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Ml Riglitt art nttrvcd 

— .Cooijle 

Cue, 3^-^. 5^ 




FUniAiy i4, 1M) 


THE WOBLD {Fsoimspnai), 



rl dedgn of this woik, aa ezplained in the Kotice piofixed to the first Tolnme, ia 
that of a DionoNAST 07 Usiveboal Ekowlbdqb pos thb Fbofle — not a men 
coUeetioQ of elaborate treatisea ia alphabetic order, hat a work to be teadlly consulted as a 
CiOTioKABT on eveiy sabject on which people geneiaU; require some distinct information — 
no article being longer than vas absolutely neoeaaaiy. Commenced in 1869, the wod: 
is now biDught to a cloee in 1S68, and the Editoia confidently point to the Ten Tolnmea 
of which it is composed, -as fermiiig the most CoHFBBHSNSira — as it certainly is the 
CHKAFBai — ^£iioTou>p.sDu eT8i issued in the United Kingdom. 

The originBl plan, sa exemplified in the first Tolome, has been strictly adhered to 
thiOQgluiiit ; and i^ as the work pioceedad, there has been any change in the method or 
qnaU^ of the execution, it may at least be affirmed that the change has not been for the 
woisa After soma experience^ it became easier to find the person specially qualified 
to write a particular kind of article, and thus the circle of contributors became widened, 
and the distribution of the work more specialised. It waa also seen to be deBirable, in 
regard to certain claaeaa of eqbjecte, to admit a rather ampler selection of heads. This 
has-been effected without increasing the scale of the work, not so moch by leu Aill 
treatment of the subjects, as by increased caie in condensing the statements and omitting 
ererything superfluous. 

It will be obeerred that in the earlier Volumes there are fewer notioea of placet 
than in the later. These and other deficiencies in the Geographical department, have, 
as for as possible, been r^nedied in the Sopflxhkhi; bo that the Enoiolops&u 
forms a complete Gaxetteer. The miautenass of a special get^raphical dictionary ia, 
of course, not to be expected : witii regard to towns, for instance, it may be well to state. 
In acAex to pierent disappointment, that, as a rule, no place with a population under 
3000 in the United Kingdom, or nnder 6000 in other parts of the world, need be looked 
tor under its own name, nnless it "be historically or otherwise noteworthy. Bat towns, 
rirers, &c. of secondary importance mentioned anywhere in the work find a place in the 
Index, and thus a clue is given to some information regarding them, were it only their 
whenaboata on the map. 

In like manncar, in the department of Biography, the limited scale of the work made 
h neceasary to ezdade many names which would be deserving of record in an exhaustive 
biographical dictionary. The intantion has been to include imly the more prominent 
acton and thinkers, dead and living, especially such as have attained extensive celebrity. 
The difficulty of making auoh a selection is known only to those who have tried it ; and 



the Editors were piepaied to liave the judicionsneaa of their choice fteqaently qneetioned. 
la settling lektive claims to dislinctioo, the judgment depends much on the special 
pursnits or sphere of thought of the judge. Of the omitted names to which attention 
has been kindly called by correspondents, aeTcnl have,' on leconsidentlon, been intiodaced 
into the Sdpplehint. 

14'ataral History haa been copiously treated. Without any attempt at embracing a 
complete exhibition of the three kingdoms of nature, the aim has been to give some 
account of every class of objects having a general interest, more especially such as are in 
any way of use in the economy of life. 

The articles descriptive of the structure and fonctions of the human body have been 
selected and treated mainly with a view to illustrate the laws of health. The subject of 
Health and Disease has received mote attention relatively than is usual in such works ; and 
the articles of this class will form a pretty complete Dictionsiy of Domestic Medicine. How 
important it is that some knowledge on these matters should be widely diffused, is becoming 
more and more rocognised. The directions given in regard to treatment are chiefly meant 
for those cases of sudden illiie3.i or injury where lay practice is necessitated by the absence 
of professional assistance. But prevention is better than cure ; and the chief advant^e 
of a generally diffused knowledge of the nature and causes of diseases is, that it teaches 
people how to avoid them. A review of what has been done in recent years for the 
preeervation of the health of communities, is given at some length in the Sufplemidit, 
under the head of Samiabt Science. 

Of the Sciences, the least adapted to encycloptedic treatment is Ihthematics. AH 
terms of common occurrence, however, have been introduced, and a brief expoeition of the 
subjects given, so far as could be done in an elementary way. 

Natural Philosophy has received ample attention, and aU the leading doctrines and 
fecta of general interest will be found under their appropriate heads, treated in a popular 
way and divested as far as possible of the technicalities of mathematics. 

Chemistry, some knowledge of which is becoming daily mora indispensable in all 
departments of life, receives a comparatively large space. Prominence has been given to 
those points of the subject that have either a direct practical bearing oi a ^wcial scientific 
inteieet. During the progress of the work, several changes in the nomenclature and notsr 
tion of the acience have come into general use; but it was thought bettw to preserve 
uniformity in the use of terms and symbols to the end, and to give an account of the 
changes in the Supflemekt. 

A distinctive featme of this Eiiotclot£DU, it Is believed, will be found to lis in tti« 
number of articles devoted to religious beliefs and speculative opinions, and in the way 
in which these topics are handled. The principle followed has been, not to pronounce 
an opinion for or against a particular doctrine, hut to g^ve a true and unprejndieed 
account of it To do this, however, in regard to matters of still living controversy, on 
which almost every one has more or less of a personal feeling, is next to impossible ; and 
therefore the plan has been adopted of giving the opposing views, wherever it was 


piacticable, as stated b^ tlieir leapectiva adherents. Thva, tbe articles on the doctrines and 
rites of tliB Boman CatKolic Chnicli are -written by a Boman Catholic scholar ; the Unitar- 
rian scheme of doctrine by a Unitarian ; and the Secularists have beea allowed -to state their 
own case. In carrying out this principle, it has sometimes been necessary to employ tvo 
vriteis on one article. The account of the HEFORUATiotr, for instance, is naturally written 
by a Protestant; but oui conception of the movement is not complete until we know 
how the same events are looked upon by intelligent adherents of the Church of Eome; 
and aocordingjy, a paragraph is added written from the Boman Catholic point of view. 
Similar^, in the article Bishop, the Episcopal and Ficsbyterian theories of the origin and 
nature of that ofBce are from different pens. The principle of getting an account of a 
eyatem or doctrine from a believer in it has not been confined to religion ; it has been 
acted on in regard to Hoh<xofaihy, Htdbofatht, and many other subjects. The 
Editors feel confident that in thus securing Hie most favourable lepiesentation of 
both sides of a controversy, they were doing the best in their power for the ultimate 
prevalence of the troth. We are not in a position to judge rightly between two opinions 
until we know exactly what they are ; and this we can do only by having both before us 
in iba light in which they appear to those Uiat hold them. 

The great world of thought of the East, with its hundreds of millions of subtle 
intellects and prolific Imaginations, has remained hitherto almost a sealed book in the 
"West, except to a few oriental scholars. Tet the British public might be expected to feel 
some interest in inquiring what kind of thoughts and fancies actuate the vast multitndes 
of their fellow-subjects in Hindustan — what gods they worship, and with what rites ; what 
things seem good to them, and what evil; how, in short, they interpret the riddle of ibis 
world, and the part they play in it The means of gratiiying this curiosity is now made 
more generally accessible than it has heretofore been, by the numerous articles, drawn from 
original sources, on the religious and philosophic systems of India. (See the articles India, 
section on Rdigwn; Puran'a, Yeda, Yishnd, VedInta, TiuiiSHiaBAiioir, BunDHlBH^ 
I<AMAisii, IfmVAHA, &c.) Attention is also called to the original articles on Moham- 
medanism, and on its various schools, sects, and heresies (see HoHAioiBDAfiisii, 
EoRAir, SuNKA, SmiTBB, and otheie in the £noyolop£dia proper, and particularly 
the articles Mohammbdah Sects, Motazalitbs, Isuailib, Sikcerb Brbthben, <Sec. in &e 
SDrPLBUENT]. The reader who has been accustomed to think of the Old Testament 
Scriptures as the whole of Hebrew liteiatuie, will be able, from the articles on the Taluvd, 
Haooada, Kalacha, -EsseKBB, and others, to form some notion of the rich treasures of 
Jewish thought and learning that lie buried in the Talmndic writings and have only 
recently b^nn to attract attention. 

True to its projected plan as a DiOTiosAar op Univehsal Knowledsb fob thb People, 
Chahbkbb'b EncTOLOPJmiA will be found to be eepocially rich in notices of miscellaneous 
matteia. Some of the subjects introduced might perhaps be considered beneath the 
digni^ of a book aspiring to a more severely scientific character ; but all of them are, 
if not instructive, at least curious or entertaining, and likely to occur in the course of 
reading or conversation. During the prt^iesa of the work, the Editors have received 
numerous assurances from parents how highly it was prized, even though only partly 
iasaed, in honseholds with young people at school, as a reperixjry of the kind of things 
Uwy ate constantly in search of and often puzriing theit elders about. This use of the 

Tiu coKCLimDia hoticb. 

EKOTOLOPitDU haa been eteadilj kept in view ; and it ia giatiiying to learn tluit it 1b found 
efflcientlf to aerre tlie pnrpoee intended. The nameroiu 'wood-cuts and tnapa will, it ia 
hoped, enhance its ralue in this leepect. 

To meet the more important of the cbangea that have taken place since the publi- 
cation of the Enotolopadia began, as well aa to remedy some deficienciea, a Supflbmeht 
of 409 pagea has been added. It consists of: (I) Subjects that hare only recently risen 
into importance, or that bad been overlooked ; (3) Subjects already noticed in the body of 
the work, but which have since imdeigone important changee, or, bom other causes, 
seemed to require to be treated anew. 

In tiie introductory Notice, it was stated that the plan of the work was contrived 
with a special view to render it eaty of eonmdtation. This end will be still further served 
by the Index of subordinate subjects at the end of this volume. Prefixed to the Index 
is a paragraph explaining its nature and use. 

That in a work extending to 8320 pages, and eooaisting of upwaida of 27,000 distinct 
artidea, in the production of which more than a hundred writers have taken greater or 
less part — that in such a work, notwithstanding all vigilance to the contrary, there should 
be not a few overBights, errors, and inconsistencies, is a matter of coarse. Tet, in epite of 
such inevitebla blemishea, the Editors feel confident that, in substantial accuracy and 
trustworthiness, this EiicrGLOF.SDU wlU bear comparison with any book of the kind. To 
the numerous correspondents who have favoured them by pointing out faults, or making 
other suggestions, they beg leave, once for all, to return their best thanka for the uniform 
courtesy with which liieir criticisms have been offered. Some of the complainte of 
omission have been attended to in the SoppiAUBNT ; others proceeded on mistaken ideaa 
as to what the EiKTYCLOPfnu waa intended for. 

A list of the chief Contributors is given on a subsequent page. To this able staf^ to 
whose special knowledge of their subjects the Esotolofxdu owes its chief value, the 
Editors have to ezpress their acknowledgmente, and to thank them for the patience with 
which th^ have submitted to the limits as to space and other trammels incident to 
the rmture of the publication, which often rendered the aatisfitctory treatment of their 
subjects extremely difficult. The list does not include the numerous friends to whom 
the Editors are indebted for single contributions on local or other matters coming within 
their personal knowledge, 

finally, it ia right that the public should recognise, in Andbxw Findutsb, LLJ)., 
the AoTEHQ EnnoB, who has borne the great burden of the immediate superintend- 
ence of this work during its progress from b^inuing to end. 'Where a man of learning 
has given ten years of his life to a task which confessedly he has performed with skill, 
tastei, and nnflagging perseverance, it seems to the Editors that, in simple justice to him, 
his name should be made honourably and gmtefully known. 

W. & E. CH4MBEES. 

BoiHBimoH, Apr^ 1868. 



Fatkkx F. Aixuxdxb, am., Edinburgh 

Wm: Ain)KBSOtr (ths late], EdinboiglL 

Thoius C. Arcrkb, F.B.8^, F.B.S.E., F.B.S.S.A., 
Director of the Edinburgh Miueam of Sdence 
Mid Art; Correapoadiug Member of the Sden- 
tifio Comniittee of Crown DolDAmi of Sunift; 

Auuin>IB Bjuh, H^, FrofeaBor of Lo^ in the 

UlUTanil^ of Aberdeen. 
OiOBOK BisoiA?, BftTTiiter-ftt-I«ir, London. 
B. Baius, C.S., Botherham. 
ALMLAMmtA HELTiiia Bell, F.E.L8., Leotmsr on 

ElocDtioD in UniverBit; College, London. 
J iMM a. Bafmui, Edinbm^ 
J. AsTHUB Bnnn, Maaaingham, Bradford. 
SAKcrxL BiBCH, LL,D., Keeper of Egyptdjui and 

Oiiental AntiqaitieB, Britdah Muaenm ; Oorre- 

■ponding Member of the Inatitnta of France, 

Jobs Sitfabt Bu/ncn, F.RS.El, Profeiaar of 

■ Greek in the nnirenity of Edinburgh. 
W. A. F. Bbowhk, CommiaEioner in Lunacy, 

A. H. Brtci, LL.D., D.C.L., FJL8.E., Hector of the 

Edinburgh Coll^iate School 
AUCCASDER BncHur, M.A, Seeretarj' of 

Scottish Ueteorological Society. 

OCOBOB BuLLKR, AaiiEtant-keeper of thePrinted 
~ ' J, and Superintendent of t" 
British HiuenD 

Booka, and Superintendent of the Baading- 

OSOKOB BuBinCTT, AdTOMte, Ljon King of Anna. 
J. H. BOBTON, LLJD., Eiitoriographer Boyal for 

Datid Buxton, F.B.S.L., Frindpal of tbe School 

for the Doif and Domb, LiverpooL 
B. Cakpbelu Barrister-at-lAir, London, 
Jajos CabmicEjUD, Claaiical Maater, Edinbnrsb 

RosEBT Casbuteebb, Inyerneaa. 
WoJAAM CutBUTHBBS, F.L.S., F.a.S., Botanical 

Deparbnant, British Mnsenm. 
W. Drm Cat, Aaaoc Inst. 0.£, Bendent 

Engineer, Aberdeen Harbour. 
WK. CHAHBEB8, FJ{.3.E., Ac 

BosT. Cbambebs, LLD., F.R.3.E., &«. 

BOBl. CHAXBSBa, Jnn., Edinburgh. 

Jaueb Cowie, Sondridge Ball, Bromley, Kent. 

EoBiBT Cox, F.3.A Scat, Ediuboigh. 

AiBUNi>iB CBUioxsHun:, A.M., Abadeen. 
Geobqb E. DAT, M.A., Cant, M.D., F.RS., hte 

Frofegaor of Hedicina in lie UniTersity of St 

EuAHOEl. DtaracB, Britiah Muaenm. 
Gbobob Dodd, London. 
0. Hon DovaiAS, Edinbnrgh. 
Rhlat Duir, Weaton Park, Shipaton-on-Stonr. 
Bxr. W. J. Edlih, M.A, Cbapltun of Trinity 

College, Cambridge. 
A. M. Edwasds, H.E.C.S. Eag., F.B.8.K, to., lata 

Demonstrator of AnaL, TJniTeraity, Edinbnr^ 
Tbohaa Elusow, Liverpool 
BoBEBT M. Febqubon, Fh.D., F.B.B.K, Edinbnr^ 
Fbavcis Fraxois, Twickenham. 
WnjJAif T. Gaibsheb, M.D., Frofeaor of Prao 

of Medicine, nniTcrdty lA Glaagcw. 
Aj-exanskr Gaixktlt, Curator, lodustciiJ HoMnuB, 

pB0r^»0R John Gahoee, Albert Vetarinaiy 

College, London. 
Thioi>ok GoldbtHckkr, ni-D., Profeasor of Suucrit 

in Univenity College, Loiidon- 
GioKOB Grub, LL.D., ProfeMoc-snbttitate of Iaw 

in the Univenuty of Aberdeen, 
Samuel Halkett, Keeper of the Advooatea' 

Library, Edinbiu^h. 

Davis Haxiltoh (tbe late), Bdinbmsh. 

B. G. Jomn, M.A., Chaplain of the Blind School, St 

George'a Fielda, Limdon. 
A. ExiTH JoHHSioir, LLD., F.B.3.K, Geographer 

to the Queen fpr Scotland. 
W. B Jomrmoirs, B.S.A, Prindpal Curator and 

Keeper of the National Gallery of Scotland. 
Hxkbt Johb, Jan. (' Cayendiah '}, London, 
J. Kehpb, M.A., Fellow of "Exetet College, Oxford. 
Mrs J. Khox. 
Ekmst H. Lahcaster, Advocate, BA., B«1U^ 

College, Oxford. 
SuOH S. Laurie, A.M., Secretary to the Edneation 

Committee of the Church of Scotland. 

Jomr H. tak Lenkxf, Zeygt, Ketherlanda. 

Jakb Lbub, CE., Edinburgh. 

Herbert C. Llotd, London. 

Jahss LomioiR, A.M., Professor of Fnblio Lnw ii 

the Dniveraity of Edinburgh. 



SiiVKKflON Macadam, PIlD., F.RS.E., F.C.a, 
Lectoret on ChenuatTj, Sargeoiu' Hall, Edin- 

David MacOibboit, Architect, Edinbnrgli. 
Hkv. Dr Macoowak, Miuioiiai7, Cbina. 
The Bbv. J. HIlbaith, Minuter at the English 

Ilef onned Chtuch, Amiterdam. 
D. MOuBSKAH, U.A., Barriater-at-Liiw, Inner 

Temple, London. 
J. P. HXkknam, ma., F.E.a.E., Advocate, Edin- 

Jucra Mabtix, London. 

William MDiztn, Depnty-mrvejror of Windsor 

Parka and Forarts, kc 
Rc<r. JoEiT MoHTaoMEBT, A.M., Edinbnrgh. 
pBonsBOB J. Mcbbat, Eingiton, Canada, 
T. L. Nicaou, U.D,, Amerioan Jonnuditt, London. 
Sn CaASLK KiOHOUMN, Bart, D.C.L, LL.D., late 

Chancellor o£ the Univeraity of Sj^lnay, Kew 

Soath Wales. 
Jamk Niooi, F-ItaE, ?.a.8., Profeoor of Natnnl 

Hiitorj in the TJniTenity of Aberdeen. 
JBI C. Ont. 
J^XB Patkbboit, A.M., Barriiter-ftt-Lav, London. 

m pAT!i, London. 
Alkiahd«» PKDont, M.D., P,B.C.P.E., r.E.aE., 

William pEnsELLT, F3.a, F.G.S., Torquay. 
. Cboom Sobekisoh, A.H., Frof«MOT of Phi- 

loaoriiy of Mind and Logi<v Cnirenity College, 

Joseph Sobkbtbon, late Curator of tbe Historical 

Department, Oenetal £«gl*ter Hoiue, Edin- 

Dkhham BoBinnow, H.M: War OAc«. 
Bl7, T. F. BoRSEm, Tnrin. 

RoBBBT Rcfkell, P.R.8.E., Pilmnir, Fifethire. 

Edwakd SAtra, F.B.3.K, Edinburgh. 

William Thomas Shaw, London. 

W. W. Shoxi, M,A., Oion. 

Alexandzk Smith (the late), Edinburgh. 

K Ambbosb Smjts, F.LA., London. 

J. Camtbill Smitb, M.A., Advocate, Edinburgh. 

Mbs L. C. Smite, Keswick. 

James P. Steele, B.A., M.D., Lanal Office, London. 

Thomas Stevensov, P.R.S.E., M.LC.E., Civil 

BoBEKT SrvART, Bardster-at-LaT, Q.C. 
P. G. Tait, M.A. late FeUow of St Peter't OoUef^ 

Cambridge, I^feMor of Natnral Philosophy m 

the Univenity of Edinburgh. 
Adam Thom, LLD. 

R. W. Teombor, C.E., F.K.8.E., Edinburgh. 
D. TlHlKlAZEP, St Fetenbnrg. 
Joan TiTLLOOH, B.D., Princhwl of St Miiy'a 

College in the Univenity ot^St Andrews. 
N. Van deb Vlibt, St Patersbnrg. 
Edwabd Waltobi), M.A., lata Scholar of Balliol 

College, Oxford. 
JoHX WaTIS, Ph.D., Manchester. 
H. Weib, M.A., Cantab., Claasical Master, Edin- 

borgh Academy. 
William Wibtoabth, London (late of Melbonnie, 


MATTiEir W1LLIAM& P.C.3., Chemist to <T|m 

Atlas Iron and Steel Works,' Sheffield. 

JoEir Dove Wilson, Advocate, Sheriff-substitato 

CHBiBTorEEK Tatohell Winter, Cheltenham. 
T. Stbeihill Wbiobt, MJD., F.B.O.P.& 

Andbew FimiLATEB, A.U., LLD., Edinborf^ Acting Sector. 

Soon M. Boas, A.M, notr of the High School, Edinborgb, Atiiitant SdOor. 

Other Uteiwy gentlemen eonneeted for longer or shorter time with the 

regular staff of ths EiKgdopadia — 
Alex. Nicolson, AM., Advocate, Edmburgh. 
J. U. Hillhodbe, A.m., MathamaticaL Tutor, Edinbiu^ Unii-eruty. 
J. BoBB. David M Smith, John S. Keltie. 




VITAL STATISTICa The annual Reports of 
the Bcgirtrui-geaend foT EnoUnd and Scutland (see 
RxGlSTtiu^oy) form a valnabte Btorehouie of infoT- 
matioD on. the various aubjecta connected -mth vital 
itatutiCL Beaidea detailed abstracts for each year 
of Inrtha, mamagea, and deaths, tables of the fatal 
dia e ia ea , dauifisd in combination with ages, are 
given, and comments apon the ealient points of the 
year's rtgistmtion accompany tke whole. The 
number of Hrths, marriages, and deaths varies with 
the slate of tnde, price of food, and the seasons, 
and thus fuinishea a teat of the condition of a nation. 
We shall notice separately each of these three divi. . 
■ions of vital statiabcs. 

1. Births.— From the 26Ui Report of the Reeia- 
trar-general for England, it appears that in 1862 
there were registered in EngLand (of which the 
eslnmated population for that year is 20,336,467) 
7I2,6M births, ezclusiTe of still-bom, being at the 
rate of 3'504 per cent, to the population ; or I birth 
to 29 lives. 303,534 were male and 349,190 were 
female children, beinsin tiie proportion of 104 males 
to 100 females. In Huntingdonshire, however, the 
proportiDn waa 114 males to 100 females; while 
Donetshiie and Rutlandahire reveiaed the propor- 
tion!, giving Tei[«ctiTelj 99-9 and 97 males to 100 
females. Thera ia, it aeems, no recorded eicepticn 
to the rale that the Uitlii resistered in the firat six 
months of the year exceed those registered in the 
last ax. In Gotland, dming 186^ we find the 
■mmber of birth* legiatered to have been 107,13S ; , 
beins 3*478 per cent, of the popnlation estimated 
for iSut year at 3,079,660. 

In En^and, there are on an avers^ 6 children to 
B marriage; of these, three attsin a marriageable age 
*i replace tbeir pannts and those who have no 

of a counby hava fewer ohildrcn than Hie lower, and 

a larger proportion of their marriages are nnfmitfuL 
The average of Enropean statistics shewa 1 preg- 
nancy in 81 to produce twins ; 1 in 7400 to produce 
triplets ) 1 in 160,000, quadruplets. The mortality 
of mothers in childbirth in England and Waira 
decreased from 1 in 164, in 1848, to 1 in 212 in 1854. 

The direct cause of the increase of popolatioa 
in any country (apart from immigration) ia, of 
conrse, the excess of births over deaths, and thil 
will plainly depend on the following causes ; (1.) 
on the prolificnesa of mamagea; (2!) on the pro- 
portion born which lives to marry ; and [3.) on the 
mterval between the mean age of marriage and the 
mean u;e of death. All these conditions must he 
favourable to shew the fall power of incieaae in 
action. Tbey have never yet, on any large scale at 
least, been found operating with maximum force. 
In the United States, we find a combination of Om 
first two ; but from the ' expectation of life ' (see 
Lite, Meak Dckatioh Of) not being favourable in 
that country, it follows that the third caose ia 
not in favourable operation. 

2. Harriaga-^-a would seem to be contrary to 
&a principles of human nature that early marriages 
should be united to longevity. Youthfm marriages 
arise where the chances of the acquintion of wealth 
in youth are favourable ; and when these are favoor- 
able the fact aeema to tell against longevity. One 
of the most interesting and useful points of view in 
which registers can be conaidered is the evidence 
which they give of the varying prevalence of the pm- 
dential check to marriage and population in differeot 
countries and places. The prudential check will 
shew itself in two ways — either by the proportion 
of marriageable persons who are not mamed, or 
by the lateness of the average age of marrying. 
On the supposition of the natural prolificnesa of 
women remaining at the same point, the birth-rate 
will indica^ the extent of prudential check in 
whichever of the two ways it may manifest its^ 
Suppose that from any cause the prudential restraint 
on marriage wer« to beoome weaker among aof 



people than it had hitherto been, vlule the loeAiis 
ef nuuntcnance zenuined the nune, vlwt would 
happen T A cxmesponding incieMB would imme- 
dii^j tnke ^ilaoe in the anpiuJ moiilllity, %ad the 
mesn dontion of life woold be correapondingly 
doaW that the p»- 

nwtore mortalitj which pnvails all orer the wotU 
ii mainlv owiiu to impmdeiit marrianL The death 
of one half of the hamAn tace nnoer the age of 

sdmonitionB of its lawi. Thoae who have the mea 
of obedience nnder the conditioai of civilised li 
geDeralljr greatly err; ^et not lo greatly, for the mo 
part, u to be fatal to infant life. It ii tile want 
means, in other words, imprudent mi 
ia the canae of the whole. The toll 
taken from an articlB ' On the StaJ ~ 
"nftwg the Familiee of tl 

rhole. The following table ia 
' On the StatiitiGa erf Maniagea 
if the Peeraga,' by Archibald 


riiii^ lOlTPtcn. 

In the above, ctdnmn 1 ahem the aTcm^p late of 
marriage at the dven agea in the familiea ot tiie 
peenge. Thna, <n 100 perwnui married, it will, on 
«ji average be fbnnd that S3D6 am under 30 fe*n 

mittee of tha StatialiBal Some^ man the 
iabOritMita <tf SI OmiK^a-in-tha-Baib in 
piled bf ib Sadler, and ^ 

YtHnma <t hia woric on tha L«r 

._ __, Bkmn tlte 2BGi Uegimt of Qui 

B/tptbaK-amnl, it imean that in 1882 there 
w« atdamnMad m SaSniA 1«,0» maniago, <rf 
wiaA 1X^783^ <w 79 perceot, wwe acmidiiig to tha 
rilM et the wtaUUed ohmnh. On lionae there 
won I^SS; after banns, 102,870 ; on ■ 
dent legiitoai^ oertifiakt^ 3,96$; and 
ttatedimdar which liaad. The mean annual 
p«ttHH nmrtitA ja En^Nod ia l-ftSQ par oenL In 
1868, than mm mairied in En^and 22^07 
widcma, and 14,737 widowi. Of vnry 100 men 
iriio married, 13-7 had been pnTioodf mairied; 
while 9 per cent, of women mairiea had been 
mairied bafor& Thaae pn^orttona an aligh^ 
below the KramoB. IQfilB men and 32,4lM women 
were mider age, being in Uie leapeotiTe proporliona 
ef 6'S and 194 per eent. married. Tear by year 
] aaiabei of penona who dgn by xaiA ia found 
decrsaae. iWn 41-4 per eent in 1640, it had 
- -^-'^ed te 28-B per eent. in 186S. In SeotUnd, 
la) nte per eent of pemma mairied ia 1*331 
be bpt in new, nowenr, that mairia(^ 
'- I jB OMnpnlacBy in ^gf^ry*, while m 
ia not BO aa rmuda izregnlar marriuea. 
«.— b laaZ, tta total nonber of deatha 
n^atared in Bif^aod waa 43e^S6& UMincreunof 
deaths with the rising tide of pt^nlataon ia auoh 
that iriiile there w«se cmly two instaneaa— viz., 
tboaeof IS«TaBdI849,inthe 18 ran 1838— 18S0, 
in whioh the annol nnnber of deatha reached 
400,000, tbne an tan inatmuM in the twdve years 
ISSl— 1862 in wUoh it rose above 400,000. Had 
been no wniaialdon in iJia three years 1S60 — 
the natanu ineraaae of the popnlation of 
„ _iid would in tbeas jeaia have been eqnal to 
thatmntaof IdTerpoolandBiimin^umnDited. Tim 

180^ t 

mean nte ot the mortality of '^g'wud for the ten 
yean 1863—1862, iatoand to be 2^1 per cent In 
aootland it is, for the serai yeara 180&— 1861, 2«7 

ferent meteorological 
the two coimtriee than the fact th&t ia 
1862, when the mortality rate waa below the maui 
in UigUnd, ia ScotUod it was above it, being for 
that year 2'ISO per cant. A similar fiut waa 
obMTved in 1860, which was a healthy year in 
^^glitfvlj and in SooUand ranuA^ily tiie rewM. 
13m nrartali^ ^ malaa it invariahly lii|dm thnn 
that of IraialM. THaooAaat the 25 y«an 1888— 
18^ male mortality in^igland never fell so low 
aa 2*100 par omt.; the loweat being 2136 in 1306 ; 
iriule that of Eem^es wa^ in 11 yean oat of the SS, 
below 2-1. Ia 1866, it was l-OSSl When any year 
is aspeoiall^ healthfol, the tact tella moat in uvour 
of funale lif& On an average ot the 26 yean 1838 
—1862, out of 100 mala than died annoal^ 2-309; 
while out of 100 fenuJea Uien died MUiDaI& 2143; 
for every 100 femalee that died, th^redied 103 
males ; and of eqnal nnmbera living, ttte nnmbec of 
male deaths to every 100 female deaths waa 108. 
The hi^ieat mortality rate dming the 2S yean, both 
male and female, occorg in the ciwlera year 1849, 
the aeoond higheat in the famine year 1347, and the 
third bi^ieat in the cholera yesf 1864. For the 
tbiee yean 18U— 1866, it viU be found that the 
mean male mortality ia aluoat exactly tiiat of Uie 
25 yean nven, while the female rti» is actually 
alig£tly [VM vn «•»&) leat. Witb itffid, than, to 
the cholera vlattation of ISH at leart, it may be 
held tliat tile viotima most have been genenlly 
those of disBssed or debilitated oonstitntiMi, «4io, 
bad then been no cbol^ woold in ooorse <rf the 
next year ct aa have died faim sane other cause. 
The ratio of male to female mortality diSers con- 
siderably at different ages. Thus, in the Srst five 
years of life the ratio is, male p^ thoiuand 7*216 to 
Q'216 per thousand femslee. Fnan 5 to 10 tiie male 
exceaa is very small, and from 10 to 3G the female 
rate exceeds tiis male. But from 45 npwoi^ 
women die at a decidedly lower rate than men ; 
and tha mean result over the whole of life ia in 
favonr of female lifa It is, however, a cnrioas 
fact in the experienoe of aaanrance offices, that while 
female annnitaata an longBf lived than male, female 
aaanred lives are no better. This fact doubtlea* 



I^MfoUawiiig ore ex>n>Tdea of the fiuctoktiona of 
tite mtes of mortali^ m Enxland, &t diftarent ages 
in th« 3S y«*n 183S— IwL Tha mean umnal 
mMttUily of men >ged 2S— 30, vas -97S par cent ; 
bnt in lS49it Toae to 1-336, and in 1860 it waa aa 
low M "877; the lange being thus '3G9 per cent. 
At age Cfi— 60, the mean mala mortality per cent. 
par aaanni ta 3-136» but in 1849 it waa 3-«63, and in 
18S0 it WM ^9iS; thna giving a range of -674 per 

In ToL viii (for 1860) of tha Atturaitee Magaxint 
Kin be found an iateteabog p^per, by Mr Samnel 
Biown, tM.S., 'On HortaJity amoncnt American 
Aanired Livea.' We extract the fouowtng taUe, 


uno» or Lm,' aocou 












See alao, on the rabject of American mortaJlty, the 
^^Mrt tif tit Mutual Ljfi AMumnee Compraty (f 
JfiiB Tort, Jar FtiUtn Teara tading F^ruitra 1, 
18B8 OTcw Totk, Horauber I8S^. 

/sjMMM ^Oeatmtion. — Hie intowting qnattion 
eit the inflnenM of fiflmoit taadea, occnpatiomi, and 
haUte of life on health and mortality, mil be fotod 
ably treated in Ur A G. Finlaison'a S^ort on 

^tioMy Soeieliet, with aeoampu^ii^ tal 
retona, printed by order of the Honae of C 
Angiut 16, 1863 ; in Mr Neiaon'a worlc on YittU 
Slatitik* {Lond. 1S53) ; and in Mr BL Batclifle'a 
Obtervalion (^ Sail qfX<nii^<iy and SieioiatMauting 
antonf I'rialdig Socielia (Mancherter, ISSO). IVom 
ISx Fmlaiaou, we give the following table, ahewing 


















ATnfnig tite maiinaTB, a (trong cootraat ia ftmnd 
to prerail between the steknew and mortality ntMV 
the former being low while the latter ia higL The 
same fact ia foond among pMnt«ra> 'The pMctical 
diff^vnoe in tlu diat^mtini ol ajohneia,' ai^ 
Hr nnlaiaoD, * aeons to torn npm tiia ammmli of 
the ax uttuB t nr B nf jtoiiMl fatoe. Thia ia no new 
thii^iDr inalli^eatnasMrTationanddaczmitnde 
of l£e bodily frane has baa* obaerved to follow a 
ra«dignl intrte ot the aaeatal or cinporeal enargiaa. 
Bnt it has beca nowhere prvrionily oatahtiahaii. npm 
i«corded enerieace diat tha qoHrtom ri aickBoaa 
aimiiaUy falBng to the lot of man is in diieat pm- 











i-j* . 








In ib Hason'a work will be foond a valaable 
lie ratea of mortUihr among perama irf 
haKta. The following ahewe tha 
MM which theie ia an aqoal chuina ol 


Ik ddlnwing taUe, &am lb Satdifis's work, 
■Hwa ttia 'expectation' at decennial perioda of 
Sfe, for England and Wake, Mancheater Unity 
Ordo' of Odd Fdlowi, and variona tradea : 














CSSfiS: ■.-. 





It tiiaa tppeui that tt Oa eariv period of life, a^ 
SO, tlie foUowiilg tnde^ placed acccoding to dieir 
expectation, abew an iufaiior expectation in com- 
pariBon with the general reaulta of rural, town, and 

nit; diitrictB oombined : Clerlu, potters, letterpi 
printen, brichtayera, blackomithi, mill operatives, 
plninbeni, itone-masoni, miEien, wool-comben, 
ooopers, hatten, apinnen, tailora, dyen, Bawyen, 
niiilwiighte, town and city labonren, and thoe- 
makera. The following tradee ahew a ■uperioc 
expectation ; wheelwnghta, bBtoheia, bakec*, 
weavera, domestic servants, carpenten, and nml 

At the last period given in the table, bricklayer*, 
tailors, mill operatives, printei«, clerka, ipinnets, 
miners, ptombeis, hattras, blackamitlia, shoeroakera, 
wool-combers, coopeia, and aawyeis shew tti 
inferiOT expectation ; and dyers, town labonren, 
inillwrjghta, potter 

masons, domestio ... .. ... . .. 

nml labonrei*, and carpenten, ahew a aaperior 
expectation, m companson with the general 

Tlie oompantive healtfaineai of rations occapatioaa 
•motuF the lower nulu in London is given by Dr 
Lethebv for the year* 1850—1850 ; and another 
view of the liealUuiieu or nnhwJthineas of indnt- 
tcial occupatiooa at n^ptrd* England generally, is 
given by J>r Farr from the mortali^ of males at 
and above the age of 20 following different indna- 
bial oocapationa, in ISSl, as compared with the 
nnmber of persona enumerated in them at the 
censna of that year. While the general »"""»' 
rate of mortality in England, in 1851, of 1000 males 
at and above Ute age of 20, was 20, that of faimars 
was 28 ; ahoemakers, IS; weavera, 17 ; groeera, 11 ; 
blacksmitba, IS ; carpenter^ 19 ; tailors, IS ; 
labonrets, 21; mineiB, IS; baken, 17; batchers, 
21 ; innkeepers, 30. Taking into aocoant the age* 
At death, the farmers were the longest livens 
Labourers, who form nearly a fourth of the males 
of Bn^and, had a geQenil mortality almoet the 
same aa that of the general papnlation, but a very 
high mortality at great ages. At any one decade of 
life, the mortality of inn and beer-ahop keepers 
exceeds that of aU the other classes, except the 
butchers, at age 65 — 65. The mortality of butchers 
was much heavier than that of any oUier class, 
except that of inukeepera, under the age of 65; 
this fact ia anppoeed to be owing to intemperance, 
slaughter-house effluvia, and the use of too much 
animal and too little vegetable food. AU occupa- 
tions have their peculiar dangers which counter- 
balance each other ; thus the tailor ia not exposed 
to the eiplosiona ao fatal to the miner, and the 
laboui«r has exercise denied to the tailor. 

The mortaUty iu the army and aavy during peace 
«]d war shews many interesting points. Statistics 
tell us, that soldieis, though picked men, living in 
costly barracks in Britain during peace, are nearly 
ae unheslthy aa the people of our uuhealthiest 
rities, and sometimes ^Omost twice as unhealthy; 
the average annual deaths of soldiers in Britun 
being 176 per 10,000 ; in the household cavalry it 
is 110 per 10,000; 133 iu the disgoon guards ; 167 
in the infantry of the line ; and 201 m the foot- 
gnards. The mortality at M ages in the army at 
home is almcit double that of civilians, ages being 
alike. Lung diseaeee and cholera are twice aa 
btal to Holdiera as to civaiaos. This excessive 
mortality in the army seema owing to overcrowded 
and ill-ventilated barracks and imlitary hospitals, 
■ameneaa of diet, and want of healthy eiercise^ The 
fdlowing table, from the SGth Beport of the Regis. 
ttar-general for England, shewa the annual rata 
of mMtality par cent amongst the offiosra and 

d offiocn and men in Om army 

abroad in each of the yean 1808—18^ : 









The followiog, from the same, shews the mortality 
of merchant seamen at sea in the eleven years 


Talnable iikformation on military vital statistio* 
will be found in MUiiary BlatiMta of the United 
Staia of America, by £. B. Elliott (Berlin, 1863], 
in Stport and Vaiuaiion qf tJu Bengal JVtlifory 
FiMd, bv Griffith Davies, F.B.S. (Load. 1844) ; 
and in Mr Neiaon'a Report on the same as at 
December 31, 1847. 

Mottahty varies with density of population, tdaoe, 
and climate. Life is longer the brtter the food, tJie 
less the confinement, ue more commodious and 
cleanly the houaee. It is a popular notion that 
a mild winter is most fatal to life, but the truth is 
the reverse. Either extreme cold or extreme heat 
immediately raises the mortality rata of Great 
Britain; the injurious eEFect of odd is in a great 
measuje, however, confined ta those whose circum- 
atances do not enable them ta protect themselves 
sgunat it. 

Several of the leading aMoiance offices of Eng- 
land and Scotland hare recently formed a joint 
plan for deducing the reaulta of their mortality 
experience to December 31, 186a The facta of 
each life are tabulated upon cards, dasmfication 
aocording to »ge being thus renderad extremely 
easy, 'ux EngLand, the scheme ia under the super- 
dence of a committee of the Institute of Actu- 
; in Scotland, of Mr James Mdkle, actuary of 
the Scottish Provident Life Assurance Company. 

We give, in conclusion of the subject of vital 
statistics, the following table, from the 25th Report 
~ ' the Registrar-general, shewing number and pro- 
, iion per cent to population of marriaae*, hirtha, 
and deaths in England, France, and Austria in 

The mortality rata of Francs for 1862, it will be 
seen, is lower than that of England, but usually h 



. TITE'BSK, & government ia the north ot Wert 
Rnnia, bonniled on the N.-W. by CourUnd uid 
livonia, sod on the N.-E. by the government of 
Pitov. Area, 17,191 sq. dl; pop, 8tH,S13. The 
■nrt&ce is, u a rule, hilly, though vooded pkiiu, 
marshes, and Ukee abound. The Dwiaa Sowi foe 
466 milea in tira government ; lod by means of thU 
river and its afflaenta, large qoantilaea of timber are 
fleeted doira to the port of Riga. The soil ia not 
fertile, the qaantity of cereaJs ^wn being generally 
inmfficieiit tor local consiunption. Tloz a Euooera- 
fnlly grown ; and ibis material, together with timber, 
coDttltiites Uie chief artioles of export. Ship-building 
ig canied on on the Dwina ; the lake-flsbenea are 
pK^tabla; and tanning is the most important branch 
of indnatiy. 

VITEBSK, a city of West Russia, capital ot the 
government of the same name, on boui banks of 
the Western Dwina, 389 miles south of St Peters- 
bnjg. It covers a veiy large area, and oontaini 
liiaiiymonaiteries,chnrche8, andsynagogues. Mana- 
factores are not eztenaive ; and tne trade — the 
chief artidea of which are com, flai. hemp, tobacco- 
leave*, •ogar, and timber — ia carded oa by Jews, 
who foim the larger section of the population. A 

^ii (Augurt 1866) under •—-■^—■•--. 
Dttnabiug. Pop. 27,8t 

TITBXLIN. This name 

^ven by diemists to a ani^ ,. — ^ 

oocairing in the yelk of egg. It baa been discovered 
by T i'h'"!"' that this substance ia merely an admix- 
ture of casein and albumen. 

"VITEIAAVS, AuLCS, Roman emperor, son of 
Ladns VitellitiB the prince of the >n^cophants who 
mnouDded Caligula, but who, acconiing to Tacitoa, 
■ in bis provindal administration euiibited the 
Tirtaea of a former age,' woa bom September 34, 16 
A. D., and thrODgh bis father'a infiuence at court, 
becune coniul, & a. d,, and afterwarda proconsul of 
Africa, where hia adminirtration gave p^t Batis- 
factioa. He had been a companion of Tiberias at 
C^lreie, and wai 
Claodiu^ Nero, ... 
appointed him conunander of the legions in Lower 
fW mm y, thint-ing Ilia intense derotdon to gastro- 
nomic pleasnrea would effectually prevent his becom- 
ing a rival. However, V. had not been a month in 
hia new post, till he had completely guned the 
affectioni of lui soldiers by extreme familiarity and 
liberality (strongly contrasting with Oalba'a parsi- 
mony) ; and on Jauuaiy 3, 69, they took bim from 
his tent, and proclaimed him emperor. This decision 
adopted by the rest of the troojis in Oaul ; and 

set ont to aeetm 

!, under Yalens and Ciecma 

Rome, V. following leisurely. 
nobce M lus contest with Otho in Northern Ital^ 
will be found nnder Otso. The adherents of bis 
predecessor were leniently treated, with the excep- 
tion of the centurions of Otho'a army, who were put 
to death, an act vbich greatly oOended hia own 
supporteiB. V.'i journey to Rome waa a curions 
q)ecamen of a tKnmphant advance, the nominal con- 

Eror being invariably muddled with liquor, and 
■oMiera of hia army straggling about, com- 
mitting excesses of all sorts with peilcct impunity. 
At last he reached Borne, and without loss of time, 
proceeded, by rif^t of bis ofGce as Pontifex Maxi- 
moB, to dei^ Hero. The administration was 
I mcsUy in the hands ot Uie freedmao AaiaticaB, 
tliaii^ P. SabinuB (brother of Veapanan), and 
Uw two generals who had guned for him the 
imperial dignity, wa« Mdi in authority ; and the 
snTemment was markedly great moderation, for 
V. waa too far sunk in the Tileat debanoheiy to be 
rapiJile of tyranny. But Iw waa not Img allowed 

to diagnst the respectable part of the cttizeoa of 
Roma ; for the legions of Pannonia and lUyricum, 
having prodaimMl Vespasian emperor, advanced 
into Italy under Antonios Primus. They were 
opposed by the ViteUian troops, commandod by 
CiBcina, but through the treachery of tiie latter 
general, gained a decisive victory near Bedriaonm, 
and another, on the following evening, over another 
ViteUian amiywhich had march^ to the aupport 
of the first V., at this critical period of his for- 
tunes, nothing abated his swinish indulgeocea ; but 
his brother, Lucius, in the south, dismayed more 
energy, and defeated Vespasiac'e partisans in 
several battles. Meantime, the soldiers, enraged at 
the treachery of F. Sabinua, and his allies among 
the senators and knights, stormed the Capitol, and 
alew Sabinus. From this time, Borne waa a scene 
of unintermitting violence and bloodshed, till the 
troops of Primus entered the city. Y. was found 
waodering about his palace in a state of stupid 
terror, and after being ignominiously exposed in the 
streets, waa killed by repeated blows, his head 
carried about Rome, and hu body thrown into the 
Tiber, in December 69 A. n. — For a complete sketdi 
of his private life, see Tacitoa's Hiitoria, iL, iii, and 
Dion Casaius, 66 ; see also Suetonius, Fit Dwdee. 

VITEXLUB O'VI, or the yrft ot the egg of the 
doraeatio fowl, ia employed in pharmacy for the 
purpose of administering substances inaoluble in 
water {the oils and resins, for example) in the form 
of emissions. The urAife is employed as an antidote, 
in oases of poisoniug by corrosive sublimate or 
with salts of copper, ka a dietetic article in the 
sick-ioom, eggs, either lighUy boiled or poached, or 
as ingredients of puddings, are invaluable; the 
stomach, after an acute diseaae, being often able to 
digest an egg, when any more solid article of animal 
'ml would set up gastric irritation. 

The article Eoo, CsKUisnty or, requires a few 
snpplementsry remarks. The albumen, occmring in 
the v^iU, is for the most part in combination with 
soda; in addition to this principal ingredient, the 
white contains fata (chiefly maraarin), ^pe-eugar 
(averaging 6 per ceut. of the dried residue), and 
soluble uilts, m which the chlorides preponderate, 
with a little silica (for the fomiation of feathers) 
and fluorine. The yelk conrists ot casein (forming 14 

T, and mimnal oonstitnenti (about 1*5 per 

ent), in which .._.,._, __ 

otaadum compounda and phaapbates. Of the pig- 
lents of the yelk we only know that there is boui 
yellow and red pigment, and that one at least of 
them contaios iron. It is difficult to conceive a 
more conoentiated form of nourishment than a food 
thus composed of casein, albumen, fat, sugar, 
potassium salts, phosphates,' and' iron; and its 
resemblance in composition to milk is very remark- 

The shell of tbe egg consists ahnort solely of car- 
bonate of lime (about 97 per cent), with a little 
phosphate of lime, and tnwea of magnesia and 
organic matter. The varietry of colour m the eggs 
ot different birds is supposed to be due to certain 
modtGcations of bile-pigment with which they come 
, contact in the cloaca. 

VITETIBO, a city of Central Italy, in the Papal 
States, stands amid gardens and vineyards, at the 
foot of Monte Cincino, 42 miles north-north-west of 
Rome. Its well-built streets are paved with marble, 
and there are numerous elegant fountains. Its Oothio 
cathedral contains the tombs of seveial popes, and 
■■^ - where Ony de Moatfort 



BMumiiiated Prinoe Henry, brother of HeDl7 IIL of 
England. Among other ktfaractiTe boildingt are the 
chmches, moetlj rich in vorks of sit, the hiahop'i 
palace, and the atj halli. There are many mona- 
meutg of antiqmty, both within and withont the 
city. Alnm, vitriol and aulphnr abound in tiie scdf^- 
bonrhood, and exquisite winse are prodnoed. No 
important manofai^ure* are carried on. Pop. 16,000. 
VIU'BX, a genni of trees or ahmbi of tiie natural 
order VerbtnaeoE, the fruit a drape, with a 4-celled 
lAone. V. Agnai eadui, the C&aotb Tbee, a nati — 
at the conntriei anmnd the MeditemuieaD, 
downy, with digitate leaves white on the back, a 
haa an acnd fmit, the eeedi of which are used 

Cbaite Tree ( VUex Agmu catlm). 

Its name from the praotioe of OredBn 
maminB bO strew their Coaches with ita leaves, 
especially dniing the sacred rites of Ceres, in order 

banish impure thoogbts ; for which purpose 
syrup, made of its fruit, was also, and perhaps still 

is, used in convents in the Bonth of Europe, althon^ 
in reality, it posKases stimulating properties. — V. 
Ne^Jtdo, an Indian species, has aromatia leavea, 
which are bruised and^ applied to the temples for 
relief of headache. — V. tr\frAia is another Indian 
species, whose leaves are a powerfol disontient. 

VITILrQO wsB the name given by €elaus to 
some kind of cntaneoos croptioii which c«anot he 
dearly identiGed. The term has, in recent times, 
been used by different writers in different senses, 
bnt is now most commonly employed to designate 
cntAneous patches characterised by loss of pigment. 
Scotland, means the unwarrantable interference and 
lent of the movable estate of a deceased 
The consequence is, to make the intro- 
liable for all the debts of ttie deceaaed 
thouffh far exceeding the value of the assets. 
>de of patting an end t« this liability is to 
obtain confirmatdon as executor in the usual way. 

TITO'HIA, a pleasant, gay, and thriving inland 
town in the north of Bpain, capital of the province 
of Alava, stands on a gentle devation, 70 miles 
west of Pamplona. The old town, the Villa Snao, 

ooodsta of doric and tortuous streets ; Vim 

is regularly laid out. There are seveiBl . . ^ 

aUimedat, or public walks, especially La Florida 
and £1 Frada Tlie Plaza ITuev^ a square of 220 
feet, was built id IT91, and under its arosdes is the 
favourite promenade in winter. Brass and iron 
wans, earthenware, candles, and linen goods, are 
manufactured, and a brisk eeneral trade is carried 
on with towns further inlan£ The plain surround- 
ing the town is extensive and fmitful The climate 
is temperate and healthy. Pop. 18,70a 

Y. will be ever memorable for Uia dedsive and 
inqurtant victoiy which Wellington gained here 
over the French under Joseph Bonaparte and Jour- 
dan, June 21, 1813L The numbers in this encounter 
were nearly equaL The French lost 6000 killed and 
woouded, ICO cannon, together witli baggage, eules, 
and an amount of booty in pictures, ftc, Mich 
amounted to 5,000,000 dollars. The direot result 
of the battle of Vitoria was, that Oie Frendi had 
to retire from Spain. About this engagement, 
Southcnr says the French ' were beaten before the 
town, m the town, throng the town, out of the 
town, behind the town, and all about the town.' 
llie loss id the British, Portuguese, and Spaniards 
was 4900 men. 

VITRfe, an ancient town of Brittany, Fmwe, in 
the dqk of Dle-et-Vilaine, on the left bank of the 
Yilaine, 24 miles east of Bennes by railway. It is 
a ourions specimen of the old towns of the middle 
agea, and is still surrounded with Gothic ramparts 
flanked with towers. At three miles' distanoe is 
the ChUean des Bochers, the celebrated residence 
of Madame de SfivignS. Manufactures of cloth and 
hats are carried on. Pop. 6900. 

VITBIFIED vaa.TS, the name given to certain 
remaricable stone endosorea bearing traces of the 
action of fire, about fifty. of which exist in various 
parts of Scotland. They are generally situated on 
a small hill, overlooking a considerable valley, and 
consist of a wall, whiim may have originally been 
about 12 feet in height, endonng a level area on 
the summit of the bill. The most remarkable fea- 
ture of these structures is, that the wall is always 
more or less consolidated by the action of fire — in 
some cases onl^ to the extent of giving a glassy 
coating to its mner side, while in other inlbmces 
the vitrification has been more complete, the ruins 
character of vut masses of coane 
is Bometimei an exterior circuit more 
from tiie interior, composed of loose 
I, which bear no traces of vitrifleation. 

_ this kind ore to be found at Noath 

and Donnideer, in Aberdeenshire ; Craig Fhadrick, 
Tordim, and Olenever in Inverness-shire ; Knock- 
garril, in Boss-shire ; Creich, in Satherlandshire ; 
bonskei^ in Aigylediire ; Finhaven and Laws, in 
Forfarshire; Barryhill, in Perthshire; Eingarth, in 
the island of Bute ; Anwoili, in Kirkcudbri^t, 
and elsewhere, but principally in the northen coun- 
ties. They were first noticed by Mr John WiUiams, 
in his Acamnt of some Saaartabk Andent Rwat 
lattiy diacovend in the HighJanda ami Ifarthent Porta 
o/£eol^an<f,publiBhedinl777. Mr Williams's obser- 
vations led him to conclude that they were altificia] 
gtructures intentionally vitrified by a partial melting 
of their materials. Mr Williams's views wiere 
combated by other writers, who contended that tiie 
supposed forts were of volcanic origin, a supposition 
qnite irreconcilable with their obviously artificial 
character. In IS28, tlie subject ensued the 
attention of the Sodety of Antiquaries of ^wtland, 
a series of careful observations being made by Dr 
Samnd Hibbert, one of the secretaries of that body ; 
condnsion airivad at was, thct while we 



abradb a tm vote artifiaul, Hie vitxifiartjoa iraa an 
Aoodantal o&aot, whioh might Ii»ve Krieeu fiam snob 
cwwM •• Hm £r^aBnt kindling of beacou-fireB an 
tignH^i of Tar ud innMon, or al bonfires fanniag a, 
pwt of featiTv or leligiom xejoioiiigi. The bntning 
«f (ignal or ofher fina, in paihcolar ousb, in the mokt 
inrteftd of within tlie inll, nu^ have caosod the 
oocMCWkl eEtacml TitdfiosnoD. Thia view of the 
Dr Hib. 

berfa obn 

I, bean very generallj' 

on of tiie 

Hw alkaM prodDced from tOis accnmolation 
Mbm tit oinrtuiiiallj blazmg wood-firea wonld be a 
powerfnl aid to the fmion of Etoue : BandEtone, 
utbenriae infnnUa, ii made paifeotly capable of 
litrifoatkai W the alxvption oi melted alkalL Tbe 
viow ttof^DsSj taken bv Hr WiUiams baa Huce 

dMsned for defenaive militaiy pMrta, and 
mm, wiat in aome caa«a where the moat occea- 
for a stone-fort are incftpaHe of 
- - Bore capable of being Tifciifiad 
from a. diatanoB. Unleu in a 
instanoo in FTaiu)^, no .aimil^ 
rtittutiu' e a have \Mea abMrrad oat of ScoUand ; 
iriMiioe it baa been anggorted that they mnat be 
tiu ranlt of litra and coBtomcpeanliar to tbe laoea 
<tf Nortii Bi^tain. Ur J- H. finiton eonddera tbe 

b«Ba bronzkt £ 
» fflwtiomaMe ii 

B aet at rat yet — 8a« Artiaoiogiea StoUea, toL 

'a HMory tf Scotland, cbaf. 3. 
ViTKIBGA, Cakfmius, an eminent Butch 
divine and commentator, wu bom at Leawarden 
in Priealand, leti May 1659. He studied at 
Fianecksr ai^ Leyden, at which last phtce ba was 
created D.D. in hig SOth year. In 1681, be was 
appointed ProCeeeor of Oriental Languagee ; said two 
jeais later, reoeived the cboir of Theology in the 
univeis^ of Franecker, where he died, March 21, 
1722. V. it iwarded aa one of the mort learned 
aad labotiODi divines of hie age, and has left many 
exceHent and eradite works, chiefly oommentaricB 
on portions of Uie Sciiptures, nearly all of which are 
in Latin. Among othera may be mentioned, Coixmat- 
tariiu in Jaiaam ; AnacritU Apocaiypaeoa Johannis 
Apoitoii; ComTaaliaritu in JrriTmamj Gommxnt- 
ariua in Zeeharaima; Felua Synagoga; Ditterta- 
tiima Eacrte; Typvx Theologica J'rqphelica, kc 

VlTJtIOIi (derived from the Latin vitmm, glaas) 
ii k tenn whioh tbe early chemists applied to glaas- 
Hke mltft, divtingniAhing them by tbeir colonn into 
Un« Tibial, ff^en vitnol, and white vitriol .Blue 
Fifriol ia rtm tlie popular nsme for sulphate of 
copper, wbicb may be obtained on a la^ acale 
in variooi miyi, bat moet simply by boilinj 

CuOfSf^ + BA.<i, and crystaUising in oblimie priiimB 
of s dear bine coloor, wiiiah are solnble infonr parts 
td cold, and two of boiling water, and when mois- 
tened, redden litmtis paper. In large doses, it acta 

(as from half a grain, gradually 
o grains, made into pills with con- 
Mive d roMs), it acts as a tonic and astrinmnt, and 
viU ctftan dkeck tbe disohaigea in rasnn m c^ironio 
dianiicea and dytenteiy, when other medicsnea have 
failed; and acoordins to Neli^jan, it has been fonnd 
■eoTiccablo in <ironp by jttiwphtnjr ezoessiTe bronchial 
aemtiou. It haa oeen tnaoli employed in cases of 

other spaBmodio diseaaea, aspedally whan they ooonr 
in weak coztstitutionB about the period of pabeity. 
Its use in doses of from 10 to IS grains aa an active 
emetic is mentioned in all works on ntataria medica ; 
but Bolpbate of zinc in a dose of a scrnj^ is aa 
efficBoions, and safer. SEtemally, this salt in aola- 
tion (varying from one to ten grains in an ounoe d 
water) forms a good applicaHon to indolent uleezl, 
aphtbie, cancrum oris, and the sore throat in scar- 
latina ; it is also nsed in chronic c^jbthi^DlilL "^ 
as an injection in cases of urethral or va^inM dis- 
chaigea. In the soUd state, it is naed aa a cmiatie 
to repieaa eioesmve granulations (proud fleali), to 
destroy worts, and to excite indolent nioera. 

Oreen Vilriol is the popular name for sulphate of 
iron. Its characters, the method of obtaining i^ 
and its therapeutio usee, are sufflmeotly notioM. in 
the article Ibon. 

While PUriot will be deBcribed in the article 

on of Vilriol is the old name gjven to commer- 
cial lalpbtmc ixai, in consequenoe of its oily appear- 
ance, and of its bung fMmarly obtained fnmi greon 

Sliah' of Titriot is tJie old name for tiie aromatic 
solpburio add of the FbarmaMipaaia. It ia a mix- 
tore of three ounoEa of solphurio aoid and two piuta 
of rectified apirit, in which powde>«d oijinamon and 
ginger have Deen digested. Its nsea in doaes of 
&om ten to thirty minims, in a wine-glassful of 
water, are much the same an those of dilute sulphiirio 
acid, but it is more agreeable to the taste, and Btts 
more lightly on the stomach. 

TITBO DI TBI'If A, the name gi*«n to a bewt- 
tiful kind of glass wluoh was made hr the Vene- 
tiuisinthe ISOioentury. Tt^ l^ifting^tltliw "^^ftTl^- 
tar is a aeries of wave-like marks in opaque odonn, 
bat nsnally white, arranged 
pretty regularly in IJie sob- 
stance of transparent ^ass. 

scroll - work 

a continutms 

forming a kind of oreating 


VTTRUTIUS, the name of two Roman anihi- 
tects, tbe most calebratod of whom is UliBCDB 
ViTBU vwa Poujo, about whom we have no direct 
information farther than the mentioa of his name 
by Fliny and Frontiiias, though, from the references 
to himself in his own work, we con gatiier that in 
all probability he was bom about 76 or 80 B. c. He 
reoeived a liberal education, pursued spedally those 
studies whioh were calculated to fit bim far the 
professioD of an engineer and architect, and was 
engaged in tbe African war (16 B.O.) as auperin- 
tendent of military engines. He does not seem to 
have beoome vei^ popular as an orcliitect, and 
never succeeded m acquiring wealHi, though ths 
oonatant patronage wbich IJie emperor (Auguatna) 
was induced by Es dster (probably OdaviaJifiitor) 
to extend to him, insured him comfortable BulHnatence 
during bis life. The only public work he executed 
waa a Doailica at Fonum. Y., in hia book, I>e Anhi- 
iectitra, outers at aome length into the reaaona whicb 
induced him to write it, the chief of them bung, the 
care bestowed by hia patron (after aetided peace bad 
been aecured to the empire] on buitdinga pabUo and 
private, hia intention to erect numerons edifloes, 
and the danger that, owing to the depraved andd- 
tectnral taste of the tine, the beauty and correot- 
neaa of the pnre Greciaa models wonld be neglaoted. 
^Hie De ArcAiteetara ia arranged in ten books i tbe 
fint d which aonbuos a dedication to the emperor, 
a general view of arcbitectnntl sdence, hiata - - '- 
the proper subjects of study for young — " 



and directJona tor building dtiea ; the Kcond ti 
of the eirir histoij □:' 
riali empuiTed at i 

of the earir histoij of ■rctutectuTS, Mid of the mate- 

■ketch of the phjEical theoiiea of varioiu philOBO- 
pben ; the third and /ourA treat of the erection of 
templea, and in connectioD with thii, of the four 
ordras of architectare, Ionic, CoiiDthias, Doric, md 
Tiucan ; the jf/Tft treats of public buildiogi ; the 
icrA, of piiyate hooses in town or conatrf ; the 
tevaith, of the finiahing and decontioa of ^riviite 
bnildiiiga ; the eighth oMnter, the mode of ducoyer- 
i^ it, whenoe it may be obtained, and the mode* 
of ooDveying it in large qnantitiea to a distajice ; 
the tunlh, of the principlei of gnomonicl, the rulei 
for dialling, and other mbjecte phyncaJ and astro- 
nomical ; and the tenth, of machines osed in building 
And in militoiy warfora, of the mechanieal powers, 
of mills, engines foi railing water, odometers, Jtc 
To each book there is a preface, more or less con- 
nected with the main subject of the bcok, and it ia 
in these preCator;^ remaru that we disoover what 
we know of T.'s personal history. 'Diere have been 
many editions of V. ; the first waa pnbliahed along 
with FtouHniufi De AquadaOSnu at Home abont 
1M8> and afterward* at Florence (149S} koA Venice 
(14B7). Rndewoodcnts were introduoed into Taiiona 
mhaeinMnt editions ; and the editiim of Bode (^L 
1800) has a volnmo of plates ; but Urn beat edition, 
that of J. Q. Schneider (Ldp., 3 Tola. 1807—1908), 

M without illnstratione See Smith's CUutieal Die- 

tionary of Biography and Mythology. 

VrrEY-LB-EBANCOIS, a town of France, in 
the dap. of Mime, on the right bank of the river 
Mame, 128 miles eaat of Paris by railway. The 
first mte of the town was at Vitry-en-Perthois ; bnt 
it was taken and boned by Charles V. in IGU. 
Tranjois L rehnilt V. on its present site, surronnded 
with fosses and ramparta, and erected a castle for 
its protection. There are manufactures of hats and 
cotton goods. Fop. 760a 

VTTTO'RIA, a modem town of Sicily, in the 
province of Siracnsa, 18 miles north-west oE Modica, 
on the Camarana, It possesses little interest, and in 
— '~ only a noonday resting-place for travellers. 

waintaini an active trade ii 

TI'TUS, ST, DANCE. See Choku. 

VIVANDISBE, in continental armies, and 
especially that of France, a female attendant in a 
re^imen^ who sells spirits and other oomforts. 
nunisters to the sick, marches with the corps, and 
contrives to be a universal favourite. Althongh a 
familiar friend to all, these women contrive to 
nuuntain themselves respectable, and generally 
respected ; and a corps is usually extremely jealous 
of the sl^test diicourtesy being shewn to its 
vivondib^ The woman wears the nnifotm of the 
regimeiit, short petticoats taking tiie place of the 

_. general, a strong musky odour, proceeding from 
A secretion in a pouch near the anus. To thia 
family belong the civets genet, ichnenmoo, ic 

VIVISE'CTIOV— B tenn which is employed to 
designate operationa performed with the kufe on 
living animals, with the riew (1) of increaainff our 
phyaiologioal knowledge ; {2) of confirming previously 
known bets ; and (3) of giving dexteri^ in opera- 
tiTe surgery — is a oouise of procedure which may 

be traced back to almost the earUst periods of 
medicine and snrgeiy, and was largely practised 
in the Alexandrian SohooL It is, however, only 
comparatively lately — about half a century afo, 
when the barboroua experiments of MagentUe, 
Brachet, and other distinguished French physi- 
ologists, became known in this oonnlry — thi^ the 
subject haa attracted much popular notice; and 
docmg the last ten years, att^tion has been so 
speciwy drawn to the atrocitiea systMnatioally 
carried On in the greSit French veterioary 0(dl«[ea 
at Alfart and Lyon, that a deputation of ' The 
Bcyol Society for the Prerentimi ri Cruelty to 
Animals ' laid a statement of the facts before the 
Emperor Hapoteon. When it is stated, that with 
the nominal object of taachine the veterinaiy 
stadentB at Alfort to become skuful openton, six 
living horses were supplied to them twice a week — 
that sixty-four operations were perfonned on each 
horse, and that four or five horses generally died 
before half the operations were compUted — that it 
tiGces nearly two days to go throu^ the list — and 
that oil the old exploded operations, as well as 
those now [OaotiBed, were praformed — and lastiy, 
when it is bonM in mind that most, if not all, these 
<^Mrations ootdd just aa instructively have been 
practised on the dead animal (as is done in this 

itiy), there cannot be a doubt that a vast 

unt of unwarrantable and gratuitous cruelty 

carried on in these establislunenta. Although 

the subject was brought before the Aeadimie 3t» 

SeUncea, and warmly mscussed, the final concluiioQ 

take any notice of them.' 
believe that it is only by the veterinary ( " 
France that the view is advocated that i 

for the purpose of giving dexten^ 
.!___. T..... ,j^^ jjj right- 

is necessaiT for the [ 
in snreical operation 

probably infiuenced by a feeling of national]^ — 
must concur in the view, that the argument in 
favour of vivisection utterly breaks down, some go 
further, and doubt whether any experiments on 
living animals, performed with the abject of odvaoc- 
I medical and surgical knowledge, and of thereby 
Levinf, indirectly, human suficnng, or prolonging 
man life, are, on moral grounds, to be regarded 
justifiable. In opposition to this view, it is 
intained that, nnd^ certain cireumstooces, and 
with doe ratrictaons, such experiments are not only 
justifiable, but their performance becomes a positive 
duty. It may be obaerved that, though in stating 
this controversy the term vivisection is retained, tho 
remarks apply to all kinds of experiments on living 
animals. It is universally admitted that man may 
destroy animals for his food, and to famish him with 
many of the necessaries and luxuries of life ; and most 
persons go a step further, and see no improprio^ in 
the pursuit of faeld-sports. Now, as Dr Markham 
argues in his excellent prize essay on this subject, 
'I these cases of admittedly legitimate d«sbuc- 
of animal life, the infliction of pain is a neces- 
sary ingredient. In some modes of destruction, the 
death-Mow ia dealt at once, and the pain is but 
fleetdne; whilst in others, the agony of the death- 
struggle is equivalent to a prolonged and painful 
'orture. An ox may be at once stunned, white the 
lUimal bled to dea& snffers prolonged convulsive 
truggles. The humanitarian, if he be a sportsman, 
hinks little of the lingering pain which a wounded 

* ViTiKcUon ; it it necaiory or j\Mijlahlt I Being 
two priie essays, pnUiihed h; the Bojal Sociaty for 
the Prevention of Cruelty to *"i""i- (Tiond. 1866). 



Uid or broken-legged ban nndet^oec ; nor, if he be 
engi^ed in tbe i^la-fiabery, doea he luneot over 
tile prolaiiged mfferiiig whicb tba object al hi* 
ponnit mnit Buffei b^oie ita capture. If, ' 
Hum c&n leatimAtely put ■ninnlif to b pi 
doktli in or^ to lapply himaelf \Tit)i food . 
Inxnriea, why may lia not tim lesitmifttelf pat 
animmlB to pain, and eren to dek^ for the fu 
higher and mora noble objeot of reliering the suffer- 
ingi of hmnanity, and of proloagiDg homait life I 
To poiDt ont w}ut sain bai occraed to physiology 
(and hence, indirectly, to tbe heaJing art) by expen- 
mcoti OQ living animals, would occupy many pogej 
of thia work. It ia sufficient to allade to the facte, 
that tbe doctrine of tbe circulatLon oE the blood, and 
of the exiatence of, and circulatioD throogb, tbe 
lacteak, WM Oia^ established, and that nearly tbe 
whole of onr preaent knowledge of the fanoliona of 
the nerrotu lyttaa baa bem tiuui obtained, and 
codld oeTBT luiT« been afforded by tiie moet minnte 
anatomical RMareb,* and that in eomeqnence 
of the knowledge tbns obtained ws no longer divide 
> motor nerre, and thna paralyse tbe face, in the 
hope of TelieTing tic douloarenx ; while, on the other 
hand, thaoka to the reseanhes of Brown-Sequard, 
Beniard, and olhen, we oan now see our way to a 
mora lational mode of treating epilepsy, Tariona 
obionra fwma of Mtalytis, &a WitlunitTiTiaec"" 
we oonld nerer dearly have nndentood the a 
of the aonnd* of the heart, without the knowledge 
of which the ttethoMOpe would have been uaeleaa 
m tbe diagnoni of cardiac diseases ; nor should we 
haTe known anything of the true nature of that 

■-— — '- diabetes. The Huntcrian 

by ligature, which has saved 

lives, was worked ont by eiperi- 

on living anTmila The study of ameethetica. 

le even less dangerous agent), t 

by „ „ .. 

ibly accompanied by tbe suffocatiou of 
many ""'"■»l« ; but surely no one who can fonn 
any estimate ol tbe vast amount of misery which 
baa been spared to humanity by tbe general intro- 
duction of the use of chloroform into surgical and 
midwifery practioe, can r^ret the sacrifice. Indeed, 
the advantage of the discoveiy is experienced in more 

* See on this subject the remarks of FniFenor 
Owen (appended, by nimisdan, to Dr Hukbam's 
pri^ essay) : * The doseat and most petseTeiini 
oUarratiaD of the phenaniena in the daidlndy ocmld 
ml* teadk the invariable relations of the nerru or 
teidons ' [eadi ti wbicih was known under the aommon 
name of aainntl 'to the mnsds. Wlien the idea 
ooeomil to the Jjeiandiian phynologiiit to divide, in 
Ste living «»im»1, the several kinds of white ooida, 
called Bciuv bj his inedeMSSOi^ then, and then only, 
was lus tdenot eniidied with the power of diatjngmiih- 
inctnu Bene from tendon, ligament, tux Hr'V^dker, 
ofjEdinlmi^ was the flrti to suggest, in reference to 
lbs pievioDsh known anvtomical Sets of tbe two roots 
of Bi« qilnal nerves, that one was sensory, and the 

" ■— r, Mr (afterwards Sir Charles) Bell hu 

aped the credit tl the discover; by putting 
le test <rf experiment; He alone disoovers 
■who eonverts a specniativs into a positiva 
tnd it is not trae, however the dicta of J. 
r seam to aapport the proportion, that m 
lisse and other neat uuttas of pt^ology, 
baa been reaorted to " only to oonfirm the 

theory already fixed in the mind of the discoverer, ai 
to demonatrats it to iia world" For a truth tJ) c 
kvulaUe, It must be " demonstrated t 
"^-"■— — '-- *- "lis eiperimentB, th 
re-Toots was fixed o 


wayB than one upon the lower animals, 

domestic aniniala are subjected to ita _„ 

infiaence when surgical operations ai« necessary, 
and since, in most cases, animals subjected to 
physioloeicol experiments are now usually rendered 
maenBiblo by it If such questions aa— Uie hart: 
means of restoring to life persons apparently 
drowned — why chloroform sometimes kills, and how 
those who are BoSering under apparently fatal 
effects can be best recovrawi— admit, as they doubt- 
less must, of a solution, that solation must be 
soi^ht for in e^rimenta on living animals. These 
and a multitude of similar considerationa which 
midit be adduced, ore sufficient, it is maintained, to 
lead any unbiaased inqoirer to tke conclusion that 
eiperimentB on living aniinaU, performed with the 
object of advancing medical, surgical, or toxicological 
knowledge, and of thereby indirectly relieving human 
■Qfferinf^ or of prolonging human life, are not only 
jnBtifiaUe,hutatnatterofduty. There are, however, 
certain conditians, the fulOhuent of which (as Dr 
Markham well points out in his prize easay] is 
indispensable to the proper and righljul performance 
of experiments on living animals. First, the experi- 
menter must be equal to the task he has nnW- 
taken; h« most be a skilled anatomist, and a 
physiologiBt, xiot only thoroughly acquainted with all 
the known &cta bearing on the subject which he is 
about to investigate, but he must be capable oE dnl]t 
appreciating all the facta which his experiment may 
present. Secondly, if the experiment admits of i^ 
the animal ihoutd be submitted to the action (^ 
cbloroform during the operation. Thirdly, when a 
fact in physiDlogy has been once thcranghly deter- 
mined, all repetitions of the experiments, for Ule 
mere pnipose of exhibiting them to classes <d 
students, are unnecessary, and therefore nnjustdfi- 
able. Professor Owen, speaking on this pi^^ 
observes ; ' I reprobate tbe performance of expeci- 
menta on living animals to shew the students what 
such experiments have taught tbe master; whilst 
the arguments for learning to experiment by repeat- 
ing experiments on living animals, are as futile as 
those for so learning to operate chirurgically.' 
VIZIEB, or VIZm (pronounced va-ir'), the 
itle of various hi^ functionaries in the Ottoman 
^jpire, and other Mohammedan states. The word, 
which is of Arabic origin, and signiSea 'he who 
bears or supports (a burden),' was lirst bestowed as 
a title of honour on the chief-minister of the Sitt 
Abbaside calif, in "JSO A. D. During the decline of 
this dynasty, tbe vizier bad to ' hear the burden ' 
of government almost entirely, and consequently, 
increased so much in power and authority, that the 
califs thought it prudent to counteract bis influence 
by t^e creation of the new dignity of EnUr-al- OmraA 
), which, being generally bestowed upon one or 
' of the powenui alien princes who had made 
for themselves sovereignties in Persia, was found 
' ' an efficacious counterpoise. The dignity of 
; was first introduced among the (Htoman 
Turks during the reign of their second sultan, 
Orkhan, and the title was exclusively confined to 
the sultan's prime-miiiiBter ; hut in 1386, it waa 
conferred by Amnrath L on his victorious general, 
Timnr-ttsh, and the pritne-minister'B title was then 
;banged into vizir-a-i'liem, ' grand or illustrions 
rizier.' Tiosa this period, tbe number of viziers 
vaa gradually increased, but since the commence- 
ment of the 18th c, only seven of them are minis- 
ters, the ' nand vizier,' and the six ' vizier« of the 
cupola,' who constitute the Divan (q. v.). The 
grand vizier is, after the aultan, the most important 
personage of the Turkish Empire ; be unites in his 
person tbe whole powers of the state, and ia 
jied with a corresponding responaibili^. The 



other mz viaetm in the diTu, -who 

men well ■voted in law, and piacliioally acquaint 

with the detuli of adminiatrKlion, fonn a ooondl 

of adrioe, to whom the 

he ihinki proper, hnt wl 

real power. Tha gi 

reoeiTea a sheet of parahment, cm wliioll il engtwred 

the name of the snitan, and thii he is bound alwayB 

to can7 in hia boaam. — The trtle of viaer i> alio 

givrai to &11 the PaahaB (q. v.) of thfee taila. 

VIZZI'NJ, a town of Sidlj, in Uie proTiDCe of 
Catania, and 29 milea Bonth-iroEt of the ait; of that 
name, Mtanda on a hiH It i> well built, ana beddea 
oontauing a ooUwe and hospital, there are a number 
of banil t"""* bn^dinga uid churohee, oontai&iiig 
mai^ fine jdotmea. fmita in abondanoe are pn>- 
dnoed, and agateB are f onnd. Fop. lS,40a 

TXiAAItDINOEN, an nnwalled town in SonUi 
HeUutd, lieB abont five milea west fiom Btriterdam, 
at a ahrai distance from the New Maaa. It haa a 
good haTon, and eenda annnallj; a large fleet of 
Tawda to the herting-fiahing, beaideB canying on a 
eoniBdeiable ihip^iig-toAde with the Uedherraiiean, 
Korwn, SarOi Anoica, Fortn^ and E^ain. Fop. 
(Sm Deoember ISfSSf 6SU. Beaidai the harmg 
«md ood fiahin^ mvA ehij^nn^-trade, the iodnaferiea 
are i di^btuldiog, rope<ppmmng, distilling gin, aaw- 
ing wood, nnding oorSiboiling oil, tar, to, T. ia 
too of Um oldieat towns in South Holland, the draroh 
now Mdled the Befonoed Ohnich havinf been con- 
■eomted b; Willebroid in the Tth c, but neari; 
rebnilt in 1744> It waa the birthplaoe of the poeti 
Arnold HoogrHet (1687—1763) and Jaoob Tan Dijh 
(174S— 18!^. 

TIiAI)!!!!!!, the name of two celebrated BoBdan 
piincee|the foim^ of whom, TLumm Sn^Toau.- 
viTQit, wai the first Ohrittian sovereign of Enseia. 
On the dc»th of hia father {973)> V-, thongh illegiti- 
nute, lecraved Kovgorod aa his share of the heri- 
tage, but waa drireii ont by Joropolk, who had 
•Irsady murdered the third brother, Olsg. Eowerar, 
v., by the aid of a bodf of YaranziaDS (pom Scandi- 
navia), returned and OTercame Joropolk, by whose 
aaiasBination (9S0) he became sole riiler in BuniiL 
Disembamuwing himself of bis dan^erouB alliea by 
persuading them to take servlae with the Byzan- 
tine emperor, he next recovered by force from the 
Poles the provinces of which they had deprived his 
brother, and snbdned vsrious tribea which had 
recently revolted. Bussia at this time was an ill- 
compacted empire ; the varioua Slavic tribee which 
dwelt wiHiin its bonndariee acknowledged the 
Boveteignly of the Bnesian prmoeo solely by the 
payment of tribute, and that only when the princes 
were powerful enough to eofonje it ; hence it was 
the cnatom for the princes petsonally, or their dele- 
gates, to go their regular rounds aAer the fashion 
of tax-collectors, backed np by a large armed retinue. 
Y. tried to increase the central authority, and one 
of tiie means he adopted was the erection at hia 
oapital, Kiev, of the idol Pemn (Thonder), the 
tmpreme divinity of the Slaves, and <^ the im^ea of 
other inferior deitiee. Slave and Finnish. But a 
fewyeais more effected a, remarkable change ; many 
ot v.'s mbjeota were Gre^ Ohriatians ; his mother, 
Olga, had Moxne one; besides, he wished to be 
aUied with the Byzantine imperial family ; snd 
moved by these and other reaaona of penonal or 
patriotic ambition, he resolved to turn Qreek Chris- 
tiau. Hia mode of arriving at convenion and matri- 
mony waa as curious as weotive ; he first made an 
attack noon the Byzantine Bmnire, then sent an 
•o Constantinople, ptonuaing peace and bis 

" ' ■" for lie hand of Anna, ttie ■ 

.; threatening war in case of , 

and after his maniage amd 
968, he retomed to Kiev, < 
and ootDBuraded hia sobjeote to be' bnptued. "Our 
had not the ali^^itest idijedian to be htftiaeA, a 
thor feared and admired prinoe wished it; and fdr 
days the Diueptr was orowded with appliCMtti for 
the firtt testing ordinance of ChristianiiT. It oonU 
hardly have been expected that a conveiBion nuNMged 
in such a fashion would have afisoted Uie naoiMn 
and ocudnct of such an arbitrary, vident, and daring 
prinoe as V. ; yet, strange to say, &om 968 Im 
appew«d to hm nndergoneatluron^ nuotaland 
mmd tnnafomiatiou ; ohnrcbea were bnilt^ adMiiib 
ertabliihed, «amt*l puDishment waa Bnpplsjitsd W 
a fine, and lacii ecceeasive Iniiy ahewn to all oiiim< 
nals, that in the interests of good gftvetnmuat, it 
was foimd neceasaiy to ramimalzate with tlie 

•.I. '--goiDg oonvmt. Formeriy, Uie wisdom and 

- which he was renowned were ecnujled bj 

, BO that the chronideB luid moM 

for saying tiiat ' he waa like onto 

, but the Binotest ahastity charaotceiaed 

the latter part of hia fifs; and his cdiari^ to the 
poor, and peTBtmal forbeaiuce, wme ezbente. He 
died in 1014, throe ysaia aftar his wife Amu. 
Tbt Bnaiam Camrdi has dsoeed himllie vp&eta 
of 'sunt,' and 'equal of ila awatlea.' — TuimnB 
IL VBETOLODUvnuu, sDmamed MononuuAiu, grand- 
ptinoe of Kiev, the great-grandson <A the pracMin^ 
waa bom in 1063. His father being a yonngn 
son, there aeemed to he httle chance m V.'a attain- 
ing power in the ordinary couisb of eventa, in his 
own country ; and be accordingly led a band of 
Btudliariea to join Bolealaa IL of Poland in his 
wan with Bohemia; gaining snch renown, aa 
on hia retnm ranked him at the head of TtiMWian 
warriors. V.'s father having, as the eldest of the 
Russian nrinoes, snoceeded to the grand prin- 
cipality of Kiev [Vnm, V. took odvai^igB of tbs 
opportimity to wrest hom their lawful possMtw^ 
Smolensk, Tohemigov, and Novgorod ; though mum 
years afterwards, hia consm Ofis, th« diaposawted 
prince of Tchemigov, with the udof the PoIotiM or 
Cnmans (a TnAish nation which was at tiiat tame 
the terror of the Ensaians), recovered his dominiim. 
y. having subsequently rooted the Polotsee in several 
engagements, became no extremely popular, that in 
1112 ne waa chosen grand-prince of Kiev, and for 
13 yeara displayed his eminent qu^tiee as 

le prinoinal chometeristias of ^ reign. 
oioBE oi y .a bme, nowever, red* on fail writingiL 
ffhi<di preaent an intenafcing Mctnra of 1^ internal 
life of Basaia in the 11th c, and indicate prominently 
the earnest practical influence of the newly intro- 
duced Chrisbanity. V.'a mother was a daughter ol 
Constantine Monomachua ; and Alexia Comnenus, 
who wished to be on good terms with his poweriul 
northern nmghbonr, is aaid to have sent nim the 
crown, sceptre, and awotd c^ his grandfather, which 
ue still shewn aa snch, and whi<u ^ra employed in 
the coronation of the czar. 

VLASrUI'B, a government of Busaio, honnded 
on the K by the government of Hijni-Novgorod, and 
on the a-W. by that of Moecow, Area, 18,296 aq. 
m. ; pop. (1866) 1,223,000. The aurface is level or 
undulating ; the aoil consiata chiefly of cl» or sand, 
and is fertile only in exoeptional spota. !l!be princi- 
pal riven are the Oka and ita triDutaries, of which 
the ohief ia the Eliaama, a nwvigable stream. Of the 


V T , A TiTMIB — VnnTB! 

lake*, irtiidi Bn DimiaRiiii, but of inoooiidenUe 
■iie, that of PereiaalaT u lemarkable for its praduo- 
tira filhlit^t end ii fumraa in hiatoiy >■ belnc the 
ciadls of t^« KnKtan fleet After 8t Falanbnrg 
and Moscow, the govemmaiit of T. ii the : 
•ctivel; indiutnouB in the Rnsii&it Empiie. 
mannf&ctnred eooda, cotton-yun and oloth are I 
to the viae ori3,000,000 ronblea annnaUy ; chints 
and dyed RDoda, 12,000,000 roablea ; linen, 2,000,000 
ronblea; ^aaa, 1,000,000 roubles; iron and brow 
fonndries prodnce goods to the value of 1,000,000 
rouble* ; and the manofacturea of chemicals and 
paper are verjr extensire. The inhabitants are also 
mach employed in painting images and in knitting 
(tochinga, which are nsea in Russia and Sibeiio, 
anJd yieU 1,000,000 renblee per annum. The graia- 
CFCps raised are insufficient for local consumption, 
and oom il imparted from neighbouring govern- 
ments. Eemp IB aucceaafully grown ; and besideB 
being used in considerable quantities in local manu- 
fact^es. is exported to Archangel and St Peteis- 
boi^. Forests, mostly of pine, form a border round 
the govenuoent, but do not occur in the interior. 
In the 9th c, the country was inhabited by Finns ; 
tad thon^ it was sabsequently conquered and 
settled by the Slavonians, traces oE the original 
inhabitants are visible in the present population. 

TI.ADIHIR, a town of Great Bossia, capital of 
tM govemment of the same name, stands on the 
lA bank of the Kliaama which is high and wooded, 
125 miles nortli-east of Mosoow. H was founded 
in the 13th c, during the asoenden^ of the Dnkee 
of Vladimir, and was the capital of Buseia till 1328. 
It contains many historical remains, as the Kreml ; 
the 'Golden Gate,' built in 1166; ruins of old forti- 
fications, and many ancient churches. The eocle- 
■iastical aeminaiy is important. There are several 
mannfactniea, and a trade in com. Cherries are a 
conmderable local product Pop. (1866) 12,24& 

TODEHA, a beantifaDy-aituated town irf Euro- 
pean Totkey, in Rumili, on a mountain slope, 46 
mill- west-north-west of SolonikL Water is here 
very abonduit ; torreots rush headlong down the 
middle of all the streets, and the sound of cascades 
is everywhere hesrd. The hoosea, &om tbe arch- 
Inahop's palace to the humblest cottage, are pictur- 
«aqne, but are not otherwise remarkable. The streets 
are wretchedly paved. V. ocon^ies the site of the 
ancLant Fitli'ana, the early capital of Macedonia. 
Pop. estimated at 12,00a 

TOGHCKA, a dty of Korthem Italy, in the 
povince of Pavia, stands on a fertile elevsd^ plain, 
m a district rich in vinevards, orchards, and com- 
fi«M»^ 24 miles east -north-east of Alessandria by 
railway. IThe Via Emilia paaaea through the 
town, and divides it into two P>i^ There are 
sercnJ handsome squares, of which that of the 
rhioilui is the chief ; the streets are adorned with 
porticoeai and there is an old castle, built by 
Oaleazzo Visconti in 1372. The civic palace con- 
taina many valuable parchments and manuscripts 
<a the llth, 12th, and I3th centuries. Silks, linens, 
canvas, and leather ate manufactured. PopL 13,800. 

VOICE (I't v<a) may be defined as an 
audible aoimd produoed by the larynx, and may 
be iniadaced by any animal poasessiag that 
Qi^an ; while apeedi or articulate language may 
be r^arded as Toioe modified in the cavity of 
the month. 13ie Larynx (q. v.) is the organ by 
which the so-called voca tmttuU (or priniai7 
domeni* of spnmh) are produced. In the article 
liAXTVT, it is ahewn -^t there are two groopa. of 
nmadea, which nspeolivdy govern (1) Uie pileh of 
Oe aoia, and (2) lie aperture qf tAe largKC Those 
wtdch affect the pitah tA the nAm are divisible 

itagonistio sub-aroupa, viz,, (a) thos 
IS the front of 'me thyreid cartilage o 
md ttrtUh the vocal ugamenia i and {E 

those wliich elevate the front of the thyroid cartil- 

conoerned in the production of voice. In Uie ordi- 
nary condition of rest, there is a wide opening 
between the vocal hgaments, which — -- - -^-■- 

Profeaso)' Ciennak, the inventor of the Laryngo 
(q. v.) ; and the reader who wishes to eater niuy 
into Uiis subject is referred to 3iis work on that 
instrument, of which a translation was pablidied 
by the New Sydenham Society in 1S61. The three 

Kg. L — Condition of the Larynx daring tranqnil 

e, cplglottii ; m. Smaa-Mltti opeoliig o( iiiHiibiiBni ; e, fold of 

■nucoiu mimtiiue bonnding lbs opining of (be glalUi 

poller lorlj. 

figures, 1, 2, 3, represent respertively the condition 
cf the lajynx as seen during tranquil respiration, 
its condition during the emission of the broad vocal 

Fig. 2. — Condition of the Larynx during V. 

dl the broad vowel sound A : 
0,0, cuttUnilM of Smlorinl, inrmoonliDg tbe irjtenold onrtl- 
■upotloT or lnlH tsMl eoid of left ild*. 

sound A, and its conditioa during the emission of a 
high or acute sound. The movements of the aryte- 
noid cartilagea during the ]nr>duction of vocal sounds 

can be distinctiy seen— the views that had been 
previously deduced, from theory and experiments 
on the d^kd subject, being thus confirmed by ocnlar 
prooL As soon aa we wish to utter a sound, the 
two arytenoid cartilages raise themselves in the 
fold of mucous membrane which covers them, and 
approach one another with surpnsing mobility. 
Thi« movement effects the approximation of the 


Tocal corda, and cooMgnentlj the cantrmetion of 
Uie dottis (fig. 2). II ii impouible to etad? with 
the uryDgoscope tlie mode of form>tioD of the 
grkveat cheit-Boimdi, because the arytenoid csrtil- 
agea become ao raiied that they almost come in 
contact with one another, while they bend under 
the border of the depresied epiglottis, and thiu 
conceal the interior of the la^i. Duriog the 
emiadon of the most acute Bounds, the glottia 
contracts into a mere line, on each nde of which the 
Tocal cords may be recognised by their whitish- 
yellow colour ; while fnr^er outward, and separ- 
ated from the former by a narrow groore, are the 
false or superior vocal cords of either side. The 
aryteoMd cartihu^ are railed, and come in contact 
in the median line, the epiglottia is drawn out- 
wards, and a short stiff tube is then formed above 
the glottis ; all tliese parts being, M we leam from 
our sensatiant during the experiment, in a state of 
Teiy great tension. IndependenUy, however, of 
such observations as those we have recorded from 
Czeimak's interesting Memoir, any one may eamly 
prove for h^iself that the aperture of the glottis is 
much contncted during the production of sounds, 
by comparing the time occupied by an ordinary 
expiration with that required for tbe pasaage of 
the same quantity of air during the maintenance of 

_ vocal sound ; moreover, the size of the aperture 
varies wiOi the note that is being produced, aa may 
be readily seen by any one who compares the time 
during wnich he can hold out a low and high note. 
When Uie distance between tiie vocal oords exceeds 
one-tenth of an inch, no lonnd can be pnduced. 

How the vooal oords {ooduce aoands, is a qaea- 
tion which hsa long attUKted the attention of phy- 
siolo|^*ts and phyndsta. To aoswer it, they were 
oompated with varioos mnsiosl instrnmpts. Uore 
than a century ago, Ferrain (Z>e la FarTHaUim lU la 
Voie dt VHoaane, 1741) compared them to vibrating 
ttrittga; and at first sight, there is an apparent 
analogy ; but on farther investigation (for reasons 
which may be fonnd in Carpenter's Human Phyn- 
elegy, 6th ed., p. 71S)> this view was found to b« 
untenable. The analogues between the organ of 
voice and the fiale-pipf, in which the sound is 
produced by the vibrstioa of on elastic column of 
air contained in a tube, were then investigated, but 
fonnd to fail. The third class of instruments with 
which the haman oi^[an of voice haa been com- 
pared are vibratory rtedt or longua, which may 
either possess elasticity in themselves, or be made 
elastic fay tension. From the experiments of Weber, 
it appears that the action of the larynx has more 
tJkalogy to that of rMd-instruments than t~ " 

previously named, and though there 
would seem at first siaht to be a marked differ- 
ence between the voal ligaments and the mem- 
branous tongue of any reed-inatrumeDt, this differ- 
ence is not very great Muller ascertained that mem- 
branous tongues made elastic by tension may have 
three di^rent forms, of which tLe followin;^ which 
alone concerns ns, is one : ' Two elaatio membranes 
mav be extended across the mouth of a short tube, 
MM) covering a portion of the opening, and having 
a ehiixk left open between thein.' Here there is 
clearly an approximation to Uie hninan glottis, 
wdiich may be increased by pralongiag the mem- 
branes in a direction parallel to that oC die cnirent 
of air, so that not meroly their edges bnt their whole 
^anee shall be thrown into vibration. Professor 
Willis has, npon this principle, invented an arlAfii^i 
oloUit, in which the vocal ligaments are imitated by 
bather, or preferably by sheet india-rubber. It is 
cmnposed of a wooden ppe of the form of fig. 1, n, 
having a foot, C, like tut of an organ-pipe, and an 
upper opening long and narrow, as at B, with a 

point. A, rising at one end of it A piece of leather 
or sheet india-mbber doubled ronnd this point, and 
secui«d by being bound at D with strong tlu«ad, 
will form anarttbdal glottis, b, while ita upper ed^ea, 
O, H, are capable of vibrating or not by inclining 

Kg. 4. 

the plane* of the edge*. Two pieces of cork, E and 
F, are dned to tlie comers to make them msie 
manageable. From this machine, various notes may 
be obtained by stretching tliB edges of the leather 
in the directions of their length, Q, H ; the scale of 
notes jrielded by leather is mnch more limited than 
that yielded by india-mhber ; and otlier observers 
have found that the middle coat of the artenos in 
a moist state (as being more elastic, and almost 
identical in sizucture with tlie vocal ligaments], 
yields more satisfactory resnlta even than india- 
mbber. 'It is worthy of Teuark,' at Dr Carpentra 
observes, 'that in all such eipeiiments it is found 
that the two membnuieg may be thrown into 
vibration, when inclined tomords each other in 
various deraees, or even when they are in parallel 
planes, anil their edges only approximate ; but that 
the least inclination from eatdt other (which is the 
position the vocal I^aments have during the ordin- 
ary state of tie ^ttis) completely prevents any 
sonorous vibrations from b^ng prodoi^d.' — Op. at, 
p.718. The piiiA of the notes jirwdnced by membran- 
ous tonnes may be affected m varioos wavs (ss by 
increasing the strength of the blast, tlie addition i^ 
a pipe, ac.), and is mainly governed by their degree 
of tension, while the foregoing statements shew that 
the sound of the voice is the result of the vibrations 
of the vocal ligaments which take place according 
to the same laws with those of elastic tongues gene- 
rally. Little is, however, known with certain^ 
regarding the mode and degree in which the tones 
are modified by the shape of the air-passages gener- 
ally, the force of the bluet of air, ana other eircum- 

ThefalteOo is a pecnliar modification of voice, diSer- 
ing from the ordinary or chal vota, not only in tiie 
higher pitch of the notes, but also in tiieir quality. 
The theory of ita production is still an open pmnt, 
into which we have not space to enter, further than 
to remark Aib, according to Professor Wheotatone, 
falsetto notes are to be explained by supposing that 
' the column of air in the trachea may <Uvide itself 
into harmcnue ItnglKt, and may produce a reeipro. 
ration at the tone given by the vocal ligamenta.' 

The preasure of the air within the trachea 
during the prodnction of voice ia very conaider- 
able. From observations made by Cagniord-I^tour 


to tlut of a colimm of water 3 

sue of about 8 iuclies. The dottis hiiii beea well 
cboBen by Pr Carpenter to UloBtrate the minute 
|Te(»non vitli whidi the degree of mascular con- 
tiacUoil can be adapted to the deaired effect. The 
imuieal pteh of tho tones produced by it ii, as we 
have ibewii, T»iilated by the degree of teniiao of the 
«latt)e Tocal bgameats. Tbur average length, in a 
aUteirfrMiaw^ia^thsof anineh; while in Qie state 
of grestoi tenvon, it is about i^thi — tbe difference 
bnag tlma one-jiftk of an inch ; while in the female 
the Mapective lengtha ai« ^(tha and -^thi 

tirely— the difference buna una about one-eiglU 

Now, the nat 
povma who have cultivated 
aboat two octavee, or 24 aemitonea. Within each 
■emitone, an ordinary singer coold produce at leaat 
tan diitdnct intervals (IJie celebrated Madame Mara 
could aomid 100 different interval! between each 
tone, the compaBi of Iler voice being 21 tones), ao 
tliat S40 ia a very moderate eatimate of the number 
td dissent atatea of tensioa of tbe vocal corda, 
evoy one of which can be produced at will ; and 
the taioU vaziation in the length of the cord being 
not more than one-fifth of on inch, even in man, the 
TBiiation requited to pan from one interval to 
anotJier will not be more than n^th <ri "^ ""^ 
(while in each a case as that of Madame Mora the 
diatanoe would be reduced to TT,im!^ of an inch). 

In the production of vocal sounds, the delicate 
adjnatnunt of the muscles of tbe laiyiuE, which is 
leqniaite to the evolution of determinate tones, is 
dincted by the sense of heaiinK, being oiiginally 
leatned under the gnidanoe of the sounds actually 
jBudnced ; but * being subaequently effected volon- 
taiily, in occoi^ance with the mental conception of 
the tone to be nttered, which conception cannot be 
lomied unleH the sense of hearing has previously 
bnmgbt mmlUr tonea to the mind. Hence it is that 
penons who are bom dta/ are also dumb. They 
may have no malformation of the organs of speech, 
but they ore incapable of uttering distinct vocal 
tonnd^ or musical tones, becaiue they have not 
the guidinK conception, or recalled sensation, of the 
nature of weee. By long training, however, and by 
imitative efforts directea by moseular sensations in 
the larynx HmU, some ptisons thos circumstanced 
haTB acquired th« power of speech; but Uie want of 
a -HBiAmily definite coatcolover the vocal muscles 
ia ahraya TOT evideiit in their nie of the organ.' — 
Op. dL, fL 006. A fund of interesting matter in 
eonncotion wiUi Una enbject may be found in Dr 
KiU<^s Lott State*. Although not bran deaf, he 
bocMM eon^AUIj/ so in eariy childhood, in conse- 
qomce of an accident. His voice became similar to 
tiiat of a jMncm bom deaf and dumb, and tau^t to 
•peak. It was observed that the words which he 
had been acenrtomed to use before his accident, 
were atill pronounced as they had been in child- 
hood, the muscular movement* concerned in their 
[mdnction having been still guided by the orional 
anditoiy oonoeption, while all the words s^we- 
qnen^ leamed were pronounced according to tbe 

llhe Tsnons nmscnlar actions which are concerned 
in Hie vodaction of vocal tones, are commonly 
rapided •• being under the inflnence of the vilL 
It n, faowerer, easy to shew that this is not the cose. 
We eaoDot, by smiply ailiiag to do so, raise or 
depna t^ laiynx, or move one outila^ of it 
-towBida or from another, or extend or relax the 
mnl ligpuuiifai J altiiough * we con readilv do any 
.the wiu, exerted 

II <B these thinp by an i 

for a apecifio purpose. We conceive of a tone lo be 

froduoed, and we v>Ul to produce it ; a certain com- 
ination of the muscular actions of the laiynx 
then takes place, in most exact accordance with one 
another, and the predetermined tone is the reeult. 
This anticipated or conceived sensation is the guide 
to tbe muscular movements, when as yet the utter- 
anoe of the voice has not taken place ; but while we 
ore in the act of speaking or singing, the contractile 
actions ore regulated by the present sensations, 
derived front the sonnds an they are produced.' 
From these remarks, in which Dr Carpenter has 
placed a very difficult subject in an clear a hght as 
the snbject admits of, it follows that the muscular 
actions which are concerned in the production and 
regulatiou of the voice, ore due to an auitmuiiic 
impulse, similar to what occun in the movementa 
of tbe eyeball, and in many other coses that mieht 
be adduced. There cannot be a doubt that uie 
simple utterance of sounds is in itself an instinctive 
action; althoujjh the combination of these sounds 
into music or into articulate language, ia a matter 
of acquirement. 

Having eijJained tbe way in vrhich the larynx 
produces those lona of which the voioe fundamen- 
tally consists, and the sequence of which becomes 
mtigie, we come to the subject of tpeech, which 
consLsts in the modification of the huyngeal 
tones by other organs superior and anterior to 
the larynx (as the tongue, the cavi^ of the foaces, 
the lips, teeth, and palate, nith its velum and the 
uvula acting as a valve between the throat and 
nostrils), so as to produce those articulak unindt of 
which language is formed. The organ of voice is 
thus capable of forming a large number of simple 
sounds, which may be combined into groups, form- 
ins words. Vocal sounds are dividea into vowels 
ai^ consonants. When a vowel is pronounced, 
what happens ? This question is thus answered by 
Professor Max MQller: 'Breath is emitted from 
the lungs, and some kind of tube is [otmed by the 
mouth, through which, as through a clarionet the 
breath has to pMS beforo it reaches the outer air. 
If, while the breath paasea through the vocal cords, 
these elastio laminiB are made to vibrate periodically, 
the number of their vibrntioiis determines the pit<:h of 
our voice, but it has noUiing to do with its timbre, 
or ToweL What we call vowels are neither more 
nor less than the qualities, or colonrs, or timbrt4 of 
our voice, and these are determined by the form of 
the vibrations, which form, again, is determined by 
the form of the buccal tube.' — Lecturtt oa tht Scieace 
Hf Language, 2d series, p 116. This writer enters 
very fully into the vorioua configurafians of the 
mouth requisito for the formation of the different 
vowels. (1.) In prononndng u (the vowels are 
all understood to be prononnccd as in Italian), 
we round the hue, and draw down the tongue, 
so that the cavity of the mouth assumes the 
shape of a botUe vithont a neck. (2.) If the lips 
are opened somewhat wider, and the tongue be 
somewhat raised, we hear the o. (3.) If the Lps ara 
leas rounded, and the tongue somewhat depressed, 
we hear the a of the northern languages (as in au^nue). 
(4) If the lips are wide open, and the tongue m its 
natural flat position, we hear a. (5.) If the lips are 
fairly open, and the bock of the toufue raised 
towards the palate, the larynx being rsJsed at the 
some time, we hear the sound e. (6.) If we raise 
the tongue higher still, and narrow the tipe, we 
hear t. The buccal tube here represente a bottle 
with a very narrow neck, of no mora than six 
oentimitras (or about two inches and a quarter) 
from palato to lips. Diphthongs arise when, instead 
of pronouncing one vowel directly after uiother 
with two ^orti of the voice, we produce a sound 

;;.,. LlOOgIC 


dvring the change from one positio] 
thxt wonld be reqnired for each voweL Tlmogh 
the tnbe at tlie moath thuB modified by the tongoe 
and lipt io the chief agent ia the prodoctioa of 
vmrelB, Czermak haa piiived that the mturn pdlat! 
vt changed in podtioa with each Tcrvel, and that it 
ia loweat for a, and riMa mccettiTeljr -with «, a, u, 
and i, when it reaches ita hiRheat point. He like' 
wiaa found that the cavity of Uia noae ia more ot 
leai opened dining the promutciatton of certain 
vowela. Languages mi^t have been fonned 
entirely of vowela, bat the eziatiug worda, con- 
■iating aoTelj of vowela, ahew how nn^leaaant aneh 
languages wonld have been. Something «I«e wmb 
obnoDMy wanted to ann^ what Uax Uflller 
hsi^y tenoa At bono of tanguaQe—taja^, the 
conaanBnt& TheM an commoulr divided into (1) 
thoae which reqiuie a tcial atoppaos of the breath 
at the moment Mevknu to their Mdng prodnced, 
and which cannot^ thsra&ire, be pndonged; 
those in pcononnciiiK iriiich die intermi 
partial, and which, l£e the vowel aotmda, 
prolonged at pleaaore. The fotmar are tsmed 


., „_ . the naatrila are completely cloaad, *» . 

to prevent the pMUge of air thioogh the noae, and 

the nurent may be checked in the month in three 

>ya — vi& (a) by the appraidmation of tiie Upa; (i) 

the apptozimatba ^the point of the tongoe to 

and p are pronoonced by the snt i 
thnan modes % d and ( by the second ; and g (hard) 
and i, aonnded as heg, by the third ; the difference 
between h, d, and g, on the one hand, and p, t, and 
£, depeoda npon vie approximating snrfacea being 
hwger, and Qie breath being sent thtonf^ them 
more ftronglf at the moment of opening in Ute 
former than m the latter group^ The mnHmitnu 
oonaonantB may be aubdinded into three rlnniinii. 
according to the de^ea of freedom with which tlla 
"-'- allowed to eaoBpe, and the ' '-■-'■ 

it eonaaipunt^ uperienoea. In thejM cla^ no 
air paMsa -Quon^ the noe^ and the part* of the 
auMUh that produce the sound are cloeely ssproxi- 
mated, so that the eompresaion ia oontideTable. 
This ia the case with v and/, x and «. d and t, th, 
(ft, ka^ the movement of the tongoe being also 
concerned in the production ot several of these 
soonda. In the MOMuf olaaa, indnding in, n, I, r,the 
noatrili are not eloaed, and consequently, the air ia 
Bcarcely at all compressed. In pronooncing m and 
n, tlia breath pasBea through the noae alone ; n> is 
a labial, lika b, but the Utter is fonned with the 
nose dosed. Hence the paasage of 9» to 6 (aa in 
loffii) ia easy ; ao also ia that from n to ^ or from 
s to jT, as is seen in the freqnent combination of at 
and nj/ in most lansoaoes. The Bounds of I and r 
(letter* which Mas MUUei places in a speoial group 
onder the name of niOa) are prodnoed, aeciuding 
to Hdmholtl, aa fbUowa ; ' In pronouncing r, the 
stream of air is periodioallj' entirely interrupted by 
the trembling of the aoft palate, or of the tip of the 
tongue, KDd we then get an intermittent noise, the 
peculiar jamng quality of which ia produced by 
these very intermisiiana. In pronooncing L, the 
moving aoft lateral edges of the tongue pnuuce, not 
entire mterroptiODB, but oadllatioDB in the force of 
sir.' — Hit Lehre non ifen Tonempjmdungtn, 1863, p. 
116. The third claaa contains lounda wmch seaitcly 
deserve, to be called consonants, since they ate 
merely atpirationt, either simple, or modified by an 
elevation of the tongue, causing a sli^t obatruction 

The present A and the 

in Max MUU^s Lactnrai, 2d Soiei^ m. 127—138. 
For furthar details, the nader is iK«md to tdia 

ruinan PhgMom, mai to Uu 
n Us Bdaa qfX(mg%u^ (from 

we have bcnowed lar^y in thia artdete), to Ms 
Bishoo'a article *'V'<nae' m the C^dopadiiKt/iliMtOMI' 
and PhftkHogg; and tho varunw wuAs «l Tnake, 

both of which 
^ . -tdelel, to ite 

article *'V'<no«' m the C^dopadiiKt/iliMtOMI' 
^hmiologg; and tho variona wuAs «l Tn'~ 
lolt^ Brflckn^ CaenBak, Da Boia B^mond, 

Fhyaiologicsl Alphabet' 

VOEDSD, in Beraldrr-, a tenn applied to an 
ordinan- when it* central area ia ramored, bo that 
the field is seoi Qiroudi it^ and littt« bnt a moe 
outline remains, as in t£e example No. I — Axnre, * 
saltire voided aiwxt. When vt<t otdiuary has its 
outer edge fonuM erf any of tlie line* of psrtitim 

other than dancettt, wavy, 

is nevertheless plain, aa in N 

engrailed voided or. An ordinary Tvided and 

and the lattar endoaed One (ndinaiy may sonte- 
timea be voided in tiie form of another, aa a OMMS 
voided per pale in the example No. 3. 

YOIBE DIKE [veTitatem diem). Tn Engliah 
Law, when a witness ia supposed to be liabu to 
objectian for incompetem^ or otherwiae, he ia fint 
sworn, not in the cause, but on the noire din, that 
is, to answerqueitionBrelating to this incompetency; 
and if it ia awarent that he is incompetenlv hn is 
discharged without farther exaaination. 

TOIBON, a town of Francs, in the dep. of ZaSte, 
beautifully ntuated on the MJorve^ IS miles by 
railway north-wert of Qronoble. Amnug the maon- 
factorea which are here carried on with gresA 
activity are to be mentioned blacksmiths' woik; 


VOTiAHT, in Har^dry, flying. A bird volant 

represented flying bendwayi towards the dexter 

side of the shield ; and its position may be diatin- 

guishsd from that of a bird riaing by the leffi being 

drawn up towards the body. 

VOLOA'NOES are emioal momitaina wMdi 
vomit flame and smoke, and ooeasioBally throw out 
ahowen of aahes and stones, or ejeot ualtsd rook 
on the Burfaoe of tha eirth. Votoanoaa may have 

earth, or even at the bottom of the sea ; bat t^ 
gradnal accumulation of the ejeoted "«*""»< 
aronnd the vent, through which it has beoi ponred, 
forms in time a mountam, if it ia allowed to remain. 
The wavea swept away the cone of Grahame's laland 
(q. v.), which in 1S31 appeared intheUeditarraneaD, 
scattering the lava and acode <rf wltich it waa com- 
posed at the bottom of the seat WImbi, howevnr, 
the ejected materials are sofflcientiy oonaot to 
resist the action of the wavM, a parmanoit inland is 
produced, and aometimes inemaaca in hd^it wit^ a 
— idity tttat can acarcdy be '■"•g*"*^ In 1796, a 
uae ot smoke waa seen to rise fnsn tha Faoifia 

;;.., LVCT(3'^lL'' 


Ooean about 30 miles to the Dortli of XJn»la«ka. 
The qected Tn»*an'nl« luving isised the crater above 
the Iml of thp -water, ftamei issned from tha ialet, 
whioh SLumiiiated tho coontzy for 10 mites around. 
Sz yevca afkerwarde, trhea • few hnnteiB laoded o 
Qa now mland, they lonnd the Mil in aome placi 
■o hot Hoi th^ oonid not walk upoa it. Bepeated 
eroptitau hare inonaaed the liimenmone of the 
nland, mitil now it ta •areial thoniiami feet in 
bei^i and between two and three milea in citcam- 
{ei^QOft In the aame t^on ia the volcanio ialand 
of Klinteohewak, wluoh naea at 
- " enoRDonl hei^ of lfi,<WO 
laTB, Hxaia, and adiea wh 
tl tha oater fam hi^dy inolined and more <k leaa 
ngnlar bedi on tits aiimoe of tha moontain, ex- 
tndias from tike ciatac-month to -rarying diituoea 
down lia aides of tin Toleaoo. This method of 
innr—ea Dvea fits nnifonn coniaal antline to Tol- 
t, wMKMt Aa tenaaea or hreaka which are 
The sidea are 

immbec ■ 

podneed by tbe aolion t£ nmning water 

a« crayon. Ua n^idii; with w&eh floods rnA 
dmm tba atam Bd«a of a -ndcana sfTes a ^odi^ona 
ton% iriadt aw looae wxaim and adiea^ and eren 
tha aoUi hns cannot 
niesnniA oolovr 
dnoad ^w uka aah a^d fn™^"j whu^ though in com- 
pwtttam thaawnaaaJhadaAIaT^hayeSahghter 
oaloar tmiL ttw mimite nibdiTision of their particlea. 

the appeataocea which would be produced by the 
fftlling -in of the huge auminit of t^ut once enonooua 

The preaanie of flu inaandescent laviii often farces 
id itsdf a paaaage to the mrfsce before it le&ches 
the month 01 tha cjatec, and Uiii is mora frequently 
the case when tha Toloanio emptian is accompanied 

found radiating from the centra of the volcanio 
aotdon, and naciung the nu'&ce of the gionnd, and 

tethk edkd 

fre«wUdaAa«jwt«diiiateriaU'ara obtained. The 
oatar has oMMnuly ona aida much lower than the 
olhei^-tbM bi»t whidi the nterailinc wind blowi, 
'rtich eacrieairith it tiw sbowets of adiaa to tba 
opponta ada of the mawitaiB. In nuu^ caaea, the 
eww i»ttnncateJ;awide hollow of immense eitart, 
and ofbek of gnat da^ith, in the baae of which the 
cntariaritnatBdiOco^iaiQiesDnimit. TbeSpaniah 
aaBtaOaWtgaiatechniaaHyi^^ied to these hollow. 
Thai o^in baa been a nbjeot of oonsideiable con- 
tooTsny. Tow Bnch and olhwa maintain that they 
sncratstaofelantim; that is, that the rooha were 
cndnally spmwi oat m nearly horizontal depoaita, 
and Sma raheftred into a dam»ah^ed mountain, 
wiUithahwowealdcntin thecenteof itsannmut 

ooB^ f or m siby tha alternate dapocition of thelava 
and aaha ^anad lEram tha ent«r, has, from the 
noat beat of tiia nutUen Ixn riaing in the tube of 
oia Tolaaaat or ban gueona ex^onotm, given way, 
aad faUen in. Tho eonaa both of Etna and Vesn. 
Tina h«f« fiaqaently hUm in and been r^^dnead. 
b 1S32, Hit stumait <d T«niviua was reduced by 
SeO fnt. Hm immenae size ol some calderaa Mema, 
hoWCTav (Wiaed to this thaoiy. That of tba 
idaad dt Plana, one of the Canuies, ia from three 
to foor geognphiOBl nlea in diameter, and the p»- 
^^sa wfauh auronnd tha oavihr aie tnun lOw to 
SMO fast in -mtioal hnght^ Thqr form an nn- 
hnAsB wall, ^n^ at the •onth-w«atem end, where 
a deep gtwge pshnitB the paaaage cf the torrent 
wliich dnina the caldon. Tbu ^»<qpices are trar 

naas, as is shewn In the Vat del Borfi 
. The ivn sometitnee poms out of 
instead of nain^ to the crater. In 
178^ dnnng a tardble ernution of Hedo, a pro- 
digiooa sti«am of lava flowedfrom a lateral crevice; 
moving slowly down the mountain-side, it reached & 
distance of 00 miles in 42 days ; it then branched 
into two main streanu^ tha ono numing 40 "iila^^ 
uid the other SO ™1wi furth^ towards the sea. 
Its depth Tuied from 600 to 1000 fee^ and ita 
graatest widtli waa Ifi miles. Ihe amount of lava 
pdnred out into this stream would ahnoat e^ual 
MontBlano in bulk. 

Tha pown which eihaaati itself in the eruplSon 
of a volcano o&en shaws itsell by ohangst lAich it 
laodnoea in tha level of the coontty around. About 
a hnndred yean HO, a vdoano i^peaiad in tha oenbs 
ot the giMt taUa-land of Menco, and laisad an 
are* of nearly four syuM milaa 500 feet higher than 
it waa before oonomg it at the same tmie with 
conical hills of Tariooi hughti^ the highest of whkh 
is Jaralla,iriiiehiBl600fBethudb. Bub sometimes a 
■nbndanoe takas place. In 17^ a great part of the 
P^Nudayanfc a monntain in Jan^ was swallowed 
up ; tho mbxwitanto of ila dei^vitd^ wero soddenly 
alanned by tremendoua noises in the eaitb, and 
befoe tlLey ^"^ tfrna to iBtdre, the mountain bamm 
to subaide^ and soon disappeaied. The area thus 
sunk was Ifi miles long and 6 broad. 

A TiJcanio emptitm ia generally praoeded t^ 
nunJding noises and slight movements m Hm earth ; 
then ^Wd pifb of gases and steam ate given oO, 
These lyrntian mueh sol^uf ; and some volcimoea 
gira eat soeh qoantities of oarbonio acid and other 
msphitia gaaes sa to destroy tha f"™^^ in the 
nei^bouwood. Sr Willism Hamilton picked up 
detitll^ids on Vesuvina dadng an em^tioD; in 1730, 
dl the oattle in the islsnd MXAncerota, one of the 
ivere destroyed by these deleterious ema- 

Tho Upsa Valley in Java contains an 

extinot oater; and the certain death which over- 
' ' that penetrates tha valley, is dne 

5—* S'"^' "^ f"™" '** and not to 

tha JnMiiiit, whieh, tlwngh yielding a deadly ptusoD, 
does not anet Ihs atmoaphma in which it ^wa. 
~lia wnptku itself b^ns, perikapa, with the ejection 
__ the finsst dntl^ aadthi^ with sooh a force as to 
Hojsst it high ii^ tha atmosphere, whei^ taken np 
by air«unnti, it lia often caoisd to ent^mooB 
dutanoes. In 1S4^ the dust from Heda was in ten 
honiB tlucUy deponted on ,smte of the Orfaiey and 
Shetland Ishnda : the ashes from Consequina fell, 
in 1335, on the streets of Kington, Jamaica, at a 
distwnee of 700 "lifwi ; j^nd during the same erup. 
tion, the fine dust covered the gronnd at a distuice 
of nearly 30 miles to the south of tha volcano, to a 
depth of HKin than 10 feet, destroying the woods 
and dwelliius, and enveloping thousands of quad- 
_lie flames seen iesning from the crater are 
usually the leSectdon of the glowing lava emitted 
frcon the crater, uid iTTiiTninB.ring tha clouds of 
vapour, BcoriK, and ashca. 



I«Tm uid aoorin an at Uit Tomit«d forth. Sir 
William HamiHoa tayB that, ia 1779, the jeti of 
liquid lara from TeniTiaa, mixed witli Korin and 
Btonca, ware thmwn to a height of 10,000 feet, 
giving the iq^MannMoI a oolmnn of fire. Thelaro, 
however, generally iMue* from opening* in the dda 
of the monntain. It pom* forth in a perfectly liquid 
state, bright and glowing with Uie aplendour aC the 
son. At fint, it flows rapidljr; but w its tarfaen 
becomea cooled and converted into dig, ita ralodtr 
diminiahes. It hai to bunt the indantad coating 
before it can continue its progreia, and the liberated 
lava ivhen it flows bears on ita aurface mauea 
■ooritB, looking like the slag from an iron fnmace. 

The matenala ejected from a volcano, though 
differing greatly in appearance, have the aame 
nunOTaTcompoaitiou. The aih ii merely the pomioe 
fine atate of diviaion, and the pnmice aUo 
made veaicnlar from contact with 

m a very lU 
or water. 

Davy SDKg 

tnetilio bs . ... . . . ^ . . 

ent in Ihe interior of the earth, all the phenomena 
wonld be produced by their oiidj«ation from contact 
with air or water. Although the diatinguiihed 
author of this theory abandoned it, it hu aince 
been taken up and advocated by Danbeny and 
othet*. Biachof, aaauming that the interior of the 
earth conaiati t^ a highly heated and f naed mi 
eonaidan that the me<£anioal action of water, a 
verted into iteam by the great heat, would prodi 
volcanic action. Both theorist* leek mpport for 
their viewa from the fact, that the great majority 
of volcanoea are dtoated ou or near the aea-coast. 
GeologiBta aooepting also the doctrine of internal 
heat^ and believing that at a depth variouily esti- 
mated—by some oa low aa 10 milaa, and by others 
aa high as 2S milea — ^the rocks of the earth are in a 
state of fusion, explain volcanoes by considering 
them aa connecliana established between the interior 
of the earth and the atmosphere ; and Darwin, 
from observations made in all parts of the world, 
believes that volcanoes are chiefly, and, indeed, 
almost only found iu those areas where aubtemnean 
motive-power has lately forced, or is now forcing 
upwards the crast of Uie earth, and are invariably 
absent in those where the surface has lately sub- 
sided, or is still subsiding. 

Volcanic action is limited to particular regions of 
the earth. In these regions, the active vents ore 
distributed at intervals, and are generally arranged 
in B linear direction. The Pacific Ocean is bounded 
by an almost unbroken line of active volcanoes. 
Be^imin^ in the New South Shetlands, where there 
is an active volcano in lat. 62* SS' S., we pass to 
Tierra del Fuego, and then on to the Andes, which 
are throughout their whole course volcanic, although 
the pnti centres of present action are confined to 
Chill. Fern, Ute ndahbonrhood of Quito, Qnatemtda, 
and Mexioo. The line ia continned nortiiwards by 
the burning mountains of North-western America, 
and the Aleutian Islands cany the duun across to 
Kamtohatka on the Asiatic side Here turning 

southwards, the line mar •■- ' ' "■ "■ "- - 

Enrile Islands, Japan, 

Moluccas, New Gumaa, 

Hebrides groups, to New Zealand. From Celebes, 
a branch proceeds in a north -weaterty direction 
through Java and Sumatra, to Barren Ishuid in 
the &y of Bengal ; and even beyond this we find 
a rraon in Northern India subject to earthquakes, 
irtiioh may lead us, on the one hand, to the volcanic 
rajpon in Tartaty, or, on the othei> through Asia 
UutM to the Qreek Archipelago, Sicily, Naples, and 

le line m^ be traced tluough the 
I, Japan, Formosa, the Phllipinnes, 
' Gumaa, and the Salomon and New 

eipansivB powers below. There are a nomber of 
isolated volcanoes also scattered over the aurface of 
the earth ; these are supposed to have opened a 
star-shaped cooimiuiication with the interior. The 
most remarkable of these isolated volcanoea are Jan 
Meyen, in UL 70* 49' N. ; and those in Icehnd 
in the north, and Mount Erebui in South Polar- 
land, in Ut 77* 32- a 

VOLE (Arnieola), a genus of rodent quadrupeds, 
of a gronp which some naturalists constitute into a 
family lArvieotida), but which is more generally 
regarded as a tribe or sub-family of Muriaa {q. v.). 
This group is characterised by a thicker aod slrarter 
form than that of the true rats and mice ; as obtose 
muzzle ; eaia of moderate size ; a round and iuunr 
tail, not so long as the body ; IJie molar teeth witL 
flat crowns, which present angular enamelled plates. 
These characters exhibit an approach to the Beaver 

distnbuted, being found in Europe, Asia, Africa, 
and North and South America. Some of them are 
completely terrestrisl in their habiia, others ar« 
aquatic Many are popularly called rats and mice, 
as the species of tJie genus Arvicola, which are 
found in Britain. In this genus, the teeth are only 
ten in number ; two incisors and three molars in 
each jaw. One of the most conmum British species 
is the Field V, {A, ajp-eitu), also known aa the 
MiADow MouBi and Shobt-tulkd Fisld Mouse 
The whole length of the head and body is scarcely 
more than foor inches, that of the tail rather more 
than an inch and a quarter. The Field V. has a 
large head, a very obtuse muzzle, ean just appearing 
above the fur, the thiunb of the fore-feet rudimen- 
Uay, and without a claw. The upper parts are 
reddish brown, the under parte ash-colour, the feet 
and tail dusky. It burrows in the ground, or finds 
a retreat for itself in the excavations of some other 
ftnimal, as of the mole. It chiefly inhabits low 
and damp sitoationa, and dry seasons are very fatal 
to it. It produces fnon five to seven young at a birth. 
It is sometimes very injurious to plantations, by 
destroying the roots of trees and devooring their 
bark. Excessive numbraa of this little animal were 
'gardedin 1813 and 1814 aa threatening the destruc- 
tion of the Forest of Dean, and the New Forest in 
ampahire ; and many trees were killed ; but a 
-jmedy Was found in digging pita into which the 
voles (ell, and from whi^ uey could not escape, 
same method has been successfully emploved 
me of the forests of continental Eiuope. This 
species of V. is found in moot parts of Europe, and in 
many parts of Asia* It is common in tne Hinu^ 
^a.— Another vety common British speciea is the 
Watbe V, (j1. ampAibia), populsrly known as the 
Watkk Bat, a much Israer animal, the head and 
body being about 81 inches in length, and the tail 
41 inches. The head is thick and short, the muzzle 
very obtuse, the eyes snuJl, the ears scarcely aeen 
beyond the for ; the last joiiit only of the thumb of 
the fore-feet consriicnoas beyond the skin. The 
fur is thick and shining, of a rich reddish brown 
mixed with gray above, yellowish gray beneath. 
Although the feet are not webbed, the Water V. 
swims extremely well, and not oidy at the surface 
of the water, but often under it. It burrows in the 
banks of streams, ditches, and poods. Its food 
appears to consist chiefly of aquatic plants:, although 
it objects to no kind of vegetable food, and has 
known to store up potatoes in its barrow for 
winter. It ha* been supposed also to teed on worma. 



frogs, and sm&Il kqiulic animalB, and. to be deatnii 
tiTB to the apawn of fish ; but this ii very doubtfu 
1^ i^iedea u nidely difToscd over the continent ( 

■W«ter Volo [Arvieola amphibia). 

VO^GA, t^e most importaat river ot Riusio, and 
the loDgErt in Europe, hu its ori^ in a marshy 
plmin uDoag the Valdai Hilk, in the eovemment of 
Tver; later N., long. 33° Iff E. From its source, 
which ia 550 feet above ordinary sea-level, and 633 
feet above the level of the Coapian Sea, into which 
it falla, the river flowB aoutb-eaat to Zubzov, then 
north-eaat past Tver and Eotiazin to Mologo, where 
it tnnis eaat-sonth-east^ and flows in that direction 
mat Jaroslav, Kostroma, Nijnl- Novgorod, and 
Kazan, 50 milea below which, on receiving the 
Kajna, it tuma south, passing SimbirBk, Stavropol, 
and Samara. Here its courae again changes to 
wuth'West, and in this direction the river flows 
until it reaches Tzaritzin, when it bends to the 
■oath-east, and reaches the Caspian Sea, which it 
enters by many mouths, and after a course of 
2320 mflea. The V. watera 9 Eovemments— those 
of Tver, Joroolav, Kostroma, Nijni-Novgorod, Ka- 
zan, Simbirsk, Saratov, Samara, and ./^trakhan ; 
bnt besides these, 12 other governments are watered 
by in tributaries. The course of the stream is 
generally divided into three parts — the upper part 
Teaching from its sonrce to its confluence with 
the Szeksna, and, though presenting many hind- 
rances to navigation, yet capable of being tra- 
versed from Tver to Evbinsk by craft of IJ and 
H feet dranght; the middle part, tem Rybinsk in 
Jaraalav to Nijni-Novgorod, navigable for larger 
craft ; and the lower V, from Sijni-Novgorod to 
Astrakhan — where it is about 90 feet deep — 
navigable for the largest vessels. Below Astra- 
khan, the V. is very much shallower — in some 
places only 1) feet deep. At Tver, tbe breadth 
of the river is 720 feet ; at Mologa, 2060 feet ; at 
Nijni-NovgotDd, 2069 feet, but sometimes in the 
■prins 2j miles broad ; at Simbirsk, abont a mile 
broaa ; between Samara and Sysran, from 1 to 3 
miles broad. Below Tzaritzin, at tbe conflaence of 
the Sarpa, the river affords few facilities for navi- 

Cn, and is remarkable for the nnmber of 
ches into which it divides itself before it enteni 
tbe Canrian Sea. The banks at the V., which are 
elevated in tbe upper and middle reaches, become 
roach lower as the river approaches its embonchnre. 
The chief ferries and commercial towns on the V. 
are: Rjev, Zubzov, Tver, Koliazin, Uglitch, Mologa, 
Rybinsk (the great centre ot the eorn-ttade), Jaros- 
lav, Kostroma, Nijni-Novgorod, Kazan, Simbirsk, 
Somaia, Tzaritziii, and Astrakhan. The system of 
water-commnnication established by the V. and its 
ttibataries, is of the greatest importance to the 

commerce of Russia, connecting as it does the cen- 
tral districts of the coimtry with the White Sea by 
means of the canal of the Prince of Wilrtembera ; 
witb the Baltic by the three canal-systems of Tich- 
vin, Viahni-Volotchek, and Mariinsk ; with the Black 
Sea by the Upa Canal, which connects tbe Oka and 
the Don ; with the Caspian Sea by the great stream of 
the V. iUelf ; and with Siberia by the rivers Kama 
and TchnsBovaia. Tbe principal affluents on 
right are the Oka (q. v.) and the Sura ; on tbe left, 
the Tvertza, Mologo, Szeksna, and Kama (q-v.). 

