S. A. BARRETT
( MILWAUKEE. - WS. "j
S. A. BARRETT
MILWAUKEE. - Wis"
Certain Mounds and Village
Sites in Ohio
VOL. 3 PART 1
The Feurt Mounds and
WILLIAM C. MILLS, M. Sc.
COLUMBUS, OHIO :
THE F. J. HEER PRIXTIXG Co.
V. >_> i
THE FEURT MOUNDS AND VILLAGE SITE.
I ,V WILLIAM C. MILLS.
The Feurt Mounds and Village Site are situated about five
miles north of the city of Portsmouth, on the east side of the
Scioto river, in Clay township. Scioto county, Ohio. The land
upon which this group of mounds and the village site is located
is a part of the estate of Mr. \Yilliam C. Feurt. which consists
of more than 400 acres of rich bottom lands and sloping hill
sides, and is considered one of the most productive and well-
kept farms along the Scioto. Mr. Feurt, who gives personal
attention to his farm, lives in a commodious and stately mansion,
constructed in an early day by his father and added to, as re
quired, by the son until today it stands among the most beautiful
farm residences in the Scioto valley.
The immediate location of the mounds and village site is
a level plateau of less than five acres in extent, elevated a little
more than forty feet above the bottom land into which it projects,
promontory like, with steep and very abrupt banks. Looking
south from the site of this village upon the broad and beautiful
valley of the Scioto. and westward across the river valley to
the foothills, where is located the Tremper Mound, one is im
pressed with the fact that early man in the Ohio valley took
advantage of natural surroundings in selecting a site for his
The original top soil of this plateau was a clay loam of
several feet in thickness, underlaid with gravel. The present
top soil is from six inches to four feet above the original surface,
as a result of the custom of the inhabitants of the village in
carrying soil from the sides of the abrupt bank and covering up
the accumulated debris in and around their tepee sites. When
these places were uncovered, the story of the primitive peoples.
who doubtless for a long period of time made this site their
home, was revealed.
6 The Pcurt Mounds and Village Site.
THE CEXKRAL TOPOGRAPHY OF TIIK COUNTY.
Scioto county is very rugged in all its parts, and is bounded
on the south by the Ohio river, which separates Ohio from the
Kentucky hills. The Scioto river flows through the county from
north to south forming its junction with the Ohio at Portsmouth,
the capital of the county. The valley of the Scioto is perhaps
the most fertile and the broadest of any of the river valleys
emptying into the Ohio. The hills on the east side of the river
are higher than those on the west, and many of them are still
covered with the deep tangled forest, unchanged since the days
when early prehistory man roamed over them in search of game
and food, or of the Ohio pipestone, which he prized so highly
for making into pipes and ornaments.
Scioto county presents many very interesting features as
regards geological formations, that were taken advantage of by
primitive man. The Ohio pipestone, which outcrops on the very
summit of the highest hills on the east side of the river, clips
to the east and covers the entire eastern portion of the county.
The pipestone stratum varies in thickness from one foot to
eleven feet, the average being three and one-half or four feet.
At the outcrop on the summit of the hill, as shown by the old
quarries made by primitive man, the color is light gray with a
reddish tint, gradually shading into a dark red, which resembles
the Minnesota pipestone.
The Ohio pipestone was extensively quarried all along the
crest of the hill. Many of these old quarries have been extended
by white men, who sought to use the product in the making of
fire brick, but the percentage of iron was too great, and the
project was abandoned. The pipestone, however, as quarried
by primitive man, was entirely suited to his purpose, as it was
readily carved into form and would take a high polish. The
prehistoric inhabitants of the Feurt village site used this pipe-
stone extensively for making pipes and ornaments, as did the
builders of the Tremper mound, located directly across the
river on its west bank, from which the beautiful effigy pipes
were taken in 1915 by the survey.
The F-curt Mounds and Village Site. 7
The Ohio black shale outcrops on the west side of the river
and is one of the lowest stratums exposed in the county. In
color the shale is very black and takes a high polish, but when
exposed to the air and sun after being dug from the earth, it
has a tendency to split up into thin sheets and finally to dis
integrate. The shale was extensively used by the dwellers of
the Feurt village, large slabs of it often being found in a single
tepee site. On a piece of this black shale, roughly shaped into
the form of a spear head, seven inches in length, was drawn
a grotesque mythical conception of a water serpent, with pro
nounced canine teeth and protruding spines.
HISTORICAL DATA CONCERNING THE SITE.
The peoples who constructed the Feurt mounds and lived
in the village site belonged to the great Ft. Ancient culture, as
attested by the mode of burial of their dead, and by the artifacts,
found in profusion over the entire site. The land has been in
possession of the Feurt family for many years and the site has
always been known to local collectors as a very prolific field for
their favorite pastime of hunting Indian relics.
Of the local collectors. Mr. Chas. Y. Wertz of Portsmouth,
perhaps has the largest collection found upon this site. Mr.
\Yertz very kindly permitted the survey to make use of his col
lection, which was picked up from the surface from year to year
as the land would be freshly plowed. The finds of Mr. \Yertz
present many interesting features when compared with those
made below the plow line by our survey. Specimens of grooved
stone axes found on the surface were not met with in any part
of the village below the plow line; pestles found by Mr. \\ertz
were not found by our survey, yet we were able to find many
excellent examples of mortars and flat stones used in preparing
meal; specimens made of cannel coal were abundant in Mr.
\Yertz s collection, especially the effigy canines of the various
carnivora, but below the plow line not a single specimen
of cannel coal was found ; again the survey found but few pieces
of cut and decorated shell ornaments but Mr. Wertz found many
8 The 1-cnrt Mounds and I illayc Site.
Mr. \\ ertz also found numerous pieces of copper, on some
of which an attempt had been made to destroy their identity by
hammering the finished product into a mass. The finding of
the masses of bent and battered copper implements by Mr. Wertz
led me to make the examination to determine, if possible, whether
the Feurt peoples were contemporaneous with the Tremper
mound peoples just across the river.
Only two burials showed friendly contact with some tribe
of the Hopewell culture. One of these was a splendid necklace
made of shell and copper beads, and the other a necklace con
sisting of bear teeth, and imitation bear teeth made of wood and
covered with copper. However, Mr. Wertz found a number
of copper pieces corresponding in type to those found in the
Tremper mound which were hammered and bent out of semblance
and resembling in many respects the cache of copper implements
and ornaments found at Ft. Ancient. The specimens found by
Mr. Wertz were taken from the edge of the bank where refuse
from the village was dumped and where doubtless they were
thrown away after being captured and their identity destroyed.
The specimens found by our survey were no doubt secured by
barter, and were very likely highly prized.
KXl LORATIOXS MADK MY PROF. MOOKKI I HAD.
During the year 1896, Prof. Moorehead, on behalf of the
Society made a very limited examination of the three mounds.
His report appears in vol. 5 of the Society s publications, as
follows: "The afternoon of the I3th (July) we went up the
Scioto five miles to Mr. Feurt s farm, where there are three
mounds and an extensive village site. We opened the smaller
mound and dug the large ones the following day. They are
located upon the second terrace. The small one is two by twenty-
five feet, the next four by fifty feet, the largest six by sixty
feet in size. See Figure XV. The village site must cover at
least five acres. Many interesting specimens were collected from
it. while the men dug. by Cowen. Loveberry and myself.
"The mounds are all sand and gravel. This is rather un
usual. The burials numbered five in the smallest, nine in the
The Fenrt Mounds and Village Site. 9
next and 19 in the large one. Xo relics save mussel shells ac
companied the remains. The pottery of the village site is very
like that found along the Ohio. \Ye find a difference in the
character of the pottery after reaching Highys in Ross county
as one ascends the river. It may be that all the people from
Higbys or \Yaverly on down used different clay, different forms,
or were another tribe. Future study will determine that.
"Mr. Feurt s farm is five miles up the Scioto on the east
bank and seems to have been a remarkable village site. Field
searching resulted in the finding of many pottery fragments and
other material common to village sites. The pottery is peculiar
to the lower Scioto and ( )hio river valleys. There is no mica or
"In the mounds there were more burials above the base line
than upon it. yet the place does not seem modern, for no
European relics were found. Nearly every skeleton was doubled
up. lay in even direction and several were on top of each other.
Some were found within ten inches of the surface, but this is
due in part to long cultivation lowering the height of the mounds.
"Some war points were found between the ribs of a skeleton
and several awls and needles lay near the heads of three skeletons.
( )ne skeleton was that of an old man whose teeth were worn
"Xine feet below the surface was found charcoal in the
large mound. This was followed to near the edges and yielded
nothing as usually is the case with charcoal layers. The excava
tion in the large mound was thirty-five by twenty feet. There
was a layer of ashes above the charcoal. Sand above this to top
of mound. Xone of the others were stratified."
KXl I.OK. \TIOX OF THE MOUNDS.
On the 5th of July. 1916. was begun the present exploration
of the Feurt mounds and village site. The examination had
as its purpose the exposing to view of unexplored portions of
the three mounds, comprising the group, and certain parts of
the village site surrounding them ; the recording of all finds both
in the mounds and village site and the photographing of all im-
10 flic I curt Mounds and I ilhujc Site.
portant features in connection with mortuary customs ; to de
termine, if possible, whether or not the Feurt inhabitants were
contemporaneous with the Tremper mound peoples on the op
posite side of the Scioto; and to compare the mortuary customs
and artifacts found with the dead and in the village site with
other sites of the same culture previously explored in Ohio and
The surveyor of the party, Mr. II ugh L. \\augli, made a
complete survey of the mounds and the village site and prepared
a topographic ma]), which is shown as Fig. i. lie then established
secondary traverse points around the mounds and in the village
site, and from these located the various finds both in the mounds
and the village site, and from his notes prepared Fig. 2, which
shows the amount of the village site dug oxer.
Mound Xo. i is the smallest of the three mounds, having
a maximum length of seventy-five feet, a maximum width of
sixty feet, and height at the center of two and three-fourths
feet. From this mound 102 burials were removed by our survey.
According to his report, Mr. Moorehead took from the center
of the mound live skeletons, making a total of 107 skeletons
buried in this small mound.
The mound was begun by placing bodies upon the original
surface and then carrying earth from the surface nearby and
covering them over. The soil used for covering the bodies was
frequently filled with animal bones, and often implements and
ornaments were present, showing that the earth had been gathered
up from around a tepee site. This condition prevailed through
out the mound.
Of the 1 02 burials, seventy-three were adults, eleven ado
lescents and eighteen children. The adult and adolescent burials
were practically all Hexed and only a single instance was found
where the body had been extended at full length. Fourteen
burials were of special interest and will be described.
Burial Xo. 4 had trunk lying on right side with shoulders
slightly elevated, head on chest, humeri alongside the trunk, the
FEURT MOUNDS AND PREHISTORIC VILLAGE SITE
E*p o-ed by
H LWough Sur&Del
FIG. 1. Topographic map of the Feurt mounds and village site. (11)
FEURT MOUNDS AND PREHISTORIC VILLAGE SITE
WILLIAM C. MILLS
(12J) FIG. 2. Floor plan of the Feurt mounds and village site.
The l : curt Mounds and Village Site.
elbows at the pelvis, the femurs vertical, with the lower leg bones
closely flexed against them. The tibias were greatly enlarged,
showing a diseased conditon. Upon the chest was found a large
molar from the lower jaw of the elk. One of the roots of this
tooth was perforated for attachment. The tooth is shown as
Xo. i of Fig. 87.
Ikirial Xo. 24 comprised only parts of a skeleton, the skull,
with lower jaw widely separated from it, and the right leg.
complete, being the bones present in the grave. Associated with
FIG. >. Part <>f human skeleton hurled with animal and hird Imno.
these parts was the skull of a very large black bear and the pelvis
of a wild turkey. The burial is shown in Fig. 3. There seems
to have been no disturbance of the bones after they were placed
in the grave and no evidence is forthcoming to determine why
only a part of the body was buried, and these parts associated
with animal and bird bones.
Ihirial Xo. 25 lay on its left side, the skull bent forward
resting upon the chest : the right humerus lay alongside the
trunk while the left lay beneath the body with the forearm and
hand near the face. The legs were closely flexed to the trunk
with the feet resting near the pelvis. The burial is shown in
The Fcurt Mounds and Village Site.
Fig. 4. A long- and slender arrow point that had pierced the
body, plainly indicates the tragic death of this individual. The
arrow entered the body from the left side, striking the seventh
rib and cutting its way through the bone, the point being found
in the region of the heart.
Another arrow entered the body from the right side, striking
the arm bone near the socket joint, no doubt while the individual
FIG. 4. Burial showing the effect of two arrow wounds.
had his arm raised, in the act of striking a blow with an axe, or
was in the act of using his bow and arrow. This wound probably
would have caused death by severing the circumflex arteries.
The arm bone containing the arrow point firmly embedded in
the bone is shown in Fig. 5. The bone presents no indication
Burial No. 28 was the largest individual taken from the
mound, measuring six feet and five inches. The skeleton was
The Fenrt Mounds and Village Site. 15
that of a male of mature years which had been placed in the
grave on the left side, both arms flexed in front of the body,
and the lower leg bones flexed to the back of the femurs. The
burial is shown in Fig. 6. Xear the pelvis was found a few
FIG. 5. The arm bone showing the arrow point in place.
serrated arrow points and beneath the trunk were two well-
wrought bone awls.
Burial Xo. 33. adult female; placed on left side, arms flexed
to trunk, hands in front of skull, femurs flexed closelv to the
The F curt Mounds and Village Site.
trunk, \vitii lower leg bones drawn closely to them. The body
had been wrapped in bark and the grave lined on sides and bot
tom with a coarse bark.
Jlurial r o. 58; adult female, placed in center of mound.
FIG. (>. Rurial showing the largest individual found in the village.
The arms and legs were closely flexed to the trunk. At the foot
of the grave, flat sandstones, approximately eighteen inches long
by twelve inches wide were placed on edge, and formed one end
and part of one side of the grave. This was the only instance
The Fcurt Mounds and Village Site. 17
in which stones were used in the mounds of this group, although
the use of flat stones for sides and ends of graves is a common
occurence in this culture, in southern Ohio.
Burial Xo. 67 ; child, about ten years of age, placed two feet
from the surface of the mound ; head bent forward upon the
chest. A necklace, made of ten perforated canines of the black
bear, was found around the neck.
Burial No. 72 ; adult male, lying on right side with the arms
and legs closely flexed to the body. Near the right elbow were
found three well-wrought serrated arrow points.
Burial No. 75 ; child of perhaps seven years of age. The
body was placed on its left side and the arms extended parallel
with the body, but the legs were flexed closely to the body. The
head was surrounded by fine gravel and sand. Around the neck
was a necklace made of a perforated canine of the gray wolf,
three effigy bear canines, made of wood and covered with copper,
and a large shell gorget. Fig. 7 shows the shell gorget and the
Burial No. 84; child, of perhaps five years. The burial was
twelve inches from the surface and was no doubt disturbed by
recent plowing, as the bones were badly broken. The grave was
practically round, and the arms and legs were closely flexed to the
body. A neckhce made of small shells (Marginella apicina) was
found around the neck.
