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Bart in Chalk Talk Performance 


A Handbook of Practice and Performance in 
Pictorial Expression of Ideas. 





with drczvings by Clare Br'iggs, Sidney Smith, John T. 
McCiitcheon, Fontaine Fox, Neysa McMein, Edward 
Marshall, Alton Packard, Winsor McCay, "Hap" Had- 
ley, Frank Wing, J. W. Bengough, and many other 
users of the crayon in public presentation. 









C. L. Bartholomew 

Acknowledgement is Hereby Made to the Federal Schools, Inc., 
Minneapolis, for the Privilege of Reproducing from the Course in 
Illustrating and Cartooning, Chalk Talk Stunts and Illustrations 
from Contributors and Students, Making Use of Drawing in Crayon 

Printed in 
The United States of America 

This little book is fondly dedicated 
to the memory of my son 


^hose alert mind first conceived distribution of chalk 
talk stunts and programs commercially 
for general use. 


The speaker along any line who uses a story, re- 
lates an anecdote or describes a scene, is in reality 
drawing a picture with words before his audience. 

The use of illustrations is not confined to enter- 
tainment. The appeal through the eye is uni- 
versal. The lecturer who presents facts in picture 
most pleasingly conveys information to others. 

The teacher who can visualize ideas is the one 
whose lessons will be most enduring, as well as 
most attractive. 

The reformer or evangelist who can present 
truths in picture most quickly attracts attention 
and most convincingly arrives at conclusions. 

One need not be an artist to convey ideas pic- 
torially. The simple diagrammatic picturing of 
ideas constituted the printed language of many 
primitive peoples. 

The lecturer, teacher, reformer or promoter of 
thought along any line, whether in business, edu- 
cation or entertainment, will do well to get the 
habit of carrying a piece of crayon before his 
audience, if it is for no other purpose than focusing 
attention in the introduction of his subject. Some 
of the simplest conventional chalk talk stunts will 

bring surprising results in awakening and center- 
ing interest. The fact that one does not draw is 
no reason for not availing himself of chalk talk. 
Anyone who will try can diagram ideas. 

For the one who enjoys pictures and likes to 
experiment in making them in an amateur way, or 
for the beginner in cartoon work or illustration of 
any kind, the chalk talk furnishes the medium for 
expression which gives him experience in what 
people are interested in and laugh at. By actually 
drawing out illustrations of ideas before an audi- 
ence he gets first-hand knowledge of what brings 
results. There is no inspiration like the applause 
of an audience. It stimulates originality. Well 
known newspaper writers and cartoonists find 
public presentation invaluable in gaining them 
direct contact with their readers. 

The mission of this booklet is to place 
in the possession of thinking men and women a 
medium of exchange of thought and conveyance 
of ideas. It is prepared not merely to stimulate 
interest, but to actually start one in crayon pres- 
entation, with the conviction that once started, 
the use of the crayon in public speaking will be 
found an ever increasing asset. 

Table of Contents 
Chapter Page 

I. Chalk Talk Possibilities 13 

II. Chalk Talk Development 33 

III. Chalk Talk Practice 49 

IV. Chalk Talk Equipment 59 

V. First Performance 79 

VI. Chalk Talk Classification 89 

VII. Ten Standard Stunts 103 

VIII. Chalk Talk Achievement 125 

IX. How to Succeed in Chalk Talk 149 


Chapter I 

The term "chalk talk" has been made to cover 
any use of the crayon in public. 

Very often the chalk does all of the talking. 
It is not an essential of chalk talk that the per- 
former use spoken language. 

Text Figure 1 
•Oh Min" by Sidney Smith 

Drawing for entertainment is sometimes done 
to musical accompaniment. Lettered titles at the 


end of the drawing act are effective. Sidney 
Smith's "Oh Min!" and Clare Briggs' "Skinnay, 
C'mon Over!" plainly lettered above the picture 
is enough said. 

The combination of drawing and speaking is 
much easier than ordinary public speaking. The 
ambitious chalk talker with a knack for picturing 
what he is talking about, has unlimited oppor- 
tunities for the use of his ability. 

A well thought out line of talk on any subject, 
illustrated now and then by a simple drawing, is 
often quite as effective as continuous rapid fire 
drawing and speaking. 

With ability in either public speaking or pictur- 
ing ideas, the other may be acquired very quickly. 
The sign painter, card writer, architectural or 
mechanical draftsman can make use of his crayon 
at once by memorizing a few sentences to fit in 
with simplest picture diagrams. 

On the other hand, the individual whose train- 
ing has brought spoken language into play in his 
daily vocation, such as the salesman, the teacher 
or the student with class room recitation, can 
memorize outlines to be drawn to illustrate his 

For the average beginner, there is a fascination 
about pictorial expression of ideas. In no other 
way can one so readily develop ability in ex- 
pressing himself as by use of the crayon in 
public. Chalk talk teaches originality. 

Who Can Succeed? It is not for the highly 
trained draftsman or orator that crayon presenta- 



tion is best adapted. The person who can tell an 
audience something simply, and picture it quickly, 
is most likely to win applause. 

Text Figure 2 
Briggs and "Skinnay." 

To begin with, at least, the chalk talker should 
not strive for the spectacular in either picture or 
language. Rather let him go about crayon pres- 
entation in an easy natural manner, with no 
straining for effect. By easy gradations he will 
proceed from this line of conversational explana- 
tion of casual illustrations to studied picturing. 


Text Figure 3 
Clare Briggs' Feller Who Needs a Friend 



with elaborate color effects and spectacular light- 

No matter how expert one becomes with the 
crayon or how cleverly he can apply colors, he 
will always find use for the little diagrammatic 
drawings, made plain by a few words or sen- 
tences. The entertainer who best pleases people 

Text Figure 4 
Sidney Smith Portrait of Self and Pitcher Evolution 

is the one who uses trick drawings with quick 
transformations, and surprising climaxes that take 
the audience unawares. Such evolutions must be 
carefully studied out in advance, word accompani- 
ments memorized, and picture presentation fixed 
in mind by practice, so that one can do the stunt 
in public in the most casual manner. Going over 
a stunt time and again in rehearsal makes clever 
public presentation possible for one who has never 
previously attempted chalk talk. 



Chalk talk has a broader application than enter- 
tainment. Neither is it limited to education in 
schools and colleges. 


Text Figure 5 

Match-stick Men by John H. Patterson 

Reprodoiced by Courtesy of System Magazine 

John H. Patterson, founder of the National 
Cash Register Company, says: "Business is only 
a form of teaching." 



"You teach people to desire your product. 
That is selling. 

"You teach workmen how to make the right 
product. That is manufacturing. 

"You teach others to co-operate with you. 
That is organization. 

Text Figure 6 
John H. Patterson Using Chalk Talk in Business Application 

Reproduced by Courtesy of System Jklagazine 

"To succeed in business it is necessary to 
make the other man see things as you see them. 

"I hold," says Mr. Patterson, "that one cannot 
rely on speech alone to make himself understood. 



Diagrams are more convincing than words, and 
pictures are more convincing than diagrams. 

"A few lines makes a picture — a picture gets 
your idea across. I have often heard a speaker 
ask: 'Do you see the point?' 

"He wants to know if the hearer actually 
has the point in eye as well as in mind, that he 
understands it well enough to make a mental 

"Well, then, why not draw the picture? 

"Instead of asking if the point is seen, why 
not draw the point so that it cannot help being 


Thinking Burdened with detsuU 

Text Figure 7 
Characters Used by John H. Patterson in Business Chalk Talk 

Reproduced by Courtesy of System Magazine 

"The ideal presentation of a subject is one in 
which every subdivision is pictured, and the 
words are used only to connect them. 

"I early found that in dealing with men, a 
picture was worth more than anything I could 



say. Very few people understand words. You 
cannot convince a man if he is thinking about 
something, different from what you are thinking 
about, and it is right there that the spoken words 

Text Figure 8 

Replica of Store Interior Used in Business Chalk Talk by John H. 


Reproduced by Courtesy of System :Maga2ine 

The picture brings the speaker and the listener 
together. Pictures drawn to word accompani- 
ment, that is, chalk talk, is therefore of highest 
efficiency in business. 

The young banker with a message or with a 
knack for entertainment soon holds an enviable 
place among his business associates. 


Insurance men find chalk talk assists them in 
organizing their sales force, and the salesmen 
in turn find pencil diagraming of facts and 
statistics bring home truths that result in in- 
creased sales. 

Text Figure 9 

Dr. Geo. S. Monson Using Chalk Talk WitKi Stereopticon In Clinical 


In the dental and medical professions, special- 
ists along various lines use the crayon in clinical 
demonstrations, and in lectures before gatherings 
of members of their professions. The lecturer 
proficient in crayon presentation always attracts 
attention to the theories he has to expound, and 
is consequently in greater demand. 

Business men engaged in manufacturing and 
merchandising find unusual use for chalk talk in 


organization, manufacturing, salesmanship, and 
advertising. The hardware merchant with ability 
in chalk talk makes a real sensation in a con- 
vention of members of the same kind of business. 

Charles P. Plumb, Farm 
Betterment Cartoonist 

Dr. George S. Monson, 
Dental Specialist 

Reproduced by courtesy of the Federal Schools, Inc. 

Along lines of agriculture the chalk talk has 
an especial appeal. There is a place for a lec- 
turer on farm betterment with the agricultural 
association of every state in the union. 

In every high school and college, the chalk 
talk entertainer finds himself in demand. Cov- 
eted places as glee club entertainers are filled 
by chalk talk performers. 

Teachers in every branch from kindergarten 
to university specialists, find the crayon helpful, 
Y. M. and Y. W. C. A. directors, Sunday School 
superintendents, temperance workers, evangelists, 
and ministers, make use of chalk talk to greatest 

There is an ever-increasing use of crayon pres- 
entation by ministers. Rev. Branford Clarke, of 



the Pillar of Fire Church in Brooklyn, effectively 
uses painting in oil to illustrate his sermons. 

Rev. Phillips E. Osgood of St. Mark's Episcopal 
Church, of Minneapolis, is a trained draftsman, 
using his ability in cover designs for church pub- 
lications and in illustrating lesson series. He says 
his art training has been most helpful in word 
picturing in preaching. He uses chalk talk con- 
tinuously in Sunday School work and before Len- 

Text Figure 10 
Rev. Branford Clarke of the Pillar of Fire Cliurcii, Brooi<lyn 

ten classes. In the national convention of his 
denomination he is in demand for serious pictorial 
presentation before the great children's rallies. 
His father. Rev. Geo. E. Osgood, for nearly half 
a century rector of Grace Church at Attleboro, 
Mass., was one of the earliest users of the crayon. 
In England, a drawing, act is quite as common 
as the song and dance. The modem vaudeville 
manager is keenly alive to the interest in pictures 



drawn before an audience. This kind of enter- 
tainment calls for special training. Attractive 
pictures drawn to musical accompaniment, with 
decorative use of colored lights, calls for no 
word accompaniment. Clever drawings of his- 

::u^ ■ 


Text Figure 11 

Edward Marshall's Stage Portraiture of Abraham Lincoln 

Reproduced by courtesy of the Federal Schools, Inc. 

toric characters in bold black and white contrasts, 
or against strong color backgrounds and under 
special lightings, win the approbation of the 
audience, and have a tendency to raise the 
standard of entertainment in the vaudeville house 



where shown. ,Big portraits of Washington and 
Lincoln invariably call out spontaneous applause. 
Illustrated monologue, when bright with pic- 
tures quickly drawn, always is acceptable. Short 
cuts to unexpected results invariably bring ap- 
plause. Quick picturing of well-known comic 
characters are hilariously received. Sharp, clean. 

Sid Smith Pictures his Famous Character, Andy Gump 

black and white outlines depicting action and 
caricaturing types are always interesting. 

The picturing of an individual from - their 
number always tickles the fancy of the audience. 
Especially is this true when the subject chosen 
is a conspicuous figure in a box or front seat 
plainly visible to the remainder of the audience. 



Picturing a striking hat or a bald head or the 
selection of two young people seated together 
is the cause of especial merriment. 

Andy and Min and Little Chester in Earty Stages of Their Devel- 
opment by Sidney Smith. 


Drawing of an educational nature also appeals. 
Modeling in clay or plasticine and landscape 
presentations in harmonious blending of rich 
color calls forth surprised admiration of a public, 
always appreciative of skill and dexterity, es- 
pecially if beauty in form or color is presented. 

Set numbers with special costuming of artist 
and model work out well, but call for scenic 
effects, stage settings and ingenious lighting de- 
vices. These, however, sometimes bring high 
prices and less real skill on the part of the en- 
tertainer than actual drawing. 

