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MUSEUM 

BARREII 



S. A. BARRETT 

( MILWAUKEE. - WS. "j 



19-LIBRARY OF- 

S. A. BARRETT 



MILWAUKEE. - Wis" 




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(2) 



Certain Mounds and Village 
Sites in Ohio 



VOL. 3 PART 1 



The Feurt Mounds and 
Village Sites 

BY 

WILLIAM C. MILLS, M. Sc. 



COLUMBUS, OHIO : 

THE F. J. HEER PRIXTIXG Co. 

1917 






Add l 



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N/ ? 

V. >_> i 



THE FEURT MOUNDS AND VILLAGE SITE. 

I ,V WILLIAM C. MILLS. 

The Feurt Mounds and Village Site are situated about five 
miles north of the city of Portsmouth, on the east side of the 
Scioto river, in Clay township. Scioto county, Ohio. The land 
upon which this group of mounds and the village site is located 
is a part of the estate of Mr. \Yilliam C. Feurt. which consists 
of more than 400 acres of rich bottom lands and sloping hill 
sides, and is considered one of the most productive and well- 
kept farms along the Scioto. Mr. Feurt, who gives personal 
attention to his farm, lives in a commodious and stately mansion, 
constructed in an early day by his father and added to, as re 
quired, by the son until today it stands among the most beautiful 
farm residences in the Scioto valley. 

The immediate location of the mounds and village site is 
a level plateau of less than five acres in extent, elevated a little 
more than forty feet above the bottom land into which it projects, 
promontory like, with steep and very abrupt banks. Looking 
south from the site of this village upon the broad and beautiful 
valley of the Scioto. and westward across the river valley to 
the foothills, where is located the Tremper Mound, one is im 
pressed with the fact that early man in the Ohio valley took 
advantage of natural surroundings in selecting a site for his 
home. 

The original top soil of this plateau was a clay loam of 
several feet in thickness, underlaid with gravel. The present 
top soil is from six inches to four feet above the original surface, 
as a result of the custom of the inhabitants of the village in 
carrying soil from the sides of the abrupt bank and covering up 
the accumulated debris in and around their tepee sites. When 
these places were uncovered, the story of the primitive peoples. 
who doubtless for a long period of time made this site their 
home, was revealed. 

(5) 



880 



6 The Pcurt Mounds and Village Site. 

THE CEXKRAL TOPOGRAPHY OF TIIK COUNTY. 

Scioto county is very rugged in all its parts, and is bounded 
on the south by the Ohio river, which separates Ohio from the 
Kentucky hills. The Scioto river flows through the county from 
north to south forming its junction with the Ohio at Portsmouth, 
the capital of the county. The valley of the Scioto is perhaps 
the most fertile and the broadest of any of the river valleys 
emptying into the Ohio. The hills on the east side of the river 
are higher than those on the west, and many of them are still 
covered with the deep tangled forest, unchanged since the days 
when early prehistory man roamed over them in search of game 
and food, or of the Ohio pipestone, which he prized so highly 
for making into pipes and ornaments. 

GEOLOGY. 

Scioto county presents many very interesting features as 
regards geological formations, that were taken advantage of by 
primitive man. The Ohio pipestone, which outcrops on the very 
summit of the highest hills on the east side of the river, clips 
to the east and covers the entire eastern portion of the county. 
The pipestone stratum varies in thickness from one foot to 
eleven feet, the average being three and one-half or four feet. 
At the outcrop on the summit of the hill, as shown by the old 
quarries made by primitive man, the color is light gray with a 
reddish tint, gradually shading into a dark red, which resembles 
the Minnesota pipestone. 

The Ohio pipestone was extensively quarried all along the 
crest of the hill. Many of these old quarries have been extended 
by white men, who sought to use the product in the making of 
fire brick, but the percentage of iron was too great, and the 
project was abandoned. The pipestone, however, as quarried 
by primitive man, was entirely suited to his purpose, as it was 
readily carved into form and would take a high polish. The 
prehistoric inhabitants of the Feurt village site used this pipe- 
stone extensively for making pipes and ornaments, as did the 
builders of the Tremper mound, located directly across the 
river on its west bank, from which the beautiful effigy pipes 
were taken in 1915 by the survey. 



The F-curt Mounds and Village Site. 7 

The Ohio black shale outcrops on the west side of the river 
and is one of the lowest stratums exposed in the county. In 
color the shale is very black and takes a high polish, but when 
exposed to the air and sun after being dug from the earth, it 
has a tendency to split up into thin sheets and finally to dis 
integrate. The shale was extensively used by the dwellers of 
the Feurt village, large slabs of it often being found in a single 
tepee site. On a piece of this black shale, roughly shaped into 
the form of a spear head, seven inches in length, was drawn 
a grotesque mythical conception of a water serpent, with pro 
nounced canine teeth and protruding spines. 

HISTORICAL DATA CONCERNING THE SITE. 

The peoples who constructed the Feurt mounds and lived 
in the village site belonged to the great Ft. Ancient culture, as 
attested by the mode of burial of their dead, and by the artifacts, 
found in profusion over the entire site. The land has been in 
possession of the Feurt family for many years and the site has 
always been known to local collectors as a very prolific field for 
their favorite pastime of hunting Indian relics. 

Of the local collectors. Mr. Chas. Y. Wertz of Portsmouth, 
perhaps has the largest collection found upon this site. Mr. 
\Yertz very kindly permitted the survey to make use of his col 
lection, which was picked up from the surface from year to year 
as the land would be freshly plowed. The finds of Mr. \Yertz 
present many interesting features when compared with those 
made below the plow line by our survey. Specimens of grooved 
stone axes found on the surface were not met with in any part 
of the village below the plow line; pestles found by Mr. \\ertz 
were not found by our survey, yet we were able to find many 
excellent examples of mortars and flat stones used in preparing 
meal; specimens made of cannel coal were abundant in Mr. 
\Yertz s collection, especially the effigy canines of the various 
carnivora, but below the plow line not a single specimen 
of cannel coal was found ; again the survey found but few pieces 
of cut and decorated shell ornaments but Mr. Wertz found many 
such. 



8 The 1-cnrt Mounds and I illayc Site. 

Mr. \\ ertz also found numerous pieces of copper, on some 
of which an attempt had been made to destroy their identity by 
hammering the finished product into a mass. The finding of 
the masses of bent and battered copper implements by Mr. Wertz 
led me to make the examination to determine, if possible, whether 
the Feurt peoples were contemporaneous with the Tremper 
mound peoples just across the river. 

Only two burials showed friendly contact with some tribe 
of the Hopewell culture. One of these was a splendid necklace 
made of shell and copper beads, and the other a necklace con 
sisting of bear teeth, and imitation bear teeth made of wood and 
covered with copper. However, Mr. Wertz found a number 
of copper pieces corresponding in type to those found in the 
Tremper mound which were hammered and bent out of semblance 
and resembling in many respects the cache of copper implements 
and ornaments found at Ft. Ancient. The specimens found by 
Mr. Wertz were taken from the edge of the bank where refuse 
from the village was dumped and where doubtless they were 
thrown away after being captured and their identity destroyed. 
The specimens found by our survey were no doubt secured by 
barter, and were very likely highly prized. 

KXl LORATIOXS MADK MY PROF. MOOKKI I HAD. 

During the year 1896, Prof. Moorehead, on behalf of the 
Society made a very limited examination of the three mounds. 
His report appears in vol. 5 of the Society s publications, as 
follows: "The afternoon of the I3th (July) we went up the 
Scioto five miles to Mr. Feurt s farm, where there are three 
mounds and an extensive village site. We opened the smaller 
mound and dug the large ones the following day. They are 
located upon the second terrace. The small one is two by twenty- 
five feet, the next four by fifty feet, the largest six by sixty 
feet in size. See Figure XV. The village site must cover at 
least five acres. Many interesting specimens were collected from 
it. while the men dug. by Cowen. Loveberry and myself. 

"The mounds are all sand and gravel. This is rather un 
usual. The burials numbered five in the smallest, nine in the 



The Fenrt Mounds and Village Site. 9 

next and 19 in the large one. Xo relics save mussel shells ac 
companied the remains. The pottery of the village site is very 
like that found along the Ohio. \Ye find a difference in the 
character of the pottery after reaching Highys in Ross county 
as one ascends the river. It may be that all the people from 
Higbys or \Yaverly on down used different clay, different forms, 
or were another tribe. Future study will determine that. 

"Mr. Feurt s farm is five miles up the Scioto on the east 
bank and seems to have been a remarkable village site. Field 
searching resulted in the finding of many pottery fragments and 
other material common to village sites. The pottery is peculiar 
to the lower Scioto and ( )hio river valleys. There is no mica or 
copper found. 

"In the mounds there were more burials above the base line 
than upon it. yet the place does not seem modern, for no 
European relics were found. Nearly every skeleton was doubled 
up. lay in even direction and several were on top of each other. 
Some were found within ten inches of the surface, but this is 
due in part to long cultivation lowering the height of the mounds. 

"Some war points were found between the ribs of a skeleton 
and several awls and needles lay near the heads of three skeletons. 
( )ne skeleton was that of an old man whose teeth were worn 
away. 

"Xine feet below the surface was found charcoal in the 
large mound. This was followed to near the edges and yielded 
nothing as usually is the case with charcoal layers. The excava 
tion in the large mound was thirty-five by twenty feet. There 
was a layer of ashes above the charcoal. Sand above this to top 
of mound. Xone of the others were stratified." 

KXl I.OK. \TIOX OF THE MOUNDS. 

On the 5th of July. 1916. was begun the present exploration 
of the Feurt mounds and village site. The examination had 
as its purpose the exposing to view of unexplored portions of 
the three mounds, comprising the group, and certain parts of 
the village site surrounding them ; the recording of all finds both 
in the mounds and village site and the photographing of all im- 



10 flic I curt Mounds and I ilhujc Site. 

portant features in connection with mortuary customs ; to de 
termine, if possible, whether or not the Feurt inhabitants were 
contemporaneous with the Tremper mound peoples on the op 
posite side of the Scioto; and to compare the mortuary customs 
and artifacts found with the dead and in the village site with 
other sites of the same culture previously explored in Ohio and 
Kentucky. 

The surveyor of the party, Mr. II ugh L. \\augli, made a 
complete survey of the mounds and the village site and prepared 
a topographic ma]), which is shown as Fig. i. lie then established 
secondary traverse points around the mounds and in the village 
site, and from these located the various finds both in the mounds 
and the village site, and from his notes prepared Fig. 2, which 
shows the amount of the village site dug oxer. 



Mound Xo. i is the smallest of the three mounds, having 
a maximum length of seventy-five feet, a maximum width of 
sixty feet, and height at the center of two and three-fourths 
feet. From this mound 102 burials were removed by our survey. 
According to his report, Mr. Moorehead took from the center 
of the mound live skeletons, making a total of 107 skeletons 
buried in this small mound. 

The mound was begun by placing bodies upon the original 
surface and then carrying earth from the surface nearby and 
covering them over. The soil used for covering the bodies was 
frequently filled with animal bones, and often implements and 
ornaments were present, showing that the earth had been gathered 
up from around a tepee site. This condition prevailed through 
out the mound. 

Of the 1 02 burials, seventy-three were adults, eleven ado 
lescents and eighteen children. The adult and adolescent burials 
were practically all Hexed and only a single instance was found 
where the body had been extended at full length. Fourteen 
burials were of special interest and will be described. 

Burial Xo. 4 had trunk lying on right side with shoulders 
slightly elevated, head on chest, humeri alongside the trunk, the 




TOPOGRAPHIC MAP 



FEURT MOUNDS AND PREHISTORIC VILLAGE SITE 

E*p o-ed by 
WILLIAM C.MILLS 

1916 

H LWough Sur&Del 



FIG. 1. Topographic map of the Feurt mounds and village site. (11) 



FLOOR PLAN 



FEURT MOUNDS AND PREHISTORIC VILLAGE SITE 



-, 



Explored by 
WILLIAM C. MILLS 





(12J) FIG. 2. Floor plan of the Feurt mounds and village site. 



The l : curt Mounds and Village Site. 



13 



elbows at the pelvis, the femurs vertical, with the lower leg bones 
closely flexed against them. The tibias were greatly enlarged, 
showing a diseased conditon. Upon the chest was found a large 
molar from the lower jaw of the elk. One of the roots of this 
tooth was perforated for attachment. The tooth is shown as 
Xo. i of Fig. 87. 

Ikirial Xo. 24 comprised only parts of a skeleton, the skull, 
with lower jaw widely separated from it, and the right leg. 
complete, being the bones present in the grave. Associated with 




FIG. >. Part <>f human skeleton hurled with animal and hird Imno. 

these parts was the skull of a very large black bear and the pelvis 
of a wild turkey. The burial is shown in Fig. 3. There seems 
to have been no disturbance of the bones after they were placed 
in the grave and no evidence is forthcoming to determine why 
only a part of the body was buried, and these parts associated 
with animal and bird bones. 

Ihirial Xo. 25 lay on its left side, the skull bent forward 
resting upon the chest : the right humerus lay alongside the 
trunk while the left lay beneath the body with the forearm and 
hand near the face. The legs were closely flexed to the trunk 
with the feet resting near the pelvis. The burial is shown in 



14 



The Fcurt Mounds and Village Site. 



Fig. 4. A long- and slender arrow point that had pierced the 
body, plainly indicates the tragic death of this individual. The 
arrow entered the body from the left side, striking the seventh 
rib and cutting its way through the bone, the point being found 
in the region of the heart. 

Another arrow entered the body from the right side, striking 
the arm bone near the socket joint, no doubt while the individual 




FIG. 4. Burial showing the effect of two arrow wounds. 

had his arm raised, in the act of striking a blow with an axe, or 
was in the act of using his bow and arrow. This wound probably 
would have caused death by severing the circumflex arteries. 
The arm bone containing the arrow point firmly embedded in 
the bone is shown in Fig. 5. The bone presents no indication 
of repair. 

Burial No. 28 was the largest individual taken from the 
mound, measuring six feet and five inches. The skeleton was 



The Fenrt Mounds and Village Site. 15 

that of a male of mature years which had been placed in the 
grave on the left side, both arms flexed in front of the body, 
and the lower leg bones flexed to the back of the femurs. The 
burial is shown in Fig. 6. Xear the pelvis was found a few 




FIG. 5. The arm bone showing the arrow point in place. 

serrated arrow points and beneath the trunk were two well- 
wrought bone awls. 

Burial Xo. 33. adult female; placed on left side, arms flexed 
to trunk, hands in front of skull, femurs flexed closelv to the 



16 



The F curt Mounds and Village Site. 



trunk, \vitii lower leg bones drawn closely to them. The body 
had been wrapped in bark and the grave lined on sides and bot 
tom with a coarse bark. 

Jlurial r o. 58; adult female, placed in center of mound. 




FIG. (>. Rurial showing the largest individual found in the village. 

The arms and legs were closely flexed to the trunk. At the foot 
of the grave, flat sandstones, approximately eighteen inches long 
by twelve inches wide were placed on edge, and formed one end 
and part of one side of the grave. This was the only instance 



The Fcurt Mounds and Village Site. 17 

in which stones were used in the mounds of this group, although 
the use of flat stones for sides and ends of graves is a common 
occurence in this culture, in southern Ohio. 

Burial Xo. 67 ; child, about ten years of age, placed two feet 
from the surface of the mound ; head bent forward upon the 
chest. A necklace, made of ten perforated canines of the black 
bear, was found around the neck. 

Burial No. 72 ; adult male, lying on right side with the arms 
and legs closely flexed to the body. Near the right elbow were 
found three well-wrought serrated arrow points. 

Burial No. 75 ; child of perhaps seven years of age. The 
body was placed on its left side and the arms extended parallel 
with the body, but the legs were flexed closely to the body. The 
head was surrounded by fine gravel and sand. Around the neck 
was a necklace made of a perforated canine of the gray wolf, 
three effigy bear canines, made of wood and covered with copper, 
and a large shell gorget. Fig. 7 shows the shell gorget and the 
effigy teeth. 

