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Full text of "Chaitanya's life and teachings : from his contemporary Bengali biography the Chaitanya-charit-amrita"

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CHAITANYA S 



LIFE AND TEACHINGS 



From his contemporary Bengali biography 
the Chaitanya-charit-amrita : 



Translated into English 

BY 

JADUNATH SARKAR, M.A., I.E.S. 



SECOND EDITION, 

Revised and enlarged, with topographical notes. 
1922 



M. C. SARKAR & SONS, CALCUTTA, 
LUZAC & Co., LONDON. 



Rs. 2. 



PUBLISHED BY S. C. L$ARKAR 
M. C. Sarkar & Sons, 90/2A, Harrison Road, Calcutta. 




PRINTER : S. C. MAZUMDAR 

SRI GOURANGA PRESS 
71/1, Mirzapur Street, Calcutta. 



1481/21. 



TO 

Professor RAJA GOPALACHARIAR, M.A., B.L., 

WHO HAS DONE SO MUCH TO MAKE THE VAISHNAV 
SAINTS OF THE SOUTH KNOWN TO US, 

I DEDICATE THIS ATTEMPT TO PLACE THE ORIGINAL LIFE OF 

CHAITANYA THE GREATEST VAISHNAV TEACHER OF 

THE NORTH WITHIN THE REACH OF ALL 

READERS OF ENGLISH WHO KNOW 

NOT THE BENGALI TONGUE. 



PATNA COLLEGE, 



THE AUTHOR AND HIS BOOK 

Krishna-das Kaviraj, the author of the Chaitanya- 
chari^dmrita, was born in the Vaidya caste, at Jhamatpur, 
a village of the Katwa sub-division of the Burdwan district 
in Bengal, (1496 A.D.) Having lost his parents in early 
life, h was brought up by his late father s sister. He 
read Persian at the village school, and then began to 
study Sanskrit in order to qualify himself for practising 
Hindu medicine, the profession of his caste. Every part 
of his great poem bears evidence to his profound mastery 
of Sanskrit literature, particularly of the Bhdgabat Purdn. 
The young orphan, while still unmarried, was converted 
to Vaishnavism by Nityananda, and begged his way on 
foot to Brindaban, where he spent the remainder of his 
long life in religious study, meditation and worship. He 
was initiated as a Vaishnav monk by Raghunath-das, who 
along with Swarup Damodar had been body-servants to 
Chaitanya during that saint s stay at Jagannath. From 
his guru, Krishna- das learned the particulars of 
Chaitanya s life and teaching which he has embodied in 
the present biography. 

His first efforts at authorship were in Sanskrit and 
dealt with the mysteries of bhakti and the service of 
Krishna. The great work of his life was the composition 
-of his old age, and was undertaken at the request of the 
faithful. Every evening the Bengali Vaishnavs of 
Brindaban used to gather together and hear the acts of 
their Master read out from his poetical biography, the 
Chaitanya Bhdgbat composed by Brindaban-das. But 



vi 



CHAITANYA 



this book dealt with the saint s last years in too meagre 
and concise a fashion to satisfy the curiosity of his follow 
ers. They, therefore, led by Haridas Pandit, the chief 
servitor of the Govindaji temple, pressed Krishna-das to- 
write a new and fuller life of the Master. The poet was 
old and infirm, but he regarded the request as a solemn 
charge which he was not free to decline. That very 
evening he prayed to the image of Madanmohan, and the 
god s approbation was shown by a sign, a garland of 
flowers slipping down from his neck at the end of the 
prayer ! On the bank of the Rddha-kunda tank, the aged 
Krishna-das completed his Chaitanya-charit-dmrita in 1582 
after nine years of unremitting toil. It is divided into 
three Books, the Adi Lild, the Madhya Lild, and the 
Antya Lild, dealing respectively with the three stages of 
Chaitanya s life, viz., (i) the 24 years from his birth to 
the time of his entering the monastic order, (ii) the six 
years of his pilgrimage, and (iii) the last eighteen years 
of his life, which were spent in residence at Puri. In 
spite of its epic length, prolixity, and repetitions, the 
Chaitanya-charit-dmrita is a masterpiece of early Bengali 
literature, and has the further merit of making the subtle 
doctrines of the Vaishnav faith intelligible to ordinary 
people. Indeed, the older school of Vaishnav Fathers, as 
represented by Jiv Goswami, had at first objected to its 
publication, lest the merits and completeness of this 
vernacular work should cause the learned Sanskrit treatises 
on bhakti exegetics to be neglected by the public ! The 
author s manuscript is still preserved in the Radha- 
Damodar temple of Brindaban, and worshipped as a holy 
relic. 

The Second Book (Madhya Lild), which is the longest 



BIOGRAPHIES OF CHAITANYA Vll 

,and most detailed of the three and the foremost authority 
on Chaitanya s teachings, life and character, and contains 
the clearest and fullest exposition of Vaishnav philosophy, 
has been here translated into English for the first time. 
In the second edition, many long extracts from the Third 
Book (Antya Lild) have been added, to complete the story 
of Chaitanya s doings and sayings at Puri till his death. 
Readers to whom the Bengali tongue is unknown, will 
here find an unvarnished account of Chaitanya as his 
contemporaries knew him, without any modern gloss, 
interpolation or criticism. My version is literal ; only, in 
certain places needless details have been curtailed, all 
repetitions have been avoided, and the texts so freely 
quoted by our author from the Sanskrit scriptures have 
been indicated by reference to chapter and verse, instead 
of being done into English. The word Prabhu, applied 
by the author to Chaitanya, has been rendered by me as 
Master. 

There are three other contemporary lives of Chaitanya 
in old Bengali. The earliest of them is the Chaitanya 
Bhdgabat, composed in 1535 A.D., by the Brahman 
Brindaban-das, a sister s son of Shribas Pandit of 
Navadwip. This author (b. 1507, d. 1589) was a votary of 
God as incarnate in Nityananda ; to him Chaitanya was 
almost a secondary object of adoration. His poem is 
encumbered with miracles and digressions, and far inferior 
to Krishna-das s work in wealth of philosophic exposition 
and description of men and events. 

Trilochan-das (born 1523) wrote the Chaitanya- 
Mangal at the age of fourteen ! It is full of marvellous 
incidents and should be classed with romances rather than 
with sober histories. Its text is still sung by wandering 



Vlll CHAITANYA 

minstrels and is appreciated by the lower ranks of the 
Vaishnav community. 

Jayananda Mishra (b. about 1511) wrote his Chaitanya- 
Mangal about 1568, and his poem gives us much new 
information about the saint and his family. He is our 
only authority for the narrative of Chaitanya s death, 

which I have translated at the end of this work. 
* * * * 

In the second edition parts of two chapters 
of the first edition, viz., xviii. pp. 254-269 and xxii. 
pp. 290-303, have been omitted, as they can be understood 
only by very learned Sanskrit scholars, the remaining 
part of ch. xxii has been incorporated with ch. xxi, 
while ch. xxiii has been renumbered as xxii. In the 
present edition, all the chapters from xxiii to the end 
are taken from the Antya Lild. 

In preparing the second edition, the translation has 
been carefully compared with the text and minutely 
revised. Many mistakes have been detected and cor 
rected ; some of them came no doubt from the manuscript 
from which the first edition was printed, but most of the 
others were due to the inefficiency and carelessness of the 
press. In going through the original a second time I have 
in a few places modified my interpretation of the text 
made twelve years ago. 

A long and important appendix has now been added, 
giving the exact situation and some description of the 
various holy places visited by Chaitanya, (with references 
to the best and most modern sources of information, such 
as Gazetteers and maps). 



A SHORT, LIFE OF CHAITANYA 

Navadwip, a town in the Nadia district of Bengal, 
situated on the river Ganges, 75 miles north of Calcutta, 
was a great trading centre and seat of Hindu learning 
in the i5th century. Sanskrit logic (nydy) for which 
Bengal is most famous among all the provinces of India, 
was very highly developed and studied here, and the fame 
of its scholars was unsurpassed in the land. But, if we 
may believe the biographers of Chaitanya, the atmosphere 
of the town was sceptical and unspiritual. There was a 
lack of true religious fervour and sincere devotion. Proud 
of their intellectuality, proud of the vast wealth they 
acquired by gifts from rich Hindus, the local pandits des 
pised bhakti or devotion as weak and vulgar, and engaged 
in idle ceremonies or idler amusements. Vedantism 
formed the topic of conversation of the cultured few ; 
wine and goat s meat were taken to kindly by the majority 
of the people, and such Shakta rites as were accompanied 
by the offering of this drink and food to the goddess and 
their subsequent consumption by her votaries, were per 
formed with zeal and enthusiasm. 

Jagannath Mishra, surnamed Purandar, a Brahman of 
the Vaidik sub-caste, had emigrated from his ancestral 
home in Sylhet and settled here in order to live on the 
bank of the holy Ganges. His wife was Shachi, a daughter 
of the scholar Nilambar Chakravarti. One evening in 
February or March, 1485 A.D., when there was a lunar 
eclipse at the same time as full moon, a son was born 
to this couple. It was their tenth child ; the first eight, 



X CHAITANYA 

all daughters, had died in infancy, and the ninth, a lad 
named Vishwarup, had abandoned the world at the age 
of sixteen when pressed to marry, and had entered a 
monastery in the Madras presidency. 

The new-born child was named Vishwambhar. But 
the women, seeing that his mother had lost so many 
children before him, gave him the disparaging name of 
Nimdi or short-lived/ in order to propitiate Nemesis. 
The neighbours called him Gaur or Gaurdnga ( fair com- 
plexioned ) on account of his marvellous beauty. That 
the child was born amidst the chanting of Hari s name 
all over Navadwip on the occasion of the eclipse, was 
taken to be an omen that he would prove a teacher of 
bhakti. Passing over the lucky signs of his horoscope,, 
and the miracles and Krishna-like antics with which pious 
imagination has invested his boyhood, we may note that 
he showed great keenness and precocity of intellect in 
mastering all branches of Sanskrit learning, especially 
grammar and logic. 

On the death of his father, Vishwambhar, while still 
a student, married Lakshmi, the daughter of Vallabh 
Acharya, with whom he had fallen in love at first sight. 
He now became a householder, and began to take pupils r 
like many other Brahmans of Navadwip. As a pandit he 
surpassed the other scholars of the place and even defeated 
a renowned champion of another province, who was 
travelling all over India holding disputations. , 

On his return from a scholastic tour in East Bengal,, 
in which he received many gifts from pious householders, 
he found that his wife had died of snake-bite during his 
absence. After a while the widower married Vishnu-priya, 
At this time his head was turned by the pride of scholar- 



CHAITANYA S LIFE AT NAVADWIP xi 

ship, and his victories in argument made him slight other 
men. During a pilgrimage to Gay a, he met Ishwar Puri, 
a Vaishnav monk of the order of Mddhavacharya and a 
disciple of that Madhavendra Puri who had first introduced 
the cult of bhakti for Krishna among the sannydsis. 
Vishwambhar took this Ishwar Puri as his guru or spiri 
tual guide. A complete change now came over his spirit. 
His intellectual pride was gone ; he became a bhakta , 
whateyer subject he lectured on, the theme of his discourse 
was love of Krishna. Indeed, he developed religious 
ecstasy and for some time behaved like a mad man : he 
laughed, wept, incessantly shouted Krishna s name, 
climbed up trees, or raved in abstraction imagining himself 
to be Krishna. He now made the acquaintance of the 
elderly scholar and bhakta Adwaita Acharya, and was 
joined by a sannydsi named Nityananda, who became to 
him even more than what Paul was to Christ. 

Many people of Navadwip now believed Chaitanya 
to be an incarnation of Krishna and did him worship, 
while Nityananda came to be regarded as Balaram, (the 
elder brother of Krishna). Religious processions were 
frequently got up, in which the devout, headed by the 
two, went dancing and singing through the streets or 
assembled in the courtyards of houses. This was the 
origin of the ndm-kirtan ( chanting God s name ) which 
has ever been the most distinctive feature of this creed. 
Chaitanya s greatest achievement at this time was the 
reclamation of two drunken ruffians, Jagai and Madhai, 
who were a terror to the city. The apostles of bhakti 
had also to face mockery and persecution from scoffers 
and unbelievers (pdshandi), which were overcome by 
supernatural signs. We pass over the scenes of ecstasy, 



Xii CHAITANYA 

tireless exertion in kirtan, madness and miracles, which 
form the extant history of this period of Chaitanya s life. 
But the conversions among the learned were few, and 
Chaitanya at last in despair resolved to turn hermit for 
their salvation, arguing thus, "As I must deliver all 
these proud scholars, I have to take to an ascetic ( life. 
They will surely bow to me when they see me as a hermit, 
and thus their hearts will be purified and filled with 
bhakti. There is no other means." So, he induced 
Keshav Bharati to initiate him as a sannydsi (1509) under 
the name of Krishna-Chaitanya, usually shortened into 
CHAITANYA, which we have anticipated in this sketch. 
He was then 24 years of age. His mother, who had often 
before urged him not to desert her as his elder brother 
had done, was heart-broken at the loss of her sole survi 
ving child, but Chaitanya consoled her in every possible 
way, and bowed to her wishes in many points in his after 
years as obediently as he had done before renouncing the 
life of a householder. 

The next six years were passed by him in pilgrimages 
to Orissa, the Southern Land, and Brindaban, and in the 
preaching of bhakti in many parts of India, as described 
in detail in the present volume. 

Thereafter, at the age of 30, he settled at Puri, and 
spent his remaining days in the constant adoration of 
Jagannath. Disciples and admirers from many places, 
chiefly Bengal and Brindaban, visited him here ; and he 
edified them by his discourses, acts of humility, and penan 
ces. Towards the close of his life he had repeated fits 
of religious ecstasy in which he acted in utter disregard 
of his life, once leaping into the blue ocean, at another 
time battering his face against the walls of his room. 



DEVELOPMENT OF VAISHNAV CHURCH Xlii 

At last in June- July, 1533, his physical frame broke down 
under such prolonged mental convulsion and self-inflicted, 
torments, and he passed away under circumstances over 
which the piety of his biographers has drawn the veil of 
mystery. 

Jn his lifetime his disciples had organized a mission. 
In Bengal the new creed was preached and spread far and 
wide by Nityananda, who afterwards came to be regarded 
as a p-gd, co-ordinate with Chaitanya. Modern Brindaban, 
with its temples, Sanskrit seminaries and haunts for re 
cluses, is the creation of the Bengali Vaishnavs, and it has 
eclipsed the older city of Mathura. Here the brothers Rup 
and Sanatan, descended from a Prince of Karnat who 
had settled in Bengal and whose descendants had become 
completely Bengalized, joined Chaitanya J s Church. These 
two and their nephew Jiv Goswami were great Sanskrit 
scholars and their devotional works, commentaries, &c. 
encouraged a revival of Sanskrit studies in general in that 
Muslim age. These three, with Gopal Bhatta, nephew of 
the celebrated Vedantist Prakashananda who was latterly 
converted to bhakti by Chaitanya and changed his name 
into Prabodhananda, and Raghunath Bhatta, son of an 
up-country Brahman bhakta, and the last Raghunath-das, a 
Kayastha saint of the Saptagram zamindar family of the 
Hugli district and the guru of our author, formed the six 
Fathers of Chaitanya s Church. Except Rup and Sanatan, 
most of the other disciples of Chaitanya adopted the 
Bengali tongue as their medium, and greatly enriched it 
with their songs, biographies, poems, travels, and transla 
tions of the bhakti literature from Sanskrit. The Vaishnav 
Goswamis, both at Brindaban and Navadwip, have kept 
up the study of Sanskrit to our own day. A classified 



XIV CHAITANYA 



list of Chaitanya s disciples is given in Book I. canto x 
and those of Nityananda and Adwaita s disciples in cantos 
xi and xii respectively. 



GLOSSARY 

.Abadhut an ascetic who has renounced the world. 
Acharya a family name or title of Brahmans, lit., teacher. 
Adwaita Acharya an elderly scholar of Shantipur and associate in 

Chaitanya s devotions before he became a sannyasi. 
.Arati divine service performed to a god in the early morning or 

afte* dusk, with lamps, incense, and instrumental music, 

especially bells. 
Balardm the elder brother of Krishna ; the images of the two with 

that of their sister S ubhadra between them, are worshipped in 

the temple of Jagannath. 
Banid grocer, (also acts as banker). 
Bhdgabat an adorer of Bhagaban or Vishnu as God ; the Bhdgabat, 

the name of a Puran, regarded by the Vaishnavs as their 

Scripture. 

a devotee, who seeks salvation through faith. 
i faith, devotion. 
Bhdrati the title of an order of monks. 
Bhattdchdrya a title of Brahmans. 
Bhog see prasdd. 

Dhoti a sheet of cloth worn round the lower limbs by Hindu males. 
Gandharva a class of celestial musicians. 

Garuda a bird ridden by Vishnu, sacred to the Vaishnavs. 
Gour (1) a city in the Malda district, the capital of Bengal during 

the Pathan period; also applied to the whole country of Bengal, 

(Gaar). (2) or Gaurdnga, a title of Chaitanya. 
f Gauriyd a native of Bengal. 
Ghdghar a musical instrument. 
Ghat bathing stairs in a river, usually sacred. 
Ghee melted butter. 

<jrOpis milk-maids of Brindaban with whom Krishna disported. 
Goswdmi a title of respect, usually given to spiritual leaders among 

the Vaishnavs. 
<Govardhan a sacred hill near Brindaban. 



xvi CHAITANYA 

Guru spiritual preceptor, initiator into learning or a faith. 
Hariddsa Muhammadan who had turned Vaishnav under 

Chaitanya s influence. There was another Haridas, a born 

Hindu, among Chaitanya s followers. 
Jagannath or Lord of the Universe, name of the idol of Krishna 

worshipped in the temple at Puri ; also applied to the town of 

Puri. 
Jhdrikhand the jungle country, Chota Nagpur and the Santhal 

parganas. 

Kali yug the present or iron age of the world. 
Katak the capital of Orissa and the seat of King Pratap Rudra of 

the Gajapati dynasty. 
Kholan instrument of music, being a long earthenware drum 

covered at both ends with leather; distinctive of the Bengali 

Vaishnavs. 
Kirfan or sanfcrfan, chanting God s name to the accompaniment of 

dance and song. 
Kulin (1) a man of blue blood (kul), descended from a mythical 

ancestor of high character or social position in a very far-off age. 

(2) the name of a village in Bengal. 

Kunda a pool of water, sacred to some god or saint. 
Li/a the antic or sport of a god, particularly of Krishna. 
Madhav Pun also Madhavendra, a monk, the spiritual guide of that 

Ishwar Puri who was the guru of Chaitanya. 
Mahd-pdtra minister of the Rajah of Orissa. 
Mahd-prasad food offered to Jaganndth and thereafter considered as 

holy. 

Mangal-drati early morning worship, see arati. 
Manfra spell, sacred verse (usually in Sanskrit). 
Mahdnta the abbot of a Hindu monastery. 
Nildchal the Blue Mountain. name of the mound on which the 

temple of Jagannath at Puri is situated. 
/Vi mdi a nick-name of Chaitanya. 
Nupur bells tied to the feet in dancing. 
Odhra Orissa. 
Pdndds attendants at a temple (such as Jagannath); they act as 

guides to pilgrims for a consideration. 
Panjit scholar, one versed in Sanskrit. 



GLOSSARY XVH 

Parichlid the highest servitor of the temple of Jagarmath. 

Prasdd food dedicated to a god at his worship, and thereafter eaten 

by the faithful as something holy. 
Prayag the town of Allahabad, at the junction of the Ganges and 

the Jamuna. 

Prem love, the highest form of bhakti or devotion. 
Puri (1) a town on the sea-coast in Orissa, containing the temple of 

Jaganndth. (2) the title of an order of monks. 
Pttrushottam a title of Vishnu; usually applied to the temple of 

Jagannath at Puri. 
Rarh *he upland of Burdwan and Birbhum districts, west of the 

Ganges. 

Sankirtan see feirfan. 

Sannydsi ascetic, monk, religious mendicant. 
Sdrvabhauma i.e., "universal doctor," a man of encyclopaedic 

knowledge. In the book this title is applied to a great scholar 

and Vedantic philosopher of Navadwip, who had settled at Puri 

and was held in high honour by the local king. His father was 

the scholar Visharad, a fellow-student of Chaitanya s maternal 

grandfather. His sister s husband was Gopinath Acharya, who, 

too, lived at Puri. Also called the Bhattacharya , and Bhatta; 

not to be confounded with the Bhattacharya (i.e., Balabhadra) of 

ch. xv-xxiii. 
Shdlgrdm a round dark pebble, worshipped as an emblem of 

Vishnu, (found in the Gandak river). 

Shdntipur a town on the Ganges, some miles below Navadwip. 
Shdstra Scripture. 

Shifcddr the revenue collector of a district, local governor. 
bmoka a complete verse, couplet or quatrain. 
Shripdd a title of respect, here applied to Nityananda. 
Shri-V aishnav one of the four main sects of the Vaishnavs ; they 

adore Ndrayan and Lakshmi (-Shri), instead of Krishna and 

Radha. 

Shudra the lowest caste among the Hindus. 
Subhadrd the sister of Krishna. 
Thug a class of professional robbers who used to strangle or poison 

their victims, after mixing with them on the way, disguised as 

travellers. 



XV111 CHAITANYA 

Tirtha sacred place, usually containing a bathing place. 

Tulsi (1) the Indian Basil plant, sacred to Vishnu, and venerated by 

the Vaishnavs as almost divine. "She is the Indian Daphne" 

(Birdwood). (2) the name of a minister of the king of Orissa. 
Vaikuntha the heaven of Vishnu. 
Vaishnav worshipper of Vishnu, the preserver, one incarnation of 

whom is Krishna. The Shaivas are the worshippers of Shiva 

the destroyer, while the Shaktas are the worshippers of Shakti 

or energy, the wife of Shiva. 

Varaha the "Boar," the 3rd incarnation of Vishnu. 
Vidya-nagar Rajmahendri, in the Madras presidency. 
Vrihaspati the teacher of the gods ; hence, a man versed in all the 

branches of learning. 
Vishwarup Chaitanya s elder brother, who turned a sannydsi under 

the title of Shankarayana and died in the monastery of Pandhar- 

pur in Southern India. 
Yug era or cycle of time. 




KING PRATAP RUDRA BOWING TO CHAITANYA 

( From an old painting in the possession of the Zamindar of Kunjaghata 



CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA 

CHAPTER I 

At the House of Adwaita 

\>lory to Shri Chaitanya ! Glory to Nityananda, to 
.Adwaita, and to all followers of Gaur ! In the month of 
Mdgh when the Master completed His twenty-fourth year, 
in the bright fortnight, He turned hermit. Then led by 
devotion He set off for Brindaban, and wandered for three* 
days in the Rdrh country, hallowing it with His footsteps 
and chanting the following verse in rapture : 

ff l too shall cross the terrible and dark ocean of the 
world by means of devotion to the Supreme Being, as the 
sages did of yore, by service at the lotus-like feet of 
Mukunda."* 

The Master said, "True are the words of this Brah 
man, who chose the service of Mukunda as his life s task. 
The highest robe [in which a man can clothe himself] is 
devotion to the Supreme Soul, the service of Mukunda 
which brings salvation. That robe he put on. Now shall 
I go to Brindaban and serve Krishna in solitude." 

So saying the Master moved day and night, the 
picture of religious ecstasy, heedless which way He 
walked. Nityananda, Acharya Ratna, and Mukunda, all 
three followed Him. All who saw Him, cried "Hari ! 

* From the Brahman mendicant s speech reported in the 
Shrimad Bhagabat, XI. xxiii. verse 53. 



2 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [I 

Hari !" in devotion, and forgot sorrow and loss. The 
cow-boys shouted Hari s name, at the sight of the Master, 
who stroked their heads saying, "Go on with your chant," 
and thanked them saying, "Blessed are* ye! ye have grati 
fied me by pouring Hari s name into my ears!" Nitya- 
nanda took the boys apart and thus tutored them, "When 
the Master asks you about the road to Brindaban, show 
Him the path leading to the Ganges." This they did 
and He took that path. Nityananda spoke to Acharya 
Ratna, "Hasten to Adwaita and tell him that I shall lead 
the Master to his house. He should keep a boat ready 
at the riverside. Thence go to Navadwip and fetch 
Shachi and all the disciples." 

Sending him off, Nityananda came before the Master 
and showed himself. "Whither are you going, Shripdd ?" 
the Master asked. "With thee to Brindaban" was the 
reply. "How far is Brindaban?" "Behold, yonder is the 
Jamuna!" So saying Nityananda led the Master to the 
Ganges. This river He mistook for the Jamuna. He 
thanked His stars that He had beheld the Jamuna, sang 
its praise, and after bowing bathed in it. He had no 
second clothing except His loin-cloth with Him. Just 
then Adwaita arrived in a boat, with a fresh loin-cloth and 
upper garment, and appeared bowing before the Master, 
who was puzzled to see him and asked, "You are the 
Acharya Goswami. Why have you come here? How 
did you know that I was at Brindaban?" The Acharya 
replied "It is Brindaban wherever you are. It is my 
good luck that you have come to the Ganges bank." The 
Master said, "So, Nityananda has played me a trick : he 
has led me to the Ganges and called it the Jamuna !" The 
Acharya replied, "False are not the words of Shripad. 



IJ DINNER AT ADWAITA S HOUSE 3 

You have now indeed bathed in the Jamuna, for the 
Ganges and the Jamuna flow in one channel, the eastern 
waters being callec^ Ganga and the western (in which you 
have bathed) Jamuna. Change your wet cloth for a dry 
one. Four days have you fasted in fervour of love. 
Gome to my house to-day, I invite thee. I have cooked a 
handful of rice, with dry coarse curry, broth and green 
herbs." Saying this he took the Master on board to his 
hoiTse, and joyfully washed His feet. His wife had al 
ready done the cooking. The Acharya himself dedicated 
the food to Vishnu, and served it in three equal portions. 
[Description of the dinner omitted.] 

The Master said, "Long have you made me danc*, 
now leave it off. Dine with Mukunda and Haridas." 
Then the Acharya broke his fast with those two, to his 
heart s content. The people of Shantipur, hearing of the 
Master s arrival, flocked to gaze on His feet. In joy they 
cried "Hari ! Hari !" and wondered at His beauty. His 
fair complexion, which eclipsed the Sun in splendour, wa 
set off by his red robe. Endless streams of people came 
and went throughout the day. At dusk the Acharya 
began a sankirtan; he danced, while the Master gazed on. 
Goswami Nityananda danced hand in hand with the 
Acharya, and Haridas behind them. This song accom 
panied their dance : 

f( How shall I speak of my bliss to-day? 
The Beloved (Krishna) has entered my temple for ever!" 

With perspiration, thrill, tears of joy, shout, and roar, 
they turned and turned, touching the Master s feet now 
and then. The Acharya embraced Him and said "Long 
did vou wander after escaping from me. Now that I have 
got vou in my house, I shall hold you fast!" ^So the 



4 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [I 

Achaiya continued dancing and singing for three hours 
after nightfall. The Master was in an attitude of longing 
as He had not yet gained union with Krishna, and this 
separation made His love burn the more fiercely. 
Impatiently He fell down on the ground, at which the 
Acharya stopped his dance. Mukunda, who knew the 
Master s heart well, began to sing verses apt for His 
passion. The Acharya raised Him to make Him dance. 
At the verses, the Master could no longer be held teck. 
He was all tears, tremour, thrill, sweat, and broken 
accents, now rising up, now falling down, now weeping. 

The song : [Rddha speaks] 
IV oe is me, dear sister, for my present state! 
The love of Krishna has caught my body and soul like a 

poison. 

My heart burns day and night; I know no peace. 
that I could fly wher$ Kanu (Krishna) is to be found t 

Sweetly did Mukunda sing the above ditty, which 
made the Master s heart burst, as the emotions of 
penitence, melancholy, rapture, frolicsomeness, pride, and 
humility struggled with it. He was stricken down by the 
force of His passion, and lay down breathless on the 
ground. The faithful grew alarmed, when lo ! He sprang 
up with a shout, overcome with ecstasy and saying 
"Chant, chant, [the name of Hari]." None could under 
stand the strong tides of His emotion. 

Nityananda moved on holding Him, while the 
Acharya and Haridas danced behind them. Three hours 
did He pass thus, now joy now sadness surging in His 
heart. The dinner had come after five days of fasting ; 
so the wild dance greatly fatigued Him, but He felt it 
not to His ecstasy. Nityananda held Him back by main 



I] MOTHER SHACHI MEETS CHAITANYA 5 

force ; the Acharya ended the kirtan, and laid the Master 
in His bed with every care. 

In the same way ten days were passed in dinners and 
singing. In the morning the Acharya brought mother 
Shachi in a litter followed by the faithful. All the people 
of ^Favadwip came, old and young, men and women, 
forming a vast crowd. The Master was dancing and 
singing the Name, when Shachi arrived at Adwaita s 
house* and He fell prone at her feet. She took Him up 
into her bosom and wept, both of them being rapt at seeing 
each other. Shachi was distracted at seeing His shaven 
crown : she wiped His body, kissed His mouth, and gazed 
at Him intently ; but could not see anything as tears 
filled her eyes. She mourned saying, "My darling Nimai ! 
be not cruel to me as Vishwarup was, whom I never saw 
after he had turned hermit. If you too do so, it will be 
the death of me." The Master replied amidst tears, 
"Listen, mother! This body is your gift and not my own. 
My birth is from you, my body has been nursed by you. 
In ten million births I cannot repay my debt to you. True, 
I have become a sannyasi with or without your consent, 
but I shall never slight your wishes. I shall live wherever 
you bid me, I shall do whatever you command." So 
saying He bowed to her again and again, while she joy 
fully clasped Him repeatedly. 

Then the Acharya led her in, and the Master made 
haste to receive the faithful, welcoming them, looking into 
their faces and embracing them, one after another. They 
grieved at the sight of His bare head, and yet delighted 
at His beauty. How can I name all the devotees Shrivas, 
Ramai, Vidyanidhi, Gadadhar, Gangadas, Vakreshwar, 
Murari, Shuklambar, Buddhimanta Khan, Nandan, 



6 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [I 

Shridhar, Vijay, Vasudev, Damodar, Mukunda and Sanjay ? 
Graciously He smiled on meeting the people of Navadwip. 
They danced in delight singing t "Hari, Hari." The 
Acharya s house was turned into Vishnu s Heaven. From 
Navadwip and many villages men flocked to see the Master. 
For many days the Acharya supplied them all with food, 
drink and quarters ; his store was inexhaustible, the more 
he spent the more was it filled again. From that day 
forward Shachi herself did the cooking, and the Master 
dined in the company of the faithful. In the day they 
had the Acharya s love and the sight of the Master, at 
night His dance and song. While He was singing all 
passions swept over Him, now He stood still, now trembled, 
now shed tears of joy or uttered broken words, now He 
fainted. At times He fell down on the ground, at which 
mother Shachi wept, saying "Methinks Nimai s body has 
been shattered." Then she piteously prayed to Vishnu, 
"Grant me this reward for my worship of thee since my 
infancy, that when Nimai falls on the ground, it may not 
hurt Him !" The loving mother Shachi was out of herself 
with transports of delight and meekness. 

Shrinivas and other Brahmans wanted to feast the 
Master. But Shachi entreated them saying, "Where again 
shall I see Nimai ? You will meet Him elsewhere, but 
for me, miserable one, this is His only visit. Therefore, 
so long as He lives with the Acharya, I shall feed Him. 
I beg this favour of you all." 

The faithful bowed in assent to the mother s wish. 
The Master too, caught His mother s love-longing and said 
to His assembled followers : "I had started for Brindaban 
without your consent. So my journey was cut short by a 
hindrance. True, I have embraced the monastic life all of 



I] CHAITANYA TAKES LEAVE OF NAVADWIP PEOPLE 7 

a sudden, yet I shall not be dead to you all. I shall not 
leave you in life, nor shall I leave my mother. It does 
not, however, become a hermit to live with his kindred 
in his birth-place. Let me not lay myself open to this 
charge. Devise a means by which I can be true to both 
my duties." 

At these sweet words, the Acharya and others went to 
Shachi and told her of His wish. Shachi, the Mother of 
the World, answered, "I shall be happy if He stays here, 
but if He is blamed it will grieve me. This plan strikes 
me as a happy solution : let Him live on the Nilachal 
(Puri), which is as it were a next door house from 
Navadwip ; men pass frequently between the two places, 
and I shall always get news of Him. You all may come 
and go, and He too may sometimes visit Navadwip at the 
Ganges bath. I count not my own joy or sorrow. What 
makes Him happy is happiness to me." 

The faithful praised her, "Mother, thy words are like 
an oracle of the gods ! At their report the Master 
rejoiced, did reverence to the people of Navadwip and 
other adorers, and said, "You are my greatest friends. 
Grant this my prayer, all of you, that you may ever in 
your homes sing Krishna s sankirtan, Krishna s name, 
Krishna s deeds, Krishna s worship. Now give me leave 
to go to the Nilachal; I shall visit you between whiles." 
Smiling He bade them farewell with due respect. But 
when He wished to start, Haridas cried piteously "You 
are going to the Nilachal, but what will be my salvation? 
I have not strength enough to go there. How can this 
lowly one hold to his sinful life without getting sight of 
you?" The Master answered, "Have done with thy self- 
abasement. It agitates my mind. For thy sake I shall 



8 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [I 



> > 



pray to Jagannath ; I shall take thee to Purushottam. 
Then the Acharya meekly begged Him to stay for a few 
days more, and the Master listened to him and did not 
go away. So, the Acharya, Shachi, and the faithful 
rejoiced. Daily did the Acharya hold the grand cele 
bration the sweet discourse on Krishna in the coinpanjr 
of the devout in the day-time, and the revelry of sankirtan 
at night. Joyfully did Shachi cook, and merrily did the 
Master dine with the faithful. The service of the .Master 
brought fulfilment to Acharya s reverence, devotion, home,, 
and wealth, while Shachi delighted in gazing on her son, 
and feasting Him to her heart s content. 

Thus did the faithful beguile some days in the 
Acharya s house in great bliss. At last the Master told 
them, "Go you all to your own homes ; there make 
Krishna s sankirtan. We shall meet again ; sometimes you 
will go to Puri, at others I shall come to you at the 
Bathing in the Ganges." Goswami Nityananda, Pandit 
Jagadananda, Pandit Damodar, and Mukunda Datta, 
these four* were sent by the Acharya to bear the Master 
company. Comforting His mother, He bowed at her 
feet, walked round her, and then set off. The cry of 
lamentation rose in the Acharya s house, but the Master 
quickened His pace, heedless of it. Adwaita followed 
Him some distance weeping, when He turned back with 
clasped hands, solaced him, and spoke these gentle words, 
"You should comfort my mother and look after the 
congregation, for if you give way to grief they will all 
die!" Embracing He turned Adwaita back, and passed 



* The Chaitanya BhAgabat mentions two others, Govinda and 
Gadadhar, (III. 2). 




H 









J 




I] CHAITANYA LEAVES BENGAL FOR PURI 9 

^on freely. To the bank of the Ganges He went with the 
four, and then to Puri by way of Chhatrabhog.* [Madhyci 
Lila, text, canto 3.] 



* Chhatrabhog. A village where the Ganges divides into 
innumerable branches before falling into the sea. It is famous for 
its submerged Shiva styled Ambu-linga. 



CHAPTER ill 

The Miracles of Madhav Puri 



So the Master went to the Nilachal, with His four 
companions, absorbed in the kirtan (singing) of Krishna. 
One day He entered a village and brought bactt a large 
quantity of rice by personally begging for alms. On the 
way the ferrymen did not refuse Him a crossing. He 
blessed them and came to Remuna,* where He devoutly 
visited the charming image of Gopinath. As He bowed 
down at the feet of the image, the bunch of flowers on its 
crown dropped upon His head. At this Master rejoiced 
and danced and sang long with the faithful. The attend 
ants of Gopinath marvelled at His power, ardour, beauty, 
and accomplishments, and served Him in many ways. 
There He passed the night, in desire of the kshir prasdd 
(condensed milk) of which He had heard from Ishwar Puri 
before. The god was known as the Gopinath who stole 
the kshir, because, as the devotees told the tale, he had 
once stolen kshir for Madhav Puri. 

In days gone by Madhav Puri had wandered on to 
Govardhan, near Brindaban, in his ecstasy heeding not 
whether it was day or night, and falling down to the 
ground without caring what sort of place it was. After 
making a circuit of the rock, he came to the Govinda- 
kunda (pool), bathed, and sat down under a tree in the 
evening. A Cow-boy came and held a pail of milk before 

* Remuna, 10 milea north-west of Baleshwar in Orissa. 



II] KRISHNA AS COW-BOY MEETS MADHAV PURI II 

Mm, saving with a smile, "Puri ! drink this milk. Why 
don t you take what you have longed for? What are you 
musing on?" The Child s beauty charmed the heart of 
the Puri, and his sweet words took away his hunger and 
thirst. The Puri asked, "Who are you and where do you 
live? How did you know that I was "fasting?" The Boy 
answered, "I am a milk-man of this village. In my village 
none can remain fasting. Some beg for rice, some for 
milk. I r convey food to those who do not beg. The 
women who had come to draw water saw you, and sent 
me with this milk for you. I must be off now to milk 
my cows, but I shall come again for my pail." Then the 
Boy went away and was not seen again. Madhav Puri 
wondered, laid the emptied pail down, and began to pray 
without sleeping. Towards the end of the night he dozed 
off into unconsciousness, and dreamt that the Boy came 
and led him by the hand to a bower saying "Here I dwell, 
suffering much from cold and rain, wind and sun. Bring 
the villagers together, remove me from the bower to the 
hill- top and there lodge me properly in a monastery. 
Bathe me profusely in cold water. Long have I looked 
forward to the day when Madhav would come to serve 
me. Moved by thy love I have accepted thy service, 
and I shall appear in the flesh to save the world by my 
sight. I am Gopal, the Uplifter of Govardhan Hill. My 
image was installed by King Bajra,* and is the guardian 
deity of this place. My attendant, in fear of the mis 
believers, removed me from the hill to this grove for 
concealment and then fled. Since then I have been here. 

* The great-grandson of Krishna and his successor on the throne 
of Mathura. 



12 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [II 

It is well that you have come. Now bring me out care* 
fully." So saying the Boy disappeared. Madhav Puri 
awoke, and judging that he had seen Shri Krishna without 
recognizing him, he rolled on the ground in a transport 
of devotion. After some weeping he calmed his mind and 
set about to carry out the Lord s bidding. After his 
morning bath he went into the village, called the people 
together, and said, "The Lord of your village, the Uplifter 
of Govardhan, is in a grove. Let us seek him out. The 
grove is dense and hard to enter. Take hatchets and 
spades with yourselves to make a door." The villagers 
joyfully accompanied him, and cut an entrance into the 
grove, where they found to their joy and wonder the 
image lying hidden under earth and grass. Removing 
the covering they knew (the image). But it was very 
heavy, so the strongest men joined together to take it up 
the hill. There the idol was placed on a stone seat, with 
another big stone at its back as a support. The Brahmans 
of the village fetched water from the Govinda-kunda in 
fresh pots. Nine hundred pots of water were brought ; 
many musical instruments were played ; the women sang. 
It was a great festival with dancing and singing. All the 
curd milk and ghee in the village were brought there with 
sweets, and all other articles of offering. The image was 
bathed by Madhav Puri himself, worshipped and installed 
there. All the food available in the village was brought 
to the hill, offered to the god and an anna-kut (pyramid 
of consecrated food) was formed. In one day s prepar 
ation this grand feast was accomplished. The image was 
laid on a bedstead, a straw thatch built over it, with walls 
of straw. 

The Goswami Puri ordered the Brahmans to feast all 



II] GOPAL IMAGE SET UP NEAR BRINDABAN 13 

the villagers, old and younp-. They dined, the Brahmans 
and Brahmanis first, then the others in due order. The 
people who came from other villages looked at Gopal and 
got his prasdd. Men wondered at the power of the Puri 
who had produced the pyramid of rice. He brought all 
the Brahmans to Vaishnavism and employed them in the 
various services (of the god). Again, at close of day he 
roused the god, offered some light refreshments as bhog. 
It was jioised abroad that Gopal had appeared there, and 
people flocked from neighbouring villages to see the god. 
The villagers joyfully gave feasts in honour of him on 
different days, each building up a pyramid of rice. At 
night the image was laid to rest ; the Puri drank a little 
milk. 

Next morning the same kind of service began. The 
people of a village came with all their milk, curd, ghee 
and rice, and offered them to Gopal. The Brahmans 
cooked as before and Gopal tasted of the heap of rice. 
The people of Brindabari love Gopal of themselves, and 
he too loves them. They all came, partook of the holy 
prasdd and forgot their sorrow and loss at the sight of 
him. From other provinces men arrived with presents 
when they heard that Gopal had appeared there. The 
rich men of Mathura sent costly offerings out of devotion. 
Gold, silver, cloth, incense and food stuffs were daily 
presented in vast quantities and swelled the store (of the 
temple). One very rich Kshatriya built the temple (at 
his own cost), some one else the kitchen, another the 
walls. The citizen of Brindaban presented a cow each, 
and thus Gopal got a thousand cows. Two Brahman 
hermits came from Bengal, and the Puri received them 
with attention, made them his disciples, and entrusted to 



14 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [II 

them the service of the god. So he waited on the god 
for some two years, glad to see him served right royally. 

One night the Puri had a dream, in which Gopal 
spoke to him, "I burn, I burn ! Rub me with sandal wood 
from the Blue Mountain, and from nowhere else, and 
then shall I be cooled. Go there quickly." The Puri, 
inspired by devotion, travelled to the eastern country to 
do the Lord s behest, appointing others to carry on the 
service. At Shantipur he visited Adwaita Acharya, who 
was moved by his devotion to get himself initiated by him 
and became his disciple. Thence the Puri proceeded 
south [i.e., to Orissa], and at Remuna saw the Gopinath, 
whose beauty threw him into ecstasy. After singing and 
dancing he sat down in the vestibule and asked the 
(attendant) Brahman about the different dishes served to 
the god. The splendour of the service made him infer 
that the bhog was excellent. So he resolved to inquire 
into the character of the bhog and appoint it for his Gopal 
too. The Brahman described to him how twelve earthen 
pots full of kshir, called amrita^keli (the cream of nectar) 
famous and unmatched in the world, were offered to the 
god every evening. Just then that bhog was presented. 
The Puri inly thought, "If I can get a little of the kshir 
prasad unasked, I may learn its taste for the purpose of 
establishing it as my GopaFs bhog." But the longing 
shamed him and he prayed to Vishnu. 

Then the bhog was removed and the drati was 
celebrated. The Puri bowed and went out without saying 
a word. He was passionless, indifferent to the world, 
vowed not to ask for anything. If he got anything un 
asked he ate it, otherwise he fasted ; the nectar of love 
was enough for him, he felt not hunger or thirst. That 



II] THE GOD GIVES KSBTIR TO MADHAV PURI 15 

he had coveted the kshir struck him as a sin. So he sat 
down in the deserted square of the village-market singing 
hymns. 

In the meantime the priest laid the image to sleep, 
finished his duties, and went to bed, where he had a 
dream. The god came and told him, "Up, priest, and 
open my door. I have kept a pot of kshir for the hermit. 
You will find it concealed under the skirt of my lower 
garment. You all did not notice it under my illusion. 
Take the kshir quickly to Madhav Puri who is sitting in 
the market place. " The priest arose, bathed, opened the 
shrine, and found the kshir under the lappet of the god s 
dhoti. He washed the spot and went into the village with 
the pot of kshir and walked through the market crying, 
"Take this kshir, whosoever is named Madhav Puri ! For 
your sake Gopinath had concealed this kshir. Take it 
and eat it, Puri, thou luckiest man in the three worlds." 

At this the Puri disclosed himself. The priest gave 
him the kshir, bowed, and told the whole story, to the 
rapture of the Puri. The attendant priest marvelled at 
his devotion and said, "It is only fitting that Krishna 
should be obedient to him." 

Lovingly did the Puri drink the kshir, then he washed 
the pot, broke it, and tied the sherds in a corner of his 
sheet, eating one of the broken pieces every day, at which 
he grew wonderfully enraptured. At the close of the 
night he set off for Puri (Jagannath), bowing to Gopinath 
then and there, in fear that a crowd would gather round 
him next morning, when they heard that the Lord had 
sent him kshir. 

So he fared on, till he came to Puri in the Blue Moun 
tain ; the sight of Jagannath threw him into an ecstasy, 

3 



1 6 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [II 

he rose up and fell down, he laughed, danced, and sang, 
in intense delight. It was noised abroad that Madhav Puri 
had come to the holy place : men flocked to do him 
reverence. Such is the nature of fame, it comes God-sent 
to those who seek it not. In fear of public notice the Puri 
had fled thither, but fame clung to this devotee of Krishna 
all the way. Eager as he was to escape from the place, 
the need of sandal for his god held him back. He told 
the story of Gopal to the attendants of Jagannath and the 
mohants, and begged sandal wood for him. The faithful 
exerted themselves for it. Those who knew the Rajah s 
minister (pdtra) begged him and thus collected the cam 
phor and sandal. A Brahman and a servant for carrying 
the sandal were sent with the Puri, and given their travel 
ling expenses. Royal passports were given to the Puri 
by the minister, addressed to the officers of the frontier 
outposts and the ferries. 

So he returned to Remuna after some time, made 
many bows to Gopinath, and danced and sang long in 
rapture. The servitors of the temple did him reverence 
and fed him on the kshir prasdd. While sleeping in the 
temple, he had a dream at the close of night : Gopal came 
and told him, "Hark thee, Madhav ! I have got all the 
camphor and sandal. Rub this sandal with camphor 
and anoint Gopinath with it daily. Gopinath s body is 
one with mine ! Lay the sandal on him and I shall feel 
the cooling effect. Doubt not, hesitate not, believe and 
give up the sandal as I bid you." So saying, Gopal 
vanished ; the Goswami awoke, called together the servitors 
of Gopinath, and told them, "The Lord bids you rub all 
this sandal and camphor on Gopinath s person ; for thus 
will Gopal be cooled. He is the Supreme Lord and his 



II] PRAISE OF MADHAV PURl S DEVOTION 17 

order is mighty. In summer Gopinath should be anointed 
with sandal paste." The servitors rejoiced at it. The 
Puri set the two men to rub the sandal into paste and 
hired two other men* also [for the work]. So he daily 
rubbed the sandal and the attending priests laid it on 
gleefully. He stayed there doing this till the sandal was 
all gone. At the end of summer he again went to the 
Nilachal and passed there four months. 

The Master told His disciples of the sweet life of 
Madhav Puri and remarked, "Think of it, Nityananda ; 
happiest of men is the Puri. Krishna appeared to him 
on the pretext of giving him milk. Thrice did he appear 
to him in dream to lay his commands. His love so 
influenced the god that he revealed himself, accepted the 
Puri s service, and saved the world. For his sake 
Gopinath stole the kshir and got the surname of "kshir- 
stealer." On the god s body did he lay camphor and 
sandal, and his love overflowed at it. Hard it is to carry 
camphor and sandal through a Muslim country (Bengal 
and Upper India). Gopal knew that the Puri would be 
put in distress in doing this task. So, the gracious god, 
ever tender to his devotees, himself took the sandal (at 
Remuna) in order that the Puri s task might be done. 
Think of the Puri s extreme devotion ! It transcends 
nature, it amazes the mind ! He is silent, passionless, 
indifferent to every earthly thing. He keeps with himself 
no companion, lest he should have to speak on any un 
godly material subject. That such a man, on receiving 
Gopal s command, travelled two thousand miles to beg for 
sandal ! He lay fasting and yet did not ask for food ! 
Such a man carried the sandal one maund of sandal 
and 20 tolas of camphor, rejoicing that he would lay them 



1 8 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [II 

on Gopal ! The frontier custom-officer of Orissa stopped 
him but he showed the royal pass and was set free. He 
never reflected how he would carry the sandal through the 
Muslim land, long distance, and countless hindrances. 
He had not a shell (kowri) with him to pay duty at the 
custom barrier, and yet in his enthusiasm he set forth to 
carry the sandal. Such is the natural effect of true love, 
not to think of one s own sufferings and troubles I 
Gopal had bidden him brinp the sandal, only to show to 
the world the Puri s deep devotion. And he brought it 
joyfully through all hardships to Remuna. Gopal had 
meant by it only to try him, and when the trial was over 
the god grew gracious. We are powerless to understand 
the depth of his love for Krishna and Krishna s gracious- 
ness to his devotee." 

So saying the Master recited a stanza of the Puri s 
composition, which has lighted the world like the moon. 
Discourse on the stanza only revealed its full beauty, just 
as the odour of sandal wood spreads with rubbing. I 
deem this stanza the rarest gem in poetry. Radha speaks 
it through the mouth of Madhavendra. How did 
Chaitanya relish it ! None besides these three can know 
its full flavour. The Puri finally attained to the supreme 
realization [i.e., death], reciting this stanza : 

The stanza [Radhika speaks] : 

"0 Lord! Gracious to the lowly! thou art now in 
Mathura. When wilt thou come to me? Darling mine! 
my heart runs about in pain of longing to see thee. What 
shall I do?" 

On reciting the stanza the Master fell down on the 
ground in a trance, senseless with the intensity of love. 
Nityananda hurriedly t6ok Him up in his arms. 



II] MASTER IN RAPTURES BEFORE GOPINATH IQ 

Chaitanya rose weeping, and ran hither and thither in 
a transport of devotion, shouting, laughing, dancing, and 
singing. Oft did He repeat the first word of the stanza, 
His voice choked with emotion and tears running down 
His cheeks. He trembled, perspired, wept with joy, stood 
stilj, changed colour, now showing remorse, now grief, 
now stupor, now pride or meekness. The stanza opened 
the gate of His love. The servitors of Gopinath gazed 
on tke Master s outpouring of love. But He came back 
to Himself on seeing a crowd gathering. The bhog was 
performed, then the drati. The priest laid the god to rest, 
came out of the shrine and placed the twelve pots of 
kshir before the Master, who joyfully took five pots for 
Himself and His disciples and returned the other seven 
to the priest. True, the sight of Gopinath had been food 
enough for Him ; but He now drank the kshir as a mark 
of reverence. The night was passed in singing the Name. 
In the morning He attended the mangal drati and then 
departed. [Text, canto 4.] 



CHAPTER III 

The Legend of Gopal the Witness 

Glory to Chaitanya ! Glory to Nityananda ! Glory to 
Adwaita ! and Glory to the followers of Chaitanya ! 

On His way the Master came to the village of Jajpur, 
where He bowed to the image of Varaha. He danced and 
sang in love and prayed long, passing the night in that 
village. To Katak* He went to see the Sakshi-Gopal, 
whose beauty threw Him into a rapture. After dance and 
song He prayed to the Gopal with abstraction. That 
night during His halt there with His disciples He heard 
the legend of Gopal. Nityananda in his former pilgrimage 
had come to Katak, seen the Sakshi-Gopal, and heard the 
legends of the god, which he now narrated to the Master. 
Once on a time two Brahmans of Vidya-nagar 
[Rajmahendri] set out on a pilgrimage, and after visiting 
Gaya, Benares, Allahabad, &c., reached Mathura. They 
made a tour of the [Maha-] ban, and beheld Govardhan 
and the Twelve Woods, known as Divddash ban, finally 
going to Brindaban. In the great temple Gopal was 
worshipped with great pomp. They bathed at the Keshi 
ghat, the pool of Kaliya, and other places, and rested in 
the temple of Gopal, whose beauty ravished their hearts. 
There they blissfully passed a few days. One of the 
Brahmans being old had been tended carefully by the 

* The image of Sakshi-Gopal is now installed at a village of the 
ame name 48 miles south of Katak town. 



Ill] OLD BRAHMAN BETROTHS HIS DAUGHTER 21 

younger one. The old man, pleased with his attendance, 
said, "Long have you served me, and through your help 
have I performed mv pilgrimage. Even a son does not 
serve his father so lovingly. Through your kindness I 
have been saved every trouble. It will be rank ingratitude 
if I do not honour you. So I shall wed my daughter to 
you." The youth replied, "Listen, sir! Why talk of that 
which cannot be ? You are a high kulin, great in learning 
and Wealth, while I am a non-kulin lacking in scholarship 
and riches. I am no worthy match for your daughter. 
Through love of Krishna have I served you, as he is 
pleased with attention to Brahmans. What pleases the 
Lord increases the store of faith." The elder answered,^ 
"Doubt not. What wonder is there in it that I should 
give you my daughter?" The younger Brahman rejoined, 
"You have a large circle of kindred, friends and sons, 
without whose consent you cannot possibly wed your 
daughter to me. Witness the case of Bhishmak, the 
father of Rukmini, who was opposed by his son in giving 
his daughter, as he wished, to Krishna." The old man 
answered, "My daughter is my property. Who can 
oppose me in giving away what is mine ? I shall give you 
my daughter in despite of all. Don t doubt it, but .erive 
your consent." The youth said, "If you have really 
decided to give me your daughter, make a vow before 
Gopal." The old Brahman addressed Gopal and said, 
"Know that I shall give my daughter to this man." The 
youth added, Lord, be thou my witness, and I shall 
summon thee to give thy testimony if he breaks his 



promise." 



So saying the two returned to their homes, the young 
man serving the other like an elder. The old man now 



22 eHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [ill 

reflected, "I pledged my word to this Brahman in a holy 
place, but how can I keep it? I must consult my wife, 
sons, kindred and friends." So, one day he gathered his 
own folk and told them the whole story, at which they 
lamented and cried - Never utter such words again ! You 
will lose your kul if you wed your daughter to a low-born 
man. You will be a laughing stock to all!" The 
Brahman urged, "How can I retract a promise made in a 
holy place? Come what may, I will give him my 
daughter." His kinsfolk threatened to boycott him, and 
his wife and children to take poison. The Brahman 
pleaded, "He will make a case of it by calling his witness. 
When he wins my daughter by a decree, my faith will be 
proved worthless!" His son answered, "Oh! the witness 
is an idol in a far-off land. Who will bear testimony 
against you? Do not be alarmed. You need not tell the 
lie that you had never made him such a promise ; you will 
only have to pretend forgetfulness. If you do that I shall 
beat the Brahman in court." At this the Brahman, full 
of anxiety, prayed intently to Gopal, "Gopal, to thee I 
appeal : save my faith and save my kindred, save both 
sides!" 

One day the younger Brahman visited him, bowed 
reverently, and said with folded hands, "You promised 
me your daughter, but are now silent on the point ! Is 
this your sense of justice?" The old man remained 
silent ; but his son ran with a stick to beat the visitor, 
crying, "Wretch! you want to wed my sister! Dwarf, 
you wish to catch the moon!" The youth fled, but 
another day he called all the villagers together, who 
summoned the old man. Then the younger Brahman 
spoke, "This man promised his daughter to me. Ask 



Ill] OLD BRAHMAN S PERJURY 23 

Mm why fye does not give her up now." On being 
questioned by the people, the elder Brahman replied, 
"Listen, friends, I do not remember what I said so long 
;ago." At this his son got the chance to put in his words 
boldly, "My father had much money with him during his 
pilgrimage. This villain, his only companion, coveted 
the money, intoxicated him with dhuturd, robbed him and 
said that thieves had taken away his money, and then 
:spread the tale that he had promised his daughter to him. 
Judge ye all, whether he is a worthy match for my sister." 
The assembled people were filled with suspicion, as greed 
often makes men commit sin. The younger Brahman 
pleaded, "Hear, my masters, he is lying to win the case. 
His father, pleased with my attendance, promised me his 
daughter voluntarily, and when I declined alleging my 
unworthiness and our disparity in wealth, learning and 
kul, he repeatedly pressed me to accept her,... and at my 
suggestion called Gopal to witness his promise. I con 
jured the god to bear testimony for me, should this 
Brahman break his word. He is my witness, whose word 
is held true in the three worlds." The old man replied, 
"This is good. If Gopal appears here and bears 
testimony,. I shall certainly give you my daughter." His 
son agreed to it. The old man inly thought, "Kind is 
Krishna. Surely he will bear my word out." His son 
was confident that the image would not come to act as a 
witness. So thinking diversely they agreed. At the 
younger Brahman s request both parties signed a written 
deed of agreement to abide by this test, to prevent future 
-disputes. It was left with an umpire. The young man 
.continued, "Listen, all ye here ! This Brahman is pious 
and true of speech, never wishing to retract his word. It 



24 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [ill 

is only his fear of the suicide of his kinsfolk that has 
made him tell a lie. Thanks to his piety, I will bring 
Krishna as a witness and enable Hm to keep his word." 
At this the sceptics laughed ; some said, "God is good,, 
He may come." 

Then the younger Brahman went to Brindaban,. 
prostrated himself and prayed to the image, "God of the 
Brahmans ! thou art ever kind. Have pity and save the 
honour of two Brahmans. I mind not whether Pget the 
girl or not, but it would be a great pity if a Brahman s 
promise is broken. For this reason, do thou bear witness, 
for he who will not bear testimony to the truth that he 
knows, commits a sin." Krishna replied, "Brahman! 
return home, assemble the public, and meditate on me. 
I shall appear and give my evidence. But my image can 
not be taken there." The Brahman protested, "Even if 
you appear in your four-armed form, none will believe you. 
But if this very image eroes there and speaks out of its 
mouth, then all will deem it true." Krishna said, 
"Nobody ever heard of an idol travelling !" The Brahman 
replied "Why do you speak of being an idol? You are 
not a mere image but the Darling of Brindaban. Do an 
unprecedented act for the sake of a Brahman." 
Laughingly Gopal said, "Hear, Brahman, I shall travel 
after you ; but do not look behind, or else I shall stop 
there. You will hear (on the way) only the jingling of 
my nupur, and thus know that I am going on. Give me 
one seer of rice [daily], which I shall eat when accom 
panying you." Next day, after taking the Lord s leave, 
the Brahman set out on his return, delighted to hear the 
jingle of the nupur behind him, and offering excellent rice 
to the image. So he arrived near his village and then 



Ill] IMAGE OF GOPAL BEARS WITNESS 25 

thought, "Now have I come to my village and shall go- 
home and tell the people of the arrival of my witness. 
But I cannot believe if J do not see him with my own eyes. 
It will be no harm if he stays here. So he looked behind 
him ; and Gopal stopped there, saying with a smile, "Go 
home*; here will I stay without going any further." 

When the Brahman reported the tale, the people 
marvelled at it, and came to see the witness. They bowed 
to Gop al, delighted with his beautv and amazed to hear 
that the image had travelled thither. Then the old 
Brahman in joy prostrated himself before Gopal, who gave 
his evidence before the people, and the younger Brahman 
got his betrothed bride. The Lord spoke to the twa 
Brahmans, "You will be my servants birth after birth. 
I am pleased with you ; beg a boon." They prayed 
together, "Grant us this that you remain here, so that all 
may know your favour to your servants." Gopal re 
mained there, and the two served him. The people 
of the country flocked to see him. The king of the land 
heard the wonderful legend and beheld the Gopal with 
supreme delight. He built a temple and endowed the. 
service of the god, who became famous under the name 
of GOPAL THE WITNESS. Thus has Sakshi-Gopal accepted, 
worship and stayed at Vidya-nagar for long. Purushottam, 
the Rajah of Orissa, conquered the country in battle and 
seized the many-jewelled throne named mdnik-sinhdsan. 
Purushottam Dev was a great devotee and entreated Gopal 
to go to his capital. Gopal, pleased with his piety, con 
sented and was taken to Katak, where his worship was 
installed. The Rajah gave the mdnik-sinhdsan to 
Jagannath. His queen, when visiting Gopal, gave him 
many ornaments in devotion. A costly pearl hung from 



26 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [ill 

her nose, and wishing to give it too she reflected, "Ah, 
if there had been a hole in the Lord s nose, I, his hand 
maid, could have made him put, this pearl on !" With 
this thought she bowed and returned home. At the end 
of the niffht Gopal appeared to her in a dream and said, 
"In my infancy my mother had bored my nose and very 
tenderly hung there a pearl. The hole is there still. 
Make me wear the pearl you wished to give." The 
queen spoke to her husband, and the two went to the 
temple with the pearl, hung it from the hole in the nose 
which was found out, and a great festival of joy was held. 
From that day on has Gopal stayed at Katak and been 
known as Sakshi-Gopal. 

The master with all His disciples heard the legend of 
Gopal from Nityananda and was delighted. While He 
stood before Gopal, the faithful seemed to see them both 
as of one body, of one complexion, large-limbed, red- 
robed, grave of mien, beaming with glory, lotus-eyed, 
moon-faced, both of them in rapture for each other. 

At the sight of both, Nityananda in great joy winked 
at the faithful and they all smiled. So the night was 
passed in great entertainment, and next morning, after 
witnessing the matin service, they set off.* Brindaban-das 
has described fully how He visited Bhubaneshwar on the 
way (to the Blue Mountain). At Kamalpur He bathed in 
the Bhagi* river, and gave His mendicant s stick to 
Nityananda to carry. With his disciples He went to see 
Kapoteshwar [Shiva]. Here Nityananda broke the 
Master s stick into three and threw it (into the river). 
From that Shiva shrine the Master returned, and was 

* Indian Atlas (sheet 116) name* the river here a* Bargovee. 