VOLRVKtA, a frontier BOTemment ot West 
Russia, bounded on tbe S.-W. by Galicia, and 
on the W. by Poland, from which it is separated 
by the river Bug. Area, 27,348 so. m. ; pop. (1866) 
1,577,000, mostly Russians, Poles, Lithuanians, 
Jews, Qermans, and Tartare. The surface in f 
north of the government is low; and plains a 
morasses, covered with forests, abonnd ; in the sooth, 
there ore hills, branches of the Carpathian Moun- 
tains, bnt which do not rise higher than 1230 feet 
Almost alt the rivets flow north, and join the Pripet, 
an affluent of the Dnieper ; a few streams, however, 
flow west, and join the Bug, by means of which rive 
timber is floated down from this river to Prassii 
Tbe soil is sandy or clayey ; agricultore flotuishes 
in (he south, and corn is eipottMto Odessa, Oolicia, 
Poland, and partly to Great Russia. Cattle-breeding 
bos always been a proeperone branch ot industry ir 
V. until recently, but a line breed of sheep are stil 
reared, and the government possesses uie finest 
tuds in the empire — those of the Princes Songousko 
md Tzartorisky. Of tbe woods, which form the 
irincipal riches of the north districts, flr is the chief, 
[lie forests abound in foxes, hares, and bears, and 
hunting is a favourite pastime. Many sugar-mills, 
cloth-factories, and distilleries ore in operation, and 
the manufactures are increasing yearly. Com, 
cattle, sheep, wool, cloth, linen, bmber, honey, and 
BK are the principal articles of trade. 
V. in early times belonged to the ancient Rni- 
sians, bnt was conquered t^ tbe Lithuanians and 
Poln in 1320, and remained in their bonds till it* 
annexation to Russia in 1798. 
VOLI'TIOH. See Will. 
VOXLET, the simultaneous discharge of o ni 
ber of smaU-anns. The same operotjon from con 
called o salvo. 


CowTK DE, was bom at Craon, in Anjou, on the 
3d of February 1767. He was the son of an advo- 
cate of good reputation. His familv name was 
Chasseb<Buf, but on arriving at manhood he asgomed 
Uie additional surname of Volney. He got his pre- 
liminary education at the colleges of Ancenis and 
Angers, and afterwards went through a protracted 
oonise of study at the university of Paris. His 
father wishing him to join his own profession, he 
spent some time in preparing for the bar ; but he 
renoonced law for medicine, which, however, he 
never proctised. He hod inherited a competency 
from his mother, and, aoon after completing his 
studies, in the year 1783, he set out for Egypt, vrith 
the intention of travelling in Egypt and Syria. This 
expedition occupied him about foor years. On his 
return to France in 1787, he published his celebrated 
Travfia in Syria and Egypt, which still contain the 
most trustworthy as well as one ot the liveliest and 
most interesting accounts which have been published 
of the tribes with which he come in contact This 
work at once procured him a great repntatdon. At 
first, there was a disposition to question the veracity 
of some of his descriptions ; but their truthf ulnesa 
was fully confirmed when liie French became more 
familiBr wiUi the Egyptiont and the Arabs through 



the expedition id 1796. The ngaraty of the diiaf poli- 
tical conchimoiu to vhich hii lendeooe amone umm 
peo{ilealud.brD<i^Iihn,vliiah in 17SS he embodied 
m »jaisvgbMi—Goi uU ^aliong on IM War hetatea 
Ac IStrit and tke Mtm lan t h m also been shewn 
by nibMqnent erenti. In ITBO ho wu elected 
to the BtetB Ofafinua, •■ a memboi for hU native 
dictnct, and toc^ a aomewhat jmaninent part in 
the poftioal disanMUHU <rf tike yean which followad, 
Aewing Ti.m— H, u he haa done in hia woAa, a faat 
friend of the public libertiea, a mocker at all *ja- 
ttma ot TsligMD, and at -Uu aame ttnte a feartoaa 
opponeit of popular ezoeaaea. He was impriaonad 
for hia ontapisttuieai in I7S3, and -was not liberated 
tall after the doirnfaU of Robaqnerra, in Ji^y of the 
fcUoning yew. 

In 8vtiraDbstI794,V. pnUijdied hia ^ium; Se- 
fieeHomvptm AeBavolaUoiutifBtajiinM, upon which, 
and BMo hia TVoBdi, hia i^tatMn chiefly resta. 
T. befierad that pidttical, like all other organiaa- 
tiniu- arn Bihianli to daon' and dertmolion. The 
ud in do JiaiM com almoat all 

_« doctrine ti the 

« tbedii:^<rf toleraticn in 
oaintaina, with pertiaps too 
anelury, the huun origin 
a. In 

Law", a natnnhiiiTn far a S^eooh 'dtiaen,' in which 
he beate m«nU^ aa a pl^BOal and material Boiance, 
to be atndiad upon the aame method* as the other 
natiual aciencea, and having no object bnt the con- 

afterwaida rqrabliahed nndfj t£a titia ti the 
Phji ti ea l Prindples qfMoralitfi. 

Towavdi the doae of 17Mt he waa appointed 
Pn^eaor of Hiitoiy in Uie ahort-Uved Ecole Nor- 
mals ; and tiie brilliant diaooimea, not imtin^ed 
with paradox, which he delivered in tliia oapaeity, 
made a aouatica in Paris even at that onaettled 
time. On the ropp rowi on of the Bode Nonnala in 
179S, he wwt to the United Statea, intending to 
spend the remMnder of hi* daya there ; but ciicum- 
aunoes made hia lemdence there extremely diaagree- 
able to him, and he returned to France io the spring 
of 17W. In hia abeence, he had been elected ■ mem- 
ber of the Institute ; he was, soon after his return, 
admitted to the Academy ; and henceforth hia life, 
tiuHigh not inactive, vae proeperou and nntroabled. 
He had early been aoqnainted with Bonaparte, and 
had been of service to him at the time whcii political 
cdnmrnatanOBs had deprived him of employment; 
and Bonaparte, on becoming First Ccnsnl, desired 

^ !_•- jj^ irith him«A" in the government ae 

liie Interior. V. lafoaed 
a seat in the Senate. He 
&e establishment of the Empire, 
_ his seat in Uie Senate ; but his reaig- 
nation waa declined ; and during the existence of this 
fimpire he fonned one of the little band, meered 
at by Napoleon at UtotogiLet, who in the Senate 
attempted by theii oriticiBms to Kdtrain the arbi- 
toary oondaot of the emperor. 'Henoeforth, however, 
his oconpationa wav moetly literary. He published 
Ihiear^ethitoAiKMnlSitlorg, Mrverol of die papers 
contained in which were wtitten in the eaflier put 
«E hia career ; and also aevenil lingoigtic works, in 
whidi he attempted to popolarise, and, by meant of 
a muv«M»l alphabet, to amiplify the itady of tiie 
eavtem laagnages. He had aeoapted frcon Hi^oleaa 
Om title of Coant, and the oommandetahm of the 
Legitoi of Honour ; uid apon Napdeon'i down&ll 
he waa among thcMe wh o were oaUed to the Hoose 
of Peen by Loois XVHL Hia late«t work, 
pnblished in 1819, waa Tltt Rittorg <tf Samuel, tile 

Inventor tfftkeSacrtdiien of Kinat. V. died on the 
Z»fa AprillSSO, shortly after oom^sling his ead yev. 

TOIiO'GDA, an extensive government of Great 
Unsaia, bounded on the E. by the Ural Mountain^ 
and on the N.-W. by the government of Arohangd, 
Area, 161,600 sq. m. ; pop. (IBM) Hl,004 chi^ 
Rnaiians, bnt oompiising «laa a few Finiis, % whiok 
race this territoiy wm inhaUted in eaily times. 
The distrieia in me east, adioinins tiie Urd Moon- 
taina, are taavwaed by bnuMea ofthat ohain, whkh 
rise to the height ol in 
by far the grsstsf part of the m 
pied by muAy puina, or''~°^ 

loreats. 1^ •oiTis notfe , — -_ 

weat datriota, irtuch an the most daoaely peopkd, 
and prodnee oom snffioieDt for kMal ocnsomfrtaoa 
and the supply of the durtiUeiies, In the middle 
dietrida, there are oompaiatirely few inhabitanti ; 
coltivated land is rarely aeen, and hemp ia the only 
crop prodnced liberally. The wooded monwMS of 
the north are inhabited oolv by Finnish Wbe^ 
engaged in hunting. The banks (2 the liven ar^ as 
a nib, the csily mhabited plaoes. Hie pnncml 
rivas, fifteen of which an navigable, an thft 
Northon Dwina, with its great upper watery tb» 
Suc^ima, J^ and Witcbegda; and the Pet^orar 
with ita afflnenta. I^kea am nnmramw. 8alt- 
wo^s, iron-works, and distillenee are in operation ; 
uid salt, iron, skins, tallow-candles, and cheese 
are exported; and com and mannfactured goods 

TOLOGDA, a dty of Great Russia, in the aonth- 
west angle of Uie Bovemment of the same name, of 
which it is capibu, stands on both banks of the 
river Vdogda, 467 miles east of 8t Peteisbnrg. It 
is asjd to have been foonded in the 13tJt c. by 
settlera from Novgorod, to which prindpality it 
belonged down to the ISth a, when it was annexed 
to MoBOow. In 1663, when England opened up > 
trade with Biisaia, through the port of Ardhangal, 
Y. was the great entrepAt for goods deported north 
by the Northern Dwma; and even yet (IMS), it 
exportti to St Petersburg and Arcbatigel various 
products of its ovm and neighbominx govemmem'taT 
to a oausiderabla amount. Ni^ello and filigree- 
work are manufactured. Pop. [1866} I8,9S4 

TO'LfiCI, an ancient Italian people, closely 
idated to the Umbrians. See Umsria. Their 
territory waa bounded on tJie W. by that of the 
Latini, on the N. th^ marched with the .^!qui and 
Hemioi, on the E. with the Samnitea, and on the 
Sl they had the sea. Along nearly the whole cf 
their ooaat Uy the Pfmtdne Manhes, while, inland, 
their teititocy traa somewhat mountainous. The 
V. were a biave and warlike peojJe^ who, frequently 
in alliance with the .^ui, were incessuitly at war 
with the Bomans for npwarda of 200 yeaia previous 
to 338 B.O., about which time they appear to have 
been finally subdued, their territoiy inooipoiated 
into Latinni, and they themselves created Baman 
citizens. See Latini. Theae wan were vei; 
hsrasaing to the Bomans, as they were often caitied 
on not so maoh by the V. as a whole, as by different 
cities, each frequently on its own account. Some 
c^ the chief towns, and those which took a prindpal 
part in the wars, were Antjum, Velitne, Satricum, 
Privemum, Ulubne, Suessa Pometia, Amur, and 
Tanaoina, and later Forum Appii and Ties 
Tabenue. The lotend of Conolanus (^v.) is con- 
nected with the Volaoian wars. See KoH^ Tax- 
QDiNiDS SvFEftBcs, Antiiiii. From the time of 
liieir final subjugatioo, their history belongs to that 
of Rtmie {q. v.). 

YOLSK, or V0LG3E, a town of Bnnqmui 
Buasia, in the government of Saratov, on the right 



bulk al the Vidgs, 80 nilei norUi-Mst of Santor. 
Ekt and •knw are raepoMd and exported to Bt 
Pe ln B tuiK, aod oorn i> exported in Ui^ qiuntities 
to Astnkhui and RTbinik. Hie mhabitHita we 
ohiefij sDgued in tiie onttore of garden* and 
onhuds, asa the frnitt graim are eniirted princi- 
p^7 to Nijai-NovgoFad. Pop. 24,m 

VOI/rii, Albsajhibo, a celebrated It^ian phTu- 
cial^ wai bom at Como, of a noble fami]:^, in ITU, 
and noeiTed an exoellent edacatioa. In 1774, he 
vaa appointed FioicMor of Ifatnral Philooophy at 
Favia, and amlintied to dis^uutge tks datiea of thii 
ohair tiD 18(H witen he retired to bi> naUve town, 
to H>md tlie te«t of hie dqra. V., while but a 
jDBth, had exhibited oonddeiable taate for letters, 
and had erai irritten two poem*, one in Italian, and 
the etiier in Zia^; bnt *■ he grew older, he 
ahandoaad all ntch pomiits, and devoted himielf 
exiJnaiTely to the scienoee, B«p«ci*]lr tboee con- 
neotad with electricity. At iutra^als between 1777 
Mid 1TS% he viaited Swibzwland, Toacany, Oer- 
naanj, HoUmdf fVanoe, and JIngland, making tJie 
TgniJiitMiffft of &o most eminent philoeepliera 
at theae coontriM ; and on his return ia aaid to 
baTB intandocad the culture of the potato into 
IdTabardr. In 179^ he was one of a deputation 
toaaUcit thsforbeannceof NaNleon; and was 

TreaanreF of the Chamber of Acconnta j hia motbiTi 
Mangaerite D'Anmar, of a noble family of Patoo, 
Of two Bona bom to tliMn, Fiani^ma waa the younger, 
fie leoeaved his education at the College of Louia le 
Grand in Paris ; and on ita oomplelioD, ha waa sat 
to study law I^ hia &ther. But he found thia 
purauit too disguatinf, and speedily quitted it for 
the earaer ot a man oiletteiB. By hu godfather, the 
Abb< de ChAteaunen^ who was vetr intimate wiUi 
her, he was introduoed to the celebiated Ninon 
de rE^ida^ and through her to tlie best FreikC^ 
society of tiie period. In thcae wioked and Arit^ 
drclee, bedng hmnelf defidmt in neither wicked- 
nees nor wit, the young man pmqwiied extremely ; 
and BO perfectly unexceptionable wa* Uie conqNUty 
in iriiich he found himlalf, that one dt^ he conla 
ezolaim, lotting round the table witli oompla- 
oancy : ' Are we all, then, either prinoea in' poeti I' 
Hi* father, however, deeply diupproving of the 
life he led a* immoral, and probably not ineipea- 
aive, bad him sent to Holland with an emba*ty. 
Here he became iuTolved in a love-aSair of the 
mu« napectable kind, whidi ended, not in maniaga, 
as he teens to have proposed, but in his being aent 
baek to Paris, to letuma his gay career. ShMtiy, 

. of the tirftnte, the adiou of the 

'pile' (see Oxlvakibh), which he had invented, 
i(^'»^ him in Q>aL«giOB of Honour, and conferred 
on him the order of l£» Iron Crown, with the titles 
«( Count andSoiator of the Ejngdom of Italy. He 
was also dected (ISOl) a Foreign Associate of tiie 
fiench Institute^ ten years after he had been made 

cf alsctaridty sre of gnat importanoe, the 

duaf si Uusn b^ns hi* theory, is oppoaition to the 
■ animal-tlsobic^* doctrine of Oilvaiu, that the 
decbic power reudca in the metaUi although, in 
tnin, be feD into the taroi of sappoaing Hit the 
duonlcal action of the different kind* of metal on 
■adi other was only incidents!. He also invented 
an electric battery, consstiag of a aeries of cups 
arranged in a cinJe, each cup contaloiiig a saline 
aolntion, in which were immersed, edgewise, two 
plate^ one of zinc and the other of ailver, the zinc 
plate la one cup being connected with the silver one 
mtha next by means of a wire. This battery waa, 
hcnraVK, aoOTi after superseded by his 'pile? He 
alao mvolted, in 1775, the EUetrophorui (q. v.) ; in 
1782, ifae eledrical Condenser (q. v.), employing with 
it ma eleetraneter (see ELECTEticnr), in which two 
atoawa wen employed instead of the gold-leaf 
■triga now in use; and also (1777] the hydrogen- 
laiopt and the electrical pistoL Host of iiia unport- 

ITOt^A collection of V.'s work* 
was pnblitbed in 181B at Florence, nndra the title 
at OoOaiom iklk Op're, itc, in 6 vols. 8to. 

TOI^AIBE (FsAiTfoiB-lfiBtK Akoubt, his tane 
nsme) — ona of the moat famoua of Fmch writers — 
was bora, aoooiding to hi* own aooount, as given 
in Mar life, on 20£ Febmarv lOM. at Chatenay, 
■ear Soeanx. Hie renster of nii biqitism, however, 
sasipa Paris astte^aoe of bis birth, and dates it 
SIst Nonmbar of that vear. As to whioh of -Uiese 

slihs !■ may be real]? the oorreot one, his bio- 

naphers are not yet fully aipeed. His fsther was 
Ilmisess Arooet, a notary d uie Chltalet, ultimately 

1717), where be n 

upwards of a year. 

he improved by aketching 1 

rds pibl^ied as the fieanads. 

famoos pe«n, afterwards pal 

kod by finiahing his tragedy, (Sd^tt, which waa jao- 
dnoed on file 16th November 1718, and had so ««A 
a SDOoess with the public, as not cmlv to delight the 
author, but somewhat to mollify nis old parang 
who began to animise that the despised 'poetar'al 
hi* <rfb[nDg waa not unhkely to oome tosoBtetttinf^ 
Hu tame sn eoc as did not, however, sttend his nen 
rentuni : hi* tiage^, .drlemtre, joodnoed in 1720; 
was hiised off tba staiae: and his Jforioa^ n^ioh 
folknnd in 1724, fared but little b^ter. Mean- 
tims, he bad again visited Holland, m^ing, on tbe 
way, th« »cqaaintaf> of Jean Baptiste BouMeaa, 

apoet (rf Hsneimp--' .>-—>-— . »> ■ 

The two ffmunses 
irreooncilaDlB enen ^ 

have ^gmated in a charaotenstie not of 
who, hi* ontical opinion being asked of an Ode 
d la PotUritt, which Rousseau read to him, had 
the candoiur to reply thus : ' Mon ami, voilA nne 
lettre qui n'amvera jamais k son adiesse.' In the 
snmnMrof 172S ooourred a misadventure, which, bw 
v., had important oonseouanoea. At the dinner- 
table of Uie l>nke de Sulli, he l e e o nt o d with apirit 
an a&ont put upon him by the Chevalier de Roban, 
who, wonted in the war of wit, as moat men were 
likely to Qnd themselves with V., avenged *''iin»fllf 
■ome day* after by having bis adveisai; thrashed 
in public by footmen. Subjected to *o gtosa an 
oulxage, y. retired for a Xaaa into private lifcL 
aariduously perfected himaeU ia the small-sword 
eiereiBe, and then coorteoosly en treated the Chevalier 
to • meeting in the dutHo. The Chevalier, as it 
proved, had small stomaoh for the enoounter: having 
immortalisad himsdf sufficiently by bis insult to the 

poet, he ( 


o aspire to ti 
ly him. Und 

inuDort^i^ tA being killed by him. Under 
■nperficial ^etcaoca of aooaptiiu the challmga, hit 
pnetical answw to it came m the fona of « Mtra de 
caAa, whicli consigned V. onoe mwe to the Bastille. 
Hia im[»isanment was not on this oooasian a long 
one ; but it was only onder aenteDce cf exile tiuX 
he Wat permitted to iesne from durance : and on 
doing ao, he betook himself to Bkiglan^ Some 
little time pierioua, the young Arooet had asaumed 


the name of Voltaire, destined to become so famoos. 
Aa to the origin of this name, consiilenble per- 
pleii^ ba« eziiited ; but there can «c«tce be a doubt 
of the correctDeee irf tbe conjecture thrown out bv 
Mr Carlyte, in the second volume of hij Frederid, 
thftt it ii mmplj an anagram of Aronet L j. (le 

ArrivioK in England in 1726, V. remuned there 
upwards ot two Tean. Of this episode of hii life, 
we have only the moat meagre acconnL It is 
certain, in a general way, that he had the enlrie to 
Qie best English Bocieiy ; he knew Bolingbroke, 
Fope, and, we need not doubt, maay others of the 
intellectually diitinguiahed. Of his Tiiit to the 
famous Mr Congreve, and the little skirmish of wit 
between thero, wo have express record. It was a 
whim of Congreve to affect dislike of his fame as an 
author, as to a certain eiteat a disparsgement of 
his claims as a peraon of qoalily. Od bis signifying 
to V. that it was simply as this last he desired that 
his friends should regard him, he was answered to 
the effect, that had he been nothing more than the 
elegant gentleman he considered himself, M. de V. 
would scarce have tbought it worth while to solicit 
the honour of his acquaintance. To Y., his residenoe 
in England was fruitfid of new knowledge and 
ideas ; in the school of the English Deists, Boling- 
broke, Collins, Tindal, Wolloston, Sx., he found 
specnlationa much to his mind ; the philosophies 
M Newton and Locke he studied diligently ; and in 
his snbaeqnent dramas there may be traced a distinct 
iliflnence from Shakspeare, whom, however, he has 
expressly vilified, ss a barbarous monster of a 
wnter, mtolerable to any reader with the least 
(inctare of orthodox French goCt in him. Not the 
Um the distinction remains with V. of having been 
the first Frenchman to recognise in some decisive, if 
gmdgine and inadequate way, the essential snpe- 
hority in our great national poet. The intellectual 
debt thus indicated was not the only one which V. 
owed to England. Whilst resident there, he pnb> 
lished in a revised form his epic poem, the Hettnade, 

Queen Caroline ; the subscription for it wasTieaded 
by hef sad other members of the royal family ; the 
ninfc and fashion of the countnr could not bnt follow 
the illustrious example set litem ; and for result, 
y, could convey into nis pocket a comfortable sum 
(sbrted so hidi as jCSOOO), which became the basis 
M his future fortune. Vioni Hie time of his return 
to Faris in 1728, he had always on hand some money 
•peculation ; investanenti in com, bacon, or what- 
ever a pretty peni^ could be turned by, with now 
and then a fat army-contract, which a friend mieht 
have interest to secure for him ; and so shrewain 
his finance was he, that, owing hut little to his 
books, which, despitie of their immense popularity, 
were never a source of great profit to bim, lus 
income at his death is ascertained to have netted 
some £7000 per annum, a revenue then to be styled 
princely. Of his literary labonrs, from this time 
Inwsrd nnranittiiig, the sum of which remains 
in somethiug like ninety volumes, no detailed 
account can here be att^pted. His was truly a 
universal genius ; he wrote literally everything— 
histories, dramas, poems, disquisitions, Utermy, 
philosopbical, and scientihc ; novels, for the most 
part with some doctrinal purpose, of which his 
tamoot Candi/U, or tAe Opbmiit, may stand aa the 
type ; his literary cotrespondenoe was on an unex- 
ampled scale ; and he was seldom without some 
fierce polemic on hand, in which his adversaries had 
to wnthe ior the amusement of the public, under 
the scourge of his envenomed wit 

In the gay society of Faris, he became acquainted 

with a certain Madame du Cbfttelet, who was lii 
Bjiart from her husband, the Uarquis, though stul 
on polite terms with him. She was aaa tpiritudie; 
a moat fascinating woman of the world, ud in tbe 
matter of int^ectnal acootnplishment, the blneat 
wonder of the p^od ; most especially she waa d 
in mathematics, and had mastered the mysteries of 
Newton's Principia. As himself an admirer of 
Newton, V. could not but be charmed to meet I ~ 
thus snrprisinriy put into petticoats ; nor could a 
woman so intelle<^al aa Madame fail, in her turn, 
to appreciate the tender attentions of such a genius 
as M. de Voltaire. Their intimacy became ex^eme ; 
and finally, in 1733— the husband of the lady 
behaving like a philosopher and man of fashion 
of the tune, and contdnmng now and then to v 
them — they went off to prosecnte it undisturbed at 
Cirey, an old cbfttean in Champagne, the property 
of M. du Chttelet. Here, For the most part, they 
diligently studied Newton together for the next 
fifteen years. The arrangement seems to have been 
on the whole a not unhappy one ; but towards the 
close, it became complicated for M. de V. by the 
advent of another lover, in the person of s Monsieni: 
de Saint-Lambert. It is not conjectured that this 
genUeman knew anything of Newton, or was at ill 
such a genius as V. ; but it is certain tlutt, o 
some other ground unexplained, he found favour 
with Madame du CbAtelet The philosophy which 
the huaband had been good enough to practise in 
favour of V., was now required of liiTn«plf ; and 
after a little unpleasantness he was able to reconcile 
himself to the inevitable. This curious triangular 
love-affair — or nqtian, if we inclnde the huaband — 
wss not, however, of very long duration. In 174S, 
Madame du Chitelet died in child-bed. V. was 
overcome with grief ; and the touching reproach 
which, in the first agony of bereavement, he 
addressed to the culpable M. de Saint-Lambert, 
a fortunate chance has preserved for us : ' Eh ! mon 
Dieu ! Monsieur, de qnoi voua avisiez vous de lui 
faire un enfant.' This, which is now so shocking, 
illustrates strikingly the morals of a period in whidi 
it seemed entirely comma U/auL 

To dissipate the sense of loneliness which over- 
powered him in tbe loss of bis ' divine Emilie,' as he 
was wont, in his more lyrical moments, to call her, 
V. once more betook lumself to Paris, whence, in 
1760, he proceeded to Berlin, on the invitation of the 
young king of Prussia, Frederick, since known as j 
' tbe Great.' Between him and V., much cort«- 
spondence had already passed ; and they seem to 
have entertained for each other a sincere admiration | 
and regard. When they came together, however, it 
was found, as so often in such esses before and 
since, that it is not in the matter of monntsins only 
that ' distance lends enchantment to the view.' 
They quarrelled bitterly, and parted ; V., at his 
exit from the country, beins subjected to indignities 
which he found it haiii to forgive. Into the details 
of the quarrel .we need not enter. When we say 
that the king was a poet at once most [n^ifuse and 
moat execraUe ; and that the main function of V.^ 
himself a poet — was to criticise and correct his 
verses, it should almost spcm that we indicate, 
without going further, a sufficient orij;o maU, V. 
detested the king's verses ; the king could hardly 
have been even the very bad poet h^ was, without 
heartily detesting V.'s criticism and correctiona. Is 
it marvellous that in no long time they got heartily 
to detest each other T A reconciliation was after- 
wards effected, and their literary correspondence 
wu resumed under the old fonns of friendliness ; 
but meantime V. had avenged himself in the 
amusing but most scandaloos (uironicle, entitied Vie 
PrMe du JM de Pnim, which was found at hia 



dmth amoi^ his papers, and pnbliohed, 

pratt; good rcMon to tuppnae the nicked wit 

meant it Bhonld be. 

After (cime yean of > somewliBt unsettled kind, 
y^ in 1758, ertkfali«bed himiwif along with his niece, 
Madame Deni^ at Pemey in Switierland, where, 
with little "" 

U yean o 

thia peritxE, some geoei 

recorded of him. Thua 

Tescned from extreme want a grand-niece of Cor- 
naille the great dramatirt, bad her carefully educated 
under hii own eye at Feniey, and made orer to her 
the pnMeeda <il an annotated edition of her ancee- 
toi'a worka, which he iasned for her eipresB benefit 
Hia noble exertionB in bdudf of the Cals« funity, 
the victima of a ehamefnl persecution, are also well 
known. In 1778, he waa indnced by hia niece to 
lerisit Paria. By the PaiiaianB, the poet, now 
in hia S4th year, waa receiTed with a perfect 
tomnlt of enthosiaam, the excitement connected 
with which ii thouoht to have baatened his 
deaUi, which took ^ace on 30th May of that 

Witii the donbtCol exception of Bonaaean (Jean 
Jacqnes), who in his chamcter of vutMand enthosiait, 
waa peihapa even more deeply influential, V. ia by far 
the moat memonUe of the band of celebrated wnteis 
whoee cruaade a^nat esUblished opiniona waa pie- 
poring the gnmd ta&uU of Uie Fruich Bevolution. 

Athdst, but this is limply to exhibit iguoranoe. 
XHacarding rerelatiOD, he steadily upheld Uie truths 
of natuial leluion, and waa, in fact, a Deiat pretty 
mndi of the English type. As such, he waa not a 
little dcapised by the more ' advajiced ' minds of the 
peiiod, Diderot and the like, who cooaidered belief 
m a God clear evidence of intellectual infinnity. 
Hia tavoorite weapon was ridicule, and there waa 
never, periiap*, a greater master of it. In a mrti- 
cnlar mrm it pcdiahed mockciy, V. remains almoct 
-withinit a rivu. Hia proae is the perfection of 
Fntieh a^le; it ia admirable in grace, clearnen, 
Tivacity, alnd aUve like a ^tarkling wine with the 
particDlar quality of april peculiar to the people 
and the lanauage. As a, dramatist, V. takes rank aa 
a wmthy third with hie two great predeceeaon Cor- 
nedlle and Saciue. His moot funoos poems are the 
Ifauiidt, before mentioned, the one epic of the 
languace, and La Pvedle, which is, pecnape, more 
prope^ to be styled infamous, soch is the profanity 
and indecency with which the writer has wilfully 
defiled the heroic itorv of the Maid of Orleana. In 
the Uatorical works of V., with the nbnost lucidity 
of method, there are tneet of a more philoaophioal 
-bcatment than had preriottdy been applied to such 
aubjecta. For ita narratire charm, has little histo- 
riett«^ ChaHa Dome, familiar to eveiy acha<d-boy, 
ia in ita kind a perfect modeL Strange to uy, 
'q French nor in English does any full 

adeqnate biognphy of V. exist. Of his earlier life, 
a most racy and amuaing sketch will be found in 
the sectmd volnme of Mr Carlyle's Frederich lAe 
Grtat; and his relationa with Frederick are of 
coDise in that work treated of in full, with the 
writd'a charactenstic humour and inaight. Aa a 
critical estimate at once of the man and o/the writer, 
■othine better cbd anywhere be found than Mr 
CariTli?8 earlier Essay. 

Ahnoet as we write, the first volnme of a Xi/^ of 
VoUain haa been pnUished b^ Chapman and HalL 
Tbe writer, Mr Frand* Bipinasae, preaeDts in a 
lively and entertaining form the results of an 
aeennte and exhaustdve investigation; and the 
vofkwhen cmnplete, as proposed, m three volumee^ 

walls, which ai 
any stmotures of the aami 

of nearly 2000 feet above sea-Iercl, 30 miles south- 
east of Leghorn. It is sorrouoded by cycJopean 
better gtate of preservation than 

kind in Italy. The gat^ 

caued i'^rco, and the remains of baths and of an 
amphitheatre, are intereitine vestiges of antiquity ; 
the cathedral, municipal palace, and Pretorio, are 
monnments of the middle ages ; and the McuUo, a 
prison, is a modem edifice. V. contains a college, 
numerous schools, and a library of 120,000 vola. 
Wine, oil, com, and mnlbeny teees are grown in 

J. L.i :_- ... ^v_ .. n-hich also poft- 

the Uads t 

eases considerable mineral wealth. Pop, 13.099, 

v., the ancient Yolatfrrx, was one of Uie most 
powerful and important of all the Etruscan citdea, 
and came into Qie posseesion of Bome 474 B.C; 
after the fall of the Empire, it suffered muck from 
the invasion of barbarians. 

_ TOLTIGBURS, picked companies of irregnlat 
riflemen in the French regiments. They are selected 
for courage, great activity, and small stature. It ia 
their privilege to lead the attack. 

yO'LTI au'BITO (ItaL turn quickly), in Mnsio. 
an indication placed at Uib fcx>t of a page, to signify 
that the page onght to be tamed without delay. 

VO'LTRI, a town of Northern Italy, in the j«o- 
vince of Genoa, and flj miles west of the city of 
that name, on the Gulf of Genoa. Its churches are 
richly adorned; it contains many fine viUaa, and 
manufactures paper extensively. Near it are the 
sulphureous springs and baths of Aqua Saota, very 
efficacious in caaes of cutaneous disease. Pop. 
11,802. '^ 

consiBta in submitting the snbstance to be eatimatM 
to certain characteristic reactions, the chemist 
employing for such reactions liquids of known 
strength, aod £n>m the quantity of liquid employed 
to induce the reaction, determining the weight of 
t^e subatance to be estimated by means of tbe laws 
of equivalence. The idea of tms method first sug- 
gested itself to Gay-Lussac in conaideiinK how most 
readily to determine the amonnt of lUver in an 
alloy of that metal and copper ; bat the method 
itaelf did not come into general use till within the 
last twenty years. The liquid reagents of known 
stiength are called ataadard miiu&iM ; and the 
amount employed may be estimated either by weight 
or by volume, but the latter being the easiest of 
ap^lc«tdon,is nnivenally employed; and hence this 
method of analyaia, baaed on the use of standard 
solntiona, is called volumstric onoIymL In order 
that a reaction may be aj^ilicable in volnmetria 
aiui^'Bia, it muat aatiafy the two following condi- 
tions : (1) It mnit not occupy much time ; and (2) 
the tenuination of the reaction must be eaauy 
recognised and unmistakable to the eye. The neces- 
sity that these conditions should be fulfilled, very 
much limita the number of volumetric processes. 
In addition to the ordinary chemical appantua, this 
kind of analysis tequirea gradnated glaas vessels of 
different kmds for t^ measurement of the standard 
aolutionl. Of these, tbe most essential are : (1) 
Pipetta, which are glass vessels of the form of figs. 
1 and 2, intended for the delivery of the standwd 
solution. Fig. 1 is provided with a single mark 

ri the neck, while tig. S is divided and graduated 
ugh ita whole lengUi, the division being always 
made into cuhic centimHrea [c cj, according to 
French acale ; (2) Fla^ gradnated for the content* 
in various nsea from one-tenth of a litre to five 



litrsB, and used for the prepaiKtion of EtwidiTd 
xdatioEU ; <3) Burette*, or ^ladnated tabaa for 
iiMaBiiriiig (he liquid* nwd in ui nuiym. The 
burette m* iiiTeiited by Otj-hvima ; bat ■ince 
hia time, v*iion« modiSaation* have been piopaeed, 
1^ beat of which, for general pnrpoaea, ia that 

fig, o. — a, vm uuu-niDDer; d, uie unu mane M Drais 
irirs, bf iriiidi Ha india-rnblMr tuba em lie oluNd 

wUdi is known u Mohr'i Bnretta. It 

fl^ 3 ; and ita lower pvt ia attached to an indi»- 

It* principal adraatues o 

initnunent are, tljit IB ooDstant npiieht postioD 
enablea the operator at onoe to read off Hie nnmber 
cd degreee of Btmdard (or teat) lolntioD naed for any 
aoalvaiB, while the qnaatilT of fluid to be ddiraed 
can be moat accuraMljr rwiilated by the {a t aaiu e of 
the thumb and Guger on tne clamp ; inoreoT<r, aa it 
ia not hold in the hand, no enor i* liktljr to 

in the meaaiirement from the heat '"" 

hand. The greatcat drawback to 

be oMd for those teat-solutioua irtiioli deeompoaa 


The »landard aolutiont, known alao as tett or 
UinUed aoluUoru (from the Fnmih word liire, 
jriddh Bignifiee the staodord of a coin), may be 
divided into (1) snch aa are immediately prepared 
by weighing a aabitsnce of known oompoaition, dia- 
•olnDD it, and dilating it to the required Tolome ; 
Kid (2) inch aa an prepared by_ wprozimate mix- 
tare and nbaeqnent azaotaii>lyai& The^nepaiation 
<d the flrat kind reqnirM tu deaotiption ; for the 
prt^pantion of tike aaoond kind, we nrast refs to the 
artude 'Analyiiii^ Yolamebia,' in Watb^a Die^oaarv 
<lf Ckemitlry, toL i. p^ 2G9, where the method la 
ftdly explained, and as an examide, ti 
of aatandaid lolntion of mlphario ad 

\ <d bydrated ndphnric aind in 1 litre ia 
It is obrionsly (ss n atial that the greatsat 
care mast be taken both with reapect to the gradoa- 
tit«i of the maaauring instramenU and the aticngth 
and purity of the atandard aolntiooa, which nnat be 
protected from ar^toraldon and otho- hurtful iufla- 
enoe* by being k^t in bottlea of 1 or 3 litie^ 
oapaeity, proriled with weU-gronnd atoppeia. 

Vohunetrie methoda are usually claaufled «a fol- 
low*, according to ths prinmido aa which they an 
ba*eo — (L)J«a^^ty aoAiralKm, when the qiurati^ 
at a base or an ^id i* meaBmedbytlie qnamti^tri 
acid i» baas which ia raqnirad fiv exact satnratiim 
— a pcoit to be drtermiBed by teat-papen, tinetnre 
of linna*, Ac (2.) Anaigtit bji ootilatww oitd rediu- 
fMM, irixa the quanti^ ^ the BDliataiK« to be deter* 
mined ia fomd by the qnanti^af cUonne, Ivotnina, 
iodine, at oxygen to which it is equivalent (regarded 
a* imdant), or by tiie quantity of^chlmiae, bromine 
iodine, or omen whioh it raqnirea to paaa from a 
lower to a higher *t*ge of oiidaticm. The chief 
oxidinDg agenta are parmanganate of potath and 
biohromate of potaeh ; while the reducing agenta 
chiefly used an protosd* of iron and hypwolphite 
of ioda. f3.) Aitalg^ bg predpUaUtM, whan the 
deteminatioii of a nbataaoe ia effected by precipi- 
tfltrng it in Kme inaohible and deflnito ooinlniiatian. 
Onrfinhed tjgmat doea not admit of our giving an 
exaoKile of more than one of theae fotma of analyaio, 
and from ita faiatoiia intenat we dkall aaloct ^alaat^ 
in it* uplioation to tite determination of ailver. 
We ahall Wrow Mr Sotton'a aooount of tiiia pro- 
cea*. 'Suppose^' he obecrraa, 'that it ia deairBble 
to know the qoairti^ of pure mlTer contiiiwd in « 
shilling. The coin t* &«t diuolred in nitric acid, 
t^ iriuch means a bluish eolntioii containing silver, 
copper, and probably other metaU, ia obtuned. It 
is a known fact that chlorine combines with silver 
in the pi«eenae of other metals to form chloride ol 
silver, which is insoluble in nitrio acid. The pro- 
portioiia in which the combination takea place are 
36-S of chlorine to ereiy 108 of ailverj conaeqneQtly, 
if a atandard aolntirai of pnre chloride of Kidilim la 
prepared by diBoIving OS'S graina of the lalt — L et, 
1 eq. aodinm ( = 23} pbu I eq. chlorine [= 35-5) or 
1 eq. chloride of aodium — in ao much distilled water 
a* will exactly make up 1000 graina by toeasure, 
ever? single grain of this solution will combine with 
O'OIOS of a grain cd pure sUver to form chloride of 
silver, which predpitBtee to the bottom of the vesael 
in which the mixture ia iiuul& In the process of 
adding the aalt eolation to the ailver, drop by drop, 
B point ia at last reached when the precipitate 
oeasea to form. Hen the process must stop. On 
looking carefolly at tin graduated vessel from which 
the atandard aolniaDn has been used, the operator 
seaa at cmoe the nombcr of gruns that have been 
iimnsaiiij to produoe the oompleto deoomposition. 
■■— xample, anppom the quantity used was S20 
- all that is ceoe«saJ7 to be done is to mul- 
oply O'OIOS grains by 620, which shews the amount 
of piue silver present to be 66'16 grains.' By volu- 
tnettio as compared with ordinBry analysis, a large 
aiBDDnt of time, labour, and therefore of expeose, is 
saved ; at the loss, however, oftou of due accuracy, 
onless the greatest caie be taken that the standard 
eolntiong are of due strength, and the instruments 
aocnrately graduated. An analysis can thus be com- 
pleted in a quarter of an honr, that would formerly 
have oconpicd a day or more. Independently of ib 
application to pure cbemistr;, it facilitate to a 
great extent the chemical analysia of urine (on 
which anbject see the En^sh translation of Neu- 
bauer and Vogel On lie Urine, published by the 
New Syd. Soc), of watms (on wHch see Parkes On 
Hygient), of manures, aoils, &a.; and its processes 


bun baon beely introdaced in the Britiili Phar- 
'"B'^ip™* Tho itMidsrd book on. Oaa sabject ii 
tlwt tl Mohr, a Oernuui ohemiEt; the EnsliBh 
iiailiii nuy conialt tbs text-bookjs of Scott of Dublin, 
and Snttim ol Horwich, wid vuioiu Mamoin in the 
CIttmietd Neut. 

■ of iDaniaasi mm m compttttioQ iri 
IwnBg da w b inad« for Maiaiaadiau, 
ati fiMdolan^ aad ia geataUy goatpna 

and ctata gnu^ f oi religioiu pnipoaea, 
and, in matl, cf ■iTintBrr 

in tha id^bna 

aobjecb uB tenna Tolnntaiyimn and Yolon- 

taij bsra bacn in me linae the date of Uie 

ragaidiiw mvil eatabfiihmenta of 

y called the 'Vc' 

and the; MOTe to tnggfitt, sot 
mupoanaiT, the fnndammtal cono^ptMn w*"'-*- 
lIM^^i^» ua meed of raUgiox dinent, that aB 

mahip, or aooc^ptable Kirico in religion, mni 

tha mt exjmMKM) of indiTidnil niinda, and Uiat, 
lliiiiifwii. relwioa ooght to be ktt by civil society 
to Moold UmS (pontaneoiul; according to ib own 
inttitatioaa and •ptritnol natttre, without violence 
to imliTidiial freedton Erom any interpoeition of 
Moalai aatiHnity or oompoltory inflnenoe. Tolnn' 
tarynBn aeeka to defino mors accurately tho limita 
of anil powsi 1^ defining more adequately than 
[OBMding theoiea had done the latitude doe to 
the moTemanta at religiinL Aaaignii^ Uie nutgia- 
tnta Ua {npar aphere, it ia eqnat^ canfol to 
aBDon ttka curch and the individnal their appro- 
priMB aphaoa of naponaitility and dn^ in teferenoe 
to raKgioii, wittun wbich thayma^woA onoheoke^ 
in MI hannony with all the olamui ot civil order, 
TcIoBtinim may be regarded aa thn formula of 
aitranMa ]hotestantiam, the coireoted doctrine of 
dnch and atatc^ which tiie failure of tliB eipeii- 
nent of national ahmohea haa forced on public 
thooght. It ia a pnrteot in modem langoage againat 
Uw eacroaciiment of the teiiq;)oral power, whether 
mdcr Um name of magistrate, nt^un, or poUtioal 
majooty, cm the lighta and Ubertiea of inoiTidaal 
fonarigTe. Tolontaryiam haa aometimea baign 
oTGnaoaa^ oonaidered the ofbpiing of theologic*l 
•—•=*— On tho contrary, ita leading advocate* 

therafore allowed tkam to oounrb the toIm of tha 
Divine Word, which atsaddieatedazolnaiTely to the 
iudividaal oonaoiaioe, into lawa tor civil tooiety. 
Ood alone being lord of tha conadenoc^ EDoh lawa 
onIy~-tbon^ revealed in Hia Word — may be adopted 
and etifoKed in civil aoeiety aa are requiaite for ita 
outward maav«ti(», peH», and gocd oider, and 
for theadTaooement oftbaaeaecularintereata which 
are the proper «wm id Urn rulers Whfle, tharelne. 

aion of tha diureh, a* well aa tm the right* ot 
cmaoenoc^ the nature of dvil gorenunenb anid 
coDHderationa of genend equity and polioy. In its 
UMt exteenro aaoae, Yiduntaiviam embraoaa tho 
wbola qneation of Uie province d the mujiatnte in 
whi a M e* to rdigioo ^id tiie chnndk 'V^Aniktariea 
adntt that mainatiataa aa well at otlMr men, btdi^ 
oBdar law to Ood, ought ao to oxeoota the -pto- 
pv datiea of ibeir office that aUahall be done in 
ifwat m e y iriOi the paramount olaima <it mondity 
vd idifion. At the aanw tiroc^ the natora and 
dwtfpi ojf eiril govmnewt azolndea thair anthori^ 
' "" '~~ 'a of religion and oonaeiau^ and 
1 woliiidividnaiiand 

able ]i^t and guidance in dn^; 

- to all lavouMd with the Goapel— ought, aa 

indindnala, to wibraca and pr^e^a the Chriatian 
reUgiim, and to amplo^ wiaaly Mid joatly the infl» 
eDo« ansDR from tboir oirenoutaBMa and atatkaL 
it i« no part of their polUieal ot offldal dn^, cr M 
tiM homage ivqoind of than by Ouiat, to e^^ 
adopt, pnKiib& at mfotoe a nnnfniwon. of faith; 
neither ia it wiUiia their jnoviaua to mm at eatab- 
liahjjg or pwyagrtim; Chw atia iri ty 1^ the (rril 
'- ■-'•-, fbr, Mdow, < ' - 

long aa their nuBnar of onrvisiD^tiui civil njlit 
doea not iaAinge on the eMal i^it* ot otttttA Ua 
thi* ground, and with auA qua^oatiuL it ia Oeir 
dut^ to » b a * » ia &om all iat«rfar«nee with the jari^ 
diotaou and eoooomy of tba cbardk—aot ^M^ting 
the mattw of ita amnrt— wliieh btam regnlatad,aa 
VohmtM^aa bdiava^ by ^edal radinnaM of Jean* 
Cluiat, it* Head, it la an invaaion of ffia paarog^T*^ 
and a fnutratioii of Hia law lor ita aopport and 
' n, to l^aoe, or BafiEai to be ~ 
of a civil 

anntort of religion baa alway* been 
irtiole in the Vduntaiy creed, and, in 
a reabrioted aaoaiL VolnntatTinn haa been popularly 
defined by thia dootnne. ifwatively, the du^ of 
providing for iiie (Vf^ort ol ChrirtiaB iastitutaona 
doea not ha with ne magiatnte or nation. Ihs 
giviag of uniuartyfiv the aiq^art i^ the gc«Ml hM 
been elavded by Valnntaryiam from tiu poaition of 
an almoat ekemaaynaiT and political cnatom, to the 
rank of a a ra t a Mi tin oMi jp te Mt and a finanoial law 
of tha chuc<ui. It i* leoogniaad a* an aot of religion, 
the duty and privilege of all Chiiatiana ; aod aa 
each man i* a ataward of hia ailver or gold, teapon- 
sible to nana but ita fiimt Ownv for hia diapoaal of 
it ia religion* matter*, tbs magiatrata can poaaeaa 
no light to demand fiam him any portiMi for reli- 
->na iiaea,or to i^lylo theae uaaa the jprooaeda 
tazatioD impoaed tor general andu dnl aocie^ 
bg iH«miaeaonB and vaiiaUa in Ua oonatttnant^ 

mgooant fc* U. 

bodiea out of tita poblio fnnda, i* 

' ' oooaaional granta ia 

I the liberty and property of aU 

who diaaent. The exiatence ni an abaohite m*. 

adty amoBg Iha aubjecta— evan were it poaaible, aa 

wiHild be otharwiaa, to aasertain ana aacure it 

from time td time — howenr it mi^t remove for 

"is moment l^voi any Bunda tha faaHng of politi- 

d oriavaDce incident to raeh arrangamaDta, could 

aWM joatify them at a polier, nor altar their 

laractar aa aa intaricTMue wnh religion in ita 

economica. Li ita broad aapae^ aa an ove r a lepp ii^ 

of the apbam of magiatn^, all who teatriol the 

magiatoata, on ii4iatev« apacifio groimdi^ to aaenlaz 

aflkira, muat deem aneh intarfwenoe objaotiiHiable; 

and Chrialian Tolimtariea would reatonably a^ 

-why legal machinery ahoold b« ttajilasei to aathar 

the €>ff'erinp whidt, in the atata of p«Uio amtnnait 

auppoaed, moat b* Bowing tmforaad thrsogh their 

neural channaUt and in paitdoular, wheth«; if 

Chriat haa not apptuntad the magiatrate to ' tithe 

and toll' for hi* dinreh, aocaoty can praauma to 



usigQ bim a work befond hii praviiice T There ii neceatitoiu they ezj>ect to Sow from }>rivst« eatet^ 
a moaifeit diviaioii of datiea dictated alike b7 pri>e ajid free auociatioa. Valuntariei coaiitteatly 
reBBon and revelation ; and Volimtaryiun clainu the object to gracts to denomiaatioDal achooli de- 
reaolte of eiperienca ai proof of the entire want p^ideut on the condition of teaching religion, to 
of adaptation in the compuLnry or magiitratical granti to nigged gchooU and all semi-religioug inttj- 
rower to deal nith the aapport of a living religion, tationa, aa well as to the appointment and payment 
To burden the rent-roll, moreaae the aBBesamenta, by the state of cbapUina for piiaona, the army, Ac 
distrain the gooda and chattel! of cidzena, or even In reference to the Sabbath, holding the aaared 
to preeerve ^e forma of legal exaction for auch a { character of the day, aome VoluDtariea appear to- 
pnrpose, am measnrea whit£ it ia bard to believe i admit that the magistrate ia both entitled and 
either politic, >eHptaraJ, or just The pecuniary | bound not only to make it a diei Ron in his own 

__,^ - . required for pjigioui objects 
secured, according to Volunbuyism, solely tbroogh 
the operation of mimd inflnances and aacred motives. 
Troth, as well as »«», mmt be left to provide for 
itaelt. The responsibiU^ and privilege of providing; 
tor the support of Christiaiii^ having been attached 
1^ Christ to His church, it is forther His law that 
ite institutioni shall be muntained and extended by 
the voluntary liberality of its friends. A primary 
obligation rests on those enjoying the services of a 
pastor to provide according to their ability for his 
maintenance, on the apostohc principle — ' Let him 
that ia taught in the word commnnic^ to him that 
tescheth iu all good things ;' while, on the equally 
apostolic principles, that the labourer is worthy of 
luB hire, and that the abong shoald aid the weak, a 
mutoal and coUective reaponsitnlity remains with 
tha general membmhip, to sapply each other's 
ocdeaiaBticBl neoeasitiea, and to unite in meaaurca 
that may provide an a^qnate remuneration to the 
paston or other miniatera of the church. Civil 
establishments of rebgion, together with all forma 
of ata(« endowments and grants for religious pur- 
poses, are thus condemned by Voluntaries as buman 
expedients, adverse to Christian development and 
the working of the law of salf-aupport, which alone 

rking of 
forth tfa 

and educates t 

tend to foster political dep<^dence and 

. ._ J. depend 

oUM-teeling among the recipient bodies, 

~~'' those relationaof honourable ' 

■Ibtlity nhidi b^ unite patton and people. These 
viewa express what may be called ecclesiastical 
Voluntaryism. On Hm question of education, various 
ahades of opinion exist among Voluntaries. All are 
agreed tJlat the religious education of the young 
belongs to the parent and the church, and ia not to 
be provided or auperintended by the state. How 
to aecniD this principle iu connection with a system 
of national aohoola or government grants for educa- 
tion, eontinnes to be the problem of Voluntaries. 
Some seek the solation in a plan of local boards 
representing Uie parentage and community, who 
shall manage the scbooU, and decide the character 
of tha teaohing; and of th(«e, some advocate sepwa- 
tion of the hoars for religious snd secular lessons. 
Others, who think that while by these methods 
state superintendence may be avoided, atate aid 
is yet directly or indirectly received for religious 
instruction, would accept a system which provided 
simply for schooling in secular or common branches. 
Those known as Voluntary educationists reject the 
idea of any national system, somi^ "" ^/v^nnt-. nf t-^^a 
religioui difficulty, and others 
nected with the phQoaopby of i 
theonr of govemmeot Volunuuj ■ 
would leave the education of the poor to be secured 
by tie operation of those influences which originate 
and Bustam other neceeaary and boievolent-me^ 
inrea. Hie ednoatuu of the children ot cUasei not 

deputment, but also to prohibit labour and ai ... 
ments throughout the nation. Others, equally 
holding the morality of the day, with more regard 
to strict theory, deny him the power of inflicting 
pains and penalties, however mild, in a matter 
radically religious, at the same time that they assert 
the obligation of the state to secure all its members 
dne protection and facility in the practice of their 
woranip, and to make auch lawa for this end as may 
be Bt, in view of prevailing religioDs observances 
Hoarding national fasts and tumkagivings, n 
Vdimtanea hold that the style of authtnity m wl 
royal proclamatlc 
been expressed is 
to prescribe the topics and 

and to regulate its seasons, and insist that the lan- 
guage of invitation should be subatitnted for that 
of command. Some, while ready to comply with an 
invitation of the sovereign to join in an offering of 
prayer on occasiona they juwe anitable, do not 
sJlow that it forms any part of magisteriu duty to 
issue snch appeals, or that the ro^ act imjnrts 
a national character to the service. Ordinary 
political acts become national when done by the 
proper national organs ; but no religiooi acts can 
acquire a national character except thjay are partici- 
pated by the body of the people. When this is the 
case, the exercise ia natioiLal, though not evoked by 
the call of the chief of the state, and it is not made 
more national by that call The advantage of simnl- 
taneonsneas and unity ia attainable on Uie widest 
scale by the natural concert of churches apart from 
royal initiative, which, if it may be followed when 
right, need not be waited for as indispensable to 
true DSitional worship. On the question of marriage, 
Volunbuyism, recognising its character aa a civil 
tisnsaction, demand that all religious parties stand 
on the same level in regard to it WIthholdine 
legal sanction from all immoral connections, and 
punishing breaches of tbe lawful contract, magis- 
'-—•--- are not waxnuited to visit with penalties any 
departure from the standard prescribed to 
Christian conscience, or embodied in ecclesiastical 
law. FoUtical Voluntaryism, as It ia sometimea 
called, is simply Voluntaryism expressed In the Inn- 
I politician — the doctrine of the entire 
ality of all citizens in the eye of law, 
stated and defended without reference to spedflc 
religious opinions, and in the way of appeal to 
principles generally received. 

VOLUNTEEBS— the great defensive citiien- 
force of Great Britain, in some degree corresponding 
the National Guaiii of continental states. It ia 
eaaentiftlly self-supporting, and wholly unpaid j 
althongh government arms the men, and contributes 
a certain sum towards the corporate expenditure. 
The oldest volunteer corps is the ' Honourable 
Artillery Company ' of the city of London, which 
dates from the reign of Henry VIL : although " till 
called artillery, it comprises artillery, cavalry, and 
infantry, and ia probably the oldest armed body in 
Europe. When the countty was in dread of inva- 
sion by Bonaparte, almost the whole available mala 
popnliUJon flew to arms aa volunteers, and in 1803 
they mustered 46%134 effeoUvee. About this time. 



George IIL reriewed 160,000 volanleen. The force 
gnuliudly diminished, vbea the iminediate daoger 
ceased ; and before the war oloeed, thejf were re- 
pUecd by a new force, called the ' local militia,' which 
wai suppoaed to be more thoroughly amenable to 
goverament controL Aa early aa ISGT, two amaU 
ToImiteeTConia, the let Bevon and the Victoria Biflea, 
had sprang into existence ; but in 1659, the whole 
nation seemed to awake to a lease of insecurity, with 
a compantiTely smaU army, half of which was Bhroad, 
amid the enonnons armaments of aeighbouriiiK 
states. InBfewmoDth8,IS0,000menbadoTgani»ed 
themsebrel into companies; and in the following year, 
goreruncst, which had at Grat shewn no favour 
to the movement, save it a helping band by com- 
bining the compamea into battalions, by appoint- 
ing paid adjotants and drill instructors, and by 
Uie eatabliahment of a staff of inspectors mider 
the contiDl of an Itupector-geaeral of Volunteers. 
At preaent (1S67), tbe Toluoteers Dumber about 
168^000 efifective men, in a high state of training, 
•sd capable of performing well all the simpier 
■niUbary maniEnrres. They are divided ioto a small 
number of light Hotse, Mounted Bifles, and Eugi- 
ti«en, a large force of Aitillety, and a grand army 
of Biflemen. Where 60 men can be got togeUier, a 
company of Tolanteen may be formed, which la 
entitled to a captain, Hentenant, and ensign for ita 
officers. If a place can produce a corps of two 
companieB, the senior officer becomes 'Captain 
Commandant.' Four companiea make a major's 
command. Six are sufficient to conatdtate a bat- 
talion, for which govemment prorides an adjutant, 
Qtnally an old military officer, who receiTeB lOs. a 
day besides hia forage. When there are a number 
of detached compamea in the different villages of a 
district Uiey are graaped into an administrative 
battalion (or brigade for detached batteries of 
artiUeiy) with an adjutant, and with field-officers 
■elected from the neighbooriDR sentt;. England 
M^ ScoUand are fartber divided into insprctian 

diatrieti, eadi presided over by an sssistant-in- 
■pector of volnnteers, who ranks aa a lieutenant- 
cobmd, and endeavours to keep the corps in hia 
dictrict np to the standard of efficieQCT. Over all 
these disbicts is tbe inapector-genenl ot volunteers, 
wbo i* at the bead of a deputment of the War 
Office; Every company may have an honorary 
Msistaiit-anTgeon ; but a corps of two com]>anies 
it ortitled to an aatistant-SDrgeon ; of four com- 
paaia, to a soigeon, who may have one aadBtant 
iriien there are aix companiea, and two for eight 
or mora companiee. If a corpe exceed a atrengUi 
id twelve companiea, it is coatomaiy to divide it 
into two battalions. The volunteer corps were 
raiginally rmsed nnder an act of ISOt; but the 
circomctanees of modem times having rendered 
variOQB sopplementary enadanents necessary, the 
wh^ were erobodi^ in a new act, the 26 
and Z7 Viet cap. 6S (1863), under which 
tlut T^nnteer force of Great Britain is now 

Under this act, adjntanta are apptunted by the 
crawn ; the other offieen by the lords- lieutenant of 
eonnties (thoogh practically they are elected by the 
mamberaof eoipa, ornominated by the eommanding- 
officeiB) ; the non-commisatoned officers are ap- 
pointed by the officers commanding. Adjutants 
and aergeaDt-instmctoia are at all times aubject to 
the HntinT Act— the other officers (and men) only 
wfaen their conia ia embodied i but tbe Queen 
at any time luiprive them of their commiu 
Offencea within corps, in time of peace, are pu 
^le by fines or otherwise, aa laid down in the rules 
of the several corps, which must have the approval 
U tha SeereUiy of State for War. Every volunteer 

oa joining must take the oath of allegiance, and 
moat be of the age ot 17. 

The foros may not be used in times ot civil 
disturbance, but may be embodied for active 
service au^here in Great Britain, whenever tbe 
country is invaded, or invasion ia apprehended by the 
crown. The occasion must first be communicated to 
parliament, or, if parliament be not sitting, to 
the country, by an order in conncil, and then 
the crown may direct the lords-lientenant of comi- 
ties to call out any or all of the volunteer corps in 
their respective coimties for active service. Corps 
so called out come under the Mutiny Act, and are 
bomid to march whithersoever the lord-Ueutenant 
may command. While embodied, officers and men 
are entitled to the same pay aa in the regular anny. 
In point of precedence, volunteerH rank with, but 
after, the aame ranks in the anny and militia. The 
yeomanry ore reckoned aa part of the volunteers. 
Ajnong themaelvea, the volunteers nmk in the 
following order ; lat, Li^t Horse ; 2d, Artillery ; 
3d, Eagineera ; 4th, Engineers and Bailway Trans- 
port Corps ; ath. Mounted Biflu ; 6th, Bifes. 

Membeis of a corps are honoraiy and enrolled. 
Tbe first are merely subaccibeis of a certain amount ; 
they are entitled to wear the uniform, but not to 
interfere in any manner in the coipe. The enrolled 
members are tbe actual working-men ; tbey are 
daaaed as ' efficient ' and ' non-efficient '—the effi- 
cient being those who are certified by the com- 
manding-officer and the odjntant to have a compe- 
tent knowledge of the duties of the service, and to 
have attended the following unmber of drills ; 

pncS^Ds 1^ Dw* of 



I »■»( or mnp diUla, 

dri]l>, ol vhkL e 

"llfiT'of wWc 

corps consists in tbe anpply of^ adjutants and of 
aergeant-instruotora in the proportion of 1 to a corpe 
of 3 companies or lem, 2 fiom 4 to 7 companies, 5 
up to 12 companies, tc The money aid is a eopi- 
taUoa gram of 30*. annually for each artillery 
volunteer who is efficient, and in other earpa 20«. 
annnally for each efficient volunteer, in addition to 
which there is a r»t« of 10*. for each man who fulfila 
certain conditions prescribed in the regulations. In 
scattered administrative battabons, a charge of i». 
for wch efficient ia allowed to cover the coat of 
attending battalion driUa. These allowancea are, 
however, none of Ihem personal, but are granted to 
corps, to be expended by the adjutant, who is 
accountable to the War Office, within certain limita, 
according to the discretion of tbe commanding- 
officer. Government likewise providea all the 
arms, and a certain quantity of practice-ommnni- 
tion. Corps may choose their awn uniform, subject 
to the approval of the Icrd-Ueutenant ; but no gold 
iace or buttons may be introduced. Vdonteer corps 
do not bear colours. The system has not yet been 
extended to Ireland. 



VOLUTE, in AraJiitectare, the ipinl omu 

of the Ionia and Corm- 
tbun opitali, probably 
deiiTed from Ajayn&n 
mrohitoctoi^ in vhuih it 


a Eunily of gmsteropodooi 

nollnact, of the lection 

PeetOHbraoicMaia, all 

nannB, hAving a (piial 

TolntiL shell, which >■ tnireted 

or conrolnte, the sper- 

tore notched in front, the cotumMt obtjanely 

iilaited; no operonlom. The animal hai a very large 
00^ and a recnrrad siphon. Tht ipedee are 
nnmamia, and abonnd 
oMeflj in trc^noal 
Many of them hare toj 
beautifnl ahellB, maim 
' 1 hy ahell-eoUector*. 

S^^l I 

Britain, (rf irtiidi Volnia 
tomai3it ii the onl j one 
that ia not rarci Thta 
gam* make* iti i^ipeat- 
Shell of Folttta tontatiS*. aooe in Ae OretMeooB 

nnmben in TertiaiT d^meita, no leM ^am SO 
■peoiei bdng known in the Pleiataoeue beda. 

TO'LTOX, a genot of minute wganimu^ Uie 
type of a family called Vciuodaea, now regarded 
aa Tegetable, and ranked among Prolfiphytu, bat 
which were at first supposed Ut be animals, and 
were reckoned by Efanaibag among Ir\fu*aria. 
They are glohnlar, or nearly so, are found m stag- 
nant water, and move slowly through the watra', 
rerolving roimd an axis, by the agency of nomeroua 
little fiLunents which project from green pdnta on 
their lorface. It waa on account of their motions 
that tbey were formerly thought to be animalcules, 
aud, partly on the same account^ it has been sus- 
pected that they are not really protophytee, but 
tootpota at soma kind of algte. Tnia opinion, 
however, is rendered improbaUe by their appa- 
rently poBBeasing the power of reproductioo ; green 
sranales being tonned within the parent globe, at 
first adhering to ita wall, and afterwards becoming 
detached ; the parent dobe finally burating to allow 
them to escape. Theee&equentlyeihibit, even wbilat 
wtthin the parent globe, 
a rotstory motion simi- 
Ur to ita own. The 
presence of staroh in 
the interior of &» 

detected by meana al 
iodine, and ia regarded 
aa a oonoloiiTe proof of 
their T^etable naturtt 
The most common and 
best-known spades is 
Volvox gtobaior, which 
is just Tixible to the 
naked eye. It ia 
a traniparent aphere, 
having ita surface studded with innumerable 
green spots, united by a beautiful uet-work. From 
aix to twen^ young an often to be seen in its 

VO'LVUIiUS (Lai vohert, to twist) is the term 
used in Medicine to signify a twisting of the iatea- 
iine, producing obetructiou to the passage of ita 
contents. Tlura are three distinct Taneties of 

Tulna— (1.) A pntion M intartine aay hftve beecme 
twiated on ita own axis, and, in that caae, sren 
semi-rotatdoB bringa the intestinal walla into oontact, 
so as to okaa the passage. Thia is a rsn oonditioai, 
and <mly occuia m the ascandiiu oolon. [2.} His 
Mnanntery (q. t.), or a pawt of a^ m^r be twisted 
into a ome, dtagsing.tlM intMtue mth it; tlw 
meaants^ beii^ tne uis, and the iatsstine nina 
ndlsd up npoa it This fonu oocnts in tiw nuaS 
inteatiiub (3.) A single poHicti ot » odl of iatestiiM 
may aff<ad the axis loimd wkioli anotiker portaon, 
witii it* mesentery, is throwB, so a* to oompnaa it, 
and oloae the pssswh A ooil of small intastiaat the 
mgmoid dexne or the c«cam (see Di^BDONj Oboabs 
ot), ma^ form the an& Alt these vuietuB oocor 
chiefly in adTsnosd life, m*'^ their seat is oommonly 
towards the posterior ttujaeldina wall of Uie abdo- 
minal oavi^, the smoothneaa ana yidding nature of 
Um parts sntsrioriy roidering such an erent almost 
iapoasible. Tba a^Dtptsnu <d twistii^ i£ Ute intca- 
titws, sspeoally of the aiguuM flazui^ whioh ia the 
meat """n"" Beat at the afiection, are usually, tow 
wdl "■"*'"i bom the beginning Great pain la 

spot of tiu abdomen, obstinats otmatipBlicn usually 
setting in &(Hn that date. If the sigmoid flszuie, 
whichliei iuat above the reetum, is the seat of tiia 
twiatiiw Uie abdommi aoon becomes Mtito-nAait^ 
eapecia^ on the left mde, the distention being 
mnch mora marked than when the twist ia in the 
email intestiiM^ aa night physiologicaUy have been 
e^ieoted. Tomitiiub oftai aouMnt wd eoiaoni, 
iauawJlyptesent. Ibese esMS are so desperate in 
Uuir natare, that it ia needless to aolttM men their 
taeatment. Attanpts to remove the disMsoMuent 

hitTS ottan been mad^ but with very 
UrfoQook, in his oroele on 'Diseaaa 

- ■■ -■ ■ - .,/ 

is juat poasible without opening 
, provided the long tnbe be intrtMooed ; 
the distended gut, ita contents drawn off, and the 

twiat be reduced by the altered position of the 
boweL But no operadon for the ultimate relief of 
the patient will be auoceaif ul nnleos tJie intestine be 
unloaded first, and the twist thai reduced.' — ToL iL 
p. 1S8. The operatianB that have bean prc^iosed 
tor tlie relief oi this and othw intestiiial idwtnic- 
tiona are so often &tal, and, evea when mwiessfnl, 
leave the patient in aq winched » states with an 

artificial outlet for t^ discharge of the OMitenta al 

doubtfnf w~ 
be recommended. It ia limply ft ehcaos 

le bowels, that it ii 

whetlier they aha 

almoBt certain death in a few days, and a poamble 
chance of a prolonged (but oaoslly a miserable) exist- 
ence. There are, however, a few rales that should 
be univmaally known and attended to — via, wher- 
ever symptoms such ss we have deaoribed occur, 
aperients should only be given by the reotum, while 
opium ahould be freely given by the mouth. Lsedkea 
end hot fomoitatioua uould be apidied to tlie seat 
of pain ; and all atdid food jiould be prohibited, the 

VtyMBR, a bone whieh, in the hnmaa ske l eton. 

forms part of the middle partii 

the lower edge of ^rbkh fits into grooves bstween 

the sppoaad snrflwes of the palotms pmeesaea ot 

the lower edge of irilioh 

"" ' — '' ' ■' palo^ns pmeesaea 

iper jaw and palate-bones. It exAibita many 
icatioua in the diflereot olaases ot Verttbraia, 
Ita poeitioa is indicated in the figure of Archetgpe 
Vertebrate SkdeUm, in the artide Skmlroh. It is 
Bpecislly noticed here because of the frequent 
:e of the term vomer in artddea on fiafes — 
ipottant character being often found in tha 


TOiarmo— VQNSEL. 

jmaiiiiiiii or tibaeDM of taath on the Tomer, thi 

TOVrrnrO axaaaU in tiw rtomaoli Mnpl;i» 
itMtf tlutn^i Hbe gnllst and month. It is preceded 
by k fMling <i njiMBa, a flow at salira in the month, 
mnd Hn tmaking out of penpirstion ; the ooniit 
DBBiM grows pale, a faeling ot we^knees ipteadi ot 
the wluto body, and the pnlBa becomes slov. , 
laat tite mnnka of iia ab^imen and the diaphraf 
■tcw^ contoaot, and ilie whole contenti of t 
■toinii^ are neoted wi^i greater or leu vicdeiica. 
Tbe 8(it mMera to be qected are the food and 
diiak preatnt, then mnem from die stomach and 
iiBiHiliiMiiii, and lastly, Ule fnnn the dnodennm. In 
«MM if itiinaaTi. abnonnal nlbatancei are araoetimes 
Tonited, aooh aa blood, fragments of the inteatinet, 
and VTta <scnanentitiona matters. Wlien the Tomit- 
ing is over, it is followed br languor and drmrninnsn. 
cr, if the exotonevt waa mconmdersbl^ the mnal 

Ths ODM* of Tomitdm; are Tariona. In ttw first 
•tagae of infMtcy, it ia abooat normal, aitd oooMioas 
no distnrbmoe of tbe fasten. In many **»**" *i*^ 
tocv it k a Momal function at Jih, aairiieD birds ct 
may t^eet the hair and feathsii at tiuir Tictiua; 
11m faaairt nts rid of the annecabmidant mOk it 
BwaDowi liy throwing it np with no tnniUe. Some 
jMTBOn* cam excite themaalTca to Tomit by swallow- 

Ilie tmniediate caasea d( Tomiting may be rednoMl, 
aiBB u t iBii g to Dr Caipenter, to the tliiee fiJlowing 

with file 

owBliaDS vpon the aasociated mnades mntt t» 
|ilaee In rdkcuM tiiroqgh the ncoToas eihile fi 
nidied fay tae pnenmogastiio and the motor ner^ 

_ __, (S.) ImtatioBi applied to otiker parts 

«l Vb» body, likewise openAing bv ttn^ty-r^fieB 
bansmiiBon ; aa in the Tcaniting wiucA it oooseqamt 
ftpon Hm abangolaiion c^ a hmua, or the pMiMe 
of a rauIcJcSoi; or in that which is ^Hited^ 
the inJectiOD of tutar conetio ot emcAin tato the 
circiilatinA ontmit, when these siib«tMic«a {cobaMy 
prodnee tSmr ahaiAoteriitia effect by tiiMC opcnAion 
«a the nervous centre*. (S.) ImpreHMHU reoMTtd 
thrcn^ the teruoritU centres, irineh may be eithsr 
seosataonBl or emotional, but wbicb do not operate 
onleas they are jMt- Id thia mode seem* to bs 
excited t^* vominDg that is i&dvced by tj^Big the 
fimoea, which first iPTes rite to the ■CBMtti<ai d 
nansea; aa wdl m the TtsmtiDg oonseqiMat upon 
disgMtnig s^ts, odooti, at twies, and opon flKiae 
peaidnr mtsmal sensatacBS iritdeh an prelimins^ 
fo a»«Bknaa«. The rteoOeOkm of these senwtioni, 
«OBMned wittt tiw conotunal state wUoh tikey 
III iniiiall r ecoitad, m^ iteeU become an effideirt 
caaaa m Oe aotica, at least in individnaU td 

AoMTding to the (ddest < 

nmi conmE 

aim moreananta of the stomadi, whioh was thon^it 
to take cm a motioa ooatraiy to the aaaal paria&l. 
tiemotioB. B*^ advanoed the opinimi, that the 

tJMt it* eontenta are emptied entirely by ila 
CM s piMSBd throodi tte oonbadaiins c< the abdo- 
laiasl miwiiliii* *nrl thn iJiarliTiijm AnmsKot^ 
condnsive sipviuMait <£ Hagoidisy in wfitch Um 
stomach waa reBnDTed,andabladdsiahBtitBtedfor 
it, had mom reoeuUy {in 1813) atiafied most ^■ 
_. I .-->. ^ ^ ^^ paaBTeneaa of the stomach in 

ininfBaetiCy of his 
fiwt, that in Toaoitii^ 

Ti», (1) eonbaetWDS .. 

the diaphragm rcmaint fixed, aod fonna 
.. ... ^ ^ andWthe 

It is Eonnd, in 

are two set* ol actioni^ 

' i walls, while 

OTloma^ or inferior orifio^ 

dating, while the cwdisc sphinotsi 

relaxes^ without which Jaet-named aotioa Tomitdng 

ia inqioHible; Kod tlut either of the two Unda at 

movement— the abdominal or the atomaohal' — may 

eject the oontents at the stomach into the gullet. 

In the beatment U vomiting we mnat conaider 

as a ^mptom rstlMr thaa as a malady. When 

• atmiwwh ia iwitated, relirf J* atoded, aooordiog 

^i^f^^^i^f t^n^f^^ by drinkiiig oold water, afrated or 

•oda water, or, if DeoaMtiv, by ophun M nox vmnioib 

Cold a^lieatimttontwudlyalao do good. iDothaar 


ling ethsMal oil*— < 

oofilMk Ao.— asbingaut^ or ounotiTa for aeidi^ 

■ fto^-sM the fittms leEsadiea. 

brain, the beat rsiudy 

and da^- 

WhoL tik* initation is in 

TONBBIi, JooBT -TAX DBT (pi. JMU the tpatest 
Dutch poet^ was bom at 0<£tpu, Korenber 17, 
lfiS7. hit parodi^ who were Anahaptirt*, haying fled 

itwatp to a-vtad peneoqUon. Hi* msManal 

IhB^PrterK " " 

Kraneit, ranked antOBg the posia 
of Brabant When beednm b«aa« to raise Ite 
head in HoUaDd, the dder Tondel reaoTed witJi 
hia &nily to tJtreah^ f^ a f t ar w anl * to A iiMtii'ilaiii 
iriioe he Lujapaed in bade. The poc4^* edncatjon 
inbo^MMd wBB limited to reading and writing bat 
hi* piiiaiiiiaaimi BDd,love of atmly enabled htm in 
afio^life to become intimaUy ^jsgnfint— ^ both with 
— j._i __i — 3 — literatiii* 

__^ of 13, hiapoetiaal effort* were 

praised by HoofE In hm SA year, he nianied 
Maria de Wdl, to whoaa derar managmnent T. 
'aasaaa hosier, whUa he devoted 
d poeby. The tragediea of V. 
and th^ gnmdeet ipeciinena of 
Datt^ ' litaratora. His aatirioal wnttnn and 
fall of fire, energy, and apiriC One 

wnattsMe pieoea la Luc^er, pnbliahed 

in 1664 sbikinflW risambling Milton^a ParadiM 
Lett, Mich mpeared thirteen yean later. V. took 
an earnest a^aotnre psrt in favonr of the Hemoii- 
atranta, Orotins and Oldenbameveld, drawing down 
on himself the aw(a both of the clergy and conr^ 
whom he attaduowith the keenest ai/axv. 

QyirrtAt «em Atrn$Ul, Adam in BanMmatt, 
Palanudtt, The Botaaiam BralKeri, BoUmon, Scan- 
am, Aiomah, Noah, or Aa Datnutio* qftU(Hd 
Worid, Maty Bttuirt, A(~. m« splendid eSints of 
Renint. Tht Sarpoon, The Borm-eomb, and tite 
Z>MreAtm HorrWU are ttinging MtiiesMi the nding 
powers both in ohnrdi and stMCh T.'g banalationi 
from the Cheek and Boman writcn are nnmeront, 
the MetamorjAotet of Ovid having been mndered 
into DntohrerM when he was S4 years dd. T, left 
no sabjeot untouched, no measttre onbied. His 
woda (9 vols, qoarto) contain many aea-aonga, and 

than 100 odes. Many of the later pottos were 

an with a strong Bonun Catholic *pni^ he 
ig joined that cburdt nbont 104a Throagh 
^^ _npmdencca of hia son, to whom he had given 
hia bnsineaB, T. fell into straitened cireamstancet. 

him to retire with M* talary of < 

whidi kept him above want. He - 

statnre, well made, and had an eagle eye. After 
oi body and memory had began to bil, 
■ ■ -Toffied ■ ■ 

be cooid stiU read without ^ 




n the Cth of Febnuiy 1679, at the ags of 91, and 
m ouried to bia reatiiig-plsce in the new church, 
Anuterdkin, by fouitecD poets, himseli Piinoepa 


TOPASEVA u a celebrated ETaniinaria_ ._ 
IndiiL He wrote a grammar eatiHea MvgdJiabodiia, 
nhich IB held in hmh repute, especially in Bengal, 
and waa comisented upon by Durpaddta. (Both 
text and commeDtair have been edited at Calcuttn 
in 1861; previous editions contain merely the text 
of v.' B grammar.) It diOen from the great vork 
&Q'ini (q. T.)in its arrangement as welTas in its U 
inology; andwithouttbecommentarjof DurgadSsa, 
would not yield by far the information that may be 
derived from Pftaini's grammar. It is valuable, 
however, on account of many later Sanscrit forma- 
tlona, that coold not be contamed in the older work. 
V. composed also a, catal<^e of Saosctit iViAtut, or 
so-called radicals, in Terse, called KaBikcUpadnima 
(published at Calcutta, 1348), aod a commentary on 
it, tiie SdvyatdnadJmna. Another grammatical 
work, the RAmapydixiran'a is likewise attributed to 
his anthanhip. According to a general tradition 
prevalent in India, V. would also oe the author of 
ona of the most renowned Putfta'as (q. v,), the BkA- 
gavaia-PurAn'a; and in a little treatise, the Duinana- 
mukho-chapet'ika, or 'a slap on the faoe of the 
wicked,' which is averse to tlua tradition, and main- 
tains tiat Vyflaa (q. v.) was the author of this 
Putlii'a, three other works of a Rligioua character 
are aaaigned to V. — viz., the Paravia/iantapriya, 
HulldpAala, and BariOiA. A little medical work, 
the Satai/lokadiandTikA, though written by a Vopa- 
deva (see Professor Anfrecht'a Calaioipu of lAe 
Sanaeril MSB. of lAe BodUiaa iifrrory), does not 
~ em to belong to the author of the works jost 

entioned. The date of V., given by some as ' ' 
12t]i, by othera as the 13th c. after Christ, 
accordii^ to Bumoof > investigation, the second 
half of ^e 13th ceatmy.— See £. Bumouf s Preface 
to his editiou, and French translation, of the firvt 
nine books of Le Bhdgottala Pvrdn'a, voL i. (Paris, 

VORAKT, in Heraldry, a term applied to an 
EiDimal represented aa swallowing another; as, 
sable, a dolphin aoiant, vorant a fish proper. 

TOROME'JB, or VORONETZ (pronounced 
Voroaah], a government in the south of Great 
Russia, bounded on the S, by Little Russia and 
South Russia. Area, 26,712 sq. m. ; pop. (1S66) 

1,976,000, „ 

nists. It is watered by the Don, its two navigabk 
tributaries, the Toroneje and Khoper, and oUiec 
streams. The soil, mostly a black mould, is generally 
fertile, and great crops of groin — wheat, rye, barley, 
oats, and millet (which supply the inhabitants and 
local distilleries, and are exported) — are produced. 
Cattle and horses of a good breed are reared — the 
best studs belong to tiie crown. The principal 
manufactured articles are brandy, beer, cloth, beet- 
root, sugar, skins, waz-eandles, soap, tobacco, and 
potsiss; and com,, tallow, hemp-seed, cattle, and 
horses are exported to Moscow, St Petersburg, &c 

YORONEJE, a town i^ Great Russia, capital of 
the government of the same name, stands on the 
right bank of the Voroneje, ISO miles south-west of 
Tambov. It was fonnded in 16S6 as a bulwark 
against Tartar invation. Peter the Great, who had 
previously visited the town, built a fortress and a 
dockyard here in 1694. Besides two cathedrals, 
the town has many important civil, ecclesiastical, 
and educational institutions. The commerce of V. 
is extendve — the chief articles of trade being com, 
hemp'Seed, and tallow. Pop. 40,967. 

VCETEX (Lat a whirlpool). TiU lately, it WM 

a reproach to HydiodynamiM that the thecoy <^ 
vortices or eddies in fluida had not been properiy 
brought under the domain of mathematical analyait. 
Even now, the problem has only been partially solved 
by the labours chiefly of Stokes (q. v.) and Helm- 
holtz (q. v.), as their beautiful investigations i^tply 
only to ^frftet, fluids, that ia, fluids which oppose 
no frictional resistance to change of shape. In 
ordinary motions of perfect fluids, auch as currents, 
and waves, the instaotaneons change of shape of 
a small spherical portion makes it an ellipsoid by 
simple eiteniions and compressions vnUuml rota- 
tion. The essential characteristic of vortez-motioa 
ia, that it involves rotation of gome parts of the 
fluid. HelmholtE has shewn that this rotational 
or TorteX'motJon remains with Uie parts of the 
fluid which flnt have it, and cannot be transferred. 
We con conceive no process by which vortex- 
motion could be given to, or taken from, a perfect 
fluid ; for to oar reason fluid friction (which doe* 
not exist in a perfect fluid) would seem to be 
indispensable. On such abstruse subjects we 
cannot of course enter here ; but one result of 
Helmholtz'a investintions ia so curious that we 
must mentioa it. We ore all familiar with those 
singular smoke-rings which are produced when a 
mortar ia fired ; or when, on a smaller scale, a 
babble of phoaphuretted hydrogen takes Are in 
air, or a smoker skilfully emits a pufT of tobacco- 
smoke. A very simfje mode of prcducing tiiem, on 
even a large scale, is to bore a hole in one side of a 
box, remove the opposite sde, and subetdtnte a cloth 
or sheet of india-rubber for it. A slight blow on 
this membrane ejects a vortex-ring from the hole. 
To make this vortex visible, we may hum phoo- 
phoruB or moistened gunpowder in the box; or 
still better, sprinkle its interior with ammonia, and 
introduce a vessel containing common salt and aol- 
phurlc acid. The aal-ammoniao cloud wkioh fills, 
the box is admirably 
adapted to display 
the rings. The gene- 
ral chonujterof these 
rings, or vortex-tubea, 
is ahewa in the dia- 

a progressive moljon 
aa a whole, the ring 
revolves about its 
own central or medial f^, I. 

lineL Suppose two 

such rings to follow each other, with their planea 
parallel, and their centne moving in the same 
line, Eelmholtz shews that (at least in a perfect 
fluid) the foremost will relax ita speed, and 
Hi^ead out into a Iwger ring, while its follower 
will conta-aot, and qni^en its pace, till it passes 
through the other. Which in turn becomes the pur- 
suer, and BO on. This very curious result may ha 
tealised in a tea-cnp, by drawing the balf-iiametsed 
bowl of a tea-spoon ^ons the surface of the tea 
for a short way, and -wittdrawing it. Two little 
whirlpools, or vortioes, are then seen moving sida 
by Bide. Tiiey ore sections of the half vortex- 
nng which has been formed in the liquid by the 
spoon. A second half-ring may be at once sent 
after them by another stroke of the spoon, and the 
phenomenon above deBcribed will bo obtained. 
When, on the contrary, two such vortex-rings fTuet, 
their centres moving in one line, they both spread 
out, and relax tlieir speed ind^nitely. This is 
obtained in a liquid by letting the half vortcz-ring 
impmge directly on Uie side of the vessel, when 
it spreads out, and relaxes its speed ; just as if 
there were no boundsiy of tiie fluid, but a second 




Tortei-ring occapyiae the place of the image oF the 
£nt which would be lormecl hj a plana minor snb- 
atituted for the aide of the veaaet. When one vortex- 
ling impineea obliquely on sooUier, it rebounds 
from it, ftod both are thrown into vibration, thtdr 
form of equilibrium Iiemg circular. They act in 
fact in this respect like solid india-rubber ringa. 
By forming them from an elliptic aperture, they are 
prodaced ui a state of vibration. A square aper- 
ture give* them in a different state of vibratiou. 

The impoaaibiLty of producing or destroyiug 
vortez-riagi in a perfect fluid — save by creative 
power — hu lately led W. Thomaou (q. v.) to regard 

Fig. 2. 

the nltimate ports of matter as Tortices of varioni 
kiiida in a perfect fluid. Two inch indestructible 
vorttx-alonu are here sketched (Gg. 2). 

The word vortei has alao coma into use in con- 
nection with Descartea's once celebrated theory of 
the DuiTerae, given in hit Priadpia Philotopliia, In 
this the rotation of the planets about the sun, the 
•■tellitea about tie planeta, &o. were eiplaioed (!)by 
the hypoHiesis of vortices for ever whirling about 
the central body. Descartes was 
dan, but in Natural f ' 
ijiyaica to eiperimen! . 

nuHiiily. But he is not to be laughed at : mistakes 
ridicoloua than bis are gravely propounded at 


VORTICE'LLID.^, > famUy of I-i/uioria, 
remarkable for beanty, and containing a grent 
number of species, to which, from their form, the 
name of BfU or BtU-fiomer A nimalada is often given. 
The genns VorlictUa coosiata of minute cup-shaped or 

I^onp o( Bell-flowei Ammalcnles [Tbriietlla n^utifera). 

beO'Shaped creatures, each placed at the top of a 
long flexible italk, the other end of which is 
attached to eome object aa the steni or leaf of an 

aquatic plant. Around the edge of the bell or cup 
ia a fringe of rather long cilia, the motion of which 
brings food to the mouth. The stem ia flexible, and 
is sometimes stretched out to its full length, some- 
times contracted in a spiral form. The contraction 
takes place inatantaneoualy upon any alarm, the 
cilia at the same time vanishing ; and it is very 
interesting to watch a group of Vorliedia, which may 
often be easily done with a Coddiogton Una, when 
they adhere to the iuside of the glaas of an aqua- 
rium. The stem ia often beautifiUly branched, the 
VoTtiaila becoming a compound animal, like many 
zoophytes, and the whole contracts or ia extended 
at onoe. The stem, slender as it is, is a tube, 
through the whole length of which runs a minute 
musclar thread. A cup or bell of a Vbrlicella 
lometimea develop! a new fringe of cilia at its 
point of junction with the stem, Decomee detached 
from the stem, and begins to move freely through 
the water, till it finds a new place on which to hx 
itself, reproduction thus taking place by gemma. 
tioD. Reproduction alao takes place by encapsula- 
tion. See Invusobia. To the famdy V. belonga 
the genns Slmtor, liaving a trumpet-ahaped body, 
and therefore receiving^ the popular name of 
Tmmpet Animalcules. They swim freely through 
the water, at the tame time rotating on an axis, 
and attach themselvea to objects by a sucker at the 
lower or narrow end They have a fringe of cilia 
round the mouth, and the body of some species 
is covered with cilia. They are very voracious. 
They may often be found adhering to a twig or the 
stem of an aquatic plant, collapsed into minute 
masses of green jelly. 

YOSOES, a dep. in the north-eaat of France, 
formed out of the south part of the old province 
of Lorraine, ia bounded on the K. by the depart- 
ments of Meuse and Meurthe, aod on the h. by 
tboaeof Baa-Rhin andHaut-Rhio. Area,234GBq. m.; 
pop. 415,485. The surface is mountainous, ths'ter- 
ritory b«^ing traversed not only by the Vosges Moun- 
tains, which run along its east border, but also by 
the Faucillea fountains, which cross the dep. from 
eaat to west. The chief rivers are the Moselle, and 
ita tributaries the Meurthe, Madon, oud Mortagne, 
all of which flow in a north or north. weat course 
through this department. The mountains in tho 
eOBt are covered with vast forests of beech and flr, 
and at the base of the mountains are tracts of pus. 
ture or rollinc infertile plains. The weat part of the 
dep., called the i'^ine, is very fertile iii cereals, 
vegetables, and fruits. Among the hills, the climate 
ia cold ; on the Flaine, it is humid. About 4,4011,000 
gallons of wine are produced annually. Mineral 
riches abound, there being iron, lead, copper, cobalt, 
and antimouy mines. Of the kind of cheese called 
Ofromi, 23,671 cwta. are made annually. The dep. 
is divided into the four orrondiasements, Mirecourt, 
Nenfchttean, Bemiremoat, Saint-Die. The capital 
ia Bplnal. 

GcT. Watgau), a range of mountains ia the north- 
east of Francs and the weat of Germany, run from 
south to north, on the left bank of the Rhine, from 
the borders of the departments Haute.Soonc, Haut- 
Rhin, and Douba, north to Mainz. The range nina 
parallel with tho Schwarzwald or Black Forest in 
Baden and WUrtemberg, on the riaht bonk of the 
Bhine, and it separates what were the old provinces 
oE Lorraine and Alsace. The aiinmiits are rounded 
and regular in outline, and are called ballong. The 
chief i3 them are the BoUon de Guebvriller, 4690 
feet; le Hobeneck, 4429 feet; and the Ballon 
d'AJsac^ 4101 feet. The length within the French 
boundaries of the V. M. is 100 miles. They are 


V089— voTi va 

covered with fonsta, aod abomul in rook'ral^ «3m, 
copper, lead, and oa«L 

TOSS, JoBAMK HxniXKS, one of tho foraraod 
,>lii yrin«l wiiten of G«nu(^, wm bom in 17fil at 
SonunoMdoif in Ibaklenbaqj^ irf poor pnaita. In 
177% 1m weni to tiio inuTeiaitr « GMtingen, and 
than Joined Uie 'Hamband,' an aModationM young 
Hieti, at tiie head of whom afeood BUigm' and Btqe. 
V. fint intended to derote lunueU to OutAigj, fast 
' ' ' ' ned to Omdc and BiHoan 

lowed, ii 

andabeok, WAitlm oe uul Kone l<a the par- 
editing tlio JIf namaJMrnwcn, to Otteraoor^ 
in Hadaln, when he mpaMd hi* trandatioa d Uie 
Odjfutg. This wwaiea in 1781, and waa nomved 
widimuwaala]^>[asae. Intl^iMzt^earbBbMMnie 
iwttnr nf Satin, vheno^ in 17S9, be MWied hi* Qer- 
Yiigil'i Otoriie*. Tbaa waa fol- 
1793, by a new and mited edition of the 
uerman Odftteu and IHad, wluob, howercr, did not 
nteet with aa iaraniaUe a leo^tion m tiie fint. 
Hia oonterta with Heyne (q. v.) gave alio rise 
ohieflj to hia MytMogteal LAtsn, whkli mewad 
in ITU. AmoiuhiipiiralyOemianiNetioalwoAB, 
Lmat, an JdjU (1783, mriaed 1796), takea a fomnaat 
plaoa. In 1799, he iasned the wh<de ut Viigil 
in a Oennan tzanalatian. In 1602, he went to 
Jena, when he wrote tie oelebtated review of 
Heyne'a lUad. In 1806, hs wai called to Eeidel- 
beig, where ha wrote annotated Qennaa tranala- 
taooi of Honoe, EUod, TheoontM, Burl Hca- 
chna,Tibullna,aiidX9gdamoB. In 1B21, he pahbihed 
a ttMisIation of Aiiat^ihanee, aod a new edition of 
HocaoB uid Viigil Ajood^ other Ittenty labours 
most also be mentioned hu tnuuhAian (witli tho 
aid of hii two aone) ti. 8hak*p««re'a woriia, iritieh, 
howaveF.iavc^infsriiatoSdilK^'t. lacppontion 
to CceoEer'a Amiott^ he wrote an AnSt^mboGk 
(1824), in iriiieh he lifted up hia ysAaa ^^aind exag- 
Bsnted prattea of heathen myaUtuaiu; and one of 
hia laat papen waa a Tiolent denimoiation of hii 
former friend Stolberfb who had toned Boman 
Catholio. He cUed at Heidelberc in ISSft. Among 
hia tnuuUtioii* from modeni tannucea ma^ be 
mentionad that from Oalland'a Anman Ntghii, 
and that of Shafteabuy's worka. A Inief motion 
may also be made of hu twa Hma : (1) Hhfbi(i&, 
bom 1779, a philologiat of marit, who awitted hi* 
father in hia Shakapeare tiaiulatiou, and who waa 
a great fiiebd of Jean Paul'*. He had intended to 
edit the latter'a woika, bat died before him- in 1822. 
(2) A^Himir, bom at Batin, Pnifellor of tne Gym- 

T08BIUS, Ohusi>, one of the moat diatingaiBhed 
icholata of the Giat half of the 17th o, waa bom ai 

John ToB^ bat he, after the faahioo of the time, had 
Idtiniaed it into J(diann«a Toaaina, and hence hia aoo 
called himaelf Gwudas Jidiaimia v., that ia, Q«Eaid, 
the BOD of John. In 1576, the family returned to 
Holland, and aettled at Doidrecht, where T. went 
to ichooL He afterwarda diatiagaished himaelf at 
the nniveraity of Leyden ; and when 22, he returned 
to Dordrecht, to lieooiiis the prinoipal of the 
~^"' of wluoh he waa the moii diatiiuaiahed 
He married ahortly afterwarda, bat hia wife 
1607, leaving a family of three diildren. 
uie »me year, he i^ain manied, and W hia aeoond 
wife he had two aooi and fire dan^tns. In the 
earlier part of hia hf e, T. doea not appeal to hav* 
pobliahed much, bat he became known to hia oonn- 
bymen aa a acholar and theologian ; and hia aaidaity 


tndynaybeinfatnd fromti 
aaltowafriead to atn wj 
rter of am hoar, la 1614, 

from the faot that he wMid 

qnaiter of am hoar, bk 1614, be beoMne yriaemal 
of tiM theolofpeal otdkge of Leyden, and whde hcdd> 
ing tina wpuntment, pnbhahed a wcaA: on F«l*> 
foanina {filittaria Ftta^iima). In it he ^oka eC 
tbsAmtimans in ao wolontio time, and tbarety 
tnoo^ down i^on himBaU the wiath of a laigs 
■eeiion of tiie I)ntah oleivy ; whidi canaed hnn to 
be desnred of hia office m the Iheolggi oa l Mlleg^ 
and <» tiie inconM derived from ik Kawrafc had 
attnoted attention in bgland, and it waa aone MMO- 
MBMtion to him that he reottved from AnditadM^ 
Land an offioe which bioaght him£I0O a yMr with- 
out ita bdiu; neceasKy he ahonld live oat of H<d- 
land. Ghie^, it appeaia^ to aaoore the meana of 
anpportiiig hia hmily, he rettaeted the oinnicaM he 
had ezpiMed, in hia book De BUtorieu LaUaii, 
pobliahed in 1627, and he beoama leoonoibd to the 
ohnroh. In 1S33, he waa qipwnted ProfeMOC of 
Hiatoiy in a new nnivcoatt^ at Amateedam, iriiece 
he aeema to have devoted himMlt to the aomiileti<u 
of the great worka on which hia fame reats. AmoDg 
the moat important of theae not mentioned abov* 
ware: Atiilarduu rive dt Aria GratnnwMea, Ltbri 
VII.; De HittontM Graai, Libri IF.; Commm- 
tariomm Bhetorieorttm rive Oralorianan InMitit- 
lionum, Libri VI. j De Vetavm Foetarm Tmipo- 
rifrw, Libri II. In 16W, Y. waa olimbii^ tb» 
ladder of his litnary when it bnike ; he fell Timltw 
the ahelvaa and bo^^ and died of the i^ioiMB he 

aooonuliahmmti, and learning. QiotinB aaid of v 
in rai(^aaiiQ«tio Latin, that it waa doobt&a whctiter 
by nis book* or hi* children he had oontaibutad 


VOSSHTB, IsAAO, a a. ^ . .. 

the only bod of Qcnid Ycaaiiia who anrvived him. 
He waa bom at Leydan in 1618. WheD21,hepab- 
lished ao edili<m of the Penpina of Sc^ai, the Qmek 

manuBoriptB. In 1648, he took np hia abode at tha 
ooDit of Qaeen Chriatiiia of Swedenj but in '*" 

d at nfinon, he waa 
iim of WindscT, and 

here, althongh he openW ao 
appointed 1^ Chariaa Q. a 

died ^me in 1668, and it ia recorded that on hia 
deatlibed he lefaaed to take the aaoiameot, until 
one of his odleaoDea aigned that he on^it to do ao 
fw the honour oTthediapts. HiawaAaarenumet- 
oua, bat not ao iiiipiiitiauli aa tboae of hia father. 

TnTBTta^ * Bnnnrwur n»^ i. .n nff.»»» pni.i.h.H. 

by fine or impriaonment, and by a ^auMty of £60 
beudea,whiahmaybeanadfwInanmfMmer. The 
oSance ia inoloded nndw the heaa of ukdne inflnenoe, 
and ly the 17 and 18 Yiot 10% a. i^ ia defined to 
be, the diieoUy or indiMotly makmg naa o^ cr 
threatening to make naa of, a^r force, violeooet or 
reetraint, in order to iDduoa oroompel aach voter to 
refrain from voting at any election. 
YOTITB (Lat «ofMw, given in virtue of a vow i. 

aooom^iihment of the.^iayer which "■*>™r*"'*^ 
the vow. Of audi rolnre eiwuenMnti tban aie 
nomeioaa examplea in the Old TMtanwnt (Irit. 
Eiii. IB, Bent. ni. 6), aa wril aa in the aavant 



^J^Aorun Tlieodcvet iDt Ovr. Grme. A^ik^ 
»IIiid«a to the |>Botice in bis awa daj of hu^ 
op, in tike t^ardMB dedictttad to tke nmta, litfle 
awd«la «f handa, fae^ ma, ftc, in 
nwmontaon of tbe onra of hat 

tiiroof^ tknr 
coDtiniicd thronglioiit tiie 
thnmjhmt the mediaral period, aii^ itill pievula 
in Bmian Catiiolio oonnlxtei, erpKoiHj in IUI7 
and SoiiSiem Qennaay. Votive mTeriiiBa, trften of 
Tciy ooondenbk value, may be aaeii in tlw ohnrahci 
of moat of the gieot SaiwtiMnM (q. t.), and in other 
ehunilKB in ^edal lepnte m puee* of derotioa. 
The offering Ten beiiiiently takca the foim «f * 
TotiTB t^del^ wHh an inaeription detufing the awnt 

, . . . l-iarrinn a » 

mataU, nvOar to thoae aHndad to by Theodceet . 
and vKtmamOj by a model of aama objeot, irtuoh 
is noMit to reoall me meinoT7 <rf the {ntovt reoem ~ 

. . alt, ihh^ in cmo of maiga bom eUpwic^ &a 
ICany of Oe ^cai dwnJiea, ho^tali, monaeteriia, 
and oUter nligkiui nkotutmcoiti m the middle agoB 
and «l later tamet, were bnilt e> volo,- and ttie 
tnantriM d mort of the rich oathednds and other 
ehnttbea abroad ooutun ohjeeta of great valoe, the 
nanlt of votive eng^fcmrata on the part of the 
dnuna. ^n name wKm b bIm> ap^ied in the 
Ttn».«, Cathc^ ChnKdi to the maia at oQmex 
Bwioe, when it la oelebnted— as ia permitted on 
eertun daji aad in coiain ■eaamui — not aooonlii^ 
to the lito pnataibed fcr the day itadLbut acoorf 
— '-"jnuit himadf from 

ing to a rifeaoleetod b; 

of aodh 'votive 
oScea,' M 'of the Kasion,' 'of the Holv 'bimty,' 
' «f tfae mewed Tir^ Uaiy,' &c, whioh are ood- 
f^^jiyi^ nL the MiflBftl and Brcfviary, 

TOTTSSOIBS, Hie individnal abmea forming an 
aroh, and of whioh the oentral one ii the keyitone. 
Xbeiy an alwi^ of a bnnckted wedge-form. 

'VOW{Fr. wni,fnaaXiat voftm], ajromiMmade 
to God M a oertain thing or aotiom good in itMl^ 
and witliim th« dominion Mad right (rf ttie pecMD pro- 
immng. 73ie facetiae of vow* qtpeari to bave formed 
part of the rdigioaa obaeo^aneeot almoat «U raoea 
m any degree omlued ; and it largely pervaded ihe 
whole ceremonial lyBtem of the Moeaio diBpeneation 
IGen. xxviii. 20, Lev, xrvii. S, 1 Chron. (L Pandip. 
Vnlg.] zzii. 9, 2 Chroc xxa. 6, Jodgee xL 30, 
Smn. m. 2, J'ndith xvi. 19, Jon. i. 16). The 
atringeHy of the obligation of fnlfitling a vow ^thmi 
onoe naa% ii diatULCtly laid down pent xziii. 21 ; 
Eodca. T. 4, S) ; bat it i» eqoaUy clearly stated, 
that it i« by no meana a matt«ar of obligation to 
make a vow (Dent, xziii. 22). The praotioe of 
Mntinued among Uie Jew* intiie time 
, and St Fanl, ^er hia oonveraion to 
Chriatiaoi^, cmtinned to oonform to this naage 
(Acto xviiL 18Q. It wonld be ont of place to enter 
hare into Om qnestion, whether tJiia obeemnce was 
BMant by our Lord to form part of hia new diapen- 
■lion, or to diaonaa how fw the pnctioe of vows, 
e^eeiany of idiaati^, can be traoed aa in nse among 
Hm ChriatiaiB of me first u>d aecond oentnry ; hiA 

tL, and aoon aftanrarda apread all 
See Axttan, Vaul, Monaobieu. 
y to add, that vow^ while diacanied 
a rol^oDi obaemnoe by the Beformera, enter 
_i_ £*„ *i„ — 1._^ pf y,g Boman OaUudio 

Chnroh. The objeda of t .^ „ ,„^ 

Catholioa are very variona ; but tlwy are drawn, for 
the moat Mfft^ from what aie called the evangdical 

beiiuc the eo-csJled ' evuig 
chae&ty, and obedisiD^J „ 
of abetinaiec^ ot other aelf-m 

a of povcoty, 

, however, aota 

moationB, whether 

Towi ; and there ia another large olata of mrae matmial 
objecta, aa the bnilding of chnrchea, monaateriae, 
hoapitala, and other worlu of pablio intareat or 
otili^, to which medieval Europe waa indebted for 
many of ita moat magnifioent memorials of piety 
and of art Towa in the Boman Chnioh law are 
tathw'nujde' or 'solemn.' 13iepriikcinJdifEerenee 
between them ocmaiatB in the l^gal raeoti of the 
'•olemn' vow, whioh, where Hm onhjeot ol soch 
vow ii ohasti^, rsoden not ni«rely imlawfol, bnt 
nan and nnd, a marriage (nbaagneiitiy oontraoted. 
A. 'aimple' vow of chaatdty ma^es it nolawfnl to 
marry, bnt, azoept in the Jeaoit Society, doea not 
invalidate a marriaee, if BnbaeqnenlJy oontracted. 
Catholics acknowle&e in the chnrch a power of 
dispensing in vowa ; bnt this is held to be rather 
deckratoiy than remissory, and it is not acknow- 
ledged in the caae of vowa whidt involve any ri^t 
of a third ^arty. Bidiopa are held to posaesa the 
power of dispeniiiig in an^le vowa generally; bnt 
the power of diapenaiut in aolHun vowa and in 
oertain fdmple vowi, ai,fcr ezan^ile, tiiatof abaolnto 

^«a, ia leeerved to xim pop^ The^ 
tion of the oanon lav regarding vowa has evidently 
been mnoh modified, even in CatJiolia conntries^ 
since the French Bevolntion, and the anbeequent 
political changes ; but tliis mnst be nndeistood to 
vegard chiefly their external and fnrely juridical 
lUecte. Sofu aa concerns their Bpirrtual obligatioii, 
the modem Boman thet^ogy recognise* little if any 
change. — See Ferraris, BHiSoAtea Cajwaica ; AndrS, 
Crmri dt Droit Ckoum; WcMer and Wetae's Ktrdun- 


TB'IHASFATI, or, aa the word is written in 
Tedio works, HKIHASPATI (from br'ih, probably 
•^r, andpofi, protector, lord), is, in Tedio 
r, the goardian 1^ the hymns or prayen 
by the pious to the gods, and ha is tliere- 
' ^ ' ■ 1 - . . 1 ' ijijQnijrt 

^ oe,he 18 
highest heaven of supreme 
light,' because the prayera reach him first; he ia 
'scad,' because hia boea are the aeven Vedio 
. and he ia ' attended by all the oonqMniea of 
goda,' or 'r eg ea o nto all gods,' when the aacrifioa ia 
performed. Sdng thus t£a ' fint aharer of the offer- 
mg,' he ia aometimca alao identified with AmL 
Wm function of gnardian of the hymns being similar 
to that of a priest and spiritual teacher, he ia further 
repreaented aa a priest of the gods, who hiTnanl* 
' oelebn^a* woiah^ ; ' as ' the obeerver of truth,' 
tod aa imparting 'virtoons instruction. In the 
jpic and PwAnio mythokwv, V. figures especially aa 
pree^itOT ot Hie goda and Srishi^ and aa nich he also 
caosea Hbtaa to perform aaorifices. A new character, 
however, in irtiich he afpeaxa at that period is that 
ol i^ent of the planet Jupiter 1 and in the cere- 
monies perfonnea in honour of the planets . and 
described in several Furtn'as, a apecial worship is 
paid 1dm in tU* capacity. 

TB'IIBA. See Iksri. 

WLOAS (the name is probably connected with 
jU^en andj^gur, and may be tranalated the 'bright 



or shining one') was the old Italian aoi of fire. 
The Tariona mytha in connection with T. prove 
the great antiqnity of hia wonhip. Latterly, tlie 
chancter, Attributes, and hiatonr of the Qreek 
HephuBtoB were transferred to v., aaid the two 
thuB became identified. According to Homer 
JETephsBtua was the son of Zeus and Hera ; later 
accoimts, however, asserting that the latter gare 
birth to him without any co-operation on the part 
of her hnsband. He appears to have been twice 
violently expelled from Olympus— the first occasion 
was shortly after his birth, when he was dropped 
upon the earth by hia mother, who waa diasuated 
with bis sickly deformity ; he waa receiTed by the 
marine divijtities, Thetis and Euronyme, with whom 
he dwelt for nine years. He aftem^rda ntumed to 
Heaven, and on Lnterfering in a quarrel between hig 
mother and Zeus, the Utter seized him by the le 
and flung him from Olympna. After bUUng for 
whole day, he slighted on Lenmoa, where he w: 
kindly received by the Sintiiuis. He afterwards 
returned bi Olympus. Homer makes him lame 
from hit birth, while later wnt«n attribute this 


defect to his second foil on Lemnos. The papoli 
notion of V. or Hephiestus a.ppears to have been that 
of a harly, lame, good-natured, awkward mid, often 
made the butt ajid Iftughing-itock of his feUows. He 
had B mogniGcent palace of hia own in Olympus, 
'immoital, brazen, shining like stars,' in which 
was his workshop, containing an anvil and 20 
bellows, which worked at his command. I^ter 
accounts locate his workshop in the interior of some 
volcanic isle, snob as I«miios, lipara, Sicily, ftc, 
and give him as workmen the Cyclopes, Brontes, 
SteropcB, tc. Many wonderful wortu of art are 

tpont^ng in some respect* to AtheneTboth instructed 
men in the useful and onumental arts, hod the 
power of healing, tc, and at Athens, had templea 
and festivals in common. In the Iliad, the wife of 
^ephtestns is Charis ; while in the Odymty, and 
n later writers, he is represented as being much 
tormented by the omotus of his frail and charm- 
ing spoDse Aphrodite, with her favourite Ares 
(Man]. In the earlier statues, his lameness appears 
to have been Indicated ; but latterly, he was repre- 
Banted OS a full-growii, vigorous man, with a besfd. 

■yU'LCANISM, a tenn proposed by Humboldt 
to include all the evidences of internal heat, such as 
volcanoes, hot springii, Ac 

BUBBER. See Caoutchouc. 

TU'LOATB is the name of a wdl-known Latin 
bonslatiooof the Old Testament, done by Jerome, 

who, when anESgad in correcting t 

text itselL He commenced this labour abont 3S5 
A.D. {with the hooka of Samuel and Kings), and 
completed it in 405. This new version, uuiou^ 
not free from the reproach of casual *'"'•■' "'"f, and 
faulty and insufficient eiegetical knowledge, yet 
snniaBsed all previoos one« in general conectness 
and accoiKcy ; a circomstaoce i^ch did not fail to 
bring Jerome into bad odour. The discrepancies 
between the V. and the Itala, which had been made 
from the LXX., were so numcrona and important, 
that the charse of heresy and falsification of Scrip- 
ture was apemy preferred against the translator by 
Enfinnt, and even 3t Angustine was doubtful for 
some time whether this diarge might not be true. 
But gradually it mode its way in tQe church, first 
in G«ul, then in Home— chiefly through Gregory 
the Great — and finally throughout the Weat. Abont 
200 yean after Jerome's death, it became the oni- 
veisally received version of the church. Not lona 
however, did it exist in its puis and unadulterated 
form. Partly through the influence of the emen- 
dated Itola, partly through the manifold gener*t 
cansei of nwlect, hastiness, and the test, which 
have gone so far to spoil almost every ancient MS., 
the text of the Vulgate had become so coimpted, 
" ' ' '102, Charlemagne commissioned Alcum ta 
. „ by old MSS., and te compare it with the 
Hebrew tert This revision, however, to which 
afterwards came other 'emendations,' in the 11th 
and 12th c. (by Lanfranc, Archbishop of Caster' 
bury, and Cardinal Nicolaus respectively), completely 
cbuiged the original character of the work. Nor 
did the ' Correctoria Biblica' (L e., certain colleo- 
tioDS of commentated and revised texts, issaed at 
the period), do much for the improvement of the 
cormpted HSS. The confusion between the different 
codices was chiefly remarked, when the Tridentine 
Council, in 1544. first declared the V. the authorised 
of the Roman Church, and decreed the pre- 
paration of an authenticated edition. In 1564, 
the Papal Chair undertook the task ; but uot before 
16S0 did Siitus V. produce the work. This, how- 
ever, turned out to be so utterly incorrect and 
faulty throughout, that the copies were speedily 
ippressed i and another edition, which appeared in 
•92, was prepared under Clement VITL, te which 
the next year (1593] that other edition succeeded, 
which has since remained the normal edition of the 
Church of Rome, and has been reprinted unchanged 
ever sioce. We may add, that the AnKlo-Saxon 
transIatiOQ of the Pentateuch and Joshua, by Adfric 
(10th o.), has been msde from the V.. and not. 

and that the V. has < 

inte Arabic (the Psalms even inte Persian) for the 

w oE the Roman Catholics in the East 
V U'LNETD, a heraldic term, applied to on animal, 

' part of an animal— as, for example, a human 
heart; wounded, and with the blood dropping fnmi 
it A. pehcan in her piety (see PEUfUN] is somedmes 
descri&d as vulning heraelt 

VXTLTirBB (Vulttir), a Linnrain genns of rapa- 
cious birds, now forming the familv Valiurida, to 
almost all the apeoies of which &e name V. is 
popularly given. The Vulbirida have a longer beak 
than the Falaiaida, and it is straight at the baae, 
ilightly or not at all toothed, the upper mandible 
longer than the lower, and hooked at the tip, the 
nei^ generally bore, or covered only witli a short 
down, which in most of the species is the case also 
with the neck — a ruff or collar of soft feathers 
iding the lower part of the neck, into which 


cluira are not nearly «o large and atrong aa in the 
Faieonida, and are but slightly hookod. The 
middle toe is veiy long. The wings are long, and 
their expanse consequently great. Valturea have 
great powers of flight, and many at them soar to a 
very great height in the air. Their plumage has 
□ot the nent and regular appearunoe of that of the 
Faiemida, but it is dense, and not easily penetrated 
by ihot, Valtnrea are nootly fonnd in warm 
cUmates, and many of them are inhabitants of 

I Vultnre {VvUur fapa). 

mi. They feed on carrion, which 
It Beema xo oe uieir office in nature to remove from 
the lace of the earth, that the evil conseqaenccB of 
ita cormptioa may be prerented. They seldom 
attack a uvine animal, but they have been seen to 
ait and wat<£ the approach oE death, waiting for 
tbeir feasts They are not in genend coorageons 
birda, and are often put to flight by birds much 
anialler than themsclveB ; yet, U unmolested, they 
readily become familiar with the presence of man, 
and some of them seek their food even in the streets 
of towns, in which they are useful as BcaveDcerH. 
They gorge themselves excessively when foM is 
abondan^ till their crap forms a great projection, 
and sit long in a sleepy or half -torpid state to digest 
tbeir food. They do not carry food to their young 
in their clawa, but dissorga it for them from the 
crop. The bareness of their head and neck adapts 
them tor feeding on putrid flesh, by which feathers 
wonld be defiled ; and they are very careful to wash 
and cleanse their plumage. The question has been 
macfa diicnised, whether vultures discern dead 
animals by the eye, oc are attracted to them by 
the amelL It is certain that they possess great 
powers both of smell and of vision, and the reason- 
able conclosion appears to be that both are of service 
Id directing them to their prey. The rapidity with 
wbich they congregate to a carcass has been 
remarked with a<£niration, and vast numbers have 
often been seen assembled on a battle-field to devour 
the dead. 

The YtdtvTvia are divided into several genera, of 
which one, Qypaiiot, approaches to the FidconidiB 
in ita characters and habits, having the head 
leatliered, and not always feeding on carrion, but 
often attacking living animals. The Lammeigeier 
(q. V.) is one of this group. The teet are feathered 
to the toes, whilst the other vultnres have the tarsi 

Some of the most notable species ot V. have 
already been described, aa the Condor and the 

Egyptian Vulture. The generic name Fu/tur is now 
restricted to those which have the head and neck 
ithont feathen and without caruncles, and a ruff 
long feathers or of down at the lower part of the 
neck- To this genos belongs the Tawnv V., or 
ORin'OH ( V. /u2tiiu}, found in the south of Europe^ 
the north of Africa, and the west of Aaia. It make* 
lest on the most inaccessible rocks of high 
itains, as in the Alps and Pyrenees, and some- 
times in tall forest trees. It ia a very large bird, 
more than four feet in length. Its plumage is 
yellowish brovra, tiie quills and tail-feathers bWk- 
ish brown, the down of the bead and neck white, 
the roS' white. When it has found a carcass on 
which to feed, it remains on the spot, gorging and 
torpidly resting by turns, till no morsel remains. 
Th^ V. has been seen in England, bat only as an 
accidental visitor. The mountains and forests ot 
the south ot Europe, as well as of the north of 
Africa, and great part of Asia, are also inhabited by 
the ClHEBBOUS V. ( YuUuT or Gypi cmerexa), another 
large species, which departs from the typical char- 
acter of the vultures in having the greater part of 
the neck feathered, and comparatively lai^ and 
powerful claws. It does not, however, attack living 
animals. India, Africa, and almost all warm coun- 
tries, abound in vultures of different species, which 
it is uitneoessary to describe. In the southern 
states of North America is found the Black V. 

tCalharUa atraltis), there generally known as the 
lARBioy Crow, a comparatively small species, not 
quite two feet in entire length, of a deep black 
colour, the head and neck covered with warty 
excrescences, and a few hair-like feather*, lliis 
bird is also very abundant in many psrts of South 
America, where it is called the Galuhazo. Vety 
nearly aUied to it, and found in the same regions, is 
the Tdbkbt Buzzard, or Rbd-headep V. {CatJiarlet 
', These vultures are more or less gregarious, 

Turkey Buisard [CaVutrCa aura). 

not only assembling where food is to be found, but 
flying in flocks. They make tbeir nests in hollow 
trees, and ^ '~ '^'" '"' ' ' '"' 

towns of tropical America, they may be seen in 

great numbers, perched during the heat of the day 
— the tops of houses or on walls, asleep, with their 
ids under tbeir wings. The CAUrORNiAN V. 
(CatAartti Cali/omkiauii is the largest rapacious 
bird of North America, being fully tour feet long, 
and about ten feet io extent of wings. It is blac^ 
with a white bond on the wings. It is found only 
on the western side of the Bocky Mountains. It 
muoh resembles the condor in ita habits. 


WlSA. ii Oe npnted amnger of the T«dM 
(q. T.), and tha npntod author of tiie M»hihhlr*U 
fg.T.j, the FntSn'M (q.T.), the Bnhnuabtm (tea 
VsDlin'^), and a Dharmaatstca. Aooording to 
tcadilion, he ma a ion of the nge Pard^ara and 
Satyavatt, 'iim tonthfnl,' irtko waa a danditcr of 
KiiisTaaii,Bndahe«Teiil7t>5inpb, AdriUL Another 
bn£tion makM liun auo the fatiter of Ukr'ila- 
rMtra, Pdn'd:*, and Vidttn. On aoconnt of hia dark 
eomplezion, he mw called Xt'iAtfa (black) ; and 
became he waa bom in as ialasd (rfnju) of the 

TamnnA ( Ji 

rnnma) : 

tiTcr, hu lecond b 

p(u«d b7 the abovB-named woika, Md relating to 
Si^vent perioda, cannot bdong to the anthonhip 
(A one and the **ma pcnouas*, ia no matter of 
doubt But the name itaelf 5t ths individual to 
whaiQ it is attributed convOTa the meaning which 
murt be aought for in Bome of the I^enda oonneoted 
wiUi Mk UAorr. Yy&Mi (bom tbe Sanaorit m and 
(U, literally, 'throw in diffiirent directiona,' hence 
'diitribate') meana the penon who arranesa a 
nbjeot-matter in a diffuse manner, or the act itself 
of amih a diffiue antmgentent, and is often contrasted 
with anndfa (from tarn and at, con-tract}, the act 
at mafcing a condse arrangement or of abridging 
(oompare the Greek omiro-, from mn — tarn = *un, 
and ar = at). Yjrlaa is, therefore, a Sfmholical 

representation of the work of genetationa, aa on- 
bodied in 1^ Teda^ the Uahtbhlrata, and th« 
PorAn'aa, and of the ordor which gradually waa 
bron^ into this litecaiy mauL When, Htmitat, 
tha ^ahn'n-Puitn'a ^eaka of SS T]4mb who in 
tha rngn of Om present Maon amo^ the Vedas^ 
it ia not impaaible that some hiatonoal bath ma; 
nnderiie tbia atatonent, implying, aa it doei, a 
different arrangement of the Hindu a c ript or ea at 
-variona timea : and that tiu Mahtbhlrata, and ttw 
Pnrtn'as too, may hare nndmotme various anange- 
menta and recenaiona, nntil they acMled down in 
their preaent form, (affidenUy reanlta from their 
Regarding the BrahmaaUtraa, tradition 

- — '" ' •- '" 1 their anthtv 

rki, for it aaya 

s <Kaly looMh to oonnect their anti^ 

at tiie MTwring worki, for it aaya 

Mt lUo a Briliman, Apdmta- 

itoelf . . . ., 
with the Vyftla of 

that he was in a I. .. , _^ 

ratatnaa, who, after having attained final beatito^ 
*by ipecial ccmmaod n the dei^, reanmed a 
corporeal frame and tJis human ahapa, at the period 
intervening between the third and fourth aget of 
the present wcrid, and waa the oompilei S the 
Vedas.' (See Colebrooke's JfiEawUaneoM AMajM, vol 
L p. 327, Loud. 1S37.) As the aollior of the Dhai^ 
mss'tstn, T. is posaibly a peraonaas diltinot trtaa 
the l^endary individual beuing thia name, at ia the 
!j.i. .j.i.__ -n-.j !._ ^ anthora id 




THE twent^-tbiid ktter of th« 
which performa Uie double 

DveL According to the deciuve 

ipaiimeDtB of Professor Willla 

Oati^iridge PhiL Tnuta^ iiL 231), 

of the Towela ia i, e, a, 

9 ; in whioh the aonjidi 

„ M thaw which prevMl 

on tka ooniiiMBb Xhaaoimdt,tlie^of i(tiut ii^ee) 
Mtd « (Oai i^ 00) ■!• the aoit remote, and jjie 
tiHrmrt to ^tm with npidi^ from cdthar of theae 
to the otiiaim, iii(x« putimilM'l^ to Uts other Bztrame, 
giTM an initial breathing wbwh has the "*'"•"•<•"• 
eCa conwDan^ Ti&,in tlie one caae, a9'«o,oryou; in 
tb otber, o»-<e, or »£.' See Key's .^ipAtiief. This 
MBt* •HtlTB* of tlu ■rtienlatiotui denoted b; the 
-l.M»»*i» w Mid K l^iowi a dear light on liie 
dnAle fanctiiHi tti^ poifom •■ conioiianfai and 

, that the Lat 

wellaatheold Greek digamma (F), were more of the 
naton of flie tnodem w, thui el ttte decidedly 
oMuoBnitBl Engliib c (lee U and T). Tht IVesoh, 
havii^ Eke the other Bomaiiie natioiiB,ao chaiaeter 
tt^ I J Ml 11 the aonnd by [seAxinK ott to tbe Towd ; 
w oij^ (pnm. vee), Edonard — Edwitd. In the 
bt^oniiig of vrojpeT names thevmbatitate^/e. g^ 
<i 3ii.jtniii M WQUam. The SpaoiMds alM nae w, 
M in tba mai^ njonee eonmiMiided of tiie Aiabia 
Modi; <k», Qtutdalqnivir ; but more frequMitly in, 
M in C&hnahnft Qnon. OUunwa). In ffigh- 
Getman, whidt bM beocnne rlawrii**! Qenun, n ii 
cooIbaDded with «, and v with/; thtu, Wtjliagtnn 
if proiumnaed FeSii^on. In Lomdon, w ii m£tli- 
toted for 

NiBttw^St-Aiidriea, between the 

Tuebr-vaatd, and nnitea witi tiie Maaa below Fort 

liiinia<n'n Uioreatdn). The nnited riveia then 

WA.'BASH, a TiTTO of the U. 8. of Aauaioa, riaea 
ia VTcstas Otuo, rona weet and aoath-wect throngh 
lodiaaa, fanning tlie aostheriy half d ita tnttem 
booadaiT, oo £e boiden ol lUinoia, to the Ohio 
Kto', 14S mUs bcm its montlw i> tiGO nilea lona I 
na^abie bj iteamaa at hij^-water 300, aajd 
for >tt maapil branohea the ^peeana«^ Kg Ver- 
nlfioD, Bu b ai i ai , and White BjTer— the lait 200 
miles long. The Vabaah and Erie Caul otmnecta 
tiielafcei with the MiMMippL 

WAGE, RoBEKT, an Anglo-Nonnaa poet of the 
12tli century. ManydifferentvetBiouofma name are 
giveo in hia own books, as weHat in the other books 
which mortton him. He is atyled Vace, Waoe, 
Waece, Wwoe,Waicce,Waie; Qa»e, Giuce, Guace, 
Qnam, Onue, Guasco^ G&xoe ; and again, Wistace, 
UuIsUce, Hiuco. It luw been (apposed that there 
ware really two poeta, &b one named Waco or 
Goace, the otlMr iWDted Wniitace; the one the 
tnliuitoiLeSommduSoit, tiia Mia at Le Soman 
da Brut. But vnetr in writing mmtm waa very 
common in the middle ag««, and it doe* not seem 
neceauty to resort to this sofipositioii. About hii 
Christian nugw there is even more doubt than about 
his mmome. It is oerer mentioBed in bis poeme, 
from which the little that ia known about nim ie 
moBtly detived. An old writer speaks of Mm «a 
Matthew; aad it eaems that he wm fint called 
Bobert in the Orifinet d* Caen by Hnet, whom 
aabeequBut auUkOM have followed. 

W. was bom in Jem?, in the reign of Henty I., 
and it ia nobabb that 1ib» date of his birth lay 
between t&e yeu* 1112 and 1121 He was taken 
to Oaoi as » ehUd, and theie he reoeiTed the early 
part id his education. He was afterwards sent 
mto the neighbouring kingdom of France ; but 
he retnioed to Caen, and having entered into hdy 

Caen, and having entered mto hdy 
a reading-derk in the Boyil CSiapS 
1 it waa that be oompoaed hia woki. 

>. AtCaai 
Henry n, to whom he dedioated i^ J&ntun if u Jiou, 

ee him a euiouy at Bvreax, wpanntly aboat 
yaHllM He died in Kngland abont the year 
liao, o«sUinly before the year 1 184 

Five seDMttte woAs are attriboted to W. ; bat 
three we sligUt short petfomance^ and it is otify 
naoasaary to notios &a two rainmpal^-Xs Bomaa 
du Brut tfAagiOan, and Le Bvmaa du Boa. The 
fomw premises tiiat a certain Bmtna, a son of 
AaftfcijiiiB ^ m^ graodaon of ^B"*mj settled in Sri- 

the history o( the Brildsh kings from Brntna b 

transiataon into the French from the I^tin of 
Gaofiey of Monmoidli (q. v.). This poem seems 
to have been oampleted in the year IILB. Le 
Bormaii drt Bou, (Bdlo) is a sort of history of the 
XhiksB of Normandy and of the Korman monarohy 

poetical merit. Ih^ are both interesting only >a 
shewing the state of the E^«nch language in the 12th 
c, Mul as si^pljing oocasianal facts and socia] traits 
to the hjstonao. 
WA'OK^ ft Oennau miners' t^i, introduoed by 

Werner, to dMugnate a soft variety of trap, that 
hsa an si^iDaoeoiis aspect, and a greauish-a] 
ctdonr. It resoEiblGB indur^ed day, but ha* bi 
formed of volcanio sahes or mud. It is c^teo reel 
lar, and when the oavities are fillet^ it beow 
an amygdaloid. It is associated with togp 
rocks, and, indeed, oft«u ] 



WAD, the popniar name giveii in unoe parti of 
En^and, M in DeibyalitTe, to an ore of manganeae, 
vhich u a hydrated peroxiile, united irith nearly 
it* own wei^t of oxide of iron. Wad is also the 
proriucial name of black lead or plnmlug< 

WAD, in Onnnary, a ootnpieffiible disc forced 
Iiome in the barrel after Uke powder, to confine tlie 
Iktter to the lotat pooible ipace before its ezplosioii. 
For gnat gnns, tiie wad ii commooly made ol rope ; 
for amall-arma, of pasteboard. 

