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Full text of "The cerebral convolutions of man : represented according to original observations : especially upon their development in the foetus : intended for the use of physicians"

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THE 



CEREBRAL CONVOLUTIONS OF MAN, 



REPRESENTED 



ACCORDING TO ORIGINAL OBSERVATIONS, 



ESPECIALLY 



UPON THEIR DEVELOPMENT IN THE FCETUS. 



INTENDED FOR THE USE OF PHYSICIANS. 



•••• 

*•••••• « ••• 

• • • • • • ••« ••••••• 



• * »> j 



I •• * - J V 

• •••„••* 

• • • • • „ O 

• • • nt w J 



BY 



ALEXANDEE ECKEft, 

PE0FE3SOB OF ANATOMY AND COMPARATIVE ANATOMY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF 

FREIBURG, BADEN. 



i • ■ * 




TRANSLATED BY 

ROBERT T. EDES, M. D. , ^^^^^^f 



NEW YORK: 
. APPLETON & COMPANY, 

549 ifc 551 BROADWAY. 
1873. 

1. 










4 PREFACE. 

place in the hands of practitioners materials which 
shall make it possible for them to find their way 
easily in the apparent chaos of convolutions. Only 
then will they be able to record correctly the obser- 
vations made on the cadaver. 

The anatomists are not entirely disinterested in 
performing this service for the practitioners, since 
they expect in return material from which the hoped- 
for science may some time arise. 

For this object it has long been my intention to 
give a summary description of the cerebral convolu-. 
tions for the use of physicians, and I think that its 
fulfilment has not been made superfluous by the later 
excellent works on this subject. The following de- 
scription, which rests throughout on my own inves- 
tigations, is especially supported by the study of the 
development of the cerebral convolutions in the 
foetus, the result of which will be more completely 
reported in another place. The accompanying figures 
are to be regarded not so much as pictures, as maps 
by which one may be placed in a position to find his 
way more easily in this region. 

Alexander Ecker. 

Freiburg, Marc\ 1869. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Introduction 7 

THE FISSURES AND CONVOLUTIONS OF THE SURFACE OF THE 

BRAIN. 

Principal Fissures of the Hemispheres . . .15 
Fissura Sylvii . . . ' . . . . . 15 

Sulcus centralis . . . . . . . .16 

Fissura parieto-occipitalis ..... 20 

Lobes op the Brain, their Fissures and Convolu- 
tions 22 

Frontal Lobe .22 

Gyrus centralis anterior ...... 23 

Gyrus frontalis superior and gyrus rectus . . 24 
Gyrus frontalis medius . . . . . .26 

Gyrus frontalis inferior 28 

Sulcus frontalis superior 29 

Sulcus frontalis inferior . . . . . . 29 

Sulcus praecentralis ....... 29 

Sulcus olfactorius . 31 

Sulcus orbital is 31 

Parietal Lobe . 34 

Gyrus centralis posterior 35 



6 CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Sulcus interparietalis 35 

Lobulus parietalis superior 38 

Praecuneus . 39 

. Lobulus parietalis inferior ...... 40 

Lobulus supramarginalis 41 

Gyrus angularis 42 

Occipital Lobe 43 

Sulcus occipitalis transversus 45 

Fissura calcarina 47 

Cuneus 48 

Lobulus extremus ■ ' . . 48 

Gyrus occipitalis primus 54 

Gyrus occipitalis secundus* 55 

Gyrus occipitalis tertius 55 

Gyrus descendens 56 

Sulci occipi tales longitudinales . . . . . 57 

Temporal Lobe 60 

Sulcus temporalis superior 61 

Sulcus temporalis medius ...... 62 

Sulcus temporalis inferior 62 

Sulcus occipito-temporalis inferior .... 64 

Gyrus temporalis superior 65 

Gyrus temporalis medius 66 

Gyrus temporalis inferior 66 

Gyrus occipito-temporalis medialis .... 68 
Gyrus occipito-temporalis lateralis . . . .69 

Medial Subface op the Hemisphere. ... 71 
Sulcus calloso-marginalis . . . . . .71 

Gyrus fornicatus 72 

Gyrus Hippocampi . . . . . .76 

Gyrus uncinatus 77 

Fissura Hippocampi .77 

Gyrus dentatus 78 

Island (of Reil) . . . . - 80 

Appendix ......... 81 



THE CONVOLUTIONS OF THE BEAIN. 



INTRODUCTION. 

That the cortex of the cerebrum, the undoubted 
material substratum of our intellectual activity, is 
not a single organ which enters into action as a 
whole with every psychical function, but consists 
rather of a multitude of organs, each of which sub- 
serves definite intellectual processes, is a view which 
presents itself to us almost with the force of an 
axiom. The opposite hypothesis of a single organ 
for the multiplicity of the intellectual functions 
would mark a stand-point about equally advanced 
with the abandoned conception of a " Vital Force." 
If, however, as we think is undoubtedly true, definite 
portions of the cerebral cortex subserve definite in- 
tellectual processes, there is a possibility that we 
may some day attain a complete organology of the 
brain-surface, a science of the localization of the cere- 



8 CONVOLUTIONS OF THE BRAIN. 

bral functions. Such a science — that is, a knowl- 
edge of the psychical organs of the brain in all their 
relations — is certainly one of the most important 
problems for the anatomy and physiology of the 
next century, the solution of which will work no 
small transformation in psychology. There are 
many causes why this problem is still almost com- 
pletely unsolved. 

We have undoubtedly been too much discouraged 
from following this path by the ill success of the first 
serious attempt at a localization of the mental pro- 
cesses. Though Gall in the beginning followed the 
right road — that of a careful study of the brain — 
yet he very soon departed from it, and, starting from 
the fact which, speaking in general terms, is perfectly 
correct, that the form of the skull depends on that 
of the brain, believed that he could replace the labo- 
rious and rare examinations of the dead brain by 
those of the living cranium. Bringing certain bunch- 
es or bumps of the cranium into connection with cer- 
tain mental dispositions, for which purpose he had 
already in his youth collected materials, he now, with 
his scholar Spurzheim, made a system of Phrenology 
in which but little was said about the brain, and 
which, in this form of a scientific structure, was thor- 
oughly defective. 

Hence, as may be supposed, the so-called science 



INTRODUCTION. 9 

of Phrenology has remained since its beginning at 
the same point, and has fallen from the hands of 
earnest inquirers, especially the anatomists and 
physiologists, who turn away from it with de- 
served neglect, into those of an entirely different 
class. The travelling phrenologists who wander 
around with plaster heads of Schiller, Napoleon, and 
some celebrated rascals, and cipher out a character 
from a number of bumps on the skull, are well 
known. Few of them have ever seen a brain. 

It was not alone the reaction from this unsuccess- 
ful first attempt, which deterred from a continua- 
tion in the path marked out, possibly fruitful in re- 
sults ; but the necessary conditions were wanting. 
In spite of the certain knowledge that the brain- 
surface is the organ of the soul, and in spite of 
the consequent urgent summons to the anatomical 
study of the cerebral convolutions, this was until 
very lately much neglected, or rather the clew was 
wanting to guide one correctly in this labyrinth. 
The convolutions were considered as a bundle with- 
out system, and the artists drew them as they might 
draw any dishful of macaroni. It was at first gradu- 
ally seen that certain furrows and convolutions are \/ 
more constant than others ; but, so long as attention 
was confined to the fully-developed human brain, 
actual progress was not possible. Comparative anat- 



10 CONVOLUTIONS OF THE BRAIN. 

omy and the history of development, these lamps of 
human anatomy, first brought light into this dark- 
ness. It was the works of Husehke, and especially 
of Gratiolet, on the monkey-brain, which proved the 
harmony in the structural plan of the cerebral con- 
volutions of the apes and those of man, and thus for 
the first time prepared the way for the understand- 
ing of the latter. Yet, any thing is folly understood 
only through itself, and every completed growth 
through its own growing ; and thus tracing the de- 
velopment of the human convolutions is certainly 
the way by which alone a correct insight can be 
gained. This way has already been followed by 
various inquirers, as Gratiolet, Reichert, and Bi- 
schoff, and the following demonstration of the con- 
volutions is throughout founded on the study of 
their development in the foetus. This is also the 
only way to learn the law of formation of the convo- 
lutions, that is, the formation of the convolutions as 
a necessary consequence of certain mechanical pro- 
cesses of the growth of the brain and skull. Up 
to the present time we are far removed from such 
a knowledge. At the farthest, the formation of 
the fossa Sylvii is open to an explanation in this 
point of view. The relations between the arrange- 
ment of the arterial vessels of the brain and that of 
the convolution, to which Reichert has called atten- 



INTRODUCTION. 11 

tion, are certainly not without meaning. What Bi- 
schoff 1 says is also perfectly correct, that a large num- 
ber of the convolutions of the cerebral hemispheres 
are arranged around the ends of the primary fur- 
rows in more or less simple or complicated arches ; 
and it cannot be otherwise, for the ranges of moun- 
tains enclosing a valley must necessarily pass into 
each other where the valley ends, but no special 
explanation seems to be thereby disclosed. 

If we consider the arrangement of the convolu- 
tions in general, there may be distinguished first, chief 
or primary convolutions ; then secondary or subordi- 
nate convolutions ; and, finally, tertiary convolutions. 

The chief or primary convolutions or folds are 
like great mountain-chains whose direction, as it has 
been correctly expressed, lends to a region its charac- 
teristic features. The secondary folds originate by 
the splitting of a primary convolution into smaller 
ones by the formation of longitudinal furrows, as 
secondary mountain-ranges arise from the formation 
of longitudinal valleys. 

The deep furrows which separate the chief con- 
volutions from each other, we may name chief fur- 
rows ; those which separate the secondary convolu- 
tions from each other, secondary furrows ; and, 
finally, the tertiary convolutions are those little 

1 L. c, S. 84. 



12 CONVOLUTIONS OF THE BRAIN. 

ranges jutting out into the chief furrows from the 
valley-sides of the chief convolutions, which, usually 
engaged between those of the opposite side, give to 
the bottom of the valley, or of the furrow, a zigzag 
course. These are usually plainly seen only when 
the borders of the chief farrows are pulled apart ; in 
brains whose chief convolutions have grown smaller, 
from senile or other atrophy, with much infiltration 
of the pia mater, they come immediately to light. 
While the features of the chief convolutions are 
always arranged with considerable uniformity, numer- 
ous variations exist in the extent of the secondary 
and tertiary convolutions : in the first place, for the 
reason that sometimes few, sometimes many sec- 
ondary furrows are formed, and also because in one 
case hidden tertiary convolutions come to the sur- 
face; in another, convolutions which usually are 
superficial sink deeper. In the first case, furrows 
are bridged over ; in the latter, they exist where 
there are usually none. 



THE FISSURES AND CONVOLUTIONS OF THE 

CEREBRAL SURFACE. 



Each hemisphere of the cerebrum, as is well 
known, may be incompletely divided, by more or 
less deep indentations, into several divisions or lobes, 
which were first more accurately distinguished by 
Burd&ch l as anterior lobe, lobus anterior, upper 
lobe, lobus superior, with the cover (operculum), 
lower lobe, lobus inferior, and trunk-lobe, lobus cau> 
diets. Arnold has proposed, instead of these names, 
others derived from the principal surrounding bones, 
and these latter designations are those now common- 
ly used. Thus, we now distinguish the frontal lobe, 
lobus frontalis, parietal lobe, lobus parietalis, tem- 
poral lobe, lobus temporalis (also called sphenoidal 
lobe, lobus sphenoidalis, or temporo-sphenoidal. lobus 

1 L. c, Bd. II., S. 169, et seq. 



14 CONVOLUTIONS OF THE BRAIN. 

temporO'Sphenoidalis), and occipital lobe, lobus occipi- 
talis. 

The trunk-lobe of Burdach, not standing in im- 
mediate relation with tlie skull, is distinguished 
either by this name, or as the island (of Reil), inter- 
mediate or concealed lobe, lobus intermedins, s. oper- 
tus (Arnold), or as central lobe, lobus centralis (Gra- 
tiolet). The demarcation of the single lobes from 
each other is only clear on certain surfaces ; on the 
others they pass into each other without distinct 
boundaries. I shall, in the following pages, first 
consider the chief fissures by which the single lobes 
are separated from each other, then the single lobes 
in order, and in these again the fissures to be recog- 
nized upon them, and the lobules and convolutions 
bounded and formed thereby. 

The fissures are always the most important part, 
. and are hence the point whence the description takes 
its departure. This shows most clearly the devel- 
opment of the cerebral surface in the foetus. Here 
three primary fissures, first of all, divide it off into 
a number of districts. Actual convolutions are 
formed in these districts only with the further prog- 
ress of the formation of fissures. The most import- 
ant separating fissures are the following : 



PRIMARY FISSURES. 15 



I PRIMARY FISSURES. 

1. Fissura s. Fossa Sylvh (#). 

This important cleft, by which one of the princi- 
pal divisions of the hemispheres is brought about, 
is not to be placed in the same category with the re- \/ 
maining fissures of the cerebral surface. The latter 
originate simply from depressions or folds of the 
cerebral cortex at a comparatively late period of foe- 
tal life — the former appears as early as the third 
month, and in an entirely different way ; that is, by 
the whole hemisphere curving itself in an arch, con- 
cave below, around the place of entrance of the cere- 
bral peduncle. 1 

The fissura Sylvii begins at the base of the 
brain behind the origin of the olfactory nerves, later- 
ally from the chiasma nervorum opticorurrij in the 

1 By this curve a shallow open trench, the fossa Sylvii, is formed on 
the lower surface of each hemisphere, which is thereby divided into an 
anterior and posterior portion. Since this trench runs from the lower 
surface to the lateral, first upward and then upward and backward, it 
separates the frontal and parietal from the temporal lobe. Later (in 
the sixth month) the oval trench is changed by the formation of the 
anterior upright branch into a triangular one ; and, since now the lobes, 
frontal, parietal, and temporal, with their opposite borders, the first 
with its posterior, the second with its inferior, and the third with its 
superior, pressing toward a common centre, grow to meet each other, 
the bottom of the trench, formed by the " island," is gradually covered, 
and the originally wide-open pit, the fossa Sylvii, is changed into a nar- 
row cleft, thefssura SylviL 



16 CONVOLUTIONS OF THE BRAIN. 

anterior perforated space, runs thence outward, grad- 
ually narrowing, and thus arrives at the arched lat- 
eral surface of the hemisphere. Here it immediately 
divides into two branches — an anterior shorter, 
steeply ascending, which is directed forward toward 
the frontal lobe, Ramus ascendens s. anterior (#"), 
and a posterior much longer, Ramus posterior s. hori- 
zontalis (#'), Fig. 1, which is directed toward the 
posterior portion of the parietal lobe. The upper 
ends of both branches are sometimes simple, some- 
times radiating into several secondaiy fissures, and 
are surrounded by arched convolutions. 

Between these two branches hangs down the 
"cover," operculum, which is formed especially by 
the lower ends of the two central convolutions as 
they pass into each other, and by a small portion of 
the lower frontal convolution, and lower parietal 
lobule. It covers the u island " from above. It fits 
into the angle of the Y which is formed by the di- 
vergence of the two branches of the fossa Sylvii. 

2. Sulcus Centealis. Central furrow. Huscii- 
ke (<?). 

Scissure de Rolando. Lexjeet. 
Fissura transversa anterior. Pansoh. 
Postero parietal sulcus. Huxley. 

This fissure, which, though earlier mentioned, was 
first accurately described by Rolando, is, without ex- 





THE SlPK. 



' Frontal lobe; P parietal lobe ; occipital lobe ; T temporal lobe. 

■ Fissure Sjlvii ; $ horizontal, S" ascending branch. 

Sulcus centralis ; A anterior, B posterior central convolution. 
' Upper, F, middle, F, lower (or third) frontal convolution, 
"i Upper,/] lower,/! vertical frontal fissure (sulcus proseentralis). 
'■ Upper, P a lower parietal lobule ; Pi gyrus supramarginalis, Pi gyrus 

angularis. 
i Sulcus interparietalis. 
n End of the sulcus calloso-marginalis. 
>i First, 0i second, 0, third, occipital convolution, 
o Fissure parieto-occipitalis. 

Sulcus occipitalis tianaversus. 

■ Sulcus occipitalis longitudinal is inferior. 

", First, T, second, T, third temporal convolution, 
i First, t, second temporal fissure. 



