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Full text of "A century of population growth from the first census of the United States to the twelfth"

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A CENTURY OF 
POPULATIOiN GROWTH 



1790-1900 



DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AND LABOR 

BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 

S. N. D. NORTH, DIRECTOR 



A CENTURY OF 
POPULATION GROWTH 



FROM THE FIRST CENSUS OF 

THE UNITED STATES TO 

THE TWELFTH 

1790-1900 




WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1909 



^e"f LIBRARY 

n . UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA 

n^ SANTA BARBAIiA 



A5- 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 
Introduction 1 

1. POPULATION IN THE COLONIAL AND CONTINENTAL PERIODS 3 

Cen-sus procedure in colonial and continental periodH — Population 
prior to 1790 — Recent estimatee of early population — Population 
of cities — Changes in urban population, 1710-1900. 

II. THE UNITED STATES IN 1790 16 

Boundaries and area^Currency — Transportation — The postal serv- 
ice — Industries — Education — Newspapers and periodicals — Slav- 
ery — Indians. 

III. THE FIRST CENSUS OF THE UNITED STATES 42 

The First Census act — Debates in the Congress — Provisions of the act — 
Execution of the law — The enumeration — The returns — The enu- 
merators' schedules. 

IV. AREA AND TOTAL POPULATION 51 

Area — Population — Population by areas of enumeration — By states 
and territories — Density of population. 

V. POPULATION OF COUNTIES AND THEIR SUBDIVISIONS 60 

County areas made comparable — Population of minor civil divisions — 
Names of towns not returned separately at the First Census — Popu- 
lation of cities. 

VI. WHITE AND NEGRO POPULATION 80 

Sur\'ivors of 1790 — Whites and negroes in total population — In four 
principal cities — Comparison of increase in the United States and 
Europe — Increase by immigration — Natural increase — Of whites — 
Of negroes — Summary. 

VII. SEX AND AGE OF THE WHITE POPULATION 93 

Decrease in proportion of males — In proportion of each sex under 16 
years — Influence of immigration — Of modern sanitary science. 

VII 1 ANALYSIS OP THE FAMILY 96 

Average size of private famiUes — Slaveholding and nouslaveholding 
families — Proportion of children — Dwellings. 

IX. PROPORTION OF CHILDREN IN WHITE POPUL.\TION 103 

Ratio of white adults of self-supporting age to white children — Of 
while children to adult white females — Effect of changes in the 
proportion of children. 

X. SURNAMES OF THE WHITE POPULATION IN 1790 Ill 

Approximate number — Nomenclature — Preponderance of English 
and Scotch names — Unusual i'.n<l striking surnames — Distribution 
of surnames — (concentration of population under certain names — 
Absence of middle names. 

XI. NATIONALITY AS INDICATED BY NAMES OF HEADS OF FAMILIES REPORTED AT THE FIRST CENSUS. ... 116 

Nationality in states for which schedules exist — In those for which 
schedules are mi.ssing — Composition of population of typical 
counties in 1900— Slaveholding by nationality. 

XTI . INTERSTATE MIGRATION 125 

Analysis of population according to geographic division of residence 
and of birth — Decrease in contribution of original area to popula- 
tion of added area. 

(V) 



vi CONTENTS. 

Page. 

XIII. FOREIGN BORN POPULATION ■ ^^^ 

Proportiona contributed by original and added areas — Change in 
character of population — Small proportion of foreign born in South- 
ern states — Country of birth. 

XIV. STATISTICS OF SLAVES 1^2 

Number of slaves in United States — In original and added areas — 
Slaveholding families — Number of white persons directly or in- 
directly connected with slaveholding — Ratio of slaves to whites — 
Value of slaves. 

XV. OCCUPATIONS AND WEALTH 142 

Occupations — Of heads of families in Philadelphia and Southwark 
in 1790— In United States in 1850 and 1900— Approximate wealth 
in 1790— Industry and wealth, 1S50 and 1900. 

GENERAL TABLES. 
ENUMERATIONS OF POPULATION IN NORTH AMERICA PRIOR TO 1790. 

Page. 
Table 76. — A general account of the number of inhabitants of the several towns in the province of New Hampshire, as appears by 

the returns of the selectmen from each place in the year 1767 149 

Table 77. — Free and slave population of New Hampshire, by counties and towns: Census of 1773 150 

Table 78. — Return of the number of inhabitants in the several towns and places in New Hampshire, taken by order of the conven- 
tion, with the number of firearms, the powder, &c. : 1775 152 

Table 79. — Free and slave population of New Hampshire, by counties and towns: Census of 1786 154 

Table 80. — Male and female negro slave population of Massachusetts, by counties and towns: Census of 1754 156 

Table 81. — White, negro, Indian, and French neutral population of Massachusetts, by counties and towns: Census of 1764 158 

Table 82. — A list of the number of freemen and militia, with the servants, white and black, in the respective towns; as also the 

number of inhabitants in Her Majesty's colony of Rhode Island, <S;c., December the 5th, 1708 162 

Table 83. — White, negro, and Indian population of Rhode Island: 1748 162 

Table 84. — White, negro, and Indian population of the colony of Rhode Island, according to the official census of 1774 162 

Table 85. — Population of Rhode Island at different dates, from 1708 to 1860, inclusive, by counties and towTis 163 

Table 86. — 'U'hitc, negro, and Indian population of the colony of Connecticut, by counties and towns: Census of 1756 164 

Table 87. — "WTiite, negro, and Indian population of the colony of Connecticut, by counties and towns: Census of 1774 166 

Table 88.— Population of the colony of New York, by counties: 1G98 170 

Table 89. — Male and female population of the colony of New York, in certain age groups, by counties: 1703 170 

Table 90. — Names of masters of families in the city of New York, by wards, according to the enumeration made about the year 1703. 170 

Table 91. — White and slave population of New York, in certain age groups, by sex, according to the partial census of 1712 181 

Table 92. — 'White and negro population of the province of New York, distinguished as children and adults, by sex: 1723 181 

Table 93. — Male and female population of the province of New York, above and under 10 years of age, by color, for cities and coun- 
ties, November 2, 1731 181 

Table 94. — A list of the number of inhabitants, both whites and blacks of each species, within the province of New York, above 

and under the age of ten years, taken in the year 1737 182 

Table 95. — An account of the number of inhabitants of the province of New York, taken 4 June, 1746, by order of His Excellency 

Govemour Clinton 182 

Table 96. — An account of the number of inhabitants in the province of New York, taken 10th May, 1749, by order of His Excellency 

the Honourable Govemour Clinton 182 

Table 97. — General list of inhabitants in the province of New York, extracted from the returns of the sheriffs of the several counties, 

in pursuance of warrants to them, dated ICth Februarj-, 1756 183 

Table 98. — List of inhabitants in the several counties in the province of New York, taken in the year 1771 183 

Table 99. — White and slave population, and Indians taxed, in New York, in certain age groups, by sex: 1786 183 

Table 100. — An account of the inhabitants of the province of New Jersey, distinguishing their age, sex, and colour, taken in the 

year 1726 184 

Table 101. — White and slave population of New Jersey, above and under 16 years of age, by sex: 1737-38 184 

Table 102.— Population of New Jersey in 1737-38 and in 1745 , 184 

Table 103. — An account of the number of souls in the province of Maryland, in the year 1755 185 



CONTENTS. vii 

GENERAL TABLES DERIVED FROM THE FIRST AND SUBSEQUENT CENSUSES: 1790-1900. 

I "age. 

Table 101. — Population as reported at the First Census, by counties and minor civil divisions: 1790 188 

Table 105. — White and colored population of each county reported in 1790, compared with that of the same area in 1900, together 

with the number of colored per 1,000 whites 201 

Table 106.— \\'hite population, classified by sex and age, of each state and territory reported in 1790, compared with that of the same 

area in 1900, with per cent of increase 208 

Table 107. — White population, clas,sified by spx and age, of each of the counties reported in 1790, compared with that of the same 

area in 1900, with per cent of increase 210 

Table 108. — White and colored poi)u!ation of the area covered by the enumeration of 1790, and of the added area in 1820, 1850, 1880, 

and 1900, by etatc-^ and torritorios 222 

Table 109. — Families, rlassifiod by number of members, by counties: 1790 224 

Table 110. — Foreign bom population of continental United States, and of the area covered by the enumeration of 1790, by countr>' 

of birth: 1850 to 1900 226 

Table 111. — Nomenclature, dealing with names represented by at least 100 white persons, by states and territories, at the First 

Census: 1790 227 

'Rtble 112. — White population, classified according to nationality as indicated by names of heads of families, by counties: 1790. . 271 
Table 113. — Number of white families, slaveholding and nonslaveholding, classified according to nationality as indicated by name 

of head, together with the number of white persons and of xlavcs reported for such families, by states and territories: 

1790 274 

Table 114. — Number of families reported at the First Census, classified as slaveholding and nonslaveholding, white, and free colored, 

together with the total and average number of slaves, by counties and minor ci\nl divisions: 1790 276 

Tstble 115. — Slaveholding families, classified according to number of slaves held, by counties and minor civil divisions: 1790 292 



MAPS, DIAGRAMS, AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Page. 

A new map of North America Bhowing all the new discoveries: 1797 Frontispiece. 

Map of Boston, with its environs facing. . 8 

Map of New Yurk I , with the adjacent rock and other remarkable parts of Hell-Gate facing. . 10 

Map showing plan of the city of New York facing. . 12 

Map showing jilan of the city and suburbs of Philadelphia facing. . 14 

Map of the northern part of the United States of America facing. . 16 

Maj) showing inhabited area in United States in 1790 18 

Map of the southern parts of the United States facing. . 20 

Map showing post offices in the United States: 1790 '■ 24 

Map showing location of Indian tribes: 1790 38 

Map showing changes in area for one hundred and ten years 52, 53 

Map of states showing density, in 1900, less than average for United States in 1790 58 

Map showing changes in county lines: 1790 and 1900 61-70 

Map of counties of unchanged area, in area enumerated in 1790, which had less population in 1900 than at some previous census 

since 1850 72 

Majis showing distribution of different nationalities in 1790, bj^ states 122 

Map showing states holding slaves: 1790 132 

Diagram 1 . — Population of the principal cities of the United States before 1790 12 

Diagram 2. — Per cent of total population of United States in cities of 8,000 population and over 14 

Diagram 3. — Per cent of increase in population by decades from 1650 to 1900 57 

Diagram 4. — Increase in density in original and added area: 1790 to 1900 59 

Diagram 5. — Increase of total population and of white and negro population: 1790 to 1900 81 

Diagram 6. — White and colored in the total population of the original and added area 83 

Diagram 7. — Comparison in area of cities 84 

Diagram 8, — Change in average size of families: 1790 to 1900 97 

Diagram 9. — Ratio of white adults of self-supporting age to white children under 16 years 104 

Diagram 10. — Proportion of total population formed by nationalities: 1790 117 

Diagram 11. — Distribution of population of states according to nationality: 1790 118 

Diagram 12. — Foreign bom population of area enumerated in 1790 and of added area: 1850 to 1900 129 

Schedules of the First and Second censuses facing. . 46 

(viii) 



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL. 



DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AND LABOR, 

Bureau of tue Census, 

Washington, D. C, April 15, 1909. 
Sir: 

In accordance with an act of Congress passed in 1903, the Department of the Interior transferred 
to the custody of the Director of the Census the records relating to the successive censuses of the United 
States. Among these records were the original schedules of the First Census for 11 of the 17 states and 
territories comprised in the United Stiitcs in 1790. 

The schedules of the First Census were prepared by underpaid assistant marshals, who furnished their 
own stationery, and naturally gave no thought to the permanent jjreservation of tlie inanuscript, which to 
them merely represented the fulfilling of their task. In consequence, after the lapse of more than a century, 
the remaining schedules of the First Census show evidences of serious deterioration. This has been increased 
by the wear and tear resulting from frequent use for reference. 

The states for which the schedules still exist are Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode 
Island, Coimecticut, New York, Pennsylvania, Jlaryland, North Carolina, and South Carolina. The states 
and territories for which the schedules are lacking are New Jersey, Dcliiwaro, A'irginia, Georgia, Kentucky, 
and the Southwest Territory (Tennessee). It is possible that some of the missing schedules were never in the 
custody of the Federal Government ; others doubtless were obtained during the fii-st half of the nineteenth century, 
and were either destroyed during the invasion of Washington by the British or in the Patent Office fire, which 
subsequcnth' occurred, or were lost or mislaid during a period when the Fetlcral records did not receive the 
intelligent care now accorded them. 

In order permanently to preserve the valuable but vanishing census records which still remain, relating to 
the fii-st year of constitutional government, and in resjjonse to urgent requests from many patriotic societies and 
public-spirited individuals. Congress authorized, in the sundry civil appropriation bill for the fiscal year 1907, 
the publication, by the Director of the Census, of the names of heads of families returned at the First Census. 
The Director was instructed to sell these publications at such price as in his opinion was just, and to report 
to Congress the proceeds. In accordance with the authority thus granted (and subsequently renewed), as the 
resources available for the printing requirements of the Bureau of the Census permitted, the Director of (he 
Census published, from time to time during the succeeding year and a half, a part, or volume, for each of 
the states for which the schedules are in existence. For Virginia it was found that partial returns were 
available from the state emmierations of 1782, 1783, 1784, and 178.5. These lists, which comprise most 
of the names of heads of families for nearly half of the state, were therefore included as a part, or volume, 
uniform with the returns of the Federal census for the other states. 

After the publication of these volumes, the sale of which had been considerable, it became evident that 
this unique series (which is not included among tiie regular publications of the Cerusus) would not be 
complete without a final section, or volume, discussing the historical aspects of the First Census and presenting 
such statistics as could be compiled from the lunitcd returns of the first enumeration of the population. 
The results of the First Census were originally published in sununarized form in a small volume, and it was 
recalled that no attempt had ever been made to present returns of that census in full detail, nor had the Federal 
Census Office ever attempted to analyze the returns, or to compare theni with the corresponding figures at 
later censuses. The Director accordingly assigned to Mr. W. S. Rossiter, chief clerk of the Census, the task 
of compiling a report which should meet the requirements above noted. The results are embodied in the 
following pages. 

Systematic inspection and analysis of the returns of the First Census revealed the fact that some of 
the tabulations would result in the presentation of figures basic in their relation to statistical science. Other 
statistical information proved to bo available — in some instances easily deducible from the returns of the 
First Census, and in others resulting from assumptions believed to be justifiable, and for which the reasons 

(ix) 



X LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL. 

are fully stated. A second and perhaps more important series of tables resulted from an inspection of the 
names of the heads of families at the First Census. The tables thus secured present many facts — with 
respect to both nomenclature and nationality — that are of great interest to persons descended from the 
population enumerated in 1790. It is also hoped that this publication will prove of equal interest to those 
who have not the personal interest resulting from the enumeration of their ancestors at the First Census. 
In these pages will be found tabular anal3'sis and discussion indicating the two great streams of population 
which have united to form the population of the Republic at the beginning of the twentieth century. 

As work on tliis pubUcation progressed it became evident that the scope had broadened and that it should 
constitute a review of the growtii of the j^opuhition during the century of census taking. Some changes were 
made, therefore, in the form of presentation and the volume thus became more general in character than was 
first intended. 

Acknowledgment is made of the faithful and efficient work of Miss Martha W. Williams in the construction 
of tables, of I\Iiss Joyce Lee in the formation of tables and in criticism, and of Mr. Charles P. Smith in extended 
historical research and criticism. I desire also to make gratefiil acknowledgment of the valuable assistance 
rendered this Office by Mr. William Nelson, secretary of the Historical Society of New Jersey, in clearing up 
many doubtful points in connection with a state for which no census returns exist; by Mr. Joseph Fornance, 
president, Historical Society of Montgomery county. Pa. ; by Judge Harman Ycrkes, Doylestown, Bucks 
county. Pa.; by Thomas L. Montgomery, state Hbrarian, Harrisburg, Pa. ; by Mr. Boyd Crumrinc, Washington 
county, Pa.; by Rev. Horace Edw. Haj^den, corresponding secretary and librarian, Wyoming Historical and 
Geological Society, Wilkes-Barre, Pa. ; and of assistance in the preparation of the lists of minor civil divisions 
at the date of the First Census, rendered by Mr. William G. Stanard, corresponding secretary and librarian 
of the Virginia Historical Society; by Prof. Charles Lee Raper, president of the Historical Society of North 
Carolina; by Mr. Robert T. Quarles, state archivist of Tennessee; by Mrs. Jennie C. Morton, secretary of the 
Kentucky State Historical Society; by ^Ir. Henry C. Conrad, president of the Historical Society of Delaware;, 
and by ilr. Richard H. Spencer, corresponding secretary of the Maryland Historical Society. 
Very respectfully. 




Hon. Charles Nagel, 

Secretary of Commerce and Labor. 



A CENTURY OF POPULATION GROWTH= 



FROM THE FIRST TO THE TWELFTH CENSUS OF THE UNITED 

STATES: 1790-1900. 



By W. S. RossiTER, Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census. 



INTRODUCTION. 



The results of a modern census have been accu- 
rately defined as a national account of stock. Early 
censuses were merely counts of inhabitants; addi- 
tional facts relating to population were next secured; 
and the most recent step in census taking, especially 
in the United States, has been to include practical^ 
all hues of human acti\'ity. The modern census is thus 
the result of evolution. 

In tliis evolution, however, civihzed nations have not 
advanced equally. A decided and rather significant 
difference of opinion exists as to the practical value of 
census taking. Some nations attach great importance 
to statistics, and take accurate and detailed censuses 
at frequent and regular intervals ; others manifest httlo 
interest, and make their enumerations at irregular in- 
tervals, with the result that such statistics as are ob- 
tained are neither comparable nor satisfactory'. 

The attitude of a nation toward a census is largely 
the result of education. A considerable element in 
every community fails to perceive the influence ex- 
erted by statistics upon legislation, and even morals; 
and it is only when a sufficient number of the citizens 
of a country have become educated to the value of 
accurate statistical information, either by their own 
national recfuirements or by observation of valuable 
results wliich have followed census talcing in other 
countries, that periodic enumerations of population 
are instituted. It does not always happen, however, 
that nations composed of highly educated, methodical, 
ami busincsshke communities reach the greatest perfec- 
tion in census taking, and obtain the most accurate 
and illuminating statistics. 

The marked differences in the attitude of commu- 
nities toward the systematic collection of statistics are 
well illustrated by the various states of the United 
States. Some maintain statistical bureaus and take 
a state census for the quin([uennial year in each dec- 
ade, while others depend entirely upon the Federal 
census for such statistical information as they require. 
Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and New York have 
taken state censuses for many years ; certain neighbor- 
ing states, as Connecticut and . Pennsylvania, have 



never done so. At the present time the state censuses 
of Massachusetts and Rhode Island are elaborate, 
scientific, and accurate, and in some of their details 
surpass the Federal census. Although eleven other 
states ' make an interccnsal enumeration, with vary- 
ing degrees of accuracy and detail, no other state ap- 
proaches these two in the amount and variety of in- 
formation secured. 

In view of the great importance to wliich statistical 
science has attained in nearly all civihzed nations at 
the present time, it is interesting to note that the prac- 
tice of making periodic censuses, or enumerations, of 
population is of comparatively recent origin. Except 
in Sweden (where a count of inhabitants has been made 
at stated inter^^als since the middle of the eighteenth 
century), accm-ate and periodic enumerations of popu- 
lation were practically unknown, ahke upon the conti- 
nent of Europe and in the British Isles, until the nine- 
teenth century.^ 

In both France and Great Britain, the fii-st census 
was taken in 1801. It is probable, in view of the su- 
premacy of Napoleon at that time, that in France the 
motive for making an enimaeration was principally to 
determine the military resources of the French nation. 
In Great Britain, however, while the census was in 
some degree the result of a demand for definite infor- 
mation of value to the military authorities, it was also 
the result of the great interest in the study of statistics 
aroused by the results of important economic researches 
described in publications that had appeared toward the 

' Florida, Iowa, Kansaii, Minnesota, New Jersey, New York, 
North Itakota, Oregon, South I'akota, Wisconsin, and Wyoming. 

- " We know also that the three Scandinavian lountrie.-f ha\ e been 
makins; enumerations e\er since those of 1750 and I7G9; that the 
United States of America, which begsin the series of their decennial 
enumerations in 1790, also preceded France in this respect; and 
that England commenced these enumerations the same year as 
France. Other nations have followed the example little by little, 
and the subject-matter has increased. There are only a very small 
number of civilized countries which do not undertake at a fixed 
time, or which have not undertaken at least once, the enumeration 
of their population; and almost all, in Europe at least, publish the 
statements of the movement of their population. We recall that 
the first census having a really scientific characler is that of Belgium 
in 1846, and that it is due in large measure to Quetclet and Ueusch- 
ling. The first census of the same kind taken in Germany is that of 
1871." Levasseur, La Population Franfaise, to/. J, page i'9-'. 

(1) 



A CENTURY OF POPULATION GROWTH. 



close of the eighteenth century. The most important 
of these were Adam Smith's Inquiry into the Nature 
and Sources of the Wealth of Nations, which appeared 
in 1776, and Malthus's Essay on the Principle of Pop- 
ulation, wliich appeared in 1798. These two books 
raised new problems as to the increase or decrease in 
wealth and in population, which could not be intelU- 
gently discussed without the aid of accurate statistics. 
The enumerations of 1801 in France and Great Brit- 
ain imdoubtcdly formed an object lesson to the other 
nations of Europe and served to turn their attention 
to the importance of obtaining precise statistical in- 
formation. There were also other factors at work. 
The beginning of the nineteenth centmy was marked 
by extraordinary military activity; changes in the 
boimdaries of countries resulted, and consequently 
great changes in national population — on the one 
hand by loss through war, and on the other by 
gain through the acquisition of new territory. States- 
men began to appreciate the value of having defi- 
nite information concerning mihtary strength and 
national resources. Moreover, the marked increase 
in population and the industrial awakening which were 
concurrent early in the century made the estimates 
with wliich previous generations had been content in- 
creasingly unreliable. As all these factors operated 
over a large area, it is not surprising that several coun- 
tries entered upon an era of census taking at nearly the 
Bame period. 

The dates at which various European countries 
made the first complete enumeration of their in- 
habitants were as follows: 

Sweden 1749 

Spain 1798 

France 1801 

Great Britain 1801 

Prussia 1810 

Norway 1815 

Saxony 1815 

Baden 1816 

Austria 1818 

Bavaria 1818 

Greece 1836 

Switzerland 1860 

Italy 1861 

Russia 1897 

The first census of the entire United States was 
taken in 1790, or nearly ten years before the first 
census in any European country, except Sweden. 
Because of this fact the United States has received 
much credit. The French statistician, Moreau de 
Jonnes, declared that the United States presents a 
phenomenon without a parallel in history — " that of a 
people who instituted the statistics of their country on 
the very day when they founded their government, 
and who regulated by the same instrument the census 
of inhabitants, their civil and political rights, and the 
destinies of the nation." 

Against such a position, it has frequently been 
claimed that the United States did not undertake a 



systematic periodic enumeration with a deliberate 
statistical purpose; that, on the contrary, the statis- 
tical results of Federal census taking were merely a 
by-product of an enumeration of population provided 
for in the Constitution for purposes of apportionment, 
as a prerequisite to representative government. From 
this, it is claimed, resulted the statistics of population 
wliich accidentally placed the United States in the 
position of having led the way in the most impor- 
tant economic evolution of the age — periodic census 
taking. 

While there is an element of tnith in this conten- 
tion, it is significant that several of the states compos- 
ing the young Republic had formed the habit of making 
frequent enumerations of their inhabitants during their 
existence as colonies. It is probable that none of these 
enumerations was made for purposes of apportionment. 
At many of them the information secured was as full 
as at the first Federal census, and at several the sta- 
tistics obtained were far more complete and significant. 
It was reasonable to expect, therefore, that considera- 
tion of the earlier censuses taken in America should 
lead the representatives of the states in the Con- 
stitutional Convention of 1787 to incorporate in the 
organic law of the nation a requirement for a periodic 
census. It was equally consistent that the members 
of the First Congress, in providing for the first Federal 
enumeration, influenced by the earlier practice of 
census taking, should require more than the mere 
count of inliabitants specified by the Constitution. 

James Madison, who was instnimental in securing 
the expansion of census inquiry under the first act 
from a mere count of inhabitants to a schedule covering 
name of head of family, two age groups of white males, 
and freedom or servitude of the colored population, 
was an influential member of the Constitutional Con- 
vention, and the author of the Madison papers, which 
are accepted as the most authoritative record of the 
deliberations of that convention. It is reasonable to 
suppose that the enlightened and statesmanlike posi- 
tion assumed by Mr. Madison in the congressional 
debates upon the First Census act reflected convic- 
tions held and possibly expressed by him during the 
deliberations of the Constitutional Convention. 

The influence of pre-Constitutional censuses upon 
the subsequent statistical history of the United States 
is a subject that hitherto has received but little con- 
sideration. So far as the present Census authorities 
are aware, the subject has never been discussed in the 
report of any census except that of 1850. In view of 
their peculiar historical significance, and their evident 
influence and bearing upon the beginnings of census 
taking in the United States, it is believed that a dis- 
cussion of pre-Constitutional enumerations, with re- 
productions of all the authentic returns of such 
enumerations, forms a fitting introduction to a dis- 
cussion of the history and statistics of the fii-st Federal 
census, and the growth of national population. 



POPULATION IN THE COLONIAL AND CONTINENTAL 

PERIODS. 



CENSUS PROCEDURE IN COLONIAL AND CONThVENTAL PERIODS— POPU- 
LATION PRIOR TO 1790— RECENT ESTIMATES OF E.MiLY POPULATION- 
POPULATION OF CITIES— CHANGES IN URBAN POPULATION 1710 TO 1900. 



Enumerations of population, more or less accurate, 
were made in nearly all the Northern colonies during 
the Colonial period, and several of the states took one 
or more censuses durhig the Continental period. 
Nearly all of these enumerations were more than a 
simple numbering of the people; in some instances, 
tlie inhabitants were classified b}' race, sex, age, and 
marital condition. 

Colonial period (prior to 1774)- — Most of the enu- 
merations of the Colonial period were made at the 
instance of the British Board of Trade — wliich at this 
period exercised man}' of the functions now vested in 
a colonial office — in order to obtain information which 
would be of value in the administration of the affairs 
of the colonies. Thus, in a sense, the British Board of 
Trade was the originator of census taking in America. 

These enumerations were made under the imme- 
diate supervision of the colonial governors, by sheriffs, 
justices of tlie peace, and other county or town officers. 
No enumeration embracing all the colonies was ever 
made, and in some of the colonies no accurate count 
of population occurred during the entire Colonial 
period. At times the board experienced great diffi- 
culty in getting the information desired. Its demands 
were often but partially complied with by tlie colonies, 
were sometimes entirely ignored, and were gener- 
ally a source of friction. In consequence, the pop- 
ulation statistics given out were not alwa}-? reUable. 
Indeed, the colonial governors encountered so many 
obstacles in their attempts to make the required enu- 
merations, tliat in many cases the tables prepared by 
[ them to supply the information demanded were based 
on muster rolls and hsts of taxables, rather than on 
actual counts. Even when actual enumerations were 
made, they were often incomplete or inacciu-ate. 
The small population dispersed over large areas, the 
(hfficulties of travel, the independent spirit of the peo- 
ple, and the fact that in many instances the sheriffs 
and other officers charged with tlie enumeration re- 
ceived no compensation for their serWces, were all fac- 
tors opposed to completeness and accuracy. "Super- 
stition also was an influence opposed to census taking. 
In 1712 Governor Hunter imdertook an enumeration of 
the inhabitants of New York. In ^vriting to the home 
government he excused the imperfection of the returns 
in part by saying tliat 'the people were deterred by 
a simple superstition and observation that sickness 



followed upon the last numbering of the people.' Gov- 
ernor Burnett, of New Jersey, in a communication 
to the British board in 1726, alluding to an enumera- 
tion made in New York tliree years bef(jre, said, 'I 
would have then ordered the like accounts to be taken 
in New Jersey, but I was advi.sed that it might make 
the people uneasy, tliey being generall}- of a New 
England extraction, and tliereby enthusiasts ; and that 
they would take it for a repetition of the same sin that 
David committed in luimbcring the people, and might 
bring on the same judgments. This notion put me off 
at tliat time, but, since jour lordsliips require it, I 
will give the orders to the sheriffs that it may be done 
as soon as may be.' " ' 

Continental period {177 4~1 789) .—The Colonial period 
in North America had covered more than a century 
and a half, and the poUcy of the board of trade in 
demanding exact returns of population at frequent in- 
tervals during this period doubtless had great weight 
in educating the people of the colonies to an aj)precia- 
tioii of the value of accurate statistical information. It 
is significant, at least, that the states wliich took cen- 
suses in the Continental period upon tlieir own initia- 
tive, after having tlirown off the yoke of Great Britain, 
were those in which, as colonies, enumerations had 
been made by British authority; while those .«tates 
wliich made no such enumerations VN-ere in the main 
those in which no colonial enumerations had been 
made. The Continental censuses are of great interest, 
and, so far as accuracy and completeness are con- 
cerned, probably compare well with the first Federal 
census. Especiall}' to be noted is tiie Rhode Island 
census of 1774, in wliich the schedule of enumeration 
is almost identical with that of the Federal census of 
1790. 

The necessity for a national census, comprehending 
all the states, became apparent early in the Continental 
period. During the War of the Revolution, tl.e Con- 
tinental Congress had authorized and directed the 
issue of $3,000,000 in bills of credit. It hail also 
resolved that the credit of the Thirteen United Colo- 
nies should be pledged for the redemption of these 
bills; that each colony should provide ways and 
means to redeem its proportion in such manner as 
it should see fit; that the proportion of each colony 
should be determined by the number of its inhabitants 

'Johnston's New Universal Encyclopaedia, vol. 1. page 845 

(31 



A CENTURY OF POPTTLATION GROWTH. 



of all ages, including negroes and mulattoes ; and that 
it slioidd be recommended to the colonial authorities 
to ascertain in the most confidential maimer their 
respective populations, and to send the returns, prop- 
erly authenticated, to Congress. Massachusetts and 
Rhode Island took a census upon tliis recommenda- 
tion in 1776, but most of the colonies failed to comply. 
In November, 17S1, a resolution was introduced in 
Congress recommending to the several states that 
they make an enimieration of their white inhabitants 
pursuant to the ninth article of the Confederation. 
The resolution failed to pass and the article was 
inoperative. Several of the states, however, made 
an enumeration about this time. The question of 
a settlement of the national debt became continually 
more serious, and the unwillingness of some of the 
states to order a general census and assume their 
equitable proportion made it apparent that a complete 
enumeration of the inhabitants of the country could 
never be made except by a central directing authority. 
Hence, when the Constitutional Convention met, all 
members seem to have been agreed that a provision 
for a Federal census at stated intervals should be 
incorporated in the Constitution. 

CENSUSES PRIOR TO 1790. 

The following table shows the number of official 
censuses of the inhabitants, of which record has been 
found, made in each of the colonies before 1790: 





NUMBER OF CENSUSES. 


COLONY. 


Total. 


Colonial period. 


Conti- 
nental 
period. 




1600 to 
1649. 


1650 to 
1699. 


1700 to 
1749. 


17,50 to 
1773. 


1774 to 
1789. 


All colonies 


38 


1 


1 


M 


11 


11 










20 






3 


8 








. 






2 

4 
1 
2 
7 
4 

14 






2 

n 
1 

1 

2 
2 




New Hampshire 






o 


Vermont 






















3 




r.r>nnpptiniit 






2 


Middle colonies 




1 10 


1 




New York 


11 
3 




1 1 <7 


2 


I 


New Jersey 




3 














Delaware 


il 




1 




4 


1 




1 


1 








Maryland 


2 

2 






1 


1 




Virginia 


i 




2 il 


North Carolina 










South Carolina 














Georgia 
















i: i 









1 Taken as part of a census of Massachusetts. 

2 Partly estimated. 

8 Taken as part of a census of New York. 

* Of those. '} weTo partly estimated. 

'Census of polls and taxable property. There are four incomplete lists of polls 
made during this period and still in existence, but only one appears to have been 
used as a basis for an estimate of population. 

The table shows that 3S censuses of various colonies 
were taken, within the area of the original thirteen 
states, before the first enumeration was made in Great 



Britain. Apparently the British Government desired 
more definite statistical information regarding its col- 
onies than it required concerning the British Isles. 

New York and Rhode Island developed the greatest 
aptitude for census taking; of the total of 38 enumera- 
tions made before the date of the first Federal census, 
18, or more than half, were made in these two colo- 
nies — 11 in the former and 7 in the latter. The people 
of Massachusetts and Connecticut manifested consid- 
erable opposition to census taking, seeing no advantage 
in it to themselves, and fearing that in some way the 
information obtained would be used by the British 
authorities to their disadvantage. The first census em- 
bracing all the inhabitants of Connecticut was taken in 
1756, and the first in Massachusetts not untd 1764 — 
when the general court, after continued demands from 
the governor, and fearmg longer to irritate British au- 
thority, ordered a general census. Pennsylvania and 
Delaware, as well as the Southern colonies, present a 
marked contrast to New York; so far as appears, the 
Federal census of 1790 was the first thorough enumera- 
tion ever made within the borders of any of them, 
except Virginia. 

The records of enumerations before 1790 are in many 
cases fragmentary; often totals only are given, and in 
some instances the results of the same enumeration are 
reported differently by different authorities. It must 
be remembered, however, that correct enumeration of 
any community is at best a difficult task, and the re- 
sults of early censuses in every country have been 
inaccurate and disappointing. The later censuses in 
the Colonial period and most of those of the Conti- 
nental period, were more accurate, and compare well 
with the first Federal census. 

The following paragraphs present, for each of the 
colonies in turn, the general results of all known enu- 
merations up to 1790, together with the estimates 
made by colonial governors and other officials which 
appear to possess a fair degree of accuracy, and also 
certain estimates by modern students of Colonial popu- 
lation. The results of all pre-Constitutional censuses 
are presented in detail on pages 149 to 185. In the 
summaries and more extended tables which follow, the 
population as shown by the first Federal census, 1790, 
is included for comparison. 

New Hampsliire. — None of the figures given below 
include the Vermont towns. 





TEAR. 


Estimates. 


Censuses: 


1641 


1,000 
4,000 
6,000 
9,000 
9,500 
12,500 
24,000 
30,000 
38,000 




1675 




1689 




1716 




1721 




1732 




1742 




1749 




1761 




1707 


52,700 
72,092 


1773 




1775 




1786 




95,755 
141,899 


1790 









POPULATION IN COLONIAL AND CONTINENTAL PERIODS. 



The census of 1775 was taken in order to ascertain 
the quantity of arms and ammunition in the province, 
and to correct the wild estimate made by Congress of 
102,000 inhabitants, exclusive of slaves. 

Massachusetts (including Maine). — The first census 
in Massachusetts was one of the "negro slaves, both 
males and females, 16 years old and upward," ordered 
in 17.54, and finished in the beginning of 1755. The 
earliest recorded movement for a census of all the in- 
habitants was begun in 1760, and the resulting census 
was taken in 1764-65. This census was comprehensive 
in its scope, and the schedule of information strikingly 
resembles that of the first Federal census. It was 
ordered in 1764, and by the terms of the act was to 
have been completed by the last of that year; but the 
selectmen in some of the towns were negligent and dila- 
tory, and did not send in their returns as required. On 
March 5, 1765, an act was approved by the governor 
b}- which the selectmen were required to complete the 
census and make their returns before May 25 following, 
under a penalty of £50. But even then, either some 
towns failed to make returns or else the returns have 
been lost.' 

This census was taken according to the following 
schedule: 

UTiite people, under 16 years/ 

U-emale. 

WTiite people, above 16 years-It * ^\ 

ll'emale. 

Families. 

Houses. 

Negroes and mulattoes < " ^ 

IFemales. 

Indians l^'^l^^- 

I Females. 

The following are contemporary' estimates of the 
combined population of Massachusetts and Maine 
(including New Hampshire in 1665): 

1032 2,300 

1643 16, 000 to 17, 000 

1660 30,000 

1675 33, 000 

1692 60,000 

1721 94,000 

1735 145,000 

1742 165,000 

1751 16-5,000 

1755 200,000 

The estimate given for 17.35 includes 2,600 negroes, 
and that for 1755 includes from 4,000 to 5,000. The 
fact that the population remained stationary' during 
the nine years from 1742 to 1751 is ascribed to "a 
great depopulation by smallpox and war." 

The totals reported at the three prc-Constitutional 
censuses of Massachusetts and Maine are compared 
below with the results of the Federal census of 1790. 
The census of 1784 was a count of polls only. The 

' Dr. J. Belknap (Mass. Hist. Soc. Collections, Vol. LV, page 198) 
says that this census, being an unpopular measure, was not accu- 
rately taken. 

76292—03 2 



population figures given are estimates by Doctor 
Chickering,' based on the results of the count. 



CENSUS. 


Both Massa- 
colonlcs. cbusctls. 


Maine. 


1764-65 


200,711 245,718 
338,067 291,147 
408,059 1 34b, 053 

475,199 1 378,556 


23,093 
47,520 


1776 


1784 


1790 


96,643 





Rhode Island. — Of the seven pre-Constitutional cen- 
suses of Rhode Island, that of 1774 was particularly 
elaborate, giving the names of the heads of families, 
white males and white females over and under 16 
years, negroes, and Indians. The results of this 
census were published in detail in 1858. Because of 
Rhode Island's share in the slave trade, the propor- 
tion of colored persons in the population was large — 
one person in every nine being either a negro or an 
Indian. 



TEAR. 


Estimates. 


Censasos. 


1658 


1,200 
2,0C0 

3,aco 

5,000 




1()«3 




1675 




1089 




1708 


7 181 


1730 




17,935 


1742 


30,000 


1748 


34,000 
40,636 


1755 




1774 




1776 




55 Oil 


1782 






1790 




69,112 







Of the population at the census of 1730, 985 were 
Indians. The decreases in population from 1774 to 
1782 were directly duo to the war, during which a 
large portion of the state was in the possession of the 
British forces. Indeed, the census of 1782 specific- 
ally excluded one whole town which was still in the 
enemy's hands. 

Connecticut. — The number of ofTicial enumerations 
was much smaller in Connecticut than in Rhode 
Island. The growth of jiopulation, iiowever, was 
more regular. The information desired by the British 
Board of Trade was furnished more often from esti- 
mates than from enumerations. 





YEAH. 


Estimates. 


Censuses. 


1043 




5,500 
»,0OO 
14,000 
20,000 
34,000 
61,600 
100,000 




1005 






1079 






1089 




1713 




1730 




1719 




1756 


130,612 


1701 




146,520 


1774 




196,088 


17S2 




2C«,S70 


1790 




237,655 









Of the population reported at the census of 1761, 
930 were Indians. The stunted growth in the later 
j-ears appears to have been due to the hea^•y emigra- 
tion from Connecticut to New York and to the West. 

■ Statistical ^'iew of the Population of Massachusetts from 1763 to 
1840, page 7. 



6 



A CENTURY OF POPULATION GROWTH. 



Neiu York and Vermont. — Eleven enumerations 
were made in New York prior to 1790— a larger num- 
ber than in any other colony. The first of these, 
made in 1698, was the first census of any magnitude 
on the continent. There is no evidence that Vermont 
was included in any of the colonial censuses of New 
York, except that of 1771. 



■i'EAR. 


Estimates. 


Censuses. 




7,000 
10,500 
20,000 








\^gfy 




1(398 


is, OCT 


1703 




20, 748 




28, 000 
31,000 


22.608 






1723 


40,5U4 






50, 289 


1737 




(iO.437 


1746 




70, 000 






73,448 


1756 





96, 790 


1771 




168, 000 




190,000 




1786 


238,895 


1790 




340,241 









The date of the first estimate, 1664, is the year of 
the British Conquest. Governor Hunter's census, in 
1712, met with so much opposition, from a super- 
stitious fear that it would breed sickness, that only 
partial returns were obtained. The census of 1746 
also was incomplete; Albany county was reported as 
"not possible to be numbered on account of the 
enemy." The census of 1749 was taken by Governor 
Clinton, who volunteered the information that the 
returns, in common with those of preceding censuses, 
might not be strictly accurate, since the officers re- 
ceived no pay for this service, and it was performed 
reluctantly and carelessly. 

Of the population reported at the census of 1771, 
163,337 was reported for New York and 4,669 specific- 
ally for certain Vermont towns. At the Federal census 
of 1790 the population of New York was 340,241 and 
that of Vermont was 85,341. 

New Jersey. — There is very little information con- 
cerning the population of the colony of New Jersey, 
only three emmierations having been made before the 
first Federal census. Census taking was unpopular, 
because of the religious prejudices and superstition of 
the people. 



TEAR. 


Estimates. Censuses. 


1702 


15.000 




1726 


32.442 
47.369 
61,383 


1737 




1745 




1749 


66,66b 
78,600 
120,000 
149, 434 


1754 




1774 




1784 




1790 


184,139 







Of the population reported at the census of 1745, 
4,606 were slaves. The estimate for 1749 is for whites 
only; the estimates for 1754 and 1784 include 5,500 
and 10,500 blacks, respectively. 



Pennsylvania and Delaware. — The censiis of 1790 
appears to have been the first thorough enumeration 
ever attempted in either Pennsylvania or Delaware. 
Accordingly estimates of the population are subject to 
a large margin of error. In the case of some of the 
estimates given below, for years prior to 1770, it is 
uncertain whether the inhabitants of Delaware are 
included. 

1681 500 

1685 7,200 

1700 20, 000 

1715 45, 800 

1730 49, 000 

1731 69, 000 

1740 100, 000 

1750 150, 000 

1757 200, 000 

1760 220, 000 

The 500 inhabitants given as the estimate for 1681 — 
before the arrival of Penn's settlers — were whites, and 
mainly Swedes, on the banks of the Delaware. The 
1730 estimate, made by Governor Gordon, is probably 
too small. 

The following are estimates made separately for the 
two colonies of Pennsylvania and Delaware, together 
with the returns of the Federal census of 1790: 



V2AR. 


Pennsj-l- 
vania. 


Delaware. 


1770 


250.000 


25,000 


1776 


302.000 




1780 . 


37,000 


1782.. 


350,000 
433. GU 




1790 


69,046 







Maryland. — Maryland presents, tiiroughout its colo- 
nial history, a uniform and gradual growth, which strik- 
ingly resembles that of Connecticut. 





YEA3. 


Estimates. 


Censuses. 


1660 




. 1 
. ! 8,000 




1676 . 




16.000 




1701 




32,258 




1712 






46,073 






.50,200 




1719 




; 61,000 




1748.. 




130,000 




1755 






153,564 


1761 




1 i64.667 




1775 




200,000 




1783 




254 nnn 




1790 i 


319,728 






1 



The population reported at the census of 1712 in- 
cluded 8,330 negroes, and the total reported for 1755 
was composed of 107,208 wlutes, 42,764 negroes, and 
3,592 mulattoes. The estimates for 1719, 1748, and 
1761 include 11,000, 36,000, and 49,675 blacks, respec- 
tively. 

Virginia. — The first of all the colonies to be founded, 
Virginia, had a feeble growth at the start, but soon 
became the leader in population. 



POPULATION IN COLONIAL AND CONTINENTAL PP:RI0DS. 



1616. 
1630. 
1628. 
1635. 
1640. 
1648. 
1659. 
1671. 
1689. 
1717. 
1754. 
1772. 
1776. 
1782. 
1790. 



Estimales. 


Censuses. 


3.il 




2,400 
3.000 






5,110 


7,647 


15,000 




30,000 




40.000 




60,000 




100,000 




284,000 




475.000 




550,000 






587,614 
747,610 







For the four years 17S2 to 1785, inclusive, there are 
in existence lists of ])olls in some of the Virginia coun- 
ties. The popuhition given above for 1782 is the esti- 
mate made by Thomas Jefferson, based on the list for 
that year.' 

The meager data on \\hich Mr. Jefferson's estimate 
was based were that in 1782, in all but 8 of the Vir- 
ginia counties, there were 53,289 free males 21 years of 
age and over, 211,698 slaves (of both sexes and all 
ages), and 23,760 "tithablc slaves" (apparently slaves 
16 years of ago and over); and that in the 8 counties 
not included in the list of polls there were, in 1779 and 
1780, 3,161 militia. 

Mr. Jefferson made five assumptions: (1) That the 
number of persons under 16 years of age equaled the 
number 16 j'cars and over; (2) that the number of 
males from 16 to 20 years of age, inclusive, was equal 
to the number of unmarried men in the militia (males 
between 10 and .50 years), which was one-third of the 
total number in the militia, or about one-fourth of all 
males 16 years and over; (3) that the number of 
females equaled the number of males; (4) that the 
number of free males 16 years of age and over in 1782, 
in the 8 counties not included in the list of polls, was 
equal to the number of the militia in those counties in 
1779 and 1780; (5) that the ratio of free to slave popu- 
lation was the same in these 8 counties as in the rest of 
the state. 

With the facts and the basis outlined above, Mr. 
Jefferson evolved the following data : 

Population of Virginia in 1782. 



POPUIATION. 



Total population 

Free population 

Males 

llndor 16 years 

16 years and over 

16 to 20 years 

21 years and over 

Females 

Slave population 



The 
state. 



,! Counties 
I included in 
' listofpoUs. 



567,614 



543,438 



other 
counties. 



24. 17« 



23it. 

148, 
74, 
74, 
18, 
SS, 

148, 

270, 



284.208 
142. 104 I 
71,052 I 
71,052 I 
17,763 ! 
53.289 
142,104 
269,230 



12,644 
6,322 
3,161 
3.161 
790 
2,371 
6,322 

11,532 



It will be observed that Mr. Jefferson's estimate is 
smaller than either the population at the Federal 

'Thomafl JeSerson: Notes on the State of Virginia, pages 94 
and 9.5. 



census of 1790 or the estimate for 1775 would indicate. 
He made the very coaservative assumption, in (4), 
that the number of the militia (males between 16 
and 50) equaled the number of free males 16 years of 
age and over; had he assumed that the number of 
the militia equaled the number of free males 21 years 
of age and over — in accordance with the proportions 
which can readily be obtained by analyzing (2) — liis 
estimate woulil have been increased to 301,068 free 
persons and 274,608 slaves, or a total of 575,676. 

North Carolijui, Smith Carolina, and Georgia. — No 
thorough enumeration was over made in these colo- 
nies during the Colonial or the Continental period. 
Accordingly all of the population figures given below, 
except for the Federal census of 1790, are estimates. 

North Carolina. 



VEAH 


Estimated 
population. 


1677 


4,000 

6,000 

7,000 

10,000 

36,000 

90,000 

135 000 


1701 


1711 


1717 


1732 


17S4 


1764 


1774'. 


260,000 


1790 


•395,006 





' Census. 



The estimate given for 1732 includes 6,000 negroes, 
and that for 1754 inchides 20,000 negroes. 



South Carolina. 





ESTIHATED POPITl 


ATIOK. 

Negro. 




Total. 


Whilu. 


1682 


2,300 
9,500 
16,300 
20,828 
64,000 
1M,000 
175, OCO 


6,300 
9,000 
25,000 
35,000 
1 (i5 onn 


(') 


1708 


5,500 


1714 


10,000 


1720 


11.828 


1749 


.19,600 


176,1 


70,000 


1773 


110,000 


1790 


'249,073 ", >140'l78 


'108,895 






1 





> Not estimated separately. 



■Census. 



The decrease in the number of negroes between 1773 
and 1790 — ^which was accompanied by a marked de- 
crease in the proportion they formed of the total pop- 
ulation — was due to a large deportation of negroes bj' 
British authority during the War of the Revolution. 

Georgia. 



1752. 
1760. 
1766. 
1773. 
1776. 



ESmlATED POP(n.ATIOK. 

Total. , White. Negro. 



5,000 

9,000 

18,000 

33,000 

.■^,000 

1790 1 >82,648 






' Not estimated separately. 



J 

'Census. 



6,000 
10,000 
18,000 

<A,sse; 



(') 

3,000 

K.oor, 

15.000 

(') 

>9,6a2 



8 



A CENTURY OF POPULATION GROWTH. 



RECENT ESTIMATES OF POPULATION PRIOR TO 1790. 

Attention has already been called to the fact that 
at no time prior to 1790 was there a simultaneous enu- 
meration of all the colonies. Estimates for various 
years have been made, however, by a number of his- 
torians and statisticians. In the preparation of this 
report valuable assistance was obtained from the ex- 
haustive study made by Prof. Franklin Bowditch Dex- 
ter, of Yale University, of popidation in the several 
American colonies. Estimates in Bancroft's History 
of the United States also proved helpfid. Mr. Ban- 
croft, however, says of one of his estimates that it 
"rests on the consideration of many details and opin- 
ions of that day, private journals and letters, reports 
to the board of trade, and ofScial papers of the pro- 
vincial governments." Professor Dexter apparently 
depended less on British sources of information, and 
put more credence in official enumerations and in esti- 
mates based on militia rolls and lists of polls. 

It is interesting to compare the estimates of the two 
authorities mentioned above with the estimates pre- 
pared by Mr. J. B. D. De Bow, Superintendent of the 
Seventh Census (1S50), and published in the report 
of that census. Accordingly the various estimates 
obtainable from these three sources are summarized 
in the following statement: 

Estimates of colonial population: 1640 to 1780. 



YEAF.. 


Dexter. 


Bancroft. 


De Bow. 


1640 


25,000 
80,000 


1 . . 


IGOO 




1G88 




200,000 




1701 




262, 000 


1721 


500,000 
1,000,000 






1743 






1749 




1,046,000 


1750 


1,207,000 
1.300,000 
1,610,000 
2,000,000 
2,205,000 


1,2C.O,000 
1.428, .500 
1,095,000 


1754 




1700 




1707. 




1770 


2,312,000 




1775 


2, 803, 000 


1780 . 


2,580,000 


2,94.5,000 









Professor Dexter's first estimate relates to the pe- 
riod when Parliament gained the ascendency in Eng- 
land; at that time, he states, "60 per cent of the inhab- 
itants were in New England and most of the remainder 
in Virginia." His second estimate indicates that at the 
time of the Restoration the population had more than 
trebled, "the greatest gain being in the most loyal 
divisions, Virginia and Maiyland, which now compre- 
hended one-half the whole." Concerning a group of 
his later estimates Professor Dexter says: "A round 
half million appears to have been reached about 1721, 
with the Middle colonies showing again the largest 
percentage of growth and New England the least. A 
million followed in twenty- two years more, or in 1743, 
this figure beii^ doubled in turn twenty-four j^ears 
later, or in 1767, the latter reduplication being de- 
layed a little, doubtless by the effect of intervening 
wars." 



Mr. Bancroft says, concerning his estimate for 1754: 
''The board of trade reckoned a few thousand more 
and revisers of their judgment less." He also makes 
a subdivision by color for each of his estimates, except 
that for 1688, as follows: 

Bancroft's estimate of population, hy color. 



TEAK. 


Total. 


White. 


Black. 


1750 


1.200,000 
1.428,500 
1.695.000 
2.312.000 
2,945,000 


1,040,000 
1,165,000 
1,385,000 
1,850,000 
2,383,000 


220,000 


17.-,4 . . 


263,600 


17150 


310,000 


1770 


462,000 


1780 


562,000 







For two _years, 1688 and 1754, Mr. Bancroft pre- 
sented estimates for each of the colonies. These are 
deemed of sufficient interest and importance to be 
presented in full. 

Bancroft's estimates of population, by colonies. 



16S81 



Allcolonies 200.000 1 1,428,500 



1754: 



Total. 



New Hampshire 

M^sarhusetts and Maine 

Khodo Island 

Connectieut 

New Yorlc 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania and Delaware., 

Maryland 

Virginia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Georgia 



6.000 
44,000 

6,000 
19,000 I 
20,000 
10,000 
12.000 I 
25.000 I 
60.000 [ 

8,000 ii 



203,000 

39, £00 
130. 500 

96,000 

78,600 
206,000 
148,000 
284,000 

90.000 

so.ono 

7.000 



White. Black. 



1,165,000 



EO.OOO 

207.000 

35.000 

133.000 

85,000 

73.000 

195.000 

104,000 

108.000 

70.000 

40.000 

5,000 



263, SOD 



6,000 

4.500 

3. ,500 
11,000 

5,500 
11,000 
44,000 
116,000 
20,000 
40.000 

2,000 



1 nistory ot the United States, Vol. I, page 602. 
-Uistory of the United States, Vol. II, page 389. 

Concerning the estimates for 1754, Mr. Bancroft 
says: "Nearly all are imperfect. The greatest discrep- 
ancy in judgments relates to Pennsylvania and the 
Carolinas." 

Mr. De Bow's estimates for the several colonies in 
1701, 1749, and 1775 — which, it will be remembered, 
are the only statements concerning pre-Constitutional 
population hitherto published in a Federal census 
report — are as follows : 

De Bow's estimates of population, by colonics. 



-Ml colonies. 



Slaves, estimated 

New Hampshire 

Massaohust'tts (including Maine).. 

Khode Island 

Connecticut 

New Yorlc (including Vermont) . . 

New Jersey 

Vennsylvania and Delaware 

Maryland 

V'irginia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Georgia 



1743 



2C2.000 1,046.000 



1775 



2..<!03.n00 



10,000 
70.000 
10,000 
30.000 
30.000 
16.000 
20.000 
2.5. 000 
40.000 
5.000 
7.000 



30,000 

220.000 

35.000 

100.000 

100.000 

00.000 

250, 000 

S5.000 

85.000 

43.000 

30.000 

0,000 



500,000 

102,000 

352,000 

58,000 

2;i2,00O 

23S.00O 

138,000 

378,000 

174.000 

300.000 

ISl.OOO 

93.000 

27,000 



The estimates given above were made by the colo- 
nists at the dates referred to, and at the time Mr. De 
Bow wrote were the most reliable in existence. When 




J^I^Mll 



POPULATION IN COLONIAL AND CONTINENTAL PERIODS. 



9 



they are consi(lerc<I, however, in the light of accepted 
investif^ations ami discussions in progress during the 
last half century, they prove to be in many cases much 
too generous. It seems advisable, therefore, after the 
lapse of more than half a century since this, subject 
was discussed in a Census report, to present a new 
series of estimates, based upon the best information 
now obtainable. Indeed, it is unlikely that another 
publication will bo issued by the Federal Census 
O/Iicc in which a discussion of this character will bo 
so appropriate as in connection with the reproduc- 
tion of the returns of the First Census. Moreover, 
unless some future discovery is made of enumerations 
or of extensive statistical material, at present unknown, 
there is little probability that the figures given below 
will be materially changed hereafter. 

The following tables represent the first attempt, 
within the knowledge of the Census authorities, to trace 
the population of the colonics by decades, upon the 
ba.sis of enumerations and contemporary and other 
estimates.' In all consideration of these tables (with 
the exception of the actual returns for 1790) it must, 
of course, be remembered that the population shown 
for each colon}^ is in nearly every case merely an 
estimate. 

These estimates are derivoil from enumerations at 
neighboring dates, or from the nearest enumeration 
or estimate of that period;^ they must be accepted, 
therefore, simpi}' as approximations in the absence of 



definite returns. They can be defended, however, not 
only as being the closest approximations to the pop- 
ulation of that period which it is possible to secure 
after a careful consideration of many authorities, but 
also on the ground that they are probably more accu- 
rate than earlier estimates. Study by many distin- 
guished students of history and statistics has resulted 
in much discussion; many old records have been 
examined, and comparison.s have been made between 
the population estimates of early writers and those of 
modern experts, so that extreme or unreasonable esti- 
mates, which in some cases stood for many j'eai-s, have 
been eliminated. In consequence, the estimates of 
early population presented in the following tables may 
be accepted as expressing the best judgment of students 
of history and statistics at the present period. 

' The free population of 1700 was' .3, 250, 000. In 1G88 the whole 
population is estimated by Mr. liaucroft to have been 200,000. If 
we take the free poi)ulation of that day at 18.5,000 and add thereto 
one-third for each decennial period, we 'shall obtain the amount 
given by :he census in 1790, as follows: 



YEAR. 


Population. 


YEA a. 


Population. 


1690 


185,000 
240.000 
328.000 • 
437. UiO 
682,000 ' 
770,000 1 


1750 


1,015,000 


1700 


17(0 


1710 


1770 


1,840,000 
2,4.1.i,000 
3,270,000 


1720 


1780 


1730 


1790 


1740 









— n. C. Carey, Principles of Political Economy (1840), Part III., 
pages ita and -^6. 

- See tables 76 to 103, pages 149 to 185. 



Table 1.— ESTIMATED POPULATION DURING COLONIAL AND CONTINENTAL PERIODS: 1610 TO 1790. 



STATE. 


1610 


1C2J 


lOSO 


IMO 


1660 


1660 


1676 


1680 


1690 


Total 


210 1 2,499 


5,700 


27,947 


61,700 


»l,800 


114,600 


155,600 


213,500 




Maine 






400 
500 


700 
800 


1,000 

1,400 


(') 
2,300 


'Im 


<u 


<\<«. 








Vermont 












99 


1,300 


14,000 

.300 

2,000 

1,000 


18,000 

800 

6,000 

3,000 


1 21,000 
1,600 
8,000 
6,000 


•30,000 
2,600 
10,000 
9,000 
2,500 


'40,000 
4,000 
13,000 
14,000 
6,000 


'54,000 

6,000 

18,000 

20,000 

9,000 

•12,000 

(«) 

25,000 

58,000 

3,000 

4,600 


UIukIo Island 










1 




New York 




"1 


500 




1 


Pennsylvania 


























500 

20.000 

49,000 

4,000 

1,100 


Maryland 






1,.100 
7,647 


4,.100 
17,000 


8,000 

33,000 

1,000 


15,000 
40,000 
2,600 




21 


1 2,400 


3,666 


North Carotina 




:::::::::;: ::;:;:::::::;:;: 








(ieornia 































































STATE. 


1<93 


1710 


1720 


1780 


1740 


1760 


1700 


1770 


1780 


1790 


Total 


275,000 


357,500 


474,388 


054,050 


889,000 


1,207,000 


1,610,000 


2,205,000 


2,781,000 


3,929,626 






0,000 


7,500 


9,500 


(') 
12,000 

'12.1,000 
16,9.10 
65,000 

< 49, 000 
37,000 

•65,000 

82,000 
1.13,000 
80,000 
30,000 


22,000 

(") 
1 1,18,000 

24,000 

70,000 
> 63, 000 

.12,000 
3 100,000 

(>) 

101,000 

200,000 
60,000 
4.1,000 

■■■■" 


31,000 

'IM.OOO 
3.1,000 
100,000 

> 80, 000 

06,000 

« 150,000 

137,000 

275,000 

80,000 

68,000 

5,000 


88,000 

(■) 

'235,000 

44,000 

142,000 

> 113,000 

91,000 

= 220,000 

(») 

162,000 
346,000 
115,000 
96,000 
9,000 


34,000 

60,000 

2.1,000 
261,000 

.1.1,000 
175, OCO 
100.(100 
110,000 
2.10,000 

2.1,000 

2UO.O0O 

•450,000 

230,00(1 

140.(100 

26,000 

(') 


.15, .100 

84,500 

40,000 

307.000 

.12.000 

203.000 

2110. OOO 

137,000 

33.1,000 

37.000 

2.KI.0U)) 

.120.000 

300,000 

160.000 

66,000 

46,000 


90,043 
141,899 

85,341 
378,516 

69,112 


New Hampshire 




MaRs;ichnsolt3 

Uho-le Island 


'70,000 
6,000 
24,000 
19,000 
14,000 
« 20, 000 
(') 

31,000 
72.000 
5.000 
8,000 


'80,000 

8,000 

31,000 

20,000 

20,000 

'3.1,000 
(») 

43,000 

87,000 

7. OOO 

13,00» 


'92,000 
11,000 
40,000 
30,000 
26,000 

« 48, 000 

62,000 

110,000 

I3,fl«0 

20,828 


(.'oniKctlPUt 


237,656 


New York . ... 


340,341 


New .Jersey 


lty|,139 


Pennsylvania . 


433,611 


Delaware 


69,096 


Mar>'land 


319,728 


Virginia 


747,610 




39.1,006 




249,073 




82,548 




1 






r3.677 
35,601 






:;;;;;:;;;;;;;;;;;::;;;;':;:;;:;:;::; 






1 1 


1 1 









' Maino Includpd with Mnssai'husetts. 
•Delaware included wltli Pennsylvania. 



• Vermont included with New York. 
' Kentucky Included with Virginia. 



10 



A CENTURY OF POPULATION GROWTH. 



Tabi.k 2.-PER CENT OF INCREASE OF ESTIMATED POPULATION DURING COLONIAL AND CONTINENTAL 

PERIODS: 1610 TO 1790. 



STATE. 


1610 

to 

1620 


16-20 

to 
16S0 


1630 

to 

1640 


1610 

to 

1650 


1650 

to 
1660 


1660 

to 
1670 


1670 

to 
1680 


1680 

to 

1690 


1690 

to 

1700 


1700 

to 

1710 


1710 

to 

1720 


1720 

to 

1730 


1780 

to 
1740 


.740 

to 

1750 


1750 

to 

1780 


1760 

to 
1770 


1770 

to 
1780 


1780 

to 

1790 


Total 


1,090.0 


128.1 


390.3 


85.0 


64.0 


35.0 


35.9 


37.2 


28.8 


30.0 


32.7 


3a 1 


35.7 


35.8 


33.4 


37.0 


26.1 


41.3 








75.0 
60.0 


42.9 
75.0 
















1 1 






63.2 
40.8 
60.0 
15.8 
15.5 
16.0 
25.0 
24.6 
34.0 
48.0 
25.0 
15.6 
30.4 
14.3 
111.6 


74.1 


New Hampshire 






64.3 


30.4 


33.3 


25.0 


20.0 


25.0 


26.7 


26.3 


83.3 


40.9 


22.6 


57.9 


67.9 








113. 4 


Massachusetts 

Rhode Island 





1,213.1 


976.9 


28.6 
166.7 
200.0 
200.0 


38.9 
87.5 
33.3 
100.0 


20.0 
66.7 
25.0 
50.0 


33.3 
60.0 
30.0 
55.6 
140.0 


35.0 
25.0 
38.5 
42.9 
50.0 




29.6 
20.0 
33.3 
15.0 
55.6 
66.7 


14.3 
33.3 
29.2 
36.8 
42.9 
75.0 


15.0 
37.5 
29.1 
38.5 
30.0 
37.1 


35.9 
54.1 
37.5 
36.1 
42.3 
35.4 


26.4 
41.6 
27.3 
28.6 
40.5 
63.8 


13.9 
45.8 
42.9 
27.0 
26.9 
50.0 


30.6 
25.7 
42.0 
41.3 
37.9 
46.7 


12.8 
25 
23.2 
41.6 
20.9 
13.6 


23.3 
32.9 










17.1 


New York 






lOO.O 


70.1 








34.4 
















29.4 




1 












59.7 


Marvland 


1 1 


200.0 
122.3 


77.8 
94.1 


87.5 
21.2 
150.0 


33.3 
22.5 
60.0 


25.0 

18.4 

125.0 

309.1 


24.0 
24.1 
66.7 
77.8 


38.7 
20.8 
40.0 
62.5 


44.2 
33.3 
86.6 
60.2 


32.3 
31.9 
129.7 
44.0 


28.0 
30 7 
66.7 
50.0 


30.5 
37.5 
60.0 
51.1 


is. 2 

25.8 
43.8 
39.7 
80.0 


23.5 
30.1 

100.0 
47.4 

188.9 


27.9 




1,042.9 


25.0 


154.9 


43.8 


North Carolina 


31.7 










58.7 












S0.1 


























63.7 




















"* 














1 



























These tables comprehend approximately two-thirds 
of the period which has elapsed since the estabhsh- 
ment of English settlements upon the North Atlantic 
coast of America. They begin with the population of 
Virginia in 1610 — the first population in a decennial 
year forming part of a continuous series — consisting of 
210 souls maintaining a precarious foothold upon an 
unexplored continent; and end, after the lapse of 
approximately two centuries, wath an aggregate popu- 
lation of 3,929,625 inhabitants, possessing more than 
800,000 square miles of territory, as shown by the Fed- 
eral census of 1790. 

^ThUe percentages of increase in population can be 
accepted only as suggestions of approximate growth, 
it will be observed that those which are shown in 
Table 2 tend to confirm the impression concerning the 
growth of population natural under the conditions which 
prevailed at tliis period.' For the first half century, or 
imtU the middle of the seventeenth century, percentages 
obviously have httle significance as indicating normal 
growth, because they were violently affected by every 
shipload of colonists that arrived. From 1660 to the 
close of the century, as the population began to assume 
greater proportions and to extend over larger areas of 
territory, the percentages of increase, both in individual 
colonies and in the aggregate for all the colonies, tend 
to become more uniform, and thus to reflect the influ- 
ence of natural increase as compared with artificial 
increase by additions from Europe.' In the eighteenth 
century there was a noteworthy uniformity of per- 

' "He who will construct retrospectively general tables (of Colo- 
nial population) from the rule of increase in America, since 1790, 
will err verv little." — Bancroft: History of the United Stales, ed. 
1852, Vol. IV, page 128, note. 

- "In the Northern states of America, where the means of sub- 
Bistence have been more ample, the manners of the people more 
pure, and the checks to early marriajjea fewer than in any of the 
modern states of Europe, the population has been found to double 
itself, for above a century and a half successively, in less than each 
period of twenty-five years. 



centages of increase, Avith the exception of the reduced 
increase sho^vn for the decade from 1770 to 1780, a 
variation which imquestionably reflects the period of 
warfare and privation tlirough which the colonists were 
then passing. 

Incidentally it shoidil be stated that in the making 
of these tables the population assigned at each decade 
to each of the colonies has been computed without the 
least regard to the total population or the percentage 
of increase in total population which would be shown; 
the result for each colony has been prepared independ- 
ently, from the historical sources previously mentioned, 
so as to reflect as closely as possible the population 
conditions actually prevailing at the dates specified. 
Hence the interesting uniformity of increase from deo- 
ade to decade shown by the aggregate for all colonies 
tends to strengthen confidence in the accuracy of the 
estimates presented. Moreover, it will be noted 
that the similarity in percentages of increase remains 
practically the same from decade to decade during 
the first half century of actual enumeration (1790 
to 1840), as during the latter half of the period 
covered by the above tables. 

It is of additional interest to observe the geographic 
grouping of population during the early history of the 
colonies. The following table shows the number and 
the proportion of inhabitants in each of the three geo- 
graphic groups of colonies at the beginning and the 
end of the pre-Constitutional period, and at half cen- 
tury intervals: 



"In the back settlements, where the sole employment is agricul- 
ture, and vicious customs and unwholesome occupations are little 
known, the population has been known to double itself in fifteen 
years. * * * 

" It appears from some recent calculations and estimates that from 
the first settlement of America to the year 1800 the periods of dou- 
bling have been but very little above twenty years." — Malthus: 
Essay on the Principle of Population, vol. 1, pages 6 aiid 7: London, 
Edition 1S06. 



il]L]llill.jyinmmmiii„iriirrr 



0- Map 

|New York 

I with the ad/acerU Rcdcc 
\ OJld Other remarkaMe 
Pnrto of 




By Tt}4^^ Khtcktn. „ 



■Ir Ba/racki //tuk/drAmmoanWirn 
Quarttrd. andiumi n^n t^Iun^ 
Troops landidatFro^ Runi 




S. 11 

ENUMERATED IN 






I7W 



nt. 


1 
PopulaUon. 


Percent. 


).0 


3,929,025 


loao 


17 
L8 


1,009,206 
1,017,067 
1,903,332 


26.7 
25.9 
4a4 



md including 1790. 



alti- 
ore. 


Salem. 


Newport. 


































) 




1 


2 203 








4,e«i 







6,508 






200 












0,753 











4,«7 






























9,209 


5,934 






5,337 


5,299 




1 






5,530 








1 






3,603 


7,92i j 6,'7i« 



enons to each dwelling, as 



'itanU,/or each decent 
0. 



>ltl- 

ore. 


Salctn. 


Newport. 


1 






...... 

3,'666' 


.:;.;":;; 




9,o66 


3,603 


7,921 







r decrease, were 
jxplaincd by the 
)f sanitary appli- 
sed the American 
intury, to attacks 
several instances 



POPULATION IN COLONIAL AND CONTINENTAL PERIODS. 



11 



Table 3.— ESTIMATED POPULATION IN THE PRE-C ONSTITUTIONAL PERIOD, OF THE AREA ENUMERATED IN 

1790, BY GEOGRAPUIC GROUPS. 





1610 


I6S0 


1700 


1750 


I7M 




Population. 


Percent. 


Population.' Percent. 


Population. 


Percent. 


Population. 


Percent. 


Population. 


Percent 




2!0 


100.0 


61,700 1 100.0 


275,000 


100.0 


1,207,000 


100.0 


3,929,626 


loao 










27,200 

3,000 

21,600 


62.6 
6.8 
41.6 


106,000 
63,000 
116,000 


38.6 
19.3 
42.2 


346,000 
286,000 
666,000 


2&7 
24.6 
46.8 


1,009,206 
1,017,087 
1,903,332 


26.7 
26.9 
48.4 


Middle colonies 






Southern colonies 




210 100. n 









In 1 6 1 the total wliite population in the original area 
of the United States was located in the single colony of 
Virginia; but in 1650 more than half of all the colonists 
were located in New England, and most of the remain- 
der in Virginia. From that date the proportion in the 
New England colonies steadily declined, and the pro- 
portion in the Southern colonies steadily increased. 
The remarkable increase in the proportion in the Mid- 
dle colonies during the period from 1050 to 1700 was 
due to the settlement of Pennsylvania and extensive 
immigration into that colony. 

POPULATION OF CITIES. 

Three cities which have continued to the present 
time to be leatlers in population were preeminent dur- 
ing the Colonial and Continental periods, not only in 
the number of their inhabitants, but also in prosperity 
and influence. These cities were New York, Pliila- 
delphia, and Boston. From its foundation, in 10.30, 
until the middle of the eighteenth century, Boston 
was the most populous town in the American colonies. 
Philadelphia (including suburbs) then took tiie lead, 
which it retained until it in turn was passed by New 
York, in 1810. Hence, each of these three cities has 
been the leader in population at some period. 

The two tables wliich follow present the popula- 
tion, from the earUest records up to 1790, of the 7 
cities which had acquired a population of 8,000 inhab- 
itants prior to the Federal census of 1790, or which 
reported a population of approximately that figure in 
that year. The first table gives the results of censuses, 
contemporary estimates, and modern estimates based 
on contemporary data — as poll hsts or counts of 
dwellings. The second table gives, for each decennial 
year from 1710 to 1790, the population of all cities 
which had reached, or practically reached, the minimum 
of 8,000 inhabitants. Figures given in tlie second 
table, but not in the first, are estimates based on the 
most reliable sources of information. 

The most significant facts reflected by the following 
tables are the continual uncertainty concerning in- 
crease or decrease of population during the whole of 
the eighteenth century and the insignificant increase 
recorded in each of the 7 cities during the entire period 
from 1710 to 1790. The variations in population 
which are shown during different periods for each of 
these cities are frequently violent. 



Population of cities of the United Slatf* 


to and indvding 


1790. 


YEAR. 


Philadel- 
phia (in- 
cluding 
suburbs). 


Now 
Yorlt. 


Boston. 


Charles- 
ton. 


Balti- 
more. 


Salem. 


Newport. 


16E6 




1,000 












1680 




4,600 










1683 


'600 






I 




1690 




7,000 




1 




1698 




4,937 




1 




1700 


'4,400 


6,700 








1703..... 


4,430 




. ' 




1708 








t 


2,203 


1710 






9,000 






1712 




6,840 


1 ' 


1720 




11,000 
10,567 




1722 






1 , 


1723 1 


7,248 


::::::::::i:::::::::::::::::::;"' ■■ ■ 


1730 




I3,0CO 


1 


4,640 


1731 




8,022 
10,664 


;:::::::::i::::::::::i:::::::::: 


1737 






1 1 1....; 


1740 




17,000 
16,382 


1 1 


1742 






1 1 < 


1746 




11,717 


] , ; 


1748 






1 


6,608 


1749 


'13,000 


13,294 




..V.'.,.'..S.'..'..'...V.".""\". 


1750 


16,731 


\ 




1752 ; 








200 






1753 


14,563 













1755 






1 


6,763 


1766 




13,040 




t 


1760 


18,756 


15,631 
15,520 


1 




1765 




1 


4,427 




1709 


28,042 




:::::;:::::::::::::: 




1770 




15,620 


10,863 








1771 




21,863 









1773 






12,000 








1774. . 




] 






9,200 


1T7S 




: 1 


5.934 






1776. . . . 


'34,400 
> 25, 000 


: i::::::::::l::::::::.: 


6,337 


6,299 


1777 


1 






1780 




10,000 










1782 













6,630 


1783 


'37,800 


\ 






1786 


23,614 








1787 






16,000 
16,359 


i 




1790 


42,444 


33,131 1 18,038 


13,503 1 7,921 


6,716 



' r.stimated on the assumption that the number of persons to each dwelling, as 
shown on pai;e 13, was 6..1. 
> Estimated from Lord Howe's census. 

Population of cities having at least 8,000 inhabUanls. for each decen- 
nial year from 1710 to 1790. 



YEAR. 


Philadel- 
phia (in- 
cluding 
suburbs). 


Zl Boston- 


Charles- 
ton. 


mo™: ^<^- Newport. 








9,oa> 

11,000 




















1730 

1740 


8,500 
10,500 


8 600 




1 




iijooo ] i7;oo6 

13,300 15,731 
14 000 '-"^ '''-'*' 












i7Rn ' iA fit 


8,000 
10,S(3 
10,0C0 
16,350 






1770 

1780 

1790 


28,000 
30,000 
42,444 


21,000 
18,000 
33,131 


15,.^ 
10,000 
18,038 


J 


9,000 


8,000 




13,603 7,aU 








Changes, whether of increase or decrease, were 
generally due to local conditions, explained by the 
historians of the time. The lack of sanitary appU- 
ances and of skillful physicians exposed the American 
cities, especially in the eighteenth centurj-, to attacks 
of contagious maladies, which in several instances 



12 



A CENTURY OF POPULATION GROWTH. 



greatly reduced the population, either by death or by 
enforced removal of citizens. Such fluctuations of 
population must be regarded as incidents inseparably 



connected with the early life of urban communities 
in which the inhabitants are engaged in a hand-to- 
hand struggle for existence. 



Di-^GRAM 1.— POPULATION OF THE PRINCIPAL CITIES OF THE UNITED STATES BEFORE 1790. 



4S 














































1 

* 
1 
















































J 
1 














































/ 


1 
1 
1 

1 








































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/ 
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i 

1 




1 
t 

1 

1 

( 
1 
t 
1 








































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/ 
/ 
1 
1 / 




-- 




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y 


/ 


s 










/ 


I / 
' / 

/ 
/ 
/ 
/ 
/ 


< 






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/ 




)o 


















■> 


f 


/ 




. 






y 

-- 


/ 


/ 
/ 
/ 




\ 


\ 


/ 


/ 










y 


y 


• 




'^i 


" 




































o 










T*^ 














































; \ 




! ; 






z 


n o 


S \ 








3 CTI 


O (- 






' i 


-^ 






I £ s 



It will be observed that the maximum population 
of the city of Newport prior to 1790 v.- as reached in 
1774; and that the population of Salem even in 1790 
had not attained the minimimi city population of 
8,000 — falling short of that number by 79 souls. But 
as it has been the custom of previous Census authori- 
ties to include Salem in the list of cities having a 
distinctly urban population in 1790, it is here included 
in the list of those having a population of 8,000 
inhabitants. 

Four out of the 6 cities having a population of 8,000 
or more in 1790 were located in the Northern states; 
Baltimore was upon the edge of the Northern states; 
and only one city — Charleston — was situated in the 
distinctly Southern, states. In Virginia, the oldest of 
the colonies, no city possessed in 1790 a population 
greater than 4,000. Indeed, with the exception of the 
city of Charleston, above noted, all of the great area 



lying south of the Potomac must bo regarded as dis- 
tinctly rural at that period. The marshal who super- 
vised in 1790 the taking of the Federal census for 
North Carolina, in making his retui'ns, accompanied 
them with the obsei"vation that in that large common- 
wealth there was no community the population of 
which exceeded 2,000 inhabitants. 

In 1700 the aggregate population of the 3 leading 
cities — Boston, New York, and Philadelphia — was 
approximately 15,500. Ninety years later the aggre- 
gate population of these 3 cities was 95,000, having 
increased sixfold. The striking change wliich has 
taken place since 1790 in all the conditions which tend 
to increase urban population is illustrated by the fact 
that in 1900, or at the close of the succeeding century, 
the population of these 3 cities was 5,291,791, hav- 
ing increased more than fiftyfold in the second period 
of one hundred and ten vears. The rates of increase 



POPULATION IN COLONIAL AND CONTINENTAL PERIODS. 



13 



YEAR. 


Dwelling 
houses. 


Popula- 
tion. 


1683 


SO 
700 
2,076 
2,300 
2,960 
4,474 
5,460 
6,000 
6,651 


• 


1700 




1749' 




1753 


14,503 


1760 


18, 756 


1769 


28,042 


1776 




1783 




1790 









here noted reflect the differing tendencies of tiie two 
centuries under consideration. Rapid increase in 
urban population is generally regarded as one of the 
results of the unprecedented growth in commercial 
and industrial activity, characteristic of the nineteenth 
centur}-. 

The proportion of the papulation living in cities 
showed a significant uniformity from the beginning of 
the eighteenth centurj' to 1820. Indeed, the propor- 
tion in 1730 was almost precisely the same as that 
shown for 1820 — nearly a centur\' later. The low pro- 
portion shown for 1780 was obviously the result of tlie 
lievolutionarv War, in which practically all the prin- 
cipal cities suffered from the ravages of war or pesti- 
lence, or both. Tiie movement of population toward 
the cities, a movement which gathered momentum 
after 1830, may be regarded primarily as the result of 
industrial expansion. From that date the growth of 
population in manufacturing centers uninterruptedly 
kept pace witii the growth in number of industries 
and in value of products. 

The principal facts regarding the earlj' population 
of the cities shown in the tables on page 11, including 
reference to some of the causes which led to violent 
increase or decrease, will be found in the following 
summaries. 

Philadelphia. — The colonial population of Phila- 
delphia can not be stated with precision. Dr. James 
Mease, in his "Picture of Philadelpliia," gives the 
following table: 



• " The enumeration of 1749 was made by eitizensof tlie first respectability. Mul- 
berry ward, l>y Doctor Franklin; Doek ward, Josepli Sldj)p('n: Lower Delaware, 
Wililam Allen {Chief Justiee); Upper Delaware. Tiiomas liopkinson; South ward 
and Soutliern suburbs, Kdward Siiipiien: Hiph street, Ti:oinas I.awrenee, jr.; 
Walnut. William Humphreys; ( hestnut. Joseph Turner; North ward and North- 
ern suburlis. Dr. William Shippen; Middle ward, William Coleman. Thealteration 
of tiled i vision of the wards in IWK) renders it impossible to judpe of the comparative 
Increase of populLition In the several quarters of the city." Jamca Mease, M. D.r 
The Picture of Philadelphia Umi), pages 31 and SS. 

The data given for 1760 are confirmed by a passage 
from "Bumaby's Travels," written in 1759. Mr. 
Bumaliy visited Philadelphia in that year, and re- 
ported that it contained about 3,000 houses and from 
18,000 to 20,000 inhabitants. 

The only cen.sus before 1700 v»-as taken about Octo- 
ber, 1777, for Lord Howe, when he held possession of 
the city; it yielded 5,470 dwellings (587 of which were 
empty) and 21,707 inliabitants, exclusive of the army 
and strangers. At all times when both the number 
of houses and inhabitants were given, except during 
the Revolution, the number of inhabitants bore to the 
number of houses a ratio of from 6.2 to 6.4. The 
population figures omitted from Mease's table have 



been computed for the tables of pre-Constitutional 
population of cities, on page 11 , by applying to Doctor 
Mease's data as to number of dwellings a ratio of 6.3. 

New York. — Twelve censuses of the city of New 
York were taken prior to 1700, the first being taken in 
1056. Hence, the population figures for New York as 
shown on page 1 1 may all be accepted as accurate. 

.Bos/on.— From the time of its founding until about 
1755, Boston was the most populous town in the Ameri- 
can colonies. The first recorded enumeration of the 
inhabitants of Boston was made in 1722, during a 
pestilence of smallpox; the population was found to 
be 10,567. A second census was taken in 1742 and a 
third in 1765. In connection with a report on a con.sus 
of Boston taken in 1S45, Mr. Lemuel Shattuck made a 
verj^ thorough study of the early population of that 
city,i from which he deduced the figures given for 
decennial years in the table on page 11. 

The decrease in the population from 1740 to 1750 
was due to depopulation by smallpox and war. The 
decrease from 1770 to 1780 was due to the occupation 
(jf Boston by the British; according to Mr Shattuck, 
in 1776 Boston contained only 2,719 white inhabitant.s, 
many of the former inhabitants having been dispersed 
in the country. In 1777 there were 2,863 males 16 
years of age and over — "of whom," says the record, 
"11 were Quakers, 7 belonged to the castle, 188 were 
colored, 36 in Charlestown, Falmouth, and Newport, 
200 at sea, and 543 in the army." The number of 
males 16 j'cars of age antl over actually living in Boston 
was therefore only 1,878; and of these, many were said 
to be old, infirm, and decrepit. 

Charleston. — The fourth city in size in 1790 was 
Charleston, S. C. Before the Revolution this was an 
important commercial center. Lieutenant-Governor 
Bull reported that on November 30, 1770, the number 
of houses in Charleston was 1,292, and its population 
was 10,863—5,030 whites and 5,833 blacks (domestic 
servants and mechanics). De Brahm, three years 
later, reported that the city contained about 1,500 
houses and more than 12,000 souls, more than half of 
whom were negroes and mulattoes. The Revolution 
seriously affected the prosperity and the population of 
the city. Morse's Gazetteer, published in 1789, says 
that in 1787 the city contained 1,600 houses and a 
population of 15,000 — 9,600 white inhabitants and 
5,400 negroes. 

Ballimore. — An inventory of this town in 1752 in- 
dicated 25 houses and 200 inhabitants. In 1775 a 
census showed 564 houses and 5,934 inhabitants. 
Brissot de Warville, who passed through the city in 
1788, states that it "was but a village before the war; 
but during that period a considerable portion of the 
commerce of Philadelphia was removed to this place." 

Salem. — Founded in 1628, Salem had a slow growth 
during the first century of its existence. There were 

' "Report by the committee of the city council," appointed to 
obtain the census of Boston for the year 18-15, paee 5. 



14 



A CENTURY OF POPULATION GROWTH. 



two censuses before 1790; the population in 1765 was 
4,427, and in 1776 it was 5,337. A somewhat acceler- 
ated growth after the war, due to the importance of 
Salem's foreign commerce, brought the population in 
1790 up to 7,921. 

Newport and Prmridence. — It is easy to trace the 
population of the city of Newport and of the town of 
Providence from the summaries of the censuses given 
for Rhode Island in Table 85. The population of New- 
port in 1774 was 9,209 — a figure which it did not 
attain again untU the census of 1850. The city never 
recovered its commercial prosperity lost at the time 
of the Revolution. 

Neio Haven, New London, and Noi-wick.. — These 
Connecticut towns were populous and prosperous dur- 
ing the latter half of the eighteenth century, and car- 
ried on an important coastwise and West Indian 
commerce. The commerce of all three, however, was 
greatly injured during the Revolutionary War, and 
New Haven, at least, never fully regained her former 
rank as a shipping center. 



TEAK. 


New 
Haven. 


New- 
London. 


Norwich. 


17S6 


5,085 


3.171 


5,540 


1774 


8,295 1 5.888 


7,327 


1782 




5,688 


7,325 









The city of New Haven was incorporated on Janu- 
ary 8, 1783; in 1787 its population was 3,364. • Scott's 
United States Gazetteer, published in 1795, states 
that the city of New London contained 340 dwellings 
and the city of Norwich 450 dwellings; this would in- 
dicate a population of about 2,000 for New London 
and about 3,000 for Norwich. 

COMPARISON OF URBAN AND RURAL POPULATION. 

While the population figures shown in Table 1 are 
to some extent based upon estimates, they may be 
accepted as reasonably accurate for the purpose of 
making a general separation of the inhabitants of the 
colonies in early years into the two main classes of 
urban and rural. Even at the close of the eighteenth 
century the urban communities were merely country 
towns as compared with the urban communities of the 
present time. Nevertheless, it is not to be doubted 
that the distinction between the dwellers in the cities, 
small as they were, and the dwellers in the strictly 
rural districts, was clearly marked. By adopting the 
community of 8,000 as a minimum, the following table 
has been constructed for a period covering two 

' " There are between 300 and 400 neat dwelling houses in the 
city, principally of wood. The streets are sandy but clean. Within 
the limits of the city are 4,000 souls, "^.l/orsc; Gazetteer of the United 
States, 1797. 



DuGRVM 2.— PER CENT OF TOT.\I, POPULATION OF UNITED STATES IN CITIES OF 8,000 POPULATION AND OVER. 



3b 








































/ 








































1 


/ 


20 

15 

to 


































/ 


y 


1 


































/ 


/ 




































/ 


/ 


































^ 


y 


/ 














/ 




/ 




""^ 









-- 
































1710 1730 I7B0 1770 1790 1810 1830 1850 1870 1890 

'700 1720 1740 1760 1780 1800 1820 1840 1860 1880 1900 



15 
urban 



RE) OP 
TOTAL 




Urban. 



ht .Ag»fyifi^ 



loao 
loao 

K.2 
82.3 
91.8 
87.5 
83.3 
77.8 
68.9 
66.1 
59.4 
58.6 



--J 

ii 



1 




POPULATION IN COLONIAL AND CONTINENTAL PERIODS. 



15 



centuries. The estimates of wliicli the fif^urcs for years 
prior to 1700 are composed have already been given 



for the total jjopulation iu Table 1 , and for the urban 
population in tables on page 1 1. 



Table 4,-TOTAL AND URBAN POPULATION (ON THE li.VSIS OF PLACES OF 8,000 IXnAIilTWT.S OK MORE) OF 
THE UNITED STATES, AND OF THE AREA ENUMERATED AT THE FIRST CENSUS, COMPARED WITH THE TOTAL 
POPULATION: 1700 TO 1900. 





1 

FOR TOTAL AREA. fOB AREA ENUMEBATED IN 1790. 


PEB CENT POPITLA- 
TION Of AREA 


YEAR. 


Total popu- 
latlOD. 

275,000 

367,600 

474,388 

6.54,950 

889.000 

1.207,000 

1,010,000 

2,205,000 

2,781,000 

3,929,025 

5,308,483 

7,239,881 

9,038,453 

12,8(50,020 

17,009.453 

23,191,876 

31.413..321 

38, 5.58. 371 

.50.1.55.783 

>02.947.714 

17.5, 994,. 575 


Places of 8,000 and over. 




Total popu- 
lation. 


Places of 8,000 and over. 


1790 roRua or 

POPULATION or 
ITNrrED STATEa. 




Number. 


Population. 


Per cent 
of total. 


Number. 


Population. 


Per cent 
of toUI. 


Total. 


Urban. 


1700 
















1710 


1 

1 

3 

3 

3 

4 

5 

5 



6 

11 

13 

2u 

44 

85 

141 

226 

286 

447 

645 


9.(J00 

11,00(1 

30, 00(1 

38. .500 

42,431 

.56,387 

84.383 

76.000 

131.. 39(1 

210.873 

350,920 

475. 13.5 

804. .509 

1.4.53,994 

2, 897, .580 

5,072,250 

8.071.875 

11.318.547 

18,272,503 

24.992,199 


2.5 
2.3 
4.6 
4.3 
3.5 
3.5 
3.8 
2.7 
3.3 
4.0 
4.9 
4.9 
0.7 
8.5 
12.5 
16.1 
20.9 
22.6 
29.0 
32.9 














1720 















1730 












1740 














1750 














1760 














1770 














1780 














1790 


3,929,626 
5,247,355 
0,779,308 
8,293,869 
10, 240. 232 
11,781,231 
14,509.584 
17.326.157 
19,087,. 504 
23.92.5.0.19 
28,188,321 
33,553,630 


6 
6 

10 
13 
24 
40 
68 
IOC 
139 
168 
243 
285 


131,396 
210,873 
339,678 
438,317 

793,590 
1,272.3.30 
2,385.216 
3,W8,039 
5,501,692 
7.485,723 
10,854,778 
14,656,083 


3.3 
4.0 
5.0 
5.2 

7.5 
10.4 
1.5.7 
21.8 
27.1 
29.9 
36.8 
41.7 


100.0 
98.8 
93.6 
86.0 
79.6 
09.0 
62.8 
5.5.1 
51.1 
47.7 
44.8 
44.2 


loao 
loao 

85.2 
«2.3 
91.8 
87.5 
82.3 
77.8 
68.9 
66.1 
59.4 
68.6 


1800 


1810 


1820 


1830 ; 


1840 


1850 


I860 


1870 


1880 . . 


1890 


1900 





■ Includes population of Indian Territory and Indian reservations. 



/ 



II. THE UNITED STATES IN 1790. 



BOUNDARIES AND AREA— CURRENCY- 
TRANSPORTATION— THE POSTAL SERVICE— 
INDUSTRIES— EDUCATION— NEWSPAPERS 
AND PERIODICAL S— SLAVERY— INDL-^NS. 



The taking of the First Census of the United States 
brought home to each citizen the practical operation 
and influence of the newly adopted Constitution of the 
United States. It was the beginning of a series of 
distinctly Federal operations, recurring decennially, 
and increasing constantly in importance and in statis- 
tical value, which unquestionably have exerted great 
influence in imifying the states and demonstrating 
their community of interests. It will be appropriate, 
therefore, to describe briefly the area of the Republic 
and the conditions that prevailed at the beginning of 
constitutional government, with which, for all practical 
purposes, the First Census was coincident. 

The year 1790 was an important one in the history 
of the principal nations of Europe, as well as of the 
young Republic in America. Monarchies responsible 
in but small degree to the people were rapidly becom- 
ing intolerable. In all civilized nations the growth of 
enlightened sentiment had been greatly accelerated by 
the results of the recent conflict in America. Em'ope 
was in a state of imrest, and was already upon the 
verge of the French Revolution and the continental 
wars which followed. In England George III — a man 
of 52 years, and little considered in the afi'airs of the 
nations of Europe — stiU occupied the throne ; William 
Pitt was prime minister, and the energies of the nation, 
which had been somewhat impaired by the fruitless 
war in America, were being recruited for more profita- 
ble operations upon the Continent. In Prussia Fred- 
erick William II reigned as king, having succeeded his 
father, Frederick the Great. Catherine II — dissolute, 
but brilliant and powerful — was PDmpress of Russia. 
In France Louis XVI clung to a tottering throne, and 
endeavored by ill-judged and fruitless concessions to 
placate a nation which was drifting toward revolution 
and anarchy. 

In the United States less than a year of the first ad- 
ministration of the first President had elapsed. General 
Washington having been inaugiu-ated m New York 
city, AprU 30, 1789. Indeed, when the First Census 
was ordered the machinery of Federal Government 
was but just constructed, and was undergoing its first 
and most critical test. The executive branch of the 
Government included four departments — State, Treas- 
(16)' 



ury. War, and Justice. Thomas Jefferson was Secre- 
tary of State; Alexander Hamilton, Secretary of the 
Treasure'; Henrj' Knox, Secretary of War; and Ed- 
mund Randolph, Attorney-General. Congress con- 
sisted of 91 members, 26 in the Senate and 65 in the 
House of Representatives — the numbers specified by 
the Constitution — pending the enumeration of the 
inhabitants of the states. 

On the 9th of Jul}', 1790, Congress, then in session 
at New York, passed a bill selecting the District of 
Colmnbia as the permanent capital of the nation, but 
declaring that for ten years from the end of that session 
the Government should be located at Philadelphia. 
Under this act the seat of government was removed 
to PhUadolphia in September, 1790. Congress assem- 
bled in the following December in that cit}', its sessions 
being held in the state house, on Chestnut street; and 
by the close of the year the Government w^as estab- 
lished in the temporary capital. The executive depart- 
ments were located in small rented houses. In the 
Department of State,' tliere were, indeed, only five 
clerks. 

According to Biddle's Director}', published in 1791, 
President Washington resided at No. 190 High street, 
below Sixth, in the mansion buflt by Richard Perm 
and occupied during the Revolution by General Howe, 
Benedict Arnold, and Robert Morris. Vice-President 
Adams lived in the Hamilton mansion at Bush Hill.^ 

The year 1790 was probably the most critical year 
of General Washington's administration.^ It was the 
first complete j^ear of the Federal Government under 

' " The force of the department at the time of the adoption of the 
Constitution was the Secrctarj-, the chief clerk, and ttiree subordi- 
nates, at a total cost of $6,500. During the First Congress the salary 
of the Secretary of State was fixed at $3,500, the chief clerk at S800, 
and clerks at not to exceed S500 each. In 1800 the salary of the Sec- 
retary was increased to 55,000, but the total pay roll only amounted 
to $12,950." — John TT'. Foster: A Century of Am/irican Diplomacy, 
page 130. 

2 Scharf and V/estcott, History of Philadelphia, 1609-1884, page 
462. 

' "No man ever entered with a higher sense of responsibility upon 
a task which was to tax his wisdom, patience, and reputation to the 
utmost. In his inaugural address he said that no event could have 
filled him with greater anxiety than the notification of his election, 
and that the magnitude and difliculty of the trust, to which the 
voice of his countrymen called him, awakened a distrustful scrutiny 
into his qualifications." — John TV. Foster: A Century oj American 
Diplomacy, page 136. 



17 



. yi'KC.Kt K 




A4 



45 



4fi 







\tnoit\n I 






^7^ r • "t "■•"Mil M * 

kIXmH / 1 f AM 1^1 T' • ■"■■■'•■^^-'--^ 
w;.irf.or'.r"'"r""'"'<r ^V'^'^w 

•r, ' l'ttl"\Kriiu I iViKiiMin-ri 

r/-*.„..6,.,, V s H [rtfc ,,;,,,„. y„..* R 



»;2A/f<i' 











Ann 






') toil _ \ — i-^ r y y=^-v«™i-"r») 

(2 ft Or..»V"''''''"''^"''"'"W :''."""'';'>Cv/J^i^ri'"'!r::^^rM-a/a6ar 

But I /I 

-./.■„, ^ 

"Zsi^^^^i^'^^ \ Explanation 



L? 






40 



C H Court Houac 



arftatir 



<< 




^If the 

Nbrtliern Part 

of the 

Unjtjcd Stati:s 
of 

MF.RTCA 

Abraham Braille.v jun' 




^a 



A9- 



58 



iZ 



5 CalU-^i^ JJ" 



I been 
rpinia 
Ken- 
1 Mis- 
(1 out 
olina, 
'er, or 
<01iio 
npris- 
Vliclii- 
— was 
er, or 

> west 
1 vast 

king, 
la, of 
it be- 
tched 
The 
:c ilis- 
j Do- 
rttion; 
;h the 
fined, 
sd by 
le dis- 
as far 
in the 

until 
reaty, 
I and 
ice to 

) was 

only 
total, 
board 
I New 
upied 
;ham- 
e for- 
1788. 
mess. 
! only 
thode 

and 
• the 
often 
id ill- 

!St of 



es \ras 
«8sion, 
iment, 
tecrion 
i inure 



THE UNITED STATES IX 1790. 



17 



the Constitution. Precedent was being made at every 
step. No ofTico of the Government, not even the 
Presidency, had been in existence long enough to com- 
mand any respect, except such as was imparted by the 
personahty of the oflicial himself. Political party 
lines, which became dearly defined b}^ 1702, had not 
yet appeared. Many divisions of sentiment, however, 
had already developed, especially in connection with 
the interpretation of the Constitution. Everj- free- 
holder was deeply interested in such questions as 
slavery. Federal assumption of state debts, and the 
taxation necessary for raising the revenues required to 
conduct the National Government. 

No service pei-formed by General Washington in the 
successful prosecution of the Revolutionary War com- 
pared with that which he rendered in saving the Re- 
public from itself during the early days of his admin- 
istration.' The operation of the Government under 
the new Constitution had thus far proceeded v^thout 
serious friction, but with considerable criticism and 
unrest. Popular confidence in and respect for Presi- 
dent Waslungton, the hero of the Revolution, was 
probably the principal factor which prevented the 
early occurrence of serious disagreements. While the 
success of the struggle for hberty in America had pro- 
foundly impressed the nations of Europe, on the other 
hand tlio theories i)roclaimed by the radicals in France 
had already attracted attention in the United States 
•and seriously affected a large element of the population. 
Indeed, French revolutionary ideas were destined to 
become of some political importance during the ad- 
ministration of President Washington, a consideration 
which doubtless caused the patient and sagacious 
President periods of grave anxiety. In fact, in 1790 
problems arose on all sides. It appears to liave been 
an open question, at times, whetlier a dozen self-willeil 
commonwealths, having different views upon many 
questions of public poUcy, and great independence of 
thouglit and action, ever could be brouglit to bend sub- 
missively to the control of a constitution created for 
the good of all, but requiring of necessity many mutual 
•concessions and considerable breatlth of view. 

BOUNDARIES A.M) ATIE.V. 

In 1790 the I'nion consisted of 1.3 states — Rhode 
Island, the hist of the original 13 to enter tlie Union, 
being admitted on May 29. Vermont, the first addi- 

' "AVhile the American Union was forminp; itself, some of the 
worst Bvmptr)ms of soirial and political die.-'oliition were manifesting 
thoinselvos » * *. The greatest revelation rendered to all sub- 
senucnt generations by these opening years of tho American Re- 
public is in tho constaiit proof they exhibit of the prevailing power 
of the people for self-government * * *. It was reserved for the 
sagacity of Uamilton— an alien genius, a rare creation independent 
of race or time — to see through to the end, to uphold the possibilities 
of an empire. But the mca of tho time, the concrete actual per- 
sonification of these godlike faculties, inchoate and dimly perceived 
in common men, was Geoi^o Washington." — Wcedcn: Economic and 
Social History of New England, Vol. II, pages S64 to 967. 



tion, was admitted in 1791, before the census had been 
completed. Massachu.setts included Maine, Virginia 
included West Virginia and nominally' included Ken- 
tucky. Georgia included parts of Alabama and Mis- 
sissippi. Tho present state of Tenne.ssee, formed out 
of territory ceded to the Union by North Carolina, 
was known as the Territory South of the Oliio River, or 
Southwest Territory. The vast area between the Ohio 
and Mississipjji rivei-s and the Great Lakes — compris- 
ing the present states of Ohio, Indiana, IlUnois, Michi- 
gan, and Wisconsin, with part of Minnesota — was 
called the Territory Northwest of the Oliio River, or 
Northwest Territory. 

The United States in 1790 was bounded on the west 
by the Mississippi river, beyond wiiich stretched a vast 
unexplored territory claimed by the Spanish king. 
On the south was the Spanish colony of Florida, of 
which the northern boundary was in dispute, but be- 
tween which and the settlements in Georgia stretched 
an uninhaljited region containing vast swamps. The 
northern boundary also was in dispute for long dis- 
tances; the boundary between Maine and the Do- 
minion of Canada was a fertile source of contention; 
as a result of the fact that the water line through the 
St. Lawrence river and the Great Lakes was undefined, 
some of the islands in those waters were claimed by 
both the United States and Great Britain; and the dis- 
covery that the Mississippi river did not extend as far 
north as the Lake of the Woods revealed a gap in the 
boundary' line of the Northwest. It was not until 
more than fifty j'ears later, by the Ashburton treaty, 
that the boundary of Maine was fully determined and 
the boundary through Lake Superior and thence to 
the Lake of the Woods agreed upon. 

The gross area of the United States in 1790 was 
820,377 square miles, but the settled area was only 
239,935 square miles, or about 29 per cent of tho total. 
The thickly populated areas were along the seaboard 
and in the valleys of the larger rivere. Western New 
York was a wilderness; rude frontier forts occupied 
the present sites of Oswego and LUica; and Bingham- 
ton and Elmira were outposts of civilization, th.e for- 
mer having been settled in 1787 and the latter in 1788. 
J.Iuch of western Pennsylvania, also, was a wilderness. 

At tlie time of the Declaration of Indepentlcnce only 
6 of the 13 American states — New Hampshire, Rhode 
Island, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and 
Maryland — had definite boundaries. Each of the 
others laid claim, on the strength of early and often 
verj' conflicting grants of territory, to large and ill- 
defined areas in the vjtst unexplored region west of 
the Appalachian mountains. 

The ownership of the.so western lands by individual states vr^a 
opposed by thoc;o states which did not share in their posses.'iion, 
mainly on the ground that tho rossources of tho General Government, 
to which all contributed, shotild not be taxed for the protection 
and development of this region, while its advantages would inure 



INHABITED AREA IN UNITED STATES IN 1790. 




a u L F o\f m e X I \c o 



THE UNITED STATES 
1790 

SCALE OF MIL ES 

200 300 

^—M^M^ FRONTIER LINE 



I^ingitude 



THE UNITED STATEvS IX 1790. 



19 



to the benefit of but a favored few. On this ground several of the 
states refused to ratify the Constitution until this matter had been 
settled by the cession of these tracts to the General Government. 

Moved by these arguments, as well as by the consideration of 
the conflicting character of the claims, which must inevitably lead 
to trouble among the states. Congress passed, on October 30, 1779, 
the following act: 

Whereas the appropriation of the vacant lands by the several 
states duriiijj the present war will, in the opinion of Congress, be 
attended with great mischiefs. Therefore, 

Re-iohed, That it be earnestly recommended to the state of Vir- 
ginia to recon.sider their late act of assembly for opening their land 
oflSce; and it be recommended to the said state, and all other states 
similarly circumstanced, to forbear settling or issuing warrants for 
unappropriated lands, or granting the same during the continuance 
of the present war.' 

By 1790 Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, 
and Virginia had ceded to the Federal Government all 
right and title to lands claimed by them in the North- 
west Territor}^ ^\ith the exception of what was 
known as the "Connecticut Reserve;" North Caro- 
hna and South CaroUna had yielded up tlieir claims 
to territory extending to the Missis-sippi; and Maine, 
Vermont, and Kentucky were sufficiently distinct to 
be reported separately at the First Census. Georgia 
still held out, but Georgia's western territory was 
practically a wldemess, the enumerated area being 
merely that part of the present state which lies along 
the seacoast. 

In 1790 the claim of the Federal Government to 
ownership of the vast areas between the Appalachian 
mountains and the Mississippi river was still subject, 
to some extent, to the rights of the Indians ; but such 
rights had never been seriously regarded iu the past, 
and in fact subsequently proved of little consequence in 
the settlement of the territory. 

The greatest length of the Northwest Territory was 
about 900 miles, and its greatest breadth, approximately 
700. It was bounded on the east by Pennsylvania, on 
the southeast by the Ohio river, and on the north and 
west by the international boundar}^. By contemporary 
writers it was estimated to contain 220,000,000 acres 
of land surface. This land, with the exception of a 
few tracts, was held by the Federal Government, to 
be sold for the discharge of the national debt. One 
exception was the narrow strip known as tlie "Con- 
necticut Kesei-ve," bordering on Lake Erie and stretch- 
ing 120 miles west of the western boundary of Penn- 
sylvania. This tract belonged to the state of Con- 
necticut. Title to about one-sixth of it was given to 
citizens of Connecticut who had lost property in the 
Revolution, and the remainder was sold bj' the state, 
in 1795-96, to the Connecticut Land Company, for 
$1,200,000, the proceeds being used for the support of 
schools and colleges in that state. It was not until the 
year 1800 that Connecticut relinquished jurisdiction 
over this region in favor of the Federal Government. 

By an act of Congress passed on the 13th of July, 
1787, the Northwest Territory was erected, for the pur- 

• Henry Gannett, United States Geological Survey, "Boundaries of 
the United States," third edition, page 30. 



poses of temporary government, into one district — 
subject, however, to a division when circumstances 
should make it expedient. The fifth article of tliis 
act provided that there should be formed in the ter- 
ritory not less than 3 nor more f lian 5 states. Under 
its terms tentative state boundaries appear to have 
been constructed for the maximum number, which 
are shown upon contemporary ma]>s as First State, 
Second State, etc. The First State rouglily coincided 
with the present state of Ohio, the Second with a part 
of the present state of In<liana, the Third with a part 
of Illinois, the Fourth with a part of Michigan, and the 
Fifth with more than the present state of Wisconsin. 
In 1790, therefore, the foundations of 5 great states 
may be said to have been laid. 

Beginning on the meridian line which forms the 
western boundary of Pennsylvania, seven ranges of 
townships had been surveyed and laid off by order of 
Congress. In a portion of the territory the Indian 
title had been extinguished and 4 counties had been 
laid off by June, 1790 — Washington, erected <»ii July 

26, 1788; Hamilton, January 2, 1790; St. Clair, April 

27, 1790; and Knox, June 20, 1790. Of these, Wash- 
ington and Hamilton counties were located in the 
present state of Ohio, Knox county in Indiana (north 
of Vincennes), and St. Claii- county in Illinois. 

The Northwest Territory contained but a few thou- 
sand inhabitants, nearly all of whom were in the 
fertile valley of the Ohio. Bands of marauding sav- 
ages contested the advance of settlers an<l made the 
life of the pioneers hazardous and often tragic. Cin- 
cinnati was settled in 1780 and Marietta in 1788; but 
for years Cincinnati was only a garrison, and tiie first 
white child was not born there imtil 1790. The west- 
ernmost .settlement on the Ohio was at Louisville. 
All of the Great Lake ports were in the hanu.s of the 
British. Across the mountains, south of the Ohio, 
the only considerable settlements were in Kentucky 
and western Tennessee, whither settlers had In^en led 
by Daniel Boone and other hardy hunters, to make 
homes for themselves in the fertile blue grass regions. 
Only about one-twentieth of the people of the coun- 
try lived west of the crest of the Appalachian moun- 
tains. The western country was so vast, and the 
facilities for transportation and communicati(m .so 
meager, that Jeffereon predicted it would be a 
thousand years before the country as far we^t as the 
Mississippi would be thickly settled. 

Local organization. — The states differed widely in 
local government, and hence in the geograi)liic subdi- 
vision of their counties. In New Englanil the county 
was a corporation which existed for judicial rather 
than for political purposes. The j)olitical unit was 
the town, which received its charter from the state 
legislature, elected its own officers, and managed its 
local affairs in its own way. 

In the iliddle states— New York, New Jersey, Penn- 
sylvania, and Delaware — the county was of much 



20 



A CENTURY OF POPUI^TION GRO^VTH. 



greater importance than in New England; on the 
other hand, the subdivision of the county called the 
township (except in Delaware, where it is called the 
hundred), was of less importance than the New Eng- 
land town. In New York the township was created 
by the county board; in New Jersey, by the state 
legislature; in Pennsylvania, by the county court of 
quarter sessions; in Delaware there appears not to 
have been any definite and systematic subdivision of 
the counties. New York adjoined New England, and 
a large part of the population of the state were per- 
sons who had migrated from that section, and natu- 
rally had carried with them the idea of the town sys- 
tem of local government; consequently, in 1790, the 
township limits in New York were better defined than 
those in any other state outside of New England, with 
the possible exception of New Jersey, the only Middle 
state in which the townsliip was created by the state. 
In Pennsylvania the township, as a geographic area, 
was less important than in New York. The principal 
maps of Pennsylvania at the period under consideration 
show the location of mountains and rivers in detail, the 
names of coimties, and the names of the more promi- 
nent towns and cities, but do not define the township 
boundaries. Population was increasing and extend- 
ing with great rapidity, existing townships were being 
subdivided, and new ones were being created. Under 
these conditions the boundaries of the townships in 
the more thinly settled portions were very unstable. 
In the Southern states the county was the political 
unit, fulfilling all the fimctions of both the county and 
town in New England. Subdivision into to^vnships 
was made for administrative purposes only; ' in some 
instances these subdivisions corresponded to the elec- 
tion precincts of the present day. 

CUERENCT. 

The close of the War of the Revolution found the 
finances of the country in almost hopeless confusion, 
and affairs had improved but little by 1790. There 
was no mint, and but httle specie, and much of the 
trade, especially in the interior, was carried on by 
barter. ^'Ul the coins in circulation were foreign, and 
many were badly worn and mutilated. 

The commonest coin was the Spanish "milled dol- 
lar," or "piece of eight," which was obtained in trade 
from the West Indies; after the Revolution tliis coin, 
with its subdivisions, was the recognized unit of 
account. The coins of Great Britain were in Kmited 
circulation in all the states, and reckoning was often 
in pounds, shillings, and pence; but because of the 

' In most of the county-system states the local subdivisions, by 
whatever name known, are created by the county authorities. 
They are but skeletons and exist only for convenience as districts 
for holding elections, for fixing the jurisdiction of the justice of the 
peace, or for determining the militia-company organization. Jus- 
tices of the peace and constables are found in these districts, but 
the districts are in no sense political organs. (Hinsdale: The 
American Government, page 404.) 



limited supply of Enghsh coins, and from other causes, 
the value of the potmd and shilling diflFered materially 
in the different states. Hence it was often necessary, 
in business transactions, to name the state of exchange. 
The principal gold coins in use, other than the British 
pieces, were the French guinea and pistole, the Portu- 
guese moidores and Johannes, or "joe," and the Spanish 
doubloon and pistole; but the number of these was 
small. The silver coins in circidation, besides British 
pieces and the Spanish dollar, were chiefly the crown 
and hvre of France. The copper coins were princi- 
pally those of Great Britain. The supply of fractional 
currency was inadequate to the demand, and silver 
pieces were often cut into halves and cjuarters in order 
to make change. 

In 1785 Congress adopted as the currency basis the 
silver dollar, on a decimal system, as exemphfied in the- 
Spanish dollar; and by 1790, in making exchanges, 
the value of all coins was quite generally referred to 
tliis standard. The system of reckoning in sliillings 
and pence, however, persisted in some places and with 
some people. The ecjuivalent of the dollar in New 
England and Virginia was 6 sliilUngs ; in New York and 
North Carolina, 8 sliillings; in South CaroUna, 32 i 
shillings ; in Georgia, 5 sliilhngs ; and in the four other 
colonies, 74 shilhngs. 

In addition to specie, there was a large amount of 
paper money in circulation. During the Revolution, 
and in the succeeding j'ears of the Continental period, 
both the Confederation and the individual states had 
made large issues of paper money, and, being unable 
to redeem it, had refimded now and then by new 
issues. This was never worth its face value, and stead- 
ily depreciated from the date of issue. In March, 1780, 
the Continental currency had fallen to such a point 
that one dollar in silver was worth 65 dollars in paper. 
"Not worth a continental" came to be the phrase used 
for anytlung practically worthless. There can be no 
doubt that this paper money had much to do with the 
demoralization of industry during the Continental 
period. A contemporary writer and close observer of 
the times — Peletiah Webster, of Philadelphia — says: 
"We have suffered more from this cause than from 
any other cause of calamity. It has lulled more men, 
perverted and corrupted the choicest interests of our 
country more, and done more injustice, than even the 
arms and artifices of our enemies." And again he says : 
"If it saved the state, it has violated the equity of our 
laws, corrupted the justice of our public administra- 
tion, enervated the trade, industry, and manufactures 
of our country, and gone far to destroy the morahty 
of our people." M. de Warville, in his travels in 
America in 1788, inveighed against the paper money 
of Rhode Island and New Jersey in tones no less 
uncertain. As a chmax to the whole. Congress even 
refused to accept its own paper money in payment of 
postage. 



21 

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THE UNITED STATES IX 1790. 



21 



In Virginia the lack of specie was supplied largely 
by ])aper currency called "tobacco money." Tliis 
was a genuine asset currency, the notes being sinijjly 
the ])ubUc warehouse receii)ts for the tobacco placed 
therein. They circulated freely in the state, according 
to the known value of the tobacco. 

In 1790 there were but three banks in the United 
States: The Bank of North America, established in 
the city of Philadeli)liia; the Bank of New York; and 
the Bank of Massachusetts, in Boston. Of these three, 
the first-named is the only one which had at any time 
a direct relation with the Federal Government. 

TRANSPORT.\TION. 

The common mode of travel before the Kevolution 
was by boat or horse. The river valleys are usually the 
portions of a country first settled, and in the newer 
portions of America travel was often by river routes. 
Many persons did not own carriages or wagons; incon- 
seiiuence, a considerable j)roportion of the ])0])ulation 
had no retiuirement for wagon roads. This was par- 
ticularly the case in the South, where the plantations 
were situated along the banks of navigable streams and 
products were marketed by boat. 

AVith the growth of the colonics, and an increasing 
recjuirement for intercommunication, the extension 
of stagectiach systems was very rapid, and became 
especially marked after the Revolution. As might be 
exju'ctetl, such extension was coincident with the 
opening of many new roads and the improvement of 
existing highways. In 1790, however, there remained 
many sections of the country in which there were n<i 
roads. On the nnips of the slates published during the 
last decade of the eighteenth century, no highways 
are shown in the eastern jiart of Maine, and but few 
in northern New England, northern and western New 
York, northwestern Pennsylvania, and throughout the 
mountainous regions of the South. Many highways 
were such in name only — often little more than bridle 
patlis or blazed trails running through otherwise 
unbroken wildernesses. Even the more ])retenlious 
roads were poor, and often impassable. Bridges were 
all but unknown in the tliinly settled portions; and 
in the fall and spring, when the rivers were covered 
with imsafe ice or were full of floating ice, travel was 
extremely dangerous. 

Between important towns, especially in New Eng- 
land, better conditioiis prevailed. From Boston, 
roads branched off in many directions. A broad liigh- 
waj- exte!ided westward tlirough Marlboro, Worces- 
ter, Spencer, and Springfield; another passed through 
Lynn, Salem, Portsmouth, and Portland, to the 
headwaters of the Kennebec; other roads led to 
Providence, Lowell, and Concord. Koads followed 
both banks of the Merrimac and Cormecticut rivers; 
and !ui important road ran from Concord and Ash- 
burnliam, Mass., tiu-ough Rutland. Vt., and along the 
76292—09 3 



eastern shore of Lake Champlain. Over these lugh- 
ways the products of the surrounding country for long 
distances were brought to Boston for export. 

The maps of Rhode Island and Coimecticut at this 
period present a network of highways. From Provi- 
dence a road skirted tlie western coast of Narragan- 
sett bay and followed the Sound to New York. In 
the Cormecticut valley, also, there were many 
important roads. 

In New York the Albany post road ran from New 
York city along the eastern bank of the Hudson river 
to .Ubany, and thence northward to Plattsburg and 
into Vermont. Through ^Vibany jjassed the western 
highway from Massachusetts to the Mohawk valley, 
over which, in 1790, numbers of emigrants journeved 
daily. In the wilds of western New 'iOrk this read 
dwindled to a trail, and as such continued to Fort 
Niagara. 

Across the state of New Jersey there were many 
roails, but the principal highway extended from New 
York through Newark, Ehzabethtown, and Bruns- 
wick to Trenton. ^\jiother road skirted the eastern 
anil southern shores of New Jersey. From Trenton 
a road passed through Burlington, Philadelpliia, 
Chester, Wilmington, Elkton, Havre de Grace, Balti- 
more, Alexandria, and then southward. 

Pliiladi'lphia was a common center of highways for 
a wide radius. This city was a great market for the 
sale of farm jjroduce; in the autumn and winter the 
highways were filled with heavily loaded wagons from 
the surrounding farms, bound for Philadelphia. The 
main roatl from Philadelphia westward passed through 
Lancaster, Ilarrisburg, Carhsle, Shijjpensburg, Bed- 
ford, and Pittsburg. Several other roads crossed or 
nearly crossed the state, converging at the mountain 
passes ami centering upon Pittsburg. 

The maps of the Southern states show many roads, 
but the most important were along the seacoast. 
Leaving ^Vlexandria, an important road ran through 
Fredericksburg and JamestowTi, Va., Hertford, New- 
bern, and Wilmington, N. C, Charleston, S. C, and 
Savamiah, Ga., thus completing a chain of highways 
from the Kennebec river to Georgia. 

Several roads crossed the mountain barriers of 
Virginia and North CaroUna to the West, those that 
were not lost on the banks of rivers being centered 
upon Lexington, Piinville, Clarksville, Knoxville, and 
Nashville. One of the most famous of these was the 
"Wilderness road," which passed tlirough the Cum- 
berland Gap. It was the only direct overland route 
into Kentucky, and was marked out by Daniel Boone. 
Not until 1795 was tliis road widened into a wagon 
track. 

Briilges over even the larger rivers were not com- 
mon, and the smaller streams were usually forded; 
but by 1790 numy bridges hud been built near the 
large cities and on the principal roads. The greatest 



22 



A CENTURY OF POPULATION GROWTH. 



engineering feat in the Republic was the bridge over 
the Charles river, connecting Boston and Charles- 
town. This bridge was built in 17S6, and was then 
the longest bridge in the workl. The Charles river 
was about as wide at that point as the Thames river 
at the famous London bridge. 

Stagecoaching days had not arrived at their zenith 
by 1790, but the stagecoach was fast coming to be the 
common mode of inland travel. The system was 
developed to the greatest extent in New England, 
where the population was comparatively dense. As 
early as 1765 there were two stage routes between 
Providence and Hartford. In 1769 a coach was 
announced between Hartford and Norwich, "a day's 
journey only," and two coaches a week between 
Providence and Boston, which journey also was accom- 
plished in a day. In 1793 there were daily stages 
between Boston and Providence, the fare being but a 
dollar. In 1790 stages ran between Newburyport and 
Boston three times a week in summer and twice a 
week in winter; between Boston and New York, by 
the way of Worcester, Springfield, and Hartford, 
three times a week in summer and twice a week in 
winter; between New York and Philadelphia, five 
times a week; between Philadelphia and Baltimore, 
and between Baltimore and Alexandria, three times 
a week; and between many other cities at less 
frequent intervals. 

Mr. Levi Pease started the first line of stages 
between Boston and New York shortly after the 
conclusion of peace in 1783.' He also obtained the 
first government contract within the United States 
for carrymg the mails by stage, and the first mail in 
this new service passed through Worcester on January 
17, 17S6.' 

The distance between Boston and New York was 
covered under ordinary conditions in four days, and 

'Stages from Portsmouth in New Hampshire, to Savannah in 
Georgia: 

There is now a line of stages established from New Hampshire to 
Georgia, which go and return regularly, and carry the several mails, 
by order and permission of Congress. 

The stages from Boston to Hartford in Connecticut set out, during 
the winter season, from the house of Levi Pease, at the sign of the 
New York Stage, opposite the Mall, in Boston, every Monday and 
Thursday morning, precisely at 5 o'clock, go as far as Worcester on 
the evenings of those days, and on the days following proceed to 
Palmer, and on the third day reach Hartford; the first stage reaches 
the city of New York on Saturday evening following. 

The stages from New York for Boston set out on the same days, 
and reach Hartford at the same time as the Boston stages. 

The stages from Boston exchange passengers with the stages 
from Hartford at Spencer, and the Hartford stages exchange wTth 
those from New York at Hartford. Passengers are again ex- 
changed at Stratford ferry, and not again until their arrival in New 
York. 

By the present regulation of the stages it is certainly the most 
convenient and expeditious way of traveling that can possibly be 
had in America, and in order to make it the cheapest, the proprie- 
tors of the stages have lowered their prices from four pence to tliree 
pence a mile, with liberty to passengers to carry fourteen pounds 
baggage. 

In the summer season the stages are to run with the mail three 
times in a week instead of twice, as in the winter, by which means 
those who take passage at Boston, in the stage which sets off on 



the time of the "diligence" between New York and 
Philadelphia was two days. Intelligence of Wash- 
ington's election to the Presidency of the United 
States, in New York, on April 7, 1789, was conveyed 
to him at Mt. Vernon by Charles Thomson, the clerk 
of Congress, on April 14. Washington died on 
December 14, 1799, and news of an event of such 
great interest was probably forwarded with all 
possible dispatch; yet this news did not reach Boston 
until December 24. 

The most traveled road in the country was doubt- 
less the liighway across New Jersey cormecting New 
York and Philadelphia. For most of the distance 
this road was kept in excellent repair. For part of 
the distance, from New York to Newark, it repre- 
sented considerable engineering enterprise, being 
built wholly of wood in the midst of water and "on a 
soil that trembled when stepped upon." The stage- 
coach used was a kind of open w^agon, hung with 
curtains of leather and woolen, which could be raised 
or lowered at pleasure. It had four benches and 
would seat twelve persons. Light baggage was put 
under the benches, and the trunks were attached 
behind. 

The highwa}' from Philadelphia to Baltimore was 
less traveled, and, because of the character of the soil, 
was often in an almost impassable condition.^ 

Samuel Breck, speaking of travel between New 
York and Boston in 1787, says: 

In those days there were two ways of getting to Boston: One way 
by a clumsy stage that travels about 40 miles a day, with the same 
horses the whole day; so that rising at 3 or 4 o'clock and prolonging 
the day's ride into the night, one made out to reach Boston in six 
days; the other route was by packet-sloop up the Sound to Provi- 
dence and thence by land to Boston. This was full of uncertainty, 
sometimes being traveled in three and sometimes in nine days. 
I myself have been that length of time (nine days) going from N^W 
York to Boston. 

Monday morning, may arrive at New York on the Thursday evening' 
following, and all the mails during that season are to be but four 
days going from Boston to New York, and so from New York to 
Boston. 

Those who intend taking passage in the stages must leave their 
names and baggage the evening preceding the morning that the 
stage sets off, at the several places where the stages put up, and pay 
one-half of their passage to the place where the first exchange of 
passengers is made, if bound so far, and if not, one-half of their 
passage so far as they are bound. 

N. B. — Way passengers will be accommodated when the stages 
are not full, at the same rate, viz, 3 pence only per mile. 

Said Pease keeps good lodging, etc., for gentlemen travelers, and 
stabling for horses. 

Boston, January 2, 1786. — Massachusetts Spy, or the Worcester 
Gazette, January 5, 1786. 

- Alice Morse Earle: Stage Coach and Tavern Days, pages 295 toij 
297. ' " 

^ A Frenchman who made a journey from Philadelphia to 
Baltimore in November, 1788, thus describes a portion of his trip: 
"From thence (Havre de Grace) to Baltimore are reckoned 60 
miles. The road in general is frightful, it is over a clay soil, full 
of deep ruts, always in the midst of forests; frequently obstructed 
by trees overset by the wind, which obliged us to seek a new pas- 
sage among the woods. I can not concei\-e why the stage does not 
often overset. Both the drivers and their horses discover great 
skill and dexterity, being accustomed to these roads." — Brissot de 
Warville: Travels in the United States of America (118S). 



THE UNITED STATES IX 1790. 



23 



At that time there was scarcely a town along the 
coast of Rhode Island, Connecticut, and New Jersey 
that was not connected by sailing sloops ^vith New 
York. The fare from Providence tn New York bv 
packet was $6. From ports in New' England, sloops 
made frequent trips to Boston; and from the southern 
ports, to the nearest princijial cities. All through the 
advertisements in the newspapers of that period were 
notices of the regular or occasional sailings of sloops 
to different seacoast towns. These sloops had ac- 
commodations for passengers, and were generally com- 
fortable, but with head winds the time of arrival was 
very imcertain. Meals were charged for at high rates — 
sometimes in excess of the fare; and it was often 
claimed that the skipper delayed the voyage when 
there were many passengers, in order to profit at their 
expense. 

THE POSTAL SERVICE. 

The post office system established during the Conti- 
nental period was continued when the Federal Govern- 
■ nient was established. This .system was based upon 
an "Ordinance for Regulating the Post Office of the 
United States of America," passed by the Continental 
Congress, October IS, 17cS2. In 1790 there were 75 
post offices and 1,875 miles of post roads; for the first 
quarter of that year the receipts were S37,9.'55 and the 
expenditures $32,140, wliich left a surplus of .$5,795. 

The main post road ran from Wiscasset, Me., through 
Boston. Springfield, Hartford, New York, Pliiladclphia, 
Baltimore, Alexandria, Wilmington, and Charleston, 
to Savannah. With this as a main system, crossroads 
branched off, connecting the principal settlements: 
but a large number of important towns, and even 
entire states, had no communication by post. Many 
of the post roads were marked by milestones, set up 
when Franklin was Postmaster-General, to assist the 
postmasters in ascertaining the postage. Indeed, 
some of these milestones are still in existence. 

Most of the mail was carried by stages, the Post- 
master-General being instructed to favor stage lines 
in awarding contracts.' The onh* portions of the main 
system served by postriders were from Wisca.sset, Me., 
to Newburyport, Mass., and from Georgetown, S. C, to 
Charleston, S. C. Postriders still rode, however, on 
several of the crossroads. 

'"The mail is now carried in Btagecoachea in which there are 
generally several passengers, sometimes as many as six, and it is 
supposed that many more letters go by the passengers than by the 
mail ; it is to be supposed that mo.'it persons would wish to be excused 
from the trouble of carr>ing these letters, and if this section pa.s.«os 
they will be furnished with an excuse for not taking them; and it 
appears very unreasonable and absurd that the public should pay 
the proprietors of the stage,'' for transporting the mail, and in this 
way be defrauded out of that revenue which they arc undoubtedly 
entitled to receive." — Mr. Livermorc, of House of Representatives, 
June, ITJO. 



At this time there were about twenty different con- 
tracts for carrying the mail, and this had a tendency to 
confuse the system.* The Postmaster-General states, 
in a report submitted to Congress in 1790, that "every 
contractor consults his own interest as to the days and 
hours of arrival and departure of the mail, without 
having a due regard to the necessary connection of the 
post office. A regular system of days and hours of 
departure has never been established farther south- 
ward than Alexandria." 

The revenue of the post office at this period arose 
"principally from letters passing from one seaport to 
another." The amount of postage depended upon the 
distance the letter was to be carried. The postage on 
letters was usually collected at the place of delivery, 
but the postmaster had authority to collect it at the 
place of posting if he desired to do so. 

In 1787 the postage on letters established in the 
ordinance of 1782 was reduced 25 per cent, and the 
Postmaster-General was instructed to fix such rates 
for the carriage of large packages as he judged would 
be most likely to induce persons to j)atronize the post. 
These rates contiimcd in force until 1792. 

It has been asserted bj^ many historians that news- 
papers were not sent by post at this period, but the 
ordinance quoted seems to make provision for them to 
be so sent. Moreover, the Postmaster-General states 
that "newspapers, which have hitherto passed free of 
postage, circulate extensively llirough the post offices; 
one or two cents upon each woidd probably amount to 
as much as the expense of transporting the mail." 

By a law approved February- 20, 1792, the following 
rates of postage went into effect: For the postage of 
every single letter — imder 30 miles, 6 cents; 30 to 60 
miles, 8 cents; 60 to 100 miles, 10 cents; 100 to 150 
miles, 12§ cents; 150 to 200 miles, 15 cents; 200 to 250 
miles, 17 cents; 250 to 350 miles, 20 cents; 350 to 450 
miles, 22 cents ; over 450 miles, 25 cents. ' ' i\jid every 
double letter shall pay double the said rates; every 
triple letter, triple; ever}' packet weighing one oimce 
avoirdupois, to pay at the rate of four single letters for 

^ "No letters from the northward or eastward of this, bearing 
dale between the l.'ith and 301h of May, have come to my bands; 
and having abundant evidence, before I reached Charleston, of the 
slow movement of the mail, through the three southernmost states, 
I did, before I left that place, on the 9th of that month, direct that 
all letters which might be for and following me, be relumed to 
Fredericksburg, as the first place I should touch the jmst line upon 
my return. But, these directions not arriving in Richmond in 
time, as I conjecture, the letters of that interval agreeably to the 
superscriptions, which I am informed were on them, were forwarded 
from that place to Taylor's Ferry in expectation of meeting me there. 
But to this circumstance, whicfi was unknown to me, and to finding 
from better information than I set out with, that it would be more 
convenient to cross James river higher up than at Taylor's, is to be 
ascribed my missing the communications, which were made be- 
tween the \'i\\i and 30th of May, as mentioned before. These 
dispatches I may be long without, and perhaps never get ; for there 
are no cross posts in those parts, and the letters, which will have to 
pass through manv hands, may find some who are not deficient iu 
curiosity." — The \Vrilings of George Washington, Vol. XII, page 45, 



POST OFFICES IN THE UNITED STATES, 1790. 




THE UNITED STATES IN 1790. 



25 



each ounce, and in that proportion for any greater 
weight." 

The rate on newspapers was fixed at one cent for 
carriage under 100 miles, and one and one-half cents 
for a greater distance. But every printer of news- 
papers was allowed to send one paper free to each and 
every other printer of newspapers witiiin the United 
States, subject to such regulations as the Postmaster- 
General should provide. These rates continued until 
1S16. The franking privilege at this time was quite 
extensive, and undoubtedly made serious inroads upon 
the revenue. 

Postage could not be paid in paper currency; specie 
alone was receivable. As the coins in the different 
states varied, tiic payment was attended with some 
confusion. The Postmaster-General, in his report to 
Congress in 1790, states that " the postage on a single 
letter from New York to Philadelphia is one penny- 
weight eight grains, or sixpence two-thirds Penns\'l- 
vania currency. This can not be made out in any 
pieces of coin current in the United States. The 
letters are charged with seven pence, which is right; for 
if there must be a fraction, it ougiit always to be taken 
in favor of the post office." He further stated that 
the postage on letters probably averaged about fifteen 
cents. 

The 75 post offices which had been established up 
to 1790 were distributed as follows: 

Maine. — Wiscasset, Portland. 

New Hampshire. — Portsmouth. 

MassachiiselU. — Newburyport, Ipswich, Salem, Boston, Worces- 
ter, Springfield. 

Rhode Island. — Providence, Newport, East Greenwich, South 
Kingstown. 

Connecticut. — Hartford, Middletown, New Haven, Stratford, 
Fairfield, Norwalk, Stamford, New London, Norwich. 

Nciv York. — New York. 

New Jersey. — Newark, Elizabeth town, Brunswick, Princeton, 
Trenton. 

Pennsylvania. — Bristol, Philadelphia, Chester, Lancaster, York- 
town, Carlisle, Shippensburg, Chambersburg, Bedford, Pittsburg. 

Delaware. — Wilmington, Duck Creek, Dover. 

Maryland. — Elkton, Charlestown, Havre de Grace, Harford, Bal- 
timore, Bladensburg, Georgetown, Warwick, Georgetown Cross 
Roads, Chestertown, Chester Mills, Easton. 

Virginia. — Alexandria, Colchester, Dumfries, Fredericksburg, 
Bowling Green, Hanover Court House, Kichmond, Petersburg, 
Cabinpoint, Smithfield, Suffolk, Williamsburg, Yorktown, Hamp- 
ton, Norfolk. 

North Carolina. — Edenton, Washington, Newbern, Wilmington. 

South Carolina. — Georgetown, Charleston. 

Georgia. — Savannah. 

It appears from this analysis that the state of Ver- 
mont, the district of Kentucky, and the Southwest 
Territory (Tennessee) possessed no postal facilities 
whatever; and that three states, including the promi- 
nent state of New York, had but one post office each. 
It is evident, however, that the postal conditions at 
the date of the First Census were generally regarded as 
inadequate and imsuited to the requirements of the 
country. The act of 1792, which was an attempt to 



effect a material improvement in the postal conditions, 
resulted in the prompt increase in the number of post 
offices. The number reported by the Post Office 
Department in 1796 was 503. 

Analysis of the geographic location of the post offices in existence in 

1790. 



United SUtes.. 
N'ew England states. 



Maine 

New Hampshire. 

\'crrnont 

.Ma-ssachusetts 

lihode Island 

Connecticut 



Middle states. 



New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania.. 
Delaware 



Southern states. 



Maryland 

Virginia 

West Virginja 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Georgia 

Kentucky 

Southwest Territory. 



75 



19 

1 

S 
10 
3 

34 

12 

15 

4 
2 
1 



It will be observed that in 1790 just about half of 
the post offices were situated in the Southern states. 
An analysis of the larger number reported in 1796 
shows a similar proportion, suggesting an apparent 
desire on the part of the Federal Government to main- 
tain equal postal facilities in the various sections of 
the Republic. 

INDUSTRIES. 

During the period of constitutional government in 
the United States the inhabitants of the Republic 
have derived their support, and individuals tiiid com- 
munities have accumulated wealth, principally from 
three main classes of industries — agriculture, manu- 
factures, and mining. To these should be added the 
fisheries, and also commerce — both interstate and 
foreign ; the last-named class, however, depends largely 
upon the products of the other callings. 

The conditions which prevailed in 1790 in connec- 
tion with each of these great industries were the be- 
ginnings of the operations which, steadily increasing 
in magnitude during the nineteenth centurj^ have 
attained proportions that have attracted the attention 
and admiration of other nations. 

Problems which were confronted at that period in 
connection with marketing foodstuffs and merchan- 
dise were entirely different from those which prevailed 
after the lapse of a few decades. In the interior, 
laborious journeys by horse or in stage or wagon, 
along newly broken highways, formed the solo means 
of communication by land. Water transportation was 
afforded by sailing vessels making trips which were 
usually without schedule and almost alwaj's uncertain. 
Hence, each state depended principally upon its own 



26 



A CENTURY OF POPULATION GROWTH. 



products not only for food, but for most of the other 
requirements of its communities. 

Merchandise and produce that could not stand a freight charge 
of $15 per ton could not be carried overland to a consumer 150 miles 
from the point of production; as roads were, a distance of 50 miles 
h-om market often made industrial independence expedient. WTiere 
the produce of the farms could not be sold, where wood and lumber 
were not marketable, the people had no resource but to raise their 
own wool and flax, and spin and weave and make their own clothing. 
Other crafts felt these influences, although the working of wood and 
metals and leather fell to skilled artisans in the villages rather than 
to the household. The local store had a small traflic in articles that 
could not be produced, and in luxuries. Salt fish was widely dis- 
tributed; rum went everywhere; salt was a universal necessity; 
tools and utensils and furniture were imported; a few articles of 
dress carried the style of the city to the hamlet, so insignificant 
was the traffic uniting the country town to the great world.' 

In all callings the changes which have been in prog- 
ress from 1790 to 1900 have been in the direction of 
the utihzation of the services of others and the em- 
ployment of labor saving machinery to incfease prod- 
uct and the profit of the employer. These changes 
have been particularly marked in connection with 
manufacturing and mining enterprises. In commerce — 
a calling in which the services of others were freely 
employed at the close of the eighteenth century — the 
change in this particidar has been much less pro- 
nounced. 

Although the commerce of the United States has 
assumed enormous proportions during the century or 
more which has elapsed since 1790, the greatest de- 
velopment of the nation has been in the three main 
classes of occupations — agriculture, manufactures, and 
mining. In fact, analysis of the population statis- 
tics of the United States in 1900 shows that of the 
30,000,000 persons engaged in gainful occupations, 
approximately 20,100,000, or 67 per cent, claimed 
some connection with one of these three classes. 

It is unfortunate that tliere are no industrial statis- 
tics for 1790. It is possible, however, to sketch with 
some degree of accuracy the relative importance to the 
community of each of the industries mentioned as a 
source of subsistence and wealth. 

Agriculture. — The economic conditions wliich pre- 
vailed in 1790 present a marked contrast with those 
which have developed since and wliich prevailed univer- 
sally in 1900. In 1900 the proportion of those engaged 
in agriculture was ordy about one-tliird of all persons 
gainfully employed. At the close of the eighteenth 
century the greater part of the inhabitants of the 
United States derived their support from this industry. 
It is probable that nine out of every ten breadwinners 
were engaged in some form of agriculture during the 
greater part of the year; indeed, in the Southern states 
the proportion was somewhat larger. 

Horses, cattle, and swine, in numbers proportionate 
to the needs of the population, were raised in every 

'Wilbert Lee Anderson: The Country Town, page 20. 



State. Sheep were raised principally in the New Eng- 
land and Middle states. The principal wheat pro- 
ducing state was Pennsylvania. The staple crop of 
Maryland, Virginia, and North CaroUna was tobacco, 
and that of South Carohna was rice. Cotton was 
but little cultivated. Some hemp and flax were 
raised in the New England and Middle states. 

The more thrifty and capable citizens engaged in 
agriculture in 1790 were doubtless obtaining a modest 
return, but it is unhkely that any large fortunes were 
being amassed from distinctly agricultural operations. 
In the South, it is true, some planters owned very large 
plantations and large numbers of slaves; but it is 
probable that few individuals had acquired great 
wealth. In the North slave labor was unprofitable 
for numerous reasons; thus it came about that in the 
Northern states nearly every farmer tilled liis own land, 
and, not being able to secure labor when he wanted 
it, was unable to accumulate wealth by utihzing sys- 
tematically the services of others. 

Manufactures. — During the Colonial period the 
mother country had discouraged the ambitions of 
the colonists in the direction of manufactures. At 
that time Great Britain was upon the threshold of the 
extraordinary industrial activity which developed dur- 
ing the nineteenth century; it was obviously to her 
advantage to prevent the colonies from securing inde- 
pendence in manufactures, in order to maintain and 
extend the market for her own products. During the 
Kevolution this source of supply was suddenly cut off, 
and under the pressure of necessity many manufac- 
turing enterprises sprang up in the rebelhous colonies. 
Upon the conclusion of peace in 1783, however, the 
EngUsh manufacturers flooded the American market 
with their manufactured products. Tliis state of. 
affairs for a time embarrassed and discouraged native 
manufacturers. 

At the period under consideration manufactures in 
the United States consisted almost entirely of neigh- 
borhood industries, or hand trades. The modern 
factory system, involving division of labor and the 
employment of labor saving macliinery, was prac- 
tically unknown. In several of the shoe shops of 
Lynn and other New England cities, some division of , 
labor had been introduced, but for the most part each I 
workman made an entire shoe. Practically the same 
conditions obtained in other branches of manufacture. 

In January, 1790, when President Washington de- 
hvered his first annual message to Congress, he was 
clad in a suit made of broadcloth woven at Hartford, 
Conn. In this message the subject of the promotion 
of manufactures in the young Repubhc was com- 
mended to the attention of Congress, and in pursuance 
of tliis suggestion Congress requested the Secretary of 
the Treasury to prepare a report upon the state of 
manufacturing industries, in order to render the United 
States industrially independent of other nations, so 



THE UNITED STATES IX 1790. 



27 



far as practicable. In accordance ^vith this request 
Alexander Hamilton, Secretary of the Treasury, in the 
following year (1791) submitted to Congress a report 
which added materially to his reputation as a states- 
man. This report was twice reprinted by order of 
Congress. 

Already the ingenuity of the citizens of the United 
States had created, here and there in the New England 
and Middle states, infant industries which subsequently 
developed far beyond the dreams of that period. 
Indeed, the number of specific industries noted as in 
existence in 1790 was more than double the number of 
those which were known to have existed prior to the 
Revolution. 

ilr. Tench Coxe, the Assistant Secretary of the 
Treasury, estimated the value of manufactures in the 
United States in 1790 at more than .$20,000,000. 
Three years later he reported that the value of manu- 
factures was, in his opinion, double the value of the 
exports of native commodities, and much greater than 
the value of all imports.' 

A large proportion of the manufactured goods in- 
cluded by Secretary Hamilton and Mr. Coxe was pro- 
duced in households. In many villages and upon 
farms, during periods of the year in which their services 
were not actively required in agricultural pursuits, en- 
tire families devoted their time to spinning, weaving, 
and making up coarse cloths. It was estimated that in 
many locaHties from two-thirds to four-fiftlis of the 
clothing of the inhabitants was made by themselves. 
The primary demand for such products was of course 
domestic, but a large surplus found its way into the 
markets. 

The textile industry had made but a small beginning 
in 1790. Because of competition with the factory 
product of England, where the making of textiles had 
already reached a high degree of perfection, the prog- 
ress of the manufacturers in the young Republic was 
slow and discouraging. A cotton mill was established 
at Beverly, Mass., in 1787, but did not long survive. 
In Rhode Island, however, Samuel Slater, who had 
emigrated from England, constructed at Pawtucket a 
factory with macliinery on the English plan. This es- 
tablishment was a success from the outset, and formed 
the first successful cotton mill in the United States. 
Thereafter the growth of textile industries was steadily 
away from household toward factory product. 

In 1790 the shipbuilding industry had attained con- 
siderable proportions. The success of this industry 
was, in large measure, due to the facilities for the con- 
struction of vessels and ships of all sizes, resulting from 
excellent harbors, with timber growing to the water's 
edge. Mr. Coxe observed in 179.3 that the shipbuilding 
industry in the United States had growTi more rapidly 
in 1792 than in any prior j'ear since the settlement of 
the country. Generally speaking, shipbuilding had 

' First Century of the Republic (Harper'a), page 161. 



never been better understood and had never been 
carried to greater perfection, than at that period and 
in the early decades of the nineteenth century. 

Manufactures of iron, also, were of considerable im- 
portance. In 1790 this industry centered in the Mid- 
dle states and Virginia, though considerable quantities 
of manufactured iron were produced in Massachusetts, 
where in 1784 there were 70 iron works — most of which, 
however, were small. In a debate in the House of 
Representati%es in the First Congress, while a tariff 
upon spikes, nails, etc., was under consideration, Rep- 
resentative Ames, of Massachusetts, said : "This manu- 
facture, with very little encouragement, has grown up 
remarkably. It has become common for the country 
people in Massachusetts to erect small forges in their 
chimney comers, and in winter, and on evenings when 
little other work can be done, great quantities of nails 
are made, even by chiklren. These people take the 
rod iron of the merchant and return him the nails, and 
in consequence of this easy mode of barter the manu- 
facture is prodigiously great. These advantages are 
not exclusively in the hands of the people of Massa- 
chusetts. The business might be prosecuteil in a simi- 
lar manner in every state exerting equal industry." 

Paper making was pursued extensively in several of 
the states. In 1790 there were 53 paper mills witlun 
range of the Philadelphia market. In the First Con- 
gress it was stated in debate that the paper mills of 
Pennsylvania produced annually 70,000 reams of vari- 
ous kinds of paper, which competed favorably ^^•ith 
the imported product. 