,111] DISTANT VISION OF JAGANNATH TEMPLE 27 

thrown into ecstasy by the sight of the spire* of the temple 
of Jagannath. He prostrated Himself and danced in love ; 
the disciples too, in love, danced and sang, following the 
Master on the highway. He laughed, wept, danced, 
roared and shouted, and made a thousand leagues of those 
six miles. On reaching Athara-nala (Eighteen Water 
courses) the Master came to His senses a little and asked 
Nityananda for His stick. But Nityananda answered, "It 

was broken into three bits. You fell down in a swoon of 



devotion, and as I caught you, we two tumbled on the 
stick which was broken by our weight. I know not where 
it was dropped. Through my fault was your stick broken. 
Punish me as you think fit." The Master was sad and 
spoke a little bitterly, "You have all done me great good, 
forsooth, by coming to the Blue Mountain ! You could 
not even preserve the stick, my only property. You go 
before me to see Jagannath or let me go there before you. 
But we will not go together." Mukunda Datta said, 
"Master, go thou before us ; we shall arrive after and not 
in thy company/ The Master hastened there. None 
could understand the cause why one Master broke the 
other s stick and why the latter suffered it to be done, or 
was angry at the result. The deep mystery of the breaking 
of the stick can be understood only by him who has 
constant faith in the two Masters. [Text, canto 5.] 



* The place meant is evidently Jagannath Vallabh, six miles north 
of Puri; from this place the spire of the temple of Ja^annath can 
be seen. Athara-nala is two miles north of Puri. 



CHAPTER W 

The Conversion of Sarvabhauma 

The Master went in an ecstatic mood to the temple of 
Jagannath, and was beside Himself with love at the sight 
of the god. He rushed to embrace the image, but fell 
down on the temple floor, senseless with devotion. 
Happily Sarvabhauma noticed Him, and stopped the door 
keeper (Parichhd, mace-bearer) who was about to beat the 
Master. Sarvabhauma marvelled exceedingly as he gazed 
on the beauty of the Master and His transport of love. 
The hour of bhog arrived, yet the Master did not come to 
His senses. Sarvabhauma then thought of a plan, and had 
Him conveyed by his disciple the door-keeper to his house 
and laid Him down on a clean spot. But the Master 
showed no respiration, no heaving of the chest. The 
Bhattdcharya grew alarmed. He held a fine piece of cotton 
to the Master s nose ; it stirred, and he was reassured. 
The Bhattacharya sat musing thus, "This is the sdttvika 
form of the passion for Krishna. It is named the "bright- 
pure" (sudipta sdtt-vika), and is displayed only by a de 
votee who has attained to constant realization (nitya- 
siddhi). This ecstasy is possible only in one whose 
devotion is extreme. I wonder to see it manifested in an 
[ordinary] man s person.* 

While he was pondering thus, Nityananda and the 
others arrived at the main gate, and overheard the people 
talking among themselves, "A sannyasi came here and 
swooned away at the sight of Jagannath ; he is still in a 



TV] CHAITANYA SHELTERED IN SARVABHAUMA S HOUSE 29 

trance. Sarvabhauma has conveyed him to his own 
liouse." They knew from this that it was the Great 
Master. Just then came there Gopinath Acharya, the 
son-in-law of Visharad of Nadia, and a devotee and 
acquaintance of the Master. He knew Mukunda from 
before, and was surprised to see him there. Mukunda 
bowed*, the Acharya embraced him and asked him news 
of the Master. Mukunda replied, "The Master has come 
here, and we with Him." The Acharya bowed to 
Nityananda Goswami, and again asked them all about 
the Master. Mukunda said, "After taking the monastic 
vow, the Master came to the Blue Mountain taking us 
with Him. Leaving us behind He came to visit this 
temple, and we have arrived now to seek Him. From 
what we have heard from others, we conclude that He is 
in Sarvabhauma s house, whither He was removed on 
fainting at the sight of the god. I have met you luckily, 
just as I was wishing for your sight. Let us go to Sarva- 
bhauma s house, and after seeing the Master we shall visit 
the temple. " 

Gopinath in delight conducted them to Sarvabhauma s 
"house, where he beheld the Master and felt mingled joy 
and grief. He introduced them all to Sarvabhauma, and 
took them inside. Sarvabhauma bowed to Nityananda 
Goswami and saluted the others in the proper mode. Then 
he sent them all in charge of his son Chandaneshwar, to 
the temple. Tjhey joyed to behold the god. Nityananda 
went out of himself in devotion, but the others quieted 
him. The servitor of the shrine presented them with the 
garland and prasdd of the god, to their great delight. 
Then they returned to the Master, and chanted the divine 
name loud and long. In the third quarter [of the day], 



30 CHAlTANYA-CHARIT-AMRtTA [IV 

Chaitanya awoke, and rose up shouting, Ho.fi/ Han . 
Reverently Sarvabhauma took the dust of His feet [to 
place it on his own head], and entreated Him, "Take your 
-midday meal soon. I shall feed you to-day with Jagan- 
nath s mahd-prasdd." The Master quickly came back 
from His bath in the sea, and feasted with His followers 
on the rice, broth and other kinds of prasdd, which Sarva 
bhauma served to them from golden dishes. The Master 
said, "Help me with the hash of gourd (lau) anrl other 
vegetables, and serve these others with cakes and sweets." 
But the Bhattacharya entreated Him with folded palms, 
"How has Jagannath himself fed? Do you too taste all of 
these," and so made Him eat the cakes and sweets too. 
After the dinner, he helped the Master to wash, then took 
leave to retire with Gopinath Acharya and eat their own 
meals. When they returned, [the Acharya] bowed saying 
"I salute Narayan," and the Master responded with "Be 
thy mind constant in Krishna!" At these words Sarva 
bhauma knew Him to be a Vaishnav hermit. He then 
asked Gopinath Acharya about the worldly life of the 
Master. The Acharya replied, "His home was at 
Navadwip ; his father Jagannath Mishra, surnamed 
Purandar Mishra, gave him the name of Vishwambhar. 
His maternal grandfather was Nilambar Chakravarti." 
Sarvabhauma added "Nilambar Chakravarti ! why, he was 
a fellow-student of my father Visharad, who, I know, had 
a high regard for Purandar Mishra, too. - 1 ! honour both 
for their connection with my father." 

Delighted to hear that Chaitanya was a man of Nadia, 
Sarvabhauma thus addressed Him, "You are of honourable 
birth, and a sannyasi in addition. Make me, therefore, 
your personal disciple." At this the Master cried out, "O 



IV] SARVABHAUMA LEARNS CHAITANYA S EARLY HISTORY 3! 

Vishnu ! O Vishnu!" and then spoke humbly to the 
Bhattacharya, "You are the teacher of the world and the 
benefactor of mankind. You teach Veddnta and [thereby] 
benefit men of monastic life. I am a young monk, ignorant 
of good and evil. I have sought refuge with you, regard 
ing you as my teacher. For your society have I come 
here, hoping that you will train me in all ways. You saved 
me in my great danger to-day." The Bhattacharya said, 
"Nev^r go to the temple alone, but always with me or one 
of my men." The Master replied, "I shall not enter the 
shrine, but gaze from the Garuda [pillar in the 
quadrangle]." Then Sarvabhauma addressed Gopinath 
Acharya, "You will be guide to this Goswami in visiting 
the temple. I/odge him in the house of my mother s sister, 
which is a quiet place, and look to all his needs." So he 
did. Next day Gopinath took the Master to the temple 
to show Him Jagannath as he rose from his bed. Mukunda 
Datta led Him back to Sarvabhauma s house, who spoke 
thus, "This sannyasi is meek in disposition, lovely in form. 
I daily love Him the more. Tell me what order He has 
joined and what name He has chosen." Gopinath replied, 
"He has been named Shri Krishna-Chaitanya ; His 
spiritual guide is Keshav Bharati, blessed man !" Sarva 
bhauma remarked, "His name is well-chosen, but the 
Bharati order is not ranked high [among the ten classes of 
sannyasis]." 

Gopinath answered, "He does not care for outward 
[dignity]. Hence His indifference to the more famous 
orders of monks." The Bhattacharya joined in, "Ah, He 
is in the full bloom of youth. How can He keep the 
monastic rules? However, I shall ceaselessly teach Him 
Vedanta, and lead Him on to the rank of a recluse of 

4 



32 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [IV 

the Monist school (adwaita). If He then wishes it, I 
shall robe Him anew with the yellow robe of a yogi, 
purify Him, and enter Him into one of the higher orders." 

Gopinath and Mukunda grieved to hear it ; and the 
former expostulated, "Bhattacharya ! You know not His 
greatness. The signs of divinity have reached their ex 
treme limit in Him ! Hence He is famed as the Great 
God. But in a place of ignorance even the wise know 
nothing. " 

The [Sarvabhauma s] disciples asked, "What proof 
is there of His divinity?" The Acharya replied, "The 
belief of the wise is proof of divinity." The disciples 
objected, saying, "It is by inference that God is recog 
nized." But the Acharya answered, "No, God is not 
known by inference, but only by those on whom He 
bestows His grace, even a particle of it. Witness Brah 
ma s praise of Vishnu in the Shrimad Bhagabat, Book X. 
canto xiv. verse 28 : 

Lord! true it is that knowledge can gain salvation, 
but Thy glories can be known only by him who has been 
blessed even with a particle of favour from Thy lotus-like 
feet. O Perfect Being! A man lacking Thy grace, may 
be free from earthly lusts, may have studied the scriptures 
for ages, but still he cannot know Thee fully! 

O Sarvabhauma, you may be the World s Teacher, 
a master of theology, unrivalled in the world in scholar 
ship. But you have not gained God s grace, hence vou 
cannot know God. I do not blame you, but the scrip 
ture says clearly that the knowledge of God cannot come 
from mere scholarship." 

Sarvabhauma replied, "Weigh thy words well, 
Acharya ! How do you prove that you have gained God s 



IV] INCARNATION POSSIBLE IN KALI YUG 33 

grace?" The Acharya replied, "We know a material 
thing by observing it. Our knowledge of the nature of a 
thing is proved by grace. On this sannyasi s person are 
all the marks of divinity. You yourself witnessed his 
.ecstasy of spiritual love. And yet you know not God ! 
Such are the ways of God s illusion, materialists see 
Him and yet recognize Him not ! 

Smilingly spoke Sarvabhauma, "We are arguing in 
a friejidly spirit. Don t get warm. Blame me not, I am 
only arguing from the strict standpoint of view of Shastra. 
"Chaitanya Goswami is [I admit] a great saint. But there 
is no incarnation of Vishnu in the Kali era. Hence 
Vishnu s epithet Tri-yug or the Lord of Three 



But scripture tells us that the Kali era is without an 
incarnation." 

Sadly did the Acharya answer, "You pride yourself 
on your knowledge of scripture, but you do not mind the 
Bhdgabat and the Mahdbhdmt, which are the chief of 
scriptures. Both of them assert that God will appear in 
the human form in the Kali era, and yet you maintain 
the contrary ! As God will not appear in Kali for mere 
earthly exploits [but only for purifying faith], we call 
him Tri-yug. In every era Krishna appears for the 
spiritual needs of the age. You are a logician, and yet 
you do not perceive this ! 

Texts quoted in support ; Bhagabat, X viii. 9, XI. 
v. 28, 29 ; *Mahabharat, Anushasan Parva, Dan-dharma, 
canto 149, v. 75-92. 

I need not waste these many words on you. They 
will bear no more fruit than seed sown on sterile soil. 
When His grace is on you, you will be convinced. Your 
disciple, who is plying me with all sorts of sophistic 



34 CHAITANYA-CftAfclT-AMRITA [IV 

arguments, I blame him not ; he is under illusion (mdyd). 
As the Bhagabat, Book VI. canto iv. verse 26, puts it: 

[The words of Daksha to GodJ, I bow to the Omni 
potent Supreme God, whose power of illusion raises end 
less controversies among logicians fond of dispute, and 
keeps their souls ever wrapt in delusion! ^ 

Again, the Bhagabat, XI. xxii. 3, [Krishna s words 
to Uddhava]." 

Then Sarvabhauma said, "Go to the monk [Chaitanya] 
and invite him and his followers to my house. First feed, 
them with prasdd, and then give me lessons [in 
theology] !" The Acharya, being Sarvabhauma s sister s 
husband, could [boldly] blame, praise, laugh at or school 
him. 

Mukunda was greatly pleased with the Acharya s 
reasoning, as he was inly grieved and angry at the speech 
of Sarvabhauma. 

The Acharya came to Chaitanya s house and invited 
Him on behalf of the Bhattacharya. As he talked with 
Mukunda he spoke ill of Sarvabhauma in a pained spirit. 
But the Master broke in with, "Say not so. The Bhatta 
charya has really favoured me ; he wants to safeguard my 
monastic life, and has taken pity on me out of tenderness. 
Why blame him for it?" 

Next day, the Master visited the temple of Jagannath 
in the company of the Bhattacharya, and then accom 
panied him to his house. The Bhattacharya seated the 
Master first and began to teach Him Veddnta. With 
mingled tenderness and reverence he said, "It is a 
sannyasi s duty to hear the Vedanta read. You should 
constantly attend to it." The Master answered, "Show 



IV] CHAITANYA REFUTES SARVABHAUMA 35 

me thy favour. Whatever you bid me is indeed my 
duty." 

For seven days ^did the Master thus listen to the 
expounding of the Vedanta, without making any com 
ment of His own. On the eighth day, Sarvabhauma asked 
Him,, "For seven days have you heard me in unbroken 
silence. I know not whether you follow me or not." The 
Master replied, "I am ignorant, and have not studied 
[the subject]. I merely listen at your bidding. I listen 
only because such is a sannyasi s duty. But I cannot 
follow your interpretation. " The Bhattacharya retorted, 
"He who is conscious of his own ignorance asks for a 
second explanation. But you remain ever silent as you 
listen. I know not your mind s workings." The Master 
replied, "I understand the verses clearly enough. But it 
is your commentary that puzzles me. A commentary 
should elucidate the text, whereas your exposition conceals 
the text ! You do not expound the plain meaning of the 
aphorisms, but cover them up with your fanciful interpre 
tation. The primary meaning is the plain sense of the 
terms of the Upanishad, and Vyas says it in his aphorisms. 
You [on the other hand] let the primary sense go, and 
give a conjectural secondary sense. You reject the mean 
ings of words as given in lexicons, and attribute to them 
meanings evolved from your imagination. Shruti is the 
chief of proofs. The primary meaning as given by Shruti 
can alone carry conviction. 

What are conchshells and cowdung but naturally un 
clean things, viz., the bone and ordure of animals? And 
yet they are taken as very pure, because Shruti says so. 
Of the spiritual truth that is held forth [in Vedanta] the 
meaning is plain and self-evident. Fanciful interpreta- 



36 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [IV 

tion only spoils the clear sense. The sense of Vyas s 
aphorisms is clear like the sun ; you are only enveloping 
it with the cloud of your conjectural commentary. The 
Vedas and the Purdns tell us how to discern Brahma. 
That Brahma is [only another name for] God in His 
totality. The Supreme Being is full of all powers,* and 
yet you describe Him as formless? The Shrutis that 
speak of Him as abstract (nir-bishesha) , exclude the 
natural and set up the unnatural. 

From Brahma originates the Universe, it lives in 
Brahma, and it is merged again in the same Brahma. 
The three attributes of God are that He is the three 
cases, Ablative, Instrumental and Locative [in relation 
to the Universe]. These three qualities particularize God. 
When He desired to be many, He looked at [ = employed] 
His natural powers . The physical mind and eye could 
not have then existed. Therefore, the Immaterial Brahma 
had an eye to see and a mind to will with. The terms 
Brahma means the Perfect Supreme Being* (Bhagabdn) , 
and the scriptures affirm that Krishna is the Supreme 
Being. The meaning of the Vedas is too deep for human 
understanding, the Purans make their senses clear. Wit 
ness Brahma s address to God in the Bhagabat, X. xiv. 
31 : 

Blessed, blessed are Nanda the cowherd and other 
citizens of Mathura, whose friend is the Beatific Perfect 
Eternal Brahma*. 

Shruti itself denies to Brahma material hands and 
feet, and yet it says that God moves swiftly* and 
receives everything ! Therefore, Shruti asserts Brahma 
to be particular (sa-bishesha) . It is only a fanciful inter 
pretation as opposed to a direct one, that speaks of 



IV] GOD CAN MANIFEST HIMSELF TO MEN 37 

Brahma as abstract (nir-bishesha) . How do you call that 
God formless who has the six qualities and is supremely 
blissful ? You conclude Him to be powerless, who has 
the three natural powers, as is evident from the Vishnu 
Puran, VI. vii. 60 and 61, and I. xii. 41. 

God s nature consists of sat, chit and dnanda. The 
chit power assumes three different forms in three aspects ; 
it becomes hlddini from the dnanda aspect ; it becomes 
sandhini in the sat aspect, and sambita (known as knowl 
edge of Krishna ) in the chit aspect. The chit power is 
God s very essence [or inner nature]; the life power (jiba- 
shakti) appertains to Him only occasionally ; mdyd is 
entirely outside Him [i.e., affects creation only]. But all 
these three offer devotion in the form of love. The Lord s 
six powers are only manifestations of the chit power. 
And yet you have the presumption to deny such a power? 
God and creation differ as the master and the slave of 
illusion respectively, and yet you affirm that creation is 
identical with the Creator ! In the Gita creation is recog 
nized as a force exerted by God, and yet you make such 
creation one with God ! See the Gitd, vii. 4, the words 
of Shri Krishna to Arjun : 

Earth, water, fire, air, ether, mind, sense, and self- 
consciousness these eight powers (or natures) have 
emanated from me. 

Again, the next verse in the Gitd : 

f Valiant hero! the eight natures (prakriti) about 
which I have already spoken to you, are inferior. Beyond 
them I have 1 , a higher or living nature* which upholds 
this Universe/ 

God s form is composed of sat, chit and dnanda; and 
yet you assert that form to be a corruption of tjie satwa 



38 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [IV 

quality ! He is a wretch who denies form to God ; touch 
not, behold not that slave of Death. The Buddhists are 
atheists from not respecting the Vedas. Atheism in a 
believer of the Vedas is a worse heresy than Buddhism. 
Vyas composed his aphorisms for the salvation of men, 
but the interpretation of these aphorisms by the school 
of illusion (mdyd-vddi) is the cause of perdition. 

Vyas s aphorisms accept the theory of effect 
(parindm) . God is an incomprehensible power, but ,He is 
manifested as creation. The philosopher s stone produces 
gold without undergoing any change in itself, similarly 
God takes the form of creation without suffering any 
corruption. Objecting to this aphorism as an error of 

1 Vyas, you have set up the theory of bivarta by a fanciful 
interpretation [of it]. Error consists in a creature imagin 
ing I am one with the Creator . But creation is not 
unreal, it is only perishable. The great word Pranaba is 
the image of God ; from that Pranaba all the Vedas have 
sprung in this world. The words Thou art That* (tat- 
twamasi) when applied to creation are only fractional 
(prddeshika) , but you, without minding the Pranaba, call 
these words the supreme truth." 

Thus did the Master find a hundred faults with the 
fanciful interpretation [of the Vedantists]. The Bhatta- 
charya supported his own position, using refutation, feint, 
pressure, and other logical devices. But the Master 
answered them all and established His own* view. The 
Vedas [he maintained] assert only three things about 

God, viz., our relation to Him, devotional exercises, and 
love (our need) as the fruit of devotion. All the rest 
[attributed to Him] is mere conjecture. The words of 

the Veda are self-evident, and should not be interpreted 



IV] SARVABHAUMA OUTCLASSED IN SANSKRIT LEARNING 3Q 

with the help of conjecture. But Sarvabhauma was not to 
blame for it ; he was merely carrying out God s will, in 
expounding atheistical philosophy based on fancy. Vide 
the Padma Purdn, Part II. canto 62, verse 31. 

The Bhattacharya was speechless and motionless with 
wonder as he heard these words. The Master addressed 
him/ "Marvel not, O Bhattacharya! The supreme man 
hood consists in faith in God. Even those who directly 
cQmrmjne with God (dtmdrdm) adore Him, the Supreme 
Being s attributes are so incomprehensible ! Witness the 
Bhagabat, I. vii. 10, Suta s words to Saunaka and 
others : 

Such are the attributes of Hari that even mystical and 
passionless recluses feel for Him unreasoning devotion/ 

The Bhattacharya said, "Sir, I long to hear this verse 
Interpreted." The Master replied, "Do you first explain 
it, and then I shall say what I think of it." The Bhatta 
charya expounded the verse, like a logician, in nine 
different ways in accordance with the scriptures. But the 
Master smiled as He said, "I know, Bhattacharya, that 
you are a veritable Vrihaspati, and surpass all other men 
in interpreting the scriptures. But your interpretation 
shows mere scholarship. The verse has yet another 
sense!" Then at the Bhattacharya s request the Master 
gave His own interpretation ; passing by the nine inter 
pretations given by the Bhattacharya, He gave 18 other 
explanations tf His own. First He determined the 
meaning of each of the eleven words contained in the verse, 
as taken separately ; then He gave different explanations 
in connection with dtmdrdm, laying emphasis on each of 
the eleven words in succession. The Lord, His powers, 
and His attributes, all three are incomprehensibly, 



40 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [IV 

unspeakably great! These three steal the heart of the 
devotee, to the neglect of all other forms of devotion. 
Sanak, Shukadev and others bear ^witness to this. His 
diverse expositions filled the Bhattacharya with wonder, 
and the self-abasing belief that the Master was Krishna 
indeed. "Alas !" thought he, "He is Krishna incarnate, 
but I in my ignorance have grievously sinned by showing 
pride to Him." Penitently he sought refuge with the 
Master, who graciously appeared to him in His divine 
form, first as four-armed (Vishnu), then as Krishna play 
ing on the flute. At this vision Sarvabhauma fell prostrate 
on the ground, then rose again and prayed to Him with 
clasped hands. The Master s grace made spiritual knowl 
edge illumine his heart, he now knew the glory of God s 
name, faith, gift, the esoteric meanings of the letters of 
the alphabet, &c. In a moment he composed a hundred 
verses, such as even Vrihaspati would have failed to frame. 
The* delighted Master embraced him, and the Bhattacharya 
fainted in an ecstasy of joy, weeping, standing still, 
tumbling down at the Master s feet. 

The sight delighted Gopinath Acharya. The Master s 
disciples smiled at the dance of Sarvabhauma. Gopinath 
spoke to the Master, "You have so transformed that 
Bhattacharya !" The Master replied, "You are a devotee, 
your society has so wrought on him through the great 
grace of Jagannath." Then He composed Bhattacharya, 
who thereafter praised Him long, saying, "It was a light 
work to Thee to save the world, in comparison with the 
wonderful power Thou hast manifested in converting me. 
Logic had made me hard like an ingot of iron. Thou hast, 
melted me. Oh Thy wondrous might!" 

The Master returned to His quarters ; Sarvabhauma 



IV] SARVABHAUMA CONVERTED TO BHAKTI 41 

feasted Him by means of Gopinath Acharya. Next day 
He went to Jagannath s temple, and beheld the god rise 
from his bed. The attending priest presented to the 
Master the garland and offered rice of the god. The 
Master rejoiced at it, tied the gifts to the hem of his 
garment, and hastened to Bhattacharya s house. It was 
dawn ; Bhattacharya awoke just then and cried out 
"O Krishna! O Krishna!" to the delight of the Master. 
Comiifg out Bhattacharya met the Master, bowed at His 
feet in a tumult of reverence, and seated Him. The 
Master untied the knot in His skirt and presented the 
prasdd to Sarvabhaurna, who joyously ate it after reciting 
the following verse, though he had not yet bathed, nor 
said his matin prayer, nor even cleaned his teeth, because 
Chaitanya s grace removed all stupor from his mind. 

From the Padma Purdn, Taste the mahd-prasdd as 
soon as you get it, though it may be dry, stale or brought 
from a distance. Wait not for a more proper time in this- 
case. , 

Then, again, Hari has said, In tasting the maha- 
brasad no rule of time or place should be observed ; a good 
man should eat it as soon as he gets it. 

At this the Master was delighted and embraced 
Sarvabhaurna in a transport. They both danced, Master 
and pupil, clasping each other, perspiring, trembling, 
shedding tears in ecstasy. The Master said, "To-day have 
I conquered the three worlds lightly ! To-day have I 
ascended Baikuntha ! To-day all my wishes are realized ! 
Because Sarvabhaurna has shown faith in the mahd- 
prasdd. To-day you have taken refuge in Krishna with all 
your heart. Krishna has taken pity on you without any 
reserve. To-day he has removed your bondage to flesh ; 



42 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [IV 

to-day you have torn off the meshes of illusion. To-day 
your heart has been made worthy to gain Krishna, because 
you have eaten the br&sdd in violation of Vedic ceremonies. 
As the Bkdgabat, II. vii. 41, puts it: 

Those whom the Lord favours and who take refuge at 
His feet with all their heart and without reserve,., can 
conquer illusion. Then they no longer look ubon this 
fleshly body the food of dogs and jackals as I or 
mine. 3 " 

So saying the Master returned home. Thenceforth 
Bhattacharya lost his pride (of learning). Thenceforth 
he knew of nothing except Chaitanya s feet, and ex 
pounded no scripture except that of bhakti. At his deep 
Vaishnavism, Gopinath Acharya danced, clapping his 
hands and crying Hari! Han / Next day Bhattacharya 
came to visit the Master, without having first gone to 
Jagannath. He lay prostrate, and thanked the Master 
much, penitently recounting his own former follies. As 
he wished to hear of the chief means of cultivating faith, 
the Master instructed him by chanting Hari s name. 

"Hari s name, Hari s name, Hari s name alone ; in 
the Kali era there is no other means of salvation, no other, 
indeed no other!" [Vrihad Narad Puran.] 

In full detail did the Master hold forth on the mean 
ing of the above verse. Bhattacharya was filled with 
wonder. Gopinath Acharya said, "Bhattacharya ! I told 
you before that you would come to this!" Bhatta 
charya bowed to him thankfully and replied, "The Master 
has blessed me by reason of my being related to you. You 
are a great devotee, and I a blind logician. For your sake 
has the Master favoured me." Pleased with his meekness, 
Chaitanya embraced him and then said, "Now go and 



IV] SARVABHAUMA BECOMES CHAITANYA S DISCIPLE 43 

see the god. 1 Bhattacharya, after visiting Jagannath, 
came home with Jagadananda and Damodar [two disciples 
of Chaitanya], and ^sent to Chaitanya many kinds of 
choice prasdd with his own cook in their company, and 
also put two verses of his own written on a palm leaf into 
the Jiands of Jagadananda for Chaitanya. When they 
arrived at the Master s house, Mukunda Datta took the 
letter from his hand, and wrote the two verses on the 
outer wall. Then Jagadananda took the letter inside to 
Chaitanya, who read and tore it up, but the followers 
learnt the verses by rote from the wall. The verses are 
given in Chaitanya-chandrodaya, Act VI. Sc. 32 : 

I seek refuge with that unequalled supreme Man, who 
has become incarnate as Shri Krishna Chaitanya, in order 
to teach passionlessness (bairdgya) and devotion through 
faith (bhakti-yog). May my mind, like a bee, settle 
firmly on the lotus-feet of the Lord Shri Krishna 
Chaitanya, who has appeared in order to revive his own 
bhakti-yog, which had -herished through the wickedness 
of ages. 

Sarvabhauma became a disciple of the Master, 
attending to nothing but His service. Ever did he medit 
ate, pray, and recite the name Shri Krishna- Chaitanya, 
the son of Shachi, the abode of virtues ! One day he 
came to the Master, bowed, and recited Brahma s hymn 
to God from the Bhagabat, changing two letters near its. 
end. The Bhctgabat, X. xiv. 8: 

Lord! That man alone enters into the inheritance of 
Thy salvation like a true heir, who in eager longing for 
the day of Thy grace passes his life worshipping Thee 
with all his mind body and speech and enjoying the fruits 
of his actions without being attached to them. 



44 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [V 

The Master interrupted him saying, "The text has 
Thy salvation (muktipada). Why do you read it as Thy 
faith (bhaktipada)!" Bhattacharya answered, "Salvation 
is not the fruit at which the faithful fix their gaze ; as for 
those who lack faith in the Lord, salvation becomes a sort 
of punishment to them [as they are annihilated in the 
Lord without being able to serve and love Him]. He 
who does not admit the incarnate Krishna, and he who 
blames and fights against that incarnation, both of them 
are punished by being merged in the Lord (Brahma 
sdyujya mukti). The devotee does not long for emancip 
ation. There are five kinds of salvation, viz. , sdlokya 
(living in the same plane with God), sdmipya (nearness to 
God), sdrupya (assuming the same form as God), sdrshti 
(equalling the glory of God) and sdyujya (absorp 
tion in the Deity). Though the first four afford 
means of serving the Lord, yet true devotees seldom elect 
them, but they dread and despise the sayujya emancip 
ation, preferring hell to it. Absorption in the abstract 
God (Brahma) and Absorption in the God clad in 
attributes (saguna ishuvar) are two forms of the same 
thing, indeed the latter is worse still. Vide the Bhagabat 
III. xxix. n, KapiPs speech to Devahuti." 

The Master objected, "The term muktipada has other 
senses too ; it means God Himself, i.e., He whose feet 
are the means of salvation. It may also mean The abode 
of salvation, which is the gth object [mentioned in the 
Bhagabat , II. x. i]. Both etymologies yield the sense of 
Krishna. Why need you change the text to Bhaktipada?" 
Bhattacharya replied, "No, I cannot adopt the reading. 
Though you interpret the term muktipada in the same 
sense of bhaktipada, yet the former is objectionable as 



IV] CHAITANYA S POWER PROVED THUS 45 

ambiguous. Though mukii has five connotations, yet its 
principal meaning is absorption in God. So, the word 
mukii fills me with fear and contempt, while bhakti kindles 
delight in the heart. At this the delighted Master 
smiled and clasped Bhattacharya firmly to His bosom. 
It was a pure act of grace on Chaitanya s part that Bhatta- 
-charya, who had been a student and teacher of the 
-doctrine of illusion, spoke thus. We recognize the philoso 
pher s, stone only when it touches a piece of iron. So 
all men knew the Master for the veritable Darling of Braja 
(Krishna) when they saw the deep the Vaishnav spirit 
of [His disciple] Bhattacharya. Then did Kashi Mishra 
and others of the Blue Mountain come and seek asylum 
at the Master s feet. I shall first describe how Sarva- 
bhauma served the Master, and how carefully he fed Him. 
[Text, canto 6.] 



CHAPTER V 
Healing the leper Vasudev 

The Master renounced the world in the bright 
fortnight of Mdgh, and came to reside at Puri in Falgun. 
At the end of the latter month He witnessed the svinging 
ceremony of Jagannath and danced and sang long in 
ecstasy. In Chaitra He liberated Sarvabhauma. Early 
in Baishakh He wished to travel to the South. He assem 
bled His followers, embraced them, held them by the 
hand, and spoke humbly, "I know you to be dearer than 
life. Life I can part with, but not with you. You my 
friends have done me a good turn by bringing me here 
to see Jagannath. Now I beg one favour from you all, 
give me leave to go to the South. I must set out to seek 
Vishwarup [my elder brother], and I will travel alone, 
taking none with me. Do you all stay at Puri till I return 
from Setubandha." 

They all knew that Vishwarup had attained to 
liberation, and that the quest of him was only a ruse of 
the Master for carrying salvation to Southern India. 
Greatly did they grieve on hearing His words, and sat 
silent with woe-begone faces. Nityananda said, "How 
can that be? We cannot let you go alone." One or two 
of us must bear you companv, lest mishap should befall 
you. Choose any two that you like. I know the roads to 
the holy places of the South. Bid me, Master, go with 
you." The Master replied, "I am as a dancer and you 
are like the manager (sutradhdr) of the play. I dance as 



V] WHY CHAITANYA MADE HIS PILGRIMAGE ALONE 47 

you make me. On turning hermit I set out for Brindaban, 
but you brought me to Adwaita s house. On the way to 
the Nilachal you broke my staff. Your deep love is 
marring my [life s] work. Jagadananda wants me to turn 
a worldling. In fear of him I have to do whatever he 
bids, me. If ever I disobey him he in anger speaks not 
to me for three days ! Mukunda grieves at the rigours of 
my monastic life : the three baths daily even in winter, 
the sl<!ep on the bare ground. He grieves inly, though he 
speaks not of it ; but his sorrow makes me doubly unhappy. 
I am a sannyasi, Damodar is a Brahmachari, and yet he 
constantly holds the pedagogue s rod over me. I did not 
know his character before. My conduct must be quite 
different from his. Having gained the favour of Krishna, 
he cares not for the opinions of other men ; but I cannot 
be so regardless of the public. Do you all, therefore, stay 
behind at Puri, while I make my pilgrimage alone for some 
time." 

Under the pretext of picking their faults the Master 
really pointed out the merits which had made them win 
His heart. Words cannot describe Chaitanya s love for 
His devotees. He himself bore the hardship of an ascetic s 
life, but when one of His devotees grieved at the sight of 
these hardships, the Master could not bear the sight of 
his grief ! He set forth on His pilgrimage as a solitary 
hermit. Four of them entreated Him hard for permission 
to accompany "Him, but He followed His own will and did 
not listen to them. At last Nityananda urged, "As you 
please. It is my duty [to obey you], be the result my 
happiness or sorrow. But one further request I must 
make : consider whether you can accept it. Your loin- 
band wrapper and gourd of water, these are the only 
5 



48 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [V 

articles that you will take with you. But your two hands 
are ever busy in counting your recitation of Hari s name 
[on the notches of your fingers]. How, then, will you 
carry your wrapper and gourd? Who will take care of 
these when you fall down on the road in a trance ? Keep 
my word : take this honest Brahman Krishna-das with vou. 
He will only carry your wrapper and gourd, and never 
say a word, whatever you may do." The Master con 
sented. They took him to Sarvabhauma s house, who 
seated them all after salutation. After a varied discourse 
on Krishna, the Master said, "I have come to beg vour 
permission. I must search for Vishwarup who retired as 
a hermit to the South. Give me leave to go South. Your 
permission will enable me to return in safety." At these 
words Sarvabhauma was much grieved at heart ; clasping 
the Master s feet he said piteously, "Through the 
accumulated merit of many previous births have I gained 
your society. But Fate has now parted our company. I 
can bear the death of a son through a stroke of lightning, 
but not the pang of separation from you ! You are your 
own master and shall go ; but stay some days more and 
let me gaze on your feet." His humility relaxed the 
Master s resolution and He lingered for some time longer. 
Eagerly did the Bhattacharya invite and feast Him with 
dishes cooked in his own house. His wife, called Shathi s 
mother, cooked the meal : her history is mrrvellous, and 
I shall narrate it in detail later on. 

After a halt of five days at the Bhattacharya s place, 
the Master asked leave to start. His eagerness forced 
the Bhattacharya to consent. He went with him to the 
temple and sought the permission of Jagannath. The 



V] RAMANANDA RAY PRAISED TO MASTER 49 

-serving priest presented the Master with the god s garland, 
which He joyously took as a symbol of permission. 

The Lord Gaur started for the South in joy, after 
walking round Jagannath in the company of His disciples 
and the Bhattacharya. He took the road of Alalnath, 
along the shore. Sarvabhauma sent Gopinath Acharya to 
bring from his house four loin-bands and wrappers and 
some prasad, to the Vipradwar gate. Then he begged the 
Master, "You must keep my request. On the bank of the 
Godavari dwells Ramananda Ray, governor of Vidya- 
nagar.* Despise him not as a Shudra and worldling. See 
him for my sake. He is worthy of your society. The 
world has not another appreciative devotee like him. In 
him scholarship and faith have reached their extreme * 
points. When you talk with him you will know his worth. 
I used to laugh at him as a Vaishnav, because I failed to 
understand his superhuman words. But Thy grace has 
now made me know his true merit. Conversation with 
him will disclose his greatness." The Master agreed, 
embraced him and bade him farewell saying, "Worship 
Krishna at home and bless me, so that through your favour 
I may return to Puri." 



* Vidya-nagar. Evidently Rajmahendri, now on the left bank 
of the Godavari. It was an important strategic point, being on the 
natural frontier between Kalinga and the kingdoms of the Madras 

coast In H9 a minister of the Gajapati king was ruling in this 

town; in 1470 it was captured by the Muhammadan Sultan of the 
Bahmani dynasty. Soon after 1480 it was taken by the king of 
Orissa ; about 1515 it was captured by Krishna Dev, the king of 
Vijayanagar, but restored. In 1543 we find it ruled by Vidyadri, a 
Prince of the Gajapati line, who lost it finally to the Muhammadans 
in 1571. (Godavari Gazetteer, 244-245.) 



50 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [V 

When the Master turned to go, Sarvabhauma fell 
down there in a faint, but the Master moved on quickly, 
without heeding him. Who can understand the heart and 
mind of the Master? The hearts of the great are at once 
tender as flowers and hard as the thunderbolt. Nitya- 
nanda raised Bhattacharya and sent him home with his 
men. The faithful quickly overtook the Master, and 
Gopinath also arrived with the clothes and prasdd. The 
Master went with them to Aldlnath, where He sang hymns 
for a long time, dancing and singing in rapture. The 
persons present flocked to gaze on the scene : they shouted 
Hari! Hari! while the Master danced in ecstasy in their 
midst. The people marvelled as they gazed at His golden 
hue, His crimson robe, and His tears of delight, His 
tremour and perspiration, which set off His beauty. All 
who came to see it forgot their homes and stayed to join 
in the dance and song of Shri Krishna Gopal ; men and 
women, old and young, all were swept away by the tide 
of spiritual love. Seeing it Nityananda said to the faith 
ful, "He will dance thus at every village [on the way]." 
It was high time, but the people did not leave Him ; so 
Nityananda contrived a plan : He took the Master away 
for His noonday bath, the people rushing on all sides to 
look on. After the bath he led the Master to the temple, 
and as soon as his own men had entered he shut the door. 
He fed the Master, and they all ate His leavings. The 
crowd gathered outside the gate, shouting L Hari ! Hari ! 
Then he opened the door and the people entered joyfully 
to gaze on the Master. 

The stream of people thus passed and repassed till 
the evening. They all became Vaishnavs and danced and 
sang [with the Master]. He passed the night there with 



V] CHAITANYA CONVERTS THE MASSES TO BHAKTI 51 

the faithful, in delightful discourses on Krishna. Next 
morning after the morning bath, He bade farewell to the 
faithful. They fainted, but He looked not at them. The 
Master wended His w*ay grieving at separation from them, 
Krishna-das following Him with the gourd. The faithful 
passed the day there in a fast, and returned sorrowing to 
Puri the next day. Like a raging lion the Master walked 
forth, chanting God s name in a transport of love. His 
words, were : 
Krishna! Krishna! Krishna! Krishna! Krishna ! 

Krishna! Krishna! 0! 
Krishna ! Kris hna ! Krishna ! Krishna ! Krishna I 

Krishna! Krishna! 01 
.Krishna! Krishna! Krishna! Krishna! 

Krishna! Krishna! Save me! 
.Krishna! Krishna! Krishna! Krishna! 

Krishna! Krishna! Deliver me! 

Ram Raghav! Ram Raghav! Ram Raghav! Save me! 
Krishna Keshav ! Krishna Keshav! Krishna Keshav! 

Deliver me! 

As the Lord Gaur walked on reciting the above verses 
He met a wayfarer and asked him to chant Han s name. 
Mad with love that man cried Hari ! Krishna! and 
followed the Master out of longing to gaze at Him. After 
a long embrace the Master dismissed him, filled with 
spiritual power. 

The maft on returning home made all his village 
Vaishnav, talking of Krishna, laughing, weeping, dancing 
incessantly, and urging all to take Krishna s name. Chance 
visitors from other villages became like Him from the sight 
of Him, and spread Vaishnavism in their own villages. 
In this way was the whole Southern country converted to 



52 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [V 

Vaishnavism. In this way did the Master make hundreds 
VaishnaV by embracing them in His travels. If He lodged 
and dined in anybody s house in a village, all the villagers 
flocked to see Him. Through the Master s grace they 
became great bhaktas, and acted as apostles for the deliver 
ance of mankind. All the way to Setubandha, He did 
this ; connection with Him made all the land Vaishnav. 
The power He had not manifested at Navadwip, He now 
put forth for the salvation of the South. He who worships 
the Master gains His favour and realizes the truth of these 
miracles. He who believes not in supernatural miracles 
loses both this world and the next. 

In this way the Master travelled to the shrine of the 
Tortoise* [the Second Incarnation], saluted and praised 
the god, dancing, singing, smiling and weeping in rapture, 
to the wonder of by-standers. Crowds gathered to see 
Him ; the Very sight of His marvellous beauty and de 
votion made them Vaishnavs. They danced with uplifted 
arms chanting Krishna s name in deep emotion. These 
very men converted other villages. Thus did the nectar 
of Krishna s name overflow the country, Vaishnavism 
spreading from man to man. 

After a time the Master came back to His senses. 
The priest of the Tortoise did Him great reverence. This 
happened everywhere that He went. In that village a 
Vaidik Brahman named Kurma, very reverently invited 
the Master, brought Him home, washed His" feet, and 
with his whole family drank the washing of His feet ; then 
he lovingly fed the Master with many kinds of dishes, and 



* Sri Kurmam, 8 m.e. of Chicacole and the greatest place of 
pilgrimage to the Telegus. (G<m/<rm Manual 62). 



V] CHAITANYA HEALS A LEPER 53 

they all paitook of the leavings. He praised the Master 
thus : "Thy lotus-like feet, which Brahma himself adores, 
have come to my house. O my boundless good fortune! 
To-day my birth, race, and faith have been glorified. 
Lord, have mercy on me and take me with Thee ! I cannot 
bear the sorrows of this worldly life." But the Master 
replied, "Say not so ! Stay at home and recite Krishna s 
name ceaselessly. Teach Krishna s lore to whomsoever 
you meet with. At my bidding be thou an apostle and 
save this land ! The world will never entangle you, but 
you will see me here again." 

Every one at whose house He dined, made this request, 
and received this charge from the Master. Everywhere in 
His pilgrimage, till the return to Puri, it was exactly* 
what He did at the Tortoise temple. 

The night spent there, next morning, the Master 
bathed and resumed His journey ; the Brahman Kurma 
followed Him long, but at last the Master persuaded him 
to return home. A high-minded Brahman named Vasudev, 
was covered with leprosy, but as the maggots dropped from 
his rotting limbs he used to pick them up and restore them 
to their places.* At night he heard of Chaitanya s arrival, 
and next morning went to Kurma s house to see Him ; on 
hearing that the Master was gone, he fell down in a faint, 
and lamented in many ways. Just then the Master re 
turned, embraced him, and lo ! his leprosy as well as grief 
was gone at* the touch and his body became sound and 
beautiful ! He marvelled at the Master s grace and clasped 
His feet and praised Him by repeating the verse in the 

* In Christian hagiology the same story is told about a saint of 
Europe, who addressed the maggots, "Eat, brothers, eat !" 



54 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [V 

Bhdgabat X. Ixxxi. 14, (Rukmini s message sent to 
Krishna by the mouth of a Brahman). 

Long- did he thank the Master, saying, "Listen, 
Gracious One ! No man has your virtue. Even wretches 
fled from me at the stench of my body. But thou, 
Supreme Lord, hast touched me ! Better for me my former 
state of misery, because henceforth my heart will swell 
with pride." The Master soothed him saying, "No, you 
will not be puffed up. Ever take Krishna s name* and 
save men by teaching them about Krishna. Soon will 
Krishna accept you. * 

So saying the Master vanished. The two Brahmans 
wept with joy at His ejace, clasping each other by the 
-neck. [Text, canto 7.] 



CHAPTER VI 
The Meeting with Ramananda Ray 

T*hus did the Master wend His way. On reaching 
the temple of the Nrisingha (Man-lion) Incarnation at 
Tiyad,* He made His bow and rapturously sang and danced 
long in* honour of the god, saying, "Glory to Nrisingha! 
Glory to Nrisingha! Prahlad s Lord! Glory to you, O 
Lotus-lipped, O Bee on the Lotus !" [The Bhdgabat, VII. 
ix. i. verse quoted in Shridhar Goswami s commentary]. 

Many such verses did the Master recite as He prayed 
to the god. The serving priest presented Him with the 
god s garland. As before, a Brahman invited and fed the 
Master, who passed the night there. Next morning He 
took up His journey again, His emotion of faith making 
Him heedless of outer things day and night. As before, 
He made the people turn Vaishnav, and after a long time 
reached the bank of the Godavari, which reminded Him 
of the Jamuna, while the wood on the bank suggested 
Brindaban. After dancing in the wood, He crossed the 
river and bathed there. Sitting at the water s edge away 
from the ghdt, the Master chanted Krishna s name. Just 
then arrived Ramananda Ray in a litter, attended by 

9 

* Jiyad. Evidently Simhachalam, a hill five miles north of 
Vizagapatam, containing a temple to Narasimha. This is the most 

famous, richest and best sculptured shrine in Vizagapatam An 

inscription shows that a queen of Gonka III. covered the image with 
gold.... Architecturally the temple apparently deserves high praise. 
(Vizagapatam Gazetteer, 323-325, 28-29.) 



56 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [VI 

musicians and many Vaidik Brahmans, to bathe. He 
bathed and performed the rites duly. The Master at first 
sight knew him for Ramananda Ray, and longed to meet 
him, but sat checking His eagerness. Ramananda Ray 
came up to Him on seeing a sannydsi, and wondered as he 
gazed on His person beaming like a hundred suns, His 
robe of the hue of the morning sun, His large vigorous 
frame, His eyes like the lotus. As he prostrated himself 
before the Master, the latter stood up and said, "Rise, 
and chant Krishna s name", and though thirsting with 
desire to embrace him, He asked, "Art thou Ramananda 
Ray?" The man answered, "Yes, I am that slave, a 
vile Shudra." Passionately did the Master embrace him, 
and both tumbled down on the ground in excess of devo 
tion, senseless with love, inert or perspiring, weeping, 
trembling, with hair standing on end, pale of hue, and 
lisping Krishna! Krishna!* 

The Vaidik Brahmans marvelled as they beheld it, 
and inly thought, "This sannyasi, we see, is powerful like 
Brahma. Why does he weep after embracing a Shudra? 
This noble is a grave and learned man ; why then has he 
been maddened by the touch of the sannyasi ?" The 
Master checked Himself on seeing strangers. The two 
composed themselves and sat down there. Smilingly the 
Master began, "Sarvabhauma Bhattacharya has spoken to 
me of your merits, and pressed me to see you. For that 
purpose have I come here. It is well that 1 have met you 
so easily." The Ray replied, "Sarvabhauma knows me 
for his servant, and is ever on the watch to do me good 
even indirectly. Through his grace have I met you, and 
to-day my life has become a success. That you have 
graciously touched this untouchable Shudra is the proof 



VI] RAMANANDA EXTOLS THE MASTER 57" 

of your mercy and that of Sarvabhauma. Thou art the- 
God Narayan himself, and I a royal servant, a worldling, 
a wretch ! In touching me thou didst not feel repulsion 
or fear of the Vedas ! The Vedas forbid you even to look 
at me. Thy mercy leads thee to perform a forbidden act. 
Thou .art God indeed; who can know thy ways? For 
delivering me hast thou come here, O Fountain of Mercy ! 
O Saviour of the Fallen ! Such is the habit of the great, 

to sate a wretch he goes out of his way to pay him a 

visit ! Vide the Bhagabat, X. viii. 2, Nanda s words to 
Garga : 

Master, that saints travel from their own hermitages 
is only for doing [spiritual] good to those householders 
who cannot leave their houses ; there is no other purpose 

in it/ 

The thousand men, Brahmans and others, in my train, 
have had their hearts melted by Thy sight. All of them 
are shouting Krishna ! Hari ! All are tremulous, all are 
weeping in joy. Verily you have every characteristic, 
internal and external, of God. No mortal can possess 
such supernatural power!" 

The Master replied, "You are the greatest of devotees. 
It is your sight that has softened the hearts of all. Why 
impute it to another? I am only a sannyasi holding the 
theory of illusion (mdyd-vdd), but even I have been 
steeped in the love of Krishna by your touch. Knowing 
that my heart is hard to reform, Sarvabhauma had asked 
me to meet you." 

Thus did the two praise each other, each delighted to 
see the other. Then a Vaishnav Vaidik Brahman bowed 
and invited the Master, who accepted the invitation 
knowing him to be a Vaishnav. Smiling, the Master said 



58 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [VI 

to Ramananda, "I wish to hear the discourse of Krishna 
from your lips. I hope I shall see you again." The Ray 
replied, "You have come here to save this sinner. But my 
wicked heart has not been cleansed by the mere sight of 
you. Stay for 5 or 7 days to purge my hard heart of its 
sins." Ramananda Ray bowed and went away, though 
loth to part, while the Master went to the Brahman s 
house to dine. Eagerly did the two look for their meeting 
in the evening. As the Master was sitting after hi? sunset 
bath, the Ray arrived with a servant. He bowed to the 
Master, who embraced him. The two conversed in a re 
tired spot. The Master bade him recite the verses 
indicating the means of gaming devotion (sddhya). The 
Ray replied, "We acquire faith in Vishnu by doing the 
duties of our rank. As the Vishnu Puran, III. viii. 8, 
says, Worship the Supreme Being Vishnu by doing the 
prescribed duties of your caste. There is no other means 
of pleasing Him/ " The Master objected, "This is only 
an external means. Mention one more advanced." The 
Ray replied, "The highest means of acquiring devotion is 
to resign to Krishna the fruits of our acts, as the Gitd, 
IX. 27, puts it : 

Son of Kunti, consign to me whatever you do, be 
it eating, performing the horn ceremony, alms-giving, or 
austerity. " 

The Master again objected, "This too is external. 
Go deeper into the subject." The Ray answered, "The 
highest means of devotion is abandoning one s caste-duties 
[out of love for Krishna], as the Lord says to Uddhav 
in the Bhdgabat, XI. xi. 32 : 

He too is the highest of holy men, -who knowing well 
the gain and loss of such a course, worships me by 



VI] HIGHER AND HIGHER FORMS OF DEVOTION 59 

renouncing the Vedic rites and ceremonies of his caste,, 
though these too were ordained by me/ 

Also, as the Gild, xvui. 66, has it:- 

Take refuge in ME alone, giving up all religions.. 
Grieve not ; I will deliver thee from all sins/ 

B.ut to this the Master objected, "This too is external. 
Tell me of a still higher means." The Ray answered, 
"Faith based on knowledge is the highest means of 
devotion. As Shri Krishna says to Arjun in the Gitd, 

xviii. 54 : 

The peaceful soul that dwells on Brahma, and feels 
not sorrow or desire, but is the same in all states, gains 
my supreme bhakti/ 

Again the Master objected as before. The Ray 
answered, "Faith independent of knowledge is the highest 
instrument of devotion. Witness Brahma s words to God 
in the Bhagdbat, X. xiv. 3 : 

Lord, hard as Thou art to be won in the Universe, 
yet they realize Thee who reject the quest of theological 
knowledge but stay at home, listening to Thy story as told 
by holy men and accepting it with all their mind, body and 
soul/ " 

The Master remarked, "It is so ; but mention a higher 
still." The Ray said, "The highest devotion is love 
(prem-bhakti)/ Witness the following verses of Rama- 
nanda Ray quoted in the Padydvali, cantos xi and xii 
respectively : 

We relish food and drink only so long as we have 
hunger and thirst. Similarly, the devot&e delights not in 
worshipping his heart s darling with elaborate Preparations, 
but in love alone/ 

Get a heart inspired with love of Krishna, if ever you 



60 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [VI 

can get it. Its only price is greed, a price which we 
cannot acquire even by the accumulated merits of ten 
millions of births/ " 

The Master remarked as before. The Ray replied, 
"The love of a servant is the highest devotion. Witness 
the speech of Durvasha in the Bhdgabat, IX. v. n : 

What is too hard for the Lord s servants to gain, as 
the very listening to His name purifies all creatures? 

The Master remarked, "It is so, but give a stilj deeper 
cause." The Ray replied, "Love as for a comrade is the 
highest form of devotion. Witness Shukdev s words to 
Parikshit, in the Bhdgabat, X. xii. 10 : 

( God is known to the good as the consciousness of 
divine pleasure (brahma-sukhdnubhuti), and to His 
servants as the Supreme Object of Adoration. That such 
a God played with the deluded cow-boys in the garb of a 
human child, was due to their excessive merit/ J 

The Master said, "This too is good. Mention a 
higher one still." The Ray went on, "The highest 
devotion is love as for a child. Witness the following 
verses of the Bhagabat : 

Shukdev! what high-class meritorious deeds did 
Nanda perform, and what did the blessed Yashoda do that 
she suckled the Divine Being?" (X. viii. 36). 

The bliss that the cowherd s wife Yashoda derived 
from her Saviour-son was never gained by Brahmd, or 
Shiva, or even by Lakshmi though clasped to His person. 
(X. ix. 15.)" 

The Master said, "This is good, no doubt. But men 
tion a higher still." The Ray replied, "Passion as for 
a lover is the highest form of devotion. Witness the 
following verses of the Bhagabat : 



VI] CONJUGAL LOVE, THE HIGHEST FORM OF BHAKTI 6l 

Verily the favour shown by the Supreme Being to 
the fair ones of Brindaban, when in the rasa sport He 
clasped them round the neck with His arms, was not 
enjoyed even by Laksnmi, who is held to His heart, nor 
by the heavenly nymphs though blooming and odorous 
like the lotus; not to speak of other women/ (X. xlvii. 

.53-)" 

The Ray continued, "Many are the means of attain 
ing to, Krishna, and there are degrees of such attain 
ment. By whichever of these means a man is inspired, it 
appears as the highest to him. It is only when we judge 
from a position of detachment that we can discriminate 
them as good, better, and best. 

The preceding five passions are arranged in the order 
of their upward development. With the increase of quality 
there is an increase of deliciousness at each step. The 
shdnta passion attains its maturity in the ddsya, the ddsya 
in the sakhya, the sakhya in the bdtsalya, and all of these 
four are concentrated in the madhum, just as the pro 
perties of the four elements, viz., sky, air, &c. increase in 
an advancing order and are all united in the fifth element, 
the Earth. The full attainment of Krishna results from 
this last passion of conjugal love (premd). The Bhagabat 
asserts that Krishna is a slave to devotion in the form of 
premd. 

Krishna s purpose remains constant in all ages : He 
makes a return to our adoration in exactly the same form 
in which we offer it. But He cannot reciprocate this prem 
adoration to the full, and so remains our debtor, as the 
Bhagabat affirms. (X. xxxii. 21, Krishna s words to the 
milk-maids) . 

True, Krishna is the highest type of beauty and grace, 



62 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [VI 

but even His charm increases when He is in the company 
of the Lady of Braja. Witness the Bhagabat, X. xxxiii. 

6: 



As the beauty of the emerald is set off -when it is 
placed amidst golden-coloured gems, so shines Krishna 
ivhen girt round by the beaming girls of Brindaban. J 

The Master remarked, "This is indeed the extreme 
point among the means of devotion. Kindly tell me if 
there is anything beyond it!" The Ray said, "I did not 
know before that the earth contained any man who would 
inquire beyond this point ! Of all kinds of conjugal passion 
Radha s love is celebrated in all our Scriptures as the 
highest. 

The Master said, "Speak on! I delight to hear. A 
wondrous stream of nectar is flowing out of your lips. 
Show how Krishna abducted Radha for fear of interrup 
tion by the other cow r -herd girls ; because a love that ex 
tends to others than the beloved is not deep enough. If 
you can show that for Radha s sake Krishna openly for 
sook the other Gopis, then I shall know that he pas 
sionately loved her." The Ray replied, "Hear, then, of this 
glorious power of love. The three worlds cannot match 
Radha s love. Krishna broke away from the circle of the 
rasa dance of the Gopis and wandered through the woods 
mourning for Radha. Witness the Git-Gomnda, canto 
III. verses 2 and i, and the Ujjivala-Nilmani, verse 43. 

Radha left the dance in anger and wounded pride. 
Krishna grew restless as he lost her. His whole heart was 
set on the rasa dance, and Radha was the chain that bound 
his heart to it. In her absence, the rasa dance palled on 
his taste. So he left the circle of dancers to seek her out. 
As h roamed hither and thither, without finding her, he 



VI] RAMANANDA EXPOUNDS VAISHNAV MYSTERIES 63 

grieved, stricken with Cupid s dart. A thousand million 
Gopis could not satiate his passion. From this you may 
infer Radha s merit !" 

The Master said, * I have now learnt those spiritual 
mysteries for which I came to you. Now have I learnt 
how to ascertain the various methods of adoration. But 
I lon to hear more : tell me of Krishna s form, of Radha s 
form, what mystery is rasa, what is the essence of love 
(prem). Be kind and tell me these mysteries ; none but 
you ca n expound them." The Ray answered, "I know 
nothing of these things, but only utter what you inspire 
me with, as the parrot repeats what it has learnt by rote. 
You are God incarnate ; who can comprehend your arti 
fice ? You send your message to my heart, and make my 
tongue deliver it, without my knowing whether I am 
speaking well or ill ! " 

The Master answered, "I am merely a sonny asi, a 
slave to the theory of illusion and ignorant of the mysteries 
of faith (bhakti). The society of Sarvabhauma has puri 
fied my mind, and I asked him to speak on devotion to 
Krishna. But he replied that he knew not Krishna s lore, 
and referred me to you as a master of it. So I came to 
you, on hearing of your reputation, and yet you praise 
me because I am a sannyasil Be he a Brahman, be he a 
hermit, be he even a Shudra, if he knows Krishna s 
mysteries, he is a guru. Cheat me not [of such know 
ledge] for my, Joeing a sannyasi. Fill my mind by holding 
forth on the mysteries of Radha and Krishna." 

The Ray was a great devotee and adorer of Vishnu, 
and his mind was proof against Krishna s illusion. But 
he yielded to the Master s pressing, and his will was 
shaken. So he said, "I am a dancer and you are the 

6 



64 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [VI 

manager of the theatre ; I dance as you make me. My 
tongue is merely a harp, and you the musician who plays 
on it. I utter whatever you think of in your mind. 

Krishna is the Highest God, the Perfect Being Him 
self, the source of all Incarnations, the chief of all causes. 
He is the source of the eternal Heaven, the eternal Incar 
nation, the eternal Universe. His body is composed of 
sat, chit and an an da ; He is the Son of Mathura s lord, 
full of all wealth, all power, all ras. Vide the Brahma 
Sam hit a V. i. 

At Brindaban He appeared as the supernatural 
youthful Cupid, at whose adoration the formula recited 
is Love, the offering presented is the seed of Love. 
There He drew all hearts of men and women, of the 
animate and the inanimate. He was Cupid s self, the 
conqueror of hearts. Witness the Bhagabat, X. xxxii. 2. 

He ravished the hearts of Incarnations like Lakshmi s 
husband, [Vide, the Bhagabat, X. Ixxxix. 32] ; He drew 
to Himself women like Lakshmi [Vide the Bhagabat, X. 
xvi. 32.] 

His own beauty charmed His own heart, and He 
wished to embrace Himself [Vide the Lalita-Mddhav, Act 
viii. verse 28.] 

Such in brief is Krishna s form. Now let me tell you 
a little of Radha s self. Krishna s powers are infinite, 
but three of them are the chief, viz., the chit power, the 
illusion power (may a), and the preservation power (jiba). 
These three I call the internal, the external, and the 
marginal (or adjacent). The highest is the internal 
sivarufy power. Witness the Vishnu Puran, VI. vii. 60. 

Krishna s self is composed of sat, chit and dnanda. 
Therefore His swamp power must be of three kinds : 



VI] RADHA J s NATURE; DESCRIBED 65 

in the dnanda portion it is hladini, in the sat portion it 
is sandhini, in the chit portion it is sambita. Witness 
the Vishnu Pur an, I. xii. 48 : 

What delights Krishna is named the Ahladini power, 
by which He en joys* delight. Krishna is Himself delight, 
and yet He tastes delight. Hladini has been created to 
give enjoyment to the faithful. The essence of hladini 
is named prem (love). The story of prem is filled with 
the emotions of dnanda and chit. The supreme emotion 
{mahdbhdba), is the quintessence of prem. The lady 
Radha is the personation of that supreme emotion. [Vide 
the Brahma Samhita, V. 33]-" * * * * * * 

The Master spoke, "This is the limit of the thing 
adored. Through your grace I have learnt it of a verity. 
None can gain the Adorable without adoration. Tell me 
kindly the way to gain Him." 

The Ray answered, "I speak as you make me, without 
my knowing what I say. Where in all the three worlds 
can we find the constant man who cannot be shaken by 
your illusive play ? You are speaking through my mouth ; 
yet you are my listener ! Hear, then, the deep mystery 
of adoration. The play of Radha with Krishna is ex 
tremely deep, and cannot be learnt from the ddsya, 
bdtsalya and other moods. The sakhis (female associates) 
alone are qualified for it ; from them has this play (lild) 
spread. This play cannot be kept up without sakhis ; 
they alone relish this lila in full. Sakhis alone have a 
right to this lild, i.e., those who adore Krishna in the 
spirit of His sakhis. Such votaries can practise devotion 
in the form of attending on Krishna and Radha in their 
secret bower. There is no other means of mastering this 
form of devotion. Witness the Git-Govinda, x. 17 : 



66 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [VI 

What man versed in the deepest mystery (ras) will 
not take refuge at the feet of the sakhis, the personations 
of the chief power, without whose help Radha and 
Krishna s pleasure-force and l pleasure-manifestation, 
though self-expressive, cannot for 9 a moment attain to 
fulness of development?" 

