mmmmmmm OF i ^ I.i It 1. \., 1. ¥ 1 A^rt/ L 1„^' \^ \«*/ .1^ i.«j* l,w \u J I fl-^ Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2007 with funding from IVIicrosoft Corporation http://www.archive.org/details/centuryofmaryvilOOwilsrich C U o U A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE 1819-1919 A STORY OF ALTRUISM BY SAMUEL TYNDALE WILSON, D.D. FIFTH PRESIDENT OF THE COLLEGE Published by The Directors of Maryville College Maryville, Tennessee 1916 n^^ Ns COPSfRIGHT, IQ16, BY The Directors of Maryville Collkge Maryville, Tennessee Printed by J. J. Little & Ives Company New York DEDICATED TO THE STUDENTS AND BENEFACTORS OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE iv!ir?584 FOREWORD It has been a characteristic of the institution of which this volume treats to win the devotion of its teachers and administrative officers to a degree never exceeded in the case of other institutions of learning. The College has always had connected with its man- agement workers who were so zealous that the in- stitution should efficiently serve its constituency, that they have counted no self-sacrifice or toilsome labor too extreme, if only they could see the College they loved realize their ambitions for it. The most con- spicuous embodiments of this devotion to Maryville College were President Anderson, the founder, and Professor Lamar, the second founder. It was the writer's good fortune to be at first a student and then a colleague of Professor Lamar, who in turn was a student and then a colleague of Dr. Anderson; and so the writer received almost at first hand the story of Maryville, extending from the days of the begin- ning down to the time when he himself entered the faculty of the College. This story he has long felt it his duty to recount for the future sons and daugh- ters of Maryville, but not until now has he found time which he could devote to the pleasant task. If the lines in this character sketch of Maryville should seem to any to be too ardent, let the fact that vi FOREWORD the writer has been connected with the College as stu- dent, alumnus, and professor for forty-three years explain and extenuate somewhat the warmth of his appreciative devotion. He is happy to know, more- over, that Maryville's sons and daughters at any rate agree with him in believing that there is but one unique Maryville in all the galaxy of the colleges, and that no other institution shines with brighter, kindlier, or truer ray! Although historical, this book is not a history. It is intended, as has already been intimated, to be a character sketch of Maryville College. The century just closing has been one of debate and discord and division in the domains of church and state. So fierce, for example, was denominational jealousy that Mary- ville College, though itself always liberal to all de- nominations, was for twenty-three long years denied a charter by the Legislature of Tennessee. Happily those days of narrowness are forever gone. The days of battling "Old School" and "New School" Presby- terians are also gone. Gone, too, is the ecclesiastical and political bitterness engendered by the Civil War. The College has emerged from a stormy but useful past into a more widely useful present, and has be- fore it what seems to be a vastly more useful future. The writer avails himself of his author's license in omitting from this book the divisive matters of the past. The problems and the opportunities of the fu- ture are surely large enough to engross all the atten- tion and energy of the old friends of the College and of the new allies that are rallying to their assistance. FOREWORD vii The writer takes this opportunity to thank the many friends who have assisted in clearing up obscure points of ante-bellum history. The destruction of almost all the ante-bellum records of the College has greatly increased the difficulty of his task ; and so he is deeply grateful to the friends that have contributed informa- tion that has been so much the more valuable on ac- count of the absence of these official records. Espe- cially would he express his indebtedness to Mr. James A. Anderson, grand-nephew of Dr. Anderson, Mrs. Martha A. Lamar, widow of Professor Lamar, and Major William A. McTeer. The accuracy of the book has profited greatly by the criticisms of eight or more friends of the College that have read the manuscript. The excellence and appro- priateness of the thirty-six illustrations employed in the volume are largely due to Professor Clinton H. Gil- lingham, who spared no pains in their selection and preparation. To all who have, in any way, contributed to the value of this tribute to Maryville, the writer hereby expresses his sincere thanks. CONTENTS Part First. The Ante-Bellum Maryyllle CHAPTER PAGB I. THE GREAT SOUTHWEST AND ITS CHALLENGE. The Southwest of 1800 A. D. — The Land of Prom- ise — "The Land of Do Without" — Pioneer Priva- tions — Pioneer Deprivations — And Loss of Best Things — A Wealth of Young People — A Dearth OF Education — With Danger of Declension — So Busy Making a Living — In Danger of Losing a Life — ^The Challenge to the Patriot — ^The Chal- lenge TO the Philanthropist — The Challenge Accepted by Some 1 II. ISAAC ANDERSON AND HIS VISION. Elect Pedagogues of the Frontier — Disciples of John Knox — Rockbridge County Training Ground — A Scotch Dominie and His Scholar — Isaac Ander- son, Scotch-Irishman — ^His Schooling in the Home — And Under the Dominie — And in Liberty Hall Academy — And Under the "Edwards of Vir- ginia" — The Birth of a Noble Purpose — West- ward, Ho, Andersons! — To Beautiful East Ten- nessee — And to a Broad Vision of Service . . 10 HI. ISAAC ANDERSON AND HIS "LOG COLLEGE." School-Days Ended — School-Teaching Begun — "The Log College," Union Academy, 1802 — The Grassy Valley Building — An Early Country- Life Movement — Perpetual Motion — Extension Work in the Saddle — Ambition to Serve Yet More Widely — A Call to Maryville — ^Transla- tion OF THE Academy — Sam Houston, Academi- cian — "Chaplain Anderson" in War of '12 — Vocational Work by the Fireside .... 20 IV. DR. ANDERSON AND HIS SOUTHERN AND WESTERN SEMINARY. Continued Campaign- ing — Distress at Destitution — Zeal for Educa- tion and Character — Patriotic Statesmanship — ix X CONTENTS CHAPTBB PAGE The Harvard Anxiety Again — The Prophets' Vision Again — How Secure More Educated Leaders? — Self-Multiplication Impossible — Edu- cation OF Imported Students Impossible — Impor- tation OF Educated Impossible — Then Necessary TO Educate Local Students — A Mighty Life Re- solve — An Overture by Union Presbytery — An- swer BY THE Synod of Tennessee — Worthy Fron- tier Architecture — Plans and Specifications — Notable Builders — **Dr. Anderson was Duly Chosen" — Genesis 31 V. DAYS OF CREATION. Divine Providence and His Agent — (1) Let There Be Teachers — (2) Let There Be Students — (3) Let There Be a Local Habitation — (4) Let There Be Food and Raiment — (5) Let There Be Intellectual Culture — (6) Let There Be Moral Character — ^To These Ends, A College Endowment 47 VI. DAYS OF PROVIDENCE. An Education Provided for All — Irrespective of Denomination — Irre- spective OF Poverty — ^Help Through the Board- ing-House — Self-Help on the College Farm — Board Bill, Three Cents a Day! — Plain Living, High Thinking — A Model Schoolmaster — A Princely Preacher — A Father to His Students — His Good Wife a Mother to Them — "The Mary- viLLE Spirit*' He Created: (1) Breadth of Human Interest — (2) Thorough Scholarship — (3) Manly Religion — (4) Unselfish Service — ^A Worthy Out- put 56 VII. THE TEACHERS THAT SERVED. The Founder AT First Alone — ^Then Student Assistants — ^Then One or Two Colleagues — Usually a Triumvirate — Darius Hoyt — Fielding Pope — John S. Craig, D.D. — John J. Robinson, D.D. — ^Thomas Jeffer- son Lamar — Dr. Anderson Rests from his Labors — Dr. Robinson, the Second President — Few Pro- fessors BUT Large Service 72 Vra. THE FRIENDS THAT HELPED. Bricks Without Straw — Professors Without Salaries — ^How They Existed — ^The Work of the Agents — Current Help — The First Professorship Fund — The Sec- CONTENTS xi HAPTER PAOB OND Professorship Fund — Scholarship Subscrip- tions — Faithful Treasurers — Difficulty in Se- curing Teachers — ^The Teachers the Greatest Helpers 85 IX. THE PLANT THAT HAD TO SERVE. The Log Academy — "The Little Brown House" — ^Thb Brick House with Six Fireplaces — The Board- ing-House and Farm Buildings — ^The "New" Col- lege Frame Building — "The Brick College" — The Old Stone Church — Dream Buildings on **The South Hills" — ^Total Property at Out- break OP War 94 X. CRISES AND THE CATACLYSM. A Continuous Crisis — Crises Through Attempts at Removal — Crisis of the Fifties — The Seminary Depart- ment Dormant — College Department Expanded — Broadening Field — Work of Theological Depart- ment — Work of College Department — Work of Preparatory Department — Forty Times One is Forty — Bugle Call to Arms — Inter Arma Silent Scholce — The Cataclysm lOS Part Second. The Post-Bellum Maryyille I. COLLEGE RUINS.— 1865-1869. A Dismal Scene- Gloom AND Grief — Dilapidation and Desolation — A War-Ravaged People — A Glimmering Ray of Hope — A Synodical Inquest — Synodical Lamenta- tions — Unsalaried Devotion — The Reopening Amid the Ruins — Small Salvage — Significant Sal- vage — Maryville's Second Founder — ^His First CoLABORERs— Clearing Away the Ruins — ^The New Site and Campus 115 n. COLLEGE RE-CREATION. -- 1869-1880. Re-Cre- ATioN NOT "Reconstruction" — Dr. Bartlett, the Third President — Rev. G. S. W. Crawford, a Fourth Professor — Anderson, Baldwin, and Me- morial Halls — "Thus High Uplifted Beyond Hope" — The Glories of the Small College — "Contented with Little" — A Decade of Nu- merical Plenty — But of "Toil and Trouble" — And of Sore Financial Famine — And op Old- Time Problems Revived 128 xii CONTENTS CHAPTEB PAGE III. COLLEGE ENDOWMENT. — 1880-1884. Crushing Burdens — Maryville's Jean Valjean — Endowment Sought — The Weary Years of Strain — And of Hope Deferred — The Final Achievement — ^Wil- liam Thaw and William E. Dodge — Preserved Smith and Sylvester Willard, M.D. — A Decisive Victory — But Won at Great Cost — The Lamar Memorials — ^The Chief Memorial .... 138 IV. COLLEGE EVOLUTION. — 1884-1901. Evolution Caused by Endowment — Development of Course AND Force — Chairmen of the Faculty — Dr. Board- man, THE Fourth President — Willard Memorial, 1890 — The Fa yer weather Providence, 1891-1907 — Its Incalculable Service — Its Aid to Permanent Improvements — Fayerweather Science Hall — The Romance of Kin Taka.hashi — Bartlett Gymnasium and Y.M.C.A. Hall, 1895 — The Heroism of Kin Takahashi 148 V. COLLEGE EXPANSION.— 1901-1919. Dr. Wilson, the Fifth President — Expansion Seen to be Neces- sary — The President Enters the Field — Miss Henry Seeks Scholarships, 1903 — Her Brilliant AND Beneficent Life — The Voorhees Gift of $100,000, 1905 — Voorhees Chapel and Music Hall, 1906— The Forward Fund of $227,000, 1908— The General Education Board — Generous Donors — Services of Dean Waller — Services of the Treas- urers — Major Cunningham — Carnegie and Pear- sons Halls — The Bible in the Curriculum — Bible Training Department — ^The Home Economics De- partment, 1913 — Growth of Other Departments — Third Stories, Pearsons and Science, 1912-1913 — The Swimming Pool, 1915 — ^The New Carnegie Hall, 1916 — ^The Centennial Forward Fund, 1916- 1919— The General Education Board Again, 1916 — Philosophy of the Expansion. . . . 159 VI. MARYVILLE'S COLLEGE STANDARDS. The De- sign Involved High Standards — Seminary Con- stitution Revealed Them — Ante-Bellum Profes- sors Embodied Them — Curriculum of 1866 Ad- vanced Them — ^Thenceforward a Steady Advance — A Thoroughly Trained Faculty — Added Funds, Raised Standards — Four Years' Preparatory CONTENTS xiii chapter page Course — Separation of Preparatory and Cod- LEGE — Usefulness op the Preparatory Depart- ment — Standards of the Preparatory Depart- ment — Growth of the College Department — Standards of the College Department — ^Theoretic Standards, Actual Standards — Moral Standards OF the Highest — Teachers' Support of Stand- ards — Directors' Support of Standards — ^Stu- dents' Support of Standards 181 VII. MARYVILLE'S STUDENT BODY. "Southern and Western" Students — Mountain and Valley Stu- dents — Scotch-Irish American Students — First Women Students, 1867 — Matriculates from Many States — Earnest Young People — Self-Reliant and Industrious — Lithe-Limbed and Clean-Souled — ^Literary Societies — Student Publications — The Y.M.C.A., 1877--THE Y.W.C.A., 1884— Other Or- ganized Religious Work — Athletics — Other Ac- tivities — Esprit'de-Corps — College Colors, Songs, and Yells 193 VIII. MARYVILLE'S HELPING HAND. Maryville Was Founded to Help — Helps by Economy of Adminis- tration — ^Helps by General Inexpensiveness — Helps by Low Tuition Charges — ^Helps by Giving Board at Cost — ^Helps by Giving Indoors Self- Help — Helps by Giving Outdoors Self-Help — Helps by Renting Text-Books — Helps by Its Loan Funds — ^Helps by Its Permanent Scholarships — Helps by Its Current Scholarships — Helps by Caring for the Health — Helps by an All-Per- vading Altruism 210 IX. MARYVILLE'S MANHOOD PRODUCT. Brawn Manhood — Brain Manhood — Character Manhood — With Its Negative Qualities — With Its Positive Qualities — "The Maryville Spirit" Again — De- veloped BY THE Efforts of a Century — By a Mis- sion-Filled Teaching Force — By a Reverent Col- lege Atmosphere — Preeminently by the February Meetings — With Their Unique History — With Their Able and Wise Leaders — With Their Vision GoDWARD — With Their Vision Manward — And WITH Their Transforming Ideals — ^That Become Life-Purposes 224 xiv CONTENTS CHAFTEB PAGE X. MARYVILLE'S SECOND CENTURY. Rich Heri- tage OF THE First Century : (1) Location — (2) His- tory — (3) Character — (4) Mission — A Double Ju- bilee FOR THE Great Past! — All Hail to the Great- er Future! — ^The Policy for the Second Century: (1) Try to Do as Well as in the Past — (2) And Far Better Than in the Past — (3) Let Maryvillb Be a College — (4) A Whole College — (5) And Nothing But a College — (6) And the Best Possible College — (7) Serving All the Needs of Its Con- stituency — (8) In the Historic "Maryville Spirit" — (9) Always in the Spirit of the Great Teacher — ^The Purpose of the Second Century. 236 APPENDIX. I. General College Officla^ls, 1819-1919— II. Post-Bellum Teachers — III. The February Meetings ........ 249 LIST OP ILLUSTRATIONS Mabtvillb College Near the Close of the Centubt OPP06ITX PAQB Db. Isaac Anderson, Founder and First President . . 12 Union Academy, "The Log College" 22 The Seminary and "The Frame College" 84 Four Generations of Maryville Students 48 Rev. Thomas Brown, a College Builder 62 Prof. John Sawyer Craig 78 Dr. John J. Robinson, Second President 90 "The Brick College" 100 Prof. Thomas Jefferson Lamar, Second Founder . . . 114 Dr. p. Mason Bartlett, Third President 120 A Miracle of College Re-Creation 126 Prof. Crawford and His Successor, Dean Waller . . . 130 Dr. Nathan Bachman, Father of the February Meetings 134 First Post-Bellum Missionaries 138 Re-Builders of Maryville College 142 The Lamar Memorials — ^Hospital and Library .... 146 Dr. Samuel Ward Boardman, Fourth President . . . 150 Ejn Takahashi: "Let Us Rise Up and Build" .... 154 XV zri LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS FAQB Knr AND THE Students: "So Built We the Wall" . . . 156 Km AND the Fibst Football Team 158 Dr. Samuel Tyndale Wilson, Fifth President .... 160 Margaret E. Henry, the Students' Champion .... 162 Ralph Voorhees, Donor 164 A Group of Views in 1916 170 A Corner in One of the Laboratories 178 Another Group of Views in 1916 184 Some Home-Economic Students 196 Literary Society Halm 200 The Students' Ministerial Association in 1916 .... 204 In the Cooperative Boarding Club 214 Maryville's General Assembly Quartet 224 Dr. Edgar A. Elmore, Chairman of the Directors . . 228 "Good-Bye" at the Close OF A February Meeting . . 234 "The Place Is Too Strait for Us" 238 "A Bigger and Better Maryville" 244 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE PART FIRST: THE ANTE-BELLUM MARYVILLE CHAPTER I The Great Southwest and Its Challenge Before the Great West had received its name and had excited the imagination and largely engrossed the attention of the American people, ^i£?n*A^r* there already existed, on the one of 1800 A. D. , , ur- . XT /u ^ -p • hand, a Great Northwest Terri- tory,'' and, on the other, "a Great Southwest" region, that were also the cynosure of many eager eyes. From 1790 to 1796 the region afterward called Ten- nessee was known as "the Southwest Territory," but *'the Great Southwest" included much more than that one territory. In 1800 the region extending from the Smoky Mountains westward to the Mississippi River and southward to the Gulf of Mexico, including, roughly speaking, what is now covered by the States of Tennessee, Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi, was ^ A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE known as the Great Southwest. Although containing 200,150 square miles of area, it was occupied by a population of only 277,138. By 1 810 the same region had a population of 554,512; and by 1820 its popula- tion amounted to 967,105. It is with this Southwest that we have to deal. The Southwest was in that day the land of promise. It promised immediate benefits. There were cheap farms and healthful homes for the The Land of immigrants and for their children. Promise r^ \. ^u a a - It was to the more crowded regions of the seaboard and the adjoining inland country an alluring ultramontane Italy, or a land of Canaan, with vines and fig trees, and milk and honey. It promised not only immediate good but also later benefits. There would be comfort and competence in coming days when the wilderness had been subdued and the land had been filled with homes and, as Livingstone would have phrased it, with ''the pleasant haunts of men." And this Southwest land also promised ultimate bene- fits of great value. It would be a land of destiny, filled with the wealth ''of Ormus or of Ind," as the course of empire should press westward. It was, in- deed, a land of boundless promise. However, it was by no means as yet a land of reali- zation, promising though it was. It was rather what even more than a century later its "The land of purely mountain communities have Do Without" I 11 J u 1 J r ^ uu been called — a land of do with- out." In fact all frontier lands have been lands of necessary makeshifts and ingenious substitutes, but THE GREAT SOUTHWEST 3 especially of the stern limiting of one's wants to his bare necessities and to the even narrower possibilities of the case. This absence of the comforts and the commodities of civilization is the price paid for their precedence by the advance agents of civilization. The Great Southwest was a land of *'do-without" luxuries, and almost of *'do-without" necessities. The present-day descendant of the pioneer, if trans- lated by genii to the pioneer times and the log home of -,. ^ • X- his ancestor, would look in vain Pioneer Pnvations , , . - , . . , , about the simple cabin and the log barn for most of those utilities that are now deemed indispensable to the comfort of the home and to the management of the farm. But there were also in the isolated frontier homes of the Southwest many days when even hunger haunted the brave founders of em- pire, just as there had been years of broken slumber and anxious fear on account of "the red peril" that had menaced them by day and by night. And these pioneer privations were felt the more keenly by some who experienced them, because in their old homes be- yond the mountains or beyond the seas they had lived in comparative quiet and comfort. Privations, however, are not so serious as are de- privations. Privations are usually transient and tem- porary; deprivations are apt to be more permanent. There were privations involved in rioneer ^.j^^ ^ constitution of the loer Depnvations , -^ , .,1 age; but so long as near the log- cabin home, the log barn, and the log court-house, there were also a log schoolhouse and a log church, 4 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE the sorest deprivations had not been experienced. But there were many places in the new and wild South- west where the intellectual and spiritual interests of the people were either entirely unprovided for or very imperfectly provided for. In such communities a piti- ful poverty of the best things of life prevailed; the deprivation of the essential conditions of wholesome and normal life prevented those best things of life from being developed. And there were many com- munities that suffered such pioneer deprivations. The people of the extensive territory comprised in the Southwest of 1800 had in many sections, of neces- sity, as a result of frontier conditions and of the breaking of old ties, and by rea- B^ t Th*^ ^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^ isolation and the reck- lessness of the frontier, lost many of the best things that had belonged to them in the old country and in their first homes in America. Among these best things that disappeared were the tra- ditions of the past — traditions national, racial, and family — ^traditions that in many cases were laid aside, and, for lack of use, were forgotten, and finally lost. Some of these traditions, it was true, might better have been lost ; but most of them were invaluable and purchased by their ancestors at great price. There, too, were the education and the considerable degree of culture of the fathers and mothers that were sometimes largely lost to the sons and daugh- ters because these were brought up in an unfavorable environment. But chief of all was the loss a sad and tragic one when a family's religion failed to stand the THE GREAT SOUTHWEST 5 test of transplantation into a new and rough country. The Southwest land, however, was happy in the fact that It did not lose its virile stock. Great fam- ilies of young people who, in many cases, grew up to be stalwart men and strong Wg'^People ^°'"^"' swarmed about the log houses of that period. The country was but sparsely settled, but a populous generation was scattered all over it and multiplied with great and divinely-blessed rapidity. Whatever deficit of assets might exist in other respects, there was a wealth of assets to be found in the young people that were crowded in the log-cabin homes of the land. That was long before the days of the free public- school idea, and the State did nothing for education. What schools there were available, were article, or subscription schools ; and the pres- r -nj J.* sure of toil, the absence of money, of Education 1 , , / . , ^ . the lack of interest and of inter- ested leaders, and the imperfect supply of even poorly- equipped teachers tended to reduce to a minimum the number of such schools. With few books or no books in the home, and with no school in the com- munity, and with little leisure on the part of the parents, there was many an instance of intellectual famine for the new generation where there had been a sufficiency of education for the older generation. "How can I, except some man should teach me?'' was the question of the wayfaring man. Where was the Philip that was to teach the frontiersman? 6 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE A real and threatening danger here! What will become of the land if its people perish for lack of knowledge? No schools or poor Witn Danger schools meant declension in intel- 01 Declension .. , .. 11. . ligence, education, and culture ; de- terioration in moral ideals, stamina, and character; and disintegration and dilapidation of the political structure of the Southwest. By the irresistible logic of cause and effect, illiteracy and its consequence, igno- rance, would in their ugly train bring a declension that would, unless checked, ultimately lead many rep- resentatives of a noble race downward even toward degeneracy. It would have been unpatriotic and un- christian and foolish in the extreme to ignore the danger that was impending over the Southwest. The country was yet new, financial capital was yet wanting, and the population, thanks to a kind Provi- dence and a prolific frontier fe- - . .*y maKing cundity, was rapidly increasing. The industrious race that peopled the region lived in the days when as yet primitive methods of farming and manufacture prevailed, and when machinery and steam and electricity had not yet come to add to man's efficiency. It was mainly man power, aided by horse power and ox power, and by some water power, that earned man his livelihood. And this making a living kept the people busy from early cock-crowing till after candle-lighting. So busily were men employed in earning their living that there was real danger in the meantime of their losing their lives. When, in order to win their daily THE GREAT SOUTHWEST 7 bread, they were compelled not merely to work but also to labor and toil and drudge throughout the years, it was easy to be so engrossed as that cometh down from heaven. The daily grind was in danger of crushing the real life out of the soul, even while grinding out bread for the body. And all thoughtful patriots and Chris- tians saw the risk and feared the outcome ; and, pleas- ant it is to say, some of them rendered invaluable service in attempting to ward off the impending dan- ger from the nascent commonwealths of the South- west and from their people. The early settlers of what is now Tennessee were a very patriotic ,and liberty-loving people. They formed for "the Watauga Associa- PtJ'^l^r-^f tion," in 1772, the first written con- stitution made by native Ameri- cans ; and, in 1775, they erected the first geographical division named for him who was to be "the Father of his Country/' but who had then just assumed the command of the army at Boston; and, in 1780, they established, on the Cumberland River, an independent government called "the Cumberland Compact"; and in 1784, in the eastern part of the region, they dared to found "the State of Franklin." This determination to have law and order and liberty was a distinguish- ing mark of the founders of the State; and a high degree of patriotism was bequeathed by them to their sons and successors in leadership. The danger of the occultation, by ignorance and 8 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE its attendant clouds, of the rising sun of liberty and virtue in the Southwest did not escape the alarmed notice of many patriots of Tennessee and the regions beyond. Tennessee had become a State in 1796, the first State to be carved out of the United States ter- ritory, and the patriots of Tennessee wished it to de- velop into an honored commonwealth; and they saw in the menace of illiteracy a challenge to their own patriotism to seek to ward off that menace. While stern necessity kept many good men so busy that they scarcely had time to note the dangers that menaced them, and while the sel- S'^iS'f^ll.^^ *^ fishness of a gross frontier materi- the Philanthropist ,. , ^ , . , . alism made many others entirely in- different to the cause of education and religion, there were many lovers of their kind who were sad of heart and who suffered a holy discontent on account of the dangers that threatened both themselves and the rising generation in the Southwest. They saw in the dearth of educational and religious privileges in the region in which they lived the occasion and cause of the breaking open of a Pandora's box of mischiefs in it. Furthermore, they read in this condition of affairs a summons to their love of man and of God to help to supply the needs of their people and to avert disaster to the state and the church. And many worthy lives were dedicated to the work of saving their adopted and already beloved land of the Southwest. The challenge was, as has just been said, accepted by some patriotic and philanthropic men throughout the THE GREAT SOUTHWEST 9 region; and, against great odds, these worthies ren- dered a service whose beneficent influence was so great as to be beyond the possibility A ^ X J ^^^« of human computation. They Accepted by Some , , . , , , ■; planned for schools, and secured teachers or themselves taught schools, and established churches and secured preachers or themselves became preachers, in order that learning and religion might not perish from the face of the land. The adven- turous and brave pioneers furnished some of these men, while the next generation not only found them just as necessary but also realized that they were needed in larger number than before. To the honor of religion, let it be said that it was the church that saved education, and, of course, religion, in that crisis. The debt of gratitude that the nation owes in other sections of the land to the Christian ministry for the keeping alive of education in the early days is fully recognized on every hand; and certainly no one can question that that debt is a great one in the Southwest, where practically all the teachers of the higher grades and many of the teachers of the lower grades were the preachers who everywhere carried with them, as the tools of their trade, the school book and the Bible. CHAPTER II Isaac Anderson and His Vision The Great Teacher magnified his profession. He said: "Ye call me Teacher, and Lord: and ye say well; for so I am." Many of his Elect Pedagogues followers have tried to do as he of the Frontier , , . , , has done unto them; and so they have taught others the learning both of earth and of heaven. Practically all the early academies and schools of higher education in Tennessee and the Southwest were established by the preachers of the frontier, and, principally, by the Presbyterian preach- ers. The heaven-impelled preacher-educators, Samuel Doak, Hezekiah Balch, Samuel Carrick, Charles Cof- fin, Gideon Blackburn, Isaac Anderson, and others that might be mentioned, left behind them legacies of influence as educators that have enriched the past and the present of the region they loved so truly and served so richly. As almost all of these educators could trace their lineage back, by the way of the North of Ireland, to Scotland, so could the schools that John^Knox ^^^^ established trace their honor- able and lineal descent from the schools of that same land of worthy beginnings. The lO ISAAC ANDERSON AND HIS VISION ii schools in every parish and the college in every notable town, that John Knox and his followers planned for in the Book of Discipline, were the ideals that the American pedagogues of the Southwest tried also to realize. And sad would have been the loss to the frontier had they failed to attempt to carry into effect the program of Knox. At first almost every Presbyterian preacher was also a school-teacher; and every one was the friend and champion of education. Indeed, he was almost invariably the best educated man in his community. To him as a steward of God's grace had been committed not merely the standards of faith but also those of education; and he tried faithfully to fulfill his double ministry. One of the centers of educational interest for the Southwest from which radiated in many directions the influences that were fostered citi5''''S2nfn ^^^^^' "^^^ Rockbridge County, in Ground ^^^ Valley of Virginia. That county was settled almost exclu- sively by Scotch-Irishmen. They brought with them their principles, and tried to perpetuate them by founding schools and churches in which their chil- dren could be disciplined in intellectual culture and, at the same time, indoctrinated with high and worthy moral and religious ideals. They established com- munity schools and even academies in their various congregations. Liberty Hall Academy is the most famous of these schools of Rockbridge County. From this institution many went forth to establish elsewhere in the South- 12 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE west what they had learned to prize under its tuition. The names of Drs. Samuel Carrick, Samuel Doak, Samuel G. Ramsey, and Isaac Anderson are house- hold words in East Tennessee as names of educators or founders of its educational institutions, and they were all educated in Rockbridge County. In the church called New Providence, located on the northern edge of Rockbridge County, the people of the congregation supported a A Scotch Dominie subscription school which was and His Scholar ^ .\ c x u ^ • • a taught by a bcotch dommie. A little lad named Isaac Anderson entered this school as soon as he was old enough to attend; and here he continued in attendance for several years. The dominie was an efficient teacher and his drill was thorough and persistent. He commanded the respect of his pupils. He feared God, and did his utmost to train the children also in the same fear. Every morning he read the Scriptures to them and prayed with them; and throughout the entire day he taught them in a practical way how to realize the chief end of man. It was evident that another Teacher was also present in the school who instructed in heavenly wisdom both teacher and pupil. The lad, Isaac Anderson, merits our attention, for without him the story this book has to tell could not have been written. On March 26, Isaac Anderson, g j^^ ^ farmhouse near New Scotch-Inshman t^ . , a-i 1 j 1 ^ Providence Church, and about twelve miles north of Lexington, Rockbridge County, Virginia, Isaac Anderson was born, the oldest of the Dr„ Isaac Anderson, Founder and First President. ISAAC ANDERSON AND HIS VISION 13 seven children of William Anderson and his wife, Nancy McCampbell Anderson. His ancestors had come from County Down, in the North of Ireland. They were sturdy representatives of that indomitable Protestant Scotch-Irish stock that has always refused to be defeated, but fortunately for the world has gen- erally been on the right side of the issues that have been battled over. Both his great-grandfather, Isaac Anderson, and his great-grandmother, on his paternal side, and his great-grandparents, the Shannons, in the McCampbell line, on his maternal side, were present at the siege of Londonderry in 1688. The Anderson family and the McCampbell family, also of Scotch- Irish stock, with whom they became intimately con- nected, settled in Rockbridge County, Virginia, while it was yet Augusta County and a very new country. William Anderson, his father, besides being a good herdsman and farmer, was a great hunter and a prac- tised rifleman. He was a soldier at Point Pleasant on the Kanawha, and in other Indian campaigns. Nancy McCampbell Anderson, his wife, was born in America in 1757, two years after her parents, James and Mary Shannon McCampbell, came from Ireland to Rock- bridge County, Virginia. William Anderson was a Christian man, and the priest of his family. The fire upon his family altar, according to the law of God, was ^^\h^^H^^^^ always burning; it never went out, even in the busy days of the har- vest. Morning and evening a hymn was sung, a pas- sage of Scripture read, and a fervent prayer oflfered. 14 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE Mr. Anderson gave his children the best school edu- cation the times afforded; but the education given in the home was better than all else. He and his good wife trained their seven children to honor God's day and God's book and God's law. The children were taken to church from the days of infancy, and were guided to walk in wisdom's ways. All of them remained under the parental roof until their maturity, and thus received the full benefit of this long-con- tinued home training. They grew up to be a notable family of tall, large, and well-formed men and women. Isaac, the eldest son, received special and price- less benefit from the guidance given his youthful feet by his maternal grandmother, Mary Shannon Mc- Campbell, who lived in the home and whose special care and favorite he was. She taught him to spell and to read, to love God and to pray to him. She would tell him of her parents' experiences at the siege of Derry, and especially of the rescue of her wounded father from almost certain death through the kind-heartedness of a Catholic girl. Amid the heroic traditions and consistent piety of such a home, Isaac Anderson was prepared for his important life- work. It is not to be wondered at that in such a home there should have been developed seven worthy and substantial men and women of force and usefulness. Of the conspicuous service rendered by Isaac Ander- son this book will have much to say. Three of his brothers, Robert M., William E., and Samuel, were ISAAC ANDERSON AND HIS VISION 15 all able lawyers and judges of circuit courts, making such a galaxy of legal ability as few families could boast; the other brother, James, was a successful farmer, and a colonel of militia ; while the two sisters, Mary and Margaret, married respectively to William McCampbell and Bennet McCampbell, showed their strength of character in the sterling worth of the families they trained for usefulness. The Scotch dominie taught his school in a log house about a mile from the Anderson home. Before Isaac was old enough to attend regularly, Md Under ^^^ neighbor boys would some- the Dominie ^ 1 . , . 1 , times carry him on their backs to the school. There he was deeply impressed with the singing and the praying of the school-teacher, and afterward said that it produced in him "a great and lasting impression for good." The dominie was strict and earnest, and imparted to the children an excellent common-school education. By the time the precocious Isaac was seven years old, it is alleged that the lad could **read any of the less difficult Latin authors." Thus early did he reveal the spirit of a scholar. In 1749 the first classical school west of the Blue Ridge was founded by Robert Alexander, near Green- field, in Augusta County, Virginia. And in liberty ^f^^^. ^^rious changes of location Hall Academy , , . , , and principals the academy was located, in 1785, in a stone building, one mile distant from Lexington. In 1796, President George Wash- ington presented the academy one hundred shares of the James River Company. The name of the school i6 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE was then changed from Liberty Hall Academy to Washington Academy. Washington and Lee Uni- versity is the continuation of this institution. As young Isaac Anderson had enjoyed the best tui- tion in the home and in the subscription school, he now had, in Liberty Hall Academy, the guidance of the best teacher of the Valley, Rev. William Graham, a graduate of Princeton and a very able man. Under him Anderson '^pursued his classical studies with faithfulness, diligence, and success." He entered when fifteen or sixteen years of age, and continued until he completed his studies, which, presumably, cov- ered the course of study then offered. Favored young men were those who were trained by Mr. Graham. After Anderson had completed the course in Wash- ington Academy, for this name was adopted while he was a student, he gave his time for a while to the reading of history and literature. He had now received what the best schools of his neighborhood could give him. To what profession or occupation should he devote his ^^?^^f^^*^® life? While still young he had "Edwards of , , , , ,. . Virginia" passed through deep religious ex- periences that had transformed his views of life. A few years later, in 1797, when seven- teen years old, he united with the New Providence Presbyterian Church, in Rockbridge County. For two years thereafter he debated within himr self the question of a life occupation. At one time he decided to enter the law office of an uncle as a law student, as a cousin had done. But his conscience ISAAC ANDERSON AND HIS VISION 17 seemed to lead him toward the gospel ministry, and, at the end of the two years; he fully and confidently decided to study for the ministry. He promptly presented himself before Lexington Presbytery and was taken under its care as a candi- date for the ministry. As yet there was no theologi- cal seminary in the United States, and, in accordance with the custom of the times^ he studied theology under his pastor. This minister was Rev. Samuel Brown, a learned, logical, and thoughtful divine whose ability had won for him the title of the ''Edwards of Virginia." His illustrious pupil, later on, in his own teaching, adopted the plan of instruction em- ployed by Mr. Brown. It was workable. He also assisted his preceptor in the school which he taught in his congregation, and gained experience there as a teacher that was to be of service to him in coming days. As he pursued his studies in divinity, there de- veloped within him a great determination to do the utmost possible with the life en- NoblfpSpo's ' trusted to him, in the bringing of his fellow men to higher attain- ments in education and character. It was a time of too much dead formalism in the churches; but the unction of this governing purpose marked him as a prophet of better things for the church. The drift of emigration continued down the Shenan- doah Valley and spread out through the outpouring cornucopia of the Southwest. In October, 1801, Wil- liam Anderson, his wife, his parents, his mother-in- i8 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE law, and his children were caught in this drift and removed from Rockbridge County, Virginia, to Knox County, Tennessee. A family cara- es wax , no, ^ ^j^j^ wasrons and cattle and Andersons! ' .^ . j ^u • other possessions, they made their way down the forest-arched roads that led to central East Tennessee, and found them a new home in Grassy Valley, near House Mountain. Westward, southwest- ward, the course of the Scotch-Irishmen had steadily been pouring. In Grassy Valley the Andersons found a beautiful and fruitful section where a good home could be established, and here they planted themselves. Better homes and better farms for the children had thus been sought and found. The Valley of Virginia was a choice region that was now filled with the happy homes of a rapidly in- creasing race. The Valley of East 10 ^eantiiul Tennessee, one of the most re- markable of nature's sheltered and favored preserves to be found in any of the Tem- perate Zones, was decided by William Anderson, who spied out the land before the family removed, to be also one of earth's choicest regions. In 1801 it was still frontier territory, and still seemed, as viewed from its heights, to be covered with almost seamless carpets of green forests. And here, in our day, many of the lineal descendants of the pioneer of 180 1 are grateful for their ancestor's judgment and prescience that selected for the home of the family a modern Garden of Eden in the very center of "God's Coun- try." In the Anderson family burying-ground in ISAAC ANDERSON AND HIS VISION 19 Grassy Valley there lie sleeping, side by side, six gen- erations of the virile race of Andersons. And all of them loved the land they lived in and died in. Out of the narrower valley of their old home, into the broader valley of their new home, the family of Andersons fared ; and also out into -rr^ • ^ ^ o^^ . a broader vision of service moved Vision of Service , ^ , ^ , ^ ., the nrst-Dom of the family. Transplantation has made some trees take on a new life; and the transplantation of Isaac Anderson gave him a new and larger purpose. As he saw more of the world, and of its crying needs, he became the more eager to minister to those needs. There entered also into his theological thinking, at this time, the much-bruited doctrine of "disin- terested benevolence" — a doctrine that in the case of many had only a theoretic and curious interest; but one that in his case was of especial value because powerfully exemplified by his own practice and strongly commended to others by his own unselfish life. Isaac Anderson, twenty-one years of age, had reached manhood's estate; and now there was pre- sented before his eyes what ere long came to be al- most an apostolic vision of service. CHAPTER III Isaac Anderson and His *'Log College" Isaac Anderson, the student, ended his formal school-days soon after he reached his new home in East Tennessee. For a few months T.^ j^ J " ^^^ he continued his theological studies Enaea , ^ ^ , ^ . , under Dr. Samuel Carrick, the president of Blount College, at Knoxville, receiving some help also from Dr. Gideon Blackburn, of Mary- ville. Great men, both of them, and they greatly kindled his intellectual fires. But his school-days came to an end. On Saturday, May 28, 1802, Union Presbytery in session at Eusebia licensed him — its first licentiate to the gospel minis- try; and on Thursday, November 26, of the same year, he was ordained to the ministry by the same presbytery, and was installed pastor of the Washing- ton Church, then just organized in Upper Grassy Val- ley by Dr. Carrick. To this charge was added, later on, the church of Lebanon-in-the-Forks — the forks of the French Broad and Holston Rivers. In a very true sense, however, his school-days never ended. Throughout his life he was an indefatigable student. In spite of almost inconceivably toilsome labors, he devoted himself to study; and even down ISAAC ANDERSON'S "LOG COLLEGE" 21 to old age continued to study hard and exhaustively. Never, strictly speaking, a college student, always was it true that "he was a student out of college." Isaac Anderson's ordination to the ministry served also as a consecration to the work of a teacher. On Sabbaths he ascended the pulpit, Bfun"^^^^^^"^^ and on Mondays, for the week that followed, he ascended the school- room platform. For fifty years he was one of the most diligent and efficient of teachers. He had tried his apprentice hand in the school taught by his pre- ceptor in theology, Rev. Samuel Brown. And now he began his remarkable career as pedagogue in his new East Tennessee home. Just after his ordination he established in Grassy Valley on his farm — the one now owned by the Samuel Harris family — a classical academy or "col- lege," as it was popularly called. He named it Union Academy, perhaps in honor of Union Presbytery, then an organization only four years old. This academy was prosperous and useful to a degree that rewarded and also demanded a large expenditure of labor and self-denial. Among the afterwards more distinguished students of the school were his four brothers, his cousin, Rev. John McCampbell, and Governor "The Log Col- Reynolds of Illinois. The acad- lege," Union ^ , u ^u 1 • Academy, 1802 ^"^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^ embryo theologi- cal seminary, for he had some stu- dents in theology who found it convenient to meet him in the academy building. He had so lively a taste 22 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE for educational work that he was an enthusiastic teacher, and imparted dignity to the work by the method of his performance of it. The academy be- came a frontier Grove of Academus. This school was the predecessor of Maryville College. It might almost properly be said that Maryville College was founded in 1802, for it was the same great teacher who conducted his educational work without a break through his academy, seminary, and college, down to the time of his disability through old age. Dr. Anderson's log academy building was a credit- able one — ^almost a pretentious one — for the times. It was a large, hewn-log, double build- The Grassy Valley j ^j^j . j ^ . seventv two Academy Building i^g, iniriy leet oy seventy, two stories high, and contained four large rooms besides the porch or hallway between the rooms. From this hallway the stairway ascended to the second floor. The seats and tables or desks were, of course, home-made. Large fireplaces were in use during the cold weather. The building com- manded respect for its size, convenience, and com- fort, and was known throughout the county as "Mr. Anderson's log college." There was asi yet no city problem on the Southwest frontier, for there was as yet no city; but there was everywhere a country problem, for ^^^^^^yC^^^*^- all was country, and all was com- Life Movement . , -^ ' , , paratively new and crude and un- made. As a countryman intensely concerned about his neighbors and their children and all their interests, Isaac Anderson devoted himself with head and heart ^ifi ,Kr ISAAC ANDERSON'S "LOG COLLEGE" 23 and hand to the working out of what would now be termed a country-Hfe movement. His community centers were the church, where he led the worship and instructed and inspired the peo- ple on the Sabbath day, and the school, where dur- ing the week days he gave the young people of the community and of other communities as good an edu- cation as could be found in the country districts in those days. From these community centers — the church and the home — ^presided over by this alert and benevolent high priest of religion and education for the frontier, worthy and elevating influences radiated into all the homes of the community, and informed and inspired and conserved the social life, the husbandry, and the moral and political welfare of the people. Rallied around the church and school centers and their in- spiring leader, the people established and developed in their community a country life of such culture and general excellence as has made the community dis- tinguished for its high standing in intelligence, edu- cation, law and order, morality, and religion — in short, for the chief excellencies of our Anglo-Saxon civili- zation. This leader of that early country-life movement was kept very busy in carrying out his program for ■n X 1 ■«*■ X- the uplift and welfare of his com- Perpetual Motion fir-. 