/ 



■iW 

/ 



\ 



18 CONVOLUTIONS OF THE BRAIN. 

ception, present in the human brain, is characteristic 
of this as well as those of most apes, and is also, not 
the first indeed, but one of the first which appears 
in the foetal brain, since it may be recognized at the 
end of the fifth month. On account of its very con- 
stant presence, and because it is never, or extremely / 
seldom, bridged over in its course by a secondary ^ 
convolution, 1 it forms the surest point of departure 
in searching out the convolutions. It begins near 
the medial border of the hemisphere, and passes 
thence obliquely forward and downward, to end near 
the upper border of the posterior branch of the fis- 
sura Sylvii? the farrows of the two sides thus form- 
ing with each other an angle opening forward. This 
angle appears to become more acute, and the course 
of the farrow to run more obliquely backward in 
proportion as the frontal lobe increases in size, and 
the brain in general attains a higher development. 
In fact, the whole position of the fissure under these 
conditions appears to be thrust farther backward. 
In its whole length the fissure is bordered by two 

convolutions, the anterior and posterior central con- 

• 

1 This rare occurrence, which has never been observed either by 
Turner (1. c, B. 10) or Bischoff (1. c, S. 39), is found in the brain of 
the physician Fuchs, figured by K. Wagner (1. c, 2 Abhandlung, 
Taf. I.). 

3 1 have not yet seen a complete opening of the central farrow into 
the fmura Syhii of which Turner speaks (1. c, p. 12;. 



PAKIETAL FISSURE. 



37 



Fig. 2. 




.— p 



View op the Brain from Above. 

F Frontal lobe, P parietal lobe, occipital lobe. 

S x End of the horizontal branch of the fissura Sylvii. 

c Central fissure ; A anterior, B posterior central convolution. 

F x Upper, P a middle, F 3 lower frontal convolution. 

fx Upper, / a lower, / 3 vertical frontal fissure (sulcus praecentralis). 

Pi Upper, P a lower parietal lobule ; P 2 gyrus supramarginalis, P a ' gyrus 

angularis. 
ip Sulcus interparietalis. 
cm Sulcus calloso-marginalis. 
po fissura pari eto-occipi talis. 
ii Upper temporal fissure. 
Ox First occipital convolution. 
o Sulcus occipitalis transversus. 



38 CONVOLUTIONS OF THE BRAIN. 

later. Sometimes its extremity opens into tike trans- 
verse fissure (sulcus occipitalis) (0), at others it 
stretches almost to the apex of the lobus occipitalis. 

The fissure is often less distinct, for the reason 
that it is bridged over at one place or another "by a 
secondary convolution ; this appears to happen more 
often on the right side than the left. It is thereby 
completely separated into an anterior and posterior 
division. 1 An occurrence of this kind is certainly 
no more frequent in this fissure than in others which 
generally pass without hesitation as typical — for in- 
stance, the temporal fissures. 

The fissura mterparietalis separates the parietal 
lobe on the upper lateral surface into two divisions : 
an upper medial, lying near the great longitudinal 
fissure, and a lower lateral, bordering the fissura 
SyT/oii, which we distinguish as the upper and lower 
parietal lobules. 

3. Lobulus parietalis superior, upper parietal lob- 
ules (.Pi), and precuneus (iY). 

a. Upper parietal lobule. • 

Stn. — Gyrus parietalis superior (excluding posterior central convolu- 
tion). Pansoh. 

Lobule du deuxi&rne pli ascendant. Geatiolet. 

Postero-parietal lobule. Huxley, Tubneb, and the other Eng- 
lish authors. 

1 Compare note 3, page 29. 



urPER PARIETAL LOBULE. 39 

Erste S cheit el lappeDwi Billing (gyrus parietalis superior). R. 

Wagneb. 
Oberer Scbeitelbeinlappen. Hubchke. 
Obere inucre Scheitelgruppe. Biaciioff. 

b. Prsecuneus (Vorzwickel). Burdaoh. 

Lobule qundrilatiire. Foni.i.E. 
Qumlrate lobule. Haslet. 

This lobule is formed, as Huschke lias correctly 
stated, and as Gratiolet indicates by his nomencla- 
ture, by the extension backward of the upper end 
of the posterior central convolution, and its develop- 
ment to a lobule consisting of several gyri, which 
stretches backward to the Jissura pari-eto-ocdpntalis, 
and ia in connection with the occipital lobe by means 
of the gyrus occipitalis primus (0 L ), which borders 
the lateral end of the fissure just named. 

We eau distinguish in this lobule an upper lat- 
eral and a medial surface which pass into each other 
at the upper medial border of the hemisphere, with 
a distinct boundary. 

a. On the lateral surface, the upper parietal lob- 
ule is bounded externally by the fissura interparie- 
talis; anteriorly it passes, without distinct boundary, 
into the posterior central convolution ; while the pos- 
rior portion is separated from the occipital convo- 
lution on the inner side by the upper part of the fis- 
sura pariet'i-occipitah's, but externally is directly 
connected therewith by the gyrus occipitalis primus, 



40 CONVOLUTIONS OF THE BRAIN. 

which borders the lateral extremity of this fissure. 
The medial surface is in several directions so very 
plainly marked out that it was one of the first divis- 
ions distinguished upon the cerebral surface. This 
is the — 

b. Praecuneus (Vorzwictel). Bubdach. 

I retain Burdach's nomenclature of the medial 
surface. The praecuneus is clearly and sharply 
marked off from the occipital lobe, especially th§ 
cuneus (Oz) } by the fismra parieto-occipitalis (po) / 
anteriorly it is bounded by the perpendicularly ris- 
ing end of the fisswra calloso-margmaUs (cm). This 
fissure ends behind the posterior central convolution, 
with an indentation upon the medial border of the 
hemisphere, which is distinguishable on most brains, 
and usually on the brain of the foetus from the 
seventh to the eighth month. 1 Below, the praecuneus 
is connected, as will be more accurately described 
hereafter, with the gyrus fornicatus. 

4. Lobuhis parietalis inferior, lower parietal lob- 
ules (P 2 a n( i -FY)- 

Stn. — Gyrus parietalis inferior. Pansch. 

1 Since the posterior central convolution also belongs to the parietal 
lobe, the anterior boundaries of the precuneus, that is, of the middle 
part of the parietal lobe, are not the same with those of the lateral 
part. In the latter situation the parietal lobe reaches to the central 
fissure, in the former only to the posterior border of the posterior cen- 
tral convolution. 



LOWER PARIETAL LOBULES. 41 

This lies below and laterally from the fissura 
interpa/rietalis, and consists of a more or less com- 
plicated system of convolutions, which, however, in 
their general direction, curve around the upper ends 
of the fissura Sylvii and the fissura temporalis su- 
perior downward to the temporal lobe. It may 
usually be separated into two divisions, an anterior 
and posterior, of which the first surrounds the end 
of the fissura Sylvii, the latter that of the fissura 
temporalis superior. 

A. Anterior division, Lobulus supra-margmalis 

op.). 

Syx. — Pli marginal superieur, and lobule du pli marginal sup6rieur. 
Gbatiolet. 

Dritte Scheitellappenwindung. Gyrus parietalis tertius s. in- 
ferior. R. Wagnee. 

Unterer Zug aus der hintern Oentralwindung und Scheitel- 
hdckerlappcben, lobulus tuberis. Husohke. 

Erste oder vordere v Scheitelbogenwindung (Nr. 11). Bi- 

8CHOFF. 

This lobule lies between the lower end of the 
posterior central convolution and the upper end of 
the fissura Sylvii, and arises from the lower end of 
the former, which forms the posterior part of the 
operculum, then develops into a lobule, consisting 
of several convolutions, arched around the end of 
the fisswra Sylvii, in order finally to become the / 
lower boundary of this fissure as the gyrus ma/rgi- 
nails inferior or temporalis superior (^1). 



42 CONVOLUTIONS OP THE BRAIN. 

B. Posterior division. Gyrus annularis, angular 
gyrus. Huxley. (.ZY-) 

Syn. — Pli courbe. Gbatiolet. 

Zweite oder mittlere Scheitellappenwindung. Gyrus parie- 

talis secundus s. medius. R. Wagner. 
Aufsteigende Windung sum hintern aussern Scheitellappenohen 

und hinteres ausseres Scheitellfippchen. Huschke. 
Zweite oder mittlere Scheitelbogenwindung (Nr. 12). Bi- 

SOHOFF. 

This convolution proceeds backward from the 
above-named lobule, is bounded above by the fissura 
interparietal, is continuous posteriorly without defi- 
nite boundaries with the occipital lobe, principally 
with the gyrus occipitalis secundus (<? 2 ), and, arch- 
ing round the upper end of the first temporal fissure 
(t t ), passes into the middle temporal convolution, 
gyrus temporalis medius (^2). Sometimes this con- 
volution is connected with the lobulus parietalis su- 
perior by a bridge crossing the fissura interparie- 
talis. 

In much-convoluted brains both the before-men- 
tioned groups of gyri are very complicated, and 
it is difficult to decipher them. To get an under- 
standing of the convolutions in this neighborhood, 
it is necessary to consult brains with few windings, 
and especially those from the last months of foetal 
life. 



OCCIPITAL LOBE. 



C. Occipital Lobe. Ldbus occipitalis. (0.) 

The occipital lobe in man may be called small 
in comparison with the rest of the hemisphere. It 
forms the posterior extremity of the hemisphere, fills 
the upper fossa of the occipital bone, and rests upon 
the tentorium. Three surfaces may be distinguished 
thereon — a medial, lying against the falx cerebri, a 
lateral or upper, and a lower, lying upon the tento- 
rium — all three of which coalesce at the posterior 
point of the hemisphere. The medial surface is 
plane, tlie upper vaulted, the lower slightly concave. 

The limitation of the occipital lobe toward those 
adjoining it anteriorly is, with the exception of a few 
places, rather indistinct. 

On the medial surface it is the most clearly 
marked. Here the medial portion of the fissura pa- 
rieto-occipitalis (po) separates the occipital lobe, in 
particular the cuneus, very shaiply from the parietal 
lobe, in particular the precuneus. 

On the upper surface this separation is also indi- 
cated by the lateral portion of the same fissure, but 
in very different degrees, since the extent of the fis- 
sure is sometimes more and sometimes less. From 
the point where the fissure ceases on the upper sur- 
face of the hemisphere, the anterior boundary of the 
lohus occipitalis becomes indistinct, and the lobe out- 






CONVOLUTIONS OF THE BR 
Fig. 1. 




F Frontal lobe; P parietal lobe ; occipital lobe ; T temporal lobe. 

& Fisaura Sylvii ; .S horiwritiil, ■>"' iiscvinlinir branch. 

e Sulcus centralis ; A anterior, li posterior n-utral convolution. 

F, Upper, F, middle, F, lower (or tbird) frontal convolution. 

/, Upper, /, lower,/j vertical frontal fissure (-ulcus praicemralie). 

Pi Upper, P t loner parietal lobule ; P, gyrjt" J uprania:piualis, -F*' f 

ip Sulcus interparietal is. 
cm End of the sulnm cnlloso marginalia. 

(?! First, Oj second, 3 third, occipital convolution. 

po Fissura pari eto -occipitalis. 

o Sulcus occipitalis transversus. 

da Sulcus occipitalis lonpitudinulis inferior. 

Ti First, 7i second, T, third temporal convolution, 

ti First, ti second temporal fissure. 






POSTERIOR OCCIPITAL FISSURES. 45 

side of this place passes without distinct boundaries 
into the parietal as well as into the temporal lobe, 
by a number of groups of convolutions, which are 
developed in very different degrees in different cases. 1 
The more they are developed, the more is the .before- 
mentioned fissure pressed back toward the medial 
border of the hemisphere, and the more indistinct 
becomes the anterior boundary of the occipital lobe. 

On the under or tentorium surface there is no- 
where any distinct line between the occipital and 
temporal lobes ; only in perfectly fresh brains or in 
such as have been hardened within the cranium 
there may be found a shallow, transverse depression 
approximately indicating the limits of the two divis- 
ions. This depends on the impression of the upper 
edge of the petrous bone, and usually disappears 
soon after taking out the brain.* 



FISSURES, DIVISIONS, AND CONVOLUTIONS OF THE OCCIPITAL 

LOBE. 

1. Sulcus occipitalis transversus. Posterior or 
transverse occipital fissure (0). 

Sra. — Fissura occipitalis externa. Pansoh. 

* Fissura occipitalis perpendicularis externa. Bischoff. 

1 These are the convolutions to be more accurately described farther 
on, which, in the apes, were named by Gratiolet plis de passage. 

8 Compare Krause, " Handbuch der Anatomie," Hannover, 1838, 1. 
8, S. 858, Bischoff, 1. c, S. 29. 



46 COlSrVOLUTIOira OF THE BBADT. 

Over the upper surface of the occipital lobe, and 
in particular over the base of its triangular lobule 
called the cuneus, there runs a transverse fissure, 
to which I have given the above name. It is some- 
times wanting, and sometimes only very slightly de- 
veloped, yet it seems to have a certain morphological 
meaning. In the cases in which it is duly perfected 
we find at a distance behind the fisswra parieto occi- 
pitalis a transverse fissure, which is often quite deep, 
and into which the fisswra interpa/rietalis very fre- 
quently opens anteriorly. Around its medial ex- 
tremity runs an arched convolution, which is an im- 
mediate continuation of that which has bordered the 
lateral extremity of the fissura parieto-occipitalis / 
it is, therefore, the gyrus occipitalis primus (#i), 
soon to be spoken of. In some cases I have seen the 
posterior border of the fissure thinned off so as to He 
on the anterior border like a lid, a condition which 
strongly reminds one of the operculum of the ape's 
brain. In the foetus the fissure is to be clearly recog- 
nized at a tolerably early period, as Bischoff also 
states ; l that it regularly disappears again in the 
eighth month, as he assumes, 3 1 can, after what has 
just been stated, in no way admit. 

1 L. c, S. 58, Tb. IV., Figs. 7 to 9, 0'. 
9 L. c, S. 60. 



POSTERIOR OCCIPITAL FISSURES. 47 

2. Fissura calcarina. Huxley. 

Syn. — Scissure des Hippocampes (posterior part). Gratiolet. 
Fissura horizontals. Pansoh. 

Fissura posterior s. occipitalis horizontals. R. Wagner. 
Fissura Hippocampi. Bisohoff. 

This very constant fissure which, with the fissura 
pa^ieto-ocdpitaHs, appears in the foetus before any 
others, and is completely developed at an early pe- 
riod, begins upon the medial surface of the posterior 
extremity of the hemisphere, with two branches 
which diverge backward into an upward and down- 
ward fork, runs thence forward and joins the fissura 
parieto-ocdpitalis at an acute angle. From here it 
continues as a common prolongation of the two fis- 
sures to beneath the posterior extremity of the cor- 
pus caUosum. Here it is bordered by the gyrus 
fornicatus, and separated from the fissura hippo- 
campi (K). This fissure is very deep, and, as trans- 
verse sections most clearly show, gives rise to the 
prominence in the posterior horn of the lateral ven- 
tiicle, known as calca/r avis, or pes hippocampi minor. 
Hence the name given by Huxley. ' 

3. Sulcus occipitO'temporalis inferior. 

Since this fissure upon the lower surface of the oc- 
cipital lobe belongs also to the temporal, I postpone 
its consideration till the description, to be given be- 
low, of the lower surfaces of these two lobes together. 



48 CONVOLUTIONS OF THE BRAIN. 

Divisions of the Lobua Occipitalis. 

a. Such' is to be clearly found only on tlie medial 
surface. Here may be distinguished — 

1. The cunem (Zwickel). Burdach (Oz). 

Syn. — Lobule occipital. Gbatiolet. 

Internal occipital lobule. Huxley. 

Gyrus occipitalis primus. Erste obere Hinterhauptlappenwin- 

dung. Wagneb. 
Oberer Zwischenscheitelbeinlappen. Huschke. 

Since the fismra calcarina unites on this surface 
with the fissura parieto-occipitalis at an acute angle, 
a triangular, wedge-shaped piece is cut from the an- 
terior part of the lobus occipitalis, the base of which 
looks upward and backward, and the apex down- 
ward and forward. This is the cuneus. 

2. There may, besides, be separated on the medi- 
al surface, and just at the posterior apex of the hemi- 
sphere, a lobule which forms the extreme point of 
the hemisphere, and is situated behind the diverging 
ends of the fissura calca/rma. I will name it " end 

\ lobule," lobulus extremus. 

3. That portion which lies below the fissura cal- 
carina belongs to the lower surface of the hbus oo 
cipitalis, the convolutions of which pass into those 
of the temporal lobe without distinct boundaries, 
and will, therefore, be described in common with the 
latter in a special section. 



DIVISIONS OF THE LOBCS OCCIPITALIS. \ 

4. On the upper and lateral surface there l 
wise no distinct subordinate division into ,low<ti«s. 

0' fw ■ , . ■■■•■■•■ 




CC Corpus callosum, cut through in the middle. 