The character of the sakhis baffles description. A 
sakhi does not long- to play with Krishna all by herself ; 
but she feels a keener delight in contriving Krishna s 
dalliance with Radha. Radha is verily the Wishing 
creeper (Kalpalatd) of the love of Krishna, and the sakhis 
are the leaves, flowers, and shoots of this creeper ! If the 
nectar of dalliance with Krishna waters the creeper, the 
leaves, &c. delight in it ten million times more than if 
they themselves had been watered ! Vide the Git- 
Govinda, x. 16. 

The sakhis do not wish for Krishna s embrace, but 
they exert themselves to make Krishna embrace Radha. 
For this purpose they send Krishna to her under a 
thousand pretexts. Thereby they gain a pleasure ten 
million times sweeter than that of selfish enjoyment. The 
unselfish devotion of these towards each other strengthens 
the deliciousness (ras), and the sight of such unselfish 
love delights Krishna. The love felt by the Gopis is not 
truly earthly lust ; for the sake of analogy we call it lust 
(kdm). 

Earthly lust seeks sensual gratification for one s own 
self. The passion of the Gopis, on the other hand, seeks 
Krishna s enjoyment, abandoning all idea of self. They 
hanker not for their own pleasure, but if they embrace 
Krishna it is only to please Him. 

He whose heart is lured by the nectar of the Gopi s 



VI] ADORATION BY LOVE IS HIGHEST WORSHIP 67 

passion, adores Krishna abandoning Vedic worship. That 
man wins in Brindaban the Darling of Braja s lord, who 
adores Him by following the path of passionate love 
(rag). He who adores Jvrishna in the spirit of any of the 
people of Braja [contemporaneous with Krishna], is born 
at Braja in his next birth in the form of that person whose 
passion he imitated, and thus gains Krishna. This is 
proved by the Upanishads and the Shrutis. Witness the 
Bhagabat, X. Ixxxvii. 19. 

In that verse the term samadrisha indicates adoration 
in that spirit, the term samdh speaks of the acquisition by 
the gods of the persons of the Gopis, anghri padma sudhd 
means the delight of Krishna s society. At Braja you 
will not gain Krishna by following the path of prescribed 
ceremonies. Vide the Bhagabat, X. ix. 16 : 

Ascetics proud of their conquest of the flesh, and 
scholars centred in themselves, cannot gain the Supreme 
Lord so easily as His devotees (bhaktas) can/ 

Therefore, having taken on ourselves the attitude of 
the Gopis, we daily meditate on Krishna s dalliance with 
Radha. In the siddhi body we meditate and serve it, and 
in the next birth we gain Radha-Krishna s feet by being 
born as sakhis. You cannot gain Krishna, however much 
you adore Him, if you only meditate on Him as a divinity 
and not serve Him as a Gopi. See, how Lakshmi adored 
Him, but could not gain Him in Braja. Vide the Bhaga- 
bat, X. xlvii. ^3." 

On hearing all this the Master embraced him, and 
the two wept holding each other by the neck. Thus did 
they pass the night in transports of devotion, and at dawn 
parted, each to his own work. When* taking leave, 
Ramananda Ray clasped the Master s feet and begged him, 



^68 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [VI 

"You have come here out of pity for me. Stay here there 
fore for some ten days to reform my sinful heart. 
None but you can deliver mankind ; none else can impart 
love for Krishna." 

The Master answered, "I came here on hearing of 
your merits, to purify my own mind by listening to your 
discourses on Krishna. You are indeed worthy of your 
reputation. You are the limit of human knowledge as 
regards the mystery of the love of Krishna and Radha. 
What of ten days ? So long as I live, I cannot pa~t with 
you. Let us two dwell together at Puri, passing our days 
happily in talk about Krishna." So they parted. In the 
evenine the Ray came again. The two sat together in 
seclusion and held a delightful dialogue, the Master asking 
and Ramananda answering throughout the night. 

The Master asked, "Which science is the chief of 
sciences?" The Ray answered, "There is no [true] 
science except devotion to Krishna." "What is the 
greatest glory in a creature?" "The fame of being a 
devotee of Krishna s love." "What wealth is estimable 
among human possessions?" "He is wealthy indeed who 
loves Radha and Krishna." "What is the heaviest of 
sorrows?" "There is no sorrow other than lack of devotion 
to Krishna." "Whom should we consider as truly liber 
ated?" "He is the foremost of the emancipated who 
loves Krishna." "What song among all songs is pecu 
liarly own to creatures?" "That ditty which speaks of 
the amorous sports of Krishna and Radha." "What is 
the best of right courses?" "There is no right course 
except the society of Krishna s devotees." "Whom does 
creation ceaselessly remember?" "The name, virtues, 
and exploits of Krishna are the chief things to be remem- 



VI] KRISHNA-BHAKTI THE SUPREME AIM OF UFE 69 

bered." "What is the proper subject of meditation for 
mankind?" "The lotus-feet of Radha and Krishna are 
the chief object of meditation." "Where ought a man 
to live abandoning all else?" "Brindaban, the land of 
Braja, where the rasa play was performed." "What is 
the best thing for a creature to hear ?" "The love-dalliance 
of Ra^dha and Krishna is a potent medicine to the ear." 
"What is the chief object of worship?" "The highest 
objects of* adoration are the coupled names Radha- 
Krishna." "What are the respective destinations of 
those who desire liberation and devotion?" "One gets 
an immovable body, the other a celestial person. The 
foolish crow pecks at the ash-fruit (nimba), while the 
connoisseur cuckoo feeds on the mango-blossom of love. 
The luckless scholar tastes arid theological knowledge, 
while the lucky [devotee] drinks the nectar of Krishna s 
love." 

Thus did the two while away the night in talking of 
Krishna, dancing, singing, and weeping. At dawn they 
returned, each to his own duties. 

Next evening the Ray came again, and after dis 
coursing on Krishna in a loving communion for some time, 

he clasped the Master s feet and implored Him, "The 
mysteries of Krishna, Radha, love, rasa, and Hid, are 

diverse. But you have made them all clear to my heart. 

It has been as if Narayan taught the Vedas to Brahma. 

Such are the ways of the Searcher of Hearts ; He does 

not outwardly* tell us of a thing, but reveals it to our 

hearts. Vide the Bhdgabat, Li. i. 

There is one doubt still in my heart. Be good enough 

to resolve it. When I first saw you, you looked like a 

sannyasi ; but now I behold in you Krishna, the cowherd ! 



70 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [VI 

Lo, there stands before you a golden idol, the golden hue 
of which envelopes all your body. That reveals the flute 
held to your lips and your lotus-eyes glancing with many 
emotions ! I marvel as I behold 55011 in this form. Tell 
me truly the cause of it." The Master replied, "Deep is 
your love for Krishna. Know this to be the effect of love 
that when the true devotee gazes on any object, animate 
or inanimate, Krishna is manifested to him in hat object. 
The object gazed at may be inanimate or animate, but he 
sees not its natural form ; his adored deity appears in 
everything. Vide the Bhagabat, XI. ii. 43, Hari s words 
to Janak : 

He is the highest of devotees who beholds in every 
creature the God of his adoration, and all creation in the 
spirit of God. 

Also, the Bhagabat, X. xxxv. 5, the speech of the 
Gopis to Krishna : 

Then the fruit and flower laden branches of plants 
and creepers felt as it were within themselves the God -who 
was manifesting Himself, and with their limbs thrilling 
with delight began to shed drops of honey. 

Deep is your love for Radha and Krishna ; hence you 
behold Them in everything." The Ray objected, "Master, 
leave thou thy tricks. Conceal not thy true form from 
me. Having taken on thyself the emotion and beauty of 
Radhika, thou hast become incarnate in order to taste thy 
own delight. Thy secret object is the enjoyment of love ; 
incidentally thou hast filled the universe with love. Thou 
hast come of thy own accord to deliver me. And now 
thou deludest me ! What sort of conduct is this?" 

Tlu-n the Master smiled and manifested His true form 
in which were blended Krishna, the Prince of delight (ras) 



VI] RAMANANDA SEES KRISHNA IN CHAITANYA 71 

and God, the Supreme Emotion. In rapture Ramananda 
fainted and rolled on the ground. The Master touched 
his arm and brought him back to his senses. Then the 
Ray beheld the Master looking like a sannyasi ; but the 
latter embraced him and soothed him thus, "Who else 
than you can behold this form? You know fully my 
essence and mysterious exploits (lild) ; hence have I shown 
you this form. My body is not of a fair complexion, but 
this complexion is due to contact with Radha s body. 
She touches none except the Prince of the Cowherds. I 
make my own heart imagine her emotions, and thus I 
taste the delicious sweetness of Krishna. My acts are not 
hidden from you. Even if I were to conceal any, you 
would know it by the compelling force of your love. Keep 
this matter a secret from the public, lest people should 
laugh at my endeavours as those of a mad man. I am 
a mad man, and so are you ; we two are a match !" 

Thus did the Master spend ten days happily in sweet 
discourse about Krishna with Ramananda Ray. Much 
did He discuss the secret pleasure-sport of Brindaban, but 
could not come to the end of the subject. If a man dis 
covers a mine with copper, bronze, silver, gold, gem, and 
the wishing stone deposited in successive layers, he comes 
upon richer and richer things as he goes on digging. 
Similarly did the Master question Rama Ray and get his 
answer. 

Next da}$ He took leave of the Ray and ordered him, 
"Give up your earthly concerns and go to Puri, where I 
shall soon return after finishing my pilgrimage. There we 
shall live together passing our days happily in talking 
about Krishna." 

So saying He sent Ramananda home with an embrace, 



72 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [VI 

and then lay down to sleep. At dawn the Master saw a 
Hanuman (monkey), bowed to it, and set out. All classes 
of people at Vidya-pur, on meeting with the Master, quitted 
their own faiths and turned Vaishnav. Ramananda was. 
distracted by the absence of the Master and ever meditated 

on Him, utterly disregarding all his own affairs 

Chaitanya s character is by nature like thickened milk, 
Ramananda s character is sugar added to it, and the 
dalliance of Radha and Krishna is like camphor thrown 
into this compound, which only the fortunate can .taste. 
He who once drinks it in through his ears, can never leave 
it for its deliciousness. All spiritual truths are learnt if 
you hear it ; it creates faith and love in Radha-Krishna s 
feet. 

Know the hidden truth of Chaitanya from this episode. 
Attend to it with faith ; do not reason. This supernatural 
deed is deeply mysterious. You can realize it if you 
believe, but reasoning will only set it afar off. This 
precious thing is for them only whose sole riches are the 
feet of Shri Chaitanya, Nityananda, and Adwaita...! have 
celebrated the Meeting with Ramananda on the basis of 
Damodar Swarup s Diary (Karchd). [Text, canto 8.] 



CHAPTER VII 

The Pilgrimage to the South 

The Master travelled very extensively in the South, 
visiting thousands of holy places. At His touch they 
became the holiest of holy places. Under the pretext of 
a pilgrimage He delivered the people of that country. I 
shall only give a list of the places without arranging them 
in the order in which they were visited. 

As before, whoever met Him on the way and all the 
people of every village that He lodged in, were turned into 
Vaishnavs and made to chant Hari s name. They in their 
turn converted other villages. Diverse were the people of 
the South, some scholars, some ritualists, some extreme 
sceptics, Lo ! the marvellous effect of the sight of the 
Master ! all such men gave up their own creeds and turned 
Vaishnav. Even among the Vaishnavs [of the South] 
some were worshippers of Vishnu in the incarnation of 
Ram, some the followers of Madhwacharya, some of 
Ramanuj s sect of Shri Vaishnavs. All of them, on 
meeting with the Master, became worshippers of Vishnu 
in the incarnation of Krishna, and began to chant 
Krishna s name. 

The Master journeyed on, reciting the verse : 
O Ram Ragttav! Ram Raghav ! Ram Raghav ! 

Deliver me! 

O Krishna Keshav ! Krishna Keshav ! Krishna Keshav I 

Save me! 
He bathed in the Ganga Gotami (Godavari). At 



74 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [VII 

Mallikarjun He visited the shrine of Mahesha, where He 
made all the people recite Krishna s name. He beheld 
the Raindas Mahadev, and also the Man-Lion at Ahobal, 
bowing to and glorifying the latter. .At Siddha-bat is the 
image of Sita s lord ; the Master bowed to the image of 
Rain and sang hymns to it. There He was invited by a 
Brahman of the place, who incessantly took Ram s nume 
and no other. After passing the day in his house as his 
guest, the Master proceeded on. At Skanda-kshetra He 
visited Kartik, and at Tri-matha the god Tri-vikrama, 
whence He returned to that Brahman s house at Siddha-bat, 
but found him chanting Krishna s name ! After dinner 
the Master asked him, "Why, Brahman ! has this change 
come over you? Formerly you used to cry Ram, Ram 
and now you chant Krishna s name!" The Brahman 
replied, "This is the effect of your visit. The sight of 
you changed my life-long habit. From childhood have 
I been chanting Ram s name ; but when I met you I once 
tittered the word Krishna, and since then Krishna s name 
has settled on my tongue. It is Krishna s name that comes 
out of mv mouth, while the name of Ram has disappeared. 
It had been my practice since my boyhood to collect the 
texts bearing on the glory of God s names. In the 
Padma Pur an, we read : 

Yogis sport (rama) in the eternal God, -whose self is 
composed of sat, chit, and ananda. Hence the term Ram 
means the Supreme God. 

Again, the Mahdbhdrat, Udyog Parba, canto Ixxi. 4, 
says The term "Krishna" , meaning the Supreme God, has 
been derived from the -verb krish meaning existence and 
the inflexion na meaning cessation. 

So, the two names Ram and Krishna appeared equal, 



VII] CHAITANYA CONVERTS MADRAS TO BHAKTI 75 

but I next found texts making a discrimination between 
them. The Padma Purdn has this : 

f O perfect-featured Darling! my heart s Delight! 
reciting the word Ram thrice earns as much merit as taking 
[God s] name a thousand times! 

The Brahmdnda Purdn asserts, 

" A single utterance of the name of Krishna is as effica 
cious as reciting God s thousand sacred epithets three times 



in succession. 



The last text proves the immeasurable excellence of 
Krishna s name. And yet I could not repeat it, only 
because I found delight in the name of Ram, the god of 
my vows (ishtadev), and took the latter incessantly. When 
at your visit the word Krishna rose [to my lips], my heart 
recognized its glory. And I truly inferred that you are 
Krishna himself." So saying the Brahman fell at the 
Master s feet, who after bestowing His grace left him the 
next day. 

At Vriddha Kasm the Master visited Shiva, and thence 
went on to another village, where He lodged with the 
Brahmans. So great was His power that countless people, 
hundreds of thousand, millions even, came to see 
[Him]. Beholding the beauty and religious ecstasy of the 
Master they all chanted Krishna s name, and the whole 
region was converted to Vaishnavism. He refuted and 
proved faulty all the doctrines of the logicians, mimdnsakas, 
illusionists, ,-wid the followers of Sankhyaj Patanjal, Smriti, 
Purdn, and Veda, though they were strong in defending 
their tenets. Everywhere the Master established the 
dogmas of Vaishnavism, which none could refute. His 
vanquished antagonists accepted His creed, and so He 
made the South Vaishnav. On hearing of His scholarship 



70 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [VII 

the sceptics (pdshandi) came to Him, boastfully bringing 
their pupils with them. A very learned Buddhist professor 
held forth on the nine doctrines of his church before the 
Master. Though the Buddhists are unfit to be talked to 
or even to be looked at, yet the Master argued with him to 
lower his pride. The very Buddhist philosophy of nine 
tenets, though rich in logical reasoning, was torn to pieces 
by the Master s argumentation. The Buddhist professor 
raised all his nine questions, but only to be refuted by the 
Master s vigorous logic. The great philosophers were all 
vanquished ; the audience tittered ; the Buddhist felt shame 
and alarm. Knowing that the Master was a Vaishnav, the 
Buddhists retired and hatched a wicked plan : They placed 
before the Master a plate of unclean rice, describing it as 
Vishnu s prasdd. But just then a huge bird swooped 
down and carried off the plate in its beak ! The rice falling 
on the bodies of the Buddhists was [openly] rendered 
impure ; the plate fell down slanting on the Buddhist 
professor s head, cutting it open, and throwing him down 
in a fit. His disciples lifted up their voices in lamentation, 
and sought the Master s feet imploring Him, "Thou art 
God incarnate ! O forgive us ! Out of thy grace restore 
our teacher." The Master replied, "Cry out, all of you, 
Krishna s name. Pour the word loudly into your teacher s 
ears, and he will recover." They did it, the professor rose 
up and began to chant Hari! Hari! He did reverence to 
the Master saluting Him as Krishna, to the wonder of all. 
After this playful act the Son of Shachi vanished ; none 
could see Him. 

He arrived at Tirupati Tirumal, where He beheld the 
four-armed idol, and then advanced to Venkatar. At 
Tirupati He beheld the image of Ram, to which He bowed 



VII] VISITS SHRINES ON THE EAST COAST 77 

and sang hymns. The people marvelled at His powers. 
Then He came to the Man- Lion of Pana, which He saluted 
and extolled in a transport of love. At Shiva Kanchi he 
visited Shiva ; His power turned the worshippers of Shakti 
and Shiva into Vaishnavs. At Vishnu Kanchi he beheld 
Lakshmi and Narayan, to whom He bowed and prayed 
long, danced and sang in fervour. His stay of two days 
bowed the hearts of men to Krishna. Thence by way of 
Tirun^al He went to Tri-kal-hasti, and bowed to the image 
of Mahadev there. And so on to the Paksha-tirtha, the 
Shiva, the Vriddhakal-tirtha (the shrine of the White 
Boar), Pitambar [probably Chidambaram] (the shrine of 
Shiva), the Shiyali Bhairabi Devi, the bank of the Kaveri, 
Gosamaj (Shaiva holy place) and Bedawan, (where He 
adored the Amrita-linga Shiva). Everywhere the wor 
shippers at Shiva s shrines were turned into Vaishnavs. 
Thence He reached Devasthan, a Vaishnav shrine, and 
there kept constant company with the Shri- Vaishnavs. 
Proceeding further He visited the lake formed by 
Kumbhakarna s skull, the Shiva-kshetra, Papa-nashan (a 
shrine of Vishnu), and Shri-rangam, where He bathed in 
the Kaveri and then adored Ranganath, bowing and 
hymning to the god to His heart s satisfaction, and dancing 
and singing in rapture, to the marvel of all beholders. 

Here a Shri- Vaishnav named Venkata Bhatta invited 
the Master to his house, reverently washed His feet and 
with his who?e family drank off the water. After feeding 
he besought the Master thus: "Master, the four months 
of asceticism (chdturmdsya) are at hand. I pray thee pass 
them in my house, and of thy grace save me by discoursing 
on Krishna." At his house the Master stayed for four 
months, passing the time happily in talking about Krishna 



7 8 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [VII 

with the Bhatta. Daily He bathed in the Kaveri, visited 
Shri Ranga, and danced in ecstasy. All men flocked to 
gaze on His beauty and rapture of devotion, and at the 
sight they forgot sorrow and miseiy. From all quarters 
flocked hundreds of thousands, and as they beheld the 
Master they chanted Krishna s name and no other term. 
All became worshippers of Krishna, to the marvel of 
mankind. The Brahmans resident at Shri Ranga invited 
Him on successive days ; but when the four months were 
over there were some Brahmans left who had had no 
opportunity to entertain Him. 

In that holy place dwelt a Brahman devoted to Vishnu, 
who recited the Git a in the temple. In the fervour of 
delight he read the 18 cantos, making mistakes, at which 
some scoffed, some laughed, some chid him, but he heeded 
them not and went on with his readings in a rapt mood. 
The Master delighted as He beheld the reader s tears of 
delight, tremour, and perspiration at his task, and asked 
him, "Hark you, Sir! what [deep] meaning inspires you 
with such rapture?" The Brahman replied, "I am an 
ignorant man, not knowing the meanings of words. The 
Gitd I read at my guru s bidding, correctly or incorrectly 
as it may be. My heart is rapt when I behold [before my 
mind s eye] the dark beauty of Krishna as he sits as driver 
in Arjun s chariot giving moral lessons. I can never bring 
myself to R-ive up reading the Gitd, because I ever behold 
HIM so long as I read the book." To him trig Master spoke 
thus, "Thou alone art truly worthy to read the Gitd, as 
thou knowest the essence of its meaning." So saying 
He embraced the Brahman, who, however, clasped His 
feet and prayed, "The sight of you gives me double the 
joy. Verily I think you are that Krishna." He could 



VII] HIS FOUR MONTHS STAY AT SHRI-RANGAM 79 

recognize the true nature of the Master, as the love of 
Krishna had purged his mind [of its grossness]. But the 
Master cautioned him not to tell it to any one else . The 
Brahman became a devout admirer of the Master and never 
parted from Him in those four months, which He spent at 
the Bhatta s house in blissful discourse about Krishna. 
The Bhatta s household gods were Lakshmi and Narayan. 
The Master, pleased with his devotion, ever treated the 
Bhatta like a friend, constantly joking with him, as is the 
manner of friendship. One day He asked, "Bhatta ! your 
Lakshmi is the type of devoted and chaste wives. My god 
is Krishna, a cow-herd. How could such a chaste lady 
seek this other man s society? Why did she for this 
object discard pleasure and perform endless austerities? 
Witness the following verse of the Bhagabat, X. xvi. 32 : 
"Lord! Out of a longing to be worthy to touch the 
dust of Thy feet, Lakshmi, though a [weak] woman, 
abstained from enjoyment and went through long 
penances, etc. J) 

The Bhatta answered, "Krishna and Narayan are 
essentially one ; only Krishna showed more of sportive- 
ness and charm. Hence Lakshmi s chastity was not 
marred when she, for the sake of delight, sought Krishna s 
company [Quotation from the Bhakti-rasdmrita-sindhu]. 
Playful Lakshmi desired Krishna for the sake of the 
greater gain and rasa delight afforded by His society. 
What harm is there in it? Why are you joking?" The 
Master rejoined, "I know there is nothing to blame in it. 
The Shastra asserts that Lakshmi never enjoyed the rasa 
dance with Krishna [Vide Bhagabat, X. xlvii. 53]. But 
the Shrutis attained to Krishna s society by their austerities. 
[Ibid, X. Ixxxvii. 19]. What was the reason of this 
7 



So CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [VII 

difference ?" "My mind fails to explain the reason, as I 
am a petty creature with a weak understanding, while 
God s acts are infinite like the deep ocean. You are 
Krishna s self and know your own; exploits. Their inner 
meaning is known only to those on whom you have 
bestowed such knowledge." The Master said, "Such is 
the natural characteristic of Krishna that by His sweetness 
He wins all hearts. The men of Brindaban knew Him not 
as God, because He came to them as one of themselves. 
One tied Him to the wooden pestle (udukhal], fancying 
Him to be her son. Some mounted on His back, taking 
Him to be a play- fellow. The people of Brindaban knew 
Him as the son of Braja s chief, and not as the Godhead. 
He who adores Krishna in the manner of the people of 
Brindaban, can alone attain to Him there. Vide Bhagabat, 
X. ix. 16. The Shrutis imitated the milk-maids [Gopis] 
and by taking the form of the Gopis they obtained the Son 
of the Queen of Mathura. They were incarnated in the 
bodies of the Gopis of Braja, and so disported with Krishna 
in the rasa play. Krishna was of the milkman caste ; the 
Gopis were his dear ones ; so Krishna refused goddesses 
and other women. Lakshmi wanted to unite with Krishna 
in His form of a milkman, and yet she did not seek Him 
by assuming the shape of a Gopi. But in no other form 
than that of a Gopi can the rdsa pleasure be consummated, 
as Vyas has said in his verses, viz., Bhagabat, X. 
xlvii. 53." 

Before this the Bhatta used to think in his pride, 
"Narayan is God Himself, and the worship of Him is the 
highest stage. And therefore the worship offered by the 
Shri-Vaishnavs is the highest form of adoration." But 
the Master, to dash his folly down, opened all this contro- 



VII] REFUTES THE SHRI VAISHNAV CULT 8l 

versy by means of a jest. He addressed him thus, 
"Bhatta, doubt not, know of a verity that Krishna is God 
Himself. Narayan is only the manifestation of the power 
{mlds) of Krishna, l^ierefore could Krishna steal the 
hearts of Lakshmi and others. (Vide Bhagabat I. iii 28). 
Krishna surpassed Narayan in power. Hence did Lakshmi 
ever long for Krishna. The verse you have read proves 
that Krishna is God incarnate. (Vide Bhakti-rasdmrita- 
sindhu, pt. i. ii. 32). Krishna stole the heart of lyakshmi 
but NaVayan could not (conversely) win the love of the 
Gopis. What to speak of Narayan? Even Krishna him 
self, when He assumed the form of the four-armed Narayan 
to amuse the Gopis, failed to win their love in that shape ! 
(Vide Lalita-Madhav, vi. 13)." Thus did the Master 
humble his pride, but then He gave a new turn to the 
conclusion to soothe the Bhatta s feelings, saying, "Grieve 
not, Bhatta, I have only jested. Listen to the teaching of 
the Shastra in which Vaishnavs believe : Just as Narayan 
and Krishna are one essence, so are Lakshmi and the Gopis 
identical and not diverse. Lakshmi in the garb of the 
Gopis tasted Krishna s company. In theology it is a sin 
to recognize a plurality of gods. The devotee meditates 
on one and the same God [diversely according to his 
fancy] ; he gives different images to the same deity." 

The Bhatta spoke, "I am a miserable creature, while 
thou art that Krishna, the Incarnate God. I know nothing 
of the unfathomable ways of God, but I hold as truth 
whatever you tell me. Fully have I been blessed by 
Lakshmi-Narayan, as His grace has enabled me to see thy 
feet. Thou hast graciously spoken to me of the glory of 
Krishna, whose beauty, qualities and powers are beyond 
human calculation. Now have I learnt that devotion to 



82 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [VII 

Krishna passes all else. You have blest me by unfolding 
this truth. " So saying the Bhatta clasped the Master s 
feet, who graciously hugged him to His bosom. 

The four months came to an ond. The Master took 
leave of the Bhatta and from Shri-rangam set out for the 
South. The Bhatta wanted to leave his home and follow 
Him, but with great effort the Master turned him^back. 
When He left, the Bhatta fainted away (in grief). Thus 
did Shachi s Son disport Himself. 

To the Rishava peak He went and there prayed to 
the deity Narayan, and visited Paramananda Puri, who was 
spending his "four months" there. The Master bowed at 
the feet of the Puri, who embraced Him. For three days 
they lived together in that Brahman s house, lovingly 
talking on Krishna s delightful lore. The Puri said, "I am 
going to Jagannath, whence I shall proceed to Bengal to 
bathe in the Ganges." The Master answered, "Go to the 
Nilachal, where I shall shortly join you on my return from 
Setubandha. I long to keep company with you. Do 
kindly visit the Nilachal." So He parted from the Puri 
and joyfully proceeded further south. The Puri went to 
the Nilachal, while the Master visited Shri-Shaila, where 
lived a Brahman named Shiva-Durga. Rejoicing to see the 
Master, he feasted Him for three days, and the two dis 
coursed of mysteries in secret. After friendly association 
with him, the Master left him and went to the city of 
Kamakoshti, and thence to the Southern Mathura 
[Madura], where He was invited by a Brahman, noble- 
minded, detached from the world, and a worshipper of 
Ram. After bathing in the Kritamala, the Master went 
to his house ; but as the Brahman never cooked, he could 
place no food before the guest. The Master asked, "Hark 



VII] MASTER EXPLAINS THE ABDUCTION OF SITA 83 

you, Sir, it is noon and yet you are not cooking? Why 
is it?" The Brahman replied, "Master, I live in the 
forest, where at present nothing can be had for cooking. 
But Lakshman will bring some wild herbs, fruits, and 
roots, and then will Sita cook them." The Master was 
pleased with the Brahman s devotion. The host now 
hurrieclly began cooking and the Master was fed in the 
third quarter of the day. But the Brahman himself 
fasted, at which the Master asked, "Why do you fast? 
What grieves you? Why mourn you?" The Brahman 
replied, "I have no need to live ; I shall destroy myself 
by jumping into fire or water. The divine Sita, the 
mother of the world and the emblem of Supreme Goodness, 
was (rudely) touched by a demon, as I hear. So I ought 
not to live. This sorrow consumes me, though my spirit 
does not leave the body." To him the Master thus: 
"Think not so any longer. You are learned and yet you 
do not judge the matter in your mind ! Sita, the beloved 
of God, is the embodiment of spirituality and bliss (chit 
dnanda). Physical senses cannot see her, not to speak of 
touching her. Ravan abducted only an illusive image of 
Sita, while the true Sita had disappeared.* The Vedas 
and the Purans constantly teach this truth that the Mate 
rial cannot take cognisance of what is non-Material. 
Believe my words, and never harbour such sad thoughts 
again." Reassured by the Master s words the Brahman 
dined and took delight in life. 

After bathing in the Kritamald, the Master went to 
Durbesan, where he saw the image of Raghunath. Thence 

* This is exactly like the version of the legend of the abduction 
of Helen given by Stesichorus and accepted by Euripides in his 
Helena. 



84 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [VII 

to Mahendra hill, where He adored Parashu Ram. At 
Setubandha He bathed in the Dhanu-tirtha (Bow shrine). 
Visiting Rameshwar, He rested there. An assembly of 
Brahmans was listening to the reading of the Kurma Puran, 
in the course of which the episode of chaste women was 
reached. The narrative declared that Ravan stole only 
a false phantom of Sita. At the sight of Ravan trie true 
Sita sought refuge with Fire, who lodged her with Parvati, 
while he deluded Ravan by giving up to him a fal$e image 
of Sita. After Ram had slain Ravan, and Sita submitted 
to the ordeal of fire, the false Sita vanished, while the real 
Sita w T as delivered to Ram by Fire. The Master was de 
lighted to hear this theory. So He borrowed from the 
Brahman the leaf (containing the passage), and made a 
copy for being placed in the book, while He took the old 
leaf for creating conviction and returned to the Southern 
Mathura, where He gave the leaf to the Brahman Ramdas. 

At this the Brahman was overjoyed and clasped the 
.Master s feet weeping and saying, "Thou art Ram in 
carnate, visiting me in the disguise of a sannyasi, and 
raising me from deep sorrow. Do consent to dine at my 
house to-day, because on that day I was too melancholy 
to entertain thee worthily. It is my good fortune that thou 
hast come again !" 

So saying the Brahman cooked deliciously and feasted 
the Master nicely. After passing the night under his roof, 
the Master went to the Tamraparni in th e Pandya land, 
where He bathed in the river and wandered on the bank 
gazing at the Nine Tirupadis in wonder. 

Thence He visited Chiyartala (the shrine of Ram 
Lakshman), Til Kanchi (the shrine of Shiva), Gajendra- 
Mokshan (where there was an image of Vishnu), Pana-garhi 



VII] ADVENTURE AMONG THE BHATTAMARI TRIBE 85 

(shrine of Ram), Chamtapur (Ram Lakshman), Shri 
Vaikuntha (Vishnu), the Malay Mountain (Agastya), 
Kanya Kumari [Cape Comorin], Amlitala (Ram), the 
Mallar land (where th^ Bhattamaris dwelt), and then after 
seeing Tamal Kartik, He reached Betapani (Raghunath s 
shrine), where He passed the night. 

The Master s companion, the Brahman Krishna-das, 
met a Bhattamari, who tempted the simple Brahman by 
offering him a woman and money. In the morning 
Krishna-das went away to the Bhattamari. Soon the Master 
came in quest of him and addressed the Bhattamari tribe 
thus, "Why have you detained my Brahman (follower) ? 
I am, as you see, a sannyasi ; and so are you too. It is 
unfair of you to put me in trouble. " 

At this the Bhattamaris took up arms and flocked 
round the Master to thrash Him. But the weapons 
dropped from their hands and struck their own limbs, so 
that they fled awav on all sides. Lamentation rose in their 
houses. The Master dragged Krishna-das away by the 
hair, and that day reached the Payaswini river, in which 
He bathed and visited the temple of Adi Keshav, where 
He bowed, prayed, danced and sang for a long while in 
rapture, to the amazement of the beholders. All the people 
treated Him very respectfully and He joined the assembly 
of the very devout there. Here He got a manuscript of 
the book Brahma-samhitddhydya to His boundless delight, 
tremour, weeping, thrill, perspiration, stupor, and frenzy 
(of joy), because the Brahma Samhita is unrivalled among 
works of exegetics (siddhanta shastra) and it is the chief 
instrument for teaching the glory of Govinda, as it ex 
presses vast dogmas in a few words. It is the very cream 
of Vaishnav sacred writings. 



86 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [VII 

Very carefully did He get the book copied. Thence 
He went to Ananta Padmanav, where He spent two days, 
to Shri Janardan, where also He hymned and danced for 
some two days, to Payoshni, wherf Shankar Narayan is 
worshipped, to the monastery of Shringeri, the seat of 
Sankaracharya, to Matsya-tirtha (Fish shrine), to the 
river Tungabhadra, and to [Upidi], the seat of Madhwa- 
charya, the spokesman of spiritual truth. Here He gazed 
devotedly on the Udupa-Krishna. The image of Krishna 
in the form of the dancing young cowherd (Gopdi) was 
very charming. Madhwacharya was moved by a dream to 
rescue this image from a cargo of consecrated earth (Gobi- 
chandan] in a sunken ship, and to instal it [at Udipi], 
where it is worshipped to this day. 

The Master was overjoyed to see the image of Krishna, 
and in fervour of devotion danced and sang (before it) for 
many a day. The tattwavddis, taking the Master for a 
mdyd-vadi, at first slighted Him, but afterwards they 
marvelled at His religious ecstasy, and venerated Him 
greatly as a (true) Vaishnav. Aware of their pride in 
Vaishnavism, the Master began a discourse with them. 
The high priest of the tattwavddis was an expert in all the 
holy books. The Master, assuming the tone of a humble 
inquirer, put questions to him : "I do not clearly compre 
hend sddhya (end) and sddhan (means). Do please en 
lighten me on the subject." The high priest replied, 
"To the worshipper of Krishna the highest, sddhan is to 
resign to Krishna the religious system centring round caste 
and dshram. Translation to Vishnu s heaven, after 
attaining to the fivefold salvation, is the supreme sddhya. 
Thus speak the Shastras." The Master objected, "The 
Shastras assert that the supreme sadhan of the love and 



VII] DISPUTATION WITH MADHWACHARYA SCHOLARS 87 

service of Krishna is listening to and singing His praise. 
Vide Bhdgabat, VII. v. 18. 

From listening to and singing hymns, one comes to 
love Krishna. That i the fifth human end, the limit of 
human attainment. Vide Bhagabat, XI. ii. 38. All kinds 
of scripture condemn (devotion to) work and teach us to 
abstain from the fruit of our works. Therefore from work 
cannot spring love and devotion to Krishna. Vide 
Bhdgabat, XI. xi. 32 ; also Gitd, xviii. 66 ; Bhdgabat, XI. 
xx. 9. Truly devoted men renounce the fivefold salva 
tion ; in their eyes salvation is worthless, no better than 
hell ! Vide Bhagabat, III. xxix. n ; V. xiv. 43 ; VI. 
xvii. 23. 

The devout abjure salvation and work alike. And you 
establish these two things as the end and means ! Ah ! 
you are only befooling me as I am a [mere] sannyasi. 
You have not told me of the true characteristics of end 
and means." 

At this the high priest of the tattwa School was inly 
ashamed, while he marvelled at the Vaishnav spirit of the 
Master. So he replied, "Your exposition is the true one. 
All Shastras declare this to be the Vaishnav dogma. Yet 
our order holds the views laid down by Madhwacharya." 
The Master rejoined, "The votary of work and the votary 
of knowledge are alike lacking in faith. In your order I 
see signs of these two. I see only one merit in your order : 
you have fixed, upon the true God." 

After thus humbling the pride of that sect the Master 
went to the Falgu shrine, then to Tritakup (the shrine 
of Vishala), Panchapsara, Gokarna (where Shiva is wor 
shipped), Dwaipayani, Suparak, Kolhapur (where He 
beheld Lakshmi and Kshir Bhagavati), Nanga-Ganesh, 



88 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [VII 

Chor Parvati, and Pandupur [ = Pandharpur] . Here before 
VithaPs image He sang and danced long. 

A Brahman of the place invited and reverently fed 
the Master. Learning the good rn^ws that Shri Ranga 
Puri, a disciple of Madhav Puri, was residing in another 
Brahman s house in that village the Master went to see 
him. As He prostrated Himself before the Puri in 
devotion, He wept, trembled and was thrilled and covered 
all over with sweat. Shri Ranga Puri wondered at the 
sight and cried out, "Rise, blessed one. Surely you are 
connected with my guru, or you could not have displayed 
such fervour of devotion/ So, he raised and embraced 
the Master, and the two wept clasping each other s neck. 
After a spell of rapture, the two came round, and the 
Master said how He was related to Ishwar Puri. (At this) 
their love welled out wondrously and each honoured the 
other. Day and night they held forth on Krishna for a 
week or so. 

The Puri asked about His birth-place. The Master 
replied Navadwip . Shri .Ranga Puri had once visited 
that town in the train of Madhav Puri. He spoke how 
he had been feasted in the house of Jagannath Mishra, 
how delicious the hash of green banana-flower (mochd) had 
tasted, what a chaste woman and tender to the world like 
a mother was Jagannath s wife, how she was matchless in 
the universe for her skill in cookery, and how she had 
feasted the sannyasis as lovingly as if they were her own 
sons, how one of her sons had turned monk in youth with 
the title of ShankaraYanya and had attained to death in that 
very place (viz., Pandupur). The Master broke in, "In 
his earthly life Shankar was my brother. Jagannath 
Mishra was mv father." So they had a friendly assembly, 



VII] VISITS NARMADA AND SOURCE OF GODAVARI 89- 

and then Shri Ranga Puri set out to visit Dwaraka. The 
Master was detained for some four days by His Brahman 
host. He bathed in the Bhimarathi and visited the shrine 
of Vithal. Then He walked by the bank of the Krishna- 
binna, visiting the temples at the many holy places there. 
The Brahmans of the country were Vaishnavs and studied 
the Krishna-karndmrita, of which book the Master joyfully 
made a copy. The world has nothing- like the Karnamrita, 
which kindles pure devotion to Krishna. He only knows 
the fulness of the beauty and sweetness of Krishna s ex 
ploits, who ceaselessly reads the Karnamrita. He carried 
with Himself the manuscripts of the Brahma Samhita and 
the Karnamrita like two precious jewels. 

After bathing in the Tapti, He went to the city of * 
Maheshwati, and then visiting many holy places on the 
way, reached the bank of the Narmada. After visiting the 
Shrine of the Bow (Dhanu-tirtha), He bathed in the 
Nirbindhya, and then passed on to the Rishyamukha 
mountain and the Dandaka forest, where He beheld a 
saptatdl tree, very old stout and high. As the Master 
embraced the saptatal, the tree disappeared bodily, at 
which the people marvelled and cried out, "This sannyasi 
is an incarnation of Ram, for lo ! the tal tree has flown 
up to Vishnu s heaven. Who but Ram can work such a 
miracle?" 

Then the Master bathed in the lake of Pampa, and 
rested in the *Panchavati wood. From Nasik and Trimbak 
He passed on to Brahma-giri, to Kushavarta (the source of 
the Godavari), the seven (branches of the) Godavari, and 
many other shrines, and finally returned to Vidya-nagar. 

On hearing of His arrival, Ramananda Ray joyfully 
hastened to Him and prostrated himself ; but the Master 



90 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [VII 

raised him and clasped him to His bosom. Both wept in 
delight and their minds were unstrung by rapture. After 
recovering composure they talked of many things together. 
The Master gave a narrative of His pngrimage, and showed 
him the Karndmrita and the Brahma Samhitd, saying 
"These two books bear out the theories of devotion (prem) 
which you had expounded to me." The Ray in delight 
tasted the books in the Master s company and took copies 
of them. 

The whole village was agitated by the news of the 
sannyasi s return and all men flocked to see Him. At this 
Ramananda went back to his own house. At noon the 
Master rose for His meal. Ramananda returned at night 
* and the two kept a vigil discoursing of Krishna. Thus five 
or six days were spent blissfully, the two holding forth on 
Krishna day and night. Ramananda said, "With thy 
leave, Master, I petitioned my king, and he has permitted 
me to visit the Nilachal. I have already begun my pre 
parations for departure." The Master replied, "I have 
come here only to take you to the Nilachal." But the Ray 
objected, "Master, go you in advance. A noisy throng of 
elephants, horses and soldiers surrounds me. Let me first 
dispose of them, and then after ten days I shall follow 
you." The Master consented and returned to the Nilachal 
by the route He had previously followed, the people every 
where chanting Hari s name as they saw Him. He re 
joiced at it. From Alalnath he sent Krishna-das in 
advance to call Nityananda and others of His own folk. 
At the news, Nityananda went to meet the Master, his 
devotion knowing no bounds. Jagadananda, Damodar, 
Gopinatli Acharya and Mukunda Pandit went along 
dancing, unable to contain their delight. They all met the 



VII] MASTER S RETURN TO JAGANNATH PURI 91 

Master on the way, and He lovingly embraced them, all 
weeping in delight. Sarvabhauma Bhattacharya joined the 
Master on the beach of the ocean and fell at His feet ; but 
the Master raised rrjn up and held him to the bosom, 
Sarvabhauma weeping in rapture. The whole party went 
to visit Jagannath s shrine, where the Master had a trans 
port* of devotion, trembling, perspiring, weeping in delight, 
dancing and singing again and again. The servitors of 
the temple offered Him the dedicated garlands and food of 
the god, at which the Master regained composure. The 
attendants of Jagannath joyfully flocked together. Kashi 
Mishra (the high priest) fell at His feet, but the Master did 
him honour and embraced him. The Parichhd of 
Jagannath, too, did Him obeisance. 

Sarvabhauma took the Master to dinner at his own 
house, and fed Him and His party at noon on sumptuous 
dishes from the temple. Thereafter he made the Master 
lie down and rubbed His feet ; but the Master bade him 
go and dine ; and He passed the night also in Sarva- 
bhauma s house to please him, narrating the story of His 
pilgrimage all night to His followers and host, and saying, 
"In all the holy places I have visited I did not meet with 
a single Vaishnav who can equal you. Only Ramananda 
Ray gave me intense delight." The Bhatta replied, "It 
was just for that reason that I had asked you to see him." 
[Text, canto 9.] 



NOTES ON THE PLACES VISITED BY CHAITANYA 
IN THE SOUTH i 

[In this connection we should bear in mind that no record of 
Chaitanya s pilgrimage was kept at the time it was made. His dis 
ciples heard of it, evidently piece-meal, from his lips long after-wards. 
A diary constructed on this basis by Govinda-das has been lost. 
Our author, Krishna-das Kaviraj, frankly admits (at the beginning 
of canto ix) that he has not been able to name the holy places, of the 
South in the order in which they were visited by the Master. We 
should also note that this pilgrimage was performed between April 
1510 and January 1512 and that the great and widespread revival of 
temple building which resulted from the restoration of the Vijay- 
nagar empire under Krishna Dev just began at the time of 
Chaitanya s visit, but was completed long afterwards. Hence many 
of the famous shrines of the South dating from the early 16th 
century were not seen by him, as they were completed after his 
visit] . 

Ahobal. Ahobilam, in the Sirvel taluq of the Karnul district. The 
most sacred Vishnu temple in the district, it is dedicated to 
Narasimha. Together with other temples in the neighbourhood, 
it forms a group known as the Nava (nine) Narasimha, represent 
ing nine different forms of Vishnu. The original temple is 
supported by 64 pillars, each of which is beautifully carved into 
several miniature pillars. In front is a fine unfinished mantapam 
with large pillars of white sand-stone, about 3 feet in diameter, 
elaborately sculptured. (Kurnool Manual, 183-184, 145). 
Ananta Padmanava. The famous Padmanava temple in Trivandrum. 
Betapani. Bhutapandi in Travancore, in the Tobala taluq, n. of 

Nagarcoil, with temple of Bhutanath. [R. M. Qhose.] 
Brahma-girt. There is a Brahmagiri near Sopara (Bom. Gaz. xiv. 
315); but that is not the place meant in our text. The reference 
is to the Brahma mountain, in the ridge joining which to the 
Trimbak mountain the Kikvi, a larger and more distant branch 
of the Godavari (than the one issuing at Trimbak) takes its rise. 
(Bombay Gaz. rvi. 7). 



VII] SOUTHERN SHRINKS DESCRIBED 93 

Chamtapur. Chenganur in Travancore State. [R. M. G.] 

Chiydr-tald.Shertald near Nagarcoil, [according to R. M. Chose]. 

Courtallam, 7 m. s. w. of Tenkashi in the Tinnevelly district, 450 ft. 
above sea-level. The falls of the Chittar (a river which joins the 
Tamraparni 15 m. n. J e. of Tinnevelly) at this place are famous 
among the Hindus for their virtue of cleansing from sin. [Tinn. 
Man. 96.] 

Dhanu-tirtha. Dhanus-kodi, terminus of the S. I. Railway, 12 m. 
south-east of Rameshwaram. [R. M. G.] 

Durbesan. Darvashayan, on the sea-coast seven miles east of Ramnad. 
[R. M. G.] 

Gajendra-moJ^shan. Probably Devendra-mokshan or Suchindram, 
2 m. s. of Nagarcoil. Here Indra was cleansed of his sin and 
built a temple to Sthanu-linga Shiva. [R. M. G.] 

Ganga Gotami. The Godavari river. At Kobur, opposite Raj- 
mahendri, was the hermitage of the sage Gautama, from whom 
this river is named. 

Gokarna. On the west coast, about 20 miles s. e. of Karwar, famous 
for its temple of Mahabaleshwar and a very popular place of 
pilgrimage. (Bombay Gazetteer, Kanara, xv. pt. 2, pp. 289-301). 

Kolhapur. Out of about 250 temples in this city at present six are 
well-known, namely, the temples of Ambabai or Mahalakshmi, 
Vithoba, Temblai, Mahakali, Phirangai or Pratyangiras, and 
Yallamma. (Bombay Gaz. xxiv. 309-311). 

Kumbha-kama. Kumbakonam in the Tanjore district, 20 miles 
north-east of Tanjore town. It contains 12 principal Shaiva and 
4 Vaishnav temples and one dedicated to Brahma. (Tanjore 
Gaz. 217-219). 

Madura on the river Vaigai, the minor basin of which is called 
Kritimd-nadi (the Krita-mala of our text). Its temples are des 
cribed in the Madura Gazetteer, 267-274. 

Mahendra hill.-^-There is a peak of this name in the Travancore 
State, but too far from Cape Comorin. 

Malay mountain (Agastya). (i) There is a temple to the sage Agastya 
in the village Agastyampalli, close to Vedaranniyam, near Point 
Calimere in the Tanjore district ; but it cannot be the place meant, 
(ii) Palni in the Madura district contains a famous temple to 
Subrahmanya on the top of a hill (Shivagiri) created by Agastya. 



94 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [VII 

But there is no temple to Agastya here. (Madura Gaz. 304-306). 
(iii) R. M. Ghose is inclined to identify it with Pothia hill (near 
Cape Comorin), the reputed abode of Agastya (K. Pillai s Tamils 
1,800 Years Ago, 21.) (iv) The Tamraparni rises on either side 
of a fine conical peak known as A gastiar-malai or Agastya s hill. 
(TV nn. Man. 91). 

Mallar land. Malabar. 

Mallikarjun. Shri-Shailam, on the south bank of the Krishna, 

70 miles below Karnul In the centre of the enclosure is the 

temple of Mallikarjun Shiva, the chief deity worshipped here, 
and considered as one of the jyotir-lingas. (Kurnool Manual, 
181-183, 144). There is another and much less famous temple 
to Mallikarjun at Bezvada on the Krishna river. 

Matsya-tirtha. Either (1) Mahe, the French possession on the coast 
of the Malabar district. Or (2) Matsya-gundam, a curious oool 
on the Macheru river, near the village of Matam, six miles 
north north-west of Pacleru (in the Padwa taluq of the Vizaga- 
patam district). A barrier of rocks runs right across the river 
there, and the stream plunges into a great hole and vanishes 
beneath this, reappearing again about a hundred yards lower 
down. Just where it emerges from under the barrier it forms a 
pool which is crowded with mahseer of all sizes. (V izagapatam 
Gaz. 285). 

Nine Tripadi. Alwar Tiru-nagari, 17 m. s. e. of Tinnevelly. Around 
it are 9 temples to Vishnu (Tirupati), the idols of which are 
assembled in this town on holy days. [R. M. G.] 

Pat^sha-tirtha. PaJ^shi-iirtham. or Tiru-J^adi-J^undrcm, 9 miles south 
east of Chingleput. [R. M. G.] "The hill of the sacred kites." 
It is a ridge terminating in a spiked hill, some 500 feet above 
sea-level, on which stands a Shiva temple. The name of the hill 
is Vedagiri or Vedachalam, and the idol is called Veda-girishwar. 
Every day two birds of the kite species come to the mountain 
and are fed by an attendant Brahman. The same two are be 
lieved to have come from Benares to receive this daily dole from 
time immemorial. (Chinqleput Man. 106-107). 

Pampd. The ancient and Puranic name of the Tungabhadra. The 
village of Hampi (the site of the famous capital Vijaynagar) was 
originally known as Pampa-tirtha. This name (also (Pampa- 



VII] SOUTHERN SHRINES DESCRIBED 95 

saras) is now borne by a tank on the Haidarabad side of the 
Tungabhadra near Anegundi. (Bellary Gazetteer, 6, 261). 

Pdna. Panakal Narasimha at Mangal-giri, 7 m. south of Bezvada. 
But it is too far to the north. [R. M. G.] When visitors offer a 
draught to Narasimha-swami, the image in the temple refuses to 
drink more than half of it. (Kistna Dist. Man. 179). 

Pdnd-garhi. Panagodi, 30 m. s. s. w. of Tinnevelly on the road to 
Tnvandrum. [R. M. G.] But the temple there is to Ramlinga- 
swami Shiva and not to Ram. 

Panchavati. Identified with Nasik. in the Bombay presidency. Nasik 
and "Trimbak (at the source of the Godavari) are described in 
Bombay Gazetteer, xvi. 

Pandupur. Pandharpur, on the Bhima river, 38 miles due west of 
Sholapur ; famous for its temple to Vithoba. (Bombay Gaz. xx. 
415-481). 

Papa-nashan. Eight miles s. w. of Kumbakonam (Tanjore Gaz. 
221). There is another city of this name 29 miles west of 
Palamkota, (in the Tinnevelly district). Here near a pagoda the 
Tamraparni river takes its last fall from the hills to the level 
.country. (Tinn. Man. 91). 

Payaswini. Tiru-vattar in the Travancore State. [R. M. G.] 

Pitambar. Evidently Chidambaram, 26 miles south of Cuddalore. 
Famous for its great pagoda, covering 39 acres in the centre of 
the town, and sourrounded on all four sides by a street 60 feet 
wide. It contains the Akasa-linga. (S. Arcot Manual, 400-407). 

Rishava peak- Anagarh-malai, 12 miles north of Madura. [R. M. G.] 

Rishyamukh. Identified with the hill on the Nizam s side of the 
narrowest of the gorges in the Tungabhadra near Hampi. 
(Bellary Gaz. 261). 

Shiva image. Either Vedagiris at Pakshi-tirtham or the lingam in 
the shore temple at Mahavalipuram (Seven Pagodas). 

Shiva Kanchi. The modern Conjeveram, also called the Southern 
Benares, 56 miles south-west of Madras. The Shiva temple is 
dedicated to Ekambara-swami. South-east of it stands Vishnu 
Kanchi or Little Conjeveram, with its temple to Vishnu under 
the name of Varada-raj. 

Shiva-kshetra. There is a Shiva-ganga tank at Tanjore. The great 



Q6 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [VII 

Brihatishwar temple of this town seems to be meant in our text. 
(Tanjore Gaz. 269-271). 

Shiyali. The head-quarters of a taluq of that name in the Tanjore 
district, about 48 miles n. e. of Tanjore town. It has a famous 
Shiva temple with a large tank, a shnne dedicated to the Tamil 
saint Tiru-jnan Sambandhar, and some other separate shrines, 
and evidently an image of Shiva s consort who is said to have 
given suck to this saint when he visited this temple as a^child. 
(Tanjore Gaz. 258). 
Shri Janardan. Near the Varkala railway station, 26 miles north of 

Trivandrum. |t 

Shringeri. In the Kadur district of Mysore. Situated 13 25 N. 
75 19 E., on the left bank of the Tunga, 7 miles s. of Hariharpur. 
Its full name is Rishya-shringa-giri. It is the head-quarters of the 
Jagat-guru or successor of Shankaracharya in the headship of the 
Smartas. (Rice, Mysore Gazetteer, ii. 443-445). 

Shri-rangam. The famous Vishnu temple in an island between the 
Kolerun and the Kaveri, north of Trichinopoly. (Trichinopoly 
Manual, 337-340 and Gazetteer, 45-51, 91-126, 319). 
Shri-Shaila. The most famous place of this name is the one in .the 
Karnul district, described above under Mallikarjun. But that 
place cannot be meant in this context, which suggests some hill 
between Trichinopoly and Madura, sacred to Shri or Lakshmi. 
Shri-Vaikuntha. Shri Vaikuniham, four miles n. of Alwar Tiru- 
nagari. [R. M. G.], on the left bank of the Tamraparni and 
16 m. s. e. of Tinnevelly. 

Siddha-bat. Sidhout, 10 miles east of Cuddapa town. Sometimes 
known as the Dakshina Kashi or the Southern Benares. The 
name is derived from Siddha-vatam or the hermit s banyan tree.* 
Eight miles south of it is Ontimetta ( the solitary hill ) with a 
large and very holy pagoda and a tank. The pagoda is de 
dicated to Kodanda-Ram-swami. (Cuddapah Manual, 48-49). 
SupArak- Sopara (in the Thana district), 26 miles north of Bombay. 
It was the capital of the Konkan from very ancient times to 
1,300 A.D. (Bombay Gaz. xiv. 314-342). 

rtik. Tobala, 44 m. s. of Tinnevelly, 2 m. e. of Aramvali 
pass, temple of Subrahmanya. [R. M. G.] 



VII] SOUTHERN SHRINES DESCRIBED 97 

Tamrafjarni. A river on the left bank of which Tinnevelly stands. 

Til Kanchi. Probably Tenkashi, 30 m. n. w. of Tinnevelly town. 

Tirupati. A very famous holy city in the Chandra-gin taluq of the 
N. Arcot district. In Lower Tirupati, which stands in the plain, 
there are 15 templesf the chief of them being dedicated to 
Govinda-raja-swami (the brother of Venkateshwar) and Ram- 
swami. Upper Tirupati, usually called Tirumala (from Tiru- 
rnalai, holy hill), stands on the top of the range, six miles north 
west of Lower Tirupati. Its chief divinity is Venkateshwar. 
(North Arcot Manual, 142-153). 

Tri-kal-hasti. Shri Kalahasti, popularly called Kalahastri, on the right 
bank of the S uvarnamukhi river, 22 miles n. e. of Tirupati. 
Famous for its shrine of the Vayu-linga Shiva. (N. Arcot Man. 
220-222). 

Udipi. 36 miles north of Mangalore (in the South Kanara district), 
the principal seat of the Madhavacharya priests. The temple of 
Krishna is said to have been founded by Madhavacharya himself, 
who set up in it an image of Krishna originally made by Arjun. 
There are also eight ancient maths, each with a swami. (S. 
Canara Manual, ii. 263. For a full description, see Bombay 
Gazetter, xxii. 56). 

Vedaban. Veddranniyam or the forest of the Vedas, in the south 
east corner of the Tirutturaippundi taluq of the Tanjore district 
and five miles north of Point Calimere. Orthodox Brahmans 
consider it second only to Rameshwaram in sanctity. (Tanjore 
Gaz. 284). 

Vriddha-kfll. Varaha-swami temple, a monolithic pagoda, n. w. of 
"Arjun s Penance" and 34 m. s. of Valipitham, at Mahavali- 
puram or Seven Pagodas ; image of Vishnu with a huge boar s 
head, overcanopied by the Shesha Nag. 

Vriddha-kashi. Vriddhachalam, on the Manimukta (an affluent of the 
Vellar), in t]je S. Arcot district. Sometimes called Vriddha-kashi. 
(S. Arcot Manual, 438-440). It cannot be the place meant, if the 
order of holy places given in our text be correct. 



CHAPTER VIII 
The Reunion of the Vaishnavs 

After the Master had set out for the South, "King 
Pratap Rudra summoned Sarvabhauma, seated him after 
due salutation, and asked him concerning the faster, 
saying, "I hear that a very gracious person has come to 
your house from Bengal. People say that he has shown 
you much kindness. Do please help me to see him." The 
Bhatta replied, "True is what you have heard. But you 
cannot see him ; he is a sannyasi withdrawn from the 
world, living in seclusion, and not visiting kings even in 
dreams. I could, however, have contrived somehow an 
interview between him and you : but he has recently gone 
to the South." The king asked, "Why did he leave 
Jagannath s shrine?" The Bhatta replied, "Such is one of 
the deeds of saints. They visit holy places on the plea of 
making pilgrimages, but they thereby bring salvation to 
worldly men. Vide Bhdgabat, I. xiii. 8. Such is the 
unalterable character of a Vaishnav : he is not a man but 
rather a particle of God." The Raja rejoined, "Why 
did you let him depart ? You ought to have clasped his 
feet and importuned him to stay here." Bhattacharya 
answered, "He is a god and a free being. He is Krishna s 
self and not a dependent creature. Still I had tried to 
detain him, but could not succeed as God is free." 

The Raja said, "Bhatta ! you are the chief of wise 
men. As you call him Krishna, I must believe it. When 
he comes here again, may I see him once and gratify my 



VIII] PEOPLE OF PURI INTRODUCED TO CHAITANYA 99 

eyes?" The Bhatta replied, "He will soon return. We 
want a suitable place for him to lodge in ; it must be 
near the temple and yet secluded. Choose such a lodging 
for him." The king said, "Kashi Mishra s house is just 
that sort of place, close to Jagnnath and yet very retired." 
The king thereafter remained expectant. Bhattacharya 
informed Kashi Mishra, who said, "Blessed am I that such 
a holy Master will lodge under my roof." 

Thus did all the people of Puri live in ever-growing 
expectation of seeing the Master, when He returned from 
the South. All rejoiced at the news, and they all begged 
Sarvabhauma thus, "Lead us to the Master, that through 
thy mediation we may reach Chaitanya s feet." Bhatta 
charya replied, "To-morrow the Master will go to Kashi 
Mishra s house, where I shall introduce you to Him." 

Next day the Master visited Jagannath in company 
with Bhattacharya, in great delight. The servitors met 
Him with the god s food and He embraced them all. 
After the visit Bhattacharya led Him to Kashi Mishra s 
house. Kashi Mishra fell at His feet, and gave up to 
Him not his house only but his soul also. The Master 
appeared to him in the four-armed shape, and embraced 
him to make him one of His own followers. 

Then the Master took His seat there. Around Him 
sat Nityananda and other devotees, The Master was 
pleased with the arrangements of the house, which satis 
fied all His needs. Then Sarvabhauma said, "Master, 
this house is worthy of you. Accept it, as Kashi Mishra 
prays." The Master replied, "My body is under your 
control. What you bid me, I must do, as in duty 
bound." Then Sarvabhauma, seating himself at the 
right hand of the Master, began to introduce one after 



100 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [VIII 

another all the people of Puri, saying, "All these men 
have been residing in the Nilachal in eager longing to meet 
you. They have fared like the thirsty chdtak bird that 
cries in anguish for water. All were determined [to see 
you]. This one is Janardan, a constant attendant on the 
person of Jagannath. This other is Krishna-das t who 
holds the golden rod [in the temple]. Here is Shikhi 
Mahanti, the officer in charge of the [temple] secretariate. 
This, Pradyumna Mishra, is foremost among Vaishnavs, 
and he waits on Jagannath during the god s sleep. Murari 
Mahanti, the brother of Shikhi Mahanti, has no refuge 
save your feet. [These are] Chandaneshwar, Singheshwar, 
Murari Brahman, and Vishnu-das, all of whom meditate on 
your feet. Here are the high-minded Praharaj Mahapatra, 
and his kinsman Paramananda Mahapatra. These Vaish- 
navs are the ornaments of this holy place, and all devoted 
ly intent on your feet." They all prostrated themselves 
on the ground before the Master, who graciously held 
them to His bosom. 

Just then came there Bhabananda Ray, with his four 
sons ; and they all fell at the Master s feet. Sarvabhauma 
introduced them, "This is Bhabananda Ray whose eldest 
son is Ramananda Ray." The Master embraced him and 
spoke in praise of Ramananda adding, "One cannot ade 
quately describe to the world the greatness of him whose 
son is a jewel like Ramananda. Truly, you are Pandu, 
your wife is Kunti, and your five high-souled sons are the 
five Pandav brothers." The Ray replied, "I am a Shudra, 
a worldling and a wretch. That you have touched me is 
the only holy thing [about me]. I lay down at your feet 
myself with my house, belongings, servants, and five sons. 
This youth Vaninath will constantly wait on you, to do 



VIII] KRISHNA-DAS SENT TO MOTHER SHACHI IOI 

whatever you bid him. Know me as your own, feel no 
delicacy, but order whatever you desire." The Master 
answered, "What delicacy can there be? You are not a 
stranger to me. In birth after birth you with your family 
have been my servants. In some five days Ramananda 
will arrive here. His society will complete my bliss." So 
saying He embraced the father, while the four sons laid 
their heads at His feet. They were all sent home, only 
Vaninath Patta Nayak was retained by the Master. 