WADERS, or WADIHG-BIBDS, a dcsgnation 
often appli^ to Qie whole order of birdi Orolia 

Charaoteristio Featnre* of Wading-liiidi ; 
I, Bad ud fimt of Common Snip* ; 1, Hud and foot of Ringed 
DMUnl: 9, UtUudlOotDf CoBunonOodwIt; (.Hwdud 
JOot of CniLiir, 

{q. v.), oi OraUatiortt, bat really appropriate only to 
■ome of them, the more aqaabo in their habits, as 
Herons, Snipes, and Bails. 

WADHAU COLLEGE, Oxford. In the year 
ISIO, James I. issued a licence to Dorothy Wadhom, 
acting as eieoutrii: of the will of her deceased hus- 
band, Nicholas Wadhftm, Em., to found a ' College 
<i DiTUuty, Civil and Canon Law, Physio, good Arts 
and Sciences, and the Tongues.' Dorothy Wadham 
pnichased the lite and ruins of the pnory of the 
Anstin Pnani, in the suburbs of Oxfind, and built 
the present college for a warden, 16 fellows, IS 
-ocho^TB, and 2 chaplains. The fellows were formerly 
-elected from the scholars, and the tenure of the 
'fellowships was limited to 22 years ; nine of the 
eoholanhips wete limited to cer^in conntiee, and to 
the founder's kin. By the CommiBBioners under 17 
and 18 Vict, c 81, the fellowahipB and scholanhips 
wei« thrown open — the former4o all persons who 
had pasMd the wTaminations (or a B.A. degree ; the 
latter to all persons nnder SO jtm of age. The 
CommindoDera also abdished the limitations on the 
tenmeof thetellowahips. One of the fellowships is 
amiropriated to the reader in experimental philos- 
ophy. Hie value of the fellowships is snpposed to 
be abont £160 a year. The scholarships are worth 
£46 a year, besides rooms, and are tenable for five 
Tcan. Thno are sevenl good exhibitions, especially 
those foionded by Dr Hcdy — four for Hebrew, and 
lix for Oreefc, value £40 a year, and tenable for f our 
years; also alawezhibitiOD for a fellow, value £90 a 
year ; and a medical exhibition for a fellow, of the 
•ame tsJu& There are ten ben^oes in the ^ of 

WA'DI, on Arabic wtnd mnii^ring a river, a rivet- 
ooarsc^ a ravine, <a valley, ft it suppoaed that the 

Greek M 

raption t/l KadL It ti ^ fra- 

(L e., the Valley of Mosea) 
Spain, where most of the rivers b~ 

thmn by the Arab*, uni has been 

gvad; e.g., Wadi-l-abyodh (the white river) baa 
become Quadalaviar. 

WA'DSBT, in Scotch I^w, 

Mortgage (q. v.). The modem name is Bond and 
Dispodlion in Security. "— »——'-'- o-™-- 

See HxBiTAXLR Szcu- 

WAFEB, in relation to tiie Boman Cadiolic 
nsage of tiie Bneharistic crannuinion, is the name 
given (chiefly by non-Catholics) to the thin drcnlar 
wirtioDS of unleavened bread which are used in the 
Roman Church in tb« eelebrstion and administra- 
tion of the Euchaiist. In andent times, the bread 
and wine for the Eucharist were contributed by the 
faithful ; and a place is found in the Eucharistic 
service of every known litnrgy for this offering atill 
known by the name of OQiertory (q- v.). But in the 
Latin Chtitch, for many centuri«a, the bread (which, 
asibeing noleavened, and different from that in com- 
moli use, needed special preparation) has been pro- 
vided by the cler^ ; and the practice has been 
followed of preparing it in the form of thin cakes, 
althoDgh not neceasarily circular, and 

tian monogram, the Cross, and other sacred symbols. 
Hie dronlar form itself is by some ritualistic wiiten 
regarded as ijymboUoal, the circle being a flgnre of 
perfeetioii. The wafers used in the Boman Catholic 
Church are made of diSereut sizes, the smalleBt about 
an inch in diameter for the communion of the people, 
a second considerably larger for the ceiebiation of 
ike mass, and a third still larger to be placed in the 
Monsttaace (g-v.) for the servica ' ' '' '' 

WAFERS, thin discs of dried paste, mostly col- 
oured, used lor aeahng letters, or for attaching 
papers together. They are ;made by mixing fine 
wheaten fiour with water and any non-poisonous 
colouring materials, so as to form a mixture not 
thicker Uion thin cream. A small quantity of this 
is poured on the lower limb of a pair of wuer-irons, 
which are formed like a pair of^ pincers, but with 
fiat bladee about 12 inches long by 9 in breadth, the 
inner mrfoce of which is kept well polished. Be- 
fore b^g used, they are heated over a charcoal or 
coke fire ; and the liquid paste being poured on the 
lower blade, the pressure of the two blades distri- 
butes it equally in a thin sheet between them, the 
superfluous material beii^ squeezed oat at the sides, 
from which it is ahavea off by means of a knife. 
In a few seconds of time, if the blades are hot 
enouffh, the sheet of paste becomes dry and half 
bakra. The sheets so formed ore then stamped cut 
into discs of the sizes required. Formeriy, wafers 
were vay extensively used, and their manufacture 
was one of considerable importance ; but the inbo- 
duction of gummed envelopes has almost driven 
them out of use. 

WA'CtENINOBa-, an old but weU-built town in 
the Netherlands, province of Oelderlaud, is situated 
near the Rhine, to which access is had frcin it by a 
canaL Pop. 6632. W. has good schools and other 
useful institutions. The environs are beautiful, and 
the Wageningsche Berg, now fonoed into a burying- 
place, is especiollj picturesque. 

Ship-building, brick and tile making, fanning 
leather, rope-spinning, ftc, with agriculture, are tha 
chief sources of wu^ih. W. received Uie ri^ts of 
a town in 1263. It ii a neat^ purely Dntch tom, 



•dected as ± Tendance hy many who wish to live 
quietly, comfort&blf , and economically. 

WAQEB OF LAW, in the Law of England, was 
as old fonn of giving sureties that at soma fiituie 
time the par^ would wage his law— I ' 
to the oath of the defendant, who swore in presence 
of eleven compuFgators as to the debt claimed. Thi 
action was Used in csuaes where thei« was somt 
secrecy u to the ori^ of the debt, or where the 
defendant bore ■ fair character. IThat form of 
actioa had long been la dieuse, but was not for- 
mally abolished till the statute of 3 and 4 Will. IV. the Common Law of England,' 
held good, if they were not against the princifjea of 
morslity, pnblic decency, or sound policy ; and a 
wagor or bet was defined to be, a contract entered 
into without colour or fraud betwaea two or more 
persons for a good consideratioD, and upon mutual 
prcnnises to pay a stipnlated aam of money, or to 
oeliver some other thing to each other, according 
to the result of some contingency. A wager ' 
been held void which was made on the life 
Napoleon L, on the lesolt of an election of a m 
ber to SCTve in parliament, Ac Before the statute 
irf 8 and 9 Vict c. 109, wagera above a certain amount 
were declared to be illegal, hut now wagers on a 
tace are not illegal That statute provides that all 
oontrvcts or agreements, whether by parol or in 
writing, by way of gaining or wagering, shall be 
null and Toid, and the money dne thereon cannot 
be recoTered in any eonrt of law ; bnt that enactment 
does not apply to any sabscriptioa or contribution or 
t>j^««ment to sobocribe or contribute for any plate, 
prize, or aom of money to be awarded to the wmner 
or winnen of any lawful game, sport, pastime, 
(« exercise. If a snm of money has been deposited 
with a stakeboider, not as a stoke, but by way of 
wszer, it may be recovered back if notice is given 
to the Bt&keholder before the event comes off. As 
no wager can be recovered in a court of law, it is 
marely a debt of honour, and if paid, it is in the 
eve of the law the same thing as giving a gratuity. 
It ■ promisaory-uoto or bill of exchange be taken 
w security for money cither won by betting or 
knowingly lent for betting, the consideration is 
I ille^ and the money cannot bo recovered, A recent 
I act was paaaed for the snppreaaion of betting-houses, 
I and imposea penalties on persons keepuig or using 

I houses for betting purposes (17 and 18 Vict. c. 119) ; 
and justices may authorise constables to break into 
such houses, and arrest all persona found theiein. 
Whoever by a cheating wager wins money from an- 
other, is liable to be indicted for obtaining the 
money by false pretences.— In the Law of Scotland, 
I wagan are tavated as pada iUiciia, which it is 
: benesith the dignity of any court to entertain ques- 
I tioua about, aud so they are not recoverable by 
actioa. The act S and 9 Vict c 109 does not apply 
I to Scothud, but there are older statutes of a some- 
' what °'"""l"' effect 

WAGES means the money given for personal 

servioes, as distinct from the price of anything 

[ sold, whether made by the seller or not When a 

man makes a basket, and sells it the price is not 

wages, though it may be the same thmg to bini , 

The term hsa by general usage been limited to the 

I retnniieialiou of hand-working. A mauaeer of a 

1 iNUk or railway— even an overseer or a clerk in a 

nunubotory, is said to draw a salary. It is gener- 

I ally a fajmw of wages, too, that t^ey are j»id at 

' short intervals, as being necessary for immediate 

support. This division is connected with social 

clerk at a hundred a year is supposed to 

gentleman who dresses decently, and so adjuafa. 

expenditure that he can draw it quarter^. The 
— shingler who can make a guinea a day 

:pected to spend them at < . .^._ ... 

more absolutoly ruled by their value in the marki 
than other services. A writer of poems or a painti 
of pictures does work which is eiceptional — 

ale are willing to pay him any price he may ask 
is work, there is probably no one who can com 
pete with bim and undersell him. A lawyer or i 
physician may also have special qualities to a great 
extent eiclutung competition ; and in appointments 
to offices requiring trust, judgment, and skill, & 
great many things have to be considered besidea 
the question, who will do the duty cheapest * Bat 
in the staple hand-works — the making of clothes, 
the baking of bread, and the like— there are uniform 
functions of the hand which a certain number ot 
persons will alw^s be found ready to give fi 
price. Strong efforts are made from time to time 
— by combinations, strikes, ta.-,-to make wages 
fictitiously high. These efibrts are of course often 
successful for a time, bringing profit to some 
members of the working- classes, though injury to 
others, and a general loss of the wealth of the com- 
munity. But the great law of political economy, 
that labour as well as all other things, will bring 
what it is worth, ever prevails in the end in a 
comttry where trade and labour are free. See 
CaAtal, Cohbih&tion, LiBoiTB, Tbuck-sisteh. 

WAGNEB, RicsABP, a contemporary German 
operatic composar. He was bom at Leipzig in 1813, 
and was educated at Dresden and Leipzig. In 
1S36, he was KapeUmaater at Magdeburg, and after 
spending some time in Koni^berg, Dresden, and 
Riga successively, he came to Foris in 1841, whcra 
he composed his two earliest operas, Bimii and Dtr 
Jliegende HoUdnder. Jtieim, when brought oat by 
him at Dresden, obtained for him t£e post ol 
EapeUmeister there. His next opera, TannAaiuer, 
appeared in 1845, also at Dresden. Being involved 
In the political schemes of 1848, W. had to quit 
Saxony, and took up bis residence for a time in. 
Switzo-land, where he composed Lohengrin and Die 
JfUbeiitTigen. He spent the season of 1865 in 
London, where he undertook the direction of the 
Philharmonic Society's concerts. In 1865, he was 
invited to Uuuich, and greatly befriended by the 
young king of Bavaria, who appointed him Director 
of the Open-house ; and he there produced his latest 
opera of THitan umi I»oUU ; but complaints of the 
royal favourito interfering in stato ^airs obliged 
King Ludwig to dismiss him. The public are 
greatly divided reganling_ the merits of W.'s operas 
and the soondnesa of his sesthetic opinions, one 
party in Qermany looking up to him as the greatest 
musical genins of the ago ; another prononndug his 
theories utterly visionary, and his music extra- 
vagant and imintolligible. W, explains his notions 
of the opera in a volume of essays, entitled Oprr 
und die Drama, published at Leipriff in 1862. 
Music, poetry, and dramatic effect should, according 
to him, not be made separato objects, but mutually 
combine and assist each other. He takes to himseU 
the credit of having reformed the opera by, for the 
iirst time, effecting this combination ; and his com- 
positions are characterised by himself and his 
admirers as ' Music ot the Future,' or ' Work of Art 
the Future.' Some of his operas, particulariy 
Tannliduaer, are magnificent as spectacles, bnt they 
are altogether deficient in melody. In all of them, 
the words of the libretto, W.'s own composition, 
are adapted to » declamatory a^la of recitative^ 



reliered by 

aooordiDoc with tiis ipirit of ths ntnation. XoAtN- 

grlu hia baen faia moat mcoanfnl woriL 

WAGOIT, k vehicle for ths convBTMioe of 
goods or pBseenKei*, U mounted on torn wheeli^ bnt 
vBne« conndentbly in the oonttraction of ita oQtei 
pwta, Mcording to the *peciea of tntffie in which it 
u to be em^oyed. Since the wagon hM fonr 
wheels, it i« aoite nnneosaMry that toy pxt of the 
weight ahoold be luatuned on the ahafti, and 

three huMi m* yoked sbraut, the oen^ mm i* 
tJie nlult h(HM, the right and left 'wheelen ' an 
yoked 1^ trace! to the wagon-frame ; and endl of 
the latter la attached by a chain fiom ita collar to 
a ahaft, ao aa to preaerre the paraUaliam of ita 
action. Moat wagona are aet on aprinn on acoonnt 
of the weight of the vahicle, and the abaence of the 
ateadying weight of the horae, owing to the shafts 
not being immoTably attached to the frame. For 
facility in tnniing, the fore-trheela are occasionally 
■mailer than the hind on^a ; and in addition, the 
fore-axle of the lighter kinds of vagon ia attached 
to the body of the wagon by a. swivel-joint, the 
ahafta or pole being in thia caae attached to the 
fore-axle ; but the diminution of the aize of the 
wheala ia open to grave objection, on account of 
the greater friction. It being alinoat impoasibla 
for the beaata of draught to control and aubdue the 
momentum of a heavily-loaded vagon descending a 
alope, it ia neoeaaarj to employ a drag of acme aort ; 
the Tudeat forma of which are a thick cylinder of 
tough wood inserted between two n>okes of the 
wheel, which, being carried upwards in tiie wheel'a 
revolution, is ' jammed ' againat ths under ude of 
tho wagon-frame, and atopa the whed's rotation ; and 
the chain-drag, which waa merely a chain firmly 
&ataned at one end to the wa^m-frame between a 
foie and hind wheel, and famiahed at the other end 
"' large hodc, to hold the tire of the hind- 

of wagoua, the (toe and break (aee 
Dkia] are now employed. The various forma of 
wafion in common use are the brewer's dray, the 
railway lorry, the agricnltunJ trnin (in common nw 
in England and on the continent), and the balloek- 
ettn of South Africa. The comparative merits of a 
vehicle in which the horse baa merely to draw, and 
one, aa the cart, in which he has to cany aa netl aa 
draw, have often been discuased, though never aoffi- 
dently tested ; bnt it seems to be generally believed 
Out, detmte the distress ariaias mm his confined 
poaition in the ccni^iaratively immovable ahafta of 
a oait, a horae can tranaport a greater weight to a 
moderate diatance b^ the aame exertion of moacnlar 
force in. a cart than in a wagon. 

WAOON-TKAIIT, an indiapenaable oompanion 
of an army nnder thia or aome other titteL It serves 
to ocmvey the ammunition, nrovisiona, side, wounded, 
camp^nipage, &c. At Uie present lime, in the 
BritiBh army, tike Military Tram performs tiiis func- 
tion, althongh in China (ISGO) and New Zealand 
(1862— 186S] the commiaaaiiat provided and organ- 
ised ita own wagon-aervioe. 

of Lower Anatria, on Ute left bank of the Rossbatm, 
ten miles north-east-by-east from Vienna, is of little 
importance, except at the aita of the great battle 
between the French and Anitrians m the cam- 
nign of 1609, which forced Anatria to bow before 
Napoleon, and submit to thi 

the fonrth bvaty of Tianna (q. v.). After the c^itnra 
of Vienna, Ni^ioleon resolved to pass the Bannbe, 
and oomv^ete the prostration of Austria's military 
■trengUi oj tiia deatraotion of her laat army — tluC 
under f^ Awilnltilrw Oharlee ; and with tlua view, 
he csUed in the Italian aniy, under EngBiie Beaii' 
banoii; and all hii outlying Mna, ooneentratiiig 
them in and about the iatand of Lobao ; and i^tar 
a few teintB, calculated to mialead the Archdoke, 
who, atationed on the nortit bank, waa vi^Iantly 
guarding the varions cioBingB, aucoeeded in (^ectiaK 
a moat eitiaordinary paaaage, on the morniag M 
Jol; S, 1809, from toe mland of Loban to the nortli 
bank, oppoa^ Enaendor^ landing 160,000 infantir, 
30^000 oavdiiT, and 600 pieoea of cannon bef(a« ^ 
in tho motninjL When the momii^ light ahewed 
the Anatriaaa now thn had been oat-msnanvrvd, 
they retreated acnaa the pUin of the March-field t« 
ita ikortiicni ezbonity, and took up a formidaUe 
poation at W., and beuw oloaely followed up, were^ 
on the evenii^ of July O, attaoked by a part of the 
Frenchanny. Bytlke vigorontexBrtiraLaoCtiieArah- 
duke in penKin, the iwailai ita— after a temporary 
ancoeas— were coinpkAely r^uLwd, and the Ana- 
trians, exulting in their second vietoiy over Nanolecm, 
waited inaangnine expectation the events <J the next 
day. In the momin^ tlw Archduke rescdved to 
aaanme the oBemaive, and aiMoeeded at firat in defeat- 
ing tile French centre ludcrMaascna, ttidinfncing 
their left into ineztrioriile eaifoiion, followed by 
total root; but at the same time hia own left waa 
turned by Davonit, and this anoceaa fdlowed up I^ 
a wiBOMihJ attack of Maodonald on their canted 
fca«ed the Aiutiiana to retrsa^ which they did in 
the moat raderl* manner, eanymg with them 6000 
prisoners, and leaving 25,000 de^ or wounded on 
the &M of battle— the French loas being about 
aquaL This drawn battle (the Archdnke having, as 
Savaiv says, 'in reality no reason for retir^K*) 
had aU the moral effeota of a victory for the FrmiSi ; 
and waa followed on Jnly 11 by the armistiae of 
Zuaim, which reaulted in the foniu treaty of Tienuk 
WA'OTAIL (MotaeOla], a genna of birds of the 
family MotadUida, wbioh ia now very genaally 
regarded as a snb-fomily (MolacWna) tdSybiada' 
diatingoiahed by a lengthened and slender bill, lot 

and pointed wings, ' 

claws, and a lonj, 
incesaanUy wags H] 

motion. The genus . 

many of the ^viada not bell 

bill, long 

y curved 


.. the Bed- breast, Niriitingale 
Bine-bird. The genua Mota^ia, aa now restricted, 
haa a alender awl^haped, strugU bill ; the nosbila 

long as the &nA, the 
tutiala very long ; the tarsos much louger than the 
middle toe ; the tail of twelve feathers, lon^ and 
nearly equal at the end.— The wagt^ ran witii 
^■eat celerity, and seek their food on the ground. 
Their food coosista chiefly of insects and amafl seeds. 
Tbffy fiMuent the margins of rivers and lakes, 
inundatea fields, and other moist grounds. ■ While 
the cows are feeding, in moist low paoturea,' says 
White {NaL BiM. of 8iS>ame), 'broods of wagt^ 
white and gn»r, run round them, close up to their 
noaes, and under tiieir vary bellies, availmg tiiem- 
aelves of the fliea that aetUe on their legs, and 
probably finding vrorma and larvie that ate rouaed 
Dj the trampbng of their feet' Wagtaila make 
their nesta on the eroand, among moist herbage, or 

jy places, ^fteir flight ia rapid and uu^ula- 

tory. They are nativee otthe temperate r^ona of 
the Old World. No apecica is found in Ameiioa,— 



A ooaman Biitiaii ipedM ii tha Fikd W. {M. 
Tarrrtmi, which n from (eTen to ei^t inohea in 
IcDKth, the loDK tail indnded, and hag prettily varied 
white and bla^ Dlnauige. It ii abundant over the 
whole aonth of Eotope, and ia found there at all 
BBMMia of the year, whioh ia Hke ease alio in the 
aonth of En^and ; Intt in more norHum rraiioiu it 
it only a mnuner vintant, ai in the Orkney ulaniU, 
wllere it ii the first of the misratoiy birda to depart 
soathwanl, the tnigratioii tudns place alnuwt ae 
aoon m the Tonng ai« able for fli^t The Pied W. 
ia iDcesaintly in mo&oa, jerking ita tul, moniiig 

quickly along the ground in quest o£ insecti, and 
""^•"g ihort fli^ta from plaoe to place, chinring 
am it flie& It ia often to be aeen wading in ahallow 

also amall minnowB wh^ they ^tprcwch the nnfaca 
of the water. Thia apeciea wai long oonfounded 
with the Wsm W. (if. aSxz), of ihe oontinant of 
ikmtpe, oommoD fram Sweden to the Mediterranaan, 
aa also in maiiy parts of Aaa, and in elevtrted 
titnatioua in In£a and the north of **"", bnt aot 
a oatiTe of Britain. The two apeciea are, however, 
veiy •imilai'.— The Obat W. (Jr. boani2a) is bluiili 
grky above, with the nunp and tower parts yelloir ; 
» black patch on the throat in aummer. It ia 
aUmdaat on the continent of Europe, as wdl as in 
fintain, and i* commonly teea on paitnrca, often in 
close attendance on cattle or iheep, whence the 
Praid) name, btrgeroneUt, given to this and other 
•peciea of W. of omiUr habita.— The Yellow W. 
(V. jCou) and the OBnti-BBADSD W. (Jf. Jtayl), 
al«o Britidi qteciea, of which the latter is the more 
-oominati, bdong to a (nb-genoa, by acone regarded 
ai a dirtinot genna, Budyia, baring the hind-olaw 
vary long and sharp, and thus approaching in 
dianetar to the Pipits (q. v.) or Titlarks. 

WAHA'BIS, or WAHA-BITES. a recent Moham- 

pait of Aialna. 2^ movonent may be oonaidered 
a pniilaniD rrfonn, which aeeks to pnige away the 
iUBorationa and oonaptiona inboduoed m the oonne 

and ot the Snnna (q. v.), or oral ii 

Uohammed himaelt Thia purified faith the W. 

le point of t 
y the preoer 

The fonnder of the sect, Ibn-abd-ul- Wahil^ waa Uia 
son of an Arab aheik, or chief, and waa bom in 
Nejed at Hejd (the Central Highlands of AiaUa), 
abont the end of the 17th centoiy. He is said to 
have visited various achoola in the princiul cities of 
the Bast, and to have lived some years in Damatena ; 
and here he is represented aa forming the leaolatioit 
to restore in ita primitive shape the mined strpc tnr o 
of Islam. Nor was the task an easy one. Thrrnudi- 
out the Mahatomedan world, the precepta of toe 
Eoraa had fallen into abeyance, more eapeciaUy 
among the TorkH ; and religioa was little else than 
a round of external ceremoniea — prayers, ablntioits, 
faatioga,the worshipping of the holysheika or saint* 
at their tombs, and other auperatitioiis innovations. 
In Central and Esstem Arabia, where the fuUi of 
UcQuunmed had never taken iieep root, mattos 
were even worae. According to I^Jgrave, ' almoat 
evcly trace of Islam had long since vanished from 

Kejed, where the worship of the DJann (genii), nndw 

jf Diebel Toweyl , 
cation of the dead and sacrincea at tiudr tombt. 

the spreading fol 

g tohage o 

of Djebel Toweyk, ale 

' lacrincea at . _, .._ 

of old Sabnan iiqienrtitbn, 

Bsof the doctrine* of M( 

esof MoMT- 
nnread, tno 

not without positiv 

lemah and Kermot. The Koran .__ 

five dai^ prayers forgotten, and no one cared who* 
Meeoa ay, east <x west, north or south ; tithes, 
ablutions, and pilgrimages were tbii^ unheard ol' 
Centnl Arabia waa at that time divided among a 
multitude of virtually independent ehie&. One of 
these ohieb, named SaSi'd (or Saoo'd), a young man 
of ardeot and capacious mind, who ruled over tbe 
small territory around the atronghald of Deraijeh, at 
Dnreeyeh* (inNejed),was the firat important conviert 
made by Dm-abd-uI-Wahab after his retnm hon*; 
and Uie ezamide of tbeptinca was followed by his 
kindred and retinae. The Wababi i* aaid to nave 
promised Sa'nd that if he would diaw the vwotd, in 
the canse of pure lelam, he woold make him sole 
ruler of Nejed, and the first potentate in Arabia. 
The prophecy was fulfilled, partly in Sa'ud's reign, 
and lolly in uat of bia son ; and the Sa'nd dynasty 
is at this day the chief power in the peiunsnla ; 
while the descendants of Ibn-abd-ul-Wabab (who 
lived till 1787) continue to act as spiritual directors, 
though without any acknowledged authority. It 
waa about 1746 that Sa'nd be^u to act aa ^wstla 
militant of the new, or rather revived Islam. One 
after another, he subdued hia heretical neighbours, 
oCTeria^ them the alternative of converaion ta 
extermination. Dying in 176S, he waa auooaaded 
by hia BOD, Abd-al-Anz, who carried on the same 
policy witJi vigour and taooesa. Extending hia 
sway to Haaa (Al-Ahsa, aa Colonel Pelly spSia it, 
and Baciantly Hajr), and other places on the 
Persian Qolf, he was broaght in hostile contact 
with the Tnrkish authorities of Bagdad, and from 
that idace an expedition waa aent in 1797 againat 
the W. by way of Haaa ; but it failed to pene- 
trate into Nejed, and proved fruitiew. The W. 
now grew bolder in tlieir plundering escuraions 
towaras Uie Euphrates, and in 1801, oa'nd, the so* 
of Abd-ul-Aziz, led an army against the holy city til 
Ueahed Hnaantn, or Kerbela, took il^ maaaacccd the 
greater [nrt of the inhabitant*, desboyed the tomb 
of Hussein, the grandson of Uohammed, and oairied 
off the treMOtw. On thia, a seoond TuAisb mrmj 
waa sent from Bagdad against Nejed, but waa roote^ 
and the greater paHalain. The conquest of Hejaawa* 
next nndertakenbythe Wahabia. For two or three 

* Nothing ii more perplexing than the orthography 

ot Arabic proper names; every traveUer — -"- •■' 

in a way of hu own. In oomparing Borol 
grav^ uid Colonel Pelly, it ia often dilBcnlt 
the plaoos ' " 

H aiul peraoni spoken about. 


yearg, Qhaleb, ths raler of Meeca, Iiad been mora 
and more hemineii in by nei^bbaiiriiig chiefs who 
iad joined the W.. and now, in 1S03. 3a'nd collected 
a large army, tuid defeatrng Ohaleb in aeveral 
liBtUes, laid siege to Mec«^ which, after a reaiatance 
of two or three montha, nuTenderad at diBcretion. 
Not the aligbtmt excess was comioitted, but the 
people had to become W.~'that is, they were 
obliged to pny more punctually than usual, to lay 
wide and coooeol their tine nlk dresses, and to 
deidat from smoking ia public. Heaps of Peniaa 
pipes, collected from all the houses, were burned 
befora Sa'ud'a head-quarters, and the sola of 
tobacco forbidden.'— Burckhurdt. 

Failins to take Jiddah, into which Qhsleb had 
thrown bimseli, the Wahabi forces went northwards, 
and, in 1804, took Medina, where they stripped the 
to^ of Mohammed of its sccumnlatcd treasures, 
■od prohibited the approach to it of all but W., as 
they considered the reverence pud to it by the Turks 
and otiiet* ■■ idoli^ns. At Medina, ' the Wafaabis 
cnfoKied withjreat strictness the regular obstoraDce 
of prayers, l^e names of all the adult male inhabit- 
•ntt were called over in the mosque after momii^ 
mid-day, and evening prayers, and those who did 
not obey the call were punished. A respectable 
woman, aecosed of having smoked the Persian pipe, 
was placed upon a jackass, with the pipe suspended 
trom her ueck, round which was twisted the Iodb 
flmdble tube or snake : in this state ahe was paraded 
throngh the town.' — Burckhardt. 

Ih^ng these events, Abd-ul-Aziz had been assass- 
inated, in the end of 1803, by a fanatical Fenian, 
whose family had been murdered hv the W. at 
Ueahed Hussein. He was succeeded fay his son, 
Sa'od IL, who bad for some time conducted the 
wan, and was perhaps the ablest ruler and warrior 
ot the dynasty. For several years after the conijueBt 
of Hejaz, he continued to extend and consohdata 
his power. Plundering inouraiona were made to 
the very vidnity of Ba^ad, Aleppo, and Damascus ; 
whils the Wahabi sheik of Ajir (lying south of 
Hejaz) imposed the new faith on a great part of 
Yemen. On the east, Sa'ud took the islacds of Bah- 
rein, annexed a part of the Persian coast on the east 
side of the Qnlf, and exacted tribute from the soltau 
of Oman. This brought him into conflict with 
Qmat Britain, which sent (1808) a force, and severely 
ohaotised the Wahabi pirates that infested the 
commerce of the Persian Gnli 

While these external struggles were going on, 
several of the southern provinces of Nejad broke out 


volt, instigated mainly, perhaps, by the local 
chiefs, whose power, formerly independent, was 
now circumscribed, or altogether taken away by 
the central government ; bat the rising was speedily 
■UDi>ressed, and a terrible example was made of the 
ice <rf Hank and tJie town of Hutah, which 
ras completely demolished, and its inhabitants 

£e male inhabitants were reckoned at 10,000) 
tchered almost to a man. 

From 1802, tiie W. had prevented the great 
pilgrim caravans from reaching Mecca, botll because 
they held the obaervancea of the Turk uid Persian 
hajjis to be idolatrous, and also because they were 
scandalised at the gross immorality and indecency 
which were openly practised by these pilgrims, ft 
may easily be conceived what horror spread throueh 
the Mohammedan world when it waa told that the 
tomb of the Prophet had been despoiled by heretics, 
who prevented the fiithfut from performing the 
most sacred du^ of their religion. Accordmgl;, 
the sultan of Constantinople, the acknowledged 
protector of Mohammedanism, as early as 1804, 
imposed on Mehemet Ali, the newly appointed 
pasha of Egyptj the task of recovering the holy 

citiea. With the dilatotiness, however, character- 
istic of the East, nothing was done till 1811, when 
an expedition was sent against them, under the 
command of the pasha's son, T^lln-Bey. Medina- 
was taken by the Egyptian forces in 1812, and 
Mecca in the following year ; and a protracted and 
desultory warfare, wiui varying success, was kept 
up with the W. in Hejaz and around its confines. 
At last, in 1S15, Ibrahim Pasha (q. v.) nndertook to 
penetrate into Central Aralos, and oro^ the hornets 
in their nest Hie enterprise was facilitated by the 
death of Sa'nd in 1814. He was succeeded by bia 
son Abdallah, who, though an able warrior, was leas 
adroit in securing unity of action among the nume- 
rous tribes under his sway. It was not, however, 
till 1SI8, and after repeated conflicts, that Ibn^iim 
succeeded in decisively breaking the Wahabi iixtx, 
and capturing their capital, Deraijeh, which waa 
laid in ruins. Abdallah- ibn- Sa'ud was sent to Con- 
stantinople, where he and some of his ministers were 
behraded (I8I8). Ibrahim continued some months 
in Arabia, consoUdating his conquests thronghout 
Nejed and the adjoining provinces. His policy was 
one of gentleness and conciliation towards the chiefa 
and common people, and of atem repression towards 
the fanatical rehgious teachers ; and except among 
these, hia name is said to be yet popnlar throughout 
Centra] Arabia. But the folly and tyranny of the 
vice-govemora whom he left aoon caused a general 
inBnrrection i the Egyptians had to retire to Kamm ; 
and Turki, a son of Abdallah, waa proclaimed sultan 
of Hejed, Kiad bang now chosen as the capital. 
Kenewed expeditions were undertaken by the 
Egyptian commanders, driving, fiisl^ Turki from 
hu capital for a time, and then his son and sucoeasor, 
Feysul; instead of whom, a chieftain favourable to 
Egyptian rule was appointed. But soon after the 
death of Mehemet AJi (1849), the EOTptiana gave 
up the struggle ; F^id was recalled bom exile ; 
and under him and his sou and vicegerent, Abdallah 
IL, who unites in a high degree the faaatidam and 
ferocity of the W. with groat skill in military 
tactics, the Wahabi sway, according to the accoonts 
of Palgrave in 1863, and of Colonel Pelly in 1866, 
had become more powerful and extensive than ever, 
and threatens to swallow up the entire peninsula. 
Feysul is sometimes styled Emir (ruler), and somc- 
timee Imaum [spiritual chief). 

According to Burckhardt, there is not a si^e 
new precept in the Wahabi code. The only difi&- 
ence between the sect and the orthodox Turks 
(improperly so termed) is, ' that the Wahabis rigidly 
fallow the same laws which the others negledi, or 
have ceased altogether to observe. To describe, 
therefore, the Wahabi relieion, would be to recapit- 
nlate the MiiM niTnin.ii faiut; and to shew in what 
points their sect differs from the Turks, would be t* 
give a list of all the abases of which the latter ara 
guilty.' One peculiarity of the W. is their xaa) 
against gaudy dress — silk and gold omamenta — and 
tobacco. In their wars of conversion, ' No Smoking' 
has been a kind of battle-cry. The recent traveller, 
Falnave, who came into more intimate contact with 
the W. than Burckhardt, has a much leas favourable 
opinion both of their doctrines and their practice. 
He describes their empire ss ' a compact and wcll- 
orranised government, where centralisation is fully 
uoderstoo^ and eftectually carried out, and whose 
munsprings and connecting links are force and 
fanaiicisin. Its atmosphere, to speak metaphori~ 
cally, is sheer despotism— moral, jntellectas^ leli- 

S'ous, and physicaL This empire is capable of 
ontier extension, and hence is dangerous to its 
neighbours, some of whom it is even now swallowing 
up, and will certainly swallow more if not otharwisa 
prevented. Incapable of true internal progress 


, onfnToiiTable to arts, aod even 
Bgncultore, and ia the higlieat degree intolersot 
and iggresnre. it cao oeither better itoelf nor benefit 
otlien ; while the order and calm which it sometimes 
spresdi over the huida of its conquest are described 
in the oft-cil«d Ubi loliiudinem Jadunt pacem 
appdUvtl of the Roman aooalist We may add, that 
its weakest point lies ia family rivalries and feiids 
of snccession, which, joined to the auti-Wahabiaa 
reaction eusting far and wide throughout Arabia, 
may one day disintegrate and shatter the Nejdean 
Einpire, yet not destroy it altogether. But so long 
at Wahabiism ahall pcevail in the centre and ajtlandi 
of Arabia, small, indeed, are the hopes of avilisa- 
tiiHi, advancement, and national prosperi^ for the 
Anb ncev' Colonel Pelly characterises tLe W. as ' 
'w;arlike Mohammedan Quakers.' _ { 

«. acitj-rei 

f 70,000. A good many of the 

towva m large, and popnlons to a degree that the 1 10,000 ; Bereydah, 25,000 ; Oneyzah, 30,0DO ; Tow 

aoTOit notiona of CeDtral Aiabia would hardly eym, 12,000— IS,ODO; Horeymelih, 10,000; Mejmai, 

lead na to look for. The fdlowiog are among those 10^000— 12,000 ; Riad. the capital (which Colonel 

I «i whidi Faipvie estimates the population : Eynn, | Fdly has ascertained to be in lat. 24° SS* 34', long. 


46' 41' 4S'), bu proUUy about 40,000; Ehariih, 
8000; Hofhuf (Al-Hufhiifl, S4,00a Eatif (Khuttf) 
ii the most direct port ol the W. doninion* ; uid 
the province of Hm* in wUch it is ritaated i 

To the north of Nejed and it> dependeudei, lies 
B kinadom mled orer by & baU-lie*rt«d all; of 

tr Kamni, Teyn 

_, . _ . , Teymar — with 

pop. of 274,000, and 166,000 Bedouins , . 

the caj)ital, has a pop. of 22,000. This part 
of Arabia waa oveimn and cxmrerted during the 
first outbreak of Wahabi propanndism ; but the 
coDTersion was only seeming, and during the inter- 
ference of Egfpt in Arabian matters, the conntr; 
reguned a kind of independency. The great majo- 
rity of the people are averse to Wahabiism, and, 
indeed, can little for Islam in. any fonn. Still, the 
W. have nomerons partisans and missionaries and 
spies in all the teirns, and their infinence is hated 
and feared by prince and people. Even Oman, 
i^ere the new Islam is said to be still more dis- 
tattefol, has been brought in some degree under 
the politioal sway of the Wahabis, and pays a small 
yttrly tribute. 

Karaten Niebuhr [q. v.) is the first European 
irriter who mentions the W. ; Burckhardt, Solet 
on tAe Bfdoains and Wahabi* (1S30), gives a sketch 
of the Wahabi doctrines and of their history down to 
1816; Sir Harford Jones Brydgea, for many years 
resideDt at Bwdad, to his Acamni of the Ttomkic- 
■' n nfHiiaajat^iMiamontotheCmiTttifPtr^ 
amienda a ' Brid History of the Wabanby ; ' Men^n, 
Butoin de V Egypt anu le Qmaxmement d« Momm- 
mtdAU;Conaixa,HUIoinda Tfo&i^'withMapa. 
trhe most recent authorities on the subject are 
W. G. Palgiave's Narmlive of a Tear's Journey 
through CaOral and Eastern Arabia, 1862—1863 
(Macmillan 1 Co., 1866); and 'A Visit ' " 

"" ' " ' ■ t-CoL L. Pellj 

, Gulf, in Geog. Soc 
journal, looo. 

WAHOO. See Elm. 

WAI'BLINGBN, a town of WUrtembei^, on the 
Rems, in the circle of the Neckar, with a pop. of 
3260. It usually gets the credit of having given to 
the family of the Hohenataufen the title which 
became Italianised into Ghibellinea (sea Oitblphh 
AVD Getsgllines) ; but Eaumer (q. v.), the historian 
of the Hohenataufen dynasty, npholda the claim of 
anotho' Waiblingen in WUrtemberg, on the Kocher, 
in the circle of .^xt- 

WAIF8, in English Law, are goods stolen, and 
waived or abandoned by the felon on being puisued. 
The goods belong to the crown, but tha owner, on 
''™"" •""~"iCB to prosecute and convict the thief, 

WAI'NSCOT (3mc. wag, a wall, and «n>( or tAot, 
ooTTeapooding to Ger. .Sc^ett, a split or cut piece of 
Mmber—from tcheiden, to divide ; the word would 
thus mean wall-timber or boards), the name given 
to boards lining the interior walls of apartmenta. 
Suoh lining, usually in panels, is very common in 
£Iizabethan architecture. The name ia frequently 
applied to the beat kinds of oak-boards, from oak 
having been so much uaed for panelUog. 

WAIST, in a Ship, is that portion d the upper 
deck lying between the fore and main masts. In 
it the larger boats are stowed, and along ita gun- 
wale the crew pDe their hammocks during the day. 
In a steamer, uie waiat is mucli broken into by the 

>ing diligence t 

WAITS (anciently spelled Waighla) is a name 
which has at tnoceasive perioda of our histoiy been 
given to different olasles of mosicsl watohmen. Tha 
word is onc^ in slightly varied forma, cxinilnmi in tha 
sense of guard or watcdunan to all the Germanio 
langnues. It is the German IfacU or ITocAc, Dntdi 
TDO^ Danish paghi, Swedish leait, Sootch wait, sad 
the Engliah loafcA. How the word in the form of 
waiti came to be exclusively applied to musical 
watchmen in England and SootlaniC it is impoaaibla 
to aay. In the time of Edward IV. the waits appear 
to have foimed a distinct doss from both the watch 
and the tninstieU. It was tbeii du^, we learn 
from Bymer's Fadort, to pipe the watch nightly in 
the king's court from Micliaelmas to Shrove-Thura- 

and t« make ' the bon gayte' at every chamber- 
door and office, for fear of pyakerea and piUet^ 
The waits were not oonfinedT to the court ; there 
were musical watchmen at an early period in 
many provincial towns. la Exeter, a regular com- 
pany existed in 1400. Beaamont and Fletch^ 
jKnighl of the Burning PalU) speak of the ■ waita 
of Southwark as rare fellows aa any in England.' 
The word in the provinces waa afterwards some- 
times applied to the town musicians, who may have 
represented the old waits, but who had no duties to 
pcxform as watchmen. The name was also given to 
the town-band or to private mnaicians when em- 
ployed as serenaders. In this sense it ia used in 
the Taiier (No. 22^. The writer says that it had 
become so much the custom for lovers to employ 
the wuts to help them throudi their ooortship ia 
' un, that the ladies <a that place oonUF get 
_ _ by reason of riotous lovma wfao infested 
the streets vrith violins and baas-vioU between 12 
o'clock and 4 in the morning. Till recently, the 
waits were officially reoogmsed in London and 
Westminster. In London, tba post of leader of th« 
wait* was purchased ; in Westminster, the appoint- 
ment was m the gift of the TT'gh Conatabla and 
Court of Bnrgessea. In IS20, a at Monro obttuned 
the poet of official leader of the waits for Wert- 
minater, with the exclusive right to sereoade the 
inhabitants, and make application for Christmas- 

* "■' prerogativea were invaded by other 

id he prosecuted several persons before 
police courts. At present, in the metropolia. 

before Christmas- Thej ^H afterwards at the honaea 
of the inhabitants to ask for a Christmas-box. In 
Glasgow, there were waits at an early period. Tha 
magistrates still erant a certificate to a few musi- 
cians, generally bLnd men, who play in the streets 
during the night and morning for about three weeks 
previous to New- Year's Say. like the London 
waits, they call at the houses of the inhabitant^ 
shew their credentials, and ask a small subscrip- 
tion.:— See Chambers's Boot of Dagi, voL ii & 

WAITZEN, a town of Hongsiy, charming!^ 
Jtuated amonK vineyards, on the left bank of fiia 
Dannbe, 21 miles north of Petth, on the Vienna and 
Festh Bailwav. It is a bishop's see, contains a noble 
cathedral with conspicuous dome, built in 1777, and 
a handsome episcopal palace. Considerable wine- 
culture is earned on, and there are important cattle- 
markets. Fop. 12,000. 

WAKE (from the Anglo-Saxon umcian, to watch) 
is the English equivalent of the ecclesiastical Vigil 
(q. v.). In early times, the day ' . < • 

ing, but on the previona evening (the tve of tha 



Mtnuement. Eftch ohnrcli whan oonseiasted 
VM dcdicstod to a lunt, aad on the aonivenary 
of that d&7 ma kept the puiali wake. In maof 
pUoea, thoe ma & iooond nke on the birthday 
of the Mint On theM ooeaeiosfl, the floor of the 
duueh -waa abcwed ^rii^ rnahea and flowen, and 
tbe altar and pnhrit wen decked with bongbi and 
IcAVea. In the ehnrchyaid, tenta vera «Met«d to 
anpply oakes and ale for the um ot th« ctowd 
on tat mocnnr, iriuah wm itat u a holiday. 
The leoond. part of the featiTal eeema to have 
made most im^neamcai on tiu pojiDlaT mind, and 
the vcsd wake came to be afdbed to it Ctowdi 

Sdward L pawed i 
and ma^eta to be ] 
but it doea not appear to have pnC an md'to tlie 
eriL In 1448, Heoiy TL ordaioM tiiat all ihowiug 
of gooda and men^ndti^ except neeeaeary vi«tiial>, 
ahonid be diacontinued on the great ftmirala of 
Uie ^nrdL These r^nlationa do not aeem to hare 
been itrictlj enforced. An act of oonTocatioB 
poaaed in 1536, daring the reign of Heniy TIIL, 
aeema to have effectM a more important change. 
It oidered the day of tho dedication of the chnrch 
to be kept in all pariahea on the flnt Sunday in 
October, and gradoally that fottival ceased to be 
obsored. The aainf a-day festirala were not, how- 
erer, affected, aad they are (till kept in many 
"Ritglifb pariahea under the DBtne of * oomitn 
walceat' A bjU-woie ta Uohe-wake ia a watohiiw 
of » dead body (A-8. lie) all o^^t by the fiienda 
aod ndf^boma of the deoeaaed. TIm onatom no 

paasbii; ttie i^ght alcaw with a dead body, or of ita 
being mtofer^ with by evil nnrits. It must at 
aU trntea hate led to acena in anfted to 
and it now ■nrvivca on^ among tiie lower classea 
in belaud. — See Brands Popular AnUqiaiitt, by 

in the West Bidii^ of Yorkshire, overlooking the 
Calder, 9 milea aonth of Leeda, on the Lancuhire 
and To^aliire Eulway. The town oounata of three 
principal and many minor itreets, and among the 
chief bnildinga are the paneh chnich, conspicnons 
from ita lofly *nd el^ant spire ; the gr&mmar- 
achool, a wMlthy intbtntion, attached to which 
there are aix ezhibitioas to the nnivetsitiea ; the 
libraij and newo-roonu, corn exchange, fto. Ita 
benevtdent and acientiflc inititationa are nnmerons 
and important. The town haa long been lanons for 
a ot woollen yarn and cloths. He 
W. ia agricottursl, and the town la 
noted for ita corn and cattle markets. Coal-minea 
an wotted in the vidoity. W. retams one 
tnonber to the Boase ot Commons. Fop. (1S61) 

WAItA'CHIA See Moldavia. 

VAIfCHEBEIT, anialaod in the Netherlands pro- 
vince of Zeeland, at tiie month of tile Scheldt, contains 
fiS,000 aerea, and has »p<^ <rf 45,00a The chief 
~' ~aa an Wddelboif^ VTnihinA and Tere or Camp- 
I (a. v.). One baU ii meadow, the otiier rich 
amUe land, wdl wooded to tbe north. Whereitia 

it protected by natnral downs, stroni; dykea have 
been fonned, that at Weet Kai^«lle beuK a magnifi- 
eestwork, nie drainage- water is carriea off by laige 
sw iliiioM at IGddelborg and Ten. Agriealtare 

is the prinripal employment. Ship-bnildinK, bear- 
brewing, Tope-tpinning, weaving sawing woo^grind- 
inff com, tanning leather, Ac; are earned on, espe- 
cially at Uiddelburg and Flashing. From the Isner 
town, a railway is being coostmcted (186Q) through 
West and South Beveland to Bergeo-op-Zoom, join- 
ing the other continental lines. The people are 
chiefly Proteatonts. In many parts are large arti- 
ficial moimds, suppoaed to ^ve been erected bv 
the early inhabitants as places of lefuge from high 

most disaltrooB military failnres in the history of 
modem warfare, waa undertaken, like that of Sir 
John Hoors to Spain, with the view of helping the 
continental allies of Britain, by creating each a 
diversion as would prevent the concen&atiOD <A 
Napoleon's strength, in overwhelming anionnt, 
agamst any one of his opponents. The expedition 
was planned in 1807, when FruBsia, Rnsaia, and 
Anstna were all in arma against France ; but it was 
not till early in the anmmer ot 1809 (when 
Napoleon, who bad meantime overwhelmed Prnssia, 
and rednced lUusia to neutrality, was graditslly 
forcing Austria to succumb) that the British minis- 
try resolved to carry it out The plan waa to send 
a fleet and army up the Scheldt, and attack 
Antwerp (the principal naval station and arsenal in 
the north of France), whose fntificstioiks, thoogh 
formidable, were much in need of repair, and whose 
garrison at the tdme onfy numbered abont 2000 
mvalida and ooast-goards ; while there were not 
more than 10,000 Frenoh soldiers in Holland. The 
expedition, otter nnmberlen needless delays, at lost 
sailed on Joly 28 ; and, to the number of 37 men-ot- 
war, 23 frigates, 116 sloojis and gunboats, accom- 
panied by transports, carrying about 41,000 soldien, 
reached the Dutch coast on the followinz day. But, 
instead of obeying the orders of the minister ot war. 
Lord CaaUereagh, to advance at otux in/one againtt 
Anlmrrp, the commander-in-chief. Lord Chatham 
(the elder brother of Pitt), frittertul away his time 
in the reduction of Vlisaingen (Flusiiing), which 
was not cKcted tiS Angnst 16, by which time 
the garrison of Antwerp nad been mnforoed by 
Kins Louis Bonaparte with the tro<^ at his com- 
mai^ (abont 6000), and by detacfamenta smt from 
France, which swelled the ganiaon, by Angust 2(^ 
to 16,000 men. Abont tbe end of Angnat, Chat- 
ham, who, as a general, waa a methoiUcal incap- 
able, 'found >'i'rn«plf prepared' to march upon 
Antwerp, but by tiiis tune 30,000 men, under 
Bemadotte, were gathered to Ita defence, and the 
" ' army was decimated by mjlsh-fever, so 
less was not to be hoped for. However, it 
was judged right to hold possession of Waloberen, 
in order to compel the Irencli to keep a strong 
force on the watch in Bel^um, and, accordingly, 
lS,D00menreinaiDed to nmson the island, thereat 
returning to England j but tbe malaria proved too 
fatal in itB ravages, and as peaoe had been concluded 
between Austria and Fnuice, this force waa also 
recalled. Thns an excellently devised scheme, 
through the utter stupidity of the agent cholen by 
royalty to carry it out, failed in every point <u 
consequence, and ended in a ton of 7000 men dead, 
■nd the permanent disablement of half the remainder. 
The failure of the Walcheren Expedition waa made 
occasion of furious onslan^ta on tbe ministi^ 
tiie House of Commons and in tbe puUlo 

WA'LDECK-PYTBMONT, a sovereign princi- 
pality in tbs north-weat of Qermany, consists of tbe 
old county of Watdeck, enclosed between Weat- 
-"--'-- '"^MhCassel, and Prussia, and the small 



county of F^Tmont, abont 30 milaa north of Wal- 
deck. Area of Waldaok, 407 N. m. ; of PfTmoDt, | ] 
2S sq. m. : entire area, 432 sq. nulo. Pop. of Wal- 1 - 

deck (1S64), 61.824 i of PyrmoDt, T3I9: eotire pop. 
Peconber 1S64) G9,143. The elevation of the 
conntry u greater than that of most districts of 
Northern Geimanj ; and the soenery, continually 
altematinji between mountain and valley, forest and 
l^aio, comprises scenes of mach natural beaaty. 
The two lonest riven are the Eder and Diemd, 
affluents of tae Weser. Among the minerals found 
are gold, copper, inm, and lead ; and mineral springs 
occur. Agncnlture and cattle-breeding are by far 
the most common potsuita of the peuple, and with 
the exception of leather, no articles are moun- 
factuiBd ta any extent. An important article of 
eiport, and one from which the prince derives a 
considerable portion of his revenue, ia the mineral 
water of the Fyrminit spa. 

The noble House of W., one of the oldest in Ger- 
many, formerly owned, besides their present pos- 
seasions, the counties of Swolenburg and Stembera, 
bat lost the former in 1366, and the latter in 1399. 
W.-P. is now [1867) a member of the North German 
Confederation. Tne chief town is Atolsen, with 
2500 inhabitants. 

WALDETfSES (Valdknbm, Vimmr, Valmi, 
VATTDOia) ore a Christian conunmuty who in- 
habit a mountain tract on the Italian side of the 
Cottian Alps, south-west from Turin. The district 
s boaoded an the N. by the Dora Sipura, on the 
J. by the Fo. It ii eDclnwd on all sides by spun of 
the Alps, which divide it into three valleys — that 
of FerOBO, drsioed by the Clnsone ; that of Son 
Martdno, drained by the Geimonasca ; and that of ! 
Lucema, drained by l^e Pelice, all tributaries of the , 
Po. These valleys lie between France and Italy, i 
and immediately south of the great western roate 
into Italy by the posses of Mont Ceuis and Oeuevre. 
The inhabitanta are thus bronght into communica- 
" ~i with both countries ; indeed, they speak a 
.ect more dos^ allied to those of Danphir ' 
Hum to those of Piedmont; and they have ust 
French as well as Italian as the language of the 
liturgy. The religions doctrines of tEe W. are no 
similar to those of the Reformed churches. There 
a minister in each parish, colled a barbe, and the 
^nod is presided over by an elected moderator. 
The W. hod. at one time bishops, bnt that was when 
the sect was more widely spread than it now is. 
Much has been said of the origin of the Waldenses. 
Their own historians assert that the community 
has remained from apostolic times independent of 
the church of Rome, and boast that they can shew a 
regular apoakilia snccession of bishops from the 
earliest period of Christianity till that of the Refor- 
mation. This statement has been very generally 
admitted by nncritical writers, bnt in the light of 
recent investigations, would seem to be no longer 
tenable. Dieckhoff (iWe WaldmKr im MiHelaHer, 
Giitt. 18S1) and Eeizog [Die romanitchen Wal- 
denser, Halle, 1863) have submitted the early 
history of the W. to a -critical examination ; and 
the result to which they have come, after on 
examination of the manuscript records, is, that 
the W. had not the early origin claimed for them, 
and were not Protestant be^re the Reformation, 
although they entertained some opinions which, 
so far, were in aaticlpatton of those held by the 
Reformers. They are also of the opinion that the 
W. do not take their name from voJ, tmllu, a valley, 
as has been assumed, bnt from Peter Waldo of 
Lyon, a merchant of the 12th c., who was less the 
founder of a sect than the representative and 
leader of a wide-spread itruggle against the cor- 
ruptions of the clergy. The chnr^ would have 

to the hierarchy. But he bad the four goapeU 
tranalated, and maiatoined that laymen bad a right 
to read them to the people. He exposed in tnia 
way the prevalent ignorance and iniroorahty of the 
clergy, and brought down their wrath upon !■■'"— If 
His opinions were condemned by a geneiol council 
in 1179, and he retired to the valleys of the 
Cottian Alps. A long series of peisecutiona fal- 
lowed, but Waldo's followers could not be forced to 
abandon their opinions. They continued to be 
known ■• the Ltonitli, from the place of their origia 
^the Poor People of Lyon, from their voluntaiy 
penary— Sabot<di, from the wooden shoes they wore 
— and Humililati, on account of their humility- It 
was natural that a body crueDy persecuted should 
stand aloof from the church, and even offer armed 
resistance ; yet we have no evidence of the manner 
in which the W. first became a separate community. 
They are now shewn to have been identical with thp 
followers of Waldo, but they must not be confounded 
with the Albi^iaea, who were persecuted at the 
same period. The protest of the W. against the 
church of Rome only related to nractteol qaea- 
tions, that of the Albigeoses related to matters of 

The W. at first seem to have spread in the Dpper 
valleys of DauphinG and Piedmont, to which Waldo 
retired. They were aobjected to parsecutiona in. 
1332, 1400, and 147S, and driven into many parta of 
Europe, where their industry and integrity were 
universally remarked. So widely hod the sect been 
scattered, that it was sud a traveller from Antwerji 
to Rome could sleep every night at the house of 
one of the brethren. In Bohemia, many of them 
had settled, and they, without forsaking their 
own comnumity, joined the Hussites, Toborites, 
and Bohemian Brethreu — a connection which led 
to a change in the principles of the Waldense*. 
They adopted the doctrines of the Reformers, and 
this led to more serioos persecutions than any they 
had previously undergone. Francis L of France, 
in possession of Piedmont in 1541, ordered them to 
be extirpated. They were massacred at various 
places in Dauphinfi and in the valleys they still 
occupy, more especially at Merindol and Cabrifere. 
Several persons who refused to abiuidon their faith, 
were burued ahve, yet the sect continued to exist. 
In 1560, the Duke of Savoy, who had recovered poe- 
seasioo of Piedmont, urged by Pope Paul IV., forlude 
the W. to exercise their faith, under the penalty of 
being sent to the galleys for hfe. The W. sent him 
a petition and apology for their oread, which ap- 
peared to him so plausible, that he suggested that a 
conference should take place between the Walden- 
sian and Romanist divines. Ho was, of course, told 
that the proposition was monstrous, and buUieid by 
the pope and the courts of Spain and France so 
effectually, that he dcsnatched 7000 men into the 
vollej™, who were joined by two French regiments. 
The W. offered a gallant resistance, but were over- 
whelmed by superior force. Many prisoners were 
burned alive, and women and children were ruth- 
lessly slaughtered. The duke was disgusted with 
these atrocities, and although denounced as no better 
than a heretic at Rome, granted the W. an amnesty 
on condition that their service should only be per- 
formed at certain places in the vallej'S of Lucema 
and San Martino. The W. in the other diabicts, 
and especially the Marquisate of Saluzzo, were 
then persecnted by the Jesuits. Charles I. of 
England sent two embassies to the Duke of Savoy 
to mtercede in their behalf, bnt without avail. 



Victor Anudeus L, not long kfter, ordered the 
W. of SalazxD, ondec iwiulty of coiifiacatiaa of 
property and death, to become Catholics; and the 
ediot WM ao rigtaowdy carried out that, in a few 
Ttan, none of the aact remained in the district. 
Charles EmBUumel IL, in 1655, directed a fresh 
persecutdoa sgaiost the Woldensea. Some time 
before, the people of Lucema, inflamed it is said by- 
he disoooises of Jean Lecer, a popular preacher, set 
fire to a Mpvent of Capuchiiig, and committed other 
esses. An inquiry was made, and it Was found 

t the W. had purchased property and bailt 

churches and schools ia districta where no coDces- 
sioos bsd been grauted them. They were ordered 
whhin 20 days to tell their property, or profess 
Catholimsm. They resisted, under Itaders named 
JsTsr and Janavel, but tbe^ could not oppose the 
forces sent aninst them. No (juarter wss uiewn to 

n and diildren, and atrocities were committed 

re especially by the French and Irish mereen- 
in the service of the duke — which, racorded by 
Jean Lcf^i were heard of with indignatioD in atl 
Pnitestaiit countries. Subscriptions were made in 
f!ngland for those who had survived the massacre. 
The Swiss cantons, and the states of Holland, sent 
«IIV07* to the duke. Cromwell addressed Latin 
letters Co him, written by Milton, and also ~~~'' "' 
Samuel Morland, who collected numerou 
acripta conDeoted with the history of the W,, and 
brought them to England with him. A conTcntian 
iM conclnded, by which the W. were allowed again 
.> exerciae their worship. In 16S5, Louis XIV. 
reroked the Edict of Nantes, and ordered the Duke 
of Savoy to compel the W, to adopt " ' 
They wete accordingly commaDded to emi^te 
at abjure their tenets within 16 days. They resisted, 
and were attacked by the troops of the duke 
on one side, and those of Louis XIV. 
otiier. Hiey were overpowered, and the 
coidd make no conditions. A lar^ number were 
imprisDoedat Turin, where many died; others were 
allowed to cmigratek Their whole property was con- 
fiacmted, and huded over to Roman Catholic colon- 
ists. When the Prince of Orange became king of 
En^and, the W. who had settled in Switzerland 
rnSved to retora to their valleys nuder the suidooce 
of HeuTT Amaad, one of their paatoiB. In 1689, 
bey gathered from all quartets to the rendezvous in 
Jle great forest oE the Pays de Vaud. On the night 
if the 16th of August, they embarked on the Lake 
A Geneva, landed on the oppoaile shore, and 
after efvcoontering the most determined oppoaitian, 
reached the valley of San Martino, after a perilous 
march of thirty-one days. During the winter, a, 
French anny of 22,000 men entered their territoriet, 
and in thefoUowing summer attacked their fortilica- 
tiona, bat were lapn 
tonately, the French and Pi 

tiue qnamlled, and the latter, to secure the servicea 
4rf the mountaineers, granted them an amnesty. They 
■m Mkid to have foogbC not less than eighteen battles 
it the French, and to have l[»t onl^ thirty 

This was the last persecntion against the 

Vandois ; bat it was not until the reion oi the pre- 
it king of Italy that they were admitted to the 
ne pnvilcsel as Roman CathoUcs. — See Botta, 
_ jria ifllaba; Bender, QaAiehte der Waldenaer 
(Ulm, 1S50) ; Uorland's Chureha of FiedmonX ; 
Oelly's Waldeaman Seaeareha; Muston, Itrati <t/ 
Oit Alpt (tmnalated, Blackie, 1857). 

WALES. See the article* ENaLAHD, Obut 

'Burns, Pkock di Walk, and the names of the 

variooa coonties, towns, &c, of the principality j 

also WKua LuiouiQE isi> LirsKaTiTBC. 

WALES, HkwSovth. See N>w South WAi.ra. 

of tl 

Gladaheim (the 
house of joy) ; in front of it was the beautiful 
grove Glasur, the trees of which bore golden leaves. 
Before the hall, which was so high that its summit 
could scareely be seen, a wolf was hung, as a symbol 
of war, over which sat an eagle ; the saJoon itself, 
ornamented with shields, and wainscoted with 
sneare, had 540 doors, through each of which 800 of 
the inmates (Einherjer) could walk abreast. For 
these Einherjer (i. e., IJie brave}, who come after 
death to 0dm, was it destined. Renowned chiefi^ 
especially if tiiey had desolated many countries, 
and wielded the blood-dripping eword for and wide, 
and welcomed by Bragi and Eennode aa 
I from Odin. The hoQ whs decorated to 
honour them ; all the divine heroes stood up at their 
rtion ; the Walkyriea tasted wine ^r them, 
h otherwise only Odin drank. ,A11 kings came 
'^■Ihalla, even when they did not die on the 
battle-field; in general, theae joys seem to have been 
prepared oidy for those of high tank and the rich. Aa 
it was honoorable to come to Walholla with a great 
ratinne, and to possess many Ixeasures, the oomrade* 
of a leader who had fallen in battle killed them- 
selves of their own free will, and in his grave were 
laid along with his horse and arms the treasures won 
in fiffht. Every morning, the inmates marched out 
at i£e crowing of the cock, and fought furiously 
with one another ; bat at mid-day all wounds heale<^ 
and the heroes assembled to the feast under Odin's 
presidency. Odin himself partook of nothing but 
wine; he gave the edibles to the wolves Gen and 
Freki, who sat beside him. The guests ate of the 
bacon of the boar Sahrimmer, and refreshed them- 
selves with beer and mead, which flowed in abund- 

bonis, under Freyja's direction. Occasionally, the 
hero rode by nigllt to his grav^ where the 
beloved Vall^jtie reoeived him ; he reposed in her 
embrace till, ni^lt disa|f>eaTinK, he excWned : 
,_ .!_. . L_ .L_ ■--jjg tread 

10 make tiie hone t 

n the white stair 

wamors in Walhalla.' The half of the fallen be- 

Freyjo. The boar Sahrimmer, of which the 

heroes ate, was prepared by the cook Andhrimmer 

the kettle ELdhrimmer. Sa is explained as signlfy- 

g water; anil, breath or soul; ela,&ie; Arim, i e., 

frost, was the primitive matter of which the world 

I made ; from the branches of the deer Eikthyr- 

, standing owr Walhalla, dreps fell into the well 

Hvergelmar, from which all rivers flowed. Accord- 
ing to this, the heroes appear to be conceived as 
~ ~~ Binrits of tho constellations, which draw 

their nonruhment from the el< 
stands for heaven. 

Its; and Walhalla 

while he was yet crown-prince. The design of the 

building was by Klenze, and the chief sculptors of 
Germany have contributed to the execution of the 
plan. It stands on an eminence 250 feet above 
the Danube at Donaustauf, near Regensburg. The 
iple is of nearly the same dimensions and pro- 
turns as the Parthenon, and is built of marble. 
_^ means of atatnes, busts, reliefs, and tablets, 
the mytholo^ and history of Germany are illus- 
trated, and her greatest names commemorated. 
The undertaking la said to have cost 2,330,000 

, LiUU^ Ic 


flfirim. ^te chief blemuli in this iplendid Btma- 
tUTQ u, thiA m moDnmeiit la honour of tiio 
Oemuui pMnde, instead of bdng bnilt in the old 
Oennan tby&, has heen nmda a aop7 of > Giedan 

WALKER, Ee7. Gboeok, an Iridi 
diltiDguished for th« put he toc^ in 
dffence of Londoiidetry' againrt tin ■rm 
IL.wM bom ij ■' 

. jtetiiiR the (^nrch, becaoM leotor of Doooudiman. 
The e«d J lif e of W. «M not renuibblB, .WWthe 
IiiAh ataj of Junes IL entered Ulitor, Kod took 
posBession of Kilmore and Colenini^ W. sixw^t 
lefoffB in Loodondeny, the be«d-qn>rten of 'the 
Enguahiy' Kince the tones of Juna L, when the 
coiSUcated lands of the ootmt; had been bestowed 
on the coipontion of the citjr of London, uid a 
SozoQ mloDV, English and Scotch, had beat planted 
there, who had converted » waet« into the rioheet 
district of Ireland The town was fortified snffi- 
cientlj to protect it from tbe pike-armed Celido 
HutaontiT, uid it had resisted more than one attack 
But it was not so defended as to oppose legnlar 
trocmB. Loildj^ the gpvmmx, wm in secret oom- 
nmmostiau wnb the aneo^, ud pre^and to hand 
orer the town to than; but mom m bis own officen 

remadkable at &e t 


It spirit which 

tboM qnaitliea which made ue toldkn <k Cnonwdl 
tuaom, detennined not to yield. The hisht^ 
EiAiel i^pkina, in Tsin inenlcated the doobine 
of pMsive WMdieooe at a oonfcreuoe ; he was inter- 
nmted by a lad, one of a daring band known as the 
' tnirteen Sootch apprentices,' who called oat : ' A 
good sannon, my lord^a very good sermon ; bat 
we hiva no tune to heat it now.' A Sootch fanatic 

Howatm arged the Fresbyteriaos not to ally 

. tvea with tbe enemies of the Covenant ; bat 

ha was lan^ied at by his coonbymen. The thi 
apprcntioeB eloMd the <^-gatca, and defied 
enon^. It wm Huai tiiat W., described as an 

who had taken refuge in the citar.tDeanr- 

„_ . the townspeople to fi^ to Uw bat. W. 
Mved Londy bom the rage of the ~~~ 
tnabled him to qnit tlte aisj in ■ , 
Baknr, who eocm after died, wd W. be<^me jdnt- 
g^mraon, aided by Captain Adam Canu^»en. The 
KSga is the most monorable in British history. It 
began in April, and lasted till tiie end of Joly 1689. 
TIh inhabitant* were redooed to tht greatest 

the last by the ronsing scimons pnoehed to t^can 
by W. in the caUiedral, and the szam^ he and 

CStptain Campbdl set in headii^ s*" 

When the si^e waa rused by the 
entering the harbonr, W. went to Lonaon. ne was 
waimly receiTed at conrt, thanked by the House of 
OommoDB, erealed D.D. by Oxford, and Bishop of 
Deny I^ the king, PartTsits of li™ were in every 
house in England, and hia triiimph woold have been 
complete had the FTesbytesiaas not thon^t that 
thedr share in the defence of 1^ city w« over- 
looked, and provided nseleas controretsy. W. 
conld not be induced to take qniet poaafaiog of his 
bidumric ; be would head a troop at the battle of 
the Bbjne, and he was there killed. A lof^ pillar 
has been erected to hia memory at Londonderry, 
and the 'W'alker Clnb and tie CampbeU Clab have 
kept alire to our times the recollection of the siege. 
WTpobhahedin 1089 A Trot Acanaii of At Bitge qf 

WALKINO-BTICK, the popolar name of many 
inseots of the family Phaantda (g. t.), destitute it 
wings, and haring a lon^ slender, oylindrical body, 
like a small stick witii the bark on, the delicsto 
legs icsembliag little twigs. Thmr habita are Yety 
similar to titoas of the leu-insecto or walkiog-lMTC% 

Wilking-stiok [Phtuma gvat). 

and thur peonliar appearaiLoe is, in like manner, 
their protection. Moat of them are naldres of warm 
climates, and they are widely distributed. Some <d 
tbem attain a luge size. Fhaama gv/at, an East 
Indian spedes, is saren or eight intmea long. A 
species, between three and foor inches lonf^ P. 
Jemoraiam, is fonnd even in the northern and oortii- 
mtem pute of the United StatM. 

WAUKISO-BTICKS. The haint ef nsiitg a 
stick, either tor sapport or menly as a ftwh iwi, ia of 
great antiqaity ; and in modem bnua, Hm sopriy of 
snch aridoles eonstitntes a large branch of tnde in 
~ oonntiie^ espedally in Britain, Waatae, 

any. Hie imports into London and otiter 
English porta of sti<^ in the raw state, to be aftor- 
vards dressed and monnted, is enoimons, evoeeding 

value of about £21f,00a Th<^ chiefly coonst of tin 
" ~ la or canea of certain pahns, as the ^fJaf*T^ 
id others called Whangee sod Penang 
Idwyen; the woody stems of aome small speoies 
of bamboo are also osed, beaidea stni^t t&oots at 
orange, dnnamon, myrtle, and other shrobs. The 
reparation and sale of walking-sticks are elten- 
velj' carried on in Hambnrg, and Uie fioer sorto 
._rencb]y and tastefollymoiintod in Paris. Lcmdon 
is, however, the Ereatelt mart for aU kinds of walk- 
ing-sticks. Of British treea and shmha, the oak, 
criw, hazel, and sloe are used to sinne extent tea the 
manufacture of walking-sticks. 

WALKY'BIEB, beings of tiie ScMkdinaTian 

Mythology (q. v.), the legend of whom is the most 

terribly Mautifal lu the whole svstem. The name 

derived from the old Sane ttU, which signifies a 

a of alsaghtered men, and l^ora, to choose. V<d 
oontams the notion of chosen, elect, being 
allied to Oer. viahlen, Scotch waie, to chooK. _ The 
Walkyries, also called battle-maidens, shield-maidens, 
wish-maiden^ are charming young women who, 
adorned with goldem omainen&, ride through the 




til to brilliBnt uaioar, order battles, «Dd dlttribate 
the dJeatli-lote scoirdiiu to Odin's oomjnuida. Fer- 

«f tbor hrana ; light atKama from the pcdut* of 
tiutc lanon^ »nil ^ fiickoting bfifhtiMSB umooiioes 
thiar Hinml in the battle. With th^ ntiMTning 
cUnM, Uwf i^>»M tlte (^asiiig eye of the hera, uid 
bad lum to Walhalla, wImm they act m hii oap- 
baann. Two Wal^iea Hriat tuid Miat, h« cap- 
Umj difler in nwd to 
— '— - from £lvM I 

„ ._ pnnoai, ^roo 

I nnmbendamtttgthe'WaUiTnei, 
oalitac^and when tliay die^ their 
^IkyricB. ISiey ride MMcally in 
M of threes <a of tbrea famea t&aa, or four 
tiBMa Ihree, and Iwva the gift of '•*'»"g|"g themr 
a al yta inta vmaa. They <tften duoae noble heioea 
fu' lonn. lima, Smnra waa the bdored of Helgi, 
iraa tvice, aa Sgrum and Kara, le-bom along -with 

him, and acconqianied his in hialmttlea ~~~ 

log twaa, fljiiu orer *"" '^""' ■" "" 
in tiw Nona neroie 

Birnhild ia ai 
Walkyiia. Aa 

^km the offica of Wall 

Walbjne fia 

^ .. . „ Tooctted ly Odin'a magio rod, 

ib W in a tmwe till Sinid, borne on hia 
^ila Aocw through the fire chat flamad aronnd 
'■' * r, and broke the apelL 

Beta her into bis power. 

ioA paaiwwon of flu thi-- , , , — 

mmAgn^r Swanhwi^ H«Cd Alrito, and Alron— aa 
Qaj ast ir''""'g fine flax hy the aeatide. ISiey 
stayed asnn jean witlt than, and then want awaj 
to attend u> battUa again aa Walfcyriea. Here they 
iiaiiiiililii the nmi-maideiia of the Qermaa Sagaa. 
Bst "»'«M« aa tiiey boa appear, the sang of tha 
Walkyriaa in tbe Nfila Ban aoimda tenibl^ m ait- 
ting OD a UD, th^wasTs the battle-web dniing the 
bafilu of Sigtr^ wiUi tbs nlkon beard aadEing 
Brian <d Irdan£ "Bm Walkjiiea were &«qnentlr 
coDfoondBd with Vta Nona or Destimei. Ihay 
w«c« also o(me«(vednDdaitlwfignre<d thsolonds. 
TboM, Hrist si^ifies dark ikv, and Miat eignifiw 
'-'-- HoatafthenamGaofihflWaIkyries,how- 

TWfgnl^ with vhitiBb atreaka, bud, 
ing, nsinoiu, and very durable. Tha learea aie 
frinnatth witlunit a tsiminal leoflat ; Hie flowers in 
nuiiidM nf nomeToiiB distinct rscemea, on a long 
Sower-stalk. The calyx conaists of fonr 

WALLACE, WiLUAM, tha faoioaa Scottiah 
ntiio^ was the younger son of a kni^ of good 
Cunily in the aaaUi-west of Sootland. Naither the 
date IKS the i^flce of his birth baa been aaoertained ; 
bat Umtb is no doubt that tbe former may be 
(■■gned to the middle of the reign of Alezuider 
TIT. Nothing certain il known of bis education or 
hit early years. His tnie history, even in the next 
geaetanon, was so obaCDie,tliatitiBDOWUiqHMnblB 
to aepante bnUi frtnn falsehood cr exagMialion. 
He fitat appeaiB, in tbe li{^ of anthenticniatory, 
aa the cihi^of a band of insurgents agunat Edward, 

anoog the nolnlity of Scotland, 

fraemost penona 
and of the poai- 

^watd bad eatablished hia snjamnacy o 
northern kingdam, and aft«rwaTda depoa< 
Baliol, and attempted to govem in hia own xtmo- 
lut« right. See Scotlakii, Hitlorg. Hie injnatiaa 
of the claim, and the cnielt? witii whioh it was 
aiforced, rtmsed Uie opposition of all rlaimra in 
Sootlaml esoept the higEttr ndhka. Hie gentty 
and tbe middle and loiwr daiata of iiie Loiriandi^ 
had Sot many ^ean identified thamsdw with tiw 
cooBtrr in wludt they dwdt, nthCT than with tbe 
mat ""c*"** r*ce from whioh most of them drew 
weir deacent; and what has been called the War 
of Ltdc^endenoe began, whioh rssulted in tha 
ddirenDea of ScotUnd from liaiaffi mle, at the 
cost of the fxmiparative civiliistion and tianqnillih 
which the country had enjoyed under the deacend- 
ante of MaloDlm Caimiore. In this straagle, W. 
waa the moat succaaaful leader; and in theooone 
of the year 1297, the iusurreotion became general. 
Edward himself waa at that time in Blander* ; but 
hia general in Sootland, tbe Eari of Snrrer, kid hia 
acmy to Stilling. On tiie 11th d SeptouMr, they 
enoonntned the Seoti under W., and wwe com- 
idetsly deffted. Ihe witolo ^■"t*'™" aobinitted to 
W. : wbok paaiinr the Border, ravaged Ounber- 
land and NortluuuMriand wiUMot oppoaition. On 
his return ftomthia expedition, he was abated ty 
his oonutaTmen Oovcmor of Scotland, in name 5t 
King John, wboee tiOe waa still recogmsed. In the 
following year, Edward in person ei^end Scotland 
at the bead of a namemua atmv. He was met at 
FaUurk (q. v.) by W. on tbe 22d of July; but the 
Soots were defeated. It ia geoeraUy assumed 
that the jealousy of Kme of tbe Scottish 
nobles, who envied the position of the gorer- 
nor, had aided in bringing about the diuster, 
and W., in consequeuee, leaigned his fai(^ offiee. 
With thiB event, bu brilUaDt public career may be 
■aid to have tenmnated; and the ohacnri^ of the 
remaining period of hi* life ia afancat aa great a* 
that whiSt cover* it* eonmenoement All that is 

for hia oonntry^ independence^ and never made n: 
■nbmiadoD to £dwan( or took thoae oath* of fealtr 
to him which wnb ao lightly made by the Soottiah 
noblea, and as recUenly broken. The event* of 
this period related 1^ nodem writers nnder the 
name of ' Lives of WaUaceL* are «ither tranaaetioa* 
in which there is uo evidence tliat he took any 
part, or the doubtful l^euds which, a* y^rs went 
CD, gathered round tbe name of the Scottdah hero. 
Some docuiueDta of audoobted aatheutidty make 
it probable that he was for some tJine in JBVanoe. 
Tbe close of his life fomu an exoeptioD to this 
obscori^. When Bdwnrd offered pardon to the 
other Scottdah leaders on certain terms, W. waa 
excepted by name. If he chose to surrender, he 
might do so, bat it was to be without conditions, 
and his life waa to be at tbe king's mercy. ESbrts 
were also made to discover his retreat and secure 
his peiBon, and these ware finally sucoessfuL lu 
the year 1306, he waa aeized by some of hia own 
countryineD, sod delivered to Edward. Ha waa 
cairied to London, and wii^ a mockery of the 
forms of justice, tried for treason. He denied the 
chuge, oaaertjng, with truth, that he hod never 
bean the vassal or aabjsct of Edward; but his plea 
was ^Btegarded. He waa condemned and executed 

panied 1^ aot* of tarbaii^ anoommon even in that 
age, and marking the merdless character which 
dutdngudied the later years of the T'Wl"*' king. 
CoutTHdictory aa are the accounts of the Siglish and 
Seottaab ^ohroniclen, it is sot difficult to discover 



the true oh&racter of Wallace. He waa the true 
leader of a natioiial iiuarrectian aaainst a foreign 
yoke. He ahared in the crael and violeat habita 
of bis time, and in thia waa more excusable than 
the great king whose ambition and t^ranoj he 
^posed. The croeitiea inflicted in hia invasion of 
England ore nndeniable, but he did -what be could to 
mitigate them ; and he ^ould not be severely blamed 
if, under far greater provocation, he tolerated what 
the good King David, in his War of the Standard, 
1 Hnable to prevent His memory lives, and 
I ever live in the heaita of his countrymen, 
who know that they owe to him and to those who 
followed in the same courae, that their history has 
not been as unhaimy as the histocy of Ireland. 
The chief authority for the Life of Wallace, a> toM 
by popular Scotch writer*, is the poem of Henry 
the A^nstreL The fullest modern aceonnt is that 
given by Mr Tytler in the first volame of hia 
Mi^ory of SeoUand, and in hia Life of Wallace in 
the first volume of his BcoUvIi Wort/ua. Reference 
may also be made to the second volume o£ Mr 
Burton's recently-published HUlory of Scotland. 
s aatiafBCtory to know that the result of a care- 
eiamiuBtion of the latest and best sources by a 
writer so impartial, and so little apt to be oamed 
away by enthusiasm of any kind, as Mr Burton, 
corroborates the most favoniable estimate of W.'s 

musician and composer of operas, Was bom at 
Waterford, of Scotch parents, June 1, 1S14. He 
early attorned proficiency as a performer on the 

Jiianoforta and violin^-his performances on the 
atter instrmneut bringinff bim under the notice of 
FaganinL After being for some years leader of 
the orchestra of a DubUn theatre, he emigrated to 
Australia, where he lived for a consIderablB time in 
the bnih, and then suddenly appeared in Sydney as 
a musician, and gave concerts in Australia, Now 
Zealand, India, and America. In 1845, he came to 
England, and wrote his &rst opera, Maritana, which 
was an immediate success both in London and 
VieDDa, and still holds the stage as one of the most 
jpulor of English operas. MaiUda of U-angary 
illowed it in 1847. During a sojourn of some 
years in Crermany, Wallace added further to his 
musical culture ; and after again viaitiog America, 
tomposed Lurlme, which was bronght out in London 
n 1S60, with even greater success than MariUtna, 
In 1861, he produced Tht ArnUr Witdi; in 1S62, 
Zovt't Triumph; and in 1863, T^ Detrrt Fiouxr. 
W. died at the Ch&teau de Bagen, in Uie south of 
France, ISth October 1865, leaving another opera, 
Eilrdla, nearly completed. Without possessing 
genius irf the very first order, W. was a highly-culti- 
vated mnsidan ; t^e freshness of the motives, aod 
the brilliancy of Hie orchestration of his operas, par- 
ticularly Marilana and Luriine, have stomped their 
author as one of the ofiief English composers of this 

WALLENSTBIK (w, more correctly, WALD- 
-of Friedlond, Sagan, and Mecklenburg, the most 
Temarkable ci the long series of emineut men who 
■owe their prominence on history's page to the 
Thirty Years' War, was the third eon of a noble 
though not wealthy Bohemian family, and was born 
at the chlteou of Hermsnci, in Bohemia, 16th Sep- 
tember 1683. His parents, who were Protestants, 
intrusted the care of his education to the Moravian 
brotherhood of Koscbumbercr, who, however, made 

1;4.A1^ *r *.l :_ _i.^i-i_ __3 ... - 

ooa CathoLc, took ohuge of tin waywud youth, 

and having won him over to his own creed, sent 
him to the Jesoit eottBttorium at OtmUti, and to 
the nuivenitiea of Altor^ Bologna, and Padua, 
where his education, such a* it Was, was completed. 
W.'s course of training hod not eradicated, or even 
moderated the pronunent faults in his natural 
•ntrary, his wilfulnev and 


idependent spirit hod gathered stability 
Tength from meffective opposition ; and lus 

... the Stage of l 

shewed man of extreme individuality, gifted with 
great and versatile ability, but equaUy remarkobls 
for obstinacy, paasion, and pride. He afterwaida 
visited Qermany, France, and Holland, took cer- 
vioe in the impmal army, then engaged wiUi the 
Turks in Hungary, and, returning h^e at the close 
of the war (1606), married an aged widow of noble 
rank, who, at her death (1614), left him the whole 
of her great wealth. This, along with the fourteen 
domains bequeathed to him by his uncle, made him 
one of the richest and most infloenttal lords of 
Bohemia, a position recognised by the imperial 
court by the bestowal on hun of the title of coont 
and the military grade of coIoneL A second mai^ 
riage in 1617 with the danghter of Count Harrach, 
the emperor's favourite, and W.'s firm adherence tt 
ttie imperial side during the Bohemian insurrection . 
his maintenance, at his own expense, of a large 
body of troops ; and hia brilliant and well-dircct«d 
gallantry at the battle of Prague, and in variou* 
contests with Manafeld and Beuilem Gahor, added 
a powerful influence at conrt to his hitherto only 
locol eminence- The latter, however, was now much 
incresaed by his purchase, at much less than their 
value, of sixty conliscoted lordships in Bohemia; 
and Ferdinand IL felt himself impelled to recom- 
pense the valuable services of his faithful subject by 
(1623) raising him to the dignity of a pHnca of 
the empire, with the title of Duix of Friediand. 
(Friedland is a town situated dose to the Prussiaa 
frontier, about 60 miles north- north-east of Prague.) 
Two years after, when the impossibility of main- 
tuning an army sufficient to reatmiu uie Protest- 
ant League from uniting with the Danes against 
him, threw the emperor almost into despair, W., 
seizing such a favourable opportunity of grati- 
fying his ambition, offered to raise, equip, and 
maintain 50,000 men free of charge, provided he 
were intrusted with the absolute command, and 
allowed to appoint his own officers : a proposal 
greedily accepted by the emperor, W. raised 30,000 
m Bohemia ; adventurers ama all quarters flocked 
to his standard ; and in a short time his army iai 
exceeded the promised number. With this motley 
but not iU-disciplined array, he Hen marched into 
North Germany, and octing in concert with Tilly 
(q. v.), routed Mansfeld at Dessou, hunted him 
through SiIe8iaandMoravio,and on his junction widk 
the army of Bethlem Gabor in Hungary, compelled, 
by skilful strategy, the combined forces to remMn on 
the defensive. Keleased by a truce with the Tr«n- 
sylvanian prince and the death of Mansfeld, ha 
returned by Silesia, recovered the fortresses which 
Thum bad captured, forced the Elector of Branden- 
burg to submit to the emperor, and joined Tillyin 
annihilating the military power of Denmark. The 
value of these services to the emperor's canse was 
inestimable, as Ferdinand well knew, and he accord- 
ingly turned a deaf ear to the loud complaint of 
the North Germans, who had suffered grievously 
from the rapacity, oppression, and licence which 
W.'s soldiers were allowed to eiercise without the 
slightest opposition ; and rewarded their leader by 
the gift of the Metjclenbuig dnchiea, the rank <u 
generalisoimo on land, and admiral of tiie Baltic 
W. ^eedily made hinudf master of his new 



territorv; fitted out & fleet of 15 caiJ, by tile aid 
of whidi be captured Uaedom and Rugen, with 
rariODl Baltic potti, and laid ticge to Strakand. 
But the Danes anmliilated hia navy ; and th.s 
Swedes ■Qcconred StralBimd, the siege of whicli he 
abandoned in despair. But as nnder cover of the 
dread ioapired b^ W.'b arms, Ferdinand had 
resumed hu tyrannical and aggrewiTe schemea (le 
Thirty Yxina' Wab) iji Gennany, the Catholi 
Leagne, headed by the Date of Bavaria, became 
bitter adTenaries of W., and backed by tlie intrignes 
of Franco (which was rapreeented at Vienna by 
Father Joaeph, a maater of subtle and unKrupuIons 
diplomaoy), partly forced and partly cajoled the 
cmpeior to diannsa W., an act for the probable 
conaeqaencea of which even Ferdinand, with hia 
extiaordinary fortitude, trembled. W., however, 
diaappointed hia aovereign'a feara and hia enemies' 
hope* by obeying with apparent cheerfulnesi, being 
comewut moved thereto by the predictions of hia 
favourite astrologer,* who deolarea hie atar to be only 
tempoivrity eclipeed, and that it would soon ahltie 
forth again with far greater lustre ; and retired to 
Pnigne, where he lived in hia magmficeot palace in 
sovereign state, sotrouDded by a court composed of 
banma, knights, and the principal officers of his army. 
But the insult and io jury he had received were eating 
into hii soul; the frsjikiiess and affability to his sub- 
ordinates, nblch liad hitherto distinguished him, 
were changed for a gloomy taciturnity ; and much 
of hia time was spent in solitude, brooding over his 
WTOO^ and scheming for revenge on the Duke of 
Bavaria, whom he justly accused of being the cause 
of hia disgrace ; though all the while tie kept a 
cabn bat eager watch over the changes of opinioo 
in the court iS Vienna, where several of llie ministers 
and niuneroua aecret agents were either in his pay, 
or devoted to hia intereata. Hia eminent aervices, 
I great talents, 

forced almost to kneel to hia hau^ty subject, and 
beseech bim again to gird on hu sword ; but W. 
for a long time affected the utmost indifference to 
re-engaging in active service, aod at last consented 
only on auch conditions as made him the iodepend- 
ent mler of the empire in militiary affairs. Witn the 
Swedes on the Danube, the Sazone in Bohemia, and 
the army of the League almost annihilated, the em- 
peror had no choice ; and W., three months after- 
wards, was at the head of 40,000 men, well armed 
and duciplined. But cominaada and entreaties were 
in vain employed to induce him l« save Bavaria from 
the Swedes ; and he lay idle at Xieibneritz, ^oating 
over the panga of hia enemy, till, on Austria being 
thi«atenea, he advanced to Egra, and by menacing at 
onoe &xony and Noremberg, brought Gustavus to a 
atandsUn. The two armies lay opposite each other 
for ten weeks, each euffeiing the extremities of 
inline, bardihip, and sickness, in the hope of weary- 
ine out the other. At last, when half their numbers 
had SDCcmnbed, Gustavus, who had made a fmitless 
attempt to storm W.'s camp, retreated to the 
Baaube, whence his skilful opponent soon drew him 
by marching on Saxony. The two again confronted 
each otJier at Lutzen (q. v.), and t£ough W. was 
completely defeated, it was chieffy owmg to the 
superior discipline and morale of his opponents. 
Hia anny waa lecmited and reorganised in Bohemia ; 
and, nnaUe to make head agunat Saiona and 

■ini^ has been made o 

there is no doubt that the mystie dcwtrinea o 

fMimlii iiiiiiinn hsd a itronghold on *"' '"'' ' 

tmics mnoh infioenoed bis condaet. 

Swedes combined, he found it advisable to gain time 
b^ amusing his antagoniata with illusory negotia- 
tions, after repeated vain eadeavouis to persuade 
the emperor to come to terras with the Protestant 
princes. Meantime hia old enemies of tjie League 
were in full activity at Vienna ; and the emperor, 
chained at the humiliations to which he had 
aubjocted himself to gain W.'s aid, was not slow to 
give credit, real or feigned, to their misrepresen- 
tations ; his ill-concealtKl dislike was developed ioto 
hatred by the stubborn pertinacity with which W. 
insisted on the full observance of the terms of their 
agreement ; and on W., who waa kept well informed 
of the state of matters at court, attempting to 
attach his officers pennanently to himself by obtain- 
ing their signatures (January 12) to an agreement 
to that effect, the emperor (January Si, 1634) 
declared him a rebel, and ordered two of his old 
officeis, Ficcolomiui and Qallas, who had for some 
time been acting as apiea on his actions, to take 
him dead or ahv& W., with some devoted ad- 
herents, including a guard of 200 dragoons, took 
refuge in t^Ph bat waa there assassinated, Feb- 
ruary 2S, 16^ W. was toll, thin, and wiry, with 
lively brilliant eyes, tawny-reddish hair, and an 
onhealthy-looking, yellow compleiion. * He was far 
superior to his sovereign in true policy, liberality of 
sentiment, and relinous toleration ; but these qua- 
lities only rendered him more obnoxious to the 
bigoted emperor and his ministers.' Aa a general, 
he holds the foremost rank, vigilance and presence 
of mind, groat j udgment and unflinciiing persever- 
ance, being his prominent characteristics; and of 
him alone can it be said that he checked the pro- 
gross and foiled the designs of the great hero of 
Sweden. After his death, it was seen that the 
treacherous murder of one who had twice saved the 
empire from destruction called for some jostittca- 
tion; and accordingly a paper was published by 
imperial authority, in which an attempt was made, 
by miarepresenting eveiy overture he had made to 
hia opponents, and every schema he had employed 
to divide hia numerona enemiea at court, to prove 
that he had conatantly meditated treaaon from the 
time of hia Srst disgrace. Thia view and its oppo- 
site have found numerona and enthusiastic sup- 
porters ; but without going further into detail, we 
may observe that the overtures made by him to the 
Swedes and Saxona while in command were nu- 
douhtedly rvMt de guerre, and ware invariably found 
to be auch by his opponenta ; that when the Saxons 
invaded Bohemia, and took Prague, where he was 
residing in disgrace at the time, ho took no part on 
either side, except such measures as an influential 
citizen would adopt for the safety of the iohabitauts 
from insult and spoliation ; and lastly, that when, 
after he had been declared a rebel, he did mi^ 
'treasonable' overtures to Bemhard of Weimar, tlie 
latter, though W.'s defection would at that time 
have been of the utmost importance, could not 
convince himself that this was not another artifice ; 
a proof that the former overtures were aa above 
stated, — See Coie'a Hovie of Aiutria ; Harte's 
EiaU/ri/ oftheLife of (hialavut Adolj^tu {Vl59\\n 
which many particulars of W.'s career are supplied 
from Qie Itinerary of Carve, the chaplain to the 
asaaasin, Devereoi ; Gualdo-Ftiorato's Hitlmia ddla 
Vita dAUxrto Yalatain, duca. di Friiland; and 
Felzel's OeichickU der BBhmtn (Prague, 1774, 1779. 
and I7S2). 

WALLER, Ebmumd, celebrated aa one of the 
reflners of English poetry, wa* bom at Coleshill, 
Herts, on March 3, 1605—1606. He was of on 
ancient and opulent family, and having passed tliron^ 


WALLFLOWER— WALLISL, Bocka. In 1631, he married a Landon 
hsireu, who died abortlj afterwardi ; and the rich 
widower made snit to I^y Dorothy Sidney, eldest 
daughtev of the Earl of Leiceater, whom he poeti- 
cally and penereTin^y coinmemonted nader tii« 
name of Sacharisu. Lady Dorothy, however, wm 
inexorable : ' ihe waa not to be aabdued,' m Johomi 
>ay«, ' by the powen id vene.' Meeting him in 
her old age, she aiked the poet when he would 
again write Tereei upon her, and he imgallantly 
replied : ' When yoD are aa young, ">«^»"', and ■■ 
lumdsome as yoa were then. In tha Long Parli*- 
ment, W. joined tiie party of Hampden (who waa 
his consiit), and he wai one of the oommiaaianers 
anointed to negotiate with King Chariea L at 
Oxford in 1043. He waa soon gamed orer by the 
royaliata, and entered into » cojupincv againgt the 
dominant party in the Eotue of Commoni, for 
which he waa £ned £10,000, and bamahed the 
kiiudom. Hii conduct on thii occaaion waa mean 
and diagraceful He not only confeued all he 
knew, but all that ha auapected ; attemoted to 
criminate innocent peraons, and humbled uimaelf 
before the Houae of Commona in language inez- 
pT«MibIy abject and humiliating. After eight 
yeara' exUe, epoit in France ar3 Italy, he waa 
anffered to Mtnm to EngUnd ; and he then became 
» rapporter of the Commonwealth, and a paaegyriat 
of CromwAll, to whom lie waa diatant^ nuted. 
Wlten Charlea U waa raatored, W. waa equally 
ready with a poetical oongrstalatun ; but hia loy^ 
iferaina were much inferior to thoae with which he 
had hailed the Protector ; and it ia said that when 
Charlea reminded him of thia fact, the poet wittily 
replied : ' Foeta, air, aucceed better in notion tiian 

I tmth.' Up to hia SOth year, W. continned a 

X of the House of Commona, ddighting all 

ra/^^. He died at Beacona- 

_ _... W. began early to write 

and pnblialied two collections of his poems 
—one in IME, and another in 1661. An ^tion 
meand in 1711, edited by Atterbnry; and one in 
1^0,witlliMmiona'ObaerrationB'bf Fenton. Pope 
has enloglBBil the saeeineu of W.'s veree. Some 
<^ bia smaller pieoea are characterised by infinite 
gtaee and hannouy; be baa also occasioiul dignil^ 
uid sljiking imagety, aa in the lines on Cn>mwell ; 
and be is never involved or obscure -, yet hie 
rank, amons one poets is bat a subordinate one, 
aa he ia d^dent in pasaiou, energy, and creative 

WA'LIiFLOWBB tCharaiUAiu), a genua of (dants 
of the natural order Vniei/enx, having the luiqaea 

ri^rMlg"^ft* from the prominenoa of 1^ nervea on 
back of the valves, tha aaeda in a ain^ row in 
tmek oell, the stigna deep^ 2-lobed, the labea bent 
Ihe flowers an in racemes. Iliespaciea 

low ; but in oultiva- 

in the middle of Europe and 
state, its flowera are always yelli 
tion,thi; wchihit a conaiderable i 


vuietiei in cultivation are very nnmeroos; bnt 
there are among them no marked diatinotions. 
Double and semi-doable flowera are not nncommon. 
The plant is perennial, bat in gordena is generally 
treated aa a biennial, although fine kinda are pro- 
pagated by cnttings, which soon atrike root under a 
huid-ghus. The ordinary mode of oottivatian is to 
sow the aeedof an appn)vedkind,and to plant ont 
the aeedlinga. The nowen of W. have a bitter and 

orcaa-like ta«te, and were tonnerly used aa a medi- 

WA'LLllfGFOBD, a small, bat ancient and iiK 
terasting, pariiamenta^ and BUUtidMl borough <^ 
T!"g'«""7 mostly in the coooty ot Beos, and on the 
rigU bank of the Thames, 13 mUes nortli-iKxih-west 
oTBeading. Of its tht«e diurchai, that of St 
Itfooaid'a— lebniU in 1S49— haa a Nonnan doorway. 
Hm earthworks with wbiab the Bomana encont- 
passed Ifae town, we still diatinatly traceable. The 
aiv«9wni of the London and Oxftnd Boad &cm W. 
mock injured the dd town, and it ia now a place 
of little conaeqaence. The borou^ retorna one 
member to the Eonae of Commons, Fop. (1861) of 
municipal borough, 2T93L 

WALLIS, £ev. JoHir, D.D., a very eminent 
En^Jiih madlematidan, was tha eldest son of the 
Bev. John Wsllia, iucnmbeot of Ashford in Kent, 
and was bom there, November 23, 1616. He WM 
brought up with a view to the diorch, and waa 
educated for hia profeosion, to the strict excluaion 
of aE other branches of knowledge, in accadanoa 
with the prevailing practice of the tone, which 
waa in hia case earned to auch an extent that even 
ordinary orithmetio was wholly neglected. W. 
never saw a book of arithmetio tili he was IS 
years old, and then only by accident. At the 
aM of 16, ha was entered at Emmanoel CoH^e, 
Cambridge, where at that time mathematics fonid 
DO plaoe in the coune of atndy, being esteemed 
tnereb mechanicaL After a brdliant career, he 
took hia degree, was chosen a Fellow of Qneen'Sr 
and took orders in IMO. On the outbreak of 
the civil war, he aided with the parliament, and 
wsa of great use to his party in decmhering intra^ 
cepted correapondence, an art in which like Tiet» 
(q. V.) and Battista la Porta, he was eminent. 
In 1644, he was one of the aecretariea of the 
Aaaraobly of Divines at Westminster, holding st 
that time the living of St Oabriel, Fencbntch 
Street ; and, in the following year, he joined with 
other eminent men in 1^ eatabliahment of tha 
meatinga for mutual inatruction, which, 17 yean 
afterwards, dereloped into the Boyal Society. It 
tall 1647 that he CMnmenced the stody of 
1649, he waa chosen Savilian. 

evidenced b; the publication of bis greatest work, 
tlie Ariihmelica InfinOomm, with a tteatiae on 
Conic Sections prefixed, in 1656. In the stune year 
commenced his well-known oontroversy with 
Hobbee — re^srdini; a qnadtvtare of the circle, which 
the latter believed he had efiected— which was con- 
tinned at intervals tiU 16S3, and waa marked by the 
naoal quunt oauatio satire of the time. W. had, of 
coarse, the right aide of the diapnte ; but unfortun- 
ately for poaterity, hia manly feeling of forbearanco 
towarda a deceaaed antagonist (Hobbes died in 1679) 
prevented him from admitting his polemical tre^tlBeai 
mto the ooUeotion of hia works, which was pub- 
lished 1693 — 1699. Numeroua other mathematioal 
wmki^ aa the JUatAetit UniveraalU (1657), Conrner- 
dam Bmstaiiam (1608), Cvno-Cu»teut (1663), Bt 
Proporttonihu (1663), De ^tta Marit n66S), » 
treatdaa on> Mechanics (1669, 1670, 1671), e£tiona itf 
the works of HoROcka (1673), of the Aienarina and 
Quadrature of AK^umedsa (1676), and tii Ftolen^s 
Harmonics (1680), a bwtiae on Algebra (16S0), an 
edition of Atiatarcshns and of Bupos (1688), Ao, 
were the prodnote of hia i^ipnalitT aim iodostiy. 
We have basidcfl nmneHnia minor theologieal woAik 
polemical and expoa^ory, from his pen, none cf 
which, however, are imptnrtant enon^ to mU 
tiie tnatiaa ouLq 

Of hia other woA^ti 




(1987) i> of UtB hi^est e: 
~~!sent Aaj ia well woi 
igliah OmmnaT (1653), li 

p«sent Aaj ia well worthy of panual ; and his 
WngliaTi OranunaT (1653), writtan in Latin for tho 
ute of foreigrieni, baa only of recent yeaia, when 

ttip tme priikcipleB of grammar are bocraning better 
underHtood, ceceircd tlie atteatioti it merits. About 
1S58, W. joined tbe party who were in faToor of 
a restorabon 01 kingly gorenuaent, and his talent 
for dedpheiiDg waa now pnt in prsctica against 
liis fannec friends, an act for which he has been 
aboMd with Tiraleat injnetice. At the Bestora- 
tion, he was confirmed in his professonhip, waa 
appoiated keeper of the sjchives at Oifonl, and 
royal chaplain. In 169% he waa consulted as to 
the adoption of the Gregorian Calendar, and his 
strong disapproval decided the government to retain 
the DM style. He died 2Sth October 170a 

It is exclusively as a "■»H'°">»*im.n that W.'t 
name has obtained permanently a niche in the temple 
of fame; thoagh as an expositor of the cardinal 
doctrines of ditialiani:^ he waa fully on a par with 
SonthsndSlMrloi^; bat hia eminence in the former 
ohai«cterbM thrown into ahadeeren his serricee ss 
a BchoUr, snd lew ftt the present time remember 
'*--' ^ ~" ho wk» fint ediud the musical works of 

theoe labonra were effected indicatM onqneatioDably 
an immense expoiditare of labcvr, and a high degree 
of scholanbip. Bis '^ritfaaefica InfiaUormn is a 
'-' -^ ■ to sidve, 1^ weanB of tha sum- 

olfi^dc; and, in extenvon, to dis- 
cover the limit of /(a*— 3^*^01 which the qnadra- 
tore of the circle is a particular 

stage* <^ fbe oalotiln* ; and, in fact, W. is another 
sxample of tbe stmige blindness which, in full pos- 
sinn of a princi^, neolecta to suit it with a 

rent day resemble their French more than they 
their German neighbours. They are sqiuA 
and middle-sized, with powerful limM, dark hair, 
deep sunk, fiery, dark-brown or blue eyes. They 
HuipasB their Flemish ndghboura in adroitness, 
Bcbvity, and skill ; and their French in cameat- 
erance, and diligence. In impnlsi 

W.'a raanlts 

WAIXO<yiT9, the name ^ren to a population be- 
to the great Bomanic family, more especially 
.iVench stock, and occupying the tract along 
tlu firoDtia* of the Gcvman-speaknig terrrtocy in 
dte South Hetberianda, ftom DoDkirk to Malmedy. 
"^i^Kn located more particolarly in the Ardennes, 
in pMta of the departments of Fas-de-Calais, Nord, 
AiilM, and Ardennee in France, but chiefly in South 
Brabant, la well as in the provincca of Hainanlt, 
NauDT, li^ in Belgium, and in the greater part 
ot Luxemborg, and finally in some towns and 
viUages in Uie nughbonrhood of Malmedy in Bhenish 
Prnsoft. 'IlieW.,whoae numbers in Belgium, where 
0^7 "^ principally estaUished, are stated at 1} 
"iffi""", are the oeaceDdants ot the old Gallic 
BdgfB, who held th«b ground among the Aidennee 
Uoimbains when the r«crt ot Gaol wxs oreimn by 
^us Qennan conquerors, but became eventuallT 
Bananised, especially in their language, which 

__ _ __._j_ __ ]^ dialect of 

gnrtMt immber of Gallic words have been pre- 
ser*«d in iL See the nnfinidied woA by Qrmd- 
KWl^^ JXetiOHttaire Stumalagiqae de la LangvA 
roIloBe (Li^ I84S). The name W., in Dnteh, 
Vufoi, sufficiently shews their QallO'Bomanio 
ori^ and their mationship, partly by race and 
PMy byhuigaage, with the Oalli, Gaels, Waleee, 
Welsh, Walachians, &c The Walloona of the 

appears now as a patois or popular 
nendl; of an the ^nch dialects, he 

revolution waa pre-eminently the ■wttA. 

■ha Walloon districts, and the most eminent 

camen of modem Belgium are of Walloon deaooit. 

It wsa against the Wuloon spirit and tendendea 
that the flemish movement (see Fleubh Lab- 
auA-SA Asa LirKKATDKi) was chiefly directed. 

WALL-PIBCE, a small cannon (or, in andeot 
times, an arquebnas) mounted on a swivel, on the 
wall of a forbesB, for the purpose of being fired at 
short-range , on assailants m the ditch or on tlie 
covert-waT. There are distinct evidsnoes that the 
rail of Chins wAa originally .consbneted for 
the reception of wsU-piecea. 

WALL-PEiATE, a ^ece of wood laid along the 
t(^ of the wall of a building to receive the feet of 
the rafters of the Boot (q. v.). 

