts, and in 1718, the patentees 
agreed to erect an engine for the owners of a 
colliery, in the county of Durham, where several 
hundred horses had previously been employed. 
Mr. Henry Beighton, who was engaged as an 
agent in this concern, materially improved the 
engine by making it self-acting, and divesting it 
of nearly all the complicated machinery, which 
had been previously employed for that purpose. 

A very simple and at the same time ingenious 



mode of illustrating the operations of an atmos- 
pheric steam-engine will be found in the annexed 
apparatus, suggested by Professor Brande, and 
employed in his lectures at the London Institu- 

The glass tube and bulb b is shewn with its 
piston a, the rod being hollow and closed by a 
screw c. If steam be generated by the spirit 
lamp d, the air will speedily be expelled, and 
after this is effected, the screw c may be closed, 
and a working stroke produced by artificial con- 

We come now to a new and distinct era in the 
history of this important invention, and in noticing 
the labours of Mr. Watt, we may almost speak 


of his engine as the gigantic offspring of a hand 
giving birth to an automaton, no less powerful 
than that of the fabled enchanters of the olden 

Mr. Watt's first great improvement in the en- 
gine of Newcomen may be best understood by 
reference to the annexed diagram, in which a re- 
presents the cylinder, and b its plug or piston 
made to fit air-tight. The pipe d is furnished 
with a stop-cock, by means of which the elastic 
vapour is occasionally admitted, A similar pipe, 
furnished with a stop- cock aty, passes from the 
other side of the cylinder, and enters the vessel g ; 
e being the reservoir to contain water. 


If we now suppose the piston at the bottom of 
the cylinder, and steam admitted by the pipe d, 
its expansive force will elevate the piston, and 
when the air is expelled, the whole internal cavity 
of the tube will be filled with condensible vapour. 
On closing the steam-cock, and opening that con- 
nected with the vessel g, a portion of the vapour 
will immediately expand itself, and coming in 
contact with the cold sides of the vessel, a por- 
tion of its heat must be absorbed by the water 
at e. A new portion of steam then descends, 
and is also condensed, and indeed the same pro- 
cess continues till the whole of the steam is drawn 
from the tube. A vacuum being thus formed, 
the pressure of the atmosphere will preponderate, 
and the piston rod be depressed to the bottom of 
the tube. On closing the stop-cocky, a new 
supply of steam may be admitted by the other 
pipe, and after raising the piston, the process of 
condensation may be readily repeated. 

The advantages that arise from this mode of 
forming a vacuum are very considerable, not the 
least important of which, is a saving of nearly 
half the fuel. 

In the old engine, the condensing water must 
reduce the temperature of the internal surface of 
the cylinder to that of the atmosphere, before a 
vacuum could be produced, and when the con- 
densing water was applied more sparingly, the 
elastic vapour remaining in the cylinder was found 
to materially reduce the pressure of the air ope- 
rating above. From this it will be seen that the 
great advantage of Mr. Watt's apparatus consists 
in performing the condensation in a separate ves- 



sel, so that the cylinder is always preserved at 
the temperature of boiling water. 

Having thus produced a vacuum without the 
intervention of condensing water beneath the pis- 
ton, Mr. Watt's next improvement consisted in 
closing the top of the cylinder, so that the piston- 
rod worked through an air-tight hole in the centre 
of the cap ; and to ensure the necessary pressure 
within the cylinder, steam w r ith an elastic force 
greater than that of the atmosphere was admitted 
above the piston. The atmospheric engine of 
Neweomen was thus converted into a steam-en- 
gine, and its power was easily regulated. 

A cylinder and piston constructed on the most 
improved principles may now be examined. 



In the annexed diagram, the cylinder A is fur- 
nished with a steam-tight piston, the rod of which 
is supposed to be connected with the working 
beam. B represents the pipe which admits the 
steam from the boiler, the quantity being regu- 
lated by the throttle valve c, and the elastic va- 
pour is now passing through the box d d, so that 
it enters beneath the piston. At the same instant 
of time, a communication is formed through the 
aperture m n to the pipe p, which leads to the 
condenser. When the piston reaches the top of 
the cylinder, the sliding bridge or valve has its 
direction changed, so that the pipe r, and conse- 
quently the bottom of the cylinder, is connected 
with the condenser, while a passage is opened from 
the pipe m n to the steam box. Thus a commu- 
nication is alternately made between the top and 
bottom of the piston. 