Bhattacharya sent away the other people. Thereafter 
the Master called for deaf Krishna-das, and said "Listen, 
Bhattacharya, to the story of this man. He had accom 
panied me to the South, but left me to join the tribe of 
Bhattamari. But I rescued him from their hands. Having 
brought him back here I give him his discharge. Let 
him go wherever he likes ; I have no longer any concern 
with him." At this Krishna-das set up a lamentation. 
When the Master went away for His noonday worship, 
Nityananda, Jagadananda, Mukunda, and Damodar laid 
their heads together, saying, "We have to send a mes 
senger to Bengal to report the Master s arrival to His 
mother. Adwaita, Shribas and others of the faithful will 
all flock hither on hearing of His return. Let us send 
Krishna-das (for the purpose)." With this they consoled 
Krishna-das. 

Next day they prayed to the Master, "Allow us to 
send a man to Bengal, as mother Shachi, Adwaita and 
other devotees have all been plunged in concern since 
they heard of your setting out for the South. Let a man 
go and" give them the glad tidings (of your safe return)." 
The Master assented, "Do as you like." So they sent 



102 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [VIII 

Krishna-das to Bengal, with a present of the mahd-prasdd 
for the Vaishnavs there. 

Deaf Krishna-das reached Bengal, saw mother Shachi 
at Navadwip, bowed, and gave he the mahd-prasdd and 
the news of the Master s return from the South. The 
mother rejoiced at the news, and so did the faithful led 
by Shribas. Then Krishna-das went to the hou^e of 
Adwaita Acharya, gave him the prasdd, bowed, and told 
him all about the Master. The Acharya in rapture 
danced, sang, and shouted for a long time. How shall 
I name all the flock who exulted at the news, Haridas 
Thakur, Vasudev Datta, Murari Gupta, Shivananda, 
Acharya Ratna, Pandit Vakreshwar, Acharya Nidhi, the 
Pandits Gadadhar, Shriram, Damodar, Shriman, and 
Raghav, Vijay, Shridhar, and Acharya Nandan. They 
all went in a body to Adwaita, bowed at his feet, and were 
clasped to his bosom. Two or three days were spent by 
the Acharya in great rejoicing (with them), and then he 
confirmed the desire to make a pilgrimage to the Nilachal. 
Gathering together at Navadwip, they set off for Jagan- 
nath with mother Shachi s leave. At the report about 
the Master, Satyaraj and Ramananda from the Kulin 
village joined them, and so did Mukunda and Narahari 
from Raghunandan Khand. Just then Paramananda Puri 
arrived at Nadia from the South, travelling along the 
banks of the Ganges. He lodged in comfort in the temple 
of mother Shachi, who honourably fed him. On hearing 
there of the Master s return, the Puri too wished to hasten 
to the Nilachal. He set off thither with the Master s 
devotee, the Brahman Kamalakanta, and soon arrived in 
the Master s presence, who rejoiced at the meeting and 
lovingly saluted his feet, while the Puri embraced Him. 



VIII] HISTORY OF SWARUP DAMODAR 1 03 

The Master said, "I long to live in thy company. Make 
the Nilachal thy abode, as tho u lovest me." The Puri 
replied, "It is because I desire your society that I came 
hither from Bengal. jThe news of your return from the 
South has gladdened the heart of Shachi. The other 
devotees are coming to see you, but as they made delay 
I had started quickly (before them)." The Master 
assigned to the Puri a retired room in Kashi Mishra s house 
and an attendant. 

Next clay arrived Swarup Damodar, who had touched 
the inmost recess of the Master s spirit. His name in the 
world was Purushottam Acharya, and he waited on the 
Master at Navadwip. Wild at the Master s renunciation 
of the world, he went to Benares and turned monk there. 
His guru, Chaitanyananda, bade him study the Vedanta 
and expound it to the people. He was totally withdrawn 
from the world and a deep scholar, having taken refuge in 
Krishna with all his body and soul. He had turned 
sannyasi, in a wild longing to worship Krishna in freedom 
from every (earthly) thought and care. As a sannyasi he 
cast off his sacred thread and took the tonsure, but did not 
put on the yogi s dress. Swarup was the new name given 
to him. With his guru s permission he came to the 
Nilachal, being day and night out of his senses in the bliss 
of loving Krishna. He was a perfect scholar, holding 
converse with none, and livinp" in seclusion unknown to 
the world, ^Ie had known the mystery of the love of 
Krishna ; his verv body was a picture of love ; he seemed 
the exact second self of the Master. Every book, verse, 
or song brought to the Master had to be first examined 
by Swarup before He would hear it. The Master took no 
delight in compositions that clashed with the theory of 



104 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [VIII 

bhakti and lacked the spirit of delight (ras). So, Swarup 
Goswami tasted books and read to the Master only such 
as were correct. Vidyapati, Chandidas and Git-Govinda 
were the poetry that delighted the Master. Damodar sur 
passed others, as he was a veritable gandharva in musical 
skill and a Vrihaspati in Shastric lore. He was a darling 
to Adwaita and Nityananda, and the very life of ShHbas 
and other faithful ones. 

Such was Damodar who came and prostrating^ him 
self clasped the Master s feet while he recited stanza 20 
of Act VIII. of the drama Chaitanya-chandrodaya. 

The Master raised and embraced him. The two 
swooned away in ecstasy. After a while regaining 
composure the Master began thus : "I have dreamt that 
you would come to-day. It is good (that you have come) ; 
I am like a blind man who has got back his two eyes." 
Swarup answered, "Pardon my sin, Master I erred 
grievously when I left you and sought another (guru). 
I had not a particle of faith in your feet, but, sinner that 
I was, I had left you to go to another country ! I had no 
doubt left you, but you did not forsake me. Thy grace 
has been a chain round my neck, dragging me to thy 
feet." 

Then Swarup bowed at Nityananda s feet, who loving 
ly embraced him. He also did due courtesy as he met 
Jagadananda, Mukunda, Shankar, Sarvabhauma, and 
Paramananda Puri. The Master gave him f\. quiet room 
with a servant to draw water and do other services. 

One day the Master sat surrounded by Sarvabhauma 
and other faithful ones, holding sweet discourse on 
Krishna, when Govinda arrived, prostrated himself, and 
said, "I am Govinda, a servant of Ishwar Puri, at whose 



- VIII] GOVINDA BECOMES MASTER S BODY SERVANT 105 

bidding I have come to you. The Purl, when attaining 
to siddhi (death) told me to go and serve Krishna- 
Chaitanya. Kashishwar will come (here) after visiting 
holy places. At my Master s bidding I have hastened to 
your feet." To this the Master replied, "Ishwar Puri 
loved me like a son, and has sent you to me as a favour." 
At this Sarvabhauma asked, "How could the Puri retain 
a Shudra attendant?" The Master answered, "God is 
supremely independent. His mercy is not bound by (the 
rules of) the Vedas. God s grace defies caste and family 
distinctions." Witness how Krishna dined at the house 
of Bidur. Love and service are mere instruments of 
Krishna s mercy. When actuated by mercy He acts in 
dependently [of the conventions of religion]. Loving 
treatment is a million times more blissful than dignity. 
The very hearing of it gives intense delight." 

So saying the Master embraced Govinda, who then 
bowed at the feet of all. The Master spoke, "Bhatta- 
charya, solve this problem : the very servant of my guru 
is honourable to me, and it is not seemly that he should 
serve me. And yet the guru has commanded it. What 
should I do?" The Bhatta answered, "A guru s 
command is most strong, and the Shastras direct us not to 
violate it. Witness the Raghuvamsa, xiv. 53, and 
Valmiki s Ramayan, Ayodhya-kanda, xxii. 9." 

Then the Master consented and permitted Govinda 
to serve His* body. All honoured him as the Master s 
favourite attendant, while Govinda made arrangements for 
all the Vaishnavs. He was accompanied by the two 
Haridases (who were surnamed the greater and lesser 
chanters), Ramai and Nandai, in tending the Master. 
Govinda s good fortune baffles description. 



106 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [VIII 

One day Mukunda Datta said to the Master, "Brah 
mananda Bharati has come to see you. Permit me to 
bring him hither." But He replied, "The Bharati is 
my guru. It is I who should go c to him." So saying, 
He went to Brahmananda, with all His followers. At 
the sight of Brahmananda clad in deer skin, the Master 
grieved at heart, pretended not to have observed him, and 
asked Mukunda where the Bharati was. Mukunda 
replied, "Here, before you !" But the Master objected, 
"You do not know. It is not he, but somebody else 
whom you are ignorantly pointing out. Why should 
the Bharati Goswami wear a skin?" At this Brahma 
nanda inly reflected, "He likes not my robe of deer skin. 
He has spoken well. A skin is worn as a mark of pride 
(of asceticism). The wearing of it cannot give me salva 
tion from the W 7 orld. Henceforth I shall renounce this 
garment." The Master learnt of his thought, and had a 
cloth brought, which Brahmananda put on after discard 
ing the skin. Then the Master bowed at his feet, but the 
Bharati objected saying, "These your acts are for instruct 
ing the people. Never bow down to me again, it frightens 
me. Here are now two gods, viz., Jagannath the 
stationary, and you the moving god. You are the fair 
god, while Jagannath is the dark deity. These two 
(between them) have redeemed the world." The Master 
demurred, "The truth is that your coming has revealed 
two Brahmas at Purushottam : your name is Brahmananda, 
and (you are) the fair-coloured moving Brahma, while 
Jagannath is the dark and motionless one." The Bharati 
cried out, "Be thou the judge between us, Sarvabhauma, 
and attend to my logical dispute with Him. The Shastras 
tell us that creation is v^dbya, while Brahma is vydpak. 



VIII] MASTER MEETS BRAHMANANDA BHARATI 107 

He has reformed me by taking away my skin robe. This 
shows that one is vydpya. and the other is vydpak. Vide 
Mahabharat, Dan-parva, ch. 149, stanza 1091. To the 
Master truly belong th^se (divine) epithets, sandal-pasted 
prasdd, dor, two-armed Angad." Bhattacharya replied, 
"O Bharati, the victory is thine, as I see." The Master 
said, "Whatever you say must be true. In a logical 
disputation, the disciple must always yield to the guru." 
But the Bharati objected, "No, no, the reason (of my 
victory) is otherwise. It is thy nature to admit defeat at 
the hands of thy bhaktas. Listen to another feat of 
thine. All my life I had worshipped the formless Deity, 
but when I saw thee, Krishna became manifest before 
my eyes. Krishna s name broke forth from my lips, 
Krishna s image was stamped on my heart and eye. My 
soul thirsts for thee as thou resem blest Krishna. My 
condition is truly like that of Billamangal, as described 
in the Bhakti-rasdmrita-sindhu." 

The Master rejoined, "Deep is your love of Krishna, 
so that whatever your eye glances on, you see a Krishna 
there." Bhattacharya replied, "Yes, but only after 
Krishna had first revealed himself in the flesh. Love 
alone can enable us to see him. His favour is the (only) 
means of seeing him." The Master cried out, "Holy 
God ! Holy God ! what art thou saying, Sarvabhauma ? 
Your praise in hyperbole is satire in disguise." So 
saying He led^the Bharati to His own house and lodged 
him there. Ram Bhattacharya and Bhagaban Acharya 
waited on the Master, leaving all other works. 

Another day Kashishwar Goswami arrived and was 
honourably lodged by the Master with Himself. He used 
to escort the Master to the temple of Jagannath, removing 



108 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [VIII 

the crowd from before Him. As all rivers and brooks 
unite in the ocean, so did the Master s worshippers, 
wherever they might have been, all come together at His 
feet. He graciously kept them atvHis house. Thus have 
I described the Master s assembling of Vaishnavs. 
[Text, canto 10.] 



CHAPTER IX 

The Grand Chanting ( Bera Kirtan ) 

One day Sarvabhauma said, "Master, may I make 
bold to submit a thing?" He replied, "Say thy say 
without hesitation. If it is a proper request, I shall keep 
it, it* not, not." Sarvabhauma said, "Here is Pratap 
Rudra Ray, eager to meet you." The Master clapped His 
hands to His ears, murmured an appeal to God, and 
replied, "Why such an improper speech, Sarvabhauma? 
I am a hermit withdrawn from the world. For me to meet 
a king or a woman is fatal like a draught of poison." 

Sarvabhauma entreated, "True are thy words. But 
this Raja is a votary of Jagannath and the chief of 
devotees." "Still, a king is only the deadly snake in 
another form, just as the touch of even the wooden statue 
of a woman causes mental perturbation. Say not so 
again. If you do, you will miss me from this place." 
Alarmed, Sarvabhauma retired to his own house. 

At this time King Pratap Rudra of the Gajapati 
dynasty arrived at Puri. With him came Ramananda 
Ray, who first of all interviewed the Master in great 
delight. The Ray prostrated himself, the Master embraced 
him, and the two shed tears of joy. At this loving 
intercourse, all the bhaktas wondered. The Ray said, 
"I reported your behest to my king, who relieved me of 
my office, as you wished. I told him that if he would let 
me I should remain at Chaitanya s feet, as I no longer 
wished to manage affairs (of state). At the mention of 



110 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [IX 

thy name the king in delight rose from his throne and 
embraced me. On hearing thy name he was enraptured ; 
he held my hand and very graciously told me, Enjoy 
your salary as before, and adore Chaitanya s feet in 
freedom from all cares. I, worthless wretch, am unfit to 
behold Him. Blessed are they in life that adore Him. 
Right gracious is He, the son of Braja s lord. In -oome 
other birth He will certainlv grant me the sight of Him. 
I myself have not a tithe of the passion of devotion which 
I saw in the Raja."* 

The Master replied, "You are the foremost of the 
adorers of Krishna. He is fortunate who loves you. 
Krishna will accept the Raja because of the great favour 
he has shown to you. Vide Bhdgabat, XI. xix. 21, III. 
vii. 20, and two verses from the Adi Puran and the 
Pad ma Puran." 

The Ray bowed at the feet of the four apostles, -viz., 

the Puri, the Bharati, Swarup and Nityananda, and 

properly met Jagadananda, Mukunda, and the other 

faithful ones. The Master asked, "Ray ! have you visited 

Jagannath?" The Ray replied, "I am going to see the 

god now." At this the Master cried out, "What hast 

thou done, Ray ? Why did you come to me before 

visiting the god?" The Ray answered, "My feet are my 

carriage, my heart is the driver ; wherever they take me I, 

as rider, must go. What can I do? My heart brought 

me hither, and did not suggest the ide^i of visiting 

Jagannath first." The Master replied, "Hasten to see the 

god ; go to your kindred and home afterwards." At the 

Master s command the Ray went to see the god. Who 

can fathom the mystery of the Ray s devotion ? 

Hn reaching Puri, the king summoned Sarvabhauma, 



IX] KING PRATAP RUDRA EAGER TO MEET CHAITANYA III 

and after bowing to him asked, "Did you submit my 
prayer to the Master? 1 Sarvabhauma replied, "I have 
entreated Him hard, but He still refuses to grant interview 
to kings. If we press* Him further He will go away from 
this place." At this the king lamented, "His advent is 
for redeeming the sinful and the lowly. He has saved 
Jagai and Madhai. Has He incarnated Himself with the 
determination to deliver the whole world excepting Pratap 
Rudra, alone ? Well, He has vowed not to see me, and 
I now vow to give up this life if I cannot see Him. If 
I am not rich in the great Master s grace, what boots my 
kingdom, my body? Everything is useless to me." 

Hearing this Sarvabhauma grew alarmed, and he 
marvelled at the ardour of the king s devotion. So he 
said, "My liege ! grieve not. The Master will surely take 
pity on you. He can be compelled by love, and your love 
is most profound ; He cannot help doing you grace. 
Still, I suggest a device by which you can see Him. At 
the Car Festival, the Master with all His followers will 
dance in rapture in front of Jagannath s car, and enter the 
garden in an ecstatic mood. Just then, clad in a plain 
robe and reciting the Krishna-rdsa-panchddhydyi all alone, 
you will run and clasp the Master s feet. He will then 
be oblivious of the outer world, and on hearing Krishna s 
name will embrace you as a Vaishnav. To-day 
Ramananda Ray has lauded your devotion to the Master, 
whose mind has been turned by it." 

At these words the king rejoiced and accepted this 
plan of meeting with the Master. He learnt from the 
Bhatta that the Bathing Festival would occur three days 
afterwards. Thus consoling the king, the Bhatta returned 
home. 
9 



112 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [IX 

At the Bathing Festival, the Master greatly rejoiced 
to see the ceremony ; but when Jagannath withdrew to 
retirement, He deeply mourned for it, and in anguish of 
separation, like the milkmaids during Krishna s absence, 
He retired to Alalnath, leaving His followers behind. 
They afterwards joined Him, and reported that many of 
the faithful had arrived from Bengal. Sarvabhauma 
brought the Master back to His quarters in Puri, and 
informed the king of the fact. Just then Gopinath 
Acharya arrived at the Court, blessed the king, and said, 
"Hark thee, Bhattacharya, two hundred Vaishnavs are 
coming from Bengal, all of them followers of the Master 
and very spiritual personages. They have appeared in the 
city. Arrange for their being given lodgings and conse 
crated food." The king replied, "I shall order the 
Parichhd, to assign them lodgings &c., as they require. 
Show me, Bhattacharya, the Master s followers arrived 
from Bengal, one by one." The Bhatta said, "Climb to 
the roof of the palace. Gopinath will point them out as 
he knows them all, I know none, though I long to do so. 
Gopinath will introduce each." So saying the three 
ascended to the roof, while the Vaishnavs came near 
them. Damodar Swarup and Govinda, sent on by the 
Master, welcomed the Vaishnavs on the way with the 
god s garlands and prasdd. To the Rajah s query 
Bhattacharya said, "This one is Swarup Damodar, the 
alter ego of the Master. That is His servant Govinda. 
By their hands has He sent the garlands as a mark of 
honour." Swarup and Govinda successively garlanded 
Adwaita and bowed to him. But the Acharya knew not 
Govinda and asked who he was. Damodar Swarup 
answered "He is Govinda, a highly meritorious servant of 



IX] BENGAL VAISHNAVS SHOWN TO KING AT PURI 113 

Ishwar Puri, who had ordered him to tend our Master, 
and by Him is Govinda now retained. " 

The king asked, "Who is the high spiritual chief to 
whom both have giverf garlands ?" The Acharya replied, 
"He is Adwaita Acharya, respected by our Master and 
highly honoured by all. That one is Shribas Pandit, and 
those^ are Vakreshwar Pandit, Vidyanidhi Acharya, 
Gadadhar Pandit, Acharya Ratna, Purandar Acharya, 
Gangarlas Pandit, Shankar Pandit, Murari Gupta, Nara- 
yan Pandit, Haridas Thakur (the purifier of the world), 
Hari Bhatta, Nrisinghananda, Vasudev Datta, Shivananda, 
Govinda, Madhav, Vasu Ghosh (three brothers, whose 
chanting delights the Master), Raghav Pandit, Acharya 
Nandan, Shriman Pandit, Shrikanta Narayan, Shridhar 
(the white robed), Vijay, Vallabh Sen, Sanjay, Satyaraj 
Khan (a resident of Kulin village), Ramananda, Mukunda- 
das, Narahari, Raghunandan, Chiranjib (of Khanda), 
Sulochan, and many more. How can I name them all? 
They all follow Chaitanya and hold Him as their life." 

The king answered, "The sight fills me with wonder. 
I have never before beheld such radiance among 
Vaishnavs. They are all resplendent of hue like a million 
Suns. Never before have I heard such entrancing street 
singing. Nowhere else have I seen such devotion, such 
dancing, such shouting of Hari s name, and nowhere else 

have I seen or heard the like of it." 
> 

Bhattacharya said, "True are thy words. Chaitanya 
has created this devotional procession-singing (sankirtan). 
His incarnation is for preaching religion ; in the Kali age 
the sankirtan of Krishna s name is the (only) religion. 
Wise are those who worship Krishna by means of 



114 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [IX 

sankirtan ; all other men are overpowered by the spirit of 
Kali. Vide Bhdgabat, XI. v. 29. 

The king asked, "The Shastras prove that Chaitanya 
is Krishna (incarnate). Why then^do scholars turn away 
from Him?" The Bhatta answered, "He alone whom 
Chaitanya favours even a bit can know Him as Krishna. 
He who has not Chaitanya s grace is nowise a scholar, 
as he sees and hears Chaitanya without recognizing the 
God in Him. Vide Bhdgabat, X. xiv. 28." 

The king asked, "Why are they all hastening to 
Chaitanya s lodgings without first visiting Jagannath ?" 
The Bhatta replied, "Such is the natural consequence of 
devotion. Their hearts are yearning to see the Master. 
They will see Him first, and then led by Him will visit 
Jagannath." The king next said, "Vaninath, the son of 
Bhabananda Ray, is conveying the mahd-prasdd by five 
or six porters to the Master s house. Why is such a huge 
quantity needed?" The Bhatta answered, "Knowing that 
the faithful were coming, .the Master had bidden him 
bring the prdsad" The king objected, "It is the custom 
for pilgrims to fast on reaching a holy place (before they 
see the god). But why are these men breaking their 
fast?" The Bhatta answered, "What you mention is the 
rule of religion. But in this path of devotion there is a 
subtle inner meaning. God s indirect (or general) 
command is that pilgrims should first shave their heads 
and fast. But the Master s direct (or immediate) order is 
feasting on the prasad. Where the mahd-prasdd is not 
available, fasting is the rule ; but it is a sin to refuse the 
prasdd when the Master bids one eat it ; especially when 
He is distributing it with His own hands, who will reject 
such blessedness in order to fast? Before this He had one 



IX] BENGAL PILGRIMS MEET CHAITANYA 1 15 

morning offered me the prasdd, and I had eaten it before 
rising from my bed ! He whose heart receives Chaitanya s 
gracious call discards the Vedas and conventional religion, 
and seeks refuge in Krishna alone. Vide Bhagabat, IV. 
xxix. 43." 

Then the king descended from the palace, terrace. 
He summoned Kashi Mishra and the Parichha officer 
and bade them, "The Master s followers have come to 
Him. Give them food and board to their comfort, and 
make it easy for them to see the god. Heedfully obey 
the Master s behests. Even when He does not speak out, 
carry out His hinted purpose." So saying he dismissed 
them. 

Sarvabhauma then went away to visit the temple. 
Gopinath Acharya and Sarvabhauma from afar beheld 
how the Master met the Vaishnavs. The Vaishnavs (from 
Bengal) took the way to Kashi Mishra s house, leaving 
Jagannath s lion-gate on their right. Just then the Master 
coming with His attendants met them on the way in great 
glee. Adwaita bowed at His feet, but He embraced him. 
In rapture of devotion the two were greatly excited, but 
in consideration of the occasion the Master composed 
Himself somewhat. The new arrivals all bowed to Him, 
and He embraced and addressed each of them in turn, 
took them inside His house (which was filled with the 
throng of countless Vaishnavs), seated them by Himself, 
and personally gave them garlands and sandal-paste. 
Then Gopinath and Sarvabhauma arrived there and saluted 
all in proper terms. 

Sweetly did the Master address Adwaita, "Thy 
coming has made me complete to-day." But Adwaita 
objected, "Such is the nature of God. He is full and the 



1 16 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [IX 

source of all power, and yet He exults in the society of 
the faithful and ever disports in many ways with them." 

The Master, delighted to meet Vasudev, stroked his 
body and said, "Mukunda has beeh my companion from 
my childhood. But the sight of you gives me even more 
delight." Vasudev replied, "That Mukunda has gained 
your society is a second birth to him. Therefore is~ his 
rank higher than mine, though I am his elder brother. 
Your grace has made him excel in all virtues." Then the 
Master added, "I have brought two manuscripts from the 
South for you. They are with Swarup ; take copies of 
them." Vasudev was pleased to get the books, and every 
Vaishnav (from Bengal) took a copy of them ; so that 
gradually the two works spread everywhere. 

Lovingly did the Master address Shribas and others, 
"You four brothers have bought me (with your kindness)," 
to which Shribas replied, "Why do you speak just the 
contrary of the fact? We four are bondsmen purchased 
by your grace." 

Seeing Shankar, the Master spoke to Damodar [his 
elder brother], "My love for you is mixed with respect, 
whereas towards Shankar I feel pure affection. There 
fore keep him in your company." Damodar replied, 
"Shankar was born after me, but your grace has made 
him my elder brother." 

To Shivananda He said, "I knew before [this your 
first introduction to me] that you were ardently devoted 
to me." At these words Shivananda was enraptured ; he 
prostrated himself on the ground and recited an extem 
pore Sanskrit stanza. 

Murari Gupta, without coming to the Master at first, 
lay prostrate out of doors. The Master searched for him, 



IX] CHAITANYA WELCOMES BENGAL BHAKTAS II? 

and many ran out to bring Murari in. Murari presented 
himself before the Master holding two blades of grass 
between his teeth as a mark of abject humility. As the 
Master advanced to yyelcome him, Murari stepped back 
shouting, Touch me not, Lord, I am a sinner, my body 
is unworthy of your touch." The Master replied, "Away 
with^your lowliness, Murari ; the sight of it pierces my 
heart." So saying He embraced Murari, seated him by 
His side and patted him on the back. 

Similarly, with words of praise and repeated em 
braces did the Master receive Acharya Ratna, the 
Vidyanidhi, Gadadhar Pandit, Gangadas, Hari Bhatta, 
and Purandar Acharya. Then He asked, "Where is 
Haridas?" But Haridas lay prostrate far away on the 
edge of the public road, whence he had first beheld 
Chaitanya. He had not resorted to the Master s recep 
tion, but stopped at a distance. The devotees hurried 
there to lead him in, but Haridas said, "I am a low person, 
of no caste, and debarred from going close to the temple. 
If I can get a little retired space in the garden, I shall lie 
there and pass my time in loneliness, so that no servitor 
of Jagannath may have anv occasion to touch me. That 
is my prayer." 

At the report of this speech the Master was pleased. 
Just then Kashi Mishra and the Parichha arrived and 
did obeisance to the Master. Delighted to see so many 
Vaishnavs, they were introduced to all with due courtesy. 
Then they entreated the Master, "Permit us to make 
arrangements for these Vaishnavs. We have chosen 
lodgings for all and shall serve them with the mahd- 
prasdd." The Master replied, "Gopinath ! take the 
Vaishnavs with you and bestow them in the lodgings 



"8 CHAITANYA-CHAR1T-AMRITA [IX 

chosen for them. Deliver the mahd-prasdd to Vaninath, 
who will distribute it to all. Close to my place is a very 
lonely house in this flower-garden. Let me have it, as 
I need it for lonely meditation." f\ le Mishra said, "All 
is thine, and this begging is needless. Take whatever 
houses you please. We two are slaves waiting for your 
bidding. Be pleased to command us in whatever you 
wish for." 

The two now left with Gopinath and Vaninath ; the 
former was shown all the lodging-houses, and the latter 
was given immense quantities of the mahd-prasdd (for the 
whole party). Thereafter Vaninath returned with the 
consecrated rice and cakes, and Gopinath after cleaning 
the lodgings. The Master said, "Hear, all ye Vaishnavs ! 
Go to your respective lodgings. After bathing in the 
ocean and gazing at the pinnacle of the temple, come here 
for your dinner." After bowing to the Master, they were 
led away to their quarters by Gopinath. 

Then He came to receive Haridas, who was chanting 
God s name in rapture. Haridas fell flat at the Master s 
feet, who clasped him to His bosom. Both wept in 
fervour of love, the Master overcome by the disciple s 
merits and the disciple by the Master s. Haridas cried, 
"Touch me not, Master, I am a low untouchable wretch." 
But the Master answered, "I touch you to be purified 
myself, because I lack your pure religion. Every moment 
you acquire as much piety as by bathing in all holy places, 
or by performing sacrifice, austerities, and alms-giving, 
or by reading the Vedas. You are holier than a Brahman 
or a sannyasil Vide Bhdgabat III. xxxiii. 7." So saying 
He took Haridas into the garden and gave him a room 
all apart, adding, "Live here, chanting His name. Daily 



IX] MASTER DINKS WITH BENGAL PILGRIMS IIQ 

will I come and join thee. Bow to the discus on the top 
of the temple of Jagannath (which you can see from here). 
The prasad will be sent to you here." Nityananda, 
Jagadananda, Damodar, and Mukunda rejoiced on meeting 
with Haridas. 

After bathing in the sea the Master returned to His 
quarters. Adwaita and his party also bathed in the sea, 
gazed (reverently) at the pinnacle of the temple, and came 
to the Master s house for dinner. Chaitanya seated them 
in proper order and Himself distributed the food. So 
lavish was His hand that He gave two or three men s 
food to each. But all the faithful held their hands back 
from the dinner so long as the Master fasted. Swarup 
reported this to Him, saying, Unless you sit down to 
meal, none else will dine. Gopinath Acharya has invited 
the party of sannyasis to dine with you. He has brought 
the prasad, and the Puri and Bharati were waiting for you. 
Do you sit down to dinner with Nityananda, while I serve 
the Vaishnavs." Then the Master carefully sent the 
prasad to Haridas by the hand of Govinda, and Himself 
sat at meals with all the sannyasis, while the Acharya 
served them in delight. Swarup Damodar and Jagada 
nanda served the Vaishnavs, who ate all sorts of cakes 
and syrups, joyously shouting Hari s name every now 
and then. 

After they had dined and washed their hands, the 
Master gave each a garland and a sandal-paste mark. 
They then retired to their lodgings for rest. In the 
evening they came to Him again, when Ramananda also 
arrived. The Master introduced him to all the Vaishnavs. 
With the whole party He went to Jagannath s temple, 
and began to chant (kirtan). After the burning of evening 



120 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [IX 

incense He began a sankirtan. The Parichhd presented 
Him with a garland and sandal-paste. 

Four parties sang on four sides, while in their midst 
danced Shachi s darling. Eight dholes and 32 cymbals 
were played on. All shouted "Hari ! Hari !" and cheered. 
The blissful sound of kirtan penetrated through the 14 
regions to the empyrean. As the kirtan began, devotion 
welled out ; the people of Puri ran thither and marvelled 
at the singing, having never seen such transports of love 
before. 

Next the Master went round Jagannath s temple, 
dancing and singing, while the four parties of chanters 
preceded and followed Him. As He was falling down, 
Nityananda held Him up. Men wondered as they beheld 
His weeping, tremour, perspiration, and deep shouting. 
The tears ran down His cheeks like jets from a syringe 
and bathed the men around. After dancing round the 
temple for a long time, He performed kirtan behind it, 
the four parties singing in a high pitch, while Chaitanya 
danced wildlv in the middle. After dancing long He 
stopped and permitted the four Apostles to dance with the 
four parties, Nityananda, Adwaita Acharya, Vakreshwar 
Pandit, and Shrinibas while the Master from the centre 
gazed on. Here He manifested a miraculous power : every 
one who danced around Him saw that the Master was 
gazing onlv at him ! He manifested this power only 
because He wished to behold the dance of the four. 
Everv one noticed His attentive gaze but did not know 
how He could gaze on four sides ! Just as at the feast 
on the Jamuna s bank, Krishna in the midst of his com 
rades seemed to be gazing at every one of them at the 
same time. 



IX] BENGAL VAISHNAVS DANCE IN JAGANNATH S TEMPLE 121 

As each came up to Him dancing, the Master firmly 
clasped him to His bosom. The people of Puri swam in 
a sea of delight as they beheld such grand dancing, devo 
tion, and sankirtan. 7he king himself on hearing of the 
splendour of the kirtan, ascended to the terrace of his 
palace with his Court to gaze at it. The sight increased 
his admiration and his eagerness to be introduced to the 
Master. 

After finishing the chanting and beholding the cere 
mony of showering flowers on Jagannath, the Master 
returned home with all the Vaishnavs. The Parichhd 
brought to Him plenty of prasdd which He divided among 
all. Then he dismissed them and retired to bed. All the 
time they were with Him, they daily performed kirtan in 
this style. [Text, canto n.] 



CHAPTER X 

Cleansing Jagannath s garden-house 

Before this, when the Master returned from the Sbuth, 
King Pratap Rudra Gajapati, eager to see Him, wrote to 
Sarvabhauma from Katak to get the Master s consent to 
an interview. On Bhattacharya replying that the consent 
was withheld, the king wrote again, "Entreat the bhaktas 
of the Master to intercede with Him for me. Through 
their favour I may reach His feet. I like not my king 
ship if I cannot gain His grace. If Chaitanya does not 
take pity on me, I shall give up my throne and turn a 
religious mendicant." Bhattacharya in great alarm went 
to the bhaktas, told them of the king s plight and showed 
them the letter. 

They marvelled at the king s devotion to the Master 
and said, "He will never receive the king. If we entreat 
Him, it will only grieve Him." But Sarvabhauma said, 
"Let us all go to Him. We shall tell Him about the 
king s conduct without pressing Him to grant an inter 
view." 

So they all repaired to the Master s presence, eager 
to speak and yet silent. He asked, "What is it that you 
have all come to say? I see you have ^of something in 
your minds. Why then do you not speak it out?" 
Nityananda replied, "We have a prayer to make. We 
cannot keep it back, and yet we fear to speak. Proper or 
improper we shall report it all to you. If you do not 
see him the king wishes to turn hermit." The Master s 



X] CHAITANYA URGED TO MEET THE KING 123- 

heart was secretly softened by the speech, but with a 
show of harshness He said, "I see that you all wish to 
take me to see the king at Katak ! Not to speak of the 
next world, even the people (of the earth) will blame me. 
Not to speak of other people, even Damodar will condemn 
me. If I ever receive the king it will be with Damodar s 
approval and not at your request." Damodar said, "You 
are God and a free being. You know best what is proper 
(for you) and what is not. How can a petty creature like 
me lay down the rule to you ? I shall witness your grant 
ing him an audience of your own accord. The king loves 
you, love compels you, therefore his love will make you 
touch him. A free God as you are, it is your nature to 
be swayed by love." 

Nityananda broke in, "Where is the man that dares 
bid you interview the king? But it is the nature of 
devoted ones that they give up their lives if they fail to 
obtain the object of their adoration. Witness how the 
sacrificing Brahman s wife gave up her life on failing to 
go out and see Krishna [Bhagabat, X. xxiii]. There is 
one way, however, if you will only listen to it, by which 
you will not meet the king and yet his life will be saved : 
give him of thy grace thy wearing apparel, by getting 
which he will hold to life." 

The Master replied, "You are all highly learned. 
Do whatever you think fit." Then Nityananda begged 
from Govinda^ one of the dhotis of the Master, and sent 
it by Sarvabhauma to the king, who gleefully adored the 
cloth as if it were the Master Himself. 

Thereafter when Ramananda Ray came back from 
the South and entreated the king to let him stay with 
the Master, the king gladly consented, and pressed him 



CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [X 

to entreat the Master, whose favourite he was, to grant 
him an interview. Then the two arrived at Puri, and 
Ramananda waited on the Master and reported to Him 
the king s love and devotion. * He repeatedly took 
occasion to mention the subject, being a minister expert 
in diplomacy, and succeeded in softening the Master s 
mind. 

Pratap Rudra could not contain himself in his eager 
ness, and again pressed Ramananda, who begged the 
Master to show His feet only once to the king. But 
the Master replied, "Judge for yourself, Ramananda, 
whether a hermit ought to receive a king. Such an 
interview ruins a hermit in this world and the next, and 
makes him a butt of ridicule." 1 Ramananda pleaded, 
"You are God and your own master; whom fear you? 
You are subject to none!" The Master replied, "I am 
a sannyasi living in human habitations, and I fear worldly 
dealings with all my soul and body. Even the most 
trifling failing of a sannyasi is talked of by all men, just 
as a spot of ink on a white cloth cannot be hidden." 
The Ray urged, "You have saved (by your touch) many 
a sinner, while this king is a devotee of God and your 
bhaktal" The Master parried the argument thus, "Just 
as a jar full of milk is shunned if it contains even one 
drop of wine, so is Pratap Rudra, clad in all the virtues, 
defiled by his title of King. Still, if you are keen about 
it, introduce his .von to me. The Shastras f say, the son is 
one s own self born again. My interview with the son will 
be equivalent to a meeting with the father." 

The Ray reported it to the king and conducted the 
Prince to the Master. The royal youth was handsome 
and dark, clad in a yellow robe and jewels, so that he 



X] PURI RAJAH S SON INTRODUCED TO CHAITANYA 125 

reminded one of Krishna. On seeing him, the Master 
thought of Krishna, lovingly received him, and said, 
"A very pious personage is this youth, the sight of whom 
makes all men remember the Darling of Braja s lord. 
Blessed am I that I have seen him." So saying He 
repeatedly embraced the Prince, who was transported by 
the touch and began to perspire, tremble, weep, exult and 
stand inert, and (then) danced and wept chanting Krishna s 
name., The bhaktas present praised his good fortune. 
Then the Master composed him and bade him come there 
daily. 

The Ray took the Prince away to the king who 
rejoiced at his son s exploit, and in embracing his son felt 
the touch of the Master s person as it were. Thenceforth 
the lucky Prince was numbered among the Master s 
bhaktas. 

So did He pass His time blissfully in ceaseless 
sankirtan with His followers. He was feasted with His 
companions by the Acharya and others successively. Thus 
some time passed and the day of the Car Festival 
approached. At the outset He called for Kashi Mishra, 
the Parichhd minister and Sarvabhauma, and smilingly 
said, "I beg to undertake the service of cleansing the 
Gundicha temple." The Parichhd replied, "We are all 
your servants, bound to do whatever you wish for. On me 
has been laid the special command of my king to quickly 
perform whatever you bid. Cleaning the temple is not a 
task worthy of you ; but it is one of your playful acts ; do 
whatever you like. But many pitchers and brooms will be 
required. Permit me to bring them here to-day." So he 
delivered to the Master a hundred new pitchers and 
brooms. 



126 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [X 

, Next morning the Master rubbed His followers over 
with sandal-paste, gave each a broom and went with them 
to^the Gundicha temple to clean it. First He swept and 
cleaned the inside, the roof, and the throne. The two 
temples, large and small, were swept and washed, and then 
the dancing-hall in front. The hundred bhaktas plied their 
brooms, the Master in the middle guiding them by His 
own manner of sweeping. Following Him they gleefully 
chanted Krishna s name while at work. The dust covered 
His fair form ; now and then His tears washed the ground. 
The god s dining-hall was swept and then the court-yard. 
At last all the rooms were cleaned. He made a bundle of 
the collection of straw, dust and pebbles in His outer 
clothing and threw them outside. So did His followers, 
too. The Master said, "I shall learn the amount of the 
labour done by each from the size of his bundle of 
sweepings." So their bundles were heaped together, but 
the Master s own bundle was seen to exceed the entire 
heap. 

After cleansing the interior, He divided the work 
again among them, telling them to make the place 
thoroughly tidy by removing all the fine dust, small 
straws and gravel. He rejoiced to see the cleansing 
finished a second time by His party of Vaishnavs. A 
hundred other followers had been waiting with a hundred 
pitchers of water from the outset, for their turn. As soon 
as the Master called for water they placed the hundred pots 
before Him. He first washed the temple, top-floor, wall, 
and the throne in the interior. The water was dashed in 
earthen cups on to the top, and thus the upper walls were 
washed. He Himself washed the throne, while the 
bhaktas washed the inner shrine, and scrubbed it with their 



XJ CHAITANYA SWEEPS AND WASHES GUNDICHA 127 

own hands. Some poured water on the Master s hands, 
some on His feet, and some covertly drank up the water 
(so consecrated). Some begged this water from others. 
After the temple had Lteen cleansed they poured water into 
the drain and thus the court-yard was submerged. With 
His own cloth the Master wiped the building and the 
throrfe. It took a hundred pitchers of water to wash the 
temple. 

The purified temple became spotless, cool and deli 
cious, like His own mind laid bare to view. A hundred 
filled their pitchers at the tank, or, if crowded out, at the 
well. A hundred bhaktas brought the filled pitchers in, 
while another hundred ran off with the empty ones. Only 
Nityananda, Adwaita, Swarup, the Bharati, and the Puri 
did not draw water. (In their hurry) many pitchers were 
knocked together and broken, but men brought hundreds 
of new pots to replace them. They shouted Krishna I 
Krishna ! as they filled their pots, or broke them, delivered 
the filled pitchers or begged for new ones. No other word 
was uttered there ; Krishna s name became a mystic word 
to express all their different purposes. In ecstasy of devo 
tion the Master chanted Krishna s name and did alone the 
work of a hundred men, as if He had put forth a hundred 
arms in washing and scrubbing. He also went up to each 
to instruct him, praising those whose tasks were well done 
and gravely chiding those who were slovenly. "You have 
done well, teac^i others to do the like," at these words 
of His they were put on the alert and did their work with 
all their heart. Then they washed the Jagmohan* the 

* A quadrangle in front of the inner shrine, where the wor 
shippers stand when gazing on the idol. 
10 



CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [X 

dining room, the dancing-hall, the court-yard, the kitchen, 
the environs of the temple, and all nooks and private 
places. 

Just then an honest simple Bengali emptied his pitcher 
at the Master s feet and drank the water. At this the 
Master turned angry and sorry. He inly felt pleased, but 
for the instruction of others outwardly professed anger, 
calling out to Swarup "Look at the conduct of your 
Gauriyd. He has washed my feet in God s temple and 
drunk the water. From this sin where can I hope for 
salvation? Your Bengal man has caused me this misery." 
Then Swarup took the man bv the nape of his neck, shoved 
him out of the temple, and on his return entreated the 
Master to pardon the man. The Master was now satisfied. 
He seated all in two rows and sat in the middle, picking 
up straws and brambles with His own hands. "I shall 
see what a heap the gleaning of each can make. He whose 
collection is small must forfeit his cake and syrup to me !" 
Thus was the temple made clean, cool and pure, like His 
own mind. The water running down the drain looked like 
a new river flowing to the ocean. 

He then cleansed the Man-lion temple in and out, 
rested a little, and then set up dancing. And in the same 
manner He swept the roads in front of the temple. The 
bhaktas danced around, while the Master danced in their 
midst like a raging lion, perspiring, trembling, turning 
pale, being thrilled, and roaring. After washing His body 
He marched in advance, showering down tears, while the 
bhaktas washed themselves clean, like unto the deluge of 
rain from the clouds in the month of Shrdvan. The loud 
sankirlan filled the sky, the vigorous dance of the Master 
shook the earth. The resonant singing of Swarup pleased 



X] MASTER DINES IN GUNDICHA GARDEN I2Q 

the Master, who danced wildly in delight. After dancing 
thus, He took rest at the proper time. 

Shri Gopal, the son of the Acharya, when allowed by 
the Master to dance, <was so overcome by devotion that he 
fell down in a fit. The father hurriedly took him up in his 
arms, and was afflicted to see his breathing stopped. 
Uttering with a sky-splitting roar the "spell of Nrisingha" 
he dashed water on the youth s face. But the youth did 
not regain consciousness, in spite of all their efforts. The 
Acharya wept, the bhaktas wept too. Then the Master 
laid His hand on the youth s breast and cried out, "Rise 
Gopal!" and lo ! at the cry Gopal came round. The 
bhaktas danced chanting Hari s name. 

After a short rest, the Master disported with His 
followers in the tank. On rising from the water He put on 
dry clothes, bowed to Nrisingha, and went to sit in the 
garden, with His followers around Him. Then Vaninath, 
accompanied by Kashi Mishra and Tulsi Parichhd, brought 
to Him the maha-prasad, rice, cakes, and syrup, enough to 
feed five hundred men. The Master delighted at the sight. 
On the terrace He sat down to meal with the Puri, 
Brahmananda Bharati, Adwaita Acharya, Nityananda, 
Acharya-Ratna, Acharya-Nidhi, Shribas, Gadadhar, 
Shankar Nyayacharya, Raghav, Vakreshwar and Sarva- 
bhauma. Then the bhaktas sat down in the successive 
terraces below them, in due order. The garden was filled 
with them. ,The Master repeatedly called for Haridas, 
who from afar off replied, "Partake of thy repast with the 
bhaktas, Master. I am all too unworthy to sit with thee. 
Govinda will afterwards give me prasad outside the gate." 
Knowing his intent, the Master did not press him further. 
The food was served up by Swarup, Jagadananda, Damodar, 



130 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [X 

Kashishwar, Gopinath, Vaninath and Shankar, while the 
bhaktas shouted Hari! Hari! at intervals. The Master 
remembered the picnic on the Jamuna bank which Krishna 
had held of yore. He checked, as inopportune, the rapture 
of devotion which seized His mind (at the thought), and 
said, Serve me with sauce and fry only, and let the 
bhaktas have the sweets. * Being omniscient He knew 
who liked which dish, and directed Swamp to serve each 
according to his taste. Jagadananda, in the course of his 
serving, dropped sweet things unawares on the Master s 
plate, and though the Master angrily protested, he supplied 
more by force or cunning, as such serving was his delight. 
As Jagadananda came there on his rounds again and gazed 
at the sweets he had served before, the Master in fear of 
him ate a little of them, lest Jagadananda should himself 
fast ! Swarup with his hands full of sweet prasdd stood 
before the Master praying "Taste a little of this maha- 
prasdd and see what Jagannath has eaten!" He placed 
them on the plate, and the Master moved by his kindness, 
ate a little. Thus did these two bhaktas repeatedly show 
their wonderful tender regard for Him. Sarvabhauma, 
who sat at the Master s side, smiled at their loving conduct. 
The Master ordered sweets to be served to Sarvabhauma 
and repeatedly pressed him to eat. Gopinath Acharya 
placed nice dishes before Sarvabhauma and said sweetly, 
"Bhattacharya ! where is your former line of conduct now? 
Whence do you feel such supreme bliss ? Answer me that." 
Sarvabhauma replied, "I was a sophistical disputant. Your 
grace has made me attain to this fortune. The Master is 
the only Gracious One. Who else could have turned a 
crow (like me) into a garuda (the favourite bird of Vishnu) ? 
Formerlv I used to howl with the sophist jackals, and now 



X] PLEASANTRY BETWEEN ADWAITA AND NITYANANDA 131 

out of the same mouth I utter Krishna s name ! What was 
my former concourse with externalist logician disciples, 
and what is this society of saints like merging in the ocean 
waves!" The Mastei* said, "Your devotion to Krishna 
had already matured (before I met you) . It is your society 
that has made us all devoted to Krishna !" There is none 
like the Master, in the three worlds, to exalt the glory of 
the bhakta and to soothe a bhakta s heart. Then the 
Mastei; sent cakes and syrup from the leavings of His plate, 
to each bhakta by name. 

Adwaita and Nityananda, sitting together began a 
mock quarrel, the former saying, "I have dined in the same 
row with a hermit (abadhut). Who knows what my fate 
will be in the next world? The Master Himself is a 
sannyasi, and as such is above defilement from food-contact 
(with a casteless man like an abadhut}, for so the Shastras 
say. But I am a Brahman householder, and therefore 
liable to defilement. It has been a great sin on my part 
to dine in the same row with a man whose birth, pedigree, 
conduct and character are unknown to me !" 

Nityananda replied, "You are Adwaita Acharya. 
According to the theory of Adwaita system (Monism), the 
duty is abstract bhakti. He who accepts your theory 
recognizes only one principle and no second. With such a 
person as you have I dined ! I know not what led me to 
join your company." So they wrangled, really praising 
one another kuthe garb of abuse. 

After the dinner, the Vaishnavs rose up shouting 
Hari loudly enough to split earth and heaven. The 
Master gave to each of them a garland with His own hand. 
Next the waiters, Swarup and the other six, sat down to 
their repast within the room. Govinda laid aside the 



CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [X 

leavings of the Master s plate, to be given to Haridas. 
The bhaktas and even Govinda himself took a little of this 
hallowed food. Various are the sports of the free God, 
such as this ceremony of washing and cleaning. 

For a fortnight the people had been denied sight of 
the god Jagannath [while his image was being painted 
anew] ; and their grief changed into joy when, at" 1 the 
expiry of the period, the eye-painting (i.e., the last stage) 
being over, they could again see him. The Master went 
thither with all His followers. First marched Kashishwar, 
making a lane through the crowd, next went Govinda with 
a bowl of water. In front of the Master walked the Puri 
and the Bharati, and by His side Swarup and Adwaita, the 
other bhaktas bringing up the rear. Anxiously did He go 
to Jagannath s temple and in passion of longing stepped 
beyond the rules, asking to see the fair face of the god in 
the dining room. The thirsty eyes of the Master ardently 
drank in the face of Krishna, like a pair of bees sucking in 
a lotus. The god s eyes surpassed the blooming lotus in 
beauty, his cheeks flashed radiance like a polished turquoise 
mirror, his lower lip was sweet as the Bdndhuli flower, a 
light smile spread a ripple of nectar over his form. As the 
bhaktas gazed on, the charm of the god s countenance 
increased every moment ; their thirst increased with its 
gratification ; their eyes could not move from that face. 
Thus did the Master with His following gaze at the god till 
noon, perspiring, trembling, weeping incessantly, and 
again checking these outbursts in order to have a clearer 
view of the deity. At the time of bhog He began to sincr 
kirtan, forgetful of everything else in the bliss of gazing. 
The bhaktas led Him back to His quarters at noon. The 
servitors offered to the god a double quantity of prasdd, 



X] EVE OF JAGANNATH S CAR PROCESSION 133 

knowing that the Car Festival would take place next 
morning. [Text, canto 12.] 



CHAPTER XI 
Ht 

The Dance before Jagannath s Car. 

Next dav the Master took care to bathe with. His 
followers before it was dawn. Pratap Rudra himself 
accompanied by his Court showed the Master s bhaktas 
the ceremony of Jagannath leaving his throne to taKe his 
seat in the car. Girt round by Adwaita, Nityananda and 
other bhaktas, the Master delightedly witnessed the scene. 
The stout pdndds [attendants on an idol] like so many 
wild elephants, conveyed Jagannath in their arms, some 
holding the god s neck and some his feet. A strong thick 
rope was fastened to his waist, and the pdndds raised the 
image by pulling at the two ends of the rope. Thick and 
high heaps of cotton were placed at different points, and 
the god was raised from one and quickly rested on another 
of them ; but the touch of his feet broke up the heaps and 
scattered the cotton with a loud sound. (In fact) 
Jagannath supports the universe ; who can move him ? 
He moves of his own will, to disport himself. Shouts of 
"Great Lord! Master ! Master !" rose up, but nothing 
could be heard amidst the clang of many instruments of 
music. Then Pratap Rudra, with his own hands, swept 
the path with a golden broom-stick, and sprinkled sandal 
water on the ground. He was a king accustomed to sit on 
the throne, but in as much as being so high he did such 
lowly services, he gained Jagannath s grace. The Master 
rejoiced at the sight, and this lowly service of the king 
gained for him the Master s regard. 



XI] JAGANNATH s CAR DRAWN BY BHAKTAS 135 

Men marvelled as they beheld the trappings of the 
car. It was covered with fresh gold and high as the 
Sumeru mountain. Hundreds of fly- whiskers and 
polished mirrors hung* from it ; above were flags and a 
pure canopy. The ghdgar rattled, bells jingled on it. 
Many coloured silk cloths covered it. Jagannath mounted 
one oar, Subhadra and Balaram two others. 

For fifteen days had Jagannath remained (behind a 
screen), dallying in secret with Lakshmi, and now with 
her leaVe he came out for a ride in his car to give delight 
to his adorers. The fine white sand on the road suggested 
a river bank, and the gardens on both sides made the place 
look like Brindaban. Jagannath went along in his car, 
pleased with what he saw on both sides. Bengali athletes 
dragged the car joyfully. It sped at one time, slackened 
at another, and sometimes stopped altogether. In fact it 
moved of its own will, and not under the force of men. 

Then the Master with His own hands gave to the 

bhaktas sandal paste and garlands Then He divided 

the chanters (kirtanids) into four parties, consisting in 
all of 24 singers and eight men playing on the khol, their 
chiefs being Swarup and Shribas. Then He bade Nitya- 
nanda, Adwaita, Haridas, and Vakreshwar dance. In the 
first party Swarup was the leading singer, while the other 
five were Damodar, Narayan, Govinda Datta, Raghav 
Pandit and Shri Govindananda ; with them danced 
Adwaita. Of ^ the second party the spokesman was 
Shribas, his followers being Gangadas, Haridas, Shriman, 
Shuvananda, and Shri Ram Pandit. Here danced 
Nityananda. Mukunda led the third party, consisting of 
Vasudev, Gopinath, Murari, Shrikanta, and Vallabh Sen, 
with Haridas Thakur as the dancer. The fourth party 



CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [XI 

was composed of Haridas, Vishnudas, Raghav, Madhav 
Ghosh and his brother Vasudev Ghosh, their leader being 
Govinda Ghosh, and their dancer Vakreshwar Pandit. 
Other parties of kirtan singers were formed by the pilgrims 
from the Kulin village, (with Ramananda and Satyaraj as 
their dancers), the Acharyas of Shantipur (with 
Achyutananda as their dancer), the men of Khand (with 
Narahari and Shri Raghunandan as their dancers). In 
short four parties preceded the car of Jagannath, two 
walked on the flanks, and one in the rear. These seven 
parties played on 14 khols in all, the music of which 
maddened the Vaishnavs present. The cloud of Vaishnav 
enthusiasm melted in showers, their eyes dropped tears 
along with the nectar of kirtan. The shout of kirtan filled 
the three worlds and drowned all other sounds. The 
Master visited the seven positions shouting "Hari" and 
"Glory to Jagannath!" with uplifted arms. 

Another miracle did He manifest: at the same 
moment He was present with all the seven parties, so 
that each cried out, "The Master is with us. Out of His 
grace for us He has not gone elsewhere." No one can 
describe the inscrutable power of the Master, only the 
pure-souled esoteric bhakta can know it. 

Jagannath, pleased with the sankirtan, stopped his 
car. At this Pratap Rudra marvelled exceedingly and 
became overcome with excess of devotion. He spoke of 
the Master s greatness to Kashi Mishra, who replied, "You 
are, O King, fortunate beyond limit." The king and 
Sarvabhauma exchanged glances, as none else knew the 
secret manipulation of Chaitanya ; only those whom He 
favours can know Him ; without His grace even Brahma 
cannot recognize Him. He had been delighted with the 



XI] MASTER LEADS KIRTAN ROUND CAR 137 

lowly service done by the king, and for that reason 
had revealed His mystery to him. True, He had shown 
Himself to the king only indirectly ; but who can pierce 
through this illusion *>f Chaitanya? Sarvabhauma and 
Kashi Mishra were amazed at the grace shown to the 
king. 

Thus did the Master play for some time, singing and 
making His followers dance, now assuming one form, 
now many, ever putting forth His powers according to 
the work to be done. In the ardour of play He forgot 
Himself, and wished not to put a stop to it. Every 
moment did He do supernatural feats, as He had in a 
preceding birth performed rasa and other sports at 
Brindaban 

Dancing thus, the Master swept the people away 

on the wave of enthusiasm As Jagannath was going 

to the Gundicha garden-house, the Master performed 
kirtan before the god for a long time. First He made His 
bhaktas dance, and then, wishing to dance Himself, united 
the seven parties, placed nine men (Shribas, Ramai, Raghu, 
Govinda, Mukunda, Haridas, Govindananda, Madhav, and 
Govinda) under Swarup to sing and move in the Master s 
company, while the other parties sang around Him. After 
bowing to Jagannath, with folded palms and uplifted face 
the Master prayed : 

Salutation to Shri Krishna! who is the divine God, the 
protector of fyahmans and kine, and benefactor of the 
universe. To Krishna, to Govinda, I bow again and 
again!" (Vishnu Pur an, pt. I. xix. 48.) 

"Victory attend Devaki s son, the Lamp of the 
Vrishni race, the lord! Deep blue like the clouds is his 
colour, tender are his limbs. He is the Redeemer of the 



138 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [XI 

world from its load of sin. Victory to him! Victory! 
(Paddvali, c. 108.) Also Bhagabat, X. xc. 24 and 
Padavali, c. 63. 

Reciting these verses the Master bowed low again, 
while the bhaktas with folded palms adored God. Dancing 
impetuously with loud roars, He moved in circles, like a 
lathe. Wherever His feet touched the ground, the "earth 
with its hills and oceans trembled. He manifested stupor, 
perspiration, joyous weeping, tremour, turning pale, all 
sorts of helplessness, pride, exultation and humility. 
Stumbling He rolled on the ground, like a golden hill 
thrown on the earth. Nityananda and Adwaita hastened 
to raise Him up in their arms, shouting Hari! Hari. 
Three circles were formed to keep the crowd back. The 
first was formed by Nityananda, the second was composed 
of Kashishwar, Mukunda and other bhaktas locking their 
hands together. Outside Pratap Rudra with his ministers 
formed another ring to keep the spectators in check. The 
king, with his hand resting on the shoulder of his prime- 
minister, was gazing in absorption at the Master s dance. 
As Shrinibas, sunk in devotion, was standing before the 
king, the prime-minister touched him and said "Step 
aside." But Shrinibas in the ardour of his dancing was 
forgetful of all else. He was pushed repeatedly and at last 
grew angry and slapped the minister to stop his pushing. 
At this the minister in anger wanted to rebuke him, but 
Pratap Rudra checked him saying, "Blessed art thou, to 
be touched by him. Such happiness has not been my 
share!" 

Not to speak of the people, even Jagannath himself 
wondered at the dancing of the Master, stopped his car, 
and gazed at the dance with winkless eyes. Subhadra and 



XI] CHAITANYA DANCES BEFORE JAGANNATH S CAR 139 

Balaram smiled in delight at the sight of the dance. A 
strange change came over the Master while dancing with 
all His might : all the eight spiritual phases (sdt-wik bhdb] 
manifested themselves at the same time. His hair stood 
on end, with their roots in the skin bulging out, like a 
Shimul tree pirt round with thorns. His teeth clashed 
together fearfully, as if they would be dislocated. Blood 
and sweat ran over His body. He lisped ja ja ga ga 
inarticulately. His eyes poured down tears like syringes, 
and moistened the men around. Fair was His complexion, 
at times turning into rosy, at times resembling the Mallikd 
flower. At times He stood inert, at times He rolled on the 
ground ; at times motionless like a dry wood, at other 
times prostrate on the ground and breathing faintly, to the 
alarm of His bhaktas. At times water oozed out of His 
eyes and nostrils and foam out of His mouth, as the moon 
sheds bubbles of nectar. Shuvananda, mad with passion 
for Krishna, collected and drank up that froth ; highly 
fortunate was he. 

After dancing violently for some time the Master 
wished to manifest another mood. Leaving the dance He 
bade Swarup sing. Swarup, knowing His taste, began, 
"I have met the lord of my life, 

For ivhose sake I had been withering in the fire of Cupid." 
Loudly did Swarup sing this burden, while the Master in 
delight danced tenderly. Slowly Jagannath s car moved 
on, Shachi s son dancino- before it. With eyes fixed on 
Jagannath all danced and sang. (At times) the Master 
walked behind the car with the party, of kirtan singers, 
His arms making the action of song. When Chaitanya 
lagged behind, Jagannath stopped his car ; when the 



14 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [XI 

Master walked ahead the god propelled his car slowly. 
Thus did the two urge each other on ! 

In the course of dancing another change of mood came 
over the Master : with uplifted Lcms He loudly recited 
the following stanza. (Kavya-prakash, I. canto 4 and also 
Paddvali c. 380). 

Again and again did He read the stanza, of which the 
meaning was known to Swarup only. It meant in effect 
that as the milkmaids at Kurukshetra were delighted to 
see Krishna, so was the Master gratified at the sight of 
Jagannath. Under that emotion He had the burden sung 
(by Swarup). At last Radha prays to Krishna, "You are 
the same [beloved] and I am the same [lover, as during 
your incarnation as Krishna], and yet Brindaban steals 
my heart. Appear at Brindaban again ! Here there are 
crowds and the din and bustle of elephants, horses and 
chariots ; there only flowery woodlands, the bee s mur 
mur, the cuckoo s cooing ! Here you are dressed as a 
King girt round by warriors, |;here you were a cow-boy, 
in the company of flute players ! Here I have not a drop 
of the ocean of bliss I used to taste in thy society at 
Brindaban. Take me with thee to dally at Brindaban 
again. Thus only can my heart be gratified." In the 
ardour of His devotion the Master recited the stanzas of 
the Bhdgabat, voicing Radhika s longing. But other 
people could not understand the verses ; Swarup alone 
knew their meaning but spoke not. (Afterwards) Rup 
Goswami proclaimed the sense. (Vide Bhagabat X. Ixxxii. 
35 and 31). 

In Swarup s company had the Master day and night 
enjoyed the sense of these verses in His house. During 
His dance the same emotion overcame Him ; so He recited 



XI] CHAITANYA S RAPTURE AT SIGHT OF THE IDOL 141 

the stanzas and danced gazing at Jagannath. Swarup, 
fortunate beyond expression in being absorbed body and 
soul in the Master, sang, while the Master drank in his 
music in abstraction. Under passion s sway the Master 
sat down and with bowed head traced letters on the 
ground with His finger. Lest His finger should be hurt, 
Swarup prevented Him. Swarup s song was in exact 
accord with the Master s emotion ; he gave a vocal shape 
to every mood of the Master s heart. 