With the same time and effort expended in 
preparation on the part of the performer, as 
devoted to acrobatic and musical numbers, draw- 
ing, acts can be made head liners. The trouble 
is people of real ability in drawing are not pro- 
fessional entertainers. The professional enter- 
tainers know what the public expects in the 
way of an act in vaudeville, but too often they 
have not given sufficient practice to the actual 
drawing. An entertainer with clever monologue 
and pleasing personality can use the simplest 
of drawing if each sketch carries a catchy idea, 
and does not make any pretension to artistic 
effects. Quick snappy sketches worked in as a 
by-play to monologue are often most effective.. 

As prominent an entertainer as Edward Mar- 
shall has gone through an entire Orpheum 
season with as simple stunts as the "soldier, door, 
dog." On other tours he has used elaborate set- 
tings and large color drawings to musical 
accompaniments, with no greater success. 



Neysa McMein, the cover designer for popular 
magazines, made replicas of her artistic drawings 
of pretty girls such as appear on the Saturday 
Evening Post, for entertainment of soldier audi- 
ences in France. She found it possible to get 
artistic effects with the big inch-square colored 
crayons. To be sure of proportions, she planned 


COMPLETE srurrp 
AS" OJsiGiffALLr z>oiaf 

Text Figure 12 

Simplest Chalk Talk Stunts— "Soldier-door-dog" in Three Lines 

Reproduced by courtesy of the Federal Schools, Inc. 

her picture very carefully, spotting in location 
of features and proportions in advance. She 
took the same pains in preparation of these 
hasty presentations as in drawing the pastels 
for reproduction. She says results with the lec- 
ture crayon are very satisfactory. 

Professional entertainment is not necessarily 
the ultimate outcome of chalk talk practice. 
However, out of those who are making use of 
it in school, college and community chalk talk 
are to come the entertainers of the future. It 



is reasonable that the young fellow who goes 
out with his college glee club will gain experi- 
ence that applies on the vaudeville circuit. The 
college boy with a liking for drawing, who goes 
out with the chautauqua organization, is a nat- 

Mlss Neysa McMefn, Who Draws Replicas of Her Famous Cover 
Designs In Crayon Presentation 

Reproduced b\' courtesy of tlie Federal .^'chools. Inc. 

ural understudy to the "talent," who does the 
chalk talk act. The Y. M. C. A. secretary, 
minister or evangelist who uses drawing acts, 
may have a message of permanent interest, and 
become the big attraction of a big chautauqua 
with good financial returns for ideas cleverly 


How Can I Most Quickly and Most In- 
geniously Picture An Idea? 

That Is the Problem In the Development 
of Original Crayon Presentation. 

Real Development in Chalk Talk Re- 
quires Mental Drill as Well as Training of 
the Hand and Eye. 

Reproduced by courtesy of the Federal Schools, Inc. 

Text Figure 13 

Reproduced by courtesy of the Federal Schools, Inc. 

Chapter II 

There is no limit to the improvement that 
can be made by practice and actual experience 
before an audience. Every new attempt adds 
valuable experience, and the preparation for the 
use of each new stunt stimulates originality and 
leads to further perfecting in this fascinating art 
of pictorial expression. 

Edward Marshall's Good and Bad Egg 

Reproduced by courtesy of the ^Federal Schools, Inc. 

It is not the intention in this booklet to ar- 
range a series of stunts nor to outline a program, 
but rather to indicate possibilities along various 
lines, that the reader may select the development 
that interests him most. Detailed numbers and 
complete programs may be obtained later that 
can readily be adapted to individual requirements, 
or the ambitious entertainer may originate his 
own pictures and word accompaniments following 




Sunflower Development 
Reproduced by courtesy of the Federal Schools, Inc. 

suggestions of the Ten Standard Stunts outlined 
in a later chapter. 

With a real desire to make use of simpiy- 
drawn pictures, material is available for an 
immediate start. Anyone can show the ''soldier 
going through a door followed by a dog, in 
three lines." The simple expression outlines of 
the "good and bad egg" number or the "right 
angle introduction" can be easily acquired by 
the novice in drawing. Construction of a figure 
from an oval, a triangle, a curve, an angle and 



Reproduced by courtesy of the Federal Schools, Inc. 

two parallel lines, as in Bengough's operatic 
singer, is easy of accomplishment. John H. 
Patterson's match-stick men can be made to 
picture any situation. .Note how Mr. Bengough 
illustrates a "four-act drama depicting the hero 
in a single line." 

An audience does not demand a work of art 
^om a chalk talker. It cares much more for a 
quick succession of ideas plainly presented in bold 
simple lines. The two faces with a single profile 
is capable of a hundred variations. Faces from 
letters of the alphabet, animals and people devel- 



oped from words, transformations from fruit or 
vegetables to the person or creature who devours 
them, are the simplest of entertainment stunts, 
and yet the most effective. 

It takes a mechanical turn of mind rather than 
an artistic temperament to develop a turn-over 
number like the Soldier-Professor; a punster 
rather than a cartoonist to work out plays on 

Two Profiles In Single Outline 

Reproduced by courtesy of the Federal Schools, Inc. 

words like the Pear-Parent creation, and in- 
genuity rather than art to create ambidextrous 
drawings like the loving cup. 

By trying over and over, these things grow 
easy. One becomes expert before he is scarcely 
aware of it. By actual performance, new ideas 
are suggested. First success stimulates new 
interest; soon one is relying on things of his own 
invention rather than stereotyped numbers which 
paved the way to first success, and so without 
realizing just how it came about, he is soon an 
original producer. 



Practical development in use of the crayon is 
well worth the effort. Make the start with assur- 

Expresslon Studies 
Eeproduced by courtesy of the Federal Schools, Inc. 

ance that a little drawing is appreciated. The 
speaker with a crayon is always welcome. The 
entertainer with a pictured verse or story is 


always in demand, and the educator who visual- 
izes truths becomes a leader in his profession. 

This is no theory or supposition of possibilities, 
but a demonstrated fact. It is a new develop- 
ment in education. It not only can be done, but 
it has been accomplished; not once or twice, here 

Five Dots Placed at Random Progressive Development 

Reproduced by courtesy of the Federal Schools, Inc. 

and there, but continuously everywhere. Specific 
examples of these successes are given later. 

How shall the beginning chalk talker prepare 
himself for an early appearance? 

Outlined in these pages are ten standard stunts, 
examples of ten kinds of drawings that it is pos- 
sible for the beginner to quickly learn to do with 
sufficient skill to entertain an audience. 



These are not offered as a consecutive set of 
numbers for a finished program, but are given as 
examples of the variety offered in basic chalk 
talk stunts. If they are to be grouped for crayon 
presentation, they must be referred to as a sym- 
posium of differing examples of transitions, devel- 


Five Dots Development 
Reproduced by courtesy of the Federal Schools, Inc. 

opments, evolutions, etc. With this kind of an 
explanation, they might be used in entertainment. 
A better idea, however, would be to take one 
line and develop it with original creations. For 
instance, work out the general plan of creating 
people and animals from the fruits and vegetables 
which go to make up their chief article of diet. 



Or develop match-stick men, geometric figures, 
and transformation of words and letters into 
faces, people and animals. 

A series of quick transformations, turn-over 
numbers, and evolutions founded upon the ele- 
ment of surprise, is another possibility. 

A sermon might be preached on the experiences 
of' the good and the bad egg, referring to the 
tendency to sin in following a line with a down- 
ward tendency as exemplified in the bad egg, and 

John M. Baer Lemon Development 

the Uplifting and cheerful expression that follows 
the upward turn toward better things pictured in 
the smile of the good egg. For diagramatic 
presentation, the old proverb "Straight is the line 
of duty, curved is the line of beauty," has possi- 
bilities, because it is easy to picture with your 
match-stick men the remainder of the adage, 
"Follow the one and you shall see the other fol- 
lowing after thee." Perhaps, however, no single 
idea is more often presented, than the evolution 
of the pretty girl from the egg, as in the evolution 
of the chicken. 


The foregoing is offered in all seriousness, for 
the purpose of stimulating original development 
on the part of the reader. It is quite within the 
range of possibilities that though he follow not 
a one of the detailed drawing acts of this book, 

Ernest Fielding Chicl<en Development 

Reproduced by courtesy of the Federal Schools, Inc. 

they may suggest something else entirely new 
and different. 

Real development in chalk talk means mental 
drill as well as training of the hand and eye. 
How can I most quickly, most ingeniously picture 
an idea? 

That is the problem, rather than how much art 
can I display. 

What method shall I pursue to keep the audi- 
ence thinking along one line while I am develop- 
ing a totally different conclusion to the picture 
that I am drawing before them? 

Some new answer to questions like these may 
make its user famous. 

How can a few colors be combined to suggest 
a landscape or marine? 

With how few black marks can a portrait or 
caricature be presented? 



What blending of tones, outlining of form or 
picturing of facts is going to interest, instruct or 
amuse ? 

These are the questions that the thinker along 
new lines in crayon presentation must answer. 

Development in chalk talk is not merely a ques- 
tion of training the eye and hand, but of thinking 
out the plot and planning the act to be presented 
in picture language. 

John M. Baer Egg-head Development 

Crudeness of execution can always be forgiven 
if there is a definite plan back of it. Practice 
will rapidly smoothen out the crudities of draw- 
ing, but no amount of good drawing will hold an 
audience for long if there be no point nor plot 
underlying the act. 

Brightness and brevity are first requisites of 
chalk talk. Following, successful first appear- 
ances, attempts may be made in the more pre- 
tentious phases of the art calling for more skill 
in picture making. It is possible to make real 


pictures, while the audience waits and watches, 
but it must be borne in mind that the audience is 
not greatly interested in merely watching one 
draw. It is in the result that the interest is cen- 
tered. The wise performer will not too long 
postpone the final consummation. No result,, 
however striking, warrants the risk of tiring an 

S. S. Henry Landscape 

audience. A landscape or marine, a striking por- 
trayal of a well-known character, or a telling car- 
toon may be incorporated at some one point in 
a program, but a series of such acts, taking con- 
siderable time in their development, cannot fail to 
weary an audience. 

None should be attempted until after long prac- 
tice has made facility in execution certain. A 



part of this practice should be with the idea of 
concealing final results to as great an extent as 
possible. When an audience has a definite idea 
of what the finished picture is to be, it loses in- 
terest. Interest may be stimulated by leaving 
the crowning effect or climax until the last. 

Practice of details is of greatest importance. 
Only by practice can the chalk talk performer 
have the requisite assurance before an audience. 

Five Dot Action Study by Ted Nelson 

Practice Exercises 
Reproduced by courtesy of the Federal Schools, Inc. 

Edward Marshari Action Study 
Reproduced by courtesy of the Fe-ieral Schools, Inc. 

Action Development by Edward Marshall 


Ted Nelson Five-dot Practice Exercises 
Reproduced by courtesy of the Federal Schools, In\. 




How Much Practice Am I Willing to Put 
On a Few Selected Stunts? 

On the Answer to This Question Depends 
the Beginning Chalk Talker's Successful 
"First Appearance." 

"Well Begun Is Half Done"-The Right 
Angle Introduction Starts One Right. 



Chapter III 


There is so much of interest in the practice of 
the outlines of idea-expressing pictures, that we 
may well consider how best to go about this 
preparation for chalk talk. 

Text Figure 14 
The Practice Board 

Practice on rough sheets of print paper or 
American White, held upright on a smooth draw- 
ing surface, the same proportion as you are to 
use in public presentation. A piece of composi- 
tion board, 12x18, is ideal for the purpose. (See 
Fig. 14.) The space around a picture has as 
much to do with placement as the picture itself. 
The proper location of drawings on the sheet 
makes for the symmetrical effect of the finished 



result. Be sure of this in some way. The inter- 
secting lines may be drawn in practice to help 
locate the two faces of the Right Angle Intro- 


\ c 








Text Figure 15 
Figure Placement 

It is easy to think of the noses of the two faces, 
which constitute this number, as the central points 
on the two halves of the sheet. Some such fixing 
of points, as indicated in Figure 15, in each pic- 
ture drawn enables the chalk talk performer to 
fix in mind proportions and placement. Some 
chalk talkers faintly trace what they are to draw 
on the sheets in advance, or indicate by dots 
location of essential proportions. It is not wise 
to form this habit. 

It is not difficult to memorize word accompani- 
ment and picture outlines together. The act of 
drawing and reciting simultaneously makes each 
easier. Once fixed in mind, the combination is 
not easily forgotten. 



The memory should not be taxed with details. 
The big forms and masses should be the main 
study. In drawing the two faces representing 
Joy and Gloom, let us start at A, Text Figure 16, 

Text Figure 16 
Right and Wrong Angle Practice Exercises 

where the crayon first comes in contact with the 
paper in the first drawing of the Right-Angle In- 
troduction. Note the distance to the edge of the 
paper, also to the top, being sure to leave room 
for the radiating lines about the head of the joy- 
ful countenance and the gloom cloud over the 
Wronor Angle countenance. 