Burial No. 84; child, of perhaps five years. The burial was 
twelve inches from the surface and was no doubt disturbed by 
recent plowing, as the bones were badly broken. The grave was 
practically round, and the arms and legs were closely flexed to the 
body. A neckhce made of small shells (Marginella apicina) was 
found around the neck. 

Burial No. 85 ; adult male, flexed on right side. Around the 
hips was the remnant of a belt, to which were attached parts of 
the lower jaw of the gray squirrel. ( Sciurus caralinensis). 

Burial No. 86 ; adult male, with enlarged tibia. 

Burial No. 94; adult male, arms horizontal with trunk, the 
lower extremities closely flexed and slightly to the right. A fine 
necklace, made of shell and copper beads strung alternately, was 
found around the neck. 

Burial No. 97 ; adult male, near north side of mound ; 
skeleton flexed, on right side. Two large shell discs, perforated 
at the center and having a diameter of one inch, were found 
around the neck. The left tibia and fibula were stained with cop 
per, but the object, whatever it may have been, had long since 
changed to the carbonate of copper. 



18 



The Peurt Mounds and I illaye Site. 



if 
, t 






FIG. 7. Shell gorget, and imitation bear teeth, made of wood and covered 

with copper. 



The I- curt Mounds and niUu/c Site. 19 

Mound Xo. 2. 

After the first mound was finished, our working force hav 
ing increased to eleven men. I decided to divide the men, and 
placed six with H. C. Shetrone, my assi>tant. With these work 
men. Mr. Shetrone examined the second mound of the group. 
With the other rive men. I commenced the examination of the 
village site on the south side of the plateau and not far from the 
third mound of the group. Mr. Shetrone during his examination 
of Mound Xo. 2. secured 137 burials. Of these 121 were adults, 
ten adolescents and six children, and all were place;! in the grave 
with the arms and legs more or less flexed to the bodv. 

Mound Xo. 2 was the highest mound of the group, and was 
located near the west edge of the plateau, about one-fifth of the 
mound having fallen down the embankment. The actual 
measurements show the mound to be ninety feet north and 
south, forty-five feet east and west and about eight feet high. 
( )n the north and east sides of the mound the burials were verv 
close together and were arranged in four tiers. Xear the cen 
ter of the mound, as shown by the absence of burials (Fig. 2). 
is where Prof. Moorehead removed nine skeletons. The south 
side was again very plentiful in skeletons, as shown in Fig. 2. 
Burials were also found below the base line. A photograpn 
is shown of a cut in this mound showing a burial below the 
base line. Fig. S. as well as burials at various heights in the 
mound. 

( )ne of the interesting features as shown by the burials in 
this mound, was the absence of artifacts placed with the dead, 
for only four burials of the 137 had any objects placed in the 
grave. This condition is very unusual in this culture, for. while 
graves are seldom prolific in artifacts, a few obiects are fre 
quently placed with the dead. 

Burial Xo. 5 ; adult male, arms and legs closely flexed to tlvj 
body. This burial was forty-two inches deep. Xear the right 
arm were two very finely chipped arrow points of the triangular 
type. The points were so placed as to lead one to believe they 
were attached to arrow shafts when placed in the grave. 

Burial X o. 6 ; adult male, legs closely flexed to the body, 
right arm parallel with body, left arm flexed. X"ear the pelvis 



20 



The Fenrt Mounds and Village Site. 



was found an excellent example of the triangular serrated ar 
row point, three inches in length. 

Burial Xo. 9 was that of an adult male. The body was 
flexed and lay on its right side. Xear the left arm was found 
a slender bone awl, six inches in length. The awl is made from 
very heavy bone, presumably the leg bone of the deer. The im 
plement is about one-fourth inch in diameter, square at one 
end, with a small crease around the bone, and the other end 
tapering to a tine point. 




FIG. H. Burials shown at various hrihts in mound Xo. 2. 

Burial Xo. 43; adult male, the legs and arms flexed closely 
to the body. The posterior portion of the skull was partly 
crushed and badly decayed, and within the skull cavity was 
found a triangular arrow point. From the general position 
of the point in the cavity of the skull and the position of the 
skull with reference to the crushed part, one must believe the 
arrow did not drop into the cavity, but that it was very likely 
the fatal shot causing- the death of the individual. 



The l : curt Mounds and I illaye Site. 



Mound Xo. 



21 



The third mound of this group was interesting as show 
ing that a dozen or more bodies had been buried elsewhere and 
finally brought to the mound and reburied. This was evi 
denced by the absence of parts of the body, such as head, arms 
or legs, the burials showing no trace of disturbance after hav 
ing been placed in the grave. Another interesting feature of 




FIG. 9. Tepee fireplace found in mound Xo. 3. 

this mound, was the finding of the fireplace of a tepee site on 
the base line or floor. The fireplace is shown in Fig. 9. and 
contains charcoal and pieces of various broken vessels made 
of clay. Xo burials were made within the tepee proper, but 
several were found directly above the site. 

Another very interesting feature is the finding of several 
double burials where two bodies were placed together in the 



22 The I- curt Mounds and I illai/e Site. 

same grave. ( )ne of these double burials, shown in Fig. 10, is 
an excellent illustration of the general appearance of the skele 
tons in practically all of the double burials. In that shown, 
however, in Fig. 11, the bodies were flexed and placed one 
above the other at right angles. The four skeletons shown in 
Figs. 10 and i i are adult males. 

Mound Xo. 3 was six feet high, ninetv feet north-and- 
south diameter, and i 1 2 feet east-and-west diameter. It was 
constructed of soil taken from the surface, and contained 101 
burials. ( )f these thirty-seven were adult males, nineteen adult 
females, ten adolescents and fifteen children. ( )f the 101 
burials, something less than twenty will be described. 

Burial Xo. X; adult male, placed in the same grave with 
Xo. 4. a young adult male. The body was closely flexed upon 
the right side. Around the neck was a necklace made of bone 
beads cut from sections of the wing bones of large birds like the 
eagle and blue heron. The beads comprising the necklace were 
nineteen in number, about one-half inch in diameter, from one 
and one-half to two inches in length, and highly polished. 
This necklace is shown as Xo. i. in Fig. 12, the smallest of tin- 
four necklaces shown. 

Burial Xo. 13; adult male. The skeleton was in a good 
state of preservation. The body had been placed in the grave 
closely flexed, with the exception of the right arm. which lay 
parallel with the body. Around the neck was found a necklace 
of bone beads composed of twenty-three large and polished 
sections cut from the wing bone of birds like the eagle and 
crane. The necklace is shown in Fig. 12. Xo. 2. Many of the 
individual beads are decorated with incised circles and all are 
highly polished. Xear the left arm was found a line example 
of an arrow point made of antler. 

Burial Xo. 14; adult male, very old. The lower legs were 
flexed to the femurs, and both arms were so flexed that the 
hands covered the face. A shell hoe made from Unio plicatus, 
was found with this burial. 

Burial Xo. 23; adolescent, body closely flexed, and the 
skeleton in tine condition. Around the neck was found a neci<- 



The l-eiirt Mounds and I ilhuje Site. 



23 




FIG. 10. Double burial, mound Xo. !. 




24 



The 1 Citrt Mounds and tillage Site. 




FIG. 12. Necklaces taken from various burials. 



The Feurt Mounds and Village Site. 25 

lace made of forty marine shells (Marginalia apicina). This 
necklace is shown in Xo. I of Fig. 13. 

Burial Xo. 28; adult male. The body was placed in the 
grave lying on the hack, with the legs flexed in front, and the 
arms to the side of the body. Around the neck was found & 
necklace made of shell beads, twenty-two in number. The 
necklace is shown in Xo. 2, Fig. 13, and was made of two dif 
ferent kinds of shell beads, round and oblong. 

Burial Xo. 29 ; adult male, legs and arms closely flexed to 
the trunk, and the skeleton in a fine state of preservation. 
Around the neck of the skeleton was found a very large neck 
lace of bone beads made of the wing bones of large birds. The 
beads varied in length from one and one-half inches to two 
and one-half inches and were highly polished. The necklace is 
shown in Fig. 12, Xo. 3. Beneath the skull was found a large 
bone awl. six and one-quarter inches in length, made of the 
heavy bone of the deer. The awl is round in cross section and 
undecorated. and was perhaps used as a hair pin or ornament. 

Burial Xo. 31 was that of a child. The burial was near 
the surface and the plow had partly disturbed the remains. A 
necklace of shell beads was found around the neck. The neck 
lace is shown in Fig. 13, Xo. 3. 

Burial Xo. 33 ; adult male. The body had been placed in the 
grave upon the left side : the legs were closely flexed to the 
trunk. The right arm lay parallel with the body and the left 
arm at right angles to the body. A very large necklace made 
of forty perforated canine teth of the mountain lion and the 
gray wolf was found around the neck. The necklace is shown 
in Fig. 14. Many of the teeth are decorated with incised lines. 

Burial Xo. 38; adolescent. The burial was near the plow 
line and a part of the skeleton was destroyed and the remainder 
badly broken up. The body was flexed when placed in the grave 
and a necklace consisting of four perforated Olivella shells was 
placed around the neck. The shells are shown in Fig. 15, Xos. 
i, 2, 3 and 4. 

Burial Xo. 40; adult female, body flexed, with the exception 
of one arm which lay parallel to the body. Under the sh .ill was 
found a large bone awl, neatly made and highly polished, per- 



26 



The 1 ciirt Mounds and Village Site. 







m 











The I- curt Mounds and I "dlayc Site. 



27 




14. Necklace made of canine teeth of the mountain lion and y-rav wolf. 



28 



The Feiirt Mounds and Village Site. 






7 



S 



9 





FIG. 15. Ornaments made of shell. 



The Fcnrt Mounds and tillage Site. 29 

haps used in the hair. The awl was six and one-quarter inches 
in length, round at one end and having a spatula-like enlarge 
ment at the other. 

Burial Xo. 48; adult male, legs flexed at knees and arms 
flexed to face. Xear the pelvis was found a fine stone celt and 
around the neck was a necklace of bone beads, as shown in Xo. 
4 of Fig. 12. This necklace is made of small wing bones of 
hawks, owls, wild ducks and geese and therefore very irregular 
in size. Some of the small beads have been telescoped by the 
large ones, this condition being shown in Xo. 4 of Fig. 12. 

Burial Xo. 49 was that of a child, and was placed one foot 
under the surface, the bones of the small skeleton being badly 
decomposed. Upon the breast was found three circular disk-like 
beads perforated at the center, about one-half inch in diameter, 
and a small pendant of shell. The beads are shown as 9, 11 and 
12 of Fig. 15, and the pendant as 14 of the same figure. 

Burial Xo. 77 was also a child. The skeleton was in very 
good condition and the bones for the most part were in a good 
state of preservation. \Yith this skeleton was found a perfect 
triangular arrow point. The point had evidently been attached 
to an arrow, from the position in which it lay in the grave. 
With the point was also a large bone awl made from the tarso- 
metatarsus of the wild turkey. While bone awls of this sort were 
found in very large numbers in the general digging of the 
mounds and village site, this is the only one made of this bone 
found intentionally buried with the dead. 

Burial Xo. 94; adult male. The legs and arms were closely 
flexed to the trunk, and the body was lying on the right side. 
On each side of the head was a small disk-shaped bead, one inch 
in diameter which may have been used as ear pendants. One of 
the discs was pierced with one hole at the center, while the other 
had three perforations surrounding the center of disk ; one of 
the holes is very small, while the other two are larger and about 
the same size. Around the neck was suspended a shell disk one 
inch in diameter. A large hole, one-quarter inch in diameter, 
pierced the shell at the center, while a small hole for its sus 
pension was near the outer edge of the disk. The discs are 
shown in Fig. 15. Xos. 6. 7 and 8. 



30 The 1 curt Mounds and I illcu/c Site. 

Ihirial Xo. 95; an adult female. The arms and legs were 
closely flexed to the trunk. Xear the left arm was found a well- 
wrought arrow point, lying parallel with the arm. 

lUirial Xo. 97; adult male skeleton, closely Hexed. Xear the 
pelvis was found a large hone awl made of a splinter of the heavy 
leg bone of the deer. The length of the awl is live and three- 
quarter inches. 

T1IK VII. LACK SITK. 

The examination of the village site was begun by the writer 
with a force of 5 men. after the first mound was finished and 
the examination continued during the remainder of the time 
devoted to the work at the Feurt farm, except for a short time 
consumed in examining the third mound. The amount of the 
surface of the hill examined is shown in Fig. 2. This village 
proved of exceptional interest when compared with other ex- 
pWed sites of the same culture (Fort Ancient culture) in Ohio 
and Kentucky. 

In Ohio, the P>aum village site was explored by the writer 
during three seasons in the field. 1899, 1900 and KJOJ. The site 
is located in the Paint Creek valley. Ross county. Ohio, and lies 
about 12 miles west of Chillicothe. The report of P>aum explo" 
rations is found in Certain Mounds and Village Sites in Ohio. 
Vol. i. pt. 3. and will be referred to in this report as Paums . 

The ( iartner Mound and Village Site is located six miles 
north of Chillicothe along the Scioto river and is described in 
Certain Mounds and Village Sites in Ohio, Vol. i. pt. 2, and will 
be referred to as Partners . The Kentucky site, written up as 
"The Prehistoric Fthnology of a Kentucky Site," is located in 
Mason County. Kentucky, about 14 miles southwest from Mays- 
ville. The site was explored by Harlan I. Smith in 1^95 and 
his report published in Anthropological Papers of the American 
Museum of Xatural History. Xew York, in 1910, and will be 
referred to as the Kentucky site. The three sites mentioned 
above are about of equal distance from the Feurt site and would 
fall within a fifty mile circle of the same. 

From the very earliest settlement of the lower Scioto the 
Feurt site was noted on account of the mounds, but after Mr. 
Feurt s father cleared the land and placed it under cultivation, it 



The I : curt Mounds and rillayc Site. 31 

became apparent that the entire spur of the hill, shown in Fig. 
2. was at one time a great camp site, as evidenced by the pro 
fusion of animal bones, mussel shells, implements and orna 
ments turned upon the surface after each successive plowing. 
thus forming a mecca for collectors of prehistoric objects. One 
of the most interested of the collectors in this vicinity was Mr. 
Charles V. \Vertz. previously mentioned, who has kindly placed 
his collection at my disposal. This collection shows many 
forms of artifacts not found under the plow line and therefore 
is of special interest in comparing the artifacts from the various 
village sites. 

The present extent of the village site is not far from four 
acres, but formerly the tablehnd extended much farther out 
into the valley and its extent when occupied by early man would 
perhaps be nearly five acres. L nder the surface soil of the 
plateau containing the village site, is found an excellent quality 
of gravel, which for more than half a century furnished the 
road building material used in constructing the pike for many 
miles both north and south of the Feurt farm. Day after day 
at the season of the year when road building and repair was in 
progress, as the gravel was removed from beneath, the top soil 
containing the artifacts would cave off and fall down to the 
bottom of the bank. The various objects, frequently broken, 
were gathered up by gravel haulers and by those interested in 
collecting, but the great bulk of artifacts were mixed with the 
gravel and scattered on the road, soon to be destroyed. Con 
sequently, an acre of rich-laden soil, containing the very best 
material of the site, was practically lost to science. However, 
on the south side of the spur, the plateau had not been disturbed, 
and as Mr. Feurt would often say, "this condition prevailed at 
the point where the gravel was removed." and from this infor 
mation. I feel assured had we been able to examine this part of 
the village that many more objects of special interest would have 
been brought to light. 

As before stated our object in making the examination of 
the village was twofold. First, to determine if possible whether 
or not the Tremper mound peoples living on the opposite bank 
and belonging to the great Ilopewell culture, were contempora- 



32 The Feurt Mounds and Village Site. 

neons with the Feurt peoples, belonging to the Fort Ancient cul 
ture, and if so whether or not the two cultures differing so 
widely could live in peace in such close proximity, separated only 
by the Scioto river, and its accompanying valley; second, a com 
parison of the Feurt peoples with similar known sites in Ohio 
and Kentucky. 