Glass was manufactured in consiilerable quantities 
in several of the states, among wliich Virginia was 
prominent. The manufacture of boots and shoes, the 
curing and dressing of fish, the production of soap, of 
tobacco products, and of various articles of necessity, 
utility, or comfort were well under way. But at that 
period little or nothing was manufactured in the 
United States solely for luxury or elegance. 

Mining. — At the close of the eighteenth century the 
mineral resources of the United States, as thej* are 
known to-day and have been known for many years, 
were practically unsuspected. Probably no section of 
tlie continent is richer in mineral resources than that 
including Pennsylvania, West Mrginia, and portions 
of contiguous states; yet the inhabitants of the United 
States in 1790 had no loiowledge of the great natural 
wealth of these areas. The existence of petroleum in 
Pennsylvania and of extensive deposits of coal and iron 
in that state and in Virginia was kno^vn, and iron 
works were numerous in many states ; but little of the 
coal was mined, and the use and value of petroleum 
were unknowTi. 

This ignorance concerning the mineral resources of 
the country, however; is not surprising; the territory 
containing the greatest mineral wealth was either 
thinly settled or an unexplored wilderness. Nor is it 
siu-prising that the mineral resources known to exist 



28 



A CENTURY OF POPULATION GROWTH. 



were not developed. Mining operations as understood 
to-day were unkno\\Ti,and the mining and treatment of 
ores was conducted in the most primitive fashion. The 
steam engine had not yet become the servant of the 
miner, either at the mine or upon rails. Indeed, the 
cost of transportation was so great that mining was 
improfitahle unless conducted near large cities or 
waterways. 

Coal was consumed in the United States in very 
small quantities. Ignorant of the vast stores of this 
mineral which underlie entire counties, those who re- 
quired coal imported it. The quantity brought into 
the coimtry during the year ending September .30, 1790, 
was 183,677 bushels. But bituminous coal was being 
mined at Spottsylvania, in the Richmond basin, in Vir-' 
srinia, and bv 17S9 some of this found its wav into the 
northern markets; in 1789 Virginia coal sold in Phila- 
delphia at Is. 6d. a bushel. Bituminous coal was 
mined, or rather shoveled, from the earth, also, in the 
Pittsburg district in Pennsylvania; but none of this 
found its way across the mountains. Seams of anthra- 
cite had been discovered at Wilkes-Barre, Plymouth, 
Kingston, and Exeter, in Luzerne county, and at sev- 
eral places in Schuylkill county. Pa., and along the 
Hudson river, in New York. Some smiths are said to 
have used this material in their forges, but the value 
of anthracite as a fuel was practically unknown.' A 
newspaper of the time stated that these seams might 
some day become valuable on accovmt of the possible 
existence of fossils embedded in them. 

Iron ore was mined in the American colonies as 
early as the seventeenth century. Practically all of the 
American product was made with charcoal. In 1790 
the production of iron in this country appeared to be 
fully equal to the consumption. The exports of pig 
iron in that year amounted to 3,555 tons. 

Iron was mined in nearly every state. Bog and 
pond ores were obtained in eastern Massachusetts; 
rich iron ore was minetl at Cumberland Hill, R. I., at 
Lime Rock and other places in Connecticut, in Orange 
county, N. Y., and in many places in New Jersey, 
Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia. 

Morris county, N. J., was particularly prominent in 
the production of iron. Mr. J. M. Swank quotes from 
Jedediah Morse the following record of iron enterprises 
which were in existence in New Jersey between 1790 
and 1795: 

The iron manufactories are, of all others, the greatest source of 
wealth to the state. Iron works are erected in Gloucester, Bur- 
lington, Morris, and other counties. The mountains in the county 
of Morris give rise to a number of streams necessary and convenient 
for these works, and at the same time furnish a copious supply of 
wood and ore of a superior quality. In this county alone are no less 
than seven rich iron mines, from which might be taken ore suffi- 



■ "In 1812 Col. George Shoemaker, of Pottsville, Pa., loaded nine 
wagons with coal from his mines at Centreville and hauled it to 
Philadelphia, where with great difficulty he sold two loads at the 
cost of transportation and gave the other seven loads away. He was 
by many regarded as an impostor for attempting to sell stone as 
coal." — /. M. Swank: Iron tn All Ages, page 474. 



cient to supply the United States; and to work it into iron, are two 
furnaces, two rolling and slitting mills, and about thirty forges, 
containing from two to four fires each. These works produce annu- 
ally about 540 tons of bar iron, 800 tons of pigs, besides large quan- 
tities of hollow ware, sheet iron, and nail rods. In the whole state 
it is supposed there is yearly made about 1,200 tons of bar iron, 1,200 
ditto of pigs, 80 ditto of nail rods, exclusive of hollow ware and va- 
rious other castings, of which vast quantities are made. Steel was 
manufactured at Trenton in time of the war, but not considerably 
since. - 

In Pennsylvania rich deposits of iron were known 
to exist in at least 11 of the 22 counties, and consider- 
able quantities of pig iron were produced in Berks, 
Chester, Dauphin, Franklin, Lancaster, Mifflin, and 
Washington counties. 

In "Notes on the State of Virginia," written in 1781 
and 1782, Thomas Jeflferson mentioned several iron 
mines on the south side of the James river and at other 
places in the state, and estimated the annual output 
of the mines of that state at approximately 5,000 tons. 

Lead was found in Herkimer county, N. Y., and in 
the moimtains of Virginia, but the quantity produced 
was small. The area wliich is now southwestern Mis- 
souri, but which in 1790 was not a part of the United 
States, contained lead mines of considerable impor- 
tance at that period ; from about the middle of the 
eighteenth century to the year 1800 the output of these 
mines is said to have aggregated 8,000 tons. 

Several attempts had been made to mine gold, sil- 
ver, and copper in different states; but for the most 
part they were financial failures and were soon aban- 
doned. Copper mines in Connecticut, New Jersey, 
and Maryland had been worked intermittently during 
the eighteenth century; but none were in operation 
in 1790, with the possible exception of one at Belle- 
ville, N. J. 

Montgomery county, N. Y., supplied small amounts 
of sulphur, and caves of Virginia considerable quan- 
tities of saltpeter. 

Fisheries.— In 1790 the United States had 539 ves- 
sels and 3,287 seamen engaged in the cod fishery, all 
in Massachusetts — Marblehead and Gloucester being 
the leading towns in this industry. 

The whaling industry, also, was confined almost en- 
tirely to Massachusetts. Whaling operations were 
carried on principally in the waters of the North At- 
lantic, as far as Greenland. The sperm whale of the 
South Atlantic was but little hunted at this period. 
It was not, indeed, imtil a few j^ears later that the 
whaling industry assumed large proportions. 

Only about 40 whaling vessels were fitted out each 
year, most of them from Dartmouth (which then in- 
cluded New Bedford), Wellflcet and other Cape Cod 
ports, and Nantucket. Probably less than 1,000 sea- 
men were employed; but the industry gave rise to 
dependent industries, which afforded employment to 
a considerable number in addition. 

-J. M. Swank, Iron in All Ages, page 162. 



THE UNITED STATES IN 1790. 



29 



The cod and whale fisheries represented almost the 
whole fishing industry in 1790, though herring were 
caught on the New England coast, and oysters were 
gathered in the South for local consumption. 

The total tonnage of the fishing vessels of each state 
is given in Table 5, on page 30. 

Commerce. — Attention has already been called to the 
fact that by 1790 the shipbuilding industry had 
attained considerable proportions in the United States. 
At first the ships constructed wore disposed of in 
England. In time, however, the colonies awoke to 
the possibilities of profitable trade, and a maritime 
class arose, bringing about an extensive interchange 
of products between the inhabitants of North America 
and those of other lands. 

In 1790 commerce offered the most promising field 
for the profitable investment of capital, and was the 
chief outlet for business ability and capacity. It also 
affordeil the ])rincipal opportunity for the accumu- 
lation of great indivndual wealth. John Jacob Astor 
had already acquired, in the fur trade, a fortune 
(amounting to 81,000,000) of great magnitude for 
that period. In all the large seaboard towns were to 
be found merchants who owned vessels plying to 
foreign ports. In these ships they transported mer- 
chandise, either on their own account or on that of 
others. Many of the merchants in Boston, New 
York, and Philadelphia had amassed fortunes which 
enabled them to live in a style of luxury and elegance ; 
John Hancock, of Boston, and Stephen Girard, of 
Philadelphia, were examples of this class of citizens. 

The prosperity of the mercantile and commercial in- 
terests of the colonies had not been viewed with favor 
in England. Many restrictions were placed by the 
British Government upon the commerce of the col- 
onies. But in the face of these restrictions — many of 
which were often disregarded — the colonies had suc- 
ceeded in maintaining a considerable commerce up to 
the beginning of the Revolutionary War. This con- 
test brought disaster to the commercial interests of the 
country, especially to the commercial state of Rhode 
Island and to many ports in other New England states. 
After tiie conclusion of peace, the volume of commerce 
grew rapidly, but the centers of commercial prosperity 
did not continue the same as thej^ were before the war. 

By the close of the eighteenth century the com- 
merce of the young Republic had greatly increased. 
American vessels had pushed to the Orient and to the 
coasts of Africa, and had established a profitable trade 
with tho.se regions. 

The following extract affords an idea of the com- 
mercial activities of the time: 

Our public papers vaunt the magnificence of the European 
nations, who make discoveries and voyages round the world; the 
Americans do the same thing; but they boast not of their exploits 
with 80 much emphasis. In September, 1790, the ship Columbia, 



Captain Gray, sailed to discover the northwest of this continent; 
this is his second voyage round the world; the brig Hope has sailed 
for the same object. Our papers have resounded with the quarrels 
of the English and Spaniards for the commerce of Nootka Sound. 
The Americans make no quarrels; but they have already made a 
considerable commerce on the same coast in furs and peltry. They 
were there trading in the year 1789, in good intelligence with both 
parties. In the same year no less than forty-four vciwels were sent 
from the single town of Boston to the northwest of .\nierifa, to India, 
and to China. They bound not their hopes here; they expect, one 
day, to open a communication more direct to Nootka Sound. It is 
probable that this place is not far from the headwater of the Missis- 
sippi; which the Americans will soon navigate to its source, when 
they shall begin to people Louisiana and the interior of New 
Mexico.' 

According to American State Papers, the imports 
into and exports from the United States for the fiscal 
year ending September 30, 1790, were each valued at 
a little over §20,000,000, or about 85 per capita. Ex- 
ports to the value of .Sr),«!S8,97S.50 were sent to Great 
Britain and Ireland; to the value of 82,077,757.50, to 
the British West Indies ; and to the value of $3,284,656, 
to the French West Indies. 

The principal imports into the country subject to 
dutj'^ during the same period, in order of value, were 
distilled spirits, wines, molasses, sugar, cofi'ee, tea, 
salt, nails and spikes, steel (unwrought), candles, 
cheese, and soap. 

The principal articles of export for that year, ar- 
ranged according to value, were Hour, tobacco, rice, 
wheat, corn, dried fish, potash, indigo, staves and 
heading, horses, meal, beef, and boards. 

The changes in the value of ftireign commerce be- 
tween 1790 and 1907 are indicated in the following 
table: 





IMPORTS. 


EXPORTS. 


YEAR. 


Total. 


Per 
capita. 


Total. 


Per 
capita. 


1790' 


»$20.000.000 
1,434,«1,425 


»5.09 
1G.S5 


>$20.205,!56 

1,880.851,078 


tS. 14 


1907 


21.60 







' August. 1789. to Soplemher 30, 1790. 

• The value of Imports subject to ad valorem duties was $15,388,409.11. The 
American Stale Papers do not plve the value of those which were subject to specific 
duties and those wliich were free, but responsible historians have stated that the 
value of the total iniporls for 1790 w;is sliRhtly in e.wess of t20.000.0e0. 

• Tench Coxe, the Assisiant Secretary of the Treasury under Washington, Id 
making his report on the value of the exports for the fiscal year 1790, says: "In 
addition to tlie foregoing, a consideral>ie numljer of pacliages'have been exported 
from the United States, the value of which, being omitted in the returns from the 
custom-houses, couid not be introduced into this abstract." 

It will be observed that the changes in per capita 
averages in a century amounted to a threefoUl increase 
in imports and more than a fourfold increase in 
exports. 

The following data as to the tonnage of .American 
and foreign vessels entering the ports of the United 
States in 1790 are taken from Burnaby's Travels:* 

'M. de VVarville, Travels in North America, 1791. 
^ Bi'rnaby's Travels through North Americja, third edition, Ap- 
pendix No. 2. 



A CENTURY OF POPULATION GROWTH. 



30 

T.BiE 5 -TONNAGE OP VESSELS WHICH ENTERED THE PORTS OF THE UNITED STATES DURING THE YEAR 

ENDING SEPTEMBER 30, 1790, BY STATE OF ENTRY. 



United States. 



New Hampshire. 
Massac liusetts... 
Rhode Island'... 

Connecticut 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 

Delaware 

Maryland 



Principal ports. 



Portsmouth 

Boston, Salem 

Newport 

New Haven, New London. 
New York 



Philadelphia. 



Baltimore. 



Virpnia Norfolk. .Alexandria 

XTrtrfh r'Qr/^IinQ2 Wilmington. Npwbp 



North Carolina 
South Carolina' 
Georgia 



Wilmington, Newbern. 

Charleston 

Savannah 



TONNAGE OF VESSELS B ELONGING TO— 



766,091 



17,011 

197,368 

9,842 

33, 173 

92,114 

5,861 

109,918 

5,924 

88.255 

103,893 

35, 126 

40. 361 

27,245 



United States. 



Total. 



502,526 



13,519 
177,022 

9.526 
30,617 
48, 274 

5.614 
66, 997 

4,142 
55,431 
43.529 
29,941 
17.380 
10, 634 



Vessels in 

the over-sea 

trade. 



Coasting 

vessels of 

over 20 tons. 



363,093 

11, 376 

99, 123 

7,062 
24,287 
42, 071 

2,085 
50, 942 

2,681 
39.272 
33, 500 
24,218 
10.872 

9,544 



113,181 



Fishing 
vessels. 



26,252 

473 

24,826 

838 



United 
States 
with some 
foreign 
country. 



Foreign countries. 



Total. 



202, 914 



3,492 

20, 346 

316 

2,556 

43,840 

347 

52,270 

1,782 
32,824 
60.364 

5,185 
22, 981 
16,611 



Great 

Britain and 

Ireland 



225,495 



3,459 

19,493 

96 

2,556 

36, 917 

267 

42,604 

1,782 
23, 340 
56,273 

4,942 
18,725 
15,041 



All other. 



37,419 



33 
853 
220 



6,923 

80 

9,666 



9,484 
4,091 
243 
4,256 
1,570 



1 Returns from June 21, 1790. 

- Returns from March 11, 1790. 

' Returns for Charleston are for three-fourths of the year only. 



The ports of Massachusetts show a larger total 
tonnage and also a larger tonnage of linited States 
vessels (both over-sea and coastwise) than those of 
any other state; and to this large proportion should 
be added nearly all the vessels engaged in the fisheries. 

The countries owning the foreign vessels for which 
the tonnage is included in Table 5, and the tonnage 
brought in the vessels of the different countries, 
arranged in the order of their importance, were as 
follows : 



All foreign countries 

Great Britain 

Ireland 

France 

Netherlands 

Spain 

Portugal 

Denmark 

Germany 

Prussia 

Sweden 



Total 
tonnage. 



262,914 



222, 347 

3,148 

13, 435 

8,815 

8,551 

2,925 

1,619 

1,369 

394 

311 



Most of the imports and exports were landed in or 
sent from a few ports. The most important of these 
were Salem, Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Balti- 
more, and Charleston. About one-fifth of the value 
of imports was landed in New York, while about one- 
third of that of exports was shipped from Philadel- 
phia. 

Salem was the headquarters for the Pacific ocean 
and East Indian trade. More than forty ships were 
employed in this trade, principally from that port. 
The exports were ginseng, shipped direct to China, 
and beef, pork, flour, and wheat, generally disposed of 
at intermediate ports, on the outward passage. 

From Boston the principal articles of export were 
rum, potash, pea'rlash, lumber, fish, and the products 
of the fisheries, particularly whale oil, whalebone, 



soap, and candles. Rum was sent everywhere, but 
principally to Africa and its islands; most of the 
potash and pearlash, to Great Britain; lumber, prin- 
cipally to Great Britain and the West Indies; dried 
and pickled fish, to the French and Dutch West 
Indies; and whale oil, principally to France. 

The shipping from Newport, New Haven, and New 
London was carried on principally with the West 
Indies, and was not extensive. The exports were 
lumber, live stock, grain, and other farm produce. 
From New Haven occasional cargoes of flaxseed were 
sent to Ireland. 

Much of the commerce of New York was carried on 
with the West Indies. The princij^al exports from 
this city were wheat, flour, lumber, beef, pork, and 
live stock. 

The exports from Philadelphia exceeded in value 
those from any other port, largely because of the 
great quantities of flour and wheat exported. The 
West Indies afforded the principal market for flour, 
most of which was carried in American bottoms; 
Great Britain, France, Spain, and Portugal consumed 
the greater part of that sent to Europe. Nearly aU 
of the wheat was sent to Europe. Other important 
exports were Indian corn, meal, live stock, beef, and 
pork. 

The chief exports from Baltimore were tobacco, In- 
dian corn, wheat, and flour. The tobacco trade was 
conducted principally by foreign agents, with European 
capital, and largely in foreign shipping; most of 
the tobacco was sent to Great Britain and Holland. 
Wheat went in large quantities, in foreign vessels, to 
Spain and Portugal. Indian corn went chiefly to 
Portugal, though much of the corn was sent in 
American craft to the Eastern and Southern states. 

Charleston was by far the most important port of 
the South. The foreign commerce was large, and 



I 



THE UNITED STATES IN 1790. 



31 



about three-fifths of it was carried in foreign vessels. 
From Charleston was sent nearly all the rice and indigo 
exported. Great Britain, Germany, Holland, France, 
and the West Indies took most of tiie rice, and Great 
Britain and Holland nearly all the indigo. Other 
exports were tar, pilch, turpentine, tobacco, lumber, 
and cotton. 
The exports from Savannah were much the same 



as those from Charleston, and were carried principally 
in foreign vessels. 

The following table, from American State Papers, 
shows whence the incoming tonnage came. The data 
do not agree with those showni in Table .5 — Burnaby's 
table having been compiled later, and probably from 
revised figures. 



Table 6.— TONNAGE OF VESSELS WHICH ENTERED THE PORTS OP THE UNITED STATES DURING THE YEAR' 
ENDING SEPTEMBER 30, 1790, CL.\SSIFIED ACCORDING TO COUNTRY BY WHICH OWNED AND TRADE IX 
WHICH EMPLOYED. 





Total 
tonnage. 


TONNAGE IS OVER-SEA TBADE, FROM PORTS rS— 


TONNAGE or COASTER.S. 


Tonnage 
of foreign 




AU 

foreign 
coim tries. 


Europe 
and its 
islands.^ 


Asia 

and its 
islands.' 


Africa 

and its 
islands.',' 


Foreign America. 


Total. 


Licensed. 


Un- 
licensed. 


vessels (in- 
cluded in 
the fore- 
going) from 
pons into 
which ves- 
sels of the 

United 
States are 
not ad- 
mitted. 


OWNED BY— 


South of the 
United States. 


North 
of the 
United 
States. 




West All 
Indies, j other. 




726,561 


542,962 


240,485 


4,842 


384 


0K& 7M A ttsto 


23,884 


183,599 


113,181 


70,418 


115,428 






Unit<?d States 


457, iiiS 

964 

268,129 


287,016 

964 

254,382 


113,203 

964 

126,318 


4,667 


305 


167,400 


• 281 


1,760 


169,852 


113,181 


50,671 




United States with some foreign country. . 




Foreign countries 


175 


79 


101,335 


4,351 


22,124 


13,747 




13,747 


115,428 






United Kingdom 


229,893 

226,747 

3,146 

13,802 

6,941 

8,772 

2,850 

2,416 

1,948 

394 

311 

802 


220,116 
217,183 
2,933 
11,875 
6,332 
8,582 
2,850 
1,749 
1,948 


103,993 
101,605 
2,388 
7,512 
4,568 
3,996 
2,432 
1,067 
1,948 






92,876 

92,331 

545 

4,075 

1,764 

1,565 

245 

682 


1,260 
1,260 


21,987 
21,987 


9,777 

9,564 

213 

1,927 

609 

190 




9,777 

9,564 

213 

1,927 

609 

190 


110,952 
110,407 


Great Britain 








Ireland 








France 


175 


79 




34 




34 


Netherlands 






Spain 






2,918 
173 


103 




4,269 


Portugal 








Denmark 








667 




667 




Hanse towns 














Prussia 












394 
183 




394 
183 




Sweden 


128 
802 








128 










All other 


802 


























1 









' Returns for North Carolina, from March U, 1790; those for Rhode Island, from June 21. 1790. 
» Madeira, Canary, and Cape Verde islands are included with Europe, instead of with .\ frica. 
> Cape of Oood Hope and islands of Bourbon, Mauritius, and St. Helena are Included with Asia, Instead of with Africa. 



The countries show^l in the foregoing table as owners 
of the foreign shipping are the same, and are in the same 
order, as those given in the tabular statement on page 
30, except that Germany in the statement mentioned 
is replaced hj the Hanse towns in Table 6. Of the 
over-sea commerce of 542,962 tons, more than half was 
carried in ships belonging to the United States (most 
of them being owned in Massachusetts), and the bulk 
of the remainder in British vessels. Nearly one-half 
of the imports from Europe were brought in vessels 
belonging to the United States. 

Particularly noticeable is the fact that nearly one- 
half of all imports were from the West Indie.>^, and that 
much more than one-half of the West Indian imports 
were brought in vessels belonging to the United States, 
chiefly from the French West Indies. Most of the 
remauider was brought in British vessels, from British 
West Indian ports into which the ships of the United 
States were not allowed to enter; it was in consequence 
of this fact that in 1790 measures were being agitated 
in Congress with a view to discriminating duties on 
cargoes of British vessels. 

EDUCATION. 

In all of the Northern states, laws were in force in 
1790 which provided for the education of children in 



the rudiments of knowledge. In New England nearly 
everj-one possessed a common school education, and a 
person of mature years who could not read and write 
was rarely to be found. Every Massachusetts town 
having 50 householders or more was required to main- 
tain a schoolmaster to teach children and youth to 
read and write; and eveiy town that had 100 families 
was required to maintain a grammar school.' 

In the Middle states there were fewer state laws 
relating to compulsoiy education, but public schools 
were common. There were verj' few freebom illiter- 
ates in these states. In Pennsylvania and parts of 
New Jersey there were large numbers of GermaiLs, and 
in isolated localities the German language was in coiu- 

' " A few academics with limited resources prepared lads for Har- 
vard or Yale. The preat body of the people were educated in the 
district school, two months in the winter by a man, two months in 
summer by a woman. The three R's were taught there by a poor 
scholar generally, or by a youth who was earning means to complete 
his own education. The range of books was verv limited. Stout old 
Ezekiel Cheever's Latin Accidence had held the ground during 
the century for the upper class of pupils. Noah Webster's spelling 
book was just coming into use, with Webster's Selections, Morse's 
Geography, and the Youth 'sPrecei)tor. The Bible was the ground- 
work of all reading. The helps to the pupils being few in compari- 
son with modern resources and methods, the self-help and reliance 
developed by this crude system of education was something remark- 
able. This appeared in average characters and ordinary minds." — 
Weeden: Economicand Social IJislory of ^'ew England, 16iiO-17S9, Vol. 
II, page 861. 



32 



A CENTURY OF POPULATION GROWTH. 



mon use and was taught in the schools. It would 
appear, however, that tlie literacy was quite as high 
among the Germans as among the English. 

In the Southern states there were but few free public 
schools, because of the dispersed situation of the in- 
hal)itants; and in the larger to\\-ns there were but few 
academies. Education was confined largely to the 
wealthier classes. Wealthy men were accustomed to 
send their sons to the colleges in the Northern states or 
to Europe to complete their education. In the thinly 
settled western sections a large proportion of the peo- 
ple were illiterate. Among the slaves, illiteracy was 
almost the universal condition. 

Higher education in the United States in 1790 con- 
sisted largely in the study of the classics. The gradu- 
ating classes of 1789 in all the colleges aggregated only 
about 170. The following list shows the most im- 
portant colleges and universities in the United States 
in 1790, and in most instances gives the approximate 
number of students. 



INSTITUTION. 



Dartmouth College 

Harvard I'nivorsity 

Ehodc Island College (Brown Uni- 
versity). 

Yale College 

Columbia College 

Nassau Hall (I'rinceton University). 

Queens (Rutgers) College 

University of Pennsylvania 

Dickinson College. . ." 

Franklin College 

Washington College 

St. Johns College 

Georgetow-n Uni versity 

William and Mary College 



Location. 



Hanover, N. H 

Cambridge, Mass 

Providence, R. 1 

New naven. Conn 

New York, N. Y 

I'rinceton, N. J 

Brunswick, N.J 

I'hiladelphia, Pa 

Carlisle, Fa 

Lancaster, Pa 

Chestertown, Md 

Annapolis, Md 

Georgetown, Md 

Williamsburg, Va 



Date of 
found- 
ing. 



1769 
1U30 
1764 

1700 
1754 
1746 
17C6 
1740 
1783 
1787 
17S2 
1784 
178» 
1693 



Students 
in 1790. 



152. 

120 to 150. 

About GO. 

150 to 250, 
30 to 40. 
About 70. 
30 to 40. 

About SO. 



About 30. 



Law, theology, and medicine were about the only 
professions in the United States in 1790. New 
England was the seat of learning in law and theology ; 
and Philadelphia — through the influence of Frank- 
lin — in medicine ' and science. Some of the colleges 
doubtless offered professional courses; but there were 
only two medical schools in the country, and no 
regular school of law. At that period it was custom- 
ary to acquire a professional education by a period 

' "The physician had not then become the priest and natural con- 
fessor of the American household, as he is to-day; but he was of 
great importance in the social system. His education through 
books was scanty, judged by modern standards, while a large 
knowledge of human kind drawn from direct observation served 
to bring him into close accord with his patients. Apothecaries 
were hardly known outside the largest towns; for the doctors' 
saddlebags carried the simple pharmacy to the remotest hut. 
Cheerfully those public servants toiled over the hardest roads, in 
every season and in all weather, to attend rich and poor alike; 'the 
country doctor could not choose his patients if ho would. A rigid 
standard of custom gave his services to all who needed them, fees 
being hardly considered when anyone needed medical attendance. 

"The fees were very modest. Even in Boston, prior to 1782, the 
ordinary visit was charged at 1 shilling 6 pence to 2 shillings. 
Half a dollar was only charged 'such as were in high life.' In 
that year a club of the leading physicians fixed the common fee at 
50 cents, in consultation at $1. Night visits were doubled; mid- 
wifery was at $8; capital operations in surgery, at £,5 lawful money; 
medicines were charged at very high prices, comparatively."— 
Weeden: Economic and Social History of New Enqland 16iiO-nS9 
Vol. II, page 86.1. 



of study in the office of some one who had become 
eminent in law or medicine, as the case might be. 

NEWSPAPERS AND PERIODICALS. 

The newspapers and periodicals known to have 
been published in the United States during some part 
of the year 1790 number 103. This number com- 
prises those publications which are fully authenticated, 
and of which a complete list will be foimd on page 
33. It is believed to include all publications issued in 
several of the states, and the more influential and im- 
portant newspapers and periodicals published in the 
remaining states. The list, however, is probably in- 
complete. It is not to be dotibted that there were a 
considerable number of publications of which, after 
the lapse of more than a century, all record has van- 
ished. In some instances, indeed, references are made 
by local historians to publications which were evi- 
dently in existence in 1790, but of which no further 
trace can be found. 

The following table analyzes, by period of issue, 
the publications in each state in 1790: 

Newspapers and periodicals published in Ihe United States in 1790, 
classified by period of issue. 



STATE. 


s 


a 


>> 
J 


3 
1 


g 


a 

a 
o 

B 

(5 


d 
o 

s 

a 


United States . 


103 


8 


12 


73 


6 


1 


3 






New England states 


37 




3 


32 


2 












Maine 


2 
6 
2 
14 
4 
9 

42 






2 
5 
2 
10 
4 
9 

22 












1 




















2 


2 


























7 





4 


I 


2 








14 
3 

23 
2 

24 


3 


4 


4 
2 
14 
2 

19 


1 
...... 


...... 


2 






Pennsylvania 


4 


2 












1 


3 






1 










Maryland 


9 
9 
1 

2 
2 
1 




2 


7 
9 
















Nortn Carolina 










1 


South Carolina 


1 


1 












2 
1 

































Of the 103 publications reported, 96 were news- 
papers and 7 were periodicals. More than one-third 
of the whole number were published in New England, 
and two-fifths in the Middle states. Most of the 
newspapers published south of the Potomac are 
credited to Maryland and Virginia. 

An examination of the proportions of daily, semi- 
weekly, weekly, and montlily publications in 1790 
naturally suggests the following comparison with the 
corresponding j^roportions of the ijnmense volume of 
publications issued in 1900. The most striking fact 
revealed by this comparison is the growth of the daily 



• 



THE UNITED STATES IN 1790. 



83 



paper and the monthly periodical at the expense of 
weekly and semiweekly papers. 



PERIOD or ISSUE. 


1790 


1900 


Daily 


7.8 
13.6 
68.9 
5.8 
3.9 


13.2 




2.5 


Weekly 


34.9 




34.6 


All other 


14.8 







In 1790 the contents of newspapers were chiefly 
advertisements, notices of auction sales, sliipping 
news, short clippings from papers in other states, 
letters from places in the West and from the West 
India Islands, ami extracts from Eurojiean news- 
papers. There were also a few broad jokes and 
anecdotes scattered tliroujjh the pages. Events of 
local interest were .seklom published, and etlitorial 
remarks were few in number, although sometimes 
vigorous in expression. 

During the sessions of Congress the debates were 
published at length in all the daily papers, and impor- 
tant bills were given in full, even to the signatures of 
the President and Vice-President. But there were 
no news collecting agencies, and little of the news 
pubUshed seems to have come to the knowledge of 
the editors through any systematic efforts of their 
own. Very few, if any, of the papers had correspond- 
ents in different sections of the country. 

The weekly paper was in man}' cases the only 



outlet for literary activity. There were long dis- ' 
quisitions on religious and political topics, and essays 
after the manner of the Spectator were frecjuent. 
There were also numerous communications from 
local ^\Titers. These were never signe<l by the WTitcr, 
but with some such classical pseudonym as Publicola, 
Nestor, or Cicero; they usually abounded in classical 
allusions and quotations, and were on all subjects — 
religion, p(jlitic.s, law, medicine, and morals. 

In no instance was the circulation of a newspaper 
published in 1790 very large; it probably did not ex- 
ceed 1 ,000 copies per issue in the case of the most pros- 
perous publication. In 1789 not less than 30,000 
copies of newspapers were printed everj^ week in New 
England; ' they circulated in almost every town and 
village. 

Newspajiers were usually distributed by newsboys, 
or by postboys who made long trips through the rural 
districts on horseback, performing other errands along 
their routes. Drivers of stagecoaches sometimes re- 
ceived subscriptions for papers, and distributed them 
on regular trips. 

Some of the newspapers published in 1790 have sur- 
vived to the present time; but most of tliose which are 
still published are issued under names wiiich have been 
partially or completely ciianged, and some have been 
mergetl in other publications. 

' Gazetteer of the United States, Jedediab Morse. 



Newspapers and periodicals published in 1790. 



rUCE OF PUBUCATIOS AND TITLE 
IN 1790. 



Period or issue 
in 1790. 



Date when 
established. 



First publisher. 



Publisher in 1790. 



Remarks. 



Portland: 

The Cumberland Gazette. 



Gazette of Maine. 



N'cw- 



XEW HAMPSIIIKE. 

Concord: 

The Concord Herald and 

hampshire Intelligencer. 

Dover: I 

Political and Sentimental Reposi- i 

tory, or Straflord Recorder. | 

Ejtetcr: 1 

New Hampshire Gazetteer 

Kecne: 

The New Hampshire Recorder and 
the Weekly .Vdvcrtiser. 
Portsmouth: 

The New-Hampshire Gazette, and 
the General Advertiser. 



Osborne's New Hampshire Spy., 

VERMONT. 



Bennington: 

The V'ermont Gazette. 



Windsor: 

Vermont Journal 
.\dvertlser. 



and Universal 



MASSACHUSETTS. 

Boston: 

The Boston Gazette and the Coun- 
try Journal. 
Independ'^nt Chronicle and the 

Universal .Vdvertiser.i 
American Herald: .\nd The W^ash- 
ington Gazette. 



The Columbian Centlnel. 



Weekly. 
Weekly. 

Weekly. 

Weekly. 

Weekly. 
Weekly. 



Jan. 1, 17S5.. 
Oct. 1, 1790. 



Benjamin Tlteomb and 

Thomas IJ. Wait. 
Benjamin Tlteomb 






Jan. C, 1790... 

July 15, 1790. 

Aug. — , 1789. 
Aug. 7, 1789.. 



George Hough . . 
EUpbalet Ladd. 



Henry Ranlet 

James D. Griffith. 



Weekly ! Oct. 7, 175G. 



Semiweekly.. 

Weekly 

Weekly 



Oct. 24, 1786. 



Daniel Fowie 

Geo. Jerry Osborne . 



Weekly. 
Weekly . 



June 5, 1783 Anthony Haswell and David 

I Russell. 

Aug. 7, 1783 George Hough and .\ldcn 

I Spooner. 



Apr. 7, 1755 ' Benjamin Edes and John GUI. 



Weekly 

Semiweekly. . 



Aug. 2, 1768 ! Samuel Hall 

Oct. 27, 1781 Edward E. Powars. 



Mar. 24, 1784 i William Warden and Benja- 

^ min Russell. 

> Established at Salem. 



Thomas B. Wait... 
BenJ. Titcomb 

George Hough 

Kliphalet Ladd 

Henry Ranlet 

James D. Grimth.. 

John Melchcr 

Geo. Jerry Osborne 



Anthony Haswell and Da- 
vid Russell. 

George Hough (?) and Al- 
den Spooner. 



IConsolidated Sept. 3, 1796; In 
existence in 1895. 



Discontinued Oct. 30, 1805. 

Discontinued in 1829. 

Discontinued In 1797. 
Discontinued in 1792. 



Became weekly edition of 
Daily Chronicle in 1S61. 
In existence in 1!>95. 

Discontinued in 1793. 



In existence In 1879. 
Vermont Journal in 1900. 



Benjamin Edes and BenJ. Discontinued Sept. 17, 1798. 

Hdes. jr. 
Thomas Adams Merged in Boston Daily Ad- 
vertiser in 1S31. 

Edward E. Powars Prol)al»ly consolidated with 

the Herald of Freedom in 
1791 or 1792. 

Benjamin Russell Merged in Boston Daily Ad- 

! vertiser, May I. 1840. 



34 



A CENTURY OF POPULATION GROWTH. 

Newspapers and periodicals published in 1790 — Continued. 



PLACE OF PUBUCATION AND TITLE 
IN 1790. 



MASSACHUSETTS— continued. 

Boston— Continued. 

The Gentlemen and Ladies' Town 

and Country Magazine. 
The Herald of Fre-edom 



The Massachusetts Magazine, Or 
Monthly Museum. 
Newburyjport: 

The Essex Journal and New Hamp- 
shire Packet. 

Northampton: 

The Hamjjshire Gazette 



Pittsfield: 

Berkshire Chronicle and Massachu- 
setts Intelligencer. 
Salem: 

The Salem Gazette 



Springfield: 

The Hampshire Chronicle 

Stockhridge: 

The Western Star 

Worcester: 

Thomas's Massachusetts Spy; or 
The Worcester Ga2ett(\' 

RHODE ISLAND. 

Newport: 

The Newport Mercury , 

Newport Herald 

Providence: 

The Providence Gazette and Coun- 
try Journal. 

United States Chronicle 



CONNKCTICUT. 



Danbury: 

The Farmer's Journal. 



Hartford : 

The Connecticut Courant 

Weekly Intelligencer. 
The American Mercury 



and 



Litchfield: 

The Weekly Monitor; and American 
Advertiser. 
Middletown: 

Middlesex Gazette or Federal Ad- 
viser. 
New Haven: 

Connecticut Journal 



The New Haven Gazette 

New London: 

Connecticut Gazette 

Norwich: 

The Norwich Packet and the Con- 
necticut, Massachusetts, New 
Hampshire, and Rhode Island 
Weekly Advertiser. 



NEW YORK. 

Albany: 

The Albany Gazette.. 
The Albany Register. 



Goshen: 

The Goshen Repository. 
Hudson: 

Hudson Gazette 



Lansingburg: 

Federal Herald 

New York: 

The New York Journal and Patri- 
otic Register. 

The Argus, or Greenleal'sNew Daily 
Advertiser. 

New York Packet 

The Daily Advertiser 

The New York Daily Gazette.*. . 

Gazette of the United States^ 



New York Magazine 

Weekly Museum 

Poughkeepsie: 

Poughkeepsie Journal <. 



NEW JERSEY. 

New Brunswick: 

The Brunswick Gazette 

Elizabethtown: 

New Jersey Journal, and Political 

Intelligencer. 
The Christian's, scholar's, and 
farmer's magazine. 

1 Established at Boston. 



Period of issue 
in 1790. 



Monthly 

Semi weekly. 
Monthly 



Weekly . 

Weekly. 

Weekly. 

Weekly. 

Weekly. 
Weekly. 
Weekly . 



Weekly. 
Weekly . 

Weekly. 

Weekly. 



Weekly. 

Weekly. 
Weekly. 



Weekly. 

Weekly. 
Weekly. 
Weekly. 
Weekly. 



Semiweekly. 



Weekly. 



Weekly 

Semiweekly. 
Daily 



Semiweekly. - 

Daily '. . . 

Dailj^ 

Semiweekly.. 



Monthly. 
Weekly.. 



Weekly. 



Weekly..., 
Weekly..., 
Bimonthly 



Apr. 
" Weekly in 1792. 



Date when 
established. 



May, 1784.... 
Sept. 15, 1788. 
Jan.—, 1789.. 



Dec. 1, 1773. 



Sept. f>, 1780.. 
May 8, 1788.. 
Oct. 14, 178G. 



Mar. 1, 1787... 
Nov. — , 1789. 
July 17, 1770.. 



Sept.—, 1758. 
Mar. 1, 1787... 

Oct. 20, 1762. . 

Jan. 1,1784... 



Mar. IS, 1790. 

Oct. 29, 1764.. 
July 12, 1784., 

Dec. 21, 1784. 

Nov. 8, 1785. . 



Oct. 23, 1767. 
Jan. 5, 1790.. 
Aug. 8, 1758.. 
Dec. 16, 1773. 



May 



28, 1784. 
— , 1788. 



Apr. 

May 

May 

May 

Jan. 
Mar. 
Dec. 
Apr. 



— , 1788. 
7, 1785. 

5, 1788. 

29, 1706. 

29, 17G6. 

4, 1776. 
1, 1785. 

29. 1788. 

15. 1789. 



Jan. , 1790 . 



, 1734. 



Sept. 



—1786., 
— , 1779., 
— ^789., 



First publisher. 



Job Weeden and William Bar- 
rett. 

Edmund Freeman and Loring 
Andrews. 

Isaiah Thomas and Ebenezer 
T. Andrews. 

Isaiah Thomas and Henry W. 
Tinges. 



William Butler. 
Roger Storrs 



John Dabney and Thomas C. 
Gushing. 



Zephaniah Webster. 

Loring Andrews 

Isaiah Thomas 



James Franklin, jr. 
Peter Edes 



William Goddard. 
Bennett Wheeler. , 



Nathan Douglas and Edwards 
Ely. 

Thomas Green 



Joel Barlow and EHsha Bab- 
cock. 

Thomas Collier and Copp 



Woodward and Green 

Thomas and Samuel Green. 



Timothy Green 

Alexander Robertson & James 
Robertson and John Trum- 
bull. 



Charles R. Webster. 
Robert Barber 



David Maiidevillc. 



Charles R. Webster and Ash- 
bel Stoddard. 



Babcock and Hickok . 

John Holt 

John Holt 



Samuel Loudon 

Francis Childs 

John and Archibald M'Lean. 
John Fenno 



Thomas and James Swords., 



John Holt. 



Shelly Amett ... 
Shepard KoUock. 
Shepard Kollock . 



Publisher in 1790. 



Nathaniel Coverley. 
Edmund Freeman.. 



Isaiah Thomas and Ebe- 
nezer T. Andrews. 

John Mycall 



William Butler. 
Roger Storrs 



Thomas C. Cushing. 

Ezra Waldo Weld . . , 

Loring Andrews 

Isaiah Thomas 



Henry Barber. 
Peter Edes 



John Carter 

Bennett Wheeler. 



Nathan Douglas and Ed- 
wards Ely. 

Barzillai Hudson and Geo. 

Goodwin. 
Elisha Babcock 



Thomas Collier. 



Discontinued in December, 

1790. 
In existence June 28, 1793. 

Discontinued in December, 
1796. 

Became the Morning Star in 
April, 1794. Discontinued 
before 1800. 

Berkshire County Eagle in 
1900. 

In e.Tistence in 1900. 



In existence in 1895. 

In existence in 1795. 

In existence in 1898. 

The Massachusetts Spy in 
1900. 



In existence in 1900. 
Discontinued in 1791. 

Merged in Rhode Island 
American in < October, 1825. 
Discontinued in 1802. 



Republican Farmer (Bridge- 
port; in 1900. 

In existence in 1900. 

Merged in the Independent 
Press in 1833. 

Discontinued in 1S06. 



Moses H. Woodward... 
Thomas and Samuel Green 



Timothy Green. 
John Trumbull. 



Charles R. Webster 

John and Robert Barber. 



Charles R. Webster and 
Ashbel Stoddard. 



Babcock and Hickok. 

Thomas Greenleaf 

Thos. Greenleaf 



Samuel Loudon 

Philip Freneau 

Archibald M'Lean. 
John Fenno. 



Thos. and Jas. Swords ... 



Nicholas Power. 



Abraham Blauvelt. 
Shepard Kollock... 
Shepard Kollock . . . 



Discontinued in May, IS34. 

Connecticut Herald and 

Weekly Journal in 1900. 
Discontinued June 29, 1791. 

Discontinued in 1844. 

Discontinued in 1804. 



Discontinued Apr. 14. 1845. 
Merged in New York Stand- 
ard. 

Discontinued in 1804. 

In existence in 1900. 

In existence in 1890. 
Discontinued in 1810. 

Discontinued in November, 

ISIO. 
In existence in 1835. 
Merged in Express in 1836. 
In existence in 1828. 
Merged in North American in 

1.S47. 
Discontinued in 1797. 
In existence in ISIG. 

United with Poughkeepsie 
Eagle in 1814. In existence 
in 1850. 



i 



In existence in 1816. 



Elizabeth Daily Journal in 

1900. " 

Discontinued in March, 1791. 



I Removed to Philadelphia Oct. 13, 1790. 



< Established in New York City. 



THE UNITED STATES IX 1790. 
Newspapers and periodicals published in 1790 — Continued. 



35 



PLACE OF PUBLICATION AND TITLE 
IN 1790. 



PENNSYLVANIA. 

Carlisle: 

The Carlisle Cajettc, & the Western Weekly . 
Repository of Knowledpe. 
Chambersburg: 

Western Advertiser and Chambers- Weekly, 
burc Weekly. 
German town: 

Die Oemiantauner Zeltung Weekly . 

HarrisburR: 

The Oracle of Dauphin Weekly . 

Lancaster: 

Neue liQpartheylsche Lancaster Weekly. 
Zeltung und Anzelgs-Nachrich- 
ten. 
Philadelphia: > j 

The Pennsylvania Gazette Weekly . 



Period of Issue 
In 1790. 



The Pennsylvania Journal and 

Weekly Advertiser. 
The Pennsylvania Packet and Dally 

Advertiser. 



The Arminian Magazine 

The Freeman's Journal, or the 

North American Intelligencer. 
Gemeinniitzige PhilaUeiphische 

CorrespondPHZ. 
Index)endent < Jazctteer, or the Cron- 

Icle of Freedom. 
Pennsylvania Mercury and The 

Universal .Vdvertiser. 
Universal Asylum and Columbian 

Magazine. 

The .\merican Museum: or Uni- 
versal Magazine. 

The Fe<lcral flazotte and Philadel- 
phia Daily .-Vdvertiser. 

Der General - Postl>othc an die 
Deutsche Nation. 

Die Chesnuthiller Wochcnschritt... 

The General .advertiser and Politi- 
cal. Commercial. Agricultural and 
Literary Journal. 

Farmers' Weekly Museum 

Pittsburg: 

Pittsburg Gazette 

Reading: 

Neue Unpartheyische Readinger 
Zeltung und .Vnzeigs-Nachrichten. 
York: 

Pennsylvania TIerald and York 
General .Vdvertiser. 



Semlweekly. 
Dally 



Monthly. 
Weekly . . 

Weekly . . 

Dally.... 

Weekly.. 

Monthly. 



Date when 
established. 



Aug. 10, 1783. 

June — , 1790. 

Aug. 20, 1739.. 
— —1788.. 
Aug. 8, 1787.. 

Dec. 24, 1728.. 

Dec. 2,1742.. 
Oct. 28, 1771.. 



Monthly 

Daily 

Semlweekly... 



Weekly. 
Daily... 



Jan. — , I77S. 
Apr. 25, 1781. 

May 21, 1781. 

Apr. 13, 1782. 

Aug. 20, 1784. 

Sept.—, 1786. 

Jan. — , 1787.. 

Mar. 8, 1788. 

Nov. 27, 1789. . 

Oct. 8, 1790. . 
Oct. — , 1790.. 



DELAWARE. 

Wilmington: 

Wilmington Gazette... 
The Delaware Gazette. 



MARYLAND. 

Annapolis: 

Maryland Gazette 



Weekly — —,1790. 

Weekly ! July 29, 1786. 

Weekly I Feb. 18, 1789. 

Weekly Jan. 7,1789. 



Weekly. 
Weekly. 



Weekly. 



Baltimore: 

The Maryland Journal and Balti- i Semlweekly... 

more Advertiser. | 

The Maryland Gazette; or the Bal- Semlweekly... 
timore -Vdvertiser. 
Easton: 

Maryland Herald and Eastern Shore Weekly 

Intelligencer. I 

Frederick: 1 

The Maryland Chronicle and the I Weekly 

Universal .VdviTtlser. 

The Maryland (iazette and Fred- Weekly 

erick W eekly .Vdvertiser. , 

Georgetown: > 

The Times and the Patowmack Weekly 

Packet. I 

Georgetown Weekly Ledger Weekly 

Hagerstown : 

WashiDgtoD Spy Weekly 



— — , 1784. 
Mar. — , 1785. 



VIRGINIA. 

Fredericksburg: 

The Virginia Herald and Freder- 
icksburg .-Vdvertiser. 
Martinsliurg: 

I'otomak Guardian and Berkeley 
Advertiser. 
Norfolk: 

The Norfolk and Portsmouth 
Chronicle. 
Petersburg: 

The Virginia Gazette and Peters- 
burg Intelligencer. 



Weekly. 
Weekly. 
Weekly. 
Weekly. 



Jan. 17, 1745. 

Aug. 20, 1773. 
May 16,1783. 

May 16, 1790.. 

Jan. 4,1786., 
Mar. 1,1790.. 

Feb. — , 1789.. 
Mar. —,1790.. 
Jan. 1, 1790.. 



First publisher. 



Kline and Reynolds. 
WlUlam Davison 



Christopher Saur 

T. Roberts and Co 

Stiemer, Albrecht, and Lahn. 



PublUher In 1790. 



Remarks. 



Kline and Reynolds In existence June 9, 1790. 



Wm. Davison. 



Ftanklhi Repository In 1900. 



Samuel Kelmer. 



WlUlam Bradford. 
John Dunlap 



Prlchard and Hall. 
Francis Bailey 



Melchior Stelner. 



Eleazer Oswald 

Daniel Humphreys. 



Matthew Carey, T. Siddons, 
C. Talbot, W. Spotswood, 
& J. Trenchard. 

Matthew Carey 



Andrew Brown. 



Melchior Stelner. 



Samuel Saur 

Benjamin Franklin Bache... 



Michael BlUmeyer Discontinued In 1809. 

T. RobertsandCo Discontinued about 183Z 

Johann Albrecht ii Co Discontinued in 1794. 



David Hall and William I 
Sellers. i 

William and Thos. Brad- 
ford. I 

John Dunlap and David i 
C. Claypoolc. 



Francis Bailey 

Melchior Stelner 

Eleazer Oswald 

Daniel Humphreys. 



Matthew Carey.. 
Andrew Brown.. 
Melchior Stelner. 



Samuel Saur 

Benjamin Franklin Bache. 



John Scull and Joseph Hall... 

Johnson, Barton, and Jung- 
maim. 

James Edie, John Edie, and 
Henry Wilcocks. 



Peter Brynberg and Samuel 
Andrews. 



Jonas Green. 



William Goddard . 
John Hayes 



James Cowan. 



, Matthias Bartgis. 
John Winter 



Charles Flerer 

Day and Hancock. 
Stewart Herlwrt. . . 



' See also Gazette of the United States, 
' Now in the District of Columbia. 



— — , 17S7 Timothy Green Timothy Green. 

Nov. —,1790 Nathaniel Willis Nathaniel Willis. 

Aug. 29, 1789 Prentis and Baxter Prentis and Baxter. 

July —, 1786 Miles Hunter A William William Prentis.. 

I Prentis. 

vhlch was published in New York city until Oct. 13, 1790, when it was removed to Philadelphia. 



Barton and Jungmann. . . 

James Edie, John Edie, 
and Henry Wilcocks. 



Became Saturday Evening 
Post in 1S21. In existence 
in 1900. 

Discontinued in 1797. 

Merged in the North Ameri- 
can in 1840. In existence 
in 1900. 

In existence in 1790. 

Discontinued in 1792. 

Discontinued In 1810. 
Discontinued In 1799. 



Discontinued In December, 

1792. 

Discontinued Dec. 31, 1792. 

Merged in North American 
in 1840. 

Discontinued about July, 
I 1790. 

In existence in 1794. 

Merged in Pennsylvania Ga- 
I zettcinlS28. 

In existence in 1790. 

Commercial Gazette in 1900. 

Discontinued in 1816. 

In existence In 1799. 



Peter Br>Tiberg and Sam- 
uel .\ndrews. ■ 



Frederick and Samuel 
Green. 

Wm. Goddard and James 

.\ngell. 
John Hayes 



In existence in 1880. 
In existence in 1894. 



Discontinued in 1839. 

Baltimore American In 190a 
In existence In 1791. 



James Cowan In existence In 1804. 



Matthias Bartgis. 
John Winter 



. In existence in 1824. 
. In existence in 1791. 



1 



Charles Fierer and Thos. 

N. Kosdick. 
Day and Hancock 



Stewart Herbert. 



In existence in 1791. 
In existence in 1793. 
In existence in 1797. 



In existence in 1836. 
In existence in 1896. 
In existence in 1793. 
In existence In 1800. 



36 



A CENTURY OF POPULATION GROWTH. 

Newspapers and periodicals published in 7750— Continued. 



PLACE OF PUBLICATION AND TITLE 
IN 1790. 


Period of issue 
in 1790. 


Date when 
established. 


First publisher. 


Publisher in 1790. 


Remarks. 


vmomiA— continued. 


Weekly 

Weekly 

Weekly 

Weekly 

Weekly 


Aug. 6,1736 

_ —,1782 

— —,1786 

July 11.1787 

Apr. 2,1788 




John Dixon 


In existence in 1793. 


Virginia Gaiette and Independent 

Chronicle.' 
The Virginia Gazette and Weekly 


Thomas Nicolson and WllUam 
Prentiss. 




In existence in 1793. 




Discontinued in 1809. 


The Virginia Independent Chron- 
icle and General Advertiser. 






In existence in 1790. 


The Virginia Gazette, and Win- 
chester .\dvertiser. 

The Virginia Centinel; or the Vi in- 
chester Mercurj-. 

NORTH CAROLINA. 

Fayetteville: 

The Fayetteville Chronicle or North 
Carolma Gazette. 

SODTII CAROLINA. 

Charleston: 


Richard Bowen and Co 


Richard Bowen and Co . . . 


In existence in 1800. 
In existence in 1790. 


Semiweekly. . . 


Apr. — , 1777 

Mar. — 1783 

Oct. 2,1786 

Apr. 17.1763 

Aug. 11, 1787 




Ann S. Timothv 


Discontinued in 1800. 


The State Gazette of South Carolina. 
The City Gazette or Daily Adver- 
tiser. 

GEOEGU. 

Augusta: 


John Miller 


Markland and M'lver 

John E. Smith 


In existence in 1817. 


Weekly 

Weekly 

Weekly 




In existence in 1900. 


The Augusta Chronicle and Gazette 
or the State. 
Savannah; 




1 James and NicholasJohn- 
1 ston. 

John Bradford 


Discontinued ia 1802. 








KENTUCKY. 

Lexington: 


Discontinued in 1848. 















1 Established at Williamsburg. 



SLAVEKY. 



Slavery was introduced into the colonies in August, 
1619, when 20 African negroes were brought to James- 
to\vn by Dutch traders and sold to the planters of 
Vu-ginia. At that time the sale of Africans who had 
been captured or purchased was sanctioned by the 
leading European nations, and formed a very profitable 
business. The slave traders, taking advantage of the 
new field opened to them by the colonization of the 
coast of North America, introduced slavery into most 
of the colonies soon after they were founded. The only 
colony established with ordinances against this institu- 
tion was Georgia ; and this state also was soon forced, 
by social contact and business competition with the 
neighboring settlements, to legalize the holding of 
slaves. 

The actual importations of slaves can only be esti- 
mated. Mr. Carey, author of a work on the slave 
trade, is the authority for the following estimate 
of the number of slaves imported : 



PERIOD. 


Number 
of slaves. 


Total 


333, 000 








Prior to 1715 


30,000 
90,000 


1715 to 1750 . 


1751 to 1760 


1761 to 1770 


74, 000 
34,000 
70, 000 


1771 to 1790 


1791 to 1808 







It is claimed, however, that this total is too small, 
and that a closer estimate would bring the number to 
370,000 or even 400,000. Air. Carey's figures indi- 
cate that the average annual importation was about 
2,500 between 1715 and 1750, and 3,500 for the period 
from 1751 to 1760. The following decade was the 
period of greatest activity, the importation reaching 
an average of 7,400 a year. For the tw-enty years 
from 1771 to 1790 the average fell to 1,700, but for 
the period immediately preceding the legal abolition 
of the slave traffic in the United States it was more 
than double that number. By 1790 the survivors 
and descendants of the African slaves imported num- 
bered 757,208, according to the Federal census of 
that year. 

Early in the history of the Southern colonies the 
planters realized that slave labor could be utilized 
to good advantage in the cultivation of tobacco and 
some other crops.' At the beginning of the eighteenth 
century negro slavery was considered by the settlers 
of all of the colonies as a usual and routme matter, and 
in the New England and Middle colonies, as w^ell as 
in the South, the possession of slaves was generally 

'The cotton crop, which later furnished an extensive field for 
slave labor, did not assume great importance until the invention 
of the cotton gin in 1793. After that date the employment of 
slaves in the cultivation of cotton became especially profitable, 
since this crop furnishes work for a considerable portion of the year, 
and makes it possible to utilize to advantage the services of women 
and children. 



THE UNITED STATES IN 1790. 



37 



accepted as an evidence of wealtli and of importance 
in the community. 

By 1750 negro slavery was recognized by law in 
every Nortli American colony. At tiie time of tlie 
Declaration of Independence the British possessions 
had local enactments protecting slave property and 
providing special codes and tribunals for slaves. Some 
of tiie shive codes were extremely severe, because of 
the fear of negro insurrections. 

Although shivery became the presumptive status 
of every negro, most of the colonies recognized the 
status of free negroes. But the presence of a free 
negro was believed to have an imfavorable influence 
on the slaves in the neighborhood, and hence many of 
the colonies made the conditions surrounding manu- 
mission so exacting that slave o-\vners seldom took 
advantage of the legal right to free their slaves. There 
are, however, numerous instances of negroes who 
were freed by their masters, and some cases of negroes 
who were given their freedom by the state on account 
of some public service performed by them; but no 
data are available as to the aggregate number of 
slaves manumitted. 

Free negroes were allowed property rights, and con- 
sequently some of them became slave owners. Often 
a manumitted negro would purchase the freedom of 
the members of his family or of friends, and unless 
he went through the formality of manumission these 
persons were legally his slaves. 

The growth of the antislavery movement forms an 
interesting phase of the history of the Colonial, Conti- 
nental, and early Federal periods. The antislavery 
sentiment which existed in the Southern colonies in the 
early part of the eighteenth century was, as a rule, the 
result of economic causes; when these colonies feared 
the growth in the number of negroes, or desired more 
revenue, attempts were made by the legislatures to cut 
off or to tax the importation of slaves. On the other 
hand, in the North the feehng of antagonism toward 
human slavery, which grew rapidly and was voiced 
by men of high principle and strong religious belief, 
was based largely on moral grounds. The claim is 
often made that this attitude of the Northern colonies 
in connection with the slave problem did not become 
general until after these communities had disposed of 
all of their slaves. But, while there is an element of 
truth in this, the fact remains that from a condition 
of dependence upon slaves for menial services of va- 
rious kinds, the people of the New England and Middle 
states steadily and comi)letely changed their point of 
view, taking the position that slavery was both unwise 
and immoral, and disposed of their slaves. The 
demand for labor was supplied mainly by apprentices 
and by "redemptioners" — men and women who, being 
unable to pay the expenses of their passage to this 
country, were "bound" to persons buying their serv- 
ices for a period usually lasting from three to five years. 
76292—09 4 



The first petition against slavery' recorded in Amer- 
ican histor}' was made in 1GS8, by Friends, in German- 
town, Pa. The agitation against slavery was contin- 
ued by other Quakers, by the Puritans, and b}' groups 
of individuals here and there. As the direct result of 
this movement, prohibitive duties on the importation 
of slaves were imposed by Pennsylvania in 1712, and 
also by other colonies from time to time.' 

Since the slave trade was a source of revenue to 
British merchants, and even to the Crown, legisla- 
tion against it was distasteful to the British Govern- 
ment, and objections were raised on accomit of the 
legislative action of the colonies. The governors sent 
to South Carolina in 17.56 and 1761 bore instructions 
prohibiting the enactment of any law imposing duties 
on imported negroes. 

By 1778 legislative measures prohibiting the slave 
trade had been passed by all of the New England and 
Middle states, and by ^Iaryland and Virginia ; by 1798, 
similar action had been taken by every other state, 
although the trade was afterwards revived in South 
Carolina. 

The first assumption of national control of the slave 
trade came in 1774, when the Continental Congress 
passed a resolution to aliolish it. In 1789 tlie con- 
vention that framed the Constitution made plans for 
the abolition of this traffic in 1808, and later the first 
day of 1808 was chosen as the time when the slave 
trade should become illegal. 

The first action against the ownership of slaves was 
taken by Vermont. In its Declaration of Rights, in 
1777, this colony declared for the freedom of all per- 
sons at the age of maturity ; a few years later it took a 
more definite stand, abolishing slavery outright. By 
1783 slavery had been prohibited in Massachu.setts 
and New Hampshire. Gradual emancipation was pro- 
vided for in acts passed by Pennsylvania in 1780 and 
by Comiecticut and Rhode Island in 1784. In 1787 
slavery was forbidden in the Northwest Territory by 
congressional legislation, although the courts held that 
the ordinance did not free the slaves already held in 
the territory. By the date of the first Federal census 
laws providing for the extinction of slavery had been 
put into operation in all states north of Maryland, 
with the exception of New York and New Jersey. 

INDIANS. 

In 1790 the Indian had ceased to be a factor of any 
consequence in the affairs of the states enumerated 
at the First Census. The Indians living in the 
area enumerated consisted of a few scattered rem- 
nants of once powerful tribes. Frequent conflicts 

' In some colonies the duty on a slave brought from another 
colony was several times that on a slave imported directly from 
Africa or from the West Indies; the impression appears to have 
existed that slaves were sent from one colony to another because 
of undesirable qualities, or because they had committed crimes, 
and that the colony which deported them was taking this way of 
ridding itself of their presence. 



LOCATION OF INDIAN TRIBES: 1790. 



(The heavy line marks the division between the area 



tree from hostile Indians and that still in possession of Indians.! 




THE UNITED STATES IN 1790. 



39 



with the white settlers, and the adoption of all of the 
vices and few, if any, of the virtues of the newcomers 
upon their soil, had reduced tiie number of Indians 
east of the Allegheny mountains to a few thousands. 
Remnants of the original tribes still remained in 4 
New England states, and in New York, Pennsylvania, 
Virginia, and South Carolina; but in most instances — 
especially in New England — they were rciluced to 
small villages or even to a few wanderers (for the most 
part half-breeds), whose numbers may be accepted as 
almost a negligible quantity. Only in New York and 
Pennsylvania— upon resers'ations establisheil in those 
states — and in the lands to the west of the frontier settle- 
ments, were the Indians still sufficiently numerous to 
maintain tribal relations or to occup}' any considerable 
extent of territory. 

From time to time futile attempts were made to 
civilize and educate the Indians in the East. Indeed, 
provision was made for their education at Harvard 
University early in its history. Several Indians 
entered that institution, but nearly all of them died 
before they had been long in attendance. 

West of the Alleghenys the white man had estab- 
lished a few settlements, cspeciallj^ in Kentucky and 
eastern Tennessee; but for the most part the country 
was a wilderness, still in the undisputed possession of 
Indian tribes. In this area the Indians still main- 
tained their independence and a considerable strength 
in numbers — sufficient, indeed, to present to the 
officials of the young Republic a problem of some 
magnitude, and to exercise a decidedU' deterrent effect 
upon immigration. But since, in the desultory war- 
fare which they maintained against the whites, the 
Indians were the principal sufferers, their numbers 
were constantly diminishing. 

Onl}' a small part of the territory occupied bj' white 
men had been acquired from the Indians by actual 
purchase. In the early history of the colonies, pur- 
chases of land from the Indians, and treaties made 
with them, appear to have resulted from a desire to 
obtain immunity from the uncertainties of Indian war- 
fare and depredation, rather than from any recogni- 
tion of the right of the Indians to the soil of which they 
were being deprived. The pioneer settlers habitually 
disregarded Indian treaties, and in general the Indians 
derived little benefit from them; even where purchases 
of land were negotiated by treaty, in many cases this 
action was not taken until after the land had been 
settled. In general, the Indian had received but small 
consideration from the white man during the entire 
Colonial period, being regarded merely as a dangerous 
incumbrance upon fair regions which it was the pur- 
pose of the white man to occupy as speedily as his num- 
bers permitted. 

In 1795, shortly after the Fir^t Census, in an attempt 
to put an end to the continued warfare with the Federal 
Government and doubtless also for the purpose of 
encouraging settlements in that region. General Wayne 



negotiated a treaty with the Indians living in what 
was then called the Northwest Territor\'.' The devel- 
opments resulting from this policy were similar to what 
had previously occurred east of the Alleghenys — the 
Indians retreated step by step before the advancing 
pioneers, more and more of their territorj' was occupied 
by white settlements, and their numbers were con- 
stantly decreased by contact with the whites and by 
warfare among themselves. 

Indians in the UniUd States in 1790. 



STATE OR TERRITORY 
TKIBG. 


AND 


.N'um- 
ber. 


Place of residence. 


Maine: 








PassamaQUoddy 






Near the waters of Passamaquoddy bav. 


Penobscot 




""466' 


On Penobscot ri verjrom head of tide water 
northward. 


Massachusplts: 








llerring Pond 




1120 


Sandwich, on Cape Cod, 59 miles south of 








Boston. 
Troy, Bristol county, 50 miles south of 

Boston. 
Marshpee, on Cape Cod, 78 miles southeast 

of Boston. 
Marthas Vineyard Island. 


WampanoaK 




I2S0 






400 


Rhode Island: 








Narragansett 




500 


CharlestowD, 40 miles southwest of Provi- 
dence. 


Connecticut: 












fStonington, southeast comer of ConnecU- 

1 cut. 

iGroton, adjoining Stoninglon. 

(Between Norwich and New London. 


Mohegan and other tribes. 










New York: 








Montauk 






Montauk Point, east end of Long Island. 


Six Nations — 








Cayuga 




.100 


Reservation of 1,000 square miles at aorth- 
ern end of Cayuga Lake. 


Mohawk 




(=) 


Fort Hunter, on Mohawk river. 


Oneida 




700 


Oneida reservation. 


Onondaga 




500 


Reservation of over 100 square miles OD 
f)nondaga Lake. 


Seneca 




2.000 


Chietly on dene^ee river: also a town on 
Bulialo creek, and 2 small towns ju Alle- 














ghenv river. 


Tuscarora^ 




400 


On Tuscarora or Oneida creek. 


Pennsvlvania: 








Delaware. Munsee, 


and 


1,300 


On north branch of Susquehanna river. 


So poo nee. 








Virginia: 








Mattaponi. Nottaway, 


100 


Southampton county, southeastern Vir* 


and Pamunkey. 






ginia. 


Seneca 




150 


Two towns on French creek. 


South Carolina: 






Catawba 




450 


At Catawba, on Catawba river, on the 






boundary line between North Carolina 








and South Carolina. 


Northwest Territory: 








Chippewa 






Coasts of Lake Superior. 
Northern Ohio. 


Delaware. Mohican 


and 




Wyandot. 






Illinois, Kaskaskia, 


and 




Near Kaskaskia river, Illinois. 


Peoria. 








Kickapoo 






Central Illinois. 


Mascauten 




Neighborhoo<l of Piankashaws. 


Menomenee 





Around Green bay. 


Miami. Wea, and 


Eel 







Vicinity of Miami'river. 


River Indians. 








Ottawa 






Southern peninsula of Michigan. 

Wabash nvcr and branches, and Illinois 


Piankashaw 










river. 


Potawatomi 






Soulhom shores of Lake Michigan. 


Sac and Fox 




Month of ^Visco^sin river. 


Shawnw 





Southern Ohio, on Sciotoriverand a branch 








of the Muskingum. 


Winnebago 






Around Winnebago bay. 


Wisconsin 




;;;;;;;; 


On Wisconsin river. 


Southwest Territory:* 








Cherokee 




3.000 


Northern Georgia and southern Tennessee. 


Chickasaw 


Western Tennessee. 


Choctaw 




Between Alabama and Mississippi rivers. 


Creek nation 


*22.'666" 




Upper Creek 


11.000 

}ll,000 


On upper waters of Alabama river. 
(On Apalachicola river and its two branch- 
i es- the Chattahoochee and the Flint. 


Lower Creek 


Seminole 







* Hilf were of mixed blood. 

* Only atpoiit 40 or 50 were pure Indian. 
« Only one family in the United Slates. 

« Migrated from North Carolina in 1T15, and adopted by the Oneidas, a related 
tribe. 

' Including the area of Alabama and Mississippi. 



' The Indian tribes with whom this treaty was negotiated were 
the Wyundots, Delaware^, Shawnr-e.", Ottawas, Chippewas, Pota- 
watomis, Miamis, Eel River Indians, Weas, Kickapoos, Pianka- 
shaws, and Kaskaskiaa. 



40 



A CENTURY OF POPULATION GROWTH. 



The names of the Indian tribes in each state and 
territory in 1790, together with the approximate num- 
bers in the various tribes, so far as they can be deter- 
mined, arc shown in the hst on page 39. 

The law authorizing the first Federal census made no 
provision for the enumeration of any Indians except 
those who were taxed; and there were probably but 
few who were included in that category. The best in- 
formation available concerning the number of Indians 
within the United States in 1790 is the estimate of 
Gen. Henry Kjiox, Secretary of War under President 
Washington, who placed the total Indian population in 
1789 at 76,000. Of this number he located 20,000 
between the Great Lakes and the Ohio river, and 
56,000 south of the Ohio and east of the Mississippi. 
The warriors — or gun men, as they were termed at that 
time — were assumed to represent one-fourth of the 
total Indian population. 

The following paragraphs present, for some of the 
states and territories, facts which are of interest but 
could not readily be incorporated in the foregoing list : 

Maine. — The Provincial Congress of Massachusetts 
had reserved to the Penobscot tribe a tract of land 12 
miles wide, intersected by the Penobscot river. The 
tribe, numbering about 100 families, was settled along 
the banks of the river from the head of tide water 
northward. Their principal town was Indian Old 
Town, situated on an island of about 200 acres in the 
Penobscot river, 12 miles north of Bangor. It is prob- 
able that the vast wilderness in that part of Maine 
north and west of the narrow inhabited strip along the 
coast supported numbers of Indians, many of whom 
doubtless roamed at will across the Canadian border, 
as whim or scarcity of food determined. 

Massachusetts. — In this state there were still a few 
hundred Indians. Along the coast of Cape Cod they 
remained, notwithstanding their small numbers, in 
comparatively undisturbed possession of considerable 
areas. 

New York. — From the Mohawk valley westward, 
some remnants remained of the once powerful Six 
Nations of the Iroquois. The state authorities of New 
York had made treaties with these Indians, and had 
reserved to them certain restricted areas. The Oneidas 
were located on Oneida creek, 21 miles west of Fort 
Stanwix; with them resided the remnants of the Tus- 
caroras and Mohegans. Most of the Senecas dwelt 
along the Genesee river. One family only of the 
Mohawks was known to be living in New York in 1790, 
the remainder of the tribe having migrated to Canada. 
The Onondagas were located on Onondaga Lake, the 
Cayugas on Cayuga Lake, while the Delawares, like 
the Mohawks, were practically extinct in this state. 

New Jersey. — In this state there were probably not 
more than one hundred Intlians all told. About half 
of these were located on a state reservation at Eve- 
sham, called "Brotherton;" the remainder were scat- 



tered through the state, many of them being held as 
slaves. In 1801 the Brotherton Indians were invited 
by the Mohegans to locate with them at Stockbridge, 
near Oneida Lake, New York, and the invitation was 
accepted.' 

Pennsylvania. — In addition to the remnants of three 
tribes living on the north branch of the Susquehanna 
river, there were probably roving bands from the Iro- 
quois tribes in the northwestern portion of the state. 

South Carolina. — The Catawbas, descendants of a 
once powerful tribe, had become degenerate from con- 
tact and association with the whites. They owned a 
tract 15 miles square, lying on both sides of the Ca- 
tawba river; a part of this land they had leased to the 
whites for a period of ninety-nine years. 

Northwest Territory. — W. Winterbotham, in a "View 
of the United States of America" (1796), estimated the 
number of Indians in this territory in 1792 at 65,000. 
The tribes inhabiting the territory he enumerated as 
"the Piantias, on both sides of the Mississippi; the 
Casquerasquias, on the Illinois; the Piankashaws and 
other tribes, on the Wabash; the Shawanese, on the 
Scioto; the Delawares, the Miamis, the Ouiscons, Mas- 
coutens, Sakies, Sioux, Mekekonakis, Pilans, Powto- 
watamis, Messaques, Ottawas, Chipewas, and Wian- 
dots." 

Incited by the British and French on the north, these 
Indians kept up almost continual warfare against the 
settlers. In the vicinity of the Wabash were several 
warlike tribes which made frequent incursions across 
the Ohio into Kentucky, killing cattle and horses and 
murdering the inhabitants; by their hostile attitude 
these Indians deflected southward, to the valley of 
the Ohio and especially to Kentucky, the stream of 
migration from New York and Pennsylvania to the 
West. 

Southwest Territory {including area of Alabama and 
Mississippi). — As already stated, the tribes of greatest 
numerical importance in 1790 inhabited the southern 
and southwestern portion of the Republic. Among 
these were the Creeks, Cherokees, Choctaws, and Chick- 
asaws. 

The Upper Creeks dwelt principally on the upper 
waters of the Alabama and the Lower Creeks on the 
Apalachicola and on its two branches, the Chatta- 
hoochee and the Flint ; the Seminoles, a branch of the 
Lower Creeks, extended into Florida. In 1789 the 
number of warriors in the whole Creek nation was 
estimated not to exceed 4,500, and the number of 
women, children, and old men 18,000; the Lower 
Creeks were rather more numerous than the related 
Seminole tribe, and these two together about equaled 
the Upper Creeks in number. The towns or sub- 
tribes of the Creeks, including both divisions of the 
nation, were about eighty in number, but difi"ered 
widely in population and importance. A few towns, 

' WilUam Nelson: Indians of New Jersey, pages 118 and 119. 



THE UNITED STATES IN 1790. 



41 



called "mother towns," had the principal direction of 
atrnirs. 

Thouj;h the Creeks were in a great measure hunters, 
they possessed cattle, horses, and a few slaves, culti- 
vated some Indian corn and potatoes, and in some 
instances had introduced tlie plow. Being nearer to 
the settlers in the Southern states than any other tribe, 
they had awakened to the value of their lanils, and 
under the leadership of a shrewd half-breed, iUexander 
McGillivray, they kept up a fitful war against the 
advance of the settlers. On August 7, 1790, they con- 
cluded a treaty with the United States which clearly 
defined the boundary of the Indian lands, beyond 
which the white settlers should not pass. Article G of 
this treaty reads: 

If any citizen of the United States or other person, not being an 
Indian, shall attempt to settle on any of the Creeks' land, such per- 
son shall forfeit the protection of the United States, and the Creeks 
may punish him or not, as they please. 



North of the Creeks were the Cherokees. They 
were located principally on the headwaters of the 
Tennessee river, but their hunting grounds extended 
from the Cumberland river along the frontiers of 
Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and part 
of Georgia. Commissioners sent to treat with them 
in 1785 estimated that they could muster 2,000 
warriors. In 17S9 the number had decreased to 
about 600, undoubtedly as a result of wars with the 
whites. 

West of the Creeks, and within the confines of the 
present state of Mississippi, was the populous nation of 
the Choctaws. Being far removed from the settle- 
ments on the Atlantic, they were of little concern to the 
white inhabitants. In 1789 they were estimated to 
number about 15,000, as compared with nearly 30,000 
a few years earlier. 

The Chickasaws, in western Tennessee, numbered 
about 3,500. 



III. THE FIRST CENSUS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

THE FIRST CENSUS ACT— DEBATES IN THE CONGRESS— PRO- 
VISIONS OF THE ACT— EXECUTION OF THE LAW— THE ENU- 
MERATION—THE RETURNS— THE ENUMERATORS' SCHEDULES. 



The provision under which the Federal census is 
taken is contained in Article I, section 2, of the Con- 
stitution of the United States, which directs that — 

Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the 
several states which may be included within this Union according 
to their respective numbers, which shall be determined by adding 
to the whole number of free persons, including those bound to 
eervice for a term of years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three- 
fifths of all other persons. The actual enumeration shall be made 
within three years after the first meeting of the Congress of the 
United States, and within every subsequent term of ten years, in 
Buch manner as they shall by law direct. 

The debates in the Constitutional Convention do not 
afford any evidence that the scope of the census was 
seriously considered. There is reason to believe, how- 
ever, that many members of the convention had in 
mind more than a mere count of the mhabitants. Sev- 
eral of them contended that representatives and direct 
taxes should be apportioned according to wealth as 
well as population. Mr. Ellsworth introduced a mo- 
tion "that the rule of contribution by direct taxation, 
for the support of the Government of the United 
States, shall be the number of white inliabitants, and 
three-fifths of every other description in the several 
states, until some other rule, that shall more accu- 
rately ascertain the wealth of the several states, can 
be devised and adopted by the legislature." ■ Mr. 
WUliamson introduced a motion "that, in order to 
ascertain the alterations that may happen in the pop- 
ulation and wealth of the several states, a census shall 
be taken of the free white inhabitants, and three-fifths 
of those of other descriptions," etc- 

THE FIRST CENSUS ACT. 

The provision of the Constitution quoted above does 
not clearly define the scope of the census, and the 
question whether it is restrictive — that is, whether the 
words "actual enumeration" apply exclusively to the 
objects mentioned — has never been considered judi- 
cially. But the provision has often been interpreted 
as restrictive, and the question has been raised whether 
Congress has not transcended its constitutional pow- 

' The Madison Papers, page 1082. 

-Elliott's Debates on the Federal Constitution, vol. 5, page 295. 

(42) 



ers in authorizing purely statistical inquiries other than 
those for the single purpose of apportioning repre- 
sentatives and direct taxes.^ In this connection the 
debates in Congress on the bill providing for the First 
Census are of especial interest. 

On May 18, 1789, soon after the convening of the 
First Congress, a committee was appointed in the 
House of Representatives to prepare and bring in a 
bill providing for the "actual enumeration of tiie in- 
habitants of the United States, in conformity with the 
Constitution;" this committee never reported. On 
January 11, 1790, another committee, consisting of 
ten members (one from each state), was appointed for 
the same purpose; it reported a bill on Januaty 19. 

The House debates on this bill are reported in the 
Annals of Congress, First Congress, second session. 
From Mr. Madison's remarks it is evident that the 
schedule reported by the committee provided for only 
a bare enumeration ot the inhabitants. 

Mr. Madison observed that they had now an opportunity of ob- 
taining the most useful information for those who should hereafter 
be called upon to legislate for their country, if this bill was extended 
so as to embrace some other objects besides the bare enumeration of 
the inhabitants; it would enable them to adapt the public meas- 
ures to the particular circumstances of the community. In order 
to know the various interests of the United States, it was necessary 
that the description of the several classes into which the community 
is divided should be accurately known. On this knowledge the 
legislature might proceed to make proper provision for the agricul- 
tural, commercial, and manufacturing interests, but without it they 
could never make their provisions in due proportion. 

This kind of information, he observed, all legislatures had wished 
for, but this kind of information had never been obtained in any 
country. He wished, therefore, to avail himself of the present 
opportunity of accomplishing so valuable a purpose. If the plan 
was pursued in taking every future census, it would give them an 
opportunity of marking the progress of the society and distinguish- 
ing the growth of every interest. This would furnish ground for 
many useful calculations, and at the same time answer the purpose 
of a check on the officers who were employed to make the enumera- 
tion, for as much as the aggregate number is divisible into parts, 
any imposition might be discovered with proportionable ease. If 
these ideas meet the approbation of the House, he hoped they would 
pass over the schedule in the second clause of the bill, and he 
would endeavor to prepare something to accomplish this object. 

The House granted Mr. Madison's request, and he 
formulated a more elaborate schedule. Just what his 

' Encyclopaedia Brittanica, vol. 5, page 339. 



THE FIRST CENSUS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



43 



plan was in detail is not stated in tlie Annals of Con- 
gress, but tlie issue of the Bostoi^ Gazette and the 
Country Journal for February 8, 1790, in its report of 
the proceedings of Congress, contains the following: 

Mr. Madison proposed tho following as the form of ageneral sched- 
ule, iu lieu of that in the bill, viz: 

Free white males under 16. 

Free white males above 16. 

White females. 

Free blacks. 

.Slaves. 

He then proposed that a particular schedule should likewise be 
included in the bill, .specifyin;.? the number of persons employed in 
the various arts and professions carried on in the United States. 

When the bill again came up for discussion, on Feb- 
ruary 2 — 

Mr. Livermore apprehended this (Madison's) plan was too exten- 
sive to be carried into operation and divided the people into classes 
too minute to be readily ascertained. For example, many inhabit- 
ants of New Hampshire pursued two, three, or four occupations, 
but which was the |)riucipal one depended upon the season of the 
year or some other adventitious circumstance; some followed weav- 
ing in the spring and summer, but the making of shoes was the most 
predominant in the fall and winter; under what class are these peo- 
ple to be thrown, especially if they joined husbandry and carpen- 
ter's work to the rest? He was confident the distinction which the 
gentlemen wished to make could not be performed. He was there- 
fore against adding additional labor, and consequently incurring 
additional expense, whether the work was executed or not. Besides 
this, he apprehended that it would excite the jealousy of the people; 
they would suspect that the Government was too particular, in order 
to learn their ability to bear the burden of direct or other taxes, 
and under this idea they may refuse to give the officer such a par- 
ticular account as the law requires, by which means you expose 
him to great inconvenience and delay in the performance of his 
duty. « » » 

Mr. Page thought this particular method of describing the people 
would occasion alarm among them; they would suppose the Gov- 
ernment intended something, by putting the Union to this addi- 
tional expense, besides gratifying an idle curiosity; their purposes 
can not be supposed the same as the historian's or philosopher's— 
they are statesmen, and all their measures are suspected of policy. 
If he had not heard the object so well explained on this floor, as one 
of the people, he might have been jealous of the attempt, as it 
could serve no real purpose, for, he contended, if they were now 
acquainted with the minutiae they would not be benefited by it. 
He hoped the business would be accomplished in some other 
way. » * » 

.Mr. Madison thought it was more likely that the people would 
suppose the information was required for its true object, namely, 
to know in what proportion to distribute the benefits resulting from 
an elBcient General Government. 

It is signilicant that in the discussion of Madison's 
schedule there is no suggestion recorded in the Annals 
of Congress that it was unconstitutional ; but the Bos- 
ton newspaper quoted above has this paragraph: 

Mr. White said that the' he should be pleased with obtaining an 
enumeration on the gentleman's plan, he rather supposed that Con- 
gress is not authorized by the Constitution to call for so particular 
an account. The Constitution refers only to a census for the more 
perfectly equalizing the representation. 

This objection had apparently little weight, and the 
bill passed with Madison's schedule and all of his 
amendments. 



In the Senate the provision for ascertaining the 
occupations of the people was rejected — on what 
grounds is not known, for the debates of that body 
at that time were behind closed doors. 

In the debate in the House with regard to the time 
to be all(jwed for completing the enumeration, six, 
four, and three months were proposed. Mr. Sedgwick, 
of Massachusetts, believed that since so long a time 
was to elapse before the assistants were to enter upon 
their duties the work of preparation should be com- 
jileted in two or three months, and possibly one month 
would be sullicient. It was argued that the longer 
the time allowed the less accurate would be the returns. 

Mr. Madison observed that the situation of the several states was 
so various that the difficulty of adopting a plan for effecting the 
business upon terms that would give general satisfaction could only 
be obviated by allowing sufficient time. Some of the states have 
been accustomed to take the enumeration of their citizens; others 
have never done it at all. To the former the business will be easy, 
and may be completed within the shortest jjeriod; in the others it 
will be attended with unforeseen difficulties. 

Six months was agreed upon by the House, but in 
the Senate this was changed to nine months. The bill 
passed the Senate on February 22 and was approved 
by the President on March 1, 1790. 

Provisions of the act. — By the First Census act the 
marshals of the several judicial districts of the United 
States were authorized and required to cause the num- 
ber of the inhabitants within their respective districts 
to be taken, "omitting Indians not taxed, and distin- 
guishing free persons, including those bound to service 
for a term of years, from all others; distinguishing also 
the sexes and colors of free persons, and the free males 
of 16 years and upward from those under that age." 
The inquiries regarding the color of free persons, the 
sex of the whites, and the sejjaration of white males 
into those above and those below 16 3'ears of age were 
outside of the constitutional requirement of the 
enumeration, and reflect the efforts of Madison to 
obtain a comprehensive census. The last inquiry was 
undoubtedly instituted for the purpo.se of ascertaining 
the industrial and military strength of the country. 

For the purpose of this enumeration, which was to 
be commenced on the first Monday in August, 1790, 
and completctl within nine calendar months, the mar- 
shals were empowered to appoint within their respec- 
tive districts as many assistants or enumerators as 
should appear to them necessary, assigning to each 
a certain division of his district, which "shall consist 
of one or more counties, cities, towns, townships, 
hundreds, or parishes, or of a territory ])iainly and 
distinctly bounded by water courses, mountains, or 
public roads." 

In the case of Rhode Island and Vermont subsefjuent 

legislation was had July 5, 1790, and March 2, 1791, 

respectively, by which the terms of the act providing 

for the first eniuneration were extended to these two 

I districts. The enumeration in Vermont was to com- 



44 



A CENTURY OF POPULATION GROWTH. 



mence on the first Monday in April, 1791, and to close 
within five calendar months thereafter. By an act of 
November 8, 1791, the time for the completion of the 
census in South Carolina was extended to March 1, 
1792. 

Before entering upon the discharge of their duties, 
the marshals and assistant marshals were required to 
take an oath to cause to be made, or to make, as the 
case might be, "a just and perfect enumeration and 
description of all persons" residing within their 
several districts. 

For the purpose of settling all doubts wliich might 
arise respecting the persons to be retui-ned and the 
manner of making the returns, it was provided that 
every person whose usual place of abode was in any 
family on the aforesaid first Monday in August 
should be returned as in such family ; that any person 
without any "usual place of abode" was to be enu- 
merated in the district in which he was on the first 
Monday in August; and that any person who at the 
time of the enumeration was temporarily absent from 
his usual place of abode should be returned as belong- 
ing to that place in wliich he usually resided. The act 
further provided that every person 16 years of age and 
over who refused or failed to render a true account 
when required by the enumerator to answer questions 
in contemplation of the act, was liable to a fine of S20. 
Penalties were prescribed also for the failure of an 
enumerator or marshal to comply with the provisions 
of the act. 

The amount of compensation prescribed for the mar- 
shals of the districts varied from $100to$500,as follows : 

$100— Rhode Island, Delaware. 
200 — Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Connecticut, New 

Jersey. 
300 — Massachusetts, New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, South 

Carolina. 
350— North Carolina. 
500 — Virginia. 

The rate of compensation allowed the assistants 
was $1 for every 300 persons in cities and towns con- 
taining more than 5,000 persons, and $1 for every 150 
persons in country districts; but in those districts 
where, "from the dispersed situation of the inhabit- 
ants," $1 for 150 persons should seem inadequate, the 
marshals were authorized, subject to the approval of the 
judges of their respective districts, to increase the com- 
pensation to $1 for not less than 50 persons returned. 

One of the peculiar provisions of the law, worthy of 
notice, was that each assistant, before making his 
return to the marshal, was required to "cause a cor- 
rect copy, signed by himself, of the schedule containing 
the number of inhabitants within his division to be 
set up at two of the most public places within the 
same, there to remain for the inspection of all con- 
cerned," for which work, upon satisfactory proof, he 
was entitled to receive $4. 

Each assistant was required to make his returns to 
his marshal within the allotted time, on a properly 



ruled schedule "distinguishing the several families by 
the names of their master, mistress, steward, overseer, 
or other principal person therein," and showing for 
each family the number of free white males 16 years 
and upward, including heads of families, free white 
males under 16 years, free white females, including 
heads of families, all other free persons, and slaves. 

The marshals were required to transmit to the 
President of the United States on or before September 
1, 1791, "the aggregate amount of each description of 
persons within their respective districts," and to fiJe 
the original returns of their assistants with the clerks 
of their respective district courts, "who are hereby 
directed to receive and carefully preserve the same." 
The total cost of the First Census was $44,377.28. 

EXECUTION OF THE LAW. 

Upon the President, whose duties at that period 
included active supervision of all the routine affairs 
of government, devolved the task of making the 
first enumeration. Just what method he followed 
in putting the First Census law into operation is not 
definitely known. It is generally supposed that he 
or the Secretary of State dispatched copies of the law 
to the different marshals, with orders to take the cen- 
sus; but a search of the correspondence files of the 
State Department, made to ascertain whether this 
theory could be substantiated, did not reveal any 
record of correspondence with the marshals for 1790 
other than that in connection with the transmission 
of their commissions. 

It has been suggested by some writers that the mar- 
shals may have received their instructions through the 
governors of the several states. During the early 
years of the country's history it was customary to 
transmit to the governor of each state, to be commu- 
nicated to the legislature, copies of all important 
Federal laws. In the files of the State Department 
there is a record that in March, 1 790, a circular letter 
containing two copies of the census act was sent to 
the governors of the several states, and it has been 
suggested that this letter may have contained direc- 
tions to the governors to issue instructions to the mar- 
shals; but the fact that no such instructions are in- 
cluded in the list of inclosures given in the following 
copy of this letter, which was pubhshed in the Arcliives 
of Pennsylvania,' seems inconsistent with this theory: 

Office of Secretary of State, 

March 31st, 1790. 
Sir: 

I have the honor to send you, herewith enclosed, two copies, duly 
authenticated, of the Act providing for the enumeration of the In- 
habitants of the United States; also of the Act to establish an uni- 
form rule of naturalization ; also of the Act making appropriations for 
the support of the Government for the year 1790, and of being, with 
sentiments of the most perfect respect. 

Your Excellency's most obed't & most h'ble servant, 

TH. JEFFERSON, 
flits Excellency The President of Pennsylvania. 

■Vol. II, page 679. 



THE FIRST CENSUS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



45 



This letter does not conclusively disprove the theor}', 
for other letters containing the instructions may have 
been sent to the governors; but all of the important 
correspondence of the governor of Pennsylvania for 
the year 1790 is apparently pubhshed in the Archives, 
and although otiicr letters from Jefferson are included, 
in none is the subject of the census mentioned. In 
short, there is little reason to doubt that the Federal 
Government dealt directly with Federal representa- 
tives in the several states and territories. 

The First Census law omitted to make provision for 
an enumeration of the inhabitants in the Northwest 
and Southwest territories. There is no record of any 
enumeration of the Northwest Territory in 1790. At 
that time the governor was actively engaged in Indian 
warfare, and doubtless it was impossible for him to 
undertake a census. At any rate, so far as is known 
there was no correspondence between Secretary Jef- 
ferson and Governor St. Clair relative to the subject. 

In the case of the Southwest Territory, which was 
fast being settled, it seems to have occurred to Secre- 
tary Jefferson, as an afterthought, that an enumeration 
of the inhabitants would be of value, and he accord- 
ingly sent the following letter to Governor Blount: 

Philadelphia, March 12, 1791. 
Sir: 

I am honored with your favor of February 17, as I had been 
before with that of November 26, both of which have been laid 
before the President. 

Within a few days the printing of the laws of the 3d. session of 
Congress will be completed, and they shall be forwarded to you as 
Boon as they are eo. 

As the census of all the rc't of the Union will be taken in the 
course of this summer, and will not be taken again under ten years, 
it is thought extremely desirable that that of your Government 
should be taken also, and arranged under the same classes as pre- 
scribed by the Act of Congress for the general census. Yet that act 
has not required it in your Territory, nor provided for any expense 
which might attend it. As, however, you have Sheriffs who will 
be traversing their Districts for other purposes, it is referred to you 
whether the taking of the census on the general plan, could not be 
added to their other dutie?, and as it would give scarcely any addi- 
tional trouble, whether it would require any additional reward, or 
more than some incidental accommodation or advantage, which, 
perhaps, it might be in your power to throw in their way. The 
returns by the Sheriffs should be regularly authenticated first by 
themselves, and then by you, and the whole sent here as early in 
the course of the summer as practicable. I have the honor to be 
with great esteem and respect, Sir, &c 

TH. JEFFERSON. 

As there was no marshal for this territory, for the 
purpose of this enumeration Governor Blount was 
virtually both governor and marshal. Hence this 
letter can hardly be acceptetl as tlirowing any light 
on the question whether the marshals received their 
instructions from the Secretary of State or from the 
state governors. 

The suggestion has been advanced that the First 
Census act was considered sclf-explanatorj'. The 
above letter affords no evidence that Governor Blount 
received any instructions regarding the enumeration 



other than those contained in the census act. It is 
probable that the marshals and assistant marshals 
were allowed to interpret the act for themselves. The 
form of the returns and of the marshals' summaries 
is all l)ut conclusive on this point, since there is no 
uniformity among them. The census act indicated 
the form of schedule which should be used by the 
enumerators, and so far as known all the returns were 
made in accordance with this form, except those for 
Maine and the Southwest Territory. It also instructed 
the marshal to show in his summary the aggregate 
number of each description of persons within his dis- 
trict, but it did not indicate what subdivisions of the 
district should be made. Some of the returns give 
only the information required b}' the census act, while 
others give much additional information, such as the 
number of houses and of families, the excess of males 
or of females, and the population of towns, townships, 
and principal places. 

The enumeration. — The emmicration was ordered to 
commence on August 2, 1790, and to close within nine 
calendar months. The census law did not require, 
however, that the enumerators should prosecute their 
work continuously to completion. Tlie dates upon 
which the assistants swore to their returns indicate 
that many must have worked intermittently; some of 
the returns were attested only a few weeks after 
August 2, bi\t the majority bear dates several months 
later. 

Although the area enumerated at the census of 
1790 was only a fraction of the area of enumeration at 
the present time, it presented serious difficulties for 
the enumerator. The boundaries of towns and other 
minor civil divisions, and in some cases of counties, 
were ill defined, so that the enumerator must often 
have been uncertain whether a family resided in his 
district or in an adjoining district. This condition 
existed particularly in the newly settled portions of 
the count IT, where the local government had not been 
fidly organized. In man)- sections the danger from 
hostile Indians doubtless made travel unsafe for the 
enumerator. 

The pay allowed the enumerator for his work was 
very small, the highest rate imder any conditions be- 
ing only -SI for 50 persons, out of which tiie enumerator 
had to furnish schedules properh" ruled. In some 
cases this was barely enough to pay the expenses of 
the enumerator, and in at least one state the marshal 
had difficulty in getting enumerators at the estab- 
lished rates of paj'. Under these circumstances, it 
is reasonable to suppose that manj' of the isolated 
househokls of pioneers were not enumerated. 

One difficulty encountered by the enumerators in 
certain sections of the country was the unwillingness 
of the people to give the information required. Many 
persons had never before been enumerated. Some 
were superstitious regarding a census. An early 
colonial enumeration in New York had been followed 



46 



A CENTURY OF POPULATION GROWTH. 



by much sickness; and the people, recalling that a 
similar experience had befallen the children of Israel 
as the result of an enumeration made b.y King David, 
ascribed this sickness directly to the census. But a 
very much more patent factor in arousing opposi- 
tion to the enumeration was the belief that the census 
was in some way connected with taxation. 

As predicted in the debate which preceded the adop- 
tion of the census act in the House of Representatives, 
the enumeration proceeded more rapidly in those 
states which had already taken a census than in those 
which had not. Samuel Bradford, the enumerator 
for the city of Boston and some outlying districts, 
began work on August 2, 1790, and on August 21 had 
completed the enumeration of the city. His note- 
book shows that the work required seventeen working 
days, and that he enumerated on an average more than 
one thousand persons per day. As his compensation 
was $1 for every 300 persons enumerated, his earnings 
amounted to more than .|.3 per day — compensation 
about equal to that of enumerators to-day, and, with 
few if any exceptions, greatly in excess of that earned 
by the other enumerators at the First Census. 

The enumerators published the results for their 
districts as soon as their work was completed, and 
many of the newspapers of that period contained fre- 
quent statements concerning the population of different 
places. The population for the whole of the state of 
Massachusetts was first published in the Columbian 
Centinel of February 26, 1791. The population of 
several towns in Rhode Island was published early in 
October, 1790, and the population of the city of 
Charleston, S. C, appeared in the Pennsylvania Packet 
for November 12 of that year. 

It is probable that m all the states, except Vermont 
and South Carolina, the enumeration was completed 
within the nine months allowed by the census act. In 
Vermont the enumeration did not commence until the 
first Monday in April, 1791, and was not required to 
be completed for five months. 

In South Carolina the marshal experienced difficulty 
in getting assistants at the lawful rate of pay, and the 
enumeration met with some opposition from the 
people. In September, 1791, the grand jury of the 
Federal district court for Charleston made a present- 
ment against six persons for refusing to render an 
account of persons in their families as required by the 
census act, and also a presentment against one of 
the enumerators for neglect of duty in not completing 
his district in conformity with the act.' In October 
of that year the Representatives of South Carolina in 
Congress stated that the census in that state had been 
nearly completed, but that the rate of pay was so 
small and the conditions such that for certain sections 
of the state the marshal had been unable to secure 
enumerators; an extension of time and a higher rate 

' New York Daily Advertiser, November 1, 1791. 



of pay were asked for. An extension of time to 
March 1, 1792, was readily granted, but a higher rate 
of pa}' was refused. It was stated that as the mar- 
shals of some other states, who had complained of the 
inadequacy of the compensation allowed, had never- 
theless contrived to get the work done at the prescribed 
rates, it would be inequitable for Congress to make an 
exception in the case of South Carolina. The marshal's 
return for this state is dated February 5, 1792, which 
was eighteen months and three days after the date 
when the enumeration was scheduled to commence.'^ 

The census in the Southwest Territory was taken by 
the captains of the militia, apparently without com- 
pensation, on the last Saturday of July, 1791, and 
Governor Blount dated his return for the territory 
September 19, 1791, stating that five of the captains 
had not then reported. From this it would appear 
that the census was taken with more dispatch in this 
territory than in some of the organized states. 

THE RETURNS. 

The returns of the enumerators were made to the 
marshals. These officials, after having made a sum- 
mary showing the ' ' aggregate amount of each descrip- 
tion of persons within their respective districts," as 
required by law, deposited them, as directed, with the 
clerks of the district courts for safe-keeping. The 
marshals' summaries were sent direct to the President, 
by whom they were turned over to the Secretary' of 
State, who made or caused to be made copies thereof, 
which were sent to the ministers of the United States 
abroad. The President also sent to Congress, on 
October 27, 1791, a tabular statement of the results of 
the census in each of the states except South Carolina, 
where the enumeration had not then been completed. 
The return for this state was subsequently communi- 
cated on March 3, 1792. 

The First Census report contained a return of popu- 
lation for all the states b}' counties; in the returns for 
North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and the 
Southwest Territory, the counties were grouped under 
districts. For some states the population was given 
also by minor civil divisions. Detailed information 
of this character was printed wherever the return was 
made in detail by the marshal to the Department of 
State. In many instances, however, the marshal did 
not furnish the Federal Government with the details 
which had been supplied to him by the enumerators 
under his supervision; consequently, for a large part 
of the territory enumerated, no detailed information 
was published — nor, indeed, has the population of the 
minor civil divisions within the states for which such 

- The enumeration, therefore, must have included some persons 
not in existence in 1790. It is probable, however, that the 
delayed schedules were from the more remote and sparsely settled 
sections of the state and added but little to the total population. 
Thus to a very small extent the census of 1790 perhaps overstates 
the population, with the result that the census of 1800 fails to 
show the actual decennial increase. 




EARLY CENSUS SCHEDULES 



THE FIRST CENSUS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



47 



information existed but was not published, been 
available heretofore to students, except by consulting 
the ori;iiiial schedules. 

In Table 104, page 188, is published for the first time a 
complete return of the population, at the First Census, of 
all the states and territories by counties and minor civil 
divisions, so far as theschedules still in existence permit. 

The published returns. — The results of the census, 
exclusive of the returns for South Carolina, were first 
published in book form in 1791, in what is now a very 
rare little octavo volume of 56 pages; later editions, 
published in 1793 and 1802, included the report for 
South Carolina. For the preparation of this volume 
little tabulation was required, and no extra clerical 
force was employed; the marshals' summaries were 
sent direct to the printer, and published in the form in 
which they were received, with a summary showing 
the population of the United States by states. 

For the district of Maine the returns relate only to 
the total population, without any of the subdivisions 
required by the act. In the returns for the Southwest 
Territory, the white males are divided into those 21 
(instead of 16) years and over and those under 21 
years. The printed returns of the marshals ot all the 



other states cover the details required by the census 
act as to the number of each class of persons enumer- 
ated, but do nut present these details by cities and 
towns, except for the states of Maine, New Hamp- 
shire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New 
York, and part of New Jersey. The prmted results 
for the remaining districts are confined to the counties 
and a f(>w of the larger cities and towns. 

In addition to the information prescribed by the 
census act, the marshal for the district of Massachu- 
setts gave the number of dwelling houses and of 
families in each cit\^ and town covered bj- the report. 
The marshal for the district of New York inclutled in 
his returns the excess of males or females among the 
white j)()pulati()n of each city and to\\-n for which 
report was made. In Pennsylvania the enumerators 
of the city of I'hiladelphia furnished the occupations 
of all heads of famihes enumerated.' 

'Clement Biddle, the marshal for the state of Pennsylvania, 
published in 1791 a directory of the city of Philadelphia, in which 
the names and occupations of many, if not all, of the inhabitants 
of the city pro))cr are the same as those of the heads of families 
shown in the census schedules. It is possible and perhaps prob- 
able that the occupations of the heads of families were obtained in 
the census enumeration for use in this directory. 



Table 7.— POPULATION OF THE UNITED STATES AS RETURNED AT THE FIRST CENSUS, BY STATES: 1790. 



Vermont 

Niw Hampshire 

Maliie 

Mi-i^^aotiusetts 

Khodo Islatid 

( 'OIHU'CtiCUt 

Nt'w "^'ork 

N w Jersey 

I'fnnsylvania 

Delaware 

Uary land 

Virginia 

Kentucky 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Georgia 

Total number of Inhabitants of the United States exclusive of Southwest and 
Northwest territories 



Free white 
males of 16 
years and 
upward, 
Including 
heads of 
families. 



22,43.5 
36. W* 
24,3S4 

gs,4» 

16,019 
60,523 
83,700 
45,251 

110,788 
11,783 
55,915 

110,936 
15,154 
69,988 
35,576 
13,103 



807,094 



Free white 

males under 

16 years. 



Free white 
females. 
Including 
heads of 
families. 



22,328 
34,851 
24,748 
87,289 
15,799 
54,403 
78,122 
41,416 

106,948 
12,143 
51,339 

116,135 
17,057 
77,506 
37,722 
14,044 



40,505 
70,160 
46,870 

190,582 
32,652 

117,448 

152,320 
83,287 

206,363 
22,384 

101,395 

215,046 
28,922 

140,710 
66,880 
25,739 



All other 

free 
persons. 



255 

630 

538 

5,463 

3,407 

2,808 

4,654 

2,762 

6,537 

3,899 

8,043 

12,866 

114 

4,975 

1,801 

398 



791,850 



1,541,263 



59,150 



Slaves. 



'16 

158 

None. 

None. 

948 

2,764 

21,324 

11,423 

3,737 

8,887 

103,036 

292,627 

12,430 

100,572 

107,094 

29,264 



694,280 



Total. 



'85,539 
141, 8S5 

96,540 
378,787 

68,825 
237,946 
340,120 
184,139 
434,373 
•59,094 
319,728 
747,610 

73.677 
393,751 
249,073 

82,548 



3,893,635 



Free white 

males of 21 

years and 

upward. 



Free males 

under 21 

years of age. 



Free white 
females. 



.Ml other 
persons 



Slaves. 



Total. 



.'Southwest Territory. 
Northwest Territory. 



6,271 



10,277 



15,365 



361 



3,417 



' The census of 1790, published in 1791, reports 16 slaves in Vermont. .Subsequently, and up to 1S60. the number Is given as 17. .•Vn examination of the original manu- 
script returns shows that there never were any slaves in Vermont. The original error occurred In preparing the results for publication, when 16 persons, returned as "free 
colored." were cia-sslfied as "slave." 

"Corrected figures are &i.425. or 114 less than figures published in 1790, due to an error of addition in the returns for each of the towns of Fairfield, Milton, Shelbume, 
and Williston, in the county of Chittenden: Brookfield. Newbury. Randolph, and Stratford. In the county of Orange: Castleton, Clarendon. Hubbardton, Poultney, 
Rutland. Shrewsbury, and Wallingford, in the county of Rutland; Dummerston, Guilford, Halifax, and Westminster, 111 the county of Windham; and Woodstock, in 
the county of \Vin<lsor. 

• Corrected figures are 59,096, or 2 more than figures published in 1790, due to error In addition. 



48 



A CENTURY OF POPULATION GROWTH. 



The varied form of the summaries was probably 
due to the fact that the marshals received no instruc- 
tions as to the form the summaries should take, other 
than a copy of the census act. Most of the variations 
which occurred could have been overcome readily by 
correspondence and jutlicious editing, but the Secre- 
tary of State appears to have accepted the marshals' 
summaries as final, making no attempt to secure 
uniformity. Moreover, little attention seems to have 
been given to the preparation of the printed report of 
the First Census, for in some instances the columns 
of figures are added incorrectly, indicating either errors 
in proof reading or— more probably — inaccuracies in 
the manuscript delivered to the State Department and 
lack of editorial examination. 

Attention is especially invited to the fact that for 
some unexplained reason the age classification speci- 
fied under the act authorizing the census — the subdi- 
vision of wliite males into those 16 years of age and 
over and those under 16 years — was varied m the 
enumeration of the Southwest Territory, the total 
number of white males being divided into those 21 
years of age and over and those under 21 years. This 
fact makes it impossible to classify the total white 
population of the nation by sex and age. 

The total population reported by the First Census 
caused considerable disappointment. The following 
quotations from Jefferson clearly reflect the confident 
expectation of the people that a decidedly larger 
figure woukl be reahzed. 

Under date of January 23, 1791, Jefl'erson wrote: 

The census has made considerable progress, but will not be com- 
pleted till midsummer. It is judged at present that our numbers 
will be between four and five millions. Virginia, it is supposed 
will be between 7 and 800,000.' 



On August 24, 
michael as follows 



1791, he wrote to Wilham Car- 



I enclose you a copy of our census, which, so far as it is written 
in black ink, is founded on actual returns, what is in red ink being 
conjectured, but very near the truth. Making very small allowance 
for omissions, which we know to have been very great, we may 
safely say we are above four millions. - 

And again, on August 29, 1791, to William Short 
he wrote the following: 

I enclose you also a copy of our census, written in black ink so 
far as we have actual returns, and supplied by conjecture in red 
ink, where we have no returns; but the conjectures are known to 
be very near the truth. Making very small allowance for omissions, 
which we know to have been very great, we are certainly above 
four millions, probably about four millions one hundred thousand.^ 

It is interesting to note that Washington shared 

1 The Writings of Thomas Jefferson, Vol. VIII, page 122. 
^ Ibid., page 229. 
3 Ibid., page 236. 



Jefferson's views as to the incompleteness of the re- 
turns. Under date of July 28, 1791, ho wrote to 
Gouverneur Morris as follows : 

In one of my letters to you, the account of the number of inhab- 
itants which would probably be found in the United States on enu- 
meration was too large. The estimate was then founded on the 
ideas held out by the gentlemen in Congress of the population of 
the several states, each of whom (as was very natural), looking 
through a magnifier, would speak of the greatest e.xtent to which 
there was any probability of their numbers reaching. Returns of 
the census have already been made from several of the states, and 
a tolerably just estimate has been now formed in others, by which 
it appears that we shall hardly reach four millions; but this you 
are to take along with it, that the real number will greatly exceed 
the ofiicial return, because, from religious scruples, some would not 
give in their lists; from an apprehension that it was intended as the 
foundation of a tax, others concealed or diminished theirs ; and from 
the indolence of the mass and want of activity in many of the deputy 
enumerators, numbers are omitted. The authenticated number 
will, however, be far greater, I believe, than has ever been allowed 
in Europe, and will have no small influence in enabling them to 
form a more just opinion of our present growing importance than 
have yet been entertained there. * 

The enumerators' schedules. — It is impossible to 
trace clearly the history of the original, or enumera- 
tors', schedules. The census act states that the mar- 
shals shall deposit them, under a heavy penalt}^ for 
failure to do so, with the clerks of the district courts 
of their respective districts. The acts for the censuses 
of ISOO, 1810, and 1820 contained the same provisions. 
By an act of Congress approved May 28, 1830, the 
clerks of the several district courts of the United States 
were directed to transmit to the Secretary of State 
such schedules of the first four censuses as were in their 
respective offices.^ The schedules were kept in the 
custody of the Secretar}^ of State until the organization 
of the Interior Department, in 1849, when they were 
transferred, together with the returns of the succeeding 
censuses, to the custody of the Secretary of the Inte- 
rior. They were kept in a fireproof vault in the Patent 
Oflice until June, 1904, when they were transferreil to 
the Census Office, where they have since remained. 

Some of the volumes appear not to have been as 
carefully preserved as the census acts required; from 
some volumes sheets have been torn out and lost, while 
others are stained, illegible, and partly burned. In 
1897 the schedules for all censuses prior to 1890 were 
carefully examined, and it was ascertained that for the 
censuses of 1790 to 1820, inclusive, the files were in- 
complete. The missing schedules for the states and 

^The Writings of Washington, Vol. X, pages 176 and 177. 

^ It is not certain that the first four census acts had been observed 
by the marshals and that this resolution was complied with in all 
cases by the clerks of the district courts. The schedules for the 
census of 1790 for Rhode Island, however, were forwarded to the 
Secretary of State at Washington in compliance with the resolution, 
for bound in the schedules is the affidavit dated June 22, 1830, of 
the clerk of the district court of that state to the effect that he is 
forwarding the said schedules. 



THE FIRST CENSUS 01' THE UNITED STATES. 



49 



territories included in the area of the United States in 
1 790 are indicated by asterisks in the following table : 



STATE OB TERRITORY. 


1790 


1800 


1810 


1830 


Rhode Island 








• 


New Jersey ... . ... 


* 
* 
* 


• 


• 


• 






VirKinia 


« 






South Carolina 




• 


Georgia (including Alabama land Mississippi)... 


* 
• 
* 

* 


* 
• 
* 

* 


• 






* 
* 




Northwest Territorya (Ohlo.> Indiana. Illinois. 


• 







' The schedules for Alabama in 1830 are not in existence. 

• There is no evidence o( any enumeration of Northwest Territory in 1790. 

' The schedules for Ohio in 1820 are in existence. 

Of the schedules for all the remaininjj states and 
organized territories, those for Arkansas in 1S20 alone 
are missing. 

With a view to ascertaining the whereabouts of the 
missing volumes, the Department of the Interior con- 
ducted a correspondence with the heads of the several 
Executive Departments at Wasliington, with the 
governors of the several states, and, through the De- 
partment of Justice, with the clerks of the courts in 
said states. None of them could be recovered, how- 
ever, nor was it ])0ssible to procure any information 
regarding them. 

There is a record that the 1790 returns for Virginia 
were destroyed when the British burned the Capitol at 
Washington during the War of 1S12. But it is a 
question whether anything more than the marshal's 
summary was burned ; if the First Census law was com- 
pUed with, the original returns must have been in the 
custody (jf the clerk of the district court of Virginia. 

Doctor Chickering, in his ''Statistical View of the 
Population of Massachusetts,"* published in 1846, 
states that a copy of the 1790 schedules for ilassa- 
ehusetts was lost in the destruction of the Patent 
Office by fire on December 15, 1836, and that soon 
afterwards the original schedules in the district clerk's 
office in Massachusetts were ordered to be sent to Wash- 
ington to replace the copy destroyed. But the Patent 
Office fire here referred to was not discovered until it 
had gained such great headway that the persons in the 
building barely escaped with their lives. It is proba- 
ble tliat all the census returns were kept together; and, 
if so, the burning of any ol the returns would doubtless 
have meant the destruction of the entire series. More- 
over, a report made to Congress by the Commissioner 
of Patents, December 28, 1836, giving what purports 
to be a complete list of everything lost in the fire, 
makes no mention of any census schedules being 
burned. 

Fortunately, the 1790 schedules for the states which 
were most populous at that period, with the excejition 
of Virginia, are stil! in existence; and the place of those 
for Virginia is taken in some measure by lists of 
inhabitants at state enumerations made near the close 



' Page 5. 



of the Revolutionary War. As shown bj' the aggre- 
gate returns for the six in(iuiries at the First Census, 
the relative importance of the omitted states (includ- 
ing Virginia) is as follows: 



ELEMENTS Of THE POPinjlTION. 



Total population. 



Total 
returns. 



3.929,625 



White population ] 3,172,444 



Free white males 10 years and 
upward, including heads of 
families 

Free white males under 16 
years 

Free while females, mciudlng 
heads of families 



All other free persons. 
Slaves 



815,098 

800,063 

1,556,683 

59,557 
697,624 



KETtTBKa rOB WHICH SCBEDinxS 



Preserved. 



Lost. 



Number. 



2,6S4,499 1,245,126 



2,327,262 I 



845,182 



600,928 

580,114 

1,146,222 

33,253 
318,984 



214, 172 

220,549 

410,401 

21,304 
378,040 



Per cent 
of total 
returns. 



31.7 
20.C 



26.3 

27.5 

26.4 

35.8 
54.3 



For each of the inquiries relating to white persons, 
the proportion represented by the lost schedules is 
about one-fourth; for free negroes, one-third; and 
for slaves, slightly more than one-half. Most of the 
slaves for which the schedules are lost were reported 
by "\'irginia. 

The schedules of the First Census on file in the 
Census Office are as follows: 

Maine 1 volume. 

New Hampshire 2 volumes. 

Vermont 2 volumes. 

Mas.sachusetts 1 volume. 

Rhode Island 1 volume. 

Connecticut 3 volumes. 

New York 4 volumes. 

Pennsylvania 8 volumes. 

Maryland 2 volumes. 

North Carolina 2 volumes. 

South Carolina 1 volume. 

Total 27 volumes. 

These volumes tlill'er widely in siiape and size. The 
paper for the schedules was furnished by the enumer- 
ators themselves, and is of many different kinds. It 
varies from 4 to 36 inches in length, the longer sheets 
requiring several folds. Many enumerators used 
merchants' account books, journals, or ledgers; 
others used large sheets of paper, neatly ruled and 
folded. The headings were generally wTitten in by 
hand, but printed headings were used on the schedules 
for Massachusetts and for one district of New York. 
All of the schedules for Massachusetts are on printed 
blanks of uniform size, a fact which suggests that the 
blanks were furnished or sold to the enumerators by 
the marshal. Most of the volumes contain the sched- 
ules of several enumerators, though a few enumerators 
handed in schedules sufficient to fill a whole volume. 
For a binding sometimes an old newspaper, heavy 
wTapping paper, or a piece of wall paper was used. 



50 



A CENTURY OF POPULATION GROWTH. 



In 1897 the 1790 schedules were paged, arranged, 
and indexed by the Department of the Interior, and 
carefully repaired with transparent silk to prevent 
further deterioration. 

In the returns of some of the enumerators the names 
of heads of families are arranged alphabetically, 
indicating that they were copied from preliminary 
notes gathered while making the enumeration. In 
many cases the name of a minister, as being the chief 
personage in a town, heads the list, regardless of 
alphabetical or other arrangement. Many of the 
entries are picturesque. Few men had more than one 
Christian name; hence, in order to make it clear what 
person was meant, additional information was often 



given, as "Leonard Clements (of Walter)," "Sarah 
Chapman, (Wid. of Jno.)," "Walter Clements (Corn- 
wallis Neck)." In the Southern states there were 
many plantations whose owners Avere absent at the 
time of the enumeration; frequently the name of the 
owner was given, with large holdings of slaves, but 
not one white person enumerated. Some slaves who 
were living apart from their owners, either alone or as 
heads of households, were entered separately, as "Peter, 
negro (Chas. Wells property)." Heads of free colored 
families were often stated to be "free," as "Ruth, 
Free negro," "Brown, John (free mulatto)." Some enu- 
merators obtained the number of free colored males, as 
well as of free whites, above and below 16 years of age. 



IV, AREA AND TOTAL POPULATION. 



AREA— POPULATION— POPULATION BY AREAS 
OF ENUMERATION— BY STATES AND TER- 
R IT O R I E S— D E N S I T Y OF POPULATION. 



In the preceding pages of this publication the origin 
of census operations has been pointed out from the 
historical point of view, and there have been succes- 
sively considered the population of the several colonies 
in the Colonial and Continental periotls. the extent 
and the material condition of the Republic in the year 
in which the First Census was taken, and the enact- 
ment and operation of the First Census legislation. 

The tables and text in this chapter and in those 
which follow are based upon analysis and inspection 
of census returns, and constitute the first systematic 
discussion of the results of the First Census. In many 
instances the figures presented may be accepted as 
basic, and thus as furnishing data by which can be 
measured the changes that have occurred during 
more than a century of American census taking, in 
connection witii the subjects considered; in others they 
are offered frankly as approximations, substantially 
accurate, and bearing upon economic subjects which 
are of great importance but for which no figures of any 
kind have ever before been presented. 

Prior to 1S50 census reports contained no analysis 
of census returns. The odicials of the Department 
of State, who were charged with the taking and pub- 
lishing of the Federal census, were content to present 
tabulations without making any attempt to point out 
the most important results. A period of more than 
half a century elapsed after the First Census before the 
economic significanco of census returns — the im- 
portance oi which had been pointed out by Mr. 
Madison in the debate in the First Congress upon the 
act providing for the enumeration — was even par- 
tially appreciated. 

Under the most favorable conditions, however, com- 
paratively little could have been written in 1792 
concerning the results of the First Census. The 
science of statistics was in its infancy, and analysis 
and interpretation of statistics were nowhere at- 
tempted. Moreover, had the officials of the Federal 
Government presented an anal3-sis of the returns, the 
entire discussion necessarily would have been con- 
fined to pointing out the more noteworthy facts indi- 
cated by the actual census data derived from the five 



inquiries comprising the schedule. The chief value of 
census statistics lies in a comparison of the returns of 
one period with those of another; but as this was the 
first census of the United States, no comparable figures 
existed by which to measure change, unless the partial 
enumerations and the estimates of population avail- 
able from the later Colonial and Continental periods 
be regarded as roughly comparable. 

It is clear, therefore, that an analysis and compari- 
son of the meager information secured at the First 
Censu.s can be made most effective after the lapse of 
at least a century of periodic census taking. Hence 
such conclusions as can be drawn from the studies 
which appear in this publication probably possess 
greater value, because they cover an entire century 
of perspective, than conclusions which might have 
been drawn at some earlier period. 

Consideration of the basic facts relating to popula- 
tion which were secured at the First Census confirms 
the belief that the returns obtained, when <-arefully 
tested and examined, supply practically all the statis- 
tical information that reasonablj^ could have been ex- 
pected of that period. In 1700 the United States was 
a sparsely settled country, and great value attached 
even to a mere coimt of population. But as social and 
economic problems grew more complex with the in- 
crease of population, tlie importance of detailed knowl- 
edge concerning the human units comprising the nation 
became nuich greater. Moreover, increase in wealth 
and political influence has created economic problems 
which were unknown in 1790. 

AREA. 

The Repubhc began its career as a nation nominally 
possessing an area of 843,246 stiuare miles, of which 
820,377 square miles constituted land area. Of the 
latter total, however, only 417,170 square miles are 
included witliin the limits of the states and territories 
which were enumerated in 1 790. The total area of the 
United States in 1000 was more than four times, and 
that of continental I'nited States was nearly four times, 
the total area in 1790. The enumerated area within 

(51) 



CHANGES IN AREA FOR ONE HUNDRED AND TEN YEARS. 



1790 



1800 




810 




1820 




1830 



840 




CHANGES IN AREA FOR ONE HUNDRED AND TEN YEARS. 



1850 




1861 




870 




1880 




1890 



1900 




76292—09 5 



54 



A CENTURY OF POPULATION GROWTH. 



continental United States increased more than seven- 
fold during the century. 

According to the Twelfth Census Statistical Atlas, 
the "settled" area of the country in 1790— that is, 
the area having a population density of at least 2 
persons per square mile — comprised 239,935 square 
miles, wliile in 1900 the settled area of continental 
United States was 1 ,925,590 square miles. Deducting 
1,000 square miles for settled areas in the Northwest 



Territory, which was not enumerated in 1790, it 
appears that areas having a density of less than 2 
persons per square mile formed nearly 43 per cent of 
the enumerated area in 1790, and but little over 35 
per cent of the enumerated area witliin continental 
United States in 1900. 

The following table embodies the result of an attempt 
to estimate the area of enumeration within continental 
United States at each census : 



Table 8 -LAND AREA OF CONTINENTAL UNITED STATES, OF AREA OF ENUMERATED IN 1790 AND OF ADDED 

AREA: 1790 TO 1900. 









LAND ABEA (SQUARE MILES) OF 


CONITNENTAL UNITED STATES. 








Total. 






Enumerated. 










CENSUS TEAK. 


Continental United 


States. 


Enumerated in 1790.2 


Added to area of enumeration 
since 1790. 


Unenu- 




Total. 


Settled (at 
least 2 per- 
sons per 
square 
nule).i 


Unsettled. 


Settled (at 
least 2 per- 
sons per 
square 
mile). 


Unsettled. 


Total. 


Settled (at 
least 2 per- 
sons per 
square 
mile). 


Unsettled.' 


merated. 




820,377 
820,377 
1,699.761 
1,754,622 
1,754,622 
1.754,622 
2,943,142 
2,974,159 
2, 974. 159 
2,974,159 
2,974.159 
2,974.159 


< 417. 170 

434,670 

556. 010 

688.670 

877, 170 

1.183,870 

1,519.170 

1.951.520 

2,126.290 

2, 727. 454 

2.974.159 

2, 974, 159 


5 238,935 

305,708 

407.945 

508,717 

632.717 

807.292 

979,249 

1,194,754 

1,272,239 

1,569.565 

1,947.280 

1,925,590 


178,235 

128,962 

148,065 

179,953 

244,453 

376,578 

539,921 

756,766 

854.051 

1,157.889 

1,026.879 

1,048,569 


'238,935 
295.708 
329.945 
. 358, 717 
382,717 
397.292 
399,249 
399, 754 
400,239 
403.565 
407,280 
410.590 


178,235 

121,462 

87,225 

58, 453 

34, 453 

19,878 

17,921 

17,416 

16,931 

13,605 

9,890 

6,580 








403,207 




17,500 

138,840 

271,500 

460,000 

766.700 

1,102,000 

1,534.350 

1,709,120 

2,310,284 

2,556,989 

2,556,989 


10.000 

78.000 

150.000 

250.000 

410.000 

580, 000 

795,000 

872.000 

1,166.000 

1.540.000 

1,515,000 


7,500 

60,840 

121,500 

210,000 

356, 700 

522,000 

739,350 

837. 120 

1.144.284 

1,016.989 

1,041,989 


385.707 




1.143.751 


1820 


1,065,952 




877,452 


1840 


570. 752 


1850 


1.423,972 




1,022.639 


1870 


847.869 


1JJ80 


6 246.705 















1 Twelfth Census Statistical Atlas, Plates 2 to 13 and pages 26 to 36. The separation into the area enumerated in 1790 (column 5) and the added area (column 8) Is esti- 
mated. 

• For each census, the sum of columns 5 and 6 is 417,170. See footnote 4. 

» Estimated from the settled area (column S) by the use of a graduated series of percentages— from 75 per cent in 1800 to 90 per lent in 1870. 

< The land area shown tis enumerated in 1790 includes an esthnale of 17.841 lor those counties of Georeia which were enumerated in that year: for all other states and 
territories included in the area of enumeration the total land area is used, l)eeause some portion of every county was enumerated. 

1 Excluding an estimate of 1 .000 square miles for the settled area in the Northwest Territory, which was not enumerated in 1790. 

6 Land area of Indian Territory and Oklahoma— 69,414 square miles, according to Census Bulletin 71— together with the area of Indian reservations in states and organ- 
ized territories added to the area of enumeration since 1790— amounting to 177,291 square miles, according to the Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs for 1880. 



POPULATION. 

March 3, 1792, President Washington reported to 
Congress that the population of the Repubhc was 
3,929,214. A recount in 1908 of the population 
enumerated at the First Census, from all those sched- 
ules in which the handwriting remains sufficiently 
legible to indicate that no error of tabulation need 
occur because of mutilation or age, shows that the 
official figures reported to Congress and pubhshed in 
1792 should have been increased by at least 411 
persons. It was possible to revise accurately the 
returns of only nine of the states, since, as it will be 
remembered, the schedides for New Jersey, Delaware, 
Virginia, Georgia, Kentucky, and the Southwest Ter- 
ritory are no longer in existence. Those for Mary- 
land and South CaroHna, although for the most part 



in existence, are in some cases mutilated or illegible, 
making it impossible to attempt revision of the re- 
turns for those states. 

So far as is now known, no enumeration was made 
in the territory northwest of the Oliio river; in fact, 
an historian of a little later period declares that "the 
number of inhabitants in tliis large tract of country 
has never been ascertained."' Governor St. Clair 
estimated that in 1790 the territory contained only 
about 4,000 inhabitants, widely scatteretl in detached 
settlements between which there was but httle com- 
munication, and which were so hedged about by 
hostile Inchans that for many years their cliief con- 
cern was to protect themselves against uprisings and 
massacres. Jedediah Morse estimated the white pop- 

' Winterbotham: View of the United States of America (1796), 
Vol. II, page 487. 



AREA AND TOTAL POPUI.ATIOX. 



55 



ulation of the territory in 1792 at 7,820/ scattered 
among a few frontier settlements and outposts. 

' From the best data the author has received, the population may 
be estimated, five years ago, as follows: 

Indians (supposed) 05, 0001 

OMIo (_'ompany purchase 2,500 

Colonel Synitnos'ssc'tllciuents 2,OOoil792 

Galliopolis I FreiK'h sf'tlfiiients opposite Kanttaway river) ] l,OOo( 

V'incenncs an<l its vi<-inity, on tiio Wabash l,50ol 

Kiiskaslcias unci taholtia ti*01,,Q« 

At Grand liuisseau, village of St. Philip, and Prairie.<iu-rocbcr!i 240/ "' 

Total 72, 820 

In 1790 there were in the town of Vincennes about 40 American 
families and 31 slaves, and on the Mississippi, 40 American fami- 
lies and 73 slaves, all included in the above estimate. On the 
Spanish or western side of the Mississippi there were in 1790 about 
1,800 souls, principally at Genevieve and St. Louis. The lands on 
the various rivers which water this territory are interspersed with 
all the variety of soil which conduces to pleasantness of situation 
and lays the foundation for the wealth of an agricultural and manu- 
facturing people. — Jedediah Morse: American Gazetteer, Boston, 1797. 



Accepting Governor St. Clair's conservative esti- 
mate of 4,000 inhabitants in the Northwest Territory, 
allowing a population of 1,000 for the five districts 
of the Southwest Territory — three in Greene county, 
one in Davidson county, and one south of the 
French Broad river — for which no returns were ever 
received, and correcting the known shortage of 411, 
the total population of the United States in 1790 was 
3,934,625. 

Population by areas of enumeration. — The advance of 
population with each decade, as, Uttle b}' httle, vast 
areas of territory were added to tiie national domain, 
is shown in the following table: 



Table 9.— POPULATION OF THE UNITED STATES, CLASSIFIED BY AREAS OF ENUMERATION: 1790 TO 1900.' 



AREA EXtTMERATED— 


1790 


1800 


1810 


1820 1 1830 


1840 


1860 


1860 


1870 


18S0 


I880> 1S00> 


In 1900 














1 1 


•76,303,387 
71: nto tat 


In 1890 














1 


R9 07a 7»'ft 


In 1880 




















In 1860 and 1870 
















31 , 443, .121 38, .M8, 371 50, 1.55, 783 62! 688,' 057 


75,204,184 
70,807,006 
64,806,614 
60,823.367 
60,294,825 
5-1,494,971 


In 1S50 














23,191,876 


In 1840 












* 17,069,453 


•y.wm 4tifi.in n7« 946 .-it. 947 iiuj.^ -no (j.-> sj'ion'oij 


In 183!) 










'12,866,020 
12,825,972 
12,4,39.390 
in 240 •>■*■! 


17. 019,890 i2! 602! 175 ia.'.jj^iiojliois,' '.'S3 ■!2!807!'. 74 iiims' 334 
16, 965, 413 1-2, 514, 730 29, (191. 881, 34, 426. V.-i5 42,.537. 781 50, 716, 912 
16, 131, 726 21, 105.027 26, 71.1,. 422 31. 193. S.'V) 38. 6i6. 930 45, 780, 9i8 


In ISlOand 1820 

In 1.800 

In 1790 


"3,'929,'62S 


'5,'368,'483 
5,247,355 

61,128 


7,239,881 
7, 142.JSn 
6,779,3J8 

460,573 


9, 638. 4. 53 
9.4l)-l.!S7 


Total added area. . 


l,344,58ll » 2, 625, 788 


1 1 1 1 1 ' 
< 5. 288, 222! 8, 622, 292 14, 117, 164 18. 870,867 26, 2C3, 570 34, 791, 445 »«2, 749, 757 






First in 1800 




61, 128 


363, 172 
97,401 


1 110 318) 2. 199 l.W 


4,350,495 

833,087 

54,477 

< 49, 503 


6,535 443 9 440 265 n 8nf. n.lni4 7nl 'Oi 17 loo ra7 on oji iai 


First in 1810 




234,266 


380. .582 


1,409,703 2,315,464 
87,445 140.424 
198, :91' 846,930 
391,410 1 181 .147 


2.932,181 3,910;851 4i9:5i984, 5[799]854 


First in 1830 








> 40, 048 


First in 1840 










1,033.7:6 2.405,388 3.:22,580 
1.682,022 3,010.295 4.583,165 

618 640 1 9.19 «9fl .1 7ftJ Q7ft 


3,983.247 

6,060,392 

4,337.178 

63.592 


First in 1850 












First in 1860 
















182,5:8 


First iu 1880 




















First in 1890 






















« 258] 657 


First in 1900 














1 





•245,220 
















1 


i 1 



I In compiling this tabic it was first determined what states, or parts of states, were included within the prea of enumeration added to continental t'nlted States during 
each decade. The population of ea<'h aii<icd area wa,s then compared with tlie total population of the same states at each succeeding census. Tl.c area added during each 
decade is Ijriefly dcscrilu'd in the foliowini; paraf:raplis: 

1790 to 1,800: The five states entirely within tile limits of the Northwest Territory— Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin— together with western Georgia, 
Alabama, and Mississippi. Practically all of this area was within the limits of the United States in 1790, but was not enumerated. 

1800 to 1810: Louisiana, Arkansas, and Missouri. The rest of the Louisiana Purchase (1803) was not enumerated in 1810. 

1810 to 1820: There was no new state or territory added to the area of enumeration. Florida was purchased in 1819, but was not enumerated In 1820. 

1820 to 1830: Florida. 

1830 to 1840: Minnesota and Iowa. 

1840 to 1850: Texas. New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, Washington, Oregon, and California. Beginning with 1860, the population of the Oadsden Purchase (1853) Is Included 
with this area because It could not l>c oiitained separately. 

1850 to IHiin: North Daliota. South Dakota. .Nebraska. Kansas, Montana, Idaho, Wyoming, Colorado, and Nevada. 

1860 to isro: There was no new state or territory added to the area of eniuneration. Alaska was purchased In 1867, but was not enumerated In 1870. 

1870 to 18.80: Alaska. 

1880 to 1H90: Indian Territory and Oklahoma. 

1890 to 19IKI: Hawaii. 

> The population of Indian reservations, which were first enumerated In 1890, Is here Included with that of the areas In which located. 

' Includinc 91.219 persons stationed al)road, in the miiitarv and naval service of the United States. 

' Includini! 6,100 persons stationed aliroad, in the military and naval service of the United States. 

' Including 5,318 persons stationed abroad, In the military and naval service of the United States. 



Upon comparing the growth, in extent and in pop- 
ulation, of the area enumerated in 1790 with that of 
continental United States as a whole, it appears that the 
gradual decline in the proportionate extent and popula- 
tion of the original area, as compared with the whole of 
continental United States, is merely a reflection of the 
growth of the added area in extent and population. 

The added area had outstripped the original area 
in extent by 1830, but its population did not pass 
that of the original area until 1880. Increase in the 



younger states continued to outstrip increase in the 
older states, so that in 1900 the original area formed 
less than one-seventh of the area of continental United 
States, and its population was less than half of the total. 
In 1900 the total population of the added area exceeded 
that of the original area by more than nine millions, the 
excess being more than one-third of the total popula- 
tion of the original states at the Twelfth Census, and 
almost three times the entire white population of the 
Republic in 1790. 



50 



A CENTURY OF POPULATION GROWTH. 



Table 10. 



-COMPARISON OF GROWTH IN AREA AND POPULATION, FOR THE TOTAL AREA OF CONTINENTAL UNITED 
STATES AND FOR THE AREA ENUMERATED IN 1790: 1790 TO 1900. 





AREA OF ENUMERA- 
TION. 


POPULATION. 


INCREASE OF POPULATION OVER 
PRECEDING CENSUS. 


PER CENT OF INCREASE OF POP- 
tTLATION OVER PRECEDING 
CENSUS. 


YEAR. 


Square 
miles. 


Per cent 
area enu- 
m'erated 
in 1790 
fonns of 

total 
area enu- 
merated 
at each 
census. 


Total. 


Of area enumerated 
in 1790. 


Total. 


For area enumerated 
in 1790. 


Total. 


For area 
enumer- 
ated in 
1790. 






Number. 


Per cent 
of total. 


Number. 


Per cent 
of total. 


For 

added 
area. 


1790 


417,170 

434,670 

556.010 

688,670 

877.170 

1,183,870 

1,519,170 

1.951.520 

2.126.290 

2.727,454 

2.974,159 

2,974,159 


100.0 
96.0 
75.0 
60.6 
47.6 
35.2 
27.5 
21.4 
19.6 
15.3 
14.0 
14.0 


3,929,625 

5.308,483 

7,239,881 

9. 638, 453 

12.866,020 

17,069.453 

23.191,876 

31.443.321 

38.558.371 

50.189,209 

62.979,766 

76,303,387 


3,929,625 
5,247,355 
6,779,308 
8.293,869 
10. 240, 232 
11,781,231 
14,569,584 
17.326,157 
19.687,504 
23,925,639 
28.188,321 
33,553,630 


100.0 
98.8 
93.6 
86.0 
79.6 
69.0 
62.8 
55.1 
51.1 
47.7 
44.8 
44.0 














1800 


1,378,858 
1,931,398 
2,398,572 
3,227,667 
4,203,433 
6,122,423 
8.251.445 
7.115.050 
11,630,838 
12.790.557 
13.323,621 


1,317,730 
1,531,953 
1,514,561 
1,946,363 
1,540.999 
2.788.353 
2.756.573 
2.361.347 
4, 238. 135 
4,262,682 
5,365.309 


95.6 
79.3 
63.1 
60.3 
36.7 
45.5 
33.4 
33.2 
36.4 
33.3 
40.3 


35.1 
36.4 
33.1 
33.5 
32.7 
35.9 
35.6 
22.6 
30.2 
25.5 
21.2 


33.5 
29.2 
22.3 
23.5 
15.0 
23.7 
18.9 
13.6 
21.5 
17.8 
19.0 




1810 


653.5 


1820 


191.9 


1830 


9.5.3 


1840 


101.4 


1850 


63. 


I860 

1870 

1880 

1890 


63.7 
33.7 
39.2 
32.5 


1900 


22.9 



For every decade the percentage of increase in num- 
ber of inhabitants was less for the area enumerated in 
1790 than for the United States as a whole. During 
the first half of the century, with one exception, the 
increase in the area enumerated in 1790 was approx- 
imately from one-fourth to one-third. Since that 
period it has exceeded 20 per cent only ' once — in 
1880. The effects of the Civil War and of migration 
to the West and Southwest are shown by an increase 
of but 13.6 per cent for 1870. The j)ercentage of 
increase for 1900, however, was liigher than that 
showTi for 1890, and was close to the percentage 
for 1880 — the liighest percentage shown during the 
last half century. This fact suggests certain com- 
paratively recent causes of increase in the original 
area, some of which are alluded to elsewhere in this 
report.^ 

Up to 1860 the increase in the population of the 
added area is not significant, because the continual 
accessions of territory affect the comparability of the 
returns. Since that year large areas nominally in- 
cluded within the territory enumerated have been 
opened up to settlement, but the only definite geo- 
graphic area addetl to the area of enumeration is that 
comprised in Indian Territory and Oklahoma. Since 
1860 the percentage of increase in the population of the 
added area has not reached 40 per cent; from 1880 
to the Twelfth Census the percentage steadily dimin- 
ished until, converging from widely separated extremes 
in the earlier decades of the century, in 1900 the per- 
centage of increase in both sections had become nearly 
the same. Tliis fact reflects the rapid settlement of 
continental United States, and tlie disappearance of 
any considerable areas which could be regarded as 



' See page 127. 



unsettled regions. At the close of the century every 
portion of the national domain had been erected into 
states, or into territories the boundaries of wliich are 
not hkely to change materially upon acqiuring state- 
hood; and these were again fully subdivided into 
counties, cities, and towns. In consequence, toward 
the close of the century conditions in the added area 
tended to resemble more and more closely those long 
existing in the original area. 

Population iy states and territories. — Table 1 1 pre- 
sents the marvelous growth in population, during the 
one hundred and ten years wliich have elapsed, of 
the states and territories enumerated in 1790. 

Attention has already been called, in a preceding 
chapter, to the significant constancy in the percentage 
of increase in the population of the colonies for nearly 
a century and a half prior to the First Census of the 
United States. The accompanying diagram illustrates 
this fact and the continuance of practically uniform 
percentages from 1660 to 1860. 

From the First Census to the Twelfth the aggregate ' 
population of the states enumerated in 1790 increased 
ahiiost tenfold . This increase resulted both from the 
contributions of the original elements (those persons, 
both white and negro, enumerated at the First Census) 
and from the addition of large numbers of foreigners 
arriving after 1790 and locating in the New England 
and Middle states. In view of the generous contribu- 
tions which the original states of the Union were mak- 
ing toward the development and peopling of the vast 
areas opened to settlement (and for the most part 
erected into states) since 1790 — nearly eight times as 
great as the entire area actually enumerated in 1790 — 
this achievement, during the brief period of one cen- 
tury, must be regarded as a remarkable one. 



♦ 



AREA AND TOTAL POPULATION. 



57 



Tahi.e 1 1.— population OF THE UNITED STATES AND OF EACH STATE OR TERRITORY ENUMERATED IN 1790: 

1790 TO 1900. 



STATE OR TERRITOKY. 



United States 

Area enumerated in 1790. 



New England. 



Maine 

Now Hampshire. 

Vermont 

Massachusetts — 

Rhode Island 

Connecticut 



Middle states. 



New York 

New Jersey . . . 
Pennsylvania. 
Delaware 



Southern states . 



Maryland and District of 
Columbia 

VirRiiiia and West Vir- 
Rinia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

(leorcia 

Kentucky 

Tennessee 



Added area. 



1790 



3,929,625 



3,929,625 



1,009,206 



96,043 
141,899 

85,341 
378,5515 

69,112 
237,655 

1,017,087 



340,241 

184,139 

4:«,611 

59,096 

1,903,332 



319,728 

747,610 

395,005 

249,073 

82,548 

73,677 

35,091 



1800 



5,308,483 



5,247,355 



1,233,011 



151,719 
183,858 
154,465 
422,845 
09,122 
251,002 



1810 



I8!0 



7,239,881 9,638,453 



6,779,308 8,293,869 



1,471,973 



589,051 

211,149 

602,365 

64,273 

2,547,506 



355,641 

880,200 
478,103 
345,591 
161,414 
220,955 
105,602 

61,128 



228,705 
214,460 

217,895 

472,040 

70,931 

261,942 

2,087,376 



,060,071 



959,049 
245,562 
810,091 

72,674 

3,219,959 



404,569 

974,000 
5.55,500 
415,115 
201,937 
400,511 
261,727 

460,573 



298,335 
244, 101 

2.35,981 
52;i,2H7 
83,059 
275,248 

2,772,594 



1,372,812 

277,575 

1,049, 4.58 

72,749 

3,861,204 



440,389 

1,065,300 
638, S29 
.502,741 
220,739 
564,317 
422,823 

1,. 344,. 584 



18S0 



IMO 



12,866,020 17,069,453 



23,191,876 



10,240,232 111, 781, 231 



1,954,717 



399,455 
209,. 328 
280, 0.W 
010,408 
97,199 
297,075 

3,664,412 



1,918,608 

320,823 

1,348,233 

70,748 

4,021,103 



2,234,822 



486,874 

1,211,405 

737,987 
.581, IM 
23.3. 831 
(«7,917 
681,904 

2,625,788 



501,793 
284,574 
291,948 
737,699 
108,830 
309,978 

4,604,345 



2,428,921 

373,300 

1,724,033 

78,085 

4,942,064 



513,731 



1,239, 
7.53, 
594 
231 
779, 



5,288,222 



1860 



31,443,321 [38,558,371 



14,569,584 



2,728,116 



583,169 
317,976 
314,120 
994,514 
147,545 
.170,792 

.5,990,207 



3,097,394 

489,555 

2,311,786 

91,532 

5,851,201 



634,721 

1,421,661 
869,039 
668,507 
272,151 
982,405 

1,002,717 

8,622,292 



I860 



1870 



17,326,157 19,687,504 



1880 



1890 



50,186,209 62,979,766 76,303,387 



1900 



23,925,639 28,188,321 '33,.'»3,030 



3,135,283 3,487,924 4,010,529 4,700,749 5,592,017 



628,279 I 
326,073 I 
315,098 ' 
l,2;il.00('. 
174,620 
400, 147 



626,915 
318,300 
330,551 
1,4.57,351 
217,3.53 
537,454 



7,571,201 I 8,935,821 



rf, 880, 735 
672,035 

2,900,215 
112,216 

6,619,073 



762,129 

1,596,318 

992,022 

703,708 

299,411 

1,155,684 

1,109,801 

14,117,164 



4,.382,759 
906,096 

3,.521,951 
125,015 

7,263,759 



912,594 

1,667,177 
1,071,301 
7a5,606 
327,490 
1,321,011 
1,258,520 

18,870,867 



648,936 
346,991 
332,286 
1,783,085 
270,. 531 
622,700 



661,086 
376,530 
3ri,422 
2,238,947 
345,506 
746,258 



694,466 
411,588 
343,li41 
2,805,346 
428,. 550 
908,420 



10,643,486 |l2,874,713 15,639,413 



5,082,871 

1,131,116 

4,282,891 

146,608 

9,271,624 



6,003,174 

1, 444, 9.33 

5,258,113 

168,493 

10,612,859 



1,112,567 

2,131,022 
1,399,750 
995,. 577 
441,659 
1,648,690 
1,542,359 

26,263,570 



1,272,782 

2,418,774 
1,617,949 
1,151,149 
526,052 
1,858,035 
1,707,518 

34,791,445 



DiAdRAM .3.— PER CENT OP INCREASE IN POPULATK^N BY DECADES FROM 1(>50 TO 1900. 



7,208,894 

1,883,0)19 

6,302,115 

184,735 

12,322,200 



1,466,702 

2,812,984 
1,893,810 
1,340,316 
640, .5.38 
2,147,174 
2,020,616 

42,749,757 



65 
60 
55 
SO 
4& 
40 








































































































































































































































































































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58 



A CENTURY OF POPULATION GROWTH. 