Burial No. 85 ; adult male, flexed on right side. Around the
hips was the remnant of a belt, to which were attached parts of
the lower jaw of the gray squirrel. ( Sciurus caralinensis).
Burial No. 86 ; adult male, with enlarged tibia.
Burial No. 94; adult male, arms horizontal with trunk, the
lower extremities closely flexed and slightly to the right. A fine
necklace, made of shell and copper beads strung alternately, was
found around the neck.
Burial No. 97 ; adult male, near north side of mound ;
skeleton flexed, on right side. Two large shell discs, perforated
at the center and having a diameter of one inch, were found
around the neck. The left tibia and fibula were stained with cop
per, but the object, whatever it may have been, had long since
changed to the carbonate of copper.
The Peurt Mounds and I illaye Site.
FIG. 7. Shell gorget, and imitation bear teeth, made of wood and covered
The I- curt Mounds and niUu/c Site. 19
Mound Xo. 2.
After the first mound was finished, our working force hav
ing increased to eleven men. I decided to divide the men, and
placed six with H. C. Shetrone, my assi>tant. With these work
men. Mr. Shetrone examined the second mound of the group.
With the other rive men. I commenced the examination of the
village site on the south side of the plateau and not far from the
third mound of the group. Mr. Shetrone during his examination
of Mound Xo. 2. secured 137 burials. Of these 121 were adults,
ten adolescents and six children, and all were place;! in the grave
with the arms and legs more or less flexed to the bodv.
Mound Xo. 2 was the highest mound of the group, and was
located near the west edge of the plateau, about one-fifth of the
mound having fallen down the embankment. The actual
measurements show the mound to be ninety feet north and
south, forty-five feet east and west and about eight feet high.
( )n the north and east sides of the mound the burials were verv
close together and were arranged in four tiers. Xear the cen
ter of the mound, as shown by the absence of burials (Fig. 2).
is where Prof. Moorehead removed nine skeletons. The south
side was again very plentiful in skeletons, as shown in Fig. 2.
Burials were also found below the base line. A photograpn
is shown of a cut in this mound showing a burial below the
base line. Fig. S. as well as burials at various heights in the
( )ne of the interesting features as shown by the burials in
this mound, was the absence of artifacts placed with the dead,
for only four burials of the 137 had any objects placed in the
grave. This condition is very unusual in this culture, for. while
graves are seldom prolific in artifacts, a few obiects are fre
quently placed with the dead.
Burial Xo. 5 ; adult male, arms and legs closely flexed to tlvj
body. This burial was forty-two inches deep. Xear the right
arm were two very finely chipped arrow points of the triangular
type. The points were so placed as to lead one to believe they
were attached to arrow shafts when placed in the grave.
Burial X o. 6 ; adult male, legs closely flexed to the body,
right arm parallel with body, left arm flexed. X"ear the pelvis
The Fenrt Mounds and Village Site.
was found an excellent example of the triangular serrated ar
row point, three inches in length.
Burial Xo. 9 was that of an adult male. The body was
flexed and lay on its right side. Xear the left arm was found
a slender bone awl, six inches in length. The awl is made from
very heavy bone, presumably the leg bone of the deer. The im
plement is about one-fourth inch in diameter, square at one
end, with a small crease around the bone, and the other end
tapering to a tine point.
FIG. H. Burials shown at various hrihts in mound Xo. 2.
Burial Xo. 43; adult male, the legs and arms flexed closely
to the body. The posterior portion of the skull was partly
crushed and badly decayed, and within the skull cavity was
found a triangular arrow point. From the general position
of the point in the cavity of the skull and the position of the
skull with reference to the crushed part, one must believe the
arrow did not drop into the cavity, but that it was very likely
the fatal shot causing- the death of the individual.
The l : curt Mounds and I illaye Site.
The third mound of this group was interesting as show
ing that a dozen or more bodies had been buried elsewhere and
finally brought to the mound and reburied. This was evi
denced by the absence of parts of the body, such as head, arms
or legs, the burials showing no trace of disturbance after hav
ing been placed in the grave. Another interesting feature of
FIG. 9. Tepee fireplace found in mound Xo. 3.
this mound, was the finding of the fireplace of a tepee site on
the base line or floor. The fireplace is shown in Fig. 9. and
contains charcoal and pieces of various broken vessels made
of clay. Xo burials were made within the tepee proper, but
several were found directly above the site.
Another very interesting feature is the finding of several
double burials where two bodies were placed together in the
22 The I- curt Mounds and I illai/e Site.
same grave. ( )ne of these double burials, shown in Fig. 10, is
an excellent illustration of the general appearance of the skele
tons in practically all of the double burials. In that shown,
however, in Fig. 11, the bodies were flexed and placed one
above the other at right angles. The four skeletons shown in
Figs. 10 and i i are adult males.
Mound Xo. 3 was six feet high, ninetv feet north-and-
south diameter, and i 1 2 feet east-and-west diameter. It was
constructed of soil taken from the surface, and contained 101
burials. ( )f these thirty-seven were adult males, nineteen adult
females, ten adolescents and fifteen children. ( )f the 101
burials, something less than twenty will be described.
Burial Xo. X; adult male, placed in the same grave with
Xo. 4. a young adult male. The body was closely flexed upon
the right side. Around the neck was a necklace made of bone
beads cut from sections of the wing bones of large birds like the
eagle and blue heron. The beads comprising the necklace were
nineteen in number, about one-half inch in diameter, from one
and one-half to two inches in length, and highly polished.
This necklace is shown as Xo. i. in Fig. 12, the smallest of tin-
four necklaces shown.
Burial Xo. 13; adult male. The skeleton was in a good
state of preservation. The body had been placed in the grave
closely flexed, with the exception of the right arm. which lay
parallel with the body. Around the neck was found a necklace
of bone beads composed of twenty-three large and polished
sections cut from the wing bone of birds like the eagle and
crane. The necklace is shown in Fig. 12. Xo. 2. Many of the
individual beads are decorated with incised circles and all are
highly polished. Xear the left arm was found a line example
of an arrow point made of antler.
Burial Xo. 14; adult male, very old. The lower legs were
flexed to the femurs, and both arms were so flexed that the
hands covered the face. A shell hoe made from Unio plicatus,
was found with this burial.
Burial Xo. 23; adolescent, body closely flexed, and the
skeleton in tine condition. Around the neck was found a neci<-
The l-eiirt Mounds and I ilhuje Site.
FIG. 10. Double burial, mound Xo. !.
The 1 Citrt Mounds and tillage Site.
FIG. 12. Necklaces taken from various burials.
The Feurt Mounds and Village Site. 25
lace made of forty marine shells (Marginalia apicina). This
necklace is shown in Xo. I of Fig. 13.
Burial Xo. 28; adult male. The body was placed in the
grave lying on the hack, with the legs flexed in front, and the
arms to the side of the body. Around the neck was found &
necklace made of shell beads, twenty-two in number. The
necklace is shown in Xo. 2, Fig. 13, and was made of two dif
ferent kinds of shell beads, round and oblong.
Burial Xo. 29 ; adult male, legs and arms closely flexed to
the trunk, and the skeleton in a fine state of preservation.
Around the neck of the skeleton was found a very large neck
lace of bone beads made of the wing bones of large birds. The
beads varied in length from one and one-half inches to two
and one-half inches and were highly polished. The necklace is
shown in Fig. 12, Xo. 3. Beneath the skull was found a large
bone awl. six and one-quarter inches in length, made of the
heavy bone of the deer. The awl is round in cross section and
undecorated. and was perhaps used as a hair pin or ornament.
Burial Xo. 31 was that of a child. The burial was near
the surface and the plow had partly disturbed the remains. A
necklace of shell beads was found around the neck. The neck
lace is shown in Fig. 13, Xo. 3.
Burial Xo. 33 ; adult male. The body had been placed in the
grave upon the left side : the legs were closely flexed to the
trunk. The right arm lay parallel with the body and the left
arm at right angles to the body. A very large necklace made
of forty perforated canine teth of the mountain lion and the
gray wolf was found around the neck. The necklace is shown
in Fig. 14. Many of the teeth are decorated with incised lines.
Burial Xo. 38; adolescent. The burial was near the plow
line and a part of the skeleton was destroyed and the remainder
badly broken up. The body was flexed when placed in the grave
and a necklace consisting of four perforated Olivella shells was
placed around the neck. The shells are shown in Fig. 15, Xos.
i, 2, 3 and 4.
Burial Xo. 40; adult female, body flexed, with the exception
of one arm which lay parallel to the body. Under the sh .ill was
found a large bone awl, neatly made and highly polished, per-
The 1 ciirt Mounds and Village Site.
The I- curt Mounds and I "dlayc Site.
14. Necklace made of canine teeth of the mountain lion and y-rav wolf.
The Feiirt Mounds and Village Site.
FIG. 15. Ornaments made of shell.
The Fcnrt Mounds and tillage Site. 29
haps used in the hair. The awl was six and one-quarter inches
in length, round at one end and having a spatula-like enlarge
ment at the other.
Burial Xo. 48; adult male, legs flexed at knees and arms
flexed to face. Xear the pelvis was found a fine stone celt and
around the neck was a necklace of bone beads, as shown in Xo.
4 of Fig. 12. This necklace is made of small wing bones of
hawks, owls, wild ducks and geese and therefore very irregular
in size. Some of the small beads have been telescoped by the
large ones, this condition being shown in Xo. 4 of Fig. 12.
Burial Xo. 49 was that of a child, and was placed one foot
under the surface, the bones of the small skeleton being badly
decomposed. Upon the breast was found three circular disk-like
beads perforated at the center, about one-half inch in diameter,
and a small pendant of shell. The beads are shown as 9, 11 and
12 of Fig. 15, and the pendant as 14 of the same figure.
Burial Xo. 77 was also a child. The skeleton was in very
good condition and the bones for the most part were in a good
state of preservation. \Yith this skeleton was found a perfect
triangular arrow point. The point had evidently been attached
to an arrow, from the position in which it lay in the grave.
With the point was also a large bone awl made from the tarso-
metatarsus of the wild turkey. While bone awls of this sort were
found in very large numbers in the general digging of the
mounds and village site, this is the only one made of this bone
found intentionally buried with the dead.
Burial Xo. 94; adult male. The legs and arms were closely
flexed to the trunk, and the body was lying on the right side.
On each side of the head was a small disk-shaped bead, one inch
in diameter which may have been used as ear pendants. One of
the discs was pierced with one hole at the center, while the other
had three perforations surrounding the center of disk ; one of
the holes is very small, while the other two are larger and about
the same size. Around the neck was suspended a shell disk one
inch in diameter. A large hole, one-quarter inch in diameter,
pierced the shell at the center, while a small hole for its sus
pension was near the outer edge of the disk. The discs are
shown in Fig. 15. Xos. 6. 7 and 8.
30 The 1 curt Mounds and I illcu/c Site.
Ihirial Xo. 95; an adult female. The arms and legs were
closely flexed to the trunk. Xear the left arm was found a well-
wrought arrow point, lying parallel with the arm.
lUirial Xo. 97; adult male skeleton, closely Hexed. Xear the
pelvis was found a large hone awl made of a splinter of the heavy
leg bone of the deer. The length of the awl is live and three-
T1IK VII. LACK SITK.
The examination of the village site was begun by the writer
with a force of 5 men. after the first mound was finished and
the examination continued during the remainder of the time
devoted to the work at the Feurt farm, except for a short time
consumed in examining the third mound. The amount of the
surface of the hill examined is shown in Fig. 2. This village
proved of exceptional interest when compared with other ex-
pWed sites of the same culture (Fort Ancient culture) in Ohio
In Ohio, the P>aum village site was explored by the writer
during three seasons in the field. 1899, 1900 and KJOJ. The site
is located in the Paint Creek valley. Ross county. Ohio, and lies
about 12 miles west of Chillicothe. The report of P>aum explo"
rations is found in Certain Mounds and Village Sites in Ohio.
Vol. i. pt. 3. and will be referred to in this report as Paums .
The ( iartner Mound and Village Site is located six miles
north of Chillicothe along the Scioto river and is described in
Certain Mounds and Village Sites in Ohio, Vol. i. pt. 2, and will
be referred to as Partners . The Kentucky site, written up as
"The Prehistoric Fthnology of a Kentucky Site," is located in
Mason County. Kentucky, about 14 miles southwest from Mays-
ville. The site was explored by Harlan I. Smith in 1^95 and
his report published in Anthropological Papers of the American
Museum of Xatural History. Xew York, in 1910, and will be
referred to as the Kentucky site. The three sites mentioned
above are about of equal distance from the Feurt site and would
fall within a fifty mile circle of the same.
From the very earliest settlement of the lower Scioto the
Feurt site was noted on account of the mounds, but after Mr.
Feurt s father cleared the land and placed it under cultivation, it
The I : curt Mounds and rillayc Site. 31
became apparent that the entire spur of the hill, shown in Fig.
2. was at one time a great camp site, as evidenced by the pro
fusion of animal bones, mussel shells, implements and orna
ments turned upon the surface after each successive plowing.
thus forming a mecca for collectors of prehistoric objects. One
of the most interested of the collectors in this vicinity was Mr.
Charles V. \Vertz. previously mentioned, who has kindly placed
his collection at my disposal. This collection shows many
forms of artifacts not found under the plow line and therefore
is of special interest in comparing the artifacts from the various
The present extent of the village site is not far from four
acres, but formerly the tablehnd extended much farther out
into the valley and its extent when occupied by early man would
perhaps be nearly five acres. L nder the surface soil of the
plateau containing the village site, is found an excellent quality
of gravel, which for more than half a century furnished the
road building material used in constructing the pike for many
miles both north and south of the Feurt farm. Day after day
at the season of the year when road building and repair was in
progress, as the gravel was removed from beneath, the top soil
containing the artifacts would cave off and fall down to the
bottom of the bank. The various objects, frequently broken,
were gathered up by gravel haulers and by those interested in
collecting, but the great bulk of artifacts were mixed with the
gravel and scattered on the road, soon to be destroyed. Con
sequently, an acre of rich-laden soil, containing the very best
material of the site, was practically lost to science. However,
on the south side of the spur, the plateau had not been disturbed,
and as Mr. Feurt would often say, "this condition prevailed at
the point where the gravel was removed." and from this infor
mation. I feel assured had we been able to examine this part of
the village that many more objects of special interest would have
been brought to light.
As before stated our object in making the examination of
the village was twofold. First, to determine if possible whether
or not the Tremper mound peoples living on the opposite bank
and belonging to the great Ilopewell culture, were contempora-
32 The Feurt Mounds and Village Site.
neons with the Feurt peoples, belonging to the Fort Ancient cul
ture, and if so whether or not the two cultures differing so
widely could live in peace in such close proximity, separated only
by the Scioto river, and its accompanying valley; second, a com
parison of the Feurt peoples with similar known sites in Ohio
RESULTS OF THE EXAMINATION.