RESULTS OF THE EXAMINATION. 

Before beginning work in the village site, I had fully sat 
isfied myself by a superficial examination that the Feurt peo 
ples belonged to the great Fort Ancient culture, characterized 
by the mode of burial of the dead in mounds ; by the fact that 
the mounds in this culture are seldom surrounded by an earth 
work ; by the entire absence of copper objects made by them 
selves ; and by the almost total absence of the use of mica for 
ornament. The Fort Ancient culture peoples depended upon 
the chase for a part of their living, and from the bones of the 
animals they killed for food they made implements and orna 
ments to supplement those made of stone and flint. They also 
developed agriculture, for. every village of this culture examined 
produced many specimens of the cereal corn. 

The Hopewell culture, to which the Tremper mound peo 
ples living on the opposite bank of the river belong, were char 
acterized by a very different mode of burial, the dead for the 
most part being cremated and the ashes and charred bones 
placed in individual or communal graves ; by the presence of 
copper implements and ornaments in great numbers ; and by 
the making of objects of personal adornment in imitation. 

For instance, if the supply of pearls did not equal the de 
mand, they made them out of clay and covered the fashioned 
pearl with mica, rendered malleable by heat, or if the supply of 
bear teeth was not adequate, they simply made them of bone. 
These imitation bear teeth and the same is true of the imita 
tion eagle claws and other forms varied in size from that of 
the natural object, to a much larger size, representing a mythi 
cal animal or bird. 

The development of sculpture in the Hopewell culture is 
quite marked, this appearing particularly in the decoration of 



The I- curt Mounds and I illagc Site. 33 

their tobacco pipes, in the realistic portrayal of bird and ani 
mal life, sculptured in full relief and fashioned in minutest de 
tail. They also excelled in the art of weaving, as well as in 
ceramics. 

The fashioning of awls from the tarsometatarsus of the 
wild turkey was entirely different in the hands of the two cul 
tures. The Feurt peoples would use the entire bone, while the 
Hopewell would split the bone and make two awls instead of 
one; again the Feurt people in making a needle would use a 
flat and long bone, with an eye at one end. and sharp pointed 
at the other, while the Hopewell peoples in making their 
needles would use a strong, heavy but small and short bone, 
round in cross sections, an eye near one end and the other end 
sharply pointed. Accordingly, with such known facts concern 
ing their artifacts, one can readily distinguish between the cul 
tures inhabiting a given region. If an exchange of commod 
ities were made no doubt the object, whether implement or 
ornament, was converted to their use, but if an object was se 
cured in battle, it was frequently destroyed or broken up and 
then cached or thrown away. Here we find a friendly contact 
in the copper bead necklace and the imitation bear teeth, cov 
ered with copper, neither of these objects being made by the 
Feurt peoples, but who certainly wore objects secured in barter 
from a culture versed in working copper. Further, during Mr. 
\Yertz s various examinations of the Feurt site he secured from 
the edge of the bank several objects of copper that had been 
thrown in the refuse pile of animal bones and broken pottery. 
The various objects of copper had been hammered together 
and the identity of the object destroyed, and I have been led to 
believe that these objects had been captured as a prize from an 
enemy and disposed of as such. 

Therefore, upon the testimony disclosed by our explora 
tions and the finds of Mr. \Yertz. we must conclude that the 
Feurt peoples for a period of time were living in peace with 
their neighbors across the river, the Tremper Mound peo 
ples, as evidenced by the change of commodities; that later the 
two peoples became involved in conflict, this being borne out by 
the finding of skeletons pierced with arrow points, and by the 



34 The / curt Mounds and I ilhuje Site. 

finding of copper objects of the Tremper peoples in the refuse 
dumps of the Feurt peoples, with unmistakable signs of their 
having been mutilated. 

Kxi LOK. \TIONS IN DI-:T.\IL. 

The greater part of the village was examined under my 
direction, although Mr. Shetrone, with his six workmen ex 
amined that part of the village north of mounds Xo. i and 2, 
where he unearthed fourteen burials and ten tepee sites. The 
second squad of workmen, under my direction, working on the 
south and west sides of the plateau, unearthed forty-nine 
burials. Twelve of the burials were adults, three of which 
were male and nine female, and the remaining thirty-seven 
were very small children and babies. 

Till-: \ILL.\C.1-: lU KIAI.S. 

The fourteen burials unearthed by Mr. Shetrone north of 
mounds Xo. i and Xo. 2 consisted of ten adults, four of which 
were male and six female, and four adolescents. All of the 
bodies were flexed when placed in the grave. Three burials 
out of the fourteen had objects in the way of ornaments placed 
with them, and these will be described. 

Burial Xo. 3; adult female. The burial was only about 
12 inches deep, and being subjected to freezing and thawing, 
trampling by livestock and disturbed by cultivation, practically 
no part of it could be saved. At and around the left knee was 
placed a large strand of shell disc-shaped beads, numbering 180. 
These are shown in Fig. 16. 

Burial Xo. 6; adult male. The body when placed in tin- 
grave was flexed, the arms over the head and the legs drawn 
up close to the body. A shell necklace was found on the neck 
which consisted of five disc-like beads, one-half inch in diam 
eter; two cut pieces of shell and eight long beads made of the 
columella of an ocean shell. This necklace, one of the most 
interesting found in the village is shown in Xo. r of Fig. 17. 

Burial Xo. 10; adolescent. The body was flexed and the 
skeleton badly decomposed. Around the neck of this individual 



The Peart Mounds and I ill age Site. 



35 



*"~"^4 

-_ 



?> 

- oi \ i -\ 



.. 




C 

tj 

t 



>**? 



FIG. M. Xecklace of shell discs, taken from burial Xo. 3, found in the village. 



36 



The Fcurt Mounds and I illtu/c Site. 




FIG. 17. Necklace of shell and copper beads found in the village site. 



The Feurt Mounds and Village Site. 37 

was found one of the finest necklaces taken fioni the village. 
It is made of both copper and shell. The copper was ham 
mered into small tubular cylinders about one-half inch long, 
which were alternately strung with small shell beads, as shown 
in Xo. 2 of Fig. 17. 

The burials on the south and west side of the village site 
numbered forty-nine individuals, only one of this large number 
having artifacts placed in the grave, that of a small child 
less than one year of age. 

As before stated out of the forty-nine burials in the vil 
lage only twelve were adults, three of which were males and 
nine females. 

All of the males were aged individuals, while the females 
mostly were old. with however several who had not reached 
middle life. The remaining thirty-seven were very small chil 
dren or babies. 

LOCATION OF THE BURIALS WITH REFERENCE TO TEPEE SITES. 

The adult burials for the most part were not placed in 
close proximity to the tepee site in this respect, differing greatly 
from the village site burials at Baum s, where practically all of 
the burials closely surrounded the tepee site, representing a fam 
ily pri/ate burial where both adult male and female, together 
with adolescents and children were found. The same condi 
tions prevailed at Gartner s. Smith mentions no family burials 
at the Kentucky site. However, he found "the dead were de 
posited in the ground in graves, many of which were grouped, 
each group being covered by a low dome-shaped mound." 
Smith also found that many graves had slabs of stone at the 
sides and ends of the grave and some had slabs over the top. 

The conditions existing at Feurt s were certainly similar 
to those of the village site burials of the Kentucky site, and no 
doubt slabs of stone would have been used had they been avail 
able. At the Tremper mound on the west side of the river di 
rectly opposite Feurt s intrusive burials of the Ft. Ancient cul 
ture were found in the top of the mound in which slabs of 
stone were used, as the slabs were available near the mound. 



38 The Feurt Mounds and I llhuje Site. 

( hi the cast side of the river slabs of stone are not procurable 
in the immediate neighborhood of the Feurt side. 

A very interesting phase of the Feurt site burials was the 
finding of so many children and babies. These burials were 
confined to the west side of the village site and all were placed 
in close proximity to tepee sites, resembling in many respects 
the burials at Haums and Partners . The thirty-seven burials 
were attributed to 21 sites; ten sites having one burial each, 
six sites having two burials each, three sites having three 
burials each, and one site having four burials. With 
only one of the thirty-seven burials were objects placed in the 
grave, which was that of a small child not more than six 
months of age. Around its neck was placed an elegant neck 
lace of beads made of the columella of ocean shell, with a 
pendant in the form of a decorated shell gorget. The necklace 
is of special interest, as being buried with a child too young 
to understand and appreciate its decorative features. Pos 
sibly the mother in her bereavement bestowed upon her be 
loved child her finest ornament, permitting it to be placed with 
the body when it was lowered in the grave. 

The decorative feature of the shell gorget of this neck 
lace is of interest, since it is the only decorated gorget found 
in the village. The specimen is circular in form, three inches 
in diameter and decorated on the edge with scalloped indenta 
tions. One-fourth inch from the edge an incised line encir 
cles the gorget, while between this incised line and the edge 
small circular indentations appear. The center bears the in 
cised figure of what probably is intended as a spider. The 
gorget is pierced with two holes near the edge, and with one 
hole at the center. The necklace is shown in Fig. 18. 

TF.I KF, SITKS. 

The tepee sites at the Feurt village were in many respects 
similar to those of Haum s and Partner s, but lacked a certain air 
of permanence. At Baum s and Gartner s the poles used in con 
structing the tepees were large, and the tepee seemed to be more 
of a permanent abode. At these sites the fireplaces were very 
often mended manv times, while at Feurt s onlv two instances 



The I : curt Mounds and yillaye Site. 



39 




40 The I enrt Mounds and I "ilia ye Site. 

were found, one on the south side and one on the west side of 
the plateau, showing attempts to mend a fireplace. This was done 
by placing puddled clay in the bottom of the fireplace to fill up 
the deepened hole, caused by cleaning out the ashes from time 
to time, which process would incidentally remove a portion of 
the earth bottom. This condition of impermanence seems to 
have been due to the absence of the empty subterranean store 
house, to receive the refuse which would naturally accumulate 
around a primitive home. 

Instead of gathering up this refuse, the Fuert dwellers 
would cover it up with fresh soil, which for some reason appar 
ently they found easier to dig up and carry in than to gather 
up the refuse and carry it out. Consequently we found a sue" 
cession of tepee sites, one over the other. ( )n the south side 
of the plateau the surface had been raised four feet by the 
process of covering up instead of cleaning up, and in this four 
feet of surface accumulation were found bones of animals used 
for food in great profusion, shells of the fresh water mussel 
and implements and ornaments of bone, stone and shell scattered 
through the soil, which no doubt had been lost and accidentally 
covered up. 

Some of the tepee fireplaces were well made, one found 
north of the two mounds and worked out by Mr. Shetrone being 
almost a circle in form ( Fig. 19). This fireplace is two and 
one-half feet in diameter and had not been in use very long, as 
the ground in the center was not burned to a great depth. The 
circular ring forming the fireplace was made of puddled clay 
tempered with small gravel and broken pottery. In many of the 
tepee-site fireplaces were found broken pottery in abundance, and 
in two instances broken pots containing charred corn were found. 
At Gartner s broken vessels were found in the refuse pits con 
taining charred corn still clinging to the sides of the vessel. 
The charring of the corn must have been accidental, for no doubt 
the corn had been placed in the pot to cook and after receiving 
plenty of water was placed over the fire; but in the meantime, 
forgotten, the pot became dry, the corn was burned and the pot 
broken, and all was lost. This accident, while it worked a hard- 



The F curt Mounds and rillage Site. 



41 



ship upon primitive man. tells a mute story of early domestic 
trouble. 

In several of the tepee sites large stone mortars were found, 
showing that the preparation of meal from corn and perhaps 
acorns was part of the domestic routine. Smith seems not to 
have found evidence of the remains of habitations in the Ken- 
tuck}- site, while at all the sites in Ohio the tepee was abundant. 




FIG. 19. Fireplace found in the village. 



sriiTKKKAXEAX STOREHOUSE. 

The subterranean storehouse previously spoken of as abun 
dant at both Baum s and Gartner s was practically absent from 
the Feurt site, only two being found. One was cistern-like in 
form, being small at the top. having a diameter of 20 inches, 
gradually tapering to an enlarged bottom three and one-half feet 
in diameter, and having a depth of four and one-half feet. The 
storehouse was rilled with refuse consisting of animal bones, 
broken pottery and shells of the fresh water mussel, all mingled 
with soil and ashes. 



42 I hc I curt Mounds and I ilhKjc Site. 

The second storehouse was small, being about two feet iu 
diameter at the to]) and two and one-half feet at the bottom, 
with a depth of about three feet, and was likewise filled with 
animal remains. I see no explanation for the sparseness of such 
necessary appurtenances to a village of barbarous Ft. Ancient 
culture peoples. 

The Feurt inhabitants were certainly agriculturists, as evi 
denced by the finding of charred corn in various parts of the 
village. I erhaps their storehouses were constructed of wood 
and built upon the surface. At haum s two hundred and thirty- 
four storehouses were examined, and at (iartner s more than one 
hundred were found. Smith makes no record of these store 
houses at the Kentucky site, although corn and cobs were fre 
quentlv met with. 

FOOD KKSorkCKS. 

From our examination of this village, and the evidence sur 
rounding the tepee site, one must infer that the presence of bones 
of various animals in such profusion is indicative of their use 
as food and must have been one of the principal sources of 
supply. The presence of mussel shells, and the bones of fish 
and turtles in large numbers shows that the river served as their 
leader for at least a portion of the year. The rinding of the 
bones of the wild duck, wild turkey, hawks and eagles, indicates 
that all the birds that could be secured also were used for food. 
The presence of charred corn in so manv of the tepee sites as 
well as the shells of walnuts, butternuts, hickory nuts and acorns 
found so plentifully in the fireplaces, would indicate their use 
as food, and the profusion of seeds of the wild cherry, black 
berry and wild plum in the fireplaces show that they drew 
heavilv upon these for sustenance. 



It is quite evident from the large number of perfect and 
fragmentary bones of various animals scattered around the tepee 
sites of the village, and in fact wherever refuse could be thrown, 
that these represent animals that were used for food. The 
animals identified were the deer, elk, black bear, mountain lion. 



The I cnrt Mounds and Village Site. 43 

wild cat, raccoon, opossum, beaver, otter, ground hog, musk- 
rat, skunk, rabbit, mink, porcupine, wolf, gray fox, gray squirrel, 
Indian dog and fisher. 

Virginia deer (Odocoileus virginiamis ) was perhaps the an 
imal most sought for food, as its bones constitute fully fifty 
percent of all the bones found in the village. 

At Haum sthe deer constituted fully thirty-five percent of 
the animal bones of the village. At Partner s the bones of the 
deer were equal to all others combined. Smith in the examina 
tion of the Kentucky site mentions the Virginia deer among the 
animals used for food, but does not compare its bones as to 
numbers with other animals. 

Elk ( Cervus canadensis ) were not abundant in the village, 
but more plentiful than at either Haum s or ( Partner s. The elk- 
was also found in the Kentucky site by Smith. 

I Hack Hear ( I rsus americanus) was more plentiful than at 
either Haum s or (iartner s. Smith found the bear at the Ken 
tucky site. 

Mountain Lion ( Kelis concolor). The bones of this large an 
imal were very often met with and were more abundant than at 
Haum s or (iartner s; but this animal was not found by Smith at 
the Kentucky site. 

Wild Cat ( Lynx rufa). The bones of this animal were not 
abundant in the village, but at Haum s and Gartner s they were 
found in numbers. Smith mentions finding the bones of this 
animal in the Kentucky site. 

Raccoon ( 1 rocyon lotor). The bones of the raccoon were 
not very abundant in the village, and in this respect resembled 
the Gartner site, but at Haum s the raccoon was found in abun 
dance. Smith mentions the raccoon in the Kentucky site. 