Dividing the area enumerated in 1790 into three 
geographic groups, it is found that between 1790 
and 1900 the population of the New England states 
increased slightly more than fivefold; that of the 
Middle states, more than fifteenfold ; and that of the 
Southern states, more than sixfold. Tliis record of 
population change suggests that the most striking 
increase has taken place in the two states which are 
the greatest centers of commerce, mining, and manu- 
facturing — New York and Permsylvania. 

The per cent of decennial increase in the total popu- 
lation of the United States from 1790 to 1900 was as 
follows : 

1790 to 1800 35. 1 

1800 to 1810 36. 4 

1810 to 1820 33. 1 

1820 to 1830 33. 5 

1830 to 1840 32. 7 

1840 to 1850 35. 9 

1850 to 18C0 35. 6 

1860 to 1870 22. 6 

1870 to 1880 30. 1 

1880 to 1890 25. 5 

1890 to 1900 21. 2 

It is significant that from 1790 to 1860, a period of 
seventy years, the percentages of decennial increase in 
total population remained reasonably constant. Tliis 
is illustrated by the fact that the increase of popula- 
tion for the first decade, 1790 to 1800, was 35.1 per 
cent, while the increase for the seventh decade, 1850 
to 1860, was 35.6 per cent. 

Such noteworthy uniformity of increase naturally 
led to opinions and prophecies concerning the future 
population of the Repubhc winch proved to be erro- 
neous. President Lincoln, in his annual message to 
Congress in 1862,' fell into the error of assuming that 
the increase of population, because constant for more 
than half a century, would so continue, and upon that 
assumption predicted for 1900 a population much 
greater than was actually realized. 

From 1850 to 1900 the decennial percentage of 
increase for the total population steadily decHned, 
except for the decade 1870 to 1880, following the 
Civil War; for the last decade of the century only 21.2 
per cent increase was shown. It is probable, more- 
over, that the downward tendency here shown has 
not been arrested. 

Density of population. — In 1790 the density of the 
enumerated area was a little less than 10 persons per 
square mile. With the passage of the century the 

' "At the same ratios of increase which we have maintained, on 
an average, from our first national census of 1790 until that of 1860, 
we should in 1900 have a population of 103,208,415 (in 1910, 138,- 
918,526). And why may we not continue that ratio far beyond that 
period? Our abundant room — our broad, natural homestead — is 
our ample resource. * * * Our country may be as populous as 
Europe now is at some point between 1920 and 1930 — say about 
1925 — our territory, at 73J persons to the square mile, being of 
capacity to contain 217,186,000" — Messages of the Presidents, Vol 
Vl, pages 1S8, 139. 



density of the same area has increased practically nine- 
fold, and that of continental United States as a whole 
has nearly trebled. 
Table 12. — Density of population per square mile: 1790 and I'JOO. 



Continental United States., 
Area enumerated in 1790 



New England states.. 



Maine 

New Hampshire. 

Vermont 

Massachusetts 

Rhode Island . . . . 
Connecticut 



Middle states. 



New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania. 
Delaware 



Southern states. 



Maryland and District of Columbia. 

Virginia and West Virginia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Georgia' 

Kentucky 

Tennessee 



Added area'. 



1790 



9.4 



1900 



9.4 



80.4 



16.3 



3.2 
15.8 

9.3 
47.1 
63.4 
49.1 

10.0 



7.1 
24.7 

9.6 
30.2 

7.S 

32.2 
11. S 
8.1 
8.3 
4.6 
1.8 
0.9 



90.2 



23.2 
45.7 
37.6 
348.9 
407.0 
187.5 

153.2 



152.6 

250. 3 

140.1 

94.3 

49.4 

147.9 
43.4 
39.0 
44.4 
a'i.9 
53.7 
48.4 

16.7 



' Georgia counties covering an area of 17,841 square miles were enumerated in 
1790. The rest of the state is included in the added area. 

In 1790 Rhode Island, the smallest state enumerated, 
reported the largest number of inhabitants per square 
mile, and in 1900 it still retained first position. But 
the density of this state increased less than sevenfold 
during the century ; and that of Massachusetts, which 
was second in rank in 1900, increased less than eight- 
fold. The great increase in density shown during the 
century for the entire area enumerated in 1790 was 
contributed principally by those portions of New 
York, Pennsylvania, and the Southern states which 
were sparsely populated in 1790. For example, Ken- 
tucky increased thirtyfold and Teimessee fiftyfold. 

States showing density, in 1900, less than average for U. S. in 1790. 




Upon inspecting the density of population in the 
states comprising the Union in 1900, as shown in the 
Population Reports of the Twelfth Census,'' it becomes 

^ Twelfth Census, Report on Population, Part I, page xxxiii. 



AREA AND TOTAL POPULATION. 



59 



evident that no states except Florida, North Dakota, 
South Dakota, and the Western states now have a 
density of less than 10 persons per square mile, or, in 
other words, a density as low as the density of popula- 



tion for the entire area enumerated in 1790. Applying 
to the population of the different areas of enumeration 
in continental United States the land area of the states 
and territories included, the following figures result: 



Table 13.— DENSITY OF POPULATION IN SPECIFIED AREAS OF ENUMERATION WITHIN CONTINENTAL UNITED 

STATES: 1790 TO 1900. 



ABEA ENTJMEBATED— 


1790 


1800 


1810 


1820 


1830 


1840 


1850 


1860 


1870 


1880 


1890 


1900 


In lS90and 1900 






1 




1 








21.2 
21.6 
28.6 
46.9 
SOO 
52.4 
57.2 
67.6 

13.6 


25.6 


In IKW, 1870, and 1880 










1 


10.8 
15.2 
2G.0 
28.0 
30.1 
33.4 
41.5 

6.7 


13.3 
18.4 
31.3 
33.8 
35.6 
39.3 
47.2 

7.6 


i7.3 
23.4 
£9.0 
41.9 
44.0 
48.2 
57.4 

10 6 


25.9 


In 1850 














11.3 
19.7 
22.1 
23.3 
26.3 
34.9 

6.3 


34 4 


In 1840 













14.7 
16.6 
17.5 
20.1 
28.2 

7.1 


55.9 


In 1820 










12.6 
13.3 
15.5 
24.5 

4.3 


60 5 


In 1810 and 1820 






7.5 
8.9 
16.3 

0.8 


io.o 

•11.7 
19.9 

2.4 


62.3 


In IhOO 




6.0 
12.6 

0.2 


68.0 


In 1790 


9.4 


o0.4 




16.7 








First In 1800... 




0.2 


0.9 
0.6 


2.9 
1.4 


5.7 
2.3 
0.6 


11.3 

5.0 
1.0 
0.3 


17.0 
8.5 
1.6 
1.5 
0.4 


24.6 
14.0 
2.6 
6.2 
1.3 
0.2 


30.8 
17.6 
3.4 
12.0 
1.9 
0.7 


38.3 
23.5 
4.9 
17.6 
3.3 
2.3 


45.8 
29.6 
7.1 
23.6 
5.1 
4.5 
2.0 


54.6 


First in 1810 




34.8 


First In 18o0 






9.6 


First in 1840 








29.2 


First in 1850 , 










6.7 


First in 18t0 T 












6.1 


First in 1890 . . 














8.3 

























Diagram 4. — Increase in density in original a7id added area: 1790 to 

1900. 



90 
60 






















/ 


70 






















/ 




















/ 




50 


















/ 


















^/ 


/ 








30 

20 
















/ 


















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y 


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— — 


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1790 1800 1810 1820 leaO I840 IQbO 1860 1870 I8B0 1890 1900 



Between 1790 and 1900 the density of population in 
the area enumerated in 1790 increased nearly nine- 
fold. In the same period the density of the added 
area as a whole increased from nothing to 16.7, so that 
in 1900 it was about one-fifth as great as that of the 
original area. 

The above table shows very clearly that detailed 
comparisons between the original and tlie added area 
are hkely to be misleading, because of the composite 
character of the latter. The areas added in 1800, 
1810, and 1840, which together comprise practically 
all of the states tying in the fertile valley of the 
Mississippi and east of that river, had attained in 1 900 
a density of from .30 to 50 persons per square mile. In 
Florida, which includes large areas of swamp land, the 
density after seventy years was only 9.7 persons per 
square mile. AVest of the Mississippi the densitj'^ is not 
very great ; but it has doubled in the twenty )'ears since 
1880, and will doubtless continue to increase. 

The changes in density during the century illustrate 
effectively the influence of industrial development upon 
the growth and the movement of population. In 
several states of the original area this influence h:is 
produced conditions, and resulting densities, wliich 
approximate those of some of the countries of Europe. 
Thus, the density of Rhode Island (407.0) in 1900 was 
nearly the same as that of Holland (406.4) in 1899; 
the density of Massachusetts (348.9) corresponded 
with that of the United Kingdom (341.6) in 1901; 
and the density of Connecticut (187.5) corresponded 
with that of France (190.7) in 1901. Had the density 
of continental United States been as great as that of 
Russia in Europe (50.3) in 1897 the population of 
continental United States in 1900 would have been 
approximately 1.50,000.000: had it been as great as 
that of France, the population would have been more 
than 500,000,000. 



V. POPULATION OF COUNTIES AND THEIR SUBDIVISIONS. 

COUNTY AREAS MADE COMPARABLE— POPULATION OF MINOR 
CIVIL DIVISIONS— NAMES OF TOWNS NOT RETURNED 
SEPARATELY AT THE FIRST CENSUS— POPULATION OF CITIES. 



POPUI-ATION OF COUNTIES. 

In 1790 there were 292 counties in the area enumer- 
ated; in 1900 there were 784 coimties in tlie same area. 
Of the 292 counties enumerated in 1790, however, few 
were even approximately the same in area as the coun- 
ties bearing the same name a century later. In order, 
therefore, to determine what changes have occurred in 
county population, it is necessary first to ascertain, as 
accurately as possible, the 1900 areas comparable with 
those which existed under the same county names in 
1790.> 

The population in 1900 of the counties included in 
the area enumerated in 1790 is presented in Table 105 
(page 201), in comparison with the returns for 1790. 
As this adjustment has been made in connection with 
the classification of population by color, sex, and age, 
some reference to the more important facts indicated will 
be found in the section dealing with that classification. 

The statement has frequently been made that many 
of the counties in the area enumerated in 1790 have 
decreased in population during the nineteenth century. 
The following analysis of county areas in the several 
states enumerated in 1790, according to the amount 
of increase or decrease, is based upon the comparable 
areas presented in Table 105: 

' The changes in most oases have been in the direction of organiz- 
ing new counties from the area existing under the county name in 
1790; in Maine, for example, 5 counties only had been erected in 
1790, as compared with 16 in 1900. Wherever a 1790 county line 
passed through a town having over 500 inhabitants in 1900, estimated 
parts of such population were assigned to the counties on each side 
of the line. 

For determining the changes in county areas which have occurred 
during the century, three general sources of information are avail- 
able: (1) The statutes of the several states; (2) maps made in 1790, 
or sufficiently near that year to show with reasonable accuracy the 
counties as they were at the time; and (3) gazetteers, yearbooks, 
and state histories and manuals. Beginning with the Ninth Census 
(1870) the Federal census reports upon population have recorded 
the changes made in the area of counties during the decade preced- 
ing the publication of the report. This material was useful to sup- 
plement similarly detailed information for the period from 1790 to 
1860, when the latter could be secured. 

The statutes of the several states must be accepted as the most 
reliable source of information for this analysis. In cases where 
natural boundaries, such as rivers, bays, mountain ridges, etc., are 
specified as county limits, these can be readily located upon recent 
maps, and hence the county boundaries as they existed in 1790 can 
easily be determined. Such natural features bounded in whole 
or in part the counties of Maryland and Kentucky at the close of the 
eighteenth century. For these states, therefore, little evidence 
was required in addition to that derived from state statutes. In 
most instances, however, the statutes in defining county lines refer 
to landmarks which have long since vanished, such as "a stick and 
stones," or "three trees," or to the property of persons long since 
deceased, which can not now be ea-nily identified. Determination 
of the exact location of such landmarks would have required much 
detailed research, involving great expense, and was obviously im- 
practicable. Hence, in such cases it has been necessary to rely 

(60) 



Table 14. — Counties enumerated in 1790, classified according to the 
amount of increase or decrease of population within their boundaries 
from 1790 to 1900. 





Total 
num- 
ber of 
coun- 
ties. 


Num- 
ber of 
coun- 
ties de- 
creas- 
ing. 


NUMBER OF COUNTIES IN- 
CKEASINO— 


STATE OR TERRITORY. 


Less 
than 
25 per 
cent. 


From 
25 to 
100 per 
cent. 


From 

100 to 

500 per 

cent. 


Over 
500 
per 

cent. 


Area enumerated in 179(f 


292 


10 


15 


51 


122 


94 




41 


1 




10 


16 


14 








5 
5 
7 
11 
5 
8 

52 








1 
3 
3 
3 
. 2 
4 

23 


4 








2 
2 
2 

1 
3 

2 










2 


Massachusetts 


1 




5 




2 








1 


Middle states 






27 










New York 


15 

13 

21 

3 

199 






1 


5 
9 
7 
2 

83 


9 








. 4 










14 








1 
39 




Southern states 


9 




15 


53 








19 
78 
54 
20 
11 
9 
8 


1 
8 


3 
11 


6 

23 

6 

4 


6 
24 
34 
9 
4 
2 
4 


3 


Virginiai 


12 


North Carolina 


14 


South Carolina 




. 1 


6 


Georgia 


7 










7 


Tennessee 








4 













1 Includes West Virginia. 



upon maps of the 1790 period and upon the secondary sources of 
information above mentioned. 

Maps for 1790, or for years close to that date, are available for most 
of the states enumerated in 1790. But the best maps of the period 
are to some extent incorrect both in boundai'ies and in areas; few of 
them indicate the boundaries of counties, and even these sometimes 
proved useless on account of inaccuracy. For the states of Virginia 
and Georgia no maps containing the county lines could be found, 
and it is probable that none are in existence. It is curious that 
Virginia, in which the oldest settlements and the largest population 
e'xisted at the First Census, should be one of the states for which 
such important information is entirely lacking. 

Gazetteers, yearbooks, and state histories and manuals proved 
useful as guides and as a secondary source of information, and data 
thus .secured were freely used aa a basis for constructing county lines 
where more direct evidence was lacking or could not be secured 
without great expenditure of clerical labor. A few of the state 
manuals contain carefully compiled data recording all changes in 
the areas of counties; for example, the manual of the state of Massa- 
chusetts specifies the date of transfer of all towns or parts of towns 
from one county to another. But in general, publications of this 
character contain merely a list of the counties, with the date of 
formation and the county or counties from which formed. Such 
information proved helpful, however, because it facilitated the 
work of combining the 1900 counties, or parts of coimties, which 
were formed from any county enumerated in 1790. It was also 
useful in verifying the boundaries shown in maps and in making 
clear .some of the lines specified in the statutes. 

From this explanation of the method of procedure adopted, it is 
obvious that absolute accuracy has not been secured in the attempt 
to obtain comparable areas at the first and last censuses. But for the 
desired purpose — that of establishing a reasonable basis of compari- 
son — the county lines, as shown in the accompanying maps and 
utilized in the tables, are without question sufficiently accurate. 










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MASSACHUSETTS, CONNECTICUT, AND RHODE ISLAND— CHANGES IN COUNTY LINES: 1790 AND 1900. 

[Red lines indicate 1790 boundaries.] 







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NEW JERSEY-CHANGES IN COUNTY LINES: 1790 AND 1900. 
[Red lines indicate 1790 boundaries.] 




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NORTH CAROLINA AND SOUTH CAROLINA-CHANGES IN COUNTY LINES: 1790 AND 1900. 

[Red lines indicate 1790 boundaries.] 





GEORGIA-CHANGES IN COUNTY LINES: 1790 AND 1900. 
(Red lines Indicate 1790 lioundaiics. ] 



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POPULATION OF COUNTIES AND THEIR SUBDIVISIONS. 



71 



Upon this basis, which is obviously the onlj^ correct 
method of analysis, decreases are shown for only 1 
county in New England (Nantucket Island), 1 in 
Maryland, and 8 in Virginia. In other words, of the 
county areas enumerated in 1790 only about ,3 per cent 
showed a decrease during the century which has 
elapsed since the First Census. On the other hand, 
approximately three-fourths of the entire number have 
increased much more than 100 per cent, and about one- 
third showed a population increase of over 500 percent. 



One hundred and fortj'-eight counties in the area 
enumerated in 1790 reported a maximum popu- 
lation at some year since 1850 but prior to 1900, 
without having undergone any change of area suf- 
ficient to explain the lower figure. The following 
table shows that in the aggregate the maximum 
population of these counties exceeded their popu- 
lation in 1900 by 244,763, or 7.8 per cent. Tliis 
fact is shown graphically in the map on the next 
page. 



Table 15.-NUMBER OF COUNTIES IN AREA ENUMERATED IN 1790 REACHING MAXIMUIkl POPULATION PRIOR TO 
1900, WITU THE POPULATION IN 1900, AND THE AGGREGATE M.^XIMUAI POPULATION OF SUCH COUNTIES. 



STATE OE TEKEITOaT. 


Number 

of 
counties. 


Population 
in 1900. 


AfiKiegate 
maximum 
population. 


; KVMBEB or couirmta reachino maxi- 

HVH POPULATION IN— 




I8W 


isao 


1870 


1880 


1890 


Area enumerated In 1790 










., 


9 




.. 








to 1 i> 


New England 


24 


564,738 


637,605 




4 i o 1 














Maine 


8 
3 
10 
2 


216,362 
54,430 

238,591 
30,832 


244,613 
60.161 

263,308 
44,442 


1 

3 

1 


3 

1 

1 
1 


3 


2 




New Hampshire 


i 

i 


\ ermon t 


1 


1 


Massachusetts 


Rhode Island 








Connecticut 


i 24,523 
43 1 1,467,648 


25,081 
1,571,390 










1 
u 


Middle states 


3 


2 


3 


24 




NewYork 


25 
1 

16 
1 

81 


958, 8S1 
34,507 

441,528 
32,762 

1,119,684 


1,032,815 
38.570 
467,131 
32,874 

1.187,838 


3 


2 


3 


13 

1 
9 
1 

39 


4 


New Jersey 


Pennsylvania 








7 


Delaware 






........ 


Southern states 


3 


7 


2 


30 




Man-land 


5 
29 


99,180 
339,716 


104,444 
366,970 








4 
15 




Virginia 


2 


7 




We.sf Vlrelnia 




N'ortii Carolina 


9 


145,881 


163,874 








2 




Sou th Carolina 










16 
13 
9 


168,184 
188,678 
178,046 


177,852 
198,094 
186,604 


1 




1 
1 


8 
6 
6 




Kentucky 

















The preponderance of maximum population at the 
Tenth Census was probably due to the fact that the 
agricultural prosperity of the original area of the 
United States reached its highest point about 1S80; 
after that date the competition of the West in agricul- 
tural products became rapidly greater, thus increasing 



the problems of the eastern farmer, and offering added 
inducements for removal to more favored sections or 
for migration to cities. 

The following table presents a classification of coun- 
ties by specified sizes at intervals of practically half a 
century: 



Table 16.— COUTN'TIES IN THE IGNITED STATES GROUPED ACCORDING TO SIZE AS MEASURED BY POPULATION, 
WITH NUMBER AND PROPORTION OF POPULATION IN EACH GROUP: 1790, 1850, AND 1900.' 





1790 




1860 








IMO 




For total area. 


For area enumerated at 
First Census. 




For total area. 


For area enumerated at 
First Census. 


LIMITS OF POPULATION. 


Coun- 
ties. 


Population, 


Coun- 
ties. 


Population. 


Coun- 
ties. 


Population. 


Coun- 
Ues. 


Population. 


Coim- 


Papulation. 




Number. 


Per 
cent of 
total. 


Number. 


Per 
cent of 
total. 


Number. 


Per 
cent of 
total. 


Number. 


Per 
cent of 
totaL 


Number. 


Per 
cent of 
totaL 


All counties 


292 


3.929,62.5 


100.0 


1,621 


23,191.876 


100.0 


749 


15,203,618 


100.0 


2.713 


72,682,620 


loao 


784 


32,423,487 


loao 


Less than 5.000 


42 
106 
56 
38 
14 
11 
15 
6 
5 


136,755 
779. 720 
690, .138 
662,499 
312.774 
310. 2.W 
509.681 
222.741 
304,667 


3.5 
19.8 
17.6 
16 9 
8.0 
7.9 
13.0 
5.7 
7.8 


436 1.149.920 


5.0 
13.6 
16.2 
11.2 
8.7 
7.8 
9.2 
6.6 
23.0 


71 1 257.604 
214 , 1.596,663 
168 1 2,086,184 
76 1 1,310.572 
59 1,307.537 
39 1.061.812 
45; 1, .574,383 
24 l,a'<0.065 
! 53 4,958.798 


1.7 
10.5 
13.7 
8.6 
8.6 
7.0 

ia4 

6.9 
32.6 


375 
397 
417 
459 
304 
219 
224 
99 
2:9 


979.746 
3.072.602 
5.210,957 
7,990,377 
6,784.301 
6.002.795 
7.t>13.744 
4. 426. f>'>5 
3a.l«1.234 


1.3 
4.2 
7.2 
11.0 
9.3 

as 
ia5 

6.1 
42.1 


18 77.237 
107 845.122 
127 1,579.431 
141 2.460.495 
83 1 1.862.318 
67 1,831.416 
80 2,709.902 
37 . 1.666,711 
124 19,411,866 


a2 


5.000 to 10.000 


428 
303 
150 
91 
66 

56 


3,130.978 
3.748.171 
2,604,223 
2,011,408 
1,801,368 
2,133,465 
1.272.263 
6,340,080 


2.6 


10.000 to l.i.OOO 

15.000 to 20.000 


4.9 
7.6 


20.CC0to2'),000.. . . 


6.7 


25.000 to 30.000 


6.6 


30.000 to 40.000.. 


8.4 


40.000 to 50.000 


6. 1 


60,000 and over . . . 


69.9 















' Limited to areas having oitranlzed county government, 
the districts of Alaska, or the Islands of Hawaii. 



Not including the District of Columbia, citlea independent of county organiiation, Indian leserratiou, 



„ ^TiTnTi tlin TPCiS POPULATION IN 1900 THAN AT SOME PREVIOUS 
COUNTIES IN AKEA ^^^^l-f^-^^.'^'.^^S^,'^^^ IN AKEA. 




POPULATION OF COUNTIES AND THEIR SUBDIVISIONS. 



73 



The population conditions prevailing in the United 
States in 1790 — when the two groups of counties hav- 
ing between 5,000 and 20,000 inhabitants included 
more than half of the population and two-thirds of the 
counties — had changed materially by 1850, and by 
1900 the class which j)reponderated in 1790 had 
become comparatively insignificant. On the other 
hand, the group which preponderated in 1900 — that 
having a population of 50,000 or over, which included 
219 counties and two-fifths of the population — in 1790 
included but 5 counties and less than 10 per cent of the 
population. 

In 1900 the area enumerated in 1790 contained 784 
counties. A comparison of the population of these 
counties from decade to decade shows in many in- 
stances apparent decrease in inhabitants, but in a large 
proportion of these cases such decrease is the result 
of changes in county areas — the tendency, as popula- 
tion grew denser, being to subdivide large counties. 

POPULATION OF MINOR CIVIL DIVISIONS. 

Local organization within counties in 1790 has already 
been described briefly in Chapter II, in connection with 
the subjects of boundaries and area of the United States 
in 1790. Minor civil divisions (subdivisions of the 
counties) were returned separately at the census of 
1790 for the New England states and for a portion of 
the Middle states, but not for any Southern state. 
This makes the county the smallest unit available for 
comparison when the entire Republic is considered. 

In 1790, in all settled portions of New England, the 
boundaries of the towns were specified in the charters, 
and were well defined. It was therefore natural to 
expect that the enumerators and marshals would make 
their returns by towns. All returns were by towns, 
except for New London county, Conn. The sum- 
mary of the marshal for Connecticut, however, did not 
give the population of minor civil divisions in any 
county. 

In the Middle states, except in the more thickly set- 
tled sections, the boundaries of the minor civil divi- 
sions were less clearly defined than in New England, 
and more unstable. The county was the important 
subdivision, and doubtless many of the enumerators, 
in the absence of definite instructions, considered a 
return of the minor subdivisions of small consequence 
even where practicable. 

All the enumerators for New York showed the popu- 
lation of the townships under the counties. In the 
Census report, however, the population of Ontario 
county — which included all the western portion of the 
state — is not shown by townships. 

The 1790 schedules for New Jersey are not in 
existence. The marshal for New Jersey included in 
his summary the names of the townships in the 13 
counties which composed the state, but reported the 
population of individual townships for only 5 counties. 



or scarcely more than one-third of the total number. 
If the enumerators in the remaining 8 counties — which 
were not confined to any one section of tiie state — 
were required to ascertain the population by town- 
ships, they probably succeeded in doing so with 
little or no difficulty. Hence the responsibility for in- 
consistent returns must have rested with the marshal. 

Of the 21 counties in Pennsylvania in 1790, only 9 
of the older settled counties were returned by town- 
ships or minor civil divisions. For 5 other counties 
the returns were partly by minor civil divisions and 
partly grouped under such phrases as "remainder of 
county" or "eastern (or western) portion of county." 
For the remaining 7 counties, which were practically 
unsettled, and might be termed frontier counties, the 
population was given for the county only, with the 
comment "not returned by townships." 

The returns for Delaware and for all the Southern 
states were presented by counties only. In the South 
the roads were poor, even in the more thickly settled 
districts, and at a distance from the coast they degen- 
erated into trails or ceased entirely, so that the geog- 
raphers of that period found it difficult to construct 
maps which would present the physical formation with 
accuracy; it was not to be expected that an enumer- 
ation made under such difficulties could present accu- 
rately the population bydivisionssmallerthan counties, 
even where such divisions existed. In the returns for 
Virginia and South Carolina the population of the most 
important places was appended; the returns for the 
District of Kentucky gave separately the population 
of 5 towns. Villages existed within the counties, and 
the boundaries of the larger villages were probably well 
defined. But inasmuch as they were subject to change 
by the local authorities at pleasure, it is probable that 
Uttle importance attached to them as separate units. 
This is indicated by the fact that in 1790 many vil- 
lages had two names, as Waltliam, or Westham, in 
Henrico county, Va. ; and also b}' the fact that in many 
cases the same village is designated by different names 
on different maps published about that time. 

Attempts to ascertain from outside sources the 
names of townships and of villages or other settlements 
which existed in 1790 but were not reported at the 
First Census, made it evident that complete lists of 
minor civil divisions are not available for anj' of the 
Southern states. For Virginia it was possible to com- 
pile from a contemporarj- histoni' a reasonably accu- 
rate list of settlements which were in existence in 1 790 ; 
but the lack of such lists for other states, and the diffi- 
culty in securing information upon this subject, justify 
the inclusion in this publication of the following lists 
of minor civil divisions, which were compiled, after 
considerable inquiry and research, from the principal 
gazetteers, maps, etc., of the period, and from lists of 
post offices as they existed in 1 796. After having been 
prepared with care, these fists were submitted to oflS- 
cials of state historical societies in Pennsylvania, 



74 

Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South 
Carolina, Georgia, Kentucky, and Tennessee, respec- 
tively. Thus they have received the consideration and 
revision of the most competent authorities in the 
states considered. 

No dofmite information exists as to the exact legal 
status of the 436 communities or settlements in the 
Southern states which possessed sufficient importance 
to appear in the records of the states, thus justifymg 
inclusion below. Some of them doubtless had a mu- 
nicipal form of government, however small their pop- 
ulation; others may have been townships in the 
geographic sense, possibly without population; still 
others may have been settlements without any town- 
ship formation below the county. 

PENNSYLVANIA. 

[Those counties for which minor civil divisions are not given in 
the census returns, or are given in part only.] 



A CENTURY OF POPULATION GROWTH. 



PENNSYLVANIA — continued. 



Allegheny county: 

Deer. 

Depreciation tract.' 

Elizabeth. 

Fayette. 

Indiana. 

Mifllin. 

Moon. 

Ohio. 

Pine. 

Pitt. 

Pittsburgh town. 

Plum. 

Robinson. 

Ross. 

St. Clair. 

Versailles. 
Bedford county: 

Bedford. 

Belfast. 

Bethel. 

Brothers Valley. 

Colerain. 

Cumberland Valley. 

Dublin. 

Elk Lick. 

Hopewell. 

Londonderry. 

Millford. 

Providence. 

Tiu-key Foot. 

Woodberry. 
Bucks county: 

Bedminster. 

Bensalem. 

Bri-stol. 

Buckingham. 

Durham. 

Falls. 

Haycock. 

Ililltown. 

Lower Makefield. 

Lower Milford. 

Middletown. 

New Britain. 

Newtown. 

Nockamixon. 

Northampton. 



Bucks county — Continued. 

Oxford. 

Plumstead. 

Rockhill. 

Solebury. 

Southampton. 

Springfield. 

Tinicum. 

Upper Makefield. 

Warminster. 

Warrington. 

Warwick. 

Wrightstown. 
Cumberland county: 

Allen. 

Carlisle. 

East Pennsborough. 

Hopewell. 

Middletown. 

Newton. 

Rye. 

Tybom. 

Tyrone. 

Westpensboro. 
Dauphin county: 

Bethel. 

Derry. 

East Hanover. 

Harrisburgh town. 

Heidleberg. 

Lebanon. 

Londonderry. 

Lower Paxtang. 

Upper Paxtang. 

West Hanover. 
Franklin county: 

Antrim. 

Fannet. 

Greene. 

Guildford. 

Hamilton. 

Letterkenney. 

Lurgau. 

Montgomery. 

Peters. 

Southampton. 

Washington. 



' Lands north of the Ohio river and west of the .Allegheny river, 
ordered to be sold by the state at public auction and to be paid for 
by certificates issued by the state and representing the deprecia- 
tion of the currency theretofore paid out by the state. 



Huntingdon county: 
Barree. 
Dublin. 

Frankstown. 

Hopewell. 

Huntingdon. 

Shirley. 

Woodberry. 
Luzerne county: 

Exeter. 

Hanover. 

Kingston. 

Lachawanock. 

Newport. 

Pittston. 

Plymouth. 

Salem. 

Tunkahannock. 

Tyoga. 

Wilkesbarre. 

Willingborough. 

Wyal using. 
Mifflin county: 

Armagh. 

Derry. 

Fermanagh. 

Greenwood. 

Lack. 

Lewistown. 

Milford. 

Upper Bald Eagle. 

Wayne. 
Montgomery county : 

Abington. 

Cheltenham. 

Douglass. 

Franconia. 

Frederick. 

Gvnned. 

Hatfield. 

Horsham. 

Limerick. 

Lower Merion. 

Lower Salford. 

Marlborough. 

Montgomery. 

Moreland. 

New Hanover. 

Norriton. 

Perkiomen. 

Plymouth. 

Providence. 

Springfield. 

Toamencing. 



Kent county: 

Dover. 

Duck Creek. 

Frederica. 

Milford. 
Newcastle county: 

Christiana. 

Middletown. 

Newark. 

Newcastle. 

Newport. 



Allegany county: 

Cumberland. 

Old Town. 
Ann- Arundel county: 

Annapolis. 

Elkridge. 

Hitton. 

London. 
Baltimore county: 

Ctotham. 

Hookstown. 

Reistertown. 



I Montgomery co\inty — Cont'd. 
Upper Dublin. 
Upper Hanover. 
Upper Merion. 
Upper Salford. 
Whitemarsh. 
Whitepaine. 
W^orcester. 
Northumberland county: 
Augusta. 
Bald Eagle. 
Beaver Dam. 
Buffaloe. 
Catawessy. 
Chilisquaque. 
Derry. 

Fishing Creek. 
Loyalsock. 
Lycoming. 
Mahoning. 
Mahonoy. 
Muncy. 
Nepanese. 
Penn's. 
Pine Creek. 
Point. 
Potters. 
Shamokin. 
Turbut. 
Washington. 
Whitedeer. 
Washington coimty: 
Amyell. 
Chartier. 
Coecil. 
Cross Creek. 
Cumberland. 
Donegal. 
East Bethlehem. 
Fallowfield. 
Findlay. 
Franklin. 
Greene. 
Hanover. 
Hopewell. 
Morgan. 
Morris. 
Nottingham. 
Peters. 
Smiths. 
Strabane. 
Summerset. 
Washington. 
West Bethlehem. 



DELAWARE. 

Newcastle county — Continued. 

St. Georges. 

Stanton. 

Wilmington. 
Sussex county: 

Dagsboro. 

Georgetown. 

Lewes. 
County not specified : 

CantweU's Bridge. 

MARYLAND. 



Baltimore town and precincts: 

Baltimore. 
Calvert county: 

Hunting Town. 

Lower Marlborough. 

Prince Frederick. 

St. Leonards. 
Caroline county: 

Denton. 

Federalsburg. 

Greensborough. 

Hillsborough. 



POPULATIOX OF COUNTIES AND THEIR SUBDIVISIONS. 



75 



UABYLAMD — conti&ued. 



Cecil county: 

Charles town. 

Elkton. 

Frederick. 

French Town. 

Warwick. 
Charle.s county: 

Allan's Fresh. 

Benedict. 

Bristol. 

Byran Town. 

Cedar Point. 

Newport. 

Port Tobacco. 
Dorchester county: 

Bucktown. 

Cambridge. 

Hunting-Creek-town. 

Indian-Town. 

Newmarket. 

Vienna. 
Frederick county: 

Emmitsburgh. 

Fredericktown. 

Leesburg. 

Liberty-Town. 

Newmarket. 

Taneytown. 

Westminster. 
Harford county: 

Abinp;don. 

Bellaire. 

Coop-stown. 

Harford.' 

Havre de Gras. 

Joppa. 
Kent county: 

Bridgetown. 

Chester. 

Georgetown. 

Massy's Cross Roads. 

St. James. 

Sassafras. 



Accomack county: 

Accomac (Court House). ^ 

Horn town. 
Albemarle county: 

Charlottesville. 

Milton. 

Warren. 
Amelia county: 

Winterham. 
Amherst county: 

Cabellsburg. 

New Glasgow. 

Warminster. 
Augusta county: 

Staunton. 
Bedford county: 

Liberty. 

New London. 
Berkley county: 

Bath (Court House). 

Bucklestown. 

Charlestown. 

Gerardstown. 

Marti nsburg. 

Middletown. 

Shepherdstown." 
Botetourt county: 

Fincastle. 

Pattonsburg. 
Buckingham county: 

Greensville. 

New Canton. 

' Also called Bush Town. 
' Now Hambleton. 
' Also called Hagorstown. 
* Also called Funk's town. 
'Also called Drunuuondstown. 



Kent county — Continued. 

Swantown. 
Montgomery county: 

Montgomery C. H. 

Lenity town. 
Prince Georges county: 

BladensTjurg. 

Nottingham. 

Piscataway. 

Queen Anne. 

Upper Marlborough. 
Queen Anns county: 

Bridge-town. 

Centre\ille. 

Church Hill. 

Mount Pleasant. 

Queenstown. 

Ruthsborough. 
St. Marys county: 

Chaptico. 

Leonardstown. 
Somersett county: 

Princess Ann. 

Salisbury. 

Trap. 
Talbot county: 

Ea.ston. 

Hole-in-the-WalL' 

Hooktown. 

Kingston. 

Oxford. 

Williamsburg. 

Trappe. 
Washington county: 

Elizabeth.^ 

Hancock. 

Jerusalem.* 

Margarettsville. 

Sharpsburg. 

Willianieport. 
Worcester county: 

Snowhill. 



Campbell county: 

Lynchburgh. 
Caroline county: 

Bowlin" Green.' 

North Wales. 

Port Royal. 
Charlotte county: 

Charlotte (Court House).' 

Jefferson. 
Chesterfield county: 

Bermuda Hundred. 

Gates ville. 

Manchester. 

Pocahantas. 

Warwick. 
Culpeper county: 

Culpeper (Court House).* 

Stevensburg. 
Cumberland county: 

Cartersville. 

Chester. 

Cumberland (Court House). 

Effingham. 
Dinwiddle county: 

Petersburg. 
Elizabeth City county: 

Hampton. 
Essex county: 

Beaufort. 

Botetourt. 

Laytons. 

Tappahannock. 



' Also called Mecklenburg. 
'Originally called New Hope. 
* Also called Marysville. 
' Formerly called Fairfax. 



TiRoiNiA^-coDtinued. 



Fairfax county: 

Alexandria. 

Colchester. 

Matildaville. 

Philee. 

Salisbury. 

Shippandstown. 
Fauquier county: 

Carolandsville. 
Fluvanna county: 

Columbia. 
Franklin county: 

Rocky Mount. 
Frederick county: 

Frontroyal. 

StevensDurg.'" 

Winchester. 
Gloucester county: 

Gloucester. 
Goochland county: 

Goochland (Court House). 
Greenbrier county: 

Lewisburg. 
Greensville county: 

Hicksford. 
Halifax county: 

Halifax (Court House)." 

Peytonsburg. 
Hampsnire county: 

Frank ford. 

Romney. 

Watson. 
Hanover county: 

Hanover (I'ourt House). 

Hanover-Town.'* 

New Castle. 
Hardy county: 

Moorefields. 
Harrison county: 

Clarksburg. 
Henrico county: 

Richmond. 

Westham." 
Isle of Wight county: 

Smithfield. 
James City county: 

Jamestown. 

Williamsburg. 
Jefferson county: 

Charlestown. 
Kanawha county: 

Kanawha (Court House) '* 
King George county: 

New Marlborough. 
King William county: 

Delaware." 
Lancaster county : 

Gordonsville. 

Lancaster (Court House). 
Loudon county: 

Leesburg. 

Middleburg. 
Lunenburg county: 

DaMonburg. 
Mecklenburg county: 

Mecklenburg." 
Middlesex county: 

I'rbanna. 
Monongalia county: 

Morgantown. 
Montgomery county: 

Montgomery (Court House). 
Nansemond county: 

Suffolk. 



New Kent county: 

New Kent (Court House). 
Norfolk county: 

Norfolk. 

Portsmouth. 
Northampton county: 

Northampton." 
Northumberland county: 

Northumberland (Court 
House). 
Ohio county: 

West Liberty. 

Wheeling. 
Orange countv: 

Orange (Court House). 
Pendleton county: 

Franklin. 
Pittsylvania county: 

Cooksburg. 

Pittsyl vania(Court House)." 
Powhatan county: 

ScottWUe. 
Prince Edward county: 

Prince Edward (Court 
House). 
Prince George county: 

Blandford. 

Port Conway. 
Prince William county: 

Carrborough. 

Dumfries. 

Newport. 
Princess Anne county: 

Kempsville. 
Richmond county: 

Leeds. 

Richmond (Court House)." 
Rockbridge county: 

Lexington. 
Rockingham county: 

Rockingham(Court House)." 
Shenandoah county: 

Chester. 

Miller's Town. 

New Market. 

Strasburg. 

Woodstock. 
Southampton county: 

Jerusalem.-' 
Spotsylvania county: 

I'redericksburg. 
Stafford county: 

Falmouth. 

LeesNille. 
Suny county: 

Cabbin Point. 

Cobham. 
Washington county: 

Abingdon. 
Westmoreland county: 

Kinsale. 

Westmoreland (Court 
House). 
Wood county: 

BeUeviUe. 
York county: 

York Town. 
County not specified: 

Goldson's. 

Harris's. 

Sweet Springs." 

Todds. 



"> Also called Newtown. 
" Also called Banister. 
'* Once called Page's Warehouse. 
" Also called Waltham. 
'• County seat v/tut later Charles- 
ton. 
" Also called West Point. 



"Now Bovdton. 

" Now called Eastville. 

'•Now Chatham. 

" Now Warsaw. 

" Now Harrisonburg. 

" Now Courlland. 

° Later called Fontville. 



76 



A CENTURY OF POPULATION GROWTH. 



NORTH CAROLINA. 



Anson county: 

Anson C. H. 

Wadeaborough. 
Beaufort county: 

Washington. 

Woodstock. 
Bertie county: 

Windsor. 
Bladen county: 

Elizabeth-Town. 
Brunswick county: 

Brunswick. 

Charlotteburg. 

Clarendon. 

Old Town. 

Smithville. 
Burke county: 

Morganton. 
Camden county: 

Indian Town. 

Jonesborough. 

Sawyer's Ferry. 
Carteret county: 

Beaufort. 
Caswell county: 

Leesburg. 
Chatham county: 

CampbeUtown. 

Chatham C. H. 

Pittsborough. 
Chowan county : 

Edenton. 
Craven county: 

Newbem. 
Cumberland county: 

Averysborough. 

Fayetteville. 
Currituck county: 

Currituck C. H. 
Dobbs county: 

Kingston. 
Duplin county: 

Cross-Roads. 

Duplin C. H. 

Sarecto. 
Edgecombe county: 

Tarborough. 
Franklin county: 

Louisburg. 
Granville county: 

Oxford. 

\\'illiamsborough. 
Guilford county: 

Bella Mills. 

Martinville. 

New Garden. 
Halifax county: 

Blountsville. 

Halifax. 

Scotland Neck. 
Hertford county: 

Murfreesborough. 

Princeton. 

Winton. 
Iredell county: 

Iredell C. H. 
Johnston county: 

Smithfield. 
Jones county: 

Trenton. 
Lincoln county: 

Lincolnton. 



Martin county: 

Willianiston. 
Mecklenburg county: 

Charlotte C. H. 
Montgomery coimty: 

RIontgomery C. H. 

Stokes. 
Moore county: 

Alfordstown. 

Moore C. H. 
Nash county: 

Nash C. H. 
New Hanover county: 

Exeter. 

South Washington. 

Wilmington. 
Onslow county: 

Swannsborough. 
Orange county: 

Chapel-Hill. 

Hillsborough. 
Pasquotank county: 

Nixonton. 
Perquimans county: 

Hertford. 
Pitt coimty: 

Greenville. 

Martinsborough. 
Randolph county: 

Randolph C. H. 
Richmond county: 

Richmond C. H. 
Robeson county: 

Lumberton. 
Rockingham county: 

Rockingham C. H. 
Rowan county: 

Salisbury. 
Rutherford county: 

Rutherford. 
Sampson county: 

Sampson C. H. 
Stokes county: 

Bethabara. 

Bethania. 

Friedburn; 

Friedland. 

German ton. 

Salem. 

Unitas (at head of Gargal'; 
Creek). 
Surry county: 

Hope. 

Hunts ville. 

Rock ford. 
Tyrrell county: 

Plymouth. 
Wake county: 

Raleigh. 
Warren county: 

Warrenton. 
W^ayne county: 

Waynesborough. 
Wilkes county: 

Wilkes. 
County not specified : 

Hogantown. 

Mount Tizrah. 

Richland. 



SOUTH CAROLINA. 



Abbeville county: 

Abbeville Court House. 
Beaufort district: 

Beaufort. 

Coosa watchis. 

Purysburg. 

Union. 



Berkley county: 

St. Johns Parish. 
Camden district: 

Camden. 

Columbia. 

Cowpens. 

Rugeley's Mills. 



SOUTH CAROLINA — Continued. 



Charleston district: 

Charleston. 

Jacksonborough. 

Middleton. 

Monks Corner. 

Wilsons Ferry. 

Wilton. 
Cheraw district: 

Cheraw Court House. 
Chester county: 

Chester Court House. 
Chesterfield county: 

Chatham. 
Claremont county: 

Statesburg. 
Dorchester county: 

Dorchester. 
Edgefield county: 

Edgefield Court House. 
Fairfield county: 

Winnsborough. 
Georgetown district: 

Georgetown. 

Kingston. 

Williamsburg, 
Greenville county: 

Greenville Court House. 



Burke county: 

Fort Telfair.' 

Louisville. 

New Gottingen. 

New Savannah village. 

Waynesborough . 
Camden county: 

Colerain. 

St. Mary's. 

St. Patricks. 
Chatham county: 

Savannah. 
Effingham county: 

Ebenezer. 
Elbert county: 

Dartmouth. 

Elberton. 

Petersburg. 
Franklin county: 

Carnes ville. 

Eastanallee. 

Franklin c. h. 
Glyn county: 

Brunswick. 

Frederica. 
Greene county: 

Greensborough. 



Lancaster coimty: 

Lancaster. 
Laurens county: 

Laurens Court House. 
Newberry county: 

Newberry Court House. 
Ninety-six district: 

Cambridge. 

Duetts Corner. 

Londonderry. 

New Bordeaux. 

New Windsor. 
Orangeburgh district: 

Belleville. 

Granby. 

Orangeburg. 
Pendleton county: 

Pendleton Court House. 
Spartanburgh county: 

Spartan Court House. 
Union county: 

Pinckneyville. 
Not specified by county: 

Clermont. 

nation's Ford. 

Radnor. 

Saxegotha. 



Liberty county:* 

Barrington.' 

Darien.' 

Medway village. 

New Inverness. 

Newport Bridge. 

Sapelo village. 

Sunbury. 
Oglethorpe county: 

Georgetown. 

Lexington. 
Richmond county: 

Augusta. 

Bedford. 
Washington county: 

Golphington.* 

Oconee. 
Wilkes county:^ 

Washington. 

Wrightsborough. 
County not specified: 

Abercom. 

Hard wick. 

Old Town. 

St. Savilla. 

Talassee. 



KENTUCKY.' 



Bourbon county: 
Bourbonton.' 

Fayette county: 
Lexington. 

Jei^erson county: 
Bullitt's Lick. 
CampbeUtown.' 
Louisville. 



Lincoln county: 
Crab Orchard. 
Knob Lick. 
I/incoln. 
Russellville. 
St. Asaph's.' 
Stanford. 



• Now Telfairville. 

^ Part shown in 1900 as Mcintosh. 
^ Now shown in Mcintosh county. 

* Not shown on 1900 maps. 
' Now McDuffie county. 

" Does not include 99 pioneer stations, known to have been settled 
before 1790; nor several others probably settled before that date, 
for which no data could be found. 

' Established in 1789 as Hopewell; later called Bourbonton; now 
Paris. 

» Incorporated in 1785; name changed before 1806 to Shipping- 
])ort; now part of Louisville. 

"Called also Logan's Fort. 



POPULATION OF COUNTIES AND THEIR SUBDIVISIONS. 



77 



KENTUCKY — Continued. 



Madison county: 

Boonesborough . 

Milford. 

Richmond. 
Mason county: 

Charlestown. 

Limestone.' 

Lower Blue Licks. 

May's Lick. 

Washington. 
Mercer county: 

Boiling Spring. 

DanviUe. 



Davidson county: 

Nashville. 
Greene county: 

Greeneville. 
Hawkins county: 

Rogers ville. 
Knox countv: 

Kno.x ville. 
Tennessee county: 

Clarksville. 



Mercer county — Continued. 

Harrodstown.^ 

Warwick. 
Nelson county: 

Bairdstown.' 

Bealsborough. 

Hardinsburg. 

Hartford Station.* 
Woodford county: 

Frankfort. 

Georgetown.' 

Leestown . 

Petersburg." 



TENNESSEE. 



Washington county: 

Jonesborough. 
County not specified: 

Brass Town. 

Chissel. 

Coyan. 

Hawkins Court House. 

Holston. 



' Now Maysville. 

' Later Oldtown; now Harrodsburg. 
' Now Bard.itown. 
' Now Hartford. 

' Oriirinally called McClelland's Station; later Lebanon, 
name dates from 1790. 
• Originally Tanner's Station. 



Present 



For the northern portion of the country, it is possible 
to present accurately tlie total and average popula- 
tion of minor civil divisions at tlie First and Twelfth 
censuses. This is done in the next tabular statement. 

A threefold increa.se in (lie number of minor ciWl 
divisions enumerated in 1900, a.s compared with the 
number emmierated in 1790, has been attended by 
practically a threefold increase in the population of 
such divisions. The average population of minor civil 
divisions in New England has increased more than 
threefold, while that of the Middle states has more 
than doubled. The jjroportionate change thus favor- 
able to New England is explained by the fact that the 
population of the states in that group is much denser 
than elsewhere in the United Stat&s, and as the geo- 
grapliic area is small, and was practically all settled 
in 1790, the increase in the average population of 
minor civil divisions represents principally the effect 
of a moderate increase of population within a limited 
geographic area. In the Middle states the existence 
of much larger areas, portions of which were entirely 
unsettled in 1790, has resulted in a much smaller 
increase in the average. 





17i»<» 


1900 


Peroent 

Increase, 

1790101900, 

in number 

of minor 

civil 
di\-isions. 




Number 
of minor 

civil 
divisions. 


Population. 


Number 
of minor 

civil 
divisions. 


Population. 




Total. 


Average 
per minor 

civil 
division. 


Total. 


Average 
per minor 

civil 
division. 


Total 


1,591 


2.026,293 


1,273 


5,500 


21.231,430 


3,860 


245.7 




New England 


937 


1,009.206 


1,077 


1,687 


5,592,017 3,315 


80.0 






Maine 


153 
197 
188 
279 
30 
90 

654 


96,643 
141,899 

85,341 
378,556 

69,112 
237,655 

1.017,087 


632 

720 

454 , 

1,357 

2,304 

2,641 

1,SSS 


631 
245 
2.52 
353 
38 
168 

3,813 


694,466 
411,588 
343,641 
2,805,346 
428.556 
908,420 

15,639,413 


1,101 
1,680 
1,364 
7,947 
11,278 
5,407 

4,102 


312 4 






N'tTniont . 


34.0 




26.5 


Hbode Island . ... 


26.7 




86.7 


Middle states 


483,0 








137 
94 

407 
16 


340,241 
184, 1.% 
433,611 
59,096 


2,484 1 
1,959 
1,065 1 
3,664 


974 

424 

2,382 

33 


7,268,894 7,463 

1,883,669 4,443 

6,302,115 2,646 

184,735 5.598 


610.9 


New Jersey. 


351.1 
485.3 


Delaware . . . . 


100.3 










1 





The list of 436 minor civil divisions in the Southern 
states approximates, so far as it is possible at the 
present lime to secure such information, to the actual 
number of towns or settlements included within the 



counties composing the states in question. Utihzing 
the figures for the Southern states thus obtained, the 
appear: 



following results 



STATE OE TERRrrORT. 



Southern states 

Maryland and District of Columbia 

VlTElnia and West Virginia 

North lurolina 

Sou til Carolina 

Georgia 

Kentucky 

Tennessee 



1790 



PopuUtlon. 



Number 
of minor 

civil 
divisions. 



Number 
i...^..^ of minor 
, *7ff?*?, civil 
Total. P"elvil , (""^ons- 

dlTlslOO. h 



1900 



436 1,903,332 4,365 



319,728 
747,610 
395,005 
249,073 
82,548 
73,677 
35,691 



3,633 
5,579 
4,489 
6,535 
2,117 
2,377 
3,245 



6,167 



273 
801 
958 
434 

1,457 
693 

1,551 



Population. 



Totol. 



Average 
per minor 

civil 
division. 



13,897,993 




2,254 



5,373 
3,512 
1,977 
3,088 
1,521 
3,098 
1,303 



Percent 

increase, 

1790 to 1900, 

in number 

of minor 

civil 
divisions. 



1,314.4 



2ia2 
497.8 
988.6 
864.4 
3.635.9 
2.135.5 

i4,aoao 



78 



A CENTURY OF POPULATION GROWTH. 



Accepting the number of minor civil divisions shown 
for 1790 as substantially accurate, between 1790 and 
1900 tiie number increased approximately thirteenfold. 
This, if it represents actual increase, results not merely 
from the subdivision of existing minor civil divisions, 
but principally from the establishment of new com- 
munities. In'l790 nmch of the territory included in 
the Southern states was a wilderness. Kentucky did 
not reach the dignity of statehood until two years 
after the census had been taken; Tennessee, then 
known as the Southwest Territory, was still farther 
from admission to the Union. 

It is probable, however, that the list of minor civil 
divisions in the South, while fairly accurate so far as 
the larger settlements are concerned, is very incom- 
plete for the smaller villages, and especially for town- 
ships and other rural subdivisions. 

It will be observed that the change in average pop- 
ulation indicated for the Southern states — a decrease 
from 4,365 in 1790 to 2,254 in 1900— differs widely 
from the change shown by the actual figures for the 
New England and Middle states. In the Southern 
states the center of activity in 1790 was the plantation, 
while the economic changes during the century have 
been continually away from the plantation and toward 
communities. But if the number of minor civil divi- 
sions shown for 1790 is too small, the average popula- 
tion for that year is correspondingly too large. 

POPULATION OF CITIES 

In 1790 there were but 5 cities having a population 
of 8,000 inhabitants or more — Boston, New York, 
Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Charleston. In 1900 the 
number of cities included within the area enumerated 
in 1790 and having a population of 8,000 or more was 
286, an increase of more than fiftyfold. Indeed, so 
great has been the increase of communities of this 
size that Rhode Island — smallest of all the states — 
had more cities of 8,000 inhabitants or over in 1900 
than were found in the entire Republic in 1790. 

The limit of size above established for 1790 admits 
so many communities in 1900 that it seems best to 
consider this subject from a different point of view. 
The following table presents the population of the 47 
cities in the area enumerated in 1790 which had in 1900 
a population of 50,000 or more, in comparison with the 
population of the same places at the First Census, so 
far as the earlier figures are obtainable. Of these 47 
cities, 39 were located in the New England and Middle 
states and 8 in the Southern states. The population 
in 1790 of 32 of these cities can be presented approxi- 
mately; 5 did not exist even as independent townships 
in 1790, but were formed later from parts of other 
townships and subsequently became cities; 9 appear 
not to have had any population at the date of the First 
Census. 



Cities having a population of 50,000 or over in 1900 in area covered 
by enumeration of 3790, by states. 



POPDLATION. 



1790 



Total. 



1900 



158,535 lO.aW, ISfi 



Maine: 

Portland 

New Hampshin^: 

Manchester 

Massachusetts: 

Fall River 

New Bedford... 

Lawrence 

Lynn 

Springfield 

Cam bridge 

Lowell 

SomerviUe 

Boston 

Worcester 

Rhode Island: 

Providence 

Connecticut: 

Bridgeport 

Hartford 

New Haven 

New York: 

Albany 

Buffalo 

New York 

Rochester 

Utica 

Syracuse 

Troy 

New Jersey: 

Camden 

Newark 

Hoboken 

Jersey City.. .. 

Trenton 

Paterson 

Elizabeth town. 
Pennsvlvania: 

Allegheny 

Pittsburg 

Reading 

Harrisburg 

Erie 

Scran ton 

Wilkes-Barre .. 

Philadelphia.. . 
Delaware: 

Wilmington 

Maryland: 

Baltimore 

Virginia: 

Richmond 

South Carolina: 

Charleston 

Georgia: 

Savannah 

Atlanta 

Kentucky: 

Louisville 

Tennessee: 

Nashville 

Memphis 



2,239 
362 

(■) 

3,298 
(') 

2,291 
1,574 
2,109 

m 

(') 
* 18,038 
2,095 

<fi,371 

MOO 
4,072 
4,487 

3,494 



132,305 
1,628 



1,000 



1,946 

500 

1,000 



<376 
2,225 



300 
« 28, 522 

'600 

8 13,503 

3,761 
> 16,359 

2,300 



200 
500 



50, 145 

56,987 

104,863 
62.442 
62,559 
68,513 
62,059 
91,886 
94,969 
61,643 
560,892 
118,421 

175,597 

70,996 
79,850 
108,027 

94, 151 

3.i2,3.<i7 

3,437,202 

162, 608 

56,383 
108,374 

60,651 

75,935 
246,070 

59,364 
206,433 

73,307 
105, 171 

52, 130 

129,898 ' 
321,616 
78,961 
50, 167 
52,733 
102,026 
51.721 
1,293,697 

76,508 

508,957 

85,050 

55,807 

54,244 
89,872 

204,731 

80,865 
102,320 



1 Not returned separately. m 

2 Part of Chelmsford, total population 1,144. If 
s Partof Charlestown. total population 1.583. ¥ 
* Original city area only. ' 

5 Formed in 1.S21 of parts from Fairfield and Stafford. 

6 Morse's Gazetteer. w 
' Estimated. A 

8 Town and precincts. ■ 

9 St. Phillips and St. Michael parishes. 

It must not be overlooked, in studying tables of this 
character, that the results are seldom entirely com- 
parable. In nearly all of the 47 cities included in the 
above table the area has changed materially since 1790, 
and tends to change from decade to decade, as in- 
creasing population requires an extension of municipal 
boimdaries to meet industrial and residential require- 
ments. ] 

Of the 5 cities having the largest population at 
the First Census — Boston, New York, Philatlelphia, 
Baltimore, and Charleston — Charleston, the fourth 



) 



POPULATION OF COUNTIES AND THEIR SUBDIVISIONS. 



79 



city in population in 1790, alone of the 5 has failed to 
maintain its importance as a center of population. 
The other 4 cities remained leaders in population 
a century later, with only two rivals — both located 
outside of the area enumerated in 1790. Chicago, a 
remote wilderness in 1790 and for nearly half a cen- 
tury afterwards, in 1900 exceeded in population Phila- 
delphia, Boston, and Baltimore; while St. Louis, in 
1790 a small frontier settlement not even within the 
boundaries of the United States, at the last census 
slightly exceeded in population Boston and Baltimore. 
Although the total population of the United States 
increased rapidly from 1790 to 1900, the increase of 
the 4 early leaders in urban population — New York, 
Philadelphia, Boston, and Baltimore — was relatively 
even more rapid. In 1790 their combined population 
was less than 100,000, forming but 2.4 per cent 
of the population of the Republic; in 1900 it was 



5,800,748— nearly 5S times as great as in 1790 — and 
formed 7. .5 per cent of the national population, or 
more than three times the proportion for 1790. 

The population reported under the names of these 
4 cities, at the beginning and at the end of the cen- 
tur}', can not be regarded as strictly comparajjle, be- 
cause the limits of each have expanded so that they 
now include large areas which in 1790 were independ- 
ent and unconnected. Wliilc principally open country 
at that time, these areas nevertheless supported a 
population which, if it had been included as urban 
population at the First Census, would have altered 
matcriall}'' the totals reported in 1790. Elsewhere 
in these pages (see Table 21, page 84) will be found 
the population in 1900, cla.ssificd as white and colored, 
for the cities of New York, Philadelphia, Boston, and 
Baltimore, computed for the areas of these cities as 
they existed in 1790. 



VI. WHITE AND NEGRO POPULATION. 



SURVIVORS OF 1790— WHITES AND NEGROES IN TOTAL 
POPULATION— IN FOUR PRINCIPAL CITIES— COMPARI- 
SON OF INCREASE IN THE UNITED STATES AND 
EUROPE — INCREASE BY IMMIGRATION — N A T U R A L 
INCREASE— OF WHITES— OF NEGROES — SUM MAR Y. 



The population of the earhest English settlements 
in America was composed of two elements, white and 
negro; these two elements, though subject to entirely 
different conditions, continue to compose the popula- 
tion of the Republic, and since 1790 have recorded 
roughly comparable rates of increase. The following 

Table 17.— POPULATION OF CONTINENTAL UNITED STATES, CLASSIFIED BY COLOR, WITH PER CENT OF INCREASE: 

1790 TO 1900. 



I 

table presents the classification, by color, for con- 
tinental United States at each census from 1790 to 
1900, thus indicating the changes which have occurred 
in the two racial elements of population during the 
period of Federal census taking: 





TOTAL POPULATION. 


•WBITE POPULATION. 


COLOKED POPULATION. 




Negro. 


Indian am 
liai 


i Mongo- 


CENSUS YEAR. 


Total. 


Free. 


Slave. 


1. 




Number. 


Per cent 
of in- 
crease 
over pre- 
ceding 
census. 


Number. 


Per cent 
of in- 
crease 
over pre- 
ceding 
census. 


Number. 


Per cent 
of in- 
crease 
over pre- 
ceding 
census. 


Number. 


Per cent 
of in- 
crease 
over pre- 
ceding 
census. 


Number. 


Per cent 
of in- 
crease 
over pre- 
ceding 
census. 


Number. 


Per cent 
of in- 
crease 
over pre- 
ceding 
census. 


1790 


3,929,625 

5,308,483 

7,239,881 

> 9, 638, 453 

12,806,020 
17,009.453 
23,191,876 
31,443,321 

38,558,371 
50, 155, 783 
62,947,714 
75,994,575 




3, 172, 444 
4.30(1,446 
5. 862. 073 
7,862,166 

10.537,378 
14.195.805 
19,553.068 
26,922,537 

33,589.377 
43, 402, 970 
55.101,258 
66, 809, 1% 




757, 181 
1,002,037 
1,377,808 
1, 771, 656 

2,328,642 
2, 873, 648 
3,638,808 
4, 441, 830 

4,880,009 
6,580,793 
7, 488, 676 
8,833,994 




59,557 
108, 435 
186, 446 
233,634 

319,599 
386, 293 
434, 495 
488,070 

4,880,009 
6, 580, 793 
7.488,676 
8, 833, 994 




697, 624 

893,602 

1,191,302 

1,538,022 

2,009,043 
2,487,355 
3,204,313 
3,953,760 








1800 . ... 


35.1 
36.4 
33.1 

33.5 
32.7 
35.9 
35.6 

22.6 
30.1 
25.5 
20.7 


35.7 
36.1 
34.1 

34.0 
34.7 
37.7 
37.7 

24.8 
29.2 
27.0 
21.2 


32.3 
37.5 
28.6 

31.4 
23.4 
26.6 
22.1 

9.9 
34.9 
13.8 
18.0 


82.1 
71.9 
25.3 

36.8 
20.9 
12.5 
12.3 

899.9 
34.9 
13.8 
18.0 


28.1 
33.3 
29.1 

30.6 
23.8 
28.8 
23.4 






1810 






1820 






1830 






1840 






1850 






1860 


78,954 

88,985 
172, 020 
357,780 
351,385 




1870 


12.7 


1880 






93.3 


1890 


1 


108.0 


1900 


. 


il.g 






. ... 





1 Includes 4,631 persons returned as " all other persons, except Indians not taxed." 



' Decrease. 



The total increase from 1790 to 1900 in the aggrre- 
gate population of continental United States was 
1,833.9 per cent. The wMte population increased 
2,005.9 per cent; the negro, 1,066.7 per cent. The 
changes which are shown in the decennial increase of 
the white population conform in general with those for 
the total population, but the fluctuations are not so 
wide. Obviously, therefore, the changes in the negro 
population were more decided than those in the white 
element; the increase in the negro population from 
1800 to 1810 was more than twdce the increase from 
1890 to 1900. 

A further distribution of population, by color, for the 
states and territories both of the area enumerated in 
1790 and of the added area, is presented in Table 108, 
on page 222. In order to illustrate more effectively 
the changes occurring in the two main elements of the 
population in the parent states as compared with the 
(80) 



younger portions of continental United States, the in- 
crease in the succeeding table is shown for thirty-year 
intervals. 

In both areas each element of the population showed, 
with a single exception, a diminishing increase. In 
continental United States both elements more than 
doubled in each thirty-year period from 1790 to 1850; 
but from 1850 to 1880 the increase in the negro ele- 
ment was only 80.9 per cent; and in the succeeding 
period the increase of the white popidation was but 
one-half and that of the negro popidation but one-third. 

Both the white and the negro elements of the popu- 
lation increased more rapidly in the added area than 
in the original area during the period from 1790 to 1880, 
but during the last twenty years the total population 
and both elements have shown a tendency toward 
similarity of increase in the two areas. ' 



WHITE AND NEGRO POPULATION. 



81 



Table 18.-PER CENT OF IXCREASE, DURING SPECIFIED PERIODS. IN TUE WHITE AND NEGRO POPULATION OF 
THE AREA ENUMERATED IN 1790, AND OF THE ADDED AREA WITUIN CONTINENTAL UNITED STATES: 1790 
TO 1900. 





1790 TO 1820 




18Z0TO18U 




ISUTOlSM ' 


1880TO18M 


GEOGUAPIIIC DIVISION. 


White. 


Colored. 


White. 


Colorad. 


White. 


Negro. 


White. 


Negro. 




Total. 


Free. 


Slave. 


Total. 


Free. 


Slave. 


rontlnental United St&t6S 


147.8 


LUO 


292.3 


120.5 


148.7 


105.4 


86.0 


108.3 


122.0 


80.9 


53 9 


34.2 








112.2 


105. 6 


200.8 


92.3 


83.6 


41.6 


I 68.3 


37.3 


67.3 


40.8 


42.9 


22.3 






6.5.1 
179.1 
98.4 


24.4 
70.0 
110.9 


59.1 
87.1.0 

am. 5 


'90.1 
■.10.5 
103.4 


05.1 
119.5 
56.9 

536.8 


10.0 
37.1 
42.4 

564.5 


10.8 
70 3 
77.6 

271.9 


> 100.0 

•88.7 

39.5 

.193.7 


46.7 
7S 4 
64.7 

216.1 


73.4 
4A.8 
46.5 

146.9 


39.3 
46.4 
39. S 

63.9 










18.8 




45.8 
























62(1. « 
504.9 


640.6 
559.4 


562.0 
90.8 


671.7 
588.9 


222.0 
13)».0 
807.9 


184.4 
127.0 
851. 


62.0 
67.0 
140.2 


28.6 












47.7 










155 3 




1 














DiAOHAM 5. 



• Pccrcasc. ' I'or states Included, see Table 36, page 105. 

-INCREASE OF TOTAL POPULATION AND OF WHITE AND NEGRO POPULATION: 17M0 TO lOOO. 



1790 
TO 
1800 
40 



35 



1800 
TO 
1810 



1810 

TO 

1820 



1820 
TO 
1830 



1830 

TO 

1840 



1840 

TO 

I8S0 



I 860 

TO 
I860 



1860 

TO 
1870 



1870 
TO 
1880 



1880 

TO 
1800 



I880 
TO 

1900 



30 



26 



m 

O 20 



16 . 



10 





V. 



















/ 

/ 


\ 
\ 


• ' 
y 










1 








\ 


y' 




\ 
\ 
\ 
\ 

\ 


• 






■A 




\ 








\ 
1 


y 
y 




\ 


/ 1 
1 




















1 

1 

1 
1 


\ 
\ 

\ 
\ 


• 














\ 
\ 

\ 
\ 
\ 


1 
1 

1 
1 


\ 


/ 




AGGREGATE — — 
WHITE — — 
NEGRO 



































SURVIVORS OF 1790. 

Of the wliite population enumerated at the First 
Census of the United States, some individuals survived 
I" be enumerated successively at each of the censuses 
to and including that of 1900. Analysis of the age 



periods shown at each census, with adjustments elimi- 
nating persons bom after 1790, results in the following 
record of persons enumerated at sub.sequcnt censuses 
and rei)()rting an age which implied that they were 
born in 1790 or before: 



82 



A CENTURY OF POPULATION GRO\VTH. 



Table l^J.—White population enumeraud at the census of 1790 sur- 
viving at each census year: 1790 to 1900. 





WHITE rOPULATION 

sua VI VINO. 


niED OR DEPARTED 
DURraO FOLLOWING 
DECADE. 


CENSUS YEAB. 


Number. 


Per cent of 

number In 

1790. 


Number. 


Percent of 

numl)er liv- 

incin year 

specified. 




3,172,444 

2,792,328 

2,400,185 

2,059,500 

1.585.322 

1,129,620 

819,871 

401,710 

100,906 

11,478 

691 

23 


100.0 

88.0 

75.7 

64.9 

60.0 

35.6 

25.8 

12.7 

3.2 

0.4 

(') 

(■) 


380.116 
392,143 
340, 0S5 
474,178 
455,702 
309, 749 
418,101 
300,804 
89,428 
10,887 
668 


12.0 


1800 


14.0 


IgiO 


14.2 


1820 


23.0 




28.7 


1840 


27.4 


1850 


51.0 


1860 


74.9 


1870 


88.6 


1880 


94.9 


1890 


96.1 













> Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent. 



The foregoing analysis possesses a sentimental rather 
than a statistical interest. It is impossible to present 
with entire accuracy the exact nimiber surviving and 
thus enimierated at each census, because of inability 



to segregate, for any census prior to the Twelfth, those 
inhabitants (of an age which would have entitled them 
to be enumerated at the First Census, had they been 
present at that time) who were acquired by accessions 
of territory, or those who immigrated to the United 
States after 1790. 

Since the United States antedates in periodic census 
taking all other civilized nations, with one exception, 
the fact that the lifetime of even a few persons spanned 
the one hundred and ten years elapsing between the 
First and the Twelfth censuses reflects in a striking 
manner the brevity of the period dming which census 
taking has been a stated function of government. 

PROPORTION OF WHITES AND NEGROES IN THE TOTAL 
POPULATION. 

A study of the changes in the proportions of whites 
and negroes in the total population of the states, both 
of the area enumerated in 1790 and of the added area, 
develops some significant facts. 



Table 20.-PER CENT OF ^^ITE AND COLORED IN THE TOTAL POPULATION AT THE CENSUSES OF 1790, 1820, 
AND 1850, COMPARED WITH THE PER CENT OP WHITES AND NEGROES IN THE TOTAL POPULATION AT 
THE CENSUSES OF 1880 AND 1900. 

(The free colored reported in 1790, 1820, and 1850 include Indians, but it is believed that the numbers are too small to invalidate the comparison between the negro element 

in 1880 and 1900 and the total colored at the earlier censuses.] 



STATE OR TERRITORY. 



Continental United States. 
Enumerated at First Census 



New England . 



Maine 

New Hampshire. . 

Vermont 

Massachusetts 

Rhode Island 

Connecticut 



Middle states. 



New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania. 
Delaware 



Southern states. . 



Maryland and District of 

Columbia 

Virginia and West Virginia.. 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Georria (eastern part) 

Kentucky 

Tennessee 



Added to area of enumeration since 
1790 



Added to area of enumeration, 
1790 to 1820 



Ohio 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Michigan 

AVIsconsin 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

Louisiana 

.\ rkansas 

Missouri 

Georgia (western part).. 



1790 



White. 



80.7 



Colored. 



Total. Free. Slave. 



19.3 



99.4 
99.4 
99.7 
98.6 
93.6 
97.7 

93.8 



92.4 
92.3 
97.6 
78.4 

64.4 



65.3 
59.1 
73.2 
56.3 
04.1 
83.0 
89.4 



0.6 
0.6 
0.3 
1.4 
6.4 
2.3 

6.2 



7.6 

7.7 

2.4 

21.6 

35.6 



34.7 
40.9 
26.8 
43.7 
35.9 
17.0 
10.6 



17.8 



1.5 17.8 



0.6 
0.4 
0.3 
1.4 
6.0 
1.2 



0.4 



1.4 
1.1 



4.4 



1.4 
1.5 
1.5 
6.6 



2.5 
1.7 
1.3 
0.7 
0.5 
0.2 
1.0 



6.2 
6.2 
0.9 
15.0 

34.1 



32.2 
39.1 
25.5 
43.0 
35.5 
16.9 
9.6 



1820 



White. 



99.7 
99.6 
99.6 
98.7 
95.6 
97.1 

96.0 



Colored. 



18.4 



18.8 



0.3 
0.3 
0.4 
1.3 
4.4 
2.9 

3.9 



97.1 
92.7 
96.9 
76.0 

es.o 



64.2 
66.6 
05.6 
47.2 
50.8 
77.0 
80.4 



83.9 



85.7 



2.9 

7.2 

2.9 

24.0 

37.0 



35.8 
43.4 
34.4 
52.8 
49.2 
22.9 
19.6 



14.2 



Free. 



2.4 



32.7 
43.5 
45.0 
11.3 
15.4 
34.7 



1.2 0.8 0.8 

99.0 1.0 0.8 0.1 
97.4 2.5 0.8 1.7 
97.9 0.3 0.3 

10.2 10.2 

i.8 33.2 0.4 

65. 9 44. 1 0. 6 

47.8 51.8 6.8 

.1 11.7 0.4 

84.1 J5.9 0.6 
05. 1 34.9 0.2 

«i.suIi''wTh''whi?h ro''d?awt"or"''''°°' """^^ """" °''«™' '°™^ "' '"" '"'^ POP^'^""" "^ notpresented here, because there was no similar element at theearlier 
3 Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent. 



0.3 
0.3 
0.4 
1.3 
4.3 
2.9 

3.1 



2.1 
4.5 
2.9 
17.8 

2.8 



9.9 

3.5 
2.3 
1.4 
0.7 
0.5 
0.6 



1.4 



L5 



Slave. 



16.0 



m 



0.1 

(=) 

0.8 



0.7 
2.7 
(') 
6.2 

34.2 



25.8 
39.9 
32.1 
61.4 
48.5 
22.5 
18.9 



12.7 



1850 



White. 



84.9 



99.8 
99.8 
99.8 
99.1 
97.6 
97.9 

97.5 



Colored. 



Total. Free. Slave. 



0.8 



0.2 
0.2 
0.2 
0.9 
2.6 
2.1 

2.5 



98.4 
95.1 
97.7 
77.8 

66.2 



71.8 
62.9 
63.6 
41.1 
44.3 
77.6 
76.5 



83.4 



84.9 



98.7 
98.9 
99.4 
99.4 
99.8 
55.3 
48.8 
49.3 
77.3 
86.8 
44.3 



1.6 

4.9 

2.3 

22.2 

34.8 



28.2 
37.1 
36.4 
68.9 
55.7 
22.5 
24.5 



16.6 



15.1 



1.3 

1.1 
0.8 
0.6 
0.2 
44.7 
51.2 
60.7 
22.7 
J3.2 
66.7 



1.9 



2.5 



0.8 



0.2 
0.2 
0.2 
0.9 
2.5 
2.1 

2.4 



1.6 
4.9 
2.3 
19.7 

3.3 



13.4 
3.8 
3.2 
1.3 
0.8 
1.0 
0.6 



0.8 



0.9 



1.3 

1.1 
0.6 
0.6 
0.2 
0.3 
0.2 
3.4 
0.3 
0.4 
0.7 



13.8 



12.6 



31.6 



14.8 
33.3 
33.2 
57.6 
54.9 
21.5 
23.9 



14.2 



44.4 
5!.0 
47.3 
22 4 
:2.'S 
55.0 



18801 



White. 



1.0 



99.8 
99.8 
99.7 
99.0 
97.7 
98.2 

97.9 



98.7 
96.6 
98.0 
82.0 

67.8 



75.8 
69.2 
62.0 
39.3 
44.9 
83.5 
73.9 



86.9 



97.5 
98.0 
98.6 
99.1 
99.8 
52.6 
42.4 
48.4 
73.7 
93.3 
66.2 



Negro. 



13.1 



13.5 



0.2 
0.2 
0.3 
1.0 
2.3 
1.9 

2.0 



1.3 
3.4 
2.0 
18.0 

32.2 



24.3 
30.9 
38.0 
00.7 
55.1 
16.5 
26.1 



12.7 



13.0 



2.5 

2.0 

1.5 

0.9 

0.2 

47.5 

67.5 

61.6 

26.3 

0.7 

43.8 



19001 



White. 



87.8 



98.9 



99.8 
99.8 
99.8 
98.9 
97.9 
98.3 

97.6 



98.6 
96.3 
97.5 
83.4 

71.2 



78.1 
75.0 
66.9 
41.6 
46.4 
86.7 
76.2 



87.6 



Negro. 



87.3 



97.7 
97.7 
98.2 
99.3 
99.9 
54.8 
4!. 4 
62.9 
72.0 
94.8 
56.1 



11.6 



n,8 



0.2 
0.2 
0.2 
LI 
2.1 
1.7 

2.3 



1.4 
3.7 
2.5 
16.6 

28.7 



21.9 
25.0 
33.0 
58.4 
63.6 
13.3 
23.8 



11.4 



12.6 



2.3 

2.3 

1.8 

0.7 

0.1 

45.2 

58.5 

47.1 

28.0 

6.2 

43.9 



I 



WHITE AND NEGRO POPULATION. 



88 



T..BI.E 20.-PER CE\T OF WRITE AND COLORED IN THE TOTAL POPULATION AT THE CENSUSES OF 1790 lg20 
AND 1S50, COMPARED WITH THE PER CENT OF NTOITES AND NEGROES IN THE TOTAL POPULATION AT 



THE CENSUSES OF 1880 AND 1900— Continued 





1790 


iseo 


ISM 


lasai 


IMOi 


STATE OE TEEBITOET. 


White. 


Colored. 


White. 


Coloted. 


WWIe. 


Colorad. 


Whlla. 


NCKTO. 


White. 






Total. 


Free. 


Slave. 


Total. 


Fnw. 


Slavei 


Total. 


Fm 


SlkTC. 


NacTO. 


Added to area of enumeration, 
1820 to 1850 
















1 




85.2 


14.8 


0.4 


14.4 


88.2 


9.5 


90.0 


8.4 


Minnesota 
















99.4 
99.8 
64.0 
72.5 
lOO.O 
100.0 
99. C 
87.3 
99.5 
99.0 


0.6 
0.2 
4fl.0 
27.6 


0.6 
0.2 
1.1 
0.2 


"u.i' 

27.3 


99.6 
' 99.4 

52.9 
76.2 
90.9 
8<..9 
98.9 
80.5 
93.3 
88.7 

94.8 


0.2 
0.6 
47.0 
24.7 
0.8 
0.4 
0.2 
0.4 
0.3 
0.7 

2.5 


99.2 
99.4 

66.3 
79.6 
92.3 
75.6 
98.5 
96.8 
95.4 
94.5 

9«.l 


0.3 
0.6 
43.7 
20.4 
0.8 
1.5 
0.2 
0.6 
0.3 
0.7 

1 8 


Iowa 
















Florida 












:::::: > 


Texas 
















New Mexico 














Arizona 



















Utah 














0.4 
12.7 
0.6 
1.0 


0.2 
12.7 
0.5 
1.0 


0.2 


\V ashington 












:::::::: ::;:: ■:■■"■ 


Oregon 
















Califomja. 












. 




Added to area of enumeration, 
1850tol8S0 










































North Dakota! 












1 












j 98.5 

90.4 
89.0 
93.5 
98.4 
86.0 

i 


0.3 

0.5 
4.3 
0.9 
0.2 
1.4 
1.3 
0.8 


90.1 

99.1 
90.3 
93.0 
95.5 

m.2 

•8.0 
83.6 

79.3 




Nebraska 












' 












6 


Kansas 























3.5 
























Idaho 














.. 








3 




























Colorado 


















1 




1 6 














!' ■ 1 '"I: 








0.3 


Added to area of enumeration 
since 18S0 


























S.0 
















1 •*• 








1 














... . 








1 




1 




1 






77.2 
92.3 
92.3 


9.4 


























4.7 


Persons stationed abroad. ...' 


1 






1 




11 








7.0 










1 




il 











1 The proportion whir-h the colored papulation, other than negro, forms of the total population is not presented here, because there vas no similar element at the earlier 
censuses with which to draw comparisons. 



In 1790 the wliite population formed 80.7 per cent 
and the negro population — hotli free and slave — 19.3 
per cent of the total. Since 1790 there has been a 
steady advance in the proportion which the white 
race has formed of the total population of continental 
United States, with a corresponding decline in the 
proportion of negroes; in 1900 the whites formed 87.8 
per cent, and the negroes only 1 1.6 per cent of the total 
population. 

Diagram 6.— White and colored in the total population of the origi- 
nal and added area. 

MiaiONS OF INHABfTANTS 



1000 Sj 



1880 



I860 



1820 



SORIQINAL AREA 



ORIGINAL AREA 



ORIGINAL 
AREA 



^RIOINAL 
I AR£A 



ApDCO 
■AREA 



□ 



ADDED: 

area! 



ADDED AREA 



ADDE D A 



reaN=| 



D 



WHITE 



9 COLORED 



In the area enumerated in 1790 the changes were 
similar to those outhned for continental United States. 
In Xew England the changes were very sUght, and in 
the Jtliddle states they were not much greater. The 



Southern states of the original area, however, have 
changed considerably in this respect. In the con- 
tiguous states of JIaryland (including the District of 
Columbia), Virginia (including West ^'irginia), and 
Kentucky, the proportion ol wliites decreased and 
that of negroes increased from 1790 to 1820, after 
which the conditions were reversed ; in North Carolina. 
South Carohna, and Tennessee, the proportiouof wliite.o 
decreased and that of negroes increased until ISSO, 
after wliich there was a very slight movement in the 
opposite direction ; in Georgia there was no sustained 
tendency in either direction. 

By appl3nng the proportion formed by the negro 
element in the total population in 1790 to the com- 
bined wliite and negro population of continental 
United States in 1900, and the proportion which the 
negro element formed of the combined wliite and negro 
population in 1900 to the population in 1790, the fol- 
lowing results are obtained: 



White. 
Negro.. 



1190 



Actual 
number. 



3,172,444 
757,181 




1900 



Actual 
number. 



6(1.809,-96 
8,8:3,994 



Numl>er 

on basis of 

proper Jou 

shown In 

1790. 



G!, 014.054 
U,&>J,Ui 



84 



A CENTURY OF POPULATION GROWTH. 



WHITE AND COLORED POPULATION IN FOUR PRINCIPAL 
CITIES. 

The difficulty which is confronted upon attempting 
to compare the popidation of cities enumerated in 
1790 with the population of the same areas in 1900, 
arises princii)ally from the fact that in 1900 the oldest 
sections had become almost exclusively devoted to 



business purposes, and therefore reported but a small 
proportion of the total city population. Persons who 
now reside in such sections are in most instances 
the residents of tenement houses, janitors of large 
buildings and their families, custodians, watchmen, 
and persons whose work connects them so closely with 
commercial and manufacturing plants as to neces- 
sitate residence in or near their places of employment. 



Diagram 7.— COMPARISON OF AREA OF CITIES. 

THOUSANDS OF 



PHILADELPHIA 



BOSTON 




AREA IN 1790 

AREA ADDED 1790 TO 1900 



Table 21.— POPULATION, CLASSIFIED BY COLOR, FOR EACH LARGE CITY REPORTED IN 1790, COMPARED WITH 
THAT REPORTED IN 1900, BOTH FOR THE SAME AREA AND UNDER THE SAME NAME. 





1790 


1900 




Total. 


White. 


Colored. 


Reported for same area. 


Reported under same name. 


cnr. 


Total. 


Free. 


Slave. 


Total. 


White. 


Colored. 


Total. 


White. 


Colored. 




Total. 


Negro. 


In- 
diaD. 


Mongo- 
lian. 


Total. 


Negro. 


In- 
dian. 


Mongo- 
lian. 




POPULATION. 


New York Pity 

Philadelphia 

Boston 


.32,305 
28, 522 
18, 038 
13,503 


29,043 
26, S92 
17,277 
11,925 


3,262 

1,630 

761 

1,678 


1,078 

1,420 

761 

323 


2,184 
210 

'"i,'255' 


238,296 
1.55,691 
168,552 
28,160 


233,918 
135,879 
160,849 
21,826 


4,378 
19,812 
7,703 
6,334 


1,667 
19,213 
7,091 
6,260 


5 

107 

2 


2,706 
492 
610 
74 


3, 437, 202 

1,293,697 

560,892 

608, 957 


3, 369, S98 

1, 229, 673 

648,083 

429,218 


67,304 
04,024 
12,809 
79, 739 


60,666 
02, 613 
11, .591 
79,258 


31 

234 

3 


6,607 

1,177 

1,215 

481 


Baltimore 








PEB CENT OF POPULATION. 


New York city 

Philadelphia 

Boston 


100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 


89.9 
94.3 
95.8 
88.3 


10.1 
6.7 
4.2 

11.7 


3.3 
5.0 
4.2 
2.4 


6.8 
0.7 

""9.3 


100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 


98.2 
87.3 
95.4 
77.5 


1.8 
12.7 

4.6 
22.6 


0.7 
12.3 

4.2 
22.2 


(') 
0.1 
(') 


1.1 

0.3 
0.4 
0.3 


100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 


98.0 
95.1 
97.7 
84.3 


2.0 
4.9 
2.3 
15.7 


1.8 
4.8 
2.1 
15.6 


1. 


0.2 
01 
0.2 
0.1 


Baltimore 





1 Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent. 



The sevenfold increase in the population of the orig- 
inal area of New York represents principally tenement 
house population, since the city limits in 1790 extended 
but little beyond tlie present City Hall square. In 
Boston the population of the original area increased 
ninefold, in Philadelphia fivefold, and in Baltimore it 
but little more than doul)led. 

Probably the most significant feature of the table is 
the illustration of the inevitable tendency of popula- 
tion to move away from the older centers as the num- 
ber of inhabitants increases and city limits expand, 



wliich is afforded by the degree to which the inhabit- 
ants of the 4 cities have abandoned, for residence 
purposes, the areas which comprised these cities in 
1790. This tendency is more pronounced in New 
York (doubtless because of physical formation) and 
Baltimore than in either Philadelphia or Boston. In 
New York less than 7 per cent of the population 
now reside within the limits of the city as it existed 
at the First Census; in Baltimore less than 6 per 
cent; in Philadelphia 12 per cent; and in Boston 30 
per cent. 



WHITE AND NEGRO POPULATION. 



85 



INCREASE IN THE UNITED STATES COMPARED WITH TUAT IN EUROPE. 



The nineteenth century is probably tlie most note- 
wortliy century witli respect to the growth of the 
poj)ulation of civihzed nations. In the United States 
in ISOO the conditions were of course exceptional. A 
wealth of o])i)ortunity existed in connection with 
natural resources: mines discovered but still un- 
worked, agricultural and forest resources of infinite 
variety and richness, and opportunities for industrial 
develoiiment beyond the dreams of tiie most imagina- 
tive, demanded population and encouraged increase 
at the rapid rate that Malthus, at the close of the 
eighteenth century, asserted to be possible only in the 
United States, where unlimited opportunities for sup- 
port existed. In Europe, also, new demands for ])op- 
ulation, unknown at the j)eriod when Malthus wrote, 
were about to arise, by reason of the creation of in- 
dustrial acti^Tties and the enormous extension of 
commerce. Hence, at the close of the eighteenth 
century the inhabitants both of the United States 
and of Europe stood upon the threshold of a devel- 
opment and opportunity latent in previous centuries, 
but already becoming active. 

At the outset it will be of interest to consider the 
increase of population in the Ihiitcd States in com- 
parison with increase in the principal countries of 
Europe. Since the First Census of the United States 
antedates census taking in Europe by at least a decade, 
only the nineteenth century should be considered. 



COUNTRY. 


Increase 
from 1)<00 
to 1900. 


United states 


1,331.6 
204.3 


Bel(;luin 




163.4 


United Iv iQgdom 


155.9 




154.6 


Germanv 


143.2 


Hoiland'. 


143.1 


Sweden .. 


118.6 


Italy 


88.4 


Portu^l 


85.1 




84.1 


Austria . . . 


81.6 




78.6 


france 


42.5 







With the exception of France, all the nations of 
Europe approximately doubled or more than doubled 
their ])(>])ulation during the nineteenth century; a 
threefold increase appeared for Belgium alone. Dur- 
ing the same period the population of continental 
United States increased more than fourteenfold ; in- 
deed, it had more than doubled by 1820 — after only 
twenty years. This surprising growth, however, is in 
reality in no way comparable with the natural increase 
shown by the nations of Europe. The total popula- 
tion of approximately 76, 000, ()()() in 1900 resulted fnmi 
a generous natural increase of persons enumerated in 
1790, from additions acquired by accessions of terri- 
tory, and from an unparalleled immigration movement, 
substantially unchecked for more than half a century. 
76292—09 7 



Hence natural growth, which in other nations is practi- 
cally the only source of population increase, in the 
I nitcd States is but one of several factors. In con- 
secpience, the increase shown from 1790 to 1900 is 
merely a gro.ss increa.se, depending on other than nor- 
mal causes, and po.ssessing comparatively little signifi- 
cance until analyzed. 

INCREASE THROUGH IMMIGRATION. 

The extraordinary additions to the population of the 
United States through immigration arc showTi in the 
following: 

1790 to 1820 '2.50 000 

1S21 to 18.50 : 2,4.55:81.5 

1851 to 1880 7 72.5 229 

1881 to 1900 9;090;972 

The immigration in the twenty years from ISSO to 
1900 nearly equals the total for the sixty years from 
1820 to 18,80. Prior to 1820 there were very few immi- 
grants; most of the.se came to the United States after 
ISIO, and tlie number arriving i)rior to 1800 is so small 
as to be negligible. 

In 1820 the foreign stock — that is, the immigrants 
with their children and grandchildren — could hardly 
have exceeded 350,000; and if tiiis be deducted from 
the total population (9,0.38,453) for 1820, the re- 
mainder will still be more than twice the population 
in 1790. "If the population reported at the First 
Census, 3,929,214, had been doubled only once in 
thirty years, the result in 1910 would have been 
62,867,424. In the theoretical doubling process the 
increase during the last thirty-year period (1880 to 
1910) is equivalent to approximately 1,000,000 per- 
sons a year. Upon that basis, in 1900 the native popu- 
lation would have amounted to about 50,000,000 
(including negroes); whereas the actual population in 
1900 was 76,000,000. Thus the total i)oi>ulation at the 
last census exceeded the theoretical figure for the same 
year by about 50 per cent. Hence, if we accept this 
comparison as po.sse.ssing an approximate value, that 
part of the growth of tiie United States which has 
resulted from immigration is possibly about equal 
to the progress which has actually occurred from 
1880 to 1900 in population, and thus presumably in 
wealth, amounting in the former to from 25.000,000 
to 30,000,000 souls, and in the latter to more than 
.S40,000,000,000."' 

NATURAL INCREASE. 

Effective discussion of increase of population must 
be based upon some sei)arati()n, necessarily very gen- 
eral in character, of the nativit\- and parentage of the 

' ThiB estimate has the sanction of several Census reports and other 
authoritic!*, l)Ut is regarded by many as too hiph. The Ceneiis report 
for 18.50 gives the total immigration for the period mentioned as 
234,000; that for 1860 as 274,000. 

■^ North American Review, September, 1908, page 365. 



86 



A CENTURY OF POPULATION GROWTH. 



two principal elements, white and negro, which have 
contributed the great aggregate reported in 1900. 
It is important to determine the natural increase, in 
order to measure the growth and influence of native 
stock in the United States, and for purposes of com- 



parison with the growth of population in foreign 
countries. 

The distribution of population m the United States 
in 1900, by its various elements, is shown iu the follow- 
ing table : 



Table »2 -^TOITE AND COLORED POPULATION OF CONTINENTAL UNITED STATES, CLASSIFIED BY NATIVITY OF 

PARENTS AND AS NATIVE AND FOREIGN ELEMENTS: 1900. 



■ 


Total. 


CLASSITIED BY NATmTT 


OF PARENTS. 


CLASSIFIED BT ELEMENT. 


ELEMENT OF THE POPULATION. 


Both parents 
native. 


One parent 

native and 

the other 

foreign 

bom. 


Both parents 
foreign bom. 


Native. 


Foreign. 




Number. 


Per cent 
of total. 


Number. 


Per cent 
of total. 


Total population 


75,994.575 


49,965,636 


6, 109, 052 


20,919,887 


52, 520, 162 


69.1 


23,474,413 


30.9 


White population 


66,809,196 


40,958,216 


5, 075, 093 


20,775,887 


43,495,762 


65.1 


23,313,434 


34.9 




56,595,379 
10,213,817 

9,185,379 


40,949,362 
8,851 

9,007,420 


5,013,737 
61,356 

33,959 


10,632,280 
10,143,607 

144,000 


43,466,230 
39,532 

9,024,400 


76.8 
0.4 

98.2 


13. 139, 149 
10,174,285 

160,979 


23.2 




99.6 




1.8 








8,S33,994 
351,385 


8,779,805 
227,615 


26.300 
7,659 


27,889 
116,111 


8, 792, 955 
231,445 


99.5 
65.9 


41,039 
119,940 


0.5 




34.1 







In the above table the native and foreign elements 
were determined by adding to the numbers having 
both parents native and both parents foreign born, 
respectively, one-half of the number having one parent 
native and the other foreign born. But the distribu- 
tion here shown is obviously unsatisfactory, since the 
term "native," according to modern census usage, in- 
cludes all persons born in the United States, and thus not 
only persons descended from distinctlj' native stock, 
but also the descendants, in the third and subsequent 
generations, of persons bom in foreign countries. In 
consequence of tliis fact, upon analysis the census 
classification proves entirely unsuited to a determina- 
tion of normal increase, and it becomes necessary to 
approximate the number of the descendants of the 
white and negro population enumerated at the First 
Census. 

Increase of white population. — The wliite population 
in 1790 and ISOO was both sturdy and prohfic, and 
until about 1830 it contributed a decennial increase of 
approximately one-tliird, practically unaided by im- 
migration. After 18.30, an increasing number of white 
foreign born persons added not onty themselves but 
their progeny to the wliite element. The second, 
third, and even the fourth generations of foreign stock 
have now added their increment, so that it is impossible 
to determine accurately the number of persons in the 
United States in 1900 who were directly descended 
from the population enumerated at the beginning of 
the nineteenth century. Yet practically all of the 
increase during the nineteenth century in the popu- 
lation of European nations was derived from the native 
stock, residing within their national boundaries 
1800, and not from immigration. 

At the census of 1900 the white foreign element in 
the United States — that is, the number of white 



m 



persons having both parents foreign born, together 
with one-half the nimiber having one parent foreign 
born and the other native — aggregated 23,313,434 
persons. Discarding this class of inhabitants from 
the total wliite population of 66,809,196, the remain- 
ing 43,495,762 obviously comprise the descendants 
of the white population enumerated in 1790 (and also 
in 1800, since no appreciable addition from other 
nations occurred during the decade), augmented by 
the descendants, in the third and subsequent genera- 
tions, of white persons who migrated to the United 
States, especially from Great Britain and Germany,' 
after 1800, and also by persons added to the white 
native element through aimexations of territory in 
the first half of the century. Additions of the latter 
class can not be accurately measured, but should be 
regarded as a part of the native stock. 

In the remainder of 43,495,762 above specified, 
what was the contribution of the elements enumerated 
in 1800, and w^hat the contribution, in the third and 
subsequent generations, of persons arriving in the 
United States after the beginning of the century? 

It is here that exact figures in the process of separa- 
tion fail, and hypothesis and approximation, how- 
ever ingenious, begin. Yet, since this analysis deals 
with the comparative growth of population in America 
and Europe, it is clearly within the bounds of scientific 
discussion to point out some of the simpler methods 
by which approximations of the growth of native 
stock can be made: (1) By elimination of all foreign 
stock from the native element; (2) by applying 
the rate of increase for the Southern states to 
the rest of the country; and (3) by applj-ing 
the proportion of persons in Massachusetts having 

' Natives of Great Britain and Germany constituted 85.7 per 
cent of all the foreign born in the United States in 1850. (Tenth 
Census, Population, page 461.) 






WHITE AND NEGRO POPULATION. 



87 



native grandfathers to the rest of the country. Should 
a reasonable^ harmony appear in the results secured, 
that fact wouki tpnd to justify acceptance of the ap- 
proximate percentage of increase secured. 

1. Elimination of foreign stoikfrom native element. — 
The character of the data which are available renders 
it necessary to consider the native descendants of the 
foreign born (in the third and subsef(uent generations) 
in three groups, as descendants of the immigrants 
arriving prior to 1853, between 1853 and 1870, and 
between 1870 and 18S0; naturally, grandchildren of 
immigrants arriving after ISSO need not be considered. 

At the census of 1850 the foreign born were returned 
separately for the first time, and were found to 
number 2,L'44,()U_', of whom 2,240,535 were white; the 
number of foreign born colored persons was so small 
as to bo negligible. In the Compendium of the 
Seventh Census (1850) the number of foreign born 
and the progeny of foreigners arriving after 1790 is 
estimated at 3,000,000 or 3,200,000 in 1853.' On the 
basis of this approximation (obviously made at a 
period when a reasonable approximation should have 
been possible), the descendants of white immigrants 
arriving subsequent to 1790 or 1800 and prior to 1853 
must have numbered about 1,000,000 in that year; 
and it is probable that of this total about one-half 
were native white of foreign parentage and the other 
half native white of native parentage.' It is reason- 
able to assume that since the white population of the 
United States more than trebled between lS50and 1900, 
the group of native white of native parentage at 
least trebled during the same period, thus contributing 
about 1,500,000 to the native white of native parentage 
in 1900. The 500,000 native white of foreign parent- 
age in 1850 were very young, and probably did not 
contribute to a great extent to the native wlute popu- 
lation of native parentage before 1870. The estimate 
of the contribution by the immigrants arriving be- 
tween 1790 and 1850 is doubtless liberal enough to 
counterbalance this omi.ssion. 



'"Estimating the survivors in 1850 of the foreigners who had 
arrived in the United States since the census of 1790 upon the 
principle of the English life tables, and making the necessary allow- 
ance for the less proportion of the old and very young among them, 
and for recmigration, etc., their number is stated in the abstract of 
the census published in IS.");}, page 15, at 2,400.000. From this, a 
deduftion is then made of 10 per cent, on account of the greater 
mortality of emigrants and their lower expectation of life, which 
brings the actual survivors very nearly to the figures of the census. 
The dedurtion of 10 per cent seems hardly sullicient, and does not 
accord with the deduitions that are generally made in the reason- 
ings of vital statisticians. It would be safer "to assume 15 per cent 
than 10, which would reduce the survivors to a little more than 
2,000,000. To this add 50 i)er cent for the living descendants of 
foreigners who have come into the country since 1790 (observing 
that nearly four-fifths of the number have arrived since 1830, and 
could not have both children and grandchildren born in the country, 
and more than half have arrived since 1810, and must have had 
comparatively few native born children, it would not be safe to 
add anv more), and the number of foreigners and their descendants 
in 1853 is not likely to exceed 3,000,000 or 3,200,000."— Compcn- 
dium of the Seventh Census, page 119. 

^Thc native whites of native parentage were probably for the 
most part not the children of the living native whites of foreign 
parentage, but the descendants of immigrants who arrived before 
the War of 1812. 



In 1870 there were 4,167,616 native inhabitants both 
of whose parents were foreign born, and 1,157,170 
native persons having one parent native and the other 
foreign born. Hence, the foreign element witliin the 
native populatiim comprised 4,740,201 persons; native 
colored persons — negroes, Indians, and .Mongolians — 
of foreign parentage were so few in numljcr as to be 
practically negligible. Since the total population of 
the United States doubled between 1870 and 1900, 
and the birth rate is generally accepted as being 
higher for the foreign than for the native population, 
it is reasonable to assume that the foreign element 
within the native white population doubled, or a little 
more than doubled, during th(! period under consider- 
ation. In the process of doubhng, iiowever, it must 
be remembered that the increment will be greater than 
the base, which is being constantly retluced by death; 
hence the native white of foreign parentage and their 
offspring, which together evidently amounted to 
approximately 10,000,000 in 1900, were composed of 
two une(|ual parts, the native wliite of foreign parent- 
age contributing appro.ximately 4,000,000, and their 
offspring — classified as native white of native parent- 
age — appro.ximately 6,000,000. 

The contribution to the native white of native 
parentage made by native wliites of foreign i)arentage 
I)orn after 1870 can not be determined with any degree 
of accuracy. The total number of native wliite per- 
sons of foreign parentage born between 1870 and 1880 
and surviving in 1900 was 3,067,062. It is possible 
that tliis element may have contributed 500,000 per- 
sons to the native wliites of native parentage. 

The above computations indicate that in 1900 the 
contributions of the foreign stock to the so-called 
native element had reached the follo\ving approximate 
total: 

Contribution of immigrants arriving — 

Between 1790 and 1853 1,500,000 

Between 1853 and 1870 6,000,000 

Between 1870 and 1880 500, 000 



Total 8,000,000 

In 1900 the native element in the United States was 
43,495,762. Eliminating the S.000,000 persons above 
determined, tiie white population enumerated in 1800 
appears to have increased to 35,495,762. 

2. Growth of white native stock, at rate of increase for 
Southern states. — At the census of 1 S50, when the classi- 
fication by nativity was introduced, the white popu- 
lation of 12 Southern states — Virginia, Kentucky, Ten- 
nessee, North Carohna , South Carohna , Georgia , Florida , 
Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas, and /\jkan- 
sas — included in the aggregate less than 4 per cent 
who were foreign born. The proportion of foreign 
born in this group of states increased but little during 
the half centun,-, and even at the census of 1900 the 
white population was composed almost entirely of the 
descendants of persons enumerated in 1790 and 1800. 



88 



A CENTURY OF POPULATION GROWT^H. 



This suggests utilizing tlie increase of white popu- 
lation shown by the Soutliern states as a basis from 
which to compute the increase in the distinctly 
native stock of the white population residing in the 
other states and territories; after 1870, however, only 
one-half of the rate of increase should be used, because 
of the fact, generally known and admitted, that the rate 
of increase of the native stock of the white population 



in the Northern and manj- of the Western states has 
been very low since 1870. The accuracy of such a 
computation is increased by discarding the foreign 
element of the white population in 1870 and 1880, and 
the total foreign white and the native white of foreign 
parentage in 1890 and 1900. Upon making such an 
analysis the following figures result : 





ACTUAL WHITE POPULATION OF SPECIFIEI) ELEMENT. 


ESTIMATED NATn'E STOCK 
OF THE WHITE POPULA- 
TION. 




In continental 
United States. 


In 13 Southern states. 


In remainder of conti- 
nental United States. 


For "remainder 
of continental 
United States'' 
based on white 
population in 
1S20, by apply- 
ing per cent of 

increase in 

Southern states 

to 1870 and half 

of decennial 

percentages 

after that year. 




CENSUS YEAR. 


Number. 


Per cent of 

increase 

over 

preceding 
census. 


Number. 


Per cent of 

increase 

over 

preceding 
census. 


For 

continental 

United 

states. 




TOTAL WHITE POPULATION. 




7,862,166 


2,437,451 




5,424,715 




1 










1 






NATIVE ELEMENT OF THE WHITE POPULATION.' 


1870 


23,374,577 
29,021,812 


6,518.012 167.4 
8,843,928 35.7 


16,856,565 
20, 777, 884 


210.7 
23.3 


14, .W5, 688 
17,102,206 


21,023.700 


1880 


25,946,134 








NATIVE WinTE POPULATION OF NATIVE PARENTAGE. 


1890 


34,35S,348 
40,949,362 


10,884,524 23.1 23,473,824 
13,328,329 22.5 1 27,621.033 


13.0 
17.7 


19,086,062 
21,242,787 


29,970,586 


1900 


34,571,116 













I 



1 Obtained by subtracting from the total native element the native bom negroes. 



Upon replacing the native wliite population of native 
parentage living, in 1890 and 1900, in the Southern 
states and in the remainder of continental United 
States by the native whites of native parentage born 



in the Southern states and in the remainder of conti- 
nental United States, the native stock of the wliite 
population appears to be as follows: 



k 





ACTUAL NATIVE WHITE POPULATION OF NATIVE PARENTAGE. 


ESTIMATED NATIVE STOCK 
OF THE WmiE POPULA- 
TION. 


CENSUS YEAR. 


Living in 

continental 

United States. 


Bom in 13 Southem states. 


Bom in remainder of con- 
tinental United States. 


For "remainder 

of continental 

United States." 


For 

continental 

United 

States. 




Number. 


Per cent of 

increase 

over 

preceding 
census. 


Number. 


Per cent of 

increase 

over 

preceding 
census. 


1890 


34,358,348 
40, 949, 362 


11,262,307 
13, 903, 622 


•27.3 
23.5 


23,096,041 
27,045,740 


111.2 
17.1 


19, 445, 208 
21.739,743 


30.707,515 
35,043,365 


1900 





' Increase over the native element of the white population. 



The theoretical number shown as the native stock 
of the white population in 1870 for the country exclu- 
sive of the Southern states (14,505,688) must be very 
near the true figure ; the excess of the native element 
over the native stock of the white population of this 
area was only 2,350,877, and it may safely be assumed 
that of tlus number the offspring of immigrants arriv- 
ing between 1790 and 185.3 (who numbered 1,000,000, 
according to the Compendium of the Seventh Census) 
contributed at least 2,000,000, leaving only 350,877 to 



represent the offspring of immigrants arriving between 
1853 and 1870. 

Only one-half of each percentage of increase shown 
for the Southern states in 1880, 1890, and 1900 was 
employed in computing the native stock of the white 
population in the rest of the country. It is worthy 
of note that, if the entire percentage be employed, the 
resulting figure for 1900 (30,946,644) approximately 
equals the native element of the white population 
(29,995,187) in the same area; in other words, the use ' 



WHITE AND NEGRO POPULATION. 



89 



of the entire percentaf;;e produces a figure large enough 
to include the entire contribution made to tlie native 
element by the descendants of the foreign white in tiie 
third and subsecjuent generations. This result may- 
be merely a coincidence, but it recalls a theory ad- 
vanced by Gen. Francis A. Walker, Superintendent of 
the Tenth Census, that the advent of large numbers 
of foreigners afTocts unfavorably the birth rate of the 
native element of a community.' This theory has 
been opposed by many statisticians of prominence. 

3. Growth of white population of native stock, meas- 
ured hij proportion of persons in Massachxisetts having 
native grandfathers. — As already pointed out, the 
cla.ssification of parentage by the Federal census 
stops with native white of native parentage. For 
tliis analysis the essential fact is the number of native 
white persons having native grandparents, and the 
problem wliich is confronteil by th(! inquirer is to de- 
termine the percentage which would be deducted from 
the native white population of native parentage if it 
were statistically possible to segregate the native 
wliite persons having native grandparents. 

The classification of the population of Massachusetts 
by nativity of grandfatliers was made at the state cen- 
sus of 1905. It is doubtful whether any attempt to 
ascertain nativity of grandparents can ever be en- 
tirely successful, because of the likelihood of error con- 
cerning tliis subject, on the part of persons responding 
to the enumerators' questions; but if the returns of 
Massachusetts be accepted as approximately correct, 
they offer an opportunity to advance one generation 
beyond the Federal census, and thus to secure, for one 
state at least, the proportion of white persons who, 
besides being native born, possessed native grand- 
fathers. Of the entire population of Massachusetts 
in 1905, slightly less than one-third reported native 
birth and native grandfathers. Upon ehininating the 
colored, it is found that the native white population 
reported as having both native fathers and native 
grandfathers formed 79.1 per cent of the total native 
white having native fathers.^ It is obvious that if it 

' "The access of foreigners at the time and under the circum- 
stances constituted a shock to the principle of population among 
the native element. That principle is always acutely sensitive, 
alike to sentimental and to economic conditions. And it is to be 
noted, in passing, that not only did the decline in the native ele- 
ment as a whole, take place in singular correspondence with the 
excess of foreign arrivals, but it occurred chielly in just those regions 
to which the newcomers most freely resorted. * * * If the foregoing 
views are true, or contain any considerable degree of truth, foreign 
immigration into thi.s country has, from the time it first assumed 
large proportions, amounted not to a reenforcement of our popula- 
tion, but to a replacement of native by foreign stock. That if the 
foreigners had not come, the native element would long since have 
filled the places the foreigners usurpetl, I entertain notadoubt." — 
Discussions in Economics and Statistics, vol. 2, page 4~~. 

'In making this computation, it was assumed that all native 
colored pennons had native grandfathers, and also that all native 
white persons having native grandfathers had native fathers. 



were possible to determine accurately the number of 
native white persons having native grandfathers in 
1900, a close appro.ximation would be reached con- 
cerning the increase in the white population of the 
native stock, since this classification reaches back to 
the period when immigration had not j-et become an 
important factor, and hence to the period when prac- 
tically all the population was composed of persons 
enumerated in ISOO or their progeny. .(Vssuming 
that the proportion shown by the state census of 
Ma.ssachusetts is applicable to the other states, the 
total number of wliitc persons in 1900 descended from 
the white population enumerated in 1800 numbered 
3.3,729,282. 

The results of tiie three computations described 
above are summarized in tlie following statement: 





WHITE potolation: 1000. 


ELEMENTS OF THE POPC- 
LATIOK. 


First com- 
putation- 
elimination 
of the foreign 
stock from 
tbe native 
element. 


Second com- 
putation- 
growth of 
native stock 
at rate of 
IncK-ase for 
Southern 
states. 


Third com- 
putation- 
growth of 
native slock 
nieaiinred by 
proportion of 
jxrsons in 
Massachu- 
setts havinff 
native grand- 
fathers. 


Average. 


Total 


66,809.196 


66,809,196 I 66,809,196 


46,800, Its 






«, 495, 762 
35,495,762 
8,000,000 

23,313,434 

31,313,434 


43,495,762 

35,643,365 

7,852,397 

23, 313, 434 


43,495,762 

33,729,282 

9,766,480 


43,49S,7«2 
34,956,136 
8.539,626 


Native stock 






Total foreign stock 


31 16.') 831 -f? Jn4 ru? 1 ^i stT.i ram 











The three computations show a range of nearly 
2,000,000 (between 33^ and 3oi millions). Utilizing 
the average of the three, it appears that in 1900 the 
white population of ctmtinental United States con- 
tributed by persons enumerated at the Second Census 
was approximately 35,000,000; while the contribution 
to the native whites of native parentage made by the 
third and subsequent generations descended from 
immigrants arriving after 1800 numbered approxi- 
mately 8,500,000. Adiling the latter figure to the 
known foreign element in 1900, it is foimd that the 
contribution of the foreign stock to the wliite popula- 
tion was 31,853,060. Hence, at the Twelfth Census 
the total white population of continental United States 
appears to have been divided between the descendants 
of persons enumerated at the Second Census and of 
persons who became inhabitants of the United States 
after ISOO, in the proportion of about 35 to 32. 

The white population shown at the Second Census, 
1800, was 4,306,446. To this number should be 
added 100,000 persons, as the approximate number 
accjuired by accessions of territory early in the cen- 
tury, who must be regarded as a part of the native 



90 

stock.' Upon this basis the increase from 1800 to 
1900 in the native white stock of continental United 
States was G94.3 per cent. 

It is not surprising that the increase of inhabitants 
upon both continents is one of the most noteworthy 
developments of the century; but the great excess of 
increase of population in the United States over that 
of the nation of Europe showing the largest percentage 
illustrates, and to some extent measures, the wealth 
of opportunity in the young Repubhc and the unusual 
virility of the population. 

The largest percentage of increase during the century 
from 1800 to 1900, shown by the table on page 85, for 
an J' European nation, was that reported for Belgium^ 
204 per cent. Had the percentage of increase of the 
native stock of the white population of the United 
States enmnerated in 1800 been only as great as that 
shown by Belgium, the white population of the United 
States in 1900 would have been as follows: 

Native element of the white population: 

Descendants of white native slock 13, 395, 596 

Descendants of white immigrants arriving after 
1790, as above computed 8, 539, 626 

Foreign element of the white population 23, 313, 434 

Total 45, 248, 656 

This total approximates the white population of 
the United States in 1880. Thus the greater fertility 
of the native white stock of the United States, as 
compared with fertility in the coimtries of Europe 
showing the largest increase, has resulted in a white 
population in 1900 which is twenty years in advance 
of what it would have been if computed on the slower 
rate of increase shown for Belgium. It would be 
difficult to suggest more vividly the great fecundity 
during the nineteenth century of the white population 
inhabiting the United States in 1800.^ 

It is probable that a readjustment of population 
increase is now in progress, and that the steady dimi- 
nution in the rate of increase shown for both Europe 
and the United States in the later decades of the 
nineteenth century affords confirmation of the general 
accuracy of the theory advanced by Malthus, long 

•The insignificance of the original white population of added 
areas is strikingly illustrated by the fact that at the first census 
taken after the acquisition of the Louisiana Purchase (seven yeare 
later), the white population enumerated in what are now the states 
of Louisiana, Arkansas, and Missouri formed only nine-tenths of 1 
per cent of the total white population of the United States in 1810. 
Similarly, the white population of Florida was but two-tenths of 1 
per cent of the total white population in 1830, and that of the vast 
regions acquired between 1840 and 1850 was but 1.7 per cent of the 
total in the latter year. 

- "Their numbers are not augmented by foreign emigrants; yet 
from their circumscribed limits, compact situation, and natural 
population, they are filling the western parts of the state of New 
York and the country on the Ohio with their own eurplusace " 
(Washington to Sir .John Sinclair, 1796.) "It is worth remarking 
that New England, which ha.'i sent out such a continued swarm to 
other parts of the Union for a number of years, has continued at the 
same time, as the census shows, to increase in population, although 
it is well known that it has received but comparatively few emi- 
CTants from any quarter." (James Madison, 1821)— Bancroft, 5, 21S- 
Tenth Census, Population, page 457. ' 



A CENTURY OF POPULATION GROWTH. 



discredited, because it happened to be put forward at a 
period when newly awakened national development 
on both continents seemingly disproved it. 

Increase of white ■population of native parentage in 
the states enumerated in 1790. — The methods outlined 
above for determining the increase in the native stock 
of the white population are too detailed, and the re- 
sults too imperfect, to justify computation for indi- 
vidual states. Since the Census classification which 
most closely approximates the native stock is the 
native white of native parentage, in the following 
summary the white population in 1800 of the states 
enumerated in 1790 is compared with the native white 
population of native parentage in the same area in 
1900, for the purpose of illustrating the tendency to 
comparatively small increase exhibited by the native 
element of the white population in the older states of 
the original area. 

Table 23. — While population in 1800 of each state and territory 
enumerated in 1790, compared with the native white population of 
native parentage in the same area in 1900. 



Area enumerated in 1790 — 
New England 



Maine 

New Hanipstiire. 

Vermont 

Massachusetts. .. 

Rhode Island 

Connecticut 



Middle states. 



New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania.. 
Delaware 



Southern states. 



Maryland and District of Co- 
lumbia 

Virginia and West Virginia. . . 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Georgia 1 

Kentucky 

Tennessee 



White 

population 

ISOO. 



4,250,896 



1,214,359 



150,901 
182,998 
153,908 
410,393 
66,438 
244,721 

1,388,003 



557,731 

194,325 

58(),095 

49,852 

1,648,534 



226,392 
514,280 
337,764 
196,255 
102,261 
179,873 
91,709 



Native 
white popu- 
lation of { 
native 
parentage, 
1900. 



18,926,020 



2,511,110 



493,082 
242,614 
225,381 
1,032,264 
144,986 
372,783 

7,524,608 



2,851,513 
825,973 

3,729,093 
118,029 

8,890,302 



814,122 
1,985,194 
1,250,811 

540,766 
1,144,360 
1,673,413 
1,481,636 



Amount. 



14,675,124 



1,296,751 



342, 181 
69,616 
71,473 

615,871 
79,548 

128,062 

6,136,605 



2,293,782 

631,648 

3,142,998 

68,177 

7,241,768 



587,730 
1,470,914 
913,047 
344,511 
1,042,099 
1,493,540 
1,389,927 



Per cent. 



345.2 



106.8 



226.8 
32.6 
46.4 
147.9 
121.6 
62.3 

442.1 



411.3 
325.0 
536.3 
136.8 

439.3 



259.6 
286.0 
270.3 
175.5 

1,019.1 
830.3 

1,515.6 



1 Entire state. 

Upon comparing the white population in 1800 in the 
area enumerated in 1790 with the native white popula- 
tion of native parentage in the same area in 1900, the 
increase during the century is shown to be less than 
350 per cent. As already pointed out, the population 
even as thus classified has been reenforced durmg the 
century by the third and subsequent generations of 
the descendants of immigrants. The significance of 
the table therefore lies principal^ m the compara- 
tively moderate increase which appears upon with- 
drawing fi'om the total population even part of the 
increase due to immigration. 

This summary is presented by the 3 general geo- 
graphic divisions, in order to indicate the differences 
in increase which appeared in these sections. In 
none of the New England states was there a large 



WHITE AND NEGRO POPULATION. 



91 



increase during the century in the number of native 
whites of native parentage. This fact is indicative 
of heavy emigration, and doubtless also of a very low 
birth rate. The immense increase sh()^\^l for Georgia, 
Kentucky, and Tennessee can not be regarded as 
especially important, because at the beginning of the 
century these areas were just being settled, and 2 
of the 3 were merely territories or districts. During 
the carher decades of the century, when the older 
states were to a great extent distributers of popula- 
tion, these 3 states were distinctly tiie recipients of 
immigration; obviously, therefore, the growtli of 
population in all 3 was contributed largely by persons 
of native stock. 

Growth of the British race. — Elsewhere in these 
pages will be found a discussion of nationality at the 
First Census, indicating that much the larger part of 
the white inhabitants of the United States were 
natives, or the offspring of natives, of Great Britain, 
and principal!}- of England.' The population of Great 
Britain in 1712 is estimated to have been but 9,000,000. 
During the succeeding century (the eighteenth) 
Great Britain contributed from this small population 
the stock which formed the larger part of the white 
population of the United States in 1790, and which, 
as already pointed out, increased by 1900 to approxi- 
mately 35,000,000 souls. In 1801 the population of 
the United Ivingdom was 16,200,000; by 1900 it had 
increased to 41,000,000. But during the nineteenth 
century the mother country also contributed, even 
more freely than she had contributed during the eight- 
eenth century to North America, to the population of 
the United States and to that of a score of younger 
colonies. The spectacle is thus presented of a nation 
which not only increased during the century more 
generously than did any of its rivals, but at the same 
time created other nations, one of which alone pro- 
duced within the century a native population nearly 
equal to that of the mother count^}^ It is possible 
that a racial growth similar in character may have 
occurred upon a small scale in connection with some 
of tlie colonies established by ancient cities along the 
Mediterranean, but in magnitude there appears to be 
no parallel in history for this population achievement 
of tlie British race from 1700 to 1900. 

Increase of negro population. — In comparing the in- 
crease of population in the United States with that 
of the nations of Europe, attention has thus far been 
directed to the changes in white population, since the 
white race only can be considered in comparison with 
Europe. It must be remembered, however, that the 
negro has always constituted an important part of the 
population of the United States, and also that the negro 
element must be classed as distinctly native. From 
1,002,037 negroes in the United States in 1800 the 
number increased to 8,833,994 in continental United 
States in 1900, of whom 8.792,955 belonged to the 
native element. 

' Chapter XI, page 116. 



It must not be overlooked that the negroes enu- 
merated in ISOO received accessions between 1800 and 
1808, and possibly surreptitioiLs additions later, 
through further importation of slaves. Since tliis 
enforced immigration occurred at the beginning of the 
century under consideration, the total increase from 
this source should lie included in the total negro popu- 
lation existing at the beginning of the centurj-. Tliis 
addition was more than 70,000,' probably about 
100,000, and there should be added also appro.ximately 
50,000 negroes acquired by accession of territorv. 
With this atljustment, the increase from 1800 to 1900 
in tlic native element of the negro population of the 
United States was 663.3 per cent. 

The increase of negroes, however, presents an en- 
tirely tiifTerent problem from that presented bv the 
increase of whites. The negro race is very prolific, 
and possibly would have accomplished, unaided, the 
increase shown. But it is impossible even to estimate 
what influence the white race has exerted upon the 
increase of what is classed as negro population. 
Tliere were many mulattoes in the I'nited States even 
before 1800; by a census of Maryland in 1755, 8.0 per 
cent of the negroes were returned as mulattoes. 
Attempts were made at the censuses of 1870 and 1890 
to measure the strain of white blood in persons 
classed as negroes, and the returns, while regarded as 
very inaccurate, supplied at least an approximate 
measurement, where before none had existcfl. The 
negroes reported as partly white formed 12 per cent 
of the total number in 1870 and 15.2 per cent of the 
total in 1890. It is probable that this proportion is 
increasing; even upon the basis of the proportion 
shown for 1890, however, in 1900 the number of 
persons in continental United States classed as 
negroes, but containing some white blood, would 
have been at least 1,342,767. Part of this number 
might be regartled as outsiile of normal increase, and 
as bearing to the natural increase of negroes enu- 
merated in 1800 a relation somewhat similar to the 
increase contributed to the white inhabitants of the 
Republic by immigrants and children of immigrants. 
It is more probal>le, however, that the contribution of 
the wliite race to negro increase should be regarded 
as a substitute for increase which other\vise would have 
been furnishetl by the negro race itself. 

Summary of increase in total population. — From the 
foregoing analysis of the increase of the native white 
and negro elements composing the population of the 
United States, the total number of persons enumerated 
(and included) in both elements in 1800 (5,558,483) 
increased to 43,749,091 in 1900, an increase of 687.1 
per cent. During the century, therefore, the popula- 
ti(m of the I'nited States, including both wliito and 
negro, unaideil by immigration, increased nearly 
sevenfold, while during the same period the population 
of Europe, exclusive of Russia, Turkey, and Greece, 
increased 119.4 per cent. The largest increase shown 

'Seventh Census. Compendium, page 83. 



92 



A CENTURY OF POPULATION GROWTH. 



by any nation of Europe was 204 per cent, or less than 
one-third as great. 

The similarity here shown in the increase durmg 
the ninotecnth century of the whites and negroes 
enumerated at its be;;inning, po.ssesses especial signifi- 
cance when it is remembered that during the greater 
part of the century the conditions under which the 
two races existed were radically different. The white 
race possessed all the advantages of imlimited re- 
sources and complete independence, and of a strict 
observance of the family relation. In marked con- 
trast, during much more than half of the period under 
consideration the negro race was for the most part in 
a state of bondage, and the family relation was doubt- 
less frequently subordinated to the exigencies of 
ownership. 



Table 24. — White, negro, Indian, and Mongolian population, tcitk 
number and per cent of increase, for continental United States: 1800 
and 1900. 





1800' 


1900 


INCEEASE. 




Number. 


Per cent. 




5, 558, 483 


75,994,575 


70,436,092 


1,267.2 






White 


4,406,446 


66,809,196 


62,402,750 


1,416.2 




4,406,446 


34,956,136 
31, 853, OLIO 

8,833,994 


30,549,690 
31,853,060 

7,681,957 


693.3 






Negro 


1,152,037 


666.8 




1,152,037 


8,792,955 
41,039 

351,385 


7,640,918 
41,039 

351,385 


663.3 



















1 Including an estimate of 100.000 white persons and 50.000 negroes as the popu- 
lation in 1800 of areas added after that year, and an estimate of 100,000 negroes as the 
number of slaves imported after 1800. 



APPORTIONMENT. 



The Constitution contained the following provision: 

Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the 
several states which may be included w-ithin this Union, according 
to their respective numbers, which shall be determined by adding 
to the whole number of free persons, including those bound to 
service for a term of years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three- 
fifths of all other persons.' 

The same paragraph further stipulateil that, until an 
enumeration should be made, each state should be en- 
titled to a specified number of representatives, the total 
being 65. 

The population required for one representative has 
increased from 33,000 in 1790 to nearly 200,000 in 
1900, or six times the number of citizens represented 
at the outset. With the basis of apportionment at the 
last census the same as at the first, the membership in 
the House of Representatives, instead of being 3S6, as 
determined by the apportionment act under the 
Twelfth Census, would have been 2,259. On the other 
hand, were the ratio which was employed in 1900 ap- 
plied to the states in 1790, the largest delegation in 
the House of Representatives would have been 3 mem- 
bers; only 4 states would have had 2 members; the 
remaining states would have had but 1 ; and the total 

' Since superseded by the Fourteenth Amendment. 



membership of the House of Representatives would 
have been 19. 

The change in the apportionment of representatives 
in Congress which has been in progress during the cen- 
tury from the First Census to the Twelfth is indicated 
by the following summary: 

Apportionment of congressional representation: 1790 to 1900. 





Population 
to each rep- 
resentative. 


EEPKESENTATrVES. 


CENStJS TEAR. 


Total 
number. 


Area enumerated 
in 1790. 


Added area. 




Number. 


Per cent 
of total. 


Number. 


Per cent 
of total. 


1790 


33,000 
33,000 
35,000 
40,000 
47,700 
70,680 
93, 423 
127.381 
131.425 
151,911 
173,901 
194. 182 


105 
141 
181 
213 
240 
223 
234 
241 
292 
325 
356 
386 


105 
141 
175 
187 
199 
101 
154 
139 
156 
153 
168 
179 


100.0 
100.0 
96.7 
87.8 
82.9 
72.2 
65.8 
57.7 
53.4 
47.1 
47.2 
46.4 






ISOO 






1810 .. 


6 
26 
41 
62 
80 
102 
136- 
172 
188 
207 


3.3 


1820 


12.2 


1830 .. 


17.1 


1840 


27.8 


1850 


34.2 


1860 


42.3 


1870.. 


46.6 


IS80 . 


52.9 


1890 


52.8 


1900 


63.6 







This comparison affords an effective and final illus- 
tration of the extraordinary change which has occurred 
during the first century of population growth in the 
United States. 



VII. SEX AND AGE OF THE WHITE POPULATION. 



DECREASE IN PROPORTION OF MALES— IN PROPOR- 
TION OF EACH SEX UNDER 16 YEARS— INFLIENCE 
OF IMMIGRATION— OF MODERN SANITARY SCIENCE. 



At the First Census a complete cliissification of sex 
and a partial classification of age were obtained for the 
entiro white population. The three questions under 
which these items were secured were as follows: 

1. Free white males of 16 years and upward, including heads of 
families. 

2. Free white males under 16 years. 

3. Free white females, including heads of families. 

Sex. — Discussion of the proportions of the sexes in 
the United States has been presented from time to 
time in reports of the Federal census. Such change as 
has occurred in the proportion of the sexes is best 
illustrated by computing the number of males in each 
1,000 of population in 1790 and 1900 and midway, in 
1850. 

Table 25. — Proportion of males in the uhile population, by states 
and territories: 1790, 1850, and 1900. 



STATE OB TERRITORY. 



Continental I'nltcd States. 

Area enumerated In 1790 

New England 



Maine 

New Uampshlre. 

Vermont 

Massachusetts.. . 

Rhode Island 

Connecticut 



NXTMBER or HALES PER 
1,0(10 OK WIUTE POPU- 
LATION. 



I7S0 



S09 



1830 



513 



504 



498 



Middle states. 



New York 

New Jersey 

I'ennsyivanla.. 
Delaware 



511 
503 
526 
490 
492 
495 

514 



Southern states. 



516 
510 
514 
517 

515 



Maryland and District of Columbia. 

Virt.'laia and West Virginia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Georgia 

Kentucky 

Tennessee 



Added area. 



514 
514 
511 
523 
513 
527 
519 



510 
491 
609 
491 
4«9 
495 

506 



507 
501 
506 
502 

506 



504 
504 
494 
502 
510 
516 
506 

529 



1900 



513 



502 



494 



605 
499 
609 
487 
489 
500 

502 



497 
500 
508 
510 

506 



495 
510 
500 
504 
504 
509 
606 

521 



The proportion of males in the white population 
shows a more marked decrease from 1790 to 1900 in 
the Middle and Southern states than in New England. 
In 1790 the only states reporting an excess of females 
were Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut. 



In 1900 such excess was reported not only by Ma.ssa- 
chusetts and Rhode Island, but also by New Hamp- 
shire, New York, and Maryland. Had the propor- 
tions been the same in 1790 as in the original area in 
1900, there would have been 2.1,194 fcwerwhite males 
than were reported at the First Census. If, on the 
other hand, the proportion of males in the area enu- 
merated in 1790 had been the same in 1900 as in 1790, 
the number of males reported would have been 
greater by 216,826. 

Age. — The age classification secured at the First 
Census separated white males into age groups above 
and under the age of 16 j'ears, without a similar sepa- 
ration for females. In any attempt to analyze the age 
figures thus presented, it becomes necessary to esti- 
mate the same classification with respect to females. 
The defect noted in the enumeration of 1790 was cor- 
rected at the census of 1800. Hence, within a decade 
of 1790 the exact proportion of females in the age 
groups specified were definitel}' known. This fact sug- 
gests the practicability of utilizing the well-known and 
fairly constant statistical ratio between the numbers 
of males and females, and the probably similar ratios 
for the principal age groups. 

Before utiUzing such proportions, it was of course 
necessary to demonstrate that the results would be 
substantially accurate. If from the Second to the 
Third Census no markeil variation is found in the 
proportion formed of all white females b\' wliite 
females under 16 years of age, either in the total 
or in the returns for the same states, the propor- 
tion from 1790 to 1800 is likely to have been fairly 
constant; furthermore, if the proportion formed of all 
wliite males by white males under 16 in 1790, as com- 
pared with the similar proportion shown in 1800, varied 
little, it wouhl then be established beyond reasonable 
doubt that the proportion of wliite females in the 
same age groups, though unascertained, must have 
differed but little in 1790 from the proportions actually 
shown in ISflO. Hence, the application of the jjropor- 
tion shown for wliite females under 16 years of age 
in the various states in 1800, to obtain the number 
of females in the same age group in 1790, would be 
fully justified. "What are tiie results of an analysis 
concerning the constancy of such ratios? 

(93) 



94 



A CENTURY OF POPULATION GROWTH. 



The proportion wliich the white females under 16 
years of age in the year ISOO formed of all white 
females amounted to about one-half. It varied less 
than one-twentieth of 1 per cent from 1800 to 1810. 
The percentages for the United States and for the 
New England states, Middle states, and Southern 
states at both censuses were: 



United States 

New England 

Middle stateji 

Southern states 



1800 



49.7 



46.3 
60.2 
51.6 



46.4 
50.3 
51.4 



For the most part the range among individual 
states is very narrow. In 8 out of 17 states the differ- 
ence in proportion is less than 1 per cent, and in no 
instance tloes it exceed 3 per cent. 

The proportion in 1800 for males under 16 years 
of age is substantially the same as for females, being: 





1800 


1810 


United States 


50.4 


50.3 






New England 


48.9 
60.0 
51.8 


47.9 


Middle states 


50.2 




51.8 







The important ciuestion, however, is obviously the 
confirmation wdiich may or may not be afforded by 
the similarity of the proportion shown for white 
males under 16 years of age at the Second Census 
as compared ^vith the First. The proportions of 
males in this age group at the First and Second 
censuses were as follows : 





1190 


1800 


United States 


49.6 


50 4 








48.4 
48.7 
51.1 




Middle states 




Southern states 


51 8 







In short, the uniformity in the proportion of white 
females under 16 years of age among all wlute females 
in 1810 as compared with 1800, the similarity in the 
proportion of white males under 1 6 and white females 
under 16 in ISOO as compared wdth 1810, and the 
similarity of the proportion of all white males formed 
by those under 16 years of age in 1800 as compared 
with 1790, appear to justify the use of the proportion 
of females under 16 years of age returned in 1800 by 
the several states, to compute the number of females 
in the same age group in 1790. Accordingly, in Table 
106, on page 208, will be found the probable number 
of females under and over the age of 16, detei-mined 
in accordance with the proportions shown by the 
various states in 1800. 



SEX AND AGE. 


■WHITE POPULATION 
IN 1790. 




Number. 


Per cent. 


Total 


3,172,444 










1,619,184 
1.553,260 




51.0 




49.0 






Males 


1,615,761 










815,098 
800,663 

1,556,683 




50.4 




49 6 










16 years and over 


804,086 
752,597 




51.7 




48.3 







The proportions of white persons of both sexes 
who were under 16 years of age in 1790 are com- 
pared with the corresponding proportions in 1900 in 
the following summary : 

Per cent white persons under 16 years of age form of total white popu- 
lation, and per cent while males and females of the same age group 
form of all white males and females, respectively: 1790 and 1900. 





BOTH 


SEXES. 


MALES. 


FEMALES. 




1790 


1900 


1790 


1900 


1790 


1900 


Continental United States. 


49.0 


35.6 


49.6 


35.2 


48.3 


36.1 


Area enumerated in 1790 


49.0 


34.1 


49.6 


34.3 


48.3 


33.9 




47.0 


29.1 


48.4 


29.6 


45.6 


28 7 






Maine . 


50.7 
48,6 
51.3 
45.5 
46.4 
45.4 

49.4 


29.0 
27.5 
29.4 
29.0 
30.5 
29.7 

32.6 


60.4 
49.1 
49.9 
47.8 
49.6 
47.2 

48.7 


29.0 
27.5 
29.2 
29.6 
31.7 
29.8 

32.6 


51.1 
48.0 
52.8 
43.4 
43.3 
43.7 

60.2 


29 


New Hampshire 

Vermont. 


27.6 
29 6 


Massachusetts 


28 3 




29 3 








32 5 






New York 


49.3 

48.7 
49.8 
49.4 

50.2 


30.9 
32.7 
34.5 
32.7 

40.0 


48.3 
47.8 
49.2 
50.8 

51.1 


31.2 
32.7 
34.2 
32.6 

40.2 


60.5 
49.6 
60.4 
48.0 

49.2 


30 6 


New Jersey 


32 6 


Pennsylvftnia 


34 8 






Southern states 


39 7 






Maryland and District 


45.0 

49.7 
61.9 
52.2 
53.1 
54.5 
55.0 


33.3 

40.0 
42.8 
41.8 
41.6 
40.4 
41.1 

36.9 


47.9 

51.1 
52.5 
51.5 
51.7 
53.0 
52.9 


33.9 

40.0 
43.6 
42.5 
41.8 
40.3 
41.4 

35.8 


41.9 

48.1 
51.1 
53.0 
64.6 
66.3 
57.2 




32.8 


Virginia and West Vir- 




42 


South Carolina 


41 1 


Georgia 


41 4 






Tennp.wpp 


40 8 


Added area 


38 









The summary indicates that the proportion of each 
sex under 16 years of age was materially less for the 
United States in 1900 than in 1790, and slightly less 
in the area enumerated in 1790 than for the entire 
nation. The most decided changes in this respect ap- 
pear in the New England states. In some of these the 
proportion in 1900 was little more than one-half of that 
shown in 1790. The change is least marked in the 
Southern states, where the white population has main- 
tained a much larger proportion of increase than in 
other portions of the country, and has been but little 
affected by immigration during the century. In 1790 
7 out of the 17 states and territories enumerated showed 



SEX AND AGE OF THE WHITE POPULATION. 



95 



a proportion of more than one-half under IG years of 
age; the lowest proportion shown by any state or ter- 
ritory at that census was that of Maryland, in which 
45 per cent of the inhabitants were under 16 years of 
age. In 1900, however, no state reported a proportion 
as high as the lowest reported for 1790. 

The question at once presents itself, whether a large 
part of the tlecided reiluction shown in this summary 
is net attributable to the arrival in the last decade of 
the nineteenth century of great numbers of immi- 
grants, a very large proportion of whom were over 16 
years of age. Such an infliLX would seemingly tend to 
augment the proportion of the population in the higher 
age group at the expense of that in the lower. To 
measure the influence of this element, two computa- 
tions were made to determine the proportion which 
in 1900 (1) the native white of native parentage under 
16 years of age and (2) the native white of foreign par- 
entage and the foreign white in the same age period, 
formed of the total produced by adding to their 
number the number of persons available for their sup- 
port. The first computation gave the proportion which 
the native white of native parentage mider 16 years of 
age formed of the total obtained by adding to their 
number the total native white of native parentage 
above 16, and the married, widowed, and divorced na- 
tive white of foreign parentage in this same age period; 
the second gave the proportion which the total of the 
foreign white imder 16 years of age and the native 
white of foreign parentage in the same age period 
formed of the aggregate produced upon adding to their 
number the foreign white above 16 years and the single 
native white of foreign parentage in the same age 
period. For the United States as a whole, the propor- 
tions obtained by these two computations were 35.5 
and 35.9 })er cent, respectively, as compared with 35.6 
in the preceding summary. It thus appears that the 



influence of the large influx of adult immigrants upon 
the proportion.s shown in tiie .summary has been practi- 
cally offset by a higher birth rate among these inuni- 
grants, and that the proportion shown for 1900 in the 
preceding sununary has not been materially affected 
by immigration. 

While the increase or tlecrease in the birth rate be- 
tween the First ajid Twelfth censuses is the principal 
factor in determinmg the proportions above and below 
the age of 16 3'ears, increased longevity is another pos- 
sible factor which might exert some influence upon the 
proportions. The average age of the population has 
unquestionably increased materially since 1790, be- 
cause of improved sanitary conditions, the advance in 
medical and surgical skill, aiul doubtless also the 
greater intelligence of the commimity with respect to 
the preservation of health; it is not probable, however, 
that the last-named factor would materially affect the 
percentage here shown. The advance in medical skill 
and sanitary appliances since 1790 has tended to pre- 
serve infant life perhaps even more than adult life, and 
the increase in the average age is due rather to the 
preservation of life among young people who are crip- 
pled, deformed, or weak, than to the actual lengthen- 
ing of life to old age. 

The argument has frequenth' been advanced that 
the important point to be considered is the number of 
survivors in the young population, since the nimiber 
of survivors from a high birth rate attended by a high 
death rale may perhaps be no greater than the nujnber 
from low birth and death rates. The statistics under 
consideration relate to living children imder 16 jcars 
of age ; and, whatever the mortality may have been, the 
fact remains that at the period of the First Census the 
survivors were so numerous as to increase the popu- 
lation with almost unexampled rapidity. 



VIII. ANALYSIS OF THE FAMILY. 



AVERAGE SIZE OF PRIVATE FAMILIES— SLAVE- 
HOLDING AND NONSLAVEHOLDING FAMILIES- 
PROPORTION OF CHILDREN— DWELLINGS. 



NUMBER OF FAMILIES. 

In the preceding chapters analysis has been con- 
fined principally to tabulations of data secured from 
the report of the First Census and thus available for 
all the states. In this and in several of the succeed- 
ing chapters the statistics presented are derived prin- 
cipally from the schedules. This fact obviously pre- 
cludes detailed consideration of returns for the states of 
New Jersey, Delaware, and Georgia, and for the dis- 
tricts of Kentucky and Tennessee. While the schedules 
for Virginia also are missing, their place is supplied in 



a measure by lists of inhabitants at state enumerations 
made near the close of the Revolution. For the other 
states and territories mentioned, facts in some in- 
stances, can be approximated with reasonable accuracy 
from the returns for adjoining states. 

Size of families. — In tabulating families as reported 
at the First Census only private families were con- 
sidered — in other words, all households which were 
obviously institutions, or of a public or semipublic 
character, were excluded. The following table affords 
a comparison of the average size of private families in 
1790 and 1900: 



Table 26. —AVERAGE SIZE OF PRIVATE FAMILIES, BY STATES AND TERRITORIES: 1790 AND 1900. 



STATE OE TEEKITOBY. 


TOTAL FREE POPtJLATION 
IN FAMIUES. 


NUMBER OF FAMIUES. 


AVERAGE NUMBEE 
OF PERSONS IN 
EACH FAMILY. 




1790 


1900 


1790 


1900 


1790 


1900 


Continental United States 


3.199,784 


73,410,992 


557,889 


15.963.965 


5.7 


4.6 






Area enumerated in 1790 ... 


3, 199, 784 


32,435,715 


557,889 


7,036,638 


5.7 


4 6 






New England 


998,879 


5,351,133 


174,017 


1,236,929 


5.7 


4 3 






Maine 


96.089 
141,500 

85,239 
375, 779 

06. 533 
233,739 

902,032 


670,007 
394,378 
332,800 
2,672,527 
409, 713 
871,648 

15,009,190 


17.009 
24.005 
14,992 
65.779 
11.296 
40,876 

166, 762 


161,588 
96,534 
80, 559 

604,873 
92,735 

200,640 

3,359,344 


5.6 
5.9 
5.7 
5.7 
5.9 
6.7 

5.8 


4 1 






Vermont 


4 1 


Massachusetts 




Rhode Island 


4 4 


Connecticut 


4.3 
4.5 


Middle states 




New York 




6,922,931 

1,819,831 

6,086,595 

179,833 

12,075,392 


64,878 

129,779 

73.874 

18.231 

217, 110 


1,608.170 

408,993 

1,303,174 

39,007 

2,440,365 


5.7 
5.8 
5.7 
6.1 

5.7 


4.3 

4 4 


New Jersey 


172,716 
423.698 
50,209 

1,238,873 


i'ennsvlvania 


4.7 
4.6 

4.9 


Delaware 


Southern states 




Maryland and District of Columbia 


202.966 
454,983 
292, 554 
141,565 
53,284 
61,247 
32,274 


1.414,205 
2,747,856 
1,871,311 
1,322,918 
624,244 
2,112.462 
1,982,406 

40,975,277 


=30,228 

175,830 

2 52,613 

25,872 

19.867 

110.937 

15,763 


295,302 
544,529 
367, 565 
267,859 
131.805 
434.228 
399,017 

8,927,327 


5.6 
6.0 
5.6 
5.5 
5.4 
6.6 
6.6 


4.8 
5.0 
5.1 
4.9 
4.7 
4.9 
5.0 

4.6 


Virginia and West Virginia 


North Carohna 


South Carolina 


Georgia" 


Kentuclty 


Tennessee 


Added area 













1 Estimated. 



= Estimated lor 3 counties. 



> Part enumerated in 1790. 



In the foregoing table the average number of persons 
per private family for 1790 is necessarily computed 
for the free population only, while the average for 1900 
is computed for the total population. Had the com- 
putation at the Twelfth Census been made for white 
and colored separately, greater accuracy could have 
(96) 



been secured by using the return for the white element 
alone for comparison with the returns for 1790; but 
such classification was not made. A study was made, 
however, during the preparation of the Twelfth Census 
reports, to determine whether such a classification was 
advisable by reason of apparent difference in size of 



ANALYSIS OF THE FAMILY. 



97 



family in the two elements; and it was fount! that, in 
spite of popular impression to the contrary, the differ- 
ence was so small as to be negligible. 

The average size of family in 1790 was 5.7 persons 
for the entire area covered; for the several states it 
ranged from 5.4 in Georgia to 6.1 in Delaware. In 

DiAcnAM 8 — CHANGE IN .WER.VC.E 
20 



1900 the average size of family, both for continental 
Unileil States as a whole and for the area covered in 
1790, had decreased by more than 1 person ('>.7 to 
4.6); U)V the states covered in 17'.KJ it ranged from 4.1 
in Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont to 5.1 in 
North Carolina. 
SIZE OF r.VMILIES; 1700 TO inoo. 



CO 

ui 



< 



-I 
< 

o 

y- 

u. 
O 

I- 
z 
liJ 
o 

a: 
li) 
a. 