Of Gyms fornicatus, H gyrus hippocampi, ft sulcus hippocampi, U gyrus 



cm Sulcus oalloso -margin alis, F, first frontal convolution, its medial side, e 
end of sulcus centralis, A anterior, B posterior central convolution. 

P Precuneus. 

Ot Cuneus, po flssura parieto-oeeipitalia, o sulcus occipitalis transversua, 
oe Essura calcarina, oc' upper, oc' lower branch. D Gyrus descen- 

T t Gyrus occipito-temporalis lateralis (lobulus fusiformis). 
T, Gyrus occipito-temporalis medialia (lobulus lingualis). 

Only when the sulcus occipitalis transversus (o) is 
distinctly developed, the upper surface of the occipi- 



/ 






50 CONVOLUTIONS OF THE BRAIN. 

tal lobe appears separated into an anterior and pos- 
terior portion. It may be proper to repeat here that 
such a division does not at all correspond to those 
upon the medial surface, and thus doe's not divide 
the precuneus from the cuneus, or the latter from 
the convolutions of the lower surface, but the sulcus 
occipitalis transversus rather runs transversely across 
the upper surface or base of the cuneus. 



CONVOLUTIONS OF THE OCCIPITAL LOBE. 

There is indeed no doubt that the understanding 
of the convolutions of the occipital lobe is in itself 
more difficult than that of all the other lobes. Yet, I 
think I am not wrong in supposing that the difficul- 
ties inherent in the nature of the subject, arising 
especially from the great individual variety in the 
convolutions of the region, have been materially in- 
creased by transferring, not without doing some vio- 
lence to nature, the nomenclature of the monkey- 
brain directly to that of man. In no part of the 
cerebral surface is the difference between the brains 
of those apes (Cercopithecus, etc.) upon which Gra- 
tiolet's description was founded, and the human 
brain, more distinct than in this very occipital lobe. 
In the apes which form the genera Cercopithecus, 
Irmus, Cynocephahis, Cebus, etc., the occipital lobe 



CONVOLUTIONS OF THE OCCIPITAL LOBE. 51 

is separated from the parietal on the upper surface 
by a deep transverse indentation, and the posterior 
border of this fissure (scissure perpendiculaire, Gra- 
tiolet), that is, the anterior border of the posterior 
lobe, is brought to an edge, and projects over the 
fissure like a lid, whence its name opercuhirn. Cov- 
ered by this lid, that is, lying in the depths of the 
fissure, several convolutions pass from the upper and 
lower parietal lobules to the occipital lobe. These 
hidden convolutions, of which there are two, and 
which are, of course, from their concealed position, 
entirely peculiar, Gratiolet thought it necessary to 
distinguish by a special name, and he called them plis 
de passage (transition convolutions). But he has also 
given this name to two other convolutions, which lie, 
too, upon the upper surface, and laterally from the 
former, and connect the temporal with the occipital 
lobe. These last two convolutions are, however, 
never concealed even in the above-named apes, but 
lie entirely on the surface. Finally, Gratiolet has 
designated as plis de passage still two other convolu- 
tions on the medial surface, which are also superficial, 
and which connect the parietal with the occipital 
lobe (in particular, precuneus and cuneus). The 
latter he names inner plis de passage? and separates 
them as upper and lower: those first described he 

1 For these, see the convolutions of the medial surface. 



52 CONVOLUTIONS OF THE BRAIN. 

calls outer, and distinguishes them in their order, 
reckoning from the medial border of the hemisphere, 
as first, second, third, and fourth. Thus, even in 
these apes, it is only the first and second outer plis 
de passage which exhibit any thing peculiar, and de- 
serve a special name ; the others have, in fact, noth- 
ing to distinguish them from other convolutions 
which connect different lobes with each other ; and 
one . might, with as much propriety, reckon, among 
the plis de passage, the convolutions of the lower 
surface which connect the occipital and temporal 
lobes. Besides, in many of the higher apes the 
operculum is entirely wanting, and with it disap- 
pears the only peculiarity which has distinguished 
these convolutions. These are, then, superficial con- 
volutions, like all the others. 

So it is also in man. Neither in the adult brain, 
nor at any period of foetal life, do these convolutions 
show any peculiarity which justifies a special no- 
menclature, or one which seems to indicate some- 
thing special, such as "transition convolutions." 
They are never particularly concealed. The two 
hidden convolutions, and the operculum connected 
therewith, are thus a peculiarity of the lower forms 
of apes, which is wanting even in the higher ones, and 
still more in man. It must necessarily lead to false 
views if a nomenclature is ratainel in the anatomy 



CONVOLUTIONS OF THE OCCIPITAL LOBE. 53 

of the human brain, which has, indeed, a meaning in 
the lower apes, but none at all in man. It is, how- 
ever, none the less true that the type of the convo- 
lutions in the human brain, taken as a whole, is only 
a higher development of that of the apes, whether 
this is taken in the meaning of the descendance 
theory or in the old sense. 

In order to gain a clear view, disturbed by no 
preconceived notion, of the convolutions of the hu- 
man occipital lobe, it is, first of all, necessary to ex- 
amine numerous foetal brains from the last (seventh, 
eighth, ninth, tenth lunar) months of pregnancy. 
Here the structural plan of the human brain is ex- 
hibited in its simplest lines, while later the essential 
is often no longer to be so easily separated from the 
non-essential. The convolutions of the occipital lobe 
run in general from the posterior point of the hemi- 
sphere forward on the upper (also lateral), the me- 
dial, and the lower surfaces, diverging on account of 
the increase in diameter of the hemisphere, and pass 
into those of the parietal and temporal lobes. The 
separation of certain intermediate portions under the 
name of transition convolutions (plis de passage), 
between the convolutions of the occipital lobe on 
the one hand, and the parietal and temporal on 
the other, has no justification in the human brain, 
and makes the understanding of the region more 




54 CONVOLUTIONS OF THE BRAIN. 

difficult. I have, therefore, wholly rejected this 
name. 

The convolutions which I separate upon the lobus 
occipitalis are the following : 

I. On the Upper Surface. 

1. Gyrus occipitalis primus s. parieto-occipitalis 
medialis, first or upper occipital convolution ( <9j). 

Syn. — Oberer Zug der hintern Oentralwindung (in part). Husoiike. 
Erste obere Hinterlappenwindung. Wagneb. 
Pli de passage supeneur externa and pli occipital superieur. 

Gbatiolet. 
First external annectent gyrus (Huxley); first bridging an- 

nectent or connecting gyrus. Turnee. 
Obere innere (4.) Scheitelbogen win dung (Nr. 14). Bisohoff. 

Iluschke has already described a convolution 
which reaches from the posterior central convolution 
along the median fissure to the posterior extremity 
of the brain, and from there passes to the lower sur- 
face. This convolution connects the upper parietal 
lobule with the lobus occipitalis, and forms the up- 
per medial portion of the latter, so that the name I 
have given it is justified. Gratiolet, on account of a 
peculiarity presented in certain apes by the convolu- 
tion, has divided it into two (pli de passage superi- 
eur externe, and pli occipital superieur), a division 
which, as above stated, is not a well-founded one in 
man. This fissure arises from the posterior and me- 
dial end of the upper parietal lobule, surrounds in 



CONVOLUTIONS OF THE OCCIPITAL LOBE. 55 

an arch of greater or less extent, convex outward, 
the lateral upper extremity of the fissv/ra parieto- 
occipitalis (po) which separates the parietal (-Pi) 
from the occipital lobe ((9), and passes into the 
cuneus, on the upper surface of which it borders 
the medial end of the sulcus occipitalis t/ransversus 
(0), when this is present, in a second arch with its 
convexity toward the median line. 

2. Gyrus occipitalis secundus, seu parieto-occipi- 
talis lateralis, second or middle occipital convolu- 
tion (6> 2 )« 

Stn. — Pli occipital moyen and deuxieme pli de passage externa. 
Gratiolet. 
Zweite mittlere Hinterlappenwindung. Wagner. 
Gyrus occipitalis medius. Pansoh. 

IJedio-occipital and second external annectent gyrus. Hux- 
ley. 

This convolution lies behind and outside of the 
preceding, arises from the posterior extremity of the 
hemisphere behind the sulcus occipitalis transversus 
(0), and outside of the fissura interparietal runs 
forward to the lower parietal lobule, and passes es- 
pecially into the gyrus angularis (P%) ; it is sepa- 
rated from the preceding by the fissura interparie- 
tals. 

3. Gyrus occipitalis tertius seu temporaroccipi- 
taUsj third or lower occipital convolution (O s ). 



56 CONVOLUTIONS OF THE BRAIN. 

Syn. — Pli occipital infSrieur and troisieme et quatrieme pli de passage 
externe. Gbatiolet. 
Dritte untere Hinterlappenwindung. Wagner. 
Gyrus occipitalis inferior. Pansoh. 

This convolution also runs from the posterior 
extremity of the hemisphere below the preced- 
ing, to the third and second temporal convolu- 
tions. 

All the three convolutions named above arise 
from a part of the occipital lobe which is marked 
off on the medial surface as the cuneus. Below the 

■ 

cuneus and the fissura calco/rina^ and consequently 
on the lower surface of the occipital lobe, two other 
convolutions may be separated. These are — 

4, 5. Gyri oceipito-temporalis inferiores. 

To avoid unnecessary repetition, I defer the more 
accurate description of these convolutions — which 
belong both to the occipital and temporal lobes — 
until the description of the latter. 

6. Gyrus descendens (D, Fig. 4). 

The upper (numbered 1, 2, 3) and lower (num- 
bered 4, 5) occipital convolutions are connected at 
the posterior extremity of the hemisphere by one or 
several convolutions which, arching around the fork 
of the fissura calca/rina, and forming the terminal 
lobule, descend and are continued into the lobulus 



FISSUBES OF THE OCCIPITAL LOBE. 57 

fusiformis and lobulus lingual lis (T A and 2^). x Husoh- 
ke * has already said that the cuneus diverges at its 
basal surface into two branches like a V, of which 
the anterior bends around into the precuneus, the 
posterior forms in its descent the apex of the heini-' 
sphere, and again bends upward opposite to itself, so 
that here two slender gyri lie concentrically in one 
another. Afterward this branch runs directly for- 
ward on the surface beside the cuneus, as a fusiform 
border-fold. Bischoff also mentions this convolution 
(1. c, S. 50). 

7. Sulci occipitalis longitudinales s. aagittales, lon- 
gitudinal fissures of the occipital lobe. 

Finally, as to the longitudinal fissures of the oc- 
cipital lobe, by which the convolutions of the* upper 
and lateral surface above described arc separated 
from each other, they are, with the exception of the 
first, of very variable formation. If these convolu- 
tions, as is sometimes the case, converge until injur 
the end of the lobe without material interruption 
from a sulcus occipitalis transversa, and <tomm the 
lobuhis ea&remus, then these longitudinal or H/ijrittul 
fissures, sulci occipitales longitudinal'^ tin I will name 

1 Sometimes two such gyri JUtcerviUrdt* can ha tYmiiuienUUiA (mtdi 
alii and lateralis), of which the first end* m th<? fobvLv* IbujualAu, <Im* 
second in the lebvltufutif'/rmix. 

•Lc^a 143, 1U. 



\ 



58 CONVOLUTIONS OF THE BRAIN. 

them, in contradistinction to the sulcus occipitalis 
transversuSj are, of course, the plainest. It is then 
easy to distinguish (see Fig. 1) — 

1. A sulcus occipitalis superior (oj), which sep- 
arate&the gyrus occipitalis primus from the se- 
cunchts, and is nothing but a convolution of 
the sulcus interparietalis ; * ~ * 

2. A sulcus occipitalis inferior (# 2 ), which sepa- 
rates the second from the third occipital con- 
volution. 

Thus we may separate, in all, five series of convo- 
lutions of the occipital lobe runniixg in the antero- 
posterior direction, three on the upper and lateral 
surface (those described above as gyrus occipitalis 
primus, secundais, fortius), and two on the under 
surface (the gyri occipito-ternporales, to be hereafter 
described, p. 66). Of the three first named, the up- 
per is in connection solely with the lobus parietalis 
supei^ior, the second with the lower parietal lobule 
and the second temporal convolution, and the third 
with the second and third temporal. The fourth 
and fifth are common to the occipital and temporal 
lobes (marked in the plates as 1\ and T 6 ). 

1 In the foetus the two portions of the fissure, the posterior (sulc. 
occip. sup.) and anterior (sulc. interparietalis), arise separately from 
each other and subsequently unite. 



FISSURES OF THE OCCIPITAL LOBE. 



59 



ETotb. — We have above distinguished a, fissura parieto-occipitalis (po) 
which separates the occipital lobe from the parietal, and sulcus occipitalis 



Fig. 5. 




The Convolutions of the Posterior Extremity op the Hemis?iiere, taken 
from Behind, Within, and Below, and Projected on a Plane. 

L. e. lobulus extremus, Oz cuneus. 

Pi precuneus, po fissura parietooccipital is, ip fissura interparietalis. 

o Sulcus occipitalis transversus, oc fissura calcarina, oc' upper, oc" lower 

branch ; U sulcus occipito-temporalis inferior. 
0\ gyrus occipitalis primus, O a gyrus occipitalis secundus. 
D gyrus descendens, Of gyrus fornicatus, U gyrus uncinatus, T 6 lobulus 

lingualis, T A lobulus fusiformis, T s gyrus temporalis inferior. 
The dotted line a b marks the boundary between upper and medial, the 
line e d that between the medial and lower surfaces. 



transversus (0), which runs transversely over the upper surface of the 
occipital. If we seek the analogues of these fissures in the apes, we find, 
in the genera furnished with an operculum, apparently only one of them, 
the fissura occipitalis transversus (scissure perpendiculairo), present. If 



60 CONVOLUTIONS OF THE BRAIN. 

we imagine, in the human brain, the gyrus occipitalis primus (<?i), which 
borders the outer end of the Jissura parieto-occipitalis, and lies entirely 
superficial, sunk below the surface — as far as the sulcus occipitalis trans- 
versus — and the borders of the furrow left by this depression brought 
together, so that the posterior border of the fissure (being the posterior 
border of the sulcus occipitalis transversus) might project over it like a 
lid, we get the structure which is found in those ape-brains which have 
an operculum. Externally only one fissure is perceptible, the posterior 
border of which forms the operculum. Only at the bottom of this fis- 
sure is the Jissura parieto- occipitalis seen, bordered by the hidden gyrvs 
occipitalis primus (first outer pli de passage). On the other hand, it 
we imagine in the brain of an ape, for instance Oercopithecus, the 
convolution named thrust up to the surface, the transverse depression 
above described will be completely filled out, and we can distinguish 
two transverse fissures — in front the Jissura parieto-occipitalis, bounded 
externally by the gyrus occipitalis primus; and farther backward the 
sulcus occipitalis transversus, whose medial extremity is also surrounded 
by the same convolution. With the great fissure, the operculum like- 
wise disappears, and the occipital lobe appears much smaller. Com- 
pare especially Pansch, 1. c, S. 25. 



IX Temporal Lobe, lobus temporalis ; or, Tempoeo-Sphe- 
noidal Lobe, lobus temporo-sphenoidolis. 

The temporal lobe occupies on each side the mid- 
dle fossa of the skull, thence lies lower than the 
frontal and occipital lobes, and principally forms the 
most deeply-situated part of the cerebrum, so that 
its apex lies at about the same height as the floor 
of the orbit. Its form, corresponding to that of the 
middle fossa of the skull, is cylindrical upon section, 



TEMPORAL FISSURES. 61 

and presents for description only two surfaces, which 
pass into each other by rounded borders. 

The temporal lobe is the most distinctly bounded 
of all the lobes ; in particular, it is very completely 
separated from the frontal and the anterior part of 
the parietal lobe by the fissura Sylvii, while, on the 
contrary, it is only indistinctly cut off from the pos- 
terior part of the last-named lobe and from the oc- 
cipital. This is especially true of the lower surface, 
where the occipital convolutions pass into the tem- 
poral without any distinct limit, so that it is better, 
in order to avoid repetitions, to consider the lower 
surface of the two lobes together, as the lower occip- 
itotemporal surface. It has already been mentioned 
that a shallow indentation at the boundary between 
the two lobes, caused by the upper edge of the pe- 
trous portion of the temporal bone, may be perceived 
in perfectly fresh brains, or those hardened within 
the skull. It has not, however, the slightest influ- 
ence upon the convolutions. 

FISSURES AND CONVOLUTIONS OF THE TEMPORAL LOBE. 

FISSURES. 

1. Sulcus temporalis superior, upper temporal fis- 
sure (tx). 

Syn. — Scissure parallele. Parallel fissure. Gratiolet. 
Antero-temporal sulcus. IIuxley. 