1 munity and of its young people. On Sundays he conducted divine worship twice, the people coming from all over the county to attend the forenoon and afternoon services. Dinner was brought 24 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE in baskets. At each service the preacher delivered a well thought-out, instructive, earnest, and eloquent address, which profoundly affected and inspired the hearers. The moral and intellectual nature in man was led to a royal banquet by this kingly preacher. Then during the week came the daily work of the academy, and of the students of divinity, and the re- ligious work of a large community, besides the cares of his own farm, which must be so run as to supply the living that in those days could not be expected to be derived only from church and school. Nothing but ceaseless activity and untiring diligence could carry forward so extensive a program of work. And there was no Monday or Saturday or Sabbath rest that intervened to intermit this endless round of toil. Nothing less than perpetual motion could meet the de- mands of the case; and so this community worker discovered what many have sought after — the secret of perpetual motion. Some men can never be content with their achieve- ments; they can not let well enough alone! Isaac Anderson was one of those rest- Extension Work i^gg geniuses. He saw his own m the Saddle ^ . . , , . community prospering under his leadership, and was thankful. But he looked beyond the limits of his community, and was concerned, deeply concerned, about the communities beyond in which he learned that no one was working, or work- ing efficiently, for their uplift. His eager soul saw these communities like so many Macedonias beckon- ing him to their help. His unselfish spirit could re- ISAAC ANDERSON'S "LOG COLLEGE" 25 turn but one answer to these calls, and that answer must be the response of his presence and help, within the limits of his ability. The annoying difficulty that intervened was the fact that he could not be ubiqui- tous. But, after all, with the aid of perpetual motion a great deal of ground can be covered and a large amount of work can be done. And so into his saddle he vaulted, and went out in search of more service for his people. And he found it awaiting him in large quantities. One summer he rode horseback over most of the mountainous counties of central East Tennessee, and as far westward as Fentress County in Middle Ten- nessee; and everywhere he preached to the people, and pitied their frontier destitution. A biography, "The Life of Whitefield," helped also to kindle his apostolic ambition and enthusiasm, and he determined to supply in his own person the lack of religious lead- ership, so far as he could. To this end he marked out a circuit of about one hundred and fifty miles which he covered during one week every month, for several years, leaving home on Monday morning and returning home on the following Saturday. He spoke sometimes to small companies, and sometimes to thou- sands. In this circuit-riding he was occasionally as- sisted by his cousin, Rev. John McCampbell. This, surely, was an approved form of university extension work, also practised at an early day. It would seem that Isaac Anderson, greedy as he was to do good on a large scale, might have been 26 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE content with the dimensions of his task as he then had it outlined. Pioneer, frontiersman, herds- man, farmer, teacher, circuit-rider, structor, and Protestant father confessor for all the region, his service surely was ex- tensive and intensive enough for any man. And yet in 1811 he wrote as follows: "I have for some years past viewed my situation with silent dissatisfaction. My sphere of action, both as a minister of the gospel and a teacher, has been too limited. I have often felt the conviction that I am not serving my day and generation in any suitable manner." And in order to serve more widely he was willing to sacrifice his own personal and financial interests. After Dr. Anderson had labored in Knox County nine years, he received a call to the pastorate of the New Providence Presbyterian Mfi^Juie Church of Maryville, in the ad- joining county of Blount. This church had been organized probably as early as 1786; and had now been developed, under the powerful ministry of Dr. Gideon Blackburn, into one of the most important churches in East Tennessee. Dr. Blackburn had resigned in 1810, and had removed to Middle Tennessee. Since "the strength and body of Presbyterianism lay there" — about Maryville — and since, for that rea- son, it was a favorable center for the larger work which he coveted, Dr. Anderson felt it his duty to accept this call, although at a financial loss to him- ISAAC ANDERSON'S "LOG COLLEGE^' 27 self. He was ambitious, not for position, but for more work, and thus for more usefulness. He took leave of his parishioners of Washington Church, and of his other church, "Lebanon-in-the- Forks," with great sorrow; and, in the fall of 181 1, began his labors in Maryville. In November, 181 2, he removed to Maryville, taking with him his acad- emy — except its building — and was there installed pas- tor of the church. This pastorate continued until 1856, the year before his death. In Grecian days there were peripatetic teachers in the grove of Academus, but in the days of which we are speaking, both instructor and Translation of academy were peripatetic. Dr. the Academy a j u L ll- a Anderson brought his academy with him the twenty-five miles that lay between Grassy Valley and Maryville. Whether it was still called Union Academy is not certain; but it was the same academy with its identical faculty of one. From the time he removed to Maryville, he was constantly engaged in teaching. Says Professor La- mar: "He first taught in an old academy building then standing on the lot now (1885) occupied by the jail; and then in an old log cabin which stood on the bank of the creek where the railroad culvert now crosses it. He had a few students in theology, and a number in general literature, some of whom be- came prominent in public life, and others equally so in the learned professions." Among the young men attending the academy was the picturesque Sam Houston, afterwards the hero of 28 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE Texas — its military chieftain and the first president of the Lone Star Republic. Mrs. Houston, his widowed mother, had brought her SSidw?' ^^^"^ ^^ "'"^ children from the hive of Rockbridge County, Vir- ginia, and found a home near Baker's Creek, not far from the Little Tennessee River, about twelve miles from Maryville, and on the border line between the whites and the Indians. Young Houston received practically all his school training from Dr. Anderson. As would be expected, he was more interested in playing war and in drilling the boys in military tactics than in study. But he was a young man of remarkably keen and close observa- tion. Dr. Anderson said of him : "Many times did I de- termine to give Sam Houston a whipping for neglect of study, but he would come into the schoolroom bowing and scraping, with as fine a dish of apologies as ever was placed before anybody, and withal so very polite and manly for one of his age, that it took all the whip out of me; I could not find it in my heart to whip him." During the War of '12, volunteers for the cam- paign against the Creek Indians were called for, and Houston quit school, joined the army, and a few months later distinguished himself at the Battle of the Bend of the Tallapoosa, where he received three wounds. Several of his relatives have graduated at Maryville in recent years; one of them, Samuel O. Houston, serving also as a director of the College. ISAAC ANDERSON'S ''LOG COLLEGE" 29 Dr. Anderson, like most of his Scotch-Irish kins- men, was very patriotic. During the War of '12 he was chaplain of a brigade of Ten- tnaplain ^ nessee soldiery that was command- Anderson" in 11^- 1 Axrt •. A^ .1 u War of '12 ^^ ^y General White. At the old Hiwassee Garrison he preached a fervidly patriotic discourse on the text: "Curse ye Meroz, said the angel of the Lord, curse ye bitterly the inhabitants thereof; because they came not to the help of the Lord, to the help of the Lord against the mighty." — Judges y:2^. In this sermon he pointed out the fact that the moral cause of the war and its troubles was to be found in the sins of the American people. These sins the people should immediately abandon. The political cause of the war, however, was *'the injustice of the French and British governments." ''As it regards the political cause of this war, we are on the Lord's side. We should arm ourselves in the fear of God for bat- tle, for we have not sinned against Britain but Britain against us. . . . The call of country is the call of God." During the first seven years of his work at Mary- ville, Dr. Anderson usually had, besides his academy students, one or two theological b^^he^FiLS"^ students. These sometimes lived in his home, and found at his fire- side a school of the prophets that was at once home- like and schoollike. Here he trained such leaders as Dr. Abel Pearson, the author of a book on the prophe- cies; and Dr. William Eagleton, the brilliant orator 30 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE and logician of Murfreesboro. Another one whom he trained was George M. Erskine, a slave whose freedom was purchased by Union Presbytery and who was li- censed in 1818, and ten years later went out to Africa as the first foreign missionary from the presbytery. In 18 1 8, Dr. Gideon Blackburn sent his son, James H. Blackburn, to study Hebrew under Dr. Anderson ; but, three months later, the young man, a very promising candidate for the ministry, died in Dr. Anderson's house after a very brief illness. Dr. Blackburn pub- lished the sermon that Dr. Anderson preached at the funeral service. This vocational work by the fireside was the pre- cursor of the larger work soon to be inaugurated. And the self-sacrificing labor required in order to train these individual students would seem appalling in these days of large numbers and of the thorough organization of vocational institutions; but it was a labor of love on the part of this apostle of the South- west CHAPTER IV Dr. Anderson and His Southern and Western Seminary So far as the demands of his academy and theologi- cal students and large church and parish would al- low, Dr. Anderson continued his Cam^ar^nin "Presbyterian circuit-riding." He conducted many sacramental ser- vices and series of revival meetings, and was every- where greatly in demand for special occasions. He was a member of the Visiting Committee of the A. B. C. F. M. to its missions among the Cherokees. The early years of his pastorate at Maryville were years of very great usefulness. Surely his '^dissatisfaction" at the limited amount of service he was able to render must now be diminishing or even disappearing. On the contrary, his holy discontent seemed to in- crease rather than to diminish. On every hand, as he rode over the country, he wit- D^^t^rt*^* nessed the evidences of a deplor- able destitution, and his tender heart was torn with sorrow for the plight in which the young people of many a community found them- selves — without education or religious privileges, and 31 32 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE without intelligent leadership. Need, crying need, on every side, and not enough men to supply the tithe of the need! At the time of Isaac Anderson's ordi- nation there were only four ministers in all the broad bounds of Union Presbytery; and up to 1819 there were never so many as nine ministers in attendance at a meeting of the presbytery. And the other denomi- nations represented in the field were little better manned. The destitution and the lack of men to re- move it rested like a pall upon the anxious heart of this apostle of the frontier. In 18 1 2 he had helped organize the East Tennessee Missionary Society, whose object it was to send min- isters out on evangelistic tours throughout the more destitute parts of East Tennessee. An eloquent re- port of his as secretary in 1817 is still extant, and contains a fervid appeal to the young men of the section and of the land ''beyond the mountains" to come to the help of the people in need. "Beautiful, indeed, upon any of the mountains that surround us will be the feet of them that bring good tidings, that publish peace and salvation, that say unto Zion, Thy God reigneth." Horace Mann, who became famous a little later in Massachusetts as an apostle of education, was not more zealous for the spread of 2e^l^f E^f ation education than was this Isaac An- and Character , r t^ ^ -p j derson of East Tennessee; and John Knox of Reformation days was not more zeal- ous than was Isaac Anderson for the reform of in- dividual and national character. With the book of DR. ANDERSON AND HIS SEMINARY 33 human learning in one hand, and with that of divine wisdom in the other hand, he faced the manifest needs of his people, and labored incessantly both to teach them the true wisdom and to inculcate in them the genuine moral character of which they were so much in need. The high calling of a philanthropist-patriot was upon him. Leaders! leaders! leaders! They must be secured or East Tennessee and the entire Southwest would be unled or misled. In a letter to ratnotic ^YiQ Knoxville Register he said: Statesmanship ,,,,^, , . , ,. ^ .. What, then, is the object of this essay? It is to call the attention of the public to consider the importance and necessity of providing a competent supply of learned and pious teachers and ministers, by some well-devised plan, supported by the free-will offerings of the people. The best interests of the public loudly demand this. We need them to teach the young and rising generation, to refine the public taste, to pour the light of science into our rising academies and colleges, and to impart to us the les- sons of heavenly wisdom from the sacred desk. I plead for no particular denomination — all denomina- tions of Christians hold the essential doctrines of Christianity. I plead for a learned and pious ministry to bless and adorn our rising country." Since the harvest fields were ripe, it was the highest wisdom to prepare reapers for the fields. Let there be men to lead in the harvest! This was the Harvard anxiety and the Harvard statesmanship exhibited once more, this time down 34 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE amid the East Tennessee mountains. Cotton Mather said when speaking of "the Christians in the most early times of New England," and SxiSTA^ain ^^ ^^^'"^ P'^^ *^ ^^"^^ ^ college: *'They foresaw that without such a provision for a sufficient ministry the churches of New England must have been less than a business of one age, and soon have come to nothing; the other hemi- sphere of the world would never have sent us over men enough to have answered our necessities; but with- out a nursery for such men among ourselves darkness must have soon covered the land, and gross darkness the people. For some little while, indeed, there were very hopeful effects of the pains taken by certain par- ticular men of great worth and skill, to bring up some in their own private families, for public services; but much of uncertainty and of inconvenience in this way was in that little while discovered. . . . They soon determined it that set-schools are so necessary there is no doing without them. Wherefore a Col- lege must now be thought upon: a College, the best thing that ever New England thought upon !" Dr. Anderson, however, found warrant far back of Harvard for his zeal for an educated leadership. In his inaugural address he based his The Prophets' remarks on these self-explanatory words from Hosea and Malachi: "My people are destroyed for lack of knowledge ; be- cause thou hast rejected knowledge, I will also reject thee, that thou shalt be no priest to me. For the priest's lips should keep knowledge, and they should DR. ANDERSON AND HIS SEMINARY 35 seek the law at his mouth; for he is the messenger of the Lord of hosts." The problem, then, was how to secure these edu- cated leaders. He set about the most serious con- sideration of the problem. It ^^?; 1^;^^^^,^^^^ surely was capable of some so- Well-Educated . . ^ A ^ -^ .1 -4- 1^ Leaders? lution. And manifestly it could not be ignored; and a serious- minded patriot could not dismiss it by passing it along to his next neighbor. The problem was his and the Southwest's, and it called for solution, or for a sword to cut its Gordian entanglements. Given the need; wanted, to find the supply of that need. All that one man could do was to do his best. He could raise himself to the n-th degree, but it would be only himself, after all. Dr. An- people and in his anxiety for their development in education and character, wished and tried to multiply his integer self; but he found that, after all, he could be but one worker. The opportuni- ties of educational and evangelistic work and the im- portunities of schoolless and churchless communities, when viewed in connection with the heart-breaking limitations of time and physical strength and nerve endurance, almost drove him to despair. So many men's work to be done, and yet he could not multiply himself! There was only one of him; and his power was only limited one-man power. Dr. Anderson and a few other ministers of East Tennessee, as we have seen, had been educating all 36 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE the teachers and mini'sters that they could, in their own homes. And yet the supply of these leaders was ut- terly inadequate. As Dr. Anderson Education of ^^^ casting about for some way to Imported Students ., • , , r i j Impossible remove this dearth of educated leaders, he received a visit, in 1817, from an ardent young minister, Rev. Eli Smith, pas- tor of a church in Frankfort, Kentucky, who was then on his way to visit his old home in Hollis, New Hamp- shire. Mr. Smith listened to Dr. Anderson's pathetic plaint over the lack of ministers, and then told the doctor about the great revivals that had visited New England. As they talked the whole matter over, the suggestion came from Dr. Anderson that Mr. Smith should dur- ing his visit down East attempt to persuade at least six young men to come to East Tennessee, to be trained here for their future ministry in the South- west — two in Dr. Anderson's home, two in Dr. Har- din's, and two in Dr. Coffin's. Mr. Smith agreed to make the effort. Upon his arrival at his old home, his fervid appeals to the youth of Hollis set the whole town in a blaze, and several young men volunteered to go to Tennessee as students. But the terrors of the eleven hundred miles' journey into the Southern wilderness fright- ened all the candidates but one to such an extent that they decided to stay at home. The lad Eli N. Sawtell could not be frightened. With all his worldly goods tied up in a cotton hand- kerchief, and with his hickory cane in his hand and DR. ANDERSON AND HIS SEMINARY 37 fourteen and a half dollars in his pocket, on May 9, 1818, he set out for a land he knew not of. He was nearly two months on the way, and yet kind friends swelled his store of money until it was ten times as much as when he started. Fifty years later he wrote: "Dr. Anderson received me, and treated me ever as a son." Dr. Anderson said of him : "God conveyed him, as on eagles' wings, to a strange land, to devote himself to the cause of the Lord Jesus." Seven years later, after having received a thorough education, young Sawtell was ordained to the minis- try. He became one of the most successful of the early agents of the Seminary; and was always a very useful man, laboring for many years in Kentucky, and then for some time serving as Chaplain to American seamen in Havre, France. Since only one student for the ministry in the South- west was secured by so favorable a trial of the plan for importing students to be edu- Educ2ed^^°* cated in East Tennessee, it was Impossible evident that the plan was inade- quate to meet the necessities of the case. So Dr. Anderson gave his attention to an at- tempt to persuade those already educated to come to East Tennessee to take part in the ministry so much needed by the people. He first appealed to what home missionary societies then existed, but he received from them nothing more tangible than sympathy. The next year, 1819, Dr. Anderson was a commis- sioner to the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church for the only time in his life. The Assembly 38 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE met that year in Philadelphia. In the mission society rooms in Philadelphia and in New York he used every effort to induce ministers to come to Tennessee to help do the work that called for the doing. But he failed to secure any volunteers. Then he turned his horse's head toward Prince- ton, where the first Presbyterian theological seminary had been organized seven years before. Here at his hotel he held an interview with a number of the stu- dents and begged them to go to East Tennessee to help in the Lord's harvest fields. He depicted to them the destitution and challenged their assistance. But Tennessee was at the ends of the earth in those days, and the fields nearer home had a prior qlaim upon them and insisted upon that claim. The call to the foreign field nowadays does not usu- ally demand so great sacrifices as did life on the wild and dubious Southwest frontier a century ago. All that Dr. Anderson attempted during this trip resulted in failure — he did not secure even one recruit for the work he loved. And as, in despondent mood, he turned his horse's head homeward, the fire burned in his heart. Dr. Anderson was an able logician, surpassing most men in this respect. He was acquainted with both the trilemma and the method Then Necessary ^^ residues. He worked out the to Educate , , . i . j • i . i local Students problem m logic during his long horseback journey southward : since it had been proved that it was impossible to import students to be educated on the field, and equally impossible to import men who had been educated DR. ANDERSON AND HIS SEMINARY 39 elsewhere, it followed that the only course left was to educate local students on the field and for the field. Sore of heart but clear of head, he talked the whole matter over day after day with Rev. James Gal- laher, his companion in the long journey back to the Southwest. During that homeward journey, the in- stitution of which this volume treats was created. The thoughtful traveler determined that the methods of educating ministers on the field had thus far been on too small a scale; and that it was now necessary that the Synod of Tennessee should establish for itself a seminary to do a work for the Southwest as nearly similar to that done at Princeton as possible. As the address to the public in behalf of the proposed Southern and Western Seminary a few weeks later expressed it: "The seminaries of Andover and Princeton, while they display the public spirit, the ardor and strength of piety in a portion of our coun- try, will not be able, for centuries to come, to supply with ministers the vast uncultivated regions of the South and West." Well did he realize that in order that such a school should be founded and be successful, some one must devote himself to its service with T 'f P 1 ^^ whole-souled devotion as char- acterized the patriotic soldier on the battle-field or the Christian martyr amid his en- emies. He had learned from his Lord the supreme lesson of unselfishness. Loving his neighbor as him- self, he thus fulfilled the law. If such self-devotion 40 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE was needed for the education and the evangelization of his people, he would devote the one man under his control — himself — to the task of founding and per- petuating the school. His life orientation was com- pleted as he rode along the leafy roads of Virginia and Tennessee. At the fall meeting of Union Presbytery following his return from the General Assembly, an overture to Synod drawn up by Isaac An- An Overture by ^^^^^^ ^^^ adopted by the pres- Union Presbytery , ^ . ^ t^ . . , bytery in session at Dandndge, Tennessee, on October 8, 1819. The overture opened with the words : *The Presbytery viewing with deep concern the extensive fields of the Southern and Western parts of our country, already white to the harvest, in which there are few, very few, laborers; therefore. Resolved, That this Presbytery submit a plan to the Synod of Tennessee for a Southern and Western Theological Seminary, and do hereby recom- mend the adoption of it or some other plan by the Synod." Then followed the detailed plan. In his inaugural address later on. Dr. Anderson said that the necessity and importance of such a theological seminary for the Western country had risen spontane- ously in the hearts of many individuals about the same time. Many of these individuals were members of Union Presbytery, and united with the author of the resolutions in unanimously adopting the overture to Synod. The Synod of Tennessee, very happily, met in Mary- ville the week following the meeting of Presbytery at DR. ANDERSON AND HIS SEMINARY 41 which the overture was adopted. Rev. John McCamp- bell, D.D., was chairman of the Committee on Bills and Overtures. Rev. James Galla- f^Jl\^^ *^® her, the comrade of the long horse- Tennessee ^^^^ ^^^^' ^^^ present as a corre- sponding member. On October 14, the consideration of Overture No. i was begun. On the 19th the record says in the handwriting of Dr. Anderson, for he was then Clerk of the Synod of Tennessee and of the Presbytery of Union : *'The Synod after maturely considering, revising, and amending the; plans for a Southern and Western Theo- logical Seminary, agreed to adopt it, which is as fol- lows." Then follows the constitution with its thirty- two articles. This was at the third annual meeting of the Synod of Tennessee, the enrollment being twenty- one, the largest attendance yet reached by the Synod. In 1819 the United States had a population only four and a half times the present population of the State of Tennessee. Tennessee y^r^.^y,^^^*^®^ had only 422,000 inhabitants, or Architecture , , ., rJ, only ten to the square mile. There were then only forty-eight counties, while Blount County, about twice its present size, had only a little more than one-half its present population. Great Shelby County could boast a population of only 364. Maryville was a mountain hamlet containing a stone church, a log jail, and a cluster of log and frame houses, with here and there an exception in brick. Very ambitious, indeed, as coming from a partly reclaimed wilderness, does the constitution of the 42 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE Southern and Western Theological Seminary sound to us to-day. The plan was original and daring. Almost the only precedents to consult were seven-year-old Princeton Seminary, and eleven-year-old Andover Seminary. Dr. Anderson once said facetiously: "There is a feeling common to our race that the quali- fications of those who live west of us can not be of the first order." But the villagers of East Tennessee were in earnest, and, braving the prejudice against them, in all seriousness invited the Synods of North Carolina, South Carolina, Kentucky, and Ohio — the younger sister of Tennessee — to cooperate with them in the establishment and maintenance of the new insti- tution. The Synod of Virginia had already — in 1812 — established a theological school of its own, of which school Union Seminary, of Richmond, is the out- growth. When we take into account the fact that three of the presbyteries of the Synod of Tennessee were those of West Tennessee, Mississippi, and Missouri, some idea of the generous geographical dimensions that the field of the new institution was to include may be formed. Four hundred copies of a circular letter, containing the constitution and an address to the public, were published, one of which is preserved in the library of the Presbyterian Historical Society. The constitution as recorded in the Minutes of the Synod of Tennessee was very elaborate. Some of its provisions were as follows : The directors, thirty-six in number, were to be one-third Presbyterian laymen, and two^thirds Presbyterian ministers. They were to DR. ANDERSON AND HIS SEMINARY 43 do the work that is usually committed to directors and trustees. The professors were to be "ordained minis- ters of the Presbyterian church, SpScatons not under thirty years of age, in good standing and of good report, men of talents, science, and learning." They were to be chosen by the Synod, presbyteries, or individuals connected with the Seminary. The vacation months were April, one-half of Sep- tember, and October — ^two and a half months, instead of the four months now given by most theological seminaries. The course of study was to extend over three years, and to consist of the Greek Testament and the Hebrew Bible, Jewish Antiquities, Sacred Chronology, Biblical Criticism, Metaphysics, Didactic and Polemic Theol- ogy, Church History, Church Government, Composi- tion and Delivery of Sermons, and the Duties of the Pastoral Care. The Seminary was to be open to students of all denominations on equal terms. Only those that de- nied the common tenets of evangelical Christendom should have their privileges abridged. The high ideals that were held by the little com- pany of villagers and country preachers who framed this worthy instrument are manifest in its well-worked- out details and in its comprehensiveness. The consti- tution does credit to the enlightened zeal, benevolent purpose, and Christian faith of its authors. The men who wrote it believed in geometrical progression in good influences, for they wrote in the address they 44 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE issued in behalf of the Seminary: **When we cast our eyes along the vista of time and eternity, we see, by the instrumentality of the Seminary, if made to succeed by the smile of heaven, the church increased, millions made happy on earth, heaven peopled with multitudes that no man can number; and the inhab- itants of both rising up to call its founders and patrons blessed." In the roll of the thirty-six worthies that constituted the first directorate were James Gallaher, the redoubt- able revivalist, and author of "The Notable Builders, ^^^^^^^ 5^^^^^ ^^^^„ ^^^ .^j^^ The Directors t-,., . r a 1 1 t^ -j »> Pilgrimage of Adam and David, and Chaplain of the United States House of Repre- sentatives in 1852 and 1853 ; Charles Coffin, D.D., then president of Greeneville College, and, later, of East Tennessee College — now the University of Tennessee ; Robert Hardin and William Eagleton, seven years later elected professors in the Seminary; John Mc- Campbell, cousin of Dr. Anderson and minister be- loved among the churches; Abel Pearson, the mille- narian author of "An Analysis of the Principles of the Divine Government'' ; Thomas H. Nelson, and the greater David Nelson, author of that classic of Chris- tian apologetics, "The Cause and Cure of Infidelity"; Gideon Blackburn, D.D., once pastor at Maryville and apostle to the Indians, and, later on, founder of Blackburn University; Robert Henderson, D.D., the revered pastor of Hopewell Church, and author of two volumes of sermons; and James W. Stephenson, D.D., for forty-two years a pastor in Maury County. DR. ANDERSON AND HIS SEMINARY 45 The next act of Synod, however, was far more significant than were the actions already noticed. What was needed was not so much W^* ^ I ^^^^^ thirty-six directors as one director Chosen" ^^^ should indeed perform as well as direct the work. This is a la- conic record in the minutes of the Synod on October 20, 1819: "Synod proceeded to the election of a pro- fessor of didactic and polemic theology. Upon count- ing the votes it appeared that the Rev. Isaac Anderson was duly chosen." The records of the Synod of Tennessee are the chief source of the ante-bellum history of Maryville. The item just cited is the most important action regarding the institution recorded in those minutes. But for this action, all the mighty constitution and the resonant resolutions with their sounding Whereases and Re- solveds might have died away in the startled air as a mere brutum fulmen. When Isaac Anderson was balloted into the professorship, there was created a Southern and Western Theological Seminary, even though there was no endowment, no buildings, no li- brary, indeed, nothing except a constitution and some resolutions. In the momentous event of this election, dynamics were put into an inert plan ; a great purpose now became incarnate. As we have seen, Dr. Anderson had been training individuals for the ministry. Now the Seminary Genesis would attempt this work on a larger scale. What if the Semi- nary be but Isaac Anderson "writ large"! Let the 46 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE work be done. Its Genesis has now been recorded. At some tjme in the fall of 1819, either before or after the meeting of Synod, it is uncertain which. Dr. Anderson began his work "in the little brown house, with a class of five students," getting ready for his more advanced work soon to be initiated. The inaugural services connected with Dr. Ander- son's formal induction into his chair of Didactic The- ology were postponed till 1822, when the new school had been gotten under way. The inaugural sermon was delivered by Rev. Robert Hardin ; the address by Dr. Anderson ; and the charge by Rev. John McCamp- bell. The three addresses were published, and the pamphlet is a historical document of priceless value. CHAPTER V Days of Creation The hand of God is seen throughout the history of Maryville College, but especially is it manifest as it is laid upon Isaac Anderson con- Dmne Providence ^ecrating him to the work of col- ana ms Agent , ^' t^ ^i lege creation, l^rom the moment of his high commission, this mighty man of valor looms forth as an agent of Providence in bringing things to pass at Maryville. To every man who would accomplish something in the world God gives possible days of creation in which he has at once the duty and the opportunity of emulating his Lord, the great Creator. Dr. Anderson was appointed by Divine Providence and by his brethren of the Synod of Ten- nessee to no small creative work — ^to six periods of it. The first requisite of a school is a teacher. Other things — habitation, equipment, and the like — are con- venient; but a teacher is indispens- Be Teacherr ^^^'- '^° ^^"'P '^^ Southern and Western Theological Seminary with teachers was the first task required of Dr. An- derson; it was to be his first creative act. In view of the fact that there was no income or endowment, he decided that he would oflfer his own services, and 47 48 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE this without salary if need be. But one teacher alone would not be enough; three were needed. So, since no other teacher was available, he decided to do three men's work, teaching, when necessary, as many as twelve hours a day. One of his pupils tells of his beginning his teaching before early breakfast, and con- tinuing it after supper. Thus he satisfactorily created a faculty! And, in addition to his triumvirate ser- vices, the older students also gave their services as tutors. The story as to how the faculty of one grew in size and numbers is told in another chapter. "And the evening and the morning were the first day." Dr. Anderson met many difficulties in enlisting young men to study for the ministry. There were so few preparatory schools or col- i^^o^^^ There i^^^g ^^^^ ^^le young men that came to him were not prepared for higher vocational education. Then, too, most of them were too poor and too busy making a living to be able to spare the time for such a course of study. Dr. Anderson in a letter speaks of his students as being "poor and almost penniless, but pious young men.'' East Tennessee at that time was a comparatively poor agricultural country, and trading was done principally by barter and not with money. Opportune revivals of religion, gracious and re- peated, brought to Dr. Anderson's door a number of young men to be trained by him. They now had the will, and Tie helped mightily to provide the way. Sev- eral Indians were among the early students. The REV. WILLIAM MINNIS. D.D. CLASS OF \ezs COL. JOHN BEAMAN MINN[S,B.A. CLASS of 1861 WILLIAM EDWIN MINNIS. B-A. WILLIAM MINNIS SHERRILL CLASSof I890 CLASSoP>9l>}-F315 » Four Generations of Maryville Students. DAYS OF CREATION 49 founding of the Seminary was more effective in bring- ing students from a distance than the plan of private instruction for them had proved. Among the students from the North was John W. Beecher, the father of Professor Willis J. Beecher, of Auburn Theological Seminary. His diary tells of the coming of two or three young men from New Hampshire, who had been six weeks on the road, walking all the way; and of men from Pennsylvania who had walked from Balti- more. The young men from New Hampshire came from Hollis, and were led to do so by the addresses that Eli N. Sawtell delivered there upon returning for a visit after his eight years at Maryville. Dr. Anderson's first class — one of the ablest, too, in the opinion of Dr. Craig — contained among others a shoemaker, a tailor, a blacksmith, and a farmer. Of this class, in 1825, there were licensed to preach Elijah M. Eagleton, Hilary Patrick, William Minnis, William A. McCampbell, and Eli N. Sawtell. And so the students gathered from different sec- tions and different peoples and represented different grades of culture and different antecedents; and in the democracy of the frontier and of a revived apos- tolic Christianity, under the magnetic leadership of their instructor, they were trained for the gospel min- istry. "And the evening and the morning were the sec- ond day." A third necessity was a local habitation for the Seminary and its seminarists. Dr. Anderson was charged, also, with this task of providing homes for 50 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE the students and a home for the school. The real shelter, however, was a man — Anderson — and not a mansion. As Dr. John S. Craig fLaS^H^bTatl'n ^'.^ °^. ^^^ "Without a building and without a cent of money, m a little shanty of a house," he began his work. He used his own house, and then "the shanty" — the ''little brown house" — and erelong the *'brick with six fire- places," which seemed a palace to him and his boys. And, here, too, another chapter, "The Plant That Had to Serve," will tell more in detail how this creator of a seminary made shift to keep his boys and his school sheltered from the weather. "And the evening and the morning were the third day." The sturdy young men whom Dr. Anderson gath- ered around him from the farms and villages had healthy appetites and had to be fed. 4*^^^*7-^^-^ ^l As to drink, the problem was a Food and Raiment . - r ^ , , simple one, for the school was from the beginning pledged to total abstinence from alcoholic drinks; and there are fifty gushing springs of pure water within a radius of two miles from Main Street; and some milk there was too, but no malt. But liquid nourishment was not enough. How to feed the hungry students was one of the most difficult problems before Dr. Anderson. The simplest way was the way he first adopted — to feed them himself so long as food should last. Said he: "Some of these young men boarded with me without charge ; for the boarding of others of them I paid out of my own DAYS OF CREATION 51 pocket. When they were sick we took them to our own house and nursed them." He used the produce of his own farm to feed them. In those early years such reports as these were fre- quent: *Twenty-eight out of thirty-five were sup- ported by charity"; "twenty-eight out of forty had free tuition, and eighteen had free board." In 1827, out of forty-four students, forty-three had free tui- tion, and twenty-seven free board. The school had no rich friends. The Synod repre- sented a small and poor frontier church. That was before the day of large fortunes and of large gifts to education. The story of the boarding house and of the farm is told elsewhere. And though some- times the students were hungry, none of them ever starved. "And the evening and the morning were the fourth day." The task of providing intellectual culture was, in- deed, a work of creation, for so imperfect were the school facilities of the frontier that (5) Let There Be ^j^^^.^ ^^ comparatively little to Intellectual i -u • ^1 r - j. 1 Culture build upon in the way of intel- lectual training in the students that entered the Seminary. It was soon realized that most of the students needed literary training as pre- liminary to their theological training; so the literary department was almost immediately added to the plan of the institution. The worthy head of the school, with an almost incredible degree of industry, taught, as has been 52 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE said, all day long and longer still, in his attempt to train the minds of his students for their high voca- tion as leaders of the people. The agents he em- ployed, especially Eli N. Sawtell, were successful in building up a very creditable library, numbering in the course of the years five thousand volumes, which contributed much to the culture of the students. And so stimulating was his leadership that he was success- ful in arousing his students to that most effective of all intellectual discipline — self -culture. Given such a teacher and such eager and industrious students, the natural result was a steady and gratifying advance in the culture of the young men. "And the evening and the. morning were the fifth day." The never-forgotten objective in Dr. Anderson's life campaign was the development of Christian char- acter in the leaders whom he i^) ^^J;J^^^^f ^® trained for the Southwest; in or- Moral Character i ^u 4. • ^u • ^ ..i i ^ der that, m their turn, these lead- ers might, by precept reinforced by example, also be successful in developing that Christian character in the people whom, under the providence of God, they should some day have the responsibility and joy of leading. In this character objective the moral element was, of course, vital. The ethics of the Seminary must be of the very noblest and most elevating type known. Conscience must dominate and direct every act of the young men. The young theologues must in true DAYS OF CREATION 53 and consistent living be "ensamples." Of every one it should be possible to say: "That ferst he wroughte, and afterward he taughte;" for "If gold ruste, what shulde yren doo?" And so Isaac Anderson inculcated moral culture through his example. And in this character there must be superadded to the moral element the religious element. So success- ful was he in implanting that characteristic in the very heart of the students and of the institution that it has ever since been part of the permanent riches of the school. And these moral and religious elements he had the good fortune to blend so intimately that they became in the traditions of the school both one and inseparable. "And the evening and the morning were the sixth day." In those days of "do without/' a money endow- ment was out of the question ; so let its place be taken by moral endowments — of more Endowment ^^ ^^^ nation. The Great Teacher had no material endowment, in the school of the apostles, but he carried with him the riches untold of his life of loving service for hu- manity. Dr. Anderson was not a money-raiser, though he 54 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE was a master of men. He once told Rev. Thomas Brown, Maryville's most successful agent in the ante- bellum period, that personally he would not have had the faith to raise as much as $6,000 in years. Dr. Robinson says of him : "He never asked a man for a single dollar." » But there were gifts of rich value that he could make, and so he gave toward the endowment of his seminary: (i) His life — thirty-eight rich years of it. Paul had said: ''Withhold not yourselves.'' And so this Pauline man endowed the school with the riches of his life. The Southern and Western Theological Seminary is his eloquent biography. (2) His love — the ardent and disinterested love for God and man, blessing all who came under the influence of the school. (3) His loyalty — keen and overmastering to such a de- gree that he so lost his own interests in those of the school that all his joys and sorrows were alike connected with the work of the institution. As he himself said, "the undying strength of this passion" for the work of the Seminary was "the cause of several effects: (a) When a minister has gone forth from this school of the prophets who has proved faithful to his Divine Master and his cause, I have enjoyed it exquisitely, (b) When any have gone into the harvest field and have proved lazy, inefficient drones, it has been like a cancer on my spirits, (c) When the faithful have been laid aside by sickness or death, my aching heart has bowed to the stroke without solace, except in the assurance that the Lord reigns, and that he loves his church infinitely more DAYS OF CREATION 55 than I can love it, and will take care of its best in- terests with infinite skill." Surely such a life, such love, and such loyalty made an endowment of inestimable value. CHAPTER VI Days of Providence The days of creation of which mention has been made were followed by days of providence in which the beginnings just described were ^^ ^f^rJ^^^^iin continued and enlarged. Isaac An- Provided for All , , . , f. derson determmed that any young man ambitious to do good in the world should have the opportunity to prepare himself for Christian lead- ership in the Southwest; and so he established this "school of the prophets" for the benefit of all comers. The latch-string was always hanging out, and no fash- ionable door-knocker was needed. Those that would might enter. The institution, though founded by the Synod of Tennessee, was from its very foundation non-sec- tarian in both theory and practice. Irrespective of ^he poor of all denominations Denomination ^ were encouraged to enter, and were helped impartially in the meeting of their ex- penses. The twenty-eighth article of the constitution of the Seminary is as follows: "Young men of any Christian denomination, of good moral and religious character, shall be admitted into the Seminary on the same principles, and shall be entitled to the same privi- 56 DAYS OF PROVIDENCE 57 leges, as students of our own denomination." When provision was made for the literary department in 1821, it was stated by Synod to be for "such poor and pious youth of all Christian denominations as are seeking an education." In his inaugural address, Dr. Anderson said : "This institution was founded with the most liberal views toward other Christian churches. It opens its doors to young men of all Christian denominations, and se- cures to them its privileges just to the extent they may choose. From these liberal views and a prac- tice as liberal, it is hoped the institution will never depart. What can a generous public ask more at our hands?" The hope expressed by Dr. Anderson has been fully realized in the history of the institution. There has never been any sectarianism or proselytism at Maryville. The institution, as Dr. Craig says, was early known as "the poor man's college." In spite of the cruel limitations of his own resources, Lrespective of j^^. Anderson extended a helping hand to as many as he could reach. The Seminary began without any endowment, income, or guarantee fund. The struggle for existence during the first few years was a desperate one. It would have disheartened a Faint Heart; but Anderson was a Great Heart. The students were waiting at the door. He said, "Give us this day our daily bread," and then he shared the loaf with the students that also needed their daily bread. For example, in 1824, Dr. Anderson gave $449 58 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE in boarding and tuition, although he had not yet re- ceived any compensation for his services as professor. The next year he gave $607, and in 1826, $582. With the help of collections made by agents, Dr. Anderson in 1823-1824 purchased for $400 two small TT 1 rm. 1. 