I I AND oven 



NUMBER OF PERSONS IN FAMILY 



This table furnishes another instance in which 
analysis of the returns of 1790, when compared with 
similar analysis for the returns of 1900, shows the 
minimum in 1790 to be larger than the maxinmm in 
1900. At the Twelfth Census 73,410,992 persons in 
continental United States, out of an entire population 
of approximately 76,000,000, were returned as living 
in 15,963,965 private families. If this number of 
persons (both white and colored) had reported 
families of the size shown in 1790, the total number of 
families in 1900 would have been 12,879,121; in other 
words, in 1900, had the size of family rcmaine<l the 
same as in 1790, he number of persons who composed 
the 15,963,965 families would have been grouped in 



3,084,844 fewer families than were actually reported. 
On the other hand, if the average size of the 15,963,965 
families reported in 1900 had been as great as the 
average shown in 1790, the population in 1900 would 
have been increased by nearly 20,000,000. This com- 
parison suggests tiie increase which has been in progress 
in number of households, without correspomling in- 
crease in the number of members. The greater part 
of this change is doubtless the result of the decreased 
proportion of children. 

The following tables show a distribution, according 
to size, of the number of private families in 1790 and 
of the total number of families in 1900: 



98 A CENTURY OF POPULATION GROWTH. 

Table 27.-PR1VATE FAMILIES. CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO SIZE, BY STATES AND TERRITORIES:' 1790. 



STATE OR TERRITORY. 



Area covered by 1790 schedules In 
existence 



New England.. 



Maine 

New Hampshire., 

Vermont 

Massachusetts 

Rhode Island 

Connecticut 



Middle states. 



New York 

Pennsylvania. 



Southern states.. 



Maryland^ 

North Carolina'. 
South Carolina. . 



Total 
number 

of 
families. 



410,636 



174,017 



17,009 
24,065 
14,992 
65, 779 
11,296 
40,876 

128,752 



54,878 
73,874 

107,867 



33,294 
48,701 
25,872 



NUUBEB or FAMIUES CONTAINING 



1 

person. 



15,353 



5,134 



1,109 
814 
505 

1,393 
231 

1,082 

3,669 



1,123 
2,546 



1,687 
3,519 
1,344 



2 
persons. 



31,979 
13,564 



1,115 
1,502 
1,060 
5,754 
865 
3,268 

9,716 



3,909 
5,807 



2,696 
3,754 
2,249 



3 
persons. 



48,116 
20,428 



1,978 
2,669 
1,734 
7,990 
1,387 
4,670 

15,152 



6,560 
8,592 

12,536 



3,890 
5,483 
3, 163 



4 
persons. 



56,615 



2,201 
3,282 
2,146 
8,999 
1,523 
5,706 

17,916 



7,945 
9,971 



14,842 



4,619 
6,482 
3,741 



5 
persons. 



57,171 
24,240 



2,223 
3,392 
2,139 
9,224 
1,472 
5,790 

18,388 



8,197 
10, 191 

14, 543 



4,588 
6,491 
3,464 



6 
persons. 



54,052 
23,247 



2,176 
3,109 
2,040 
8,709 
1,551 
5,663 

17,211 



7,466 
9,745 

13, 594 



4,204 
6,083 
3,307 



7 
persons. 



14,695 



6,330 
8,365 



11,533 



3,640 
5,102 
2,731 



persons. 



36,932 
15,979 



1,886 


1,531 


2,855 


2,301 


1,781 


1,400 


7,490 


5,971 


1,221 


1,028 


4,711 


3,748 



11,654 



4,918 
6,736 

9,299 



2,827 
4,326 
2,146 



9 
persons. 



26,687 
11,600 



1,129 
1,732 

895 
4,380 

810 
2,654 

8,412 



3,555 
4,857 



1,952 
3,134 
1,589 



10 
persons. 



17,356 
7,542 



784 
1,131 

638 
2,791 

510 
1,688 

5,440 



2,233 
3,207 



4,374 



1,326 
2,038 
1,010 



persons 
and over. 



iData not available for New Jersey, Delaware, Virginia, Georgia, Kentucky, or Southwest Territory. 
• Data not available for Allegany, Calvert, or Soraersett county. 
sData not available for Caswell, Granville, or Orange county. 



20,203 
8,482 



878 
1.278 

654 
3,078 

698 
1,896 

6,499 



2,642 
3,857 



1,865 
2,229 
1,128 



Table 28.-PRIVATE FAMILIES IN 1790, AND ALL FAMILIES IN 1900, CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO SIZE, BY STATES 

AND TERRITORIES.' 



STATE OR TERRITORY, AND CENSUS YEAR. 



Continental United States: 

1790 

1900 



Area covered by 1790 schedules in existence: 

1790 

1900 



New England- 

1790 

1900 



Maine— 

1790 

1900 

New Hampshire — 

1790 

1900 

Vermont— 

1790 

1900 

Massachusetts— 

1790 

1900 

Rhode Island— 

1790 

1900 

Connecticut— 

1790 

1900 

Middle states— 

1790 

1900 



New York— 

1790 

1900 

Pennsylvania- 

1790 

1900 

Southern states— 

1790 

1900 



Added area: 
1900 



Maryland and District of Columbia- 

1790 

1900 '..] 

North Carolina- 

1790 

1900 

South Carolina— 

1790 

1900 



PER CENT OF FAMILIES CONTAINING — 



1 

person. 



3.7 
5.1 



3.7 

4.4 



3.0 
4.9 



6.5 
5.3 



3.4 
6.6 



3.4 
5.2 



2.1 
4.5 



2.0 
4.4 



2.6 
4.8 



2.0 
4.6 



3.4 
3.3 



6.1 
4.9 



5.1 
4.1 



7.2 
4.6 



5.2 
6.2 



5.4 



2 
persons. 



7.8 
15.0 



7.8 
15.9 



7.8 
17.6 



6.6 
19.0 



6.2 
20.4 



7.1 
18.5 



8.7 
16.8 



7.7 
17.7 



8.0 
17.3 



7.5 
16.0 



7.1 
17.5 



7.9 
14.1 



8.1 
13.1 



8.1 
13.7 



7.7 
12.1 



8.7 
13.8 



14.6 



3 
persons. 



11.7 
17.6 



11.7 
18.4 



11.7 
19.6 



11.6 
21.0 



11.1 
20.5 



11.6 
21.0 



12.1 
19.0 



12.3 
18.8 



11.4 
19.2 



11.8 
18,8 



12.0 
19.5 



11.6 
18.0 



11.6 
15.6 



11.7 
16.7 



11.3 
14.9 



12.2 
15.2 



4 
persons. 



13.8 
16.9 



13.8 
17.4 



13.7 
17.7 



12.9 
18.2 



13.6 
17.3 



14.3 
18.3 



13.7 
!7.7 



13.5 
17.4 



14.0 
17.7 



13.9 
17.9 



14.5 
18.0 



13.5 
17.7 



13.8 
15.4 



13.9 
16.6 



13.3 
15.1 



14. S 

14.7 



5 
persons. 



13.9 
14.2 



13.9 
14,3 



13.9 
13.9 



13.1 
13.4 



14.1 
12.7 



14.3 
13.9 



14.0 
14.2 



13.0 
13.8 



14.2 
14.0 



14.3 
14.7 



14.9 
14.3 



13.8 
15.1 



13.5 
13.8 



13.8 
14.7 



13.3 
13.7 



13.4 
12.9 



6 
persons. 



13.2 
10.9 



13.2 
10.7 



13.4 
9.9 



12.8 
9.1 



12.9 
8.5 



13.6 
9.5 



13.2 
10.3 



13.7 
10.0 



13.9 
10.3 



13.4 
10.8 



13.6 
10.3 



13.2 
11.5 



12.6 
11.5 



12.6 
11.7 



12.5 
11.7 



12.8 
10.9 



7 8 

persons, persons. 



11.2 

7.7 



11.2 
7.4 



11.5 
6.5 



11.1 
5.7 



11.9 
5.4 



11.9 

5,8 



11,4 
6.8 



10.8 
6.9 



11.5 
6.8 



11.4 
7,3 



11.5 
6.7 



11.3 
8.0 



10.7 
8.9 



10.9 
8.5 



10.6 
9.4 



10,6 

8.7 



9.0 
5.2 



9,0 
4.8 



9.2 
4.1 



9.0 
3.5 



9.6 
3.4 



9.3 
3.5 



9,1 
4.3 



9.1 

4.5 



9.1 
4.5 



9.0 
4.1 



9.1 

5.2 



8,6 
6.6 



8,5 
5.8 



8,3 
6.7 



6.5 
3.2 



6,5 
2.9 



6.7 
2.4 



2.1 



7.2 
2.1 



6,0 
1.9 



6.7 
2.6 



7.2 



6.5 
2,5 



6,6 
2.7 



6.5 

2.3 



6.6 
3.2 



6.2 
4.4 



5.9 
3.6 



6.4 
6.0 



6.1 
4.6 



3.4 



10 
persons. 



4.2 
1.9 



4.2 
1.7 



4.3 

1.4 



4.6 
1.2 



4.7 
1.3 



4.3 
1.0 



4.2 
1.5 



4.5 
1.6 



4.1 
1.3 



4.2 
1.5 



4.1 
1.2 



4.3 
1.8 



4.1 
2.7 



4,0 
2.1 



4.2 
3.1 



3.9 
3.0 



11 
persons 



4,9 

2.2 



4.9 
2.1 



4.9 
2.0 



5.2 
1.6 



6.3 
2.0 



4.4 
1.3 



4.7 
2.2 



6.2 
2.2 



4.6 
1,8 



5.0 
1.8 



4.8 
1.5 



6,2 
2.1 



4.8 
3.1 



6.6 

2.5 



4.6 
3.3 



4.4 
3.4 



1 Data for 1790 not avaUable for New Jersey, Delaware, Virginia, Georgia, Kentucky, or Southwest Territory. 



ANALYSIS OF THE F.\MILY. 



99 



In each class of families having less than 6 members, 
the proportion of the total number of families was less 
in 1790 than in 1900 both for tiie United States as a 
whole and for the area for which the 1790 schedules 
are in existence. For families having 6 members and 
over, the reverse was true. It is significant that in 
1900 the proportion of families having 2, 3, 4, and 5 
members was smaller, while the proportion in each 
class having more than 5 members was larger, in the 
added area than in the area for wiiich the 1790 sched- 
ules are in existence. This tioubtless reflects the in- 
fluence of dense population, and especially of urban 
population, upon the size of family. For the area 
enumerated in 1790 the proportion of families having 
only 2 members was twice as large in 1900 as in 1790, 
while the proportion of those having 9 persons or 
more was only half as large in 1900. These facts em- 
phasize the decided reduction in the size of families 
which occurred during the course of the century. 

In 1900, as compared with 1790, New England 
showed a greater decrease in the size of family than 
the other sections of the original area;' the proportion 
of families having 8 members was less than one-half 
as great in 1900 as in 1790, and the i)roportion having 
10 members less than one-third as great in the later 
year. In the state of Vermont the proportion of fam- 
ilies having 10 members droj)ped to one-fourth. 

In the Southern states the decline in the size of the 
family was less marked. 

Upon arranging the total number of families in four 
general groups according to size, it is found that in 
1790 approximately one-third of all families had less 
than 5 members, while in 1900 this group included 
considerably more than one-half of all families. Con- 
trast between the classification of families by size in 
1790 and in 1900 is equally marked in the remaining 
groups, the larger families showing a much greater 
proportion in 1790 than in the later year. 

' Of economic and social conditions in Now England at the close 
of the eighteenth century, W. B. Weeden writes as follows: "A con- 
trolling feature of our society was in the rapid and easy growth of 
the family out of the conditions prevailing in all the towns. The 
common people created self-sustaining families as readily as the 
banyan tree spreads a grove around the parent trunk. New land 
was easily obtained. A thrifty farmer could buy acres enough on 
which to settle his sons from the savings of a few years. The a.\ 
could create the log house anywhere, and in most places sawmills 
gave a cheap supply of planks and deals. The splitting of shingles 
was an accomplishment almost as common as whittling. The prac- 
tice of making this cheap and excellent roofing material was carried 
into the Middle states by the New England emigrants. The home- 
stead was often given to the younger son, who provided for the par- 
ents in their old age, the elder brothers ha^^ng acquired settlements 
of their own. Thus the teeming social soil waa ready for the family 
roots, which were constantly extending. Unmarried men of thirty 
were rare in country towns. Matrons were grandmothers at forty; 
mother and daughter frequently nursed their children at the same 
time. Father, son, and grandson often worked together in one field; 
and the field was their own." — Economic and Social History of New 
England, 1620-1789, Vol. II, page 860. 



Table 29 — PrivaU/amilies in 1790 and all/amilUt in 1900, eUusified 
according to iize, with per cent dittribution. 



SIZE or rAUWY. 



All families.. 

Less than R persons 

6 to 8 persons 

9 or 10 iM*rsons 

1 1 persons and over 

All families. . 

Less than 5 persons. 

5 to 8 persons 

9 or 10 persons 

11 persons and over. 



Private 
families 
In 1700. 



ALL rAlOLUB IN 1900. 



In continental 
United SuiU«. 



In area for 

whleh 1790 

schedules are 

io existence. 



HI0,636 

IS2.063 
194, .127 
44.043 
20,2U3 



16,187,715 I 

8, 832. .164 

0, 171,«89 

S.)0.lilO 

363, U4U 



5,106,092 

2,865,b77 

1,902,3«« 

235,217 

104,832 



PER CENT DISTRIBtmON. 



100.0 

37.0 

47.3 

10.7 

4.9 



100.0 

64.0 

38.1 

5.1 

2.2 



100.0 

56.1 

37.2 

4.6 

2.1 



> Incomplete owing to loss of schedules. 

The progress of the nation from 1790 to 1900 has 
involved far-reaching social changes, during which the 
inhabitants have gathered from farm and frontier into 
densely settled industrial centers. Tlie effect of this 
change on the size of family and on family environ- 
ment has been very marked; it is probable that no 
statistical change recorded in tlieso jjages as having 
occurred duiing the century is more decided or pos- 
sesses greater economic significance. 

SLAVEHOLDING AND NONSLAVEHOLDINO FAMILIES. 

A subdivision of the white and free colored families 
reported at the First Census into two general cla.sses, 
slaveholding and nonslaveholding, is presented in 
Table 30. 

The average size of white slaveholding families was 
slightly greater than the average for white nonslave- 
holding families. Of the total number of families 
under consitleration, little more than 10 per cent were 
classed as slaveholding. Approximately one-fourth of 
the slaveholding families reported were located in New 
England and the Middle states. Those in New Eng- 
land were reported principally by Rhode Island and 
Connecticut; and of the 2 Middle states represented. 
New York contributed much the larger number of 
slaveholders. 

Table 114. page 276, presents the information sum- 
marized in Table 30, extended to counties and minor 
civil divisions so far as they were returned separately. 



A CENTURY OF POPULATION GROWTH. 



100 

Table 30 -NUMBER OF PRIVATE FAMILIES, CLASSIFIED AS SLAVEHOLDINCx AND NONSLAVEHOLDING WTIITE 
aTd FREE COLORED, WITH PER CENT FAMILIES OF EACH CLASS FORM OF ALL PRIVATE FAMILIES, BY 
STATES AND TERRITORIES:' 1790. 





PRIVATE FAMILIES. 


PER CENT FAMILIES OF EACH 
CLASS FORM OF ALL PRI- 
VATE FAMILIES. 




Total 
num- 
ber. 


Slaveholding. 


Nonslaveholding. 


Slaveholding. 


Nonslave- 
holding. 


STATE OR TERRITORY. 


White. 


Free colored. 


White. 


Free colored. 


White. 


Free 
col- 
ored. 


White. 






Num- 
ber of 
fami- 
lies. 


Number of 
members. 


Num- 
ber of 
fami- 
lies. 


Number of 
members. 


Num- 
ber of 
fami- 
lies. 


Number of 
members. 


Num- 
ber of 
fami- 
lies. 


Number of 
members. 


Free 




Total. 


Aver- 
age 
per 
fam- 
Uy. 


Total. 


Aver- 
age 
per 

fam- 

iiy. 


Total. 


Aver- 
age 
per 
fam- 
ily- 


Total. 


Aver- 
age 
per 

mm- 
ily. 


ored. 


Area covered by 1790 
schedules In exist- 
ence 


410,636 


47, 664 


280,345 


5.9 


195 


652 


3.3 


357,811 


2,032,768 


6.7 


4,966 


19,533 


3.9 


11.6 


m 


87.1 


1.2 


New England 


174,017 


2,141 


13,522 


6.3 


6 


23 


3.8 


170,242 


978,684 


5.7 


1,628 


6,650 


4.1 


1.2 


(=) 


97.8 


0.9 




17,009 
24,065 
14,992 
65, 779 
11,296 
40,876 

128,752 














16,972 
23, 859 
14,969 
65, 149 
10,393 
38,900 

117,869 


95,953 
140,428 

85,154 
373, 187 

61,590 
222,372 

674,120 


6.7 
5.9 
5.7 
5.7 
6.9 
5.7 

5.7 


37 
83 
23 
630 
4-12 
413 

1,229 


136 

312 

86 

2,592 

1,950 

1,576 

4,487 


3.7 
3.8 
3.7 
4.1 

4.4 
3.8 

3.7 






99.8 
99.1 
99.8 
99.0 
92.0 
95.2 

91.6 


0.2 


New Hampshire 


123 


760 


6.2 








0.5 




0.3 








0.2 




















1.0 


Rhode Island 


461 
1,557 

9,638 


2,993 
9,769 

60,437 


6.5 
6.3 

6.3 








4.1 
3.8 

7.5 




3.9 


Connecticut 


6 
16 


23 
63 


3.8 
3.9 


1.0 


Middle states 


1.0 


New York . . 


54,878 
73,874 

107,867 


7,787 
1,851 

35,885 


47, 495 
12,942 

206,386 


6.1 
7.0 

5.8 


9 

7 

173 


40 
23 

566 


4.4 
3.3 

3.3 


46,398 
71,471 

69,700 


265,430 
408,690 

379,964 


5.7 
5.7 

6.6 


684 
545 

2,109 


2,444 
2,043 

8,396 


3.6 
3.7 

4.0 


14.2 
2.6 

33.3 


h 

0.2 


84.5 
96.7 

64.6 


1.2 




0.7 


Southern states 


2.0 








33,294 
48,701 
25,872 


12,142 
14,945 
8,798 


71,168 
87, 121 
48,097 


5.9 
6.8 
55 


84 
28 
61 


211 
119 
236 


2.6 
4.3 
3.9 


19,870 
33,076 
16,754 


109,677 
178,077 
92,310 


6.6 
5.4 
5.5 


1,198 
652 
259 


4,572 

2,902 

922 


3.8 
4.5 
3.6 


36.5 
30.7 
34.0 


0.3 
0.1 
0.2 


59.7 
67.9 
64.8 


3.6 




1.3 




1.0 







' Data not available for New Jersey, Delaware, Virginia, Georgia, Kentucky, or Southwest Territory. 

2 Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent. 

3 Data not available for Allegany, Calvert, or Somersett county. 

i Data not available for Caswell, Granville, or Orange county, except the total number of families. 



NUMBER OF CHILDREN PER WHITE FAMILY. 

In the preceding chapter the number of white 
females under 16 years of age was determined with 
reasonable accuracy. Hence it is possible to consider 
the total number of children (under 16 years) per 
white family in 1790 in the area for which schedules 
are still in existence, as compared with the number 
shown by the census returns in 1900. 

The number of private white families included in the 
schedules of the First Census which are still in exist- 
ence is slightly more than 400,000. In the course of a 
century the number of private white families in the 
same area increased more than tenfold, but the number 
of white children under 16 j-ears of age in the same 
area increased during the same period little more than 
sixfold. From the returns for the first and last cen- 
suses of record, it is possible to show that in the area 
included the average number of children under 1 6 years 
of age per family was nearly twice as great in 1790 as 
in 1900. Moreover, it will be observed from the table 
that the number varied but little (from 2.6 to 2.9) in 
1790, while in 1900, although the averages returned 
were in general reduced about one-half, the range was 
much wider. Both at the beginning and at the close 
of the century the lowest average was shown for New 
England. In 1900 the highest average was shown for 
the Southern states. 



Table 31. — Average number of white children under 16 years per 
private white family, by states: 1790 and 1900.' 



STATE OR TERRITORY. 


PRIVATE WHITE 
FAMIUE3. 


WHITE CHILDREN 

UNDER 16 YEARS 

OF AGE. 


AVERAGE 
NUMBER OF 
WHITE CHIL- 
DREN 
UNDER 16 
YEARS OF 
AGE PER 
FAMILY. 




1790 


1900 


1790 


1900 


1790 


1900 


Area for which 
schedules are in 
existence . 


412.850 


4,661.504 


1,149,001 


7,095,506 


2.8 


1 5 






Mpw F.nglanH 


172,383 


1,221,856 


466, 290 


1,610,496 


2.7 


1 3 






Maine 


16.972 
23,982 
14,969 
65.149 
10.854 
40,457 

127,507 


161,041 
96,354 
80,388 

596,611 
90,468 

197,004 

2,855,574 


48,753 
68,664 
43,632 

169,869 
29.987 

105,485 

365.764 


200,792 
112,987 
100,857 
786,349 
144, 163 
265,347 

4,330.159 


2.9 
2.9 
2.9 
2.6 
2.8 
2.6 

2.9 


1 2 


New Hampshire 


1.2 


Massachusetts 

Rhode Island 


1.3 


Connecticut 


1 3 


Middle states 


1 5 








54,185 
73,322 

112,960 


1,584,311 
1,271.263 

584,074 


155,090 
210,674 

316.947 


2,212.213 
2,117,946 

1,154,852 


2.9 
2.9 

2.8 




Pennsylvania 


1.7 






Maryland and Dis- 
trict of Columbia". . 

North Carolina3 

South Carolina 


36.052 
52,356 
25,652 


232, 270 
244. 524 
107,280 


93.843 
149,942 
73, 162 


381.253 
640, 643 
233,056 


2.7 
2.9 
2.9 


1.6 
2.2 
2.2 



• Data not available for New Jersey, Delaware, Virginia, Georgia, Kentucky, or 
Southwest Territory. 

- Includes an estimate for Alle.gany, Calvert, and Somersett counties. 
» Includes an estimate for Caswell, Granville, and Orange counties. 



ANALYSIS OF THE FAMILY 



101 



In the foregoing table the number of white children 
per private family has been considered only for the 
states for which schedules are in existence. For the 
entire United States in 1900 the average was 1.7, and 
for the area added after the First Census the average 
was 1.8. The highest proportions (2.3) were shown 
for Texas and Mississippi. 

Had the ratio of children to private white families 
been the same in 1790 as it was in 1900, the number of 
children in 1790 would have been less than half the 
number actually reported at the First Census. It 
would be idle to speculate upon the effect which so low 
a proportion in 1790 and at subsequent early censuses 
would have wrought upon the nation; but without 
question had the proportion which now actually exists 
appeared at the beginning of the century, the Iiistory 
of the Republic would have been materially altered. 

On the other hand, the application of the generous 
proportion of children sho\\Ti for 1790 to the number 
of private white families reporteil in 1900 (which aver- 
aged less than 2 children each) results in a theoretical 
increase in the number of young cliildrcn so great as 
to be astonishing. In short, had the households into 
which the white inhabitants of the United States were 
divided in 1900 been as prolific as were the households 
of the white citizens of the Republic at the beginning 
of Constitutional Government, the population of the 
United States in 1900 would have been greater by 
15,500,000 children, regardless of the cumulative effect 
of the maintenance of the higher ratio at previous 
censuses. 

FAMILIES AND DWELLINGS. 

The printed schedules used by the enumerators for 
Massachusetts at the First Census included an inquiry 
regarding the number of dwellings within their respec- 
tive districts, probably instituted as a result of a similar 
inquiry at the Colonial census of Massachusetts in 
1764-65. The returns secured afford a basis for an in- 
teresting study concerning the average number of fami- 
lies and of persons to a dwelling in urban and in rural 
communities. 

By Census definition in 1900, a dwelling is a place in 
which, at the time of the census, one or more persons 
regularly sleep; hence uninhabited houses were not 
counted as dwellings at the Twelfth Census. The same 
was true of the First Census, since no vacant houses 
were returned on the schedules. 

Inasmuch as tenement and apartment houses were 
returned as dwellings in 1900, it would be natural 
(especially in a commonwealth conspicuous for its in- 
dustrial interests and dense population) to expect that 
in 1900 the number of families per dwelling would be 
larger than in 1790, when there were few tenement 
houses and no apartment houses. The figures, how- 
ever, clearly show that the average has not materially 
increased. 

76292—09 8 



The following table shows the number of dwellings 
and private families, the total population, and the av- 
erage number of families ami of persons per dwelling, 
for each coimty of Massachusetts enumerated in 1790, 
and for the same areas in 1900: 

Table 32. — Dwellings and private families in the counties of Matta- 
chuselta reported in 1190, and in the same areas ' in 1900. 



The state 

Barnstable 

Berkshire 

Bristol 

Dukes iuid Nantucket 

Essex 

Hampshire 

Mitidlesox 

Plymouth 

Suflolk 

Worcester 

The state 

Barnstable 

Berkshire 

Bristol 

Dukes and Nantucket 

Essex 

Hampshire 

Middlesex 

Plymouth 

.SuUolk 

Worcester 



Dwell- 
ings. 



PRIVATE rAMiuca. 



poptjijinoM. 



Total. 



Average 

per 
dwelling. 



Total. 



dwell, IK 



1790 



M,377 


68,779 


1.2 


378.556 


2.343 


2,889 


1.2 


17,342 


4,476 


4,899 


1.1 


30.263 


4,514 


5,541 


1.2 


31,696 


1,013 


1.430 


1.4 


7.810 


-,M4 


10,883 


1.4 


57,879 


9,181 


9.617 


1.0 


59,656 


5,»9S 


7,580 


1.3 


42.769 


4,240 


5.173 


1.2 


29,512 


e,3S6 


8,038 


1.3 


44.865 


8,613 


9,729 


1.1 


56.764 



7.0 
7.7 
7.6 
6.5 
7.1 
7.0 
7.1 
6.6 



1900 



451,362 



7,678 
18,257 
34,451 

2.209 
61,004 
46,393 
108,206 
22,358 
97,4.19 
53,367 



' 604.873 


1.3 


2.805.346 


7.911 


1.0 


i 27,828 


20.530 


1.1 


95.774 


53.856 


1.6 


251.229 


2.332 


1.1 


! 7,567 


79,664 


1.3 


356.669 


58.640 


1.3 


1 275,028 


133,991 


1.2 


628,097 


28,330 


1.2 


108,114 


147, 443 


1.5 


708,324 


74,176 


1.4 


1 346,818 



3.6 
5.2 
7.3 
3.4 
5.8 
5.9 
5.8 
4.8 
7.3 
6.5 



■Except that no adjustment has been made for changes since 1790 In the bound- 
ary line between Massachusetts and Uhode Island. 

The average number of persons per dwelling in the 
state decreased from 7 in 1790 to 6.2 in 1900. In only 
2 counties, Bristol and Suffolk, did the average in- 
crease; this increase was undoubtedly due to the in- 
fluence of tenement and apartment house population, 
though it should be borne in mind that in these coun- 
ties in 1900 were large numbers of foreign bom, whose 
families were much larger than the average native 
family. The reduction in the average number of per- 
sons to a dwelling in the remaining counties is un- 
doubtedly the result of the decreased size of family. It 
will be remembered that in this state, as in the other 
New England states, low average size of family was 
shown, and the influence of the great change recorded 
appears to have been such ixs to overcome the opposite 
tendency of occupancy of a dwelling or building by a 
considerable number of families. 

The counties having the largest average number of 
persons to a dwelling in 1 790 (Dukes and Nantucket and 
Essex) had very small averages in 1900. The explana- 
tion of the large averages for 1790 lies partly in the 
fact that these same counties showed the largest 
average numbers of families per dwelling. The very 
small averages shown for 1900 for these counties, and 



LIHKAKY 



TJN^ 



TFOBNIA 

KA 



102 



A CENTURY OF POPULATIOX GROWTH. 



also for Barnstable count3-, undoubtedly reflect the 
fact that the population of these counties is excep- 
tional in several particulars. It is principally native 
white of native parents— in which element the average 
size of family is very small— and, as shown by the state 
census of 1905, is still decreasing. 

Inspection of the average number of persons per 
dwelling in the Massachusetts counties in 1790, as com- 
pared with similar figures for 1900, shows that the 
range of variation was more than three times as great 
at the Twelfth Census as it was at the First. The 
relative imiformity shown in 1790, and the fact that 
nearly all the population of the country was engaged in 
agriculture, go far to justify the presumption that, at 
the time of the First Census, the conditions of popula- 
tion in one state closely resembled those in the other 
states of the limited area covered by the census. On 
this basis the approximate number of dwellings in the 
United States may reasonably be computed by em- 
ploying as a ratio the number of families per dwelling 
in Massachusetts. 

The number of dwellings occupied in 1900 by fam- 
ilies, other than private, can not be deducted from the 
total number; but it is doubtful whether such a de- 
duction, if it could be made, would affect appreciably 
the average number of private families per dwelling. 
It was found by computation that the ratio of all fam- 
ilies to all dwellings in Massachusetts differed from the 
ratio of private families to all dwellings by only one 
one-hundredth of a family per dwelling. 

Since in Massachusetts the proportion of colored 
families was so small that their effect on the ratio of all 
families to all dwellings may be disregarded, it was 
deemed more accurate to apply the ratio for this state 
to the white population of the other states (in many 
of which the colored population was relatively very 
numerous), rather than to their total population, and 
thus to obtain the number of dwellings of white persons 
only. 

The increase during the century in the number of 
dwellings in the area enumerated in 1790 was nearly 
twelvefold. This table further illustrates the tend- 
ency toward large families in 1790, offsetting, in the 
averages, the small families and large buildings (such 
as the apartment and tenement houses) in 1900. As 
previously suggested, the effect of the former over- 



comes the latter, with the rather unexpected result 
that the average of 7 white persons per dwelling in 
1790 declined to 5.7 in 1900, and in 4 out of the 17 
states presented the average was less than 5. Had 
the average number of white persons to a dwelling 
which appeared in 1900 prevailed in 1790, there would 
have been approximately 100,000 more dwellings of 
white persons in the Republic. On the other hand, 
had the average which prevailed in 1790 prevailed 
also in 1900, the number of dwellings would be re- 
duced approximately 1,000,000 — the equivalent of 
all the dwellings in New York, the most populous 
state in the Union. These comparisons, however, 
possess value only as measuring vividly the change 
which has occurred in the proportions. 

Table 33. — Estimated average number of white persons per dwelling, 
for each state and territory enumerated in 1790, and for the same 
areas ' in 1900. 





i:90 


1900 


STATE or. TEEKITORY. 


White 
lation. 


Number 
of dwell- 
ings of 
white 
per- 
sons." 


Aver- 
age 
num- 
ber of 
per- 
sons 
to a 
dweU- 
ing. 


White 
popu- 
lation. 


Number 
of dwell- 
ings of 
white 
persons." 


.Vver 
age 
num- 
ber of 
per- 
sons 
to a 
dwell- 
ing. 


Area enumerated 
in 1790 


3.172.444 


454,309 


7.0 


29,564.821 


5,209,847 


5.7 








992,384 


140,742 


7.1 


5,527,026 


978,140 


6.7 








96,107 
141.112 

85. 072 
373.187 

64.670 
232,230 

954.003 


14,218 
19.986 
12.467 
53.312 
9.045 
31,714 

136.477 


6.8 
7.1 
6.8 
7.0 
7.1 
7.3 

7.0 


692.226 
410.791 
342.771 
2.769.764 
419.060 
892,424 

15,264,839 


148,028 
86, 407 
74,831 

445, 637 
66,312 

156,865 

2,564,696 


4.7 


New Hampshire 


4.8 
4.6 


Massachusetts 

Rhode Island 


6.2 
6.3 
5 7 


Middle states 


6 






New York 


314.366 

169.954 

423,373 

46,310 

1,226.057 


45.158 

24.279 

61.103 

5,937 

177,090 


7.0 
7.0 
6.9 
7.8 

6.9 


7.156.881 

1.812,317 

6,141.664 

153,977 

8,772,956 


1.019.228 

308,872 

1,204.764 

31,832 

1,667,011 


7.0 


New Jersey 


5 9 


Pennsylvania 


5.1 

4 g 




5 3 






Maryland and Dis- 
trict of Columbia.. 

Virginia and West 
Virginia 


208,649 

442,117 
289,181 
140.178 
62.886 
61.133 
31.913 


26, 677 

61,405 
40,018 
21,293 
12. 507 
10.233 
4,957 


7.8 

7.2 
7.2 
6.6 
4.2 
6.0 
6.4 


1,143,956 

2.108.088 
1,263,603 
557.807 
297.007 
1.862.309 
1,640,186 


2U,429 

395. 696 
240.630 
107,915 
58,580 
359,052 
293,909 


5.4 

5 3 


North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Georgia * 


6.3 
5.2 
6 1 


Kentucky . 


5 2 


Tennp.'i'^pe 


5 2 







^ Except that no adjustment has been made for changes since 1790 in the bound- 
ary line between Massachusetts and Rhode Island. 

- Estimatfd on the basis of the ratio of white and free colored families to all 
dwelHiiKs in Massachusetts. 

3 Estimated. 

* Part enumerated in 1790. 



IX. PROPORTION OF CHILDREN IN WHITE POPULATION. 

R.ATIO OF WHITE .ADULTS OF SELF-SUPPORTING .AGE TO WHITE 
CHILDREN— OF WHITE CHILDREN TO .ADLLT WHITE FEXLALES— 
EFFECT OF CH.\NGES IN THE PROPORTION OF CHILDREN. 



It is probable that no change in the composition of 
the white popuhition of the United States possesses 
greater interest, or is more important to the future 
welfare of the nation, than the proportion of the total 
constituted by children. It is clear that upon the 
changes in this respect, occurring from census to cen- 
sus, in the Republic and in inilividual states and com- 
munities, depends practically all economic readjust- 
ment. "Wliat proportion of the white population was 
formed by children under 16 years of age at the First 
Census, and at the Twelfth * And, if a marked change 
has occurred during the period under consideration, 
what are some of the possible causes? 

In the following table comparison is made of the 
proportion of children per 1,000 of the total white 
population at intervals from 1790 to 1900. It is 
necessary to accept the age period under 16 years as 
a limitation of "children," because of the use of that 
age period at the earlier censuses. 

Table 34. — Number of children per 1,000 of the ivhite population, 
by states and territories: 1790, 1S20, 1S50, ISSO, and 1900. 



STATE OR TERRITOEY. 



NTJMBER OF WHITE PERSONS UXDEi 16 
TEARS OF AGE PER 1,000 OF ALL AGES. 





1790 


1S20 


18S0 


1880 


1900 


United States 


490 


489 


431 


390 


356 






Area enumerated In 1790 


490 


483 


414 


373 


344 


Xew England 


470 


443 


358 


309 


291 


Maine 

New Hampshire 


507 
486 
513 
455 
464 
454 

4»4 


485 
447 
463 
420 
429 
422 

485 


404 
342 
378 
338 
349 
340 

405 


318 
281 
324 
305 
315 
315 

358 


290 
275 
2»t 


Massachusetts 

Rhode Island 


290 
305 


Connecticut 


297 


Middle states 


326 






New York 


493 
487 
498 
494 

502 


484 
472 
489 
479 

508 


385 
410 
429 
431 

461 


336 
361 
385 
367 

431 


309 




327 


Ppnnsylvanlft 


345 




327 




402 






Maryland and District of 
Columbia 


450 
497 
519 
522 
531 
Wo 
«550 


457 
487 
507 
503 
519 
533 
551 

526 


414 
451 
455 
456 
493 
474 
488 

463 


377 
434 
429 
433 
442 
439 
449 

40« 


333 


Virginia and West Virginia 

North Carolina. . 


400 
428 


South Carolina 


418 


Georgiai 


421 




4M 


Tep^ipps*,*! a 


411 


Added area 


368 









■Entire state. 

•Southwest Territory In 1790. 

• Basic figures obtained from ratios existing in Tennessee in 180O. 

The change which occurred in the original area dur- 
ing the first thirty-year period — from 1790 to 1S20 — 



was so slight as to possess little significance. During 
this period there was, indeed, a slight increase in the 
proportion shown in the Southern states. The decline 
in the succeeding periods was— 1820 to 1850, 69; 1850 
to 1880, 41; 1880 to 1900 (twenty years), 29; hence, 
the decline in the proportion of white children un- 
der 16 in each 1,000 white persons of all ages was 7 
during the first thirty j-ears of Feileral census taking 
and 139 in the succectling eighty years. 

It will be observed that the Southern states, although 
little affected since the First Census by additions to 
puiHilalion through immigration, have, by maintaining 
a liigher birth rate than the Xew England and Middle 
states, increased their numbers from distinctively na- 
tive population at a rate appro.\iinating, or possibly 
exceeding, the rate attained by other portions of the 
country with the assistance of immigrants and their 
descendants. 

RATIO OF WHITE ADIH^TS OF SELF-SUPPORTING AGE TO 
WHITE CHILDREN. 

The changes between the First and Twelfth censuses 
in the average number of white adults available for the 
sui)port of each white child arc shown in the following 
table. Since children do not, as a rule, pass suddenly 
into the adult class with respect to abilitv to support 
young pei-sons, for the purposes of this study twenty 
years is set as the minimum age at which persons are 
capable of supporting children. 

Table 3.5. — Ratio of white adults of self-supporting age to white 
children: 1790 to 1900. 



CENSUS YEAR. 


White per- 
sons 20 years 
and over. 


White chU- 

dren under 16 

years. 


Ratio of 
persons 20 
years and 
over lo all 
children 
under 16 
yem. 


1790 


1,214,388 

1,832.375 

2,485.176 

3,395,467 

4,626,2y0 

6.440,054 

9.421.637 

13.310,660 

17.070.373 

22,928.219 

SO. 263, 755 

37,748,491 


1,553.280 
2,156,357 
2.933.211 
3.843.680 
4.970.210 
6,510.878 
8.428.458 
11.329.812 
13,719.431 
16,919.«a9 
20,154.222 
23,846.473 


078 


1800 


ass 


1810 


ass 


1820 


ass 




093 


Ig40 


a9» 




1.12 


I860 


1.17 


1870 


1..'4 


1880 


1 36 


1890 


1.50 


1900 


t58 







For the censuses from 1790 to 1850, inclusive, .some 
minor atljustments of age periods for this table proved 

(103) 



104 



A CENTURY OF POPULATION GROWTH. 



to be necessary in order to secure comparable figures; 
in some instances these adjustments were for the period 
under 16 years of age, and in others for the period 20 
years of age and over. They were not sufiicient, how- 
ever, to affect to any apjireciable degree the percent- 
ages which appear in the table, even though it be con- 
ceded that some errors may exist in the computations 
required to be made from the nearest age group. 

Diagram 9.— Ratio of white adults of self-supporting age to vMte 
i-hildrcn under Id years. 



1.9 
1.8 
1.7 

i.e 

1.5 
1.4 
13 
1.2 
I.I 
IX) 






















































































































/ 






















/ 






















/ 


/ 




















/ 


/ 


















J 


^ 


y 




















/ 




















,— - 


^ 


f 














8 

7 
6 
6 

/[ 


,/ 


■ 


^ 


<^ 


















































































































T 


























2 
















































n 


























17 


90 18C 


)0 18 


18 


20 18 


30 184 


IS 


SO 18 


60 18 


70 18 


BO ISS 


)0 19 


DO 



The proportion for 1900 is practically double that 
for 1790. The iminterrupted increase shown in the 
proportion of white adults of self-supporting age to 
white children proves exceedingly suggestive. At the 
First Census 7S0 atlults contributed to the maintenance 
and rearing of 1,000 children in the United States; but 
in 1900 the relationship of adults to children had 



changed so greatly that the ratio became 1,580 adults 
to each 1,000 children.' 

The ratios of adults to children at the most recent 
censuses of the principal nations of Europe were as 
follows : 



COOTJTET. 


Census 
year. 


Ratio of 
adults of 
self-sup- 
porting 
age (20 
years and 
over) to 
cliildren 
under Ui 
years. 




1901 
1901 
1901 
1901 
1901 
1900 
1900 

1900 


2.4 




1.8 




1.7 




1.6 


Italj' . 


1.6 




1.5 




1.5 


United States 


1.6 







In 1790 the ratios of white adults of self-supporting 
age to white children were practically uniform through- 
out the area enumerated. This fact suggests that in 
1790 similar conditions prevailed generally throughout 
the country in connection with domestic and family 
affairs. In 1900 the ratios varied widely in different 
states, and in some instances — especially in New Eng- 
land and in some of the other older settled states — at- 
tained a high figure. The analysis is presented in full 
in the following table. In order to show the effect of 
locality, the states are grouped under main and minor 
geographic divisions. 

In the different divisions and states of continental 
United States the number of white adults available 
in 1900 for the support of each 1,000 white children 
varied from 1,060 in Indian Territory to 2,400 in 
Nevada. Within the area enumerated in 1790 the 
extremes were 1,130 for North Carolina and (disregard- 
ing the District of Columbia) 2,.390 for New Hampshire. 

Wlien the states of the area enumerated in 1790 
are grouped by geographic divisions it is found that 
in both 1790 and 1900 the Southern states showed 
the smallest proportion of white adults of self- 

' " No great powerofimagination is needed in order to perceive the 
enormous effect of these (European population) changes, * * * 
and if at the present moment yearly 20 young persons out of a popu- 
lation of 1,000 enter life as full grown members of society, it will 
make a great difference if this number is reduced — say to 15. 
Everywhere in offices and shops the number of juveniles will be 
on the decrease, whereas gray-haired officials will be more abundant, 
and if it is true thatall new ideas are bom in young brains, then this 
distribution of age is identical with a serious loss for the popula- 
tion. * * * 

In a stagnant population, according to the life tables for males, 
about 26 per cent would be imder 15 years old, but if all the principal 
causes of death disappear the number would sink to 23 per cent. In 
the former case 74 adults would bring up 26 children; in the latter 
the numbers would be 77 and 23; consequently there would, in the 
caseof thehigher, accordingly be 2.8 adults tol child, in the other, 
3.3." — Westergaard, Proceedings of the International Institute of Sta- 
tistics, 1007, page 113. 



PROPORTION OF CHILDREN IN WHITE POPULATION. 



105 



supporting age to white children, and the New England 
states showed the largest. In 1900, however, the 
two extremes had grown so far apart that the South- 
ern states, although nearly doubling their i)roportion 
during the century, showed a ratio scarcely more than 
one-half of that indicated for New England. The 
difference between the ratios per 1,000 ciiildren for 
the two sections had advanced from 700 and 800 
adults, respectively, in 1790, to 1,280 and 2,190 in 
1900. 

Table 36. — Ratio of white adults of self-iupporling age to white 
children, by slates and territories: 1900. 



STATE OR TERRITORY. 


White popu- 
lation under 
IB years. 


White popu- 
lation 20 
years and 
over. 


Ratio of 
white popu- 
lation 2b 
years and 
over to 
white popu- 
lation 
under 16 
years. 


Continental United States ' 


23,846,473 


37,748,491 


1.58 


Area enumerated in 1790. . . 


10,464,298 


17,663,445 


1.69 




New England 


1,610,495 


3,531,973 


2.19 




Maine 


200,792 
112,987 
100,857 
804,342 
125,970 
265,347 

4,972,312 


441,215 
269,686 
217,746 
1,774,910 
262,269 
566,147 

9,179,888 


2.20 
2.39 
2.16 
2.21 
2.08 
2.13 

1.85 


New Hampshire 


Vermont. . 


Massachusetts... 


Rhode Island 




Middle states 




New York 


2,212,213 

591,730 

2,117,946 

50,423 

3,881,491 


4,438,326 

1,092,418 

3,557,203 

91,941 

4,951,584 


2.01 

1.85 
1.68 
1.82 

1.28 




Pennsylvania 


Delaware 


Southern states 




Maryland and District of Colum- 
bia 


381,2.53 
844,206 
540,543 
233,a5fi 
497,862 
751,566 
633,005 

13,382,175 


674,660 
1,084,553 
613,164 
273,618 
580,671 
953,950 
770,968 

20,085,046 


1.77 
1.28 


Virginia and West Virginia 

North Carolina 


South Carolina 


1 17 






Kentucky 


1.27 
1 22 


Tennessee 




1.50 






9,222,868 


14,510,777 








Ohio 


1,335,964 
847,7.55 

1,61)0,114 
813,188 
780,664 
668,183 
802,660 

1,09.5,731 
128,739 
1.55,250 
408,226 
520,394 

2,898,532 


2,406,258 

1,410,271 

2,715,180 

1,401,7.50 

1,113,736 

93.5,121 

1,236,108 

1,605,117 

1M,.507 

195,142 

,561,678 

769,909 

3,232,544 




Indiana 




Illinois 


1 64 


Michigan 




Wisconsin 


1 43 


Minnesota 


1 40 




1.54 


Missouri 


1 46 


North Dakota 




South Dakota . 


1 26 


Nebraska 


1.38 




1.46 




1.12 






Florida 


121,473 
431,491 

276,328 
307,120 
1,0,57,904 
134,3(HI 
1,54, 4.V) 
415,478 

1,260,775 


151,885 
480,601 
307,476 
361,674 
1,160,016 
141,961 
183,954 
444,977 

2,341,725 


1.25 




1. 11 


Mississippi 


1.11 




1.18 


Texas 


1. 10 


Indian Territory 


1.06 




1.19 


Arkansas 


1.07 


Western states 


1.86 






Montana 


69,674 

28, W3 
ir,!>,r36 

74,124 

31, .107 

118,7.58 

9,6,'.9 

60,.5(iS 
162, .542 
131,768 
403,826 


143,887 
.54,107 
324,181 
93,918 
55,314 
130,847 
23,262 
82,975 
300,219 
232,065 
900,947 


2 07 


Wyoming 


1.88 




1.91 


New Mexico 


1.27 




1.77 


Utah 


1. 10 




2 40 


Idaho 


1.37 


Washington 


1.S5 


Oregon 


1.76 


California 


2.23 







' Excluding persons st.!tioned abroad. 



• Entire state. 



The marked difference in the ratio shown by the 
group of Southern states, in comparison with "some 
Other sections, suggests a tabulation of the South in 
comparison with the rest of the countrj'; and upon 
making such analysis it appears that the ratio of white 
adults of self-supporting age to eacii 1,000 white 
children in 1900 was 1,210 in the South and 1,730 in 
the remainder of the country. 

It must not be overlooked that the ratios here shown 
are based upon the entire white population, hative and 
foreign. It was impossible to secure an analysis for 
the native and foreign elements separately; but at- 
tempts to secure such separation indicated that the 
native element tended to record a much higher ratio 
of adults to children than the foreign element — in 
some instances, indeed, probably exceeding 3,000 
adults to each 1,000 children. 

RATIO OF WHITE CHILDREN TO .\I>UI.T WHITE FEMALES. 

The relative importance of children in the white 
population has already been measuretl by considering 
the proportion children form of the total and the 
ratio of adults of self-supporting age to children. 
Another standpoint from wliich to view this subject 
consists in a consideration of the ratio of white chil- 
dren (under 16 years of age) to white females 16 years 
of age and over. 

Table 37. — Ratio of white children to adult white females in each 
state and territory enumerated in 1790 and in the same areat in 
1900. 



STATE OR TERRITORY. 


RATIO OF WHITE 
CIIILDREN- UNDER 
16 TO ALL WHITE 
FEMALES 16 
VEAKS AMD OVER. 




KM 


' ItOO 


Area enumerated In 1790 


1.9 


1 






New England 


1.7 


8 






Maine 


2.1 
l.t 
2.3 
1.6 
LS 
1.C 

ZO 


0.8 




as 


Vermont 


OlO 




a8 


Rhode Island 


as 


Connecticut 


OlS 


Middle states 


1 






New York 


2.1 
3.0 
2.1 
2.0 

2.0 


0.9 


New Jersey 


1 




) 1 








1.3 








1.6 
2.0 
2.2 
2.3 
Z* 
2.6 
2.7 


1.0 


Virginia and West Virginia 


L4 


North Carolina 


I.S 




1.4 


Georgia 


1.4 




1.4 




L4 







Comparison of the ratios shown in this table for 
1790 and 1000 reveals a variation com[)arable in 
extent with that shown in Table 3.5. An average of 
nearly 2 children to every white female of mature 
years in 1790 declined to an average of 1 in 1900, 
or half as great for the entire area considered. In all 



106 



A CENTURY OF POPULATION GROWTH. 



the New England states, and in New York, the average 
was less than 1 in 1900. 

The significance of this subject is so great that it 



will be appropriate to point out the conditions which 
prevailed in 1850 and 1900 in continental United 
States and in individual states. 



Tadle 38.-RATI0 OF WHITE CHILDREN TO ALL WHITE FEMALES 16 YEARS OF AGE AND OVER, BY STATES AND 

TERRITORIES: 1850 AND 1900. 



STATE OR TEREITORT. 



Continental United States 

Area enumerated in 1790 

New England 

Maine 

New liampsMre 

Vermont 

Massachusetts 

Rliode Island 

Connecticut 

Middle states 

New Yorlc 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 

Delaware 

Southern states 

Maryland and District of Columbia 

Virginia and West Virginia 

North Carolina 

South (^arolina 

Georgia (eastern part) 

Kentucky 

Tennessee 

Added area 

Northern states 

Ohio 

Indiana 

I llinols 

Michigan 

Wisconsin 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 

North Dalcota 

South Dakota 

Nebraska 

Kansas 

Southern states 

Georgia (western part) 

Florida 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

Louisiana 

Texas 

Indian Territory 

Oklahoma 

Arkansas 

Western states 

Montana 

Wyoming 

Colorado ^ . . 

New Mexico and Arizona 

Utah 

Nevada 

Idaho 

Oregon and Washington 

California 



I Excluding persons stationed abroad. 

» SuMlvlsion of group 15 to 19 years estimated. 

No state of the Union enumeratod in 1850 showed 
an increase, during the half century which elapsed to 
1900, in the ratio of children to adult white females. 
Within this short period the ratio of cliildren to each 
1,000 females declined from 1,600 to 1,100 for the 
entire United States, and from 1,400 to 1,000 in the 



White 

females 

16 years 

and'over.= 



5,376,497 



3,620,445 



878,777 



169, 536 
107, 780 

95,517 
335,407 

48,332 
122,176 



920,783 

137, 787 

635,840 

20,318 

1,026,940 



132,474 
245,388 
156,758 
75,367 
32,028 
191,611 
193,314 

1,756,052 



1,316,612 



512. 296 
237,871 
2«,097 
100,334 

75,585 
1,213 

44,933 
140,283 

(=) 

CI 

<.') 

(') 

413,463 



97,533 
10,771 
104,534 
67, 725 
63,289 
33,783 
(■) 
(") 
35,828 

25, 977 



(') 

(') 

(') 

16,973 

<2,749 

(.<) 

2,234 
4,021 



White 
children 
under 16 

ycars.2 



Ratio of 
white 
children 
to white 
females 
16 years 
and over. 



8,428,458 



5, 088, 903 



968, 798 



234,873 
108,632 
118,583 
332,988 
50,270 
123,452 

2,364,449 



1,173,119 
190,801 
969,870 
30, 659 

1,755,666 



188,663 
403, 250 
251,542 
125, 113 
56,521 
361,111 
369,456 

3,339,555 



2,459,118 



889,640 
476, 641 
402, 665 
176,868 
133, 184 
2,291 

94,532 
283,297 

(') 

(') 

(') 

(») 

836,759 



200,412 

22,098 
208.287 
146,893 
102, 964 

73, 142 

(') 

(') 

82,963 

43,678 



(») 

C) 

25,956 

<5,163 

W 

« 
5,538 
7,021 



1.4 
1.0 
1.2 
1.0 
1.0 
1.0 



1.3 
1.4 
1.5 
1.5 

1.7 



1.4 
1.6 
1.6 
1.7 
1.8 
1.9 
1.9 



1.9 



1.7 
2.0 
2.0 
1.8 
1.8 
1.9 
2.1 
2.0 



2.1 
2.1 
2.0 
2.2 
1.6 
2.2 



1.5 
1.9 



2.5 

1.7 



19001 



White 
females 16 
years and 

over. 



1,993,736 



243, 124 
149,330 
118.318 
1,019,195 
150,094 
313,675 

5,127,096 



2,496,617 

610, 628 

1,969,432 

60,619 

2,615,140 



388, 125 
618,013 
360,471 
162, 973 
86, 277 
515,038 
448,243 

11,086,653 



7,916,781 



1,347,828 
785,402 

1,483,102 
759, 528 
609,341 
482,631 
672,837 
890, 534 
74,807 
98,724 
295,832 
416,215 

2, 065, 284 



256,699 
83,066 
282, 166 
179,268 
207,418 
639, 303 
73, 702 
93,012 
250,660 



62,580 

19,217 

155, 298 

69,940 

74, 735 

9,318 

36,346 

239,741 

447,413 



White 
Children 
under 16 

years. 



23,846,473 
10, 090, 044 



1,610,495 



200, 792 
112,987 
100,857 
804,612 
125, 970 
266,347 

4.972,312 



2,212,213 

691,730 

2,117,946 

60,423 

3,507,237 



381,253 
844,206 
640,543 
233,066 
123, 60S 
751,666 
633,006 

13,756,429 



9,222,868 



1,336,964 
847, 755 

1,660,114 
813, 188 
780, 664 
668, 183 
802, 660 

1,095,731 
128, 739 
156,250 
408, 226 
526,394 

3,272,786 



374, 254 
121,473 
431,494 
276,328 
307, 120 
1,057,904 
134,300 
161,435 
416, 478 

1,260,776 



69,674 
28,843 
169, 736 
105,431 
118,758 
9,689 
60, 60S 
294,310 
403,826 



' Not enumerated. 

* Enumerated as part of Utah territory if at all. 

area enumerated in 1790. The two preceding tables, 
therefore, reveal the fact that the ratio of 1,900 children 
to each 1 ,000 white women for the United States in 1790 
declined 300 (to 1,600) in the sixty years elapsing to 
1850, and 500 (to 1,100) in the succeeding half century. 
How great has been the change during the century 



PROPORTION OF CHILDREN IN WHITE POPULATION. 



107 



in the proportion of children in the white population 
can best be reahzed by applyinn; the ratio shown in 1 900 
to tiie number of white females above the age of 16 
in 1790. and the ratio shown in 1790 to the number of 
white females 16 years of age and over in 1900. 





NUMBEB OF WHITE CHILDREN UXDEK 10 YEARS 
OF AGE. 




1790 


1900 


AREA. 


Actual 
number. 


On basis of 
ratio shown 
for continen- 
tal I'nlted 
States in 
1900. number 
would have 
been— 


Actual 
number. 


On basis 
ot ratio 
shown In 
1790, num- 
ber would 
have been — 


Continental United 
States . . . 


1,553,260 


884,495 


23,846,810 


39,563.953 




Area enumerated In 1790 


1,553,260 


884,495 


10.090,044 
13,756,700 


18.498,347 











Changes in the ratio of white children to adult white fe- 
males, during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. — 
The enumeration of the inliabitants of New York city 
in 170.3 specified the number of white females and the 
number of white children of both sexes. This fact 
makes possible a computation, for one representative 
community, of the proportion of cliildren to white 
females at one of the earliest enumerations made in 
British North American territory. The ratio of white 
children of both sexes to wliite females 16 j-ears of 
age and over, as indicated by this census, was 1.9. 

Of even greater interest is the partial enumeration 
of New York colony made in 1712-1714. The returns 
of this census cover all counties except Queens, al- 
though the returns for Kings and Richmond counties 
give only the total population, and Albany, Dutchess, 
and Ulster counties were not returned at all until 1714. 
The detailed returns of this census cover the entire 
white population in even greater detail than was 
shown at the First Census of the United States. The 
proportion of white children under 16 years of age to 
white females 16 years of age and over, for the coun- 
ties reported in detail, is given in Table 39. 

The results of the New York censu.'^cs of 1703 and 
1712 lead to the conclusion that at this period in the 
history of the colony there were about 2 wliite cliil- 
dren to each adult white female. It is probable that 
at this early period there was little variation in the 
conditions prevaihng in the different colonies; most of 
the inhabitants were engaged in agricultural pursuits, 
and there was practically no urban population in the 
modern sense of the term. Tliis uniformity of condi- 
tions, together with the fact that even as late as 1790 
the ratio of wliite cliildren to wlute women varied but 
httle in the different states and geographic divisions, 
suggests the inference that throughout the eighteenth 
century, and in all the British American colonies, there 
were approximately 2 white children to each adult 



wliite female. This inference accords with the fact 
that the economic and social conditions of the colonies 
remained substantially unchanged during that period. 
It also serves to emphasize strikingly, by contrast, the 
change wliich occurred in the United States during the 
nineteenth century in the ratio of white cliildren to 
adult white females. 

Table HO.—Iiatio of white children under 16 years of age to white 
female* 16 years of age and over in New York, by counliet: 171 1. 





While 

feiniiles 
Hi years 
an<fovcr. 


WHITE CHILDSEK UKDEB 16 
YEARS. 


Ratio of 
white chil- 
dren under 


coimTV. 


Both 

KXCS. 


Hales. 


Females. 


16 years to 

while te- 

males Hi 

years and 

over. 


Total 


4,317 


8,450 


4,389 


4,061 


2.0 




Albanvi 


725 

K 

1,365 

96 

990 

442 

601 


1,404 
218 

2,379 
187 

2,136 
877 

1,249 


753 
120 

1,197 
105 

1,092 
450 
672 


651 
98 
1,182 
82 
1,044 
427 
577 




Dutchess' 








Orance 


1 9 


Sullolk 


2.2 


I'ister' 


Westchester 


2.1 





■ Returns not received until 1714. 

Ratios of children to adult females in the native and the 
foreign stocl- of the white population. — It will be recalled 
that in a preceding chapter the contributions of the 
two main elements of the wliite population — descend- 
ants of persons enumerated in 1 790 and of persons who 
came to the United States after the First Census — 
were estimated to represent appro.ximately 3.5,000,000 
and 32,000,000, respectively, of the total wliite popu- 
lation in 1900. Which of these two elements is the 
more liberal contributor of population increase at the 
present time? If the second, or foreign element, is 
the larger contributor what share is being borne in such 
contribution by the various nationalities wliich com- 
pose it ? It is clear that the answers to these questions 
are of great importance to the Republic, since the 
ideals and policies of the nation must depend upon the 
characteristics of its citizens. Unfortunately, how- 
ever, census publications can give no answer to ques- 
tions concerning the fecundity of the various elements 
of the population. 

There is a widespread opinion among students of 
population statistics that the white native stock, rej)- 
resentcd by the 35,000,000 of i)ersons in 1900, is now 
increasing at a very slow rate, if at all; in all prob- 
abilit}' it is barely maintaining itself." Tliis point of 
view appcai-s to be conffrmetl b^- many of the facts wliich 
are presented in tliis report. If this be true, or even 

' "As a general proposition it will hold true that the ab'^olule 
and relative fecundity of the native bom element is less through- 
out the countrj' than" that of the foreign bom. There are difter- 
ences, of course, in the degree of fe<undity, and fortunately the 
native birth rate is still comparatively normal in the Southern 
and Western states; but there can be no doubt that throughout the 
country the foreign element is reproducing ilM-\( much more rap- 
idly than the native, with probably four generations to a century, 
against less than three among the natives. '—F. L. Uoffman, North 
American Review, May, 1909, page 675. 



108 



A CENTURY OF POPULATION GRO^^H. 



partially true, then the other, or foreign, element of 
the wliite population, represented in 1900 by 32,000,000 
persons, of whom more than 20,000,000 were either 
forei<m bom or the cliildren of persons born abroad, 
is now contributing the bulk of population increase. 
There is no reason to doubt, however, that ^\^thln this 
element the different nationaUties differ widely in their 
percentages of increase. 

In order to determine whether differences of this 
character actually exist, a test was made by analyzing 
the names appearing upon the Twelfth Census sched- 
ules for 2 counties wliich remained practically un- 
changed in area during the century— Hartford county, 



Conn., and Columbia county, N. Y. Hartford county. 
Conn., was selected partly because in 1790 its popula- 
tion was exclusively British, and practically all Eng- 
lish, so that the changes, if any, occurring during the 
century, could be clearly marked in connection with 
that nationality; and partly because in 1900 it was a 
typical county. The population had increased sixfold 
during the century; it was partly urban and partly 
rural; it was exceedingly prosperous, and obviously 
had fully participated in the growth and progress of 
the nation. Columbia county, N. Y., was a distinctly 
rural county in 1790, and largely rural also in 1900, 
The tabulations resulted as follows: 



Table 40 -RATIO OF \DULT WHITE FEMALES TO WHITE CHILDREN, FOR EACH NATIONALITY AS INDICATED BY 
Table 40. «^^^^"^"^^jj^g qj, jj^^^S qj, FAMILIES IN HARTFORD COUNTY, CONN.: 1790 AND 1900. 







1790 




1900 




White females 16 
years and over. 


White children under 16 years. 


White females 16 
years and over. 


White children under 16 years. 


NATION AUTT. 


Number. 


Per cent 
distribu- 
tion. 


Number. 


Per cent 
distribu- 
tion. 


Number. 


Per cent 
distribu- 
tion. 


Number. 






Total. 


Average to 

each female 

16 years 

and over. 


Total. 


Average to 

each female 

16 years 

and over. 


Per cent 

distribu- 
tion. 


Total 


10,614 


100.0 


17,076 


1.6 


100.0 


66,517 


100.0 


55,653 


0.8 


100.0 


Bntish 


10,594 


99.8 


17,042 


1.6 


99.8 


52,500 


78.9 


36,576 


0.7 


65.7 


English 


10,236 
303 
5o 

6 
11 


96.4 
2.9 
0.5 

0.1 
0.1 


16,516 
416 
110 

10 
22 


1.6 
1.4 
2.0 

1.7 
2.0 


96.7 
2.4 

aa 

0.1 
0.1 


32,159 
2,798 
17,543 

151 
1,781 
6,375 
5,710 


4S. 3 

42 

26.4 

0.2 
2.7 
9.6 
8.6 


17.916 
2,094 
16,566 

127 
2,173 
7,752 
9,025 


0.6 
0.7 
0.9 

0.8 
1.2 
1.2 
1.6 


32.2 






Irish 






0.2 










A 11 nthpr i 


3 


m 


2 


0.7 


m 


16.2 











1 Includes Hungarian, Italian, Roumanian, Russian, Scandinavian, etc. 



s than one-tenth of 1 per cent. 



Table 41.-RATI0 OF ADULT WHITE FEiL-^LES TO WHITE CHILDREN, FOR EACH NATIONALITY AS INDICATED BY 
NAMES OF HEADS OF FAMILIES IN COLUMBIA COUNTY, N. Y.: 1790 AND 1900. 





1790 


1900 




White females 16 
years and over. 


White children under 16 years. 


White females 16 
years and over. 


White children under 16 years. 


NAnONAUTY. 


Niunber. 


Percent 
distribu- 
tion. 


Number. 


Per cent 
distribu- 
tion. 


Number. 


Per cent 
distribu- 
tion. 


Number. 






Total. 


Average to 

each female 

16 years 

and over. 


Total. 


Average to 

each female 

16 years 

and over. 


Per cent 
distribu- 
tion. 


Total 


6,203 


loao 


13,054 


2.1 


loao 


15,542 


100.0 


11,205 


0.7 


loao 


British 


4,980 


80.3 


10,646 


2.1 


81.6 


11,713 1 75.4 


7,673 


0.7 


68.5 






English 


4,815 
137 
28 

1,148 
30 
37 
8 


77.6 
2.2 
0.5 

las 

0.5 
0.6 
0.1 


10,344 
230 

72 

2,290 
60 
42 
16 


2.1 

1.7 
Z6 

ZO 
2.0 
1.1 
2.0 


79.2 
1.8 
0.6 

17.5 
0.5 
0.3 
0.1 


8,644 1 .W. 6 


5,490 

340 

1,843 

633 

226 

2,103 

510 


0.6 
0.7 

a7 

0.6 
0.9 
0.9 
2.0 


49.0 


Scotch 


516 
2,553 

985 

241 

2,343 

2C0 


as 

16.4 

6.3 
1.6 
15.1 
1.7 


ao 


Irish 


16.4 


Dutch 


5.6 


French ' 


2.0 




19.3 


All other ' 


4.6 







1 Practically all French Canadians in 1900. 



In 1900 the British stock was making a compara- 
tively meager contribution to the population of both 
counties. The 1790 ratios of 1.6 children under 16 
years of age to each female 16 years and over in the 



^ Includes Hungarian. Italian, Roumanian, Russian. Scandinavian, etc. 

Coimecticut county and 2.1 in the New York county, 
by 1900 had shrunk one-half in the former and one- 
third in the latter. Since in 1790 the British element 
was composed almost exclusively of English, it is in 



PROPORTION OF CHILDREN IN WHITE POPULATION. 



109 



this nationality that most of the descendants of per- 
sons pnumeratod in 1790 in these 2 counties are to be 
found. It will be observ^ed that in both instances the 
ratio for the English is even lower than that for the 
remainder of the British element. 

The other than British elements show in each county, 
in 1900, a more liberal ratio of children to women. 
Both the French Canadian and the German nationaU- 
ities show a ratio which, while much less than that 
shown for 1790, is nevertheless higher than that of 
the British element. The increase in the ratio is great- 
est, however, for tiie nationalities analyzed upon the 
schedule and grouped in the table under the head of 
"all other." This term includes principally Italians, 
Hungarians, Russians, and Scandinavians — nationali- 
ties which are included in the most recent immigration 
movement. In both counties the contribution of this 
element, in 1900, greatly exceeds that of any other, 
approaching the very liberal proportion of children to 
adult females shown for the total white population at 
the First Census of the United States. 

The foregoing analysis is presented merely as an 
illustration of the significant variation in the contribu- 
tion of various racial elements to the increase of popu- 
lation in the United States. The labor involved in a 
complete tabulation of this kind is so great that it 
could not be attempted except at a decennial census, 
and it is doubtful if facilities would exist at that time. 
But the test tabulations here presented tend to 
confirm the impression that during the eighteenth 
century practically no change occurred in the social 
and economic stmcture of the colonies which subse- 
quently became parts of the United States, while dur- 
ing the nineteenth century a very marked readjustment 
has been in progress, resulting in a striking change in 
the ratio of children to adult females. 

Comparison of the United States with Europe. — Con- 
sideration of the changes shown to have occurred in the 
United States during the century, in the ratio of white 
children to adult white females, is aided by making a 
study of the corresponding ratios for the four principal 
nations of Europe. 



United Kingdom 

France 

Germany 

Italy 

United states.... 



Census 
year. 



1901 
1901 
1900 
1901 

1900 



Females 
lOyears 
and over. 



14,251,030 
14,190,357 
18,293,000 
10,549,084 

20,822,625 



Children 

under 

16 years. 



14,211.381 
10,684,083 
20,722,000 
11,722,730 

23,846,473 



Ratio of 
children 
under 16 
to females 
l(i years 
and over. 



1.0 
0.8 
1.1 
1.1 



The above table indicates that the proportion of 
children to adult females was practically the same in 
the United States in 1900 as in Great Britain, Ger- 
many, and Italy at the corresponding enumerations 
in those countries; hence it appears that population 
conditions in the Republic are tending to become more 



in harmony with those obtaining in other civilized 
countries. It should be noted that although the ratio 
shown for France is considerably less than those for 
Great Britain, Germany, Italy, and the United States, 
it is identical with tiiat shown for .5 of tlie New Eng- 
land states, and but one-tenth less than that shown 
for New York. 

EFFECT OF CHANGES I.V THE PROPORTIO.V OF CHIL- 
DREN. 

There are many standpoints from which to view this 
subject. From one, it migltt be claimed that tlie peo- 
ple of the United States, taking all into account, have 
concluded that they are only about one-half as well 
able to rear children — at any rate without personal sac- 
rifice — under the conditions prevaiUng in 1900 as 
their predecessors proved themselves to be under the 
conditions which prevailed in 1790. It is possible also 
to claim that at the period of the First Census the sim- 
ple living characteristic of a new country, the simple 
wants supplied by neighborhood industries, and the 
self-dependence of the family due to sparseness of pop- 
ulation, all tended toward large families. 

In 1900 the resources of the nation were developed 
to the point of fruition. From various causes the 
population had become very large. Wealtii had in- 
creased to a degree unparalleled elsewhere in the 
world or in any age. At the present time the com- 
plexity of living, congestion of population, depend- 
ence on foreign help, and especially the innumerable 
wants fostered by machine-made goods, manufac- 
tured upon an enormous scale and ever tempting to 
greater expenditure, all tend toward restriction of 
size of families. 

At the begirming of the nineteenth century a vast 
continent, with untold resources, awaited development 
and created what might be termed a population hunger. 
In Europe, at the same period, the creation of unex- 
ampled industrial activity protluced, though to a lesser 
degree, a somewhat similar condition. The close of 
the nineteenth century finds the insistent demand for 
population practically saii.-^fied, and in some instances 
more than satisfietl, both in the United States and 
in Europe. The degree to which this demand is 
occurring in different sections of the Uniteil Stales is 
suggested b}' the wide variations in the proportions of 
white children to white adults in the various states and 
geographic divisions. The older coimnunities, having 
already acquired dense population, resulting in a more 
severe struggle for existence, show the highej^t propor- 
tion of adults to children; while in tlie younger or 
more sparsely settled states, and in those in which wide 
opportunity for the individual .still exists, the propor- 
tion of children to adults is much greater. It must 
be remembered, however, that in communities which 
have been in existence le.<s than fifty years the birth 
rates, as reflected by the proportion of children in the 



no 



A CENTURY OF POPULATION GROWTH. 



white population, may be abnormally high, because 
of the abnormal age distribution of the population of 
such sections. 

It would be idle to attem'pt to point out the social 
and economic results likely to occur in the future 
from tiie changes here shown to have taken place, even 
were such a discussion appropriate in these pages. A 
century hence the student of population changes will 
be able to measure, in the same manner as the signifi- 
cance of population changes from 1790 to 1900 is 
here measured, but in abler and more accurate fashion, 
the effect — economic loss, or possibly, indeed, eco- 
nomic gain — upon the United States of failure of the 
white population to contribute (on the basis of the 



1790 proportion) many millions of young people 
to the activities of the Republic. He will confront 
the fact that in the early life of the Republic there 
appeared in the total population a very large propor- 
tion of young persons, but that after the expiration 
of a century, as the population approached 100,000,000 
and all the activities of the nation were developed and 
expanded to a marvelous degree, the proportion of 
j'oung persons decreased to such an extent as to 
create a remarkable contrast between the conditions 
which prevailed at the beginning and at the end of 
the nineteenth century. It is probable that against 
such a background the economic history of the com- 
ing centurv will be written. 



X. SURNAMES OF THE WHITE POPULATION IN 1790. 

APPROXIMATE NUMBER— NOMENCLATURE— PREPONDERANCE OF 
ENGLISH AND SCOTCH NAMES— UNUSUAL AND STRIKING SUR- 
NAMES—DISTRIBUTION OF SURNAMES— CONCENTRATION OF POP- 
ULATION UNDER CERTAIN NAMES— ABSENCE OF MIDDLE NAMES. 



In the states for which the schedules of the First 
Census still exist there were 27,337 surnames in 1700. 
It is impossible to compute from this fi<jure the num- 
ber of surnames in the entire I'nited States at the date 
of tiie First Census, but the fact that the states for 
which the schedules are lackinij, with the exception of 
New Jersey, were settled largely by English immigrants, 
suggests the probability that the names in addition 
to those appearing upon the existing schedules were 
comparatively few in number. It is thus probable 
that the entire number of surnames in the United 
States at that period did not much exceed 30,000. 

The tables wliich follow present some classification 
of nomenclature resulting from an inspection of the 
names of heads of families as they appear upon the 
schedules. This classification has been made because 
of the historical value which attaches to such analysis. 
The heads of families enumerated at the First Census 
were practically tiie founders of the Republic; it was 
they who adopted the Constitution which made the 
Republic permanent. Furthermore, the constant 
increase of interest in genealogy makes this analysis 
of especial interest. 

A large preponderance of English and Scotch names 
appears upon the schedules of the First Census. The 
proportion, indeetl, is so large that these two nationali- 
ties embrace substantially the entire population, with 
the exception of that of certain sections, principally in 
New York, Pennsylvania, and North Carolina. More- 
over, inspection of the names, conveys the impression 
that the}' were largely of Anglo-Saxon origin. 

Many of the names upon the schedules probably 
have now passed out of existence, because of an in- 
creasing tendency on the part of the public to avoid 
striking or fantastic names. Most of those names 
which teniled to cause a distinct loss of dignity to the 
bearer have, in the course of a century, been so modi- 
fied, with the social advance of the possessors, as to lose 
unpleasant characteristics. Many Christian names 
which were of frequent occurrence in the seventeenth 
and eighteenth centuries, and indeed in the early 
part of the nineteenth century, have become obso- 
lete. Their use by the present generation would be 
regarded as an absurdity. Inspection of the city 
directories for several of the larger municipalities 

' Classification of the surnames shown upon the census schedules, 
according to their meaning as parts of speech, proves of so much 
interest that, while not properly a part of a report of this character, 
some of the more noteworthy names are given in the following 
classified list : 



shows that many of the more iieculiar and eccentric 
names reported at the First Census still continue to 
be borne; but it is a fact, al.so, that such names are by 
no means so conspicuous at tlie i)resent time as at the 
earlier ]>eriod. The addition of a great body of 
names originating in countries other than Great 
Britain tcmls to reduce tlie prominence of Enghsh 
names, as the proportion contributed by such names 
decreases. It is true that many of tlie names so ad<led 
may be formed of the parts of speecii of otlier lan- 
guages, but this fact is concealed by their occurrence 
in a foreign tongue. 

Those wiio study the names upon the schedules of 
the First Census are impressed bv the fact that a 
large proportion of the total number are derived from 
common nouns or other parts of speech relatetl to 
the daily affairs, occupations, events, and surround- 
ings of the indiviihial and the communit.v. Tests 
were made of the names returned for 3 states, to 
determine the proportion of families bearing names of 
this class. It was found that of all families reported 
in these 3 states about 30 per cent derived their 
names from parts of si)eech. 

Of the 27,337 different surnames for which the 
1790 schedules are in existence, 9.4 per cent were de- 
rived from parts of speech. Upon making a classifi- 
cation of tlie names so derived, according to the 
meaning of the words, they fall into the following 
general classes:' 

Household and domestic affairs — food and eating, drink, cloth- 
ing, and sewing materials. 

Nations and places. 

Human cliaracteristics — nationality, kinds of men, condition, 
appearance or state, bathing, ailmente and remedies, parts and 
actions of the body, relationship. 

Giames, religion, music, and literature. 

Property — kind of house and building material and belongings, 
surroundings, furniture and tableware, merchandise and commod- 
ities, and money. 

Nature — color, objects of nature or features of landscape, treee, 
plants and flowers, fruits, nuts, weather, beasts, birds, insects and 
creeping creatures. 

The ocean and maritime subjects. 

War. 

Death and violence. 

Time. 

Unusual and ludiirous combinations of common noims and of 
Christian names and surnames. 



HOUSEHOLD AND DOMESTIC AFFAIRS. 

Food and fa/inj.— .Soup, Ovster. Fii<h, Trout, Salmon, Haddock, 
Shad, Crab; \eal. Lamb, Pork, Savory. Stew; f'owl, buck. Quail. 
Goose, Gravy; Tripe, Tongue. Kidney. Liver, Hash, Ham. Eggs; 

ill!) 



112 



A CENTURY OF POPULATION GROWTH. 



Two facts are of especial interest in connection with 
an analysis of names. Tiie parts of speech which are 
represented are almost entirel}^ Anglo-Saxon. They are 
derived from the most common events of life, condi- 
tions, places, or things, and it may be said that they 
represent almost one-third of the population of the 
United States in 1790. The prevalence of biblical 
given names reflects the religious feeling of the period. 
The absence of those names which were offensive from 
the standpomt of politics, on the other hand, reflects 
the political prejudices prevailing at that date. For 
example, the name "Charles" is found rather infre- 
quently. Indeed, in the entire state of Massachusetts, 
one of the most populous states of that period, it oc- 
curs less than 250 times on the schedules. 

A classification of the total number of names repre- 
sented upon the schedules (27,337), according to fre- 
quency of occurrence, as, for example, the number 



of names which appear but once, the number which 
appear but twice, etc., show the following interesting 
results : 



NCMBER OF TIMES SAMES APPEAR UPON SCQEDm.ES, BY 
GROUPS. 



' Number 
of names. 



Total... 

1 

2 

3to4 

5 to 9 

10 to 24 

25 to 49 

50 to 99 

100 to 199 

200 to 299 

300 to 399 

400 to 499 

500 to 749 

750 to 999 

1.000 to 1,499.. 
1,500 to 1.999.. 
2,000 to 2,999.. 
3.000 and over 



27,337 



Per cent 
each class 
forms of 
all names. 



100.0 



11,934 

3,609 

3,235 

3.105 

2.564 

1,244 

744 

511 

154 

84 

55 

63 

12 

19 

6 

6 

2 



43.7 

13.2 

11.8 

11.4 

9.4 

4.6 

2.7 

1.9 

0.6 

0.3 

0.2 

0.2 



(') 
( 

(') 
(■) 
(') 



0.1 



1 Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent. 



Goodbread, Butter, Olives, Radish, Mustard, Cress, Vinegar; 
Corn, Beets, Onions, Beans, Collard, Carrott, Peas, Squash, 
Brownrice, Sago; WaiBe, Honey, Pancake, Jam, Mush, Treacle; 
Cake, Custard, Tart, Cheese, Almond, Dates, Shaddock, Melon; 
Mints, Fudge; Coffee, Tea, Sugar, Milk; Hunger, Food, Meal, 
Diet, Slice, Broil, Boiling, Ginger, Greens, Alspice, Lard, Pepper. 

Drink. — Brandy, Goodrum, Grog, Grapewine, Redwine, Punch, 
Cider, Port, Negus, Freshwater, Beer, Booze, Goodwine, Wine. 

Clothing. — Dress, Raiment, Gowns, Frocks, Petticoat, Bloomer, 
Scarf, Redsleeves, Frill, Shawl, Bonnet, Feather, Boas, Mitts, 
Beads, Spangle, Shoe, Highshoe, Stockings, Coats, Shirts, Waist- 
coat, jumpers, Smock, Overall, Collar, Lightcap, Mitten, Boots, 
Socks, Brogan, Cap. 

Sewing materials. — Linen, Silk, Poplin, Crape, Lace, Wool, But- 
tons; Machine, Needles, Pattern, Pin, Bodkin, Spool; Threadcraft, 
Mendingall, Patching, Whitecotton. 

NATIONS AUD PLACES. 

England, Ireland, Hungary, Germany, Holland, Spain, Poland, 
Athens, Boston, Canada, Bohemia, Venice, Parliament, Paradise, 
Bedlam. 

HUU.4.N CH.\K.\CTERISTICS. 

Nationality. — English, Irish, French, German, Prussian, Poles, 
Spaniard, Malay, Tartar, Dago, Mussulman, Dutch. 

Kinds of men. — Beeman, Councilman, Countryman, Iceman, 
Ploughman, Sickman, Shortman, Smallman, Toughman, Tidyman, 
Weatherman, Weedingman, Peacemaker, Houselighter, Wool- 
weaver, Landmiser, Pioneer, Pilgrim, Pagan, Pettyfool, Passenger, 
Grooms, Biters, Fakes, Equals, Drinker, Dancer, Kicker, Cusser, 
Spilter, Booby, Dunce, Gump, Boor, Crank, Crook, Rascal, Swin- 
dle, Knave, Outlaw, Madsav.ige, Coward, Hero, Double, Goodfellow. 

Condition.— RungeT, Thirst, Smell, Taste, Anger, Laughter, 
Comfort, Reason, Clemency, Justice, Care, Pride, Wit, Pluck, 
Faith, Devotion, Goodcourage, Fuss, Flurry, Fury, Thrift, Doubt, 
Piety. 

Appearance or state.— Short, Shorter, Plump, Comely, Sallow, 
Supple, Bony, Barefoot, Allred, Busy, Idle, Careless, Strict, Calm^ 
Gushing, Dumb, Howling, Daft, Looney, Dowdy, Neat, Empty 
Greedy, Fearing, Fearless, Faithful, Fickle, Forward, Humble, Gad- 
ding, Sober, Maudlin, Gaudj-, Quaint, Harsh, Jolly, Kind, Severe 
Literal, Final, Wealthy, Miserly, Naughty, Toogood, Sullen, San- 
guine, Proud, Prudent, Rough, Tough, Hastv, Weary, Old Older 
Wordly, Witty, Allright, Proper, Lazy, Lucky, Upright, Under- 
hand, Mea,sley, Rude, Toobald, Cacklin. 

Bathing. — Ccldbath, Towel, Soap. 

Ailments and remedies. — Fatyouwant, Gout, Fever, Crampeasy 
Boils, Measles, Swelling, Corns, Rickets, Gripe, Ache, Cough' 
Sliver, Blackhead, Warts, Tetter, Fits; Surgeon, Quack- Balm' 
Physic, Salts, Mixture, Blister, Pellet, Pill. 

Parts and actions of the bodi/.— Head, Brains, Forehead, Cheeks 
Nose, Ears, Chin, Beard, Lips, Tongue, Shoulders, Wrists', Hands' 
Fingers, Thumbs, Hips, Side, Knee, Leg, Foot, Heel, Bones' 
Gullets, Hearts, Kidneys, Bowels, Livers, Glands, Breaths, Voices' 
\Miisper, Murmurs, Grunts, Howls, Yells, Smack, Caress. ' 



Relationship. — Brother, Sister, Couples, Husbands, Son, Daugh- 
ter, Uncles, Cousins, Neighbors. 

GAMES, RELIGION, MUSIC, AND LITERATURE. 

Games. — Clubs, Cards, Chess, Faro, Dice, Dance, Waltz. 

Religion. — Preacher, Rector, Church, Chapel, Steeples, Spires, 
Bell, Clapper, Organ, Pew, Sermon, Creed, Bible, Psalms, Psalter, 
Sinners, Blessing, Miracle, Angels, Heavens, Hell. 

Music and literature. — Music, Chord, Harmony, Overture', Chris- 
tian, Singer, Duett, Harp, Fiddle, Fife, Comet; Poet, Rymes, 
Jingles, Ballad, Parody. 

PROPERTY. 

Kind of house, building material, and belongings. — House, Lot, 
Brickhouse, Acres, Greathouse, Marble, Mahogany, Oldhouse, 
Halfacre, Stonehouse, Longhouse, Newhouse, Laughinghouse, 
Roof, Brickroof, Shingle, Gambrel, Gable, Gutters, Spout, Lumber, 
Brick, Wooden, Plank, Scantling, Lath, Crack, Cranny, Door, 
Latch, Knob, Lockkey, Kitchen, Buttery, Shelf, Furnace, Heater, 
Register, Porch, Shed, Pump, Corners. 

Surroundings. — Stable, Barns, Trough, Manger, Coolyard, Brick- 
well, Coldwell, Cornhouse, Woodhouse, Miikhouse, W^arehouse, 
Millhouse, \\'harf. 

Furniture and tableware. — Table, Curtain, Vase, Clocks, Desk, 
Chairs, Cushion, Pillow, Bolster, Box, Broom, Bucket, Candle, 
Snuffer, Plate, Platter, Bowls, Newbowl, China, Silver, Knife, 
Forks, Spoons, Pitcher, Mug, Saucer. 

Merchandise and commodities. — Stove, Wood, Coke, Oven, Coal, 
Fender, Auction, Wondersale, Shovel, Poker, Hammock, Pickett, 
Tubs, Ax, Ladder, Mallet, Nuthammer, Hatchet, Wrench, Level, 
Nipper, \\"hetstone. Gouge, Nail, Tack, Awl, Oats, Bran, Shorts, 
Husks, Wheat, Mash, Bags, Balloon, Barley, Barrels, Basket, 
Bench, Bike, Boiler, Bomb, Brass, Buckhorn, Camphor, Cane, Cap, 
Chalk, Chopper, Coin, Coldiron, Combs, Compass, Coop, Coopernail, 
Copper, Cork, Cowhorn, Cradle, Cutwork, Dipper, Divans, Files, 
Filters, Grater, Gravel, Gum, Hammers, Hassock, Hogshead, 
Hornbuckle, Hose, Inks, Iron, Irons, Ivory, Junk, Kettle, Kite, 
Leeks, Lightwood, Locket, Maize, Tenpenny, Oldshoe, Paste, Pearl, 
Pen, Pencil, Pipes, Plough, Powder, Primer, Rags, Rakes, Rattle, 
Razor, Rivets, Rockets, Rope, Rug, Satchel, Screws, Sequin, Shot, 
Sickle, Silkrags, Silver, Slate, Smallcorn, Snuff, Spikes, Sticks, 
Stilts, Straw, Tallow, Tarbox, Ticket, Tiles, Tool, Trap, Trucks, 
Trunk, Tubes, Turnipseed, Twine, Twist, Varnish, Wafer, Washer, 
Weights, Whips, Whitehorn, Wigs, Wire, Yarn, Yoke, Harness, 
Hames, Reins, Sulkey, Surrey, Coltrider, Heldcbridle. 

Money.— ?\xxse. Money, Cash, Dollar, Milldollar, Penny, Thick- 
penny, Shilling, Dimes, Nickles, Pence. 



Color. — Colour, Black, White, Gray, Green, Brown, Red, Ruby, 
Pink, Purple, Seagray, Nile, Orange, Tan, Olive, Lavender, Car- 
mine, Blue, Scarlet. 

Objects of nature or features of landscape. — Mountain, Tallhill, 
Widedale, Lakes, Meadows, Parks, Pastures, Rivers, Woodsides, 
Roads, Bridges, Bogs, Forest, Chestnutwood, Hazelgrove, Wood- 



SURNAMES OF THE WHITE POPULATIOX IN 1790. 



113 



The most .significant fact which appears in the preced- 
ing table is the largo proportion of the total number of 
names which is formed by names represented bv one 
family only, and the rapid decrease as the groups in- 
clude more frequent occurrence of names. For exam- 
ple, of the names which appear between 1,000 and 
1,500 times — in other words, are represented by that 
number of families — there arc but 10; while, in the 
higliest class, but 2 names are represented by 3,000 or i 
more families. | 

Table 42.— NUMBER OF NAMES REPORTED FOR WHITE 
OP FAMILIES RECORDED UNDER 



It is important to remember that a comparatively 
small part of the total number of surnames in the United 
States in 1700 includes practicallytheentirc white popu- 
lation. Eleven thou.sand nine hundred and thirty-four 
names represent but one-half of 1 per cent of the white 
population, hence the 99.5 percent were represented by 
15,403 surnames. 

The number of times surnames appear in the various 
states and their classification into groups, acconling to 
frequency of occurrence, is shown in the following table : 

FAMILIES, CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO THE NTMBER 
SUCH NAMES, BY STATES: 1790. 



NUMBER or WtllTE FAMILIES. 


United 
States. 


Maine. 


New 
Hamp- 
shire. 


Ver- 
mont. 


Massa- 
chusetts. 


Rhode 
Island. 


Connect- 
icut. 


New 
York. 


Pennsyl- 
vania. 


lai^. 


Vir- 
ginia. 


North 
Carolina. 


South 
Carolina. 


Total 


27.337 


2.640 


2 .=KR 


2.469 


4,452 


1.396 


3,412 


7.4«2 


13,383 






6.777 


5,»1 








1 


11.934 

3. 009 

3.2:k 
3,10o 

2,564 

1.244 

744 

511 

154 

84 

53 

12 
19 
6 
8 


1,052 
3r,2 
373 
398 

312 

107 

30 

6 


917 

325 
3.W 
404 

337 
1« 
09 
16 

2 
1 


928 
.345 
352 
420 

315 
81 
25 
2 

1 


1,041 
631! 

487 
563 

5.W 

347 

220 

77 

21 
G 
2 

1 


578 
191 
175 
187 

147 
76 
35 

7 


1,363 
389 

xn 

426 

435 

233 

152 

49 

6 




3,239 
973 
891 
732 

477 

166 

59 

13 

1 

1 


2,038 
838 
788 
802 

597 
189 
73 
24 

3 
2 

1 


2,096 

1,025 

978 

928 

729 
252 
105 
51 

6 

1 

1 

1 


2,613 
825 
757 
635 

391 
117 


2. 


989 
890 
931 

731 

324 

130 

39 

6 
2 
1 


1,984 
1,844 
1,457 

905 

311 

151 

49 

13 
5 
1 


3 to 4 


5 to y 


10 to 24 


25 to 49 


SO to99 . . 


40 


100 to 199 


10 


200 to 299 


2 


300 to 399 






1 


400 to 499 








1 




S00to749 














750 to 999 










1 




2 








1,000 to 1.4y9 








1 












1.500 to 1.999 
























2,000 and over 






















































land, Woodyfiold, Wildernos.i, Fountain, Middlebrook, Marsh, Pool, 
Pond, Gully, Ditch, Farm, Tatcrfield, Bars, Garden, Grass, Lons- 
wall, Tanyard, Market, Maypole, Lowbridge, Drawbridge, Wood- 
endyke, Saltmarsh, Oysterbanks, Sharpstone, Redstone, Mud, Soot, 
Smoke, Blaze, Fires, Sparks. 

Trees. — Maples, Oaks, Greenoak, Chestnut, Walnut, Pine, Bay, 
Willow, Tumbletree, Redwood, Roots, Sap, Acorn. 

Plants and Jlowem. — Plants, Weeds, \'in('s, Shrill), Mallow, Prim- 
rose, Calls, Ivy, Pinks, Parsley, Marjoram, Wormwood, Fennel, 
Caraway, Bramble, Brier, Thistle, Bamthistle, Toadvine, Rag- 
bush, Clover, Seeds, Pollen. 

Fruits. — Fruit, Apple, Pippin, Currant.s, Cherry, Blackhoart, 
Grapes, Lemons, Peach, Plum, Quince, Pears, Limes, Berry, May- 
berry, Appleberry, Bilberry, Touchberr>-, Thornberry, Dewberry, 
Fortuneberrv, Flyberry, Iluckelberry, Rasberry, Winterberry, 
Wineberry, llottenberry. 

Nuts. — Nut, Chestnut, Walnut, Ilickrynut. 

Tfearter.— Weathers, Dry, Damp, Pleasant, Dismal, Sprinkle, 
Shower, Rains, Storms, Gales, Simoon, Hail, Slush, Freeze, Bliz- 
zard, Coldair. 

Beasts.— lloTBC, Hoss, Hossies, Colts, Trotter, Mules, Kicks, Ox, 
Bulls, Cows, Heifer, Redheifer, Calf, Middlecalf, Goat,s, Sheep, 
Lamb, Cats, Leathercat, Mout<er, Pup, Shoat, Squirrel, Beavers, 
Mink, Coons, Seals, Scalion, Bear, Bruin, Cub, Leopard, Tiger, 
Moase, Lions, Panther, Flippers, Claws, Hoofs, Horns, Tails, 
Clatter, Canter, Gallop. 

BiVrfs.— Eagle, Canary, Lark, Woodpicker, Parrot, Peacock, 
Raven, Sparrow, Starling, Skyhawk, Stork, Swan, Buzzard, Crows, 
Snipes, Robins, Hawks, Pheasants, Rocks, Fowls, Chick, Bantam, 
Gosling, Geese, Pigeon, Dove, Birdsong, Birdwhistle. 

Insects and creeping creatures. — Ant, Beetle, Fly, Bees, Hornet, 
Roach, Locust, Snails, Grubs, Maggot, Worm, Snake, Turtle, P>og. 

THE OCEAN AND MARITIME SUBJECT.*. 

Seas, Billows, Bays, Breeze, Ship, Sloop, Barge, Bigraft, Ancher, 
Shoals, Sails, Bunks, Commodore, Mariner, Shipboy, Swab. 

WAR. 

War, Battle, Campaign, Fight, Fightmaster, Cannon, Boom,Gun.s, 
Trigger, Shot^j, Pistol, Shoots, Swords, Banner, Bugle, Bugler, Fort, 
Officer, Booty, Treason, Prison. 



DEATH .\Nn VIOLENCE. 



Death, Deadman, Hearse, Vaults, Tombs, Moregraves, Duel, 
Murder, Demon, Ghost, Mummy. 



Months, Weeks, Shortday, Nights, Hour, Winter, Midwinter, 
August, Yesterday, Tewday, Allday, Alwavs, Friday, Sunday, 
Monday, Lunch, Supper, Goodnight, Clock, Bells, Christma-s, Easter. 

UNUSUAL COMBINATIONS OF COMMON NOUNS. 

Becrstickcr, Cathole, Churning, Clampit, Clapsaddle, Clinkscalee, 
Cockledress, ColdHesh, Crackbone, Drips, Flybaker, Fryover, Galli- 
vant, Getstrap, G(X)dbit, Goosehorn, Gravtracks, ILigniire, Honey- 
comb, Uungerpealer, Huntsucker, Icebra.»s, I.iptrot, Livergafl, 
Lookinbill, Milksack, Moonshine, Partneck, Potkerpine, Reed- 
hovel, Scoot, Shamback, Sharpneck, Silvemail, Slappy, Spits- 
noggle, Splitstone, Slophell, Strad<lle, Sunlighler, Svdebottom, 
Sydersticker, Tallowback, Threewits, Trueluck, Wallllour, Willi- 
bother, Witchwagon. 

STRIKING OR LUDICROUS COMBINATIONS OF CHUISTIAN NAMES AND 
SURNAMES. 

Joseph Came, Peter Wentup, Joseph Scolds. John Sat, Thomas 
Simmers, John Smothers, Sarah Simpers, Ruth Shaves, Barbary 
Staggers, William Sorrows, Joseph Ro<leback, Christy Forgot, 
Agreen Crabtree, Christian Bonnet, Truelovo Sparks, Snow Frost, 
Preserved Taft, Wanton Bump, Adam Hatmakor, Darling White- 
man, Mourning Chestnut, River Jordan, Moses Rainwater, Chri.-tian 
Shelf, Sermon CotUn, Boston Frog, Jedediah Brickhouse, Jemima 
Crysick, Bachelor Chance, Su.-yinnah li.Mits, Britain Spelling, 
History Gott, Anguish Lemmon, Thomas Gabiale, Inily Bai helor, 
Web Ashbean, Booze Still, Over Jordan, Thomas Purifv, Constant 
Gallnerk, Pleasant Basket, Hannah Petticoat, Balaam Bell, Abra- 
ham Bokav, Cullip Hoof, Comlort Clock, Jonah Hatchet, Noble 
Gun, Hardy Baptist, Sillah Jester, Jacob Worm, Hannah Cheese, 
Henry Caihco, Abraham Singhoree, Sharp Blount, Mercy Pepper. 



A CENTURY OF POPULATION GROWTH. 



114 

Of the total number of surnames reported in the 
United States, almost exactly half were returned for 
Pennsylvania. This was nearly double the number 
returned for any other state— probably because of the 
large proportion of Germans composing the popula- 
tion of that state. It is clear that the occurrence of 
more than one nationality as an element of popula- 
tion tends to increase greatly the number of surnames. 
In general, the number of surnames was smallest in 
the New England states, where the proportion of 
British stock was greatest. In South Carolina, with 
a popuhition no larger than that of Mame, the number 
of surnames was more than double the number report- 
ed upon the Maine schedules. In all the states the 
number of surnames occurring but once — that is, as 
represented by but 1 family— was very much greater 
than the occurrence of surnames represented by even 

Table 43.-NUMBER OF NAMES REPORTED FOR WHITE FAMILIES, CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO THE NUMBER 
OF W^ITE PERSONS IN ALL HOUSEHOLDS RECORDED UNDER SUCH NAMES, BY STATES: 1790. 



two families. In New England the number of single 
surnames was almost exactly three times as great 
in each state as the number represented by 2 fami- 
lies. In the other states a slightly smaller propor- 
tion appeared, except in the case of Virginia and 
North Carolina. In but 4 states — Massachusetts, 
Connecticut, Pennsylvania, and North Carolina — did 
any surname occur more than 500 times. The 
names so represented were Brown and Smith in Mas- 
sachusetts; Smith in Connecticut; Smith and Wil- 
liams in Pennsylvania; and Smith and Jones in North 
Carolina. But 1 surname occurred more than 1,000 
times in any one state — the name of Smith in Massa- 
chusetts. 

When analysis is made of the number of persons 
comprising the families shown in the previous table, 
the following results appear: 



NUMBER OF WHITE PERSOXS. 


United 
States. 


Maine. 


New 
Hamp- 
shire. 


Vermont. 


Massa- 
chusetts. 


Bhode 
Island. 


Connect- 
icut. 


New 
York. 


Pennsyl- 
vania. 


Mary- 
land. 


Virginia. 


North 
Carolina. 


South 
Carolina. 


Total 


27,337 


2,640 


2,588 


2,469 


4.452 


1.396 


3,412 


7,462 


13,383 


6.552 


5,355 


6,777 


5.391 


1 


710 

11,727 
9,162 
2,055 
1,463 

639 
343 
220 
354 
187 

197 
95 
97 
37 
16 

19 
8 
6 
2 


81 

1,045 

1,012 

261 

162 

47 
15 
9 

6 

1 

1 


40 

890 

1,008 

276 

201 

94 
34 
14 
20 
7 

2 

1 
1 


27 
932 
1,051 
267 
137 

30 
17 
4 
2 

1 

1 


62 

1,685 

1,399 

450 

358 

185 

106 
05 
74 
26 

26 
9 
5 

1 


IS 
595 
495 
117 

92 

38 
25 
5 
5 
3 

3 


69 

1,292 

1,074 

365 

310 

114 
78 
39 
51 
19 

7 
2 

i 


106 

3,419 

2,486 

674 

447 

164 
69 
36 
34 
15 

9 


301 

6,585 

4,928 

779 

463 

114 
81 
43 
50 
12 

17 

4 
4 


155 

3.202 

2,408 

448 

203 

78 

27 

12 

9 

5 

5 


200 

2.029 

2,173 

520 

271 

70 
38 
14 
22 
10 

5 
2 
1 


389 

2,656 

2,608 

571 

316 

lOO 
52 
19 
35 
17 

7 
2 
4 
1 


189 


2to9 


2,570 


10 to 49 ... 


2,043 


50 to<*9 


335 




IfiO 


200 to 299 


47 


300 to ;i99 -. 


22 


400 to 499 


8 


500 to 749 


10 


750 to 999 


3 


l.OOOto 1.499 


3 






2 000 to 2 't99 








3 




1 


3 000 to 3 99<) 






















1 




2 








5,000 to 7,499 








1 














7.500 to 9.999 
























10.000 to 14.999. .. 


















































1 





















While the number of names represented by 1 family 
is exceedingly large, the number of names represented 
by only 1 person is very small. In all the states, 
the proportion of surnames represented by from 2 to 
50 persons includes the greater number; in Penn- 
sylvania, for example, all but 1,870 names out of 
13,38.3 were represented by from 2 to 50 people. Such 
an analysis brings out the fact of the very wide distri- 
bution of names, and the small number of persons 
appearing under a surname in any one state. 

Table 44 shows that the average number of per- 
sons per name for the area covered was between 90 
and 100, while the proportion varied in the different 
states from 25 to S3. It is a significant fact, suggested 
both by this table and by Table 43 that Massachu- 
setts, the population of which was almost exclusively 
of British extraction, closely followed by most of the 
New England states, reports the highest proportion 
of families per name and consequently of persons per 
name. Table 44 reflects, in general, the tendency of 
the homogeneous population to show a smaller pro- 



portion of surnames to population than does a mixed 
population, such as that of Pennsylvania and South 
Carolina. 

Table 44. — Average number of white families per name, and average 
number of white persons per name and family, by states: 1790. 





Num- 
ber of 
names. 


Number 

of 
families. 


Number 

of 
persons. 


AVERAGE NTJMBER OF— 


STATE. 


Fam- 
Uies 
per 

name. 


Persons— 




Per 
name. 


Per 
family. 


United states 


27. .137 


443,726 


2,505,371 


16.2 


91.6 


5.6 




2.040 
2,588 
2,469 
4,452 
1,396 
3,412 
7, 402 
13.383 
6,562 
5,355 
6.777 
5,381 


16,972 
23,982 
14,969 
65, 149 
10,854 
40,457 
54,190 
73,323 
32,012 
38,245 
48,021 
25,552 


95,334 
140, 479 

84.772 
371,770 

64,988 
232,641 
308,404 
419,917 
179.283 
203,502 
265,006 
139,275 


6.4 
9.3 
6.1 

14.6 
7.8 

11.9 
7.3 
5.5 
4.9 
7.1 
7.1 
4.7 


36.1 
54.3 
34.3 
83.5 
46.6 
68.2 
41.3 
31.4 
27.3 
38.0 
39.1 
25.9 


5.6 




5.9 




5.7 


Massachusetts 


5.7 




6.0 




5.8 


New York . . 


6.7 




5.7 


Maryland 

Virginia 


5.6 
5.3 




5.5 


South Carolina 


5.5 







SURNAMES OF THE WHITE POPULATION IN 1790. 



115 



In Table 111, which appears upon page 227, will be 
found a list of 3,6G1 names, comprising all those rep- 
resenteti by at least 100 white persons. These names 
have been correlated, and the total number of families 
bearing such names in the United States and in each 
of the several states (in 1790) is shown, with the ap- 
proximate number of persons comprised in such 
families. Reference has already been made to the 
dissimilarity between the number of surnames in the 
United States at the period of the First Census and 
the number of persons represented by names. The 
tendency of the ])opulation at that period to group 
under surnames of frequent occurrence is imlicated by 
the fact that 11,934 names represent less than 1 per 
cent of the white population; 11,742 represented 15.7 
per cent and the remaining 3,661 names specified in 
Table 111 represented 83.8 percent. 

The total number of names comprised in this table 
approximates 13 per cent of the entire number of 
names recorded upon the schedules for the area cov- 
ered, and eight-tenths of 1 per cent of all the families 
in the same area. 

A conclusion to be drawn from this analysis is that 
at the beginning of Constitutional Government approx- 
imately 800 surnames — practically all of which were of 
English or British origin — contributed about one-third 
of the entire population of the United States, while 
all the remaining population was distributed among 
a great variety of surnames, 38 per cent of which were 
represented by one family only. 

The number of heads of families with approximate 
total number of persons, uniler a few of the names of 
more frequent occiurence, were: 



NAU. 


Number of 
tamiUea. 


Toul 
penons. 


Smith i 


6.«S2 
3.368 
2,575 

2,sei 

3,046 
2,242 
2,283 
2,225 
1,765 


3S,24S 
1»,17S 
14,300 
14,300 
14,004 
13,766 


ItrowD 


Davis 


Jones 




Clark 


Williams 


12,717 


Miller 


12, 6M 


Wilson 


»,7»7 





These 9 names represented about 4 per cent of the 
total white population in 1790. 

The absence of middle names or initials from the 
schedules of the First Census is so noticeable as to 
suggest the practical growth of this custom after the 
beginning of the nineteenth century. The carelessness 
of enumerators might, in many instances, explain the 
failure to include middle muues or initials u|)on some 
of the schedules, but defects of enumeration in this 
particular would not be so general as to result in almost 
complete absence of such names. Upon a document 
of such momentous importance as the Declaration of 
Independence, signed by the most distinguished men 
of the period, complete signatures were of course to 
be expected; yet it will be remembered that upon this 
document appear the names of but 3 persons having 
middle names — Robert Treat Paine, Richard Henry 
Lee, and Francis Light foot Lee. 

It would be of the utmost interest to compare sta- 
tistics of surnames at the Twelfth Census with those 
here presented for the First, but no such information 
is available. Meager as are the statistical data yielded 
by the First Census, it is probable that it will long 
stand as the only census for which statistics of no- 
menclature exist. 



XI NATIONALITY AS INDICATED BY NAMES OF HEADS OF 
FAMILIES REPORTED AT THE FIRST CENSUS. 

NATIONALITY IN STATES FOR WHICH SCHEDULES EXIST— IN THOSE 
FOR WHICH SCHEDULES ARE MISSING— COMPOSITION OF POPULATION 
OF T'iTICAL COUNTIES IN 1900— SLAVEHOLDLNG BY NATIONALITY. 



In modern census taking nationality is determined 
by the response of the individual to the question con- 
cerning place of birth or the place of birth of parents. 
Such a classification is obviously impossible in con- 
nection with the First Census : as the only means of 
determining the nationalities of whole families at that 
census is by inspection of the names of the heads of 
families as they appear upon the existing schedules. 
If this be remembered, so that no confusion shall 
arise through an attempt to force comparisons, the 
results attained from inspection of the First Census 
schedules present a very interesting and doubtless 
a reasonably accurate analysis of the nationality of 
the population at the time. Such classification, 
however, is obviously in the nature of an indication 
of blood, or what maybe termed nationalit}' strain, 
since it takes no account of the actual place of birth 
or parentage of the individual, or of the length of 
time which the bearers of the name may have been 
absent from the mother country. The ancestors of 



the bearer of an Irish or Dutch name may have 
arrived in the first shipload of immigrants who 
landed on the shores of Virginia, Manhattan, or New 
England, so that at the time of the First Census the 
descendant enumerated possessed few or none of the 
characteristics of the nationahty indicated. On the 
other hand, the individual may have arrived in the 
United States alone or with his family but a few weeks 
prior to the enumeration. I 

Emphasis is laid upon the above facts in order that 
no misunderstanding may arise concerning the analy- 
sis of nationality here presented. While, therefore, it 
can not be regarded as possessing the least value from 
the standpoint of modern classification by place of 
birth, such an analysis, especially for the period under 
consideration, possesses great value as indicating the 
proportions contributed by the different nationalities, 
to the population at the time the First Census was 
taken. M 



Table 45.— PERCENT DISTRIBUTION OF THE WHITE POPULATION OF EACH STATE ACCORDING TO NATIONALITY 

AS INDICATED BY NAMES OF HEADS OF FAMILIES: 1790. 





AREA COVEKED. 


MAINE. 


NEW HAMPSmBE. 


VERMONT. 


MASSACHUSETTS. 


RHODE ISLAND. 


CONNECTICUT. 


NAME. 


Number. 


Per 
cent. 


Number. 


Per 
cent. 


Number. 


Per 
cent. 


Number. 


Per 
cent. 


Number. 


Per 
cent. 


Number. 


Per 

cent. 


Number. 


Per 
cent. 


All nationalities 


2,810,248 


100.0 


96,107 


100.0 


141,112 


100.0 


85,072 


100.0 


373, 187 


100.0 


64,670 


100.0 


232,236 


100 








2,345,844 
188,589 
44,273 
56,623 

13,384 

156, 457 

1,243 

3,835 


83.5 
6.7 
1.6 
2.0 

0.5 
5.6 
0) 
0.1 


89,515 

4.154 

1,334 

279 

115 

436 

44 

230 


93.1 
4.3 
1.4 
0.3 

0.1 

0.5 

^^.2 


132.726 

6.648 

1,346 

153 

142 


94.1 
4.7 
1.0 
0.1 

0.1 


81,149 

2,562 

597 

428 

153 
35 


95.4 
3.0 
0.7 
0.5 

0.2 
(') 


354,528 

13,'435 

3,732 

373 

746 
75 
67 

231 


95.0 
3.6 
1.0 
0.1 

0.2 
0.1 


62.079 

1,976 

459 

19 

88 
33 
9 

7 


96.0 
3.1 
0.7 

(■) 

0.1 
0.1 


223,437 

6,425 

1,589 

258 

512 
4 
5 
6 








Irish 


0.7 
0.1 

a2 


Dutch 




German 


Hebrew 






(1» 


All other 


97 


0.1 


148 


0.2 


),( 






NATIONALITY AS INDICATED BY 


NEW YORK. 


PENNSYLVANU. 


KkTlTUiSD. 


VtRGINIA.s 


NORTH CAROLINA. 


SOUTH CAROUNA. 


NAME. 


Number. 


Percent. Number. 


Per cent. 


Number. 


Per cent. 


Number. 


Percent. 


Number. 


Per cent. 


Number. 


Percent 


All nationalities 


314,366 


100.0 423,373 


100.0 


208,649 


100.0 


442,117 


100.0 


289, 181 


100.0 


140,178 


100.0 




English 


245,901 
10,034 
2,525 
50,600 

2,424 

1, 103 

385 

1.394 




59.0 
11.7 
2.0 
0.6 

0.6 
26.1 


175,265 

13,562 

5,008 

209 

1,400 

12,310 

626 


84.0 
6.5 
2.4 
0.1 

0.7 
5.9 
0.3 
0.1 


375,799 

31,391 

8,842 

884 

2,653 
21,664 


85.0 
7.1 
2.0 
0.2 

0.6 

4.9 


240, 309 

32,388 

6,651 

578 

868 

8,097 

1 





82.4 
11.7 
2.6 
0.2 

1.3 

1.7 
0.1 


Scotch 


3.2 

0.8 
16.1 

0.8 
0.4 
0.1 
^ 


49,567 
8,614 
2,623 

2.341 

110,357 

21 


11.2 
2.3 
0.2 

0.3 
2.8 
(') 


16, 447 

3.576 

219 

1,882 

2,343 

85 


Irish 


Dutch 


French 


Gentian. 


Hebrew 


.\Il other 


















•; 








'"' 




■ ■i 




2»» 




u. 1 











(116) 



1 Less thau onc-teuth uf 1 per cent. 



3 Source of data explained on pafje 119. 



r 



I 



NATIONALITY. 



117 



The analysis by nationality as shown by names in- 
dicates that the English stock composed 83.5 percent 
of all the white population at the period of the First 
Census, and if the Scotch and the Irish be added, the 
British stock represented a little more than 90 per 
cent; while the Germans contributed slightly loss than 
6 per cent, and the Dutch 2 per cent. This fact is not 
surprising; the colonies had been under English rule 
for more than a century, the lust to submit being the 
Dutch colony of New Amsterdam, from which New 
York and New Jersey were created in 1064. 

Vu-ginia, settled by the British in 1609, had at the 
First Census but 6 per cent non-English population, 
and of these 5 per cent were what are known as "Valley 



Dutch," that is, Germans who had migrated through 
Maryland from Pennsylvania. 

New England was almost as English as old England, 
the lowest proportion (93.1) being in Maine and the 
highest (96.2) in Rhode Island. 

M'ere it feasible to make an analysis of the popula- 
tion of the Southern states in 1900 similar to that made 
from the schedules of the First Census, it is probable 
that little change would be noted from the proportions 
shown in 1790. In that section there has been a 
noteworthy preservation of the purity of the stock 
enumerated m 1790, contra.sted with the extraordinary 
change in the composition of the jxjpulation which 
has taken place in the remainder of the nation. 



Diagram lO.-PROPORTION OF TOTAL POPULATION FORMED BY EACH NATIONALITY: 1790. 




Table 46 — PER CENT DISTRIBUTION OF THE WHITE POPULATION OF EACH NATIONALITY AS INDirATIT 
N.\MES OF HEADS OF F.VMILIES, ACCORDING TO STATE OF RESIDENCE: 1790. 



' IIY 



STATE. 


ALL NATIOMAU- 

TIE3. 


ENGUSB. 


SCOTCH. 


IRISH. 


DOTCn. 


nUENCH. 


OEKIIAK. 


BBBUW. 


ALL OTBSB. 


Number. 


Per 
cent. 


Number 


Per 

cent. 


Num- 
ber. 


Per 
cent. 


Num- 
ber. 


Per 
cent. 


Num- 
ber. 


Per 
cent. 


Num- 
ber. 


Per 
cent. 


Num- 
l«r. 


Per 
cent. 


Num- 
ber. 


Per 
cent. 


Num- 
ber. 


Per 
cent. 


Area covered.. 


2.810.248 


loao 


2.345.844 


100.0 


188.589 


100.0 


44.273 


loao 


66.(!23 


loao 


ia384 


loao 


156.457 




>35 

ao" 

97 
148 
231 

7 

« 

1,304 

l»4 

209 

884 
289 
146 


loao 


Maine 


96.107 
141.112 

85.072 
373. 187 

64.670 
232,236 
314. 3G6 
423.373 

208.649 
442.117 
289.181 
140. 178 


a4 

5.0 

ao 
las 

2.3 
&3 
11.2 
15.1 

7.4 
15.7 

ia3 

5.0 


89. M5 
132.726 

81,149 
334,528 

62,079 
223.437 
245.901 
249,656 

175.265 
375.799 
240.309 
115,480 


as 

5.7 

as 

15.1 

2.6 
9..i 
10. 5 

ia6 

7.5 
16.0 
10 2 

4.9 


4.154 
6.048 
2.562 
13,435 

1.976 
6.425 

io.o:m 

49,567 

13.562 
31,391 
32,388 
16,447 


2.2 

as 

1.4 

7.1 

1.0 

a4 

5.3 
26.3 

7.2 
1&6 
17.2 

8.7 


1.334 

1.346 

597 

3,732 

459 
1.589 
2. .525 
8.614 

5,008 
8.842 
6.651 
3.576 


ao 
ao 

1.3 
8.4 

1.0 

a6 

5.7 

las 

11.3 

2ao 

15.0 

&1 


279 
1.13 
428 
373 

19 

2.Vt 

50.600 

2.623 

209 
884 

578 
219 


a5 
a3 
as 

0.7 

0) 

OS 

89.4 

4.6 

a4 

1.6 
1.0 

a4 


US 
142 
153 
746 

88 

512 

2.424 

2,341 

1,460 

2,653 

868 

1,882 


a9 

1.1 
l.l 

S.6 

a7 
a8 

18.1 
17.5 

lag 

19.8 
6.5 
14.1 


436 


a;i 


44 


i.i 


a.0 


New Ham|»tiire 


Zi 


3S 

75 

33 

4 

1.103 

110,357 

12.310 
21.W>4 
8.097 
2,343 


{:^ 

a7 
7a s 

7.9 

las 

5.3 
1.5 






as 


Massachusetts 

Rhode Island 

Connecticut 

New York 


87 

9 

6 

385 

21 

036 


5.4 

a7 
a4 

31.0 
1.7 

sa4 


&0 

aa 

3a.3 


Pennsylvania 

Maryland 

Virpnia' 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 


S.4 

2ai 


1 

85 


ai 
e.8 


7.5 

as 



> Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent. 
76292—09 9 



> Source o( data explained on page 119. 



Diagram 1 



1,-DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION OF STATES ACCORDING TO NATIONALITY: 1790. 






MAINE 



NEW HAMPSHIRE 



VERMONT 






MASSACHUSETTS 



RHODE ISLAND 



CONNECTICUT 






NEW YORK 



PENNSYLVANIA 



MARYLAND 






VIRGINIA 



NORTH CAROLINA 



SOUTH CAROLINA 



NATIONALITY 



119 



NATIONALITY IN THE STATES AND TERRITORIES FOR 
WHICH SCHEDULES ARE MISSING. 

Reference has already been made to the fact that 
analysis of nationality at the Plrst Census is necessarily 
limited to the sciiedules which are still in existence. In 
the case of Virtjinia, proportions of the population rep- 
resented by the dillerent nationalities were obtained 
by utilizing the returns of the state enumerations 
made in 17.82 to 17S5 (covcrin<r .38 counties), and 
applying the results thus obtamed to the population 
of the entire state as returned at the census of 1790. 
For Delaware the schedules of the Second Census are 
available. As there was but httle change in the total 
population of the state, or its composition, during 
the decade, the percentages shown at the Second 
Census doubtless reflect accuratel}- the nationalitj' of 
the population of the state reported ten years earlier. 
This analysis shows the following result: 

Nalionalilies of the population of Delaware, on the basis of the 1800 
proportions: 1790. 



NATIONAUTY. 


Proportion 

shown from 

schedules 

oflSOO. 


Distribution 
of population 
in 1790 on the 

1800 propor- 
tions. 


All nationalities 


loao 


46,310 




British . .. 


97.7 

8&3 

7.5 

3.9 

1.0 

as 

0.4 

a4 


45.245 


Enclish 


33,966 


Scotch 


3.473 


Irish 


1,806 


Dutch 


4G3 


Frpnrh 


232 


Qerman 


185 


Another 


185 







holding citizens of the county, embracing more than 
two-thirds of the entire number of iieails of families as 
reported at the First Census. This analysis sliowetl 
the following result: 

Nationalities of the population of Somerset county, A. J. as indicated 
by the surnames of freeholders: 1790. 



The earliest schedules for the state oi New Jersej'^ 
which arc in existence are those for theTifth Census 
(lS30),whic]i was so far distant from 1700 that the later 
census obviously could not bo regarded as reflecting 
conditions which prevailed in 1790. With the assist- 
ance of the Historical Society of New Jersey, a list of 
the freeholders of Somerset count}' in the year 1790 
was secured, and an analysis was made of these names — 
obviously those of all of the representative or propert}' 



TOWN. 


Total. 


Eng- 
lish. 


Scotch. 


Iri^l.. 


llUU'il. 


l-C.UM 


iiun. 


All 
other. 


The county 

Percent... 


1,277 
100.0 


755 
59.1 


66 
5.1 


12 
0.9 


383 
30.0 


24 

l.« 


7 
0.5 


31 
2.4 


Bernards town 


307 
139 
271 
187 
216 
157 


243 

96 
170 
71 
92 
83 


34 
8 
8 
6 
2 
7 


5 
2 
5 


22 
28 
57 
102 
108 
66 


3 
3 
9 
3 
6 






iJedmiii.sU'r town 

Hridgi'wat4r town... 

ICastirn town 

HillsborouKh town... 
Western town 


2 

5 




i 
8 
1 











If it were an assured fact that Somerset county was 
representative in the composition of its population, it 
is obvious that the percentages here shown might, 

' with some propriety, be ap{)licd to the remaining 12 
counties. Unfortunately' this method of procedure is 
not feasible. The composition of the population by 
nationality varied greatly in the counties of New Jersey. 
The proportion shown in Somerset is therefore no 

I guide to the proportions which actually existed 

I elsewhere. 

I An analysis of the population of the various counties 

[ of New Jersey has been furnished, at the request of the 
Director of the Census, by Mr. William Nelson, cor- 
responding secretary of the New Jersey Historical 

' Society, after consultation with Dr. Austin Scott, of 
New Brunswick, N. J., and Dr. E. S. Sharpe. presi- 
dent of the Salem County Historical Society.' Such an 

I analj'sis is necessarily merely an approximation, but it 
represents the painstaking estimates of the leading 
authorities in the state upon New Jersey history, and 
the figures resulting from an ap])lication of the per- 
centages to the poi)ulation of the state in 1790 are 
doubtless sufficiently accurate to indicate the distribu- 
tion by nationalit)-. Upon the basis of tlus analysis 
the following tables result: 



^ Bergen.— Thia county waa originally settled l)y Dutch, wilh a very email admixture of Dane.i. Prior to 1680 there was a slronp 
infusion of French settlers from Harlem. There was at no time any independent immigration from Krancc. Some of the families havinp 
Dutch name?, as the "Van Biiskirks," were of German origin, and for more than a century were almost exclusively conne<led with the 
German Lutheran Church. As early as 1700 there was a considerable infusion of German jiopulation from New York cily and from fJerman 
Bettlemenis north of New Jersey. About 1765 there was a considerable importation of German miners, principally from Uavaria, who set lied 
in the upper part of the county, working in the iron mines of Hergen county and Morris county. There were Scotch settlers also at a very 
eariy period, say 1725 and later, who perhaps worked in the Dutch flax industry, and through afTiliations with or acquaintance with Dutch 
settlers came to this country. I would say that in 1790 the population waa about as follows: French, 15 per cent; Germans, 20 per cent; 
Scotch, 5 percent; Irish (principally in liie iron mines), 5 percent; English, 15 percent; Dutch, -10 percent. . , , 

Bur/uij/on.— This county was almost exclusively settled from England, or by English capitalists, who, however, induced some settle- 
ment from the Friends of Ireland; also Friends from Wales. There was a small admixture of Swedes, who had previously seulc<l in the 
Bouthem part of the state. I would approximate the percentages of nationality in 1790 as follows: Welsh, o per cent; Swedes, o per 
cent; Irish, 10 per cent, English, 80 per cent. ,t^i-i., i tijj 

Cape May —This county waa originally settled by Swedes and Finns, but soon there waa an influx of English from Long Island and 
New England. In 1790 the percentages of nationality were as follows: Swedes, 40 per cent; Finns 10 per cent; English, 50 percent. 

Cumberland.— This county waa principally settled by the English from Long Island, New England, and the mother counln- with a 
Blight admixture of Finns, ih 1790 the percentages of nationality were as follows: Swedes, 10 per cent; Finn.s, 2 per cent; Welsh, 3 per 
cent; Germans (employed in the iron works and gla.«« works), 10 per cent; Irish (employed in the iron works and glass works), 10 per cent; 

°^£jsea;.— ^his*county waa originally settled from New England and Long Island and was exclusively English. By 1790 a congiderable 



120 A CENTURY OF POPULATION GROWTH. 

Estimated per cent of the population of New Jersey contributed hy specified nationalities: 1790. 



COUNTY. 


English 

and 
Welsh. 


Scotch. 


Irish. 


Dutch. 


French. 


German. 


Hebrew. 


Swedish 

and 
Finnish. 


All other. 




58.0 


7.7 


7.1 


12.7 


2.1 


9.2 




2.9 


0.1 


The State 






Bereen 

Burlington 


15.0 
85.0 
50.0 
68. 
60.0 

80.0 
30.0 
38.0 
75.0 

55.0 
83.0 
59.1 
55.0 


5.0 


6.0 
10.0 


40.0 


15.0 


20.0 




5.'6" 

60.0 




Cumberland 

Essei 

Gloucester 

Hunterdon 


io.'o' 

i6.'6' 


10.0 
10.0 

5.0 

10.0 

4.0 

5.0 

10.0 
10.0 
0.9 
5.0 


15. 0' 

25.'6" 


5.'6' 


io.o 

6.0 

25.0 

2.0 

2.0 

20.0 




12.0 
10.0 




Mlddlese.x 

Monmouth 


15.0 
5.0 


10.0 


3.0 








Morris 






7.0 






5.1 
5.0 


30.0 
15.0 


1.9 


0.5 
20.0 




2.4 























Total number of persons in families in New Jersey of which the names of heads indicate specified nationality, com- 
puted upon the basis of estimMed proportions in 1790. 



COUNTY. 


Total. 


English 

and 
Welsh. 


Scotch. 


Irish. 


Dutch. 


French. 


German. 


Hebrew. 


Swedish 

and 
Finnish. 


AH other. 


The State 


169,954 


98,620 


13,156 


12,099 


21,581 


3,665 


15,678 




5,006 


249 


Bergen - — 

Burlington 


10.108 
17.270 
2,416 
7.990 
16,454 

12.830 
18,661 
14.498 
14,969 

15.532 
9.891 
10,339 
18,996 


1,516 
14,679 
1,208 
5,433 
9,873 

10,264 
6,599 
&,(■■<» 

11,227 

8,543 
8,210 
6,111 
10,448 


606 


505 
1,727 


4,043 


1,516 


2,022 










864 

1,208 

959 
















Cumberland 




799 
1,646 

642 

1,866 

580 

749 

1,553 
989 
94 
950 






799 






1,645 


2,468 


823 






Gloucester 


641 

4.666 

290 

299 

3,106 




1,283 




i,866 
4,639 
2,245 

777 


4.665 
2,900 








Middlesex 

Monmouth 


680 
449 














1,553 














692 






628 
950 


3.103 
2,849 


197 


57 
3,799 




249 





















The estimates referred to place the percentage of 
Dutch in the total population of New Jersey higher 
than actually existed in 1790 anywhere else in the 



United States, even in New York. This, however, does 
not discredit the estimate as New Jersey was part of 
the early Dutch settlement. 



immigration of other nationalities had set in, and in that year the population was approximately as follows: French, 5 per cent; Scotch, 
10 per cent; Irish, 10 per cent; Dutch, 15 per cent; English, 60 per cent. 

Gloucester. — This county was settled originally by the Swedes. Afterwards there was an infiux, principally of English, with some 
slight admixture of Welsh. In 1790 the population was approximately as follows: Swedes, 10 per cent; Welsh, 5 per cent; Germans, 5 
per cent; Irish, 5 per cent; English, 75 per cent. 

Hunterdon. — This county was originally settled by English from Burlington county. About 1715 there was a considerable immigra- 
tion of Germans, who came from the ralatinate and elsewhere in Germany, being rnembers of the Lutheran Church. There was also a 
considerable immigration from northern New Jersey, principally Bergen county, and also from Monmouth and Somerset counties, and 
from Long Island. In 1790 the population was approximately as follows: Gernians, 25 percent; Dutch, 25 per cent; Irish (working in 
the mines and on farms), 10 per cent; Scotch, 10 per cent; English, 30 per cent. 

J/idrfZcscx.— This county was settled originally by the English. About 1685 there was a considerable importation of Scotch. About 
1690-1730, the Dutch came in. In 1790 the population was made up about as follows: Dutch, 20 percent; Scotch, 20 per cent; Germans, 
5 per cent; Irish, 5 per cent; French, 2 per cent; English, 48 per cent. 

i/o?i»ioi///( .— This county was originally settled by the English, but before the end of the seventeenth century there was a considerable 
influx of Dutch, principally from Long Island. Some of the Scotch settlers of Middlesex also drifted in. In 1790 the population was 
approximately as follows: Scotch, 15 per cent; Irish, 5 per cent; French, 3 per cent; Germans, 2 per cent; English, 75 per cent. 

Morris.— This county was settled early in the eighteenth century, say 1710-1720, by English and Germans in almost equal proportions. 
Afterwards Dutch drifted in. About 1765 there was a further influx of German miners from Bavaria, and from then on Irish workmen were 
attracted to the mines. In 1790 the population was approximately as follows: Irish, 10 per cent; Scotch, 5 per cent; Dutch, 10 per cent; 
Germans, 20 per cent; English, 55 per cent. 

Salem.— This county was originally settled, about 1675, by English, with a slight infusion from Ireland and Wales. There were also 
Bome Swedes and Finns from the original settlers, about 1635. The population underwent very slight changes until 1790, when it stood 
about as follows: Finns, 2 per cent ; Swedes, 5 per cent; Irish, 10 per cent; Welsh, 5 per cent; English, 78 per cent. 

Somerset .—This, county was analyzed by the Census Office from the list of freeholders in 1790. I would have said that Somerset had: 
Scotch, 10 per cent; Irish, 3 per cent; French, 2 per cent; Germans, 5 per cent. 

-Smssct.— This county was originally settled early in the eighteenth century, or perhaps late in the seventeenth century, by Dutch 
from New Y ork fftate. Then English settlers came in from Burlington and Hunterdon counties; also Germans from Hunterdon county; 
about 1765 German miners from Bavana, and Irish laborers in the mines, with some slight infusion of Scotch also. In 1790, I should 
say the population was about as follows: Irish, 5 per cent; Scotch, 5 per cent; Germans, 20 per cent; Dutch, 15 per cent; English, 55 per 
cent. 

WiLLi.\M Nelson. 



NATIONALITY. 



121 



The composition of the white population of Georgia, 
Kentucky, and of the district subsequently erected 
into the state of Tennessee, is also unknown; but 
in view of the fact that Georgia was a distinctly 
English colony, and tliat Tennessee and Kentucky 
were settled largely- from Virginia and North Carolina, 
the application of the North Carolina proportions to 



the white population of these three results in what is 
doubtless an approximation of the actual distribution. 
Utilizing for tlio states and territories for which 
the 1790 schedules are missing, tiio proportions 
secured as above indicated, the foUowuig summary 
results: 



Table 47.-C0MPUTED DISTRIBUTION OF THE WHITE POPULATION OF EACH STATE FOR WHICH SCHEDULES ARE 

MISSING, ACCORDING TO NATIONALITY: 1790. 





NEW JERSEY. 


DELAWASI. 


j CEOBQIA. KENTDCKY. 


TCmiEanK. 




Number. Percent. 


Number. 


Percent. 


Number. 


Per cent. ' Number. ' Per cent. 

1 ! 


Nimiber. \ Percent. 




166,064 1 100.0 


46,310 


IW.O 


62,886 


100. 


61.133 1 ino n 


1 ! 








English 


98,620 
13,166 
12,099 
21,681 

3,566 
15,678 

6,266 


68.0 
7.7 
7.1 

12.7 
2.1 
9.2 
3.1 


39,966 
3,473 
1,S06 
463 
Ji2 
115 
185 


M.3 
7.6 
3* 
1.6 
«.t 
«.4 
•.4 


43,948 

1 6,923 

1,216 

' 106 

16* 

1,481 

63 


83.1 
11.2 
2.3 
0.2 
6.3 
2.1 
•.1 


1 60.802 

1 6.S47 

; 1,400 

IK 

113 

1,712 

61 


0.2 
0.3 
2.8 
0.1 








Irish 


;.<4 

64 
•6 
8»4 
32 


2:3 
0.2 
0.3 
2.8 
0.1 


Dutch 




flflrman . 


All Other' 





' Includes Hebrew. 



NATIONALITY OF TOTAL WIIITK POPUL.\TION IN 1790 
AND OF WHITE NATIVE STOCK IX 1900. 

The above figures maj" be accepted as representing 
the actual proportions with sufficient accuracy to 
justify computing the distribution by nationality for 
the total white population of the United States as it 
existed in 1790. The result is as follows: 

Table 48. — Number and per cent distribution of the white popula- 
tion according to nationality: 1790. 





AXEA COVEKED. 




Number. 


Percent. 


All natlonalitips 


3,172,444 


160.0 






English 


2,605,699 
221,602 
61,534 
78,959 
17,619 
176,407 
10, WH 


82.1 


Scotch 


7.0 


Irish 


1.9 


Dutch . 


2.6 




0.6 




6.6 




0.3 







In a preceding cliaptor the number of descendants 
of wliite persons enumerated at the First Census lias 
been established as approximately 35,000,000 in 1900. 
While it is not to be expected that tiie exact pro- 
portions of nationalities indicated above as existing in 
1790 have been maintained in the native population, 
it is interesting to note tliat were the proportions 
contributed by the different nationahties composing 
the native population the same in 1900 as they were in 
1790, tlie 3."),000,000 would have been distributed as 
sho^vn in Table 49. 

As a matter of fact it is probable that the native 
populiilion in recording an increase of nearly 700 per 
cent during the century has departed somewhat from 
the proportions shown at the outset. It will be 
remembered that the analysis ui a preceding chapter 



showed the addition in 1900 of 32,000,000 of white 
persons arriving after the First Census, either foreign 
born tliemselves or of foreign parentage. It lias also 
been pointed out that the foreign stock is probably 
increasing with greater rapidity than tiie native. 
Whatever the proportionate increa.se may be, liowever, 
between the two elements, it is of these two rather 
diverse strains that the white population of the 
United States is at present composed. 

Table 49. — While native stock in 1900 distribxued by nalionalily 
according to proportions shown for 1790. 



NATtONALnr. 


Population. 


All nationalities 


35,000,000 








English 


28.735,000 




2,460.000 


Irish 


665.000 


Dutch 


875,000 




210,000 




1,960,000 


A U other 


105,000 







NATIONALITY IN 1000 I\ TYPICAL COUNTIES. 

In order to illustrate tlie change which has been 
in progress during the century, an analysis was made 
by nationaUt}^ of the names upon the 1900 schedules 
of Hartford county, Conn.,' and of Columbia county, 
N. Y., which were regarded as typical urban and 
rural counties, respectively. Bothremained practically 
unchanged in boundary from 1790 to 1900. By apply- 
ing the same method of analysis to the names upon 
the schedules of the Twelfth Census as was apjilied to 
those upon the schedules of 1790, and by which the 
results presented in the preceding tables were secured, 
the nationahty of the white population of the 2 coun- 
ties mentioned was composed in 1900 as is shown in 
Table 50: 



' See page 123. 



DISTRIBUTION OF DIFFERENT NATIONALITIES IN 1790, BY STATES. 





(V. x^ 


SCOTCH 


r\ 


v^ 


\ 




j V 




(^ 


~^4 


'z^ 


3 V 


) ,e 






Y > 


-^ 




/ 


LL 


\ 




V 





f\ J^'—^ GERiVlAN 


/^ 


V^X^ V 


/ V 


\jnfi 


:/W 


uj!i 


^ 


\j^ J _ 


/" /^ 


' ^ \r^ 


- jj 



Q] LMS TH»» . «» CEHT ^JTO.OPMC£NT ^g . O TO 51 Pt» CENT g^ J6 TO 50 PEB CENT 



I 50 PER CENT AND OVER 



NATIONALrrV. 



123 



Table 50.-WHITE POPULATION OF HARTFORD COINTY, CO.N.N., AND OF rOLl'MBIA COrXTY \ Y CI ASSIFIFH 
BY NATIONALITY AS INDICATED BY NAMES OF HEADS OF iSlUES iS^ AND 1900 ' "'^^'''"^^ 



NATIONAUTY. 



All nationalities. 
British 



English. 
Scotch . . 
Irish.... 



Dutch 

French 

German . . , 
Another*. 



> Principally French Canadian. 



HAKTroBD COUNTY, COMN. 



17S0 



Population. 



37,498 



37,429 



36,239 
956 
234 

21 
42 



Per cent 
distribu- 
tion. 



100.0 



99.8 



96.6 
2.6 
0.6 

0.1 

ai 



(•) 



1900 



Population. 



192,108 



134,860 



75,891 

7,300 

51,869 

576 
■6,532 
23,4.37 
28,703 



Percent 
distribu- 
tion. 



100.0 



OOLVMBU OODNTT, K. T. 



1790 



Population 



25,811 



IMO 



Percent 
distrlbu- Population, 
tlon. 



41,779 



70.2 



39.4 

3.8 

27.0 

0.3 
3.4 

12.2 
13.9 



20,847 



20,183 
521 
143 

4,710 
118 
102 
34 



I 



80.8 I 29,852 



78.2 
2.0 
0.6 

182 
0.5 
0.4 
0.1 



22,998 
1,337 
5,517 

2,642 

762 

7,196 

1,337 



Percent 

distrlbu. 

tlon. 



71.4 



65.0 
3.2 
13.2 

6.3 
1.8 
17.2 
3.2 



•Includes Hungarians, Italians, Roumanians, Russians, Scandinavians, etc. 

In Hartford county tlio population, wliich in 1790 
was almost exclusively British, shows a reduction in 
that respect of nearly one-third in 1900 in favor of 
other nationalities: while within the British element 
the English stock, which completely overshadowed 
the other two elements in 1790 has shrunk to scarcelj^ 
more than one-third, but tlie Irish has greatly in- 
creased. Indeed, the increase in the latter element 
represents a change from not more than 500 in 1790 
(including the Scotch-Irish) to more than 50,000 in 
1900. It Ls worthy of note also that the British ele- 
ment, which in 1790 was much greater in Hartford 
county than in Columbia, has decreased to approxi- 
mately 70 per cent in both; ami other changes, such 



■ Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent. 

as the increase in German and other nationalities in 
the community at the expense of the British element 
as a whole, and increase in the Irish stock at the 
expense of the English or original stock, have also 
been characteristic of both counties. 

The changes indicated in these 2 counties are in- 
teresting, and probably are typical of the ciianges 
which have been in progress in all the Northern states 
in the original area. 

SLAVEHOLDING, BY NATIONALITY. 



The average number of slaves per family for the 
several nationalities is shown in the following table: 



Table 51 — NUMBER OF WIUTE FA.MILIES, SLAVEHOLDING AND NONSLAVEHOLDIXG, CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO 
NATIONALITY, WITH NUMBER OF WHITE PERSONS AND OF SLAVES REPORTED FOR SUCH FAMILIES: 1790. 







WHITE 


rAHIUES. 




WHTTE PEKSONS. 




SLATES. 




NATIONAUTY. 


Total 
number. 


Slave- 
holding. 


Konsla\-e- 
bolding. 


Per cent 
slavehold- 
Ing families 

formed 
of all 


Total 
number. 


Average 
number 

per 
family. 


Total 
number. 


Average 
number 

slave- 
holding 


Number 

per 100 

of all 

tamiUu. 


All nationalities 


405,475 


47.064 


357,311 


11.8 


2,324,339 


5.7 


311,919 


6.6 


77 






English and Welsh 


336,651 
27,250 
6.285 
9,399 

1,913 

23,300 

213 

464 


38,146 

4,362 

962 

2,625 

589 

871 

33 

76 


298,505 
22.888 
5,323 
6,774 

1,324 

22,429 

180 

388 


11.3 
16.0 
15 3 
27.9 ' 

30.8 
3.7 
15.5 
16.4 


1,933.218 
153.458 
34.0S9 
55.006 

10.444 

133.032 

1,198 

2,734 


5.7 
iO 
65 
69 

65 
6.7 
66 
5.9 


258,684 
27,570 
6.578 
8.906 

6,567 

3,079 

157 

378 


as 

6.3 
6.8 
3.4 

U.l 
3.6 
4.8 
S.0 


77 


Scotch 


101 


Irish .. . ... 


105 


Dutch 


96 




343 


German ... 


13 




74 


Another 


81 







It is necessary, in consulting the foregoing table, to 
bear in mind the fact that in some instances the pro- 
porlioas are misleading. It will be observed that the 
average number of slaves por family are largest for 
families of French origin. This is accounted for by 
the fact that the total number of families of obviously 
French origin in the United States was small, and 



that a large proportion of such families were located 
in South Carolina, the state in which the average 
number of slaves per family was highest. It is not 
surprising, therefore, that the French families led in 
the proportion which slaveholding families formed 
of total families — nearly one-third were slaveholders. 
This nationality, lu)wevor, was closely followed by 



124 



A CENTURY OF POPULATION GROWTH. 



the old Dutch famihes of New York, who still con- 
tinued to possess slaves at the period under consider- 
ation. It is significant that the smallest proportion 
is sho^vn b}" the GermaiLs, who even at this early 
period were obviously opposetl to slave ownership. 



Had the proportion of slaves for the entire white 
population of the United States in 1790 been the same 
as it was for the German element, the aggregate num- 
ber of slaves at the First Census would have been 
but 52,520, instead of approximately 700,000. 



XII. INTERSTATE MIGRATION. 



ANALYSIS OF POPULATION ACCORDING TO GEOGRAPHIC DIVI- 
SION OF RESIDENCE AND OF BIRTH— DECREASE IN CONTRIBU- 
TION OF ORIGINAL AREA TO POPULATION OF ADDED AREA. 



Facilities for transportation to all parts of the 
Union are so great that the inhabitants of one sec- 
tion are able to migrate to another, even at great 
distance, with comparatively small expenditure, in- 
convenience, or delay. In consequence many per- 
sons change their place of abode so freely that in 
every state reside natives of practically every other 
state of the Union. 

Classification of the white population, by nativity 
and parentage is possible only for 1890 and 1900; but 
the returns, though covering only one decade, prove 
of interest when further classified as for the area enu- 
merated in 1790 and the added area. The following 
summary analyzes the native white population of 
native parentage in continental United States accord- 
ing to areas of residence ami of birth : 





NATIVE WHITE POPtJLATION OF NATIVE PAR- 
ENTAGE BORN IN SPECIFIED AREA. 


ABEA OF KESinENCE. 


United 
States.i 


Area enu- 
merated 
In 1790. 


State or 
Added territory 
area.i of bIrtb 
unknown. 




1S90 


Continental United States. . 


34.358,348 


18,884,378 16,217,257 


256,713 




16,458.185 
17,900,163 


16,077,2l-.8 
2,807,110 


287.409 
14,929,848 


93.508 


Added area 


163,205 








1900 


Continental United States. . 


40,949,362 


21,037,083 19,772,003 140,270 


Area enumerated In 1790 

Added urea 


18,926,020 
22,023,342 


18,435,940 1 440.927 
2,601,1.43 1 19.331,070 


49,153 
91,123 






1 





> IncluciinK persons bom In Alaska, Hawaii, Philippine Islands, and Porto Rico; 
persons born at sea under the United States Hag; and American cltliens lx)m 
abroad. 

The natives of the original area outnumbered those 
of the added area by more than 3, .500, 000 persons in 
1890, and by about 1,250,000 in 1900. The natives 
of the two sections are thus tendmg toward equality 
in numbers. Of greater significance is the change 
apparently in progress in the number of persons born 
in one area and resident in tlie other. The heavy 
contribution of the original area to the population of 
the added area decreased, while the much smaller 
contribution of the added area to the original area 
increased, and by approximately the same number as 
the falling off shown by the original area. 



It can not be assumed that the change here noted 
as in progress in 1000, in comparison with similar 
returns for 1S90, has lieen of long duration; the large 
number of persons shown in 1900 as l)orn in the older 
states and resident in the newer is tlie living aggregate 
of the generous decennial contribution b}- the original 
states to the upbuilding of innumerable communities 
in the South and Southwest. This contribution must 
have increa.sed, witli little interruption, for many years; 
while, on tlie other hand, the number of persons bom 
in the added area and resident in the original area 
must have been almost negligible in number even so 
late as 1.880. The rather significant change here indi- 
cated prompts further anah'sis by geographic divi- 
sions in Tables 52 and 53. 

In 1890 approximatel}' one-tenth as many persons 
born in the added area were resident in the area 
enumerateti in 1790 as were born in the latter area 
and resided in the former; by 1900 the ratio had 
changed to approximately one-sixth, as a result of 
marked increase (amounting to nearly one-half) in the 
number of persons born in the added area and residing 
in the original area. All of the 3 geographic divi- 
sions of the added area contributed iiureasingly of 
their native born to the population of the original area. 

The change here shown is confirmed by an exami- 
nation of the per cent distril)ution tif the residents of 
each area according to birth|)lace. The proportion of 
the native whites of native parentage born in each divi- 
sion of the area enumerated in 1790 and living in each 
division of the added area was less in 1900 than in lS!tO; 
on the other hand, the proportion living in each divi- 
sion of the area enumerated in 1790 and born in the 
Northern states of the added area iiKTeased. and the 
corresponding proportions for the Southern and West- 
ern states of the added area either increased or re- 
mained stationary. 

In observing the percentages of int rease given below, 
it should be remembered that the increase of popula- 
tion born in the area of residence is natural increase, 
while the only .source of increase of migrant population 
is continued inimigraticm. The larger the number of 
persons already in the class, the larger must be the loss 
tlirough death aiul the consequent requirement for 
new arrivals to make good the decrease thus occa- 
sioned. 