The first line in face No. 1 is from A to C. The 
point C is just below the center of the left half 
of the sheet. The Right Angle is completed by 
extending the line to B, without raising crayon 
from paper. The Wrong Angle is next drawn 
in one stroke from D to F, then to E. The point 
F is in the center of the right half of sheet. In 
each picture produced, the final result is effected 


by the first point of contact of crayon to the 

A good practice exercise preparatory to using 
the Right Angle Introduction is shown in Figure 
17. It is a good plan to think of the smile when 
drawing the up-turned angle and of a scowl when 
drawing the wrong angle. Addition of eyebrows 
and cheek lines as shown in Figure 18, heighten 
the smiling and scowling expressions. Outlining 

Vx^ x\ v/ ^\ x^ /v 

^^ /''^ N/ •^ '>^^ x\ 
N/ XN N/ y^ S/ X^ 

Text Figure 17 
Smile and Scowl Practice Exercises 

of heads complete the two expression studies. 
The conclusion arrived at is self evident. Good 
cheer follows in the wake of the right angle, 
while gloom overshadows the wrong angle. 

Plays on words may be made in connection 
with application of color. Reference can be made 
to the chalk talk performance brightening up as 
yellow hair is drawn on the right-angle face. As 
red is applied to cheeks, comment may be made 
about the affair taking on an entirely different 
complexioru With shading of the gloom cloud in 


blue, it is natural to say everyone is blue when 
old wrong angle puts in an appearance. A run- 
ning comment of this nature, and application of 
colors with word accompaniment adds greatly to 
the picture presentation. 

0"=^ « 



Text Figure 18 
"T Eyebrow and Nose Line Expression Studies 

In a similar manner to the preparation of the 
right-angle introduction there can be worked up 
picture and patter for a series of consecutive 
stunts. It is usually most effective to have at 
least three of a general nature in sequence. In 
Chapter VII from the ten standard stunts, may 
be selected the material for several different pro- 
grams. In preparation for public performance, it 

Julian Brazelton Illustrating "Keep Away From Tobacco." 

Reproduced by courtesy of the Federal Schools, Inc. 

is well to drill on related stunts, one after the 
other, in the order they are to come in the pro- 
gram being rehearsed. 

If this is made up of puns and plays on words, 
simple evolutions from letters and words, pictures 
developed from geometric figures, they should be 



practiced upon in groups of stunts of similar 
nature. These groups constitute parts which go 
to make up a complete program. 

The most quoted stunt is the very simple one 
of the soldier going through a door followed by 
a dog, in three lines, see Figure 19. This is a 
stunt most everyone has seen, but it is accepted 

Text Figure 19 
Soldier-door-dog Stunt 

Reproduced by courtesy of the Federal Schools, Inc. 

as a traditional number. Thomas Nast used it 
after the Civil War, Edward Marshall after the 
World War, and with the establishment of world 
peace it is equally applicable. It may be used as 
a chalk talk stunt out of antiquity, and followed 
by a few equally simple numbers. 

The practice in drawing these simple outlines 
should be accompanied by recitation aloud of the 
words explaining them. In no other manner can 
a beginning performer hope to be at ease in the 



double concentration required in simultaneously 
speaking and drawing. 

Only when the patter runs glibly from, the 
tongue without mental effort can the artist con- 
centrate his attention on the drawing of the pic- 
ture. While it is good practice to study out 
little drawing acts on a pad with a soft pencil, 
and also to recite the patter aloud while walking, 
the rehearsal that really counts is the simultaneous 

Hollis Clark in Holiday CtiaJk Talk 
Reproduced by courtesy of the Federal Schools, Inc. 

drawing and reciting of the exact word and pic- 
ture combination to be used before the audience. 
This cannot be done too many times, and every 
time the effort should be to further simplify the 

In chalk talk it is the idea that counts. Good 
ideas quickly depicted with the fewest possible 
lines insure a successful first performance. In 
the right angle introduction, for example, the 
success of the number depends entirely upon 
elimination of every word and line possible. It 
will be found by the beginning entertainer that 
he has no time for elaborating the faces in public, 
so in practice he must not do so, or he will find 
himself involved in a long drawn-out act before 


an audience whose chief interest is the result, not 
the rendition. Confidence, too, comes with fam- 
iliarity with the act to be performed. 

A gymnast in vaudeville, a sleight-of-hand en- 
tertainer, or a vaudeville performer of any kind 
takes no chances. Skill of hand, sureness of eye, 
and deftness of muscle come by practice. Talent, 
personality and ability are discounted by careful 

Sidney Smith's Chester in Crayon Outline 

Every audience expects to be bored during the 
introductory remarks. The entertainer who really 
does something first crack out of the box is at 
once appreciated. This has a reaction on the 
performer. Once he gets a laugh, a hand of ap- 
plause or a ripple of merriment, he gains con- 
fidence in himself. The audience realizes its part 
in the game being played, and comes back again 
and again with applause at every opportunity, all 
because of a first hit made through a careful 
working out of the stunts in practice. 


A Two-board Outfit Leaves One Draw- 
ing Exposed While a Second Is Being Made^ 

Have Paper Fit Board Snugly, So It Can 
Be Stretched Smooth for the Drawing Act, 
and Used Sheets Quickly Removed. 

Supports for Practice Board 

In chalk talk practice, a drawing board held firmly in an upright 
position is an essential. 

The plain supports, Illustrated above, allow room for crayoj. 
beneath and in front of drawing surface, making colors readily 
accessible in practice. 

Reproduced by courtesy of the 'Federal Schools, Inc. 



Chapter IV 


To the uninitiated, information on necessary 
materials and equipment for drawing before an 
audience is of first importance. 

Four sizes of crayon are available for chalk 
talk. First the small round pastel sticks, with 

Text Figure 20 
Bart Tray System 

wax in their composition; second, the half-inch 
square sticks, three inches long; third, the inch- 
square sticks, the same length and lastly, the 
two-inch square blocks, six inches long. 

The small crayons are good for preliminary 
practice. They come in boxes of various assort- 
ments and are valuable for experimentation and 
preliminary practice on small sheets. 

The half-inch square sticks are preferred by 
many vaudeville performers where clean-cut out- 
lines are the requirement, rather than tones and 


masses of color. Cartoonists and sketch men 
who find the inch-square size cumbersome get 
good results with the little half-inch size. One 
reason for this is that such artists are used to 
drawing with a point. 

The inch-square sticks are more commonly 
used. They do not break or crumble under 
pressure and are admirably adapted to quickly 
laying on tones of color. The lines drawn with 
the end of these big sticks are not too broad 
for best view of an audience somewhat removed 
from the picture. 

With familiarity in their use the crayon artist 
discovers that he can break-in one of these larger 
sticks to his individual use. He uses the broad 
flat side of the stick in laying on tone, the flat 
end for wide marks of black or solid color and for 
thinner lines, the tapering point obtained after he 
has worn the stick down to a point. Sticks 
thus worn into use may be retained for the par- 
ticular stunt for which they have been prepared. 
The sight of each one of them suggests the use 
to which it is to be put. 

Crayon in this size seems to gain a more com- 
pact strength in the blocky forms they take on 
with wear and certainly do not break under 
pressure as do the more brittle half-inch square 
pieces, which seem to be more porous on their 
surface. Even when worn to half-inch size with 
cylindrical form they retain strength and firmness 
which cause them to be treasured by their users. 

The two-inch square blocks of color are used 
by Chautauqua performers who draw on large 



expanses of heavy paper in the big tents and 
pavilions, where very large audiences congregate. 
For the use in ordinary chalk talk they are 

Board to anv 
Table with 


The Support-s FOi.DE.O 

Text Figure 22 
Construction of Plain Supports and Stationary Board 

Reproduced hy courtesy of the Federal Schools, Inc. 

cumbersome and may be left out of consideration, 
unless the artist has a special stunt calling for 
quick application of color over large surface. 



Crayon may be very conveniently arranged in 
a set of trays, with one tray for each stunt, for 
rapid-fire work before an audience. Each tray 
is labeled and contains just the colors needed 
for the stunt at hand. The tray for the Right 

Text Figure 23 
The Turn-over Board and Combination Supports 

Reproduced by courtesy of the Federal Schools, Inc. 

Angle stunt is shown in Fig. 20. The blue 
stick holds the first compartment on the left 
with the flesh tone for faces, orange for hair of 
smiling face, white for high lighting and red for 
cheeks, in order named. In case of blue and 
green, both being used in the same tray, blue 


should be in a compartment to the left and green 
to the right to avoid confusion. 

The trays are simply partitioned boxes. The 
name of the stunt should be printed on the front 
of the box and the color of each crayon on the 
bottom of the compartment devoted to it. The 
various trays of a program may be stacked in a 
double pile in a box as shown at left of page 57. 

Text Figure 24 
Frank Wing Using Combination Supports 

The tray contsiining crayon for stunt number 
1, the Right Angle Introduction for instance, is 
on the top of first pile to the left, the tray for 
last stunt or final numbers is at bottom of the 
last pile to right. The intervening numbers of 
the program will be represented by trays in reg- 
ular order in the box, from left to right, back 
and forth on the two piles. 

By this arrangement there is never any con- 
fusion as to what comes next. All the colors 



needed for a program or set of stunts are packed 
in their place ready for use as needed. 

The working out of a program becomes in this 
way as nearly automatic as possible. A rehearsal 
may be gone through just before a performance 
by simply handling the trays one after another 

Text Figure 25 
Bart Table Stand in Use by Illustrator 

and wiping off the colors with a soft cloth, that 
they may be clean and ready for use. 

This inspection of colors reminds the performer 
of the order of stunts and the detail of their ex- 
ecution. The handling of the crayon recalls the 
use to be made of them without mental efforl". 
The act presents itself to the vision of the per- 
former, the colors for each number are in place 


and in mind to be picked up automatically in 
public performance. 

A stick of black lays at hand outside the tray. 
The box containing trays should be on a small 
table to the left of drawing board where each tray 
as needed may be quickly picked up and placed 
ready for next act. 

Text Figure 26 
Lawrence Moen Using Table Stand in Crayon Presentation 

The removal of the used tray and the stepping 
to one side for the new one gives the audience 
an unobstructed view of the completed drawing 
before it is removed. This act of changing of 
trays between numbers gives opportunity for 
applause. It is good "stage business." 

In practice and performance of chalk talk close 
proximity of crayon to the drawing board is of 
first importance. A small table placed to left o£ 



the board is a necessity with whatever kind of 
easel, table or drawing board support adopted. 
This is your base of supplies. In case of a 

Text Figure 27 
Clare Briggs Using Bart Easel 

board supported above an ordinary table as in 
Figure 21, you have a place for crayons just 
beneath your board. With this arrangement the 
performer transfers the tray of crayons for the 
next number from the tray system over to a 
position directly under his drawing board where 
he can reach them quickly as needed. When 


the number is completed he replaces the tray of 
used crayon on the small table holding the tray 
system and selects the tray for the next number 
of his program. It is well in preparation for a 

Text Figure 28 
Construction of Bart Combination Drawing Table 

program to work in this manner keeping the 
crayon for each stunt in a separate tray. The 
result is an automatic development of a set pro- 
gram that leaves no uncertainty when before an 

The detail of the board supports for this kind 
of equipment is shown in Figure 22. This sup- 
port and the one for a revolving boaKd, Figure 
23, has been patented by the author, but the 



privilege of constructing one for individual use 
of the reader is cheerfully extended. They are 
technically referred to as plain and combination 
supports. By reversing the revolving supports 
on table they can be used for illustrative drawing 
as shown in Figure 24. 

The combination feature provides not only this 
possibility, but also the locking in place of the 
crossbar into the uprights of Figure 23, providing 
the means of reversing the board for trick draw- 
ings and turn-over pictures. 

Text Figure 29 Text Figure 30 

Ray Handy Using Roll Board in Chalk Talk Entertainment 

In spite of the fact that the author has devised 
and patented collapsible easels and various 
devices for combined use in chalk-talk and 
illustrating, the old "plain supports" still fill the 
chalk talk requirement most satisfactorily. They 
are recommended for early use in practice and 
public presentation. A little familiarity with the 


use of carpenter's tools will enable the beginning" 
artist to set up his own outfit for immediate use. 
It is important that the beginning performer 
work out for himself or secure a practical board 
support to be used in practice as well as in 

Simple Shaded Lighting for Chalk Talk Board 

public performance, and always make use of 
crayon paper and equipment in practice just as 
he expects to in performance. By doing this he 
does mechanically many acts that would other- 
wise distract attention from drawing or speaking. 
Board sizes should be made to conform to the 



Standard size of print paper; 24x36, 30x44 and 
36x48, so that the edge of the paper comes just 
to the edge of the board allowing free removal of 
used sheets. Clamps and clips recommended will 
not attach paper and stretch it tightly across the 
drawing board unless the paper exactly fits the 
board. When thus arrane:ed there is no hitch 

Text Figure 31 
Roll Board Construction 

when working before an audience, especially if 
the performer has used the same crayon and 
equipment in practicing for the performance. 