Before beginning work in the village site, I had fully sat
isfied myself by a superficial examination that the Feurt peo
ples belonged to the great Fort Ancient culture, characterized
by the mode of burial of the dead in mounds ; by the fact that
the mounds in this culture are seldom surrounded by an earth
work ; by the entire absence of copper objects made by them
selves ; and by the almost total absence of the use of mica for
ornament. The Fort Ancient culture peoples depended upon
the chase for a part of their living, and from the bones of the
animals they killed for food they made implements and orna
ments to supplement those made of stone and flint. They also
developed agriculture, for. every village of this culture examined
produced many specimens of the cereal corn.
The Hopewell culture, to which the Tremper mound peo
ples living on the opposite bank of the river belong, were char
acterized by a very different mode of burial, the dead for the
most part being cremated and the ashes and charred bones
placed in individual or communal graves ; by the presence of
copper implements and ornaments in great numbers ; and by
the making of objects of personal adornment in imitation.
For instance, if the supply of pearls did not equal the de
mand, they made them out of clay and covered the fashioned
pearl with mica, rendered malleable by heat, or if the supply of
bear teeth was not adequate, they simply made them of bone.
These imitation bear teeth and the same is true of the imita
tion eagle claws and other forms varied in size from that of
the natural object, to a much larger size, representing a mythi
cal animal or bird.
The development of sculpture in the Hopewell culture is
quite marked, this appearing particularly in the decoration of
The I- curt Mounds and I illagc Site. 33
their tobacco pipes, in the realistic portrayal of bird and ani
mal life, sculptured in full relief and fashioned in minutest de
tail. They also excelled in the art of weaving, as well as in
The fashioning of awls from the tarsometatarsus of the
wild turkey was entirely different in the hands of the two cul
tures. The Feurt peoples would use the entire bone, while the
Hopewell would split the bone and make two awls instead of
one; again the Feurt people in making a needle would use a
flat and long bone, with an eye at one end. and sharp pointed
at the other, while the Hopewell peoples in making their
needles would use a strong, heavy but small and short bone,
round in cross sections, an eye near one end and the other end
sharply pointed. Accordingly, with such known facts concern
ing their artifacts, one can readily distinguish between the cul
tures inhabiting a given region. If an exchange of commod
ities were made no doubt the object, whether implement or
ornament, was converted to their use, but if an object was se
cured in battle, it was frequently destroyed or broken up and
then cached or thrown away. Here we find a friendly contact
in the copper bead necklace and the imitation bear teeth, cov
ered with copper, neither of these objects being made by the
Feurt peoples, but who certainly wore objects secured in barter
from a culture versed in working copper. Further, during Mr.
\Yertz s various examinations of the Feurt site he secured from
the edge of the bank several objects of copper that had been
thrown in the refuse pile of animal bones and broken pottery.
The various objects of copper had been hammered together
and the identity of the object destroyed, and I have been led to
believe that these objects had been captured as a prize from an
enemy and disposed of as such.
Therefore, upon the testimony disclosed by our explora
tions and the finds of Mr. \Yertz. we must conclude that the
Feurt peoples for a period of time were living in peace with
their neighbors across the river, the Tremper Mound peo
ples, as evidenced by the change of commodities; that later the
two peoples became involved in conflict, this being borne out by
the finding of skeletons pierced with arrow points, and by the
34 The / curt Mounds and I ilhuje Site.
finding of copper objects of the Tremper peoples in the refuse
dumps of the Feurt peoples, with unmistakable signs of their
having been mutilated.
Kxi LOK. \TIONS IN DI-:T.\IL.
The greater part of the village was examined under my
direction, although Mr. Shetrone, with his six workmen ex
amined that part of the village north of mounds Xo. i and 2,
where he unearthed fourteen burials and ten tepee sites. The
second squad of workmen, under my direction, working on the
south and west sides of the plateau, unearthed forty-nine
burials. Twelve of the burials were adults, three of which
were male and nine female, and the remaining thirty-seven
were very small children and babies.
Till-: \ILL.\C.1-: lU KIAI.S.
The fourteen burials unearthed by Mr. Shetrone north of
mounds Xo. i and Xo. 2 consisted of ten adults, four of which
were male and six female, and four adolescents. All of the
bodies were flexed when placed in the grave. Three burials
out of the fourteen had objects in the way of ornaments placed
with them, and these will be described.
Burial Xo. 3; adult female. The burial was only about
12 inches deep, and being subjected to freezing and thawing,
trampling by livestock and disturbed by cultivation, practically
no part of it could be saved. At and around the left knee was
placed a large strand of shell disc-shaped beads, numbering 180.
These are shown in Fig. 16.
Burial Xo. 6; adult male. The body when placed in tin-
grave was flexed, the arms over the head and the legs drawn
up close to the body. A shell necklace was found on the neck
which consisted of five disc-like beads, one-half inch in diam
eter; two cut pieces of shell and eight long beads made of the
columella of an ocean shell. This necklace, one of the most
interesting found in the village is shown in Xo. r of Fig. 17.
Burial Xo. 10; adolescent. The body was flexed and the
skeleton badly decomposed. Around the neck of this individual
The Peart Mounds and I ill age Site.
- oi \ i -\
FIG. M. Xecklace of shell discs, taken from burial Xo. 3, found in the village.
The Fcurt Mounds and I illtu/c Site.
FIG. 17. Necklace of shell and copper beads found in the village site.
The Feurt Mounds and Village Site. 37
was found one of the finest necklaces taken fioni the village.
It is made of both copper and shell. The copper was ham
mered into small tubular cylinders about one-half inch long,
which were alternately strung with small shell beads, as shown
in Xo. 2 of Fig. 17.
The burials on the south and west side of the village site
numbered forty-nine individuals, only one of this large number
having artifacts placed in the grave, that of a small child
less than one year of age.
As before stated out of the forty-nine burials in the vil
lage only twelve were adults, three of which were males and
All of the males were aged individuals, while the females
mostly were old. with however several who had not reached
middle life. The remaining thirty-seven were very small chil
dren or babies.
LOCATION OF THE BURIALS WITH REFERENCE TO TEPEE SITES.
The adult burials for the most part were not placed in
close proximity to the tepee site in this respect, differing greatly
from the village site burials at Baum s, where practically all of
the burials closely surrounded the tepee site, representing a fam
ily pri/ate burial where both adult male and female, together
with adolescents and children were found. The same condi
tions prevailed at Gartner s. Smith mentions no family burials
at the Kentucky site. However, he found "the dead were de
posited in the ground in graves, many of which were grouped,
each group being covered by a low dome-shaped mound."
Smith also found that many graves had slabs of stone at the
sides and ends of the grave and some had slabs over the top.
The conditions existing at Feurt s were certainly similar
to those of the village site burials of the Kentucky site, and no
doubt slabs of stone would have been used had they been avail
able. At the Tremper mound on the west side of the river di
rectly opposite Feurt s intrusive burials of the Ft. Ancient cul
ture were found in the top of the mound in which slabs of
stone were used, as the slabs were available near the mound.
38 The Feurt Mounds and I llhuje Site.
( hi the cast side of the river slabs of stone are not procurable
in the immediate neighborhood of the Feurt side.
A very interesting phase of the Feurt site burials was the
finding of so many children and babies. These burials were
confined to the west side of the village site and all were placed
in close proximity to tepee sites, resembling in many respects
the burials at Haums and Partners . The thirty-seven burials
were attributed to 21 sites; ten sites having one burial each,
six sites having two burials each, three sites having three
burials each, and one site having four burials. With
only one of the thirty-seven burials were objects placed in the
grave, which was that of a small child not more than six
months of age. Around its neck was placed an elegant neck
lace of beads made of the columella of ocean shell, with a
pendant in the form of a decorated shell gorget. The necklace
is of special interest, as being buried with a child too young
to understand and appreciate its decorative features. Pos
sibly the mother in her bereavement bestowed upon her be
loved child her finest ornament, permitting it to be placed with
the body when it was lowered in the grave.
The decorative feature of the shell gorget of this neck
lace is of interest, since it is the only decorated gorget found
in the village. The specimen is circular in form, three inches
in diameter and decorated on the edge with scalloped indenta
tions. One-fourth inch from the edge an incised line encir
cles the gorget, while between this incised line and the edge
small circular indentations appear. The center bears the in
cised figure of what probably is intended as a spider. The
gorget is pierced with two holes near the edge, and with one
hole at the center. The necklace is shown in Fig. 18.
TF.I KF, SITKS.
The tepee sites at the Feurt village were in many respects
similar to those of Haum s and Partner s, but lacked a certain air
of permanence. At Baum s and Gartner s the poles used in con
structing the tepees were large, and the tepee seemed to be more
of a permanent abode. At these sites the fireplaces were very
often mended manv times, while at Feurt s onlv two instances
The I : curt Mounds and yillaye Site.
40 The I enrt Mounds and I "ilia ye Site.
were found, one on the south side and one on the west side of
the plateau, showing attempts to mend a fireplace. This was done
by placing puddled clay in the bottom of the fireplace to fill up
the deepened hole, caused by cleaning out the ashes from time
to time, which process would incidentally remove a portion of
the earth bottom. This condition of impermanence seems to
have been due to the absence of the empty subterranean store
house, to receive the refuse which would naturally accumulate
around a primitive home.
Instead of gathering up this refuse, the Fuert dwellers
would cover it up with fresh soil, which for some reason appar
ently they found easier to dig up and carry in than to gather
up the refuse and carry it out. Consequently we found a sue"
cession of tepee sites, one over the other. ( )n the south side
of the plateau the surface had been raised four feet by the
process of covering up instead of cleaning up, and in this four
feet of surface accumulation were found bones of animals used
for food in great profusion, shells of the fresh water mussel
and implements and ornaments of bone, stone and shell scattered
through the soil, which no doubt had been lost and accidentally
Some of the tepee fireplaces were well made, one found
north of the two mounds and worked out by Mr. Shetrone being
almost a circle in form ( Fig. 19). This fireplace is two and
one-half feet in diameter and had not been in use very long, as
the ground in the center was not burned to a great depth. The
circular ring forming the fireplace was made of puddled clay
tempered with small gravel and broken pottery. In many of the
tepee-site fireplaces were found broken pottery in abundance, and
in two instances broken pots containing charred corn were found.
At Gartner s broken vessels were found in the refuse pits con
taining charred corn still clinging to the sides of the vessel.
The charring of the corn must have been accidental, for no doubt
the corn had been placed in the pot to cook and after receiving
plenty of water was placed over the fire; but in the meantime,
forgotten, the pot became dry, the corn was burned and the pot
broken, and all was lost. This accident, while it worked a hard-
The F curt Mounds and rillage Site.
ship upon primitive man. tells a mute story of early domestic
In several of the tepee sites large stone mortars were found,
showing that the preparation of meal from corn and perhaps
acorns was part of the domestic routine. Smith seems not to
have found evidence of the remains of habitations in the Ken-
tuck}- site, while at all the sites in Ohio the tepee was abundant.
FIG. 19. Fireplace found in the village.
The subterranean storehouse previously spoken of as abun
dant at both Baum s and Gartner s was practically absent from
the Feurt site, only two being found. One was cistern-like in
form, being small at the top. having a diameter of 20 inches,
gradually tapering to an enlarged bottom three and one-half feet
in diameter, and having a depth of four and one-half feet. The
storehouse was rilled with refuse consisting of animal bones,
broken pottery and shells of the fresh water mussel, all mingled
with soil and ashes.
42 I hc I curt Mounds and I ilhKjc Site.
The second storehouse was small, being about two feet iu
diameter at the to]) and two and one-half feet at the bottom,
with a depth of about three feet, and was likewise filled with
animal remains. I see no explanation for the sparseness of such
necessary appurtenances to a village of barbarous Ft. Ancient
The Feurt inhabitants were certainly agriculturists, as evi
denced by the finding of charred corn in various parts of the
village. I erhaps their storehouses were constructed of wood
and built upon the surface. At haum s two hundred and thirty-
four storehouses were examined, and at (iartner s more than one
hundred were found. Smith makes no record of these store
houses at the Kentucky site, although corn and cobs were fre
quentlv met with.
From our examination of this village, and the evidence sur
rounding the tepee site, one must infer that the presence of bones
of various animals in such profusion is indicative of their use
as food and must have been one of the principal sources of
supply. The presence of mussel shells, and the bones of fish
and turtles in large numbers shows that the river served as their
leader for at least a portion of the year. The rinding of the
bones of the wild duck, wild turkey, hawks and eagles, indicates
that all the birds that could be secured also were used for food.
The presence of charred corn in so manv of the tepee sites as
well as the shells of walnuts, butternuts, hickory nuts and acorns
found so plentifully in the fireplaces, would indicate their use
as food, and the profusion of seeds of the wild cherry, black
berry and wild plum in the fireplaces show that they drew
heavilv upon these for sustenance.
It is quite evident from the large number of perfect and
fragmentary bones of various animals scattered around the tepee
sites of the village, and in fact wherever refuse could be thrown,
that these represent animals that were used for food. The
animals identified were the deer, elk, black bear, mountain lion.
The I cnrt Mounds and Village Site. 43
wild cat, raccoon, opossum, beaver, otter, ground hog, musk-
rat, skunk, rabbit, mink, porcupine, wolf, gray fox, gray squirrel,
Indian dog and fisher.
Virginia deer (Odocoileus virginiamis ) was perhaps the an
imal most sought for food, as its bones constitute fully fifty
percent of all the bones found in the village.
At Haum sthe deer constituted fully thirty-five percent of
the animal bones of the village. At Partner s the bones of the
deer were equal to all others combined. Smith in the examina
tion of the Kentucky site mentions the Virginia deer among the
animals used for food, but does not compare its bones as to
numbers with other animals.
Elk ( Cervus canadensis ) were not abundant in the village,
but more plentiful than at either Haum s or ( Partner s. The elk-
was also found in the Kentucky site by Smith.
I Hack Hear ( I rsus americanus) was more plentiful than at
either Haum s or (iartner s. Smith found the bear at the Ken
Mountain Lion ( Kelis concolor). The bones of this large an
imal were very often met with and were more abundant than at
Haum s or (iartner s; but this animal was not found by Smith at
the Kentucky site.
Wild Cat ( Lynx rufa). The bones of this animal were not
abundant in the village, but at Haum s and Gartner s they were
found in numbers. Smith mentions finding the bones of this
animal in the Kentucky site.
Raccoon ( 1 rocyon lotor). The bones of the raccoon were
not very abundant in the village, and in this respect resembled
the Gartner site, but at Haum s the raccoon was found in abun
dance. Smith mentions the raccoon in the Kentucky site.
Opossum (Didelphs virginiamis). The bones of the opos
sum were found in abundance in the village, as they were at both
Haum s and (iartner s. Smith mentions this animal as found in
the Kentucky site.