1. buildings and one and a half lots l:S-H?Jsr ^^i--"g *e half lot on which the Seminary stood; and he then em- ployed a steward for a salary of $100 and the board of the steward and family. This was as purely a venture of faith as was any of George Miiller's enter- prises. Some students paid part or all of their modest board bill, but not many did so. Where the $100 and the food for the boarding-house were to come from, its manager did not know. But the supplies came, sent by the Power that winged the ravens to Elijah, and wrought wonders in the widow's cruse of oil and barrel of meal. But the boys did not fare sumptuously every day. "Some- times the students are suppHed with the necessities, but rarely with the comforts of life; and sometimes are almost destitute of even the necessaries of life." Among the occasional gifts gratefully acknowledged and reported to Synod were: Through Dr. Emmons of Massachusetts, $70; from Dr. Alexander McGhee, 1,886 pounds of pork; from certain Maryville fam- ilies, free boarding of students; and from various churches, all kinds of farm products, including 172 bushels of dried apples, fourteen shoulders and seven jaws, joints and middlings, flour, potatoes, and forty pounds of lardt And the boarding-house kept open DAYS OF PROVIDENCE 59 but did not keep out of debt. The entire debt of the school in 1827 was $1,005. The average cost of board at first was two dollars a month, or fifty cents a week, or seven cents a day! In 1826 the far-famed college farm of over 200 acres was purchased for $2,500, and was paid for in part by money collected by Eli N. Self-Help on the Sawtell. It was the farm on which College Farm o 1 ^r -n • 1 . j South Maryville is now located, and lay between the Crooked Creek and Montvale roads, and extended from Pistol Creek to the neigh- borhood of the Broady farm. The manual-labor fea- ture was introduced, each student who received help being required to work on the farm a day, or, at least, half a day, a week. The products of the farm helped supply the boarding-house. The students set out a large orchard in 1827. Reuben L. Cates, father of Hon. Charles T. Cates, Sr., and John McCuUy, father of Isaac Anderson McCully, were among those that had charge of this farm for a while. This farm work did not interfere with the scholar- ship of the students, but rather improved it, benefited their health, and still further reduced the expense of living. In 1827 the Directors said: 'The progress of the students is flattering, and not retarded by their occasional labors on the farm." The daughter of Rev. John W. Beecher writes : ''As I read over my father's diaries and see how much was expected of the young gentlemen who were students there, both as to physi- cal hard work and mental work as well, I do not wonder that Maryville has sent out many industrious, 6o A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE energetic, and exceedingly capable men. I am really astonished at what my father went through, earning his own way while keeping up his class work and passing good examinations." It is not to be wondered at that the directors in- sisted that the expenses were lower than at any other school on earth when we learn Board Bill, Three ^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^j^^ boarding-house was Cents a Day! , ,. , , , , 7 . , , established board was furnished at from twenty-five to thirty dollars a year ; and that in the boarding-house it was reduced to about two dollars a month ; and that the farm reduced it still further to about fifteen dollars a year; and that after the im- provement to the farm had been deducted, it was only about $9.09 a year, or less than a dollar a month, or three cents a day! Dr. Anderson announced that for every ten dollars in cash he would board a student for an entire year. Surely the Directors were justi- fied in saying: 'There is no other institution where the benefactions of the liberal may be made more abundantly productive of good." These statesmanlike methods of cooperative work resulted in comparative prosperity for the school. The . . students were healthy, industrious, H h Th^^' appreciative, and reasonably con- tented, though sometimes on a short bill of fare. What they could not earn or bring from home Dr. Anderson and, later on, his helpers gave them or forgave them. And all went well for five years or more. In 183 1 the Secretary of the Presbyterian Education DAYS OF PROVIDENCE 6i Society visited Maryville and urged that Dr. Ander- son, who had twice decided against such a policy, should allow his students to become the beneficiaries of the society. The offer of forty dollars or more a year was very tempting to the poor boys in their strug- gles and hard fare, and very naturally they sided with the kindly visitor. Finally, Dr. Anderson yielded the point, but against his best judgment. When the stu- dents found themselves in possession of a goodly amount of cash, they lost their love for the farm with its work, and for the boarding-house with its uncertain fare, and preferred to keep "bachelor's hall" or to board in private families. Thus the prosperous man- ual-labor farm lost its prestige and popularity, and, finally, its very existence. However, the Seminary prospered for a while under the new policy, or under the two policies. In 1832, it was announced that one day's work a week, together with $7.50, would pay a year's board bill! The an- nouncement was also made that no one who had read languages from three to six months need turn away from the institution for lack of funds. The new order of things was not so picturesque nor so heroic, but it was a deal more comfortable. All that was needed to the continued prosperity of the Seminary was that the barrel should never give out. In 1836 the manual-labor feature was definitely abandoned, and the old boarding department went with it. A modified boarding-house was, however, established, where board could be obtained, at first for sixteen dollars a session, and later at twenty dollars 62 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE a session. Mr. James Gillespie, of the class of 1849, said in his reminiscences: "I boarded one session at the boarding-house, and my recollection is that it cost me less than two dollars a month." In 1838 the Education Society, influenced it is to be sup- posed by the troubles that in that year disrupted the Presbyterian Church, ceased to assist the theologi- cal students at Maryville. This greatly embarrassed Dr. Anderson and his helpers, and ultimately hastened the practical suspension of the theological department. These days of providence that developed the school were crowded with the personality of Dr. Anderson. At first the only teacher, he was « , 1 ^ , always a schoolmaster indeed. Schoolmaster t- j 1 -.i j. li-ndowed with a commandmg pres- ence, a winning personality, and inexhaustible tact, he won the affection of his students, and was to them the ideal teacher. Governor Reynolds, in his autobi- ography, speaks of "that noble dignity that seemed to be his birthright." "Nature bestowed upon him great strength of mind." Says Dr. Robinson : "He possessed the rare faculty of impressing himself on his pupils, while at the same time requiring no servile assent to his mere dictation. He could not brook such a thing. His constant aim was to make his students think and understand for themselves. . . . Every student was required to read, study, and write on the topics which he announced to them from time to time, as they progressed in the course. After they had done what they could in this way for themselves, he read to them the lectures which (lr/t^i^^^-^y\Jt^ ^'^^-^c.^-^yJxK) A College Builder. DAYS OF PROVIDENCE 63 he had prepared with great care." He also carried his method of Socratic and catechetical teaching into his church work. "He prepared long lists of ques- tions and answers for the different quarters of his con- gregation on the Evidences of Christianity and the Inspiration of the Bible." These were published in the village paper. Naturally, he welcomed the Sun- day school as an ally in his campaign of Christian education. As early as 1834 fourteen Sunday schools were conducted in different quarters of the great par- ish of New Providence Church of which he was pastor. His students appreciated and loved him. One of his first class said of him : "When I received my com- mission to *Go, preach the gospel/ and was obliged to tear myself from him, it seemed that my very heart- strings were breaking." It is not given to many persons to excel in different lines ; but Dr. Anderson was as great a preacher as he was a teacher. He was a princely A rnnceiy preacher, and commanded the rev- erence and admiration of all that had the good fortune to hear him. Dr. Robinson com- pares his eloquence to a "mighty rushing wind." Of commanding presence, "his majestic form seemed, sometimes, to swell into almost gigantic proportions, as he poured forth a torrent of appeal." "That which arrested the attention and excited the admiration of every beholder, was the remarkably sweet expression of his countenance, and the facile power of his eye. On the Sabbath, when he rose in the pulpit to com- 64 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE mence the service, the impress of a more heavenly serenity, a more placid benevolence, a calmer dignity, is seldom seen on human brow." He was a thorough logician, but was also capable of the most impassioned earnestness, and so, naturally, he was a doubly impressive preacher, winning both the reason and the emotions of his audience. Dr. Allen, of Huntsville, Alabama, said of him: "I have been in Philadelphia, New York, and Boston, and have heard their greatest speakers; I have been in Liverpool, London, and Manchester, and have listened to the preaching of their most distinguished men; but that man is the greatest man I ever heard.'' No wonder that the people were eager to hear him at sacramental meetings, presbyteries, and synods. He usually preached about two hundred sermons a year, besides carrying on all his other work. The Directors said of Dr. Anderson in 1833 : "He is one who needs not to be ashamed. Invincible in argu- mentation and luminous in the exhibition of truth, he stands as a pillar of light in this dark valley of death." The students found in their honored president not only a great teacher and preacher, but also a father and friend. His heart was large ^- 04. j^ ? and his sympathies were overflow- His Students . a • 1 • .• 1 i_ j ing. As m his congregation he had kind words and a shepherd's tender care for every one of his flock in health and in sickness, so in his school he won every student by his unfeigned interest in him and by his fatherly regard for him. DAYS OF PROVIDENCE 65 Says Dr. Robinson : *' 'He was a father to me' ; this is the language they uniformly use when speaking of him. And this feeling of filial regard was the result of his kindness and sympathy, and the manifest interest which he felt in their happiness and pros- perity." Said one of his earliest students: '*I never looked upon him in any other light, nor did he ever exhibit any other feeling than that of the kindest and best of fathers." Dr. Anderson's wife, Flora, or as the inscription on her monument calls her, Florence McCampbell, was a member of another strong, 5^,®°^?™^ sturdy, and substantial Scotch- Mother to Them t • , V -i , 1 , . - Irish family that also settled in Rockbridge County, Virginia. She had a character that was worthy of her family and her husband. The marriage took place on October 19, 1802. Rev. G. S. White, in addressing the Alumni in 1857, said of her : "In spirit, in energy, in decision, in love to God, and devotion to his cause, there was in her natural and moral habits an entire adaptedness to encourage, advance, and sustain her noble husband in every good work and undertaking." As her husband fathered the students, she mothered them. "Many a young man far from home, in a strange land, felt the power of her kind words, and the value of her kind attentions." And she was a most loyal wife, toiling with all her strength to help her husband carry out his too ambitious plans of helpful- ness for the students. Dr. Anderson's distress at her loss was pathetic in the extreme. 66 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE "I do remember her many virtues with gratitude to God. Prudent and discreet in her intercourse with society, respected l^y all, kind without ostentation, not letting the left hand know what the right hand did, firm and resolute in her purposes, prayerful, and a lover of God and of good men, the word of God dwelt in her richly, and she sought and loved the truth. How great is my debt of gratitude to God for such a wife!" The most beneficent and permanent contribution made to the institution of learning that he founded, ^ and through it to the world, has S^t'"^HT^^^^ been what Maryville students have Created* '^^^ '^^^^ ^^ ^^^ habit of calling *'the Maryville spirit." To former Maryville students it has needed no definition, for they have seen it and felt it and believe in it. To outsiders, the uninitiated into the college mysteries, it is rather hard to define, but its outlines may be roughly indi- cated. Thanks to Dr. Anderson's cosmopolitan sympathies, the school has always had a breadth of sympathy that has been a part of its animating (1) Breadth of .^.j^ g^jj j^^. Robinson: "U Human Interest , ,. , , .n there ever lived a man who illus- trated in his life the doctrines he taught from the pulpit and the professor's chair, that man was Isaac Anderson. Love was the sum and substance of his teaching and his life. He had a heart large enough and loving enough to embrace within its benevolent desires all mankind. He had a broad philanthropy. DAYS OF PROVIDENCE e^ a hearty good-will to man, which led him to labor for the salvation of the humblest slave as well as for the proudest child of fortune. Any object of want or suffering never failed to move his sympathies and elicit his charitable benefactions. In his benevolence he was no respecter of persons. The African, the In- dian, the foreigner from whatever land, was to him as a brother, and as such he felt under obligation to promote, so far as he could, his temporal and eternal welfare." The typical Maryville man is interested in whatever concerns humanity. He believes in home and foreign missions of every type; he is not sectional, but na- tional, and fits in well in the South, North, East, or West. And this is the spirit that has prevailed ever since the beginning, because Dr. Anderson embodied it and taught the students to embody it. A priceless boon was this great contribution to the institution. It v/as one of the many strong points in the char- acter of the founder of Maryville College that he was himself by nature and training a SchoSship^^ representative of thoroughgoing scholarship, and by instinct and practice as a pedagogue entirely unable and unwilling to be content with anything but the most painstaking and accurate work on the part of his students. In his classes in theology he employed a system that was so scholarly and thorough that it commanded the respect of his students even after they had pursued their studies further in the best institutions in the land. His condensed text-book in didactic theology was 68 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE printed in Maryville, in 1833, ^^d contains 112 pages of questions and answers and outlines. The three years' course of theology as taught in the Seminary is here carefully outlined. The plan of instruction is described as follows: "The class have the subject given to them, as, for example, Natural Theology. They are then directed to read such and such authors ; if the subject is a controverted one, they read on both sides. After they have done reading they then hear a lecture from the Professor, and are required to write an essay on the same subject, and then read it before the Professor for remarks. Afterwards the class are examined, according to the preceding ques- tions, and such as the Professor may think proper.'' An acute reasoner, he aroused his students to clear and logical thinking; and did much more than that — for he infused into the college spirit that quality of thorough scholarship, which has never departed from the College, its faculty, and its student body. The kind of religion that Isaac Anderson believed in and exemplified had nothing weak or cowardly or invertebrate or uncertain about it. (6) JXLaniy j^ ^^^ ^j^ contrary, strong: and Religion . ' . . . ^' _.^ brave and positive. Thomas Hughes had not yet written about the '^Manliness of Christ" ; but Christ had lived his manliness ; and Isaac Anderson, Christ's disciple, had walked with him, and had learned to be one of the modern Boanerges. "The Maryville spirit" has, from the days of An- derson, had as one of its distinctive elements what may well be called "manly religion." Anderson made DAYS OF PROVIDENCE 69 his students feel that religion calls out the highest and noblest qualities of one's nature and elicits and enlists the heroic and godlike in a man. And throughout the century the men of Maryville have become Christians in order to attain the highest and richest possibilities of their manhood; not in order to '*be saved" in any small and selfish sense, but in order to be saviors of men "on the largest possible scale." Not cant nor cowardice, but sincerity and courage send men out into the field to battle for the right. If a man has entered into the spirit of things at Maryville, and has allowed "the Maryville spirit" to enter into him, he has, then, (4) Unselfish breadth of human interest, the love Service of thorough scholarship, and the practice of manly religion. But he also has, if true to the teachings of his College, a spirit of unselfish service that impels him forth to help and bless his neighbor. He appreciates life as an opportunity for usefulness. He looks upon himself as his brother's keeper. The Maryville student that hides his talent in a napkin does sad discredit to the spirit that his alma mater inculcates. The College has practised self- denial for the benefit of its students to such a remark- able degree that the students that are responsive to the call of the worthy have become imbued with the prevalent college spirit and have in turn tried to pass on to others the benefit that they themselves have received. And this unselfish service was rendered on the part of Dr. Anderson without any egotism or bluster or 70 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE attempt at notoriety. Said Rev. G. S. White : "In no other instance have I ever seen modesty connected with great and glorious plans, so retiring and so speechless as was his." In these years that we have termed **Days of Provi- dence," the College, in spite of manifold limitations and hindrances, succeeded in pro- Out ^r* viding for the world and its needs a most worthy threefold output: (i) "The Maryville spirit," which has just been ana- lyzed and described, was in itself a very worthy con- tribution to the world. To possess many leaders of the Southwest with such a spirit had a significance in good done that can not be overestimated. (2) The Maryville men who were speedily sent out to serve as leaders in their section of the country were an invaluable contribution to the community at large. By 1826 it could be said : "Already twelve young men have been sent out to preach the everlasting gospel." Three years later the directors report forty-one min- isters representing three denominations, as already at work among the churches. In 1833 the directors write that "nearly sixty have gone out to preach." In 1840, they say that "fourscore" have entered the ministry; while four years later Dr. Anderson himself says that the institution has sent out "nearly a hundred," who in turn had "gathered hundreds and hundreds into the fold of the Good Shepherd." In 1840 it was said that without the Seminary, "for aught that we can see. East Tennessee would be with- out a Synod and comparatively without a ministry." DAYS OF PROVIDENCE 71 From 1825, when his first class was licensed, to 1852, Dr. Anderson assisted in the licensure of seventy- seven young men, and in the ordination of sixty-six licentiates, in Union Presbytery alone. His students were ordained by other presbyteries and other denom- inations in considerable numbers. At the spring meet- ing of Union Presbytery in 1844 Dr. Anderson preached a sermon on II Timothy ii: 15, to the minis- ters that had studied theology under him. And they were a rare body of manly men. (3) The vast amount of worthy work that was done in the Southwest through the agency of the men of Maryville was another valuable contribution to the world. What the directors hoped for in 1825, as their report to Synod by Charles Coffin, Chairman, and William Eagleton, Clerk, indicated, was, during these "days of providence,'' fully realized : "It is hoped and believed that hundreds will issue from this fountain of science and piety who will spread a benign and salutary influence in the community on the temporal and eternal destinies of millions of mankind." CHAPTER VII The Teachers That Served For several years after the founding of the insti- tution, Dr. Anderson did all the teaching that was done in the theological department, ^?®t:,.^^4^^®^ and ''extended his tuition to stu- at First Alone , . . v. . . . dents in literature in its various branches." He was aided by the young theologues in his work in the department that was from the first inevitable, and that came to be called "the Literary Department." During this period it was that he often worked twelve hours a day in the classroom. And yet he was pastor of New Providence Church, of Maryville, and the Second Church, of Knoxville, and bore all the re- sponsibilities of these churches in addition to his school work. In 1827 New Providence Church ranked thirteenth in size among the Presbyterian churches in the United States; its membership numbered 467, and a few years later reached a total of 700. No wonder that the strain of so much work should have been almost unendurable. As early as 1821 Synod amended the constitution of the Seminary to provide for a tutor in ''the requisite 72 THE TEACHERS THAT SERVED 73 literature" for those who were not far enough instructed to enter upon the study of theology. In 1824 it was reported: "The Then Student divinity students have gener- Assistants - . , . . , ously given their assistance, when necessary, to the instruction of those who are pur- suing a course of education in the institution." The work, however, was too great for one man and student assistants. The Directors said in 1826: "After a course of nearly six years' experience, we are fully convinced that it is utterly impossible for one man to attend to the arduous and various duties of the Seminary. It is a pressure which neither the body nor the mind of any man can long sustain. . . . The responsible care of two congregations, added to the superintendency and charge of the boarding-house, and the instruction of a large school in the different branches of literature and theology, is enough to bring any constitution, even the most elastic and durable, to a premature grave. But by the appointment of additional instructors this difficulty, otherwise insur- mountable, may be easily obviated." In view of this condition of affairs, the Synod voted to proceed immediately to the election of two professors. Rev. William Eagle- Then One or Two ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ appointed "Instructor Collea^es . ^ j c • »> • in Languages and Sciences in 1825, and had begun to serve in the spring of 1826. Now, in the fall of 1826, Synod elected him as "Pro- fessor of Sacred Literature," and Rev. Robert Hardin as "Professor of Ecclesiastical History and Church 74 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE Government." In 1827 it was reported to Synod that Mr. Hardin had accepted the appointment; but he served in the field as an agent rather than as a professor in the classroom. The "two professors" re- ferred to in the eighth report (1827) were doubtless Dr. Anderson and Rev. William Eagleton. Dr. Eagle- ton had been educated under Dr. Anderson before the Seminary was founded. Dr. Craig says of him : *'He was a rather brilliant orator, a clear and cogent rea- soner, and of rather captivating eloquence. While he was on a visit to Maryville in 1833 or 1834, I heard him preach several times, and the people were much delighted with him — a thing much to his credit before and with a congregation such as Dr. Anderson's was at that day. Dr. Eagleton built up a large, stable, and flourishing church at Murfreesboro." From 183 1 onward there were usually three pro- fessors in the faculty. In the report for 1840 it is stated : '^Hitherto the labor of in- Fspally a struction both in literature and the- ology has fallen on three profes- sors, and has been sustained by much self-denial and sacrifice. The duties of their office have demanded all their time, almost without a moment for relaxa- tion or for enlarging the circle of their own knowl- edge." And then there followed an appeal for at least one more professor. A small number of pro- fessors, it is true, but the old colleges, such as Har- vard, Yale, and Princeton, had their long periods of history in which they, too, were served by not more than three professors. THE TEACHERS THAT SERVED 75 Professor Eagleton was dismissed from Union Pres- bytery to Shiloh Presbytery in 1829, and probably left -V . w _^ the Colles:e in that year. In 1829 Banus Hoyt ^ t^-tt^ i*jt> Rev. Darius Hoyt was elected Pro- fessor of Languages, and served until his death, which occurred on August 16, 1837. He was a son of the famous Rev. Ard Hoyt, who came from Connecticut to Georgia to be a missionary to the Cherokees. He was educated at Maryville, and was licensed to preach in 1827. He served as tutor in the Seminary until he was elected a professor. Says Dr. Craig: "Mr. Hoyt was a good linguist, a shrewd critic; of a very mild, quiet, inoffensive spirit, and of a remarkably amiable disposition." He loved the students and they loved him. He established The Maryville Intelligencer, to be a weekly religious news- paper. In its columns he did his utmost to further every good cause. Of a very sympathetic disposition, he was the warm friend of the Indian and the slave. He was a leader in the temperance reform. A man of great tact and personal influence, his premature loss by death, when only thirty-three years of age, was greatly lamented, the Seminary building being "shrouded in mourning." The Directors said of him: "His devotion to the cause of education and to the interests of the church has hardly been surpassed." Judge J. G. Wallace said of him: "He was one of the most amiable characters I ever knew. Everybody loved him and he loved everybody." Professor Hoyt's grandchildren recently placed an appropriate granite 76 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE monument on his grave in the New Providence ceme- tery. The first "literary" professor was Rev. Samuel Mac- Cracken, one of whose nephews is ex-Chancellor Mac- -. , ,. p Cracken of the New York Univer- sity. Mr. MacCracken was elected Professor of Natural Science in 1831, and was greatly respected as a man and as a teacher. He was a mem- ber of the United Presbyterian Church, and resigned the following year in order to take up work in his own church. In October, 1832;, Rev. Fielding Pope, at the time pastor of a church in Athens, Tennessee, was elected as Professor MacCracken's successor, to serve as Pro- fessor of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy; but he did not begin teaching until May, 1833. He was a polished and courtly Kentucky-bred gentleman of impressive appearance, and represented the Cavalief type as decidedly as Professor Craig represented the Covenanter type. Professor Pope was an alumnus of Maryville. In his education in Kentucky he had secured a good knowledge of mathematics and of some of the sci- ences. He was married before he felt called to the ministry, and he brought his wife with him to Mary- ville. Here he studied the languages and theology. In 1827 he was licensed to preach, and the following year he was ordained to the ministry. Mr. Pope served for seventeen hard-working years as a professor in the literary or college department of the institution. As a teacher he was much beloved THE TEACHERS THAT SERVED 77 by his students. In 1850, for the lack of adequate financial support, he resigned his chair, and became Principal of the Maryville Female Institute. The In- stitute building stood on Main Street, just east of the old New Providence Church. While teaching, Mr. Pope was also pastor of Eusebia Church. In 1856 he was installed as Dr. Anderson's successor in the pastorate of New Providence Church, where he served until 1865. He died near Lumpkin, Georgia, on March 23, 1867. On September 3, 1840, Rev. John Sawyers Craig was elected Professor of Languages to succeed Pro- Johns. Craig, D.D. ^"^^°^ ^°y*- ^\ *^\^ ^'''ff^y served as a tutor m the College from August, 1837, to 1846, being appointed tutor immediately after the death of Professor Hoyt. He was born in a log cabin in Knox County, Tennessee, and was educated at Maryville, entering in 1832, and graduating, probably in 1836. In personal appearance Mr. Craig was a little more than medium in height, of a red complexion, with sandy hair, and gray eyes. When he reached Mary- ville to enter college he was dressed in a suit of home- made and home-dyed blue cotton, and carried all his earthly belongings tied up in a red bandanna handker- chief. So unprepossessing and so unpromising a student did he appear, that, if the traditions are true, Professor Pope decided to hurry him home by as- signing to him lessons of excessive length; while the students decided to assist his departure by such means as were within their power. To the amazement of 78 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE Professor Pope, the lad gave him perfect recitations and seemed greedy for more ; while the students soon found that ^'yellow head" was abundantly able to take care of himself. And so John Craig won his stand- ing in a college of which he was to become one of its most brilliant graduates and professors. Dr. Craig was a stem, inflexible, rugged, blunt, bril- liant, and kind-hearted, and even tender-hearted genius, and was one of Maryville's ablest men. He was a profound scholar in all lines of college studies. His memory was so retentive that he conducted his recitations in the classics without the help of a text- book. Capable of an almost unlimited amount of work, he filled his twenty-one years of service with very arduous toil, and bore his full share of the cares and responsibilities of the College. At one time, soon after the breakdown of Dr. Anderson, he was the only pro- fessor left in the institution. He stood by the Col- lege in its weakness and poverty. Dr. Craig was a man of deep thought, broad mind, strong character, firm convictions, and martyr spirit. He lived in troublous times that tried men's souls, but was a brave and conscientious man throughout all those trying years. He was more noted for being fortiter in re than suaviter in modo; but no one ever doubted his sincerity. In complete sympathy with the purposes of the College, himself the product of the institution into which he entered as raw material, he spared himself not at all in his self-denying effort to make Maryville serve efficiently its student body. Prof. John Sawyers Craig. THE TEACHERS THAT SERVED 79 From 1861 until his death, which occurred on April 4, 1893, he served in the ministry in Indiana. Rev. John J. Robinson, D.D., was bom in 1822, in Georgia, the son of Col. Joseph W. Robinson, a mem- ber of the State legislature. He ^bLon, D.D. graduated from the University of i ennessee, at the head of his class, in 1845, ^^d from Union Theological Seminary, New York, in 1849. He was elected Professor of Sacred Literature in 1850, and served until 1855, when he resigned to go to Kentucky. A man of "energetic mind and urbane manners," he helped the College in a time of great depression. One of his colleagues called him "a fine scholar, able theologian, eloquent preacher, and thorough instructor." One of his stu- dents says of him: *'He was a refined, cultured, and scholarly man." Maryville owes him a great debt of gratitude for his labor of love, the ''Memoir of Dr. Isaac Anderson, D.D.," an octavo volume of 300 pages, published in Knoxville in i860. In 1844 there appeared at Maryville a new student, who in future days was to be the ref ounder of the Col- lege. Lamar was a modest, quiet, J^J^J^ ^^^^^^^ alert, observing, and persistent eighteen-year-old lad; and in due time came to be recognized as one of the strongest of the students. Mr. James Gillespie tells of reciting VatteFs Law of Nations to Mr. Lamar, who was then a Senior. After graduating in 1848 from the college department, he studied theology under Dr. Anderson for a year; and then in 1849 ^^ went to Union Theo- 8o A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE logical Seminary and took a regular three years' course, graduating in 1852. After four years of work done in Missouri he was, on September 27, 1856, elected successor to Rev. John J. Robinson, as Pro- fessor of Sacred Literature. Synod appointed Elder Daniel Meek, who had helped Mr. Lamar meet his college expenses, chairman of a committee to inform Mr. Lamar of his election to the professorship, and to urge upon him to accept the appointment and to enter at the earliest practicable period upon the duties of the professorship. He entered upon his work at the College the following year ; and from that time to his death he gave his heart and life to the upbuilding of the institution. During the last ten or twelve years of his life Dr. Anderson was partially disabled by the paralysis of one of the nerves of the lumbar Dr. Anderson plexus, and had to remain seated His Labors ^^^^^ preaching and teaching. The last two or three years he used a crutch in walking. More serious, however, was the mental weakening that also came upon him during the last two or three. years of his life. He was nearing seventy-five years of age when the collapse of his powers became so pronounced that he was forced to give up most of his work. The only wonder is that such excessive labors as he expended during a long life did not earlier occasion this disability. For fifty years he toiled as very few men ever toiled. Ten months before his death his residence, with all THE TEACHERS THAT SERVED 8i its contents, including his library and his priceless manuscripts and correspondence, was consumed by fire. It was with difficulty that he himself was saved. The shock doubtless hastened his death. One can easily imagine the pathos of the only thing he said as they bore him from the flames : **My library is burned up." Two of his students, John Beaman Minnis and Isaac Nelson Caldwell, carried him in a chair to a neigh- bor's house. It was a strange coincidence that the library of the second president. Dr. Robinson, was also consumed by fire in his old age. Invaluable his- torical records were destroyed in both these fires. After the fire Dr. Anderson was tenderly cared for by his daughter-in-law, who was now the wife of one of Dr. Anderson's former students, Rev. John M. Cald- well, at her home in Rockford, six miles north of Maryville. Here the founder of the College fell asleep on the morning of January 28, 1857. He was buried in the New Providence cemetery, at the side of his wife and son. The old stone church, before its removal, extended over the place where he now lies buried. His body lies almost at the very spot where in 1822 stood the pulpit from which he delivered his in- augural address as the first president of what is now Maryville College. "I heard a voice from heaven saying unto me, Write, Blessed are the dead which die in the Lord from henceforth: Yea, saith the Spirit, that they may rest from their labors ; and their works do follow them." 82 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE His monument bears the following inscription : [East Face] In Memory of REV. ISAAC ANDERSON, D.D., Born in Rockbridge County, Va., March 26, 1780. Ordained and Installed Pastor of Washington Church, in Knox County, Tennessee, 1802. Installed Pastor of New Providence Church, Maryville, 1812. Inaugurated President and Professor of Didactic Theology in the Southern and Western Theological Seminary, [Now Maryville College] 1822. Died January 28, 1857. "Servant of God, well done. Rest from thy loved employ; The battle fought, the victory won. Enter thy Master's joy." [North Face] Members of New Providence Church join with other friends of the deceased in erecting this monument, "not because they fear they will forget, but because they love to re- member him" whose dust sleeps beneath it. Immediately following the death of Dr. Anderson, the Directors of the College elected Rev. John J. Rob- inson, D.D., the former Professor of Sacred Litera- THE TEACHERS THAT SERVED 83 ture, as his successor in the presidency. Dr. Robinson entered upon his work as President at the opening of the summer session, April 7, 1857. His administration covered the four troublous years the^conT"' immediately preceding the Civil President War, and yet substantial progress was made, opposition died down, and the attendance increased by i86i to its maximum — over one hundred — in ante-bellum times. They came from most of the States of the Southern and Western group. Scholarly, energetic, and possessing good executive ability, he was laying foundations for better days. He revised and improved the curriculum and raised the standards of scholarship. Dr. Robinson was a good speaker. Those who remember him speak of his voice as being peculiarly moving and melodious. Captain W. H. Henry said of him: **Henry Ward Beecher, as I heard him, did not seem a more elo- quent speaker than Dr. Robinson.'' During the War Dr. Robinson served as chaplain in the Confederate army, and after the War he served churches in Ala- bama and Georgia. He died in Atlanta, on November 8, 1894. The writer of this volume has had the privilege of reading some of Dr. Robinson's private correspond- ence, and has been deeply impressed by the evidences there given of his kindly courtesy, transparent sin- cerity, genuine honor, and sterling Christian conscien- tiousness. He was one of the most worthy builders of Maryville. 84 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE It seems incredible that so few men as have been enumerated in this chapter should have been able to accomplish so large a work as Few Professors ^^^ ^^^^ . Maryville during the but Large Service . ^ . ^u ^ i j x forty-two years that elapsed from 1819 to 1861. Nothing but a high altruistic purpose and indefatigable industry could have achieved such large service. It was not a "forlorn hope," the en- terprise in which they were engaged; but they exem- plified all the heroism which is usually associated with those who volunteer for such a desperate service. The College is proud of their self-denying toil and worthy achievements, and prays that its present faculty may have a double portion of their spirit. CHAPTER VIII The Friends That Helped The pages of this book are intended to recount what may be called the genesis and the exodus of Maryville — its genesis into being Straw ^'*^''''* a^d its exodus from its early limi- tations. In the days of its genesis and its long-time bondage no one need be surprised to hear of heavy burdens, when bricks had to be made without straw. The chapter, *'Days of Creation," has told of some of those sad and weary times. Of friends to help there were but few; but some friends there were, or the story of the College would be even more grim and serious than it has confessedly been. What was the need of such friends, and whence did they arise ? There was no source of income at first from which the salaries of professors could be secured. So the unique spectacle was presented of wlSorSalaries l "'^^ ""* only^teaching for no Financial return, but also laboring with his own hands to supply the needs of the stu- dents that had gathered under his care. Dr. Anderson did not receive any regular salary until in 1830. In 1826, $100 from funds collected for the Seminary 85 '86 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE was appropriated to him as an acknowledgment of what the directors termed his "disinterested devoted- ness" to the interests of the institution ! It would be easy for a smug critic to find a true bill against the worldly wisdom of this strange man; but inasmuch as the indictment would equally hold against the apostle Paul, Maryville's sons may well continue to be greatly proud of a man who so well fulfilled the law that he loved the Lord his God with all his heart, and his neighbor even better than himself. Dr. Anderson earned his living by toiling in several lines of work, but he secured it mainly from his farm, and from the churches that he "F ^M^pi "^ served. Besides his multitudinous activities in other directions, for many years he even did a considerable amount of manual labor on his farm. The salary from the churches was small and usually in arrears. What was true of him was true of most of the ante-bellum pro- fessors — their living had to be sought principally from farms and churches ; and they taught school for philanthropy's sake. Salaries were conspicuous by their absence. It was demonstrated at Maryville that a college can run on very little money if only the professors do not draw salaries! The work of securing financial help for the Col- lege since the Civil War has been done almost en- tirely by the president or a mem- ^eAgente ber of the teaching force. Before the War the few professors there were could not be spared from the classroom; so re- THE FRIENDS THAT HELPED 87 course was had principally to agents, who went into the field in behalf of the school. Letters are still extant in which Dr. Anderson pleaded with men to act as agents. A great deal of hard traveling over many States, principally on horseback, and mainly in the South and Southwest, was done by these representa- tives of the College. Some of them were unable to collect amounts sufficient to cover even their ex- penses. Rev. E. N. Sawtell, one of the earliest of these agents, collected in the Southwest about $2,000, part of which was used in part payment for the semi- nary farm. He spent one Sabbath at the home of Gen. Andrew Jackson. He reported in October, 1828, his work from April, 1826, saying that he had traveled more than seven thousand miles, and had secured $1,335 ^^ cash, and $1,000 in subscriptions. He found the lack of a charter impeded his work. He gave his services for one year entirely without salary, taking only $396 for his traveling expenses, since he had spent much of the time in evangelistic work. Most of his collections were invested in books for the li- brary. Mr. Sawtell made three trips for the Semi- nary. By far the most successful of the ante-bellum agents of the institution, however, was Rev. Thomas Brown, an honored graduate of the Seminary, who was or- dained in 1828. He was born in 1800 and died in 1872, and was in the ministry for forty years. A very strong preacher and very companionable, he was everywhere a welcomed guest. From 1825 until his death, says Dr. Craig, he knew every Presbyterian 88 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE church, minister, and prominent member in the S)mod of Tennessee — East Tennessee and Southwestern Vir- ginia. His service in the raising of both professor- ships will be told in succeeding paragraphs. The help for current expenses that was secured was received mainly from the church people of Blount -, . TT 1 County and East Tennessee, and Current Help ^ j j • ^u ^ r ^u was expended m the support of the students rather than of the professors. The gifts of food were used in the boarding-house, while the do- nations of clothing and the like were distributed among the students. Especially during the early days of the Seminary, such contributions were sometimes consid- erable in amount. There were "female societies" of different churches in different States that contributed, and liberally for that day, to the current expenses of the students. For example, "a Female Charitable Society" of Cherokee Indians contributed ten dollars in 1824. The lack of a charter till 1842 made it diffi- cult to secure money for permanent funds; and so what was given was largely contributed to current expenses. In 1827 the Synod of Tennessee overtured the Gen- eral Assembly of the Presbyterian Church to receive the Seminary under its care and Tne ±irst supervision, provided a professor- Professorship ,f J .^c^ u ij p^j^^ ship endowment of $10,000 should be secured. Then Revs. Thomas Brown, Elijah M. Eagleton, and W. A. McCampbell were enlisted as special agents to raise this profes- sorship. Most of the fund was raised by Mr. Brown. THE FRIENDS THAT HELPED 89 The subscription list, containing the names of almost all the old Presbyterian families of Union Presby- tery, is printed in full in the Calvinistic Magazine for May, 1829. In the annual report made in October, 1829, these glad words were punctuated with an exclamation point: "A subscription has been obtained for found- ing the first professorship of $10,686!" The subscrip- tions were on a five-year basis. The collection of the amounts subscribed was slow and difficult. Pro- fessor Lamar states in a manuscript sketch of the College that $8,000 of the $10,000 was collected, and that, by consent, a part of the amount was appropri- ated to completing the payment for the seminary farm. This professorship of Didactic Theology is the one that Dr. Anderson occupied, and finally it was of service to him. Dr. Robinson succeeded Dr. An- derson in this professorship. Some of the subscrip- tions were void since they were made on condition that a charter should be secured for the Seminary. In 1843, '^^ the dying days of the theological de- partment, a resolution was adopted by Synod pro- viding for the raising of $15,000 The Second ^^ establish a professorship of Professorship ^ , ,. . ^ , ^ Yojiii Sacred Literature, the payments to be made in this case also in annual installments during a period of five years. The fact that the charter just received (in 1842) from the State did not give the Synod the power to elect the directors, hindered the securing of subscriptions. But in 1845 the desired amendment to the charter was obtained, 90 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE and the canvass was then vigorously pushed by Rev. Thomas Brown. On October lo, 1846, he reported $15,185 as subscribed to the professorship. Synod in its vote of thanks to Mr. Brown commended the '*zeal and fidelity of the indefatigable agent.'* By 1858 the collections on this fund amounted to $9,5chd. The funds when once received were carefully administered. The incumbents of the chair of Sacred Literature were Rev. John J. Robinson, 1850-1855, and Rev. Thomas J. Lamar, 1857-1861. By 1855 the amount of the income of the fund was $540. Besides these two regular endowment funds, there was contributed for about ten successive years, 1833- 1843, to the support of Rev. Fielding Pope and others, what was called the "Temporary Professorship Fund." The contributors and amounts contributed were usu- ally as follows : Samuel Rhea, $60 ; Rev. James King, $30; D. M. Shields & Co., $10; Rev. Frederick A. Ross, $60; and W. S. McEwen, $30. Total, $190. As early as 1826 the directors urged the necessity of endowed scholarships; but whatever help came in was, for many years, only current SubSSL scholarship aid. In 1854 it was proposed that one hundred perma- nent scholarship certificates exempting from paying tuition and good for thirty years should be sold, at $250 each, the proceeds to be devoted to the endow- ment of chairs of Mathematics and Modern Science in the Literary Department. During the following year "not more than fifteen or eighteen of these schol- arships were taken." In 1856 the directors adopted Dr. John J. Robinson, Second President. THE FRIENDS THAT HELPED 91 a modified form of this plan, and succeeded in get- ting subscriptions to this fund to the amount of $10,- 000. Comparatively little of this subscription was collected before the War came to sweep away the subscription and many of the subscribers. There were two ante-bellum treasurers, and they deserve to be enrolled on Maryville's honor roll of **friends that helped." James Faithful g^j. E ^^g chosen as the Treasurers ^ ^ • o j j first treasurer m 1019, and served faithfully and without compensation until his resig- nation in 1833. Colonel — afterwards General — Wil- liam Wallace was elected his successor, and served till his death in 1864. Gen. Wallace served as State legislator and several times as a presidential elector for Tennessee, and was president of the Knoxville and Charleston Railroad. In 1855 the treasurer re- ported that the only loss of endowment since the founding of the first professorship fund had been one of thirty-eight dollars. It is true that the treasurers had but a comparatively small amount of money to care for, but in those days the money was invested in personal notes, and so required a great deal of personal attention. In 1855 the bond of the treasurer was $20,000. Up to the Civil War, during the treas- urership of Gen. Wallace, only eighty dollars of the investments was lost, and even that loss did not fall upon the College, for the treasurer paid the amount out of his own means. The long terms of service on the part of Treasurers Berry and Wallace were valu- able contributions to the welfare of the institution. 92 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE When we take into account the excessive amount of work that had to be done, and the fact that the . high-water mark of the salaries SeciSng Teachers '^'^^^^^^ '^^. P-'of^^f ^s in Mary- ville College m ante-bellum times was $600, and the low-water mark $000, it can hardly be wondered at that it was very difficult to persuade men to accept professorships at Maryville. Families must live, and the cost of living calls for some sal- ary. But the directors, though beggars, were choosers, for this is a sample of what they said: *The pro- fessor to fill the chair of Sacred Literature shall be a man who has received the highest advantages of education offered in the United States." Dr. Ballen- tine declined this chair in 1849, ^^d Dr. William Eagle- ton in 1850. The directors became very much ac- customed to having their proposals rejected. When, however, a man felt it his duty to become a professor at Maryville, the Maryville spirit of dis- interested benevolence seemed to GreateTneTpera ^^* Possession of him, and he made such sacrifices for the institution as one would be expected to make only for his own family. If salary was missing, the man taught on, as if such small matters as food and raiment were not at all involved in the case. The budget — how was it financed? Principally by the teachers' working for practically nothing. And they did so for the kingdom of heaven's sake. Their small tuition fees, the meager salaries paid them by the churches to which they preached on the Sabbath THE FRIENDS THAT HELPED 93 day, and the income of their farms, kept the wolf from the door, so that they could almost donate their services to the institution. In making an honor roll, then, of the friends that helped the school, the highest place in that roll must be given to the professors who served their institution with such self-sacrificing liberality and fidelity. CHAPTER IX The Plant That Had to Serve The large double log house, seventy feet long, with its two stories and its rooms, thirty feet by thirty, that was the home of Union Acad- The Log Academy ^^^ j^ ^^^^^^ Valley was de- scribed somewhat in detail in the third chapter. It was a rather ambitious school building for 1802, and was several times larger than Rev. William Tennent's historic *'Log College,'' the mother of all later Presby- terian schools of higher learning. When Rev. George Whitefield visited the Log College at Neshaminy, near Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, he wrote as follows : *'The place where the young men study now (1739) is, in contempt, called The College. It is a log house, about twenty feet long and near as many broad, and to me it seemed to resemble the school of the old prophets. . . . All that we can say of most of our universities is, They are glorious without." Dr. Anderson conducted his academy, after his re- moval to Maryville, apparently in more modest quar- ters, one academy building, as we have seen, stand- ing where the old jail afterward stood, and the other old log cabin standing on the banks of Pistol Creek where the railroad culvert has since been built. 