Opossum (Didelphs virginiamis). The bones of the opos 
sum were found in abundance in the village, as they were at both 
Haum s and (iartner s. Smith mentions this animal as found in 
the Kentucky site. 

Heaver (Castor canadensis). The bones of the beaver 
were not abundant. Greater numbers were found at Haum s 
and (iartner s. ( )nly the incisors of the beaver are used for 
cutting tools and ornaments. The bones, on account of their 



44 The Feurt Mounds and Village Site. 

form, are seldom used for making into ornaments, conse 
quently they are usually found perfect ; but not many were 
found. Smith mentions the beaver in the Kentucky site. 

Otter ( Lutra canadensis). Only a few bones of this ani 
mal were found in this village, but its remains were plentiful 
at Baum s though not so many were found at Gartner s. Smith 
does not mention finding the bones of the otter at the Kentucky 
site. 

Ground Hog (Arctomys monax). The bones of this ani 
mal were fairly abundant and resembled the Gartner finds, but 
at Baum s the bones of the ground hog were especially abun 
dant. They were also found at the Kentucky site by Smith. 

Musk Rat (Fiber zibethicus). The bones of the musk 
rat were not abundant in the village site, but their distribution 
resembled both Baum s and Gartner s. Smith does not men 
tion the finding of the bones of the musk rat in the Kentucky 
site. 

Skunk (Mephitis mephitica). The bones of this animal 
were more plentiful in the Feurt site than at either Baum s or 
Gartner s. Smith did not find the skunk at the Kentucky site. 

Rabbit (Lepus sylvaticus). \Yhile the bones of this ani 
mal were fairly plentiful in the village, I am led to believe that 
bones of such animals as the rabbit, ground hog and raccoon 
would be for the most part destroyed by the Indian dog, primi 
tive man s only domestic animal. This is more probable since 
practically no subterranean storehouses were in evidence for 
the disposal of the refuse from the village and bones scattered 
over the surface would be readily accessible to the hungry 
dogs, as evidenced by the large leg bones of the bear, deer and 
elk showing that they had been gnawed. 

Mink (Putorius vison). A number of lower jaws and 
portions of broken skulls of this animal were obtained. The 
mink was found at Baum s and Gartner s. Smith also records 
the animal from the Kentucky site. 

Porcupine (Erethizon dorsatus). The bones of this ani 
mal were found in the Feurt site, and might be considered the 
first record of the porcupine in a prehistoric Ohio village. Al 
though the bones of this animal were found at Baum s, they 



The Fcurt Mounds and Village Site. 45 

had not been properly identified when the published report 
upon the Bauni village was made. 

However, a record was made of the finding of the bones 
of the porcupine at Damn s in my report upon the Tremper 
Mound. At the Tremper mound the first and only sculpture so 
far unearthed of this animal was found. The bones were not 
found at Gartner s and Smith does not mention them at the 
Kentucky site. 

Wolf ( Canis occidentalis). The bones of this animal 
were sparingly found throughout the village, and this same 
condition prevailed at Baum s and Gartner s the bones not be 
ing plentiful but a few being present throughout the village. 
Smith found the bones of the wolf in the Kentucky site. 

Gray fox ( Urocyon virginianus ). The bones of the gray 
fox were very abundant in this village as well as at Baum s 
and at Gartner s. Smith did not find the gray fox at the Ken 
tucky site, but mentions finding the bones of the red fox. In 
Ohio the remains of the red fox have not been found in any 
prehistoric village site of record, but the bones of the gray fox 
have always been found in large numbers in practically all of 
the sites. 

Gray squirrel ( Sciurus carolinensis). Found everywhere 
in the village. The gray squirrel was also present at Baum s, 
but was not found at Gartner s. Smith did not find the bones 
of the gray squirrel in the Kentucky site, but found the red or 
fox squirrel. 

Indian Dog (Canis). The bones of the dog were very often 
met with and resemble the dog found at the Baum site and at 
Gartner s. Smith did not find the dog at the Kentucky site. 

Fisher ( Mustela pennanti). The bones of this animal were 
sparingly found in the village. It was also found at Baum s and 
recorded from there as the first record of its presence in Ohio. 
The bones of the fisher w^re not found at the Gartner site, and 
Smith does not mention the animal as present in the Kentucky 
site. 



46 The I cn-rt Mounds and Village Site. 

TURTLES USED FOR FOOD. 

Snapping Turtle ( Chelydra serpentaria). Found abun 
dantly in this village. At Baum s the snapping turtle was present 
everywhere in the village. 

Box Turtle (Cestudo virginea). Found in abundance in the 
village. The bones were also very abundant at Baum s and at 
(Partner s. Smith found at the Kentucky site two specimens of 
turtles. 

MUSSELS AND FISH USED FOR FOOD. 

Everywhere in the village the shells of the fresh water 
mussel were found, and these were certainly a great source of 
food supply. At Baums the mussel shells were abundant, and 
at ( iartner s the remains of large mussel bakes were found in 
several instances and these bakes contained many thousands of 
shells. Smith found the mussel abundant at the Kentucky site. 

Fish hones were found everywhere in the village ; those 
identified were catfish, perch, suckers, buffalo, gar and fresh 
water drum. Bones of fish were found in abundance at Baum s 
and at Gartner s and Smith found fish bones in the Kentucky 
site. 

I .IRDS USED FOR FOOD. 

The hones of birds found in the village site were numerous, 
especially those of the wild turkey, which predominates among 
bird bones. Others noted were the trumpeter swan, Canada 
goose, great blue heron, bald eagle, great horned owl and several 
species of ducks. The bones of various birds were found at 
Baum s and at (iartner s. Smith found the hones of the great 
blue heron, wild turkey, duck, owl and eagle at the Kentucky 
site. 

PLANT FOOD. 

Corn (Zea mays) was the most important agricultural prod 
uct raised by the dwellers in the Feurt village, for charred corn 
was found in many tepee sites and fireplaces in the village. 
However, as far as noted, only the eight-rowed variety was grown 
Since but few subterranean storehouses were found, no doubt 
surface granaries were constructed of wood to care for the sup 
ply of corn. The tepee was all too small to store any amount 



The Fciirt Mounds and Village Site. 47 

of food products. At Baum s and at Gartner s it was found that 
for a time after the grain had been used out of the subterranean 
storehouses, they were used for the storage of nuts and dried 
fruit, and doubtless for the storage of meat, both fresh and 
dried. 

The charred corn so frequently found in the fireplaces at 
Fetirts, was due, I am sure to accident, either the spilling of the 
corn into the tire, or the breaking of the pot in which it was 
cooked. Fig. 20 shows the lumps of corn taken from the half- 
broken earthen pots. At the Gartner village site broken earthen 
vessels were found in the refuse pits with lumps of charred corn 
still clinging to the sides of the vessel. At Baum s the charred 
remains of the ears were found in the bottom of the subterranean 
storehouse, where the ears had been placed in regular order, and 
at Baum s two varieties were found an eight-rowed and a ten- 
rowed variety. The eight-rowed variety found at the Feurt site 
resembles in every way the eight-rowed variety found at Baum s. 
The grains of corn, together with the cobs are shown in Fig. 21. 
Smith at the Kentucky site found an eight-rowed and a twelve- 
rowed variety. As far as we know, the twelve-rowed variety 
has not been found in ( )hio. 

Kidney Beans ( I haseolus vulgaris ) were found sparingly in 
the fireplaces, and were no doubt used for food, as it is well 
known the kidney bean grew wild over the state, as recorded by 
the early botanists. Beans were found at Baum s and Gartner s 
and Smith records the finding of the beans at the Kentucky site. 

The presence of the shells of hickorynuts, walnuts, butter 
nuts and acorns in so many of the fireplaces indicate their exten 
sive use for food by the Feurt peoples. All these were found at 
Baum s and Gartner s except the acorn. Smith found at the 
Kentucky site only hickorynuts and walnuts. 

The charred remnants of wild plum seeds, wild cherry 
seeds and seeds of the blackberry found in the fireplaces, is evi 
dence that these fruits, of which no doubt the country would 
produce a bountiful supply, also were used for food in season. 
At Baum s wild plum, wild grape and the seeds of the papaw 
were found, while at Gartners only the seeds of the papaw were 



48 



The Fcurt Mounds and Villa ye Site. 








FIG. -Jo. Lumps of charred corn taken from broken vessels. 



The Fcurt Mounds and Village Site. 



49 









FIG. L l. Charred corn and cobs found in the fireplaces. 



50 The Fcitrt Mounds and Village Site. 

in evidence. Smith found at the Kentucky site papaw seed and 
wild plum seed. 

SKXVKIXC, OK FOOD. 

Man s greatest necessities are food and water, and the se 
curing of food to meet his needs must often have been a very 
severe problem. As for water, he could locate his primitive 
home near a stream or spring where there was always a con 
stant supply. Again, we often find within fort walls large res 
ervoirs for preserving the water supply, such as those at Ft. 
Ancient, but we find no evidence of the digging of anything like 
wells; and no doubt dependence for the most part was placed 
upon natural supplv from streams and springs. 

The securing of the necessary food would certainly tax the 
ingenuity of primitive man. with his primitive implements and 
methods. 

1 hinting evidently was the principal means of securing food. 
for no doubt all animals and birds had to be hunted. The 
weapons used, as indicated by our tmds. were the bow and arrow. 
Arrow points chipped from tlint were in evidence everywhere in 
the village, as well as arrow points made from tips of the horns 
of the deer. Perhaps other weapons used iu the chase were the 
stone axe and celt, also found in the village site . 

Fishing was another means of securing food, as indicated 
by the tish-hooks made of bone: and it is not improbable that 
many of the finely serrated arrow points found were used for 
spearing fish. 

Agriculture. The finding of corn in so many places in the 
village, together with shell hoes in abundance, would indicate that 
agriculture was an important source of food supply. 

Wild Fruit. The presence of wild cherry seeds, wild plum 
seeds, blackberry seeds and the seeds of the papaw, would indi 
cate that wild fruits were much used for food. 

\Yild Xuts. The shells of walnuts, hickorynuts, butternuts 
and acorns found in the fireplaces indicate the use of nuts as 
food. 

I RKl . \KATIOX OK KOOD. 

After food was secured the next important step was to ren 
der it more palatable by cooking. Certainly there must have been 



The Fciirt Mounds and Village Site. 51 

a time in the course of human progress when man did not know 
the use of lire in the preparation of food, and flesh of animals 
he killed for food no doubt was eaten in the raw state. But 
when man became acquainted with the use of fire, naturally the 
home would become established and the cooking of food would 
mark an important step in his advancement from the lowest 
stages of savagery. 

Knives played a very important part in the preparation of 
food. 

These implements were usually made of flint, as shown in 
Fig. 22, Nos. i, 2 and 4, and were very abundant in all sections 
of the village. Knives similar to those shown in the cut were 
found at Baum s, as also were long knives flaked from jasper 
cores. These flaked knives were not found at Gartner s, nor 
did Smith find them at the Kentucky site. 

Hammerstones, as shown in Fig. 23 were very abundant 
in the village, and were most useful in the preparation of meats, 
being used to break the large bones of the deer, elk, bear and 
mountain lion. Hammerstones were plentiful at liaum s and 
at Gartner s and also in the Kentucky site. Grooved axes, as 
shown in Fig. 25 are of special interest, because of their pres 
ence near the surface only, or rather in the upper six inches of 
the soil of the village site. Our own examination did not 
disclose the grooved axe. but Mr. \Vertz found a number of 
these axes in the village two of which are shown in Fig. 25. 
The axe might be considered one of the necessary tools in the 
primitive home, and would no doubt be useful in conjunction 
with the hammerstone, in the preparation of meats. No 
grooved axes were found at the Gartner site, nor by Smith at 
the Kentucky site. 

Celts. One of the best known implements of the Ft. An 
cient culture is the celt, made of flint or granite, and found 
everywhere in the village. \Yhen attached to a handle they 
would no doubt serve in cutting up the meat preparatory to 
cooking. A typical collection of celts is shown in Fig. 26. 
Celts were found at Baum s and at Gartner s and by Smith oc 
casionally at the Kentucky site. 



I he l-cni t Mounds and Village Site. 









Fi<;. I l. Knives and spear points made of Hint. 



The Fcnrt Mounds and Village Site. 



53 






- 





FIG. 23. Hammerstones found in the village. 



54 



The I eurt Mounds and l ilhnje Site, 











m 






Fie. "2-\. Hammerstones and stone balls found in the village. 



The I cnrt Mounds and Village Site. 



55 



Stone mortars were not abundant in the village, al 
though a number were found in various sections of the site. 
Good examples of these are shown in Fig. 27. They are made of 
slabs of the waverly sandstone found in the hills to the east. 
At Baum s stone mortars were found in all parts of the vil 
lage, which in every way resembled those found at Feurt s. At 
Gartner village mortars were found, and from their number, 




FIG. 2-5. Types of grooved axes found in the village. 

they must have been universally used. Smith did not find 
mortars at the Kentucky site. 

Pestles made in the form shown in Fig. 28, and known as 
bell-shaped pestles, were not abundant in the Feurt village, al 
though quite a number were found by Mr. \Yertz on the sur- 
f ire of ^he site. ( )ur survey w n s unable to find any bell- 
ppctles be^w the plow line, but the ordinary round and flat 
grinding stones were abundant. At Baum s and at Gartner s 



56 



The I- curt Mounds and I illaije Site. 













FIG. 2li. Celts found in the village. 



The Pcnrt Mounds and I illayc Site. 



57 






V\c,. 2~. Stone mortars and grinding stones; I, size. 



58 The Fcitrt Mounds ami rillayc Site. 

the pestle was found, hut Smith makes no record of its pres 
ence in the Kentucky site. 



(. ()( )K I N(l OF FOOD. 

Roasting. Meat was very likely fastened on sticks and 
roasted hefore the open fireplace, as was the custom of the 
early Ohio Delaware and Shawanese trihes. 

Boiling. If hroken utensils afford am testimony, one 



FIG. 28. Bell-shaped pestles found in the village; n -i/.e. 

would he led to believe that food was cooked in pottery vessels, 
broken parts of which are found everywhere in the village, 
especially around the fireplaces. The pots used for cooking 
seem to have been placed directly over the fire, for many of 
them were found in place. In two instances during the ex 
plorations on the west side of the village, pots were found upon 
the fireplaces broken, with the charred remains of corn cling 
ing to their sides. The charred lumps of corn are shown in 
Fig. 20. 



The I curt Mounds and Villaye Site. 



59 



DESCRIPTION OK POTTERY USED FOR COOKINO FOOD. 

The potter\- found in the Feurt village differs but little, if at 
all, from the pottery found both at Baum s and (Partner s in 
( )hio, and by Smith in Kentucky. The clay used was no doubt 
secured just beneath the surface in the village and the tem 
pering material used was broken shell and in a few instances 
small pieces of quartzite. Several instances were noted in the 
tepee sites where a quantity of prepared clay properly tem- 





FIG. 29. Perfect piece of pottery, holding 3 pints. 

pered with broken shells and ready to be used in making ves 
sels had been left upon the floor unused. 

No perfect pieces of pottery were found by our survey, 
but Mr. AYertz found along the bank of the south side of the 
village a perfect vessel, which is shown in Fig. 29. The pot is 
undecorated, would hold about one and one-half quarts, is 
symmetrically made, and might be considered a typical plain 
piece, though the majority of the vessels of this type were 
made somewhat larger. The decorated parts of broken ves- 



60 / lie / curt Monuds and Villcuje Site. 

sels were more in evidence than the ])lain, although found to 
gether in every part of the village. 

Practically all the forms of decoration are shown in Figs. 

30 and 31. Many very large pieces of broken pottery were dec 
orated similarlv to Xo. i of Fig. 30, which shows a free-hand 
decoration by incised lines about one-eighth inch apart. Xo. 2 
of Fig. 30 shows another familiar decoration, made by remov 
ing about one-eighth inch of the surface to the depth of about 
one-sixteenth of an inch. The decoration usually is in straight 
lines, as in X"o. 2, or in curves as shown in Xo. o of Fig. 30. 
Another form of decoration much met with is shown in Xos. 
3. 4. of Fig. 30 and Xo. 2 of Fig. 31. This is made bv inden 
tation. Decorations of this sort usuallv are found on small 
vessels. 