The slide-valve represented above is not inva- 
riably employed in the double-acting engines, and 
we frequently find the annexed contrivance re- 
sorted to, in some of the best engines. 


The pipe 14 represents the passage to the cy- 


linder, and a communication is now opened with 
the steam chamber g. The raised valve is per- 
forated and a similar valve beneath closed by the 
rod which passes through it. On closing the 
valve g, the lower valve h is opened, and a free 
passage between the condensing pipe beneath and 
the upper part of the cylinder is the result. If 
we now suppose a similar double valve placed at 
the bottom of the cylinder, it will easily be seen 
that an effect similar to that described in the 
sliding valve will be produced. 

The speed of the engine is regulated by a very 
ingenious contrivance introduced by Mr. Watt, 
called the governor, and represented beneath. 

The balls i i are supported by the bent levers 
hf, and as they are made to revolve with the fly 
wheel axis, by means of a band passing round the 
pulley c, any increase in the speed of the engine 
will cause the balls to diverge. The moment this 


takes place, the shorter arm of the lever n is de- 
pressed, and as the extremity I is connected with 
the steam-pipe by the throttle valve, the supply 
of steam must of necessity be diminished, and 
the speed of the engine reduced. 

As the working power of the engine depends 
very materially on the accurate fitting of the pis- 
ton, it may be adviseable to examine some of the 
modes of effecting this important object. 

Mr. Smeaton, who greatly improved the at- 
mospheric engine, coated the under side of the 
piston with elm or beech planks about two inches 
thick ; the wooden bottom being screwed to the 
iron with a double thickness of flannel and tar, to 
exclude the air between the iron and the wood. 
By the adoption of this improvement, its property 
of conducting heat was reduced, and the wood 
having been previously jointed, with the grain 
radiating in all directions from the centre, was 
not liable to expand by the heated steam. This 
piston was kept air-tight by a small stream of 
water continually falling on its upper surface ; 
but in Mr. Watt's engine he was compelled to 
make the piston fit tight without any other media 
than the oil that was employed to lubricate it. 

The piston is now cast with a projecting rim 
at bottom, which is fitted as accurately as pos- 
sible ; the part above the rim being about four 
inches less than the cylinder, thus leaving a cir- 
cular groove for the hemp which forms the pack- 
ing. To keep this in its place, a lid or cover is 
put over the top of the piston, with a projection 
which enters into the circular groove for the 
packing, and pressing upon it, the plate is forced 


down by screws, which work into the body 
of the piston. By this means the packing is 
made to fill the internal part of the cylinder with 
tolerable accuracy, and thus prevents for a time 
any steam passing between the piston and the 
cylinder. When, however, by continued working, 
the packing ceases to fit, it occasions a waste of 
steam, to remedy which, the cylinder cap must be 
removed, and as this is attended with a consider- 
able degree of trouble to the engine-man, it is 
seldom attended to till a considerable loss of 
power has arisen. There are two improvements 
on the piston, by which this inconvenience is to a 
certain extent obviated. 

In the first, by Mr. Woolfs, each of the screws 
is furnished with a wheel or nut, and these are 
all connected together by means of a central 
wheel, working loose upon the piston-rod in such 
a manner, that if any one of the screws be turned, 
a similar motion is given to the remainder. 

In a piston thus constructed, there is little dif- 
ficulty in drawing down the packing, by applying 
a key to the square head of the projecting screw, 



employed to communicate with the rest: the 
key-hole being afterwards closed by a cap. 

The second contrivance is by Mr. Barton, a 
diagram of which, accompanied by a piston as it 
is usually constructed, is shewn beneath. 

In the first piston, the screws i i are made to 
compress the packing h h, by acting upon the 
plate n n, the piston-rod r being firmly attached 
by the nut c. 

In one of the modifications of Barton's piston, 
on the contrary, the packing is dispensed with, as 
the flexible springs t t t press upon the wedges 
c c c, and expand the intermediate plates. A 
break-joint is readily formed, by making the se- 
ries of plates double ; the second set of plates 
falling upon the spaces which occur between the 
first row. 