94 THE PLANT THAT HAD TO SERVE 95 Dr. Anderson had young men studying in his own house during the years that preceded the opening of the Seminary. His residence «rm.g "Little xiic xuttic frame building: standing Brown House" , ., * . j r where the Armory stood a few years ago, but, as we have seen, it was destroyed by fire in 1856. The class that Dr. Anderson gathered in 1819 was one to be instructed in literary branches, the Seminary being formally opened in 1822. The class of five gathered in 1819 recited in *'a little brown house" standing on Main Street on the north corner of the lot where Mr. A. K. Harper's residence now stands. It was brown, not with paint, but because weather-beaten. It stood until after the War. Mr. Eli Nunn occupied it for a while. This was used probably until the seminary brick building was com- pleted, two or three years later. Dr. Anderson also frequently used his own residence for one or more recitations. In 1820 a small unfinished two-story brick build- ing that had been intended for a female academy, was purchased for $600 from the ^i^^ck House ^^^3t^^3 of the academy, one of with Six , TAJ i_- Fireplaces whom was Isaac Anderson him- self. The building stood on the half lot at the east corner of the two lots on which New Providence Church now stands. It was about twenty-five feet by forty. The Boston Recorder for December 9, 1820, announces the purchase as fol- lows: "The Directors of the Southern and Western Theological Seminary report that they have purchased 96 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE a lot and eligible building in Maryville, Tennessee, for the use of the Institution at the low price of $600. The building is of brick, two stories high, with six fireplaces. The appointed professor is preparing a course of lectures on didactic theology, and will hold himself in readiness to communicate all the informa- tion he may be able in the whole course of prescribed studies, until other professors shall be chosen." The building had one large room and two small rooms downstairs and similar rooms upstairs. The small rooms were used for dormitory purposes; the large room upstairs was used for the library, and the large room downstairs was usually employed for recitations. Professor Lamar, while a student, roomed in this building. The completion of the building involved an expense that was met by different gifts, but principally by collections made by agents. This was the theological seminary building, and it was constantly in use until the Civil War. While Federal troops camped in Maryville they tore down the brick seminary to fur- nish bricks for their '^Dutch ovens"! Some of the bricks may still be seen in a brick walk at John P. Duncan's home. In 1824, for the sum of $400, a lot and a half, ad- joining the lot on which the seminary building stood, and containing two small frame ^e Boarding- buildings, was purchased for the House and Farm , ,. , fi ^ t-. a j Buildinffs boardmg-house that Dr. Anderson had decided to establish. He em- ployed a steward and opened the boarding-house. THE PLANT THAT HAD TO SERVE 97 When these buildings were removed to allow the main building of later years to be erected, the boarding- house was located elsewhere. While the farm was owned, the boarding-house was located upon it, near the spring now called the Goddard spring; while, during the Fifties at least, it was situated on the south side of Church Street, only a stone's throw from the main building. Most of these boarding-houses were frame buildings, small, and inexpensively built. In 1825 Dr. Anderson "got his eye on the farm which adjoins the grounds on which the Maryville College buildings now stand," and sent Mr. Sawtell to Mississippi and Louisiana to raise the money needed to buy it. Mr. Sawtell returned after a hard winter's work with, perhaps, two thousand dollars. The farm consisted of two hundred acres, of which eighty acres were in cultivation, and was purchased at a cost of $2,500. As has been said, it was located in what is now called South Maryville. It contained a com- modious dwelling house, a barn, and other houses, and was well watered by springs. From the first it was the dream of Dr. Anderson and the directors to re- move the entire institution to this quieter home, where the boys would be removed from "the noise and con- fusion of the town." Maryville was then a giddy little city of perhaps fifty houses, and perhaps two hundred and fifty inhabitants. But the dream was not realized during the lifetime of Dr. Anderson. The brick building was "the Seminary." In 1829 arrangements were made to erect a frame building, 98 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE thirty feet by sixty, two stories high, for the separate use of the literary students, as the college department young men were called. Four years later (1833) the' building was finished, ready for The "New" jLiic iicw ^gg except the putting up of a College Frame , . . X . . , . Building chimney, and the citizens had subscribed sixty dollars towards the chimney. There was paid out on the building that year the sum of $623. Two years later (1835) the directors reported that they were then finishing the building ! The building was located on the north- west corner of the lot, and faced Main Street, and was flush with it. This building also had six rooms. The first floor was used as the chapel except for two small rooms at the southwest end, one of which was a laboratory with chemical and philosophical apparatus, and the other a recitation room, long occupied by Professor Pope. The chapel would seat from one hundred and fifty to two hundred, and was also used for prayer meetings and Sabbath school, and Dr. Craig used it as a recita- tion room. The pulpit was on a three feet by four platform boxed up about three feet high, and was located in the east comer of the room. One of our older citizens recalls seeing John M. Caldwell ordained to the ministry in this old chapel, on April 2, 1851. The two small rooms upstairs were used for class- rooms or dormitory rooms, and the large roorn for the Beth-Hacma Literary Society hall. A circular belfry containing a small bell surmounted the build- THE PLANT THAT HAD TO SERVE 99 ing. A big fish-shaped weather-vane hung above the belfry. The exterior of the building, "had it not been for the numerous windows, might have been taken by a stranger passing through the place for a cattle barn" ! There was no fence about the square. A grove of locust trees covered the little campus. In the south corner of the half-acre campus there also stood a little frame building owned by the Beth- Hacma ve Berith Literary Society and used by its members for their meetings. In 1849 the Directors reported to Synod that they had an agent in the field collecting money "for rearing a College Edifice," and that he had r 1 1 )> secured subscriptions for $2,000 in Maryville and vicinity. The next year the subscriptions had been increased to $3,000. In 185 1 the members of Synod pledged themselves "not to let the enterprise fail for the want of the aid in their power." In 1853 the building had been commenced and the walls were expected to be erected and covered that fall. It was located just back of the frame building and in the center of the two lots. In 1855 a portion of the building would soon be ready for use. In 1856 ten rooms had been com- pleted, and some of them had been occupied as class- rooms and some of the others by students. The frame "College" was removed when the brick "Col- lege" was far enough advanced to be used. In 1858 the debt on the new building was $2,000, and $1,000 was needed to finish it. loo A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE The catalog of 1854 thus describes the building: "A large and handsome college building is soon to be completed. It is of brick, three stories high, and presents a front of no feet. It contains a chapel, four recitation rooms, study and lodging rooms suf- ficient to accommodate sixty or seventy students, and two halls for the use of the literary societies. . . . The building, when entirely completed, will be worth $10,000, and will afford ample accommodations for the present." This most ambitious building of the College before the War was never completed, though it was used in Its incomplete condition for several years. The War found it incomplete and left it a ruin. Its story will be taken up again. The pen and ink sketch of the building found in this volume was drawn by John E. Patton, a student of the College during the years 1849-1852. During the greater part of the ante-bellum period New Providence Church occupied the old stone church which was loi feet by 60 in dimen- The Old Stone ^j^^^g j^^. j^^^^ Gillespie, writ- Church . . ^ . , r 1 1 1 1 mg m 1095, said of the old days: *Tn those days almost all the public exhibitions at the close of the term were held either in the large stone church, which stood where now stands Colum- bian Hall, or at the camp ground located where Mr. Hyden now lives. Usually at the closing exercises the graduating class, with the help of the ladies, would fit up the old stone church in a becoming style. Gen- erally at this time the two societies would close the THE PLANT THAT HAiy TO- ^BRVJf • foi exercises with a debate ; this debate was at night, and at that time we had no electric lights, no gas lights, not even coal-oil lamps; in fact nothing ordinarily but home-made tallow candles; but on these grand occasions we would send to Knoxville and get a lot of sperm candles, and it took a lot of them, you may be sure, to light up the large old church. A large home-made chandelier was hung in the center and filled with these candles and festooned in beautiful style. On these occasions the old church, which would seat some fifteen to eighteen hundred people, was usu- ally packed to its utmost capacity. Sometimes at the close of the year, in place of a debate, the societies would get up an exhibition, and when this was the case the old camp-ground shed would be brought into requisition, and I do not think I exaggerate when I say that there were sometimes from 2,500 to 3,000 persons gathered to witness these plays." President Robinson and Professor Lamar recog- nized the unfavorable and cramped location of the College on its town lots on Main Dream Buildings Street, and looked enviously over Hills^^^ ^ toward "the south hills," where a beautiful location could anywhere be found for a new Maryville College. So pressing did the need of removal seem to them that they se- cured from the Synod, in 1858, the adoption of reso- lutions authorizing a special committee to make an appeal to '^persons of well-known benevolence and Christian liberality to furnish voluntary contributions for the erection of new buildings in the vicinity of i02 A CENTURY. OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE Maryville for the use of Maryville College." It was specified that "no building shall be undertaken until ten thousand dollars cash in hand shall have been obtained." The donor should have the privilege of naming the building he erected. The wildest dreams of those days have now been far more than realized. A little city crowns the "south hills." "So great was their faith in the feasibility of their plans," says Captain W. H. Henry, "and such their determination to see them carried out, that Dr. Robin- son and Professor Lamar gave their joint personal obligations for $2,000 to secure fifty acres of ground just west of the present grounds for that purpose." The Civil War, however, put an end to all this dream- ing and planning. Such, then, was the plant that had to serve the Col- lege before the War. Professor Lamar sums it up in the brief lines: "At the begin- Total Property at ^j ^^ ^^^ q^jj ^^^ ^j^^ ^^j^^. Outbreak of War ^ . . ^ , ^ ,, ment fund of the College amount- ed to about $16,000. The real estate consisted of two half -acre lots with three buildings — one wooden (the boarding-house), one small brick, and a large brick unfinished. The library contained about 6,000 volumes. The indebtedness of the College amounted to $1,000." CHAPTER X Crises and the Cataclysm As has, certainly, been indicated by the preceding chapters, Maryville College really had never, thus far, been free from a crisis. CrisiT*^^^^^^ "Crisis'' was engaged in a continu- ous performance. There had been good and sufficient reasons in every year of the his- tory of the institution to give up the whole attempt to keep the school in operation. The question was not whether the reasons for giving up were sufficiently strong, but it was, rather, whether the spirit of self- denying service on the part of the professors in charge would become sufficiently weak to be finally exhausted. The splendid fact was, as we have seen, that the college altruism did not fail ; and so the con- tinuous crisis did not end in a cataclysm. The College lived right on in spite of the chronic crisis. Pluck, prayer, and perseverance defied the ever-threatening disaster. There were three attempts to remove the institu- tion from Maryville. The first took place at the very beginning of the career of the institution. There was a strong body of Tennessee Presbyterians west of the Cumberlands who very naturally wanted the new semi- 103 104 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE nary to be located within reaching distance of their churches. There was much preliminary sparring pre- paratory to the real battle, which AUem te at ^""^^^^ ^''''^ ^'^^^ ^^ ^^^ '^^^^'''^ ""^ Removal Synod at Murfreesboro, in 1823. Murfreesboro was then the capital of the State. Governor Carroll was inaugurated while Synod was in session. When the great debate between Dr. Isaac Ander- son and Dr. Gideon Blackburn about the location of the Seminary was in progress, most of the legislators were interested spectators. The East Tennessee dele- gates to Synod were in a hopeless minority, for only six were present; but their champion, Dr. Anderson, adopted the Napoleonic strategy of "Divide and con- quer." He had Dr. Blackburn's plan read and dis- cussed seriatim, and succeeded in convincing the Synod of its impracticability in all its parts. The decision as to the permanent location of the Seminary was "deferred to some future meeting." The next year at Columbia, the Synod resolved that "the Southern and Western Theological Seminary be, and it hereby is, permanently located at Maryville in East Ten- nessee." The second attempt to remove the Seminary was a peculiar one. Dr. Hardin, in the field as an agent of the Seminary in 1827, entered into an agreement at Danville to remove the Seminary to Danville, to con- solidate it with the seminary that the Kentucky people had under contemplation. Then he carried a round- robin agreement throughout southwestern Virginia and CRISES AND THE CATACLYSM 105 East Tennessee and secured the signature of every Presbyterian minister except Rev. William Minnis. Dr. Minnis was one of the first graduates of the Semi- nary, and for nearly forty years he proved himself a Stonewall in defense of his alma mater. Others surrendered, but he never. Dr. Anderson was at first crushed, and, in tears on account of the seeming ingratitude of the brethren, signed the round robin ; but he soon regained his nerve, and with Dr. Minnis, Dr. McCampbell, and others, snatched victory out of defeat. In a letter written at this time. Dr. Anderson stated that he had nineteen reasons why he was unwilling that the Seminary should cease its existence. The friends of Maryville rallied, and raised the $10,000 subscription for the first endowed professorship, of which mention has already been made. This put a quietus on Dr. Har- din's plan. Early in the Fifties the College passed through a crisis that was almost fatal to it. The great national crisis was in precipitation, but the x^^^l^-^x- collesfe crisis anticipated it several the Fifties t^u • • 1 • r years, ihe prmcipal occasion of the crisis was the collapse of the physical and mental powers of Dr. Anderson. For several years before his death, in 1857, ^^* Anderson's disability removed his strong hand from the helm. His second child- hood was a pathetic and yet noble one, as was shown in his farewell conversation with his old pupil. Dr. Abel Pearson. The number of students in attend- 5Uice greatly decreased. The financial difficulties of io6 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE the school became so acute that, as has been said before, the faculty collapsed, and Dr. Craig was left as the only professor in the school, and in 1856, at least, no instruction in the theological department was given. For several years no professor of mathematics was elected for lack of a salary. Naturally there was much criticism of the College while its fortunes were at this low ebb. At Blount- ville, Synod appointed a special committee on the general subject of the building up of a strong college and theological seminary. The majority report pre- vailed, opening the way for the removal of the insti- tution from Mary ville to some other place. Dr. Will- iam Minnis, thirty years after his first "Stonewair' service, presented a brief but incisive report opposing the transfer for five conclusive reasons. He concluded his report with the earnest words: "We therefore would recommend that the Synod, in place of pulling down and starting anew, would proceed harmoniously to build upon our present foundations, laid in prayers, tears, and self-denials, and almost the sacrifice of life." Dr. Craig says of *'the curly-headed Scotch- Irishman," Dr. Minnis: "East Tennessee never, per- haps, had an abler and more logical preacher and defender of the truth. He was one of the Boanerges." The next year (1856), at Athens, the Synod by a de- cisive vote resolved that "it would be inexpedient to accept the proposals to found another literary and theological institution within our bounds." The liberal oflFer of Rogersville was, however, put on record. It was an offer of one hundred and forty scholarships CRISES AND THE CATACLYSM 107 of $250 each, and of the local Presbyterian church building and lot, on condition that Rogersville should be the site of the new institution. Thus ended the third and last attempt to remove the institution to some other location. The next day Rev. Thomas Jefferson Lamar was elected Professor of Sacred Literature. The next year Dr. Robinson was elected president, and seemed soon to harmonize the discordant elements in the Synod. During this decade the theological department was almost extinct. There was, usually, only one or two enrolled in the department. The The Seminary ^^^^^ ^f ^^^ ^^j^^^j ^^^^ j^ Department ^ . -^. ... Dormant easier for young men to decide to go to other seminaries that had now been established, and that were available by rail- road. Out of the college class of 1850, three gradu- ates went elsewhere to a seminary. The Education Society no longer aided the candidates for the min- istry. There had been for many years a seculariza- tion, not of the College, but of the age. .The Synod lamented from year to year the paucity of candidates for the ministry. The result of these various influ- ences was the virtual extinction of the theological department before the Civil War finally deposited it among the other wreckage of the past. The college department had been found necessary at the very beginning of the Seminary, and so the constitution had been changed to provide for it. It was evident from the earliest days that, whatever io8 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE might be true of the theological department, the col- lege department would develop just as rapidly as the facilities provided for it might make it possible. The conspicuous service of the semi- ExMndeT^ nary department v^as rendered dur- ing the first twenty-three years of the life of the institution. The charter of "Maryville College'' was secured in 1842 ; and, by chance, that is the date when the seminary passes into eclipse and the college department begins to shine in full brightness. The late Hon. J. G. Wallace, of Franklin, one of Treasurer Wallace's sons, received in 1844 the first printed diploma issued by the College. From 1842 to 1 861 the seminary was merely nominal, while the college developed steadily, and, to the extent of its limited facilities, came to be strong and scholarly and successful. As time passed, the nomenclature ad- justed itself to the new conditions, and the institution was spoken of as "the College" instead of "the Semi- nary." As has been said, plans for a new location and for larger facilities were being made at the very time when the Civil War — the end of the world, as it seemed — ^burst upon the country. The field of the College was broadening. The At- lanta Constitution of April 23, 1886, gave a list of Broadening twenty-three prominent citizens of Field DeKalb County, Georgia, who had been educated in Maryville College. Several of them were in attendance during the Fifties. The clientage of the school was waking up to the opportunities at Maryville, and the character of the work done there. CRISES AND THE CATACLYSM 109 Most of the Southwestern States were represented in the attendance of the last two or three years of the ante-bellum College. Had not the War intervened, it was probable that the enrollment of students would soon have greatly increased. It did increase from sixty in 1857 ^^ over one hundred in 1861. President Robinson, Professors Craig and Lamar, and a tutor made a strong and efficient faculty, and the work was more consistent and better articulated than for many years. There were indications also of the existence of a larger number of friends ready to cooperate with the College. Maryville was, evidently, coming into its own. One of the invaluable records destroyed when the library of Dr. Anderson was consumed by fire was a private register, gratefully kept SieoV^cal ^^ *^ Doctor, of those who had Department ^^^^ educated for the ministry at Maryville since the founding of the Seminary. That was, doubtless, the only complete list that was ever in existence. In the catalog of 1859 a list of about one hundred ministers educated in the Seminary was published. Professor Lamar, however, added many names to the list, and stated that the entire number of such ministers amounted to at least one hundred and fifty. A remarkable achievement was this to be wrought amid such limi- tations of men and money as prevailed at this frontier Seminary. The loss of all the records makes it impossible also to give any exact summary of the work of the no A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE college department. There is no record available of even the number of graduates of the College in ante- bellum days. It is believed that there were at least two hundred and fifty of them in Work of College ^„ departments, and that is Department , ^, ' , . ^ the number used as a basis for the statistical summaries of the work of the institu- tion. The catalog of 1858 says : "Hundreds of young men have been educated for the learned professions who have attained to positions of eminence and use- fulness." In a section of the country and at a period when there were few preparatory schools and no high schools, it was necessary for every worK or college to conduct a preparatory Dep^tmeJt department. Indeed, there was then hardly a college in the United States that did not have such a department. In Mary- ville there were many students who afterward were the leading business men of the section who received what education they had in this department. The teaching was doqe in part by student assistants — often mature men — and in part by the regular professors of the college and the seminary. The attendance was about the same as in the college department. The debt owed by the state to the voluntary and indis- pensable aid afforded by the church schools in the days when the state was doing comparatively little for popular education can never be fully appreciated or liquidated. One man is not so impressive a sight as are forty. CRISES AND THE CATACLYSM ill but one man in forty years may accomplish what forty men could do in one year, or even more than they. A modest school may not attract much public attention or applause, but in the Forty Times One ^^^^^^ ^^ ^ j^ ^g^^^ Is Forty , ^u ^ much more than do some more ambitious schools of fewer years. With the facili- ties at command, and with the hindrances to be met, surely old Pvlaryville has performed as worthy a ser- vice as any institution has ever rendered. In the progress of the years, the quiet college halls caught the sound of discordant debate and angry dis- cussion, and witnessed premoni- isugie tall tions, perhaps at the time not treat- ed seriously, of the coming national division and desolation. The muttered threat, suc- ceeded by angry quarreling, was suddenly drowned out by the heart-stirring bugle blast summoning men to arms ! The clarion calls of hostile bugles echoed and reechoed among the East Tennessee hills, and awoke in young and brave and excited hearts a response that boded ill for the continuance of college work. The call of patriotism, the impulse of passion, the love of ad- venture, the ignominy of cowardice — ^all sounded louder than did the quiet tones of peace and school and home. The Latin maxim, *'In the midst of arms, the laws are silent," may be freely adapted to say : In the time of war, schools are closed. Fort csM ^1. e^^i Sumter was fired upon on April Silent Scholae ^^ r> j- ^ r u ir 12, 1861. By dmt of much self- possession and with many searchings of heart the 112 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE professors and their students had managed to con- tinue their usual work during the turmoil of the months since November, i860; and even now they were able to hold on with their work for a few days longer. But it was impossible that the quiet pursuits of peace could be followed in the presence of the cataclysm of civil war, and especially so in the Volun- teer State, where men are always prompt to answer their country's call. On April 22, 1861, less than a week after the first blood of the Civil War was spilled, the last chapel exercise was held. Dr. Robinson conducted the ser- vice, and announced the suspension of the college work "on account of a state of armed hostilities in the country." And the teachers and students sep- arated, most of them to take up arms for whichever cause seemed right to them. Some of the students were to die in battle or in the hospital; and not one of them was to come back to the old College when the cruel war was over. Their schooldays at Mary- ville were ended. It was sadly typical of the divisions made by the War that of the four teachers — three professors and -« ^ . , one tutor — at work in 1861 two The Cataclysm , • , . 1 , tt . sympathized with the Union and two with the Confederacy. Of the students some "went North" and some "went South"; and some found themselves arrayed against their friends and kinsmen and a few even against their fathers. Those were dreadful days and they tried men's souls. And all that Maryville's lovers of the church, of edu- CRISES AND THE CATACLYSM 113 cation, and of the future could do was to do what seemed to them their duty; and then to live or die, as the Lord of Sabaoth should determine. And, yet, perhaps, in God's good time, there might some day be such a thing as peace again; and peaceful ways and works; and, possibly, open schools; and, if the Al- mighty God should lay bare his mighty arm, there might be — ^yes, there might be — some day, another Maryville College, with its old-time altruism, bidding the young people of the Southwest to enter as of yore ! Men fought and waited, and the thoughtful ones prayed as they fought, and watched as they waited, and sometimes caught a vision of a possible answer to their prayers, so that their hearts were glad with a joy that can not be measured: "Peace! and no longer from its brazing portals The blast of War's great organ shakes the skies! But beautiful as songs of the immortals. The holy melodies of love arise." Rev. Thomas Jefferson Lamar, Second Founder. PART SECOND. THE POST-BELLUM MARYVILLE CHAPTER I College Ruins — 1865-1869 It seemed as if the four weary years of the Civil War would never end. At last, however, the thunder of hostile guns died away, and men said that peace had come. The armies disbanded, and their veterans took up again the pursuits of other days. Man must do his work even if his heart is sore. It was a dark day in 1865, a^d Professor Lamar stood alone and heart-sick at the intersection of Main - -^. , «^ and College Streets, in the little town of Maryville. The clouds hung lowering over the scene. They resembled the smoke of battle, but they were only natural clouds of mist, and not the unnatural smoke of civil strife. The War, thank God, was over. But not so, as yet, were the results of war. The ruin and wreckage of that abomination of desolation had not yet been cleared away. The town looked grim and gloomy, indeed. The old Court House up the street showed ghastly wounds inflicted by shot and shell fired by Wheeler's IIS ii6 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE men; beyond and opposite the Court House, on both sides of the street, the principal business portion of the town lay in cinders and ashes, as another memento of Wheeler's raid; while down the street the ram- shackle hotel, the successor of an important inn on "the Federal Road,'' showed by its shattered windows and plaster pillars all agape that unhappy days had befallen the hospitable old hostelry. The few men that rode horseback up Main Street — for there were few buggies to use in those days — some of them wore suits of blue or brown jeans that had been woven, cut, and made at home. Here and there a suit of soldier's blue or gray that had outlived the camp and campaign were reminders of a house divided against itself. The farms from which the horsemen, had come were most of them gully-gashed, fenceless, and wretchedly stocked with the left-over cavalry wrecks of cruel war — for war is as destructive of horses as it is of men. In those early post-bellum days, whenever the cau- tious reserve and prudent reticence into which the Gloom and Grief P^^P^^ had been trained by the daily dangers of war, were put aside, it could easily be seen that there was heavy gloom within as well as without. There were many hearts and homes of mourning for the dead of many battle-fields ; and many hearts of hate for wrongs in- flicted during those irresponsible years of bloodshed. Mingled even with the profound happiness arising out of the fact that the war was over, were suspicion and anxiety and dread as to the future. COLLEGE RUINS— 1865-1869 117 But while the professor standing at the meeting of the ways felt the gloom about him, as during all the sad Sixties he had felt it, what then was the scene immediately be- fore him. The two quarter-acre town lots now graced by the beautiful edifice of New Providence Church were then occupied by the one surviving building of Maryville College — the three-story brick building, which had not been completed at the outbreak of the War, and which now in the last stages of dilapidation would surely never be completed. Indeed, the boys who played about the doorless structure might well have found a safer place for their sport. The "College," poorly built at best, after serving both armies as barracks and stable for four destruc- tive years, was now a mere shell, an unsubstantial ghost of an unsatisfactory building. The door-frames and window- frames had been torn out for fuel. Its smaller and older companion, the little two-story, six- roomed brick "Seminary," located in the east corner of the narrow campus, had been torn away in war times, as we have seen, by the blue- jackets to make ovens for the mess shanties on their camping ground. The main building itself might appropriately have shared the fate of its smaller colleague, for it surely was suitable for nothing better; it was a disreputable old hulk. And not only was the building a wreck, but it did not even belong to the College. It had been sold for debt during the War. It was no longer "Maryville ii8 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE College," but was merely a battered piece of property owned by other parties. The professor who stood there had graduated from the College seventeen years before, and had been elected a professor in it nine years Pe^^lT"^''^''* before, and had stayed by it throughout the dark years of the War, and had prayed for it every day at family wor- ship, and still loved it with all his soul. As he viewed his dear old college home in ruins, he had the addi- tional sorrow of knowing that those friends of the College that would have helped rebuild its walls, if they could, were themselves the victims of war, and were not able to lend any appreciable help in the re- building of a college. Reduced to hard straits by the War, they had enough trouble, penury, and poverty of their own, without assuming any in behalf of a defunct school. Let it remain dead! Public spirit was dead. Many precious lives had passed away during the holocaust of the four years ; one corporate life, more or less, was of little moment compared with those costly losses of fathers and husbands and brothers and sons that had filled the land with one long-continued agony. What! build the College again! One professor, one building in ruins, no property, and no friends able to help! And the teacher looked Ra^^oTHo^^^ up and down the street, and across the desolate hills on either side, and the sight was sufficient to proclaim as only an idle dream the fancy of attempting to build a college on COLLEGE RUINS— 1865-1869 119 such ruins as lay before him. Where was help to be found? He had looked on every side to no avail. Now, like Isaac Anderson of the earlier days, when all else failed, he looked within and saw the glim- mering hope of a resolute human will. And yet he felt that only if there were windows in heaven could these things be! However, he looked upward, and there he saw a window ajar, and a glimmer of hope shining through. And then he went on his way, some- what cheered in heart and altogether resolute in will, to do what man could do to rebuild the walls of his Zion. Since there was a window in heaven, please God, these things could and should be. On an October day in 1865 our preacher-teacher went to New Market to attend the first meeting of the Synod of Tennessee that was fn^S^^^ held after the Civil War, and, in- deed, the first since 1862. Should the S)mod reopen the College? In the discussion, an earnest address of Hon. Horace Maynard had much to do with leading the Synod to determine to attempt the seemingly impossible. The following day thirty- six directors were elected. The Synod then ordered the newly-appointed directors to elect a treasurer, to redeem the property, to pay debts, and to invest what might remain in suitable securities; and it also di- rected that the advisability of appointing one or two professors should be taken under consideration. A committee chosen to consider the appointment of an agent to attempt to secure funds for the College 120 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE nominated Professor Thomas Jefferson Lamar, the man of the vision, to serve as such an agent. And all this constructive planning took place at a Synod where the Committee on the Narrative of the State of Religion began its re- Lamentations ^^^^ ^^* ^^^^^ infinitely pathetic words: *'0h, that my head were waters, and mine eyes a fountain of tears, that I might weep day and night for the slain of the daughter of my people ! The waves of war have swept up and down the valley of our East Tennessee, and the fence- less fields, the unmended roads, the prostrate forests, the open schoolhouses without windows and doors, and the dismantled churches mark the path of the fiery surges. The dead are sleeping in our valleys and along our hillsides, and the soil of many a field has been wet with human blood." Professor Lamar returned to Maryville the unsal- aried but divinely commissioned man whose business . it was to reestablish Maryville D^^tioT College. Late in December, 1865, he made a trip to the North in the hope that he might secure help for the College. Shrink- ing from the work of solicitation of help, he still did manfully for the College what he never would have done for any other cause; but apparently all in vain. He returned in April, 1866, having secured only one hundred and twenty-five dollars, while the expenses of the journey were one hundred and ninety-eight dollars. What had become of that window above? Ah, well! he was merely learning that the infinitely Dr. P. Mason Bartlett, Third President. COLLEGE RUINS— 1865-1869 121 patient God will not greatly use any one until that one has schooled himself to do his best and then bide God's time. Instead of despairing, as he should have done had it not been for his seeing the Invisible, he returned home, as "in the beginning" Dr. Anderson did from his historic visit to Princeton, to make a college him- self, since others would not provide it. In view of the fact that he had no money to invest, again like Dr. Anderson, he determined to invest himself. And this is just what Providence wants — a man with whom and through whom to work. With God the man is the most important endowment of any cause. The man he must have; the money he already has an abund- ance of in reserve, and when he sees best he will, as he has done in the case of Maryville, most gener- ously provide it. On an auspicious and patriotic day, July 4, 1866, Professor Lamar, through Rev. Ralph E. Tedford, the Recorder of the Directors and A •Al''^^''^^ the father of the future Mrs. La- Amid the Ruins . , . . , mar, issued a one-paged circular announcing that Maryville College would reopen on the first Wednesday of September, 1866. By cor- respondence and visits, the Professor did what he could to secure students. Those were days of home and farm reconstruction, and many who longed for an education could not be spared from their homes. However, on the morning of September 5, Professor Lamar, the acting-president and acting-faculty and acting- janitor of the College, rang the same old cruel- 122 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE throated bell that throughout the decades has sum- moned the students to their tasks. Soon there gath- ered for the first post-bellum chapel exercise thirteen young men, most of whom had come directly from the farm: Frank M. Allen, George E. Bicknell, Gid- eon S. W. Crawford, Calvin A. Duncan, James A. Goddard, Benjamin H. Lea, Isaac A. Martin, William H. Porter, Edward W. Sanderson, Hugh W. Sawyer, Joseph P. Tedford, Charles E. Tedford, and Edward W. Tedford. Four of the thirteen had been soldier boys. And all the company had the spirit of the thirteen "No Surrender" apprentice lads of London- derry. One of the number afterward said : "Every- thing was so horrible and disgusting that some of the students almost determined to leave in spite of the professor's entreaties. But after attachments were formed, and the number of students had increased, the school went on finely." The modest endowment and the limited property of the ante-bellum days were almost entirely swept away « „ « , by the besom of war. All that Small Salvage ,11 , , r ,1 could be gathered from the dust and ashes of 1865 amounted to about six thousand dollars in value. Small salvage, indeed! But there was salvage of another kind whose value could not be computed in terms of the dollar and its multiples. When Professor Lamar gazed on the ruins of Mary- ville he saw in his mind's eye more than appeared before him. The finances were, indeed, phantoms; but not so was the memory of the men that made Maryville in the early days. Those men stood be- COLLEGE RUINS— 1865-1869 123 fore him again in all their faith, fidelity, devotion, and heroic zeal, and he felt his own brave spirit grow braver. As he himself said : "The work of these men formed a basis on which to stand and from which to work and appeal for help with encouragement and hope." What he saw in part and imperfectly, God saw in full and perfectly. The foundations that God saw had more of tears and self-denial Significant ^^^ loving consecration in them ^ than they had of dollars and bricks and mortar. The achievements that God saw were not classic halls and ivied towers and scholastic pomp, but buildings of human intelligence and structures of beneficent character and homes of modest helpfulness, which the builders of early Maryville had constructed. The endowments that God saw were not the perishable riches of men but the imperishable treasure of Chris- tian manhood laid up by prayer and praise before the very throne of God in heaven. This was the most active endowment that any college could have, and Maryville had much of it, for its founders were pre- eminently men of prayer. This capital, then, Mary- ville had to begin with, when beginning life all over, in the middle Sixties. Salvage worth while, indeed, was this precious capital saved from the wreckage of the past. The miracle of modern Maryville came about partly because God was mindful of the foundations and achievements and endowments contributed by Isaac Anderson and his colleagues to the ante-bellum Mary- 124 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE ville. But God was also mindful of the royal spirit of eager service on the part of Professor Lamar and of the noble colleagues whom, as time went on, he gathered around him. Professor Lamar was thoroughly imbued with the spirit of Maryville. Born in Jefferson County on November 21, 1826, he spent his Maryville's earliest school-days at Holston Second Founder ., .xttv/ti. j Academy m New Market; and then the years 1844- 1848 in Maryville, where he took the Bachelor's degree in 1848 ; he studied divinity one year in the theological department at Maryville; and then took the three years' course at Union Theological Seminary in New York City, graduating there in 1852. He was one of the best educated of the ante- bellum Maryville men. He was licensed to preach by the Presbytery of Brooklyn in 1852; and in 1854 he was ordained to the ministry by the Presbytery of Lexington, Missouri. In 1856 he was chosen Professor of Sacred Litera- ture in his alma mater, and began to serve in 1857. His spirit was chastened by the death of his wife about the beginning of the War, and by twelve years of devoted care for his invalid daughter. He developed a rare spirit of unselfishness. He felt called to the mission of rebuilding Maryville College. His firm convictions and his high sense of duty made him a Rock of Gibraltar in those troublous times. His states- manship, remarkable for its far-sightedness, showed itself in his leadership of the causes he espoused. His genius of perseverance and dogged persistence were COLLEGE RUINS— 1865-1869 125 a rich asset of the College in those days of making bricks without straw. And, with it all, he was the most modest of men. All the persuasion of his friends could not induce him to accept the degree of Doctor of Divinity conferred upon him by Wooster Uni- versity; he modestly declined the honor. So vital was his part in the reviving of Maryville that many of the friends of the institution came to regard him as the chief endowment of the College. The little faculty began to grow. Professor Lamar, as we have seen, was the charter member. He gradu- ally gathered around him a small His First ^^^ ^^i^ I^qJ Qf colaborers. His Colaborers r • 1.^ j j 4. x- far-sightedness and accurate esti- mates of character were illustrated in the choices he made. The first professor added was Rev. Alexander Bartlett, who began in October, 1867, a notable service of sixteen years. His chair was that of Latin, but he taught in several departments. His colleagues used to say that his scholarship was so general and so thorough and his genius so versatile that there was hardly a course of study given in the institution that he could not have satisfactorily conducted. His stu- dents felt the profoundest respect for his learning, his industry, his kindliness, and his sterling Christian character. His sudden and lamented death occurred on November 19, 1883. His brother, Rev. P. Mason Bartlett, D.D., did not begin his active service until in March, 1869. Special mention of his work belongs to the next two chapters. The recitations were held in the old brick barracks 126 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE for about four years. This was done in spite of the fact that a committee of the Directors had reported that the building could be made SrE^fiis^^^ safe only by removing the third story and placing the roof on the second story. Some of the students even ventured, although with much trepidation, to room on the sec- ond floor of the ruin. With admirable forethought, they selected the limbs of the adjoining trees to which they would leap when the walls should begin to col- lapse ! One Sabbath afternoon in the spring of 1870, when no one was in the building, there was a sudden roar and a crash ; a large segment of the wall facing Main Street had buckled out and collapsed in ruins. The building was then abandoned, torn down, and removed, and Maryville College started on its travels. It had already removed part of its work eastward half a block to the old boarding-house, a little frame build- ing that stood on Church Street, where now the Sec- ond Presbyterian Church stands. Here and in a little house at the west corner of Main and College Streets the College kept its humble state until the following October. Meanwhile, William Thaw, of Pittsburgh, John Center Baldwin, of New York, and other friends be- came interested in the College ; and ^ r"^ sufficient funds were secured to realize the dream of a decade earlier in the purchase of a new campus on the hills to the east of town, and the erection of college build- ings thereupon. At first sixty-five acres were pur- IN il COLLEGE RUINS— 1865-1869 127 chased; but later on additional purchases were made, increasing the campus to its present broad extent of two hundred and fifty acres, as noble a domain as any college could desire. The first building erected on the new college grounds was a residence for Professor Bartlett, located in the edge of the woods ; it was built in 1868. The follow- ing year the foundation of the new college building, Anderson Hall, was laid on what now took the name College Hill; and Maryville's friends rejoiced that the ruins were disappearing, and that instead there was arising. Phoenix-like, a new and greater Maryville. CHAPTER II College Re-Creation — 1869-1880 The rebuilding of the political institutions of the South after the Civil War was styled their "recon- struction," a term that came to ?£?:nl°uctron" have an unhappy signification. In the case of the remakmg of Maryville College, after its destruction by the War, the word "reconstruction" can hardly be used with propriety, for there was too little salvage to provide any building material. It was a re-creation and not a reconstruction that took place. The work of found- 1 ing the College had to be done a second time. The work of the founder had now to be supplemented by that of a refounder; the "days of creation" of which a former chapter treated had now to be followed by days of re-creation. It might be reconstruction in the South at large, but it must be re-creation in the case of Maryville. In the fall of 1868 Rev. P. Mason Bartlett, D.D., LL.D., was elected president of the College; and in March, 1869, he entered upon the Dr. Ba^lett, the discharge of the duties of his of- Third President ^ t ,i_ . r .i. nee. In the announcement of the opening of the College in 1866 his name had appeared 128 COLLEGE RE-CREATION— 1869-1880 129 as teacher of Mathematics with that of Professor La- mar, who was to be teacher of Languages, but he did not begin his work in the College until nearly three years later. He was born in Salisbury, Connecticut, on February 6, 1820, and graduated from Williams College in the Class of 1850, and from Union Theo- logical Seminary in the Class of 1853. In the Semi- nary he began his lifelong friendship for Professor Lamar who was a member of the Class of 1852. He served in the ministry in Ohio and in New York from 1853 to 1 86 1 ; was chaplain in the United States Army from 1862 to 1864; and served in the ministry in Massachusetts and Connecticut from 1864 to 1868. He was president of Maryville College for a term of eighteen years. Besides performing the many and varied duties of president, he regularly conducted all the courses of study pursued by the Senior Class. Those courses were also many and varied, the curric- ulum comparing favorably with that of any small col- lege of those days. Dr. Bartlett was a very versatile teacher, and was especially strong in philosophy and psychology. At the same time, he was also of an emi- nently practical turn of mind. As chairman of the building committee charged with the erection of the three new buildings, he served with the efficiency of a skilled architect and builder. The present soundness and serviceability of these old buildings is an eloquent testimonial to his skill and fidelity in the oversight of their erection. And he was also a builder of such per- manent spiritual institutions as the Tuesday Evening Conference and the February Meetings ; for both these 130 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE characteristic Maryville institutions were established during his presidency. Dr. Bartlett was a man of robust physique, and of soldierly carriage and bearing. He was full of energy and enthusiasm, and was an able and eloquent speaker. In addition to his work in the College, he preached often throughout East Tennessee. He served as presi- dent of the Bank of Maryville from its founding till the time of his death, which took place on October 22y 1901. The trio, President Bartlett and Professors Lamar and Bartlett, had heavy burdens of administration and instruction to bear, and usually had KevMj. b. W. ^j^j Qj^g Qj. ^^^ assistants besides GrflrWioru. & Fourth Professar ^^^^ student helpers. In 1874, Rev. Gideon S. W. Crawford be- came a tutor, and the next year was made full pro- fessor of mathematics ; and so the trio became a quar- tette. His services, like those of Professor Bartlett, extended through sixteen years, during which time he bore his share of the many and heavy burdens of the institution. He was one of the original thirteen stu- dents. He entered in 1866, and graduated in 1871. At the call of his alma mater, he returned to her ser- vice after three years, two of which were spent in Union Theological Seminary and one in Lane Theo- logical Seminary. He was one of the worthiest sons of the College, and gave to it unstintedly of his accu- rate scholarship and loyal endeavor. During the years 1882-1883 he served the State of Tennessee as Super- intendent of Public Instruction. He was Stated Prof. Crawford and His Successor, Dean Waller. V • C O O COLLEGE RE-CREATION— 1869-1880 131 Clerk of the Synod of Tennessee during the last four years of his life. His early death in 1891 was a calamity to the College. In 1912 friends established a Crawford Self-Help Fund in his memory. The writer recited for five years to these four earliest post-bellum professors, and, as he recalls their scholarly equipment and methods, he is at once proud and personally thankful that the renascent Mary ville of the Seventies could boast such an able and thorough- going faculty. In the spring of 1869, there were enough funds pledged by the new friends of the College to warrant the Directors in ordering, as they Anderson, ^jj ^^^ erection, on the new cam- Baldwin, and - , ^ ^, . 