By use of both plain and combination supports 
a two-board equipment is provided (see page 57). 
The large board should be 36x48 and may be 
arranged very satisfactorily with a piece of 
"compo" board from the local lumber yard. The 
smaller board should be 24x36. Reference to 



Figures 22 and 23 shows that the large board is 
fastened in place by the simple device of screwing 
up of step-bolts at the bottom and quilting-frame 


Text Figure 32 
Construction of Bart Table Stand 

clamps at the bottom, while the small board is 
swiveled in place by a bolt and thumb-nut, ob- 
tainable at any hardware store. Because of this 
swiveling arrangement it is best to use a firm 
but thin drawing board for the smaller revolving 
equipment. To allow the board to turn over 
freely, the paper should be attached by means 
of spring clips or clamps that do not extend 
beyond the back surface of the drawing board 
as such projection interferes with the revolution, 
of the board. 



In Figure 25 is shown the Bart table stand 
which combines the use for chalk talk with the 
requirement of a swiveling board support for 
commercial design and illustrative draftsmanship. 
A board support of this nature is in general use 

Text Figure 33 
Combination Drawing Table in Use in lliustration 

by professional artists. While- there are patents 
on the upright locking device and the system of 
notches by means of which the board is held at 
varying angles there is nothing to prevent the 
reader from constructing, for his own use, one 



of these simple triangular hinged supports, so 
valuable in any kind of drawing. Figure 32 
shows this form of support in chalk talk use. 

For the entertainer or artist appearing con- 
tinuously in entertainment, the easel which sets 
up directly on the floor after the plan of Figure 
27 is most convenient as it is usually difficult to 
quickly find a table to which to attach supports 
on arrival in the ordinary places of entertain, 

Text Figure 34 
Ray Handy in Duluth Chalk Talk 

A combination equipment is available, covering 
all the above requirements in the Bart table, 
shown in Figure 28. While not collapsible it 
folds for carrying and is thus available for local 
chalk talk uses. 

Chalk talk paper commonly used is either 
white or gray. The gray tint allows of use of 
lighter colors of chalk. It has a rough surface 
and may be worked upon for combination of 
colors and blending effects for more elaborate 



crayon presentation. Packard and other enter- 
tainers, however, find shade cloth, such as roll 
curtains are made from, an excellent substitute. 
This shade cloth is treated to a coat of whiting, 
after which powdered lamp black is rubbed into 

Text Figure 35 
Detail of Lighting with Extension Cord 

the surface with a school eraser until it becomes 
the gray tone desired. Whiting and lamp black 
may be purchased in pound containers at any 
paint supply store. The shade cloth thus treated 
may be used over and over again and recoated 
as needed. It provides an excellent drawing sur- 
face for all numbers requiring dark backgrounds 
and blending and modeling of colors in picture 
presentation. A second drawing may be made 
by erasing the first just as in black-board work. 


Tooth print, a rough surface newspaper print 
paper, is commonly used for practice and public 
performance. Its lightness of weight not only 
reduces the cost of individual sheets but makes 
possible easy conveyance of the greatest number 
of pieces. 

In practice use may be made of both sides of 
the sheet by facing used sides together, as re- 
moved from the drawing board. By neatly piling 
up in this way, so that the used sheets can be 
replaced on the board, a second use can be made 
of all practice paper. Only every other sheet 
will be drawn upon the second time through, but 
by keeping up the process of facing used sides 
together as the sheets are removed from the 
board there will be no drawing surface wasted. 
It takes time to care for paper in this way in 
practice, but the economy makes it worth while 
in these times of high cost of paper. 

Sheets may be fastened to the board at the 
top by means of ordinary quilting-frame clamps 
and with large spring clips at the bottom, as 
illustrated in Figure 21. To remove used sheets, 
loosen the clip at lower left hand comer with 
your left hand, seizing the paper with the right 
and jerking upward with a free swinging motion 
that breaks it from the other three fasteners. 

The drawing surface must be specially lighted 
for the best presentation of color drawings. The 
device shown in Figure 21 is practical in con- 
nection with the plain supports. It will be 
observed that the construction of these supports 
sets the board back four inches from the front of 


the table allowing space for chalk below the 
board and directly in front of the drawing sur- 
face. The lighting of his board is worthy of 
individual consideration on the part of each 
performer and must be adapted to his equipment. 

Footlights in the theaters throw the light from 
below where it should come from one side or 
from above. The spotlight is always very dis- 
tracting to work under and should not be used 
except for a short vaudeville act. Most theaters 
have drop lights which may be lowered just 
above and in front of the drawing surface. 

The average chalk talker must, however, pro- 
vide his own lighting. A bracket clamped in a 
position on side and just in front of board or the 
floor, some distance in front and to one side, 
gets the desired result of screening the light 
from the audience and reflecting it upon the 
picture being drawn by the chalk talker. 

Many chalk-talk performers use tightly 
stretched canvas fastened to a collapsible frame 
in the place of a drawing board. A roll board 
has come into very general use by many enter- 
tainers. With the folding easel or supports it 
makes an ideal outfit as the paper may be 
smoothly protected, and the board, paper, and 
supports rolled together into compact form for 
carrying. This is illustrated in Figure 30, which 
shows Ray Handy carrying his outfit under his 
arm after a performance. Figure 29 pictures the 
cartoonist using a turn-over board in a Duluth 
chalk talk. Figure 31 illustrates roll board con- 


In the First Performance, Early Assur- 
ance That the Audience is "With You" 
Means Everything to the Beginner. 

A Good Introduction Accomplishes This 
In the First Five Minutes. Play Safe In 
First Public Performance By Using the 
"Right Angle Introduction," Word For 

Set Up Your Board in an Out-Door Studio Wfiere You Can Practice 
Drawing and Speal<ing Just as You Expect to Use Them in Per- 


Chapter V. 

In making a start in chalk talk, the performer, 
crayon in hand, stands with expanse of white 
paper, before an expectant audience — What pos- 
sibilities ! 

Upon the result of this first appearance depends, 
to a large extent, his whole success in chalk talk. 
Definite, conclusive success in first tryout depends 
entirely upon careful preparation of a few simple 

With successful consummation of the beginning 
program before an audience comes a brightening 
up of the whole situation — hard work is forgotten, 
undreamed-of possibilities open up, and the novice 
continues the work with a zest hardly imaginable 
during the early practice. 

Particular care must be taken to have a bright 
introduction. A good start with a laugh and a 
hand of applause is half the battle. It gives the 
entertainer assurance and makes an audience com- 

Drawing with the lecture crayon while the 
audience waits and watches is very different from 
any other kind of draftsmanship. In actual per- 
formance the chalk talker realizes that special 
preparedness in conveying definite ideas in the 
shortest possible time is what counts. 

It is not the act of drawing, no matter how 
clever, that wins favor with an audience. The 


audience is not interested in merely watching one 
draw. The result is what counts. 

It is this very fact that furnishes the oppor- 
tunity to the novice. He can quickly acquire the 
knowledge necessary to give his first fifteen or 
twenty minute program. If he will concentrate 
on a good introduction and a half dozen simple 
stunts, he can go before an audience with assur- 
ance of success. 

Text Figure 36 
Right Angle Smile 

So important is a catchy introduction that a 
detailed outline of this opening number will be 
helpful. In practice exercises the detail of draw- 
ing the pictures for the right angle introduction 
was elaborated. We will now consider a word 
accompaniment for actual performance. 

The prelude to the introduction is an obvious 
bid for applause, but it must be borne in mind 
that the audience welcomes the opportunity to 
share in a performance. The introductory re- 


marks on stepping before an audience run as 
follows : 

"It takes more than one to do anything that 
is worth while. 

"I am here this evening on the express under- 
standing that YOU are to be responsible for 
one-half of this performance. 

"If it is a success, the credit is MINE. If it 
is a failure, YOU are to blame for it. (Pause.) 

Text Figure 37 
Wrong Angle Scowl 

"To show you YOUR part in the work we 
have before us, I am going to use a little plain 

As the right angle is drawn, the comment 
should be made: 

"This is the RIGHT ANGLE!" 

Quickly stepping to the other side of the 
board, the performer says as he outlines the 
iown-turned mouth: 

"And this is the WRONG ANGLE!" 


Now there is nothing on the drawing board 
but the two bent lines of the two faces to be 
developed, and nothing funny has been said. 
The simple announcement has been made of what 
has been drawn as it was drawn, and yet the 
spirit of anticipation stirs the audience, and a 
ripple of merriment runs over the room, so ready 
are people to be amused. 

After quickly drawing the cloud of GLOOM 
in blue, the same color may be spread on the 
cheeks of the wrong angle face with the com- 
ment : 

"I dwell first on the wrong angle." Suiting 
action to the words, the scowling face is next 
drawn, and turning from the wrong angle face 
with the comment: "The only thing to do with 
a face like that is to forget it as quickly as pos- 
sible," the performer says, as he draws the 
orange hair over the right angle smile: 

"But when THIS FACE puts in an appearance 
in any social gathering, things begin to brighten 
up, and the whole affair takes on an entirely 
different complexion." 

The cheeks are colored red as the word "com- 
plexion" is used, and the performer continues: 

"When the right angle puts in an appearance 
on the face of an audience, the cartoonist works 
more willingly and cheerfully and is willing to 
stay right with you until the janitor locks the 
door for the night. 

"Then your part in this chalk talk is very 
simple : 



**Just smile a smile, and as you smile, another 

And soon there's miles and miles of smiles, 
And life's worth while, if YOU but SMILE!" 

It has been said that a good beginning in per- 
formance is half the battle. There is nothing in 
the foregoing word accompaniment but what any- 
one can quickly memorize to recite while drawing 
the simple outlines of Figure 16. 



Text Figure 38 
Carey Orr Optical Illusion 

The Right Angle Introduction has been given 
thus in detail on the theory that well begun is 
half done. It is adaptable to any line of chalk talk 
which may be used by any performer. If faithfully 
followed, he will be well on his way toward a suc- 
cessful performance. 

For first performance, choose quick, catchy 
trick drawings and master the few stunts to be 
presented, leaving experimentation in variety of 


possibilities until after acquiring knowledge, from 
actual experience of what an audience is inter- 
ested in and laughs at. 

The audience is the beginning chalk talker's 
school, and he should go to it early if he would 
save himself waste of much time and effort. 
There are things to be learned from an audience 
that can be brought home to the chalk talker in 
no other way. One of these is that a bold, strong 
outline worked out with snap and dash by the 
rankest amateur is more effective than a faint or 
indefinite drawing, though of real artistic merit, 
hesitatingly elaborated. Landscapes and preten- 
tious color blendings which seem just the thing 
in advance, prove much too elaborate and tedious 
when attempted in platform work. The wise 
beginner will, then, omit any attempt at exhibi- 
tion of skillful drawing or artistic showing of 
landscapes, pretty girl heads or elaborate por- 
trayals, until after a first tryout. He must learn 
the demand of an audience by working before it. 
In this way as in no other will he learn what to 
work for and what to leave out. From the 
"Standard Stunts" he may select the simple, 
quick transformations and evolutions best adapted 
to his individual requirements, and from this safe 
beginning build up an individual program, orig- 
inating and elaborating in the light of experience. 

An audience sees a picture very differently 
from a distance of fifty feet from that seen by the 
artist three feet from the board. A picture 
properly drawn for view from the longer distance 


will look much better to the audience than to the 

The performer must bear in mind that it is 
the big shapes and main proportions that catch 
the eye of the audience. It is well to go to a 
distance of twenty-five or thirty feet for a look 




Two S0UL6 


S. S. Henry Two Hearts Stunt 

at practice drawings, that all unnecessary detail 
and confusing combinations may be omitted in 
making the drawing before an audience. It is 
surprising how much can be left out of a picture 
and still have it quite as good from the view the 
audience gets of it. The best chalk entertainer 
is the one who leaves out every superfluous detail. 
The better the drawing, the more satisfactory 
the result, of course, and there will be plenty of 
opportunity to use expert drawing later as the 
ambitious entertainer progresses. There is a 
limitless field for display of artistic ability, and 
originality may be given widest range after a 
little platform experience, but to avoid relearning 
much and avoiding blunders that might prove 
disastrous, the beginning performer is cautioned 
to stick to tried and tested forms of presentation. 


The "Standard Stunts" of a later chapter furnish 
this short cut to chalk talk presentation. 

One of the first requisites of good platform 
appearance is assurance. Confidence comes with 
familiarity with just the stunts one is to do, and 
the words he is to recite in stepping out before 
his first audience. It is quite possible to confuse 
one's self by undertaking too great a variety of 

For the first performance, then, let the beginner 
learn where every line and spot of color is to go, 
and thoroughly memorize the words that are to 
be said while drawing each picture. Once he 
has done this, he can go before a gathering of 
people, large or small, with a confidence which 
sets them at their ease, ready to settle down to 
a good time, and everything will take on a sur- 
prisingly cozy and comfortable air, which will 
insure a kindly reception of individual numbers. 