A verv pleasing decoration is shown in Xo. 5 of Fig. 30 
and Xo. 4 of Fig. 31. This decoration is made by the use of a 
paddle around which cord had been wrapped. Xo. n of Fig. 

31 is a combination of indentations, both dots and lines. Xo>. 
<) and 10 of Fig. 31 show two kinds of indented rims, both 
of which are verv pleasing. 

Practically all of the broken pots found at Feurts had 
handles, either for suspension over the fireplace, or for remov 
ing from the fire after the food had been cooked, or for carry 
ing. The principal varieties are shown in Figs. 32 and 33. 
Xos. i to S inclusvie of Fig. 32 represent all the different forms 
of lugs found in the village. Xo. <) of Fig. 32 represents a 
duck head, which is carried above the rim. The specimen does 
not show to advantage in the cut. but is a very good represen 
tation of a duck s head. Xo. 12 of Fig. 32 represents a rac 
coon in the act of climbing over the rim of the vessel. Per 
haps these life forms were symbolic, having definite relation- 
to their use. 

In Fig. 33 the handles are shown. Xo. 7 of Fig. 33. is a 
handle detached from the rim. which shows the manner of at 
tachment. A hole is bored through the body of the vessel at 
a point suitable below the rim. and the handle, freshly made, 
i> thrust through the hole and properly clinched on the inside. 
The top is fastened to the rim. and when the vessel becomes 



The 1 citrt Mounds and I illaye Site. 



61 




FK;. ">n. Decorated potsherds. 



62 



The Fciirt Mounds and Village Site. 




I ; IG. .-51. Decorated rims of large pots. 



The Fcurt Mounds and Village Site. 



63 




64 



The I : curt Mounds and I "ilhujc Sltt. 




The l : eitrt Mounds and I illage Site. 65 

dry and burned the handle is very strong a nd rinn. Fig. 34, 
Xos. I to 7 are small objects made of clay. Xo. i is a round 
ball three-fourths inch in diameter. Xo. 2 is made in the image 
of a child, head and legs broken off. the specimen is decorated 
by ringer nail markings. Xo. 3 is the head of a small animal, 
perhaps the mink. Xo. 4 is a broken ornament. Xo. 5 is a 
small pendant covered with finger nail markings. Xo. 6 is a 
small crescent. Xo. 7 is a large crescent, broken. Xo. S is the 
modeled head of the mountain lion, from the rim of a pot. Xo. 
9 is also a modeled head, that of a bird. Xo. 10 is a modeled 
raccoon, on the side of the rim of a vessel. Xo. n. modeled 
human head, from rim of vessel. 

Practically all of the forms and decorations of the pots 
of the Feurt site were found at Baum s and at Gartner s. So 
similar are they that should the fragments accidentally become 
mixed, it would be impossible to separate them, and the same 
might be said of the pottery found by Smith in the Kentucky 
site. At Feurt s. no small miniature pottery was found, while 
at Baum s and Gartner s many examples of this minature ware- 
were in evidence. Smith also found the small pottery in the 
Kentucky site, but no evidence of its presence at Feurt s was 
discovered. 

USI-; OF I OTTHKY IX MORTUARY CUSTOMS. 

The use of pottery in connection with mortuary obser 
vances was not discovered at Feurt s although more than four 
hundred graves were examined. This lack of any evidence of 
placing potter\- with the dead, although practiced by this same 
culture both at Baum s and at Gartner s is of special interest. 
At Baum s one hundred and twenty-seven burials were found. 
only six of which had pottery placed in the grave. At Gart 
ner s a fine specimen of pottery vessel was found in one grave. 
. liile in others the prepared clay, ready to be made into pot 
ter*- had been placed in a niche made near the head of the 
grave. Smith did not find pottery with any of the burials of 
the Kentucky site. 



66 



The I curt Mounds and I ilhujc Site. 







IMC,. :!-4. Objects made of clay: n size. 



The l-enrt Mounds and Villaye Site. 67 

I.M I LK.M KXTS M ADli OF STOXK. 

The Arrow Point. The most common of the stone imple 
ments found in the Feurt village is the arrowpoint, showing 
that the bow and arrow was the most used weapon of its early 
inhabitants. The arrow points for the most part are of the 
triangular type, made of coal-measure flint, with now and then 
a specimen made of flint from Flint Ridge, Licking county. 
The triangular points are of two kinds, serrated and plain. 
Excellent examples of the serrated point are shown in Fig. 
35. This type of arrow point equals the plain point in num 
bers, more than one thousand of the two types being found in 
the village. Fig. 36 shows fine examples of the plain triangu 
lar type. The triangular type of arrow point was found in 
abundance at Baum s and Gartner s but mostly of the plain 
variety, and not a typical specimen of the serrated form was 
found at either Baum s or Gartner s. Smith found the serrated 
and plain at the Kentucky site. 

The serrated type is found everywhere in the region of 
the lower Scioto and the Ohio rivers. 

Spear points. The spear points found in the village site 
are of special interest, since the greater number were found near 
the surface. Those found below the plow line are similar to 
the arrow points in form, being of the triangular type, only 
larger, and vary in length from three to four and one-half 
inches. Those found on the surface are shown in Figs. 37 and 

38, and show wonderful development of the art of flint chip 
ping. The splendid specimens shown in Figs. 37 and 38 were 
found by Mr. \Yertz during his many years of surface explor 
ing at the Feurt site. Flint spear points were most plentiful 
on all of the Ohio sites, and all show excellent chipping, but the 
specimens found at Feurt s were far superior both in design 
and workmanship. Smith found the spear point at the Ken 
tucky site, but the specimens were inferior to those found in 
the Ohio sites. 

Flint Drills. Flint drills were very abundant in the Feurt 
site. A good selection of the various forms is shown in Fig. 

39. Any one of the ten forms was often duplicated, of some a 
dozen or more specimens being found. Flint drills were plen- 



68 



The 1 eiirt Mounds and Village Site. 














The I- curt Mounds and rillacic Site. 



69 









70 



The l : eitrt Mounds and I iHiK/e Site. 









FIG. !". Lar^e spearpnints : full size. 



71 





IMI,. . !*. Lar.u t- spearpoints ; full size. 



72 



The I : enrt Mounds and J^ilhu/c Site. 



1 




FIG. :>!>. Flint drills; full sixe. 



/ he I cnrt Mounds and Village Site. 73 

tiful at Baum s but no specimens were found at Gartner s, al 
though evidence of the use of the drill was met with frequently 
and they were no doubt in general use. Smith found the drill 
in the Kentucky site, but not in abundance, and in less variety 
as to form than found at Kaum s and at Feurt s. 

IIK.MATITK IM I LK.M KXTS. 

< )bjects made from hematite were frequently met with in 
the village. The celt was the most abundant, and varied in size 
from three-fourths of an inch in length to two and one-half 
inches, many of them showing usage. ( lood examples of the 
hematite celt are shown in Fig. 40. Xos. i to 4. 

Hematite plummets also were found in goodly numbers. 
Xos. 5 and (> of Fig. 40 show two forms most commonly met 
with. Hematite hemispheres also were found, as shown in Xo. 
/ of Fig. 40. as were hematite cones, shown in Xo. 8 of Fig. 40. 

An unfinished gorget made of hematite is shown in Xo. 
9 of Fig. 40. ( lorgets made of hematite are very unusual, and 
are of special interest when found in the village sites of this 
culture. ( )bjects made of hematite were not found either at 
Maum s or at (iartner s and Smith does not report it in the 
Kentucky site. 

Hematite nodules are found in abundance within the limits 
of Scioto county, at various places where the hematite nodules 
outcrop, and consequently the material was very accessible to 
the dwellers in the Feurt village. Small hematite paint cup< 
were frequently found. These are shown in Fig. 41. Xos. r. 
2. 3. which are good representations of the various sizes found. 
Xo. 4 of Fig. 41 is a round ball of quartzite, finely polished 
Xo. 5 of Fig. 41 is a diamond-shaped unfinished specimen, 
made of quartzite. evidently intended for a bead, as an attempt 
is made to perforate the piece by drilling. Xo. 6 of Fig. 41 is 
a limestone cone finely polished. 

Fig. 42 shows two very interesting specimens. The larger 
is a spud-shaped implement made of cannelco:d, and the other 
a chisel of banded slate. These two specimens were found by 
Mr. \Yertz. Cannelcoal objects were not found bv our survey. 



74 



The J ciirt Mounds and I illayc Site. 












The 1 eni t M tni nds and I illat/c Site. 



75 









l-i<;. Jl. Hematite and other objects found in the village: full siz: 



76 



The 1 eurt Mounds and I illat/e Site 





i<;. 42. Objects ot canm-I-oial and slate n >un<l in the village; full sixc. 



The Fcurt Mounds and Village Site. 77 

but Air. \Yertz found many objects made of this mineral upon 
the surface of the village during the years of his examinations 
of the site. 

OkXAMKXTS OF STONK. 

Fig. 43 shows a number of stone gorgets found in the vil 
lage site. 

Xos. i and 2 are almost alike, very likely are unfinished, 
and are made of waverly sandstone. No. 3 of Fig. 43 is un 
finished, as a hole had been started at the center and left. The 
specimen is made of black slate. Xo. 4 of Fig. 43 is a finished 
gorget made of waverly sandstone and pierced with one hole for 
suspension. Fig. 44 shows several effigy ornaments of unusual 
interest. Xo. i is perhaps an effigy of a mountain lion claw. 
Xo. 2 is an ornament made of banded slate and decorated with 
a notched edge. Xo. 3 is a large bead made of hematite. Xo. 
4 is a gorget made of banded slate and pierced with one hole. 
Xo. 5 is the head of a bird made of sandstone, and Xo. 6 is 
the effigy of a bird, made of black slate. 

Fig. 45 shows one of the most interesting and valuable of 
the specimens found in the village site. The specimen is of 
black slate, is about six and one-half inches long and one-fourth 
inch in thickness, and is made in the shape of a large spear 
point. ( )n the one face, that shown in the cut, is plainly carved 
a mythical fish-serpent with large canine teeth and exaggerated 
spines. The greater part of the body and spines are decorated 
with criss-cross lines. A zigzag line is drawn from the eye to 
the heart, which gives us some clew to the petroglyphs found 
along tl e Ohio river and in various parts of the state. In prac 
tically all animals and birds cut upon stone, a zigzag line is 
thus drawn from the eye to the heart, and one must infer that 
the Feurt peoples were of, or contemporaneous with, those who 
carved the petroglyphs and that they knew and understood the 
meaning of such drawings. 

ORXAMKXTS MADE OF CAXNELCOAL. 

Can^elcoal objects were found in abundance in the upper 
six inches of the village site, and many effigy canines of animals 



78 



The I : ciirt Mounds and I ilhnjc Site. 





Fu;. 4. !. Finished and unfinished objects found in the village: full 



The I- curt Mounds and rillatjc Site. 



79 




I- Hi. 44. Kffi<*y and other objects found in the village: full -ize. 



80 



The l : curt Mounds and I illatje Site. 




IMC;. -15. Mythical fish-serpent found in the village: r, size. 



The J-eitrt Mounds and y ill aye Site. 81 

and claws of birds were secured by Mr. \\ertx during his ex 
plorations in the Feurt village. These are shown in Fig. 40. 
Other objects made of cannelcoal were also abundant, examples 
of which are shown in Fig. 47. One specimen, a broken gorget, 
is decorated by an incised drawing of some grotesque object. 
( Hher specimens were in the process of making. ( )ur survey 
did not find any of the c:innelcoal objects, which seem to have 
been a late acquisition to the artifacts of the tribe. 

At llaum s and at Gartner s no objects made of cannel 
coal were found, but Smith found in the Kentuckv site many 
effigies made of cannelcoal similar to those found at Feurts . 

DISCOIDAL STONKS. 

Discoiclal stones or disc-like game stones are of special 
interest because of the large number found in every part of 
the village upward of 300 specimens. Many of them were 
mere discs of waverly sandstone, perfectly plain or decorated 
with incised lines, and sometimes perforated with a single hole 
at the center. Other plain discoidals are made of pottery frag 
ments, while still others are of cannelcoal. as shown in Fig. 47. 
Four specimens of the cannelcoal discs are shown. Xo. i is 
fairly well made. Xo. > is finely made and highly polished. 
Xo. 3 shows some chipping and Xo. 4. a fairly well made 
specimen, might be considered representatives of the class. The 
bi-concave type of discoidals found in the village were of two 
kinds, perforated and unperforated. Either class may be plain 
or decorated. 

I he plain bi-concave tvpe, perforated, is shown in Fig. 
4^. Xos. I, 2 and 3. For the most part they are made of granite. 
quartzite or waverlv sandstone, and are highlv polished, show 
ing much skill and a great amount of patience in their manufac 
ture. Xone of the well-wrought specimens would exceed two 
and one-half inches in diameter and none were less than one 
and three-fourths inches in diameter. The decorated bi-concave 
type, perforated, are of special interest because of the great di 
versity of decoration. Several were found with a bird foot, per 
haps that of the wild turkey, carved upon both faces, as shown 
in Fig. 49. X T o. 2. while others have plain lines running from the 



82 



The 1~ curt Mounds and I illai/e Site. 



+ 







FIG. 40. Objects made of cannel-coal ; full size. 



The /-curt Mounds and rillac/c Site. 




FIG. 47. Objects made of cannel-coal : full size. 



84 



The J-enrt Mounds and I llhu/e Site. 






The I curt Mounds and tillage Site. 85 

central hole to the edge of the discoidal as shown in Fig. 50. 
Xo. 4. Still others have the lines extending from the central 
hole to the rim and the space betwen the lines decorated with 
criss-cross lines, as shown in I 7 ig. 50. Xo. 5. Another form of 
this type is shown in Fig. 50. Xo. 6 where the concave part is 
slightly raised, forming a ring around the central hole. Only 
a few of this type were found. 

The plain bi-concave type were found in all parts of the 
village, and were perhaps as plentiful as the bi-concave forms. 
A good example is shown in Fig. 48. Xo. 5. Another form very 
near to the plain is shown in Fig. 48. Xo. 6. which has merely a 
countersunk hole in each side of the specimen as a decoration. 
Another type of special interest i> made like Xo. 6. with lines 
radiating from the center. This type is shown in Fig. 50, Xo. 8. 

Another form of the unperforated bi-concave, which is 
noteworthy, is shown in Fig. 49. Xo. i. This discoidal was not 
found by our survey but was found in the village site more than 
a quarter of a century ago by a Mr. Creighton. who disposed of 
the specimen to Mr. S. P. Adams. It is decorated on the con 
cave part on either side with a turkey foot. The specimen is 
unusually large, being three and five-eighth inches in diameter 
and three-fourths of an inch in thickness, and is made of a close 
grained granite rock. The specimen is shown in Fig. 49. Xo. i. 

Another very interesting discoidal is shown in Fig. 50. Xo. 
i. It is decorated with two lines drawn at right angles directly 
through the center of the specimen, and the four quarters of 
the stone so divided are further decorated with lines forming a 
geometric figure. Specimen Xo. 2 of Fig. 50 represents a wheel 
in motion and is the only one of its kind found during our work- 
in the village. 

Another type of di>coidal is shown in Xos. 3 and ~ of Fig. 
50. This type shows a convex center instead of concave. The 
convex part is marked in the center with a small depression, and 
radiating from this are four lines dividing the disc into four 
quarters. Another type which seem> very prominent and is fre- 
quentlv met with is shoun in Fig. j8, Xo. 4. The specimen 
shows a perfectly plain circular disc divided into four parts, two 



86 



The I cnrt Mounds and I 7 illa(/e Site 





FIG. 49. Discoidal stones decorated with bird foot ; full size. 



The / curt Mounds and tillage Site. 