WAI>I>-TREES, in Horticulture, are &uit-treea 
trained on walls for better exposure of the fruit to 
sunshine, and for the sake of the heat radiated 
from the walL Brick walls are generally preferred, 
and have a great advantage in uie regularity with 
which the naiUoz can be accomdiahed, but trees are 
often aUo trained on stone wdls, and the wslla of 
houses are sometinies naed for this purpose. TreM 
~~~ truned on walls inhothonsea as wall as in the 
Fined walla aie often used, the fruit being 
partially forced by artificial heat ; and screens 
— 1> kinds, as of reeds, oanvaa, and oiled papw, 
letimes employed to protect blossoms in 
spring. Woollen nets ore olao mnch used for this 
purpose, and a net even with wide meehea aSbnls 
mach proteetion from spring frosts. Wall-trees, 
intended pennanently to oocnpy the wall, are gene- 
rally trained in the nursery with a dwoif stem only 
five or six inches in length, so that the branohea 
may oover the whole wall, and no available part of 
it may be lost. It is usual, however, in planting to 
introdooe ridari alternately with the permanent 
wall-trees, which are grafted or budded on taO. 
stocks, and oocupy part of the wall .till the other 

thus p 

HadaMit*! Form. 

trees have become large encntgb to require it all for 
themselves- Garden-walla are generally 12 or 14 
feet in hei^it. Different modes of traininz wall' 
treea are practised, oC which theprincdpal are known 
as fan trnlriMf and horixontal traimng. In the 
former, the branches are airauged like the spokes of 

Uij i i.. LiOOgI ' 


n the latter, a main «tem ii led op, from 

which they are spread out horixoatally on both 

I — 1._ -_g preferred for different 


found in Asia. All are trees with altenuile pin- 
nated leavea. The genoi Juglani ii diitinguiuiGd 
b; moDceciouB flowers, with 18 — 24 stamens ; and a 
<lrupG with a deciduouB fleshy hnsk, which bunts 
' ~:guhu'ly, aud a deeply wrimded shell Ipviamai) 
. - two Tolves, within which is the seed, cniioosly 
lobed and wrinkled, with a membranaceous buCa 
and partial diuepiments. The species of Hickory 
<q. V.) were formerly included in this genus. — The 
CoMUOK W. (/. regui) is a native of Persia and the 
Himalaya, but has long been cultivated in all puts 
of the south of Europe. The date of its introdnctiim 
unknown, hut it waa certainly cultivated by the 

kinds of trees, and the art of the gardener ii dis- 
played in keeping to hia plan of training, and laying 
tn braaches so as completely to fill up the £P&ce< *J>Q 
make every part of the wall produoUve. There in a 
Dutch mode of training, which consista in leading 
two chief brajichcs honzontally to tiaht and left, 
and training shoots from them sti^ht up to the 
top oE the wM. It is seldom employed in Brtbun, 

except for white currants. Riders are not uuFre- 

Juently trained in a star'like form, some branches 
eing led downwards, in order to fill the wall as 
qiuckly as possible. It is necessaiy for the gardener, 
in training wall-trees, to consider the habit of each 
kind, particularly whether fruit is chiefly to be 
expected on young branches or on the rpuri oE older 
branches. Superfluous branches must ii " 
be carefully removed, and amongst these 
reckoned all fore-right tliooU, or branches which 
project straight from the wall The use of Bmall 
strands of cloth, along with naila, to fasten branches 
to walls, is familiar to every one. These strands 
are renewed from year to year, so that they may not 
causa disease by interfering with the growth of the 

WA'LHIIT {Jugtaiu), a genua of beautiful trees 
of the natural order Jujiandacea. This order ia 
nearly allied ta AmetUacea (q.v.), and particularly 
to the sub-order Cupiili/era (q. v.), or CoTylaceiB, but 
differs in having the ovary one-celled, with a soli- 
tary erect ovul& The flowers ore nmaeiual, the 
I flowers in catkins, the female 

clusters. The species, of which not aoite thirty are 
known, are mosUy native* of Horth America ; a few 

TTalnnt {Juglaiu rtgia). 

Romans in the reign of Tiberiua. It ia a lofty tree 
of 60—90 feet ; with large spreodingbranchefi. Its 
foliage resembles that of the ash. The leavea have 
S — 4 pair of leaflets, and a terminal one. Th^ 
have a fine balsamic odour when hruised ; this i 
quality, however, being much more marked in some ' 
trees than in others. An infusion of them has been I 
found useful in scrofula ; and when bruised and 
rubbed on the skin, they are efficacions in curing 
itch. Placed in wardrob^, they prevent the ravage* I 
of moths. The sap is limpid like water, but con- ', 
tains much sugar, so that the tree is sometimes tapped 
for it, like the sugar-maple, and the sugar is pro- I 
cured by evaporation. A pleasant kind of wine is i 
also made from it An excellent pickle and a kind , 
oE ketchup are made of the unripe fmit. The ripe 
fruit is one of the beat of nuts, and ia on importaiit 
article of export frem many porta of the south of ^ 
Europe. Wolnuta are also exported ia largo qnan- j 
titles from Cashmere and other Himalayan regions 
to supply the markets of India. The outer husk is 
removed before the nuts are brought to market. In 
the south of Europe, walnuts are a very consider- 
able article of food, and when perfccUy fresh, they 
are wholesome and nutritions, although in the state 
in which they are imparted into Bntjun they are 
not easily digestible. Just before they are ripe 
they are mnch used in France with vmcgar, salt 
pepper, and ahoUots. Among the varieties of W. 
m cultivation is one with a very t^ii" shell, which 
is much esteemed. Walnuta yield by expression a 
blond fixed oil, which, under the names of Waliaa 
OU and J/tit Oil, ia much used by painters, and in 
the countries in which it is produced is a common 
article of food. The cole left after the expression 
of the oil is sometimes naed as an article of food, 
and is also used for feeding cattle and poultry. 
The timber of the W. i> of gre«t vdue, and is much 



naed by calHnetiiiAken. Qnn-Etook* u« made o£ 
it. It 11 light, ilthon^ luud uid fioe-gnined. The 
wood of ytnmg tiees it wbite <uid little esteemed ; 
that of old treea ia brown, veined and Bhaded nith 
dtAm hrown and black. The wood of the roots ia 
beaatifuLy Tcdned. Both the root nod the hnaka of 
the W. TUld a dye, vhich is used for stuaing light- 
ooIoiiTed iroodi brown. The W., when meant to 
become a timber-tree, is best sown vhere it is to 
remain, ai Ihe roots are much injured by tiBJis- 
planting. The beet kinds of W. for fmit are gene' 
ralfy grafted.— The W. mcoeeda well in Britain aa 
•a omamental tree, even in the north of SooUtutd, 
altlKKigh it seldom quite ripens its fmit except in . 
the waimeet parts ol Euland. It was probably 
IvoDf^t to £aglaad b^ the Bomani. It take* its 
name from befog foreign (A.-3. vxcU/i or vxith), — 
Very similar to the C<^mion W. is the Black W. 
(J. nigra) of North America, foond in most parts of 
the United States, eioept the moat northern. It is 
a very large and beantifiil tree, the tnmk scmietiniea 
aix or seven feet in diameter. The leaves have mora 
nnmerons leaflets than those of the Common Wal- 
nnL The timber is even more valuable than that 
of the Common W., and is used for the same pur- 
poaea. The fmit, however, ia very inferior, although 
It ia sold in the marliets of American cities. I^e 
partial dineptmenta of the kernel are thick and 
vroody. — The Buttek Nin {J. dnerea) ia abundant 
in the northern and north-western states of North 
America, and in Canada. It is a tree only about 
SO feet lueh, with trunk aboat a foot in diameter ; 
leaves wit£ JS — 17 leaSets ; the fruit elongated, and 
estemalljr covered with a viscid substance. The 
Dut is hard and rough, with prominent ridses, of 
good qnality, and aomotimes brought to ma^ot in 
America. The wood ia not apt to split or warp, and 
is useful for many purposes. Sugar is obtained from 
the sap, as from tluit of the maple, but is of inferior 
qnalit^. The inner bark is a mild cathartic, resem- 
bling rhubarb in its properties. The leaves, reduced 
to powder, are used for blistering, like canthatides. 
— To the natural order Jii^landacea belongs the 
genus EagtUiaTdtia, found in tiie Malayan Archi- 
pelago and the Himataya, The wood of E. Box- 
Sur^UaMa, a Himalayan species, is much valood by 

VAXjFOLB, But Koiert, third son of Bobert 
Walp(J«, M.P., by Mary, daughter of Sir Je^^ 
BnrweD, vaa bcHn Angost 26, 16TC^ at Houghton, 
in Norfolk. He received his education at Eton and 
at King's CoUege, Cambridge. On July 30, 1700, 
he married Catlurine, daughter of Sir John Shorter, 
Lord li^yor of London. On 28th November 
foUtiwiiig, be succeeded to the family eatates on the 
death M his father. In 1703, he was elected 
member of parliament for King's Lynn ; and in 
170S, he was nominated one of too council to Frinoe 
GeDr|;e of Denmark. In this latter capacitf, he 
appAan to Imtb won the esteem of ODdolphin, 
Hariboroagh. and other Whig leaders. 
WM appomted Secretary at War; and in 1709, 
IVeaanrer of the Navy. Siortly after this, however, 
1^ fortones niffa«d a temporary eclipse. He waa 
fomid guilty by the Hoose of Commons of ' a high 
brea^ of trust and notorious corruption,' and 
accordingly, on January 17, 1712, he was expelled 
the House, and sent to the Tower. There can be 
Uttle donbt that he had all his life a profound faith 
in biibery, and dever scrupled to exercise it; hut his 
nmishment on this occasion seems rather to have 
been the result of {larty animosi^ than of virtuous 
the part of the House. He had all 
" ' JL and on the acces- 

r, and had variona other 

high offices oonferred upon him. On the impeach- 
ment of Bolingbroke and others by hia meana, he 
became, in 1716, Chancellor of the Eidiequer, and 
Finrt Lord of the Treasury. A disunion of the 
cabinet having arisen in 1717, he resigned office, 
bringing in a Sinking-fund Bill on the day of his 
resignation. In opposition, he was the determined 
enem^ of the Soath Sea Scheme. He was recalled 
to ofiioe on the retirement of the Earl of Sunder- 
land in 1721 ; and from thia time to hia final 
retirement in 1742, the life of W. may be said to 
be the history of England. In 1723, his son waa 
created Baron Wolpole. In 1737, his power was a 
good deal shaken by the disputes whii^ had arisen 
between the king and the Prince of Wales ; the 
latter siding with the Opposition, which Ijegan to 
grow very ^rmidable in the Questions which arose 
about this time between England and Spain. W. 
waa opposed to war ; the grand principle of his action 
being, according to Archdeacon Coio, ' the love of 
peace ; ' according to Macaulsy, however, his aim 
waa not the peace of his country, bat of his own 
administration. In 1740, a motion was made in the 
House to petition the king to remove Sir Bobert 
W. 'from nis Majesty's presence and counsels fcr 
ever.' This motion was negatived by a large 
majority ; but the power of the great tninister was 
evident^ shaken. He resignea on 2d February 
1742, when he waa created Earl of Orford, with a 
pension of £4000 a year. Charges of bribery were 
now brought against him, and a committee of 
investigation was ultimately appointed by the 
House of Commons. It consisted of 21 members, of 
whom only two were of his own party. The Beport 
wsa against him, but it waa nnsapported by evi- 
dence, and proceedings were ultimately dropped. 
The rest of W.'s life was spent in tranquillity and 
retirement He died in 174^, aged 68. In private 
life, he was amiable and good-tempered. Love of 
power appears to have been his ruling motive of 
action. He hsd strong common sense, with clear- 
ness of political vision, and next to iiis own interest 
he had at heart the interest of his country. Donbt- 
lesB, he bribed largely, but as Macaulay says : ' We 
mifdit as well accuse the poor Lowland farmeni who 
paid black-mail to Bob Roy, of corrupting the virtue 
of the Highlanders, as accuse Sir Bob^ Wa^iole 
of cormptmg the virtue of p^lisment.' — See Coie, 
llemoir of Life and Admiruttration of Bir BiAtrt 
WaMe (Lond. 17SS) ; and Lord Macanlay'g Essay 
on WalpoUt Lttttrt to Sir Horace Mann. 

WALFOLE, Horace, third eon of Sir Bobert 
Walpole, first Earl of Orford, waa bom in 1717. 
He was educated at Eton and Cambridge. After 
finishing his education, he travelled abroad for (ome 
years, principally in Italy, where he seems to have 
acqair«i those tastes for which he afterwwds 
became so well known. In I74I, he returned to 
England, and tcok his seat in parliament. But he 
bad no teste for poLtics, and never took any active 
part in public life. In 1747. he purchased a piece of 
ground near Twickenham. Here be built his famous 
mansion — Strawberry Hill Its erection and deco- 
ration may almost be said to have formed the 
principal occupation of his lotig life. In 17S8, he 
published his (7a (oioroe qfSa^afandN'ableAtltAon. 
1Mb was followed by The CatOe of Otranio, The 
Mysteriou* MoOur, and the Hittoric Dovitt on the 
Lift and Reign of Rtehard III. The works, how- 
ever, to which he owes the preservation of hia name 
are his Letieri. These will always be interesting sa 
' ' " society and fashionable 



mt oa Uuoh 2, 1797- 'Tbe fulta of Hocaoe 
Walpcile'l haul and heart,' uya Maoanlay, 'are 
indeed nfScientij gUrii^ Hi* writinga, it la tnie, 
rank u hi^ among the delicadw of inteUactnal 
epicime as the Stnabnrg jne among the dkhea 
daaciibed in the AlmanatA da Ooumumd*. Bat aa 
ttte pAU de /oie ffnu mna it« excelleaot to th* 
diaeaOM of the wretched animal vhich fnnurite* it^ 
and would be good for notliins if it were not made 
of liven pretemataiallj Ewotien, bo none bat an 
mihealtlij vid diaoraaniaed mind could havv^v- 
dnced luoh literary hixniiea ae the woAe of Wal- 
pole. .... The umformatimi of hia mind was 
sneh that whatever waa LtUe aeemed to him 
CTKat, and whatever waa j^«at aeemed to him little. 
Beriona hmineai waa a trSe to him, and trifiee were 
hia aeriima hniineos,' — See LeUen, edited bj Mr 
Peter Cnnnin^^iam {8 toIb., IKTT) ; also Macaolay'i 
Eway on LeOen qfBomee Waipi^ 

WALPUTtOA, or "WALPUEGIS, Sr (otherwiae 
Walburga), fdlowed her bnthera St Wilibald and 
at Wnmubald <mm of a king of the Wot Bazona), 
in th> lime et St B<xiifaD(^ from her native comiby, 
England, to QttmaiQr, to help i^em in extending 
OnistiBnity. Wilibald eatabliahed the biahoprio (tf 
Eichatadt about 741 ; and Wmuubald, the neifdi- 
bonring convcait of Hajdenhdm abont 745, tne 
direetioB of whioh last W. undertook, after his 
death <aboat 763], ai the fint abbtM, and ooutiDned 
tSl the «aid of hn own life (77B). Her bone*, from 
whii^ acoordiiw to the oldeat biography, a miiaca- 
loiH hnaling ml £)wed, were traniferred to Ekchatadt, 
^riime a oonvent waa erected in her houonr. That 
old. biography waa written towarda tbe end of the 
Oth o. by a monk, Wolfhart, in the numasteiy of 
Haaenried, and oantained, like aU the later l^enda, 
which are hued solely upon it, only a mnltitade of 
marvellaiia rtoriea oi the vbimI atamp. A Knoie- 
yrbat more apecial "'y'*^"*-""" Um in the taait that 
W. WH not moleatra by biting Aop, and waa in 
ooateqnenoe invAed for protection ^unst them 
aad other teodona MiimalB. Hie vencntion of W. 
became wideapread. Thmn^ont all Oemuu^, and 
even in France, the Netherlanda, and En^and, 
chorchea and idtapela were dedicated to her, relics 
of her were ahewn, and fertivala celebnted in her 
honour. The feaat of Walpnrg" faUa properly on 
the S9th of FetKnaiy ; bat aa in BOnte Gkimian 
calendars it i* sBiigned to the Ist of Hay, the name 
of W. has become associated, in a quite accidental 
way, with some of the most noted popular aaper- 
stioons. The let of May had bean one of the moat 

imbly of the people. Fot centnriea on the lat of 
kh, informal conrts of justice continued to be 
held, the joyfnl May proceanon took ^ace, and the 
kindling of tlie sadred Hi?-fire. See BELTEDf. 
Whan afterwarda tiie old heatlien gods had been 
completely degraded into deviU by the Christian 
miMKiaanet, and when the belief in witchcraft had 
come in vogoe, the.Walpn^is-nigfat obtained nstu- 
nlly a notorious siAnificanoe, inasmuch a«, daring 
the ni^t between the 30th of April and the Irt^ 
Mh-j uie witchaa were held to lide on broom-sticks 
and tw-goats to llie old places of jud^nent and sacri- 
fice, in order to oijay thanaelvea tW* with their 
master the deviL Snch witch-hills were tolerably 
nnmeron* in O^many and the neighbouring coun- 
triea. The beat known, however, waa the tughest 
point of the Han, the Brocken, Brocks or Blocka- 
berg, which has obtained a wide celebrity as 
tbe scene of the witches' Sabbath in Goethe's 

WAXBUB. See Mobsb. 

barodi^ Staffocdshiie, at , 

(mall atteam, an afBneot «f i 

boilding^ a 
me, BoS en 

infltitatiDila. The iron maDofactnre, tca^ 
which the ntnation of t^ town on the edge of the 

a„*i. iu.*™i.».: ;_Trj ^^ afforfa f^Shlies, i« 

Inalzy. ~ ' 

tenaively carried on. Coal and lime work* are in 
opeattioa in the vici ni ty, and the>« it aa extensive 
trade in malt W. Tetnma one moniber to the 
House of Comnona. Pop. (1S61) 37,76a 

WALBIITGHAU, Sir Funod, Englidi steta- 
man, of an andant Kentjah family, third aid yonngeat 
son of William Walnn^lam of Scadbnry, was bom 
at Chisalhinst, Kent, in 1S96. He studied at Ein^a 
C<dlege, CsmlsidgB, and afterwarda travelled oa &e 
continent, where ne remained until tbe aeceasiwi oif 
Queen Eli^ieth. Burleigh, with his bsdbI disoon- 

t in sdeotiiw mej 

of 1 

alnlil^ea, bnmaht him into office, and sent him on an 
embassy to Tranoe in August 1570. ' He remained 
in Paris until April 1673, and discharged dniloaatio 
duties with mcrt conennunate skill that ho was, 
on the recomniendstion of bis great pabon, ap- 

Cted one of the principal secretariea of aMe to 
(both. He waa also iworc of the privy oaamnl, 
and knitted. In 167S, he was sent on an import- 
snt emhaasy to the Netherlands; in 1581, to Fluoe; 
and in 1683, to Scotland. He was, with some 
reaaon, regarded by the adherents of Mary, Queen 
of Scots, as the moat uuidious of her enemiea 
in tbe Ttngli«h council He contrived to intercept 
moct of her letters, and after having deciphered 
them, lent them to their destination, in orier to 
obtain fresh intelligence from their answtn. Some 
of these deciphered letters are pt¥«erved in fiu> 
British Museum. W. soon held Mary secure in the 
toils. Some time prions to Septranber 16S3, he 
had bribed to his service ChereUee, the secretair to 
the French ambassador Coatelnsin, in whom Mary 
placed implicit confidence. W. also won over Gray, 
the envoy of the Duke of Ouise and other friends 
of Mary to James VL (James L of England), who 
employed him to manage his correspondence with 
his mother and bis friends in France. The moat 
secret letters of Msiy and of James thus came into 
the hands of Walaingham. Up to Babington's con- 
spiracy, or, as some nave called it, W.'s conspiracy, 
there wu no evidence for charging Maty with being 
•ccesgary to ""yot the plots fomwd against the life 
of Elizabe^ The real fountain-head <d this oon- 
spiracy, and the diief ccmfedeimtea, were tptea in 
the pay of W.. and all the coiteapondenoe of Mary 
and her friends passed into the hvids of Eliiabeth s 
dexterous minister. After the diaoovuy and execu- 
tion of Babington, Ac, W. went to Ftrfiheringsy as 
one of the commission to try Qneoi Msry. She 
charged h'T" with having forged the carrespondence 
^wiuced ^atngt her, when W. rose in nis place 
and solemn^ cidled God to w i tzieas that be had not 
done anything unworthy at an honest man, and that 
be was whol^ free from malice. EUzabeth aisned 
her death-warrant with » jest on W.'s hatred tn the 
Qoeen of Bcota. She had ordered Davison to bring 
her the warrant, and when she had siened itsbe said : 
'Go; tell all this to Walajnghgrn, who itaawKii; 
thou^ I fear he will die for sorrow when he hean 
it.' W. was distinguiihed even among tiie iniuiateis 
of Eliml>eth for acoteneM of p^Gti^i<ai, exteuriTe 
knowledge of puUie a&in, and pnrfound acquaint- 



foragn affiui* WM fonnded on the iTatem of bribeiT, 
^mgioDMgB, and deaepbon. He ia oid to Iuts had 
in bm i»y B" ■ 

of foreigll c 
vuM (upunnmc daplicitv, wl 
anumg public moi, W.'t [ 

diuntensted pBtriolJam u« nodonbted. He waa 
of Btiict iDOT^i, fsTonred the Puritan party, and 
in his later days gave hinuelf tip to nligion* medi- 
tation. He retired from pnhlio affain some time 
befam bii death, and tendfd at hia hooae in 
Ban Elma, when i* died, April 6, ISM. Eliza- 
beth VM tcady eaoBg^ to acknowledge his dili- 
Mkoe^ gaaia», and la^ortant wrricea, yet ahe 
kept lum poor. Iliete nmain in 1^ British 
(^Un IfSS.) — ' ...-.,.. 

mplaining of ioM beiMf wholly uaable, < 
if ■juiiiiiili— ill, to rapport his a 
gh Tei7 inadMraaie to nit dignit, 
r in naooe. Oamdn aayi he died m 
debt fiiat ha waa bailed priTstely bv iii)^t ii 
Faol'a Qnin^ wiQiont any fODeru solelouity. 


aai hidd no olBcea K^len he resigned the ouaiva of 
f<«eign affain. He waa nuuried, and hia danditer 
Fnootm became aoooeaaively tbe wife of Sir ^lilip 
Sidney, of the brilliant and nnfortnnate Eerl u 
JEmsz, asd of the brave aoldier, Bichard da Borgb, 
4Ui Earl of Clanricarda. 

WAT.THA1I, ATillMe of ILuMclntaetts, U. S., on 
Cliailea Bivet aikdthelntohbuigB«ilway,teQnuIce 
notit-by-weat from Boctou, h» a broad street of 
faaadaameraidenaea, and maan&otoTieB of bleached 
eottoB goods, hollow inxi-ware, machinery, chemi- 
«al% bMAi and sboei, and machine-made watch«A, 
of which 1(^000 are made a year. Pop. (I860) 

WAIiTHAM ABBET, a market-town in the 
«onii^ of ^Bez, on the banka of tile Lea, 13 milea 
nortt cf Itte east Mrt of London, on Uie Great 
Eartern BaQway. It contaios a apadooa Norman 
church, originally belonging to an abbey. The 
ri*«r Les hoe dividea into sevei«l btanohea, which 
•n made to toiii a number of gunpowder and fionr 
MtD* belniging to goTemmect. Zkifield Lock, at 
which ia Btaated the cdebroted eovemment factor 
for rifle*, ic (see SmaucIKHS SiaroKoa, RorUi) 
is aboat a mile distant; and ma - ■ •' ' 
till III iiiiMiliijii il lire in and around ^ 

gnstot and most famoos ACnnesingeT ta. v.) of the 
middle i^Bi, waa bom 1165—1170, m Fcauconia or 
in Ansbia. Althongh Us fimiily waa noUe, he had 
no |in»Mrinn% and became a miiigb«l as macb, per- 
han from DBceaeit; ■« from impulse. His master 
ana eariy model was the elder Bainmac. It is 


iaa and saying' date ^m about 1187 ; soon aft^ 
wfidi, be foimd a warm patron in Friedrich the 
Catholic, Duke of Aostris. Bat this prince having 
ditd in 1198, W. bc^an the life of a wandering 
miaabd, in the comae of which be Tinted the 
OMtta d most ot the German sovereigns. A few 
detaib of bis career an known. He twioe (1199and 
ISOE) spent acme time at the oonrt of the Xknpeior 
Fhil^; and then lived sis yean at Eisenach wiih 
a gtmgona patron, Hermann, Landgnl of Tha- 
ringia, Dnrmg 1214 — 1215, he K^ieMedly viaited 
the &np«Bar (ftho, by whom, as well aa by Philip^ 
be aeaaoB to have been treatel with onldnBly narsi- 
mmy. From 1217 to 1319, he lived with Dnke 

Bemhard in CaiinUiia, llien returned to Antteia, 
and in 1220 received from Friedrich IL a enu^ 
tatate at WUizburg. He died abont tiie beginning 
of 1228. His grave has long been pointed out in 
tile laarance (&dea (rf the cathedral of WUrzbutg; 
but a new monoment was erected to him in 1843. 
W. &r exoelled his master Bonmar, whom ha 
survived about 20 yean, both in matter and style ; 
while in litdmess and vcnatdlity of mind all Hm 
other MinnesingerB must stand far behind him; 
for, to hie wide sympatliiea and matured art, all 
thonee were alike : tendmicas and depth, no ka 
than cheerfnlness and gaiety, deqi eameatiten, aa 
w^ aa plnfol raillery. He did not o(»fi>e lum- 
ael^ like Boinmar, to minxielayi, but wrote alaa 
hvmns, eulogies irf his paUona, and didactic pieoM. 
He tang of the dntaea and dignitiea of the amperar ; 
of the obligataons of piinoes and VMsals; of tha 
rights and wroaga of the qmatiou between the paw 
aad the emperor ; of the ^orr of the tnie ohnjoh ; 
and often his song conmea earnest and cutting 

thoae of a caadtd but pious believec From a 
decided patiiotio feeling, he stood firmly ^ty the 
eminre and the emperor m a{^»aing the pretenaitma 
and usurpations of the popci His writiom on this 
subject lud a wideapreid and powerful ^tect; th^ 

poets for the whcde centu^. 
jnised by his oontemporarica aa tne mast* 
. . lyric poeby: and the traditiens of the later 
Mimiemiigei schools place him among the twelve 
who, in the Emperor Otho the Great's tim& 
orighiatad and established the noble art at 
minstrdsy. Lacbmann biought out a maste ~ 
critical edition of W.'s writinKs (Beri. 1SZ7, 3d. 
:oeUeut tl ' ' ' 

1853); a 

Ic an exoettei 
ijuatook and Waokonagel, 2 vols. 
B^ 1833; 2d ed. Leip. lSS3)i UMaad wrote a 
beantifal aoeovnt of his life and writius (IF, soa 
der Vogdweidt, tin alideuiK/itr Dichter, Stutt^. and 
Xub, 1822) ; and Homig, a complete Olostanam to 
his poems (Quedlinb. 1S44). — See Bensz, W. von dtr 
Vogdieade (WUrzb. 1843); Daffis, Zur LAenage- 
xhkAlt W.'t von da- Yogdaade (BerL 1851). 
WALTON, IsAAE, author of the Compkta 

Of his earlier life, not mach is oertainly known. 
the year 1624, we find him settled in Fleet Stree^ 
London, and oanyiDg on business there aa a hosier. 
In the end of 1626, he married Bachel Flond, a 

Cranmer, her . __. jltc- 

fidend of Hooker, it is tiiought likely that W. dolved 
mm^ of the material for his Life of that eminent 
man. In August 1640, she died in giving birth to a 
dauf^ter, having before had two sons, neither of 
whinn survived her. In 1643, W. retired from 
bumneas with such a modest oompetMice ■■ suffioed 
for tiie sim[de way d life he affected \ and In IMT 
be married a second time. Hie lady was Anne 
Kcnn, haU-sisteT of the well-known bidiop of that 
name. She bore to him' a daughter and two sons, 
only one of whom hved, and died in 166!^ to the 
great grief of her hnabuid, who survived her many 
yean. He died on the 16th December 1083, at the 
great Mje of ninety, in the house of Dr Hawkins, his 
Bon-in-MW, prebendary of Wncheatw Cathedral, 
and was boned in the vault of that sanctasiy. 

With tha oelebrated Dr John Donne, vbo died in 
1631, W., who attended hii miniitiT, had been on 



terms oE affectionate iutiniacy ; aad on the publica- 
tion of his Bcnnoiis in 1B40, be wob iodaced to pre- 
face them with a Life of the author. Thin, hia first 
publication, was followed by lirea of Hooker, Sir 
Henry Wotton, and George Herbert, in iuCOeSBion ; 
the whole four being reissued in a collected editioo 
in 1670. In 1578, the life of hi» friend. Bishop 
Sanderson, waa added. Tht Comply Angttr, or 
Contemj^tive Afan's Becreation, was published in 
1656, and it iuatantl^ attained the popularity which 
to this hour it contmneB to enjoy. In 1656, 1604, 
1668, and 1676, successive editions were called for. 
To the edition of 1676, a little treatise on Fly-fishiDg 
was added by Walton's friend, Charles Cotton, in a 
fiahinz-bouse built by whom, on the banks of Hie 
river Dove, many of the later days of his ba(ipy and 
blameless life lapsed peacefully in the pursoit of hia 
' vourite recreation. The CompUte Anglo; as a 
..estiae on tlie art of angling, may be regarded as in 
mod part obsolete, but it continnes and will con- 
tinue to be read for its charmiog simplicity of man- 
ner, its pastoral fredmess and poetry, and the pure, 
peaceful, and pious spirit which is breathed from its 
qnaint old pages. The Lives, though somewhat leas 
widely known, are in their tind not less exquisite 
and uniqiu. Wordsworth ha* dedicated to them a 
itifm sonnet, in which he speaJu of the £ve 
saintly nomea of the aabjects of them as 

Sstelliteg horuins m a Incid nng 
Around meek Walton^a keavcnlj' 

WALTZ (Ger. WiOxtr, literally, roller), a national 

the other countries in the early part of the 19th 
centary. It is danced to music of j| time by any 
numb^ of couplet^ who, with the gentleman's right 
arm round his partner's waist, wheel rapidly round 
on an axis of their own, advancing at the same time 
round the room. Of late years, a modification of the 
dance, called the VaXat A Deux Temps, bss been 
very generally adopted, which ia perhaps hardly 
e-qnal m gracefulness to the older wutz, as the step 
ia less correspondent to the rhythm of the music 

WA'MPUM, a. name riven to shells and ahell- 
beads, used a« money, and worn for ornaments in 
strings and belts by. the North American Indians. 

WANDBBIHG JEW. Sec Jsw, the Wandkb- 

WANDEROO', a name which has been given to 
several species of monkey. The species commonly 
described under the name is MaeacuM sUemi* 
SUaau vtter, a native of the coast of Malabar, 

midst of which the face looks forth, and which 
descends over the chest, eivinj; the animal a very 
peciUiar aspect. This moi^ey exhibits considerable 
mtelligence and docility, and performs its tricks 
with an absurd air of gravity.- — The name W., ' 
ever, more properly belongs to monkeys of the f 
Frabj/lea, natives of Ceylon, to which it ia give .^ 
the Singhalese, and appears to have been transferred 
by mistake to the species just described, which is 
-Ot found in Ceylon. The waaderoos of Ceylon 
U small monkeya. Tho best known species 
'rejfcsiM crpialoplerui, found in the low parts ._ 
be island. It feeds chiefly on the berries and bads 
I trees, and is seldom seen on the ground. Twenty 
.r thirty are generally found together iu a troop. 
When alarmed, they display marvellons agihty in 
leaping, or rather swinging from branch to branch, 
uaing their powerful arms alternately, often flingiDg 
themselves obliquely so as to catch Uie lower boogE 
of an opposite tree, and taking advantage of '*" 

rebonnd to carry them up asain till they can reach 
a higher branch ; the females, all the while, being 
often encumbered b^ their yonn^ which cling to 
them. This monkey is far from being ao mischievona 
IS monkeys in generaL 'In captivity, it is remark- 
able for the gravity of its demeanour, Ukd for ao 

Wandeloo Hankey {ifacacut nlcniu). 

air of melancholy in its expression and movements, 
which is completely in character with its snowy 
beard and venerable aspect.'— Tennent'a Ceylon. 
Its disposition is extremely gentle and affectionate, 
it is intelligent and docile, and very cleanly in its 
habita. — Several other species of W. or Prt^lea are 
fouud in Ceylon, some o! them in the mora elevated 
parts of tho island. 

WA'NTAGE, a market-town in Berkshire, in the 
Vale of the White Horse, 26 miles west of Readinc, 
and 60 west of London. It manufactures ogiiciU- 
tural implements, and has an extensive trade ia 
corn. Pop. (1866) 3064 

WA'PENSHAW (Sax. vsapen, weapon, and 
tceaaan, to shew), a periodical gathering of the 
people, institated by vanous Scots statutes, for the 
purpoae of exhibitine their arms, these statutea 
directing each indiviAial to be armed on a acala 
proportioned to his property. There are numerous 
Scots acts of the 15th and 16th centuries regulating 
tho aubiect of wapenshaws. In the time of war 
or rebellion, proclamations were issued charging all 
sheriffs and magistrates of burghs t« direct the 
attendants of the respective wapenshawings to join 
the king's host. During the reign of the later 
Stuart8,attendanceoiitho wapenshaws was enforced 
with considerable strictness ; and in addition to 
military exercises, Sports and pastimes were carried 
on by oathority at these gatherings. The Coven- 
anters, in consequence of these sports being of a 
kind disapproved of by them, did what they could 
to discoumge attendance on the wapenshaws. 

WAPENTAKE (3ax. uxepen, arms, and toe, 
touch), a name given in Yorbahira to the territorial 
divisions of the county, similar to what, in most of 
the other counties of England are called htauireda, 
and in the more northern counties, irard*. Tho 
term has come down from Anglo-Saxon times, where 
it, in the first inatance, aigmfied the assemblies of 
each district held for the administration of justice 
and like purposaa, at which each vassal attended 
armed, and ' touched ' the spear of his overlord, in 
token of homage. From tJie assembly, the woid 



WA'PITI {Crrrui CaTiaderuU), a, specie* o£ deer, 
neai-lf allied to the ata^, bat considerabl; exceeding 
it in mze, being ii feet in height ti the shoulder. 
It ia a native of North America, foand u far lonth 
u Carolina, and aa far north as 56° or B7" N. Ut 
It ia yellowiah brown on the upper parts ; the sidea 
gray ; a pais yellowiah patch on each buttock, 
bounded I^ a black line on the thigh ; the neck, a 
mixtore of red and black, with long, coane, black 

Wapiti {Cervua Canadetuii). 

hair fallinK down from it in front like a dewlap ; a 
black matk at each anrie of the month. The hair 
is ciup and hard, bnt there ia a aoft down beneath 
it. The antlen are laive, much like those of the 
sta^ bnt the first branch bends down almoet over 
the ttee. The W. ia called Elk and Oray Mooee in 
■otne paita of America, although very difterent from 
the tnie "Ifc, or moose deer. It ia found chiefly in 
lo<r groonda, or in parts of the forest adjacent to 
aavannabl and marshes. Ita flesh ia coarse and dry. 
The hide makes excellent leather. 

WAK between states or niitions, or between 
parties in the same state (nvU vtar), is analogous to 
club-law {Ger. fav^Ttcht), or the law of the stronoeat, 
among the individuals of a community, which ia 
the DOrmaJ state of things where no legal of 
fixed rights are established, or where there is 
DO authority to enforoe them. The prevalence of 
war among nations is thus an indication of tJie 
imperfection, or the total want, of intematiooal law. 
If the sentiment of brotherhood were univenaUy 
diffused, and a system of international morality 


seive the necessity for "war to ceaae. Aud 
although the full realisation of this state of things 
may never be attained, it is nevertheless the ideal 
goal to which all real progress tends. But it by no 
mcana follows that in the present condition of the 
world, while the sentiment of international justice 
is yet in embryo, peace at any price is to he 
preferred to war. Wnen a community is in a state 
of anarchy, the individual man must take the law 
into bis own hands, and defend his life and his 
rights with violence if need be ; and nations in 

one time trying to crystallise itself, has gone again 
apparently mto chaoa. 

Wars are various in their occasions and objects, 
sometimes breaking oat in consequence of dispates 
about territorial possessions or material interests ; 
at other times, having reference to the establishment 
of some important point of civil or religious hberty. 
In all caaea, the aim of each contending party is to 
weaken and overthrow the opposing party. At one 
time, the art of war was supposeii to consist very 
much in wearing out the enemy by a slow process 
of exhaustion, and thus wars were much protracted; 
bnt more recently the greatest generals have adopted 
the method of rather endeavouring to strike sudden 
and terrible blows, by which the war is sooner 
brought to a termination; and this method, although 
it may often have been adopted without regard to 
conaidenttions of humanity, is, in all probability, lesa 
productive o£ suffering to mankind than the other. 

Amongst rode nations, wars are conducted by 
tumultuary hosts, suddenly congregated, and in 
general, either after defeat or victory, soon diapened. 
But the wars of the mora civilised and powerful 
nations have long been conducted by armies care- 
fully trained ana disciplined ; and in the case oE 
maritime powers, by means of fleets at sea as well 
as of armiea on land. Preparation for war amongst 
such nations requires not only tJie forming aud 
training of the army, but vast provision in many 
various waya of the means and maUriei of war. 
Much acience and skill are also applied to the con- 
duct of military opcratjons, and t^e principles upon 
which they ought to be conducted have Ireen care- 
fully investigated, and theories tested by an exami- 
nation of the history of the most important cam- 
paigns. See Stsattoy, Tactics. 

Id the progress of society, certain vaagea of tsar 
have come to be generally recognised. These, of 
course, have varied at different times, and in diffe- 
rent parte of the world, according to the state of 
civilisation and the prevalent feehngs of the time ; 
they are also subject to modification from causes 
less general. But the changes which have taken 
place in them during the luise of ages have been 
m general favourable to the mtereats of humanity. 
Pnsanere of war are no longer put to death, nor are 
they reduced to slavery, as was once very frequently 
the case, but their treatment has become generally 
more and more mild aud kind. It is a w^-uader- 
stood nile, however, that a prisoner of war obtaining 
his liberty by exchange or otherwise, with the con- 
dition of not serving ^ain during a flied period 
against the aame power, forfeits his Bfe if he is found 
so serving and is again taken prisoner. Amongst 
all civilised nations, quarter ia granted in tnttle 
whenever it is sought; and there are certain nsages 
universally prevalent with regard to the capitida- 
tion of fortined places, and of bodies of troops hope- 
lessly hemmed in by superior forces, &c. 

Ivar-mes for mutual recognition and encourage- 
ment in battle have always been common, each rude 
nation or tribe having its own. The ancient war- 
cry of the English was Saint George I that of the 
Spaniards, ^an Jago ! and that of the Preach, 
Moun^oU Saint BenU ! In the feuds of the middle 
ages, each party, or the retainers of each noble family, 
had a distinctive war-ciy. Sometimes the WB.r-cry 
was the name of the family. Thns, in Scotland, th» 
retiuners of the noble Honses of Douglas and of 
Home rushed into battle with the ery of A Dourjlat ! 
a Doarjtas! or A Homt! a Home/ The French 
armies under Napoleon were accustomed to charge 
with shouts of Vive FEmptrtur,' 

The invention of gunpowder has efTected great 
changes in the whole art of war ; but the iutroduc- 
tion of firearms has rendered battles less sanguinary 



and ferocioui tti*n they prevjonily were. Whilrt 
firemns were yet unknown, warlike enmnea of 
VMioiu kinds were employed ; but cloee coimut wu 
more general, and often mora prob«cted, and the 
pitwioDe of the cocabatontB lutd thui in ordinary 
battle more of that exaipetstion which fearfully 
characterise! the Btonoing of a town. 

WAHASDIN, a town of Austria, in the crown- 
land of Croatia, two milea from Uie ligM bank of 
the DniTe, and about 40 mileB north-nortli-eart of 
.4gm>L It ia to BOOM extent fcrtdfied, it 
by itraggling Enburba, and iKKitaini nine 
few conventa, and a gyninamiBn. Silk-ipumuig u 
carried on ; ud itonewxre, wine, and tobaooo are 
mano&ctnred. Fop. 900(L 

WA'KBLEB, a popolar name often applied to all 
thebit^a of t^ family S^viada (q. v.)>nuuiv of which, 
however, conunooly receive other popmar pamca, 
as the Blackcap, Nightingale, Hedge-Bparrow, B«d- 
hreaat, Kedstort, Stonechat, Wheatear, Whitetbroat, 
Ac (q-T.), while many recdre the name Warbler with 
some adjnnct. Several Britiah apecieB, commooly 
thus demgnated, behmg to tha genua BaUearia, 
othetB to the genua S^ma. The apedea of the for- 
mer genni hare the tail tounded ; in the latter, it ia 
almost aqiiare or a UtUe foriced. The SaSaaia are 
alao inhabitants of moirt BitoationB, whence tliey 
are known as Sedgs WarhUnuiAEeed Warhlen; the 
Sglvitx are inhamtacts of woods. Of the former 
genus is the Gbjbshoffer W. (Saliairia loeutUUa), 
not anfreqnent in many parts of England, and found 
also in t^e south of Scotland and in Ireland. It ia 
found in mott parts of the centre and south of 
Bnrope, at least during aummer, being partially a 
bird of paasage. It ia of a greenish brown colour, 
the oentret of the feathers du^ brown, producing a 
Bpotted appearance } the lower parta pale brown. 
It is a shy bird, hiding itself in hedges and boshes, 
but very active often darting out like a mouse from 

the bottoTD of the hedge, and reeeivea its came from 
its chiri^ng, f;raBshopper-like note. — The Sdxib W. 
(Saliearia phragmiiu) is the moat common British 
apedeii of Bcdicana, and is generally found in thick 
patches of reeds or willows m marshEs, or in other 
sitoationB close to water, and where the aquatic herb- 
age ia thick and atrong. It aboonda cm the marshy 
baoka of the Thuaes. It is of a brown coloor, 
exhibiting vanous shades, finely intermixed; the 

chin and throat white ; the under parta bnff ooloruv 
— 'The Beed W. [SaiicaTia arvndinaeea) is found in 
aummer in marshy situations in the aouth of £n^ 
land ; it aboaada in Hdlud and in many parts of 
Eiu«pe, and tti nnge extMida to the nartlL of IndiA. 
It ia of a uniform mIo btawn, with a tinga of chest- 
nut ; IJie ohiu and Atoat lAtte ; the under parte 
pale buff ooloor. Ita neat ia rematkablej it is 
attaohsd to tlie stems of three or f o«t Teeda, and 

Neat of £eed Warbler. 

Wood W, alao known aa Wood Wbeit {Bifiv.^ 
wMcoIa), ia common in the wooded diabiot* of 
England, in aumraer, partienlaTly in old plant^^on* 
<rf oak uid beech. It is olive green, tmged with 
ydlow, tlie winsa brown, the primaries and leoond- 
aiies edged wil£ bright yellow, the tertiala with a 
broader aia/i of yellowiah white ; the lower parts 
yellow and white.— The Willow W. (£}Mi tro- 
cUki) i« very common in the south of !Ekidand in 
summer, but more rare in northern parts of Britain. 
It frequents wooda, ahrubbenea, t£ick hedgerows, 
and buahes; but bailda tta neat on the gronncL It 
ia of a duU olive-green colour, the wing and tafl 
feathoi dark brown, the wino-feathera edged witti 
green; the under parta whitiah, slightly tinged with 
yellow. The tail is alightly not^ed. TW« are 
otiier Britiah apecies of more rare oocniMnoe. — 
Numeroua apecies of W. are found in North 
America, migratory birds, which spend the winter 

regions. Not a lew of Uie 

riea are therefore reckoned among the birda of 
West Indies. Some of the European Bpedes are 
in like manner found in Africa ; and Asa has many 
species of W., among which some of the European 
apeeiea are included. Australia has many spemei of 
W., some of which are of very beautdfol plnmagcb 

WABBTJBTON, Whjjlak, a distingnished 
English divine, commonly known ai Bishop War- 
burton, was bom at Newark, in the county of Not- 
tinghaia, on the 24th December 1698. He was the 
eldest son of George Warborton, an attorney of that 

O, who claimed descent from an old Chediire 
7. Young W. received his education at the 
school of his native town, and afterwards at Oak- 
. ham in Butlandshire, which he left in the year 1714, 



lAo hid died loiBa ynn baore. Havinff urred 
Uui BeoMBuy apn«ntioeihi[^ he pcactiud u an 
attmuT at SawatL lor aome jean, but irith no dis- 
tingaiaited mcceas. Hii natoral bent iru towards 
literature ; and he had all alone expreaaed a deaire 
to take orders in tiie Church <a Eoeland. Finally, 
he qtiilted the l^al jtmfrnnilin vith this object in 
-view ; and having gone thioo^ the neceaaary conna 
of atndf, he waa pnaented, bj ffir Bobert Sutton, in 
1728, to the radoiy of Bruid-Bnnighton, in the 
diocese at Trj™"*'! irinre he nmained for manj 
yean. JJttm wUnhins aome comparatively nnim- 
pcrtant meoM, he iaaued, in 1736, a twa t Jae , entitled 
The Alliaaixb*eeatOhirAa»d Stale, -cr the Neeet- 
aUg and equity pfmBildliailiedadigitm and a Tat 
X/aiB. Thu vorc,whiahiBatillTec(igiuMdaaone of 
tite moat maatsrfjr atatementa d tlw subject from 

, _._.-1738,itwM 

followed h^ the firrt Tolnme M the omu madman, 
<m lAidi luB iame at a theolo^an mmt mainly con- 
tiime to leat. Thia celebrated work, The Dimne 
XimOoit tif MoKa, demoiutrated on the Prinriplu iff 
a BeHmnu DA^ front Sia Omialon q^ Ihe iXjdrine 
«f a FuUm Stale of Bemrdi and PluMumeile n 
Oie JeuiA iMtpoMotuni, Oti<n^ it enoonntaed a 
•toim of adveiBB oriticiBm, to which Uie writer 

tbon^lt it [ — J- to reply in A Viidieaiion, ka., 

_. ■-'^' -"^-^Uie pcmtion of W. aa one of the 

laMthepniod; and though ita 

baak,in virtue oi ita mat learning, its Ticonr, and 
originali^, will always maintMn iti repniatioa, ai 
one at the maater-pieoea of the gt«at peiiod of onr 
JBnifrti tii«(d^7. &i 1739; a new and ievi««d 
«dffioD of the ant part of the worit appeu«d. This 
waa foDoired, in 1741, hr the pub^ajdon of the 
■cccnd part ; and tiie Ihirct and ocmclading section, 
lathsr anpplementaiy to the argument Uian eaaential 
to it, waa only ^ren to the world after the death of 

Becoming involved in the conboverey which fol- 
lowed the appearance lA PopeTa Eaau on Man, W. 
andcrtocA Che defence of the poet, and, m 1739-1740, 
iMned k •erica of aeven letten, entitled A Vindiea- 
Dirine LtaaSon, The poet waa mnch gratified; and 
Iwt w MJ o tin and hia vindicator a warm friendship 

W. one-half <^ h^ libmy, and andi profit as n^it 
Acenis {ran anyeditdDn m bis wt^a pnhlished after 
lus doth. To r(^ W. waa indebted for opporto- 
uitics of coltiTatiiig the friendship of some of the 
meat distincnislied men of the time— among othen, 
of the wdl^nown Balph Allen, of Prior Vark, near 
Bath, to irhott niece. Hiss Qertmde Tnckco', he waa 
married in 114Ck 

ntongh W.'s important servioes to Utentore and 
«£poa wen admitted, they did not for a long time 
trins him any very great recognitiDn in the way of 
sob^antial pteferment. On the appearance of The 
Dwme LeffMtm, indeed, he had been appointed 
'^--'-^ to Qm Prince of Wales; and m 1746, 
rsan later, Qia Sodety of IJnooln'a Inn 

J deoted him to be thrir preacher. 

In 1757, no was promoted to the deanery of 
Bristol; and finally, in 1760, Ur Pitt, afterwards 
Eari of Chatham, bestowed on him the bishopric 
o( Glooeester, dedadng that ' nothing of a pHvato 
natuo, rinoe he had been in office, had given him 
ao UQch pleaaare' as this exercise of his patron- 
age. In the later years of hia life, hia mind became 
aeriootly impaired; and he was nttaly proatrated 

W. waa a keen polemic, and deeply engaged in all 
the intellectoal warfare of his time. Iii nearly every- 
thing he wrc^ there is the impress of a vigorous 
and fertile mind, with an arrogsnee of tone, which 
tends, in his tre^nent of adveiwuies, to degenente 
into taTioulenoe and acurrility. In addition to those 
already mentioned, it aeems sufficient to give the 
titles ^ a few of his more notsMe performances. In 
17Bl^i^9earedhiay«fiaii, or a DiKoane eoneaidag 

Shortly after came two volmnes entiUed The Priu- 
apU* of Natural atid Setiealed SeligioTi oecationaBjf 
Optnei amd Explamed; and in 1756, A Fine qf 
SoGngbroti* PhOotophi, m a Sena of Lttten U> a 
Friend, which was held to be mnch the ablest of all 
the aaawar* to Bolinglmike which appeared. In 
17ft7, he attacked Hume, in a publication entitled 
Bevttaiu on Mr Ifamd Huiae'i Natural Hittory qf 
Sellgioiit,ig a Gentleman qf Cambridge, in a Later to 
Ae Bev. Dr WarittTton. The blind deceived no one; 
and if we may eetimato the succeas of the attack by 
the annoyance it gave the phHosopher, his allaaiotis 
to ' that low fellow Warbmton ' may be held to in- 
dicate Bucoesa. In 1747, he went somewhat out of 
hia way to issne an edition of Shakspeare, vrith 
notea critical and emendatory, which hut, thonrii 
inzenions, and occasionally happy, did not ^reaUy 
BiM to bjs reputation. A complete and splendid 
edition of his wf^hs was published in 17S8, at the 
expense of his widow, by bis friend, Bidiop Hurd, 
wfio prefaced it with a biography. 
WARD, Edwabb MiTTHEW, R.A., an eminent 
■ter of tie present day, wxui bom in the year 
London. He early displayed ■ taste for 

lS16, i 

art, and was educated in a wa7 to develop it. 
1334, he was sent to stud; at the Royal Aoademy; 
and two yeais after, be went to Borne, where no 

remained for some tune, gwnlng, ia 183S, » silTer 
medal, given by the Academy of St Luke. He 
returned to England in 1839, making on the way a 
short virit to Hnnicb, wh»e he had lessons in 
freeeo-punting from the celebrated Comelins. After 
hia leturn, he umnally exhibited pictnres at the 
Boyal Academy, though far some yean withoot 
any very deciaive reoognition. In 1643, he com- 
peted unsnooeaifnlly for the deooration of West- 
minster Hall and the Houses of Parliament, lus 
larve cartoon specimen, ' Boadicea,' being genraally 
adjudged a failure. In the same year, however, he 
made a very ' palpable hit ' W bis pictore, familiar 
to every one as engraved, 'Dr Johnson perusing 
the Manuscript of the Ftcar of Waiejktd.' His 
steady progress thenceforward, in the estimation of 
comioissenrs and the pubhc, is sufficiently marked 
by the foot, that in 1363, having previaosly, as we 
noted above, failed in the public oompetition for tbe 
woA at Westminster, he waa solicited by the Kne 
Arte Ctonmissioners to aid in this national under- 
takings Of the eight esitoonairtiich he engaged him- 
self to fnniish, sev«nl have been oompleted. The 
merit of these ii tmquestiinied ; and one of them in 
particular, > The Last Sleep of Argyll,' is nakedly 
etmipeteiit judges as one of the most nusterl^ 
woAs in this kind which our oonnfay hss as yet 
produced. In further recozuitioa of his ments, 
Ml- W. was, in 1347. dected an Associate of t^e 
Royal Academy ; and in IS65, he attained the full 
honour of Academician. Of the works of an artist 
so well known, it would be idle to attempt a cata- 
Iogn& A few of the more notable ore : * llio Fall of 
C&iendon,' ' Interriew between Charles IL and Nail 



Owya' ' The Eoyal Family of Fruice in the Priwniof 
theTemple,' ana 'Charlotte Coiday led toEzecntion.' 
In technical eiecation, Mr W. mmt be admitted a 

malter; if he faili ft little commonly, on the side 
of penatrBitive power and genuine imaginative 
reabution. it would be unfair t« say uiat hie 
failure in conapicDOUB, aa compared with that of 
olhen of hia brethren, who yet very well contrive 
in these times to pass for poetic artiiti.~Hui 
wife, Mrs Henkictta Wahd, ii alio favonrably 
known aa a painter, and as the grand-daughter oF 
James Ward, B.A., in his day something of an 
art- celebrity, tboagh now a little out of date. 

WARDEN, an officer appoiated for the naval or 
military protection of some particolar district of 
country. In order to keep the districts of England 
adjoimng to Scotland and Wales in an attitude of 
defence, great officers, called Lords Wardens oE the 
marches, were appointed, to whom the duty of 
protectins the frontier was committed. From this 
Bonrce onginated the name uard, applied to the 
subdivisions of the cauntiea of Cumberland, West- 
moreland, and Durham — a term afterwards extended 
to diviBions of a city, town, or burgh adopted for 
municipal purposes. The custodier of Dover CsatJe 
was created by Williani the Conqueror warden of 
the Cinque Ports (q.V.), and guardian of the adjacent 
coast; an office comprising extensive jurisdiction, 
civil, naval, and miliary, the sreater part of which 
was token away by 18 and 19 VicL c 48.— Aa to the 
Lord Warden of Oie Stannaries, see Stahnarus. 

WAR DEPARTMENT, the entire administra- 
tion of the militoTf affairs of the nation. It includes 
the purely military command under the Couhahcer- 
ik-Chisf, and the civil adminiatration under the 
Secretary of State for War. This latter includes 
the manufactnre of warlike stores, and their custody ; 
the formation of defensive works ; the paying, feed- 
ing, punishine, curing, arming, carrying, kc of the 
anny. The NatLonoT Surveys form also a part of 
this department. The whole department is con- 
troUed by the War Office. 

WAHDUOLDING, the military tenure of land 
in Scotland mider the feudal system, by which the 
vassal was bound t« serve the superior in war when- 
ever called on to do so. As the military duties of 
the vassal could not be performed when he was 
under age, the superior bad a nght both to the 

Crdianship of his person and to the possession of 
fee during his minority. An arrangement, how- 
ever, was freqaently made by which ^is right was 
commuted into an annual payment, in which case 
the fee was sud to be held in Taxed Ward. When 
an unmarried vassal succeeded, the superior was 
entitled to a siun proportionate to the value of the 
estate, called the Atx^ of Marriagt; and a larger 
sum, called the DoiiMe A vaif of Marriage, was due 
when the superior named a wife for his vassal, and 
the vassal, rejecting her, married another woman. 
If a vassal alienated his lands or the larger portion 
of them without consent of his superior, the fee 
fell to the superior by what waa colled the casualty 
of Saogpilion, which waa a check on vassols im- 
poverislnng themselves to snch on extent as would 
render them nnfit to perform feudal services. Ward- 
holding was aboliahed by SO Geo. IL c 60, as a 
■ystem hasardons to the public tranquillity, such 
fees aa vers held ward of the crovm being converted 
into Blanch (q. v.) holding and those held of sab- 
jects becoming feu-holdi^gs, a yearly lum being 
mode payobla to the superior, as a recompense for 
the casnalties which were done away with. 

WA'RDIAK CASES, close glass eases placed 
upon a troQgb containing soil, and accurately fitted 
to it, intended for the growth of plutta in the 

window! of apartments Bemailable success haa 
attended the use of them even in the smoky a'bno- 
aphere of the largest towns. Ferna and oUter plaata 
may now be seen in greot beonty and Inxnrianoe in 

Wardian Case. 

these oasea in the window* of honsai in London and 
in oil the cities of Britain. They ore especially 
adapted to those plants which require an atmosphere 
more moist than that of an inhabited apartment con 
ordinarily be. They derive their name from the 
inventor, Mr W. B. Ward of London. To the success 
attending them, the invention and frequent use of 
vivaria for marine nnirnnU jg with great probability 

WARDLAW, Ralph, D.D., the most celebrated 
preacher and theologian in the roll of Scotch Inde- 
pendents, wsa a Seiner by eittactioii, and studied 
in connection with the Associate Secession Church. 
Before he had completed his curriculum, however, 
he had convinced himself that congregational inde- 
pendency was the scriptural system of church 
government. In 1800, tie began to preach, and 
after some time settled in Glasgow as pastor of an 
Independent church. In 1811, he was appointed 
ProfeBBOr of Theology to the Congregational body 
in Scotland, in conjunction with Uie Bev. Oreville 
Ewing ; an office he retained, along with bia pas- 
torate, to the period of hia death, which happened 
on the ITth December iS53. W.'a life was a very 
laboriona and eameet one. Besides discharging 
faithfully and ably the duties of the pulpit and the 
professor's chair, he was a voliiminans author, often 
involved in theological controversy, and a prominent 
actor in the pnblic religious and philonthropical 
movements of the day. His intellect was acute, 
his understanding sound, aud his style remarkable 
its perspicacity, vigour, and grace. The most 
important of W.'s works ore : 3isamr»n on tie 
Socinian Conlroverey (1813) ; Lrcturet on Erelt^ada 
(2 vols. 1821) ; Etiaye m Auarance of Faith, and 
071 till Exitnt of the AUmemeat and Univertal Pardon 
(1830) i Diaeoamta on the Sahlalh (1S3S) ; ChrieUan 
ethia (1833) ; Bitcourtu on the JVoiure and Extent 
d/ the Atonement of Chria (1843); The L\ft of 
Joieph and Uie Ltul Yean of Jacob (184S) ; Cfen- 
gregationi^Jndeptndeney{18^); On Miracles (1852). 
—See LVe and Corrapondeaee of Ralph Wardlatc, 
by Dr Aleiander (1856). 

WA'RDOehUUS, a seaport in Norway, at the 
east extremity of Finmark, stands on -Uie i^nd 
Ward&e or YordSe, and is protected by a fort, the 
moat northerly fortification on the globe, being in 
lot. 70° 22*. The inhabitants, indusive of the 
garrisoD of 24 men, number only 120. Not even 
potatoes or barley comes to maturity ; and the few 



caws that aro k^t liave sametimei to be fed c 

WA-RDSHIP, in Esgliib Fendal Law, was the 
gnmrdiauihip irhich the lendal lord had of the land 
ol hU Taaul irhile the latter ■was an infant or 
minor. Untdl the majority of the infant, the lord, 
oat of the profita, provided a fit penon to render 
the asTTicea mcnmbent oa the Taaud. See Tkkdbe, 


WARE, a imall market-town in Herts, 2J milee 
nortb-eart of Hertford. Malting, for which there 
are several establishments, moat of them engaged in 
supplying the London breweries, ia the principal 
eroploymeiil The springs of the New Biver, which 
enpplies London with water, are in the vicinity. In 
one of the inns of the town, is still to be seen the 
famons Bed of Ware, for a notice of which, see 
Bed. Fop. (1861) 5002. 

WA'REHAM, an exceedingly ancient though 
small town of Dorsetahire, nanda between the 
riveis Piddle and Frome, 14 miles nearly due east 
from Dorchester. It waa a British town, and after- 
wards a Roman station, and is surrounded by a 
IHritish vallnm or rampart of earth, which, although 
citremely ancient, is still about 30 feet hieh, and 
ia perfect on three sides. Stockings, shirt- buttons, 
and stran-plut are manufacturef The boron^ 
-comprising the parishes of Holy Trinity, L^y 
^aint Msiy, Saint Martin Ame, Bere R^ia, Cona 
Castle, and porta of the parishes of East Stoke and 
Morden, sends a member to parliament. Pop. (1861) 

leasening the pressure of excise or customs duties 
fay postponing payment of them nutil the goods 
they an laid on pass to the consumer, or, at all 
cnaita, to the retail dealer. A merchant who might 
import a thousand pounds worth of wine or tobacco, 
if he only paid duty on it by instalments as it went 
uat to tne dealer, would be quite unable to impart 
so much iC lie had to pay somewhere from one to 
live thousand pouoda of duty on its arrival The 
aystecD «I bonded warehoosea was hence adopted. 
The taxable commodity thus came to be locked up in 
a government warehouse, and the duty to be paid on 
its removal, along with a proportional fee or rent fur 
the custody of the article, "~ "'" 

its accommodation 

a government premises. Bonding in this 

waa first authorised by 
1802. When the customs laws were from time to 
time consolidated, the Warehousing Act fonaed a 
portion of tha consoUdation. lathe cocsolidatioa of 
1S46, tttere waa a separate ' Act for the Worehous' 
ing oE Gooda.' In the latest consolidation of 1353, 
the warehonsiiig system is embodied in clauses 41 
to 113 iudnaiTe of the general ' Customs Consolida* 
tion Act ' (IS and IT Vict c 107). This process, 
by which tJw crown holds in custody the goods of 
private peisons, has produced some curious effects on 
mercantile law and trading practices. When trans. 
actions have taken place about bonded goods, should 
they be injared or destroyed, it may come to be a 
qucabosi of nice adjustment who ia to bear the loas, 
seeing there is not posseaaion to shew ownership ; 
and still nicer qurationa sometimes arise as to 
whether such goods are or are not port of a bank- 
nipt estate, niere ia a difficulty in securinK mooay 
upon goods without transferring thair abaolute poa- 
soBon, as in the case of pledging or pawning. The 
warehousing system, however, by retaining the 
gpoda for the owner, whoever he may be, ha* 
anted a complete system of paper-money in the 

transference of the title-deeds, as tliey may be 
colled, of such goods — the dock-warrants or other 
docnmeata — the possession of which is equivalent 
to possession of the goods. 

title are included those vertebrates which posses 
four-chambered heart and apongy lungs ; the he 
and lungs being so ammgea that the whole of the 
venous or impure blood is propelled over the lo^ 
hut closely-packed capillarc area of the lungs, by 
successive contrBctioiiB of a special ventricle, receiv- 
ing it from a distinct auricle (these being called the 
right or pulmonary ventricle and auricle), while the 
blood thus purified by the action of the air in the 
Inngg is conveyed to another auricle, and propdled 
over the whole system by a second distinct ventricle 
(these being known as the left or somatic auricle and 
ventricle). The only animals which exhibit these 
structural peculioritiea ore mammals and birds. 
lu man and in the ox, the mean temperature of tbe 
interior of the body ia 100° ; in the mouse, it is 99* ; 
while in the whale it ia 103*. In birds, it ranges, in 
different species, from 106° to 112*. The warm- 
blooded animals present, however, gradatdons of 
their heat-making power. In the hybeniatioK 
«Tiiin»1«^ there is commonly a loss of heat, of from l(r 
to 20', during their winter-sleep ; and in the bat, 
the temperature falls to 40*. In the cold-blooded 
animals, the fishes, amphibians, and reptiles, the 
temperature of the blood rarely exceeds that of the 
Burroondine medium. For the general characters ol 
the warm-blooded animals, the reader is referred to 
the articles BmnB and Mahualia. 

ma. — A certain temperature, constant within narrow 
limits, is essential for the life of warm-blooded 
anim^, and the heat by which this temperature is 
maintained is produced by the vital actions of the 
body itself. See An tmai. Esat, Tzmfekatubs ot 
TBB BoDT. In the case of man, however, at least in 
ordinary climates, and in the civilised condition, the 
heat of the body, if allowed freely to escape, would 
be dissipated faster thou it is produced ; and 
hence arisea the necessity of clothing, houses, 
and other means of retarding its escape. To 
allow the body to continue depressed in temper- 
ature beyond the natural state, instead of hardenmg, 
infallibly weakens its vitality, and sows the se«£ 
of disease ; and that this error ia committed o: 
vast scale, in Britain more especially, is apparant 
enough. The Reports of the RegistTar-general shew 
that, exactly as the thermometer sinks, the rate of 
mortality naes and certain diseaaea of the most 
fatal kind become more prevalent ; {he vitality, in 
short, of the community decreases as the wonnUi of 
the atmosphere decreases. Could this be, if the 
means taken to arrest the waste of heat from our 
bodiei^ or to supplement ilj were not, for the 
majority of men and women, insufEcieiit, or injudi- 
ciously managed * This is a matter of lit^ally 
'vital' moment to one and alL The economy of 
heat is a primary element in the art of living in 
health and comfort ; and ' no knonlei^ of common 
things ' that we con think of can surpass in import- 
ance a right understanding of the principles and 
facta on much that ait reats. 

Where fuel la scarce the resource against the 
oold of winter is thick clothing Indoors aa well a 
out. This is said to be the regular practice ii 
China; and even in the south of Europe, fires ar 
dispensed with in weather when we ahould thinl 
them absolutely necessary, and additional wra|>- 
pings ore considered aa aj^iropriato while aittiDg 
ID the konse, as in the open air. But wherever 
fuel can be had, it is always preferred to w — 



within doors much the lame clothing in winter 
in nimmBr, and to keep ibe apartmenta neaHy at 
mmmer teiaperatnre by artificial beat It is this 
ipecial branch of the sabject, tie., the tttificial 
wanning of apartmenta, th^ we are at preaeat to 
cooaider ; ana in dinng ao, we preenme the reader 
to be aoqnaintad with tiie mora general facts 
lenrding the genention of heat by comboatioa, 
•im. Ha diffiiaion, aa stated in the artudea Cohbits- 
noN, Flame, Fuzi, Heat. 

!Ehe great um, it may be premiaed, in all plana of 
wanning ia,Ba it ia ezpnaaed by DrAnott,' to o&Com 
tvtTfivi/iere on tartli at itiii, tU temptratura moat 
coDoeniaJ lo At human eonttilviioit, atid air oj pure 
at bloiat OH a hiU-ltm.' The obtaining of the desred 
tei^teratare would oe oompwatiTely easy b^ itaelf ; 
the difficult lies in oombming warmth with pnre 
ait. Wanning and ventilation are thoa in tome 
dcfpne antagtmiatio i^eiationa, and are therefore 
hA taeated in ona artiole. The vaiioua plana ot 
wanning hitherto tried may be clawed under the 
fonT heada of— The Open Fire, Stores, Qaa, Steam 
tad Hot Water. 

The Open .f^irt— The first ^phoatioD of artificial 
wannth oonaiated, moat likely, m lighting a fire of 
dried sticka and leavca in a grove, a csv«, or other 

be erected, the fire would be light 


perhapa a 1 

smoke to escape by. Thia primitLve anaiuBnant 
may atill be seen in some of the oabina of Ireland 
and Hie Scottish Hi plilAnilii The Bomans wanned 
their apartmenta i^efly by portable stoves or 
chafiag-dinhes, without any regular exit for the 
smoke and fumes ; and a teasier of charcoal is atOl 
the chief meana of heating aitting-rooms in Spain 
and Italy, iriiich txv in geoOTal withont chimueya. 
^le Chinuuy (q. v.) ia a modem inTention. 

TOi open coal-fire glowing in a giate, which is 
the pren^ent mode of warming dwelliDg-honses in 
BriUin, has an air of cfaeerfnlnesa and comfort, and 
a t^ower of concentrating the whole family in one 
tocial circle, that make it almogt an object of 
wonhip ; bnt it is not without aeriona drawbacks, 
the most serious of which is the waste of fud it 
occasions. About one-half of the heat pnidaced by 
a common fire ascends with the amoke — the black 
part of the smoke itself being an unconaumed part 
of the fuel — while about a fourth of the heat 
which is radiated into 
I, carried 

fin and the mantel-piece, aod thaa 1i»l It 
oolated by Dr Amott, that only about one-eighth 
part of the heat-producina power of the fuel used 
m common fires ia realiae(£ all the rest being dissi- 
pated into the inrrounding atmosphere. A common 
lire gives also a partial kind of warmth, heating the 
side of the body next to it, but leaving the rest 
cold ; and it produces draughts into our rooma 
which are aoytlung bat safe or agreeable. Notwith- 
standing these and other acknowledged evils, the 
open fire continues to hold its place, partly perhaps 
from prejudice, partly from real points of superiority 
over other methods as yet practiled; and the 
object of late has been, not so mnch to do it away, 
aa to improve it. 

Qratea. — One improvement consists in itiTnini.tii-ng 
the quantity of metal in immediate contact with 
the fuel, and forming; the bsck and sides of the 
grate of fire-bricks. The bricks act like clothing, 
and keep in the heat of the coala, thus rendering 
the combustion mors complete, and the fire far 
hotter ; while iron, being a good conductor, runs 
away with the heat as fast a« it ta generated, 
and pBSSea it into the wall, making the coala that 
tonch it doll and bUck. The same qoantity of fuel. 

therefore, bnmed in a brick-lined grate, not only 
produces more heat, bnt throws a greater pronstion 
of that heat ont into the room, anl lea ap Uie fln» 
and throng the wall, than when it ia aumniuded 

ot the heat falling cm than is given out agaitt 
into the room. With a view, therefore, to throw 
out the heat better, the sides, or eonn^ as Uiey 
ace called, are inclined to the back at an an^ tii 
about 130^ ; and sometimes they are made onrved 
and of polished metal, in order tlut they may ledecb 
the heat withont absorbing it. It ia questioaablG if 
eimple brick alaba, placed at the proper angle, do 
not throw ont more heat than the most ij^endid 
polished metal plates ; for though the bncks do 
not reflect the raya of tlie fire, they become heated 
themselves, and then radiate t^^T beat into the 
room. Plates of rough metal absorb the heat that 
falla npon them aa the brick does ; but being good 
condoctoTB, the heat posset through them into the 
wall, and thus tiiey never become hot enou^ ti> 
radiate sensibly. 

Much slso depends upon the ehape of the fire-box, 
or grate itselL To see the importance of this, it is 
necessary to attend carefully to the exact way in 
which an open fire heata a room. It does so almost 
entirely by ihe rays of heat that it throwa out ; and 
these rays do not warm the air directly ; they pass 
through it like light through glass, just as the 
hottest raya of the ann pass throngh the npper 
atmosphere, leaving it cold enonghtofreexe laatiaij. 
It ia imly when the laya of the fire tall on Uu floor, 
f urnitare, and walls of the room, that they give ont 
contact witlk 
' ia gradnaOy 

fire lifted and burning bri^itly for a eonaidet^ 
able time before the hour when Ute apartment i> 
izpectod to be comfortable. 

The law that radiant heat neither aSects nor i» 
affected by the announding air, abo explains the 
fact l^t an apartment may feel very cold, thoo^ 
the air in it be at high snmmer heat A ohnn^ or 
other msssiTe atone building in frosty weathra may 
be filled with artificiBlly-heated air and yet retun ito 
ejiilline eSect for many honro. The warmth of tb» 
living body is lost in two ways : the film of colder air 
that touches it reoeivea part of its heat by oondne- 
tion, and riang up makes ro<mi for another fihn to 
' i the same ; a moderately heated body in oooling, 

robbed of about half its heat in this way. Tho 
other half is given ofl' in rays, which pass thnragh 
the ur, and impinge upon the objects arosnd. 
These objects are rodiatmg bock heat in return % 
bnt their temperature being low, the return ia small, 
and Uie warmer body is colder by the diffioenee. 
Hence we ore chUl^ by a cold mil or a ctdd 
window without touching it^ and thou^ the air 
between us and it may be at 70°- — To return to th» 
shape ot the Kcate. 

The chief objeet is to present as large a anrfaee as 
possible ot lowing fire to the front With t^ 
view, the giMe ia lude long and deep, in proportioD 
to ita width from front to back. Thia pruua^e, 
however, is carried too far in many grates. The 
stratum of fuel is too thin to bum perfectly, espe- 
cially in the narrow angles at the sides, where Uie 

ina^ntfy going out, and are further from being 
economical tnHi a aquare box. 
The [oaotice reoently come into vogne of placing 



grsta almost on a IstbI with the floor, u also & 
mistake. The floor Bud the lower put of the 
peiaan receiTB no ihire of the rsdiant beat. 

The dmnaef-thraat, instead of a gulf drawing 
a ooutHtt wide ennent of tha wann air of the 
room, and CMHing draughts fioni vrindows and doors 
towaida tbe fireplace, shonld just be mfScient to 
admit the bmiied gases and smoke that, oome 
diractl; fton the fire, and no more^ See Chuuikv. 
This is tiM object of tiie ntorable plate in what 
an Mlkd Ttgitttr-grattt. 

It would M encUees to attempt to ennmeiate the 
TBiioos forms tA gmte oonstruoted, with 
leiB nooeas, on the al ' ■■•'-' 
tent ontselvM with a 

indebted than to any individi 
•tuee the days of Connt Komford. It comes neai 
to the idea of pecfectiaa in an open fiMfJaoe than 
anr raerims contrivance. Its peooliar ttdyantagai 
will be nnderstood fr«m the f ' ' ' 

the bwit bus of 

a n^kta in a chnnnsj ol the nsnal 
L The grate has no bottom, and 


below it is an iron box, (^len only at top, into which 
th« chsige tit coal lot the day— from twen^ to 
thirty pnuKU— is pat. Any kmd of orAe or coal 
may M used. To Gght the fire, the ninal qnantitT 
of wood is laid on the snr&ce of the freah oul at ^, 
and a thitkiea of three or foor inches of cinden or 
coked coal, left from the Are ol the preceding day, 
ulaidoTsraU. 'The wood being then lighted, very 
r^idtr ignites the Hinder abore, and at the same 
tame the pitol^ Taponr from the fresh ooal below, 
riSM thnia^ the wood-flame and cinders, and be- 
oomsa *i*flt'^ snfficien^ itaelf to become flsme, and 
so to augment the blase. When the cinder is onoe 
&iriy ignited, all the tdtnmen rising through it 

aftenratds bnrns, and ''^ - " ' "-' — ' 

there is no ainipl 

gnt, flie box bSh.,^ ,_ 

be gradnaDy raiaea op *a the combostioD goes 
SB ; snd this is efibcted by hsTing a false bottom, 
a^ in tha ba^ which can lie moved like a piston by 
neaaa of a imL ^le rod has notdiei in it^ aiul, l^ 

means of the poker nsed as a leva, can be raised up 

and then retamed at any heifdit bv a ratchet-catch. 
When the piston come* levd with the bottom bar 
of the grate, the coals may be replenished whiJia the 
fire is bnroing, by pnahW in a fiat shovel over the 
piston, BO as to form a temporarv bottom to the 
grate, and snppm^ the fire, while the |datoa ia 
allowed to descend to the bottom. The shorel is 
then raised np a little ia Cnrnt, or a mrt of the 
npper edge of the box is mads to fidd down, and 
fnsb coab are shot into the box; on which the 
shovel ia withdrawn, and the combustion goes on as 

' A remarkable and very valnaUe quality of this 
fite is, its traiaoity of life, so to speak, or its little 
tendencrf to be extinguiBhed,' Even after it sinks 
below the level of the box, it does not go ont, but 
continnea to smoulder slowly for a w£>le day or 
ni^it, and is ready to bnni up actively whan the 
pston is raised. 

Another peculiarity of the Amott grate is the 
means taken to dimiiush the proportion of the heat 
QBoally canied cm the chimney. Of the thick 
cohnnn of ""*^* that isnss from a common chim^ 

the loom, which beoanea mixed with the troe smoke 
tha Ian* maoe usually left between the top of the 
• and we thtoat of the chimney. ' Tha whole of 
._« ah^ BO Motaminated, ud irtuch may be in volnme 
twaify, fifty, or even a hundred times greater than 
that of the true smoke, or burned air, is then all 
called amok^ and must all be allowed to ascend 
away from the room, that none of the tme smi^ 
may remaiik It is erideot^ thra, that if a oorer or 
hood of metal be plaoed over a fli^ aa lapnsoDted 
by the letten yoo in tiia diMram — or it, which is 
better, the apaoe over the fire m eqnaUy conbaoted 
by brickwoK, so aa to pawvent the difraaion of tha 
true sdmAc^ or Ilia sntnukoe of pure air &om aroutd 
to mix wiu it, axo^ Just what is neoeaasiy to 
bum the inflaimnabla gaaea whidk rise with the tma 
■mdte — Umbo will baa neat eeoctomy. ^niisiadcna 
in the new fiinhuMt wwi a saving M from one-thinl 
to <me-hiJf of tiie foel reo tdred to msintrfiiii a desired 
temperatnia. In a room, the tiiree dimensions of 
which ate fifteen foet, thirteen feet and a half, and 
twelv* feet^ with two large windows, the coal burned 
to —»■'■*-■■!" a tempeimluie of 66° in oold winter days 
has been eighteoi ponnds for nineteen hoois, or lesa 
pomid per hour.' — Amott^s Warming and 

The hood is furnished with a throttle-valve or 
damper, 1^ having an cctemal index, shewing its 
position, BO as to gm complete oontiol over the 
correnl Xba pfoviaion made forventilation in this 
firqtlace ia OMuidsnd fnither on. 

Brea in tiiia^ peA^ tha nkoat economical fcon 
of open fire yet contrived, there is still great watte 
of tne haat actually prodnosd by tiie c<»nbattioii. 

ia neatsat in Uu 
Experiment si 

rsUiat a fir« <rf wood 

utprodncei £v<^ one has felt Uiat 
has far less wanntzig efleet than a 
Rowing onsL Kot that flame hsa not intense heat 
'n it—more intsDsaaven than a ^wiag flee; but it 
irw it ont ctdy In' contact, andDothy rad 
t thus appcMS that ~ " '" " '---'^- 

snj moda of *■"*■"£ that 



depeada Qpoa direct ndiatioD, aa the open fireplace 
chie&j does, neceasuil^ inrolTeB great Traits of 
fueL This can be sToided only bj appljiag the 
heat on a different principle, which conaiits in first 
makinB the fire heat certain apparatui with con- 
■idetaue surface, whicti then, b; radiation and con- 
tact with the air of the apartment, diffuaefl ita heat 
throughout it. This is the principle of the othei 
methods of warmine, which we now proceed tc 
describe. The cousiibration of methoda that com- 
bine the two principle!, will come moat convenicntlj' 

Wannitig by Btova. — A dote stove a simpl 
enclosure of metal, brick, or earthenware, whj 
lieated by burning a fire within it, and then girei 
Ant ita heat to the air by contact, and to Buiround- 
ing object! by radiation. The simplest, and, so far 
as mere temperature is concerned, the most effective 
and economical of all wanning airangementa, i- 
what is called the Dutch stove ; which ia simply 
hollow cylinder or other form of iron standing o 
the fioor, close at top, and having bars near th 
bottom on which the Are resta. The door by which 
the coals are put in being kept shut, the air for 
bastion enters below the grate ; and a pipe, issuing 
from near the top, carries the smoke into a floe in 
ike wijl. If this pipe is made long enouxh, by 

E'ving it, if necessary, one or more bends, the 
lated gases from the fire nay be made to give out 
nearly M Uieir heat into the metal before they entei 
the wall ; and thus the whole beat of the combus- 
tion remains in the room. 

The great objection to this fonn of stove ia, that 
tiie metal is apt to become overheated, which not 
only gives rise to accidents, bat has a hurtful effect 
a})on the air. The exact nature of the change that 
highly heated metat produces upon air is not very 
wul understood. It cannot be said to burn it, in 
the proper sense of the word, for none of ita oxygen 
is abstracted, but it gives it a peculiar odour, which 
is both unpleasant and unwholesome. This is 
thought to arise in some measure at least from the 
hot iron burning the particles of dust that light on 
it, which particles consist of organic matter, such 
01 wool, wood, ftc 

fart at least of the onwholesomeness of air so 
heated arises from its excessive dryness ; it parches 
and withers everything it touches, like the African 
simoom. It must not, however, be sup^sed that 
this is peculiar to air heated by contact with metal ; 
air tiiddenly healed u aJicaya untofioietomely dry. 
This is an important point in regard to the eabject 
of warming, and requires consideration. A cubic 
foot of air, say at 32°, can contain a certain quantity 
of moisture and no more ; but if heated to 80°, it is 
capable of containing five times as much, and has 
thus become lAirtty, and drinks up moisture from 
everythinR that contains any. The heating of 
air, therefore, does not diy it, in the aensa of 
taking moisture from it, it oaly renders it greedier 
of more; and this is equally true whether it is 
heated by a stove or an open fire. The chief 
difference is, tiiat in the latter case the warming 
is more sradual, and no part of the air becomes 
very higmy heated ; while the air that touches 
a metu plate near redness is all at once ren- 
dered intensely thirsty, and before ita fierceness is 
tempered by thorougiily mixing with the rest -of 
the atmosphere of the room, must be highly per- 
nicious. But whenever the temperature within 
doors is much higher than without, the air is in a 
too thirsty state, and parches the skin and Inngs, 
unless means be taken to supply t^e neceuary 
moisture. An evaporating pan or other eoiUrivance 
U an etienUal port qf tooTTning amaratoe; it is 
•pecially necasaary to attend to tlus during east 

winds, which are geaerally too dry even at their 
natural temperature. 

All improvements on this simple and rude form 
of stove aim at avoiding a high beat in the warm 
surface, and this chiefly by lining the fire-boi w 
brick, and enclosing it in several casings, so as 
eidarge tlie heated surface. A general notion of 
these contrivances may be got from the annexed 
cut (Gg- 2), representing the 
kind of stove called a eod^ 
The tire is burned in a 
small furnace within the 
inner case, and the air is 
warmed by circulating be- 
tween the inner and outer 
esses. When placed in the 
apartment or ball to be 
warmed, the outer casing 
bos perforations about the 

top for the issue of the j: .^^ 

worm air. For heating ]jlg, 2. 

churches and similar build^ 
ings, the stove is placed in a separate fumace-room, 
and the warm air is conveyed to the different parti 
of the building in pipes or flues, while fresh air is 
drawn to the stove through a channel or culvert 
leading from outside the building to the openings 

in the outer casing, where the arrows . — 


The stove invented by Dr Amott is t 
same principle of an extenaive and moderately warm 
heating surface^ Under a sense of profeasional 
honoor, Dr Amutt did not take out a patent for his 
stove ; it was therefore made by many funiishing 
ironmongers in the metropolis and elsewhere, aome 
of whom took out patents for what they consiclered 
OS improvements upon it. So fewer than twelve 
patents were taken ont in one year for modificatioiiB 
of this stove, all of te?iieh Dr Amoli eontldertd to be 
upon falm principles. The consequence haa been, 
that many Amott stoves, which had been introduced 
into hoosea, have been given up on account of the 
inconvenience felt from the species of heat which ; 
they generated. It ia also, however, to be observed 
that the stove, made even upon the most approved 
principles, requires certain adjuncts and conditions 
m order to operate healthfully and agreeably. 

The accompanying figure represents the Amott 
stove in the most improved form given to it by the 

Kg. 3. 

inventor. We give the description in his own 
words. 'The complete self>regulating stove may 
indeed be considered as a close stove, with an 
external ease, and certain additions and modifica- 
tions now to be described. 1^ dotted lines and 



«m>ll letten tank tbe mteroal store, and Uie entire 
lioeB, tha eztenul case or coverioe. The letten 
ABCD muk the external cose, vhiak prevents the 
intensa heat of the inner store, abai, from damaging 
the air of the room. P i> the regolatiug-valve, for 
admitliiig the air to feed ilie fire. It maj be plkoed 
near the aahjut door, or wherever more convenient. 
XhiB letten^mark tlie fire-brick lining of the fire- 
box or grate, which prevents such cooling of the 
ignited maai ai might interfere with the ateadv 
combnation. H is a hopper, or receptacle wi^ 
open mouth below, mupended above tbe fire like a 
bell, to hold a snffiiuent chaive of coal for 24 honia 
or more, which coal alwajB falla down of itself, aa 
thAt bdow it in the fire-box ia conanmed. The 
hopper ma; at any time be refilled with eoal from 
above, through the lid, t, of tlie hopper, and tbe 
other lid, E^ of the outer c«se. xiuae lida are 
rendered nearly air-tight by aaad-jointa ; Uiat ia, 
bj theic outer edges or drcomference being toned 
down, and made to dip into grooves filled witli 
sand, as at e, e. The bomed air or amoke from the 
fire, M, risea up in the space between tha hopper 

internal fine, a, into the other mie, X, of the outer 
case. L ia tiie aahpit under the fira-lun. Q is the 
ashpit door, which must be oaiefuUy fitted to shut 
in an air-tixht manner, bv grindiOE its face or 
otherwise. M is the coal intuisely ignited below 
where the fresh air maintiuns combustion, bat 
eolder gradnally as it is further up. Onlv the coal 
in the fire-grate below, where the fresh air hi 
acocBS to it ijiroagh the fire-bars, can be in a at>' 
of active combuation.' The self-regalating vali 
above mentioned is an ingeniotu contrivance by 
which the passage for the air ia rendered namiwer 
aecordinj; to the force of the dnn^t. Sr Amott 
deacribea various other plana of effecting the self- 
regulation of the combustion, 

A drawer inserted into the heated chamber of ths 
stove would serve for cooking meat, and a pot for 
boiliDs might be placed upon the fire-box ; it is 
theieMre, aa the inventor remarks, peculiarly the 
poor man's stove. Or, by »n»ln'Tig the space between 
the two casings water-tight, a waler-aiove ia pro- 
daced, wUch, beaidea aecuring a regulated heat, 
often niao^ other conveniences. 

In Bnana, many ^rta of Germany, sad other 
northern conntriea of Enrape, the stoves are usually 
built of brick, covered with porcelain. They ate of 
the size of a large and very high chest of luawers, 
Bod DsoaUy atand in a corner of the room. The 
Sre is bnmed in a furnace near the bottom, and the 
heated smoke is made repeatedly to travena the 
structure from side to side, along a winding passage, 
before it reaches the top, where a p^ conveys It, 
now comparatively cold, into a flue in the walL 
The heated mass of brick continues to warm the 
room long after the fuel is burned. It is Maetally 
sufficient to warm the stove once a day. The same 
qnantify of wocd burned in an open imite would be 
consomed in an hour, and would hardly be felt 

ppen-jCrie Sloca. — At a specimen of the numerous 
plans for combining the advaats^es of the stove and 
the open fire, wa may take Sylvester's stove or 
Eiate, which is thus described in Ronalds and 
Kichatdson's TecJmologg: 'The fuel is placed upon 
a grate, the bars of which are even with the floor of 
the room. The sides and top of these stoves are 
coDstructed of double casings of iron, and in the 
stiles a series of vertical plates, parallel with the 
front ladug, are included in the interior, which 
collect, W conduction, a great portion of the heat 
foastta front the fire — i£e mass of metal of which 
tbeaa are ~ ~ . - - 


the temperature of 212° F. onder any oircoimtancea. 
Tlie sides and top of the stove are thus converted 
into a hot chamber, offering an extensive surface of 
heated metal ; at the bottom, by an opening in the 
ornamental j^rt, the air is allowed ti> enter, and 
rises as it b^mes warmed, traversing in its ascent 
tha different compartments formed by the hot 
parallel plates, and is allowed to escape at tha top 
by some similar opening into the room.' The 
tSylvester stove can either be placed in an ordinary 
chimney recess, or be made to stand ornamentally 
forward into the room. The feeding-draught may 
be either taken directly from the apartment, or 
brought by floes from the outside of tha building. 

The idea of having an air-chamber behind and 
aroaod the fireplace, from which warm air would 
issue into the room, thus saving part at least of the 
vast amount of heat that is lost by passing through 
the wall, ia not new, having been put in practice by 
the Cardinal PoUgDoc in the banning of last 

pier of masonry standing isolated from the wall, 
like a Oerman porcelain stove. A very amall fire 
would keep the whole mass mildly heated. The 
pier could receive ahj shape, so as to give it anhi- 
tecturol effect ; and it might either terminate in 
the room — the smoke, after parting with most of its 
heat, being conducted by a pipe into the wall — or it 
might be coutinoed into the story above, where its 
heat would still be sufficient to warm a bedroom. 
An Arnott smokeless grate, set in the pedeatal of an 
ornamental column, which might either stand in 
front of the wall or in a niche in its depth, might 
be made l^e btau-idtal of comfort, economy, and 

Warming by 6a». — A prejudice arose against gas 
H a medium of heat, &om the first attempts to 
employ it being made in an unskilful way. But 
when care it taken to carry off the prodncta of com- 
bottion fay a pipe, and to prevent overheating gaa- 
ttorea will be fomid economioal and pleasant, and 
capable of being used in situations where a oommoo 
stove is InadoiitsiMe. 

In stoves, gas should always be bomed with tlie 
Bunsen homer, which is generally employed by 
chemists when Uiey make use of gas for heating 
purposes. It consists of a small brass cylinder, or 
chimney, set over the goe-jet, like the glass of an 
a»and lamp, with openings near the bottom to 
t&v air to enter. The gas oeing admitted into this 
before lighting, mizee with the an, and when lighted 
at the top, which is usually covered with wire-gauze 
or perforated metal, bums with a pale-blue flame. 
Tbe most complete combustion and the greatest 
he^rf ate obtained in this way. Smoke, properly so 
called, there is none. Still, it must not be forgot 
that tJiere is burned air_a cubic foot of carbonio 
acid, besides a quantity of watery vapour, for every 
cubic foot of gas used; and therefore, even wilL 
the Bonsen burner, these gaseous products should, 
wherever it is possible, be condocted away. 

A pleasant and very serviceable gsa-stove might 
be constructed by making the casing double, to 
contain water. It has been ascertained that a 
gallon of water may be brought to the boiling-point 
ID 20 minutes by burning 4 cubic feet of gas, which, 
at 4i 6d. per 1000 feet, costs lees than a farthing. 
The cost of doing the same by a newly-lighted 
coal-fire is more than threefold. 

SUam and Hot Water. — The immediate warming 
-jent in these two methods is the same as in 
Arnott's tuid other low-temperature stoves — vix.. 

metallic surface moderately heated ; 
id of heating tbese surfaces by direct con- 
tact with the fire, the nrat it first commnnicated to 

but instead o: 

iiv-LiOOg lC 

WABuma Am> V£nxila.tion. 

[1, tad tfaence to the metal of % ^alem 

thase methodB Are peotilwrly wU^Fted to factorie*, 
woAiIu^ and oUier Urge eistabJiabmenti. OUier 
advuitagea are — freedom from dut, tad from ill 
liok of overheating and ignitioii. 
Bteam Steam-vanning ii genen^y adapted in 

■amo boSer and fimiace Hare both pnipowa. When 
ateam eaten a oM. -nod, it ia ooDdenied into 
mter, and at tho same tims aivea ont its latent 
heat tall the Teasel is niaed to Z)!2*, when the con- 
na. The ramdoiBng veawil >• nmallj 
le placed round the wall of the ^aart- 

ment near die floor, b adniittang freah air ittbo tiie 
roara it majr be made to pasa over titii i^m, and 
thna be warmed. The ateun " 

boiler by a eooaller tube, whiohmaybeooreredwith 
lilt or othw materia to pnrrent all oondanaation 
by the way ; and the adminion of the eteam ia r^n- 
latad b; a cock within the apartment, means beng 
prorided 'for allowing the air to eec^te. Whepe * 
p^ oatuot be laid ronnd the room, a ooil of pipe 
mijf be formed, or the steam may be admitted mto 
a Mige Teasel or into a hollow statne, fonning 
a, steam-store. Allowaooe mutt be made for the 
expanaon of the tnbea by heat ; wid they ore so 
arranged that the cosdraaed water is eonveved 
back to the boiler. One round of itOQ pipe, of tour 
inohes diameter, is quite taffideitt to warm each of 
the laree apartments or storiee of the printdng-ofGce 
from iriiich the present work isaoet. 

There can be no proper comparison between thie 

Slan of heating and that of common fireplaces, 
oal-fires cannot warm the air in large woriuhope ; 
the heat is confined to their own immediate neigb- 
bonrhood ; h^ice the wo^man are oft^ obliged to 
draw near the grate to warm themselves. Accord- 
ing to the pl^ here adopted, every part of tiie 
kmae is equally heated, and the whole <tf the work- 
men are as cranfortaUe dnrmg the hardest froata aa 
if th^ were wmUng in a pleuoat anmmer day. It 
is difficult to e*tiniiM« Uie ^wnse of supplying the 
heat, seeing that tiie steson happens to be dnwD 
from a boiler which is ilways in operation for ottier 
purposes. Excellent, however, a* the process is, it 
IB for many reasons unsuited to private dwelling- 

In calculating how mach surface of steam-pipe 
will be sufficient to warm a room, it is customary 
to allow about 1 foot square for every 6 feet of sitif^e 

{lass window, of usual thickness ; as much for every 
20 feet of wall, roof, and ceiling, of oidinaiy 
material and thit^eas ; and aa much for every 6 
onbic feet of hot air escaping per minute aa venti- 
lation, and replaced by cold air. 

Sot Water. — Hot-water apparatus was applied u 
early as 1777 by M. Bonnemain, in Paris, to wum 
the hot-houses at the Jardia des Plautes, aa well as 
for the artificial hatching of chickens. It wai fint 
introduced iuto England by the Marquis de Cha- 
bannee in IS16, and is now used in many large 
buildings. It is more econamical than etaam, except 
where ■ steam-boiler is required for tuachineiy ; 
and from this and other advantages, it ij genenily 
prefared to steam-apparatus. One of these advan- 
tages is, that the heat begins to be distributed, in 
some degree, as soon as the fire ia lighted, while 
with st^m-apparatuB tJie whole lA the wattr must 
be at b<nling-heat befora any ateam enters the 

There are two kinds of hot-water apparatna — 
high-pressure and low-pressure. In the first, the 
water ia confined, and con be heated to any degtee ; 
in the other, it is open to the air, and eannot be 

heated above 212'. Fig. 4 wiU 
which water is made to oany 
tlie heat of a f nmaoe to any 
part of a bniMinE by the low- 
pressore laethML a )• a 
boiler, from the top of which 
a tabe issoes, and after dica- 
lating through the building, 


r the pipe is thus alwayt cridet. 

At the top of the drouit, there 

ia a funnel, or a small oistem, 

e, by which the tubea and 

boiler may be kept fuD. 

When the fire ia lifted at 

the bottom of the boibr, the 

heated portiui of water, being li^iter Uian the reit, 

risea towards the tm throuf^ the tobe, JA, while ths 

Mlder water from da flows into take its place. The 

tube ia made to traTerse the apartansnta to be 

warmed, where it ' 

returning portion of the pipe 

and thmaore heavier l£aa 

circulation is oonstantly kept iq>. Hie wanning 

Borfaee is increaaed, whmerer ii ia neoeoMiy, by 

DoiHiig the pipe, <v 1^ making firpainiftna npcai A of 

various forms, eo as to onwtilate water^tovea. 

To avoid the neosMity of so large » MU&oe, and 
*nch a mass of water aa la reqniredit Ae low lon- 
peratore the water attains in the pipea of this kind 
of apparatus, Mr Perkina introduoed tlte hi^ 

Tssore system. In this, the pipe is maAe OMnpa- 

itively sm^ tmtveiT 
' is formed 

pipe itself pass through 

the furnace ; and as 

the whole circuit forms 

shut vessel, aa it 


ndupwaida, according 
to the sfcrapgth of tlie 
pipea. Thia hi^ tem- 
"""*"" "■•'"■ ^ rapid 

drcnlation. -a. oom- 
pendioua and teodily 
onderatood specimen 
of the ai 

of three storiea, is pre- 
sented in the accom- 
panying engraving. In 
filling the tube with 
' r, which enters at 
;e is taken to ex- 
pel all the air ; and at 
a tliere is an expansion 
of the tube, equal to 16 
or 20 per cent, of the 
capsci^of the whole, 
which ia left empty 
both of water and sir, 
to allow for the eipon- Tig. 5. 

(don of the water when 

heated. The arrangement of the pipe may b* 
various : the plan generally followed is to idaoe « 
considenble coil of it within a pedestal or bunker, 
with open trellis-work in front, in a oonvenient part 
of the room. It may also be made to wind roond 
the room, behind the fddrting-board, which, beuig 
perforated with holea, will allow of the entrance <3 



louB pobl 

Ueaan Parkin* a 

infficientlr effeotive for &e dedred end, it 

has httn ptorad to be attended with m few dmr- 
badu M aaj t^^aUted mode ot hekting -whaterer. 
Bat then n a gveri ob«taele to its general adoption 
in its expaumneea. The tempwi^ura also becomes 
at tiiDt* w tii^ ai to cause a dkuraeable odour. 
Another objeeUoit b ite liability to buist ; tiumgfa, 
fran tiie tobei bmng of malleable iron, inch an 

fSnteraation of Warmth. — The art of irBTming 
embraces not only the prodnction and dirtribntioii 
of heat, but the conitniotion of apartment! with a 
view to prevent ita cacape. The way to effect thig 
— setting amda in the meantime the neceeatty of 

willa. To 

the air—'ii, in the first place, 

toors, ka. aa impervli 
posBtble, to prevent the beat from being 

h ererv wall 
IDE of plaster, 
te laHis. *" 

non-condarting materials. 
Solid inm vronld toake a cold wall ; wood, a warm 
one ; and in this respect brick or porons 
jKcfcnbla to hard stooa. But the ohiet ele 
a mrm wall i> that it be dtmbie, which 
in effect is, when it ia lined by a c< ' ' 
kept ^lart from the wall itsuf by 
pMB M oonfined air between the two 
eSsctnal barrier to tiie passaee of the h«at outwards 
that o(mld be contrived. By ""Ung iron wall* 
donUe or oelhilar, with a bning of plaater, they 
mi^it be rendered aa warm a* wished. Windows 
are a great soorce of cold, not meie^l^ admitting 
cold wax, bat by allowing tha beat to pas* by eon- 
dnction throiu^ the thin ^*m. Tha air of the ix>om 
tfast taoahea tne window is robbed of its wannth, 
and i* eonatantl; descending in a oold ctteun 
towarda the Aoor. There ia thoa a oold inflnfince 
felt from a window, however olose it ia. l^iis is 
partly arreated by window-bliada, shutters, and 

have double windows ; either two frames, 

doDhle panea in the same frame. The loss of heat 

'-y a doable window is said to be only cote-foarth of 

t by a sin^e. Doable window* are considered 

~'^~' ~~ . coontrie* where the wmteiB are 

I t£^ b 

By eairying those principles far enoo^ we might 
sneoeed in well-nifdi impnacMiing the heat, and wa 
prodnoe a honae m ideal petfei£on, ao far a* mere 
tempCTStme ia etmoerned. Bnt for the habitation 
of living beingg, another condition, aeemingly asta- 
soniBtio to ttie no le*a reqoimte — 'air as 
free a* that im a mountain-top.' In general praotioe, 
tbe two hostile conditions are not so mocb sou^t 
tobenooBeQedaacompramiMd; andtheii,aausD^ 
naOmr object is well attained. CircnlatiJm of air 
-~— Isnt^T. thronidi tiie imMcfeotiona of 


fittinzs of &e windows, doOTS, floors, and 
lODomical fashion of onr flreidaoes. Were booses 
tnoiA better constmcted tiian they are, tbe inmates 
wonld in many eases be soffocated ontiight, as they 
cAen partiaDy are wiHi the degree of perfection we 
have already attained. Neither the airing of our 
fansu*, nor the art of building them solid and warm, 
eao advance to perfectioD, until tbe former be no 
longer left to chance, bat be in every case secured 
by special wparatn* cqwble of direct oontroL We 
BOW praoaed to ccnsidor how this ia eou^t to be 
attained ; confining ounelves itill to tbe leading ' 

IHincipIeg, and only noticing a fev of the qnciflo 
plans that have been put in practice. 

V-mnrcLisiov. — The necessity of oonstsnUy lansw- 
in^ tbe air irlia«ver living betnss sre breathing, 
ansea chiefly from the effects podooed upon air m 
the lungs (see RESPiKATioir). Tim average ouanti^ 
of carbonic add in expired air ca bteMi i* found 
to be 4-3 per cent, by measure^ Now this gas, wtiea 
j._i_._ igt3 Uie lungs, ia a poison, and tends to aireat 

perfectly innocuous, and may be considerably 
creased without sensible effect Bnt it is decideoiy 
prejudicial to breathe for a long time air containing 
1 measure in 100 of carbonio add ; and it is oca- 
aidered desirable that tbe proporlioii should never 
exceed 1 in 600. We may assome, then, what i* 
near the truth, that 20 cubic feet of air pass thioudi 
t]j(, lu . ; V — m-*- __>.... ■»- 

I Imut. To reduce ^ 

barely rcapiraUe, ii require* to mingle with 
moch freah air as will make a mixture of oMriy 
100 cubic feet ; and to make the dilution at all safe, 
it must be earned five time* a* far. In other words, 
the reainration of one bnman being viliatea hourly 
about GOO cubic feet of air. 

In addition to carbonic add, expired air contain* 
I undue amount of watery vapouE. Minute qnan- 
titia of animal matters are also exhaled with Uw 
breath, which in dose ill-ventilated spnrtmnnln 
form a clammy deposit on Uie fumitme and waSs, 
and, by putae^in^^ become oiganie poiioiM. 

A further neo e a ai ty for tiie oonsiant reoowal of 
fresh air arise* wherever lights an burned. Hie 
deteriorated air irf a fire goes off by the floe, Imt 
i:_i.j_ — -;enera]ly burned where tbe producta 

„ withtie^" *- '"^ ■ 

Mow, a pound of dl in 

of 13 feet of air, and produioe* a large 

vapour, and also of carbonic aoid. Every 

watery vapour, •ometime* mixed with sol' 
phurous fumes. 

To oounteiaot these various sources of pollntion, 
and keep the air saffidoitly fresh and wboleaome, 
in rooms where many persons are breathing, it ia 
found in practice that on an averaoe about 20 onbia 
feet of fresh air per minute for eaim indiridnal must 
be supplied. 

Ventilatioa oomsiBtB of two operationa — tbe nmoval 
of Uie foul air, and the uitiodnation of fresh. 
Though neither operation can go on without the 
other going on at the same time, it is oonTenient to 
--Hutder the two seursttely. 

Tha agoit* empuved in mnering the air from 

nrtmeuta are <£iefly two : that by whiob nature 

foots the ventilation of the earth on a grand scale, 
viz., the draught of ascending ommnta pnodoced by 
difference of temperature; and mechanical foroe, 
Buch aa pomping. The former is the nuae common, 
and ia the only one ap^ioable to private hoosea. 

The ctJnnm of air in tile obimney of a lighted 
fireplace being ej^anded and oompaMtively light, 
exwta lee* thui the prevailing prMsun on tJie air 
immediate^ onder and about its base. The air, 
Huaeton, below and around it pnahee it up, aitd 
flows in to take its place ; the velomtv of the move- 
meat being in proportioD to the height of the 
chimney and the de^ee of heat. Thn^ althoogh it 
is often convenient to apeak of the air beiog drown 
or meted into the chimney, the foroe does not lie in 
the chimney, but in tha greater pressure of the air 

Wherever, thui, there ia a heated chimney, there 

;;.,LiOOg lC 


IB ■ meuii of nmoving Ute fool air. And in roonu 
modentely lofty uid ipaeioai, witii windowi and 
other fittiDSt not doow than naati, and a chimney- 
montik at tue naaal iTidth, tken U little luk, when 
there are oidy a few inmatea, of any •eriooi vitia- 
tion of the air. The heated breath that aacends to 
the ceiling baa time to diffuie itaelt gradually, and 
be drawn in a diluted itate into the cunente that 
are Betting from all quarten toward* the chinmey. 
These ciimntB, however, are one great objectioa to 
this mode oE ventilation, aa thsj cowdM in great 
part of cold air that hai juit entered by the door* 
and windows, and are atrongest where tha iomates 
■it to enjoy the fire. 

The auent of foul air to the top of tho room 
dktates ita exit in that direetioii, rather tiian low 
down at Uw mouth of the dtimney. It ia conceived 
by aome that the carbonic add M the breath, from 
ita grei^ weight, mnat ba chieDyat the bottom of 
tiw mocQ ; bat thia ia a "■■-*~^° Tba heated bt«ath 
aaoenda inatantly, becanaa it ia, aa a whole, lifter 
than the air around it ; and the carbonic acid in it 
doea Dot tend to aeparate from it and foil down by 
ita auperior weight, out, by the law of the diffuaioD 
of gaaes, seeka to apread itaelf equally all over the 
room, and would do ao though it were lying at £ivt 
on the door. It is on the principle of the foul air 
aacending at &vt to tiie top of a room, that Dr 
Amottfa ventilating-Talve ia contrived. The valve 
tnay be uaed to Bupplement the open-fire draught in 
•mall and crowded apartmenta, and ia essential 
where the fire is burned in a close atove or in the 
cmdKleaa grate. The valve ia repreeentod at v, fig. 1. 
An aperture is oat in the vail over the chimney, aa 
near to the ceiling of the apartment aa may be 
convenient. In thu ia auapended a valve, capable 
of opening inward to the cbimney, but not in the 
other dirrction, by which meana a return of amoke 
ia prevented. The valve ia bo balanced on its centre 
of motion, that it aettlea in the closed position, but is 
eaally opened. A fisp of 36 square inches is sufficient, 
where there is good chinmey-draught, for a full- 
sized room with compaQy. This aimi^e apparatus 
may be painted or otberwiae made ornamental. It 
operates by virtue of the draught in the chimney. 
Whenever that ia active from the presence of a fin, 
the valve i> teen to open inwards, and a stream of 
air from the top of the apartment passes through 
into tiie chimney, and ia carried oS, The operation 
is predsaly eqmvalent to the stream of air alwaya 
passing into a chimney between the fire and the 
mantetmeCB, but has the great Buperiority of drain- 
ing off the moat impore air in the room. A wire 
descends to a screw or peg fixed in the wall, by 
which the opening of the valve may be limited or 
altogether prevented. This ia a fu more efficient 
plan of ventilation than an open window, or an 
iniog in the wall near the roof, leading merely to 
iter air ; where there is an open fire in the 
, auch openings rather admit a rush of eold air 
than let Out the foul. 

There ia generally more or leaa draught in a 
chimney even without a fire, from the air within 
being ahghtly warmer than that without ; and thia 
action might be atrengthened by burning a jet of 

C within the ventilating aperture at «. Where a 
le ia to be built new, Bome recommend having 
special ventiiating-ftaea in the walla, separate from, 
bnt close to the fire-fiuea, so that the air may be 
heated, and an ascending current produced. In 
ireather when fires are not required, the draught 
can be maintained by Ksa-jeta at the entrancea to 
the venta. This plan oTcansiDg a draught by gas is 
Mifdioable to ohurohea and aputmenta without fire- 

Where a fire ia burned for the expraas pnipcMe of 

[miducing a cnrrent of air, it is called ventilation bv 
fire-draughi. Tba plan has bean exenpUSed with 
success in minea, where a fire being lidtiad at the 
bottom of a shaft, air ia drawn i£ m all diractioni 
around, and sent up the shaft ; to recJaoa which, 
fresh air is constantly ponriii^ down otner ahaftA. 

Many of our large buildmga are venlilatod b; 
fire-draught. Fig. ahewa an arrangement 1^ 
nhich a school oi 
church may be venti- 
lated : on, the floor- 
in a perforated with 
holes, through which 
air, warmed by hot- 
water pipes, p asset 
to the interior. The 
ceillna bb, ia per- 
forata leading to a 
chamber which com- yjg, g, 

municatea with a ver- 
tical fiue, ee ; which leada to the fireplace of the 
wanning-appu«tua, aituated at the foot of a flue, td. 
As the only air which reaches this must pass from 
cc, a constant cuirent ia maintained therein, and alao 
through the apertures in the ceiling. Dr Beid 
exemplified this method, flnt in his own claaa-room 
in Edinburgh, and afterwards in various public 
buildings, among othera, in the temporary Honae 
of Commona, erected after the bmming of tha tM 
house in 1634. The plan was attended with some 
inconveniencea — in fact, no plan can meet every 


Profeaor Tomlinaon (TttaUae on Warming and 
Ventiiaiion, 1864) pvea it aa hia opinion that, 'in 
ihe case of the temporary House of Commons, 
where all the airangements were left in his own 
bauds, ha aucceed^ in the proposed object of 
removing the vitiated ur, and keeping np a oonstant 
supply of warm or of cool air to fill ita place.' The 
arrangements for warming and ventilating the [He- 
sent House of Commona are a modification oE 
Dr Keid's plan. 

In other cases, aa at the prison in Millbank, warm 
air is admitted at tha ceiling, and carried off by the 
drau^t of a chimney in connection with the aides 
or lower part of tha rooma. 

In these laat-mentioDed instances, the appatvtoa 
provides aa well for the admission as for the removal 
of air. In ordinaiy dwellings, no special provision 
is in general made as to adniisaion. It is, in fact, 
not ataolutely neceeaary ; for the removal of a por- 
tion of the air of a room never fails to secure the 
entrance of a fresh supply somewhere. Whenever 
the chimney-diaught or other meana removM a little 
of the pressure inside the room, the preianre wiUkont 
forcee ur through every opening and chink; and 
even, were there no actual openinga, would foroe it 
through tlie parous substance d tha atrocture — such 
aa mortar, and evem wood itsdi But tjtia irregular 
source of supply haa variona inconvenienoeB. It 
often requires more force to strain the air in thia 
manner than the draiuht ia poaaessed of, and tfaea 
the cbimney smokee ; it ia amoke produced by thia 
cause that is curable by opening the door or window. 
Another objection ia, that impure air is often thoa 
drawn into rooma from Uie lower parts of the 
building and fromdraiua about tiie foundation. For 
these and other reaaona, there ought, in all casea, to 
be a free and legitimate entrauoe provided for freah 
air, BO aa to give a contnJ over it ; and thia entrance 
should be independent of the windows. It ia a mucb 
disputed point whereabout in a room the air shoold 
be made to enter — some advocating opentDfli for it 

;;.,L'OOglC - 


waimad b 

rand«i«d nnobjeotioiiable. One eaaenti«I tliiiig i^ to 
[aerent the Mr from rtuhing in with a ttrocg cur- 
reot, by pMtillg it Uuoogh minnte holee ■piead over 
» Uigfi •pace. A tabe, tot inrtuce, lead* from tbe 
onter air to « channel behind the akirtitig, or behind 
the cornice, tmd the air i» allowed to isiue into the 
room throiuh miniite holes, or throngji a long, 
nantvw, uia concealed openinff corered with per- 
forated zinc or wire-gaoze. The pisMge or tube 
leading from oataide the wall con be more or lesa 
cloaed b; n valve reaulated from the inside. 

Bnt the great difficatty lies in the coldneaa of the 
air directly inttodooed from tbe onttide, whether 
by tbe doMa and windows, or throogh channela ' 
t£e wallt ; and all nch plana of vent^tion mnit 
ooDiidcTed a« imperfect make-ghifu. The fneh air 
onght in every caae to be wanned before being 
admitted, or, at least, before beiag allowed to circu- 
late in a sitting-room. In the smokeless grate (fie.!), 
the air ia lea directly from the outer atmoBphere 
into a channel (I, 2) nndemeath the hearth, and 
below tbe fender and about the fire, is 
before tpreading through the apartment. 
With stoves and bested pipes, &e air should enter 
aboot the heated surface ; m stoves on the cockle 
princqile, the fresh air, as it eoten, is made to p 
between the casings of the stove. With on o| 

fire, a very feasible plan is to make the fresh 

<-tiMnn>l pui behind the fireplace, and allow tbe 
warmed air to escape from concealed openings about 
the chimnCT-jnece and jambe, or from bemnd the 
skirtiDg. In Candy's ventilating-gTate, the fire- 
box ia constructed of hollow pieces of fire-brick 
conunnnicating with the external atmosphere and 
with the room. 

For a house with fiieplaces of the usual constmc. 
tion, perhapa the simplest and most effective expe- 
dient is to admit the fresh air into the entrance-h; " 
and then warm it by means of a low-temperatt 
■tove or by hot-water pipes : its passage into i 
«versl rooms can then be provided for by regular 
:haunels, behind the eklrtrng or otherwise. In 
America, perforations are frequontty made in certain 
ports of the doors, before wtiich silk curtains are 
Jispoaed, so as to temper the currents. It is idmost 
uoaccoimtable that in this country the plan of warm- 
ing the lobl^ and atajmase ia so seldom resorted to. 
To eay aothmg of the comfort thtu diffused throuch 
the whole honse, and the benefit !□ point of health, 
especially to weakly conatitutioiu, the economy of 
the arrangement is beyond dispute. In the sitting' 
room^ not more than one-half the osnal quantity of 


wiea ur is admitted by a rogular and 
free diannel, comparatively litUe is atrained in by 
the window* and other bywura. 

Ventilatio* bg Hint oM Pampt. — The fan-wheel 
haa been for many yean used in factories, to which 
it is particnlady applicaUe, bom the readiness with 
iriiicii it can be kept in motion by the engine. It is 
essentially the same as the bam-fanneis ; the air is 
di«wn in at the centre of the wheel, and flies off at 
, the circluiiEeience by centrifugal force. The fan is 
' 0aced at the top of a fine, into which braDohes from 
all parts ot the establishment proceed ; and when it 
is set in motion, it draws off the air from every 
apartment oommnnicating with it. Dr Amott 
observed, -But in the fan-wheel as well aa in the 
I air-pump or bellowa invented by Dr Hales, a great 
I deal of power was wasted by * wire-drawing''^ the 
air — *ti*fc i^ mnfcing it aqnirt through small v^vea 
I at otlier narrow opeoin^ To obviate this, he in- 
I vented a ventilatii^-pninp, which supplied a hospi- 
tal with fresh air, rsqnirmg no other motive-power 

than the descent of the water used in the establish' 
ment from a high reservoir to the lower parta of the 
boilding. It is described in his work on Warming 
and VaitSaiioa. 

Trai^feraice ofli^at from tAe umi air to tJtefieah. 
— This is tlie kind of economy which is put in practice 
in the Respirator (g. v.) and in the Caloric Engine 
(q. v.). Whatever cfifficultiee— or impossibilities, aa 
some maintain— there may be in the way of turning 
this transferred heat into a fresh source of power, 
nctliing seems simpler, in theoty at least, than to 
econonuse heat in this manner for the warming of 
dwellingB and similar purposes. The idea originated 
with Dr Amott, many years agc^ who t^ue illna- 

Fij. 7. 

trates it in the case of water : Suppose a a vessel of 
boiling water, with a thin metallio tube iHsuIng from 
the bottom, and having a stop-cock at r^ ; and b a 
similar vessel of w»ter at treeung, the tube of which 
is hu^er, and envelops the other. When both are 
Sowing simultaneously, the hot water, if the tube 
is long enough, will have lost all its eiceas of heat 
before getting to d, while the counter-current will 
have gained all that the other lost. In an experi- 
ment with tubes six feet long, the boiling water 
from a issued from d at 34°, and the freezing water 
from b issued from c at 210*. It ia cl«u that if a 
sth, the warm water in it, after being used, 

„ . flowing out be made to heat the cold water 
from a reMTVcir, b, flowing into another bath helow 
1^ We are not aware t^t the principle has ever 
been acted upon ; bat the possible economy ot heat 
is obvious, and it only requires mechanical ingenuity 
to realise it. 

It will at once strike the reader how desirable it 
would be to do the same with the impure heated air 
which we are obliged to eject from our dwellings. 
Where the ventilation depends upon the drau^t of 
a common chimney, it would seem imposaiUe to 
bring the entering air in contact with that which is 
escaping ; but where the mechanical force of a 
pump or a fan is employed, nothing eeems simpler 
than to make the two currents run counter to one 
another for a certain distance in close contact 
a system of tubes. The emoke even, 
whiclil with the most economical arrangements, still 
isauea from the flues at a temperature considerably 
above that of the building, might be drawn into 
the current along with the foiU air of the apart- 
ments, and the irtiole reduced nearly to the tem- 
perature of the atmosphere before being allowed to 
escape. Of course, there must be loss in the trans- 
ference ; but a la^e percentage would be saved, 
and the consumption of fuel would be reduced by 
that amoont Were this ' double-current ventila- 
tion ' applied to churches, ball-rooms, theatres, Ac, 
where thousands of persons are assembled, Dr 
Amott believes that ' no other heating 
will be requited but the lungs of the company. 

Notwithstanding all the improvements recently 
effected, it ia beyond doutit that this important 
branoh of the art of living is still in a very rude 
and imperfect condiUon. A writer in the Quarlerlu 
Raiea for Anil 1866, in a very suggestive article 
on Coal and Smoit, points to Qie radical error of 
the existing system, when he remarks that ' in a 



boiuehald firs beat ii, u it ware, miuafaetnred 
» Tery small wade ; aod txpaneoee lua prored tluit 
the cost of ptodoctiDii of to artido bM ilwajn been 
invenely proportioiiate to tJie aeale of ita maniifM- 
tun.' He accordin^y niggteta that * it «eem« prK- 
ticable, in a gi«»t meMore, to siipenede domettio 
fireai, and to lay on heat (heated air), or the roeaoi 
of generating heat (hnr-priced gueou* Inel), to oar 
honael pretty mach ai ire now lay on gat.' Ths 
abatement ot the emoke-Doiauice, and ayitematia 
and thoToo^ ventilstion, oo^t to be e^cted 

at interrala iriUi high shuts, in which, if necessary, 
the dranidit apwaids might be increased by fur- 
naces. We have long been familiar with eitensive 
mann Factories, covering large areas, in which are 
vety nnmerons fires, all in communication with a 
single lofty chimney. With snch an airanEemant, 
no Titible smoke shonld be produced, and with due 
attention, a smohy chimney should be impoasible.' 
Id the case of eziatine honsee, the amount of r«con- 
structiou necessary might be a serious obstacle ; but 
in building a new street, it might easily be made to 
empty ita entire smoke through the medium of a 
single tall tower resembling those medieval cunpa- 
nill which are to be seen in Bologna and other 
Ittdiaa dties.' It is further proposed to make tjie 
<«dia«iT«ewers serve the purpose of culverts tot the 
pMMge of the smoke to the common chimney. The 
sul^aroui add of tiie smoke would destroy the 
noxioiu qnalildea of tiie sewage gaseo, and improve 
the sewage for •gripolttml porpoaca ; and instead 
of fool gaaea eaoapiiig throngh every opening or 
leak in the sewos, h at praent, the powerful suc- 
tioit of the ventilatiag sltafts wonld draw in &eah 
air, thus establiahtng a thorough syilxm of atmo- 
spherio sewage. Another effect of the common 
chimney syst^n would be to make the transference 
of hea^ or double-current veuttlation, spoken of 
above, easily practicable in domeatia houses. 1^ 
pi^ through which the heated ur and smoke were 
being drawn away might be made to ^ve up its 
heat to the counterKnuient of fresh air which was 
being drawn in. 

Even thougb such puustaking plans of economis- 
ing heat mi^t not pay at the present cost of fuel 
in this eoontiy, it is pleasing to think that there is 
■soh a resource in reserve. It is not with all conn- 
tries as with UE ; and even our stores of coal are 
not ineihanstible. It is an unworthy, and, in the 
real sense of the word, an inhuman maxim, iJiat 
bids OS ' let posterity lool to itaeU.' If the absorb- 
ing ^udon for present gain will not let us begin 
praotuing economy now, we may at least seek to 
osTise and perfect plaos to be in readineas when the 
necessity comes. It is not imcommou to bear the 
argnment, that before the coals are done, something 
else will be discovered as a substitute. We are at a 
loss to imagine what the something is to he, nnleos 
it he the ingenuity to make the ^el that is now 
wasted in a year last a hundred ; and this we believe 
to be quite possible. 

WA'BMINSTER, a nnall ancient town of Wilt- 
shoe, on tba west bnder of Salisbury Plain, and 19 
miln north-west of Salisbury. The parish diurch 
dates from tlte T^flk of Henry nx ; and the inter- 
esting edificea in uie town and neighbourhood are 
MunenHia. An iinpattact corn-market is held every 
tnA. Pop. (1880) 3673. 

WARNISQ, in Scotch Law, means a noldce 
given to tetmioate the relation of master and 
■errant, « landlord and tenant ; coireaponding in 
England to notice to leave and notice to quit 

WAR OFFIOEv t^ imm.»limt. office of the 
Secretary of State for War, and tiia centre on which 
pivola th« entire administration of the snny. It is 
sabdivided into a nomber of departments, each 
tinder a duel officer, who is at tlie head of that j 
Motion of the ltd>onr, and is direcUy rasponaiUe to 
the Secretary of State. The last-named huh officer 
is aided ^ two XJitder-aectetaries of States sa 


WARP, in Weaving, sieuifiea the yam or thread 
which runs lengthwise in Qie doth. See WxAvaa. 

WARPINO, a mode ot improving land, practised ! 
where rivers bring down large qoantitiet of mud, or 
where und is brought up tzom estuaries bythe tide, i 
It is practised in scane of the valleys of the Alps ; j 
and uie rich soil brought down from the monntains 
is thus srrested, and made to increase the fertility 
of fidda. It is practised also in England, on tba \ 
tidal waters oF the Onse, Trent, and other rivers j 
falling into Qie Homher. There are not many I 
jJaces in Britain wher« the proceea of warping u I 
capable of profitable application. The term warp- i 
ing belonea to the banks of the Hnmber. The nam* 
aar^ is tJieie eiven to the large quautitr of eartl^ I 
partides hda in suspense by the tiaal watos. | 
About a century ago, warping began ta be ; 
practised, by ithmmif of suudl tunnels made ihrough 
embankmenta, ^e water being allowed to re- 
main, and dej ' '* ■■" . . . .i 

before the duices were opened for it 

ping has now long been carried o . ^ . 
la»er scde, with large cuials, embankments. 

been carried oa,vipaa 
„ '*ft"ft^i embanlonents, 

and 9ood-gat«a. Many acts of parliament luve 
been obtained for large watpioc canals, to lead 
tide-water over great tcscta of land. Land pre- 
vioody sterile and worthless has been covo^ 
with good soil, and bos become very productive. 
The ' compartment ' which is embanked around, in 
order to warping, is geoerally only fifty acres^ or 
leas ; the foimer warping only ana field in a season, 
because in the meantime it is onproductive. In 
some cases, however, 600 or 600 acres have bem 
warped in one piece. In the riven which flow into 
the Humber, the water coining down the river in 
fioods is unsuitable for warping, and ooutaina no 
such quantity of sediment as the tidal waters. 

WA'RRANDICE, in the I«w of Scotland, is the 
obli^tion to indenmify the grantee, or pnidii 

land i^ by defect of tiue, thue shonld bi 

a evictivs 

or paramount claim established agunst the Is 
Warrandice is personal or real > uid pers 
warrandice is subdivided into general and sp« 
Specid warrandice is either (I) simple— i. e., w>» 

grant i or (2) warrandice from fact and deed — i. e., 

uiat the granter has not don^ and will not do any 

oontlaty de«d ; or (3) absolute warrandioe, or war- 

randioe against all deadly— contra (rmnc* morlale* — 

~ 1., that the granter sh^ be liable for every defect 

die right miich he has granted. Bed vairaodice 

where the granter or vendor conveys another 

tata or lands, called warrandioe lands, to be held 

by the grantee in secnri^ of the lands oiJ|pnallT 

authtni^ given bjr a justice <d the peace to 
*— ' oriminal to answer a coarge of 



nnpdemauioaT, felony, at trsMon. It U in the form 
of a command in hei Manty's name, ivned by tlie 
jmtke to a oonatabl^ and to all other pcaoe offioew 
of the ooQnty. redting that an offence has been 

'" ' ' baa been made h to the 

J tha ooDotable to bring the 

. , (the jnataoe), or lome other of 

hat MaJMtj'e jnatioea, to anamr the said charge, 
tmd ba dealt mth aeooidiiu to law. Ibe warrant 
miut be agned and lealad by the jwtiM. It nta; 
be inaed and exeonted on a Smday aa wall aa any 
otha day. In Scotland, tite iheriff or jnatice of the 
peaoa who iMaN a wamut to anecb doai not seal 
thedoosmenL In both OMmtrica, the warrant mnat 
naina the indiridual aireated. In England, the 
paitymnit dtbw be taken or aeited, or luubda imut 
be laid on him, iMompamad with tha woidt : ' I 
anoat yon.' If Ou paztj arretted demand to tee the 
wamnt) tha oonataUB, if a known officer, ii not in 
■trictneM boond to ahew it to him; bat if the 
oSoer ia not a known offioar, and not acting within 
bia jndnet, than he mut ahew the wartaiit. It ia 
«nonch (Or the constable to aay aimi^ that ha 
Mreata in the Qneen'a name. If tlw fittf to be 
a a e rt ed be in a hono^ and the docoa M fiatanad, 
tha MBttdtle may, after firrt demanding admittance, 
•nd being refnaed, bieak open the doora. If, hsw- 
ertr, thahoaw be a itiangca'a house, the ooqutable 
wh0 111 1*1 ■ open the door i* sot jnatified in doing 
•o iinliM the oinmial be aotnaUy within. A gene- 
tal warrant, i e., a warrant to anirehend all panona 
•n^eetad, withont naming or particnlarly deearDnng 
taj indindnal, ia ill^j*! and void for nwKEtaiiit;, 
for man vagne raimown ii not cnondi to deprire 
ai^manof hialibartT. Apiaetice had obtained in 
tha Sasnlarj of St^'a offioa ever ainoe the Beito- 
ratun, groonded <m aom* clrnioi in the acta for 
rwuliiing tha pna, of inning geiMcal wairanta to 
wa up (without naming ai^ person in parti- 
cnlnr), the anthon, printen, or pnbliahen m ancb 
obaoene or leditione Ebeli aa ware partieularl^ aped- 
fiad in tha wairanfc When these acte exjnred in 
168^ the aame loactioe waa inadTcrteutly oontijined 

tion declaring the iasning of ganerBlwarranta to be 

ia an anthority givoi hj a debtor to acme attoncnr 
to enter np judgment tgaingt him in any action tbat 
may be bronghf to reoover a particulai' debt. It is 
geacnlly ^ren by a debtor wben ho flnda ha hw 
no defence, and wiafaea to pun tdme; and if be do not 
carry out hii promiae, the eSbct ia tb&t the attorney 
can immediately sign jodgnient, and itaue eiecation 
a^tinat btm, without the delay and expenae of an 
ordinal; aetioD. Bat to prerent the malpraotioM of 
attonMTi, and ai^ impootioa open ignorant men, 
no ancA warrant u l^al nnlew the debtor had his 
own attmwy pnaen^ «xpNMly named I7 him, and 
attending at hit nqvMt^ to infnm him of the nature 
aid elfeot «t ndt wanant ; and aneh attiwney mnit 
aabamibe hit name m a wUneaa. It a alto prorided 
tiiat aU wattanta at attorney ahall be votd onlati 
tluy MS fila^ withm 21 d^ after eieontion, with 
tike dak of tat jndgmati in the Qneen'a Ptw'hi 

certain peiaon the enjoying at the thins gnmted or 
Bold to him. Aa applied to ordinary taba oE thinai 
personal, it ia uied to tecoie the truth of oertaui 
repreaentationa wbicb the porehaaer hat no meant; 
or baa imperfect meana, of aaccrtaining tar ^'w^^lf, 
and yet the knowledge of which it material to tha 
contract Hie law doea not imidy from the mate 
seller of an article in ita natnnd state, who baa no 
better meana of infnmation than the purchater, 
and who does not affirm that the article is fit for any 
narticnlar purpose^ any wairSia^ or undertaking 
beyond the onSnary promiaa that be makes no false 
representation calcnlated to deceive the purchaser, 
and practises no deceit or ftandolent conoealmenl^ 
and that ho is not cogniant of any latent defect 
materially affecting tE^ maitcetable value of the 
goods. In the ordiDary tale of a hone, the teller onl^ 
wornuits it to be an ajiimul of the description it 
sppeus to be, and nothing more ; and if the pnr- 
coaser makes no inquiries at to ita toundnest or 
qnalitiet, and it turns out to be unsound and reetiTe, 
or imSt for use, he cannot recover as againit Hie 
teller, as it mutt be assumed tiiat be porchaaed the 
animal at a che^er laie. '-' - "-- - '- - 

the contract of sale ; all that the seller answers for 
being that the aiticls is, as far as he knows, what 
it appears to be. Whenever a man sells goods at 
owner, he impliedly undertakes and pniniitea that 
the goods sre his own goods, and that he has a 
ri^ to make the tale and transfer which he ^o- 
feeses to make ; and if he waa not the own«, be ia 