(125) 



126 



A CENTURY OF POPULATION GROWTH. 



T.BT 5-' -NATIVE WHITE POPULATION OF NATIVE PARENTAGE LIVING IN SPECIFIED GEOGRAPHIC DIVISIONS 
■- ^- '"'}--..":.. ^ „ DISTRIBUTED ACCORDING TO GEOGRAPHIC DIVISION OF BIRTH: 1890 



OF THE AREA ENUMERATED IN 1790, 
AND 1900. 





NATIVE WHITE POPtlLATlON OF NATIVE PARENTAGE LIVING IN SPECIFIED GEOGRAPHIC 
DIVISIONS OF THE AREA ENUMERATED IN 1790. 






Number. 




Per cent distribution. 


GE0GR.U"I1IC DIVISION OF BIRTH. 


Area 
enumer- 
ated in 

1790. 


New 
England. 


Middle 
states. 


Southern 
states. 


Area 
enumer- 
ated in 
1790. 


New 
England. 


Middle 
states. 


Southern 
states. 




1890 


I'ulted States 


16,364,677 


2,422.429 


6.508,486 


7,433,762 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


Continental Inited Stales 


16,362,866 


2,421,697 


6.507,517 


7,433.652 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 




16,077,268 
285,698 


2,400,690 
21,007 


6,422,837 
84,680 


7,253,741 
179,911 


98. 2 
1.7 


99.1 
0.9 


98.7 
1.3 


97.6 


Added area 


2.4 




211,295 
67.409 
6,894 

1,811 


17,299 
1,720 
1,988 

732 


76,285 
5,110 
3,285 

969 


117,711 

60, 579 

1,621 

110 


1.3 

0.4 

C) 


0.7 
0.1 
0.1 


1.2 
0.1 
0.1 

(') 


1.6 




0.8 




(') 




(') 








1900 


United States 


18,876,867 


2.500,345 1 7,498,970 


8,877,552 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


Continental United States 


18, 862, 177 


2,493,559 | 7,491,938 


8,876,680 


99.9 


99.7 


99.9 


100.0 




18,435,940 
426,237 


2,460,114 
33,445 


7,347,966 
143,972 


8,627,860 
248,820 


97.7 
2.3 


98.4 
1.3 


98.0 
1.9 


97.2 


Added area 


2.8 




313,784 
98,822 
13,631 

14,690 


27,474 
2.464 
3,507 

6,786 


128, 784 
8.298 
6.890 

7,032 


157, 526 

88,060 

3,234 

872 


1.7 
0.5 
0.1 

0.1 


1.1 
0.1 
0.1 

0.3 


1.7 
0.1 
0.1 

0.1 


1.8 




1.0 




C>) 




(') 







■ Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent. 

Table 53.— NATIVE WHITE POPULATION OF NATIVE PARENTAGE LIVING IN SPECIFIED GEOGRAPHIC DIVISIONS 
OF THE ADDED AREA WITHIN CONTINENTAL UNITED STATES, DISTRIBUTED ACCORDING TO GEOGRAPHIC 
DIVISION OF BIRTH: 1890 AND 1900. 





NATIVE WHITE POPULATION OF NATIVE PARENTAGE LIVING IN SPECIFIED GEOGRAPHIC DIVISIONS 
OF THE ADDED AREA WITHIN CONTINENTAL UNITED STATES. 




Number. 


Per cent distribution. 


GEOGRAPHIC DIVISIO.X OF BIRTH. 


Added 

area within 

continental 

United 

States. 


Northern 
states. 


Southern 
states. 


Western 
states. 


Added 
area 
within 
conti- 
nental 
United 
States. 


Northern 
states. 


Southern 
states. 


Western 
states. 




1S90 


United States... . 


17,736,958 


12,148,750 


4,131,477 


1,456,731 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 






Continental United States 


17,733,492 


12, 146, 159 


4,131,309 1 1,456,024 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 








2,807,110 


1,859,533 


645,750 


301,827 


15.8 


15.3 


15.6 


20.7 








311,811 
1,172,475 
1,322,824 

14,926,382 

3,466 


222, 608 
998,878 
638,047 

10,286,626 

2,591 


11,287 

31,518 

602, 945 

3,485,559 

168 


77,916 
142,079 
81,832 

1,154,197 

707 


1.8 
6.6 
7.5 

84.2 

(>) 


1.8 
8.2 
5.3 

84.7 

0) 


0.3 
0.8 
14.6 

84.4 


5.3 


Middle states 


9.8 


Southern states 


5 6 




79.2 


Outlying districts 


{') 






1900 


United States 


21,932,219 


14,094,381 


5,840,231 


1,997,607 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100 






Continental United States 


21,914,451 


14,082,591 


5,839,063 


1,992,797 


99.9 


99.9 


100.0 


99 8 






Area enumerated in 1790 


2,601,143 


1,508,299 


721,626 


311,218 


11.9 


11.1 


12.4 








New England 


245, 609 

999,810 

1,355,724 

19,313,308 

17,768 


161,991 

818, ass 

587,623 

12,514,292 

11,790 


10,411 
35,864 
675,351 

5,117,437 

1,168 


73,207 
145,261 
92, 750 

1,681,579 

4,810 


1.1 

4.6 
6.2 

88.1 

0.1 


1.1 
5.8 

4.2 

88.8 
0.1 


0.2 
0.6 
11.6 

87.6 

(') 


3 7 


Middle states 




Soutlieru states 


4 6 


Added area 


84.2 
0.2 


Outlying districts...-. 





1 Less than ono-tenth of 1 per cent. 



INTERSTATE MIGRATION. 



127 



The percentages of increase from 1890 to 1000 in the 
native white por.son.s of native parentage Hving in the 
area enumerated in 1700 and in tiie added area, are as 
follows : 



PER CENT or INCREASE, 1890 TO 1900, FOB 
NATIVE WHITE POPULATION OP NATIVE 
PARENTAGE LIVING IN THE AREA ENU- 



GEOGRAPHIC DIVISION OF BIRTil. 




CU IN 1(»0. 








Total. 


New 
England. 


Middle 
stales. 


Southern 
states. 


I'nltcd Stales 


15.4 


3.2 


15.2 


19.4 




Continental United States 


15.3 
14.7 
49.2 


3.0 


15.1 


19.4 




.\rea enumeratod in 1790 


2.5 

59.2 


14.4 

70.0 


18.9 
38.3 


.\ddc<l area 




Xorlhpm slates 


48.5 
46.6 
97.7 

7U.2 


58. 8 
43.3 
76.4 

827.0 


GS.8 
B2.4 
109.7 

625.7 


33.8 
45,4 
99.5 

692.7 




Western slates 


Outlying districts 





GEOGRAPHIC DIVISION OP BIRTH. 



PEE CENT OF INCREA.SE, 1890 TO 1900. POR 
NATIVE WHITE POPULATION OF NATIVE 
PARENTAGE LIVING IN ADDED AREA 
WITHIN fONTINENTAL UNITED STATES. 





Total. 


Northern 
states. 


Southern 
states. 


Western 
stales. 


United States 


23.7 


16.0 


41.4 








Continental United States 


23.6 


15.9 


41.3 










'7.3 


•15.7 


11.8 










'21.2 

"14.7 

2.5 

29.4 

412.6 


127.2 

118.0 

17.9 

21.7 

355.0 


'7.8 
13.8 
12.0 

46.8 

595.2 




Middle states 


2 '' 








45 7 




580 3 







1 Decrease. 

Inspection of the first of the foregoing summaries 
shows that the percentage of increase in the number of 
white persons of native parentage born and H\Tng in 
the New England states is practical!}' negligible, while 
the corresponding percentage for the number born and 
living in the Southern states is almost as great as the 
percentage of increase in the total population of the 
United States during the decade. In marked contrast 
to the small native increase shown in the New P^ngland 
and Middle states is that of persons born in the added 
area and resident in the two sections specified. Con- 
tinuance of such large percentages would represent a 



significant population change. On the other hand, the 
changes indicateii by the second summary prove to be 
the reverse of those shown by the first. 

A class of citizens aggregating nearly 3,000,000, aa 
tloes the great body of natives born in the original area 
but living in the atlded area, will lose, in a decade, not 
less than 400,000 of their number through death; in 
addition, a number— po.s.sibly not large, but sullicient 
to exert some influence— will return to their native 
area or depart from the country. Hence, in order 
merely to maintain the e.xact number previoasly 
enumerated, by making good the lo.ss, appro.xiniately 
500,000 persons must remove from the original area to 
the added area. Additions beyond this number would 
constitute increase in the class; the decline during the 
decade from 1890 to 1900 was due to the fact that the 
additions were not sufficient to make good tlie losses, 
from whatever cause. 

There are doubtless other factors at work in connec- 
tion with migration back and forth between the 
original area and the addetl area. Attention has 
already been called to the remarkable decrease in the 
fecundity of the native stock in the original area. A 
decreasing proportion in this cla,ss must necessarily 
lead to a decrease in the departures. Furthermore, 
some influence is exerted by the tendency toward 
equilibrium of opportunity between the West and the 
East, now resulting from the general settlement of 
those areas in the West and Northwest that formerly 
offered unlimited opportunity anil attraction to the 
more ventiu-esome and ambitious among the natives 
of the older states. 

The changes here pointed out are doubtless contrary 
in part to those which are popularly believed to be in 
progress. They are further confirmetl by the known 
fact that there is an increa.sing tendency, on the part of 
natives of the newer states of the West and Southwest 
who have accumulated largo fortunes, to seek the 
financial and business centers of the East for residence 
and investment. Accessibility to the seaboard — an 
important consideration in the establishment of early 
settlements — is doubtless still an influential factor, as 
facilitating travel and quick communication with 
other parts of the world. 



XIII. FOREIGN BORN POPULATION. 

PROPORTIONS CONTRIBUTED BY ORIGINAL AND ADDED AREAS- 
CHANGE IN CHARACTER OF POPULATION— SMALL PROPORTION 
OF FOREIGN BORN IN SOUTHERN STATES— COUNTRY OF BIRTH. 



Attention has thus far been directed to the distri- 
bution of the native wliite population, especially persons 
of native parentage. Analysis of the changes wliich 
have occurred, as indicated in the previous pages, 
shows that the total population of the original area 
has increased steadily since the First Census, to a total 
of approximately 35,000,000 ; while that of the added 
area increased during the earlier periods at a much 



become uniform with the original area in percent- 
age of increase. The aggregate population of the 
added area in 1900 was 41,000,000; hence there was 
a general similarity both in total population and 
in the percentage of increase between the older and 
newer sections of the country. 

It will be of interest at this point to consider the 
contribution of the foreign element in each of the 
two areas. 



more rapid rate, but in the last decade tended to 

Table 54.-F0REIGN BORN POPULATION IN EACH STATE OF THE AREA ENUMERATED IN 1790, AND IN THE 

ADDED AREA OF CONTINENTAL UNITED STATES: 1850 TO 1900. 



STATE. 


1850 > 


1860 > 


]$;o 


1880 


1890! 


1900 


Continental United States 


2,244,602 


4,138,697 


5,567,229 


6,679,943 


9,249,547 


10,341,276 


Area enumerated in 1790 


1,466,806 


2,264,121 


2,7ia.l97 


3.055.088 


4,153,155 


5,022.989 




,306,249 


469,330 


648,001 


793,612 


1,142,432 


1,445.237 








31,825 
14,265 
33,715 
164,024 
23,902 
38,518 

1.024,547 


37,453 
20,938 
32, 743 
260,106 
37,394 
80,696 

1,563,740 


48,881 
29,611 
47,155 

353,319 
55,390 

113,039 

1,881.741 


58.883 
46,294 
40.959 

443. 491 
73,993 

129,992 

2,030,376 


78,961 
72, 340 
44,088 
657,137 
106,305 
183,601 

2,758,906 


93,330 




88.107 




44. 747 




846.324 




134.519 




238,210 


Middle states 


3,331,369 






New York 


655,929 

59,948 

303, 417 

6,253 

136,010 


1,001,280 

122,790 

430, 505 

9,165 

231,051 


1,138,353 

188,943 

545,309 

9,136 

235, 455 


1,211,379 

221.700 

687.829 

9,468 

231.100 


1,571,050 
328,975 

845,720 
13,161 

251,817 


1,900,425 




431,884 




985,250 




13,810 




246,383 






M'-irvIiinrl nnt\ Dktript ni f/iliiTTihin 


58, 176 
22,985 
2,581 
8,707 
0,488 
31,420 
5,653 

777,796 


90,013 
35,058 
3,298 
9,986 
11,671 
59, 799 
21,226 

1,874,576 


99,666 
30,845 
3,029 
8,074 
11.127 
63.398 
19,316 

2, 802. 032 


99, 928 
32.961 
3.742 
7,686 
10.564 
59,517 
16,702 

3, 624, 855 


113,066 
37,257 
3,702 
6,270 
12.137 
59,356 
20,029 

5,096,392 


114.053 


Virginia and West Virginia 


41,912 




4.492 


South Carolina 


5.528 




12.403 




50,249 


Tennessee* 


17,746 




5,318,287 





' Corrected fiEures as Kiven in Ninth Census Report on Population, Table iv. 

2 Exclusive o( Indian Territory and Indian reservations. 

3 Entire state. 

* Designated as "Southwest Territory ' ' in 1790 Census Report. 



Beginning with a total foreign born population of 
approximately 2,250,000 in 1850, the number had 
more than quadrupled by 1900. Approximately two- 
thirds of the foreign born enumerated at the census 
of 1850 were reported as residing in the area enum- 
erated at the First Census, the remaining one-third 
being scattered in the great extent of country com- 
prised in the newer states and territories. The rela- 
tionship thus indicated changed with great rapidity 
at the succeeding censuses. 
(128) 





YEAB. 


DISTRIBUTION OF 
THE TOTAL FOR- 
EIGN BORN. 




Original 
area. 


Added 
area. 


1850 .. 


65.3 

54.7 
49.7 
45.7 
44.9 
48.6 


34.7 


1860 


45.3 


1870 


50.3 


1880 


54.3 


1890 


65.1 


1900 


61.4 







FOREIGN BORN POPULATION. 



129 



By 1870 the added area contained a slight majority 
of all the foreign born reported at that census. This 
proportion increased during the ne.xt twenty years. In 
1S90 the number of foreign born persons in the added 
area exceeded the number in the original area by more 
than 900,000, but the proportions for 1900 suggest that 
a decided change was in progress. Should the Thir- 
teenth Census show the same rates of change for both 
areas as were shown from 1890 to 1900, the area 
enumerated in 1790 will once more report an excess 
of the foreign born population. 

Di.\i;HAM 12. — Foreign horn population of area enumerated in 1790 
and of added area: 1S50 to 1900. 

























i 


















..... 


--' 














t 




> 


/ 
















o'^"' 

// 


/ 


/ 
















A 


/ 
/ 
/ 

/ 


/ 






3 










• 


• 
• 
• 


/ 












^^'"^ 


;^ 


• ^^ 












I 






A 


• 

• 


• 














,/ 


/ 
/ 

/ 
/ 


/ 


















/ 

/ 


/ 




















/ 
/ 












































Table 54 offers clear evidence of the change in the 
character of population which is in progress in the area 
enumerated at the First Census. Although the in- 
crease maintained is apparently gratifying, much of 
it is due to accessions of foreigners. T.arge numbers 
of immigrants arriving in the United States remain 
in the seaboard cities or in the older states, attracted 
by the magnitude of industrial operations and the 
dense population. It has already been shown that 
the proportion of children in the older sections of 
the Republic is lower than elsewhere; hence, while the 
inhaljitants of the older states continue to increase 
in number to a degree which gratifies local pride, the 
composition of the population appears to be under- 
going a comparatively rapid change. 

There is another aspect of this subject, however, 
which in some respects is even more significant. The 
Southern states forming a part of the original area, as 
already pointed out for the entire group, have been 



practically silent partners so far as the subject of for- 
eign born population is concerned. In 1850, out of a 
total foreign element in the area enumerated in 1790 
of approximately 1,500,000, but i:J3,961 were reported 
by the Southern states. Thus practically the entire 
contribution of foreign born at the census mentioned 
was made by the New England and Middle states. 
Fifty years later, in 1900, persons of foreign birth con- 
tinued practically a negligible element in the Southern 
states, while in the centers of population which had 
reported them at the earlier period their number 
had increased to nearly 5,000,000. Therefore the 
comparison made in the previous pages is in reality a 
comparison not of the contribution of foreign i)orn 
residing in the original area, but of the number residing 
in a portion of that area, with the number reported 
b}- all of the states and territories erected after the 
First Census. Subdivision of the original area into 
3 geographic divisions reveals the following propor- 
tions at 3 census periods: 



PER CENT DI9TKIBUTION 
or THE FOREIGN BOKH 
POPULATION. 





1860 


1880 


1900 


United States 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 








65.3 


4S.7 


48.6 








13.6 
4S.6 
«.! 

34.7 


11.9 
30.4 
3.4 

M.3 


14.0 


Middle states 


32.2 


Southero states 


2 4 


Added area 


SI 4 







In each of the 2 decades here shown the Southern 
states have reported a very small and decreasing pro- 
portion of the total foreign element. On tiie other 
hand, the New England and Middle states together 
reported 59. 3 per cent of all the foreign born in the 
United States in 1850, 42.3 per cent of all in 1880, 
and 46.2 per cent of all in 1 900. It must be remem- 
bered that these proportions relate to a total fi>reign 
boni population which ([uadrupled in the half century 
under consideration. 

Table 55.— -Vumftfr offortign bom in every 1,000 of the total white 
population: 18S0 to 1900. 





OBIOINAL AREA. 




YEAR. 


Total. 


New 
England 

and 

1 Ulddle 

states. 


Soutb- 

eni 
stales. 


Added 
araa.> 




lis 

147 
1» 
143 
163 
164 


! ISS 
1« 
207 

; 196 
235 
229 


32 
47 
43 
33 
31 
25 


lis 




1«0 




172 


isso 


1S9 




169 


1900 


143 











• Computed on the basis of the total white population o( that nart of coi 
ncntal UnltiHl States not Included In the original area; jiopulallon of Indian Toi 
ton- and Indian rrs<T\-nllons Included for llHWonly. 



130 



A CENTURY OF POPULATION GROWTH. 



It is significant that the number of foreign bom 
in every 1,000 of white population has sho\vn 
practicall}' continuous increase in flic New England 
and Middle states. The number of native born of 
foreign parentage bv geographic divisions, a classifica- 
tion possible for the years 1870, 1890, and 1900, was 
as follows: 

Table SG.~Number of native born of foreign parentage^ in each 
1,000 of the total white population: 1S70, 1S90, and 1900. 





ORIGINAL AREA. 




TEAR. 


Total. 


New 

England 

and 

Middle 

states. 


Southern 

states. 


Added 
area. ' 


1870 


150 
190 
214 


193 
253 
289 


52 
55 
54 


169 


1890 


225 




251 







■ Thisde,=;ignation comprehends, (or 1890 and 1900. all native white persons having 
either one or both parents foreign born ; and for 1870 all native bom of foreign paren ts 
(obtained by deducting the foreign born from the total number of persons having 
one or both parents foreign). It is assumed that in 1S70 the native born of foreign 
parents were white. 

' Computed on the basis of the total white population of that part of continental 
United States not enumerated in 1790; population of Indian Territory and Indian 
reservations included for 1900 only. 

Upon combining the number of foreign born and 
their native children, who comprise what may be 
termed the distinctly foreign element, the following 
proportion in each 1,000 of white population appears: 

Table 51.— Number of persons of foreign birth and of native birth 
and foreign parentage, in each 1,000 of the white population: 1870, 
1H90, and 1900. 





ORIGINAL AREA. 


Added 
area. 


YEAR. 


Total. 


New 
England. 


Middle 
states. 


Southern 
states. 


1870 


306 
3.52 
378 


331 
477 
546 


427 
479 
507 


94 
85 
79 


340 


1890 


393 


1900. . 


394 







It will be recalled that, in 1900, the number of foreign 
born in ever}' 1 ,000 of the white population was greater 
in the original area than in the added area, the for- 
mer having passed the latter between 1890 and 1900. 
Upon extending the classification of the foreign ele- 
ment to include the native born of foreign parents, 
as shown above, the added area continues to present 
a larger proportion of persons classed as of foreign 
parentage than the original area, but the increase 
from 1890 to 1900 was but 1 per 1,000 m the added 
area, while in the original area the increase was 26 per 
1,000. Consequently the difference in the proportion 
of the foreign element in every 1,000 decreased mate- 
rially, and the same decrease, contmued in 1910, would 
show a larger proportion of the foreign element in each 
1,000 of the white population in the original area than 
in the added area. It is significant that the Southern 
states thus far have shown a decreasing rather than 
an increasing proportion, and it is thus evident that 



a comparison between the foreign element per 1,000 of 
population in the original and added areas is greatly 
affected, in the original area, by the small proportion 
showai in the Southern states. In both New England 
and the Middle states, more than half of each 1,000 of 
the white population in 1900 were of foreign parent- 
age. It appears, moreover, from the preceding sum- 
mary, that in these 2 sections of the coimtry the 
proportion is increasing with great rapidity. During 
the twenty years from 1870 to 1890 this element 
increased in New England 146 and in the Middle 
states 52 per 1,000 of popidation, while during the 
decade from 1890 to 1900 the increase in the New 
England states was 69 and in the Middle states 28. 
From this analysis it appears that not only were 
more than half of the entne wliite population in 
these sections persons of foreign parentage, but the 
rapidity of increase in the proportion showed no 
diminution. 

DISTKIBUTION BY COUNTRY OF BIRTH. 

In Table 110, wliich appears on page 226, is pre- 
sented the foreign born population of continental 
United States and of the area enumerated in 1790, by 
country of birth. The earliest date for which the 
segregation of foreign born by country of birth is 
obtainable was the census of 1850. Variations in 
classification have made the preparation of this table 
a task of some difficulty. It is believed, however, to 
be substantially accurate. The significant movement 
of foreign born population in the United States, with 
relation to the older and the newer areas, is reflected 
by the following percentage table : 

Table 58. — Per cent distribution of foreignborn, by country of birth: 
1850 and 1900. 



NATIONAUTY. 



Total. 



Canada and Newfoundland . 
All other North America. . . 

England and Wales 

Ireland 

Scotland 

Germany 

Norway and Sweden 

Denmark 

-\ustria-Hungary 

Italy 

Russia, including Finland. . 

Poland 

Switzerland 

Netherlands 

France 

Spain and Portugal 

Belgium 

Turkey and Greece 

Europe not specified 

China 

Japan 

All other Asia 

Oceania 

South America 

Africa 

All other 



CONTINEN- 
TAL traiTED 
STATES. 



1830 1900 



100.0 



6.6 
0.9 
13.7 
42.8 
3.1 
26.0 
0.7 
0.1 
(') 
0.2 
0.1 



0.6 
0.4 
2.4 
0.2 
0.1 
(') 



(') 



(') 
(■) 
0.1 
(■) 
1.9 



lOO.O 



11.4 
1.3 
9.0 

15.6 
2.3 

25.8 
8.8 
1.5 
5.6 
4.7 
4.7 
3.7 
1.1 
1.0 
1.0 
0.4 
0.3 
0.2 
0.2 
0.8 
0.2 
0.1 
0.1 
{') 
(') 
0.2 



AREA ENU- 
MERATED 

IN 1790. 



ISoO ' 1900 



6.1 
0.3 
13.4 
63.1 
3.3 
18.4 
0.1 
0.1 
(') 
0.1 
0.1 



0.3 
0.3 
1.6 
0.1 
(') 
(') 



(■) 



(') 
(') 
1.9 



ADDED 
AREA. 



18dO 1900 



100.0 100.0 



13.1 


6.1 


0.3 


2.0 


10.1 


14.4 


23.2 


23.4 


2.5 


2.9 


19.7 


40.3 


3.1 


1.8 


0.4 


0.1 


6.2 


0.1 


7.2 


0.2 


6.2 


0.1 


4.1 




0.7 


1.2 


0.4 


0.8 


0.9 


4.1 


0.4 


0.3 


0.2 


0.1 


0.2 


(1) 


0.3 




0.3 


0.1 


(■) 




0.2 


(') 


(') 


0.1 


(') 


0.1 


(') 


(') 


0.2 


1.8 



9.8 
2.2 
8.0 
8.5 
2.0 
31.6 
14.1 
2.S 
5.0 
2.3 
3.3 
3.4 
1.5 
1.6 
1.1 
0.3 
0.4 
0.1 
0.1 
1.2 
0.5 
0.1 
0.1 

r.i 

0.2 



1 Less than on&-tenth of 1 per cent. 



FOREIGN BORN POPULATION. 



131 



Wliile this table indicates the proportion which each 
principal element of the foreijjn born forms of the total 
foreign born in the United States and in the original 
and added areas, it does not throw hght upon (lie 



proportion of each nationality residing in each of the 
two areas. Selecting tlie principal nations, the pro- 
])ortions shown are as follows: 



Table 69. 



-PER CENT DISTRIBUTION, BY GEOGRAPHIC AREAS, OF NATIVES OF SPECIFIED FOREIGN COUNTRIES. 

1850 AND 190U. 



AEEA. 


NORTH 
AUEBICA. 


ENGLAND, 

SCOTLAND, AND 

WALES. 


r.ERM.VNT 1 I RUS.1IA, 1 .,, .___ 

IRELAND. AND AUSTRIA- STANDmAVM. ITALY. FLKLASIl, AND ^ i-irT^^-. 

1 IIUNOARV. roLAND. COUNTBIM. 




18S0 


1900 


1850 


1900 


1860 


1900 
inn n 


18«0 
ipn n 


1900 IKfiO 


1900 


■ two 1900 1 18G0 1900 


18G0 


.90. 


United States 


100.0 1 ino.o 


100 n 


inn n 


100.0 


inn n inn n 


100.0 


100.0 1 100.0 { loo.o 1 loao 


100 


inn n 










Area eniimeraledin 1790 


62.4 


51.2, 04.5 1 M.4 


81.1 


71.8 1 4(1.3 1 39.9 


16.4 


17.0 


49.6 


74.9,1 08.8 1 88.9 


48.0 


33.7 


New England 


29.8 

31.5 

1.1 

37.6 


39.1 
11.4 
0.7 

4^8 


10.8 
48.8 
4.9 

35.5 


15.8 
35.9 
2.7 

45.6 


20.4 
55.1 
S.6 

1&9 


23.9 I 
45.2 
2.7 

2a2 


1.2 
3C.1 
9.0 

S3.7 


2.8 

33.7 

3.4 

60.1 


4.0 

10. S 

1.8 

83.6 


6.7 
10. 
0.3 

83.0 


7.2 
2&2 
14.2 

sa.i 


12.7 
60.3 
2.0 

28.1 


3.3 
55.1 
10.4 

31.2 


9.8 
40.4 
2.7 

41.1 


as 

33.3 
6.5 

52.0 


8.8 




22.5 
2.5 

66l3 


Soiithern states 









A smaller proportion of the natives of nearly every 
foreign country were residents of the original area in 
1900 than in 1850. The natives of Italy form an ex- 
ception to this rule; for, whereas in the earlicryearmore 
than half of them were located in the added area, in 1900, 
as a result of the great immigration from that country 
in the latter part of the century, nearly three-fourths 



of all were located in the area enumerated in 1790. 
The decreased proportion of the foreign bom in the 
Southern states of the original area is noticeable. 
Nearly one-seventh of the Italians in the country were 
residents of these states in 1850, while in 1900 the pro- 
portion was negligible. 



XIV. STATISTICS OF SLAVES. 



NUMBER OF SLAVES IN UNITED STATES — IN ORIGINAL AND 
ADDED AREAS — SLAVEHOLDING FAMILIES — NUMBER OF WHITE 
PERSONS DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY CONNECTED WITH SLAVE- 
HOLDING— RATIO OF SLAVES TO WHITES— VALUE OF SLAVES. 



Slavery existed in all the states and territories 
which were enumerated in 1790, with the exception 
of Vermont, Massachusetts, and the district of Maine. 
Comparatively few slaves, however, were held in the 
Northern states; more than nine-tenths of all slaves 
at the First Census were reported from the Southern 
states. Virginia ranked first in number of slaves, 
reporting 292,627. The second in rank was South 
Carolina, closely followed by Maryland and Nortli 
Carolina; but the total number of slaves in these 
3 states only slightly exceeded the number in Vir- 
ginia alone. The number of slaves in the United 
States in 1790 is shown by states in the following 
summary : 

United S tates 697, 624 

\ew Hampshire '. 157 

Rhode Island 958 

Connecticut 2, 648 

New York 21, 193 

New Jersey 11, 423 

Pennsylvania 3, 707 

Delaware 8, 887 

Maryland 103, 036 

Virginia 292, 627 

North Carolina 100, 783 

South Carolina 107, 094 

Georgia 29, 264 

Kentucky 12, 430 

Southwest Territory 3, 417 

The number of slaves at each census from 1790 to 
1860, with the percentage of decennial increase, was 
as follows: 



CENSUS YEAR. 


Number of 
slaves. 


Per cent 
of in- 
crease. 


1790 


697,624 
893,602 
1,191,362 
1,538,022 
2,009,043 
2,487,355 
3,204,313 
3,953,760 




1800 


28.1 
33.3 
29.1 
30.6 
23.8 
28.8 
23.4 


1810 


1820 


1830 


1840 


1850 


1860 





The percentages of increase remained remarkably 
uniform from 1790 to 1830. Indeed, no violent fluctu- 
ations occurred during the entire slaveholding period. 

(132) 



The higher percentage shown for the decade 1800 to 
1810 reflects the large importation of negroes during 
the years immediately preceding January 1, 1808, after 
which date the trade in slaves was prohibited. It has 
been noted that there was little difference between the 
rate of increase in the white and the negro population 
in the early part of the century ; since nearly all the ne- 
groes were slaves, it of course follows that there was 
little difference prior to 1830 in the rate of increase in 
slaves as compared with that of whites. After that 
date, however, the rate of slave increase tended to 
diminish. 

States holding slaves: 1790. 




Marked changes appear from decade to decade in the 
rate of increase for slaves in the different states, al- 
though for the entire United States, as already pointed 
out, it remained reasonably uniform. 

The extension of slavery from 1790 to 1860 by an- 
nexation of territory, and especially by settlement 
and the transfer of slaves from the older to the newly 
settled areas in the South and Southwest, is clearly 
indicated in the following table. 

In the 3 slave states of Delaware, Maryland, and 
Virginia, at the period under consideration slaves were 
employed principall}^ in the cultivation of tobacco. 
The soil was rapidly impoverished by this crop, how- 
ever, and as a result the center of tobacco culture 
tended to move farther westward, into new and more 
favorable sections in Kentuckv and Tennessee. 



STATISTICS OF SLAVES. 



133 



Table 60.— NUMBER OF SLAVES IN THE AREA ENUMERATED IN 1790 AND IN THE ADDED AREA, BY STATES 

AND TERRITORIES: 1790 TO 1860. 



STATE OR TEBRITORY. 


17M 


1800 


1810 


18H> 


1810 


1840 


liM 


1860 


UnitedStates 


697,624 


893.602 


1,191,362 


1,538,022 


2,006,043 


2,487,355 


3,204,3U 


3,053,760 






097,624 


889,804 


1,122,110 


1,341,718 


1,577,105 


1,009,105 


1,842,570 


1,075,808 




New England 


3,703 


1,339 


418 


14S 


48 


23 








Maine 










2 
3 








New Hampshire 


157 


8 






1 






Vermont 










Massachusetts 










1 

17 
25 

6,024 








Rhode Island 


958 
2,648 

45,210 


380 
951 

41,184 


108 
310 

30,840 


48 
97 

22,365 


5 
>17 

3,347 






Connecticut 






Middle states 


2,526 


1,818 






21,193 
11,423 
3,707 
8,887 

048,651 


20,903 

12.422 

1,706 

6,153 

847,281 


15,017 

10,851 

795 

4,177 

1,090,852 


10.088 

7,557 

211 

4,509 

1,319,208 


75 

2,254 

403 

3,292 

1,571,033 


4 

674 

64 

2,605 

1,605,735 






New Jersey 


236 


•18 




Delaware 


2,200 
1,840,044 


1,798 
1,073,068 








103,036 

287,959 

4,008 

100,783 

107,094 

29,204 

12,430 

3,417 


•107,707 
•339.796 
7,172 
133,290 
UO, 151 
59,232 
40,343 
13,584 

3,798 


•115,056 
•383,521 
10,836 
1&S,824 
190,305 
91,154 
80,561 
44,635 

69,252 


•111,917 

•411, SSO 

15.119 

204,917 

258,475 

110,055 

126,732 

80,107 

196,304 


■ 107. 499 
•4:>3,r/)8 
17,1,73 
245, Wl 
315.401 
124, Mb 
185.213 
141,003 

431,938 


•93,057 
•43I.K7:i 
18,4SX 
245,817 
3'.'7,a38 
124, 145 
1«,258 
183,059 

878,250 


94,055 
452,028 

20,500 
288,548 
384,984 
149,489 
210,981 
239,450 

1,361,743 


00,374 
472,494 

18,371 
331 059 


Virginia* 








402,406 
158,080 

225,483 
275 719 










1,977,958 










3,798 


31,581 


115,401 


277,182 


605,890 


884,915 


1,175,829 













135 


429 


1,107 


788 


348 
























6 
3 

747 
1 

•31 

276,394 


3 

3 

331 






Indiana 




28 
•107 


237 
108 
24 


190 
917 






























11 
605,542 










3,663 


31,152 


114,294 


884,915 


1,175,829 












174 
'494 
2,995 


14,064 
•2,565 
14,523 

37,671 


39,601 
41,879 
32,814 

80,903 


93,186 
117,549 
05,659 

139,25.5 


150,799 
253,532 
195,211 

240,627 


232,103 
342,844 
300,878 

379.331 


304,118 






435,000 






430,031 






557,772 




1 










34,660 

'•136 

"2,875 


69,064 

1,617 

10,222 


109.588 

4.570 

25,091 

15,501 


108,452 
19,935 
58,240 

25,717 


244.809 
47,100 
87,422 

39,310 


331,726 








111.115 








114,931 


First enumerated In 1S30 






61,745 




















15,501 


25,717 
16 


30,310 


61,745 














........ ..^. ■.....•.. 












I Wfl 


I 








16 








1 








68,187 


182.505 




t 


























26 
58,161 


29 
















182,566 


First enumerated In 18G0 














17 




i 












15 




1 












2 




r ■ 















» Exclusive of 37 slaves captured In the slaver Amistad. 

' Colored apprentices (or IKe, liy the act to aliollsh slavery passed .\prii 18. 1846. 
Iriac " .-."." ,--.---1-- i . .#.%.- r.,-. 



• Ale.tandrla ooimtv, which fro:n 180O to 1S40. Inclusive, formed a part of the District of Columbia, Is here Included with V'lrglnla, for comparative purposes. 
I The totals for the counties which In 1803 and 1806 were set ofl from Virginia to form West Virginia are here shown separately, becauseof the marked dinerBiM 



,»i,>i .o™ -o.o .,»»>/,» ..V.UA ... ™.-™ .^ ^ -■ leranoe b«tw«en 

the 2 states with respect to slavery. 

' Reported as lor Randolph county, Indiana territory. 

' Reported as (or nruwn, Crawford, and Iowa counties. Michigan territory. 

' Reported as for \V:ishlngton county. Mississippi territory. 

" Reported as for Baldwin, Madison, and WasfunRton counties. Mississippi territory. j„„,,u. i«„i.i»,.. i.„r,.h»o« ,»hieh wfi.iirmrr«nlMyl 

« In 1810 Louisiana was called " Orleans territory." and th<i name ■• Louisiana territory was applied to the remainder of th, If " Wi^* J'"'^'^*' ».^^ 

'0 Reported as for "settlements of Hope Field and St. FrancU" and for "settlements on the Arkansas" in the unorganized territor> then called Louisiana territory. 

'^"I'R™p'^^'ted""aL^o■r Cape Girardeau, New Madrid, St. Charles, St. Louis, and St. Oenevleve districts In the unorganiied territory then called " Louisiana twrltory." 



Compare with note 9. 

As the cultivation of tobacco by slave labor became 
somewhat less profitable in the older states, the acqui- 
sition of territory in the far South and Southwest 
and the introduction and rapid expansion of cotton 
growing in that section made slave labor highly prof- 
itable in connection with this important crop. After 
76292—09 10 



the further importation of slaves was prohibited in 
1808, the market price of negroes advanced rapidly, 
because of the increasing demand for their services in 
the cotton fields. Planters in Maryland an J Virginia 
found it to their pecuniary advantage either to sell 
slaves or to move with them farther south or into 



134 



A CENTURY OF POPULATION GROWTH. 



Kentucky or Tennessee. These changes resulted in 
a shifting of the slave population in the Southern 
states. 

In Delaware the number of slaves was greatest at 
the First Census, but declined steadily (except during 
the decade 1810 to 1820) until 1860. In Maryland 
the number decreased at each census but one from 1810 
to 1860. The number in Virginia increased but 4 per 
cent from 1830 to 1860; in North Carolina, during the 
same period, the increase was 35 per cent, or about 
1 per cent per annum. For that part of Georgia 
enumerated in 1790 the increase was 27.1 per cent, but 
the whole state showed an increase of more than 100 
per cent. 

As reflected by percentage of increase from decade 
to decade, the area showing liberal increase of slave 
population tended to become more restricted. In 1850 
and 1860 decided increase in number of slaves was 
practically confined to the lower South. In 1860 
only Georgia, the Gulf states, Missouri, and Arkansas 
showed an increase exceeding 20 per cent in the number 
of slaves. 

In forty years, from 1820 to 1860, both Alabama and 
Mississippi recorded a tenfold increase in slave popula- 
tion, while the white population increased but sixfold 
in Alabama and eightfold in Mississippi. The number 
of slaves in Louisiana increased with similar rapiditj'; 
and in the decade from 1850 to 1860 the slave popula- 
tion of Texas trebled. 

In the following table, which presents the percent- 
ages of increase in slaves in all the so-called slave 
states during the period of slavery, the shifting of 
slave property to the lower South and Southwest is 
clearly inaicated: 

Table 61. — Per cent increase of the slave population of the slave states 
at each census: 1790 to 1S60. 



STATE OR TERRITORY. 


1790 

to 
1800 


1800 

to 

1810 


1810 

to 

1820 


1820 

to 

1830 


1S30 

to 

1840 


1840 

to 

1850 


1850 

to 
1860 


Delaware 


130.8 
4.5 
18.6 
32.3 
36.5 

103.0 


■32.1 
6.8 
13.7 
26.7 
34.4 
77.1 


7.9 
12.7 

8.3 
21.4 
31.6 
42.2 


127.0 
13.9 
10.4 
19.9 
22.0 
45.4 


120.9 

113.4 

14.5 

0.1 

3.7 

29.2 

66.9 

10.3 

29.3 

115.7 

197.3 

63.7 

335.6 


112.1 
1.1 
4.9 
17.4 
17.7 
35.9 
52.9 
15.8 
30.8 
35.2 
58.7 
46.3 

136.3 


121 5 


Uarvland^. 


13.9 




Nortli Carolina 

South Carolina 

Georgia^. 


14.7 
4.5 
21.1 
57 1 


Florida 


Kentucky 


224.6 
297.5 


99.7 
227.8 
419.2 
384.9 


57.3 
79.9 

1,632.7 
125.9 
99.3 

1,089.0 


30.4 
76.8 
180.7 
100.1 
68.7 
183.0 


6.9 
15.1 
26.9 
40.9 
35.5 
135.9 
213 9 


Tennessee 




Mississippi 




Louisiana ^ 










Texas 






Missouri ' 






255.5 


145.5 


132.1 


50.1 


31.5 









1 Decrease. 

2 Includes District of Columbia. 
3Kntirestate. 

< HcporU'd as for Wasliington county, Mississippi tcrritorv. in 1800, and as for 
Baldwin, Madison, and Washington countic-s. Mississippi territory, in 1810. 

^Called "Orleans territiiry" in 1SI((. Sec Table 60, note 9. 

« Ueportcd in 1810 us (oi'"selUements of Hope Field and St. Francis" and for 
"settlements on the .\rliansas " in the unorganlwd territory then called " Louisiana 
territory." 

' Keported in ISlOas for Cape Girardeau, New Madrid.St. Charles, St. Louis and 
St. Genevieve districts, in the unorganized territory then called "Louisiana 
territory." 

Comparison of the increase in the number of slaves 
in the original and added area and the proportion con- 



tributed by each, reflects the progress of settlement of 
the younger slave states, and their constant increase 
in proportionate importance as slaveholders. 

Table 62. — Per cent increase and proportion of slaves reported in 
area enumerated in 1790 and in added area: 1790 to 1860. 





ORIGINAL AREA. 


ADDED AEEA. 


YEAR. 


Percent 
of in- 
crease. 


Proportion 
of total 
slaves. 


Per cent 
of In- 
crease. 


Proportion 
of total 
slaves. 


1790 




100.0 
99.6 
94.2 
87.2 
78.5 
64.7 
67.5 
50.0 






IgOO 


27.5 
26.1 
19.6 
17.5 

2.0 
14.5 

7.2 




0.4 


ISIO 


1.723.4 
183.5 
120.0 
103.3 
55.1 
45.3 


5.8 


1820 


12.8 


1830 


21.5 


1840 


35.3 


1850 


42.5 


I860 . 


50.0 







The decennial rate of increase in the number of 
slaves in the original area was noticeably uniform 
for forty years after the First Census, but from 1830 
to 1840 the increase declined to 2 per cent, a rate so 
small as to be practically negligible. In 1850 a con- 
siderable increase was reported, but in 1860 there was 
again an insigiuficant percentage. In general, there- 
fore, the uniform increase of one-fourth or one-sixth 
shown in the original area to 1830 decUned during the 
final thirty years of slavery to a small and wavering 
increment. Meantime the relative rank of the two 
areas in slaveholding was steadily changing and the 
Southern states in the added area were becoming 
more and more important as slaveholding commu- 
nities. The proportion of 99.6 per cent of all slaves 
sho\vn by the original area in 1800 had dropped to 
one-half by 1860. Such changing proportions mani- 
fest a much greater relative increase in the number of 
slaves in the added area than in the original area. 
The large earlier percentages were of course devoid of 
significance as indicative of natural increase, since they 
were principally the result of acquisition of new slave 
territory and the rapid settlement therein of a con- 
siderable slaveholding population. The rate of in- 
crease, however, although it dechned sharply after 
1830, continued very liigli in the added area to the 
close of the slaveholding period. The changes here 
shown in the total added area suggest analysis of the 
increase in the number of slaves in the area added 
at each census after 1790. The percentages in the 
following summary, like those which precede, are com- 
puted from Table (50: 



DECADE. 


DECENNIAL PER CENT OF INCREASE rN NUMBER OF SLAVES 
IN AREA FIRST ENUMERATED IN— 




1800 


1810 


1820 


ISSO 


1840 


1850 


18«0 


1790 to 1800 
















1800 to 1810 


731.6 
265.4 
140.2 
118.6 
46.1 
32.9 














lS10tolS20 


114.8 
72.1 
77.1 
53.8 
47.0 












1820 to 1830 












1830 to 1840 




65.9 
.w a 








1840 to 1860 








1850tol8fi0.. 


R7 1 




213.8 













STATISTICS OF SLAVES. 



135 



SLAVEHOLDINO FAMILIES. 



In a preceding chapter which treats of families (see 
paf^o 9G), a presentation is made of slaveholding fami- 
lies in 1790, white and colored, in which the number 



of members and the average size of such famiUes are 
given. The following table presents tlie number of 
slavcholding families, the total number of slaves, and 
the average number per family, by states and terri- 
tories in 1790 and 1850: 



Table 63.— NUMBER OF SLAVEHOLDINO FAMILIES AND AVERAGE NUMBER OF SLAVES PER FAMILY BY STATES 

AND TERRITORIES: 1790 AND 1850. 





1790 




ISM 




— 




Slaveholdlne rumi- 
lles. 


Slaves. 

1 


SIsveboldInK fami- 
lies.' 


Slaves. 


STATE OR TERRITORY. 


Number. 


Percent 

oral! 
families. 


Number. 


Percent ] 

of total 1 
popiila- 
lion. ! 


Number. 


Percent 

of all 
families. 


Number. 






Total. 


Average 

slave- 
holding 
family. 


Total. 


Avemce 

sbve- 
boldlng 
lamlly. 


Per cut 
of total 


United States 


96,168 


17.2 


697,624 


7.3 


17.8 


347,725 1 9.7 


3,204,313 


9.2 








Area euamerated in 1790 


94,168 


17.2 


697,624 


7.3 


17.8 


214.799 9.3 


1,842,570 


8.6 


13.6 


New England 


2,147 


2.8 


3,763 


1.8 


0.4 


! 


1 


Maine 


















New Hampshire 


123 


0.5 


157 


1.3 


0.1 









Vermont : 








Massachusetts 


















Rhode Island 


461 
I, £63 

16,265 


4.1 

3.8 

9.8 


958 
2,648 

45,210 


2.i 

1.7 

2.8 


i.i" 

1.1 

4.4 










Connecticut 










Middle states 


1,009 0.1 


2,526 


!• ■' 








New York 


7,796 
»4,760 

1,858 
» 1,851 

77,766 


14.2 
16.0 
2.5 
22.5 

35.8 


21,193 
11,423 

3,707 
8,887 

648,651 


2.7 
2.4 
2.0 
4.8 

8.3 


6.2 
6.2 
0.9 
15.0 

34.1 






' 


New Jersey 


200 ■ 0.2 


236 


i.i' 


■ ■(•■) ■ 


Pennsylvania 


Delaware 


80»j ■ "6.2 
213,790 1 30.3 


2,290 
1,840,044 


2.8 
8.6 


2.S 
31.4 


Southern states 




Maryland and District of Columbia 


< 13,777 

< 34,026 

» 16,310 

8,859 

•2,419 

» 1,855 

•510 


38.0 
44.9 
31.0 
34.3 
24.6 
17.0 
8.8 


103,036 
293,627 
100,783 
107,094 
29,264 
12,430 
3,417 


7.5 
8.S 
6.7 
12.1 
12.1 
6.7 
6.7 


32.2 
39.1 
2».S 
43.0' 
35.6 ' 
16.9 
9.6 1 


17,417 
55,963 
28,303 
25,596 
•15,062 
38,385 
33,864 

132,926 


18.3 
32.9 
26.8 
48.4 
70.3 
28.9 
2C.0 

10.3 


94,055 
472,528 
288,548 
384,984 
•149.489 
210, 9S1 
239, 459 

1,361,743 


5.4 
8.6 
10.2 
15.0 
9.9 
•.6 
7.1 

10.2 


14.8 
33.2 
33.2 


Virginia and West Virginia 


North Carolina 






Oeorcia 


54 9 








'>3 9 




15.8 



















' Given in the rompendium of the Seventh Census, Table xc, as "slaveholders." 

• Less than one-tenth of 1 percent. 
» Kstimated. See patie l;t8. 

• .\IIepany, Calvert, and Somersett counties estimated. 
» Caswell, Granville, and Oranijc counties estimated. 

• Figures are for part enumerated in 1790. 

' The Ogures shown as lor Tennessee in 1790 were reported as for the Southwest Territory, which had an area slightly greater than that of Tennessee. 



In 1790 the proportion which slaveholding families 
formed of all families exceeded 20 per cent in Dela- 
ware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Caro- 
lina, and Georgia, but was less th.in 20 per cent in 
Kentucky and much less in Tennessee. Even in New 
York the proportion was but little smaller than in 
Kentucky. In 1850 the number of slaveholding fam- 
ilies had become less than 20 per cent of all families 
in Delaware and Maryland, whereas the proportion 
exceeded that %ure in Kentucky and Tennessee. 
In only 2 states, North Carolina and South Caro- 
lina, was the increase in the average number of slaves 
per family worthy of note. 



Slaveholding families classified by size of holdings. — 
But one classification of slaveholding families accord- 
ing to the number of slaves held has heretofore been 
made at a Federal census. At the Seventh Census 
(1850) a tabulation of this character was prepared 
and printed in the Compendium, and this affords an 
interesting analysis of slaveholders at that period. 
In the following table a similar classification is 
made for 1790 for all states for which the schedules 
are still in existence. An estimate is included for 
Virginia, based on figures of 1782 and 1783. (See 
pages 137 and 138.) 



136 A CENTURY OF POPULATION GROWTH. 

Table 64 -SLAVEHOLDING FAMILIES, CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO NUMBER OF SLAVES HELD. BY STATES AND 

TERRITORIES: 1790 AND 1850. 





Total 
number 
of slave- 
holding 
famiUes. 


NUMBER OF FAMIUES HOLDIXG— 


STATE OR TERUITORY. 


1 slave. 


2 to 4 
slaves. 


5 to 9 
slaves. 


10 to 19 

slaves. 


20 to 49 
slaves. 


50 to 99 
slaves. 


100 to 199 
slaves. 


200 to 299 
slaves. 


300 slaves 
and over. 


Number 
of slaves 
unknown 




1130 


Area for which 1700 schedules exist i 


81,885 


20,047 


24,912 


18,017 


11,735 


5,274 


813 


198 


38 


7 


844 


New England 


2,147 


1,332 


689 


113 


12 


1 











123 

401 

1,563 

9,654 


97 
255 
980 

4,119 


24 

160 
505 

3,534 


2 
45 
66 

1,310 
















1 
11 

193 














1 
2 


' 








Middle states 


1 






496 




7,796 
1,858 

70,084 


3,088 
1,031 

14,596 


2,867 
667 

20,689 


1,165 
145 

16,694 


181 
12 

11,530 


1 
1 

5,271 










494 













2 




813 


198 


38 


7 


348 








12,226 
34,026 
14,973 
8,859 


2,841 
5,785 
4, MO 
1,930 


3,617 
9,510 
4,959 
2,603 


2,807 
8,559 
3,375 
1,853 


1,796 
6,745 
1,788 
1,201 


713 

2,998 

701 

859 


96 
342 

90 
285 


16 
75 
11 
96 


3 
12 
2 

21 


1 


336 










7 




6 


5 








1850 


United States 


347,725 


68,998 


105,703 


80, 767 


54,595 


29,733 


6,196 


1,479 


187 


67 










127,488 


22,16? 


37,624 


31,052 


22,190 


11,565 


2,194 


572 


89 


38 
































Middle statcs< 


1,009 
126,479 


498 
21,666 


372 
37,252 


119 
30,933 


20 
22,170 
















11,565 


2,194 


572 


89 


38 








Maryland and District of Columbia 


17,517 
55,063 
28,303 
25,596 

87,311 

132,926 


5,585 
11,385 
1,204 
3,492 

19,427 

27,407 


5,870 
15,560 
9,668 
6,164 

28,455 

39,624 


3,463 
13,030 

8.129 
6,311 

20,909 

28,806 


1,861 
9,466 
5,898 
4,955 

12,416 

19,989 


657 
4,880 
2,828 
3,200 

5,380 

12,788 


73 
646 

485 
990 

628 

3,374 


7 

107 

76 

382 

82 

825 




1 

1 

3 

33 

3 

26 




Virginia 


8 
12 
69 

11 

87 




North Carolina 




Soutli Carolina . 




Remainder of area enumerated in 1790 













' Data not available for New Jersey, Delaware, Georgia, Kentucky, and Tennessee. An estimate has been made for Virginia. (See page 137.) 
3 Data not availrible for 3 counties. 
' Estimated. Sie page 137. 

< As there were no slaves reported in New York or Tennsylvania in 1850, the number reported in Delaware and New Jersey is given, for purposes of comparison 
with the Middle states. 



The changes which are recorded in the interesting 
comparisons shown in Table — are made clear upon 



inspection of the changes in proportions shown in the 
foUowincr table: 



Table 65 — PER CENT DISTRIBUTION OF SLAVEHOLDING FAMILIES ACCORDING TO NUMBER OF SLAVES HELD: 

1790 AND 1850. 



OWNERS OF- 



1 slave 

2 and under 5 slaves 

6 and under 10 slaves 

10andunder20 slaves . . . 
20 and under 50 slaves . . . 
60 and under 100 slaves . . 
100 and under 200 slaves _ 
200 and under 300 slaves . 

300 slaves and over 

Unknown 



TOTAL COMPAEA- 
BLE AREA. 1 



1790 



24.5 
30.4 
22.0 
14.3 
0.4 
1.0 
0.2 

1.0 



ISSO 



17.4 

29.5 

24.4 

17.4 

9.1 

1.7 

0.4 

0.1 

(') 



MAKTLAND AND 
DISTRICT OP CO- 
LUMBIA. 



1790 



23.2 
29.6 
23.0 
14.7 
6.8 
0.8 
0.1 
(') 

m 

2.7 



1850 



31.! 
33. J 
19.1 
10.1 
3.1 
0.' 

m 



(>) 



1790 



17.0 

27.9 

25.2 

19.8 

8.8 

1.0 

0.2 

(=) 



18S0 



20.7 
28.2 
23.7 
17.2 
8.9 
1.2 
0.2 



NORTH CAROLINA. 



1790 



27.0 
3.3.1 
22.5 
11.9 
4.7 
0.6 
0.1 
P) 



m 



1850 



4.3 
34.2 
28.7 
20.8 
10.0 
1.7 
0.3 

m 
(») 



SOUTH CAROLINA. 



1790 



21.8 

29.4 

20.9 

13.6 

9.7 

3.2 

1.1 

0.2 

0.1 

0.1 



.' f "I"?!''""'^ '" 1'^'i J'^'JI ""* '*'"' England and Middle statcji for which data are available and the Southern stales here specified 
' i.ess man one-tenth of 1 per cent. 



1830 



13.6 
24.1 
24.7 
19.4 
12.5 
3.9 
1.5 
0.3 
0.1 



This analysis shows that in the comparable area prac- 
tically the same proportion of owners held from 2 to 4 
slavesin 18.50 asin 1790. Therewas a considerable de- 
crease, however, in the proportion of families having 
only 1 slave in 1850 as compared with 1790, and an in- 



crease in the proportions in the groups into which 
those holding between 5 and 300 slaves were divided. 
The changes recorded by individual states for which 
data are available for both censuses were more marked 
than those for the entire area. The economic condi- 



STATISTICS OF SLAVES. 



13i 



tions which prevailed in Maryland and ^■i^^;ini:l are 
clearly reflecled in the percentages shown in the tahle. 
During the period under consideration the i)roportion 
of slaveholders owning but 1 slave increased in these 
states and decreased in North Carolina and South 
Carolina. In 3 of the 4 states an increase appeared in 
the proportion of persons holding from 2 to 4 slaves. 
In the fourth, South Carolina , a decrease appeared. In 
general the percentages shown reflect the tendency in 
Maryland and ^'irginia to reduce slaveholdings, either 
because of changing industrial conditions demanding 
less slave labor or because of an increasmg number of 
more highly skilled white laborers better adapted to the 
increasingly exacting demands. In North and South 
Carolina the changes tend in the other direction, and 
are clearly the result of increasing dependence ujjon 
slave labor and of expansion of industries in which 
large numbers of slaves were essential to the prosperity 
of the community. 

Slaveholding families in states for' which schedules 
are missirig. — The total number of slavehokling fami- 
lies shown upon the schedules of the First Census which 
arc still in existence is 47,859. The total number of 
slaves owned by these families was 318,984, or slightly 
less than one-half the entire slave population of the 
United States in 1790. The average number of slaves 
held by the families reported on existing schedules as 
slaveholding was 6.7. If this average were applied to 
the total number of slaves reported, 378,640, upon the 
schedules which are not now in existence, the number 
of slaveholding families upon those schedules would 
appear to be 56,513. 

The impression at once arises that this figure is too 
large, for the average by which it is secured includes 
all the Northern states. The slave owners of that 
section of the Republic required slaves principally as 
household sei-vants, and the number owned by indi- 
viduals was almost always small. Only 3 persons in 
the Northern states owned over 20 slaves each (Elijah 
Mason, sr.,28 slaves, Lebanon town, Windham county. 
Conn.; Robert Livingston, 44 slaves, Livingston 
town, Columbia county, N. Y.; and Margaret 
Hutton, 24 slaves, Washington townsliip, Fayette 
county. Pa.). 

The average number of slaves per slaveholding 
family, for each state for which records are still avail- 
able, was as follows: 







AvcraRo 






niiinl>er 






of slaves 




STATE. 


IMT slave- 
holding 






family. 




1.3 




2.1 




1.7 


New York 


2.7 


Pennsylvania 


2.0 




7.5 




6.7 


Soutli Ciirolina 


12.1 



If slaveholding families in New Jersey, which lay 
between New York and Pennsylvania and was proba- 
bly subject to the same local influences, are assumed 
to have held an average of 2.4 slaves (the mean be- 
tween the average in New York and that in Poiin.syl- 
vania) then the total immber of slaveholding families 
in New Jersey approximated 4,760. Doubtless this 
figure is close to the actual number. 

In Delaware it is probable that conditions relating 
to slave ownership resembled more closely those 
which existed in Maryland than those to the north- 
ward, in Pennsylvania. If, however, the mean be- 
tween the average in these 2 states, 4.8, be accepted 
and utilized as the probable average in Delaware, 
there were in that state approximatel}' 1,851 slave- 
holding families. 

For Virginia it would not be just to estimate the 
number of slaves per slaveholding family from the 
numbers for neighboring states, since the conditions 
prevailing in Marylan<l and North Carolina diiTered 
widely from each other, and tloubtless differed as widely 
from those in Virginia, which was generally regarded 
at that period as the wealthiest state in the Union. 
Fortunately, another method is available by which the 
average number of slaves per slaveholding family in 
Virginia may be determined with reasonable accuracy. 

It has already been explained that the partial lists 
of heads of families in existence for several coun- 
ties of Virginia for 1782, 1783, 1784, and 1785 have 
been published by the Director of the Census in the 
series of Census publications containing the names of 
heads of families at the First Census. Inspection of 
these lists shows that the number of negroes con- 
nected with white households was reported in 1782 
and 1783 for a total of 32 counties. While it is true 
that for some counties all white households are not 
reported upon these schedules, it is probable that the 
lists include, for the portions of the counties covered, 
all property owners, and hence represent the actual 
conditions of slave ownership. The counties for which 
lists exist, though located largely in the older settled 
areas, are not confined strictly to any one section, 
but are reasonably representative of the state. The 
total number of slaveholding families for the two 
years shown in the two returns above given was 
10,806, and the total number of negroes, 91,768. 

Analysis of the number of slaves per slaveholding 
family shows a county variation in 1782 from 2.9 in 
Pittsylvania to 11 or more in Amelia, Cumberland, 
Hanover, and New Kent. The average for the 19 
counties for which returns for 1782 exist is 8.3 slaves 
per slaveholding family ; for the 13 counties enumer- 
ated in 1783 and for wliich returns exist, the average is 
8.8. The general average secured by combining the 
returns for both years as though reported at one 
census, is 8.5 slaves per slaveholding family. The de- 
tailed returns upon wliich these averages were com- 
puted are as follows: 



138 



A CENTURY OF POPULATION GROWTH. 



Table G6.— Number of slaveholding families, number of slaves, and 
average number of slaves per slaveholding family in Virginia: 1782 
and 17SS. 





17S2 


COUNTY. 


1788 


conuTY. 


Slave- 
hold- 
ing 
fami- 
lies. 


Ne- 
groes. 


Aver- 
age 
number 

of 
slaves 

per 
family. 


Slave- 
hold- 
ing 
fami- 
lies. 


Ne- 
groes. 


Aver- 
age 
number 

of 
slaves 

per 
family. 


Total 


6,635 


55,242 


8.3 


Total.... 

Amiierst 

Chesterfield 

Essex 


4.171 

494 
589 
347 
325 
257 
282 
180 
463 
227 
165 
432 
300 
110 


36,526 

3,852 
5,961 
2,817 
2,764 
2,691 
2,567 
2,282 
2,567 
2,669 
1,468 
2.656 
3,885 
347 


8.8 




794 
410 
346 
420 
157 
229 
464 
156 
464 
566 
23 
260 

472 
319 
628 
278 
418 
91 

140 


8,749 
3,442 
3,882 
3,609 
1,330 

767 
3,290 

513 

5,184 

4,927 

81 

2,957 

3,925 
2,848 
1,835 
2,729 
3,696 
776 

702 


11.0 
8.4 

11.2 
8.6 
8.5 
3.3 
7.1 
3.3 

11.2 
8.7 
3.5 

11.4 

8.3 
8.9 
2.9 
9.8 
8.8 
8.S 

5 


7.7 


Charlotte 

Cumberland 

Fairfax 


10.1 
8.1 


Gloucester 

Greensville 

Lancaster 

Middlesex 

Nansemond . . . 

Powhatan 

Prince Edward 
Princess .\nne. 

Richmond 

Shenandoah . . . 


8.5 


Fluvanna 

Frederick 


10.5 
9.1 
12.7 


Hampshire 

Hanover 

Mecklenburg.... 

Monongalia 

New Kent 

Northum b e r - 
land 


5.5 
11.8 

8.9 

6.1 
13.0 

3.2 






Pittsylvania. . . . 




Sussex 




Warwick 

CltyofWllIiams- 
biug (James 
City and York 

counties.) 





There is no reason to doubt that the average thus 
secured reflects accurately the proportion of slaves to 
owners which existed throughout Virginia about the 
period of the First Census, and it is therefore accepted 
and utilized as such. The fact that the general aver- 
age of slaves per slaveholding family in the distinctly 
slave states for which schedules exist is 8.1 tends to 
confirm this conclusion. Upon the basis of the aver- 
age of 8.5 slaves thus established, there were 34,026 
slaveholding families in Virginia in 1790. 

The average in South Carolina may fairly be ap- 
phed to Georgia, inasmuch as economic conditions in 
the 2 states resembled each other closely. The 
number of slaveholding families in Georgia, obtained in 
this way, is 2,419. In Kentucky and Tennessee the 
conditions were doubtless similar to those which ex- 
isted in North Carolina. The use of the average num- 
ber of slaves per slaveholding family in that state 
makes the number of such families in Kentucky 1,855, 
and in Tennessee, 510. As thus computed, the total 
number of slaveholding families in the states of New 
Jersey, Delaware, Virginia, Georgia, and the districts 
of Kentuck}' and Tennessee was 45,421. If this be 
accepted as a just approximation, the total number of 
slaveholding families in the United States in 1790 was 
96,168.1 

Proportion of the white population connected with 
slave ownership. — Consideration of the total number 
of slaveholding families in the United States in 1790 
suggests an analysis of the proportion of the white pop- 
nlation who were members of such families. From a 
computation based on the average size of white slave- 

' Including an estimate of 2,888 for 6 counties — 3 in Maryland 
and 3 in North Carolina — for which the schedules are missing. 



holding families, already presented for the slavehold- 
ing states, the following results appear: 

Table 67 .—Proportion of the white population connected with slave 
ownership: 1790. 



STATE OR TERRITORY. 



Average 
size of 
white 
slavehold- 
ing fam- 
ilies. 



United States.. 
New England 



Maine 

New Hampsliire . 

Vermont 

Massachusetts. . . 

Rhode Island 

Connecticut 



Middle states. 



New York 

New Jersey 1.,, 
Pennsylvania. . 
Delaware ' 



Southern states . 



Maryland^ 

Virginia • 

North Carolina? 

South Carolina 

Georgia' 

Kentucky' 

Southwest Territory ' 



6.3 



6.5 
6.3 



6.3 



6.1 
6.3 
7.0 
6.3 

5.8 



6.9 
5.8 
5.8 
5.5 
5.8 
5.8 
5.8 



Number of 

white 
persons in 
white slave- 
holding 
families. 



563, 699 



13,522 



760 



2,993 
9,769 



101,961 



47,495 
29, 938 
12,942 
11,586 

448, 216 



80, 724 
197,351 
94,418 
48,097 
13,932 
10, 742 
2,952 



Per cent 
of total 
white 
popula- 
tion. 



17.8 
1.4 



4.6 
4.2 



10.7 



15.1 
17.0 
3.1 
25.0 

36.6 



38.7 
44.6 
32.7 
34.3 
26.3 
17.6 
9.3 



I Estimated. 



2 Estimated for 3 counties. 



At the Seventh Census (1850) it was computed by 
the Superintendent, Mr. De Bow, that the population 
connected with slave ownership in 1850 numbered ap- 
proximately 2,000,000. The average number of per- 
sons in slaveholding families was placed at 5.7. If 
this proportion be utilized for the purpose of ascer- 
taining the distribution of the number of persons 
above mentioned, the following table results: 

Table 68. — Proportion of the white population connected with slave 
ownership: 1850. 



STATE. 


Number of 

white 
persons in 
white slave- 
holding 
families.! 


Percent 
of total 
white 
popula- 
tion. 


United States 


1,982,033 


10.1 




Now England 


















New Hampshire 


















Rhode Island 












Middle states 


5,751 


0.1 






New York 






New Jersey 


1,140 


0.2 






Delaware 


4,611 
1,976,282 


6.5 




32.1 






Maryland and District of Columbia 


99,847 
313,859 
161,327 
145.897 
219, 199 

20,064 
218. 795 
193,025 
166.982 
131,761 
117,819 

44,158 

34,194 
109,355 


21.9 


Virginia 


3.'!. 1 


North Carolina 


29.2 




53.1 


Georgia 


42.0 


Florida 


42.5 




28.7 


Tennessee 


25.5 




39.2 


Mississippi 


44.6 


Louisiana 


46 1 


Texas 


28.7 


Arkansas 


21.1 




18.5 







* Estimated. 



STATISTICS OF SLAVES. 



139 



The proportion of the white population of the ITnited 
States formed by members of slaveholding faraihes 
decHned from 17.8 in 1790 to 10.1 in 1850; in other 
words, 178 persons out of every 1,000 of the white pop- 
ulation were directly or indirectly connected with slave 
o\vnorship in 1790 and 101 out of every 1,000 in 1850. 
In 1790 approximately one-fifth of "the total white 
population of the slave states and more than one-tiiird 
of the white population of all tlie Southern states were 
members of slaveliohlingfamihes. Inl850thedecUne 
in the proportion ofsucli persons was apparent in every 
geographic division. Slavery had disappeared in 
the New England states. In the Southern states as a 
whole there was a decrease from 36.6 to 32. 1 . Some of 
the states in the lower South, however, showed an 
increase. 

In 1850 the number of persons in white slaveholding 
famiUes formed about one-tliirdof the total wliito popu- 
lation of the slave states. In South CaroUna, Ala- 
bama, Mississippi, and Louisiana, exclusive of the 
largest cities, the proportion reached one-half of the 
whole population.' 

The proportion of persons in the entire white popu- 
lation either directly or indirectly connected withslave 
ownership, as shown in the following table, declined 
slightly from 1790 to 1850. In the 2 Middle states in 
which slavery still existed in the later j-ear, the decline 
was very marked, wliile in the Southern states it 
amounted to about one-ninth. The real explanation 
of this table lies in tlic fact that the movement of slaves 
was steadily toward the lower South and Southwest, 
where the proportion in the entire population, as will 
be perceivetl from Table 20, was becoming very large, 

' Seventh Census Compendium, page 94. 



and also in the fact that the proportion of those who 
eitlier owned slaves or were in some manner identified 
with slaveholding was slowly but steadily decUning. 

TablrG9.— Proportion of the while population connected withiUtve 
ownenhip in states which reported slaves at both cerxtxaes: 1790 and 
1850. 



Area covered . 
Middle states 



New Jersey. 
Delaware.... 



Southern state3.. 



Maryland* 

VirKlnla 

.\orih Carolina'. 
.South Carolina.. 

Ooort.'Ja 

Kentucl;y 

Tennessee 



i;m 



ISM 



Number o( 
persons in 
white slave- 
holding 
(amllies. 



480,740 



41,524 



■29,938 
>11,586 

448,216 



«80,724 
■197,351 
<94,418 

48,007 
■13,932 
■10,742 

■2,»{S 



Percent ' Number of 
of luUil ' persons In 

wbiie whiteslave- 
popula- 1 1 holding 

tion. famlliea.i 



17.6 
2&0 



36.6 



38.7 
44.6 
32.7 
34.3 
26.3 
17.6 
9.3 



1,357,700 



6,751 



1,140 
4,611 

1,351,949 



99,847 
313,859 
101,327 
145,897 
219,199 
318,795 
193,025 



Percaot 

of total 

white 

popula- 

tiOD. 



SIS 



a2 

6.5 



32:1 



21.9 
3&1 
29.2 
53.1 
42.0 
28.7 
25.5 



> Estimated. 

'Computed on the basis of the combined white population of .New Jersey and 
Delaware. 

• Includes Di'strict of Colurahia. 
■ Estimated for 3 rounlia<. 

RATIO OF SLAVES TO WHITE PERSONS. 

In the Southern states as they existed at the time 
of the First Census, the slaves numbered 648,651 
and the whites, 1,226,057. Therefore, for every 100 
whites there were 53 slaves. This proportion varied 
considerably in the 7 states and territories included 
in tliis group. The proportions of slaves to whites in 
1790 and 1850, and that of negroes to whites in 1900, 
were as follows : 



Tablk 70.— ratio of SLAVES TO EVERY 100 WHITE PERSONS IN 1790 AND 1850, AND OF NEGROES TO 

EVERY 100 WHITE PERSONS IN 1900. 





1700 


1850 


19M 


STATE OR TERRITORT. 


Wblte 
persons. 


Slaves. 


Number 
of slaves 
to every 
100 white 
persons. 


White 
persons. 


Slaves. 


Number 
of slaves 
to every 
100 white 
persons. 


White 
persons. 


Number 

ofnccroea 

Negroes, to every 

100 white 

j persons. 


Continental United States 


3,172,444 


697.624 


22 


HI .Vuf.OH 

2,ruo,iwo 


.•!.2i>i..3i;i 


If, 


iv.. son. 10<'. 


S. <iM. 994 13 


Area enumerated In 1790 


3,172,444 


697,621 


■>• 




13 


New England 


992,384 


3.763 


''i})' 


ii -.i-;.u-" 


i.,lf/J 1 1 


\{^\x\e 


06,107 
141,112 

85,072 
373,187 

64,670 
232,236 

954,003 






581,813 
317,456 
313.403 
985,450 

143,875 
363,099 

5,843,163 






692,226 
410,791 
342,771 
2,769,764 
419,050 
892,424 

15.264,839 


1,319 

662 

826 

31,974 

9.093 

15,236 

356,618 


<V 




157 


(') 






(■ 








(' 












1 




958 
2,648 

45,210 


1 
1 

5 






3 








3 


Middle states 


3,5M 


{■) t 


3 




314,366 
ll»,954 
423,373 
46,310 


21.193 
11,423 
3, 707 
8,887 


7 


3,048,325 

46,1,509 

2,258,160 

71,160 






7.156,881 

1,812,317 

6,141,664 

153,977 


99,232 1 




230 


...^.... 


69.844 4 






Delaware 


2,»6 


3 


30.697 30 



> Less than 1. 



140 



A CENTURY OF POPULATION GROWTH. 



Table 70 -R\TIO OF SLWES TO EVERY 100 WHITE PERSONS IN 1790 AND 1850, AND OF NEGROES TO EVERY 

100 l^'HITE PERSONS IN 1900— Continued. 





1790 


1850 


1900 


STATB OR TERRITORY. 


White 
persons. 


Slaves. 


Number 
of slaves 
to every 
100 white 
persons. 


White 
persons. 


Slaves. 


Number 
of slaves 
to every 
100 while 
persons. 


White 
persons. 


Negroes. 


Number 
of negroes 

to every 
100 white 

persons. 


Area enumerated in 1790— Continued. 

Southern states 


1,226,057 


648,651 


53 


3,817,186 


1,840,044 


48 


8,772,956 


3,541,147 


40 




20,S, 549 
442,117 
289, 181 
140, 178 
52,886 
61,133 
31,913 


103,036 
292, 627 
100,783 
107,094 
29,264 
12,430 
3,417 


49 
66 
35 
76 
55 
20 
11 


455,884 
894,800 
653,028 
274,503 
120,662 
761,413 
756,836 

7,187,624 


94,056 
472,628 
288,548 
384,984 
149,489 
210,981 
239,459 

1,361,743 


21 
63 
52 
140 
124 
28 
32 

19 


1,143,956 
2,108,088 
1,263,603 
557,807 
297,007 
1,862,309 
1,540,186 

37,244,376 


321,766 
704,221 
624, 469 
782,321 
343,421 
284, 706 
480,243 

4,877,130 


28 


Vireinia* 


33 




49 




140 




116 




16 




31 


Added area 


13 


Northern states.. 








5,207,988 


87, 422 


2 


25, 775, 870 


495,751 


2 


Obio 








1,955,050 
977, 154 
846, 034 
395,071 
304,766 
6,038 
191,881 
592,004 






4,060,204 
2,458,502 
4, 734, 873 
2,398,563 
2,067.911 
1,737,036 
2,218,667 
2,944,843 
311,712 
380,714 
1,056,526 
1,416,319 

7,595,037 


96,901 

57,505 

85,078 

15,816 

2,542 

4,959 

12,693 

161,234 

286 

465 

6,269 

52,003 

4,351,126 


2 


Indiana 

Ttlinok 












2 






2 


KfifhiVftn 












1 














(') 














(') 














1 










87,422 


16 


5 


North Dakota 








\^ 






























1 




................ ..-..|.. ........ 








4 








1,742,059 


1,274,295 


73 


57 










Georgia (western part) 






400,910 
47,203 
426,614 
296,718 
256.491 
154,034 


232,193 
39,310 
342,844 
309,878 
244,809 
58,161 


58 
83 
80 
105 
96 
38 


884,287 
297,333 

1,001,152 
641,200 
729,612 

2,426,609 
302,680 
367,524 
944, 580 

3,873,468 


691,392 
230,730 
827,307 
907,630 
650,804 
620, 722 
36,853 
18,831 
366,856 

30,264 


78 








78 








83 


Mississippi . 






142 








89 


Texas 






26 








12 


Oklahoma 












5 


Arkansas 




i 


162, 189 

177, .577 


47, 100 
26 


29 

(') 


39 


Western states 




1 


1 



















220,283 
89,051 
529,046 
180,207 
92,903 
272, 405 
35,405 
154,495 
4%, 304 
394.. 582 
1,402,727 

18,790,609 


1,523 

940 

8,570 

1.610 

1,848 

672 

134 

293 

2,514 

1,105 

11,045 

8,028,619 
















Colorado 








1 


2 








61,359 

160 

11,330 






Arizona 








2 


Utah 






26 


w 




Nevada 


















Washington 






1,049 
12,038 
91,035 

6,222,418 






Oreeon ! 








(=) 


California 








Total Jor slave states " 


1,272,367 


657,538 


52 


3,204,051 


51 


43 





i Includes District of Columbia. 
» Includes West Virginia. 
' Less than 1. 

'Delaware, Maryland (including District of Columbia), Virginia (including West Virginia), North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Kentucty, Tennessee, 
Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas, Missouri, and Arkansas, . <= . . j . . 



There were fewer slaves to every 100 white persons 
in 1850 than in 1790 in the United States and in every 
state north of North Carolina; but in the other states 
of the original area the proportion increased. The 
increase was particularly heavy in South Carolina, 
where there were nearly twice as many slaves to every 
100 of the white population in 1850 as in 1790. In 
this state and in Mississippi are found the highest pro- 
portions of negroes to whites in 1900. 

For the slave states as a whole the number of slaves 
to every 100 white persons was slightly smaller in 1850 
than in 1790. The proportion was higher in the South- 
ern states of the added area than in the group of South- 
ern states enumerated at the First Census. 



VALUE OF SLAVES. 

Statistics relating to slaves in the United States in 
1790 would not be complete without reference to the 
property value which they represented. Writers upon 
this subject have estimated that at the period of taking 
the First Census the average price of negroes in the 
United States varied from $150 to $200. It must be 
remembered that a comparison of values, whether of 
slaves, real estate, or other property, at that period 
with the present one is comparatively unsatisfactory, 
owing to the change which has occurred during the 
century in the relative value of money. Such valu- 
ations should be considered only in relation to the 



STATISTICS OF SLAVES. 



141 



valuation of other propcrt}' at that period ; or, if they 
are considered in terms of money in 1900, not less than 
double the figure specified siiould be allowed. 

Considered in terms of money values at that period, 
the slaves in New England in 1790 had a value of more 
than $500,000 and those in the Middle states a value 
ofapproximately $7,000,000. Hence about 6 per cent 
of the total value of slaves was contributed by the 
Northern states. 

In view of the large total represented by the preced- 
ing computation, there can be no doubt that at the 
date or the First Census slaves represented a large pro- 
portion (possibly larger than at an}' subsequent period) 
of the total property value of the United States. 

Upon the basis of an average price of negroes of 
$150,' the wealth of the United States in slaves in 1790 
was as follows: 

' Political Science Quarterly, Vol. XX, pages 264-267. 



Table 71. — Number and value of tlava held, by lUiUt and 
territoria: 1790. 



STATE OB TIBUIOBr. 


Number. 


Viloa. 


United states 


007,024 


8104. 643. too 






3,763 


564,480 






Maine 








187 


23,640 




Mikvsu'hiLsetU 








as8 

2,048 
4S,210 






397,200 


Middle states 


0.781 SOO 






New York 


21,193 
11,423 
3,707 
8,887 

648,061 


3.178,950 

1,713.480 

886.080 


New Jersey 


Delaware , , 


1,333,080 




97.297.680 








103,036 
292. <B7 
100,783 
107,094 
29.264 
12,430 
3,417 


18, 488. 400 


Vlrtiinla 


43.894,080 


North Carolina 


18,117 480 




10,064,100 


Georgia 


4,389,600 




1,864,800 
812,880 







XV. OCCUPATIONS AND WEALTH. 

OCCUPATIONS — OF HEADS OF FAMILIES IN PHILA- 
DELPHIA AND SOUTHWARK IN 1790 — IN UNITED 
STATES IN 1850 AND 1900 — APPROXIMATE WEALTH 
IN 1790 — INDUSTRY AND WEALTH, 1850 AND 1900. 



Population change in the United States is closely 
connected with national prosperity. Throughout the 
century the citizens of the Republic, whether native 
or foreign, have continually expanded their enter- 
prises, and created and maintained an insistent de- 
mand for labor. This in turn, as pointed out by Mal- 
thus at the close of the eighteenth century, stimulated 
population increase at certain periods, and in many 
localities. 

OCCUPATIONS. 

The character of the occupations in which the people 
of a community are engaged affects to some degree the 
increase of population, through exerting a direct influ- 
ence upon the health, vitality, temperament, and hap- 
piness of the active workers. During at least the first 
half century of the existence of the Republic, and 
possibly longer, the occupations of the people were 
conducive to health and industrial independence, and 
therefore in general tended to encourage population 
increase. 

It is unfortunate that none of the earlier censuses 
afford any satisfactory returns from which to compute 
the number of persons engaged even in the principal 
callings. Except for Southwark and part of Phila- 
delphia, the schedules of the First Census contain no 
information upon this important subject. Such infor- 
mation as is presented for these two relates only to 
heads of families. The fact that the enumerator, soon 
after completmg his work, published a city directory 
in which he utilized the information contained upon 
the schedules, suggests that the gratuitous information 
there shown was obtained with the intention of ulti- 
mate use in this directory, rather than for census pur- 
poses. After the passage of a century, however, the 
Philadelphia and Southwark returns possess some inter- 
est, in that they reflect the activities of the metropolis 
of the Republic in 1790, as shown by the callings of 
heads of households. 

Occupations of heads of families in Philadelphia and 
Southwark in 1790. — At the First Census the popula- 
(1421 



tion of Philadelphia and of Southwark was returned 
as follows : 



CITY. 


Heads of 
families. 


Total 
popula- 
tion. 




4,312 


28,522 






Northern district (between Vine and Race streets) 

Middle district (from the north side ot Chestnut street to 
the south side of Race street) 


878 
1,930 
1,504 

970 


3,938 
13, 674 


Southern district ( from the south side of Chestnut street to 
the north side of South street) 


10,910 


Southwark 


5,663 







The occupations of the heads of families were re- 
turned for the middle and southern districts, compris- 
ing 3,434 heads of families (79.6 per cent of the total 
number) and 24,584 population, and for the whole of 
Southwark. A classification of the occupations shown 
results as follows : 

Table 72. — Heads of families in the middle and southern districts of 
Philadelphia, and in Southwark, classified according to occupa- 
tion: 1790. 



OCCUPATION. 



All heads of families . 



Returned with occupation.. 
Agricultural pursuits. , . 
Professional service 



Artists 

Attorneys at law 

Clergymen 

Doctors of physic, surgeons, dentists, etc . 

Officials (government) 

Schoolmasters and professors 

All other professional services 



Domestic and personal service . 



Middle 

and 
southern 
districts 
of Phila- 
delphia. 



3,434 



220 



25 
11 
27 
79 
71 
S 

443 



Barbers and hairdressers 

Boarding and lodging house keepers. 

Inn and tavern keepers 

Laborers, porters, helpers, etc 

Nurses and midlives 



Trade and transportation. 



Bankers and brokers 

Clerks and accountants 

Draymen and carters 

Uucksters and peddlers 

Merchants and dealers 

Sea captains, mariners, mates, etc. 



59 

17 

128 

239 



934 



27 
20 
14 
26 
779 
68 



South- 
wark. 



970 



827 



35 



1 
2 
4 
4 
10 
14 



236 



22 

200 

2 

183 



1 
5 
3 
1 

S7 
116 



OCCUPATIONS AND WEALTH. 



148 



Table 72. — HeadB nf families in the middle and southern districts of 
Philadelphia, and in Southwark, classified according to occupa- 
tion: 1790 — Continued. 





Middle 






and 






southern 


South- 




districts 


wark. 




of Phila- 






delphia. 





Returned with occupation — Continued. 
Manufacturing and mechanical pursuits. 



Bakers and confectioners , 

Blacksmiths 

BrewtTs , 

Bhckmakersand potters , 

Bricklayers 

Butchers , 

Cabinetmakers , 

Carpcnlors and joiners: 

House 

Ship 

Clock and watch makers 

Coopers 

Goldsmiths and silversmiths 

Harness and saddle makers 

Leather curriers and tanners 

Mantuamakers and seamstresses. . 

Metal workers 

Painters, glaziers, etc 

Plasterers 

Print ers. bookbinders, etc 

Ropemakers 

Shoemakers 

Stonei'utters 

Tailors 



Textile workers 

Tinmen 

Weavers 

Wheelwrights 

Miscellaneous Industries. 

Returned without occupation. . . 




' Includes 51 reported as "Rcntleraen." 
* Includes 9 reported as " gentlemen." 

The above table indicates that about four-fifths of 
the heads of famiUes in the two districts of Pliihidelphia 
under consideration, and a slightly larger proportion of 
those in Southwark, were gainfully employed. The 
classification of the 1790 returns available for Phila- 
delphia and Southwark under the 5 main occupation 
groups employed by the Census results as follows: 





PHILADELPHIA. 


. SOtrtHWABE. 


occcTATioN asot;p. 


Heads of 
families. 


Per cent 
distribu- 
tion. 


neadsof 
families. 


Per cent 

distribu- 
tion. 




2,758 


loao 


827 


loao 








15 

220 

443 

934 

1,146 


as 
ao 

16.1 
33 9 
41.6 


3 
35 
236 
183 
370 


a4 


Professional service. . . 


4.2 




2a5 


Trade and transportation. 


22.1 


Manufacturing and mechanical pursuits. 


44.7 



From the proportions indicated for the different 
groups, it is clear that Southwark, hke many towns 
on the outskirts of lai^e cities at the present time, 
included a large proportion of persons who were wage- 
earners or followed the humbler callings. 

The proportions shown for Philadelphia can not be 
compared \vitli the occupation returns secured at 
recent censuses, because these include the occupations 
of all persons gainfully employed, whether heads of 
famiUes or not. The number and proportion of per- 
sons above the age of 10 reported in each occupation 
group in Pluladelphia in 1900 were as follows • 





OEocr. 


PZSaoira OAIUFULLT 
ZHTLOTKO. 


OCCtTTATIOM 


Number. 


Per coot 

disuibu- 

tlon. 


All occupations 


208,821 


loao 






Agricultural pursuits 


s.Ma 

I-.:i.7il 
1 "-■ .''.2 
lii/, 197 


1 


rrofesslonal wrvire 


4.9 


IJomestiL- and p<^rsonal service.. . 












Manutacturinf and medualcal punulu 


4&.8 









Occupations in the United States in IS50 and 1900. — 
The first reasonably complete return of the occupations 
of individuals was that of 1850. Some comparisons 
can be made of |)roportions shown in that year with 
similar proportions in 1900. Even for so brief a period 
as the half century which elapsed from 1850 to 1900, 
however, comparisons can not be entirely satisfactory. 
The activities of the community have been in a state of 
continual expansion. While certain occupations, such 
as agriculture, have remained the same, or so nearly 
the same that comparison can readily be made, other 
Unes of activity have changed so greatly as to make 
comparisons misleading, and in man}' instances impos- 
sible. From j'ear to year new occupations are cre- 
ated, drawing some of the activities of the community 
from the older callings, and these in turn are surpassed 
in importance by others. Thus, even though a stand- 
ard occupation, or group of occupations, may have 
growTi steadily and perhaps to a remarkable degree, 
the proportionate part which it forms of all caUings 
may have tended to become less. 

In 1850, 90.8 per cent of all white males 15 years 
of age and over were gainfully employed; in 1900 the 
corresponding percentage was 87.6. The distribution 
of tliis element of the population in 5 occupation 
groups is as follows: 

Table 73. — Number and per cent distribution of white maUi IS 
years of age and over engaged in 5 main groups of occupations: 
1850 and 19U0. 





18W 


ISOO 


OOCITPATION OBOUP. 


Number. 


Percent 

distribu- 

tioo. 


Number. 


Percent 

dislTtbo- 
Uoo. 




5.210,M7 


loao 


19,t61,7M 


loao 








•2,298,870 
159,430 
978,131 
481,741 

1,291,875 


44.1 
3.1 

18.8 
9.3 

24.8 


7,195,521 

793,180 

2.689,133 

3, 949, 202 

S,354,«a8 


a&o 




4.0 


Domestic and personal servic* 


11.4 

lt.S 


Mauufat tunng and mechanical pur- 


X.8 







1 Not Including 42,3ro students and cadets and 1 19,459 free oohmd males. 

Possibly the most significant fact shown by the 
foregoing table is the marked increase during the last 
half centurj- in the relative importance of trade and 
transportation, at the expense of agricultural pursuits 
and of domestic and personal service. While in 1900, 
as in 1850, agriculture gave employment to a larger 



144 



A CENTURY OF POPULATION GROWTH. 



number than any other class, the proportion in this 
group decreased during the half centuiy. 

INDUSTRY AND WEALTH. 

No reliable .statistics either of the industry or of the 
wealth of the nation at the beginning of Constitutional 
Government can be obtained.' Attention has already 
been directed, however, to the fact that in 1790 the 
population was almost entirely agricultural. More- 
over, it has been shown that at the period under con- 
sideration urban population was almost a negligible 
quantity, and that the variations in social and eco- 
nomic conditions were much less marked than they are 
to-dav. Hence there is some justification for the 
belief that property, limited in amount though it was, 
was much more evenly distributed in 1 790 than at the 
present time. The total lack of statistics upon this 
subject justifies some computation, provided a rea- 
sonable basis can be found. 

Approximate wealth in 1790. — It has alreadj^ been 
shown that in 1790 the, population of the Republic 
was engaged principally in agricultural pursuits; in- 
deed, it has been estimated that agriculture supported 
90 per cent of the people. If it be granted that at 
least a very large proportion of the people were so en- 
gaged, it may be assumed that in most instances a 
dwelling represented a farm, so that the number of 
houses must roughly indicate the number of farms, or 
of buildings of similar average value in villages and 
towns. To this number should be added the business 
properties which existed in all fair-sized communities. 

The number of dwellings in the United States in 
1790 has been established with reasonable accuracy 
in a preceding chapter as 464,309. Dr. James Mease 
states, in A Picture of Philadelphia, published in 1811, 
that in 1790 the city contained 6,'651 dwelling houses 
and 415 stores and workshops. It thus appears that 
in Philadelphia, at the period of the First Census, the 
number of buildings other than dwellings (and the 
outhouses connected with or dependent upon dwell- 
ings) was equivalent to approximately 7 per cent of 
all dwellings. If the proportion here shown for Phila- 
delphia be assumed to be correct for the country as a 
whole, the entire number of stores, factories, work- 
shops, churches, and public buildings was 32,501. 
Tliis, added to the number of dwellings, makes a total 
of 496,810 buildings, most of wliich, as already sug- 
gested, were houses upon farms. 

In 1900 the average value of farms was $2,200. If 
about one-third of tliis figure, or $700, be accepted as 
representing an approximate average value for all 
real estate holdings, and to this figure be added the 
approximate value of slaves as already established,^ 

'Mulhall places the aggregate wealth of the United States in 
1790 at $620,000,000, divided as follows: Lands, $479 000 000- 
houses, etc., $141,000,000. 

^ See page 141. 



and an allowance for all other values, including farm 
animals, the following results appear: 

Buildings and real estate $347,767,000 

Slaves 104, 643, 600 

All other property, including farm animals 100, 000, 000 

Total 552, 410, 600 

As admitted at the outset, no accurate measure- 
ment of the wealth of the nation at the beginning of 
Constitutional Government has been or can be made; 
but the foregoing analysis serves at least to indicate 
that in 1790 the value of all property could not greatly 
have exceeded 8500,000,000 according to the stand- 
ards of value at that time. 

If the total here shown is accepted as representing 
a fair approximation of the value existing at the 
period under consideration, the per capita value, 
based upon the free population shown in 1790, was 
$171. It will be remembered, however, that standards 
of value at the close of the eighteenth century were 
much lower than at the present time, so that in pres- 
ent day terms the values above shown would probably 
be represented by not less than twice the figures 
stated. Hence, if comjjuted according to the stand- 
ards of 1900, a total valuation of $552,410,600 in 1790 
would represent not less than $1,000,000,000 in 1900, 
and a per capita valuation of between $300 and $400. 

Upon the basis of wealth as outlined above, the 
aggregate and per capita wealth of the United States 
in 1790, by specified geographic divisions, was as 
follows : 

Table Tl. — Aggregate and per capita wealth of the free population, 
by geographic divisions: 1790. 



GEOGRAPHIC DmSION. 


Aggregate. 


Per 
capita. 


United States... 


$552,410,600 


$170. 92 






New England ... 


138.731,444 
141,320,642 
272,368,514 


137. 98 




145.41 


Southern states 


217.07 







From this computation it appears probable that at 
the period of the First Census the per capita wealth of 
the free population was greatest in the Southern 
states. The known facts undoubtedly serve to sub- 
stantiate this conclusion. In the Southern states the 
population was comparatively small considering the 
area; the farms had become plantations, in connection 
with which the value not only of the real property, 
improvements, and live stock, but also of slaves, 
was to be considered. The leadership of the South 
in wealth is further indicated by the fact that in the 
Constitutional Convention of 1787 the Southern states 
demanded representation according to their free popu- 
lation and three-fifths of the number of their slaves, 
on the ground that they possessed larger property 
interests than the Northern states, so that, if direct 
taxes on property were imposed by the Federal 



OCCUPATIONS AND WEALTH. 



145 



Government, they would have to pay larger amounts 
in proportion to their representation. 

The great wealth which the New England and 
Middle states have acquired during the century fol- 
lowing the first enumeration has resulted principally 
from extraordinary' industrial development. In 1790 
the inhabitants of the New England states were 
engaged almost exclusively in agriculture; with the 
meager agricultural resources existing in that section 
it could not be expected that, even with the highest 
development, farm values and farm products would 
prove proportionately large when compared with those 



in portions of the Republic more highly favored by 
climate and fertility of soil. Practically the same 
conditions prevailed in the Middle states, although 
somewhat greater natural resources, and the increased 
values resulting from such cities as New York and 
Philadelphia, served to make the per capita value of 
property slightly greater than that of NeV England. 

Comparison of 1S.50 with 1900. — The following table 
presents such comparisons as are possible concerning 
the material resources of continental United States 
and also of the area enumerated in 1790, at the cen- 
suses from 1850 to 1900: 



Table 75.-C0MPARIS0N OF GROWTH IX AREA, POPULATION, AGRICULTURE, MA.\UF.\CTURE.S \XD N \TIOXAL 
WEALTH, FOR THE TOTAL AREA OF COXTIXEXTAL UXITED STATES AXD FOR THE ARE\ ENUMERVTED IN 
1790: 1S50 TO 1900. ' ' " 





CON-nNENTAL UOTfED STATES. 




.\rea enumerated. 


Population. 


Agriculture. 


Manufactures- 
value of prtyl- 
ucts. 




CENSUS TEAR. 


Sqaare miles. 


Per cent 
area enu- 
merated In 
1790 forms 
of total 
area enu- 
merated 
at each 
census. 


Acres of Im- 
proved land. 


Value of farm 
property.' 


National wealth- 
value of all prop- 
erty. 


1850 


1,519,170 
1,951,520 
2,126,290 
2,727,454 
2,974,159 
2,974,159 

432,350 
174,770 
601,164 
246,705 


27.5 
21.4 
19.6 
15.3 
14.0 
14.0 


23,191,876 
31,443.321 
38.558,371 
50,155,783 
62,947,714 
76,994,575 

8,251,445 
7,115.050 
11,597,412 
12,791,931 
13,046,861 


113.032.614 
163.110.720 
188.921.099 
284.771.042 
357.616.755 
414,498,487 

50.078.106 
25.810,379 
95.849.943 
72,845,713 
56,881,732 


13,967,343,580 
7,980, 4«. 063 

8,944,857,749 

•12.180.501.538 

•16.082.267.689 

20,439,901,164 

4,013.149.483 
964. 364, 6^0 
3.23.5.643. TS9 
3.001.766,151 
4,357,633,475 


11,019, 106,616 
1,885.861.678 
4.232.325.442 
5.369,579.191 
9.372.378.843 

13,010,036,514 

886.7.55,060 
2.346.463.766 
1.1.37.153.749 
4.002.799,652 
3,637,657,671 




1860 


>t7,135,7>0,29B 


1870 




1880 




1890 




1900 


88,517,306,776 

!>.fpn.W..<40 


Increase: 

1850 to 1860 


1860 to 1870 




1870 to ISSO 






1880 to 1890 






1890 to 1900 




23,45U,2U578 










ABEA ENUMERATED IN 1790. 




Population. 


Agrloilture. 


Uanu factu res— value 
of products. 


National wealth- 
value of all property. 


CEKSVS YEAR. 


Acres of Improved 
land. 


Value of farm prop- 
erty. ' 




Number. 


Per 
cent of 
total. 


Number. 


Per 
cent of 
total. 


Amount. 


Per 
cent of 
total. 


Amount. 


Per 
cent of 
total. 


Amoaat. 


Per 
center 
total. 


1850 

1860 

1870 

1880 

1890 


14,569.584 
17.326,157 
19.687,504 
23.925.639 
28,188.321 
33,553,630 

2.756,573 
2. 361.. 347 
4.238,135 
4,262,682 
5,365,309 


62.8 
55.1 
51.6 
47.7 
44.8 
44.2 

33.4 
33.2 
36.5 
33.3 
41.1 


70,223,511 
81,933,952 
80.672.316 
95.001,365 
97.236,806 
99,947,259 

11,710,441 
•1,261,636 
14,329,049 
2,234,440 
2,711.454 


62.1 
50.2 
42.7 
33.4 
27.2 
24.1 

23.4 

(') 

14.9 
3.1 
4.7 


12, 613. ,195. 463 
4,195,624.9:i9 
4. ISfi.fiTli.^fi;! 
4.7.1S.167.3'.4 
4. K2S. 7SS. 4(VS 
5,000.462,719 

1.. 582. 029. 476 

< 58. 948. 476 

601.490.921 

90,621,084 

171,674,251 


65.9 
52.5 
34.0 
38.9 
30.0 
24.4 

39.4 

V^.6 
2.3 
3.9 


1835.489.765 
1,407,690,264 
2,967,465,381 
3.559,794,469 
5.563,835,986 
7,487,459,407 

572.200.499 
1,559.775.117 

592.329.088 
2.004.041,517 
1,923,623,421 


81.2 
74.6 
70.0 
66.3 
59.4 
67.4 

66.0 
66.5 
52.1 
50.1 
52.5 


•»4.930, 793.981 
"9.102.463,876 

'14,725.586.812 
22,348,012,800 
27,632,937,908 
40,296,048,530 

4,171,669,895 
5.623,122.936 
7.622.425.988 
5.284.925.198 
12,063.110.5X2 


69.1 
56.3 
61.2 
51.2 


1900 

Increase : 

18.50 to 1860 

I860 to IS70 


45.5 

46.2 
71.2 


I870tois.so , 


38.9 


1880tOlS90 


24 7 


1890 to 1000 


53.9 

























PER CENT or INCREASE. 









Agriculture. 


Haoufactares— value 
of products— 


National wealth— 
value of all property— 


CENBTS TEAR. 




Acres of Improved 
land- 


Valoe of ftirm prop- 
erty- 


In total 
area. 


Inaimenti' 

meratedin 

1790. 


In total 
area. 


In area enu- 
merated In 
1790. 




Of total 
area. 


Of area enu- 
merated In 
1790. 


In total 
area. 


In area enu- 
merated In 
1790. 


In toul 
area. 


In area enu- 

merate<l In 

1790. 


1850tolS60 .. 


35.6 
22.6 
30.1 
25.5 
20.7 


18.9 
13.6 
21.5 
17.8 
19.0 


44.3 
15.8 
50.7 
25.6 
15.9 


16.7 
•1.6 
17.8 
2.4 
2.8 


101.2 
12.1 
36.2 
32.0 
27.1 


60.6 

•1.4 

14.5 

1.9 

3.S 


86.1 
124.4 
26.9 
74.6 
38.8 


68.6 
110.8 
20.0 
66.3 
34.6 


128.6 
48.9 
81.4 
49.0 
36.1 


84.8 


186010 1870 


61.8 


1870tol8S0 


61.8 


1880 to 1890 


21.8 


1890 to 1900 


4S.8 







» The value of farm property Is Included as a part of the national wealth. 
' Taxable property only. 



' IncludUiK csttmated value of rmnge animals. 
* Hccrcase. 



146 



A CENTURY OF POPULATION GROWTH. 



As shown by the table, the growth of the added area 
reduced the proportion which the area enumerated in 
1790 formed of the total area by approximately one- 
half— from two-sevenths in 1850 to one-seventh in 
1900. During the same period the proportion which 
the population, value of manufactured products, and 
national wealth in the original area formed of the cor- 
resjjondmg totals for the United States, declined only 
about one-tliird. These changes reflect a noteworthy 
growth in the original area. On the other hand, the 
relative importance of agricultural operations in the 
original area, as measured both by the acreage of 
improved land and by the value of farm property, was 
only one-third as great in 1900 as in 1850 — a fact 
which reflects the rapid development of the fertile areas 
in the West and Southwest. 

Wlien the changes in proportions outlined above are 
considered by decades, it is found that the changes in 
population, acreage of improved agricultural land, 
and value of manufactured products were progressive. 
It is significant that the decrease in the relative im- 
portance of the original area was more rapid during the 
early part of the half century than at its close. Dur- 
ing the last decade the proportion of population de- 
creased less than 1 per cent and that of manufactures 
but 2 per cent, while the proportion of national wealth 
showed an increase of 3 per cent. Only in the agri- 
cultural operations was a marked decreas estiU evi- 
dent in the proportion contributed by the older area 
as compared with that of the newer. 

The above analysis of proportions shown for the 
original area receives further confirmation upon exam- 
ining the percentages of increase in Table 75. In 
every instance, except for the national wealth in the 
decades 1860 to 1870 and 1890 to 1900, the percentage 
of increase was higher for the country as a whole — 
and hence, obviously for the added area — than for 
the original area. Both areas showed marked in- 
creases in the value of manufactured products and in 
aggregate wealth. In the case of the two items used 
as a measure of changes in agriculture, however, the 
difference between the two areas is very striking — 
the original area showing relatively small increases, 
and in one decade, 1860 to 1870, a decrease. 



The marked differences in the contributions of 
different sections to the national resources are clearly 
indicated by the following per capita values : 



GEOGRAPHIC DmSION. 


VALUE OPFABM 
PROPEETY. 


VALnEOFMAN- 
UFACTURED 
PRODUCTS. 


AGGREGATE 
WEALTH. 




18501 


1900 = 


1830 > 


1900 3 


18»)i 


1900' 


Continental United States. 


$202.90 


$305.94 


$52. 12 


$194.73 


$364.94 


$1,324.93 


Area enumerated in 1790 


304,72 


164. 22 


65.44 


245. 90 


386.23 


1,323.39 


New England and Middle 


199.58 
215.16 

199.47 


143.87 
208.05 

424.63 


84.29 
27.26 

27.00 


314.71 
97.75 

151.89 


368.74 
421.69 

324.90 


1,563.99 




805.39 


Added area 


1,326.21 



1 Computed on basis of free population. 
- Computed on basis of white population. 

Discussion of the aggregate wealth of the original 
and added areas necessitates some reference to the 
value of slaves in 1850. Writers of that period ' esti- 
mated the average value per slave, for all ages, at 
$400. Accepting this as an approximate figure, the 
total value of slaves was $828,336,000 in the original 
area and $451,809,600 in the added area, or about 
twice as great in the original slave states as in those 
erected from territory added after 1790. Out of a 
total valuation of the real and personal property in 
the slaveholding states amounting to nearly $2,000,- 
000,000, the value of slaves formed 43.5 per cent. 

If the total wealth of the United States in 1790 (on 
the basis of the present standard of values) be accepted 
as approximately .$1,000,000,000, the increase from 
1790 to 1900 approaches ninetyfold. During the period 
mentioned, the population of the United States in- 
creased f ourteenfold ; hence, while the population 
increased at a rate far in advance of that shown by 
any other civilized nation during the same period, the 
increase of wealth in the United States far outstripped 
that of population. 

' The total value of all slaves in 1850 waell, 280,145,600, computed 
upon the average value of $400 per head (Hinton Helper: The 
Impending Crisis, jjage 306, Table 58, N. Y., 1860). The average 
value of boys and girls, men and women between the ages of about 
15 and 25, as recorded by Mr. Frederick Law Olmsted (A Journey 
in the Seaboard Slave States, page 38), was $739 in Virginia in 1853. 
If young children and men and women above the age of 25 be in- 
cluded to old age, it is probable that a general average of not more 
than 1400, as quoted by Helper, would result. 



ENUMERATIONS OF POPULATION 

IN NORTH AMERICA 

PRIOR TO 1790 



GENERAL TABLES. 



149 



NEW HAMPSHIRE. 

Table 76. -A GENERAL ACCOUNT OF THE NUMBER OF INHABITANTS OF THE SEVERAL TOWNS IN THE PROVINCE 
OF NEW HAMPSUIRE, AS APPEARS BY THE RETURNS OF THE SELECTMEN FROM EACH PLACE, IN THE YEAR 
1767.' 



NAME OF THE TOWNS. 


Unmarried 
men from 
IGtoCO. 


Married 
men from 
16 to GO. 


Boys from 

16 years d: 

under. 


Hon 60 
years <i: 
above. 


Females 
unmarried. 


Females 
married. 


llala slaves. 


Female 
slaves. 


Widows. 


Total. 




75 
86 
27 
35 
42 

87 
30 
36 
18 
31 

32 
440 
37 
11 
186 

54 
31 
72 
27 
235 

SO 
151 
24 
10 
17 

15 
13 
8 
16 
11 

10 
12 
73 
23 
28 

51 
14 
9 
7 
16 

36 
41 
25 
46 

62 

62 
58 
120 
17 
18 

3 
25 
66 
30 
49 

81 
20 
4 
104 
63 

8 
110 
73 
51 
27 

21 
30 
9 
59 
51 

35 

15 
18 
49 
17 

27 
37 
03 
19 
48 

28 
50 
99 
86 
42 


98 
142 
37 
64 
81 

125 
56 
54 
23 
31 

69 

641 

75 

25 

217 

95 
44 

120 
68 

272 

83 
241 
52 
20 
21 

25 
27 
15 
5 
26 

2 
30 
133 
49 
71 

66 
20 
16 
22 
9 

79 
59 
39 
109 
125 

107 
09 

182 
45 
36 

16 
41 
161 
74 
75 

117 

47 

12 

106 

147 

50 
108 
132 
68 
62 

78 
43 
31 
71 
73 

107 
40 
47 
85 
33 

20 
81 
138 
50 
96 

93 
58 
205 
142 
82 


184 
257 
79 
107 
123 

299 
107 
95 
36 
62 

151 
900 
141 
42 
347 

162 
86 

195 
99 

571 

146 
384 
104 
36 
36 

30 
50 
19 
3 
16 

3 
50 

245 
82 

112 

84 
25 
25 
36 
7 

155 
105 
TO 
l.W 
1S9 

106 

119 

288 

77 

65 

27 

92 

272 

109 

155 

223 
80 
15 
272 
198 

80 
289 
191'. 

98 
100 

132 
93 
59 

119 
92 

195 
71 
73 

134 
SO 

67 
154 

239 
117 
162 

142 
lOO 
378 
271 
138 


23 
26 
12 
10 
8 

30 
4 
1 
2 


10 
61 
4 
2 
39 

29 
4 

40 


85 

21 

37 

1 


271 
280 
S9 
132 
156 

291 
104 
92 
SO 
72 

169 

1,340 

132 

49 

SOO 

220 
114 
263 
100 
799 

167 
507 
72 
20 
37 

35 
40 
20 


117 
106 
47 
74 
89 

144 
00 
S2 
24 
31 

78 

677 

75 

26 

239 

119 
48 

146 
68 

342 

98 
202 
52 
20 
22 

25 
27 
IS 
5 
26 

2 
30 
100 
54 

■' 

08 

1 

84 
70 
45 
126 
126 

118 
83 

198 
52 
36 

IS 
47 
170 
80 
92 

127 

47 

12 

192 

143 

SO 
190 
153 
85 
63 

81 
51 
38 
92 
85 

116 
40 
44 
97 
33 

33 
81 
155 

66 
105 

96 
81 
214 
163 
83 


8 
3 
2 

1 
1 

19 





9 
2 
2 
1 


10 



1 


20 
22 
19 

4 
9 

39 
4 

3 

4 


805 

984 
284 
428 

cot 

1,044 
365 
333 
158 
227 

520 

4,406 

473 

157 

1,614 

flW 
3S4 

8«a 

3S3 

2,380 


Rochester 




Winchester 






Chesterfield 




Hinsdale 


Plymouth 




2 
124 


19 

1 
1 


13 

11 
28 



2 
63 


9 

2 



10 

8 
22 



7 

220 

9 

2 

S8 

13 
6 

» 
1 

62 

22 
58 
3 


Portsmouth 




New Durham 






Charlestown 




Candia 


Londonderry . . 




Exeter 


1,690 


Walpole 




112 


Cornish 


















6- 







133 


Alstead 




130 


Clarmont 




157 


Marlovv 




77 






29 


Hanover 




13 

2 
40 

333 
9« 

103 

149 
14 
26 
39 
10 

153 
180 
80 
223 
204 

250 
170 
407 
83 
62 

3 

80 
292 
178 
176 

227 

79 

24 

386 

269 

78 
357 
295 
154 

92 

134 
117 
81 
192 
143 

219 
66 
67 

109 
SO 

74 

158 
204 
130 
197 

189 
127 
404 
345 
140 


V2 


Canaan 










19 






::::::::::::!:::::::::: 


102 


Kingston 


23 
7 
3 

4 


3 

1 





1 
I 




1 

3 

8 


999 


Swan/y 


330 




391 




430 




93 


Marlboro' No. 5 


1 
1 


6 












93 


Oilsnrn 


128 




51 




6 

11 
6 
16 

18 

28 

15 

28 

8 




6 

18 
6 

16 

12 

1 

1 

38 

19 

2 
31 
24 
18 

3 

3 
13 

7 
23 
12 

10 
5 


16 
2 

13 

18 
16 
15 
10 

18 
20 
21 
23 
11 



17 

2 
11 

9 



14 

7 
4 


s 

17 

4 

39 

IS 

24 
13 
34 
3 
2 


3 

18 
9 

18 

20 
4 

42 
18 


34 
34 
14 

3 

S 

e 
s 

18 
13 

14 
2 

1 
5 
2 

8 
13 
28 
11 
2S 

16 
12 
20 
33 

4 


S3I 


Newineton 


514 




271 


Rye 


736 


Concord (formerly Rumford) 


753 




755 






13 



1 



1 
4 
1 

1 

J 



21 

3 


3 
7 

1 



6 

1 
4 

6 





3 

2 
1 

1 


3 

6 

3 


2 
16 





1 


1 
1 

1 




11 

1 



1 

2 
2 



3 


1 
3 

6 


2 


« 
1 
2 
3 


1 

3 
1 



SJ9 


Newmarket 


1,286 




2SS 


fltevenstown 


210 




04 




2y6 




l.OUl 


Hawk 


488 




583 


Holies 


800 


Mile5 Slip, between Holies & No. 1 


278 
G8 




1.232 


Parish of Lee 


861 




268 


Cheater 


1,180 






South Hampton 


491 


Wilton 






455 


Bedfoni 




Derr>'t"ieM 








Atlriri'snn 






708 
330 
3» 

557 
1*7 










Litchfield 


• 3.M 

.M3 

S47 
4(11 
644 


Pelhain 


Salem 






North Hampton.. 


5S3 

451 

1,410 

1,064 

503 




Eppinp 




Canterbury 



76292—09- 



' Provincial Papers of New Hampshire, Vol. Vlt, pages 168 to 170. 
-U 



> Corrected flgtires. 



150 



A CENTURY OF POPULATION GROWTH. 

NEW HAMPSHIRE— Continued. 



Table 76 -A GENERVL ACCOUNT OF THE NUMBER OF INHABITANTS OF THE SEVERAL TOWNS IN THE PROVINCE 
OF NEW HAMPSHIRE, AS APPEARS BY THE RETURNS OF THE SELECTMEN FROM EACH PLACE, IN THE YEAR 
1767— Continued. 



NAUB OF THE TOWNS. 


Unmarried 
men from 
16 to 60. 


Married 
men from 
16 to 60. 


Boys from 

16 years & 

under. 


Men 60 
years & 
above. 


Females 
unmarried. 


Females 
married. 


Male slaves. 


Female 
slaves. 


Widows. 


Total. 


Haverhill 


21 
12 
33 

127 
26 

21 
63 
31 
18 


32 
14 
64 
188 
43 

46 
135 

65 
54 


43 
18 
113 
313 
76 

68 

200 

98 

84 


1 

1 

13 

33 

4 

5 
17 
8 
4 


43 

18 
149 

457 
71 

101 
270 
121 
82 


29 
12 
68 
208 
50 

49 
147 
65 
64 


2 

1 
3 



6 
2 



1 


3 



2 
1 
1 




2 
49 
2 

3 
18 
9 
1 


172 


Orford 


75 




443 




1,381 




272 




293 




858 




400 


Rindee 


298 








4,510 


17,670 


1 12,924 


11,160 


115,992 


1 8, 467 


384 


249 


1,364 


1 52, 720 







1 Corrected figures. 
Table 77.— FREE AND SLAVE POPULATION OF NEW HAMPSHIRE, BY COUNTIES AND TOWNS: CENSUS OF 1773.' 



COUNTIES AND TOWNS. 



Total. 



Rockingham county. 



AUenstown. 
Atkinson . . . 

Bow 

Brentwood . 
Candia 



Cant<?rbury. 
Chichester. . 

Chester 

Concord 

Deerfield 



Epping 

Epsom 

Exeter 

East Kingston. 
Greenland 



Hampstead 

Hampton 

Hampton Falls. 

Hawkes 

Kensington 



Kingston 

Ivondonderry. 

Loudon 

New Castle... 
Newington . . . 



Newmarket 

Newtown 

North Hampton. 

Northwood 

Nottingham 



Pelham 

Pembrook. 

Plaistow 

Poplin * 



Portsmouth. 
Raymond . . . 

Rye 

Sandown 



South Hampton. 

Seabrook 

Stratham 

Windham 



Strafford county. . 



Bamstead . . . 
Harrington.. 

Dover 

Durham 

East Town'. 



Oilman ton 

Leavilts Town^. 

Lee 

Madbury 



Meredith 

Moultonborough. . 
New Durham . . . . 
Kacliester 



Unmarried 
men from 
10 to 60. 



6,263 



Married 
men from 
16 to 60. 



8 
39 
S 

78 
52 

66 
29 
151 
96 
68 

121 
18 

129 
29 
70 

58 
80 
44 
25 
65 

110 
228 
12 
58 
46 

113 
52 
47 
9 
49 

49 
45 
49 
35 

617 
44 
69 
54 



48 

77 
51 

932 



12 
110 
172 
108 

20 



17 
73 
58 
146 
111 

96 

44 

229 

151 

143 

225 
53 

252 
54 
85 

106 
120 
146 
71 
107 

142 
299 
36 



178 
74 
96 
49 

139 

95 
110 

78 
83 



113 
81 

67 
94 
138 
56 



1,599 



26 
223 
220 
138 

49 

105 
20 

142 
84 



23 


37 


28 


46 


30 


42 


23 


210 



Boys 16 

years and 

under. 



18,334 



8,363 



132 

84 
261 
182 

150 
77 
355 
260 
238 

406 
86 

366 
93 

178 

181 
203 
99 
110 
182 

201 
687 
58 
128 
114 

341 

118 

172 

58 

251 

198 
176 
125 
156 



189 
190 
148 

96 
153 
234 
120 



2,742 



1 Provincial Papers of New Hampshire, Vol. 

2 Corrected figiares. 



41 
350 
393 
266 

65 

180 

30 

257 

154 

57 

68 

72 I 

346 ' 

X, pages 026 to 636. 



Men 60 
years and 
upwards. 



1,538 



943 



31 
1 
50 
20 
16 

24 
36 
21 
8 
34 

41 
84 
2 
24 
20 

22 
24 
25 
2 
14 

21 
12 
23 
10 

93 
11 
24 

15 

18 
17 
27 
18 

223 



Females 
unmarried. 



22,228 



11,239 



49 
170 
101 
365 
20O 

164 
75 
453 

283 
290 

571 
109 
539 
118 
242 

219 

291 
218 
172 
265 

295 
833 
54 
167 
172 

435 
189 
228 
77 
283 

193 
186 
194 
178 

1,346 
222 
259 
182 

163 
166 
.•i82 
161 

3,221 



Females 
married. 



11,887 
6,695 



Widows. 



1,569 



1,034 



41 

397 
514 
3.36 
64 

188 
34 
309 
199 

64 
68 



21 
87 
58 
175 
112 

104 
46 
261 
154 
151 

246 
63 

270 
72 

103 

125 
151 
96 
81 
141 

172 
357 
38 
lOO 

77 

188 
95 

116 
51 

139 

114 
119 
101 
91 

682 
107 
132 
95 

81 
103 
161 

69 

1,776 



29 

223 
256 
183 



105 

21 

157 

107 

37 

49 

42 

241 



43 
12 
10 

31 
4 
59 
13 
20 

14 
33 
22 
10 
28 

23 

58 

3 

22 

21 

43 
18 
16 
4 
19 

12 
12 
17 
10 

236 
12 
36 
14 

17 
25 
45 
14 

232 



Male 
slaves. 



64 



Female 
slaves. 



3 Now Danville. 
* Now Fremont. 





1 
2 

s Now Wakefield. 
« Now Effingham. 



GENERAL TABLES. 



151 



NEW HAMPSIIIHE-Continue.l. 
Table 77.-FREE A ND SLAVE POPULAT ION OP NEW HAMPSHIRE, BY COUNTIES AND TOWNS: CENSUS OF 1773-Con. 



COUNTIES AND TOWNS. 



Unmarried 
men from 
16 to CO. 



Strafford county— Continued. 

Sandwich 

Somersworth 

Sandbornton 

WoUborough 

nillsborough county 

Amherst 

Beilford 

Bost'jwen 

Camden » , 

Derrj-field ' 

Dunbarton 

Dunstii)>le 

GoIT.stown 

flennlkor 

nUUborough 

HoUls 

llopklnton 

Litchfield 

Uason 

Herrimac 

New Almsbury* 

New Roston 

New Britain * 

New Ips^vich 

Nottlncham W'st ' 

Peterborough 

Peterborough-Slip 

Salisbury 

Temple 

Weare , 

WUton 

Cheshire county 

Alstead 

Charlestown 

Chesterfield 

Claremont 

Cornish 

Croydon 

Dublin 

Fitjwiliiara 

Gilsom , 

Hinsdale 

Jaflrey 

Keene 

Lempsler , 

Limerick ' 

Marlow 

Monadnock, No. 5 • 

Monadnock, No. 6* 

Newport 

Plainfield 

Richmond 

Rlndce 

Savllloi» 

fiurry 

Swanzey 

Unity 

Walpole 

Westmoreland 

WlnchosU^r 

Grafton county 

Apthorp u 

Bath 

Camptou 

Canaan 

Conway 

Cockermouth " 

Dorchester 

New Grantham " 

Hanover 

Haverhill 

N'w lloldemess •• 

Lancaster 

Lebanon 

Lime 

New Chester ^ 

Northumberland 

Ortord 

Plymouth 

Stewartstown i* 

Rumney 

Thornton 

Trecothick" 

Wcntworth 



100 
28 
16 



Married 
men from 
16 to 60. 



100 
54 
34 
11 
2S 

26 
SI 
67 
19 
16 

104 
43 
28 
32 

50 
10 
23 

9 
48 
41 
44 

7 

20 
28 
39 
37 

793 



24 

69 
55 
41 
28 

13 
16 
18 
17 
23 

13 
65 
11 
16 
11 

17 
12 
14 
32 
32 

42 

8 

22 

*\ 
7 
48 
SO 
42 

430 



' Now Washington. 
*Now Manchester. 

• Now Warner. 

♦ Now Andover. 



' Now Hudson. 

• Corrected flk'ures. 
' Now Stoddard. 

• Now Marlborough. 



35 
140 
57 
25 

2,112 



237 
62 
76 
21 
30 

73 
71 
101 
60 
27 

180 
151 
35 

77 

82 
36 
61 
26 
165 
88 
66 
14 

70 
74 
138 
91 

1,473 



37 
83 
109 
66 
36 

16 
45 
44 
21 
28 

SO 
96 
13 
43 
29 

39 
23 
23 
40 
112 

90 
IB 
30 
74 
18 
81 

109 
93 

585 



Boys 16 I Men 60 

years and 1 years and 

under. | upwarda. 



I 



Females 
unmarrlul . 



64 

240 I 
104 1 



3,683 





34 

3 

2 

207 ; 



61 
278 
100 

43 



Females 
nurrlcd. 



35 
161 
57 
25 

2,243 



330 
121 
140 
40 

77 ; 

148 
l.'i6 
195 
93 
34 

287 
297 
68 
136 

129 
62 
137 
36 
2:)2 
ISO 
131 
22 

111 
121 
262 
168 
2,626 



13 ' 
11 



66 
151 
224 
121 

52 



88 
32 
40 
65 
Z',7 

170 
15 
.12 
148 
32 
157 
206 
170 



4 

46 
39 
16 
39 

24 
33 
12 
86 
107 

45 
8 
62 
53 
63 

8 
60 
90 
17 
01 , 
18 I 
16 I 
13 1 



6 
18 
11 
2 
3 

18 
10 
13 
4 

8 
4 
6 
2 
S 
14 
12 
1 

S 
2 
10 

7 

126 



21 


1 


74 


1 


55 




32 


4 


48 


5 


.S9 


2 


140 


11 


16 




62 


2 


43 





412 
49 

147 
37 
92 

128 
213 
237 



355 
267 
95 
125 

170 
59 
110 
36 
277 
179 
172 
23 

130 
115 
280 
168 
1,812 



59 
191 
220 



23 
71 
53 
37 
70 

92 
217 
17 
49 
40 

89 
27 
54 
S5 
218 

166 
16 
70 

164 

32 
160 
198 
209 



2 
36 
40 
11 
37 

28 
38 
17 
80 

112 

41 

10 
79 
71 
46 



107 
19 

47 
12 
18 
15 



24« 
72 
90 
21 
40 

78 
89 
107 
62 
29 

190 
156 
43 
81 



38 
64 
26 
139 
100 
72 
14 

76 

76 
147 
99 

1,568 



42 
85 
120 
66 
35 

16 
46 
44 
22 
31 

52 
105 



40 
23 
23 
43 
115 

log 

16 
32 
85 

17 

87 

117 

113 

60C 



WIdowB. 




42 
2 
S 

200 



Male 
slavea. 



Female 
slaves. 



39 



TotaL 



2M 
1,038 

asa 

186 

13,514 



1,370 
388 
504 
132 
279 

464 
010 
732 
338 
US 

1,103 
941 
200 
403 

Bfi3 
2U 
410 
13S 
882 
SO 
614 
81 

4M 
418 
884 
580 

•9,493 



• 233 
690 
747 
428 
2U 

91 
2S6 
214 
•135 
220 

308 
645 
«• 

215 
1S« 
275 
117 
156 
275 
745 

604 
72 
208 
536 
108 
549 
608 
«4« 

•1,557 



14 
150 
110 

02 
208 
107 

m 
«o 

M3 
187 

147 
17 
206 
341 
179 

45 
23S 
MS 

88 
113 

74 



• Now Nelson. 
'• .Vow Siinapee. 
n Now Dalton. 



»Now Oroton. 
wNow Oninttiain. 
!• Now llaldomoH. 



i» Now mil. 

>• Including Cookbum and Colbrook. 

II Now Ellsworth. 



152 



A CENTURY OF POPULATION GROWTH. 

NEW HAMPSHIRE— Continued. 



Tarlf 78 -RETURN OF THE NUMBER OF INHABITANTS IN THE SEVERAL TOWNS AND PLACES IN NEW 
HAMPSHIRE, TAKEN BY ORDER OF THE CONVENTION, WITH THE NUMBER OF FIRE ARMS, THE 
POWDER, &c.: 1775.' 





Males 
under 16. 


Males 
from 16 
to 50 not 
in the 
Array. 


Males 
above 50. 


Persons 
in the 
Army. 


Females. 


Negroes 

and 
Slaves 
for life. 


Total. 


FIRE ASMS 


t POWDER 




COUNTIEa AND TOWNS. 


Fire arms 
fit for 
use. 


Fire arms 
wanting. 


Public 
stock of 
Powder. 


Powder 

ui private 

hands. 


Rockingham county: 


1,013 
190 
401 
618 
101 

206 
214 
97 
252 
169 

322 
109 
129 
182 
296 

206 
384 
151 
268 
253 

153 
114 
121 
172 
120 

88 
377 
110 
179 
120 

129 
280 
199 
232 
187 

153 

250 
145 
117 
39 

144 
85 
90 


823 
147 
273 
404 
85 

146 

155 
90 
183 
136 

212 
92 
85 
106 
151 

112 

273 
91 
105 
174 

97 
63 
90 
122 

86 

47 
242 

57 
114 

87 

76 
186 
124 
120 
120 

92 
204 

91 
187 

18 

109 
.W 
85 


191 
62 
86 

157 
33 

47 
67 
34 
58 
42 

SO 
27 
35 
44 
49 

40 
101 
42 
26 
57 

39 
29 
30 
49 
33 

11 
77 
15 
33 
12 

26 
36 
30 
19 
24 

24 
26 
30 
13 

7 

39 
6 
9 


50 
20 
51 
66 


2,373 
440 
892 

1,316 
221 

442 
491 
266 
622 
381 

658 
259 
288 
398 
539 

362 
787 
339 
502 
677 

335 
210 
283 
413 
262 

187 
793 
189 
388 
219 

260 
490 
331 
346 
334 

274 
418 
286 
197 
82 

304 
155 
161 


140 

3 

38 

29 

9 

14 
7 

39 
5 

21 

17 
1 
5 
3 
2 


3 
3 
11 
4 

4 
3 
2 
2 
13 



19 

1 

7 

1 


14 
4 


4,690 

802 

1,741 

2,590 

449 

870 
961 
532 
1,137 
759 

1,289 
498 
575 
768 

1,084 

749 
1,599 

645 
= 994 
1,100 

652 
428 
540 
797 
529 

350 
1,569 
387 
744 
459 

604 
1,062 
723 
744 
683 

552 
929 
575 
»618 
149 

607 
313 
349 










Portsmouth 


192 

193 

283 

63 

170 






94 
80 
132 




160 
183 


60 




Ix)ndonderry 


68" 


New-Cttstle 


15 

27 
6 
17 
10 

30 
10 
33 
35 
47 

29 
51 
19 
22 
35 

24 

9 

8 

39 

15 

17 
61 
16 
23 
20 

13 
46 
35 
27 
18 

7 

30 

18 

4 

1 

11 
10 
3 




101 


Rye 


127 
20 




35 




93' 


60 


Newington 




Strathara 


108 


33 


45 


01 








66 

46 

51 

104 

110 
175 
80 
101 
113 

122 
66 
46 

100 
69 

33 


31 
39 

75 




58 
















32 




43 


71 




40 
112 
15 
68 
68 


28 






30 




30 
63 
40 

50 


71 




43 




luO 




86 






31 




41 










83 




17 
14 




16 






13 










44 


2U 




28 










68 

52 
98 
46 
72 


39 


103 






9 












109 
48 


80 


















2 
1 
5 












120 
62 
47 
11 

74 
36 
49 


68 
49 
31 




51 






36 




42 






2 










24 






16 
36 




10 




1 












Hillsborough county: 


343 
r,2 
162 
109 
68 

215 
168 
142 
135 
144 

332 
162 
31 
215 
164 

248 
306 
268 
127 
201 

117 


240 
44 
91 
93 
41 

138 
100 
92 
77 
92 

160 
102 
17 
88 
98 

177 
174 
246 
110 
103 

67 


53 
19 
33 
28 
15 

21 
36 
15 
23 
14 

30 
17 
1 
30 
27 

18 
71 
26 
32 
34 

15 


81 
13 
17 
14 
16 

10 
22 
6 
25 
14 

42 
26 
6 
40 
20 

32 
60 
42 
19 
27 

9 


707 
1.36 
281 
241 
142 

411 
319 
242 
277 
232 

519 
314 
52 
325 
256 

421 
640 
475 
305 
348 

158 


4 
10 
1 

6 

4 
1 
8 

1 

2 
2 


1,428 
284 
585 
495 
285 

831 
649 
498 
S46 
497 

1,085 
623 
107 
705 
569 

2 897 

1,256 

s 1,000 

606 

713 

367 


121 
39 
58 




41 



66 


Litchfield 


8 
65 
37 
20 


28 




7 


Bedford 






11 




20 











66 
47 
23 


32 

46 





25 


Salisbury 




Peterborough 


















56 




6 


Wifton 


72 
7 
46 


47 


40 


Peterborough-Slip 






Dunstable 


7 
4 

1 
4 
3 
13 


1 


42 


36 


41 








73 
131 
105 

79 






10 


Hollls 


92 
48 
36 




74 


111 




87 


Merrimack 


9} 


Lyndeborough 




Henniker« 


40 










IlUlsliorough 






Raby < 


























148 
143 

.55 
42 
78 
56 

39 
20 


86 
94 

37 
36 
45 
38 

22 
15 


12 

6 

7 
8 
6 
5 

5 
3 


27 
18 

9 
9 
fi 
3 

4 
3 


227 
230 

92 
82 
126 
77 

60 
42 


1 




1 






501 
491 

200 
177 
262 
179 

130 
83 


48 
66 




49 


6 

112 




Temple 


45 




11 




Society Land 








21 

27 

12 


26 










New-Britain ' 





Perry's- Town 6 


17 





Deering 



































1 New Hampshire nistorical Collections, 1824, Vol. I. (Census incomplete; several towns not reported.) 

sCorrected umres. 

3 Hillsborough, Antrim, and Hancock wcro joined with Henniker in this enumeration. 

* Joined with Mason. 



6 Now (1S24) Andover. 
« Now (18245 Sutton. 

7 Including Duxbury farm. 

6 Joined with Sutton In this enumeration. 



GENERAL TABLES. 



153 



NEW HAMPSHIRE— Continued. 

Table 78.-RETURN OF THE XUMBER OF IN-H.\BITANTS IN THE SEVER.VL TOWXS AKD PLACES IN NEW- 
HAMPSHIRE, TAKEN BY ORDER OF THE CONVENTION, WITH THE NUMBER OF FIRE ARMS THE 
POWDER, &c.: 1775— Continued. 





Males 
under 16. 


Males 
from 16 
to SO not 
in the 
Army. 


Males 
above 50. 


Persons 
In the 
Army. 


Females. 


Negroes 

and 
Slave* 
(or life. 


Total. 


riKE ABII9 


A POWDEI. 


COiraTIES AND TOWNS. 


Flro arnu 

at (or 

use. 


Flmarmt 
wanting. 


Publle 
■took of 
I'owder. 


Powder 

In private 

bands. 


Strafford county: 

Dover 


410 
286 
236 
24S 
464 

238 
120 
396 
164 
82 

70 
35 
72 
86 
23 

57 
76 
81 
49 

70 

57 

50 

4 

168 
214 
135 
213 
207 


342 
185 
147 
129 
245 

151 
87 
303 
117 
53 

50 
20 
40 
70 
16 

53 
61 
45 
36 

50 

44 

32 

6 

118 
100 
106 
127 
112 


74 
68 
58 
36 
72 

16 
12 
61 
38 
4 

15 
1 
7 

10 
2 

4 
9 
9 
7 

7 
5 
2 
3 

2.5 
26 
12 
23 
30 


28 
57 
12 
46 
23 

12 
20 
26 

7 
2 

6 

6 

4 
3 

4 
4 

1 


10 
3 


786 
593 
497 
479 
848 

357 
219 
759 
345 
111 

144 
*4 

108 
149 
39 

91 
122 
109 

80 

122 
83 
64 
13 

316 
283 
250 
a57 
3.54 


26 
25 

4 

30 
3 

1 
1 
3 
6 


1,666 

1,214 

9S4 

965 

1,655 

775 
459 
1,548 
677 
252 

286 
100 
233 
320 
83 

211 
272 
245 
172 

259 
190 

151 
20 

647 
658 

542 
758 
723 


180 
222 
119 




m 

200 
24 




Lee 

Somersworth 


si 


76 
SI 




i84 
99 


46 


44 




Sandbornton 


S 




206 

78 
28 

27 


m 

25 

20 
10 
20 


36 
60 


36 


Barnstcad 


00 


Nnw-Durham 


1 




3 


Do. Gore 




Middloton 




27 




4 


Eastown > 


1 




LeavitU-Town > 


11 

34 

31 
27 
25 

30 


5 
25 




2 
S 




2 


2S 


Moultonborough 


Sandwich 






36 








10 
26 


1 


Meredith 




SO 


Campton 






Tarn worth ' 




17 
4 

72 








Gore 




2 
SO 




1 

16 


Cheshiro county: 


20 
33 
35 
38 
18 



2 
2 

2 





Walpole 






21 

67 






WpstinoH'land 


63 
68 










18 










Gilsum 


45 
83 
59 
78 

158 
88 

148 
88 
56 

46 
37 


32 

77 
37 
83 

94 
54 
12.i 

79 

« 

39 
34 


10 
9 
8 

13 

17 
9 

18 
5 
6 

4 
2 


7 
4 
7 


22 

10 

1 

4 

9 

1 
3 


84 
136 
104 
134 

303 
143 
231 
141 
91 

67 
67 








178 
309 
215 
308 

594 
305 
523 
317 
207 

1.57 
143 


IS 

53 
23 
36 








6 


Cornish 


33 
22 
49 


20 




5 














Dublin 


1 








GO 

18 


31 

65 




8 








A Is trad 










26 






14 




2 


Croydon 







S 










Savtlle 


is 

39 

90 


14 

35 

72 


4 
3 

8 


3 

7 

16 


29 
«2 

165 








65 
146 

351 


6 
13 










2S 












Fltiwiliiara » 












104 
52 
75 

241 

47 

43 

280 

174 

97 
93 
86 
66 
98 

16 
35 
57 
60 
77 

S2 
47 
14 
17 
38 

16 
26 


54 
.34 
38 

155 
29 
31 
143 
140 

69 
83 
91 
32 
108 

17 
23 
61 
42 
41 

28 
25 
6 
15 
26 

20 
26 


2 

4 
7 

30 
4 
4 

16 

24 

9 
15 
13 

5 
12 

3 
2 
10 

7 
4 

4 
5 
2 

7 

2 
6 


14 

13 
11 

36 

6 

1 

26 

31 

17 
8 
2 
5 

22 

3 
5 

! 

11 

15 
10 
5 
2 
8 


8 


148 
83 
93 

412 

77 

49 

395 

387 

169 
178 
155 
88 
184 

28 
S3 

116 
106 
104 

69 
67 
20 
27 
58 

19 
52 












4 
5 


10 




2 












322 
186 
224 

874 
163 
128 
860 
756 

365 
382 
347 
196 
434 

87 
118 
252 1 
222 
237 1 

168 
144 

47 

61 
137 

57 
117 


26 
23 
14 

86 
13 
17 
56 
72 


28 
10 
24 

99 




5 






6 





















6 


Lempster 


18 
88 
92 







.5 




90 
SO 


22 


Grafton county: 


5 








6 








60 

48 



38 







26 
45 

17 
18 
30 
13 


11 

177 


27 
31 
29 


2 













3 


Lyme . ... 







30 











1 
8 


31 
24 
6 

7 


16 
IS 
14 














Gunthwaite 


8 
18 

7 
6 


11 



Alexandria. ,. 


IS 
25 


Northumberland 


70 
3 






79 
11 


51 

20 


6 
4 


18 

1 


117 
37 


2 

1 


273 
74 1 


40 


44 


25 



6 


Or^ntbftm 





' Now (1824) Wakefield. 



> Now (1824) Efflngluun. 



' Joined with Swuniey In this enumeration. 



154 



A CENTURY OF POPULATION GROWTH. 

NEW HAMPSHIRE— Continued. 



TvBLE 78 -RETURN OF THE NUMBER OF INHABITANTS IN THE SEVERAL TOWNS AND PLACES IN NEW 
' HAMPSHIRE, TAKEN BY ORDER OF THE CONVENTION, WITH THE NUMBER OF FIRE ARMS, THE 
POWDER, &c.: 1775— Continued. 





Males 
under 16. 


Males 
from ir, 
to 50 not 

in the 
Anny. 


Males 
above 60. 


Persons 
in the 
Army. 


Females. 


Negroes 
and 

Slaves 
for life. 


Total. 


FIRE AKM8 ,1: POWCEB. 


COtmriES AXI» TOWNS. 


Fire arms 
fit for 
use. 


Fire arms 
wanting. 


Public 
stoclc of 
Powder. 


Powder 

in private 

hands. 


Grafton county— Continued. 


































































































14 
10 


8 
5 


2 



1 
1 


15 
13 






40 
29 


1 
3 






8 










3 




















4 
41 
4 

14 












is ii 






2 



1 


10 
3 

3 





7 

1 

3 


7 


6 


12 





5 


1 
5 






2 





3 






Enfield 


15 


17 


1 





17 





60 


10 


7 



























































1 Joined with Orford. 



3 Joined with Piermont in this enumeration. 



Table 79.— FREE AND SLAVE POPULATION OF NEW HAMPSHIRE, BY COUNTIES AND TOWNS: CENSUS OF 1786.> 

[In this census the selectmen of the different towns were directed to ascertain '*the whole number of white and other free citizens, inhabitants of every age, sex, and 
conaition, including those bound to servitude for a term of years; and also in a separate column, or class, all other persons not comprehended in the foregoing description, 
except Indians not paying taxes."] 



COUMTIES AND TOWNS. 


•n^hole 
number. 


Slaves. 


Other persons. 


Rockingham county: 


175 
500 
959 
857 
1,767 

1,397 
1,283 
420 
1,340 
1,692 

656 
866 
569 
301 
798 

822 

456 

1,172 

343 

349 

575 
659 
1,015 
875 
991 

698 

551 

500 

4.133 

786 

653 

1,075 

521 

668 
450 
894 
583 






Atlrinsnn 






Candia. . 








3 
2 




Chester 

Concord 


5 ''other persons." 


Deerfieid 










Epping 






Exeter 






Greenland 


7 




Hampton 




Hampton Falls 






Hawke (Danville) 






Kensington 






Loudon 






Newington 




20 blacks. 


New Market 


2 




Newtown 




Northfleld 






Northwood 






North Ilampton 






Nottingham 




11 negroes. 


Pelham 




Pembroke 




3 blacks 


Pittsfleld 






Plaistow 






Poplin 






Portsmouth—" whites" 






Raymond 






Salem !!!!"..!!.!!! 


7' 


2 "other persons." 


Sandown 




Soahrook 
















13 blacks 






9 blades living with their masters. 






Total 


32,138 

4S2 
943 
1,912 
410 
289 

778 
827 
968 
1,536 
605 


21 


185 
1 black. 


3Ulsboroiigh county; 

Aoworth 


Amherst '_'_[[ 

Andover ] , " [ 

Antrim '.'.'.','///.['.'.'.'.'.'..'. 














Bedford 

B osc wen '.'.!".".'.'"."..'. 

Charlestown 

Chesterfield '..'. 

Cornish ■■.........[.....]["['.'. '. 








4 negroes. 













' Provincial Papers of New Hampshire, Vol. X, page 689. 



GENERAL TABLES. 



155 



NEW HAMPSHIKE— Continued. 

Table 79.-FREE AND SLAVE POPULATION OF NEW UAMPSUIRE, BY COUNTIES AND TOWNS: CENSUS OF 1786- 

Continued. 



COUNTIES AND TOWNS. 



HlllsboroiiRh county — Continued 

Derryfield 

Dunbarton 

Uunstatile 

Duxlmry and Mlle-Sllp 

Flshertleld (now Newbury).. 

Ooffstown 

Ilanewk 

ilennlkor 

Hollls 

Uopklnton 

Mason 

Merriniack 

New Bradford 

New Ipswich 

New London 

Nottingham West 

Petprl)orough-SlIp 

Peterborough 

Rahy 

Salisbury 

Society Land 

Sutton 

Temple 

Weare 

Wilton 

Total 

Straflord county: 

BanLstead 

Harrington 

Burton 

Dover 

Durham 

Eaton 

Effingham 

Gihnanton 

Lee 

Madbury 

Meredith 

Moultont)orough 

New Durham 

Rochester 

Sanbomton 

Sandwich 

Tarn worth 

Wakefleld 

Total 

Cheshire county: 

Claremont 

Croydon 

Dublin 

FltzwIUIam 

Gilsum 

Hinsdale 

Keene 

Lempster. 

Marlborough 

Marlow 

New Grantham 

Newport 

PackersQeld 

Plalnneld 

Protectworth 

Richmond 

Rindcc 

Stoddard 

Swanzt'y 

Unity 

Washington 

Westmoreland 

Wendell 

Winchester 

Total 

Qrafton county: 

Alexandria 

Bath 

Campton 

Canaan 

Cardigan 



Whole 
ntunbor. 



741 

m 

140 

217 

1,048 
291 

1,421 
1,536 



092 

128 

1,049 

219 

1,010 
175 
824 
262 

1,045 

157 

337 

701 

1,574 

1,001 



26,933 



74 
1,427 
1,230 

138 

54 

1,636 
956 
585 

872 

400 

242 

2,453 

1,107 I 
653 
287 
505 



SlavM. 



13,877 



914 
381 

658 
870 
304 

326 
1,122 
322 
618 
252 

201 
552 
667 
580 
127 

1,250 
759 
563 

1,000 
404 

474 
1,621 

195 
1,100 



15,160 



291 
335 
307 
2S3 
80 



Other pcTBons. 



"other aex's none.' 

IS Macks. 

4 " black servanK." 
I "other peraon." 



9 blacks. 
2 negroes. 



"oooe bound to servitude.' 



S Macks. 



48 



1 negro girl— "cripel." 

1 aged gentleman— town charge. 

3 blacks. 



3 negroes. 



48 "transdnt persons." 



1 black. 



3 blacks. 



54 



156 



A CENTURY OF POPULATION GROWTH. 



NEW HAMPSHIRE— Continued. 

Table 79.-FREE AND SLAVE POPULATION OF NEW HAMPSHIRE, BY COUNTIES AND TOWNS: CENSUS OF 178(^ 

Continued. 



COUNTIES AXD TOWNS. 



Gra/ton county— Continued, 

(.'ockemiouth 

Gunthwiiite 

Dorchester 

Enfield 

Grafton 

Hanover 

Haverhill 

Lancaster 

Lebanon 

Lyman 

Lyme 

New Chester 

New Holdemess 

Orford 

Piermont 

Plymouth 

Rumney 

Thornton 

Wentworth 

Total 



Whole 
number. 



281 
152 
116 
484 
350 

866 
458 
102 
841 
116 

490 
496 
260 
363 
3S3 

528 
359 
295 
168 



8,344 



Slaves. 



Other persons. 



4 servants bound out for a term of time. 
4 "not comprehended" in other classes. 

2 "not included," etc. 



12 "not included." 

7 transient persons. 

5 negroes. 8 transient persons. 

3 male negroes. 



4 others. 

7 other persons. 



56 



Summary of the census of 1786, iy counties. 



Rockingham , 

Straflord 

Hillsborough 

Cheshire 

Grafton 

Total.. 



No. of 
towns. 



Free in- 
habit- 
ants. 



32, 138 
13,877 
25,933 
15, 160 
8,344 



95, 452 



Others. 



185 
8 

48 
6 

66 



303 



Total 
population. 



32, 344 
13.894 
25.990 
15.173 
8,400 



95,801 



MASSACHUSETTS. 



Table 80.— MALE AND FEMALE NEGRO SLAVE POPULATION OF MASSACHUSETTS, BY COUNTIES AND TOWNS: 

CENSUS OF 1754.' 





NEGRO SLAVES. 


COnNTfES AND TOWNS. 


NEGRO SLAVES. 




Male. 


Female. 


Total. 


Male. 


Female. 


Total. 




798 


424 


1,274 


Essex county — Continued. 