The action of the high pressure engine depends 
upon the great elastic force acquired by steam, 
when exposed to the action of heat at very high 
temperatures. It may indeed be considered as a 
return to the principle of Brancas and the Mar- 
quis of Worcester, as in this engine no condensing 
water is necessary ; and it acts merely by the 
elastic or repellant force of steam. In the high 



pressure engine, the condenser is taken away ; 
and the steam, instead of being converted into 
water by artificial cold in a close vessel, is allowed 
to escape into the atmosphere from one side of 
the piston, while it is acting forcibly on the other. 
The advantages of the high pressure engine 
over that used with a condenser, are cheapness in 
construction, and a saving of the whole expense 
attendant on procuring a sufficient supply of con- 
densing water, which in some cases is an object 
of considerable importance. 

In the annexed section, the piston B passes 
through an air-tight stuffing box, and the steam 
is entering beneath it, by the four-way cock E. 
If we now suppose the piston at the top of the 
cylinder, a new arrangement of the communicating 



pipe takes place, as the steam which was beneath 
escapes, while a fresh supply enters above. The 
four-way cock may be best explained by a section 
in the opposite direction. Two pipes are seen at 
the lower extremity of the cock, which communi- 
cate with the upper and under sides of the piston. 
The aperture D opens to the air, while the pipe 
C serves for the admission of steam from the 


We have now to notice the double cylinder en- 
gine constructed by Woolfs, which will be found, 
by reference to the diagram in the preceding page, 
to consist of a high pressure cylinder, connected 
with a condensing apparatus. 

A and B represent the two cylinders, in the 
larger of which the steam is allowed to expand 
itself, after passing from the high pressure cylin- 
der B. The steam, which in the first instance is 
of considerable elasticity, is admitted to the cy- 
linder B, by the tube and valve E, and entering 
the cylinder above its piston, impels it to the 
bottom. When this is effected, a communication 
is opened between the upper part of the cylinder 
B, and the under side of the cylinder A. The 
communication between the cylinder B and the 
steam-pipe E, is now reversed, and the steam is 
made to press on the under side of the piston B, 
a communication being at the same time formed 
between the upper part of the cylinder A, and the 
pipe leading to the condenser which is seen be- 
neath. So that if we suppose the two pistons 
connected by means of their rods with one end 
of an ordinary working beam, the upward and 
downward strokes of each will be performed at 
the same time. We have hitherto considered 
the steam as passing direct from the boiler to the 
cylinder B ; this, however, is in reality effected by 
a more circuitous route, as it is in the first instance 
admitted to the steam-case of the larger cylinder 
by the pipe c, and passing round a similar case, 
encircling the cylinder B, it is then made to enter 
at E. The pipe at D is merely intended to form 
a communication for carrying back to the boiler 



any water that may be produced by condensation 
in the steam-case, before the engine arrives at a 
proper temperature for working. 

Having thus briefly examined the nature of 
Mr. Woolf 's engine, it may now be advisable to 
revert to the boiler, by which he proposes to gene- 
rate steam of sufficient elasticity for the use of 
the small cylinder, which requires elastic vapour 
of great expansive force. The boiler, represented 
by the diagram beneath, consists of a series of 
tubes, of cast-iron, connected by screw-bolts with 
the under side of a larger vessel A A, communi- 
cating with the engine. The upper boiler is fur- 
nished with four, and in some cases, with five 
apertures ; the first of which is intended for the 
admission of water, to supply the waste which 
continually arises from evaporation. The safety 
valves, man-hole, and water-pipe are also shewn. 



The mode of setting this boiler is also of con- 
siderable importance, as it is advisable to give a 
long and waving course to the chimney. 


boiler, while 

passage of 

A still represents the principal 
figures 1,2, 3, c. indicate the 
the flame and heated air ; a section of the chim- 
ney being shewn at o. 

The steel-yard safety-valve which was employ- 
ed in all the early engines is simple, and the na- 
ture of its construction may readily be understood. 
A represents a portion of the upper part of the 
boiler ; B the safety-valve or plug made to fit air- 
tight on the valve-seat beneath ; c the lever 
working on its axis at D, and furnished with a 
moveable weight E, adjusted to balance the pres- 
sure of steam within the boiler. 