87 







FIG. -V>. Various forms of decorated discoidals ; full size. 



88 flic l : curt Mounds and I ilhujc Site. 

of which are of equal size and larger than the other two which 
are of unequal size. 

Discoidal stones seem to have been of unusual importance 
with the Fort Ancient culture, hut the section near the ( )hio 
river region is more prolific in these specimens than any other 
part of the country. In many village sites in Adams, IJrown 
and Hamilton counties this small size discoidal has always been 
met with. At Feurt site previous to our examination, many 
specimens were found. Mr. Charles V. \Yertz has more than 
one hundred and tiftv specimens in his collection: Mr. S. I*. 
Adams of Portsmouth, more than one hundred and twenty-live; 
Mr. John \Yeltv. Mr. Morris Nicks ;md Mr. Paul Fsselborn, 
all collectors of Portsmouth have main- line specimens in their 
respective collections. 

Discoidal stones were found at Katun s resembling in gen 
eral form those found at Feurt s. but were never so plentiful. 
and might be considered of rather rare occurrence. At ( iartner s 
one specimen onlv was found in a grave of the mound, while the 
\illage site did not produce a single specimen. Their use in ( )hio 
-eems to have centered around the ( )hio ri\-er region, and grad 
ually to have diminished toward the north. Smith found the 
discoidal stones in goodly numbers at the Kentucky site, south 
of the ( )hio river region, but not in such profusion as our survey 
unearthed at Feurt s. 

PIPES. 

Pipes were found in the Feurt site in every part of the vil 
lage, anil seem to have been generally used from the early be 
ginnings of the village. Many of the pipes were broken while In 
use and then discarded, if beyond repair. ( Hhers in a perfect 
state, were frequently found in the tepee site, where thev had 
been mislaid and afterward covered up by fresh soil carried in 
by the inhabitants to make their dwelling place more sanitary. 
Many kinds of stone were employed in the manufacture of pipes. 
such as ( )hio pipestone, limestone, sandstone, laurentian slate 
and hematite, but the greater number were made of the ( )hio 
pipestone. which was secured on the very crest of the hill al 
most in sight of the village. Suitable pieces for the making of 
pipes were brought to the village, there to be manufactured into 



The l : cnrt Mounds and Village Site. 89 

form. Xo large pieces were found in the village site, indicat 
ing that the blocking out to the desired size and shape was done 
at the quarry. 

This old Indian pipestone quarry was known to the early 
settlers in this section of ( )hio. and Mr. Feurt tells me that it 
was exploited a number of years ago, with the idea of using 
the pipestone in the manufacture of firebrick. It proved, how 
ever, to be unfitted for this purpose on account of its high per 
centage of iron and the project was abandoned. However, the 
contained iron did not interfere with its use by primitive man. 
for the manufacture of pipes and ornaments. 

As before stated, the outcrop of the pipestone lies high up 
on the hills and gradually dips to the south-east, causing the 
outcrop in the eastern part of the county to be near the base of 
the hill>. The pipestone stratum varies in thickness from one 
and one-half feet to eleven feet, with perhaps an average of 
three and one-half or four feet. In color the pipestone varies 
greatly, ranging from almost white through yellow and brown 
to dark red. The dark red variety was used by the Feurt peo 
ples in preference to the other colors. 

This red variety is very hard to distinguish from the Min 
nesota pipestone and many pipes and ornaments made of the 
Ohio material have been attributed to the Minnesota quarries. 
The Tremper mound peoples, living directly across the river 
from the Feurt side, preferred using the light grays, yellows. 
and browns, although the largest plain pipes found there were 
made of the dark red variety. Xone of this red variety was 
used for their sculptures of birds and animals, while at Feurt s 
the red variety was used both in the plain and sculptured forms. 

THK IMI K IN ITS STACKS OK MANUFACTURE. 

The pipe, as is true of practically all types of artifacts, was 
found in its various stages of manufacture, and exceptionally 
good examples were obtained both of the plain and sculptured 
forms. In Fig. 51 is shown a series of specimens illustrating the 
successive steps in the manufacture of a pipe in the effigy of the 
human face. Beginning with Xo. i is shown the blocked out 
piece as it is brought from the quarrys and before pecking or 



90 



The I : eurt Mounds and I illcu/c Site. 




> 





FIG. 51. Shows stages in the manufacture of two types of pipes; full 

size. 



The I cnrt Mounds and Village Site. 91 

grinding has been started. In Xo. 2 the pecking and polishing 
has begun. In Xo. 3. the crude outline of the face is apparent, 
and in Xo. 4 the pipe is a finished product. In row Xo. 2 is 
another series of specimens, showing the stages of manufacture 
of the plain elbow type. Xo. i shows the specimen being pecked 
into form ; Xo. 2 shows the general form the pipe will be when 
completed : Xo. 3 shows the pecking completed and ready for 
grinding and polishing, while Xo. 4 is the finished product ready 
for use. All of the specimens shown in Fig. 51 are of the dark 
red pipestone. 

KFFK;Y PIPES. 

The sculptured pipes found in the Feurt village differ 
greatly from those of their neighbors, the Tremper mound peo 
ples across the river. The portrayal of life forms is not so 
realistic and the sculptures lack detail, so that outside of the 
human face sculptures, it would be difficult to determine what 
kind of bird or animal the primitive artist had in mind. On the 
other hand, the Tremper mound peoples were able to produce 
sculptures with such realistic and minute detail, that not only the 
animal or bird is readily identified, but its habits and character 
istics are fully portrayed. 

The Feurt mound peoples had not reached so high a stage 
of development as is shown by the effigy pipes in Fig. 52. Xo. 
i of Fig. 52 is a pipe made in the form of a discoidal stone, 
and represents one of the bi-concave plain type, made of 
waverly sandstone. Xos. 2 and 4 are made in the image of 
the human face. A study of the specimens will soon convince 
one of their similarity. Xo. 2 was found by Mr. \Yertz and 
is made of a light gray pipestone, and Xo. 4 is made of a dark 
red pipestone. Xo. 3 of Fig. 52 is of a light gray pipestone 
and is perhaps intended for a bird. This specimen also was 
found by Mr. \Yertz. Xo. 5 of Fig. 52 is supposed to represent 
an animal head, as the large tongue and teeth are shown. The 
specimen is made of hard black hematite. 

Fig. 53 shows three more sculptured pipes. Xo. i is made 
of waverly sandstone and perhaps was intended to represent a 
bird of some kind. The pipe is well made, is of unusually large 



92 



The I* curt Mounds and nilat/e Site 




IMC. -VJ. F.ffiy pipes: "^ six.i 



1 he I cni t Mounds and I ilhujc Site. 



93 






94 The I- curt Mounds and I ilhujc Site. 

size and slio\vs much use. Xo. 2 is a small elhgy pi])e re] (resent 
ing- the head of a bird with a small beak. The pipe is made of 
a light gray pipestone and like Xo. i shows long use. Xo. 3 of 
Fig- 53 s a ver >" unusual pipe representing the human form in 
a kneeling position. The head and body parts are missing, the 
pipe having been broken while in use and thrown away. The 
specimen was found by Mr. Wertz on the west side of the 
village. 

One feature of the sculptured pipes found at Feurt s is of 
interest when compared with pipes found at Tremper s across 
the river. In the Tremper pipes the smoker would always face 
the animal or bird, and in the Feurt pipes the opposite is noted. 

Fig. 54 shows four pipes, two of which, Xos. i and 2. might 
be classed as effigy pipes. These two pipes are of the platform 
type, with the platform made in the effigy of the stemmed arrow 
head or spear, and the bowls plain. In the Tremper mound 
effigies, the stem was always plain and the bowls made into the 
forms of animals and birds. Xos. 3 and 4 of Fig. 54 show a 
type of pipe frequently met with in the village, all of which 
were made of the dark red pipestone. 

Fig- 55 shows six specimens of the I. -shaped pipe, made 
of the waverly sandstone so abundant in the immediate vicinity 
of the village site. All these show use in smoking, Xo. i in 
particular, which is half filled with the charred tobacco. After 
smoking, the owner doubtless misplaced the pipe on the floor 
of his tepee, where it became covered with debris and in due 
time with the fresh soil carried in. 

This is the only record as far as we know, of the finding 
in our ( )hio mounds and village sites of a pipe filled with the 
charred tobacco. No. 2 of Fig. 55 is a fine example of this 
type of pipe although it has a longer stem and a larger bowl 
than is usual. Nos. 3, 4 and 6 show the usual size of the pipes 
of this type. The angle of the bowl to the stem varies slightly 
in different specimens from the right angle. Xo. 5, shows an 
extreme variation in the angle of the bowl to the stem. Fig. 56 
shows six more pipes of the same type as shown in Fig. 55. 
Xos. i, 3 and 5 are made of red pipestone. Xo. i is unfinished, 
lacking the perforation in the bowl and stem. Xos. 3 and 5 



The I curt Mounds and Village Site. 



95 





FIG. 54. Pipes made of red Ohio pipestone; / size. 



96 



7 lie I- curt Mounds and I illai/e Site. 






\T 




Fir,. o."i. Pipe.- marie of \\averly sanrlstone ; Js 



/ lie l~ curt Mounds and I illcu/e Site. 



97 








!]<;. .">(>. Pipes finished and unfinished; y\ size. 



98 The 1 citi t Mounds and yilhujc Site. 

are true examples of the perfectly finished pipestone pipe. No. 
_ is a pipe made of pottery clay, tempered with pieces of broken 
mussel shell. This pipe is the only one of its kind found in 
the village. Xo. 4 is made of limestone, and Xo. (> is of waverlv 
sandstone. The pipe is decorated with an incised line near the 
top of the howl. 

Another type of pipe found in the village by Mr. \\ertz 
and not by our survey, is shown in Fig. 57. Xos. i, 2, 4, 5 and 
6. Xo. i is made of waverly sandstone; Xo. 2 of dark red 
pipestone; Xos. 4 and 5 of mottled dark gray pipestone, and 
Xo. 6 of light gray pipestone. Xos. 3, 7, 8 and 9 of Fig. 57 
are very different from Xos. i , 2. 4, 5 and 6 of the same figure, 
although found associated with them. Xos. 3 and 7 are made 
of red pipestone; Xo. 8 of mottled red pipestone and Xo. 9 
of waverly sandstone. 

Fig. 58 shows nine very interesting pipes. Xo. 3 and No. T> 
are square, instead of the round type so frequently met with, 
and Nos. 4 and 5 were repaired after having the stem broken 
and were no doubt used until lost. No. 8 is an unfinished pipe 
of limestone of unusually large size. No. 9 is a small platform 
pipe made of steatite. 

( )ur survey did not find the tubular form of pipe, but Mr. 
\Vertz was successful in finding this form. Fig. 59 shows two 
forms of the tubular type, both made of pipestone. No. i has 
a very large perforation extending almost its entire length, while 
in No. 2 the perforation is large but gradually tapers from al 
most the center to a small opening at the stem end. Fig. 60 
is an unfinished platform pipe of unusual size found by Mr. 
\Yertz. The pipe is made of limestone and shows that but little 
work other than pecking has been done upon it. 

The pipes found in the village number perhaps fifty, in 
cluding broken and perfect specimens, and the number accessible 
to us in Mr. Wertz s collection exceeds twenty specimens, mak 
ing a total of seventy pipes from this site. To this number 
should be added the former collection of Mr. S. P. Adams, num 
bering over thirty specimens, representing all the types above 
described. The collection of Mr. Adams was well known to 



The I-cnrt Mounds and Village Site. 



99 







: u;. ")(. Pipes made of Oliio pipestone and waverly sandstone; % size. 



100 The l : eurt Mounds and I ilhnje Site. 






-- 



7 








G 




l- ii,. ">S. Pipes made of Ohio pipeMnne. limestone and steatite: r ; size. 




FIG. of. Tubular pipes made of Ohio pipestone; 24 size. 





FIG. 6". Unfinished platform pipe made of limestone; % size. 



(101) 



102 The 1 citrt Mounds and l r illa(/e Site. 

the writer, as it was on deposit for ten years in the Museum 
of the Society. 

Mr. John \Yelty of Portsmouth also collected many pipes 
at the Feurt site, and I have a record in my note-hook of twenty- 
five pipes, which I readily identified as coming from the Feurt 
site, and I suspect, from what Mr. Welty says, that twice that 
number would be short of the actual number he found at this 
village. Mr. Paul Ksselborn. Mr. Morris Hicks, and I am 
told other collectors, have specimens of pipes from this vil 
lage site. 

The few specimens of pipes found at Haum s and (Partner s 
if placed with the Feurt pipes, could not be distinguished from 
them, and the same is true of the pipes found by Smith in the 
Kentucky site. 

( OI I KR OHJKCTS FOTNI) IX T II K YILLAC.K. 

Copper objects were not found by our survey in the vil 
lage site, but we were successful in securing copper in the form 
of ornaments in two graves already described, while Mr. \Yertz 
found a small copper necklace with a burial. This necklace is 
shown in Fig. 61. Xo. 6. Mr. \Yertz also found many pieces 
of copper in the village site proper, both upon the surface and 
along the steep bank, which from time to time would cave off 
and expose to view parts of the rich village site. Many of these 
pieces were ornaments that had been bent and hammered and 
their identity destroyed. ( )ne of these is shown in Xo. 3 of Fig. 
61. This specimen represents a reel-shaped ornament similar 
to those found in the Tremper mound across the river from the 
Feurt site. 

Mr. YYertz had at one time a large number of copper pieces 
from this site, all showing mutilation, but these unfortunately 
were lost in a fire that destroyed his residence. In this fire an 
excellent collection from this site was entirely lost, and the col 
lection he now possesses has been gathered since that time. S. 
P. Adams, a local collector of Portsmouth, who several years 
ago disposed of his collection, made in the lower Scioto and 
along the Ohio in close proximity to Portsmouth, had three 



The 1-enrt Mounds and Villayc Site. 



103 






104 The 1 ciirt Mounds and I illiu/e Site. 

specimens of copper, having their identity destroyed in the same 
way as those found by .Mr. \Yertz. 

The finding of so many destroyed copper pieces, foreign 
to this culture, is almost positive evidence of unfriendly contact 
with their neighbors across the river. For a time perhaps the 
contact of the two cultures was friendly, as indicated by the 
objects of copper found in the graves of the burials in the 
mounds, but apparently later this contact was hostile and the 
objects captured from enemies were brought to the village, there 
to be battered into shapeless masses, and thrown into the refuse 
heaps. In some cases thev mav have been cached away in their 
village, as was the case with finds in a village of this same cul 
ture, just outside the walls at Fort Ancient.* The examination 
of the Feurt site made with the express purpose of ascertaining 
the extent of this unfriendly contact, demonstrates that for a 
time they evidently lived in peace and had tribal trade between 
them. 

At l>aum s a few copper beads were found associated with 
shell beads on the same necklace, the only instance of copper 
being found during the entire exploration. At Partner s no cop 
per was found, nor did Smith find copper in the Kentucky site, 
showing that in these three important Fort Ancient culture sites, 
copper objects were practically unknown. 

IJONK I M I LKMHNTS. 

Bone implements of certain kinds were found promiscuously 
scattered throughout the village in the greatest profusion. The 
most prominent were the awls or perforators, and these were 
made of practically every bone having the proper length and 
adaptability. Some of the awls were mere splinters broken 
from the large leg bones of the deer, elk and bear and sharp 
ened at one or both ends : others were made of the same bone, 
but handsomely decorated and polished ; still others were made 
of the ulna of the deer and elk, of the larger animals, while 
the same bone of all the smaller animals was used for the same 
purpose. The tarso-metatarsus of the wild turkey was used for 



^Described in Explorations of the Trempcr Mound 



The J cnrt Mounds and Village Site. 



105 



making awls, as were many of the wing bones of wading birds, 
like the blue heron. 

Polishing stones and whetstones used in the manufacture 
of bone awls were frequently met with in the tepee sites. An 







excellent example of these polishing stones is shown in Fig. 
62. They are mere slabs of waverly sandstone, showing great 
use, some having grooves worn into their faces from use in 
sharpening the bone into the desired shape. 