responsible in damages if tha real owner ''1*i''m them 
fnmi the pnrehaser. If the pnichascr doea not him- 
self inipect andteleot the ntDJect-matter of tale, the 
teller implied^ waiiaatt the arti^ he teUt to be the 
very article the pnrdiaser bat agreed to boy, and it 
reaponaiblG in damages if he forwshes a different 
article. If the vendor is told the article is wanted 
for a apecifio purpose, then he is taken to warrant 
impliedly that the article ho fomisbes ia sofficu 
for that pmrposa. Every Tictoaller or dealer 

TraTtWAWT.niriflflKRH, on Shipboard, are the 
Udtatb gnde to which seamen or£narily attain. 
"Oef are tha gnnner, boatswain, and oarpenter. 
^HMff widow* laoetre penritms. 

WArKRUIIT, in Eai^iib Law, is f promise or 
' to wamnt or lecnre, against all men, a 

private petarai who 
doee not trade in provisions is not naponsible for 
selling an unwholeaome article ot food without fraud 
and in ignorance that it is unfit to eat. Where buyer 
and seller have equal means ot knowledge, then the 
veodor is not liable for soy revretentatiou whieh he 
makei without fraud ; bat if,iromthe natureof the 
cste, the vendor hat the esdasive means of know- 
ledge, then he impliedly warrant* that what be tayi 
is ^e. Warranty is also to be distinguished fnnn 
mere matter of opinion or belief. When a servant 
sells a horse, he has no right to give a warranty, 
unless his msster expressly authorised him to do so. 
In the law of Scotland, the dootrine of Warranty of 
Goods does not lubstantially differ from the above. 

D only be derived by grant 

et certain privilege to the 

to recovering gune and destroying doga 

t it (tee Fstraton's Oame Lamt, SO); but 

in the populw seme, a wtrren mere^ mean* a 

preserre !or keeping game and also rabbits. 

WA^KBINGTON, a jiarliamenttry and municipal 

the limtbank of the Money, IS mileaeastof Liver- 
pool hv railwi^. After the parish church, whk^ 

tloned are the cotfaai and other ftctoriss and the 



W. compriBe cotton goods, u fnitiani, twilk, cordu- 
roy ; iiulolothi Mta tacking ; lil«>, pins, irire and 
wire-woven work; gbai; leather ana aoap; and a 
famona ale U brewed. Veoaala of 100 tona can 
ascend the Menay aa far la the tiridjge of ihia town. 
"Pop. of parliamentary boroagh, which letnma one 
member to parliament, (1861) 26,947. 

WA'BSAW, formerly the o^tal of Poland 
(q. v.), now (1S6T} capital of the Eoaiiaii, or lather 
Biuaianiaed, goTcmmcDt of W., atandi on the left 
bank of the Viitola, about 300 miles east of Berlin 

9 beautifully built. 

of Fraga, on the ri^t bank of the Viatula. The 
■treet* are mortly aaicow, thoagh in leveral instaacm 
they are broad and handsome. The Viatula at W. 
ia broad, (hallow, and ever<cbanging in it* (andy 
conrae, and i« navigable for large vetsela only 
when, after thaw, riven of melted snow poor down 
into it from the Carpathians, or when it is swelled 
by the autumn rains. But the only craft seen here 
on the Vistula are rude rafts, usually laden with 
wheat, which they convey to Danzig by river, and 
(within the last lew yean} steamers at intervals. 
Seen from Praga, on the right bank, the Castle, 
standing on a steep ascent, has a most impoaing 
effect. Attached to the Sazon Falace are a spacioua 
court and gardens, which are considered the finest 
pranenade m the city. Among the other btlildinga 
there are nearly 30 — '-- ''-- -—^^ • ' s. 
John (dating from 1! 

tiie Lutheran chorch, the loftiest building ii 
and nomeroos other places of worship, including 
synagogues. There are several large and memorable 
■qnares, as the Sigismimd Square, coataioing the 
monument, erected by Ladislas IV., in honour of 
hi* father, Sigismund IIL In this square, in April 
8, 1661, 40 unanned and unresisting Poles were 
massacied. The cLtadd, erected by the Emperor 
Nicholas, for tlie express purpose of intimidating, 
aad, if necessary, dortroying the city, cammauda, 
from its aitoatian, eveiy part of Warsaw. The uni- 
veraity, broken ap by the Emperor Nicholas aft«r 
the iniuirection of 1830, baa been re-established 
within recent yean, through the inflnence of the 
Grand Doke Conatantlne ; and besides thia instita- 
tion, there are several minor eoUegea, CTnmasitims, 
and other edncationBl establiahmenU. Woollen and 
linen fabrics, boeiery, hats, gold and niver wares, 
saddlery, tia, are manufacture Fop. (1S6S) 243,S12. 
For the history of W., see Poland, Iosh TIT. 


WA'RTBTIIt&, Was. o» th^ the name given both 
to a grave poeMo oontert, which is represented to 
have taken place on the Wartbnrg, and alao to a 
poem in the Middle Bigh-Oerman dialect, which 
commsmorates the event. At the time when the 
atoreaaid dialect had attained its highest literary 
development, and its poets enjoyed a brilliant repu- 
tation, Hermann, the munificent Landgraf of Thu- 
ringia, bad made his court a sort of remge or home 
for the irrilabU race, as well as for many other 
people. It could hardly fail , nnder the circumstances, 
that quarrels and jealousiea should abonnd ; and, in 
fact, allnsions to these are sufBciantly distinct in 
•avCTa] of the moat dislingiushed writers who lived 

at the Thnrinrian court — e.s., in W<dfrBm -ron 
Eschenbach and Walther von der Vcgelweide. Bat- 
soon after, the conception of these things nndar- 
went a sort of mythical tranaformatira, and the 
occasional temporary and natural rivalrua of the 
poete were changed into a particQlar and premedi- 
tated contest for superiwity in poetia skill ; and to 
the list of those poets who actually bad interoonise 
witLb each other at Eisenach were now added othera 
partly historical, and in part punly fictitious char- 
acters — e. g., the virtuous Scbreiber, Bitterolf, Rein- 
mar (subsequently confoonded with lUinmar von 
Zweter], the almost mythical Eeinrich von Ofter- 
dingen, and the wholly mythical Master Klingaor, 
the Transylvanian magician and astrologer. On tfaie 
basis of this historico-mythical tradition, and nnder 
the formal inflnencea of Uie then much admired songs 
of emulation, riddle-contests, and aeele«i*stic«l fi^ya, 
there waa compowd, abont the year 1300, a atxange, 
obacni«, nnhannonioiu pom in two parts, oalbd 
KtUc wn. Wtcrlbarg. In the flttt of these, eiecnted 

Ton Ofterdingen challrages the other n 
contest in vene— the fate of the vanquished to be 
death — and asserts the excellence of Leopold, Doke 
of Austria, over all the other princes. Victoiy, how- 
ever, inclining to the Eisenachera, Heinricb calla in 
Klingsor to his aid, who, on his part, fights hia 
verse-battle against Wolfram by the sssistaQce of 
evil spirits, with riddles and dark sdence. With 
distinct reference to Klingsor's 'black art,' the 
simpler and shorter measure of this second piart i» 
called Sekmane Ton. Throughout Uie whole poem, 
which may be regiLrded as tbe fint attempt at a 
secular drama, but which is rather an intermediato 
link between the Lyric contest and the Drama, one 
may trace an unmistakabla imitation of Wolfram's 
style of poetry. Tbe autlior is unknown. From 
the inequality of the style, one is disposed to 
conclude that several bands were em^^yed in 
its composition. The poem, wbiiji has be^ much 
overrated in modem times, does not seem to Ii»v» 
exercised any particular influence on literature. In 
a prose farm, (he story of the Wartburg Contest 
first appears — in the Thuringian Chronicles — aftei- 
the beginning of the 14th c, and probably owes its 
origin to the poem. Tbe poem was prmted in s 
-^parate edition by Ettmttller (Dmenau, 1830), and 
-J alao to be found in Bodmer's and Von der Hujen's 
collection of the Mmneainger. — See Von Plotz, Utber 
dm Sangcrhrieg anf Wartlmrij (Weimar, 1851). 

WAHIH^, the longest and most extensively 
navigable affluent of the Oder, rises on tbe sonth- 
weat frontier of Poland, 36 miles north-west of 
Cracow, In Poland, it flows north and west, and 
the length of its course in this country is 300 miles. 
It then flows west-north-west through Fnissia for 
180 miles, passes Posen, and joins the Oder at 
Eustrin, where it is 620 feet broad- Total length, 
13 miles, for 220 miles of which it is navigable. 

WART-HOa (Phacoehcenu), a genus of Suida, 
closely resembling the true hogs in most of their 
cbatacten, and puticularly in their feet, but remark- 
ably differing from them in their dentition ; the 
moW teeth Ming much like those of the elephant, 
and replacing one another in the aama manner. 
There an two triangular incisors in the npper jaw, 
and six small ones in the under ; the tusks are 
lateral, very large, project far from the mouth, and 
are bent upwards ; there are six or eight moUui in 
each jaw. The head is very large, and tbe muazle 

rery remarkable and uncoDt£. The sj 



nstivea of Africa. The; feed very iDucb on the 
roota of planto, which Uiey dig upby means of their 
enonnoiu tiuka. The AraioAN W., or Habdja (P. 
jflioai), a nstiva of Abyninia and of the central 
regioDH of Africa, from the coast of Guiaea to that 
of Mozambiqiu, is nearly fonr feet long, irith a 
Baked ileuder tail of one foot, a acantily covered 
with long brittle! of a light brown colour, and baa 
a mans eometdmes ten iuchea loQg, extending from 
between the em along the neck and back. Another 
■peciea ia foonil in the south of Africa (P. jElhiopiciu 
or Pailtuii), the roUe Fa>^ of the Dutch coloniata 

Wart-hog (PhacBcharui ^thiopicui). 

at the Cape of Good Hope. The incison of the 
Utter fall out at an early age, those of tita former 
are persistent.— A eloeely allied genus is Potomo- 
damt, of which there are several species, as the 
Batch Fori of Cape Colony (P. J/ricanut), which 
i> nearly black, with whitish cheeks having a cen- 
tral black spot; and the Fjuntzd Fio of West 
Africa (P. penieiOatu*], which is reddish, with black 
face, forehead, and ears. The speciea of Polamo- 

I freqoent swampv grounds, i 

They have 

than the true wart-hogs, tapenng azid 

ending in a pencil of hairs ; the face is elongated, 

and haa a hnge protuberance on each side. The 

I fleah of all the wart-hogs and water-hogs is in 

I hi^ esteem. Th^ at« hunted _^ dogs, which 

■re often killed in the encounter with them. The; 

': are mnch addicted to fighting among themielveo. 

WAETON, JosKVE, D,D., was bom at Dumfold, 

Sorrey, in 1722. His earlier education ha received 

from hi* father, the Bev. Thomas Warton, sometime 

Profarcr of Foetiy at Oxford. At the age of 14, he 

was sent to the great school at Winchester, whence, 

in 1740, he was transferred to Oriel College, Oxford, 

where, four years afterwards, he took his degree of 

SlA. Alter passing the intermediate years as a 

corate at Chelsea and elsewhere, in 1748 he was : 

pcMcnted by the Dnke of Bolton to the rectory of 

I Wiiudale, near Basingstoke, a living of no great 

) Taloe, jet sufficient to determine his marriage with 

I a ISam Damon, to whom ha had heea engaged. 

FierioDS to this, he had become known as a writer 

I oE Tens in the GaUleman't liagaane, Dodsleys 

Jfuntnt, Ac, and as the author of a volume of Oda 

andetlierFoemt. In 1761, ha went abroad with the 

Dnke of Bolton ; and after bia return, he issued, in 

I 1753; an edition of Virgil, with a translation of the 

Sdoguet and Otorgie*. This, with the critical notes 

I and divertatdons appended to the work, met with 

great approval, and procured him from the nniveraity 

I of Oxford the honorary degree of M.A. In 17C6, 

I anoeared the first volume of hia chief literary per- 

t, the Bitay on the Writrngt and Oertiai of 

not by this work attain any very instant . . _. ._ 
popaLiFity ; but the value in relation to the litera- 
ture of the time, of the critical principles aiinauticed 
in it, as also in his other more casual Eaiaya, has 
since been sufficiently recognised. In 17G5, W. 
was appointed second Maater of Winchester School, 
of which he became head in 17G6. Soon after, he 
revisited Oxford, and hod conferred on >iim the 
degrees of Bachelor and Doctor of Divinity. Of 
preferment in the church, he hod sabsequently hi* 
Ml share. By the good offioes of Dr Loffth, 
Bishop of London, he was made, in 1TS2, a Pre- 
bendary of St Paul's j and the living of Thorle^, in 
Hertfordshire, was conferred on him. He obtamed 
besides, in 1788, a prebend in Winchester Cathedral, 
and the rectoiy of Easton, which he soon after 
exchanged for ^at of Clapham. The Mastership of 
Winchester he resigned in 1793, and devoted lum- 
aelf to the preparation of an annotated edition of 
Pope, which was completed in 9 vols. 8vo in 1797. 
At his death, 23d February 1800, he was engaged 
on a aimilar edition of Dryden, of which he had 
publiahed two rolumea. The poeby of W. can 
Bcarcely be said to have secured a pemanent place 
in our litontura; but aa a critic, his reputation 
survive* along with that of his more diatinguiahed 
WARTON, Thomas, the younger brother of the 
...J- _. . j^j^ ^ \1^, at Basingstoke, in 
which place his father had then 
His earlier education he received 
chieSy at home from his father ; and in 1743, he 
waa entered at Trinity College, Oxford, where, in 
1760, he took his degree of M.A. The year after, be 
obtained a fellowship. He remained at the univer- 
aity, employed aa a tutor ; and in 1767, he waa 
made Professor of Poetry, in which capacity he wak 
mnch esteemed as a lecturer. In 1767, he took hia 
degree aa Bachelor of Divinity, and vras soon after 
presented to the living of Kiddington by the £arl 
o£ Lichfield. In 1762, that of Hill Farranoe, in 
Somersetshire, fell to him by favonr of his collie ; 
and these two unimportant pieces of eoclesiaatio 
preferment were the only onea he ever enjoyed. 
Very early, ha became luiown as a poet, and in 
1764, ha publiahed a volume entitled, OijenxiliOTU 
on tAe Favnt Quxene of Spetuer, which established 
his reputation sa one at the first critica of the day. 
In a second edition of the work, issued in I7S2, it 
expanded into two volumea. Of W.'s miscel- 
laneoQS literary activity, no account need be given 
in detaiL The work by which he ia now chiefly 
remembered is hia Hidory of Englith Podry, the 
first volume of which waa published in 1774. Two 
other volumes followed in 177S and 1781, but 
at his death the work remained unfinished. In 
its wealth of information regarding the earlier 
portion of our literature, the book remains to this 
day unrivalled. As a poet, also, W. takes distinct, 
if not very high rank. In 1777i he published a 
collection of such of his scattered pieces aa ha 
deemed moat worthy of being reprinted, and the 
acceptance it met with ia shewn m the successiva 
editfon* of 1778, 1779, and 1789, oa also in the fact, 
that on the death of Whitehead, the poet -laureate, 
W. had the hononr, such aa it might be, of being 
selected to succeed him in the office. The last worE 
on which he was engaged was an elaborately 
annotated edition of the Minor Foema of Milton. 
Of this, ^blished in 1785, a carefully prepared 
re-impression was issued the year after his death, 
which took place snddenlv on the 21at May 1790. 
In 1802, a new edition of his poems wai "' ' ' 
with a Life of the author by Mr Mant. 

a published. 



WAATS (Bometdmei knovn in Sorgaiy by their 
I^tm name Verruca) are collectioDa of leogtbened 
F&pQlB of tbe 3kiD (q. v.), olowly adhereDt aod 
enmeathed bj x thiek coTering of hud dry eutiole. 
From friction and eipoann to the sir, their aorface 
prasenta a homy text^ire, and is roonded off into a 
small bnttoQ-like shape. Such ii th« daecr^itii: 
the simple wart, which ii lo co 
hands and 6Dgers (and ranly 

One to which the 
applied. It is mt 
protected by CQticte than 
to oocnr noirttero bnt on the Mslp St woi 
adnlt age, and EometimeB to ooeaaion ^raat annoy- 
ance in bniBhing and combing the hair. {2} i9i<i- 
vitgnal wartt, growing, ai their ipecifio name impliei, 
beneath or at the side of the finger or toe naila. 
They originate beneath the nail, and as tliey in- 
crease, thn crop out either at the frae extremity oi 
the (ride of the noil, and are usually troublesuue, 
and often very painfuL They are guterally of 
R^hilitio ori^n. (3) Venertal aarit, caused by the 
direct irritation of the dischanea of gonorrhtBa or 
■yphilis, and occurring about Ae porta which are 
liatje to be polluted with luch discharges. They 
attain a lar^r aiie, and are more fleshy and — 
cular than c^er warts. 

Nothing is known of the causes of wart* further 
than the tiiird variety is induoed by an imtatii 
diacharge, that the malignant fonn ol wwt which 
the beginning of chimney-swaepeia' cancer is coosed 
by the irritation of soot, 
in dissection and jioil-moritm researches an espe- 
cially liable to them ; hence we may infer tiiey an 
always due to acane local iiritation. Venereal warts 
are certunly oontacioas ; with legard to othan, 
catauA speak positaTely. bi some cases, but : 
isTariabiy, blood fFom a wart is euiable ci nodno- 
ing shnllar warts iriun i^)plied to the skin. In oon- 
•eqaenos of the cqirieions way in which waits often 
spontanconslv disappear, there are nnmerons popular 
<jkaims for their removal, sereral of which may be 
totxnd recorded in the pi^ of JfoUt and Quiiet. 
Common wsrts ara so apt to diaapiwar, that they 
may be often left to themselTes. Ii it is desired to 
remove them, glacial acetiD acid is perhaps tlie best 
remedy : it must be iq)plied with a comel-nair pencil 
tiU the wort is pretty well sodden, oare being taken 
not to blist^ the neighbouring skin. One or at 
most two applicatinu ara usually sufficiait Nitrate 
of sQTer and tincture of iron are popular and general 
appIieatiouB. Small warts hanging by a neck, may 
(ffben be verr simply removed l^ uie modeiately 
ti^t application o( an elsstio ligaasot (for example, 
a small broken elastia ling) to the bsae. The wart 
usually shrivels np, and ^lla off witliin a week. 
The other varisties of warts must be left to the 


if the midland « 

_ the N. by Stafford and Leieeater 
on the S. mainly by that of Ozfcod. Area 663,946 
aorta; pop. (1861) 061,836. The snrfact^ though 
presentmg no lofty hiUs, is mailed by gentis oni- 
nences and Tales. The north districts cfthe oonnty 
were formerly occupied bjr the forest of Aiden, oC 
which there are still remains ; and the scenery, in 
general rematkablyrich and charming, is varied by 
moor and heatJL The principal rivers are tlie Avon, 
flowing from north-east to south-weet; and the 
Tame in the north. The soil varies much in quality, 
being cold and heavy on the higher end more ex- 
posed pontions ; while in more nroorable districts, 
it is as K mJe good. Of the whole area, 444,718 

aoKS are (1866) under crops and grass and fallow, 
and of this area 161,466 acres are under cran cn^^ 
32,771 acres under green crops, and 209,914 in per- 
manent pasture. Of minerals, coal, stone, lime, and 
marl are fonnd. The county, exdnsiTe of Uia 
boron^is, returns four members to the Hoosa of 
Commons. Chief town, Warwick (q. v.). 

'WA'BWIOK, a municipal and porliammtary 
boroagh, chief t^wn of tbe county of the same 
name, stands in the middle of the oonn^, on the 
Avon, 20 miles south-east id Birmingham. It ia 
a very sndeut town, and contains many ancient and 
interesting boildings and institutions. Of these the 
most Dotable ia Warwick Castle, the principal resi- 
dence of the Esris tit Wanriok, beautifully situated 
on a rocky elsvatka, 40 feet huh, on the banks of 
the AvcsL OF this edifice, Gn^s Tower, 128 feet 
high, was built in 1394; and Casai^s Tower, 
still aiOTe andent, is 147 feet high. TIm interior, 
remaikable for ita iq>lendour and elegaooe, con- 
tains valnable pictnna and curious speeimcos of 
armour. The Eari of Leicester's Hospital foi aged 
brethren has an aonnal inoome nt £2016. ^a« 
are nunmona other diaritiai^ witit sduMils, BRsrieg, 
&C. Agriculture and general trade affbrd ssi^oy- 
ment to a large mmber of the inhabitants, and a 
small iron foundry is in opantion. W. ratuma 
two members to the House of Commons. Pop. 
(1861) 10,670. 

WAEWICK, a township of Bhode Island, U. S. 
America, 10 miles south-west of Providence, on 
Kamwmset Bay, and Hie Stonington and Provi- 
dence Bailwsy, containing the viluges of Natick, 
Fhtenix, Ceutreville, Arctic, Crampton, and Appo- 
nang. It has 21 ootton-mills, 2 woollen, 2 bleach- 
cries, 2 print-works, 16 chnrcheo. Drum Bock, » 
balanced rock of great size, can be moved by a 
child, and makes a sound which con be heard for 
miles. Fc^ (1S60) 8S1S. 

WABWIOK, KidSABD Nsmix, Eaxl of, K-Q^ 
popnloriy named the King-mi^er, waa elikat wan <rf 
fUchard, £ail of Saliidniry, and Alio^ dan^ter and 
heiress of Thomas Hontaeute. Ha waa bom absst 
1420, shortly before the aocessim of Henry TL L«>d 
B. Neville, as hs was than styled, early manitestad 
his distinguished bravery and brilliant pmoaal 
qualitiea in a hostile incursion acroBS tiie Sct^iatk 
marches, in which he aocomponied his father, Uka 
Earl oi Salisbury. He became tbe most powerful 
Qobleman in the kingdom, by his ntsmi^ wit^ 
Anne, daughter and heiress of Bichard da Beaa- 
champ, Earl of Warwick. Be not only aoqnired la- 
this BlliaQce the broad lands of the Warwick family, 
but wBB crested Esii of Warwick, with succession to 
the heirs l^ his wif& He is the most prominent 
figure in Uie civil War of the Bosee, one of Um 
darkest period* of our history. The Duke of Tork 
gained his Bupport by his marriaoe with l^dj Cecille 
Neville ; and when the barons deolarad the incapa- 
dty of Henry VL, and chose the duke to be pro- 
tector of the kingdom, W. led into the field his well- 
tried borderers of Wales. The Yorkist* and Um 
lAneastrions first met at 8t Albana in 145C, when 
W.,TUBfaing suddenly into the town at the head of 
bis men, mainly won the battle by his impetuona 
ODSst He was rewarded with the govumment of 
Calus — 'then,' says Cominea, 'consalCTed as tho 
most advantageous ^)poiiitment at the diapoaU of 

yearn In 1468^ he sailed from Calais with 
five large and seven smsll vessala, and attacked a 
fleet of SS ships, bslonging to the free town at 
Laback. After a batUe of nx boura, he took six of 



tba enamy'i Tends. In 1480, he landed in Kect at 
tha luad, of Ida troop*, aod entared London uuidit 
tiu aecluoatiaa* <jI the people. He defeated the 
qoeen'i armr, neu NorUumptou, witii great 
UMightBr, and obtuned pnnnnniinn of the peiton of 
the King. Bichard, Duke of York, now advanced 
Ilia claim to the tlirane. Queen Haigaret railed an 
»tlaj to Ttacoe the king; and the doke oommitted 
ths idiotic monarch to the onstody of Ute Duke of 
Norfolk and W., iriiile he advanced to Wakefield 
to attack Hm Lancaatriana. The duke waa taken, 
and put to death ; and W.'s father, the Earl of 
Saliibtuj, vith twelve other Yorkist chiefs, waa 
beheaded at Pontefract Another battle at St 
Albans waa won by the Xjancastdana; but Edward, 
Earl of Harch, now Duke of York, accomptmied 
Irr W., marched boldly upon London, which wai 
throoghout Yorkist, and Edward wae proclaimed 
king by the style of Edward rV. The next battle 
waa that of Towton, near Yo^ The Lanoaatriani 
had retaken the paaa of Ferrybridfe, i 
Aire, and W. in despair at tbe lOH M M> _ 
tion, rode up to Edwud, and dinnonnting shot hie 
own hone throng t^ head, aa a ^gnal for an attack 
from whidi tim* cosld be no re^at, ^Hilainiing. 
*Sirl let htm flee who will flee; but by thia oroBs' 
<kiMmf the hilt of hiiiword) 'I will stand by him 
vho win stand by met' The lancaatriane were 
drfeeted with immense loss; sod Edwud, letnming 
to Loodon in tiiomph, was oowned June SZ, 1461. 
Tha batOe of Hexham waa foUinrad hy Om capture 

of Hen7;aDdW.,wbohadbeeQlelt in ' 

Limdon, dacedthe deposed king OD a 
whose bdly hie feat were faatened, sod tiiiu led him 
through CWpode to the Tower. W. having been 
authorised to negotiate with Looia XL U Fnnce for 
the marriage of nil airter-in-law, the FrinosM Bonne 
of Savoy, to King Edward, oonld not biook the 
king's sodden mimiagB with Elizabeth WoodviUe, 
and seemed inclined to shew that he oonld pnll 
down as well aa set up kings. He waa now at the 
he^it of his power. To the earldoms of Warwick 
WM Saliaboiy, with the estates of the Spancera, be 
Added the offices of Hu;h-MLi[iiral and Qreat-ohaxnbcr- 
Ub, together wiUi t& lord-lieutenancy of Ireland 
and the Kovernment of Calais. Cominea statea the 
income oT his offices at 60,000 crowns a year, beaideB 
tte immense reremes aooniing from hia pabimonyj 
yet he bad the meanness to accept a secaet pension 
and grstnities from Louis XL Alter bdns sent ii^ 

nance, Bnrgondy, and Brittany, benve his dandiler 
in mazriMe to Osorge, Dnke of Cutrenoa, witnont 
■■king Edward's penniamcm. He somi afterwMds 
IteAe out into mvdt s^inst Edward, and oonoloded 
« trea^ with Qnerai Hsresnt, t^ which it w«s 
■gceed that her son. Prince Edinnd, should cepoaaa 
Anae Nerilla, W.'s daogbter, and that in failure 
«( issae, the eiown ifaonld devolve on datenoe. 
Ki^Edwaid escs^ to HcUaad; and Henry TL 
— SDBMd At wowmaga^. Edward, however, nised 

nr HbD,' advanced towaids London. He gave 
" "" W,! 

iMMIe toEing Henry's army, c 
Bwnet, ^^4, 1471. The b 
aodimpuriwiL W. and his brother, Montwoei were 
left dead on the fleld, and with them feU the gn^ 
ne« of the House of Neville. ThU Irial battle, fol- 
low«d by the dacisiTe enngesDenl of Iswkesbniy, 
wyleted the deleat of Qm LanoaabiHUL and con- 
da&dltoMiisniDaiy War of tlM Bases. Itsfipean 
(Fom's Zidlm/i tiiat every individnsi of two jMur- 
tHam of tiie great faawTisii of Warwick and £imer- 
•at UI on the field or on the scaffold, a victim of 
tteae MBgninaiy contests. W. is the meet consfB- 
eooos posonsge of thus distn^ed ttm«& He kept 

open house wherever he resided, and daily fed at hia 
various maDnions 30,000. He hwed ti^iulenoe for 
ita own sake, and was ready to make or unmake 
any king, according to the caprice of the moment, 
and in order to shew his power. 

WASH, a wide estuary on the east coast of 
£n^and, between the conntiea of Lincoln on the 
north-west and Norfolk on Uie south-east, is about 
22 miles in lenrth, and 16 milea in aveius hrsadth. 
It is BurTDunded by low and matehy uores, and 
receivee the rivers Witham, Wellosd, Ouse, Nen, 
and Nar. The estuary for the most part is oocupied 
by eandbanks, drv at low water, aad between thrae 
sandbanks are the i-tijunalj through which the 
rivers mentioned flow into Xb» North Sea. On 
both sides of the channel by which the Oneo 
falls into the sea, ooDsidentUe traole of land have 

... . AnohorsM a. 

by two wide spaoee vt po<A of water, called reepeo- 
tively Lynn Deeps, oi[^0Bite the couA of N<Nnfolk, 
and Boston Deeps, opposite the Lineolnshire coast. 

process, yet it may be useful to give a brief 
description of the most efBdeut way of conducting 
it, in so far as experience and correct principles 
can enide such an operation. The first essential is 
snitaole water, in other words, iqft water. See 
WA.XIBI.BIIPPLY. Yellow Soap (q.v.) bein? the Wd 
chiefly used in wasliine linen, it is w(JI to hear in 
mind that it is not £sirable to purchase it very 
pale in colour, or very low in price. In order to 
gratify the desire for a light colonr, soap-makeis ore 
obliged to reduce the s&ength of good du'k soaps 
with adulterants ; and it nilfgive some idea of how 
easily tiie demand for cheapness may be met, to 
state, that hard soap, which should not contain so 
much as SSper cent, of water, can bo made with sa 
much as To per cent Soap, as is well known, 
improves by keeping. Soft or potash soap is some, 
times used to wash coarse things, on account of its 
being strongei than hard soap, but its smell is 

objectionable. Sodo is essily ' -" - ' 

with respect to woshing-powi 

depends on the amount oFalkali which they coi 

snOoe it to say that to buy them is only a dear 

objectionable. Soda is easily procured good ; and 
espect to washing-powoers, 
Ji on the amount oFalli 
it to say that to bu; 
ay of bnying soda. 
in arranging clothes for washing, it is desirable 

mto kinds most suitable for washing 
together i such sa lace, nets, and fine muslin into 
one heap ; white bodj-linen into another ; coloured 
Uiings of the nature of printB and ginghams into 
■notber; and so on. It is also desirable to wash 
cloUies as soon as possible oCter they are soiled. 
Previoos to washing, all white articles should be 
soaked for a night in cold water, in which a little 
soda ha* been dissolved, as the steeping in alkslizie 
water greatly aids in removiufi all dirt of a greasy 
nature. The clothes should then be washed twice 
I tepid water with a sufficient supply c 

after which they are boUed for at least IS minutes 
in soap and water. Ink-stuns or iron-moulds 
leqnire to be taken out with oxalic acid, or tiie 
essential salts of lemon (oxalate of potash) ; end 
fmit-stains by boiling the stained parta with pearl- 
aiih. After being boiled, the clothes are nnsed 
twice in oold water; and in the second rinsing, 
a little atone blue is added, to uenttalise any 
yellowness occasioned by the waahiuA When this 
IS done, th«y sis wroi^, and hm^joM to dry. 

uijii.j^..,CjOOglC — 


For tba wuhing of flanada, it i» 
dMtrable tliat the irater should be soft tliaii for 
linea or cotton ; and it abould coataia no eodft or 
potuh in any form, M Rlthoaglk t> little alkiii 
would mora mectuallf remove dirt, yet it always 
turns woolleoa yellolr, and at the aama time 
thickens them. It is well to remember obo that 
all rubbing, wrin^g, or equeeziag tends to make 
woollen gowB ahnnk, by facilitating their tendency 
to felt or mat into a thicker fabric With respect 
to ladiea' colourad dreaoea made of fine wool, Buch 
aa merino, it is considered beat to waab them in 
warm soft water with ox-gall, say a pint in a 
tnbful of water. Ox-gall is a soap m its chemical 
nature, and it clears and brightens the colours. 

The washing of printed cotton fabrics, especially 
mtulinB, has 3 late jrears become a difficult opera- 
tion, on account of the fi^tive nature of some of the 
dye-atufb employed. The beautiful hues produced 
1^ the aniline or cool.tar colours, andT by the 
archil lakes in imitation of them, have led to their 
being extenaively used in calico-printing, as well aa 
in iSo dyeing of silk and woot These dyea can 
aearoely De said to be pennanent on any fabric ; but 
on cotton they require to be fixed by mordauta, such 
aa albumen (white of egg), which wUl gcarcely stand 
waahing at all, and to which hot water is utter 
destruction. The aame thing is 

better to hare printed dreseea done ia fast colours 
—the reda and purples, from madder, for example — 
aa ther, although less attractive at first, can be 
washed without injuring their appearance. All 
snch articles should be washed in soft warm water; 
that which has been used for fl«nim1«, if not too 
dirty, will do. When thoroughly cleaned, rinse 
them well in clean cold water, and do not allow 
them to remain long in contact before they are 
bung up to dry. 

White silk articlea, as stockings and gloves, 
should be washed with soap, first in milk-warm, 
and afterwards in nearly boiling water. They will 
be improved if hung up for a short time in the 
fumes of burning smphur [sulphurous acid) while 
still damp. 

We have now to notice the domestic washing- 
macbines which have, of late years, come into 
rather extensive use. A machine of this kind, 
when iu motion, ought to produce at least as much 
agitation as will keep up a constant change in the 
deterging solution in contact with the linen, and at 
the same time cause the clothes to slide over each 
other in a somewhat analogous manner to hand- 
woahins. There ia an old form of washing-machine 
called uie dolly-tub, which has been in use in York- 
shire for upwards of aeventy yearn. It consists 
essentially of a presaer or doUy, which is simply a 
round piece of wood, say ten inches in diameter, 
with from three to five legH rounded at the ends ; 
the whole exactly resembimg a footstool, but with 
the addition of an upright nid or spindle from its 
~ itre, with a cross piece at the top for working it. 

moving the dolly first one way and then the other, 
at the same time a certain pressure being exerted 
on ^em against the sides and bottom of the vessel 
Of recent washing-machines, a certain class of 
them are modifications of the dolly-machine, with 
spring-ribbed boards, on which the linen is rubbed 
by a swinging motion. Another class consist of 
boxes which abo oscillate upon an axis, but operate 
by jerking the clothes and water from side to side. 
A third, and peihapa the most efficient class are 
made upon the principle of the daah- wheel, so much 

used in large bleoch-worba In this machine, the 
materials to be washed are lifted by internal ribs on 
the rim of a large wheel, and allowed to fall with 
some force from fully half its height into the 
cleansing liquid — this being of course repeated aa 
the wh^ rotates. 

The annexed figure shews a dash-wheel waahing- 
machine for domeatio puiposea, by Measrs Summer- 
scales & Sons, Keighley, Yorkshire. The names of 
its separate parts are given in the references to the 

Duh-wheel Wishing-uachine : 
iiJleofnb; B, Tub 
di; d, Wheel 

letters, but We may explain that the linen is pub 
Inside the drum or dash-wheel, A (a sparred 
cylinder], which has a reciprocating action, so that, 
after making a complete revolation, it is reversed. 
The clothes are thus driven both ways through the 
water, and the quick reveising action of the 
machine gives them a jerk or da£ at each change 
of motion — the equivalent of the fall from a largo 
dash-wheeL There are brushes on the inside of the 
drum, which are brought into play if the clothes 
are coarse and dirty, but are turned out of action if 
they are of a fine deacription. A machine of tbin 
kind, 26 inches wide, will take in two pair of 
sheets or a dozeu of shirts at a time, and by 
turning the handle with a biisk motion, they wiU 
be washed in eight or ten minates. The httJier 
for linen ia made up with one pound of soap, half 
a pound of soda, and three quarts of watw— -the 
last being poured in bailing. Only about half aa 
much Boap is required as for washing by hand. 

The wringing is performed by passing the wet 
clothes through the wooden rollers D, D, the upper 
one being temporarily covered with flannd to protect 
buttons, hooks and eyes, Ajx from damage. Tli« 
necessary pressure is obtained by means of the 
spring at J, and before taming the rollers, the 
washing-cylinder is thrown out of gear. With the 
ud of Oie mangling-boawU, F, the clothee are 
— igled by these same Tollen. 



WaMni/ bjf Steam, thoogh little known in I lay-proprietor of the Manor of Snlffrave, in Borth- 
Rngt » n d, u praotiMd to a considenble extent in amptonBhire, who married a dauSiter of Shirlj, 
France. TLe French ohemist, Chaptal, first brought Earl Ferrers. I^wrence, an elder brother of John, 
Uia proeeM to perfection. Beudea a (airing of fuel, studied at Oxford ; John resided at one time at 
■oap, and numaal labour to the extent of at least one Soutli Cava, Yorkshire. Being royalisla in the time 
lialf,Ui«we»randtearof thelinenattendingrubbing, of Cromwell, both emigrated, and became landed 
and beating is avoided. The efficacy of steam in i proprietors and planters in Virginia, in tba district 
waahjngdrocmdanpon its penetrating and dissolving between the Potomac and Rappahannock men. 
property. The clothea are first steeped in a ley of Augustine Washington died when his second son 
•oda 01 potub, or in a mixture of alkali and eoap, George was 12 years old, leaviog a large property 
•nd then knng in a woodoi vossel kept full of steam ; to bis widow and five children. Hia ^ucaiion in 
by a pipe communicating with a boiler. On a small the indifferent local schools extended only to 
•cale, a laige eaak, uoda air-ti^ht, will answer, and reading, writing, arithmetic, book-keeping, and 

tea-kettle will produce steam enough. 
ntaia miut b« an iqiertore to aQow t^e air to 
(■rape vlun the ateam first enters ; the air 
being expelled, the apertore ii shut. In balf an 
luFiir, the dirt is infficiently loosened to waah ont 
with ease, and the linen is found to be extremely 

/mg, then an important acqnintii 
_.-.. — , had great phj^ical strength, ana was 
fond of military and athletic exercises. At the age 
of 13, he wrote out, for bis own use, 110 ntJ tTdTnn of 
civilly and good behaviour. In 1740, bis elder 
brothers Captain Lawrence Washington, served 
under Admiral Vernon in the expedition against 
Cartliagena, and named his residence on thePoto- 
mac Mount Vernon, in honour of his commander, 
who offered George a commission as midship- 
— his ship, which, bnt for the opposition 

.4.1.„ V ^J, L ,.j, gpl^ g^ 

. brother at 

. , „, .^„ ...,„ .,„.„ Fairfax, who owned 

^ great estates in the Virginia valley ; and in 1748, 

11 ijiB Mimiiilo engaged to survey these wild territories for a 

r Lord in John f ^o"^!™"" » "l^yi camping out for months in tlie 

the writinM of ' ^""^ "> P*^ °°^ Indians and sqoatters. At the 

ieHolyWeek(q.v.)|'Te. "" rf '^v, ""^ uut lui uib op 

It forms nart at ' mother, he would have gladly accept 

r. which day7Som|*5™ 'Sf* ^ ^^ -t^f^J^^^J^ ^ 

^ «1I«1 *r«,mH^ Mount Temon, and with Lord Fairfax, wh< 


WASHING OF FEET (caUed in laldn Pedi- 

laniam, and sometimes Mandattim, from the first 

word of the 'little chapter' in the servioe), one of 

the ceremonial ohservauces of the Holy Week (q. v.) 

in the Roman Catholic Cborch. ' ■ * 

tbe service of Holy Thursday, 

the word mandatum, is also called Maund; 

Thunday. Tbe origin of this observaoee 

extremely ancient lb is founded on the example 

and eihorta^n or precept of -.-..» 

siii. 1! — 14; and is traceable . ^. 

Justin, Tertallian, Ambrose, and AugostiDe, 

well as in many of the early conncils. In soiue 

chnrchea, however, or at least at some particular 

periods, the day fixed for the ceremonial was Good 

niday, although fee many centuries it has uni- 
formly been assigned to Holy Thursday. It is 

neceaaary, however, to distinguish from the cere- 

monal of tbe Holy Week, another washing of the 

feet (also called pMifarium), which, in the case of 

catedkumens, preceded baptism- and which, in _,' , „ ■- i '." " " .—c--^-— 

many dmidiesTwas acoom^i^ by a washiM of ^be year following, when two regiments of 

the liead, capl&tvium, anStook Vl«ce on ftlm I J?£^ '"" ^ M^"^ f^ Duquesne by 

SnndaT^.v.ffSence called 'Domi^cTcaptikvii.'?:*^ ^"^v'^'^j , "r ^^^xi l""* '* S' 

To thiiiii^Sts Ambrose and Augustine d&rtinotly'^T*^r '^J"^?S^ "' "^^ ^' i^^^^^T"**^ 

refer, ^tbe medieval and moSem church, thelo-J? "5« not failed or woundei He hod fotj 
- feet has generally followed the idemn burets throng his coat, and two honiM were shot 

,__ -r-?! / ...1 .. _ I . . ., . under him. The Indians behoved that he bore a 

charmed life, and his countrymen were proud of hia 
courage and conduct. Two thousand men were 
raised, and he was selected to command them. In 
17S9, he maitied Mrs Martha Chistia, a wealthy 
widow, resigned his military '"'" ""- ' 

19, at the beginning oEtho Seven Years' War, 
he was appointed adjutant of the provincial troops, 
with the rank of major ; in I7SI, be made his only 
sea voyage— a trip to Barbadoea — with his brother 
Lawrence, who died socn after, and left George heir 
to his estates at Mount Vernon. At 22 (1754), 
he commanded a regiment against the French, 
who had established uicmaelves at Fort Ditquesne 
(now Fittsburg), and held Fort Necessity against 
"'perior numbers, until compelled to capitulate. 


of the day. In those churches whe 
mony is still r^ained, the officiating bishop or priest, 
wearing a cope, and rart with a towel, and attended 
W a deacon and •nbdeaoon, washes, dries, and kisses 
the right foot of a certain nnmber of pilgrims, gener- 
ally twelve, in memory of the twelve apostles ; after 
wmeh all the pilgrims are hospitably entertained, 
and aerved in person by the bishop, who dijrtributes 
to each a dole in money or previsions. An appro- 
priate service, consisting of a gospel (John xiii 
1 — 14} sung by the deacon, a chapter (' Mandatum 
novnm'J chanted by the choir, and a prayer by the 
biabop) accompanies the ceremonial The washing 
of tne pilgrims' feet on Holy Thursday forms a 
very striking part in the Holy Week ceremonial sa 
carried ont not only by the pope, but also by the 
Inshops in moat of Ue great cathedrals abroail It 
was also practised by Kings and other royal and 
noble personages, even down to a very recent date. 

tevolatioii, and first President of the United States, 
WM bom in Westmoreland conn^, Virfpnia, Febru- 
ary iS, 1732 ; son of Anonitine Wawington and 
Us second wife, Mary Balf; a descendant of John 
Washington, who emigrated to Virginia from Eng- 
land a)>oat 1657, who was a grandson of John 
^"—'-- — '— — yor of Northampton, and first 

__„.„ _. improvement of his estates, raising 

wheat and tobacco, and carrying on brick-yards 
and fisheries. He was, like nearir all Americans 
of property at that period, a slaveholder, and pos- 
sessed at hjs death 124 slaves, whom he directed, in 
his will, to be emancipated at the death of his wife 
(who survived him but three yean), so that the 
negroes of the two estates, who had intermarried, 
might not be separated. He was for some years a 
member of the Virginia Assembly; and in 1774, 
though opposed to the idea of independence, and in 

3 be, ' for solid infor- 

Continental Congress, was elected Commander-in- 
chief by that body. Be hastened to the camp at 
Cambridge ; compelled the evacuation of Boston ; 



tiM moat deapente rtnuU, by du&Seddoii, loc^ of men 
Had utwUei, uid even c«b&L) uuust hii authority 
bat by nis calm courage, pmatmce, finanesi, ant 
peneremice, he brought t£e war, with the aid o 
powo^ allica, to ■ lacceMfol tenninatioa ; aiu 
{i)ea. 23, 17S3), Hm independence of the thirteen 
colaoiee achiered, he retired Emm the army to 
Uount Vernon, which he had, during the eight yean 
o( the irar, hnt onoe viaited. He refused pay, bnt 
kept a minute account of hit perBonal expenses, 
wbtch wei« reimbnned by Congress. lu 17S4, he 
CMMMd the AU^hanies to see his lands in Western 
Vir^nia, and [Janned the James Biver uid Potomac 
CaniJi. The iharei' voted him by the state he gave 
to endoff 'WaduDgton College, at Leiin£taii, Va., and 
for a nniveitdty. The Federation of Statu haTine 
filled to give an efficient government, W, nroposed 
convention* for commerciBl purposes, ^lich fed to 
the Convention of 1TS7, of which he was a member, 
which formed the preaent federal oonatitution. 

ohceen president, and inaugurated at New Yoric, 
April 30, 1789. With ' L*dy Washington,' bo tomed 
by the oourtesy of the period, he presided over 
a federal court, tar more formal and elegant 
^xan exists at this day, and made triomphal 
progresses in the north wid south. Daring his 
seocoid term of office, he was diagnsted by the 
opposition of the Bepublican party, under the 
laadenhip of JefTerson and Bandolph, and refuiine 
a third electdon, he issued, in 1796, his fareweU 
address, and retired to Mount Vernon. la 1797, 
iriien there srose a difSenlt;^ with Fiance, threaten- 

ahostilitiee, ho was appointed lieutenant-general 
commaDder-in-ohiei On the 12tli of Beoember 
1799, h« WB3 axposed in the saddle, for sevenl 
honr^ to cold and anow, and attained with acnte 

His last words were characteristic. He said ; ' I 
die hard; but I am not afraid to go. I believed 
from my first attack that I should not survive it. 
M^ breath cannot last long.' A little later he 
said : ' I feel myself going. I thank you for your 
attentions; bat I pray you to take no more trouble 
about me. Let me go off (quietly. I cannot last 
long.' After some instructiaQS to his secretary 
about his burial, he became easier, felt his own pulse, 
and died without a struggle. He was monmea even 
by his enemies, and deserved the record ; ' Firrt in 
peace, first in war, and first in the hearts of his 
oountiymen.' W. was 6 feet 2 inches high, with 
brown hair, blue eyea, large head, and strong 
arms ; a txJd and graoafol rii& and honter; atten- 
tive to his personal appearance and dignity; 
gracious and sentle, thoo^ at times cold and 
reserved ; chiliuess, but very happy in his domestic 
relations and hia adopted chilifren — nephews and 
tiieces. His best portruts are those by Stuart, and 
the statue by Hoadin at Richmoad. He was an 
exemplary member of the Church of England. — Bee 
art, Umitbd States ; also Sparks's lA/e and Writ- 
ing$ of WatKingtoti, 12 vols. 'Svo (B(»rtion, 1834— 
1837); lAft of WaaUnglon, by Chief-justice 
Marshall, G vols. 8vo (Philad. 1805); Life of 
Wathinglon, by Washington Irving, B vols. 8vo 
(New Yoik. 1855—1859) ; Ac. 

WA'SHIUGTON, a territray of the U. S., in lat 
45° 30"— 49° N. ; long. 117°— 125° W. ; bounded K 
by British Columbia, E. by the territory of Idaho, 
S. by the Columbia River, which separates it from 
Oregon, W. by the Pacifio Ocean. Estimated area, 
71,W0 square miles. Its capital is Olympia, at the 

head of Puget Sound; Ysncouver, WallawaUa, 
Cascade City, and other new towns, with a multi- 
tude of "■"'■"g villages and camps, are saattend 
over the t wntury. The ohiat livn h« tks 
CcJnmbia or Oiwki, oq His •mthan borda>, wfakli 
also drains the mi<^ taciitory east of the Gasoada 
Mountains; theOkooagan, its great northambma^ 
flowing frcnn the lake of t^ same name in DaliA 
Colunibia; Lewis or Snak« Biw, and muDeroiis 
streams emptTiu into Pngctfs 8<Hiod and t&e 
Pacific W. IB rish in sonnds aod hariMOis. Pnget'i 
Sound, from I to 4 mile* iride^ and S UAiana or 
■man in depth, opens ont of the Stnut of Jaan da 
Faca, penetratiBg 100 milea iota tiie heart (rf th« 
country, and with its bays and islands forming ssm 
of the finest oolleotLons tA harboois m the worid. 
Hood's Canal, a narrower diannel on the wea^ 
extends 60 miles. Bellin^iam, on the eastnn 
shore of theOnlf of 0«oniB,lua atideirf SOfeeA. 
There are also large and deep hsrboDia, suitaUe tut 
naval ttatioo^ on the Strait of Joan de Foca. The 
great tange t^ Cascade Hoontuns, a continoalion 

from the cosab Its chief 

Baker, lat. 48* 44', 11,900 feet, u active volcano ; 
Monnt Bainier, laL 46* 40*, 12,330 feet, an extinct 
volcano ; Mount St Helen, 9550 feet, nearly extinct ; 
Mount Adams, 9000 feet, entirely eitincL J^st of 
the Cascade Mountains, the soil is thin, rooky, dry, 
and sterile, but with fertile valleys ; on the wea^ 
snd espeoially around Puget's Sound, the soil is 
rich, and the country covered with a dense ever- 
green forest. West c£ the Cascades, the formation 
IS of tertiary sandstone ; near the Soond, the 
allaviom has a depth of 100 feet. Ijgnite, or 
tertiary coal, is found in many places. Themoun- 
tains are granitio, and near Mount Adams is a large 
field of lava. Gut of the Cascade Monotains, the 
fbnnationi ate igneous and metamorphic, with bap 
and vdtcanio tooria. There are rich K^ld-di ' 
in the north-easteni portion. The cSoate 
weatem district is almost precisely that of ] 
with a laiofall of 63 inches ; east of tiie mi 
there is but a quarter of the rainfall, aad i 
of heat and cold. The timber ia the wescem 
district is of great richness and abundance ; the 
red fir and yellow fir Mftisi iTouj^Iasii and J. onuidu], 
— iwing 300 feet high, and 6 to 8 feet in £ameter. 
' veaetable and animal {urodootions are the same 

AWOiea of ■»lmnii fil^iTig |^ 

tlie continents Hie chief produot _ 
timber, of which 20,000,000 feet were exported in 
' """ Steam saw-mills on Fuget's Sound and 
Canal saw 40,000,000 ^et per annmn. 
Whea^ barley, oats, potatoes, and the hardier 
frnita, are produced in abundance. This tertiliHry 
was discovwed by Juan de £^ca, a Qreek, in 1592; 
visited by a Spwisll navigator in 1775, and three 
year* aft«r by Captain Cmik. In 1787, Berkeley, 
— KnglUTimiui, le-discovered the Strait of Faca, 
■ a by othew. Captain Gray, 
tlie coast in 1791 ; and the 
oonver in 1792 ; Captains 
Lewis and Clark explored the intoior during the 
ireddenCT of Jefferson, and settlements wore made 
•y the Hodson'B Bay Company in 1828; in 184^ 
Lmerican settlers entered the territory, then a 
part of Oregon. Wars with the Indian^ in I8G5 
and 1658, r^arded immigration, but in the latter 
year, 10,000 pmsons wen attnoted by the dis- 
coveries of gold-diggings at Fiaser's Biver, many of 
whom became pertoanent setticzs. The iriiite pop. 

which had been n 


WASHnroTON cirr— WASP. 

in ISSO-was 1I,5M; Indioju Tkrioiuly 
10,000 to aOflOO.' 

WASHINGTON OITT, the test of tbe gorem- 
mcDt of the U. 8. of America, u ia the dismct of 
Cohuntu, on the left bank of the Fotonuu) Biver, 
between Aiuuxwti* tUver uid Book Creek, xrMch 
aepuKtee it from Georgetown, 1st. 38* 61' 20" 
N, long. 77* 0" 15" W., 39 milee routh-wert of Bjd- 
temoie, 136 fnjta Fhilade^Iiik, 228 from Neir York, 
laOnorth-eutof Bicfamond, 1203 from New. Orleans, 
2000 from Su Franciaco, 160 kbove the mouth of the 
Fotomac, ud 300 frran Uie Capea of the Chesapeake, 
^nio Fotomao ftt W. is me mile wide, and of loffi' 
de&t depth for the lar|[ert vetMla. Tbe ci^ wia 
laid out Dnder t^ dinotion of General Waahuigton, 
on a bandamne icale for the national oapital, on a 
plateau 40 feet above the rirer, with BBreral eleva- 
tiona, with rtnets from 90 to 120 feet wide, and 20 

avenaei, 130 to 160 feet. The principal edifice* are 
the Capitol ; tbe White Hoiue, naidenoe of the pre- 
Bdmt; Fatmt Office; Genecal Pott-office; TraamU7, 
War, and Navy Departments; SmithBOBian In«ti- 
tnte fq. v.), ko. The O^nttd, on tbe anmrnit of a 
gentle eleviatiOD, in a pleiBnTe-gnnind of 39 aena, 
Mrae commenoed in 1793. bnmt by Britiab tnxipe 
in JS14, completed in 1825, and extended hj tbe 
additioa of two namona wings in ISSl ; tin centre 
is 362 feet Iw itfl, wf' -^ - ' -^ ■ - " 

142 by 238 feet; the l 

long, 324 deep, corerins 

white aaodatone, the wmp whit« 

Botnnda, nnder the dome, oontaina oareral Toting ^i 
netoria by Trnmbnll, Weir, Vanderiyn, Powell, 
Chapman, ftc. The Saaats Chamber is a noble ball, 

by 82 feet, with gaOeriea fin- 1000 apectaton; 

„_„ .. « ._^._.j y 139 by 93 feeJi with 

The Cat^tol at Wubington. 

nOeriea tor 12IM. 1^ old Senate and Repreaenta- 
bre Chamben, need before the ratlsreemBn^ are 
beaatifal rooma. The Congresnonal Library ie 91 
by 34 fee^ with 70,000 Tola., besides 80,000 vols, of 
docnmenta. !nie CatdtoL containing also numerous 
oommittee-rooms and offioea, ia bigbly ornamented 
with, rich marbles, frescoes, and groups of statuary. 
"Bta bnildinp of Uke Treasuiy and State Depart- 
moiln, Poat^ffioe, &c, are maadve and apaciooa. 
The aaloona of the Patent Office, filled with models, 
ais 1300 feet in length. A monument to Washing- 
ton, intended to be 600 feet high, ia one-third buifi. 
The city also contains numeroua large hotels, GO 
ehorchca, a Soman Catholic and a Baptist college, 
thice daily and aereral weekly newspapera, acade- 
loiea, Bchools, kc The public buildin^a alone, 
howersr, sre apaciooa and costly, the city in general 
having a aoattered and mean appearance, Zhuing 
the War of Seoesuon, fromits exposed position, it 
was threatened with c^ttoie, and was sumnnded 
by foTtificatdona, and conTerted into an entrenched 
camp. PopL in IBBO, 61,lia 
' WA'SHITA, a river of the 17. 8. of America, 
rias OD the western borders of *■*«»«««, and mns 
east uid south-east through Loniaiana, emptying 
into the Red Biver, 30 miles from its month ; it ia 
600 toilcB long, and navioble to Camden, 300. Its 
Mel branbhes are the Saline Biver, Ia Fourche, 
Tentas, and little Hissonti 

* The eastern and larger portion of the W. Territory 
ol 18601 is now indnded in the newly encted tem- 
traies of Idaho ud Vontua. 

rgontl „ . 

^ hills on the east side of the Sierra Nevada, 
on the bordeiB of Gslifmnia and Nevada Territory, 
near the sonroea of Canon's Biver, 160 miles east 
by north of Sacramento. The ore prodnoes aa much 
as 2000 dcHara to the ten, and ia largely exported 
to England. Hie disoovery of these mines caused a 
^eat axcitenient in California, and a large eniigm- 

WASP {Vapa), a T,innBtan genus of insecta, now 
forming the family Fenndo^ a vsit nnnjerona and 
widely distributed funify, of the order .fiymenoptera 
andaeotion Jeufaifa. They ai« distingiushed from 
all the other Sytnatoplera,hj their wings, whMi at 
rest, being folded throo^iont thdr eotiK length. 
The winjv of all tiie wasps exhibit a aimilar pattern 
of nervation, with one marginal and iiaeo snbmar- 
ginal cdia, ud an incomplne terminal aabmargiiial 
celL Tlieir antemua are nsnally angled, and aomc- 
what clnb-slufied at the extremity. The maxillse 
are long and compressed ; there are glacda at the 
extremity of the labmm ; the tongae ia trifid, its 
tips ladniated. The body is naked, or but ali^tly 
hairy. The general appearance resembles that of 
bees ; the colour ia usually black, with yellow maik- 
ingtl The diviaioD between the tjioraz and abdomen 
ia very deep, the abdomen often atalked. The lega 
are not fitted for collecting pollen, like those of 
bees. The females and neut^ have stings, gener- 
ally more formidable than those of bees. The larvie 
have tnberdes instead of feet The wasps differ 
very widely in their habits, aonte being solitary, the 




family Eumemdix ot Boma entomolo^intii ; others 
Bocial, to which tho name Vetpida u tometimeH 
KBtricted. Henten are only found amoQjr the soeisl 
wasps. Some of the ■olitary wasps make cniiouB 
burrows in sand, OT construct tubes of earthy pasta 
OD the sides of walls, id which they form cells for 
their eggi, at the same time pUciag Uiere a store of 
food for the larree, some of tnam using for this pur- 
pose perfect inserts, others caterpillM, which are 
stang so as to be rendered incapable of motion with- 
«iit being killed. Others make little eartlieD cells 
oa the stems of plants, and store in them a little 
honey for their yonng. The socia] wasps have 
TBrious modes of constructing tiieir nests, which are 
sometimes formed in eicaTatioos in ^ ground, 
sometimes attached to walls, boughs of trees, &c., 
and formed of a paper-like, or sometimes a paste- 
board-like substance, produced by mixing into a 
palp, with their saliTo, small particles of woody fibre, 
torn by their broad and powerful mandibles from 
gate-posts, palings, the bark of trees, &c Great 
diTersities aie to be seen in the airangemeat of the 
combs within the nest. The combs are made of a sub- 
stance similar to the outer covering of the nest, but 
generally thicker and firmer. As the nest is 
«nlai^eii, new paper is made for the purpose, the 
whole neat being enclosed in the last-made envelope, 
and the inner ones, which sufficed for its former size, 
ara removed to give place to combs. Several inner 
envelopes are generally found in a 

be a great part of tlie 

'^- nests (^ the waspa 

7 large, 

that pnpjf-nialtmg i 

industry of these insei: 

of tropical countries ai . „ . 

six feet long, and the communities very 

In colder regions, the increase of the c 

and of the n^ is arrested by the approach of winter, 

when the males and the neuters die ; but a few of 

the females survive, passing the winter in a torpid 

state in soma retreat, and found new communities 

in spring. In a community of wasps there are many 

perfect females — not a single queen, as in the case of 

hive bees. Wasps in theu perfect state feed very 

jtely on a great variety of anima] and 

fegetable substances, as insects, flesh, fruity sugar, 

&«. Grapes or noosaberries, especially if over-npo, 

often found to contain a W. in the interior. 

IB a Hranlian species {Mj/roprtra Kutdlaru) which 
stores up honey like bees. Wasps may be killed by 

f oaring hot water on their nests ; bat more taaij 
y the vapour of burning sulphur, when the ntsti 
are not in the ground ; or etber or chloroform may 
be used to stupify the wasps, so that the ncct 1U7 
be safely destroyed. The laxgeat British species of 
W. is the Hornet (q. v.), found only in the loutli 
of England. The most abundant scrcies, diffused 
over all parts of the coontry, are Fapa tulgarit 
and V, media. The former is about eight lines los^ 
The front of the head is yellow, with a black a 

margin of each ring of the abdomen ; the re 
bladi. Y. media is very similar, but rather larger. 
V. vulgarU makes its nest in the ground ; V. meiia 
suspends it generally to the branches of trees, ' ' 
t^ the projections of walla. 

lOr, sodby 

WASTE, in English Iaw, has several meai 
(1.) It means a common belonging to a manr 
analogy is often applied to piecea of land of 
value, lying at the sides of highways or 
shore. The presumption is that a strip of land adjoin. 
ing a highw^ belongs to the owner of t^e Und neit . 
to it. (2.) Waste also means the spoil or destmctioii 
to houses, gardens, trees, or other corporeal heiedi' 
tamenta, committed by tsnants for life or for yest^ 
to the injury of the remainderman or revemonet. 
Thus, ha who has a life estate, or an estate for yens, 
in a house or land, cannot change the natiua of 
things, as by tumii^ meadow iota arable, nor wood 
into pasture, though he may better a thing of the 
same kind, as by draining the meadow, Ac. The 
alteration caused by thus diminishing an inheritance 
is called waste, and its characteristics are to ( lirniniih 
the value of the inheritance, or to inciease the bnrdeD 
upon it, or to impair the evidence of title. Wasta ii 
either voluntary or permissive The former consisti 
in the commisaioD 01 acts which the tenant hsi ns 
authority to do — such as pulling down building^ 
felling timber, or opening mines. Permissive wuta 
arises from the omission of acts tvhich it is the 
tenant's du^ to do — as, for example, safTering 
boildinra t4] go to decay I7 wrongfully neglecting to 
repair uiem. There is, however. Incident to every 

' ' e for life or years, the right to take eetovere — 
is, so much wood, stone, &c, aa is required for 
nse on the tenement, for repairs, husliandry, and the 
like purposes. It is a common practice, in fsmily 
settlements, to provide that, in addition to this privi- 
lege, the estates of the tenants for lives shall be I 
without impeachment for waste. The effect of thit 
clause is to enable the tenant to take timber, | 
minerals, Ac, severed by himself or others during 
contintiance of his estate. But even inhere the 
mt holds without impeachment of waste, he is 
entitled to cut down ornamental timber ; and if 
he do BO, a court of equity will restrain him by in- 
junction. Wherever the tenant is committing actj 
of a character especially destructive to the inheri- 
tance, or still more, acts of wanton or malicious 
mischief, the Court of Chancery holds that his 
legal power to commit waste is b^ng used uncon- 
scientiously, and will restrain him. 

WASTE LAND3, according to the genoalose 

of the term, are uncultivated and onprofitaUe tracts 

popolons and cultivated conntnes. The term 

ete lands is not employed with reference to laod 
not reduced to cultivation in countries on^ partially 
settled. There is a large extent of wasteJands even 
in the British Islands. Of the 74,000,000 acres which 
they contain, only about ^0(KI,0(M) are ai^ile land 
and improved pasture ; 2,000,000 acres are occupied 
with woods and plantations; 7,000,000 acres in 
Scotland consist of sheep-pasture, generally at a con- 
siderable elevation, and little improved by art; 




8,000,000 acrea in Irelkod are DneiicloBed pasture, 
genenlly quite unimproved ; 3,000^000 acres are 
Bioantaia «id bog ; and 12,000,000 acres consist of 
unimproved and very unproductive land of other 

The improvement of waste landa ia very much a 
question of expense. It is often more profitable 
to improve lands already cultivated, and to bring 
them into a higher state of cultivation and produc- 
tlveneaa, than to reclaim waste lands i in attempting 
which, much mouey has often been lost. Much m 
the cultivated land of Britain is far from having 
been brought to the highest state of cultivation of 
which it is evidently capable, or to a state equal to 
that of the best cultivated lands of similar soil and 
situation, la many instances, however, waste lands 
hare recently been improved with great advantage, 
audit seems probable that no small partof the waste 
lands of the country are capable of profitable im- 
provement. The process must often be slow and 
gradual, especially where the soil is mitorally very 
poor, as even the addition of large qaantitiea of 
manure to very poor soils will not render them 
fertdle, hut on the contrary will be followed by a 
atecility greater than before. The quantity of guano 
which a rich soil would gratefully receive, will 
destroy every vestige of vegetation on a veiy poor 

The waste lands of Britain are of very various cha- 
TSCter. Some of them are bogs, already sufBcIeatly 
noticed in the article Boa. Others are marshes 
and fens, generally very near the level of the sea, 
and often within the reach of its tides, cMeHy in 
the eaBtem counties of England. See Beovord 
Levzi. Of these, a great extent has been reclaimed, 
■□d has become very productive ; much still remoin- 
, however, to be done. There are also extensive 
ois both in England and in Scotland, often of 
very poor soil, and often also at such an elevation 
above the level of the sea, as to render profitable 

r culture hopeless. This is not the case with all 
moon, and it is sometimes possible to effect 
great improvement by drainage ; so that land, for- 
merly almost worthless, may be converted into good 
posture. In many plat^, the heath has been extir- 
pated, and the moorlaod changed into good pasture, 
and even into good arable land. It is sometimes 
found vei^ profitable to break up such land, even at 
ve^ considerable elevations, and afterwards to lay 

pay. The highest sheep-paiturea of the south of 
iMotland have been greatly improved by a kind of 
Gopeifcial drainiwe [skeep-drairu), consisting of 
mere open chann^ for water ; but in the greater 
aStitadei of the Highlands, and amidst their more 
rugged steeps, even this ia out of the question. Id 
some cases, chiefly of the more level moorlands, 
much improvement is tSectedhy paring and burning, 
the sor&ce bebg pared off by the brtait-plough 

as ia iIbd that of chalk and of marl, but the ex- 
pense most always be considered, and many tracts 
of waste lands are so situated that the application 
of such manures is impossible. Railways have 
rendered the reclamation of waste lands profitable 
in many districts, in which formerly it would not 
have been so. — The chalk downi of the South of 
Xlaglaud may, in great part, almost be considered as 
waste lands, although used for sheep pasture ; but 
they have been found ciuiable of great improvement^ 
r, by tillage. 

they have been found ciuiable of 
although in a alow and gradua 


and the application of manures. — Sands near the 
sea-shore are fixed by sowing certun grasses 
(see Ahuoprila), and are capable of further 
improvement by cultivation and the application of 
monurea ; particularly where the sand is in consider- 
able part colcoreons. The most barren and hopeless 
sands are those which are almost entirely siliceous. 
An ciperiment, on a very large scale, is now in pro- 
cess of being mode, on a sand of this kind, on the 
coast of Essex, by applying to it the sewage of 
London. Very different opinions have been ex- 
pressed by scientific men, as to the probable rcault 
of the experiment Liehig deems the eiliceous sand 
incapable of profiting by the rich manure poured 
upon it. The experiment is one of importance, not 
only Da to the reclamation of waste lands, but as to 
the great question of the disposal of the sewage oE 

WASTING FALSY ia one of the terms apphed 
to the disease described in this work under its old 
name of Tabes Dobsalis. 

WATCH, a small portable machine for measuring 
time, the construction of which is essentially the 
same as that of aclock (see Eoholoox), except that 
the moving power ia obtained from the clastic force 
of a coiled spring inatead of from a weight, and the 
movement regulated, so oa to be iaochronoua, by a 
Balance and Balance -apring (q. v.) instead of a pen- 
dulum. The going part of a watch conaiata of a 
train of wheels and pinions, kept in motiou by a 
apring, called the main-spring; the last and fastest 
wheel of the train, the scape-wheel or balance-wheel, 
acting so SB to keep in vibratory motion a balance 
whose movement, again — which is made iaochronous 
by the action of another spring called the balance- 
spring — rcgulatea to a unif onn rate the revolution of 
the scape-wheel, and consequently the motion of the 

The main-spnng is 

a barrel The inner end of it ia fixed ti. 

spindle, the axis Or arbor of the barret, around which 
it is coiled, and the outer end ia fixed to the inaide of 
the barrel. By its tendency to uncoil itself, the spring 
sets the barrel in 
motion, and it pro- 
duces as many revolu- 
tions of the barrel as 
it makes turns itself 
in unwinding (fig. 1). 
As its elastic force is 
greater when it is 
tightly coiled than Fig. 1. 

when it has to some 

extent unwound itself, the spring, if its force were 
applied without modification to the watch-train, 
would act upon it unequally, the power exerted 
diminishing as the apring uncoUed ; ao mnch so, that 
the watch could not go uniformly throughout th« 
day, though it might keep time from one day to 
another. A piece of machinery, called a fusee, is 
employed to correct the variations in the force of the 
spring, and equalise the power exerted upon the 
train. The fusee is a cone with a spiral groove, 
connected with the barrel which contoms the main- 
spring by a chain, one end of which ts fixed at the 
broadeet part of tiie cone, and the other end to the 
barrel (fig. 2). The bsirel moves the fusee by 
means of the chain, which, aa it runs off the sides ot 
the fusee, is coiled upon the outside of the barrel. In 
winding a watch the key is placed on the ftxia of the 
fusee, and by the same movement the main-auring ia 
coiled around its spindle, and tiie chain wound off tha 
barrel, to cover the cone of the fusee. So when the 
spring is all coiled up, and its force upon the barrel 
is gieateat, the chain ia acting at the unall end of 


the fnaea, ftnd ita lertntag* npcnt the foaea i« leut ; 
M the foroe of the (priDg diminiahei, the nbain 
hkviiiB got to a broader part o( tbe fnaea, the lever- 
age U moieuad; and the grooring of the huee being, 

Fig. 2. 

a aectian of the ftiiee 
along ita azii woald'pRMnit two hyperboUa placed 
back to back, uoanreB that the foioe of thie Kptiag, 
modified ij the leverage of tiie chain, ahall pKidnoe 
a uniform motion of the foiee. From the fiuee thii 
motion ia commonicated to tii« mtoh-train, the first 
vheel of the bain — ndled the foMe-whaal 

when perfect, arranged k 
along ita azii would pnw 

peat wheel— being set npon ti 
uttroduced in almoet all Bni 


see, and have Uie great 

, have the great 
vte tinie-keepiog 

I not to be looked for from nmh cIoAm or watcnee; 
but it a «*id tliat nianjr of the main-^pringi made 
upon the continent are to ildlfidlf oontriral, that 
the force ia pret^ eonatant during the whole time 
of nnwinding. 

Between Uie trun of wtieela and pinioos io a 
watoh and that of a olock, until we come to the 
escapement, there ia no difference, except that there 
ia one more nheel and pinion in the watch-train 
than in the dock-train ; Om reaaon of which is, that 
the scape-wheel of a watch revolves, not like Oiat 
of a dock, in a minate, but usually in about aiz 
aenonda, making neceaaary an additional wheel to 
revolve in a minute and' carrj the aeconda hand. 
A great variety of watch 

The oldeat, which ic 

t ofui 

I the 

■). The accompanying figure shews a watoh- 

tiain with this eacapement. It may be uaef ul alao 
■a indicatiuK, in a general way, Uie arrangement 

of ttw whe^work in a watoh {"- *" "" ■- 

■prit^ oontained in the barrel 

tmna the fnaae-whed W, the fitat or great wluel 
cd the watch-train. It will be eaailj aaen how, 
from the great wheel, motion ia oommunioated anc- 
Mtaively to the centre-pinion D, and the centre- 
whed 1/ (which torn in an hour) ; to the thiid-wbeel 
p&ion, E, and the third wheel, which ia npMi tiu 
aame arbor, S ; and to the tontth or oonb^-wheel 
^nisn O, and Uie oontrate-whed O'. The upright 
taetti of Qie laat-named wheel more the baWoe- 
whed DQiion H, and witii it the balance-wheel or 
ioape-'MMal H', whidi ia fixed upon ita arbor. The 
ioape-wbad (and in tiiia asoapunent the oontnite- 
lAed alM)ii what ia called, fnmi ita ahape, a crown- 
wheeL Upon the arbor or verge <rf the lulanoa E, 
an two pallets, ]i, p, at a diatanoa from each othar, 
.-, . >- .... . ^^ icape-wheel, and ao 

placed that, aa the aciq>e-whed revolveSi ita teeth 
give them altematdj an impolae in different diiec- 
bona, which keepe up the vibratory motion of tha 
balance. The balance ia made to vibrate iaochro- 
noualy by the action of the Balsoee-sprina (q. t.) ; 
and ita vibration regulates the eeoape of ua teeth 
of the acape-whed, and ao the motioD of the whole 
taain, exactly aa that of tlia pBDdli)am doaa in an 
ordinary dock. The vertical eec«|ienient is liable, 
tluD^in a leaa degree, to the aame objeotionaatlw 
old at>wn-irtied ud uie ontdk or •doIiM' eaeape- 
maitaindock^ ThcteiaareoMlof tbeaoape-wlMd 
after one of ita teeth baa been ft(m>«d by a paQab 
which interfarea more or lea* with the accuracy and 
nnifonnityofthemotioa of the train. SeeHoKOLOOT, 
Abnoat Immediatdy after the invntim of Uw 

a sraata 

Haygtna, HantefsDille, and Tompion inbodnced new 
prinaplea^ eadk of which haa nnca been aiiiiuiMfnUj 

eacapement in clooka 
(fig. 4). This ia 
called the hotixoutal 
eacapement ; it was 
introduced in the 
beginning of the 
laat oentury, and it 
is atill the escape- Rg. i. 

iampi watdua. The impolae ia nva 
hollow cut in the <7tindriaal axia of toe ___, 

by teeth of a peculiar fcnn projeetina frnan * 
hoiiaontal crown-wlieel. Other forms ti eaa^*- 
ment in high estimation are the lever eac^MOMB^ 
originallj invented by Berthond, improived bj 
Mndge ; the duplex escaqpament, the piinoipls in- 
vented by Hooke, tiie oeostmotiaa parfaoted bv 
Tyra ; and the detached eseufanent of Bertlumd, 
improved by Arnold and Bamshaw. Dia 1 ' 
•^"-nd ia that which ia eoip^"™*^ *■■ •"-■*■" 

ra and in pocket-chi . . 

made in all reapoota like ohronometen are called. 
The lever eacap^nent ia that which ia used in moa* 
Eu^ish watches. In it the acape-whed and paUste 

as in the dead eacape- .-'■.'■-' V. ^■^!N, 

mmit in olooka. See //' !: ^^; 

HoBOLoay. The // !! \ 

palleta, p, p {Blb, 6) / 

are aet on a laTeT \ 

which tuma on their \ 

arbor, A ; and tiiare ' 

ia a pin, B, in a amall 

disc on Um Tsrge or 

arbor of i^ baIano«^ 

whioh works into a 

notoh at the end of 

the lever. The [nn T^. 6. 

and notch are so 

adjuated, diat when a tooth of the scape-whod has 

got free, the ^ alipa oat of tbe notcA, and tlt« 

balanoa ia detached from the lerer dnnng the 

remainder of its swuig; whence Ibe name dtUKhei 

lever eaoapament, originally ^q>Ued to this anange* 

ment. On the belMOS retoniing, tbe pin uain 

enters the notdi, moving the lefw jnat enoogf to 

send the tooth next in order to asc^e frmn the 

dead face of the psllat on to tiie impolse fsM ; than 

the scape-whed sots npon tiielsTer and bslanoe; the 

tooth escapee, snd anothn drops tqion the dead &M» 


tlterdif di 

of Um pallet, the pin it the aaine tinie paanog oat 
at the notch in the other directkia, leaving the 
baluioe again free. This anangement ii f mnd to 
are great acooiBcj' and eteadinen of performanee. 
To praroit Ota teeOi from alippinB lewaj while t^ 
balai^e ia bee, the faece of the pdleta an ili^tly 
m^leron^ and thii makea them teenre while at rat; 
nMneorer, there ia a mn on the levw which morca 
thront^ a notoh on tna balance diao, while the nn, 
B, morea throngh the aotah in tin lero', whiob is 
BO adinated as to gnaid agaiDit the torer moring 
and the teeth aK^mg wh^ tbe balance ia fiee. 

i.i._ uum than in dooka, Tariationa 

_ g, the inoraaaa or diminntion 
of the tanpvatDie abating to aome extent the 
monient t4 inertia of Ute balance, and to a great 
extent the «laatie forae of the balaaoe-epring. A. 
ria* in the tempoMtoie malua tiie balance expand, 
and titcRfon aaammta ite UMnen 
to tiM leoEtli M the qvin^ and 
it* daati^r< ^"^ dartio feroe of a arnng Tarying 
umnelvaathe length; and tiie tbnet^ nlnation 
of the balance, which dspenda npon the moment 
of inertia directly, and npon the elaatio force of 
the apling inTcraely, ia increased — the watch, that 
ij, geea mere alowly — in oonaeqnenoe both of 
the mcrMBo of tiie inertia and of the dhniniitiaD 
of tbe elaatic foroe of the ipring. A fall in the 
tempOT^tare ia attended by oppoeite remlta, the 
watch gctng more rapid^ than before. A watch 
wiAoat a compensated bdance would vary Tory 
matth mora than a <do«k wHhoot a comnmaa- 
tioD paidnlnm,bitttliatb«DgnMMlly carried m tbe 
' pocket, it ia kept i£ a pnttyoniformtaa- 
To invent a Mtiefaototy ccmpenaation 
wim at one tone the gr««t^hlem for wxtclinukenk 
"Oka compenaation oan obviontly be made in either 
of two waya—by an expedient for shortening the 
a fe ct t TB logdi of tbe Mlance.spring m the tem- 
pentnzw mM, •» a* to increase the dastio force 
of tha apnug ; or t^ an expedient for ■<iTMn;.hing 
the moaient of inertia of tiie balance oa tbe tcmper- 
atora rises, so *e to correspond to tits dtaubntion 
e( the force of the ipn^. The Sni method was 
that made tise of l^ John Hanieon (q. v.), who 
Gnt BUOMeded in "-^"g a chronometer capable 
of iiwsiiiiim time aocnrately in different tem- 
peiaUuCi ; but an adaptation of the otiier method, 
invented about 

eighty yean ago 
bj Bainahaw, n 
that whidi is 

be made exactly to correspond to ' 
incRaae in the Wee of the spring, 
nie chronometer ia just a uu^ watch fitted with 

all tiie oonbivanees which e]qieri«nce has shewn to 
be eondndve bi accnrate time-keerang — e. g., the 
eylindiicsl balance-i^ring, the detached eaaap«ownt, 
jukd tbe compensation'balanoe. Aa a watch which 
will keep time in one positicm will atUa not do so 
eqoal^ wdl in another^ marine chronometers are 
am^a set hctixcntalty in a box in ffimiab (a. t^ 
an arrausranent which keeps the chronometer ban- 
xoatal, miatevBr tile motion of the vesseL 

The gnat importance of an accurate portable 
time-keoper at sea ia for determining the Longitude 
(q. v.). TluB nse was first distinctiy pointed oat hy 
Sir Iiaao Newton. A committee of^the Hoose M 
Comincas, of whom this philosophm' fi»iued one, 
having bean appointed on the llth Jnne J714, to 
consi£iF the question of enoooragement for the in- 
vention of means for finding the longitade, the remit 
<rf their meetinse was a mentorial containing an 
1 of t£e r 

„it. Anaot 1 ^ 
was then passed, oSsring a rewazd for this pnipoa^ 

Hie fiirt chronomets used at sea was invented 
by John Harrison. After msny yean i^ stndy it 
was completed in 1TS6l After sevoal fnruMr 
trials and iniprovements, and two trial voyage* to 
America, muurtaken for the sstiabctim of the c<nn< 
missioneTi, the last of which wss completed cm the 
18th S^tember 1764, the reward of £20,000 ma 
finally awarded to HanisoiL 

Somewhat later than this, several excellent duo- 
nomaten were produced in nance by Bmthond aod 
Le Boy, to the lattOT of whom wm awarded tbe 
prize t^ tiie Aead&nie Boyale dee Sckooes. Fio- 
greu was stQl mads in Tfr^gifwj by Amoldi Skh^ 
abaw (the inventor of tbe compensi^on still in nse), 
and MudsB, to whom prizes were awarded hj tiie 
Boaid of Longitude, and under whom a perfection 
nearly equal to that i£ tbe present day was obtained. 
The lubaequent piogiest of watch-making has been 
chie^ directed to the eonstmction a pocket- 
watches on the ptiiusple of marine chronomders, or 
to the combination ot accuracy with convenient 
portability. The odjosted lever watch is now made 
m Clerkenwell with a degree of accuracy which 
enables the performance to be warranted within an 
eirot of one eeoond a ia^. 

While the compeouiion of a chronometer 

whiob a wdl-eonstnioted dtroncnneter wiJQ go wib 
perf^ aecnracy. The explMurtiai <rf this lisi in 
the &ct that while the vanataons «C dastie fona In 

the spring go on nnjEcrmly in pr^o rtia s to tit* im» 
or fsU of tiie temperature^ the ra^tia of tb* balsnee 
cannot be made to vary as it should do, in exact 
correspondence to tiiem mveisdy. The variation of 
the elaatio force may be repr o e en ted W a ctrsdlt 
line inclined at some angle to a strai^t une divided 

into degree* of temperatore; the "'" " — ^"" 

changMof tiiemo ~ * " ^ "'" ' 
by a enm^ and ' 

atni^ line iMpuMsiitiim tiie 

f eras only at tiro points, oomaponding to two difle- 
rent tanpentores. Tha parlwnlar point* in tbe 
case of any ebionomstv aia matter ta a^iwtuuuiL 

go BCcnratefy in a temptsratore i . — 

a tempsature of 80', at other tonpaabirsB bdng not 
so accurate ; another chronometer to jro aoenratdy 
at a temperatore of 20° and d 00*. H i* manifeat 
that the former wonid be adapted to Toyage* in 
a warmer, tiie latter to voywea in a wdd* 
olimata. Apparatns for testing cbnmiMneter* have 
been Iwig in nsa in tiie obserntorica at Oieenwich 



and liverpooL In the latter, there 

eitensive appustiu for thii purpose, devised bj the 

ingeoiouB utronomer, Mr H&rtaap. In a 

which ii isoUted from noise and (dunges of 
perature, the chronometen are arranged on a 1 
under a gloss case, so coDtrived that they may be 
Rubjected in turn to any riven degree of tempera- 
ture. The rate of each under the different tempera- 
tures is observed and noted, and the chronometers 
r«gutered accordingly. These observatiDna are of 
the greatest importance both to Bhipcaptaioi and 
instrument- makers, who can have their instrumenta 
subjected to the observations ou payment of a fee. 

It may be stated that the mainspring hod been 
emi^yed aa the movins force of time-keepeia for 
about a centniy before ue invention of the balance- 
spring ; but very little is known about the action of 
these fbreranners of the watch. A watch without 
a balance-spriiig must have been a very ruds and 
i mLni a t w orthy contrivance. The honour of first 
proposing the balance- spring is undoubtedly dae to 
OUT countryman, Dr Eooke, thonoh Huygcns and 
! De Hautefeuille also invent«d it imupendeutly much 
i about the same timei^ee Sudimaitary Treaiae on 
I Ohdet and iTaUhes, by E. B. Denison, Q.C. ; Wood's 
I Curioiititt ofCIoekt and WaUha. 
j WATCH, on Shipboard, a division of the crew 
' into two, or if it be a large crew, into three, sections \ 
that one set of men may have charge of the vessel 
while the others rest The day and night are 
divided into watches of four houra each, except the 
period bum 4 to 6 p.m., which is divided into two 
tU)g-ieat(Aa of two horns' duration each. The object 
of the dog-watches is to prevent the same men 
being always on duty at the same houia. 

Law, mean the services rendered by one who holds 
lands under hurgaga tenure. These services ore 
merely nominoL 

WATCH-RATES, in England,^ are the rates 
authorised to be levied in a paiiah or borough 
under the Watching and Lighting Act, 3 and 4 
Will. IT. c 90, for the purpose of watching and 
lighting the parish. 

WATER (Bymb. HO,' equiv. D, spec. grav. 1), in a 
state of purity, at the ordinary temperature of the 

I temperature below 32° it freezes, 
crystallising in various forms derived from tlie 
ihombohedron and six-sided prism. See Ice ; 
Show; FnaiHO and Frekzimo rota-rs; Hsat. It 
appeara from the researehee of Arago and Fresnel, 
that notwithstanding the gradual dilatation of 
water below 39°, its refractive power on light con- 

* Durine the last few years OerhardVa views as to 
the necess^ of donbling the atcmio weights of oxygen, 
oaition, snlphnr, and a few other of the elotaenta have 
been ^adnally gaining ground. Thna, the combining 
numbers of oxygen, carbon, and sulphur, instead of boing 
8, 6, and 16, are now Sicd at 16, 12, and 32, and the 
corresponding sjmbola are indicated by a horiEontal 
bar, wbicji doubles tbo Talae of the sjnabol ; O. €, and 
% being written in place of O, C, and S. According to 
ttieie views, the symbol for an equivalent of water is 
Bi6, or B|0,, in plaoe of HO, and the combining num- 
ber i> IS in place of 9 {see Cbbutbtrt, in Bupplement). 

t Although water ii oolonrlesi in small bulk, it is bine 
like the atmosphere when viewed in mou. This is seen 
in the deep ultramarine tint of the lakes of Switzerland 
and other Alpine countries, and in the rivers issuing 
from them ; and in the water in the fissures and caverns 
found in the ioe of the gladeni, which, except on the 
surface, is extremelv pun and truiepsrent ; and the 
deep blue tint of Uie ooean is doubtless dae to the 
water itself, rather than to the salts dissolved in it. 

tinuea to inoreaae regularly, as though it contracted. 
Its density at 60°, and at the level of the ses ' 

taken at 1-000, and forms tbe standard of o. 

pariaon for all solids and liquids, hydrogen being 
similarly taken as the standard of comparison for 
gases and vapoura. Distilled water is S15 tii 
heavier than air ; a cubic inch weighs, in air at I 
with the barometer at 30 inehea, 252-453 grains, 
and in meuo, 252.722 grains, the grain being ^V^ of 
the avoirdupois pound See Avoirddpois, GaLlos. 
For all practical purposes, water may be considered 
as incompreaaibte ; but very accurate experiments 
have shewn that it does yield to a slight extent 
when the pressure employed is very great ; the dimi- 
nntion of volume for each atmo^ihere of pressure 
being about 51 -million ths of the whole. — See Miller's 
Cheinical Phytia, 3d ed. p. 41. Water evapo- 
rates at all temperatures, and onder the ordinary 
pressure of the atmosphere, boils at 212°, passiue 
off in the form of steam, which, in ita state & 
greatest density at 212°, oompared with air at the 
same temperature, and with an equal elastic forae, 
has a spec grav. of 0-626. In this condition it may 
be represented as containing, in every two voluioes, 
two volumes of hydrogen and one volume of oxygen. 
See BoiUHQ, Stkav, Vapoub. 

Water is the moat universal solvent with which 
the chemist is acquainted, and its operations in t' ~ 
respect are equally apparent, although on very 
different tcalea, on the surface of the globe and in 
the laboratory. This solvent action is usually much 
increased by heat, so that a hot aqueous saturated 
•olutioQ depoaita a portion of the dissolved matter 
m cooling Some substances are so soluble in 
water, that they extract its vapour from the atmo- 
iphere, and dissolve themselves in it. Moreover, 
when water is heated in a strong closed vessel to a 
temperature above that of the ordinary boiling- 

lint, 212°, its solvent powers are much increoaed. 

ieocs of plate and crown glass, acted upon for four 
months by water at 300° (in a ateom-boiler), were 
fonnd by the late Professor Turner to be reduced | 
to a white mass of silica, destitute of alkali ; while | 
stalactites of siliceous matter, more than an inch in ' 
length, hung from the Uttle wire cage which en- 
closed the glass — an experiment illustrating the 
action which goes on in the Oeyaer springs M Ice- 
land, which deposit ailiceoua sinter. All gases are 
soluble in water, hut water dissolves very unequal 
quantities of different gases, and veiy uneqiul quonti- 
tiea of the same gas at different temperatures. Some 
gases are so extremely soluble in this fluid, that 
■* '= necessary to collect them over merouiy. For 
iple, at 32°, 1 volume of water dissolves some- 
what leas than -a^th of its volume of hydrogeu, and 
exactly -^th ot its volume of nitrogen, while it 
dissolves 506 and 1050 volumes of nydrochlorio 
acid and ammonia gases : and while at 32° water 
dissolves I'S times its volume of carbonic acid, it 
dissolves only half that Tolume of the gas at 60°. 

Water entera into combination with acids, bases, 
and salts. When an acid has once been allowed to 
combine with water, the latter oan seldom be entirely 
removed unless by the intervention of a powerful 
base, which disphu;es the water, and allows of ita 
removal by beat. For example, if sulphurio acid 
be largely diluted wili vrater, and exposed to heat, 
watery vapour alone at first passes off; hut as tiie 
temperature is raised to about GOO*, a point is 
reached at which acid and water distil over together. 
The liquid at this stage of concentration is found 
to be composed of one equivalent of acid and < 
of water (HO.SO,). The further separetion of the 
water con only be effected by the addition of 
base, as potash, oxide of lead, ft& Water 
which, M in this case, supplies Uie place of > 


, ia called batie viattr, uid tha oompootld it 
called. B hydrate, or is uid to be hf/drated. Simi- 
Isriy, mter combisefl with strong hues. Bach as 
potuh Mid aoda, and heat can onljr auoceed in 
redadng a inuttiuQ of potaah and water to a condi- 
' ' ID lepreaented by one eqaivalent of each (HO,KOJ ; 
d thii last eqniTaleiit of water can only be re- 
eved by the addition of on acLd. In thin ease, tiie 
iter in combiiuttioD with the base acta the part 
an add. These compoimdl also ore hydnUa, 
In tbeae cases o£ adds and bues, the one equivalent 
of water cannot be removed without completely 
altering tJia chemical character of the body. (See, 
for instance, in the article Suu'miitia Acis, the 
difference between the properties cf hydrated aul- 
phnric add and sulphnnc anhydride.) In the case 
of many salts, however, a certain rjonaiity of the 
inter entering, so to apeak, loosely into tbeir com- 
litiom may 6e e:nielled by heat without altering 
B properbes of the solb The water capable of 
being thna got lid of ia called iBoitr of cri/sCiwualion, 
and IS taken np by tlie salt in the act of crystallising. 
The form of the salt depends upon this water <n 
crystaUiattttoo. In chemical formulse, this variety of 
water is repreaented by Aq instead of by HO. For 
example, in the formula for rhombic phoBphate of 
■oda— 2NaO,HO,PO, + 2*Aq— the HO represents 
an equivalent of basic water, while 24&q represents 
24 eqnivalenta of water of crystallisation. 

It is less than a centuiy since the ancient view, 
that water was one of the lour elements, has ceased 
to be believed in. It is now known that it ia a 
componnd of oxygen with hydrogen in the propor- 
tion of ooe equivalent of each. Hence its eymbol is 
HO, and its combining number 9. When converted 
iato vapour, 9 grains of steam occupy the bulk of 
S grains of oxygen at the same temperature ; hence 
&e combining voltune of aqueous vapour is equal to 
2, if the combining volume of oxygen be taken aa 1. 
That water is such a compound as has been just 
stated may be proved either analytically or synthe- 
tically ; and the subject is one of so great import- 
ance m the history of chemistry, that we ehall enter 
' ratber more fully than usool into the consideration 
of these two modea of proot The following simple 
I mode of separating water by voltaic electricity into 
I its oooBlitnent elements is borrewed from Fownea's 
I MamuLt qf Chemirtrji : ' When water is acidulated 
' BO aa to render it a conductor, and a portion inter- 
I posed between a pair of plat^um-plates connected 
' with the extremities of a voltaic apparatus of mode- 
rate power, decompositian oE the liquid takes place 
in a very interestjng manner ; oxygen in a state of 
I perfect purity is evolved from the water in cootaot 
I with the plate belonging to the copper end of the 
■ battery. Mid hydrogen, equally pure, is disengaged 

been oontinned . 
that the volnme 
abore twice that o 

t the pute connected with 
the lino extremity, the 
middle portions of the liquid 
remaining apparently un- 
altered. By placing small 
graduated jar« over the 
platinum-platee, the gases 
can be collected, tad their 
qnaatlties determin^ The 
accompanying figure will 
■hew at a ghnce the whole 
arntngement ; the condnct- 
ing-wires pass through the 
bottom of the glass cup 
and away to the battery. 
Wlien this experiment has 
sufScient time, it will be found 

scduble in water than hydrogen, the proportion of 
two to one by measure womd come out exactly.' 
In lecture -rooms, an ingenious but more complicated 
apparatus, devised by Kopp, is commonly used to 
iliustrate the electrolysis of water. It has been 
shewn by Mr Grove that an extreme heat may, like 
"to decompose water int 
IB welt known that if, ii 
me lorm oi steam, ii oe poBsed over red-hot iron, 
it parts with its oxygen to the metal, while the 
hydrogen is given off as gaa. The syutheticol proof 
of the composition of water is afforded by passiDg 
purs hydrogen and oxygen, in the ratio o£ two 
volumes of the former to one volume of the latter, 
into a strong glass tube filled with mercury, and ex- 
ploding the mixture by an electric spark, when the 
gases are .replaced by a corresponding quantity of 
moisture, and the mercury ia forced into tJiG tube so 
as to fill it. The most aatiafactory form of this syn- 
thetical proof is, however, afibrded by reducing pure 
oxide of copper at a red heat by hydrogen, and 
collecting and weighing the water that is thus 
formed. The apparatus required for this experi- 
ment, and the method of employing it, are given in 
Fownes's Manual of Chemittry, 9th ed., p. 131, and 
ID Miller's Inorganic Chemitlry, 3d ed, p. 52. 

Owing to its extremely solvent powers, the purt 
viater which wa have been hitherto considering is 
never fomid in nature. The nearest approach to a 
natural pure water is ratn-imfcr, after a continuance 
of wet weather; but even this water always con- 
tains in 100 volumes about 26 volumes ot atmo- 
spheric air, with a trace of ammoais ; and in point 
of fact, it seems impoaaible to obtain water which 
does not contain this ingredient, for, after two distil- 
lations. Professor Miller found from 1'95 to Z'3S 
volumes of air in 100 volumes ot water. In addition 
to rain-water, the other natuTai waleri may be 
included under the heads of Spritm-tnaler, Mineral 
Water) (already considered in a special article), 
ffiuw-ioater (see Wjltbb-scpplv), and Sea-iealer 
(gee below). 

This article would be incomplete without a brief 
notice of the prolonged and acrimonious controversy 
that was for many years carried on, and is probably 
now hardly to be regarded as settled, regaiding the 
respective claims of different philosophers to be 
the true discoverer of the nature and composition 
of water. In the year 1781, Cavendish made a long 
and careful series of experiments, which, unfortu- 
nately, were not published till January VISi, when 
his celebrated Memoir entitled Experimenle on .^lir, 
was read to the Itoyal Society. In the interval 
(June 17S3), his &iend, Dr Blagden, visited Paris, and 
on the authority of Cavendish, gave an account of 
the experiments proving the composition of water 
to Lavoisier ; and this delay between the discovery 
and the date of publication caused his claims to 
one of the most marvellous discoveries Uie world 
ever saw, to be contested by an English and a French 
rival, James Watt and Lavoisier. It may be briefly 
stated, that Cavendish's experiments consisted in 
exploding, in various proportions, mixtures of hydro- 
gen and atmospheno air, and of hydrogen and 
oxygen, and finding aa the result a liquid which 
proved to be pure water. (Priestley and his friend, 
Mr Warltire, had made similar experiments, and 
had noticed the deposition of moisture that fol- 
lowed the explosion, but failed to recognise in it 
anything but the condensation of aqueous vapours 
in the gases.) The general conclusion to which 
Cavendish came was, m his own words, ' that water 
consists of dephlogisticated air united with phlo- 
giston,' Mid as dephlogisticated air was hii term for 
oxygen, and phlogist«D lus term for hydrogen, this 
statement corresponds to tiie modem view of the 


n&tnra of Wftter inbodnced by Lsvoiner. Aji 
lATouierwaa from the fint accnaed by the K"e<''* 
oliemutB of hftTing acted nnfaii^ towarda uem, 
and ai iodted Ilia own claim omy dates back to 
Jane 2S, 1783, he ma; be dimniraed from further 
oamaideratiion ; aod dnriog the Urea of tlie En^i^ 
claimanta there irere no public complaints on mther 
Bide, alUion^ Watt, in private letten to hia Mendi, 
hinted at CaTendiah'i incapacity and nnfunteaa. 
Hence, then— at all events, m thu eoaab; — acien- 
tiGc men were itaiiled when Arago, ™a Secre- 
tary Of the Frenoh Academy, pnbliilied in 1838 the 
Moge of Watt, which he luia read as far back a> 
December 1834, in which he charged Cavendiih 
with deceit and plagiacinn, inaemadi aa he waa said 
to have learned the compoiitian of water, not by 
«n>eiimenla of his own, bnt by obtaining aigfat ol 
a letter from Watt to Fiiertl^. The battle now 
fai^ began ; the flirt blow being atrnck in Angnat 
1839, when the Preaident of the Britiih Avocia- 
tUni, file Bev. Vernon Hareonrt, in hii apening 
addreM, -rindioated Cavendith, and pointed ont 
Axtgffa miastatement. At a Kabseqnoit meeting 
of the Academy, Arago, with Dnmae to back him, 
defended hia Etatementi. Sir David Brewster 
(iUnt. Bee,, January 1840) then «onght to act u 
mediator ; and the controversy, as might have been 
expected, went on with increaeed acrimony ; aod in 
the sumiDer of the same year, when the President of 
the British Association published the Report he had 
delivend the preceding year, he added a postocript. 
Ikying to Araxo, Xhimaa, and Lord &oii^iam 
(irtio hod appended 'As Historioal Note cm the 
Disoovei; of the Xtooiy of Water,* to Arago's 
XSoge). In 1841, Bendina jrobliihed what Dr 
George Wilaon terms ' a oonditioDal jadgmoit ' in 
biTonr of Watt; and in 1845, in his Ltt)a of Men of 
LeUen (see Lift of Watt, p. 400), Lord Brongham 
followed on the same side. Dr Peacock (vteort. 
Bet., 134S, p. lOS), in reviewins his book, assaUed 
his ooncladons, and asserted the claims of Caven- 
diah. In 184S, Mr HaKourt {Load, and Edin. Phil 
Jfo?., Feb. 1840) also repliedto Lord Brougham; and 
in 1847, in the second edition of his ffiilory ofOie 
InducliiK Scions, Dr Whewell maiotMued hia old 
conviction of the claims of Oavoidiah. In 1646, the 
pnbhcation of the CorrarpimieKot qf ffit latt Jamet 
tFalt on hie Dixovery qf lie Ttteorg qfA« Oompon- 
tton of Water, with on introdnction oj hia VJ""^'", 
Mr Mnirhead, who was editor, and a letter from hia 
Bon, formed a moat important addition to the litera- 
ture of this cantroversy. Finally, the question waa 
discaasad. in 1847, by Sir David Brewster in the 
MoHh Sriiuh Reirita, and m 1848, by Lord Jelfny 
in the Edinlmrgh Reneie, both of whom advocated 
the olaima of Watt Aa we have no space to dis- 
cuss Watfa real claims, we may here state that 
Dr Qoorge Wilson, whose L\ft of CaemdiA is in 
reality a strictlf impartial history of the water- 
oontroversy, maintaina on very aonnd gronnda that 
in reality Watt waa informed of Cavendish's dia- 
coveiT wough ftieatley, as lAvmsier was thnragh 

Sba-watkb. — For an accurate knowledge of the 
composition of sea-water, we are mainlv inddjted 
to the investimitiona of Profeaaor Forcbhammer of 
Oopeobagen. Not very many years ago, the only 
elmients Known to ezirt in sea-water, in addition to 
those constituting water itsd^ were cbtorine, iodioe, 
o, solphnr, carbon, sodiDm, magneeiam, potas- 
, aldam, and iroiL To these twelve moat, now 
be added, (13) fluorine, discovered by Dr George 
Wilson; (14) phosphorns, as phosphate of lime ; (IS) 
nitrogen, a> ammonia: (10) dJicoo, aa silica, in whiiiib 
form it is largely ooUected by sponges from sea- 
water; (17) boron, as boracio acid ; (IS) silver; (19) 

copper ; (SO) lewl ; (SI ) nne ; (22) cobalt ; (23) nickd ; 
(S4) moDgMMM; (SS) altauniiun, as ahm^na; (26) 
•tra(itiam,aaitiontia; (27) bBriimi,aa baryta. Seve- 
ral of tAteae elemeati, howerei^ exist in inch snttQ 
qnastttiee that tb^ can only ha disoovwed ittdi- 
reotfy, that ia to s^, in sea-weedi^ marine ""■"*'-. 
or in the atony mattor depcnted at the bottom of 
the boOen of ooesnio steamer*. The fubstancea 
which, in respect of quantity, play the ptincdpol 
part in the composition of ssa-VMsr are ehlonn& 

lul^niio amd, soda, potash, lime^ and ,^ , 

those which oocnr in lea* but stall determinable 
quanti^, are siliea, pbonilioria acid, cartooic add, 
and onde of iron. In the elaborate table* which 
are annexed to his yugtic, FmroUiaminer haa alwm 
calonlated the aingle subetanooi (ahkcinek ral^ianc 
acid, magncBis limsy and potash) aod the whole 
quantity of salt for lOOO part* of MS-water; but 
besides this, he has calculated tiie prt^iaition 
between the diffaent snhstaooe* detetminad, re- 
ferred to (Morine a |0I^ and (tf all the B*lta like- 
wise referred to chlorine. Thia last """tf^ is 
found if we divide the sun of all the salts foqnd 
in 1000 parts of ai^ •e»-w«ter by the quantity of 
chlorine found in it ; aod be tarns it the oo-eAnail 
of that sample of sea-water.* This diemiBt divides 
the sea into seventeen regions, his reasons for dcang 
so being that be could thns avoid the prevailing 
influence which thoee parl» of the ooasn which are 
best known, and from which ha has taken most 
observstions, would exat iqxm the calcnlatkms 
of tile mean mm^ier for the whole ooeao. In 
rrference to the taUm^ of the aurfaae of the ooean, 
he ha* made the fdlowing observationa. (1.) 
The mean aalinity of the Atlutia between 0* and 
30°N. lat. ia 36-168 (Le.. Una is the qnaatitr d 
salts in lOOO parts of wateri ; the m^mom, irtich 
is also the moxhiMim «t Um sorface-watei of the 
whole Atlantic, being N'OOS, and ooonrring in 94* 13* 
N. lat., and about ff W. from the cosat of Airiea, 
where no riven c^ any sise can; water from the 
land, and where the infiuenoe of the dty and hot 
winds of the Sahara is prevuling. Tbia >nrMiniTiin ja 
equal to the mean salinity of thsMediteita&eu, and 
is only aioeaded by the mozimam of that sea off tJM 
libyoD Desert, and that of the Bed Sea. Thomini- 
nuun is 34-283 in 4° ItT 8. lat., and 6* 8S' W. long., 
olose to the coast of Africa, where tlie large mssirn 
of fresh water iriuch the peat river* of t^t ngion 
poor into tike ooean exercise -Uimrinflnenoe. (2.) In 
the Atlantic, between 30* N. lat and a line dnwn 
from the north point of Seotbnd to the narUipcaiit 
of Newfoundland, the mean salioi^ is 30-946, the 
diminution being due to the fresh WMtt ponred into 
it by the southern mouth of the St I^wreooe. (3.) 
In the Baffin's Bay and Davis' Strait region, the 
mean salinity is 33-281, and the salinity increases 
from latitude 64° towards the north, being in 64*, 
32«i6, and in 69°, 33-598. This peculiarity is owing 
hiq^ Foiohhammer) to the powerfiil current from the 
Pany Island*, whitm through diflereot eonnda passes 
into Baffin's Bay, where it is mixed wUh the great 
quantity of fresh water that CMuea into the sea 
&om the West Gieeolond glaci(a& Had this fact 
been known hefon the sound* tiiat eimnect the 
ParryArohipelagowithBafGn'B Bay were discovered, 
it might have proved the eziEtence of these Bounds, 
because bays and inlets ahew quite the revErse : the 
farther we get into them, the less saline the water 
become*, ii.) From eleven observations on tha 
Mediterranean between the Straits of Gibraltar and 
the Greek Arobipelago, he confirms the old view oE 

Hm gieat ulinit7; its mean aaliuity bdng ST'930, 
iriula that of tba whole ocean is 34-3Sa III 
BuximBm (S94S7) faUa betw«en the MlUd <rf Ca&dia 
a>d tike Afiioan ihon; Mtd its minimnni (36-301) ii 
at tha Straits of QibntltM. Tbese nanlta are due 
to Hm inflnanaa of Africa and its hot and diy winds. 
In aaUaitT', tha HeditoTkaetut ia only exceeded hy 
tte Bad Sea, wboae mean adiaitr ii 43-067. (S.) 
^nie Black Sea, like the Baltic, is a miztnTe of salt 
and Fiiali vaten. In three different ezperinieotB, 
the adinilT vaiied from 18146 to 11-880. At a 
>nee (h BO miles from the Bo^homa, the pro- 
tween chlorine, snlphunc add, lime, and 
rsK 100 : 11-71 : 4-22 ; 12-64, while the 

Mio pPopoTtionB are 100 : 11-89 : 2^ : 

11D7 ; thni ahewing a relative increue in the lime 

'-" '- ^)AaUieC«spian8eauicoiudderedby 

' I to have been fomerl; in connectioa 

96-814 a^ 0-23^ »u3. the proportum belitreen the 
^iforine, snlphtirio add, lime, aud magnesia, is 100 - 
44-91 : ff-34 : 21'48, whicli difTen extremely from 
the normal proportion. Thus the Caspian 8e>, if it 
ever had any <:omiectiou wiUi the Black Sea, mnat 
hBTe snliTely ohanged its character since that time 
— » (duDge which m^ht be ooossioDed by the differ- 
ent salts whidi the.nven broo^t into it, and which 
aeonmnlatad there by evapMotiDn of the water; 
or irin^ might be csoaed bj the deposition of 
diffnent salts in the bsain of the Caspian Sea itself. 
(7.) The Atlantio between 30° S. lot and a line from 
ijt^o Horn to the Cape of Good Hope, is less saline 
Uuui tbe cwresponding region north of the eqtiator ; 

and all the sam^des from the western part of thin 
region have less, while the samples from the eastern 
part^ nearer to tiia African cout, have considerably 
mora sn^orio acid than the nonnal quanti^. Does 
this^ asks Forchhammer, depend npon the more 
TiJramic natore of the west e<rast of A^oa than the 
east American coast I (8.) In the sea between 
Africa and tiie East India T s^'iflt i the mean sali- 
nity is 33-868. Tbe minimum (2S-879) is from a 
place high up in the Bay. of Bengal, and of course 
much influenced by the Oangea. It lies, however, 
about 300 miles from the month of that river i and 
another specimen taken 60 miles neaj^r the mouth 
has a salinity of 32-365, so that it would seem as if 
stHoe other cause (possibly fresh-water springs at the 
bottom) hod been in operation to weaken tiia sea- 
water at the tninimnTfi spot. (9.) In the Fatasoniail 
cold-'vater current, the mean salinity was ^-966; 
while three samples bronght from Oia Sonili Polar 
Sea, by the late Sir James Bosa, had different salinitiea 
of 28-565, 16-598, and 37-6ia Forchhammer can- 
not accoont for Uiese discrepancies. All the ipeoi- 
mens shewed a great excess of snlphnric acid (12'47 
in place of 11-88, as compared with 100 of chlorine}, 
a reanlt probably due to the volcanic nature of the 
antarotic ctHitinent. Forchhommer'a analyaei of 
waters from other of his 17 districts coll for no 
remark; and the following ore tha general reaulta 

___, UnAm cubcoate 

neotnjue any prevailing stnmc acid; that lastly, 
tha gnat stability of ita composition dopsmds upon 
''~ msaa, and ita constant motion, which 

tbot the Atlanidii is that part of the ocean 
which oontsins the greatest proportion of salt, 
while some of the hays in the tropical or enbtroiacal 
zone (tbe MediterraueaD and Bed Sea, for example) 
have a -greater mean than the Atlantic ; that on 
qipnaehuig the shores, tbe sea-water, sa might 
have been eniceted, becom«a mote diluted, and 
oooae^iienUy less sijine; that the polar cuirente 
contain less salt than tlie eqnatonol ; that the 
polar onrrent of West Greenland contains more 
snlphnric acid than the water in any other region 
exoBpt the East (Greenland and south polar currents 
(while in the ocean at lai^e, the chlorine is to the 
■Dl^nmc acid as 100: ir^; in the south polar cur- 
rentitiaaa 100iI2-fSfi). As in the case of the West 
Greeoland cutient, there is no neighbouring volcanic 
lepoa to accomit for tiiia exceos, Fonmhammer 
Bngge«ta lltat the ahaenoe of factudal plants, which 
have a. great attraction fw snlphorio acid, may have 
an iuflnenoe in bringing abont thia result;* that 

*In a paper read before UieBiitidi Association in 1844 
Porchbammer shewed that tha fnons tribe has a great 
attraction for Eolphnris add, and that tbe add, when 
tbe plant nndergoes puttBtaetLon, is reduced to soluble 

and Blaif Sea, the Caribbean Sea and the Bed 
Sea, which have all the characters of bays of 
the great ooasi, the mean numbers ore ^le 

mort lime oooan m tate ocean m the Hoond iwm, 
tJie middle pait of the Northeni Atlantic ; and the 
least in ^ West Greenland polar cuirantjtha 
qnantitisa being Si)7 and 2^7 respectively). Wher- 
evw, in other tegiona, tbe infloenoe of land pre- 
vails, the lime also is in excess ; thus, in tiie Black 
Sea, it waa 4-221. 

Fran these remarks on the «ui:^ice-t«(tt«r, we 
pasa on briefly to notioe tbe difference of sea-water 
m dfffireai osplAs. On this subject, the reanlt 
obtained frun the analyses of specimen* of eea- water 
taken frwn di&nnt rwiima, is so oonteadictory, tluit 
we shall (imply quote toe sentence with wbidi F(»ch- 
haiomeT commences thi* deporbnent of his subject t 
' It would be natural to snppow that tbe quantity 
of solta in sea-water would inereaae with tJie deptb, 
as it seems quite reasonable that the ipedfio gravis 
of sea-water would — "" " — ^ 

by the decreasing temperature from the surface to 
the bottom. We have parts of the sea where the 
quantity of solid salts increases with the deptb ; in 
other parts, it decreases with the increosiDg depth ; 
in other places, hardly any differencea can be found 
between mrfaoe and depth; and lastly, I have 
found one instance where water of a certain depth 
contained more salt than both above and below. 

sulphidai ind to sulphmetted hydrogen, iriileh, with tiia 
oxids of the iron of the plant, which is partly diasolved 
and piutly nupended, will form sul)diide c( iron. Thus, 
the solphur will disappear from the water. He siuseits 
that the dtminutdon of mlphnrio ooid whidi be louikd 
in the Atlantic, between the eqaatm and 3(r N. lat> 
(11-Te in plaeu of 11'89), m^ be due to tiw aotian ot 



Dpon currents both on the lurfiice and in different 
depths.' — Op. dt, p. 229. Sonetimefl, salinitj of 
the surfsce-wstec is the same u th&t of the deep ; 
or oae or more ingiadieata may vuy in ita propor- 
tions : for example, in the Mediterranean, while the 
deep water, generally, is richer thao the surface- 
water in suwiurio acid, in some parte, as between 
Sardinia and SOiplei, the surface-water is the richer 
in that ingredient. There are few ob«errationi on 
the specibo gnfity of the sea-water at different 
depths. For the following observations, we are 
indebted to Sir James Itoss. 'At 39° IG' S. lat, 
177' 2' W. long., the specific f![ravity of the surface- 
water was 1-0274; at ISO fathoms, 1-0272; and at 
450 fathoms, I -0268 : all tried at the temperature of 
60° F., and shewing th»t the water b^ieath was 
specifically lighter than that of the surface, when 
brought to the same temperatnre ; our almost daily 
experience confiimed these results.' — Yoyagi, Ac. 
VOL ii p. 133. 

The important questions — How did the salta 
which now occur in the sea come into it T Is it the 
land that forms the sea, or is it the sea that makes the 
land ? Are the salts tbit are now found in 
washed out of the land by the atmosphe; 
Haa the sea existed from the befdmung of the earth ! 
And has it slowly but continuauy given its elements 
to form the land I and thetr answers, constitute the 
last part of Forchhammcr's most philosophical and 
labonmiH Memoir. The following is, in a condensed 
form, his reply to these questions. S 
river had its outlet in a valley, with no co 
tion with the sea ; the valley would be filled with 
water till its surface was so great that the annual 
evaporation was equal to the annual supply. There 
would then be a pnysical, but not a chemical equi- 
Ubrium, because the annual loss would consist of 
para water, while the received water would contain 
variouB mineral or saline matters, which would go 
on increasing till chemical changes would occasion 
precipitation of diOerent salts. Now, in the water 
of the assumed river, we should find the bases 
prevailing in the following order — lime, magnesia, 
soda, iron, manganese, and potash ; while the 
acids, similarly arranged, were carbonic, sulphuric, 
tnuriatio (chlorine), and silicic Now, all these sub- 
stances ore found in sea-water, although in very 
different proportions. The ocean is, in point of 
fact, such a lake as we have here supposed, with all 
the rivers carrying their dissolved matters into it 
' Why, then,' our author asks, ' do we not observe 
a greater influence of the rivers T Why does not 
lime, the prevailing base of river-water, occur in a 
greater proportion in the water of the ocean? In 
all river-water, the number of equivalents of sul- 
phniio acid is mnch smaller than that of lime, and 
yet we find in sea-water about three equivalents of 
snlphuric acid to one of lime. There mnst thas be 
in sea-water a constantly acting cause that deprives 
it again of the lime which the rivers furnish, and 
we End it in the shell-fishes, the corals, the bryozoo, 
and all the other animals which deposit carbonate 
of lime.' These animals not only d«>rive the water 
of its carbonate of lime, bnt luey nkewise decom- 
pose the sulphate of lime — a deoomposition probably 
depending upon the carbonate of ammonia formed 
by the vital processes of theae «"'■"»'" The silica, 
miich is always present in river-water, is appro- 

Jriatsd by the varied sponges, diatoms, kc, and 
enoe its scantiness in sea-water. With regard to 
the sulphuric acid conveyed into the sea, a small 
pott eaters into the compoaitioQ of sheila, corals, &c., 
and a greater part is attracted by sea-weeds, in 
which it ondergoea reduction, as already described, 
while the balance remains in the sea-water. Tlie 

of the river-watar entns in laall qnantiW 
into marine shells and corals, but only a imaU 

quantity is thus abstracted from sea-water, while 
the ao<u and muriatic acid, or chlorine, form, *• 
far as we kuow, by the pure chemical, at organo- 
chemical action that takes place in the sea, no 
insoluble compouad. *Thus|' he concludes, 'the 
quantity of the different elements in sea-water is 
not proportional to the quantity of elements which 
river-water pours into the sea, but inversely to- 
the facility with which the elements in sea-water 
are made insoluble by general chemical or OTgaDi>- 
chemicol actions in the sea ; and we may infer that 
the chemical composition of the water of the ooean in 
a great part is owing to the inSueoce general and 
organo-chemical decomposition has upon it, what- 
ever may have been the composition of the primi- 

WATER-BED, called also the Etdeostatio 
Bid, or Floatiho Mi.rtnim. It is well known 
that the life and health of every part of the animal 
body depend on the sufficient circulation through 
them of refreshed blood. See Circclatiok. Now, 
when a person in health ia sitting or lying, the- 
parts of the flesh oompressed by the weif^t of the 
body do not receive tbe blood so copiously as at 
other times ; and if from any oanse the action of the 
heart has become weak, the interruption will follow 
both more quickly and be more complete. A pecu- 
liar uneasiness soon arises where the drcolation is 
thus obstructed, impelling to change of position; 
and the change ia made as regularly ana with as 
little reflection as the winking of the eyes to wipe 
and moisten the eyeballs. A person weakened by 
disease, however, while geneiol^ feeling the uneasi- 
neaa eooner, as explained above, and becoming rest- 
less, mokes the changes with increasing fatigne; 
and should the sensations became indistinct, as in 
the delirium of fever, in palsy, Ac, or should the 
patient have become too weak to obey the ■eosatioit, 
the compressed parts are kept bo long without their 
natural supply of blood, that they lose their vibdity, 
and become what are called sloughs or mortified 
parts. These, if the patient survives, have after. 

during a tedions canvoleocence. Many a fevef ._ 
other disease after a favourable crisis, has terminated 
fatally from this oocnirence cS slouching on the 
back or aacnim. The same termination is common 
ngcring conamnptions, patsies, spine diseases, 
&c, and genenlly m diseues that confine the 
patient long to beil 
It was to mitigate all, and entirely to preTent 
lOst of the evils attendant on the necessity of 
jmaining long iu a recumbent posture, that the 
hydrostatio b^ was devised by Dr Keil AJmott, 
one of the Queen's physicians. The bed may bo 
shortly described as a mattress floating on water, 
with a loose sheet of caoutcbouo cloth properly 
secured between it and the water, to prevent its. 
being wetted. A person rests on it as a waterfowl 
does on its bulky feathers, with as little inequality 
of h>cal preaanre aa if in a bath. A trough of the 
dimennona of a wide sofa or a bed, havmg aix or 
seven inches depth of water in it, with the required 
caoutchoao covering, is the foundation, on which 
clothes and pillows are laid as in a common bed. A 
full description ia given in Dr Amott's book, the 
Elcmentt t^ Phyfia (6th edition, Longman ft Ca). 
The bed not only prevents the occurrence of bed- 
sores, but by lessening antecedent distress, lessens 
also the danger of the illness. 

On a sudiun emergenoy, or when the need of the 
fluid support is not very urgent local relief may be 
given by forming in any way a partial hollow or 

.'.^.OOQlC — 


depresEioii in a bed, and placing in it a water-sack 

or bi£ tiaJf-filled, lo aa to remain looae or alack. 

This spprDscbes in effect the slack-sided cuBhioQ, 

which IS another modilication of the inrentioiL 

WATBRBBA8H. See PiBoais. 

WATER-BUDGET, a heraldic bearing ia the 

form of a yoke with two pouches 

I of leather appended to it, onginally 

] intended to represent the bags 

used by the Cnasaders to convey 

water across the desert, which 

e alung on a pole, and carried 

>SB the sbonlders. Tbe Tnu- 

buts, Barons of Wartre in Holder- 

nesa, bora TroU boutz (Trau, three 

wataT'budgets, symboliBins at once 

■Water-bndgets. thrir famUy name and oaronial 

estate ; and by the marriage o( 

the heiress, similar anna came to be asaomed by 

the family of De Roi, who bear gulea, three water- 

biidgeta argent. 

WATER-BUO, the popular name of a tribe or 
section of Heteropteroiis insects, Hydrocoraa, which 
live almoat entirely in water, and feed upon other 
aquatic inseeta. The ante- 
rior portion of the first 
pair of wings is homy ; 
the ant«mue are very small, 
and concealed beneath the 
eyes. The HydrocoritiE 
are divided into two 
familiea, Notonfctida, and 
Ktplda. Of the former, 
tbe Boat-fly (q. T.) is an 
eiample. The Nrpidit are 
popu larly known aa Water 
'■ i, from the form 

Water Scorpion. 

} efiicii 

of their tore-legs, which 

for seiziDg their prey. Some of tht -.'c^ruu. olc 

powerful insects, two or three inches long. 

WATERBXJRY, a township and city of New 
Haven county, Connecticut, U. S., 33 miles aouth- 
n'est of Hartford, on the left book of the Naueatuck 
t its confluence with Great Brook and Mad 
River, whose falls furnish abundant water-power. It 
ia a well-built town, with a tine park and orna- 
mental cemetery, 7 churches, 2 banks, and 30 large 
manufactories of rolled copper, brass, Oerman- 
ailrer, plated ware, pins, hooka and eyes, buttons, 
' ~ suasion-caps, Ac It baa been built 
lanica, and is Vba head-quarters of 
t^e Crass bnainesa in the United States. Pop. in 
1860, 10,004. 
WATER CHESTNUT {MarTond! Eaa\i'be name 
given in France to the edible seeds of the Tropa 
natan* (see Trafa).— The name Water Chestnut is 
abo given to the edible tubers of the Scirpui tuber- 
onis, a plant of the natural order Cyperacea (see 
Bdlb[:sh and Cvprracea), which is cultivated by 
the Chinese in tanks very abundantly supplied 
with manure. It is destitute of leaves, except a 
■lender short sheath or two at the base of each culm. 
is stoloniferoua, and the tubers are produced on 
the itolona. They ore in high estimation amons 
the ChineK, both for food and as a medicine, and 
ate eaten either raw or boiled. They are called 
fi-Ui or Maa-laL 

WATER-COLOURS are painters' colours mixed 
with water and some adhesire material, as gum or 
~ e instead of oil Tfaose intended for drawings on 
'e prepared with great care, and are usually 

with glue or size. These an often called Distemper 
Colours, from the Italian term tempera, applied to 
them to express their application to temporaly 


WATER-DOG, a kind of dog, of which the 
Poodle (q. v.) is regarded as a aub-variety. The 
head ia rather large and round, the ears long, the 
legs rather short, the general form compact, the 
hair everywhere long and curly. The Water-dog 
of England, common before the jioodle had been 
introduced from the continent, is still much esteemed 

Wal*c SpsnieL 

by professional wild-fowl shooters, and by the 
fiahermen of the north-eastern counties. It is about 
IS or 20 inchea high at the shoulder. The hur is 
coarser and crisper than tiiat of the poodle. This 
dog waa formerly sometimes used in London for 
the brutal sport of hunting and worrying domestio 
ducks, placed in a pond for the purpose. It is an 
intelligent and aSectionate kind of dog, although 
not of^much beauty. 

WATER- DROPWORT {(Enanlhe). a genus of 
plants of tbe natural order UvibelliferfE; having ovato- 
cylindrical fruit, not priokly nor beaked, each carpet 

Wster-diopwort ((Eiumtht cmtota). 

with five blont convex ribs, and single vittm in tho 
interstices ; the calyx teeth lanceolate ; the petala 
obcordate and radiant, with an inflected point ; the 




lower levaL 

pMtUI inTolacre of nunj imyi ; the flowan at the 
cu«nmf«r«nce on long italki mud Bterile, tliaae of 
the centre mbaeuile and fertile. A number of 
Hpecjes lira natives of Britain, large perennial plants, 
with ■ strong and generally dieogreeobla aromatic 
Hmell, and compound or lecimipoand leaves. The 
CoKKDH W. {(E. Jittaiota) and the Hbilock W. 
oi Watkr Huloce ^<E. eroeata), ore both canmun 
in wet [dooes in Britoan and tliron^ioiit Europe, an< 
both are nwcotia ocdd poistnii. Hie roots of tlie 
lottBi have come Teaemblanoe to small psrsnips, ai 
hence fatal ocddenta have freqnentJy oocmred.. 
Tba FiKB-LunCD W., called Water Feonel by 
the Qenaaaa {(E, pluilandriam, fonnerly known oi 
FhtUandriam aqaatiaim), ia also common in ditchei 
And pondi both in Britain and on Uie contineot 
It hoa a jointed root-atallc (rAizonu), with tufted 
whorled fibres, and a itronK mgzog stem dilated at 
the base. 'Hie l«s*«s are deccmipaand. The fruit 
has a pecsBaf anttiatio biili i1i>K)^iw^iln smell 
ia not BO pcMOootlB as the other species jnat named. 
It was at one time enoneoasly repvded as a specific 
, ooasnmption ; bat it has been 
' employed in pnlmanaiy oomplaints. 

. of the U. a, feimied by the 

jondaon of lite Catawba and Fishing Creek in Ncvth 
Carolina, mm south-east into South Carolina, where 
it unites with the Conevu to form the Santee. 
Steamboats ascend tike W. to CamdeD, 200 miles 
from the sea. 

WATERFALL is a break in the continuity of 
elope oE the channel of a river or stream, so abrupt 
that the body of water 7!i£i from the higher to the 

, i___, ^rierfalls ooenr most freq " ' 

oountries, where the strei 
sides ent«T tiie volleys. It iff only 
when tlie nde <£ the valley is composed of honl 
rode that there can be a waterfall; in friable 
strata the stream weata out a ravine or side-vaHev. 
These mountain wat«rfalljs, however, are generally 
tather cnrious and picturesque than grand, the 
volume of water beinf in most cases comparatiTelj 
insignificant, though Uie bei^t of fall is oocasionoll; 
very great. All mountain waterfalls necessarily 
chuige tbeir aspect from season to season — in 
wintio', a roaring torrent plunging headlong into the 
abyss ; in sommer, often a mere film of water 
trickling down the face of the precipice. Water- 
falls in comparatively level districts are not nearly 
BO oommon, and their height of fall is insignificaut 
compared with that of mormtun cataracts ; but 
tbe much greater volmne of water, ita steady and 
even fiow to the head of the precipice over which, 
in solid column, it descends with a thundering 
plunge, plaoe such waterfalls among: the grandest 
of nature s phenomena. It is where Uie course of a 
laise river passes from a hi^er to a lower plateau, 
and where the upper platan is edged wiui rock, 
that the grander cataracts are formecL If the rocks 
are of the same hardness from top to bottom, the 
edge of the escarpment, sappoaing it to be perpendi- 
cular at tot, bec<nnea worn o^ and a slope or 
rapid is formed. But when the upper edge is hard 
and the under strata soft and friabt^ the reverbera- 
tion of the spray wean away the softer ports below, 
leaving a projecting ledge at &e ti^ which breaks 
off, piece by loece, as it becomes too much under- 
mined, so that the iaH ia ocostantly receding. The 
question of the rate of regreeiion of waterfolls bos 
not hitherto occupied much ottention, ond has only 
been estimated m the case of Niagara, Bokew^ 
giving its annual value at 1 yard, while Lyell limits 

third of this. Some of the most 
remorkoble waterfalls of the wmld are the Oroo 
Falls at Monte Bosa, 2400 feet in height ; Qavomie 

{Pyieneea), 1400 feet; Staubbach (Switzerland), 1000 
feet; Maonelvaa (Norway), 940 feet; Niogmia 
(q. v.); Zombeii (q. v.); ICssouri; and that in 
Moripoaa County, Colifbmia, said (on hitherto 
unsatisfaotot; authori^J to be liie h^sat in the 
world. The cataracts lA the Telino ud Anio, in 
Italy, an beaatiful artificial imitataima of tliia most 
ftriking of natural pheskomena. 

WATER FLKA {Daphnia), a genus of EiUomot- 
Iraea, of the order Cladoeera, and umily Daphniada. 
One species, D. vtonoadtu, is abundant in pools and 
ditches in Britain. It comes to the surface in the 
mornings and evenings, but keeps neor the bottom 
during the heat of &e day. K swim* bv t^Jng 
short springs, whence ifa popniir name. It feeds 
on minute porticlea both at ammal and vegetaUe 
substonees. It is a beautiful object for the mien- 
scope i the whole interior oiganisation being visible 
through the trauspareut caropace. The male is 
much smaUer tbaa the female, and comparatively 
rare. The eges, after leaving the ovaiy, are retained 
in a cavity Detween the body and the carapace, 
until the young have attained almost tJMlr perfect 

vinoe of Mnnster, Irdand, is bounded on the Jf, by 
the conntiea (rf Tipperory and Kilkenny, on &« & 
by Wexford, on the S. t^ the Atlontio, and on tlie 
W. by the county of Corl^ Its greatest length from 
east to west is S2 miles, and its breadth, north to 
south, 28; the total oreo being 721 >q. at, or 461,563 
acres, of which 32S,345 are arable, 10S,49« waste, 
23,468 in plantations, fi2S in town*, and 5779 
under water. The pop. in 1B51 was 164,051, and 
in 1861, 134,262 ; ofVhom 107 ,225 were Catholio. 
3208 Protestants oS the established church, and 
the re«t Protestants of other denominations. The 
number of acres under cropa of all kinds in 1868 
was 112,279, of which 23,620 were under wheat, 
32,900 under oats, 13,787 under potatoes, 11,053 
under turnips, and 19,775 in meadow and (^over. 
The coast-line extends from the estuary of tlie Snir, 
Waterford Harbour, to thot of the ItUckwater at 
Yoogbsl, and is partly flat, portly rocky, but in 
gen»al very dangerous for ehipping; The rocky dis- 
trict contains some remarkable caverns. The surface 
of W. is in general monntainDns. The principal 
ranges ore Knockmeledown, the Cummeiagh, Mone- 
vologh, and Drum. The Cummer^h Mountains are 
the loftiest, and abound in wild and picturesque 
scenery. The Snir (q. v.] and t^e Blackwater (q. v.) 
ore the chief riven. There are no lakes worthy of 
note. The climate is moist, and over a consid- 
erable part of the county 
but the upland districts 
tillo^ and the lower pasture-lands, althongb 
inferior in fattening properties to those of Out 
^reat central plain, pniduoe excellent butter, whid) 
u exported m lu-ge quanlitiea. In geolc^cal 
structure, the mountains present the old ond new 
slate, separated by red and gray quartz rDck and 
qnartioee slate. Of qnorry slate, there are two 
-"Qcipa] varietiea, w&ich are raised extensively 
locsl use. The valleys belong to the limestone 
series, being an outlying moloD^tioa of t^e great 
bed of the central piiun. Lead, iron, and oof^ker ara 
fonnd, and have all been raised with more or leas 
less. The two former, however, have proved 
irofitable, but the copper-works ' " 

of several colours and of considerable beauty ia 
quarried near Coppoquin and Whitechurch, and 
potter's cloy of good quolity is found at Kildrum, 
near Dungorvon. The chief occupations of the 



p<qKil»tioD are pMtimga and duiy-fannina ; 
a ctnaideMUe nuumfacture boUi of ootton uut ___ 
haa beeo reoeatly introdnoed. it Pntlaw, Mid the 
■hippiiiK-tnde hu of late yean become lictiTO and 

W. ii diTidad into ei^ bannieK The meet 
oonaidenble towna bcodea VTatertari '""- ' -' 
are Dnngarvaii, CHrick-beg— properir 
GaiiiA-an-8air, which ia in Tippeniry— Liamore, 
0^ipoqiiiii,TaII(>w,aiutl^amoM> Cloiiiiiel,*' ' 
dud J in "Bmnrj, lie* wtrtiy withiti this 
W. ntnnM fire menbenM ptuitMneat-^tm 
camtr, two for Waterfocd Ci^, and one for the 
bomagh <d DwignTaa. nie eotmtj- o 
■nl8UwM8664. Theoet amnialnlue 
in W^ mder tite Tmemaot Valnatiin) Act, la 
£26ifltl. Thie district, in common vi& the 
ad j)>nliig ooonty of Werf oid, is believed to lum> 
beoi anoientiy peopled by a, Belgio colon;. Tba 
I>BneB alio fonned a aettlemeiit at the moatb of the 
Snir. Ftam the date of the invuioii, W. became a 
■tronghdd of the ^glirii, large srantB hanng 
been made by Saxty IL to 4^ famify of Le Fov; 
and in aO the attcrnationi of the mbaegnent 
■tnggia with the Irish popnlalion, tt oontinnea for 
the moat part a firm oenire of ^gliah inSneiKa. 
Hm CMmty abounda with antiqnitiea eooleaiaatical 
and militan', and of the CeUdo and Daniiii, a» wdl 
aa the An^o-Normin period. 

WATEBFOBD, a at^, capital of the oonitty 
of Um aame name^ bot iteelf a onmty of a citr, 
and a padiamentary bomngh, ia otoated in N. 
lak SZ* Iff, W. long, r S*, on the river Soir, 12 
milea from Ihe icl and 97 aontii-Banth-weat from 