As He gazed at Jagannath s lotus-like face, flashing 
in the sunlight, his beautiful eyes, his perfumes, robes, 
garlands and ornaments, the ocean of joy surged up in the 
Master s heart, a wild storm swept through Him ; 
rapture and wildness raised a tumult, the different 
emotions fought in Him like hostile armies. A passion 
rose, a passion subsided, it came to terms with another, 
and at last His normal mood of spirituality (sdtwik) 
asserted itself. The Master s body was a pure hill of 
gold ; His emotion a tree with every flower in bloom. 
The sight drew the hearts of all ; with the nectar of love 
He moistened their minds. All the servitors of Jagannath, 
all the courtiers of the king, the pilgrims, and the 
residents of Puri, all marvelled at the Master s dance and 
rapture, and all felt devotion to Krishna. In enthusiasm 
they danced, sang, and set up a din. The pilgrims by 
joining the dance increased the happiness fourfold. 
Jagannath hiniself moved on slowly to witness the 
Master s dance. 

Thus dancing, the Master advanced to where Pratap 
Rudra stood, and was about to fall down when the king 
held Him up. On seeing him the Master recovered com 
posure and cried shame on Himself for having touched a 



142 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [XI 

King, a worldling, adding, "In his rapture Nityananda 
has ceased to be heedful [of me]. Kashishwar, Govinda 
and others, too, are at a distance." True, the Master had 
been pleased to see Pratap Rudra numbly serving Jagan- 
nath as a sweeper, and had meant to meet the king, yet 
He professed anger in order to warn His followers against 
consorting with worldly-minded men. The king grieved 
at the Master s speech, but Sarvabhauma told him not to 
lose heart, "The Master is pleased with you ; He is only 
instructing His followers by means of you. I shall seize 
a proper time for entreating Him. You will then go and 
meet Him." 

Then the Master walked round the car, and standing 
behind it pushed it with His head. At His push the car 
ran on with a clatter ; the people around shouted Harif 
Hari! Next the Master led His followers away to dance 
before the cars of Subhadra and Balaram, and when that 
was done He returned to dance before Jagannath s car. 
So the cars reached Balgandi, where they stopped, and 
Jagannath looked on both sides : on the left were the 
abodes of Brahmans in cocoanut groves, on the right a 

flower garden resembling Brindaban It is the rule 

that Jagannath breakfasts here on ten million dishes. 
Every devotee of Jagannath, whatever his position, offers 
his best food to the god. The king, his wives, ministers 
and courtiers, all citizens of Puri, great and small, 
the pilgrims from various lands, the people of the pro 
vince, all offered him their respective bhog. No order 
was observed, each deposited his offering of food in front, 
behind, on the two sides of the god, or in the garden, 
wherever he could find a spot. The crowd grew immense 
at the tinu- of the bhog, and so the Master stopped dancing 



XI] CHAITANYA RESTS IN GUNDICHA GARDEN 143 

and entered the garden, where He lay prostrate on the 
veranda of the garden house, overcome with love ; the 
exertion of dancing made Him perspire copiously and He 
enjoyed the fragrant cool wind. All the bhaktas who had 
been singing kirtan came and rested under the trees. 
[Text, canto 13.] 



ii 



CHAPTER XII 

The Hora-Panchami Procession of Lakshmi 

As the Master lay thus in the trance of love, Fratap 
Rudra entered the garden alone, casting off his royal robes 
and dressed as a [common] Vaishnav, according to the 
advice of Sarvabhauma. With folded hands he took per 
mission of every bhakta and then mustered enough courage 
to fall down clasping the Master s feet. The Master lay 
on the ground, His eyes closed in love ; the king eagerly 
nursed His feet. Pratap Rudra recited the stanzas of the 
Rdsa dance, (Bhagabat, X. xxxi. i). Infinite was the 
Master s delight as He heard the verses, and He repeatedly 
cried "Go on." When the king proceeded to the stanza 
beginning with "The nectar-like discourse of thee/ the 
Master in devotion rose up and embraced the king, 
saying "You have given me many priceless gems. I have 
nothing to give in return, save this embrace." So saying 
He read the verses over and over again, both quivering 
and showering tears. 

"The nectar-like discourse of thee, O darling! is life 
to -the afflicted, the theme of praise to sages, and the 
antidote to sin. The hearing of it does good and gives 
peace. Blessed are they who spread it far and wide on 
earth, for they are truly givers of much alms." (Bhaga- 
bat, X. xxxi. 9). 

Crying the giver of much alms, the Master embraced 
the king, not knowing now who he was. The king s 
lowly service had won for him the Master s pity, who now 



XII] CHAITANYA EMBRACES PRATAP RUDRA 145 

made him a gift of His grace without any inquiry. Lo ! 
the power of Chaitanya s grace, which bears fruit without 
questioning. The Master asked, "Who art thou, my 
benefactor, that hast pcwred by surprise into my ears the 
nectar of Krishna s deeds?" The king replied, "I am 
the slave of thy slaves. My only desire is that you may 
make me the servant of your servants." Then the Master 
revealed His godhead to the king, forbidding him to tell 
it to anybody. Though knowing everything at heart, He 
outwardly showed as if He did not know that the visitor 
was a king. The bhaktas extolled the king for his good 
fortune. Pratap Rudra took leave after prostrating him 
self, and then with folded palms bowed to all the bhaktas, 
and went away. At noon the Master with His followers 
breakfasted on the plentiful prasdd sent by the king by 
the hands of Vaninath, Sarvabhauma and Ramananda. 
The prasdd from the Balgandi bhog was excellent and of 
infinite variety, but none of them was cooked food. 
[Details of the dishes.] 

Knowing the fatigue of the kirtan singers, Chaitanya 
resolved to feast them. He seated them in rows and 
began to serve the food Himself. Each man was given 
one leaf and ten cups of Key a leaves. Swarup informed 
Him that as none would dine before the Master, He ought 
to sit down to meal. Then the Master sat down with His 
circle and fed all to their fill. The excess of prasdd that 
was left over sufficed to feed a thousand men. Govinda, 
at the Master s bidding, brought in beggars to eat this 
food. At the sight of the beggars feast the Master taught 
them to chant Hari s name, and they were carried away 
on the stream of love as they shouted Hari-boL 

Now came the time for dragging the car of Jagannath. 



146 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [XII 

The Bengal athletes pulled at the rope, but the car did 
not move. So they gave up the work in despair. The 
king and his Court hastened thither in alarm. He set 
the wrestlers to draw the car ancv applied his own hand 
to it ; but still the car did not move. Then powerful 
elephants were harnessed to the car, but it did not ad 
vance a step in spite of their utmost efforts. Hearing this 
the Master arrived with His followers and gazed at the 
furious elephants pulling at the car. The elephants 
shrieked at the blows of the goad, but the car stirred not, 
and the people lamented. 

Then the Master took away the elephants, gave the 
ropes to His followers, and Himself pushed the car from 
behind with His head. The car sped along rattling. The 
bhaktas merely held the ropes ; they had not really to 
pull, as the car advanced of itself. In delight the people 
shouted "Glory! Glory to Jagannath !" No other sound 
was heard. In a twinkle the car reached the gate of the 
Gundicha garden, the people marvelling at the power of 
Chaitanya. They set up a roar of "Glory to Gaur- 
chandra ! Glory to Krishna-Chaitanya !" At the sight 
of the Master s might, Pratap Rudra and his courtiers 
swelled with enthusiasm. Then the servitors performed 
the ceremony of dismounting Jagannath from his car and 
conveying him to the Gundicha people. The three images 
were placed on their thrones, and the ceremony of the 
gods* bath and dinner commenced. The ^Master began a 
joyous dance and kirtan in the courtyard in delight. His 
love welled out in blissfulness, and the sight of it swept 
away the beholders in a torrent of love. In the evening 
He witnessed the adoration with lamps, and came to the 
Ai-totd garden for reposing. Adwaita and eight other 



XII] WATER-SPORT IN INDRADYUMNA^S TANK 147 

leading followers invited Him for nine days. Among the 
rest as many got a chance of entertaining Him as there 
were days in the "four months," while the rank and file 
of His followers had n day free for each individually ; so 
two or three of them combined to give Him a joint enter 
tainment on one day. 

- Thus did the Master play at dining out. After His 

morning bath He visited Jagannath, where He danced and 

sang with His followers, now bidding Adwaita dance, now 

Nityananda, Haridas, Achyutananda, Vakreshwar or some 

other bhakta. Thrice in the day did He sing kirtan in the 

Gundicha garden, imagining that Krishna had come to 

Brindaban and that the period of separation was over. 

Cherishing in His heart the idea that Krishna was then 

dallying with Radha there, He remained absorbed in that 

emotion (of gratification), acting in many gardens the feats 

of Krishna at Brindaban, disporting in the tank of Indra- 

dyumna, splashing His bhaktas with water, while they 

splashed Him from all sides, now forming one circle, now 

many, and clapping their hands while croaking like frogs. 

Sometimes a pair of them wrestled in the water, the 

Master looking on to see who would win. Adwaita and 

Nityananda tried to overwhelm each other with water ; 

the former was beaten and vented his feelings in abuse. 

Vidyanidhi struggled with Swarup, Shribas with Gadadhar, 

Raghav Pandit with Vakreshwar, Sarvabhauma with 

Ramananda Ray. The gravity of the last two disappeared 

and they became boys again ! Seeing their excitement the 

Master smiled and said to Gopinath Acharya, "Both are 

grave scholars and venerable men, but they are acting 

like wild boys. Stop them." Gopinath replied, "When 

the ocean of your grace surges up, a single drop of it can 



CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [XII 

easily drown tall mountains like Meru and Mandar, what 

to speak of these two small stones? It is thy grace only 
that has given the nectar of lild to one whose life was 
formerly spent in chewing the dvy husks of logical dis 
putation." Laughing, the Master brought Adwaita there 
and made him lie on his back on the water like the Shesha 
serpent, while He Himself reclined on him (like Vtehnu). 
Thus did He act the lild of Vishnu reposing on the serpent. 
Adwaita, putting forth his strength, began to float on the 
water bearing the Master. 

After disporting in the water for some time He re 
turned with His followers to the Ai-totd. At the Acharya s 
house He dined with His leading followers. The prasdd 
brought by Vaninath served to feed the other followers. 
In the evening He visited the god and danced before him, 

and at night returned to the garden to sleep 

In the garden, in company with His bhaktas He 
sported as at Brindaban. The trees and creepers blos 
somed at His sight, the bee and the black-bird sang, the 
zephyr blew. Under each tree He danced, Vasudev Datta 
alone singing. Each (bhakta) sang under a different tree ; 
Chaitanya alone danced in supreme rapture. Then He 
bade Vakreshwar dance, while He sang. Swarup and 
other kirtanids joined the Master in singing, forgetful of 
all else in the vehemence of their love. 

After performing this woodland sport, He went to 
the Narendra tank for water-sport. Thenpe He returned 
to the garden and dined out with His bhaktas. For the 
nine days that Jagannath remained at Gundicha, such was 
the Blaster s life. He lodged in the large flower garden 
named Jagannath-vallabh. 

When the time came for the ceremony of Hard- 



XII] WHY JAGANNATH VISITS GUNDICHA GARDEN 149 

Panchami, the king spoke earnestly to Kashi Mishra, 
"To-morrow is Hora-Panchami, the day of Lakshmi s 
triumph. Let the celebration be of unprecedented splen 
dour, so that the Ma^er may be filled with wonder. Let 
extraordinary arrangements be made for the ceremony. 
Let coloured cloths, bells, fly-whiskers and umbrellas be 
brought out of my wardrobe as well as Jagannath s, and 
let the flagstaff, flag, bell, &c. be decorated. Let 
(Lakshmi s) litter be set forth with varied music and 
dance*. The expenditure should be double (the ordinary), 
so that the ceremony may eclipse the Car festival. Act so 
that the Master may be drawn to come out with His 
followers to behold it." 

Next morning the Master with His party visited 
Jagannath at Gundicha, and then returned to the temple 
eager to behold the Hora-Panchami festival. Kashi 
Mishra with great honour seated the Master and His party 
in a good position. Chaitanya wished to hear about a 
particular emotion and smilingly asked Swarup, "Though 
Jagannath lives at Dwaraka, manifesting his natural be- 
pretext of a ride in his car. From- the temple he goes to 
visit Brindaban. The parks here resemble Brindaban ; he 
. longs to see them therefore, and leaves his temple on the 
pretext of a ride in his car. From the temple he goes to 
Gundicha and there disports day and night in the many 
gardens. But why does he not take Lakshmi with him?" 
Swarup answered, "Listen, Master, to the reason. 
Lakshmi has no access to Brindaban, as Krishna s play 
mates there are milk-maids. So none but the latter can 
ravish Krishna s heart." The Master continued, "Krishna 
sets out on the plea of a ride. Subhadra and Baladev 
accompany him. His dalliance with the milk-maids is 



CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [XII 

done in secret in the parks, unknown to others. Krishna 
does not overt offence. Why then does Lakshmi fly into 
a rage at his journey to Gundicha?" Swarup replied, 
"Such is the nature of a loving mistress. Indifference on 
the part of her sweetheart rouses her anger." 

Just then Lakshmi arrived in an angry mood at the 
Lion Gate, riding a golden litter set with many ei:is, 
and accompanied by rows of men bearing flags, fly- 
whiskers, umbrellas and standards, with many musicians, 
and preceded by the dedicated dancing-girls (devddsi). A 
hundred richly dressed hand-maids bearing betel-leaf 
caskets, goglets of water, fans and fly-whiskers, and much 
display of wealth and retinue came in her train. Her 
maids chained the chief servitors of Jagannath and dragged 
them to her feet, punishing them like thieves and fining 
them heavily. She beat them till they almost fainted, and 
abused them in feigned anger. The Master s followers 
laughed hiding their faces with their hands as they beheld 
the forwardness of Lakshmi and her maids. [Swarup 
gave a long explanation of Lakshmi s mood, with illustra 
tive quotations from Sanskrit treatises on love]. 

At his words Shribas laughed and said "Hark you, 
Damodar ! behold the vast wealth of my Lakshmi. Brinda- 
ban can boast of only flowers, leaves, hills, peacock 
plumes, and the Gunchhd fruit. And yet Jagannath has 
gone to visit Brindaban ! Lakshmi might naturally sus 
pect Krishna s motive in leaving such wealth for poor 
Brindaban." As he was laughing Lakshmi turned to 
chastise him, saying "Behold, your god has left such 
splendour and gone to the Gundicha garden for the sake 
of flowers, leaves and fruits ! Why does the chief of the 
wise act thus? Bring your lord before Lakshmi!" So 



XII] CHAITANYA INSPIRED WITH RADHA^S PASSION 151 

saying, Lakshmi s handmaids brought the Master s attend 
ants tied with their waist-bands, made them bow at her 
mercy. They beat (Jagannath s) car with their sticks, 
and treated Jagannatk s officers like thieves, until they 
cried with folded hands, "To-morrow shall we produce 
Jagannath before you." Then Lakshmi was pacified and 

returned to her abode [Swarup again shows Lakshmi s 

conduct as natural in a true lover]. 

The Master listened with absorption to his exposition 
of the pure emotion of Radha, and began to dance in 
rapture while Swarup sang. "Sing on! Sing on!" He 
cried with ears on the alert. His enthusiasm welled forth 
on hearing the song of the love-making at Brindaban, and 
He flooded the village of Puri with devotion. Lakshmi 
went back to her own place in time, but the Master 
danced on till the third quarter of the day. The four 
parties grew tired with singing, but His ardour became 
doubly intense. Under the influence of Radha s love He 
became an image of the passion. Nityananda seeing Him 
from afar prayed to Him, but came not near in consi 
deration of His ecstasy. None but Nityananda could hold 
the Master [and force Him to stop dancing]. His ecstasy 
did not cease, and the kirtan therefore had to continue. 
So, Swarup by gesture informed Him how the party was 
exhausted. At this the Master came to Himself, and 
returned to the garden. After taking rest He had His 
midday bath, #nd dined pleasantly with His party on the 
many dishes sent from Jagannath s and Lakshmi s prasdd. 
In the evening He bathed again and visited Jagannath, 
dancing and singing before the god. 

He sported in the Narendra tank with His bhaktas, 
and held a picnic in the garden. Thus He spent eight 



*52 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [XII 

days, after which came the return journey of Jagannath 
in his car to his temple, at which the Master in supreme 

delight danced and sang as during the outward ride 

When Jagannath again occupied his throne, the 
Master returned with His followers to His quarters. 
[Text, canto 14.] 



CHAPTER XIII 



The Dinner at Sarvabhauma s House 

, -Thus did the Master live at the Nilachal with His 
followers, engaged in dancing, singing, and delight. In 
the first year (of His stay) He used to visit Jagannath to 
whom He bowed, hymned, danced and sang. When the 
god s Upala-bhog was offered, He issued from the temple 
and took Haridas home with Himself, and there chanted 

Hari s name. 

Adwaita arriving there adored the Master, washed 
His feet with perfumed water, rubbed Him all over with 
fragrant sandal-paste, placed a garland round His neck 
and the tufted Tulsi flower on His head, prostrated him 
self at the Master s feet, and adored Him with folded 
palms. The Master adored the Acharya with the flowers 
and Tulsi leaves left over on the ritual tray, and recited 
the verse "I bow to thee, that art what thou art!" Then 
He made a playful sound with His lips and had a laugh 
at the Acharya. Thus did the two honour each other. 

The Acharya repeatedly asked the Master to dinner. * 

The Master with His party dined at the houses of the 
different bhaktas on successive days. Thus did they 
spend four months in His company, witnessing all the 
festivals of Jagannath. 

On Krishna s Nativity Day took place the ceremony 
of Nanda s grand festival, at which the Master with His 
bhaktas personated the cowherds [of Mathura]. On His 
own shoulders did He carrv the loads of milk and curds 



J 54 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [XIII 

to the place of the ceremony, shouting Hari s name. 
Kanai Khuntia played the rdle of Nanda and Jagannath 
Mahanti that of the queen of Braja. With Pratap Rudra 
himself, Kashi Mishra, Sarvabhaunia, and the Parichhd 
(minister) Tulsi, the Master danced and sported, spattering 
all their bodies with milk, curds and yellow liquid. 
Adwaita said, "Bear with me when I tell the truth. I 
shall know you for a cowherd only if you can brandish 
a staff !" At this the Master began to play with the staff. 
He tossed it in the air and caught it repeatedly as it fell. 
He swung it round His head, behind, before, on the two 
sides, and between the legs, spectators laughing. The 
stick circled round and round like a lathe, all men 
wondering at the sight. Similarly Nityananda too played 
with his staff. Who can fathom the deep cowherd mood 
of these two ? At the king s command, Tulsi Parichha 
brought out a costly cloth, once worn by Jagannath, and 
tied it round the Master s head. [Other clothes] were 
presented to the Acharya and other followers of the 
Master. Kanai Khuntia and Jagannath Mahanti, in their 
enthusiasm, gave away all the wealth of their houses. 
At this the Master was greatly delighted, and bowed to 
^them as his parents (i.e., as Nanda and his wife, the foster- 
parents of Krishna). In deep spiritual exaltation did He 
return to His quarters. Thus did Chaitanya play. 

On the Bijaya-dashami, the day of the storming of 
Lanka, the Master with His followers played the part of 
the monkey army [of Ram]. Transported by the spirit 
of Hanuman, He seized a branch and broke it off as if it 
were the citadel of Lanka, shouting in a rage, "Where art 
thou, Ravan ! Thou hast kidnapped the Mother of the 
World. Wretch ! I shall destroy thee with thy kith and 



XIII] MASTER S CHARGE TO HIS APOSTLES 155 

kin." The people marvelled at His passion and exclaimed 
"Glory ! glory !" So, too, did He witness the celebration 
of Rdsa-ydtrd, Dipdvali and Utthdn-divddashi. One day 
He and Nityananda farmed a plan in secret, the nature of 
which His followers afterwards guessed only from the 
result. Calling all His bhaklas together, He said, "Return 
y all to Bengal. Come here every year and visit the 
Gundicha garden with me." On Adwaita Acharya he 
honourably laid His command, "Teach the lesson of faith 
in Krishna to all men, down to the Chandals." 
Nityananda was bidden, "Go to Bengal. Freely proclaim 
the gospel of devotion and love. Ramdas, Gadadhar and 
some others will assist you. Now and then I shall be with 
you, and standing unseen shall witness your dancing." 
Embracing Shribas Pandit, He clung to his neck and said 
tenderly, "In the kirtan at your house I shall always 
dance. You alone of all men will be able to see me. 
Give my mother this cloth and all this prasdd bow to 
her and beg her pardon for all my faults. I have turned 
a monk leaving her service ; this has been an act of 
irreligion and not of religion on my part. I am bound by 
her love ; service to her is my religion. It has been 
madness on my part to quit it. Tell her to have pity on 
me, as No mother finds fault with a crazy child . What 
need have I of monachism ? Love is wealth to me ; I must 
have gone out of my mind when I turned sannyasi. At 
her commancj I am staying at the Nilachal. I shall 
occasionally go home to see her. Daily do I go and 
behold her feet ; she feels a delighted sensation but does 
not admit it as true. One day [for instance] she cooked 
rice, five or six vegetable soups, sdk, mochdghanta, fried 
patal, nim leaves, lemon, bits of ginger, curds, milk, and 



156 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [XIII 

sugar and cream, and offered these many dishes to 
Saligrdm. Taking up the prasdd she lamented, All these 
were Nimai s favourite dishes. He is not here. Who 
thing. On seeing the empty dish v- she wiped her tears 
[at her grief]. So I went there quickly and ate up every 
thing. On seeing the empty dish she wiped her tears 
and asked, Who has eaten the rice and soups? Why ; s 
the dish empty? Has the young Gopal (idol) eaten them 
up ? Or has an illusion seized my mind ? Has some 
animal came in and devoured them? Or did I by mistake 
serve no food on the plate at all ? So thinking she looked 
again at the cooking-pots and found them full, to her 
wonder and suspicion [of defilement by some beast or 
demon]. She then called Ishan, had the place cleaned, 
and offered rice to the god Gopal afresh. Thus, whenever 
she cooks nice dishes, she weeps in eager desire to feed 
me on them. Her affection compels me to eat (the food 
there) ; and she is pleased at heart, though outwardly she 
is disconsolate. This happened on the last Bijayd-dashami 
day. Say unto her and make her believe." Though 
overcome in making this speech, the Master composed 
Himself in order to bid farewell to the bhaktas. 

To Raghav Pandit He spoke feelingly, "Your pure 
devotion has made me your servant. Hear, all ye, the 
story of his serving Krishna in the most pious and 
excellent manner. Let me speak of one thing only, 
namely his offering of cocoanut as bhog.^ In his place 
cocoanut sells at five gandds [i.e., quarter anna each]. 
Though his orchards have hundreds of cocoanut palms 
yielding lakhs of fruits, yet wherever he hears of very 
sweet cocoanuts, he procures them at the price of four 
annas for one, even from 20 miles distance. Every day 



XIII] RA e GHAV S SUPREME DEVOTION TO KRISHNA 157 

he strips the fibre off five or six fruits and cools them in 
water. Then at bhog he smoothes them and making small 
holes at the top offers the fruits to Krishna, who drinks 
the milk within, and leaves the fruits empty or full of 
liquid at different times. When the fruit is empty of 
milk, the Pandit rejoices, cracks the nut and spreading 
th kernel on a hundred dishes, offers them to Krishna, 
while he meditates outside (the god s dining room). 
Krishna eats the offering, and leaves the dishes bare, or 
fills them again with the kernel. At this the Pandit s 
devotion grows and he swims in the ocean of love. 

One day his servant brought ten cleaned cocoanuts 
to be offered to the god ; but while waiting outside the 
<loor he happened to touch the wall above with his hand 
and then placed the same hand on the fruits. On seeing 
this the Pandit threw away the fruits as defiled and un 
worthy of offering to the god, because the dust raised by 
the feet of people entering at the door sticks to the wall 
above. By such pure loving service he has surpassed the 

world Similarly whenever he hears of any good fruit 

like plantain, mango, or jack, in far off villages, he care 
fully buys them dear, washes, cleans, and offers them to 
the god. So, too, vegetables, roots, fruits, chird, hurum, 
confects, cakes, sweet drinks, condensed milk, kdshandi, 
pickles, scents, cloth, ornaments, and the pick of all 
things he offers cleanly to the god. His loving service is 
unmatched an$ soothes the eyes of all who behold it." 

So saying the Master embraced Raghav, and showed 
due respect to the other bhaktas. To Shivananda Sen he 
spoke in terms of honour, "Do you look after Vasudev 
Datta, who is so charitable that every day he spends all 
his day s earnings, saving nothing. But he is a house- 



158 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [XIII 

holder and ought to save, for without saving a man cannot 
support his kinsmen. You have the charge of the income 
and expenditure of his house. In your capacity as head 
man arrange (his affairs properly). -Come every year with 
all the bhaktas to the Gundicha garden, taking care of 
them." 

To the pilgrims from the Kulin village He sa?.d, 
"Come here every year with striped silk cloth (for 
Jagannath). Gunaraj Khan wrote the Shri Krishna Vijay, 
one devotional sentence of which, Nanda s darling 
Krishna is the lord of my life, has made me the bondsman 
of his line. Not to speak of you, even a dog of your 
village is dear to me, above all others." 

At this Satyaraj Khan and Ramananda too entreated 
the Master, "I am a worldly man ; how can I practise 
devotion? I beg thee to lay commands on me." The 
Master replied, "Ever serve Krishna, ever serve Vaishnavs, 
ever sing Krishna s name." Satyaraj asked, "How shall 
I know a Vaishnav ? Tell me of his general character 
istics." The Master answered, "Whosoever utters 
Krishna s name even once is to be honoured above all 

other men Krishna s name alone washes away all sins 

and kindles many forms of faith. It does not make a man 
wait for religious initiation or priestly ministration, but 
as soon as the word is formed on the tongue, it redeems 
all men down to the Chandal caste. Along with that, 
Krishna s name destroys our bondage to the world and 
draws the heart to the love of Krishna. Vide Shridhar 
Swami s stanza in the Paddvali, xviii. Therefore, he who 
utters Krishna s name alone is truly a Vaishnav. Honour 
him as such." 

Of the pilgrims from Khanda the leaders were 



XIII] MUKUNDA S INTENSE LOVE FOR KRISHNA 159 

Mukunda-das, Raghunandan, and Narahari. To the first, 
Shachi s son spoke thus, "Tell me truly whether you are 
the father and Raghunandan your son, or the converse? 
Dispel my doubt." Mukunda replied, "I verily believe 
that Raghunandan is my father and I his son, because our 
devotion to Krishna has been imbibed from him." The 
delighted Master broke out, "True are thy words. He 
who gives us faith in Krishna is our guru." Bliss it is to 
the IVJaster to unfold the greatness of bhaktas, and He 
holds forth on the subject through five mouths as it were. 
Turning to His followers He said, "Hark ye about 
Mukunda s faith. It is a pure and deep love, like un 
alloyed gold. Outwardly he is a physician royal and 
serves his master. But who can fathom his heart s 
devotion ? One day the Musalman king was talking with 
him about medicine, on a high dais, when a servant held 
a peacock- feather fan over the Nawab s head. At the 
sight (of Krishna s crest), Mukunda in a rapture of devo 
tion tumbled down from the height. The Nawab, think 
ing that he was overcome by death, dismounted, restored 
him to his senses, and asked where he had been hurt. 
Mukunda replied that he did not feel much pain. Then 
to the Nawab s query about the cause of his fall, he replied 
that he was subject to epilepsy. The Nawab was very 
wise, he discerned the real reason and thenceforth regarded 
Mukunda as a great devotee." 

Raghunandan served at Krishna s temple, in front of 
which there was a tank with a Kadamba tree blooming 
all the year round on its ghat. Daily two flowers blossom 
ed there (as if) derived from Krishna. The Master 
continued, turning to Mukunda, "Your business is to earn 
money, Raghunandan s to serve Krishna. His heart has 

12 



100 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [XIII 

no other desire. Let Narahari remain with my bhaktas. 
Do you three ever perform these duties respectively." 

Graciously He addressed the two brothers, Sarva- 
bhauma and Vidya-vachaspati, "Krishna is at present 
manifest in the form of wood and water, the sight and 
ablution of which saves mankind. As the wooden god 
he lives at Puri, while the deity as water is the nv-er 
Bhagirathi. Let Sarvabhauma worship the wooden god 
and Vachaspati the water-deity.* 

Embracing Murari Gupta, the Master extolled his 
sincere devotion thus, "Listen, O ye bhaktas ! I had for 
merly often tempted him saying, Passing sweet is the 
lad of Braja s lord, O Gupta ! Krishna is God himself, in 
all His fulness, the refuge of all. Love is pure, clean, the 
source of all passions (ras), the ocean in which all virtues 
are stored like gems. He is wise, expert, sedate, the chief 
of the masters of emotions. Sweet is his character, sweet 
is his fascination ; his sports are marked by cleverness and 
skill. Worship that Krishna, seek refuge in him. The 
heart cannot accept any other object of adoration. His 
respect for me somewhat influenced him and he replied 
that he was my servant, ready to do my bidding, without 
free will. Going home, he was restless at the thought of 
giving up his idol Raghunath, and cried, How can I quit 
the feet of Raghunath? Kill me to-night, O Lord ! So he 
spent the whole night watching and weeping, sore at heart. 
In the morning he returned, clasped my f feet and cried, 
I have sold my head at Raghunath s feet, and cannot 
draw it away now, so great would be the pain of it. I 
cannot leave Raghunath s feet, and on the other hand thy 
command will be disobeyed. I have no help for it. Take 
pity, therefore, on me, O Kind One ; and let me die before 



XIII] VAISHNAV SACRIFICES HIMSELF FOR MANKIND l6l 

thee, so that the conflict within me may be ended.* At 
these words I rejoiced exceedingly, raised and embraced 
him, saying, Excellent ! Excellent ! firm is your devotion, 
O Gupta, as my wottls have not shaken your purpose. 
It is the devotion of servants of this kind that ought to be 
offered at the Lord s feet, when the Lord draws away His 
fQetf the devotee does not let go his grasp. That I urged 
you repeatedly was only to test this your earnest faith. 
You are Hanuman himself, the servant of Ram. Why 
then should you leave his lotus feet ? This is that Murari 
Gupta [addressing the other bhaktas], the very life of me. 
My heart breaks to see his meekness of spirit. " 

Then He embraced Vasudev, and dwelt on his merits 
with a thousand tongues. The Datta, blushing to hear 
his own praise, begged at the Master s feet, "Thou hast 
come down to deliver the world. Grant one prayer of 
mine. It can be easily granted, if thou wiliest, O Gracious 
One ! My heart breaks to see the sorrows of mankind. 
Lay thou the sins of the rest of mankind on my head ; 
let me suffer in hell under the load of their sins, so that, 
Master, thou mayest remove the earthly pangs [i.e., birth 
on earth] of all other beings." These words melted the 
Master s heart. Trembling and weeping He answered in 
broken accents, "This request is no surprise, coming from 
you who are a Prahlad. Full is Krishna s grace on you. 
Krishna brings to fruition whatever his servants ask for ; 
he has no other work than to gratify his servants wishes. 
You have prayed for the salvation of all the creatures of 
the universe. (I say) they will all be delivered, without 
suffering for their sins. The task is not too much for 
Krishna, who is omnipotent. Why should he make you 
(alone) undergo the due chastisement for (their) sins? 



l62 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [XIII 

Those whose good you desire are Vaishnavs, all of whose 
sins are removed by Krishna. Witness the Brahma 
Samhitd, v. 60. 

"At your mere wishing, the universe will be redeemed. 
It is no labour for Krishna to deliver all men. Ten 
million figs (dumbur) can grow on one tree ; similarly ten 
million universes float in the water of the Pure. The tree 
knows not the loss, if a fruit drops and perishes. So, too, 
if one universe is set free [from re-birth], Krishna does 
not regard it even as a trifling loss. Endless are Krishna s 
possessions. Vaikuntha and other places belong to him. 
They are girt round by the ocean of the Cause of Creation. 
Countless illusive universes float in that ocean, just as a 
pot of oil-seeds may float in the ditch round a city. The 
loss of one seed-grain out of it matters nothing. So, too, 
Krishna does not feel the loss if one universe is gone. 
Even if illusion and all the universes subject to it perish, 
Krishna does not mind the loss. The illusion [-created 
world] is no more to Krishna than a she-goat is to the 
owner of ten millions of cows giving inexhaustible milk. 
Vide Bhagabat, X. Ixxxvii, 10." 

In such terms did the Master speak of the different 
merits of all His followers, embrace and give them leave. 
They wept at parting from Him, while His mind, too, was 
saddened. Gadadhar Pandit stayed with Him and was 
settled by Him at Jaleswar [in Jagannath-Puri]. The 
Puri, Jagadananda, Swarup Damodar, Da f modar Pandit, 
Govinda, and Kashishwar, these lived with the Master at 
Puri. He visited Jagannath every morning. 

One day vSarvabhauma solicited Him with folded 
palms thus, "Now that all the Vaishnavs have returned 
to Bengal, I have got an opportunity of entertaining you. 



XIII] MASTER A GUEST AT SARVABHAUMA S HOUSE 163 

Be pleased to be a guest at my house for a month." The 
Master replied, "It is opposed to my rules of duty. I 
can t do it." Sarvabhauma persisted, "L,et it be for 
twenty days only." feut the Master objected, No, that 
too is opposed to the rules of a sannyasi." Sarvabhauma 
came down to fifteen days, but the Master insisted on 
dining with him for one day only. Then Sarvabhauma, 
clasping His feet, begged for ten days out of which the 
Master gradually reduced five, and accepted the invitation 
for five days only. Then Sarvabhauma made another 
prayer, saying, "There are ten monks with you, out of 
whom the Puri will dine with me for five days, as I told 
you before. Damodar Swarup, my friend, will go to my 
house with you and at times alone. The other eight will 
be my guests dining singly for two days each. Thus a 
month is filled up with engagements. I fear lest I should 
fail to show due hospitality if so many monks come to me 
together. You, too, will visit my house with your shadow, 
and sometimes in the company of Swarup Damodar." 
Glad of the Master s nod [of assent] he invited Him that 
very day. The Bhattacharya s wife was called Shdthi s 
mother ; she was greatly devoted to the Master and a very 
mother in tenderness. [The cooking, the courses, and the 
dinner described in great detail]. 

The Master said, "It is impossible to eat so much 
rice" [viz., three maunds]. The Bhatta replied, "I know 
what is a sufficient quantity for you. At Puri you [as 
Jagannath] eat bhog 52 times a day, and the quantity for 
each time is hundreds of loads. At Dwaraka you [as King 
Krishna dine daily] at the houses of your 16,000 queens, 
1 8 mothers, and the Yadav clan. At Brindaban you 
dine twice daily at the houses of your kinsmen and cow- 



164 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [XIII 

herd comrades. At the Govardhan sacrifice heaps of rice 
were brought for you, in comparison with which my dishes 
form less than a mouthful. You are God indeed. I am 
a wretched little creature. Consent to take only a little 
mouthful of food at my house." Smiling, the Master sat 
down, the Bhatta serving Him with the prasdd of 
Jagannath. Just then there came Amogh, the son-in-law 
of Bhattacharya and the husband of Shathi. He was a 
Kulin and a fault-finder. He wished to see the fesding, 
but could not come, as Bhattacharya kept watch at the 
door stick in hand ! When Bhattacharya was busy serving 
the prasdd, Amogh came in and looking at the rice began 
to criticise, "What ! a single monk is eating this rice, on 
which ten or twelve others can feed to their fill !" Hearing 
these words Bhattacharya looked over his shoulders, and 

Amogh fled away His father-in-law cursed him and 

his mother-in-law prayed for her daughter s widowhood. 

That night Amogh spent in hiding, and next morning 
he was seized with cholera. At the news that he was 
dying, Bhattacharya exclaimed, "The gods are on my 
side, and are doing my work. A sin against God bears 
immediate fruit. Witness the Mahabharat, Bana-parva, 
ccxli. 17, and Bhagabat, X.iv.3i." 

When Gopinath Acharya went to see the Master, 
in answer to a question about Bhattacharya, he said, "The 
couple had fasted at night. Amogh is dying of cholera." 
At this the merciful Master hastened therd", laid His hand 
on Amogh s breast and said, "Pure by nature is this 
Brahman s heart, a fit place for Krishna to sit on. Why 
have you seated the Chandal Envy here, and thus defiled 
a very holy spot ? Your sins are ended by the society of 
Sarvabhauma. When sin is gone, men recite Krishna s 



XIII] CHAITANYA REVIVES A DYING MAN 165 

name. Rise, thou, Amogh ! chant Krishna s name. Soon 
will God have mercy on you." At these words, Amogh 
rose up with the cry of Krishna! Krishna! and began to 
dance in an ecstasy, of devotion, weeping, trembling, 
standing stockstill, perspiring, lisping. The Master smiled 
at seeing the surging up of his love. But he begged the 
IVf aster, holding His feet, "Gracious Master ! forgive my 
fault." With this he slapped his own cheeks till they 
were swollen. Gopinath Acharya held his hand to stop 
him, and the Master stroked his body to console him say 
ing, "You are an object of affection to me, being related 
to Sarvabhauma. Even the very servants and dogs of his 
house are dear to me above all others. Thou hast not 
offended. Chant Krishna s name." 

So saying the Master came to Sarvabhauma s house, 
who clasped His feet, but the Master embraced him, took 
His seat and began, "Amogh is a child. He cannot offend. 
Why are you fasting, why are you angry with him ? Up, 
bathe, visit Jagannath, and break your fast soon, if you 
want to please me. I shall wait here so long as you do 
not return with the prasdd (for your dinner)." Clasping 
His feet Sarvabhauma asked "Amogh was dying. Why 
did you revive him?" The Master replied, "Amogh is 
your child. The father, especially if he is the nourisher, 
does not take note of the offence of his boy. He has now 
turned Vaishnav ; his sin is gone ; do you then look 
kindly on him." The Bhatta said, "Go, Master, to see 
the god. I Shall quickly join you there after taking my 
bath." But He replied, "Gopinath ! stay here. When the 
prasdd comes to him, inform me of it." Then He went 
to see the god, while the Bhatta bathed, prayed, and dined. 

This Amogh became extremely devoted to the Master. 



1 66 CHA1TANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [XIII 

A very sedate man, he incessantly recited Krishna s name. 
[Text, canto 15.] 



CHAPTER XIV 

The Return to Bengal 

, Pratap Rudra grew sad when he heard that the Master 
wished to visit Brindaban ; calling Sarvabhauma and 
Ramananda, the king entreated them, "The Master s mind 
is inclined to go away from Puri. Try to keep Him here. 
Without Him this kingdom is of no delight to me. Try 
every means to detain the hermit." When the Master was 
taking counsel with the two about making a pilgrimage 
to Brindaban, they said, "Wait to see the Car Festival, 
and set out in the month of Kartik." In Kartik they 
urged, "It is mid- winter now. Better set out after wit 
nessing the Swinging Festival." So they plied all arts to 
put off His departure ; and gave not their consent in fear 
of parting with His company. True, the Master was a 
free agent, under nobody s control. Yet He did not depart 
against the wishes of His followers. 

In the third year of His stay, the Bengal followers 
wished to go to Puri. So, they all resorted to Adwaita 
Acharya, who set out joyfully to see the Master. Nitya- 
nanda, though charged by Him to stay in Bengal and 
preach the faith of love, nevertheless went to see Him. 
Who can understand the display of Nityananda s love? 
Who can number the bhaktas that started? Acharya 
Ratna, Vidyanidhi, Shribas, Ramai, Vasudev, Madhav, 
and Govinda (the three brothers), Raghav Pandit with 
his casket fitted up, the residents of the Kulin village with 
their striped silk cloth (for Jagannath), Narahari and 



*68 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [XIV 

Raghunandan of Khanda, in short all of the bhaktas 
went ; ^ who can count them ? Shivananda Sen made 
arrangements about the stages of the road, and guided the 
whole party in comfort, supplyirg all their needs and 
securing lodgings, as he knew all about the road to Orissa. 

That year the ladies too set out to visit the Master : 
With the Acharya went Achyuta s mother, Malini with 
Shribas Pandit, with Shivananda his wife and son named 
Chaitanya-das, with Acharya Ratna his wife. All the 
ladies took from their houses all kinds of choice things 
formerly dear to Him, to feed the Master with. Shiva 
nanda looked after their needs, provided them with lodgings 
by winning over the officers of the halting stations (ghdtidl), 
and everywhere nourished them with provisions. 

At Remuna they saw Gopinath (idol), at whose temple 
the Acharya danced and sang. Nityananda knew all the 
servitors of the god ; so they highly honoured the party. 
The night was passed there ; Nityananda distributed 
among them the twelve pots of condensed milk (bhog) 
presented by the servitors. Then Nityananda told them 
the whole story of Madhav Puri, the installation of the 
Gopal, the begging of sandal by Gopal, the stealing of 
kshir by Gopinath for the Puri. as he had heard it from 
the Master. The Vaishnavs rejoiced. 

So they wended their way to Katak. After visiting 
the Witness Gopal they spent the night there. Nityananda 
told the legend of the god, to the increased delight of the 
Vaishnavs, who pushed on to Puri, eager at heart to meet 
the Master. When they reached Athdra-nal& (Bridge of 18 
spans), Govinda, sent by the Master with two garlands to 
welcome them, met the party and placed the garlands on 
the necks of Adwaita and Abadhut Goswami, to their 



XIV] BENGAL PILGRIMS VISIT PURI AGAIN 169 

intense bliss. There the two began the sankirtan of 
Krishna and advanced dancing. Next Swarup and other 
followers, sent by the Master, received them with garlands 
at the Narendra Tank. * When they reached the Lion Gate, 
Chaitanya Himself came out to meet them all. He took 
them to see Jagannath, and then led them to His own 
lodgings. With His own hands He served them the 
prasdd brought by Vaninath and Kashi Mishra. They 
were tfien sent to take rest in the houses respectively occu 
pied by them in the previous year. 

Thus the bhaktas spent four months at Puri, joining 
in His klrtan. When the season of the Car Festival 
arrived, He took them, as on the last occasion, to wash 
the Gundicha temple, presented to Jagannath the striped 
silk brought by the people of the Kulin village, danced 
long before the car, and then returned to the garden. 
While He was reposing on the bank of the tank, Krishna- 
das, a Brahman of West Bengal (Rarh) and a disciple of 
Nityananda, was so fortunate as to pour on the Master s 
head a pot of water, to His great relief. 

The Master dined with all His followers on the numer 
ous dishes of Balgandi bhog sent to Him. As before, they 
witnessed the Car procession and the Hord-Panchami 
procession with Him. The Master was invited to dinner 
by Acharya Goswami, at which a rain storm burst. Then 
Shribas invited Him, and the Master s favourite dishes 
were cooked b^ Malini, who was His handmaid in devotion, 
but a mother in tenderness. Acharya Ratna and other 
leading disciples gave dinners to the Master at intervals. 
When the four months were over He again took counsel 
in secret with Nityananda. The Acharya whispered to the 
Master mystic hints ; he seemed to be muttering and none 



CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [XIV 

could know his meaning. Chaitanya laughed at seeing the 
gestures of his face. This the Acharya took to be a mark 
of assent, and he began to dance in delight ; none knew 
what the request and the consent ( Vere. But the Master 
embraced and dismissed him. 

Then He addressed Nityananda, "Listen, Shripad ! I 
pray thee grant this request of mine. Don t come to Puri 
every year, but stay in Bengal to carry out my will, for 
I see none else who can do the work. You alone can 
accomplish my hard undertaking." Nityananda replied, 
"I am but the body ; you are the life of it. It is admit 
ted that the body cannot live apart from life ; yet you, 
by your incomprehensible power, are performing such an 
impossibility. Well, I shall do whatever you make me. 
I am not subject to any [other] law." The Master 
embraced and gave him leave, and so to the other bhaktas 
too. 

The pilgrims from the Kulin village begged, as before, 
"Master, appoint us our duty," to which He replied, 
"Serve Vaishnavs, chant Krishna s name. These two will 
lead 3-011 soon to Krishna s feet." The men asked, "By 
what signs can a Vaishnav be known ?" The Master knew 
their real thoughts, smiled, and answered, "He is the true 
Vaishnav, who has Krishna s name ever on his lips. Adore 
his feet." Next year they put the very same question, 
and the Master by His answer taught them the gradations 
of Vaishnavs : "Know him to be the besf of Vaishnavs, 
the sight of whom brings Krishna s name on your tongue." 
Thus did He describe in succession the three grades of 
Vaishnavs : good, better, and best. 

All the Vaishnavs returned to Bengal. Vidyanidhi 
alone stayed at Puri that year. He formed a close friend- 



XIV] CHAITANYA EAGER TO VISIT BRINDABAN 171 

ship with Swarup, and the two lived together engaged in 
discourse on Krishna. He gave mantra anew to Gadadhar 
Pandit. On the day of Orani Shashthi he witnessed the 
procession, and felt contempt at beholding Jagannath wear 
ing a cloth with the size not washed out of it. That very 
night Jagannath and Balaram visited him [in his sleep] 
antf laughingly slapped his cheeks. Vidyanidhi was inly 
glad at finding his cheeks swollen 

Thus did the bhaktas of Bengal come every year and 
witness the god s procession in the Master s company. I 
shall describe only the years in which something special 
happened. Four years did the Master pass in this way : 
two years [ after He took the monastic vow ] were taken 
up by the pilgrimage to the South and the return ; the 
next two years He [ stayed at Puri ] wishing to go to 
Brindaban, but unable to stir at Ramananda s opposition. 
In the fifth year the Bengal pilgrims returned home 
immediately after witnessing the Car Festival without 
staying [ for four months ]. 

Then the Master embraced Sarvabhauma and Rama- 
nanda and said, "Very eager am I to visit Brindaban. At 
your objection I have not set out these two years. I must 
go now. Do you both consent, for I have no other refuge 
save you. In Bengal my two refuges are my mother and 
the river Ganges, both gracious ones. On my way I shall 
see them. Permit me freely to depart." 

At these words they reflected, "It is not good to oppose 
Him too much, 1 *" and then told Him, "It is now the rainy 
season, which makes travel impossible. You will certainly 
depart on the Vijayd-dashami." 

On that day the Master set out, taking with Himself 
all the prasdd of Jagannath that had been given Him, and 



172 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [XIV 

also the sandal wood and coloured threads. Taking leave 
of Jagannath, He started in the morning, and sent back 
the Oriya disciples who were following Him. With His 
men He reached Bhabanipur, RLmananda Ray coming 
behind in his litter. They spent the night there, feeding 
on the copious prasdd sent by Vaninath. Next day the 
Master reached Bhubaneshwar. At Katak He saw ,the 
[Sakshi-] Gopal image. Here a Brahman named 
Swapneshwar bade Him to dinner, while Ramananda Ray 
invited His followers. The Master lodged in the outer 
garden, and after dinner reposed under the Bakul tree. 

Ramananda Ray went to inform King Pratap Rudra, 
who hastened thither in joy and repeatedly prostrated 
himself at the Master s feet in ecstasy, and prayed to Him 
with tremour and tears. The Master, pleased with his 
faith, rose up and embraced him. The king hymned and 
bowed to Him again, his body bathed with the tears of the 
Master s grace. Ramananda composed and seated the king, 
and the Master showed His favour to him in body mind 
and speech. So great was the favour shown that He 
became famous in the world under the name of "the Saviour 
of Pratap Rudra." The royal ministers adored the Master, 
who then dismissed the king. Coming out Pratap Rudra 
sent letters to all officers in his kingdom, bidding them, 
"Build new houses in different villages [ on the route ] ; 
fill six or seven such rooms with provisions. There lodge 
the Master and wait on Him day and night with your 
rods [of authority] in hand." His ministers Harichandan 
and Mangraj he ordered, "Conduct all this business. Bring 
a new boat to the river [Mahanadi] bank. When the 
Master after bathing crosses the river, plant a staff there 
to mark the spot as a holy tirtha. I shall daily bathe there. 



XIV] CHAITANYA LEAVES KATAK FOR BENGAL 173 

May I die there. Hang out fine new cloths at the four 
gates. Ramananda, go you back to the Master." The 
king heard that the Master would resume His journey in 
the evening. So he nfcmnted his wives in covered litters 
on the backs of elephants, which were drawn up in a line 
along the route. In the evening the Master proceeded 
with His followers and bathed at the ghat of the Chitrot- 
pala [Mahanadi] river. The queens bowed when they saw 
Him, ,and at the sight of Him they were filled with 
devotion, chanting Krishna s name with tears in their 
eyes. In the three worlds has not been heard of such 
another gracious saint, whose very view from a distance 
inspires love of Krishna. 

Then He crossed over in a boat, and in the moonlit 
night reached "the four gates" (chatur dwdr). Here He 
passed the night, and next morning bathed and ate the 
mahd-prasdd of Jagannath, which the Parichha used to send 
Him daily in huge quantities at the king s command by 
means of 9. host of servants. 

Then the Master wended His way, served by Rama 
nanda, Mangraj, and Hari Chandan, the three [officers 
of the king]. He was accompanied by the Puri Goswami, 
Swarup Damodar, Jagadananda, Mukunda, Govinda, 
Kashishwar, Haridas Thakur, Vakreshwar Pandit, 
Gopinath Acharya, Damodar Pandit, Ramai, Nandai and 
many other bhaktas, of whom I have named the chief 
only, for who can count them all ? When Gadadhar Pandit 
followed Him, the Master forbade him to quit the seat 
of his monastic devotions. The Pandit pleaded, "Where 
you are, there is my Puri. Let my seat of monachism 
go to wrack and ruin." The Master said, "Stay here, 
worshipping Gopinath ;" but the Pandit insisted, "The 



174 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [XIV 

sight of thy feet is worth ten million worship of gods." 
The Master argued, "If you give up the worship, mine 
will be the sin. Stay here and worship, if you want to 
please me." The Pandit answered, "Let the entire sin 
rest on me. I shall go alone, and not in your company. 
I am going [to Nadia] to see the Mother, and not to bear 
you company. I am ready to bear the sin of quitting the 
worship I had vowed to perform." So saying the Pandit 
proceeded alone. At Katak the Master called him. The 
Pandit s devotion to Chaitanya passes comprehension : 
he gave up the vowed worship of Krishna as lightly as a 
straw. The Master was inly pleased at his conduct, but 
in loving anger He told him, holding his hand, "Your 
object of quitting your promised worship has been fulfilled, 
as you have already arrived far [from the temple of your 
god at Puri]. By wishing to stay with me, you are seeking 
your (selfish) pleasure. I grieve to see you losing both 
your dharmas (duties). If you wish to make me happy, 
return to Puri. I shall swear an oath, if you insist any 
further." So saying the Master embarked, while the 
Pandit swooned away on the bank. He bade Sarvabhauma 
lead the Pandit away. Sarvabhauma said, "Get up ! 
such is the Master s play. You know how Krishna broke 
his own vow to keep the vow of his adorer Bhishma. Vide 
Bhdgabat, I. ix. 34. Similarly the Master has endured 
separation from you in order to keep your vow sacred." 
So saying he consoled Gadadhar, and the trvo returned full 
of grief to Puri. For His sake His bhaktas renounced their 
religious and earthly duties, but the Master could not bear 
that they should sin thus. 

At Jajpur He dismissed the two royal ministers who 
had been escorting Him, after talking day and night about 



XIV] MUSLIM GOVERNOR EAGER TO SEE CHAITANYA 1 75 

Krishna. At every village (on the way) the royal officers, 
under orders, entertained the Master with various things 
in the newly built houses. So faring forth He reached 
Remuna,* where He dismissed Ramananda Ray. The Ray 
fell down on the ground in a dead faint ; the Master took 
him up in His arms and wept. 

Then He reached the boundary of the Odhra country, 
where the royal officer met Him, tended Him for three or 
four days, and told Him about the path in front, Before 
you lies the land of a wine-bibing Muslim king, through 
fear of whom none can travel on the road. His territory 
extends to Pichhalda. None dares cross the river in awe 
of him. Stay here for some days, while we negotiate with 
him to secure a safe voyage for you." Just then an Oriya f 
servant of the Muslim had visited Katak in disguise. This 
Hindu spy, witnessing the wonderful deeds of the Master, 
reported to his king, "A monk has come from Jagannath, 
with many pious persons in his train. They sing of Krishna 
incessantly, laughing, dancing, singing, weeping. The 
people flocked in lakhs to see Him, but after once seeing 
Him they could not return home, as they became almost 
mad, chanting Krishna s name, dancing, weeping and 
rolling on the ground. He cannot be described in words, 
but has to be seen, to be understood fully. His power 
shows that He is God." So saying the spy chanted Han / 
Krishna! laughing, weeping, and dancing like mad. 
This turned the Muslim king s mind. He sent his own 
confidential liindu minister to the Oriya king s [frontier] 

* The author, however, tells us in canto 1 that Ramananda 
Ray accompanied the Master to Bhadrak. Remuna is 5 miles west 
and Bhadrak 28 miles south of Baleshwar. 

13 



CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [XIV 

officer. The man bowed to the Master and became over 
whelmed with love as he cried Krishna! Krishna! Then 
he composed himself and spoke to the Oriya king s officer, 
"The Muslim governor has sent ms to you to seek your 
permission for him to come here and meet the Master. He 
is very anxious to do it, and entreats you. Fear not any 
attack, it will be a peaceful journey." At this the frontier- 
officer cried out in wonder, "A Muslim s heart ! Who 
could have done this to it? Surely the Master Himself 
turned his heart, as the sight and (even) thought of Him 
saves the world. 1 Then he turned to the confidential 
minister and said, "He is lucky. Let him come here to 
see the Master, unarmed and with only six or seven atten 
dants, if I am to trust in him." 

On hearing this, the Muhammadan governor arrived 
in a Hindu dress, and prostrated himself with tears of joy 
on seeing the Master from afar. The frontier-officer led 
him forward with due honour, and the governor with 
folded palms stood before the Master reciting Krishna s 
name and saying, "Why have I been born in a low Muham 
madan family? Why did not Fate send me to earth as 
one of the Hindu race, for then I could have come near 
thy feet ? My life is useless. Let me die !" The frontier- 
officer, moved by these words, praised the Master after 
clasping His feet, "This man has got a view of thee, whose 
very name when heard purifies a Chandal. What wonder 
that he will be saved? Such is the efficacy of looking at 
thee!" Witness the Bhagabat, III. xxxiii? 6. 

Then the Master looked benignly at the Muslim and 
in soothing terms told him to repeat Krishna s name. The 
governor replied, "As I have found acceptance with thee, 
bid me serve thee. Let me earn deliverance from the sin 



XIV] CHAITANYA S RETURN TO BENGAL i77 

of hurting Brahmans, cows and Vaishnavs, of which I have 
been too often guilty." Then Mukunda Datta broke in, 
"Listen, Sir, our Master wishes to reach the bank of the 
Ganges. Help Him to go there. It is a great command 
and a good service." 

The Muslim bowed to the Master and His party and 
set pff gleefully. The frontier-officer embraced him, 
formed a friendship with him, and gave him many 
presents. Next morning the Muslim governor sent out 
many* decorated boats with his Hindu minister to escort 
the Master. The Oriya frontier-officer, too, accompanied 
Him. The Master placed His men in the cabin of a new 
boat, and dismissed the frontier-officer, who stood on the 
bank gazing at the voyagers with tears in his eyes. The 
governor after bowing at the Master s feet, started the 
flotilla, with ten boat-loads of soldiers as a defence against 
pirates. He crossed the terrible river Mantreshwar, and 
proceeded to Pichhalda, at which (frontier) village the 
Master sent him back. The new disciple s expressions of 
devotion on the occasion were indescribable. 

In that boat the Master reached Panihati, and robed 
the captain in the robe of His favour. The report of His 
coming created a sensation : men crowded together on 
land and water. Raghav Pandit came and led the Master 
to his house, making their way through the press of men 
with great difficulty. The Master halted there one day. 
Next morning He reached Kumarhati, where Shribas 
dwelt. Thenoe He proceeded to the houses of Shivananda 
and Vasudev. When lodging with the Vachaspati, He 
one night fled to the Kulia village shrinking from the 
.crowd. Here in the house of Madhav-das millions had a 
view of Him, and here He stayed a week saving all the 



J ~ S CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [XIV 

sinners. Thence He went to the Acharya s house at 
Shantipur, where He met mother Shachi for soothing her 
grief. Thence He visited Ramkeli and the dancing-hall, 

returning to Shantipur for a ten days halt 

Here Raghunath-das met Him. There were two brothers, 
Hiranya and Govardhan-das, the owners of Sapta-gram 
and twelve lakhs of Rupees. Both were very charifable 
and rich Brahmans, well-behaved, high-born, and foremost 
in piety, the support of the Brahmans of Navadwip, 
whom they helped with land and money. Their guru was 
Nilambar Chakravarti, who treated them like his brothers. 
As they had formerly served Purandar Mishra, they were 
well-known to the Master. Raghunath-das was the son 
of this Govardhan, and averse to the world from his child 
hood . 

On the Master s coming to Shantipur after turning 
hermit, Raghunath had come and fallen down at His 
feet in a rapture of love. The Master had graciously 
touched him with His toe. Raghunath s father always did 
good turns to the Acharya who did Raghunath a favour, 
helping him to eat the leavings of the Master s dinner. 
After staying at the Master s feet for a week, he had been 
sent away by the Master when He went to Puri. Raghu 
nath returned home, turned mad with love, and repeatedly 
ran away from his father s house to go to Puri. But his 
father seized him on the way and kept him tied up, with 
five watchmen to guard him day and night and four 
servants and two cooks, in all eleven guarts. 

Raghunath was brooding over his failure to go to 
Puri, when he heard of the Master s present visit to 
Shantipur and begged his father thus: "Let me go and 
see the Master s feet, or my soul will quit my body." His 



XIV] MASTER S ADVICE TO YOUNG RAGHUNATH 179 

father then sent him with many men and things and an 
order to return soon. Raghunath spent a week at Shanti- 
pur in the Master s company, ever pondering on his heart s 
wish, "How shall I escape from my guards? How shall 
I go to Puri with the Master ?" The omniscient Chaitanya, 
knpwing his mind, told him soothingly by way of instruc 
tion, "Peace ! go home. Turn not wild. It is only gradu 
ally that men reach the shore of the world-ocean. Don t 
ape renunciation of the world, in order to make a show 
before the people. Enjoy your worldly possessions duly, 
without setting your heart on them. Cherish piety in your 
heart, while outwardly you discharge your temporal affairs. 
Soon will Krishna deliver you. When I return here from 
Brindaban on my way to Puri, come to me by some device. 
Krishna will at that time inspire you with the device. Who 
can hold back one whom Krishna favours?" 

Raghunath returned home, followed the Master s 
advice, outwardly gave up his mania and other- worldliness, 
and did his proper work without being absorbed in it. 
His parents were pleased at the change and relaxed their 
rigour. 

Here at Shantipur, the Master embraced Adwaita and 
other bhaktas one by one and said, "Permit me, ye all, to 
go to Puri. As I have met you all here, you need not go 
to Puri this year. From this place I will proceed to 
Brindaban. Grant your permission, so that my journey 
may be safe." Holding His mother s feet He long en 
treated her and got her consent to visit Brindaban, and 
then sent her back to Navadwip. 

He then set out for Puri with His followers, being 

served on the way by the same men as before On His 

arrival at Puri there was a bustle in that village : His 



l8o CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [XIV 

joyful bhaktas came and were all embraced by Him, 
Kashi Mishra, Ramananda, Pradyumna, Sarvabhanma, 
Vaninath, Shikhi, Gadadhar Pandit and others. To them 
He said, "I wanted to go to Brindaban by way of Bengal, 
after seeing my mother and the Ganges. When I arrived 
in Bengal a thousand followers gathered round me ; my 
riads of people flocked there to see the fun. The crowd 
blocked the roads. Wherever I put up, the houses and 
walls were broken down by their pressure. Wherever the 
eye rested there was a sea of heads. With great difficulty I 
reached the Ramkeli village, where two brothers Rup and 
Sanatan came to me. They were foremost of devotees > 
winners of Krishna s grace, outwardly royal ministers and 
governors, old in knowledge faith and wisdom, and yet 
behaving as meeker than grass. Their humility could have 
pierced a stony (heart). Highly pleased I gave them 
leave saying, It is good to be lowly and curb one s own 
pride. Soon will Krishna deliver you. When going away 
Sanatan spoke a riddle : To be followed by a million 
men is not the right manner of visiting Brindaban. At 
that time I did not mind the saying, and next morning 
reached a village named Kanai s Dancing-hall. Here at 
night I pondered over Sanatan s dark saying and it struck 
me, He has spoken well. With so many men following 
me, people will point at me as parading saint-ship. Lonely 
is that Brindaban, hard to win, difficult of access. I must 
go there alone or with only one companion. Madhavendra 
Puri had gone there all alone, and (hence) had Krishna 
appeared to him on the pretext of serving him with milk. 
And I, I am going there like a travelling showman. It is 
not fit to visit Brindaban with a host. A pilgrimage thither 
accords only with solitary travelling. Instead of my going 



XIV] MAvSTER WILL VISIT BRINDABAN ALONE l8l 

there alone (as is proper), an army is accompanying me 
beating drums ! O Shame on me ! O Shame on me ! 
So saying I became unsettled, gave up the journey 
and returned to thfe Ganges. Leaving my bhaktas 
at different places I have arrived here with only five 
or six. Favour me and give me your counsel how 
I may peacefully go to Brindaban. I have failed to 
reach Brindaban because I left Gadadhar behind here and 
thus pained him !" At this Gadadhar in rapture seized 
the Master s feet and spoke meekly, " Wherever you are, 
there is Brindaban, there Jamuna, Ganges and all holy 
places. You are going to Brindaban only to give an object- 
lesson to men. You will do what your heart likes. The 
rainy season is coming. Spend these four months at Puri. 
Thereafter do as you list. Go or stay as you like. Who 
can prevent you?" The other bhaktas joined in and said, 
"Gadadhar has voiced our thoughts." Yielding to their 
wishes, the Master stayed there four months. Pratap 
Rudra was glad to hear of it. That day Gadadhar feasted 
the Master and His bhaktas. [Text, canto 16.] 