No doubt the first audience sitting out there 
awaiting your appearance thinks nothing unusual 
is going to happen. In fact, they rather antici- 
pate being bored by a long rambling introduction. 
It is up to you to surprise them. That is what 
the right angle introduction is for. It is planned 
to enlist the immediate co-operation, and by so 
doing, the interest of the audience. 

After this a succession of quick evolutions, 
transformations and stunts in which the audience 
takes part, holds their interest. Then an unex- 
pected ending of the program, while they are 
interested and waiting for more, and the first 
performance is a success. 


Trick Drawings Dexterous Drawings Sentiment 

Stunts — Illustrations and Portrayals — Crayon Cartoons 

Alton Packard's Vanity Fair 
Reproduced by courtesy of the Federal Schools, Inc. 


Rev. Phillips E. Osgood, of St. Mark's Episcopal 
Church, Minneapolis, in chalk talk illustration of 

Reverend Osgood uses chalk talk before chil- 
dren's Lenten classes and in Sunday School illus- 
tration. His large colored drawings before na- 
tional gatherings of his denomniation are of high 
artistic merit as well as being of special interest 
to his audiences. 

His crayon presentation and chalk talk has 
brought this leader of his denomination into great 
demand for addresses before great rallies of chil- 
dren. As high as 3,000 children have gathered 
for a single performance. 

Chapter VI 

Chalk talk stunts may be arranged under five 
main classifications. 

First — Trick Drawings, which are planned to 
surprise by unexpected development. 

Second — Dexterous Drawings, prepared to ex- 
cite admiration by the skill and dexterity of the 

Third — Sentiment Stunts, to awaken cherished 
memories or stir emotion. 

Fourth — Illustrations and Portrayals, to present 
a scene, illustrate a narrative or portray people. 

Fifth — Crayon Cartoons, to picture an idea, 
impress a truth or mould opinion. 


One can learn to do trick drawings just as one 
learns to do slight of hand. They are often no 
more than the clever combination of lines to 
picture a play or words. The fact that they are 
not really drawings or in any sense works of 
art, makes them not a whit less interesting. For 
the average beginner, trick drawings are the open 
sesame to chalk talk and the artist desirous of 
using his ability in crayon presentation makes 
a mistake if he deludes himself with the idea that 



this simplest use of the crayon is unworthy of 
his effort. Some of the best entertainers are 
effective because they confine themselves to quick 
production of rapid-fire climaxes, only possible 
by means of trick drawings. 

Under the classification of trick drawings come 
all transformations, in which a drawing of one 
object is changed to something entirely different 
as in the cherry cocktail where the glass of liquor 
is transformed into the too frequent imbiber. 


Text Figure 39 
Frank King Cherry Cocktail 

Letters of the alphabet are changed into people, 
words into animals and geometric figures com- 
bined to take on human form. Fruits and 
vegetables are transformed into people and an- 
imals that are wont to eat them, and a pretty 
girl evolved from an egg. Evolutions and trans- 
formations without end may be worked out by 
the inventive chalk talker. 

A picture completed in one position, by in- 
genius construction, may represent something 
entirely different when reversed. Such drawings 
are known as "turnovers" and require a revers- 
ible board for their most satisfactory presentation. 



Under this group may be classed the develop- 
ment of two faces from one profile, as in the old 
professor whose profile slightly modified and 



Text Figure 40 
Soldier Professor Turn-over 

Young m^h roRACX'ioif 



turned up side-down develops into that of the 
youthful soldier. 

Text Figure 41 

Uncle Sam's Folks, by Alton Packard 

Reproduced by courtesy of the Federal Schools, Inc. 

The list of trick drawings would include, if 
amplified, most of the popular chalk talk stunts 
in general use. The foregoing give a basis upon 
which the ingenious user of the crayon may build 
original numbers. 




Text Figure 42 
Gettin] a Man's Number 



The skilled draftsman may win applause by 
various forms of quickly-drawn pictures. This 
takes intensive drill upon speedy rendering of 
clever picturings. Alton Packard's types in 
Uncle Sam's Folks and Edward Marshall's Indian 
head are examples of real skill in picture presenta- 

Text Figure 43 
Edward Marshall Indian from Artist's Original 

Smoke pictures drawn by vaudeville and lyceum 
entertainers by erasure of the soot from a white 
enamel surface and rag pictures made up of pieces 
of colored cloth excite the admiration of the aud- 
ience because of the unusual in their execution. 

A direct use of art principles is employed in 
drawing landscapes and marines, employing per- 



spective and correct construction to carefully 
planned and quickly executed picturing of attrac- 
tive scenes and well-drawn heads and dashing 

Text Figure 44 
The Springtime Reminiscent Scene by Alton Packard 
Reproduced by courtesy of the .Federal Schools, Inc. 

Some artists have the knack of drawing ambi- 
dexterously. The knack of using right and left 
hand simultaneously can be acquired. This ability 
exhibited before an audience invariably brings 


There is no more telling use of the crayon in 
public presentation than the color elaboration of 
scenes from boyhood or early associations that 
through awakening of memory stir the emotions. 
Alton Packard is a master at picturing reminis- 



cent scenes as illustrated in his picture of spring 

Text Figure 45 
Sidney Smith's Brool<lyn Bridge 

Other entertainers illustrate popular songs or 
make elaborate drawings in colors to musical 
accompaniment under the play of colored light- 
ings of the vaudeville houses. 

Drawing of scenes or landscapes to suggest 
old associations or stir remembrance may be ef- 
fectively done to piano or song accompaniment. 


While in trick drawings the object is rapid-fire 
presentation of simple drawn numbers, in stunts 
of sentiment, careful preparation must be made 
of one drawing, and interest centered on its pro- 
duction through a considerable period of time. 

Only by careful study of the subject can the 
beginning chalk talker hope for success in this 
advanced use of chalk talk art. 


The portraying of historic characters such as 
Lincoln and Washington is a legitimate field for 
the crayon entertainer. Life-size portrayals of 
such characters elicit applause when completed 
in strong colorings under brilliant spotlighting. 

J. W. Bengough, the Canadian caricaturist, 
through a long public career, had a happy faculty 
of picturing prominent people in correct likeness. 
Thomas Nast, following the Civil war, enter- 
tained vast audiences with his striking cartoons 
and caricatures. Packard's portrayals of people 
and scenes are examples of well-drawn color pro- 
ductions of never-failing interest. 

The lecture crayons are capable of harmonious 
blending and brilliant contrasts. The color artist 
who will put his best into crayon presentation 
can in a very brief interval present striking pic- 
tures for the approval of an audience. Before 
essaying it, however, the beginner in art adapta- 
tion to chalk talk should study the rudiments of 
color composition or content himself with a quick 
copy of some simple scenic effect or striking 



Under this class come many introductions 
and final numbers. The right angle introduction 
and similar preludes to chalk talk performance 
cartoon the idea of the success sure to follow a 
cheerful reception of the entertainer's efforts and 
the depressing effect of a gloomy expression on 
the face of an audience. 

"Hap" Hadley in His Act for Greenwich Village Follies 

The speaker who pictures the effect of the 
right and wrong ways of doing things, or disas- 
trous results of any form of government or 
administration of affairs, is a cartoonist pure and 
simple. By ingeniously arranged figures, humor- 
ously presented, he can show the tax-payer, 
broken down under too heavy burdens, the voter, 
coaxed into action by a much desired bait, or the 
deteriorating effect of intemperance, greed or 



The reformer as well as the entertainer finds 
good use for the cartoon in picturing an idea. 
The educator, business organizer or salesman can 
each present his views most effectively through 
comic presentation, while the reformer or politi- 
cian can often win allegiance to his cause by 
humor, where fierce denunciation would fail. 

The Sea of Life by Rev. Branford Clarke 

Serious pictorial presentation in times of great 
social or political upheaval has always proven 
most effective in moulding public opinion. The 
cartoons of a Nast or a Raemakers are quite as 
forceful as the editorials of a Greeley or the ser- 
mons of a Beecher. 

Under the heading of Chalk Cartoons come 
the business comparisons of John H. Patterson. 
J. W. Bengough's pronouncement in picture on 
single tax and temperance, which followed earlier 
efforts as an entertainer, were cartoons of high 
order; Carter Beard's chalk talks were sermons 


in picture, and the lecture illustrations of Alton 
Packard often take on the element of editoral 

For the trained cartoonist there is a wonderful 
opportunity in the chautauqua and lyceum field. 
Alvan C, or as he is better known, "Hap" Hadley, 
has carried this a step further in his clever pictur- 
ing of notable comic characters of the Sunday 
supplements, in his act with the Greenwich Vil- 
lage Follies. Mr. Hadley started entertainment 
work in Oklahoma as a Bart chalk talker. His 
comics appear in the New York Sunday supple- 

During a long career in every section of the 
United States, Mr. Packard has appeared in lec- 
ture courses and lyceum entertainment and before 
vast audiences in chautauqua tents and pavilions. 

In crayon cartoons is possible the acme of 
achievement for the chalk talker. They not only 
entertain but instruct. Very often they combine 
the elements of all five classifications and call for 
the best ability of the trained artist. 

The cartoon is but a means of expression. The 
crayon cartoonist conveys to an audience the 
results of observation, and pictures conclusions 
arrived at by keen thinking. The message he 
brings is strikingly presented. 

As a preacher or orator trains himself in rhet- 
oric and elocution for public speaking, so the 
crayon cartoonist trains for pictorial presentation 
of ideas by practice in what is most effective in. 
drawing for chalk talk. 

Leading to this most general use of the crayon 
in public, defined under the heading crayon car- 


toons of our fifth classification, come the other 
four uses of the crayon in public, previously out- 
lined. Any one of them may be employed in 
cartoon production. 

One need not be a skilled draftsman or trained 
artist to picture ideas through cartoons. Mr. 
Patterson's match-stick men are employed in yet 
simpler form by many Sunday School workers 
and Bible teachers in diagrammatic presentation 
of lesson truths and they may be utilized by any 
educator to visualize a situation. 

The crayon cartoon is for everyone, from the 
most skilled cartoonist to the beginning chalk 
talker. Anyone can picture ideas by cartoon 
methods in his own individual way if he will but 
try. Once started, training leads to more elabor- 
ate drawings. The chalk talker must train 
himself in public presentation. The fact that he 
can do this ever so crudely in chalk talk and still 
satisfy his audience gives him the chance at 
pictorial expression through crayon presentation 
not afforded by any other form of illustration. It 
also incites him to originality as does no other 
form of drawing or writing, as he has inspiration 
afforded by contact with his audience. 

He learns first hand what people like, what 
they are interested in and what they laugh at. 
It is the best possible school in originality. Let 
the beginning artist resolve that he will, by sys- 
tematic training, advance from simple outlines 
to more skilled draftsmanship and his chalk talk 
may lead to highest forms of pictorial and literary 



/''^^A ^tA JVo ^^ 'N^ • 

Sid Smith Alphabetic Faces 

Chapter VII 

There is an infinite variety in the way various 
ideas may be simply pictured. Each performer 
modifies a stunt to his own interpretation of it. 
In this way the same stunt appears almost totally 
different in the hands of different chalk talkers. 

Text Figure 46 
Sidney Smith Presentation of Soldier-door-dog 

For this reason, standard stunts are available and 
may be adapted to individual use with the assur- 
ance that they will appear new with the new 
mode of presentation. 

STUNT NO. 1 — Simplest Line Drawing 
Soldier — ^Door — Dog in Three Lines 

Thomas Nast and a host of followers have, 
through succeeding generations of chalk talkers. 


given the Soldier-Door-Dog in three lines as 
shown in Figure 19. Sidney Smith found a new 
way of picturing the door in one line with three 
right angles in it as in A, Figure 46, and his in- 
terpretation of the Soldier-Door-Dog drawing 
complete appears as in Figure 46-B. 

In drawing this stunt, the announcement is 
made: "The simplest of all chalk drawings is 
about to be drawn, the picture of a soldier going 

A* 2TO.Q. ^B 

Text Figure 47 
Bengough Geometric Figure Development 

through a door, followed by a dog, in three lines. 
'The door !' " As the word door is said, the rec- 
tangle A, Figure 46, is outlned in one mark. 
"The soldier!" With the word soldier, the bay- 
onet is drawn. "The dog!" As the word dog 
is used, the curved tail of the dog is shown. By 
way of apology for so simple a stunt the comment 
may be made: "That stunt is so simple it's 
almost simple. It is really used as a prelude to 
something a little more modern." 



STUNT NO. 2 — Geometric Figures 
The Operatic Singer. By J. W. Bengough 

The human figure may be produced from 
geometric figures. Note the oval, square, tri- 

Text Figure 49 

John M. Baer Transforms the Square into Honest Uncle Sam, 
Fig. 48, and the Bulldog into the Politician, Fig. 49 

angle, curve, right angle, and two straight lines 
of A, Figure 47. From geometric figures set 
down in the above order, J. W. Bengough quickly 
constructs the operatic singer of B, Figure 47. 