1 . u^u 1 Memorial Halls P^^^ of what they styled the col- lege edifice," a three-story brick building to be called Anderson Hall. It was to cost about twenty-five thousand dollars — more than two and a half times what the former main building, its prototype, had cost. The new president, who had just arrived, took charge of the work, and within eighteen months had the satisfaction of seeing Anderson Hall completed. An epochal event it was when the college classrooms were transferred from the weather-beaten little one-story building on Church Street to the un- precedented grandeur of the spacious and substantial building on College Hill ! But even greater days were coming, for more money had been promised, and two dormitories were decided upon. In 1870 Memorial and Baldwin Halls were be- gun ; both of them were completed in time for use in 132 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE 1 87 1. Memorial Hall commemorated in its name the union of the Old and New School Presbyterian Churches, while Baldwin Hall was named for John Center Baldwin, the first large giver to Maryville, who contributed the princely sum of $25,400 to the erection of the new buildings. Unlike Anderson Hall, these halls were frame buildings, but right stately they seemed to those who had been living amid ruins only a few months before. They provided, besides accommo- dations for a college boarding hall, rooms for one hun- dred and thirty students, a larger number than was ever enrolled before the War. When the three build- ings in imposing line crowned College Hill, the old friends of Maryville rejoiced at the surpassing miracle that met their eyes. In 1865, ruin and desolation; now in 1871, six years later, a spacious and beautiful campus, adorned with three large and shapely buildings t7^^! ?iF^ ^ that had cost fifty thousand dol- TJplifted Beyond , . , 1 • , ; 1 r j£qp^)) lars, and behmd them the profes- sor's residence at the edge of the woods. In 1867, at the end of the first year, there was a college department of two students — one Sophomore and one Junior; and forty-three preparatory depart- ment students. In 1871, at the end of the fifth year, a class of five promising young men graduated ; the col- lege department numbered seventeen, while the pre- paratory department and the young women's depart- ment together numbered eighty-three, making a total of an even hundred. The College was already in equipment immeasurably in advance of the old College COLLEGE RE-CREATION— 1869-1880 133 that the Civil War had destroyed; and even in at- tendance the record was already equal to the best record of ante-bellum days. The realization was already better than the wildest day-dreamer had dared to dream ! It seemed to the old friends of Maryville, "thus high uplifted beyond hope," that the millennium had dawned upon the College. Two years later, when the writer entered the Col- lege, he found that the students felt that they were citi- zens of no mean city. Did we not S^®<?^°y!®^ ^^ have three great three-story build- CoUes'e *^^^' *^^ central, cupola-crowned one having cost almost as much as the entire property of the College amounted to in the old days? Did we not have a president, two professors, three lady teachers, one graduate tutor, namely, Thomas Theron Alexander, and two student teachers, Edgar Elmore and Monroe Goddard? And did we not enroll the unprecedented number of one hundred and thirty-one students ? And did we not have a brick walk all the way from Memorial to Baldwin, where there was a boarding hall with fifteen boarders, and where there were also several basement kitchens in which, as in similar kitchens in Memorial, the students "bached" to the prejudice of their health and to the benefit of their pocketbooks? And did we not have six recitation rooms, and two society halls, and a chapel forty feet by fifty in size, lighted by big chandeliers of oil lamps ? And was not our baseball team the cham- pion of Blount County; and could not the boys jump over most of the cedars on the hill, if there were any 134 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE special motive to do so? And were not our rooms heated by stoves, and did not our axes make a merry ringing after three o'clock at the wood-piles back of the dormitories ? And were we not as well off as most of the colleges in Tennessee, and better off than most, for that mat- ter? Do not waste your pity on nttte"''*^ ^^^ us! We needed no one's sym- pathy ; we were happy as kings and queens. What! pity, for example, a lad who, after his lessons were prepared on a winter night, could sit in his cosy room in Memorial Hall, and, as the wind whistled around the corner, could hear the fire of hick- ory roaring up the stovepipe, and could in such an Elysium read Scott and Shakespeare ; or, when warm weather had come again, could do his share in run- ning up, on the ball grounds, a score of thirty or forty tallies — those were the days when baseball achieved something! — against the Crooked Creek team; or, in any season, in the old chapel, when the benches had been piled up in the comer, could play the classic game of "Snap" with as pretty girls as ever played havoc with masculine hearts ! Pity, indeed ! Rather pity your- self for what you missed by not being there ! Thus the new-old College had settled down again to its work. The young people of East Tennessee were more in number, and also more A Decade of anxious to get the education that Numencal Plenty , *" . ^ , ^ was now havmg a greater value placed upon it than in former days; and they rallied in large numbers to the advantages afforded them at so Dr. Nathan Bachman, Father of the February Meetings. 9C e • COLLEGE RE-CREATION— 1869-1880 135 modest a cost by the new college on the hill. In 1880, fourteen years after the reopening, the total enroll- ment had increased until it amounted to two hundred students, of whom thirty-four were enrolled in the college department. Almost all the two hundred were from Blount County and the counties immediately con- tiguous. Evidently the immediate clientage of the school were eager for what Maryville was established to afford. The Seventies were years of unremitting toil, as the college people tried to make inadequate resources do the great work that was crying to I m 1.1 J5 be done. Those were also years of and Trouble" . ^ 1 1 i- . care and trouble as new adjust- ments were being made in the life of the nation, and as men, not as yet recovered from the poverty caused by the War, were suddenly plunged into the economic disturbances that were nation-wide in their extent and heart-racking in their effects. Lines of anxiety were graven in the faces of those who were responsible for the administration of the College. Men grew old rapidly during those trying days. The permanent endowment of the College in 1880 amounted to only thirteen thousand dollars. The Col- lege was also in debt, principally to And of Sore ^ j^^ poorly paid professors, to the Financial Famine ^^^ -^ ^^ ^, j j n extent of ten thousand dollars. The panic of 1873 and the stringency that followed had cut off for several years about three thousand dol- lars annually which Mr. Thaw and Mr. Dodge had been contributing. The debt was carried mainly by 136 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE one of the professors. At last the hard times were relieved, and it was possible for the institution to in- augurate a movement toward the securing of an en- dowment. When the period of re-creation that we are considering closed, the College was confronting the need and the opportunity to take steps for the relief of the financial famine that had been afflicting the in- stitution. In the early "days of creation" of the College, as we have seen, Dr. Anderson had to wrestle with the problems of securing for the school ^^li^^ °^i"^^% its teachers, students, local habita- Problems Revived i r i ^ . . r tion, and food and raiment, and of developing in the students both intellectual culture and moral character. All these problems presented them- selves again in this period of "college re-creation," and demanded solution at the hands of the little band of brave men who were the agents in the re-creation. The solution of these problems was made easier by the new friends that had arisen to help the College do its work ; while their solution was rendered more diffi- cult by the great increase in the attendance. There were many more to provide for than in the earlier days. The embarrassment caused by growth — a usual experience in post-bellum Maryville — was at once both welcome and distressing. Right manfully did the men of Maryville do their duty during these trying days of re-creation. Had not the refounder and his colleagues proved themselves the lineal and worthy descendants by apostolic suc- cession of the self-sacrificing founder of the College, COLLEGE RE-CREATION— i86sh-i88o 137 the successes of later days could never have been real- ized. Their desperate and valorous trench defensive of those days of battle has made possible the victorious offensive of these later days. Or, to revert to the metaphor with which this chapter opened, the re-cre- ators of those days of beginnings have made possible the developed college plant which many now are pro- nouncing "very good." All honor to the faithful band ! their works follow them, and enrich us. CHAPTER III College Endowment — 1880- 1884 The little cojnpany of men who were bearing the burdens of Maryville in those days found their load n X.- -D J a crushing^ one. Heavy, indeed, is Cmshmff Burdens , ., -i. r / r , the responsibility for the successful carrying forward of a business where financial capital and financial guarantors are both lacking. To be zeal- ously ambitious for the attainment of the very best results in education and yet to lack the financial ability necessary to attain those results is to be weighted down with continuous and grievous disappointment. To see, every day, actual students and prospective stu- dents in need and to be unable for lack of resources to follow the warm and strong impulses of the heart in helping them, loads no small burden on the heart. To have debt saddling itself, like the Old Man of the Sea, on the shoulders of the college that one loves, and, at the same time, to see unavoidable general expenses running up rapidly and necessarily as the result of the embarrassing growth of the institution is, indeed, to feel the weight of a crushing burden. It would require a Samson Agonistes to wrestle successfully with such problems, and truly Atlantean shoulders to sustain such burdens. 138 MRS. IT ALEXANDER :% REV, LYMAN BJEDfORO MRSIYMANBTEDFORD «|yjOHHASIlS : V J.B.PORTER %W^ '''f\-..£: First Post-Bellum Missionaries. COLLEGE ENDOWMENT— 1880-1884 139 As these weighty burdens of the College were rest- ing, to an especial degree, upon the shoulders of the ^ second founder of the College, and V^T^^^^'* ^^^^ ^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^ staggering under them, but yet manfully supporting them, we are reminded of Victor Hugo's description of a deed of heroism on the part of Jean Valjean. It was at the town hall of Toulon, where repairs were being made. Through some one's carelessness, a cary- atid supporting a wall was about to fall, when Jean Valjean, the servant of duty, sprang forward and took the pillar's place and upheld both caryatid and beam until the workmen could brace the beam and replace the pillar and thus avert the threatened catastrophe. So, during those days of crushing burdens, Professor Lamar was a Maryville Jean Valjean staggering, but staying under the swaying architrave. In the fall of 1880, realizing that a permanent en- dowment must be secured or the College must break down under its increasing load, the S?u™^^* Directors of the College and the Synod of Tennessee united in com- missioning Professor Lamar as their special financial agent to attempt the securing of an endowment of one hundred thousand dollars. The amount to be sought was several times greater than the entire property of ante-bellum days; but so was the number of students enrolled several times greater than in those days ; and so were the broadening opportunities of the new era that was beginning to dawn on the country. In November, 1880, Professor Lamar went to New I40 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE York, and began the difficult task of attempting to interest strangers in a school they had never seen and that was located beyond the range of^Stral^ of their especial interests. That was before the days of large and generous giving to colleges. The task to be at- tempted seemed an impossible one, and, at best, it required grit and grace to persist in it. Hardly, how- ever, had the professor gotten well into the campaign, when, in December, he was summoned home by the fatal illness of his only child. He buried the little boy; and resolute even under this heart-breaking sor- row, he returned in January, 1881, to New York, and took up again his really appalling task. Within a month the three generous and never-to-be- forgotten friends who had been contributing for many years to the annual expenses of the institution, made subscriptions aggregating sixty-five thousand dollars: William E. Dodge subscribing $25,000; William Thaw, $20,000 ; and Preserved Smith, $20,000. These remarkably liberal subscriptions greatly cheered the friends of Maryville. But these three donors were already interested in the College ; and new friends were hard to make. It was still a long way to the completion of the one hundred thousand dollar fund. As is often the case with those that are successful in securing large sums of money for benevolent enter- prises. Professor Lamar found the task of soliciting help a most distasteful one, and one even positively obnoxious to his retiring and modest nature. But he COLLEGE ENDOWMENT— 1880-1884 141 persisted in his work most conscientiously, in the face of numberless disappointments. As has been said, that was before the day of gener- Drfemf °^* ous giving to colleges, and it was almost impossible to make any headway. During the endowment campaign, which ended on the last day of the year 1883, the professor spent fifteen months in active service on the field. Often the task seemed a hopeless one, and hope de- ferred made the heart sick. As the Directors after- ward said of this crisis : 'The College hung in dread- ful suspense between life and death." On the first of November, 1883, Professor Lamar returned to New York for the final effort. On the nineteenth of the same month, Professor Alexander Bartlett died sud- denly at Maryville. But while the workers fall, the work must go on. During the final month, as, indeed, throughout the entire campaign, Professor Lamar received invaluable support and assistance from the Ine Final three principal donors to the fund, and from Rev. Drs. Thomas S. Hastings, Henry Kendall, Edward D. Morris, and Henry A. Nelson. On December 31, 1883, the last day of grace for the conditional subscription, Profes- sor Lamar sat in great anxiety in Dr. Kendall's office in New York City. Mr. Smith had increased his sub- scription to $25,000; Mr. Dodge had died, but his family were ready to pay his subscription of $25,000; Dr. Sylvester Willard had subscribed $5,000; the Maryville alumni and the friends in Tennessee, $5,000 ; 142 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE the West Presbyterian Church of New York, $4,000; and the Marquand Estate, $1,000. The total of the subscriptions was $90,000, and ''the last stone had been turned." While Professor Lamar sat there, having done all that man could do, telegrams were handed him that announced the consummation of his toils and prayers; they were from Mr. Thaw and Dr. Willard, each subscribing an additional $5,000, in order to com- plete the one hundred thousand dollar endowment! The good friends whose names have here been recited had lifted the swaying walls back to their place off the shoulders of the heavy-laden man of Maryville. So long as Maryville shall continue, the names of the donors who kept it alive when otherwise it would have died, and who then gave it its William Thaw fi^st substantial endowment, should Dod 7'^^'^ ^' be held in grateful remembrance. Let their names, together with those of Professor Lamar and his associates, stand first on the bead-roll of the post-bellum worthies that shall be forever honored on Founders' Day. Mr. William Thaw, of Pittsburgh, might well be termed the dean of these early donors. As early as October 14, 1867, he sent his first gift of $1,000, which, two days later, was expended, together with a note for $691.50, in purchase of the new campus to which the College was now to be removed. The following year he contributed $3,000, and from that time onward until his death, in 1889, twenty-two years later, he contrib- uted often and liberally to the College. And he gave much more than mere money. When he passed away. %t WIti-tAM THAW , VV>i.t.(AM £.DOt>&£ K;^ PR£SeftveO SM*TH Rebuilders of Maryville College. COLLEGE ENDOWMENT— 1880-1884 143 the Directors said of him : "In his death the College has lost one of its greatest benefactors and wisest counsellors. He gave in money the generous sum of more than $60,000, but the value of his advice, hearty interest, and constant encouragement through all these years of struggle can not be estimated. Under the providence of God, Maryville College is what it is to-day, and will be what it hopes to become in the future, largely through him." Hon. William E. Dodge, of New York, gave almost the only contribution that Professor Lamar received during his first trip taken in the interests of the Col- lege, in 1866; and a few years later he joined Mr. Thaw in making the annual contributions to the cur- rent expenses of the College which kept the institution alive in those days of no endowment. During thirteen years he gave the College the sum of ten thousand five hundred dollars. In 1881 he made the subscription that started the endowment campaign, very enthusi- astically promising twenty-five thousand dollars, or one quarter of the entire amount sought. With his own hand he wrote the following subscription in Pro- fessor Lamar's book, saying that he hoped it would also lead others to give : "Having been for the past fifteen years contributing to the annual expenses of Maryville College, and having watched with deep interest the self-denying efforts and success of its teachers, and being convinced that the time has come when it should have a permanent enlargement, I hereby subscribe the sum opposite my name (twenty-five thousand dollars), 144 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE provided that during the year the amount is made up to a hundred thousand." Mr. Preserved Smith, a substantial business man of Dayton, Ohio, had already put a provision in his will that Maryville should receive from Preserved Smith ^-^ ^^^^^^ ^^e sum of $20,000. He and Sylvester , 1 j 1 1 • d. Willard M.D. ^^^* however, pledged this $20,000 to be paid whenever the entire $100,000 should be pledged. Later on in the campaign he increased his pledge to $25,000. Mr. Smith was the only one of the quartette of principal donors to the endowment fund who ever visited the College ; but all of them became very intimately and sympathetically acquainted with the history and management of the institution. The fourth donor was Sylvester Willard, M.D., a prominent and wealthy physician of Auburn, N. Y. As we have seen, he subscribed $10,000 to the endow- ment. He took an especial pleasure in the fact that his final investment of $5,000 secured $95,000 addi- tional to the College. These four gentlemen, who in so decisive and far- reaching a way proved their faith in the present and future of Maryville College, were all of them ap- proaching the end of life, and desired to place Mary- ville on a safe basis for the future. By contributing the large sums they gave, they effected their purpose. Before the decade had closed during which the endow- ment was subscribed and paid, not only these four gen- erous friends, but also Professor Lamar, through whom they made their gifts, had all passed into the COLLEGE ENDOWMENT— 1880-1884 i45 eternal life. And their fruitful investments in Mary- ville and in Maryville's youth are every year yielding to the world — who can compute how many rich re- turns ? A stupendous victory was the securing of the endow- ment! An additional annual income of six thousand dollars was now assured. And a A Decisive r •. 1 «.. - new sense of security and per- manence came with the endowment. There could be no doubt now that Maryville had come back to stay and to advance throughout the future. A great amount at any time, one hundred thousand dollars meant far more in those days of re-creation and beginnings than in these later days of national pros- perity and of college expansion. It was an epoch- marking event. Well did Dr. Carson W. Adams con- gratulate our Jean Valjean upon his great service to Maryville: "I rejoice with you over your great suc- cess. Will, patience, perseverance, and faith do ac- complish great things. You are the second father of the College. Your name must in all the future be coupled with that of Dr. Anderson. What a witness to the power of quiet, persistent energy over fuss and feathers, your success is !'' A significant item in the final report of the endow- ment campaign is that which states that the expenses of Professor Lamar during his fif- Bnt Won at ^^^^ months of work for the fund Great Cost , , , , i amounted to only seven hundred dollars. An inexpensive victory, then, was it? A no- table victory, indeed, it was, but it was vastly expen- 146 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE sive ; it was won by the loss of the leader. For many years Professor Lamar's health had been somewhat feeble, but now he began to decline rapidly. His work in the classroom closed at the commencement of 1886. For ten months he was confined to his room, his vital forces slowly ebbing away. On Sabbath morning, March 20, 1887, his earthly service closed. The reso- lutions adopted by the Directors said of him: "By his death the College lost its greatest friend, this Board its wisest counsellor, and the entire community one of its best and most useful citizens." His body sleeps in the quiet of the college cemetery at the border of the woodland. The inscription on his monument says that he was "for thirty years a professor in Maryville Col- lege, his most enduring monument." Soon after the death of Professor Lamar, Mr. Thaw led in the movement for the erection of a library to be a memorial of the departed pro- SemoriSs' fessor. Toward this Lamar Me- morial Library building Mr. Thaw contributed three thousand dollars, and Mrs. William E. Dodge and Mrs. Dr. Sylvester Willard one thou- sand dollars each; while the brothers and sisters of Professor Lamar added a beautiful memorial window costing five hundred dollars. A very appropriate me- morial was this brick building with its inside finishing of oak, for this man with his ''heart of oak." It is, doubtless, what he himself would have chosen. The writer had spent some months in classifying the books of the college library and had arranged them on new shelving in the largest available room in Anderson The Lamar Memorials — Hospital and Library. C O C C t C t< C CC c COLLEGE ENDOWMENT— 1880-1884 147 Hall. Professor Lamar was greatly pleased with what had been done, and upon his last visit to the library told the writer that as soon as he improved in health he would make a trip to secure funds for a library building. But others had to erect the building. Twenty-one years later, Mrs. Lamar, at an expendi- ture of six thousand dollars, erected the Ralph Max Lamar Memorial Hospital as a memorial of the little boy who died during the endowment campaign. Thus both father and son have their fitting memorials on the college hill. The chief memorial of Professor Lamar, however, as his monument declares, was found in Maryville pi,- * College — in Maryville's great cam- M^ al ^^^' ^^^ ^^"^ buildings, its endow-* ment of $113,000, and its enroll- ment, at the time of his death, of nearly three hun- dred students. Others had contributed largely and efficiently to this greater Maryville, but to him more than to others Providence had allotted the responsible and arduous task of reviving the College and of financ- ing it in its mighty struggle for existence during those years of want and uncertainty. He did not live to enjoy very long the larger days that he had done so much to bring about; but, dying, he left a memorial to his heroic career that had in it the potency of an ever-widening useful service to God and man. CHAPTER IV College Evolution — 1884-1901 The progress during the next fifteen years was very steady and gratifying. It was, on the one hand, the ^ , ,. ^ , result of the excellent work done Evolution Caused u .1 t j j. -i- by Endowment ^^ *^^ hard-to.ling management; and, on the other hand, it was the natural outworking of the new resources afforded by the hundred thousand dollars of endowment and by the Fayerweather bequest, of which fund mention will soon be made. What had been hoped for in the way of increased attendance was realized. The College attracted to it a large body of students, and grew to proportions and to an importance hitherto unknown in its history; and yet it did all this in that quiet and unostentatious way that has always characterized the advance of Maryville. It was a natural and healthy evolution, and not a forced and unnatural hothouse growth. In 1880 the attendance was two hundred; by 1890, it was three hundred; and by 1900, it was four hundred. This growth in numbers was occasioned by the growth of the courses of study and of the teaching force and of other advantages to the student body that had been made possible by the increased capital of the 148 COLLEGE EVOLUTION— 1884-1901 149 College. In 1884 there were, all told, four professors and four assistants. In 1901 there were five profes- sors, four acting professors, seven tire time to teaching, two stu- dent assistants, and one matron, besides two man- agers of the Cooperative Boarding Club. The changes in courses offered were principally changes in the num- ber and variety of courses, but there were also im- portant changes in the methods of their presentation. The first new chair established as the result of the Lamar endowment was that of the English Language and Literature, to which chair the writer was called in 1884. The next new chair was that of the Natural Sciences in 1887, which was divided, in 1899, into the chairs of Chemistry and Biology. In 1889 the first post-bellum required Bible study was conducted by the -writer. In 1892 Dr. Barnes became the first Principal of the Preparatory Department. In 1899 the Expres- sion Department began its useful career. And there were many other important improvements made in the already established courses and departments. Following Dr. Bartletfs resignation in 1887, there were, as there had been before his election to the presidency, two years during which Faci™^^ ^^^ College was administered by a Chairman of the Faculty. Profes- sor Edgar A. Elmore served during the year 1887- 1888, resigning at the close of that year to reenter the pastorate. He had been a member of the faculty for four years. His valuable services to the College did ISO A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE not, however, cease with the termination of his mem- bership in the faculty. From 1897 until his removal from Knoxville to Chattanooga in 1900 he served on the Executive Committee of the Directors of the Col- lege; and in 1906 he was elected to succeed Rev. Wil- liam H. Lyle, D.D., as Chairman* of the Directors. Dr. Lyle, an alumnus of the class of 1861, was always one of the most loyal champions of Maryville, and served as a director for forty years, and as Chairman of the Directors for fifteen years. He died on August II, 1905. In the year 1888-1889 Rev. James E. Rogers, Ph.D., was Chairman of the Faculty. He resigned at the end of the year to enter Y. M. C. A. work. On January 17, 1889, Rev. Samuel Ward Boardman, D.D., LL.D., then of New Jersey, was elected to the presidency of the institution. In Dr. Boardman, the February he visited the College and Fourth President ^ . 1 1 , • r took part m a remarkable series of February meetings. He entered upon the presidency in the fall of 1889, and from that time until his resig- nation, in 1 901, his heart was in the work that he had at the very beginning found to be so congenial to his earnest nature. Born in Pittsford, Vermont, in 1830, and educated in Middlebury College and in Andover Theological Seminary, he had spent most of his life in the pastorate in New York and New Jersey, al- though he had served for two years as Professor of Rhetoric and English Literature and Intellectual Phil- osophy in Middlebury College. His work of instruc- tion at Maryville was principally in psychology and Dr. Samuel Ward Boardman, Fourth President. COLLEGE EVOLUTION— 1884-1901 151 philosophy. He found himself in deep sympathy with the character-forming ideals of Maryville, and used every endeavor toward the conserving and realizing of those ideals. Dr. Boardman had been a neighbor of Sylvester Willard, M.D.^, in Auburn, New York, for many years ; and the interest of the Willard Wmard Memorial, f ^^^.j^ f oHowed him in his removal to Maryville, where, as we have seen, Dr. Willard already had made an investment. As a further token of interest in the College and especially in its new president, and as a memorial of Dr. Willard, Mrs. Jane F. Willard contributed eleven thousand dollars to erect the very comfortable and commodious brick residence that serves as the home of the president of the College. It occupies one of the best of the many attractive sites on the campus, and commands excellent views of the Cumberlands sixty miles to the west and of the Great Smokies forty miles to the east. The building was first oc- cupied by Dr. Boardman in December, 1890. There befell the College at this epoch a transcendent providence which gave the institution an impetus for- ward that contributed greatly to its The Fayerweather reputation and efficiency. Mr. Providence, t-. • 1 t> tt xu uu 1891-1907 Daniel B. Fayerweather, a wealthy leather merchant of New York, counselled by Rev. Roswell D. Hitchcock, D.D., who had been acquainted with Professor Lamar during his endowment campaign, included Maryville in a list of twenty colleges, to which he bequeathed most of 152 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE his estate. The property was in litigation for four- teen years, but during this weary period it grew im- mensely in value, in spite of the court expenses. Large amounts were paid the College from time to time during the years, until, by the date of the final settlement, at the end of sixteen years, instead of the $100,000 originally bequeathed, the College had received the magnificent sum of $216,572 from the estate. This godsend came to the College unheralded and unexpected, and yet proved to be larger in amount than was all the property that the siiTe^'^'^^'^^^ institution had owned up to that time. The rapid growth of the Col- lege occasioned by the securing of the Lamar en- dowment could not have been properly met had not this most opportune windfall come to the institution. Fortunately, the bequest was unrestricted in its pro- visions, and so the fund could be used in erecting buildings, in meeting current expenses, or in forming endowment. The Directors were very judicious in the expenditure of the fund made available by the bequest, and wisely assigned a large part of it to the permanent endowment fund. Considerable amounts were invested in equipment and permanent improve- ments, while smaller sums were, from time to time, assigned to the current expense fund. The Fayerweather fund made possible certain ad- ditions to the college plant that were necessary, and that yet could not otherwise have been provided. In 1892 an annex, forty feet by ninety, nearly doubling COLLEGE EVOLUTION— 1884-1901 153 the capacity of the original building, was added to An- derson Hall, at a cost of twelve thousand dollars. This structure provided many new Its Aia to recitation rooms and nearly doubled f CFlUailGIlt Improvement* ^^^ size of the chapel. It was called the Fayerweather Annex. In 1892 a careful topographical survey of the cam- pus was made by a civil engineer, and a map of the grounds was drafted. The locations of the buildings erected since that time have been decided upon with reference to this map. In 1893 the many stoves and the furnace that had heated the buildings were sup- planted by the installation of a general heating plant. In the same year electric light was first used in the college buildings. At first it was secured from the Maryville plant; but in 1901 the College installed its own electric light plant. In 1901 also the laun- dry building was erected. The overflow of students at Baldwin Hall made it necessary in several successive years to rent residences in town to be used as annexes for the accommodation of the young women that were crowded out of the hall. This, however, was not a satisfactory arrange- ment, and so in 1895 an annex containing a large dining hall, forty feet by seventy-five, and twenty- four additional dormitory rooms, was added to Bald- win Hall. The $2,000 that this annex cost was se- cured by Dr. Boardman in a trip to the East, and the addition was named 'The Boardman Annex." The continued growth of the Cooperative Club and the continued increase of students made necessary in 154 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE 1904 an extension of this annex, measuring forty feet by forty-five, and adding twelve more rooms, and extending the dining room until it was one hundred and twenty feet long. In 1898 the beautiful and commodious two-story Fayerweather Science Hall was erected at a cost of only twelve thousand dollars. Like sSTHir ™°«t °f Maryville's buildings, it was well worth twice the cost. A gas plant was also installed, and laboratory equip- ment for chemistry, biology, physics, geology, and psychology was purchased at the cost of about ten thousand dollars. All these and other permanent im- provements were made possible by the munificent Fayerweather bequest. The bequest relieved the pres- ent* and assured the future of the College. It was of incalculable benefit. In 1888 there came to Maryville College a seven- teen-year-old Japanese boy in search of an American education. He spent the following atmg m 1895. He possessed a truly marvelous natural endowment of initiative, adaptation, and energy. For example, he turned his talents to many varieties of work, from cooking to lecturing, in earning his own expenses. It was not long until he had won for himself the unquestioned position of student leader in the College. Although he had a Shintoist father and a Buddhist mother, both of whom were hostile to Christianity, and who had thrown him on his own resources when he became a Christian, Kin Takahashi : "Let Us Rise Up and Build." COLLEGE EVOLUTION— 1884-1901 155 he early developed into one of the most effective lead- ers among the Christian young men of the College. He was a born organizer in religious activities as elsewhere. A leader in athletics, he was Maryville's first foot- ball captain. Although he was only five feet two inches tall and weighed only one hundred and twenty- three pounds, he led his team to many a victory. Mil- ton's description of the emmet would well apply to him : 'In small room, large heart enclosed." It was before the days of athletic coaches, but he marshalled his team in his room and worked out before them the theory of his plays, illustrating them by moving grains of corn on the diagram of a gridiron outlined on his table. He was also accustomed to offer a prayer with his team just before they went out on the field. He believed in preparedness. For several years a news-gatherer for local papers, he himself issued occasional college publications, en- titled College Days, which reflected great credit upon his editorial ability. The movement for a stu- dents' self-help work fund was originated by him. He knew no such thing as defeat. When what seemed defeat befell his enterprises, he would smile and say: "Well, boys, we'll try again," and that time he would usually make his "touch-down." The boys called him "Kentucky Hossie," and, in accord with his name, he pranced his way to victory. His most notable service to the College was the building of the Gymnasium and Y. M. C. A. Hall. He IS6 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE was vitally interested in both athletics and character, and so he decided that he would show his gratitude to the College by securing a head- Bartlett quarters for athletics and religion. l^Qg ' ' me, and the Christian Church in America has done so much for my country, that I, as a Japanese, want to do some- thing to show my gratitude." He began the campaign for the building in March, 1894, more than a year before he graduated. By the time of his graduation he had collected some money; and in June, 1895, he began to make the brick for the buflding by student labor. The college boys under his leadership made more than three hundred thousand good bricks at a cost of only $1,300. Farmers near by gave the wood to burn the three kilns. During the fall and winter he devoted himself, with- out salary, to the task of soliciting funds for the build- ing; and in the summer of 1896 he was able to lay the foundation. He spent another year in the field, and was then able to erect the walls of the building. During the two years so generously given to his alma mater, he had secured subscriptions for more than $7,000, $2,500 of which amount was subscribed by Mrs. Nettie F. McCormick. Thus assured that the building would certainly be completed, he returned to his native land to take up his life-work. Here he en- gaged with great success in the Y. M. C. A. work in Tokio; but ere long his health broke down. Others, meanwhile, took up the work of building rt ^ P o CD 2 c C COLLEGE EVOLUTION— 1884-1901 157 Bartlett Hall, and in 1899 the CoHege appropriated $4,000 of the Fayerweather fund to complete it. About $9,000 was contributed by Kin's subscribers and others, and the building was entirely occupied by 1901. In 191 1 Mrs. Elizabeth R. Voorhees contributed $3,000, which was used in greatly improving the building and in enlarging its equipment. Although the building cost only $16,000, it also is worth twice that sum. It is a worthy monument to the Christian love and grati- tude and zeal of its founder. The writer turns aside from the story of the Col- lege long enough to say that the life of Kin Takahashi was not only romantic but in the The Heroism of j^j j^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^ j^j^ Km Takaliashi ,^, , • , , 1 , broke down m health he went to Hirao to live with his relatives. There he suffered for long months and very acutely. Finally, he im- proved somewhat. He could no longer endure his enforced inaction. He wrote a friend : "I determined to die, if need be, doing something for Christ, and so I formed a class of four boys in my bedroom. At first I was to teach one hour, and then give a short talk each day. But the boys usually stayed for hours discussing the subjects I introduced. As the mem- bers of the class increased in number, I organized a literary society, and taught them how to speak and debate after the dear old Maryville style. The popu- larity of the society immensely increased." The num- ber of its members so multiplied that there was not room in the house for them. Kin's physician forbade so much work; so Kin or- 158 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE ganized a "regular middle" school with nine teachers. The school opened the second year with one hundred and sixteen pupils, representing all parts of the prov- ince. A missionary whom Kin invited to visit the school found an audience of one thousand persons gathered at a public entertainment that Kin had planned. In the midst of excruciating suffering Kin expressed his Christian confidence that "all things work together for good to them that love God" ; and he planned on and toiled on. In the early morning of May 7, 1902, he passed away while asleep. The missionary whom Kin had asked to conduct his funeral found — and the town was not a large one — three hundred of the prin- cipal people gathered at the home, while the streets were lined by hundreds, and on the hillside about the grave an audience of one thousand was awaiting the procession. Yes, Kin was a hero; he fought a good fight ; he kept the faith ; and, doubtless, now he wears a crown. I2jl ^^^^^1 HB I^^H^^^HK^ ^^^^H^^P ^^C| ^^ B ^.■j.^'f-^s^^n^sdu^Si^^^^^^ttBk o o 3 <?c t f c CHAPTER V College Expansion — 1901-1919 In May, 1901, the writer was elected president of the College, and was formally inaugurated on Octo- ber 21. As a fifteen-year-old lad, 2f:^^S^^^.\*'^? he entered the Senior Preparatory Fifth President ^. ^ t,, -h • ^.u ^ Class at Maryville in the autumn of 1873, and graduated from the College in 1878. He spent the years 1879- 1882 as a student in Lane Theo- logical Seminary; and the years 1882-1884 in Mexico as a missionary. Bom in Homs, Syria, of foreign- missionary parents, he had planned to spend his life in the foreign field. Repeated attacks of coast fever in Mexico, however, so undermined his health as both to send him back home in March, 1884, and to make it impossible for him to secure reappointment. In May, 1884, he was elected professor of the English Language and Literature, and of the Spanish Lan- guage, in Maryville College; and in June, 1891, he was appointed dean of the College Department. The healthful evolution of the College as recounted in the preceding chapter was both encouraging and embarrassing. The endowment secured by Professor Lamar and that contributed by Mr. Fayerweather were needed by the College in order to be able to administer 159 i6o A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE adequately the work already in existence. But the im- petus they gave to the further development of the institution called for a still further and correspond- ing enlargement of the endowment foB^Slce^^'' and of the plant. The rapid evolu- tion of the seventeen years, begin- ning with 1884, now rendered absolutely necessary a consequent expansion on no small scale. The swarming students of Maryville uttered a plaint similar to that which the sons of the prophets made to Elisha: ''Be- hold now, the place where we dwell with thee is too strait for us." There must be expansion, enlarge- ment, and increased facilities in view of increased demands. The duty of the hour was not one to be de- cided upon ; it was rather one simply to be recognized and acted upon. In Milton's phrase, "War hath de- termined us." The endowments of 1884 and of the Payer weather bequest had now been assimilated thoroughly into the life of the College; but the rapid The President growth of the student body and the Enters the Field ^^ , , 11 greater demands now bemg made of all colleges as to the increased number of courses to be offered and the greater amount of specialization to be provided for, made further endowment and equipment a most urgent need. So the new president was forced by the logic of events to take up the work of funds-finder that Professor Lamar had laid down in 1884. While teaching during two-thirds of the col- lege year, he now spent one-third of each year in the field attempting to enlist new friends to take part with Dr. Samuel Tyndale Wilson, Fifth President. COLLEGE EXPANSION— 1901-1919 161 Maryville in its ministry of education. The collec- tions of the first two years were employed in removing two or three deficits that had accumulated. It was decided that no more money should be drawn from the Fayerweather fund for current expenses. This re- quired rigid adherence to a budget, and necessitated delay in expansion until the money for expansion had been secured. As a result of the carrying out of this policy, there have been no deficits to deal with in the annual reports. A year after the president took the field in behalf of the current and permanent funds of the College, Miss Margaret E. Henry also en- Miss Henry Seeks ^^j.^j the field in the interests of Scholarships, 1903 , , , . - 1 r 1, 1 1 scholarship and self-help work funds, with which to help worthy and needy young people secure an education. Her enlistment in this work was the result of one of the many happy sug- gestions of Dean Waller that contributed so much to the prosperity of the College. Miss Henry was an alumna of the institution and thoroughly imbued with its spirit. Loyal in every nerve of her being, she entered upon the untried task with fear and trembling. Her success, however, was very remarkable. During the three months she was in the field the first year she secured $1,500 in gifts to her cause; and the amount she obtained from year to year steadily increased until, in 1916, It amounted to more than $15,000. During the thirteen years of her service as Scholar- ship Secretary, Miss Henry collected for the College the sum of $122,692 in cash. Of this magnificent i62 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE amount $103,353 was contributed to current work and scholarship funds; $13,250 to permanent work and scholarship funds ; $2,698 to the salary of the college nurse; $1,636 to hospital endowment; $605 to the cur- rent agriculture fund ; and $1,150 to hospital and other equipment. Most of Miss Henry's life was spent in Maryville College. After leaving college she was a teacher until ^ ^ .„. , , 1882, when she went to Japan as a Her Brilliant and r • • • 01 Beneficent Life ^""'^'^ missionary. She was a kinswoman of Robert Moffat, the great missionary of Africa. She was injured in a storm at sea, and after about a year was compelled to return to her native country. After a partial re- covery she again began her work as teacher. In 1890 she entered the service of her alma mater, in which service she continued until what seemed to be her un- timely death on July 7, 1916. One of the most ef- ficient and inspiring of teachers, she built up the schol- arship and moulded the character of many hundreds of students. Miss Henry's marvelous ^success as field secretary was due principally to five elements of strength: (i) Her genuine and transparent sincerity and intense earnestness. (2) Her deep and enthusiastic love for Maryville, the mountains, and the Maryville students, and her absolutely unselfish loyalty to their interests. (3) Her unceasing prayer fulness and her abiding faith in God's leadership in even the details of her cam- paigns. (4) Her natural and heart-winning eloquence. Many of her hearers in many States have agreed in Margaret E. Henry, the Students' Champion. •t c • C ' COLLEGE EXPANSION— 1901-1919 163 declaring her the most winning and effective woman speaker they had ever heard. An ancestor of hers was a brother of the great Patrick Henry of Virginia ; and her eloquence was certainly worthy of that great Virginian. (5) Her remarkable social qualities. Al- most every day she was the guest of some home; and so engaging and winning was her personality that her hosts became her warm and enduring friends, and for her they eagerly exerted their influence even year after year. The record of Miss Henry's life of distinguished usefulness is one of Maryville's imperishable treas- ures. Happy is the institution that can number among its faithful builders so devoted and brilliant a toiler as was our *'Miss Margaret." The first large gift of the period of expansion was that of one hundred thousand dollars made on New Year's Day, 1905, by Mr. Ralph '^l ^r<??oo AAA Voorhees and his wife, Mrs. Eliza- Gift of $100,000, , ^, T3 Tr 1 r XT T j^QQg beth R. Voorhees, of New Jersey. This gift illustrates for the field of liberalit} the truth of Shakespeare's words regarding mercy : "It is twice blessed; It blesses him who gives, and him who takes." This grei t benefaction was given on the annuity plan, and by January, 19 16, there had already been paid the donors, at five per cent on their gift, the sum of $50,- 000, without any delay or expense or tax. The fact that the College clears six per cent on its investments i64 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE enabled it to appropriate $15,000 of this gift toward the erection of the sorely needed chapel. The sum of $85,000, then, is invested in the endowment fund, while $15,000 is invested in the Voorhees Chapel. Thus, even during the lifetime of one of the donors, large benefits have been derived by both donors and donees. The chapel room provided on the second floor of An- derson Hall became entirely too small during the period of ''evolution," and, as we have Voorhees Chapel ^^^^ lengthened, when the and Music Hall, ^ ' , a , ., IQQQ 1^ ayerweather Annex was built, until it was forty feet by ninety in dimensions. By 1905 the number of students in at- tendance had increased to six hundred ; and the long, narrow, and low-ceilinged room was entirely inade- quate to accommodate so large a body. Ventilation was difficult, and proper acoustics was an impossi- bility. As is the rule at Maryville, the need of the new chapel was imperative before it was met. The $15,000 taken from the Voorhees gift, and $10,000 contributed later on by Mrs. Voorhees, and other amounts added by other generous friends enabled the College to erect at a cost of $34,000 the large and at- tractive building called "The Elizabeth R. Voorhees Chapel." The building has in its spacious auditorium a seat- ing capacity of nearly a thousand; while in the base- ment it contains seventeen well-lighted rooms, where the Music Department has found an abiding place where it can live on good terms with its neighbors; Ralph Voorhees, Donor. COLLEGE EXPANSION— 1901-1919 165 and here, too, is a large room where the Y. W. C. A. has planted its lodge. To the rear of the auditorium are the rooms used by the Department of Expression. The building commands the admiration of all visitors, and is a delight to all the students and teachers. Its usefulness is a daily and manifold one. A thrilling sight it would be, indeed, that Isaac Anderson would witness were he permitted to see the eight hundred students and the half a hundred teachers and officers gathered at chapel in these closing days of the first century of Maryville's career. By this time the College found itself again in a most difficult position; its popularity had far outrun its ability to meet the outlay de- F5nd'or$m,000, '"^"'i"^. ^' \ consequence of that jQQg popularity. Its multitudinous stu- dent body had need of additional instructors, dormitories, and general college equipment, and the funds were inadequate to meet these crying needs of the College. In 1905 the president published a twelve-paged bulletin regarding ''Maryville College — Its Field and Its Work," in which the immediate needs of the College were enumerated. In 1907 the day-dream that a "Forward Fund of $200,000" could be secured to meet these needs came to the college au- thorities so vividly and inspiringly that a definite cam- paign was entered upon in an attempt to transmute the dream into a reality. In 1906 Mr. Carnegie had pledged toward additional buildings a gift of $25,000, on condition that $50,000 be secured from other i66 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE sources. This pledge provided a substantial beginning for the Forward Fund. In April, 1907, the General Education Board of New York made an appropriation of $50,000 to the College, upon the condition that a scriptions be secured. This appro- priation gave a great impetus to the Forward Fund. It was one of the epochal events in the history of the College. Mr. Cafnegie then very generously added a second subscription of $25,000. A total subscription of $100,000 had thus been secured. The near-panic of 1907, however, intervened, and it was impossible in that year to raise the second $100,000 of the fund. The donors kindly extended the time limit to Decem- ber 31, 1908, and the canvass was intermitted for the time. The campaign was reopened in 1908, and, through the orderings of Providence, was carried to a success- ful issue. In order to meet certain of the conditions laid down by some of the donors, it was necessary to raise about $225,000, instead of the $200,000 first proposed. A total valid subscription of $227,000 was reached by the expiration of the time limit. Among the larger gifts to the Forward Fund were $20,000 from Dr. Daniel K. Pearsons; $20,000 from ^ ... Mr. John C. Martin ; $10,000 from Generous Donors _, ..r-w o-i ^ r -i Mrs. Wilham Thaw and family; $7,500 from Mr. Louis H. Severance; $6,000 from Mrs. Martha A. Lamar; and $5,000 each from Hon. John H. Converse, H. B. Silliman, M.D., Mr. Wm. J. COLLEGE EXPANSION— 1901-1919 167 McCahan, Sr., and Mrs. Julia M. Turner. There were hundreds of smaller gifts ; and almost every subscrip- tion was paid promptly and in full by the time limit, December 31, 1910. The Forward Fund was now an additional force coursing in the life-blood of the insti- tution. It has been the good fortune of Maryville College to have had associated in its faculty men and women who have been faithful, efficient, bervice^ of ^^^ j^^ every way zealous in its in- Dean Waller ^/ . , . terests. The writer pauses here in his story to speak of one of these loyal servants of Maryville whose life's work has but recently ended. In the absence of the president during the Forward Fund Campaign and during the ten months of his 'European tour following the completion of the Fund, it was Dean Waller upon whom rested the responsi- bility for the administration of the College. Elmer Briton Waller was a member of the Class of 1882 of Union College, and of the Class of 1887 of Princeton Theological Seminary. In 1891 he was elected professor of Mathematics in Maryville College, to succeed Professor Crawford. He held this chair for twenty-two years. In 1892 he was appointed secretary of the faculty, and in 1905 he was elected dean of the College. On account of his extraordinary business ability his services were in great demand in all direc- tions. He left his impress upon the College in many ways. It was he who planned and suggested the Cooperative Boarding Club; who suggested that Miss Henry be i68 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE sent out as a college representative; who founded and for many years conducted the Maryville College Monthly; and who brought it about that free medical consultation be given the students at the hospital. His program, like Dr. Anderson's, was "to do good on the largest possible scale." On March 29, 1913, while still in the fullness of his powers, for he was only fifty- four years old, his sudden death removed him from the work in which he seemed so indispensable a factor. The financial interests of the College had grown to such proportions that in 1901 it was decided that it was not wise longer to postpone ^^^^V^^ ^^ the appointment of a treasurer and the Treasurers . . .1 .