62 CONVOLUTIONS OF THE BRAIN. 

This is the most constant fissure of the temporal 
lobe — runs parallel with the fissura Sylvii (hence 
the name given by Gratiolet), and marks off an up- 
per temporal convolution, which bounds the jisBwra 
Sylvii on the lower side. It extends backward and 
upward to very different distances in different cases. 
Its posterior extremity lies, as a rule, higher than 
that of the jissura Sylvii, and in every case the con- 
volution described above as gyrus angularis winds 
around it, to be continued into the second temporal 
convolution. 

The two following fissures are much more incon- 
stant, and very irregularly developed, interrupted, 
and bridged over, and very seldom both developed 
with equal clearness. These are — 

2. The sulcus temporalis medius, middle temporal 
fissure (£ 2 ), 

postero-temporal sulcus (Huxley) ; 

And 3. The sulcus temporalis inferior, the infe- 
rior temporal fissure (£ 3 ). 

These run parallel with the upper temporal fis- 
sure ; the middle one lies almost entirely on the lat- 
eral surface of the temporal lobe, and only with its 
anterior lower extremity reaches the lower surface ; 
while the lower, on the contrary, lies in its greatest 
part on this surface. 



CONVOLUTIONS OF THE TEMPORAL LOBE. 
Fib. 1. 







7 Frontal lobe ; P parietal lobe ; occipital lobe ; T temporal lobo. 
f Fissure Sylvii ; S 1 horizontal, S* ascending branch. 

Sulcus centralis ; A anterior, B posterior central convolution. 
•", Upper, F, middle, F, lower (or third) frontal convolution, 
'i Upper, f\ lower,/, vertical frontal fissure (sulcus prtecentralis). 
', Upper, Pt lower parietal lobule ; i* 3 gyrus supramaipnalis, P,' gyrus 

i Sulcus interparietalis. 

■n End of the sulcus calloao marginalia. 

>i first, O, second, O, third, occipital convolution. 

> Fissura pari eto-occipi talis. 



Sulcus occipitalis ti 
i Sulcus occipitalis longitudinal is inferior. 
*i First, Ti second, T s third temporal convolution. 

First, U second temporal fissure. 



64 CONVOLUTIONS OF THE BRAIK 

Then follows a fissure winch belongs to the lower 
surface alone, and is a part of the temporal as well 
as of the occipital lobe. 

4. Sulcus occipito-temporalis inferior^ inner lower 
longitudinal fissure (t 4 ). 

Syx. — Sulcus longitudinal is inferior. Husohke. 
Sulcus occipito-temporalis. Pansch. 
Fissura collateralis. Huxley. 
Fis9ura collateralis s. temporalis inferior. Bisohoff. 

This fissure runs upon the lower surface of the 
occipital and temporal lobes, and begins somewhat 
laterally from the hinder point of the former. In its 
course forward it separates the gyrus hippocampi 
and the gyrus occipito-temporalis medialis (T 5 ) y which 
lie on its median side, from the gyrus occipito-tempo- 
rails lateralis (^1), which bounds it externally. Its 
extent forward is very various : sometimes it reaches 
to the anterior extremity of the temporal lobe, and 
thus surrounds the gyrus hippocampi very complete- 
ly (see Fig. 3, right side of the figure) f sometimes it 
ceases in the neighborhood of the end of the gyrus 
fornicatus (des Hakens), or is interrupted by a sec- 
ondary bridging convolution. 

This fissure is generally deep, and, as it appears, 
sometimes so deep that the wall of the lateral ventri- 
cle externally to the cornu amm&nis is pushed inward 
thereby. It is called fissura collateralis by Huxley, 



CONVOLUTIONS OF THE TEMPORAL LOBE. 65 

because in the interior of the lateral ventricle its re- 
lation to the emmentia lateralis s. collateralis Meckelii 
is similar to that borne by the fissara calcarina to 
the calcar a/vis, and the fissura hippocampi to the 
cornu ammoniSj that is, it forms an incurvation which 
appears in the interior as a prominence. 1 

CONVOLUTIONS. 

The formation of the convolutions is, of course, 
entirely dependent on the development of the fis- 
sures; and in the region of the temporal lobe, in 
which the latter are most variable, the convolutions 
are so too. We distinguish : 

1. Gyrus temporalis superior (Huschke) sen in- \/ 
frarmarginali% upper temporal convolution (^). 

Syn. — Gyrus temporalis primus, erste obere Sohliifenwindung. Wag- 
neb. 
Antero-temporal gyrus. Huxley. 

Pli temporal supeneur s. pli marginal posteneur (infSrieur). 
Gbatiolet. 

This very constant convolution lies between the 
fissura Sylvii and the sulcus temporalis superior, 

1 The name fissura collateralis, although it has the advantage of 
brevity, seems to me unadvisable, for the reason that the eminentia col- 
lateralis, from which it is formed, is by no means a constantly-present 
formation in the human brain (compare Jung on the lateral projection 
in the lateral venticle of the human brain, Basle, and Arnold, Anatomie, 
L, 2, 769), while the fissura collateralis (Huxley) belongs among the 
typical never- wanting fissures. 
5 



66 CONVOLUTIONS OF THE BRAIN. 

and, arching around the upper end of the fossa 
Sylvii, passes into the lobulus supramargmcclis. 

2. Gyrus temporalis medius, middle temporal 
convolution (T 2 ). 

Syn. — Gyrus temporalis secundus, zweite oder mittlere Schlfifenwin- 

duDg. Wagneb. 
Mittlere Schlafenwindung. Husohke. 
Pli temporal moyen, and partie descendante du pli courbe. 

Gbatiolet. 
Medio-temporal gyru9. Huxley. 

This convolution is most clearly marked off above 
toward the first temporal convolution, since the up- 
per temporal fissure is almost never wanting, and it 
is also quite well separated behind and above by its 
passage into the gyrus annularis. Below, on the 
other hand, it is by no means invariably set off in its 
whole length from the third convolution, but fre- 
quently coalesces with it in a greater or less extent. 

3. Gyrus temporalis inferior, lower temporal con- 
volution (^s). 

Syn. — Gyrus temp, tertius s. inferior, dritte oder untere Schlfifenap- 
penwindung. R. Wagneb. 

II. On the Under Surface. 

Gyri occipito-temporales (Fig. 3). 

The lower surface of the hemisphere, so far as it 
is situated behind the fossa Syhii, belongs partly 
to the lohus occipitalis, and partly to the lobus tempo- 



CONVOLUTIONS OF THE TEMPORAL LOBE. 67 

Fig. 3. 




View of the Brain ratal Below, 



F, Gyrna rectm, F 3 middle, F, lower frontal convolution. 

/, Sulcus olfactorius, /, sulcus orbitallg, 

T, Second, or middle, T third, or lower temporal convolution ■ T, gyrus occi. 

pito-temporalis lateralis (lobulus fusiformis), T t gyrus occipito-tempo- 

ralis medialia (lobulua lingu&lisj. 
/, Sulcus Occipi to- temporalis inferior, t, lower, (, middle temporal fissure. 
po Fis^ura parieto-occipitalis, 
oc Fissura calcarina. 

// Gyrus hippocampi ; U gyrus uncinatua. 
Ok Chiasms nervorum opticorum; ce corpora candieantia (albicantia) ; KK 

peiunculi cerebri ; C corpus calloaum. 



68 CONVOLUTIONS OF THE BRAIK 

ralis, which here pass into each other without dis- 
tinct boundaries, and it is within the territory of the 
former, so far as it rests on the tentorium, slightly 
concave ; in the latter, in the middle fossa of the skull, 
convex. There is here seen a deep and constant fis- 
sure, the above - described sulcus occipito-temporalis 
inferior. It separates from each other two series of 
convolutions, the gyri occipito-temporales, which we 
distinguish as — 

4. Gyrus occipito-temporaUs medialis (Pansoh). 
Lingual lobule (^5). 

Syn. — Lobulus lingualis, Zungenl&ppchen. Htjsohke. 

Untere inner e Hinterhauptwindungsgruppe (No. 17). Bi- 
80HOFF. 

This convolution is bounded externally by the 
before-mentioned sulcus occipito-temporaUs inferior 
(£ 4 ), and internally by the fissura calca/rina (oc), and 
has rather a club- or leaf-shaped figure. The narrow 
part — handle — arises from the gyrus hippocampi 
beneath the splenium corporis callosi ; thence it 
grows wider as it goes backward, but near the ex- 
treme point of the hemisphere regularly narrows 
again. This posterior narrow end is connected with 
the extremity of the posterior lobe, and especially 
with the convolution described above as gyrus descen- 
dens, which, arching around the posterior branch of 
the fisswra calcarina, puts the convolutions of the 



CONVOLUTIONS OF THE TEMPOKAL LOBE. 69 

upper surface of the lobus occipitalis in connection 
with those of the lower. 

5. Gyrus occipito-temporaHs lateralis. (Pansch.) 
Fusiform lobule (T 4 ). 

Syn. — Lobulus fusiformis, spindelformiges Lappchen. Hubohke. 

Unterer ausserer Hinterhauptwindungszug (No. 18). Bischoff. 

This convolution is always clearly bounded on 
the median side by the sulcus occipito-tempwalis in- 
ferior / laterally, the third temporal fissure, sulcus 
tempwalis inferior, forms its boundary toward the 
lower temporal convolution. But, since this fissure 
is frequently wanting or incomplete, the lateral boun- 
dary of this convolution is by no means always alike 
distinct. It is of very various form, generally wider 
in the middle, somewhat narrowed anteriorly and 
posteriorly, and is connected with the convolution 
described just above, as well as with the gyrus 
descendens. 



There have been, in all, five temporal convolu- 
tions described in the foregoing. But, as already 
mentioned, they are by no means all at once or uni- 
formly developed ; and, in order to see one's way 
clearly, it is convenient, following the advice of Bi- 
schoff, first to fix the eye upon those convolutions 



70 CONVOLUTIONS OF THE BRAIN. 

which' are subject to the least variation, in order to 
see the others from this starting-point. The most 
constant are : 1. On the lateral upper surface of the 
temporal lobe, the gyrus temporalis superior s. infra- 
ma/rginalis, which appears almost always distiiflctly 
bounded by the fissure of Sylvius and the upper tem- 
poral fissure. So, also, 2. On the lower surface and 
on the median border of the temporal lobe, the lin- 
gual lobule and the gyrus hippocampi are always 
plainly to be distinguished, being bounded internally 
by the fissura hippocampi (A), and externally by the 
fissu/ra temporo-occipitalis inferior. As to what re- 
mains between this last-named fissure on the one 
side, and the fissura temporalis superior on the other, 
it is very variously developed. Sometimes in this 
space there are two fissures distinguishable, more or 
less parallel with the above named, by which three 
convolutions are marked off; at other times only one 
fissure is to be recognized, and, of course, only two 
convolutions. 1 There may then be distinguished, on 
the occipital as well as on the temporal lobe, five con- 
volutions running antero-posteriorly. Two of them, 
the gyri occipito-temporales, belong to both lobes in 
common, and hence each of these lobes has only three 
convolutions of its own, running in the direction in- 

1 On this subject see especially my figures of the brain from the 
eight and nine months' foetus in the Archiv for Anthropologic, Bd. III., 
Heft 3. 



FISSURE OF THE CORPUS OALLOSUM. 71 

dicated ; and of these only one in each lobe, namely, 
the gyrus occipitalis primus and gyrus temporalis su- 
perior, are entirely independent, while the second 
and third of each group pass directly or indirectly 
into each other. 



E. Medial Surface of the Frontal, Parietal, and 

Occipital Lobes. 

After the frontal, parietal, and occipital lobes 
have been separately considered, it is necessary to 
throw another glance upon the medial surface, the 
fissures and convolutions of which extend over sev- 
eral of the lobes mentioned, and hence must be con- 
sidered in common. 

fissures and convolutions. 

1. Sulcus calloso-marginalis (cm), fissure of the 
corpus callosum. Huxley, Bischoff, Turner, Mar- 
shall, etc. 

Stn. — Grand sillon du lobe fronto-parie'tal. Gkatiolet. 
Sulcus fronto-parietalis internus. Pansoh. 

This fissure is of so definite formation, that it was 
clearly recognized and represented, as, for instance, 
by Vicq d'Azyr, at a time when but very little atten- 
tion was given to the other convolutions. In the 
foetus it appears early. 



72 CONVOLUTIONS OF THE BRAIN. 

This fissure takes its origin beneath the anterior 
extremity {genu) of the corpus calloswm, passes up- 
ward around the genu, separated from the corpus 
callosum by the gyrus fornicatus, and runs backward 
about midway between the upper surface of the cor- 
pus callosum and the upper border of the hemi- 
sphere ; at first it runs parallel with the surface men- 
tioned, but a short distance before reaching the pos- 
terior extremity (splenium) of the corpus callosum it 
turns upward, and ends at the upper medial border 
of the hemisphere. The indentation of the medial 
border with which it ends may generally be recog- 
nized on looking at the brain from above. It is found 
immediately behind the medial end of the posterior 
central convolution (cm, Fig. 2). From the place at 
which the fissure begins to turn upward there is fre- 
quently, following the original direction, a slight 
prolongation backward of the fissure upon the quad- 
rilateral surface of the precuneus. Little secondary 
fissures pass, during its whole course, from the fissure 
downward into the gyrus fornicatus, as well as up- 
ward into the marginal convolution. Not unfre- 
quently the fissure is bridged over in places by con- 
volutions which put the two series of gyri separated 
by it into connection with each other. 

2. Gyrus fornicatus (Arnold) (Of), convolu- 
tion of the corpus callosum (Bogenwulsf). 



CONVOLUTIONS OF THE CORPUS OALLOSUM. 73 

Syn. — Processo enteroideo cristato. Rolando (I. c, S. 33, Taf. Ila). 
Oiroonvolution de Pourlet. Foville. 
Zwinge, cingula oder gyrus oinguli. Burdaoh. 
Oallosal gyrus. Huxley. 
Fornix periphericus, ausseres Gewdlbe. Abnold. 

By this name is designated the curved system of 
convolutions surrounding the corpus callosum, which 
begins beneath the anterior extremity (genu) of the 
corpus calloswn in the form of a narrow gyrus, bends 
around the genu to the upper surface, gradually in- 
creasing in size, passes backward, and, having arrived 
at the posterior extremity of the corpus callosum, 
turns around this (splenium) downward to the tem- 
poral lobe, along the medial border of which it con- 
tinues as the gyrus hippocampi. The narrow convo- 
lution, with which the gyri fomicatus begins, arises 
below the point of the genu corporis callosi, and be- 
low the septum pelfobcidum, and is here connected 
with the septum, the inner root of the olfactory nerve, 
and with the gyrus rectus. Then the convolution, 
becoming broader in its passage forward, divides 
into two — the anterior rises and unites with the me- 
dial portion of the upper frontal convolution (jpli de 
la zone exteme, Gratiolet), while the posterior is the 
gyrus fomicatus. Before this is continued into the 
gyrus hippocampi, it enters into several other connec- 
tions. First of all, it rises posteriorly, and coalesces 
with the precuneus (jP/) the base of which rests 



74 CONVOLUTIONS OF THE BRAIN. 

upon it in its whole length ; then (directly behind 
the posterior extremity of the corpus caUosujii) a 




View or the Medial Sdhface 



Right Hemisphebe. 



CC Corpus ettllosum, cut through in the middle. 

Of Gyrus fornicatuB, H gyrus hippocampi, h sulcus hippocampi, U gyrus 

cm Sulcus calloso-marginalis, Fi first frontal convolution, its medial side, e 
end of sulcus centralis, A anterior, B posterior central convolution. 

P Precuneus. 

Ox Cuneus, po fissura parieto-occipitalia, o sulcus occipitalis tranaversus, 
dc EsBura calcarina, e>d upper, oc" lower branch. D Gyrus descen. 

T, Gyrus occipito-temporalis lateralis (lobulus fusifonnis). 
Tt, Gyrus occipito-temporalis medialis (lobulus lingualis). 

small convolution (Oz\ Fig. 6) arises from the gyrus 
fomicatm, which, previously sinking below the sur- 



CONVOLUTIONS OF THE CORPUS OALLOSUM. 



75 



face, is connected with the apex of the cuneus (Oz). 
I will call it gyrus cunsi. 1 



Fig. 6. 



0*'-_ 




oc 

View of the Posterior Extremity of the Right Hemisphere from the 

Medial Surface. 

P precuneus ; Oz cuneus ; po fissura parieto-occipitalis ; o sulcus occipitalis 
transversus ; Of gyrus fornicatus ; Oz' convolution of the cuneus ; oc fis- 
sura calcarina ; T b gyrus occipito-temporalis medialis (lobulus lingualis). 