106 The l-citrt Mounds and I illiu/c Site. 

BONE A\VLS MADE OF THE ULNA OF TIIK DEER. 

Fig. 63 shows a typical collection of the awls made from 
the ulna of the deer. Some are long, as shown in No. i ; some 
are short, as in No. 6; some are sharp and slender like that in 
No. 7 and others are blunt, as shown in No. 4. All four classes 
were duplicated many times in every part of the village. Some 
of these awls may have been used for making perforations 
through which thread or sinew was passed, when skins were 
used for making clothing and moccasins; some may have been 
used in the making of pottery or in weaving; others may have 
served as forks in eating, while the blunt and strong awls were 
perhaps used for opening the mussel shells found so abundantly 
in the village. 

A very interesting double-pointed awl. frequently met with 
was made only from this bone. It is shown in Nos. 10 and n. 
The two points of this class of awls are of unequal length, the 
longer point being the side opposite the joint. This form may 
have been used in weaving or in decorating pottery. A very 
useful awl was made from the ulna of the elk. Many of these 
were from six to eight inches in length, were very strong, and 
most of them bluntly made. Very good examples of this awl 
are shown in Fig. 64. These implements certainly were of im 
portance about the home and may have been used for opening 
the large mussel shells in order to secure the mussel for food. 

Very fine examples of awls made from ulnas and other 
bones of large and small animals are shown in Fig. 65. Xo. r 
is made of the metapodial bone of the deer. This specimen had 
formerly been made into a scraper used in dressing skins dur 
ing the tanning process, as were practically all of these bones. 
The heavy use to which these implements were subjected caused 
many of them to break at the center, rendering the implement 
useless. The distal end of the broken scraper was frequently 
made into a blunt awl. The perfect scraper is shown in Fig. 73. 

Nos. 2. 3, 4, 5 and o are made from the ulna of the gray 
fox, wild cat and gray wolf; No. 7 is made of the ulna of the 
black bear; Nos. 8, o, and 10 are made of the penis bone of the 
black bear; Nos. 11 and 12 are made of the heavy leg bone 



/ lie J : citrt Mounds and Village Site. 



107 











FIG. 64. Awls made from the ulna of the elk; 1-2 size. 



108 



flic I curt Mounds and I ilhnic Site. 




/o 



FIG. 65. Awls made of the bones of various animals; 1-2 size. 



flic / curt Mounds and I illafjc Site. 



109 




FIG. 63. Awls made of the ulna ot the fleer; 1-2 size. 



110 The Fenrt Mounds and Village Site. 

of the elk; Xo. 13 is made from a part of the shoulder blade 
of the deer; and X o. 14 is made of the lower jaw of the deer. 

Fig. 66 shows twelve awls made from the tarso-metatarsus 
of the wild turkey, six of which are decorated with notches cut 
upon the sides, and the other six plain. Awls made of this bone 
were very abundant in the village and several hundred in per 
fect condition were found. In practically every village site of 
this culture the awl made from this bone is present and very 
frequently exceed in numbers all other classes of awls. Another 
class of awls so common to this culture, and found in such large 
numbers in the Feurt village, is shown in Fig. 67. A careful 
study of the specimens shown in this figure in comparison with 
those just described, is convincing proof that they may have 
been used as supports to feathers and other objects worn in the 
hair as ornaments. In support of this theory is the finding of 
several of those decorated awls placed under or at the side of 
the head of the skeleton. However, two of the largest and finest 
specimens shown in Fig. 67, Xos. 4 and 7, were found beneath 
the body of the skeleton. These measure nine and eight inches 
respectively. All specimens in this figure were made from the 
strong heavy leg bones of the elk and deer. Much time and 
patience were required in fashioning any one of these awls. 
Xos. i. 2, 3 and 8 were found isolated in the village, and Xos. 4, 
5, 6 and 7 were found with burials. The eight specimens shown 
in Fig. 68 are similar to those shown in Fig. 67 and are made 
from similar bones. Xo. i has a decorated head, but no attempt 
toward making an effigy of a bird or animal, as was found at 
Gartner s. X T os. 2, 5 and / are awls having a spatula-like end ; 
Xos. 3 and 8 have the point end decorated ; Xo. 3 has an en- 
.larged end and Xo. 8 has five indented lines circling the point. 

Fig. 69 shows seven examples of large awls made from 
various bones of animals. Xos. i, 2, 3 and 4 are made from 
bones of the bear ; Xo 5 is round, and is made from the heavy 
leg bone of the deer; Xo. 6 is fht, with spatula-like end and en 
larged head ; Xo. 7 is made of a flat heavy bone of the deer. 

Fig. 70 shows nine large awls made from various bird and 
animal bones. Xo. I is perhaps that of the radius of the blue 
heron ; Xos. 2 and 3 are made of the bones of the bear ; Xo. 4 



The I : enrt Mounds and I Ulaijc Site. 



Ill 




Fi<;. iiii. Awls made from the tarso-metatarsus of the wild turkev ; }/> size. 



112 



The I : citrt Mounds and Village Site. 



r I 






FIG. (j~. Large decorated awl; n size. 



The /- curt Mounds und I /lldt/c Site. 



113 






114 



The I citrt Mounds and Village Site. 



/ ^ 3 




Fro. (i!). Plain awls ; n size. 



The / cart Mounds and I illa/ic Site 



115 




FIG. TO. Large awls; J-g size. 



116 The 1 curt Mounds and rillcu/c Site. 

is from the tarso-metatursus of the blue heron ; Xo. 5 is made 
from the ulna of the blue heron ; Xos. 6 and 8 are made from 
leg bones of perhaps the wild turkey and Xo. <j from the radius 
of the gray wolf. Fig. 71 shows a number of awls of special 
interest. Xo. i is a broken Mat awl showing much labor in its 
manufacture; Xo. 2 is the broken spatula-end of one of the finest 
awls found in the village; Xo. 3 is also a broken awl. but shows 
an unusual finish and an enlarged decorated end ; Xo. 4 is made 
from a flat heavy bone with one end finely sharpened, and the 
other end brought almost to a point ; Xo. 5 is one of the smallest 
awls found, and could not be classed as a pin, for these were 
not found in the village. Xo. 6 is one of the well-wrought double- 
pointed awls frequently met with ; Xos. 7, 8 and (> are very small 
thin awls requiring much patience and even skill to manufacture, 
as they were made from the thick heavy bone of the deer. 

From the number of types of awls found by our survey, 
this village certainly must have been a great manufacturing 
center for bone implements. The small double-pointed bone awl, 
or pin. was very abundant at Baum s. but entirely absent at 
Feurt s and but few were found at the Kentucky site by Smith. 
The larger bone awls shown in Figs. 67 and 68 were not found 
by Smith at the Kentucky site, but were found sparingly at 
Haum s and at Gartner s in Ohio. 

Xo. (> of Fig. 69, the spatula-like awl, was duplicated by 
Smith in the Kentucky site. Practically all other awls made of 
the various bones of animals and birds found in such profusion 
at Feurt s were found both in the ( )hio sites and at the Kentucky 
site. 

I .ONK NKKDLKS. 

Hone needles having an eye are shown in Fig. 72 which 
exhibits the implement in the process of manufacture, and the 
perfect needle as well as those broken in use. As is well known 
the true needle with an eye is considered a very rare implement, 
because the awl would take its place for sewing. The bone 
needles shown in the figure were made for the most part of the 
rib bones of various animals and range in length from three to 
eight inches. Xos. i , 4, 8 and 9 show practically all the forms 



The I dirt Mounds and l ilhi(/e Site. H7 










.. -.-< .. , ;,,. 



FIG. 71. Various forms of bone awls; 7<x size. 



118 



1 fic I enrt Mounds and Vilhicic Site. 



mm 

mi 



, r * 



i 



7 



Fi<;. ~ 2. Hone needles; J$ size. 



119 

of needles found in the village. Xos. 5 and 7 show the needles 
broken at the eve. the weakest part. A number have been found 
showing the repair of the needle when broken at the eye by 
boring a new hole for the same, this making the needle a trifle 
shorter. Xo. 6 shows the point broken off, which is very unusual ; 
Xos. _ and 3 are perhaps unfinished needles, made from the 
long leg bones of wading birds. This form of bone needle was 
found at llaum s and at ( lartner s but not in such large num 
bers at Feurt s, and Smith found in the Kentucky site what he 
considers a needle with an eve. This needle is practically round, 
while in the ( )hio sites of this culture the needles found are 
always flat. 

ISO XI-: S( RAI KKS. 

Hone scrapers made of various bones of the legs of deer and 
elk were found in abundance in the village site. However, the 
scraper for the most part had been broken while in use and the 
broken pieces were evidence of the hard usage to which they 
were subjected in the preparation of skins. The broken pieces 
of the scrapers were sometimes reworked into awls, but for the 
most part the} were discarded. 

Fig- 73 shows a perfect scraper made from the lower leg 
bone of the elk. Practically all the metapodial bones of the elk- 
had been worked into this kind of implement, as were the femurs 
of the elk. In Fig. 73 are shown three specimens of the lower 
leg bone of the deer. This bone was extensively used for this 
purpose, although many were found that had been broken to 
extract the marrow from the central cavity for food. The 
specimen adjoining the cut of the perfect scraper in Fig. 73 shows 
the first steps toward making it into this useful implement. The 
next specimen shows a little more work, the cutting being carried 
to the cavity of the bone, while the next shows that an accident 
happened, and that the bone was broken and then discarded. 
Perfect scrapers were not found in abundance at the Feurt site, 
but their use was general, as broken specimens were found spar 
ingly in all parts of the village. At Haum s the scrapers were 
very abundant, all being made of the metapodial bone of the 
deer and elk, while at Feurt s the femurs very often were used. 



120 



I he I- curt Mounds and I illat/e Site. 




X. % h- 



m 



,. !. Perfect and unfinished scrapers; .V 4 size. 



The /- curt Mounds and I iilat/e Site. 121 

At (iartner s also this implement \vas found in abundance. 
Smith found the scraper in the Kentucky site, hut not abundantly. 

C KLT-LIKK SC KAI KKS. 

( )ne of the interesting types of specimens found in the vil 
lage is the celt-like scraper, made for the most part from heavy 
elk horn. The part usually selected was between the beztine and 
the trestine, and required much labor in manufacture, but when 
completed would meet the needs of a scraper perhaps better 
than those described above. A very good example of the scrap 
ers made from horn and bone are shown in Fig. 74. Some were 
notched for attachment to a handle, others were plain. The 
scrapers made of bone, are shown to the right of Fig. 74. Fig. 
75 shows a collection of narrow chisel-like scrapers, which were 
perhaps as abundant as the broader scrapers shown in Fig. 74. 
The celt-like scrapers found in goodly numbers at the Feurt 
village were also found at Haum s and (iartner s and by Smith 
at the Kentucky site. All are made in the same general way. 

CUT AND WORKKI) MONK. 

The finding of many hundreds of cut and worked bones in 
the Feurt site showed how generally bone implements were used. 
Many of these bones show merely an attempt to cut a hollow 
bone in the form of a cylinder, or into sections for beads. Bones 
showing practically every stage in the manufacture of imple 
ments were readily secured. Many bones, after much labor had 
been expended upon them, were found defective and were re 
jected, while others were broken after much grinding and polish 
ing had been done. Figs. 76 and 77 are representative examples 
of cut and worked bone found in the Feurt site. At Baum s and 
at (iartner s worked and cut bone was found everywhere in the 
village. Smith found in the Kentucky site bones cut and worked 
in the same way. The manner of cutting and polishing the bone 
was practically the same in all of the ( )hio sites as well as at 
the Kentucky site. 



122 









ii;. 71. I vlt-liko scrapers made of (. Ik horn; H sixc. 



The I- curt Mounds and \ illmjc Site. 



123 



. 




Fu;. 7"). Chisel-like scrapers made of elk horn: s size. 



124 I lie I curt Mounds and I illat/c Site. 




The I : eiirt Mounds and I illage Site. 



125 





IMC. i. C nt and worked bone; n size. 



126 77/r Fcnrt Mounds and Village Site. 

ARROW AM) Si KAR POINTS OK I .OXK. 

Arrow and spear points made of bone were numerous in the 
village and were made for the most part of the tips of deer 
horns. The Feurt peoples not only excelled in chipping the 
arrow point from stone, hut they made excellent points from the 
antler tips. Fig. 78 shows good examples of antler arrow and 
spear points. The arrow points are of two kinds, those pierced 
with a small hole for attachment to the shaft by the use of a 
string, and those unperforated. The perforated specimens are 
illustrated in the seven specimens shown at the left of Fig. 78. 
The second kind of arrow points were more numerous than the 
perforated type and are shown in the five specimens directly to 
the right of the perforated arrow points in Fig. 78. The three 
large specimens to the right in Fig. 78 were doubtless used for 
spear points. 

At I aum s and at Gartner s bone arrow points and spear 
points were found in abundance, both in the perforated and plain 
types, the process of manufacture being exactly the same, as 
shown by the number of unfinished specimens found in the vil 
lage. Caches of deer tines ready for making into points were 
found at Ratlin s and at Gartner s and many such caches were 
in evidence at Feurt s. At Haum s and at Gartner s deer toes 
were made into arrow points, but not a single specimen was 
found in the Feurt site made from this bone. Smith found ar 
row points made of the tips of deer horn in the Kentucky site, 
resembling those found in the ( )hio sites. 

FLAK IXC, TOOLS. 

The flaking tools found at the Feurt site were of two kinds, 
both being found in great numbers, and for the most part all 
were made of deer and elk horn. Fine examples of one kind are 
shown in Fig. 79. All are cylindrical in form and vary in length 
from one and one-half inches to five and one-half inches. One 
end is usually cut at right angles, while the other end is made 
oval. Many of the specimens in Fig. 79 show use as flaking 
tools, one end being usually battered, from being struck by the 
stone hammer in making the large flakes, and in the manufac- 



The I- curt Mounds and Village Site. 



127 















5 




IMG. 7*. Hone arrowpoints made of antler tips; J/s size. 



128 



I lie / curt Mounds and I ilhujc Site 



, 







fa.yr.-~ 




. 



I-"H;. 7! . Flaking tonls mark frmn deer and elk liorn : .14 size. 



flu /-ciii t Mounds and Village Site. 129 

Hire of the long knives and spear points. The use of the Makers 
shown in Fig. 79 requires two persons. The process consists 
in holding the Mint to be flaked in the palm of the hand, pro 
tected with a piece of buckskin and held firmly by the fingers 
of the same hand, while the other hand was used to hold the 
flaker in position. The second person then would strike the 
flaker with a stone hammer. The angle at which the flaker is 
held against the flint determines the length of the chip. The 
second kind of flaking tool, shown in Fig. 80 was perhaps used 
in the manufacture of small arrow points. The large implement 
in the center of the figure however, possibly was used as a dig 
ging tool. This implement is made of elk horn and is fourteen 
inches in length. All the other implements in Fig. 80 doubtless 
were used for flaking the small arrow point, and did not require 
the assistance of a second person. The process of manufacture 
of the arrow point is very simple, all that is required being the 
flint blocked cut into form with a stone hammer, a piece of 
buckskin to protect the hand, and a tine of deer horn slightly 
worked at the point into a suitable implement. The flint piece 
to be chipped into form is held in the left hand, protected by 
the buckskin, by the fingers which serve as a vise in holding the 
flint. The flaking-tool is then taken in the right hand and the 
point placed against the under edge of the flint at a point where 
the artificer wishes to remove a chip. A steady down and under 
pressure will produce the necessary conchoidal fracture. The 
angle at which the flaker is held will determine the length of 
the chip. 

Fig. 8 1 shows the way deer horn is cut into suitable pieces 
to be made into flakers. The process is very laborious and re 
quires much grinding and cutting. During the entire exploration 
in the Feurt site not a single perfect horn was found, all hav 
ing been worked into implements or the cut pieces stored for 
future use. 