^ 1. 1 * j busmess manager that should de- vote his entire time to caring for the business interests of the institution. John P. Hooke, Esq., was the first treasurer after the War, and, although he served without salary, he rendered valuable services, especially in collecting the scattered fragments left by the Civil War. His term of office extended from 1865 to 1884, or nineteen years. Professor Lamar served at the same time as assistant treasurer, and, as we have seen, he was also, part of the time, financial agent. Major William A. McTeer was elected treasurer in May, 1884, to succeed Mr. Hooke, and served for seventeen years, or until 1901. He was in charge of the receipts, investments, and expenditures connected with the funds contained in both the Lamar endow- ment and the Fayerweather bequest. Professor Craw- ford served as assistant treasurer from 1887 to his COLLEGE EXPANSION— 1901-1919 169 death in 1891 ; and then Professor Wilson succeeded to the office. Major McTeer rendered the College invalu- able and efficient service ; and during the first six years of his treasurership practically contributed his services without salary, for he received only a mere pittance. Mr, McTeer and Dr. C. A. Duncan began to serve as directors in 1872. Some of the greatest contributions to Maryville have been in service and not in money. In 1901 Major Benjamin Cunningham was elected treasurer and business manager. He was the first to give his entire time to the office, ir^'^^T , and even then he hardly found time Cunningliam ^ ^ ^u 1 \ r 1 to do the large amount of work required by the big school. No corporation could have been served with more whole-souled devotion than Maryville was served by its treasurer. And he was the soul of honor. When the accountant reached the end of his thorough examination of the finances of the College after the sudden death of Major Cunningham in 1914, he reported that he had found every dollar accounted for, and every security in its place. The Major devoted all his great business ability to the service of the College, and spared no toil in advancing its interests. "Major Ben/' as the college people lovingly called him, fell mortally ill at his post of duty on the first day of a new term. A week later his life's work closed. His four sons established a scholarship of $1,000 in his memory; but his best memorial is his record of thirteen years of able administration and official probity. I70 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE The first building completed after the Forward Fund was secured was the "Ralph Max Lamar Me- morial Hospital." It has already Carnegie and ^^^^ spoken of. It was dedicated Pearsons Halls ^. '^ t-. ^t ,- on May 4, 1910. Pearsons Hall, a substantial brick building, erected in 1910 by Dr. Daniel K. Pearsons, has, on the ground floor, the larger and more convenient home demanded by the Cooperative Boarding Club that had time and again outgrown its quarters in Baldwin Hall, and that now would take no denial of its demand. The second floor contains a parlor, halls for the young women's literary socie- ties, and dormitory rooms for thirty-four young women. The addition of a third story is spoken of later. Carnegie Hall, the largest and most costly building on the hill, contained suites of rooms for two fam- ilies of professors and rooms for one hundred and twenty-five young men. A beautiful and comfortable building, it had every room occupied from the week of its opening and throughout its history. It cost fifty thousand dollars, and was the pride of the hill and also one of the best dormitories in the South. It was occupied at the opening of the fall term in 1910, but was not dedicated until in January, 191 1. Its de- struction by fire, and its rebuilding larger and better than before are spoken of elsewhere. The beginning of the required study of the Bible in the post-bellum College took place in 1888, when all the students were required to attend a weekly hour conducted by Professor Wilson in the outlining of th^ FA^iRWEATHER HALL A Group of Views in 1916. COLLEGE EXPANSION— 1901-1919 171 Old Testament Sacred History. The next two years Dr. Boardman conducted weekly general classes in The Life of Christ and other topics. The following year, 1891, however, a required XT. ^ ^^ ? ^? and common hour was set aside for the Cumculimi ^., , . , ,, , „ , Bible study by all the college and preparatory classes, and all the professors and teach- ers conducted Bible classes at that hour. This method prevailed with much but varying success for sixteen years. In 1907 by a current contribution made by Mr. John C. Martin, of New York, a Bible Training Depart- ment was established, and Rev. De^artmen?^ Clinton Hancock Gillingham was appointed Professor of Old Testa- ment History and Literature, and Rev. Hubert Samuel Lyle, Professor of New Testament History and Litera- ture. To these especially equipped professors all the Bible teaching of the institution was committed. In 1909 Mr. Martin contributed $20,000 to the en- dowment of the Bible Training Department upon the John C. Martin Foundation; and the Directors of the College set aside $20,000 from the Fayerweather fund to make a total fund of $40,000 with which to sustain the department. A three years' course was established for those who should elect it. The requirement for all students for graduation was made three terms of direct Bible study and two of religious courses in theism and ethics. Five such courses were deemed a fair proportion of the total thirty-six courses required for graduation. 172 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE The instruction in the department was made as scholarly and disciplinary as is that in any other course offered by the College, and the new depart- ment forthwith took as honored a position as was that held by the long-established and traditional courses of study. As one of the pioneer Bible Training de- partments offered by colleges, the department has been of service in blazing the way for other colleges in the development of their Bible work. The intellectual stimulus of the study of God's thoughts and ways and works as recorded and dis- cussed in God's book has been great and gratifying; while besides this good result, there have been seen the movings of the Spirit of God illuminating the truths of the Word, and creating the noble moral character which Maryville has always held to be the chiefest object to be sought in any true education. Some students take the extensive three years' course in the Bible Training Department, but all students take required work every year, and this reaching of all students is deemed the chief mission of the depart- ment. By 1913 an anonymous friend had contributed (i) an endowment of $14,000 for a Home Economics De- partment; (2) $12,000 to make Tne llome ample quarters for the department Economics u 1 • u v u^ a 4.\ - a Department, 1913 ^y P^acmg a well-lighted third story on the Fayerweather Science Hall; and, (3) in addition, sufficient funds to install the best of equipment for the department. The new department immediately sprang into great popularity* COLLEGE EXPANSION— 1901-1919 173 Its remarkable reception demonstrated the strong de- mand that there is in the new Southland for what will make better homes and better health. The donor of the Home Economics Department is also contributing further sums on the annuity plan, which siims will ultimately be added to the productive endowment of the department. The other demand of the South and of the mountain region of the South — the demand for instruction in better farming — must also be met by Maryville, as it is planned that it shall be, in connection with the Centennial Forward Fund, by the raising of which the College hopes to celebrate its hundredth anniver- sary. The Teachers' Department has long had its complete course of study, but, like the Bible Training Depart- ment, is most useful in touching Growth of Other practically all the students of the Departments : . . - . , . institution during their passage through high school and college. A very large per- centage of Maryville's students become teachers. They are found in all parts of the United States, especially in the Southern Appalachian region, and in the South- west and West, and are employed in elementary schools, high schools, and colleges. A six years' teach- ers' course is offered, for which a certificate is given; and in the regular course an Education Group of studies leads to the degree of B.A. The Music Department was begun in the fall of 1 87 1, and has had a continuous existence since that time. Its development has been most rapid during 174 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE the last few years. The standards have been steadily raised, and the conditions for graduation have been made of such a character as to give the graduates a high rating when entering the great conservatories. Several teachers are now kept busy in directing the large number of students enrolled in this department. In the Department of Expression, which was founded in 1899, ^ similar steady, and of late years rapid, development has taken place. In 19 16 the scope of the work was widened, and the department was styled "The Department of Expression and Public Speaking." A three years' course of instruction is given, and diplomas are awarded. The methods em- ployed have been very sane and practical, and the department is upon a substantial basis. The Department of Art had for thirteen years as instructor Rev. Thomas Campbell, who died in 1914. It has been useful, and, doubtless, will share in the expansion that is coming to all departments of the College. The reasons the College has not maintained a busi- ness department have been the fact that the buildings have not been large enough to care for more students than already apply for entrance ; and the fact that the College prefers long-term students in order to the bet- ter development of character, which is the chief end of its efforts. More room was required for the young women. The architects approved a plan for the raising of the roof of Pearsons Hall in order to add twenty-five rooms to the capacity of the building and thus to pro- COLLEGE EXPANSION— 1901-1919 175 vide for fifty more young women. Dr. Pearsons, then in his ninety-second and last year of life, strongly ap- proved the plan, and expressed pSxsons^and himself as feeling "sick" that he Science 1912-1913 ^^^^^ ^^^ build the proposed third story, too, as he had built the rest of the hall; but by this time he had carried out his life plan and had given away all his money. Mr. Louis H. Severance saw the plans, also ap- proved them, gave the $13,000 needed to erect the third story and otherwise improve the enlarged structure; and, as the then anonymous giver of the third story, he sent to Dr. Pearsons, through Maryville's president, his congratulations on his life of great usefulness, and the assurance of his satisfaction in being able to com- plete the building as a token of his admiration for him. The third-story annex to Pearsons Hall was erected in the summer of 1912. The following summer the third story of Fayerweather Hall was added, as has been related, to provide quarters for the "Home Eco- nomics Department." In each case the roof was jacked up intact, and the new story was built under the roof without any injury being done to the rest of the struc- ture. Indeed, in both cases, the buildings, when en- larged, were as strong as before, and much more sym- metrical and imposing. According to the original plans of Kin Takahashi's Bartlett Hall— the Gymnasium and Y. M. C. A. Build- ing — a swimming pool fifteen feet by forty was pro- vided for; but there was not money enough to build 176 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE it. From time to time the matter was discussed as to whether the pool should not now be built. But it could wait, while necessities could not pS^1^19?5^''^ wait. So twenty years went by ' after Kin had his plans drawn. At last, however, the students took the matter in hand, as Kin had done two decades before, and they offered to raise $1,500 toward the expense of building the pool, if the College would build it. The generous offer was accepted, the $1,500 was raised by the stu- dents, and, at a cost of $10,000, the building was erected. It was opened for use in the fall of 191 5. In- stead of being in the basement of the gymnasium, how- ever, the pool is located under a roof of its own, and adjoins Bartlett Hall. The pool itself is twenty-five feet by seventy-five, while the building is fifty-eight feet by one hundred and ten. The pool contributes largely to the health and happiness of the students. On April 12, 1916, the only serious fire occurring in the history of the College visited the institution. Carnegie Hall was totally de- S^11^1916^^^^ stroyed. The origin of the fire is ' unknown. The loss was a stagger- ing one to the college authorities, especially as they were just entering upon a campaign to raise a Cen- tennial Forward Fund of Three Hundred Thousand Dollars, an undertaking in itself large enough to stag- ger them. The people of the town very generously opened their homes to the homeless students. The problem of replacing the building, however, was still to solve. The insurance amounted to thirty thousand COLLEGE EXPANSION— 1901-1919 177 dollars, but it would cost at least fifty-five thousand dollars to replace the building. On May 4 the Chamber of Commerce of Maryville took up the matter of the Carnegie fire, and after en- thusiastic addresses by Rev. J. S. Jones and others, appointed a committee of sixty leading business men to attempt to raise the needed twenty-five thousand dollar rebuilding fund in Blount County. This com- mittee designated Monday, May 22, as "Maryville and Blount County Day," and called upon the town and county to rally for the support of their "chief as- set," Maryville College. The day was a rainy one, but in spite of this fact the college faculty and stu- dents paraded through the streets, carrying appropri- ate banners. Meanwhile the committee of the Cham- ber of Commerce was visiting the business men and securing from them subscriptions for the building of a ''bigger and better Carnegie." The members of the faculty had already subscribed $5,000; including this amount, by the close of the day, a total of $17,400 had been subscribed. The committee continued its work, as opportunity offered, and had no doubt that by the time of the completion of the building, at least the proposed $25,000 would be subscribed. In their vote of thanks to the donors of this re- building fund, the Directors said : "The directors deem this rallying to the help of the College in the time of its crisis as one of the most notable and inspiring events in the hundred years of its history. . . . The magnificent uprising of the people in behalf of what they recognize as their own college has profoundly 178 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE touched and encouraged those who are bearing the administrative burdens of the institution." The reconstruction of the building was begun in June, and its completion in December was promised. The new Carnegie Hall is a greatly enlarged and im- proved building, and will accommodate, besides two professors' families, two hundred and thirty-eight stu- dents. Thus, out of an apparently crushing blow there has come the rallying of the home county to the finan- cial support of its College, and, at the same time, almost the doubling of the capacity of the dormitory. As this volume goes to press, in 1916, the college authorities are entering upon the third post-bellum campaign for increased endowment The Centennial ^^^ equipment. The Lamar $100,- Forward Fund, ^ , ^ ^ . r 00 1916-1919 ^^^ endowment campaign of 1880- 1884 and the Forward Fund $200,- <xx) campaign of 1907- 1908 are now being followed by a campaign for a Centennial Forward Fund of $325,000, during the closing years of the first century of Maryville. The Carnegie fire made necessary the increase of the sum to be sought from $300,000 to $325,000. The endowments and equipment secured heretofore are at work rendering their beneficent ser- vice ; but they are insufiicient to provide for the neces- sary expenses of the big school, and are entirely in- sufficient to make possible the expansion in many and important lines that is providentially called for. At least the amount aimed at must be secured or the progress of the College will be seriously impeded. Indeed, as those familiar with what it costs to finance COLLEGE EXPANSION— 1901-1919 179 a college in these days would insist, a Centennial Fund of $500,000 is needed in order to enable the College to enter upon its second century adequately equipped to fulfill its duty to its teachers and students. But the College is accustomed to economy and self- denial, and so it limits its request to the $325,000 which it can not do without; but it can not but pray that another unexpected fund, Fayerweatherlike, may come to enable the College adequately to fulfill its great mission. A faithful steward in the least and in the past, it covets the opportunity to prove its faithful- ness in greater things in the future. When the his- tory of the campaign for this fund is written, it is hoped that it will record the securing of the Centennial Forward Fund by the Commencement Day of 1919. Then will Maryville begin the new century with abil- ity more nearly commensurate with its opportunity. Early in 1916 the General Education Board appro- priated the sum of $75,000 toward the proposed Cen- tennial Fund of $300,000, to be The General jj ^^ condition that the entire Education Board f . , i . , . -^ , Aeain 1916 fund be secured within a specified time. Not only is this conditional appropriation a great gift in itself considered, for it is one-fourth of the entire amount sought, but it is also a notable tribute to the standards and work of Maryville. And this is especially true in view of the fact that this is the Board's second appropriation to the College. The deep gratitude of all friends of the institution is due to the General Education Board i8o A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE for these epoch-making grants made to Maryville in its times of need, opportunity, and crisis. The College is a living organism, and so is growing all the time. The problem before the management has not been how to inject life into Se^ E?Ssifn ^^^ College, for it, like its Lord, has life in itself; but it has been how to prevent inadequate alimentation from starving it and stunting its growth. It has all the time been, nolens volens, confined to plain living, even very plain living; but through the kind orderings of Providence and of his agents, the wants of the College have, when acute, been met, even if sparingly, before actual starva- tion has come. Given a college with lofty, ennobling, and altruistic ideals; with a home in picturesque and healthful East Tennessee; with students from Amer- ica's best heritage; and with a teaching force of earnest-minded men and women who seek their stu- dents' well-being; and Maryville's wonderful growth is after all not to be so very greatly wondered at; its philosophy is revealed. CHAPTER VI Maryville's College Standards The motive that founded the Southern and West- ern Theological Seminary was one that made it certain that the institution would by its Invofve?Hi li ^^'^ "^^"""^ ^'P°"'^ ^"^ '"^'"*^^" Standards ^^^^ educational standards. That motive was the determination to supply a thoroughly educated ministry. It was a mo- tive that historically had everywhere belonged to the Presbyterian Church that founded the school. That motive had been strong amid the hills of heather in old Scotia, and it survived its journey over the seas and into the New World, and even into the mountains of the Southwest. High standards were insisted upon by Isaac Anderson's pedagogues in old Rockbridge County in the country school and in Liberty Hall Acad- emy; and Dr. Anderson established similar standards at Maryville. There was no theological seminary in all the South- west, but the dominies of the frontier were familiar with the constitution of the seven-year-old Princeton and with the courses of study that were deemed by the educated to be essential for the best preparation i8i i82 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE for the gospel ministry ; and so in the constitution that they drew up there was every evidence that they could be trusted at least to aim high. The constitu- tion they adopted for the Seminary eminary contains thirty-two articles, and the Constitution , , ^ . . . , . , Kevealed Them thorough course it provided for has already been spoken of. Three years of nine and a half months each were required to complete the course. Article 29 provided : **Before young men can enter this seminary they shall produce a diploma from some college or submit to be examined by the professors on a course of literature." And the college curriculum that grew up apace was a long and worthy one, outHned after the pattern of the best Eastern colleges. Catalogs do not seem to have been printed until the Fifties, but, when they do appear, the courses they record are evidently modeled after those of the best institutions in our land. All the regular professors of the institution before the War were, as would be expected of a school that had been founded as a theological nte- e um seminary, men who had been Professors Embodied Them trained for the ministry. There were a few tutors, but they also were generally either ministers or those preparing for the ministry. All the professors — Anderson, Hardin^ Eagleton, Hoyt, MacCracken, Pope, Craig, Robinson, and Lamar — were men who had met the high educa- tional requirements of the Presbyterian church, and so were among the best educated men of their section. As members of the faculty of the College, they up- MARYVILLE'S COLLEGE STANDARDS 183 held and embodied the highest standards that existed in those days in the section in which they lived. The first post-bellum catalog consisted of only four small pages, but it outlined a curriculum that was some- what in advance of the ante-bel- Curriculum of j^^ curriculum. Professor Lamar 1866 Advanced , , . ., . , . ., rpj^^jj^ used as his guides in making the course of study the best of the smaller Eastern colleges. He probably prepared the copy in his unsightly recitation room in the dilapi- dated college building ; but tumble-down walls can not limit noble aspirations. Maryville's ideals have al- ways been in advance of its present conditions ; but it makes a business of realizing those ideals as speedily as possible. The second post-bellum catalog, of sixteen pages, outlined a very creditable classical college course and a thorough three-year preparatory SllT^ A^^ce^ ''''''^^^' ^'''^' '"^ addition, an English department for those unable to take the higher work; and so, throughout the years, the annual catalogs record a steady advance in the edu- cational standards of the institution. The College has not been the last to lay the old aside, nor the first to adopt the new. It has been conservative but always progressive. Before the War, as we have seen, all the regular professors were Presbyterian ministers; and for twenty-five years after the War the majority of the faculty were still chosen men that had been trained i84 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE for the gospel ministry. This fact ensured for the students of Maryville the best-educated men of the section, men who had enjoyed not only a college edu- cation, but also an additional course m a theological seminary. The culture thus attained was, probably, broader than was then the rule in the smaller colleges. During the past quarter century, as the courses of study have been broadened and multiplied, and the new order of things has called for specialists, the College has used all the means within its power to secure thoroughly trained instructors for its various chairs. It has encouraged its professors to take espe- cial university preparation, and has shared with them the expense of that training. It has been fortunate in attracting to its chairs men and women of high scholar- ship and teaching ability, who have remained with the College in spite of inadequate salaries, because they have found a deep satisfaction in the altruistic policy of the College and have enjoyed working with the ear- nest body of students in attendance upon the College. It has been the settled policy of the College to use whatever additional ability has been placed in its pos- session through added resources, in lege as much nearer to the ideals entertained as the new funds would allow. The three special epochs of advance in endowment — the periods of the coming of the Lamar endowment, the Fayer- weather bequest, and the Forward Fund — can be iden- Another Group of Views in 1916. m, p «« ' f ^ MARYVILLE'S COLLEGE STANDARDS 185 tified in the catalogs by the evidences there found of the advanced and improved standards that closely fol- lowed the reception of those funds. New chairs are established, tutors are replaced by professors, and there is manifest a greater variety in the courses offered — the result of the vigor infused as the new lifeblood begins to circulate in the veins and arteries of the insti- tution. For example, as has been stated, the chair of English Language and Literature was established the year the Lamar endowment was received ; and the introduction and multiplication of electives and the establishment of the group system synchronized with the coming in of the Fayerweather fund ; while an increased number of chairs of science, and new Bible and Social Science and Education courses and many other additions to the curriculum were the outgrowth of the Forward Fund. The College has always looked upon added resources as imposing new responsibilities for the broadening of opportunities and the elevation of standards. Maryville adopted the three full years' preparatory course when the College was reopened in 1866, and it consistently required what in more iour Years recent usage has been called twelve Course ^^^^^ ^^^ admittance to the Fresh- man Class. Its requirements for entrance were such as Williams, Dartmouth, Bowdoin, Lafayette, and other colleges of their type specified in their catalogs. For several years before 1909, Maryville was very desirous of providing a four years' preparatory course. i86 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE and was preparing for the establishment of such a course. In 1909 the College found itself financially able to provide it, and so it both established the four years' course, and raised its requirements for admission to the Freshman Class to fifteen units. It had expected to be a leader in this movement, and was, indeed, one of the first in the section to adopt this higher standard ; but it was none too soon, for the general movement in the South for higher standards was already well on its way. But, although not leading the way, the Col- lege had the satisfaction of knowing that it was at least accompanying the leaders of the general advance. The standardization of the preparatory courses also greatly interested the management, and they gave prompt and appropriate attention to the matter. In accordance with the custom prevalent in most of the colleges up to a very recent date, the preparatory students in the earlier days and un- Separation of ^jj ^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ f !r6D8xa1/0!rv and College ^^^^ °^ being started in their pre- paratory courses of study by the professors of the college department, and of sharing their expert guidance. But, as the number of students in both departments increased, it became impossible for the college men to spare any time for the prepara- tory department; and it became almost as physically necessary as it was soundly politic to adopt here also the decision of recent pedagogy, and entirely to sep- arate the two departments. For several years, at Maryville, the separation had been practically com- plete, when in 191 3 the catalog printed in different lists MARYVILLE'S COLLEGE STANDARDS 187 the names of the teachers of the collefge and prepara- tory departments. Maryville College has had from the first as its primary object the providing of such an education to the young people of the great Prf arator ^^ ^^^ Southwest, or principally of the Department Southern Appalachians, as would prepare them for useful leadership. In order to prepare such leaders it has thus far been necessary, on account of the inadequacy of the public- school system in many parts of the Southern moun- tains, to provide a preparatory department. As the public schools have been improving, the several grades that were once found necessary were in succession dropped until now only the four preparatory or high- school years are offered below the college department. As yet it is deemed unwise to eliminate this pre- paratory department lest the College fail to realize the very purpose for which it was founded — the throwing of its light into the more destitute parts of the section which it is appointed to serve. It is through this department that it especially serves the mountain re- gion in which it occupies so central and strategic a location. And it is the preparatory students especially that return to their old homes to be the leaders of their communities. The department has made great contributions directly and indirectly to the cause of general education throughout this mountain region. The preparatory department maintains as high stand- ards and does as efficient work as does any high school in the State. All its teachers are at least col- i88 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE lege graduates, while most of them have had some university work. Student assistants are used only in the laboratories or in exceptional Department experienced teachers or graduates of normal colleges. So long as the department is necessary, it is Maryville's duty to main- tain it in a high degree of excellence. In the favoring college atmosphere, the able principals with which the department has been favored have found it especially easy to maintain in a very satisfactory way the high standards that have been adopted for the department. Especially gratifying, however, is the fact that the department that has had by far the greatest develop- ment and growth during the period urowt 01 tne ^£ expansion, has been the college Department department. In 1901, when there were only twelve units required for college entrance, there were only seventy students in the college department; while in 1916, with the fifteen units' requirement, there were 278 students in the college department, and the Senior Class consisted of forty-two students. The growth of the curriculum has also been as steady and remarkable as has been the growth in the number of students. It has tried to keep apace with the demands of the times, and has had a consistent and large development. The standards upheld in the college department have from the beginning been such as were dictated by a desire to impart a sound and thorough scholarship. There has never been any tendency toward introducing MARYVILLE'S COLLEGE STANDARDS 189 any supposed short-cut roads to an education ; nor has there been any labeling of the sensational or the shal- low or the shoddy as being the cSlfT^*^^*^^ marks of the true scholar. No Department Tennessee institution has higher requirements for entrance and graduation. The alumni have uniformly maintained a high standing as postgraduate students in universi- ties, theological seminaries, and law and medical and technical schools. The college laboratories have been among the best in the section, and their equipment has been added to annually in accordance with the budget. If an alumnus has not been a scholar, it has been himself that was to blame for the failure. The college stand- ards have been high, and the professors have labored incessantly to maintain them. The Maryville diploma is accepted in many States whose laws permit the recognition of college diplomas, in lieu of an examina- tion, for the issuing of certificates for high-school teachers. The catalog has never reported as courses of study courses that were not actually provided. More often has the catalog recorded a course ineoretic after it has been given, than has it Standards, Actual , . , r . Standards announced it before it was given. After the new courses have been tried out, they have been inserted in the curriculum. Maryville has always preferred to wait until it has been certain it could offer a worthy new course, rather than to make a public tender of a course of doubtful I90 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE efficiency or of uncertain value. And so its published theoretic standards have been its actually applied standards. The founders of the College, its presidents and facul- ties, its directors, and its benefactors have held be- fore them as the matter of supreme Ke mgS' importance, as the principal object of the College, the development of a worthy and altruistic character on the part of its students. With a view to this aim, the Committee on Professors and Teachers has never recommended any one for appointment on the teaching force of whose positive Christian character it had not been assured. When it has been disappointed, it has, as soon as prac- ticable, corrected its mistake. With a view to the development of the character of the students, the discipline of the College has been conducted by the faculty and its administrative officers with great care and fidelity. The College has firmly refused to allow practices, however popular they may be elsewhere, when it has been convinced that such practices would militate against the development of an unselfish character. When thus persuaded of its duty it has been inflexible. Nor has it suffered from its strictness. After eliminating the unworthy, it has still had so many students that it could hardly care for them. It goes without saying that had not the professors and other teachers of the College faithfully supported and loyally carried out the principles of the College as those principles were established by its founder, this MARYVILLE'S COLLEGE STANDARDS 191 book could not have been, as it is, "a story of altru- ism." Maryville has been singularly successful in drawing into its service a body of themselves learned the lessons of self-denial, altruism, and religion from the Great Teacher. These lessons they have lived be- fore their students, and so have imparted them by example as well as by precept. This, in Maryville's belief, is the supreme test of a teacher; and right royally have the members of Maryville's faculty dem- onstrated in this regard their character equipment for teaching. As to the regular schoolroom work, the writer, after five years' life as a student under the Maryville teach- ers, and now, after thirty-two years of association with them in the faculty, takes peculiar pride in expressing his belief that no other institution has been served by a more diligent, conscientious, consistent, and faith- ful body of teachers. They have admired the ideals of Maryville and have been true to them. To their unvarying fidelity, self-sacrificing devotion, and schol- arly equipments and methods is due the wonderful suc- cess of Maryville College. Uncompensated by suffi- cient salaries, but compensated by the reward that visits the heart when duty has been well done, they are the dynamic forces that have made the College, and that have made it thus great, and that, it is be- lieved, will make it yet greater. During the greater part of the career of the Col- lege, it has been true that at least one-half of its di- 192 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE rectors have been alumni of the institution. It is not to be wondered at that these former students, having imbibed "the Maryville spirit" of SJdards^^"^^ themselves, should as directors loy- ally support, con amove, the poli- cies that were intended to maintain and develop the historic standards of the institution. The Synod of Ten- nessee has always been a very homogeneous body, and those who have represented it in the directorate of Maryville, whether former students or not, have heartily approved of Maryville's standards of scholar- ship and character, and have been remarkably agreed in their support of them. The directors have not often been men of financial wealth, but they have been men of wealth of moral and religious principle, and they have stood like a rock wall behind the faculty in their efforts to uphold Mar)rville's traditional stand- ards. The directors' attitude has uniformly been one of helpfulness and not of criticism. The student body itself, made up of earnest young people, most of whom have had to work for their education, have themselves aided rf^St^aiidar^s^^^^ mightily in maintaining the high intellectual and moral standards of the College. The public opinion of the College sup- ports firmly the historic ideals of the school. The students are a body of clean young people who will not tolerate among them the immoral and vicious. They lend their support to the high moral and re- ligious standards of the institution both by their per- sonal conduct and by their public opinion. I CHAPTER VII Maryville's Student Body The original field that the College tried to occupy was what at the beginning of the nineteenth century was called "the great Southwest." bout em ana ^^ ^^ h2Lye seen, the school was Students christened "The Southern and Western Theological Seminary." And it was a large field that it occupied. Maryville was never, even in its beginnings, planned as a mere local institution. It practised dichotomy. It divided the United States into two parts — its part and the other part ; the Northern and Eastern sections being allotted to Princeton Theological Seminary, while the rest of the country was assigned to itself, as its name, "The Southern and Western Theological Seminary," indi- cated ! The boundaries of the South and the West were in those days lost in indefinable frontiers and "Great American Deserts"; and they have extended south- ward and westward like a mirage until they have dis- appeared in the Gulf and across the Mississippi and in the Pacific Ocean. A large field in 1819, and a still vaster one in 1919. Sixteen of the Southern and Western States were represented in the student body 193 194 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE of Maryville in 1916; and 713 of the 805 students of that year were from these Southern and Western States. The great majority of the students of Maryville have, of course, from the beginning come from the Southern Appalachians, in the cen- Monntain and ^^^ ^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^ .^j^ ^^^ Col- Valley Students . . uv u ^ \/r -u • lege was established. Maryville is located in the center of East Tennessee, and East Ten- nessee lies equally distant from the West Virginia Ma- son and Dixon's line on the north, and far Birmingham on the southwesterly fringe of the Southern moun- tains. There are 251 coimties in the Southern Appalachian region ; seventy of these counties had students in Mary- ville in 1916; and the total of such students from these Appalachian counties was six hundred and four. And many of the students from other places are from country districts that are not well supplied with schools. Comparatively few of Maryville's students from any section come from cities. At the beginning and during the greater part of the history of Maryville the majority of the students, if not Mac's, were at any rate of imSicS^^ Scotch-Irish descent. The ante- Students bellum catalogs and most of the later ones have recorded the same names that appear in the directory of Londonderry, Ireland. Most of these students have been able to trace their lineage back to the North of Ireland. Their ancestors came in the eighteenth century by the way MARYVILLE'S STUDENT BODY 195 of Philadelphia and Charleston. Many drifted South- ward through the Shenandoah Valley. Besides these Scotch-Irish students there have been many of English, Welsh, Irish, German, and French Huguenot descent. Of late a few of other European races have been found in the roster of students; but the student body has been made up of pure Americans descending from these Old World emigrants, and mainly from those coming from the British Isles. No college need ask for a worthier clientage. In ante-bellum times, while young women were nominally not admitted to the College, some young women did pursue and complete * direction of members of the faculty. Misses Minerva Cates and Martha Cates were two of these ''annex'' students. In the second catalog after the War, the one issued in 1867, the names of four young women appear in the list of students; and the statement is made that "young ladies qualified to join any of the classes in the College are allowed to avail themselves of its advantages." Miss Ella Brown had the honor of being the first young woman that matriculated. In 1875 the first young women graduates were an- nounced. Misses Ella and Emma Brown, Nannie Mc- Ginley, and Linda Ted ford graduated in the Ladies' Course; and Miss Mary Wilson, the sister of the writer, graduated in the regular classical course, the first young woman, it was said, to receive the B.A. degree from a Tennessee college. The next year Miss ig6 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE Mary Bartlett, the only daughter of President Bart- lett, also received the B.A. degree. **The Ladies' Course" was dropped in 1885, when the introduction of alternative courses allowed such adjustments as made it unnecessary to continue that course. The young women have always been in a minority in the College ; but the introduction of the Home Eco- nomics Department has brought their number up to within about fifty of the enrollment of the young men. The number of students coming from States out- side of Tennessee was, of course, increased by both the Lamar endowment and the SStaS '"" Fayerweather bequest. In 190. the number of such students had reached forty-seven, hailing from eighteen States. During the period of expansion beginning with that year, the number of such extra-Tennessee students has steadily and rapidly increased, until in 1916 it amounted to two hundred and seventy students com- ing from thirty-one States. The causes of this extraordinary movement of stu- dents from all over the land to this modest College in the hill country of East Tennessee are three in number : ( i ) the fact that Maryville is located in one of the most healthful sections of the United States, making it possible for students from the cold North and from the hot South both to ensure good health and to secure an education at the same time; (2) the excellent educational advantages offered by Mary- ville at a cost that makes it possible for those unable t MARYVILLFS STUDENT BODY 197 to pay the higher cost of a college education in the vicinity of their homes, to secure the education at Maryville that is denied them nearer home; and (3) the uncompromising and high standards of moral and religious character always maintained at Maryville, leading parents from even across the continent to send their children there in order that they may be under its influence while in the formative years of youth. The students pour into Maryville without the assistance of special solicitors or of a large amount of advertising; most of them having learned of the College from former students of the institution, al- ways its willing sponsors. There has come to the students through this national enrollment an increased national spirit, and an added general culture that is both rapid and pervasive in its working. Students from all sections of our country meet students from all other sections; and the result of their college comradeship is a breadth of mind and sympathy and appreciation and Americanism that is gratifyingly free from both sectionalism and provin- cialism. The fact that the clientage of the College is made up, on the one hand, of church people of the various denominations who still believe in P^S* ^^^^ *^^ old-fashioned home training that moulds character ; and, on the other hand, of the young people of the Southern mountain region who have determined to secure an education and to that end make a yearlong business of their efforts to secure it, brings it about that Mary- 198 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE ville gathers within its walls an exceptionally earnest body of young people. Many of them have some defi- nite vocation in mind before entering, and lend all their energies toward adequate preparation for it. 'The Maryville spirit" is so unselfish and all-per- vasive that even those who do not enter the especially altruistic professions and occupations are largely domi- nated in their field of labor, whatever it may be, by an earnest desire to be serviceable to their fellow men. There were sixty-seven children of ministers in at- tendance during the year 191S-1916. Indeed, most of the students come from Christian homes. For a hundred years, by far the greater number of Maryville's students have had to work their way through school, at least in part; Self-Reliant and ^^^ ^^ ^j^j^ ^^^j^ ^^ j^^^^ ^^^^^^^ Industrious . . . , 1 . their vacations and whatever time they could spare during the college year. The sum- mer correspondence brings to the registrar an ava- lanche of inquiries regarding the opportunities for self-help aflforded at the College. During recent col- lege years, at least one-half the entire number enrolled have earned part of their expenses by work done on the grounds, in the buildings, in the laboratories, or in the Cooperative Club. It is the rule and not the exception that the students should spend their vacations in earning money to meet the expenses of the college year. The industrial and agricultural activities in the South now aflford em- ployment to many ; while even the Western wheat fields attract a goodly number. Laziness is not a natural MARYVILLE^S STUDENT BODY 199 product of Maryville life; the students are by inheri- tance and training industrious and self-reliant. The students of Maryville come principally from virile and vigorous and virtuous families of untainted blood and strong physique. Lithe- CllaSiukd ^""^ ^'"^^^^ ^"""^ well-muscled, they face life with a physical endowment of rare value. Most of them have grown up in the South- ern mountain region, one of the world's most invigor- ating health resorts. And their bodies have been kept free from vice, so that they are fit homes for the clean souls that tenant them. A manly and womanly student body, indeed — a perennial happiness and in- spiration to their teachers and friends. Maryville has never permitted the organization of fraternities or sororities, lest they might interfere with _., « • X. the development of that altruism literary Societies ., ^ . , , . ^1 .