CHAPTER XV 

The Pilgrimage to Brindaban 

With the coming of early autumn the Master s mind 
turned to His pilgrimage. He secretly took counsel with 
Ramananda and Swarup, saying, "If you two help me, 
I can visit Brindaban. At night I shall quit my bed and 
escape by the forest path without taking a single attendant. 
If any one afterwards seeks to follow me, do you detain 
him, letting none depart. Mind not the sorrow. Be of 
good cheer and give me leave. If I leave you pleased, 
my way-faring will be happy." 

The two replied, "You are God and a free agent ; you 
act your will, subject to none. But listen to one request 
of ours. You have just now said that our happiness would 
make you happy. Well, then, Sir, grant this our prayer. 
You must take a good Brahman with you. He will cook 
your food and carry yo ur pots. In the forest path you 
will not meet with any Brahman whose cooking is fit to 
be eaten. Give us leave to send a Brahman along with 
you." 

The Master replied, "No, I shall take none of my 
own comrades with me. If I take one, the others will be 
grieved. Some sweet-souled stranger may be my com 
panion. I can take one such if I can get him." Swarup 
suggested, "Here is Balabhadra Bhattacharya, tender to 
you, a scholar, a pious man and a gentleman. He had 
come from Bengal with you during your first advent. He 
wishes to visit all the tirthas. He has a Brahman servant ; 



XV] CHAITANYA CONVERTS FOREST ANIMALS 183 

he will do your cooking on the way. We shall all be 
happy if you take him with you, as then you will feel 
no hardship in making your way through the forest. The 
Brahman servant will* carry your cloth, water, and pots, 
while Bhattacharya will cook your food." The Master 
agreed to it and took Balabhadra Bhattacharya with Him. 

* The night before, He visited Jagannath and took the 
god s leave, and before sunrise He slipped away unper- 
ceivedL In the morning the bhaktas missed Him and ran 
about anxiously seeking Him. Swarup stopped them, and 
they stayed, knowing such to be the Master s wish. 
Leaving the beaten track the Master took to by-paths, and 
passing by the left of Katak entered the jungle. In the 
lonely forest He fared forth, chanting Krishna s name, 
elephants and tigers moved away from the path at the 
sight of Him. In an ecstatic mood He passed through 
herds of tigers, elephants, rhinoceroses and boars. Bhatta 
charya shrank in terror, but they stepped aside cowed by 
the Master s power. 

One day a tiger was lying across the path. The Master 
in abstraction trod on it and cried, "Speak Krishna s 
name !" And lo ! the tiger stood up and began to dance, 
while chanting Krishna! Krishna! Another day He was 
bathing in the river, when a herd of wild elephants came 
there to drink. They arrived before Him as He was offer 
ing the oblation of water. Bidding them repeat Krishna s 
name He rusVed sprinkling the water on them. Every 
elephant touched by that water shouted Krishna and danced 
and ran about in love. Some rolled on the ground, some 
bellowed, to the marvel of Bhattacharya. 

On the way the Master sang kirtan aloud. The deer 
flocked thither, drawn by His sweet voice, and marched 



1 84 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [XV 

with Him on two sides, while He patted their backs and 
playfully recited the verses, Bhagabat, X. xxi. n. Just 
then six or seven tigers came up and joined the deer in 
accompanying the Master. The sight reminded the Master 
of Brindaban and He recited the verses descriptive of the 
virtues of Brindaban. Bhagabat, X. xiii. 55. 

When the Master shouted "Chant Krishna s name," 
the deer and the tigers danced together (peacefully) shout 
ing Krishna! Krishna! a wonderful sight to Balabhadra 
Bhattacharya. The tigers and deer embraced and kissed 
each other, the Master smiling at the fun of it. Leaving 
them there He went on. The peacock and other birds, 
on seeing Him, proceeded in His company singing Krishna! 
and dancing like mad. The Master shouted, Say Hari! 
Trees and creepers rejoiced at the sound. To all the 
animate and inanimate things in the jungle of Chota 
Nagpur (Jhdrikhand) He communicated the name of 
Krishna and maddened them with love. In every village 
that He passed through or halted in, all the men were filled 
with devotion. If one heard the name of Krishna from 
His lips, he spread it to a second, the second to a third, and 
so on. All chanted Krishna-Hari s name, danced, wept, and 
laughed ; from one to another the whole land became 
Vaishnav. Though for fear of drawing a crowd the Master 
concealed His devotion and gave no outward exhibition 
of it, yet the very sight of Him, the hearing of His words, 
and His power made all the people Vaishnpv. Travelling 
in Central Bengal, East Bengal, West Bengal, and Orissa, 
He had delivered the people there. Now, on the pretext 
of a pilgrimage to Mathura, He came to Jharikhand and 
saved the ruffianly bearish people by teaching them the 
faith that springs from Krishna s name. The wood 



XV] DEUGHTS OF TRAVELING IN WOODS 185 

suggested Brindaban, every hill looked like Govardhan, 
every river seemed to Him a Jamuna. There He danced in 
ecstasy, and fell down weeping. 

Bhattacharya gathered all green leaves, roots and fruits 
wherever he found them on the way. When they halted 
at a, village, six or seven Brahmans would invite Him ; 
one supplied Bhattacharya with rice, another with milk, 
curds, ghee, or sugar. Where there was no Brahman 
inhabitant, all the Shudra merchants invited Bhattacharya. 
He cooked the wild vegetables, which delighted the Master. 
He kept a store of rice to last for three or four days. In 
the lonely parts of the jungle, where there was no human 
habitation, Bhattacharya cooked that rice with soup of 
wild vegetables. The picnic delighted the Master exceed 
ingly and the solitude gratified Him. Bhattacharya served 
Him as tenderly as a slave, his Brahman carrying the 
water-pot and clothing. Thrice daily He bathed in the 
hot springs, twice He warmed Himself by the fire, as fuel 
was abundant ; ever did He move in solitude rapt in love. 
Feeling the bliss (of such a life) He said, "Much have 
I travelled, but nowhere have I found any trace of the 
(alleged) hardships of journeying in forests. Passing 
gracious has Krishna been to me : He has directed me 
to this forest path to give me varied delight. Previously 
when I had resolved to visit Brindaban after seeing my 
mother, the Ganges and my bhaktas, and taking a party of 
my followers faith me, and with that aim went to Bengal, 
and after delighting myself with the sight of those dear 
ones, I set out joyfully with my followers, a million 
people joined me. Then Krishna instructed me through 
the mouth of Sanatan ; He hindered that journey and 
brought me to this forest path. O Ocean of Mercy! 



1 86 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [XV 

gracious unto this humble wretch ! There can be no 
pleasure without thy grace!" Then embracing Bhatta- 
charya He said, "All this pleasure have I through thy 
help." But Bhattacharya replied, "You are Krishna, you 
are the gracious one ! I am a despicable being ; you have 
taken pity on me ; you have (deigned to) take me with 
you, and to eat food cooked by me. I am a wretch. But 
you have ennobled this crow to the rank of Garuda. You 
are God Himself, a free being !" 

Thus did Balabhadra hymn the Master and please His 
mind by his loving service. Thus enjoying much bliss He 
reached Benares and bathed at noon at the Mani-Karnika 
ghat. Tapan Mishra was then bathing there, and felt some 
surprise on seeing the Master, as he had previously (only) 
heard of Chaitanya having turned hermit. When the 
recognition became certain, he was filled with rapture, and 
wept clasping the Master s feet, but He raised and embraced 
him. The Mishra guided the Master to the temple of 
Vishweshwar and Bindu Madhav, and at last brought Him 
to his own house, where he served Him, danced (in ecstasy) 
with his garment fluttering, drank with his whole family 
the washings of the Master s feet, fed Him, honoured Bala 
bhadra Bhattacharya, and arranged for his cooking. 

After taking His meal the Master lay down, the 
Mishra s son, Raghu, shampooing His feet. The Mishra 
family ate the leavings of the Master s plate. Chandra 
vShekhar, a scribe of the Vaidya caste, resident in Benares, 
a friend of the Mishra and a devotee of the Master, came 
there on hearing of His arrival. As he wept at His feet, 
Chaitanya lifted up and graciously embraced him. Chandra 
vShekhar said, "Great is thy grace, Master that thou hast 
appeared to thy servant ! At my first coming to Benares 



CHAITANYA AT BENARES 187 

I used to hear nothing but the words illusion (mdyd) and 
Brahma . Here nothing was preached except expositions 
of the six systems of philosophy. Then the Mishra kindly 
told me of Krishna, a*d we two meditated ceaselessly on 
thy feet. Omniscient God ! thou hast appeared to us. 
Let us both serve thee for some days before thou goest to 
Brincteban, as we hear." The Mishra added, "Master, 
during your stay at Kashi do not consent to dine anywhere 
except, in my house." Thus the Master, compelled by His 
two devotees, stayed there for some ten days against His 
will. A Maratha Brahman came to see Him, marvelled at 
His beauty and devotion, and invited Him, but He declined 
saying that He was already engaged for the day. With the 
same plea He put him off day after day in fear of some 
sannyasis joining His company. 

Prakashananda used to deliver public lectures on 
Vedanta to his many pupils. The Maratha Brahman, after 
having viewed the Master, described Him to Prakasha 
nanda thus, "A sannyasi has come here from Jagannath, 
whose glory and power I cannot adequately describe. Big 
of limbs, fair as the purest gold, long-armed, lotus-eyed, 
clad in all the marks of God-head, as one can see. O, 
marvel! The sight of Him convinces one that He is 
Narayan. Whosoever beholds Him chants Krishna s 
sankirtan. All the marks of a great bhdgabat as described 
in the Bhdgabat are evident in Him. Ever does His tongue 
sing Krishna s name, His eyes run tears like the Ganges 
stream. Now He dances, now laughs, now sings and now 
weeps, or at times roars like the lion. The world s bene 
factor is He, named Krishna-Chaitanya. His name, 
appearance, and virtues, all are matchless. To see Him 



1 88 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [XV 

is to know Him as fashioned in God s mould. Hearing 
will not make one credit this marvellous tale." 

The philosopher laughed much and scoffed at the 
Brahman, saying, "I have heard tLat there is a sannyasi 
in Bengal, an emotionalist, a disciple of Keshav Bharati 
and a fraud on the public. He is named Chaitanya, and 
with his emotional band he roams over the country dancing. 
Everyone who sees him calls him God. Such is his spell, 
all beholders are bewitched. I hear that the great scholar 
Sarvabhauma Bhattacharya has turned mad in this 
Chaitanya s company. He is a sannyasi in name only, but 
really a great wizard. But his stock in trade of senti 
mentality will not sell at Kashi ! Attend to Vedanta ; do 
not resort to him ! The companionship of the wild man 
will ruin you in life and death." Grieved at these words, 
the Maratha Brahman left the place appealing to Krishna. 
His mind having been purged by the Master s sight, he 
came to Him and unfolded the tale of his sorrow. The 
Master smiled. The Brahman continued, "When I first 
mentioned you to him, he said that he knew you. When 
he uttered your name in the course of his abuse of you, 
he thrice used the form Chaitanya without adding Krishna! 
It grieved me to hear him speak your name in such a con 
temptuous manner. Tell me the reason of his conduct, 
for my lips uttered Krishna s name as soon as I saw you." 
The Master replied, "The philosophers who hold the doc 
trine of illusion sin against Krishna. They constantly 
prate about Brahma, Atma and Chaitanya, Rod cannot utter 
the name of Krishna, because that is equivalent to Krishna s 
self. The name, the image, and the self of a god are all 
one ; there is no distinction between them ; the three are 
of the form of soul s bliss (chiddnanda) . Between Krishna s 



XV] EXPLAINS POWER OF KRISHNA S NAME 1 89 

body and personality, between his name and Krishna him 
self there is no difference. In the case of creatures, no 
doubt, name, body, and personality are different from one 
another. Vide H ari-bhakti-vilas f xi. 269. 

"Therefore Krishna s name, body, and action (vilds) 
cannot be comprehended by the natural senses ; they mani 
fest themselves. His name, qualities, and antics are the 

soul s bliss (chiddnanda) like Krishna s own form From 

delight in God comes the fuller pleasure of appreciating 
Krishna s actions (Hid), which attract and conquer the 
spiritual man. Vide Bhagabat, XII. xii. 52. 

"From delight in God comes the fuller pleasure (of 
relishing) Krishna s merits, which attract the inmost spirit 
of the soul. Vide Bhagabat, I. Vi. 10. Not to speak of 
Krishna s feet, even the odour of the Tulsi plant captivates 
the inmost sense of the soul. Vide Bhagabat, III., xv. 43. 

"Therefore does Krishna s name fail to rise to his lips ; 
the Illusionists are mere Phenomenalists. He has said that 
I have come to Kashi with a parcel of sentiments for which 
there is no customer here, and I must take it all back ! 
Well, how shall I carry away this heavy load ? I will sell 
it here even for a trifle!" So saying and making that 
Brahman His own, next morning He set out for Mathura. 
The three followed Him, but He sent them home from 
a distance. In His absence they used to meet together and 
sing His praise, mad with love. At Allahabad He bathed 
in the Triveni, a.nd danced and sang in devotion before the 
image of Madhav. In rapture at the sight of the Jamuna, 
He jumped into it, but was hurriedly dragged out by Bhatta- 
charya. Three days He spent thus at Allahabad saving 
men by imparting to them the love and name of Krishna. 
On the way to Mathura wherever He halted, He made the 



IQO CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [XV 

people dance to Krishna s loved name. He now made the 
people of the West Vaishnavs, as He had formerly done 
those of the South. Wherever He came to the Jamuna on 
the way, He leapt into it, senseles^ with love. 

On approaching Mathura, He prostrated Himself in 
an ecstasy of devotion at the sight of the city. Here He 
bathed in the Vishram ghat, and bowed to Kesav s image 
at the place of his nativity. He danced, sang, and shouted 
in rapture, men marvelling at his fervour. One Brahman 
clasped His feet and then began to dance with Him over 
come with love. Both danced in rapture, embraced each 
other, and cried Hari! Krishna! with uplifted arms. The 
spectators shouted Hari! Hari! there was a tumult ; the 
attendant of the image garlanded the Master. Marvelling 
at the sight of the Master, the people said, "Such beauty 
and such devotion can never be human. Verily, He is the 
incarnation of Krishna, come to Mathura to save mankind, 

because at the sight of Him men are intoxicated with 

love and laugh weep dance and sing Krishna s name!" 

Then the Master took the Brahman apart and asked 
him secretly, "You are a Brahman, noble-minded, simple 
and old. Whence did you acquire such wealth of love?" 
The man replied, "When Madhavendra Puri came here on 
his travels, he was pleased to be my guest ; he made me 
his disciple and ate of my cooking. That great soul 
revealed the (concealed) Gopal, who is worshipped at 
Govardhan to this day." At this the Master touched his 
feet, but the Brahman in alarm fell down at the Master s 
feet. The Master explained, " You are my guru, and I am 
almost a disciple to you. The guru should not bow to the 
disciple." The Brahman in fear and surprise asked, "Why 
do you, a sannyasi, use such language? But stay! Your 



XV] MASTER AS A MATHURA BRAHMAN S GUEST IQI 

fervour makes me infer that you are connected with 
Madhavendra Puri [by the tie of initiation]. He was filled 
with love of Krishna : nowhere do we find even the savour 
of such love except jmong those connected with him." 
Then Bhattacharya explained the Master s relation to the 
Puri, at which the Brahman began to dance in rapture. 
He conducted the Master to his own house, and of his own 
will served Him in many ways. He made Bhattacharya 
cook ^the Master s meal) , but He smilingly said, "The Puri 
has dined with you. Do thou feed me. This is an instruc 
tion for me. Vide Gita, in. 21." 

Though the Brahman was a Sanoria, at whose house 
sannyasis do not dine, yet the Puri, drawn by his truly 
Vaishnav behaviour, had initiated and dined with him. 
Now that the Master begged to eat of his cooking, the 
Brahman humbly said, "Great is my fortune that I shall 
feast you. You are God, unfettered by rule and practice. 
But the ignorant will blame you, which I cannot bear to 
hear." The Master answered, "The Shruti, the Smriti 
and all the sages are not of one opinion, but at variance 
with one another. The actions of good men are for con 
firming religion. The Puri s action is the essence of that 
religion. Vide Ekddashi-tattwa, Vyas s words : 

Logical reasoning cannot establish our duty. The 
Shrutis are conflicting. Not a rishi whose views do not 
differ from those of others. The truth of religion is hidden 
in a cave. Follow therefore the path trodden by good 
men." 

Then the Brahman feasted the Master, to see whom 
the citizens of Mathura came in lakhs. The Master 
appeared to them outside the house, and with uplifted 
arms cried "Chant Hari! Hari!" The men raised a shout 

14 



IQ2 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [XV 

of Hari! and danced mad with love. He bathed at the 
24 ghats of the Jamuna, and was shown by that Brahman 
all the holy sites : Swayambhu, Vishram, Dirgha-Vishnu, 
Bhuteshwar, Mahavidya, Gokarna, &c. 

Wishing to see the woods, He took the Brahman with 
Him and visited the Madhu-ban, the Tal-ban, Kumud and 
Bahula, in all of which He sang in a fervour of love. r Xhe 
cows grazing by the way surrounded the Master with 
loud bellowings, but grew still at the sight of His over 
flowing devotion, and licked His limbs tenderly. When 
He became quiet, He rubbed their backs, and they would 
not leave Him as He advanced. The cowherds stopped 
them with great difficulty. 

His voice drew to Him herds of deer, which gazed at 
His face, licked His body, and followed Him on the way 
without fear. The black-bird and the bee sang sweetly on 
seeing Him ; the peacocks strutted dancing before Him. At 
His coming the trees and creepers of Brindaban put forth 
sprouts (as if they were thrilled) and shed honey like tears. 
Branches laden with flowers and fruits, bowed to His feet, 
as friend hastens to greet friend with a present. At the 
sight of Him, the animate and inanimate things of Brinda 
ban rejoiced, as on meeting with their friend. Seeing 
their affection the rapt Master played with them all, over 
come by their influence. Each tree and creeper He 
embraced ; in thought He offered every flower and fruit 
to Krishna. Weeping, trembling, shaken with love, He 
shouted, Say Krishna! Krishna! The living and the inert 
shouted Krishna as if echoing His deep voice. Clasping 
the necks of the deer He wept, while the deer trembled 
and shed tears. The green parrot with its mate appeared 
on the branches, and on His wishing to hear their speech 



XV] ECSTASY AT THE BEAUTY OF BRINDABAN 1 93 

they flew on to His hand and recited verses in praise of 
Krishna. Vide Gomnda-lildmrita, xiii. 29 &c. 

Wonder and enthusiasm seized the Master at these 
words, and the birds flew back to the branch. Delighted 
He gazed at the dance of the peacocks, the neck of the 
bird reminding Him of Krishna, and He swooned away 
in, rapture. The (local) Brahman and Bhattacharya nursed 
Him, sprinkled Him with water and fanned Him with 
His cjoth. Loudly they poured Krishna s name into His 
ears, (at which) He awoke and rolled on the ground. The 
brambles of the rough jungle path scratched His limbs, 
but Bhattacharya took Him in his lap to soothe Him. 
Krishna s love had filled His mind, so He sprang up with 
the cry of Chant ! Chant !" and began to dance. Bhatta 
charya and the (Mathura) Brahman sang Krishna s name, 
while the Master wended His way dancing. The Brahman 
marvelled at the fervour of His love and grew concerned 
about His safety. His passion of devotion on the way to 
Brindaban grew tenfold of what it had been at Puri ; it 
increased a thousandfold on seeing Mathura, and a hundred 
thousand times when He roamed the woods of Brindaban. 
When He was in other lands the mention of Brindaban 
had caused His love to well out ; and now He had actually 
come to that Brindaban ! His soul was steeped in love 
day and night, and He bathed and dined (unconsciously) 
as a matter of habit. [Text, canto 17.] 



CHAPTER XVI 

.,v 

The Master s doings at Brindaban 

Dancing thus the Master reached the village of Arith, 
where He suddenly recovered His senses. He asked t he 
people about the Radha pool (kunda) ; but they knew it 
not, nor did the Brahman guide. But the omniscient 
discovered the hidden tirthas and bathed in shallow pools 
in two rice-fields. The villagers wondered at the spectacle. 
The Master began to praise the Radha pool in love : 
Radha is dearest to Krishna among all the milk-maids. 
So is the Radha- kunda dear (to him) as the bathing-place 
of his darling. In this pool Krishna ever sported in the 
water with Radha and on the bank he dallied in the rdsa 
dance. Whosoever bathes once here gets from Krishna a 
love rivalling that of Radha. The pool is charming like 
Radha s self ; its glory is great like Radha s." 

Recollecting Krishna s acts in the pool, He danced 
in rapture on the bank, and painted His forehead with its 
mud. Bhattacharya took a little of the mud. Next, the 
Master went to the Suman tank. At the sight of the 
Govardhan hill He was affected, prostrated Himself before 
it, and madly embraced a rock. In a frenzy of devotion 
He proceeded to the village of Govardhan, where he bowed 
to the god Hari-dev, the first incarnation 6f Narayan, who 
dwelt on the western edge of Mathura. Before the god 
He danced in rapture, the people at the wondrous news 
flocking to see Him, and admiring His beauty and devo 
tion. The attendant of the image entertained Him. 
Bhattacharya cooked in the Brahma-kunda and the Master 



XVI] FORGOTTEN TIRTHAS OF BRINDABAN DISCOVERED IQ5 

bathed, dined, and passed the night in the temple. At 
night He cogitated, No, I must not ascend Govardhan. 
How then can I get the sight of Gopal?" He remained 
silent over the matter, i>ut Gopal knowing His mind, played 
a trick. The god Gopal was installed at Anna-kut, a 
village of the Rajputs. Some one informed the headman 
a^ right that the Turks were arming to sack the village, 
and so they should all flee at night with their god. The 
villagers in alarm first transferred Gopal to the Ganthuli 
village, where the god was worshipped in secret in a 
Brahman s house. Then they all fled, leaving the village 
empty. Thus did Gopal migrate repeatedly in fear of 
the Muslims, being removed from temple to bower or to 
another village. 

In the morning the Master after bathing in the Manas 
Ganga, set out to walk round Govardhan. Moved to 
rapture at the sight of the hill, He advanced dancing and 
chanting the verses, Bhagabat, X. xxi. 18. 

Bathing at the Govinda-kunda and other holy spots, 
He learnt that Gopal had gone to Ganthuli, whither He 
proceeded to see the god, before whom He danced and 
sang in a transport of devotion. Moved by Gopal s beauty 
He recited a shloka and danced till the close of the day. 

For three days did He view Gopal ; on the fourth 
day Gopal came away with Him, as He walked singing 
and dancing, and went back to his former temple [on the 
hill], while the Master stayed at the foot of it. The people 
in delight cheered aloud Hari ! Hari ! Thus does the tender 
Gopal descend from the hill on some pretext, in order to 
show himself to the devotee who passionately longs to see 
him and yet declines to set foot upon Govardhan. Thus 
did he appear to Rup and Sanatan. When Rup was too old 



196 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [XVI 

to walk and yet longed to see Copal s charms, the god took 
refuge for a month in the Vithaleshwar temple at Mathura 
in fear of the Muslims. Then Rup with his disciples saw 
him there for a month. [Rup s disciples named]. After a 
month Gopal went back to his temple, while Rup returned 
to Brindaban. 

Then the Master visited the Kamya forest, and all 
other places in Brindaban in the manner described before. 
Thence to Nandishwar, at the sight of whom He fell into 
an ecstasy. After bathing in the Paban and other pools, 
He climbed the hill and asked if there was any temple 
on the top. Being directed by the local people, He entered 
the cave and there beheld the image of the fair dancing 
Child between his robust parents. He bowed at the feet 
of Nanda and Yashoda, and in rapture touched all the 
limbs of the child Krishna. After dancing and singing 
there all day, He visited the Khadir wood, the Vishnu re 
posing on the Sesha Snake, Khela-tirtha, the Bhandir wood, 
the Bhadra wood (across the Jamuna), the Shri-ban, the 
Ivauha-ban, the Maha-ban, (the birth-place of Radha), where 
He beheld the site of the killing of Yamalarjun, to the over 
flowing of His love. After visiting Gokul He returned to 
Mathura. Here He stayed at that Brahman s house, 
visiting Krishna s birth-shrine ; but He left Mathura on 
account of its press of people and dwelt in seclusion at 
Akrur-tirtha. 

Another day He visited Brindaban, bathed in the 
Kaliya lake and Praskandan. From the Twelve Suns 
(Divddash Aditya) He went to the Kashi tirtha. At the 
place of rdsa He fainted away in love, and on recovering 
rolled on the ground, laughed, wept, danced, recited 



XVI] RAJPUT FOLLOWS MASTER LEAVING ALL IQ7 

verses, and sang. In such deeds was the day spent there , 
in the evening He returned to Akrur for breakfast. 

Next morning He bathed at the Chiraghat of 
Brindaban, and rested *under a very ancient tamarind tree 
of the age of Krishna s exploits, with a smooth platform 
built round its trunk. Close by flowed the Jamuna ; cool 
brgez*es blew ; the water of the Jamuna gazed at the beauty 
of Brindaban. After singing the holy names under the 
tamarind tree, the Master performed His noonday prayer 
and breakfasted at Akrur. The people of the village 
crowded in such numbers to see Him that He could not 
dance freely. So He came back to Brindaban, and sitting 
apart sang the holy names till noon. In the third quarter 
of the day He appeared to the people and advised them all 
to make sankirtan of Krishna s name. 

Then arrived a Vaishnav, of the Rajput race, named 
Krishna-das, a householder living in a village on the other 
side of the Jamuna. After bathing in the Keshighat he 
was going to the Kali lake when he suddenly beheld a holy 
man sitting under the tamarind tree. Admiring the beauty 
and fervour of the Master, he bowed to Him in devotion. 
To the Master s query as to who he was, he replied, "I am 
a miserable householder, a Rajput from across the river. 
I long to be servant to a Vaishnav. Last night in sleep 
I saw a vision which exactly agrees with you." As the 
Master graciously embraced him, the Rajput mad with love 
danced crying +Hari! Hari! He followed the Master at 
noon to the Akrur-tirtha , and ate His leavings. Next 
morning he bore the Master s water-pot [to Brindaban] and 
kept His company, leaving his wife, children and home. 

Everywhere men began to say that Krishna had again 
appeared at Brindaban. One morning the citizens of 



IQ8 CHAITANYA-CIIARIT-AMRITA [XVI 

Mathura were returning from Brindaban with a great noise, 
when the Master met them and asked them whence they 
were coming. They replied, "Krishna has appeared in the 
water of the Kali-daha lake. He is llancing on the hood of 
the snake Kaliya, whose jewel is flashing in the water. We 
have seen it with our own eyes. It is beyond doubt." The 
Master smiled and remarked, "It is all very true." Thus 
for three nights people flocked there, all saying on their 
return that they had beheld Krishna. When they s^id in 
the Master s presence that they had seen Krishna, Saraswati 
indeed moved them to speak the truth, for in seeing Him 
they were beholding the true Krishna ; while they were 
neglecting the real before their eyes in order to behold the 
unreal [apparition of Krishna in the lake]. When 
Bhattacharya begged leave to behold Krishna there, the 
Master slapped him and said, "You are a learned man, and 
yet you have turned a fool, believing the story of fools ! 
Why should Krishna appear in that lake? Fools in their 
delusion are making a fuss [about nothing]. Don t lose 
your senses. Stay at home. To-morrow at night go and 
see Krishna." 

In the morning a quiet man came to the Master, and 
He asked him if he had seen Krishna. The man replied, 
"A fisherman was catching fish in the lake with a lamp in 
his boat. People seeing him from a distance mistook him 
for Krishna dancing on the snake ; the boat was regarded 
as the snake s hood, and the lamp as its crown- jewel ! 
True, Krishna has come to Brindaban, but it is not true 
that the people have seen him. Far from seeing him they 
are holding a false notion, just as an imbecile (sthdnu] man 
takes things in a contrary light." The Master asked, 
"Where have you seen Krishna?" The man replied, "You 



XVI] A HOUSEHOLDER WORSHIPS CHAITANYA AS GOD IQQ 

are a sannyasi a walking Narayan. You have come to 
Brindaban, as the incarnation of Krishna, to deliver all men 
by your appearance." The Master invoked God in horror 
and cried, "Say not so! Never regard this, the humblest 
of creatures, as Krishna. A sannyasi is a particle of chit, 
a creature is like a single ray of light ; but Krishna, full 
ofrafl the six powers, is like the Sun. A creature and the 
Creator can never be equal, any more than a blazing fire 

and ^ solitary spark can be The fool who speaks of 

a creature as equal to God is a sinner, destined to be 

punished by Yama " 

The man replied, "You have not the human mind. 
Your appearance and character are like Krishna s. In form 
you resemble the Son of Braja s lord ; your bright 
complexion eclipses your yellow robe. The musk s 
fragrance cannot be concealed even if it is tied up in a 
cloth ; so too your Godly nature cannot be kept hidden. 
Supernatural is your character, your wisdom unfathomable, 
the sight of you has driven the world mad with the love of 
Krishna. Woman, child, old man, a Chandal, or even a 
Muslim, whosoever once beholds you, dances madly, 
chanting Krishna s name. He becomes a teacher unto 
others and converts the world. Not to speak of seeing you, 
the mere hearing of your name throws a man into a frenzy 
of devotion to Krishna and makes him a spiritual deliverer 
to all others. Your name sanctifies even Chandals. Super 
human are your powers, beyond description. Vide 
Bhagabat, III. xxxiii. 6. Such is your glory, you have the 
attributes of detachment. Your form and attributes prove 
you to be Krishna !" 

The Master favoured these men, and they returned 
home wild with love. Thus did He stay a few days at 



200 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [XVI 

Akrur, saving men by imparting to them the love of 
Krishna s name. That disciple of Madhav Puri invited 
every householder in Mathura. The people of Mathura, 
Brahmans and good men, in parties bf ten or twenty every 
day invited Bhattacharya, who could accept only one of 
the invitations. The people, getting no opportunity of 
giving dinners, pressed that Brahman to accept thur 
hospitality. Kanauji, Deccani, and Vaidik Brahmans all 
humbly asked the Master to dinner. They came to Akrur 
in the morning, cooked, offered the food to the Shdlgrdm, 
and fed the Master on it. One day, sitting on the Akrur 
ghat, the Master reflected, "Here did Aknir see 
Vaikuntha, and the people of Brindaban got a view of 
heaven. 1 So saying He jumped into the water; Krishna- 
das set up a loud lamentation ; Bhattacharya hurried there 
and dragged the Master out. Then he took secret counsel 
with the (local) Brahman, saying, "The Master was 
rescued only because I was at hand. But if He is drowned 
at Brindaban who will save Him ? Here we have crowds 
of visitors and the plague of invitation every day. It is 
not good for Him to be constantly in an ecstasy. The 
best plan would be to remove Him from Brindaban." 
The Brahman (host) replied, "Let us take Him to Prayag ; 
we shall enjoy the journey along the bank of the Ganges. 
You should ask His consent to bathe in the Ganges at 
Soron and then start with Him by the same route. It is 
now the month of Mdgh ; if we start now ,we shall reach 
Prayag in time for bathing during Capricorn. After 
saying something of your own sorrows, broach to him the 
request to lead you to Prayag during Capricorn. Tell Him 
also of the joy of following the bank of the Ganges." 

Then Bhattacharva besought the Master thus "I 



XVI] MASTER LEFT BRINDABAN TO AVOID CROWD 2OI 

cannot bear this disturbance by the people. They worry 
me to accept their invitations. When people come in the 
morning and fail to find you, they plague me to death. 
I shall be happy if I follow the bank of the Ganges, and 
starting now reach Prayag in time for bathing in Capricorn. 
My mind is restless. I cannot bear [our life here]. I 
sub/nk to whatever the Master may be pleased to 
command." Though unwilling to leave Brindaban, the 
Master, to gratify His bhakta, said sweetly, "Never shall 
I be able to repay my debt to you for your having escorted 
me to Brindaban. I shall do your wish. Take me 
wherever you desire." 

In the morninq- He bathed and became overcome with 
devotion at the thought of leaving Brindaban. Un 
conscious of the things outside, He fell into a trance of 
love. Bhattacharya took Him in a boat across the river to 
Maha-ban. The devoted Krishna-das and that Brahman 
knew the route along the Ganges. On the way He sat 
down under a tree with His party, in order to refresh them 
from fatigue. Many cows were grazing there, and the 
sight filled Him with delight. Suddenly a cowherd played 
on his flute, and at once rapture seized the Master ; He 
fell down in a swoon, foaming at the mouth and His 
breathing stopped. 

Just then ten Pathan cavalrymen arrived there, dis 
mounted, and gazing at the Master jumped to the 
conclusion that His five companions were sharpers who 
had poisoned Him with dhuturd in order to rob Him of 
His gold. So they tied up the five and threatened to 
behead them. The Bengalis began to tremble ; only the 
Rajput Krishna-das was fearless and that Brahman bold of 
speech. The Brahman cried out, Tathan ! I appeal to< 



CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [XVI 

your Padshah ! Take me with you to the shikdar. This 
hermit is my guru ; I am a Brahman of Mathura. I have 
a hundred acquaintances at the royal Court. This hermit 
has a disease which makes Him fall<lown in a fit. He will 
soon recover consciousness. Wait a little here. Keep us 
tied up., After inquiring of Him, slay us if [we deserve 
The Pathan replied, "You two are up-country me,n ; 
here are three Bengali thugs quaking in fear." Krishna- 
das said, "I live in this village, with 100 troopers and 200 
bowmen under me. If I raise a shout they will come here, 
kill you, and take away your horses and accoutrement. 
The Bengalis are not sharpers. You are rogues, as you 
want to rob pilgrims and to kill them!" At this the 
Pathan hesitated. Just then the Master came to His 
senses, rose up with a shout of Hari! Hart! and danced in 
rapture with uplifted arms. 

His devotional cry pierced the heart of the Muslim, 
who in fear released the five, so that the Master saw not 
the captivity of His followers. Bhattacharya held and 
seated the Master, who became aware of the things around 
Him when He saw the Muslims. The Pathans bowed at 
His feat and charged the five with having poisoned Him 
with dhuturd. But He replied, "They are not thugs, but 
my companions. I am a begging hermit, with no wealth 
to be robbed. Occasionally I fall into epileptic fits, when 
these five kindly nurse me." One of the Muslims, a 
grave man clad in black and called a Pij;, was melted at 
heart on seeing the Master. He propounded monotheism 
and one common God, on the basis of his holy book (viz., 
the Quran). But the Master refuted all his propositions 
by arguments based on the Muslim scripture, till the man 
was silenced. The Master continued, "Your scripture 



XVI] A MUSUM TAUGHT BY CHAITANYA 2OJ 

establishes one common God [in the beginning] and re 
futing that theory sets up in the end a particular God, who 
is full of all powers, dark of hue, the embodiment of sat 
chit and ananda, the perfect Spirit, the soul of all, all- 
pervading, eternal, the self of every thing, the source of 
creation life and destruction, the refuge of all universes 
wkettier gross or fine, the most excellent, adorable by all, 
the first cause of everything. Men are saved by faith in 
Him,, and freed from the bondage of the world only by 
serving Him. Delight in Him is the supreme human 
attainment, while salvation can give only a particle of 
that bliss. The highest beatitude comes only from serving 
His feet. After first insisting on work, knowledge and 
mental abstraction, these are then set aside and the service 
of God is laid down as the final duty. Your theologians 
have no knowledge of their own scriptures ; they forget 
that where there are two injunctions, the latter is sronger. 
Decide after studying your own holy books, and see what 
is laid down as the final conclusion." 

The Muslim replied, "True are your words. Men 
cannot realize God as described in the scriptures. They 
discourse on the abstract God (Go sain) ; nobody thinks of 
adoring the incarnate God. You are such, God s own 
self. Have mercy on me, unworthy sinner ! Much have 
I read, but cannot ascertain the sddhya and sddhan from 
the Muslim scriptures. At the sight of vou my tongue 
utters Krishna s name, and I have been cured of my proud 
confidence in my own knowledge. Tell me graciously 
what are sddhya and sddhan." So saying he fell at the 
1 Master s feet, who said, "Rise! In repeating Krishna s 
name you have been washed pure from the sins of million 
births. Say Krishna! Krishna!" They chanted the 



204 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [XVI 

name and were filled with rapture. The Master renamed 
him Ramdas. 

There was another Pathan named Bijuli Khan, a 
young Prince and the master of RaTmdas and other Pathan 
troopers. He too fell down at the Master s feet, with the 
cry of Krishna! The Master touched his head with His 
toe, and went on His way. All the Pathans turned 
bairdgis and were famous as "Pathan Vaishnavs." They 
roamed everywhere singing the Master s praise,- The 
Bijuli Khan became a very spiritual person honoured in 
every tirtha. 

At Soron He bathed in the Ganges and walked along 
the river bank to Prayag. When He dismissed the 
Mathura Brahman and Krishna-das, they begged with 
folded palms, "Let us follow you to Prayag. Where 
again shall we see your feet ? It is a Muslim country, you 
may be oppressed anywhere. Your companion, Bhatta- 
charya, is a mere pandit and does not know how to 
address people." The Master smilingly consented and 
they followed Him. Everyone who beheld Him turned 
frantic with love and sang sankirtan aloud. They com 
municated their faith to others, and these to others again, 
so that the whole land became Vaishnav, just as the 
Master had previously converted the South during His 
pilgrimage. 

So walking He reached Prayag, where He bathed for 
ten days at the junction of the three rivers during the 
sun s progress through Capricorn. [Text, canto 18.] 



CHAPTER XVII 

How the Master favoured Rup 

, Rup and Sanatan, after meeting the Master at the 
village of Ramkeli, went back to their own quarters. The 
two brothers devised how to get rid of their worldly ties. 
They secured two priests with costly gifts, and performed 
two ceremonies preparatory to a journey (purashcharan) 
in the mantra of Krishna, hoping thereby to attain 
speedily to Chaitanyate feet. Then Rup came to his own 
house by boat with much wealth, of which he distributed 
one half to Brahmans and Vaishnavs, one quarter to his 
kinsmen for their support, and laid by the other quarter 
for paying the fine. The money was lodged with good 
Brahmans, and ten thousand Rupees were deposited with a 
grocer at Gaur, subject to expenditure by Sanatan. When 
Rup heard of the Master s journey to Puri and of His 
intention to go to Brindaban by the forest route, he sent 
two agents to Puri to bring quickly word about the date 
of the Master s starting for Brindaban, as he wanted to 
shape his own course accordingly. 

At Gaur Sanatan thought within himself, "The 
Sultan s love for me is a tie (keeping me here). If he 
were only to turn angry, it will be my deliverance." On 
the plea of illness he stayed at home, gave up his official 
work, and discontinued his visits to the Court. 
The greedy writers (Kdyastha) transacted the business of 
state (in his absence), while he at home discussed the 
Shdstras. With twenty or thirty Bhattacharya pandits he 



206 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [XVII 

discussed the Bhdgabat in assembly. One day the Sultan 
with only one attendant suddenly entered Sanatan s 
meeting. At the sight of the king, all hurriedly stood up, 
and seated him with due honour... The Sultan said, "I 
sent a physician to you, who reported that you were in 
perfect health. All my affairs depend on you, and yet 
you are staying at home neglecting them ! You ha.ye 
ruined all my business. Tell me what you really mean 
by it?" Sanatan replied, "I am unable to do the work. 
Get some one else for the purpose." The Sultan in anger 
cried out again and again, "Your elder brother is acting 
like a robber. He has desolated the districts (chdkld) 
under him by killing men and cattle. And here you are 
ruining all my affairs!" Sanatan pleaded, "You are the 
free king of Bengal ; punish all offenders." 

At this the Sultan returned to his palace and impri 
soned Sanatan lest he should escape. When the king set 
out to invade Orissa, he asked Sanatan to accompany him. 
The minister replied, "I cannot bear you company, as you 
are going to molest my gods." Then the Sultan set out, 
leaving Sanatan in prison. 

When the Master set out for Brindaban, the two 
messengers brought news of it to Rup. At this Rup 
wrote to Sanatan, "Chaitanya has started for Brindaban. 
We two brothers are going to join him. Do you run 
away from Gaur by hook or crook. I have left ten 
thousand Rupees with a grocer there. Spend it to secure 
your release soon, and fly to Brindaban by any way that 
you can find." Then Rup went to Prayag with his 
youngest brother, Anupam Mallik (surnamed?) Shri- 
Vallabh, devout Vaishnav. 

The Master delighted at the news. As He was going 



XVII] RUP MEETS CHAITANYA AT PRAYAG 2O7 

to visit Bindu Madhav, lakhs of men came to meet Him, 
some weeping, some laughing, some singing and dancing, 
others rolling on the ground while shouting Krishna! 
Krishna! The Master; drowned Prayag in the flood of 
Krishna s love, while the Ganges and the Jamuna between 
them had failed to submerge the land ! Seeing the crowd, 
Rupjand his brother stood apart. The Master was thrown 
into ecstasy when beholding Madhav, and danced with 
uplifted arms shouting Say Hari! Hari! Men marvelled 
at His greatness. His feats at Prayag baffle description. 
A Deccani Brahman who knew Him, took Him to his 
house, where the Master was sitting down in seclusion 
when Rup and Vallakh came to Him. With two blades 
of grass between their teeth, they fell down prone on 
seeing Him from afar. Again and again they rose up and 
fell down, reciting many verses, overcome with love at 
the sight of Him. Graciously did the Master speak, 
"Rise, rise! Rup, come to me! Krishna s grace passes 
all speech : He has plucked you from the well of worldli- 
ness in which you were sunk. Witness the Hari-bhakti- 
vilas, x. 91 ; the words of God : 

f lt is not by studying the four Vedas that one can 
become my bhakta. Even low-caste Chandals can win my 
love by their faith. To such bhaktas I grant my love and 
accept their love, and they are worthy of adoration like 
myself." 

Repeating the above verse He embraced both and 
placed His feet on their heads as a favour. At this they 
praised Him humbly with folded palms. [Verses]. 

Then the Master seated them by Himself and asked 
for the news of Sanatan. Rup answered, "He is in the 
king s prison. If you save him then only can he be 

15 



208 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [XVII 

released. 1 The Master said, "Sanatan has been set free 
and will soon join us all. 11 The Brahman invited the 
Master to dinner. Rup passed the day there. Balabhadra 
Bhattacharya bade both the brotherr to dinner, and the two 
ate the leavings of the Master s plate. The Master lodged 
in a house on the junction of the rivers ; Rup and Vallabh 
took a house near it. *- 

There was then one Vallabh Bhatta* at the village of 
Ambuli. He came on hearing of the Master s arrival, 
bowed to Him, received His embrace, and the two dis 
coursed long on Krishna, at which the Master s devotion 
surged up, but He checked Himself in the presence of the 
Bhatta, who detected the uncontrollable fervour within 
Him and marvelled exceedingly. Then the Bhatta invited 
the Master, who introduced to him the two brothers. 
They very humbly bowed to the Bhatta from a distance, 
and as he ran to meet them they receded further crying, 
"Touch not untouchable sinners like us!" The Bhatta 
marvelled ; the Master was delighted and told their story 
to the Bhatta, adding, "Touch not these ; they are of a 
low caste, while you are a Vaidic sacrificial Brahman, old 
and a kulin." Hearing Krishna s name incessantly on 
their lips, the Bhatta, taking hint from the Master s 
winking, remarked, "Krishna s name is dancing on their 
tongue. They cannot be low ; they are the best of men. 
Witness the Bhagabat III. xxxiii. 7." 

The Master, pleased to hear it, praised him much and 
in rapture recited these verses : 

* The celebrated Vallabh-acharya (born in 1479), the founder of 
the Pushtimarga school of Vaishnavism. Ambuli is evidently A rail, 
a village on the Jamuna opposite Allahabad, which contains a temple 
of the Vallabh-acharya sect. 



XVII] CHAITANYA AND VALLABH AT ALLAHABAD 2OQ 

"Wise men -will honour even a Chanddl who has been 
purified in consequence of the sins of his low birth having 
been burnt away by the blazing fire of pure faith ; while 
an atheist is not to be4ionoured even though learned in the 
Vedas. Vain are high pedigree, scholarship, repetition of 
the holy name, and austerities, in a man who lacks faith in 
G&a*. As a lifeless doll is dressed up only for show to 
people, so are the virtues of a faithless man futile. 
(Har^rbhakti-sudhodaya, iii. 12 and n.)" 

The Bhatta wondered as he gazed at the Master s 
passion of devotion, power, true faith, and beauty. He 
took Him with His followers in a boat to his own house 
for dinner. Beholding the sparkling blue waters of the 
Jamuna, the Master was overcome by love, and leaped 
into the river with a roar. They were all seized with 
concern at it and hurriedly pulled Him out of the water. 
He began to dance on the boat, which rolled right and 
left under His weight and shipped a good deal of water, 
being ready to sink. His love was uncontrollable ; still 
in the presence of the Bhatta the Master checked Himself, 
as His transport was inopportune, and disembarked at the 
Ambuli ghat. The anxious Bhatta, after keeping His 
company at bath, brought Him to his own house, gave 
Him a fine garment, washed His feet and poured the water 
on the heads of himself and his family. He clothed the 
Master in a new waist-band and dhuti, and adored Him 
with scents, flowers, incense and lights. Bhattacharya 
cooked and the Master dined ; so did Rup and his brother ; 
Rup and Krishna-das were given the leavings of His 
dinner. After chewing spices the Master lay down to 
repose, the Bhatta rubbing His feet. Sent away by the 



210 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [XVII 

Master, the Bhatta despatched his own dinner and came 
back to His feet. 

Now came there Raghupati Upadhyaya, a great 
scholar and Vaishnav of north Bihar (Tirhut). As he 
bowed, the Master greeted him with "Be thy mind fixed 
on Krishna," to the great delight of the Upadhyaya. 
At the Master s request he recited verses of his own 
composition describing Krishna s deeds. [Verses.] 

The Master had a transport of love as He listened 
and urged the poet to proceed further. The Upadhyaya 
marvelled at such fervour, and knew Him to be Krishna 
himself and not a mortal. The Master asked, "Upadhyaya ! 
what do you consider most excellent?" The poet replied, 
"Black in the best of colours." "Where is the best abode 
of the black complexion?" The poet answered, "Mathura 
is the best of cities." "Which is the best age boyhood, 
maturity, or adolescence?" The Upadhyaya replied, 
"Adolescence is the only age fit for our meditation." 
"Which do you think is the best among emotions?" "Love 
is the highest of all emotions (ras)." The Master re 
marked, "Thou hast taught me the true lore", and then 
in a tremulous voice recited Madhavendra Puri s verses 
(embodying the above answers). In rapture He embraced 
the Upadhyaya, who began to dance in a frenzy of love. 

Vallabh Bhatta marvelled at the sight. With his two 
sons he fell down at the Master s feet. The villagers 
flocked thither to see Him, and at His sight became 
worshippers of Krishna. Vallabh Bhatta stopped the 
Brahmans who were inviting the Master, saying, "This 
holy man jumped into mid-Jamuna in ecstasy. I must 
not detain Him here, but convey Him back to Prayag. 



XVII] RUP AND SANATAN S LIFE AT BRINDABAN 211 

Invite Him there, if you list." So saying he carried the 
Master across in the boat. 

Avoiding the press of the people, the Master went to 
the Dashashwamedh hat and there taught Rup about 
Krishna s essence, the path of bhakti, the lore of emotions, 
the conclusions of the Bhdgabat. He imparted to Rup all 
the cfoctrines He had learnt from Ramananda, and infused 
(His own) force into Rup s heart, in order to make him a 
perfect doctor of Vaishnav theology. (Verses quoted from 
the Chaitanya-chandrodaya.} 

Thanks to the Master s grace on them, Rup and 
Sanatan became objects of favour and pride to all His 
leading devotees and associates. Chaitanya s attendants 
used to ask every one who returned to Bengal from 
Brindaban, "Tell us how Rup and Sanatan are living there. 
Tell us of their asceticism, their meals, their adoration of 
Krishna all day." Then praising the two, the returned 
pilgrims would answer, "The two are living homeless, 
sleeping every night under a different tree. In the 
Brahman houses they get coarse food, in contrast with the 
-sweetmeats they formerly fed upon. They chew dry 
bread or gram, leaving all enjoyments. In their hands is 
the beggar s gourd, they are wrapped in tattered quilts ; 
they speak of Krishna, chant his name, dance, and exult. 
Throughout the day and night they recite Krishna s praise, 
and sleep for two hours, and sometimes, absorbed in the 
passion of charting the name, they deny themselves even 
that short sleep. At times they compose works on bhakti , 
hear discourses about Chaitanya, and meditate on Him." 
These words greatly pleased the Fathers of the Church. 
What wonder [that such should be their life], when 
Chaitanya s grace was on them? 



212 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [XVII 

Thus passing ten days at Prayag, the Master taught 
Rup and inspired him with strength, adding, "Listen, 
Rup ! to the signs of a bhakta, which I shall describe 
in brief sentences, without going irito detail. I speak to 
you onlv of one drop of the shoreless profound ocean of 
bhakti, in order to give you a smack of it. Behold in the 
universe countless beings that pass through 84 lakhs of 
births. The nature of a creature is as minute as a 
hundredth part of a hundredth part of the point of a.^hair. 
[Verses from the Shruti-bydkhyd, and the Panchadashi 
S3-] 

, immutable God! if -we admit that bodied beings are 
limitless, eternal and omnipresent, then we cannot maintain 
the law that they are subject to you. Then the creatures, 
though subject to birth, will be law-givers unto themselves,, 
even though they have not risen above their mortal nature. 
Those who say that God and beings are equal, know not 
thy true nature and their doctrines are false. (Bhagabat, 
X. Ixxxvii. 26.) 

"Among creatures we must distinguish between the 
animate and the inanimate. Among the animate are many 
classes, such as sky-dwellers, land animals, water animals 
&c., men being only a minority of them. [Eliminate 
from] men the Mlechchhas, Pulindas, Bauddhas, and 
Shabars ; and from the followers of the Vedas one-half 
who follow the Vedas in lips only, doing sins condemned 
by the Vedas and disregarding piety. Aoiong religious 
people many are devoted to work [as the means of salva 
tion]. For ten million men devoted to work we have one 
devoted to knowledge, and therefore superior to the 
former. Among ten million men devoted to knowledge 
we have only one liberated soul. And among ten million 



XVII] RIGHT METHOD OF GROWING BHAKTI 213 

liberated souls hardly one devotee of Krishna is found. 
The bhakta of Krishna is passionless and tranquil, while 
those who covet enjoyment, salvation or siddhi are per 
turbed. Witness the Bhagabat, VI. xiv 4. 

"In roving through the universe, lucky is the man 
who gets the seed of the creeper of faith (bhakti) through 
th grace of his guru and Krishna. He sows the seed like 
a gardener, waters it with hearing and chanting [the holy 
name j . As the creeper grows it pierces through the 
universe, passes beyond the Birajd Brahma world to the 
Para-byom, and above that to the heavenly Brindaban, 
where it creeps up the wishing-tree of Krishna s feet, 

spreads and bears fruit in the form of love (prem) If 

any sin against Vaishnavism is done, it uproots or tears 
the creeper like a wild elephant, its leaves wither. Then 
the gardener on earth carefully covers it, to save it from 
the elephant of sin. But if parasites, like love of enjoy 
ment or salvation and countless other things, or forbidden 
practices like rubbish, slaughter of living beings, thirst 
of gain or fame, adhere to the creeper, then these para 
sites flourish from the watering, while the main creeper s 
growth is arrested. Cut off the parasites first ; then will 
the main branch reach the heavenly Brindaban. When 
the mature fruit of love drops down, the gardener tastes 
it, and proceeding up the creeper he reaches the wishing- 
tree. There (in Vishnu s heaven) he tends the wishing- 
tree, and blissfully tastes the juice of the fruit of love. 
That is the highest fruit, the supreme human bliss, in 
comparison with which the four human attainments are as 

straw From pure faith is born love. Therefore I 

tell you of the signs of pure faith : Leaving desire for 
others, worship of others, knowledge and work, devote all 



214 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [XVII 

your senses to the cultivation of Krishna. This is pure 
faith, the source of love. Its signs are described in the 

Narada-pancha-ratra and the Bhagabat, III. xxix. 10 12 

&c. 

"If one desires enjoyment, salvation, &c., he cannot 
kindle love, even by means of devotion (sddhan). From 
the culture of bhakti ardour is born ; when ardour deepens 
it is called love (prem). As love grows it is successively 
called sneha, man, pranaya, rdg, anurdg, bhdb, fnahd- 
bhdb, just as we have successively cane-seed, sugarcane 
juice, molasses, sugar, and fine sugarcandy. All these are 
the enduring forms of bhakti in Krishna, if they are joined 
by provocation and addiction of mind. When the spiritual 
(sdtwik) and extensive (byabhichdri) emotions mingle 
together, bhakti in Krishna becomes a veritable nectar in 
taste, just as curd, when mixed with sugar, ghee, pepper, 
and camphor, becomes deliciously sweet. In different 
bhaktas the inclination (rati) assumes different forms, viz., 
the shdnta, the ddsya, the sakhya, the bdtsalya, and the 
madhur. From these differences in the nature of the 
passion, the mood (ras) of Krishna s love assumes five 
forms of the same name, which are called the chief rasas, 
while there are seven minor rasas, -viz., the comic, the 
grotesque, the heroic, the pathetic, the rude, the horrible, 
and the timid. The five former moods permanently 
occupy the minds of bhaktas ; while the seven minor 
moods rise fitfully when they get a favourable occasion. 
The nine sages [who instructed king Nimi] and Sanak 
and others are examples of bhaktas of the shdnta mood. 
Countless are the bhaktas everywhere who illustrate the 
ddsya mood. The sakhya mood is typified in Shridam 
and other [cow-boys] and in Bhim and Arjun of Hastinapur. 



XVII] MOODS OF BHAKTI ANALYZED 215 

The bhaktas of the bdtsalya mood are father, mother and 
other elders. Of the madhur mood of bhakti, the exam 
ples are chiefly the milkmaids of Brindaban, Krishna s 
queens, Lakshmi and countless others. 

"Again, ardour (rati) for Krishna is of two kinds : 
(i) accompanied by a sense of his Godhead, and (2) pure 
a-Hd simple. At Gokul the latter was displayed, free from 
any consciousness of his Godhead, while at Mathura, 
Dwaraka, Vaikuntha and other places the former prevailed. 
Where the sense of his Godhead is predominant, love 
[for him] is contracted ; whereas the way of pure ardour 
is to disregard his Godhead even when it is openly shown. 
In the shdnta and dftsya emotions this consciousness of 
Ms Godhead is a little kindled, but in the batsalya, sakhya 
and madhur it is shrunk up. When Krishna bowed at the 
feet of Vasudev and Devaki, they were frightened by the 
sense of his Godhead. Witness the Bhagabat, X. xliv. 35. 

"Arjun was awe-struck at beholding the vision of 
Krishna as God, and begged his pardon for having treated 
him familiarly under the notion of a friend. Vide the Gitd, 
xi. 41. When Krishna jested with Rukmini, she became 
mortally afraid lest he should quit her. Vide the Bhaga- 
bat, X. Ix. 23. 

"The pure love called kebald (unmixed) ignores his 
divinity, and in case it does recognize him as God, it dis 
avows its loving connection with him. Vide the Bhaga- 
bat, X. viii. 35, ix. 12, xviii. 14, xxx. 32, xxxi. 16. 

"The shdnta ras consists in recognizing the true 
nature of Krishna and fixing the mind on him only. 
Krishna has himself said, Devoting the mind exclusively 
to me is the virtue of shama. Vide the Bhagabat, XI. 
xix. 33 : 



2l6 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [XVII 

Shama consists in fixing the mind on me ; dama is 
control of the organs of the senses ; titikshd is endurance 
of sorrow ; and dhriti is checking what rises on the 
tongue/ < 

"It is the duty of a shdnta votary to give up thirst 
for everything except Krishna ; hence a shdnta and a 
bhakta of Krishna are identical terms. Krishna s devotee 
regards heaven and even salvation as no better than hell. 
Vide the Bhagabat, VI. xvii. 23. , 

"Devotion to Krishna and conquest of desire are the 
two marks of a shdnta bhakta. All the five kinds of 
bhaktas are necessarily marked by these qualities, just as 
sound, the attribute of the sky, is possessed by the other 
four elements also. A shdnta votary s attachment to 
Krishna is like an odourless flower ; he has only acquired 
a true sense of God s nature, as the supreme spirit and 
divinity. The ddsya mood better developes the cognition 
of Krishna as the Lord of full powers. A dds bhakta 
constantly gratifies Krishna bv serving him with a sense 
of his divinity, honour, and great glorification ; ddsya ras 
has the merit of the shdnta ras plus service, i.e., it has 
two merits. The sakhya ras possesses these two merits 
[plus absolute trust in Krishna]. In ddsya Krishna s 
service is marked by honour and glorification ; in sakhya 
by reliance. 

"A sakhd bhakta sits on Krishna s back, or carries 
him on his shoulders, or has a mock fight ? with him ; he 
serves Krishna and at times makes Krishna serve him! 
The chief characteristic of the sakhya ras is free com- 
radery, without any feeling of respect or awe. So this 
ras has three qualities ; in it Krishna is loved more 
ardently, as he is held equal to the bhakta s self ; hence 



XVII] CUMAX OF THE STAGES OF BHAKTI 217 

this ras captivates the good. In the batsalya ras there 
are the above three qualities, plus tenderness, which in its 
excess leads to chiding and chastisement. Such a de 
votee regards himself as the patron and Krishna as the 
protege ; his service takes the form of paternal care. This 

ras, therefore has four qualities, and is like nectar 

"In the madhur ras all the above four qualities are 
present in a heightened form, and in addition to them 
the votary serves Krishna as a lover offering him his or 
her own person. Here five qualities are present. All the 
[four] emotions find their synthesis in the madhur, just 
as in the case of the five elements (sky, air, light, water 
and earth) the attributes of the first four are all united 
in the fifth. Hence is the madhur ras of wondrous deli- 
ciousness. This emotion has been fully described. 
Reflect how to spread it. While meditating, Krishna will 
illuminate your heart. Through Krishna s grace, even an 
ignorant man reaches the farthest shore of the emotions." 

So saying the Master embraced Rup and started for 
Benares next morning. Rup begged leave to accompany 
Him as he could not bear the pang of parting. But the 
Master objected, "Let me lay down your duty. You are 
now within easy reach of Brindaban ; go there. Thence 
return to Bengal and join me at Puri." After giving him 
a (parting) embrace the Master embarked. Rup fell down 
there in a swoon. The Deccani Brahman took him to his 
house. ,. 

Then Rup and his brother went to Brindaban. When 
the Master reached Benares, Chandra Sekhar met Him 
outside the village, as he had dreamt the previous night 
that the Master had come to his house and so he had 
come out of the village to wait for Him. Delighted to 



2l8 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [XVII 

see- the Master, he bowed at His feet and took Him home 
with him. At the news, Tapan Mishra came to the 
Master ; forming a select assembly he invited Him and 
made Him dine at his house. Chundra Shekhar invited 
Bhattacharya. After the feast Tapan Mishra begged Him, 
"Grant me kindly one favour that I beg of thee. So long 
as thou stayest at Kashi do not dine anywhere except in 
my house." The Master accepted his invitation as He 
knew that He would stay for a week only and would not 
dine with hermits. He lodged with Chandra Shekhar. 
The Maratha Brahman and many good men of the 
Brahman and Kshatriya castes visited the Master. [Text, 
-canto 19.] 



CHAPTER XVIII 


San at an meets the Master and is taught 

of God s forms 

, t jAt Gaur, Sanatan lay in prison, when to his delight 
he received Rup s letter. Then he spoke to his Muslim 
jailor: "You are a living saint, a very pious man, well- 
read in the Quran. [There it is written that] if a man 
ransoms a captive with his wealth, God gives him salva 
tion. Formerly I had done you good turns ; now show 
your gratitude by reliasing me. I offer you five thousand 
Rupees. Accept the sum, and by setting me free gain 
both money and religious merit." 

The Muslim replied, "Hark you, Sir, I can let you 
off, but I fear the Sultan." Sanatan rejoined, "Fear 
not the Sultan. He has gone to Orissa. If he comes 
back, tell him that when Sanatan was sent to the bank 
of the Ganges to ease himself, he jumped into the river, 
sank down with his fetters, and could not be traced after 
much search. Fear not, I shall not live in this country, 
but turn darvesh and go to Mecca." The Muhammadan 
was still reluctant. So Sanatan heaped up seven thousand 
Rupees before him, at the sight of which his greed was 
roused. At night he sent Sanatan across the river after 
filing off his fetters. Sanatan avoided the road by Telia 
Garhi, the gate of Bengal, and travelling day and night 
entered the Patra hills. There he besought a rustic land 
owner to guide him over the hill. A palmist present with 
the landowner whispered to him that Sanatan had eight 
gold coins with himself. At this the man gladly promised 



230 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [XVIII 

to convey Sanatan over the hill by his own servants at 
night and asked to prepare his meal in the meantime. 
With marks of honour he gave him rice. Sanatan bathed 
in the river, broke his two days fat*, and reflected, "Why 
does this land-owner show respect to me?" Then he 
asked [his attendant] Ishan if he had any property with 
himself. Ishan replied, "Seven gold coins." At-tjiis 
Sanatan rebuked him saying, "Why have you brought 
this deadly thing with yourself?" Then he gave the 
seven pieces to the land-owner and sweetly said, "Take 
these from me and honestly conduct me over the hill. I 
am a run-away from the king s prison and cannot take the 
Telia Garhi road. You will acquire merit if you help me 
to cross the hill." The land-owner replied, "I knew 
before that your servant had eight gold pieces with him, 
and I had determined to murder you at night for the 
money. It is well that you have told me of the money, 
and so I have been saved from the sin of murder. I am 
so pleased that I shall not take the coins, but guide you 
gratis for the sake of merit." 