This geometric evolution is one from the 
"Simplest Line Series" of the famous Canadian 
cartoonist and chalk talker. On page 101 is a 
direct reproduction from the Bengough crayon, 
and shows the real skill of the cartoonist quite as 
fully as a more elaborate production. 

Text Figure 50 
Andy Gump in Cfialk Taik 

STUNT NO, 3 — Letter Transformation 
AlpFiabetic Faces 

The rapid-fire drawing of similar combinations 
of lines and figures to picture people and animals 
in caricature, works out well as a section in a 
chalk talk program. 

The chalk talk entertainer can develop for 
himself faces from the various letters of the 
alphabet. Almost every chalk talker using this 
stunt has his own code. 



The faces from letters shown on page 102 are 
the ones used by Sidney Smith, who makes quite 
a feature of this stunt by calling on someone 
from his audience to come up on the platform 
and outline a letter from which he afterwards 
evolves a comic face. 

Text Figure 51 
Sidney Smitli Develops Min from Letter 

Other entertainers put the letters down from 
the suggestion of the audience. Sometimes three 
letters are set down as called for and the faces 
worked out in rapid succession. An underlying 
flesh tone beneath the letters helps in producing 
the faces later. 

STUNT NO. 4 — Turn -over Transformations 
Coon — Moon Faces 

The development of two faces with one profile 
furnishes the basis for interesting chalk talk de- 



velopment. The "Dark of the Moon" stunt 
shown in Figure 52, from the Federal School 
Course in Illustrating and Cartooning, is an ex- 

I — 

Text Figure 52 

Dark of the Moon Stunt from 

the Federal School Course 

Reproduced by courtesy of the (Federal Schools, Inc. 

Text Figure 53 
Harold Liscombe Development 


Text Figure 54 
Ted Nelson Turn-over 

cellent example of this form of reversible profiles. 
With this as a suggestion, students of the course 
submit original developments from which has 



been selected the very direct and simply-drawn 
coon-moon stunt, by Harold Liscombe, of Tor- 
onto, of Figure 53. 

Using a front view instead of a profile, Ensign 
Ted Nelson produced The Naval Recruit, Figure 
54. In Figure 55, he is shown in the act of draw- 
ing this number in connection with his duties as 
a recruiting officer. 

STUNT NO. 5 — Fruit and Vegetable Transformations 
The Pear — Parent Number 

Text Figure 55 
Ensign Ted Nelson Using Chalk Talk in Naval Enlistments 

Another number selected from the "We Are 
What We Eat" program of the Federal School 
Course is the evolution of the Parent from the 
Pear, Figure 56. In this series, the underlying 
idea is the evolution of people and animals from 

-3 „ Text Figure 56 

^ear Parent Stunt from Federal Schools Course In Illustrating 
and Cartooning " 



the fruit and vegetable that goes to make up their 
chief article of diet. 

The combination of picture and verse is a feat- 
ure of this series. The idea is adaptable to a 
serious turn in connection with orcharding and 
phases of horticultural development. For a pro- 
gram to be used in rural districts and farm bet- 
terment cartoons it is a most interesting theme. 
Simple stunts may be developed along this line 
by the reader for individual programs. 

STUNT NO. 6— Indian Head 
Dexterous Drawing. By Edward Marshall 

Text Figure 57 

Edward Marshall in His Famous Color Vaudeville Production of 

the Indian Head. 

Reproduced by courtesy of the Federal Schools, Inc. 



Working with colored crayon to the beat of 
tom-toms, Edward Marshall produces an Indian 
head, using something over 700 lines in 70 sec- 
onds. See Figure 43. 

Colored lighting and music may be improvised 
in amateur presentation of similar drawings of 
picturesque types of people with national airs for 
accompaniment. Mr. Marshall is shown in his 
act in Figure 57. 

STUNT NO. 7— Patriotic Number 
Eagle — Uncle Sam Evolution 


Text Figure 58A 

From drawings of birds and animals may be 
evolved human characteristics and vice versa. 
The Uncle Sam head from the outlines of the 



eagle, Figure 58, were first produced by a Fed- 
eral School student, Lynn C. Rose, published 
originally in the Bart Patriotic Program, widely 

Co2^J?LzrT£iD ^TOTiT 

Text Figure 58B 

distributed during the World War under Y. M. C. 
A. and U. S, Government committees on pub- 
licity and entertainment. 



Hon. John M. Baer, the Congressman cartoon- 
ist, used this development in patriotic chalk talk 
in soldier addresses and entertainment in Wash- 
ington, where his chalk talks were in great de- 
mand. His interpretation of this stunt is simpler 
of execution, showing small head of eagle quickly 
developed into Uncle Sam. 

STUNT NO. 8 — Ambidexterous Development 
The Loving Cup 

Text Figure 59 

Two Faces Developed from Outline Ambidextrously Drawn 
Keproduced by courtesy of the Federal Schools, Inc. 



The person who can use either hand with equal 
facility is spoken of as being ambidexterous. 
Ambidexterous drawing, or the use of both hands 
simultaneously, is used by comparatively few 
draftsmen. Anyone can train his left hand to 
draw the reverse of the line being sketched with 
the right. On this possibility are founded a few 
ambidexterous chalk talk stunts, such as the Lov- 
ing Cup of Figure 59. The stem of the cup is 


Owe Dia^w^ine 


Text Figure 59A 
Ambidexterous Number from Outline of Candle Stick 

Reproduced by courtesy of the Federal Schools, Inc. 

drawn in such a manner as to outline two profiles 
simultaneously. Their development into faces 
follows the completion of the loving cup proper, 
which can be made to appear to be the main 
feature of the number, until the moment when 
the faces are unexpectedly developed. By using 
a candlestick instead of a loving cup, a good- 



night number may be evolved from the faces of a 
young man and young woman, see Figure 59A. 

STUNT NO. 9— Chalk Talk Portrayal 


Text Figure 60 
Bart Portrait by Wing. 

The portraying of an individual from the audi- 
ence is a phase of crayon presentation that will 
be worked out in about as many ways as there 
are entertainers. 

Two examples are here given. The first, Fig- 
ure 60, is a realistic caricature of the author by 
Frank Wing. It is only a slight exaggeration of 
main characteristics. 



Text Figure 61 
Sid Smith Chalk Talk Caricature 
Reproduced by courtesy of the Federal Schools, Inc. 


The Other is a very broad caricature by Sidney 
Smith of an individual from his audience, at a 
Rotarian Club banquet, Figure 61. Mr, Smith is 
very successful in greatly exaggerating some 
striking attribute of a selected character. In this 
case, the tall pompadour came in for special at- 
tention. It may, in another case, be a very bald 
head or red hair or big glasses or long legs. The 
artist makes small pencil sketches in advance, 
which he follows in working out the big cari- 
cature before his audience. 

STUNT NO. 10 — Picture and Verse Combination 
Woman, Lovely Woman 

The drawing of a picture to recited verse or 
solo accompaniment may be made very effective. 
Such drawing to vocal accompaniment of popular 
songs may be accomplished by the same person 
if the performer is gifted with a good voice and 
musical training. If not, he must call a second 
party into the act. 

The chief feature, however, is the picture pres- 
entation. The drawing should possess some ele- 
ment of humor, surprise or attractiveness. Just 
drawing an illustration of the lines is not sufn- 

The "Woman, Lovely Woman" example from 
the author's individual repertoire is here shown, 
with the proviso that it is not to be used in public 
presentation without special arrangements. Text 
Figure 62A shows original figure of Robinson 
Crusoe, which is gradually transformed into the 
lady in the completed development. 



Its reason for success is the 
unexpected development of a 
lady at the seashore from Rob- 
inson Crusoe, and the timely 
application of topical verses to 
woman's prominence in affairs. 
The recitation of the seventeen 
verses allows time for trans- 
formation and coloring of pic- 

Text Figure 62 


Oh, Woman, Lovely Woman, 
Since first this world began 
You have ruled it most adroitly, 
Through your humble servant, man. 


A captain may capture a city — 
A king be placed on the throne, 
But we know the one who will rule it 
Is the woman who stayed at home. 

A mayor may be elected, 
A governor come to the chair, 
A president be selected, 
And nobody seems to care. 

But the country never is easy 

Until someone out of the throng, 

Answers the fateful question, 

"To what church does his wife belong?" 

Mere man may pay for the groceries 

From out a fat check book, 

But we know the one we must look to for meals 

Is, after all, the cook. 

The question is often put to you, 

"Did William write the Shakespeare play?" 

I hardly think Bacon did it. 

But Mrs. Shakespeare may. 

Higher critics have revealed to us 
A thing hitherto kept dark. 
While old Noah doubtless built it, 
Mrs. Noah governed the ark. 

When to future generations 

The story they come to tell, 

'Twill be Mrs. McGinty sought the watery depths 

In her spacious diving bell. 


D. A. R.'s will tell the story 
Twenty-two ten, or there about. 
How Paulina Revere roused the natives 
In her electric runabout. 

The boy stood on the burning deck, 
Did you ever hear such rot? 
From most recent information 
'Twas his sister who got so hot. 

Here I am giving a chalk talk 
And hoping to make a hit, 
But I know if I gain my purpose. 
It's through the women back of it. 

Now we come to old Crusoe, 
The hero of this tale, 
And the telling of the story 
Fairly makes one quail. 

A desert island's nothing. 
But think of the fateful plot. 
How very, very lonesome. 
Where woman speaketh not. 

It really is too much to believe. 
We scarcely can take it in. 
I've thought it over carefully. 
It couldn't have been a him. 

I never liked the Adam story. 
It more reasonable seemed to me, 
That Eve was first in the garden 
And Adam shook the apple tree. 



And when youVe scanned this closely, 
You'll find beyond a doubt. 
Robinson Crusoe was a woman, 
Who in search of a man set out! 

Bart and His Illustration of Woman Lovely Woman. 


In No Other Field Can Artist or Enter- 
tainer so Quickly Arrive at Individual At- 
tainment as Through Use of the Crayon 
Before An Audience. 

"Hap" Hadley and Happy Hooligan One of the Popular Comic 
Characters Produced in His Drawing Act in Musical Comedy. 

^x^; ^^jr;.j>^ 




John T. McCutcheon Characters 

Chapter VIII 


Achievement in chalk talk began in America 
with Thomas Nast, in the United States, and 
J. W. Bengough in Canada. The chalk talks 
given by them w^ere the big picture shows of 
their day and they played to packed houses. 

c?^xWi-«*.- .-..—,.«, -, — V 

M hin ^^ 1 


Text Figure 64 

"Drawing a House" Stunt by Thomas Nast 

Nast Sketch of himself reproduced from Albert Bigelow Paine's 

book 'Thomas Xast. His Period and His Pictures." Courtesy of 

the Pearson Publishing Co. 

One evening as Thomas Nast looked out over 
an audience that taxed the capacity of the audit- 
orium where he was appearing, an introduction, 
often used by him later, flashed into his mind. 
Stepping to the board he roughly sketched a little 
building and looking out over the audience once 
more, remarked: 

"Who says I can't draw a house?" 


There was a big demand for the crayon draw- 
ings of Nast and Bengough. At the end of their 
performances their drawings were bid in by mem- 
bers of their audiences at prices ranging as high 
as seventy-five or eighty dollars. 

Text Figure 65 
J. W. Bengough 

Their ability to draw portraits and illustrations 
before an audience was regarded as phenomenal 
and it was not until vaudeville houses began to 
put on entertainment programs that chalk talk 
performances became at all general. Carter Beard 
and a few other lecturers appeared in Lyceum 
tours, delighting school children by drawing in 
school sessions with blackboard presentation. 


Mr. Bengough had a fine tenor voice and sang 
accompaniments to his illustrations. As a young 
man, comic presentation and telling caricatures 
of prominent people kept him in demand for fre- 

Text Figure 67 
Altoji Packard 

Reproduced by courtesy of the Federal Schools, Inc. 

quent tours on both sides of the line. Later he 
developed forceful cartoons of serious import. 
They were drawn large in color and for a long 
period set the standard of artistic merit in chalk 
talk production. 

Alton Packard cartoon comedies next came into 
prominence. Nor does he confine himself to the 


humorous in chalk talk. His serious crayoti pres- 
entation is of inspiring value. Mr. Packard makes 
a profession of entertainment. He appears con- 
tinuously, returning season after season to the 
same Lyceum courses in the winter and Chau- 
tauquas in the summer. Spring finds him filling 
early Chautauqua programs in the South. He 

Text Figure 68 
John T. McCutcheon 

travels North with the warm weather, covering 
engagements from coast to coast and in the fall 
starts the rounds once more in Lyceum lecture 

Packard's crayon drawing is of highest order. 
He works on three big screens with eight-foot 
square expanse of drawing surface, under his own 
lighting equipment, cleverly arranged for most 



telling effect. His brilliant color productions are 
drawn on the heavy prepared cloth, described in 
a previous chapter. These highly finished land- 
scapes and reminiscent scenes take considerable 
time in their development, a rapid fire patter per- 
tinent to the subject being kept up meanwhile. 
The completed picture appears artistically draped 
and specially lighted. 