^ 1 , that IS looked upon as the vital ele- ment in "the Maryville spirit." It has, however, earnestly encouraged the literary societies, which have always been among the most influential and most use- ful of its student organizations. In the ante-bellum days the principal literary socie- ties were the Beth-Hacma (house of wisdom), the Beth-Hacma ve Berith (house of wisdom and cove- nant), and the Sophirodelphian. As would be in- ferred from the Hebrew names, these societies were or- ganized in the days of the theological seminary. The Beth-Hacma and the Sophirodelphian were in exist- ence as early as 1829 ; and the Beth-Hacma ve Berith as early as 1834. They were not reorganized after 200 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE the Civil War. The Beth-Hacma ve Berith had a small frame building on the southern edge of the old college lot ; but this building also was destroyed in war times. The post-bellum societies have been, for the young men: the Animi Cultus, organized in 1867, and its successor, the Alpha Sigma, in 1882; and the Athe- nian, in 1868; and, for the young women: the Baino- nian, in 1875; and the Theta Epsilon, in 1894. The young men's societies are divided into college and pre- paratory sections. The halls of all of these societies were in the third story of Anderson Hall and its an- nex, until the erection of Pearsons Hall, when the young women's societies removed to their new quar- ters on the second floor of that building. In 1870 there was also organized the Adelphic Union Literary Society, a union composed of the existing literary so- cieties. For many years an annual exhibition of the "A. U. L. S.," consisting of a debate, orations, and essays, was held on an evening of commencement week. Nowadays an annual banquet is held on the last Friday night of the college year. The appropri- ate motto of the Adelphic Union is, **Bonum Unius, Bonum Omnium." The literary societies were long in the habit of ap- pointing ''editors," who read from manuscript, at a public meeting of the society, what Student ^^g ^^ijgj ^ '^paper." These pa- pers were composed of essays, poems, editorials, college news, and sometimes world news, generally spiced with wit and humor. This MARYVILLE'S STUDENT BODY 201 was an ante-bellum custom somewhat modified. The catalog of 1854 tells of two manuscript magazines, The Literary Casket and The Repository, that were prepared by the students of the composition classes. The first printed student publication was a little monthly magazine called The Maryville Student, edited, printed, and published in 1875-1876 by John A. Silsby and Samuel T. Wilson, who were partners in a job printing office in Memorial Hall. The second printed student publication was a monthly magazine entitled The Adelphic Mirror, published by the Adel- phic Union Literary Society in 1884-1885. A few bound sets of both of these magazines have been pre- served as mementos. The Maryville College Monthly was founded by Professor Waller in 1898, and was conducted by him- self as editor-in-chief, assisted by representatives of the various student organizations. It was a very use- ful publication. In 1907 he transferred its manage- ment to the students, who conducted it in magazine form until the year 1915-1916, when it was published as a weekly and under the name The Highland Echo. The Senior Class of 1906 was the first that pub- lished a college annual. It was called TPie Chilhow- ean. As the years went by, the publication grew in size and in the amount of the work put into it, until in its beauty and comprehensiveness it has be- come worthy of any institution in our country. Be- ginning with the year 191 6- 191 7, its publication, by mutual agreement, was transferred to the Junior Class. 202 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE Maryville's Y. M. C. A. was one of the pioneer col- lege Y. M. C. A.'s in the world. Its organization grew out of the first college February FoLd^l877 ' meeting, in 1877. Although those ' who organized it had never been members of a Y. M. C. A., and knew of the existence of no other college Y. M. C. A., it seemed to them that the Association would be of service in promoting the Maryville College religious life, and so they estab- lished it. John A. Silsby, in a conversation with James B. Porter, suggested its organization, and together these men went to the room of Samuel T. Wilson, and there the organization was fully decided upon. The details of the organization were worked out by a com- mittee appointed at a meeting in the chapel held on March 2, 1877. The three students referred to were also the first presidents : J. B. Porter, in 1877 ; S. T. Wilson, in 1877-1878; and J. A. Silsby, in 1878-1879. They afterwards also all became foreign missionaries. Of the fifteen charter members, eleven later on en- tered the ministry, and five of them became foreign missionaries. The service of the Y. M. C. A. to the College and to its students has been uninterrupted and invaluable. At first, without a building of its own, it met in the society halls, and in the chapel, and in a room of its own ; but it finally secured, through the leadership of Kin Takahashi, the erection of Bartlett Hall, one of the best college Y. M. C. A. buildings in the South. From that beautiful building as its headquarters, it has touched with beneficent effect every college activ- MARYVILLE'S STUDENT BODY 203 ity. Its membership in 1916 numbered two hundred and twenty-five. It conducts the college lyceum course as one of its "side lines." The Y. W. C A. was first organized in 1884-1885, but failed to keep up its organization in the years that immediately followed. On April V^^\7^\2'q^'' 22, 1888, however, under the Founded, 1884 , ' .- r ^r- tt 1 tv/t t j leadership of Miss Helen M. Lord, who was then a teacher in the institution, the Associa- tion was reorganized ; and from that time onward has been one of the permanent and most helpful organiza- tions of the College. Its meetings were held in Baldwin parlors until the erection of Voorhees Chapel, since which time it has had a large room of its own in the basement of that building. So useful an organization deserves better quarters, and, doubtless, before many years, it will be provided with what it needs and merits. In connection with both the Y. M. C. A. and the Y. W. C. A., the usual Bible and Mission Study classes, and many other ac- tivities that are now the accepted policy of the best organizations of the kind, are systematically carried forward. It was to be expected that a college that had grown out of a theological seminary should from the first be a field in which the students Other Organized ^^^j^ naturally take part in Religious Work .-. . , 1 ^u .^i- \.u • religious work both within the in- stitution itself and within the community by which it is surrounded. The students take part in the church work of Maryville and of the surrounding country; 204 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE and now that Maryville is rapidly developing into a city, they are finding and entering an even broader field for social and Christian service. The student organization for the February meet- ings is usually very complete and effective; not only is it productive of immediate and wonderful results in the meetings, but it also trains workers for the future. The Student Volunteer Band for Foreign Missions was organized in the fall of 1894, in the days of Kin Takahashi; and serves not only to develop its own members, but also to arouse interest in foreign mis- sions among all the students, and to enlist some as volunteers. There have been more than fifty Mary- ville students since 1877 who have gone abroad as for- eign missionaries. A Ministerial Association, consisting of candidates for the ministry, has, since its organization in Febru- ary, 1 90 1, rendered valuable service on the hill and in the community at large. Its membership in 1916 was forty. The chief athletics on the hill until 1889 was base- ball. Football was then introduced by Kin Takahashi, ... . the first game being played with a Knoxville team. Basketball made its debut in 1901. The first field day with its track athletics was held on April 28, 1893. Tennis was played on the hill for the first time in 1884. The students soon felt the need, upon the intro- duction of intercollegiate athletics, of an organization for the proper conduct of all athletic matters. The MARYVILLE'S STUDENT BODY 205 first Athletic Association was formed in November, 1890, with John Q. Diirfey as President; E. L. Savage, Vice President; J. E. Love, Secretary; and Frank Marston, Treasurer. This association conducted the college athletics during the following twelve years. In the fall of 1902 the Association was reorganized on the basis of a greatly improved constitution. A council composed of representatives of the faculty, the students, and Maryville business men directs all the athletic events of the College. The fact that the town of Maryville has hitherto been too small and its people have been too busy and most of the students too limited in means to provide the necessary gate receipts adequately to finance inter- collegiate athletics, has made the burden of the Athletic Board of Control and of the managers of the teams a very heavy one. But the members of the teams have, in spite of this embarrassing handicap, fought for the honor of their College as pertinaciously and loyally as if they had all the financial backing they could desire. Doubtless, before long, some friend or friends will build the much-needed stadium, and thereby contrib- ute largely to the solution of the financial problem. And the directors and the faculty, appreciating the clean athletics supported by the student body, will be made very happy in the happiness that this bene- faction will bring the well-nigh one thousand students whom it will annually benefit. The extensive and beautiful campus, the gymnasium and swimming pool, the outdoor track athletics, the opportunities for outdoor remunerative work, the 2o6 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE college local athletic leagues, and the intercollegiate contests conspire to make the hill, during recreation hours, the most attractive of places to the students. The spirit controlling the athletics of the institution has, uniformly, been manly and honorable; and fair play and gentlemanly conduct have, as a rule, char- acterized the College in its intercollegiate sports. And so the athletics of the hill has contributed much to the development of the students and to the general welfare of the institution. The campus of two hundred and fifty acres, with its twin forests of deciduous and evergreen trees, the white lines of county turnpikes stretching away in all directions, and the hilly countryside adjoining the campus on the east and south, present every facility to be desired for pleasure walks and cross-country runs ; while the glorious mountain heaps that begin to rise only six miles from the campus limits and that extend eastward for much more than a hundred miles of Appalachian grandeur, afford an almost incom- parably attractive region for "hikes'* in pursuit of health and happiness ; and never to be forgotten are the joys of the long tramp across "Chilhowee's lofty mountains" and up the mighty slopes of the Great Bald and along the rugged crests of the Smokies as far as where grim old Thunderhead dreams in his Olym- pian seclusion. The students have formed various other organi- zations along the lines of their special interests, and have secured profit and pleasure from them. Among these organizations may be mentioned the Law Club, MARYVILLE'S STUDENT BODY 207 the Medical Club, the Intercollegiate Prohibition As- sociation, and the Equal Suffrage League. The regu- . ,. .^. lar ore^anizations of the various Other Activities „ . .1 college and preparatory classes pro- vide for two class social functions a year; while the Senior Class provides for several such functions. Stu- dents also form organizations for special scientific, linguistic, literary, and religious study. There is no lack of initiative in such matters. The national char- acter of Maryville's field is illustrated by the many State Clubs, representing all sections of our country ; while the cosmopolitan field is suggested by the For- eign Club. fc It is the fortune of most schools to arouse a fervent Bfcollege patriotism that is both enthusiastic and endur- ■isprit-de-Corps 1"^-. MaryviUe boasts a veiy loyal ^■T bociety of Alumni; and, mdeed, a very loyal body of old students, for thousands have re- ceived the benefits of a partial course of study at the hands of MaryviUe that were unable to complete the entire course of study. Wherever MaryviUe men and women are found, they are zealous champions of their alma mater. They are the uncommissioned agents who send the ever-swelling tide of new students to the old College. Surely, too, this is as it should be ; for not only have they the ties that would bind them to any school where their youthful memories cluster, but many of them have the additional ties of a gratitude that recognizes that, had it not been for Maryville's marvelous suc- cess in keeping the expenses low and the standards 2o8 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE high, and then its generosity in affording scholarship aid and opportunities to earn part of even the low ex- penses, they could never have had a college education or any part of it. And there, too, is the additional debt of gratitude for high moral ideals and stalwart religious character received from the College. No wonder Maryville's old students insist with loving ur- gency that "there is but one Maryville in the whole world." The College, in company with many other colleges, did without college colors for many long years; but about 1890 a committee of students SongTand Ydls ^"^ P''^^^^^"^^ ^^'^'''^ '^^ '^^^"^'- ful combination of orange and gar- net as the official college colors. So far as is known, no one has ever criticized them, though thousands have worked hard that they might be honored. The first Maryville college song that gained any cur- rency was written by Professor John W. Ritchie, and set to music by Miss Leila M. Ferine, then a teacher of music in the College. The words are as follows : Where Chilhowee's lofty mountains Pierce the Southern blue. Proudly stands our Alma Mater, Noble, grand, and true. Chorus. Orange-garnet, float forever. Ensign of our hill! Hail to thee, our Alma Mater, Hail to Maryville! MARYVILLE'S STUDENT BODY 209 As thy hilltop crowned with cedars, Ever green appears, So thy memVy fresh shall linger Through life's smiles and tears. Lift the chorus, wake the echoes. Make the welkin ring! Hail the queen of all the highlands ! Loud her praises sing ! This song, and a very popular one by Professor E. W. Hall, entitled ''Dear Old Maryville/' and another written by Rev. George P. Beard, entitled "Our Mary- ville,'' are found with other college songs in the '*Mary- ville College Song Book," published by Professor E. W. Hall. The college yell, adopted at the same time as were the college colors, is as follows : "How-ee-how ! Chil- how-ee! Maryville, Maryville, Tennessee! Hoo-rah! hoo-rah! /Maryville, Maryville, 'Rah! 'rah! 'rah!" Milton, unhappily, was speaking of a very different battle cry, but his words describe rather accurately this college yell as it sounds forth on some "foughten field" of intercollegiate athletics : Their liveliest pledge Of hope in fears and dangers, heard so oft In worst extremes, and on the perilous edge Of battle when it rag'd, in all assaults Their surest signal! k CHAPTER VIII Maryville's Helping Hand Maryville College may very properly be defined as a study in how to help people get a college education who otherwise could not secure it. aryvi e as j^g historic mission has been to Foimded to Help , . , , carry an education to those that are hungry for it, but that are in danger of not being given it by others. In its early days it was called "the poor man's college" ; and it has never yet reached the day when it was not especially proud of its service to the humble. It has ever rejoiced in helping those whose chief riches have consisted in their youthful ambitions and their future possibilities. Maryville College was the means devised by some pioneer Scotch-Irishmen who loved their fellow men, by which they hoped to train up leaders in education and religion for the democracy of the Southwest. To this end the institution was founded, and with this purpose in view students were invited to its portals and were aided as they pursued their studies within its classic halls. Long before it had become a fad of modern efficiency in business, economy of administration had been a mat- ter of vital interest and daily practice at Maryville. 2IO MARYVILLE'S HELPING HAND 211 The aphorisms of Poor Richard were not novelties to the directorate of Maryville, but were tried and tested rules of its historic policy. "A been the thought in the self-deny- ing frugality of a century ; but that thought has always carried with it the purpose that the economized penny should make it easier for some young person to earn an education. Stern self-sacrifice and unremitting toil have been the willing price that Maryville's faculty have paid in order that their students should be helped on their way to the royal treasure of a college education. The sal- aries of the faculty and the cost of the management of the institution have been sternly and rigidly kept down to the lowest possible figure in the budget, in order that the cost of the student's education might not rise be- yond his ability. The only just criticism of Maryville in this regard would be found in the fact that, in order to assist in this altruistic economy of administration, many of the management have through laborious years done an amount of work that should have been shared with others; and have thus prematurely burned up with excessive toil many priceless years of life that otherwise should have been their pleasant portion. Poor Richard insisted, "Many a little makes a mickle" ; and further, '^Beware of little expenses." The lifelong effort at Maryville has been Helps by General ^^ ^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^U ^f ^^^ ^^^^g. Inexpensiveness ^ ,. , , , sary expenses so very little that the sum of them shall not be beyond the reach of the in- 212 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE dustrious young people of village and country and of mountain and valley. The attempt made has not been merely to offer a ''leader*' so cheap as to attract cus- tomers, but rather to make all the necessary expenses so low that a condition would be created that would challenge all ambitious young people possessed of health and hands and head and heart to pay the pos- sible price and to enter into their intellectual heritage, and to become educated men and women. The estimate of the year's expenses as given in the bulletins of the registrar's office is, in fact, an inven- tory of bargains that are available on the way to an education. And this condition of affairs is not a nec- essary or inevitable one, for the increased financial strength of institutions of learning has by no means generally reduced the cost of an education to the stu- dent. Maryville could easily change its clientage by changing its charges for tuition and the like; but it has no desire to change its clientage; indeed its pur- pose still is to help those that need help as they strug- gle out of the democracy of no means or moderate means into the aristocracy of learning and leadership. Very happily it is also true that the general sentiment of the student body at Maryville is in favor of the elimination of needless expenditures, and is against the silly waste of money that has been satirized as the spirit of "keeping up with Lizzie." The reason for the low rate of tuition charged by the College is not far to seek on the part of those who have read the preceding chapters with their account of the original design of the institution, and of its MARYVILLE'S HELPING HAND 213 unswerving loyalty to that original mission. In order to help worthy but needy youth get an education it was imperative that the rates of tuition Sitioii^Cha7es ^^^^^^ ^^ merely nominal; other- wise the doors would be barred agairist them. And so Maryville has never charged more for tuition than many schools have charged for an incidental fee. It has coveted for itself the privilege of doing what many other institutions did not care to do or could not do — lead into a college education a host of those strong and able young people of the Southern Appalachians and elsewhere who lack only one condition of an education — money; and what the College has coveted it has attained. In ante-bellum years the tuition charges were usually about $25 a year; but in many cases, because there was nothing else to do in the absence of scholar- ships, students' tuition bills were cancelled by the un- paid professors notwithstanding the fact that their meager salaries came principally from the small tui- tions collected. In post-bellum years, the tuition be- gan as $20, and for a time was only $10 and was then called an incidental fee ; but during the period of ex- pansion it has thus far been $18 a year. This amount, however, is collected of all, every student paying the entire amount in cash. The total sum collected for ordinary tuition in 1915-1916 amounted to $11,788; for special tuition, laboratories, and incidentals, $8,858. The tuition though small is indispensable to the carrying out of the budget. The reason the tuition rates have not been raised in 214 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE these more prosperous times is the fact that the num- ber of those young people knocking at the doors of the College in these latest years who are nobly ambitious for an education and yet are financially unable to pay what most colleges of the grade of Maryville charge, is far greater than ever and is rapidly increasing. Maryville is so unwilling to desert its century-long clientage that it has adhered to its traditional low tui- tion rates, even in face of the fact that some students who are able to pay larger rates may thus pay less than they should. The chief expense at college is the cost of board, and if that can be kept low, the principal problem in student aid is solved. In the early the cost of board was always low, and once, as we have seen, went as low as ten dollars a year, or one dollar a month! In the Fifties, board in the Students' Commons was eighty cents a week; and in private families, and, later, in the College Com- mons, from $1.50 to $2.00 a week. When the boarding hall was opened at Baldwin Hall in March, 1871, board was offered at $2.00 a week. This continued to be the rate until the Cooperative Club was organized. Convenient brick-floored kitch- ens, furnished with cooking-stoves and tables, were also provided, free, in the basements of Baldwin and Memorial Halls, in which students could board them- selves. For twenty years these kitchens were the chief boarding places of the students. All the "bachers" MARYVILLE'S HELPING HAND 215 saved money, but some of them lost their health, by this economy. In 1892 the faculty organized the Cooperative Boarding Qub, with a view to providing good food well cooked as cheap as the self-boarding clubs could do so. The regular boarding department was merged into the Club. By the second year the kitchens were deserted, and the Club had entered upon its very suc- cessful career, one hundred and thirty-five students securing board that year for less than $1.20 a week. The first manager of the Club, Mrs. Mary A. Wil- son, had had experience in the management of hotels ; but best of all she had the spirit of Christian service, and conducted the Club with as altruistic a motive as she would have exemplified if she had gone on a for- eign mission. After having made the Club probably the best of its kind in the South, she resigned her position on account of her advancing age. A few years later, however, in an emergency she volunteered, though over seventy years of age, to take up the work for another year. Her friends warned her that she would endanger her life by carrying so heavy a bur- den. Her brave answer was: *'Well, I could not die in a better cause." The burden did prove too great, and during the year she died at her post of duty. She left some of her small savings to the College, but her best legacy was the admirable system that she established in the management of the Club — a system which her successors in office, trained under her, have continued with great success. The Qub provided excellent board for more than 2i6 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE five hundred young men and young women, in 1916, at cost — $1.90 a week. It also furnished a hundred young women the opportunity of earning $3.25 toward their $7.60 a month board bill. The health of the new students is usually improved by the good food served by the best of cooks with variety and regularity. A "balanced ration" is provided. The faculty built more wisely than they thought when they founded the Club, for not only did they improve the health of the stu- dents, but they made it possible for many thousands to attend college who without the advantages of the Club would never have been able to do so. The College could easily make the Club a source of revenue by raising the cost of board, but in doing so, it would depart from the policy of a century, and exclude many of its neediest clientage, and this it has no temptation to do. It is rather planning to utilize the agricultural department in improving the Club so as to keep the cost at its historic low rates. An en- dowment sufficient to pay the salaries of the managers would insure the possibility of keeping the rates low in spite of the general increase in the cost of food- stuffs. A far-reaching benefaction this would be. Many students find employment during the college year in the buildings as janitors and caretakers. Many laboratory assistants are made ^dSorMfSp "ecessary by the large classes of the various science departments. As stated heretofore, a hundred young women find in connection with the Cooperative Club opportunities to earn about thirty dollars of their year's board bill of MARYVILLE'S HELPING HAND 217 seventy dollars. Thus the College affords within the walls of its buildings opportunities of work that ex- tend throughout every day of the college year and are not affected by rain or wintry weather. In the early days of the seminary farm, the students found the best possible outdoors work to which they devoted a certain part of every ?utL?s^SdSe^l ^''^' ^"^ '"^''^ '^''^''^ years, the self-help work fund has afforded similar opportunities of work in the open. This fund, begun in 1893 with a contribution of $477 by twenty- one friends, and greatly expanded through the efforts of Miss Henry, has of late years enabled the College to offer three or four or more dollars of work a month to any student desiring such work. During the two recreation hours in the afternoon, and on Saturdays, many students find it possible to earn as much as one- half their board bill. The work consists of every kind of service needed about a large school and a large campus. Work on the lawns, the walks, the streets, the new buildings, the old buildings, on the pipe-line trenches, in the woods, and especially, in coming days, in connection with the agricultural department, is practically endless in quantity, and gives at once physi- cal health and financial help to the eager workmen. In 1888 Miss Sarah B. Hills, of New York, con- tributed six hundred dollars for the establishment of a text-book loan library for the TextioJk?^^^^^ ^^^^^^ "^^ ^^^ students. Members of the faculty contributed their services to the conduct and management of this book 2i8 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE room, for more than twenty years without compensa- tion and since then at a mere nominal compensation; and so efficiently has the room been managed that the library has grown with the growth of the school and with the multiplication of courses until at its inven- tory in 1916 it contained 8,905 books valued at $4,215. The books are neatly covered and thoroughly disin- fected every term. The library has received only about three hundred dollars in donations since its foundation; but its modest rentals, fixed at one-fifth the retail cost of a book, supplemented by the receipts from the stationery business, have not merely supplied the many thousands of students during the past thirty years with books at an insignificant rental, but have accumulated so valuable a library as provides all the books needed by eight hundred students during three terms a year. It annually saves the students thousands of dollars. Many business men who owe their financial success in life largely to opportune loans that were made them in their days of lack of capital, T -ci Its j^^g^ j^^ especially interested in an- loan Funds . re fiv/r -n 1 i. other effort Maryville has begun m behalf of the students. Maryville's father of the February Meetings, Rev. Nathan Bachman, D.D., out of the savings of the modest offerings made him in his work as an evangelist, set aside two thousand dol- lars to help Maryville help the young people who were out of money but wanted more education and were anxious to pay for it out of their future earning power. Several oth^r funds — the Angier fund of five thousand MARYVILLE'S HELPING HAND 219 dollars and the Margaret E. Henry fund of one thousand dollars — have been given for the same pur- pose. As a result a considerable number of Juniors and Seniors have been enabled to complete their work by the timely loans made them from these funds, and then after graduation have returned the loans to be loaned again to other needy students. An endless chain, this, to which no one can take exception. Those who have not themselves tested the difficulty of earning a dollar in a section where for most of Helps by Its the past century a farm hand Permanent earned less than half a dollar a Scholarships day, can hardly realize how large a sum even the eighteen dollars required for the tui- tion bills appears, and how substantial seems a scholar- ship of even eighteen dollars. It is more than a farm hand can ordinarily clear in a month. The first endowment fund to help Maryville stu- dents meet their college expenses was a contribution of $1,500 made by Rev. James G. Craighead, D.D. ; while the second — the largest such fund yet given the College — $6,300, was contributed by Rev. Carson W. Adams, D.D., specifically to help in paying tuition. During the period of expansion these scholarship and self-help funds have been added to until, in 1916, they aggregated, aside from the loan funds, more than $50,000, and the list fills two pages of the catalog. The interest received from these funds is appropri- ated by the Faculty Committee on Scholarships to such students as it deems most worthy and most in need, without regard to or even inquiry as to the denomina- 220 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE tional affiliation of the applicant. The amounts ap- propriated, when worked out or received as gifts from these funds, have enabled hosts of students to remain in College, when, unaided, their lack of resources would have made it impossible for them to complete the year. It is hoped that during the Centennial Fund Cam- paign large additions of permanent scholarships may be made. Especially is it fervently hoped that the efforts to raise a fund of $100,000 to serve as a per- manent memorial of Miss Henry may be crowned with success. Miss Henry often spoke of her dreams that some day so large a permanent work and scholarship fund should be secured that it would be unnecessary to go out to canvass for current scholarships. She raised $12,000 during the last year of her life for such current funds — the interest on $200,000 at six per cent. A worthy memorial of a great life would $100,- 000 be, bringing in $6,000 a year to the students of the College, and perpetuating the life-work of their great champion. Individuals, women's clubs, Sabbath schools and their classes, D.A.R. chapters, and other friends of education and of the mountains and of Miss Henry may well take part in these double memorials and in Miss Henry's labor of love. There are always very many students in attendance who can expect little or no help Helps by Its f^.^^ home, and who, for that rea- Current n j ^ ^u • Scholarships ^^^^ ^^^ compelled to earn their own way through college. To such self-supporting students, it is good news, indeed, that MARYVILLE'S HELPING HAND 221 tells of an institution where during the progress of the school year itself the opportunity is given those that need it to earn at least half their board bill ; and in cases where their earnings during the three months of vacation are still inadequate to meet the college bills, it is also good news when they hear that an appro- priation from the current scholarship funds, collected heretofore by Miss Henry and hereafter by her suc- cessors, may be approved by the Scholarship Commit- tee to enable them to pay the moderate tuition bill, and, in cases of special need and merit, even a large amount of their expenses. This good news makes very happy hearts, and it nerves willing hands to make every en- deavor to secure the education thus put within their reach. Maryville delights in helping those that are helping themselves, and that need only a little help to enable them to avail themselves of Maryville's rare facilities to make leaders out of them. The Scholarship Com- mittee makes grants only after careful and conscien- tious consideration of each case; and seeks to avoid the remotest tendency toward lessening a wholesome self-respect and industry on the part of the student. It seeks to relieve only that penury that threatens to deprive a worthy young man or young woman of a needed training for leadership. The grant of the scholarship is intended to stimulate the spirit of self- support and not to stifle it. Fortunately the delightful mountain climate of East Tennessee, the good food provided by the Co- operative Club, the pure water piped to the College 222 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE from the Mcllvaine spring, and the healthful exercise afforded by the work on the "chain gang," as the boys facetiously call their out-of-doors S^the^HeaUh ^ ^^J^ ^^^^^' ^"^ ^^ *^ gymnasium drill and the indoors and outdoors athletic sports, unite to contribute so largely to the development and conservation of the students' health that there is not very much need of physicians and of hospitals. However, among so many hundreds of students, there must be provision made for the sick, and the College has made that provision. As the number of students increased of late years, hospital rooms were fitted up at the president's residence and in Baldwin Hall. Then Mrs. Lamar's generous gift provided, in 1909, the Ralph Max Lamar Memorial Hospital with its eleven wards and the other appointments of a well- equipped hospital. In this hospital ever since its open- ing, a clinic with free medical consultation and pre- scription has been provided the students on alternate days. Beginning with 191 3, a regular, trained nurse has also had charge of the hospital and has had the oversight of the health of the students, and has con- tributed greatly to their physical welfare. The health of the college people has been admirably conserved by all these provisions in its behalf. It is the glory of our American system of popular education that it provides for all young people an equal opportunity for a good education. Maryville College, although not connected with the public school system, was founded for the people, and is administered for MARYVILLE'S HELPING HAND 223 the people, be their financial condition never so strait- ened. This chapter of Maryville's history has told of some of the ways in which the Col- Helps by an ^^^^ ^^^ extended its helping hand Altruism *^ ^^^ students; but these '"helps" are not the only evidences of the altruistic spirit of the College. That spirit pervades the entire institution and every department of it. Even after their graduation, the College tries to help its students; in their behalf, without charge, the Faculty's Committee on Recommendations carries on an extensive correspondence, serving especially those students who are planning to become teachers. One of the students, after several years' experience at Maryville, said : "I never saw anything like it ! Every one here seems to be trying to help the other fellow !'* CHAPTER IX Maryville's Manhood Product Maryville, like all serious-minded schools, views as its mission the making of serviceable men and women "D -w 1. J for the world's work. It counts Brawn Mannood . ,. , . , - , . ^ , itself happy in the fact that it finds provided as a basis for its work of development young men and young women of strong physique. The stu- dents come principally from the mountains and the country districts and from wholesome homes in vil- lages and small towns, and bring with them bodies of good bone and blood and brawn. They represent the best and healthiest physical manhood and woman- hood products of our country. And in these days of the Cooperative Club, the Work Fund, the gymnasium, the swimming pool, and outdoor athletics, the stu- dents gain in physical power and vigor during their college days. A good basis this, for the making of men and women. The College deems itself also fortunate in the amount of brain, as well as brawn, that its students ■D • v 1. J bring with them as a rich part of Brain Mannood , .^ - ., , their family patrimony and race endowment. The Southern mountaineers have been credited by some physiologists that have made a spe- 224 P O O < X J MARYVILLE'S MANHOOD PRODUCT 225 cial study of them, as having a brain of somewhat larger conformation than just ordinary mortals have! But virhatever may be physiologically true of the gray matter of the material brain, there can be no dis- counting of the lively native intelligence of Mary- ville's clientage. The thorough methods of instruction and the high standards of scholarship maintained by the College seek to train into symmetry and efficiency this rich mental endowment of its students. The institution is aided in its endeavors by the cooperation of the young people, who keep their brains untainted by vice, and employ their best endeavor to develop and discipline their intellectual powers. The efficiency the alumni have shown in their distinguished service to the world, and the respect they have won from their fellow labor- ers in many fields of service, are sufficient evidence that they have very largely realized their ambition to utilize the capital with which nature has endowed them. Superior to either brawn or brain manhood is, of course, character manhood; and this best of all types of manhood Maryville seeks to ^J^®*^^ build up in happy union with the subordinate and yet invaluable types that have been mentioned. The effort is made to develop such a character in the student as shall command his own self-respect, the regard of his fel- low men, and the approval of his God. Maryville believes that a man should be so sincere and genuine that his reputed three characters — "that 221^ A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE which he exhibits, that which he has, and that which he thinks he has" — shall after all be blended in one individual and kingly character. It has no sympathy with the assertion of some educators' that they are charged only with the intellectual training of their students ; and that they have no responsibility for their moral training. It rather deems its work a sad failure if it fails to implant in its students noble moral ideals that control their lives. And its success in develop- ing worthy character has been most gratifying through- out its century of efforts to that end. To have the most symmetrical character there must be freedom from habits that would impair either man- hood or manly influence. From the SntS^^^^*'''^ beginning, a hundred years ago, all of Maryville's professors have been leaders in the temperance movement. Before the Washingtonian movement, they were total abstainers. Professor Darius Hoyt, in the early Thirties, was edi- tor of a Maryville temperance weekly paper; and at that early date the students had their temperance so- ciety. Dr. Anderson nearly a century ago used unfer- mented wine in the celebration of the sacrament. The entire influence of the College was thrown against dissipation, and there never was a day when drinking was tolerated among its students. Since the War, the united influence of the College has been thrown against the tobacco habit, no teacher being employed who uses tobacco, and no student be- ing allowed to use it on the college campus or being MARYVILLE'S MANHOOD PRODUCT 22y permitted to room in the dormitories if he ttses it. Very few of the alumni use tobacco. Every year special instruction is given the students regarding the social evil; and the single standard of Christian morality is held up for their adoption. Danc- ing is not permitted. Abstinence from these things is looked upon as not merely a negative but a positive contribution to character building. Character, however, is, of course, infinitely more positive than negative. The ''thou shalt not's'' are outranked by the "thou shalt's." SitiS^^^"'^^ "Thou Shalt love the Lord thy God, and thy neighbor as thy- self" is the supreme commandment. In a man's will- ing response to it is found his true character. It fol- lows, then, that the chief duty and the noblest service of Maryville College is to develop positive character. And, accordingly, to the development of that force- ful moral character all the energies of the institution are directed. Religion and philanthropy equip man for the use and the enjoyment of life, and panoply him for the immortal life that is his glorious heritage. By every means within its power, then, Maryville endeav- ors to recommend to the immortals under its tuition these high sanctities. In the discussion of the services rendered by Dr. Anderson, it was pointed out that it was he that first vitalized and developed what has been known among the old students as ''the Maryville spirit''; and that the four chief elements of that spirit are breadth of 228 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE sympathy, thorough scholarship, manly religion, and unselfish service. These four elements all contribute mightily to the making of the St'^S"^ Maryville man; and, though the type produced has differed some- what in its appearance, just as the costumes worn at different periods of the century have differed, the real vital thing itself — the spirit — has been nearly identical throughout the ten decades. What we may call cos- mopolitan breadth of vision and sympathy on the one hand, and thorough scholarship on the other, have had their efficient influence in making the manhood product of Maryville. The other two elements of *'the Mary- ville spirit," manly religion and unselfish service, play so vital a part in the making of the Maryville man, that the institution deems it the chief end of its exist- ence to develop them. In its efforts toward the development of this posi- tive character in its students, the College has mani- fested a character of its own that y^^tf^^^f ^^s been of a very persistent and Century consistent type. This character has surrounded the school with en- during and now historic moral traditions and a relig- ious atmosphere that have been a tonic to all within the radius of its influence. All the five presidential administrations have agreed in this earnest purpose and characteristic endeavor. As by a kind of apostolic succession, this program of the institution's life and work has been handed down unchanged from hand to hand. During the century, Dr. Edgar A. Elmore, Chairman of the Directors. c c c C » b c « MARYVILLE'S MANHOOD PRODUCT 229 methods of instruction and the character of the equip- ment have, in the advance of education and in the increased financial strength of the College, greatly im- proved. It is also believed that the moral program and performance of the College have not deteriorated during the hundred years since Dr. Anderson an- nounced the program and began to carry it out into performance. Indeed, the impetus of a century has, it is trusted, been of avail in improving even this part of the work of the College. But, in its essence, ''the Maryville spirit" is the same throughout the past hun- dred years. It has been much the same in the teachers and in the students. The College has always been very deliberate and cautious in the choosing of its teachers; for if the character and the accepted mission med^eiMng "^ ' ^°"^S^ ^'' *° ^' perpetuated, Force ^^^^ must be perpetuated in the persons of the teachers who make up the successive faculties. Without vigilance in the selection of its teachers, it would be easy to metamor- phose in a few short years the whole spirit of even Maryville College, distinctive, historic, consistent, and typical as that spirit has persisted. It has been the glory of Maryville, however, that the members of its faculties have been men and women of a deeply earnest purpose, who have looked upon life as a mission of helpfulness to others, and who have, among their many ambitions, placed highest of all the ambition to be used of God in training his sons and daughters for their divinely appointed and phil- 230 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE anthropic mission. It has been the practice of these teachers to say "Come !'' — not "Go !" — in their efforts to lead their students to walk the paths of virtue, re- ligion, and social service. And the results of their la- bors have been happy results. "Like priest, like people," should be thus rewritten for Maryville's use: "Like teacher, like student." And this is true common sense, true psychology, true pedagogy, and true religion. Manhood must be reverent to be at its best. The rash spirit of youth that would "rush in where angels fear to tread," must be better in- Colle f ®^^^^^* structed before it can be discreet Atmosphere ^^^ ^^^^* ^^^ ^^ ^^^ college pro- gram seeks every day of the col- lege year to inculcate the wholesome spirit of reverent humility in the presence of "the high and lofty One who inhabiteth eternity, whose name is holy." The daily chapel exercises, conducted not as mere routine by the professors in succession; the Bible- school and church services of the Sabbath, which all attend ; the historic Tuesday evening conference meet- ing attended voluntarily by hundreds of students, and directed by the teachers and the student organizations ; the Bible Training Department with its reverent and scholarly investigation of the word of God as the law of life ; and even the regulations enforced in the disci- pline of the school — all conspire to create and develop that spirit of reverence which cannot be absent when true character is present. Thus Maryville's character product has, normally, a large element of godly rever- ence permeating it. MARYVILLE'S MANHOOD PRODUCT 231 The culmination of the yearlong efforts of Mary- ville to build the best possible manhood product is reached in the February Meetings. Believing most heartily that the cleanest, truest. Meetings acter is that which results from the fear and love of God and from loyalty to his v^ord and church and will, the College seeks most earnestly and persistently to lead every student to enter definitely and heartily into the service of God and his church. In ante-bellum days Dr. Anderson, as pastor of the New Providence Church in Maryville, usually held a special series of services every year, in the bene- fits of which the students shared, and in which he trained them to be what are now called "personal workers." For the first ten years after the War, the College continued to share in the town meetings. In the course of time, however, the institution grew to such size that it became expedient for it to have its own meetings. Out of this fact grew "the February Meetings." The first February Meetings were held in the old chapel on the second floor of Anderson Hall in 1877. Rev. .Nathan Bachman, D.D., one Unique flStory °^ Maryville's greatest benefactors, conducted the services. In these initial meetings many decided to live the Christian life, including the present president of the College and his wife, and the lamented Miss Margaret E. Henry, These first meetings, moreover, were immensely im- 232 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE portant in that they determined for the future the character of the succeeding meetings. Dr. Bachman was an apostle of love and gentleness and loyalty and vision. He appealed dispassionately but earnestly and most wisely to the manliness and the womanliness of the students. Like Goldsmith's village preacher, he sought to allure to brighter worlds and lead the way; but sought first to lead the young people to nobility of character through the transforming power of religion, and to usefulness of service through enlistment under the Great Leader. On this same rational and unobjectionable plan has the work since then been carried on. Those who had expected to find ground for criticism in the meetings have become their warmest friends when they have seen them and have witnessed the vast good they have accomplished. Few of the many thousands who have attended them have found any fault in them; while most of the thousands have referred to them through- out succeeding years with profound respect and grati- tude. The quiet, elevated, and biblical methods employed by Dr. Bachman have been continued with wonder- ful and increasing success by the SVhe"^ ^^^^ ""^^^^ ^^^"^^^^ ""^ ^^^ meetings. It Leaders ^^^ been the policy of the College, so far as possible, to have each leader take charge every four years. Dr. Bachman conducted the meetings eight times; Dr. Elmore has been leader seven times; and Dr. Trimble, five times. The services usually begin on the first Sabbath of MARYVILLE'S MANHOOD PRODUCT 233 February, and continue about twelve days; a forty minutes' service being held at chapel attended by all the students, and a service each night attended by the great majority of the students. The object of the twenty-four earnest and thought- laden addresses is to bring the young people face to face with their Lord and Master so With Their ^j^^^ ^^^ ^ ^^^ ^^^^i the Invisible Vision Godward . .1 • 1 . j ., j and their unseen duty and thus de- cide to enter the service of God. Surely no more sub- lime privilege and task could be given a college than is that which Maryville feels has been given to it — the opportunity to implant humble piety and reverent religion in the hearts and lives of young people. 