Heaver (Castor canadensis). The bones of the beaver
were not abundant. Greater numbers were found at Haum s
and (iartner s. ( )nly the incisors of the beaver are used for
cutting tools and ornaments. The bones, on account of their
44 The Feurt Mounds and Village Site.
form, are seldom used for making into ornaments, conse
quently they are usually found perfect ; but not many were
found. Smith mentions the beaver in the Kentucky site.
Otter ( Lutra canadensis). Only a few bones of this ani
mal were found in this village, but its remains were plentiful
at Baum s though not so many were found at Gartner s. Smith
does not mention finding the bones of the otter at the Kentucky
Ground Hog (Arctomys monax). The bones of this ani
mal were fairly abundant and resembled the Gartner finds, but
at Baum s the bones of the ground hog were especially abun
dant. They were also found at the Kentucky site by Smith.
Musk Rat (Fiber zibethicus). The bones of the musk
rat were not abundant in the village site, but their distribution
resembled both Baum s and Gartner s. Smith does not men
tion the finding of the bones of the musk rat in the Kentucky
Skunk (Mephitis mephitica). The bones of this animal
were more plentiful in the Feurt site than at either Baum s or
Gartner s. Smith did not find the skunk at the Kentucky site.
Rabbit (Lepus sylvaticus). \Yhile the bones of this ani
mal were fairly plentiful in the village, I am led to believe that
bones of such animals as the rabbit, ground hog and raccoon
would be for the most part destroyed by the Indian dog, primi
tive man s only domestic animal. This is more probable since
practically no subterranean storehouses were in evidence for
the disposal of the refuse from the village and bones scattered
over the surface would be readily accessible to the hungry
dogs, as evidenced by the large leg bones of the bear, deer and
elk showing that they had been gnawed.
Mink (Putorius vison). A number of lower jaws and
portions of broken skulls of this animal were obtained. The
mink was found at Baum s and Gartner s. Smith also records
the animal from the Kentucky site.
Porcupine (Erethizon dorsatus). The bones of this ani
mal were found in the Feurt site, and might be considered the
first record of the porcupine in a prehistoric Ohio village. Al
though the bones of this animal were found at Baum s, they
The Fcurt Mounds and Village Site. 45
had not been properly identified when the published report
upon the Bauni village was made.
However, a record was made of the finding of the bones
of the porcupine at Damn s in my report upon the Tremper
Mound. At the Tremper mound the first and only sculpture so
far unearthed of this animal was found. The bones were not
found at Gartner s and Smith does not mention them at the
Wolf ( Canis occidentalis). The bones of this animal
were sparingly found throughout the village, and this same
condition prevailed at Baum s and Gartner s the bones not be
ing plentiful but a few being present throughout the village.
Smith found the bones of the wolf in the Kentucky site.
Gray fox ( Urocyon virginianus ). The bones of the gray
fox were very abundant in this village as well as at Baum s
and at Gartner s. Smith did not find the gray fox at the Ken
tucky site, but mentions finding the bones of the red fox. In
Ohio the remains of the red fox have not been found in any
prehistoric village site of record, but the bones of the gray fox
have always been found in large numbers in practically all of
Gray squirrel ( Sciurus carolinensis). Found everywhere
in the village. The gray squirrel was also present at Baum s,
but was not found at Gartner s. Smith did not find the bones
of the gray squirrel in the Kentucky site, but found the red or
Indian Dog (Canis). The bones of the dog were very often
met with and resemble the dog found at the Baum site and at
Gartner s. Smith did not find the dog at the Kentucky site.
Fisher ( Mustela pennanti). The bones of this animal were
sparingly found in the village. It was also found at Baum s and
recorded from there as the first record of its presence in Ohio.
The bones of the fisher w^re not found at the Gartner site, and
Smith does not mention the animal as present in the Kentucky
46 The I cn-rt Mounds and Village Site.
TURTLES USED FOR FOOD.
Snapping Turtle ( Chelydra serpentaria). Found abun
dantly in this village. At Baum s the snapping turtle was present
everywhere in the village.
Box Turtle (Cestudo virginea). Found in abundance in the
village. The bones were also very abundant at Baum s and at
(Partner s. Smith found at the Kentucky site two specimens of
MUSSELS AND FISH USED FOR FOOD.
Everywhere in the village the shells of the fresh water
mussel were found, and these were certainly a great source of
food supply. At Baums the mussel shells were abundant, and
at ( iartner s the remains of large mussel bakes were found in
several instances and these bakes contained many thousands of
shells. Smith found the mussel abundant at the Kentucky site.
Fish hones were found everywhere in the village ; those
identified were catfish, perch, suckers, buffalo, gar and fresh
water drum. Bones of fish were found in abundance at Baum s
and at Gartner s and Smith found fish bones in the Kentucky
I .IRDS USED FOR FOOD.
The hones of birds found in the village site were numerous,
especially those of the wild turkey, which predominates among
bird bones. Others noted were the trumpeter swan, Canada
goose, great blue heron, bald eagle, great horned owl and several
species of ducks. The bones of various birds were found at
Baum s and at (iartner s. Smith found the hones of the great
blue heron, wild turkey, duck, owl and eagle at the Kentucky
Corn (Zea mays) was the most important agricultural prod
uct raised by the dwellers in the Feurt village, for charred corn
was found in many tepee sites and fireplaces in the village.
However, as far as noted, only the eight-rowed variety was grown
Since but few subterranean storehouses were found, no doubt
surface granaries were constructed of wood to care for the sup
ply of corn. The tepee was all too small to store any amount
The Fciirt Mounds and Village Site. 47
of food products. At Baum s and at Gartner s it was found that
for a time after the grain had been used out of the subterranean
storehouses, they were used for the storage of nuts and dried
fruit, and doubtless for the storage of meat, both fresh and
The charred corn so frequently found in the fireplaces at
Fetirts, was due, I am sure to accident, either the spilling of the
corn into the tire, or the breaking of the pot in which it was
cooked. Fig. 20 shows the lumps of corn taken from the half-
broken earthen pots. At the Gartner village site broken earthen
vessels were found in the refuse pits with lumps of charred corn
still clinging to the sides of the vessel. At Baum s the charred
remains of the ears were found in the bottom of the subterranean
storehouse, where the ears had been placed in regular order, and
at Baum s two varieties were found an eight-rowed and a ten-
rowed variety. The eight-rowed variety found at the Feurt site
resembles in every way the eight-rowed variety found at Baum s.
The grains of corn, together with the cobs are shown in Fig. 21.
Smith at the Kentucky site found an eight-rowed and a twelve-
rowed variety. As far as we know, the twelve-rowed variety
has not been found in ( )hio.
Kidney Beans ( I haseolus vulgaris ) were found sparingly in
the fireplaces, and were no doubt used for food, as it is well
known the kidney bean grew wild over the state, as recorded by
the early botanists. Beans were found at Baum s and Gartner s
and Smith records the finding of the beans at the Kentucky site.
The presence of the shells of hickorynuts, walnuts, butter
nuts and acorns in so many of the fireplaces indicate their exten
sive use for food by the Feurt peoples. All these were found at
Baum s and Gartner s except the acorn. Smith found at the
Kentucky site only hickorynuts and walnuts.
The charred remnants of wild plum seeds, wild cherry
seeds and seeds of the blackberry found in the fireplaces, is evi
dence that these fruits, of which no doubt the country would
produce a bountiful supply, also were used for food in season.
At Baum s wild plum, wild grape and the seeds of the papaw
were found, while at Gartners only the seeds of the papaw were
The Fcurt Mounds and Villa ye Site.
FIG. -Jo. Lumps of charred corn taken from broken vessels.
The Fcurt Mounds and Village Site.
FIG. L l. Charred corn and cobs found in the fireplaces.
50 The Fcitrt Mounds and Village Site.
in evidence. Smith found at the Kentucky site papaw seed and
wild plum seed.
SKXVKIXC, OK FOOD.
Man s greatest necessities are food and water, and the se
curing of food to meet his needs must often have been a very
severe problem. As for water, he could locate his primitive
home near a stream or spring where there was always a con
stant supply. Again, we often find within fort walls large res
ervoirs for preserving the water supply, such as those at Ft.
Ancient, but we find no evidence of the digging of anything like
wells; and no doubt dependence for the most part was placed
upon natural supplv from streams and springs.
The securing of the necessary food would certainly tax the
ingenuity of primitive man. with his primitive implements and
1 hinting evidently was the principal means of securing food.
for no doubt all animals and birds had to be hunted. The
weapons used, as indicated by our tmds. were the bow and arrow.
Arrow points chipped from tlint were in evidence everywhere in
the village, as well as arrow points made from tips of the horns
of the deer. Perhaps other weapons used iu the chase were the
stone axe and celt, also found in the village site .
Fishing was another means of securing food, as indicated
by the tish-hooks made of bone: and it is not improbable that
many of the finely serrated arrow points found were used for
Agriculture. The finding of corn in so many places in the
village, together with shell hoes in abundance, would indicate that
agriculture was an important source of food supply.
Wild Fruit. The presence of wild cherry seeds, wild plum
seeds, blackberry seeds and the seeds of the papaw, would indi
cate that wild fruits were much used for food.
\Yild Xuts. The shells of walnuts, hickorynuts, butternuts
and acorns found in the fireplaces indicate the use of nuts as
I RKl . \KATIOX OK KOOD.
After food was secured the next important step was to ren
der it more palatable by cooking. Certainly there must have been
The Fciirt Mounds and Village Site. 51
a time in the course of human progress when man did not know
the use of lire in the preparation of food, and flesh of animals
he killed for food no doubt was eaten in the raw state. But
when man became acquainted with the use of fire, naturally the
home would become established and the cooking of food would
mark an important step in his advancement from the lowest
stages of savagery.
Knives played a very important part in the preparation of
These implements were usually made of flint, as shown in
Fig. 22, Nos. i, 2 and 4, and were very abundant in all sections
of the village. Knives similar to those shown in the cut were
found at Baum s, as also were long knives flaked from jasper
cores. These flaked knives were not found at Gartner s, nor
did Smith find them at the Kentucky site.
Hammerstones, as shown in Fig. 23 were very abundant
in the village, and were most useful in the preparation of meats,
being used to break the large bones of the deer, elk, bear and
mountain lion. Hammerstones were plentiful at liaum s and
at Gartner s and also in the Kentucky site. Grooved axes, as
shown in Fig. 25 are of special interest, because of their pres
ence near the surface only, or rather in the upper six inches of
the soil of the village site. Our own examination did not
disclose the grooved axe. but Mr. \Vertz found a number of
these axes in the village two of which are shown in Fig. 25.
The axe might be considered one of the necessary tools in the
primitive home, and would no doubt be useful in conjunction
with the hammerstone, in the preparation of meats. No
grooved axes were found at the Gartner site, nor by Smith at
the Kentucky site.
Celts. One of the best known implements of the Ft. An
cient culture is the celt, made of flint or granite, and found
everywhere in the village. \Yhen attached to a handle they
would no doubt serve in cutting up the meat preparatory to
cooking. A typical collection of celts is shown in Fig. 26.
Celts were found at Baum s and at Gartner s and by Smith oc
casionally at the Kentucky site.
I he l-cni t Mounds and Village Site.
Fi<;. I l. Knives and spear points made of Hint.
The Fcnrt Mounds and Village Site.
FIG. 23. Hammerstones found in the village.
The I eurt Mounds and l ilhnje Site,
Fie. "2-\. Hammerstones and stone balls found in the village.
The I cnrt Mounds and Village Site.
Stone mortars were not abundant in the village, al
though a number were found in various sections of the site.
Good examples of these are shown in Fig. 27. They are made of
slabs of the waverly sandstone found in the hills to the east.
At Baum s stone mortars were found in all parts of the vil
lage, which in every way resembled those found at Feurt s. At
Gartner village mortars were found, and from their number,
FIG. 2-5. Types of grooved axes found in the village.
they must have been universally used. Smith did not find
mortars at the Kentucky site.
Pestles made in the form shown in Fig. 28, and known as
bell-shaped pestles, were not abundant in the Feurt village, al
though quite a number were found by Mr. \Yertz on the sur-
f ire of ^he site. ( )ur survey w n s unable to find any bell-
ppctles be^w the plow line, but the ordinary round and flat
grinding stones were abundant. At Baum s and at Gartner s
The I- curt Mounds and I illaije Site.
FIG. 2li. Celts found in the village.
The Pcnrt Mounds and I illayc Site.
V\c,. 2~. Stone mortars and grinding stones; I, size.
58 The Fcitrt Mounds ami rillayc Site.
the pestle was found, hut Smith makes no record of its pres
ence in the Kentucky site.
(. ()( )K I N(l OF FOOD.
Roasting. Meat was very likely fastened on sticks and
roasted hefore the open fireplace, as was the custom of the
early Ohio Delaware and Shawanese trihes.
Boiling. If hroken utensils afford am testimony, one
FIG. 28. Bell-shaped pestles found in the village; n -i/.e.
would he led to believe that food was cooked in pottery vessels,
broken parts of which are found everywhere in the village,
especially around the fireplaces. The pots used for cooking
seem to have been placed directly over the fire, for many of
them were found in place. In two instances during the ex
plorations on the west side of the village, pots were found upon
the fireplaces broken, with the charred remains of corn cling
ing to their sides. The charred lumps of corn are shown in
The I curt Mounds and Villaye Site.
DESCRIPTION OK POTTERY USED FOR COOKINO FOOD.
The potter\- found in the Feurt village differs but little, if at
all, from the pottery found both at Baum s and (Partner s in
( )hio, and by Smith in Kentucky. The clay used was no doubt
secured just beneath the surface in the village and the tem
pering material used was broken shell and in a few instances
small pieces of quartzite. Several instances were noted in the
tepee sites where a quantity of prepared clay properly tem-
FIG. 29. Perfect piece of pottery, holding 3 pints.
pered with broken shells and ready to be used in making ves
sels had been left upon the floor unused.
No perfect pieces of pottery were found by our survey,
but Mr. AYertz found along the bank of the south side of the
village a perfect vessel, which is shown in Fig. 29. The pot is
undecorated, would hold about one and one-half quarts, is
symmetrically made, and might be considered a typical plain
piece, though the majority of the vessels of this type were
made somewhat larger. The decorated parts of broken ves-
60 / lie / curt Monuds and Villcuje Site.
sels were more in evidence than the ])lain, although found to
gether in every part of the village.
Practically all the forms of decoration are shown in Figs.
30 and 31. Many very large pieces of broken pottery were dec
orated similarlv to Xo. i of Fig. 30, which shows a free-hand
decoration by incised lines about one-eighth inch apart. Xo. 2
of Fig. 30 shows another familiar decoration, made by remov
ing about one-eighth inch of the surface to the depth of about
one-sixteenth of an inch. The decoration usually is in straight
lines, as in X"o. 2, or in curves as shown in Xo. o of Fig. 30.
Another form of decoration much met with is shown in Xos.
3. 4. of Fig. 30 and Xo. 2 of Fig. 31. This is made bv inden
tation. Decorations of this sort usuallv are found on small
A verv pleasing decoration is shown in Xo. 5 of Fig. 30
and Xo. 4 of Fig. 31. This decoration is made by the use of a
paddle around which cord had been wrapped. Xo. n of Fig.