Lastly, the gyrus fornicatus coalesces with the 
anterior extremity of the lingual lobule, gyrus occipi- 

1 Bischoff (1. c, S. 47) names this convolution the lower or fifth 
parietal convolution (No. 15), and correctly considers it as the ana- 
logue of the lower inner transition convolution (pli de passage) of the 
apex. As above mentioned, Gratiolet describes two inner (that is, sit- 
uated on the medial surface) transition convolutions, which pass from 
the precuneus to the cuneus, and distinguishes them as inner upper 
and inner lower transition convolution (pits de passage interne svpe- 
rieur et inferieur). As to the first, the upper inner transition convolu- 
tion, I make use of this opportunity to express ray views upon this 
also. 

Bischoff (1. c, S. 79) is of the opinion that this convolution is ho- 



76 CONVOLUTIONS OF THE BRAIN. 

to-temporaMs medialis, and then continues as the gy- 
rus hippocampi. Thus there pass successively into the 
gyrus fornicatus : 1. The precuneus ; 2. The cuneus ; 
3. The lingual lobule. On the lower and media ledge 
of this convolution, lying upon the corpus callosum, 
a layer of white medullary substance is developed, 
which covers its gray cortex (stria hngitudinalis s. 
tectcb), and, spreading more widely as it passes back- 
ward and downward, covers the surface of the gyrus 
hippocampi as substantia alba reticularis. 

3. Gyrus hippocampi. Burdach (JS). 

Syx. — Subiculum cornu ammonis. Burdach. 
CircoD volution & crochet. Vicq d'Azyb. 
Pli unciforme s. temporal moyen interne et lobule de Phippo- 

campe. Geatiolet. 
Uncinate gyrus. Huxley. 

This convolution lies on the lower medial border 
of the temporal lobe, which embraces the pedunculi 

mologous with the first outer transition convolution of Gratiolet (oar 
gyrus occipitalis primus, Oi), and hence is wanting where the latter is 
developed, and vice versa. I regret to be obliged to oppose this view : 
not only do we find, as I will more particularly describe in another 
place, in the brain of various apes (Oercopithecus, Cynocephalus, etc.) 
both convolutions most clearly developed together, but we also not in- 
frequently find in man a convolution which arises at the posterior ex- 
tremity of the precuneus with the gyrus occipitalis primus, runs back- 
ward in an arch convex inward and downward, while the former (gyrus 
occipitalis primus, as is known, makes an arch outward. In the cune- 
us the two convolutions again coalesce. This convolution is regularly 
sunk into the depths of the fissura parieto-occipitalis, and only becomes 
visible on pulling apart the borders of this fissure ; but sometimes it 
also comes to the surface, and causes then a very unusual appearance 
of this part of the cerebral surface. 



FISSURA HIPPOCAMPI. 77 

cerebri. It is bounded externally by the anterior 
part of the fisaura occipito-ternporalis inferior, inter- 
nally by the fisswra hippocampi, and may be consid- 
ered as the common prolongation of the gyrus forni- 
catus, the convolution of the cuneus, and of the lin- 
gual lobule. After the gyrus hippocampi has been 
formed by these three constituents below the poste- 
rior end of the corpus callosum, it runs to the point 
of the temporal lobe, where it ends at the beginning 
of the transverse part of the jisswra Sylvii, behind 
the substantia perforata lateralis, with a hook-shaped 
turn, the uncus gyri fomicati or gyrus uncinatus, U. 

4. Fissura hippocampi (A). 

Syn. — Anterior part of the u scissure des hippocampes." Gratiolet. 
Dentate sulcus. Huxley. 

The inner surface of the cerebral cavities is in im- 
mediate connection with the peripheral surface of 
the brain by a large cleft (rima transversa cerebri, 
Burdach). This cleft consists of a middle and two 
lateral portions. 

The middle part of the cleft extends transversely 
between the corpus callosum and corpora quadrigemi- 
na, is bounded above by the first, below by the second 
and the pineal gland, and leads into the third ventri- 
cle. The lateral portion extends thence in a curve 
outward, downward, and forward, on the inner side 
of the lower lobe, between the inner portion of the 



78 CONVOLUTIONS OF THE BEAIN". 

roof, and the floor of the lower horn, and leads into 
the cornu descemlens. This fissure is thus bounded 
externally by the concave border of the gyrus hippo- 
campi. If this border is somewhat lifted, a sulcus 
will be seen which runs along the border, and in 
which Lies a gray cord. This sulcus stands in a rela- 
tion to the corn/it ammonia precisely similar to that 
of the fissura calcariua to the calcar avis — that is, 
the sulcus pushes the wall of the descending cornu 
inward toward the cavity, and thereby produces on 
the lower wall of the cornu the elevation just 
named, which is found in that place. The fissure is 
thence named sulci's or fasum hippocampi. 

5. Gyrm dentatm s. fascia dentata. 

Btn. — Dentute gyrns. Huxley. 

Corps goilroanti. Ghatiolet and others. 

The cornu ammonis represents a convolution 
pressed in toward the cavity of the lower horn of 
the ventricle. As the convolutions in general have, 
upon a transverse section, as Meynert correctly re- 
marks, the form of a U — that is, of an inverted II, 
the convexity of which looks toward the surface— 
and the fissures that of an upright U, here such a 
U of the latter kind juts into the cavity of the de- 
scending cornu as an embossed projection, and forms 
the elevation of the cornu ammonis. The cavity of 
the U, however, is not empty, but filled mostly with 



GYRUS DENDATUS. 79 

gray substance, and in the deepest portion with a pro- 
longation of the substantia alba reticularis. Above 
all lies a frequently-contracted cord of gray substance, 
the fascia dentata or the gyrus dentatus. This little 
gray convolution begins behind the splenium cor- 
poris caUosi on the medial surface of the gyrus for- 
nicatus, as the fasciola cinerea, then descends along 
the cornu a/mmonis, covered by the fimbria or tcenia, 
and finally ends with the so-called cauda on the 
lower surface of the gyrus uncinatus. 



There is hardly a point in which the brain of 
most apes is so essentially distinguished from that 
of man as in regard to the just-mentioned fissura 
hippocampi. In man, as we have seen, the gyrus for- 
nicatus passes without interruption into the gyrus 
hippocampi, and thus the fissura calcarina and fis- 
sura hippocampi are separated from each other by 
this continuous series of convolutions. In the apes, 
on the contrary — so far as known, with the single 
exceptions of Ateles and Hylobates — the two just- 
named fissures pass immediately into each other, and 
thence in them the gyrus fomicatus and gyrus hip- 
pocampi are separated from each other. Hence, 
Gratiolet, who derived his whole terminology from 
the ape's brain, described the two fissures which we 



80 CONVOLUTIONS OF THE BRAIN. 

separate as jisswra caharina and fissura hippocampi 
as one, the scissure dee hippocampes. 



F. Insular Lobe. 
Island. Reil. 

Syn. — Stammlappen, lobus caudicis. Buedaoh. 

Zwischenlappen oder verstecker Lappen, lobus intermedins u. 
opertus. Aenold. 

This lobe lies concealed between the frontal, pa- 
rietal, and temporal lobes, and especially overhung 
by the operculum, so that it is only seen after open- 
ing out the fisswra Sylvii, and is surrounded by a 
furrow. Its surface is furnished with short convo- 
lutions (gyri breves, Gall), which diverge from a 
point on the lower side, forward, upward, and back- 
ward, and have the form of a slightly-curved hook. 



APPENDIX. 



Acting upon the conviction expressed in the 
preface, that it is especially the task of physicians 
to furnish the materials for a future organology of 
the brain, I do not consider it superfluous to add 
something upon the methods of examination and the 
recording of observations. 

In order to find one's way in the apparent chaos 
of convolutions, it is best to start from the principal 
fissures. After the pia mater has been as much as 
possible removed 1 from the brain taken out of the 
skull, the fissura Sylvii (#) is sought for, and its 
two branches, the posterior horizontal (a!? 7 ) and the 
anterior ascending (S ff ). Starting from the opercu- 
lum, which projects between these two branches, we 
seek for the sulcus centralis (c) and the two central 

1 This is best done under water, but the stay of the brain in water 
must be but a short one, as it otherwise becomes too soft by imbibition. 
6 



82 APPENDIX. 

convolutions which border it, the anterior (A) and 
the posterior (j5). Going from the anterior (A) we 
follow the frontal convolutions, F 1} F 2 , F 8 , of which 
the lowest, F& curves around the anterior ascending 
branch of the fossa Sylvii. On the portion of the 
cerebral surface which lies behind the central fissure 
(parietal and occipital lobes), the fisswra parieto-oc- 
cipitaUs is sought for, cutting in from the medial 
border. This is always easy to find, if one starts 
from the medial surface. It bounds, on the surface, 
the easily-recognizable cuneus (Oz) anteriorly, and 
separates the parietal from the occipital lobe. The 
external extremity of the fissure named is surrounded 
by an arched convolution, which I have designated 
gyrus occipitalis primus. If we follow forward the 
fissure (ip) which bounds the convolution external- 
ly, we find that, although sometimes bridged over, it 
runs outward and forward, and divides the parietal 
lobe into two portions. This fissure is the sulcus in- 
terparietalis, and the two divisions of the parietal 
lobe are the upper (JP^) and lower (P 2 ) parietal lob- 
ules. The latter consists of an anterior group of 
convolutions (gyrus supramarginaliSj -P 2 ), which 
curves around the upper extremity of the fisswra 
Sylvii, into the upper temporal convolution, and of 
a posterior (gyrus angularis, F 2 ') which curves 
around the upper temporal fissure (^), and passes 



APPENDIX. 83 

into the second temporal convolution. On the tem- 
poral lobe, situated below the horizontal branch of 
the fissure of Sylvius, it is easy to recognize the 
upper temporal convolution (T^) and the upper tem- 
poral fissure (^) ; for the remaining portion of the 
temporal, as well as of the occipital lobe, I must re- 
fer to the previous description. If a median section 
has been made through the corpus calhswn, and the 
two halves of the brain separated, we now see the 
fissures and convolutions of the medial and lower 
surfaces in connection. First of all, we trace the 
gyrus fornicatus (@f), embracing the whole co?pus 
caUosum, which is then immediately continued into 
the gyrus hippocampi (II), and ends with the gyrus 
uncmatus at the anterior lower and internal extrem- 
ity of the temporal lobe. With the gyrus fornicatus 
are connected : 1. The precuneus (JP\) ; 2. The cu- 
neus (Oz) ; 3. The lingual lobule (T 6 ). 

The great difficulty of an accurate description 
makes it seem advisable always to make a sketch of 
the portion of the cerebral surface where altered 
convolutions are met with. For this purpose may 
be recommended, as well for the sake of accuracy as 
of easy execution, geometric drawing, with the diop- 
ter of Lucsb, for the management of which I will es- 
pecially refer to the communication of Landzert, in 
the " Archiv fur Anthropologic " (Bd. II., S. 1). 



84 APPENDIX. 

For preserving the brain, if one does not wish to 
make a more careful examination immediately after 
the section, or wishes to keep the preparation, the 
chloride of zinc advised by Gratiolet and Bischoff is 
especially to be recommended, for the reason that 
there is no need of removing the pia mater before 
the brain is placed in this fluid, since after it has 
been some time therein it is even more easily separa- 
ble than in the fresh condition. If it is desired to 
use alcohol for the hardening, the previous removal 
of the pia mater is absolutely necessary ; this may 
be very well done under water, if the brain is placed 
in absolute alcohol immediately afterward. Brains 
hardened in chloride of zinc must also, after some 
time, be kept in alcohol. For completely retaining 
the form of the brain, the injection of alcohol or 
chloride of zinc into the carotids is very advanta- 
geous ; but, in using the former fluid, the subsequent 
study of the convolutions is subject to some diffi- 
culties on account of the firmly adherent pia mater. 

Finally, I will mention that Dr. Ad. Ziegler, in 
Freiburg, has undertaken to make a wax model of 
the human cerebral convolutions according to my de- 
signs, which may soon be obtained from him. 



LITE RAT URE. 



Arnold. Bemerkimgen Uber den Bau des Hirns und Rucken- 
marks, etc. Zurich, 1858. 8vo. 

Barkow. Comparative Morphologie des Menschen und der 
menschenahnlichen Thiere. III. Thl. : Erlauterungen zur 
Skelet- und Gehirnlehre. Breslau, 1865. 2o. (Taf. XII. u. 
XTEL : Negergehime.) 

Bischoff. Die Grosshirnwindungen des Menschen mit Beriick- 
sichtigung ihrer Entwicklung bei dem Fdtus und ihrer An- 
ordnung bei den Affen. Aus den Abhandlungen der k. bair. 
Akademie der Wissenschaften, II. CI., X. Bd., II. Abtblg., 
mit 7 Tafeln. Munchen, 1868. 4to. 

Burdach, C. F. Vom Baue und Leben des Gehirns. 3 Bde., 
4to, mit 10 Tafeln. Leipzig, 1819 bis 1826. 

Flower. On the Posterior Lobes of the Cerebrum of . the 
Quadrumana. With 2 Plates. Philosophical Transactions, 
vol. 152. London, 1863. P. 185 ; Plates 2 and 3. 

Fovillb. Trait6 complet de l'anatomie, de la physiologie et de 
la pathologie du systeme nerveux cere'bro-spinal. lere par- 
tie : anatomic 1 vol. 8vo, and an Atlas of 23 Plates in 4to. 
Paris, 1844. 

Gkatiolet. Memoire sur les plis cerSbraux de l'Homme et des 
Primates. Paris. 1 vol. text, in 4to, and 1 vol. Atlas of 
13 Plates, in 2o. 



86 LITERATURE. 

Leiteet and Gratiolet. Anatomie compared du systeme ner- 

veux considere* dans ses rapports avec l'intelligence. 2 vols. 

in 8vo, with an Atlas of 32 Plates in 2o. Paris, 1839-1857. 

(The second part, which contains the anatomy of the brain 

of man and the apes, as well as the history of development, 

is prepared by Gratiolet alone.) 
Huschke. Schadel, Hirn und Seele des Menschen und der 

Thiere, etc. Mit 6 Tafeln. Jena, 1854. 2o. 
Huxley. On the Brain of Ateles Paniscus. With one Plate. 

Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 1861. 

No. XVII., pL XXIX., p. 247. 
Marshall. On the Brain of a Bushwoman, and on the Brains 

of Two Idiots of European Descent. With 9 Plates. 

Philosophical Transactions, vol. 154. London, 1865. P. 

501, pi. 15-23. 
Metnert. Der Bau der Grosshirnrinde und seine ortlichen 

Verschiedenheiten. Vierteljahrsschrift fur Psychiatrie, von 

Leidesdorf und Meynert. Leipzig, 1867-'68. L Jahrgang, 

1. Heft, S. 77 ; 2. Heft, S. 198. n. Jahrgang, 1. Heft, S. 88. 
Pansch. De sulcis et gyris in cerebris simiarum et hominum. 

Comm. anat. pro venia legendi. Kiel, 1866. 4to, with one 

Plate. 
Reichert. Der Bau des menschlichen Gehirns. Leipzig, 1859 

bis 1861. Zwei Bande, mit 33 Tafeln. 4to. 
Rolando. Delia struttura degli Emisferi cerebrali. Memorie 

della R. accad. delle scienze di Torino. Tome XXXV., p. 

103 ; with 10 Plates. 4to. 1829. 
Rolleston. On the premier pli de passage. Natural History 

Review. Vol. I., p. 211. 
On the Affinities and Differences between the Brains of 

Man and the Brains of Certain Animals. Medical Times 

and Gazette, 1862. Vol. I., No. 608, p. 181. 
Turner, W. The Convolutions of the Human Cerebrum, topo- 
graphically considered. Edinburgh, 1866. 8vo. 
Notes, more especially on the Bridging Convolutions in 

the Brain of the Chimpanzee. Proceedings of the Royal 

Society of Edinburgh, 1865-1866. 8vo. 



LITERATURE. 87 

Vogt, C. Ueber die Microcephalen oder Affen-Menschen. Mit 

26 Tafeln. Archiv fur Anthropologic Bd. EL, S. 129. 
Wagner, R. Ueber die typischen Verschiedenheiten der Win- 

dungen der Hemisphftren, &c. Gottingen, 1860, 1862. 
Vorstudien zu einer wissenschaftlichen Morphologie und 

Physiologie des menschlichen Gehirns als Seelenorgan. 

Gottingen, 1860-1862. 2vols., gr. 4. With Plates. 



CATALOGUE 



MEDICAL WORKS. 



ANSTIE. 