Text Figure 69 
Frank King 

Reproduced by courtesy of the Federal Schools, Inc. 

On the other easels are heavy rolls of rough 
surface print paper, upon which black and white 
sketches of types are rapidly drawn one after 
the other. The large size of the sheets used and 
the triple board arrangement allow the audience 
a continuous view of the Packard productions. 


In Chicago Sidney Smith, Clare Briggs, Carey 
Orr, Frank King and John T. McCutcheon have 
been in demand for chalk talk performance, be- 
cause of the popularity of their cartoons and 
comics. Mr. McCutcheon has filled entertain- 
ment dates with regular booking agencies, prov- 
ing very popular before college audiences and in 

Text Figure 70 

Sidney Smith 

Reproduced by courtesy of the Federal Schools, Inc. 

lecture courses in the territory where his car- 
toons are followed. 

Clare Briggs and Sidney Smith frequently ap- 
peared together before Mr, Briggs took up his 
residence in New York. "The Sunken Ship" was 
produced by these two humorists. Mr. Smith 
drew a golden frame, announcing, "My friend, 



Mr. Briggs, is as famous as a marine painter as 
cartoonist, only it is not generally known. He 
will now produce his famous painting, the sunken 
ship, in one line." Mr. Briggs smeared a little 
blue crayon across the center of the space within 
the frame, made a wavy line across the top of the 

Text Figure 71 
Crayon Drawing of Andy by Sid, Smith 

blue tone, bowed and retired. Mr. Smith an- 
nouncing: "Gentlemen, ladies, you have before 
you the masterpiece, 'The Sunken Ship.' The 
ship has sunk completely out of sight, therefore 
you don't see it." 

Another famous simplest line drawing is Carey 
Orr's family of four in one line. Readers of 


newspapers are very much interested in seeing 
the popular cartoonists and watching the produc- 
tion of their favorite characters. Since Mr. 
Briggs has been syndicating his cartoons through 
the New York Tribune he has made extended 
tours of the West, thus keeping in touch with 

Text Figure 72 

Clare Briggs 

Reproduced by couTtesy of the Federal Schools, Inc. 

his old constituency. Sidney Smith has appeared 
in vaudeville houses in cities where the Gumps 
are especially popular, the audiences taking 
great delight in seeing Andy appear in the orig- 
inal under the artist's crayon. 

Mr. Smith works on heavy gray matts, making 
use of white and light colors in his crayon pro- 
ductions. He works on long upright panels, three 
feet in width, giving room for leaving several 
drawings before removing the sheets. 

These artists are in demand as after-dinner 
speakers and before club organizations, both in 


Chicago and the cities they visit in entertainment 

Among the younger cartoonists using chalk 
talk is Chas. P. Plumb, who started daily car- 
toon work on the Drover's Journal and in Com 
belt dailies. He later syndicated his cartoons 

Text Figure 73 
Charles Plumb 

Reproduced by courtesy of the Federal Schools, Inc. 

through the Illinois Agricultural Association and 
is now carrying on farm betterment cartooning 
and illustration with the National Farm Bureaus. 
After leaving the University of Missouri, where 
he illustrated college publications, Young Plumb 
went out as property man with a Chautauqua 
crew. One afternoon the regular performer failed 
to put in an appearance, having missed the train 
at the previous stop. Rigging up an easel from 
the lid of a rough box from the furniture store, 
the crew man went on with an original chalk 
talk. It so happened that the manager of the 
educational department for Redpath's was in the 



audience and offered the youthful cartoonist a 
position giving preludes the following season. 
Crayon presentation has been one of the big 
factors in the young cartoonist's rapid advance- 
ment. It has helped win him distinction as an 
authority in farm betterment. His cartoons have 
been widely distributed and reproduced in lead- 
ing national reviews. Country Gentleman re- 
cently called on him for a cartoon illustration. 

Text Figure 74 
( [ Fontaine Fox 

Reproduced by courtesy of the Federal Schools, Inc. 

- Fontaine Fox characters in real life appear in 
' the movies in the Toonerville Trolley. The orig- 
. inator of this unique idea is represented before 
'big audiences by his characters, which also ap- 
' pear in his humorous cartoons. Geo. McManus 

appears in person, presenting by means of chalk 

talk the comic characters of his Bringing Up 

Father feature. 

Winsor McCay was regularly employed as a 

chalk talk entertainer on the Keith Circuit and in 

Text Figure 75 

Fontaine Fox Characters 

Reproduced by courtesy of the Federal Schools, Inc. 



New York and Chicago vaudeville when he hit 
upon the invention of animating drawings. It 
was in connection with vaudeville work that his 
famous animated cartoon, "Gertie," was created. 
This was not Mr. McCay's first movie production, 
as he had previously animated little Nemo and 

Text Figure 76 

Winsor McCay 

Reproduced by courtesy of the Federal Schools, Inc. 

Other juvenile characters from his colored supple- 
ment pages in New York dailies. It was in the 
Gertie stunt, in which the artist appeared in per- 
son, that the possibilities of animated cartoons for 
entertainm(;nt in movie houses was first brought 
to the notice of managers and a new use of draw- 
ing created. 

In larger towns and cities not only cartoonists 
and newspaper illustrators appear in chalk talk 
but writers make use of it as well. In Philadel- 
phia, J. A. Cunningham appears in illustrated lee- 


tures in connection with his humorous writing 
and illustration. In Duluth, Ray Handy, for- 
merly cartoonist, now business manager of the 
News-Tribune, appears occasionally before civic 
organizations and local entertainments with his 
crayon cartoons. In St. Paul, Frank Wing, 

Windsor McCay's Gertie Figure, First Animated Cartoon 

Reproduced by courtesy of the Federal Schools, Inc. 

sketch man for the St. Paul Dispatch, occasionally 
appears, and Arthur McCoy, illustrator for the 
Pioneer Press, is equipped for public presenta- 
tion, while Thomas Kelly, of the Minneapolis 
Journal, makes frequent appearances in both 
cities. Perry Carter, cartoonist for the Minne- 
apolis Tribune, left that position for lyceum and 
entertainment work. 

The writer has all his life made a special study 
of crayon presentation, making a start in chalk 
talk performance when a school boy. As first 



page cartoonist on the Minneapolis Journal, there 
was a continuous demand for school, college, and 
Y. M. C. A, appearances and numerous short 
trips into surrounding states were made to fill 
lecture dates and Chautauqua engagements. It 
has been a great pleasure to initiate others into 
chalk talk performance. Among the first of these 
was R. C. Bowman, nationally known as cartoon- 

Geo. S. Monson in Landscape Presentation 

ist of the Minneapolis Tribune. Although on 
rival papers, we frequently appeared together, 
making the most of the supposed rivalry between 
our cartoon mascots, the dog and gopher, which 
appeared in our cartoons. A four-round prize 
fight on the sections down the length of a long 
drawing board especially pleased our audiences. 
W. A. Frisbie, well known editor and humorous 
writer acting as referee for one of these events. 



capped the climax by declaring the event "a 
draw." Seconds were usually selected from the 
audience, whose duties it was to fan the contest- 
ants in their corners between rounds. 

Profiles of each other were drawn from shad- 
ows cast on the drawing board by the spot light 
or some reflector. Bowman's profile was easily 

Perry Carter and One of His Characters 

Reproduced by courtesy of the Federal Schools, Inc. 

converted into a good likeness of Bryan, while 
mine was made over by Bowman into a caricature 
of President McKinley. 

We would prevail upon the local minister or 
school superintendent to come on the platform 
and hold a wadded newspaper to cast a shadow 
which was quickly outlined by one of us while 
the other traced the outline of the gentleman 
holding the object. Some tough character was 
likely to evolve from the shadow of the news- 



paper, probably a prize fighter, whereupon we 

would unfold the paper and call attention to the 

fact that it was a sporting page and caution our 

, host against keeping such literature in his church 

Text Figure 77 
Bart in Y. M. C. A. Performance 

or school. At other times one of us would unfold 
the paper containing our rival's cartoon and ex- 
plain the unfortunate affair as having happened 
because of taking the wrong newspaper. 

In a Y. M. C. A. entertainment, during the 
war, Hugh Hutton, one of my later day stu- 
dents, was given a farewell rehearsal, on his de- 
parture for France. A prelude to this event was 
given by six young ladies of the Y. W. C. A., each 



of whom had prepared one of the Basic Num- 
bers for the occasion. The Government Commit- 
tee on Publicity later distributed Bart Patriotic 
Programs for use of camp entertainers in the 

Text Figure 78 
Bart In Outdoor Chalk Talk 

United States and overseas, supplying the basis 
for programs used by many performers who had 
to fit into the work on short notice. 

Young Hutton, holding a position as telegraph 
editor and cartoonist on the Nebraska State Jour- 
nal, at Lincoln, and giving occasional chalk talks, 
fitted into overseas programs on ten days' notice. 
An early enlistment in Minnesota had resulted in 
the loss of a leg in the service, but he followed 
his regiment, the First Minnesota Field Artillery, 
into Germany notwithstanding. 



• On the trip over he gave the Saturday evening 
program on board ship, carrying Y. M. C. A. 
canteeners, Red Cross workers and professional 
entertainers and theatrical producers. In Liver- 
pool he appeared before a gathering of seven 

Text Figure 79 
Hugh Hutton in Overseas Entertainment 

nationalities, as his chalk talk was the only lan- 
guage everyone could understand. 

So successful was the young entertainer in 
London hospitals, the "Eagle Hut" on the Strand 
and in France and Germany, that he was given 
opportunity to tour the British Isles for an En- 
glish booking agency. One of his overseas stunts 



was the drawing of the picture of a vessel coming 
into New York harbor to song accompaniment, 
Homeward Bound, by members of the concert 
company with whom he was touring. Soon after. 


Text Figure SO 
in Chalk Talk Entertainment 

however, general orders were issued forbidding 
reference to homegoing. 

In a demonstration of his Lincoln drawing for 
one of the leading American Chautauquas, his 
draftsmanship was highly commended. This 
drawing is produced by erasure of black charcoal 
with which the rough ingrain wall paper upon 
which the portrait is being made is coated. Wall- 



paper cleaner is used to get the high lighting for 
the result desired. 

Carl Nelson, superintendent of schools at 
Moulton, Iowa, uses chalk talk entertainment in 
Chautauqua during summer vacations and in con- 
nection with school work during the school year. 
He finds the crayon a splendid adjunct of public 

Text Figure 81 
Overseas Stunt by Hugh Hutton 

speaking and predicts greater use of it in educa- 
tion as well as entertainment. During his col- 
lege course at Lawrence University, Young Nel- 
son spent vacation in Chautauqua performance, 
gradually rising from $25 a week and expenses 
to over $100 per week and an ever growing de- 
mand for his connection with Chautauqua organi- 



J. Allen Troke, a minister of Clarkfield, Minn., 
appeared in his first chalk talk at Hayfield, Iowa, 
in December of 1915. Le»s than five years later 
he had made the transition to lecture work, 
broadening his sphere of influence and netting an 
income of $125 per week. 

Text Figure 82 
Hutton's LJncoIn for Crayon Vaudeville 

Reproduced by courtesy of the Federal Schools, Inc. 

Fred W. Park is making interesting use of the 
crayon in Y. M. C. A. educational work in the 
Oregon Institute of Technology at Portland. 

John M. Baer, cartoonist for LABOR in Wash- 
ington, for two years the cartoonist congressman 
from North Dakota, made his entry into prac- 



tical politics with his chalk talk ability, and to 
use his own terms literally "drew his way into 

Text Figure 83 

Rev. J. Allan Troke 

Reproduced by courtesy of the Federal Schools, Inc. 

J. M. Baer. Cartoonist-Congressman 


Through chalk talk and crayon presentation, there 
is opportunit}' for you to win distinction in your 
present vocation, and lay the basis for highest suc- 
cess in a broader field. 

F\?iCft FIRST,' 


Edward Marshall in Patriotic Vaudeville 
Reproduced by courtesy of the Federal Schools, Inc. 

Carl Nelson, Chautauqua 

Hap Hadley Sketch Artist 
in Musical Comedy 

Edwin Bloom, Cardwriter Who Finds Chalk Talk Makes Life More 
Worth Living 

Chapter IX 


Editor's Note. — The preceding chapters in this book hav© 
been written in an impersonal way, for the general reader. 
In this final chapter I am going to talk to you, who are in- 
terested in making actual use of chalk talk and crayon pres- 
entation, in the first person. It has been my privilege to 
write, rewrite and revise, over and over, twelve text-books 
on Illustrating and Applied Cartooning, for the Federal 
Schools, Inc., Minneapolis, conducting correspondence 
courses of drawing. I believe one reason tor their great suc- 
cess is the fact that I talk straight at the students. So I 
will follow the same plan with you. — Bart. 