31 is a combination of indentations, both dots and lines. Xo>.
<) and 10 of Fig. 31 show two kinds of indented rims, both
of which are verv pleasing.
Practically all of the broken pots found at Feurts had
handles, either for suspension over the fireplace, or for remov
ing from the fire after the food had been cooked, or for carry
ing. The principal varieties are shown in Figs. 32 and 33.
Xos. i to S inclusvie of Fig. 32 represent all the different forms
of lugs found in the village. Xo. <) of Fig. 32 represents a
duck head, which is carried above the rim. The specimen does
not show to advantage in the cut. but is a very good represen
tation of a duck s head. Xo. 12 of Fig. 32 represents a rac
coon in the act of climbing over the rim of the vessel. Per
haps these life forms were symbolic, having definite relation-
to their use.
In Fig. 33 the handles are shown. Xo. 7 of Fig. 33. is a
handle detached from the rim. which shows the manner of at
tachment. A hole is bored through the body of the vessel at
a point suitable below the rim. and the handle, freshly made,
i> thrust through the hole and properly clinched on the inside.
The top is fastened to the rim. and when the vessel becomes
The 1 citrt Mounds and I illaye Site.
FK;. ">n. Decorated potsherds.
The Fciirt Mounds and Village Site.
I ; IG. .-51. Decorated rims of large pots.
The Fcurt Mounds and Village Site.
The I : curt Mounds and I "ilhujc Sltt.
The l : eitrt Mounds and I illage Site. 65
dry and burned the handle is very strong a nd rinn. Fig. 34,
Xos. I to 7 are small objects made of clay. Xo. i is a round
ball three-fourths inch in diameter. Xo. 2 is made in the image
of a child, head and legs broken off. the specimen is decorated
by ringer nail markings. Xo. 3 is the head of a small animal,
perhaps the mink. Xo. 4 is a broken ornament. Xo. 5 is a
small pendant covered with finger nail markings. Xo. 6 is a
small crescent. Xo. 7 is a large crescent, broken. Xo. S is the
modeled head of the mountain lion, from the rim of a pot. Xo.
9 is also a modeled head, that of a bird. Xo. 10 is a modeled
raccoon, on the side of the rim of a vessel. Xo. n. modeled
human head, from rim of vessel.
Practically all of the forms and decorations of the pots
of the Feurt site were found at Baum s and at Gartner s. So
similar are they that should the fragments accidentally become
mixed, it would be impossible to separate them, and the same
might be said of the pottery found by Smith in the Kentucky
site. At Feurt s. no small miniature pottery was found, while
at Baum s and Gartner s many examples of this minature ware-
were in evidence. Smith also found the small pottery in the
Kentucky site, but no evidence of its presence at Feurt s was
USI-; OF I OTTHKY IX MORTUARY CUSTOMS.
The use of pottery in connection with mortuary obser
vances was not discovered at Feurt s although more than four
hundred graves were examined. This lack of any evidence of
placing potter\- with the dead, although practiced by this same
culture both at Baum s and at Gartner s is of special interest.
At Baum s one hundred and twenty-seven burials were found.
only six of which had pottery placed in the grave. At Gart
ner s a fine specimen of pottery vessel was found in one grave.
. liile in others the prepared clay, ready to be made into pot
ter*- had been placed in a niche made near the head of the
grave. Smith did not find pottery with any of the burials of
the Kentucky site.
The I curt Mounds and I ilhujc Site.
IMC,. :!-4. Objects made of clay: n size.
The l-enrt Mounds and Villaye Site. 67
I.M I LK.M KXTS M ADli OF STOXK.
The Arrow Point. The most common of the stone imple
ments found in the Feurt village is the arrowpoint, showing
that the bow and arrow was the most used weapon of its early
inhabitants. The arrow points for the most part are of the
triangular type, made of coal-measure flint, with now and then
a specimen made of flint from Flint Ridge, Licking county.
The triangular points are of two kinds, serrated and plain.
Excellent examples of the serrated point are shown in Fig.
35. This type of arrow point equals the plain point in num
bers, more than one thousand of the two types being found in
the village. Fig. 36 shows fine examples of the plain triangu
lar type. The triangular type of arrow point was found in
abundance at Baum s and Gartner s but mostly of the plain
variety, and not a typical specimen of the serrated form was
found at either Baum s or Gartner s. Smith found the serrated
and plain at the Kentucky site.
The serrated type is found everywhere in the region of
the lower Scioto and the Ohio rivers.
Spear points. The spear points found in the village site
are of special interest, since the greater number were found near
the surface. Those found below the plow line are similar to
the arrow points in form, being of the triangular type, only
larger, and vary in length from three to four and one-half
inches. Those found on the surface are shown in Figs. 37 and
38, and show wonderful development of the art of flint chip
ping. The splendid specimens shown in Figs. 37 and 38 were
found by Mr. \Yertz during his many years of surface explor
ing at the Feurt site. Flint spear points were most plentiful
on all of the Ohio sites, and all show excellent chipping, but the
specimens found at Feurt s were far superior both in design
and workmanship. Smith found the spear point at the Ken
tucky site, but the specimens were inferior to those found in
the Ohio sites.
Flint Drills. Flint drills were very abundant in the Feurt
site. A good selection of the various forms is shown in Fig.
39. Any one of the ten forms was often duplicated, of some a
dozen or more specimens being found. Flint drills were plen-
The 1 eiirt Mounds and Village Site.
The I- curt Mounds and rillacic Site.
The l : eitrt Mounds and I iHiK/e Site.
FIG. !". Lar^e spearpnints : full size.
IMI,. . !*. Lar.u t- spearpoints ; full size.
The I : enrt Mounds and J^ilhu/c Site.
FIG. :>!>. Flint drills; full sixe.
/ he I cnrt Mounds and Village Site. 73
tiful at Baum s but no specimens were found at Gartner s, al
though evidence of the use of the drill was met with frequently
and they were no doubt in general use. Smith found the drill
in the Kentucky site, but not in abundance, and in less variety
as to form than found at Kaum s and at Feurt s.
IIK.MATITK IM I LK.M KXTS.
< )bjects made from hematite were frequently met with in
the village. The celt was the most abundant, and varied in size
from three-fourths of an inch in length to two and one-half
inches, many of them showing usage. ( lood examples of the
hematite celt are shown in Fig. 40. Xos. i to 4.
Hematite plummets also were found in goodly numbers.
Xos. 5 and (> of Fig. 40 show two forms most commonly met
with. Hematite hemispheres also were found, as shown in Xo.
/ of Fig. 40. as were hematite cones, shown in Xo. 8 of Fig. 40.
An unfinished gorget made of hematite is shown in Xo.
9 of Fig. 40. ( lorgets made of hematite are very unusual, and
are of special interest when found in the village sites of this
culture. ( )bjects made of hematite were not found either at
Maum s or at (iartner s and Smith does not report it in the
Hematite nodules are found in abundance within the limits
of Scioto county, at various places where the hematite nodules
outcrop, and consequently the material was very accessible to
the dwellers in the Feurt village. Small hematite paint cup<
were frequently found. These are shown in Fig. 41. Xos. r.
2. 3. which are good representations of the various sizes found.
Xo. 4 of Fig. 41 is a round ball of quartzite, finely polished
Xo. 5 of Fig. 41 is a diamond-shaped unfinished specimen,
made of quartzite. evidently intended for a bead, as an attempt
is made to perforate the piece by drilling. Xo. 6 of Fig. 41 is
a limestone cone finely polished.
Fig. 42 shows two very interesting specimens. The larger
is a spud-shaped implement made of cannelco:d, and the other
a chisel of banded slate. These two specimens were found by
Mr. \Yertz. Cannelcoal objects were not found bv our survey.
The J ciirt Mounds and I illayc Site.
The 1 eni t M tni nds and I illat/c Site.
l-i<;. Jl. Hematite and other objects found in the village: full siz:
The 1 eurt Mounds and I illat/e Site
i<;. 42. Objects ot canm-I-oial and slate n >un<l in the village; full sixc.
The Fcurt Mounds and Village Site. 77
but Air. \Yertz found many objects made of this mineral upon
the surface of the village during the years of his examinations
of the site.
OkXAMKXTS OF STONK.
Fig. 43 shows a number of stone gorgets found in the vil
Xos. i and 2 are almost alike, very likely are unfinished,
and are made of waverly sandstone. No. 3 of Fig. 43 is un
finished, as a hole had been started at the center and left. The
specimen is made of black slate. Xo. 4 of Fig. 43 is a finished
gorget made of waverly sandstone and pierced with one hole for
suspension. Fig. 44 shows several effigy ornaments of unusual
interest. Xo. i is perhaps an effigy of a mountain lion claw.
Xo. 2 is an ornament made of banded slate and decorated with
a notched edge. Xo. 3 is a large bead made of hematite. Xo.
4 is a gorget made of banded slate and pierced with one hole.
Xo. 5 is the head of a bird made of sandstone, and Xo. 6 is
the effigy of a bird, made of black slate.
Fig. 45 shows one of the most interesting and valuable of
the specimens found in the village site. The specimen is of
black slate, is about six and one-half inches long and one-fourth
inch in thickness, and is made in the shape of a large spear
point. ( )n the one face, that shown in the cut, is plainly carved
a mythical fish-serpent with large canine teeth and exaggerated
spines. The greater part of the body and spines are decorated
with criss-cross lines. A zigzag line is drawn from the eye to
the heart, which gives us some clew to the petroglyphs found
along tl e Ohio river and in various parts of the state. In prac
tically all animals and birds cut upon stone, a zigzag line is
thus drawn from the eye to the heart, and one must infer that
the Feurt peoples were of, or contemporaneous with, those who
carved the petroglyphs and that they knew and understood the
meaning of such drawings.
ORXAMKXTS MADE OF CAXNELCOAL.
Can^elcoal objects were found in abundance in the upper
six inches of the village site, and many effigy canines of animals
The I : ciirt Mounds and I ilhnjc Site.
Fu;. 4. !. Finished and unfinished objects found in the village: full
The I- curt Mounds and rillatjc Site.
I- Hi. 44. Kffi<*y and other objects found in the village: full -ize.
The l : curt Mounds and I illatje Site.
IMC;. -15. Mythical fish-serpent found in the village: r, size.
The J-eitrt Mounds and y ill aye Site. 81
and claws of birds were secured by Mr. \\ertx during his ex
plorations in the Feurt village. These are shown in Fig. 40.
Other objects made of cannelcoal were also abundant, examples
of which are shown in Fig. 47. One specimen, a broken gorget,
is decorated by an incised drawing of some grotesque object.
( Hher specimens were in the process of making. ( )ur survey
did not find any of the c:innelcoal objects, which seem to have
been a late acquisition to the artifacts of the tribe.
At llaum s and at Gartner s no objects made of cannel
coal were found, but Smith found in the Kentuckv site many
effigies made of cannelcoal similar to those found at Feurts .
Discoiclal stones or disc-like game stones are of special
interest because of the large number found in every part of
the village upward of 300 specimens. Many of them were
mere discs of waverly sandstone, perfectly plain or decorated
with incised lines, and sometimes perforated with a single hole
at the center. Other plain discoidals are made of pottery frag
ments, while still others are of cannelcoal. as shown in Fig. 47.
Four specimens of the cannelcoal discs are shown. Xo. i is
fairly well made. Xo. > is finely made and highly polished.
Xo. 3 shows some chipping and Xo. 4. a fairly well made
specimen, might be considered representatives of the class. The
bi-concave type of discoidals found in the village were of two
kinds, perforated and unperforated. Either class may be plain
I he plain bi-concave tvpe, perforated, is shown in Fig.
4^. Xos. I, 2 and 3. For the most part they are made of granite.
quartzite or waverlv sandstone, and are highlv polished, show
ing much skill and a great amount of patience in their manufac
ture. Xone of the well-wrought specimens would exceed two
and one-half inches in diameter and none were less than one
and three-fourths inches in diameter. The decorated bi-concave
type, perforated, are of special interest because of the great di
versity of decoration. Several were found with a bird foot, per
haps that of the wild turkey, carved upon both faces, as shown
in Fig. 49. X T o. 2. while others have plain lines running from the
The 1~ curt Mounds and I illai/e Site.
FIG. 40. Objects made of cannel-coal ; full size.
The /-curt Mounds and rillac/c Site.
FIG. 47. Objects made of cannel-coal : full size.
The J-enrt Mounds and I llhu/e Site.
The I curt Mounds and tillage Site. 85
central hole to the edge of the discoidal as shown in Fig. 50.
Xo. 4. Still others have the lines extending from the central
hole to the rim and the space betwen the lines decorated with
criss-cross lines, as shown in I 7 ig. 50. Xo. 5. Another form of
this type is shown in Fig. 50. Xo. 6 where the concave part is
slightly raised, forming a ring around the central hole. Only
a few of this type were found.
The plain bi-concave type were found in all parts of the
village, and were perhaps as plentiful as the bi-concave forms.
A good example is shown in Fig. 48. Xo. 5. Another form very
near to the plain is shown in Fig. 48. Xo. 6. which has merely a
countersunk hole in each side of the specimen as a decoration.
Another type of special interest i> made like Xo. 6. with lines
radiating from the center. This type is shown in Fig. 50, Xo. 8.
Another form of the unperforated bi-concave, which is
noteworthy, is shown in Fig. 49. Xo. i. This discoidal was not
found by our survey but was found in the village site more than
a quarter of a century ago by a Mr. Creighton. who disposed of
the specimen to Mr. S. P. Adams. It is decorated on the con
cave part on either side with a turkey foot. The specimen is
unusually large, being three and five-eighth inches in diameter
and three-fourths of an inch in thickness, and is made of a close
grained granite rock. The specimen is shown in Fig. 49. Xo. i.
Another very interesting discoidal is shown in Fig. 50. Xo.
i. It is decorated with two lines drawn at right angles directly
through the center of the specimen, and the four quarters of
the stone so divided are further decorated with lines forming a
geometric figure. Specimen Xo. 2 of Fig. 50 represents a wheel
in motion and is the only one of its kind found during our work-
in the village.
Another type of di>coidal is shown in Xos. 3 and ~ of Fig.
50. This type shows a convex center instead of concave. The
convex part is marked in the center with a small depression, and
radiating from this are four lines dividing the disc into four
quarters. Another type which seem> very prominent and is fre-
quentlv met with is shoun in Fig. j8, Xo. 4. The specimen
shows a perfectly plain circular disc divided into four parts, two
The I cnrt Mounds and I 7 illa(/e Site
FIG. 49. Discoidal stones decorated with bird foot ; full size.
The / curt Mounds and tillage Site.
FIG. -V>. Various forms of decorated discoidals ; full size.
88 flic l : curt Mounds and I ilhujc Site.
of which are of equal size and larger than the other two which
are of unequal size.