•[Neuralgia, and Diseases which resemble it. 
By FRANCIS E. ANSTIE, M. D., F. R. C. P., 

Senior ApshOaiitT>hv!.iclan toWestmi 
minuter Ii..5j,iu"]S. ■;,..-. . . 
of "The Pnicll lionet" (London), 

1 vol., 12mo. Cloth, (3.50. 
"It is a valuable contribution io Bclentillc medicine."— The Lancet (London). 
"HIb work upon Xenratgla is one of the mort I nte resting, instructive, and pri 
we have seen far a long time. Wo have u'Lv--m ii fi r ■ -1ri J rriuliiij; twd lh(.ir_'htfiil 

more practical ini'nri'Wli'jii nud I- iii!:i.-r "J i.-' In) -hl';:- - =— r i <i .-.'"— ikilica! Eecord. 

BARKER. 
On Sea-sickness. 

By FORDYCE BARKER, M. D., 
Clinical Professor of Midwifery una the Diseases of Women in the Belle™ H 
Medleal College, etc 

1 vol., lGmo, 36 pp. Flexible Cloth, 75 cents. 



preBcriptljne added lib (he author hae found useful in relieving the suffering 
cknesi. 

BARNES. 

)bstetriC Operations, including the Treatment 

of Haemorrhage. 

By ROBERT BARNES, M. D., F. R. C. P., London, 
biletric Physician to and Lecturer on Midwifery and the DiBOBBef of Women and Chll- 

..,. . ... []. ; .1; K.-,::;, - lji 

- ,i,n(n Ihe Kaslern UiviHtouof thencijiil m 
Charity. 

WITH ADDITIONS, by BENJAMIN F. DAWSON, M. D., 
le Lcetnrer on Uterine Pathology in fhc Wed 



New V-'jrl; 1 lirMu-ilsuirv : Member of [lie New York (Jtfctetri 
Society of the (Joirntj of New Tork, clc., etc. 



jf the Medical 



Second American Edition. 1 vdI., Std, EOS pp. Cloth, (4.50. 
To tne Btndent and practitioner thin work will prove of iho greatest ™lne, being, bb It 
aott perfect leil-hook on " Obstetric Operations," by one who has fhirly earned the 
lo assume the position of a teacher. 

"Such a work a* Dr. Barnes's was greatly needed. It In calculated to elevale Iho 
"■• obatetrlcarlin thie country. n,ij |,. h.; uf^n-nt service to ibe prncttuouor.' 



/'. Appleton tfc Co.'s Medical Publications. 

Bellevue and Chanty Hospital Reports. 

The volume of Bdlovue and Charity Hospital Reports 
for 1870, containing valuable contributions from 

ISAAC E. TAYLOR, M. D., WILLIAM A. HAMMOND, M. L\ 

AUSTIN FLINT, M. D., T. GAILLARD THOMAS, II. D., 

LEWIS A. 8AYEE, M. D. ( FRANK H. HAMILTON, M. D, 

find others. 

1 vol., 8vo. Cloth, S4.00. 

" These institutions are the moat important, as regards accommodations for 
patients and variety of cases treated, of suy on this continent, and are surpassed 
by but few in the world. The gentlemen connected with them are acknowledged 
W be among the first iu their profession, and Uio routine is an important addition 

tu the proibsaional literature of this country."— ■ftycAo/oyicofVQiirna/. 



BENNET 
Winter and Spring on the Shores of 

the Mediterranean; or, the Riviera, Me/itone, Italy, 
Corsica, Sicily, Algeria, Spain, and Biarritz, as Win- 
ter Climates. 

By J. HENRY BEXNET, II. D., 
Mttnber of the Royal College of Physicians, London; laic Pliyaician-Accoucber V. 

iti.ml f«<: M ■ i '■■■ r-..i, L -.--irv i.f Paris: formerly. 

iIi.-qi Physician to the Paris iloBpitals (ex- Intense ilea HOplieux da Paris), etc 

This work embodies the experience of ten winters and springs passed by Dr. Be 
on the shores of the Mediterranean, and contains much valuable information for phjsi- 
tiaua in relation to the health- restoring climate of the regions described. 
1 vol., 12mo. 621 pp. Cloth, S3.50. 

ai its special pnrpoeea, and weD Illustrated."— Smw 
>r the physician, perhurs, than for anj oiher dai 
capital qoaliScmioU it i*m tiiicuiiucL-tiiiuiujniid i;:;-i™:t!v,-.' — sf. y. lltdicalJtairnat. 

On the Treatment of Pulmonary Con- 

sumption, by Hygiene, Climate, and Medicine, in its 
Connection with Mvde.ru Doctrines. 

By JAMES HENRY BENNET, M. D., 

Member of the Itoyal College of Physicians, Lmsdoii; Doctor of Medicine of the Unireralty 

or Paris, ate, etc 

1 vol., thin Svo. Cloth, 81.50. 



a book to the alti 
mew a/' MedMne. 






D. Appkton & Co. 'a Medical Publications. 

BILLROTH. 

General Surgical Pathology and The- 

rapeuiic*, m Fifty Lectures, A Text-hook fur Students 
and Physicians. 



CHARLES E. HACKLE Y, A. It, M. D., 

Bimvo to the Sew York Eve ud Ear Infirmary ; Phvalotin to the Non York IIusi>i!il ; Fellon 
Of the Sew York Academy of ileiuclfle, ete. 

1 vol., Svo. 676 pp., and 1S2 Woodcut*. Cloth, t5,00, 
Professor Theodor Billroth, one of tie most noted authorities on 
Surgical Pathology, gives in this volume n complete remmi of the exist- 
ing state of knowledge in this branch of medical science. The fact of 
this publication going through four editions in Germany, and liming 
been translated into French, Italian, Kussian, and Hungarian, should be 
some guarantee for its standing. 




" The want of a hook in tin.' En^i-'i '-■ _-■■. •■■■•■■ r.j in t. oon.-iae form the 
views of the German pathologists, lias Iojij: been I'elt ; ami we venture to say no 
book could more perfectly fupply that want lhatt the present volume. .... 
We would strongly recommend it to all who titkc any interest in the progress of 
thought and observation in surgical pathology and surgery." — The Loncet. 

"A great addition to Our literature." — A r . T. MtJJral Journal. 

" We can assure our readers that they will ronsulcr neither money wasted in 
its purchase, nor time in its perusal." — Thi Mtdkat lacatigalor. 



If. Appkton A &>.'« Xedital Publwi'iont. 
COMBE. 

The Management of Infancy, Physiologi- 
cal and Moral. Intended chiefly for the Use, of 
Parents. 

By ASDEEW OOMBE, M. D. 



. toL, 12mo. 303 pp. 



" In the following pages I have addressed myself chiefly to parents 
and to the yonnger members of the medical profession ; but it is not to 
them alone that the subject ought to prove attractive. The study of in- 
fancy, considered even as an element in the history and philosophy of 
man, abonnds in interest, and is fertile in truths of the highest practical 
Talue and importance." — Extract from Author* Preface. 

"This excellent little book »hould be in the hand of every mother of a family; 
and if some of our lady friend* would master its contents, and either bring up 
their children by the light of its teachings, or communicate the truths it contains 
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ever .... We consider this work to be one of the few popular medical treatises 
that any practitioner may recommend to his patients ; and, though, if its precepts 
are followed, he will probably lose a few guineas, he will not begrudge them if 
he sees his friends' children grow up healthy, active, strong, and both mentally 
and physically capable." — The Lanett, 

DAVIS. 

Conservative Surgery, as exhibited in remedying 
some of the Mechanical Causes thai operate injuri- 
misly both in Health and Disease. With Illustrations. 






] vol, Bio. S15 pp. Cloth, $3,00, 

The Anthor has enjoyed rare facilities for the study and treatment 
of certain classes of disease, and the records here presented to the pro- 
fession are the gnidnal accumulation of over thirty years' investigation. 

" Dr. Davis, bringing, as he does to his specialty, » great aptitude for the 
solution of mechanical problems, takes a high rank as an orthopedic surgeon, 
and his very practical contribution to the literature of the subject is both valu- 
able and opportune. We deem it worthy of a place in every physician's library. 
The sl-vle i- iiii[irf.'tcijding, but Irene bant, graphic, and, best of all, quite intelli- 
gible," — Midical Jtecord. 



D. Appleton & Co?s Medical Publications. 
FLINT. 

The Physiology of Man. Designed to rep- 
resent the Existing State, of J "h y-« in/ '<></ ic vl Science as 
' I to the Functions of the Human Body, 
Bj AUSTIN FLINT, Jr., M. D., 

» nmpitnl Mimical Collect, awl in [Ik 
'"-■"-Ino; klmucoDlM 



i'll«>l 



w V,,ik Am.f.n 



,!M, ■.•:.■!:,. ■; 



In Five Volumes. 8vo. Tintei Paper. 

Volume I. — The Blood; Circulation; Respiration. 

Bvo. 602 pp. Clot!), 84.50. 




" If the remaining portions of this work arc compiled with the same cure and 
accuracy, the whole tuny vie with any of those dint, have of lute years heen pro- 
duetd in our own or in foreign languages," — British, and foreign Medico-Chirwrgi- 
eal Review. 

As a book of general information it "ill lie (bund u.-elul rn the practitioner, 
as a. book of n.-li-n.m-i 1 , invulinlik' in the hands of ilie ituulouiist and physi- 
ologist." — Dublin tyi.irtrrtti Jvitniiii 0/ Nt-iUcat Science. 

"The complete work will prove a valuable addition to our systematic treatises 
on human physiology." — The Lancet. 

"To those who desire to get in one volume a concise and clear, and at the 
ie time sufficiently full rimitiir of ' the existing state of physiological science," 
can heartily recommend Or. Mint's work. Moreover, as. ti work of typographi- 
cal art it. deserves n prominent place upon our library -shelves. Messrs. Applelou 
& Co. deserve the thinks of the profession lor the very handsome style in which 
they issue medical works. They give us hope of a time when it will be very 
generally believed by publishers that physicians' eves are worth saving." — Mali' 
eat Gaulle. 



D. Appleton & Co.'s Medical Publications. 

Flint's Physiology. Volume II. — Alimenta- 
tion; Digestion; Absorption; Lymph and Chyle. 

8v0. 55G pp. Cloth, *4.60. 

" The second instalment of this work fulfils all the expectations raised by the 
perusal of the Erst. . . . The author's explanations and deductions bear 
evidence of much careful reflection and study. . . . The entire work is One 
of rare interest. The author's style is its clear ond concise as his method is 
studious, careful, and elaborate."— l'hiladelpkia Inquirer, 

" We regard (he two treatises already issued as the very best on human physi- 
ology which the English Or any other language affords, and we recommend them 
with thorough confidence to indents, practitioners, and laymen, as models of 
literary and scientific ability."— -V, Y. .ViJical Journal. 

" We have found ibe style easy, lucid, and at the same time terse. The prac- 
tical and positive results of ( ih v eiol ogi cnl in res ligation are succinctly stated, 
without, it won !il iM-ni, t-i.[i;>idi d discussion of disputed points." — Boilou Moli.ot 
and Utiryieal Journal. 

" It is a volume which will be welcome to the advanced student, and as a 
work of reference." — Tlte Lancet. 

" The leading subjects treated of are presented in distinct parts, each of which 
is designed to be an exhaustive essay on that to which it refers." — Western Jour- 
nal of Medicine. 

Volume III. — Secretion; Excretion.; Ductless Glands; 2fzt- 
trition ; Animal Heat ; Movements ; Voice and Speech. 

8vo. 626 pp. Cloth, «4.S0. 
" Dr. Flint's reputation is sufficient to give a character to the book among the 
profession, where it will chiefly circulate, and many of the facts given have bcu 

verified by the author in his laboratory and in public ileiinu:- trillions." — Chicuyo 

"The author bestows judicious care and labor. Facts are selected with dis- 
orlminstioD, (beorlM cihiciilly -:■ cammed, and conclusions enunciated with com- 
mendable clearness and precision." — American Journal of She Medical Scietmet. 

"The work is calculated to attract other than professional readers, and is 
written nith sufficient clearness and freedom iVym teclmical pedantry to be per- 
fectly intelligible to any well-informed man." — London Saturday Review. 

"From the extent of the nutlier'* invi* ligations into the best theory and prac- 
tice of the present day, the world over, and the candor and good judgment which 
he brings to bear upon the discu-.iun <A' each subject, we are justified in regarding 
his treaties as standard and antuorttBtiee, bo far as in this disputed subject 
authority ia admissible. — New York Timet. 

Volume IV. — The Nervous System. 
This volume is now ready. It is 11 work of great interest, and, in 
conjunction with the " Treatise cm Diseases of the Nervous System,'' by 
Dr. Wm. A. Hammond, constitutes a cumpleta work on "The Physiology 
aud Pathology of the Nervous System." 

Volume V. — Generation. {In press.) 



If. Appleton it Co.'s Medical Publications. 

FLINT. 
Manual of Chemical Examination of 

the Urine in Disease. With Brief Directions for the 
Examination of the most Common Varieties of Uri- 
nary Calculi. 

By AUSTIN FLINT, Jr., M. D., 

Profmair 'if Phvalolopv ami Microscopy in the Ucllcvue JToaplUl Medical Onllnee; Pellowof lb* 
New Turk AendciilJ of M-li-irw;' M-n.'.-r ,.f il,- M, ■,:,-.. I S,,..|,.iv „f ■ !„. C.-.nniv ,:( N-w 
York; Kealdont Member of the Lyceum 'if Natural History In Ike Clly of K«W Yurk, etc. 

Third Edition, revise! and corrected. 1 vol., ISmo, 77 pp. Cloth, (1.00. 
The chief aim of this little work is to enable the busy practitioner to 
make for himself, rapidly and easily, all ordinary examinations of Urine; 
to give him the bone-tit of the author's experience in eliminating little 
ilitfic nl lies in the manipulations, and iu reducing processes of analysis 
to the utmost simplicity that is consistent with accuracy. 

" We do not know of any work in English so complete and handy as the 
Manual now ottered to (be profession by Dr. Flim, iinl tin:- lii^li ; urinific reputa- 
tion of the author is a sullieietit guarantee of the accuracy of all the directions 
given." — J-iiirimi tif AjiiJioi Chctnittry. 

"We con unhesitatingly recuiiitucinl thin Mfltiu.il.'' — AyW.yW Journal 

" Eminently practical." — Detroit Bn-U-a of Medicine. 

On the Physiological Effects of Severe 

and Protracted M itxuxdar Exercise. With Special Ref- 
erence to its Influence upon the Excretion, of Nitrogen. 
By AUSTIN FLINT, Jit., M.D., 

Professor of Physiology in the Belleiuo Hospital Medical College, Sew York, etc, etc. 

1 vol., Bvo, 91 pp. Cloth, 12.00. 
This monograph on the relations of Urea to Exercise is the result of 
a thorough and careful investigation made in the case- of Mr. Edward 
Payson Weston, the celebrated pedestrian. The chemical analyses were 
made under the direction of R. O. Doreinns, II. D., Professor of Chem- 
istry and Toxicology in the Bellevue Hospital Medical College, by 
Mr. Oscar Loew, his assistant. The observations were made with the 
cooperation of J. C. Dalton, M. D., Professor of Physiology in the Col- 
lege of Physicians and Surgeons; Alexander B. Mott, M. D., Professor 
of Surgical Anatomy; W. H. Van Buren, M. D., Professor of Principles 
of Surgery; Austin Flint, M. D., Professor of the Principles and Prac- 
tice of Medicine; W. A. Hammond, M. D., Professor of Diseases of the 
Mind and Nervous System — all of the Bellerne Hospital Medical College. 



D. Applcton & Co.'s Medical Publications. 

HAMMOND. 
A Treatise on Diseases of the Nervous 

System. 

By WILLIAM A. IT AMM O NT), II. D„ 



Witli Forty-Eve ninitrationj. 1 vol., 8vo. 750 pp. Clotb, 15.00. 
The treatise embraces an introductory chapter, which relates to the 

instruments and apparatus employed in the diagnosis and treatment of 
diseases of the nervons systom, and five sections. Of these, the first 
treats of diseases of the brain ; tha second, diseases of the spinal cord ; 
the third, cerebrospinal diseases ; the fonrth, diseases of nerve-cells j 
and the fifth, diseases of the peripheral nerves. One feature whkh may 
bo claimed for the work is, that it rests, to a great estent, upon the per- 
sonal observation and experience of the author, and is therefore do mere 
compilation. 



" The author's clear and terse style of diction renders the book exceedingly 
readable, and the cases reported and cited add much to the interest of the Wit. 
. . . There is so much that is entertaining in the mental and other manifesta- 
tions of nervous disorder, especially when presented as they are here, that a work 
of this kind will find many readers outside the profession ; and, it may be hoped, 
will serve not only to interest and amuse, hut to' induce a closer observance of 
those hygienic laws upon whose violation many of the ailments here treated of 
depend." — New York Medical Journal. 