FISH-HOOKS FOUND IN THI-: VILLA*, i;. 

Fig. 82 shows several fish-hooks complete, several that were 
broken in use. and several showing the different stages in the 
manufacture of this very important implement. The hooks were 



130 



The I citrt Mounds and I illin/c Site. 




Vic,. S(i. Flaking t<><>l> niado <>\ dorr and oik h<>ni: l /> sixo. 



131 







132 



The I curt Mounds and I ilia </e Site 



. ... 













The Feurt Mounds and Village Site. 133 

not so abundant as at Baum s and at Gartner s, but the mode 
of manufacture was exactly the same, for a minute description 
of which the reader is referred to the report upon the Baum 
village.* Smith found in the Kentucky site fish-hooks similar 
to those found at the three ( )hio sites, but evidently did not 
secure specimens showing the various stages in their manufac 
ture. However, from the general appearance of the hook and 
the bone used in making the same, one must believe they were 
similarly fashioned. 

\\-HJSTLK-LIKl-: I.IiJKCTS OF I!O.\K. 

\Yhistle-like objects shown in Fig. 83 are of special interest, 
since not a single specimen was found either at (iartner s or at 
Baum s, although these sites were of the same culture as Feurt s. 
Smith found the whistle in the Kentucky site and many examples 
have been found at various sites along the Ohio river. Smith 
suggests that perforated bones were perhaps used "in religious 
ceremonies rather than for animal calls." The whistle-like 
specimens shown in Fig. 83 were made of the radius of various 
large birds such as the eagle, hawk, wild turkey and others: In- 
cutting off the ends, thus leaving a hollow straight cylinder, a.- 
shown in the first three specimens of Fig. 83. Many specimens 
similar to these were found and several show where they had 
been marked for drilling. The holes were drilled with a flint 
drill, and were usually three in number. Xow and then one 
would be found with two holes, and occasionally one with four 
holes. The holes were usually round, but a number show an 
oblong hole. Frequently the oblong hole would show that it 
was enlarged from the round hole by burning. The holes for 
the most part were bored in a straight line, usually equidistant 
apart : however one specimen was found ( shown in the center 
of the lower row in Fig. 83 ) where two holes were in line bur 
the center hole was to one side. Smith found a specimen in the 
Kentucky site with seven holes, complete, and the eighth hole 
started, while others found by him varied as to number of holes 
and in irregularitv as to distance from each other. 



^Certain Mounds and Village Sites in Ohio. Vol. 1. 



134 



77/r I cnrt Mounds and l- illayc Site. 






I 



I t 



FIG. 8:1 Whistle-like objects of bone: r! size. 



The l-eiirt Mounds and Village Site. 135 

CUT LOWER JAW OF THE DEER. 

Fig. 84 shows the cut lower jaw of the deer, found in such 
abundance in the village, and certainly generally used, as sev 
eral hundred were found. 

No. i of Fig. 84 represents one-half of the lower jaw of a 
mature deer, having the posterior portions of the jaw broken 
away which is usual in all the jaws used. No. 2 shows a dis 
carded jaw, the anterior part of which had been cut away and 
found defective. The Indian method of procedure was to cut 
a bone on each side slightly, and then break it off. Very often 
the bone would be so splintered as to render it useless. This 
happened with No. 2 and the jaw was discarded. No. 3 had a 
double use as it would serve the same purpose as No. i, besides 
being used as an awl formed by sharpening the anterior part of 
the jaw. No. 4 of Fig. 84 has both the posterior and anterior 
part of the jaw cut away. However, the greater number of jaws 
found were like Xo. i, the object no doubt being to use the 
teeth as a grater for green corn,* for which purpose they would 
serve admirably. Cvit deer jaws similar to those described above 
were found at Haum s and Gartner s, and Smith found the jaw 
cut in the same way in the Kentucky site. 

ORNAMENTS MADE OF JiONE. 

( )rnaments made of bone were found in great numbers over 
the entire site, especially in the form of beads. The beads were 
of different lengths ranging from one-half inch to three inches, 
and for the most part were made of the hollow wing bones of 
large birds. They were usually plain and undecorated, except 
that now and then one would be found having incised lines en 
circling it. Many of the beads show long use, being worn and 
highly polished 

( )ther very important ornaments found in the village were 
cut jaws of various animals, such as bear, mountain lion, gray 
wolf, gray fox and wildcat. No. 3 of Fig. 85 shows the pos 
terior part of the upper jaw of the gray wolf. Nos. 4, 6 and / 
are parts of the lower jaw of the gray fox, and No. 5 of Fig. 



*Archaeo1ogical Report of Canada. 191R. 



136 



The l-ciu t Mounds and I iUayc Site. 




[ u,. S-l. Implements made of the lower jaw of the deer; - ; size. 



The 1 curt Mounds and I* ill aye Site. 



137 






***%., I . . 

/a 









/O 





-* A 



IMC,. vi "). Objects made of bone and tbe jaws of animals: H size. 



138 I he I curt Mounds and I illayc Site. 

85 is the lower jaw of the wildcat, having the posterior part cut 
awav. Xo. 8 of Fig. 85 shows a part of a triangular bone per 
forated with holes. Xos. 12 and 13 of Fig. 85 are hone pendants 
made from the shoulder blade of the deer. Xo. 12 is plain, and 
pierced with a counter-sunk hole for attachment, as shown in 
Xo. 13. which is decorated on the edges with notches. Xo. 
14 of Fig. 85 is a bone pendant made in the form of an arrow 
head and pierced with a small hole for attachment. 

OKNA.M KNTS MAUK OK TKKTII ( >! ANIMALS. 

I he black bear, and the grav wolf were animals highlv 
prixed by the people of the Feurt village, judging from the 
perforated canines found so abundantlv in the village. Fig. 8h 
shows a collection of canines representing both the black bear and 
the gray wolf. They were found promiscuously in the village 
site, especially in the tepee sites, and were no doubt accidentally 
lost, as practically all of the specimens found were perfect. The 
teeth of the deer were never used for ornament, but practically 
all of the teeth of the elk were used. Fig. 8~ shows the molars, 
canines and incisors of the elk. pierced with holes for attach 
ment and perhaps used as ornaments. The other teeth shown 
in I- ig. 87 are the canines of the gray fox, raccoon, opossum 
and wildcat. Likewise, all these teeth were abundantly found 
in the perfect state, and like those of the bear and wolf were 
accidently lost. 

Fig. 88 shows parts of broken fossil molar teeth of the 
mammoth and the mastodon. These specimens were found 
promiscuously scattered throughout the village. The perfect 
fossil teeth were no doubt found by the Feurt peoples and car 
ried to their village and there worked into ornaments. The part- 
shown in the figure doubtless were rejected, being broken in 
such a manner as to be unfitted to their use. Xos. 2. 3 and 4 
of l r ig. (S<S belong to the mastodon and are broken pieces of 
the Y-shaped ridges covered with enamel. 

Xos. i and 5 of Fig. 88 belong to the mammoth, a true 
elephant, the teeth of which are characterized by plates of 
enamel set upright in the body of the tooth. Xo. i shows one 



The I- cui t Monads and I iUai/c Site. 



139 



- 






140 



The Fcurt Mounds and Village Site. 




FIG. <^7. Ornaments made of teeth of various animals; % size. 



The Feurt Mounds and Village Site. 



141 









x y 



IMC. SS. Broken molars of the mastodon and the mammoth; n sixe. 



142 I lie I- curt Mounds and I ilhujc Site. 

of these plates ready to he worked into form. Xo. 5 shows two 
of these plates still attached. The top shows the grinding 
surface of the tooth. Xo ornaments fashioned from the teeth 
of the mastodon or mammoth were found in the village, hut 
doubtless ornaments may he found at some future time. Xo 
evidence was found at ISaum s or at (iartner s showing the use 
of fossil teeth, and Smith makes no record of rinding mastodon 
or mammoth teeth at the Kentucky site. However, objects 
made of the fossil tusk of the mastodon or mammoth have been 
reported from various burials found in ( )hio. and the Museum 
contains several specimens purporting to come from these 
burials. 

( )K X A M I-: X TS ( IF S 1 1 KLL. 

Ornaments made of ocean shell as well as of the common 
mussel shell were found near the surface of the village. < )ur 
own survey was unable to find but few ornaments made of shell. 
but Mr. \Yertz secured many examples of cut shells, both plain and 
ornamented, and perforated for attachment as pendants. Fig. 
89 shows a number of cut and ornamented shell pendants and 
gorgets. Xos. i . 2 and 3 are specimens made of mussel shells ; 
Xo. 4 a gorget made of ocean shell, pierced with two holes ; 
No. 5 is perhaps part of a large decorated gorget, which had 
been broken and reworked into form ; Xos. 6 and / are pendants 
with enlarged ends, made from ocean shell; Xos. S. 9, 10 and 
1 1 are pendants made of ocean shell, decorated and provided 
with perforations or incised lines for attachment; Xo. 12 is 
similar to Xo. 5, and made from a broken decorated shell object; 
Nos. 14. 15, j6, 17 and iS are shell pendants; Xos. 19. 20 
and 21 are unfinished shell pendants; Xo. 22 is an unusual 
pendant with two perforations near the center for attachment. 
X"o. 23 is an effigy of an eagle claw, made of ocean shell. 

Pendants made of the incisor of the elk, ( Xo. 24) were 
frequently found, and all were perforated for attachment. 

X T o. 25 is a pendant made of the canine tooth of the elk. 
Specimens of this kind were not met with in such numbers 
as were found at Baum s. 



J h.c I- curt M omuls and I "i/la</c Site. 



143 




6 



6 



/o 



** 



I u;. 89. Ornaments made (if shell ; r- size. 



144 The Fen-rt Mounds and Village Site. 

Xo. 26 might he considered a head of unusual make, heing 
perforated at each end for attachment. Xo. 27 is a cylindrical 
head made of ocean shell, and perforated lengthwise for attach 
ment to a necklace. 

IIOKS MAIM-: OF SIIF.LL. 

1 Iocs made of shell were found in goodly numhers in the 
Feurt site. The hoes shown in Fig. <jo are representative 
specimens found in the site, and resemhle both as to kind of 
shells used and in manner of manufacture, those found at 
Haum s and (iartner s. Smith found the perforated shells at the 
Kentucky site. ( )n many sites along the ( )hio and Scioto 
rivers, a different form of hoe is found. This hoe is made of 
a ferruginous sandstone, which outcrops along the Ohio river 
and occurs in thin layers, and when broken into the desired 
form and sharpened form a very desirable implement. Of 
these, however not a single specimen was found in the Feurt 
site. 

SIIKLLS rSF.I) FOR SPOONS AND SCRAPKRS. 

The specimens shown in Fig. 91 were doubtless used as 
spoons and scrapers, or both. They were abundant and were 
no doubt a very useful implement. All show use and many are 
worn, as shown in the figure. The majority of the spoons or 
scrapers are plain, but manv are perforated with a small hole 
for attachment to a handle or to clothing. 

Shell spoons are frequently met with in the Ft. Ancient 
culture sites in ( )hio. At Baum s shell spoons were found in 
the village site as well as the graves, but no specimens were 
found at (iartner s. Smith found shell spoons in the Kentucky 
site and they have been reported from many village sites along 
the Ohio river. 

CONCLUSIONS. 

The examination of the Tremper Mound, in 1915, very 
naturally led to the desire to know something of the inhabitants 
of the Feurt Mounds and Villagesite, lying just across the 
Scioto river to the eastward. The close proximity of the sites, 
as well as their relative size and importance, was sufficient to 
raise the question as to whether or not there might have been 



The Feurt Mounds and Village Site. 



145 








FIG. 90. Hoes made of mussel shell ; ?. size. 



146 



I he I- curt Mounds and I ilhu/c Site. 







Fi<;. !>1. Shell spoons and scrapers made of mussel shell: ii size. 



The l : curt Mounds and Village Site. 147 

some connection between the two. It was apparent without 
detailed examination that the cultural stages represented by 
the two sites were extremely different, and that if any connec 
tion were to be discovered it would be due entirely to con 
temporaneity of occupation and the consequent relationship 
which, amicable or hostile, is bound to exist where two peoples 
are co-resident in a vicinity. 

In the examination of the Tremper mound, some objects 
were found which seemed pertinent to a culture other than that 
of the occupants and builders ; not many, to be sure, for being 
of the most advanced type of peoples resident in prehistoric 
Ohio, they doubtless were mainly self-sufficient and found but 
little among the treasures of their lowlier neighbors which they 
would deign to possess. Still, there were a few things some 
Hint arrowpoints. an object or two of stone and bone which 
apparently belonged to the so-called Fort Ancient peoples resi 
dent in most of southern Ohio. 

And while not many objects having their origin with the 
latter people could be expected among the relics of the esthetic 
Hopewell culture, it was reasonable to suppose that the com 
paratively elegant ornaments and implements of copper and 
other materials possessed by these would be highly prized and 
sought for by those who lacked the skill to produce them. 

It was therefore, an important consideration in the ex 
ploration of the Feurt site, readily attributable to the Fort 
Ancient culture, to determine the presence or absence thereat 
of objects pertaining to the nearby Tremper site, and from 
this, to prove or dispose of the already formed opinion that 
the occupants of the two sites were not unacquainted with 
one another. 

If it should prove that they were contemporaneous in their 
residence in the vicinity, it was patent that their relations 
might be either friendly or unfriendly. If friendly, it was 
reasonable to hope that we might find in the Feurt site some 
few of the finely wrought and obviously desirable objects of 
the Tremper people, secured and prized by the less advanced 
culture. In this case, it would naturally be expected that such 
valued possessions would be found with burials. 



148 The rcttrt Mounds and Village Site. 

If, on the other hand, the relationship was hostile, such 
objects might still he found, hut under very different conditions. 
Observation has shown that the Fort Ancient peoples, while 
less advanced along esthetic lines, were numerous, practical 
and powerful, and instances are not lacking to show that they 
sometimes took indemnity from their aristocratic neighbors. In 
such case, the instinctive impulse, noted even among the 
historic Indian tribes, prevailed, and instead of appropriating 
the rich booty captured from the enemy for use as their own, 
their one thought seems to have been to mutilate, batter and 
destroy what pertained to the hated opponent. This is well 
illustrated in the find of copper, mica and other objects at Fort 
Ancient some years ago. which apparently had been captured, 
by the residents from the higher culture, then broken, battered 
and mutilated and hidden away in the earth. In either event 
whether evidence pointed to a hostile or a friendly acquaint 
ance, it would, if forthcoming, prove the contemporaneity of 
the two peoples in question. 

As it has been shown in the text that objects of copper were 
found with burials thus indicating a friendly barter or 
interchange of commodities and that, further, objects of un 
doubted Tremper type were found discarded after having been 
destroyed or mutilated pointing to hostile relation between 
the two it seems reasonable to conclude that the inhabitants 
of the Feurt site and the Tremper site, for a time at least, 
were contemporaneous in their occupation of this section of the 
Scioto valley. Furthermore, the order of the changed con 
tact is apparent, since the objects found with burials pertained 
to the earlier occupation of the villagesite, while those indicat 
ing hostile relations were identified with the later occupation. 

A possible explanation of this later misunderstanding may 
be found in the deposit of Ohio pipestone, adjacent to the 
Feurt site. Fxploration demonstrated that both the Feurt and 
the Tremper peoples drew heavily upon this material, the old 
quarries of which are within a very short distance of the Feurt 
village. The working of these quarries may have proved to be 
the casits belli between the two aboriginal settlements, and manv 



The l-eurt Mounds and 1 ilhnjc Site. 149 

account for the apparent change in their relationship toward 
one another. 

Aside from this phase of the in\ estigation. the inhabitants 
of the Feurt Village-site are shown to have belonged to the 
great Fort Ancient culture. They were very similar in prac 
tically every respect to the inhabitants of the Paum Village 
and the ( iartner Village, in < >hio. and to those of the Kentucky 
site examined bv Smith. 



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