Discoidal stones seem to have been of unusual importance
with the Fort Ancient culture, hut the section near the ( )hio
river region is more prolific in these specimens than any other
part of the country. In many village sites in Adams, IJrown
and Hamilton counties this small size discoidal has always been
met with. At Feurt site previous to our examination, many
specimens were found. Mr. Charles V. \Yertz has more than
one hundred and tiftv specimens in his collection: Mr. S. I*.
Adams of Portsmouth, more than one hundred and twenty-live;
Mr. John \Yeltv. Mr. Morris Nicks ;md Mr. Paul Fsselborn,
all collectors of Portsmouth have main- line specimens in their
Discoidal stones were found at Katun s resembling in gen
eral form those found at Feurt s. but were never so plentiful.
and might be considered of rather rare occurrence. At ( iartner s
one specimen onlv was found in a grave of the mound, while the
\illage site did not produce a single specimen. Their use in ( )hio
-eems to have centered around the ( )hio ri\-er region, and grad
ually to have diminished toward the north. Smith found the
discoidal stones in goodly numbers at the Kentucky site, south
of the ( )hio river region, but not in such profusion as our survey
unearthed at Feurt s.
Pipes were found in the Feurt site in every part of the vil
lage, anil seem to have been generally used from the early be
ginnings of the village. Many of the pipes were broken while In
use and then discarded, if beyond repair. ( Hhers in a perfect
state, were frequently found in the tepee site, where thev had
been mislaid and afterward covered up by fresh soil carried in
by the inhabitants to make their dwelling place more sanitary.
Many kinds of stone were employed in the manufacture of pipes.
such as ( )hio pipestone, limestone, sandstone, laurentian slate
and hematite, but the greater number were made of the ( )hio
pipestone. which was secured on the very crest of the hill al
most in sight of the village. Suitable pieces for the making of
pipes were brought to the village, there to be manufactured into
The l : cnrt Mounds and Village Site. 89
form. Xo large pieces were found in the village site, indicat
ing that the blocking out to the desired size and shape was done
at the quarry.
This old Indian pipestone quarry was known to the early
settlers in this section of ( )hio. and Mr. Feurt tells me that it
was exploited a number of years ago, with the idea of using
the pipestone in the manufacture of firebrick. It proved, how
ever, to be unfitted for this purpose on account of its high per
centage of iron and the project was abandoned. However, the
contained iron did not interfere with its use by primitive man.
for the manufacture of pipes and ornaments.
As before stated, the outcrop of the pipestone lies high up
on the hills and gradually dips to the south-east, causing the
outcrop in the eastern part of the county to be near the base of
the hill>. The pipestone stratum varies in thickness from one
and one-half feet to eleven feet, with perhaps an average of
three and one-half or four feet. In color the pipestone varies
greatly, ranging from almost white through yellow and brown
to dark red. The dark red variety was used by the Feurt peo
ples in preference to the other colors.
This red variety is very hard to distinguish from the Min
nesota pipestone and many pipes and ornaments made of the
Ohio material have been attributed to the Minnesota quarries.
The Tremper mound peoples, living directly across the river
from the Feurt side, preferred using the light grays, yellows.
and browns, although the largest plain pipes found there were
made of the dark red variety. Xone of this red variety was
used for their sculptures of birds and animals, while at Feurt s
the red variety was used both in the plain and sculptured forms.
THK IMI K IN ITS STACKS OK MANUFACTURE.
The pipe, as is true of practically all types of artifacts, was
found in its various stages of manufacture, and exceptionally
good examples were obtained both of the plain and sculptured
forms. In Fig. 51 is shown a series of specimens illustrating the
successive steps in the manufacture of a pipe in the effigy of the
human face. Beginning with Xo. i is shown the blocked out
piece as it is brought from the quarrys and before pecking or
The I : eurt Mounds and I illcu/c Site.
FIG. 51. Shows stages in the manufacture of two types of pipes; full
The I cnrt Mounds and Village Site. 91
grinding has been started. In Xo. 2 the pecking and polishing
has begun. In Xo. 3. the crude outline of the face is apparent,
and in Xo. 4 the pipe is a finished product. In row Xo. 2 is
another series of specimens, showing the stages of manufacture
of the plain elbow type. Xo. i shows the specimen being pecked
into form ; Xo. 2 shows the general form the pipe will be when
completed : Xo. 3 shows the pecking completed and ready for
grinding and polishing, while Xo. 4 is the finished product ready
for use. All of the specimens shown in Fig. 51 are of the dark
The sculptured pipes found in the Feurt village differ
greatly from those of their neighbors, the Tremper mound peo
ples across the river. The portrayal of life forms is not so
realistic and the sculptures lack detail, so that outside of the
human face sculptures, it would be difficult to determine what
kind of bird or animal the primitive artist had in mind. On the
other hand, the Tremper mound peoples were able to produce
sculptures with such realistic and minute detail, that not only the
animal or bird is readily identified, but its habits and character
istics are fully portrayed.
The Feurt mound peoples had not reached so high a stage
of development as is shown by the effigy pipes in Fig. 52. Xo.
i of Fig. 52 is a pipe made in the form of a discoidal stone,
and represents one of the bi-concave plain type, made of
waverly sandstone. Xos. 2 and 4 are made in the image of
the human face. A study of the specimens will soon convince
one of their similarity. Xo. 2 was found by Mr. \Yertz and
is made of a light gray pipestone, and Xo. 4 is made of a dark
red pipestone. Xo. 3 of Fig. 52 is of a light gray pipestone
and is perhaps intended for a bird. This specimen also was
found by Mr. \Yertz. Xo. 5 of Fig. 52 is supposed to represent
an animal head, as the large tongue and teeth are shown. The
specimen is made of hard black hematite.
Fig. 53 shows three more sculptured pipes. Xo. i is made
of waverly sandstone and perhaps was intended to represent a
bird of some kind. The pipe is well made, is of unusually large
The I* curt Mounds and nilat/e Site
IMC. -VJ. F.ffiy pipes: "^ six.i
1 he I cni t Mounds and I ilhujc Site.
94 The I- curt Mounds and I ilhujc Site.
size and slio\vs much use. Xo. 2 is a small elhgy pi])e re] (resent
ing- the head of a bird with a small beak. The pipe is made of
a light gray pipestone and like Xo. i shows long use. Xo. 3 of
Fig- 53 s a ver >" unusual pipe representing the human form in
a kneeling position. The head and body parts are missing, the
pipe having been broken while in use and thrown away. The
specimen was found by Mr. Wertz on the west side of the
One feature of the sculptured pipes found at Feurt s is of
interest when compared with pipes found at Tremper s across
the river. In the Tremper pipes the smoker would always face
the animal or bird, and in the Feurt pipes the opposite is noted.
Fig. 54 shows four pipes, two of which, Xos. i and 2. might
be classed as effigy pipes. These two pipes are of the platform
type, with the platform made in the effigy of the stemmed arrow
head or spear, and the bowls plain. In the Tremper mound
effigies, the stem was always plain and the bowls made into the
forms of animals and birds. Xos. 3 and 4 of Fig. 54 show a
type of pipe frequently met with in the village, all of which
were made of the dark red pipestone.
Fig- 55 shows six specimens of the I. -shaped pipe, made
of the waverly sandstone so abundant in the immediate vicinity
of the village site. All these show use in smoking, Xo. i in
particular, which is half filled with the charred tobacco. After
smoking, the owner doubtless misplaced the pipe on the floor
of his tepee, where it became covered with debris and in due
time with the fresh soil carried in.
This is the only record as far as we know, of the finding
in our ( )hio mounds and village sites of a pipe filled with the
charred tobacco. No. 2 of Fig. 55 is a fine example of this
type of pipe although it has a longer stem and a larger bowl
than is usual. Nos. 3, 4 and 6 show the usual size of the pipes
of this type. The angle of the bowl to the stem varies slightly
in different specimens from the right angle. Xo. 5, shows an
extreme variation in the angle of the bowl to the stem. Fig. 56
shows six more pipes of the same type as shown in Fig. 55.
Xos. i, 3 and 5 are made of red pipestone. Xo. i is unfinished,
lacking the perforation in the bowl and stem. Xos. 3 and 5
The I curt Mounds and Village Site.
FIG. 54. Pipes made of red Ohio pipestone; / size.
7 lie I- curt Mounds and I illai/e Site.
Fir,. o."i. Pipe.- marie of \\averly sanrlstone ; Js
/ lie l~ curt Mounds and I illcu/e Site.
!]<;. .">(>. Pipes finished and unfinished; y\ size.
98 The 1 citi t Mounds and yilhujc Site.
are true examples of the perfectly finished pipestone pipe. No.
_ is a pipe made of pottery clay, tempered with pieces of broken
mussel shell. This pipe is the only one of its kind found in
the village. Xo. 4 is made of limestone, and Xo. (> is of waverlv
sandstone. The pipe is decorated with an incised line near the
top of the howl.
Another type of pipe found in the village by Mr. \\ertz
and not by our survey, is shown in Fig. 57. Xos. i, 2, 4, 5 and
6. Xo. i is made of waverly sandstone; Xo. 2 of dark red
pipestone; Xos. 4 and 5 of mottled dark gray pipestone, and
Xo. 6 of light gray pipestone. Xos. 3, 7, 8 and 9 of Fig. 57
are very different from Xos. i , 2. 4, 5 and 6 of the same figure,
although found associated with them. Xos. 3 and 7 are made
of red pipestone; Xo. 8 of mottled red pipestone and Xo. 9
of waverly sandstone.
Fig. 58 shows nine very interesting pipes. Xo. 3 and No. T>
are square, instead of the round type so frequently met with,
and Nos. 4 and 5 were repaired after having the stem broken
and were no doubt used until lost. No. 8 is an unfinished pipe
of limestone of unusually large size. No. 9 is a small platform
pipe made of steatite.
( )ur survey did not find the tubular form of pipe, but Mr.
\Vertz was successful in finding this form. Fig. 59 shows two
forms of the tubular type, both made of pipestone. No. i has
a very large perforation extending almost its entire length, while
in No. 2 the perforation is large but gradually tapers from al
most the center to a small opening at the stem end. Fig. 60
is an unfinished platform pipe of unusual size found by Mr.
\Yertz. The pipe is made of limestone and shows that but little
work other than pecking has been done upon it.
The pipes found in the village number perhaps fifty, in
cluding broken and perfect specimens, and the number accessible
to us in Mr. Wertz s collection exceeds twenty specimens, mak
ing a total of seventy pipes from this site. To this number
should be added the former collection of Mr. S. P. Adams, num
bering over thirty specimens, representing all the types above
described. The collection of Mr. Adams was well known to
The I-cnrt Mounds and Village Site.
: u;. ")(. Pipes made of Oliio pipestone and waverly sandstone; % size.
100 The l : eurt Mounds and I ilhnje Site.
l- ii,. ">S. Pipes made of Ohio pipeMnne. limestone and steatite: r ; size.
FIG. of. Tubular pipes made of Ohio pipestone; 24 size.
FIG. 6". Unfinished platform pipe made of limestone; % size.
102 The 1 citrt Mounds and l r illa(/e Site.
the writer, as it was on deposit for ten years in the Museum
of the Society.
Mr. John \Yelty of Portsmouth also collected many pipes
at the Feurt site, and I have a record in my note-hook of twenty-
five pipes, which I readily identified as coming from the Feurt
site, and I suspect, from what Mr. Welty says, that twice that
number would be short of the actual number he found at this
village. Mr. Paul Ksselborn. Mr. Morris Hicks, and I am
told other collectors, have specimens of pipes from this vil
The few specimens of pipes found at Haum s and (Partner s
if placed with the Feurt pipes, could not be distinguished from
them, and the same is true of the pipes found by Smith in the
( OI I KR OHJKCTS FOTNI) IX T II K YILLAC.K.
Copper objects were not found by our survey in the vil
lage site, but we were successful in securing copper in the form
of ornaments in two graves already described, while Mr. \Yertz
found a small copper necklace with a burial. This necklace is
shown in Fig. 61. Xo. 6. Mr. \Yertz also found many pieces
of copper in the village site proper, both upon the surface and
along the steep bank, which from time to time would cave off
and expose to view parts of the rich village site. Many of these
pieces were ornaments that had been bent and hammered and
their identity destroyed. ( )ne of these is shown in Xo. 3 of Fig.
61. This specimen represents a reel-shaped ornament similar
to those found in the Tremper mound across the river from the
Mr. YYertz had at one time a large number of copper pieces
from this site, all showing mutilation, but these unfortunately
were lost in a fire that destroyed his residence. In this fire an
excellent collection from this site was entirely lost, and the col
lection he now possesses has been gathered since that time. S.
P. Adams, a local collector of Portsmouth, who several years
ago disposed of his collection, made in the lower Scioto and
along the Ohio in close proximity to Portsmouth, had three
The 1-enrt Mounds and Villayc Site.
104 The 1 ciirt Mounds and I illiu/e Site.
specimens of copper, having their identity destroyed in the same
way as those found by .Mr. \Yertz.
The finding of so many destroyed copper pieces, foreign
to this culture, is almost positive evidence of unfriendly contact
with their neighbors across the river. For a time perhaps the
contact of the two cultures was friendly, as indicated by the
objects of copper found in the graves of the burials in the
mounds, but apparently later this contact was hostile and the
objects captured from enemies were brought to the village, there
to be battered into shapeless masses, and thrown into the refuse
heaps. In some cases thev mav have been cached away in their
village, as was the case with finds in a village of this same cul
ture, just outside the walls at Fort Ancient.* The examination
of the Feurt site made with the express purpose of ascertaining
the extent of this unfriendly contact, demonstrates that for a
time they evidently lived in peace and had tribal trade between
At l>aum s a few copper beads were found associated with
shell beads on the same necklace, the only instance of copper
being found during the entire exploration. At Partner s no cop
per was found, nor did Smith find copper in the Kentucky site,
showing that in these three important Fort Ancient culture sites,
copper objects were practically unknown.
IJONK I M I LKMHNTS.
Bone implements of certain kinds were found promiscuously
scattered throughout the village in the greatest profusion. The
most prominent were the awls or perforators, and these were
made of practically every bone having the proper length and
adaptability. Some of the awls were mere splinters broken
from the large leg bones of the deer, elk and bear and sharp
ened at one or both ends : others were made of the same bone,
but handsomely decorated and polished ; still others were made
of the ulna of the deer and elk, of the larger animals, while
the same bone of all the smaller animals was used for the same
purpose. The tarso-metatarsus of the wild turkey was used for
^Described in Explorations of the Trempcr Mound
The J cnrt Mounds and Village Site.
making awls, as were many of the wing bones of wading birds,
like the blue heron.
Polishing stones and whetstones used in the manufacture
of bone awls were frequently met with in the tepee sites. An
excellent example of these polishing stones is shown in Fig.
62. They are mere slabs of waverly sandstone, showing great
use, some having grooves worn into their faces from use in
sharpening the bone into the desired shape.
106 The l-citrt Mounds and I illiu/c Site.
BONE A\VLS MADE OF THE ULNA OF TIIK DEER.