But Sanatan urged, "Some one else will murder me 
for the money. Accept it and save my life." Then the 
land-owner sent four footmen of his own, who led Sanatan 
across the hill by the forest paths at night. Emerging 
from the hill Sanatan asked Ishan, "I know you have still 
something left." "Yes, one gold coin," answered Ishan. 
Sanatan said, "Return home with it." So, leaving him, 
the holy man set out alone, a bowl in his hand, a tattered 
quilt on his back, and (therefore) fearless (of robbers). 
In course of time he reached Hajipur,* and in the 

* The town of Hajipur on the north bank of the Ganges, opposite 



221 



.XVIII] SANATAN JOINS CHAITANYA AT BENARES 

evening sat down in a garden. His brother-in-law, Shri 
kanta, a royal officer, lived here, entrusted by the Sultan 
with three lakhs of Rupees to buy and despatch horses. 
From a height he discerned Sanatan, and at night came to 
him with only one attendant. The two had a friendly 
meeting, and Sanatan told the tale of his escape. Shrikanta 
said , "Stay here a day or two. Put on decent robes and 
cast off your rags." Sanatan replied, "No, I shall not 
linger a minute here. Help me to cross the Ganges, I 
shall go away at once." Shrikanta with care gave him a 
Bhutia blanket and ferried him over. 

Sanatan in time reached Benares, where he was glad 
to hear of the Master s arrival. Going to Chandra 
Shekhar s house, he sat down at the gate. The Master, 
knowing it, told Chandra Shekhar, "There is a Vaishnav 
at the gate. Bring him in." Chandra Shekhar reported 
to the Master that there was no Vaishnav but only a 
darvesh at the gate. The Master replied, "Well, bring 
him in." Glad to be called, Sanatan entered. When 
he was in the court-yard, the Master rushed out and 
embraced him in rapture. At His touch Sanatan was 
overcome by love and cried out in a faltering voice, "Touch 
me not! touch me not!" The two wept ceaselessly, 
clasping each other s necks, to the wonder of Chandra 
Shekhar. Then the Master took him by the hand and 
seated him by His side on the veranda of the house, 
stroking Sanat%n s body with His own hands. Sanatan 
cried, "Touch me not, Master!" but the Master answered, 
"I touch you to purify myself. Through the strength of 

Patna, was the seat of the governor of Bihar on behalf of the Sultans 
of Bengal. (Riyaz-us-salatin, Eng. tr., 134 n.) 



222 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [XVIII 

your faith you can cleanse the whole universe. Witness 
the Bhagabat, I. xiii. 8, VII. ix. 9. By seeing, touching, 
and praising a bhakta like you, all my senses are gratified, 
as the scripture asserts. Vide the Hari-bhakti-sudhodaya, 
xiii. 2." 

The Master continued, "Listen, Sanatan ! Krishna 
is very kind, the saviour of the fallen. He has delivered 
you from the worst hell (rauraba). Limitless and pro 
found is the ocean of his mercy. " Sanatan objecte r d, "I 
know not Krishna. I recognize your grace as having 
effected my deliverance." Then at the Master s request 
he told the whole story of his flight. The Master told 
him, "I met both your brothers, Hup and Anupam, at 
Prayag. They have gone to Brindaban." Then He 
introduced Sanatan to Tapan Mishra and Chandra Shekhar. 
Tapan Mishra invited him, the Master adding, "Go, 
Sanatan, shave yourself," and telling Chandra Shekhar to 
take away the rags of Sanatan. They made him bathe in 
the Ganges, and Chandra Shekhar gave him a new gar 
ment, which he refused to accept. At this the Master 
was delighted exceedingly. 

After His noon-day prayer, the Master went with 
Sanatan to dine at Tapan Mishra s house. As He sat 
down to His meal He ordered the Mishra to serve Sanatan 
also, but he replied, "Sanatan has some rites to perform. 
You dine first. I shall give him your prasdd." After 
dinner the Master rested. The Mishra gave Sanatan His 
leavings and offered him a new cloth, which Sanatan de 
clined to accept, asking instead for one of the Mishra s 
old clothes. So the Mishra gave him an old cloth, which 
he cut into a waist-band and wrapper. 

Sanatan was introduced by the Master to the Maratha 



XVIII] SANATAN DISCARDS HIS FINE BLANKET 223 

Brahman, who gave him a general invitation to dinner 
during the whole of his stay at Kashi. But Sanatan de 
clined saying, "I shall rove (begging alms) like the bee. 
Why should I procurt all my food from one Brahman s 
house." 

Exceedingly pleased was the Master at Sanatan s 
detachment from the world, and He often cast glances at 
the Bhutia blanket, from which Sanatan guessed that He 
disapproved of it. So Sanatan planned to get rid of the 
blanket. When he went to the Ganges to perform his 
noon-day rites, he met a Bengali drying his quilt, and 
asked him to exchange it for his blanket, as a favour. The 
man retorted, "Why fire you, a venerable man, mocking 
me? Why should you exchange your costly blanket for 
a quilt?" Sanatan replied, "I am not joking but am in 
earnest. Do make the exchange." So saying he gave up 
the blanket, placed the quilt on his shoulders and came 
to Chaitanya. At the Master s query he told the whole 
tale. The Master remarked, "I have thought of it. 
Krishna, who has delivered you from attachment to earthly 
goods, cannot have left a remnant of that attachment in 
you. No good physician leaves even a trace of the dis 
ease unremoved. You were living on alms from door to 
door, and yet there was a three Rupee blanket on your 
back ! It spoiled your virtue and made you a mock unto 
the beholders." Sanatan replied, "He who has released 
me from worldly ties has also cured this last remnant of 
worldliness in me." 

The pleased Master showed grace to him, and thus 

> emboldened him to put questions. Formerly the Master 

had put questions to Ramananda Ray, which the latter 

had answered under His inspiration. So, now, inspired 

16 



224 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [XVIII 

by the Master, Sanatan put questions, while He established 
spiritual truths. 

Then Sanatan, biting a blade of grass as a token of 
abjectness, clasped the Master s feet; and said, "Low-born, 
with low comrades, a fallen wretch, I have wasted my life, 
plunged in the well of vile worldliness. I know nothing 
of my own good or evil, but I have held as truth whatever 
was approved in vulgar practice. As you have graciously 
saved me, tell me of your grace what my duties are. Who 
am I? Why are the three afflictions (tdpa) oppressing 
me? I know not what will do me good. I know not even 
how to ask about the truth of sddhya and sddhan. Do you 
of your own accord, unfold all thes truths to me." The 
Master replied, "Full is Krishna s grace to you. You 
know all the truths and are not subject to the three 
afflictions. You are strong in Krishna s strength, you 
know the truths already. It is the nature of sddhus to 
inquire about what they know, only to confirm it. 

"You are a proper agent for preaching bhakti. Listen 
to all the truths as I tell them in due order : 

"The soul of man is the eternal servant of Krishna. 
The tatasthd power of Krishna manifests differences 
[between the Creator and His creatures], just as a ray 
of the sun transforms itself into a flame of fire. Krishna 
has by nature three powers : -viz., the chit, the life, and 
the illusion powers. Vide the Vishnu Puran I. xxix. 50, 
VI. vii. 60 and 61, I. iii. 2, the Gita vii. 5 and 14, and 
the Bhagabat, XI. ii. 35. 

"When a creature forgets Krishna, his face is ever 
turned to external things, and therefore under the in 
fluence of illusion he undergoes the misery of being born 
in the world, now rising to heaven, now sinking to hell, 



XVIII] SHASTRIC GUIDANCE NEEDED FOR SALVATION 225 

just as a criminal is ducked in water by royal command. 
"If under the teaching of true scripture, a man turns 
to Krishna, he is saved, he gets rid of illusion. A creature 
labouring under illusion remembers not Krishna. So 
Krishna kindly created the Vedas and Purans. He makes 
himself known through scripture, guru, and the soul ; and 
man* comes to realize Krishna is my lord and saviour.* 
The Vedas treat of Relation, Epithet, and Needs ; that 
Relation is the attaining of Krishna, faith is the means of 
this attainment, the epithets are his names ; love is the 
(supreme) need, the most precious treasure and the highest 
achievement of humanity. Madhur service is the means 
of gaining Krishna.; Jby serving him we can enjoy the 
relish of him. The following parable will illustrate it : 
An all-knowing seer visited a poor man and seeing his 
misery said, Why are you so poor? Your father has left 
you a large legacy. He died elsewhere and therefore could 
not inform you of it. At these words the man began to hunt 
for his treasure. In the same manner the Vedas and 

Purans instruct men about Krishna The counsel of the 

seer is the source, the treasure is the consequence. By 
his own knowledge the man could not attain to his father s 
treasure the seer had to tell him the method of discover 
ing it : Here lies the treasure. If you dig in the south, 
hornets will rise and not money. If you dig west a gnome 
will show itself and hinder you. In the north your digg 
ings will discover a dark serpent, which will swallow you 
up. But by digging a little on the east side you will get 
the pots of treasure. Similarly the Shastras assert that 
leaving work, knowledge and abstraction (yog), one can 
influence Krishna by faith alone. Vide the Bhagabat, 
XI. xiv. 19 & 20. 



226 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [XVIII 

Therefore is faith the only means of gaining Krishna, 
and it is described in all Shastras as abhidheya. As wealth 
gives pleasure and drives away sorrow of itself, so bhakti 
kindles love of Krishna, and when love is turned to 
Krishna man is freed from bondage to the world. The 
fruit of love is not riches or the cessation of re-birth, but 
its chief object is the enjoyment of the beatitude of I6vmg 

[A long discourse on Krishna s forms, omitted in the 

second edition.] [Text, canto 20.] 



CHAPTER XIX 
On the sweetness of Krishna s attributes 

^ {The Master continued His teaching of Sanatan 
thus : ] 

"od in His all-embracing form dwells in the highest 
Space (pam-byom). The diverse Vaikunthas are beyond 
count. The extent of each Vaikuntha is millions and 
millions of miles. Ananda inspired by chit fills all the 
Vaikunthas. All of [His] attendants are filled with the 
six attributes (aishwaryya). The endless Vaikunthas and 
Space are His retinue ; above all of them is Krishna s 
Heaven, like the seed-pod of the lotus. Thus, [Krishna s] 
six attributes are [only] places of [His] incarnation. 
Even Brahma and Shiva cannot count them, what to speak 
of men? Vide the Bhagabat, X. xiv. 21, Brahma s hymn 
to Krishna. 

"Thus Krishna s celestial attributes are endless ; 
Brahma, Shiva, Sanak and others cannot see their end. 
Vide the Bhagabat, X. xiv. 7. 

"Not to speak of Brahma and others, even Ananta 
with his thousand tongues, is eternally singing [of His 
attributes] without being able to finish them. Vide 
Bhagabat, II. ^ii. 40. 

"Even Krishna, the omniscient and supreme being, 
cannot find the end of His own attributes, but remains 
eagerly longing [to know of them]. Vide Bhagabat, X. 
Ixxxvii. 37. 

"The mind fails to comprehend His exploits, even 



228 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [XIX 

of the time when He incarnated himself in Brindaban. 
At one and the same time He created the natural and the 
supernatural groups of cow-herds and kine, as described 
in Bhagabat, [X. xiii and xiv], cduntless Vaikuntha-born 
embryos, with their respective Lords. Such a marvel is 
heard of no other [god]. The hearing of it makes the 
heart overcome [with rapture]. In that miracle of His 
every one of the millions and millions of calves, cowboys, 
their rods, pipes, horns, clothes and ornamems, all 
assumed the form of the four-armed Lord of Vaikuntha, 
each with a separate universe, and Brahma adored him. 
From the body of one Krishna all these appeared ! And 
after a moment they all disappeared in that body ! The 
sight amazed and fascinated Brahma, and after hymning 
[to Krishna], he declared this, Let him who says that he 
knows the full extent of Krishna s power, know it. But 
as for me, I admit with all my body and mind that not 
a drop of this endless ocean of your power is cognizable 
by my speech or intellect! Vide Bhagabat, X. xiv. 36. 

"Many are the glories of Krishna ; who can know 
them? Think of the wondrous quality of the place 
Brindaban : the Shastras speak of it as 32 miles in extent, 
and yet in one corner of it the embryos of the universe 
floated ! Krishna s divine power is boundless beyond 
calculation." 

The Master, Himself the ocean of divine attributes, 
was seized with ecstasy in speaking of Krishna s divine 
attributes ; His mind became absorbed in the subject and 
He lost consciousness. He (then) recited Bhagabat, III. 
ii. 21, and expounded it, relishing with delight its sense. 
"Krishna is the Supreme Deity, God Himself. None else 
is greater than He or even equal to Him. Vide Brahma 



XIX] KRISHNA THE SUPREME DIVINITY 22Q 

Samhita, v. i. Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva, the lords of 
creation, [preservation, and destruction], all obey 
Krishna ; He is their suzerain. Vide Bhagabat, II. vi. 30. 

"Hear the meaniifg of the phrase unequalled Supreme 
Lord : Three purush incarnations are the causes of the 
universe, viz., Maha- Vishnu, Padmanava, Kshirodak 
Swami. These three occupy the souls of everything, gross 
or subtle. These three are the refuge of all, and the lords 
of tile universe. And yet they are mere particles of 
Krishna, who is supreme [over them]. Vide Brahma 
Samhita, v. 54. 

"This interpretation is only external. Listen to the 
esoteric sense. The *Shastras speak of three abodes of 
Krishna, viz., Antahpur, Golok, and Brindaban, in 
which [last] ever dwell [His] parents and friends ; where 
He manifested His sweet attributes, tenderness, mercy, 
&c ; where the illusion of yog was His bondmaid, and 
where rasa and other exploits took place. 

"Below it the Supreme Space named Vishnu s Heaven, 
where dwell Narayan and other eternal forms of Him, is 
situated. The middle abode of Krishna is the store-house 
of the six attributes, where He dwells in His eternal form 
(ananta). The Vaikunthas are endless, and there the 
rooms and attendants (even) are full of the six attributes. 
Vide Brahma Samhita, v. 49, [and other Sanskrit verses]. 

"Below it is His external abode, beyond the Birajd, 
where the unhierses are endless, and the rooms are illimit 
able. It is named Devidham, where creatures dwell. The 
Lakshmi of the Universe nourishes it ; illusion dwells 
there as His slave. 

"In these three places does Krishna dwell as the 
Supreme Lord, viz., Golok, the Supreme Space, and 



230 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [XIX 

Nature. The region where He manifests His chit power 
is called the Three- fold Divinity (tripdd aishivaryya), 
whereas the places of the display of His power of illusion 
are called One-fold (ekapdd) . c 

"The Three-fold Divinity of Krishna is beyond 
speech. Hear, therefore, of the One-fold Divinity. All 
the Brahmas and Shivas of the eternal universe are em 
braced by the term eternal rulers of spheres (chira-loka- 
pdla). One day Brahma came to Dwaraka to see Kri3hna; 
the porter took the message to Krishna, who asked Which 
Brahma? What is his name? The porter returned and 
asked Brahma, who replied in amazement, Go, tell him, 
it is the four-headed father of Sanak . After taking 
Krishna s permission, the porter introduced him. Brahma 
prostrated himself at Krishna s feet, who showed him 
honour and reverence and asked for the reason of his 
visit. Brahma replied, I shall tell you of that afterwards. 
First solve one problem of my mind. What did you mean 
by asking Which Brahma? What Brahma other than 
I can there be in the universe? At this Krishna smiled 
and plunged into meditation, and immediately innumer 
able troops of Brahmas came there, some with ten heads, 
some with tw r enty, hundred, thousand, million, even a 
milliard, beyond the power of counting. Rudras came 
with millions of millions of heads. Indras appeared with 
millions of eyes. At the sight the four-headed Brahma 
became senseless, like a hare surrounded f by a herd of 
elephants. All these Brahmas prostrated themselves 
before Krishna s seat, which was touched by their crowns. 
None can [adequately] describe the unimaginable power 
of Krishna. In one body there were as many images as 
there were Brahmas. His seat, struck with the crowns 



XIX] KRISHNA S POWER OF INFINITE CREATION 231 

of the Brahmas, set up a sound, as if the crowns recited 
praises of His seat ! With folded palms, Brahma Rudra 
and other deities hymned Krishna thus.: Lord! Great 
is thy mercy to us, a% thou hast shown us thy feet. Oh 
our good fortune ! thou hast called and accepted us as 
thy slaves. Bid us, and we shall place thy behest on our 
heads. Krishna replied, I longed to see you, and so 
called you all together. Be ye all happy ! Have you any 
thing to fear from the demons? They said, Thanks to 
thy grace, we are everywhere triumphant. Latterly thou 
hast, by incarnating thyself, destroyed the load of sins 
which used to weigh the Earth down. This proves the 
divine nature of Dwftraka and other [spheres], each of 
which imagines Krishna dwells in my region. The 
presence of Krishna made Dwaraka feel glory (baibhaba) ; 
they had all met together, and yet none could see the 
others. Then Krishna gave leave to all the Brahmas, and 
they returned home after bowing to Him. The four- 
headed Brahma was amazed at the sight, and again bowed 
.at Krishna s feet, saying, I have to-day witnessed an 
example of what I had previously known fpr certain in 
my mind. Vide Bhagabat, X. xiv. 36. 

"Krishna replied, This universe, though 500 million 
leagues in extent, is very small ; hence you have four 
heads only. Other universes are a thousand million, a 
lakh kror, or even a kror kror leagues in extent, and their 
Brahmas have^ heads proportioned to these sizes. Thus 
>do I uphold the whole system of universes. Even my one 
fold divinity cannot be measured. Who will measure my 

three-fold divinity? So saying Krishna dismissed 

Brahma. The divine form of Krishna cannot be explained. 
The phrase Supreme Lord has another deep meaning : the 



232 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [XIX 

term tri means the three regions of Krishna, viz., Gokul 
(named Golok), Mathura, and Dwaraka. In these three 
He always dwells naturally. These three places are full 
of His inner complete divinity. Oi these three Krishna 
Himself is the lord. The guardians of directions in all 
the aforesaid universes, and the eternal guardians of crea 
tion in Ananta and Vaikuntha, all bow to Krishna s sefct, 

touching it with the jewel of their crowns In His own 

chit power Krishna dwells ever. This property of* chit- 
power is called the six divine attributes ; it is also styled 
Lakshmi in the form of supreme bliss. Hence, the 
Vedas declare Krishna to be God Himself. I cannot 
plunge in the boundless nectar-oceah of Krishna s divine 
power, but have touched only a drop of it"... The Master 
paused for a while, and after composing Himself continued 
to teach Sanatan. [Text, canto 21.] 



CHAPTER XX 
Discourse on Devotion as the Aim 

J [The Master continued His address to Sanatan 
thus] : 

* The Vedas teach that Krishna is the sole Essence. 
Now let me speak of the signs of the aim (abhidheya), 
from which one can get Krishna and the treasure of 
Krishna s love. All the Shastras speak of faith in Krishna 
as the aim. Hence ftie sages declare, 

( We know for certain that thou, O Lord, art our 
refuge, because the mode of thy worship that Mother Shruti 
lays down in answer to our questions, is also indicated 
by Sister Smritis and Brother Purans*. 

"This truth is taught by the Monist school that 
Krishna is God Himself ; He dwells in the form of the 
Swarup power ; spreading out in the forms of swdmsha 
and bibhinndmsha, He disports Himself in Ananta, 
Vaikuntha, and Brahmanda. The four-sided incarnations 
are His swdmsha extension. The created world is the 
example of His bibhinndmsha power. Such creatures are of 
two classes, viz., one ever liberated, the other ever fettered 
to the world. The ever liberated* are ever eager for 
Krishna s feet; they are named Krishna s followers and 
they enjoy the bliss of serving Him. The ever fettered 
are ever excluded from Krishna, and ever feel the suffer 
ings of Hell ; the Fury, Illusion, ever torments them for 
that reason ; the three internal agonies scourge them ; they 
are kicked at by Lust, Anger [and other deadly sins] 



234 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [XX 

whose slaves they are. If in the course of their life s 
wanderings they meet with a saint as their healer, his 
teaching like a charm exorcizes the demon (Illusion) out 
of them ; then they feel bhakti fon: Krishna and come to 
Him. Faith in Krishna is the supreme end (abhidheya). 
Worthless are the fruits of other kinds of devotion, such 
as work, yog, and knowledge, in comparison with the 
bliss of bhakti ; the former cannot give us Krishna unless 
we have bhakti in Him. Vide Bhagabat I. v. 12 and II. 
iv. 16. Knowledge dissociated from bhakti cannot give 
salvation ; but a man devoted to Krishna can gain salvation 
without knowledge. Vide Bhagabat, X. xiv. 4 and the 
Gita, vii. 14. , 

"Creation, the eternal slave of Krishna, forgot this 
fact ; hence Illusion tied a rope round its neck. If a creature 
adores Krishna and serves his guru, he is released from 
the meshes of Illusion and attains to Krishna s feet. If, 
while observing the rules of his caste, a man does not 
adore Krishna, he will be plunged in hell in spite of his 
doing his caste-duties. Vide Bhagabat, XI. v. 2 & 3. 
The votary of knowledge imagines that he has attained 
to the condition of one liberated even in earthly life* ; 
but in truth his mind cannot be purified without faith in 
Krishna. Vide Bhagabat, X. ii. 26. Krishna is like the 
Sun, while Illusion is as darkness ; hence Illusion has no 
power to remain where Krishna is. Vide Bhagabat, II. 
v. 13. Even if a man prays once saying /Krishna I am 
thine, he is saved by Krishna from the bonds of Illusion. 
If the seeker after enjoyment, salvation and attainment 
(siddhi), is wise, he adores Krishna with deep bhakti. 
Vide Bhagabat, II. iii. 10. If a man adores Krishna in 
longing for other [material] gains, He gives the votary 



XX] NEED OF A GURU FOR SALVATION 335: 

His own feet unasked, arguing, In adoring me he is 
soliciting for material joys. What a great fool is he, in 
thus begging for poison instead of nectar ! I am wiser, 
why then should I grant this fool [his coveted] earthly 
pleasures? I^et me give him the nectar of my feet, so 
that he may forget earthly joys/ Vide Bhagabat, V. 
xix. 28. If a man adores Krishna even for fleshly lusts, 
he [soon] longs to abandon his desires and become a 
slave* of Krishna. In going through this worldly life, 
some are fortunate enough to gain salvation; just as a 
log of wood drifting down the current now and then lands 
on the bank. Vide Bhagabat, X. xxxviii. 4. By good 
luck some men s bondage to the world is about to be 
severed, [when] they are emancipated by the society of 
holy men, and are inspired with devotion to Krishna. 
Vide Bhagabat X. li. 35. If Krishna favours any blessed 
man, He teaches him as his guru seated in the heart. 
Vide Bhagabat, XI. xxix. 6. If in the company of holy 
men a man feels inclined towards bhakti in Krishna, he 
gets love, the fruit of bhakti, and is freed from the world. 
Vide Bhagabat, XI. xx. 8. Save through the favour of 
the noble a man cannot feel bhakti in anything ; not to 
speak of his gaining devotion to Krishna, he is not even 
freed from bondage to the world. Vide Bhagabat, V. 
xx. 12 and VII. v. 25. All Shastras recommend the com 
panionship of the holy. As soon as such society is resorted 
to, it gives success in everything. Vide Bhagabat, I. xvii. 
13. The gracious Krishna, in addressing Arjun [in the 
Gita], has laid down instructions for the salvation of 
mankind. Vide the Gita, xviii. 64 and 65. 

"God had first commanded the Vedic religion, work, 
yog, and knowledge. After these had been observed, 



CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [XX 

He finally commanded bhakti, which must, therefore, be 
superior [to the former]. If, in accordance with this 
[latest] dispensation, a devotee feels shraddhd, be leaves 
all works and adores Krishna. Vide Bhagabat, XI. xx. 
g. The term shraddhd means firm and unquestioning faith. 
If one adores Krishna, it is equivalent to his doing all 
the prescribed ceremonies [of religion]. Vide Bhagabat , 
IV. xxxi. 12. 

"Men who have shraddhd are qualified for bbakti, 
and are ranked as superior, average, and inferior, accord 
ing to the quality of their shraddhd. He whose shraddhd 
is confirmed by listening to the reasoning contained in 
the Shdstras is a superior entitled vo bhakti , and he is 
liberated from the world. He whose shraddhd is strong 
in spite of his ignorance of shastric arguments, is an 
average entitled to bhakti ; he, too, is very fortunate. 
He whose shraddhd requires a visible object [of adoration] 
is an inferior entitled to bhakti 9 ; in time he will advance 
to the stage of a superior bhakta. There are different 
grades of bhakti, according to differences of ardour and 
passion, as has been described in the eleventh skanda of 
the Bhdgabat, (XI. ii. 43-45). 

"All the high attributes are found in the person of a 
Vaishnav, because Krishna s attributes spread to His 
bhaktas. (Ibid, V. xviii. 12). The following qualities 
mark a Vaishnav ; they cannot be exhaustively named, 
I only take a rapid view : he is compassionate, spiteless, 
essentially true, saintly, innocent, charitable, gentle, pure, 
humble, a universal benefactor, tranquil, solely depen 
dent on Krishna, free from desire, quiet, equable, a victor 
over the six passions (sharguna), temperate in diet, self- 
controlled, honouring others and yet not proud himself, 



XX] STAGES OF VAISHNAV S SPIRITUAL EVOLUTION 237 

grave, tender, friendly, learned, skilful and silent. Vide 
Bhdgabat, III. xxv. 20, V. v. 2. The society of holy men 
is the root of the birth of devotion to Krishna (Bhagabat, 
X. li. 35, XI. ii. 28,*!!!. xxv. 22). The principal limb 
that springs up from it is love of Krishna. It is proper 
conduct for a Vaishnav to abjure the society of the wicked. 
TIjLe* man who consorts with women is one kind of sinner, 
while the man lacking in faith in Krishna belongs to 
another kind. Bhagabat III. xxxi. 35, 33 & 34). Leaving 
these [temptations] and the religious system based on 
caste, [the true Vaishnav] helplessly takes refuge with 
Krishna. Vide the Gitd, xviii. 66 ; Bhagabat, X. xlviii. 

22. If a learned man happens to sing Krishna s praise, 
he adores Krishna to the exclusion of all other deities, as 
is proved by the case of Uddhav. Vide Bhagabat, III. ii. 

23. The helpless and the refugee [among devotees] have 
the same characteristics. Then comes resignation in. 
After taking refuge in Krishna, the votary gives himself 
entirely up to Krishna, who then elevates him to His own 
nature. Vide Hari-bhakti-vilas, xi. 417 & 418 ; Bhaga 
bat, XI. xxix. 32. 

"Give ear, O Sanatan, while I turn to speak of the 
attainment (sddhan) of bhakti, which gives us the rich 
treasure of love for Krishna. Hearing [chant] and other 
acts [of the physical organs] are the sivarup signs of it ; 
while in the tatastha sign love is born. Love for Krishna 
is ever an end Jsiddha) ; it is never a means (sddhya). It 
is kindled in a pure heart by listening [to Krishna s 
praise], and other acts of the organs. The sddhan of 
bhakti is of two kinds : one following the ordinances of 
religion, the other following the [heart s] inclination. 
The man without a natural desire [for Krishna] adores 



238 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [XX 

Him in obedience to the bidding of the Shastras ; such 
bhakti is called regular (baidhi). 

King! It is the duty of the men who seeks liberation 
to hear, to praise, and to meditate akaut God, the universal 
Soul, the supremely Beautiful, and the Liberator from 
bondage. (Bhagabat, II. i. 5. and also XI. v. 2.) 

"The modes of cultivating bhakti are many ; I shall 
only tell you briefly of the chief of them: [they are] 
taking refuge at the feet of the guru, initiation, service of 
the guru, inquiry into the true religion, following the path 
of saints, renunciation of enjoyment out of love for 
Krishna, residence at holy places associated with Krishna, 
accepting alms no further than suffices [for one s susten 
ance], fasting on the nth day of the moon, reverence to 
foster-mothers, fig trees, kine, Brahmans and Vaishnavs, 
shunning from a distance all offences against adoration 
and the holy name, abjuring the company of non- 
Vaishnavs, taking only a few disciples, avoiding the study 
and exposition of too many books and arts, looking at loss 
and gain as alike, control of grief and other passions, 
abstention from abusing other gods and scriptures, never 
listening to scandal about Vishnu or Vaishnavs nor to 
village gossip, giving no shock by thought or speech to any 
creature that lives, listening [to chant], hymn-singing, 
keeping God in remembrance, worship, adoration [in 
words], attendance [on idols], assuming the attitudes of 
servant and comrade [to Krishna], dedication of one s own 
self [to God], dancing, singing, petitioning and prostration 
before [Krishna s image], rising to welcome [His image], 
and .following it as a mark of respect, visiting shrines at 
tirthas, walking round shrines, hymning, reading scrip 
tures, reciting the holy name, sankirtan, enjoying incense 



XX] SIXTY-FOUR MODES OF CULTIVATING BHAKTI 239 

garlands perfumed essence and the maha-prasad, witnessing 
the grand celebration of drati and the divine image, giving 
up whatever is dear to one s own self, meditation, and 
serving Him. 

"The service of the following four is approved by 
Krishna : the Tulsi plant, Vaishnavs, Mathura, and the 
bo9k* Bhdgabat. 

"Direct all your efforts to [the service of] Krishna, 
witness His mercies, celebrate His Nativity and other days 
in the company of bhaktas. Ever fly to him for refuge, 
celebrate Kartik and other bratas. 

"These are the sixty-four modes of cultivating bhakti. 
The five chief of them are (i) the society of holy men, 
(2) kirtan of Krishna s name, (3) listening to the reading 
of the Bhdgabat, (4) dwelling at Mathura, and (5) reveren 
tial service of His image. Even a little of these five 
creates love for Krishna. 

"Some bhaktas pursue only one of these modes, some 
many. When the mind has become steady, the wave of 
love surges up [in it]. Many bhaktas have attained to 
success by following one mode only. Ambarisha and other 
bhaktas cultivated many modes. (Vide Bhagabat, IX. iv. 
15-17)- The man who by renouncing desire adores Krishna 
in obedience to the injunctions of the Shastras, is not 
indebted to the gods the Rishis or the manes of his ances 
tors. (Bhagabat t XI. v. 37). He who adores Krishna s 
feet rejecting sJiastric rites, feels nevertheless no tempt 
ation for forbidden sins. Even if he commits a sin 
unwittingly, Krishna purifies him and he need not practise 
penance for it. (Bhagabat, XL v. 38). Theological 
knowledge and monachism are not at all necessary means 

17 



240 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [XX 

of cultivating bhakti ; Krishna s society gives inoffensive- 
ness and discipline. Vide Bhagabat, XI. xx. 31. 

"Hitherto I have held forth on the cultivation of 
bhakti in accordance with the sfastric teaching. Now, 
let me tell you, Sanatan, about bhakti in compliance with 
natural inclination. This latter kind of bhakti is chiefly 
found in the people of Brindaban, and those who cultivate 
it are called rdgdnuga ( inclination-led ). A passionate long 
ing for the object of desire is the swarup characteristic of 
inclination (rag) ; absorption in the object of desire is its 

tatastha feature The nature of an inclination-led 

bhakta pays no heed to shastric reasoning. 

"Its two types are external ~ and internal. In the 
external, the devotee through his physical organs performs 
listening (to chant) and chanting, while in his mind he 
imagines himself to be identical with his ideal [such as 
any sakhi or cowherd mate of Krishna], and thus [in 
fancy] serves Krishna at Brindaban day and night. With 
drawing himself into his own mind, such a votary ever 
remains close to his object, the dearest Krishna, and thus 
serves Him incessantly. In the path of inclination (rdg), 
he takes Krishna as the object of his chief emotion, viz., 
as master, comrade, child or sweetheart. (Bhdgabat, III. 

xxv. 35) 

"From the sprout of love (prem) issue two things, rati 
(addiction) and bhdb (emotion). These two conquer the 
Lord for us. Thus have I expounded nbhidheya, from 
which we gain the treasure of love for Krishna." [Text, 
canto, 22.] 



CHAPTER XXI 
On Love, the fruit of Devotion 

[The Master continued] "Listen now, Sanatan, to 
love, the fruit of bhakti, the hearing of which gives know 
ledge of the spirit of bhakti. When passion (rati) in 
Krishna is deepened it is called prem (love), the permanent 
form of bhakti in Krishna. It also has two aspects, viz., 
swamp and tatastha. If any man has the grace to feel 
shraddhd, he consort^ with pious men, from which com 
panionship result the hearing and chanting of Krishna s 
name. From the attainment of bhakti, all his troubles are 
removed, and as a consequence of the latter, his faith 
becomes constant, which gives him a taste for the listening 
and [hymning of Krishna s name]. From taste (ruchi) 
comes strong inclination (dsakti), which gives birth to the 
sprout of passion for Krishna in the soul. When this 
emotion is deepened, it takes the name of love (prem). 
That love is the (ultimate) fruit, the source of every bliss. 
Vide Bhagabat, III. xxv. 22. The man in whose heart this 
emotion sprouts up, is marked by the many qualities named 
in the Shastras. (Bhakti-ras-amrita-sindhu, I. Rati-bhakti, 
verse n, Bhagabat I. xix. 13). No earthly affliction can 
disturb his mind. Such a man never wastes his time 
without communing with Krishna. He never fears [attack 
by] enjoyment, material success, or the objects of sensual 
gratification. (Bhagabat, V. xiv. 42). Kven the noblest 
bhakta considers himself as lowly, and firmly believes that 
Krishna will take pity on him. He is ever expectant, ever 



242 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [XXI 

passionately longing [for union with Krishna]. Ever 
does he relish the work of singing Krishna s names, and 
ever engages in it. At all times is he addicted to holding 
forth on Krishna s charms. Everodoes he reside at the 
scenes of Krishna s exploits. 

"So far I have described the marks of rati for Krishna. 
Now let me describe the characteristics of love for Krishna. 
Even the wise fail to comprehend the speech, acts and 
gestures of the man whose heart is full of love for Krishna. 
(Bhagabat, XI. ii. 38). As love developes, it takes the 
forms of sneha, man, pranaya, rdg, anurdg, bhdb, and 
mahdbhdb, just as, from the same source of sugar-juice 
we have molasses, gur (khanda), valack sugar, [yellow] 
sugar-candy, and white sugar-candy. As these grow suc 
cessively purer and more delicious, so too do the above 
stages in the development of love. In relation to its 
subject, rati is of five kinds viz., shdnta, ddsya, sakhya, 
bdtsalya, and madhur. These five permanent emotions 
(bhdb) have five different flavours, which delight the 
bhakta and over-power Krishna. The permanent emotions 
of love etc., on meeting with the proper ingredient, mature 
in the form of Krishna- bhakti ras. The permanent emotion 
(bhdb) on being mingled with ras is changed into these 
four, bibhdba, anubhdba, sdtivika, byabhichdri ; just as 
curd, on being mixed with gur, black pepper, and camphor, 
becomes a thing of matchless deliciousness named rasdL 
Bibhdba is of two kinds, (i) dlamban, which is kindled 
by Krishna, etc., and (ii) uddipan, by the notes of His 
flute, etc. Anubhdba is stimulated by smile, dance and 
sonjr. Stupor and other sensations are included in sdtwika 
anubhdba. Byabhichdri is of 33 kinds, such as delight, 
rapture, &c. 



XXI] MASTER EXPLAINS RAS TO SANATAN 243 

(t Ras is of five kinds, shdnta, ddsya, sakhya, bdtsalya, 
and madhur. In the shdnta ras, rati advances to the 
stage of prem ; in the ddsya to rag, sakhya and bdtsalya 
attain to the limit of hnurag (as was the case with Subal 
and others love for Krishna) 

"Krishna, the darling of Braja s lord, is the chief of 
lovers, while the lady Radha is at the head of mistresses. 
Krishna s qualities are endless, even a single one of them 
when* unfolded can soothe the ears of a bhakta 

Countless are Radhika s qualities, of which 25 are 
the principal ones, which have conquered Krishna 

"The lover and his mistress are the themes of two 
rasas, and the foremost of the class are Radha and 
Krishna. Similarly, in the ddsya ras, the subject is a 
servant, in the sakhya a comrade, in the bdtsalya the 
parents. 

"This ras is tasted only by Krishna s bhaktas ; those 
who are not devoted to Him have not the lot to enjoy 

it Before this, at Allahabad I discoursed on ras and 

inspired with my power your brother Rup Goswami. Do 
you preach the lore of bhakti ; do you discover the lost 
shrines of Mathura. At Brindaban teach the adoration of 
Krishna, the proper conduct of Vaishnavs, and the scrip 
tures of the creed of bhakti." 

Thus did the Master teach Sanatan all about the 
temperate conquest of passions (bairdgya) and condemned 
arid bairdgya which consists of (mere) knowledge. Vide 
the Gitd, xii. 13 et seq and Bhagabat, II. ii. 5. 

Then Sanatan asked about the metaphorical inter 
pretations (siddhdnta) of all the acts of Krishna s life} and 
the Master clearly explained them. At last Sanatan 
clasped His feet and biting a wisp of grass in sign of 



244 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [XXI 

abjectness prayed to Him thus : "I am a wretch, of low 
caste, and the servant of the unclean. And yet thou hast 
taught me theological expositions which even Brahma 
knows not ! My despicable mind 6annot contain even a 
single drop of this ocean of exposition that thou hast 
poured into it. Thou canst make even the lame dance, if so 
thou wishest. Lav thy feet on my head and pronounce 
on me the blessing that all that thou hast taught me may 
become bright within me. May I derive power from 1 thy 
power!" And the Master blessed him accordingly. 
[Text, canto 23.] 

Again did Sanatan clasp the Master s feet and ask 
Him, "I have heard that you explained to Sarvabhauma 
in eighteen different ways the following couplet of the 
Bhdgabat, I. vii. 10 : 



"My mind, on hearing of it, has been seized with 
wonder and curiosity. If thou tellest it [again] graciously, 
my ears will be charmed." The Master answered, "I am 
a mad man ; Sarvabhauma took my mad words for truth. 
I do not remember what ravings I uttered in his house. 
But should your company inspire me I may possibly re 
collect a little of it. My mind is not naturally enlightened 
as to the sense of the verses ; what I shall say is only the 
outcome of the influence of your company." 

[His 6 1 subtle interpretations of the above stanza and 
the rules of Sanskrit grammar lexicography and logic 
appealed to by the Master in support of them, are omitted 
here in the 2nd edition.] 

Listening to these [sixty-one diverse] explanations,, 



XXI] SANATAN BIDDEN TO WRITE VAISHNAV SMRITI 245 



Sanatan was filled with wonder, and praised the Great 
Master, clinging to His feet, "Thou art God incarnate, 
the darling of Braja s lord. Thy breath called into being 
all the Vedas. Thou aft the speaker in the Bhdgabat, and 
thou knowest its meaning, which none else can under 
stand !" The Master objected, "Why praise me? Why 
not* consider the nature of the Bhdgabat, which is like 
Krishna, all-embracing, the refuge of all. Every couplet, 
nay every letter of it breathes a variety of senses. By 
means of a dialogue this fact has been established in the 
Bhdgabat itself. (I. i. 23 and iii. 42). These my inter 
pretations of the shloka are like the ravings of a mad man. 
Who will accept them*? If any one be mad like me, he 
will understand the meaning of the Bhdgabat from this 
[ specimen ]." 

Again did Sanatan with folded palms entreat Him, 
"Master, thou has bidden me write the sacred code (smriti} 
of Vaishnavs. I am a man of low caste, ignorant of cere 
monial cleanness (dchdr). How can smriti be taught by me? 
If you teach me an outline of it in the form of sutras 
(aphorisms), if you yourself enter my heart, then the 
sketch will inspire the mind of a low man like me. Thou 
art God ; whatever thou makest me speak will prove true. * 
The Master replied, "Whatever you wish to do, Krishna 
will inspire your mind with [knowledge of it]. I, 
however, give you a rapid survey of the different points 
[which you shoiild deal with in compiling the Vaishnav 
sacred code] (A long list, not translated here). In every 

case quote as your authority the sayings of the Purdns 

When you will write, Krishna will inspire you." [Itext, 
canto 24.] 



CHAPTER XXII 

The Master converts the people of Benares and 
returns to Jagannath 

Thus did the Master in two months instruct Sanatan 
in the entire lore of the philosophy of faith. Chundra 
Shekhar s comrade, Paramananda Kirtania, an expert 
artist, performed kirtan before the Master. 

As the Master had slighted the sannyasis they 

everywhere spoke ill of Him. At this the Maratha 
[Brahman] sadly reflected, Whosoever has a close view 
of the Master s character feels Him to be God indeed, 
and admits Him as such. If I can bring them and Him 
together, they will perceive this [quality] and become His 
followers. I have always to dwell in Kashi, and if I do 
not effect this, it will be a matter of everlasting regret to 
me." 

So, he invited all the sannyasis, and himself went on 
a visit to the Master. Chandra Shekhar and Tapan 
Mishra, grieved to hear Him defamed, were humbly 
entreating Him, and His mind, too, was thinking of the 
conversion of the sannyasis, in order to remove the grief 
of His bhaktas. Just then the Maratha Brahman arrived 
and clasping the Master s feet by much er.treaty induced 
Him to accept his invitation. At noon He went to His 
host s house, and bestowed salvation on the sannyasis in 
the riianner described in Part I. of this book. 

From the day on which He blessed the sannyasis, a 
sensation was created in the village ; crowds flocked to 



XXII] SANNYASIS ABJURE YOG FOR BHAKTI -247 

* 

behold the Master ; scholars of various schools came to 
discuss theology with Him, but He refuted all their 
philosophies and established faith as the final truth. By 
His reasoned speech fie turned the minds of them all, 
and they followed His instruction and began to chant 
Krishna s name. All men laughed, sang, and danced. 
The sannyasis submitted to Him ; quitting their studies 
they formed assemblies of their own [to discourse on 
faithi 

A disciple of Prakashananda, equal to him in attain 
ments, spoke reverently of the Master in open meeting 
thus, "Chaitanya is Narayan himself. He explains the 
aphorisms of Vyas r/lost charmingly. His exposition of 
the root meaning of the Upanishads gratifies the hearing 
and mind of scholars even. Our teacher [Prakashananda] 
gives a fanciful explanation of the aphorisms of the Upa 
nishads leaving their essential meaning out. On hearing 
his fanciful explanations scholars pretend to approve, but 
are not inwardly convinced, whereas Chaitanya s words \vo 
feel to be truth indeed. In the Kali Yug, one cannot van 
quish the World by asceticism ; the highest conclusion and 
true source of bliss is contained in the exposition which He 
gave of the verses Hari s name alone &c\ The Bhagabat 
asserts that there cannot be salvation without faith, and 
that rapture in the name [of Hari] can give an easy 
deliverance in the Kali Yug. (Bhagabat, X. xiv. 4 and 
ii. 26). > 

"The term Brahma connotes God full of the six divine 
attributes. To describe Him as abstract is to impair His 
fulness. The Shruti Purans deal with the manifestations 
of Krishna s chit power. Philosophers laugh at it 
irreverently. They look upon Krishna s chiddnanda 



248 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [XXII 

t 

images as a mere piece of illusion. In this they sin 
grievously. Chaitanya s view is the true one. (Bhdgabat, 
III. ix. 3 and 4 ; Gita, ix. n and xvi. 19). The aphorisms 
[of Vedanta] teach the theory ot*parindm (result), but 
our teacher disregards it, calls Vyas ignorant, and asserts 
the theory of bivarta. This fanciful interpretation does 
not satisfy the mind. Fancies at variance with scripture 
prove a man a wretch. Engaged in vain disputation, I 
have hitherto forgotten to know the Supreme Essence. 
Oh ! how shall I merit Krishna s grace ? Our teacher has 
obscured the meaning of Vyas s aphorisms, whereas 
Chaitanya has revealed it. True are His words ; all other 
theories are false and futile." * 

So saying he began to sing Krishna s sankirtan. At 
this Parkashananda remarked, "The Acharya was eager 
to establish Monism, and he had therefore to twist the 
sense of the aphorisms. If you admit God s bhagawdn- 
ship, you cannot establish Monism. So the Acharya had 
to refute all the Shdstras. No author who wishes to set 
up his own theory can give the plain meaning of the 
scriptures. A philosopher of the Mimdnsa school speaks 
of God as a part and parcel of [His] work ; the Sdnkhya 
f speaks of Him as the cause of Nature all over the universe. 
The Nydya asserts that the world was composed out of 
atoms ; the Illusionist speaks of the abstract Brahma as 
the Cause. Patanjal (alone) tells us of the true nature 
of Krishna ; so He is the true God, according to the. 
Vedas. None recognizes God as the Supreme Cause , 
each school of philosophy only sets up its own theory by 
refuting the views of its rivals. Thus from the six schools 
of philosophy we cannot know the [spiritual] truth. 
Only the words of great men are reliable. Chaitanya s 



XXII] CHAITANYA CONVERTS PRAKASHANANDA 349 

words are a stream of nectar. What He says is 
the essence of spiritual truth.* Hearing all this, the 
Maratha Brahman in delight went to report it to the 
Master, whom he met &oing to visit Bindu Madhav after 
His bath in the five streams. At the Brahman s narration 
He was pleased. Beholding the beauty of Bindu Madhav 
Hewas enraptured and danced in the courtyard [of the 
temple] in love, while Chandra Shekhar, Paramananda, 
Tapan* and Sanatan joined in a sankirtan chanting, 

"Hail to Hari and Hara! to Krishna the Vaclav, td 
Gopdl, Go-vinda, Rdm and Madhusudan." 

Lakhs of men surrounded them shouting Hari! Hari! 
The blessed cry filled earth and heaven. Hearing it near 
him, Prakashananda came there with his pupils, moved 
by curiosity. Beholding the Master s charm of person 
and dancing, he with his disciples joined the cry of Hari! 
Hari! The Master trembled, spoke in a choking voice, 
perspired, changed colour, or at times stood rigidly inert, 
bathing the bystanders with His tears, His body thrilled 
with ecstasy like the Kadamba tree. He displayed every 
passion, exultation, abjectness, lightness &c., to the 
marvel of the people of Benares. 

On seeing the crowd, the Master recovered His senses, 
and stopped His dance before the sannyasis. He bowed 
very low to Prakashananda, who, however clasped His 
feet. The Master cried out, "You are the instructor of 
the world, and ibeloved [of all], while I am not worthy 
to be your pupil s pupil. Why should a high one like 
you bow to a low one like me ? As you are God-like, 
by so doing you are destroying me [in sin]. Thciugh 
everything becomes you, as it becomes God, yet, for the 
sake of holding up a lesson before the people, you should 



250 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [XXII 

cease acting thus [humbly]." Prakashananda replied, 
"By touching your feet I have washed away all the sin 
of my former abuse of you !" (Bhagabat, I. v. 12, Chakra- 
varti s commentary, quotation froifc the appendix cited in 
the Bdsand-vdshya, also X. xxxiv. 7). 

The Master cried out, "O God! O God! I am a 
despicable creature. It is a sin to regard any creature 
as Vishnu. Even if a God- like person holds a creature 
to be Vishnu, then God will rank him among the infidels. 
(Hari-bhakli-mlds, i. 71)." 

Prakashananda replied, "You are God himself. But 
even if you insist on being regarded as God s slave, you 
tire still worthy of being honoured kbove us. That I once 
abused you will be the cause of my ruin. (Bhagabat VI. 
xvi. 4, X. iv. 31, and VII. v. 25). I now bow at your 
feet, that I may kindle faith in them." 

So saying he sat down there with the Master, and 
asked Him, "The errors you have pointed out in the 
theory of illusion, are, I know, the fanciful interpretations 
cf Shankar Acharya. Your exposition of the essential 
meaning of the aphorisms has charmed the minds of all. 
You are God and can do everything. Tell me then briefly, 
I long to hear [your interpretation of Vyas s aphorisms]. * 
The Master protested, "I am a creature insignificant in 
knowledge. Vyas was God s self and his aphorisms have 
a deep meaning, which no creature can know. Hence he 
has himself explained his aphorisms. \Vhen the writer 
is his own commentator, men can understand his meaning. 
The meaning of pranaba in the Gdyntri mantra is explain 
ed ft length in the four verses of the Bhdgabat, II. ix. 
30-33. First God imparted these four verses to Brahma, 
who taught them to Narad, and the latter to Vyas, who 



XXII] MASTER EXPLAINS ESSENCE OF THE BHAGABAT 51 

reflected, "I shall make the Bhdgabat itself a commentary 
on any aphorisms." So he accumulated the teaching of 
the four Vedas and the Upanishads. Every rik which is 
the subject matter of a,particular aphorism, is formed into 
a separate verse in the Bhdgabat. The Bhdgabat and the 
Upanishads, therefore, speak with one voice ; the former 
is nothing more than a commentary on the latter. Bhdga 
bat, VIII. i. 8, says, 

"Everything that exists in the world is the abode of 
God. Therefore enjoy what God has given you, and covet 
not another s possessions. 

"The above verse takes a bird s-eye view of the whole 
subject. Similarly eviry verse of the Bhagabat is like a 
rik. In the four verses the Bhagabat has unfolded the 
characteristics of Connection, Means (abhidheya), and 
Need. Connection with I is the truth ; perception of 
I* is the highest knowledge, the devotion and faith 
necessary to attain to I* is called the Means. The fruit 
of devotion is love, which is the radical Need. That love 
enables a man to enjoy I . Vide the Bhagabat, II. ix. 30, 
God s words to Brahmd : 

The knowledge of me is deeply mysterious. Accept 
as spoken by me whatever is united to supreme knowledge 
(bijndn), attended by mystery, and a part of tat. Or in 
other words, God says here, These three truths have I 
explained to you, because being a creature you could not 
have understoo^ them, viz., my nature, my dwelling 
(sthiti), and my attributes, works, and six powers. My 
grace will inspire you with all these. So saying God 
imparted the three truths to Brahma : (i) Bhagabat^ II. 
ix. 31, 

May you, through my grace, at once attain to true 



252 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [XXII 

knowledge about the nature of my form (swarup), my 
component element (sattwa), and my attributes and acts/ 
(God s speech to Brahma). 

"Or in other words, God says t Before creation, being 
myself endowed with the six divine powers, and drawing 
into myself Praawcfoa-Nature, I create while dwelling 
within it. The Prapancha that men beholds is no other 
than me. In destruction my remaining attributes mani 
fest themselves, completing me and so Prapancha-^ature 
finds absorption in me. 

"(2) Again, Bhagabat, II. ix. 32, God speaks to 
Brahma : 

This I alone existed before ct eation, and none else. 
Nature, the cause of the gross and subtle universes, did 
not then exist. This I alone exist even after creation ; 
this universe is indeed myself. Whatever will survive the 
destruction (pralaya) of the world will also be this I. 

"In this verse the phrase This I occurs thrice and 
determines the dwelling of the full-power divine incarna 
tion (vigraha}. He has (clearly) pronounced on this point 
in order to rebuke those (philosophers) who do not admit 
incarnations (vigraha}. The term this indicates jndn, 
vijndn, and vivek. Illusion is God s work, therefore 
God s self (7 ) is different from illusion, just as a faint 
glow shines in the sky where the Sun was, but it cannot 
appear of itself without aid of the Sun. It is only by 
going beyond illusion that we can perceive 7 . Here the 
truth of Connection [with God] has been unfolded. 

"(3) Next in Bhagabat, II. ix. 33, God tells 
Brahma, 

Know that to be my illusion which being unreal 
appears to the (human) mind as real, or being real is not 



XXII] FAITH AS A MEANS OF DEVOTION .253 

recognized by the mind ; just as the reflection in the water 
of the moon of the sky, though unreal, seems to be a, 
second moon indeed ; or as the Rdhu of darkness, though 
real, escapes man j s perception. 

"Listen to an exposition of faith as a means of devo 
tion. In religious rites we have to observe distinctions 
acpc/rding to person, locality, time and condition. But 
in the practice of bhakti no such difference has to be made ; 
it is the duty of all in every place, condition and time. 
Ask a guru about faith, and learn its nature from him. 
(Bhagabat, II. ix. 35). 

The man who seeks spiritual truth will admit that 
that substance alone *is the Soul (dtmd) which dwells at 
all times and within everything by acting as the anwaya 
(necessary) and byatireka (non-necessary) causes [of 
things]. 

"Attachment to / is love, the Needful thing. I shall 
describe its marks by means of actions. As the five spirits 
(pancha-bhut) dwell within and without all creation, simi 
larly I inspire my bhaktas within and without. (Bhagabat, 
II. ix. 34), 

( As the Great Spirits (mahd-bhutdni) enter material 
objects after their creation, but remained outside them as 
causes before their creation, so I too remain at once 
within and without all created things/ 

My bhakta has confined me to his lotus-like heart. 
Wherever he glances he beholds me. (Bhagabat, XI. ii. 
50 and 43, X. xxx. 4). 

"Thus does the Bhdgabat explain three things, 
Connection, Means, and Need. (Bhdgabat, I. ii. i\). 

"Now listen to the abhidheya faith, which inspires 
every line of the Bhdgabat (XI. xiv. 20). 



254 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [XXII 

00 

"Now hear about love, the radical Need, whose 
marks are joyous tears, dance and song. (XI. iii. 32 and 
ii. 38). 

"Therefore is the Bhagabat thet author s own commen 
tary on the Brahma Sutra ; it settles the meaning of the 
[Mahd] Bhdrat, explains the Gayatri, and amplifies by 
gloss the meaning of the Vedas, as is said in the Garuda 
Pur an. Vide also the two verses from the same Purdn 
quoted by Shridhar Swami in his commentary 01? the 
Bhagabat, I. i, also Bhagabat, I. i. 1-3 and 19, the Git-i. 
xviii. 54, Bhagabat, II. i. 9, III. xv. 43, I. vii. 10)." 

Then the Maratha Brahman told the assembled people 
how the Master had explained the* last mentioned verse 
in sixty-one different ways. The men wondered and 
pressed the Master, who gave His interpretations again. 
They marvelled exceedingly and concluded that Chaitanya 
was Krishna incarnate. 

This said, the Master left the place. Men bowed to 
Him and shouted Hari! Hari! All the people of Benares 
began to make sankirtan of Krishna s name, laughing, 
dancing and singing in love. The sannyasi philosophers 
took to the study of the Bhdgabat. (In short) the Master 
saved the city of Benares, which became a second Navad- 
wip [in fervour]. 

Returning to His quarters with His attendants, the 
Master said jestingly, "I had come to Benares to sell my 
sentimental stuff, for which there was no purchaser here. 
I could not carry my merchandise back to my country, 
as you would have been grieved to see me carrying the 
loadf! So, to please you all, I have distributed my goods 
freely!" 

They all replied, "You have come to deliver mankind. 



XXII] CHAITANYA LEAVES BENARES 

Before this you had carried salvation to the South and the 
West. Benares alone was adverse to you, and now you 
have redeemed it, to our delight/ 

The sensation at Benares spread. Millions of country 
people began to come to the city. They could not see 
the Master at the place of sankirtan, but formed lines on 
both* sides of the road to watch Him going to bathe or 
visit Vishweshwar. With uplifted arms He ordered them 
to ch^nt Hari s name ; they prostrated themselves and 
shouted Hari! Hari! 

Five days were thus passed in delivering the people, 
and then the Master grew anxious. When He started 

walking away at nigh*, His five bhaktas followed Him, 

-viz., Tapan Mishra, Raghunath, the Maratha Brahman, 
Chandra Shekhar, and the singer Paramananda, all wish 
ing to accompany Him to Puri. But the Master sent 
them back gently, giving them leave to come afterwards, 
as He was returning alone by the Jharikhand route. To 
Sanatan He said, "Go to Brindaban, to your two brothers. 
If my bhakta beggars, clad in quilt and bowl in hand, 
go there, cherish them." So saying He embraced and left 
them, while they all fell down fainting. Recovering they 
sadly took the way back to home. 

When Rup reached Mathura, at the Dhruba ghat he 
met Subuddhi Ray, who had once been governor of Gaur 
with Sayyid Husain Khan as his servant. Husain was 
ordered to dig a tank, and on his committing some fault, 
his master, the* Ray, flogged him. When, afterwards, 
Husain Shah became Sultan of Bengal, he greatly promoted 
Subuddhi Ray. ^ 

But the Sultana, noticing the scar of the lash on 
Husain s back, pressed him to murder the Ray. The 

18 



25^ - CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [XXII 

Sultan declined saying that the Ray was his former patron, 
a father unto him. But the queen urged him to destroy 
the Ray s caste while sparing his life. Husain answered 
that Subuddhi would not survive* the loss of his caste. 
The king was hard pressed by the queen, and at last 
forced water from his own goglet into the Ray s mouth. 
At this the Ray left all his possessions, fled to Bewares, 
and asked the pandits there about the proper penance. 
Thev replied, "Give up your life by drinking steaming 
ghee. This is not a venial sin !" The Ray remained 
perplexed, but when the Master arrived there, he told Him 
all. Chaitanya advised him to go to Brindaban and cease 
lessly chant Krishna s name, as one utterance of the name 
would wash away all his sins and a repetition of it would 
gain him Krishna s feet. 

The Ray reached Mathura by way of Prayag, Ayo- 
dhya, and the Naimish forest (where he lingered some 
days). In the meantime the Master returned from Brinda 
ban to Prayag, and Subuddhi on reaching Mathura 
grieved to miss Him. The Ray sold dry faggots at 
Mathura, at five or six piece per bundle. He lived by 
chewing one pice worth of gram and lodged the rest of 
his earnings with a bdnid. Whenever he met a poor 
Vaislmav, he fed him, and to Bengali pilgrims he gave 
curd, rice and oil for anointing the body. Rup greatly 
favoured him, and took him through the "Twelve Woods" 
in his own company. 

After a month at Brindaban, Rup hurriedly left to 
search Sanatan out. Hearing that the Master had taken the 
Ganges route to Prayag, Rup and his brother Anupam 
followed that path. But Sanatan from Prayag went to 
Mathura by the king s highway, and so missed Rup, who 



XXII] CHAITANYA RETURNS FROM KASHI TO PURI 257 

had taken a different route, as Subuddhi Ray told Sanatan 
on his arrival at Mathura. Tenderly did the Ray treat 
Sanatan, who cared not for tender treatment ; being very- 
averse to the world, h roamed through the woods, passing 
a day and night under each tree and grove. Securing a copy 
of the holy book named Mathurd Mdhdtmya, he searched 
the forests to discover the forgotten shrines. 

Rup with his youngest brother came to Kashi and 
them met the Maratha Brahman, Chandra Shekhar, and 
Tapan Mishra. He lived with Chandra Shekhar, dined 
with the Mishra, and heard from the latter how the Master 
had taught Sanatan. Delighted was he to hear from them 
about the Master s doings at Kashi and His grace to the 
sannyasis, and to see the devotion of the people to him, 
and hear them chanting kirtan. After a ten days stay 
there, Rup left for Bengal. 

The Master wended His way to Puri, feeling intense 
bliss in the lonely jungle path. Balabhadra accompanied 
Him, and He sported with the deer and other animals as 
during His first journey. Reaching Athara-nala He sent 
Bhattacharya in advance to summon His followers. At 
the news of His return, they got a new life as it were, 
ran to Him in rapture and met Him at the Narendra tank. 
The Master touched the feet of the Puri and the Bharati, 
who embraced Him lovingly. Damodar Swarup, Gada- 
dhar Pandit, Jagadananda, Kashishwar, Govinda, Vakresh- 
war, Kashi Mishra, Pradyumna Mishra, Damodar Pandit, 
Haridas Thakur, Shankar Pandit, and all other bhaktas 
fell down at His feet. He embraced each and was over 
come with love. The faithful swam in the ocean of Miss. 
With them He went to visit Jagannath, before whom He 
with His party danced and sang long in rapture. The 



CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [XXII 

servitor of the god presented Him with a garland and 
prasdd, while Tulsi Parichha bowed at His feet. 

The Master s arrival was [soon] noised abroad in the 
village. Sarvabhauma, Ramananda, and Vaninath joined 
Him. With them all He repaired to Kashi Mishra s house. 
Sarvabhauma bade Him to dinner, but He declined, and 
ordering some maha-prasad to be brought, feasted "ctyere 
with all His followers. [Text, canto 25.] 



CHAPTER XXIII 

9 

The Master teaches His disciples at Puri ; 
the meeting with Sanatan* 

o Author s words in commencing the Last Acts (Antya 
Lila) : "I bow to the Lord God Krishna-Chaitanya, whose 
grace enables a cripple to cross mountains arid a dumb man 
to recite the scriptures. I am blind ; this path is difficult, 
and I am again and again stumbling on it. May the saints 
be my support by lending me the staff of their compassion ! 