" The work is replete with useful knowledge, and every physician who expects 
to be called on, as an expert, to testify in cases of supposed insanity, after the 
commission oT crimes, should give the book ■ thorough perusal."— Laaaumth 
Medical Herald. 

" That a treatise by Prof. Hammond would be One of a high order was what 
we anticipated, and it afford* us pleasure to state that our anticipations have 
been realized." — Cincinnati Medical Repertory. 

" Tt affords a vast amount of information, is captivating, and worth reading ." 
— Cincinnati Lancet and Ooterstr. 

"This is unquestionably the most complete treatise on the diseases to which 
it is devoted that has yet appeared in the English language; and its value iB 
much increased by the fact that Dr. Hammond has mainly based it on his own 
experience and practice, which, we need hardly remind our rcuders, have been 
very extensive." — London Medico! Titna and Qaxetft. 

"Free from useless verbiage and obscurity, it is evidently the work of a 
man who knows what he is writing about, and knows haw to write about it." — 
Chitago Medical Journal 






D. Appleton & Co?s Medical Publications. 

HOLLAND. 

Recollections of Past Life, 

By SIR HENRY HOLLAND, Bart, M. D., P. R. S., LC.8., etc., 

President of the Royal Institution of Great Britain, Physician-in-Ordinary to the Queen, 

etc., etc 

1 vol., 12x110, 351 pp. Price, Cloth, $2.00. 

A very entertaining and instructive narrative, partaking somewhat of the nature of 
autobiography and yet distinct from it, in this, that its chief object, as alleged by the 
writer, is not so much to recount the events of his own life, as to perform the office of 
chronicler for others with whom he came in contact and was long associated. 

The "Life of Sir Henry Holland " is one to be recollected, and he has not erred in giv- 
ing an outline ot it to tbe public." — The Lancet, 

" His memory was — is, we may say, for he is still alive and in possession of all his 
faculties — stored with recollections of the most eminent men and women of this cen- 
tury. ... A life extending over a period of eighty-fonr years, and passed in the most 
active manner, in the midst of the best society, which the world has to offer, must neces- 
sarily be fall of singular interest ; and Sir Henry Holland has fortunately not waited until 
his memory lost its freshness before recalling some of the incidents in it" — The New 
York Times. 

HOWE. 

Emergencies, and How to Treat Them. 

The Etiology ', Pathology, and Treatment of Accidents, 
Diseases, and Cases of Poisoning, which demand 
Prompt Attention. Designed for Students and Prac- 
titioners of Medicine. 

By JOSEPH W. HOWE, M. D., 
Vieiting Surgeon to Charity Hospital ; Lecturer on Surgery in the Medical Department of 

the University of New York, etc. 

1 vol., 8vo. 265 pp. Cloth, $3.00. 

This volume is designed as a guide in the treatment of cases of emergency occurring in 
medical, surgical, or obstetrical practice. It combines all the important subjects, giving 
special prominence to points of practical Interest in preference to theoretical considera- 
tions, and uniting, with the results of personal observation, the latest views of European 
and American authorities. 



u i 



The style is concise, perspicuous, and definite. Each article is written as though that 
particular emergency were present; there is no waste of words, nor temporizing with 
remedies of doubtful efficacy. The articles on oedema glottidis. acphvxia, and strangulated 
hernia, are particularly clear and practical, and furnish all the information required in the 
managemant of those urgent cases. 

"It will be found invaluable to students and young practitioners, in supplying them 
with an epitome of useful knowledge obtainable from no other single work: while to the 
older members of the profession it will serve as a reliable and * ready remembrancer. 1 "— 
The Medical Record. 



itton it Co.'a Medical Publications. 



HUXLEY AND YOTJMANS. 
The Elements of Physiology and 

Hygiene. With yum-nroiw TUusti 
By THOMAS H. HUXLEY, LL. D., F.R.S., and 
WILLIAM JAY YOUMANS, JI.D. 
1 vol., 12mo. 420 pp. tl.Tfi. 
A test-book (to educational institutions, anil a voidable elementary 
work fur students of medicine. The greater portion is from (he pen of 
Professor Huxley, adapted by Dr. Youinuns to the circumstances and 
rx-'iiiireinenta of American education. 

" A valuable contribution to anatomical and physiological science." — Iletiytau* 
arranged Wert embracing the latest cEaeOTeriea and ac- 

■m'rrial. 

"Teeming with informs Li tin t-imcerning the human physical economy." — 
Eicniiig -Journal, 

HTJSLEY. 
The Anatomy of Vertebrated Animals, 



. 



THOMAS HENRY HUXLEY, LL. D„ F. R. S 



r,iv s. 



lidro 

1 vol., 12mo. Cloth, 42.00. 
The former works of Prof Huiley leave no room for doo] 
ince and value of his new volume. It is one which will be very acceptable 
do ire Interested in the subject of which it treats. 



all 




?.-.iu ;■■!'■ .Un- 



ix loTis-iMpeettd work will he cordinllv wrlromrfl bv nl] ahii3™te and tea^bsni of 

alive |[i*.[iiu- it o.mrturlj.-.us r.-lhil.l-, ill, I. n-tw iti,-iftii,[i:n; its small dimen- 

".enelTe .■ of which it tre :■-. T« pnlBsor tocrfU- 

.ecnmplished a mailer oL" Iris famriLc science wtinlil l>o oqnallv onl rf 

....;■.-.-■■■■ . ■ ■ . ■ ■■:.-■. ■ ■■.! :.. h 

■. -■■ . . ■ ...... 

Individual Hicu,"-A"u(urv. 



oV/obe 



D. Appleton <t- Co.'s Medical Publications. 

JOHNSON. 
The Chemistry of Common Life. 

Illustrated with numerous Wood Engravings. 
By JAMES F. JOHNSON, IT. A., F. E. 6., F. G. S., mo., etc., 



Latfcor 



■■ I . L.:l. 



11 Agrlcu] 



Btry and Groggy*" "A Catechism 



r Agricultural 



S vols., 12mo. Cloth, 63.00. 
It has been the object of the author in this work to exhibit the 
present condition of chemical IniOTledge, and of matured scientific 
Opinion, upon the subjects to which it is demoted. The reader will not 
be surprised, therefore, should he find in it some things which differ 
from what is to be found in other popular works already in hie bands or 
on the shelves of his library. 

LETTERMAN. 
Medical Recollections of the Army of 

the Potomac. 

By JONATHAN LETTERMAN, M.D., 

Lots Burgeon IT. 8. A^ and Modioli Director of tho Array of the Potomac 
1 vol., Bvo. 194 pp, Cloth, 81.00. 

" This amount of the medical department of the Army of the Poto- 
mac has been prepared, amid pressing engagements, in the hope that 
the labors of the medical officers of that army may be known to an in. 
telligent people, with whom to know is to appreciate ; and as an affeo 
tionata tribute to many, long my zealous and efficient colleagues, who, 
in days of trial and danger, which have passed, lot us hope never to re- 

i, evinced their devotion to their country and to the cause of hu- 
manity, without hope of promotion or expectation of reward." — Preface. 



regnant as they 
* a sitting." — Aft 
" A graceful uuil ifft 



aecrt that but few who open Ibis volume of mediae] annals, 
wild irijLructiou, will cure to do other wise (him fiiii.-Oj [iiem 
iJteeord. 

ibute." — A". I*. Medical Journal. 



LEWES. 
The Physiology of Common Life. 

By GEORGE HENRY LEWES, 

Aulliuruf "Si'iKHik'^ltidiiM," "life of Qoclhe," oto. 

2 vols., 12mo. Cloth, 93.00. 
The object of this work differs from that of all others on popular 
"ts attempt to meet the wants of the .student, while meeting 
s of the general render, who is supposed to bo wholly unacquainted 
with anatomy and physiology. 



LH 



D. Appleton & Co?s Medical Publications. 

MAUDSLEY. 

The Physiology and Pathology of the 

Mind. 

By HENRY MAUDSLEY, M. D., Loudon, 

Physician to the "West London Hospital; Honorary Member of the Medico-Psvchologicfti Society 
of Paris ; formerly Resident Physician of the Manchester Koyal Lunatic Hospital, etc. 

1 vol., 8vo. 442 pp. Cloth, $3.50. 

This work aims, in the first place, to treat of mental phenomena from 
a physiological rather than from a metaphysical point of view ; and, 
secondly, to bring the manifold instructive instances presented by the 
unsound mind to bear upon the interpretation of the obscure problems 
of mental science. 

" Dr. Maudsley has had the courage to undertake, and the skill to execute, 
what is, at least in English, an original enterprise." — London Saturday Review. 

" It is so full of sensible reflections and sound truths that their wide dissemi- 
nation could not but be of benefit to all thinking persons." — PsycTiological Journal. 

" Unquestionably one of the ablest and most important works on the subject 
of which it treats that has ever appeared, and does credit to his philosophical 
acumen and accurate observation." — Medical Record. 

" We lay down the book with admiration, and we commend it most earnestly 
to our readers as a work of extraordinary merit and originality — one of those 
productions that are evolved only occasionally in the lapse of years, and that 
serve to mark actual and very decided advances in knowledge and science." — 
N. Y. Medical Journal. 



Body 



and JVLinQ I An Inquiry into their Con- 
nection and Mutual Influence, specially in reference 
to Mental Disorders; being the Gulstonian Lectures 
for 1870, delivered before the Royal College of 
Physicians. With Appendix. 

By HENKY MAUDSLEY, M. D., Lojtdon, 

Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians; Professor of Medical Jurisprudence in University Col- 
lege, London ; President-elect of the Medico-Psychological Association ; Honorary Member of 
the Medico-Psychological Society of Paris, of the Imperial Society of Physicians of Vienna, 
and of the Society for the Promotion of Psychiatry and Forensio Psychology of Vienna ; 
formerly Besident Physician of the Manchester Koyal Lunatic Asylum, etc., etc. 

1 vol., 12mo. 155 pp. Cloth, $1.00. 

The general plan of this work may be described as being to bring 
man, both in his physical and mental relations, as much as possible with- 
in the scope of scientific inquiry. 

" A representative work, which every one must study who desires to know 
what is doing in the way of real progress, and not mere chatter, about mental 
physiology and pathology." — The Lancet. 

" It distinctly marks a step in the progress of scientific psychology." — Tk* 
Practitioner. 



D. Appleton <6 CoSs Medical Publications. 

MARKOE. 
A Treatise on Diseases of the Bones. 

By THOMAS M. MARKOE, M. D., 
Professor of Surgery in the College of Physicians and Burgeons, New Tort, etc 

WITH NUMEROUS ILLUSTRATIONS. 

1 vol. Svo. Cloth, £1.50. 




[This valuable work is a treatise on Diseases of the Bones, embracing their 
Structural changes as affected by disease, their clinical history and treatment, in- 
eluding also an account of the various tumors which grow in or upon them. 
None of the ijy'una of bone are included in its scope, and 110 joint diseases, ci- 
cepting where the condition of the bone is a prime factor in the problem of 
disease. As the work of on eminent surgeon of large and varied experience, it 
may be regarded aa the best on the subject, and a valuable contribution to medi- 
cal literature. 
I.:*- 
wt 
Hi- 
:: 



"The book which I 


now ofie 


to myprnr 




onal brelhr 




.tains 1h 


substance of 




vo detlv 


red dnrlua 






11 years at the 


ollege I 


liave followed the learii 


VI of m 










swelling 


Tore on those 




■ n r;i,'l 


tudled mos 




nd perh apt 




inch BeBli'Cting others 


where my own oxperio 








therefore t 


ne 




rting. I havo 




natal 


th.- .1- ll.i.M 






kno 




heft-cense of 


the mate rial a scattered 


so richly through 




periodica] 


literature, » 


ich scattered 


leaves It Is the right a 


a the rtu 


ty of the sy 




natic write 


to c 




10 embody In 


any account he may offeror the 






ce at any given 


period."- 


Extract from 


Autkor't Prffaa. 

















D. Appkton tfc Co.'a Medical -Pulltcattona. 
MEYER, 

Electricity in its Relations to Practical 



I, Njiiumd 



Translated from 



By WILLIAM A. HAMMOND, M. D., 

Fiotmui of DtoMa of the Hind ind Herons Si-flem, ud of CBalul Sledktae. Ii 
■ ■ : bit feorgMn -General C. S. J-, elc. 

1 vol., Bto. 497 pp. Cloth, *4.60. 
" It is the duly of every physician to study the action of electricity, 
to become acquainted with its value in therapeutics, «nd to follow the 

improvements that are being made in the apparatus for its application in 
that he may be able to choose the due best adapted to the 
treatment of individual cases, and to test a remedy fairly and without 
prejudice, which already, especially in nervous diseases, bus been used 
with the best results, and which promises to yield uti abundant harvest 
In a Btill broader domain." — From Autltm'< I 




Baitoa-EttlnjFliaoBML Appinttu. 

"Those who do not rend German ore under prcat obligations to William A, 
Hammond, who Imp given them Dot Only an excellent translation of a most ex- 
cellent work, but 1ms given us riiicli valnaMc iiU'oini.ition and many suggestions 
fioni liii own personal eiperu'iiee."— .'/"tpW Berord. 

" Dr. Morit/, Keyer, of Berlin, has been for more than tw 
and eon Iciontious student of the upplir-atidn of elrctiieiiy 
and the results of his labors arc given in this volume. Dr. 
.t translation of Ihe lliird Ornvm edition, has 'lone a real set 
of this country and of Great Britain. Flainlj and eondsdy writteo, a 

and clearly arranged, it contains just what the phjsici 

subject,''— A r . 1". MrtlirtUJtmriHil. 

" It is destined to fill a want long felt by physicians in this country." — /otiraaf 
of Obtttlrict. 



;• ]. tactic: 



laborious 

medicine, 

:. making 

lo ibe profession 

imply 

know on tne 



D. Applcton <& Co.'s Medical Publications. 

NTEMEYER 
A Text-Book of Practical Medicine. 

With Particular Reference to Physiology and Patho- 
logical Anatomy. 

By the late Dr. FELIX TON NIEMEYER, 

Proreasotnf Pathology and TtaraiieuUca; Dtnetn of tho Medfcul Ulale of ttie University of 
l the Eiphtli G-erma.il Edition, by special permission of 



.■!■ 1'uur; Y:-\\;\< 



jjny of McdluliH], bt 



and 



CHARLES E. HACKLEY, M. L\, 

!■ ■ ■ . . ■'.-. '■■»- l'.' '.Ii'.- ^." 1 "ik A.:i.|.. II,. ..I V..-.I101UE-, otij. 

Eevised Edition. 2 vols., 8vo, 1,538 pp. Cloth, $9,00 ; Sheep, 811,00. 

The author undertakes, first, to give o picture of disease which shall 
be as lifelike and faithful tu nature as possible, instead of being a mere 
theoretic*] schema; secondly, so to utilize the more recent advances 
of pathological anatomy, physiology, and physiological chemistry, as to 
furniali a clearer insight into the various processes of disease. 

The work has met frith the must flattering reception and deserved 
success ; has been adopted :is a text-book in many of the medk-al colleges 
both in this country aod tu Europe; and lias received tlio very highest 
encomiums from the medical and secular press, 

" It is comprehensive and concise, and is characterised by clearness and 
Originality." — ihilil'ut (jn-irl: eUi ./■■'■, -:.-il of' McdUin*. 

" Its author ia learned in medical literature ; be has arranged his materials 
with eare and judgment, and has thought, ovi-r tln'iu." — The Lancet. 

"As a full, systematic, and thoroughly practical guide for the student and 
physidiin, it is not eicoiled by any similar treatise in any language.''— Apptelow' 

" The author ia an accomplished pathologist anil practical physician ; be is not 
only capable of appreciating the new discoveries, which during cln.' hist ten years 
have been inui-uilly numerous and important in scientific and practical medicine, 
but, by his clinical experience, he can put these new views, to a practical test, and 
give judgment regarding them," — Edinburgh Medico! Journal. 

" From its general excellence, we are disposed to think that it will soon take 
its place among the recognized ten-books.' 1 — American Quarterly afbunuri '■/ 



country regarding a German book generally is, ' Is 
Without stopping to consider the justness of tho 
— -q unhesitatingly answer, ' It is I ' " — A'tiB 



Medical & 

"The first inquiry it 
it a work of practical va 
American idea of the 'practical, 
York Medical Jou 

" The author has tho power of sifting the tares from the wheat — a matter of 
the greatest importance in a telt-book for students." — -Brilixli Medico! Journal. 