'Tear God" is a message that our young Americans must hear and heed if they are to remain clean-bodied and pure-hearted, and if they are to have the motive and passion for righteousness that will make them regenerators of our body politic. The College makes no apology for shortening somewhat the assignments of work during twelve February days in order that the young people may have leisure in which to turn their gaze upward and to come to an understanding with the Infinite. The February Meetings, however, turn the serious attention of the students manward as well as Godward. A clarion call to service is sounded TT- • Tur^^^ J every day. The proclamation of Vision Manward .. u ^u u ^ / ^ r r the brotherhood of man and of fra- ternity in the common Savior thrills the young people with the challenge of Christian and social service in a 234 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE lifelong crusade. Great numbers have been aroused in these meetings to dedicate themselves to the service of their fellow men. The religion that Maryville champions is one that refuses monkish selfishness and seclusion and seeks Christlike self-sacrifice and service. Surely a series of meetings that annually sends forth many with high resolves to spend and be spent for others, and that has sent many hundreds to careers of great usefulness, is the glory of the school that provides them. A new vision of life's meaning and possibilities dawns upon the student as he has his horizon broad- ened until it touches earth's remot- AM With Their ^^^ bounds and extends beyond to Transforming , , ,, , . r ^ i. Ideals ^"^ boundless domain of God s pur- poses for his life. He feels "the expulsive power of a new aflFection'' that drives out the low and the mean, and he experiences the trans- forming power of a lofty purpose. These ideals annually transform many lives. Bad habits are abandoned; good habits are formed or strengthened; discipline is simplified; and scholarship is improved. "Now, professor, I shall go to work," said a young man, who had been one of the most careless of students; and he steadily fulfilled his new purpose until he graduated a scholarly man, and be- came a leader of men for righteousness, and not long since the remarkably successful leader of one of the February Meetings. The religious forces, it goes without saying, are strengthened by the campaign. Prayer and the word bo Ph o U o o O MARYVILLE'S MANHOOD PRODUCT 235 of God win such victories as to command a new re- spect even from the most careless. Remembrance of the Sabbath day and reverence for God's name gain a new control of hearts. The moral tone of the Col- lege is greatly improved. February days transform ideals, and these ideals transform all later life. Yes, these ideals become life purposes. College life is enriched by them; but, better yet, in the case of very many, all later life is trans- Life^Pu ^^Ses formed by them. Conscience gains the kingly place of honor and rules the conduct. Many decide that their life-work shall be an altogether altruistic one, and they spend the rest of their days carrying out, at home and in foreign lands, the purpose formed in the heart-searching, clarion- calling February days. The goodly army of Maryville altruists who in home and foreign mission fields are toiling for their fellow men are, many of them, living out the purposes formed during those days of decision. And the host who do not go into a vocation that is definitely devoted to the service of others, carry with them into their life-work, whatever it may be, the high resolve to make life count for others as well as for themselves. The February Meetings, the culmination of every year's campaign for character building, make the great- est contribution of the year toward Maryville's output of "manhood product." CHAPTER X Maryville's Second Century The history of the first century of the College has contained two books of Genesis instead of one, for . the Civil War almost annihilated TheKisf^^^ the College. And yet every decade Century: ^^ ^^^ century has made some per- manent contribution to the inheri- tance of the institution. And, in spite of the fact that the College has never yet had enough buildings and endowment to enable it to live comfortably, this heri- tage from other days is a rich one. A valuable part of this heritage is its geographical location. What more could be desired in this respect ? /- V T X- In the heart of the romantic South- (1) Location A. 1 1 . . , . ern Appalachian region, with its five millions of mountaineers; in the heart of "the Switzerland of America" — East Tennessee, "secluded land of gentle hills and mountains grand" ; in the broad county of Blount, with thirty-three per cent of its pop- ulation of scholastic age ; in the beautiful county town of Maryville; and in the parklike campus of two hun- dred and fifty acres; — surely no more healthful, at- tractive, or strategic location could have been found in the wide, wide world. And in the days of the New- 236 MARYVILLE'S SECOND CENTURY 237 est South and of the Panama Canal, the course of em- pire is setting this way more rapidly than ever. The school has suffered from poverty, and its career has been far from placid, but its history has been a heroic one. The men of Maryville have been weak in ,^. _-. , salary and support; but they have (2) History , • u^ • -r- a been mighty m sacrince and ser- vice. Some imperfect outline of the work of these men has been given in this book. And the story of the Academies, the Log Colleges, the Theo- logical Seminary, the Ante-bellum College, and the Post-bellum College, crowded with evidences of un- selfish devotion to the cause of education and of the people, has been handed down as part of the precious heritage with which Maryville of the new century is endowed. And it is a record full of divine providence, human faithfulness, and college usefulness. It is more precious than rubies. Another part of the heritage received from the past is the character of the College. As this narrative has .^. p, . shown, the founder of the College gave it its worthy character at its very beginning; and his successors have striven to preserve it untarnished, to be handed down in turn to their successors. How well they have succeeded may also be gathered from the pages of this book — pages that tell a "story of altruism." This college character is worth more than all the financial capital of the school ; it is what has made Maryville beloved of true men and women, and highly favored of God. And it has come down to the second century as an invaluable 238 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE legacy purchased at a great cost of devotion and sacri- fice. The past century has contributed at least four price- less boons that unite to form the rich heritage it has ^4^ M'ssion handed down to the second cen- tury. Mention has been made of three of these boons — its location, its history, and its character; the fourth is as priceless as these; it is its mission. From the beginning there has been no un- certainty as to what was sought; the accepted mission of the College has been the making of Christian lead- ership for the world's work. Like Paul, it can say: *'This one thing I do.'' Possessed itself of the assur- ance of its own mission, it has sought to make its stu- dents men and women of a mission. And the greater includes the less; that which more secular institu- tions make their chief purpose — the development of sound scholarship — Maryville seeks with all its might and main to do at least as well as they : but it is not content with this achievement; it seeks to superadd to the very best scholarship the very best heart culture and moral and religious character. If the Hebrews had a jubilee at the end of every fifty years of their history, the Maryvillians clearly owe for the past hundred years A Double Jubilee ^^ q^^, providences a double jubi- for the Great Past! , t- , r i^i- , lee. ror the patent of nobility that was won for the College by the valiant deeds of loyal men and true; for the twenty-five quadrenniums of college generations; for the ten times ten commence- ment days with their students faring away from the O o o c t « c MARYVILLE'S SECOND CENTURY 239 college halls to carry the teachings of Maryville to the ends of the earth; for the two half century periods embracing the Old South and the New South, and merging now into the Newest South with its new heavens of kindly promise and new earth of generous prosperity; for a total history full of the providences of God and the faithful service of men, let the trum- pets sound forth a jubilee, yes, a double jubilee! While we give thanks for the past with its rich heritage, let us salute the future with its richer prom- ise. The old king is dead; long All Hail to the Hye the new king! The past was Greater Future! , r . -n ^ r great ; the future will be far great- er. The property equipment, the endowment, the departments, the curricula, the faculty, the student body, and, above all, the usefulness of the institution — all will be increased in the greater future. Nor is it difficult to believe this cheery horoscope of coming days; for has not the story we have been telling so accustomed us to growth and development, and evolu- tion and expansion, that we should be surprised — ^not by an advance but — by a retrograde movement ? There are to be great achievements in the future for Mary- ville; then all hail to the greater Maryville of the future ! What shall be the policy for the new century? In the case of men of purpose, high ideals, industry, and enthusiasm, it is not difficult for The Policy for the ^^^^^ ^j^^^ j^^^^ ^1^^^^ best to pre- Second Century: .. ^ ^, . r ^ r Z diet their future course of action; for it will be controlled largely by the principles that b 240 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE have decided the conduct of the past. This is also true of colleges. Whatever changes are introduced into the policy of Maryville College will be dictated largely by the lessons learned in the school of experi- ence. Even schools go to school; and Maryville's future will grow out of the lessons it has learned in the past in their application to the new requirements of new conditions. There are some respects in which a proper ambition may be satisfied even with equaling the attainments of the past. If the daughter (1) Try to m as merely equal the moral worth and •p^^ beauty of character of her mother, her friends will often agree that she has done nobly indeed; and if the Maryville of the second century succeeds in emulating and equaling the moral worth and integrity and unselfishness of the Maryville of the first century, its friends may well be satisfied; for a glorious record in these respects has the College had in its self-denying past. Let Mary- ville even live up to its moral and religious traditions, in this materialistic and self-centered age, and it will, indeed, do well. But it purposes to be true to its worthy past, and hopes to take no backward steo in its onward march. In some important respects, however, Maryville's second century will be made far better than was the first. As each succeeding decade after its refounding marked great improvements and expansion in many directions over what was registered the decade before, it is to be expected that the history of the College will MARYVILLE'S SECOND CENTURY 241 again be one of new advance and success and useful- ness. The dreams of the founder and refounder have already become realities; and the (^; Aim J<ar management will enter the new in the Past century with the confidence born of the assured achievements of the past, and with the determination to seek the far better things that they are justified in expecting. There is no tendency on their part to spare endeavor toward the realization of what is possible for Maryville. One of the desiderata to be realized in the second century will be the coming of the day when Maryville can be only a college. As yet the Be a^CoikgT^"^ preparatory department is a neces- sity, and its elimination at present would be a grave injury to the cause of education in this section ; it, evidently, has additional years of use- fulness before it for all four of its years, and then other years of usefulness for its two upper years ; but when the high-school system of the Southern Ap- palachians has been developed sufficiently to care for the young people of the region, it will be the carry- ing out of an old program that will take place when the preparatory department shall be exscinded, and the College shall be only a college. The foundations of the College are already so ex- tensive and its continued enlargement so certain that there is not the shadow of a possi- CoUe^ ^^^^® bility of the institution's ever tak- ing the rank of a Junior College. The new century will strengthen it and expand it 242 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE mightily, but it will not narrow its field or scope. It will always be "a whole college." Maryville does not aspire to do the work or bear the name of a university. It has various departments, /c\ A J -M- 1.- ^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ different but tfollT''^ ''^°^^' ""^^^ ''' management; it fears that they might interfere with the efficiency of its efforts to unify and strengthen its character-forming influences. To be the kind of col- lege that its ambitions propose as their ideal will re- quire all its present possessions and powers, and will utilize all the added resources that the future will bring to it. Another ideal of the second century of Maryville will be to seek to be not only a college, a whole col- lege, and nothing but a college, but possible college. Maryville be- lieves that nothing is too good for its young men and young women, and it will be content with no lower aspiration for them than to provide them the best possible college. If friends continue to be raised up for it, as they have been so remarkably raised up during the past century, the College will approximate every passing year more nearly to the ideal it holds before it. Very modest Maryville has always been; it has not cried aloud in the streets; but very ambitious it has also been ; it has wanted its sons to be as plants grown up in their youth, and its daughters to be as corner-stones, polished after the similitude of a palace. It wishes MARYVILLE'S SECOND CENTURY 243 to be the best possible college so as to be able to give the best possible training for its young people. It seeks to be fit to survive, and then hopes to share in the survival of the fittest. Witness, the chorus of the college song: Orange-garnet, float forever, Ensign of our hill. Maryville still has its constituency of the earlier days; it also has an additional constituency of large dimensions. In 1916 it had 287 the Needs^ff Its students, or about one-third of its Constitnency enrollment, from Blount County; 248, or about one-third, from for- ty-seven other counties of Tennessee; and 270, or about one-third, from thirty-one other States and countries. This large constituency is calling for many forms of education. Of recent years it has especially urged the establishment of vocational courses. In 191 3 the Home Economics Department met part of this de- mand, and immediately became greatly popular. As this book goes to press, a modest agricultural depart- ment is being introduced in compliance with the in- sistent demand of the times and of the students. The young men want to learn to be better farmers, and the school-teachers wish to prepare themselves for the intelligent presentation of agriculture to their young people. The forty acres especially available for this department, in the campus of two hundred and fifty 244 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE acres, is admirably adapted to the purposes of the de- partment. Maryville is in duty bound to the great farming region in which it is located, to provide some elementary and normal training in agriculture for its students. This it can do without trespassing on the field occupied by the State agricultural colleges, and without impairing in any degree the work of its other departments. The opportunities for work afforded the students are now mainly for unskilled manual labor. There is needed, in addition, a manual training department in which the student may be trained in a few forms of skilled manual labor. For any clientage this is valu- able, but for Maryville's students, accustomed to work and eager for trained skill, it is especially valuable. This want of the students will surely be provided early in the new century. Maryville is anxious to be of more direct service to its community and county and section than it has been able to be in the past. It is hoped that it may be enabled to employ a large enough force to do the col- lege work efficiently and yet to allow extension work to be carried on in the interest of thousands of neigh- bors of the institution who can not be students within its walls. For thirteen years (1916) the Mountain Workers of the Presbyterian Church have held an annual Conference in the College in June, and thus several States have been served. Maryville wishes to be enabled to render far more of this kind of exten- sion service during the second century than it has thus Carnegie Hall Burned in April, 1916; Rebuilt by December, 1916 "A Bigger and Better Maryville." MARYVILLE'S SECOND CENTURY 245 far been able to render. Strategically located in a large town and near a large city and yet in rural East Tennessee, it desires to contribute more directly than heretofore to the solution, within its field, of the coun- try and city problems which its students consider in their social science classroom. The glory of Maryville has ever been, as has been reiterated, the historic "Maryville spirit'' of cosmo- politan breadth of sympathy, (8) In the thorough scholarship, manly relig- "MarvTiUe ^^"' ^^^ unselfish service; and the Spirit" achievements that have grown out of that distinguishing spirit. It is unthinkable that a spirit that has persisted and even developed in power for a hundred years shall deterio- rate or be lost in a new century that has, if possible, even a greater need of its qualities than had its pred- ecessor. The College must gain in its second century a victory even more difficult, but also more honorable, than was its mighty victory over the adversity of its first century, namely, a victory over the seductions of prosperity. What Maryville men of the first century have even died for, let the Maryville men of the second century live for, in the highest and truest and worthi- est way. The holy heritage of the past is a sacred charge, to be guarded in the same noble way as in other days it was won. Let the men of Maryville toil not for self — for that spirit belongs to the breed of baser sort — and let them not strive merely to make Maryville more popular, but rather let them use every endeavor to make their students efficient and Chris- 246 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE tian and greatly useful. Then will a greater and bet- ter MaryviUe of the second century be the logical and worthy successor of the great and good MaryviUe of the first century. The ever-available criterion of "the MaryviUe spirit" will, however, continue to be the spirit of the Great Teacher himself. Let future facul- <^) Always in the ^^^ ^^^ f^^^^^ directors sit, as did Spint of the ., . . , r r Great Teacher ^"^^^ predecessors, at the feet of the great Galilean until they are imbued with his spirit. Then, and then only, will they be able to train their students and to administer the affairs of their College in a way that will be worthy of Maryville's history and of Maryville's Lord. Then will "the MaryviUe spirit" be beyond all question the right spirit. At the inauguration of Dr. Anderson, a hundred years ago, the founder of MaryviUe told of the provi- dences that had helped in the opening of the new insti- tution. He said : "Hitherto the Lord has helped us, and to his name we raise our grateful Ebenezers." At the beginning of the second century of the service of the College, we echo his words and raise our "grate- ful Ebenezers." On the same occasion MaryvUle's founder uttered the following words that have been the Magna Charta of the institution he estabHshed: The Purpose of the ^L^t the directors and managers of Second Century . . , . . . ° ^, this sacred institution propose the glory of God and the advancement of that kingdom purchased by the blood of his only begotten Son as MARYVILLE'S SECOND CENTURY 247 their sole object, and they need not fear what man can do." Upon the threshold of the second century, the fifth president of the old College would echo these noble words of Isaac Anderson as, in his view, expressing accurately the desire and purpose of the present ''direc- tors and managers" of Maryville; and he would also propose them as a sacramentum to be taken by all the Maryville men of the future, to the end that they may worthily continue what was most worthily begun. Then will these other words uttered by Dr. Anderson sound out for them the same cheer that resounded in them a hundred years ago : "Let this object be pursued with meekness and per- severing fidelity, leaving the event with the great Head of the Church, and we need not tremble for the issue." J APPENDIX I. GENERAL COLLEGE OFFICIALS, 1819-1919 Entered Presidents Vacated Office Office 1819 Rev. Isaac Anderson, D.D 1857 1857 Rev. John J. Robinson, D.D 1861 1869.... Rev. Peter Mason Bartlett, D.D., LLD 1887 1889 Rev. Samuel Ward Boardman, D.D., LLD 1901 1901 Rev. Samuel Tyndale Wilson, D.D Chairmen of Faculty 1866 Rev. Thomas Jefferson Lamar, M.A 1869 1887. . . . Rev. Edgar Alonzo Elmore, D.D 1888 1888. . . . Rev. James Elcana Rogers, D.D 1889 Deans 1891 Rev. Samuel Tyndale Wilson, D.D 1901 1905 Rev. Elmer Briton Waller, M.A 1913 1914. . . . Prof. Jasper Converse Barnes, Ph.D 1819 1857 186s 1869 1890 1906 Chairmen of the Directors .Rev. Isaac Anderson, D.D 1857 .Rev. John J. Robinson, D.D 1861 .Rev. Thomas Jefferson Lamar, M.A 1869 . Rev. Peter Mason Bartlett, D.D 1887 .Rev. William Harris Lyle, D.D 1905 .Rev. Edgar Alonzo Elmore, D.D 249 25© A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE Recorders of the Directors Entered Vacated Office Office 1824 Rev. Robert Hardin, D.D 1826. ...Rev. William Eagleton, D.D 1827. . . .Samuel Pride, M.D 1861 1865.... Rev. Ralph Erskine Tedford 1876 1876 Rev. Gideon Stebbins White Crawford 1891 1891 Major Benjamin Cunningham 1914 1914 Frederick Lowry Proffitt 1900 1903 1891 1900 1897 1913 1897 1891 1900 1891 1897 1906 1910 Executive Committee of the Directors . Rev. John McKnitt Alexander .Hon. Thomas Nelson Brown .Major Benjamin Cunningham 1900 . Rev. William Robert Dawson, D.D . Rev. Edgar Alonzo Elmore, D.D 1900 .Hon. Moses Houston Gamble .Alexander Russell McBath, Esq 1900 .John Calvin McQung 1897 . Rev. James Humphreys McConnell 1903 . Hon. William Anderson McTeer . Col. John Beaman Minnis 1903 .Rev. John Morville Richmond, D.D 1910 .Prof. Elmer Briton Waller 1913 Treasurers 1819 James Berry, Esq 1833 1833. . . .Gen. William Wallace 1864 1865. ...John P. Hooke, Esq 1884 1884 Hon. William Anderson McTeer 1900 1900 Major Benjamin Cunningham 1914 1914 Frederick Lowry Proffitt Assistant Treasurers 1865. . . . Prof. Thomas Jefferson Lamar 1887 1887.... Prof. Gideon Stebbins White Crawford 1891 1891 Prof. Samuel Tyndale Wilson 1900 APPENDIX 351 II. POST-BELLUM TEACHERS I. PXISIDKNTS, DkANS, REGISTRARS, PRINCIPAL*, AND PRO- FESSORS Mrs. Jane Bancroft Smith Alexander, M.A., Instructor in French, German, and Latin, 1883- 1885; Latin and French, 1892-1893; French and German, 1904-1905; History, 1905-1908; English Language and Literature, 1908-1913; Professor of English Literature, 1913- Jasper Converse Barnes, Ph.D., Principal of the Prepara- tory Department, and Professor of the Science and Art of Teaching, 1892-1903; Principal, and Professor of Psychology and Political Science, 1903-1904; Professor of Psychology and Political Science, 1904- ; Dean, 191 3- Rev. Alexander Bartlett, M.A., Professor of the Latin Lan- guage and Literature, 1867-1883. Died, November 19, 1883. Rev. Peter Mason Bartlett, D.D., LL.D., President, and Professor of Mental and Moral Science, 1869- 1887. Henry Jewell Bassett, M.A., Associate Professor of Latin, 1905-1906; Professor of Latin, 1906- ; Secretary of the Faculty, 1913- ; absent on leave in Italy, 1915-1916. Rev. James Bassett, M.A., Professor of English Literature, 1890-1891. Henry C. Biddle, Ph.D., Professor of Chemistry, 1899-1901 ; absent on leave, 1900- 1901. Rev. Samuel Ward Boardman, D.D., LL.D., President, and Professor of Mental and Moral Science, 1889-1901 ; Emeritus Professor of Mental and Moral Science, 1901- Mary Ellen Caldwell, B.A., Instructor in Latin and Mathe- matics, 1891-1892; Matron, 1893-1897; 1904- ; Dean of Women, 1913- ; Field Scholarship Secretary, 1916- Arthur Wallace Calhoun, M.A., Professor of Social Science, 1913-1914; Professor of Social Science and Greek, 1914-1915. William A. Cate, M.S., Principal of the Normal Depart- ment, 1879-1880; Professor of the Science and Art of Teach- ing, 1880-1888; Professor of the Natural Sciences, and of the Science and Art of Teaching, 1888-1892. 252 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE Rev. Gideon Stebbins White Crawford, M.A., Instructor in Languages and Mathematics, 1874-1875; Professor of Mathe- matics, 1875-1891; Registrar, 1888-1891. Died, February 3, 1891. Major Benjamin Cunningham, Registrar, 1900-1907. Edmund Wayne Davis, M. A., Professor of Greek, 1915- Horace Lee Ellis, M.A., Instructor in English, 1898-1900; Principal of the Preparatory Department, and Professor of Education, 1914- Edgar Alonzo Elmore, M.A., Professor of the Latin Lan- guage and Literature, 1884- 1887; Chairman of the Faculty, Professor of the Latin Language, and Instructor in Mental and Moral Science, 1887-1888. George S. Fisher, Ph.D., Professor of the Natural Sciences, 1892- 1899. William Ruthven Flint, Ph.D., Professor of Chemistry and Physics, 1910-1911. Isaac Allison Gaines, M.A., Acting Professor of the Eng- lish Language and Literature, 1898-1899. Hon. Moses Houston Gamble, M.A., Instructor in English Branches, 1903-1906; Principal of the Preparatory Depart- ment, 1906-1908. Rev. Qinton Hancock Gillingham, M.A., Registrar, 1907- ; Professor of Old Testament History and Literature, 1907-1911; Acting Principal of the Preparatory Department, 1910-1911; Professor of the English Bible, and Head of the Bible Training Department, 191 1- Albert Franklin Gilman, B.S., M.A., Professor of Chemis- try and Physics, 1900- 1906. Rev. Herman A. Goff, M.A., Instructor in Greek and Eng- lish, 1891-1893; Professor of Elocution and Modern Lan- guages, 1893-1898; Professor in the Department of Mathe- matics, Registrar, and Librarian, 1898- 1900. Susan Allen Green, M.A., Professor of Biology and Geology, 1906-1912; Professor of Biology, 1912- Margaret Eliza Henry, B.A., Instructor in English and Ger- APPENDIX 253 man, 1890-1894; Instructor in English Branches, 1894-1915; Scholarship Secretary, 1903- 1916. Died, July 7, 1916. Rev. Charles Kimball Hoyt, D.D., Professor of the Eng- lish Language, Spring of 191S- Rev. Th^^ W. Hughes, M.A., Professor of Mathematics, 1867-1869. ^^% Mary Eliiabeth Kennedy, M.A., Professor of Biology and Geology, 1902- 1906. George Alan Knapp, M.A., Professor of Mathematics and Physics, 1914- Rev. Thomas Jefferson Lamar, M.A., Professor of Sacred Literature, 1857-1866; Professor of Languages, 1866-1867; Professor of the Greek Language and Literature, and of Sacred Literature, 1867-1887. Died, March 20, 1887. Henrietta Mills Lord, M.A., Instructor in French and Ger- man, 1900-1904; absent on leave in Germany, 1904-1905; Pro- fessor of French and German, 1905- 1909. Rev. Hubert Samuel Lyle, M.A., Professor of New Testa- ment History and Literature, 1907-1911. Phoebus Wood Lyon, Ph.D., Professor of Rhetoric, Logic, and English Literature, 1905-1914. Died, November 13, 1914. Francis Mitchell McClenahan, M.A., Professor of Chemis- try and Physics, 1906-1910, 1911-1912; Professor of Chemis- try and Geology, 1912- . Absent on leave, 1916-1917. Rev. Charles Marston, M.A., Instructor in the English Lan- guage and Literature, 1895-1896; Professor of English Litera- ture, 1901-1905; Librarian, 1904-1905. Charles Hodge Mathes, M.A., Professor of Greek and His- tory, 1903-1905; Professor of Greek, 1905-1911. Alfred Stuart Myers, M.A., Professor of Rhetoric and Pub- lic Speaking, 1915-1916. Rev. John Grant Newman, M.A., Professor of the Latin Language and Literature, 1893-1903. John Wesley Perkins, M.A., Professor of German and French, 1914-1916. Frederick Lowry Proffitt, B.A., Instructor in Mathematics and Physics, 1908-1911; Principal of the Preparatory Depart- 254 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE ment, and Professor of Education, 1911-1914. Resigned, January 14, 1914, to accept Treasurership. Paul Rodney Radcliffe, B.A., Principal of the Preparatory Department, 1908-1910. Gaines Sawtell Roberts, M.A., Instructor in Latin, 1888- 1891 ; Professor of the Latin Language and Literature, 1891- 1892. Died, July 14, 1892. Rev. James Elcana Rogers, Ph.D., Tutor, 1878-1879; Pro- fessor of the Natural Sciences, and of the French and Ger- man Languages, 1887-1888; Chairman of the Faculty, and Professor of the Ancient and Modern Languages, 1888- 1889, Herman Ferdinand Schnirel, B.A., Instructor in German and French, 1909-1910; Professor of German and French, 1910-1912. Rev. Solomon Zook Sharp, M.A., Professor of German, and in charge of the Normal Department, 1875-1878. James Houston McCallon Sherrill, M.A., Instructor in Greek, 1888-1891 ; Professor of the Greek Language and Lit- erature, 1892-1902. Edgar Howard Sturtevant, Ph.D., Professor of Greek, 1902- 1903. Rev. Elmer Briton Waller, M.A., Professor of Mathe- matics, 1891-1913; Secretary of the Faculty, 1892-1913; Dean, 1905-1913. Died, March 29, 1913. Rev. Samuel Tyndale Wilson, D.D., Professor of the Eng- lish Language and Literature, and of the Spanish Language, 1884-1915; Librarian, 1885-1898; Registrar, 1891-1898; Dean, 1891-1901; President, 1901- 2. Associate Professors Amanda Laughlin Andrews, Ph.B., French and German, 1897-1900; absent on leave in Germany, 1 900-1 901 ; fall term of 1901. Cora Cecilia Bartlett, B.A., Greek and Mathematics, 1880- 1882. Henri G. Behoteguy, B.A., French and German, 1885-1887. APPENDIX 255 Robert Bartlett Elmore, B.A., Latin, 1903-1905. Mary Lettie Evans, B.A., Instructor in Greek and Latin, 1883-1887; Associate Professor of Greek, 1887-1888. William Langel Johnson, Ph.B., Social Science and History, 1915- Annabel Person, B.A., Greek, 1911-1914. Mary Emma Renich, M.A., Physics and Mathematics, 1912- 1914. John Woodside Ritchie, B.A., Biology, 1899- 1901. Edward George Seel, B.A., German and French, 1913-1914. Rev. John Silsby, M.A., Mathematics, 1876- 1878. 3. Instructors Annie E. Alden, M.A., French and Botany, 1872-1873. Eva Alexander, B.A., English and Bible, 1914-1915. Mary Victoria Alexander, B.A., English and Bible, 1908- ; absent on leave in Columbia University, 1914-1915. Thomas Theron Alexander, B.A., Tutor, 1873-1874. Nageeb Joseph Arbeely, French, 1879- 1882. Lula K. Armstrong, M.A., Preparatory Branches, 1905-1908. Jennie M. Badgley, French and Latin, 1873- 1875. Louise Marie Barnes, English Branches, 1902-1903. Mary Eliza Bartlett, B.A., French and English, 1877-1878; and 1881-1882. Nellie Eugenia Bartlett, B.A., English, 1878-1879. Hon. David Joseph Brittain, B.A,, History, 1910- Mabel Broady, B.A., English, 1913-1915. Nancy Lee Broady, B.A., English, 1912-1913. Mary Gaines Carnahan, B.A., Spanish, 1908-1909. Alice Isabella Clemens, B.A., English, 1909- Mary E. Clute, English, 1874-1877. William Robert Dawson, B.A., Greek, Latin, and English, 1886-1887. Mme. Adele Marie Dennee, Brevet Superieur, The Sor- bonne, German and French, 1914- Anna DeVries, Ph.B., German and French, 1911-1914. 256 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE Calvin Alexander Duncan, B.A., Tutor, 1871-1873. Elected Professor of Greek in 1887, but declined the appointment. Carl Hopkins Elmore, B.A., Preparatory Branches, 1898- 1899. Anna Ethel Fanson, B.A., Latin, 1913- Frank Marion Gill, Preparatory Branches, 1893- 1906. Alice Armitage Gillingham, Assistant Scholarship Secretary, 1910-1916; Corresponding Scholarship Secretary, 1916- Arta Hope, Preparatory Branches, 1905-1906. Joseph Franklin Iddins, Supt. P. I., English, 1900-1903. Almira Elizabeth Jewell, B.A., Mathematics, 1911-1912; Latin, 1912-1915; Mathematics, 1915- Robert Calison Jones, B.A., Preparatory Branches, 1895- 1896. Esther Mary Kell, B.A., Mathematics, 1913-1914. Helen M. Lord, English, 1879-1880; 1882-1883; 1887-1894. Harvey Boyd McCall, B.A., Preparatory Branches, 1906- 1909. Gideon Stebbins White McCampbell, B.A., Latin and Mathematics, 1883- 1884. Nellie Pearl McCampbell, B.A., Latin, 1910- James McDonald, B.A., Latin, 1890-1891. Florence Keokee McManigal, B.A., English, 1908-1909. Died, October 16, 1909. Eula Anna Magill, B.A., Preparatory Branches, 1909-1910. Olga Alexandra Marshall, B.A., Latin, 1912-1913; Secretary to the Treasurer and the Registrar, 1912-1914; Assistant Reg- istrar, 1914- Mayme Rebecca Maxey, B.A., Biology, 1914-195. George Winfield Middleton, B.A., Physics and Mathematics, 1911-1912. Jonathan Houston Newman, B.A., English Branches, 1901- 1902. Margaret Cecelia Peeler, Ph.B., History, 1914-1915. Ida Emma Schnirel, BA., German and French, 1910-1911. Mrs. Martha Wellman Schnirel, German, 1909-1910. John Alfred Silsby, Mathematics, 1882-1883. APPENDIX 257 Kate S. Slack, Bookkeeping and History, 1871-1873. Virginia Estelle Snodgrass, B.A., Latin, 1908-1913. Hugh Cowan Souder, B.A., Mathematics and Bookkeeping, 1906- 1908. Mrs. Mary L. Taylor, Assistant Teacher, 1870-1871. Edgar Roy Walker, B.A., Mathematics, 1909-1915; Mathe- matics and Physics, 1915- Robert Pierce Walker, B.A., Preparatory Branches, 1896- 1898; 1899-1902. Emma Gilchrist Waller, B.A., English and History, 1909- 1910. John LeRoy Warfel, Penmanship, Bookkeeping, and Type- writing, 1889-1895; 1896-1898. 4. Department of Music Charles McCallon Alexander, Vocal and Band Music, 1888- 1891. Mrs. Florence A. Bartlett, Piano, Organ, Guitar, and Voice, 1872-1887. Mary Barnett Boggs, Piano, 1913-1915. Martha Elizabeth Caldwell, Violin, 1915-1916. Gwendolyn Qark, Mus. B., Piano, Voice, and Theory, 1900 1901. Agnes Brown Clemens, B.L., Piano and Organ, 1890-1897. Emma Churchill Columbia, Piano, Theory, and Mandolin, 1902- 1905. Edna Elizabeth Dawson, B.A., Piano, 1913- Laura Belle Hale, Piano and Harmony, 1912-1914; Piano and Harmony, and Head of the Department of Music, 1914- Rev. Edwin William Hall, Chorister, and Instructor in Vocal and Band Music, 1905-1914; with Bible, 1909-1912. Charles WiUiam Henry, B.A., Band Music, 1903-1904. Flora Henry, B.L., Piano and Organ, 1893-1895. Louise Stevens Hershey, Voice, 1904-1905. Emma C. Hill, Piano, Organ, and Voice, 1871-1872. 258 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE Joan McDougall, Piano, 1905-1912. Helen lanthe Minnis, B.L., Piano, Voice, and Theory, 1901-1902. Inez Monfort, Voice and Piano, 1906-1907; Voice, History of Music, and Theory, 1907- 1914. Lena Frances Pardue, Piano, 1916- Leila M. Perine, Mus.B., Piano and Organ, 1897-1899. Mary Kate Rankin, B.A., Piano, 1913- Zanna Staater, Voice, 1914- Margaret Sutton Sugg, Piano, 1915-1916. Mrs. Mary E. Tedford, Piano, Organ, and Guitar, 1887-1899. Anice Whitney, Mus.B., Piano and Organ, 1899- 1900. Amy Catherine Wilson, M.E.L., Piano, Voice, and Organ, 1902-1906. 5. Department of Expression Irene Bewley, 1906-1907. Hope Buxton, 1916- Mrs. Nancy Gardner Gillingham, B.A., 1907-1908. Mrs. Agnes Geneva Oilman, B.A., 1901-1904. Wanda Cozine Keller, 1911-1912. Mae Susong, B.A., 1903-1904. Mrs. Nita Eckles West, B.A., B.O., Expression, 1899-1901; 1904-1912; 1914-1915; Head of the Department of Expres- sion and Public Speaking, 1915- Edna Edith Zimmerman, Ph.B., 1912-1914; (Mrs. E. E. Z. Walker) 1915-1916. 6. Department of Art Rev. Thomas Campbell, M.A., Painting and Drawing, 1893- 1894; 1902-1914. Died, March 7, 1914. John Collins, Penmanship, Drawing, and French, 1873- 1876. Grace M. Sawyer, Painting and Drawing, 1890-1891. Anna Belle Smith, Painting and Drawing, 1914-1915; Head of the Department of Art, 1915- APPENDIX 259 7. Department of Home Economics Blaine Irving Lewis, Tailoring, 1914- Helena Mabel Ryland, B.A., B.S., Head of the Department of Home Economics, 1913- Mae Darthula Smith, 1915-1916. Naomi Elizabeth Trent, 1916- 81 Department op Agriculture Arthur Samuel Kiefer, B.S. in Agriculture and Horticul- ture, 1916- 0. Matrons and Proctors Mary Ellen Caldwell, BA., 1893-1897; 1904- Mrs. Jessie R. Qemmons, 1900-1901. Mrs. Nellie Bartlett Cort, B.A., 1901-1904. Sarah Jane Gamble, 1914-1915. Margaret Eliza Henry, 1890- 1893. Mrs. Anna M. Hull, 1897-1898. Emma Agnes Jackson, 191 5- Hortense Mary Kingsbury, 1896-1899. Nellie Pearl McCampbell, B.A., 1912-1914; 1916- Eula Erskine McCurry, 1915- Rev. Arno Moore, 1910- Mrs. Mary E. Pierce, 1887- 1890. Frederick Lowry Proffitt, B.A., 1910-1912. Mrs. Helen H. Sanford, 1898-1900. Phronia Small, 1894-1895. Elfleda Carter Smith, 1903- 1904. Mrs. Lida Pryor Snodgrass, 1907- 191 j. Edgar Roy Walker, B.A., 1910- 10. Librarians Rev. Herman A. Goff, MA., 1896-1900. Rev. Charles Marston, MA., 1904-1905. 26o A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE Elfleda Carter Smith, 1903- 1904. Mrs. Lida Pryor Snodgrass, 1905- Rev. Samuel Tyndale Wilson, D.D., 1885-1898. 11. Physical Directors Lester Everett Bond, 1911-1915. Thomas Guthrie Brown, B.A. (and Mathematics), 1902- 1905. William Dean Chadwick, B.A. (and Mathematics), 1905- 1906. Frank Warren Qeeland, 1901-1902. Alice Isabella Clemens, 1907-1908. Elinor Crum, 1916- Reid Stuart Dickson, B.A. (and Latin), 1906-1908. Viola Ruth Dudley, 1916- Homer Byron Prater, 1915- Arthur Samuel Kiefer, B.S., 191S- Nellie Maud McMurray, 1909-1910. Arda Nita Martin, 1915-1916. Arthur Evan Mitchell, B.A., 1910-1911. William Ernest Scott, Ph.B. (and English), 1904-1905. Zechariah Jay Stanley, B.A. (and History), 1914-1915. Catherine Sherbrooke Sugg, 1915-1916. Homer George Weisbecker, 1915- George Edmund Williams, 1912-1914. Nellie Mae Wilson, 1914-1915. 12. Commandants Clinton Hancock Gillingham, 1904- 1905. Percy Hamilton Johnson, 1906-1908. Charles Hodge Mathes, M.A., 1905-1906. Capt. Joseph Benjamin Pate, 1902-1904. 13. Hospital Mrs. William P. Barnhill, Matron, 1909-1913. Isabel Margaret MacLachlan, R.N., Nurse, 1913-1915. APPENDIX 261 Mrs. Bessie Moore, Matron, 1914-1916. Henri Frances Postlethwaite, R.N., Nurse, 1915- 14. Cooperative Boarding Club Sarah Frances Coulter, Assistant Manager, 1906-1907 ; Man- ager, 1907- Emmie Laura Darby, Assistant Manager, 1911-1913. Lulu Graham Darby, Assistant Manager, 1913- Hortense Mary Kingsbury, Assistant Manager, 1895-1911. Lura Jane Lyle, B.L., Assistant Manager, 1914-1915. Mrs. Harmonia Virginia Magill, Manager, 1902-1906. Robert McCorkle Magill, Bookkeeper, 1910-1914. Died, March 25, 1914. Edgar Roy Walker, B.A., Secretary-Treasurer, 1914- Mrs. Mary Allen Wilson, First Manager, 1892-1902; 1906- 1907. Died, January 17, 1907. IIL THE FEBRUARY MEETINGS Date Leader Decisions 1877 1878 1879 1880 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1889 1890 1891 1892 . Rev. Nathan Bachman, D.D No record . Rev. Nathan Bachman, D.D No record . Rev. Donald McDonald 41 .Rev. Donald McDonald No record . Rev. Nathan Bachman, D.D No record . Rev. Nathan Bachman, D.D 50 . Rev. John M. Davies, D.D No record .Rev. William J. Trimble, D.D No record . Rev. Edgar A. Elmore No record .Rev. Samuel W. Boardman, D.D 50 .Rev. Samuel W. Boardman, D.D No record .No meeting on account of sickness. .Rev. Edgar A. Elmore, D.D 72 262 A CENTURY OF MARYVILLE COLLEGE Date Leader Decisions 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900, 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 191S 1916 ...Rev. Nathan Bachman, D.D 59 . . . Rev. William J. Trimble, D.D 60 . . . Rev. Edgar A. Elmore, D.D 31 ..Rev. Nathan Bachman, D.D No record . . Rev. Donald McDonald 41 , . . Rev. William J. Trimble, D.D 28 . . Rev. Solomon C. Dickey, D.D No record , . .Rev. Edgar A. Elmore, D.D 42 . . Rev. William R. Dawson and the Synodical Quartet 35 . . Rev. William J. Trimble, D.D 12 . .Rev. Nathan Bachman, D.D 54 . .Rev. Walter A. Holcomb 80 . .Rev. Edgar A. Elmore, D.D 40 , . .Rev. E. A. Cameron 87 . .Rev. Nathan Bachman, D.D 85 . . Rev. William B. Holmes, D.D 74 . . Rev. Joseph P. Calhoun, D.D 74 . . Rev. William T. Rodgers, D.D 76 . .Rev. Edgar A. Elmore, D.D 70 . . Rev. William Thaw Bartlett 113 , . . Rev. Joseph M. Broady 90 ..Revs. George C. Mahy, D.D., and Joseph Wilson Cochran, D.D 60 ..Rev. Edgar A. Elmore, D.D 89 ..Rev. William Thaw Bartlett 8i INDEX OF NAMES AND PLACES Note. — ^For other topics see the Table of Contents. For the lists of offlolals, poet-bellnm teachers, and leaders of the February Meetings, see the Appendix. A. B. C. F. M.. 31 Adams. Carson W., 145. 219 Adelphic Mirror, 201 Adelphlc Union Literary Society, 200. 201 Agricultural Department, 173, 217, 243, 244 259 Alexander: Chas. M., 257; T. T., 133. 255 Alpha Sigma Literary Society. 200 Alumni Association. 65. 141, 207 Anderson Burial Ground. 18, 19 Anderson: Flora. 65. 66; Isaac, Sr.. 13; James, 15; James A., vll; Margaret, 15; Mary, 15: Nancy McCampbell, 13, 14, 17, 18: Robert M., 14. 15; Sam- uel, 14. 15; WUllam, 13. 14, 17, 18; Wmiam E., 14, 15 Anderson HaU. 127. 131, 132, 133. 146. 152, 153. 200 Anderson, Isaac, v. Part I, Chapters II- X, 119, 121. 123. 165. 168. 181. 182. 226. 227. 229. 231. 246. 247, 249 Andover Seminary. 39, 42, 150 Angler Fund. 218 Anlml Cultus Literary Society, 200 Art Department, 174, 258 Athenian Literary Society, 200 Athletic Association. 204, 205 Atlanta ConstUution, 108 Bachman. Nathan. 218. 231. 232. 261, 262 Balnonlan Llter^y Society, 200 Balch. Hezeklah. 10 Baldwin Hall. 131. 132. 13S. 153, 154, 170 214 222 Baldwin, John C, 126, 132 Barnes. Jasper C, 149. 249, 251 Bartlett: Alexander, 125, 127, 130, 141, 251; Mary, 196, 255 Bartlett Hall, 155, 156, 157, 175, 176, 202 Bartlett. P. Mason, 125, 128. 129. 130. 149, 249, 251 Beard. Geo. P., 209 Beecher: John W.. 49, 69, 60; Willis J., 49 Berry, James. 91. 250 Beth-Hacma Literary Society, 98, 199 B«th-Hacma ve Berlth Literary Society, 99, 100. aoo Bible Trahilng Department, 149, 170. 171, 172. 173. 230 Blackburn: Gideon, 10, 20, 20, 30. 44. 104; James H., 30 Blount College. 20 Blount County. 26. 88. 135, 177, 178. 236. 243 Boardlng-Houses. 58. 96. 97. 126. 131.214 Boardman Annex. 153 Boardman. Samuel W., 150. 151. 153, 171. 249. 251. 261 Boston Recorder, 95 Brick CoUege, 99, 100. 117. 122. 126 Brick Seminary. 95, 96, 97, 117 Brown: Ella, 195; Emma. 195; Samuel. 17. 21; Thomas. 54. 87. 88. 90 Brown House, Little, 46, 95 CaldweU: Isaac N.. 81; John M.. 81. 08 Carnegie. Andrew, 165, 166 Carnegie Hall, 170 Carnegie Hall, New, 176, 177. 178 Carrick, Samuel, 10, 12, 20 Gates: Charles T., Sr., 59; Martha, 195; Minerva, 195; Reuben L., Sr., 59 Centennial Forward Fimd, 173. 176. 178. 179, 220 Chairmen of Directors, 249 Chairmen of Faculty, 149, 150. 240 Chamber of Commerce, 177 Cherokees. 44. 48. 67, 75, 88 ChUJumean, 201 Clubs and Organizations, 206, 207 Coffin. Charles, 10, 36. 44, 71 College Days, 155 Commandants. 260 Converse. John H.. 166 Cooperative Boarding Club. 149, 158. 167, 170, 198, 214, 215, 216, 221, 261 Country-Life Movement. 22, 23 Craig, John S.. 49. 50. 57. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 87, 98, 106. 109. 182 Craighead. James G., 219 Crawford. G. S. W.. 122, 130. 131. 167. 168. 250. 252 Cunningham. BenJ.. 169, 250. 262 D. A. R.. 220 Deans, 159, 167, 249, 251 Directors. 59. 60, 64, 70, 73, 75, 99, 126. 131. 139. 141. 146. 162. 177. 192. 240. 260 263 264 INDEX OF NAMES AND PLACES Doak, Samuel, 10, 12 Dodge: WiUiam E.. 135. 140. 141. 142, 143: Mrs. WilUam E., 146 Dominie, 12, 15 Duncan, Calvin A., 122, 169, 256 Eagleton: Elijah M., 49, 88; William, 29. 30, 44. 71, 73. 74. 75, 92, 182, 250 East Tennessee, 18, 19, 25, 48. 70, 88, 120, 134, 180, 194, 221. 236 East Tennessee College, 44 East Tennessee Missionary Society. 32 Edwards of Virginia, 16, 17 Elmore, Edgar A., 133, 149, 150, 232, 249, 250, 252, 261. 262 Emmons, Dr., 58 Eraklne, George M., 30 Eusebla Churcli, 20, 77 Executive Committee, 150, 250 Expression Department, 149, 165, 174, 258 Faculty, 47, 48, Part I. Chapter VII, 85, 86, 92, 93, 124, 125, 128, 129, 130, 131, 149, 150, 180, Part II, Chapter VI, 229, 230, 249, 251-261 Farm, College, 59. 96, 97, 243, 244 Fayerweather Annex, 152, 153, 164 Fayerweather Bequest, 148, 151, 152, 153, 154, 159, 160. 161, 171. 179, 184. 185, 196 Fayerweather, Daniel B., 151 Fayerweather Science Hall, 154, 172, 175 February Meetings, 129, 150, 204. 231, 232, 233, 234, 235, 261. 262 Federal Troops, 96, 117 Forward Fund, 165. 166. 167. 170, 178, 184, 185 Frame College. 97, 98, 99 Gallaher, James, 39, 41, 44 General Assembly, 37, 38. 88 General Education Board. 166, 179, 180 Gillespie, James, 62, 79, 100, 101 Gilllngham, C. H., vU, 171, 252, 260 Goddard: J. A., 122; Monroe, 133 Graham, WUliam, 16 Grassy Valley, 18. 19, 20, 21. 22. 27. 94 Greeneville College, 44 HaU, Edwin W., 209, 257 Hardin, Robert, 36. 44. 46. 73. 74, 104. 105, 182. 250 Harris, Samuel, 21 Harvard CoUege, 33, 34, 74 Hastings, T. S., 141 Henderson, Robert, 44 Henry: Margaret E., 161, 162, 163, 167, 217, 219, 221, 231. 252, 253. 259; Pat- rick, 163: Wm. H., 83, 102 Henry Memorial, Margaret E.. 220 Highland Echo, 201 HUla Library. 217. 218 Hitchcock, Roswell D., 161 HolUe. N. H.. 36. 49 Home Economics Department. 172. 173. 175, 196. 243, 259 Hooke, John P., 168, 250 Hospital Officials, 260. 261 Houston, Sam, 27, 28 Hoyt: Ard, 75; Darius, 75. 182. 226 Instructors. 255-257 Jackson. Grcn. Andrew, 87 Jones. Rev. J. S., 177 Kendall, Henry, 141 Knox County, 18, 26, 77. 82 Knox, John, 10. 11, 32 KnoxvUle Register, 33 Lamar Endowment, Part II. Chapter III, 149, 159, 160, 178, 184. 185, 196 Lamar Hospital, Ralph Max, 147. 170. 222, 260, 261 Lamar Library, 146, 147, 259, 260 Lamar: Thomas J., v, 27, 79, 80, 89, 90. 96, 101. 102, 107, 109, Part II, Chap- ters I-III, 168, 182, 183. 249. 260. 253; Mrs. Martha A., vll. 121, 147, 222 Lane Seminary, 130, 159 Lebanon-in-the-Forkfl, 20. 27 Lexington Presbytery. 17. 124 Liberty Hall Academy. 11. 16, 16, 181 Librarians. 259, 260 Log CoUege, 21, 22, 94 Londonderry, 13, 14, 122. 194 Lord, Helen M.. 203, 266 Lyle: Hubert S., 171, 253; Wm. H., 160, 249 McCahan. Wm. J., Sr., 167 McCampbell: Bennet, 15; Flora, 65. 66; James, 13; John, 21, 25, 41. 44. 46, 105; Mary Shannon, 13, 14; Nancy. 13, 14; William, 15; William A., 49, 88 McCormlck, Mrs. Nettie F., 166 MacCracken: H. M., 76; Samuel, 76. 182 McCully. John, 59 McGhee. Alexander, 58 McGinley. Nannie, 195 McTeer, W. A., vll, 168, 169. 260 Mann, Horace. 32 / Manual Labor. 59, 60, 61, 217 Manual Training Department, 244 Martin, John C. 166, 171, 172 Maryvllle. 20, 26. 27, 40, 41. 44, 68, 97. 99, 103, 104. 106, 177, 194, 196, 236 Marjrville Academy, 27, 29, 94 Maryville College Monthly, 168. 201 Maryvllle Female Institute, 77 Maryville Intelligencer, 75 MaryHlle Student, 201 Mather, Cotton. 34 Matrons, 259 Maynard, Horace, 119 Meek, Daniel, 80 Memorial HaU. 131, 132, 133. 134, 201. 214 INDEX OF NAMES AND PLACES 26s Memoir of Dr. Isaac Anderson, 79 MlnJsterial Association, 204 Mlnnls: John B., 81, 250; WUllam, 49, 105, 106 Mississippi Presbytery, 42 Missouri Presbytery, 42 Morris, Edward D., 141 Mountain Workers' Conference, 244 Music Department, 164, 173, 174, 257, 258 Nelson: David, 44; Henry A., 141; Thos. H..44 New Providence Church (Tenn.). 26, 63, 72, 76, 77, 81, 82, 95, 100, 117, 231 New Providence Church (Va.). 12, 16 Patrick, HUary, 49 Patton, John E., 100 Pearson, Abel. 29, 44, 105 Pearsons, Daniel K., 166, 170, 175 Pearsons Hall. 170, 174, 175, 200 Perlne, Miss Leila M.. 208, 258 Physical Directors, 260 Pope. Fielding. 76. 77, 78, 98, 182 Porter, James B., 202 Presbyterian Education Society, 60, 61, 62, 107 Presidents, 249 Princeton Seminary. 38. 39, 167. 181. 193 Principals, 251 Proctors, 259 Professors, 251-254 Professors, Associate, 254. 255 Proffltt, Fred. L., 250. 253, 254, 259 Ramsey. Samuel G., 12 Recommendations Committee, 223 Recorders of the Directors, 250 Registrars. 251 Reynolds, Gov., 21, 62 Ritchie, John W., 208. 255 Robbison, John J., 54. 62, 63, 65, 66, 79, 80. 81. 82, 83, 89, 90, 101. 102, 107. • 109. 112. 182, 249 i% Rockbridge ^County, Va., 11, 12, 13, 16. 18, 28, 65. 82, 181 ' Rogers. James E., 150, 249, 254 Sawtell. Ell N.. 36, 37, 49, 52. 59. 87, 97 Scholarship Committee, 219, 220 Scotch-Irish, 13. 18. 29. 65, 194. 195 Second Church, Knoxvllle. 72 Self-Help Work Fund, 216. 217, 224 Severance. Louis H., 166, 175 Shannons. 13 smiman. H. B., 166 Sllsby, John A., 201, 202. 256 Smith, Ell, 36 Smith Preserved, 140, 141, 144 Sophlrodelphlan Literary Society, 199 Southern Appalachians. 173, 187, 194, 197, 199, 206, 213, 224. 236, 241 Southern and Western Seminary. 40. 41, 42. 43, 45, 46, Part I, Chapters V-X. 181, 182, 193 South Hills. 101, 102 Southwest, Part I, Chapter I, 22, 36. 38. 39. 52, 71, 109, 173, 187, 193, 194 Stephenson, James W., 44 Stone Church. Old, 81, 100, 101 Student Volunteer Band, 204 Swimming Pool, 175, 176 Synod of Tennessee, 40, 41, 42, 45, 46, 51. 56. 57, 72, 73, 80, 88, 89, 99, 101. 102, 104, 106. 107, 119, 120, 131. 139, 192 Synod of Virginia, 42 Takahashl, Kin, 154. 155, 156, 157, 158. 175, 202, 204 Teachers' Department, 173 Tedford: C. E., 122; E. W., 122; J. P.. 122; Linda, 195; Ralph E., 121, 250 Thaw: William, 126, 135, 140, 142, 143. 146; Mrs. Mary C, 166 Theta Epsllon Literary Society, 200 Treasurers and Assistants, 250 Trimble, Wm. J., 232, 261, 262 Tuesday Evening Conference, 129, 230 Turner, Mrs. Julia M., 167 Union Academy, 21, 22, 23, 27, 94 Union Presbytery, 20, 21, 30, 32, 40. 41. 71 75 89 Union Seminary (N. Y.), 79. 124, 129. 130 Union Seminary (Va.), 42 University of Tennessee. 44, 79 Voorhees Chapel, Elizabeth R.. 163, 164, 165, 203 Voorhees: Ralph, 163, 164, 165; Mrs. Elizabeth R., 157, 163, 164. 165 Wallace: Jesse G., 75, 108; William, 91. 108. 250 Waller, Elmer B., 161, 167. 168. 201. 249. 250, 254 War of '12. 28, 29 War. Civil, vl, 83. 91, 96, 100, 102, 107. 108, 109. Ill, 112. 113, Part II, Chap- ter I, 135 Washington Academy, 16 Washington Church. 20, 27, 82 West Tennessee Presbytery, 42 Wheeler's Raid, 115. 116 White, Gideon S., 65, 70 Whitefleld, George. 25, 94 WUlard Memorial, 151, 222 WlUard: Sylvester. 141, 142, 144, 161; Mrs. Jane F., 146, 151 Wilson: Mrs. Mary A., 215, 261; Mary T., 195 WUson, Samuel T.. v, vi, 159, 169, 170, 191, 201, 202. 231, 249, 250. 254. 260 Y. M. C. A., 155, 175. 202. 203 Y. W. C. A.. 165. 203 YB 05573 IV1117584 HBS2V€ THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA UBRARY f^'WTjpnjayy*''"''?!