4 


4 










647 
18 
38 
12 


342 
13 
15 
11 


989 
31 
53 
23 








Middleton 


9 
9 

210 


3 
12 

123 


12 


Roxbury 


Dan vers 


21 


Weymouth 








361 








= 17 
36 






Braintree 


20 

7 

3 10 
3 
15 
13 
10 
1 
4 
1 

6 


16 

4 

1 5 
1 
4 
3 
7 

3 
1 
1 
2 








Hull: 


Watertown 


7 

27 

33 

10 

9 

9 

14 

16 

7 

3 


S 
7 
23 
5 
S 
8 
6 
S 
7 
5 


12 


In the town 


Medford . . 


34 


At ttie lighthouse 


15 

4 

19 

16 

17 

1 

7 

2 

1 

8 

»35 

439 


Cambridge 


56 


MMlfii-Id 




15 


Milton 




14 


W mi 1 ham 


Wobum 


17 


Brook! ine 




20 


Needham 




21 


Medway 




14 


Bellingham 


Billerioa 


8 


W ubjule 


Chelmsford 


'8 


Stougiiton 




3 


3 


6 


Chelsea 








178 


122 


Sherburne . 


3 




3 


Essex county 


Stow 










10 


3 


13 


Salem 


47 


36 


83 

= 62 

50 






Ipswich 










Newbury 


34 


16 


Weston 


8 
13 
3 


2 
11 
5 


10 


Lynh- 




24 


Gloucester 






2 61 

12 

7 

"le 

6 
16 
42 


Littleton 


8 


Rowley 


10 
6 


2 

1 




'15 


Salisbvu-y 










Wenham 




6 


2 


8 


Manchester 


1 
8 
28 


5 
8 
14 






Haverhill 




2 
4 
2 
1 

1 
2 


4 
3 

1 
1 


g 


Andover 




7 


Marblehead 




3 




4 

3 

12 
3 


I 

16 
2 


5 

6 

28 

S 




2 


Amesbury 

Beverly 


Acton 


1 


Bradford [..'.'.WW'.'.'.'. 









1 J. H. Benton, jr.: "Early Census Making In Massachusetts, 1643 to 1765," pages 12 to 17. 



• Not returned by sex. 



GENERAL TABLES. 

M AS S ACHUSETTS—Continued . 



157 



Table 80. 



-MALE AND FEMALE NEGRO SLAVE POPLLATIOX OF MASSACnrSETTS, BY COUNTIES AND TOWNS- 
CENSUS OF 1754— Continued. 



COUNTIES AXD TOWNS. 


KEOBO SLAVES. 


COUNTIES AND TOWNS. 


KBOBO 8LAVBS. 




Male. 


Female. 


j Total. 


Ibto. 


Femal*. 


ToUl. 


Middlesex county— Continued. 

Shirlev 

P«PP«J«" 


1 




1 


PlyiDouth county— Continued. 

Pembroke 

Ablngton ' 


6 

3 

1 
1 
1 
1 

1 


4 
2 
3 


la 


Lincoln 


16 

47 


3 

7 

22 


3 
23 

83 


Kini^ton 

Hanover: 

Nathaniel .=!vlvest<-r 






David .';to<kl)ri JRC!. Ksq 


I 

1 
1 




Lancaster 

Mendon 

Brookfield 


4 


'. 


1 " 


Rev. Mr. Henjoniiu Bass 

JobTilJen 

Capt. Ktekiel Turner 




Oxford 

Worcester 

Leicester 


3 
4 
5 

1 


1 
4 

2 


4 

! 8 

3 
'3 
6 


Joshua Bh rstow [ 

Mat thPw Kstes .'."'" 

Caleb Barker 

Amos Sylvester 




1 
2 
1 
1 




Sutton 




W est borough 

Uxbridee: 

Rev. Mr. Webb 


4 

2 
1 
4 


" 


Richard Curtis 


1 

7 
2 






Isaac Turner 

Halifax 


1 10 
2 


17 

4 


John Ellcson 

Southborouch: 

Rev. Mr. Nathan Stone 


1 
1 
2 

1 


i 7 

1 
4 
8 
2 

16 


B rlstol county 


30 




22 


122 


Shrewsburj' 


3 

6 

1 


Taunton 






'27 




Rehoboth 








Harvard 


Iiartmouth 

Swanzey 

Freetovvn 


ii' 


Y 


■34 

ii 


Hard wick 

Bolton 


f 


i' 

2 




3 


A ttleborough 

Norton 

DIghton '..'..'...'.'.' 


7 

9 

2 


i 

i' 

1 


10 

is 

3 


Holden 


Easton 


Western 

Douglass 


2 


1 


3. 


Berkley !...!.!!!!!!'.!!; 


7 


3 





N. Braintree 












Spencer: 


2 

1 


1 
1 


3 

2 

12 

74 


Sherburne 








Rev. Mr. Joshua Eaton 


1 








36 


30 






56 


18 


Barnstable 






'5 


'\ 


33 




22 
13 

13 
5 


5 
5 
4 
4 


27 


Sandwich 


8 




Yarmouth 




Eastham 


6 


»l 


11 
■10 


Hatfield 











1 




Northampton 










; 1 














3 


:! 


14 












Brimfield 








7 


Blandford 


















( 






1 




i[ 


Tlsburv 








Southampton 




rhilmark 


3 
75 


4 

41 


7 


South II adley 










Greenfield 








147 










Yorlc 


Monta^Oie 








1 


1 24 












II 

16 

7 

14 


i7 

4 
5 ' 

4 




Greenwich 








Wells 


16 














Stockbridge 










11 




'63 


49 


>124 


B'^rwick 


8 il 23 


Plj-mouth county 


H Iddeford 








2 
3 
2 




PI vmouth 










1 


3 




22 


21 


43 




3 






1 7 


Marshfield: 


3 


4 

1 
1 




.N'cwcastle 


1 1 




Kcnelm AVinsIow, Esq 




2 
M.iOS 





2 












3 

1 
1 
1 
2 




8S6 Ml.TU 










1.274 








798 ' 
178 
210 , 

47 

S6 
'63 1 

30; 


424 1 










122 430 






1 


Middlesex countv 


133 361 




• 1 






22 88 




3 
I 

1 

1 "18 




riampsliin* county 


18 : 74 










4» >134 


Widow Jnde Clift 






Bristol county 


22 


122 




7 


... . 
•2.'-. 








Bamstablf county 


36 
3 

n 


30 

4 


76 








112 




7 


Rochester 






York county 


147 

























' Not returned by sex. 



• Corrected figures. 



'lDc]udea352 not n'tumed hy i»x. 



158 



A CENTURY OF POPULATION GROWTH. 

MASSACETDSETTS— Continued. 
MASSACHUSETTS (INCLUDING MAINE): CENSUS OF 1784.' 

n _ i.i.,i™ .ho fot.1 n.imhpr nf nnlk hv 4 Dr Felt comDUtes the population of Massachusetts in 1784 at 310,968, and that of Maine at 55,216. Dr. 

CiSr.w''Zu'D''l'vTnloSv Ihe^'aSSSer ol°ra?ea"ble Lli noi SeabU, p^oUs by 4i^Etains for the population of Massachusetts 346,653, and for Maine 61,406. 



Chlckering. by multiplying only the number 



Recapitulation. 



Barnstable 
Berkshire.. 

Bristol 

Dukes 

Essex 

Hampshire 
Middlesex. 
Nantucket . 
Pljrmouth. 
Suffolk 



MT7UBER OF POLLS.' 



Rateable and not 
rateable. 



3,148 
5,892 
6,197 
718 
11,023 
11,497 
9,691 
S13 
6,425 
9,367 



Supported 
by the 
town. 



15 

83 

4 

115 
34 
76 
21 
47 

139 



cotraTiE.s. 



Worcester 

Cumberland '. 

Lincoln 3 

York 3 



NtJMBER OF POLLS.' 



Rateable and not 
rateable. 



12,263 
3,708 
5,071 
4,944 



90,757 
789 



91,546X4=366,184 



Supported 
by the ' 
towu. 



35 

46 



789 



'Collections of the Am. Stat. .Association, vol. 1. page 170. 2 Includes all male persons between 16 and 100 years of age. > In the district of Maine. 

Table 81.-WHITE, NEGRO, INDIAN, AND FRENCH NEUTRAL POPULATION OF MASSACHUSETTS, BY COUNTIES 

AND TOWNS; CENSUS OF 1764.' 





Houses. 


Families. 


■(^WTTPS 


irwrn^R 


WHITES 


ABOVE 


NEGROES 4 






FRENCH NEUTRALS. 




COUNTIES AND TO'Wl'13. 


16 YEARS. 


16 YEARS. 


MULATTOES. 




Under 16 years. 


Above 16 years. 


Total. 




Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male, 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 




Suffolk county: 

Boston 


1,676 
212 
204 
124 
327 

203 
375 
31 
265 
239 

113 

293 

123 

72 

129 
53 
54 

100 


2,069 
212 

245 
141 
357 

248 
426 
33 
424 
309 

121 
347 
1.38 
82 

168 
53 
70 

106 


4,109 
291 

292 
215 
571 

275 
594 
31 
593 
417 

111 
464 
165 
119 

209 
68 
110 
188 


4,010 
324 
284 
222 
590 

294 
539 
27 
555 
441 

126 
463 
178 
111 

226 
62 
85 

177 


2,941 
371 
343 
214 
555 

315 
555 
39 
567 
484 

176 
514 
215 
116 

246 
97 
99 

207 


3,612 
421 
404 
245 
651 

347 
702 
57 
580 
531 

211 
551 
210 
108 

250 

93 

125 

209 


510 
47 
23 
31 
31 

13 

38 

9 

9 

21 

3 

18 
10 

8 

8 
13 
20 

2 


301 
33 
14 
16 
35 

14 
39 
7 
17 
15 

1 
12 
7 


21 


16 










15,520 


1 


3 


1 


1 


1,493 








1,360 








2 

1 


1 
3 


s 


i 

3 


948 




1 


1 


2,445 




1,258 








7 


11 


9 


12 


2,506 


HulT 






170 




9 
3 

2 

1 
1 


10 
3 

4 










2,340 




1 
4 

1 


1 

2 
1 
1 


2 

1 
1 
2 


1 

1 

1 
3 


1,919 


Medfield 


639 




2,030 


Med way 


793 




462 


Needham 


6 
5 
13 
2 














945 
















338 


Chelsea 














452 


Walpole 








1 


3 


3 


792 












Total 


4,593 

509 
2S8 
531 
401 
357 

519 
275 
300 
307 

239 
201 
304 
404 

105 
128 
242 
173 

72 
83 
103 
158 


5,549 

923 
381 
670 
489 
546 

935 
3SS 
438 
404 

290 
240 
350 
677 

130 
149 
264 
192 

95 
97 
155 
158 


8,822 

884 
458 
791 
622 
613 

1,189 
489 
533 
495 

222 
280 
494 
865 

160 
200 
351 
257 

125 

125 

■ 159 

250 


8,714 

985 
468 
801 
605 
566 

1,031 

481 
558 
482 

329 

322 
409 
841 

141 

194 
366 
238 

120 
121 
103 
194 


8,054 

1,050 
501 
931 
819 
739 

1,199 
531 
565 
472 

411 
354 
605 
887 

183 
220 
389 
281 

120 
140 
183 
247 


9,307 

1,335 
634 

1,119 
872 
837 

1,435 
648 
700 
635 

493 

366 

487 

1,061 

219 
227 
444 
384 

166 
100 
203 
239 


814 

117 
37 
60 
21 
35 

71 
31 

56 
37 

11 

5 

13 

57 

12 
5 
8 
9 

13 
14 
10 
2 


537 

56 
35 
40 
17 
29 

29 
18 
30 
42 

11 

2 

12 

52 

4 

S 
9 
6 

15 
21 
13 


38 


34 


17 

8 
2 
6 

1 
15 


24 

3 
8 
6 
1 

11 


23 

13 
5 

7 

1 

14 


26 

18 
3 
9 
1 

23 


36, 410 
4,469 


Essex county: 

Salem 


Dan vers 






Ipswich 








Newbury 






2 960 


Newbyport 






2,882 

4,954 

2,208 
2 402 


Marblehead * . . 






Lynn 






3 

7 


5 
7 


1 
3 
2 

1 
4 
2 
4 


1 
3 

5 

1 
4 
4 
3 


Andover 






Beverly 


1 






Rowley 






2 
4 
3 

1 


1 481 


Salisbury 






3 
3 

1 


1 344 


naverhill 






1,992 
3,772 

719 


Glocester 






Topsfield 






Boxford 














851 


Almsbury 














1 567 


Bradford 






2 


2 


1 


1 


1,181 
564 


Wenham 


3 


2 


Middleton 










581 




1 


i' 


1 


4 


1 


1 


739 
933 


Methuen 


Total 




7,971 

2.57 
375 
117 
287 


9,562 

311 

369 
172 
365 
335 


9,475 

286 
392 
136 
314 
389 


10,727 

374 
486 
179 
373 
381 


12,664 

510 
648 
105 
424 
432 


624 

47 
84 
5 
20 
15 


446 

43 

52 
6 
19 
12 


5 


3 


52 

2 
2 


57 

2 
2 


59 

4 
6 


77 

3 

7 


43,761 

1,582 

2,048 

693 


Middlesex county: 

Cambridge 

Charlestown 


237 
289 
103 
228 






Watertown 

Wobura 


















1,515 


















1,564 



' Early Census Making in Massachusetts 1643 to 1765. Corrections in additions have been made where necessary. 



GENERAL TABLES. 

MASSACHUSETTS— Continued. 



159 



Table 81.-WHITE, NEGRO, INDIAN, AND FRENCH NEUTRAL POPULATION OF MASSACHUSETTS BY COUNTIES 

AND TOWNS: CENSUS OF 17G4-Continued. 





Houses. 


Families. 


WHITES 


UNDER 


i 

WHITEa 


AilOVE 


NEOBOES A 


ISOIANS. 


' rBKHCO HEimAIil. 




COUNTIES AND TOWN3. 






■ULATTOEa. 


Under 16 yean. 


Above 1« yean. 


Total. 




Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 




Middlesex county— Continued. 


174 
263 
183 
189 
205 

126 
133 
106 
224 
144 

105 
104 
122 
135 
143 

94 
94 
174 
41 

121 
94 
54 


222 
316 
213 
223 
234 

142 
176 
113 
296 
174 

126 
147 
143 
154 
169 

107 
97 

242 
72 

135 
97 
59 
91 


304 


316 


322 


348 


10 
I 1* 

'I 
U 

20 
7 
4 

26 

27 

10 
29 
8 
9 
5 

8 
6 
8 
4 

6 
4 
14 
10 


7 
12 
11 

6 
U 

18 
4 
8 
9 

21 

8 
18 
9 
7 
7 

6 

4 
7 
2 

3 
4 

18 
14 


1 
i- 


1 














1.308 


Marlboro 


1 307 255 

312 235 

. 325 302 

; 210 189 
224 '^''^ 


436 471 
348 , 3.K 
313 300 
306 347 

228 241 
246 304 
156 1 187 
400 1 422 
230 , 289 

196 ; 184 


........ 








1,773 
1.287 


Framingham 

LcjtinRton 

Chelmsforxl 


i 




i' 


i' 


i' 


i 


1,234 
1,313 

912 


Shorbora 

Reading 


172 

; 335 

206 

' 195 
161 

1 100 


140 
339 
210 

176 
150 
175 


i' 


1 




i' 

1 
3 


i' 

3 

1 


i' 

1 


1,012 

073 

1,537 


Maiden 






4 


Weston 






768 


Littleton 


212 
223 
233 

169 

164 

340 

90 

194 
137 
77 
99 


^^23 
209 
271 
269 

174 
174 
358 
110 

204 
136 
98 
122 





2 










790 

773 

1,027 

902 

663 


llopklniston 


1 242 . 274 
231 217 




1 










Westford 










Waltham 


145 
166 
365 
122 

196 
166 
56 
109 


162 
159 
365 
102 

191 
151 
77 
120 















Wilmington 














C73 

1.443 

430 

794 
688 
340 


Oroton 


. . 












Shirley 














Ston 














Townsend 














Stonehain 














Natlck 


71 


13 


24 










Draciit 














Bedford 


67 
84 
103 

103 
96 
90 

117 


72 
99 
147 

115 
lOO 
98 
130 


101 
153 
191 

; 168 

1 142 
140 
193 


iie 

170 
198 

170 
147 
122 
200 


100 
145 
184 

183 
160 
13S 
188 


124 
153 
203 

176 
159 
143 
172 


9 
20 

2 

6 

1 
9 

1 


7 
6 
3 

3 
2 
7 
3 














447 
646 


Lincoln 














Tewksbury 
















Ilolliston 















705 


Acton 














f,|l 


Dunstable 


1 














Pepperrell 
































Total 


■4,860 

404 
188 
66 
133 

89 

96 
126 
191 
85 
45 

49 
60 
121 
90 
68 

57 
62 
68 
74 

100 
61 
45 
74 

30 
38 
36 
66 

74 


15 810 

477 
203 

76 
142 

99 

104 
132 
195 
123 
58 

64 
60 
130 
91 
69 

67 
69 
68 
88 

123 
68 
48 
76 

30 
40 
36 
69 

82 


7,771 

641 
314 
92 
193 
125 

167 
192 
341 
188 
106 

97 
105 
198 
142 
107 

87 
99 
116 
123 

197 
112 
76 
127 

39 
56 
67 
76 

119 


7,587 

608 
285 
100 
213 
127 

160 
177 
328 
157 
79 

99 
97 
161 
130 
79 

87 
87 
90 
110 

149 
99 
65 

122 

41 
68 
43 
98 

118 


8,218 

697 
341 
117 
202 
160 

150 
204 
318 
193 
95 

95 
103 
207 
161 
101 

84 
99 
99 
133 

180 
99 
74 

109 

46 
54 
51 
82 

129 


9,196 

770 
334 
127 
209 
151 

162 
209 
296 
182 
87 

100 
104 

203 
147 
95 

111 

89 
99 
140 

152 
108 
82 
126 

35 
63 
40 
73 

123 


485 

27 
6 

1 


375 

12 
6 


16 


29 


9 


11 


17 


18 


33,732 
2,755 


Hampshire county: 

SprinRneld 


Northampton 














1,285 
437 
















Southadley 
















817 




13 

6 
14 
23 
U 

1 

3' 

2 
2 
3 

2 
1 

1 
2 

3 


7 

1 
7 
18 
6 














673 
















646 


Hatfield 






2 


4 


3 


4 


816 


Westfield 






1,324 


Decrfield . . 














737 
















368 




1 
3 
2 
2 

4 














392 


Northfield 














415 


Brimfleld 














773 


South Brimfield 














574 
















388 
















371 


















375 




1 














408 


Palmer 














508 




1 














682 
















418 


Col rain 


















297 






1 














■545 
















161 




















231 


Koxbury('anady,or Warwick 


















181 


1 
1 
















330 


Wllbraham 


1 














«1 
















































Huntstown 


































2,586 

204 
301 
294 


1 

2,887 

229 
328 
370 
336 
283 

223 
211 
181 
126 


4,292 

376 
514 
658 
466 
493 

367 
283 
278 
160 
275 


3.977 

350 
421 
497 
425 
412 

319 
308 
218 
161 


■4.423 

370 
505 
510 
441 
439 

339 
305 
277 
184 


4,407 

357 
532 
555 
497 
452 

360 

304 
324 
216 


121 

11 
12 
6 
6 
10 

7 
6 

4 
6 


73 

6 
14 

11 

4 
6 

8 
7 
6 
6 






3 


4 


3 


4 


■17.305 


Worcester county: 

Worcester 


4 
1 


6 


1,478 
1,998 


Sutton 






i' 


a' 


i' 


i 


2,137 
1,MS 


Brookfleld 1 267 






1,811 





• 










1.401 


UxbridEQ 


186 










1,213 


Westborough 


163 
110 


i 


S 










731 


Southboro 














1,090 


Rutland 


166 IHZ 1 





















I Collected flgona. 



160 



A CENTURY OF POPULATION GROWTH. 



Table 81. 



MASSACHUSETTS— Continued. 

-WHITE, NEGRO, INDIAN, AND FRENCH NEUTRAL POPULATION OF MASSACHUSETTS, BY COUNTIES 

AND TOWNS; CENSUS OF 1764— Continued. 





Houses. 


Families. 










NEGROES 4 
MULATTOES. 


INDIANS. 


FRENCH NEUTRALS. 




CODNTIES AND TOWNS. 


16 VEAKS. 


16 TEARS. 


Under 16 years. 


Above 16 years. 


Total. 




Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Uale. 


Fe- 
male. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 




Worcester county— Continued. 


118 
128 
114 
119 
100 

94 
41 
145 
145 
136 

153 
109 

94 
104 

62 

92 
90 
153 


118 
148 
124 
146 
111 

98 
41 
175 
155 
136 

161 
109 
104 
107 
75 

100 
97 
173 


187 
247 
191 
187 
174 

132 
73 
220 
234 
212 

259 

178 
158 
186 
161 

138 
142 
276 


192 
206 
164 
170 
173 

146 

78 
136 
225 
240 

256 
175 
159 
199 
116 

148 
139 
270 


177 
214 
196 
210 
160 

152 
60 
237 
225 
218 

239 
193 
135 
173 
109 

155 
111 
272 


159 
217 
188 
196 
152 

141 
58 
221 
239 
219 

251 
196 
157 
180 
107 

138 
129 
296 


10 
4 

1 

4 
2 

2 

1 

6 
1 
3 

3 
5 
3 

2 

1 

3 


9 
2 














734 
















890 








1 




i 




741 




3 

3 

1 






770 
















664 
















594 

















270 




2 

1 
1 

2' 

2 
3 

1 

1 














821 








1 
1 


6 


i 

1 


i 

1 


933 




2 

1 
6 


1 

1 
8 


899 




1,010 












763 








3 



2 


619 












743 


Halden 














495 


Western 














583 
















621 




7 


5 














1.126 


Dudley 


















100 

65 
86 
41 
57 
43 


115 

64 
86 
60 
55 
43 


202 

95 
133 
88 
82 
70 


186 

84 
108 
81 
65 
66 


166 

88 
112 
103 
72 
61 


145 

81 
113 
85 
66 
60 


3 


6 














707 
















348 




















466 


Athol 


2 
















359 


















284 


Fitchburgh 


1 


1 














259 


















Total 


14,563 

256 
571 
498 
348 
272 

210 
154 
150 
186 
110 

174 
85 
67 


5,070 

373 
630 
577 
431 
326 

283 
197 
168 
232 
131 

217 
97 
81 


7,815 

488 
964 
855 
516 
470 

315 
238 
287 
352 
194 

323 
122 
123 


7,137 

475 
932 
841 
520 
442 

290 
220 
218 
236 
162 

308 
130 
119 


7,488 

532 
910 
804 
603 
485 

357 
273 
274 
328 
196 

300 
127 
116 


7,663 

605 
1,042 
880 
742 
620 

425 
311 
328 
362 
196 

311 
166 
140 


138 

38 
46 
17 
55 
12 

14 
3 

26 
9 
6 

11 

I 


114 

39 
49 
15 
52 
10 

8 
5 
15 
3 
5 

10 
S 
3 


15 

23 
8 
8 
4 

10 

7 
1 

1 
7 


19 

25 
16 
18 
9 
27 

21 
6 
4 

13 


4 

3 

8 


7 

2 
9 


7 

9 
3 


5 

7 
5 


30, 412 


Plymouth county: 

Pl>Tnouth 


2,246 




3,990 


Middleboro' : 


3,438 


Scituate 










2,501 


Rochester 


1 

5 


2 
2 


3 

1 
1 
1 
2 
5 


3 

1 
4 
4 

1 
6 


1 985 




1,446 


Duxborg' 


1,061 
1,159 


Marshfield 


2 
3 

4 


i' 




k'ing^tnn 


774 








1,263 
657 


Haintax 


6" 


1 
10 










Wareham 










619 


Hanover 






1 
































* 


Total...' 


3,071 

325 
255 
200 
235 
182 

129 
145 
107 
105 
82 


3,743 

361 
295 
245 
283 
237 

157 
182 
134 
127 
85 


5,247 

474 
400 
313 
398 
292 

243 
266 
225 
145 
23 


4,893 

432 
405 
317 
386 
267 

217 
266 
230 
153 
19 


5,305 

524 
427 
346 
420 
342 

216 
266 
241 
173 
16 


6,028 

622 
486 
368 
454 
416 

227 
234 
222 
202 
20 


243 

36 
11 
18 
12 
6 

9 

19 
3 
4 

18 


219 

20 
11 
14 
11 
6 

S 

12 
3 
1 

13 


75 

6 
12 
30 
36 

1 

3 

35 


148 

7 
19 
43 
66 

3 

8 

27 

1 


26 

6 
3 


16 

6 
2 


26 

3 
3 


31 

2 

1 


22,266 

2,138 
1,780 
1,449 


Barnstable county: 


Yarmouth 


Sandwich 


Harwich 












Eastham 










1 331 


Wellflect 












Falmouth 










1 126 


Truro 






1 


925 


Chatham 












Mashpee 


101 


129 










338 


Total 


1,765 

397 
679 
498 


12,106 

493 
790 
617 


2 779 ' "^ *^09 


2,970 

678 

1,129 

818 


3,260 

734 

1,248 

954 


136 

26 
37 

28 


96 

29 
24 
25 


223 

1 
35 

1 


293 

8 

40 

5 


9 


8 


6 


3 


12,464 

2,744 
4,581 
3,696 


Bristol county: 

Taunton 


651 

1,103 

964 


617 
965 
901 


Dartmouth 










Rehoboth 










Swanzey 










Attleboro' 


266 
295 

148 
134 
100 
94 


301 
343 

198 
154 
109 
110 


461 
477 

276 
219 
170 
166 


419 
447 

269 
172 
146 
153 


422 
460 

273 
222 
181 
150 


422 
528 

297 
220 
184 
181 


13 
19 

31 
2 
3 
6 


2 
11 

28 
2 
3 
4 
















Norton 
















Dighton 


2 
2 


1 
3 




























Raynham 


1 


1 


2 


3 


694 


Berkley 




2 


















Total 


2,611 

272 
288 
222 
219 


3,115 

397 
372 
364 
251 


4,486 

496 
489 
664 


4,089 

486 
490 
652 


4,333 

568 
551 
567 
363 


4,768 

671 

766 
547 
357 


165 

36 
31 
20 
21 


128 

20 
31 
24 
13 


41 


69 


1 

6 
3 


1 

5 
3 


2 

4 
2 


3 

6 
2 




Vork county: 

York 


2,298 
2,368 
2,374 


Kittery 






Berwick 








427 3S2 







3 


i 


i 


i 


1,569 



1 Corrected figures. 



Tabie 81. 



GENERAL TABLES. 

MASSACHUSETTS— Continued. 



161 



-^TIITE, NEGRO, INDIAN, AND FRENCH NEUTRAL POPULATION OF MASSACHUSETTS BY COUNTIES 

AND TOWNS: CENSUS OF 1764-Continued. 







Families. 


WHITES ITKDER 
16 YEAKS. 


WHITES ABOVE 
16 YEARS. 


! 

HEOKOES t 


1 




rSKHCU NEtrrBAM. 


; 


COUNTIE3 AND TOWNS. IloUSeS. 


UULATTOZ3. 


I.SOUNS. 


Under 16 yean. 


Above 16 yean. 


Total. 






Uale. 


Fe- 
male. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Male. 

1 


Fe- 
male. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Mala. 

1 


Fe- 
male. 


Male. 


Fe- 

male. 




York counly— Continued. 

Arundel 

Blddeford 

Pepperelboro 

Narragansct No. 1 


1 

1 124 
87 
66 




138 
116 
96 


216 
182 
140 


228 
186 
126 


190 
178 
145 


II 

194 i 2 
179 ;: 8 

125 !| 2 


3 
14 






1 

1 
' 1 


1 
3 


1 

1 
2 




1 ^ 















540 


Total 


1,278 
160 


1,734 

585 


2,614 

969 
251 
353 
224 

139 


2,450 

918 
277 
281 
224 

114 


2,562 

964 
278 
319 
188 

149 






2,839 

875 
255 
304 
186 

98 


120 

30 
8 

10 
4 

3 


105 

14 

10 
5 
10 

1 






14 
2 


13 

7 


11 


11 

4 


10,738 


Cum Borland county; 








3,783 

1,079 

1,273 

836 


Scarborough 

Harps well 


' 200 1 210 

65 ; 111 

73 ' 73 






























Brunswick 














Oorhara 

Windham 

Pearson town 


504 


Total 

Lincoln county: 

Pownalboro' 

Georgetown 

Newcastle 

Topsham 


642 

161 
180 
69 
54 


1,167 

175 
184 
69 
52 


1,936 

210 

388 
127 
78 


1,814 
223 

325 ; 

117 

85 


1,888 

225 
317 
100 
85 


1,718 

232 
287 
109 
78 


55 

6 

8 

1 
1 


40 

3 

4 






2 


7 




4 


7,474 

899 

1,329 

454 

327 


Bowdoinham 

Total 


38 
566 

128 
90 
110 


37 

580 

i 
150 
114 
100 


63 
982 

234 
152 
165 


53; 

913 

209 
156 
166 


59 
878 

233 
159 
226 


44i 
847 

248 
179 
233 


i' 

17 

12 
9 

4 


7 

8 
8 
5 














415 
220 

3,644 

1,030 
851 


Dukos county: 

Kfltjurtown 

Chilnuirk 

Tisbury 


37 
72 
15 


49 
116 

24 










Total 


328 

413 

87 
126 
66 
51 
39 


364 

602 

91 
172 
69 
55 
70 


551 

776 

127 
250 
126 
95 
110 


531 

758 

121 
276 
93 
85 
114 


618 

904 

149 
272 
105 
77 
105 


660 

882 

134 
249 
81 
66 
89 


25 

24 

9 
16 
2 
2 
6 


21 

20 

10 
10 
2 


124 
83 


189 
66 










2,719 

3,526 

550 
1,073 
400 
325 
428 


Nantucket county: 

Sherburne 


13 








Beiks county: 

Great Harrington 








SheDield 













Sandlsfidd 




1 









Tyringham 




1 








PlttsQeld 


* 




.........^. ....... 






Egremont 




!• 1 






Stockbridge 


34 


34 


50 


46 


64 


57 


16 


12 


108 


113 


1 






485 


New Marlboro 


1 "" ' 






No.4 




















1 









Total 


403 
31,707 


491 
43,483 


758 1 735 


772 
53,752 


676 
59,501 


50 
2,824 


.38 
2,007 ; 

1 


108 
728 


113 
953 








3.250 
223,841 


Total lor colony ; 


52,859 


50,588 


133 128 


141 


167 



Summary of white, negro, Indian, and French neutral population of Massachusetts, hy counties: census of 1764. 





Houses. 


Families. 


WHITES. 


KEOROE3 AND 


I.NOL\.-.W. 


FRENCH NEirrlULS. 




COUNTIES. 


Under 16 years. 


Above 16 yean. 


UULATTOES. 


Under 16 yean. 


Above 16 yean. 


Total 




Male. 


Female. 


Male. 


Female. 


Male. 


Female. 


Male. 


Female. 


Mole. 


Female. 


Male. 


Female. 






31,707 


43,483 


52.859 


50,588 


53.752 


59.501 


2,824 


2.067 


728 


953 


133 


128 


141 


167 


223.841 




1 




Barnstable. . . 


1,765 
403 

2,611 
328 

5.759 

2,586 

5,618 
413 
3.071 
4.593 
4,560 


2,286 
491 

3,115 
364 

7,971 

2,867 

11,425 
602 
3.743 
5,549 
5,070 


2,779 
758 

4.486 
551 

9,562 

4,292 

7,771 
776 
5.247 
8. 822 
7,815 


2,692 
735 

4.089 
531 

9.475 

3,977 

7,587 
7.'a 
4.R93 
8.714 
7,137 


2,970 
772 
4,333 
618 
10.727 
4,363 

8,218 
904 
5.305 
8.054 
7,488 


3,250 
676 

4,768 

660 

12.664 

4,407 

9,196 ' 

882 
6.028 
9.307 
7,663 1 


135 
60 

165 
25 

024 

121 

485 
24 
243 

814 
138 


96 

38 
128 

21 
446 

73 

375 
20 
219 

.M7 , 
114 


223 

108 

41 

124 

5 


293 
113 
59 
189 
3 


9 


8 


• 


S 


12,464 


Berks 


3.250 


Bristol 


1 


1 


2 


3 


18.076 


Dukes 


2.719 


Essex 


62 
2 

9 
13 
26 
17 


57 

4 

11 


59 
2 

17 


77 
4 

18 


43.751 




17,245 


Middlesex 


16 
83 
75 
38 

l.'j 


IB 

6« 

148 ; 

34 ' 

!9 


33.732 


Nantucket 


3.526 




16 
24 


25 
2) 

7 


31 
26 


23.256 


Suffolk 


38.410 


Worcester 


4 7 


30.412 
















_ 



162 A CENTURY OF POPULATION GROWTH. 

MASSACHUSETTS— Continued. 
Sumrmrn, of white, negro, Indian, and French neutral population of Mmne, by counties: census of 1764. 





Houses. 


Families. 


WHITES. 








FBENCH NEUTRALS. 


Total 
popula- 
tion. 


COUNTIES. 


Under 16 years. 


Abore 16 years. 


MTJLATTOES. 




Under 16 years. 


Above 16 years. 




Male. 


Female. 


Male. 


Female. 


Male. 


Female. 


Male. 


Female. 


Male. 


Female. 


Male. 


Female. 






2,486 


3,481 


5,532 

1,936 

982 

2,614 


5,177 

1,814 

913 

2,450 


5,338 

1,898 

878 

2,662 


5,404 

1,718 

847 

2,839 


192 


152 






16 


20 


11 


15 


21,857 




642 

566 

1,278 


1,167 

580 

1,734 


55 
17 
120 


40 

7 

105 






2 


7 




4 


7,474 
3,644 








ii 


13 


11 


11 


10,739 


York 








— 

































RHODE ISLAND. 

Table 82 -A LIST OF THE NUMBER OF FREEMEN AND MILITIA, WITH THE SERVANTS, WHITE AND BLACK, IN 
ThIr^SiVE TOWNS; AS ALSO THE NUMBER OF INHABITANTS IN HER MAJESTY'S .COLONY OF 
RHODE ISLAND, &c., DECEMBER THE 5TH, 1708.' 



TO WHS. 


Freemen. 


MUitia. 


White 
Servants. 


Black 
Servants. 


Total No. 

of 

inhabitants. 


Newport 

Providence 

Portsmouth 

Warwick 

Westerly 


190 
241 
98 
80 
95 
38 
200 
33 
40 


358 
283 
104 

95 
100 

47 
282 

28 

65 


20 
6 
8 
4 
5 


220 
7 
40 
10 
20 
6 
85 
32 
6 


2,203 
1,446 
628 
480 
570 
208 


New Shoreham 




1,200 




9 
3 


206 








1,015 


1,362 


55 


426 


7,181 







' Rhode Island Colonial Records, vol. 4, page 69. 

It is to beunderstood that all men within this colony. from the age of sixteen to the age ofsixty years, are ofthe militia, so that aU freemen above and under said ages 

'"''''ififtl^^tet^lTdirZ^'^nht^r^^X^^^^ givean exact account, by reason therewas no list ever taken before 

this (the militia excepted), which hath increased since the 14th of February, 1704-5 (at which time a list was returned to your Lordships) the number of 287. 

^ SAMUEL CRANSTON, Governor. 

Newport, on Rhode Island, December the Sth. 1708. 

Table 83.— WHITE, NEGRO, AND INDIAN POPULATION OF RHODE ISLAND: 1748.' 



TOWNS. 


Whites. 


Negroes. 


Indians. 


TOWNS. 


Whites. 


Negroes. 


Indians. 




15,302 


1,648 


985 




1,620 

1,875 

965 

1,149 

222 

250 


56 
165 
333 
40 
80 
20 


250 






65 




3,843 

3,707 

643 

1,028 


649 

128 
100 
77 


148 
81 
70 
73 




225 




East-Oreenwich 


34 




Jamestown 


19 






20 









1 Callender's Historical Discourse, page 94. 

Table 84.— WHITE, NEGRO, AND INDIAN POPULATION OF THE COLONY OF RHODE ISLAND, ACCORDING TO THE 

OFFICIAL CENSUS OF 1774.' 





Families. 


WHITES. 


Total 
whites. 


Indians. 


Blacks. 




TOWNS. 


Males. 


Females. 


Total of 
each town. 




Above 16. 


Under 16. 


Above 16. 


Under Ifi. 




Total 


9,460 


14,032 


12,731 


15,349 


12,348 


54,460 


1,479 


3,668 


5 59,607 




1,590 
655 
220 
353 
257 

76 
275 
361 
304 

69 


2,100 

1,219 

343 

569 

421 

109 
416 
638 
550 
110 


1,558 
850 
341 
512 
441 

119 
345 
497 
554 
90 


2,624 

1,049 

400 

615 

443 

121 
464 
595 
597 
118 


1,635 
832 
285 
466 
401 

120 
338 
.552 
484 
82 


7,917 
3,950 
1,369 
2,161 
1,706 

1 469 

t 1,563 

2,182 

2,185 

400 


46 
68 
21 
88 
37 

51 
31 
79 
210 
32 


1,246 

303 

122 

89 

69 

55 

69 

211 

440 

131 


9,209 




4,321 


Portsmouth 


1,512 




32,338 




1,812 




575 




1,663 


North Kingstown 


2,472 


South Kingstown . . 


2,835 


Jamestown 


563 



1 Census of Rhode Island, 1774 (printed in detail with the names of all heads of families In 1858), page 239. 



! Corrected figures. 



GENERAL TABLES. 



163 



RHODE ISLAND— Continued. 

Tablb 84.-WHITE, NEGRO, AND INDIAN POPULATION OK THE COLONY OF RHODE ISLAND, ACCORDING TO THE 

OFFICIAL CENSUS OF 1774— Conlinu...! 



Smithfleld 

Scituate 

Glot.«ster 

West Greenwich.. 
Chorlestown 

Coventry 

Exeter 

Middletown 

Bristol 

Tiverton 

Warren 

Little Compton... 

Richmond 

Cumberland 

Cranston 

Jlopkinton 

Johnston 

North Providence 
Harrington 



Families. 



476 
564 
525 
304 
307 

274 
280 
123 
197 



168 
218 
189 
264 
340 

299 
167 
138 
91 



Hales. 



Above 10. 



742 
909 
743 
429 
312 

474 
441 
210 
272 
418 

237 
304 
286 
400 
476 

427 
242 
193 
142 



Dnder 16. 



60S 
879 
724 
395 
315 

555 
415 
179 
232 
500 

251 
254 
316 

408 



420 
227 
172 
118 



Females. 



Above 16. Under 16. 



933 I 

740 

465 

350 I 

493 
478 
259 
319 
438 

255 
382 
324 

478 
SI 7 

477 
254 
230 



638 
817 
719 
456 
264 

470 
446 
156 
256 
434 

185 
220 
287 
450 
390 

415 
234 
197 
UO 



Total 
whltci. 



2,814 
3,538 
2,926 
1,746 
1,241 

1,992 
1,780 
804 
1,079 
1,790 



1,160 
1,213 
1,730 I 
1,782 

1,739 
957 
792 
fi42 



Blacki. 



20 
67 

95 

** 

tl 
24 

17 
00 ' 

48 I 
65 I 
i> I 
41 



I Toulor 
Mch town. 



2,888 
3,601 
2,»4S 
1,704 
1,821 

2,023 
1,864 
881 
1,209 
1,956 

97« 
1,232 
l,2S7 
t,7S6 
1,861 

1,808 

1,031 

830 

aoi 



Table 85 — POPULATION OF RHODE ISLAND AT DIFFERENT DATES, FROM 1708 TO 1860, INCLUSIVE, BY 

COUNTIES AND TOWNS.' 



COUKTIES AND TOWNS. 


Dateot 
Incorpo- 
ration or 
setUe- 
ment. 


1706 


1780 


1748 


17S5 


1774 


1776 


1782 


1790 


1800 


1810 


1820 


18W 


1840 


18M 


I8W 


State total 


1636 

1747 

1T?0 
1747 
1747 

1750 

1741 
1677 
1741 
1643 

1703 

1856 
1678 
1747 
1743 

1639 
1672 
1638 
1747 

1703 

1806 
1754 
1747 
1862 
1781 
1731 

1759 
1765 
1862 
1731 
1731 

1636 

1729 

1738 
1743 
1757 
1674 
1723 
1747 
1689 


7,181 


17,935 


32,773 


40,414 


59,707 


65,011 


52,347 


68,825 


69,122 


77,081 


83,059 


97,210 


106,830 


147,545 


174,020 












1,749 


2,005 


2,789 


2,610 


2,471 


3,211 


3,801 


6,072 


6,037 


5,446 


6,476 


8,514 


8,907 










Barrington 










601 

1,209 

979 

7,888 


538 
1,067 
1,005 

7,993 


534 

1,032 

905 

7,526 


683 
1,406 
1,122 

8,848 


650 
1.678 
1,473 

8,487 


604 

2,693 
1,776 

9,834 


634 
3,197 
1,806 

10,228 


612 
3,034 
1,800 

12,788 


549 
3,490 
2,437 

13,063 


796 
4,616 
3,103 

15,068 


1,000 






1,069 
680 

4,384 


1,080 
925 

5,502 


5,271 








2,836 


£8nt county 


720 


2,401 


17,303 












792 
1,044 

766 
1,782 

11,092 


1,178 
1,10- 
1,246 
1,911 

12,284 


2.023 
1,663 
1,764 
2,438 

15,928 


2,300 
1,664 
1,653 
2,376 

11,699 


2,107 
1,609 
1,698 
2,112 

11,677 


2,477 
1,824 
2,054 
2,493 

14,300 


2,423 
1,775 
1,757 
2,532 

14,845 


2,928 
1,530 
1,619 
3,757 

16,294 


3,139 
1,519 
1,927 
3,643 

15,771 


3,851 
1,591 
1,817 
5,529 

16,636 


3,433 
1,509 
1,415 
6,726 

16,874 


3,630 
2.358 
1.350 
7.740 

20,007 


4,247 




240 


1,223 


2,882 




1,258 


Warwick 


480 
3,245 


1,178 
6,064 


8,916 


Newport county 


21,896 


Fall Rivpr 






























3,377 


JamestowD 


206 


321 


420 

1,152 

680 

6,508 
300 
992 

1,040 

3,690 


S17 

1,170 

778 

6,753 

378 

1,303 

1,325 

7,788 


563 

1,232 

881 

9,209 

675 

1,512 

1,956 

14,912 


322 

1,302 

860 

5,299 

478 

1.347 

2,091 

14,124 


345 

1,341 

674 

5,530 

478 

1.350 

1,959 

13,230 


507 

1,542 

840 

6,716 

682 

1,560 

2,453 

18,011 


601 

1,677 

913 

6,739 

714 

1,681 

2,717 

18.240 


504 

1,653 

976 

7.907 

722 

1,795 

2,837 

20,798 


448 

1,580 

949 

7,319 

955 

l.WS 

2,875 

23,969 


415 

1,378 

915 

8,010 
1,185 
1,727 
2,905 

30.184 


366 

1,327 

891 

8,333 
1,009 
1,706 
3.183 

34.901 


358 

1,462 

830 

9,563 
1.262 
1.833 
4.699 

40.013 


400 




1,304 


Middle town 






1,013 




2,203 
208 
628 


4,640 
290 
813 


10,508 


New Shoreham 


1.320 










Providence county (towns) 






57,133 


Bumllville 




















1,834 
2,161 
2,210 


2,104 
2,274 
2,653 


2.196 
2,662 
3,675 


1,982 
2,901 
6,225 


3.638 
4.311 
6,661 


4,140 










1,460 
1,083 


1,861 
1,756 


1,701 
1,686 


1,688 
1,548 


i,S77 
1,964 


i,644 
2,056 










806 



























i,763 
2,791 

996 
696 


2,268 
4,026 

1,320 
1,071 


2,457 
4,009 

1,364 
1,067 


2.6i3 
2.310 

1,616 
1,758 


2.966 
2,504 

1,542 
2,420 


2,521 

2,116 
3,508 


2,304 

2,477 

4.207 


2.872 

2,937 
7,680 


2,427 


Glocest^r 






1,202 


1,511 


2,945 

1,031 
830 


2,832 

1,022 
813 








3,440 
11,818 


North Providence 










Pawtucket 






■"i,'232' 
450 

3,452 

8,406 


1,813 
1,921 

3,159 

9,676 


3,601 
2,888 

4,321 

13,869 


3,280 
2,781 

4,355 

14,230 


1,628 
2,217 

4,310 

13,133 


2,3IS 
3,171 

6,380 

18,075 


2,523 
3,120 

7,614 

16,136 


2,568 
3,828 

10, on 

14,962 


2,834 
4,678 

11,767 

15,687 


3,993 
6,857 

16,836 

16,421 


4,090 
9.534 

23,172 

14,324 


4.682 
11.500 

41.. M3 

16.430 


4,2SI 
13,283 


Smithfleld 






Providence city 


1,446 
1,770 


3,916 
5,554 


50,666 


Washington county 


18,715 








1,002 
1,174 


1.130 
1,404 


1,821 
1.864 
1.808 
2.472 
2.835 
1,257 
1,812 


1,835 
1,982 
1.845 
2.761 
2.779 
1.204 
1,824 


1 ' — 

1 

2! 675 
I.IKM 

i.-x 


4.1.11 
1.710 
2,298 


1,454 

2.476 
2,276 
2,794 
3,438 
1,368 
2,329 


1,174 
2,256 
1.774 
2.957 
3,560 
i.X» 
1,911 


1.160 

2.581 
1.821 
3.007 
3.723 
1.423 
1,972 


1,284 
2,383 
1,777 
3.086 

.i.«a 

l,.T<a 
1.9.5 


I " 
1 

3! 717 
1,361 
1,912 


J.MJT 
1.7R4 
2,763 


1.741 
t 73g 


Exeter 






Hopkinton 

North Kingstown 






3.104 
4 717 


1,200 
■■576' 


2,105 
1,523 

■■i,'926' 


1,935 

1,978 

508 

1,809 


2,109 

1,913 

829 

2,291 


South Kinpstown 


1,9M 
3.470 


Westerly 





1 Census of Rhode Island, ISia, page xxxll , prepared by Edwin U. Snow 



164 



A CENTURY OF POPULATION GROWTH. 

CONNECTICUT. 



Table 86 -WHITE NEGRO AND INDIAN POPULATION OF THE COLONY OF CONNECTICUT, BY COUNTIES AND 

TOWNS: CENSUS OF 1756.' 



COtTNTIES AND TOWNS. 



Hartford county: 

Bolton 

Colchester 

East-Haddam 

Enfleld 

Fannington 

Glastenbury 

Haddam 

Hartford 

Hebron 

Middletown 

Symsbury 

Somers 

Stafford 

Suffleld 

Tolland 

Wethersfleld 

Willington 

Windsor 

Total 

New-Haven county: 

Branford 

Derby 

Durham 

Guilford 

Miltord 

New-Haven 

Wallingford 

Waterbury 

Total 

New-London county: 

Groton 

Lyme 

Killingsworth 

New- London 

Norwich 

Preston 

Saybrook 

Stonington 

Total. 

Fairfield county: 

Danbury 

Fairfield 

Greenwich 

New-Fairfield 

New-Town 

Norwalk 



Whites. 



735 
2,228 
1,913 
1,050 
3,595 
1,091 
1,223 
2,926 
1,855 
5,446 
2,222 

900 
1,000 
1,414 

902 
2,374 

650 
4,170 



35,714 



1,694 
1,000 
765 
2,263 
1,633 
5,085 
3,713 
1,802 



17,955 



2,532 

2,762 
1,442 
3,171 
5.317 
1,940 
1,898 
2,953 



22,015 



1,509 
4,195 
2,021 
713 
1,230 
2,956 



Negroes. 



112 

24 

18 

101 



218 
23 



24 

15 
109 



179 
100 
16 



223 



33 

200 1 



18 
260 



158 

94 



365 



617 



COUNTIES AND TOWNS. 



Fairfield coujity- 

Reading 

Eidgfleld.... 

Stanford 

Stratford 



-Continued. 



Total. 



Windham county: 

Canterbury 

Coventry 

Pomphret 

Killingly 

Lebanon 

Mansfield 

Plainfield 

Ashford 

Voluntown 

Union 

Windham 

Woodstock 



Total. 



Litclifield county: 
Barkhemsted . . 

Canaan 

Colebrook 

Cornwall '.. 

Goshen 

Hartland 

Harwinton 

Kent 

Litchfield 

New-Hartford . 
New-Milford... 

Norfolk 

Salisbury 

Sharon 

Torrington 

Winchester 

Woodbury 



Total. 



Hartford county 

New-Haven county . . 
New-London county . 

Fairfield county 

Windham county 

Litchfield county 



Total for colony . 



Whites. 



1,069 
2,648 
3,508 



19,849 



1,240 
1,617 
1,677 
2,100 
3,171 
1,698 
1,761 
1,245 
1,029 
500 
2,406 
1,336 



319,670 



18 
1,100 



500 

610 

12 

250 

1,000 

1,366 

260 

1,121 

84 

1,100 

1,198 

250 

24 

2,880 



11, 773 

35,714 
17,965 
22,015 
19,849 
19,670 
11, 773 



126,976 



Negroes. 



46 
120 
150 



ni 



103 
16 



54 

854 
226 
829 
711 
345 
64 



Indians. 



1 Connecticut Colony Public Records, Vol. XIV, page 492. 



'Corrected figures. 



I 



76292— OO- 



166 



A CENTURY OF POPULATION GROWTH. 



CONNECTICUT— Continued. 
Table 87.— WHITE, NEGRO, AND INDIAN POPULATION OF THE COLONY 





COUNTIES AND TOWNS. 


Males under 
ten years. 


Females 

under ten 

years. 


MALES BETWEEN 

TEN AND TWENTY 

YEARS, MARRIED 

OR SINGLE. 


FEMALES BETWEEN 

TEN AND TWENTY 

YEARS. 


MALES BETWEEN 

TWENTY AND 

SEVENTY. 


FEMALES BETWEEN 

TWENTY AND 

SEVENTY. 




Married. 


Single. 


Married. 


Single. 


Married. 


Single. 


Married. 


Single. 


1 

2 
3 
4 

5 

6 

7 
8 
9 


Hartford county: 


154 
420 
530 
447 
481 

213 

965 
331 
294 
770 

360 
717 
671 
146 
223 

330 
200 
490 
178 
299 


162 
392 
477 
457 
443 

225 
1,007 
337 
286 
753 

375 
766 
609 
156 
199 

331 
193 
494 
157 
302 




121 
276 
389 
348 
353 

131 
736 
275 
224 
583 

316 
691 
406 
133 
199 

244 
150 
407 
119 
242 


2 

2 
6 
9 
2 

14 
10 
8 
9 
11 

8 
19 
12 
2 
9 

6 
1 

18 
10 

7 


105 
276 
314 
334 
332 

126 
616 
248 
1S7 
516 

308 
629 
439 
130 
162 

212 
167 
361 
122 
219 


154 
349 
442 
412 
439 

191 
958 
283 
241 
715 

312 
677 
591 
158 
201 

279 
101 
492 
155 
319 


48 
129 
139 
123 
178 

91 

295 

76 

89 

307 

122 

276 

120 

61 

69 

101 
86 

216 
39 

134 


159 
350 
480 
429 
433 

193 
965 
293 
261 

7)6 

307 
696 
597 
159 
197 

283 
161 
493 
146 
310 


69 
127 
166 
134 
217 

120 
292 
90 
104 
363 

123 
316 
118 
56 
48 

143 
171 

285 
46 
167 












4 




Fnfield 


1 

1 
1 










11 

2 
6 
6 


1] 






















16 


Suffield 


9 






18 




5 




WiilinpT^n 


20 


Windsor 


7 


■>! 


Total 


8,219 

284 
289 
166 
396 

279 

1,309 

824 

619 


8,121 

309 
289 
148 
372 

289 

1,213 

799 

609 


53 


6,243 

224 
252 
141 
362 

241 
902 
623 
422 


165 


5,722 

215 
205 
124 
286 

214 
829 
644 
361 


7,469 

317 
270 
149 
462 

322 

1,246 

726 

568 


2,679 

81 
106 

69 
170 

110 
618 
189 
132 


^ 7,616 

322 
277 
164 
471 

329 

1,246 

737 

569 


3,134 

148 
83 
56 

237 

100 

467 
217 
138 




New-Haven county: 






2 
2 


10 
2 










•Jfi 


MUford 


10 
1 
3 
5 


7 
25 
17 
19 


'>7 




•>t( 


WalUngford 










?n 


4,166 

574 
597 
311 
935 

1,099 
401 
432 
913 


4,028 

570 
601 
301 
917 

1,054 
405 
461 
818 


23 

10 
1 


3,167 

441 
430 
247 
599 

916 
291 
284 
661 


80 

22 
14 
4 
33 

8 
16 
10 
16 


2,778 

390 
422 
249 
593 

741 
244 
275 
622 


4,060 

538 
515 
272 
806 

1,056 

295 
411 
714 


1,475 

142 
448 
120 
207 

412 
99 
107 
151 


4,105 

632 
619 
278 
817 

1,069 
306 
410 
721 


1,446 

200 
231 
122 
343 

505 
128 
171 
262 


?i 


New-London county: 


■i? 




11 




14 




21 


IS 




1(i 


Preston 


16 

1 
4 


17 




18 






Total 


11 


5,262 

425 
774 
496 
199 
357 

754 
208 
299 


6,127 

387 

689 
420 
204 
357 

700 
189 
269 


53 

2 
2 

12 


3,859 

302 

557 
333 
170 
277 

544 
152 
214 
1,008 
665 


123 

12 
12 

24 
8 
8 


3,636 

282 
519 

287 
182 
281 

486 
121 
189 
909 
618 


4,607 

416 
741 
403 
207 
324 

638 
196 
276 
661 
830 


1,686 

103 
228 
114 
61 
103 

173 

46 

59 

244 

292 


4,652 

424 
739 
404 
199 
324 

638 
206 
281 
562 
812 


1,962 

81 
183 
112 
44 
67 

217 
46 
57 
199 
240 


40 


Fairfield county: 


41 




4? 




41 


New-Fairf:eld 


44 




1 


4S 


Norwalk 


4fi 


Redding 




2 

4 

7 

33 


47 




1 

13 
2 


48 




44 




806 


795 




Total 


sn 


4,318 

438 
340 
334 
582 

590 
354 
254 
421 

242 
97 
532 
320 


4,010 

374 
290 
325 
521 

552 
382 
241 
376 

245 

67 

533 

333 


33 
3 


4,212 

330 
234 

276 
461 

515 
307 
168 
277 

202 

68 

482 

230 


110 
3 


3,874 

242 
259 
286 
372 

460 
305 
177 
263 

156 
61 
387 
234 


4,592 

356 
307 
314 
530 

640 
363 
216 
330 

231 

83 

476 

243 


1,413 

114 
97 
154 
152 

208 
142 
73 
67 

57 

14 

173 

119 


4,589 

358 
315 
320 
542 

549 
353 
217 
339 

235 

83 

491 

243 


1,24« 

123 
137 

177 
168 

285 
165 
83 
93 

46 

16 

267 

195 


,S1 


Canterbury 


s? 




w 




2 


5 
2 

26 
14 
3 
13 

4 


M 


Killingly 


W 




4 
2 
1 
3 


W 


Mansfleld 


S7 


Plalnfleld 


W 




59 


Voluntown 


id 






i1 




1 


7 

1 


62 










63 


4,504 


4,238 


16 


3,550 


78 


3,202 


3,978 


1,370 


4,045 


1,754 


64 


Barkhemsted 


iS 




258 


273 


2 


194 


9 


190 


263 


63 


254 


47" 


66 


Colebrook 


i7 




190 
202 


160 
193 




130 
138 


1 
4 


107 
113 


162 
171 


30 
69 


165 
172 


20 
29 


iS 






69 


Hartland 




7(1 


I larwinton 


179 
384 

428 
176 


163 
352 
435 
158 




115 
176 
304 
119 




119 
166 

266 


161 
313 
399 


50 
141 

150 


161 
262 
403 
155 


50 
78 
83 
45 


71 


Kent 


11 

1 


17 

7 


7? 




7.1 















•Connecticut Colony Public Records, Vol. XIV, pages 485 to 191. 



GENERAL TABLES. 

CONNECTICUT-Continued. 
OF CONNECTICUT, BY COUNTIES AND TOWNS: CENSUS OF 1774.' 



167 



HALES ABOVS 
SEVENTY. 


FKHALES ABOVE 
8BVSNTT. 


Nem 

males 

under 

twenty. 


Negro te- 
nmle.s un- 
diTtweaty. 


Negro 

males almvc 

twenty. 


Negro fo- 

inolesaliove 

twenty. 


1 

Indian Indian fe- 
males under mules under 
iK^enly. twenty. 


Indian 

males above 

twenty. 


Indian fe- 
males aljove 
twenty. 


Total 
whites. 


Total 
blocks. 




Married. 


Single. 


Mcrriert. 


Single. 




11 
20 
29 
20 
37 

21 

35 

3 

10 
42 

15 
23 
39 
14 
15 

12 
13 
28 
13 
22 


5 
10 
7 
5 
8 

5 
17 
17 

3 
20 

8 
10 
8 
3 
5 

6 
3 
13 
3 

19 


5 
11 
18 

6 
16 

13 
19 

7 

6 

42 

16 
16 


9 

7 

31 

15 

22 

9 
47 
23 

9 
34 

13 
39 


3 

5 

41 

21 

9 




4 
15 
61 
13 

9 

4 
26 
13 

5 
51 

19 
61 
10 

2 












994 

2, sue 

3.057 
2,743 
2.961 

1.363 
6.903 { 
1,992 
1,713 
4,881 

2,286 
4,btJ0 
3,071 
1,024 
1,333 

1,980 
1,247 
3,347 
1,000 
•2,073 


7 

28 

201 

U5 

38 

7 

106 

79 

13 

150 

52 
198 

29 
3 

1 

37 

15 

142 

43 


1 
7 


4 
44 

18 

8 

3 
14 
19 

4 
29 

10 
46 


1 


1* 
27 




1 
8 
I 
2 


1 

7 

1 
1 






2 
3 

1 


11 
2 
3 


3 

4 

6 

« 
7 
8 
g 


IG 
18 

4 
28 

12 

45 

9 


7 
13 


8 
3 


9 
9 


14 
1 


'i 


37 

11 
40 

4 


3 


2 






10 






II 










17 


35 20 
8 8 
10 6 











13 











14 





1 

6 

1 

28 










16 


7 

5 

17 

11 

22 


17 
6 

28 
1 

14 


5 
5 
44 


6 
2 
20 


16 
2 
44 

1 
14 


1 
3 




2 

1 


1 
1 


16 




17 




18 










19 


9 


8 





2 


2 




2 


20 






422 

13 
12 

35 

15 
48 
33 
20 


175 

5 
6 
4 
9 

10 
44 
10 
6 


290 

7 

6 

3 

29 

11 
24 
24 
9 


358 

13 
12 
7 
17 

28 
60 
31 
21 


274 

28 
11 
7 
13 

41 
66 
27 


248 

27 
15 
10 
14 

35 

70 

28 

7 


370 

35 
12 
16 
20 

52 
70 
48 
15 


201 

21 
12 
11 
14 

30 

66 
31 
6 


32 

2 

5 

I 
8 


32 


24 

1 
6 


34 

1 

6 


>60,066 

1,938 
1,819 
1,031 
2,846 

1,965 
8,022 
4,777 
3,498 


1,216 

113 
70 
46 
84 

102 
273 
ISt 

38 


21 

22 


5 


23 
24 


10 


2 

1 


3 

3 
2 
1 

1 


35 

36 


7 
2 

2 


2 
1 

1 


27 




2K 




29 






182 

19 
34 
14 
49 

55 
21 
26 
22 


94 

8 
5 
6 
13 

23 
11 
S 
13 


113 

13 
17 
12 
13 

38 
7 
20 
21 


179 

29 
26 
21 
18 

56 
15 
15 

28 


199 

4 
70 

62 
5 
IS 
85 


206 

39 

26 

6 

79 

54 
11 
12 
49 


'2(18 

42 

35 

6 

89 

69 
25 
20 
49 


'181 

42 

27 

3 

78 

49 
12 
8 
36 


27 

65 
21 
6 
64 

16 
11 
3 

73 


19 

36 
18 
2 

48 

14 

9 


9 

39 

23 

4 

35 

11 

1 

1 

28 


10 

66 
42 
2 
60 

20 
9 


25,896 

3,488 
3,800 
1,967 
6,306 

7,032 
2,265 
2.628 
4,956 


925 

XO 

238 

,13 

622 

295 
83 
59 

450 


30 

.11 

.t! 
.B 
34 

36 

36 
37 


80 


66 


38 


240 
14 


84 

A 


143 

7 
20 
10 

6 
20 

25 
6 
6 


208 

12 
39 
11 
6 
23 

17 
3 
7 


328 

15 
83 
35 
5 
12 

37 
9 
9 

12 

09 


276 

13 
75 
25 
4 
20 

25 
14 
9 
18 
72 


335 

15 
91 
34 
6 
18 

43 

17 

9 

17 

108 


25.0 

7 

66 

20 

S 

9 

31 
6 
8 
13 
70 


249 


207 


142 

2 
2 
2 


244 

1 
2 
3 


31,542 

2,473 
4,644 

2.664 
1,288 
2,lli8 

4,243 
1.189 
1,673 
3,603 
6,201 


2.036 

63 
319 
122 
20 
01 

M'. 
-I', 
.\.'> 
W 

344 

1,214 

62 
24 
06 
47 

119 

■a 

SI 

11 

35 

2 

91 

80 


39 
40 


30 U 
19 ^ 






41 




3 


43 


9 
20 

43 

10 

7 


3 
6 

8 
4 
4 




43 


1 


1 
2 






44 


4 


3 


4.', 




■;•• 




■ 






4. 










48 


38 


14 


19 


47 


7 


12 


9 


7 




190 

19 
21 
17 
36 

43 
17 
13 
17 

26 
8 
35 
11 


65 

5 
1 
8 
14 

9 
13 
4 
8 

2 
S 
3 
13 


119 

10 

14 

7 

22 

25 
11 
12 

7 

22 
6 

1! 


165 

17 
17 
16 
37 

35 
25 
18 
15 

9 

4 

32 

21 


286 

6 

4 

22 

12 

30 
3 

18 
2 

9 


275 

4 
6 
11 
2 

19 
1 
9 
2 

3 


358 

22 
7 
13 
14 

22 

iJ 
7 

9 
1 

15 
IS 


234 

9 
S 

7 
7 

27 
3 

13 
2 

8 

1 

29 

10 


8 

1 


18 

1 


19 

7 
2 
3 
1 

4 
1 
3 


10 

2 


28,936 

2,392 
2,032 
2,241 
3,439 

3,841 
2,443 
1,479 
2,228 

1,479 

613 

3,437 

1,974 


60 

51 
.'•3 


2 
2 

9 
3 
9 


i 

4 

6 
6 
8 


3 
S 

3 
2 
6 


53 
54 

65 

in 


2 


3 




1 


69 




at 


18 
3 


10 
14 


2 
13 


I 


3 

7 


7 
9 


IB 


263 


85 


165 


246 


1 127 

1 


81 


147 


121 


43 


47 


31 


37 


37,494 

■260 
1,673 

•ISO 

957 

1,008 

•600 

1.016 

1,922 

2,609 

985 


634 


as 

M 


Y 


i 


6" 


h' 


ie' 


ie' 


'" 


IS 











S3 


66 


3" 

7 

7' 

9 
10 

8 


3' 


3' 

4 

v 

7 
4 



3' 

6 

6" 

5 
14 
5 


2 

3 

! 

i" 

1 8 


2' 


5 
9 

i' 

I 


i' 

1 

i' 

2 

7 


1 


* 


3 




17 
13 

;i 
:< 

4.'> 
10 


07 
«8 




3' 

15 


is' 

1 

4 


^' 

3 


ii" 

1 


is" 

8 
6 


on 

71 


1 
S 


73 



• Corrected figures. 



• Not distributed by sex. 



168 



A CENTURY OF POPULATION GROWTH. 



CONNECTIC UT— Continued . 
Table 87.— WHITE, NEGRO, AND INDIAN POPULATION OF THE COLONY 





COUNTIES AND TOWNS. 


Males under 
ten years. 


Females 

under ten 
years. 


MALES BET W KEN 

TEN AND TWENTY 

YEARS, MARRIED 

OR SINGLE. 


FEMALES BETWEEN 

TEN AND TWENTY 

YEARS. 


MALES BETWEEN 

TWENTY AND 

SEVENTY. 


FEMALES BETWEEN 
TWENTY AND 

SEVENTY. 




Married. 


Single. 


Married. 


Single. 


Married. 


Single. 


Married. 


Single. 


74 


Litchfield county— Continued. 

New-Milford 


490 
156 
347 
343 

132 

3S4 

55 

921 


497 
151 
358 
342 

134 

352 

69 

889 


15 


325 
109 
240 
259 

99 

nt; 

34 
COO 


27 
3 
7 

11 


254 
110 
224 
236 

75 
166 

19 
587 


482 
155 
278 
307 

139 
313 

60 
821 


83 

30 

111 

77 

56 
141 

18 
260 


460 
155 
271 
303 

146 
262 
56 
795 


61 
27 
70 
56 

54 

78 

11 

235 


7,"; 




7fi 






77 






7S 






7fl 




11 


17 

1 

33 


^0 


Winchester 


R1 


Woodbury 


4 




Total 


S*> 


4,645 

S,219 
4,166 
5,262 
4,318 
4,504 
4,645 


4,526 

8,121 
4,028 
5,127 
4,010 
4,238 
4,526 


44 

S3 
23 
53 
33 
16 
44 


3,018 

6,243 

3,167 
3,859 
4,212 
3,550 
3,018 


141 

16.5 
80 

123 

110 
78 

141 


2,748 

5,722 
2,778 
3,536 
3,S74 
3,202 
2,748 


4,160 

7,469 
4,060 
4,607 
4,592 
3,978 
4,160 


1,318 

2,679 
1,475 
1,686 
1,413 
1,370 
1,318 


4,010 

■7,616 
4,105 
4,652 
4,589 
4,045 
4,010 


944 

3, 1.34 
1,446 
1,962 
1,246 
1,754 
944 


m 




S4 




AS 




Kfi 




S7 


Windham county 


W 






Total for colony 


ffl 


31,114 


30,050 


222 


24,049 


697 


21,860 


28,866 


9,941 


'29,017 


10,486 







1 Corrected figures. 



GENERAL TABLES. 



169 



CONNECTICUT-Continued. 
OF CONNECTICUT, BY COUNTIES AND TOWNS: CENSUS OF 1774— Continued. 



UALES ABOVE 
SEVENTY. 


FEMALES ABOVE 

SEVENTY. 


Neero 

miilcs 

under 

twent.v. 


Negro fe- 
males un- 
der twenty. 


Negro Negro fe- 
males above males aliove 
twenty. twenty. 


Indian 

males under 

twenty. 


Indian fe- 
males under 
twenty. 


Indian Indian fe- 
males above males above 
twenty. twenty. 


Total 
whiles. 


Total 
blacks. 




.Married. 


Single. 


Married. 


Single. 




19 
4 
11 
1<J 

3 
9 

1 
22 


6 

1 
1 
9 

5 
1 


11 
1 
9 

12 

5 

7 

1 

16 


6 
4 

9 

12 


12 

1 
8 
5 


8 
2 
7 
6 


8 


6 










■2,736 
■906 
1,936 
1,986 

■848 

1,022 

327 

6,224 


34 

1 26 


74 










T, 


10 

8 

1 


10 
6 

I 


5 


2 


1 
1 


1 


76 

77 








78 


5 
2 
25 














79 


7 
20 


1 
19 


2 
24 


2 
11 










^ 




16 


3 


2 


2 


2 


81 


139 

422 
182 
240 
190 
263 
139 


SI 

175 
94 
84 
65 
85 
51 


92 

290 
113 
143 
119 
165 
92 


108 

358 
179 
208 
165 
246 
108 


92 

274 
199 
328 
2,S6 
127 
92 


79 

248 
206 
276 
275 
81 
79 


99 

370 
I2G8 
336 
358 
147 
99 


61 

201 
■181 
255 
234 
121 
61 


32 

32 
27 
249 
8 
43 
32 


32 

32 
19 
207 
18 
47 
32 


19 

24 
9 
142 
19 
31 
19 


28 

34 

16 

244 

J? 
26 


■,'20,844 

■60,666 
25.896 
31,542 
28.936 
27.494 

■26,844 


440 

1,215 

925 

2,036 

1,214 

634 

440 


82 

S3 

84 
85 
80 
87 
88 


1.436 


554 


922 


1,264 


1,306 


1,165 


■1,577 


>:,a53 


391 


355 


244 


J73 


■,'111,378 


6.464 


89 



) Includes 900 not distributed by sex. 



170 



A CENTURY OF POPULATION GROWTH. 



NEW YORK. 

Table 88.-P0PULATI0N OP THE COLONY OF NEW YORK, BY COUNTIES: 1698.' 



Albany 

Dutohess and Ulster 

KuiKS 

New- York 

Orange 

Queens 

Richmond 

Suflolk 

Westchester 

Total 



380 
248 
308 
1,019 
29 

1, 41)5 
328 
973 
316 



5,06(5 



Women. 



270 

111 

332 

1,057 

31 

1,350 
208 

1,024 
294 



4,077 



Children. 



1,161 
140 

661 
118 
124 
307 



6,154 



Negroes. 



23 
166 
296 
700 

19 

199 

73 

558 

146 



2,170 



Total. 



1,476 
1,384 
2,017 
4,937 
219 

3,.'>0S 

727 

2,679 

1,063 



18,067 



■ Census of the State of New- York, 1856, page iv. 

Table 89.-MALE AND FEMALE POPULATION OF THE COLONY OF NEW YORK, IN CERTAIN AGE GROUPS, BY 

COUNTIES: 1703.' 



COiniTlES. 


Males from 
16 to 60. 


Females. 


Male chil- 
dren. 


Female 
children. 


Male ne- 
groes. 


Female ne- 
groes. 


Male ne- 
gro chil- 
dren. 


Female ne- 
gro chil- 
dren. 


All above 
60. 


Total.' 


Albany. 


610 

345 

813 

49 

952 
176 
787 
383 
472 


385 

304 

1,009 

40 

763 
140 
756 
305 
469 


515 

433 

934 

57 

1,093 

42 

818 

436 

382 


605 
487 
989 
84 

1,170 

49 

797 

357 

386 


83 
136 
102 

13 

117 
60 
60 
63 
74 


63 

76 

288 

7 

114 
32 
62 
36 
46 


36 
72 
131 

7 

98 
4 

38 
31 
60 


28 

61 

109 

6 

96 
1 

38 
15 
29 


58 


2,273 




1,912 


New-York 




4,375 


Orange 


5 


268 




4,392 




504 


Suffolk.. 


23 
39 


3,346 


Ulster 


1,649 




1,946 






Total 


4,487 


4,161 


4,710 


4,924 


707 


702 


467 


382 


125 


20,665 







[" 1 Census of the State of New- York. 1855, page iv. 

2 In a subsequent communication to the Lords of Trade in 1712 (Colonial Ilistory of New- York, Vol. V, page 339) the totals of the census of 1703 are quoted differently 
from those in the above table. There are no means for determ.ining whether this difference arose from a subsequent correction of errors, or from mistakes incopying. As given 
in the latter, the totals were as follows: New York, 4,436; Kings, 1,915; Richmond, 503; Orange, 268; Westchester, 1,946; Queens, 4,392; Suffolk, 3,346; Albany, 2,273; 
Ulster and Dutchess, 1,669. 

3 Included in first column. 

Table 90.— NAMES OF MASTERS OF FAMILIES IN THE CITY OF NEW YORK, BY WARDS, ACCORDING TO THE 

ENXJMERATION MADE ABOUT THE YEAR 1703. * 



Masters of familts. 


Males from 
16 to 60. 


females. 


Male 
Children. 


female 
Children. 


Male 
Negros. 


female 
Negros. 


Male 

Negro 
Children. 


female 

Negro 

Children. 


all above 
60. 


Total for citv 


780 


985 


903 


924 


298 


276 


124 


noi 


65 






EAST W.UiD. 

Ebenezr Wilson 


3 


4 
1 
2 
1 
1 


1 
4 
2 
1 


3 

2 


1 


1 
1 








Mr l.eiiis 








Mr lOverson 




1 








Mrs Vantyle 




1 
1 










Mr Haris 


2 
1 




2 


3 


1 




Thorns Dyer 








Mrs Smith 


3 
2 
2 

1 

1 
3 
1 
2 
1 

1 


4 
2 

1 














Garot Ilaier 


2 














Frances Coderos 


3 




1 








John Lasly 


1 

1 
1 
2 
2 










Thoms Evens 


1 














* Hendricls 














Peter V'antilbry 


1 






1 








Frances WesseUs 


5 
2 

1 


6 








Mrs Basset 


1 
2 










Capt Novered 






1 








John Morthouse 


1 

1 
1 
1 

1 
1 

1 
2 

1 

1 
1 
2 
2 
1 

1 










Beverly Latham 


1 
2 

1 

3 
1 
1 
6 
2 

3 

1 
1 
1 
1 


3 
2 


1 












Mrs liabl 












Capt Morris 


3 


1 


2 


1 







Peter Mountu 


1 
2 
2 
2 

1 






Hendrick Mavr 














John .Stephen's 


3 
4 
3 

1 
1 
1 












Capt Tudor 




1 


1 






Stuen Volo 








Fany ye Doctr 












Abraham Brazier 


1 











Mr Sinkeler 


1 


1 
2 
1 


1 


1 




Mr Lees 




Capt Forkell 


1 


2 




1 
1 


3 
1 




Peter Thouet 







( 



1 New York Documentary History, pages 395 to 405. 



' Corrected figures. 



* Illegible. 



GENERAL TABLES. 



171 



Table 90. 



NEW YOUK-CoDtinued. 

-NAMES OF MASTERS OF FAMILIES IN THE CITY OF NEW YORK, BY WARDS, ACCORDING TO THE 
ENUMERATION MADE ABOUT THE YEAR 1703— Continued. 



MASTERS OF FAIULYS. 


Hales Irom 
16 to 60. 




tenulu. 


Uala 
Children. 


female 
Children. 


Male 
Negras. 


tanala 
Negrai. 


Hale 

Necro 

ChUdran. 


female 

Nepo 

ChUdren. 


aUabore 

60. 


EAST WARD— conimued. i 
James pencer 1 


1 
1 
1 




3 












Mar^'D'tt li ri^es 
















Dot'tr Del!iny 


1 
1 




3 












Mr Sellwooil 




1 


1 








Widd Hrown 


2 
1 

1 
1 
1 

1 

1 
1 
1 
2 

1 
1 
1 
1 

I 

2 
1 


2 
1 
2 


1 
1 
3 








MrC'holwfll 


1 
1 

1 
1 

1 
2 

1 


1 






Johji Ledhain 




Andrew Gravcnrod 






WiUiam Apell 






James Blower 
















John Vanderspeygel 


1 


3 

1 
1 








1 




John Htircs 




1 
3 
1 

1 
1 






Mrs BlackRrove 


3 


3 
1 


2 


1 

1 




Mrs Byiier 


2 

1 
1 
2 
T 

1 

1 
2 
1 
1 
4 

1 

1 




Doctr Peters 




1 
3 
2 
1 








2 
3 








.. 


Mr liiir^fT 


3 










:::":""i::' 






1 

1 
2 




1 








1 










Capt Borditt 


i 


1 










1 


1 




Janies Ktrimett 


2 


3 
2 




I 


1 








1 










1 
1 
2 
1 
















3 
























Joseph Isacks 


1 
1 

1 


1 
2 


3 
3 

1 


1 
3 

1 
1 

1 
1 












1 
1 










1 
1 








Widd Smith 


3 

1 

I 










1 
3 
1 

1 
1 
1 

1 


3 


1 

1 
3 

3 

1 
1 










1 
1 


1 








1 

2 
2 
















Mr Hardlnburg 


i 

1 

} 


3 
3 

1 


1 
















Capl Vancrouger . . 


1 
2 






1 

1 








1 








1 
2 
2 

1 


1 
2 
3 










1 
1 

1 

2 

1 
1 
1 
1 
1 

1 
2 
2 
2 
2 

1 
1 
2 
2 

1 

2 
1 

1 
1 
1 

1 

1 
2 

1 
2 

1 
1 
2 
2 

1 


2 
1 

1 
1 


2 

1 
1 
1 

1 


4 


3 


3 














1 


1 


1 

1 








2 








1 

1 

1 
1 

1 

1 
1 
1 
1 

> 

1 

1 

1 












3 
1 
1 
1 

1 
2 
2 
1 
2 

1 







' . 






1 
1 
4 

1 
1 
1 
2 
4* 






1.... 








1 
1 

1 


i.... 






3 




1 










Mr Mnnsptt 














1 












1 
1 










1 














































2 


3 


























2 
4 

3 




1 










1 




1 












'.. . . 






1 
1 

1 
1 
1 
1 
1 

1 

i" 


1 




1 ' 






1 

1 

1 








Johnas Longstrauts 


2 




J 1 


.. 


Abraham Molts 

Capt Trevett 






..; "i 1 





Georg Elesworth 


4 

1 

1 
3 


2 
3 

1 
3 
3 


3 

S 


i" 

2 

1 


1 2 

1 








Widd Decay 


1 


M 

1 r":::::::;;; 


............ 


Capt Shelly 

Thorns Adams 

Widd Kidd 


1 
I 


2 


6 

1 


I 

1 i' 


1 ":::::;:;:;:: 

1 





Widd I'roos! 


i' 


2 
4 


1 \ 


1 2 


i' 


1 








• Illegible. 



172 



A CENTURY OF POPULATION GROWTH. 



NEW YORK— Continued. 

Table 90.-XVMES OF MASTERS OF FAMILIES IX THE CITY OF NEW YORK, BY WARDS, ACCORDING TO THE 

ENUMERATION MADE ABOUT THE YEAR 1703— Continued. 



MASTERS OF FAMILYS. 


Males from 
16 to 60. 


females. 


Male 
Children. 


female 
Children. 


Male 
Negros. 


female 
Negros. 


Male 

Negro 

Children. 


female 

Negro 

Children. 


all above 
60. 


EAST "WARD — continued. 
Doct Stets 


1 
1 




2 
2 
1 
2 


7 
2 
2 




1 









Elves Now 


1 
1 


1 


1 


2 

1 




John Davi 


1 
2 

1 






Abraham Johns 


1 

1 
3 
1 
1 






















1 












1 
1 

1 

1 

1 
1 
1 
1 

1 
1 
1 

1 


1 
1 
1 

1 
1 
4 
1 

1 

1 
4 






1 
1 










2 

1 


1 


1 














1 












4 












2 
1 
1 

1 

1 
1 


1 










4 
1 

1 


1 


1 
1 




2, 1 






























2 
1 
4 

1 


1 












2 
2 

1 












1 
1 


1 

• 


1 


1 
1 








1 


















1 
1 
1 

1 
1 
1 
1 
1 

1 


1 
1 


2 
5 

1 

3 

4 
3 
2 
1 

2 






/ 








1 




1 








1 




1 






1 

2 
1 

1 
1 

1 


























2 


1 

1 










1 
1 


1 














1 


1 


















2 
1 


2 
1 
1 

1 

1 
1 




1 
1 
2 

2 




1 










1 
1 

3 






















1 
1 
1 
1 
1 

1 
1 
1 
1 


1 
















Benj Bill 


1 


1 

1 
1 

2 
2 
3 

1 

1 




i 



















Dant np.vnns 


1 

1 

1 
1 
1 
1 

1 

1 
1 


2 










Arthr Williams 












4 
1 
4 
2 

1 
1 
1 






























Widd \ andewater 










Cornelius Bolson 


1 
1 

1 
1 

1 

1 
1 
1 
1 

1 



1 
1 

1 
1 

1 
1 
1 


1 

2 


: 
1 
1 

1 
1 
1 



1 

1 
1 










Dan! Mynard 


1 
1 
1 
2 

1 
5 
5 
2 
2 

1 


2 
4 










John Mambroits 




















Lucas Tinhoven ... 


1 

1 
1 
1 
1 
1 






1 

2 
1 

1 

1 
1 
1 
1 

1 

: 
1 












Johanes Urielant 


















1 
1 
2 



2 
3 

1 



1 


2 
1 








Gabriell Ludlow 
















Mr Slay 












Wm Bikman 


2 
1 
2 


1 






I 


James Debross 








Wm Anderson 





1 






Peter Riphtnian 






Capt Tuder 





1 


















1 

1 
1 
1 


3 


1 





1 








John Lastly 








Widd Vontylborough 


2 
3 


3 












WmPell 












Thorns Huck 


1 
1 










Widd Peterow 










Robert Pudenton 










Wm Shackerlv 



2 

1 
I 
1 


1 
1 

1 
3 


1 











Mr Huddleston 


2 








Nichol Debower 








Johanes D payster 


1 


2 





2 




Wm White !]::!!::::::::"■ 




Abraham Moll 




3 

1 

2' 





1 


1 


1 I 




Levenus Deuind 

Richd Sackett '.'.',','.'.'.'. 


2 


3' 


i' 


1 


! 




Soffell Seeworth '.'.'.'..'. 


i' 


i' 


2 
i 


3 

i' 


2 

1 


1 

1 







EEEiZZl 



I 

I 



GENERAL TABLES. 



173 



Table 90. 



NEW YORK-Continued. 
-NAMES OF MASTERS OF FAMILIES IN THE CITY OF NEW YORK. BY WARDS, ACCORDING TO THE 
ENUMERATION MADE AUOLT THE YEAR 1703-Coutinue.l. 



MASTERS OP FAMILYS. 


Males from 
16to(iO. 


females. 


Male female 
ChUdren. ChUdron. 


Hale 
Negrot. 


female 
Negros. 


Male 

Negro 
ChUdren. 


female 
ChU£eD. 


1 

all above 
«0. 


EAST WARD— continued. 
Isaac Ferbergln 


1 

1 

i' 

I 

1 
1 
1 
1 
1 

1 

i' 

i" 

1 
1 

i' 

1 

1 

i' 

3 

2 
2 



2 
2 

1 
1 
1 

2 
* 
2 
1 
1 

2 
2 

1 


1 
1 
I 
1 

1 

1 

i' 



1 

1 

2 

i' 

6' 

I 



1 
1 
1 

1 

2 

1 
2 
2 

1 
1 

: 
1 
1 

1 
1 

4 
2 
2 

3 

1 
3 
2 

1 

3 

1 
1 
1 


4 

2 

i' 

2 














WidU Lees 

Mrs Mussett !.!.!!!!!!! 

Win Naseros ] 


i' 

i' 

s 














1 

i' 


1 


1 

1 




Tnonis RoberU 

Uoner Uritt .....V. 

Thorns i lains 

Robt Walls 

Giddeon Vergeren 

Evert Ditken 

John N'anfan 

Claud Bouden 

Heudriek Vandespegle 

Mr (Jleenoross 






Dan Thwaictes 




2 

2 

2 












Wid^i ret rer Bond 

Charl Bakcman 

Johanes Banker 

Jos Carlsee 


i' 

2 






1 




2 














John »t Kllas Petrain 

Hen-Irlok Kflllson 


s 

3 


1 



2 


1 

2 

1 


1 




3 
1 



6' 




i 










Victor Bick'T 










Sarah Scou ton 


1 
1 

1 
3 



1 

2 


1 
1 



4 

3 

2 

I 
3 
1 

2 

1 
3 

1 





1 








1 





PettT VV ca'ls 




Jac'obus Morrtsgreen 








William Svnis 




- 








1 

















1 




John ( anoon 






1 














Widdow Bush 










1 






1 


















William Jackson 


1 


1 


1 


1 








Johannps \'an Geser 








Willi'lmus NVucnhousen 












1 






3' 


1 


2 


1 










1 




Thomas 1 lardin 


I 
1 



2 





1 
X 

I 
















1 


I 

















Madam Duhoiso 



1 


3 
2 
2 

1 
1 

1 
3 
1 
1 
1 

1 
2 
2 
1 
2 

2 
1 
1 
3 
1 

1 
1 
3 

I 
1 
















1 
3 
2 
3 

3 


? 
3 


3 

1 





1 


1 












Thomas Koberts 


1 
2 

I 


3 
1 


1 
2 












1 









3 




Widdow Howard. 






4 
1 


1 




1 
2 






1 


1 












1 
















1 


1 




I 

1 
2 
2 
1 




I 
















2 
1 










f 
2 

1 


1 





































2 


1 

1 

12 


2 

1 
1 




1 
1 






2 
3 
1 
1 

1 
1 
2 






2 






















3 


2 


2 


3 


1 

1 

1 








1 






2 2 




3 






2 
2 
2 














1 





















» Illegible. 



174 



A CENTURY OF POPULATION GROWTH. 



NEW YORK— Continued. 

Table 90.-NAMES OF MASTERS OF FAMILIES IN THE CITY OF NEW YORK, BY WARDS, ACCORDING TO THE 

ENUMERATION MADE ABOUT THE YEAR 1703— Continued. 



MASTERS OF FAMaYS. 


Males from 
16 to 60. 


females. 


Male 
ChUdren. 


female 
Children. 


Male 
Negros. 


female 
Negros. 


Male 

Negro 

Children. 


female 

Negro 

Children. 


all above 
60. 


SOUTH -WARD— continued. 
Adrian Man 


4 


2 
2 

1 

1 


01 
2 
2 
1 

1 
2 
6 
3 
1 

1 
1 
1 
2 
1 

1 
1 
2 
1 
1 

1 

1 
1 
1 
2 

1 
1 

1 
1 
1 

1 
1 
1 
3 

1 

2 
1 
2 
2 
1 

1 
3 
I 
2 
4 

2 

1 
2 

1 
1 

2 

1 

1 
2 

1 

1 
2 
2 

1 

1 
1 


3 


1 
1 
2 
1 
1 

1 
7 
2 
2 
1 

2 
3 












Wlddow Lysenncr 


3' 

1 
1 


3 


2 


i 








1 




























1 
1 


4 

1 
2 


1 
1 
2 

1 

1 


1 
1 


1 
1 












3 

1 

1 
1 
1 
1 






1 

1 
1 




1 
2 








1 






1 


























1 
















1 








1 
1 
2 
1 


1 












Wiflftow Phillin"? 


1 


2 
1 

1 
1 


2 


1 






i 

1 


2 

1 








1 
1 








3 








1 

2 

1 
1 
1 




1 








1 
1 
5 
3 

3 
4 
2 


2 






















2 














1 












1 
1 

1 












1 
1 
1 
1 






















































3 
2 

1 


2 
2 

1 




1 


1 






Johannes Johnson 


1 
1 

1 




















James Many 
















3 

2 
3 




1 










1 

1 

1 
1 
1 

1 


2 
2 

1 
1 




1 
1 


1 




Johannes Vanrost 








Mr Vanposon 










Mr VanKoson 


1 
















1 


I 


1 




Christophr norland 


2 
2 
1 
5 
4 

1 
2 








Widdow van plank 


3 




1 
1 








Johannes Vanderhield 


1 


1 
1 
2 








Widdow Keisted 


1 
2 










2 

1 
1 
2 
2 
I 


1 

4 
2 








Widdow Deshamp 




2 
2 

1 




Mr Antm 


2 








Wilellmus Navensusen 








Francis \Mncent 


1 


2 


1 


1 


1 
1 






















Jacob Maurice 


2 

1 
1 

1 

1 

1 
2 
I 

1 

1 
1 

1 

1 

1 
1 
1 

1 
1 
1 
1 

1 

1 

1 
1 
1 
1 


1 
1 




1 
1 












3 










Widdow Bush 




























2 


4 
1 
3 

1 












Mr Honan 




1 








Widdow Cortland 




5 


1 


1 
1 




Widdow Keisteed 






Hendrick Mester 


2' 










Lydiah Rose 

Johannes Veckden : .!!!!!!!!!!!] 


i' 

1 

3 
1 

1 
1 

1 
1 
1 

1 
1 

1 

1 
1 
1 
1 


1 

2 
1 
1 


2 


2 




2 






1 




4 

2 


1 
1 

1 
























Mancell Hansen 


2 
1 

1 
4 
2 


2" 

1 

3 


2 








i 


Jacob Van Direse 












E]?azer Bogert 

Joriz Breger ..'./........ 






2 


6' 


1 


'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 









I 



GENERAL TABLES. 

NEW YOKK— Continued. 



175 



Table 90.-NAMES OF MASTERS OF FAMILIES IN THE CITY OF NEW YORK. RY WARDS ACCORDING TO THE 

ENUMERATION MADE ABOUT THE YEAR 1703-ConUnued A^^O^DING TO THE 



UAaTERS or FAMILYS. 


Males from 
16 to 00. 


feinales. 


Male 
ChUdren. 


femulo 
ChUdren. 


Male 
Negm. 




female 
ChUdren. 


■Utbore 
W. 


NORTH WARD— continued. 
Wm Waderson 


1 

1 
1 
1 
1 

1 


2 


















2 


1 

3 

1 
1 

1 














Henrv ColoTnan 

Phitin licllpiiz 


i 


' 






Joseph Bresser 

Kaiio Vanderbecck ].!!!!!!.!!!![! 


2 


1 








Jacob Halck ..!!!....!!..!.!! 

Sanil MarteD 


i 
1 

1 

1 
1 
1 

i 

1 
1 
1 
1 


2 



J 


:::::::::::: ::::::::::::I::::::::::: 






Jo Dicker 


1 


2 

I 
2 

1 

2 

1 


2 

1 
3 

3' 

3 

1 






















John Benteii 1 .!! i !!!"!.!!!!!.!!!!! ] 

Joseph Paling " ] 


i 




i 








Mr Evert 


1 






Jacob Swart 


'.;;::;:::;::: 




Edwd Lock !^I! !!.'.'! !!!."! 

Marro yuick 


i' 

1 

1 




j 






Isaac Jutor 

Danl Travore 


I 
1 

1 

1 

1 
1 

1 








llenderick Drimiez 

Derick Ritenbogert 


i' 

2 

6 


i' 

2 

1 
1 
2 

2 
2 
1 
2 












Jan Kart'lse 

Janetii- dcRraus 


1 


!.l !. 


!. 


1 


Uarmcn dcgraus 

Andrrw Douwe 


1 

1 

1 

1 


3 










Vochem Lotyer 


2 
2 





i 










1 






Hendrjck Oostrom 












Yan TIeslook 


1 
1 
1 






1 




1 








2 
2 




[ 






Christian Lowrier 






1 






Annotie Ijowrier 






1 








i 


2 


4 


1 








Robt Milro 








3 




1 
1 
1 




2 
2 


2 
2 
2 
1 

S 

1 
1 
1 

I 


1 


1 


1 




Aljmc Vandyck 








1 








Suaanna Tocter 












1 
1 
1 


2 




: 
















Ilanz Kiprstede 


2 










Wvl'UFKli Vanbos 




1.. 






Direck Slick 


1 

1 
1 
1 
1 
1 


2 










Enoch Kill 














2 
1 










Reyere Martesc 


2 1 




1 








3l i\ 




1 








I 


6 










• Morott 





2 
2 
4 
3 















1 
1 
1 












Alexander Lazn . 


2 
2 












WmAttell 










i 


Mrs Anieker 












1 
1 




2 

I 

1 


2 
I 








1. 










1 


















•i 

81 
1 

4 
1 


4 
1 

1 


2 


2 




1 




1 
1 






2 


2 














1 


1 
2 
3 

3 





1 


3 


1 






1 

1 
1 












1 
3 
2 








i. 








1.... 




2 


1 








i 




1 


























1 
1 

1 




i :;;;..;:. 












}i 














1 










Antiene Vellerton 


1 2 1 








BneJ I'roovoost 


i ' 


•Illegible. 













176 



A CENTURY OF POPULATION GRO\ATH. 



NEW YORK— Continued. 

Table 90 -NAMES OF MASTERS OF FAMILIES IN THE CITY OF NEW YORK, BY WARDS, ACCORDING TO THE 
" ' ENUMERATION MADE ABOUT THE YEAR 1703-Continued. 



MASTERS OF FAMILYS. 


Males from 
16 to 60. 


females. 


Male 
Children. 


female 
Children. 


Male 
Negros. 


female 
Negros. 


Male 

Negro 

ChUdren. 


female 

Negro 
ChUdren. 


all above 
00. 


NORTH WARD— continued. 

Denis S weetman 

Hendrick Boz 


1 
1 
1 


1 

1 
1 
1 
1 

1 

1 


1 
3 
2 


i' 

3 












Annetie Henne 

Mr Vandrick 


1 
1 
1 
1 
1 

1 
1 
1 
1 
1 

1 
1 


1 
3 


1 

1 

1 


1 


1 


1 


1 




Abraham Kip 

ffrans Vandyck 




Aaron Vanvhirden 

John Van strijp 

Hathman Wessels 

Peter Yaaokse 


1 
1 

1 
1 
1 


4 
2 


i 

1 
1 


i' 


i' 








Peter Saryo 

Yan Sivvere 

YanHille 


1 1 

2 3 


1 

3 













Yan Yonz 


i' 

1 
1 

1 
1 

1 
1 
1 

1 

1 








i 






1 
1 

1 


3 
3 

2 

7 


2 
2 

2 
1 


























































1 

1 

1 
1 

1 
1 
1 

















2 


3 






















4 
1 



2 
1 
2 
2 


























1 
1 

2 

1 
1 
1 

1 


























1 




1 










1 


1 
3 


1 










2 












1 


1 


























Swerez Hendricks 


2 

1 


1 




1 
1 
3 
2 












1 
1 
1 
3 

2 
2 
1 


2 
3 






































4 

2 

1 














1 
2 
1 
1 
1 

1 
1 
















4 
1 










1 




1 
























1 

1 

1 
1 

1 
1 

4 
2 
2 
2 
1 

1 
1 
1 
1 

1 

1 
1 
1 
1 
1 

1 


3 

3 

2 
3 

1 
5 

1 
















2 
3 
1 
2 
1 

1 






































2 

1 

1 












Yan Keoeck 


1 


1 


















4 


1 






2 




1 

1 
1 

1 
1 

1 


5 
3 
1 


1 
1 
1 


















1 


Wm Bogaert 








1 










1 




2 
1 
2 

1 

2 


2 

1 
4 
1 

2 
1 
2 




1 














Hatie Provoost 


2 








Martie V'andeheyden 


« 

1 

1 
1 
1 

1 

1 








Barent Lool 














1 










Garret Onckelbaok 


1 






















Saml Lockeriest 


3 
9 




1 


1 




" 


1 


Barnard uz Siait 


1 
















2 


Caterina liuotz 














1 


1 


Barnard us Hardebroer 


1 

1 

1 




1 
4 

1 
1 
2 



4 


1 

1 




1 




Corneliz Loris 


1 

1 
1 

1 
1 

1 
1 
1 
1 

1 
1 

1 

1 








Peter Boz 


2 




1 








9 








Garret Burper 


1 

1 

1 


2 
2 


































Lavie Vandmirse 


2 
2 


2 
3 












1 


1 








"V annetre \V ande Watte 









Am Reijt 


1 
1 
1 
1 


1 
2 
1 
2 


1 
1 




1 


i 










1 




Yan Narhree 




, 


1 










1:;:;::::;:::;:;:::::::: 


1 





I 



GENERAL TABLES. 



177 



Table 90. 



NEW YORK— Continued. 

-NAMES OF MASTERS OF FAMILIES IX THE CITY OF NEW YORK, HY WARDS, ACCORDING TO THE 
ENUMERATION MADE ABOUT THE YEAR 1703-Continued. 



MASTEItS OF FAMILYS. 


Males from 
l« tooo. 


females. 


Male 
ChUdren. 


female 
ChUdren. 


Male 
Negim. 


female 
Negros. 


Male 
ChuTen. 


female 

Ne«ro 

Children. 


all utiove 
U). 


NORTH WAKiJ— continued, 
Yan Konce 


1 


















Mrs Boseit 


1 

1 
2 

1 

2 

1 
1 
1 

2 
2 
2 

1 
2 
















Wessell E vereee 


1 


2 

1 


2 












Bettie Rammesen 












WEST WARD. 

Peter Bavard 


1 

1 
1 
4 

2 
1 


2 
1 

1 




1 


















1 














AVm Smith Aldermn 




2 

1 


1 
1 


4 













' 


1 


Matt: Pe Hart 


1 


2 


Jacoli Vansune 






1 










1 




1 






1 
2 

1 
2 
2 

1 






1 
2 

1 
1 
3 








3 
3 

4 


1 

1 
3 
3 


1 

2 
















Bar; Laroox 


































1 




1 
1 
2 








1 






}smic i)o Boogh 
















1 

3 

1 
1 


2 


U 


1 

1 


1 



t 

2 




M rs Jtiini boll 






1 

1 


2 

2 
1 
2 








Robt White 




















Catherine While 










::::::::::::|::::::::": 


Vk'm Waloh 


1 
1 

1 
1 


3 

5 

3 














2 
1 
















I 
2 












1 








1 


1 

1 
2 








Dehorah Symconi 










1 




1 

1 
1 
1 

1 
1 




1 
























Augu stu s ( ! rassett 








1 








1 
1 


2 


. . 


1 

I 






2 


2 


1 
















1 
2 
1 












Kol)t I'dwanis 


1 
















1 














1 
1 

1 
2 














1 

2 

4 


1 
2 


























1 


1 






2 









2 












1 






1 











2 
•1 
I 
1 
1 

1 
1 
1 
1 
1 

1 
1 
1 
1 
2 

1 

1 

1 



' 

1 
1 

I 

1 
1 




1 








Han: Teiiijck 


1 
1 


1 








::::::::::::i:::::::::::: 
























3 


2 
2 


i 
i" 











Isaac Garners 


1 
1 










1 . . 


Will: Shullwood 


4 
4 


2 

4 
I 


2* 




i' 






JoresUiersie 

Archibald Reed 








I:;:::::::::l:::::::::::: 


1 
1 














I 
1 






I.. 


Edwd Hurley 

LIcft niirkle'y 


1 


1 


* 

1 

1 

1 
1 

1 

l' ' 






K 


:::::::::;:: 




1 
j' 




Walter n Boise 


• """ ',',',','."'.'.'.'.'. 




Garret C'osyn 

Alberts Laynderts 

PaulTuk 


1 

a' 


f"^^^"''"''..'' 


1 

""; 1 



( , 


i 

1 


Phlll:Doley 

Jno D. Le llountalne 


1 

3 

1 


1 
2 


I--":::::::: 




v//.'.'.'.y.'.'.'.'.'.'.'..... 
i ' 




:::::::::::: 


Jacob Kuwnlng 













178 



A CENTURY OF POPULATION GROWTH. 



Table 90.- 



NEW YORK— Continued. 

-NAMES OF MASTERS OF FAMILIES IN THE CITY OF NEW YORK, BY WARDS, 
ENUMERATION MADE ABOUT THE YEAR 1703— Continued. 



ACCORDING TO THE 



Males from 

MASTERS OF F.AMaYS. jg jo gQ. 


females. 


Male 
Children. 


female 
Children. 


Male 
Negros. 


female 
Negros. 


Male 

Negro 

Children. 


female 

Negro 

Children. 


all above 
60. 


WEST WARD— continued. 


1 

1 
1 
1 
1 






1 
4 
2 














4 
2 
























































2 
2 


1 
1 














2 
























1 
1 


4 


2 
3 








































1 
2 


1 














































John Swere 


1 


2 


1 
























1 

1 
1 

1 

1 
2 


1 
1 
1 
2 


1 
1 
4 














1 

1 












1 


3 














1 

2 














2 














































1 

1 
1 
1 

1 
1 

1 
1 

1 




4 

1 

2 
1 
2 

1 

1 
2 
2 


' 




1 

1 






















1 

2 




































1 

1 
3 
2 
1 






























































1 
1 


















1 


























John Williams Romiere 


1 
1 

1 

1 
1 
1 
2 


1 

1 
1 

4 
1 


1 
























Jacob Hases 
















3 


























1 


















1 








Alida Wright 


3 

2 
3 
2 
1 
1 

1 
1 
1 
2 
2 




2 










Griffin Jones 


1 
1 
1 


















2 
3 












Hendrick- Johnson 












1 


Eliz: Waekhara 




.■ 










Thomas Coburn 


1 

1 
1 
1 
1 
1 

1 
















Richard Green 




1 
1 


























Sergeant Smith 


















1 
2 

2 
2 
3 
1 

1 

2 

1 
2 












Pet.er Fauonnnier. 


2 

1 
2 


1 
3 


1 

2 

1 








DOCK WARD, 


1 


1 




Mrs Mogon 




Zacharie .^ngcam 


1 










Anthony Davis 


1 




1 
1 




1 
1 

1 






1 

1 
1 
1 










1 

1 
1 








John Pami i ter 












1 


1 
5 
2 

1 








Nicholas Jamin 


1 




1 




1 












1 

1 
2 




1 








Widow Alkfield 


1 
2 
2 
2 

1 
3 

1 
1 

1 

2 








Garret Dyking 


1 


1 


1 

1 
2 

1 
1 


1 


1 




Catharin Potter 






1 

3 
2 
1 

1 

i' 


1 

1 
3 


1 








Robert Lurting '__'" 


1 
1 


2 




Widdow Taylor 

David viiiat ;;;; 

David Logall '.'.'.'.'.'.'.V.'.'. 


2 
1 

2 

1 
1 
2 


1 


1 

1 
1 
1 
1 


1 


2 




Capt Siines 

Robt.Skelton '.'.'.'.'.'. 


1 

1 
1 


2 

1 

1 


1 

1 
1 


i' 







I 



►Illegible. 



GENERAL TABLES. 



179 



Table 90. 



NEW YORK— Continued. 

-NAMES OF MASTERS OF FAMILIES IN THE CITY OF NEW YORK, BY WARDS, ACcdRDIXG TO THE 
ENUMERATION MADE ABOUT THE YEAR 1703-Continued. 



liASTER.S OF FAMILYS. 


Ualesfrom 
16 to GO. 


females. 


Male 
Chlldicn. 


female 
ChUOren. 


M>le 
Nagiw. 


female 
Necm. 


Male 

Nwra 
Childno. 


female 
CuKoi. 


aU above 
00. 


DOCK WARD— continued. 
Charles Wooley 


3 

1 
1 
1 

1 

i' 








I 
2 










Garret \ anhome 

Paul Drulett '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 


1 
1 
3 
1 

1 
3 

1 
2 

1 

1 
1 
1 
2 
2 

I 

2 
2 


1 
2 
2 
2 


2 

4 


1 
2 

2 

1 








Stephen D'lancey \\\ .\ .]...[ ." 

Jno James Vanveale 




s' 


1 
1 


i' 

1 




Wliliiow tIaKet 

Hendriok Vand:Hull 


i' 


i' 








Peter Ueinoliiis .' 

John Van home 

Jacobus vanc-ourtlandt 

Jaeohws Decay 


2 

1 
1 
1 

1 

2 

1 


2 

1 
2 


i' 

01 
2 

1 


3 
2 
4 


oi' 

2 
3 


1 

1 
1 


i' 




Jacob fen Eyck 

Abraham Govemere 


1 

1 
1 
1 
2 


i' 

1 


1 


1 


i' 


1 




English Smith 








1 


Cornelius Jm-obs 




s 

3 




1 
I 
1 

1 
1 
I 
I 




1 


David Provost Junr 


1 


2 






Widdow Sanders 


3 

1 
4 
4 
3 

1 

2 
1 
2 
2 
2 

1 

1 
1 
2 

1 

2 
3 

1 
1 


3 










1 
3 

1 














1 

s 












3 
1 

1 

1 
1 
1 
1 

I 








1 












3 

1 
1 
3 

1 
1 

3 
1 


2 












1 




1 








2 








W illiatn Chainljers 


1 
1 
1 










Johannes outraan 












Issac D Markeys 


I 
2 


2 




1 




W Iddow Lawrence 








1 
1 

1 


1 
1 


1 
1 


' 








1 






Widdow Sowalls 












1 




2 
2 






1 






1 
1 
1 

1 
1 

1 
2 
1 


2 
1 
2 
1 










1 
2 


1 


















Bartholomew Han 


2 


1 








• Overin 










Thomas Wenham ... . 


1 
1 
2 
2 
2 

1 
1 
3 
1 

1 

1 
1 
1 

1 
4 

1 
2 
1 
3 


I 


1 
2 


2 

1 


3 


















1 












1 














1 


1 






1 






W Iddow D. Pyster 


2 
1 
2 


1 


1 
2 







John LorrinE . . 


1 


1 
2 










1 




1 




Abraham V: D: waters 


1 

1 

1 
1 
3 
1 

1 

2 
2 








1 

1 

I 
1 
1 
2 


1 


























i 

1 
1 












Rugert \\ aldron 














2 

1 


1 
2 

1 

1 


1 


3 












1 








3 


i 
1 


1 






John Ilarperding 




I 


1 


Avert Klberseye 


1 
2 

1 

1 
2 
2 
2 

2 


4 


» 








Roger Jones 














1 
1 
1 
2 

1 

1 


1 














Martin Coock 


1 
I 

2 

1 




2 
1 










3 
2 
1 

6 


1 
I 








Lawrence \*anhock 














1 






1 


1 














Evert Van 1). watr 

William Kchclos 

Edward Marshall 


1 
1 

1 

1 
2 
2 

4 
1 

1 


1 
1 
1 

1 
1 
1 
3 
2 

1 
1 
1 
1 





1 
1 








1 






3 








i 


1 










1 














3 


1 

a 










3 

1 


2 










r 










2 
1 


1 












1 












1 










1 

1 
1 


i 

2 

1 








1 




Anthony HutRers 

John Whltt 


2' 




1 







>IUeglble. 



180 



A CENTURY OF POPULATION GROWTH. 



NEW YORK— Continued. 

T.BLE 90 -NAME§ OP MASTERS OF FAMILIES IN THE CITY OF NEW YORK, BY WARDS, ACCORDING TO THE 

ENUMERATION M-\DE ABOUT THE YEAR 1703— Continued. 



Males from 

M.VSTERS OF FAMILVS. 16 tO 60. 


females. 


Male 
Children. 


female 
Children. 


Male 
Negros. 


female 
Negros. 


Male 

Negro 

Children. 


female 

Negro 

Children. 


all above 
60. 


DOCK WARD— continued. 

Mr Legrand 

Nicholiis Materbe 


1 
1 


i' 

3 


4' 


• 


2' 


i' 






i 


Sanill Leverldg 

William White Junr 

Mary W akhain 


2 

2 
■J 
1 

2 

1 

1 
1 


1 
4 

1 










i' 






John Stephens 

Richd C, reen 


i 

3 

I 

1 
2 




3 












• n Vurickbookhouse 

* rence Vessells 

♦ ahara Lawkerman 

Everdas Bopardus 


2 

1 


2 


3 
3 


1 

2 

i' 


1 
i' 


1 

i' 




William Riclcley 

Jannet ie Van briekelen 


2 

1 
2 


3 

1 

1 




2 








i' 






2 










Gabrll Thiebod 














Mrs. Mashett 


1 
2 

2 
2 


1 
4 

2 














Johannes Burger 


i 

2 
2 
1 


1 

1 
1 
3 


1 
5 




2 

1 








2 








1 
2 




















1 

2 

1 
1 
2 

1 

1 

1 
2 
2 
2 

1 
2 














1 
2 
1 
1 
4 


3 






















1 




2 






















1 


















1 






























2 
'3 
2 


1 




3 


2 


1 




3 
2 

4 
3 
1 
1 
2 


















1 








1 
2 








1 

1 
1 


1 














1 




i 
1 

1 
1 

2 

1 
1 
























Will Da 


1 
2 
2 
2 
3 














4 
1 


1 

1 


































1 






1 




* Gracktin 












1 
2 

1 
1 

1 
1 
1 
2 
2 

I 
1 

1 
1 




6 
1 
2 


2 

1 
1 


1 

4 
1 
2 

1 










Capt Sidinon 


2 


2 

1 


2 
1 







1 




1 




WasPs Ppterson . 


2 
2 
1 


2 
1 
2 
1 
2 


















Solomon Widdow 



































1 


Thomas Sekls 












John Clapp 


2 
3 




2 


1 
1 








Abraham Holt 


6 

1 


1 






Capt Lock 


1 






Hendrick Van Scoyock 


2 

3 

1 








1 


Philip Minthome 


1 
1 
















1 


1 


1 
1 

1 


1 






* eabor 


1 


1 




1 


1 

1 
1 
1 


1 

1 
2 
1 
1 


5 
2 


1 
1 










* noute 


1 
2 


1 
















2 


Walter Lamas 










1 


David Mlnvel 


1 
2 
2 
1 


2 

1 


1 
2 
1 


1 


1 
1 








*- — ^lin Pierson 












4 
1 




2 

1 





























• Illegible. 



GENERAL TABLES. 



181 



NEW YORK— Continued. 

Table 91.-WHITE AND SLAVE POPULATION OK NKW YORK, L\ CERTAIN AGE GROUPS, BY SEX. ACCORDING TO 

TUE PARTIAL CENSUS OE 1712.' 

[The returns of this census are Imperfect, '' 'hoP«oP!?.betog deterred by a simple .uperstltlon. and observation that slclcnca toUowed upon the last numbering of the 

people. > 1 he results here given are compiled from the orlglmil returns. »| "» »• u«j 





wnrtES. 


auvn. 


Total. 


COf.NTIES. 


Males 
under 16. 


Males be- 
tween 10 
and 00. 


Males 
over Ml. 


Females 
under lu. 


Females 
lOtoUO. 


Females 
over tio. 


Males 

inidiT Iti. 


Males 
over 10. 


Females 
undTT 10. 


Female-i 
over |i.. 


Albany * 


753 
120 


688 
89 


54 
11 


651 

98 


076 
97 


4'J 

1 


155 
12 






DlltllKSS < 


6 


4 


122 
7 


3,329 


KlHKs! 


445 
1.925 
5.841 


New ^ ork 


1,197 
105 


1,062 
98 


GO 

4 


1,182 
82 


1,208 
91 


97 
S 


155 
9 


821 
21 


179 
11 




Richmond 


438 
1.279 
4.413 


Suffolk 

Ulster < 


1,092 
450 
072 


929 
424 
500 


114 
44 
75 


1,044 

427 
577 


926 
4(10 
539 


04 
30 
02 


20 
68 
72 


110 
148 
127 


32 
T9 

m 


70 
78 
72 








2,l>18 


Total 


4,389 


3,S50 


362 


4,061 


4,003 


314 


434 


900 


410 


681 

1 


22,008 





1 Census of th'* State of New- York, 1855, page 5. 
' Colonial History of New- York, Vol. V, page 339 



" New- York Colonial MSS.. Vol. LVII, Sccre(ar)-'s olllcc. 
' Ucturns jiot recvifod until 1714. 



T.-^BLE 92.— WHITE AND NEGRO POPULATION OF THE PROVINCE OE NEW YORK, DISTINGUISHED AS CHILDREN 

AND ADULTS, BY SEX: 1723.' 



ILond. Doc. X.XII.l 





wmiE. 


KEGROES AND OTTIEB SUIVES. 




KAME OF THE COUSTV. 


Men. 


Women. 


Male 
Children. 


Female 
Children. 


Totall of 
White 
Persons. 


Men. 


Women. 


Male 
Children. 


Fii 

Cbil.; 


' fif 
i 
■ r 
Sluves. 


Totall of 
Tenons. 




1,460 

335 

490 

1,508 

1,441 

1,050 
309 
276 
642 

1,512 


1,726 

320 

476 

1,599 

1,348 

951 
245 
237 
453 
1,408 


1,352 

305 

414 

1,530 

l,.'i21 

1,048 
304 
259 
503 

1,404 


1,348 

291 

394 

1,371 

1,150 

912 
239 
208 
089 
1,369 


.%880 
1,251 
1,774 
0,008 
5,206 

3,%1 
1,(»7 
1,040 
2,357 
5,093 


408 
101 
171 
393 
357 

155 
45 
22 
227 
307 


476 
03 
123 
294 
307 

118 
29 
14 
120 
200 


220 
49 
83 
228 
197 

92 
42 
2 
119 
146 


258 
42 
07 

208 
54 

83 
31 
5 
94 

155 


1,302 
255 
444 

1,123 
975 

448 
147 
43 

650 
808 


7,248 
1 ^M 






2,218 
7,191 




Suffolk 


0,241 


West Chester ; 


4,409 




1,244 




l.OSi 


Ulster 


2,923 




0,501 






Totall 


9,083 


8,763 


8,500 


8,047 


34,393 


2,186 


1,810 


1,178 


997 


6,in 


40,564 







1 New York Documentary History, page 471. 

Table 93.— ^L\LE AND FEMALE POPULATION OF THE PROVINCE OF NEW Y'ORK, ABOVE AND UNDER 10 Y'EAR.'^ OF 

AGE, BY COLOR, FOR CITIES AND COUNTIES, NOVEMBER 2, 1731.' 

[MS. in S<!e's Off.] 



aiVS AND COins'TIES. 



City and Coimty of New York. 

City A Counly bf .\lbany 

Queens County 

Sulfolk Counly 

West Chester County 



Ulster County 

Kinns Coimty 

Oraniif^ County 

Kiohmond Coimty. 
Dutchess County... 



Total. 



Ilenry Beekraan 

Gosen Viin Schick 

Thos Hicks 

David Corey 715 Indians.. 
Gilbert Willet 



John Wyncoop 

Domini Van Der Veer.. 

William I'ullen 

Charles darritson 

William Squire 



Whites 

males 

above 10 

years old. 



2,628 
2,<81 
2,239 
2,144 
1,879 

990 
029 
027 
423 
570 



>I4,6I0 
11,529 
10,243 
6,673 



143,065 



Whites Whites Whites 
females males ' females 
above la under 10. imder 10. 



• New York Documenlar>' Ilistorj-, page 471. 



2,250 
1,255 
2,175 
1,130 
1,701 

914 
518 
534 
571 
481 



blacks 

males 

above 

ten. 



blacks 

females 

al>o\'e 

ten. 



1,143 
2,352 
1,178 
2,845 
1,054 

577 
2'?3 
325 
203 
203 



11,529 10,243 



Whites. 



1,024 

1,212 

1,139 

955 

707 

515 
208 
299 
256 
298 



508 
476 
239 
20B 

321 
205 

85 
111 

S9 



2,932 



607 

185 

363 

83 

90 

196 
140 
47 
98 
32 



1,853 



Blacks 

males 

under 10. 



346 
220 
190 



124 
OS 
19 
51 
13 



* Corrected figures. 



Blacks 
females 
under la 



185 
174 
199 
83 
151 



1,044 
1,402 
1,853 
2,933 



7,231 



The 
amount 
Ineai'h 
counly. 



8,023 
8.573 
7.995 
7,075 
0,033 

3,728 
2,150 
1.909 
1,817 
«1,724 



•SO, 280 



IllK'kS. 



76292—09- 



-13 



182 



A CENTURY OF POPULATION GROWTH. 



NEW YORK— Contir.i^ed. 

Table 94 -A LIST OF THE NUMBER OF INHABITANTS, BOTH WHITES AND BLACKS OF EACH SPECIES, WITHIN THE 
PitoVM OF NEW YORK, ABOVE AND UNDER THE AGE OF TEN YEARS, TAKEN IN THE YEAR 1737.' 

[Lond. Doc. XXVI.] 



New York... 

Albany 

West Chester 

Orange 

Ulster 

Dutchess 

Richmond . . . 

Kings 

Queens 

SuOolk 

Total. . 



White 

Males 

above 10 

years. 



3.253 
3, 209 
2.110 
860 
1,175 

940 

488 

054 

2,407 

2.297 



17, 393 



White 
Females 
above 10 

years. 



3,568 
2,995 
1,890 
753 
1,681 

860 

497 

631 

2.290 

2,353 



17, 518 



White 

Males 

under 10 

years. 



1,088 

1,463 

950 

501 

541 

710 

289 

235 

1,395 

1,175 



8,347 



White 
Females 
under 10 

years. 



1,036 

1,384 

944 

433 

601 

646 

266 

264 

1,656 

1,008 



Black 

Males 

above 10 

years. 



674 
714 
304 
125 
378 

101 
132 
210 
400 
393 



8,238 I 



3, 651 



Black 
Females 
above 10 

years. 



609 
496 
254 
95 
260 

42 

112 
169 
370 
307 



2,714 



Black 

Males 

under 10 

years. 



229 
223 
153 

38 
124 

37 

52 

84 

254 

203 



1,397 



Black 
Females 
under 10 

years. 



207 
197 
140 
35 
110 

22 
53 
101 
227 
187 



1,279 



Total of 

each 
county. 



60, 437 



Total in 
1731. 



Since in- 
creased. 



2,042 

2,108 

712 

871 

1,142 

2 1.094 

72 

198 

1,064 

248 



s 50, 286 no, 151 



I New York Documentary History, page 472. 



' Corrected figures. 



Table 9o.-AN ACCOUNT OF THE NUMBER OF INHABITANTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NEW YORK, TAKEN 4 JUNE, 1746. 

BY ORDER OF HIS EXCELLENCY GOVERNOUR CLINTON.' 







[London Doc. 


XXVIII.] 














ClTrES AND COUNTIES, 


Males 

white 

under 16. 


Males 

white 16 

& under 

60. 


Males 

white 

above 60. 


Females 

white 
under 16. 


Females 
white 16 
and up- 
wards. 


Males 

black 

under 60. 


Males 

black 16 

& under 

60. 


Males 

black 

above 60. 


Females 

black 
under 16. 


Females 
black 

16 & up- 
wards. 


Total 
number. 


City A Co. of N.Y 


2,117 
350 


2,097 
435 


149 
71 


2,013 
366 


2,897 
464 


419 
140 


645 
167 


76 
32 


735 
154 


569 
152 


=11,717 
2,331 








1,946 
2,200 

1,887 

445 

536 

2,435 

1,022 


1,826 
2,056 

1,835 

376 

763 

2,090 

1,044 


233 
200 

226 
35 
67 
303 
116 


2,077 
2,100 

1,891 
421 
871 

2,095 
972 


1,914 
1,750 

2,016 

414 

721 

1,640 

1,000 


365 
106 

329 

92 

82 

187 

244 


466 
160 

393 
88 
99 
180 
331 


61 
26 

52 
13 
34 
27 
43 


391 
108 

315 
95 
51 
138 
229 


361 
100 

310 

94 

44 

140 

264 


9.640 




8,806 




9,254 




2,073 




3,268 




9,235 




5,265 






Total 


12,938 


12,522 


1,400 


12,806 


12,816 


1,964 


2,529 


364 


2,216 


2,034 


61,589 







Total white =52,482. 

' New York Documentar>' History, O'Callaghan, pape 472. 



sCorrected iigures. 



3 Not possible to be numbered on account of the enemy. 



Table 96.— AN ACCOUNT OF THE NUMBER OF INHABITANTS IN THE PROVINCE OF NEW Y'ORK, TAKEN lOTH MAY, 
1749, BY ORDER OF HIS EXCELLENCY THE HONOURABLE GOVERNOUR CLINTON.' 

[Lond. Doc, XXIX.] 



CITIES AND COUNTIES. 



City & Co. ofN. Y.. 

King's county 

Albany county 

Queens county 

Dutchess county — 

Suflolk county 

Richmond county.. 

Orange coimty 

Westchester county 
Ulster county 



Males 
white 
under 
16 y'rs. 



2,346 
288 
2,249 
1,630 
1,970 

2,058 

431 

1,061 

2,511 

913 



Males 

white 

16 & 

under 60. 



2,765 
437 
2,359 
1,508 
1,820 

1,863 
420 
856 

2,312 
992 



Males 

white 

above 60. 



183 
62 
322 
151 
160 

248 
36 
66 
228 
110 



Fem'ls 

white 

under 16. 



2,364 
322 
2,137 
1,550 
1,790 

1,960 
424 
992 

2,263 
810 



Fem'ls 

white 

16 & 

upwards. 



3,268 
391 
2,087 
1,778 
1,751 

1,969 
434 
899 

2,233 
979 



Total number of whites. 



Total 
white. 



10,926 
1,500 
9,154 
6,617 
7,491 

8,098 
1,745 
3,874 
9,547 
3,804 



02, 756 



Males 

black 

under 16. 



460 
232 
309 
300 
103 

305 
88 
62 
303 
217 



Males 

black 

16 & 

under 60. 



610 
244 
424 
386 
155 

3,55 
110 
95 
270 
301 



Males 

black 

60 & 

upwards. 



Fem'ls 

black 

under 16. 



556 
137 
334 
245 
63 

292 
93 
84 
238 
198 



Fem'ls 

black 

16 & 

upwards. 



Total number of blacks.. 



701 
149 
365 
349 
. 79 

293 
98 
103 
279 
240 



Total 
black. 



2,368 
783 

1,480 

n,323 

421 

1,286 

409 

300 

l.LiO 

1,006 



210,592 



Total number of Inhabitants, white and black, ' 73,348. 

'New York Documentary History, O'Callaghan, page 473. 



G. CLINTON. 



2 Corrected figures. 



GENERAL TABLES. 



183 



NEW YORK-Coulinuoil. 
Table 97.-GENERAL LIST OF INHABITANTS IN THE PROVIXfE OF NEW YORK, EXTRACTED FROM THE RETURNS 
OF TLiE SHlililFFS OF TUK SEVERAL ( OUNTIES, IN PURSUANCE OF WARRANTS To I'UEM DATED lOTU 
FEBRUARY, 175G.' 



CITIES AND COUNTIES. 



City and County of New York 

City and County of Albany 

Ulster County. ..i 

Dutcbcss County 

Orange County 

Westchester County 

Kings Count y 

Queens County .* 

Sulfolk Conn ty , 

Richmond County , 



Males 
under IG. 



2,200 
3,474 
l.iiSS 
3,910 
1,213 

3,153 

417 

1,90) 

2,283 

344 



Hales 

above Iti 

6i under 

(X). 



2,308 
3,795 
1,G87 
2,873 
1,088 

2,908 

407 

2,147 

2,141 

411 



Males 

GO and 
upwards. 



174 

45U 

ISO 

203 

74 

1,039 
84 
253 
221 
107 



Females 
under lii. 



2,358 
3,234 
1,489 
3,530 
1,083 

2,440 

358 

1,892 

2,2l-.5 

334 



Females 
above Itj. 



3,607 
3,846 
1,618 
2,782 
998 

2,379 

536 

2,365 

2,335 

471 



Total. 



10,768 
14,806 
6,605 
113,298 
•4,150 

11,919 
1,862 
8,617 
9,245 
1,667 



Males 
under 16. 



468 
658 
328 
211 
103 

296 
212 
581 
278 
145 



Males 

aliove 16 

& under 

60. 



604 

780 
437 
270 
116 

418 
214 
563 
297 
92 



^'^^^ , Female. Femal« 
upwuds. ■indcrlO. abovel6.l 



443 

496 
336 
163 

n 

267 
201 
50O 
IM 
97 



401 

aoo 

102 
M 

aw 

197 
470 
236 
101 



TolJ. 



•2,278 

•2, 419 

1,500 

8» 

430 

1.338 

M4A 

2,1)« 

1,046 

406 



Olacka, 113,348. 



Whites, •83,242. 

Total. •9it,Sea 
' New York Documcntarj' History, O'Callaghan, page 473. 'Corrected Ogures. 

Table 98.-LIST OF INHABITANTS IN THE SEVERAL COUNTIES IN THE PROVINCE OF NEW YORK, TAKEN IN THE 

YEAR 1771.' 



NAMES OF Tire SEVERAL 
COCNIIES. 



City & Co. of New York 

Albany 

lister 

Dutchess 

Orange 

Westchester 

Kings 

Queens 

Bullolk 

Richmond 

Cumb*?rland 

Gloucester 

Totals 



Males 
under 10. 



3,720 
9,740 
2,835 
5,721 

2,651 

3,813 

548 

1,253 

2,731 
616 

1,071 
178 



•34,877 



Males 

above 10 

Si under 

60. 



5.083 
9,822 
3,02;i 
4,687 

2,297 

5,204 

644 

2,083 

2,834 
438 

1,002 
186 



37,302 



Males 

60 and 

upwards. 



280 

1,136 

202 

384 

107 

549 

70 

950 

347 

96 

59 

8 



4,314 



Females 
under 16. 



3,779 
9,086 
2,601 
5,413 

2,191 

3,483 

513 

2,126 

2,658 
508 
941 
193 



Females 
above 16. 



5,864 
9,045 
3,275 
4,839 

2,124 

5,200 

080 

2,332 

3,106 
595 
862 
151 



33,492 I 38,139 



Total of 
whites lo 

each 
county. 



18,726 
38,829 
11,996 
21,044 

9.430 
18, .115 
2,401 
8,744 

11,676 

2,253 

3,935 

715 



148, 124 



Males 
under 16. 



568 
876 
618 
299 

162 
793 
297 
374 

350 
177 



4,416 



Males 
above 16, 
and un- 
der CO. 



1,100 
510 
417 

184 
910 
287 
511 



152 
6 
4 



6,372 



Males 

OOand 

upwards. 



42 
250 
57 
34 

22 

t* 

22 

271 

59 

22 

1 



848 



Females i Females 
under 16. j above 16. 



Total of 
blacks In 

each 
county. 



552 
671 
422 
2)S 



120 


174 


770 


887 1 


».l 


2ft5 


640 


634 


320 


334 


100 


137 


1 


2 


3 








•4.060 


6,197 



3,137 
3,877 
1,964 
1,300 

662 

'.1.440 

i,l(i2 

2,230 

1,462 

694 

•10 

•9 



•19.803 



Total of 

whites 

and 
blacks. 



21,863 
42,700 
13,960 
22,404 

10.092 

'21. 7.15 

3.023 

10.980 

13.128 

2.847 

'3. 945 

•724 

•168,017 



WM TYRON. 

Estimated amount of popvlation in 1774- 

ILond. Doc. .XLIV.] 

Whites 161.008 

Blacks 21,149 

Total estimated Population In 1774 182. 247 

> New York Documentary History. O'Callaghan. page 474. « Corrected figures. 

Table 99.— WHITE AND SLAVE POPULATION, AND INDIANS TAXED, IN NEW YORK, IN CERTAIN AGE GROUPS, 

BY SEX: 1786.' 



Albany 

Dutchess 

Kings 

Montgomery. 



New York . 

Orange 

Queens 

Richmond. 



Bullolk 

Ulster 

I Washington. 
Westchester. 



Total. 



Males 

under 16 

years. 



17.703 

8.209 

642 

3,564 

4,360 

3.382 

2,441 

616 

2,917 
4,971 
1.130 
4.972 



Males 
above 16 
and under 
GO years. 



15.860 

6,973 

776 

3,487 

6,742 

3,182 

2,717 

622 

3,141 
4,792 
1,162 
4,477 



I 

Males , Females 

above 60 luder 16 

years. years. 



1,364 
628 



342 



247 

295 

43 

334 
464 

68 
491 



16.A44 

7,700 

619 

3,844 



540 

2.700 
4.381 
l.llS 
4,641. 



Females 

aliove 16 

years. 



64,807 I 



52.927 I 



4.731 



61,766 



16,093 

7,481 

76« 

3,416 

.: li' I 
OS* 

3.R33 

4.^..'. 



Male 
negroes. 



2,835 
830 
606 
217 

896 

442 

I.IXI 

309 

yi7 

1 . .^•.1 



Female 
negroes. 



2,366 
816 
622 
188 

1 , -1 17 

r. ' 
l.ic. 

324 

601 

1.309 

7 

601 



Indlani 
who pay 



66,766 



9,621 



9.308 



Total. 



73,380 

Si,638 

3,988 

16,067 

23,614 
14,083 
13.084 
3.162 

13.793 

:•: 1 1.1 



238.897 



1 Census of the State of New York. 1865. 



184 



A CENTURY OF POPULATION GROWTH. 



NEW JERSEY. 

Table 100 -AN ACCOUNT OF THE INHABITANTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NEW JERSEY, DISTINGUISHING THEIR AGE, 

SEX, AND COLOUR, TAKEN IN THE YEAR 1726.' 

[From P. R. O. B. T. New Jersey, Vol. Ill, E 32, and N. Y. Col. Docts., Vol. V, page 819.1 





WHITES. 


NEGROES. 


Total of 
both. 


NAMES OF COUNTYS. 


Males 
above 16. 


Females 
above 16. 


Males 
under 16. 


Females 
under 16. 


Total ol 
whites. 


Males 
above 16. 


Females 
above 16. 


Males 
under 16. 


Females 
under 16. 


Total of 
negroes. 




953 
992 
1,234 
582 
509 

1,080 
892 
008 

1,060 
209 


878 

1,021 

1,061 

502 

509 

983 
743 
462 
861 
156 


1,016 
983 

1,095 
403 
556 

965 
851 
526 
1,015 
148 


859 
926 
1,056 
405 
547 

844 
750 
529 
891 
141 


3,706 
3,922 
4,446 
1,892 
2,181 

3,872 
3,236 
2,125 
3,827 
654 


90 
92 
170 
126 
173 

86 
43 
32 
52 
8 


73 
78 
90 
96 
121 

63 
45 
21 
38 
5 


73 
70 

88 
87 
100 

53 
32 
24 
35 

1 


67 
68 
85 
70 
98 

65 
21 
27 
25 


303 
308 
433 
379 
492 

257 
141 
104 
150 
14 


4,009 




4,230 




4,879 




2,271 




2,673 




4,129 




3,377 




22,229 




3,977 


Cape May 


668 




8,179 


7,176 


7,558 


6,948 


29,861 


872 


630 


563 


616 


2,581 


32,442 







Sent to the Lords of Trade by Gov. Burnet May 9th, 1727. "I now send Your Lordships an account of all the Inhabitants of New Jersey, as they were taken by the 
Sherids of the severall Countys. They are about three-quarters of the Inhabitants of New York."— Ed. 

1 New Jersey Archives, Vol. V, page 164. ' Corrected figures. 

Table 101.— WHITE AND SLAVE POPULATION OF NEW JERSEY, ABOVE AND UNDER 16 YEARS OF AGE, BY SEX: 1737-38. 





WHITES. 


NEGROES <t OTHER SLAVES. 


Total of 
Both in 

each 
county. 


COUNTIES. 


Males 
above 16. 


Females 
above 16. 


Males 
under 16. 


Fe males 
under 16. 


Total of 
Whites. 


Males 
above 16. 


Females 
above 16. 


Males 
under 16. 


Females 
under 16. 


Total of 
Slaves. 


Middlesex 


1,134 

1,118 

939 

967 

1,508 

1,487 
930 

1,069 
261 

1,618 


1,085 

1,720 

822 

940 

1,339 

1,222 
757 

1.391 
219 

1,230 


1,086 

1,619 

820 

999 

1,289 

1,190 
782 

1,313 
271 

1,270 


950 

1,494 

708 

867 

1,295 

996 
676 

1.327 
211 

1,170 


4.261 
2 5,9.51 
3,289 
3,773 
5,431 

4,895 
3,145 
6,700 
962 
5,288 


181 
114 
256 
255 
233 

134 
42 
57 
12 
75 


124 
114 
203 
175 
152 

87 
24 
56 
10 
53 


91 
84 
187 
170 
129 

58 
32 
40 
9 
49 


107 
63 
160 
132 
141 

64 
24 
31 

11 

42 


603 
375 
806 
732 
655 

343 

122 

184 

42 

219 


4. 764 




2 6, 326 




4,095 




4,505 




6,086 




5,238 




3,267 




5,884 




1.004 




5,507 






Total 


211,631 


10,725 


10,639 


9,700 


2 42,695 


1,359 


998 


849 


775 


3,981 


2 46, 676 







' New Jersey Archives, Vol. VI, page 244. 



2 Corrected figures. 



Table 102.~POPULATION OF NEW JERSEY IN 1737-38 AND IN 1745.i 



(From P. R. O. B. T., New Jersey, Vol. V, F. 77.] 



TTie Number of People in the Western Division of the Province of New Jersey taken by order of His Excellency Lewis 
Morris Esq'r Captain General & Commander in Chief of the Province of New Jersey &c. in the Year of our 
Lord 1745. 



% 



Morris 

Hunterdon.. 
Burlington.. 
Gloucester. . 

Salem 

Cape May... 

Total. 



Males 

above 16 

Years. 



1,109 
2,302 
1,786 

913 
1,710 

306 



8,132 



Males 

under 16 

Years. 



1,190 
2,182 
1,528 

786 
1,746 

284 



7,716 



Females 

above 16 

Years. 



957 
2,117 
1, 005 

797 
1, 603 

272 



2 7, 351 



Females 

under 16 

Years. 



1,087 
2.090 
1,454 

808 
1,595 

274 



7,308 



Quakers or 
Reputed 
Quakers. 



22 

240 

3,237 

1,436 

1,090 

54 



6,079 



Males. 



67 
244 
233 
121 
90 
30 



775 



Females. 



36 

216 
197 
81 
97 
22 



649 



Whole 
Nimiber of 
Inhabi- 
tants. 



4,436 
9,151 
6.SU3 
3,506 
6,847 
1.188 



Increase 

since 
1737-8. 



8,080 

1,.565 
239 
963 
184 



2 31,931 



11,031 



Decrease 
since 
1737-8. 



The Number of People in the Eastern Division of the Province of New Jersey taken per order as on preceding table. 



Bergen 


721 

1,094 

1.728 

2,071 

740 


494 
1,652 
1,651 
1,975 

765 


590 
1,649 
1,659 
1,783 

672 


585 
1,548 
1.695 
1,899 

719 




379 
244 
483 
613 
194 


237 
201 
396 
386 
149 


3, 006 
'. 6. 988 
7,012 
8,627 
3,239 




1,089 
31 


Essex 


35 

400 

3,131 

91 




Middlesex 


2,848 
2,541 






Somersett 




Total 


6,964 


6,537 


6,353 


6,446 


2 3,667 


1.813 


1.369 


i 29,472 


6,389 


1.120 




Total in both Divisions 


15,086 


14,263 


2 13,704 


13,754 


2 9, 736 


2,588 


2,018 


2 61,403 


16, 420 









> New Jersey Archives, Vol. VI, pages 242, 243. 



2 Corrected figures. 



GENERAL TABLES. 



185 



MARYLAND. 

Table 103.-AN ACCOUNT OF THE NUMBER OP SOULS IX THE PROVINCE OF MARYLAND, IN THE YEAR 1755.' 



NAME or THE COUNTY. 



TAXABLE PERSONS 16 YEAHS OF AOE. 



Whites. 



Mulaltoes. 



Free. 



Servants. 



Men. I 
I hired ' Men, 
Men. I or In- con- 
dent- vlcts, 



Baltimore i 2,630 

Ann ArundeU I 1,534 

Calvert i 609 

Prince George 1,515 

Frederick 2,775 

Charles I 1,929 



St. Mary's. 
Worcester. 
Somerset.. 
Dorset 



Talbot 

Queen .\nne's. 

Kent 

CecU 



Total. 



561 
1,768 
1,343 
1,950 

1,223 
1,745 
1,454 
1,345 



S95 
438 
124 
255 
216 

173 
194 
45 
31 
172 

294 
284 
365 
390 



472 
184 



73 
94 

205 

29 

1 

1 

7 

25 

287 

82 

47 



Free. 



Hen. 



Wom- 



23,386 I 3,576 1,507 



Slaves. 



Men. 



Wom- 



72 

33 

7 

120 



Blacks. 



Free. 



Men. 



119 



Wom- 
en. 



69 



Slaves. 



rasaoMS NOT taxablk. 



Whlta. 



MoIatfaMi. 



Blacks. 



Free. 



Hen. 



1,144 
1,472 

SSO 
1,278 

437 

1,196 
822 
401 
637 
624 

647 
643 
«9I 



Wonj- 



1,060 
519 
151 
314 

950 

761 
359 
571 
514 

595 

672 
523 
216 



10,828 >7,938 



Clergy. 



Men, 
poor. 



Wom- 
en. 



2,687 
1,539 
639 
1,680 
2,213 

1,777 
1,806 
1,964 
I,4'i6 
2,097 

1,296 
1,843 
1,448 
1,186 



Servants, 
women. 



Hired 

or In- Con' 

dent- vlcts. 

ed. 



200 
93 
61 
5S 

163 

106 
164 
37 
37 
126 

160 
190 
181 
282 



35 637 |23,521 



Past labor or Past labor or 
cripples. cripples. 



Ftee. 





8 


4 


10 


73 


a 


12 


A 


8 





Slaves. 



Fraa. 



Staves. 



47 
39 



32 
49 
44 
37 
44 

30 
32 
U 
13 



386 



99 58 I 



596 



N.VME or THE COUNTY. 



PERSONS UNDER 16 1-EARS OP AGE. 



Whites. 



Free. 



Baltimore 

Ann .\rundell 

Calvert 

Prince George 
Frederick 

Charles 

St. Mary's 

Worcester 

Somerset 

Dorset 

Talbot 

Queen Anne's 

Kent 

CecU 

Total . . . 



Servants . ,„„„ 

hired, or in- »<" v-uits, 



dented. 



Boys. I Girls. Boys. Oh-ls. 



3,115 
1,913 
861 
1,840 
3,246 

1,681 
1,845 
2,067 
1,330 
2,347 

1,322 
2,037 
1,527 
1,506 



2,951 
1,705 
745 
1,674 
3,105 

1,799 
1,764 
2,083 
1.232 

2,222 

1,197 
1,864 
1,423 
1,372 



126 
82 
48 
33 
80 

228 
29 
28 
12 
54 

57 
82 
134 
55 



26,637 {25,136 I 1,048 



convicts. 



Boys. Gills. 



67 



Mulattoes. 



Blacks. 



Free. 



Slaves. 



Slaves. 



Boys. Girts. Boys. Girls. Boys. Oirls. tBoys. I Girls. 



I 



23 
17 ' 
55 : 

19 , 



81 
58 
20 
108 



959 
1,314 

671 
1,340 

465 

1,145 
862 
SGI 

875 
666 

579 
621 
650 
275 



1,041 
1,321 

64.'; 
1,239 

473 

1,197 
839 
511 
891 
681 

657 
603 
M3 

252 



AOOREGATE. 



Whiles. 



12,886 
7,648 
3.137 
7.210 

12,036 

8,095 
7.501 
8.0>',4 
5. S0\ 
9,041 

5.623 
8,461 
6,743 
6.247 



Mulat- 
toes. 



312 
210 
146 
302 
152 

428 

366 
15« 

159 
164 

382 
282 
116 



Blacks. 



TotaL 



4.040 
5.2112 
2.432 
4. KM ' 
1,7S1 I 

4.533 I 

3,3X7 !■ 
1,90.5 
3,(tH 
2.548 



17,238 
13. 1.10 
.I.TIS 
ll.r.ie 
13,9A9 

1.1. 056 
11.2,M 
10.125 
X.ftS2 
11,753 



2,528 8,533 

2,487 11.240 

2,584 i 9,443 

1,0.11 7,731 



10,983 :11.003 i|108,193 j 3,608 i 41,704 li 153,505 



' Gentleman's Magazine, Vol. XXXIV, page 261. 



> Corrected flguies. 



GENERAL TABLES 

DERIVED FROM THE FIRST AND 

SUBSEQUENT CENSUSES 

1790-1900 



A CENTURY OF POPULATION GROWTH. 



188 

Table 104. -POPULATION AS REPORTED ATTHE FIRST CENSUS, BY COUNTIES AND MINOR CIVIL DIVISIONS: 1790. 

MAINE. 



COUNTY AND TOWN. 



Cumberland county. 



Bakerstown plantation 

Bridcton 

Brunswick 

Bucklown plantation 

Butterficld plantation 

Cape Elizabeth 

Durham 

Falmouth 

Flintiitott-n plantation 

Freeport ■ ■ 

Gorham and Scarborough 

Gray 

Ilarpswell 

New Gloucester 

North Yarmouth 

Otisfield plantation 

Plantation No. 4 

Portland 

Raymondtown plantation 

R u'sfield gore ■ 

Scarborough (see Gorham and Scar- 
boroU(^h). 

ShcpardsBeld plantation 

Standish 

Turner 

Waterford plantation 

Windham 



Total. 



25,530 



WHITE POPULATION 
IN 1790. 



Hancock county. 



Barret tstovrn. 

Belfast 

Bluehill 

Camden 

Canaan . 



1,270 
329 

1,387 
453 
189 

1,356 
722 

2,995 
190 

1,327 

4,476 
577 

1,071 

1.358 

1,923 
197 
344 

2,239 
345 
102 



528 
705 
349 
160 
938 

9,542 



Conduskeeg plantation 

1 >cer Isle 

Ducklrap 

Eastern River township No. 2 

Eddy township 

Frankfort 

Gouldsl>orough 

IsleboroLigh 

Mount nesert 

Orphan Island 

Orrinijton 

Penobscot 

Sedgwick 

Small islands not belonging to any 

town 

Sullivan 

Trenton (including township No. 1, 

east side of Union river) 

Tomiship No. 1 (Bucks) 

Township No. 6 (west side of Union 

rivers 

Vinalhaven 



Lincoln county. 



173 
245 
274 
331 
132 
567 
683 
278 
240 
110 
891 
267 
382 
744 
124 
477 
1,010 
569 

66 
504 

312 
316 

239 

678 

29,733 



Balltown 

Bath 

Boothbay 

Bow'doin 

Bowdoinham 

Bristol 

Canaan 

Carratnnk 

Carrs plantation, or Unity 

Cbestcr plantation 

Gushing 

Ed L^t'cornb 

Fairneld 

Gpon:olown 

('•Tfat Pond plantation 

Grectie 

Ilallowell 

1 1 uncock 

Hunts Meadow 

Jones plantation 

Lewistown and gore adjoining. 

J.ittic liiver 

i ,i1 tlol lorotigh plantation 

I,iv<'rriiore, east side of .\ndroscoggin 

rivt^r 

Meduncook 

New ("astle 



Males. 



16 
years 
and 
over. 



Under 

10 
years. 