When steam of great elasticity is required, the 
weight is placed at the extremity of the lever, 
and as such, acts with greater force on the safety- 
valve, than when removed to a point nearer to 
the axis on which it revolves : so that should low 
pressure steam, or that which has a less expan- 
sive force, be required, it will only be necessary 
to remove it nearer towards the axis on which it 

The lever and balance-ball safety valve al- 
ready described, appear but little calculated for 
those engines in which high pressure steam is 
employed, as the engine-man, in an over anxious 
zeal for the full performance of the machinery 
confided to his care, has been frequently known 
to increase the internal pressure of a large boiler 
many thousand pounds beyond the resistance to 
which it was originally proved. To prevent a 
recurrence of those accidents, which first drew 
the attention of the legislature to this important 
part of the engine, it appears advisable to inclose 
the safety-valve in an iron case, of which a sec- 
tion is annexed. 

The valve B in this case rests upon a conical 
seat in the boiler A, and is furnished with a series 
of small moveable plates lettered c, which are 
K 2 


employed to increase or diminish the entire weight 
of the safety-valve, the whole being covered by 
the box D; and as this is pierced with a number 
of small holes, the steam readily escapes when the 
expansive force exceeds the resistance offered by 
the loaded valve. 

The patent revolving wheel invented by Mr. 
Masterman, appears to promise the best results 
of any rotatory engine yet invented, the friction 
being much less than in any other apparatus in 
which steam is employed as a prime mover. In 
this engine, Mr. Masterman proposes to employ 
water, or the fluid metal mercury as the immedi- 
ate agent, which he effects by inclosing it in the 
tubular rim of a large wheel, furnished with valves 
opening in one direction. This wheel, as is shewn 
in the opposite diagram, is made to revolve on a 
hollow axis connected with the steam boiler. The 
arms or spokes which radiate from the axis are 
also hollow ; and on the admission of steam from 
the boiler, it is conducted through the arm imme- 
. diately opposite, and entering the rim of the wheel, 
comes in contact with, and presses against the 
column of water beneath and the closed valve 
above the arm. The water being previously 
heated to the boiling point, no condensation en- 
sues, but the whole weight of water, which was 
previously balanced in two columns of equal 
height, is driven, by the pressure of the steam, to 
the side opposite to that at which the elastic 
vapour entered, and that side of the wheel will 
necessarily preponderate. If this process be re- 
peated, the steam being allowed to blow through 
each radiating arm in succession, a continuous 


rotatory motion will be produced. Should it be 
advisable to employ steam of less elasticity, a 
condenser may be added, and that too without 
materially increasing the expense. 

The application of steam-engines to the propel- 
ling of carriages on the public road, has hitherto 
been considered as a refinement in mechanics, 
rather to be wished for than a matter of reason- 
able expectation. The locomotive engine was first 
employed for this purpose by Messrs. Trevithick 
and Vivian, in 1802 ; and it found a ready intro- 
duction to the mining districts where rail-roads 
are general. In some cases, five, six, and even 
ten waggons laden with coal are dragged up an 
inclined plane by means of these vehicles ; and of 


course impelled by a high pressure engine, from 
the utter impossibility of carrying condensing 
water in a moveable vehicle. 

An engine of four horses' power, employed by 
Mr. Blenkinsop, impelled a carriage lightly loaded 
on a rail-road at the rate of ten miles an hour, 
and when connected with thirty coal waggons, 
each weighing more than three tons, its average 
rate was about one-third of that pace. 

When the locomotive engine was first tried, it 
was found difficult to produce a sufficient degree 
of re-action between the wheels and the tract 
road ; so that the wheels turned round without 
propelling the vehicle. This inconvenience was, 
however, obviated by Mr. Blenkinsop, who, when 
he adopted the locomotive engine, took up the 
common rails, on one side of the whole length of 
the road, and replaced them by a series of racks, 
or rails, furnished with large teeth. The impel- 
ling wheel of the engine was made to act in these 
teeth, so that it continued to work in a rack 
which insured a sufficient degree of re-action. 

From the great weight of an ordinary locomotive 
engine as well as the construction of its impelling 
wheel, it must be evident that the employment of 
this species of prime mover on the public roads 
would be in the highest degree destructive ; and 
as such that its use will for some years to come 
be partially confined to the mining districts, in 
which the greatest facilities are offered for its 
general adoption. Indeed, we find in one neigh- 
bourhood alone, and within a space of less than 
thirty square miles, more than twenty miles of 
road admirably adapted for this species of con- 


veyance ; and it is a well known fact, that there 
are many situations in which iron rail-roads 
might be advantageously employed, in which it 
would be quite impossible to open a navigable 
canal. In illustration of the above fact, it may be 
proper to state, that a company, with a large 
capital, is now forming for the express purpose 
of facilitating the conveyance of goods by locomo- 
tive engines. 