DabUn, wiUi wfaicii dly it ia conneoted bv the 
Great Soutiiem and Weaten, nd Wateif oid and 
UneHck Junction Bailwi^a^ aa alao hy the Water- 
locd and Eilkainy Bailway. like pop. in 1861 
waa 23,293, of iriiom 3(\4S9 vera Eoman Catiicdica, 
I9SS Ptoteatauta of the eetabliahed chnn^ and 
tbo net Fnrteatanta of otiier daDOminatiDDa. The 
(dty, with the exception of an inconaid^vble 
aobnrli, with which it ii conneoted by a bridge of 
39 ardtee, SE2 feet Ions, opening &>f the paaeage 
fi ahipi^ lies on the ri^n butk of the Boir, along 
irinch a handanrnw and apaoiona quay extends for 
a distance of neariy a mile, and turn whioh the 
d^ aaoenda gradiully in weU-bmlt atoeota. yessela 
of 2000 tons are now enaUed to diadiarge their 
earvoea at the quay ; bnt there ia an anolioTa^ for 
■tiU larger ebipa about sii miloi lower down the 
river, a* Pasaage. The public bmldingi of most 
conafalmbte prateneioaB are the Proteebuit caliie- 
dtat and that of the Soman Catholic bishop, the 
Pnrteatant episcopal palace, the (Catholic) college of 
8t J<^ ifae Model National School, and the city 
In addition to the Union 

e is an infirmair, a dispensary, a 
fenr hospital, a district Innatio asylnm, and a 
penitentiuT. The a^dia of the mnnieipali^ are 
aifminiateted by a mavor and ootporation oonsistbg 
oftenaldnmeDaodtnir^ooiinoillotB; those of Qie 
port, t^ a body <it commiasionerB, 21 in nomber, 
deetod by the oorporKtdon and tiie Chamber of 
Cca>Bioo& The b«de of W. is mainly with Eng- 
land, and liea chiefly in the export of agiiciu- 
tmal ^irodnce, bntter, pork, bacon, oom, flonr, bmi, 


t impnlse, and there is now a ship-boilding 
, with patent slip, Ktaving-bank, ana dock, on 
Uie Kilkenny bank of the river, 

W. is or^^nally of Danish ftnmdation; bat at 
tbe tnranoD, the titj was taken by aasanlt 1^ 
StroDgbow, by whom it waa enlarged, and made a 
[iaoe of strangth. It reoeived a olurter from John, 
*Udi waa fonrited onder James L, bnt restored by 

Oharice L in 1626. Bnt few temaina of its ancient 

bntldings are now to be seen. 

WATER-GLASS, the tolnble silicates of potash 
or Boda, oc a mixture of both. It is nsoally pre- 
pared I^ boiling silica with caustio alkali under 
iDTC, about 60 lbs. to the square inch, i 

pressiirc, i 

ance of common glass, and ia slowly soluble i 
water. A salution of watar-Khus is used, mixed 
with sand, ka., to form artificial stone. It ia alao 
spread ob 1^ aurfaoe of atone to protect it from 
decay, aa it sinks in and ceiamits tb» particles 
togettis; and it eoUrt into the oomposition of 
some kinds of cement In the ait of Stereocbromy, 
or Freaco-pMoting (q. v.), water-g[aH ia now mnoh 
oaed. It baa also beoiHne useful in oertain d;^ing 
jaocsasna, having in stnne eases beoi fonnd to answer 
the poipose of dunging. 

WATKB-HEH. See Qiuixmx. 

WATEBIiAKD, Dahth, D.D, a dergvman of 
the fiijdiab Chaidi, ptominant in the theological oon- 
ttovenus ot Ute fint half of iiie 18th centnry. He 
waa bom on Urn 17th FefanuT 1683, at Waaeley 
in LinoolnshiTe, of which parish his father waa the 
rector. After going throng the uanal course of 
study at Magdalen College, Cambridge, he waa 
admitted into orders ; and in IT13 ne beoame 
rector of Wlingii^iYi, on Oia nomination of the Gari 
of Suffolk. It was shortly after this that h« pnb- 
lished his first book, Advice to a Toitag Stuaent, 
vnik a Met/tad o/ Study for &t fmt Four Ytar* 
— an nnpretentioDs but naefnl woik, whidi soon 
became very pc^mhu', and brrag^t its author into 
notioB. King Oeorge L appointed him one at hJa 
ehaplaius in 1717. Abont this period ha began to 
be engaged in theological oontrovarsy, one of hii 
eariien wraks being a oriticwn of a hoA. by Dr 
Wbitily, in iriiioh a severe attadc was made nnon 
Bishop BnU'a Xf^net of Ilia Nie«M Crttd. Whitby 
answered Urn ; W. rejoined ; and in 1719 the latter 
expanded hia writina upon thia anbjeot into his 
^MO«o/Cari(f«i>ietni[^. Thia work waa ahaiply 
tntiwaed by Dr Clartw and other Ariana ; to whom 
W. replied in a work publiahed in 1724. TTpon the 
same subject he, in 1720, preaohed and ptibhahed a 
series of sermons at the request of the Biahop <A 
London. Within a few yean after this he passed 
throngh a rapid conise of promotion in the Church. 
In 1721 he waa appranted rector of the pariah of 
StAugBstinein theCi^of London; in 1724 be got 
the Ohanoellonhip of tiie Cathsdral <rf ToriL He 
was ai^ioiiited a canon of WindaOT in 1727, and Arch* 
deacon of Middlwinr in 1728. He held alons with 
the latter appointments th^ valuable Uvina of Twiok- 
(Tihftm. During these yeara he waa indeutigable in 
controreisy; not only keeping np a paper war 
against the Arians, but entering toe lista against 
free-thinken, such aa Middleton and 1 

A OnOtal BidOTV qfAe A&a. 

Muitm Ortti (172i) ; A Stmae nf As 2>oclrtns of 
tie .SudWU (1737); mASt^ptur* FiR(aea<«<f(1734), 
are considered amcmg the most noteworthy of hia 
productiona. In 173§ woe published two volnmea 
oEhiasennoDB,editedfay oneof hia friends— the one 

rn Jnatification, the other npom the Commonion 
Infanta. W. died on the 23d Deoember 1740. 
iplete edition oE h^ worka, accompanied by a 
foil MenuHT of bia life from the pen of Bishop 
dildert, waa pahliahed at Oxford in 1823, in 

lomea Svo ; an eleventh volume, containing a 

general index, was added in 1828. 

WATEB-LILT, a name commonly enoo^ given 
to the diflerent apeciea of Jfympliaa and jTmhar, 

LiOOg l 


and also of Krlambium, all genera of the natural 
order Sym^utaaa (q. v.), and indeed often ex- 
tended to aU tbe plants of Uiat order. Britain pro- 
duces three sjieeies — Nymphea aJha, the White 
Water-lily; and NupJiar luUum and 2fuphar 

White Water-lilj {A'ymphaa alba). 

pamUum, called Yellow Water-Miea The two for- 
mer are frequent in still waters in most parti of 
the island ; Nuphar pumHum, is more rare, and 
chiefly found in Scotland. All have heart-shaped 
leaves, floating on the water. The beautiful and 
fragrant white flowers of Nympkaa a^ float upon 
" water; the flowers of the yellow water-lily, which 
of comparatively little beauty, are rased by 
their stalks a little above it The seeds of these, 
as well as of the Water-lily of the 24ile {Nymphaa 
lotat — see Lottib), are fannaceoua, and are some- 
timea used for food. The Tarks prepare a cooling 
drink from the stems of Ifapfiar JiiWuw.— The 
SwBET-scENiBD WiTER-LiLY of North Amcricia, 
ifymphcca odorala, has a large white flower of great 
beauty, and of very sweet smelL Not only Nym- 

WATERLOO', Battle op, the decisiTe conflict 
which annihilated the power of Napoleon I., waa 
fought, ISth June 1816, in a plain about 2 milee 
from the village of W., and 12 milea south from 
Brussels. Agreeably to the nnsDimoua resolve 
of the Allies to attack Napoleon on all sides, and 
crush him as they had done in 1814, British 
and PniBsinn troopa were stationed in the Nether- 
Innda, under the command of Wellington and 
cher respectively, in order to attack France 
the north. Napoleon, on his side, well aware 
that for a considerable time no weighty attack 
could he made on France except by these forces, 
and fully recognising the immense advantage to be 
gained by destroying one enemy before the othen 
could come up, rapidly concentrated the bulk of 
his troops; and with a suddenness and secrecy 
which defled all effective couDter-preparatioiis, 
crossed the Belgian frontier, and fell with one 
part of his forces on the Prussians at Ligny 
(q. v.), and with the other part, under Ne^s 
immediate command, on the. artny of the Prince 
of Orange at Qnatre-Bras (q. v.). The Pnusians— 
aa Wellington, after learning Bllloher's dispositiona 
for the battle, had foretold — were, after a contest of 
the most obstinate description, completely defeated ; 
but the Prince of Orange, by the aid of the rein- 
forcements promptly forwarded to him by the Eng- 
lish commander, incceeded in withstanding Nej^g 

attack. In the plan preconcerted by the Allied 
generals such a result waa not unforeseen, and in 
accordance with their scheme of firm resistance 
and retreat if necessary {to allow time for tliG 
Itusaians and Auatrians to asseialile o: 
frontier of France), Blflcher retreated northwirdi 
(instead of eastwards, as Napoleon expected] neuer 
the place of rendezvous with Wellington at Mont St 
Jean ; while early on the momiog of the 17th, the 
Aaglo-Netherlaaders retired along an almoat parallel 
route tiU they reac' ' " ' ' • - ' ■ 
front of which they 
facing southwards. Napoleon, imagining Uiat the 
ProssianB were in total rout, and tV-' "■- 

Slete dissipation would easily be a 
■rouchy's division (33,00" 
in pursuit, crossed to Qu . 
his trocma, and uniting with Ney, marched in puniut 
of Wellington, arriving on the plun of W. in ttw 

The two Brmies which then confronted each other, 
though nearly equal in strength, were composed d 
very different materiala. The French army, number- 
ing from 69,909 to 72,347 men (according to French 
authorities, English historians varying in their eati- | 
mate from 74.000 to 90,000, though its eiut ; 
strength cannot be ascertained, owing to the loss of : 
the official returns), waa composed of veteran troops, 
who had cnthnaiaatically ranked themselves once | 
morennderthestandardofthechief whobaduoftes | 
led them to victory. The Anglo-Netherlands army, j 
which numbered 69,894, of whom only 25,389 »Mt | 
British, 6793 of the king's German legion, 10,995 | 
Hanoverians, 6303 BrimBwickcrs, 2926 Nassiueit, | 
and 17,488 Ketherlanders. consisted, with the exccp- I 
tiou of a small number of Peninsnlar veterans, whoDy 
of young soldiers, a large proportion of whom had | 
never been under fire ; the Hanoverians were only | 
militia, some of them being fitbutforgarrison-dutj; ; 
while the behavionr of many of the Belgian troopi | 
daring the battle shewed plainly enough that they | 
mainly increased the numerical strength of the army, 
as they left it to the Butch soldiers to vindicate the ' 
wrongs of the Netherlands. The French had 540, 
while their opponents had only about 156 gona 
With such an array, to maintain even a delea- 
sive conflict with an army of veterans, commanded 
by the greatest general of the time, was a Uak 
which (labouring under a mistake as to tbe exact 
superiority in number of his opponents) it required 
all Wellington's rare tenacity ot purpose to under- 
take; yet undertake it he did, depending on 
BlUcher's promise to join him on hour aEler 

On the morning of the ISth, the two anniei 
found themselves ranged in battle-array oppo- 
site each other : the Allies, posted on a line of 
eminences, had their left wing resting on Frischer- 
mont, the farm-house of La Haye Saiute in front of 
their centre, while their right wing curved oon- 
vexly round behind Hougomont, and rested on 
Brajne Merbes. The French were ranged on a 
parallel row of eminences, having La Belle Alliance 
in their centre, with some divisions of cavalry and 
infantry in reserve behind Uis right wing ; Eelle^ 
mann's dragoons behind the left wii^; and tbe 
Guard, stationed with the 6th corps, in the le^' 
Skirmishing had continued all the morning i bat 
the first serious attack Was not made till between 
eleven and twelve, when a part of the lst_ corps 
advanced against Hougomont, with the view ol 
masking the more imporUnt attack to be made 
against the allied left. This prelirainary awaiut. 
however, though unsuccessful, waa maintained m" 
great vigour for a considerable time ; till Mapoleo''i 
dreading a further loss of time, pr^aied to nuke 


his gno< .... 

(half-past one P.M.), lia learned that the advanced 
guard of the 4th PnuBian carps (Bulon'a) ivna 
appearing in front of St Lambert, 2 — 3 miles 
to hia right ; and being forced to detach hia 6tli 
corps (Lobau's) with the reserves of cavalry behiad 
ilia right wing, to keep them in check, he bad to 
modify hia grand plaii oF attack ou the Anglo- 
Ketherlandera, and accordingly ordered Sej to 
break through their centre. At two w.x., after a 
funOoB preliminary cannonade, from which Welling- 
ton ghelt«r«d his men {aa at Tarious other times 
during the battle), by retiring them to the reverse 
of the slope, Ney advanced against the left centre 
with 20,000 men, but had only succeeded in puttiug 
to fi^t a Belgian brigade, when he was attacked 
and <mven back by Picton's dinsion, his retreating 
columns charged and broken by the Iiinpli»h cavalry, 
and 2000 prisonera taken. Neverthdeita, after a 
brief space, Ney returned to the charge, and carried 
La Haya Sainte, though hia repeated attacks on the 
infant^ in position were constantly repulsed, and 
hia retreating columns severely handled by the 
British cavalry, who, disordered by success, were as 
ottea overthrown by the French cuicasgiera. By 
this time (half-psst four f.u.), Bulow bod succeeded 
in deploying from the woods, and, advancing against 
PIsDchenoi^ in the rear of the French right, carried 
it after a vigoroos conflict. Lobau's corps, however, 
aided by a reinforcement from the Guard, speedily 
retook the post, and driving the Prussians back 
into the wood, secured the French ri^t flank for a 
Napoleon, though now learning that another 

IVnaiian corps (the 1st, nnder Ziethen) was coming 
up by Ohain to join the Allied left, bein^ stiQ 
eonfident that he could deatroy the Anglo-lN ether- 

landers before the nuasians could render eSectii 
aid- During the conflict wiUi Bulow, Ney had been I 
warmly engaged witli the centre and right of the . 
enemy, who had made varioua attempts to rwain i 
the wnod of Eougomont and Iia Haye Somte, ! 
and had supported his repeated attacks -aitii i 
ut only his own cavalry, but (bf, at any rate, the . 
' tacit consent ' of the emperor) with the cuirssBierH, 
lanceis, and chasaenrs of the Guard, and the whole 
of the mounted reserve, without, however, produc- 
ing any result other than a great alaaghter on bath 
■idea, and the useless sacrifice of 18,000 of the finest ' 
cavalry ever seen. Napoleon now resolved on I 
■wnthoi- vehement assault on the immovable British [ 
centre, and directed wainat it in auccesaion two i 
colamns, one compoaed of four battalions of the j 
Middle Guard, and the other of four battalions 
of the Middle and two of the Old Guard, sup- 
porting them with flank attacks of other infantry 
divisions, of cavalry, and with a dreadful Brv of 
artillery. The advancing French were met with a 
weil-Buatuned fire from every piece which could 
be brought to beiir upon them ; the first attacking 
column was fairly driven down the slope by the 
English Guards, and the second was totally 
routed by a bayonet-charge of Adam's brigade, the 
British cavalry following up the fugitives. Ziethen 
had now (7 P.u.) joined the left of die English line ; 
Bulow, further reinforced, bad carried Plancbeuoit, 
aod was driving the French right wing before him ; 
and the combmed attack on the retiring masses 
of ths French by Gie whole eSective force of the 
Anglo-Netherlanders on the one side, and of the 
Prasaian cavalry on the other, converted an ordi- 
nary, thoogh severe defeat into a rout unparalleled 
in history. The magnifcent cavalry, wantonly 
destrc^ed by Ney in fruitless attacks upon an 
' impracticablo ' infantry, would then have been of 
iaciJcalable service, but they were no longer to 
be had. The last square of the Guard atill stood 

its ground, to protect the flight of the Emperor ; 
but it was speedily surrounded, and on the soldier- 
like refosal of Cambronne to surrender, was in a 
moment pierced through, aod broken to pieces. 
From this time all resistance was over; the roads 
southwards, especially that to Genappes, were 
crowded with fugitives fleeing for their lives from 
the pursuine cavalry ; and though the English light 
cavalry, eihiuated with their severe work dunng 
the battle, soon ceased the pursuit, it was kept up 
with great energy throughout the whole night by 
the Knssian troopers, who aeemed bent upon at 
once avenging the defeats of Jena, Auerstadt, and 
Ligny, and glutted their fierce animosity by an 
indiscriminate slaughter. The total loss iu thia 
battle was, from the obstinacy and determination 
with which it was contcst«d. necessarily large; 
the figures are: British and Hanoverians, 11.678; 
Bninswicken, 687 ; Nassauers, 643 ; Netherlanders, 
3178; a total of 16,186; which, added to 6999 
FmsaiaoB, giv&i the aggregate allied loss, 23,1SS. 
The French had 18,S0OkilIed and wounded ; 7800 
prisoners (some French accounts raise the total 
liat of hort dt emnbat to 32,000), aud S27 cannon 

This great battle has given rise to numerous 
controversies among the British, Freoch, and Ger- 
man historians of the great struggle between Encope 
and Napoleon — the points in dispute being, (\) 
as usua^ the numbers engaged on each aide, (2) 
tbe ability shewn by each general in his dispo- 
sitions for the conflict, and (3) the relative share of 
the British and Prussians in producing the final 
result. These questians can bo briefly and satis- 
factorily answered. The strength of the English 
army is known from official estimates ; the French 
army, as shewn by its manceuvres throughout the 
day, was mora nnmeroua, and though its amount 
cannot, with perfect accuracy, be ascertained, it was 
certainly over 70,000, and under 80,000 ; but tbe fact 
that many Belgians in the Duke's army took to their 
heels aa soon as the French marched towarda them, 
and fled direct to Brussels, increased tie diapro- 
portion, already sufficiently great, between the two 
arraiei ; the Prussians had only 35,000 men under 
fire at W,, and half o£ these only for about half an 
hour. Fault has been found with WeUington for 
giving battle in front of a wood, but the accusation 
IB foolish, OS several good roads traversed the wood, 
thus affording means of retreat, if necessary, and 
the wood could have been held by akirmiahera to 
protect the retreating infantry. Iiapoleon's fault* 
were chiefly — the late hour at which he (not calcu- 
lating on the arrival of the Prussians at all, and 
certainly not without Grouchy) commenced the 
conflict, and tbe reckless manner in which his 
cavalry reserves were wasted ; and his neglecting 
to take into account the steadiness — a ateadinesa 
new to one of even hia experience— with which, aa 
he was warned hj Soult, who knew it only too 
well, t^e British infantry were wont U) maintain 
their ground. As to tbe third point, there is no 
doubt that Bulow'a attack on Planchenoit distracted 
Napoleon's attention, and drew off 10,000 of his 
foTDca ; but though the Prussians had not come up, 
the battle could not have been otherwise than a 
drawn battle ; however, the effect of their successful 
attack on the French right, by taking in flank also 
the siiuadronB which recoiled before the invincible 
steadiness of tbe British, wsa the conversion of 
an otherwise drawn bottle into a ^orious vicfaay. 
Each of the three nations claims ita riaht to give 
name to this famous conflict— the French calling it 
after Mont St Jean, a chiLtean in rear of the British 
lino ; tbe Prusaiaua after La Belle Alliance ; while 
the true victors on ^le bloody field assert theii 

ih.;....LlUU^j lC 


rightful daim, and will band it down to iB fatore 
iLgea ae th« BaOh of Waierho. 

WATBR-MABK, the tnAiiiifactiiTeT'i mark on 
Tarioni kindi of ptqier. See Papek. 

WATEK MELON. See Melon. 

WATEK OnSBIi. See Diffkk. 

WATEB-POWEB. The nlns of wator-paww 
dep«nda much on th* utoM <rf the Mnrca d •apply, 
whether ateadf M otherwiMh Where etreeme np- 
jjyinf water-pCFwet aie liaUe to fkll offmnehiudry 

weatEar, lat^ impounding Meervdn are n '-' 

to keep tha mini fntn. bcaag (topped doling . 
Thnen, however, being generally enxnaive Couaamm, 
m a^dom made for one mill, bnt nther by aoma 
•nociation of mill-awnon ; and often by a water- 
OMopany or commiaaion for aopplying a town wiHi 
miter, to tffoid oompenaatdon to the lulla by ifaning 
up flood-water, for what ia abetnotad ba ths nae 
ol the towa. On amall atreani% ilnre ia guarally 
a pond provided fit to hold a njght'a inter, or, 
peniapi, even a Snnd^a, in addition : bat in the 
oaia « large riven^ thve ia, in gtmiai, calf a weir 
or dam Mroei the river to dlieot tike water into the 
intake lade. When the inoUnatian in the bed of 
the •tream ia amall, the lade* leqoiie to be pnmor- 
tionally lonA to give asfBdent uU, and am olten 
above a niu long or more from the iatake to the 
lower end of ilie tail oi diacharge lade^ where the 
water i* retained to Uie stream. The lue and fall 
of the tide baa been freqaently oaed for driving 

Tlie moet nenal, and generally the moat eli^bk^ 
mods of apjdying water to the driving <d maohinwr 
ia by meaoa of a vertical lAeel ; and tile wheel u 
pot m motion either by the water acting on bladea 
at floati hy impnlae derived fnan ite velocity 
aoqoired in Uling, or by the weight of water being 
nplied to erne ads of the wheel The fonner mode 
<H ^iplyii^ the water ia generally adopted in low 
falU, lay under liz feet or thereabout, and to what 
ia called on nnderahot wheel — i e., a wheel where 
the eEFectivs head of water ia below the level of the 
make the applicat 
of the 
of the 

directly below tiic cenbe, reqnirea to be tomiuided 
by a caaing generally of atone, but aometimea of 
oaat-iron, called the arc, cloiely fitted to the exbe- 
mity of tite floata, ao aa to pievent any coosideiable 

heel, which may be eitiier of timber en' of 

T£e wl 

oaatiron, or p«rtly of both, conaiBtt [fig. I) of aile, 
a; $nBa, b; no».ti, iriiich am generally radii of the 

circle, bnt are a 

B aet a little obliquely 
i, being a 

radina, pointing np >l 
« are alao a aole, a, being a lining r< 
;ircaniferaDce at the lower edge ot the floata, having 

opening for tlia cocape of air ; and a ahnNiding or 
dtcnlar [date, t, at each aide of the wheel, and of 
the Hune depth aa Ibe floata. 

~IMB, when tliere ia very little fall beyond 
currant of the atream, the floata aimply 
dip into the water like the paddles of a ateamer, in 
nioh caae, no aole or ahronding ia required t and 
to make aUowanoe for the riae of tite wato' in the 
tail-lade daring floods, which ia generally called 
hade-tBola; and eerionsly impedea and aometinM* 
itopa the motion of the wheel, oocaaitmally the 
wheel and ita arc are >o oonatmoted aa to be 
c^Mible of being raiaed or depieaaed togetiier, witil- 
ont throwing thja machinery cot of gear. TUa ia 
done in the case of tlie Invemeaa water-woriu, 
when tbe wheel it liable to be modi affected by 
Hm rjnaf; and falling of tiie river Nev. 

SoDMtunea, in Ihia conntiy, and often cm the con- 
tinent, the maohineiy ia all on board a veaael mooivd 
in a river, m aa to riae and fall with the level of th* 
watw, and therein keep ita watv-wheel alw^« 
iounened to the proper depth. At the old LondoD 
Bridge water-works, tike wheels which rcae and tell 
withlhetide wete worked by the cnnent of both the 
flood and ebK 

The other mode of applying the water to a vertical 
lAed t^ making it act % its gravi^, i« the men 
perfect and eeonomical mode, where drenmatanoea 
will admit of it, aad ia generaDy adopted in £alla vt 
ain- Mnaid<nble hei^it, say of aiz feet and imward^ 
and where tliewatw can he let <m above the Isrel of 
the oentre. The wheela ara caUad reapectivdly brtait 
and vttnhot viKeeU, according aa the water ia lot en 
more near to the levd of the ocmtre or to the ctowb 

y be made of iron-tilate or of wood, ai 

le aa to retain tne water down to the lowcat 
le point. There are generally in good wlkeda 

. — dieadwitagA 

uja^ Bfl bue waijQT 1UI9 little or no power nntil cMl- 

vderably past the t^ centre, the wheel is bnrdiaied 

with a oeetees weight of water. 

The direct ovushot wheel has the v 



without ohangiiig its direction. Tight om the top, 
M in fig. 2 ; whidi smugement baa this advantage 
that, ai tiie top of the wheel movca in the same 
diraotioD ai tiie atream, it geta the benefit of the 
whole initial relocitjf and impnlBa of the water ; 
faol^ on the other hand, tiie bottom of the wheel, 
it at all inuneraed in water, which it c^er>llj in 
to aome extent, meets with obatnictioQ D7 moving 
agalnat the cnrrent. 

The piteK-ba^ overiAof is a modification of the 
Utt, making the water to pa«i aloogaide the wheel, 
and then to return and be let on the top of the 
wheel in a contrary direction, aa in fig. 3. IHUb 
reqaii«i longer and more complicated troughs, and 
by the change in direction, pait of the impUM ^m 
the water la loat, bnt the bottom of the wheel 
moTca in the directioa of the tail-water, and ia not 
liable to be impedod by being immened in it. 
On the whole, it ia generally thonght better 
>p^ the water at about 30 degrees &<»n the t 
I whecL Id auch hi^-brraat or nearly ovi 
rhaeti, the water ii let <m to the bncketa ot 

upW th 

way, howerer small may be Uie qoantity of wat«r, 
it la always applied at the highest poaaible level, 
which ia of importance when it ia its weight multi- 
plied by the height of descent, and not its impulse, 
that yields Uie ^ective power. 

Tba structure of the overthot and breast wheel 
ii neariv the same as that of the nndeiahot, except- 
ing in tne substitution of cnrrad bnoksts, as in figs. 
2 snd i, or angular backets,M in fig. ^ for straight 


floala; but even in the undershot wheel tiie floats 
sre sometimes mads with a slight curvature. 

In any deaeriptioi] of whed, the motioD may be 
token <m the axle by torsion, whioh necesaarily 
itqnins rigidity in the arms, as in fin. I and 3 ; or 
it may b* takesi dtteotly off tiie periptery, when tlie 

power is applied to a pinion P, workmg bto seg- 
mentfl either external, as in fig. 2, Or internal, as m 
fig. 4, attached to the ahtondmg. In this amuige- 


ment, there ia no torsion of the axle, . _ _ . 

stnin on the arms, and therefore the latter are m<»e 
often made of round wronght-iron rods, with a slidit 
axle. This wheel is much lighter than with Uie 
nuBsive axle and the strong wooden or cast-iroa 
aims, and i« colled a tiupauion or tender wiieeL 

Id reokoDing the power of water, its weight being 
62} lbs. to B oubio foot ; theoreticaUy, S28 feet, falling 
vertically I foot a minote, would be equal to I 
Bonlton and Watt hone-power of 33,000 lbs. lifted 
I foot a minute ; hnt the effective power is for short 

a fair allowance for an effectiye borse-power. 
Seventy-five per cent., requiring 701 feet, falling 1 
foot a minute, it about Uie highest that haa ever 
been spoken of, and it is doiutiul whether even 
more tlian 70 per cent, has ever been attained; 
whilo with low falls and imperfectly constmctad 
wheels, it is often reckonedT that a horse-power 
requires neariy 1000 cubic feet a minute. 

The Teloci^ of the periphery of on undershot 
wheel is nsnaUy from 600 to 600 feet a minute, and 
that of a bucket-wheel, overshot or breast, from 
300 to 450 feet. It is seldom that the whole height 
of a fall can be advantageously mode use of j for if 
the wheel be placed to low as to get the benefit of 
the whole height of the fall in low states of the 
water, very o&a it 1* liable in floods, to have tbe 
lower rim immersed, and to be obstructed or 
stomied by back-water. 

The most extensive application of water-^tower to 
one work in Scotland, or probably io Britain, i« 
that of Beonston Cotton Mills, on the_ river Teith, 
6 miles above Stirling, where there are in one house 
four wheels, 30 feet in diameter, and 12 feet in 
breadth, and having a volume of water of 8^ 
millions of cubic feet in 10) horns a day — falling 
~ et a minute. Xhe most systematic appUcation 
ater- power, however, is probably tliat of the 
ShawB Water-works, now the property of the 
corporation of Greenock. There the yield of nearly 
70(iO acres of hill-groond is stored op in reservoirs 
of a capacity of 320,000,000 oE cubic feet, and 
conveyed by an aqueduct of about 6 miles in length 
to the outskirts of Oraenock, which it reaches at 
the level of 612 feet above the level of t^e sea, ud 
' tiien divided into two line* of foils, me having 

TT^TTC^oog c 


1200 cubic feet ■ minate for 12 hoars a day, and 
the other the equiToleat quantity of 1066 feet for 
13^ hours a day, divided each into 19 falls, for 

which thoBe already appropriated pay per annum 
from £1, ]5«, to £4, 5«. per horse-power, accordine 
to their distance from the centre of the town, and 
their hei^t above its level One foot of fall for 
each line is reckoned 1 8 horse-power, which is a very 
high computation, being T9'2 percent, of the theoreti- 
cal horBe-power. At Uie ' Cotton Mill,' where both 
Ijnea of fiillB ore combined, there is the largest, or 
nearly the largest water-wheel in existence. It is 
70 feet 2 inches An diameter, 13 feet wide, with 166 
buckets, having a depth of 17 inches. It has 2266 
cubic feet of water per minute, with a fall of 64 
feet 4 inches, and is therefore nearly 200 horse- 
power. By the Shawa computation, it would be 218 
hor«e-i>ower. It is a spider wheel, taking the power 
oS the circamfereace. 

Of horizontal wheels: In the proper turbine (from 
ItaL turbiao, a whirlwind), the water passes either, 
first, vertically down through the wneel between 
fixed screw-blades, which give it a spiral motion, 

and then strikes dmilar blades attached to a movftUa 
spmdle, but placed in the opposite direction, ao 

that the impact of the wt ' 

rotatoiy moHon to the blades and spindle, as shewn 



nrevitmaly deacribed under tko article Barkkb's 
Mill, Um water is admitCed at the ceatre at the 
vheel from below, panes to the circumference 
between cmred blades o[ the wheel, and eicapeB by 
tugeutial orifices at the drcamferesce, there being 

dd. As the tvo last descdbed wheeb work alwan 

under water, they are not liable to be obstructed by 

back-water, or to have their power lessened thereby 

ire than what it due to the diminished fall, aiid 

:y are understood to yield a good percentage of 

wer, sometimes stated at 75 per cent. ; but all 

■bines are somewhat delicate, and liable to be 

choked by leaves or twiga, unless tlie water be 

carefully strained. AlthoDgh only a few horizontal 

wheels have been described, their nouie is legion, 

and it wonid take a book to mention them all, or to 

describe their respective merits. 

a reciprocatory hydraulic engine, as shewn in 
fig. 13, works exacUy on the same principle as the 
irdinory non-condenaing ateam-engmc^ The water, 

Fig. 10. 

tolres made to open more or less, according to the 

Joantity of water and to the power required. This 
ynn of turUne is shewn in figs. and 10, where the 
water enters at aa, and escapes by bb. 
The Tortex wheel of Professor Thomson (figs. 11 

111 12) takes in the water after descending through 
e tabM, 0, a, at the circumference, where, ri;^ 
mm of fixed blades, fi, £, it acquire* » tang< 


admitted at 01. - 

._ .. cylinder, a, tlie exit valve, d, at that end 
b^g simultaneously closed, while it is shut off 
from the other end, and the exit valve, d, there 
opened ; and bo the alternatiag action of the valves 
and of the piston goes on continuoasty. To work 
smootily and effectively, the piston ooght to b« of 
large diameter, in proportion to the length of stroke, 
and to go elawly ; otherwise the (juick jerking is apt 
to shake and to injure the engine ; and generally 
it is better to have two cylinders and pistons work- 
ing together, as that enables them to work more 
eqnally, and to turn the crank without the ose of 
a fly-wheel. 

Both the turbine and the reciprocatory engine 
have been made use of as water-meters. 

Tie turbine and the reciprocatory engine have 
the advantage of being able to take the ' " 

fall mudi greater in height than *'■■ '"'■• 

._ . ^ a the diameter of 

a then pa»ea through between the cnrved 1 the largest" wheel that "can be made; but for 
* the lAeel, and escapes at the centre, | all ordinary fallei, a good breast o- ■'■'™ 

r overshot wheel. 



oonaidered better. 

Sesidea the »ppIicAtion of CMUtohtnic, peculiar 
methoda bare been employed to render cloth imper- 
Tionl to water, at the same time allomn^ the 
pawage of air, the absence of this propertj^ m the 
impermealila caoatchooo mannfaotnrea hariDg been 
foiuMl diaadTantageoul. ISro plans are adopted for 
irater-prooCng irooUen elotbs, withoat rendering 
them ^uite impervious to air — the firat is to dip the 
clotii into a BolntLon of soap, and tiioronghly mb it 
into the textore, after whiok it is dipped into a 
■olutiDn of alum ; a deeomponticm ti the soap and 
almn ii effected, and Oia minute openings between 
the fibres are in some way partly filled so as tc 
exclude water. In the seoond plan, the cloth ii 
dipped into a solution of gelatine or isindaaa, and 
aftanraida in a solution of galla. A. kin^ m tanning 
proceas is the result, the gelatins which baa per- 
vaded the cloth being rendered - aa iOBoIuble at 
leather by its union with the t^^^^fw of the g&Us. 

WATEB-SPOUT. See WmBiwiHii. 

WAIEB-SUPPLT. Water u one of ttie 
ptimaiy waata of human life^ no len esaential than 
air and food; hMio«th«BtrDDsaiidreligioiuiDterei 
that hat alinya been attaohM to the means of il 
'- In l£e earlieat reoorda «' -'—■'■—■-■— - 

w, and of quarrels about 

iriien they were bnilt, 

a leheme for sni^ying' Jenui 

Aarrria and PenEa, ^m the earlieat timea, water 

has been conveyed to towns from astoniahiag dii- 

d for irrigation, have been in exist- 

tatiqniW. Horwera theaa under- 

theeaatemhemiBphere; we have 

STidenee of tiie exiitenoe of kindred works in pn- 

taldngs oonfiued to tt 

Chriatiaa America. The ancient oity of Uanco, 
which waa built on Mveral ialanda near Uie shore of 
the hUce, wm connected with the i«».ml«.n] br tour 
great oantewan or dike% tbo rem^na of which still 
eziit One of th«M mpportMl the wooden aqueduct 
of Cbapoltepeo, which waa ooDstraoted by Monte- 
auma, and deltroyed by the Spaniarda iriien they 
benesed the city. Hydraulic works on a great aoale 
had aiao been executed by the Incas of Peru. Of ^ 
"- ' ' nationa, the IComans paid the greatest 

> the Bupoly of water, and earned, tike 
of aqntdiuU to the neateat perfection 
ana mumnoence. If w« exe^ uw fupply of Hew 
Toik Stua tin Oroton iiTer (aee AqvsDUOi), and 
that of Qlaagow from Looh Kabrin^ the effiirta to 
supply modem dties am m yet innsnifioant oom- 
{MMd with tiioae li. the Romuta The last-named 
wcAs, finished in 1808, oonv^ 19 million gallons a 
day a diatanoe of S6 milet. It ia only amoe the 
banning of the aaoitary movement, ocoaaioned by 
the repeated visitation* of cholera beginning with 
183^ that the subject of watai^Bupply, and mora 
especially the ^uof i^ of water-auppfy, haa aeHootly 
oooapied pnbho attention. The reanlt of every 
inqtuiy and eveiy day's ei^iQrienoe haa beeo to bW 
out mora strongly^ the decided effects on the haalt£ 

of the water at their command i aadasthe 
Ruface MiDroes tA sajiply naar the chief Mat* of 
population are becoming every prear mors oontami- 
nated by Sewage (q. v.), the dnunaga from manured 
tuxl, the dropiringi of animala, and the refiiae of 
manofactan*, enterprise and engineering akill must 

to brini^ pme wiAer fnu 
1 htthertik Alnady it ii nu- 
seated to bring water to the matKipolia from tn* 
fl*nV» of the mountain rangea of Cadcr Idrii and 
Plinlimmon in NorUi Wales, ErMn wUcb tbe rinr 
Severn is supplied. Acoording to Mr Bateman't 
plan, which he has elaborated in c<mBideralda detail 
to shew the practicableness of the scheme, the (ntet 
would be conveyed for the moat part in nu oped 
a<]ueduc^ 173 milea long, and cajnble of cairyisg SH 
nulliona of gallona a ds^, to Barvioe-rsBervoiit on Uw 
high land near Stanmore, abont ten mHea fmn 
L^tdon, faom whi<^ it woidd be delivered, at Usli 
presaurc^ by meana of pipea,to the whole tiij, xu 
uiitiil coat he eetiinatea at £8,600,000. H Oi* pi«- 
jeot ia carried oitt, it will Ur ontitrip the grc^ot 
works of the Rom ana on theii own plan, floe 
are rival achentea for taking the iapply fzom Hit 
Lake diabicte of ComberUnd and weatmoreland. 
Owing to ibs exceptionally great rain-fall in thcae 
regions (140 inchea on an average), it ia cslcnhted 
that the two kkes of UUswater and Haweswater, 
witii a drainage of 100 aq. nL, receive together u 

f KSO million galloM. 

very free from min«nl 

propoaala to supply not only tlia 
metropolis, but the principal towns of the north- 
west of En^and— Liverpool, Leeds, Bolton, Buy, 
BUdkbnm, Hndderafield, Ao. The proposal ^so hu 
been revived, made in IMO by the late Bobot 
Pitoa and the late Bobert Stevenson, to supply the 
whole of the metropoUa vrith aoftened spring-witar 
to be diuived Eimn the dialk strata in uie vioiutj. 
Kacently, a covered conduit, 80 milea long, hai bees 
oonatructed, which conveys 8 million gallona of pure 
chalk spiug-water from the sources of the Shiiii, 
in Champagne^ to Paris ; and aperationa are goii^ 
on to bring the chalk springs of the Tanne, olcQ- 
lated to yuld 22 million (pllona a-day, alao to Faii>i 
- diatanoe of 104 milea. 

The chief pointa of intoeat on this aubjeet miT 
be arranged nnder Uie heada of Uie Sourcei of 
Sopply, the Qualitiea of Water, and the Airaii^ 
msnta for its Oonveyanoe and I^atributiou. 

it Bris^ 

SwircM qf Waitr, 

■ma ultimate aonrce of aU JroA water ia Bain 
(q. v.). When it haa fallen on the earth, it f Ttftrt 
itaeU chiefly in the fonna of anrfitM-watcr, lirA 
and springs. 

Sur/aet'eoBtetioH, — Bain-water, at it ii fonuid 
the iqiper regioua c^ the atmoapherc^ it the *"" 
""^ ~ '' natoze tuppliet ; but in deaoendin& it 
it whateror impurities ara floating oe 
■mfaeek whioh. En the neif^bourhood of 'o*'"^ 
numenut, oftntiating of various gaaea, togetiier wi^ 
toot and other Latins psrbclei^ orsanio sml 

organio impuritiea-^that is, Oto eormptina UW'^ 
dienta denved from vegetable and anunal bodiOi 
and whioh are diffused over every anriaoe in Us 
ity of living beings ; henc«, whan collected tioin 
the roofs of houaea, it has a tendency to rapid pijtf 
faction. Being free from saline aogtedieuta, it ^ 
Bxoellent for washing, but it not generally pie***"' 

Bnt if we reaort to a barren diatriot of ^°'^\c, 
■and, dettitute of vegetation, and remote boai ^' 
pollntimi of town^ we may obtain water with «|oi' 
paiatively little organio impurity. Notwithstanding 
aeveial defeota, it happens in various place* tiist ■ 


beat that can be had. 

r obtained from running stiei^ 

part what haa fiowed immediately ota^ tw 


nufacQ, and in part the water of springs, iliallow or 
deep. In any caae, ft ooniidenble amount of con- 
tkct with tiie gronud baa taken place, and in oonwi- 
quCDce saline and organic matter ii liable to be 
dinolTed in a greater or leu degree. The extent 
of the impregnation, aa well aa the Idod of material 
diMolred, will depend on the rocka and itrata of 
the rirer-baiin. 

Birer-watera, beaides the qnalitiea thejr deriTe 
from their primitive aDanxe, are apt to. contain mnd, 
decayed leave*, the envin of fiih, and other maUen 
in napenaioa, and are thai deficient in the oleuneas 
and trancparency to enential to die utiafoction of 

the ertremes of 

penttore. Bat the great objection to water from 
riren ia tiieir general pollution from the manure 
naed npon iha und, sewage, and mannfacturea, no 
tllat there ace now few riven left from whoM 
lower coarse a sup^Jy coold be taken for domeatia 
pnipoaea. On the other hand, the supply brom 
one of onr httge rival it bonndloM aiid nnfail- 
inc; and it eosveys the anriMO'^nuiMge and spring 
effonooi of a Una toot ol ootmtry, witiunit in- 
cutting any troable or expenM m to the origioal 
■ouroea. Biven that iasoe from laks* are ^arally 
tlui puresi^ aa the anapendsd roatber hat tmie to be 

"" ' the QUI 

palate belong _ . 
decree to spring-water (tee SpkinoJ : it 14 dear, 
spArUine, and olan asKeable and oniform tempera- 
ture at aU seMOot of the year {about M" Fahr.) ; it ir 
well aMated, and is totallv free from the offen- 
nv-e taint to common in all other waters, at weL 
aa devoid of the animalcDlea generated by organio 
ininiiity ; and where a sufScient nmnber <rf spring! 
aobe ooBected to snlSos for a town, it is the mott 
desintUe of all tonroo of nifiidy. Iliree-fonrtht 
«d tho water brought to Edinbtuvli 
eoUecttdon the alopea of the Fei^ 

QualUftif Water. 
Perfeetif pure water ia hardly to be found ; nun- 
water, and even artifidall^r distilled water, an 
only approziinates. The chief impuritie* may be 
oonaidesed nnder the beads of Minetal Matter in 
Mineral Matter in Solution, and Orpnio 

IS of what it called 

liall speak of moi 

most important salt 

which is derived from chalk or limeaton& n>i«llf 
or limestone ia a carboiuUe of lime— that is, a com- 
pound of lime with one equivalent oC carbcmia acid 
— and is almoat iosotubla in water ; but when water 
of carbonio add — at is tiie caae 
esjieoially — paatei over lime- 
. the carbonate a double dose of car- 
bonic acid, and cooverts it into bicarbonate, which 
is tolnble. The waters having bicarbonate of lime 
for their chief impuri^, are foroiltarly spoken of 
oa the chalk-waters. The other salt of lime oft«a 

MiMer^ Mailer itt Btupeation. — When niDning 
wnter cornea upon aloote bottom, it caniea the finer 
puiiclea of auid and eartb along with iL If the 
water oomca into a podtiMi of pmeot ttillnets, the 
matteiB thoa floated gradually sink to the bottom 
■gain, with the exception of partides of day, which, 
owing either to their eioessive fineness or to their 
— "' -*' " — • * — — incapable of being 

filtration. Betidet eaitfay matter, oompounda of 
iron and lead are alao in tome cumomataaoea 
ncMnt in a solid stat<^ and may be got rid of by 
filtezin^ To separate day-powder frmn water, tlie 
nactice haa long bees resorted to in India and 
China of putting in a pieoe of alnm, which seama t« 
pcodoce » kind of cowUation. 

iNstobetf Mbitrat Jfotter.— Spuf-water, whieh 
is goienl^ dtar and tpariiling, holding no aotid 
matter in noptnidoB, ia aeldom without a large 
amonnt of dittolved mineral matter, tometimee as 
tnneh aa 2 IBrts in 1000, oommonly from 1 in 1000 
to 1 in 20^0001 Biver and surface water also ocn- 
taina more or lev disadved minerals [see UnmuL 
Watu^. The neat bulk of the adlid matter held 
in Kdnticn in or£naiT waters consista of die salts of 
■oda,potath,linie,andmagn«nai The most material 
are tiat salts al lime and magnema, m they are the 

the sulphate lies in the fact, that the Gnt, the 
bicarbonate^ may be in great part predpitated, or 
thrown down in a aolia fonn, by boilinf^ whidi 
drives off the solvent carbonic add ; whereat the 
second, the anlphate, cannot be so predpitated- The 
chief effect of the boiling takea pUce in tile fimt 
five minutes; but it may be increased by oontinaiQg 
it for fifteen minntet or even an boor. 

Apart from its hudneas, it hat been made a qnei- 
tiOQ whether water containing salts of linw i* 
injnrions or not to the human ooottitution. Dr 
Lankester holds that there it evidence to prove that 
carbonate of lime in lat^e quantity is poaitively 
injurious ; and moot phyuologiBtB are agreed that 
piue water it the best for lecnring the health of 

With iKgttdL to magnesia, its aaltaare wdl known 
to act aa powerful medicines when taken in large 
doses, andT it maybe presumed are not altogether 
withont effect in tiie tmall quantitiea existing in 
naiy magnesian watws. A foreign physician 
lately nude the observation, that magnesia it 
me chanwteiutio innedient of waters in the dintriota 
where the diseatnt eflled ere&»itm and giatrt abound. 
—Of salts of toda and potoM, the prEndoal it common 
talt, or tbe mutiate of soda. SulpMte cl soda 
(Qhinber's tolt] oocon along with the muriate in the 
salt-spriiigB of watering-plaoea aa well at in the aea- 
wateis. None tA all t hese salts have any effect on 
the hardnoaa. In the caae of tea-water, which ia 
very hud, the effect ia not doe to common aalt, bnt 
toUielimeandmagnesianaaltidiasUvedinit; vers 
it not for thee^ tea-water would be perfectly suit- 
able for washing althon^ not far drinking. —Salts 
of iroft in oonnderable qoantitf make what are 
teehnioally named dwiybtaU waters, which belong 
to the medidnal elat*. When the iron exists in the 
spring as carbonate, which is the most ntnal case, 
on exposure to the air, it is changed into the per- 
oxide, and falls down in the form of on ocheiy pre- 
dpitate. Salts of iron give an inky taste to tlis 
~ater, and a yellowish tint to linen washed in iL 

Harduem ia Wata; — The qnality of hardness in 

water ia commonljr reoognised by the diffionl^ 

experieneed in waslung, a^ bjr the amount of toap 

■ary to fcsm a latlier. Tnisqaali^iainjurioni 

in the preparation of food ; but its action is 

i univeraallr felt ja washiitf operations. It 

waste of soap, an extra labour, and a cones- 
tear and wear of olothes; £re^ gr^ 
contained in water deoonposea 10 gtaint 
of soap; and thus the hardening matter con- 
tained in 100 gallons of wat^ such aa is tup- 
pUed to London, will destroy 3fi ounces of toap — 
that Ib, the first 35 ouuoea of toap added to Uiis 
^uanti^ of the water will disappear without form- 
ing any lather, or having any cleanaing effect. 
Soap is a oomponnd, formed ta aa alkali (soda or 
potash) jointd to an oily ooid. When a aalt of lime, 

^ * ■-^■-^.- 



then, ii preaeot in the water, the lime decompoKS 
the Boap, and combinM with Uie oily acid to form a 
Ume-ioap, which ii ioBolable, tmd haa no detergent 

The most olual hardening ingredients are i 
■alts of time. Salts of magnesia and of iron are a 
hardeniog salts. Salts of soda and potash have _. 
bordeDing effect Dr Clark, fonnerI]r Professor of 
Chemistr; to Marischal Call»e. Aberdaen, has 
deviged a Bcsje of hordaess vbich is now universally 
employed in the cliemicol description of waters. 
The hardening affect that would Iw produood hy 
one grain of chalk dissolved in a gallon of water is 
one degree of hardness ; ia like manner, foar grains 
per gaSon would produce four degrees of hardneaa ; 
ten grains, ten degrees ; and so on. The degrees 
are ezprsBsed in nnmbers-^thas, 1°, 4°, 10°, 15 , are 
one, four, ten, fifteen degrees respectively. The 
degree of hardness of any particular water oaa be 
readily and exactly determined by Dr Clark's Soap 
Teat (q. v.). 

Next to washing, the deleterious consequences of 
hardness are felt in various culinary operations. 

nniTcrsat experience that hard water requires more 
tea than soft water to make an infusion of the same 
strength, ajid also renders the infusion muddy. Sub- 
oarbonate of soda in crystals, by decomposing the 
earthy salts, improves the water; hut if more is 
added than what will exactly decompose the earthy 
•alts present, it injures the fine flavour of the tea. 
It may be stated generally, that for the purposes 
of washing and cooking, a water of less than 6° is 
soft, but above this point the hardness becomes 
objectionable^ At 8% the water is moderately hard ; 
at 12', it is very hard ; at 16°, the hardness is exoes- 
sive i and much above this, it is intolerable. 

Tomakethese ohservationg more intelligible, we 
may mention a few instances of known waters, with 
their place in the scale. In Keswick, the water is 
ander half a degree of hardness ; in Lancaster, it is 
1J°; and in Manchester, 2°. The water of the Dee 
at Aberdeen, which is used for the supply of the 
town, is 1J° of hardness. The water of Loch Katrine 
is of remarkable purity, having only two grains of 
solid matter of all kinds in the galloa, and l^f hard- 
ness. The waters of the W^sh mountains, from 
which it is prm>oacd to supply London, have on an 
average less than Z°. The nver Clyde, which for- 
merly snppUed Glasgow, is 4^% and may also be 
reckoned a soft water. The Thames at London, as 
well as the Kew River, is about 13°, while many of 
the tributaiies of the Thames rise as high es 16°; 
but being all chslk-watarH, they may be materially 
softenedliy boiling. Springs from the chalk com- 
monly range from 16' to 18° ; but particular springs 
are to be met with in some parts of the world four 
or five -tunes as hard, from the presence of bicarbon- 
ate of lime. The water of the Treasury pump in 
London boa from 50° to 60° of hardness. In many 
ports of the continent, hard waten abound ; but the 
testing of watera haa not been so much attended 
to there as in this country- 

From on extensive examinatioD of the waters of 
Engjland and Wales, made some years ago by the 
Oeneisl Board of Health, it appears that in England 
the hardness of aprinss in general is considerable; 
thata very large number of rivers have an injurioQS 
and exceptionable amount of hardness (t3°-06) ; and 
that suitoce-waters may be collected in a state 
that is to be considered soft (4'-91). 

Lead in Water, — Injurious effects have frequently 
arisen from the contamination of water wi£h lead, 
derived from leaden pipes and cisterns. Some kioda 
of water are known to act powerfidly on a leaden 

have never been satisfactorily determined. Diirtilled 
water, and soft lake and river waters in general, act 
most decidedly, but by no means in proportdon to 
their softness. The presence of air in the water 
seems one essential condition ; light also in- 
creases the action, as does the presence of vege- 
tsble matter ; it has been obierved that when 
leaves drop by chance into a lead cistern, the 
spots where tliey lie became visibly cortiided. 
The water of Loch Katrine, according to exten- 
sive sets of eiperimenta by distinguished chemists, 
is allowed to have an intense octiou* on lead 
under certain circumstances — viz., ' lit. If the lead 
be bright and higUv polished ; and ^, If the 
lead and water Ira freely exposed to the aocen 
of air.' But it 'does not exert any noxious 
action on lead when the metal is in its ordinarily 
dull state.' Hie coating formed on the sorface (h 
the metal is held to protect it from further chemical 
action. Still there sre opposing facts to ehew that 
this protective action is nflt olwaj^ to be relied on ; 
and that water that has passed through any con- 
siderable length of lead jiipe, or stood for some time 
in a short ooe, or in a cisteru, should never be osed 
without care ; a ninth part of a grain of lead per 
gallon has been known to derange the health of a 
whole community. Dr Clark made the imexpected 
discovery that sand-Clters completely separate the 

Organic Impuritiet. — ^The contamination of water 
by vegetable and animal substances takes place in 
Torions ways. The most obvious and abundant 
source of tniB class of Ingredients is the sewage and 
refuse of towns ; and nert in order may be ranked 
Oie contact with soils rich in oi^nic matter. Among 
organic impuKties may be classed offensive gases, 
such as carburetted, sulphuretted, and phosphuretted 
hydrogen ; vegetable fibres in a state of rottenness ; 
putre^ing products of the v^etable or animal 
kingdoms: starch, muscular fibre, tc; urea and 
ammoniacol products j vegetable forma— algie, con- 
fervEO, fungi, &c, ; animalcules— infusoria, entomos- 
traces, anneUidie or worms, Ac. Water falling on 
a growing soil, and running off the surface to lie in 
stoniant ponds, is in very tavouiable cinmtustaneea 
for l>eins tainted with vegetable and animal life. 
Water-pmnts will spring up and feed numerous 
tribes of animalcules, and each pool will be a con- 
stant scene oE vitality. In such a state, the water 
is uBoaUy unfit for drinking ; the palate instantly 
discerns a disagreeable taint, and no one will use it 
who can do better. The surface-water of a diatrict 
overgrown with peat-moss haa usually a peaty 
fiavour, as well as a dark and dirty colour. The 
infusion of peat does not breed animalcoles, being a 
strong antiseptic ; but it is an objectionable ingre- 
dient nevertheless. Very slow tiftratioo has been 
found to remove the colour of the infusion in some 
degree, bat not entirely. Lime removes the peat 
most effectually, but there ii both expense and risk 
in applying it It ia perhaps doubtful whether any 
specific unwholesomcneas can be justly attributed 
to ^t- water ; but it is unpalatable, and the use <d 
it IS shunned by the inhabitants of peaty districts, 
and even by cattle. The presence of peat in the 
lands used as collecting-grounds for surface-water — 
and it is generaJly suoA worthless tracts that ore so 
employed — is a duadvantage attending tiiat mode of 

* The water of Looh Eatrins is remaikaUy well 
oiratcd, having 7j cubto inches of air per gaiLm, of 
which 3j inches are oijs^n. Dr Qork has a SDBpidon 
that the oijffen may turn out to be in some diffennt 
state or modification from conunon oxygnik 



Chalk-irater, irbich, as it iunea from & spring, is 
periecUy free from or^&mo matter, lias a lource of 
contunutatiaii within itself. When exposed to light 
and air, the doplicate dose of carbonic acid tSat 
keepa the challc diisolred, becomes decompoaed ; 
and tiie carbon of the decomposed acid gives riss b) 
a green Tcgetation, -which soon acqaircA an ofTensive 
marshy uielL 

Or^nic matter in. a pntrefyiiig state fbrms the 
wtoit kind of DOntanuDBtion that water can hav& 
Thoo^ we may not know the precise effects of 
UtCM inpnrities on the animal aystem, the ainele 
fact of ttieir rendering the water repolsive to the 
taate and nanaeons to the stomaoh woold be suffi- 
cient to condemn their use. What is disagreeable 
to the senses, must be presumed to be imnholeKme 
addition, until the contrail is proved, llioagh 

the infloence of the tides, where it is contaminated 
by the vbole sewage of the metropolis, found de- 
fenders until lately, on the plea that the amount 
of impuiity was too small to do harm. This gronnd 
is at length given up ; bat Tiiames water above 
Teddington Lock is still sanotioDed as safe water 
for the companies to supply to the inhabitants of 
Iiondon, notwithstanding the sewage of the numer- 
on* popolooa towns that the river receives above 
that pomt. As to this plea of smallneas of amount, 
the hieheat medical anthoitiea hold that it is im- 
possible to Bay how small a quantity of organic 
nutter in a state of fermentation may not do harm. 
We are not, however, left merely to preoome that 
organic impuritry in water is prejudicial to beal^ 
During the cholera visitation of 1853— ISM, a 
gigantie expcaiment was undesignedly made on half 
a tmillum ot htunan beiaes. It so happened that a 
certain disbiet of London was supplied by two 
riv^ water-companies, the two mains running often 
side by side, and some houses taking water from 
the one, and some from the other. The whole inha- 
bitants were Uving alike in all respects save one— 
viz., that one company drew its water from high up 
the TluuDeS, where it was ot comparatiTe eiceUence, 

while the other dnw its water . .... 

river, where it was profusely contaminated with 
town-draini^Ce. Among tbis popalation, there were 
numi than 4000 deaths Irom imoient ; and when the 
epidcmio had subsided, so inquiry wss made, boose 
by houae, aa to those deaths, and aa to the water- 
•npplycfthe several houseswhere they had occurred. 
Tha inquiry was conducted with every precaution, 
to avoia sources of fallacy ; and the result was this : 
in the one set of houses, the mortahty per 10,000 
of the peculation was 37 ; ia the other set of houses 
it was 130 — Uiat is to say, the cholera death-rate 
was 3i timos a* great " "" " " '" ""^ 

It is a common notion that evtry drop qf waUr 
lemu tath lift; but this is a mistake. Deep wells, 
and ^ring-water in general, contun little or no 
living mgauie matter. Consequently, it is quite 
posools to obtain a liquid perfectly free from oni- 
■ih1"sIti sod v^etation. The presence of living 
CTcatoiel, vegetable or animal, discernible either by 
the naked eye or by the microscope, is a proof of 

orgsoia taint in the water, and is one 

this kind of impurity. Withreepect 
Dr Hassall states, in his evidence before the General 
Board ot Health ; ' I have made several examina- 
tions of rain-water immediately alter its descent to 
the earth, obtained in both town and coantry, and 
can eonfidenUy assert that it does not, in genera], 
eontain soy lotm of living T^ietsbla — '-' — ' 

matter.' The oonditians necessary for the develop- 
ment of vegetation and animalcules over and above 
the presence of matter for them to feed on, are air, 
luAt, and ttillnat. With regard to the probable 
effects on health of living creatures con^ned in 
water, Dr Hs as all's observations ara worthy of 
attention : ' All living matter contained in water 
nsed for drink, since it is in no way neceasaiy to it, 
and is not present in the purest waters, is to be 
regarded as so much contamination and impurity— 
is therefore more or less injurious, and is conse- 
quently to be avoided. There is yet another view 
to be taken of the presence of these creatures in 
water — viz., that where not injurious themselves, 
they are yet to be regarded as tests of the impnrity 
of Uie water in which they are found.' 

Meana (ifjmri/ying Water. 

The mechanical impurities of water, or the soKd 
particles rendering it muddy or milky, mayin most 

) be temovea by mechanical means. The two 

esses for this purpose are laitidtnee andjUfrafton. 
effects of subsidence are strikin^y seen in the 
case of rivers that paa through lakes. See QsintVA, 
I.AKI or. The sabsidence of solid particles depends 
on their own weight, as compared with the weight 
of an eqnal bulk of water. To favour the process, 
the most perfect stillneM should be allowetL It is 
expedient to have partitjons placed in the subsiding 
reservoirs at short intervals, more effectually to 
prevent the agitation of the water. The water 
should be ran off from the top, and not from the 
bottom. By making the bottom of the subsiding 
reservoir form a dedivity from opposite sides, and 
providing means to let off the water occasionally 
from its lowest depth, it is possible to get quit of 
the subsided mud. It is always fosnd of advantage 
in clearing water from solid particles, whether by 
subsidence or by filtration, to mix together stresms 
of different qualities. 

In constructing an artif cial filter on a large scale, 
a basio is forme<^ having the floor nearly level, but 
slightly inclining towaros a centre line, and made 
water-tieht by puddling the bottom and sides with 
day. On the fioor is laid a aeries of layers of 
gravel, coarse at first, and getting gradually finer 
upward ; next, a layer of slate-chips or sea-shells, 
ifien one of cosrse sand, on which is placed the 
actnol filterina layer of fine sand. The depth of 
this layer is imm twelve to thirty inches, that of 
the entire mass from four to six feet. The water 
being admitted gently on the top of the sand, sinks 
down and ia conducted by a series of channels, 
generally of tile-pipes, iuto the main drain. A filter 
m a clean state wiU pass from twelve to eighteen 
vertical feet ot water in twenty-four hours. The 
solid matter intercepted does not penetrate more 
than three-fourths of an inch into the sand, so that, 
by removing a very thin film from the surface, the 
filter is Again clesjL What is scraped off the top, is 
noTioKle S being washed and put again to use. 
process of filtration,' says Professor Clark, 'ii 

.,„ ions in removing mechanical impurities to so 

extent that could scarcely be believed without 
seeing the process.' 

The cleansing power of sand can hardly be 
accounted for on the theory of mere mechanicsl 
interception. Though there is no chemical actios, 
strictly speaking, there ia no doubt that the attrac- 
tion of adhesion is at work— a power that plays a 
greater part in natural procoBses than has generalljr 
been assigned to it Some substances nuuufest this 
adhesive attraction more strongly than sand, and 
have therefore Still greater efficacy as filters ; 
though practically, and on the large scale, sand is 
the most eligible. Powdered charcoal has long 

bi;ih..,-^.>..LiUUffl C 


bean known u & powerful filtarin^ medium, attnct- 
iag and detainin|t apadally orguuc matter. *"■■"■' 
charcoal, or that deriTed frran banuBg boon, ii 
•till mon cfficacioiu than wood charooaL A filter 
of animal charcnl will rmidar London porta almoat 

Aoooi^Dg to Tscent r 

arohea, it wonM ■ 

•tatM tikat ' tbey hava powei* of ehmioal 
tha removal of ortjanio and iaorgawo matten from 
water to an extent nerer before mpectad.' The 
fflthieat liquids, nioh aa putrid mine and sewer- 
water, when paaMd tbroo^ clay, dropped from the 
filter oolonrlca and inMTenaiveL The olay nied 
wu that known u pipe-clay. 

For filten for dommtic oee. Me Filteb. 

Boftamig of Water rendered Hard bg Chali — 
Ctarifi Prortu. — This ii one of the meet beanlifal 
ifildintiona of icnence to the arti of life that could 
perhaps be pfT™^ We ezbact the inxentor'E own 
aooomit of it, as ^Ten in a paper read before tha 
maetiog of tha Society of Arts ; 

' In Older to explain how the invention operates, 
it wiU be necessary to glance at the chemiisl com- 
positdon and tome of the chemical properties of 
chalk i for while chalk toakee up the great bulk of 
the matter to be separated, chalk also contains the 
ingredient that brings &bont the separation. The 
invention ie a chemical one for expelling chalk 
bv chalk. Chalk, then, eonnsts, for every 1 lb. 
ol 16 oz., of lime, 9 oz. ; carbonic acid, 7 oi. 

'Tha 9 01 of lime may be obtained apart, by 
bnmine tiie chalk, as in a lime-kiln. The 9 «i. M 
bnrat ume mav be dinolved in any qnantity of 
water not lets than 40 raUloiUL The sohitioa Would 
be caQcd lime-water. During tha burning lA the 
ehalk to convert it into lime, the 7 oi. of oarbonio 
add are driven off. llis acid when uncombined, is 
natnrally volatile and mild ; it is the ssme sabstaDCe 
that forme what has been called soda-water, when 
diesolred in water nnder pressure. 

' Now, »o very iparingly aolubla in watw is chalk 
by itself, that probabw upwards of 5000 gallons 

mnch more carbonic acid aa the chalk itself contains 
— the chalk becomes readily solnble in water, and 
when so diseolved, is called bicarbonate of lima. 
If the quantity of water containing the 1 lb. of 
chalk with 7 oz. additional of carbonic acid, were 
400 gallons, the lolulion would be a water of 
the same hardness as well-water from the 
chalk-strata, and not sensibly different in other 

*%ina it appean that 1 lb. of chalk, ecorcely 
solnble at all m water, may be rendered solnble in 
it by either of two distmct chemical ehanna — 
soluble by being deprived entirely of its oarbonie 
add, when it forms lune-water, and sduble by com- 
bining with a second doie of carbonic add, making 
up bicarbonate of lime. 

' Kow, if a solution of Uie os. of burnt lime. 

bicarbonate of lime, be mixed together, they will so 
act upon each other as to restore the S lbs. of chalk, 
which will, after the mixture, subside, leaving a 
bright water above. This water will be free from 
bicarbonate of lime, free from burnt lime, and free 
from chalk, except a veiv little, which we keep oat 
of account at present for Uke sake of simpW^ 
in this explanation, ^e following table will 
■hew what ocean when this motnal action tkkea 

^j,g,[Clialk Iicis. = ieoi.<>rolwlk. g 

BBnItllDieliitOnllaugtIiine- WUns.oIAalkl P. 

A small residnum of tiia chalk alwaya remaiBi 
not ■epaiated by the prooees. Of 17} grains^ for 
instsnce, oontsined in a gallon of water, atHy 16 
grains wonld ba depodted, and 14 grains wonld 
remsin. In other words, water witli 17i* at hsrd- 
neas, arising from chalk, can be reduced to l}', bst 
not lower. 

'These explanations will make it easy to com- 

Snppodna it was a moderate qnanti^ ot well- 
water from the chalk-etrata around the metropolii 
that we had to Boften, Bay 400 gallons. Tbll quantity, 
as has already been explain^ would contain 1 lb. 
of chalk, and wonld fill a vcssd 4 feet aqiuue by 
4 feet deep. 

' We would take B oz. of bomt lime, mads 
from soft upper chalk;' we first slack it into • 
hydrate, by adding a little water. Wben this ii 
done, we wimld put the slsdced hme into the vessel 
where we intend to soften ; then gradnally add 
some of the water in order to form lime-wato'. 
For this pnrpose, at least 40 gallons are necessary, 
but we may add water gradnuly till we have added 
thrice as much as this ; afterwards, we may add 
the water mote fnely, taking care to "■if intimatdy 
the water and the lime-water, or lime. Or we 
might prHvionsly form satttrated lime-water, which 
is very ea^ to form, and thea make use of this 
Ume-wator instead of lima, putting in the lim».water 
fliat, and adding the water to be softened. The 
proportion in ttus case would be one balk of lime- 
water to ten bnlks of the hard water.' 

It is of importanoo that the lime-water-~that is, 

softening ingredient— be pnt into tha vessel 

, and the hard water sradui" ' -■ ' ' 

there is thus an excess of lime , ....... 

very close of the proceos. Instead of lime-water, 
the lime itself may be put at once into the tohI, 
and some of the water to be softened gradnally 
added to dissolve it The softened water thus 
obtained has no action on lead-pipes or oistenis, 
as many soft water* have. One ton of burned 
lime, used for softeniog, will produce three and 
a half tons of predpitate. The present water- 
supply of tha metropolis, if subjected to CSark's 

The pro ces s was in <^>eratian on a large scale far 
several years (1S64~1SS1) at FlunuAead, near 
Woolwich, where 600,000 gallons daUy were operated 
npon with the most satisfactory result. These 
works are now given np, though for reasons quite 
ipart from any &ilure in the process. But sevenl 

of erectioD, by Mr Homenham, C.E., London, for 
supplying water from the ohslk spriniis softened bv 

Claik'a method ; &g. at Castio Howaid, seat cf tlie 
Earl ot Carlisle (1858) ; at Catvham, Sonqr, for 
the Batf)b' of Caterhun, Warlingham, and aeveral 
ndghbounng towna <1661) ; at Shooter's HUl, Kent, 
for the Wsr Office, for softening the water of tbe 

ful operatic 

also nearly ommleted worka near Tling, Herts, for 
the snppfy of Tiin^ AylesbniT, and other towns, 
with softened spring-water, iis Homenham finds 
tbat 'epring-water from tlie chalk can readily; 



the luge tcale, be Mftened down to from 2} to 4j 

deeieae ol 

wfteuin^ ; it hu ft decided inflneace u i^arda 
orgknio impnritiei ; for it not only remarw the 
•dtiTe KniToa of anroption which exiiti in all chalk- 
ing, u eboTe expiuned, but the precipitated 
chalk cairicB down with it a large proportioii of 
luclt orgauio matten m mav be alnadv prewnt. 
Serenl caJieo-printon in lAnoashire have had 
Claita -pmoen in me for nTeral yean, for the 
of the quality of the water employed 

Proeett of 'Pwn^&i&im from Orgaiue 
MaOr. — Althoogh, \sf meani of aiuid and other 
filter^ or of the BningprooMB, oiganio aontamtiuktiaQ 
of water may be much reduced, there Btill remains 
enoD^ to render tbs water nnsafe for nia. Ii 
water, them, once coimpted with organic matter, 
faopeleaaly and peimanoLtly lo T Thia question can 

'■ *ed in the neeatire. Filthy water haa a 

to pniify itself and thia in two ways. In 
ua nm plao^ in any shallow atMam of polluted 
water, 10011 n tiie komela A a atreet, titers may be 
ebaeKoal long bmahaa of a ant of slbny fegetatioa 
adharing to ereiT projection of the bottom. All 
tUa nuMar haa Men diaengaged from the water, 
'~ so much the ponr. The 
part of the natnnl parifl- 
eatioB «aaaiata in the aotoil deoomposition of the 
imparttica. The ntteigea of the decaying matter, 
then, goes to tdnn nitnc acid, which, uniting with 
bass, fcrms salts of the claaa called nifralM, of 
which aaltpetTe is one. Thns, what was in a Btate 
<A potrafactiTB change, oEEenaive to the aeoMS, 
biiiiiliiiH loathsome inaeotB, and canainK dangerous 
disorders, is chanoed in comae of time uto a stable 
and harmless produet. This process is oonstantiy 
going on in riven- and other waters containing 
organic matter. In the case of streams passing 
Hiniigh popolooa diitricte, -Hie contaminatiim goea 
M at m rate far b^^o^ ^^ power of natnral ponfl- 
eatioB ; bat wo eui easily' conceive bow a river, very 
' ■ " ■ ' rith 

mpnritiea at 0: 

part of its conrae, may, after flowing a long way 
thnNufa an uninhabited tract, be almott i^atored to 
its n^nral state. The process is one of oxidatum, 
'' ' ' place at the expense of tiie free oxyoen, 

frr„,.u ,„.__ ..___ --igit'- 

The ozidatian is mnch favoond and hastened 
when the water peroolatea as filters very slowly 
thronghjNKoas beds of earth. If the filtration haa 
been snffieiently prolonged to convert all the decay- 
iBE Bsatter into carbomc add or nitntea, the water 
wOt be pan^ m far as the organic taint and the 
ncasnoe of animalciilea are ooneemed, and will, in 
(act, ba neither dissgreeable nor nnwholesonie, the 
anmint of tiie disBolvwl earbo&atee or nitrates bting 

Dr Smith haa inoved by dlreot experiment that 
deooMpoDng oiganie mattra paned throng a filter- 
ioK-bed ia tfia^gad into nitne acnd. ' A jar, open 
at both ends, and aa is naed with am air-pomp, was 
Sllsd witb aand, and some poteid yeast, wtucA otm- 

__^_, , ^—tboaau, and allowed to filter throogh. 

IhepndiietioncI mtncacidwBB abnodant.' It is 
not nnpTDbable that other, earthy matten, anch aa 
loan and d^r, may have a still more dedded infla- 
cnee in hasteiiing tiie f onnation of the nitrates ; and 
by imitating more doaely the slow mode 
by -irineh natnr* converta aurface- 
TntE-waler, it may yet be praetieable 
noat contaminated waten fit for nse. 

Sloragt, and DittribuUoTi. 

be supplied, we need not enter, beyond noticbg, that 
when the source is below the level of the hoases, steam 
or other power is necessaiy to lift or propel the wBt«r 
to the necessary hetght ; while in the more RBneral 
and more desirable cue of the source being liigher 
than tbo place where the supply is to be deUvered, 
the water i* made to flow by its own gravitation, 
either in a channel or culvert with a continuoos 
descent, as in Oia ancient Aqueduct (q. v.], or in the 
simpler and more economical modem plsji of a line 
of cast-iron pipes following the inequalittea of the 
surface. The annexed diagram represents an out- 
line of ttiia mode of convqnuice ; vchera a is a lake 

ited in a monntainona diflpot, and 

6 a town aeparated by several rnika of uregolar 
oountry ; the eoone of the pipes is indiosted by the 
dotted hne, and the preaeore of tt» water at a Bof* 
fiooi to make the water rise at b to a height nearir 
equal to that of the head. In many caaei^ both 
principles are employed, the water flowing for the 
most part in a gently sloping condui^ tunnelled 
through >iiTlii where necessary, and bmng oarried 
through valleys in tobes descending and aaoeoding 
—an mvwtea mphon, as it is called. The Croton 
A;qnedac^ which supplies NewYork, is carried aeross 
the Manhattan Valby, opwarda of 100 feat deep, in 
thia way. The Qbsaow sopply Itam Loch Katrine 
flows main^ in a slo|nng utumel carried thio^;h 

slojring ohann 
nidges; bat tl 

stonge in reeervdra depends 
supp^. If water ia derived 
from perennial sprin«, whcee minimnm Htnr eqoals 
the maximum d^nai^ the storage may be tha least 

on the natnre of the 

should be largo enough to hold — ^ — 

carry tiie oonsnmers over the periods when t^e river 
i« polluted by rains ; they should also be large, on 
the prindple of allowing time for puiifioation liiy 
(obaii^ce, eapeciaUy if artifioial filtntion be not 
employed- In plaoea where the aopply is obtsined 
from Eiirface.drainage, or from a small stream, the 
practice is to build reservoirs capable of containing 
a five or lix months' supply, it being necessary to 
ivide Bgunrt the greyest drougnts that ever 

t^ reeervoiiB should be deep, so as to prevent 
v^etation ; and the distributing or service naervoiia 
should be roofed. 

In distributing water over » town, tvro different 
methods have bmn adopted, known reqieatively as 
the inttnmUenl and the cmaEanf ayatems of supply. 
On the intermittent system, water ia laid on onoe a 
day, or onca in two or three days, as the caae may 
be, and fills a tank attached to every a^nte house, 
and from this tank the water ia di«wn on aa rsqmred. 
The feeding-mpe of such a tank ot cistem is pro- 
vided vrith a baU-cook (see fig. 2),<iriiich inoenioualy 
■huts oS or admits the supply, sa the ddem mav 
be full or empty. On the constant ayatero, no tank 
ia abeidutely needed, but the honse-pipes are kept 
constantly charmd throogh their unbroken oonnee- 
taon with the distribvti^ reaerroir, which most 



tlia«fiire be biefaer than Uia hi^ieat hoase to be 
■arvcd. The iiMcnnittent supply wu until Utel^ 
•mpliyed eTafywhera ui the metropolii ; but it u 
oaiTeiMUy admitted th^t the oUker lyitem i> 
Twtly anpanor '~ 
cTBTy reepecL ' 

Fig. 2 

repair of datema, 
tho tronbla reqni- 
aite to keep them 
tha water hj the neigh- 
bourhood of Bonrcea of poUatiDO, the fre^juent waate 
of water that oceura, the difficoltiea impoaed on 
the poorer claai of teaementB where ciaternt are Dot 
provided— are a few of the objections urged agaiii^t 
thii mode of mipply. In a letter in the Ti>w«, 3d 
January 1S66, Dr H. JeaflreaoQ thua deaoribei the 
condition, in renrd to water-Enpply, of the centrea 
of typhua infection in Lambeth, Soathwark, Bethnal- 
green, kc ' Those hoaaea the best supplied have 
each a batt, holding about 80 gallona, into which 
water flows from a atand-ptpe for from ten minntaa 
to half an hour each day, md ie aappoaed to anpply 
the wants of 20 peraona lor cooking, the waahinjj of 
their persons, house, and linen, and for the linaing 
down of the w.-c at such time* M it may suit the 
caprice of any one of die inmate*. At other plaoes, 
a targer bnt^ but in relation to the number of per- 
sons proportionally smallBr, snppliea a whole court 
of ten or more three-roomed houses, which have no 
back-yards, and a inflation of 150 people—members 
of 30 different hoiliea. On Sundays, even this 
supply is aheent, the water of the day before is gone, 
and m many houaea, that for the Sunday cooking 
has to be begged from neighbours who may have 
provided themselves with a larger batt, who are 
more provident or mOK dirty. More than nine- 
tenths of these water-bntta have no coven ; and 
fnlly half are so placed as to catch the drinongs 
from the fonl eaves of the housea, and are Wnl 
internally with scnm and slimy vegetation.' 

One important advantage, ariiine from the con- 
stant system, is the ease with wbidi water can be 
had in time of tires. The water being supplied at 
high-pressure, all that is necessary is to affii a hose 
to the water-plug in the street, when a jot cor- 
responding in height to the preasure is obtained, 
which can ne immediately directed against the fire. 

The ratio of the supply to the population varies 
in different towns, la Edinburgh, it is 34 gallons 
for each individual ; in Glasgow, it is 4fi gallons. 
This includes tlie water famished to works of vari- 
ous kinds. The eight companies that supply London 
pour into the city and suburbs not moch less than 
100,000,000 gaUons daily, which gives 20S gallons 
per house (including manufictorieaj, or 26 gallons 
u each peison. Notwithstanding this, owmg to 
the neglect of the proprietors, ' uionsaads of the 
poor get but little ot it directly any day, and none 
at all on Sundays.' 

Citterns, Pipta. — Owing to the action of water on 
lead, already described, it is Aeairahte to avoid the 
nao of that metal in connection with very soft lake 
or river water. With regard to lead pipet, if the pre- 
cantion is taken when the water has stood for any 
time in them, of allowing the first portious to run off 
before any is taken for nae, littio danger can arise ; 
but either lead eitlerru sboiild be whoUy avoided, or 

mean* token to asosrtain whether they ""itfiTJ 
the water; and if so, a remedy should be ami 
There are vadoos snbstitatea for lead a* a li 
for octerns. Slate slabs are hu hly raconunei 
Qntta-peroba is also found to be an eanly fi 
-'■ - ' ' ible liningi 

the naphtha u 

PipM of KDtt^pcrchA may al 
obMps and easily fitted np. 
Oommon H'eOL— The aimpj 

aimplest ot ^ 

plies is that of a cottage or faj-mhou*e in the eoontiT, 
with a good spring rising to the surface eloae by ; 
and yet what a poor use is usually made «f mch a 
precious boon 1 Tha conntry well is generally a 
simple cavity to receive the spring, radely lined, it 
may be, witn stone*, but with open month, into 
which dust and dead leaves ore blown by every wind, 
and foul surface-water is trickling from all aidea 
Being exposed to the lif^t, there is generally a pro- 
fuse vegetation on the bottom and sides, and, in 
addition to these imparities, it is further muddied 
by the dippiDx in of buckets, often dir^ on tlw 
outside. Who nos not been disgusted, when aaking 
a drink at a cottage, to get water thick with dost 
and visible impncities, knowing, at the same tim^ 
that it might De so easily remedied? A sorface- 
spring should always be covered, and made to issue 
by a pipe ; half a day's labour to create a fall, and 
a day drain-tube, will generally oonvert a filthy 
puddle into a crystal fount. It is singular to see 
this blindness to the impurity of water in people 
otherwise cleanly enough. Tms is a subject worth 
the attention of count^ physicians and clergymen. 
Hie evil effects of drinkmg impure water are not 
confined to towns. May not the putrid son tknwt 
and malignant fevers that often sweep away whole 
honsehohu in the country, especially in autumn, be 
parUy owing to the cause now pointed at ! 

Deep weUs should iaraiiablj be covered, and 
canfolly protected from the infiltration of auper- 
fioial ooze. Tha situation of pump-wells ia ^ten 
singularly ill chosen in this rei^eot See Astbjuk 

WATER-TABLE, a set-off in a wall eloped <m 
top to throw off the rain. 

WA'TEETOWN, capital of Jefferson County, 
New York, U. S., on the Black River, 8S miles 
north-west from Utica, and 1S2 from Albany; 
has manufactories of cotton, woollen, fiour, paper, 
iron castings, machineiy, &c An ice-Cave eztuida 
partiy under tha village. Pop. in ISBO, 7572. 

WATERTOWN, a city of Wisconsin. U. S., on 
Rock River, and the Fond dn Loo and Rock Bivei 
Railway, 40 mile* east-hy-north from Madiaon. The 
city is built on both sides oC the Great Bend, vrhen 
rapids with a fall of 24 feet aSbrd water-power for 
Souring and saw mills, foundries, and manufactories 
of ^ncultuiol implements, furniture, woollen "lill" , 
and potteries. Settled in 1836. Fop. in 1860, &302. 

WATERVILLE, a village of Maine, U. S., on the 
right bonk of the KeDoebev River, at 'Ticouic Falls, 
S2 miles north-north-east from Portland. Around 
the falls are dostered saw-mills, ploagh, axe, hoe, 
and scythe factories, mschine-sbops, 'Queries, Ac 
W, has n Baptist College, with 120 studenta, and 
library of IS.COO volnmei, on academy, tc Pop. in 


WATERY GRIPES is the popular name for s 
form of serous diairhcea occurring in infants, in 
which there ore copious discharges of thin watoy 
motions, often limpid, or almost cdonrle**^ and 



nixed with flakes oi 

foTTU of diurhon may 1 

ehildreQ by sndden impremiona of cold on the n 
f>c«, lo aa to check parspimtioii ; or it mav 
broag^t on bj cold dnnks taken when the body 
heated. The eihaiution brought abont by the 
copioDi excretions from the bowela ia sometimea bo 
great that the case might be tniataken for one of 
cholera. On the occmreDcs of anch an attack, the 
child should at once be wrapped np in. warm flaimel, 
placed in bed, with a bag of hot dry bnut over the 
nelly; and some afrowroot, with a little brandy, 
given frequently in tsaspoonfnlH or larger doeea 
accnntbg to age ; and the medical attendant should 
be at once trait for. If medical aid oannot be 
readily pncored, opiom most be caiefolly used to 
dleck the profuse cracuations. One of the best 
neparatims is Aromatic Powder of Chalk and 
Opiinn, erery 40 gnuns of which contain 1 grain of 
opium. From 3 to 6 grains of this powder, with a 
quarter at a grain ^ ipecacoimha, may be given, 
and repeated every three or four honrs ft 
three tcnee, nnless any head-symptoms (di 
opimn) are perceiTed. 

WATSOKD, a market-town in the county of 
Hertford, on the banks of the Colne, IS miles 
nbrth-w^ of London. Sttan-.plait ia mannfactursd, 
and crilk-apinning and mslting, and a trade in com 
and live-atock, are carried on. Pop. 741S. 

WATLINQ ISLAND, one of the Bakunsa 

WATT, James, mechanician, engineer, and man 
irf Boienc^ famons as the improver, and almost the 
inventor of the steam-engine, was born at Greenock 
in Scotland on the 19th of Jaauacy 1736. His 
father was a blockmaker and generd merchant at 
Greenock, was long a member of the council of 
tilat bargfa, and for a time a nut^tmte. Two 
memben ot James W.'s family — his grandfather 
and liis ancle — had had some IocbI repatation for 
sdentifia <x engineering ability. The former was a 
teacher of muthematics, surveying, and navigation 
at Crawfordsdyke, near Greenock ; the latter prao- 
tised aa a huid-aarveyar and engineer with great 
tacGSBS at Ayr. The grandfather, Thomas Watt, 
had been broiu^t early in life to Lanarkshire from 
tiie ncighboorhood of Aberdeen, where his family 
had previously lived. The father of Thomas Watt, 
the great-grandfather of James, is said to have 
fanned a httle property of his own in Aberdeenshire, 
and to have been killed while fitting on the side 
of the Covenantera against the Margnis of Montrose. 

James AV. was very weakly as a child, and being 
nnable to go to school with regnlarity, he became, 
to a great extent, his own instructor. What School- 
ing he did get, he got in the schools of his native 
town. He early manifested a torn for mathematics 
and calcnlstiona, and a great interest in machines, 
and aoeordindy — his f^er's businets, for which 
he had been oestined, having greatly declined— he 
was, at the age of 18, sent to I^ndon, to learn the 
trade of a mathematical tastrument maker. Ill- 
health compelled him to retain home about a 
year after ; Wt he had made good nee of his oppor- 
tunities in London ; and on his health improving, 
he resolved to set up as a mathematical iostiument 
maker in Glasgow. The incorporation of banuner- 
men of that city put difficulties in his way; lut the 
anthoritiea of tne uuiveniity took him by tjie hand, 
appointed him mathematical instrument maker to 
the nniveraibf, and gave tijm the nae of premise* 
within their precinctn. He oecnpied these premises 
from 1757 to 176a They seem to have been badly 
■itoated for hi* bnsjnees, for which, moreover, at 
that time there was but little room in Glasgow ; 

and W. daring those years was scarcely able to 
make a hving. In 1TG3, he got a place lA business 
in the town, and after that, he did somewhat better; 
still, he had to eke out his income by makiug or 
mending fiddles (which he was able to do, though 
he had no ear for music), or doing any mechanical 
job which came in his way ; and no work requiring 
mgenuity or the application of scientific knowledge 
seems to have come amies to him. At length, m 
1767, he fell upon a new and a more lucrative occn- 
pation. In that year, be was employed to moke 
the surveys and p'epare the estimates for a canal 
projected to nnite the Forth and the Clyde. This 
work could not be carried out at the time, because It 
failed to obtain the sanction of parliament; but 
W. had now made a beginning as a civil engineer, 
and henceforth he got a good deal of employment 
in this capacity. He made surveys for various 
canals, for the improvement of the harbonis of 
Ayr, Port-Glasgow, and Greenock, and for the 
deepening of the Forth, the Clyde, and other rivers. 
One of ue tasks committed to him was to decide 
whether a projected canal between the Firth of 
Clyde and the West«ni Ocean should be made by 
vray of Crinan or of Tarbert ; and the last— also 
the greatest — undertaking oE this kind on which he 
was employed was a survey for a canal between 
Fort-Wmiam and Inverness ; a work which baa aince 
been executed on a greater scale by Telford. In 
his surveys, he made use of a new micrometer, and 
of a machine, also of his own invention, for draw- 
ing in perspective — the latter of which appears to 
have b^n for several years about this time one of 
hia aonrces of income. The Beporta which he drew 
up in the capacity of en^neer are said to have b^ 
remarkable for penpicuity and accuracy. 

Living in the collegB at Glasgow, in constant 
interoouiae with the proteasors oi the univer^ty, 
with access to books, and with mach unemployed 
time on his hands— having, too, a great love of 
knowledge, and a lively luterest in mechanical 
novelties, W. had been a diligent student of science, 
and experimenter in the appUcation of science to 
the arts. As early as 17S9, his attention had been 
directed to the capabilities of steam as a motive- 
force by Mr Bobison (q.v.), afterwards Professor 
of Natural Philosophy in the university of Edin- 
burgh, who was then a student in Glasgow. It 
had occurred to Mr Kobison that steam-preasnrs 
might be used to propel wheeled-carriages ; but it 
does not appear that either W. or he attempted to 
cany out this idea. In 1761 or 1762, however, W. 
made a series of experiments on the force of steam, 
ueing a Papin's Digester. These do not seem to 
have led to any results ; and it was not till the 
winter of 1763—1764, that hs began the investiga- 
tions which ended in his improvement of the steam- 
engine. During that vrinter, a working model of 
the Newcomeu engine, kept for the use of the natu- 
ral nhilosophy class in the college, was sent to him 
to be put in repair. W. quicUy found out what 
was wrong with the model, and easily put it into 
order. But in doine this, he become greatly im- 
pressed with the delete of the machine, and with 
the importance of getting rid of them. The New- 
comen engine (see Steau-enqinx), was still but 
little used, and only for pumping water oat of mines. 
It WHS a cumbersome machine, and it required 
BO much fuel that the expense of working it had 
restricted, and must always have restricted its use. 
It was not a steom.engine at olL It was worked by 
means of the atmospheric preseure; steam being only 
used in producing, by its condensation, a vacuum in 
a cylinder, into which— the vacuum made— a piston 
was depressed by the pressure of the air. The 
steam issuing {torn a heilec was admitted into the 

Lnii.,-.>,L.OOgi c 


off by ft beU-actiag cock ; and then . . 
coodensed in the cjlinder b; meuu o( • jet of 
water. The water bo zreatl; cooled the <7linder 
that the greater part of the ateam at each etroke of 
the putoD waa wasted in heating ite walla ; and on 
the other hand, mnch of the injected water waa 
heated to tho boiling-point, and gave off steam, 
which resisted the descent of the ptston. W. fonnd 
that about fout-Gfths of the ateam, and coDseqnantly 
oC the fuel, waa wasted ; and he saw that to make 
the machine work ecouomically, two apparently in^ 
compatible conditiona must be obtained — first, that 
the walls of the cylinder moat conatantly be of the 
some temperatare oa the ateam which csme in eon- 
tact with them ; and aecond, that the injected water 
must never b< ' ' ' """ " ' '" 

In vacuo. He 
ins power oC vorioDB aabstancea, and made trial of a 
cyunder made of wood ateeped in oil ; bnt with this 
cylioder, though it cooled less rapidly tbu 
metallic one, there waa atill far too much wsate . _ 
steam. Constantly, from tho end of 1763, occupied 
with the subject of ateam, he at len^b, early in 
1765, hit upon the expedient which solved all Ma 
difficulties — the separate condenser, an air-exhanated 
vessel, into which the ateom should be admitted from 
the cylinder and there condensed. The separate 
condenser Kt once prevented the loss of steam la the 
cylinder which hod ariaen in the process of conden- 
sation ; and there was no difflcolty ia keeping it 
cool, so as to prevent the Dodae heating of the 
injection- water- He had now got a perfecfly eoono. 
mical engiae on Newcomen'a principle, but he did 
not rest content with thia — tie resolved to make 
iteam hia motive-power. Qosing the cylinder at 
both top and bottom, and connecting the piston with 
"^ * ■ which it was to communicate motion, 

liy a pston-Tod passing throngh ■ atufSng-box, he 
aomitled the steam hy suitable volvea alternately 
above and below the piston, to push it downwanu 


iwarda in turn ; and tbia done, hia invention 
' mtially complete. He hod at last mode a 
mu sHuun-engine, capable of being worked with a 
comiMuatively amall expenditure of fuel, and of 
yielding nay desired amount of power. Comparing 
his invention with the atmospheric engine of Hew- 
comen, it muat be admitted that it ia not without 
justice that the popular voice boa awarded bjtn tQie 
name of inventor of the steam-engine. 

W., Boon after perfecting his model, formed a 
portnarahip with Qr Boebuck. then of the Corron 
Iron Works, for the construction of engines on ft 
scale adapted to practical uses ; and a model was 
erected at Einnei], near Borrowatounneoi, where Dr 
Boehuck Ihen lived. But Boebuck got into diffi- 
culties ; and nothing farther waa done until, in 1T73, 
W. antared iato a partnership with Matthew 
Bonlton of Soho, near Birmingham, when, Roebnok's 
interert having been repuzchoaed, the tDanafactnre 
of the new engine was commenced at the Soho Iron 
Works. A patent for hia invention had been taken 
by W. in 1769. He got from parliament a prolonga- 
tion of his patent for 2G years in IT7Ei- 

The advantages of the new engine were in no long 
time fonnd ont 1>t the praprietots of mines ; and i> 
•oon auparaaded Nawoomen's machioe oa ft pumping 

_ . _ pnmping- 

W. afterwords made nnmerons improve- 
ments in its conatmotion [for the most important 
of which see SrEUC-BHonrs) ; sod in conjunction 
wHh hia partner Boulton, he immensely improved 
the quality of the workmanship employed in bnild- 
ioR enginsa and other machines. In the yeara 1731, 
178% I7S4, 1780, he obtuned patents for a aeriee 
of inventions— omrag them, tiie snn and planet 
motion, the expansive principle, the doubl* engine. 

the parallel motion, and the smokeless fumftce, of 
moat of which tho ohieC potpoie wss to make 
stesm-praanre available (or turning machinery m 
mills, ^lie accompliahment of this — extending the 
application of the new power to the arts — was rf 
soBtceiy inferior importance to the inrentinn of 
the steam-eneiaB itaell This fint centdvanca 
invented by W. for tiiis pnrpefte, was lort to him 
throng the treachery ot a medtftoic, who had ben 

(or '''th"" l^e ftjmlicatim to tbe al 

engine of the goreraor (see disuf-xiraiMB) waa 
crowning improvement. He made numeroas ii. _ 
tiona mioonnected with the steam-engine, seveiftl U 
which he patented, but they are all of i-— — 

He retired from buainea in the year 1800, Irvine 
ip to his two sons his interest in the extensive ana 
irospenms hnsineas which Bonlton had created at 
ioho. He died at Heathfield in Staffordshire m 
the 25th Avgatt 1819, in his 84th jtu. W. «** 
twice nuuried : first in 1703, to hia oowdn. Hiss 
Miller ; and a second time Bhorlly after hit removal 
to Birmingham, to a Miss MOregor of Olaagov. 
He hod a moat extenaiva and aocnrate knowledge of 
the physical sciencea, to aeverol of which he made 
important conbibations— 4nd an almost nnaurpaased 
fund of general iufortoation. (Hia claims to be 
the discoverer of the composition of 
water are considered in the article Watkb.) He 
was elected a Fellow of the Boyal Socie^ of Edin- 
burgh in 1784 ; a FsUow of the Boyal Society of 
London in 1786 ; a correaponding member o( the 
Batavion Socdety in 1787 ; and in 180B, a oonta- 
ponding member, and afterwards a (dreiai member, 
of the Institate at France. "Die onivenitT of 
Glasgow conferred on him the d^ree of LL.D. in 
1806. Ss Btatne, the (nods for which had been 
~}y a pnbUe and ahnoet a natiosal anbaarip- 
tion, was erected in Biimingham in 1824 ; and hit 
statue is now to be Been in uie streets of many c£ 
onr larger towns. The honoun paid to his memoiy 
and to himself in his later yeaia appear to have 
been deaerved by his paiBonal qnauliea, no leH 
than W the immeaanrable benefits whioh his invsn- 
tive bJenta have conferred npon ths human noe> 
WATTaAlT, AnToiKB, was bom at Val 
L the year 1684. In 1702, he betook 
Paris, where for some time he worked al 
to a scene-painter. When this employment failed 
bjm , by the retirement of his master from Parti, he 
emjjoyed himself in copying pictures. The talent 
which he shewed in this humble walk of the art 
drew the attention of Qillot, a papular fainter «t 
the day, who engaged him to aaajst in hia stndie. 
ime, it was found that the pupil excelled 
, who apeedily relinquiahea the field in 
his favonr, and became an engraver. The sncceat 
assured ; he waa made a member of 

his health, and to consult a ... 

famous, for whom, during his stay, he painted me 
[Hcturss. Ha remained about a year, with- 
I it shonid seem, mnch benefit After his 
return home, hia health gradually deoljned ; and in 
172], he died at Nogent, near Paris. 

In virtue of their chaming colour and gracefil 
deaign, the pictures of W. contmne to pleaae, thonih 
his reputation as on artist is now but a lamt a^ 
of that which, in his lifetinie, he enjojred. He 
employed Tiimifjif chiefly in painting snull lan^* 

;^v .i; . ^... ...^_, of the /Dto 

1 conrt-drM^ 




are not without 
properly artdalac oafi. 


WATTLE-BIRD {Ani/uxAara earmcntabi], an 
AortnLtUn binl, of the family of Honey-eaten IMeli- 
BHagida). It ii abont the um nf a nuigpie, grafigh 
bmwD aborts eaoli fMtber itriped, wtd bordered 
with i^ta ; tli« but btowo, long, wide, and grada- 
ated. It dniTM its name frnm a pendalona t«ddisb 
wattle on aacli aide of the throat. It feeds chiefly 
' inaeats extracted from the iowera of 

the T«*r. It ia a bold and aobre bird, and drivea 
am^ all other birds from the part of the tree which 

WATTS, luAC, WBi born on July 17, Iff7^ at 

of hi* native place, and afterwarda lent, at the 
age of 16, to an academy in London, kept by Mr 
Tbomaa Bowe, an Independent minilter. Here 
hia derotion to his stndiea wu 

peimanently injure hii conatitotiaD. In 1696, he 
became tntor in the family of Sir John Hartopp, at 
Stoka-Kewincton, with whom he remained 

years. Dnrmg the latter part of thia time, he 
officiated aa aaaiatant to I>r Channcey, miniater of 
the Independent Church in Mark Lone, to whose 
poat heiucceededin 1702. Ei« health waa throngh- 
ont infirm ; and in 1712, be was proatrated by an 
illiifaa ao violent that he never thoroughly recovered 
from ita effects, though he lired for many years 
afterwards. A visit which he paid to Sir Thomas 
Abney, at Theobalds, for chance of air, resulted in 
hi* domeaticatkm in tlie Mtablidu&ent till hia death, 
36 veais afterwwds, on Novamber 25, 1748. As 
Ms health permitted, he eontinaed to discharge his 
clerical dntie^ and to oeoni? himself with literary 
parBaits. Hia theologicBl works were numerous, 
but are now qnite forgotten. His treatise on Lojfie, 
thon^ long smoe supeiseded, liad in its day a con- 
siderable reputation, and was adopted as a text- book 
by tiie nniversity of Oxford. By his wcU-known 
ifynms for children, his reputation has been chiefiy 
-'td. So lately as 1837, his Hora Lyriea 
iblished, with " " "~ ' — " — " 

s Memoir by Southey. 

WAUKKQAJS, a city and port of Wisconsin, on 
the west shore of Lake Michigan, 3C miles north-by- 
west from Chicago, and 60 miles south of Milwaokee, 
eonnected with both by railway. The town is 
handaomely built on a blot^ GO feet above the 
lake, and has 6 churches, 2 academies, steam Sour- 
milla, and oonaidavble commeroa. Pop. about 

WATE. the name given to a tlaU of ditlarbanct 
pnpuntea from one set of particles of a medium to 
sning set, and so 

thakeneigy (see FoBo), not Hatter (q. v.), u.on uie 
■whole transferred. The theory of wave-motion is 
of ths utmost importaace in pbysical science j since, 
besides the tide-wave, waves in the sea, in ponds, 
or in canals, nndtdatioDS in a stretched cord [such 
ai a [ijanoforte wire), or in a solid (as sound-waves 
or earthqnake-waTcs], we know that sounds in air 
■re propagated a> waves (see Soinm), and that even 
lif^t (see Okduiatort Teieoiiv) is a form of wave- 

the highest reaonrcea of mathematics ; and the 
theory of even such comparatively Bimple cases as 
the wind-waves in deep water (the Athmtic roll, for 
instance), though easily enoogh treated to a first, 
and even to a second and thiiU approiimatioD, has 
not' yet been thoroughly worked out, sa fluid 
friction hu not been tsken account of. In this 
article, therefore, ws will merely »taie 

these inquiries, comparing them with the observa- 
tions of Scott IluBBell anil otbers ; while we give at 
full length the very Bimple investigations of the 
motion of a wave along a stretched cord, and of the 
propagation of a particular kind of sound-wave. 

"fo find the rate at which an undulation runs 
along a stretched cord, as, for instance, when a 

S -string is sharply struck or pinckcd near one 
a veiy simple investigation suffices. Soppose a 
uniform cord to be atretched with a given tension in 
a smooth tube of any form whatever, we may easily 
shew that there is a certain velocity with which the 
cord must be drawn through the tube in order to 

pressure on the tube ia due to ihe tension of the 
cord ; and is relieved by tiie so-called Centrifngal 
Force (see Ceijtbaii Fobok) when the cord is in 

If T be the tendoD of the cord, r the radini of 
curvature of tho tube at any point, the pressure on 
tike tube per unit of length is 

These are equal in m^nitude, and m destroy wch 

other, if 

T - mo*. 

Hence, if the cord be pulled through the tnba \rith 
the velocity thus determined, there will be no prea* 
sure on the tube, and if may llur^ore be diipinttd 
taUh. If we sappose the tube to haVe a form such 
~ tiiat in the Sgnre, where the extreme portions 



1 one straight line, the oord will appear to be 
drawn with velocity v, alon^ this, the curved part 
beinc occupied by each portion of the cord in suc- 
cession ; presenting something like the appearance 
"' " row of sheep, in Indian file, jumping oror a 

a spectator moving in the direction of the 
arrow with velocity v, the straight parts of the 
cord will appear to be at rest, while an undulation 
of any definite form aud size whatever runs alon^ it 
with velocity v, in the opposite direction. This is a 
very singolar esse, and illustrates in a very clear 
manner the poaailiility of the propagation ol a 
totitary wave. 

Thus we have proved that the veloci^ with 
which an undulation mna along such a cord la 

U I be the length of the corS In feet, u it* whole 

j-Uoog lc 

WBight; W the M>pciid«d weight bj which it ii 
■b«b:h«d, ^ = S2-2 feet, Uie meanre of the earth's 
gniTitf , thu bscomet 

Thii fonnnla ii foiuid to agree Almoat euctly with 
the lanilts of expenmenb We cms eavly see why- 
it ahould be to eome small extent mcon«ct, becalue 
we have lupposed the cord to be ineitenaiblo, and 
petfectly fl^blo, which it onuot be ; and we have 
D^ected tiie effects of extiuieonB force*, such at 
gravity, the resistance of the air, Ac 

Let US next consider the motion of air in a cylin- 
drical tube, in the particular caae in which the leg 
of a vibratinR tmung-forlc a applied at one aa£ 
This ii a eimple case of the propagation of lonnd- 
waves. We shall treat it by a synthetical process, 
somewhat like that given by Newton. 

As we have already seen (see pENDCLtra), a sim] 
vibration such ae tbat of a pendulum or tuning-fork 
is the resolved part, in a definite line, of the uniform 
motion of a point in the circumferenoe of a circle^ 
What we have now to shew is, that such a motion 
of all the particles of air in the pi]ie, the pha»e of 
the vibration (or the position of the particle in its 
path at any instant) depending on its distance from 
tbe end of the tube, is consirtent with mechaaicsl 
principles. When this is done, it will be easy for 
us to trace, in this partioular example, tbe process 
by which the wave is propagated from one layer of 
the fluid to the next. We nmst now consider 
ta little more closely thoo in Fent)Iii,[t>( or Soukd] 
tbe nature of the simple vibration of each particle 
ol the MT. 

Suppose P to move, with uniform velocity V, in 
tble cinile APB, and let PQ be drawn perpendicular 
to the fixed diameter, OA. Then the acceleration 

of F'b motion ia ^rr in the direction FO. Hence in 
tbe motioa of Q, which is a simple Tibration, we 
have, by the rule for resolving velocities and accele- 
rations (see Vbu>citt), 

Velocity of Q = ^T in tlie direction QO ; 

Acceleration of Q = 


in the direction QO. 

Next consider two particles of air near one another 
in the axis of the tube, or the masse* of air in two 
oontignons croaa-sections of the tnbe. If the phase 
of vibration weea the same for both, they woiud be 
cguo/^ ditplsoed from their original positions, and 

Uie air between them 

wonld be neither 
compressed nor di- 
lated. Hence, that 
a wave may pass, 
the phases must be 
A differenti Let, then, 
Q represent the posi- 
tion of the one par- 
ticle, or layer, in its 
line of vibration at 
any instant ; Q', the 
umultoneouB posi- 
fig. 2, tioa of the other. 

The first will be dis- 
placed through a space' OQ from it) position of rest ; 
the second, through a space OQ* ; and their distance 
will therefore be altered by the amount QQ*, which 
may be taken to represent the compression or 
dilatation. But it is easy to see that, as P and^F 
move roond, QQ' is always proporlioi 

velocity with which it is moving. Hence Uie differ. 
ence of ptesaores before and bemnd any guch section 
is proportional to the jiifference of velocities— L e,, 
to the acceleration of tbe motion while the section 
passes over a space equal to its own thickness. And 
this is consistent with mechanical principles, for the 
(THUS of air in the section is constant, while the 
difference of prtssuiea before and bdund produces 
the acceleration, and should tlwrafore be propor- 
tional to it The particles of air in croes-Kctiona of 
the tube therefore vibrate, each in Uie same period 
as does the tuning-fork, but the phase is later for 
each section in proportion to ita distanoe from the 
fork. Where tbe phase is one or more whole 
vibrations later than that of the fork, the motion 
is exactly the same as that of the fork, and nrnvj- 
lantotu with it. At all other points, it is the same 
aa that of the fork, hut not simultaneous. Thus, 
the greatest displacement of the fork is immediately 
shared by the layer next it, later by the next layer, 
and so on. Thus, a mave of displacement travels 
along the tabe from one section to the next, while 
each particle merely oscillatea backvrord and for- 
ward through (in general) a very small space about 
its position of rest. 

The reader who has followed the little geome- 
tricsl investigation above will have no difficid^ in 
proving for himself that the velocity with which the 
wave bevels is proportional ^ ~ 


wherep is the pressure, and f the desuity of tfae 
air. The easiest mode of doing this is to expren, in 
terms of these and other jDantities, the equation 
given OS by the laws of motion, 

Maas X AcoelemtitHi h BiSerraice of preianresi 
and to assume that Hooke's (i]. v.) law holds, even 
during the tiiddta compression of air. This, we 
know, is not the case ; so that a correction bos to 
be Miplied to the above expression, dependioR on 
the heat developed by sudden compremton or lost 
in sodden rarefactian, by each of wnich the elastic 
force of tbe air is increaKd, But this has been 
already discusBed in Sound. 

The above fonnula ebews us, however, that the 
velocity of sound is not affected by the pressure of 
the ait — I e., tbe height of the barometer — since, in 
still air, p is proportional to (. The velocity does 
depend on the traDperature, being, in fact, propor- 
tional (ceferis paritmt) to die square root of the 
temperature measured from absolute zero. See 

We see also from the formula that the velocity ■ 
invenely as the square root of the density of the 
gas — the pressure being the same. Thus, a sonnd- 
wave travels about four times faster in hydrogen 

Also we see that, within the limits o{ approxi- 
mation we have used, the velocity does not depend 
upon the intensity, pitch, or quality of the Sound 
(q. V.]. The investigations which seem to lead to 
slight modifications of this conclusion ore too 
recondite to be introduced here. We can only 
mention, also, the beautiful investigations of Stckes 
(q. V.) connected with the extinction of a sound- 
wava as it proceeds, parUy by flnid friction, partly 
by radiation. And we may cooclnde by stating 
that the result of a completely general investigatkin 
of the velocity of a sound-wave gives, to a first 

iproximation, the result we have deduced from 

e study of a simple particular case. 

We now come to the consideration of waves in 

iter. Of these, there are several species. One, 
however, we may merely mention, u its theory is 

;;.,. LlOOgIC 

the ume m that juat briefly diacuued. This ii s 
souod-ware, or wore of tomprtmon, in water, Ita 
velocity ia coiiHideniblyKre.iter than that of sound 
in air (»eo Sound). The others, which are com- 
monly ob«erved on the aurface ot water, depend on 
mere cfauiges of level, and their effects ; and in 
■tndying tDEm, we may couiider water oa incom- 

Thefintof these is wbat is called a long or loliiary 
wave. Ita essential chftracteristic is, that ita leogth 
is great compared with the depth of the liquid in 
which it moves. To thia claaa belong the tide- wave 
(see TiDB), and the long wave which accompaniea a 
canal-boat, and which we aee slowly traverBinjj tlie 
canal when the boat is stopped. Scott Kuasell has 
made many interesting oliaervatioiia on thia ware, 
ill ol which accord well with the resulta of the 
mathematicBl theory of its propsgation. The velo- 
city of this wave depends aolelr on the depth, not 
on the density of the liquid in which it moves— and 
in s uniform canal the velocity is that which would 
be ocqnired by a stone falling freely throogh a 
apaceequal to half the depth of the water. Another 
chancterislia of this wave is that, alter it has 
pamd. it leaves the water bodily transferred 
throu^ a small apace along the bed of the 
canal — forwards or backwards, according as it 
cunaists of an elevation or a depression of the 
water-sar&ce. Soott Rnasell has ahewn- that ' ' 
most favourable rate at which' a canal-boat 
bo drawn ii when its velooity is such that it rides 
on tiie creet of the solitary wave. If drawn at any 
other apeed, it leaves the solitary wave behind, or ii 
1^ by it i and in either case, part of the hoise'i 
work IS expended in prodncing fresh solitary waves. 
An excellent mode of observiug these waves ia '* 
tilt slightly a rectangular box containing son 
•cater, and restore it to ita original position, A 1di_^ 
wave ia tiins formed, which la reflected repeatedly at 
the ends of the box, and whose rate of motion may 
be accurately observed by watchins the image of a 
candle reflected at the sarfaco of t£e water. If the 
aides of the box be made of glau, and some light 
pyticlea be dispersed through the water, their 
motions enable ua to discover ^1 the cirennuFtonces 
of the [ffopa^tion of this wave. 

Wb next come to what are called otdUatory 
waves in water ot other liqnida. To thia class 
bejoag all waves whoae length from crest to 
nest is small compared with the depth of the 
Uqoid ; from ripples on a pool to the long roll of the 
Atlantic They are never observed as solitaiy 
waves, their general characteristic being their peri- 
odical recurrence. And, by watching a piece of 
cork Bokting on the sorfoce, we see that it moves 
forwards when at the crest of the wave, and bock- 
vaRb throngh an equal amount when in the trough. 
Also it rises while psssing from trough to crest, and 
liaka from crest to tron^ Uathematical inveeti- 
gation, confirmed by experiments with floats at 
•ca, and with short waves in the glazed box before 
described, shews that each particle of theSvater 
ilweribes a cirele about ita position of rest in the 
vMical l^ane in which the wave ia advancing. 
Particks at greater and greater depths describe 
noalleT and smaller circlea. The diameters of these 
cindea dimimsh with extreme rapidity. At a depth 
eqsal to tte distance from crest to crest (L e., the 
lesrUi of the wave}, the disptaeemeot of the water 
ia uready only ij^th of that at the surface. At the 
depth of two wave-lengths, it is about tW>iti^ o^ 
tlut at the ttirfaoe. Thus wa may see to how 
small a depth liie ocean ia agitated even by the 
most trexnendoas wind-waves ) for, according to 
Sooresby, 43 feet Is abont the utmost difference of 
level betveen crest and bough in ocean-waveo. If 

the wave-length be -WO feet (which is a large et__ 

mate), then at a depth of 300 feet thewater-par&les 
describe circles whoae radii are only the Vifth of a 
foot, or about four-tenths of an inch ; and at GOO 
feet this ia reduced to r«W^ <>( <ui inch ; while the 
depth of the Atlantic is in many parts more thai 
three or four milea. In this case, the velocity o', 
propagation of the wave has been shewn to be 


where if is, as before, 32-2 feet ; t is the wave-length 
in feet ; and w is the ratio of the circumference of a 
circle to its diameter (see Qdadbature OF TUB 
Cibole). Thus, the velocity of an oscillatory wave in 
deep water is proportional to the sguaie root of its 
' iugth. This fact has been of use as an analogy 
\ helping us to account for the DiipeTiion (see 
Kbtkactioh) of iJgbt, where, by eiperiment, n 
know that the waves ot red light are longer tha_ 
those of blue light, and also that they travel faster 
refracting media. 

When the depth is not infinitely great compared 
with the length of a wave, theory and eipenment 
agree in shewing that the motion of each particle 
takes place in au ellipse whoae major axis ishoriion- 
taL These ellipeca dimimsh rapidly in length as 
we descend In the liquid, but still more rapidly 
in breadth ; so that, aa was to be expected, the 
partidea at the bottom oscillate in horizontal 
straight lines. The expression for the velocity of 
propagation ia now by no means so simple as in 
the previoos caaea^but is easily shewn to include 
the values already given. 

So far, the first approximation. A section of the 
surface made by a vertical plane in the directioa of 
the wave's motion, la shewn to be bounded by the 
//annonio Curve, or Curve of SiiM, the form aaauraed 
by a vibrating string (seo Sodhd) ; from which it 
foUows that the crests are ^imilur to the troughs. 
The second approximation makes the troughs flatter, 
and the crests steeper, and also shews that the 
partidea are, on the whole, carried /oneojii by each 

a paribm, greater the greater is the height o 


When waves adi-ai 
ciroumstances change 
those of oscillatory wa 

lation, as the depth of the water beoomes less and 
" ble in comparison with the length of 

9 towards the shore, th«r 
n general gradually, from 
- ■^o those of waves -' ' 

less considerable in comparison with the length ol 
he wave ; and it is found by experiment that they 
break,' as it is called, when the depth of the wat^ 
I about equal to the beisht of the crest above the 
undisturbed IcveL AU ^e curious phenomena of 
breakers aro thus easily explained by the results we 
have already given, when they are considered with 
rofcrence to l£e gradual alteration of the depth of 


t notice a singular phenomenon 

breaking on the coast, every eighth, or ninth, or 
tenth, *c is seen to be higher than its predecessors 
or successors. The explanation is simple enough, 
and points to the almiutoneous existence of two or 

lets of oacillatory waves of different lengths, 

general to quite distinct causes, which reach 

the shore togetber.^For further information on this 
subject the reader is referred to papers by Stokes in 
the Cambridge and Dyiblin Mala. Journai, vol. iv., 
and the Cambridgt PkiL TVonj;, voL vili, and to 
Airy's 'Tides and Waves' in tbe SncyelciKtiiia 

This might lead ua to consider tie very interesting 
Lilli- n,LlOO(jlC 


already in varioaH articles (see PoLiBlUTloir, 
SocwD, TJniicijltort Thkobt) given lufficieat 
eiamples to iUiutrate &<i great jmndple. 

There reniuna ths coiiBidcratioD of tiie frops- 
gatioD of vaveB in elastto Bolida, among wbidh, 
at least so far a» lnmiaiferom vilsatioiia ira con- 
cemed, it appears that Uie Ether (c[. t.) must be 
ranked. Thu a a subject of » higher order of 
difficulty than any of thoae before mentioned, and, 
in the cue of light at least, hw not yet b«en treated 
-'a a thoroughly latiefsctinT maimer, thoogh raoh 
_ien aa.Cauchy, Neumann, Moocnlla^, Oretni, And 
Stokea have Wiitten profound memoin upon it. 

WAYRE, a town in Uie province of South 
Brabant, Belgium, IS miles south-east of Brussels, 
hoa a popi of BSai, who are mostly engaged ii 
manufacture of hata, leather, and cotton-yam. 
ia better known as Uie scene of a desperate and pro- 
tracted conflict between the French and Fnusians, 
on the IS— IQth June 1810. The former, under 
Onmol^, Qerord, and Vandamme, advanced against 
the PninianB at the aame time aa Napoleon directed 
the troop* onder his immediate ordera against 
Wellington at Waterloo (q. v.), and being much 
mperior in nnmber (32,000 to 15,200), drove the 
PnutdaDS, nnder Thielman, into W., where they 
defended themselvea with desperate firmness, repuls- 
ing thirteen different assanlte in the ooune of tiie 
ISth. On t^ following momina|, Thielman, who, 
had heard of the victoir at Waterloo, attacked 
Oionchy, bnt was repulsed with vigour, though ths 
argent ordera of ?{uioleon foroed the latter to 
treat to Laon, initesd of following up his sucoesa 

WAX. Under this term, chemists include varii 
matters of a well-known (so-callod waxy) appearance, 
derived both from the animal and the vegetable 
kiogdoma. While in tiieir general relations they 
approximate to the Fats, tliey differ mateiially frtmi 
the latter in their chemical composition ; those of 

impound ethers, and partly of free fatty adds. 
Their general propertiea may be thus laid down : 
They are aolidT or semi-solid matters ; are easily 
broken when cold, but at a moderate warmth are 
soft and pliable, and fuse at a temperature below 
212°. They have a peculiar glistemng appearance, 
~ ~ e lighter than water, are insoluble in Uat fluid 

d in cold alcohol, bat dissolve readily in ether; 
they are combustible, and bum with an illuminating 
flame, ore non-volatile, and when heated in a tree 
atmosphere, undei^ decompovtioo. In this cate- 
gory are included spermaceti {which has been 
aliWy coDsideredl, beea' wax, Chinese wax, and 
other less known kinds, as palm or vegetable wax 
{obtained from the bark of Cfreay&m andieola, by 
the action of hot water and pressure), Camahub« 
wax (an exudation from the leaves of a Brazilian 
palm), sugar-cace wai^ ka. 

Bees' wax is on animal secretion formed by the 
bees from sugar, and constitutes the material of 
which the cells of the honey-comb are oomposed. 
It is obtained by eipressing the honey, and fusing 
ths residue in boiliitg-WHter. In this state it Is of a 
yellow oolour (Cera jiam). It mav be bleached, so 
aa to form white wax [Ctra alba), by being exposed 
in Hiin slices to the action of soliir light, or by ths 
action of nitric acid. (Chlorine readily destroys the 
colour, but renders the wax unfit for candle-making, 
as a portion of the hydroa;en of the wax is replaced 
by chlorine, and the candles, when burning, evolve 
irritating Tapoura of hydrochloric acid gas.) F^nmthe 
researches <^ Sir EBrodie(PAi£ TVwu., 1S46, 1849), 

X consists of three different sub- 
•mteia, which are sepu- 

it appear* th*t ' 
stances, fnyricm, 
able from one BDother 
whioh is insoluble : 
tbau two-thirds of the 
or cerotie add, which dissolves in boiling alcohol, 
but separates on oooling, varies in qnsntih'' is 
different specimens. In one sample of genuine bees' 
wax, BrodiB found that it constituted 22 per cent, 
and it wss always present in European samTJ<«, 
while in Ceylon wax it was entirely absent. This 
iation in the nature of on animal secre- 
different cmdltioni of life, resembles tilt 
wmetdmes noticed in the adds of bntter, 
which ths bntyrio and caproio acidi of one season 
replaced in another by vaocinio acid, diffeiing 

n cold sue- 

„ , .. ^ Bpercenl. 

of ordinary wax. Without entering into chemiesl 
details, we may observe that beee^ woi yields 
the following derivatives; Carotio acid or ceiin, 
HO.OjiHijO,; eerylic alcohol orcerolin, HO,C„H^O; 
melisaylia alcohol or melissin, HO,C^|Eg,0 ; melisuc 
acid, HO,Cg£g.O,; palmitic acid, E:0,C„HqO,; 
myridn, CaiHnOt ; and melene, C,jH,^ 

OAmeM Wax (C,^,g,OJ is anppcsed to be the 
produce of a ^eotes ol insect of &e Coccus &niily, 
and consiBls pnncipally of cerotlc acid, ' 
tion with oxide of cerotyL 

Both yellow and white bees' wax ~ 

V, hsTing on agr e ea b le 

- "D thetf -■ * - 

melt under 140°, yields nothing to oold rectified 
spirit, but is entirely soluble in od of tnrpen^e ; 
boilins-water in which it has been s^tat^ when 
cooled is not rendered bine by iodine.' Of uiUle 
wax.- ' Hard, ne&rly white, traoMuoant; not unctaoos 
to Uie touch, does not m«lt under 150°.' The iodine 
test is used because wax is oftui adnlterated with 
starch. Wax was formerly much employed inl«^ 
nally aa an emollient medicme, in osses of suspected 
nlceration of the intestines. At present, it is only 
nsed as an external agent, being on ingretUent lA 
msjoy ointments and plastsrs. 

The commercial valne of bees* wax is ven grest ; 
and if it were poarible to ssoertain the total 
of the quantity produoed, it would cause great 
surprise at t^ amount of valuable material 
derived from a source apparently so insnffi- 
dent. Its chief uses are for candles, modeOiii^ 
medicinal cerates or ointmeatst besides many minor 
purposes. Nearly 300 ton* are aimuallv iEOiported 
mto Great Britam, the nine of which is about 
£60,000 ; bat so large i* the quantity 
the ceremoniea of the Greek «nd Rani 

that Russia alone con^nmea mae tha_ 

that amount^ and tjbe various Cathtdio oountriea pny 
bably ten tune* •• mtioh. ^le Itiaioi Wax of 
China,* or Pe-lo, bos lately been imported in amall 
qoantiti**^ and nsed in the manufairture of candle* 
by Hessts Price & Co. ; bat it is fat too costly 
lend nse (see Wax Dmacr). In China, this 
. very highly valued, and is so oostly a* to be 
nsed only by the hifehest classes ; it is <<rtute, and 
breaks with a cm tsSine fraatops and pearly Instn^ 
Of Vegetable Wax, Uiere are fooi '^"t'TW^ kinds 
known in Dommeroe. The Stft in imp * 
jAriv Wax, which is almost ■* triiite 

refined bees' wax, whidl it dosdy : 

s first Inou^t to Great Britain m itson, saa 

oe thsn, soms very considerable importations hsva 
taken place. It is said to b« obtuned by boiling 
tiie seeds of a species of Emra {& -" ' " 

dB^nnan ohuiolu^ 

1. :'.:■'- ,OOQlC 


hu onlf been wed in nuking cuidka. S&azi 
Tbovtabix Wax is tUao in utiole of re^iular 
importatum, bat out; in uuall qu&ntitiei ; it is 
abt^ued from Uis leaves oC Oor^Jta, cer\ftra, the 
Canuhnbrn F*lm of tlie Brnwliaiis, It forms s 
glovy Tsrnish-like oovecing ; and yihsa the lasves 
m gmthered, and b^in to shrink from witheHag, 
it encka and peela ofl( and is collected and melted 
into maasea. It is bard and brittle, and of a dull 
;eUaw colour. The candlemakere have used it for 
mixing and improving other materials. In Brazil, 
eaodlea aie wholly made of it, or half the quantity 
^ ateanne ia added. The Vboziabi.b Wax of the 
Andei i« ti*a yielded by a palm (see Wax Palu). 
Althon^ mnuL used in Mexico, it has not yet 
beOMM of oommenual im^>ortanae to ILamm. It 
il chiefly used for candles m the chorches. Mtbtu 
Wax, uoogb rarely seen in Europe, is much used in 
the Britiah colomea of North America, and the 
Dnitad Statea, and at the Cape of Qood Hope ; it 
is kloo in nse in Brazil. It ia procured by boiling 
the berries of Myriiia eer^fera m North America, 
and probably from odier spedea in Brazil, and 
the Cape of Good Hope. It resembles beefl' w 
Tci; mui^ except that it has a greenish-yelli 
instiead of a yellow colour. It is only used for 

Of tha manufaotoivd componnds called wax, the 
folknrii^ are the ohtef— vix., Skujho-wax (q. -v.). 
MODKLLKRS' Wax, used by artiata for modelling 
It consists of ei^nal parts of bees^ 

^ ' lead-plaiter — oUve oil and yellow 

, jnat sufficiant wbiting added to produce 

the eoQsistency of putty. Oilskbs' Wax consists 
aS four pirla of beea' wax, well mixed by meltins 
with O&0 part each of Tcrdigris and sulphate <» 

Tba beetf wax of commwce is of a dirty yellow 
c<^iir, and mixed with many impuritie*. It has, 
consequently, to undergo a prooees, of bleacbing, by 
which it is rendered quite wbite and pore. The 
nmal proceas is to melt tbe wax with bouing-water, 
and abr them together for a short time, so as to 
MHrate the impurities from tbe wax It is t^en 
allowed to >«at for a abort time, and the pore wax 
floats on the ti^ ; and when cold, is taken off in a 
cake, the lower part of which ia often diicoloured 
with the dirty water. This is scraped oS^ and 
mixed witb the next lot to be operated upon. Tbe 
purified pmiion is next remelt«d, and is then allowed 
to tzickk from tbe melting-pan on to a wooden 
cylinder, revolving mpidly, and partly immersed in 
para cold water, in a largo cistern. This Qirows it 
into the water in the form d fine thin feather-like 
flakes, which cool and harden instantly in the 
water. When sU is run off, the wax is removed from 
the wster, and laid on linen cloths, placed on tables 
in a field for the air to bleach. From time to time, 
tha Bakes are tamed over and examined ; and when 
th« Ueaching effect of tbe air seems to have stopped, 
tbe wax i« lemelted, and converted ia\a flakes in 
the cistern, and recced in tbe bleaching- ground 
nnldl it is quite wtiit& Chemical processes are 
mnelimea resorted to, but they have not snperteded 
the oldest, and, u yet, tha best method, jn«t 

WAX, MiNZRAii, is a natural prodoct, found in 
•mall qnantitieB ooiing bma rocks of the coal foima- 
tion. It is called Ozokerite by mineralc^iste, and 
has been found in sni^ quantities, in one or two 
wdls in the neighbouriiood of Edinbar;^, as to 
lead to the hope that it might hare soma practical 
nae. It is of a dark-brown, almost black colour, in 
large hmpa, of the consistency and lustre of hard 
wax- Csndtea have been made of it, but rather for 
emeioBiit than for nse^ 

WAX-CLOTH, a nume sometimes ^veu, but 
very erroneously, to Puiob-clotb (q. v.). 

WAX -FLOWERS. An elegant use is found for 
bees' wax in the manufacture of wai-flowers. The 
wax for tbia pnrpo?e is bleached and prepared in 
^*im aheets of varions colours, which are cut out 
into the Hhapes for petals and leaves, according to 
the kind of flower to be imitated, lliey are easily 
made to adhere, either by a slight amount of hea^ 
or a little melted wax. 

WAX INSECT (Coccus menae; see Cococa], a 
very small vbite insect, a native of China, of 
the eame genus with the Cochineal and Kermcs 
insects, and with the Scale insects, which are the 
pest of our greenhouses, valuable on account of the 
wax which it produces. It is found about the 
beginning of June on the branches of certain trees, 
on tbe juices of which it feeds, particularly on 
those of a kind of Sumach {Blmi mccAfan^unt). 
The wax is deposited on tbe branches as a coating 
which resembles hoar-frost. This is scraped off 
towards the end of August, melted in boiling- water, 
and strained through a cloth. See Wax. TIm 
Chinese W. L has been introduced by the French 
into Algeria. — Another W. L is found in South 
America, but is not yet well known, nor has its wax 
become an article of commerce. 


WAX.PAINTING U on art of great importance. 
better known, however, under the name of 
Encanstio Pointing [q. v.}. 

WAX PALM {CenxcytoTt—OT IriarUa—attdieola), 
a lofty palm, found in the Andes, on the eastern 
borders of Pern, at an elevation li 9000 feet and 

Wax Folm {CtroaegUm andieota). 

upwards above the level of the sea. It grows to 
the height of 160 feet, and on tha cicatrices of the 
fallen ^ves, a cesinons secretion is produced in 
great abundance, composed of about two parts of 
yellow resin, and one of a kind of wax, more brittle 
than bees' wax. This wax exudes ^so from the 
leaves, and is whitish, almoat inodorous, except 
when heated, when it gives oat a resinous odour. 
It is used by the inhabitants of the country 

which it is produced for making canoes, but ia 
Uy mixed with wax or tallow. It is probable 
the W. P. would succeed well in the south 

usually I 

__ _._ climate is not disiumilar. 

^e usual method of obtaining tbe wax i* by felling 
the tree. Each tree yields about 25 Ibo. The 


-wax U Kniped off, melted. »ad ran into ca]iiibaElie& 
The timber of this palm is vary hard and durable ; 
the leaves are used lor thatching, and the fibre* for 
cordage. The tree is a beautital one, with a rtateiy 
stem, and a head of large i)Lnnate leaves. — lo some 
of tho northern provinces of Braiil, wax is obtained 
from the Caroahuba PaUn (q. v.). 

WAX-SCULPTURE. The tue of wax for scidp- 
tnre is believed to be of very ancient origin ; and not 
only have the tamba of Southern Italy yielded many 
specimens of the portraits of the dece&sed modelled 
in wax, but many fine bronzes in antiquarian coliec- 
lious bear evident marks of having been modelled 
in wax by the process called cire-perdue. Thi* 
consists in prodaciug a model in wax, and then 
coating it with clay or other material in a toft 
state ; this is allowed to harden ; and the wax is 