Fig. 63 shows a typical collection of the awls made from
the ulna of the deer. Some are long, as shown in No. i ; some
are short, as in No. 6; some are sharp and slender like that in
No. 7 and others are blunt, as shown in No. 4. All four classes
were duplicated many times in every part of the village. Some
of these awls may have been used for making perforations
through which thread or sinew was passed, when skins were
used for making clothing and moccasins; some may have been
used in the making of pottery or in weaving; others may have
served as forks in eating, while the blunt and strong awls were
perhaps used for opening the mussel shells found so abundantly
in the village.
A very interesting double-pointed awl. frequently met with
was made only from this bone. It is shown in Nos. 10 and n.
The two points of this class of awls are of unequal length, the
longer point being the side opposite the joint. This form may
have been used in weaving or in decorating pottery. A very
useful awl was made from the ulna of the elk. Many of these
were from six to eight inches in length, were very strong, and
most of them bluntly made. Very good examples of this awl
are shown in Fig. 64. These implements certainly were of im
portance about the home and may have been used for opening
the large mussel shells in order to secure the mussel for food.
Very fine examples of awls made from ulnas and other
bones of large and small animals are shown in Fig. 65. Xo. r
is made of the metapodial bone of the deer. This specimen had
formerly been made into a scraper used in dressing skins dur
ing the tanning process, as were practically all of these bones.
The heavy use to which these implements were subjected caused
many of them to break at the center, rendering the implement
useless. The distal end of the broken scraper was frequently
made into a blunt awl. The perfect scraper is shown in Fig. 73.
Nos. 2. 3, 4, 5 and o are made from the ulna of the gray
fox, wild cat and gray wolf; No. 7 is made of the ulna of the
black bear; Nos. 8, o, and 10 are made of the penis bone of the
black bear; Nos. 11 and 12 are made of the heavy leg bone
/ lie J : citrt Mounds and Village Site.
FIG. 64. Awls made from the ulna of the elk; 1-2 size.
flic I curt Mounds and I ilhnic Site.
FIG. 65. Awls made of the bones of various animals; 1-2 size.
flic / curt Mounds and I illafjc Site.
FIG. 63. Awls made of the ulna ot the fleer; 1-2 size.
110 The Fenrt Mounds and Village Site.
of the elk; Xo. 13 is made from a part of the shoulder blade
of the deer; and X o. 14 is made of the lower jaw of the deer.
Fig. 66 shows twelve awls made from the tarso-metatarsus
of the wild turkey, six of which are decorated with notches cut
upon the sides, and the other six plain. Awls made of this bone
were very abundant in the village and several hundred in per
fect condition were found. In practically every village site of
this culture the awl made from this bone is present and very
frequently exceed in numbers all other classes of awls. Another
class of awls so common to this culture, and found in such large
numbers in the Feurt village, is shown in Fig. 67. A careful
study of the specimens shown in this figure in comparison with
those just described, is convincing proof that they may have
been used as supports to feathers and other objects worn in the
hair as ornaments. In support of this theory is the finding of
several of those decorated awls placed under or at the side of
the head of the skeleton. However, two of the largest and finest
specimens shown in Fig. 67, Xos. 4 and 7, were found beneath
the body of the skeleton. These measure nine and eight inches
respectively. All specimens in this figure were made from the
strong heavy leg bones of the elk and deer. Much time and
patience were required in fashioning any one of these awls.
Xos. i. 2, 3 and 8 were found isolated in the village, and Xos. 4,
5, 6 and 7 were found with burials. The eight specimens shown
in Fig. 68 are similar to those shown in Fig. 67 and are made
from similar bones. Xo. i has a decorated head, but no attempt
toward making an effigy of a bird or animal, as was found at
Gartner s. X T os. 2, 5 and / are awls having a spatula-like end ;
Xos. 3 and 8 have the point end decorated ; Xo. 3 has an en-
.larged end and Xo. 8 has five indented lines circling the point.
Fig. 69 shows seven examples of large awls made from
various bones of animals. Xos. i, 2, 3 and 4 are made from
bones of the bear ; Xo 5 is round, and is made from the heavy
leg bone of the deer; Xo. 6 is fht, with spatula-like end and en
larged head ; Xo. 7 is made of a flat heavy bone of the deer.
Fig. 70 shows nine large awls made from various bird and
animal bones. Xo. I is perhaps that of the radius of the blue
heron ; Xos. 2 and 3 are made of the bones of the bear ; Xo. 4
The I : enrt Mounds and I Ulaijc Site.
Fi<;. iiii. Awls made from the tarso-metatarsus of the wild turkev ; }/> size.
The I : citrt Mounds and Village Site.
FIG. (j~. Large decorated awl; n size.
The /- curt Mounds und I /lldt/c Site.
The I citrt Mounds and Village Site.
/ ^ 3
Fro. (i!). Plain awls ; n size.
The / cart Mounds and I illa/ic Site
FIG. TO. Large awls; J-g size.
116 The 1 curt Mounds and rillcu/c Site.
is from the tarso-metatursus of the blue heron ; Xo. 5 is made
from the ulna of the blue heron ; Xos. 6 and 8 are made from
leg bones of perhaps the wild turkey and Xo. <j from the radius
of the gray wolf. Fig. 71 shows a number of awls of special
interest. Xo. i is a broken Mat awl showing much labor in its
manufacture; Xo. 2 is the broken spatula-end of one of the finest
awls found in the village; Xo. 3 is also a broken awl. but shows
an unusual finish and an enlarged decorated end ; Xo. 4 is made
from a flat heavy bone with one end finely sharpened, and the
other end brought almost to a point ; Xo. 5 is one of the smallest
awls found, and could not be classed as a pin, for these were
not found in the village. Xo. 6 is one of the well-wrought double-
pointed awls frequently met with ; Xos. 7, 8 and (> are very small
thin awls requiring much patience and even skill to manufacture,
as they were made from the thick heavy bone of the deer.
From the number of types of awls found by our survey,
this village certainly must have been a great manufacturing
center for bone implements. The small double-pointed bone awl,
or pin. was very abundant at Baum s. but entirely absent at
Feurt s and but few were found at the Kentucky site by Smith.
The larger bone awls shown in Figs. 67 and 68 were not found
by Smith at the Kentucky site, but were found sparingly at
Haum s and at Gartner s in Ohio.
Xo. (> of Fig. 69, the spatula-like awl, was duplicated by
Smith in the Kentucky site. Practically all other awls made of
the various bones of animals and birds found in such profusion
at Feurt s were found both in the ( )hio sites and at the Kentucky
I .ONK NKKDLKS.
Hone needles having an eye are shown in Fig. 72 which
exhibits the implement in the process of manufacture, and the
perfect needle as well as those broken in use. As is well known
the true needle with an eye is considered a very rare implement,
because the awl would take its place for sewing. The bone
needles shown in the figure were made for the most part of the
rib bones of various animals and range in length from three to
eight inches. Xos. i , 4, 8 and 9 show practically all the forms
The I dirt Mounds and l ilhi(/e Site. H7
.. -.-< .. , ;,,.
FIG. 71. Various forms of bone awls; 7<x size.
1 fic I enrt Mounds and Vilhicic Site.
, r *
Fi<;. ~ 2. Hone needles; J$ size.
of needles found in the village. Xos. 5 and 7 show the needles
broken at the eve. the weakest part. A number have been found
showing the repair of the needle when broken at the eye by
boring a new hole for the same, this making the needle a trifle
shorter. Xo. 6 shows the point broken off, which is very unusual ;
Xos. _ and 3 are perhaps unfinished needles, made from the
long leg bones of wading birds. This form of bone needle was
found at llaum s and at ( lartner s but not in such large num
bers at Feurt s, and Smith found in the Kentucky site what he
considers a needle with an eve. This needle is practically round,
while in the ( )hio sites of this culture the needles found are
ISO XI-: S( RAI KKS.
Hone scrapers made of various bones of the legs of deer and
elk were found in abundance in the village site. However, the
scraper for the most part had been broken while in use and the
broken pieces were evidence of the hard usage to which they
were subjected in the preparation of skins. The broken pieces
of the scrapers were sometimes reworked into awls, but for the
most part the} were discarded.
Fig- 73 shows a perfect scraper made from the lower leg
bone of the elk. Practically all the metapodial bones of the elk-
had been worked into this kind of implement, as were the femurs
of the elk. In Fig. 73 are shown three specimens of the lower
leg bone of the deer. This bone was extensively used for this
purpose, although many were found that had been broken to
extract the marrow from the central cavity for food. The
specimen adjoining the cut of the perfect scraper in Fig. 73 shows
the first steps toward making it into this useful implement. The
next specimen shows a little more work, the cutting being carried
to the cavity of the bone, while the next shows that an accident
happened, and that the bone was broken and then discarded.
Perfect scrapers were not found in abundance at the Feurt site,
but their use was general, as broken specimens were found spar
ingly in all parts of the village. At Haum s the scrapers were
very abundant, all being made of the metapodial bone of the
deer and elk, while at Feurt s the femurs very often were used.
I he I- curt Mounds and I illat/e Site.
X. % h-
,. !. Perfect and unfinished scrapers; .V 4 size.
The /- curt Mounds and I iilat/e Site. 121
At (iartner s also this implement \vas found in abundance.
Smith found the scraper in the Kentucky site, hut not abundantly.
C KLT-LIKK SC KAI KKS.
( )ne of the interesting types of specimens found in the vil
lage is the celt-like scraper, made for the most part from heavy
elk horn. The part usually selected was between the beztine and
the trestine, and required much labor in manufacture, but when
completed would meet the needs of a scraper perhaps better
than those described above. A very good example of the scrap
ers made from horn and bone are shown in Fig. 74. Some were
notched for attachment to a handle, others were plain. The
scrapers made of bone, are shown to the right of Fig. 74. Fig.
75 shows a collection of narrow chisel-like scrapers, which were
perhaps as abundant as the broader scrapers shown in Fig. 74.
The celt-like scrapers found in goodly numbers at the Feurt
village were also found at Haum s and (iartner s and by Smith
at the Kentucky site. All are made in the same general way.
CUT AND WORKKI) MONK.
The finding of many hundreds of cut and worked bones in
the Feurt site showed how generally bone implements were used.
Many of these bones show merely an attempt to cut a hollow
bone in the form of a cylinder, or into sections for beads. Bones
showing practically every stage in the manufacture of imple
ments were readily secured. Many bones, after much labor had
been expended upon them, were found defective and were re
jected, while others were broken after much grinding and polish
ing had been done. Figs. 76 and 77 are representative examples
of cut and worked bone found in the Feurt site. At Baum s and
at (iartner s worked and cut bone was found everywhere in the
village. Smith found in the Kentucky site bones cut and worked
in the same way. The manner of cutting and polishing the bone
was practically the same in all of the ( )hio sites as well as at
the Kentucky site.
ii;. 71. I vlt-liko scrapers made of (. Ik horn; H sixc.
The I- curt Mounds and \ illmjc Site.
Fu;. 7"). Chisel-like scrapers made of elk horn: s size.
124 I lie I curt Mounds and I illat/c Site.
The I : eiirt Mounds and I illage Site.
IMC. i. C nt and worked bone; n size.
126 77/r Fcnrt Mounds and Village Site.
ARROW AM) Si KAR POINTS OK I .OXK.
Arrow and spear points made of bone were numerous in the
village and were made for the most part of the tips of deer
horns. The Feurt peoples not only excelled in chipping the
arrow point from stone, hut they made excellent points from the
antler tips. Fig. 78 shows good examples of antler arrow and
spear points. The arrow points are of two kinds, those pierced
with a small hole for attachment to the shaft by the use of a
string, and those unperforated. The perforated specimens are
illustrated in the seven specimens shown at the left of Fig. 78.
The second kind of arrow points were more numerous than the
perforated type and are shown in the five specimens directly to
the right of the perforated arrow points in Fig. 78. The three
large specimens to the right in Fig. 78 were doubtless used for
At I aum s and at Gartner s bone arrow points and spear
points were found in abundance, both in the perforated and plain
types, the process of manufacture being exactly the same, as
shown by the number of unfinished specimens found in the vil
lage. Caches of deer tines ready for making into points were
found at Ratlin s and at Gartner s and many such caches were
in evidence at Feurt s. At Haum s and at Gartner s deer toes
were made into arrow points, but not a single specimen was
found in the Feurt site made from this bone. Smith found ar
row points made of the tips of deer horn in the Kentucky site,
resembling those found in the ( )hio sites.
FLAK IXC, TOOLS.
The flaking tools found at the Feurt site were of two kinds,
both being found in great numbers, and for the most part all
were made of deer and elk horn. Fine examples of one kind are
shown in Fig. 79. All are cylindrical in form and vary in length
from one and one-half inches to five and one-half inches. One
end is usually cut at right angles, while the other end is made
oval. Many of the specimens in Fig. 79 show use as flaking
tools, one end being usually battered, from being struck by the
stone hammer in making the large flakes, and in the manufac-
The I- curt Mounds and Village Site.
IMG. 7*. Hone arrowpoints made of antler tips; J/s size.
I lie / curt Mounds and I ilhujc Site
I-"H;. 7! . Flaking tonls mark frmn deer and elk liorn : .14 size.
flu /-ciii t Mounds and Village Site. 129
Hire of the long knives and spear points. The use of the Makers
shown in Fig. 79 requires two persons. The process consists
in holding the Mint to be flaked in the palm of the hand, pro
tected with a piece of buckskin and held firmly by the fingers
of the same hand, while the other hand was used to hold the
flaker in position. The second person then would strike the
flaker with a stone hammer. The angle at which the flaker is
held against the flint determines the length of the chip. The
second kind of flaking tool, shown in Fig. 80 was perhaps used
in the manufacture of small arrow points. The large implement
in the center of the figure however, possibly was used as a dig
ging tool. This implement is made of elk horn and is fourteen
inches in length. All the other implements in Fig. 80 doubtless
were used for flaking the small arrow point, and did not require
the assistance of a second person. The process of manufacture
of the arrow point is very simple, all that is required being the
flint blocked cut into form with a stone hammer, a piece of
buckskin to protect the hand, and a tine of deer horn slightly
worked at the point into a suitable implement. The flint piece
to be chipped into form is held in the left hand, protected by
the buckskin, by the fingers which serve as a vise in holding the
flint. The flaking-tool is then taken in the right hand and the
point placed against the under edge of the flint at a point where
the artificer wishes to remove a chip. A steady down and under
pressure will produce the necessary conchoidal fracture. The
angle at which the flaker is held will determine the length of
Fig. 8 1 shows the way deer horn is cut into suitable pieces
to be made into flakers. The process is very laborious and re
quires much grinding and cutting. During the entire exploration
in the Feurt site not a single perfect horn was found, all hav
ing been worked into implements or the cut pieces stored for
FISH-HOOKS FOUND IN THI-: VILLA*, i;.
Fig. 82 shows several fish-hooks complete, several that were
broken in use. and several showing the different stages in the
manufacture of this very important implement. The hooks were
The I citrt Mounds and I illin/c Site.
Vic,. S(i. Flaking t<><>l> niado <>\ dorr and oik h<>ni: l /> sixo.