6,208 6,624 



12,519 




289 

100 

355 

96 

49 

341 

161 

648 

64 

333 

1,108 

148 

253 

320 

464 

50 

89 

5<U 

81 



126 
181 



55 

228 



2,435 



61 
64 
69 
93 
34 
145 
175 
78 
.")9 
19 
235 
78 
90 
191 
33 
114 
248 
144 

19 

126 

75 
85 

69 
131 

7,668 



228 

233 

247 

235 

109 

115 

99 

31 

32 

24 

256 

182 

122 

342 

43 

101 

330 

83 

15 

62 

127 

17 

71 

15 
89 
226 



370 
81 
332 

140 

65 

324 

215 

815 

48 

342 

1,134 

139 

268 

338 

488 

46 

101 

537 

92 

30 



140 
182 
104 
32 
265 

2,529 



Fe- 
males. 



All 
other 
free 
per- 
sons. 



44 

55 

79 

85 

39 

170 

182 

82 

03 

32 

235 

64 

114 

207 

31 

128 

248 

isr, 

17 
123 

92 
81 

49 
154 

7,679 



611 

147 

662 

211 

85 

683 

343 

1.504 

88 

650 

2,187 

290 

539 

694 

957 

95 

154 

1,122 

170 

50 



261 
341 
158 
73 
444 

4,640 



251 

259 

248 

261 

127 

143 

132 

35 

33 

19 

235 

259 

114 

320 

62 

90 

281 

64 

21 

63 

140 

15 

69 



79 
221 



68 
126 
125 
153 

69 
249 
318 
118 

lis 

69 
419 
116 
177 
345 

60 
234 
63S 
270 



144 
148 



120 
292 



425 

444 

499 

459 

218 

257 

215 

39 

62 

27 

451 

402 

217 

654 

69 

172 

,666 

130 

32 

119 

259 

32 

123 

21 
1.53 
448 



28 



COtn^TY AND TOWN. 



Total. 



-Continued. 



Lincoln county 

New Sandwich 

Nobleborough 

Norridgewock 

Norridgewock, settlement east of — 

Pittston 

Pownal borough 

Prescotts and Whitchcrs plantation . 

Rockmeeko, east side of river 

Sandy river, first township 

Sandy river, from its mouth to Carrs 

plantation 

Sandy river, middle township 

Sandy river, upjier township 

Seven Mile Brook 

Sniithto^'n plantation 

Starling plantation 

Thomaston 

Titcomb 

Topsham 

Twenty-five Mile Pond 

Union 

V^^ssal borough 

Waldoborough 

^\'aIes plantation 

Warren 

Washington 

Winslow, with itsadjacents 

Winthrop 

Woolwich 

Between Norridgewock and Seven 

Mile Brook 



WHITE POPULATION 
IN 1790. 



Males. 



Washington county. 



Bucks Harbor Neck 

Machias 

Plantations east of Machias: 

No. 1 

No. 2 

No. 4 

No. 5 

No.8 

No. 9 

No. 10 

No. 11 

No. 12 

No. 13 

Plantations west of Machias: 

No. 4 

No. 6 

No. 6 

No. 11 

No. 12 

No. 13 

No. 22 



York county. 



Arundel 

Berwick 

Biddetcrd 

Brownfield township 

Brownfield to^^'nship — in the gore 

adjoining 

Buxton 

Co.xhall 

Francisborough plantation 

Fryeburgh 

Hiram 

Kittery 

Lebanon 

Limerick 

Little Falls 

Little Ossipee 

New Penacook 

Parsonsfield 

Pepperellborough 

Porterfield 

Sanford 

Shapleigh 

Sudbury-Canada 

Sudbury, settlements adjoining 

Suncook _ 

Washington plantation 

Waterborougn 

Waterford 

Wells 

York 



296 

1,310 

332 

43 

603 

2,043 

32 

59 

493 

324 
65 
60 
138 
612 
108 
799 
147 
826 
119 
200 
1,246 
1,720 
440 
646 
612 
798 
1,227 
791 

147 

2,760 



61 

818 



144 
54 
84 

244 
29 
42 
37 
54 



233 
177 
209 
95 
8 
223 
175 

29,078 



16 
years 
and 
over. 



1,461 

3,890 

1,018 

146 

20 

1,508 

701 

409 

549 

92 

3,206 

1,2'6 

409 

607 

663 

77 

664 

1,343 

71 

1,798 

1,319 

324 

51 

85 

261 

968 

154 

3,061 

2,898 



91 

316 

91 

11 

182 

535 

12 

28 

141 

78 

17 

18 

41 

142 

60 

207 

34 

215 

33 

53 

301 

429 

115 

178 

166 

203 

304 

205 



754 



Under 

16 
years. 



65 

348 

89 

12 

133 

635 

8 

7 

127 

93 

15 

17 

34 

129 

31 

209 

36 

203 

27 

50 

311 

454 

120 

148 

138 

223 

328 

195 



708 



14 
229 

18 
41 
16 
24 
75 

9 
14 

8 
13 

1 

71 
45 
56 
22 
4 
81 
43 

7,276 

307 

978 

273 

39 

6 
357 
104 

98 
142 

22 
705 
310 

98 
159 
144 

23 
174 
339 

23 
449 
310 

82 

17 

22 

72 
229 

45 
819 
750 



18 
210 

16 

30 

13 

26 

60 

7 

6 

10 

15 

5 

59 
49 
56 
24 
1 

61 
44 

7,193 



Fe- 
males. 



140 
642 
1.52 
20 
281 
969 
11 
24 
223 

162 

33 

25 

62 

240 

77 

379 

77 

398 

59 

94 

623 

824 

295 

307 

308 

371 

593 

390 



1,278 



All 
other 
free 
per- 
sons. 



376 

920 

233 

37 

5 

402 

235 

101 

138 

29 

696 

344 

110 

147 

200 

13 

169 

358 

14 

473 

370 

89 

13 

25 

51 

276 

35 

733 

602 



29 
372 

32 
67 
25 
34 
109 
13 
23 
19 
26 
1 

103 

83 

98 

49 

3 

105 
87 

14,451 



708 

1,950 

506 

68 

9 
746 
362 
210 
268 

41 
1,706 
622 
200 
301 
318 

41 
311 
646 

34 
876 
630 
153 

21 

38 
138 
463 

74 
1,494 
1,518 



10 



Slaves. 



20 



158 



39 



GENERAL TABLES. 



189 



Table 104. -POPULATION AS REPORTED AT TUE FIRST CENSUS. BY COUNTIES AND MINOR CIVIL DIVISIONS: 1790- 

Continued. 

NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



COUNTV AND TOWN. 



Total. 



Cheshire county 28, 753 



Acworth 

Alstead 

Charles town 

Clie->lorneld 

Cl.in^inont 

Cornish 

Crov'lon 

Dublin 

FllzwiUiam 

Gilsotn 

Ilins'lale 

Jallriy 

Koone 

I.antjdon 

Leinpster 

Marlborough 

Marlow 

New Grantham. 

NewTMit 

Packorsficld 

Plalnficld 

Proli'ctworth... 

Richmond 

Rln.lOT 

Slodilard 

Sullivan 

Scirry 

Swanzey 

Inily 

Waliiole 

Wasliincton 

Wendell 

Westmoreland.. 
Winchester 



Grafton county. 



705 

1,112 

1,094 

l,g03 

1,423 

9S2 

5311 

899 

1,038 

298 

524 

1.238 

1,307 

244 

415 

786 

319 

333 

779 

724 

1,024 

210 

1,380 

1,143 

701 

220 

448 

1,155 

538 

1,254 

545 

2G7 

2,0(10 

1,209 

13,408 



Alexandria 

Bartlett 

Balh 

BridKOwater 

Burton 

Cambridge (not Inhabited) 

Campion 

Canaan 

Chatham 

Co<-kl)um 

Cockermouth 

Coll'ume 

Com ord (alias Gunthwalte) 

Coventry 

Dalton 

Dame's Location 

Dartmouth 

Dorchester 

Dtiinmer (not inhabited) 

Enfield (ali;isUelhan) 

E rrol ( not Inhabited) 

Franconia 

Cratton 

Hale's l.ocation 

Hanover (including l.W students at 

Dartmouth College) 

Hart's l^ooation 

Haverhill 

Kilkenny (not inhabited) 

Lancaster 

LandafT 

Lebanon 

Lincoln 

Littleton 

Lyman 

Lyme 

Milineld (not inhabited) 

New Chester 

New I loldemess 

Northumberland 

Orange 

Ortord 

Peeling (not inhabited) 

Percy 

Piemiont 

Plymouth 

Rumney 

Senter's' I.ocation 

Shelbume 

Stark's Location 

Sterling's Location 

Stratford 



WHITE POPULATION 
IN 1790. 



Males. 



16 
years 
and 
over. 



Under 

16 
years. 



7,008 I 7,567 14,090 



Fe- 
males. 



21)8 
307 
441 
348 
238 
121 
227 
2.55 

70 
127 
285 
319 

58 
110 
175 

73 

90 
187 
170 
259 

5G 
332 
276 
162 

48 
117 
291 
133 
327 
137 

70 
473 
298 

3,7CS 



197 
285 
254 
S32 
389 
258 
150 
223 
278 

64 
142 
336 
318 

76 

95 
219 

90 

S8 
198 
208 
277 

49 
368 
306 
194 

68 
111 
286 
139 
335 
135 

64 
524 
311 

3,311 



297 
248 
493 
281 
141 



395 

483 

58 

26 

373 

29 

313 

88 

14 

21 

111 

175 



724 



72 

403 

9 

1,379 

12 

552 



161 

292 

1,180 

22 

96 

202 

816 



312 
329 
117 
131 
540 



48 
426 
625 
411 
8 
35 
29 



79 
55 
117 
84 
34 



113 

137 

17 

9 

94 

10 

91 

21 

3 

4 

34 

48 



188 



22 



476 

3 

163 



45 
75 

375 

8 

28 

57 

231 



70 
96 
34 
32 
140 



14 
103 
182 
97 
5 
12 
8 
3 
44 



87 
57 
136 
62 
45 



79 

123 

13 

5 
104 

6 
75 
20 

4 

8 
25 
45 



173 



348 
558 
531 
928 
682 
484 
262 
444 
505 
164 
251 
606 
663 
IDS 
207 
392 
156 
153 
389 
343 
486 
104 
680 
554 
344 
103 
220 
572 
265 
589 
273 
133 
998 
595 

6,340 



All 
other 
free 
per- 
sons. 



131 { 
135 
239 
134 
62 



202 

223 
28 
12 

175 
13 

147 

47 

7 

9 

52 

82 



18 

110 

2 

297 
4 

118 



45 
80 
282 
5 
26 
39 



103 
73 
27 
37 

125 



11 
113 

142 
113 



32 

194 

4 

596 

5 

266 



70 



Slaves. 



COUNTY AND TOWN. 



Total. 



Grafton county— Continued. 

Success (not inhabited) 

Thornton 

Tmcoihick (not iniiablted) 

Wales's Location 

Warren 

Wenlworth 



Uiilsborough county.. 



Amherst 

Andover 

.\ntrim 

Bedford 

Boscawen 

Bradford 

Campion's Gore 

Dearmg 

Dern'lield 

DcrrWield Gore 

Dunliarlon 

l>unstable 

Dti.xhury Mile.slip.. 

Fisherslield 

Frances town 

Gotlstown 

Hancock 

Ileniker 

Hillsborough 

Mollis 

llopkinton 

Kersar^re Gore 

Litchlleld 

Lyndborotigh 

l.yndborough Gore. 

Mason 

Merriniac 

New Boston 

New Ipswich 

New London 

Nottingham West... 

Peterborough 

Kaby 

Salisbury 

Sharon 

Society Land 

Sutton 

Temple 

Warner 

\\'eare 

Wilion 



WHITE roPDLATlOM 
Ol 1790. 



yean 
and 



385 



S 
206 
241 

32,883 



96 



1 

62 
5« 

8,145 



2,360 
645 
536 
897 

1,108 
217 
120 
938 
362 
30 
921 
634 
160 
325 
983 

1,275 
0.14 

1,124 
798 

1,441 

1,715 
103 
360 

1,280 

38 

922 

819 

1,204 

1,241 
311 

1,004 
861 
338 

1,362 
280 
329 
520 
747 
863 t 

1.924 

1,097 



571 

166 

138 

210 

282 

56 

28 

213 

92 

10 

209 

179 

39 

68 

232 

324 

156 

266 

193 

340 

445 

27 

99 

313 

11 

215 

209 

313 

338 

69 

267 

221 

86 

335 

68 

84 

132 

177 

220 

491 

253 



Rockingham county 43,184 11,141 



71 I 
137 
515 
9 I 

42 
106 
392 I 



8 1. 



160 
56 
61 

272 



Aliensiown 

.\tkinson 

Bow 

Brintwood 

Candia 

Canterbury 

Chester 

Chichester 

I Concord 

lieerlield 

East Kingston 

I Kpping 

; Epsom 

Exeter 

C,osfH>rt (on Star Island). 

(Jri-enland 

llampsteo'l 

I Hampton 

; ilampton Falls 

I llawke 

I Kensington 

I Kingston 

* Londonderry 

' lx>udon 

\..u, i-tle 



255 
480 I 
566 I 
976 I 
1,040 

1,048 ; 

1,899 
492 

1,738 

1,613 
358 

1,255 
830 

1,722 
93 
634 
725 
853 
540 
422 
604 
905 

2,604 

1,074 I 
,U4 



68 
129 
147 
255 
246 
295 
490 
137 
494 
444 

90 
338 
200 
437 

32 
170 
195 
238 
ISO 
101 
233 
244 
676 
273 

ir. 



Onder males. 

16 
years. 



98 



191 



AO 
ottacr 
tree 
per- 



23 

206 

297 

201 

3 

18 

16 

4 

65 



I 

.Nuiiiu»:huin 

Felhatn 

I'embrook 

Pittslield I s^j 

Plaistow 516 

Poplin I «3 

Portsmouth <,730 



3 2 I 

64 80 

73^ 112 

8,392 16,170 



4 

176 



575 
167 
144 
240 
274 

60 

35 
364 

95 

4 

344 

146 

45 
105 
334 
303 
160 
325 
211 
378 
417 

37 

87 
349 
8 
342 
307 
303 
3S5 

90 
346 
213 

89 
385 

63 

89 
122 
196 
195 
500 
270 



1,205 
312 
244 
440 
551 
101 

57 
459 
175 

16 
448 
308 

85 
152 
517 
614 
315 
525 
303 
723 
852 

« 
166 
618 

19 
462 
393 
578 
614 
152 
544 I 
423 ' 
160 
640 
129 
156 
266 
368 
448 : 
931 
562 



18 



Oa* 



7 
1 

2 



20 

1 












=1 
8 
1 




1 




" 








3 

10 
10 

4 





9.667 '21,987 292 



97 




2oi , 

134 

136 

1,158 I 



-.'" 


414 


4 




123 


299 






104 


251 


i 


I 


973 


2,4!.7 


78 


at 



190 



A CENTURY OF POPULATION GROWTH. 



Table 104. -POPULATION AS REPORTED AT THE FIRST CENSUS, BY COUNTIES AND MINOR CIVIL DIVISIONS: 1790- 

Continued. 

NEW HAMPSHIRE— Continued. 





Total. 


■WHITE POPULATION 
IS 1790. 


All 
other 
tree 
per- 
sons. 


Slaves. 


COUNTY AND TOWN. 


Total. 


WHITE POPULATION 
IN 1790. 


All 
other 
free 
per- 
sons. 






Males. 


Fe- 
males. 


Males. 


Fe- 
males. 


Slaves. 




16 

years 
and 
over. 


Under 

16 
years. 


16 
years 
and 
over. 


Under 

16 
years. 




Rockingham county— Cont'd, 


727 
865 
1,218 
562 
715 
449 
882 
^663 

23,611 


177 
226 
287 
138 
178 
125 
229 
156 


181 
1S9 
294 
115 
178 
82 
158 
173 


361 
439 
626 
309 
357 
241 
486 
328 

11,596 


8 
8 
9 


3 

2 


Strafford county— Continued. 
Lee 


1,036 

592 

882 

617 

565 

554 

445 

652 

339 

2,852 

1,587 

905 

945 

3 

48 

266 

109 

646 

447 


277 

167 

248 

151 

133 

139 

108 

171 

86 

728 

415 

216 

248 

2 

10 

67 

29 

158 

110 


224 
126 
211 
162 
148 
140 
118 
173 
82 
740 
424 
243 
211 
....... 

72 
20 
195 
120 


533 
295 
419 
304 
283 
275 
212 
306 
171 
1,383 
748 
446 
481 
1 
25 
126 
60 
293 
217 


I 
4 




RVP 


Madbury 

Merideth 

Middleton 




Salem 




Siiniio \vn 


2 

1 
8 
1 

64 


i 

5 
21 


Moiil t onborough 




1 




New Durham 

New Durham Gore 






7 
2 






New Hampton 

Ossipee 










6,012 5,918 






1 










807 
2,481 

574 
1,996 
1,246 

254 

153 
2,610 


192 
608 
149 
547 
336 
60 
42 
615 


214 
650 
146 
418 
271 
72 
43 
682 


400 
1,221 

279 
1,005 

634 

122 

67 

1,290 


2 


1 










Somersworth 


' 


4 










is 

2 


8 
3 


Sterling's I^ocation 












1 




Tuftonborougll 






22 


1 
1 


W aken e 1 d 























I 



VERMONT. 



Addison county — 

Addison 

Bridport 

Bristol 

Cornwall 

Ferrisburg 

Hancock 

Kingston ' 

Leicester 

Middlebury 

Monkton 

New Haven 

Fan ton 

Salisbury 

Shoreham 

Vergennes 

Weybritlge 

Whiting 

Bennington county 

Arlington 

Bennington 

Bromley 

Dorsett 

Glastonbury 

Landgrove 

Manchester 

Pownal 

Reedsborough 

Rupert 

Sandgate 

Shaftsburj- 

Stamford." 

Sunderland 

Winhall 

Woodford 

Chittenden county . 

Alburgh 

Bakersneld 

Bolton 

Burlington 

Cambridge 

Cambridge Gore 

Charlotte 

Colchester 

Duxhnry 

Elmore 

Essex 

Fairfax 

Fairfield 

Fletcher 

Georgia 

Highgate 

ITinesburgh 

Hungerford 

Huntsburgh 

Hydespark 

Isle Mott 

Jerico 

Johnson 

Middlesex 

Milton 

Minden 



402 
450 
211 
825 
481 
56 
101 
344 
395 
449 
717 
220 
444 
701 
201 
174 
249 

12,206 



992 

2.350 

71 

957 

34 

31 

1,278 

1,732 

(53 

1,034 

773 

1,990 

272 

414 

155 

60 

7,287 



446 

13 

88 

330 

359 

15 

635 

137 

39 

12 

354 

254 

126 

47 

340 

103 

454 

40 

46 

43 

47 

381 

93 

60 

283 

18 



1,708 1,656 



108 

123 

53 

214 

137 

18 

26 

94 

125 

122 

180 

57 

122 

198 

73 



3,103 



252 
628 

21 
240 
6 
7 
3.38 
418 

16 
251 
198 
491 

69 
113 

39 

18 

2,251 



147 
4 
21 

108 

108 
3 

189 
42 
9 
7 

118 
85 
43 
13 

105 
26 

127 
16 
25 
10 
18 

115 

31 

16 

90 

6 



106 
122 
57 
218 
119 
11 
31 
81 
92 
134 
218 
06 
107 
161 
35 
41 
57 

3,205 



252 
601 

19 
230 

11 

4 

339 

498 

15 
289 
189 
528 

65 
101 

46 

18 

1,761 



106 

4 
26 
68 
84 

6 

142 

40 

18 

1 
76 
61 
28 
14 
80 
31 
115 

8 
10 
12 
13 
90 
16 
19 
65 

6 



2,959 



186 

205 

101 

393 

213 

27 

44 

169 

176 

193 

319 

97 

215 

337 

79 

84 

121 

5,865 



488 

1,101 

31 

487 

17 

20 

596 

815 

32 

404 

380 

907 

137 

199 

69 

20 

3,252 



189 

5 

41 

151 

167 
6 

301 
55 
12 
4 

100 

108 
55 
20 

155 
45 

212 
11 
11 
18 
16 

176 
46 
25 

128 
6 



37 



20 



23 



Chittenden county — Cont'd. 

More town 

Morristown 

New Huntington 

New H untington Gore 

North Hero 

St. Albans 

St. George 

Shelbume 

Smithfield 

South Hero 

Starksborough 

Swan ton 

Underbill 

Waitsfield 

Waterbury 

Westford 

Wilhston 

Wolcott 



Orange county. 



Bamet 

Barton (not inhabited) 

Berlin 

BilljTnead (not inhabited) 

Bradford 

Braintree 

Brookfield 

Brownington (not inhabited)... 

Brunswick 

Burke (not inhabited) 

Cabot 

Calais 

Caldersburgh (not inhabited) . . . 

Canaan 

Chelsea 

Concord 

Corinth 

Danville 

Dewev's Gore 

Fairley 

Ferdinand (not inhabited) 

Glover (not inhabited) 

Granby (not inhabited) 

Greensborough 

Groton 

Guildhall 

Hardwick 

Ifarris Gore (not inhabited) 

Hopkins Grant (not inhabited). 

Lemington 

Lewis (not inhabited) 

Littleton 

Ivunenburgh 

Lyndon 

Maidstone 

Marshfield (not inhabited) 

Minehead (not inhabited) 

Montpelier 

Navy (not inhabited) 

Newark (not inhabited) 

Newbury 

NorthfieUl 

Orange (not inhabited) 

Peachura 

Randolph 

Random (not inhabited) 



24 
10 

136 
31 

125 

256 
57 

387 
70 

S37 
40 
74 
59 
61 
93 
03 

469 
32 

10, 526 



477 
'i34' 



654 
221 
419 



122 
45 



19 

239 
49 

578 

574 
48 

403 



19 

45 

158 

3 



31 



63 
119 



125 



872 
40 



3(>5 
893 



10 
6 
34 
10 
40 
89 
14 

108 
28 

164 
15 
22 
16 
21 
22 
23 

136 
11 

2,873 



137 

"is' 



158 
61 
113 



4 

77 
18 
147 
165 
12 
132 



225 
10 



102 
227 



40 

7 
25 
61 
17 
103 
14 
128 

6 
25 
12 
16 
27 

8 
120 

7 

2,765 



176 

66 
116 



15 



5 

62 
12 
156 
139 

IS 
120 



222 
10 



90 
237 



4 
62 
14 
67 

105 
26 

176 
28 

245 
19 
27 
31 
24 
44 
32 

213 
14 

4,847 



207 



10 
100 

19 
275 
270 

18 
210 



413 
20 



173 
429 



I 



GENERAL TABLES. 

TA„..P.104.-P0rri.ATI0N AS REPORTED ATTUEKIRSTCENSUS.BYC0UXT1ESAXI.MI.X0U.IVILDIVISI0NS: 17 

Conliiniwl. 



191 

90— 



VEK M O NT-Conllnucd. 



COUNTV AND TOWN. 



Orange coanty — Continued. 

Roxbury 

Uyecatc 

.St. .Vmirews (not Inhabited) 

> t. Johrisbury 

Sliollifld (not Inhabited) 

Slraironi 

Tlietfonl 

Topslmni 

Tunlirl.lge 

\'ershi re 

\'ictory (not inhabited) 

Watiien 

Wal'len's Gore 

Washinj.'ton 

Westmoro (not inhabited) 

\\'hpploclc 

Wildersliurgh ■ 

Williamstown 

Winloolc (not inhabited) 

Woodbury (not inhabited) 

Rutland county 

Benson 

Brandon 

Ca.stleton 

Chittenden 

Claren<lon 

Danby 

Fair H a ven 

Harwich 

Hui)l)ardton 

Ira. 



WHITE roPDUnON 

IN ITSO. 



Total 



14 
187 



143 



162 
487 
439 



33 
76 
146 



15,590 



KillinRton 

Middletown 

Midway 

Or«-ell 

Tawlet 

Philadelphia 

I'ittsfield 

I'it Lsford 

I'oull nev 

Rutland , 1 

Shrewsbury ' 

Sudbury I 

Tinniou'th i 

Wallingtord i 

WeUs 



658 
637 
809 
159 
.480 
,206 
545 
165 
410 
312 

32 
699 

34 
778 
,458 

39 

49 
8c0 
,120 
,417 I 
382 ' 
258 I 
9.35 
538 ' 
620| 



Males. 



16 
years 
and 
over. 



54 



213 
211 



121 

117 



Under 

10 
years. 



2 
54 

228' 
218 
5fi 
147 
118 



Fc- 

inalps. 



3,990 

185 

154 

210 

38 

343 

276 

174 

38 

120 

77 

11 

169 

7 

215 

348 

12 

13 

219 

282 

396 

98 

67 

247 

142 

149 



182 

168 

222 

49 

397 

333 

121 

49 

94 

82 

10 

172 

9 

218 

399 

9 

12 

208 

292 

3,^1 

101 

69 

244 

131 

176 



6 
87 

"m 
"m 

419 

70 

219 

204 



7,470 



All 
other 
free 
per- 
sons. 



290 I 
314 ' 
376 I 

72 . 
740 . 
589 I 
2.T0 '. 

78 . 
190 . 
I.i3 1. 

11 . 
358 1. 

18 I. 
341 
709 I 

18 . 

24 . 
422; 
5.19 
6G8 
1.<13 '., 
122 ,.. 
442 
262 
295 L, 



Slaves. 



32 



2 '. 




Athens 

Bratlleborougb 
Dummerston. . 

Ouiirord 

Hallifax 
Hinsdale 

Jamaica. 

Johnson's Oore. 
Londonderry 
Marlborough 
New Fane, 

Putney 

Rockingham • i 

Somerset, 

Btratlon 

Thomlinson 

Towasend 

Wanlsborough, North District 
WardsliorouKh, South District. 

\Vestiiiin.sti'r 

Wbilingham 
Wilmington 



ADdover 

Barnard 

Bethel 

Bridgwater 

Cavendish 

Chester 

Hartford 

Hartland. 

Ludlow 

Norwich I 1 

Pomfret 
Reading 
Rochester, 
Royal ton 
Sal (ash, 
Sharon. 

Springfield i 

Stockbridge 

Wejithorsllelil I 1 

Windsor I 1 

Woodstock 1 



MASSACHTTSETTS. 



Barnstable county 17, 342 



Barnstable 

Chatham 

Ea.sthatii 

Falmouth 

Harwich 

Marshpeo plantation . 

Province Town 

Sandwich 

Truro 

Welltlct 

Yarmouth 



Berkshire county. 



.\dafns 

Adams and Windsor— in the gore 

ailjoining 

Alford 

B(?cket 

Bethlehem 

Dalton 

Egromont 

Great Harrington 

JIancock 

Lanesborough 

Lee, 



2,610 
1,134 
1,834 
1,639 
2,392 
308 
454 
1,991 
1,193 
1,115 
2,672 

30,263 



lycnox 

Loudon 

Moimt Washington 

Mount Washington (Boston Comer). 

New .\shford 

New Maril>orough 

Partridgefleld 

Pittsfltld 

Richmond 



2,041 

425 

577 

751 

261 

554 

759 

1,373 

1,204 

2.142 

1.170 

1,169 

344 

261 

67 

464 

1,5.50 

1,041 

1,982 

1,255 



4,200 4,093 8,677 



631 
266 
420 
420 
545 
35 
142 
•ICO 
324 
301 
650 



102 

142 

195 

62 

129 

187 

328 

295 

522 

286 

279 

96 

57 

13 

93 

395 

2.50 

491 

336 



623 
290 
431 
305 
593 
27 
99 



1,301 
575 
974 
816 

1,243 
72 
21 



4f.« 1,015 

279 .586 

252 , 5(10 

665 1,324 



7,790 



561 

121 

173 

187 

73 

134 

191 

315 

322 

547 

310 

299 

84 

78 

21 

126 

400 

279 

497 

291 



14,794 



1,003 

191 

262 
362 
125 
283 
378 
664 
.586 
1,058 
.571 
674 
164 
126 
33 
243 
742 
.509 
949 
624 



372 



3 

3 

38 

11 

174 

2 i 
47 [ 

4 

2 ! 
33 I 

323 



Berkshire county— Continued. 

Sandislleld 

SandisSeld- south 11,000 acres ad- 
joining 

Shemeldf 

Stockbridgo 

Tyringhani , 

Washington , 

West Stockl. ridge 

Williainstown 

Wdtiamstown— in the gore adjoin- 
ing 

Windsor 

Zoor plan tat Ion ' 

Bristol county 31,096 

Attleborough 

Berkley 

Dartmouth 

DIghton 

Easton 

Freetown 

Mansfield 

New Bedford 

Norton 

Rarnham 

Rcnoboth 

Somerset 

Swaniey i - 

Taunton 3.soi 

Wotport i 2.403 

Dukes county. ^ ?'■'■ 

Chllmark 

Edgartown , 1 , .144 

Tisbury I 1,140 ; 



612 



5S.5 

»12 

1,«28 



1,571 


379 


379 


8M 


8 




161 
1.893 


37 
467 


43 
462 


81 
932 






S2 




1,336 


311 


322 


639 


M 




1,397 


337 


368 


683 







588 


143 


llfl 


283 


3 




1,113 


260 


298 


545 


10 




1,709 


445 


454 


865 


i 




51 
916 


8 
222 


22 
233 


21 
454 






7 ' 


78 


16 

7.956 


20 
6.939 


43 

16.071 


1, . .. 


31,096 


730 


2.167 


505 


4,51 


1,1.33 


18 


850 


213 


179 


446 


13 


2,500 


645 


.541 


1.231 


8S 


1 . 7!".l 


41'. 


409 


879 


89 1 


1 ■' 




379 


704 


17 ' 






465 


1,121 


5.5 






|f« 


509 


5 




-, ■ I 


'-'" 


1,686 


38 




1 ■;.-> 




;■■ 


730 ' 
543 

.'.40,^ , 


13 
29 
91 





823 


711 


1,696 


25 




199 , 
336 

3881 


1,57 
318 
236 


405 

683 
009 


10 
8 
7 





> Schedules ml.sslng. 



A CENTURY OF POPULATION GROWTH. 



192 

T.B.. 10. -POPULATION AS REPORTED AT THE FIRST CENSUS. BY COUNTIES AND MINOR CIVIL DIVISIONS: 1790- 
lAiii-t. xw«. i Continued. 

MASSACHUSETTS-Continued. 



COUNTY AND TOWN. 



Total. 



WHIT E POPULATION 

IN 1790. 



Males. 



Essex county P^' 8^" 



Amesbury '■ 

Andover | ^ 



Beverly. 

Boxfor'd 

Bradford 

Danvers 

Gloucester 

Haverhill 

Ipswich 

Lynn 

Lynnfield 

Manchester 

Marblehead 

Methuen 

Middleton 

Newbury 

Newbur j*port 

Rowley ." 

Salem 

Salisbury 

Topsfield 

Wenliam 



Hampshire county. 



Amherst 

Ashfield 

Belchertown 

Bemardston 

Blandford 

Brirafield 

Buckland 

Charlemont 

Chester 

Chesterfield 

Colrain 

Conway 

Cummington 

Deerfield 

Easthampton 

Goshen 

Granby 

Granville 

Greenfield 

Greenwich 

Hadley 

Hatfield 

Heath 

Holland 

Leverett 

Leyden 

Lonsmeadow 

Ludlow 

Middlefield 

Monson ^ 

Montague 

Montgomery 

New Salem 

Northampton ' 

Northfield 

Norwich 

Orange 

Palmer 

Pelham 

Plainfield 

Plantation No. 7. 

Rowe -■.. 

Shelburne 

Shutesbury 

South Brimfield.. 

South Hadley 

Southampton 

Southwick 

Springfield 

Sunderland 

Ware 

Warwick 

Wendell 

West Springfield. 

Westfiekl 

Westhampton 

Whatelv 

Wilbraham 

Williamsburgh. 



801 
802 
295 
925 
371 
424 
317 
404 
503 
291 
491 
959 
601 
295 
682 
,970 
,817 
,772 
917 
779 
781 
602 

59,656 



16 
years 
and 
over. 



14,258 



1,233 
1.458 
1,485 
690 
1,416 
1,213 
718 
665 
1,119 
1,183 
1,418 
2,093 
873 
1,328 
457 
681 
590 
1,980 
1.498 
1,045 
882 
703 
379 
428 
524 
989 
744 
560 
603 
1,331 
908 
449 
1,543 
1,628 
868 
737 
784 
809 
1,040 
443 
540 
443 
1,183 
674 
606 
759 
829 
841 
1,674 
462 
773 
1,244 
519 
2,367 
2,206 
682 
735 
1,553 
1,049 
Worthingtou ' 1,117 



Under 

16 
years. 



12,567 



30, 182 



470 
741 
748 
247 
378 
625 

1,267 
612 

1,151 
625 
119 
233 

1,265 
338 
164 

1,038 

1,153 
453 

1,846 
457 
214 
114 

15,109 



384 
612 
739 
191 
263 
486 

1,218 
535 
920 
514 
108 
202 

1,327 
293 
140 
844 

1,072 
306 

1,707 
381 
156 
109 

15,009 



Fe- 
males. 



All 
other 
tree 
per- 
sons. 



944 

1.415 

1,750 

481 

725 

1,279 

2,791 

1,250 

2,414 

(1,132 

201 

515 

2,982 

063 

362 

2,047 

2,525 

944 

4,104 

931 

398 

269 



29,087 451 



335 

354 

370 

175 

345 

318 

164 

166 

285 

283 

348 

500 

237 

352 

127 

161 

164 

497 

391 

271 

240 

199 

86 

115 

126 

209 

200 

134 

154 

336 

236 

110 

390 

498 

224 

186 

186 

215 

240 

106 

135 

119 

300 

160 

144 

209 

226 

215 

415 

123 

189 

277 

130 

630 

527 

162 

184 

380 

258 

287 



872 



3 

94 
58 

6 

5 
34 
41 

7 

78 
20 

3 

9 
87 

1 

16 
41 
67 

9 
200 
10 
13 
10 



Slaves. 



287 

369 

390 

172 

359 

309 

191 

173 

300 

317 

371 

558 

212 

306 

108 

185 

154 

501 

390 

265 

187 

117 

105 
97 

129 

297 

182 

158 
172 
324 
219 
116 
387 
341 
224 
197 
203 
186 
277 
118 
l.W 
122 
273 
196 
171 
181 
178 
217 
3.59 
101 
205 
308 
147 
525 
566 
185 
199 
393 
261 
278 



609 

734 

713 

343 

703 

584 

363 

326 

527 

581 

088 

1,022 

419 

646 

221 

327 

276 

909 

714 

504 

430 

343 

188 

204 

268 

481 

356 

266 

277 

0.53 

451 

221 

705 

771 

415 

350 

395 

396 

617 

214 

249 

202 

598 

315 

291 

359 

418 

397 

787 

237 

378 

057 

242 

1.160 

1,055 

333 

351 

755 

620 

647 



COUNTY AND TOWN. 



Middlesex county . 



Acton §53 



Ashbv 

Bedford 

Billerica 

Boxborough 

Cambridge 

Carlisle 

Charles town 

Chelmsford 

Concord 

Dracut 

Dunstable 

East Sudbury 

Framlngham 

Groton 

Holliston 

Hopkinton 

Lexington 

Lincoln 

Littleton 

Maiden 

Marlborough 

Medford 

Natick 

Newton 

Pepperell 

Reading 

Sherburn 

Shirley 

Stoneham 

Stow 

Sudbury 

Tewksb'ury 

Townsend 

Tyngsborough on north side of Mer- 
rimack 

Tyngsborough on south side of Mer- 
rimack 

Waltham 

Watertown 

Westford 

Weston 

Wilmington 

Wobum 



Total. 



42,769 



WHITE POPULATION 
IN 1790. 



Males. 



Nantucket county. 



Sherburn.. 



Plj-mouth county. 



Abington 

Bridgewater 

Carver 

Duxborough 

Halifax 

Hanover 

Kingston 

Marshfield 

Middleborough. 

Pembroke 

Pl>-mouth 

Plymton 

Rochester 

Scituate 

Wareham 



Bellingham 

Boston 

Boston, islands in the harbor., 

Braintree 

Brookline 

Chelsea 

Cohasset 

Dedham 

Dorchester 

Dover 

Foxborough 

Franklin 

Hingham 

Hull. 

Medfield 

Med way... 



■61 

523 

1,191 

412 

2,109 

656 

1,589 

1,144 

1,585 

1,217 

380 

801 

1,598 

1,840 

874 

1,316 

941 

740 

854 

1,0.32 

1,552 

1,030 

010 

1,364 

1,132 

1,802 

868 

677 

381 

800 

1,288 

965 

993 

181 

202 
880 
1,091 
1,229 
1,009 
710 
1,724 

4,665 



16 
years 
and 
over. 



Under 

16 
years. 



11,071 



4,656 
29,512 



1,463 
4,953 

847 
1,457 

664 
1,084 
1,006 
1,269 
4,524 
1,964 
2,995 

956 
2,642 
2,854 

854 



Suffolk county 44, 865 



735 
038 
282 
775 
484 
409 
817 
659 
722 
482 
6.83 
,101 
,085 
120 
731 
,040 



9,620 



21,486 



216 

187 

150 

336 

100 

634 

149 

395 

327 

414 

310 

107 

206 

394 

477 

236 

310 

251 

180 

223 

239 

431 

262 

141 

332 

286 

480 

249 

100 

108 

205 

324 

237 

273 

44 

62 
232 
319 
301 
266 
181 
452 

1,201 



1,201 
7,493 



357 
1,250 
214 
378 
178 
268 
201 
386 
1,166 
480 
749 
233 
680 
692 
202 

11,366 



187 
4,325 
192 
6S7 
1.52 
133 
188 
438 
488 
119 
106 
305 
605 
24 
201 
285 



Fe- 
males. 



All 
other 
free 
per- 
sons. 



204 
194 
117 
256 
86 
464 
99 
300 
233 
312 
284 

79 
176 
350 
429 
199 
329 
212 
184 
177 
214 
336 
215 
133 
301 
245 
386 
211 
166 

83 
196 
287 
231 
244 

50 

46 
207 
260 
306 
226 
172 
394 

1,017 



592 



427 
309 
254 
595 
217 
1,063 
306 
809 
672 
830 
684 
193 
410 
828 
929 
424 
665 
470 
370 
438 
559 
778 
525 
300 
696 
581 
906 
392 
354 
182 
397 
675 
480 
472 

87 

87 
431 
511 
618 
604 
345 
865 

2,303 



Slaves. 



i,536 



339 
1,121 
214 
322 
155 
235 
222 
210 
1,051 
433 
646 
220 
606 
654 
208 



2,303 
14,984 



6 

1 

2 

5 

9 

58 

2 

26 

12 

29 

39 

1 

9 

26 

5 

16 

12 

8 

6 

16 

20 

8 

34 

36 

26 

20 

31 

6 

2 

8 

3 

2 

7 

4 



742 

2,457 

407 

747 

329 

546 

505 

645 

2,284 

998 

1,646 

499 

1,302 

1,543 

434 



9,333 23,104 



184 
3,376 

25 
640 

94 

94 
212 
300 
345 
112 
169 
235 
454 

31 
120 
208 



362 

9,676 

60 

1,430 

225 

221 

417 

844 

859 

247 

348 

658 

1,102 

63 

395 

521 



34 

499 



15 
125 
12 
10 
2 
35 
18 
28 
24 
43 
54 
4 
64 
65 
10 

1,062 



2 
761 
5 
18 
13 
21 



1 Schedules missing. 



GENERAL TABLES. 

Table 104. -POPULATION AS REPORTED AT TUE FIRST CENSUS. BY COUNTIES AND 

Continued. 



193 

MINORCIVIL DIVISIONS: 17<X)— 



MAS8ACHU8KTTS— Continued. 



I 



COUNTY AND TOWN. 



Total. 



WHITE POnTtATIOK 
i» 1790. 



Males. 



16 
yeais 
and 
over. 



SuHoIk county — Continued. 

Milton 

Needham 

Roxl)ury 

Sharon 

Stoiiphton 

Walpole 

\V'e>'mouth 

Wrenthani 



1,039 
1,109 
2,224 
1,034 
1,994 
1,007 
1,469 
1,766 



Worcester county 50,764 



Ashburnham 

Athol 

Barre 

Berlin 

Bolton 

Bovlston 

Broolcncld 

Charlton 

Douglas 

Dudley 

Fitchburgh ! 1 

Fitchburgh— In the gore adjoining. . .1 

Garriner 

Gerry 

Grafton 

Hard wick 1 

Harvard 1 

HoUlen i 1 

n ubbardston 

Lancaster 1. 

Leicester 1 , 

Leominster 1 

Leominster— In the gore adjoining. . . 



271 
272 
618 
256 
484 
254 
346 
470 

14,600 



212 
219 
426 
129 
237 
227 
784 
501 
267 
265 
265 

2 
121 
177 
241 
459 
362 
278 
221 
387 
286 
314 

5 



Under males. 

16 
years. 



AU 

other 

tree 

per- 

i sons. 



Slaves. 



205 
269 
459 
258 
477 
251 
308 
387 



13,664 {28,091 



536 
555 

1,107 
515 

1,012 
497 
747 ' 
907 



409 



2G0 
205 
401 
138 
171 
183 
765 
490 
264 
275 
300 
6 
156 
182 
210 
393 
298 
267 
257 
313 
248 
254 
10 



475 
419 
748 
245 
447 
416 
1,547 ' 
970 I 
548 
549 I 
585 

l> 
253 
379 
421 
857 
716 
532 
440 
737 
537 
613 
12 



Cin-\TV \\r' ToW.V- 



WHITE PfiruLATION 

IN 179U. 



Total. 



Mala. 



16 



Fo- 



years p^""'*'' 'natof. 
and I .';•, 
over. >™"- 



13 I 
11 



15 |. 

23 . 
8 '. 
8 '. 



Worcester county— Continued. 

Lunenburgh 

Mendon [ 'i 

Middlesex gore (adjoining' Stiir- 

brldge; 

Mlltord ."" 

New Bralnlree 

North borough 

Northljridge !!!!... 

Oakliam 

Oxford '..'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 

Oxford, north gore ',.'.'.'.['.'.'.'. 

Oxford, south gore 

Pax ton ' ; 

Petersham "I 

Princeton i 

Princeton— In the gore adjoining 

Royalslon 

Rutland 

Shrewsbury 

Southborough 

Spencer 

Sterling 

Sturbrldge 

Sutton 

Templelon 

Upton 

Uxbrldge 

Ward 

Westborough 

Western 

Westminster 

WInchendon 

Worcester 



1,277 
1,556 



i.l'j 

569 

772 

995 

74 

163 

558 

1,5<jO 

1,010 

26 

1,130 

1,071 

963 

837 

1,321 

1.428 

1.703 

2,627 

950 

830 

1,308 

473 

929 

898 

1,176 

945 

2,095 



302 I 
3t« 



I'l 
137 
191 
271 
19 
34 
140 
3'J7 
258 
5 
275 
204 
269 
2U5 
338 
377 
445 
666 
232 
210 
344 
128 
239 
240 
310 
238 
601 



310 
300 

20 

175 

iwt 

l.'i2 

140 

107 

234 

18 

43 

139 

377 

251 

6 

2N2 

243 

im 

189 
316 
350 
400 
652 
226 
199 
311 
118 
2.'i6 

zr? 

277 
2M 
494 



663 

795 

29 
427 
4>i3 
31 r2 
257 
3S3 
485 
37 
80 
271 
781 
£04 

!,-] 
52t. 
473 
442 
661 
687 
854 
1,297 
492 
392 
636 
227 
430 
414 
5S5 
4.U 
949 



AU 
other 
fr«e 
per- 
•ons. 



13 
14 

4 

I 

i i 



Slaves. 



^! 



RHODE ISLAKD. 



Bristol county 3, 211 

Banington ' 683 

Bristol 1,412 

Warren 1, 1 16 

Kent county 8,851 

Coventry | 2,483 

East Greenwich I 1,S26 

Warwick 2, 490 

West Greenwich 2, 052 

Newport county 14, 351 

Jamestown 507 

Little C'ompton I,.'j29 

Middletown 840 

New Shoreham 681 

Newport 6, 744 

Portsmouth 1, 600 

Tiverton 2,450 



165 
327 
286 



677 1,558 



144 

292 
241 



2,158 2,128 



645 
428 
566 
519 

3,256 



633 
393 
516 
586 

2,856 



100 
357 
214 
154 
1,460 
402 
569 



91 
356 
161 
133 
1,244 
350 
521 



lOO 



330 
677 
551 

4,153 



1, 165 
920 

1,151 
917 

7,062 



35 

72 

222 

"20 

805 



232 
771 
424 
290 

3,393 
792 

1,160 



5 
13 
35 
10 

372 



68 I 

22 

26 

.Wi 
421 

37 
175 



I 



16 
23 
15 
48 
226 
19 
25 



Providence county 24, 376 



Cranston 

Cimiljerland 

Foster 

Clocestcr 

Johnston 

North Providence.. 

Providence 

Scitiiate 

Smithlleld 



1,877 , 

1,966 

2,268 

4,016 

1.320 

1.071 

6.371 

2.316 

3.171 ' 



Washington county 18.323 



;;? ! 



Charlestown I 2.023 

Exeter 2,496 

Ilopkinton ' 2. 464 

North Kingstown | 2.904 

Richmond ' 1.7' 

Sotuh Kingstown 1 4,:; 

Westerly 2,:- ■ 



6,155 



444 

503 
528 
9S6 
333 
270 
1,709 
563 
819 

3.709 



345 
SS3 

522 



5,486 '11,877 I 777 



408 
4S5 
«13 
995 

2!<n 

237 

1,249 

548 

681 

4,598 



445 

613 
6X5 



942 
970 

i.ns 

2.012 

2,939 
1.170 
1,584 

8,219 



73 


10 


8 




IS 


4 


22 


1 


71 


3 


SO 


6 


427 


47 


29 


6 


82 


S 


1,453 


344 



815 


406 ; 


1.176 


87 ' 


1.17S 


72 


1.341 


199 


815 


'* 


I.R13 


545 


1.081 


68 



12 
37 
7 
»0 
2 
180 
10 



CONTTECTICUT. 



Fairfield countv 


36,290 


9,149 


8,394 


17.630 


318 


799 


Hartford county— Continued. 


2.SS3 
2.732 
2.611 
4.072 
2.679 
2.104 
2.485 
3.790 
2,631 
38.63.^ 


,— - 
1 

540 
645 
953 
731 

10.135 

275 
396 
354 
348 
S.-W 
KS5 
485 
105 
442 
7W 
684 


«7« 

590 

9. 2-17 

:iu 

317 

4,914 

733 

367 

2a'i 

40.'S 
7'(3 
61S 


l.W 

i:»4 

1- 717 

1.7,1 

6.T5 i 

9.7S2 1 

1.5IS [ 

847 

364 

S14 

I..M7 

1.318 , 


X 

71 
9 
79 
11 
18 
28 
51 
27 

313 






7 


Brookfleld 


1,012 
3.032 
4.010 
3,175 
2.742 
1.572 
2,788 

S,810 

1..W1 
1.947 
3,222 
2,479 

38,149 1 


267 
781 
1,028 
798 
671 
401 
720 

2,187 

390 
488 
799 
619 

9,808 


219 
704 
896 
698 
625 
404 
637 

2,099 

327 
461 
724 
600 

8,844 


516 
1.504 
1,869 
1,559 
1,278 

754 
1,350 

4.324 

735 

989 

1.552 

1,200 

18.846 


7 
20 
14 
38 
48 

4 
10 

83 

17 

4 

49 

24 

395 


3 
2:! 




27 


Danbun* 


1 firanbv 




Fairflelil 


2m 

71 


H'lrtfoV'l 


47 






2 


Huntinu'ton 


ton 


II 


New FairBeld 




38 


Newtown 


^> ••ui'Tshfld 


59 


Norwalk \ 

Stamford / 


117 

32 
5 

98 
36 

256 


Windsor 


19 


Litchfield county 


203 


Rldgelield 


1.056 
1,475 
1.367 
1.317 
20.278 


"27' 
...... 

191 
39 
14 
5 
11 
3 
12 


4 


Stratford 




19 
S 


Weston 






Kent 


Hartford county 


Litchfield 


gQ 








25 
21 


Berlin 


2, 4% 
2.468 
3,012 
2,581 
1,805 , 


632 
592 
787 
712 
476 


562 
615 
668 
561 
393 


1,288 
1,242 
1,519 
1,274 
923 


12 
17 

7 
26 


2 
2 


Souihbury 


1,734 

775 

1,877 

3,143 

2,041 1 






« 


East Hartford 


'I 
13 


Washington 


S 


East Windsor 


Waiertown 


11 


Enfield 


Woodbury 


11 



194 



A CENTURY OF POPULATION GROT\TH. 



Table 104.— POPULATION AS REPORTED AT THE FIRST CENSUS, BY COUNTIES AND MINOR CIVIL DIVISIONS: 1790— 

Continued. 



CONJTEC TIC UT— Continued. 



COTISTY AXr TOWX 




COUSTT AND TOWIf. 



Middlesex county 



Chatham 

East Haddain 

Haddam 

KiUingwoith. 

Middlelown 

Saybrook 

New Haven conntr 

Branford 
Cheshire 

Derby 

Durliam 

East Haven 

Guilford 

Hamden 

Milford 

New Haven city. 
North Haven... - 

W'allin^ord 

WaterbxuT 

Woodbrid'ge 



New London coonty 



Total. 



Tolland county 13,251 



i,3eo 

2,125 
1,059 
2,313 
1,220 
1,S59 
1,4S4 
e.'iO 
Willington I 1,201 

Windham county 28,8S1 



2,5S2 
1,327 
1,885 
1,333 
2,162 
4,156 
2,635 

i,ni 

1,760 
2,270 
1,SC5 
2,764 
2,4.n 



WHITE POPrLATION 
IN 1790. 



Male§. 



and 
over. 



Fe- 
I Under males. 
I 16 
\ years. 



All 
Other 
free 
per- 
sons. 



3,449 3,138 | 6,524 



376 , 

513 

2S6 

639 

322 

475 

387 

150 

301 



323 635 

509 1,0S0 

220 533 

526 1,104 



300 , 
454 
361 
162 

283 1 



591 
928 

n7 

317 
599 



7,436 6,547 14,373 



661 
352 I 
501 
339 I 
541 ! 
1,042 



643 
302 
391 
303 
544 
930 



6S9 


610 


468 


a56 


461 


373 


am 


555 


is.! 


433 


670 


.580 


664 


525 1 



1,2.XP 

633 

975 

680 

1,048 

2,0S0 

1,320 

817 

885 

1,140 

912 

1,422 

1,211 



Slaves. 



14 



4 
19 
5 
2 
5 
1 
1 



7 

10 

2 

1 

9 

51 

7 

10 

19 

7 

21 

28 

12 



srarW YORK. 



Albanycounty. 175,980,18,684 18,960 34,443 



Albany city 

First ward 

Second ward 

Third ward 

Ba]Isto\vn 

Cambridge 

fats kill 

Coxsackie 

Duanesburgh 

Easton 

Freehold 

Halfmoon _ . . 

Boosick. 

Pittstown 

Rensselaerville 

Rensselaerwick 

Saratoga 

Schaghticoke 

SchenecTad v 

Schenectady, south of the Mohawk.. 

Schoharie 

Stepfaeniown. 

Stillwater 

Watervliet 

Island in the river not included in 
any town 

Clinton coon tv 



Champlain 

Crown Point 203 

Plattsbtirgh 4Sg 

Wellsburgh 379 

Columbia county ...27.496 



.494 
1.612 

S7S 

: 0O4 

7.S16 
5.009 
1.9S0 
3.401 
1.469 
2.547 
1.821 
3.MI9 
3.031 
2,458 
2.776 
8.305 
3.071 
1.650 
756 
3.475 ' 
2.074 
7.209 
3.078 
7,422 



1,615 



3.722 



1.442 


26 


571 


672 


o 


214 


383 


18 


100 


387 


3 


257 


3.317 


23 


69 


2,408 




43 


835 


8 


305 


1.474 


8 


302 


684 


1 


5 


1.203 




57 


861 


1 


5 


1.666 


7 


123 


1.454 


IS 


27 


1.158 




33 


1.311 




13 


3.632 




562 


1.405 


8 


53 


711 




143 


328 




78 


1.483 


34 


381 


938 


9 


152 , 


3.420 


1 


26 1 


1.441 


10 


61 ' 


3,265 


17 


707 1 



Canaan 6.670 

Claverack 3,237 

Clermont ' $62 

Germant4}wn 512 

HiUsdale 4.454. 

Hudson J. 585 

Kinderhook 4.667 

Livingston 4^489 

Dutchess county 4.5.276 10.972 11.069 20.940 



Amenia 3.078 I, 768 i 7S0 

Beekman 3.600 850 951 

CUnton I 4.(i07 I 1.173 1.113 

Fishkill 5.W1 I 1.366 | 1.290 

Frederickstown 5.9.12 1,438 I 1 540 

Northeast 3.401 839: 863 

Pawling I 4,336 1,031 ! 1,074 



1.449 


29 


1.682 


11 


2.115 


30 


2.643 


41 


2.850 


41 


1.597 


22 


2,098 


91 




1.864 I 



52 1 
106 
176 
601 

63 

80 

42 . 



Dutchess county — Continued. 

Philipstown 

Poughkeepsie 

Rhine beck 

Southeast 

Washington 



Kings county. 



Brooklyn 

Bushwick 

Flatbush 

Flatlands 

Gravesend 

New Utrecht. 



Montgomery county. 



Canajoharie 

Caughnawaga.. 

Chemung 

Chenango 

German Flatts. 

Harpersfield 

Herkimer 

Mohawk 

Otsego 

Palatine 

Whites 



New York city and county. . 



New York city 

Dock ward 

East ward 

Montgomery ward . 

North ward 

Out ward 

South ward 

West ward 

Harlem division 



Ontario county . 



1,656 
540 
941 
423 

426 
563 

28,852 



2,079 
2,529 
3,662 
921 
5,190 

4,549 



6.155 
4.261 
2,396 
45 
1,307 
1,726 
1,525 
4,440 
1.702 
3.404 
1,891 

33.111 i 



32.305 
1,895 
3.766 
6.825 
5,557 
5,651 
1.767 
6,844 
806 

1,074 



Canandaigua 464 

Erwin... 168 

Genesee 343 

Jerusalem 99 

Orange county 18,477 



Goshen 2,447 

Haverstraw I 4,824 

Minisink 2.216 

New Cornwall 4.228 

Orange 1,163 

Warwick , 3, 599 



517 
617 
875 
231 
1,267 

903 



362 
123 
160 



7,866 



1.647 

1,128 

649 

13 

354 

524 

406 

1,088 

563 

805 

689 

8,482 



8,310 
455 
966 
1,764 
1,407 
1,484 

451 I 

1,783 I 

172 I 

524 



593 
573 
756 
241 
,295 

703 



260 
69 

153 
71 
69 
81 

,205 



1.538 

1,068 

648 

12 

301 

424 

388 

1,141 

427 

815 

443 

5,900 



942 


2 


1.092 


40 


1.544 


66 


4.33 


3 


2,495 


53 


1.415 


46 



565 
172 
238 
143 
129 
168 

13,152 



2,868 

1.928 

1,091 

20 

630 

772 

722 

2,092 

698 

1,582 

749 

15.237 



5.790 

307 

593 

1.248 

i 955 

I 1.092 

I 324 

I 1.271 

I 110 

192 



291 


60 


.56 


36 


140 


74 


37 


22 



4,596 I 4.334 



14.943 

854 

1.611 

3.159 

2.632 

2,629 

822 

3,236 

294 

342 



10 



1,078 

45 

82 

281 

232 

178 

55 

185 

41 



111 
69 

122 
40 



8.3S5 I 201< 



616 
1,190 

552 
1,081 

288 



518 
1.173 

546 
1.030 

173 

892 



1.042 
2.207 
1.050 
1.908 
476 
1.702 



2a 

207 

421 

13 

78 

1.482 



435 

171 
378 
137 
135 
206 



96 

133 

7 



20 

6 

8 

111 

8 
192 

7 



1,119 2,37 



2,184 
234 
514 
373 
311 
26S 
115 

see 

189 
10 



961 



212 
23S 
51 

167 
19S 
95 



'Not letamed by towns. 



GENERAL TABLES. 



195 



Table 104.-P0PULATI0N AS REPORTED AT THE FIRST CENSUS, BY COUNTIES AND MINOR CIVIL DIVISIONS: 1790- 

Continued. 



NEW YOKK-Contlnuad. 



\ 



COUNTT AND TOWN. 



Queens county. 



Flushing 

Jamaica 

Newtown 

North Hempstead. 

Ovstrr Hay 

South Uempstead. 



Richmond county. 



Castle ton.. 
Northtleld. 
Southtleld. 
Westfield.. 



Suffolk county . 



■WHITE POPULATION 
IN 1790. 



Total. 



Males. 



16.013 



1.008 
1,674 
2.109 
2.097 
4.097 
3,828 

3,827 



804 
1.021 

865 
1,137 

16,546 



Brookhaven 3.227 

Easthampton 1 . 497 

Huntington 3.306 

Islip 607 

Shelter Island , 201 

Smithtown I 1,024 

Sout hampton 1 3. 402 

Southold I 3,222 

i 
Ulster county 29.370 



Hiirlev I 847 

KinRston 3. 923 

Manakaling 1 . 703 

Marl'letown 2. 190 

if ulilletown 1 , 019 

Moiltpomerv 3.504 

New MarlHorough 1 2.246 

New I'altz 2,304 

New Windsor I 1.819 

Newliurgh i 2. .347 

Rochester 1 , 628 



18 1 I r'e- 

years [Under molea. 
years. 



and 
over. 



3,555 



325 
397 
421 
S£0 
949 
913 



2.863 6.468 



All 
other 
free 
per- 



819 



Slaves. 



COtJNTT AXu rtivnt. 



2.308 



229 
294 
353 



587 
697 
748 



442 I 1,026 
7.56 ; 1.707 
789 I 1,703 



747 753 1,445 



127 
65 
54 
172 
304 



178 
223 
151 
195 



172 
220 
139 
216 



314 I 
402 I 
306 
423 



3,787 3,294 7,229 1.131 



727 
354 
791 
132 
39 
195 
781 
768 

7.050 



017 


1.375 1 


275 


272 


673 


99 


763 


1.518 


75 


126 


246 


68 


.•» 


77 


23 


179 


371 


113 


653 


1,.M2 i 


280 


646 


1,427 1 


198 


6,783 


12,462 1 


161 



166 
902 
436 
492 
293 
898 
539 
512 
463 
610 
374 



129 
742 
491 
409 
259 
834 
607 
519 
417 
585 
321 



.306 

780 
840 
4IM) 
l.-WS 
1,027 
959 

ma 

1,083 
638 



TolaL 



.340 
221 
533 
507 
381 
320 

7", 



114 

135 
234 
272 

1.105 



2.13 
99 
219 
.•)5 
24 
106 
140 
183 



1 


245 


9 


721 


5 


51 


15 


374 


1 


6 


18 


236 


15 


58 


12 


302 


17 


117 


12 


57 


14 


281 



Ulster county— TonllniiM. 

Shewangunk 

Wallklll 

Woodstock 



' 2.123 
2..S71 
1,028 



Washington coiuty 14.077 



i.XO 
2,242 

463 
1.703 
1.120 
1,080 
2,198 
2,111 

810 



Westchester county 23,971 



Kingsi>ury... 
Qneensljury. 

Salem 

Westneld.... 
Whitehall.... 



Bedford . 2.470 

Cortlandl . 1,032 

Easlchester 741 

Oreenliurgh 1.367 

Harrison 1.007 

Mamaroneck ... 452 

Morrisania 133 

Mt. I'leasant 1.926 

New Uochelle 690 

North Castle ; 2. 470 

North Salem • 1,060 

Pelham I 199 

Toundridge 1,072 

Rve 9- 

Sa'lem l.-l 

Scarsdale 2^: 

Stephen 1.297 

Westchester 1.20.1 

White Plains ' 505 

Yonkers i 1,125 

York 1,009 



popruinou 
LV 17S0, 



and " 



Fe- 



AU 

other 

free ' Blarm. 

, P«- 

I sons. 



483 
604 

278 



3.616 3,7W|6,(e3| 



625 
583 
108 
406 
299 
201 
582 
543 
209 



291 
275 
573 
COO 
214 



529 
.54.) 
1,021 
V« 
385 



5,9.14 5.318 10.952 



618 
484 
174 
.324 
242 
lOS 

43 
501 
170 
607 I 
208 

45 I 



M.i 
279 ' 

i:« 

265 



98 I 

17 
422 
130 



212 I 
100 
220 
381 



4M 1 
171 I 
41 
911 
277 



1 

"i 
"i 

.3.V< 



38 
18 
2 

8 
26 
4.3 

1'. 
1 





14 




14 




11 


OIJ 


t 


421 


49 


218 


8 


4.W 


13 , 


771 


28 



349 

103 

IS 

46 

14 



08 
75 
121 
54 

57 
30 
84 
87 
29 
28 
38 



133 
19 
28 
38 

242 
49 

170 
40 



NEW JERSEY. 



Bergen county ' 12.601|| 2,865 



Bergin 

Franklin 

llackin-sack... 

Harrington 

N. Ilarbadoes. 
Saddle River.. 



12,601 



Burlington coimty '18.095 



Burlington 

Chester 

Chesterfielil . . . , 

EvQQsham 

Little Ecshar.. 

Mansfielii 

New Hanover.. 
NorthainptOD.. 

Notintiliarn 

SprincfieM 

Willingboro'... 



18,095 



Cape-May county 2,571 



Lower Precinct 1 ' 

Middle Precinct [| 2,571 

Upper Precinct I ; 

Cumberland county 8. 248 



Deorfleld 

Downs 

Fairfield 

Greenwich 

Hoivwell 

Maurice River. 
Stowenuk 



Essex cotmty . 



Acquacknack.. 
Eli7.al)ethtown. 
Newark 



8,248 



17.785 i 4, 



2,865 



4,625 



4,625 



631 



631 
2,147 



2,147 



17,785 ,: 4,339 



2,299 ' 4,944 192 . 2,301 



2,299 



4.164 



4,944 



8,481 



4,164 



609 



8,481 



1.178 



1,176 

3,877 



1,966 



3,972 



3,877 



8,143 



192 2.301 



598 



598 



14 

138 



227 



141 



120 



138 



160 



3,972! 8,143 I 160 



Gloucester county . 



120 



1.171 



Depttord 

Eggharbor 

Galloway 

Glou town 

Glou. townsb. 

Greenwich 

Newtown 

Watcrford 

Woolwich 



Hunterdon county. 



Alexandria. . 

Amwell 

Bethleham . . 

nopcwell 

Kinrwood . . . 
Maidenhead . 

I.ebanon 

Readlngton.. 
Tewksbury.. 
Trenton 



Middlesex county. 



13,361 



V.ISS 



13,363 



3,287 



3,287 



4.966 



3,311 



3,311 



6.232 342 



6,232 



4,379 9.316 



1.503 I 
5.201 ; 
1,335 ' 
2,320 
2, 446 
1,032 

4,370 

I.MS 



377 

1,249 

331 

579 
003 
237 I 

1,002 

496 I 



IS.956 , 3.995 ; 



583 I 



1,171 



Amboy 

North Hrunswick ■:■ '"■' 

PtSi-atjiwav 

South .\inl>ov 

South Ilrunawlck . ■.■ 

Windsor 2.83* 

Woodbrldge 8,420 

Monmoutb county 16, ■ 

Dover 

Ix)wpr Freehold 

Mlddletown 

Shrewslmry i. - 

SlafTord i N>i 

Upper-Freehold 3.442 



149 

038 
-.37 
'12 



108 
456 
514 
597 



246 

,010 

982 

1,190 



191 



401 


685 




1,173 


2.480 


16 


329 


043 


1 


448 


1,041 


19 


674 


1, 101 


4 


189 


432 


14 


919 


2,033 


58 


346 


841 


79 


3.375 


7.128 


140 



31 I 
3 I 
10 I 



191 



1.301 



31 
233 
104 

leo 



183 
1.318 



48 
206 
218 
183 



439 


301 


789 


10 


318 


I 719 

II 871 


5<-.5 


1.318 


46 


190 


774 


1,587 


33 


25« 




•".78 


7,448 


353 


1.S9S 




Jll 


4--J 


6 
13 
63 
1«S 


14 
07 
491 
212 


21V 


■^i 


441 




3 


703 

1 


780 


1,532 


108 


2S0 



196 



A CENTURY OF POPULATION GROWTH. 



Table 104. -POPULATION AS REPORTED AT THE FIRST CENSUS, BY COUNTIES AND MINOR CIVIL DIVISIONS: 1790- 

Continued. 



NEW JEK8BY— Continued. 





Total. 


WHITE POPUL.\TION 
IN 1790. 


All 
other 
free 
per- 
sons. 


Slaves. 


COUNTY AND TOWN. 


Total. 


■WHITE POPULATION 
IN 1790. 


All 
other 
free 
per- 
sons. 




COUNTY AND TOWN. 


Males. 


Fe- 
males. 


Males. 


Fe- 
males. 


Slaves. 




16 
years 
and 
over. 


Under 

16 
years. 


16 
years 
and 
over. 


Under 

16 
years. 






16,216 


4,092 


3,938 


7,502 


4S 


636 


Somerset county— Continued. 


2,578 
2,068 
2,201 
1,875 

19,500 


586 
481 
463 
413 

4,963 


462 
298 
465 
345 

4,939 


1,119 
795 
868 
744 

9,094 


34 
26 
19 
66 

65 






377 




16,216 
10,437 


4,092 
2,679 


3,938 
2,396 


7,502 
4,816 


48 
374 


636 
172 


Eastern Precinct 


468 


Mendham 

Morristown 

Pequanack 

Eoxbury 


Hillsliorough 


386 


Western Precinct 


317 


Sussex county 


439 








2,035 

6,490 

2,393 

1,9.37 

1,482 

543 

1,905 

519 

490 

1,700 


507 

1,641 

610 
488 
377 
150 
471 
131 
129 
459 


SIO 

1,681 

637 
490 
368 
124 
468 
122 
102 
437 


944 

3,023 

1,110 
935 
700 
241 
892 
239 
233 
777 


10 

16 

10 
11 
2 
3 
9 
1 
2 
1 


04 




Hardwicke 

Independance \ 

Newton 






10,437 
12,296 


2,079 
2,819 


2.396 
2,390 


4,816 
5,130 


374 
147 


172 
1,810 


129 








26 




Knowlton 


13 




Mansfield 

Montague 

O.xford 

Sandvston 

Wallpack 


35 




25 




65 




26 




30 






26 


Somerset county 










Bedminster 


1,197 
2,377 


275 
601 


260 
560 


489 
1,115 


4 
8 


169 
93 













PENNSYLVANIA. 



Allegheny county 10, 203 



Depreciation tract. 

Elizabeth 

Pitt. 



Pittsburgh town 

Plum 

Versailles 

That part of Allegheny county talien 
from Washington county 



Bedford county i 
Berks county... 



Albany 

Alsace 

Amity 

Bern 

Bethel 

Breckiioek 

Brunswick and Manhelm 

Caernarvon 

Colebrookdalc 

Cumru 

Douglass 

Earl 

East District 

Exeter 

G reen wich 

Heidelberg 

Hereford 

Longswamp 

Maiden Creek 

Manheim (see Brunswick and Man- 
heim). 

Maxatany 

Oley 

Pinegrove 

Reading borough 

Richmond 

Robeson 

Rockland 

Ruscomb 

Tulpehocken 

Union 

Windsor 



Bucks county. 
Chester county. 



Birmingham.* 

Brandy wine 

Charlestown 

Coventry 

East Bradford 

East Cain 

East Fallowfield.. 
East Marlborough . 
East Nan tmill 



206 
1,498 
1,468 
376 
402 
414 

5,839 

13, 132 

30, 189 



773 
836 
809 

2,268 
950 
324 

1,504 
509 
553 

1,460 
480 
527 
634 
893 
724 

2,095 
969 
739 
735 



1,022 
973 
900 

2,225 
654 

1,088 
744 
472 

2,315 
704 

1,200 

25,216 
27, 829 



221 

740 

1,260 

1,168 

836 

702 

517 

811 

1,1S4 



50 
368 
380 
100 
104 



1,428 

2,887 
7,711 



191 
207 
229 
528 
234 
78 
368 
137 
149 
371 
123 
136 
150 
236 
187 
528 
240 
185 
205 



274 
267 
214 
583 
190 
289 
199 
119 
603 
182 
309 

6,529 

7,486 



58 
214 
319 
308 
221 
191 
141 
220 
281 



2, 745 4, 763 



59 
398 
365 

80 
105 
114 

1,624 

3,840 



180 
226 
215 
651 
234 
85 
399 
123 
135 
363 
120 
130 
166 
215 
164 
511 
236 
194 
168 



241 
217 
251 
512 
160 
270 
184 
121 
553 
109 
340 

5,894 

6,590 



53 
178 
312 
271 
226 
158 
136 
183 
298 



97 
711 
681 
195 
192 
203 

2,684 

6,325 

14, 666 



402 
400 
413 

1,069 
481 
161 
736 
240 
205 
706 
230 
252 
313 
432 
373 

1,026 
489 
359 
353 



469 
435 

1,118 
291 
514 
358 
228 

1,123 
334 



11,951 
13,065 



109 
343 
682 
545 
378 
329 
239 
388 
546 



34 
201 



581 
544 



159 



3 




11 


1 


18 


2 


1 






1 


S 


4 


4 




10 




6 


1 


2 


1 


5 




3 


7 


24 


6 


3 


1 


1 




9 




9 




16 


4 


3 


9 


9 


4 


8 


1 


3 




4 




21 


15 


16 


3 


7 





261 

144 



Chester county — Continued. 

East Nottingham 

East Town 

East Whiteland 

Fallowfield 

Goshen 

Honeybrook 

Kennet 

London Britain 

Londonderry 

Londongrove 

New Garden 

New London 

Newlin 

Oxford 

Pennsbiiry 

Pikeland 

Sadsbury 

Thornburv 

Tredi£frin'. 

U wchland 

Vincent 

West Bradford 

West Cain 

West Marlborough 

West Nantmill 

\\'est Nottingham 

West Town 

West \\'hiteland 

Willistown 



Cumberland county. 

Hopewell 

Newton 

Tyborn 

Westpensboro 

Eastern portion of county. 



Dauphin county. 



Harrisburgh town 

Lebanon town 

Remainder of county. 



Delaware eoimty . 



Ashton 

Bethel 

Birmingham 

Chester 

Concord 

Darby 

Edgmont 

Haverford 

Lower Chichester. . 
Lower Providence. 

Mangle 

Middletown 

Newtown 

Radnor 

Ridley 



820 
423 
491 
792 

1,272 
794 
058 
247 
588 
786 
742 
746 
534 

1,004 
595 
817 
607 
123 
988 
976 

1,230 
723 
840 
678 
903 
432 
366 
457 



18,208 



7,599 

10,609 
18,1,W 



880 

960 

16,315 



444 
224 
428 
673 
674 
641 
437 
465 
501 
216 
471 
582 
451 
681 
502 



221 
113 
136 
229 
359 
193 
180 

70 
103 
203 
191 
211 
120 
277 
145 
185 
168 

40 
277 
258 
339 
182 
229 
208 
294 
102 

95 
118 
221 



1,991 

2,825 
4,651 



259 

245 

4,147 

2,530 

114 
50 
98 
200 
168 
168 
104 
130 
135 
68 
120 
167 
126 
191 
137 



195 
111 
114 
159 
272 
205 
164 

50 
132 
203 
186 
164 
147 
226 
150 
221 
143 

27 
217 
221 
274 
195 
214 
144 
177 
110 

74 
106 
174 



2,647 
4,434 



184 

240 

4,010 



107 
67 
109 
128 
160 
137 
106 
102 
94 
50 
105 
127 
101 
164 
106 



390 
197 
219 
384 
604 
380 
298 
107 
282 
370 
349 
333 
260 
465 
286 
392 
281 
51 
466 
465 
609 
337 
394 
309 
414 
197 
179 
213 
375 

8,449 



3,550 

4,899 
8,801 



411 

471 

7,919 



210 
99 
202 
323 
305 
313 
213 
218 
257 
97 
235 
265 
218 
320 
229 



93 
113 



' Not returned by townships. 



GENERAL TABLES. 197 

TA....K lOl.-POPULATIONASREPORTEDATTUEFIRSTCENSLS.BYCOUXTIESANDMIXOK.IVIl.I.IVISinNS ,790- 

Continueil. 



PENNSYLVANIA-Conllnued. 



CODNTY AND TOWN. 



Delaware county — Continued. 

Springfield 

Tnorniiury 

Tinicum 

Upper Chiciiester 

Upper Darby 

Upper Providence 



Fayette county . 



WHITE POPULATION 
IN 1790. 



Total. 



Males. 



IH 
years 
and 
over. 



335 
401 
138 
265 
571 
349 



99 
4G 
6C 
104 
90 



13,318 3,415 



Bullskin 

Kr!:nl<lia 

Georges 

Gennan 

Luzenio 

Menalltm 

Springhill... 

Tyrone 

Union 

Washintrton. 
Wharton 



Franklin county. 



Fannet 

Hamilton 

Letterkcnney 

Monlgoinery 

Petera 

Remainder o( county . 



IIuDtingdon county ' 
Lancaster county. . . 



7,212 

8,450 

7,558 

3C,0S1 



Bart 

Brecknock-. 
Caernarvon . 

Cocalico 

Colerain 

Cones togo... 

Donegal 

Drurnore 

Earl. 



Elizabeth 

Elizabetli town 

lieidelhcrg 

Ilenipfield 

LampeltT 

Lancaster 

Lancaster borough. 

Leacock 

Little Hritain 

Maiiheiin 

Manheim town 

Manor 

Martiek 

May town 

Mountjoy 

Ranho 

Saashury 

Sallshurj- 

Straslnirg 

Warwick 



Luzerne county i 
Mlfllln county... 



That portion south of the river 

Juniata 

Remainder of county 



2.187 
5,375 



Montgomery county 22,918 



754 

854 
,.371 

299 

;u3 

bC8 
,321 

730 
,538 
,241 

429 



15,602 



192 
443 
350 
319 
2S5 
439 
325 
210 
424 
319 
109 

4,021 



1,862 

2,159 
1,871 
9,714 



7,562 



Ablnpton 

Cheltenham 

Manor of Moreland 

Springfield 

Remainder of county . 



Northampton county. 

Allen 

Bethlehem 

Chestnut Hill 

Cosiktoii Distiict 

Delawam 

Easton town 

Forks 

Hamilton 



76292—09- 



881 

020 

1,283 

446 

19,688 

24,238 



214 
142 
168 
767 
196 
280 
155 
310 
670 
147 
52 
21 
4':o 
447 
93 
1,049 
395 
357 
215 
108 
414 
374 
314 
230 
469 
203 
307 
510 
595 

1,237 

1,954 



380 
I 1,368 

6.001 



I Fo- 
under males. 

16 
years. 



72 
92 
27 
63 
113 
79 

3,420 



142 
198 
58 
132 
282 
178 

6,155 



All 
other 
free 
per- 
sons. 



186 
488 
339 
355 
281 
442 
330 
183 
360 
311 
125 

3,874 



1,838 

2,036 
2,089 
8,067 



218 
101 
183 
714 
»5 
284 
HI 
189 
717 
120 

42 

19 
378 
3X 

la 
790 
290 
271 
192 

73 
3S0 
280 
256 
172 
316 
151 
291 
376 
619 

1,328 

1,935 



350 
881 
658 
622 
515 
737 
620 
316 
717 
532 
193 



3,230 

3,932 
3,531 
17,411 



421 

326 
348 
1,539 
321 
514 
247 

4r« 

1,500 
273 
102 
29 
776 
730 
139 

1.S30 
0.S3 
589 
372 
184 
798 
614 
521 
430 
784 
340 
612 
781 

1,130 

2,303 
3.552 



357 1.030 
1,398 2,522 

5,382 10,982 



265 


177 


103 


1.18 


3:5 


273 


121 


95 


5,107 


4,699 


6,007 


6,404 



424 
272 

222 

9,476 



279 



134 

145 

24 

542 



Slaves. 



440 



10 

45 

60 

8 

317 

132 



282 



32S 



148 

178 

4:t 

347 



15 


5 


7 




36 


29 


3 




3 




7 




10 


10 


20 


34 


137 


20 


5 


1 







4 

1 

1 
S7 

42 I 
1 



59 



113 



20 



COtTNTY ANP TOWS. 



Northampton county — Cont'd. 

neldelberg 

Lehigh ; 

I/Owor Moimt Bethel 

Lower Saiicon 

Lower Smlthfleld 

LowhIII 

L)-nn 

Macunge 

More 

Nazareth 

Penn 

Plalnfleld 

Salisbury 

Towamensln k 

Up|>er Mlllord 

I'ppor .Mount Bethel 

Upj.'or S;iiipon 

Vjiwr Smilhnejd 

\\ alli-n I'apack 

Wf'Nenberch 

Whllrhall 

Williams 



Northumberland county! 17,147 4,191 4,729 8,051 



WIirrE POPULATIIJK 
IN 1790. 



Total., 



628 

806 

997 
1,436 

419 
1,016 
l,2ta 

732 

889 

007 

886 
1.010 

393 
I.H9 
l.OiO 

S.51 

3.')2 

170 ! 

02<; 

l,2.'3 I 

728 li 



16 
yearn 
and 
over. 



244 

140 
230 
2i;8 
359 
97 
225 
3;i5 
W 
2.U 
151 
193 

aw 
102 

273 
2.'H 
200 
101 
44 
1.13 
266 
187 



ll 



F»- 

Under malM. 

10 i 
yean. 



2.S4 
IM 
211 
222 
3('>4 
115 
308 
XW 
170 
231 
167 
245 
248 
97 
279 
301 
255 
94 
43 
\K 
394 
208 



404 
299 

453 

489 
B47 
208 
483 

598 
382 
403 
287 
448 

Ha 

19S 
S»7 
478 
398 
155 
82 
297 
fits 
325 



Philadelphia county 154, 388 [ 14, 497 10. 896 28, 523 



All 
other 
free 
P«- 

SODS. 



89 
2,099 



Slavai. 







1 


1 


18 




59 


7 


1 




1 


I 


3 




2 










1 


S 


1 


1 


1 


1 




1 




6 





244 
191 
148 
752 
149 
318 
93 
377 
2, .M7 
258 



205 
1.4WI 
7,739 



Blockley 883 

Bristol 723 

Byberry I 586 

Gprmantown town 2, 760 

Ki ngsossi ng 542 

Lowir Dublin 1,267 

M;mor of Moreland 376 

Moyamen.siiig and Passyunk 1,393 

Northern Liberties town 9,907 

Oxford 979 ' 

rass>nink. (See Moyameoslng and { 

Passyunk.) 

Uoxlio'rough 778 

Soulhwark ; 5,frf"3 

Philadclnhiacity ]28,.122 

Nortnoni district (l>etwoen Vine 
and Uace streets from the Del- 
aware to the Schuylkill) '3,938 1,048 

Middle district (from the north 
side of Chestnut street to liji- 
south side of Kacestriet from 
the Delaware to the Schuyl- 
kill) 13,874 ; 3,855 

Southern district (from the I < 

south side of Chestnut strtet | 
to the north side of South 
street from the Delaware to 
the Schuylkill) 10,910- 3,038 

Washington county > 23,802 , 5,333 

Westmoreland county 16,019 4,013 



179 
179 
141 
507 
107 
283 
79 
299 
2,a)« 
21s 



434 
311 
278 

1,394 
225 
610 
181 
6K2 

4,884 
483 



220 350 
.141 2. MM 
1,270 13.883 



733 



2,823 



2,045 



8,713 



1,914 6,12{ 
7,279 11,005 
4,350 7.48D 



Armstrong 

Derry 

Donegal 

Fairfield 

Franklin 

French Creek , 

Flemptleld , 

Mount Pleasant 

North Huntingdon.. 

Itostraver 

Salem 

South Huntingdon.. 

Unity 

Washington 

Wheatlleld 



York county. 



4.Tli 


382 


352 


9(10 


258 


110 


709 


1 130 


•222 


.127 


! 99 


88 


421 


no 


104 


70S 


173 


170 


741 


175 


217 


595 


143 


179 



717 I 

537 

337 . 

139 

201 

349 

343 

272 



1 

6 : 
n 
4 

1 



Cbonccford... 

Codonis 

Dover 

Fawn 

Ilellam 

llot)e\veII 

Manchester. . 
Monaghan . . . 

Newheny 

Paradise 

Reading 

Shrewsbury . 



4.^2 
823 
727 I 
6.19 

778 ; 

93 ! 
200 

a'>9 



386 



3H> 

399 
191 
147 
207 
50 
534 



19> 
98 



137,335 9,171 



403 
434 

1.S3 
170 
210 
13 
621 
304 
42S 
290 
197 
467 
352 
184 
103 



647 
778 
353 
311 
300 
24 
1.032 
474 
763 
495 
387 
772 
S79 
323 
183 



9,409 17,342 



l.ivoi 



1, 

1 
1 • 

1, 

»7s 
1,258 



4'.: 



21'J 
300 I 



247 . 
337 I 



433 
579 



22 
19 
13 
21 
54 
57 
15 
27 
219 
28 



2 

204 

1,420 



85 



812 



733 
12 



35 
17 
15 
IS 
38 
18 
7» 
61 
13 
30 

27! 



' Not returned by townships. 



87 
373 



4 

3 
8 
S 
7 
19 
8 
8 
81 
17 



1 

24 
210 



27 



112 
283 
128 



8 
9 
17 
48 
4 
14 
« 
1 



as 



37 
13 



« 

7 
U 
13 
U 



4 

25 
U 



-:i 



198 



A CENTURY OF POPULATION GROWTH. 



Table 104. -POPULATION AS REPORTED AT THE FIRST CENSUS, BY COUNTIES AND MINOR CIVIL DIVISIONS: 1790- 

Continued. 

PENNSYLVANIA— Continued. 



COUNTT AND TOWN. 



WHITE POPULATION 
IN 1790. 



Total. 



York county— Continued. 

Warrington 1 , 469 

Windsor 1 . ■'■'7 

York- I 1.3S1 

York borough l 2,076 

Huntington, Manallen, Manheim, | 
and Tyrone I 4,669 



16 
years 
and 
over. 



342 
336 
288 
462 



Under 

10 
years. 



374 
395 
385 
451 



Fe- 
males. 



702 

705 

064 

1,008 

2,206 



All 
other 
free 
per- 
sons. 



43 

8 

34 

125 



Slaves. 



COUNTY AND TOWN. 



York county — Continued. 
Berwick, Cuniljeriand, Franklin, 
Germany, Hamiltonban, Heidel- 
berg, Moimt Pleasant, Mountjoy, 
and Straban 



Total. 



9,800 



WHITE POPULATION 
IN 1790. 



Males. 



years 
and 



2,551 



Under 

10 
years. 



2,376 



Fe- 
males. 



All 
Other 

free I Slaves. 

per- 
sons. 



DELAWARE. 



Kent 

New-Castle.. 



18,920 
19,688 



3,705 
3,973 



3,467 

4,747 



6,878 
7,767 



2,570 
639 



2,300 
2,562 



Sussex . 



20,488 



4,105 



3,929 



7,739 



MARYLAND. 



Allegany county 

Ann-.\rundel county 

Baltimore county 

Baltimore town and precincts. 

Calvert coimty 

Charles county 

Frederick county 

Harford county 

Montgomery county 

Prince Georges county 

St. Marys coimty 



212,089 


38,573 35,748 '69,187 


4,136 


64,445 


4,809 


1,068 


1,283 


2,188 


12 


258 


22,598 


3,142 


2,850 


5,072 


804 


10,130 


25,434 


5,184 


4.068 


9,101 


604 


5,877 


13,503 


3,806 


2,550 


5,503 


323 


1,255 


8,652 


1,091 


1,109 


2,011 


136 


4,305 


20,613 


2,565 


2,399 


5,100 


404 


10,085 


30,791 


7,010 


7,016 


12,911 


213 


3,641 


14,976 


2,872 


2,812 


5,100 


775 


3,417 


18,003 


3,284 


2,746 


5,049 


294 


6,030 


21,344 


2,053 


2,. 503 


4,848 


164 


11,176 


15,544 


2,100 


1,943 


4,173 


343 


6,985 



Western shore— Continued. 
Washington county 



Eastern shore.. 

Caroline county 

Cecil county, . ." 

Dorchester'county. . . 

Kent county 

Queen Anns county.. 

Somersett county 

Talbot county..'- 

Worcester county 



.15,822 ! 
.' 107.639 



9,506 


13,625 


15,875 


12,836 


15,463 


15,610 


13,084 


11.640 



3,738 
17,342 



1,812 
2,847 
2,541 
1,876 
2,158 
2,185 
1,938 
1,985 



3,863 6,871 
15,59132,208 



1,727 
2,377 
2,430 
1,547 
1,974 
1,908 
1,712 
1,916 



3,489 
4,831 
5,039 
3,325 
4,039 
4.179 
3,581 
3,725 



64 
3,907 



421 
163 
528 
655 
618 
268 
1,076 
178 



VIRGINIA. 



Accomack 

Albemarle 

Amelia, including Nottoway, a new 

county 

Amherst 

Augusta, the part east of the North 

mountain \ , 

Part west of do j 

Bedford 

Berkley 

Botetourt, as it stood previous to the 

formation of ^\'ytne from it & 

Montg'ry 

Brunswick 

Buckingham 

Campbell 

Caroline 

Charles-City 

Charlotte 

Chesterfield 

Culpeper 

Cumberland . .• 

Dinwiddle 

Elizabeth-City 

Essex 

Fairfax 

Fauquier 

Fluvanna 

Franklin 

Frederick division \ . 

Ditto P 

Gloucester 

Goochland 

Greenbrier, including Kanawa, a 

new county 

Greensville 

Halifax 

Hampshire 

Hanover 

Hardy 

Harrison 

Henrico 

Henrv 

Isle of Wight 



13,959 


2,297 


2,177 


4,602 


721 


4,262 




12,585 


1,703 


1,790 


3,342 


171 


5,579 




18,097 


1,709 


1,697 


3,278 


106 


11,307 




13,703 


2,056 


2,235 


3,995 


121 


5,296 




10,886 


12,048 
t 551 


1,665 
572 


3,438 
986 


40 
19 


1,222 
345 




10.531 


l.TSS 


2.266 


3.074 


52 


2,754 




19,713 


4,253 


4,547 


7,850 


131 


2,932 




10.524 


2,247 


2,562 


4,432 


24 


1.259 




12,827 


1,472 


1,529 


2,918 


132 


6,776 




9,779 


1,274 


1,537 


2,685 


115 


4, 108 




7,685 


1,236 


1,347 


2,363 


251 


2,488 




17,489 


1,799 


1,731 


3.464 


203 


10, 292 




5,588 


532 


509 


1,043 


363 


3,141 




10,078 


1,285 


1,379 


2.535 


63 


4,816 




14,214 


1,652 


1,557 


3.149 


369 


7,487 




22, 105 


3,372 


3,755 


6,682 


70 


8,226 




8,153 


885 


914 


1,778 


142 


4,434 




13,934 


1,790 


1,396 


2,853 


561 


7,334 




3,450 


390 


388 


778 


18 


1,876 




9.122 


908 


869 


1,766 


139 


5,440 




12,320 


2,138 


1,872 


3,601 


135 


4,574 




17. 892 


2,674 


2,983 


5,500 


93 


6,642 




3.921 


589 


654 


1,187 


25 


1,466 




6,842 


1.206 


1,629 


2,840 


34 


1,073 




19,681 


11.757 


1,053 


3.041 


49 


1,319 




12,078 


2,517 


4,269 


67 


2,931 




13,498 


1,597 


1,.')23 


3,105 


210 


7,063 




9,053 


1,028 


1,059 


2,053 


257 


4,656 




6,015 


1,403 


1, 574 


2,639 


20 


319 




6,362 


609 


627 


1,234 


212 


3.620 




14, 722 


2,214 


2.320 


4,397 


228 


6,565 




7,346 


1, 062 


1,956 


3.261 


13 


454 




14,754 


1,037 


1,412 


3,242 


249 


8,223 




7,336 


1,108 


2,256 


3,192 


411 


369 




2,080 


487 


579 


947 




67 




12,000 


1,823 


1,170 


2,607 


581 


5,819 




8,479 


1,523 


1,963 


3,277 


165 


1,.551 




9,028 


1,208 


1, 103 


2,415 


375 


3,807 





James City 

King George 

King & Queen 

King William 

Lancaster 

Loudon 

Louisa 

Lunenburg 

Mecklenburg 

Middlesex 

Monongalia 

Montgomery, as it stood previous to 
the foniialion of Wythe from it 
and Botetourt 

Nansemond 

New-Kent 

Norfolk 

Northampton 

Northumberland 

Ohio 

Orange 

Pendleton 

Pittsylvania 

Powhatan 

Prince Edward 

Prince George 

Princess Anne 

Prince William 

Randolph 

Richmond 

Rockbridge 

Rockingham 

Russell 

Shannandoah 

Southampton 

Spotsylvania 

Stafford 

Surry 

Sussex 

Warwick 

Washington 

Westmoreland 

York 



4,070 


395 


359 


765 


146 


7,366 


757 


781 


1,585 


86 


9,377 


995 


1,026 


2,138 


75 


8,128 


723 


732 


1,438 


84 


5,038 


535 


642 


1,182 


143 


IS, 902 


3,077 


3,992 


7,080 


183 


8, 407 


957 


1,024 


1,899 


14 


8,959 


1,110 


1,185 


2,252 


80 


14, 733 


1,8.57 


2,015 


3,083 


416 


4,140 


407 


370 


754 


51 


4,768 


1,089 


1,345 


2,168 


12 


13, 228 


2,846 


3.744 


5,804 


6 


9,010 


1,215 


1, 167 


2,331 


480 


6,239 


605 


587 


1,199 


.148 


14, 524 


2,650 


1,987 


4,291 


251 


6,889 


857 


743 


1.581 


464 


9,1(3 


1,046 


1,137 


2,323 


197 


5,212 


1,222 


1.377 


2,308 


24 


9,621 


1,317 


1,426 


2,093 


64 


2, 452 


508 


686 


1,124 


1 


11,579 


2,008 


2,447 


4,083 


62 


6.822 


623 


548 


1,115 


211 


8,100 


1,044 


1,077 


1,961 


32 


8,173 


965 


822 


1.600 


267 


7,793 


1,109 


1.151 


2.207 


64 


11,615 


1,044 


1,797 


3,303 


167 


951 


221 


270 


441 




6,985 


704 


697 


1.517 


83 


6,548 


1,517 


1,552 


2. 7.56 


41 


7,449 


1,816 


1,652 


3,209 




3,338 


734 


969 


1,440 


5 


10,510 


2,409 


2,779 


4,791 


19 


12, 804 


1,032 


1,540 


3,134 


559 


11,252 


1,301 


1,278 


2,632 


148 


9,588 


1,341 


l,3.i5 


2. 769 


87 


6,227 


732 


651 


1.379 


368 


10, 549 


1,215 


1,174 


2,382 


391 


1,690 


176 


15.S 


333 


33 


5,025 


1,287 


1, 440 


2.440 


8 


7,722 


815 


754 


1,614 


114 


5,233 


530 


461 


1,124 


358 



GENERAL TABLES. 

Table 104.-POPULATI0N AS REPORTED AT THE FIRST CENSUS, BY COUNTIES AND MINOR riVII. DIVTSTnXS 

Continued. 



199 

1790— 



NOHTH CAROUMA. 



DISTKICT, COUNTY, AND TOWN. 



Total. 



Eden ton district. 



53,769 



Bertie c oiinty 

Camden county 

Chunan cotuity , excluding Edenton 

town 

Eden Ion town 

Currituelc county 

Gates county 

Hertford county 

l*asq(iotanlc county 

I 'erqulinans count y 

Tyrrell county 



12,462 
4,022 

3,413 
1,575 
5,220 
6,386 
5,949 
5,477 
5,439 
4,826 



Fayette district '34,393 



5,235 

7,195 
1,535 
3,870 
5,053 
5,343 
6,1G2 

Ilaiifa.x district 64,848 



Anson county 

Cumberland county, excluding Fay- 

etteville town 

Fayetteville town 

Moore county 

Kichniond county 

Rol)eson county 

Sampson county 



EdRecoinbe county 10,265 

Franklin county 7,502 

Halifax county, inciudlng Halifax 

town 14,310 

Martin county i 6,010 

■■ ' 7,3!i0 

9,992 
9,379 



Nash county. 
Norttianipton county. 
Warren county 



Hillsborough district 69,971 



Caswell county! 

Caswell district 

Gioiiee.ster district 

Nash district 

Richmond district 

St. David's district 

St. James district 

St. Lawrence district 

St. Lukes district 

Chatham tounty 

Granville county i 

.\brahani's I'lains district. 

Beaver Dam district 

Dutch district 

EpplnR Forest district 

Fishing Creek district 

Fort Creek district 

Goshen district 

Henderson district 

Island Creek district 

Knap of I^eeds district 

Oxford district 

Kaeiaml district 

Tabb's Creek district 

Tar Uiver district 

Orange county' 

Caswell district 

Chatham district 

Hlllsboro district 

Hiilsboro town 

Orange district 

St. .\saph's district 

St. Mark's district 

St. Marv's district 

St. Thomas' district 

Randolph county 

Wake county 

Morgan district 



10,096 



9,161 
10,982 



12,216 



7,318 
10,198 



33,317 



Burke raimt y ' 8, 106 

First cotnpany 833 

Second company j 525 



Third company. __ 
Fourth compaiiy... 

Fifth company 

Sixth company 

Seventh company. 
Eighth company.. 



607 
441 
596 
677 
631 
685 



WHITE POPULATION 

IN 1790. 



Males. 



16 
years 
and 
over. 



8,405 



1,719 
725 

457 
181 
1,018 
790 
813 
951 
884 
867 

7,111 



Under 

16 
years 



8,053 



1,802 
754 

438 
113 

1,024 
772 
824 

1,035 
921 
970 



Fe- 
males. 



10,510 



All 
other 

free 
per- 
sons. 



1,048 



3,442 378 
1,476 30 



865 
306 
1,960 
1,514 
1,632 
1,804 
1,714 
1,798 



7,324 13,677 



1,035 


1,183 


1,458 


1,366 


394 


195 


850 


965 


1,096 


1,205 


1,1. W 


l.l.tS 


1,146 


1,272 


9,215 


10,130 



2,147 

2,656 
398 
1,672 
2,114 
2,263 
2,427 

18,610 



1,663 
1,076 

1,873 
1,067 
( 1,134 
1,.'«5 
1,067 

10,937 



1,801 



1,761 
1,581 



2,433 



1,590 
1,771 



6.953 



1,878 
1,381 

1,826 
1,010 
1,434 
1,283 
1,318 



12,903 21,980 



3,487 
2,307 

3,471 
2,008 
2,021 
2,502 
2,214 



2,110 3,377 



2,168 3,664 
1,873 3,050 



2,70V 4,913 



1,952 
2,091 



3,292 
3,684 

14,961 



7 
34 

115 
93 

232 
87 
37 
36 



49 
34 
12 
56 
277 
140 

1,364 



70 
37 

443 

96 
193 
458 

67 

702 
72 



10 
315 



24 

180 



1,705 
169 
90 
120 
99 
r.>4 
141 
124 
150 



!,108 
216 
148 
15« 
129 
146 
lli9 
152 
183 



3,684 
356 
263 
248 
203 
275 
306 
268 
324 



Slaves. 



19,153 



5,121 
1,038 

1,646 
941 
1,103 
2,217 
2,448 
1,600 
1,883 
1,166 

5,673 



1,066 
514 
371 
683 
633 

1,177 

25,529 



3,167 
2,701 

6,697 
1,829 
2.008 
4,414 
4,713 

13,449 



2,736 



1,658 
4,163 



74 



182 



2,060 



460 { 
2,472 

2,617 



DISTRICT, COUNTV, AND T<JWN. 



Morgan district— Continued. 
Burke county— Continued. 

Ninth cohipany 

Tenth company '..,.[ 

Eleventh comj»any ,,[ 

Twelfth coini>any 

Thirleentli company ], 

Lincoln i-ounty 

First company 

S'-cond company 

Third company 

Fourth company 

Fiftli com()any [[ 

Sl.xth company , 

Seventh company 

Eighth company , 

Ninth company 

Tentii company , 

Eleventh company 

Twelfth company 

Rutherford .■uiliity 

First company 

Second company 

Thirti company 

Fourth company 

Fifth com puny 

Sixth company 

Seventh company 

Eighth etimpany 

Ninth company 

Teritti com puny 

Eleventh company 

Twelfth company 

Thirteenth company 

Fourteenth company 

Wilkes county 

First company 

Second company 

Third company 

Fourtli company 

Fifth company 

Sixtli company 

Seventh company 

Eighth company 

Ninth r-ompany 

Tenth company 

Elevent h company 

Twelfth company'. 

Thirteenth company 

Fourteenth company 

Fifteenth company 

Sixteenth company 



WHITE POPllaTION 
LN I7IW. 



Total. 



677 
4SB 
SSB 

481 
035 

1,240 
492 
509 
603 
733 
«02 

1,099 
736 
663 

1,427 
718 

1,010 
765 I 

r,»8 

673 
581 
390 
361 
603 
686 
514 
527 
684 
698 
965 
692 
368 
386 
i,1.17 
536 
609 
606 
641 
466 
601 
392 
319 
631 
488 
600 
443 
723 
377 
369 
558 



MalM. 



IS 
years 
and 
over. 



Newlwm district 55. 083 



Beaufort cotmty 5.405 

Carteret coimty 3, 734 

Craven county, Including Newbem 

town 10.474 

Dobbscounly 6,994 

II vde county 4.204 

Johnston county 6.691 

Jones county 4,796 

ritt county 8.270 

Wayne county 6. 1 15 



Salisbury district. 



147 
»9 

133 

94 

215 

2,057 

no 

114 
118 
160 
130 
250 
170 
148 
318 
145 
202 
186 
1,576 
105 
110 
70 
70 
121 
127 
HI 
103 
119 
114 
186 
139 
•3 
108 
1,615 
111 
101 
100 
106 
88 
121 
76 
76 
118 
109 
109 
88 
152 
75 
78 
107 

9,595 



Under 

16 
yean 



910 
718 

1.710 
l,l('>4 

792 
1.040 

736 
1.461 
l,0t>4 



I 



66.927 ,14,003 



Guilford county 

Iredell c-ounty - 

.Mecklenburg (Xjunty 

Mont L'omery county 

Kockdnghath coiml'v 

Rowan (x>unty. Including Sallsbiuy 

town 

Stokes county 

Surry county 



Wilmington district |a6,0»7 H 3.053 



7.3K I 
5. *W ! 
ll.SliO 
5,039 
6,211 j 

15.972 

n.ia 

7, 192 



1.615 
1. 118 
2,3IH 
»42 
1,188 

3. .199 
1.846 
1,531 



Bladen coimty 

Itnmsuick county 

Duplin -ounly 

New Hanover county. Including 

Wilmington town 

Onslow county 



6.837 
5,427 



834 
807 



187 
12» 
119 
156 
222 
2,293 
124 
127 
140 
180 
167 
281 
174 
184 
308 
180 
227 
206 
2,119 
110 
147 
110 
99 
103 
192 
138 
154 
107 
105 
287 
209 
»3 
85 
2,2.W 
132 

im 

134 
157 
145 
169 
100 
105 
ISO 
132 
149 
122 
205 
96 
114 
179 

9,876 



Fe- 
male*, 



317 
213 
200 
217 
428 

4,041 
216 
229 
221 
349 
280 
494 
281 
303 
010 
333 
361 
306 

3,502 
218 
244 
150 
108 
291 
323 
230 
248 
287 
250 
431 
305 
163 
186 

3,734 
237 
268 
233 
266 
222 
291 
162 
128 
297 
224 
246 
199 
332 
188 
173 
269 

19.329 



All : 
Other I 

(ri'o Slaves. 

per- I 
sons. 



924 
709 

1,538 
1.283 

714 
1,177 

794 
1..V18 
1,219 

1.1,932 



1,821 
1,505 

3.226 
2,479 
1,518 
2.081 
1.541 
2.912 
2,246 

28.490 



1.807 
1.218 
2.563 
1,220 
1,411 



3.235 
2,223 
4,758 

2,a» 

2.48B 



3,R2S 6.902 
J.r.'J .'I.IW 
1,71.3 .3,189 



4,062 

834 

398 
1,187 

702 
»41 



7.;w 



1.086 

778 

2,092 

1,490 
1,788 



26 
21 
41 
15 
70 
855 
« 

at 

18 
38 
16 
94 

no 

18 

191 

51 

230 

7 

609 

140 

80 

00 

24 

28 

44 

35 

20 

11 

00 

61 

39 

» 

8 

653 

65 

76 

36 

13 

II 

20 

M 

10 

60 

23 

90 

34 

.34 

18 

4 

3 



841 I 16,042 



128 I 
93 

337 I 
40 
37 I 
65 
70 
25 
40 

249 



27 
3 
07 
11 
10 

102 
13 
17 



1,622 
709 

3.r.63 
2.012 
1.143 
1 328 
l.i'>&5 
3.364 
1,540 

8.253 



610 
808 

1,008 
837 

1,113 

1.741 

77H 

on 



210 ' 10.007 



l.rM) 
1..S1I 
l.:w> 

3.737 
1.747 



> Names taken from county tax Ibts. 



200 



A CENTURY OF POPULATION GROWTH. 



Table 104. -POPULATION AS REPORTED AT THE FIRST CENSUS, BY COUNTIES AND MINOR CIVIL DIVISIONS: 1790- 

Continued. 



SOUTH CAROIillSrA. 



DISTRICT, COUNTY, ASD PARISH. TOtal. 



Beaufort district ' 18, 753 

Camden district 38,265 



Chester county 

Claremont county. 
Clarendon county. 
Fairfield county. .. 
Lancaster county . . 
Richland county.. 
York county 



Charleston district. 



6,866 
4,648 
2,392 
7. 623 
6,302 
3,930 
6,604 

.66,985 



Berkley countv, St. Johns parish | 5, 922 

Colleton county, St. Johns parish ' "'" 

Dorchester county. St. Georges par- 
ish 

Christ Church parish 

St. .\ndre\vs parish 

St. Bartholomes parish 

St. James Goose Creek parish 

St. James Santee parish 

St. Pauls parish 

St. Phillips and St. Michaels parish.. 
St. Stephens parish 



6,312 

4,299 
2,954 
2,947 

12,606 
2,787 
3,797 
3. 433 

16, 369 
2,733 



■WHITE POPULATION 
IN 1790. 



Males. 



16 
years 
and 



Under 

16 
years. 



1,266 
6,941 



1,446 
517 
444 

1.336 

1,263 
.596 

1,360 



1,055 
8,694 



1,(;04 
841 
610 

1,874 

1,637 
710 

1,012 



5,060 3,177 



209 
209 

337 
156 
125 
625 
158 
140 

65 
2,810 

81 



152 
104 

311 
138 

71 
491 

79 
110 

48 
1,661 

45 



Fe- 
males. 



2,043 
13,607 



2,831 
1,080 
830 
2,929 
2.074 
1.173 
2.690 

7,165 



331 

272 

604 
272 
174 

1,017 
202 
187 
103 

3,718 
100 



AM 
other 
free 
per- 
sons. 



153 
168 



950 



SO 
22 

25 
11 
31 

135 
15 
15 
15 

586 
1 



14,236 
8,865 



938 
2,110 

602 
1,485 
1,370 
1,437 

923 

60, 633 



6,170 
4,705 

3,022 
2,377 
2,546 
10, 338 
2,333 
3,345 
3,202 
7,684 
2,606 



DISTRICT, COUNTT. AND P.\RISH. 



Charleston district- 
St. Thomas parish 



Cheraw district i 

Georgetown district . 



All Saints parish 

Prince Fredericks parish . 
Prince Georges parish 



Total. 



3,836 
10,706 
22,122 



.; 2, 225 
.1 8,136 
.11,762 



Ninety-six district 73, 729 



Abbeville county 

Edgefield county 

Greenville county 

Laurens county 

.\ewtierry county 

Pendleton county 

Spartanburgh county . 
Union county ' . . 



Orangeburgh district. 



North part . 
South part . 



9,197 
13,289 
6,603 
9,337 
9,342 
9,668 
8,800 
7,693 

18,513 

11,281 
7,232 



■WHITE POPULATION 
IN 1790. 



16 
years 
and 
over. 



145 
1,779 
2,356 



104 

907 

1,345 



Under 

16 
years. 



Fe- 
males. 



67 
1,993 
2,467 



102 

915 

1,450 



14,973 17,165 30,324 



186 
3,646 
4,055 



223 
1,.';96 
2,236 



1,904 
2,333 
1,400 
1,969 
1,992 
2,007 
1,868 
1,500 



1,948 
2,671 
1,627 
2,270 
2.232 
2,535 
2,173 
1,809 



3,201 3,171 6,040 



3,653 
4,701 
2,861 
3,971 
3,962 
4,189 
3,866 
3,121 



1,780 I 1,693 1 3,258 
1,421 i 1,478 2,782 



AH 
other 
free 
per- 
sons. 



34 
59 
113 



1 
32 

80 

198 



21 
149 



Slaves. 



3,405 
3,229 
13,131 



1,795 
4,685 
6,651 

11,0C9 



1,665 

3,619 

606 

1,120 

1,144 

8:i4 

8C.6 

1,215 



170 5,931 



4,629 
1,402 



GEORGIA. 



Lower district 


19,266 

305 

10, 769 

2,424 

413 

5,355 

25,336 


2,060 


1,160 


2,637 


168 


13, 261 


Middle district— Continued. 


11,317 
4,652 

37,946 


1,894 
947 

6,404 


1,925 
1,024 

8,094 


3,343 
1,885 

14,459 


39 
2 

188 






4 116 




81 

846 

627 

70 

426 

4,649 


44 
480 
336 

36 
264 

4,790 


96 

1,130 

711 

87 
613 

8,643 


14 
112 

"I 

52 


70 

8,201 

760 

215 

4,025 

7,202 


Washington 


694 


Chatham 


Upper district 

Franklin 

Greene 




Effingham 


8,801 






Liberty . 


1,041 
5,405 
31,500 


226 
1,027 
6,162 


243 
1,111 
6,740 


417 
1,882 
12, 160 


s' 

180 


156 




1,377 


Middle district 


WUks 


7,268 








Burke 


9,467 


1,808 


1,841 


3,415 


11 


2,392 









KENTUCKY. 



Beards Town, in Nelson county 

Borubon 


216 

7,837 

150 

17,676 

4,565 

834 
6,548 


52 
1,646 

49 
3,241 
1,008 

276 
1,375 


49 
2,036 

28 

3,878 

997 

203 
1,441 


86 
3,249 

61 
6,738 
1,680 

290 
2,630 


1 

""36" 

4 

2 
8 


29 
908 

22 

3,689 

876 

63 
1,094 


Louisville, in Jefferson county 

Madison 


200 
5,772 
2,267 

6,941 

11,099 

462 

9,210 


49' 

1,231 

431 

1,411 

2,456 

163 

1,767 


44 79 

1,421 2,383 

676 952 

1,515 2.691 

2,746 4,644 

96 183 

1,929 3,267 


1 

7 
34 

■■■■27' 


27 

737 






208 


Fayette coimty. 


Mercer 




Jefferson 


1,317 






1,219 


Lexington, in Fayette county 

Lincoln 


Washington, in Mason countv 

Woodford 


21 
9 02Q 









1 Not returned by counties. 



GENERAL TABLES. 



201 



Ta«i,k lOo.-WniTE AND COLORED POPULATION OK EACH COUNTY REPORTED IN 1790, COMPARED WITH TH\T OP 
THE SAME AREA IN 1900. TOGETHER WITH THE NUMBER OK COLORED PER 1.000 WHITES. 



MAINE. 







POPtTLATIOS l.N 


1790. 


rorvuLTtoM in igoo. 

II 1 




COU.VTT. 


Total. 


White. 




Colurt-'l. 


ToUI. 


White. 


II, 

Colond. 


■ .-i 




Total. 


Free, j Slave. 


Total. 


Negro. 


Indian. 


llan^ll 17W- 


luuu. ' 


The State 


96,643 


96,107 


536 


5.16 1 


694,406 


602.228 


2,240 


1,319 


7'.ls 








25.530 
9.542 

29.733 
2,760 

29,078 


25,3.51 
9,504 

29,592 
2,740 

28.920 


179 
38 

141 
20 

158 


: 179 

1 38 
141 
20 
158 




175.000 

102,135 

200,826 

79,640 

76,165 


175,304 
161,503 
260,152 
79,120 
76,081 


536" 
632 
474 
514 
84 






Hancock* 






.1 


Lincoln ' 




387 
94 
67 






Washington • 




411 
2 


9 't 
15 




York* 













The state. 



Cheshire' 

Cirafton ' 

Ililkborouph'. 
Rockinpham". 
Strafford".... 



NKW IIA.MPHHIRK. 



141,899 



141,112 I 



787 il 



157 



411,588 



410,791 



662 



28,753 
13,468 ' 
32,883 
43,184 
23,611 



28,665 
13,419 
32,707 
42,795 
23,526 



49 
176 



232 
64 



IS 
21 



97 
21 



48,.'»4 
74.771 

i2;i,(xw 

85,0)4 
74,381 



48,255 
74,673 
128,881 
84,835 
74,147 



79 
98 
187 
199 
234 



58 
81 
141 
179 
203 



22 1 



113 



10 


11 


3 


14 




46 ; 


6 


i* ! 


3 


28; 



VEKMONT. 



The state. 



Addison" 

Benninpton ". 
Chittenden" ., 

Orange '* 

Rutland" 

Windham".. 
Windsor" 



85,341 



6.420 
12.206 

7.287 
10,526 
15,590 
17,572 
15,740 



85.072 



6..ls;t 

12,173 
7,264 
10.4S5 
15,5.58 
17,514 
15,695 



37 
33 
23 
41 
32 
58 
45 



2i>9 



343.641 I 



19,650 
21,705 

107,00<t 
'JO.S24 
45. l.'ll 
26,6tiO 
33,674 



342,7n 



19,648 
21,536 
106,724 
90.774 
44,H9S 
26,593 
32,598 



870 



2 
169 
284 
50 
222 
67 
76 



826 



2 
165 
275 
38 
211 
64 
71 



(»» 



(") 



MASSACHtrSXTTTS. 



The state 


378,556 


373,187 


5.369 


5,309 




2,751,852 


2,n6.096 


35.756 


32,192 


587 


2.977 


14 


12 






Barnstable " 

Bcrk^hirew . .. 


17,342 
30,263 
31,696 
3,255 
57,879 

59,656 
42,769 
4, .555 
29,512 
44,S05 
56,764 


16,970 
29,940 
30,966 
3,230 
57,007 

.59,205 
42,177 
4.521 
29,013 
43,803 
56,355 


372 
323 
730 
25 
872 1 

451' 

592 

34 

499 

1.01.2 
409 


372 

323 


27.S26 
i'5,7T4 

197.735 
4,561 

356,569 

275,028 
628,097 
3,006 
108,114 
708.324 
346,818 


2r.,971 
94.400 

194.556 
4,256 

354,298 

273,043 
618,867 
2.958 
106,983 
605,047 
344.717 


8.55 
1,374 
3,179 

305 
2,271 

1,986 
9,230 
48 
1,131 
13.277 
2,101 


615 
l..-i05 
2,9.58 

150 
1,945 

1,807 
8,. 546 
46 
1,040 
11,9.59 
1,821 


231 
3 
86 

154 
3 

1:. 
3. 

lU 

15 
34 


9 
66 
135 

1 
323 

^1 

1,303 

346 


22 
11 
24 
8 
15 

S 
14 

8 
17 
24 

7 


23 
14 


Bristol " 


730 




Dukes'" 


25 
872 

451 

592 
34 
499 

1.(X.2 
409 


















Middlesex ^ 




]4 








Plvnioiith *> 




10 


Sullolk -■' 




17 


Worcester ** 


5 











69.112 


64.670 


4.442!! 


3.484 ' 


958 ! 


482.050 


472.718 


9.332 


6.874 


35 


423 


«e 


19 






Bristol" 


3,211 

8.851 

14,351 

24.376 

18,323 


3.013 
8.439 
13.174 
23.518 
16.. 526 


198 

412 

1,177 

&58 '1 

1,797 ,| 


100 
349 
805 
777 
1,453 


98 
63 

372 
81 

344 


13.144 

29.976 

137,462 

277.314 

24. 154 


12,975 
29.634 
135,085 
271,817 
23.207 


169 
342 

2,377 

5,497 

947 


158 

315 

2.268 

5.179 

934 


4 


7! 

7 
107 , 
291 
11 


66 
49 
89 
36 
109 


12 
II 




2 

27 
2 


17 




19 




40 







1 Area covered In 1900 by parts of Franklin. Somerset. York. Cumlierland. AndroscoRsln. and Oxford counties. 

» .\rea covered in liXX) bv Ilancockcoiintv. and bv parts ot Waldo. Tenoliscot, Piscataquis, and .\roostook counties. 

» Area covered in 1900 by Lincoln, Knox', Kennebec, and Sagadahoc counties, and by parts of Waldo, Androscoggin, Somerset, TLscataquls, FianklUi, .\roostook. and 
Penobscot counties. 

< .Vrea covered in 1900 bv Washinfton county, and by parts of Penobscot and .Vroostook counties. 

'.Vrea covered in I'joo by parts of York. Cunilwrland. 0.xlord. and Franklin counties. 

• .\rea covcre<l in IWX) bv Che^shirecoimlv. and by part of i'ulll van county. 

' .Vrea covered in 1S<») bv Ci ration and Coos counties, and by parisolCaiToll and Merrimack counties. 

'Area covered in U«»> by 1 lillsboro count v (except I'elhani. which was In Kockincharncoimty in MM), and bv parts of Merrimack and SiilllTan counties. 

•Area covered in 1900 bv Uockinshamcoimiv. part of Merrimack county, and the town of Pclh.am (now In llillslxirocounly). 

>o Area covered in 1900 by Strafford and Belknap counties, and by parts of Carroll and Merrimack counties. 

" .Vrea covered in 1900 by part of Addison county. 

" Less than one. 

!• .\rea covered in 1900 coextensive with that of 1790. .„.,., 

" Area covered in 1000 by Franklin. Grand Isle. Lamoille, and Chittenden counties, and by i)arus of Orleans. AddLson. and w ashinglun counUes. 

15 Area covered in 1900 bv Kssex. Caledonia, and Or.inge counties, and by parts of Orleans and \\ ashington counties. 

" .\rea covered in 1900 bv parts of Rutland and .\ddison counties. 

" .Vrea covered in 1900 bv Windsor couniv. and bv part of Rutland county. 

>« Area covered In 1900 by Borkshiri'coiiiitv. and 'l>v part of Franklin county. 

'» .Vria covered in 1900 by parts of Bristol anri Norfolk counties, and by part of Providence coimty. K. 1. 

^ .Vrea covered in I9<H) bv part of Kssex countv. 

n Area covered in 1900 by parts ot Hampshire, Hampden. Franklin, and Worcester counties. 

"Area covered in 1900 bv parts of .Middlesex, ,-iuiTolk. and Worcester counties. 

» Vrea covered in 1900 by parts of Pivraouth an I Bristol coimlies. 

» Area covered in 190i) bv parts of.-iullolk. Xorfilk. Kssex. Plymouth. Mid llwex, and Woiwater counties. 
•J Area covered in 19ixi by parts of Worcester. Hampden. Hampshire, and Middlesex counties. 
" Area covered In 1900 bv Newport eonntv. and bv (.art of Bristol county, Mass. 
" .Vrea covered In 1900 by [lart of Providence county. 



202 



A CENTURY OF POPULATION GROWTH. 



Table 105.-WHITE AND COLORED POPULATION OF EACH COUNTY REPORTED IN 1790, COMPARED WITH THAT OF 
THE SAME AREA IN 1900, TOGETHER WITH THE NUMBER OF COLORED PER 1,000 WHITES— Continued. 

CONNECTICUT. 







POPULATION IN 


1790. 




POPULATION IN 1900. 


Num- 
ber of 
colored 
persons 
per 
1,000 
whites, 
1790. 


Num- 
ber of 
negroes 
per 
1,000 


COUNTY, 


Total. 


White. 


Colored. 


Total. 


White. 


Colored. 




Total. 


Free. 


Slave. 


Total. 


Negro. 


Indian. 


Mongo- 
lian. 


whites, 
1900. 


The state 


237,655 


232,236 


5,419 


2,771 


2,648 


908,420 


892,424 


15,996 


15,226 


153 


617 


23 


17 


Fairfield ' 


36,290 
38, 149 
38,635 
18,828 

30,703 
32,918 
13,251 
28,881 


35,173 
37,498 
38, 119 
18,492 

29,882 
31,605 
13,111 
28,356 


1,117 
651 
516 
336 

821 

1,313 

140 

525 


318 
395 
313 
144 

434 

732 

94 

341 


799 
256 
203 
192 

387 

581 

48 

184 


184, 203 

■ 195,147 

66,238 

40,876 

267,492 
81,183 
22,203 
51,078 


180,839 
191,776 
65,182 
40,405 

262, 221 
79,421 
22, 130 
50, 450 


3,364 

3,371 

1,056 

471 

5,271 

1,762 

73 

628 


3,227 

3,190 

998 

450 

5,056 

1,641 

66 

598 


9 
5 
33 

1 

2 
83 

1 
19 


128 
176 
26 
20 

213 

38 

6 

11 


32 
17 
14 
IS 

27 
42 
11 
19 


18 




17 


Litchfield ' 


15 




11 




19 




21 


Tolland ^ 


3 




12 







NEW YORK. 



The state 

Albany' 

Clinton " 

Columbia" 

Dutchess " 

Kings"! 

Montgomery » 

New York city and county " 

Ontario ^ 

Orange '^ 

Queens " 

Richmond " 

Suffolk 11 

Ulster i» 

Washington '" 

Westchester 2<- 



340,241 



75,980 

1,615 

27, 496 

45,276 

4,549 

28,852 
33,111 
1,074 
18, 477 
16,013 

3,827 
16, 646 
29,370 
14,077 
23,978 



314,366 



72,087 

1,583 

25,811 

42,981 

3,021 

28,223 
29,619 
1,058 
17,315 
12,886 

2,945 
14,310 
26,295 
14,028 
22,204 



25, 875 



3,893 
32 
1,685 
2,295 
1,528 

629 

3,492 

16 

1,162 

3,127 



2,236 

3,075 

49 

1,774 



4,682 21,193 



7,268,894 



171 
16 
52 

431 
46 

41 

1,119 

6 

201 

819 

127 

1,131 

161 

3 

358 



3,722 I 

16 
1,633 
1,864 
1,482 1 

588 

2,373 

10 

961 
2,308 

755 

1,105 

2,914 

46 

1,416 



428, 417 

210, 073 

43,211 

95, 457 

1,166,582 

1,127,730 

1,850,093 

1,234,365 

142,157 

208, 447 

67,021 
77, 582 

157, 428 
75, 567 

384, 764 



7,150,881 



424, 404 

208, 408 

41,779 

93, 093 

1,146,909 

1,119,761 

1,808,968 

1,225,283 

137,256 

203,328 

65,863 
74,298 

155, 638 
75, 228 

376,665 



112,013 



4,013 
1,665 
1,432 
2,364 
19, 673 

7,969 
41, 125 
9,082 
4,901 
5,119 

1,158 
3,284 
1,790 
339 
8,099 



99,232 



5,257 7,524 



3,889 

335 

1,417 

2,335 

18,367 

7,236 
36,246 
6,796 
4,837 
4,921 

1,072 
3,035 
1,768 
290 
7,688 I 



16 
,272 



1 
6 

616 

21 

3,115 



168 

1 

37 

3 



68 

15 

28 

1,300 

117 
4,858 
171 
64 
197 

86 
81 
21 
12 
408 



82 



54 
20 
65 
63 

506 

22 

118 

15 

67 

243 

299 
156 
117 
3 
80 



2 
34 
25 
16 



20 
5 
35 

24 

16 
41 
11 
4 
20 



NEW JERSEY. 



The state 

Bergen " 

Burlington =3.. 
Cape-May "... 
Cumt)erland u . 
Essex " 

Gloucester " . , 
Hunterdon ^ .. 
Middlesex » . . . 
Monmouth " , . 

Morris " 

, Salem " 

Somerset » 

Sussex'' 



184, 139 



12,601 
18,095 
2,571 
8,248 
17,785 

13,363 
20, 153 
15,956 
16,918 

16,216 
10, 437 
12, 296 
19,500 



169,954 



10,108 
17,270 
2,416 
7,990 
16,454 

12.830 
IS. 661 
14,498 
14,969 

15,532 
9,891 
10,339 
18,996 



14,185 



2,493 
825 
165 
258 

1,331 

533 

1,492 
1,458 
1,949 

684 

646 

1,957 

504 



2,762 



192 
598 
14 
138 
160 

342 
191 
140 
353 

48 
374 

147 
65 



11,423 



2,301 
227 
141 
120 

1, 171 

191 
1,301 
1,318 
1,596 

636 

172 

1,810 

439 



1,883,669 1,812,317 71,352 



506,412 

104,373 

13,201 

61,193 

572,686 

185,950 
77, 412 
90,882 
92,168 

65, 156 
25,530 
37,802 
61,915 



497,571 

100,686 

12,328 

48,785 

564, 107 

168,239 
74,415 
88,050 
85,636 

63,603 
22, 493 
36,225 
61,379 



7,841 
3,787 
873 
2,408 
18,578 

17,711 
2,997 
2,832 
6,522 

1,653 

3,037 

2,577 

636 



9,844 



7,379 
3,723 
869 
2,403 
18,022 

17,561 
2,934 
2,782 
6,457 

1,618 

3,029 

2,540 

627 



63 1,445 



462 
42 
4 
5 

650 

143 
46 
49 
62 

35 

8 

30 



247 
48 
64 
32 
81 

42 
80 
101 
130 

44 
55 



39 



15 
37 
70 
49 
33 

104 
39 
32 
75 

25 

135 

72 

9 



1 Area covered in 1900 coextensive with that of 1790. 

2 Population of Wolcott town added to, and that of Hartland town and Marlboro town subtracted from, 1900 figures to make areas comparable. 
8 Population of Soiithl>ury town. Hartland town, nnci Middlel>ury town added to 1900 figures to make areas comparable. 

< Population of Durham town subtr.ioIe(i from 19(10 figures to make areas comparable. 

» Population of Middlebury town, Southbury town, and Wolcott town subtracted from, and that of Durham town added to, 1900 figures to make areas comparable. 
> I'opulation of Columbia town and part of Marlboro town added to, and that of Lebanon town and Voluntown town subtracted from, 1900 figures to make areas 
comparable. 

' Population of Columbia town and Mansfield town subtracted from, and part of Marlboro town added to, 1900 figures to make areas comparable. 
" Population of Mansflrld town, Lebanon town, and Voluntown town added to 1900 figures to make areas comparanle. 
' Area covered in 1900 by Albany, Rensselaer, Saratoga, and Schenectady counties, and by parts of Greene and Schoharie counties, 
w Area covered in 1900 by Clinton, Franklin, Essex, and St. Lawrence counties. 

11 Area covered in ] 900 coextensive with that of 1 790. 

12 Area covered in 1900 by Dutchess and Putnam counties. 

13 Area covered in 1900 by Chemung, Montgomery, Fulton, Herkimer, Hamilton, Otsego, Jefferson, Tioga, Broome, Chenango, Oneida, Lewis, Madison, Cortland, 
Oswego, Onondaga, Cayusa, Seneca, and Tompkins counties, and by parts of Delaware, Schoharie, Schuyler, and Wayne counties. 

nAreacovered in 1900 by Manhattan borough. 

» Area covered in 1900 by Cliautautiiia, Cattaraugus, Allegany, Erie, Niagara, Wyoming, Genesee, Orleans, Monroe, Livingston. Ontario, Yates, and Steuben counties, 
and by parts of Wa.vne and Schuyler counties. 

ui Area covered in 19(H) by Orange and Kockland counties. 

u Area covered in IHOO by Queens and Nassau counties. 

1* Area covered in 19(10 by Ulster and Sullivan counties, and by parts of Greene and Delaware counties. 

1' Area covered in 1900 by Washington and Warren counties. 

20 Area covered in 1900 by Westchester county, and by part of New Y'ork county. 

" .\rea covered in 1900 by Bergen and Hudson counties, and by part of Passaic county. 
^ Area covered in 1900 by Burlington county, and bv parts of Mercer and Ocean counties. 
'-' Area covered in 1900 by Essex and Union counties', and by part of Passaic county. 

21 Area covered in 1900 by Gloucester, Atlantic, and Camden counties. 

^ Area covered in 1900 by Hunterdon county, and by part of Mercer county. 

« Area covered in 1900 by Middlesex countv. and bv'parts of Mercer and Monmouth counties. 

" Area covered in 1900 by parts of Mercer. Monmoutli. and Ocean counties. ,r 

2" Area covered in 1900 by Somerset county, and bv part of Mercer county. ' 

» Area covered in 190O by Warren and Sussex counties. 



GENERAL TABLES. 203 

Table 10.5.-\V0ITE AND COLORED POPULATION OF EACH COUNTY REPORTED IN 1790 COMP\RED WITH TH \T OF 
TUE S.VME AREA IN 1900, TOGETHER WITH THE NUMUER OK COLORED PER 1,0(J0 WUITES-^onlinuc-,!.' 



PENNSTLVAXIA. 



The state 

AllPKhcny' 

Rodford' 

lifrks" 

Uiu-ks* 

flK'slir* 

Cumberland* 

Dauphin* 

1 lelaware ' 

Fayette* 

Franklin* 

IluntinKdon' 

I.anraster'* 

Luzerne* 

MiUlinio 

Monttjomery* 

Nortlianinton '> — 
Northumherland ". 

Philadelphia' 

\Va,shington" 

We.itmoreland"... 
York'- 



10,203 
13, 132 
30,189 
25,216 
27,829 

18,208 
18,155 
9,469 
13,318 

15,662 
7,558 

36,081 
4,892 

7,562 
22,918 
24,238 
17, 147 

54.388 
23,892 
16,019 , 
37,535 ! 



POPULATION IN 1790. 



Total. While. 



433,611 423,373 



10,032 
13,052 
29,928 
24,374 
27,141 

17,779 
17,886 
9,133 
12,990 

15,057 
7,491 

35,192 
4.868 

7,461 
22,305 
24,086 
16,971 

51,916 
23,617 
15,852 
36,182 



Colored. 



Total. 



Free. 



Slave. 



6,531 



3,707 



171 
80 
261 
842 



429 
289 
336 
328 

C05 
67 

889 
24 

101 
5.53 
152 
176 

2,472 
275 
167 

1,353 



12 

34 I 
201 I 
.181 ' 
S4« 

206 

59 
287 

46 

279 

24 
542 

13 

42 
440 
132 



2,099 
12 



850 



159 
46 

m 
ail 

144 

223 

210 

49 

282 

326 
43 

347 
11 



113 
20 
87 

373 
263 
128 
503 



Total. 



3iii,i>t.i 
71.180 
95,095 

76,607 
168,270 

94,762 
110,412 

54,902 
135,803 
159,241 
562,463 

82,108 
138,995 
314,685 
697,909 

1,293,607 
121,107 
243,032 
150,909 



roraunoN im isoo. 



White. 



t'lK, 788 
86,391 

73,600 
161,579 

84,816 
106,442 

52,944 
134,628 
156,761 
560,417 

81,387 
134,436 
313, 535 
694,056 

1,229,673 
116,393 
240,845 
148,880 



Total. 



Ul>4 
2,402 
9,304 

2,917 
6,001 
9,947 
4,970 

1,958 
1,175 
2,480 
2,046 

721 
4,559 
1,150 
3,8S0 

64,034 
4,714 
2,187 
2,029 



Colorod. 



Negro. 



Indian. 



V4U 
2,200 
9,242 

1,900 
6,008 
9,894 
4,952 

1,954 
1,168 
2,461 
2,004 

716 
4,503 
1,116 
3,733 

62,613 
4,600 
2,149 
2,013 



185 
39 

1,015 
6 
8 



Mongo- 



1,9«7 



339 

12 
24 
17 
23 

2 
17 
46 

u; 

?l 

18 ' 
42 

3 
37 
30 
86 

1,177 
34 



24 



at 

7 

3 

32 

107 

at 

41 

117 
47 

87 
9 
II 

« 

• 

a 

t 
t 

SI 
40 
B 
14 



DELAWARE.' 



Thestate i 59,096 

Kent ! 18, 920 

New-Castle I 19, 688 

Susiox ' 20. 488 



46.310 ! 12,786 



14.050 
16.487 I 
15.773 



4.870 ' 
3,201 I 
4.715 



3,899 



2,570 
639 
690 



8,887 



2,300 
2,562 
4.025 



184,735 



32,762 
109.097 
42,276 



163,977 



26,017 
93,4£6 
36.504 



30,768 



7,748 
16,241 
6,772 



30,607 



7,738 
16,197 
6,762 



m 



7 


347 


309 


36 


194 


173 


10 


2» 


UD 



199 



MARYI.ANT>.» 



The stale 


319,728 


208,649 


111,079 


8,043 


lOS.O.'IO 


1,466,762 


1,143,956 


322,806 


321,766 


26 


1,015 


632 


281 




4,809 
22,598 
25,4.34 
13,503 

8,652 

9,506 
13,625 
20,613 
15,875 
30,791 

14,976 
12,836 
18,003 
21,344 
15,463 

15,544 
15,610 
13,084 
15.822 
11.640 


4.539 
11.664 
18,953 
11,925 

4,211 

7,028 
10.055 
10, 124 
10,010 
26,937 

10,784 
6,748 
11,679 
10,004 
8,171 

8,216 
8,272 
7,231 
14,472 
7,626 


270 
10,934 
6,481 
1,578 
4,441 

2.478 
3.570 
10.489 
5,865 
3,864 

4,192 
6.088 
6.324 
11,340 
7,292 

7,328 
7,338 
5,853 
1.350 
4,014 


12 
804 
604 
323 
136 

421 
163 
4(M 
528 
213 

775 
655 
294 
164 
618 

343 

268 

1,076 

64 

178 


268 

10,130 

6,877 

1,255 

4,305 

2,057 
3.407 
10,086 
5,337 
3,641 

3,417 
5,4.33 
6,0.30 
11,176 
6,674 

6,985 
7,070 
4,777 
1,286 
3,836 


71,395 
56,3.35 
144,933 
469,116 
10,223 

16,248 
i 24,662 

17.662 
1 27,962 
I 71,443 
1 

28,269 
18,786 
45,000 
i 294,067 
18,364 

17, 182 
38,997 
20,342 
46,133 
! 30,643 


69,594 

36.645 

125,446 

396.324 

5,060 

12,009 
20,850 
8,014 
18,476 
64,193 

22.411 
11,343 
30,387 
199,448 
11,991 

8,926 
28,126 
12,875 
42,642 
21,276 


1.801 
19,790 
19,487 
72,792 

6.143 

4.239 
3.812 
9.648 
9,486 
7,260 

6,868 
7. 44.3 
14.613 
94,619 
6,373 

8,266 
12,871 
7,467 
2,491 
9,367 


1,795 
19,772 
19,447 
72,337 

5,143 

4,237 
3,806 
9.648 
9,484 
7,247 

5,854 
7.442 
14.584 
94,157 
6,372 

8,256 
12,867 
7,466 
2,488 
9,366 




6 
466 


69 

937 

343 

132 

1.066 

353 
366 

1,036 
681 
141 

389 

' 902 

641 

1,134 

« 
893 
887 
809 

93 
S3t 


at 


Ann- Arundel ^ 




641 


Baltimore '» 




156 


Baltimore town and precincts " . . 




183 


Calvert * 




1.013 
363 








Cecil* 


3 


181 


Charles * 


i.aiM 






28 
441 


618 






113 


Harford * 




ati 




666 


Montgomery « 


1 
21 


480 
473 




(SI 


St MarTi's * 




93t 


Somerselt » 

Talbot « 




2 


« 




no 






n 


Worcester ii 




440 







' Area covered in 1900 by Allegheny. Butler, CrawIor<i. Erie, Mercer, and Lawrence countie<!, and by parts of Arnislroni!. Heaver. Venango. Warren, and Fomt 
counties. 

• Area covered In 1900 by Bedford. Somerset, and Fnlton counties, ami by parts of Cambria and Ulalr counties. 

• Area covered in I'.IOO by Berks county, and by part of Schuylkill county. 
' .\rea lovered in IWIO coextensive witn thiit of IT'JI). 

» .-^rea covered in V«I0 by Perrv and Cumberland counties. 

• Arcacoveredin l',«)Obv I'auphincounty. and by part of Lebnnoncounly. , „, , 

' .\rea covered in H««) by lluulincdon county, and by parts of Center. Cambria, Clearneld. and lllalr counties. 

'. \rca covered i n 190O by Lanea-siercountv. and by part of Lel)anon county. ,„ „ , 

» .Vrca covered In UHK) by Luzerne, Susquehanna. Wvomlnp. and Lackawanna counties, and by j)art of Bradfonl county. 

"Areacoveredin i;«IOhy Milltinand Juniatacounties.and l>y partofCenle»eounty. 

" \rea covered in I'mO by Northampton. Wa^Tie. Lehigh. I'ike. Monroe, and ( artK)n counties, and by part of Srhuylklll county. 

iJAreaeove '• - ■'' :.........„_..., «„i.- — i.,,,..., t 

Cameron count 

'^ .\reacove. ..,,,. .....y, ... ........ ...,..^.. . ^.-. . . . 

'• Are.1 covere'l in l'.«iO by Westmoreland county, and by parts of Armstrong and Indiana counties. 

'i Area covered in VMW by York and Adams counties. 

'• lnciu<Us popiiiaiicm of the District of Columbia In 1900. 

" .\rea covered in 1<*(W by .\lleg.iiiv and tlarrett countii«. 

" Areacovered In liiixibv Anne Arundeland Ilowardcounlles. . „ ... ,. 

i« Area covered in I'JOO bV B:Utimore county, and by parts of tarroll county and Baltimore city. 

» Area covere<i in I'.illObv part of liiUtimore city. „ ,. . , 

»i Area covered in 1900 by Caroline roiinty.and by part of Dorchester county. 

M Ari'a covered In lllfKlbv part of Dorchester county. 

» Areacovereil in MiKl bv Fred.-rick countv. and by part of Carroll county. 

X Area coveriHl In IWKIb'v Montpomery county, and iWorKetouii. D. I. „,,..„....,.„„„ 

» Area eov.red in vm bv Irinee CeOTgrs countv. and the Distrii t of ( olumWa. exclusive of <.,«rgelown. 

» Area covered In litno bv Somerset county, and by part of Wicomico county. 

» jVrca covered In 1900 by Worcester county, and by pari of W Icomleo county. 



overed in l«iO by Northanipton, Wa^-ne. Lehigh. INke. Monroe, and (arlK)nTOunties. and by nart of SchiyMklllTO^ 

overed in I'mo by VorthumI.eriand, Lveominp. JellerMin. McKean. I'uiier. Tlora. Columbia. X nion. I larlon. I Union. Klk. hulll\T»n, Honlour. Snyder, and 

iniies and by parts of Armstrong. Ceiiter. Venango. Warren, Indiana, Clearneld. Bradford, and Forest counties. 

overed in nuio by Wishinglon and Greene counties, and by pari of Iteavrr county. 



A CENTURY OF POPULATION GROWTH. 



204 

Table 105 -WHITE AND COLORED POPULATION OF EACH COUNTY REPORTED IN 1790, COMPARED WITH THAT OF 
THe"sAME AREA IN 1900, TOGETHER WITH THE NUMBER OF COLORED PER 1,000 WHITES-Contmued. 

VIRGINIA.' 



The state 



Accomack 

Albemarle 

AmeliaCincludingNottowayCo.) 

Amherst » 

Augusta ' 



Be.lford 

Berkley < 

Botetourt'... 
Brunswick.. . 
Buckingham « 



CamplieU'. .. 

Caroline 

Charles-City. 
Charlotte*... 
Chesterfield.. 



Culpeper' 

Cumberland 

Dinwitidie 

Blizabeth-City., 
Essex 



Fairfax i" . . - 
Fauquier. .. 
Fluvanna... 

Franklin 

Frederick " . 



Gloucester n 

Goochland 

Greenbrier (including Kanawa)i3. 

Greensville 

Halifax 



Hampshire 
Hanover. .- 
Hardy IS... 
Harrison is, 
Henrico — 



11 



Henry i^ 

Isle of Wight... 

James City 

King & Queen. 
King George . . . 



King William. 

Lancaster 

Loudon 18 

Louisa 

Lunenburg 



Mecklenburg.. 

Middlesex 

Monongalia i^. 
Montgomery so 
Nansemoud... 



New Kent 

Norfolk 

Northampton 

Northumberland. 
Ohlo»i 



Total. 



747, 610 



13, 959 
12,585 
18,097 
13,703 
10,886 

10,531 
19,713 
10, 524 
12,827 
9,779 

7,085 
17, 489 

5,688 
10, 078 
14, 214 

22, 105 
8,163 

13,934 
3,450 
9,122 

12, 320 
17,892 
3,921 
6,842 
19,681 

13, 498 
9,053 
6,015 
fi, 362 

14, 722 

7,346 
14, 754 
7,336 
2,0S0 
12,000 

8,479 
9,028 
4,070 
9,377 
7,366 

8,128 
5,638 
18,962 
8,467 
8,959 

14,733 
4,140 
4.768 

13,228 
9,010 

6,239 
14,524 
6,8.89 
9,163 
6,212 



POPULATION IN 1790. 



White. 



442,117 

8,976 
6,835 
6,684 
8.2S6 
9,260 

7.725 
16.650 
9,241 
5,919 
5,496 

4,946 
6,994 
2,084 
6,199 
6,358 

13,809 
3,577 
6,039 
1,5.56 
3,543 

7,611 
11,157 
2,430 
5,735 
15, 315 

6,225 
4,140 
5,676 
2.530 
8,931 

6, 879 
6, 291 
6,556 
2,013 
5,600 

6, 763 
4,786 
1,519 
4,159 
3,123 

2,893 
2,2.59 
14,749 
3,880 
4,547 

7,555 
1,,531 
4,602 
12.394 
4,713 

2,391 
8,928 
3,181 
4, ,iOfi 
4,907 



Colored. 



Total. Free. Slave 



305, 493 

4,983 
5.750 
11,413 
5.417 
1,626 

2,806 
3,063 
1.283 
6.908 
4,283 

2,739 
10, 495 
3,504 
4,879 
7,856 

8,296 
4,576 
7,895 
1,894 
5,579 

4,709 
6,735 
1,491 
1,107 
4,366 

7,273 
4,913 
339 
3,832 
5,791 

467 
8,463 

780 

67 

6,400 

1,710 
4,242 
2,551 
5,218 
4,243 

5,235 
3.379 
4,213 
4,587 
4,412 

7,178 

2,609 

166 

834 

4,297 

3,848 
5, ,596 
3,708 
4,6,57 
305 



12,866 

721 
171 
106 
121 
59 



131 
24 
132 
115 

251 

203 

363 

63 



70 
142 
561 

18 
139 

135 
93 
25 
34 

116 

210 
257 
20 
212 
226 

13 
240 
411 



581 

165 
375 
146 
76 
86 

84 

143 

ia3 

14 

SO 

416 
51 
12 
6 

480 

148 
251 
464 
197 
24 



292,627 

4,262 
5,579 
11,307 
5, 296 
1,567 

2,754 
2,932 
1,259 
6,776 
4,168 



10, 292 
3,141 
4,816 
7,487 

8,226 
4,434 
7.334 
1,876 
5,440 

4,574 
6,642 
1,466 
1,073 
4,250 

7,063 
4,656 
319 
3,620 
5,565 

454 
8,223 

369 

67 

6,819 

1,551 
3,867 
2,405 
6,143 
4,167 

5,161 
3,236 
4,030 
4,573 
4,332 

6,762 

2,658 

154 

828 

3,817 

3,700 
5,345 
3,244 
4,460 
281 



POPULATION IN 1900. 



Total. 



2, 812, 984 



32, 570 
34, 922 
SI, 403 

33. 939 
60, 662 

.30,356 
40, 065 

76. 940 
18,217 
20, 634 

44,832 
16,709 
5,040 
15,879 
28,519 

33, 182 
8,996 
37, 184 
19,460 
9,701 

31,089 
23, 374 
9, 0.50 
25,963 
31,248 

21,071 

9,519 

406, 338 

9,758 

37,197 

27, 322 
17,618 
15,724 
149,270 
115,112 

34,667 
13, 102 
5,732 
9.265 
6,918 

8.380 

8.949 

30.398 

16.517 

11,706 

26.551 
8,220 
80,015 
174.225 
23,078 

4,866 
111,831 
13,770 

9,846 
133,162 



White. 



2, 108, 088 



20, 743 

21,969 

8,018 

21,210 

41,919 

20,617 
34,218 
58,791 
7,376 
10, 699 

26,871 
7, 667 
1,344 
7,116 

17,481 

20, 885 
2,791 
16,931 
10, 757 
3,576 

20, 465 
15,074 
5.039 
20.005 
26, 342 

12,068 

3,961 

387, 036 

3,402 

17, 922 

26,116 
9.696 
16,015 
146,447 
70, 044 

24,660 
6,833 
2,712 
4,006 
3,596 

3,266 
4,058 
23, 139 
7,896 
5,133 

10.353 
3.684 
78,800 
162, 327 
10,116 

1,660 

57,212 

6,141 

6,680 

130,672 



Total. 



Negro. 



704,221 



11,825 
12,950 
13,385 
12, 729 
8,738 

9,739 
5,847 
18, 139 
10,842 
10, 035 

18,961 
9,042 
3,696 
8,763 

11,037 

12,296 
6,205 

20,261 
8,582 
6,126 

10, 614 
8,298 
4,011 
5,947 
4,903 

9.003 
5.558 

19, 295 
6,356 

19, 275 

1,206 
7,898 
709 
2,805 
45,046 

10,007 
6,268 
3,020 
5,259 
3,322 



5.114 


4,962 


4,891 


4,891 


7.259 


7,257 


8.621 


8.621 


6,572 


6,572 


16,198 


16.198 


4,536 


4.536 


1.215 


1,206 


21,898 


21,894 


12,963 


12,962 


3,206 


3,204 


57,619 


57,465 


7,629 


7,627 


4, 166 


4,166 


2,490 


2,470 



Indian. 