thea melted out by heat, and the molten metal 
poured in. A very fine cast of the wax-figure is 
thus obtained ; bnt, -' **•- '"' "' 

_-- inoisseurs. During the 14th and 16th centuries, 
tba art of modelling in wax, or ceroplastics, was 
much practisal, especially in Italy and in Germany, 
by many of the 6nt artists, even Michael An^elo not 
excepted ; and many of their orinnal works in wax 
are stiU preserved. They were chiefly, however, in 
low relief, although very Sue statuettes were also 
produced by men of great eminence. 

WAX-TREE ( VUmia), a genus of plants of the 
natural order Hypericaixa, having a 6-parted calyx, 
and 6 petals, senerally covered with soft hairs on 
ike inside. All the species yield a yellow viscid 
juice when wounded, which, when dried, becomes 
somewhat similar to gamhoRe. The species are 
natives of the tropical parts of Americs. 

WAXWING (BombijciUa), a genus of birds of 
the family Ampelida, or Chatterers (q. v.), having a 
short, straight, elevated bill, with a very wide eape, 
as in the Fly-catchers, but without bristles ; both 
mandibles notched at the tip ; the wings rather 
long, broad, aod pointed ; the legs short ; the toes 

Bohemian Chatterer (BoiaiiycVia gamtla). 

long, with sharp and curved claws. The name W. 
is derived from a very peculiar character, which 
the wings exhibit ; some of the locondaries and 
terldariea terminating in homy expansions of the 
shaft, resembling small piece* of red sealing-wax. 
The species are fow, but widely diffused over the 
colder parts of the uortbem hemisphere. The 
only Bnropeao species is the Eubofb&k W., or 
BoHKHUH Chattxrer {B. gaiTula), which is found 
in sanuner in the arctic regions of Europe, Asia, 
and Americ*, migrating southwards in winter. 

sometimes as far as the shores of theMeditemoean; 
most abundant in America, during winter, about 
the great lakes and the northern p^ of the Valley 
of the MisaiasippL It is found also in Japan. It ii 
only an occaaional winter-visitant of Britain. la 
some winters, numerous flocks are seen; in other 
winters, and more genemlly, none at all. It is in 
severe winters that tiis bird is meat frequently 
seen in Britain, and in the more southern parts of 
Europe^ It ia gregarious in winter, and the flocks 
are often large. It feeds on insects and wonni, 
seeds, berried and other fruit*. It il a handsome 
bird, neatly aa large as the Song Thrush ; reddish 
gray, with a black patch on the throat, and a black 
band on the forehead; the tail-covarta brownish 
orange ; the primaries, tecondaries, and tail-teathen 
tipped with yellow, two white bands on the wings ; 
the lower parts silvery gny. Tha head is air- 
mounted by an ereotile crest of brownish OTan){e 
feathers. The song of the W. is a weak whistliDR, 
bearing a Uttle resemblance to that of the thnuh. 
It is euily tamed. The flesh is said to be delicate 
food.— The Ambbicajj W., or Cedar Bird (fl. 
adrorum, or CarolmentU), is a very similar, but 
smaller speoiea, found only in North America, from 
Canada to Central America, leas migratory, and 
visiting arctic ref^ons. The general colour is 
,. .,■.._ j__ j_j._ — rplish (^ -- 

flocks of cedar birds collect in the end <^ ai 
They feed on berries, and are particnlarly fond ol 
those of the Bed Cedar. The Cedar Bird is 
extremely voracious, and when food abounds, some- 
times gorgos itself so much, that it may be taken 
by the nand. It is in much esteem for the table. — 
Another species is found in Japan, having no waiy 
drops on die wings: 

WAXT DEGENERATION is a morbid procea 
in which the healthy tissue of various orrams is 
transformed into a peculiar substance, allied in 
some respects to amyloid compounds, and in others 
t<i albuminous substances. Organs affected by tUa 
degeneration have a certain resemblance in con- 
si^ncy and physical character to wax. They may 
be cut into portions of the most regular shape, with 
sharp angles and smooth snrfaces; and the thinnest 
jKissible slices may be removed by a sharp knife for 
microscopical examination. Such organa aro abnor- 
mally translucent, increased in volume, soLdity, 
and weight. Usually, the first parts affected by 
this degeneration are the small blood-vessels, the 
middle or muscular coat being first changed. Sub- 
aequently, the secreting cells become similarly 
aflccted. VThen a solution of iodine is brought 
in contact with such tissues, a very deep violet red 
colour is produced; and this deep red colour is 
alone a sufflciently characteristic test. Although 
amyloid degeneration is common to many tiwue 
and organs, the parts most frequently affected are 
the spleen, liver, and kidneys. This morbid condi- 
tion in one or more organs is the expression of a 
general pathological state, the conditions and 
relations of which are as yet but little known. 

WAYLAND, the Smith (Ang.-Sai. VxLum ; old 
Norse, VtiLiTMSii ; Ger. WieiiASD), was, accoiUing 
to the old German Saga (the principal traits (3 
which are already contained in the older Edds, 
but which is related in the most detailed form in 

Wac-bilt. Bis lather had bound him, at first, 
apprentice to the celebrated smith Mimi, then took 
him across the sea to the most skilful dwarfs, from 


wliosL he Dai only aoon I«Hii«d ill thdr icieDoe, 
bat iar lannMed thent.* He afterwatda dwelt a 

long time in OUdaler <tlw Wolf* Valley, which, 
by aompanna with other Sana, appears to corre- 
4oDii to the Greek Labfiintn) iloag witli hia two 
Emthara— Einl, tiie beat archer, to whimi the oldest 
fmm of the Tul legend attachea ; and Sliucfidr, whom 
the Mga haa not f either duTacteriaed. ^e brothers 
jtere ott three ewan-nymph^ aod lived witii them 
Jot MTetiyeara, when they flew away to follow 
latll«igW»U:yri8a{q. v.). Afterwarfa, W. came to 
King NidnoK who made him lame, by cnttiag the 
■inewi of his feet, aod put bim in pmon, foi: which 
W. revenged himself by putting the king*! two sous 
to death, and TioUtin^ his daughter Beodohild, 
who afterwards gave birth to Wittich, a powerfal 
dumpion trf the Qerman hero-lwenda. W. then flew 
sway in a feather-robe, which aa himself manotac- 
tured, aad which bia brother Mpl had tried flrst, 
but was precipitated to the ground. Skilfully put- 
liDg together and rapplementins the variona old 
l^uidt, Simrock has produced the Saga of W., as 
s whole, in hiti poem WUIand dtr Sckmiai (Bonn, 
1335), and in the 4th part of bU HeldMbuA (Stuttg. 
IMS). The legend was a favourite one among all 
the Germanic oationa, as is shewn by the frequent 
iHuaiaiu to it in Scandinavian, Anglo-Sazon, En^isb, 
ud German poema, aa well as by uie numeroos frag- 
mcnti yet extant in oral tradition throughout ul 
TeDtomc conntriea. The German poems to which 
the Tiltinasag* appeals, which were in existence 
np to the 13ui c^ have been utterly lost, Even 
beyond the bounda of Germany, old French poems 
and tiaditioDs tell ot Gallana the unith. See 
Dcpinng and Michel, Veland U Fiv'gtroii (?ar. 
IS33). The legend of W. is in fact one of thoae 
mrthi common to the Indo-Germanio faniily. Be- 
■ioes the German tradition, it is found moat dis- 
tinctly among the Greeka, in the different atoriea of 
Dcdijas, HephsBstna, Eriohtbcaiina, and so forth. 
Next to Jacob Grimm's profonnd diaonaaion in the 
OtnuM MftMogy, Enhn ha* pointed ont in the 
beat "^f^nnfl^» tho BigiuficatioD and Tt^ifi'^tift*ift of 
tbe oyth in hi« treatiae, Die BpntdwtrgteiAtmg 
nut dK Wtrgtaduchte der Oerm. Vfiker, in the 
ZaItiArtfl fiiT verglekhende SpraehfortcAmg (vol. 
iv., BerL I8H). 

VAYSS, Ahthoht, an American general of the 
war of the Bevolntion, waa bora at Wayneaboroogh, 
Pemuylvania, Jonoaiy 1, 1746. His grandfather, 
a natave of Ywk^ure, commanded a aqnadron of 
■htnona at the battle of the Boyne, and emigrated 
to rennaylvania. Anthony woa educated at Phila- 
delphia; at the age ot IS, he waa emploved aa a 
Uad-mrreyor, and waa selected by Benjamin 
ftanklin to form a projected aettlement in Nova 
Scotia. At the beginning of the American revolu- 
tioQ (ITT^, be was married and settled on a farm 
in Fennnlvania, taking an active interest in poli- 
<'", ud became a member of a Committee of Safety, 
Md studied military drill and tactioa. At Ae 
■iiitbreak id hoatilitics, ha raised a regbnent of 
tolimteen, of which he was appomted oi^oael, and 
•cut to Canada, where be coverecl tbe letreat of the 
proTindal force* at Three Kivera. Ho commanded 
it Ticmulcaoga until 1777, when he was made 
Bngadia-ganeral, and joined Waahington in New 
Jtiic; ; commanded the rdiwurd in the retreat 
it Bnndywine ; led the atta^ at Gonnantown ; 
^ptored si^ipliea for the diatrMsed atmy at Yall^ 

' The nam* Wayland is bom a moi rignifyini art, 
"uania : from whuh cams £ng. mit and (thnmda old 
^''I^Sr ABg.-8aa.iciaa means to fahnoate. 

victory of the war in the storming of Stoiry Point 
(q. v.), July 15, 1779. His courage and am saved 
Lafayette m Virginia in 17S0; and he aided in tlie 
siege of Yorktown, and commanded in GeorEi^ 
At the close of the war, rewarded by popular 
enthusiasm, and having, by bit daah and audad^, 
acqnired Uie aobrii^uet of ' Mad Anthcoy,' be 
retired to his farm at Waynesboroiigh, and engaged 
in promoting the conatmction of roods and caikals. 
In 1792, he commanded a snocessful expedition 
against the Indians of tbe north- western territories; 
where he remained, lintU 1796, aa United Stated 
Commiseioner. He died at the garrison at Pretque 
Isle (now Brie), Dec^ber 14, 1796. 
WAYS AND MEANS, Committzb ot, a com- 
ittce of the Hooae of Commons appointed to 
determine the modes of raiaing the money which 
" " " reaolutiona reported from tbe 

always a committee of the whole House. A chair- 

I of i 

[>ply, but 

known as the Chairman of the Oommittee of Ways 
and Means, presides over both committees. One 
of the most important occasions for which the 
Committee sits is to receive the Budget, or «min»l 
financial statement of the year from the Chanoallor 
of the Exchequer. The propositions of the govern- 
ment regarding loans, duties, taxes, tolU, and any 
other means for raising revenue, are snbmitted to 
tbe consideration of the Committee of Ways and 
Meana in the ahape of reaolutiona The amount 
proposed to be raised must not exceed tbe eun 
ranted in Uie Committee of Supply ; and the 
Ihancellor of the Exchequer is bound to satisfy the 
House, by a detail of the bhdui granted for the 
aeverol services, that the amount of these sums will 
be a BnfEoient juatiflcation, in point of quantity, to 
the Committee of Ways and Means to adopt such 
measures and impose such taxes as shsU then be 
recommended. Such resolutions aa are agreed to 
are adopted and embodied in bills, and in due time 
become law. See StTFPLY, ComnnxB or ; Puilu- 

WBAXDEN FOBMATION, a seriea of frtsh- 
..ater strata belonging to the lower Cretaceons 

rch. Having been originally studied in the parts 
Kent, Surrey, and Sussex called the Weald, this 
local name waa given to the formatioo. It baa been 
divided into two aariea, which do not difler veiT mate- 
rially from each other, viz.. Weald Clay, 660 feet } 
Hastings Sand, 740 : total, 1300. The Weald Clay 

'~^- of blue and brown clay and shale with thin 

sandstone and ahally limeatone. These 
'ere probably lake or eatoory deponts, and 
contain the remains of the land flora and fauna, 
often in great abondance. Tbe beds of limeatone, 
called SuHsex Marble, are altnott entirely compooed 
>f a apecies ot Patudina, not very different from the 
Kimmon P. vivyKiTa of T^ngH"* rivers. Tbie daya 
ire often laminated by thm layeia, oonsitting of 
immense numbers of the shells df minuta Cypnda, 
But the most remarkable animal remains are those 
of the huge reptiles which lived on the land, 
tenanted the air, or abounded in the sea, such as the 
Iguaoodon (q. v,), Eylieoaanrua [q- v.], Pterodactyl 
(q. v.), and iJie numerous apecies of turtles which 
have been described from these strata. Tbe veget- 
able foBBita belong chiefly to ferns, and to the 
gymnospermatonB orders of ConifeiB and Cycads ; 
the fnuts of several speciea of both orders have 
been found ; and in some places, the rolled truoka 
of Endogouttt and Clathrani, belonging to Cycads, 
and of different speciea of comferoua wood, occur in 
~"— "■■ qnantitiea, aa at Btook Point, in the lale 




IkcU ooDb^ mote uadstona mud 
of the upper WnldOUTB. The 
of the High Roob ud other 

an ths beat known 
Kmntoriai of these mnankble fouik. 

The depotition of the Ws^den bedi vm fall<Tired 
hy » gMOnal d«ia-««son of tiia land, when thsoe 
freeh-wtter depcwti were oovcrad by the wtnuy 
beds of the newer Qrtentand, The depreHiDn eon- 
tinited nntil ths frah-watOT and eetoarr atrsta 
formed the bottom oE k deep «e^ on whioh were 
depodted the immeaie beds of ohalk end allied 
■b>tA irhioh form the bnlk irf the Crataceoiu aeries. 
In the procoH of ckvatioii, theae bedi have (uf- 
feied danndation, ao that diitrioti which were 
coveted with Cretaoeone beds have been cleared of 
them, and immenEe valloTa have been fmrowed 
throagh the Ohalk, Greenland, and Wealden. 


The proprie^ of mothen mueing thrar own children 
U BOW BO mdrenally aoknowledged, tiiat it u the 
duty of the physician lea frequently to urge mater- 
nal nuising than to indicate thoM ' ^'~'~ '* 

reariiiK tiie ii 
'whoUbonr ni 
— asphthiiii, hi 

disqnali&d from the cpfdoe of nonet Some who ak 
in oUier reipaote bealthgr, hkTe bieaiti i 
•ecreting ■ mffident ti^vly of milk, 
inataneea, the hreaat nm pwfoRn iti fnnetiona 
" " ' tho nipple maToe ■ " - 

to mining. Agun, w 

f, and, in the hi^a 


Frightened and ezinted by evmy aoddental change in 
the infant's eonntenanoe, and inordinatdy mored 
by the ccDUnon a^tationi of life, inch panona ai« 
kept in a state of continual fever, whioh nutteriaUy 
interfere* witJi the formation of milk botli •■ to 
qiunlity and qoalilr. Women, alao, who beoome 
mothen for the tint time at a lata period <^ life, 
1.™ addom Uie fiezibiUty vt diapoaitiou "- *•" 
' ' the wemtion of milk,i 

physical aptitode fiw tt 

II milkiieqiund 

to oonstitute a good nurse.' — A Trtatite _ _ 

MatuigemaU ana Diitaia of Ctuldrtn, 4th ed., 
1842. pp. 39, 40. In ordinary cases, the child 
should be pnt to the breast as soon as the latter 
begins to contain anything ; and when the secretion 
of milk has fairly commenced, it will require no 
other food antil the seventh or eighth month, 

Jrovided the mother be a gcod nurse. Dnring the 
nt five or six months, the infant shcnld be pnt to 
the breast at regular intervals of about four honn; 
afterwards, when the teeth are b^inning to appear, 
the child lued not snck mere tikan four taam w the 
twenty-four hours, soma artificial food being given 
to it twice during the same pmod. This at first 
may congitt of soft bread steeped in hot wat" 
with the addition of sugar and cow's milk ; a 
mbsequeotly a Uttle btoth, free from salt and v^ 
table*, nay M givmi ono* a iaj. The spotm la a 

mg-boUle, Hm bmo ci yntaiag uwald b« Oat 
ii^oated by iiatnn^ when, by pwidiBA tb* ehild 
with teeUi, ahe fomiibsa it with tha meau d 
obtaining n nonridmiettt fnMn nibataDce* mon 
•'"^--lilk. UtiMiafiMt baa been graaMllf 
to ft dimifiiihad anpfdy iA mtXttm 
and an inai«aM of sftifliM food, weaning will ha ■ 
oomparatively easy prooMS; and mncli d tint 
sufiming botm fai parent uid child will be spued, 
which oommonly raanea when a sudden ahaogs is 
made. In ordmary oaaca, the poriod of wsaniag 
from the sevmit^ to the twelfth month; 
the ohild !« kept at the breastfor a mnd 


In those oases inwhiohit la inexpedient or impu- 
Bible for a mothsr to anokle her own child, tb> 
choice of a wet-nnrae beonnea a anbjeol of nodi 

down the following impniant praetioal mlw 
ereat thiug we have to look to fa to aaootain tlut 
boUk the woman and her child an in good heiltlii 
and of tbia we muat andeavour to ^dge by tlu 

following si0u I Tbe wcman'a genaral 

and form shoald ba ohaerred, a^ thegr 
such aa betoken a aonnd eonstitatk 
should ba free from emptit 
and indicating a healthy dii . 

teeth sound and perfect ; the breasts ahonld be 
Ann and well fbnned— not too large or flabby— snd 
with perfect, wdl-dsvdoped nipple*. We dwnld 
see that the milk flowa freely, upon alight pieanie ; 
and we ahould allow a little of it to remain in a^ 
in order tiiat we mav judge of itaqnalitr. Itshonld 
be thin, and of a bfnlsk-white eoloor; sweet to the 
taste ; and when allowed to stand, ahonld throw m 
a eoBsiderahle q uantity of cream. A. none sboald 
not be old, but It U better that she should have hid 
one or two dhildTen before, as she will then bl 
likely to have roon milk, and may b« anipaied to 
have acquired experience in tiie mnnageownt ol 
infant*. Having examined the motber, we most 
next torn to the child, which sboald be well noci- 
ished, clean, and free from etuptiona, eqiedally on 
the head and buttocks. We thoold also cawnUj 
■TMnlna its mouth, to ascertain that it ia tnt fnan 
Borea or aphtbts. If both woman and child besi 
BucAi an examination, we mi^ with toleraUe seenii^ 
the former to be likely to [OOTe a good 

_ -Op, (rft., pjib 4^ 4S. In one mmct, n 

differ from this eminent physician. He holds thit 

"'*' reoentiy the nurse's own eonfinement bis 

'[led sha ha* reo 
Siw>o«ng a n 

hot, tbia mk L 

required for an infant ._ 

four months old (for example), it is prafeiable 
obtain a muse whose milk is of that sge. Ve 
beUsve it to be a general physial<^ioal law thlt tlu 
age of the milk should oorrcapoud to the sge of ths 
i^ant) that is to say, that an infant taksn at any 
given ^e from its minhst, before the nonnal perioa 
of weaning, should ba provided With a nnias whc 
was confined about the aaawtima aa ita own mcttw. 
A wet-anne ahonld be Ten mneh preferred to say 
kind of orfjiMiI /taibtgs Dut paouliar «*«m may 
oocnr in whidi it u impoaribia to procure a noise; 
or an inf ant wkoae motoer i* ineapabla of nonrishiag 
it may be the subject of a disease that maybe tram- 
mitteo thitm^ uoe infant to the nurse. In these 
oasea, a food most be proirided as neariy as ptwUe 
resembling the natnnd food j and thia is natvislly 


nuns neailf iiiiiiiTili^ Immait miU:, M i* ihawa 
from the following OMnpantiTO aiwlfSM by Pro- 

The moat importint difibrence lietTMii cow's milk 
and woiiuii'b milk n tiie fireat exceta of CMein in 
the fonner. The fimner fluid m*?, iiowever, be tntds 
to raaemUe the l&ttar in conpositioa in either of the 
following wmyi : (1) On gently heatiog cow's milk, 
■ memlnkne of caaein forms on the turface; by 
renwring two or three of these membnuiea aa they 
form, w« on rednce llie quantity oE caaein to the 
deaiied extent; or (S) wa may dilute coVh milk 
with twice ita bulk of pnre water, and add a little 
■agar. Thia food should be administered at a 
natural temperatnre (of aboat 98°) throi^ a nick- 
ing'bottle; and u tne child grows olifer, it will 
■oon be able to take natond oow's millr without 
tnconvmience. The nature and importance oE the 
mixttm of milk and farinaceous food known aa 
liebi^a 8onp fw Children, are described under 


Hie rnlcB rcfflrdins the timeg, Sx. of feeding 
are ■imii"' to those laid down for suckling. Aa- 
■nming that the infant, whether brought up at 
the breast or artificially reared, hu been safely 
weaned, we have to consider what roles should bo 
laid down regarding its food sublequently. For 
■onw months after weaning, the food ahould consist 
prindpkllT of semi-fluid sabstanceB, such as milk 
thick^ed with "baked flour, or pap, to which a 
little sugar should be add^ Light broths mar 
also be administered, especially in the ocoasionu 
cam in which milk seems to disagree ; and bread 
and hntter may be tried in emsJI quantity. We 
ihall condnde this article with the foUowing ' model 

CDnunonly awahee hungry and tbiisty at n 

o'clock in the mor-'-- '^ 

Immediately after a'< 

ediately after awakmg, a little bread and »weet 
shoiild be given to it, or (wben the cbUd is too 
e to eat bread) a littie bread-pap. The Utter 
. . .ia be wami ; but in the former case, the bread 
m^ be eaten from the hand, and the milk allowed 
to be dnmk cold, aa it is well at thia meal to famish 
no inducement for eating beyond that of hunger. 
After eating, the child wiU generally aleep agun 
for an honr or two ; and about nine o'uock it ahould 
get ita aecraid mesl, of bread softened in hot water, 
~hich latter ii to he drained off, and freah milk and 
Lttle sugar added to the bread. Between one and 
two, the child may have dinner, consisting, at the 
yDonger ages, of beef, mutton, or chicken broth 
tdepriTed of all fat), and bread. When a sufficient 
nnniber of teeth are developed to admit of chewing 
being performed, s little animal food, as chicken, 
roast, or boiled mutton, or beef, not too much 
dressed, ahould be allowed, with a potato or bread, 
and some frah, well-dreaeed vegetable, aa turnips 
or eanliflower. After dinner, some dnnk will be 
requisite ; and a healthy child requires, and indeed 
wishes for nothing bnt water. U^t, fresh table- 
beer would not be injurious to a child of four or 
Stc yean old, bnt it is onneceasary. Between six 
and aeren o'dock, the child may have its last meal 
of bread steeped in water, Ac, at at nine o'cloak in 
A* momiDg. A healthy child which bo* been in 

the open air during the raeater part of the day, 
will M rMu^ for b^ ahorUy after this last supply, 
and will require nothing more till next mornuu;. 
Similar regimen and hours may be adopted throufrfi- 
oat the wiide period of childhood ; only as the 
fourtjl or fifth year approaches, Riling, for break- 
faat and supper, bread and milk without water, tmi 
either warm or oold, aocoiding to the weather of 
the child's inclination. The supply of food upon 
first awaking in the morning may also be gradually 
disoDntinued, and breakfast be given somewh^ 
•ttiui.'—Op. eiL, pp. SO, 61. 

WEA'SEL IMiitUla), a genus of quadrupeds of tbs 
family Mit^^da (a. t.), having a very donnted 
body; abort feet, wiUi toes quite teparate, and shaip 
daws; four molar teeth on each side above, and five 
below. The Coiuoh W. [if. vt%aru) is a native 
of almost all the temperate and cold parts of ths 
northern hemisphere, except the most arctio r^ioni. 
Its range does not extend quite so far north as tJiat 

Weasel (iTsstela irut^ni). 

._ the entiine. It is the smaUeat of the ifiu^JitlcB 
of the Old World, not ezoeeding two inches and « 
half in height, and seven ini^es and a half in 
leiuitfa, from nose to tail ; the tail about two indies 
uuf a. half long, and terminating in a point, not so 
bushy as that of the stoat or ermine. The female 
' araaller than the mole. The head is large i the 
__rB ahmt, broad, and rounded, the whiskers lon|^ 
The colour is reddish brown on the upper parts, 
aides, legs, and tail ; the throat and l^lly white. 
The eyes are suull, round, and black, with a very 
keen expreesianjto which the whole habits of the 
n ffm w' correspond. It is nimble and active, bold, 
and yet wary. It may often bo Beea^)eepng curi- 
ously from a hole in a wall, but vamly does flie 
Bohoolboy attempt to strike it with a stones Catching 
it is out of the question for him, and so far well, for 
it is ready to bite severely. It is a most persevering 
hnnter, ita scent as keen aa its sight, i^uarters the 
ground like a dog, and wearies out animolB larger 
and apparently much stronger than itself. It preys 
"~ -uce, rats, voles, small birds, and other small 

sis, Bom^imes even on hares and rabbits, robs 

tnrd^ nests, devouring the young birds or sucking 
Ike eggs, and is occasionally troufiesome in poultry- 
yard^kiliing young chickens. It climbs walls and 
trees with great agility, and does not hesitate t« 
plunge into water m pursuit of the water-rat It 
Bometimea beginB by sucking the blood of the 
aninrl whioh it hss killed, and generally devours 
the brain ; but whm fotni is abundant, it carries the 
body to its retreat, where a considerable quantity of 
prey is often found, the W. preferring to eat it in 
a hslf.putrefied state. The W. generally sleeps 
during the day, and is most active at night It has 
a disagreeable smell, which is strongest in hot 
weather, or when it has been pursued or irritated. 
It is capable of being tamed when taken young, and 
becomes docile and gentle. The female W. makes 
a nut of straw-leaves and moss for her young, 
which ore produced in sprin)^ four or five 
litter; often in a '- 

I sprint^ four i 
c« of a Dank, oi 

n a hollow 

WW k girr— w iB A T tncH- 

treft The inr of Uu W. ii an utdole of otnniBa 
in some northem ooimtries, and W.-akiiui i 
exported in oonaidenble quanti^ from Sibaria 
CmiUL Tlie W. aometiiaea, but nu^T, boooniei 
vhito in winter, like the ermine. — The Ermine 
(q. v.), or Stoat, is onotiier speoiei of ireaaeL — 
iOnecica has MTeral special of W., of which 
(Jf. jnuiUa) ia rather Bmidler than the ConunoQ W. of 
Eorope, and haa a ihorter tail. It it ftbosdant 
the noitham parts of the United Statei, and ita 
range «xtenda far to the nortli. In the Dnited 
States, it remains brown all wintei 
oaontriefl it beoomes white. 

WEATHEE ia the condition of tiie atmoqihem 
at anv time in ra^act of heat, moiitan ~' ' 
rain, tiosd, and deobicity; andadiMigeof 
implies a change in one or more of Ukm « 
From the direct bearing weaUier-ehaiigw have oa 
human inteieati, Utej have from the eatlieat limea 
been dosdy watchea, m that the oaosea bv wiaab 
thqr an wonght riioat bdn^ disoorerea, thdr 
approach mu^t be predicted with tome d^;i«e 
confidence. The oraving in the popular mind 1 
this kirawledge ia abong^ atteated by the laogai 
tidR oi the weather onirent in every langoage, 
which, amid mnoh that ia ahrewd and of oonaider- 
able practical valnc^ emtxace more that ia vagne, 
and not a little that ia poaitiTely abanrd. 

It ia not neoeaaaiy hare to refer to Moore, 
Zadkiel, and other almanao-maheni of that claaa, 
except aa proving by tlieir mere exiatenoe a wide- 
spread isnoraDce of even the moat palpable ele- 
ments of phyaical law, which is a disgrace to the. 
eduoaHonal spitem of the conntiy. Prognoeticaton 
of higher pretensiona repeatedly appear before the 
pnblic, and it ia cniiona to note how tbeic ptedio- 
tions are esmrly laid hold of by the newvpapeis, 
and scattered broadcait over the oonntry. AmoDg 
the latest of thia olaaa was Mathien dela Brome, 
whoae predictiona of steams and raina made ao 
much noise, that the Emperor Bapatt 
Uie celebrated Lererrief to examine the 
on which the predictiona were ft 
expOEore waa complete. One of hia principal pre- 
diotiona waa bued entirely on a high outrage of the 
rainfall at a partionlar season. On examining the 
rainfall of the particular years of which the average 
had been taken, it was round that tia eiceaa waa 
entirely dne ij) an nnpreoadentedly heavy raia 
vdiich occnrred in one of the yeara at that season. 
Ejs fame waa foonded on a few hanpy hits, and on 
hia death occnrrina a short time atter be began to 
isane predictiona of the weather. One of the meet 
lemancable predictiona of i«cent times waa that 
made by an Irish nobleman in referenoe to the 
weather of September 1865, which tamed out to be 
in accordance with the prcdictioa — dry, warm, and 
fine, beyond prcoedenb The celebrity of this pra- 
diction ban, however, been greatly reduced by other 
predictioiis made unce, miich the events .nnfor- 
tnnately have not verified. 

The changes of ihe moon were long, aod in many 
minds are stUl, regarded aa supplying the elemenfai 
of prediction. In order to tiiirt: the real valne of 
the moon'a changea on the wcathnr, the Greenwich 

t accoidance witii the 

which the weather waa diffeteut. When bnxu^t 
to the test of aconrate examination and fignies, &e 
theory of the moon's tOtanges on the coming weattier 
is thns proved to be a complete delusion ; but ainoe 
most people have a bias towards forgetting the 
nnsuccessiul prognoaldcatloiis, and remembering the 
■uoceaafnl one^. the theory will likely continDs to 

be baUered in, at least tintil mbib knoiriedgs of the 
natural lawa be mora gensraUy diffmed, ao aa to 
reveal its ahsnrdity. 

?or Kxne yean, Mr Tbomaa dn Boolay predioted 
the geaeial dianKter (rf ttw weattier of each ■nmmo' 
from the weather-oonditiona which prevailed during 
the week of the spring eqtdnox precedius, believing 
that the general ohanoter of tlie weather of the 
next six months is already settled, and iibtt it only 
reqniree the nsceesary akill to read its features, 
since these will remain generally conatuit tiD 
aatnmn. For a few yeara, Ite Speculated in grain 
on the faith of the predictions, which tnmed out 
prettiy ooiiect latterly, the predictions have not 
been verified. 

Ti^ trvih it, Hat no pttdieHtmitf IM tomlhtr ea% 
be made, in At BritiA Ittandt at lead, for mare llaoi 
Oiree, or periapt oaiy lioo dayi beforehand. Any 
attempt at a longer prediction is illusory. We 
wovld here refer to the article Stormb, as abewing 
the poMibility and mode of ""■''' "g real predictionii 
of tfic weather. Almoat all the weather-changes of 
Europe begin from the south-west, and pass over 
Great Britain to the nortb^eaat Unsettled or bad 
weather ia accompanied with a low barometer; 
elsewhere, tlie barometer is higher. Thus, then, 
suppose that, from Teather-tdegrama received, it 
is seen that ererywheie in Eorc^ barometen are 
highgwemaybasure that no storm need be dreaded 
for two days at leasL But if, on the following 
momiuA barometen begin to bll a little in the 
west 01 Irdaud, and an easterly wind begins bi 
blow generally over Great Britain and Norway, and 
a south-east wind over France; then, since the 
winds blow towaida the lowest barometer, or rathm 
a little towards the right of it, the pTeauinption is 
titat a atom of greater or leei sereri^is oonunK np> 
the centre of which is likely to pass over En^and. 
Hiia ondtt, Uiarefore, to be closely watched ^ the 
telegcafui ; and if the winds keepmg in neariy the 
same dirertion, or veering slowly towards the sonti 
and west, increase in forae, ana baraneteia in the 
west of Ireland fall n^odly, a great itwm ii por- 
tended, of the approach of which warning should be 
at onoe telegraphed to the difCitrent sea^cvts. But 
if, on the contrary, the winds do not mcreaae in 
force, and the bannneter fall sli^^itly, or oeaae to 
fall, the storm has either passed considerably to 
the north of the British Islands, or ita qiproach 
will bo delayed for some time yet ; and bcnce, no 
immediate warning ia necessary. 
It is oar proximity to the Atlantic that m^es 

impossible to predict the weather beyond three 
days at Uie ntmoat In Norway and the Balti<^ 
and jdaoes towards the east of "Bata^ the weather 
maybe predicted for a longer tune, smce each atonn 
" ■'* -- ipeara in the west may ba fdlowed in its 
ij the telegraplu and the places which it 
threatens be warned 01 the coming duiger. In 
America also, where stoRos chiefly advance fiwn 
weat to east, gales and nnsettled weather are pte- 
dieted at the sea-board in the east some aayi 

Bat the collecting of this information by the 
telegraph ia a work which, owing to the expense, 
governments only can accompliA; and irom its 
importance, it ia an incumbent dniy whi<^ th^ 
should dischane for the benefit of the seafaring 
iK^nlation. tnm the great value of weathef 
telepams to pmons interested in ahipmn^ we 
belufs that the time ia not far distant when each 
of our chief seaports will be snmdied wiUi daily 
telegrams of the barometer and the winds from five 
or aix places, at some distance, and in different 
directima, from the particular aeaport. A good deal 
nu^, however, be d^ by each one for himHf , |^ 



olNerniig hia bmrometer, ths wiadi, uid the face of 
tlie aky — capeoully ths diniB dood — the mort 
dented and delicate of the cloudB. But ere these 

ample obaovmtioiifl oan be tamed to oooonnt, and 
DUde the baas of an inteUigent prediction, some 
knowledge of the cenenl featnrea of Stonns {q. v.) 
ti indispCTBable. I^ese specuilly — (1) StarmB have a 
circnl^ area; aad (2) adTtuice in an easterly direc- 
tion, bearinff a low banmietcio presetue vriOi them. 
(3) Wiada Blow from a hi^ to a low bamineter, 
aoi) (4) with » force proportioned to the diSerenoe 
of th« |D«Miil«. <£) Storms ore flnt felt in the 
■i;q>eT legion* cd the atmosphere, or in the region of 
tbe dma cloud ; and (6) in front of the storm V 
air is warm and humid ; in the rear of it, cold, 
cool Hid drj. With such obserrationB (requiring 

at a barometer), intellieently interpreted, jiarticn- 
f if hilla form part of uie landscape, the character 
of the weather may be foreseen for one day, 

Sat **'"'£<' no prediction of the weather for 
mda or montiu beforehand can be made with aoj 
jTctensions to tmstwcffthiness, yet gueiwa or Eor- 
mises may be formed which are not without valna 
All observatim goes to prove that prediotiona based 
on solar or otiier astronomical caases are witiiont 
focmdation, and that averages based on terrestrial 
Dbaerrations UQ the only guides we have in this 
matter. Of Una alaa aie the interruptiona which 
ocmr in the regular march of temperatora in the 
eonne of tbe jear. Thus, cold weather genersU; 
prevails from tbe 11th to the 14th of April — that U, 
the pniod of the 'borrowing days' (O. 8.), and in 
the second week of May; and these, with Bome 
other cold and warm pc^ods,^ 
with the northecn her'—*- — 
thai, at theM times, 
get cold at wann, it may safely be predicted that 
•och weaiher will last tor several days. Again, 
it, after a long-oontinned prevalence of eonth-west 
winds, or the e^natorial cnrrent, the polar current, 
or north-east wind, should set in, it is highly prob- 
sble that easteriy winds will prevail for eomo 
time ; so that, if the season be winter, a oontinnance 
of fro■^ and periups snow, may be looked for ; but 
if midsDmnier, the weatlier will become dry, warm, 
and brucia^ Bnt luppoM easterly winds have been 
mosoaDy pfedominant in autumn, and south- 
w«stetly winds bc^ to prevail in the end of 
NoTotwNr w beginniDg of December, it is most 
piobaUe that tiie weather vrill continue exception- 
ally nuld, with frequBut heavy atorms of wind and 
lain, till about Christmas. Tbii period occurs nearly 
evczy year, and its oonuuenoement is popnlor^ 
known as 3t Martin's summer. If easterly winds 
{repoodoate greatly ^xive the average daring the 

toatd by sonth-weeterly winds, with mnch rain 

winda iK«r^ fail in q>ring tlie sammer will be dry 
and watm, it being expected that tiie polar cnrrent 
wiU jccvail in aommer, bringing dear skiea and 
briltiaiit ann*hin& This latter forecast of the 
™™™*' is bdiered in by the Bev. I. Jenyns, and 
senoal uetsoKdogiati of note ; bnt an examination 
of the wtatliBi' ol the post eleven year* shews l^t 
it ii obIt genoaUy tine. — See Bev. Leonard Jeopis' 
Mdtor^om/ (ISSB); Popular Prognotlia of the 
Wtaiker trs SeoOamd, by Arthur Mitchell, iLD. ; 
JaanulqfSootliA MtitoTologiaa Socids, No. xiii.— 
' luhuiajitaonB of Temperatore.' 
WBAITSERlsa, a slight inclination given f 

WK&TSK-BIBD {Ploeeti^, a genua of birds of 

the finch family {Frit^piUda), of a sconp or sub- 
family (PUxxinix), to most of w)^i£ the name 
Weaver-bird is extended. The name has reference 
to the remarkable atractnre of the nests of these 
birds, which are woven in a very wonderful manner 
of varioos vegetable aubetanoes, and are objects of 
great interest The PloceiiuE ore natives of the 
warmer parte of Asia, of Africa, and of Aostcalia ; 

1 is slighUy 
e large and 

Taha Weaver-bird [Ploeevi TaAa). 

being found in Europe nor in America. The 
species are numerous. They are small birds, with a 

strong conical bill, the ridge of which 

cuTT^ the tip entire. Thi 
very long. The winra are pointeo, tne nrat quiu 
remarkably short There ia great diversily in the 
form and appearance of the neets oonstmcted hj/ 
■'"''^rent Bpeciea. One of the best-known apeciee la 
pHnjppijJBWEAVBE (i*. /"Aiiippintu), the Bat A 
(q. V.) of India. — Many of the other weaver-birda con. 
stmct neata pretty much on the same plan with 
thia — pooohee elongated into tubes, entioing from 
below ; ttaoae of some are kidney-shaped, and tbe 
entrance ia in the side. They very generally sua. 
pond their neata in the some way from the extremi- 
ties of branches, and often prefer branches which 
bang over water, prpbably as affording further 
security against monkeys, aqnirrds, snakes, and 
other enemies. Social habits are very prevalent 

Neet of Pensile Weaver-bird. 

It of 01 

eether. Some of I 

ceding, as the Ploceua pauiUi of Madagascar, 

— stimes thns makee five neata in snccesmon, one 

dng to another. Some of the African spedee 

1 their neeta in company, the whole forming 

structiue. Thus, the Social or EEFCnucAH 



I oeB> (d » boneycomb, aaA tmn^d 
il ngnlarit;. An acads with itnight 
men M predAceooH »"itn«.l« oannot 

W. of Soatii Airica (Ploeeua aodtu or PhOotanu 
l^idiu) couEbncto a kind of mnbrellvlike n>of, 
onder which SOO or 1000 nests hare been fonnd, the 
not* like the aeSa 

with wonderM T^n , 

amooth stem, men ai predaceoi 
eanlj dunb, ia aften selected by the bird-ootitma- 
mty, Wbcn the situation is choaen, tiie birds begin 
b; eonstrnctiiig the too^ which it made of coaise 
gtMB, each pair afterwards building their own 
OMt, which i« attached to the rool Aa new nests 
•re built every year, the weight of the stnicture 
often beoomea ao great as to break down its anp- 
poit. — Ttsetor aryarorhynehiu is a bird of tJiB W. 
grOQp, which ia commonly seen in Sooth Airica 
■coompaoying herda of bnfialoea, and feeding on 
the bots and other insects which infest them, 
aliffhting on their baoka to pick them oat of the 
hide. The lurd is often rt great use to the bnfblo 
in another way, 1^ joyins warning of the apwoach 
ol an enemy.— The Why£w Birds (q. v.), or Widow 
Birds, likewiso belong to the gtonp m Plocehux. 

WEATIKO, the art by which threads ot y»nu 
of »aj nbatance are interlaced so as to form a 
eontinnoDB web It is perhaps the most anoient of 
the mannfoctnring arts, for clothing was always a 

i^ of mankind. The methoda by 

wsttrtu ia now Moompliahed have b( 

and ilurtrated nnder Loon (i^. v.) ; 
onlyrenulm to deMribe th *"" 

d tiie more common and easily nndentood will be 
ohosen. The ainiplMt form of weaving is that 
employed in making the mats of nncivilised nationa. 
Theoa oonrist ot single nntwisted fibres, nsnallv 
vegetable, amn^d aide by side to the width 
leqaired, and of toe length of the fibres themselves, 
which u« tied at ««dh end to a stick, which is so 
fixed as to keep the fibres stnuf^t, and on Qit 
MtBm p1»"ftj SB in fi^. 1. Then the weaver lifte up 

Kg. I, 

ever;f other of these longitndinal threads, and passes 
tmder it a transverse one, which he fint attaches 
by ^ring or twisting to the ontermost fibre of the 
side ne commences with, and afterwards in the same 
way to that on the other side, when it has passed 
thnnigh the whole series. The acquisition of the 
art oEspinnina threads of any lengUi enables more 
■dvanoed natioiu to give great le^th to the wstp, 
or series of threads wUi£ are first arraoged, and 
to pass tiie weft or tnnsveree thread backwardH and 
fotwarda by mean* of a shattle, without the neces- 
sity of fizmg at the tides. The mechanical appU- 
ancea already described under Xiooh aid these opoa- 
tions to an amanng extent. That kind ot weaving 
which oonuita of paanng the weft alternately over 
and nnder each thread of the warp is called pfoin 

weaving and a trananne sedion d Qie web would 
beRpresentedbyfig^E; bnt if Uie we«T(r takes up 
"^ -- and thsn two threads altematdy tt ths 


rere left down before for the second lAkoot, he pn» 
duces a doth with a very different appeaiMwe, cdled 

"■ i (q-v.), many varieties of which may be pn>- 

1 by TOiTing the nombeis missed or takoi i^ 
for gaample, one and three, inrtead of one and 

Kg. 3. 

tw& The simplest form of twiD, viewed taaua- 
varaeljr, wonld be represented by fig. 3. 

There are few arts which require more patianee 
or skill than weaving. Aa many as fnmi one to 
two thonsand threads often oonstitate the warp ; 
and these threads may be so varied in qnal^ 
(see Yabh) as to produce many varieties of fabric 
From that caose alone, there are almost infinite 
vaiiationa. Many may be produced by the order 

its quality and other drourostanosa, lo that 
the inventive gcoiiia of the weavn finds mcssaant 
opportnnities Ss its display, and nice arithmetical 
cobmlatioDS are required in estimating and allotting 
threads to the endlMS variety (^ 

patterns whioh are constantly passing throng^ tbe 
loom*. A really practical knowledge of weaving 
can only be obtained by WDrkin^ with lo^w. and 

studying Boch techiii<»J treatisea aa Wataon'a 
Theory and Practice of Oe AH of Wt 
some of the elaborate treatisea by Uie 

WBBEB, Carl Hiku toit, a nrasiMl outmaer 
of hirii eminence, was bom at Eotin in Hdatetn, 
18th December 178S. Hnsical and dramalie talent 
bad been hereditary in his fiunily for aome ganera- 
tions : his father, by tarns officer in the anny ot the 
Palatinate, finance minister of the Etectcr of 
Cologne, mnsioHiireotor to the Frinoe Bishop of 
Entin, Mid head of a company tA strolling jdayers, 
led a somewhat irregolar and checkered lin> Toiug 
W. shewed eaily a genius for music, bnt hi* insbne- 
tors were often changed, in conseqiisDM of hit 
father's change of residence. Hie teachen to -sdiMn 
he owed mort wots Hansdikel at ISldbrnghanMB, 
Miflml Haydn at Salzbnrs, and Valesi and Kal- 
cher at Hnmch. His fathe^ impatieaica and want 
of jndgnent were injurious to him in many ways, 
particidariy in the efforts made to bring him before 
the pnblic prematurely as a musical prodigy. At 
tbe age of 13, he composed an op«wt called DU 
lladu dm- LiOe ^nd dt» Wtini. When bat 14, his 
second opera, Dot Waidmaddtat, was bmoght oat, 
without mqch eucoess at finit ; but was afterwards 
tM betier received tiian he himself thought it 
deserved. The next effort of Vka young opera-oean> 
poser was Peter SiAmoU vnd teiiK NaMarm, com- 
posed at Salibnrg in ISOl, and perforated at Vienna 
with bat indifferent luccees. At Vienna, ha became 
acquainted, in 1603. with Joseph Haydn and the 
Abb6 Vogler, and studied for some time nnder the 
Utter. In 1S04, he left Vienna, to be oondoctor of 
the Opera at Breslau, and while tendent there, 
compoacd the greater part d Ina open of MiaaiU. 

i , ^noQlp 


Wa next And him, in 1806, with Prinoa Eaamt 
«f WtMaMbtr; at liia comt at OvlmilLe in Siun^ 
iriwM ha ooBipaHd two lymphtHiiea and tiaoa mm- 
MTtM. In lobTi ha went to Stottjut, u privnte 
mcTt^Mry to Dnka Lndwig, beooniins al«a mi ' ' 

nsd t^ (^an of fitema, and a unt^ called 

aiaiy enUMM 

the aoart id WOr- 

darins whi 

aUndBd. From 1813 to 1816, ha wai direotor of 

the Opera at Prague, which he entirelj remodeUed j 

eompoaed Kaangf vnd ^leg, and namerona other 
■ODgii, iaelnding that noble national ■eiisa from 
Kiimnr'a Imkt und Bduoert, whioh had no little 
iaflaaaoe in loiuiiig patriotio sentiment dorlng the 
wat <rf Hbention. 

In 1817, ht ma invited to foim a Qermam Opera 
at Dreadm J aDdthsr^ doling the remainder of hia 
Me, be bdd Hie poat of XaaSmeitler to Qa king of 
Sazonj. To thii period Ixdona hia moat important 
oanpcaitlona, Inoliiding Prtaota, Dtr FreuMUt, 
AvfonCit^ and Obertnt, None ot theae woAa, how- 
ner, were fiiat bron^t oot in Dreaden. The mnrno 
to Wotff'a Pmii«a, the anbjeet <rf iriuoh ia tahoi 
from a aorel l^ Corrantea, WM fint prodneed on the 
Bailin at^^ mten it made a powrafnl impreadon. 
The aotiuw'i daf-^teavn, the opera tA Fr^tAOtt, 
Uu libretto of irttioh wai writtai bjrthe oompoaer'a 
faiend, Piiedrich Kind, ako fltst law the light in 
the ProBait o^atal in I82& It was a great no- 
eeaa : ha noreltj and beanty, aa well aa the deep 
thought oontained in it, exmed an extraordinary 
taaSiou thioa^ont Qtenoaaij, which soon aztendad 
ta Fiaaoe and Hngl»nil. BttryanUit, yroAnarA. in 
TinuMk in 182^ waa not qnite ao wvmlj reoeiTed. 
Beariiq mom the imprcea of labour and cnltiTation, 
and baa that of thv compoaer'a natoral veia of 
romance tt haa nerer been in aooh seneral favour 
aa ita predeceoor. Obtnm wsa writun in prospect 
of a Tiait to London to a libretto supplied by Mr 
Flaacbi. When W. set ont for Enghud, he wu 
alrca^ ctnogliiig a^unat mortal diaesacb On the 
8th Match 182S, he ^eaoed at Oorent Garden 
Ihaatare aa eotdiustM ofa adectaon from AeiacMUs ; 
and ou t^ ISUi of April foOowing ba'ilio oondncted, 
on the fiiat ^paataooe (rf Otero^swHh applaiue on 
both I'^'T"'—^ inceatant and nproarioDa. At bin 
fanefit ooBoert OD tlrn 26th ot May, he waa hardly 
aUe %o ga tfarotuh ttia dnty of conductor ; and on 
tiu 6tii of Jone no waa found dead in bed in the 

fidda ; bat in 1844, his body was removed to Drea- 
den ; and a atatae of him by Rachel was erected In 
I860 iaftoat of the Dresden theatre. W. was mar- 
ried in 1818 to Carolina Brandt, aa operatic sinoer 
cf soma Uiot^ dan^itw of Brtmdt tiie violinist, oy 
whom ha left a family. 

Tk TmdiBt at posteiitj^ aa well aa of his con- 
tonponriaa, hw placed W. in the first rank of 
muBcal composan. Be was the first to nse those 
bold eSeeti cdhsimonyand modulation whose mtro- 
■^■''^i1^^ focma aa era in the hiatory of muaic In his 

agtntj tb« iprit of the romantic school appeara 
ita hinliteit aad moat oaptivatin^ form ; and t 

awitiug a* ontliBa of tim weak Vo which it beltmgs. 

pianoforte, clarionet, oboe, , — ._ 

aymphomee and overtnrea, one of the moat beantifnl 
and ohaiacteriBtic of them being the overture to the 
Seherracfier der Otular. Amojw Mb posthnmoui 
writisgi is an Antobii^raphv. His Life Has been 
written by bis son, Baiou Max Maria von Weber, 
and recMitlr translated into English byMiPalgrave 
WEBSTEB, "DiXOL, American atateaman and 

Sirist, waa bom at Salisbnry, New Hampshire, 
annary 18, 1788, the second son of Ebenezer 
Webster, a xmall farmer, and jostice of the oountr 
court. He entered Dartauoath College in 1797, and 
tau^t school in winter to p&y bis expenses, and aid 
bis brother, Ezekiel, who became a distinpiisbed 
lawyer, in fitting for oollege. On gradnsning in 
1801, Iw oonmenoad to sfco^ law, bitt was indnead, 
by die offer of a aalary of 3G0 dollaia a year, to 
become peceptor of an academy at Fi;biii«, Maine, 
paying his board by copying deeds. In 180^ he 
•went to Beaton, and entraed Uie law office ot Mr 
Core, refnaing an iqipcrintanent of clerk of the oourt 
of which his fatiier was a jwlge, at 1600 doUan 
a year. In 160S, hftving been admitted to the 
Boston bar, he EStabUshed himself at Portamonth, 
New Hampahire; married in 1806; and bav^ 
engaged in pohtioB as a member of the Federahn 
party, waa electad to Congrese.'wbere he immediately 
took rank wltii the foremost men of the eonntary. 
His ipeeob on the Berlin and Milan Deonai, and 
hismasteijof theqneationiof ovrrwiayandfinanM^ 
gave him a hi^ position; bat he datmmined, in, 
1816, to remove to Boaton, where, leaving politica, 
le engaged f<» oeveral yean in l^id piactuia of tte 
DOst enenatre and vwied character. In 1822, he 
ras a member of the Masaachnsetts Constitnticmal 
Craivention : and Deoember 22, 1622, he pronounoed 
Hvmonth, on the annivenaiy of the landing of 
I nlgrims, the first of that rtmsrhaMe asries of 
disoonrsea, or or^oos, whioh gavs him the fint 
rank among American orators. In lS2fi, he gave 
an oration at the laying of the oomer-sbona of the 
Bunker Hill Monument; in 1843, one on its oom- 

Jletioo. In 1S26, he prononnoed the eulogy <A 
ohn Adams and Thomas Jefferson, two fathen 
and I^:esidenta of the AmeriDsn republic, who died 
on the suae aami-gentenary amiiversan of tie 
Beclnratdou of Independence ; and in ISfil, a pafari- 
otio diaoonrae on the layim! <A the OOTner-stona 
for the «Etendon of the CSpitol at Waahingtoo. 
In 1822, ha waa elected to Coogres* frimi Boaton, 
and was dislingnished by his ^eechoa on the Holy 
Alliance ai^ t£e Oreek revolution, and hia labonra 
in the i«viaion of the criminal laws of the United 
States. In 1838, he was chosen senator; and in 
to the height ot hia fOTensia renown in 

_ „^ of two days, in the debate with Mr 

Hayne, of South CaroHmt, on the right of * nnUifica- 
tion.' W. and Clay were the leadms of the opposi- 
tion during the adminiabmtiona of Jackson and 
YonBuren. In lS30,he visitedX!n^bnd,8cotland, 
and France; and in 1841, aooepted the post of 
Setzetaiv of State in tlie cabinet of Qeneral Earri- 
aon, and remained in that of Mr l^ler, who, as 
Vioe-preaident, auoceeded on the death of the Presi- 
dent, until 1843. In 1844, he aspired to the 
Ecaidency, but the choice of his pmty fell upon 
_r Clay, whom ha supported, but unsnooewfally. 
e wia chcaen senator tor MasBacliiigettB, and a^un, 
1848, was disappointed o£ the presidenldal nomina- 
_jn by the popular enthusiasm for the viotor ot 
BnenaTistBj Oenerat Taylor. His senatorial efforts 
at this period wore directed to Uie preservation of the 
Union ay Uie advocacy of compromises on tlie slavery 
qaeationi and he pve ofienoo to the AbolitionJsta 


by defsndine the Fngitiva SUve Law. la 1860, be 

became ogam Secretan- of State La the cabinet of 
Mr Fillmore ; and in 1852 waa once more, and no 
doubt grievonaly, disappointed at not receiving the 
nomination to the presidency, which noB given to 
General Scott He did not live to lee the defeat 
of liiB rival ; but, after a brief illneaB, died at Ua 
country residence at Manhfield, MaEiachiuetta, 
October 24, 1862. Mr W. uraa a man of very 

WEBSTEB, Noi^ Amerioan author lud philo- 
l(»;iat, was bom at Hartford, Coonectiant, October 
iC 1758, and entered Yale CoU^e in 1774. In his 
third colleee year, he served nnder hii father, a 
"^'1'*'^ cap^n, in the war of the Revcdutioii. He 
was admitted to the bar in 1781, but engaged in 
scholastia and literary occupations. Bm^oyed in , 
trju-Mng a ichool at Goshen, New York, he pre- 
pared his OrtaanuitKal Jnttiiutet of the Engiith 
Lattffuage, jyaWJihfd in three parts; and edited 
Qoventor Wtnlhr^t JovmaL In 178E, he wrote 
fllrteAw qfAmeriean PoScy, advocating the fonna- 
iion of a new oonstitotioii, and gave poblia lectures 
on the lihigliab language, which were pnbliahed in 
1789. He taught an academy in Philadelphia, and 
wrote on the Constitution ; and in 1738, pablished 
the American Magcsane in New York. After a 
few years' law-praotioe at Hartfonl, he ^waged, in 
1793, in the editorship of the SToKTBix, a Federalist 
daily paper in New Vorfe. In 1799, he jmblished 

uly paper in 
. Bntf Hitt 

New York ; and pamphlets on International Law, 
Banking, and Finance In 1807, he published A 
PhUowpAkai and Praetiad Crontmar q/* the Engliih 
Language, and commenced his Ameriean Diettonary 
qfike &tgluh Langvam; bvt finding difficultjea in 
e^mokwy, he davotaa ten yean to ita study, and 
prepareda Bymmrit ef Word* in TaeMg L(mg>tagt»: 
Uiai bc^ao Ms Dictionary anew, and in seven ye*n 
completed it. In 1824, he came to Europe, to 
consult books and learned men, epending some 
months at Paris and at Camhrii^ie, In 1828, an 
edition of 2500 copies of his Dictionaty, in 2 vijs. 
4to, was issued ; followed by one of 3000 copies in 
England Numerous abrid^ents have heen made, 
which found a large sale. His Elemtntary Sp^ing- 
boot, fonnded on Ma InttHuta, up to 136!^ had be«i 
sold to tbe extent of 41,000,000 copies. A new 
and thorougMy revised and enlarged edition of 
his dictionary was finished in 1^, and it is 
DOW perhaps the most complete dictionary of 
the l^gi"h langoage yet published. Mr W. 
also pt^lished a popular Htdary o/ the UnUat 
Staict, and a MaiMiU <tf Uaffvi Sbidia. He was 

WEDGE, one of the mechanical powers, and in 
principle a modification of the inclined 
plane. Its normal form is here i«pre. 
sented. Tbe power is applied by pres- 
sme, or more genentlly l^ parcasaion, to 
the back B ikaa forcing the edge A 
forwards. The wedge is emplined for 
such purposes as the splitting of wood, 
the fastuiing firmly of the himdle of an 
Bie, tbe raising of a ship in a dry dock, 
&0. The investigation on statical piin- 
dples of the mechanioal advantage of the wedge is 
— '~~- ily nnsatiBfaatory, the power, which is soanely 

ever ■ * preasore,' bai^[ tlwKjw issmiwd to be odi^ 
and the enonnoas frictton on the aidsB irf tlie wedge 
being genBrallyn^eoted; the theoKtical remit tua 
anived at is t1iat the pMMore M^ilied at the bach ; 
thereii«laiioeorw«i|Fht: : ) widta of back of wedge: 

length of aide, b uie . " ■' - ' -^ «..._ 

the splitting of w 
the split EBnetall] 
of the ecte of ue wedge, end the action td the 
latter is uien a oombinatLon of the action of Sw 
wedge with that of the lever; in fact, this compound 
action is found more or lew in all applications of the 
wedxe as a cutting or stdttting we^n, and tenda 
further to complicate the statical invottigatitKL of 
its mechuiical propertdes. The best and sJinplMt 
illustrations of the single wedge are azea, naili, 
[JugB, planes, chisels, needlfifl, aai alt shaip'painted 

WEDGWOOD, JoauH, the creator of Britidi 

ittery as an art, was bom at Bnnlem, in Stafford- 
shire, m the vear 1730. His father was a potter, 
and very early he was set to work at the same 
bosineas. His edncation seems to have been of 
the scantieat. Aftpr an abortive attempt to eetUe 
himself at Stoke with a partner named Hjuiuod, 
he retnrned to his native place, and there ot»a- 
menced buainesa as a potter. From the Gnst, hit 
ardour for the improvement of the mannfacture 
was conspicaoos. Hi> £iit efforts were directed to 
the refining of tho material, and soon he succeeded 
in prodnang a beantdfol cream- coloured porcelain, 
whwii b»aine popularly known as Queen's Wsie, 
Queen Cbariotte having much admired it, and 
extended her patronage to the manufacture. Sub- 
sequently, other im pro ved materiitls were produced. 
The attenlioa of W. was not lees amidnously 
directed to considerations of form and decoratian ; 
he busied himself in emulating the grace of the 
antique models; and the celebrated acolptor. 
Flyman, wus employed to furnish designs to biln. 
In this way, what he found a rude and baibaHMU 
manufacture, he raised to the level of a fine ait ; 
and he found hia reward in the speedy amassing (^ 
an immense fortune. In 1771, he removed nit 
works some little way from Burslem ; and t« tbe 
new site he gave the uincif iil name Etroris, as that 
of the cooDtiy of old moat celebrated for the beauty 
>f ita ceramic products. Here he built himself a 
iplendid mansion ; and here, in. 1796, he died. 

Apart from his eminence in the art to wMch he 
mainly devoted himself, W. was a man of consider- 
able culture^ Natural philosophy, in particular, he 
studied wiUi mnij^ success. He waa a fellow of the 

oyal Society, as also of the Society of Antiquaries ; 

id to the PAiioMvAicof Trantadiont he from time 
__ tdme contributed papers. He likewise interested 
hiTrm-lf deeply in all matten of public coocemment ; 
and mainly through his influence it was that the 
Grand Trunk Canal, uniting the waters of the 
Meney, the Trent, and the Severn, was carried out 
He was a man of much benevolence of character, 
and the prosperity wMch flowed upon him through 
life, he distinguished by the exercise of an almost 
princely liberality. 

Full particulars sa regards this remarkable msn 
may be found in two lives of him recently pnbliahed, 

.v. -_ .fu.. i._Tsi-__ ir.> a '" vols. HuiSt 

WE'DGWOOD WABE, a beantiful kind of 
ittery invented by Jonah Wedgwood in 17T1>- 
J consiata of flint. Potter's clay, carbonate and aid- 
pbate of barytes, and laflre, or some other colour- 
ing materiaL It is also cs^ed Jasper Wars. Hie 
beutiful daasicat dengns on the earijMst pndnetioB* 


of this mann&ctim wsre mmnj of thorn «xecated 
ly Flazmui, ukd ua very highly Tallied. 

WEDITE8BUBT, a m&rkct-towQ in the Bonth of 
Staffbrdihire, in t, dietrict aboimdiog in cimala, coal 
mines, and iron-works, li miles north-^rest of 
Binninsham by railway. It Trafl called Weadeabory 
by the Saiom, and for a lon^ time took precedence, 
in point of population and historical importance, of 
BinniDgham and Wolverhamptao. It wu here that 
the great coal- held of Stafibr^hire wai lint worked. 
The pariBh now containB probably the largest works 
in the kingdom for tha manufacture of railway 
plant; and of its prodnctions, iron, wheels, axles, 
tabes, edga-tAols, coach iromnongery, looks, screws, 
ka^ am prepared eitensiTely for exportation. The 
pop., winch in 1821 was under 7000. had in 18C1 
Rsen to about 12,000 in the town, and 14,300 in the 
parish; in 1861 the town had 15,298, aad the pariah 
32,000 ; and in 1867, the pop. of the parish was e«tt- 
oated at 26,60a 

WXDNESDAT, the fourth day of the week, the 
JXa Jfermrti of the Komans, the MittvxxA (mid- 
week) of the modem Qermaus. The name Wednee- 
day is derired from the northern mythology, and 
■ignifiaa Wodcn's OT Odiu's day. The Anslo-Sazon 
fonn waa Wddartes dag, the dd Geiman )f uolaRai 
toe. l^e Swedish and Danish is Otudag. 

WBB'BO, or IBO, a small island off the coast 
of Hozamlnque, belonging to the Fortngnese, 
about ISO duIm sonth of Cape Delgsdo. The 
town is dean, with neatly -built houses ; there are 
teree forts, one of which serves as barracks for the 
garrison, and, though contemptible as a defensive 
work against a well-orgamsed enemy, it is well 
adapted for resisting the natives, between whom 
and the Fortngnese all along the Mozambiqne 
coast, there seems to be perpetual hostility. The 
pop. consists of nearly 3000 natives and a few 
E<u<ope>ns ; and thongh an important trade in ivory, 
copal, ftc, is said to be carried on, thsru are few signs 
of activity in the harbonr, and the natives for the 
most port seem miserable, fover-stricken wretches. 

WKED, Thublow, American jonmalist, was 
born at Cairo, New York, November IB, 1797, and 
at the age of 10 yeais was cabin-boy on a sloop on 
the Hudson River; at 12 he was an apprentice in 
the printios- office of Mr Croswell, at Cattskill; 
then lived for a short time in a backwoods settle- 
ment, bat at 14 returned to printing. He was a 
vulnnteer in the war of 1S12, and at Uie age of 21 
established a newspaper in Western New Tork, 
and during the Anti-Masonio excitement, was 
elected to the state legislature, 182S— 1827, where 
his pecnliar and almost unrivalled abilities as a 
political manager or ' wire-puller ' were early recog- 
nised. In 1830 he settled at Albany, the state 
capital, and commenced the publication of the 
BBOiiag Journal, an auti-Jockson, whig, or re- 
poblicaa P^per, which became the organ of the 
party, *na of the state government when its party 
was in power. Declining all offices for himseu, 
except the profitable one of state printer, he is sup- 
posed to have exercised almost supreme inflnenoe m 
Bominatioda and appinntmeDti^ and to have secured 
tbe eh^ce of Fruidenta Hanison and Taylor; 
has boen, tfarongh his whole career, tlie friend and 
adviHr of Ur Seward. In 1861, he was aar ' 
i-diidoroatia capacity to Eniope, and <» 

d-diidoroatM capacity to . 
s, waa pnsentea bv the ai 
h the freedom of the city. 

anthcntieB <A New York 
witli the tieedom of the city, where he bec^jne part 
proprietor and one of the editors of the yeie York 
Tanea, in whidi he has advocated a prudent and 
etnoBtvaHn fo^ey, 

WKED (£ympA«vn(it), or a Shot of Grease, con- 
■ata itt iuflammatioiL of the large abaorbent glands 

and vessels situated between the hme's thi^u. 
Rarely, it attacks the corresponding strnctorea 
between the fore-limbs. It occurs tn round-limbed, 

indifferently bred, hard-vrought barges ; appears 
particularly after a day or two of rest, after expo- 
sure to cold, or during imperfeot action of the 
bowels ; and is said to depend upon more blood 
being produced than is required to replace the 
natiLral wasteof the body. It is identified by lame- 
ness, tenderness in the groin, and fever. The hotee 
must be bled, have a full dose of aloe«, and when 
the ^ain and tendemem are great, ten drops of 
Flemmg's Tincture of Aconite m water every two 
hours ; the limb should be bathed for at leMt six ot 
eicht honra continuonsly in hot water, and then 
nibbed dry and kept warm. The subsequent Bwell- 
iag Witt be reduced by saline dnughts, dinretica, 
nibbing of the limb, and exercise. 

WEEDS, the name oven to all thcae plauta which 
grow wild in cultivated erounds, and injare the 
crops ; which th^ do bot£ by ohoking Ihem, and 
by exhausting the soiL Those weeds which ore 
annuals or biennials, as charlock, yellow rattle, and 
melilot, may gradnally be got quit of by merely cul- 
tivating, for a succession ot years, such plants as ore 
to be cut before the seeds of the weeds ate fnUy 
ripe. Perennial weeds, such sa conch gnus, Boa only 
be removed from the ground by repeated and care- 
ful tilling ; and for this pnipoae, crops which require 
much horang ore advantageously planted, tiid re- 
course is hod to siunmer following in fields, and 
freqnent weeding in gardens. Thistles and other 
' weeds are frequently polled in corn-fields 

'e the com comee into ear, and to prevent theii 
seeding, they are cnt in pastures. Sedges and 
rashes, whii^ spring up in great aban£uice in 

Leafy crops which thickly cover tils soil, prevent 
the growth of many weeds by the exclusion of air 
and Tight. Weeds which have been rooted up form 
excellent compost for manure. Those which make 
their appearance in follow groimda, serve for green 
manuring when they ore ploughed down. 

WEEK (Ooth. Vteo; Old Eigh-QennaD, VehAa = 
order, oycle (t) ; lat. Vid»; Qr. l{ebdomat, SabtnUon; 
Heb. Bhabna, from Shtlia, seven) designates aenerally 
a period of seven days. It was probably first 
institnted as a kind of broad lobdifirion <A the 
periodical month, corresponding to Uie four qoartm 
of the moon, or about 7} days. Althonf^ fomid as 
a dvil institatioD amoDK aome aations at the eoriisat 
time — e. g., with the Hindni, Asayiiaiis, Feniana, 
Jtc., it is only with the Jews that w« see a rehgions 
signifikiation given to the cmelnding or seventh day 
ofthat period iteell Both their cosmogony and leos- 
lation are connected with it. The Sabbath (q. v!) is 
emphatically the day of rest, while seven weeks after 
the FasBover, the Pentecost or Feast of Weeks takes 
place, ^ {see Sevbk). It is doubtful whether it was 
throi^ the Jews that this eompntation of weeks 
was mtroduced to tbe E^ptians, but it is oertatn 
that tie latter at an es3y puiod counted seven 
periodical days, "»"'"g them accrading to tbe wtflnsa 
jdooets then sisnmiwl Hie aiq)lioation of tiie naoMe 
o( the plan^ to the dajrs of the wetk in the 
order they now stand, originated in tiiis way : 
It was an astrological notion that each planet in 
order pttaided over an hour of the day, the order, 
according to their distanoes from the earth, being, 
on the geooentrio systein, Satom, Jnpiter, Mars, 
the son, Venus, Mercniy, the moon. Assuming 
Satom to preside over the first hour of Saturday, 
and SBsigning to each suooeeding honr a planet 
I in order, the SSd hour will fall aoin to Satom, 
I the 23d to Jupiter, the 2tth to Man, and the 

., Ll OOg 


ito urea OMUMt— ana to uw 
le of ChiiiL Boms hid jve- 
peHods br dsht dm, the 
( origmally cdled Jfimdma 

fint hour of tb« nsrt dfty to the ion ; in the 
UDW way, the fiist honr of the following d&y fall* 
to the moon, ftod MOD. £VoniAIezaBdri«,thU*eTeii 
deye' wedc WM imported, tmther wiUt the narae* of 
the individual day*, to the Qneka — wbo pferionely 
divided their monlhe into three deeadea— and '- '■'— 
Boinana, about the time of C ' 
vioiulj coonted her peiiodi 

eightii day itwlf beinj( orip ^ _ 

— g. term later applied to the whole cyole — aa 
Ntuming ntmo yuogvc die, when tiia oonntiT- 
people were in the habit of coming to town tor t£e 
purnoaea of buiineea, and chiefly to inqnire after 
poUio news, the chaogea id govenunent and l^ala- 
tion, vacant places, and the reat But tii* aeven 
dayi' oycla aoon fotuid great favour among the 
Bomana, owing partly, puhapa, to the apread of 
Egyptian astir^ogy, uiiioa^ tlie change waa not 
omcu^y introduced before ConstantiDe. It is cer- 
tain that the Jewioh name Sabbath came into nas 
in Homc^ and fAmi Bome it ^read to all the 
Bomania langnagea, even into the German. It 
■□rvives in the Italian Sabbaio, tiie Spaoiih Sabado, 
the French Bamedi [SabbaH iUt$), and the Oennaii 
Sambaxiac, which ofterwarda became iSbnw<aa In 
the same manner, the I«tin jSnMuna (tiia Gre^ 
hAdomat) haa become the modem deaignation for 
week intiie Italian BMmaam, Span. Bsmima, French 
BemaintjmA even in the Iriih Btditmaiiie. Hie 
Codtx Tkaodoriiauis ia the firat doetunttit vrtiieb 
adonta the term Stp&nuoM in the meaning of 
weeks. The Jews, as well aa the early Chriatuuis, 
had no apecial names for the lingle daya, but 
counted their number from the previooa Sabbath, 
b«pming with Sunday, as the lint after the 
Sabbath, and ending with Friday, aa the aixth 
after the previoaa, or eva {ErA) of the next Sab- 
bath. AnW a ve^ diort time, however, young 
Chrittianily, which in the same manner had endea- 
vonred to count from the ferid teeunda, or aecond 
day after Snndav, to the S^tkna {or Saturday), had 
to fall htiok again npon the old luatiten namee, pre- 
vlonaly iutoodooed m Gaul, Oermauf , fta by the 

Bceoidaiiee with the new deed. It waa called 
KVriait, die* Do»Meu»ittJ>i>niMea, the Pay of the 
Ijord, a term wlneh in Italian became Doota^oa, 
{n gpaniah Zhmfa^ and i>itniMicAe in Freoeh. The 
Oennanio Pr6iaae (frm >M» » dbnuRiciu) oecuia 
bntonoe. It iavaiToariaa* to notice how the nunea 
of the fire daya of tJie wedc which ftdlowed thoae 

aaitirer«Li»tfae u 
|oda tcaiiMatad ii 
Ihot, the 6 

he day of Mua baoane tlkat «( Zia (h« 
Ttb)1 Uannn beeama Wodan; and the fourth 
dav waa cdled after tho latttt, in Dotob. Kig- 
lich, and Bcandinavian; while in Oomanr it waa 
alDpljr called the middla of the week - Jfittaeodl. 
The day of Jnpitv beeama the day of Sioria 
ntmaday, Domerilag; while the Dit* Vauri* waa 
tranafonned into t^ dw (d Frey^ tike wife cf Odin 
(Wodan). The day of Batarnua, retained imd« 
thia name in some northem tongue^ became a 
laagardage, or bathing-day, in ouierai while in 
Upper Oeimany it remained a Soaday-^ve {feria 
ante doniRtaun) or Bandog <see above). Ajmong 
" ■ " ••' - — i-T-i- - - ^j aa (nu infixm^jion 

Mnpqtatinn by waeka 

tite Aiaha abod foMmoat; 


than apaoial n 

uid andinc with the 
'~",and thayeonnt the ^ ^ 

, muaw Wfept the Vniay, which la 

flriled tlw Day of Ajii wbl y rTawn AI.DjDma), 

or Amha (k EeL Sr^) Eva (of tha Jewiab Sab- 
bath). Slavoniana, liuiuaniana, and l^nna also 
oonnt their daya from Sunday^ inataad of giving 
planetary namea. The Frendi BerwatieB 
Id the aeven daya' week into a deeade of tea 
daya, bat the new computation introdnoed in 17B3 
waa abrogated aj^ in iSOfi. Beapeetingthe'weeki 
of yeare (very lunilar to tlie B/mi»n immtnim M- 
domadee), it will suffice here to indicate that tlte^ 
only ocoorin prophetical poeby, and seem to indi- 
cate there ceruiu sevai years' cydea. for further 
information on this subject^ we refer princ^ally to 
Ideler'i ChronohgU. 

WBEKS, FuBF OT <0r. PanfeaaA - fiftieth. 
Eeb. 51<iiui>eA, also called Feaat of Hai-nBt,Dayof 
the Fiiat-fruita, ka), the aecond of the three gnat 
~ jaUm or Pilgrim Feaata of the Old Teatament, 

■ celebrated aaven weeka, or forty-nina days, 

er the Pawlver. Aa the latter waa the feast 
__ the barley harveet, so the former waa that cf 
the wheat-harvot The firat two loavea irf the 
new crop were offiered np on the day of the fcatinl 
— iMVeoed, and containing about 31 qnarti eadi 
Miahnah apaaka of their being 7 inahaa \)j 
ogathar wiOi a mace-ofieiing of two lamb*, 
lea Vtaa, a 9«at burnt and nn oflering the 

er oooaiatin^ vl aavan lamh^ a bnlhM^ two 

ranUp togetiier wttit tha appropriate meat and diink 
ofEannga; thelatterofoneldd— were added, aoeord- 
ing to Iiavitiana (xziil 18} ; while Nnmban (xxriiL 
2Tlincreaaea the nnmber of the bnllot^ to two, and 
only mmtiona one ram — a number more in aoooid. 
anca with the regulotdoni for the other feative aacri- 
ficea. lie Jewish tradition, however, cor-''- 
uiimals mentioned in the later paasafp 
ditional aacriGca; and Joaephna na* md 
both up, except in aa far as the rama are 
of which he onl^ pvea two. Tradition has ein 
to thia feast, which orinnaQy waa only intaidBd 
represent the "i""" iSoaing at the harvest, a new 
significance by mAting it the anniyenary of the 
Siuoitic Legialatioti, which indeed must have taken 
place in the firat daTB of the third month. But the 
FenteccBt, which la always fixed in the Jewish 
calendar on the Sth of Sivan, conld not, befon 
the establishnent of asb'ODomical computation, 
fall always on the aame day, but muat needs 
have fallen between the Gth and 7th of that 
month. Uoae* himself nowhere fixes the date of 
thia festival aa he does with the othen. The Kara- 
ite^ instead of referring the 'moming of [after] 
the Sabbath' of Lev. (xxiiL IB) to Ae iMh <rf 
Nisan, take it literally, and edeWate the featival 
always on a Sabbath. The DDontain^ of the lanai 
calouation and observation amcmg the Jews of the 
Dispmnon, caosed them also to add ona di^ to this 
festival— a wage still retained at preaenfc There 
aeenui to have been more of tho eharaottr of a 
harvtat-home inherent in thia featival than in the 
Paasorer, wbu^ partook partionlariT of t^ oharaeter 
of a large and solemn bmilf-paeiiB^ For the 
Chriitiao addition of this leafaVBl, aaa Fbrkubt. 

WHBPOra TBBBS are fareaa with remad»bly 
elongated and peadalona faianohlata, gsnaraU^ raen 
Tarifriiea of apedca which CTdlnan|y hm a difEerent 
habit, as the Warning Kreh, Wooing Aril, and 
Waemng Willow, whiiA aae vaiialaea (rf tha Oonfflon 
Bind), CMnmm Ash, and Vhita or Hutingdon 
WiUow. ^nteWeraiBsBirdioeouiiinawildatate 
iaaaaaa^aoea in t£e Highlands of Switland, and is 
a diaiaArialie onMwnent of the landan^ift. Trees 
iid«rmadiat« in tfadr habit between the We^ng 
Birch and the common vaiic^ an of very fnqnent 
oaonmaoak Weeing tresa are miwh edeamad for 
omamanM piupoae^ and an not wly t«7 heantiM 


aniaHf propagated i 

the Swedish JnnipeT and t&e Iiiab Yew are ^miliar 

WBKRT, an nnwaUed town in the Netherlandi, 
ice of LimbuTg, 12 milei weEt-QOTlh-weet of 
--' — the ahip-canal from Maaatarioht to 

ea. In the 
Chtuch of St Martin ia the grave of the Oonnt 
of Eoom, who was beheaded at Bmseeli, in 16S8, 
for adhering to the Prince of Orange in the itrn^jsle 
for nligioiu Kid political freedom, A beao^nil 

nade leada to the other ohnrch, ontnde the 

. north o( which ate tiie rains of tiie old CMtle. 
BcB^dei the matkete for farm produce, horMi) and 

Tioeroy of Bohemia. 
WBEVBB, or STINGl-FIBH (rraeAinua), » 
^ mna of acanthopteroua flBhes of the family Uraito~ 
teopidig, ahu called TriKJuaidtx. In thu familj 
the Tsntrala aie compoaed of a spine and five jointed 
rays, and are generally dtnatod before the pectorals. 
The scales are cycloid, or wanting. The eyeballs 

Molt b mUob 

aafactoiy, Oa art of tiie 

I HertogenboBch. Pop. 6T88. There a 
~ ~ i Bchoola, a collesiate institution, to 
chnrches, and ^ree market-places. 

1 Weert, who, in boyhood a ■hoenulw'a 


>/i ,9 jjiiWSSw^— : 

OtenieiWaeret [Trathauu draeo). 

are capable of being railed in a remarkable manaer 
oat of their sockets, and of b«diig retnctad again to 
^ke lev«l of the oririts. The spedea freqnmt the 
bottom of the sea. They are ohen fnmisned with 
barbell, and have also a paenliar tnembranons 
filament nnder the tmigne, which t^ey ean footaide 
at ^eaanra. In the genns TraMmtt tiiehead is 
niiiiiiiiasiiil, the eyn aie plaoed hi^ and elose 
togeuier'; there is a longshaip spine on the hinder 
put of the nll^oorer. There are two dtnaal flni; 
the aeoond drasal and the anal are long; the 
Tentrals are close to Urn throat. Two species are 
found on the British coasts, the Gaxi.tMK W. <x 
&ma-Binj. (T, draco), and tiie linrLxW. orViFSs 
W, {T. pipan). The former attune a lengtli of 
nearly one foot; the latter, aeldtsa of mom than 
four or five inchest The genei*! form is long, 
narrow, and compressed; the little W. is raopor- 
tiotuJly deeper in body tiuu the Greater w eevw. 
The head of both is sliMt, compressed, flat between 
the tjta, and roo^ ob Qtt sommitt botli dorsals 
and UM anal fins are spinyt and in both the ^• 
cover is fimished vitii a stronc aitd shwp apae, 
iriiick is directed beokward, and can be appressad 
to the bod7, but irtuoh ic also oapible of being 
mads to stand out eo ■■ to preswt its point to an 
adTsnar^ Both nieoiee are ^ a yellowidi Wwn 
oolonr. They mhabit parts of the ee* hanne a 
Bsndy bottom, and oftes pertially bury themsuVes 

LL. I U,.., L'OO^ IC 


incoDTenfenoe. If anailed, they cui, by a middan 
bending i^ the body, nuke n«e of one of tba Btrong 
■pinea of the gUl-ooveiB agkinft the asBulant ; and 

tlie wonnd thaj inflicted ii so aeroe, as to lead 
the oinnion that the ^ine IB coated with a TsnomauE 
emdation, NfttnraliBtB, however, generaUy aup- 
poied the popular opinion to be erroaeona, and the 
severity of tbe wound to be netdy owing to the 
laceration effected by the spine, ontU it waa di^- 
oOTered by Di OUnther, in 1864, that poison-glfUidH 
esated in connection with Bpinea of same South 
American fiahee of the family SUurida. A pecnliar 
stinging Benaation attends a wound by a spme of a 
W., which ertenda far np the aim, if the wound hoa 
merely been in a finger, and i« much more eeyere 
thsJi the pain of a wasp ating. There ia also a 
groove in the spine, which bae perhaps something 
to do with the conveyance of the poison ; but no 
poison-f^and has yet been proved to ai^ist. In 
France, the fiahermen are required, under a penalty, 
to out off the spines of weeven b^ore Belling them. 
TT'eerem are esteemed for the table. 

WEE'TIL (Cwvulio), a Linniean genus of inaecta, 
DOW forming tiie tribe SAyaehopkora, of the order 
(Meoplera, and seotion Telranura. They are 
lenuAablv ohancterised by tite prolongation of 
the head into a beak or snout, at the extremity of 
which the month is placed, and from which the 
dnb-ehapod antenna spring. Some of them have 
straight antennsa ; bnt the greater number have 
the antemuB genievlaad, or bent forwards at the 
■eeond joint. The specie* are veiy onmerona, and 
are distribated over all parts oE the world. Tbey 
all feed on Testable food, both ia their larval and 
in thui perfect state ; and some of them are 
notable for the mischief which they do in the 
former state, to the young shoots, leaTeo, frnila, 
Hkd seeds <rf plants. They are diomal insects, 
many of them very small, bnt othen of considerable 
siz& They are slow, timid, and defenceless j 
althoagh the long hxcd beak soggests to those 
iffoorant of its r^ nature and of their habits an 
idea of danger ia handling the larger Bpedee. 
Many of them are of very doll and nniform oolonr ; 
but some are anongtt the moat beautiful of the 
Coleoptera — reepkuuunt with the finest hnes, and 
brilliant as gems. Such is the well-known. Diunond 
Beetle (q.v.) of Soath America. The larvB of 
weevils are soft, white, and footleaa, wjth very 
convex rings, baiA beads, and homy jaws. The 
perfect insecte are often fonnd on leaves and in 
nowers of the particular kinds of plants on which 
they and their larvEO feed. ShyncAitet betukli, a W. 
oft^ very ininrious to viaeyaroB, oonltruotB a nest 
for its larvn by rolling op the leaf of the vine, 
jnercitig the roll as it proceeds, and depositing B^t 
between the folds in the inner part of the rdl The 
larvie feed npon tiie leaf, which the parents further 
adapt for their use W outUng the leal-atalk half 
through, BO that the leaf baogi down, and by the 
time they are ready to change into the ohrynlis 
•tate, it diopa off, or ii Uown off by tbs wind, 
when thoy Inuy thenudve* in the ground to wait 
for tho retnm of niring. Other trMa, aa the pear- 
b«e, are infested by weevils which destroy their 
leaves in a similar manner ; the leaves <A some, aa 
of the peach, often suffer injury from weevila which 
devour them, hke caterpillnn, without rolling them 
up ; and turnips are subject to the ravages of certain 

small species of W., which proceed m tb" 

manner. Some spedes of W. gnaw young 
The shoots of fniit trees, ana joong grs 
sometiineB destroyed bjr weevils, whidi bi 

them by means of their hetk, and make .. 

chamber in the eentre, in whioh on egx ia deposited, 
bdna pnshed into iti proper plaoe by the beak. 


I3ie shoot i* then out through a little lown down, 
and the parent W. may be aeen climbing npon it, 
when tile operation is nearly completed, to make it 
fall bf her weight, and retonung again to her wo^ 
if it IS not vet ready to foU. She la^ about two 
eggs a day, but oootmuea her operabona tar many 
weeks, so that much destructiDii is effected. He 
larva feeds on the pith of the fallen shoot, and 
deserta it when ready to become a ebrysalis, to 
bury itself in the ground. — The larva 'of a large 
species of W. [CaiaMdra palmanim) inhabits piJm- 
Soath America, feeding on their centnl 
1 ia eaten and eataemed as a delicacy. 
roasted, it almost melts into grease ; bnt its 
flavour is said to be remarkably fine, lius W. is 
black ; abont an inch and a half long ; ita larva ii 
between two and three inches long. Anotho' 
Bpeciee (Oaiandra toccAari) is very destmctive to 
tbe sngar-cane. Its larva is also eaten in the West 
Indies and Ouiana. — The wood of pinea aoi) firs ii 
the food of certain kinds of W., so that pjantations 
suff^ severcQy from their rav^ea. Thonaands of 
acres of pines in the Soutiiem States of Amoiot 
have been destroyed by a W. (.B]A>Mw polet), not 
much more than a quarter tA an inch in lengtii; 
and some of its congeners in other ooaubriea an 
scarcely lees deatmctive, oa HyUtbhu aiielit ia 
"^nrope. — There Me many species of W. which 
ttacV leaf-bnda and flower-buds. Thna Axl^ 
nomtu pomonaa infests the apple-tree, depoBiting its 
Iji in the flower-buds, and cutting off the project 
fruit Aatlumimuu pyri ia equally injnriooi to 
the buds of pear-trees. Some apeoka of Bhyitduta 
lay thdr ^gs in fruits — aa applea and plom^— at ~ 

pean Nut-W. (fid^onlniM Rueiini) lays its egp in 
young hazel-nuta, upon irtiioh the lanie feed as the 
nuts grow ; a neariy allied niecies attacks, in like 
manner, the haxel-nuti of America, and another 
infests acoma. The Feo-W. (q.v.) feeds npon peaa ; 

species, which devour tiieir seeds. The Com-W. 
(q. v.) is very destructive to wheat, and other aimilal 
species to maize, rice, and other kinds of grun. 

WBIOHINO-MACHINSS ore of variona forms, 
according to the quantity and Bp«cies cA the goods 
whose weight is to be detetmined. The great 
m^ority ot weit^ung-maohiDea are founded upon 
the principle of t£e Lever (q. v.), tho only azcepbons 
brang the various fonns of the Spiing-balaioe (q.v.), 

term 'maohine' is quite maj^caUe) aome of the 
methods employed to deteiinine speoifio gravity. 

of oadlMion, fto. The ^ 

form of wei^ung-maahioe is the 'R«t««~ (q. v.) 
with equal arms, which can be ad^tted «iUier to 
the maxinram of aocnnte wd^iing ot to the neat 
rapid equipondoanoet Bnt aa this madiine neoeni- 
tates the fkaing in one scale of wei^ts equal to 
the weight of the goods, it was Boon fonnd to be 
mora oonvenient to employ a lever with nneqoal 
arms — Uie goods to be plaoed in the sc^ attodied 
to the shmt aim, and therefore equipoised by leas 
wei^ts, the ratio of the weights in uie two Bodes 
being in proportion to the ratio of length of the 
arms. On tiiis principle the lUdyard (see Balakce), 
the tent leeer oakoKe (see 6Ai.AiiaE), and the cart- 
tledf/ard are oonstructed. Bat the convenienoe of 
eqmpoisinx a greater weight by one ranch lea is 
oonnterbaJanoea by a considerable diminution in 

;;.,LlOOglC ' 


iKitei Balnlitjf to flaznre of the longer arm of the 
hra; mi uutthsr, the neoewily, tSc conveoieiioe' 
■ke, of hiving the arm whioh w affected bv the 
goodi to be weighed M thort oa pcwble — the Utter 
of itoell ndncing the aocoraoj' of the Btoetj'anl to that 
of i aynunebicu balonoe whose tmui are eaoh eqnal 
to the ihort aim of the ateelyard. However, on 
behilf of Uie Bteelyard, there ia again the odnuita^ 
of rapid eqnipoue. Each of these maohinefl il Tan- 
onilj connraoted, Ute modiGoati<KiB having refeienoa 
luthoT to cravenienoe of nae, or to the apedea or 

j ^^i^JT 


b n iuvarted manner, with the acalea above, and 
tbo n>di whii^ oouneot the loaleB with the beiuu so 
naited m to prewrre their peipendicnlarity during 
MciDatkni ; and the latter ia KpprvpiAtiHj iUiu- 
bated b; the form U oart-steelyaid given in fig. 2, 
The dotted linea, DD, DD, indicate the grooved 
platt* on which the wheeht rest; E, E, B, E are the 
fmu pointa aopporting tho wheel-pUtea on the two 
triingalu lerus, Ofi^ CBB ; the triangolar levan 

Kg. 2. 

mnpnortGd by thehooked exbemities of their haseB, 
^ B, B, B, npon fixed lapporti. A, A, A, A ; while 
their vertioB, C, C, are attached to a lever, FO, whose 
fnlranm ia at F ; 3 ia attached by a chain to H, the 
ijbaaitj of » lever of the first kind, whose fixed 
ini^ort u at K, and on whoae other arm (gradnated) 
the wo^ta for eanipoiaiiig the oart and liu load are 
placed. The TnnAinn is thua seen to be compoimd, 
eoasMing of the two ttiangnlai' leTsr pieoea, of a 

Hie lever of tha seeood, and of one of the first 
; tha wtagfA L, if anffioieiit, nieing U, and 
with it G, ^l"^ thence raiaiag C, and ao balancing 
the downward nesEinre of the eut and its load at 
B, E, E, K Tariona other forma of the cart- 
■teeljaid are in common use, moat of them more 
and less accurate. 

on of niareantile tranaaotioQS, 
mrpoaea, it ii necessaiy tltat there be 

dily-aceesdUe standarda of masmtade, 

of VBght, and of valne. The longtiui implied by 
the namea ajbol, a hand, a citbii, a/alhom, are ba 
toe indeSnite to have long csatUiued to satisfy the 
wsnta of cbriliMd nataoos ; and in every oonntcy, 
by common conaent, «r by the action of goTsnimetit, 
detemdnate mearnires have been agreed npon. These 
left almoat to chance, have been ditCerent 
natton to anoUwr, even from oovn^ to 

weight, Uie change 
at onoe. We all i 
to be only one aj 
in one conntry ; 

eonnty, (ometLmea from town to town, and atiU 
more awkwardly, often itom one trade or guild 
to another. 

Any one can appreciate the inoonveuienoe of 
anch a want of nnifonnity, for, in every tranaacti<m 
extending beyond hia own a^jiere, he baa to take 
acconnt of the change of meaaure^ the change of 
money, peiii^n of all three 
and allow t>*ft-*i there ooiTht 
1 of weigfata and 
, , one bnabel in 

York — one acre in England, another in 
Scotland, and a third in Ireland; tuat Troy w^dita, 
avoirdupois weights, apothecary wdghta, and all 
the other local, oonventicnial, uid trula variationa 
irtueh abooud in the Biitiah dominions, form an 
affiregate of nnbearable conf naion, leading to endleai 
miBtafee* and oeaaeleaa qnanela. It ia not more 
diffionlt to paicmvB that if one ayatem be advis- 
able for one country, a nnivenal coemopolitoa 
ayatem wonld be no leaa advantageona for the whole 

The only practicable method of establishing a 
ayatem of meaaui-ea is to cooatroot standards of 
inference, and to preserve these carefnUyin some 
pnblie place. In order that these atandjirda may 
not be worn and injured t^ too frequent use, it is 
convenient to hara autiienbcated oopiea deposited 
in the variona towna, ao that all deil«n uid aAificera 
may have readv aooasa to them, and ao that all 
mi^eia of weiguta and measures may be without 

To act np a standard of meaaore seenia to he a 
vory aimi^e matter — the authoritiea have only to 
fix npcm. tha proper length of a yard, to have a 
piece of wood or of mstel mode to that length, 
and to cause it to be properly marked and pre- 
served. For common purpoeee, thia seema to be 
^nito enough : however, erpetieaae soon shews the 
inoonvenianoe of this simple plan, for, by repeated 
ixartaats, the end* of the yard-measure get worn. 
Instead, therefore, of making a rod jnst a yardlong, 
they make it a little longer, and npon it form two 
fine marks a yard distant from eaoh other, and hdd 
thia distanoe to be the true standard. B^ this 
expedient, the effects of wearing are got nd of; 
copy after copy can be compared with the original, 

not Uie oidy caosa of deteriontion : 
wood decays or ia worm-eaten, and metala ore liable 
to oxidation, ao that the material haa to be care- 
fully chosen. This is not alL Every substance which 

with a change of temperature ; the standard bar is 

ihon^ it be ao small aa to be of no moment to 
the bberdaaher, the wright, or the maaoi^ ia enough 
to cause great trouble to those ensued in very 
accurate work. Hence, in the ejection of tile 
mbatance to be used tor the standard bar, we muat 
have an eye to ^mallnnn. of expansion as well aa to 
durability. The aubstances available, taken in the 
order of tlieir expansibility, are — deai, gtait, plat- 
inum, gold, tilatr, tnm, brata, comtr. Deal may be 
put aside aa wanting in durability, and the choice 
may be sud to lie between glass and platinum, 
neither of which ia much acted on by tho air, or by 
the vapoura which are found in the atmospbeiea oiE 
laige tovms. The fragility of glass and the costli- 
ness of planum am ohjectiona ; hut the latter is a 
mere trifie when a national standard is concerned. 
Platinum, then, seems to be the best substance. 

' udaid measure for the British Empire is a 

into which two jHoa of gold are inserted ; 

dressed flat with the surface of the bar, 

fl ^ i^ i\ jptiall Aci\ ia mj^ lfl in ^ha mjddlft Af f'Ti^i UiO 

;^ ...LlUUl^lC 


diituicB betireen the eenbw of theM dots, tak«n 
when the temperstuTB u at 62* P., is deoUred to b« 
the true yard. 

In the aame waj as the standard of meana., __ 
mnit the standard of weizht be eatabliahed. A 
piece <^ heavy metal ii hibm of ths demred wei^t, 


,. Erery i>coa«ion on irhich , 

of dost troDi its Hiirface.tha aotuma of the 
oxygen of the air and of the pFodacta of oombiution 
which «ra always floatiDg about, prodnoe a tnra 
though alow waste ; and all thftt can be d<nie is 
to T^ard this ^nste as mach m poHible. Perlian 
a Inicp of ptatiniuu 'would mi^e the b«et standwa ; 
bnt ita softness is a decided objection. 

In the me of a standard of wd^i^ another 
matter haa to be taken into ooneideration. The 
apparent weight of any sabstanoe is leaa than its 
true weight by [the wdght of as mooh air aa la 
displaced by ib Now, the denuty irf the air is not 
constant — iii, when wanned, expanda very much 
more than any solid body ; and therefom a piece 

of metal appeaw to weigh — ■"— ~ 

cold weather. Not only ar 

dense' by an increase of pre , ... .... 

barometer is high, all heavy bodies beccone appar- 
ently lighter ; when the barometer sinks, they 
appear «> become heaTier. Thns the apparent 
weight of the standard pound is continnally cliang- 
inz. If we accurately adjust two weights of btass 
when the barometer is low and the air 'warm, and 
afterwarda compare them when the baromet^ is 
high and the weathar cold, we can perceive no 
change, for, though each haa lost weighty they 
have lost alike. Bat if we had adjostea a weight 
of iron to a weight of platinum in li^t air, and 
again composed t&m in dense air, the (£viKe would 
have been at once seen. For, since a pound of iron 
is more bulky than a pound of platinum, it dis^aoee 
more air, oud its apparent weight undergOM a 
greater change than does that of the plwnnm. 
IrortuQately, these changes are too smaU to have 
any perceptible influence on mercantile transaetiana, 
jtt they are enffidsnt to create the neoeati^ for 
it being enacted that the standard weidit muat be 
held as trae ithea the sir ii in a spewed state ■■ 
to waanth and pressure, llio standard btaas ponnd, 
which terres for the British Empire^ is directed to 
be nsed when Fahrenhmtfs thermometer is at 62*, 
and when the barometer is at SO inches. 

The thought naturally arises, what i^ in the 
course of tune, the origmal standards be lost or 

Time 'was when a seed of wheat gathered from a 
well-ripened ear served soffldently weU to define a 
grain weight ; and even now the Eastern jewellers 
weigh their gems sgaiiist the eartU or carab-bean, 
the haidness and omlormily of which seem to justify 
Uie selection of it^ But for the extended purposes 
of modem comtuerce, and puticularly for the more 
ddicste reqtiirements of scientifia reaeuch, it is 
indispensable that we find some unchongina object 
of compacisoa ; and none can be pref^ed to the 
earth itaelf, as the most universally acceptable snd 
OS the best defined. For the purpoeea of eeagra[Jiet« 
and navigaton, the circiunference of am eaHh is 
divided into degrees and minutes, the length of one 
minnte bein^ the geographical or nautical mile i 
and it oertautly woud ha've been convenient if the 
eommon or statute mile had agreed with this. "Vhe 
dimensions of the earth are now known with a pre- 
cision far greater than is needed for ordinary pur- 
poses; the entite length of tie circninferenoe et a 
meridian circle being 131,236,000 of our itsndiid 
feet, BO that the length 01 a nantical mile is 6075 

feet and about 9 iuc^sa ; and it is hij^y probsUa 
tliat snbseqnent and mom aoemate measnrenMits 
will not alter *^'" determination more than a& incQi 
or two eltiitt way. It is ntul to divide the siiwils 
into 60 Moonds, so that a second of the earth's ai- 
omnfersnoa is 101-26, and thua it ooz standard foot 
\imA happensd to be one-ei^tiBth part hnuer tfasn 
it is, there watdd have been suot^lW fist in a 
second, and 6000 feat in a nmticsl mile. Wbrniws 
rcdeot <» the dimnfy U the foot nasd by diffcnnt 
natict% and leooUeet th«t 100 Yienn» teat make 
103-S ikwlish, as mai^ Amiteedam feet S2^, »• 
many BsrBn feet 99*2, we can hardly help HKp«ttii^ 
that our forefathers bad not happened to hit apoa 
thoexAct lOa 

The ameirait Greeks were fond of dividiu; into 
nxides ; this division stdll oontinuea in onz scausi for 
angles uid for time ; and it is worthy of laatik, 
thu if we divide the whole circnmferenoe of ths 
earth into 60 parts, each of these into tO, and ^ain 
each into 60, 'we arrive at a -^'-t'""- of Win 
English feet. Now, the length of the anoient Greek 
stadium or forlone is stated to be 606^ feet by bmds 
writers; andif deduced from measures of the BomaB 
mile, is between 605 and 613 feet ; so that if ws 
deeire a cosmopohtan standard, we oao hai^y do 
better than go back to the ancient Greek st aA 'w w 
or the Chinese It, corrected to suit tlie moM soearats 
detennination of modem timea: tlds would being na 

The standard of weight ia leadify oramected wiUi 
the standard of measure. Scone Enbatanoe which 
can be easily obtained pure is ehoeen, and • dcAnita 
balk of it ia weished. Diatalled watw is nnivenallT 
selected for this purpose ; and in the Brttiu 
system, the 'weight of one cnbio inch of pure 'water 
is dedued to be 252*458 grains when if ia at the 
temperature of 62° F. 

It haa long been known that 'water does not con- 
tinue to contract as it is cooled; the oontradiDa 
beoHne* less and less as 'the temperature approochM 
to 41° or 39° F. ; and the water, when coaled morc^ 
begins to expand, and contdnuee to grow more balky 
until it be on the point of freezing. On this account 
it has been proposed, and without any donbt it 
wonid be the beat plan, to take water when at ite 
greatest density as the standard for ctHnpaiison, 
becanse then an emt of * degree in tanpnatnn 
win prodnoe no perotptabk error in the -weight. 

The opstslion of verifying tbe standard of meason 
by oou^axing it with &e site of the earth is nesM- 
tarily »a expend've and a complicated one, wfy 
to M attempted under the auBpices ot a wealtl^ 
government, or with the conciUTenoe of ■evem 
is; and it is desirable to find out aometlnag 
local and more eamly obtained whenwith to 
oompare our measures. The length of the " ' ' 

(^.v.) has been proposed; and, on acoonnt vt a vetjr 
simple and beaotifiil proper^ Ot pendulnma, tiieam- 
panaon con be teadily made. If «a inutpne an 
excessively ninnte heavy body to be suspes^d fay a 
thi«ad so fine tliBt the 'weight of the thi«sd m^ hs 
ni^gleoted, the compoond so f<nmed is called a simida 
indnlnm ; and' the question becomes, what imut 
I Hm length of anch a pendulum in order *h«t it 
may 'vibra'te from side to side in, say, one seotmd of 
Now, it is clear that we cannot obtain tins 

to it by using a small ball of platinum' hui^ 
by a ver^ fine -wire. However it is known that if a 
heavy ngid man, AB, be snapended hy a knife- 
edge C and if ita vibrations be mads in the same 
time with those of a simple pendulum of iriiiak the 
length is .OD, then if we ^aos 


diloa will igain vibrato InuM 

Eiaotrm hSTs a ret; liiii^e HMrthod of compari- 
ML Baving ouubnoted > itKiiu; bar with two 
knib-adgM &t a known dktuuM mm Mch oQiet, 

^Jut i 

Mj at Um djataaoe ol a yatd; kt oa then 
'■- —nj triala, fillnm, and tciMdnzi, ao 

» In wMoh th^ 

I har* a nieaoa of TerifTing o 

Hia act of parliament wUdi fizM onr 
preKut weights and meaauree, enaote that 
the length 3 a pendnlnni Titrating in one 
■econd of mun lolar time la S9-13B20 
inohea : now the length! ol pendoli 
poportional, not to the til '- - ' - 
vibrate^ bat to the aqnav 
and to, if we know the length of one 
pendoloni, and the nnmber of ribratioiu it 
nukes per day, we can oiloulate what 
ought to be the leogtll of another to vibrate 
a given niunber of times. A oonvertiblB 
pendnlnm having the dirtanoe between its 
Inife-odgee euotly 36 inohee, ou^ to 
make 9M88'42 vibrationa per day. 

When only a degree of accnraoy anffi- 
dent for oommerdal and ordinary pnipoee* 
is aimed tH, the above p«oeai Ii by no 
meaiw diffioolt ; bat when astremepreoinon 
ia wanted, the operation la attended with 
nanyaiulveiyneat difflcultieB) itinvolvea 
eonuderatioDS lAloh would hardly have been 
eipeded. In the fint place, our experimenti are 
made in air, and the baoy anoy of the air leeaena the 
aetoal weight of the pendulum ; that buoyanov hae 
to be ^wed for, and theiefon it ie deotared that 
the above length ia Hut of a pendolnm vibrating in 
a vicnnm. Nez^ ainoe the earth baa a diimMl 
motian on ita «zia< every •nbatanoe ^aoed on it haa 
a centrifn^ tendBOcy which goaa te modify what 
Dtheniiee woold have been in gravitation; this 
crnbifugal tendency pioducea the earth'a oblatenees, 
knd cauMB a variation in the intenflity of navit^on 
from one latitude to another. A itone la actually 
hcavin in Edinbniglt than it ia in London. Thii 
diaage in gravitabon eamiot be meaaured by a 
balance^ becaose tiie weights at each end of the 
balance are changed alike ; but it is seen at once in 
the going of a ^bck ; for a Deodulam regulated to 
go trolj in London is found to go too last when 
taken to a higher latitude, and to loea tinte when 
canid neaier to &a equator. Henoe, tba enaot- 
ment that the pendiUiun mnat be awnng in Urn lati- 
tude of London. And ^ain. tlw attnotion which 
the carOi ezerta upon bodies placed near it dimiiuibes 
with their rtintf"'— , being mveraely aa the ac[nare« 
<d the distances ; hence, a dook oattiad from the 
bottom to tha t(^ of a hill loees time pM«qitibly, 
and ao it is necessary to have the additional enaot- 
ntent that tha pendulum be swung at the level of 

In addition to these mceti^ there are others con- 
netted with the manipnUtion, loch as the parallelism 
of the knife-edses, thev blontne*^ tite extent of 
the an* of osoifiation, and the stability of the anp- 
pMti, ■) that sJtt^ether the exact meaaurement of 
tb« bofdi of tba teeonda pendnlnm is a matter o( 
nry gr«*t oomplEdtr. AH tiwa* difficulties and 
lio^£s DotwiUMtanding^ we may hold that for 
sll'inKitleal pnTposea, am system of weights and 
nwaaniM and i£ may be added, the systems of 
all ot^ oiviliaad nations — is p«^ectly well erta- 
bhshed, wbetlMV it be ngtxdai m derived frmn 

ledger dividea tiie second into sixty thirds, I 
hmidredtiiat he gives hisecnuooti^timeui 
fraotiona of the day, and ne makes the art 

of cavitation. 

No lyitsm cf measnres can evw claim to be <rf 
nnhtnal applioatum fa«n which momphlMl diman- 
ioons areoxliided. It laesMntialuiat tJie unit of 
meamra bear some simple relation to the earth's 
ciicumfcownoe, for ctherwiM the operations of the 
surveyor will not aocord with those of the geo- 
grapher, ^e only question, therefore, in regsid to 
the establishment of a coenu^litan system, is ts to 
the nnmber of parts into whioh the earth's airciun- 
faranoe is to be divided. Sow, tlie denaiy system 
of niunecation haa slieadv Bsserted its snpiwiUMy; 
one by one the echamee followed by different natitma 
have given way to it^ and tiieir veiy lao^nages have 
been modified by ita influence; soffloient traces 
remain to ahew now extensive these modifications 
mnst have been. The (Apm-mmv and tm is not yet 
fbrfEotten in T&iglinh, nor Uie qaaln^nngt dix nenf 
in Franoh. In many tradea the oountdng is still in 
dosena and groasea ; yet our merchants count their 
interest, thair discount, and their dividends in cents. 
The surveyor divides the foot on his levelling staff 
into tenths, hondredths, and thousandths ; he makes 
hie Ounter-chaia of IDO links. The astronomer no 
thirds, but into 

Jay, and he makes the arguments 

for the planetary distuib*acel in thonsandSi puta 
of the whole revolution. There ia no sin^ instenee 
in which the decimal system, once adopted, haa 
been abandoned; slowly, but enrdy, its influence 
will incresse until it have displaced every other 
iystem. See DnniUL Sibtbl 

No one oppoeea the abstract prinoiple that one 
sy s t em for tne whole world would be best ; but 
each nation retains an eiousable partiality for its 
own measures. We can never do away with our 
good old English penny : what I shall we give up 
our time-honoared itaodard yard, and adopt the 
new-fangled IWioh fnOnT Admit the force of 
such shiMt-aghted arguments as these for ourselves 
and we must admit them for all other nations, we 
most remain where we are. The very idea of a 
oosmopditansyitemcatriea withit that of national 
abn^ation t and of this the French have set a noUe 
exa^q^ ; they have pnt aside their snoiemt Mtt, 
tbdr HtH, thwT jrf«J, and their potme, to adopt a 
measure whioh commends itaelf to all natioM alike 
W ita wont of nationality ; and the dedmal ^*tem 
of measures and weights must, whether we will it 
or no, prevail against all others. 

WEIGHTS AND USABUBES have, sinoe 1824, 
been in OMt measure regulated by statute. The 
statute S Gea IT. c 74 was passed to enforce uni- 
formity iu the w^lits and measnres used in various 
piuts of Great Bmain and ]>eland ; sod a standard 
yard waa defined as being then in custody of the 
clerk of the House of Commom, and it waa enacted 
that all superficial measuree should be computed 
and ascertained by the said standard yard. The act 
also described how, if the said standard yard were 
to be lost or destroyed, another was to be made. 
So the statute defined a standard braas weight of 
one pound troy, and a standard gallon. That etatuta 
was ti/mrnA by a subsequent statute of 6 and 6 
Will IV. 0. 63, and iospecton wen anthorised to bo 
appointed'by Justices of the peace, who had power 
to examine and stamp wei^ta and measitros. It 
waa enaoted that any contract, bargain, or sale made 
by any WHghts or measurea unanthorised bv the act 
ehonldbemioQyvoid, and every such wei^t mi^t 
be selfed by the inspector, and forfeited. One or two 
exeeptaons were made by the act — such as weights 
above 50 Ibe.; wooden or wicker measures used 
in the sale of limei ^aas and earthmware ings or 

WHIWrtBi y *^i^ i 

drinking-oupa, tbongh rnm 

Sioutity of mf imperul meaniTe, or Any 
r ' --' '" - 

,_ _, , . , IT *ny mmt 

j«reo^ aad tluae are not iU^al, thondi incoR 
By a. ktar aot of 22 ud 23 Vict. o. BS, inspecttm 
bare power to iuapeot Uie weights and meanuea of 
penons Belling goods in streetB amd public places. 
By a statute of 29 and 30 Viot. o. 82, the custody 
oC the imperial stondftrds of weights and measnies 
has been transferred to tko BoMd of Trade ; and 
periodical compariaona are to be made every tea 

WEIItlAR, a small but interesting town of Ger- 
many, (apitsl of the grand duohy of Saze-Wumar- 
EiscDach, and residence of the grand duke, GO miles 
Boutb-west of Leipzig by railway. It Btanda in a 
pleasant valley on (he left bank of the Tim ; but 
the environs are in no way remarhahle, and the 
town Itself is irregnlatly and rather poorly boilt 
Though the residence of the court, and finding its 
snbsiBUiies in providing for the wants of distin- 
guished viutors, W. carries on neitlier trade nor 
manufactorea, and seems a dnll, provincial-looking 
town. The lostre conferred upon W. by the reel- 
donee here, at the dose of the 18th and the earlier 
portion of the 19th centuries, of Goetbo (q. v.), 
Sohillor (q.v.), Herder (q.v.), and "Wieland (q. v.) 
at the court of Karl-August (see Sajce-Weimar- 
Eisknach), has faded since that group was liroken 
up by deat^ ; and now tb.e interest of the town is 
almoat wholly derived from its monoments, tradi- 
tions, and Bsaociatknis. The town church [Sladt- 
KnAt), dating from tha year 1400, has an altar- 
piece by Cranach, and contains a number of memor- 
able tombs, among which are those of the brilliant 
soldier, Bemhard of Weimar (q. v.) and of Herder, 
the philosopher and critic. The ducal palace 
is a handsome building, some of tiie apuinientt 
of which are decoratd by frescoes illustrating 
the works ot Goethe, Schiller, Herder, and Wieland, 
The public library contains basts of these men of 

eeniol ; and a number of relics, as the gown worn 
y Lather when a monk, and Gustavus Adolpho^s 
leather belt, pierced by the bullet that caused his 
death at Lutzen. The houses of Goethe, Schiller, 
and Herder are still pointed ont l^e two former 
ot theie poets lie intored io the grand-dacal burial- 
Taulb The park and ^rdens ot the ptdace, within 
which is tiie summw reudence ot Goethe, are much 
esteemed as a promenade. Pop. (1864) 14,279. 

WEI'SSBHFELS, a town of Prussia, in the 
government of Mcrseburg, and 12 miles south of 
Uie town of that name, on the Soale. Pop. 10,638, 
employed in the jKircelMn-fsctory and in wool- 
spioning, shoemokmg, t^e manufacture of piano- 
fortes, tanning and a trade in timber. The castle, 
formerly the residence ot the dukes of W,, is now 
a barrack. 

WELOKEB, FniXDKiCB Gottlieb, one of the 
most distinguiahed scholars of Gennony, was bom 
in the yesr 1784 at Grilnberg, in Hessen-Darmstadt ; 
stndiedatGiessen; was appointed one of the masters 
of the Gymnasium there in 1303 ; and in the year 
ISOfi, travelled to Borne, where he remained two 
years. Here he became acquainted with the cele- 
brated Danish anJueologiBt, Zoega, whose Life and 
Essays he afterwards published, and by whose 
example he was stimulated to that subtle appre- 
eiatiou of the works of ancient art which appears 
everywhere in his works. On bis return from 
Italy, he was appointed to a profettorahip ot Anoieot 
Lit^tnre, fint in Giesaen, then in GUttdngen, and 
finally (1819) in the newly erected Prussian uni- 
versity of Bonn, which has since then been the 
great scene of his scholarly activitv. 
W. belongs. to that class of iohidftn wb^ since 

H^ne snd Wol^ haw giv«n bikIi r lof^ intfi- 
ration, such a jdiilaaaphiosl ligni&oanoe, and swk 

originally wiu the 
it maaua, the aympfttlietio undentandinff 
inuwinative Mootistanction of the life and thoBf^ 
of bmoiu andent peoples, based on the critical 
treatment ot ancient doonments, or the tastef ol 
appreciatioQ of tbe monuments of ancient art It is 
needless to say (hat this * philology ' is a very differ- 
ent thing from the minute verbal and metrical 
preciseoess which was long the leading charac- 
t«riatic ot scholarship in tma country. For how- 
ever important these minutie mav be m their place, 
(hey are manifestly valuable only as means to an 
end; and even when the end has been steadily kept 
in view, it cannot be denied that some of our 
greatest intellects have spent more of their strength 
on these subsidiaty matters than tiieii importance 
deaervea. In W., Ottried Mliller, and other Ger- 
man scholar* ot the first class, we see a general 
reaction against this narrow school ; and a rtiaction 
which was sure to prosper, as it was based on 
thorongh academio trainmg, and had learned ia 
n^ect no trifle and despise no mioate point which 
could be mode subservient to higher purposes, li 
it was the fault of German scholanhip geoerallj 
that it was too professional and too academic^ it is 
tiie praise of Mailer, W., and the school to which 
the^ belong that the^ have bridged over the golf 

them intellipble to the present, and significant of 
the future. The long academic career of W, 
has been marked by an tininterrupted course of 
Boholarly activity. Many of his vtoriu are tracta 
and esaa^ on archsoloeical subjects without ez- 
temal mulnr, but all ezhibiting a remarkable com- 
bination of extensive and accurate learning, fine 
taste, delicate senribilitr, and sound judgment 
We can only note here his three moat important 
works of ■ larger compass. The first is the jEteJif- 
iean Trilogj/ [1824), in which the orgmic connection 
and sequence ot the (keek dramas are set forth with 
a richness of constructive detail not altogether fire 
from that fanciful and probleiuatia element which is 
one ot (he most distinguishing chuacteristics of 
German scbolaiahip. The seooud is the Bpic Cgcle 
(1835-1849), a work which has done great service 
to the right appredation of early Gtedc literature, 
by taking Homer out of that region ot mysterious 
isulation in which he had been previoosty allowed 
to remain. The third, and perhaps his greatest 
work is the OOUtrlehre, or Greek MySology, 
recently completed, which embraces all that a 
Sood, and rejects all that is bad in the wide Germsn 
literature of this subject, with a delicate tact and 
a just discrimiuation as valuable as they are nr& 
Of aU W.'s works, this is the one that would meat 
probably benr with credit the oideal of an English 

WELD, or WOOLD, also called Dtkb'b Boczd, 
piriB'H Weed, and YaLuw Wkbd ^Bemda Lultola), 
is a plant o{ the some genus with. MioNomm 
(q. v.), a native of waste places in England, vray 
common in Germany and in many parts of Europe. 
It has an upright stem, 2—3 feet high ; lanceolate, 
undivided leaves ; and long racemes of small yellow 
flowers, wiilt 4-partite eal^ and prominent staiueni. 
It is used for dyeing. La aider that it may yield 
a good dye, it zeqniiM to be eultivatea with 
care. The best is grown in Franoe^ EogUud, and 



I hagt quutitics of tf 

Hi^tmd ; and that produced about Cette, in France, 
ii preftsied to all other. Good W. muit have flowen 
of a beantilul jellow or greemBh colour, and aboimd 
in leaves ; that which is 
■mail, thin-stemmed, and 
yellow, ia better than 
that which is large, thick- 
Btemmed, and green ; 
that which grows on dry 
sandy soils is better than 
that produced on rioh 
and moist soils. It was 
formerly cultivated to a 
much greater extent in 
Britain than it is at 
present, and was also 
more need by dyers than 
it now is. W. is still, 
however, a valuable dye- 
stnCC It serves eqiuJly 
for linen, woollen, snd 
sillc, dyeing not only a 
rioh yellow, but, with 
proper mattageoieiii, all 
shades of y^», and 
producing a bright and 
beautiful colour. Stnffi 
previously dyed blue are, 
by means of W., clianged 
to a very pleasing green. 
n imported from Vnmne. 
> Vr K lDING, the process by which some substances 
an oiiited together m a softened state. It is gener- 
ally applied to such metals aa malleable iron, two 
jiieca of which, heated to redness, may bo made to 
uiite by applying them together aod beating with a 
I hanticer. Othei' aubBtancee, such aa horn and tor- 
tniK-ahell, can b» welded by first making Beparata 
ptcei soft by heal, and presaing them together, 
Kbch causes so intimate a union that no traces of 
tbe jrmction reaiaiu after cooling. 
^'BLLESLBY, Richard Collet WxLLisLKr, 
I iluQU^ K.G., En^ish statesman, was bom at the 
1 town residence of his family, Grafton Street, Dublin, 
June SO, 1760, The famUy of WeUealey was of 
•Saion origiu, belooging to the county of Sussex, and 
T31 among the most aocient in Ireland, one of 
: them havmg gone from England as standard-bearer 
to Heniy IL, who gave him large grants of land in 
Ueitii and Kildare. Williiuu de WeUealey was. In 
1331, nmmuKked to parliament as Baron Nor^h, and 
Taa high in favour with Edwards IL and UL The 
naote (originally Wdtiley or Weinelry) wag written 
WeUealey till the 16th c, when it became abbre- 

' berj; aikdonthe ilfimas" of his aon without issue, 
the estates were bequeathed to his couain, Sichard 
CMtj, who thereupon assumed the name of Wesley. 
The CoUeya, originally Cowleya, ware atao of anoient 
dactnt, and came originally from Rutlandshire. 

; Richard Colley, who thua aucceeded to the Wellesley 
otates, thongh in no way related by blood to the 

, earlier WelleaW family, was created Baron Mom- 
inehm. Hia eldest si»i received (1700) the dignities 
of Vueonnt Wellesley and Earl of Momington, and 
oijoyed the atill more enviable distinction of being 

< the father of the Momnis WeUealey, the aabject ol 
tfai) notice, and of Arthur, first Dnke of WeUiogton, 
by his marriage with the eldest daughter of Arthur, 
fint Tisomuit DangaDnon. W.'s Uither, the first 
Eirl of MoraingtoD, although chiefly known for his 
talents aa a mnaical composer, was a man of great 

I abilltica. W. received his education at Eton, and 

afGerward* at Christchnteh, Oxford, at boUt whiolL 


laol k 

speech was n , 

and in 17S0, he ^ned the University prize for the 
best composiCioa in Latin verse, in wluch he excelled 
through life. His father having died in 1781, W., 
on attaining fiis majority, took ms seat in the Irish 
House of Peers, took upon himself the pecuniary 
obligatioDB of hie father, and placed the eatatea under 
the management of his mother, who survived her 
husband lor nearly half a century. The debts of 
the first earl were liquidated, but W. was unable to 
preserve the family posaessiona. He was one of the 
original Knights of St Patrick when the order was 
founded by George III. in 17S3. It a^ieara, from a 
correspondence between Pitt and the Duke of Rut- 
land, that at the age of 24 he had convinced boUi 
statesmen that he was deetined to distinguish him- 
self, and to render the public essential service. Dia- 
satisfled with the limited field of distinction which 
Ireland afforded him, he obtained, in 17S4, a Beat In 
the British House of Commons aa member for Beer- 
olston. In 17S6, be became one of the Lords of the 
Treasury, when he was elected for Saltash. Being 
unseated on petition, he obtained a seat for Windsor, 
and became a favonrlte of George III. Accident 
directed his attention to India, and ia 1795, he 
became one of the unpaid menib^ of the Board of 
ControL In October 1797, he received a seat ia the 
House of Lords ob Boron W. ; and, at a most event- 
ful period, was selected to go to India as govemor- 
generaL Four powers then divided the sovereignty 
of India — the British ; Tippoo Sahib ; the Nizam ; 
and the Mohrattas, comprehending Scindiah, Hol- 
kar, and the lU^ah of B^^r ; and the west of India 
was the scene of invasion by Zemanm Shah. Tippoo 
hated the English, and meditated their expulsion 
from India ; and the troops in the service of the 
Nizam and the Mohrattas were officered by French- 
men. When W. arrived at Calcutta, in May 1798, 
Egypt had been conquered by Bonaparte ; and the 
native powers of India, incited by the French, were 
unfrieadly to British ride. His first operation wai 
one of great boldness. Disregarding the remon- 
strances of the Madras Council, he ordered the 
Nizam to disband 14,000 men, aurrounded them 
with a British force, secured the 124 Frenchmen by 
whom they were officered, and seat them instantly 
to Europe. Having annihilated French Influence, 
he began the reduction of the empire of Mysore. 
On the 3d February 1799, he ordered Genera! {aftor- 
n'ards Lord) Harris to march vrith an army of 20,000 
men direct from (be coast upon the Mysore capital. 
Ho himself removed to Madras, to be near the scene 
of this eventful operation. In one short month, ihe 
fortress of Seringapatam was taken, Thipoo Sahib 
■In-in, and his dominions partitioned Having 
thna. In fifteen months, destroyed French influence, 
struck terror into the native princee, and over- 
thrown the moat inveterate enemy of Britiah rule 
in India, he returned to BengoL Up to this period, 
he had been the Earl of Momington ; he was now 
(Dec 1799} created by the king Marquis of W., and 
received the thanks of parliament. The East India 
Company offered him £100,000 of the prize-money 
realised at Seringapatam. but he refused, disdaining 
to be enriohed out of military spoiL He afterwards 
accepted an annuity of £0000 voted him by the 
Court ot Proprietors. Hia next step waa to place 
the territories of the Nabob of the Camatia under 
the adnUDlstration of the Company, in consequence 
of the treachery of that prince. He also concluded 
a treaty with Feisia, to which he attributed ' the 
fall of Zemaum Shah, the confusion of the Afghan 
government, and the repression of the asnual pro- 
ject of invading Hindustan from Cabul ' — then, ns 
sinc«L the nightmare of Indian statesmen. In 1601, 



ks wnt k folce of 7000 man up tha Bed Sea, to u 

, .. mil Buid,Teaobed^ypt,uul effected 

jnnotion with the umy from ^gknd; but the 
Fnnoh had alieadj aiiReiideied. & 1802, ia con- 
■eqaence of difficeiiioe* with the Court of Directon. 
he tendered bit redmatioii ; but wm indoced to 
contiDiie in office nntiT Jaaoat; 180ft. The Uahratla 
war broke out ; the battle* of Latwtrea, A«a»;g, 
Argaom, and Delhi we^ fought ; uid Sdnduiii, the 
Betar Bajah, mi Holkai ware (dipped of their 
daogenm* ioflnsnoe, and reduced to anbmiasioii. ' 
Unn MMMioa of tenitoij rewarded the " 
of tlie arm; ; and in 1806, W. retoiDed to 
after the moat brilliaot •dminiibntioD ever known in 
India. He had ontihone even tho natiTs princea 

the vegetable, mineral, and pnyaical treaiurea of ue 
' golden p«nin>o la;' and inaugurated thoae important 
financial reformi which in a l»ief period railed the 
revenue of the Company from 7 to more than IS 
millions sterling On hit retnriL ha «m received 
with every maft of retpect and approval by the 
director! ; but at matter of ooorte, there were 
many oomplainta that his admiDistntion hod been 
opptetaive, especially towards the native powen ; 
ana articlea of impeachment were even presented 
to the House of Commons, tbongh they Ttxe 
r^JMted with contempt. He now prepared to 
enter anew upon a parliamentary career. Qeorge 
UL wished him to be one of the lecrataries of 
■tat* in the Portland cabinet, but he declined 
the ofto'. He went to Spain as ombasskdor-extra'. 
(vdinary b 1809; landed at Cadiz on the day 
the battle of TaUvera waa foosht, and on the 
2d November met hit brother, the Duke of Wel- 
lington, at Seville. In December 1809; he wsa 
appointed Sectetary of State for Foreign AfTsira; 
and in 1810, WBt elected a Knight of tiie Garter. 
He was favoorable, both in and out of office, 
to the repeal of the penal laws affecting the 
Bomaa Catholici ; and when, in January 1812, the 
Prince Segeut refused to B(^ee to a oouoewion of 
tMota Ga&olic elaimt, W. ncigned his teat in the 
oalnnet Ihuins the fint ten yem of the adminis- 
tratiomof Lord liveipool, he taaained in oppodtion. 
He protected againtt the inmffioiency of ue means 
placed at the diaposal of tile Duke of Wellington, and 

to the utmoat ertent of the natimal credit and 
retonrcea, nntil the Duke had croBad the Fyreneet 
at the head of his victoriouB army, and bron^t tiie 
war to an end beftae Tonhrate. When the settle- 
ment of the affairs of Europe waa being arranged 
in ISIS, W.-pcoteated againit the ne^ect of «on- 
metoial intoMtt^ but witooirt effect. Eenowb^^an 
to ally himtelf mUi the more liberal aeotion of the 
Constt-ntive^ who looked np to Mi Cannfoff a« 
thw leadar, and aooepted the offioa of Laid-Ueu- 
tenant Dt Ireland. Condliation was to be the prin- 
oqik of his government, bnt he held office for five 
years witiiout effecting any material amelioration, 
owing to the diffioultiee anting out of the state of 
the penal laws. He was reoaUed from Ireland by 
bit brother when he took office in 182a In 1830, 
W. aooepted the pott of Lord-ateward of the House- 
hold from Earl Orey; and in 1833, in the 74th year 
of bit age, ho «^^ proceeded to Ireland e« Tioemy, 
when & remained until Sir E. Peel's adminittntbaa 
of 1834. In 183S, on the restoration of the Whig 
party, he acoepted the post of Lord Chamberlain, 
which he only held for a few montha. In 1S37, it 
became known to the Diiectort of the Eatt India 

Company that be waa in staruteBod mrcumitinMt, 
and denviog little it tony advantage fnun tW 
annuity of £SO0O per annum ; they therefore re- 
solved that a Bum of £SD,000 shoold be vested in 
tnut«es for hi* benefit. In ISil, it was further 
r«eolved that bit ttatoe should be erected in the 
court-rooDi, at a mark of the admiration and grati- 
tude of the Eatt India Company. He di^ >t 
Kinc^Q Hoose, Enightsbrid^ on the 25th Sep- 
tember 1S42 ; and, in oompliance with his will, vu 
bnried in the vaiUt at Eton CoU^e Ch^ML An 
authentic record of hii Indian administration iru 

direction and at the expense of the East India Com- 

Sny, and published in 1838 in 5 vols. 8vo, entitled 
upatcAet, iluaUtt,aitdCorrt^)oitdai«ei^lAeMar- 

and Corn^mtdtmee ^ &« Maxqut* WeUeits,iii/i*i 
hiiMittionloSpaia. TbemuquitpnbUthedteTsnl 
pamphlet* on varioua occation* : Subdaaet of a 
Spttch ia lAe Mtnue of Common* on (A« Aidrta a 
17H ; NfM» relaiiee to 1A« Ptaee condudtd wJk lie 
MahTotta*; Lttter* to tii» Qoiiemmtnt ofFai\ Qfor^ 
rdativt to At neto form <^ GovemmaU otaiMid 
Chare; LtUen to Ut DirteUir, of Ms EcM India 
Company on the India Trade; &c. He was twice 
matned, but left no ittoe, aad the marqoinle 
became extinct at his death ; the earldom, ko., vent 
to hi* next brother, but afterwards reverted tD the 
seoond dnke of Wellington, as son of the great dnke, 
who was third brother. 

WEl.LINaBOBOUQH,«o called from the medi- 
ciikal spiinn in ita vicini^, is a maricet-tcwn in the 
county of Northampton, I<H miles esst-north-^sit oi 
the town of that name. It conies on k conaidenhle 
trade in com, boots, and shoes. Pop. (1861) £067. 

K.0,, one of Englaiid'l greatest generals, wm thi 
third ton of Gurett, first Earl of Momii^gtoD, and 
brother of the Mafqui* Wellesley [q. v.). He mi 
bom May 1, 1769, at Bangan Cutle, Ireland, aad 
oom;(Jieted his siilitaiy edaoation, a few years before 
the frenoh Eerolution, in the mihtaiy ecJlege cf 
Angen, in France. He entered the annv as ensp 
in the 41at Begiment in 1737, and became lieateoant- 
oolonel ol the 33d in 17S3. In 17M, he Msba^ed 
in command of the 33d B^iment, to join tiw Dvk» 
of YoA's army in tbe Neth^ajkdt. In this, bit 
first term of actual servioa, he commanded three 
battalionB on the nbeat of the army through Hol- 
land, and diatingnished iiinmit in aevetal lepnltei 
of the French, ui 1796, he aoeompanied bit rupmest 
to India, where hia brother, the Uaiqaia Wwedn'. 
shortly afterwaida arrived aa govemor-generaL He 
commanded tlie anbddian force of the Niam, whtn 
the reduction of the l^sore wa» decided upon, 
and hi* diviaion defeated Tippoo Sultan's nght 
flank at Hallavelly. At the aaMult and o^ttnn d 
Seringapatam, he commanded td>e reocrve in tbt 
trencnas. So waa i^tointed to the command ia 
Jd^Bors, and took tbe field <1SOO) againat Dboondith 
Waorii, a Ifahtatta fi«ebooter, who wai 

named seetrnd _ . ._ 

the expedition which sailod from India to 

F.nnliA army in Egypt, but waa prerentod bom 
embarkina by illness. It waa in the Wjihr^t^n war 
of 1803 t£at the young general won hia first fame. 
After beaieoing ana capturing Ahtnednoggor, 
W., with oidy 4fi00 men, came opos the oum- 
bioed Uahratta forces, 40,000 or S0,000 stroBK 
and not waiting for a lar^r British foroe that wu 
on it* way, won the brilliant victory of Asaave 
(q.T.). Toe victory i^ Argaom foUowod; andtlie 
great fort of Gawu^or, cuppoaed to be impregnable, 



RC«irad the 

: hivino baan takan in Daoember, the Mahratta chieta 
r peaoB, after one of the moat extraordinaiy 

, yf ^^ jj^g K.C.B., and 

if the kins and parliamenti. 
; In 1806, ha ratnnted. to Englani^ and in Novembar 
I commanded ■ hrigade in L<»ii C^cart'a expedition 
I to Hinarar. In 1806, ha obtained a aeat in th« 
I Hooie rf Commona for Newport, lata of Wight ; and 
' in Apil 1807, >rt» appointed Cbief-uoretary to Ire- 
I land, the Duke of Bichmond being Lord-lieutenaot. 
Re held a eommaiid in the army under Lord Cath- 
eart, in the ttzpeditioa i^tunst Copeaha^|«B in 1807 

I lationof Cbpaohagen. 

the Hooae of Commona in hit pboa^ and retnrDed 
I to Iraltod. In 180S, he commanded an expedition 
I which tailed Iran CoA, being the fint divuion of 
; the Brili^ army aent ont to aaaiEt in the expulaion 
! of tbg Freneh from Spain and FortngaL He landed 

at Camma, and offend hia aid to the anny and peoiile 

landed (Angnit 180S) withfO,000 troopa at the 
moDth <^ the river Uondego, in PortngaL The 
Thok of the north of Portngal iraa then in anna 
igUDit the French. The aoain of Obidot) and 
wili^ were quickly followed by the battle of 
Timiein, in irbioh he defeated Junot, who lost 
3000 men and 13 piece* of cannon. After tbia 
ennt W. aizned the anniatics which led to the 
Canrantion a Cintra |q. v.). He auhaeqnently gave 
endence generally in lavoor of this Conventian at 
the Court of Inquiry (November 22). Being super- 
I Kded in the coxomand of the army by men who 
' Bere only hia aaperiora in military rank and seni- 
ority, he returned to England. For the battle of 
I V'imiain, he ^ain, in hia plaoe, leoeired the 
thiaka c^ the Houae of Commona. On the death 
of Sir John Moore, he retomed to ra-aaaume the 
I mmiDaiid of tJie Fenintnlar army, previoua to 
I wbkji he reaigtted the office of Ohief-aecretary 
i Hi bdand. He arrived at liabon, and aaanmed the 
! Domand April 22, 1809. He had now to contend 
■ith SonK and Victor, iriio had entered Portugal at 
Ihe head of a veteran army, and «ere in poweasion 
of itt fineat northern provinces. Oporto liad been 
I tekra by Sontt, and W. wM anzioua to bring iiim to 
■ctim at once, in order that be might not inaks liia 
! retnat luihaiinod. The poaaage. at ViUa Nova, of 
the DoorlL a wide, deep, uid rapid nver, in the face 
of a foniidable enemy, who had removed every boat 
md bvge to Om qtpowte aide of tlte river, waa one 
> of the Ixddeat aad moct racceaaful operatiou of 
the war. W. entered Oporto the «ame day, and fol- 
lowed the French army. He wa« now, by a decree 
' of the Prince Regent of Portugal, Mawhal-general 
' at the Portngneae army. The French had fallen 
I Uck to a pout where ranforoeraent* were to meet 
(■Kmnaoded by Victor and Sebartiani, were defeated 
bytkaBritiah under W.atTalavera. Thealaiidit«F 
on both lidea waa terrible, in thia deaperate^ amioat 
hud-to-baod conflict. W. waa unable to follow 
I Dp hia Tictory owing to the non-oo-operation of the 
Spaoiah army imder Cueata ; and the want of aup. 
pliea, and the jonotion of Soult, Ney, and Moitiei 

Tatavem, with a peniion of £2D0a In May 1810, 
the Frendi c<dleoted under Maaaena in moh tape- 
riar force in hia front that he Ml back upon 
Itnuao, whrae he made a atand. Here the Frtnoh 
(September SET) made two attaoki npon hia poaitioB, 
bat were repHlaed with great alanghtar. After 

this, be retreated to Torrea-Vedras (q.v.), to the 
occu^tion of which line of defence, and his 
jadicioua method of maintaining it, the ulUmato 
sueosaa of the Feninanlar war may be ohiefly 
attributed. Maaaena, being unable to find aub- 
aistence for hia army, began hia retreat to San- 
tarem, followed by W., who pursued the French 
in their retreat along the line of the Mondego. 
In April ISIl, he received the thanka of parliament 
for the liberation of Portugal. Spain, however, 
waa now lubdued by the French. The Spanish 
armiea were aDoihilated, and it was of tka laat im- 
portance that W. should be able to keep bia rear 
opan to the Tagua. W. having invested Almeida, 
Maaeeoa attempted to relieve it, but was akil- 

Badajoz to be invested. At thia time, he bad 
great reason to complain of the want of support 
and reinforcements from En^ond. He had only 
the force which had followed Masaena from Torrea- 
Vednu, diminished by 9000 men, /tora dt combat in 
BO many aanguinaiy encounters. Writing to Mar- 
shal Berealbrd, he aaid : ' I encloae a dispatch 
from Lord Liverpool [then at the head of the Home 
Qovemment] ; I believe they have all gone mad.' 
Tba aiege was oarried on with vigour ; but '""'"g 
that Soult and Maimont deaigned to join their armiea 
into (OM, in order to relieve Badajo^ and hi* own 
inadeqarie force not justifying him in ri*kiii{; a 
battle, he raiMd the siege, and retired to the frontien 
of Fortagai He next laid ei(«e to the stnuu 
fortress ci Ciudod Hodrlgo; and on the night (3 
January 19, 1812, it was carried by storm, and the 
garrison made prisoners. For Vim achievement ha 
was created by the Begency a Orandee of Spain, 
with the title of Duque do Ciudad Bodrigo. He 
again received the thanks of parliament, and a 
further pension of j£2000 a year, and waa advanced 
in the British peerage by the title Eari of Welling- 
ton. He next marched towards Badaioz, invested 
it in March, and earned it by storm, Apnl 6, after 
a frightful carnage ; the allies losing nearly 0000 
men. In June, be advanced to Salamanca, captured 
the convents tliere, which hod been fortified liy 
the French, and drove Marmont to the Douro. On 