The I curt Mounds and I ilia </e Site
The Feurt Mounds and Village Site. 133
not so abundant as at Baum s and at Gartner s, but the mode
of manufacture was exactly the same, for a minute description
of which the reader is referred to the report upon the Baum
village.* Smith found in the Kentucky site fish-hooks similar
to those found at the three ( )hio sites, but evidently did not
secure specimens showing the various stages in their manufac
ture. However, from the general appearance of the hook and
the bone used in making the same, one must believe they were
\\-HJSTLK-LIKl-: I.IiJKCTS OF I!O.\K.
\Yhistle-like objects shown in Fig. 83 are of special interest,
since not a single specimen was found either at (iartner s or at
Baum s, although these sites were of the same culture as Feurt s.
Smith found the whistle in the Kentucky site and many examples
have been found at various sites along the Ohio river. Smith
suggests that perforated bones were perhaps used "in religious
ceremonies rather than for animal calls." The whistle-like
specimens shown in Fig. 83 were made of the radius of various
large birds such as the eagle, hawk, wild turkey and others: In-
cutting off the ends, thus leaving a hollow straight cylinder, a.-
shown in the first three specimens of Fig. 83. Many specimens
similar to these were found and several show where they had
been marked for drilling. The holes were drilled with a flint
drill, and were usually three in number. Xow and then one
would be found with two holes, and occasionally one with four
holes. The holes were usually round, but a number show an
oblong hole. Frequently the oblong hole would show that it
was enlarged from the round hole by burning. The holes for
the most part were bored in a straight line, usually equidistant
apart : however one specimen was found ( shown in the center
of the lower row in Fig. 83 ) where two holes were in line bur
the center hole was to one side. Smith found a specimen in the
Kentucky site with seven holes, complete, and the eighth hole
started, while others found by him varied as to number of holes
and in irregularitv as to distance from each other.
^Certain Mounds and Village Sites in Ohio. Vol. 1.
77/r I cnrt Mounds and l- illayc Site.
FIG. 8:1 Whistle-like objects of bone: r! size.
The l-eiirt Mounds and Village Site. 135
CUT LOWER JAW OF THE DEER.
Fig. 84 shows the cut lower jaw of the deer, found in such
abundance in the village, and certainly generally used, as sev
eral hundred were found.
No. i of Fig. 84 represents one-half of the lower jaw of a
mature deer, having the posterior portions of the jaw broken
away which is usual in all the jaws used. No. 2 shows a dis
carded jaw, the anterior part of which had been cut away and
found defective. The Indian method of procedure was to cut
a bone on each side slightly, and then break it off. Very often
the bone would be so splintered as to render it useless. This
happened with No. 2 and the jaw was discarded. No. 3 had a
double use as it would serve the same purpose as No. i, besides
being used as an awl formed by sharpening the anterior part of
the jaw. No. 4 of Fig. 84 has both the posterior and anterior
part of the jaw cut away. However, the greater number of jaws
found were like Xo. i, the object no doubt being to use the
teeth as a grater for green corn,* for which purpose they would
serve admirably. Cvit deer jaws similar to those described above
were found at Haum s and Gartner s, and Smith found the jaw
cut in the same way in the Kentucky site.
ORNAMENTS MADE OF JiONE.
( )rnaments made of bone were found in great numbers over
the entire site, especially in the form of beads. The beads were
of different lengths ranging from one-half inch to three inches,
and for the most part were made of the hollow wing bones of
large birds. They were usually plain and undecorated, except
that now and then one would be found having incised lines en
circling it. Many of the beads show long use, being worn and
( )ther very important ornaments found in the village were
cut jaws of various animals, such as bear, mountain lion, gray
wolf, gray fox and wildcat. No. 3 of Fig. 85 shows the pos
terior part of the upper jaw of the gray wolf. Nos. 4, 6 and /
are parts of the lower jaw of the gray fox, and No. 5 of Fig.
*Archaeo1ogical Report of Canada. 191R.
The l-ciu t Mounds and I iUayc Site.
[ u,. S-l. Implements made of the lower jaw of the deer; - ; size.
The 1 curt Mounds and I* ill aye Site.
***%., I . .
IMC,. vi "). Objects made of bone and tbe jaws of animals: H size.
138 I he I curt Mounds and I illayc Site.
85 is the lower jaw of the wildcat, having the posterior part cut
awav. Xo. 8 of Fig. 85 shows a part of a triangular bone per
forated with holes. Xos. 12 and 13 of Fig. 85 are hone pendants
made from the shoulder blade of the deer. Xo. 12 is plain, and
pierced with a counter-sunk hole for attachment, as shown in
Xo. 13. which is decorated on the edges with notches. Xo.
14 of Fig. 85 is a bone pendant made in the form of an arrow
head and pierced with a small hole for attachment.
OKNA.M KNTS MAUK OK TKKTII ( >! ANIMALS.
I he black bear, and the grav wolf were animals highlv
prixed by the people of the Feurt village, judging from the
perforated canines found so abundantlv in the village. Fig. 8h
shows a collection of canines representing both the black bear and
the gray wolf. They were found promiscuously in the village
site, especially in the tepee sites, and were no doubt accidentally
lost, as practically all of the specimens found were perfect. The
teeth of the deer were never used for ornament, but practically
all of the teeth of the elk were used. Fig. 8~ shows the molars,
canines and incisors of the elk. pierced with holes for attach
ment and perhaps used as ornaments. The other teeth shown
in I- ig. 87 are the canines of the gray fox, raccoon, opossum
and wildcat. Likewise, all these teeth were abundantly found
in the perfect state, and like those of the bear and wolf were
Fig. 88 shows parts of broken fossil molar teeth of the
mammoth and the mastodon. These specimens were found
promiscuously scattered throughout the village. The perfect
fossil teeth were no doubt found by the Feurt peoples and car
ried to their village and there worked into ornaments. The part-
shown in the figure doubtless were rejected, being broken in
such a manner as to be unfitted to their use. Xos. 2. 3 and 4
of l r ig. (S<S belong to the mastodon and are broken pieces of
the Y-shaped ridges covered with enamel.
Xos. i and 5 of Fig. 88 belong to the mammoth, a true
elephant, the teeth of which are characterized by plates of
enamel set upright in the body of the tooth. Xo. i shows one
The I- cui t Monads and I iUai/c Site.
The Fcurt Mounds and Village Site.
FIG. <^7. Ornaments made of teeth of various animals; % size.
The Feurt Mounds and Village Site.
IMC. SS. Broken molars of the mastodon and the mammoth; n sixe.
142 I lie I- curt Mounds and I ilhujc Site.
of these plates ready to he worked into form. Xo. 5 shows two
of these plates still attached. The top shows the grinding
surface of the tooth. Xo ornaments fashioned from the teeth
of the mastodon or mammoth were found in the village, hut
doubtless ornaments may he found at some future time. Xo
evidence was found at ISaum s or at (iartner s showing the use
of fossil teeth, and Smith makes no record of rinding mastodon
or mammoth teeth at the Kentucky site. However, objects
made of the fossil tusk of the mastodon or mammoth have been
reported from various burials found in ( )hio. and the Museum
contains several specimens purporting to come from these
( )K X A M I-: X TS ( IF S 1 1 KLL.
Ornaments made of ocean shell as well as of the common
mussel shell were found near the surface of the village. < )ur
own survey was unable to find but few ornaments made of shell.
but Mr. \Yertz secured many examples of cut shells, both plain and
ornamented, and perforated for attachment as pendants. Fig.
89 shows a number of cut and ornamented shell pendants and
gorgets. Xos. i . 2 and 3 are specimens made of mussel shells ;
Xo. 4 a gorget made of ocean shell, pierced with two holes ;
No. 5 is perhaps part of a large decorated gorget, which had
been broken and reworked into form ; Xos. 6 and / are pendants
with enlarged ends, made from ocean shell; Xos. S. 9, 10 and
1 1 are pendants made of ocean shell, decorated and provided
with perforations or incised lines for attachment; Xo. 12 is
similar to Xo. 5, and made from a broken decorated shell object;
Nos. 14. 15, j6, 17 and iS are shell pendants; Xos. 19. 20
and 21 are unfinished shell pendants; Xo. 22 is an unusual
pendant with two perforations near the center for attachment.
X"o. 23 is an effigy of an eagle claw, made of ocean shell.
Pendants made of the incisor of the elk, ( Xo. 24) were
frequently found, and all were perforated for attachment.
X T o. 25 is a pendant made of the canine tooth of the elk.
Specimens of this kind were not met with in such numbers
as were found at Baum s.
J h.c I- curt M omuls and I "i/la</c Site.
I u;. 89. Ornaments made (if shell ; r- size.
144 The Fen-rt Mounds and Village Site.
Xo. 26 might he considered a head of unusual make, heing
perforated at each end for attachment. Xo. 27 is a cylindrical
head made of ocean shell, and perforated lengthwise for attach
ment to a necklace.
IIOKS MAIM-: OF SIIF.LL.
1 Iocs made of shell were found in goodly numhers in the
Feurt site. The hoes shown in Fig. <jo are representative
specimens found in the site, and resemhle both as to kind of
shells used and in manner of manufacture, those found at
Haum s and (iartner s. Smith found the perforated shells at the
Kentucky site. ( )n many sites along the ( )hio and Scioto
rivers, a different form of hoe is found. This hoe is made of
a ferruginous sandstone, which outcrops along the Ohio river
and occurs in thin layers, and when broken into the desired
form and sharpened form a very desirable implement. Of
these, however not a single specimen was found in the Feurt
SIIKLLS rSF.I) FOR SPOONS AND SCRAPKRS.
The specimens shown in Fig. 91 were doubtless used as
spoons and scrapers, or both. They were abundant and were
no doubt a very useful implement. All show use and many are
worn, as shown in the figure. The majority of the spoons or
scrapers are plain, but manv are perforated with a small hole
for attachment to a handle or to clothing.
Shell spoons are frequently met with in the Ft. Ancient
culture sites in ( )hio. At Baum s shell spoons were found in
the village site as well as the graves, but no specimens were
found at (iartner s. Smith found shell spoons in the Kentucky
site and they have been reported from many village sites along
the Ohio river.
The examination of the Tremper Mound, in 1915, very
naturally led to the desire to know something of the inhabitants
of the Feurt Mounds and Villagesite, lying just across the
Scioto river to the eastward. The close proximity of the sites,
as well as their relative size and importance, was sufficient to
raise the question as to whether or not there might have been
The Feurt Mounds and Village Site.
FIG. 90. Hoes made of mussel shell ; ?. size.
I he I- curt Mounds and I ilhu/c Site.
Fi<;. !>1. Shell spoons and scrapers made of mussel shell: ii size.
The l : curt Mounds and Village Site. 147
some connection between the two. It was apparent without
detailed examination that the cultural stages represented by
the two sites were extremely different, and that if any connec
tion were to be discovered it would be due entirely to con
temporaneity of occupation and the consequent relationship
which, amicable or hostile, is bound to exist where two peoples
are co-resident in a vicinity.
In the examination of the Tremper mound, some objects
were found which seemed pertinent to a culture other than that
of the occupants and builders ; not many, to be sure, for being
of the most advanced type of peoples resident in prehistoric
Ohio, they doubtless were mainly self-sufficient and found but
little among the treasures of their lowlier neighbors which they
would deign to possess. Still, there were a few things some
Hint arrowpoints. an object or two of stone and bone which
apparently belonged to the so-called Fort Ancient peoples resi
dent in most of southern Ohio.
And while not many objects having their origin with the
latter people could be expected among the relics of the esthetic
Hopewell culture, it was reasonable to suppose that the com
paratively elegant ornaments and implements of copper and
other materials possessed by these would be highly prized and
sought for by those who lacked the skill to produce them.
It was therefore, an important consideration in the ex
ploration of the Feurt site, readily attributable to the Fort
Ancient culture, to determine the presence or absence thereat
of objects pertaining to the nearby Tremper site, and from
this, to prove or dispose of the already formed opinion that
the occupants of the two sites were not unacquainted with
If it should prove that they were contemporaneous in their
residence in the vicinity, it was patent that their relations
might be either friendly or unfriendly. If friendly, it was
reasonable to hope that we might find in the Feurt site some
few of the finely wrought and obviously desirable objects of
the Tremper people, secured and prized by the less advanced
culture. In this case, it would naturally be expected that such
valued possessions would be found with burials.
148 The rcttrt Mounds and Village Site.
If, on the other hand, the relationship was hostile, such
objects might still he found, hut under very different conditions.
Observation has shown that the Fort Ancient peoples, while
less advanced along esthetic lines, were numerous, practical
and powerful, and instances are not lacking to show that they
sometimes took indemnity from their aristocratic neighbors. In
such case, the instinctive impulse, noted even among the
historic Indian tribes, prevailed, and instead of appropriating
the rich booty captured from the enemy for use as their own,
their one thought seems to have been to mutilate, batter and
destroy what pertained to the hated opponent. This is well
illustrated in the find of copper, mica and other objects at Fort
Ancient some years ago. which apparently had been captured,
by the residents from the higher culture, then broken, battered
and mutilated and hidden away in the earth. In either event
whether evidence pointed to a hostile or a friendly acquaint
ance, it would, if forthcoming, prove the contemporaneity of
the two peoples in question.
As it has been shown in the text that objects of copper were
found with burials thus indicating a friendly barter or
interchange of commodities and that, further, objects of un
doubted Tremper type were found discarded after having been
destroyed or mutilated pointing to hostile relation between
the two it seems reasonable to conclude that the inhabitants
of the Feurt site and the Tremper site, for a time at least,
were contemporaneous in their occupation of this section of the
Scioto valley. Furthermore, the order of the changed con
tact is apparent, since the objects found with burials pertained
to the earlier occupation of the villagesite, while those indicat
ing hostile relations were identified with the later occupation.
A possible explanation of this later misunderstanding may
be found in the deposit of Ohio pipestone, adjacent to the
Feurt site. Fxploration demonstrated that both the Feurt and
the Tremper peoples drew heavily upon this material, the old
quarries of which are within a very short distance of the Feurt
village. The working of these quarries may have proved to be
the casits belli between the two aboriginal settlements, and manv
The l-eurt Mounds and 1 ilhnjc Site. 149
account for the apparent change in their relationship toward
Aside from this phase of the in\ estigation. the inhabitants
of the Feurt Village-site are shown to have belonged to the
great Fort Ancient culture. They were very similar in prac
tically every respect to the inhabitants of the Paum Village
and the ( iartner Village, in < >hio. and to those of the Kentucky
site examined bv Smith.
RETURN TO the circulation desk of any
University of California Library
or to the
NORTHERN REGIONAL LIBRARY FACILITY
Bldg. 400, Richmond Field Station
University of California
Richmond, CA 94804-4698
ALL BOOKS MAY BE RECALLED AFTER 7 DAYS
2-month loans may be renewed by calling
1-year loans may be recharged by bringing books
Renewals and recharges may be made 4 days
prior to due date
DUE AS STAMPED BELOW
OCT 1 1 1996