" Whatever eialted opinion our countrymen may have of the author's talents 
of observation and his practical good sense, his textbook will not disappoint 
tiieui, while those wko are so unfortunate as to know him only by name, have in 
Store a rich treat." — -Vim York Medical Htcord. 



D. Appklon & Co.'a Medical J'ullicathnn. 
NEUMANN. 
Hand-Book of Skin Diseases. 



Translated from advi 



Bj LUCIUS D. BPLKLET, A. M., M. D., 
IciitiBNpnTiirlcDiBpsiissrt. D.:i.!.i-i:ii--tm. im Vmmaiai BUnStaeMIti 

otlm Skin Clinic. >f die Cifl]u!{(? of i'li >■ a to ana nnd Surgeons, New Yu[k ; 

.i i.,, N.-.i :..-■■ ..■■;■: 

1 vol.. Bvo. Abjut 453 pages and 66 Wojdonto. Clotl, »4.00. 



D. Apphton & Co?s Medical Publications. 

NEFTEL. 

GalvanO -Therapeutics. The Physiological and 
Therapeutical Action of the Galvanic Current upon 
the Acoustic, Optic, Sympathetic, and Pneumogastrio 

Serves. 

By WILLIAM B. NEFTEL. 

1 vol., 12mo. 161 pp. Cloth, $1.50. 

This book has been published at the request of several aural surgeons 
and other professional gentlemen, and is a valuable treatise on the sub- 
jects of which it treats. Its author, formerly visiting physician to the 
largest hospital of St. Petersburg, has had the very best facilities for in- 
vestigation. 

u This little work shows, as far as it goes, full knowledge of what has been 
done on the subjects treated of, and the author's practical acquaintance with 
them." — New York Medical Journal. 

"Those who use electricity should get this work, and those who do not 
should peruse it to learn that there is one more therapeutical agent that the; 
could and should possess." — The Medical Investigator. 



NIGHTINGALE. 

Notes On Nursing: What it is, and what it is not 

By FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE. 

1 vol., 12mo, 140 pp. Cloth, 75 cents. 

Every day sanitary knowledge, or the knowledge of nursing, or, in 
other words, of how to put the constitution in such a state as that it will 
have no disease or that it can recover from disease, takes a higher place. 
It is recognized as the knowledge which every one ought to have— dis- 
tinct from medical knowledge, which only a profession can have. 



D, Applcton & C'k'a Jfedical Publications. 

PEASLEE. 
A Treatise on Ovarian Tumors. Their 

Pathology, P>iagnosi8, and Treatment, with reference 
especially to Ovariotomy. 

Br EDMUXD R. TEA^LEE, M. D., LI. D., 

liege ; one of the Ciraenltins Sm^rmis 
i 1'rofi'Sfur (if Oi.^.-iri,'- am! lii^.'ii-' * 
v-i'i'iiiiii:- Member ot the Obstetrical 

e laj-gn vol., 8vc, with Illustrations. 




This valuable work, embracing the results of many years of successful ei- 
perience. in the department or which it treats, wOl prove most acceptable to the 
entire profession ; while the high Branding of the author and his knowledge of 
tlie subject combine to make the book the beat io the language. It is divided 
into two parte: the first, treating of Ovarian Tumors, their nnutomy, pathology, 
diagnosis, aud treatment, pjcept by estimation; the second, of Ovariotomy, ita 
history and statistics, and of the operation. Fully illustrated, and abounding will* 
information the result of a prolonged study of the subject, the work should be 
in the hands of every physician in the eonntry. 



D. Appkton Jb CoSs Medical Publications. 

STROUD. 

The Physical Cause of the Death of 

Christy and its Relations to the Principles and Prac- 
tice of Christianity. 

By WILLIAM STROUD, M. D., 

With a Letter on the Subject, 

By Sir JAMES Y. SIMPSON, Bart., M. D. 

1 vol., 12xno. 422 pp. Cloth, $2.00. 

This important and remarkable book is, in its own place, a masterpiece, and 
will be considered as a standard work for many years to come. 

The principal point insisted upon Is, that the death of Christ was caused by rupture 
or laceration of the heart. Sir James Y. Simpson, who had read the author's treatise 
and various comments on it, expressed himself very positively in favor of the views 
maintained by Dr. Stroud."— Psychological Journal. 

SWETT. 

A Treatise on the Diseases of the Chest 

Being a Course of Lectures delivered at the New 
York Hospital. 

By JOHN A. SWETT, M. D., 

Professor of the Institutes and Practice of Medicine in the New York University; Physi- 
cian to the New York Hospital; Member of the New York Pathological Society. 

1 vol., 8vo. 587 pp. $3.50. 



Embodied in this volume of lectures is the experience of ten years in hospital 
and private practice. 

SAYRR 

A Practical Manual on the Treatment 

of Club-Foot. 

By LEWIS A. SAYRE, M. D., 

Professor of Orthopedic Surgery in Bellevue Hospital Medical College; Surgeon to Belle- 

vue and Charity Hospitals, etc. 

1 vol., 12mo. 91 pp. Cloth, $1.00. 

" The object of this work is to convey, in as concise a manner as possible, all 
the practical information and instruction necessary to enable the general prac- 
titioner to apply that plan of treatment which has been so successful in my own 
hands/' 



u The book will very well satisfy the wants of the majority of general practitioners* 

3d, it is intended."— New York Medical Jot 



for whose use, as stated, it is intended."— New York Medical Journal. 



D. Appleton & Co. y 8 Medical Publications. 

SIMPSON. 

The Posthumous Works of Sir James 

Young Simpson, Bart., M. D. In Three Volumes. 
Volume L — Selected Obstetrical and Gynaecological Works of 

Sir James Y. Simpson, Bart., M. D., D. C. L., late Professor of Midwifery in 
the University of Edinbugh. Containing the substance of his Lectures on 
Midwifery. Edited by J. Watt Black, A. M., M. D., Member of the Royal 
College of Physicians, London; Physician-Accoucheur to Charing Cross 
Hospital, London; and Lecturer on Midwifery and Diseases of Women and 
Children in the Hospital School of Medicine. 

1 vol., 8vo. 852 pp. Cloth, $3.00. 

This volume contains all the more important of the contributions of 
Sir James Y. Simpson to the study of obstetrics and diseases of women, 
with the exception of his clinical lectures on the latter subject, which 
will shortly appear in a separate volume. This first volume contains 
many of the papers reprinted from his Obstetric Memoirs and Contri- 
butions, and also his Lecture Notes, now published for the first time, 
containing the substance of the practical part of his course of midwifery. 
It is a volume of great interest to the profession, and a fitting memorial 
of its renowned and talented author. 

" To many of our readers, doubtless, the chief of the papers it contains are 
familiar. To others, although probably they may be aware that Sir James Simp- 
son has written on the subjects, the papers themselves will be new and fresh. 
To the first class, we would recommend this edition of Sir James Simpson's works, 
as a valuable volume of reference ; to the latter, as a collection of the works of a 
great master and improver of his art, the study of which cannot fail to make them 
better prepared to meet and overcome its difficulties." — Medical Times and Gazette, 

Volume II. — Anaesthesia, Hospitalism, etc. Edited by Sir 
Walter Simpson, Bart. 

1 vol., 8vo. 560 pp. Cloth, $3.00. 

" We say of this, as of the first volume, that it should find a place on the table 
of every practitioner ; for, though it is patchwork, each piece may be picked oat 
and studied with pleasure and profit." — The Lancet (London). 

Volume IIL — The Diseases of Women. Edited by Alex. Simp- 
son, M. D., Professor of Midwifery in the University of Edinburgh. 

1 vol., 8vo., Cloth, $3.00. 

One of the best works on the subject extant. Of inestimable value to every 
physician. 



D. Appleton db Co.U Medical PubHcaiions. 



TILT. 
A Hand-Book of Uterine Therapeu- 

tics and of Diseases of Women. 

By EDWARD JOHN TILT, M. D., 

Member of ttie Royal C-Aii.se "f riiv-i'-kins; ('■■finulliBif Ft] vt Irian to (he Farrlngiton fien.Tfu 
DiBpnnBM7; PeBow o( liia F.071I Medical and Chirurgtcaf Society, and of several BritUll Bid 

1 vol., 8vo. 34S pp. Cloth, $3.50. 
Second American edition, thoroughly revised and amended. 
The main points developed in this work axe : 

1. The paramount importance of hygiene for the relief and care of 
diseases of women. 

2. The constitutional nature of many diseases of women, and the 
impossibility of curing them without constitutional remedies. 

3. The manifest reaction of uterine: ili^eiises im the female system, 
and the impossibility of curing many uterine complaints, without surgi- 



4. The great value of therapeutics to assuage and cure diseases of 
women, and the belief in the value of those remedial measure!) that are 
oa old as medicine itself, such as venesection, emetics, and caustics. 

"In giving the result of his labors to the profession llie author lins done 0. 
great work. Our readers will find its pages very interesting, and, at the end of 
their task, will lir'.l jjraiel'ul to ihc author for many very valuable suggestions as 
to the treatment of uterine diseases." — The Lancet 

"Dr. Tilt's 'llnnd-book of Uterine Therapeutics ' supplies a want which lias 
often been felt. ... It may, therefore, be read not only with pleasure and 
instruction, but will also be found very useful as a book of reference." — Tht 
AloJ'f'il Mirror. 

"Second to none on the therapeutics of uterine fllmnnr" — Journalof Ob- 
Uelria. 

VAN BTJREN. 
Lectures upon Diseases of the Rectum. 

Delivered at Urn BdL'vne Iloxjiital JOdleal College. 
Session of 1869-'70. 

By W. H. TAN BUREN, M. D., 

Profeflnor of the Principle* of Bmvery with Disuses of the GcDlto-lTrlnarr Organs, etc.., In ttie 
li,-:'-i-ii- II. .|..-..: '.I-.. i'-K Sniv. - "t t!i-' New York Hos- 

(IHI, of tbn llellevue Hospital; Member of the Sow York Acad,™ or Medicine, of tie 
atbologlMl Sucioty of Sew York, etc, etc. 

I vol., 12mo. 164 pp. Cloth 81.50. 
Lecture I. — Pruritus Ani, Hromorrhoids, etc. II. — Internal Tltemor- 
rhoids. III. — Polvpns. IV. — Fistula in Ano. V. — Fissure, or Irritable 
TJloer. VI.— Stricture of the Rectum. VII.— Cancer. VHI.— Diagno- 
sis, etc. 

"It stems hardly necessary to mure than mention the name of the author of 
this admirable little volume in order to insure the character of his book. No 
one in this country has enjoyed greater advantages, and had a more extensive 
field of observation in thil specialty, than I> r. Van liuren, and no one has paid 
the same amount of attention to the subject. . . . Ilere is the experience 
of years summed up and given to the professional woild in a plain and practical 

.:..;." ' '■■ '.■■■'■■■. ■.. ■■' ■ 



D. Appleton <fc Co?s Medical Publications. 



VOGEL. 

A Practical Treatise on the Diseases 

of Children. Second American from the Fourth 
Germcm Edition. Illustrated by Six Lithographic 
Plates. 

By ALFRED VOGEL, M. D., 

Professor of Clinical Medicine In the University of Dorpat, Russia. 
TBAN8LATED AND EDITED BY 

H. RAPHAEL, M. D., 

Late House Surgeon to BeUeyue Hospital ; Physician to the Eastern Dispensary for the Diseases 

of Children, etc^ etc 

1 vol., 8vo. 611 pp. Cloth, $4.50. 

The work is well up to the present state of pathological knowledge ; 
complete without unnecessary prolixity; its symptomatology accurate, 
evidently the result of careful observation of a competent and experi- 
enced clinical practitioner. The diagnosis and differential relations of 
diseases to each other are accurately described, and the therapeutics 
judicious and discriminating. All polypharmacy is discarded, and only 
the remedies which appeared useful to the author commended. 

This work of Vogel's contains much that must gain for it the merited 
praise of all impartial judges, and prove it to be an invaluable text-book 
for the student and practitioner, and a safe and useful guide in the diffi- 
cult but all-important department of Psediatrica. 

" Rapidly passing to a fourth edition in Germany, and translated into three 
other languages, America now has the credit of presenting the first English ver- 
sion of a book which must take a prominent, if not the leading, position among 
works devoted to this class of disease." — N. Y. Medical Journal, 

" The profession of this country are under many obligations to Dr. Raphael 
for bringing, as he has done, this truly valuable work to their notice." — Medical 
Record. 

"The translator has been more than ordinarily successful, and his labors 
have resulted in what, in every sense, is a valuable contribution to medica* 
science." — Psychological Journal. 

" We do not know of a compact text-book on the diseases of children more 
complete, more comprehensive, more replete with practical remarks and scientific 
facts, more in keeping with the development of modern medicine, and more 
worthy of the attention of the profession, than that which has been the subject 
of our remarks." — Journal of Obstetric*. 



NEW MEDICAL WORKS IN PRESS. 



-♦♦*■ 



Oil Puerperal Diseases. Clinical Lectures de- 
livered at JBellevue Hospital. 

By FORDYCE BARKER, M. D., 

Clinical Professor of Midwifery and Diseases of Women in the BeUevne Hospital Medical 
College; Obstetric Physician to BeUevne Hospital; Consulting Physician to the N. Y. 
State Woman's Hospital, and to the N. Y. State Hospital for Diseases of the Nervous 
System; Honorary Member of the Edinburgh Obstetrical Society, etc., etc. 

A course of lectures valuable alike to the student and the practitioner. 



Hand- Book of the Histology and His- 

to- Chemistry of Man. 

By Dr. HEINRIOH FREY, 

of Zurich. 
Illustrated with 500 Woodcuts. 

A Treatise on Obstetrics, with an introduction 

on the Pathology of Hregnancy and Childbirth. 
By Dr. KARL SCHROEDER, 

of the University of Erlangen, Bavaria. 

On Surgical Diseases of the Male Gen- 

ito- Urinary Organs, including Syphilis. 
By W. H. VAN BUREST, M. D., and EDW. L. KEYES, M. D. 

A New Work on the Anatomy, Pathol- 
ogy, and Treatment of Diseases of the Ovaries. 

By T. SPENCER WELLS, M. D., 

6urgeon-in-Ordinary to Her Majesty's Household ; Surgeon to the Samaritan Hospital for 
Women ; Member of the Royal Institutions, etc., etc. 

Chemical Technology. 

By RUDOLF WAGNER. 

Translated by WM. CROOKES, F.R.a 



THE NEW YORK MEDICAL JOURNAL. 

JAli. Jt. HUybjEM, if. D., \Editor*. 

Published Monthly. Volumes begin in January and July. 

" Atlione the numerous records of Medicine and the collateral sciences published lb 

» ... — • _j-* - — -— — 

Terms, $1.00 per Annum. Specimen Copies, 25 Cents. 

THE JOURNAL OF PSYGHOLOGIGAL MEDICINE: 

A QUARTERLY REVIEW OF 

DISEASES OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM, MEDICAL JURIS- 
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WILLIAM A. HAMMOND, M, D. 

"A Quarterly that does honor to tlic professions to which It is dili-flv ■ddnaMHk' 1 - 
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Terms, $5.00 per Annum. Specimen Copies, $1.00. 

THE POPDLARWCE MONTHLY, 

Conducted by Prof. E. L. Youraana. 

Published Monthly. Each Number contains 12S pages, 
OPINIONS OF THE PRESS. 

" Ja»t the pnhlicaliin >i.-i--,!,-i mi flu- pn-.iii ,i a v. "-.Vw, 'rml Gantttt. 

"It i- ',■,,.,:■... , -.n-oii. ihu best attempt ql journalism of the kind Even 

" The taltlnl DDinhr h sdinirablv constituted."— SMtttng Matt. 

"In on r opinion, tar right idua hat been Imppily Li I in (he plan of this ncwmc 

"'A ii Mir n.-ii'.n ..r"Liiiaes to be of eminent value to (lie cause of popular cdne 

this conn try."— A". Y. Tribune. 

THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY is published in a large 
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New York Mciliuil Jonrna] ami Ptjchol .prieel Joornal — 

NewYorkMriik':i!,[..rii:i.'.it,ii.i.\||.| 1 i. sj He, t.:y J.mma.of Llterttore. Saance. 

IVVI-li'iM.L.-i.al J.ill IT, III Mill I .\ 1-1 •:■: ' i «T|r-' \l -' ■ ." . ! . . . 

■ ■ ■ V ■ . ■ 

PajeliulLgLua], Mediral. Popular Science Monthly, and Weekly Jnoraal.. 

XSfPayment, in alt antes, mini bt in adranrr. 

Remittances rliouM In- made by jmstiil tr.oiiev-oi'iler or ehcek in the Publishers, 

E. APPLET0H Is 00., 649 and 551 Broadway, N. T. 



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LANE MEDICAL LIBRARY 



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