Mongo- 
lian. 





2 
3 












5 








io 




























1 




1 








2 


108 


13 




10 




9 








1 




3 










1 


6 






1 
24 




7 

1 


17 
21 




1 














152 






2 




















9 




4 




1 


1 
52 


""m 

2 








20 



Num- 
ber of 
colored 
persons 
per 
1,0(10 



Num- 
ber of 
negroes 
per 
1.000 



whites, i^^hm-s, 
1790. ^^"• 



555 
841 
1,708 
654 
176 

363 

184 

139 

1,167 

779 

554 

1,501 

1, l'81 

938 

1,236 

601 
1,279 
1,307 
1,217 
1,575 

619 
604 
614 
193 
285 

1, 168 

1,187 

60 

1,516 

648 

68 

1,346 

119 

33 
1,143 

254 

886 

1,679 

1,266 

1,369 

1,810 
1,496 

286 
1,182 

970 

950 
1,704 
36 
67 
912 

1,609 

627 

1,166 

1,034 

62 



334 
570 



472 
171 
309 
1,470 
947 

733 
1,179 
2, 750 
1,231 

631 

589 
2,223 
1,196 

798 
1,713 

519 
650 
796 
297 
186 

746 

1,403 

50 

1,868 

1,075 

46 

815 

47 

19 

643 

406 

917 

1,114 

1,313 

924 

1,619 
1,205 
314 
1,092 
1,280 

1,565 

1,231 

16 

144 

1,281 

1,930 
1,004 
1,242 



19 



' Area covered In 1900 by Virginia and West Virgmia. Independent cities are included In county totals for 1790 and 1900. 

'^ Area covered in 1900 by Amherst and Nelson counties. 

' Area covered in 1900 by .\ugusta county, and by jiarts of Bath, Pocahontas, and Highland coimties. 

' Area covered in 1900 by Berkeley and JolTorson counties, and by part of Morgan county. 

' Area covered m 1900 by Botetourt, .Mleghany, and Roanoke counties, and by parts of Craig, Monroe, and Bath counties. 

6 Area covered in 1900 by Buckmgham county, and by part of Appomattox county. 

' Area covered in 1900 by Campljell county, and by part of Appomattox county. 

8 Area covered in 19(X) by Charlotte county, and by part of Appomattox county. 

» Area covered in 1900 by Culpeper, Madison, and Rappahannock counties. 
i» Area covered in 1900 by Alexandria county, and by part of Fairfax county. 
" .\rea covered in 1900 by Frederick and Clarke counties, and by part of Warren county. 
'2 Area covered in 1900 by Gloucester and Mathews counties. 

" Area covered in 1900 by Greenbrier, Boone, Cabell, (lav, Fayette, Jackson, Kanawha, Lincoln, Logan, Mason, Mingo, Nicholas, Putnam, Raleigh, Roane.Wayne, 
and Wyoming counties, and by parts of Braxton, Calhoun, Gilmer, McDowell. Monroe, Pocahontas, Summers, Webster, Wirt, and Wood counties. 
" Area covered in 1900 by Hampshire and Mineral counties, and by part of Morgan county. 
15 Area covered in 1900 by Hardy and Grant counties. 

1" Area covered in 1900 by Harrison, Doddridge, Lew is, and Ritchie counties, and by parts of Barbour, Braxton, Calhoun, Gilmer, Marion, Taylor, Upshur, Webster, 
Wirt, Wood, and Pleasants counties. 

1' .\rea covered In 1900 by Henry and Patrick counties. 
" Area covered in 1900 by Loudoun county, and by part of Fairfax countv. 

" Area covered in 1900 by Monongalia county, and by parts of Preston, Marion, and Taylor counties. 

■'" Area covered in 1900 by Montgomery, Bland, Carroll, Floyd, Giles, Grayson, Mercer, Pulaski, and Wythe counties, and by parts of Craig, McDowell, Monroe, 
Smyth, Summers, and Tazewell cdunties. 

=1 Area covered in 1900 by Ohio, Brooke, Hancock, Marshall. Tyler, and Wetzel counties, and by part of Pleasants covmty. 



GENERAL TABLES. 



205 

VIRCINIA >— Continued. 



Tho state... 
Edenion district. 



Bertie i« 

Camden '» 

Chowan i» 

Currituck"... 

Gates i» 

Hertford >» 

I'lisqiiotanki" . 
I'erctuiinans'" . 
Tyrrell i: 



Fayette district. 



Anson" 

Cumlierland " 

Moore i" 

Uichmond '* . , 

nobesoni* 

Sampson '" . . . 



nalifa.x district 

EdReoombei'... 

Franklin" 

Halifax i» 

Martini" 

.Vash i» 

Northampton "> . 
WarrcnM 



milsborough district . 



CasH-elP'... 
Chatham 10 .. 
Granville". 

t'ranKe ^ 

Randolph '» . 
Wake*' 



POPULATION I.S 1790. 



rOrtXLATION IM IMO. 



Colored. 



White. 



Total. 



Orance ' 

ronlloton ' 

Piusylvania 

}*owhatan 

Prince Edward * 

Prince George. . . 
Prince William.. 
Priucc-ss .Vnne... 

Randolph & 

Richmond 

UockI)ri(it;e 

Rockingham " .. 

Russell' 

.shannandoah^. . 
.Southampton 

Spotsylvania 

Statlo'rd 

Surry 

Sussex 

Warwick 

Washington* 

Westmoreland... 
York 



5,436 
2,378 
8,538 
2,28C 
4,082 

3,387 
6,7« 
4.527 
932 
2,918 

5,825 
6.677 
3.143 
9,979 
0,312 

5,171 
5,4(>5 
2,762 
4,771 

667 
5,11." I 
3, 1R3 
2,115 1 



4,485 
74 
3,041 
4,536 
4,018 

4,786 
4,871 
3.266 
19 
4.067 

72:) 
772 
195 
531 
0,552 

6,081 
4,123 
3.465 
5,778 

1,028 

45$ 

4,539 

3,118 



Free. 



Slave. 



64 

1 

62 

211 

32 

267 
167 
64 



83 



5 

19 

559 

148 

87 

368 



33 

8 
114 
358 



4,421 
73 
2,979 
4,325 
3,986 

4,519 
4.704 
3,202 
19 
3,984 

682 
772 
IM 
512 
5,993 

5,933 
4,036 
3,097 
5,387 

990 

430 

4.425 

2, 71.0 



Total. 



18,785 
12,045 
63,414 
6,824 
16,118 

7,752 
11,112 
11.192 
48,876 

7,088 

24,187 
38,130 
115,100 
33,351 

22,848 

14,307 
8,097 
8,469 

12,082 

24,523 
48,895 
9,243 

7,4S2 



White. 



11,833 
11,730 
35.607 
2,343 
5,912 

2,886 
8,240 
5,505 
47,292 
4,159 

19,693 
34.909 
108.2.58 
31,209 
9,165 



6,489 
3,286 
4,121 

13,948 
44,469 
4,381 
3.401 



Colored. 



ToUl. 



6,952 

315 

27,807 

4.481 
10,306 

4,806 
2.872 
5.687 
1,584 
2,929 

4.494 
3.230 
6,842 
2,142 
13,683 

5,508 
1,608 
5.183 
7,961 

10,575 
4,426 
4,8i;2 
4,081 



Negro. 



27.1W4 
4.481 
10,206 

4,858 
2.871 
6,087 
1.579 
2,929 

4,494 
3,228 
6,842 
2,142 
13,683 

5,507 
1,608 
5,183 
7,9t>l 

10,527 
4,417 
4,861 
4,081 



Indian. 


Honico- 
llui. 








1 






8 

1 

1 ^' 


i 









2 
















1 
















48 


I 


2 

1 



willies, 
1790. 


IWO. ' 




.'.87 




27 


iM 


7H1 


l,9M 


1,913 


9M 


1,726 


1,413 


1,«83 


722 


348 


721 


1,003 


au 


33 


1,394 


704 



124 
116 
62 
53 

1,038 

1.176 

754 

1,2.55 

1,211 

1.534 , 

89 
1,420 I 
1,474 



NORTH CAROLINA. 



395.005 



53.709 



12.462 
4,022 i 
4,988 
5,220 ' 
5,380 
5,949 
5.477 
5,439 
4,820 

34,393 



5.235 
8,7.'M 
3,870 
6,053 
6,343 
6,162 

04,848 



289. 181 



33.568 



6.903 
2,954 
2.360 
4.002 
3.076 
3.269 
3.790 
3.519 
3,635 

28,112 



4.365 
6, 407 
3.487 
4.415 
4. 5.33 
4,845 

37,955 



105.824 



20.201 



5.499 
1.068 
2.628 
1.218 
2,310 
2.680 
1.687 
1.920 
1,191 

6.281 



S70 

2.203 

383 

6:<8 

810 
1,317 I 

26.893 



;.041 



,893.810 1.263.603 I O. 



5.687 I 



1.048 



19.153 I 



110.615 



>.455 I 



378 
30 
41 

115 
93 

232 
87 
37 
35 



41 

83 

12 

55 

277 

140 

1.364 



10.265 
7.502 

14.310 
6,010 
7.390 
9.992 
9,379 

m, 971 



10,090 
9,101 

10.982 

12,210 
7.318 

10. 198 



7.02S 
4.704 
7.170 
4.085 
5,189 
5.120 
4,599 



3.2.77 
2.7:i8 
7. HO 
1.925 
2.201 
4.S72 
4,7S0 



70 

37 
443 

96 
193 
458 

07 



45,820 14.151 



7.593 
0.504 I 
10.055 

0.S34 
7,540 I 



2,808 
1,568 
4.478 
2. 101 
484 
2,652 



72 
10 
315 
101 
24 
ISO 



5.121 
l,ai8 
2. .587 
1.10) 
2.217 
2.448 
1.000 
1.883 
1,150 

5,073 



829 
2.180 
371 
583 
533 
1,177 

25,529 



3. 167 
2.701 
6.l»7 
1.829 
2,008 
4.414 
4,713 

13.449 



20.538 
.5.474 
10.2.58 
8.413 
10.413 
14.294 
13.0t« 
10.091 I 
17,474 

190,881 



35.897 
44,067 
23,622 
28.408 
40,371 
24,616 

184,029 



as. 474 
25.111. 
30.793 
15.383 
32. 419 
21.1.W 
21,594 

242,575 



8.717 
3.283 
4.406 
6.409 
5,009 
5.895 
0.630 
.5. OSS 
10,418 

112,522 



20.002 
26.810 
15.773 
13.801 
19.577 
16,469 

83,827 



10.904 
12.078 
1I,0(« 
8.050 
18.887 
9.0.11 
7,211 

148,918 



2,730 
1,558 
4. 103 

2.060 

460 

2 472 



31,713 
23.912 
37.504 
64.584 , 
28,232 
5<;.li30 . 



16,491 
15,573 
17, 170 
43,593 
24, 500 
31,525 



11,821 


11.821 


2.191 


2.191 


6.8.52 


5.8.50 


2.004 


2.004 


4.804 


4.804 


8. .199 


8.391 


7.ai0 


7.027 


5.003 


5.003 


7.056 


7,050 



84,359 ! 80.347 



15.805 
17,257 

7,849 
14.007 
20.794 , 

8,047 



1.5.805 
17.256 

7.849 
14.473 
16,917 

8.047 



101.102 ' 101,095 



4.012 



.104 
751 I 
820 , 
445 l 
. I 540 
328 

I 223 



134 

3,877 



21.570 
12.4.38 
19,733 
7,327 , 
13.532 
12,119 
14.383 



12.438 . 

19,7.13 :. 

7.327 I. 
13,529 1. 
12.118 
14.383 . 



190 
350 
110 
145 
179 
272 

709 



93,657 ' 93.652 



16,222 
8.339 

20,328 

20.991 
3.672 

25,105 



16.222 I. 

8 339 I 
20.328 . 
20.9'i7 '. 

3.672 :. 
25.104 !. 



461 
.575 
990 
471 
424 
9i52 
1.039 

309 



1 . 



386 



.151 



' .Vrea covered In lOOn liy \"irginla and West Virginia. Independent cities are Included In county totaU for 17(10 and 1900. 

' .\rea coveretl in I'.hm) l.y Orange and Gre.-iie counties. 

' Area covered In I'.mmi by Pendleton county. an*I by part of Highland county. 

* .\rea coveretl in l'.»)0 bV Prince Ivlward rotiniv. an.l by part of .Vpponialtox county. 

> .\rea covered In 19110 by K;m<loli>h and Tucker counties, an<l by i)arts of Harbour, Pocahontas. Prt-slon. t'pshur, and Welisler counllns. 

• Area covered in Iftu*) bv RoekinL'hain e-oiinlv. and bv part of Page county. 

'Area covered in HMK) by Russell, liiiehanan." Dickenson. Lee, and Wise counties, and by parts of McDowell, Scott, and Taiewell counlles. 

».\rea covered In I'.iixi by sliinan.lo;ih county, and by parts of Page and Warren counlles. 

» Area covered In P«X) by Wiishingtun county, ami by parts of Scolt and Smyth counties. 

io.\n.acoven'd in PiOO eoexU'Usivc wilh that of K'.KJ. 

" .\rea eoverid In l'.«iO bv Currituck counlv. and bv part of Dare county. 

» Ana lovered in l»X) bv Tvrrell and Washington counties, and by part of Dan> county. 

» .\rea coveri'd in l'.«ii) bv .V'nson countv. and by part of I'nion county. 

i< .\na covered in I'.iiiO bv Harnett couiitv, and by part of Cumberland county. 

" .\n'a eoviTed In l'.'i*) bv Richmond and Scotland countl.-s. 

K .\rea covered in I'.iiH) bv Sam[ison countv, wilh the exception of a small sretlon 

" .\rea covi'pd In I'JiK) bv lulg. comb.' county, and by part of Wilson county. 

w .\rea coveri'd in l'.ti«) bv part of p'ranklin coimty. 

'» Ana covepd in PKV) bv Nash countv. and by part of Wilson coimty. 

=0 Vrea covend in I'.kki bv Warren counlv. and by part of Nance county. 

== Area covend In l'.«K1 bv Caswell and Person counties. 

•^Areacoven-d in I!«KI bv Cranville countv, and by parts of \ aner and Franklin counties. 

- \rca cov.nd In IIKX) by Orange and .Vlainanee counties, and by part of Durham county. 

s< Area covered In I'JOO by Wake countv, and by part of Durham county. 



228 
92 
63 
6« 
l,4«3 

636 

248 

1,577 

l,«I2 

7St 

90 

1,110 

1,200 



494 



Mi 1 


DM 


700 

362 

1.114 


i.3se 

667 
1,328 



313 
856 

1.423 
1,080 



714 



787 
644 

498 

1,049 

864 

489 

1.306 



1,276 
981 

1.784 
910 
716 

1.312 

1,995 

cat 



923 

535 
1,184 
4KI 
1» 
796 



A CENTURY OF POPULATION GROWTH. 



206 

Table 105 -WHITE AND COLORED POPULATION OF EACH COUNTY REPORTED IN 1790, COMPARED WITH THAT OF 
lABLE xuo^ ^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ TOGETHER WITH THE NUMBER OF COLORED PER 1.000 WHITES-Continued. 

NORTH CAROLINA— Continued. 







POPULATION IN 


1790. 




POPULATION IN 1900. 




Num- 
ber of 
colored 
persons 
per 
1,000 
whites, 
1790. 


Num- 


COTJNTT- 


Total. 


White. 


Colored. 


Total. 


White. 


Colored. 


negroes 
per 
1.000 




Total. 


Free. 


Slave. 


Total. 


Negro. 


Indian. 


1 
Mongo- 
lian. 


whites, 
1900. 


Morgan district 


33,317 


30,687 


2,630 


13 


2,617 


423,676 


373,248 


50,428 


49,027 


1,401 




88 


131 


Burke i 


8,106 
9,246 
7,808 
8,157 

55,683 


7.497 
8.391 
7,197 
7,602 

38,800 


609 
855 
611 
555 

16,883 


9 


600 
855 
609 
553 

16.042 


150,376 
71,031 

138,676 
ta, 593 

218,855 


134,633 
56,081 

124,212 
58,322 

127,391 


15, 743 
14,950 
14,464 
5,271 

91,464 


15,057 

14,950 

13, 758 

5,262 

91,454 


686 




81 
112 
85 
73 

435 


112 
267 


Lincoln • 


2 
2 

841 


706 
9 


10 


111 


Wilkes* 






71S 


Newbera district 








5,405 
3,734 
10, 474 
6,994 
4,204 
5,691 
4.796 
8,270 
6,115 

66,927 


3,655 
2,932 
6,474 
4,936 
3,024 
4,298 
3,071 
5,881 
4,529 

58,425 


1,750 
802 
4,000 
2,058 
1,180 
1,393 
1,725 
2,389 
1,586 

8,502 


128 
93 

337 
46 
37 
65 
70 
25 
40 

249 


1,622 
709 
3,063 
2,012 
1,143 
1,328 
1,655 
2.364 
1,546 

8.253 


27,372 
11,344 
31,704 
30, 677 
10,265 
35,003 
8,226 
30, 889 
33,375 

388, 126 


16,002 
9,297 
14,472 
16, 852 
6,132 
25,678 
4,466 
15,397 
19,095 

286, 716 


11,370 
2,047 
17,232 
13,825 
4,133 
9,325 
3,760 
15.492 
14,280 

101.410 


11,368 
2,047 
17,228 
13,824 
4,133 
9,325 
3,760 
15, 492 
14,277 

101,392 




2 


479 
274 
618 
417 
390 
324 
662 
406 
350 

146 


710 
















4 
1 






1,190 






820 






674 








363 








842 








1,006 






3 
12 


748 


Salisbury district 


6 


354 


(; nil ford 11 


7,300 
5,430 

11,360 
5,039 
6,211 

15,972 
8,423 
7,192 

26,097 


6,657 
4,569 
9,685 
4,191 
5,088 
14,129 
7,633 
6,483 

15,814 


643 

871 

1,675 

848 

1,123 

1,843 

790 

709 

10,283 


27 
3 

67 
11 
10 
102 
12 
17 

216 


616 

868 

1,608 

837 

1,113 

1,741 

778 

692 

10,067 


39,074 
34,310 
90,853 
29,417 
33,163 
67, 497 
54,214 
39,598 

128, 153 


27, 969 
26,508 
67,009 
23,936 
21,544 
53,380 
40,866 
35,604 

74,526 


11,105 

7,802 

33,844 

5,481 

11,619 

14,117 

13,348 

4,094 

53,627 


11,103 

7,802 

33,842 

5,481 

11,617 

14,110 

13.346 

4,091 

53,355 


1 


1 


97 
191 
173 
202 
221 
130 
103 
109 

650 


397 




294 






2 


594 






229 






2 
3 
2 
2 

13 


539 




4 


264 


Stokes '^ 


327 




1 
259 


115 


Wilmington district 


716 






Bladen '^ 


5,100 
3,070 
5,663 
6,837 
5,427 


3,356 
1,556 
4,274 
3.032 
3,596 


1,744 
1,514 
1,389 
3,805 
1,831 


58 
3 
3 
68 
84 


1,686 
1,511 
1,386 
3,737 
1,747 


34,230 
18, 548 
22,405 
41,030 
11,940 


21,891 
10,512 
13,877 
19.916 
8,330 


12,339 
8,036 
8,528 

21,114 
3,610 


12,194 
7,922 
8,528 

21.101 
3.610 


145 
114 




520 
973 
325 
1,255 
509 


557 




726 


Dunlin U 


615 






is 


1,081 






433 











SOUTH CAROLINA. 



The State 


249,073 


140, 178 


108,895 


1,801 


107,094 


1,340,316 


557,807 


782,509 


782,321 


121 


67 


777 


1,402 


Beaufort district ^ 


18,753 
38,265 
66,985 
10,706 
22,122 
73,729 
18,513 


4,364 
29,242 
16,402 
7,418 
8,878 
62,462 
12,412 


14,389 
9,023 

51,583 
3,288 

13,244 

11,267 
6,101 


153 
158 
950 
59 
113 
198 
170 


14,236 
8,865 

50,633 
3,229 

13, 131 

11,069 
5,931 


59,233 
358, 8M 
166,955 

94,016 
129,214 
349,644 
182,471 


11,585 
96.707 
50,266 
41,990 
58,833 
233,589 
64,&37 


47,648 
262,177 
116,689 
62,026 
70,381 
116,955 
117,634 


47,639 
262,092 
116,639 
52,023 
70,347 
115,952 
117,629 




9 
13 

36 1 

2 ' 

3 ■ 
3 

1| 


3,297 
309 

3,349 
443 

1.492 
180 
492 


4,112 


Camden district ^ 


72 
14 


2.710 




2,320 


Cheraw district ^f' 


1,239 


Georgetown district ^ 


31 


1,196 


Ninety-six district *^ . . 


496 


Orangeburgh district ® 


4 


1,814 



' Area covered in 1900 by Burke, Madison, Yancey, and Mitchell counties, and by parts of McDowell, Haywood, Swain, Buncombe, Caldwell, Watauga, and Alexander 
counties. 

3 Area covered in 1900 by Lincoln, Gaston, and Catawba counties, and by part of Cleveland county. 

a Area covered in 1900 by Cherokee, Graham, Macon, Jackson, Transylvania, Henderson, Polk, Rutherford, and Clay counties, and by parts of Swain, Cleveland, Bun- 
combe, Haywood, and McDowell counties. 

* Area covered in 1900 by Ashe and Wilkes counties, and by parts of Alleghany, Watauga, Alexander, and Caldwell counties. 

6 Area covered in 1900 by Beaufort county, and by part of Pamiico county. 

6 Area covered in 1900 by part of Carteret county. 

' Area covered in 1900 by Craven county, and by parts of Pamlico and Carteret counties. 

8 Area covered in 1900 by Lenoir and Greene counties. 

B .\rea covered in 1900 by Hyde county, and by part of Dare county. 

10 Area covered in 1900 by Johnston county, and by part of Wilson county. 

11 Area covered in lOiX) coextensive with that of 1790. 

12 Area covered in 19i.tO by Wayne county, and by part of Wilson county. 

13 Area covered in 1900 by Iredell county, and by part of Alexander county. 

n Area covered in 1900 by Mecklenburg and Cabarrus counties, and by part of Union county. 
15 Area covered in 1900 by Montgomery and Stanly counties. 

18 Area covered in 1900 by Davie, Rowan, and Davidson counties, and by part of Forsyth county. 
IT Areacovored in 1900 by Stokes county, and by part of Forsyth county. 

19 Areacovend in 1900 by Yadkin and Surry counties, and by part of Alleghany county. 

19 Area covered in 1900 by Bladen countv, and by parts of Cumberland and Columbus counties. 

20 Area covered in 1900 by Brunswick county, and oy part of Columbus county. 

21 Area covered in 1900 by New Hanover and Pender counties, and by part of Sampson county. 

22 Area covered in 1900 by Beaufort and Hampton counties. 

S3 Area covered in 1900 by Chester, Clarendon. Fairfield. Kershaw, Lancaster, Richland, Sumter, and York counties, and by part of Florence county. 
2^ Area covered in 1900 by Tharleston, Colleton, and Dorchester counties, and bv part of Berkeley county. 
^' Area covered in 1900 by Chesterfield. Darlington, and Marlboro counties, and'by part of Florence countv. 

2fi Area covered in 1900 by Georgetown, Horry, Marion, and Williamsburg counties, and bv parts of Florence and Berkelev counties. 

5" Area covered in 1900 by Abbeville, Anderson, Cherokee, Edgefield. Greenville, Greenwood, Laurens. Newberrv, Oconee, Pickens, Saluda, Spartanburg, and Union 
counties, and by pari of Aiken countv. 

23 Area covered in 1900 by Bamberg, Barnwell, Lexington, and Orangeburg counties, and bv part of Aiken county. 



GENERAL TABLES. 



207 



Table 105.-WniTE AND COLORED POPULATION OF EACH COUNTY REPORTED IN 1790, COMPARED WITU THVT OF 
THE SAME AREA IN 1900, TOGETHER WITH THE NUMBER OF COLORED PER 1,000 WHITES-Continued. 

CEORGIA. 



The state 

Burke" 

(.";iiii<len» 

rimttmm> 

Kllinnham* 

Fr,inklin» 

(;lyii« 

Greene' 

Liberty » 

Hiclirnond'. . . . 
Washington lo, . 
Wilks" 



POPULATION I.N 1790. 



Total. 



82,548 



9,467 

305 

10,769 

2,421 

1,011 

413 

5,405 
5,35o 

11,317 
4,552 

31,500 



White. 



Colored. 



Total. 



52,880 29,(i«2 



7,064 

221 

2,456 

1.674 

885 

193 

4.020 
1.303 
7,162 
3.8.56 
24,052 



2,403 
84 

8,313 
750 
\S6 
220 

1..-J85 
4,052 
4.155 
696 
7.448 



Free. 



11 

14 

112 



2 
180 



29,264 



2,392 
70 

8,201 
750 
156 
215 

1,377 

4,025 

4,116 

694 

7,208 



Total. 



Slave. 



040,538 



48,744 
12, 126 
74,299 
19,546 
119.324 
19,443 

36,409 
25.839 
.W.347 
132,9(i8 
96.433 



POPULATION IN 1900. 



Colored. 



Num- 
ber of 

eol-.n-ii 



Num- 
I'^rof 



While. 



297.007 



12.792 
5.933 

31,414 
9,(01 

7<<,304 
9,118 

10,346 
9,972 
27,981 
69,470 
33.986 



ToUl. ,; Negro. 



343.531 343.421 



Indian. 



U.M6 
42.930 
10,325 

26,123 

15,867 
27,3ii<> 
63,498 
62,447 



4.' '.; 
lu...;- 

26,123 I 
15,867 
27,325 I 
63,498 I 
62,446 'i 



Monito- wl'U", 



51 



,1790. 


1900. 


601 


I.IU 


340 


2,811 


380 


1,044 


3,3SS 


1,304 


448 


i,aw 


m 


ua 


1,140 


1,131 


345 


2,.';2'i 


3,110 


i,.'«i 


UD 


•77 


1» 


914 


310 


I,8l7 



KENTUCKY. 



The state . . 


73,677 


61.133 


12,544 


114 


12,430 


' 2.147,174 


1,8I'>2,309 


284,Sfi5 


284.706 


102 


57 


205 


153 






7,837 
18, 410 
4,765 
6,548 
5,772 

2,729 
7,091 
11,315 
9.210 


6.929 
14.626 
3,857 
5,446 
5,035 

2,500 
5,745 
10,032 
6,963 


908 
3,784 

908 
1,102 

737 

229 
1,346 
1,283 ' 
2,247 




908 
3,752 

903 
1,094 

737 

229 
1,339 
1,248 
2,220 


181,378 
61,601 
297.723 
756.996 
82,798 

292,521 

33.750 

286.224 

174, 183 


159,832 

41,930 

243,250 

642.753 

73,882 

283,613 
26,591 
237,517 
152,941 


21,546 

19,671 

54,473 

114,243 

8,916 

8,906 

7,159 

28,707 

21,242 


21.542 

19.669 

54.470 

' 114.212 

8,916 

8,811 

7.159 

28. 70S 

21.222 




4 
2 
2 
15 


131 
2SB 
235 
202 

140 

»2 
234 
128 
323 


135 


FaviHtf i» 


32 
5 
8 






Jellerson i* 


1 
!• 


224 


Lincoln » 


178 


Madison '• 


121 


Mason" 




85 


12 


31 


Mercer i» 


7 
35 
27 


2S9 


Nelson w 




.. . 
2 
20 


121 


Woodford » 




139 









' .\rea covered in 1900 by Burke county, and by parts of Jefferson and Screven counties. 
».\rea covered in 1900 by Camden and Charlton counties, and by part of Wayne county. 

* .\rea cover('<l in l'.t(H) by Chatham county, and bv part of Bryan county. 

* .\rea covered in lytMl bv !-;tlin^:ham county, and bv pan of Screven coiinty. 

» Area covered in 1900 by Franklin, Banks, Jackson, Hart, and KIbcrt counties, and by parts of Oconee. Clarke, and Madison counties. 

•Area covered in 1900 by tilvnn counlv, and bv part of Wavne county. 

'.\rea covered in 1900 bv parts o( Creene, Hancock. Oconee,' Oglelhorpe. Taliaferro, and Baldwin counties. 

» Area covered In I'.HKJ by Liberty and Mcintosh counties, and by part of Tattnall county. 

* Area covered in l'.»00 by Rlchniond county, and by part of Jefferson county. 

"Area covered in 1900 by Washington, Bulloch, ICraanuel, and Johnson counties, and by parts of Baldwin, Bryan, Hancock, Jefferson, Laurens, Montgomery, and 
Tattnall counties. . — . , 

" Area covered In 1900 by Wilkes, Columbia, Glascock. Lincoln, McDuffie, and Warren counties, and by parts of Clarke, Cireene, Madison, Ofilethorpe, and Tallafent) 

" Area covered In 1900 by Bourbon, Montgomery, Bath, Letcher. Powell. Wolfe. Menifee, and Knott counties, and by parts of Clark, Harrison, Pendleton, Floyd, 

Nicholas, Estill. Harlan, Perry, Pike. Morgan. Breathitt. Mapoffin, l.oe. and Le.illc counties. 

" Area covered in 1900 by Kavetie and Jessamine countlns. and by part of Clark county. „ _, j 

" \rea covered in 19(X) by Shdbv. Henri-, Oldham, Trimble, and Jefferson counties, and by parts of Franklin, Bullitt. Spencer, Carroll, and Anderson eo„nii.... 

u Area covered In 1900 by Liiiculn. I.oron. Pulaski. Christian. Warren. Cumberland, MuhlenlH-rc Barren, Knox. Wayne. CiL«<-y. LIvlnpiton. Hopkliu. i ' n. 

Mien. Whitley, .'Simpson. Todd. Monroe, TricK, Hickman, Calloway, Graves, McCnuken. Laurel, Kussell. Clinton. Crlttend.'n, Marshall. It;illard, Fulton, i '■■; 

Webster, and Carlisle counties, and by parts of Green. Garrard, Henderson, Adair, (lay, Pvockcastie, Butler, Hart, Edmoii.son, Boyle, Taylor, McU-an, an.; ...-i.vs. 

w Areacovercd in 1900 by Madison, Owsley, and Jackson counUes, and by parts of Garrard, Clay, tslUI, Uockcaslle, Perry, Breathitt, Lee, LcsUe, Harlan, and Bell 

" .\rea covered in 1900 by Mason, Bracken, Fleming Greenup, Lewis, Lawrence, Carter, Johnson, Rowan, Boyd, Elliott, Martin, Robertson, and Campbell counties, 
and by parts of Floyd, Nicholas, I'ike. Morgan, Magothn. IVndlctun, and Harrison counties. 

i«Areacovered"ln 1900 by Mercercounty. and by partsol Franklin, Anderson, Garrard, and Boylecounties. _-. „f ,-,.««, 

1' \rea covered in 19(KI by NcNon, Washington, llardin. t)hio, Br«'klnridBe, Grayson. Daviess. Meade, Hancock, Marion, and Laruo counUes, and by part» of tirwsn, 
Bu'llt't, Butler, Hart,. s,„.nc.r, Kdiimnson, Anderson. McLean, Taylor, Adair, and Henderson counties. , „ _, „ i.-„„i,ii„ ,.„„ii .„h P.nrfl.i.>n ~...niL« 

»o Area cov^ed in I'JOO by Uoodford, Scott, Boone, Grant, OaUatin, Owen, and Kenton counlles, and by parts of Harrison, 1 rankUn, t anoU, and Pendleton coiintla. 



208 



A CENTURY OF POPULATION GROWTH. 



Table 106 -WHITE POPULATION, CLASSIFIED BY SEX AND AGE, OF EACH STATE AND TERRITORY REPORTED IN 
" 1790 COMPARED WITH THAT OF THE SAME AREA IN 1900, WITH PER CENT OF INCREASE. 





WHITE 


POPtJU-TIOX 


IN 1790. 


■WHITE POPULATION IN 190O. 




All ages. 


16 years 
and over. 


Under 
16 years. 


All ages. 


16 years and over. 


Under 16 years. 


STATE OR TEKRITOBT. 


Number. 


Per cent 
of in- 
crease 
over 
white 
popula- 
tion in 
1790. 


Number. 


Per cent 
of in- 
crease 
over 
white 
popula- 
tion in 
1790. 


Number. 


Per cent 
of in- 
crease 
over 
white 
popula- 
tion in 
1790. 




BOTH SEXES. 


Continental United States 


3,172,444 


1,619,184 


1,553,260 


'66,893,403 


2,008.6 


43,046,595 


2,558.5 


23,846,810 


1,435.3 


Area enumerated in 1790 


3,172,444 


1,619,184 


1,553,260 


29,564,821 


831.9 


19,474,777 


1,102.8 


10,090,044 


549. 6- 


New England 


992,384 


526,094 


466,290 


5,527,026 


456.9 


3.916,531 


644. 5 


1,610,495 


245.4 


Maine 


96,107 
141,112 

85,072 
373, 187 

64,670 
232,236 

954,003 


47,354 
72,548 
41,440 

203,318 
34,683 

126,751 

482,608 


48,753 
68,564 
43,632 

169,869 
29.987 

105, 485 

471,395 


692.226 
410,791 
342,771 
2,716,096 
472,718 
892,424 

15,264,839 


620.3 
191.1 
302.9 
627.8 
631.0 
284,3 

1.500.1 


491,434 
297,804 
241,914 
1,929,747 
328, 555 
027,077 

10,292,527 


937.8 
310.5 
483. 8 
849.1 
847.3 
394.7 

2,032.7 


200,792 
112,987 
100,857 
786,349 
144,163 
265,347 

4,972,312 


311.9 




64.8 




131.2 




362.9 




380.8 




151.5 


Middle states . 


964.8 








314,366 

169,954 

423,373 

46,310 

1,226,057 


159,276 
87,203 

212,699 
23,430 

610,482 


155,090 
82,751 

210,674 
22,880 

615,575 


7,156,881 

1,812,317 

6,141,664 

153,977 

8.772,956 


2,176.6 
966.4 

1,350.7 
232.5 

615.5 


4,944,668 

1,220,587 

4,023.718 

103,554 

5,265,719 


3,004.5 

1.299.7 

1.791.7 

342.0 

762.6 


2,212,213 

591,730 

2,117,946 

50,423 

3,507,237 


1,326.4 




616. 1 




905.3 




120.4 




469.7 






Xfary^infi flnrl Di^trift. of rnlnmhin 


208,649 
442,117 
289,181 
140, 178 
52,886 
61,133 
31,913 


114,806 
222,459 
139,239 
67,016 
24,814 
27,790 
14,358 


93,843 
219,658 
149,942 
73,162 
28,072 
33,343 
17,555 


1,143.956 
2.108.088 
1,263,603 
557, 807 
297,007 
1,862,309 
1,540,186 

37,328,584 


448.3 
376.8 
337.0 
297.9 
461.6 
2,946.3 
4,726.2 


762,703 
1,263,882 
723.060 
324,751 
173,399 
1,110,743 
907,181 

23,571,818 


564.3 
468.1 
419.3 
384.6 
598.8 
3,896.9 
6,218.3 


381,253 
844,206 
540,543 
233,056 
123,608 
751,566 
633,005 

13,736,766 


306.3 


^'i^?"i^ia and West Vircinia 


284.3 




260.5 




218.5 


Georgia 


340.3 


Kentucky 


2,154.0 


Tennp^spp 


3,505.8 






















MALES. 




1,615,701 


815,098 


800,663 


34,285,307 


2,021.9 


22,223,462 


2,626.5 


12,061,843 


1.406.5 








1,615,761 


815, 098 


800. 663 


J4, 831, 668 


817.9 


9.738.805 


1.094.8 


5,092,863 


536.1 






New KnglariH 


494,254 


255,048 


239,206 


2,730,121 


452.4 


1,922,793 


653.9 


807, 326 


237 5 








49,074 
70,929 
44,710 

182,712 
31,801 

115,028 

490, 153 


24. .341 
36, 074 
22. 405 
95.433 
16. o.->i; 
60,739 

251,408 


24,733 
34, 855 
22,305 
87.279 
15.745 
54,289 

2.38.745 


349.786 
204, 931 
174.641 
1,323,178 
231.232 
446,353 

7,665,449 


012.8 
188.9 
290.6 
624.2 
627.1 
288.0 

1,463.9 


248.310 
148.474 
123, 596 
931,082 
157,931 
313, 402 

5, 165, 431 


9201 
311.6 
451.6 
875.6 
883.6 
416.0 

1,954.6 


101,476 
56,437 
51,045 

392,096 
73.301 

132,951 

2,300.018 




New Hampshire 


61 












365 6 


Connecticut 


144.9 


Middle states 








162,073 
86.667 

217,487 
23,926 

631,354 


83,815 
45,251 
110,539 
11,783 

308,642 


78,2.58 
41,416 
106,928 
12,143 

322,712 


3,558,116 

906,543 

3,122.304 

78,486 

4.436,098 


2,095.4 
946.0 

1,335.6 
228.0 

602.6 


2, 448, 151 

610,039 

2,054,286 

52,935 

2,650,579 


2,820.9 

1,248.2 

1,758.1 

349.2 

7.38.8 


1,109,965 

296,484 

1,068,018 

25,551 

1.785.519 






615 9 


Pennsvlvania 


898.8 
110.4 

433.3 




Southern states 




Maryland and District of Columbia. . 


107,254 
227, 071 
147,825 
73,298 
27, 147 
32,211 
16,548 


53, 913 
110,936 
70, 172 
35,576 
13, 103 
15, 154 
7,786 


51,3.39 
110.135 
77,6.53 
37,722 
14,044 
17,057 
8,762 


666,316 
1,070.009 
632, 155 
281, 147 
149,721 
948,048 
782,702 

19, 4.33, 639 


428.0 
373.9 
327.6 
283.6 
451.6 
2,843.2 
4,629.9 


374, 578 
645,869 
356,589 
161,778 
87,122 
565, 703 
458,938 

12, 484, 657 


569.9 
482.2 
408.2 
354.7 
5(i4. 9 
3, 633. 
5,794.4 


191,738 
430, 140 
275, 566 
119,369 
62,599 
382,343 
323,764 

6,968,982 




Virj-inia and West Virginia 


270.4 
254.9 
216.4 
345.7 
2,141.6 
3,595.1 


South Carolina 




KontuckT 










■"■| 









' Includes 84,209 persons in the military and naval seriMce stationed abroad. 



GENERAL TABLES. 



209 



Table lOG.-WEITE POPULATION, CLASSIFIED BY SEX AND AGE, OF EACH STATE AND TERRITORY REPORTED IN 
1790, COMPARED WITU TUAT OF THE SAME AREA IN 1900, WITH PER CENT OF INCREASE-Continued. 



- 


WHITE POPULAUON 


M 1790. 


wmTE rorOLATioN oc 1900. 




AU ages. 


10 years 
and over. 


Under 
16 years. 


All ages. 


10 years and over. 

Percent 
or In- 
crease 

poptlln- 
tlon In 
1790. 


Under 10 


yean. 


STATE OR TERRITORY. 


Number. 


Percent 
of In- I 
crease 
over 
white 
popula* 
tlon In 
1790. 


Number. 


Per cent 
or In- 
crease 
over 
wlilte 
[Hiptila- 
(lun In 
I7S0. 




FEMALES. 






Continental United States 


I,. 556, 683 


804,086 


1 
752. '■'- 


O.. ,-n« 009 


1,994.7 jl 20,823,133 


,,,..- 




l,«lS.t 






1.550,0X3 


804.080 


75L' 






1, , 
635.0 


S04.O 






1,993,730 




498,130 


271,040 


227,084 


Z. 790, 905 


401.5 : 


803. 1)» 


253.7 




Maine 


47,033 
70, 1S3 
40,302 

190,475 
32,800 

117,208 

463,850 


23,013 
30,474 
19,035 
107,885 
18,027 
66,012 

231,200 


24,020 
33,709 
21,327 
82,590 
14,242 
51,190 

232.050 


342, 440 
. 205, 8<» 
168, 130 
1,392,918 
241,480 
446,071 

7,599,390 


028.1 
193.3 
310. 6 
031.3 
634.7 
280.6 

1,538.3 


243, 124 
149, .330 
118.318 
998,005 
170,024 
313,675 

5,127,096 


9.50. ,j 
309.4 
.521.0 
825.7 
816.0 
375.2 

2.117.6 


99,310 
50,530 
49, 812 

394,263 
70,802 

132,390 

2,472,294 


313.5 


Vermont 


133.6 






Rhode Island 


397 6 




158.6 


Middle states 


902.7 








152.293 
83,287 

20'), 880 
22,384 

594,703 


75,461 
41,9.52 
102, 140 
11,647 

301,840 


70.832 

41. .135 

103,746 

10,737 

292,803 


3,598.765 

9a-., 774 

3,019,300 

75,491 

4,33«,85S 


2,263.1 
987.5 


2,490,517 


3,208.4 

1,3,5,5.3 

1,828.2 

334.0 

766.4 


1,102,248 

295,240 

1,049,92H 

24,872 

1.721,718 


1,. 134.0 


New Jersey 


014.3 




l,3<i0.5 1 1,9<»,4.12 
237. 3 .50. 019 


912.0 


Delaware 


131.6 


Southern states 


629.2 


2,615,140 


487.9 






Maryland and Distriet of Columbia 


101,395 
215,046 
141,356 
60,880 
25,7.'W 
28,922 
15,365 


58,891 
111,523 
09,067 
31,440 
11,711 
12,636 
1 6,572 


42..i04 
103.523 
72,289 
a5,440 
14,028 
16,280 
8,793 


.577.040 
1,032.079 
031,448 
270, C<» 
147,280 
914.201 
757,484 

17,874,945 


4<i9.7 
379.9 
340.7 
313.7 
472.2 
3,001.1 
4,829.9 


388.12.5 
018,013 
300,471 
102. 973 
80,277 
545,038 
448,243 

] 11,087,161 


.M9. 1 
4.54.2 
4.».0 
4ia4 
(VTO. 7 
4.213.4 
6,72aS 


189,515 
414.000 
204,977 
113,087 
01,009 
300,223 
309.241 

0,787,784 


34.5. 9 




3oao 


North Carolina \ 


200.6 




23a8 




334.9 


Kentucky 


2. 167. 1 




3,41&B 










1 











210 



A CENTURY OF POPULATION GROWTH. 



Table 107.-WHITE POPULATION, CLASSIFIED BY SEX AND AGE, OF EACH OF THE COUNTIES REPORTED 

MAINE. 



The state 

Cumberland'.. 

Hancock' 

Lincoln 3 

Washington <.. 
York' 



BOTH SEXES. 



1790 



96,107 



25,351 
9,504 

29,592 
2,740 

28,920 



1900 



692,226 



Percent of 
increase. 



620. 27 



175,364 
101,503 
200, 152 
79,126 
76,081 



591. 74 I 
1,599.32 

576. 37 I 
2,787.81 

163. 07 I 



All ages. 



1790 



49,074 



1900 



349,786 



12,832 
4,964 

15,347 
1,402 

14,469 



84,282 
83,l.'i7 
103,705 
40,684 
37,978 



Per cent of 
increase. 



612. 77 



556.81 
1,574.80 

575. 73 
2,682.76 

162. 48 



16 years and over. 



1790 



24,341 



6,208 
2,435 
7,668 
754 
7,276 



1900 



NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



The state 

Cheshire' 

Grafton' 

Hillsborough!". 
Rockingham'" . 
Straflord " 



141,112 

28. 605 
13,419 
32, 707 
42,795 
23,520 



410,791 I 

48,255 
74,«73 
128,881 
84,835 
74, 147 






191. 11 

68.34 
456. 47 
294. 05 

98.24 
215. 17 



70, 929 

14.575 
7,079 
16, 537 
20,808 
11,930 



204, 931 

24, 241 
39,115 
62,542 
42.290 
36, 743 



188.92 ! 

66.32 
452. 55 
278. 19 
103. 24 
207. 99 



36,074 



7,008 
3,708 
8,145 
11.141 
6,012 



VEKMONT. 



MASSACHUSETTS. 



248,310 



00,524 
58,334 
76,043 
20,187 
27,222 



Percent of 
increase. 



148,474 



17,618 
28,354 
43, 968 
31,. 503 
27, 031 



920. 13 



874. 94 
2,295. 65 

891. 69 
3,373. 08 

274.13 



311.58 



151. 40 
652. 49 
439.82 
182. 77 
349. 62 



1 


The state 


85,072 


342,771 


302.92 


44, 710 


174,641 


290.01 


22,405 


123,596 


451.64 1 






6,383 
12,173 

7,264 
10,485 
15. 558 
17,514 
15, 695 


19,648 
21,536 
106,724 
90,774 
44.898 
26, 593 
32,598 


207.82 

76.92 

1,369.22 

765. 75 

188.58 
51.84 

107.70 


3,424 
6,308 
4.012 
5,038 
8,088 
9,088 
8,152 


10, 028 
10,901 
54, 082 
47,043 
22,718 
13,411 
16, 458 


192.87 

72.81 

1,248.01 

734. 39 

180. 89 
47.57 

101.89 


1,768 
3.103 
2,251 
2,873 
3,990 
4.416 
4,004 


6,933 
.7,008 
37,300 
33,729 
16,004 

9,866 
12,096 


292. 14 
147. 12 
1,557.04 
1,074.00 
301. 10 
123.41 
202.10 






^ 


Chittenden'* 


5 


Orange '^ 


6 








ff 









1 


The state 


373,187 


2,716,096 


627.81 


182,712 


1,323,178 


624. 19 


95,433 


931,082 


875.64 


? 




16,970 
29,940 
30,960 
3,2.30 
57,007 
59,205 

42,177 
4,521 
29,013 
43,803 
66,355 


26,971 
94,400 
194,556 
4,256 
354,298 
273,043 

618,867 
2,958 
106,983 
695,047 
344,717 


58.93 
215. 30 
528.29 

31.76 
521. 50 
361. 18 

1,367.31 
'34.57 

268.74 

1,486.76 

511.69 


8,293 
15,146 
14,895 

1,534 
26,825 
30,118 

20,691 
2,218 
14,029 
20,699 
28,264 


12,795 
46,308 
94,557 
2,023 
172,069 
132,099 

297,910 

1,287 

53,505 

336,741 

173,164 


54.29 
206.14 
534. 82 

31.88 
541. 45 
340.60 

1,339.80 
'41.97 
281. 82 

1,526.85 
512. 67 


4,200 
7,356 
7,956 
823 
14,258 
15,109 

11,071 
1,201 
7,493 
11,300 
14,000 


9,395 
31,910 
04,925 

1,543 
122,311 
91,357 

209,108 

1,020 

39,192 

239,055 

120,006 


123. 09 
333. 80 
716.05 
87.43 
757. 84 
504. 65 

1,788.79 
' 15. 07 
423.05 

2,008. .i3 
726. 48 


1 


Berkshire" 


4 


Bristol'^ . . 


>; 




6 


Essex=» 


7 


Hampshire *' 


9, 









in 


Plvmouth^ 


11 


Suffolk " 


1? 









RHODE ISLAND. 



The state 

Bristol" 

Kent" 

Newport 

Providence 2'.., 
Washington " . , 



64,670 



472,718 



630. 97 



3,013 
8,439 
13,174 
23,518 
16,526 



12,975 
29,634 
135,085 
271,817 
23,207 



330.63 

251. 16 

925. 39 

1,055.78 

40.43 



31,801 



1,455 
4,286 
0,112 
11,641 
8,307 



231,232 



627. 98 



6,422 
14,706 
65,712 
132,905 
11,487 



341.37 

243.12 

975. 13 

1,041.70 

38.28 



16,056 



778 
2,158 
3,256 
6,155 
3,709 



157,931 



4,519 
9,869 
42,774 
92,382 
8,3S7 



883.63 



480.85 

357. 32 

1,213.70 

1,400.93 

126. 13 



^ .\rea covered in 
2 Area covered in 
8 .-Vrea covered in 
Penobscot counties. 

* .\rea covered in 
' Area covered in 

* Area covered in 
' Decrease. 

8 Area covered in 

* Area covered in 
'" .\rea covered in 
" Area covered in 
*2 Area covered in 
" Area covered in 



1900 by parts of Franklin, Somerset, York, Cumberland, .Androscoggin, and Oxford counties. 

1900 by Hancock county, and by parts of Waldo, Penobscot, Piscataquis, and Aroostook counties. 

1900 by Lincoln, Knox, Keimebec, and Sagadahoc counties, and by parts of Waldo, Androscoggin, Somerset, Piscataquis, Franklin, Aroostook, and 

1900 by Washington county, and bv parts of Penobscot and Aroostook counties. 
1900 by parts of York, Cumberland, Oxford, and Franklin counties. 
1900 by Cheshire coimty, and by part of Sullivan county. 

1900 by Grafton and Coos counties, and by parts of Carroll and Merrimack counties. 

1900 by Hillsboro county (except Pelham, which was in Rockingham county in 1790). and by parts of Merrimack and Sullivan counties. 

1900 by Rockingham county, and by part of .Merrimack county, and the town of Pelham (now in HiUsboro county). 

1900 by Strafford and Belknap counties, and by paits of Carroll and Merrimack coimties. 

1900 by part of .\ddison county. 

1900 coextensive with that of 1790. 



GENERAL TABLES. 



211 



IN 1790, COMPARED WITH THAT OF TOE SAME AREA IN 1900, WITH PER CENT OF INCREA.SE. 

MAINE. 



KALES— continued. 



Under 16 years. 



1790 



24,733 



6,624 

2, 52'J 

7, 679 

708 

7,193 



Per cent of 
Increase. 



101,476 



310.29 



23,758 
24,803 
27, &i-2 
14. 497 
10, 75U 



258.67 

880.74 

2liO. 23 

1,947.00 

49.53 



All ages. 



1790 



47,033 



1900 I Pj-fcntof 
locreasu. 



12,519 
4,540 

14.245 
1,278 

14,451 



342,440 I 

91,082 
78,306 
96,447 
38,442 
38,103 



628.08 

627.65 
1,626.12 

577. IK. 

2,907.'.« 

Itki. l.T 



IC yean and over. 



1790 



23,013 



0,124 
2.143 



1900 



243, 124 

66.S87 
.S4.l!>rt 

To, lAl 



Per cent of 
Increase. 



956.43 

987.31 

2, 428 98 

'.I.Vl .-.'.I 

•l.lrj;, 17 

212. Isl 



Under 10 jean. 



1790 



34,020 

G,a»5 

2,397 

7, .117 

Gtl8 

7,013 



1900 



99,310 

24. 495 
24, 170 
25,703 
14,510 
10,372 



Per cent of 
IncnaM. . 



NEW BAMPSHIRE. 



VERMONT. 



MASSACHUSETTS. 



RHODE ISLAND. 



313. 47 

wa.iki 

90K 34 

242 T.t 

1,979. K, 

47. Ml 



" Areacoverfd in 

1^ .\rea covered in 
1" -Vroacovcri'd in 
" .\roacovprfd in 

18 Area covered In 

19 .\rea covered in 
» .\rpa covered in 
*i .\rea covered in 
».\reaeo\ered in 
*• -Vrea covered in 
** .Vrea covered In 
* Area covered In 
'* ,\rea co\'ered in 
» Area covered in 



190Oby 
1900 hy 
1900 liy 
190O1.T 
1900 by 
19(10 hv 
19(10 hv 
1900 In- 
1900 liv 
1900 liV 
1900 I'V 
1900 bV 
19>I0 liy 
1900 by 



Franklin, Grand Isle, Lamoille, and Chittenden coiinlles, and by parts of Orleans, Addison, and Washington counties. 

Essex, Caledonia, and Orantic counties, and by parl5 of Orleans and Wajshington counties. 

parts of Rnliatid and .Vddi.son conntie.s. 

\\'indsorconnIy. and by partof Rutland county. 

Berkshire conntv. and by partof P'ranklln county. 

parts of Bristol and Norfolk counties, and by part of Providence county, R. I. 

part of Essex county. 

parts of Hampshire, Hampden. Franklin, and Worcester counties. 

parts of MI'Idlesex. .Siilloik.and Worcejilcr counties. 

parts of Plymouth a:id lirlslolcoimlies. 

parts of SiiiToik. Norfolk. Essex, riymniith. NfliMlesex. and Worre.'itor counties. 

parts of Worcester, Flampden. Hampshire, and .Middlesex counties. 

Newport county, and by part of Bristol county. Mass. 

part of f rovldence county. 



34,855 


56, 457 


61.98 


70,183 


20,5,880 


193.32 ' 36,474 


149,330 


309.41 


33.709 1 56,530 


•7.70 I 1 


7,667 
3,311 

8, 392 
9,607 
5,918 


6,623 
10,761 
18,574 
10, 787 

9,712 


'12.48 

225. 01 

121.33 

11.59 

64.11 


14,090 

6,340 

16, 170 

21,987 

' 11.596 


24,014 

35.558 
66,339 
42,545 
37,404 


70.43 ' 
460. 85 
310.26 

93.50 
222.56 


7,323 
3.295 
8.404 
11,427 
6,026 


17,570 
21,092 
47,492 
31.618 
27,558 


139.93 

661. 52 
40.'.. 11 

176. ;o 

357.32 


6,767 
3.045 

7, -lie 

10,560 
5,570 


6,444 
10,4»i« 
18,847 
10,927 

8,846 


'4.77 3 

243.71 3 

142.08 4 

3.48 fi 

70.77 S 



22,305 


51,045 

■ ■ 


128.85 


40,362 


168,130 I 316.56 


; 19,035 


118,318 521.58 


21,327 


49,812 


133. M 


1 


1,656 
3,205 
1,761 
2,765 
4,098 
4,672 
4,148 


3,095 
3,233 
16.782 
13,314 
6, 714 
3.545 
4,362 


86.90 

0.87 

852.98 

381.52 

63.84 

' 24. 12 

5.16 


2.959 
5,865 
3,252 
4.847 
7,470 
8.426 
7,543 


9,620 
10,635 
52,642 
43,731 
22,180 
13,182 
16,140 


225.11 
81.33 
1,518.76 
802.23 
196.92 
56.44 
113.97 


1,364 
2,820 
1,458 
2,241 
3, 463 
4. 128 
3,561 


6,764 
7,478 
36,104 
30.879 
1.5. 4.50 
9,771 
11,872 


395.89 
165.18 
2,376.27 
1,277.91 
346.14 
136.70 
233.38 


1.595 
3,045 
1.794 
2.80li 
4,007 
4,298 
3,982 


2,856 
3.157 
16,538 
12.852 
6,730 
3,411 
4,268 


79.06 

3.68 

821.85 

303.17 

67.95 

'20.64 

7.18 


3 



87,279 


392,096 


349. 24 


190,475 


1,392,918 


1 
031.29 , 


107,885 


998,065 


825.68 


82,590 


394,253 


377. ai 


1 


4,093 


3,400 


I 16.93 


8,677 


14, 176 


63.37 


4,915 


10,855 


130.85 


3,762 


3,321 


'11.72 


, 


7,790 


14,458 


85.60 


14,794 


48,032 


224.67 


8, .379 


33, ita 


29.179 


6.415 


14,809 


131. 78 




6,939 


29,632 


327.04 


16.071 


99,999 


522.23 


9, 102 


67.341 


ta».77 


0,960 


32,658 


368.69 




711 


480 


' 32. 49 


1,696 


2,233 


31.66 


%l 


1,?28 


79.81 


735 


505 


'31.29 




12,567 


49, 7.58 


295.94 


30,182 


182,229 


603.77 


17.095 


13-', 279 


673.79 


13,087 


49,950 


281.08 




15,009 


41,342 


175.45 


29,087 


140,344 


382.50 


16,475 


99,179 


502.00 


12,012 


41,165 


236.40 




9,620 


88,802 


823.10 


21,486 


320,957 


1,393.80 


12, 170 


232,917 


1,813.86 


9,310 


88,040 


845.04 




1,017 


267 


'73.75 


2,30:l 


1,671 


' 27. 44 


1,304 


1,338 


2.01 


999 


333 


>6«l67 




6,536 


14,373 


119.91 


14,984 


.53,418 


256.50 


8,487 


39,2X3 


362.86 


6,497 


14,135 


117.56 


in 


9,333 


97,086 


940.24 


23,104 


358,306 


1,450.84 


13,086 


260,435 


1,890.18 


10,018 


97,871 


876l95 


II 


13,664 


52,498 


284.21 


28,091 


171,553 


510.70 


15,911 


120, 147 


65.5.12 


12,180 


61,406 


322.05 


13 



15,745 73,301 


365.55 


32,869 


241,486' 634.69 


1,8,627 


170,624 


816.00 


14,343 70,802 397.56 


1 


677 
2,128 
2,856 
5,486 
4,598 


1,903 

4,837 

22,938 

40, .123 

3,100 


181.09 1,558 
127.30 4,153 
703.15 7,062 
638.(56 1 11,877 

'32.58 1 8,219 


6,553 
14,928 
69,373 
138,912 
11,720 


320.60 '■ 

250.45 

882.34 

1,069.59 

42.60 


883 
2,353 
4,002 
0, 731 
4,658 


4,686 
10,0.10 
49, .184 
97,712 

8,582 


430.08 

326.03 

1,139.23 

1,351.67 

84.24 


en 

1,800 
3,060 
5,146 
3,561 


1,867 176.99 
4,878 171.15 
19.779 546.37 
41.200 7W.63 
3,138 < '11.88 





212 



A CENTURY OF POPULATION GROWTH. 



Table 107.-^V^ITE POPULATION, CLASSIFIED BY SEX AND ACxE, OF EACH OF THE COUNTIES REPORTED 

CONNECTICUT. 



— 


COITNTY. 


BOTH SE.\ES. 


MALES. 




All ages. 


16 


years and over 






1790 


1900 


Per cent of 
increase. 


1790 


1900 


Percent of 
increase. 


1790 


1900 


Percent of 
increase. 


1 


The state 


232,236 


892,424 


284. 27 


115,028 


446,353 


288. 04 


60,739 


313,402 


415. 98 






35,173 
37,498 
38,119 
18,492 

29,883 
31,605 
13,111 
28,356 


180,839 

191,776 

65,182 

40,405 

262,221 
79,421 
22,130 
50,450 


414.14 

411. 43 

71.00 

118.50 

777.52 
151.29 
68.79 
77.92 


17,543 
18,652 
19,372 
8,870 

14,684 
15,337 
6,587 
13,983 


89,245 
97,444 
33,048 
19,743 

131,923 
38,893 
10,978 
25,079 


408. 72 
422. 43 
70.60 
122.58 

798.41 
153. 59 
66.66 
79.35 


9,149 

9,808 

10,135 

4,730 

7,843 
8,189 
3,449 
7,436 


62,724 
69,606 
23,376 
14,318 

90,852 

27,443 

7,682 

17,401 


585.58 
609.69 
130.65 
202. 71 

1,058.38 
235. 12 
122. 73 
134. 01 


•^ 




J 


T,i(/»hflPl<13 






g 




7 






9 







NEW YORK. 



1 


The State 


314,366 


7,156,881 


2,176.61 


102,073 


3,558,116 


2,095.38 


83,815 


2,448,151 


2,820.90 


o 




72,087 
1,583 
25,811 
42,981 
3,021 

28,223 
29,619 
1,058 
17,315 
12,886 

2,945 
14,310 
26,295 
14,028 
22,204 


424,404 

208,408 

41,779 

93,093 

1,146,9m9 

1,119,761 

1,808,968 

1,225,283 

137,256 

203,328 

65,863 
74,298 

155,638 
75,228 

376,665 


488. 74 

13,01)5.38 

61.87 

116. 59 
37,864.55 

3,867.55 

6,007.46 

115,711.25 

692. 70 

1,477.90 

2,136.43 
419. 20 
491. 89 
436. 27 

1,596.38 


37,644 

901 

13,293 

22,041 

1,606 

15,071 
14,382 
716 
8,930 
6,418 

1,500 
7,081 

13,833 
7,405 

11,252 


207,707 
106,030 
20,671 
46,253 
564,321 

557,272 
897,291 
610,565 
68,533 
103,086 

33,841 
37,042 
78,854 
37,435 
189,215 


451.77 

11,668.04 

55.50 

109. 85 
35,038.29 

3,597.64 

6,138.99 

85,174.44 

667. 45 

1,506.20 

2,156.07 
423.12 
470. 04 
405. 54 

1,581.61 


18,684 

545 

6,554 

10,972 
903 

7,866 
8,482 
524 
4,596 
3,555 

747 
3,787 
7,050 
3,616 
5,934 


147,386 
71,525 
15,032 
33,972 

374,351 

404,176 

610,892 

410,947 

47,731 

67,316 

22,679 
26,288 
54,122 
26,551 
129, 183 


688. M 

13,023..'<5 

129. 36 

209.62 

41,350.37 

5,038.27 

7,102.22 

79,470.04 

938. 53 

1,793.56 

2,936.01 
594. 10 
667. 69 
634. 26 

2,077.00 


•^ 








t^ 








7 




^ 




q 




10 








lo 




n 




14 


Ulster '8 


It 




Ui 









NEW JEKSEY. 



1 


The state 


169,954 


1,812,317 


966.35 


86,667 


906,543 


946.00 


45,251 


610,059 


1,248. 17 


■> 




10,108 
17,270 
2,416 
7,990 
16,454 

12,830 
18,661 
14,498 
14,969 

15,532 
9,891 
10,339 
18,996 


497,571 
100,586 
12,328 
48,785 
554,107 

168,239 
74,415 
88,0.50 
85,036 

63,503 
22,493 
35,225 
61,359 


4,822.54 
482. 43 
410. 26 
510.57 

3,267.61 

1,211.29 
298. 77 
507. 32 
472. 09 

308. &5 
127. 40 
240.70 
223. 11 


5,164 
8,789 
1,240 
4,113 
8,311 

6,598 
9,345 
7,370 
7,521 

8,030 
5,075 
5,209 
9,902 


250,904 
50,883 
6,303 
24,491 

271,784 

83,970 
36,991 
46,. 502 
42,542 

31,879 
11,493 
17,619 
31,176 


4,75a 71 
47a 94 
40a 79 
495.45 

3,170.17 

1,172.65 
295.84 
530. 96 
465.64 

296.99 
126. 46 
238. 24 
214.84 


2,885 
4,625 
631 
2,147 
4,339 

3,287 
4,966 
3,995 
3,843 

4,092 
2,679 
2,819 
4,963 


164,390 

35,029 

4,425 

16,417 

181,183 

57,486 
25,775 
31,936 
29,292 

22,068 

7,962 

12,401 

21,695 


5,637.87 
657. 38 
601.27 
664.65 

4,075.68 

1,64a 89 
419. 03 
699. 40 
662. 22 

439. 30 
197. 20 
339. 91 
337. 13 


1 




4 








6 




7 




S 


Hunterdon ^ ... 


q 


Middlesex ss 


10 




11 




v 


.Salem i 


n 


Somerset ^^ 


14 









PENNSYLVANIA. 



The state. 



Allegheny 3", 
Bedford »i . . . 

Berks'" 

Bucks' 

Chester' 



Cumberland ^ . 

Dauphin^' 

Delaware' 

Fayette' 



423,373 


6, 141, 664 


1,3.50.65 


217,487 


3, 122, 304 


1,335.63 


110,559 


2,054,286 


1,75a 09 


10, 032 


1,186,717 


11,729.32 


5,269 


612,496 


U.. 524. 52 


2,524 


407,947 


16,062.72 


13.052 


195. 203 


1,395.58 


6,727 


102, 954 


1,430.40 


2,887 


63, 849 


2,111.60 


29,928 


315, 081 


952. 80 


15,262 


101,387 


957. 44 


7,711 


103,277 


1,239.35 


24,374 


6a 788 


182.22 


12, 423 


34. 404 


176.94 


6,529 


23, ISO 


254. 57 


27, 141 


86,391 


2ia30 


14,076 


43.398 


20a31 


7,486 


29,068 


296. 31 


17,779 


73, 690 


314.48 


9.330 


30, 038 


286. 26 


4,816 


23.356 


3M. 97 


17,886 


161,579 


803. 38 


9,085 


81.088 


792. 55 


4,651 


53, 845 


1.0.57.71 


9. 1.33 


84,815 


828. 67 


4,639 


42,279 


811.38 


2,530 


28.508 


1,026.80 


12, 990 


105, 442 


711.72 


6,835 


58,000 


748. 57 


3,415 


37, 861 


l,00a67 



' .\rea covered in 1900 coextensive with that of 1790. 

s Population of Wolcott town added to. and that of Ilartland town and Marlboro town subtracted from. 1900 figures to make areas comparable. 
' Population of Southtmry town, llartlaud town and Mlddleburv town added to 1900 figures to make areas comparable. 
' PopuUition of Durham town subtracted fron\ 1900 fiKures to make areas comparable. 

5 Population of Middlebun,- town, Southbury town, and Wolcott town subtracted from, and that of Durham town added to, 1900 figures to make areas comparable. 
» Population of Columbia town and part of Marlboro town added to, and that of Lebanon town and \"oluntown town subtracted from, 1900 figures to make areas 
comparable. 

' Population of Columbia town and Jtansfleld town subtracted from, and part of Marlboro town added to. 1910 figures to make at«as comparable. 

' Population of Mansfield town, Lebanon town, and \'oluiitown town added to 1900 figures to make areas comparable. 
Area covered in 1900 by Albany, Rensselaer. .Saratoga, and Schenectady counties, and bv parts of Greene and Schoharie counties. 

'» Area covered in 1900 by Clinton, Franklin, Essex, and St. Lawrence counties. 

" Decrease. 

'= Area covered in 1900 by Dutchess and Putnam counties. 

13 Area covered in 1900 by Chemung, Montgomery, Fulton, Herkimer, namilton, Otsego, Jelterson, Tioga, Broome, Chenango, Oneida, Lewis, Madison. Cortland, 
Oswego, Onondaga, Cavuga, Seneca, and Tompkins counties, and by parts of Delaware, Schoharie, Schmder, and AVavne counties. 

» Area covered inlOOO by Manhattan borough. 

li Area covered in 1900 by Chautauqua. Cattaraugus, Allegany, Erie, Niagara, Wvoming, Genesee, Orleans, Monroe, Livingston, Ontario, Yates, and Steuben counties, 
and by parts of \\ ayne and .Schuyler counties. 

" Area covered in 1900 by Orange and Rockland counties. 



GENERAL TABLES. 



213 



XN 1790, COMPARED WITri THAT OF THE SAME AREA IN 1900, WITH PER CENT OF INCREASE-Continued. 

CONNECTICUT. 



HALES— continued. 


ruuus. 


■" 


Under 16 years. 


All ages. 


16 yean and over. 


DnderlSyeui. 




,790 ' ,900 P-c|^o' 


1 
1790 1900 


Percpntof 

Incretuo. 


nw 1900 ''r„'^°' 


1790 1900 Percent of 
locreaie. 




11,289 ! 132,9.51 


144.89 


117,208 ' 446,071 


280.58 


66,0U ' 3,3,675! 375. U ' 51,1M | 132,3» 


158.61 


1 


.S,39! 
8,844 
9,237 
1,140 

6,841 
7,148 
3,138 
6,547 


28,521 
27,838 
9,872 
5,425 

41,071 

ii,4.';d 

3,296 
7,078 


215.95 

214.77 

4.71 

31.01 

500.37 

60.18 

5.04 

17.28 


17,630 
18,846 
18,747 
9,622 

15,198 
16,268 
6,524 
14,373 


91,594 
94,332 
32,134 
20,662 

130,298 
40,528 
11,152 
25,371 


419. .')3 

400. .M 

71.41 

114. 74 

757.34 
149. 13 
70.94 
76.52 


9,929 
10,614 
10,558 

5,419 

8,5.59 
9,162 
3,674 
8,0»5 


64,907 
66, .117 
22,501 
15,079 

80,999 

28,924 

7,885 

17,850 


453.71 
526.69 
113. 15 
17&28 

951.39 
215.70 
114.80 
120.51 


7,701 
8,232 
8,180 
4,203 

8,630 
7,106 
2,8.M> 
6,278 


26,687 

27,815 

9,630 

S,583 

4a,»t 

11,604 
3,257 
7,521 


246.54 

237. 8B 

17.60 

32.83 

507.10 
63.30 
14.28 
19.80 





NKW TORK. 



78,258 


1,109,965 


1,318.34 


152,293 


3,598,765 


2,263.05 


75,461 


2,496,517 


3,2aa35 


76,832 


1,102,248 


1,334.62 


1 


18,960 


60,321 


218. 15 


34,443 


216,697 


529. 15 


17,066 


136,473 


816.82 


17, 3n 


60,224 


246.59 


7 


3m 


34,5a5 


9,592. 42 


682 


102,378 


14,911.44 


338 


68,588 


20,192.31 


344 


33,790 


9,722.67 


3 


6,739 


5,639 


11 16.32 


12,518 


21,108 


6,8.62 


6,202 


15,542 


1.50.56 


8,318 


5,586 


>• 11.86 


4 


11,069 


12,2S1 


10.95 


20,940 


46,840 


123.69 


10,376 


34,432 


231.84 


10, 6« 


12,408 


17.48 


5 


703 


189,970 


26,922. 76 


1,415 


582,588 


41,072.30 


701 


392,286 


55,860 91 


714 


190,302 


28,552.94 


8 


7,205 


153,096 


2,024.86 


13,152 


562,489 


4,176.83 


6,.517 


412,217 


8,225.28 


6,635 


1.50,272 


2,164.84 


7 


5,900 


2«6,:ja9 


4.754.22 


15,237 


911,677 


5,883.31 


7,550 


629,967 


8,24a 93 


7,687 


281,710 


3,5«4. 78 


A 


192 


193,618 


100,742.71 


342 


614,718 


179,642. 11 


169 


424,972 


251,382.72 


173 


189,748 


100,579. 77 


9 


4,334 


20,S02 


379.97 


8,385 


68,723 


719.59 


4,1.5.5 


48,242 


1,081.08 


4,230 


20,481 


384.18 


10 


2,863 


33,770 


1,119.39 


6,468 


100,242 


1,449.81 


3,205 


65,229 


1,935.23 


3,263 


35,013 


973.09 


11 


753 


11,162 


1,382.34 


1,445 


32,022 


2,110.06 


716 


21,.5.V. 


2,910. 61 


729 


10,466 


1,33.5.87 


12 


3,291 


10,7.54 


226. 47 


7,229 


37,256 


415.37 


3,582 


28,776 


647.52 


3,647 


10,480 


187.38 


13 


6,783 


24,732 


264.62 


12,462 


76,78'1 


516. 15 


6,175 


52,772 


754.61 


6,287 


24,012 


281.93 


14 


3,789 


10,8.S4 


187.25 


6,623 


37,793 


470.63 


3,282 


26,9.58 


721.39 


3,341 


10,835 


224.30 


IS 


5,318 


60,032 


1,02&85 


10,952 


187,450 


1,811.56 


5,427 


120,507 


2,U0.S1 


S,S2S 


«6,»«3 


,,,11.64 


18 



NEW JERSEY. 



41,416 

] 


296,484 


615.87 


83,287 


905,774 


9S7.S3 


I 41,952 


610,528 


1,355.30 


41,335 


295,246 


6,4.28 


I 


1 2,299 

4,164 

609 

1,906 

3,972 


86,514 

15,854 

1,884 

8,074 

90,601 


3,663.11 
280.74 
209.36 
310. 68 1 

2,180.99 


4,944 
8,481 
1,170 
3,877 
8,143 


246,607 

49,703 

6,019 

24,294 

282,323 


4,888.21 
486.05 
411.81 
£26.61 

3,367.06 


2.490 

4,272 

592 

1.953 

; 4, 102 


100.064 

34,;>:ii) 

4,204 

16,535 

191,115 


6,328.27 
708.43 
610. 14 
746.65 

4,559.07 


2,454 
4,209 
584 
1,924 
4,041 


86,803 
15,167 
1,815 
7,759 
91,206 


3,429,05 
260.35 
210. 79 
303.27 

2,157.07 


2 
3 

4 
S 
6 


3,311 
4,379 
3,.-i75 
3,678 


26,484 
11,216 
14,566 
13,250 


699.88 
156. 13 
331.58 
260.25 


6,232 
9,316 
7,128 
7,448 


84,269 
37,424 
41,548 
43,094 


1,2,52. 19 
301.72 
4.S2. 88 
478.60 


1 3,1,19 
4,«I2 
3,590 

; 3,752 


57,757 
26,101 
27,212 
30,023 


1,739.98 
457.57 
657.99 
700.19 


3,093 
4,624 
3,538 
3,698 


26,512 
11,263 
14,336 
13,071 


757.16 
143.58 
305.20 
253.85 


7 
8 
• 
,0 


3,938 
2,396 
2,390 
4,939 


9,811 
3,531 
5,218 
9,481 


149. 14 
47.37 

118.33 
91.96 


7,502 
4,816 
5,130 
9,094 


31,624 
11,000 
17,606 
30,203 


321.54 
128.40 
243.19 
232.12 


1 3,779 

1 2,426 

1 2,,5S4 

4,581 


22,032 

7,655 

12,319 

20,915 


483.01 
215.54 
376. 74 
356.56 


3,723 
2,390 
2,546 
4,513 


9,582 
3,345 

5,287 
9,288 


157.64 
39.96 
107.66 
105.81 


,1 
12 
13 
14 



PENNSYLVANIA. 



106,928 


1,068,018 


898.82 


205,886 


3,019,360 


1,366.52 


102,140 


1,969,432 


1,828.17 


103,746 


1,049,928 


912. 02 1 


1 


2,745 
3,S40 
7,551 
5,894 
6,590 


204,549 
39, 105 
58,110 
11,254 
13.730 


7,351.69 
918.36 
669.57 
90.94 
108.35 


4,763 
6,325 
14,666 
11,951 
13,065 


574,221 
92,249 

153,694 
34,384 
42,993 


11,955.87 

1,358.48 

947.96 

1S7.71 

229.07 


2,363 
3,138 
7,275 
6,929 
6,482 


373,362 
54,470 
96,918 
23,414 
29,801 


,5,700.34 

,,635.82 

,,232.02 

294.91 

359.75 


2,400 
3,187 
7,391 
6,022 
6,583 


200,859 
37,779 
86,776 
10,070 
,3,192 


8,280. 13 
1,085.41 

608. 2S 
82.17 

,00.39 , 


2 
3 

4 
5 
6 


4,514 
4,434 
2,109 
3,420 


12,682 
27,243 
13,771 
20, 139 


180.95 
514. 41 
552.96 
488.86 


8,449 
8,801 
4,494 
6,155 


37,652 
80,491 
42,536 
47,442 


345.64 
814.57 
846.51 
670. 79 ; 


4,192 
4,366 
2,229 
3,053 


2.5,257 
53,407 
29,172 
27,934 


502.50 
1,123.25 
1,208.75 

814.97 


4,257 
4,435 
2,265 
3,102 


,2,395 
27,064 
13,364 
19,508 


,91. ,7 
610.60 
49a 03 
528.88 


7 
8 
9 
19 



"Area covered in 1900 by Queens and Nassau counties. 

" Area covered in 1900 by Ulster and Sullivan counties, and by parts of Greene and Delaware counties. 

i» Area covered in 1900 by WastiinRton and Warren counties. 

•» Area covered in 1900 by Westchester countv, and by part of New York county, 

SI Area covered In 1900 by Bergen and Hudson counties, and t>y part of I'assalc county. 

«.\rea covered in 1900 bv Hurlincton county, and by parts of .Mercer and Ocean counties. 

» .\rea covered in 1900 by Essex and Union counties, and by part of Passaic county. 

» .\rea covered in 1900 by fJloucester, .\tlnntie. and Camden ooimlie.^. 

» Area covered In 1900 by Hunterdon county, and by part of Mercer countv. 

"Area covered in 1900 by Middlc^ux county, and by parts of Merc<T and Monmouth counties. 

» Area covered in 1900 by parts of .Mercer, Monmouth, and Oc<>an counties. 

« .\rea covered In 1900 by Somerset countv. and by part of Meror county. 



:if^LTe;;:,tiL^irb7AiSnri''uticrcrS^^ 

■1 Area covered in 1900 by Bedford, .•^onu^rset, and Fulton counties, and by parts of tamljria and Blair oounUes. 



"AreaooveredinlOOOby Berks countv, and by part of Schuylkill county. 

«i.\reacovered in 1900 by Perry and Cumberland counties. 

1 Area covered in 1900 by Dauphin county, and by part of Lebanon county. 



76292—09- 



-15 



214 



A CENTURY OF POPULATION GROWTH. 



Table 107.-WHITE POPULATION, CLASSIFIED BY SEX AND AGE, OF EACH OF THE COUNTIES REPORTED 

PENNSYLVANIA— Continued. 



= 


COUNTY. 


BOTH SEXES. 


HALES. 




All ages. 


16 years and over. 




1790 


1900 


Per cent of 
increase. 


1790 


1900 


Per cent of 
increase. 


1790 


1900 


Per cent of 
increase. 






15,057 
7,491 

35, 192 
4,868 

7,461 
22,365 
24,086 
16,971 

51,916 
23,617 
15,852 
36. 182 


52,944 
134, 628 
156,761 
560,417 

81,387 
134, 436 
313, 535 
694,069 

1,229,673 
116,393 
240, 845 
148, 880 


251.62 

1,697.20 

345. 44 

11,412.26 

990. 83 

501. 10 

1,201.73 

3, 989. 68 

2,268.58 
392. 84 

1,419.34 
311.48 


7,895 
3,9M 
17,781 
2,565 

3,909 
11,383 
12,411 

8,920 

25, 393 
12,612 
8.372 
18,640 


25,910 

68,210 

76, 695 

288,086 

40, 883 

66, 446 

160,878 

358,044 

604,268 
59, 924 

126. 485 
73,831 


228. 18 

1, 622. 47 

331.33 

11,154.81 

945.87 

483.73 

1,196.25 

3, 913. 95 

2,279.66 
375.13 

1,410.81 
296.09 


4,021 
1,871 
9,714 
1,237 

1,954 
6,001 
6,007 
4,191 

14, 497 

5,333 

4,013 

i 9,171 


16, 137 
42,889 
50, 004 
184,875 

25,621 

44,956 

106, 400 

229,013 

417,013 
39, 172 
80,146 
46, 599 


301.32 

2,192.30 

414. 76 

14,845.43 

1,211.21 

649.14 

1,671.27 

5,364.40 

2,776.55 
634. 52 

1,897.16 
408. 11 


T> 














Mifflin ^ , 






17 




IS 




10 


Philadelphia' 


'>0 




O] 




oo 


York '" 







1 The state 


46,310 


153,977 


232. 49 


23,926 


78,486 


228.04 


11,783 


52,935 


349. 24 




14,050 
16,487 
15,773 


25,017 
93, 456 
35,504 


78.05 
466. 84 
125.09 


7,172 
8,720 
8,034 


12,689 
47,578 
18,219 


76.92 
445.62 
126.77 


3,705 
3,973 
4,105 


8,522 
32,803 
11,610 


130. 01 
725.64 
182. 82 


3 New-Castle 


4 Sussex 





MAKYLAND.12 



Tlie state 

Allegany '' 

Ann-.\rundel '^ 

Baltimore ^ 

Baltimore town and precincts i* 
Calvert' 

Caroline w 

Cecil 1 

Charlesi 

Dorchester la. 

Frederick » 

Harford ' 

Kent 1 

Montgomery " 

Prince Georges '= 

Queen Anns ' 

St. Marysi 

Somersett = 

Talbot I 

Washington i 

Worcester ^* 



208,649 



4,539 
11,664 
18,953 
11,925 

4,211 

7,028 
10,055 
10, 124 
10,010 
26,937 

10, 784 
6,748 
11,679 
10,004 
8,171 

8,216 
8,272 
7,231 
14,472 
7,626 



12 1,143,956 



69,594 

36,545 

125, 446 

396, 324 

5,080 

12, 009 
20, 850 
8,014 
18, 476 
64, 193 

22,411 
11,343 
30, 387 
199, 448 
11,991 

8,926 
26, 126 
12, 875 
42,642 
21,276 



448.27 



1,433.25 
213.31 
561.88 

3,223.47 
20.64 

70.87 

107. 36 

"'20. 84 

84 58 
138. 31 

107. 82 
68.09 

160. 18 

1,893.68 

46.75 

8.64 

215. 84 

77.91 

194. 65 

178. 99 



2,351 
5,992 
9,852 
6,422 
2,200 

3,539 
5,224 
4,964 
4,971 
14,026 

5.684 
3,423 
6,030 
6,156 
4,132 

4.043 
4,093 
3,6.50 
7,601 
3,901 



"566,316 



35,215 
19, 182 
62, 760 
191,934 
2,745 

6,102 

10,612 

4,186 

9, .503 

31,902 

11,269 
5,938 
16, 198 
97,555 
6,154 

4,652 
13, 151 

6,564 
20,945 
10, 749 



428.01 



1,397.87 

220. 13 

537. 03 
2,888.70 

24.77 

72.42 

103. 14 
" 15. 67 

91.17 
127.45 

98.26 
73.47 

152. 04 
1,792.07 

48.94 

15.06 
221. 30 

79.84 
175. 56 
175. 54 



55, 915 



1,068 
3,142 
5,184 
3,866 
1,091 

1,812 
2,847 
2,565 
2,541 
7,010 

2,872 
1,876 
3,284 
2,653 
2,158 

2,100 
2,185 
1,938 
3,738 
1,985 



"374,578 I 



20,911 


1,857.96 


12,522 


298. 54 


40,921 


689.37 


127.938 


3,209.31 


1,660 


52.15 


3,837 


111.75 


6,966 


144. 68 


2,530 


i'1.36 


5,906 


132. 43 


20,359 


190. 43 


7,386 


157. 17 


3,934 


109.70 


10, 177 


209.90 


70,349 


2,551.68 


3,873 


79.47 


2,719 


29.48 


8,265 


278.26 


4,300 


121.88 


13,264 


254.84 


6,761 


240.60 



VIRGINIA.2S 



The state. 



Accomack 

Albemarle 

-Vmelia (including Nottoway Co). 

Amherst ^ 

Augusta ^ 



442, 117 



8,976 
6,835 
6,684 
8,286 
9,260 



2,108,088 



20,743 
21,969 
8,018 
21,210 
41,919 



376. 81 



131. 09 
221.42 
19.96 
155. 97 
352. 69 



Bedford 7,725 20,617 166. 

Berkley* 16,650 34,218 105.45 

Botetourt » 9,241 58,791 536.20 

Bmnswick 5,919 7,371; 24.60 

BuckinghamM 5,496 10,599 1 92.85 

1 Area covered in 1900 ooe.\ tensive with that of 1790. 

2 .Irea covered in 1900 Ijy Huntingdon county, and by parts of Center, Cambria, Clearfield, and Blair counties. 
> Area covered in 1900 by Lancaster county, and by part of Lebanon county 



227,071 



4,474 
3,493 
3,406 
4,291 
4,836 



4,051 
8,800 
4,809 
3,001 
2,811 



10, 617 
11,005 
4,u52 
10, 694 
20, 845 



10, 294 

17,065 

29,946 

3,711 

5,310 



373. 85 



137. 30 
215. 06 
18 97 
149.22 
331.04 

154.11 
93.92 

522. 71 
23.66 
88.90 



110,936 



2,297 
1,703 
1,709 
2,056 
2,599 

1,785 
4,253 

2,247 
1,472 
1,274 



645,869 



6,522 
6,711 
2,442 
6,197 
13,069 

6,021 
10, 703 
18,382 
2,239 
3,100 



482. 20 



183.94 
294. 07 
42.89 
201.41 
402.85 

237.31 
151.66 

718. 07 

52.10 

143.33 



, . - - I county. 

„ „ .. - - .- , - - ;-. '„" „,.„...,.„.,„, McKean, Potter, Tioga, Columbia, Union, Clarion, Clinton, Elk, Sullivan, Montour, .Snvder, and 

Cameron counties, and by parts of Armstrong, Center, Venango, Warren, Indiana, ClearQeld, Bradford, and Forest counties. 

» Areacoveredinl900by Washington and Greene counties, and by part of Beaver county. 

« Area covered in 1900 by Westmoreland county, and by parts of Armstrong and Indiana counties. 

'".irea covered in 1900 by York and .\dams counties. 

" County boundaries same in 1790 as in 1900. 

w Includes population of the District of Columbia in 1900. 

la Area covered in 1900 by Allegany and Garrett counties. 

" Area covered in 1900 by Anne .\rundel and Howard counties. 

tt Area covered in 1900 by Baltimore county, and by parts of Carroll countv and Baltimore city. 



I 



GENERAL TABLES. 

IN 1790, COMPARED WITH THAT OF THE SAME AREA IN 1900, WITH PER CENT OF INOREASE-Continued. 

PENNSYLVANIA— ContlDucU. 



215 



KALES— con tlBued. 



Under 16 years. 



1790 



3,874 
2,089 
8,067 
1,328 

1,955 
5,382 
6,404 
4,729 

10,896 
7,279 
4,359 
9,469 



9,773 
25,321 
26,691 
103,811 

15,262 
21,490 
54,478 
129,031 

187,255 
20,752 
46,339 
27,232 



Per cent of 
Increase. 



152. 27 
1,112.11 

230. 87 
7,717.09 

680.66 

299.29 

750.69 

2,628.50 

1,618. 57 
185.09 
963.06 
187.59 



All I 



1790 



1900 



7,162 
3,531 
17,411 
2,303 

3,552 
10,982 
11,675 

8,051 

26,523 1 
11,005 
7,480 
17,542 I 



27,034 

6«,418 

80,066 

271,731 

40,504 

67,990 

152,657 

336,015 

625,405 
56,469 

114,360 
75,049 



Per cent of 
Increase. 



277.46 

1,781.00 

359.86 

11,099.00 

1,040. .32 

519. 10 

1,207.55 

4,073.58 

2,257.97 
413. 12 

1,428.88 
327.82 



16 years and over. 



1790 



3,SS3 
1,762 
8,638 
1,143 

1,762 
5,448 
5,792 
3,994 

13,157 
5,460 
3,711 
8,703 



1900 



17,587 
41,544 

53,324 
168, 476 

25,718 

46,639 

99,260 

209,706 

439,132 
36,254 
69,629 
48,428 



Percent of 
Increase. 



394.99 
2,271.23 

517.32 
14,639.81 

1,.1W.59 

75<1.0S 

1,613.74 

5,150.53 

3,237.38 
563.99 

1,776.29 
456.45 



Under 10 yean. 



ino 



3,600 
1,779 

8,773 
1,160 

1,790 
5.534 
5.HX3 
4,057 

13,3«a 
5,545 
3,760 



1900 



9,447 

24,874 
26,742 
IU:i,255 

14,786 
21,351 
53,397 
120,309 

180,273 
20,215 
44,731 
26,021 



Per cent of 
lncr«*M. 



726.03 

285.81 

807. AS 

3,013.30 



1,203.74 19 
264.56 20 

1,086.81 21 
201. U . 22 



DBI.AWARE.U 



12,143 25,551 


110. 41 1 22,384 


75,491 1 237.26 


11,647 


50,619 


334.61 10,737 


24,872 


Ul.M 1 


3,467 
4,747 
3,929 


4,167 
14,775 
6,609 


20. 19 
211.24 

68.21 


6,878 
7,767 
7,739 


12,328 
45,878 
17,285 


79.24 
490.68 
123.35 


1 3,579 

1 4,041 

4,027 


8,391 
31,287 
10,941 


134.45 

674.24 
171.69 


3,299 
3,726 
3,712 


3,937 
14,591 
6,344 


19.34 2 
291.60 3 
70.91 4 



MABYDAND." 



51,339 


B 191,738 


273. 47 


101,395 


"577,640 


469.69 


68,891 


» 388, 126 


669.06 


42,604 


>> 189,616 


346.86 


1 
2 


1,283 


14,304 


1,014.89 


2,188 


34,379 


1,471.25, 


1,271 


20,434 


1,607.71 


917 


13,946 


1,430.72 


2,850 


6,660 


133.68 


5,672 


17,363 


206.12 1 


3,294 


10,981 


233.36 


2,378 


6,382 


168.38 3 


4,668 


21,839 


367. 84 


9,101 


62,686 


588.78 1 


5,286 


41,170 


678. 85 


3,815 


21,516 


463.98 4 


2,556 


63,996 


2,403.76 


5,503 


204,390 


3,614. 16 1 


3,196 


139,892 


4,277. 10 


2,307 


64,49K 


2,605.76 


6 


1,109 


1,085 


"2.16 


2,011 


2,335 


16. 11 1 


1,168 


1,422 


21.75 


843 


913 


8.30 


6 


1,727 


2,265 


31.15 


3,489 


5,907 


69.30^ 


2,026 


3,798 


87.46 


1,463 


2,109 


44.16 


7 


2,377 


3,646 


53.39 


4,831 


10,238 


111.92 


2,806 


6,825 


14.3.23 


2,025 


3,413 


68.64 


H 


2,399 


1,056 


"30.97 


5,160 


3,828 


"25.81 


2,997 


2,244 


"25.13 


2,163 


1,584 


"26.77 


9 


2,430 


3,597 


48.02 


5,0.-i9 


8,973 


78.07 


2,927 


5,507 


88.14 


2,112 


3,466 


64.11 


in 


7,016 


11,543 


64.52 


12,911 


32,291 


ISO. 10 1 


7,499 


21,114 


181.56 


5,412 


11,177 


106.52 


11 


2,812 


3,883 


38.09 


5,100 


11,142 


118.47 


2,962 


7,264 


145. 24 


2,138 


3,878 


81.38 


12 


1,547 


2,004 


29.54 


3,325 


5,405 


62.56 


1,931 


3,455 


78.92 


1..394 


1,950 


39.89 


13 


2,746 


5,021 


82.85 


5,649 


15,189 


168.88! 


3,281 


10,294 


213.75 


2,.TIVS 


4,895 


106.71 


14 


2,503 


27,206 


986.94 


4,848 


101,893 


2,001.75] 


2,816 


74,629 


2,550. 18 


2,032 


27,2f.4 


1,241.73 


1'. 


1,974 


2,281 


15. 55 


4,039 


5,837 


44.52 1 


2,346 


3,045 


55.37 


1,693 


2,192 


29.47 


10 


1,943 


1,933 


"0.51 


4,173 


4,274 


2.42 


2,424 


2,400 


"0.99 


1,749 


1,874 


7.16 


17 


1,908 
1,712 


4,886 


156. 08 


4,179 


12,975 


210. 48 


2,427 


8,035 


231.07 


1,752 


4,940 


181.90 


18 


2,264 


32.24 


3,581 


6,311 


70.24 


2,080 


4,122 


98.17 


1,501 


2,189 


4S.84 


19 


3,863 
1,916 


7,681 


98. 84 


6,871 


21,(i97 


215.78 


3,991 


14,277 


257.73 


2,880 


7,420 


157.64 


20 


3,988 


108.14 


3,725 


10,527 


182.60 


2,163 


6,017 


205.92 


1,562 


3,910 


150.32 


21 



VIRGINIA." 



110,135 


430,140 


270.36 


215,016 


1,032,079 


379.93 


111,523 


618,013 


454.16 


103,523 

: : a 


414,066 


299.97 


1 


o 177 


4,095 
4,291 
1,610 


88.10 


4,. 502 


10,126 


124.92 


2,335 


6,146 ; 


163.21 


2,167 


3,980 


83.00 


2 


1,790 
1 697 


139.89 
" 5. 13 


3,342 
3,278 


10,964 
3,966 


228.07 
20.96 


1,733 
1,700 


6,813 
2,401 


293. 13 
41.24 


1,600 

1,.57S 


4,151 

1,.56S 


157.99 
■ ■0 82 


3 
4 


2,235 
2,237 


101.21 


3,995 


10,516 


163.23 


2,072 


6,093 : 


194.06 


1,923 


4,423 


130 01 


5 


7,776 


247.61 


4,424 


21,074 


376.38 


2,294 


13,523 


489.49 


2,130 


7,551 


254.51 


6 


2,286 
4,547 
2,562 
1,529 
1,537 


4,273 
6,362 
ll,.5frl 
1,472 
2,210 


88.57 

39.92 

3il. 37 


3,674 
7,850 
4,432 
2,918 


10,323 

17,153 

28,845 

3,664 


180.97 
118.51 
550 83 
25.57 


1,905 
4,071 
2,298 
1,513 


6,224 
11,139 
17,492 

2,117 


226.72 

173.62 

661.18 

39.92 


1,769 
3.779 
2,134 
I,4rt'. 


4,099 
6.014 
11, .153 
1,547 


131.71 
S9il4 

432.01 
10 11 


7 
8 
9 


431-9 1 


2,685 


5,289 


96.98 


1,392 


3,153 


120.51 


1,293 


2,136 


65.20 


11 



i« A rp.a covered 
1^ Decrease, 
w Area covere<l 
u Area covered 
■I Area covereri 
>» Area coverwl 
» Area covered 
« Area covered 
*• Area covere<i 
» Area covered 
« Area covered 
» Area covered 
» Area covered 
* Area covered 
M Area covered 



in 1900 by part of Baltimore city. 

in 11*00 hv Caroline county. ftn«i by part of Dorchester county. 

in 1900 b'v part of Don-he.^tcr county. 

in IWOO bV Fre<lerick countv. and by part of Carroll countv. 

in 1900 bv Monlgoinerv county, and by C.eorcptown. D.C. 

In 1900 by Prlnte OeorRCS county. an>l bv the Oi.strict of Columbia, exclusive of Georpetown. 
in 1900 by Somerset countv. and bv p-irl of \Vl(H)mlco coimty. 

In 1«« h^y \V|yS-r;;^S'\^/^t v;j;;nir"lnL';ia"i^^^^^^^ mduded in county toUd. .or 1,«, and ,900. 

i'n^5i^a".!7^u^''.'aUI!;iv^''lTh~p"J^^ n«.h. Pochontas. and ni.hlanJ «,un,.e,. 

in I'lon hv hiTkolev anil Ji-lTerson "counties, and l>y part of Morpin county. 

in IMO by BotPtouVt AlloBhanv. and Roanoke counties, and l.y parts of traig. Monroe, and UalU counUea. 

la 1900 by Bucldngham county, and by part of .\pponmttoi county. 



216 



A CENTURY OF POPULATION GROWTH. 



• Table 107.-WHITE POPULATION, CLASSIFIED BY SEX AND AGE, OF EACH OF THE COUNTIES REPORTED 

VIRGINIA'— Continued. 



Campbell > 

Caroline 

Charles-City 

Charlotte! 

Chesterfield 

Culpeper * 

Cumberland 

Dinwiddle 

Elizabeth-City 

Essex 

Fairfax « 

Fauquier 

Fluvanna 

Franklin 

Frederick ^ 

Gloucester' 

Goochland 

Greenbrier (includes Kanawa) » 

Greensville 

Halifax 

Hampshire '*• 

Hanover 

Hardy '1 

Harrison '^ 

Henrico 

Henry « 

Isle of Wight 

James City 

King & Queen 

King George 

King William 

Lancaster 

Loudon '* 

Louisa _ 

Lunenburg 

Mecklenburg 

Middlesex 

Monongalia '^ 

Montgomery '« 

Nansemond 

New- Kent 

Norfolk 

Northampton 

Northumberland 

Ohio " 

Orange i^ 

Pendleton '^ 

Pittsylvania 

Powhatan 

Prince Edward >» 

Prince George 

Prince William 

Princess Anne 

Randolph!" 

Richmond 

Rockbridge 

Rockingham " 

liusseli" 

Shaunandoah 21 

Southampton 

Spotsylvania 

Stafford 

Surry 

Sussex 

Warwick , 

Washington ^ 

Westmoreland 

York 



BOTH SEXES. 



1790 



4,946 
6,994 
2,084 
5,199 
6,358 

13,809 
3,577 
6,039 
1,556 
3,543 

7,611 
11, 157 
2,430 
5,735 
15, 315 

6,225 
4,140 
5,676 
2,530 
8,931 

6,879 
6,291 
6,556 
2,013 
5,600 

6,763 
4,786 
1,519 
4,159 
3,123 

2,893 
2,259 
14, 749 
3,880 
4,547 

7,555 
1,531 
4,602 
12, 394 
4,713 

2,391 
8,928 
3,181 
4,506 
4,907 

6,436 
2,378 
8,538 
2,286 
4,082 

3,387 
6,744 
4,527 
932 
2,918 

5,825 
6,677 
3,143 
9,979 
6,312 

5,171 
5,466 
2,762 
4,771 

667 
5,167 
3,183 
2,U6 



25,871 
7,667 
1,344 
7,116 

17, 481 

20,885 
2,791 
16,931 
10,757 
3,576 

20, 465 
15,074 
5,039 
20,005 
26,342 

12,008 

3,961 

387,036 

3,402 

17,922 

26,116 
9,696 
15,015 
146, 447 
70,044 

24,660 
6,833 
2,712 
4,006 
3,596 

3,266 
4,058 
23,139 
7,896 
5,133 

10,353 
3,684 
78,800 
152,327 
10, 115 

1,660 
57, 212 
6,141 
5,680 
130, 672 

11,833 

11,730 

36,607 

2,343 

5,912 

2,886" 
8,240 
6,506 
47,292 
4,159 

19, 693 
34,909 
108,268 
31,209 
9,165 

8,799 
6,489 
3,286 
4,121 

13,948 
44, 469 
4,381 
3,401 



Percent of 
increase. 



423.07 

9.62 

> 35. 51 

36.87 

174. 94 

51.10 

3 21. 97 

180.36 

591. 32 

0.93 

168.89 

35.05 

107. 37 

248.82 

72.00 



»4 32 

6, 718. 82 

34.47 

100. 67 

279. 65 
64.12 

129.03 
7, 175. 06 
1, 160. 79 



264. 63 
42.77 
78.54 
23.68 
15.14 

12.96 
79.64 
66.82 
103. 51 
12.89 

37.04 

140.63 

1,612.30 

1, 129. 04 

114.62 

' 30. 57 

540.81 

93.05 

26.05 

2, 562. 97 

117.68 

393. 27 

317. 04 

2.49 

44.83 

» 14. 79 

22.18 

21.60 

4,974.25 

42.53 

238.08 

422.83 

3, 344. 42 

212. 77 

45. 20 

70.16 

18.74 

18.97 

3 13. 62 

1,991.15 
760.63 
37.64 
60.80 



All ages. 



2,583 
3,530 
1,041 
2,664 
3,209 

7,127 
1,799 
3,186 
778 
1,777 

4,010 
5,657 
1,243 
2,895 
8,005 

3,120 
2,087 
3,037 
1,296 
4,634 

3,618 
3,049 
3,364 
1,066 
2,993 

3,486 
2,371 
754 
2,021 
1,538 

1,455 
1,077 
7,669 
1,981 
2,295 

3,872 
777 
2,434 
6,590 
2,382 

1,192 
4,637 
1,600 
2,183 
2,599 

2,743 
1,254 
4,456 
1,171 
2,121 

1,787 
3,441 
2,320 
491 
1,401 

3,069 
3,468 
1,703 
5,188 
3,178 

2,639 
2,696 
1,383 
2,389 

334 
2,727 
1,569 

991 



12, 765 
3,814 
714 
3,658 
8,668 

10,244 
1,336 
8,365 
7,091 
1,777 

10, 628 
7,418 
2,492 
9,868 

12,915 

6,127 
2,034 
200, 794 
1,759 
9,107 

13,346 

6,023 

7,615 

75,383 

34,562 

12,463 
3,446 
1,424 
1,941 
1,839 

1,672 
2,094 
11,266 
3,916 
2,614 

6,126 

1,887 

40,8t22 

77,286 

6,017 

877 

29,228 

3,191 

2,994 

67,093 

5,790 

5,934 

17,777 

1,247 



1,483 
4,189 
2,944 
25, 596 
2,080 

10,042 
17,094 
65,981 
15, 349 
4,650 

4,236 
3,270 
1,718 
2,098 

8,097 

22,367 

2,301 

1,770 



Per cent of 
increase. 



394. 19 

8.05 

S31.41 

37.31 

170. 11 

43.74 
a 25. 74 
162. 55 
811.44 



162.54 
31.01 
100. 48 
240.86 
61.34 

96.38 
3 2.59 
6,611.59 
36.72 
100.86 

268.88 
64.74 

126. 37 
6, 971. 68 
1,064.76 

257. 51 
45.34 
88.86 
3 3.96 
19.57 

14.91 
94.43 
46.77 
97.63 
13.90 

32.39 
142.85 

1, 577. 16 
1,072.78 

110. 62 

3 26. 43 
530.32 
99.44 
37.15 

2, 481. 49 

111.08 
373. 20 
299.03 
6.49 
35.27 

3 17.01 

21.74 

26.90 

6,113.03 

48.47 

227.21 

392. 91 

3,187.20 

195. 85 

46.32 

60.52 

21.29 

24.22 

3 12. 18 

2, 324. 25 

720.20 

46.65 

78.61 



16 years and over. 



1790 



1900 



1,236 
1,799 
532 
1,285 
1,652 

3,372 
885 

1,790 
390 
908 

2,138 
2,674 
589 
1,266 
3,836 

1,597 
1,028 
1,463 
669 
2,214 

1,662 
1,637 
1,108 
487 
1,823 

1,623 

1,208 
395 
995 
757 

723 
535 

3,677 
957 

1,110 

1,857 
407 
1,089 
2,846 
1,215 

605 
2,650 

857 
1,046 
1,222 

1,317 
568 

2,008 
623 

1,044 

966 

1,644 

1,169 

221 

704 

1,517 
1,816 
734 
2,409 
1,632 

1,361 

1,341 

732 

1,215 

176 

1,287 

815 

530 



Percenter 
increase. 



7,768 
2,280 
473 
2,124 
5,363 

6,217 
847 
5,433 
5,814 
1,070 

7,112 
4,488 
1,551 
5,157 
8,062 

3,715 
1,283 
113,327 
1,064 
5,247 

8,088 

3,086 

4,457 

46, 872 

23,031 

6,728 
2,121 
1,015 
1,183 
1,074 

1,013 
1,271 
7,274 
2,415 
1,568 

3,057 

1,145 

25,769 

42,807 

3,065 

528 

19,847 

2,008 

1,880 

42,721 

3,385 

3,357 

10,337 

769 

1,783 

942 
2,609 
1,900 
16,961 
1,239 

5,961 
10,129 
30,431 
9,235 
2,797 

2,679 
1,980 
1,107 
1,288 

6,004 
12,722 
1,414 
1,037 



1 Area covered in 1900 by Virginia and West Virginia. Independent cities are included in county totals for 1790 and 1900. 

' Area covered in 1900 by Campbell county, and by part of .Appomattox countv. 

3 Decrease. 

< Area covered in 1900 by Charlotte county, and by part of .\ppomattox county. 

s Area covered in 1900 by Culpeper, Madison, and Rappahannock counties. 

6 Area covered in 1900 by Alexandria county, and by part of Fairfax county. 

' Area covered in 1900 by Frederick and Clarke counties, and by part of Warren county. 

8 Area covered in 1900 by Gloucester and Mathews counties. 

9 Area covered in 1900 by Greenbrier, Boone, Cabell, Clay, Fayette, Jackson, Kanawha, Lincoln, Logan, Mason, Mingo, Nicholas, Putnam, Raleigh, Roane, Wayne, 
and Wyoimng counties, and by parts of Braxton. Calhoun, Gilmer, McDowell, Monroe, Pocahontas, Summers, Webster, Wirt, and Wood counties. 

i» Area covered in 1900 by Hampshire and Mineral counties, and by part of Morgan county, 
u Area covered in 1900 by I lardy and Grant counties. 

12 Area covered in 1900 by Harrison, Doddridge, I>ewis, and Ritchie counties, and by parts of Barbour, Braxton, Calhoun, Gilmer, Marion, Taylor, Upshur, Webster, 
Wirt, Wood, aud Pleasants coimties. 



GENERAL TABLES. 



217 



IN 1790, COMPARED WITH THAT OF THE SAME AREA IN 1900, WITH PER CENT OF INCREASE-Continued. 

VIRO INI A"— Continued. 



MALES— continued. 


rEHALES. 


^~ 


Under 16 years. 


All ages. 


16 years and over. 


Under 16 yeara. 




1790 


1900 


Per cent of 
Increase. 


1790 


1900 


Per cent of 
Increase. 


1790 


1900 


Per cent of 
Increase. 


17(0 


1900 


Per cent of 
Incraue. 




1,347 


4,997 


270. 97 


2,363 


13,106 


4.54.63 


1,225 


^ '- 1 


•-, ,| 


1,138 


4,822 


32173 


13 


1,731 


1,534 


' 11.38 


3,464 


3,853 


11.23 ' 


1,796 




., 


1,668 


1,447 


• 13.25 


13 


509 


241 


' 52. 65 


1,1X3 


630 


•39.60 


541 




, .-J 'HI 


603 


208 


• 58.57 


14 


1,379 


1,534 


11.24 


2,535 


3,458 


36.41 


1,315 


j,iiii 


Ga9i 


1,230 


1,342 


10 00 


15 


1,557 


3,305 


112.27 


3,149 


8,813 


179.87 


1,633 


5,592 


242.44 


I,S1« 


3,221 


112.47 


IS 


3,7.M 


4,027 


7.24 


6,682 


10,641 


59.25 


3,465 


6,704 


93.48 


3,217 


3,937 


22 38 


17 


9H 
1,39« 


489 

2,9:r2 


' 4fi. 50 
110.03 


1,778 
2,853 


1,455 

8,566 


•18.17 1 
200.24 


922 
1,480 


922 

5,-i77 




856 
1,373 


533 

2.8H9 


•37.73 
110 42 


19 


2S3..58 


388 


1,277 


229. 12 


778 


3,666 


371.21 


404 


2,372 


488. .59 


374 


1,2»4 


245.07 


ao 


869 


707 


•18.64 


1,766 


1,799 


1.87 


916 


1,131 


23.47 


giO 


6«8 


•21.41 


31 


1,872 


3,418 


82.48 


3,601 


9,937 


175.95 


1,888 


6,. 598 


»,! 40 


1.733 


3,339 


92 «« 


23 


2,983 


2,930 


• 1.94 


5,500 


7,656 


39.20 : 


2,852 


4,843 


69. Kl 


2,648 


2,813 


A. 23 


21 


654 


941 


43.88 


1,187 


2,547 


114.57 


616 


l,l>46 


167. 21 


571 


eoi 


47.79 


24 


1,629 


4,7U 


189.20 


2,W0 


10,137 


256.94 


1,473 


5,702 


287.10 


1,367 


4,435 


224.43 


2S 


4,170 


4,8.53 


16.38 


7,310 


13,427 


83.68 


3,791 


8,704 


129.60 


3,519 


4,723 


34.21 


28 


1,523 


2,412 


58.37 


3,105 


5,941 


91.34 


1,610 


3.636 


12.5 84 


1,495 


2,305 


54.18 


27 


1,059 


751 


'29.08 


2,053 


1,927 


•6.14 


1,065 


1.209 


13. .52 


988 


718 


•27.33 


28 


1,574 


87,467 


5,456.99 


2,639 


186,242 


6,957.29 : 


1,369 


102,S11 


7,409.93 


1,270 


83,431 


«,4«9.37 


20 


627 


69.5 


10.84 


1,234 


1,643 


3a 14 : 


640 


9.53 


4^91 


5»4 


«90 


16.16 


10 


2,320 


3,860 


66.38 


4,397 


8,815 


100.48 ; 


2,280 


5,1.57 


126.18 


2,117 


3,658 


7X79 


31 


1,956 


5,2.58 


168.81 


3,261 


12,770 


291.60 


1,691 


7,789 


360.62 


1,.570 


4,981 


217.26 


33 


1,412 


1,938 


37.25 


3,242 


4,673 


44.14 


1,681 


2,977 


77. in 


l,.«il 


1,696 


&65 


33 


2,256 


3,1.58 


39.98 


3,192 


7,400 


131.83 


1,655 


4.32S 


lr.1.51 


1,537 


3,072 


99.87 


34 


579 


29,511 


4,996.89 


947 


71,064 


7,404. 12 


491 


42,931 


8,643. .58 


456 


28,133 


6,069.52 


3S 


1,170 


11, .«1 


885.56 


2,607 


35,482 


1,261.03 


1,352 


24,143 


1,B.S'>. 72 


1,255 


11,339 


803.51 


3t 


1,963 


5,73.5 


192. 15 


3,277 


12,197 


272.20 


1.699 


r.,K.|i. 


:("J. !M 


1,.'.78 


5,151 


239.10 


37 


1,163 


1,325 


13.93 


2,415 


3,387 


40.25 


l,2-.2 


2.i>l.i 


la. is 


1,UV3 


1,344 


15.56 


38 


359 


409 


13.93 


765 


1,288 


6a37 


397 


'.til 


l.«i.y7 


368 


2S 


1.90 


39 


1,0'26 


758 


• 26.12 


2,138 


2,065 


• 3.41 


1,109 


1,238 


11.63 


1,029 


827 


• 19.63 


40 


781 


765 


• 2.05 


1,585 


1,757 


10.85 


822 


1,U37 


26.16 


763 


720 


•5.64 


" 


732 


5';9 


»9.97 


1,438 


1,594 


10.85 


746 


1.009 


y,. 25 


692 


585 


•15.46 


42 


542 


823 


51. 84 


1,182 


1,964 


66.16 


613 


1.114 


81.73 


S69 


890 


49.38 


43 


3,992 


3,982 


• 0.25 


7,080 


11,883 


67.84 


3,672 


7. SIS 


113.45 


3,408 


4,045 


1&«9 


44 


1,021 


1,500 


46.48 


1,899 


3,981 


109.64 


9S.5 


2. .561 


160.00 


914 


1,420 


55.36 


45 


1,18.5 


1,016 


•11.73 


2,252 


2,519 


11.86 


1,168 


1,527 


30.74 


1,081 


992 


•a49 


40 


2,015 


2,069 


2.68 


3,683 


5,227 


41.92 


1.910 


3,156 


65. 24 


1,773 


2,071 


16.81 


47 


370 


742 


100.54 


7.54 


1,797 


138.33 


391 


1,0» 


168. .54 


wy 


747 


105.79 


48 


1,315 


15,a53 


1,019. 18 


2,168 


37,978 


1,651.75 


1,124 


23,. 557 


1,995.82 


1.044 


14.421 


1,281.32 


49 


3,744 


34,479 


820.91 


5,8(M 


75,(>«1 


1,192.92 


3,010 


42,098 


1,298.60 


2.794 


32,943 


1,079.06 


50 


1,167 


1,952 


67.26 


2,331 


5,098 


118.70 


1,209 


3,228 


167.00 


1,122 


1,870 


M.67 


51 


587 


349 


" 40. .54 


1,199 


783 


• 34.70 


622 


492 


• 20.90 


577 


291 


•49. .57 


53 


1,987 


9,381 


372. 12 


4,291 


27.984 


M2.13 


2,22.5 


18.. '42 


733.35 


2,066 


9,442 


357.01 


S 


743 


1,183 


59.22 


1,581 


2,950 


86.59 


820 


l.-W) 


120. 12 


761 


1,145 


50.46 


54 


1,137 


1,114 


• 2.02 


2,323 


2,686 


15.63 


1,205 


1,617 


34. 19 


1,118 


1,069 


■ 4. 38 


.55 


1,377 


24,372 


1,069.93 


2,308 


63,579 


2,654.72 


1,197 


39,961 


3,238.43 


1,111 


23,618 


3,025.83 


.50 


1,426 
6Sf> 


2,405 
2 577 


68.65 
275 M 


2,693 
1,124 


6,043 
5,796 


124. 85 
41.5.66 


1,397 
5S3 


3.731 
3.396 


167. 07 
4«2..'iO 


1,296 
.541 


2,312 
2,400 


78.40 
343.62 


57 
.58 


2,447 

54S 

1,077 


7,440 

478 

1,086 


204.05 

• 12. 77 

0.84 


4,083 
1,115 
1,961 


17,830 
1,096 
3,043 


336.69 
•1.70 
55. 18 


2,117 

578 

1,017 


10.613 

711 

1,919 


401. 32 
23.01 
88L69 


1,966 
537 
944 


7,217 

385 

1,124 


267.09 

•28.31 

19.07 


59 
60 

61 


822 

1,797 

1,151 

270 

697 


541 
1,.5S0 
1,014 
9,635 

841 


• 34. 18 

• 12. OS 
•9.30 

3,468. .52 
20.66 


1,600 
3,303 
2,207 
441 
1,517 


1,403 
4,051 
2,561 
21,696 
2,079 


• 12. 31 

22.65 

16. M 

4,819.73 

37.05 


830 

1,713 

1,145 

229 

787 


874 

2.603 

1.574 

12,471 

1,176 


.5 30 
51.96 
37.47 
5,34.5 8.5 
49.43 


770 

1,.590 

1,062 

212 

730 


.529 
1,448 

9S7 
9.225 

903 


•31.30 

•a93 

•7.06 

4,251.42 

23.70 


03 
63 
64 
65 
6« 


1,5.52 
1,652 
969 
2,779 
1,546 


4,081 
6,965 
25,. 550 
6,114 
1,853 


162. 95 

321. 61 

2,536. 73 

120.01 

19. &5 


2,7.56 
3,209 
1,440 
4,791 
3,134 


9,651 
17.815 
52.277 
15,860 

4,S1S 


250. IS 

4.55. 16 

3,5.-t0. 35 

231.04 

44.06 


1,429 
1,664 
747 
2,485 
1,«2S 


5,895 
11,098 
27,616 
9.869 
2.732 


312.53 

.566. as 

3,596.92 

297.14 

68.12 


1.327 
1..54'. 
693 
2,306 
1,509 


3.7.56 
6.717 
24. «1 
5.991 
1,783 


18104 

334.76 

3,4.58. 59 

1.59.80 

18.16 


67 
68 
60 
70 
71 


1.278 

I, IV, 

651 

1,174 


1..557 

1,290 

611 

810 


21.83 

• 4.80 

•6. 14 

• 31.01 


2,. 5.12 
2.769 
1.379 
2,382 


4, .563 
3,219 
1,.V« 
2,023 


80.21 

16.25 

13.71 

• 15.07 


1.313 

1,436 

715 

1,235 


2,984 

1,968 

9»5 

1,216 


127.27 
37.05 
39.16 
• 1.54 


1.219 

1.333 

664 

1,147 


1,.579 

1,2.51 

S73 

807 


39.53 
• 6.15 
• 1170 
•29.64 


73 
73 
74 
75 


1.58 

l,-»40 

7.54 

461 


2,093 

9,645 

8S7 

733 


1,224.68 

.569. 79 

17.64 

.59.00 


333 
2,440 
1.614 
1,124 


.5,851 

22.102 

2.080 

1,631 


1,657.06 
805.82 
2a 87 
45.11 


173 

1,26.5 

837 

583 


3,756 

12,790 

1,.WI 

939 


2,071.10 

911.07 

.55 44 

CI. 06 


160 

1,175 

777 

&41 


2.095 

9,312 

779 

.92 


1,209.38 

602 51 

028 

27.91 


78 
77 
78 
79 



>» .\rca covored in IJXX) by ricnry and Patrick counties. 

» .\rea covered in V.m l>y Loudoun county, and h\; rmrt ot Fairfax <•<;""'>:•.,„„ „„ . x.vlnr ro.intlM 

« ^S 'ZZi IS '^ U ^^^i^^Z^iZh^^O^:^:^^:^^:^. Sr^-L^an^Srythe count.«. and by part, o,C™.g. McDoweU.M-™. Smytiw 



Summers, and Taiewell eomuies^.^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^ y^^, ^^^^^ ^^ ^.^^ ^„„U„ „d by part of Plea»nt. county. 



'ocahontas. Preston. Upshur, and Webster counties. 



" Area covered in 1900 I . 

'« Area covered in 19<I0 liy Oranee and Greene counties, 
w Area covered in 1 
*• Area covored in 1 

'■ Area covered in l!«in l>y Randolph i..... r, . , i-.„;.„ ~„,r,t,. 

- 17^ ZZi i'n" l^^lS^^ltl^^'^^^^^^^r^^S^^^ P-U. or UcDowel.. Scott. «.d TaseweU oounU-. 



1 1900 l>y Pendleton county, and by part of Ilichland «'""'5^- „„,_ 
I 1900 bv Prince Edward county, ani by part of Apponuittoi county, 
1 I'lon bV Randolph and Tucker counties, and by parts ol Barliour. i 



218 



A CENTURY OF POPULATION GROWTH. 



Table 107.-WHITE POPULATION, CLASSIFIED BY SEX AND AGE, OF EACH OF THE COUNTIES REPORTED 

NORTH CAROLINA. 



= 


COUNTY. 


BOTH SEXES. 


UALES. 




All ages. 


16 years and over. 




1790 


1900 


Per cent of 
increase. 


1790 


1900 


Per cent of 
increase. 


1790 


1900 


Per cent of 
increase. 


1 


The state 


289,181 


1,261,603 


336.96 


147,825 


632,155 


327. 64 


70,172 


356,589 


408.16 


? 


Eden ton district 


33,568 


56,455 


68.18 


17,058 


28,678 


68.12 


8,405 


16,865 


100.65 


3 




6,963 
2,954 
2,360 
4,002 
3,076 
3,269 
3,790 
3,519 
3,635 

28, H2 


8,717 
3,283 
4,406 
6,409 
5,609 
6,895 
6,630 
5,088 
10,418 

112,522 


25.19 
11.14 
86.69 
60.14 
82.35 
80 33 
74.93 
44.59 
186.60 

300.26 


3,621 
1,479 
1,189 
2,042 
1,662 
1,637 
1,986 
1,805 
1,837 

14,436 


4,440 
1,690 
2,221 
3,302 
2,826 
2,964 
3,396 
2,657 
5,283 

55,863 


26.10 
14.27 
86.80 
61.70 
80.86 
81.06 
71.00 
41.66 
187.59 

287. 00 


1,719 
725 
638 

1,018 
790 
813 
951 
884 
867 

7,111 


2,610 
959 
1,302 
1,940 
1,773 
1,750 
2,000 
1,466 
3,065 

31,816 


51.83 

32.28 
104. 08 

90.57 
124. 43 
115. 25 
110.30 

65.84 
253. 52 

347.42 




5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
















12 


Fayette district 






4,365 
6,467 
3,487 
4,415 
4,533 
4,845 

37,955 


20,092 
26,810 
16,773 
13,801 
19,577 
16,469 

83,827 


360.30 
314. 67 
362. 34 
212. 59 
331.88 
239. 92 

120.86 


2,218 
3,413 
1,816 
2,301 
2,270 
2,418 

19,345 


10,122 
13,198 
7,766 
6,802 
9,806 
8,170 

42,694 


356. 36 
286.70 
327. 82 
195.61 
331.98 
237.88 

120. 70 


1,035 
1,852 
850 
1,096 
1,132 
1,146 

9,215 


5,496 
7,561 
4,604 
3,992 
5,567 
4,696 

24,965 


431.01 
308. 26 
429.88 
264. 23 
391. 78 
309.77 

170.92 






15 










18 




19 


Halifax district 


'*0 




7,028 
4,764 
7.170 
4,085 
6,189 
6,120 
4,599 

45,820 


16,904 
12,678 
11,060 
8,056 
18,887 
9,031 
7,211 

148,918 


140. 52 
166. 12 
54.25 
97.21 
263.98 
76.39 
56. 79 . 

226. 01 


3,541 
2,457 
3,699 
2,077 
2,568 
2,618 
2,385 

23,840 


8,576 
6,466 
5,649 
4,170 
9,653 
4,663 
3,618 

73,863 


142.19 
163.13 
52.72 
100.77 
275.90 
74.29 
51.70 

209.83 


1,663 
1,076 
1,873 
1,067 
1,134 
1,335 
1,067 

10,937 


5,087 
3,751 
3,469 
2,353 
5,542 
2,681 
2,082 

43,183 


206.89 
248.61 

85.21 
120. 52 
388.71 
100.82 

95.13 

294.83 




Franklin w 






**? 


Martin ^ 


'1 


Nash " 






'>fi 


Warren 12 


07 


niUsborouctt district 




Caswell 13 


?s 


7,288 
7,593 
6,504 
10,055 
6,834 
7,546 

30,687 


16,491 
15,573 
17,176 
43,693 
24,660 
31,525 

373,248 


126.28 
106. 10 
164. 08 
333. 55 
259. 38 
317.77 

1,116.31 


3,911 
3,929 
3,454 
5,142 
3,642 
3,862 

15,726 


8,311 
7,763 
8,499 
21,463 
12,119 
15,708 

185,717 


112.50 
97.58 
146. 06 
317.41 
242. 15 
300. 73 

1,080.96 


1,801 
1,761 
1,581 
2,433 
1,590 
1,771 

0,953 


4,679 
4,432 
4,917 
12,697 
6,803 
9,655 

99,651 


159. 80 
151.68 
211.01 
421.87 
327. 86 
445 17 

1,333.21 


?9 


Chatham ^ 


in 








•^^ 




n 


Wake '» 


14 


Morgan district 




Burke 1' 


Ti 


7,497 
8,391 
7,197 
7,602 

38,800 


134,633 
56,081 

124,212 
68,322 

127,391 


1,695 82 
508.35 

1,626.89 
667.19 

228.33 


3,813 
4,350 
3,695 
3,868 

19,471 


67,212 
27,427 
62,193 
28,885 

64,610 


1,662.71 
530. 51 

1,683.17 
646. 77 

231. 83 


1,706 
2,057 
1,576 
1,615 

9,595 


36,120 
14,955 
33,438 
16,138 

37,510 


2,018.48 
627.03 

2,021.70 
837.34 

290.93 


16 


Lincoln i'. 


17 


Rutherford li* 


IS 


Wilkes^ 


11 








An 


3,655 
2,932 
6,474 
4,936 
3,024 
4,298 
3,071 
5,881 
4,529 

58,425 


16,002 
9,297 
14,472 
16,852 
6,132 
26,678 
4,466 
15,397 
19,095 

286,716 


337. 81 
217.09 
123.54 
241. 41 
102. 78 
497. 44 
45.42 
161.81 
321. 62 

390. 74 


1,834 
1,427 
3,248 
2,457 
1,500 
2,217 
1,630 
2,969 
2,283 

29,936 


8,138 
4,689 
7,259 
8,551 
3,176 
12,951 
2,301 
7,926 
9,620 

143,234 


343.73 
228. 59 
123. 49 
248. 03 
110.89 
484. 17 
50.39 
166. 92 
321.38 

378. 48 


910 

718 
1,710 
1,164 

792 
1,040 

736 
1,461 
1,064 

14,003 


4,816 
2,841 
4,342 
6,000 
1,828 
7,213 
1,344 
4,600 
6,526 

80,790 


429.23 
295.68 
163.92 
329. 65 
130. 81 
593.56 
82.61 
214.85 
419.36 

476.95 


4) 


Carteret ^ 


4'' 


Craven ^ 


41 


Dobbs '< 


44 


Hyde^ 


4'i 


Johnston ■'" . . 


«i 




47 


Pitt' 


4S 


Wayne" 


49 






Guilford ' 


fin 


6,657 
4,559 
9,685 
4,191 
5,088 
14,129 
7,633 
6,483 

15,814 


27,969 
26,608 
67,009 
23,936 
21,644 
63,3S0 
40,866 
35,604 

74,526 


320. 14 
481. 44 
488.63 
471. 13 
323. 43 
277. 80 
4.15 39 
447. 66 

371. 27 


3,422 
2,336 
4,927 
2,162 
2,699 
7,227 
3,968 
3,294 

8,015 


13,993 
12,966 
28,678 
12,032 
10,902 
26,557 
20,506 
17,701 

37,490 


308. 91 

455. 01 
480. 03 

456. 63 
319. 47 
267. 47 
416. 78 
437.37 

367. 82 


1,615 

1,118 

2,364 

942 

1,188 
3,399 
1,846 
1,531 

3,963 


8,439 
7,260 
16,324 
6,226 
6,106 
15,104 
11,625 
9,707 

21,809 


422.64 
549.37 
690. 52 
660.83 
413.97 
344.37 
S29.74 
534.03 

451.71 


M 


Iredell^ 


fi? 




■il 


Montgomery 30 


.'i4 




SI 




m 


Stokes ^ 


'il 


Surry 3s 


ss 


Wllmingtnn distri'-t 




Bladen« 


59 


3,356 
1,550 
4,274 
3,032 
3,596 


21,891 
10,612 
13.877 
19,916 
8,330 


562. 29 
575 58 
224. 68 
556.86 
131. 66 


1,671 

778 
2,222 
1,636 
1,808 


10,930 
5,337 
6,982 
9,907 
4,340 


554. 10 

585. 99 
214. 22 
544. 99 
140. 04 


837 
380 
1,035 
834 
867 


6,084 
2,992 
4,036 
6,200 
2,497 


626.88 
687.37 
289. 96 
643. 41 
188.00 


fin 




fii 


Duplin ' 


fi'' 


New Hanover** 


fii 


Onslow 1 







1 Area covered in 

2 Decrease. 
« Area covered in 
< .\rea covered in 
' Area covered in 
« Area covered in 
' Area covered In 
« Area covered in 
» Area covered in 

1" Area covered in 
^1 Area covered in 

12 Area covered in 

13 Area covered in 
^* Area covered in 
1^ Area covered in 
IS Area covered in 
»' -\rea covered in 

Alexander counties. 
18 Area covered in 



1900 coextensive with that of 1790. 

1900 by Currituck coimty, and by part of Dare county. 
1900 by Tyrrell and Washington counties, and by part of Dare county. 
1900 by Anson county, and by part of Union county. 
19U0 by Harnett county, and by part of Cumberland county. 
1900 by Richmond and Scotland counties. 
1900 by Sampson county, with the exception of a small section. 
1900 by Edgecombe county, and by part of Wilson county. 
1900 by part of Franklin county. 
1900 by K'asli county, and by part of Wilson county. 
1900 by Warren county, and by part of Vance county. 
1900 by Caswell and Person counties. 

1900 by Granville county, and by parts of Vance and Franklin counties. 
1900 by I )r3nge and Alamance counties, and by part of Durham county 
1900 by Wake county, and by part of Durham countv. 
1900 by Burke, Madison, Yancey, and Mitchell counties, and by parts of McDowell, Haywood, Swam, Buncombe, Caldwell, Watauga, and 

1900 by Lincoln, Gaston, and Catawba counties, and by part of Cleveland county. 



GENERAL TABLES. 

m 1790, COMPARED WITH THAT OF THE SAME AREA IN 1900. WITH PER CENT OF INCREASE-Continued. 

KORTH CAROIiINA. 



219 



HALES— continued. 
























' 










miAUES. 










Under IG yoars. 


All ages. 


16 yoon and over. 


Under 16 ymn. 


\1V<) 


1900 


Percent of 
Increase. 


1790 


1900 


Per cent of 
Increase. 


17(0 


1900 


Per cent of 
Inonaae. 


17W 


IfOO 


Perontof 
looreu*. 


77,653 


275,566 


254.87 


141,356 


631,448 


346.71 


69,007 


366,471 


430.00 


73, J» 


364, on 


aaa.86 


8,653 


11,813 


36.52 


16,510 


27,777 


68.24 


8,067 


10,314 


103.23 


8,441 


u,4n 


3s.n 


1,802 
754 
551 

1,024 
772 
824 

1,035 
921 
970 


1,830 
731 
919 
1,362 
1,052 
1,214 
1,396 
1,091 
2,218 


1.55 
>3.05 
66.79 
33.01 
36.27 
47.33 
34.88 
18.46 
128.66 


3,442 
1,475 
1,171 
1,960 
1,614 
1,632 
1,804 
1,714 
1,798 


4,277 
1,693 
2,186 
3,107 
2,784 
2,931 
3,234 
2.631 
5,135 


24.26 
8.00 
86.59 
68.52 
83.88 
79.60 
79.27 
47.67 
186.60 


1,682 
721 
872 
958 
740 
797 
881 
837 
879 


2,SS« 
•31 

1,313 
1,764 
1,660 
1,740 
1,964 
1.444 
2,959 


82.14 

29.13 
129.85 

84.13 
122.97 
118.32 
121.79 

72.52 
236.63 


1,700 
764 
899 

1,002 
774 
835 
823 
877 
919 


1,718 

ea> 

«72 
1,343 
1,134 
1,191 
1,280 
1,067 
2,176 


•3. 39 
•12.30 
48.88 
34.03 
46.81 
42 63 
38.68 
23.96 
136.78 


7,324 


24,047 


228.33 


13,677 


56,659 


314.26 


6,683 


33,108 


395.41 


6,9B4 


23,881 


238.73 


1,183 


4,626 


291.04 


2,147 


9,970 


364.37 


1,049 


8,871 


431.08 


1,098 


4,399 


300 64 






261.11 


3,054 


13,612 


345.71 


1,492 


8,032 


438 34 


1,662 


8,880 


257.23 






237.93 


1,672 


8,008 


378.95 


817 


4,699 


475. 16 


888 


3,309 


287 02 


1,205 


2,810 


133.20 


2,114 


6,999 


231.08 


1,033 


4,179 


304.55 


1,081 


2,820 


160 87 




4, 239 


272.60 


2,263 


9,771 


331.77 


1,106 


5,800 


424.41 


1,187 


3,»7I 


243 22 


1,272 


3,474 


173. 11 


2,427 


8,299 


241.94 


1,186 


4,827 


307.00 


1,241 


3,472 


179.77 


10,130 


17,729 


75.01 


18,610 


41,133 


121.03 


9,093 


24,876 


170.27 


9,617 


16, 887 


73. «7 


1,878 


3,489 


85.78 


3,487 


8,328 


138.83 


1,704 


6,010 


194.01 


1,783 


3,318 


86.09 




2,714 


96.62 


2,307 


6,213 


169.31 


1,127 


3,712 


229.37 


1,180 


2,801 


111.96 


1,826 


2,180 


19.39 


3,471 


6,411 


55.89 


1,696 


3,303 


94.76 


1,778 


2,108 


18.76 


1,010 


1,817 


79.90 


2,008 


3,886 


93.53 


981 


2,308 


134.96 


1,027 


1,881 


83.94 


1,434 


4,111 


186.68 


2,621 


9,234 


2,'J2. 31 


1,281 


6,346 


317.25 


1,340 


3,888 


190.22 


1,283 


1,882 


46.69 


2,602 


4,468 


78.58 


1,222 


2,697 


120.70 


1,280 


1,771 


38.36 


1,318 


1,536 


16.54 


2,214 


3,693 


62.29 


1,082 


2,204 


103.70 


1,132 


1,38« 


22.70 


12,903 


30,680 


137. 77 


21,980 


75,055 


241.47 


10,739 


45,604 


323.73 


11,241 


29,861 


162.89 


2,110 


3,632 


72.13 


3,377 


8,180 


142.23 


1,660 


4,794 


190.55 


1,727 


3,386 


98.06 


2,168 


3,331 


53.64 


3,664 


7,810 


113. 16 


1,790 


4,683 


161.62 


1,874 


3,127 


66.86 


1,873 


3,582 


91.24 


3,050 


8,677 


184.49 


1,490 


5,164 


246.58 


1,5«0 


3,813 


128.19 


2,709 


8,766 


223.59 


4,913 


22,130 


360.44 


2,401 


13,606 


466.92 


2,812 


8,824 


239.20 


1,952 


5,316 


172 34 


3,292 


12, 441 


277.92 


1,608 


7,384 


359.20 


1,684 


8,087 


200.30 


2,091 


6,053 


189.48 


3,684 


15,817 


329.34 


1,800 


9,873 


448.50 


1,884 


8,944 


218.50 


8,773 


80,066 


881.03 


14,961 


187,531 


1,153.47 


7,310 


104,101 


1,324.09 


7,651 


83,430 


990.48 


2,108 


31,092 


1,374.95 


3,684 


67,421 


1,730.10 


1,800 


37,408 


1,978.22 


1,884 


30,013 


1,493.06 


2,293 


12, 472 


443.92 


4,041 


28,654 


609.08 


1,975 


16,242 


722.80 


2,066 


12, 412 


60a48 


2,119 


28,755 


1,257.01 


3,502 


62,019 


1,670.96 


1,711 


34,148 


1,896.62 


1,791 


27,874 


1,466 34 


2,253 


13,747 


510. 16 


3,734 


29,437 


688.36 


1,824 


16,306 


793.97 


1,910 


13,131 


887.49 


9,876 


27, 100 


174.40 


19,329 


62,781 


224.80 


9,444 


36,784 


289.50 


9,885 


25,997 


162.99 


924 


3,322 


259. 52 


1,821 


7,864 


331.85 


890 


4,663 


422.81 


931 


3,211 


244.90 


709 


1,848 


160.65 


1,505 


4,608 


206.18 


738 


2,780 


278.23 


770 


1,828 


137.40 


1,538 


2,917 


89.66 


3,226 


7,213 


123.59 


1,876 


4,292 


172. 34 


1,660 


2,021 


77 03 


1,293 


3,651 


174.63 


2,479 


8,301 


234.85 


1,211 


4,878 


302.56 


1,288 


3,42« 


170. 19 


714 


1,348 


88.80 


1,518 


2,966 


94.73 


742 


1,700 


129.11 


776 


I.2S6 


61.86 


1,177 


5,738 


387.61 


2,081 


12,727 


511.58 


1,017 


7,249 


612. 78 


1,064 


8,478 


414.88 


794 


957 


20.53 


1,541 


2,166 


40.49 


753 


1,270 


68.66 


788 


806 


13.68 


1,508 


3,325 


120.49 


2,912 


7,472 


156.59 


1,423 


4,426 


211.03 


1,489 


3,046 


104. S7 


1,219 


4,094 


235.85 


2,24« 


9,476 


321.86 


1,097 


5,839 


404.92 


1,149 


3,936 


242.86 


15,932 


62, 444 


291.94 


28,490 


143,482 


403.62 


13,920 


84,077 


804 00 


14,570 


69,406 


307.73 


1,807 


6,554 


207.36 


3,235 


13,976 


332.02 


1,6«1 


8,711 


460.98 


1.654 


6,266 


2ia32 


1,218 


5,705 


368.39 


2,223 


13,543 


509.22 


1,086 


8,aS7 


641.90 


1,137 


6,486 


383.80 


2,563 


12,254 


378.11 


4,768 


28, 431 


497.84 


2,325 


16,678 


617.33 


2,433 


11,783 


383.07 


1,220 


5,807 


376.98 


2,029 


11,904 


486.69 


991 


6,486 


851.46 


1,038 


8,448 


424.86 


1.411 


4,796 


239.90 


2,489 


10,642 


327.66 


1,216 


6,136 


404.61 


1,273 


4,606 


383 97 


3,828 


11,453 


199.19 


6,902 


26,823 


288.63 


3,372 


18,901 


371.86 


3,830 


10,923 


209.41 


2,122 


8,881 


318. 52 


3,665 


20,360 


455.53 


1,791 


11,969 


668.29 


1,874 


8,391 


347.78 


1,763 


7,994 


353.43 


3,189 


17,803 


458.26 


1,888 


10,169 


882.70 


1,631 


7,«34 


388.08 


4,062 


16,687 


286.19 


7,799 


37,030 


374.80 


3,811 


22,007 


477.46 


3,988 


18,023 


376. n 


S34 


4,846 


481.06 


1,685 


10,961 


650.50 


823 


e,.^! 


668.04 


862 


4,640 


438.28 


398 


2,345 
2 946 


489.20 


778 


5,175 


865.17 


380 


2,919 


668.16 


3«8 


2,286 


466.83 


1 187 


148.19 


2,052 


6,895 


236.01 


1,003 


4,084 


304 19 


1,049 


2.841 


170.83 


702 


3,707 


428.06 


1,496 


10,009 


669.05 


731 


6,385 


773 46 


765 


3,624 


378. 7S 


941 


1,843 


95.86 


1,788 


3,990 


123.15 


874 


2,328 


1C6.36 


914 


1,663 


81 84 



• parts of .\lleitbany, Watauga, Alexander, and Caldwell countle*. 
['amllco county. 



" .\rea covered in 1900 by Cherokee, Graham, Macon, Jackson, Transylvania, Henderson, Polk, Rutherford, and (lay eountliw, and by parts of Swain, Cleveland. 
Buncombe, HavwootJ, and McDowell counties. 

» .Vrea covered in VMm by Ashe and Wilkes counties, and by i 
" .Vrea covered in \'M)0 by Deautort county, and by part of Pa 

" Areacovered in I'.KK) by partofCarUTeteounty. . „ _. . .,„ 

o Area covered in lliOO by Craven CDUnty. and by parts of Pamlico and Carteret counties. 

« .\rea covered In 1900 by Lenoir and ti'reene counties. 

•Area covered In 1900 by II vde count v. and by part of Dare county. 

» Area covered In 19(X) by Johnston counlv, and by part of Wilson county. 

» Areacoveredln 1900 bv Wayne county, and by part of Wli.wn county. 

« Area covered in I'KK) by IredeU county, and by part of AlP.xander county. „„„„„ 

"Area covered in VMM by Mecklenburg and Cabarrus counlie.s, and by part of Union county. 

••Areacoveredln liXWbv MontgomeryandStanlycountlis. ,, „, v„„„,h ~.,.n.« 

•' Area covered in I'.KW by Davie, Rowan, and Davidson counties, and by part of Fors) th county. 

" Area covered In l'.«K) by Stokes county, and by part of ^orsyth «o""'>',- . „„^^„„,_ 

•• Areacovereii in l'.«in bv Yadkin and Surry counties, and by part of ;^''«'>any county 

X Area covered in vm by Bladen countv. and by parts of Cumberland and Columbus counties. 

«» Area covered in l!«l<) bv nmnswick county, and by P'lrt "' ' "'•'"'.''"^'^""".'V. mT,«,n .v,nnlv 

»• Area covered In 1900 by New IJ anover and Pender counties, and by part of bampson county. 



220 



A CENTURY OF POPULATION GROWTH. 



Table 107.-WHITE POPULATION, CLASSIFIED BY SEX AND AGE, OF EACH OF THE COUNTIES REPORTED 

SOUTH CAROLINA. 



~~ 


COUNTY. 


BOTH SEXES. 


MALES. 




All ages. 


16 


years and over 






1790 


1900 


Per cent of 
increase. 


1790 


1900 


Per cent of 
increase. 


1790 


1900 


Per cent of 
increase. 


1 


The state 


140, 178 


557,807 


297.93 


73,298 


281, 147 


283.57 


35,576 


161,778 


354.74 






4,364 
29.242 
15.402 
7,418 
8,878 
62,462 
12,412 


11,585 
96, 707 
50,266 
41,990 
58.833 
233,589 
64,837 


165.47 
230. 71 
226. 36 
406. 06 
562. 68 
273.97 
422.37 


2,321 
15.635 
8,237 
3,772 
4,823 
32, 138 
6,372 


6.018 
48.564 
24.901 
21.072 
29.898 
117.871 
32. 823 


159.28 
210.61 
202. 31 
458. 64 
619. 90 
266. 77 
415. 11 


1,266 
6,941 
5,060 
1,779 
2,356 
14, 973 
3,201 


3,596 
28, 469 
15,489 
12,058 
16,537 
66, 371 
. 19,258 


184.04 
310. 16 
206.11 
577.80 
601.91 
343.27 
501. 62 






t\ 




Kj 


rheraw district * .... 






g 


Ninety-six district « 







GEORGIA. 



1 


The state 


52,886 


297,007 


461.60 


27, 147 


149,721 


451.52 


13, 103 


87,122 


564.90 


o 


Burke ^ 


7,064 

221 

2,456 

1,674 

8.S5 

193 

4,020 
1,303 
7,162 
3,856 
24,052 


12, 792 
5,933 

31,414 
9,601 

76,394 
9,118 

10,346 
9,972 
27, 981 
69,470 
33,986 


81.09 
2,584.60 
1,179.07 
473. 54 
8.532.09 
4,624.35 

157. 36 

665.31 

290. 69 

1,701.61 

41.30 


3,649 
125 

1,326 
963 
468 
106 

2,138 

690 

3,819 

1,971 

11,892 


6,586 

3, 103 
15,981 

4,904 
38,010 

4,751 

5,091 
5.170 
13,556 
35. ,540 
17,029 


80.49 
2,382.40 
1,105.20 
409 24 
8,021.79 
4,382.08 

138.12 

649.27 

254.96 

1,703.14 

43.20 


1,808 

81 

846 

627 

225 

70 

1,027 
426 

1,894 
947 

5,152 


3,771 

1,668 
10,910 

2.777 
21,048 

2,833 

3,061 
2,888 
8,904 
19, 396 
9,866 


108. 57 
1,959.26 
1,189.60 

342.90 
9,254.67 
3,947.14 

198.05 

577.93 

370. 12 

1,948.15 

91.50 


•^ 








^i 


Effingham 11 . 


5 


FranMin ^ 


7 


Glyn" 


R 






Liberty '^ 


in 


Richmond i^ . . 


n 




1'' 


Wilks i» 







KENTUCKY. 



1 


The state 


61,133 


1,862,309 


2,946.32 


32,211 


948,048 


2,843.24 


15,154 


565,705 


3,633.04 






•> 


6,929 
14,626 
3,857 
5,446 
5,035 

2,500 
5,745 
10,032 
6,963 


159,832 

41,930 

243,250 

642,753 

73,882 

283,613 

26,591 

237,517 

152,941 


2,206.71 

186.68 

6,206.72 

11,702.30 

1,367.37 

11,244.52 

362. 85 

2,267.59 

2,096.48 


3,6S0 
7,598 
2,098 
2,816 
2,652 

1,365 
3,003 
5,303 
3,696 


82,368 
21,283 
120,984 
329,217 
37,820 

144,316 
13,450 

121,167 
77,443 


2, 138. 26 

180. 11 

5,666.63 

11,590.94 

1,326.09 

10,472.60 

347. 89 

2,184.88 

1,995.32 


1,645 
3,517 
1,057 
1,375 
1,231 

694 
1,460 
2,508 
1,767 


45,901 
14,337 
80,827 
192,089 
20,087 

82,877 
8,329 
71,472 
49,786 


2,69