Success can come to you in chalk talk and 
crayon presentation just as it has come to 
others, if you will but make a try at it. 

To best outline what I expect of you, I must 
first tell of my work in directing correspondence 
study that students may make a practical use of 
their ability in drawing. In editing the Course 
in Illustrating and Cartooning, I outline studies 
to be followed by the student, and in the lesson 
criticism which I conduct in connection with 
trained specialists in various lines of draftsman- 
ship, I suggest practice exercises that lead by 
progressive steps to skilled development. 

The success of hundreds of students all over 
the world in making practical application of 
their drawing by this method, causes me to 
believe that one can say more in print and 
say it better than in spoken language. I find 
I am able to tell students in printed text and 


typewritten pages of letters, essential facts, and 
by continuous co-operation bring them into the 
desired use of their ability in drawing. In this 
I am aided by examples from leading illus- 
trators and cartoonists, and contributions by 
authorities on basic draftsmanship. We of the 
faculty of the Federal Schools have come to 
believe that the logical way of teaching draw- 
ing is by means of illustrations and carefully 
written text explaining them. Results justify 
these conclusions. 

. .After all, it is up to the student to train him- 
self by following a plan which he maps out for 
himself, or which is outlined for him by some 
one who has been over the same ground and 
who can bring the experience of leaders in the 
profession to the aid of the beginner. It is 
logical that a student of draftmanship can be 
best told how to go about his drawing by show- 
ing him the standard productions of the best 
artists in a similar line of work. What is yet 
more important is to suggest methods by which 
he can himself originate. 

Another element that enters into home 
study by correspondence, that I believe to be 
most essential, is the inspiration which a con- 
scientious instructor can give students who be- 
lieve in him. Over and over again have I had 
young fellows tell me: "I accomplished thus 
and so because you gave me the confidence to 
undertake it." 

One woman writes: "The interest you have 
manifested in my work has been a great in- 


spiration, because you know it seems to bring' 
out the best in one, to have somebody show 
they believe in your ability and success, which 
causes you to push on and attain your aim and 

Nobody dreamed of the possibilities of chalk 
talk development through printed direction 
until the Bart system of charts, pictures and 
word accompaniment was distributed. I simply 
had confidence that others could do what I had 
been able to accomplish before an audience, and 
provided definite stunts, which I had found 
successful. In sending out my system of chalk 
talk origination and Basic Numbers for practice 
and public performance, I never overlook the 
opportunity of inspiring the novice with con- 
fidence in his ability to do things which so many 
others, no better qualified, have accomplished. 

Now to come to the case in point: what can 
you get out of this booklet on chalk talk and 
crayon presentation? 

My hope is that it will start you in public 
presentation at once, and that once started you 
will, by the suggestions offered, work out for 
yourself an individual use of chalk talk. Into 
its pages I have endeavored to condense sug- 
gestions on every use of the crayon, with 
examples of the work of many leading enter- 

It has been compiled to suggest rather than 
to instruct in detail. The Chalk Talk Classi- 
fication of Chapter VI and the Ten Standard 
Stunts of Chapter VIII are to help you select 


the kind of chalk talk you want to do. The 
drawing of the right Angle Introduction stunt 
is given in detail in Chapter III and the word 
accompaniment in Chapter V. 

Take this introduction for a beginning, build- 
ing up your own program from the simplest of 
the Ten Standard stunts, working out the kind 
of a program that appeals to you most. 

Put in as much as you can of your own as 
soon as possible, but in the beginning be con- 
tent to use drawings and word accompaniment 
in the simplest and briefest form. 

Select, for instance, the alphabetic faces, and 
follow them up with a few simple line stunts, 
beginning with the soldier-door-dog and ending 
with Mr. Bengough's operatic singer, from the 
oval, square, triangle, etc. In doing this, dwell 
upon the suggestive quality of lines. Then 
allow your audience to take a hand once more 
by calling someone from their number to place 
five dots at random on the board, assuring 
them you will draw a figure in action with his 
head on one of the dots, his hands on two 
others, and his feet on the remaining two, as 
indicated in Figure 84. You will need a little 
preliminary practice to do this quickly. 

A drawing in colors of the Indian head after 
the Edward Marshall suggestion may have 
musical accompaniment, or you may perhaps 
evolve Uncle Sam from the eagle in a patriotic 
number, or perhaps, if proficient in portraiture, 
you may undertake a head of Lincoln or Wash- 



One turnover may be undertaken. The coon- 
moon face, Figure 53, is a good one with which 
to start. The reversible feature should be kept 
as a surprise. If using but one turnover number, 
the sheet may be torn from the board and held 
upside down before the audience, until you equip 
yourself with a reversible board. 



Text Figure 84 

Ted Neison Five Dot Cfialk Talk Stunt 

Reproduced by courtesy of the Federal Schools, Inc. 

The quick evolution of a good night number 
from the candle stick as shown in Figure 59A, 
may give you quite as satisfactory results. 

It is not my purpose to bind you to any set 
program or stereotyped numbers, but rather to 
give you the suggestion for your own develop- 


ment. Practice will make easy the simple draw- 
ing requirements, and a tryout before an audience 
will give you the test of your efficiency and 
show you what to omit and what to develop. 

From the numbers included in this booklet 
may be built up for yourself a program similar 
to the Little Program of simple numbers of 
Division Three of the Course in Illustrating and 

Not long since, I received a letter from C. 
Vance Thompson, of Princeton, W. Va., which 
read: "Division Three was a Godsend in my 
case, in this way: Late one evening I received 
a request for a chalk talk. I marshalled my 
meagre supply of numbers, but found them lack- 
ing the particular stunts needed. At 9:00 o'clock 
I received Division Three. By 10:00 o'clock I 
had incorporated new stunts, and by 4:00 P. M. 
had whipped the program into shape. At 8:00 
P. M. I presented my act to the assembled 
teachers of Marshall county." 

Percy Hoffstrom writes: "The first program 
I gave was before an audience of 600 at the 
Seattle Press Club. Since then I have per- 
formed at political meetings, local movie houses, 
and entertainments of various kinds." 

Ivan Zengler used the chalk talk of the course 
to establish him in a musical chalk talk act with 
the Kenton Revue, upon completing Division 
Three. After a year's experience in vaudeville, 
he returned home to finish his correspondence 
training in drawing for reproduction. 

These instances of the use others are makinsf 


of the Bart Chalk Talk System are quoted in this 
chapter on "How to Succeed" as examples of the 
varied uses to which chalk talk is being adapted 
by different students. 

No matter what your vocation or present pur- 
suit, there is some immediate use to which you 
can put your crayon. Of course, there are certain 
callings where chalk talk is especially adaptable. 
In high schools and colleges everywhere students 
are learning the technicalities of drawing for 
reproduction, making application by drawing 
the cartoons and illustrations for school pub- 
lications. There are a still greater number mak- 
ing an early use of drawing in chalk talk and 
crayon entertainments. The instructor capable 
of pointing the way to young high school and 
college students is a better teacher. We have 
many such teachers as students of Illustrating 
and Cartooning. 

J. P. Carson, of the University of Georgia Glee 
Club, toured the state in chalk talk with only a 
few days preparation. Prof. Samuel C. Hamm, of 
De Pauw University, has the course for training 
students under his charge for glee club work. He 
is adept himself in pen cartoons and drawing for 
reproduction. Frederick M. Lobdell, president of 
the Indian School at Chin Lee, Ariz., is in great 
demand in the state because of his ability in chalk 
talk presentation. 

Edwin Bloom, a professional window trimmer 
in Valley City, N. D., finds chalk talk "the means 
of getting more out of life in a community." Big 
offers in cardwriting from larger cities do not 


tempt young Bloom, as he says he would not 
give up the opportunity of meeting people in a 
business way in the actual selling of goods. The 
chalk talk, he says, carries the same thing a step 
further, as public appearance with his crayon 
gives him the chance of meeting and making the 
acquaintance of the largest number of people in 
community work. As he says, the use of chalk 
talk helps one to get the most out of life. 

Chas. F. Wantz, a young banker, of York, Neb., 
who studied drawing under my direction in the 
Federal School course, writes: "Since entering 
the ministry, which call I answered rather unex- 
pectedly, I desire to thank you for your part in 
getting me interested in chalk talk, for I assure 
you it is a great asset to my sermon work. I am 
much more efficient because of this talent which 
you helped me find and develop." 

Levi Gitchell, another business man of Neb- 
raska, uses chalk talk as an interesting side issue, 
touring towns of Nebraska and neighboring states. 

Wilbur H. Giddings, of Americus, Ga., made a 
start as crew boy for the Redpath Chautauquas 
and soon fitted into showcard work in the adver- 
tising department, and chalk talks for the 
children's hour. 

W. M. Sullivan, a Montana insurance man, 
makes use of chalk talk in organization of sales- 
men, and appearance before conventions. 

Dr. E. V. Edmonds, a veterinarian of Mount 
Vernon, Wash,, feels that his business success 
and acquaintanceship has been materially assisted 
by crayon presentation. 


Dr. J. W. Crawford, a dentist of Frederick, 
Wis., uses the crayon to great advantage in 
clinical demonstrations and in illustrated addresses 
before dental conventions. 

These are but a few illustrations of the varied 
uses to which the crayon is being adapted in 
entertainment, education and business. The chalk 
talkers are not different in general ability from 
yourself. Specific instances have been quoted 
from various professions to show how general is 
the modern use of crayon in community life all 
over the country. 

In none of these cases were the chalk talkers 
gifted artists or experienced entertainers. They 
simply took advantage of the modern system of 
acquiring the basis of crayon presentation, and 
built up for themselves an individual program 
which brought them distinction and remuneration. 

What they have accomplished has been dupli- 
cated by many others all over the United States, 
with scattering cases of unusual achievement in 
various quarters of the English speaking world, 
in Australia, New Zealand, Canada and the vari- 
ous island possessions of the United States and 
Great Britain. 

From this group are being developed the lec- 
turers, entertainers and gifted specialists in edu- 
cation and business. 

In a previous chapter was told the story of 
Hugh Hutton, who fitted quickly into overseas 
entertainment because of basic chalk talk train- 
ing in connection with his high school course and 
beginning newspaper work. An account also 


was given of how Charles Plumb advanced to a 
position among the American cartoonists from 
a beginning in chalk talk, and still uses illustra- 
tion in lectures for farm betterment in connection 
with syndicating of cartoons for the National 
Farm Bureau. There are opportunities for a 
cartoonist on rural subjects with agricultural as- 
sociations in every state in the Union. How 
Congressman Baer made his way from cartoonist 
to a place in the House of Representatives by 
means of chalk talk in a political campaign is an 
interesting episode in the history of chalk talk 
and crayon presentation. 

These striking instances of chalk talk develop- 
ment are coming from among the beginning 
users of the crayon, quite as frequently as from 
trained artists. You may have every other quality 
for success excepting practical application of 
drawing to the particular thing you are doing or 
are most interested in. Special training in draw- 
ing, development in self-expression, and origin- 
ality will follow the beginning in chalk talk. 

We will take it for granted that you will not be 
satisfied with your first crude attempts at draw- 
ing. That is a good indication, and you will have 
plenty of opportunity to improve your draftman- 
ship as you proceed with your chalk talk. 

There will be times when the word accompani- 
ment you improvise will seem inadequate. There 
are available definite stunts, numbers and pro- 
grams if you feel the need of them later. What 
you need right now is the experience of using the 


simplest kind of stunts before a friendly audience. 
Such audiences are awaiting you in your home 
community. You would not find them available 
in the big art centers. Prepare yourself in con- 
nection with school, business or social organiza- 
tions made up of people whom you know best 
and who are most interested in you. and be ready 
when the big opportunity comes to you, just as 
were Hugh Hutton, Charles Plumb and John M. 

As I said in an early chapter, with successful 
consummation of the beginning program before 
an audience comes a brightening up of the whole 
situation. No matter what development you con- 
template or what course of training you may have 
in mind as valuable or necessary for the ideal 
result, take my word for it and make an early 
appearance with material at hand. After this 
practical start you will know better what the 
requirements really are. The biggest item for 
your success in Chalk Talk and Crayon Presenta- 
tion is to make a beginning, not next month or 
next year, but now. The little book in your hand 
will help you do this. 





7 South Sixth street, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Price List On Request 

The Federal School Course 


Illustrating and Cartooning 

By Correspondence Study, is the ideal method 

of learning how to make practical application 

of your ability and liking for drawing. 

Let Us Tell You About It: 

You would highly prize the opportunity 

to call upon leading cartoonists and illustrators in 
their studios and to view latest examples of their 
work. You can accomplish the same result by 
sending for the Federal School Catalogue, "THE 

If interested in developing yourself in drawing 
for newspaper or magazine illustration, cartoons, 
comics, animated art, chalk talking or card writing, 
write today for this prospectus of possibilities in 
every phase of free hand drawing — ^It costs you 
nothing but the asking. 


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