The mode of applying the steam-engine to the 
purposes of navigation is equally simple with its 
employment in our manufactures. 

Tt is generally supposed that the steam-boat is 
of very recent invention ; on the contrary, how- 
ever, the possibility of employing steam as a prime 
mover in the propelling of vessels was suggested 
as far back as the reign of Charles I. 

In one of the old tracts preserved in the library 
of the London Institution there is a very curious 
representation of a steam-boat, constructed by an 
engineer of the name of Hulls. And this indi- 
vidual, now so little known, was undoubtedly the 
first who applied a steam-engine to the purpose 
of navigation. 

To impel a vessel by this means, two paddle 
wheels, like those used in an under-shot water- 
wheel, are connected by means of a long axis and 
crank, with the working beam of the steam-en- 
gine ; and if this motion is not found sufficiently 
rapid, a wheel and pinion are added, which, 
although it decreases the effective power of the 
engine, yet increases the velocity of the paddle 

To illustrate the great advantages possessed 


by the steam-engine, even in its rudest state, 
over every other species of prime mover yet enu- 
merated, it may now be advisable to examine its 
effective force when employed in the working of 
pumps. It has been found that one hundred 
weight of coals burned in an engine on the old 
construction, would raise at least twenty thousand 
cubic feet of water twenty-four feet high ; an en- 
gine with a twenty-four inch cylinder doing the 
work of seventy-four horses. An engine on Capt. 
Savery's plan, constructed by Mr. Keir, has been 
found to raise nearly three millions of pounds of 
water, and Mr. Watt's engine, upwards of thirty 
millions of pounds the same height. 

To the mining interests this valuable present 
of science to the arts has been peculiarly accept- 
able ; as a large portion of our now most pro- 
ductive mineral districts must long ere this have 
been abandoned, had not the steam-engine been 
employed as an active auxiliary in those stu- 
pendous works. In the draining of fens and 
marsh lands, this machine is in the highest degree 
valuable ; and in England, particularly, it might 
be rendered still more generally useful. In 
practice it has been ascertained that an engine of 
six-horse power will drain more than eight thou- 
sand acres, raising the water six feet in height ; 
whilst the cost of an engine for this species of 
work, including the pumps, will not exceed seven 
hundred pounds. This is more than ten wind- 
mills could perform, at an annual expenditure of 
several hundred pounds ; while, in the former 
case, the outgoings will not exceed one hundred 
and fifty pounds per annum. To the mariner 


also, the steam-engine offers advantages of a no 
less important and novel nature than those which 
have already been described. By its use he is 
enabled to traverse the waters both against wind 
and tide, with nearly as much certainty, and, as 
the machinery is now constructed, with much less 
danger, than by the most eligible road convey- 
ance. It too frequently, however, happens that 
the faults of any new invention are unjustly mag- 
nified, while its real advantages are seldom duly 
appreciated ; and this axiom has been fully veri- 
fied, in the clamour so unjustly raised against the 
application of the steam-engine to nautical pur- 
poses. Accidents are now, however, but of rare 
occurrence ; and it is more than probable, that 
the great improvements which have been made 
in the boiler and safety-valve will effectually se- 
cure these parts of the engine from a recurrence 
of such tremendous explosions as characterised 
the first introduction of steam navigation. And, 
lastly, the political economist must hail with the 
most heartfelt gratification, the introduction of so 
able and efficient a substitute for animal labour 
as the steam-engine. For it has been calculated 
that there are at least ten thousand of these ma- 
chines at the present time at work in Great 
Britain, performing a labour more than equal to 
that of two hundred thousand horses, which, if 
fed in the ordinary way, would require above one 
million acres of land for subsistence ; and this is 
capable of supplying the necessaries of life to more 
than fifteen hundred thousand human beings.* 

* Vide Historical Account of the Steam-engine, by C. F. 



An ingenious foreigner, who lately visited 
England, has published an estimate of the me- 
chanical force set in action by the steam-engines 
of this country. 

He supposes that the great pyramid of Egypt 
required for its erection the labour of more than 
10,000 men for 20 years: but if it were re- 
quired again to raise the atones from the quarries, 
and place them at their present height, the action 
of the steam-engines of England, which are ma- 
naged at most by 36,000 men, would be sufficient 
to produce the same effect in 18 hours. 






LD 21A-60m-3,'65 

General Library 

University of California