"I adore the feel of my six gurus, Rup, Sanatan, 
Raghunath Bhatta, Jiv, Gopal Bhatta, and Raghunath-das, 
who will remove evil (from my path) and fulfil my 
desire. In the Madhya Lila I have given a brief outline of 
the Antya Lila. I am now stricken with the decrepitude 
of age, and know death to be near. Therefore, I write in 
detail such acts of the Antya Lila as have not been 
described before." 

When the Master returned from Brindaban to Nilachal, 
Swarup Goswami sent word of it to Bengal. Shachi re 
joiced to hear of it ; all the bhaktas rejoiced. They all 
set off for Nilachal. The men of Kulin village and the 
men of Khand all joined Acharya Shivananda. Shiva- 
nanda Sen undertook to pass them through the police out 
posts (ghati) ov the road, looked after them, and secured 

lodgings for them When they arrived at Nilachal, they 

all met the Master, as in past years At the end of four 

months, the Master sent the bhaktas back to BengaX 

* Chapters XXIII XXVII are taken from the Antya Lila or 
Third Book of the text. 



260 % CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [XXIII 

Every year the Bengali adorers used to come, meet the 
Master, and then return home. From other provinces, too, 
people used to come to Jagannath-Puri and attain the bliss 
of gazing at the feet of Chaitanya....t.But there were many 
householders who could not come. For their salvation the 
Master inspired worthy disciples in those countries with 
His own force, and thus all countries were made Vaishh^v. 

Bhagaban Acharya, a great Vaishnav, very learned 
and high-born (dry a), lived at Jagannath-Puri, seeking the 
Master s company, as the cow-boys [of Mathura did 
Krishna s]. He was a comrade of Swarup Goswami, and 
took absolute refuge at the feet of Chaitanya. At times 
he used to invite the Master and maiie Him dine alone in 
his house. 

One day, when the Acharya had bidden the Master 
to dinner at his house, he called the Master s chanter, the 
Lesser Haridas, and told him to bring on his behalf a 
maund of white rice from the sister of Shikhi Mahiti. 
She was named Madhavi Devi, an old anchorite and devout 
Vaishnav. At his meal the Master praised the rice and 
learnt that it had been supplied by Madhavi through the 
Lesser Haridas. When He returned to His lodgings, he 
oidered Givinda to exclude Haridas from the place from 
that day onwards. 

Haridas grieved at the Master s doors being closed to 
him. For three days he fasted. None knew the reason 
of his exclusion. Then Swarup and others asked the 
Master, who replied, "I cannot look at the face of a bairagi 
who speaks to a woman. Our passions are hard to control 
and take hold of their natural objects of gratification. 
Even the wooden statue of a woman can steal the heart 
of an ascetic." (They prayed for His pardon, but in vain. 



XXIII] VAISHNAVS MUST SHUN ALL WOMEN 26l 

When even Puri Goswami interceded for Haridas, the 
Master in anger threatened to leave His disciples there and 
migrate alone to Alalnath). At the sight of Haridas s 
punishment, terror seiited all the bhaktas. They gave up 
conversing with women even in dreams. 

Thus did Haridas pass a year, and yet the Master did 
not, feel any grace for him. So, one night Haridas bowed 
to the Master [from a distance] and went away to 
Allahabad without telling anybody. He concentrated his 
mind on attaining to the Master s feet [in the next life] 
and gave up his life by plunging into the junction of the 
three rivers, (Triveni at Allahabad). 

An Oriya Brahma^i boy, handsome, gentle of manner, 
but fatherless, used to visit the Master at Puri daily, bow 
to Him and hold converse with Him. The Master was as 
life unto him, and he enjoyed the Master s favour. 
Damodar could not bear to see this attachment, and again 
and again forbade the boy [to come]. But he could not 
live without seeing the Master ; he came daily and the 
Master showed him great love ; it is natural for a boy to 
come where he meets with love. 

The sight grieved Damodar, but he could not say any 
thing as the boy heeded not his prohibition. One day the 
boy visited the Master, who lovingly inquired after his 
[health]. After a time the boy left. Damodar could not 
contain himself any longer, but burst out with, "In other 
connections you are called a Goswami. We shall soon 
know what sort of Goswami you are ! All men will soon 
sing the praise of our Goswami ! His reputation will be 
now established at Puri ! " ^ 

The Master, hearing it, asked, "What is this that you 
are talking, Damodar?" The man replied, "You are a 



262* CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [XXII I 

free God. You act as you please. Who can forbid you? 
But who can shut the mouth of the garrulous world ? You 
are a wise man. Why then do you not reflect deeply? 
Why do you love a widow s son ? *True, she is chaste and 
an ascetic ; but she has the faults of being beautiful and 
young. You too are youthful and extremely handsome. 
This w r ill give an opportunity to scandal-mongers to 
whisper." 

Damodar ceased speaking. The Master, pleased at 
heart, smiled and reflected, thinking "This is a current 
of the purest love. I have no well-wisher like Damodar." 

Another day, the Master took Damodar aside and said, 
"Damodar, go to Navadwip, and stay there with my 
mother. I do not see any other guardian for her than 
you. You have warned me even ! I have no candid 
friend like you among my followers. Unless a man is 
candid (lit., impartial), virtue cannot be guarded. You 
have done something which even I cannot do. You have 
reprimanded me, what shall we say of others? Go to 
my mother s house and remain at her feet. In your pre 
sence nobody can act freely. Come here occasionally to 
see me, and then return there quickly. .Convey to mother 
my millions of salutation. Make her happy with the news 
of my happiness. Say that I have sent you to her to tell 
her constantly of me. So saying delight her heart " 

(The miracles of the Vaishnav saint Haridas Thakur, 
not translated}. t 

When Rup Goswami, after visiting the Master at Puri, 
went to Bengal for returning to Brindaban, his brother 
Sanafan came from Mathura to Nilachal. He travelled by 
the Jharikhand jungles (Santal parganas), now fasting, now 
chewing [dry grains]. Scabs broke out on his skin from 



XXIII] SANATAN COMES TO CHAITANYA AT PURI -263 

the bad water of Jharikhand and the irregularity of diet, 
and exudations ran down his body. 

On the way he sadly reflected, "I belong to a low 
caste. My body is v*e. I shall fail to see the Master 
when I go to Puri. He lives, I hear, near the temple. 
But I dare not go near it, as the servitors of Jagannath are 
constantly passing there on business and it will be a sin 
if I [accidentally] touch them. Therefore, I shall renounce 
my tiody by throwing myself under the wheels of Jagan- 
nath s car when the god is taken out in the car procession; 
thus shall I attain at a holy place relief from my pangs and 
the salvation of my soul." 

So resolving, he* came to Nilachal and alighted at 
Haridas s place. He bowed at the feet of Haridas, who 
learning his name embraced him. His heart yearned for 
the sight of the Master. Haridas assured him that He 
would soon come. 

The Master, after witnessing the Upala-bhog of Jagan 
nath, came there with His disciples to meet Haridas. The 
two prostrated themselves at His feet. The Master raised 
Haridas and embraced him. Haridas said, "Here is 
Sanatan, bowing to you." The Master looked at Sanatan 
with interest and advanced to embrace him, while Sanatan 
ran backwards shouting, "Touch me not, Master, I beseech 
Thee. I am of low caste, and in addition my skin is run 
ning with exudations." But the Master embraced him by 
force, and His fair body was stained with Sanatan s sores. 
He introduced all His disciples to Sanatan, who bowed 
at their feet. With them all the Master sat down on the 
raised terrace, while Haridas and Sanatan sat below ,^ He 
inquired after Sanatan s health, who replied "My supreme 
bliss is that I have gazed on Thy feet." The Master then 



26 4 * CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [XXIII 

asked about the Vaishnavs of Mathura, .and Sanatan 
reported that they were well. 

The Master said, "Rup [your brother] was here for 
ten months, and he left for Bengal only ten days ago. 
Your [youngest] brother Anupam has died on the bank 
of the Ganges. He was a staunch devotee of Ram." 
Sanatan replied, "I have been born in a low family*; #11 
sorts of wickedness and wrongdoing were my hereditary 
burden. Such a family thou hast accepted, without 
scorning it ! My whole family has been blessed by thy 
grace. This Anupam was devoted to Ram-worship from 
his childhood. Day and night he used to meditate on the 
name of Ram, hear the Ramayan re&d, and chant it. He 
used to live with Rup and myself constantly and listen 
with us to Krishna s deeds and the Bhagabat. We one day 
tested him saying, Listen, dear, Krishna is very delicious ; 
he abounds in beauty, sweetness, love, and grace. Do you, 
therefore, adore Krishna in our company. We three 
brothers shall dwell together in the delights of discourses 
on Krishna. So we two urged him again and again. Our 
influence turned his mind a little and he responded, How 
long can I resist your command ? Initiate me in the mantra 
and I shall adore Krishna [in future]. So saying, he 
paced up and down all the night, waking and crying how 
he could leave Ram s feet. Next morning he told us, I 
have sold my head to the feet of Ram, and it pains me 
excessively to draw my head away thence, Have mercy 
on me and permit me to worship Ram s feet birth after 
birth. Then we two embraced him and praised him say- 
ing J^oble is the firmness of thy faith. Master, when you 
bless a family, it enjoys every good, and all its troubles, 
disappear." 



XXIII] SUICIDE PREVENTS SALVATION 365 

The Master replied, "Just in the same way did I test 
Murari Gupta before. That bhakta is noble who does not 
leave his Lord s feet. That Master is blessed who does 

not abandon his own devotee It is well that you have 

come here. Dwell in the same house with Haridas." 

One day the Master came there, as was his daily wont, 
to me et the two, and began abruptly to speak, "Sanatan ! 
If giving up life could have made one gain Krishna, I 
could >have sacrificed my life a million times over in a 
moment. It is not by courting death but by adoration that 
we can gain Krishna. There is no other way of gaining 
him than bhakti. Suicide and the like are a low dark 
(tdmas) kind of dharma. But the tdmas and rajas kinds of 
dharma cannot give us the essence of Krishna. Without 
bhakti there cannot be love, and without love Krishna 
cannot be attained. 

"Suicide and the like are a tdmas dharma, and the 
cause of sin ; through them a devotee cannot attain to 
Krishna s feet. The loving bhakta wishes to quit his body 
when separated from his Lord ; but when love has brought 
Krishna to him, he cannot think of death 

Give up your evil intention and listen to the kirtan, 
and soon will you get the treasure of love for Krishna. 
Even a low-caste man is not unfit to adore Krishna. Even 
a well-born Brahman is not, [merely by reason of his birth] 
worthy to adore him. He who adores is great ; the man 
wanting in devotion is low and despicable. In the wor 
ship of Krishna there is no distinction of caste or pedigree. 
The Lord is more gracious to the lowly, while the high- 
i born, the learned, and the rich are too proud [in His e^es] . 
"Among the methods of adoration the chief are the 
nine kinds of bhakti, which is most potent in giving us, 



266. CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [ XXIII 

Krishna s love, even Krishna himself. The highest of 
these is ndm-sankirtan , chanting the Name. Chant the 
Name with a pure soul and you will win the treasure of 
divine love !" t 

Sanatan marvelled when he heard all this, thinking 
"The Master is omniscient. He has divined my plan of 
suicide and forbidden it." Then he clasped the Master s 
feet, crying, "You are omniscient, gracious, free, and God. 
I move like a wooden machine as you turn my handle. 
I am lowly, a wretch, and wicked of disposition. What 
would you gain by keeping me alive?" 

The Master replied, "Your body is my property. You 
have given yourself up to me. H6w dare you think of 
destroying what is another s property ? Cannot you dis 
tinguish between a crime and a just deed ? Your body is 
my chief instrument ; with it I shall carry out many pur 
poses. The exposition of the nature of devotion, the 
devotee and Krishna-/>r<?ra, the duties and daily practices 
of Vaishnavs, the establishing of devotion to Krishna, love 
for Krishna and service, the restoration of forgotten holy 
places, the teaching of asceticism, the preaching of this 
faith at Mathura and Brindaban which are my favourite 
places, all these I wish for. But by my mother s com 
mand I live at Nilachal, and therefore I cannot preach the 
religion at Mathura in person. The body by means of 
which I want to do all these works, you want to give up. 
How can I allow it?" f 

At this Sanatan said, "I bow to thee. Who can fathom 
the depths of thy heart ? As the juggler makes the wooden 
pupflpt dance, while it knows not what it plays or what it 
sings, so, too, does the man whom you inspire, dance with 
out knowing why he is dancing or through whom." 



XXIII] MASTER AND BHAKTAS AT PURI 

Thereafter the Master embraced the two and left for 
His home to do His noontide devotions. 

Haridas mourned to Sana tan, "None can be compared 
with you in good fortv/ie. The Master has declared your 
body to be His own property. He will do through you at 
Mathura the work that He cannot do in His own person. 
ThrcAigh you He will compose the exegetics of bhakti, 
and lay down its scriptures and practices. [Alas!] my 
body i has been of no service to the Master. My body, 
though born in the [holy] land of Bharat, has become 
futile." 

But Sanatan consoled him saying, "Who else is your 
equal? Among the Master s followers you are the most 
fortunate. The work of His incarnation is the preaching 
of the Name, and that work He does through you. Daily 
do you chant the Name three hundred thousand times. 
Before all do you hold forth on the glory of the Name." 

The Bengal bhaktas came on pilgrimage, as before, on 
the occasion of the Car festival, and stayed with the 
Master for the four months of the monsoon. The Master 
introduced to them Sanatan who bowed at their feet and 
they favoured him. His excellent character and [deep] 
scholarship endeared Sanatan to all. 

In the month of Jyaishtha the Master went to Yamesh- 
war Tota (garden) to dine at the entreaty of His bhaktas. 
At noon He called for Sanatan, who delighted to hear of 
it, and went to Him by way of the sea-beach. He reached 
the Master witn* his two feet blistered [by the hot sand]. 

The Master asked "By what route have you come, 

Sanatan?" He replied, "By the sea-side." Ther^ the 
Master said, "Why did you come over the hot sand ? Why 
did you not take the cool path before the Lion Gate 



26 i 8 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [XXIII 

(singhd-dwdr) ? The hot sand has blistered your feet. You 

cannot walk ; how could you bear the journey?" 

Sanatan replied, "It was no great hardship. I did not 
feel that my feet were being blistered. I am not entitled 

o pass by the singhd-divdr road, especially, as the servitors 
of the god Jagannath frequently pass along it and it would 
be a disaster if I touch any of them." 

The Master s heart was pleased to hear of it, and He 
began to tell Sanatan, "Though you are the saviour of the 
world and your touch can purify even the gods and sages, 
yet it is the sign of a [true] bhakta to respect the dignity" 
[of rank or caste] . It is an ornament to a sadhu s character 
to observe distinctions (maryddd) o rank. Not to do so 

J to court public ridicule and to destroy one s own earthly 
life and spiritual welfare as well."... 

Sanatan s body was covered with running eruptions. 
The Master embraced him in spite of prohibition, and His 
body was stained with the exudation, at which Sanatan 
grieved 

But the Master said, "The body of a Vaishnav is not 
material. It is supra-physical and full of the chit and 
dnanda of bhakti. At the time of his initiation the bhakta 
surrenders himself to Krishna, who then renders him equal 
to his own self, and fills the body with his own chit and 
dnanda. The Lord Krishna has visited Sanatan s body 
with sores only to test me. If I had in disgust refused to 
embrace him, I should have been guilty in the eyes of 
Krishna " 

So saying, He embraced Sanatan again, and lo ! the 
sores r disappeared and his body assumed a golden hue ! , 

After the dol-yatrd he was given leave to depart to 
Brindaban with minute instructions as to what he should 



XXIII] ACHIEVEMENT OF RUP AND SANATAN ,269 

do there to propagate the faith. [A long list of the 
Vaishnav literature produced by Rup, Sanatan, and their 
nephew Jiv, the son of their youngest brother Vallabh 
Anupam, not translated here]. 



CHAPTER XXIV 
t 

Meeting with Vallabh Bhatta ; the Master 

stints His food 

i 
i 

Thus did the luminous Gaur (Chaitanya) perform many 
feats in many a playful way with His bhaktas at Nilachal. 
Though His heart was inly pierced with the pang of separa 
tion from Krishna, yet He did not express it outwardly 
lest His disciples should grieve. When, however, His 
intense love-sickness [for Krishna] cdid break forth, His 
agony baffled descrpition. The Krishna- talk of Ramananda 
and the [sacred] singing of Swarup saved the Master s life 
amidst the pain of separation from Krishna. In the day 
time His mind was diverted by the diverse company that 
He met, but in [the solitude of] night His love-sickness 
waxed strong. To please Him these two always kept Him 
company and consoled Him with verses and songs about 
Krishna. 

[Account of how Raghunath-das, the son of a very 
rich revenue-farmer, escaped from his home at Saptagram 
in Bengal, joined the Master at Puri and lived in utter 
lowliness by begging.] 

One year Vallabh Bhatta came and met the Master, 
bowing at His feet. The Master embraced him as an 
adorer of Vishnu (bhdgabat) and with honour made him sit 
close to Himself. 

Jleekly did the Bhatta address the Master, "Long have 
I desired to see you and to-day Jagannath has gratified 
that wish. Lucky is he who can behold you, for you are 



XXIV] VAIXABH ACHARYA EXTOLS CHAITANYA , 271 

as it were God in a visible form. Even to remember you 
[from a distance] hallows a man. No wonder, then, that 
the sight of you makes one blessed. (Bhdgabat, I. xix. 30.) 
The distinctive religioji of the modern age is the kirtan of 
Krishna s name, and this religion cannot be established 
without Krishna s own power. That you have founded this 
faith proves that you are inspired with Krishna s divine 
force. Whosoever beholds you, swims in the stream of 
the }ove of Krishna. Only Krishna s spirit can call forth 
this love, as the scriptures say that Krishna is the sole 
inspirer of prem (love)." 

The Master replied, "Listen, great-minded Bhatta ! 
I was a sannyasi following the theory of illusion (mdyd- 
vdd) ; I knew not bhakti for Krishna. The Goswami 
Adwaita Acharya is God incarnate ; his society has 
cleansed my mind. He has no peer in the knowledge of 
all the Shastras and in devotion to Krishna, and therefore 
he has been rightly named A-dwaita without a second ... 
Nityananda, Sarvabhauma Bhattacharya, Ramananda Ray, 

Damodar Swarup, Haridas Thakur, Acharya Ratna and 

many other bhaktas have all taught me Krishna-love and 
true bhakti, and have preached to the world love for the 
Krishna-name." 

So spoke the Master artfully, as he knew the Bhatta 
to be very proud of his learning, and to have long cherished 
the conceit that he knew all the bhakti- theology of the 
Vaishnavs and could expound the Shrimad Bhdgabat best. 
The Master s \tords curbed this pride of the Bhatta, and 
he longed to know the many disciples whose Vaishnav 
character the Master had just extolled. He asked, "Where 
do these Vaishnavs live? How can I meet them?" The 
Master replied, "Some live here, some on the bank of the 



2?a CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [XXIV 

Ganges (i.e., at Navadwip, Panihati etc.) . These latter 
have all come here for the Car festival, and have taken 
up lodgings in this place. Here will you meet all of 
them." 

Next day when all the Vaishnavs came to the Master s 
place, He introduced them to the Bhatta. Their Vaishnav- 
splendour filled the Bhatta with amazement and he looked 
like a firefly in their company. Then he feasted the Master 
and His disciples on huge quantities of mahd-prasdd. The 
sannyasis sat down with Paramananda Puri on one side. 
The Master sat down between Adwaita and Nityananda, 
while His disciples sat before and behind. The bhaktas 
from Bengal were countless ; they c filled the yard row on 
row. Vallabh Bhatta marvelled at the sight of them and 
bowed at the feet of each. He himself served the mahd- 
prasdd to the Master and the sannyasis. They shouted 
Hari! Hari! on receiving the prasad. The roar of Hari s 
name filled the universe. The Bhatta gave away garlands, 
sandal-paste, betel-leaf and nuts and delighted all with his 
reverence. 

On the day of the Car procession, the Master began 
kirtan. As before, He formed seven distinct groups of 
singers, under Adwaita, Nityananda, Haridas, Vakreshwar, 
Shribas, Raghav Pandit, and Gadadhar, who sang at differ 
ent places. The Master roamed about shouting Hari, 
while fourteen drums (mddal) lifted up the din of the 
sankirtan. The sight filled Vallabh Bhatta with marvel ; 
he flew into a transport of delight and could not control 
himself. Then the Master stopped the dance of the others 
and began to dance Himself. As he gazed on the Master s 
beauty and the exuberance of His prem, the Bhatta believed 
.that the Master was Krishna himself ! 



XXIV] VAU.ABH ACHARYA S PRIDE OF SCHOLARSHIP ,273 

After the festival the Bhatta begged the Master, say 
ing, "I have written a commentary on the Bhdgabat and 
want to read it to you." The Master replied, "I do not 
understand the meaning of the Bhdgabat and am not 
qualified to hear [and judge] any interpretation of it. I 
only sit down and recite Krishna s name, and even then 
fail .to complete the promised number of recitations in 
twenty-four hours." The Bhatta rejoined, "I have made 
an exposition of the meaning of Krishna s name in my 
commentary. Listen to it." But the Master objected, 
"I do not pay any regard to the many senses of Krishna s 
name ; I only know that he is Yashoda s darling son and 
darkly beautiful [lik^ the Tamdl leaves]. This only I 
know for truth, and I have not arrived at any other mean 
ing of the name." At the Master s slight, the Bhatta went 
back to his quarters, downcast in mind. (He took his 
commentary to the chief disciples, and even read out parts 
of his own motion, but they slighted it and he was abashed). 

Daily did Vallabh Bhatta go to the Master s place -and 
dispute with [Adwaita] Acharya and other disciples. 
Whenever he established a proposition, the Acharya used 
immediately to refute it. Before them Vallabh Bhatta 
appeared like a crane in the company of majestic swans. 

One day the Bhatta asked the Acharya, "Mankind is 
feminine, and Krishna is their husband, so you hold. No 
devoted wife utters her husband s name. And yet you 
repeat Krishna s name. What sort of dharma is this?" 
The Acharya replied, " Dharma in the flesh is sitting before 
you. Ask Him, and He will justify it." 

Then the Master broke in, "You do not knoyr the 
essence of dharma. It is the dharma of a true wife to obey 
her husband s commands. Our husband has commanded 



274 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [XXIV 

us to chant his name ceaselessly. No true wife can dis 
obey his command, and so we chant his name and derive 
from it the fruit of the birth of love for Krishna s feet." 
This silenced Vallabh Bhatta and he went home sorrowing 
at his public humiliation. 

Another day he came to the Master s assembly and 
said rather boastfully, "I have refuted [Shridhar] Swami s 
commentary on the Bhdgabat. I cannot accept his inter 
pretation Where his view differs from mine, I do not 

follow the Swami." The Master smiled and remarked,. 
"One who does not follow (her) swanii ( = husband) is 
ranked among harlots!" 

Chaitanya had come to earth as* an avatar for the good 
of mankind ; by various humiliations He purified the proud 

heart of the Bhatta At night Vallabh Bhatta began 

to reflect in his own house, "Formerly the Master favoured 
me greatly at Allahabad, when He accepted my invitation 
to dinner in the company of His disciples. Why then is 
His heart turned away from me now? Let my heart be 
free from the pride of gaining victories in debate. The 
God-souled does good to all. I am filled with the pride of 
asserting myself, and He humiliates me in order to cure 
me of this pride." 

So thinking, next morning he came to the Master and 
meekly praising Him took refuge at His feet, saying, "I 
am ignorant and have foolishly displayed my learning 
before you. You are God and out of yo ( ur natural grace 

you have removed my pride by means of disgrace The 

blindness of pride has been removed from my eyes through 
the ( ^ollyrium of your grace now, and true knowledge has 
dawned on me. I have sinned. Forgive me ; T take 
refuge with thee ; lay thy feet on my head." 



XXIV] VAI^ABH ACHARYA BECOMES A DISCIPLE 

The Master checked him saying, "You are a scholar 
and a devotee at the same time. Where these two qualities 
.are present, there pride cannot exist. You have written 
a commentary on the Bttdgabat in scorn of Shridhar Swami ! 

I understand the Bhdgabat through the grace of 

Shridhar Swami ; he is the world s guru, my guru. 
What you write contrary to Shridhar is labour lost ; no 
one will accept it. Therefore, write your commentary on 
the Etidgabat in the footsteps of Shridhar. Leave off your 
pride and adore the Lord Krishna. Give up your failings 
and join the kirtan of Krishna, and you will soon attain to 
Krishna s feet." 

Then the Master agreed to dine at Vallabh Bhatta s 

house once again The Bhatta used to meditate on 

God as the child Gopal. But the society of Gadadhar 
Pandit turned his mind, and he longed to adore the youth 
ful Gopal. He begged the Pandit to teach him the mantra 
and ceremonial of this kind of adoration, but Gadadhar 
declined to act without the Master s permission... Another 
day Gadadhar Pandit invited the Master, who agreed and 
at the dinner permitted Vallabh Bhatta to be initiated by 
Gadadhar. 

HOW THE MASTER STINTED HIS FOOD 

Ramchandra Puri Goswami came to Nilachal and there 

met the Master and Paramananda Puri Jagadananda 

Pandit invited Ramchandra Puri and fed him on the prasad 
of Jagannath. After the meal the Puri asked Jagadananda 
to feed on the food left over, and serving the prasad re- 
1 peatedly made him eat much. And thereafter, washing 
his hands and mouth, Ramchandra Puri began to cavil, 
"I had heard that Chaitanya s bhaktas were great gluttons. 



2j6 CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA t [XXIV 

Now I see it with my own eyes to be true. By gorging 
sannyasis with so much food, their piety is destroyed. You 
are bairagis and yet you are such huge eaters ! Your 
bairagya is not sincere." 

Ramchandra Puri was notorious as the universal fault 
finder, having been cursed for it by his own religious 
preceptor, Madhavendra Puri. He now dwelt at Nilachal, 
detached by nature, staying at one place for some t time, 
taking his meal at some [other] place without having been 
bidden, and taking note of what others ate. 

The Master was daily fed at different houses, at a 
cost of four pan of cowries [i.e., oye anna] for the three 
of them, the Master, Kashishwar, and Govinda (His 
body-servant.)... Ramchandra Puri closely inquired into the 
Master s abode, manners, food, bed and travels. He- 
could not reach the Master s merits, but roaming in 
search of His defects, could not find any. Then he began 
to slander the Master to all the people, saying, "He is 
a sannyasi and yet eats sweetmeats. How can such 
luxury enable him to control the lusts of the flesh?" 

He daily came to visit the Master, but only to pry 
into His shortcomings, for that was the only work of 
the Puri, while the Master did him reverence as His 
guru. He knew of the slanders spoken by the Puri 
[against Him], but welcomed and honoured him greatly. 
One day the Puri came to the Master s house in the morn 
ing, and noticing some ants on the floor, delivered this 
covert attack, "Verily sweetmeats were brought here last 
nigly, for ants are running about. A wonder \ sannyasis 
dead to the world have such gluttonous cravings!" And 
then he left in a hurry. 

The Master now saw with His own eyes what He 



XXIV] MASTER REDUCES HIS DAILY FOOD 

had only heard before, [about the slander spread against 
Him]. He called Govinda and told him, "From to-day 
my meal will be one packet of rice and curry of the pinda- 
bhog worth 20 cowries [i.e., one quarter- anna]. Don t 
accept any food above this for me. If you bring more, 
you will not see me here." 

Half of this the Master ate and the other half He 
left for Govinda, and both remained famished. Then He 
commanded Govinda and Kashishwar to beg their food 
elsewhere. Thus some days passed in great hardship. 
Hearing of it, Ramchandra Puri came to the Master... 
and smiling told Him^ "It is not a sannyasi s dharma to 
gratify his appetite. He eats just enough to fill his 
stomach anyhow. I find you lean and hear that you eat 
only half your fill. This drying bairagya is not a 
sannyasi s dharma. A sannyasi performs true jnan-yog 
when he fills his stomach as far as is necessary but does 
not enjoy his food. (Gitd, vi. 16-17.)" 

The Master replied, "I am an ignorant child and your 
pupil. It is my good fortune that you are teaching me." 
Ramchandra Puri then left. 

Next day the bhaktas headed by Paramananda Puri 
complained to the Master against Ramchandra as a univer 
sal fault-finder and instigator of gluttony, which he after 
wards censured. They urged Him not to listen to Ram 
chandra and famish Himself, but to return to His old diet 
and accept invitations. But the Master replied, "Why do 
you blame Ramchandra Puri? He expounds the natural 
dharma, and has done no wrong. It is very wron^ for 
a sannyasi to have a lustful palate. It is a sannyasi s 
duty to eat just as little as will keep body and soul to 
gether." They all pressed Him hard, and yielding to 



278 * CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [XXIV 

their entreaty He fixed His rations at one-half of its former 
cost, viz. at two pan of cowries [i.e., half annaj, which 
was shared by two, sometimes three persons. If a Brahman 
whose cooking He could not eat, mvited Him, He took 
only prasad worth two pan of cowries. If it was a 
Brahman whose cooking He could eat, He took a little 
of prasdd [purchased with money] and a little of the 
meal cooked in His host s house. But at the houses of 
Pandit Goswami, Adwaita Acharya, and Sarvabhauma, 
He ate whatever they asked Him, for there He had no 
independence ; He had come down to earth to render His 
devotees happy. 

After a time Ramchandra Ptiri * left Nilachal on a 
pilgrimage, to the intense delight of the Vaishnavs, who 
felt that a heavy stone had been lifted from their heads! 
They now freely invited the Master to kirtan and dance, 
and all freely partook of the prasad. 



CHAPTER XXV 
The love of the pilgrims from Bengal 

The Bengal bhaktas came to Nilachal [carrying 
loving presents, food and preserves, for the Master]. It 
was the day of Jagannath s sporting in the water of the 
Narendra tank. The Master came there with His follow 
ers to see the water-sport and there the Bengal pilgrims 
met Him. The Bengal musical parties were singing the 
kirtan ; on meeting the Master they began to weep in love. 
The water-sport, instrumental music, song, dance and 
Tartan created a tumult on the bank, while the boats plied 
merrily on the water. The mingled din of the kirtan and 
weeping of the Bengalis filled the universe. Then the 
Master entered the water with His disciples and sported 
gleefully with them all. These water-sports have been 
described in detail by Brindaban-das in his Chaitanya- 
mangal. I shall not repeat them here. 

Another day the Master went with His party to behold 
Jagannath at his rising from bed. There He began the 
berd kirtan. Seven parties began to sing, and seven chiefs 
danced in them, Adwaita Acharya, Nityananda, 
Vakreshwar, Atrhyutananda, Shribas Pandit, Satyaraja 
Khan and Narahari-das. The Master visited all the 
seven groups, each thinking that He was with it only ! 
The roar of the kirtan filled the earth ; all * the 
citizens came out to see it ; the king came with 
his Court and gazed from a distance, the queens beheld 



280 ^ CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [XXV 

the scene from the roofs of houses. The earth trembled 
under the influence of the kirtan. Men shouted Hari 
thus adding to the din. After a while, the Master was 
inclined to dance Himself. Around Him the seven parties 
sang and beat their instruments ; in the centre He 
danced in supreme transport of love. He recollected 
the Oriya verse, Jagamohan parimundd jdun ! Channer 
of the universe! I abase myself before Thee , and 
bade Swarup sing it. To this air He danced in ecstasy, 
while all the men around swam in tears of love. 
With uplifted arms He cried, "Chant! chant!" and they 
in delight shouted Hari! Hari! At times He fell down 
in a trance and ceased to breathe, then suddenly started 
up with a roar. Frequent tremour burst over His body, 
making it look like the shimul tree, now it was quivering 
and now it stiffened. The sweat burst through every pore 
in His skin. With faltering speech he hiuttered ja ja, 
ga ga, pari pari, every tooth in his mouth shaking as if 

about to be loosened Even in the third quarter of the 

day His dance did not cease. All the people in ecstasy 
forgot [fatigue of] body and [the distinction of] self and 
others. Then Nityananda resorted to a device ; he 
silenced the ferrfaw-singers gradually, and only the leaders 
of the seven groups continued singing with Swarup, but 
in a low tone. At the cessation of noise, the Master 
came to Himself somewhat. Then Nityananda told Him 
how fatigued all were. The Master at tKis put an end 
to the kirtan and went to bathe in the sea with them all. 

Then with all His bhaktas He partook of the prasad. 
dismissed them, and retired to sleep at the door of the 
gambhira (room). Govinda came to rub His feet, as was 
the usual practice, before going to feed on His leavings 



XXV] GOVINDA S DEVOTED SERVICE TO CHAITANYA 281 

The Master had stretched Himself at full length across- 
the doorway ; Govinda could not enter the room and 
begged Him to move aside a little, but He declined saying 
that He was too weak lo stir His limbs, and told Govinda 
to do whatever he liked. Then Govinda threw his sheet 
over, the Master s body and entered the room leaping 
over Him. His shampooing threw the Master into a 
sweet a sleep and relieved Him of His fatigue. After two 
dandas (48 minutes) He woke, and seeing Govinda there, 
asked in anger, "Why are you here still, Adi-basyd! Why 
did you not go away for your meal when I fell asleep?" 
Govinda replied, "Yqu lay blocking the doorway, and I 
found no path for going out of the room." But the 
\Iaster rejoined, "How, then, could you come in? Why 
did. you not go out in the same way that you entered ? 

Govinda returned no answer, but reasoned within him 
self, "I must do my appointed work, even if I have to 
commit any fault or go to hell for so doing. For the sake 
of doing my duty I do not hesitate to commit a million sins, 
but I fear even the touch of sin for my own personal 
needs." 

This year the Bengal pilgrims came in large numbers, 
two to three hundred of them, including many women. 
Shivananda Sen acted as their guide and caretaker on 
the way. 

They came to Puri and met the Master, the women 
gazing at Him from a distance. They were all given 
lodging-houses and invited by the Master to eat the mahd- 

prasdd The entire family of Shivananda enjoyed His 

grace After the meal He told Govinda to give the 

leavings on His plate to Shivananda s wife and sons so long 



282 * CHA1TANYA-CIIARIT-AMRITA [XXV 

as they stayed there. A sweetmeat-seller (modak) of 
Nadia, named Parameshwar, had his shop close to the 
Master s paternal house. In His boyhood He used to 
visit this man s shop and the man* used to treat Him to 
confects made with milk. He loved the Master from His 
infamry, and this year came to see Him. He prostrated 
himself before the Master saying, "I am Parameshwaf." 
In delight at seeing him the Master asked, "Parameshwar! 
are you well? It is a happy thing that you have come." 
The man added "Mukunda s mother has come", [meaning 
his own wife]. The Master was shocked to hear the name 
of a woman, but out of love for Parameshwar said nothing. 
The loving simple-minded grocer did not know the ways 
of the learned ; these qualities inly delighted the Master 

Four months passed away in the usual way, and then 
He permitted the pilgrims to return to Bengal. They 
invited Him to dinner and He lovingly spoke to them all, 
"Every year you come here to see me, undergoing many 
hardships on the two journeys. For this reason I feel 
inclined to forbid your coming, but the pleasure of your 
society tempts my heart. I had commanded Nityananda 
to live in Bengal. He has come here in defiance of my 
order ; what can I say to him ? The [old] Adwaita 
Acharya, leaving his wife, children and home behind, 
performs a long and difficult journey to meet me. How 
can I repay the debt of his love? I merely sit here at 
Nilachal without having to do any exertioif for your sake. 
I am a sannyasi, without wealth. With what shall I repay 
my debt to you? My only property is my body, and this 
I give up to you. Sell it, if you list." 

The Master s speech melted their hearts ; tears ran 
down their cheeks without ceasing. He, too, wept clasp- 



XX VJ CHAITANYA REFUSES TO RUB MEDICATED OIL * 283 

ing their necks, and weeping embraced them. So, they 
could not set out on their journey home that day, but 
passed five or seven days more at Puri in the same way. 

At last the Master consoled them and gave them 

leave to depart with composure of mind. 

The bhaktas left the city weeping. The Master re- 
majned there in sadness of heart. 

Last year Jagadananda, the Master s companion, had 

by Mis leave gone to Nadia to see mother Shachi 

She in delight listened day and night to his discourse on 

the Master and His doings All the bhaktas of 

Nadia met him and entertained him in their houses, listen 
ing in rapture to his felk about the Master s inmost things. 
At the house of Shivananda he prepared a pot of medicated 
oil, scented with sandal-wood, and taking it to Nilachal 
asfced Govinda to rub it on the Master s head, to cure Him 

of bile, wind and other sickly humours Govinda 

reported it, but the Master replied, "A sannyasi is for 
bidden to rub oil, especially scented oil. Present it to the 
temple of Jagannath, where it will be used in lighting 
lamps, and his labour will be supremely rewarded." 

Some ten days afterwards, Govinda repeated Jagada- 
nanda s request that He should accept the oil. The 
Master burst forth in anger, "Very well, engage a servant 
to rub me with the oil ! Is it for such pleasures that I 
have turned sannyasi ? What is ruin to me is a sport to 
you ! Every one who will smell the fragrant oil on my 
person in the streets, will call me a carnal sannyasi !" 
Govinda remained silent on hearing this. 

Next morning, when Jagadananda came to the Master, 
He said, "Pandit! you have brought for me oil from 
Bengal. But I am a sannyasi and cannot accept it. 



284*- CHA1TANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [XXV 

Present it to Jagannath to light the lamps of the temple. 
That will be the reward of your labour." The Pandit 
replied, "Who has told you this piece of falsehood? I 
never brought any oil from Bengal." So saying, he 
brought out of the room the pot of oil and broke it on the 
floor of the yard in the Master s sight. Then he ran back 
to his own house, bolted the door of his bed-room tfrom 
within, and shut himself up there [without taking any 
food]. On the third day the Master went to his dosr and 
cried out, "Rise, Pandit ! you must feed me to-day on your 
own cooking. I shall come back at noon. I am now off 
to see Jagannath." So saying, He left the house. The 
Pandit rose from his bed, bathed, cooked, and at noon, 
when the Master returned, placed the dishes before Him 
on the leaves and bark of the plantain-tree. The Master 
said, "You must dine with me. Serve your meal, on 
another leaf." But the Pandit entreated Him to eat first 

and let him sit down to his meal after his guest The 

vegetable soup was delicious and the Master cried out, 
"When one cooks in anger, it tastes so sweet ! This is a 

proof of Krishna s grace on you." 

The Pandit served and the Master ate, willing but 
unable to rise from the feast, and eating ten times His 
usual food, in fear lest the Pandit should fly into a rage 
again and fast himself ! After the dinner, the Master went 
back to His lodgings, leaving Govinda there to see that 
the Pandit broke his fast. Jagadananda sent Govinda 
back to rub the Master s feet, and put Him to sleep. But 
He again bade Govinda go and see that the Pandit was 
really eating! When Govinda reported the fact, then the. 
Master lay down in bed in peace of mind. 



CHAPTER XXVI 

The Master s love-sickness for Krishna ; His visions 
and transports of bhakti 

1 The Master felt his separation from Krishna just as 
the milk-maids did after Krishna had left Briiidaban for 
Mathura. Gradually He began to break out in wild 
lamentations, even as Radha had talked in delirium on 
meeting with Uddhav. Ever did the Master consider 
Himself as Radha, and felt [and acted] like her. No 
wonder, for such is the course of divya-unmdd (spiritual 
ecstasy) . 

One night when He was sleeping, He dreamt of 
Krishna in the rasa dance ; the god was bending his body 
gracefully and playing on the flute, wearing a yellow 
garment and garlands of flowers, and looking like the 
picture of Love ; the milkmaids were dancing in a circle, 
joining their hands together, while in the centre Krishna 
frolicked with Radha. The sight inspired the Master with 
the same mood ; He felt that He was at Brindaban and had 
gained Krishna s company. 

As He was late in rising, Govinda wakened Him ; but 
He saddened when He became conscious of the real world. 
After performing the necessary acts of the morning He 
went to behold Jagannath. He stood close to the image 
of Garuda, while hundreds of thousands of worshippers 
thronged in front of Him. An Oriya woman, unaHe to 
see the god on account of the crowd, climbed upon the 
Garuda and rested one foot on the Master s shoulder. 



^8fc eJIAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [XXVI 

Govinda saw it and hurriedly pushed her a way, but the 
Master forbade him to make her dismount from His 
shoulder, saying, "Don t remove her. Let her gaze at 
Jagannath to her heart s content". f . The woman, however, 
quickly got down on seeing the Master and fell at His feet. 
The Master remarked, "Jagannath has not inspired me 
with this woman s passionate longing for him. Her.body 
mind and soul are so absorbed in the God that she dicf not 
notice that she was treading: on my shoulder ! $he is 
blessed. Let me worship her feet that I too may have her 
intensity of devotion." 

Sadly did the Master return home, and sitting down 
on the ground began to draw linea^on the floor with His 
finger-nails. Tears streamed from His eyes and blinded 
His vision. "Alas!" He cried, "after gaining Krishna, 
I have lost him. Who has taken away my Krishna? 
Where have I come?" In His trances He quivered with 
delight ; but when He regained consciousness, He felt 
that He had lost His treasure, and sang and danced like 
mad, though He went through His bath, dinner etc. by 
mechanical habit. 

The ten forms of love-sickness possessed Him day 
and night, never giving Him rest. Ramananda Ray by 
reciting verses [from Vidyapati, Chandidas and Git- 
Govinda] and Swarup bv singing songs on Krishna s acts, 
brought the Master somewhat back to His senses. At 
midnight they laid Him to bed in the inner room, and 
Ramananda returned to his own house, while Swarup and 
Govinda slept at the door. It was the Master s wont to 
watte all night, loudly chanting Krishna s name., 
[To-night] noticing the silence within, Swarup pushed the 
door open. He found the other three doors [also] closed 



XXVI] MIRACLE OF MASTER S BODY 

from within, but the Master was not in the room. They 
became alarmed at His absence, lighted their lanterns, and 
went out in search of Him. 

They found the Master lying on an open space a little 
north of the Lion-gate of the temple. His body was 
5 or 6 cubits long ; He was unconscious and His breathing 
had leased ! Each arm and leg was three cubits long and 
consisted only of bones and skin. His hands feet neck 
and waist were disjointed from the trunk by half a cubit 
and the places of junction were covered with the bare 
skin. He was foaming at the mouth and His eyes were 
fixed in a deadly stare. 

This sight of Him made the bhaktas very life go 
out of their bodies. Then Swarup with all the disciples 
loudly dinned the name of Krishna into the Master s ears. 
After a long while the name entered His heart, and He 
shouted Hari-bol! He became conscious and His limbs 
were joined to His trunk again, as before. This miracle 
of the Master has been reported by Raghunath-das in his 

Chaitanya-staba-kalpa-briksha As Raghunath-das 

always lived with the Master, I accept as true and write 
here what I have heard from him. 

One day the Master, on the way to the sea, suddenly 
looked at the Chatak hillock, and taking it to be the 
Govardhan hill, He ran towards it in rapture with the 

speed of the wind Govinda could not overtake Him. 

A hue and cry was raised and there was a great bustle. 
Everyone ran up from where he was, Swarup, Jagada- 
nanda, Gadadhar, Ramai, Nandai, Nilai Pandit, Shankar 
Puri, Bharati Goswami, all went to the sea-shore. "SThe 
lame Bhagabdn Acharya hobbled slowly behind. 

After running at first like the wind, the Master 

20 



288* CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [XXVI 

suddenly became stiff on the way, unable to move further. 
Every pore of His skin swelled like a boil, the hair stood 
on end on them like the kadamba flower. Blood ran out 
of His pores like sweat. His throat gurgled, not a syllable 
could He utter. Ceaseless tears ran down both His cheeks 
He lost colour and became death-pale like a 
conch-shell. Then a quivering burst over His frame* Jike 
a tempest on the bosom of the sea. Trembling, He fell 
down on the ground, and then Govinda came up c with 
Him, sprinkled Him with water from the flask, and fanned 
Him with his sheet. Swarup and the rest now arrived and 
all began to weep at the Master s plight. They loudly 
sang the kirtan in His hearing and* sprinkled Him with 
cold water. After they had done so many times, He rose 
up with the cry of Hari-bol! The Vaishnavs in delight 
shouted Hart! Hari! The sound of joy rose up from all 

sides Half-conscious again, the Master addressed 

Swarup, "You have brought me back from Govardhan to 
here. You have snatched me away from viewing Krishna s 

lila>, among the herds of cows and calves, Radha and 

her handmaids, on Govardhan hill Why have you 

brought me away thence, only to cause me grief?" So 
saying, He wept, and the Vaishnavs wept at His plight. 

Thus did the Master live at Nilachal, plunging day 
and night in the ocean of grief at separation from Krishna. 
In the early autumn nights radiant with the moon in a 
cloudless sky, He roamed up and down w^th His disciples, 
visiting garden after garden in delight and reciting or 
listening to the songs of rasa lila. At times, overcome 
witH love, He danced and sang ; at other times He imitated 4 
the rasa lila in that mood ; at times in a transport of 
passidn He ran hither and thither, at others He rolled on 



XXVI] CHAITANYA LEAPS INTO THE SEA ^89 

the ground in a faint. As soon as He recollected a verse 
of the rdsa lila He expounded it. 

I cannot describe all the acts He performed from day 
to day in these twelve "ears [of residence at Puri], lest it 
should make my poem too long. 

While rambling thus, the Master one night suddenly 
caught a sight of the sea from Ai-tota. The moonlight 
silvered the heaving billows they sparkled like the water 
of thejamuna. Unseen by others, the Master went to the 
sea and leaped into it. He fainted and knew not what He 
was doing ; the waves now sank Him, now floated Him ; 
on the^ waves He was carried about like a dry tree- trunk. 
On the waves He drifted towards Konarak, now under 
water, now above it, and he dreamt all the time of 
Krishna sporting in the Jamuna with the milkmaids. 

..In the meantime, Swarup and other followers were 
startled when they missed Him. Uncertain whither He 
had gone, to the Jagannath or any other temple, to some 
other garden, the Gundicha house or the Narendra tank, 
to the Chatak hill or to Konarak, they searched for Him 
everywhere. A party of them came to the beach and there 
walked, looking out for Him, till near daybreak, when 
they concluded that He had disappeared from the earth. 
They all thought that the worst had happened. 

They took counsel on the beach, and some of them 
went towards the Chirayu hill, while Swarup moved east 
wards with a party searching for the Master in the sea- 
water. Overwhelmed with sorrow, almost out of their 
senses, they still walked on searching for Him in their 
love. 

They met a fisherman coming towards them with his 
net on his shoulders, laughing weeping dancing and sing- 



29* CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [XXVI 

ing "Hari! Hari !" Swarup questioned him in surprise, 
"Tell us, fisherman, have you met a man on this side? 
Why are you in this mood?" The fisherman answered, 
"I have not seen any man here. But a dead body was 
caught in my net, and I carefully dragged it ashore, 
thinking it to be a big fish. The sight of a corpse frighten 
ed me, and when I was clearing my net I happerie^ to 
touch it. At once the spirit of the dead entered my body, 
striking me with tremor, weeping, choking of voice, and 

bristling up of hair It lay stiff as a corpse, with a 

fixed stare in the eyes, but at times it groaned, at others 

remained inert If I die of the possession of this 

ghost, how will my wife and children live? If I can 

find an exorcist, he will expel the evil spirit from me. 
I work at my trade of catching fish alone at night, but 
no ghost can seize me as I remember the god Nrisirigha. 
This ghost, however, holds me with a double grip when 
I repeat Nrisingha s name. Don t go there, I advise you, 
lest this ghost should possess you, too." 

From these words, Swarup understood it all, and told 
the fisherman gently, "I am a great ghost-doctor, and I 
know how to lay spirits." He uttered some verses, laid 
his hand on the fisherman s head, gave him three slaps, 
and cried out "The evil spirit has left you. Fear no 
more." The man now became a little composed. Swarup 
reassured him, "He whom you have taken for an evil 
spirit, is no ghost, but the Lord Sri K*rishna-Chaitanya. 
In a transport of love He had jumped into the sea. Him 
hav^ you raised in your net. His touch has thrilled you 
with Krishna s love, which you have mistaken for the 
possession of a ghost. Now that your fear is gone and 



XXVI] CHAITANY RESCUED FROM THE SEA *2QI 

your mind has been calmed, show me where you have 
landed Him." 

The fisherman said, "I have often beheld the Master. 
It cannot be He ; it is &f more than man s size." 

The fisherman led them all to the place. They beheld 
Him lying on the ground, huge-bodied, pale-skinned from 
immersion in water, coated with sea-sand. His limbs were 
abnormally long, loose and with the skin flapping. Over 
such a long path they could not carry Him home ; so they 
removed His wet loin-cloth and put a dry one on Him, 
and laid Him down on a sheet of cloth after brushing away 
the sand. Then they lifted up the chant of Krishna s 
kirtan and poured it into His ears. After a time the word 
entered His brain and He leaped up with a roar ; His 
limbs were rejoined and returned to their proper places. 
Hal f -unconscious still, He looked hither and thither 

[in perplexity] He spoke, as if from the sky, 

"Beholding the Jamuna [in the ocean] I went to 
Brindaban, and there found Braja s darling sporting in the 
watei; with Radha and the other milkmaids. I stood on 
the bank gazing on the scene, while one of the sakhis 
(female comrades of Radha) pointed out the mysteries to 
me." [A long but highly poetical description, not trans 
lated.] Krishna, Radha, and their companions rose 

from the water, dressed themselves, partook of a rich 
picnic, and all retired to sleep. My heart was filled with 
bliss at the sight. Just then you caught hold of me, and 
with a great noise brought me here. Ah ! where is the 
Jamuna, where Brindaban, where Krishna, and whei^ the 

milkmaids? You have destroyed that bliss!" 

Then Swarup made Him bathe [in the sea] and 
brought Him home, to the delight of all. 



CHAPTER X^CVII 
The Master s last year on earth 

Thus did the Master in love-madness for Krishna 
lament night and day. Jagadananda Pandit was very dear 
unto Him, and was every year sent by Him to Nadia to 
console his forlorn mother Shachi. "Go to Nadia", so the 
Master charged Jagadananda, "convey my salutation to 
mother, touch her feet on my behalf. Tell her to re 
member that I go there daily (in tne spirit) to bow to her 

That I have taken the sannyasi s vow leaving her 

sendee only shows that I am mad and have really undone 
all dharma. Mother ! pardon this fault of mine. T~ am 
obedient to thee, I am thy son. It is at thy bidding that 
I am living at Nilachal. I cannot leave thee while life 
remains to me." The Master presented to His mother 
(at the Puri s suggestion) the consecrated cloth that He 
had received at the Gopa-lila with choice prasad of 
Jagannath. He was the crowning example of filial piety, 
for even though a sannyasi He served His mother 

After receiving an enigmatic message in verse from 
the Acharya Goswami (of Shantipur) through Jagadananda 
when he returned to Puri, the Master plunged into a 
deeper trance. His ecstasy at Krishne-separation was 
doubled. He raved frantically day and night, identifying 
Himself with Radha. Suddenly imagining that Krishna 
was leaving Brindaban for Mathura, He (in the character 
of Radha) was seized with dizziness and developed 
madness, mourning deliriously while clasping the neck of 



XXVII] SELF-TORTURING RELIGIOUS MADNESS 2Q3 

Ramananda and addressing Swarup as one of the sakhis 
(i.e., Radha s companions). He repeated the verse which 
Radha had spoken to Vishakha (her handmaid) and held 
forth on it * 

Thus did Gauranga weep, saying, "Alas ! alas for 
Krishna ! where hast thou gone?" Swarup and Ramananda 
cor soled Him in many ways, singing joyous songs, which 

calmed Him a little. 
I 

These lamentations were carried on to midnight. 
Then Swarup laid the Master to bed in His room. 
Ramananda left for his home, and Govinda lay down at 
the door of the room V| Love for Krishna was thrilling the 
Master s heart ; He awoke and began to sing the Name ; 
the pang of separation convulsed His heart, and He began 
to ,rub His face against the wall ; His face, cheeks, nose 
were all lacerated, but in the vehemence of ecstasy He 
knew not of the blood streaming down. 

All night He battered His face thus. Swarup, 
noticing the groaning sound, lighted a lamp, entered the 
rooni 1 and saw His face. In intense grief the two brought 
Him back to His bed and soothed Him. Swarup asked, 
"Why didst thou do this?" The Master answered, "I 
could not contain myself in the room in my [love] 
anxiety. I rushed in search of the door in order to go 
out very soon. I could not find the door and only 
knocked my face against the four walls. It was torn, it 
bled, but still I could not go out." 

Then, Swarup in anxiety took counsel of the other 
bhaktas next day and made Shankar Pandit sleep in the 
Master s room, nursing His feet. In fear of Shankar He 
could not leave the room nor knock His face against the 



2Q4* CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [XXVII 

walls. These feats Raghunath-das has described in his 
Chaitanya-staba-kalpa-briksha. 

One Baishakh night, when it was full moon, the 
Master went with His bhaktas to vftit the great Jagannath- 
vallabh park. The trees and creepers were in full bloom 
as at Brindaban, the green parrots, bees and cuckoos were 
discoursing [love]. The Zephyr was blowing laden 



the scent of flowers, and freshening made the tree-tops 
dance. Under the bright moonlight the plants and creepers 
blazed in a silvery sheen. Spring pervaded the atmosphere. 
The sight threw the Master into a rapture. He ba^e the 
stanza Lalita labanga laid [of the Git-Govinda, canto ix. 
verse 6] be sung, and moved up and down dancing with 
His followers. Passing thus from tree to tree, He came 
under an Ash oka tree and lo ! he beheld Krishna standing 
there. He rushed to meet Krishna, who disappeared 
laughing ...... The Master, losing Krishna after having 

caught sight of him, fell down in a faint. The odour of 
Krishna s person filled the garden ; it took away the 
Master s senses, it maddened Him, and He began to r sing 
and hold forth on the verses that Radha, enamoured of 
the scent of Krishna s body, had addressed to her 
sakhi ......... 

Swarup and Ramananda sang, the Master danced in 
rapture, and thus the night wore on to dawn. 

THR LAST CHARGE TO THE APOSTLES 

Thrilled with delight, the Master spoke, "Listen, 
Swarup and Ramananda Ray ! the supreme healer in this 
iron age is sankirtan of the Name. It is [equivalent to] 
the Vedic sacrifice, and the true sacrificer in it is rewarded 



XXVII] CHAITANYA S LAST INSTRUCTIONS ^295 

with Krishna s feet. Sankirtan enables us to conquer sin 
and the world ; it creates purity of soul, all kinds of bhakti 

and devotional practice Chant the Name at meals, in 

bed, here there and every where. It is not restricted to a 
particular place or time, it works everywhere. It bears 

the name of sarva-shakti (omnipotent). 
.. 

3 Listen, Ramananda, to the way in which the Name 
should be recited in order to conceive a passion for it. 
The devotee, if high of rank, should regard himself 
as lowly like the grass. He should learn patience from 
the tr.ee, which does not cry out even when it is cut down 
and which does not beg for water even when it is perishing 

, of drought, but on* the other hand gives away its 
possessions to all who ask of it, bears sun and rain itself 
but protects others from them. The Vaishnav, however 
hign, should be free from pride ; he should venerate all 
forms of life as animated by Krishna. Take Krishna s 
Name thus, and you will be inspired with prem." 

As He spoke He was filled with growing meekness of 
spiri^ and began to beg for pure bhakti at Krishna s hands. 
The true devotee, as is the law of love, holds that he has 
not even a particle of faith in Krishna ! "Lord ! I ask not 
for wealth or followers or the gift of poesy. Give me in 
birth after birth only unreasoning instinctive devotion to 
God." 

In utter lowliness of spirit He proclaimed Himself a 
worldly-minded^ creature and prayed to be inspired with a 
slave s devotion (ddsya bhakti). "0 Nanda s son! Have 

^ pity on this thy servant sunk in the dread ocean (rf the 
World! Look on me as a particle of dust on thy lotus- 
feet!" Next, He was seized with the anxiety of humility 
and begged of Krishna, "Without the wealth of thy love 



CHAITANYA-CHARIT-AMRITA [XXVII 

my life is poor and futile. Make me thy slave and give 
me the treasure of thy love as my wages. * 

Then came the mood of melancholy-humility : 
"My eyes are running with tears tike the rainy sky. A 
moment is as long to me as an aeon. The absence of 
Govinda (Krishna) has made the universe empty to me!" 

In this way He recited His own eight Sanskrit verses 
on the different moods of bhakti and expounded them all. 
For twelve vears He thus tasted the sweets of Krishna-love 
day and night with His two friends. These acts of His 
are endless, even a thousand narratives cannot arrive at 

their end... Therefore, I bow my head and conclude 

His Was here I bow at the fee*t of all my Vaishnav 

hearers and end iny history of Chaitanya s acts. 



The last scene (translated from the Chaitanya-mangal 
of Jayananda, p. 150) : 

When dancing at the Bijaya of the Car festival in the 
month of Asharh, His left toe was suddenly pierced by a 
brick [lying on the road]. When Adwaita left for Bengal, 
the Master secretly told him [of His coming disappearance]. 
With all His followers He sported in the water of the 
Narendra tank [for the last time]. On the sixth day of 
the moon, the pain in His toe grew severer, and He was 
forced to take to His bed in the garden. Here He told 
the Pandit Goswami that He would leave the earth next 
nighf at 10 o clock. Celestial garlands of many-coloured * 
flowers were thrown on Him from the unseen. Celestial 
singers (vidyddhar) began to dance on the highway. The 



XXVII] CHAITANYA S ASCENT TO HEAVEN j 297 

gods began to cry out, "Bring the heavenly chariot !" The 
Master mounted into Vishnu s car with the figure of 
Garuda on its spire. His material body lay behind on the 
earth, while He wen^ to Vaikuntha (Vishnu s heaven). 
Many of His servants killed themselves by serpent-bite. 
Meteors and thunderbolts fell on the earth. At the news 
Nit^ananda and Adwaita Acharya, Vishnupriya and Shachi 

swooned away Purushottam and other servitors of the 

Master grew speechless at His departure 

Nityananda consoled the disciples and vowed before 
them, "We will keep the Name alive. We will make all 
men/ down to the Chandals, Vaishnavs. We will not 
differentiate [low] castes like the Chandals or Muslims, 
but will give them all love and bhakti and make them all 

dance [with us] at kirtan We will make the realms 

of -"Bengal and Orissa blessed." The Vaishnavs shouted 
applause at his words. 



Works of JADUNATH t SARKAR, M .A. 

History of Aurangzib 

4 vols., Rs. 3-8 each. 
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Vol. II. War of Succession 

Vol. III. Northern India during I658-I68I, (2nd Ed.) 
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Vincent A. Smith. "You are doing rst class work I repeat 

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English Historical Review. "The author has been indefatigable 
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Studies in Mughal India 

Contains 22 Essays 320 Pages, Rs. 2. 



Zcbunnissa vindicated. 

History of Orissa in the 17th 

century. 
Revenue Regulations of 

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Biography of Aurangzib, 31 

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An Indian Memoir-writer of the 

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Shivaji and His Times 

2nd Ed., revised and enlarged, with a fine portrait, 
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A new and fully detailed critical study of Shivaji s 
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Critical bibliography (15 pages). 



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Anecdotes of Aurangzib ( 

( Persian text, with an English translation notes and 
a long life of Aurangzib) 

r 

The anecdotes, 72 in number, have been translated 
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indispensable guide to a right understanding of the country 
and its people as they are to-day. 

Jules Sion. "This little book is the best work that we possess 
on the economic condition of India. For all essential questions one 
finds here a very concise but very substantial exposition, nourished 
with facts and figures and of great personal charm." (Annales de 
Geogr., Paris.) 

/. R. A. 5. "A good little book on a bi<? topic." 
Modern Review. "An indispensable vade mecum." 

Sir Theodore M^rison. "An authoritative work on Indian 
economics can only be written bv an Indian. The author of the 
present book appears to possess the further essential qualifications of 
courage and independence." 

The conc ; *7ft~>u<! investigation r>f detail which was characteristic 
of that work \The India oj Auranqzib] ? .s no less evident in the f.\esent 
.economic f revise. M -ch information wh : .ch is only accessible in TBlue- 
books and official publications is here presented in a convenient form 

Mr. Sarliar s reflections upon the rise in the standard of comfort 

(Ch. IV.) are shrewd and conotnc ; n, and are fortified by some 
interesting personal observations." (Economic Journal). 



Mughal Administration 

Rs. 2. 

Contains a detailed study of the administrative system 
of the Mughal Empire, the aims of the Government, the 
Departments of the State, the functions and office proce 
dure of the chief officials, the provincial administrative 
agency and its influence on the peasants, the spy system, 
the sovereign s position &c. 

The last chapter gives a philosophical review of 
Muhammadan rule over India, describing the legacies of 
the Mughal Empire, its sources of strength and weaKness, 
and the causes of its downfall. 



WILLIAM IRVINE S 

Later Mughals 

17071739 

Edited by JADUNATH SARKAR 

(with an account of Nadir Shah s invasion). The most 
detailed history of the successors of Aurangzib 

and rise of the Mahrattas. 
2 vols., thick royal octavo, Rs. 8 each. 



Sher Shah 

BY PROF. K. R. QANUNGO, M.A, 

(an exhaustive and original study) 
Rs. 5. 

M. C. SARKAR & SONS 
90-2, Harrison Road, Calcutta. 

LUZAC & Co., LONDON. 



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