the 22d July, he gained at Salamanca odo of his 
greatest military triumphs. Marmont extended his 
Ene, with the view of turning W.'s right ; but the 
latter, perceivinB that the enemy had thus weakened 
their left and centre, vigoronsly aasailed the weak 
points, and after an obstioato resistance, put the 
whole army to rout. Ajnmunition, stores, two eagle*, 
eleven pieoes of cannon, and TODO prisoners, were the 
trophies of victory. The loss of the allies was 
only about TOO killed and 4000 wounded. Marniont 
lost an arm, and four French generals were killed. 
W. received tlie order of the Golden Fleece, entered 
Madrid, waa mode generaliarimo of tiie Spanish 
armies, and was advanced in the Brilaah peerage 
by the title of Moiquis of Wellington. The thanka 
tA parliament were again voted to him, together 
widi the sum of £100,000, to be laid out in the pur- 
chaae of lands to be settled on bim, bis heirs, and 
Bucceaaora. In September, he marched to Burgos, 
bat failing to capture it. he again retreated to the 
frontien of Portu^^al. W. visi^ Cadiz and Lisbon, 
when he was woeiyed by tbe whole popnUtioo '- 

May,hamarehadhisaiiDyintoSpainmtwoi. , 

via on the Slat June gained, at Vitoria, another 
■ " ■ ■ " Fnnoli,' ' " "" 

bttoo of Jourdan, which w 


Prince Regent forwarded to W. the bftton of a 
fietd-maCBhal of England. By thii Eplendid luid 
important aenea o{ victories, he had reaohed the 
Bummit of niartial glory. The deliveraQca of Spain 
from the French was now certain. His iufantry 
were soldiers who would, in his own words, ' go 
anywhere and do anything ; ' and even the invsaion 
of France itself seemed to bis conntrymen to be no 
longer chimerical He pursued the French army 
to France by Pamplona. Ha failed, July 25, to 
carry Sna Sebastian by assault, but gained another 
decisive battle over Soult at the Pyrenees, and the 
French army rotreated into France. A. second 
attempt to carry San Sebastian by aslanlt was 
successful, bnt it cost W. 2300 in killed and 
wounded. He now crossed the BidasBoa, and in- 
vaded France. Pamplona surrendered. After the 
passage and battle of the Nivelle, and the paaa- 
age i» the Nive, the victorious army of W. was 
attacked, December 10 to 13, on the left and right, 
by Soult, who was defeated. Leaving two cGvi- 
siouB to blockade Bayonne, W, foUowed Sault 
with the rest of the armr. On 27Ut Pebrnary 1S14, 
defeated Soult at OrtheB, and crossed the Adour. 

The afTairs of Aire and Tarbes were followed by the 
passage of the Garonne ; and on the lOth April, 
W. consummated this series of brilliaat victo- 

by again defeating Soult under the walls of 

Toulouse. The allied Russian and German armies 
having entered Paris, and Napoleon having signed 
his abdication a few days b^ore, this last battle 
woold not have been fought, but for the non-arrival 
of news of the events ^ Paris. In a few weeks 
W. was in Paris, presenting the trophies of his 
brilliant campaign to the allied monarchs. He 
was created, M^ 3, Marquis of Douro, and Duke 
of W. in tjie British peerage, and received an 
additional grant of £400,00a Ha received for the 

with the utmost enthusLasm. On the SSth June, 
he took his seat for the fiiBt time in the House 
of Lords. He next returned thanks at the bar 
of the House of CommonH, and was addressed by 
the Speaker. He was appointed ambaHsador-ez- 
traonunary to the court of France in July 1814, 
whence he proceeded to the o<mst:esH of Vienna. 
Napoleon haviiiK escaped from Elba, the congress 
was abruptly broken up. W. was appointed 
commander of the British forces on the continent 
of Europe, and from Vienna joined the aiiny at 
Brassels. It appeared probable that Napoleon 
would make a bold advance into Belgium, and its 
defence was assigned to an Anglo-allicd army under 

"■ ■ ' ■ " ' ■ ay under BWcher. The 

1 Quatre Bras (q. v.) were 
le 1816 by the great battle 
of Waterloo (q. v.). Hera the grand and decisive 
blow was struck ; here for the tint and last time 
the Emperor and the great English general met 
and measured swords, and here the power of Napo- 
leon was finally cmshed. The allied armies, under W. 
and BlUckar, marched upon Paris ; the French anny 
evacuated Paris under a convention; and Louts 
XVUL entered Paris the veo- day after the English 
army. Marshal Ney was brought to trial. He 
relied npon the terms of the capitnlatioa of Paris, 
and appealed in vain to W., who denied that the 
French king was bound bv the convention—a read- 
ino which it is impoesiUe to justify, as Sir A. 
AJiBon has shewn in hia HiOory of Jiaropt. At the 
request of the allied sovereigns, W. took the com- 
mand of the army of occapation, and resided in 
Paris from 1SI6 to ISia Two attempts were, 
during this period, made npon his life : gunpowder 
was placed in his oellar for eii^o^n; and one 

Cantillon discharged a jnstol into his carris^e; fur 
which attempt at aasassmation. Napoleon L Mt Uu 
miscreant a bequest in his will When the allied 
armies evaeoatea France in 181S, Uie nnpenin ol 
Russia and Austria, and the king of Pnusia, cmted 
W. a field-marshal of their armies. He was created 
Prince of Waterloo by the lun|{ of the Netherlsi ~ 
The gratJtnde of the British nation was, me 
while, enthusiastically manifested. Statues n 
raised to his honour in the metropolis. FarhuMst 
voted £200,000, in addition t" '" --'- "' 

the mansion and estate of Strathfieldaaya were w- 
chasad, to be held by W. and his heirs. The cmce 
of Master-genenJ of the Orduanc^ now aboMed, 

but then comprehending the control of the artilleiy 
branch of the service, was conferred npon him. At 
the coronation of Georce IV., in 1821, he ofSdatcd 
as Lord Huh Constable of Bngland. In October, 
ha attended George IV. to the Seld of Watedoo. 
In 1S22, he repraented Great Britain at the Ccti' 
greas of Verona, where he ineflectuaUy exuted kit 
infiuence to prevent the invasion of Spain bj ■ 
French army, in support of absolutist prindptei 
In 1826, he went on a special embassy to St Peten- 
burg, when he indaced the Emperor Nicholss to ut 
in common with England and other powen, u 
mediators in the quarrel between Turkey anil 
Greece. On hia return, he was appointed Consttlile 
of the Tower. In 1827, he succeeded the Duke of 
York as commander-in-chief of the army, and via 
made colonel of the Grenadier Guorda. 

From this period, his political career may be isid 
td begin. When Mr Canning received the commaDda 
oE George IV. to form an administiution, W., vith 
six oth^ members of the Liverpool administistion 
(including Lord Eldoii and Peel), resigned office. Is 
the explanations which be gave, he emphaticidly 
denied that he had entertained the ambition of him- 
self filling the post of first-minister ; and said Ike 
felt his incapacity for such an office so atrongly tint 
he shoold have been ' mad ' if ha had coveted it In 
Ai^uit 1827, after Mr Canning'a death, be ^un 
accepted the command of the army, which lie 
resigned on being called upon by George IV. 
(January 8, 1S28) to form an administratioD. 0! 
strong Tory poliUcs, he was, nevertheleaa. the fint 
minister to cede to the growing popular power. 
The Teat and Corporation Acts were repealed, and 
tbe removal of the Catholio disabihtiea was the Gut 
measure proposed by W. in the following seesios, 
upon the ground of the formidable attitude of the 
people of &eland and the danger of civil war, Thil 
measure involved liim in a bkKMllesa duel with the 
Earl of Winohelsea. The French revolution of 
1830 appears to have Influenced him in making i 
firm stand against refdrm in parliainent, in UW 
same proportion that it raised the demands of the 
people ; and when the struggle of ContineD: 
Europe to emancipate itself from arbitiary govei 
ment, strengthened the popular ciy far ' parluunent- 
ary reform,' he chose the earliest moment to dedaie 
the unalterable perfection of the representstiTe 
system of the country, and the determination of hU 
government to resist ail measures of parliamentuy 
reform. His unpopularity became oicessive ; sod 
anticipating a d^eat in the House of Commons, on 
Mr Brougham's proposition for refonn in parlis- 
ment, W. reaigned office, and was succeeded by 
Earl Grey. He had meanwhile became Lord 
Warden of tbe Cinque Ports. Under the adminis- 
tration of Earl Grey, W. held no^ffice. He slnnu- 
onsly opposed the Refonn Bill, and a London nwb 
broke tiie windows of Apsley House, and booled 
and pelted him in the streets. In January 1834, he 
was elected Chancellor of the nnivenity of Oxford. 
Upon ths enforced resignation of Lord Melbourne 

. LiOOgIC 


in KoTcmber ISH, hs iru wnt for br Williua IV. 
He declined to take the [Kcmienliip, and ma 
intnisted by the IdDg irith the whole charge of the 
gDTeniniant, and tbe Beala of the three Ssoretariei 
of State, uatil Sir IL Peal could arriTe from Rome. 
Peel eouiliueled a Conaerr a t i Te government, in 
whidi W. took the office of Foreign Secretary. In 
April, Peel reaigned, and henceforward W. ceaaed to 
tilu a prominent (bare in the dvil goremment of 
tba camtrj. He gave a generotis welcome to Soult, 


f Qaee 

Victoria, and w«a received wHh great coniiality by 

the peoiJe on thia oooaaioiL In Augoat 1S39, a grand 

banqnetwia given to him at Dover, •■ Lord Wardeo 

oE tiw Cinqno Porta, on wbioh oocanon Lord 

BroDgham propoeed his health in a brilUaat ouli^niD. 

In iMl, he accepted a aeat in the cabiaet of Sr R. 

PmI, withont office. In 1842, the Queen viuted 

him at Walmer Caatle, and in the aame year he 

Tia reappointed to the command of tlie forces. la 

IStf, he doubted the policy of repealing the Com 

lawi ; bnt in conformity with his ntual practice, of 

coniidaing ' how the Queen's government was to be 

dined on,' he determined to stand by Sir R. Peel 

in hit attempt to abolish them. W. not merely 

' (WDiented to lamaia in the oabiaet, but accepted the 

I U^itr office of Preeideat of the Conncll in lien of 

the pt«t of Lord Privy Seal When the bill came up 

to tte Lords, W., wiUi great emotion and eameet- 

' nns, mmed l3ie peers not to reject the bill, and 

Btra to separate themselvea from both the crown 

I aod the House oE Commons. His speech made a 

I great impresaioD, and the bill parsed a second read' 

I ing by a coDsidetabls majority. He retired with 

Itiife, nor is it to be denied tliat his share 

n^ieal of the Com Laws cast a halo of popularity 

' noood the remainda of hit life. In 1848, he called 
attention to tb« unsatMaoto^ itate of the national 
dtfences, in a letter to Sir X Bnrgoyne. Aa com- 

; maoder-in-chief, he directed gteat preparations to 
1ienudetopreTemt»Charti«t«atbrrak on the 10th 
AniL His laat speech in the House of Lotds was 
ddimed in Buiiport of the Uilitia Bill, when he 

' dKbied that F"g'""1 had been carrying on war in 
ill parta of th« worid with on inaufBcient peace 
otaUishment. On September 14, 1S£2, he was 
Kiud at Walmer CaaUe with an epileptic fit, became 
■peecklca^ and died the same afternoon. His 
remiins were bononred by a public fnneraL The 

I tody, alter Iving in abate at Cnelsea Hospital, was 
Rmcived to Ime Horae Gnaids ; add on the moming 
oi Korember 18, wu borne through the streets (S 
Londm to St Paul's Cathedral, where it rests by 

I the lide of tliat of Lord Nelson. The funeral 
1 by a countleas multitude. 


.. ..^ . published by Colonel Qurwood, in 

I! rnls., sre the ptondest monument of his glory; 

they eihibit him •* a commander who overcame 

raontks docilities by honesty, M»fpa.iy, sii^leness 

ud constancy of purpose, and devotion to duty. 

thrcmghaat hia loog career, ha ai^sears the aame 

hoDoonUe and opri^t man, devoted to the service 

I lii his soverdgn and country, and just and consider- 

I Ue to all those who seved onder him. As a 

I geaen], he was caatioos, pmdent, and careful of 

> the liTes of his men ; bat wtien safety lay in daring, 

I u at the battlo of Assaye (q. v.), he could be daring 

ia the extreme He enjoyed an iron constitution, 

ud tFu not more remarkable for his personal intre- 

I piiity than for his moral courage. The union of 

these quahtiea obtained for bi"! the appellation of 

I the > Iron Dnke,' by which he was affectionately 

I koDwn in his later yeats. Hia parliamentaij oratory 

I «u plain and to the point. He spoke without 

fluency or art, yet his ittoag lente 
sagaciouB judgment gave him gnat weight with bis 
brother-peers. His tastes were ^ristooratic; and 
his aides-de-camp and favourite generals were aJmoat 
all men of family and high connections. Altoeetber, 
he was the very type and model of an EnglisKmau ; 
and in the general order iasued by the Queen to the 
army, he was charactensed at 'the greatest com- 
mander whom England ever taw. ' He married, in 
1806, the second daughter of the third Earl of 
Longford, and by her (wbo died in 1831) he left two 
sons— Arthur, the second duke (who also inherited 
the earldom of Momiiuiiion), and Charles, deceased, 
whose son, Henry Wellesle;, is heir-presumptive to 

Colonel Gurwoud'e DeipatcAa of lAe Dtikt ((/ 
WeUingion, 12 vols.; Gurwood's Qmerai Ordtn qf 
Ihike of Wtllington, 1809—1818; Napier's HitUyry 
of IM Prniniular War; Ahaott'aHUlory of Europe; 
'thibaudeaii, Hutoire de C Empire ; Thiers, Hietoire 
de VEmpire; Marquis of Londonden7'sA''arreititie of 
tie Patinmlar War, 1808—1813; Gleig'a ii/« of 
.^rftiir, Duie of W^inffton; Bourrienoe's Mfmotre* 
NapoUon ; Ias Casaa, Mtmanai dt SU-HHine ; 

Mtmoirt, by his Literary Trustus ; DupaUha., 
Corrapottdeaee, and Memoranda of Fidd-marahai 
ArOiar, Dukt of Wdlington, edit«d by hia son the 
Duke of Wellington. This is a continnatian of the 
former series of the Wellington Despatches and 
Correspondence ; voL L {breaking off at December 
1822) has just appewed (1867), and thia series will 
be brought down to the latest dat«8. See also 
Correipondaaet de Napoteon /., an official record of 
the thoughts and acta of the emperor, now in course 
of publii^ation at Paris. 

WELLINGTON, a small market-towa in the 
comity of Somerset, 7 miles sontb-west of Taunton, 
at the foot of the Blackdowns, which are crowned 
by a monument commemorative of the battle of 
Waterloo. The town gives title to the Duke of 
Wellington. Blankets, serges, and other wocjien 
goods and earthenware are manufactured. Pop. 
(1861) 3689. 

WELLINGTON, a small market-town of EOirop- 
shire, 10 miles east of Shrewsbury, at the foot of 
the Wrekin, on the Shrewsbury and Shropebire 
CanaL The town forms the junction of several 
railwava. It is situated in a populous mining and 
agricultural district, with coal and iron mines, iron- 
works, limestone quarries, and wire-mills in the 
vicinity; while, in t^e town, there are emelting- 
fumaces, nail-worka, and malt-kiliu. A spacious 
public market, witJi town-house and assembly 
room, has recently been erected at a cost of about 
£20,000. The town baa been recently thoroughly 
drained. Pop. (1861) 6676. 

WELLINGTO'NIA, a r^us of trees, of the 
natuial order Coniftra, of which only one species is 
known, W. gigtmtea, tjie greatest of all pines, and 
indeed by far the laigest tree of temperate climatea. 
The geons is nearly allied to Sequma and Taxodium. 
The foliage is very similar to that oE an arbor vitm, 
the leaves being very small, like scales, and closely 
'' ' small slender branchleta. The leaves 

tppressed b 
>t young ^ 

but on the same tree. The cones of the W. gigaiUea 
are ovate, from 1^ to 2 inches long, by 1^ inch broad, 
opposite pain, randy closto^ the 

.1 J — j.1. ,1 — 1. I — aeeda under 

r stem, with 

Sinele, I 



bnuiebei only on the n^^m h*lf of it, the bnnchu 
of comparatively nnall Bue, and not farming an nm- 
brageona head. The stem atbuna a height of 300 
feet, and sometimes more, perfectJj Etnuglit and 
erect. One tree ia known, 321 feet in hdghti and 

it lies a lal^ one, which b;w fallen, and which 
broken agamst another large tree in its fall, iti 
— neter where it waa broken, 300 feet from ita 
baae, being 18 feet. Another tree u 102 feet in cir- 
omnference at the hose. Tha W. is foand only in a 
limited diitrict in California, on the Sierra Nevada, 
at on elcTation of 4O00 to SOOO feet above the sea. 

Cans and foliage of the WcUingbmia gigantta. 

It waa discovered iu 1850, by Mr Dowd, who, being 
eogagcd in deeT-hunting, came with astoniehmeat 
into the midst of a group of these trees, now known 
*• the Mammoth Trees of Calaveras. In this locality, 
within an area of 60 acres, are 123 large trees, 20 of 
which eiceed 25 feet in diameter at the base, and 
are therefore about 78 feet in dream ference. A tree 
which was felled waa 302 feet in height, and 96 feet 
in circumference at the ground. It was sound to the 
centre. Ita age may be guessed at something like 

3000 yean. It wai calculated to contain aboot 
000,000 cubic feet of timber. Five men were em- 
ployed for 22 days in felling it, by bonns gnat 
aoKCr-holes and sawing between them. When ii 
had been cat through, it remained Bteadfiit do 
ita base, and more than two days were spent in 
driving in great wedges, to causa it to fall A naivl 
wooden house has b^ erected on the stnn^ whet 
dancing-partiea sometiBiea enjoy themaelTes. ? 
several veaia, the Wellingtonias of CaUveru w 
snpposed to be the only trees of their kind in 

"■ , but groups have more recently been found 

parts of the same district, and scattrnd 
in a number of localities. The W. hu been 
Britain, the climate of which ii 
suitable to it ; Sue young trees are now to be 
in mai^ places, and plants are common in Don 
The W. has been called IToaAin^lonta by some 
rioan writers, but no reason, except nattooal feeling, 
has been alleged for the change of the name, ic- 
cording to the generally acknowledged mie in 
natunu hiitwy, the older name most be retained. 

WELLS, an ancient city and mnnictpal and pir> 
liamentaiy borough, in the county of 3onienrt, 
pleasantly situated at the foot of the Mcndin Billi. 
ISmiles south-west of Bath. It is a clean and cheerful 
town, with runlets of water flowing through eicb 
principal street The cathedral, a remarkably baa- 
tiful edifice, begun in 704, and enlarged in U38,ii 
for the most part in £arly English ; but its wot 
front, oue of the noblest facades in the kingdMB, 
and which is enriched with 300 statae^ is in Gothic. 
The bishop's palaco, originally founded in Itk , 
surrounded by a moat supplied from the abondint 

[irce of St Andrew's Well— from which the toTO 

said to derive its name— and by lof^ walla 
Thero are no manofactures, and the trade i* chiefly 
retail Fop. (1861) 4648. 

WELL-STAIBCASE, a winding stiurcsse viti 
an aperture left in the Centre, called the tccJt.b] 
which light and aic are admitted. 

the Emperor Otto I. for his servicea in tha -m 
against the Hungarians. Hia son, Octavus W., 
settled in Augsburg, and from him desceoiled tht 
patrician family, which always held imporlsnt 
posts in the coancil of that town. BAATnoLomn 
W., privy conncUlor of the Emperor Charles V., 
waa BO wealthy, that he conld vie with the , 
Fuggers (q. v.] in munificence. With the emperor'i 
permission, in 1526, he fitted out three ships in 
Spain, which, under the command of AmbroM 
Dalfinger of 01m, sailed for America, and toot 
loBSession of the provinne of Caracas, which the 
trnperorgoveW. in pledge. Twenty years after th* 
the Welsers gave up their possession voluntaiitv. 
and it reverted to Spain.— The most famous ol tie 
family WHS the niece of Butholomew W., PuiLirruiE 
W., a daughter of his brother, lYanz W., bora about 
1530. She had receivBd an excellent edncation 
from her clever mother, and was exceedingly besu' 
tifuL On the occasion of a Diet of the empire 
Au^bni^ in 16*7, she was seen by the Aitb- 
dnke Ferdinand, the seeped son of the subsequent 
emperor, Ferdinand L, who fell in love with her. 
""le young girl firmly rejected all the advances 
this fiery youth of 19, and refosed to have luj 
relation with him excepting by marriage. They 
were therefore married in 1650, without 3ic know- 
ledge of his father, or of his uncle, Charles V. Bl' 
father, on bearing the news, waa exceedingly angrv, 
and for a long time hia son did not veuture to 
appear before him. Even in other countries, thii 
' '" ' 'In the meanwtiile. 

<■ .nnolP 


mted ereiy odo that 

legitinukte, and raiatid their mother to be Markvt»- 
Tin Ton BorgBQ. Thin happy mamage Luted 30 
y«an. Fhilij^ne died at IjutsbttLck m JfiSO. In 
Aepalaca at BtAOnbmnn, the portrait of the loraly 
Ptuuppiiie IB rttll pointed oat. 

TUHB. ^nio Celtic langna({ea are divided into 
two groops, Gaelic and Cymric To the latter of 
theae the Welab be1o^gl^ and has even rirsn name, 
M fonmoK the moit important member of the 
groDpt iriueh compiises boides, Aimorican (spoken 
in Kvtamie) and Comiah (now eitinot). A eon- 
trorcray ha* been waged concerning ttia nature 
and doeences of the intimacy existing between the 
Qaelic and Crmrin tongaes, but the qneAtion may 
now be conaioered aettled by tha reseaichee of the 
Rev. Bichaid Gamett {OenUmnan's Magazine, Uay 

nwho found, on ezamming the monosyllabic 
in the introdnctoir part of Neilaon'a ItM 
Orammttr, that out of ^0, no fewer than J40 were 
identical in aenM and orif^ with corre^nndiDS 
Welih tenni, that 40 were cognate, an eqnd 
number borrowed from lAtin, Saxon, &c., and that 
only 90 wore pecnliar to the Gaelic Nerertheless, it 
ia not to be inppoeed that the afSnity ia oa close m 
that which exiita between BingKrfi and ao-called 
Scotch. It ia ntber (according to Hr Oamett) 
inch aa exixta between Icelandic and German. A 
WeUhman cannot undentuod a Highlander or an 
Irishman ; he cannot oven understand a Breton (aa 
ued to be believed), though the language of the 
latter ia undoubtedly Cymric Moat extraordinary 
hiUucinationa were formerly current in regard to 
the antiquity of the Cymric bmguea. Pezroo, Uie 
Breton mvesli^tor, gravely affimed that Welsh 
and Annorio (whidl he considered the lame) had 
been * the language of Ihe Titans, that is, the Ian- 
guage of Saturn, Jupiter, and the other princi|Kd 
goda of heathen antiquity.' The Rev. Joseph Harris, 
editor of tho Seren Gomer, remarked in 1814 that 'it 
is lUTTDosed by some, and no one can disprove it, 
that Welah was the langoage spoken by Adam and 
Ere in Paradise.' The /orf, on the other hand, is, 
that of the tico branches of Celtic, the Cymric is 
leM ancient than the Gaelic, and that among the 
Cymric tongues the Comiah is probably older than 
the Welsh. (See Koiris, Andejit CormsA Drama, 
Oifrad, 1856.) But preposterona as the views of 
most patriotic Welslunen are on this subject, it is 
UDdonbtedly true that the Welsh is one of the 
oidot living languages in Europe, and that it 
PMMnes a literature reaching back to remoter 
that of any modem tongno Kicept Irish. 
'■ — - of the ' 

'Hie most striking peculiarities o 

e langnage are 

— facility in forming derivativee and compounds. 
Of the former, two examplea may be given by way 
of illnittatioD. The Welsh word for 'father' is 
lad; for 'my,' /y. Bat you cannot say tor 'my 
Esther,' fii tad. After /y, every word begiiming 
irith I must change the ( to rA ; and therefore the 
correct phrase isj^ t^"'^ ^ ^ter ei, lad becomes 
either dad or Uorf, according aa el meana 'his ' 
or 'her.' The rules of permntatdon are almost 
endless, and, in the Ofunion of snch Welsh scholars 
as ore not Welsluneu, uselen, nothing being 
^ined in point of enphony or expreniveneas. 
The Welsh afBtm that their language is ex- 

ceedingly hannoniotu, and it would serve no good 
purpose to dispate the assertion; but foreiriien) 
Ignorant of the tongue, and associating no definite 
ideas with the words that issue from a Welsb- 
man's lips, geueially £ail to realise the fact, and 

_ li ._ .1.: L ii. L _jjj jj^ others 

language, or 
and tha phrase- 

rather the stzncture of 

ology, exhibits a oertaii] 

ditoquence, charaoteristic, indeed, of 

nations. One thing specially deservea nonce, xne 

Welsh people are profonndlv attached to, and 

familiar with it. It ia not dying out, like Irish 

or Sootch Ga^ic It has a genuine litenry, as well 

as oral existence '' " '' ' 

it has undersoni 

iw, and though the changes 
I the days of Talienn an 

modem unlet 
of tha early poeb; of his eonntiy— yet it la essen- 
tially the same tongue ss Cnsar and Asrioola heud, 
and IS consequently to be r«arded wiui veneration 
as the soUtsjy living link that unites titOM distant 
agea witb our own. 

There are extant, says Owen Fo^ic^ some thirtf 
old treatises on Welsh grammar and prosody. Tm 
most important of these is one composed by Geraint 
(880 A.l>.), revised by Einion (1200 A.i>.), and 
regularly privileged hythe sovereigns who then 
exercised authonty in Wales. It iraa first printed 
hY the Welsh M^ Society in 1 866, nnder the editor- 
ship of the Bev. J. Williams ab ItheL Among 
English gnmmaiB of the Welsh language, the beat 
is said to be that bj the Rev. Ihomas Bowlasd (3d 
ed ISSt); among dtctionaries, that of Owen Pnglke, 
entitled Oetriddur Oymraeg a Saaaneg, a WtlA and 
EnqIiihDitaionaryt2yo'lB.n93; 3ded. 18ei,f<ieg.). 
It ts, however, oidy a Welsh-Engliah dictionary; 
the most satisfactory English- Wdsh dictionary is 
that publii^ted by Baniel Silvan Evans (2 vols., 
Denbigh, 18C2— 18SS). 

The liteiBtnre of Wales has been arranged into 
four periods: thejtnt extending from the earliest 
times to the Norman Conquest (1066 a.i>.) ; the 
tteond, from the Norman Conquest to tho Tlnglish 
Reformation {exrta 1636 A.11.); the third, itoax the 
Engliah Reformation to the beginning of tike teisn of 
Ge^IU. (1760 a.i>.); and the /mrtA, from 1760 
to the pre se nt day. To what date the oldest sped- 
mene (rf Welah literature ought to be assigned, ha* 
been the subject of shani di^te. These specimetw 
are in verse, and are rhymeiL The chief^of their 
alleged authors, with thedr snppceed periods, are 
Aueurin (310—660 iJ).), Taliesin (620—070 A.11.). 
Llywarch Hm, or 'the Old' (&50— 640 A.D.), and 
Myiddin or Merlin (630-600 aj>.). Acooidm^to 
Finkerton (see his preface to Barhfiur) and Lamg 
(Ditterfatian on Owian), they are not anthentia; 
but the vindicaticn of their authenticity, first by 
Sharon Turner in 1803, and afterwards, and more 
critically, by Mr Stephens of Mwthyr-Tydvil, in his 
Lit^raittre o/t/ie Xymrg (1S40), and Mr Nash, in hi* 
Tidietin, or fAe Bardt and Dnddt of SrHain (1808), 
is considered conclusive. The last two of these 
writers, however, may almost he i«id to meet thedi 
opponents half-way. Of the seventy-seven poems 
ascribed to Taliesin in the JfycvHoa AnAaiMogy 1^ 
ffafe* (a collection of all tho ---'-' -•--' >-- 

ward William* (better known as 'Edward of 
Glamorgan '), and Dr Owen Pughe — Mr 8te{diens 
conridera fifty-seven *- "— ' ' — "•' '• — 

inging to the ^e of laueam. Mr Tiasn enaDles 

oform an independent judgment on the point, 

for he baoalatea some Wej of these poems, and ws 



find that, iiutead of their exhibiting an mntiqae 
'Welah chuactv, tiiey abound in alliuioDi to 
inedievil theoli^^, and freijuently employ medieral 
lAtin tennB. U is certainly unfortonate for tlie 
notation of the ' Chief of the Bards,' that the 
■p«cimena of hia which are conaiderad to be gennine 
potMa* eiceedinglj amall poetio merit The life of 
thia fiimoiia but apparently orer-ratod genina ij, of 
eoDTM, enveloped in legend. He ia said &> have been 
the wn of a certain St Henwg. and to have been 
educated at the College of St Cadog. Ei^ life waa 
■pent ancceuively at the courts of Urien Rheged, 
OlTTddlVO, Prince of Cardigan, and KiDg Arthor, and 
hit wpulobre ia shewn near AberyBtwiui. It ia itill 
calledJwM TWi^rin (Taliesin'a Grave). Ofthepoema 
whow anthorvbip is ascribed to Anemin, a prince 
1^ the Coubriaa Britons, the most notable ia that 
«ntitled Oododin, in vbich he pathetically lament* 
a defeat of his conntrymen by the Sazona. It is 
reckoned anthentic. (Several *i"gl">' traoalationa of 
the OaUidm have been published, and a translation 
of the whole works of Anenrin was pnUished by Mr 
Probert in l[820.) Llywarch Hen, also a Cumbrian 
warrior, is regarded as the finest and moat poetical 
of all the semi-hiElorical Welsh bards. Tradition 
reports that he lived to the age of ISO. The harden 
of his verse is the miseries of old age, on which he 
descants with melancholy eloquence. (Sea The 
Heroic BUgiet and other Pieeea of Llyaarch Hen, 
Prina: qfUie Cumbrian Britons, with a literal trans- 
lation bv Wilham Owen, 1792.) The pieces ascribed 
to Merddyn, in the Jtrymrian Arehiuol'igy, are in 
all probability spurious. Beaidea the names already 
mentioned, other poets of the Gist period are 
Gwyddno, Owilym ab Don, Oolyddao, Ac. 

llhe earliest specimen of Welsh prose now extant 
is the collection of the laws of King Hywel Dda, or 
Howel the Good (died 748 i,ii.)— a work of great 
value in iliustratins the manners and mora^ of 
eariy Welsh times, oat it ia very uncertain when 
or by whom the oollection was made. The oldeat 
ertant MS. belongs to the 12th centaiy. The latest 
and most critical edition (Welsh and ^glish) is that 
published in 1841 by the Becord Commission, nod 
edited by Aneurin Owen, son of Dr Owen Fnghe. 
Another work, entitled Tlie Ifisiit™ of Cadog Ute 
Wite (a collection of proverbs pretending to be by a 
8t Cadog, who flonriafaed in tbo Sth c, and was a 
friend of Tttheain), is of Biich doubtful authenticity 
that its claim can only be noticed in our sketch. 

Second Period, 1066— 1536.— A few years after 
the date of the Norman Conquest, a new spirit was 
imported into Welsh poetry by the inmience of 
Gruffydd ab Cynan, Prince of North Walea, and 
Bhys ab Tewdwr, Prince of South Walea, particu- 
larly of the former. OruQydd had been bom during 
his father's exile in Ireland, and waa brought up in 
that country, where he appears to have acqmred 
a familiarity with both the native Celtic literature 
and that of the Dano-Norse invaders. In the year 
1100, he held a f;reat Eisteddvod at Coerwys in 
Nortii Wales, which wsa numeraaaly attended by 
Irish bards and musiciana. For the next three 
hundred years, Wales is rich in native bards, a fact 
that contuusively refutes the trngio sta^ of Edward 
L having caused them all to be slain, lest their 
patriotic songs should stir the Welsh to renew the 
■tmggle for independence. Nearly sixty names 
occur in the Mffvyrian ArtAaiology between 1120 — 
13S0. ThefirstisthatofMeilyr (1120— 1160), whose 
best piece is eotitled Tlie beaUibtd of the Bard. 
Heilyr's son, Owalchmai ab Meilyr (1150—1190), 
who is said to have accompanied Itichard Ceaur de 
Lion to Palestine, ia a superior poet to his father. 
Fourteen of his productions are extant. Gwaloh- 
mai's son, Eiciou (IITO— 1220), alao figures as a 

poet Party pieoei are axribed to Cyndddw (1U» 
— 1206), a contemporary of Owalehmai, of irtuch 
probably the moat Interesting is TU DmIlAed of 
Cynddebc He has alao soma Tents addnacd 
to Prince Madoz or Madoc of Powys, whom a- 
thosiastio Welshmen conceive to have discorend 
America before Columbus Other bards U tbii 
seoond period are Uywarch ab Llewellyn (IIGO 
—1220); Hywel (11*>— 1170), a brother ot Prince 
Madoc, and writer chiefly of erotic odes ; Owsin 
Cyveilioc (1150— 1197), also of inincely rank, wioM 
Hiriai, or the Long Biu* Ham, is a great favoDtita 
with more tiiaa Welshmen ; and above all, DarfU 
aiG>u>iten(anxil340— 1400), who has been coDpMid 
to Ovid, to Petrarch, and to BoTDS. Inhisvmo, 
Welsh poetey undergoes a cluuige— the bardio or 
Scaldio spirit disappears, and a more honuDe, S 
leu patriotic spirit takes its place. Danntd ongi 
of love and of social amusements ; he was likewiBS ■ 
fierce tatiriat, though at times very penitent ind 
pious: while, its complete his resemblaoce to Uu 
Soottuh poet, and also to jnstif j the biblical auie 
he boie, he shewed an umautakablo predilectioa for 
illicit lov& Davydd's poems were firat published in 
Welsh, with a biography of the author by Owei 
Jones and Owen Pnghe (1789). An Englirii tiai* 
lation of some of them by Mr A. Johnes appealed is 
1834, Besides ijie poets alreuly mentioned, th« 
following names ore id high repute : lolo Goeh, tbe 
friend and bard of the famous Owen Olendower, who 
is said to have lived to the i^e of 120; Sion Cent 
('John of Kent'), a name given him from Kent- 
church, in Hereford, where he resided (ISSO—UIO), 
and who, having adopted the oinnions of the I'd- 
lards, ultimately attauied the reputation of awimd; 
and Lewia Glyn Cothi, who nouriahed duri^ tin 
Wats of the ifoses, and was bard to Jasper, Bid of 
Pembroke, son lA Owen Tudor and the widow ot 
Henry V. 

Prost— The oldest Welah dironicler of the KCond 
period is Caradoc, a monk of Llancarvan, who 
flourished in the first half of the 12th ocntiuy. 
Hia work narrates in Welah the history of his natin 
country from the death of Cadwallader, 689, to the 
times ci Caradoc himself. It is a dry, illiterate affiir, 
like the Anglo-Saxoa Chronicle. Contempon^ 
with Caradoc was the famous Geoffrey of Monmoum 
(q. v.). Bishop of St Asaph, who died in 1154. He, , 
however, thongh a Welshman, wrote in Latin, and I 
belongs, therefore, rather to the g^eral literature ot : 
Enghkcd than to Welsh literature. Hia Chrmude 
commences with the fall of Troy, and ends with the | 
death of Cadwallader, so that it forms an introduc- 
tion to that of his friend Caradoc In it the legend , 
of Arthur first assumes that romantic and chivalrom 
form in which modem readers are familiar with 
it. It is impossibio here to enter into a discussion 
of the queshon where the materials of the Arthuriaa 
romonoe were first accumulated ; suffice it to say, i 
thBtavidenceyreponderatesin favour of their Welsh I 
origin. To this uxond period must also be assigned | 
that charming collection, the Mahxnogios, i 
Children'a Tales, of which a M3. volume of n 

Hergeit, from the name of the place where it was 
discovered. A beautiful edition of this work in 
Welsh and English, with preface and notes, was 
published in 3 vole. (1838—1849) by Imdr Charlotte 
Guest The age of these tales, which rdate princi- 
pally to Arthur and the Bound Table, is doubttnL 
The tranacription in the Jied Boot ofHergta belong 
probably to the Ifith c; but the data of their 
compositlan may be safely held to be much carher, 
perlupa somewhere in the 13th century. 
The Triadi may also be here noticed. They art 

;„!,.„. l.XjOOglC 


coOediiHM of hiitorieal facta, ni»Tin« eUiiaal Mid 
kni, nytbcIogioJ doatrine* «id tradition^ and 
rale* for the atmeton of v«ne ; all ezprened with 

ertrsffle br«ntf , and Rgalarly diapoaed in Ei«Qp* 
of three. TImj vers a ten popular «peci«« <^ oom- 
tiie Welsh, ud ars of all «ea. 
ia tha poBnu of Llywarch Hen, bnt 
loe greater pan are fnnnd in tranaciipta and mis- 
eelluies of the 16th and I7th centuries. The 
hirtancal' triada am cspeciaUr pnxiling. They 

ponnoa am 
Sxunpka oi 

. ....Thomas 

JoDH of IVenKm, abont the close of the IGth cen- 
tal;. Hub Jones was originaUy, it seeins, an emi- 
nent robber— a Welih ' Rob Bovi' bat in his later 
jesit he refonned, mairied an heiress, and became 
> jnstioe-of- peace for the coonty of Brecon. The 
pecohantr of hia ' Collection ' is, that it ^res a 
tottlly dioorent account of the origin of the Britona 
from Oeo&ey of Monmoath, brinung them from a 
' Snnnwr Land ' (mppoaed to be Constantinople or 
the Crimea) over a aea called the ' Hazy Sea.' The 
qnertian arises, and has not been settled : Whether 
m Te to suppose Jones the fabricator of these 
' trisdn,' or his sccoant of the origin of the Britons 
tha genninB racoid of aa sucient tradition I la 
fnonr at the former hypotheais, onfortiuiately, is 
tba diciuiistaoce that there Is no trsca of such 
an ancient tradition in the anterior literature of 

Third Period (1636— 1760).— This and the re- 
maining period may be briefly sketched. Tho moat 
notable &ct in ila commencement is the compaia- 
tiTe ease with which tits Befoimatdon made )ti way 
among the CeHa of Wales. The Celts of tha High- 
Imds remained for a timc^ and those of Ireland 
remain to this day, obdniate adherents of the old 
fsith ; but those of Wales, on tha whole, swifUy 
accepted the new rdision. The art of printing had 
been in operation in fbgland for more than half a 
wituiy before it was applied to the Welsh lan- 
gnage. The firrt book printed in the Wehih or 
uj Celtio language was an almanac, with a 
tn relation of uie Lord's Prayer and the Ten 
Commandments (Ltmd. 1546). The author, William 
Salcsbwy, was a scludar and a zealons Protestant. 
In IMT, he publiahed the first dictionary of Eog- 
lidi anid Wdsh, and exeonted tha greater part of 
the first tranalation of the New ^^atament into 
his natire toi^ue {Lond. 1567). In 1588, appeared 
the carlieat translation of tha whole Bible into 
Welsh. The author was a Dr William Morgan, 
afterwards Bishop of St Asaph's. A revised edition 
of this, in 16S0, by Dr Parry, Morgan's successor 
in the bishopric of St Asaph's, is the translation 
itUl in tiM amon^ tho natiTes of the Principality. 
Oataapanay with Balesbury, but an adherent 
of the old bith, wo* Dr Griffith Roberts, who 
hved on the cootinent, and published at Milan a 
Welsh Omnmar in 1567. Aiiother contemporary 
was Dr John DaTid Rhys, whose principal woric, 
Cambnh'ylaaaiea Cymraecm lAnmta Inttitiitionea 
et JhulrBKsta, is a treatise on Welsh grammar. 
The suspicious Thomas Joues of Tregaron, poe- 
aible miuor, rather than collector of the ' histoncal ' 
bisds, was a friend of Rhys, and died aboat 
l^a In 1603, Captain Myddleton, one of the first 
three persons who smoked tobacco in England, 
pnbhshed a metrical veision of the Psalms in 
Welsh, partly executed while cruising about in 
the West Indies. The most celebratml poet* of 
the tiird period are the Rev. Rees Prichaid, vicar 
of LlaadorelT (1579—1644), whose CaaayU y 
Cfiay {Candu of tim Cambrians) is a m^ricsl 
Vernon of his protetdonsi homilies or sermons, the 
eloquence of wUdi had previously won for. him a 
gnat leptttation as a prucher; it ia still popolor, 

a variety of 

iaces, which hia ._ .. 

in humour, pathos, and even sub- 
edition in 2 vols, appeared at Wrexham 
{1623}, under the title of £04 Ceiriag (The Kight- 
mgalo of CeirioD) r and Goronwy Owen (1722 — arai 
1780), a gifted bard, but likewise an incurable 
druoksrd, whose priucipal poems are contained in 
the first volume of a book entitled DiddamoA 
Taduaidd (Domestic Amusement, Loud. 1763). Of 
the prose writers, tba only noteworthy are "FUlia 
Wynne (d. 1734), author of the Bardd Owag (Sleeping 
Bud, 1703), a series of visions of Hell and Hades, 
written with great beauty of style ; and the Rev. 
Moses Williams (1685— 1742), an anlaquariaa scholar 
of high merit, whose Seperlorium Foeiicum, or List 
<rf Wdah Poems and Catalogue of Welsh Books, is 
very valuable. 

PomA Period (1760— 1867).— Various causes 
co-oparated to give a new impetus to Welsh litera- 
ture after tha aocesaion of George IIL Among 
these, the most powerful were the establishment of 
periodical publications, the institution of ^triatlo 
societies, and the spread of Methodism. The first 
important production of this period is entitled 
Some Spedmrne of the Poetry of the Anaent Welsh 
Bard* trandated into Englith (Lond. 1764), by Mr 
Evans, curate of Llanvair Talyhaem, in Denbigh- 
shire. Tha next name deserving of mention is wat 
of Owen Jones (1741 — 1814), who, though engaged 
in mercantile occupations all hia life, managed, 
by his enthusiasm and liberality, to quicken and 
extead the publio interest in Welsh literature. 
In 1771, he founded the ChBjfneddigion (society 
of the 'Men of Gwynedd'), which gave prizes for 
the best perfonaance* on the Welsh harp, and 
the best Welsh poems. In 1301—1807, he caused 
to be published at his own e^eose, under the 
editorship of Owen Pughe and Edward Williams, 
three volumes of the Myvj/rian ArAaiology, so 
called in honour of himself, who had assumed the 
bardic name of Myryr, from his native vale in 
Denbigh, Owen Jones was, however, rather a 
Welsh Mecenaa than a Welsh lUltraUur. Tha 
next names of importance are those of the editors 
just mentioned, Owen Pogha and Edward Williams. 
The former (17S9— 1835), according to Southey, 
was a ' muddy-minded man ; ' nor is the fact that 
be was a follower of Joanna Southcott, and one of 
her twenty-four elders, adverse to this deacriptioa 
of his int^eot. Be this as it may, Owen Pu^ie is 
the great Welsh leiicogiapber; his DictionarT of 
Weldi (1703—1803) contains 100,000 words illus- 
trated by 12,000 quotutionB. He also translated 
Faradiae Loet into Welsh, in which work he threw 
off tha chains of Welsh alliteration, an innovation 
generally acknowledged to be an improvement. 
Edward Williams (174S— 1826), better known as lolo 
Morganwg, is probably the finest Welsh genius of 
the fonrm period. Southey knew him, and liked 
him greatly. His principal productions are SaXmau 
yr Sgivyt y» vr AniaimA (Psalms of the Church in 
the Desert) ; but an OiU on the Mythology of the 
Ancient British Bards in the Manner of T<Uieein 
(1792), accompanied by notes and spedmens of 
' Triads,' containing the metaphysioal and religious 
docttiaes of the <dd Druidioal bards, provoked' a 
loDE-protracted controversy. Morganwg sud that 
he nad copied them from a MS. collactien of a 
Welsh poet, anno 1560, which was in hia poases- 

tioii, and affirmed that the collection was oC 

great antiquity, fie was often asked to prodn 

but always declined; and Welti) critics of the 


;J.,,LlOOg lC 


of tha llyByrim Archaiologif liad oach one ton, uid 
all of these have become eminent io oonnection 
with tha literatore of their native coonti?. Taliesin 
Tnilium (1787— 1M7), son of Edward Williams, 
wrote poeby both in Welsh and English ; Anenrin 
Owen (17^ — 1851), son of Owen Pughe, among other 
woriEs, published an important coUei^on of the 
£au« of Waiei; -while Owen Jones, son of Owen 
Jonet, tile Weleh Mfeoenas, is ttil! alive, and has a 
high TeptttatioB as an arclutect, the Alhambra at 
Sydenham being a favom^bte specimea of his pro- 
fessionai ttlents. The fourth period of Welsh 
literature is natarally richer in critical than in crea- 
tive works. AmoDg Welsh antiquaries may be 
mentioned the Rev. Edward Davies (1764t— 1S31), 
author of CeWe Bufardia (1804) and JfytAolo^j of 
ttsl>™£ii»(1809): the Rev. Thomas Price (1787— 
IS4S), aathoT of the JTanaGymni a GhenailyOymTy 
(1836—1842), a History of Wales and of the Welsh 
nation from the earliest times to the death of 
Llewellyn; an admirable work, comprehensive, 
critical, and literary (Price was an ardent and 
TolnminouB writer, contributing to no fewer than 
15 periodicals at the same time] : and tha Bev. 
John Williams ab Ithel, rector of Llanyntowddwy 
in Merioneth, and editor of the Camfrrton Jrwrnid. 
In 1866, be edited, for the Welsh MS. Sooietf , tlie 
Orammar iff Sdej/m, the Qelden-tongaed, said to 
be composed about 1270; in 1860, the Brut y 
Tyviyrogvm, or Chronicle of the Princes; and in 
1861 (e( seg.). The TraditioBary Amvdt qf the 
Cymry., reprinted from tha Camtirian JouimaL 
Willianu u a nUier credolons and nncritical 
writer, but a scholar of nndoubted merit. Probably 
the ablest Welsh acholar aUve is t/lt Thomas 
Stephens of Merthyr-Tydvil, a man at once patriotic 
BDd honest, enthusiastic and critical. To him, 
above all others, EnElishmen desirous of obtaining 
some dear and credible knowledge of Welsh litera- 
ture, onght to apply. His principal \rorks are 
8ludit» on Britieh Biograpky, and lAitrature of tht 
Cymrg jn Iht Twelfth andfoUomng Ctnlana. The 
eoUghtened views of Stephens have met with great 
Moeptanee among such English scholars as nave 
paid attention to the subject of Welsh history and 

The poetry of tha fourth period is not remarkable. 
The pnnci^ namea are — J>avid Richards of Del. 
gdij; (1751 — 1827), author of a sort of epio on the 
Trinity — a very unsuitable subject for an epic — 
and a paraphrase of the history of Joseph : Savid 
Thonuu of Caernarvon (1769 — 1822), who was very 
•nccessful at the Eisteddvod* : David Owen rf 
Oivion (1784 — 1841), whose poems were ooUeoted 
and published under the title of Blodau Ar/on 
(Flowers of Arvon) : the Eev. Daniel Evans, a col. 
leetioQ of whose pieces was published at Llandovery 
in 1831, under the title of Otmnllan y Bardd (The 
Poef s Vineyard) : the Hev. Walter Daviea (1761— 
1849), also great at fUsteddvods : the Rev. James 
Hughes (1779— 1S«) : the Rev. William Rees of 
Liverpool, author of a spirited paraphrase of the 
Book of Job, Ac: and the Rev. Wilham WiUiams 
of Caernarvon, author o£ OraumAtcen (The Treasure 
of Uie Muse), ftc 

A good deal of indifferent Welsh prose has been 
written during this period on religions subjects, 
owinr to the spread of Methodism among the 
Wel£, but it may profitably be overlooked by a 
foreigner ; and with a glance at the history of 
Welsh p^iodicsla and societies, we close our brief 
Borvev of t^e subject The Gist Welah periodical, 
edited bv the Rev. F. WiUiams and Evan Thomas, 
appeared about 1770, and was entitled Tr Emyrawn 
OynuroM (The Welsh Treasure), but Oie first that 
attained any measure of socoess was the Strtn 

Oomer (Star of GotDer), which wa* paldiahed at 
Swansea (1814). At present, it exists H a Wdsh 
'qoarterly' of evangelical views. In IS31, T 
DrpioTfa (The Treasury) was commenoed, vsda 
Calvinistio auspices ; in 1S3S, T Ditargiwr (The 
Reformer), and T Dyagedfdd (The TeMbsr) ; 1833 
—1841, r GvOadganm- (The Patriot), man • 
literaty tluui a tlieolagical maganne, and tdecaUy 
dever; Yr Raul (The 8nn), » jonmal adTooatiiw 
the interartB of the ErtaUiiW Cbnrch; and t 
Traetiiodjtdd (The Essayist), ooaunenoed at Den- 
bigh (1S4A), distinctly the beat Uttnry mgan in 
'^lea. It discusses, in the Welsh trngoe, tiie 
poetry and philosophy of modsni Borcne. In 1869, 
a new quarterly was started at Bavan, entitled 
Taiieim, as a companion and rival to The BttOjpd. 
The leading Welsh newspap^ ■■ the AlMtfan 


the CanJirian BegUler (3 vols., 1796, 1799, 
1818); the Cambro-Briton and Geitend Celtic 
Btpontory (3 vols., 1819—1822); the Oaj»bria» 
Qaarterlt/ ilagaane (5 vols., 1S29— 1833) ; and the 
Oaitibrian Jottmal, begun in 18G4, and stUl voiDg on. 
Another valuable periodical is the AraiaiAigiii 
Cambrentu, or ' Journal of the Cambrian AndiffO- 
logicsl Association,' begun in 1846, and pnbUrfied 
The leading Welsh societies, literary and anti- 

Snarian, that have existed, or still exist, are the 
'ynunrodorion, established in London in 1751, 
which lived for 80 years ; the Qwrneddigion, 
■Ibo established in London in 1771| bat extinct 
some 20 years ago; a second CynmirodorioD 
(1320— 1S43) : The Society for tiie PnUicaticai of 
Andent Welsh MSS. (founded at AbergaTcnny, 
1837) ; and the Cambrian Institute, foundedin 1853. 

The best work on Welsh literatore, as already 
mentioned, ia that of Mr Thomas Stephen* M 
Merthyr-Tydvil, to which tha reader is referrod ; 
aa also to tha various Welsh quartcriie«, where 
almost every question in Welsh literature is 
copiomly discussed. A very excellent and com- 
plete survey of the subject is also to be found 
in Knight's Snglith Cgdopadia, article ' Welsh 
Language and Literature.' 

WELSH ONION, or CIBOL lAmumJutulomim ; 
see Aluou), a perennial plant, a native of Siberia. 
It bus fiatular leaves and no bolh. Ita leaves appear 
very early in spring, and are then used in sonps and 
salads. Its flavour more reaembles that of garlic 
than of the onioo. It has been long cnttivated in 
kitchen -gardens in Britain, and perhaps deserves 
more attention than it receives, because it is ready 
for use before auy similar plant in spring. The aeed 
is sown in Bpring or summer ; leaves fit for use an 
produced in the following spring, and the bed con- 
tinues to be productive for a number of yean. The 
name Welsh Onion is from the German WilaA, and 
merely indicates a foreign origin. 

WTJ'LSHPOOL (often volgarly oaUed Pool), 
a mnnidpsl and parliamentary borongh of North 
Wales, in tha county of Mon^onery (ot which 
it is considered the capital), 18^ milea weat- 
sonth-weat of Shrewsbury. Powis Castle is an 
ancient edifice. "" ' ■ ■ 
12th c 

mills, tanneries, and malt-houses 
Pop. of parliamentary borough, (1861) S004 ; (1867) 
6000. W. is connected by a branch with the 
ShiewBbvry and Hereford and cAlha railw^s. 


WEKDS from the sama n>ot as to tetnd, to tuandrr, 
and ngnifyiug the wuiderinff or roving border 
tribea), the nime girm by tbe Qemuins to a branch 
of the SIatu (q. v.) which, u euly u the 6th c, 
occuined the Dorth uid e»t of Gu^nuiy from the 
Hbe slongthecoaat of tfas Baltic to the Vistula, and 
u for ionUt aa Bohemia. Thej vere diyidcd into 
aerend tribes, whioh irere (moceasively aabdaed by 
the Gemuna, and either eititpated or gTBdoally 
Gennaniaed and aboorbed, altnoagh renuxante of 
them aie atill he^ and there to be found. — In a 
namnrer aenae, the name of Wenda is giren to those 
Rnmanta of the SIbtio population of Lnaatia who 
rtill i^ieak the Wendio tongne, and preoerre their 
peculiar msQjnen and cnitoma. They nmnber about 
150,000. A collection of Wendic aonga Tras pnb- 
li^ied by H»npt and Smaler (2 rola., Urimma, 1S43 
— 1M4). The Wenda, like the other mbject Slavic 
tribea, were, in eariy timet, cruelly oppressed by 
their Oerman masten ; in recent timet, theic lot hoe 
been miHre tolerable. 

WE^ER, Like, the largeat lake in the ScAndi- 
UTiao peniinulo, and aft^ the lakes Lado^ and 
Onega in Ruaaia, the Lirgeat in Europe, ia aitu- 
atedlSO miles wcst-aoath-weet of Stockholm, and 
about 30 miles inl&nd from the Cattegat. It ia over 
90 miles in lenfth, and varies from IS to 48 miles 
in breadth, ia 3(S feet in greatest depth, and lies 150 
feet above aeo-leveL Area, 2005 sq. miles. From 
the north shore a peninaula extends southwDfd into 
the middle of the uke ; and from the southern shore 
a peninmila eitends northward to wiUiin about 
fifteen miles of the poiat of the northern penin- 
sula ; the portion of tbe Jake lying to the west of 
these peninsulas receives the name of Dalbo Lake 
Of the nmneions rivers that feed the lake, the chief 
is the Klar, from the north, and its surplus waters are 
diidukrged into the Cattegat by the liver Gijta. It 
is connected by a canal with Lake Wetter, by means 
of wMcb, the Giita Canal, Lake Roxen, Ac, inlaod 
conununicatioa ia established between Uia Cattegat 
ud the BalUc Sea. The lake U rich in fish ; it U 
often visited by sudden gusts of wind, and is in 
many places too shallow for navigation. 

WiSTILOCK, a parliamentary and mimidpal 
borangh in the county of Sidop, 12 miles sonth- 
east S Shrewsbory. Fop. ol parliamentary bor- 
ongh (186i), 21,G90. The prinoipal buildings in 
Mach Wenlock are the church, a building of con- 
■iderable antiquity, bearing traces of Saxon and 
KormaD architecture ; and the town-ball, a vener- 
able and interesting structure, decorated intemally 
with elaborate oak carvings of the time of Charles 
n. iiiere ore also a saviDgs-bank, and a ^blic 
library and readinK-room. The extensive ruins of 
Wenlock Abbey aoord a rich treat to antiquaries. 
The abbey was founded in the year 6S0, aud was 
the parent church of Paisley Abbey, Scotland. The 
remains are now carefully preserved from further 
diUpidaUon by the present owner, J. Milne s 
Qaskdl, Esq., M.P. for the borough, who has con- 
ttrirA a portion into an occasional residence for 
himself. W. ia on ancient municipality, with sepa- 
rate quarter sessions, and is the first borough that 
E' td the right by charter of representation in 
ment. The town of Wenlock proper, or Much 
>ck, is but small; but the parUamentary 
borouf^ comprises 12 parishes spreading over a 
Urge area, and includes ths market-towns of 
M^eley, Broseley, and Ironbridge, and the popn- 
loua district of Coalbrookdale, where important 
iron and brick and tile works are carried on. T' 
are also extensive timestoae quarries in the w..^- 
boorfaood. There is a railway connecting W. with 
the Severn Valley Railway at Buildwoa, and 

another connected with the Shrewsbury and 
Hereford line. 

WENLOCK GROUP, an important series of 
rocks of Upper Silurian age, 'miich are largely 
developed in the neighbourhood of Wenlock. The 
group la divided into on Upper and Lower series. The 
Upper, known as the Wenlock Ijmeetone, consists 
of^a conuderable thickness, sometimes reaching 300 
feet, of a gray subcrystalline limestone, so card 
that it has withstood the weatheriag which has 
removed the softer shales above and Delow it. It 
forms a ridge parallel to that of the Aymeatry lime- 
stone, mnmng for 20 miles north-east to aouth-west 
through the south-eastern portion of Shropsbire. 
Sometimes it contains hugs concretionary masses of 
crystalline carbonate of lune, locally named ' ball- 
stones ; ' in other places, it becomes thin and flagey. 
It abounds in fossils, especially in corals, crinSdi, 
moHosca, and trilobite* The Lower Wenlock series 
consists of 1400 feet of Wenlook shale, and ISO feet 
of Woolhope limestone and grit. Tho Wenlock 
shale is generally a dark ^ray, almost block argil- 
laceous rock, often contumng elliptical coocretiona 
of impure earthy limestone. It is worked in some 

Cces for flagstones and slates. The Woolhopo 
estone and grit cooaists of gray argillaceous 
nodular limestones resting on fine shales. In Den- 
bighshire, it appears as a coaise grit, often of great 
thickness, and producing a very barren solL The 
fossils oE the Lower Wenlock beds are of a similar 
character to those of the Upper slries. 

WENS are encysted tumours, much mora com- 
mon on the Bcalp than in any other situatiOD, 
tliough occasionally observed on the face, shoul- 
ders, *o., aud consisting of obatnioted Sebaceous 
glands, which enlarge by the internal pressure of 
their accumulated secretions. The closed orifice 
may be often noticed in the form of a small dark 
point, and in that case the duct may sometimes be 
gradnally enlarged by the gentle introduction of 
a probe or director, and its contents pressed out. 
By tliis treatment, they may, at ail events, be kept 
from bein^ imsightly, and will sometimes shrivel 
up and disappear. If this treatment fail, and tlie 
patient finda the tumour so annoying Uiat he insists 
upon its removal, it must be exterminated with 
caustio or the knife. In consequence of the well- 
known dangers {especially eryeipelas) that fre- 
quently follow cutting opemtioQS of the scalp, the 
caustic treatment is generally preferable. The moat 
prominent part of uie wen must be thoroughly 
cauterised with nitric acid or potash, which will lead 
to the formation and separation of a slough, which 
will lay open the tumour, which may then be left 
to empty itoeU and wither, or may be emptied by 
pressure, and cauterised within. As a general mle, 
wens are better left alone, unless they can be 
emptied by simple pressure, as severe operations on 
them are &equently attended with danger. 

WE'NTLETRAP (Scalaria), a genua of gaster- 
opodous molluscs, of the family THirriteUida. The 
shell is spiral, with many whorls, the whoiis deeply 
divided, and not always close together, crossed by 
remarkably elevnted nbs, the aperture round and 
rather smalL The animal is furnished vrith a pro- 
boscis, and has the eyes placed on an external con- 
vexity, the foot short and ovaL About one him- 
dr»i species of this aenus are known. Those which 
have the whorls close together are called False 
Wentletraps by shell-coUecton, those in which they 
ore not contiguous are known as True Wentletraps. 
Of the former, some are found in northern seas, as 
Scalaria comraunts on the coast* of Britain and of 
continental Europe, and S. OrrmlaiidKa on those of 
North America. S. OrcmlaTidiea ia particuhuly 



»bun<]ant On the bsnlu o{ Newfoundland, and ionoH 
part of the food of the cod. The true Wentletnpa 
are all natives of the senB of warm climatei. Som? 
of them are very beautiful A species found in the 
■outh-eaat of Asia, and known u the Prbcious W. 
{3. prelioia), vaa once in such esteem amongst 
■hell-coUectorB, that an extremely fine apeoimen ii 

WenUetrap iSealarla pretiota). 

■aid to have been sold for !D0 guineas ; and an 
onUnarj price naa from three to five pounds. This 
shall may nov be purchased for a few shilliogs. It 
il from an inch and a half to two incbea long, idow- 
vbtte, OF pale flesh* coloured, with eight separated — 
but not widely separated — whorU. 

WE'RDAU, a town of Saxony, on the river 
Pleisse, 40 miles directly south of Leipzig, and 49 
by railway. Pop. MSA, mostly engaged m manu- 
facturing cloth and in yam-spinning. 

WE'BDEN, a town of Rhenish Prtusia, on the 
ftohr, 17 miles north-east oE DUaseldorf. Pop. 
(1661) G7TS, employed in the manufacture of cloth, 
linen, and "illt , and alum, and coal-mining. 

WETREGILD (Ang.-Sai. vxr. man ; and geld, 
satisfaction), a compceition by which, according; to 
the custom of the Anglo-Saxons, Franlu, and other 
Teutonic people, homicide and otber heinous crimes 
against the person were expiated. There was an 
established progressive rate of weregild for homi- 
cide, vaiyins at different times and among diffei^ 
ent Teutonic tribes, from the wer^ld of the 
ceorl, or poasant, to that of the kin^ In the 
time of Tacitus, the weregild for homicide among 
the Oenoaaa was due to the relatives of the 
deceased ; that for other crimes one-half to the 

le-half t 

the I 


sum paid to the relatives in case of homicide, also 
known as the num-wyrth, secma to havn been looked 
on as the eqniraleDt of the dead man's value. As 
the power of the community or king increased, the 
exaction of retribntion for the death of its members 
was considered to be the duty of the state as well 
as of the relatives, and the princJiile of division was 
applied to homicide as well as minor crimes ; each 

payment being a separate full equivalent for the 

value of the deceased, the one to app '■'-- '-' 

the other to make atonement to thi 

J lease the feud, 
e state. ThU 
double weregild is recognised in the oompeDsation 
for the death of a king by the laws of the Mercians 
and Northumbnans. In the days of Edward the 
Elder the weregild had become a much more com- 
plicated penalty, the compodtioa for homicide 
consistii^ of four different payments, two of which, 
the _fylit-tBiU, or penalty foe a breach of the peace, 
and the virr^ild, went to the king as head of the 
■tate ; while a sum called the hati^a»g was paid to the 
kindred to looaen the hand of the avenger of blood. 

and the numboto wo* given to the overlord to com- 
pensate bim for the IcL of a vasaaL The graduated 
scales of weregild in use among the different Teutonic 

nations throw much light on ^ gradations of society 
at the period. It does not appear that among the 
mitions who recognised the principle of weregild, the 
relatives were bound to accept a compensation for 
their kinsman's slaaghter, in place of appeaaiog the 
death-feud by blood ; the latter practice was often 
resorted to instead. It was only throngh I 
tions of Archbishop Theodore that Egf 
Christian king of the Angles of Northumbria, 
adoiited the alternative of accepting a weregild for 
his brother slain in battle by th!e Mercians, in place 
of demanding the blood of^ the slayer. A simiLir 

E*Dciple to uiat of wer^^d far homicide seems to 
re been recognised by the Celtic nations, and 
there are traces of it in the Mosaic code. 

WB'RE-WOLP (AngL-Sai. loer, a man., 
wolf, a man who, either periodically or for a iime, is 
transformed, or traosfonns himself into a wolf, be- 
coming possessed of all the powers and appetites of 
a wolf in addition to bis own, and beinE especdally 
remarkable for his appetite for human ^ean. The 
belief in the transformation of men into wolves or 
other benats of prey has been very widely diffused ; 
there is perhaps no people among whom some evi- 
dence of its former prevalence does not exist. It 
ia not yet extinct, even in Europe. In many of the 
rural districts of France, the lovp-garou (the latter 
port of the word is a corruption of the Teutonic 
iBvr-iBoffl, is still on object of dread. This super 
stition lingers too among ihe country-people o 
Northern Europe, and a particular form of i 
flourishes vigorously among the Bulgarians, Slavo- 
nians, and Serbs, and even among the more intelli- 
Si^t inhabitants of Greece. See VAMFtm. Its 
etails vary in different countries and distiictH, 

wolves or other wild animals; and manifestations 
fitted to suggest it may be occasionally observed in 
the mad-houses of most countries. See Ltcah- 
THROFiA. The animal whose shape is taken, as 
already stated, is not always, thoDgh usually, a 
wolf ; it was probably always the animal moat for- 
midable, or considered most inimical to man. Id 
Abyssinia, it is the hyena. 

Occaaioiial notices of lyoanthropy, as it is called, 
are found in classical writers ; and lycanthropy, >~ 
there described, was Uie change of a man or womoi 
into a wolf, so BS to enable the man or woman t 
gratify an appetite for hnman flesh, either by 
magical means, or through the judgment of the (jodi, 
as a punishment for some dire offence. Sometimes 
the transformation was into the shape of a dog or ■ 
bulL Ovid, in his Metamorphotea, teils the Btorj[ of 
Lycaoo, king of Arcadia, who, when eatertainiD^ 
Jupiter at a banquet, resolved to test his amni- 
sdence by servinjg up to him a hash of human flesh. 
The god, to pauish him for this, transformed him 
into a wolf. Herodotus describes the Neuri as 
sorcerers who had the power of taking once a year, 
for several days, the sh^pe of wolves ; and tile same 
account of uiem is given by Pomponius Meta. 
Pliny relates that, in Arcadia, every year, at the 
festival of Jupiter Lycteus, one of the family of 
AntiEus was chosen by lo^ and oonducted to the 
brink of the Arcadian Lake, into which, after having 
hung his garments upon a tree, he plunged, and was 
transformed into a wolf. Nine years after, if alive, 
he returned to his friends, looking nine yean 
older than when ' '' ' " '' ' 

lycanthropy an> 



allouoD to H is also made by Virgil m the 8tb 
Edo^t. Marcellna Sidet«a tells hb of men -who, 
every winter, were seized with the notioQ that 
they were dogs or wolve*, and lived precisely like 
theio animala, spending the night id tone ceme- 
teriee. This disorder sttacked men chiefly in the 
beffianing of the year, snd was nBoidly &t iti 
height in Febiuuy. It is wortb while observing 
that the classical instances of lycontbropy mostly 
refer to Arcadia, a pastoral country, whose iahabi- 
tants anffered greatly from tbe rava«eB of wolves. 

In Norway and Iceland, it useiT to be believed 
that t^ere were men who were * not of one i 
Siicb men could take npon themselves otber shapes 
than that of man, and the natures correspoadiag 
to the shapes which tbey assumed ; they had the 
■trenj^ and other powers of tbe animal whose shape 
thejToore, as well as their own. It was believed that 
the change of shape might be effected in one of three 
n'ays : sunply by putting on a skin of the animal ; 
by the wnl of the man deserting the human body — 
leaving it for a timo in a cataleptic state— and 
enteiing into a body borrowed or created for the 
porpose ; or, without any actoal change of form, by 
means of a i^arm, which made all beholders see the 
niitn under the shape of the animid whoso part he 
was sustainiog. The two former were the common 
modes of transformation ; at any rate, the Sa^ are 
fall of illostrations of them ; while illustrations of 
the thiid mode we comparatively rare. Nothing of 
the mat) ramained nnchanged except his eyes ; by 
these only could he be rect^nised. Odin had, and 
freely exercised, the power of varying his shape. 
When men changed their shape to prey upon their 
kind, they always took the form of a wolf. It was 
behered that many hod tbe power of thus trans- 
forming themselves ; and great was the popular 
dread of were-ivolves. Ferbaps the beat atones of 
were-wolvet which are to be found are contained in 
the Northern Sagaa. Scarcely anywhere did the 
belief in them go so deep into tbe minds of the 
peoplB as among the northern races. Jn connection 
with it, notice may be taken of what is called the 
'Benerkr rage,' which appears to bave been a 
pecnli>r form of mania, The Bereerkr yelped like 
dogs, or wolves rushing into conflict, bit tiieir shields 
with their teeth, and oommitted terrible atrocities 
while the paroxysms of their disease were upon them. 
Berserkr has been rendered 'bare^kinned ;' othen 
nuke it mean 'wolf-skin-coated' (why not 'beor- 

OlauB Magnus states that in Prussia, Lithuania, 
and Livonia, though wolves were very numerous and 
tmubkaome, tlie ravage* of the were-wolves were 
t^iirded as much more serious. Every year at the 
feast of the Nativity at night, the were-wolves 

I oaaeinuieu in great numbers at appointed ^acea, and 
proceeded to look out for human bein^ or tame 
aaimi^ upon which they could clut ttieir appetites. 
U th^ found an isolated house, Uiey entered it, and 
dnvoujed every human being and tame animal it 
contained ; after which — shewing that they were 
not common wolves — they drank up all the beer or 
mead. Similar testimony with regard to Livonia is 
given by Bi^op Majolus, who adds, that the tnuis- 
tamation into the wolf-form continued for twelve 

Instances of persons being ctwuged into wolves by 
way of punishment, were freely believed in the 
mi<idle ^les ; for example, St Patrick was believed 
to have ehaiiged Vereticus, king of Wales, into a 
wolf 1 snd then was an illustrious Irish family 
whidi had incatred the curse of St Natalia, every 
member of which, male and female, aocording to tbe 
popular bdief, had to take the shape of a wolf, and 
UT« the hf a (j a wcdf for seven yesn. 

In the 15th and 16th contnries, the belief in 
were-wolves was. throughout the continent of 
Eorope, OS general as the belief in witches, which 
it had then como to resemble in many respects. It 

gve rise to proseeutions almost as frequent as those 
- Witchcraft (q. v.), and these usually ended in the 
confession of the accused, and his death by hanging 
and burning. It was calculated to inspire even 
greater terror than witchcraft, since it was believed 
that the were-wolves delighted in human fleab, and 
were constantly lying in wait for solitary travellers, 
and carrying off and eating httle children. The 
were-wolves, lite the witches, were now regarded 
aa eervanla of the devil, from whom they got tbe 
power — often exercised by anointing with a solve — 
of aasuming the wolfs form ; and it was believed 
that great numbers of them trooped together to the 
devil ■ Sabbath. Hie stories of mutilations and 
other mishape befalling tbem in the wolf-state, by 
which, when they resumed the human form, they 
were identified as were-wolves, exactly reaembia 
tbe stories told of witches. In September 1573; 
we And a court of parliament sitting at Dole, 
in Fraiiche-Comt£, authorisins the country-people 
to take their weapons, and beat the wood* for a 
were-wolf, who hod olreadv — thus went the recital 
— ' carried off seveTal little children, so that they 
had not since been heard of, and done injury to 
some horsemen, who kept him off only with great 
difficulty and danger to their persons.' Through- 
out Europe, tbe judicial cognizance of witchcraft 
and of lycanthropy ceased at the same time. In 
Great Britain, where wolves had early been ex- 
terminated, the were-wolf was only known by 
mmoura coming from abroad; but the belief that 
witches could transform themselves into cats and 
hares, which did prevail, was precisely analogous 
to t^e behef in were-wolves, esjKcially in its met 

The later forms of this strange belief were 
obvionaly sopbisticated. In its earher shape, three 
things ore to be noticed — tbe power ascribed to tbe 
were-wolf of transforming himself, either by chang- 
ing tbe shape of his own body, or projecting his 
■ipuit into another body ; his appetite for human 
flesh ; his taking tbe shape and nature of the 
animal held to be moat malicious against man — the 
wolf. As to the flrst of these, all that can here be 
done is to point to its connection with the doctrine 
of Transmigration (q. v.}, and to add that it has 
been one oithe commonest of human beliefs. Aa to 
tbe second, is it unlikely that iu the early times in 
which the suiierstition had its origin, tbe appetito 
for human flesh may have been common enough to 
spread terror through whole districts! It is, at 
least, not improbable that every race of men has 
had on experience of cannibalism ; and it may well 
have been that, in occasional cases, especially under 
conditions of disease, the taste for human flesh 
survived the general practice of using it. Modem 
Europe affords many unquestionable examples of 
this taste existing and being ind;ilged in tbe midst 
of comparative civilisation. There con be do doubt 
that some of the unhappy multitude put to death, 
as were-wolves had really murdered and eaten tbe 
fleah of human beings. But secret uurdeis, unac. 
companied by cannibalism, would tend to support 
a popular bdief in cannibalieui. We have not to 
go out of our own age for proofs of tbe existence of 
men afllicted with a homicidal tendency ; and in 
times when the means of detecting crimes were very 
imperfect, it is conceivable that the murders com- 
mitted by one or two tacix. persons would spread 
terror, and give support to a suneratitions theory 
throughout a large district The Martcbal de BebL 
who lived in tlie time of dui Henry VL, had caused 


to be atolan and pat to death by torture, under the 
jooet inhnman cin!Uiiuitaiicc0, uiftny hundred obildren 
— he ooDfcased on his trial tiiat be mordeiad 120 in 
atinslayear. fAmcmoirof GiUeBdaLaval,Mai£obal 
de Ketx, has been compiled from authentic doca- 
menti by P. J. Locroix, the emineat French anti- 
quary.) Perhaps no locietyhiu ever been free from 
men aimilarly constitated, and acting limilarly 
aocording to their opportnnitiee. Ai to the third 
point, if "it be ([ranted that a certain practice of, or 
geatatl sospidOD oC oannibaliim eiigtad among i 
people who believed in the p ' ' '——'■ — 

Ua victima , , , 

inhnman appetite under the gnue 

nnftiecdly to man. And the exiatenne of a {ona 
mADiA in which, the madman hod the haUocinatioa 
that he waa changed into a wolf, yelled like a wolf, 
lived in many lespettta like a wolf, woi calculated 
strongly to confirm the belief in men-wolvea. In 
conjunction with the miochief done by real waives, 
this itself may be thought almost enough to have 
given origin to the supanlition. The hallucination of 
Saving undergone trautfoTQUition into a wolf from 
time to time, seems to have beon one of the com- 
llMDe«t by which weak and crazed brains were 
p nil rw fill daBng the period when the hunt for were- 
vtoItm wm kept up. The literature of this subject, 
thongh abundant, is for the nio«t port fragmentary, 
and mi«d np with other matters. A good account 
of tb« SDhiaot wiU be found in Thx Book of Wen- 
wotDt*, by Sabine Baring-Gould (Lond lg6fi]. 

WERNER, AsiusAM QoTTLlEB, a celebrated 
mineraloaist and geologist, bom at Wehrau, on 
tiie Qaeiss, in Upper Lnsabo, aeptember 25, 1790. 
His father was diraotor of a smelting- work, and he 
was thus led almost in childhood to the study of 
minerals. After some time spent at the Minraol- 
ogical Academy of Freybeig, he went to Leipzig, 
where be otadied natorsl history and jurisprudence. 
Her«, at Uie age of 34, he published his flnt work 
on mineralogy, • men pamphlet on the external 
ohanuten oFininentli. Is 1T7B| he was apwdnted 
ProfoMr A MijiM«]ogy, and curator of the Mineral- 
(wieal Cabiuet at Freyberg. In 1780, he published 
the flnt part of a translation of Cronstedt'e 
JIfMMro'ojry, i» his notes to which he gave the first 
ontiinea of Uie system which bears his name. In 
1791, be published a Thmry of (As Formation of 
Mttallit Feini, which was translated into Kngliab 
and French, and gieaUy extended bis reputation. 
Ho was not, however, a volominous autbor, but his 
views were diffused by his pupils, amoug whom 
wen the most enuneut German mineralogists of the 
time. In 1792, he was appointed Councillor of 
Uinee in Saxony. He died at Dreaden in 1817. 

W.'s influence was very great in the promotion 
both of minendogr and of geology. In bis miner- 
alo^cal system, minerals were distinguished and 
arrauged chiefly according to their exteruot char- 
acters ; and minendogista have now learned to 
depend maoh more than be did on their chemical 
constitution. In geology, he did great service by 
arranging the facts already known, and guiding to 
proper methods of observation. His theory wss 
oxtennvely received for a time. It may be described 
as the opposite of the Enttouian theory, accounting 
(or the present state of mineral substances in 
genanl by si^iposing them to have been dissolved 
or iiupeodsdm water; whilst the Huttoniam theory 
aseribed almost rreiytliing to the action of fire. 
W.'t it Mmetimes called the Neptimian theoiy, 
whilst that ol Hatton i* styled the Plutonic 
Modem geology recognises a cttiab measure of 
trttth in botb, bnt rejeebi them alike in that 
chancter of completeness or nnivenality in which 

they ware onae advocnted. W, elamSed rocks into 
Frimaiy, Transition, and Secondary ; and Uie terms 
are still sometimes used, althon^ merely as con- 
venient "'"—I not as indicative of tqdnioD) 
concerning the rocks designated by them. 

WEBNIOGBCKD:^ a snuJl walled town of 
Prussia, in the government of Magdeburg, and 43 
miles south-west of the oityof tiiat name, stands at 
the northem bass of the Brocken Monntain. Iti 
casUe, the reodence ot the Counts Stolzberg-Wenu- 
gerode, comprises a library of 40,000 volumes, and 

zoological garden. It manufactures linen, doth. 

paper-making. Pop. 6572. 

WE'SEL, a strongly fortified town of Prussia, 
on the Rhine, 32 miles north-north-west of DDssel- 
dorf. The Rhine, which bete is joined by the 
Lippe, is divided by a fortified isUnd, and croesed 
by a bridge of boats, protected on the left bank 
by a fort. Of its churchoi, the WilUbrod Kirche 
was first opened in 1181. Cloth, hoeierr, serge, 
leather, hats, tobacco, and linen are manotaotured, 
and hook-printing is carried on. The citadel it 
defended by about 4SO0 men. Pop. (1801), exclunre 
of garrison, 13,597. 

W£'SBR {Lat. VmrgiM), a river of Oermasy, 
formed out of the Wem, which rises in the Thur- 
ineer-wald, and the Fulda, rising in the Bhiin- 
gebirge, on the frontieia ot Prussia and Bavaria. 
These streams, after a northem courae, nnite at 
Miinden, in Hanover ; and the united abeam, the 
W., fiows north tbj^ugh Prusua, till, passtug 
Bremen, it forms for about 40 mile* the bonndaty 
between Oldenburg and Pmsna, and enten tM 
North Sea by a wide bnt shallow eetnaiy, mneb 
intermpted by sand. Entuv loogtJi, 260 miles. It 
communicates with the £]be by a navigable canal; 
but though considerably improved in this respect 
the W. is Dot of much use as a navigable itieim. 
The principal trading-town on its banks is Bremen. 

WESLEY, Jonn, the founder of the Metiiodisti 
(q. v.), was bom at Epworth, in linctdnsbire, Eng- 
land, 17th June 1708- The family name wu 
variously spelled Weeley and WesUey, and is sap- 
nosed to be the same with Welleel^, and to be 
derived from a place of that name near Wells. An 
Irish gentleman, Qarrett Wellesley; Esq., <^ Dun- 
cannon, offered to make Charies Wesley, yonnMi 
brother of John, his heir, on condition of his settling 
in Ireland, believing him to be of bis own family. 
The offer was not accepted ; and the estate of Ur 
Wellealey went to another branoh ot th« bunily, 

Duke of Wellington and &e AUrquis of Welloile; 
sprung. The more immediate progenitoi* of Jolm 
W- were ministeis of the church of Ei^land, of 
Puritan ^princhileB. Some of them suffered for non- 
oonfomuty. Bartholomew Wesley, the greot-gnuid. 
father ot John, was ejected from hia hviiu; by the 
Act of Dniformity in 1602. John Wesley, the son of 
Bartholomew, was also deprived of his living, and 
was often fined, and several times immisoned for 
preaching contrary to the law- Samud Wesley, asoD 
of this John Wesley, confotmed to the Church of Eng- 
land, but opposed the ichemea of James IL, refusing 
to be bribed by offers of pntmuent, which, on 
aeconnt of his emditioa and taltDti^ it was thoudit 
worth while to make to him. He ai^piirted the 
cause of the IUTolittiou,in dtcumstaiMeaaf penoosl 
tiie beginning of the rei^ 

;.... Liocn^le 

d his hoiuelia 

piet;, wlio devoted heraelf vei^ ntnoh to tiie edaca- 
tian, ud particularly the religiou educatioii, of her 
ehildteo. Hii eldeit ton, Sunuel, heod-iOMter of 
Tlrertoa lotiool in Bevoniluro, wu k Tory uid 
Eigh'Chnichnuu], who ttrongly disapproved of the 
'neir faith' md peonliar coune of bis brothers 
John sud Charies. John W. wss the second son of 
Ssmuel, or the second who grew up to manhood. 
In bis infancy, ho had a narrow escape from being 
homed to death, lAen the parsonage of Epwoith 
was bnmod W some of the poriihionen in their 
rage against their pastor for his faithful reproving 
of their vices. Another remarkable story la coQ- 
neeted with t^e parsonage of Epworth, and with 
the eariy years of John W.'s lite— the continned 
diitnrbuee of the bunily , throughout a coosiderBble 
time, by loud knockinBa and other noises, which 
could not be acconnted for, and which therefore 
iretematmal, although Mr Wesley 
were less affected by the strange 
than perhaps its authors expected them 
to be, and pemsted in reaidins in the parsonage, 
eren »naVing sport of * Old Jeffenr,' their unseen 
Tiaitint, who * wM plunly a Jacobite goblin, and 
seldom suffered Mr wealey to pray for the liing 
and the Prince of Walee without disturbing the 
family prayera.' 

John W. was a very dili^ut and snocesBfol student. 
The idi^ous bistoty of his college life belonn to the 
httha/ ol Helbodiam (q. t.). After much consoi- 
atJooB heaitatioD as to His niotivea and fitness for 
«atelinB into the elertcalprofesaion, he was ordained 
deacon m 172S, and in 17%0 he sradnated as M.A., 
and was elected fellow of Unoaln College, Oxford. 
In the same year he was appointed Qreck lecturer and 
moderator of the clanea. He became curate to his 
father at Wnxite, a small living which Somnel W. 

He returned to Oxford, and along with his younger 

bmtW, Charles, entered into those religious asso- 
I datiDna &om which Methodiam spnui^ The inter- 
I ooarse of the tirotiiera Wesley at this time with 
j William Law, the author of the Serioua CaH, had a 

great inSoenoe on their opioiooa and conduct. Tlicy 
I walked two or three times a year from Oxford to 

nsit Law at bis house near Ixiodon. In 1735, John 
I W. vas induced to go out to Georgia with Qensral 
I O^ethorpe, to preach to the Indians and colonists. 
I ^ teUgiouB views at this time were atrongly tinc- 
I tared with asceticiam. Hi« intercooise with Mora- 
I, who were his feUow-passengers to Ameiica, 

vims, who were hia feUow-passengers 1« Ameiica, 

' I and afterwards his fellow-labonreis in the colony, 

I tended to stimuli hisireligiouB zeaL He attempt^ 

i to establiah a diaopline in the cokmy, very different 

from that of the Qmrch of England at home, and 

failed in tha attMDpt. lie difficnltira of hia 

I insition were increased by an affair in which he 

Wame involved with Ihe danghter of the chief 

I ma^strate of Savannah, whom he wished to marry; 

bat QQ the advice of' the Momviaa bishop and 

I f Idcn, to whom he submitted the matter, he with- 

. Akw from lier, and she very soon marrying another, 

W. lefosed Iter adroiaaion to the communion ; upon 

Thidi lier boabaod raised an action at law, and W., 

Gndiiu Savwuuth no aoitable place for him, and, as 

he n&, ' abalung the dust off nis feet,' returned to 

Su^aod, having resided in America not quite two 

I ynn. With raligious zeal ondiminished, he main. 

I taiped an intimate connection with the Moravians 

I in LoadotL On 24th May 1738, some months after 

' hi] tetuni to EngUnd, be attended a — "~ 

I uf a sod^ in Alderseate Street, where, 

I une was reading Luther^ ; ' - • — 

. whilJ 
a preface to the EgiMe 

the Romans, he experienced anch a change of reli- 
gion* fediug that, notwithstanding all hia previous 

xeal, he ever afterwards regarded this as the time 
of hia conversion. 'I felt my heart strangely 
warmed,' he says; 'I felt I did trust in Christ, 
Christ alone, for aidration ; and an asaurauce was 
given me, that He had token away my sins, even 
mine, aud saved me from the law of sin and death.' 
Many who accept generally Wasltyi views of con- 
version, doubt his opinion as to the date of hia own. 
After thia, he visited the Moravian brethren at 
Hermhut in Germany, made the acqnuntance of 
Zinzendorf, and waa introduced to the ftince Royal 
of Pruaaia, afterwards Frederick the Great. Eatum- 

ato England, he became associated with his old 
ege companion, WhiteSeld, and after hia example 
began, in 1739, the practice of open-air preaching. 
From this time, the history oC Wesley's life becomes 
very much the history of Methodism. In 1740, ha 
Bolemnly separated himself from the Moravians, 
finding that he differed from them on important 
points of doctrine ; and iu the same year the breach 
took place between Whitedeld and him, which 
divided the Metbodistsinto two sections, Calviuiilio 
and Amuaian. In the evangelistio work which he 
coined on in England, and in organising the 
Methodist body, W. was indefatigable. He seldom 
travelled less than forty mile* a day, nsnally on 
horseback, till near the close of bis life, whai he 
naed a chaise. In 1752, he nuunied a indow with 
four children, but the matnageproved an unhappy 
one, and a separation ensued. Qs hnlth gradually 
declined doniiB the lost three years of hi* life, and 
after » abort iJlDesB, he died in London, 2d Much 
1791, in the SSth year of his age. Hia Mmains lay 
in state for seveiol days in his chapel in Iha City 
Head, dreMed iu the sacerdotal robe* which ha 
usually wore, with a Bible in his hand. W. was a 
volummons writer. His writings are chi^y pol- 
emics! and religious. Hia style in the pulpit waa 
fluent, clear, and a^umentative, not impaamoned 
like Wbitefield's ; his oonntenaocs was mild and 
grave ; and hia manners agreeable, although he 
exercised a very imperial domination over the 
pi«achan of the Metbodist body. He waa a man 
of great benevolence, and gave away all his living 
to the poor. Probably no man ever exerted so 
great an iitdnencB on the relidous condition of the 
people of England as John WT, and bis iofloenoe has 
extended to the meat remote parts of the world. 
— CoAKLK WxElLET, liis younger brother, bom at 
" iworth, 16th December 1708, was associated with 

n in the whole Methodist movement. Having 
studied at Christ Church, Oxfoid, and visited 
Georgia at the same time with hia brother, he took 
an active part in the subsequent work in England. 
He was a clear and simple preacher, and a man of 
fervent piety, but of a dispoaition very far removed 
from aaceticism. He is the author of a F^at 
Dumber of hymns in use among the Metho&ts; 
some of which, however, are among the best and 
most admired hymns in the En^ish language, 
replete with pious feeling* and of lyrical power and 
sweetness almost unsurpassed — See Ti« Wortt qf 
tAc Rn. John Wales (IC vols., LoniL 1809) ; £i/e of 
lAe See. John WaUy, AM., by Dr Coke and }Jb 
Moore (Lend. 1792) ; and The Life of We^ and 
tilt Jtitt sad ProgrtM qf Mtilioditm, by Souuiey (3 
vols., Land. 1820 ; new edition in Bobn'a Standard 
Library, Lond, 1804). 

WBS8EL, Soiujsv, called also Qait^ort, a prede- 
cessor of Luther, was bom at GrOniniFen, 141S, 
taught philosophy at Cologne, Louvain, Heidelberg, 
and Paris, aud died (1489) in his native town. On 
account of his leammg, be was called Lv* Mmdi 
(Light of the World) ; while his eneniies, on aocount 

— TDgIC 


of liU oppoiitioD to the gcholMtic philoaophv, termed 
him Na^ItT ContTodkHonum (Master of Contra- 
dictiona). In hia doctrine of jnttification by faith, 
he foi«Ttalled Luther, who esteemed him very 
h^Uy. After hia death, a Urge portion of hti 
vritioga were burned as heretical- Another portion 
appeared under the title of Farrago Barum Tkeo- 
logiearum, oE which Luther pabliuted an edition 
wiUi a preface (Wittenb. 1622), but tlie most complete 
edition is that by Joh. Lydiua (Amst 1G17). See 
Ulhnann'B Joh. WeaML, on Yorgitnger LalJier'a 
(H&mb.lS3i),aadBSbriag'Bi)a«Leben J'l}^. WesnTg 
(Bielcf. 1B46). 

WE'SSEX. See Heftabchy. 

WEST, BENJAHtN, Anglo-American painter, WM 
bom at Springfield, PentuylTonia, October 10, 
173S, of Quaker parentage, and witii lack of oppoT' 
tonity or encoursgemeu^ surpriaed hii friends by 
his skill ia drawing at the ago of seven years, and 
at nine painted a picture in water-colours, which, in 
some points, he declared In after-life, ha had never 
surpaased. HI* first odours were made from leaves, 
berries, Ac, and hia bnishe* stolen from a cat^« 
tail Thia self-taught, at the i^ of 10 he prac- 
tised portrait-paintins in ttte villagea □caf Phila- 
delphia, and paint«d for a snnsmith his first 
historical picture, ' Tbo Death oT Socrates.' While 
the Society of Friends were discnssine the propriety 
of his becoming a painter, he shocked Uteir principles 
still more by volunteering in a military expedition 
to search for the remains of Braddock's army. At 
18, he was painting portraits in Fhiladelplua, and 
later at New York, where, in 1760, ho was aided 
by some generous merchants to go and punue his 
stadias in Italy. At Rome, he was patronised by 
Lord Grantham, whose porliait he painted, became 
the friend of Mengs, and, aa the first American 
artist ever seen in Italy, attracted much attentioiu 
He painted bis ' Cimon and IphigsnU,' and ' Angelica 
and Medora,' and wu elected member of the 
Academies of Florence, Bologna, and Parma. In 
1763, visitine England on his way to America, he 
was induced to remain in London, and in 1765 
married Eliza Shewell, to whom he hod been 
eng^ed before leaving America. His 'Agrippina 
landms with the Ashes of Germonicus,' attracted the 
attention of George IIL, who was hia steady friend 
and patron for forty years, during which time he 
sketclked or painted 400 pictures. His > Death of 
General Wolfe,' painted in the costume of the period, 
against the advice of all the moat distinguished 
painten, effected a revolution in historic art. For 
the king, he painted a series of 2S religious pictures 
tor Windsor Castle. His best-known works are 
■Christ heaUng the Sick,' 'Death on the Pale 
Hone,' and the ' Battle of La Hagne.' In 1792 he 
■noceeded Sir Joshna Reynolds as the PresideDC of 
the Boyal Academy, but declined the honour of 
knighthood, ^^irongii his whole career, he was the 

?inerouB friend, adviser, and patron of young artists. 
he lAfe and Studies ^Benjamin Wat were com- 
inled from materials funusbed by himself, by John 
Gait, in two porta (Lond. 1S16— IS20) ; and a bio- 
xraphy of him is also given io Cunmngham's Liva 
.J- (._-■ — . D_,.-.i D_-_. — Ti. j:.5f :_ London, 

of Jimauail British Painters. He 


sons survived him. 

WEST BRO'UWICH, a larve and npidly 
increasing town of South SbaObrdUiire, one of the 
most important towns in the gr^eat manufactnriiie 
and minmg district known as 'The Block Country, 
five miles north-west of Birmingham. A few years 
1^ W. B- was a mere village on a barren haatb, and 
it owes the rapidi^ of its growth mainly to the rich 

mines of coal and iron in the vicinity, and to the 
industries to which theee give riae. Very many 
canals, and three railways, nin through the 
parish. There are nnmerons chnrchea, schools, and 
other important establishments. There are very 
large glass-works and also nw-works in the town : 
much of the gaa used in Birmingham, as well aa 
all that supphed to W. B,, Wednesbary, and many 
other towns in the vicinity, being made here. The 
manufactnrea of iron-wares of all kinds, as gun and 
pistol barrels, locks, awords, fire-irons, fendiera, Ac, 
and of all kinds o£ hollow-wares, as kettles, saaoe- 
paos, Ac, are among the great branches of inidoatiy. 
Pop. (1861) 41,774 

WB'STBURT, a small and ancient parlismentuy 
borough of Wiltahire, 2D miles north-west of Salis- 
buty, and on the western declivity of the Salisbmr 
Plum. Its church, a tasteful edifice, was erected 
— the older parts at least — in the 13th centaur. 
For the most part uninteresting in itself, W. stand* 
in the midst of a locality inter^ting from ita many 
antiquities. W. is a s^tion on the Wiltshire and 
Somenet Railwav. Pop. (IS61) 6495, chiefly em- 
ployed in agriculture, the manufoctare of woollen 
cloth of a superior qnality, and the smelting of iron 
ore, some extenilive mines of which have lately been 
discovered near the town, and which oQbrd eoiploj- 
ment to many hands. 

WE'STCHESTER, a beaudfal town, in a rich 
agricultural district of Peim^ylvania, U. S., 23 milea 
west of Philadelphia, with elei^t resideDces, a 
granite conrt-house, a white marble bank, 8 churches 

WB'STERK AUSTRA'LIA, a British colony, 

and the western section of the great ialand-conti- 
□eut of Australia, embraces the whole of that island 
west of the 129th meridian. Its extreme length from 
norti-east to sonth-west ia 1370, ita averageTjreadth 
is 650 miles, and its area is estimated at 978,000 
sq. miles. Pop^ (1863) 18,780, indnding military 
and convicts, and excluaive of aborigines- Revenue 
(1863),£71,708; expenditure, £71,073. Thiscolony 
was formed in 1829, and in 18SI bad only SS86 
inhabitants ; but within recent years a oonsideTaUe 
namber of emigrants have b^ sent out under 
the auspices of the Govermnent EmigmtioD Board. 
W. A. was formerly named Stnaa Biiier SdSanatt, 
from the river Swan, which joins the Indian Ocean, 
after watering a considerable district in the ex- 
treme south-west. Of the whole vast area, this dis- 
trict in the aonUi-weat ia now, aa fonoerly, the 
only portion inhabited, ^ere, mmmtatn-raiign 
rising in elevation from the coast inland, ran paraBel 
with each other from south to north; tiie highcat 
summit being 5000 feet above sea-teveL The climata 
ia agreeable and salubrioos ; the Soil, both on the 
coast and in the interior, ia light and dry. Banda at 
fertile land, where the sandal-wood and other trae« 
grow abundantly, and which are suitable for the 
culture of the vine, olive, and fig, occur in the 
middle districts of the country. Jliven, of irtiich 
the Swan ia the chief, abound ; but are not of 
much use for navigation. Magnetic iron ore, lead, 
copper, and zino ores are found in large qoantitia^ 
and Uiere ia a band of coal extending over 600 mile& 
The number of vcssela which entered in I8S3 was 
91; tonnage, 48,058: cleared, 87; tonnage, 46^191 
Imports in 1363 [chiefly augar, tea, tobaroo, spirits, 
beer, soap, ironmongery, and clothing of variona 
kinds) amounted to £157,137 ; exports (chiefly wool, 
timber, copper ore, horses, and whale oil), £143,106l 
The capital is Perth, and there ore several smaller 
towns. The colony became (1849), at the reqaeat of 
the ooloniata, a aettlement for conncta, and haa mncA 







benefited bjr Qieir labour, > greitt extent of road, &ad 
nuDv bridgei, jetties, landiiig-places, and pnblio 
bniloingB, h&ving been oonstracted b^ them. It is 
now- the only cokmy to whioh C<MiTicta (q. t.) are 

WEST tHDIBS are already described under 
Aicnxun (q.T.). See also tbe ncmea of the 
ulanda themselTea — Jamaica, Cuba, Uartimque, 
&C. ; as veil aa Uie European countiiee that possess 
them — Qieat Britain, Spain, France !NetherUiids, 

WESTMACOTT, SmltiCHAKD, R. A., an eminent 
sculptor, the ton oE Bichard Westmacott, also a 
■cnlptor in his day of some little note, was bom in 
London in 1775. Hia predilection for art was 
early manifested, and ir«a carefully cherished by his 
father. He received aa a yooth the beat education 
which London could then furniah, and in 17Q3 he 
proceeded to Bome to complete his studies. Here 
he became in some sort a pupil of the celebrated 
Canova, who shewed him much kindness and atten- 
tion. His progress was rapid, and he distinguished 
hinuelf by carrying off the hi^iest prizes ofTcred 
to the competition of the riaicg geniuaca of the 
djiy, in psxticular a gold medal given by the 
Pope. In 1797, having, meantime, in recognition of 
his talent andpromise, oeen elected a member of the 
Academy of floieoce, he returned to London, where, 
shortly after, he waa married to a daughter of a 
Dr Wilkinson, then oC some medical celebrity. His 
sacceas in his art was not for a moment doubtful, 
and TC^ soon he found himself in full employment 
la 1803 he was elected an Associate of the Royal 
Academy; in 1316 he was advanced to the full 
dignity of Academician ; and in 1835 the University 
oE Oxford recoenised his eminence by conferring 
upon bini the honorsrv dtgreo of U.C.L. Two 
yeara afterwords, the honour of knighthood waa 
bestowed oo him. Previously, in 1827, he had 
ancceeded Fioiman as Professor of Soalpture at the 
Academy, in which capacity he continued to officiate 
tin Ms death, which took place on September I, 
1856. The works of Sir Eiohard W. by which he ia 
chiefly known ore public monomenbil statues, in 
some of which he bad much success. Of these i 

may suffice to mention his si 

A.t>bey of Pitt, JB'oi, Perceval, and Addison, with the 
monoments to Sir Balph Abercromby and Lord 
Collingwood in St Pad^s Cathedral Many of his 
woAm in the antique clasacal manner, are also of 
cxqniaite beauty ȣd finish. 

WEOTMACOTT, EiCHABD, R.A., son of the 

forgoing, was bom m London in 1799. After beiiu 

I cat^nlly educated nnder bis father in the art which 

. mi^t seem to run in the family blood, he was seat 

' to Soma in 1820 to prosecute his studiea further. 

Id Italy he paaied six years ; aad after his return to 

LoadoQ, he gradually won a reputation for himself as 

I one of Uie ablest sculpton of Uie day. Besides being 

eminent in his art, he has likewise made himsau 

I knoim as a man of considerable literary and general 

I attainmant ; and in 1837 he had the boaonr to be 

' elected a Fellow of the Boyal Society. In the year 

I lollotnag, the Academy recognised his more special 

j clAima by ivfnn'ii'g him as an Associate ; and in 

I 1S49 he attained & rank of Boyal Academician. 

' On tlie death of hi* father, he was appointed to 

•Qcceed him in the Profesaorahip of Sculpture, a 

po«t Twhidi he iannderetood to fill with distinguished 

Ability and acceptanoe. 

^TB'STUEATH, an inland county of the 
praviDM of Leinater, Ireland, bonnded on the N. by 

the ccnuiteea o* '' "-• ' "—'i- "" '■i— '"' ^" 

- ssib. oa the 



of C^van and Meatb, on the E. by 
e S. by the King's County, and on the 
mmon. It lies between N. lat. 03° 8' 

and 63° 48'; and W. lon^ 6° 54' a 
greatest length, N. and S., is 35 miles, and the great- 
est breadth is 25 miles ; the total area being 708 
miles, or 463,466 acres, of which 365,218 are aratde, 
56,392 uncultivated, 8803 in plantations, 62S in 
towns, and 22,427 under water. The p ' '' 
in 1351 was 111,100; in 1861, 90,879, i 
83,749 were Catholics, 6334 Protestants of the 
Established Church, and the rest Protestants of 
other denaminatious. The sutfaoe is for the ntoet 
part level, the hilly district, which is in t^he north 
of the county, not reaching at any point a higher 
elevation th^ 710 feet iTevertheless, owing to 
the number of lakes, and the large extent ol 
wood in some distriots, the scenery is in many 
places highly picturesque. Geologically, W. belong 
to the great central limestone series ; yellow 
sandstone only occurring in two very limited dis- 
tricts. Of the numerous lakes which divetsify 
the surface, one chain belongs to the basin of the 
Shannon, which river, with ita lakes, forma the 
western boundary, and separates W. from Boacom- 
mon ; the other, towards the east, flows into the 
basin of the Boyne. The Shannon is navigable for 
steamboats throughout that portion of its course 
which bounds this county ; and the inland navi^ 
tion is further provided for by the Kayo! Canal, wtuch 
traverses W. from east to west, and by a branch of 
the Grand Canal The county is also traversed by 
the Midland and Great Western Railway. The 
climate is mild and less moist than that of the 
more weatem midland counties. The soil is a deep 
heavy loam, produiung herbage especially suited to 
the httening of cattle, which are here largely fer* 
sheep also are fed, but not in the some proportio: 
as are also hones and pigs. There is comparatively 
Uttle tallage, and almost the only cereal crop is oata. 
The total acreage under orope of all kinds in 1862 
wos 120,337, of which only 914 were in wheats 
45,432 acres were in oats, 1^525 in potatoes, 393 in 
turnips, 46,8fi6 in meadow and clover. The quan- 
tity nnder other green crops than turnips and 
potatoes was small, and only 68 acres were m fls 
On the other hand, the total number of cattle w 
78,826, of sheep 137,216, of horses 14,001, and 
pigs 16,72a The net annual value of proper^ nnd 
the Volnation Act is £319,901. W. is divided in 
twelve baronies. The chief towns are the aaai 
town and capital, Mullingar (q. v.), Moate, ai 
Athlone, whicli is partly in the connty of Beacol 
mon. It returns three members to the imperial 
parliament, two for the county and one for the 
borough of Athlone. Tho constituency in 1863 
numbered 3602. W. anciently formed a portion of 
the kinL^ott. of Ueath (q. v.), bnt in the 341^1 of 
Henry vIIL, it was erected into a separate county, 
and at first included Longford (q. v.^ and part of 
the King's County (q. v.). Many antaquiCiea of the 
Anglo-Noiman period, and some of the Celtic, 
chiefly tumuli sjid raths, are found in this inter- 
esting a&d pictnieaqne oouoty. 

WE'BTM INSTEB, Thb Crrv ash Libertv of, 
now forms nut of the K"?)'''^ metropolis. It is 
bounded by Temide Bar on Sie east, the Thames on 
the south, Chelsea and Kensington on the west, and 
Uarylebone on the north. The early history of W. 
is tl^t of the abbey, still the moat interesting of its 
public biiildinga. In early times, that part of W, 
which adjoios the Thames waa sorroonded by a 
branch of the river, so aa to form an island caUed 

wood. Here, • 

: the preaent abbey. 

lujlt a church. It is supposed to have 
been replaced by an abbey called Westminster, to 
distLngnish it from the cathedral chorch of St 

,,.n.L.OOgl c 

PmI'i, oalled origmaUy EutminsUr. The Ont 
«diflae of itoue erected on the aite wm built bv 
Bdwftrd the Confuior between lOSO and 106& 
The Vfx Eonte, a low ftpartment, 110 feet lone 
by 30 feet wide, vanltad and divided bj a central 
range ot eit^t plain [nllara with nmple capitali. 
ia nearly ■& that remains of it The principal 
parta of the exiiting abbey wen built l^ Henijr 
UL In 1230 ho erected a chapel dedicated to 
tha Vii'g^ and a qnarter of a centoiy later he 
took down the old ikihej of the ConfeMor, and 
eieoted the esuting choir and ttaniepta, and tlie 
chapel of Edward £e ConfesiOT. The remainder of 
the building wu completed under the abbota, the 
weatem parte of the nave Mid aialea having been 
eracted between 1340 and 1183. The west front 
and ita great window were the work of Richard UL 
and Henry VIL The latter pnlled down the chapel 
to the Virgin, erected by Heniy IIL at the eaat end 
rf the ohnroh, and built the chapel known as Henry 
VlL'a ohapeL Thii completed the interior of the 
abbey aa it now atandi; the only important 
addiuon made aince then having been the upper 
parte of the two weatern towers, which were the 
woi^ of Sir Chriatopher Wren. The whole building 
fonna a croaa. Its extreme length, including Heniy 
VU'a obapel, ia 611 feet; ita width acroa the 
tranaapta la 203 feel The width of the nave and 
aialea u 79 feet ; of the ahoir,3Sfeet; andof Henty 
yiL'a chapel, 70 feet. The height of the roof is lOQ 
feet, a loftineaa nnusuBl in Engliah cbuichea. The 
eaatera front, which ia the fin^, ia atUl obatrncted 
Irf Bt Maivaret^a Chnroh, and the weatem ia abnost 
entirely hi£ It ia the interior of the abbey, how- 
ever, which haa at all timea excited the moat 
enthnnaatdo admiration. The harmony of ita pro- 
portion^ and the ' dim religioua light ' of tiis Jofty 
and long-drawn aialea, leave on the mind impreaaiona 
of gnmdenr and aolemnity which chnrchea of 
greater aize ful to prodoee. The abbey waa at one 
fime the burying-place of the Engliah kings, and 
it haa beoome a national honoor to be interred 
within ita walls. It ia crowded with tombe and 
monuments. The chapel of Edward the Confeasor, 
at the east end of the choir, oontwna hla ahrine 
erected by Heniy LU, the altar-tombs of Edward 
L, Heniy UL, Henry V., and Edward IIL The 
canopy of that laat mentioned deaervea eapeoial 
notice. It ia considered to be one of the greateat 
works in wood extant, and equal to anytning in 
the best age of medieval art Againat.the altar- 
part of the ohnroh ataud the two 

coronation ohatta. One, the king'i 
the atone brought by Edward L 
which the Scotch kings were crowned. The oUier, 

the conaort'a chair, waa constructed for the coro- 
nation of Mary, wife of William III. Both are 
atiU used at cotonations. Moet of the Engliah 
kin^ from Ule time of Hemr VII. down to that of 
George IIL, were buried in Henry YIL'actupel, and 
there accordingly are the tombe of Queen EUzabeth 
and Uaiy Queen of Soots. The moat remarkable 
moiuunenta in othei parta of the chnroh are those in 
Uie aaat aisle of the aonthem tranaept, known a« 
* Poets' Corom,' where man^ of the moat moineut 
British poet* have been buned. There monntnenta 
are erected to Chancer, Beaumont, Divyton, Cowley, 
Drydan, MEton, Qrav, Kior, Shakspeare, Thotnaon, 
Gay, Goldsmith, Aadiaon, and Ben Jonaon, In 
the north tnuwept are the monnmentB of Pit^ Fox, 
Chatham, Canniiw, and Wilberforoe. Elsewhere are 
the moQumenla of the great engineeia and iuventora, 
Telfoid, Watt, and Stephenaon. 

South of the abbey are the Fyx House already 
mentioned, the chijiter-hanBe, the cloisters, the 
building oocoioed by W. School, fonnerly the 

monks' dormitivy, Ac W. Sobool waa fonnded by 
Qaeen Elisabeth for the ednoation of 40 bcrei 
known aa Queen's achcdara, who ate ixepaied for 
the nniveraitiea. Other peraona aeod uieir aoni 
to il^ and it haa long been one of the leading 
Sngliab public achool*. 

The city of W. aftang up round the abbey, and 
the Engliah kiuga, u oonaequeuce of the jealous; 
with which they regarded the piivilt^es olauned by 
the citiieuB of Loudon, early took ap tiieir abode 
there. William Bufaa, in 1097, erected a palace 
between the abbey and the Thamea. Its chief 
apartmeut waa a banqneting hall, with two rows ol 
pillars down the iniddle. TMa ball becoming ruincoi 
in the time ot lUcliard H., he pulled it down, and 
erected in 1397—1399, on the same site, and indeed 
on the same foundation^ the ffxtA hall which 
still eiisti. It is 90 feet high, and 290 feet long, 
by 68 feet wide internally, and is roofed by 13 great 
riba of timber, combined with a mechanical skill 
which haa not been excelled in any wotk of the 
preaont age. The roof of Westminater Hall is ths 
nneat specimen of the purely Engliah art of forming 
a Gothic roof of wood : with the exception, perhapa, 
of tiie Hall of Jnatice at Padn% it is the Urscft 
roof in Europe unsupported by pilkw. The law 
coorta were established at the luill in 1224, aodUiey 
continue to bo held in buHdinga which loA on tha 
northern aide of Uie building, and open into it by 
aide-doora. These law-courts, aa an excreacenoe aud 
out of place, are to be removed to the new bnildingl 
about to be erected near Lincoln'a Inn Fields. 

The old Housea of Parliament which adjoined the 
hall, and like it lay between the abbey and the 
Thames, were burnt to the ground in 1634i It woi 
then determined to erect a new building' on the 
same site, but on a much grander acale. He de- 
sisna of Sir Charles Barry lor 'the New Palace d 
weatmicster ' were selected as the beat, and tba 
work waa begun in 1340. The building, now com- 
pleted, or nearly ao, ia the most magnificent erected 
m thia oountiy for many centuries. It ma; be 
roughly aaid to form a rniallelOEram, 900 feet Imig 
by 300 fact in width. The principal rooms are tilfl 
House of Lords and the House of Commons, which 
occupy tha centre of the building and run on the 
line of its attest length. They are aeparatedby 
an ' OctagonHall,' with a diameter of 70 feet between 
the walla. From thia hall, one corridor runs north 
to the Honse of Commons, and another aouth to 
the House of Lords, beyimd which are the royal 
apartments at the extreme eontii of the building, 
llie entrance to the * Ootegon Hall ' ia by a passage 
known as St Stephen's ^11, which oonunniiica^ 
by flighta of atepa with an entrance in the east 
front, and alao with Weatminater H^ wUdi, ia- 
clndad in the new building fonoa iti northon 
vestibule. The atate entrance of the qneoi ia at the 
souUi-weatera extremity, and is, of oonrae, in direct 
oommnnication with the toyat apartments. The 
building ia suimonnted by lofty spirea and tcweis. 
Id the centre, above the Octagon Hall, limm tiie 
centmt tower, 300 feet high. At eaii oom^ there 
are towers ; at the aouth-wcat the Victoria Tower, 
346 feet high ; at the north-west the clook-tower, 

■sighing fl 
ance of tl 

clock haa four face*, each 

it atrikea the bonis on a bell 

known aa Big Ben. The appeannce 

front ia atill marred by the bnildinga oocnpied as 

law conrta, which will, however, be removed on the 

completion of the new Palace of Joatioe, ueai 

Lincoln'a Inn; and then it ia believed that the 

pictureaque outline of the palace, aeeii fn>m tb» 

north-eastj will for the first time prove kll the merit 

ai the architect's designs. Profesaional oritica have 



Btkted muiy objeotiona to the bnildine, tbe Kumduit 
of which, pofa^io, is that' it Etandi too low. liio 
chid cabject of rwret in coonection with it is, tb«t 
th« Btona oTwhioh it waa built, a nanienan lime- 
atone from Yoibhire, hai began rapuUj to decay, 
and that it will, in conseqnenoe, be impoantte to 
protect the rich omamoita of the exterior from the 
mflnence of the atm[Hipher& The internal decora- 
tiODi, frGBCoei, and atatnea are deaervedly admired. 
The Home of Pcen, 97 feet long, 46 feet wide, and 
46 feet high, ia rich with carved work gilt, and 
stained gam. The throne stands at the sonthem 
end. On the northern wall, on compartmenta, ore 
aiz freocoes, repreaentiDg (t) the Baptiam of Ethel- 
bcrt (by Dyoe) ; (2) Edward III. conferring the order 
of the Qarts on the Black Prince (by Cope) ; (3) 
HeniT, Flince of Wa^ committed to pnaon for 
iiMiiiTliim Judge GaaooianB (by Oope) ;. (4) the Spirit 
<rf Religion (by HonleyJ; (6) theSpiiitof Chivdiy 

Watmiiuler Al^xg, hy Sean Stanley; The Mema- 
rialt of Wtttmmtler, by Bev. Uock^izie E. C Wol- 
cott (ISfil). 

of which 

213^876 acrea are nnder 'cro(^S2;130 acres beini 
com crop*, 11,191 green crops, 18,159 clover ant 
other grasMS, iS9,931 permanent paature (eiclniive 
of hill) ; nnmbar of cattle, 55,328 ; of aheep, 224,664. 
PopL <1861) 6031T. The nirface ia almost wboUy 
nunntaincmB, the cliief aiimmit being EelvellyQ 
(30SS fftet], pai^tly on the western border, partly in 
Cnmbcrland. The other more important nummite 
are Ixmghrigg Fell, Bowfell, Crosafell, and High 
Street and I^ngdale Pikes. lakea remarkable for 
their beanty occur. The chief are 'Windermere 
(q. v.), part^ belonging to Lancashire ; and TJlla- 
'water (q. T.), between W. and CumberlaiiiL Moor- 
lands ara nomeroaa and eztensiTe ; but along the 
oouiaea of the Kent in the south, and the Eden in 
tbe north — Uie principal streimui — there are trne ta 
of fmiile land. The chmate ia mild and moiat, often 
with mnch snow in winter, the deep wreaths of 
which frequently prove fatal to fravellera on ilie 
mmmtain tracks. The aoil is mostly a dry gravelly 
mooUl, farourable to the onltnre of tnmipa, oC 
irhich neat crops are prodoced. Hich pasture-lands 
aboon^ and cattle, mostly of a la^e size, are 
extenaiTely reared. The county town a Appleby, 
and the other chief towns are Ambleside, Kendd, 
and Khrkby-LiKiBdala, The eount^ letnna two 
membsTS to the Honae trf Comnuma 

WESTFHA'LIA, a prorinoe ot Prussia, lies 
between Holland, Bonover, Brunswick, Hesse, 
N^aoan, and the Ehine ^rivince. Its area ia 
7768 I(T»gli">» iq. m., with a population {December 
1864) of 1,666381, who, with the exception of 
16,867 Jews, are of tbe nurest German descent. 
Of the poiFalatiOD, 900,273 are Catholics, and 
733,684 Frotestonte. W. it divided icto three 
diabietB—Mttnster in the north-west, Minden in the 
Dositii-east, and Amaberg in the sonUu The east of 
thie province presents vast plains covered with grain, 
-vrhib tile north-west ezlubibl an umaterruptodly 

a-* — _ 1 uncultivated land. The climate is 

ate. The chief riven are the Weecr 
the lippe, and the Boer or Ruhr, 
which are navigaUe in Westphalia. The 
^_ _ .1 are, besides grain, excellent flax, potatoei, 
wvod, iron, copper, lead, salt, Ao. ; and the chief 

of the indnatrial products are iron, and articles of 
iron, iteel, and copper from the forges of Amsbeig ; 
while mannfooturing industry embraces flax-«pm- 

Eand linen-weaving in Minden, and eiteniive 
action of woollen articles, atockings, and tib- 
of esteemed qoolity. The exports consist of 
these products, and of batcher meat, especially 
hams. The capital of the proviaoe, MUnster (q. v.), 
poaeesses a nniversity, and is the teat of the 
snpreme Catholic and Protestant rdigious autho- 
rities of tbe provinoo — W. derivea its name from 
the Weet-folen, a section of the great Saxon people, 
who migrated hither from the banks of the £ube 
soon after the Christian era ; and after the sub- 
jngation of the Saions by ChOFlemacne, the de- 
posed leader, Wittekind, was allowed to remain 
JMce tif (Ae Eitgem and Wat-falai. At this time, 
the eouDtry called W. (and occaaionally denomi- 
nated Bauerland) oommised all Germany between 
the Wesa-, Bhine, and Bmt ; and soon aOer, it was 
sabjugated by the dukes of Lower Saxony, and held 
by th^ till, on the rebellion of Henry the lion in 
1179, the electoral archbishop of Colt^e extended 
hie swap over it It then became one ot the circle* 
of the empire, and belonged to the Cologne electorate 
till IS02, when most of it was given to the Hesse- 
Damutodt family. In 1807 arose the kaigd(»ii q/ 
WettpJutHa, which, besides a portion of W., also in- 
cluded Electoral Hesse, Hanover, Brunswick, and 
portions of Upper Saxony. This kingdom, erected by 
Napoleon *s a preliminary to its incorptHation into 
Pruice, was given to his youngest brother, Jerom^ 
who mode CaaseL his capital, and, impite the large 
French garrisons with which the country was bur- 
dened, and tbe extensive oontribntions in men and 
money which it was forced to pay to Napoleon, sue- 
oeeded, bv the establishment at the Code Napoleon, 
and by snevring in vsrioos other ways his strong 
desire to promote the welfare of his new aabjects, 
in oci^Diiing their esteem. But the oppreeaive coo- 
scripbons and taxes for the behoof of the French 
atmy and treasuiy gradually increased in amonnt, 
and excited Each resentment, that Jerome's life 
was aeverol times threatened. The king repeatedly 
remonstrated with Napoleon, but without the 
slightest eSect ; and deqiite his efforts, the ' oon- 
tioental system' was introduced into his states. In 
1813, Jerome was cliaaed from Caasel by 1^ Rus- 
sians ; and though he letomed for a few days, the 
defeat of Leipzig forced him to take sheltf^ in 
france. By the treaty of Vienna, the statea which 
hod been joined to W. to form the kingdom, were 
restored to their former possessors, and W. itself 
with the exoeption of a portion which had beui 
annexed to Hesae-Daimstadt, waa united to Prussia. 
WESTPHALIA, T&urr or, also known as the 
TVraiy of MQntier, was conoluded at MUnster and 
Osnalniick (towns in the circle of Westphalia) in 
1643, and in putting an end to the Thirty Years' 
War (q. v.), restored tranquillity to Gomaoy, est^>- 
lished a new system of political eqoihbrium in 
Europe, and became the basis of aU subseqaent 
treaties down till the French Bevolution. The 
ates of Germany had long desired a 

_ of hostitities; and as early aa 1638, pleni- 

potentianes from France, Sweden, and tbe Empuv 
had assembled at Hamburs; bat it was not till 
several years after, that allpaities agreed to MUn- 
ster and Oenabroek m the places, and to March 
26, 1642, as the time, of meeting of the oongreseea 
Ferdinand, however, was very loath to commit 
hiinseU to a definite neeotdatiim till tbe success 
of his sinia, the hope of succour from Spain, or 
a dkange in the French policy, should give him less 
the positioa of a beaten opponent willing to accept 
iJmost say terms; and lie " ■ . - ■ 


from time to tine till hu hopei of raooouT hkd 
Tuiished. In IBM, the congneies opened ; the two 
places of meetinK ^'^ing been cluwaa to avoid any 
rivaby between Fiance and Sweden for aupremacy, 
to prevent any colliaion between the Swedish 
repreaentatiTca and the pope, aod to aqtarate the 
CatholicB frotn the Proteattuibh The repreaen- 
tativea of Franca, the Empire, Spain, and the 
Catholics of Germany, met at Mlknater nnder the 
mediation of the pope, and those of Sweden, the 
Empire, and the Protestants of Gennany onder the 
mediatioa of the king of Denmark ; the repreeenta- 
Uvea <^ Spain, P<^:u^al, tiie United I^vincea, 
Savoy, Tnsoany, Lorrame, Maatoa, and Switzer- 
land being also present ; BO tiuit Uiifl congress 
included ill the gi«at Eora^iean powers except 
Britain, and almost all the minor powers. As the 
conflict was still earned on witA nndiminished 
vigour, the inclination of forttme to one side was 
the signal for excessive demands, which were met 
on the oUier side by evasive propceala ; and it 
WM not till Torstensohn'i deoeive campaign of 
X644 — tS46 that n^otiations commenced iii earnest, 
and the repreaentatives made specific proposi- 
tion*. The ancceases of Turenne and Wrangel 
in Southern Germany, and the capture of Prague 
by the Swedes under KOnigsmarli in July 1648, 
at length overcame all the emperor's dilatori- 
nesa, and, the Osnabmclc representatives having 
arrived at Monster a few dajs befote, the treaty 
was finally signed at Mila^ter, 24th October IMS, 
Its tonus, as regards the Genoanio Empire, were aa 
follows: The sovereigaty and iudepeDdence of the 
different states of the empire were tiilly recognized, 
and liberty was given them to contract any alUuicea 
with each other, or with foreign powers, if these 
were not against the emperor or the empire ; all 
religious peiBecation in Qermaiiywas forbidden; the 
traa^ of Paaaau and the religious peace of 1555 were 
confirmed ; and with respect to the secularisatioii of 
ecclesiastical benefices, eveiTthing was to rem^n in 
Austria as it was in 1624 (hence called the norjnat 
uear), and in the Paginate, Baden, aod WUrtem- 
berg as it WM in 1S16 ; the power of putting under 
theban of the empire was only to be cierctaed with 
consent of the diet ; and the Beformed were pat 
on a footingof eqtulity as to privileges with the 
Lfltitetans. The t^ritorial changes were as follows : 
the Lower Palatinate was restored to the eldest son 
of the unfortunate * Winter King ' (Frederick V., 
Elector Palatine), and an eighui electorate was 
created in his favour, bat the Upper Palatinate and 
Cham were given to Bavaria, on condition that, 
should the two states became united, one electorate 
was to be abolished (as happened in 1777, see 
BA.VA&U) ; part of Alsace was ceded to France ; 
tipper Pomerania, Rngen with Stettin, Gartz, 
Damme, Golnan, the isle of Wollin, Peine, Schweine, 
and Divenau in Lower Pomerania, Wismar, the 
secularised archbishopric of Bremen as a ducl^, 
and the bishoprio of Verdun as a principality, were 
obtained by Sweden as fiefs of the empire, with 
three delit»rative vmces in the diet, and an indem- 
nification of 5,000,(K>a crowns to be paid by the 
empire ; Brandienbutg obtained, as compensation for 
its cessions in Pcanetania, the seodszised arch- 
l^shopric of Magdebon is a duchJ^ and thebishop- 
rics ot Halbentadt, ^'"<''", and Camin ; fionover 
and li[eaklenbiii|g were compensated for ueir share 
in these ceouons by seculaiised church lands ; and 
Heue-Caasel obtained the rich abbacy of Hiischf eld, 
with fiOO.CKIO thalers. The independence of the 
United ProriiicM wm recoguued w Spain, and that 
of Switzerland by the Empire, The pope's agent, 
Fabio Chigi (afterwards Pope Alexander vIL), pro- 
tested vigoreody against the liberal alienation of 

^ Denmaik's mediation bdng stopped by 
hia war with Sweden in 1644, the trea^ was con- 
cluded under the sole mediation of the Bepoblic oE 
Venice, and Prance aud Sweden became goaiantees 
for its execution. France, Sweden, and the Fro- 
teatanta were the only gainers by this treaty, 
which, by weakening the great central authority of 
the empire, destroyed its unity, allowed France, as 
one of the guarantees, a pretext for continual inter- 
ference witii its internal affaiia, and gave the txngi 
dt graee to the independence of the remainii^ fru 
cities of the empire 

WEST POINT, Bite of the United SUtes Milltaiy 
Academy, and of a fortress erected during the War 
of Independence, on the right bank of the Hndson 
Biver, S2 miles north of New York. The Militaiy 
Academy ii on a plain, 160 to 160 feet above 

taken by the Biitiah in 

1TT7, bnt abandoned after Burgoyne*! surrender, 
and stronger forts were built, which General Arnold 
bargained to betaiy— a plot foiled by the arrest 
of Major Andre. The academy was estabUahed 
in ISOS, for 40 cadet artilterists and 10 engineem. 
The number was increased, in 1S08, to 156; in 
1812, to 250. It is governed by a boatd of five 
visitors and a staff of 41 professon and teachera. 
The education is free— each pnpil engaging to serve 
eight years. Each member of congress has the 
ri^t to nominate one cadet from his district, and 
ten are appointed by the president. The courM of 
study and discipline is four yean : (1) mathematics, 
engiiieerinB, fencing, bayonet-exercise, aohoo! of the 
soldier; (2) mathematica, French, fencing, tactica of 
infantry, artilleiy, and cavalry ; (3) natural philos- 
ophy, chemisby, drawing, riding, tactics ; (4) mili- 
taiy and civil engineenng, mmeralogy, geolo^, 
chemistry, law, literatore, practical military engin- 
eering, tactics. 

WE'STPOKT, a small seurart town of Connaught, 
Ireland, county Mayo, stands in a pretty valley at 
the mouth of a siiuiU stream that falls into Clew 
Bay, about 35 miles north-north-west of Golway. 
Formerly W. was supported principally by linen 
manufa<^ures ; bnt it is now known mostly for its 
trade in com and provisions, and for its facilitiea 
ica sea-bathing. In the immediate vicini^ is the 
" ' -.-." £g^ hirii, from which 

B entered and deared the port Pop. (1861) 

WEST PEUS8IA. See Pbhssu, Thtrrmfx or. 

WETSTEIN, the name of a Swiss familr 
illostrioua for the talents and leaning of lis 
membera, originally from Eybnrg, in the canton 
of Zurich. Anumg the more noteworthy are — 
(1.) JoH. Jaxob W., bom at Basel in 11^ who 
was first in the service of the Venetian state. 
In 1620, he became a member of the Supreme 
Council of his native town; represented Switzer- 
land at the Peace of Westphalia (1648) ; was raised 
to the rank of a noble in 1663, and died in 1666. 
—(2.) JoH. Bud. W., son of the preceding, was 
bom at Basel in 1614, and died there in 1SS3, 
professor of theology. He was a great i^)ponect of 
the introduction i^ the Formula Coiuentiu, and 
assisted Suicer in drawing up his The*avrxu Eedtti- 
atliau. — (3.) JoK. Bdu W., son of the ueced- 
ing, bom at Basal in 1647, and died there in 
1711 ; also profeaaor of theology, fsTourably known 
as an early editor of Oiigax— But the most dia- 
tanguiahed member of the family ia Joh. Jal 


W, BOn of Joh. Bni --, , „„, . .._ 

bom at Bual, Ml March 1693: After a thorongh 
■tod^ of tba daiaica, Hebrew, philoBophy, and 
m«aMtiiaticB, be ma nwde a PhJ). at the age at 1& 
F«ar Tcan later, ha becaaM a miidBter, ud nve 
himadf np *- *' ^^ ' "■- " — -n— l-_?._i. 

lauf np to the atndf o( the New Teatament. 
1717, ne began to nve leeeone id theology at 
■aia.Ytxm.ty of Baael, and continued to do so 
until 1730, when [being nm^ected of Socinianiam) 
he WBi foreed to leave Switzerland. He tooght 
an aajlnm in Holland, where the lUmonitiKilta 
appointed him pre* 
in 1733. Ha diei 
great woric ii hia edition of Uib New Teetamen^ 
with jotilegiRnena, a collection of nuioiu readingi, 
and I^tin notea (2 vols., Amst 17S1— 1752). Ite 

iblication marki an epcxA in the history of New 
c riti c ia m. Sender reprinted the pro- 
M addituRM (Halle, lf6*). 
Db. See Di Wvftx. 

WETTER, LiKM, after Lake Wener (q. v.), the 
laraext lake in Sweden, lies in Gothlaad, abont 2S 
milea •ontb-eaat of Lake Wener in direct line. It 
ia 70 mileB long, 13 miles in average breadth, ha« 
an area of SCO sq. m., ia 370 feet in greattat depth, 
and ia 300 feet above the level of the Baltic It 
receiTM about 90 malltribatarieaithoiuhitawatrafi 
have onlv one outlet, the MotalaRiver, which, flowing 
eastwara, maintatnt the oonunonieation of the lake 
with the Baltaa Ita waters are clear, and of a beau- 
tafnl green colonr, and it is snrrounded by loft^ 
roniMitio shorea, almost unbroken by bays. It la 
renarkaUe foe an itregolar alternation of rimn;- 
and fallinga, and for an occadoual ondnlation, whii_ 
iiao n^iia and violent OH to break the thick aheet of 
ice with which it ia covered in winter. An intricate 
chain irf email lake*, contiaued westward ~ 
Canal, ocnnecti Lake W. with Lake 
thna with the Cattesat. I^ke W. contains few 
islandi^ and of these tiie chief iaWiiingsS, IJ ndlea 
kng by ) mik broad. 

W IB ITEUHORN (Peak of Tei^iesta), a lofty 
noantain of the Bemeae Oberland, Switzerland, on 
the east side of ths Oiindelwald, and about 10 miles 
aonth-ea>t of the Lake of Briena. From the path 
by which it ia aaeended, it rises in one vast prccipir- 
ol alpine limeatone, seeming to threaten the travetle 

VBTZtiAB, a small town of Bhenish Prusaia, 
chamuKfdy aitoated on the I^bn, 40 niiles north 
«f Ftanuort-on-the-Maine. Part of its old cathedral 
iasaid to dat« from the 11th oeotuiy. W. is notable 
•« the acene of the Bvrroie* qr WarOttr. Pop. 


WKXVOBD, a maritime oonnty of the province 
of L«inater, Iidand, is bounded on the N. by the 
connty of Wicklow, on theSl by the English Channel, 
on ttm 8. bL*^ Atlantic, and on the W. by the 
coonttes of Waterford, Kilkenny, and Carlow. Its 
greatest length north and soath ia S6 miles, and its 
gKateat breadth east and west ia 34 miles. The 
total area cmuptise* 900 tq. bl, or S76,616 acrea, 
of which 610,702 are amble, 46,601 nncnltivated, 
14,3ZS in pUatatioa^ 2392 in towns, and 8668 
midcr water. The inp. in 1861 was 143,816, of 
whom 130,103 wen Bomon Catholics, 12,769 Pro- 
teatanta of the Brtablished Church, and the rest 
ftotestaata of otber denomtnatioiis. The ooost-line 
«l W^ whidi extendi (rom Eilmichael Point to the 
erttuty <f the Snir, Waterford Harbour, is irrwilar, 
aad TBrrdangeroni for shipping. From the above- 
named Point to Wexford Harbonx tbete is no 

obatraoted by a bar, it ofTen little eecnritr in 
boisterous weather. The coast from the aonuern 
headland of Wejtford Harbour, Roeslare Point, to the 
month of the Snir, prcaenta a succession of bays ood 
headlands. The headland called Camsore Point 
is the south-eastern extremity of Ireland. Parallel 
with the northern coaat-hae, at a distance of a few 
miles, is a range of sandbanks; nad the aouthenk 
shores are beset by outlying rocks and islets, which, 
although somewhat guan£d by light-houses and 
light-ships, frequently prove fatij to shipping. The 
greater part of tne surface is tolerably level, but some 
detached hills rise io considerable elevation. The 
mountains of the border are much more devated, the 
hi^eit point of the Blackstairs being 2409 feet ; and 
of Mount Leinster, ZfilO. There are few lakes, and 
these of small size. Theprincipalriveris theSIauey, 
which for some distance ia the bonndaty between 
•or __ifi__, i... . . , -^^ near Newtownbairy, 
orthy into the sea in Wex- 
„ ological structure, W. be- 
longs to ths eastern clay -slate tract, which stretches 
in a Bonth-weeterly direction from the north of 
Wicklow to the AtloDttc, and which extends acrou 
the level distiicts as far ai the granite range 
separating W. from Carlow. Granite is found m 
the Bouth-eost of the county, and in some of the 
detached hills, as are also beds of greenstone. 
Silver was fonoerly raised near a pUce called 
Clonmines, where traces of an ancient mine are 
still seen, and galena has been found in the same 
place. Copper ore is found at a place called Ker- 
logue, near W., and plumbago and asbestos have 
been discovered near Euniscorthy ; but none of these 
minerals has been mised with proGt. The climate 
is said to be BingulaTt^ temperate, and ilie distriot, 
as being sheltered by its nioantain border, is con- 
sidered more suitable, in pobt of temperature, for 
agiicultore than the adjacent comities of Carlow 
and Kilkenny, although infarior in fertility of soil. 
The total acreage under crops, in 1362, waa 
""5,826 : of which 21,881 was under wheat ; 66,899 

ts; 39,816 barleyj G911 beans; 24,284 potatoes; 

,370tnrmpB; 2107 mangold wurzel; 66,404 meadow 
and clover, and the rest minor crops ; only 68 acres 
being under fiax. The annual value of property 
in W., under the Valuation Act, is £371,072. There 
are but few and inconsiderable manufactures, and 
the trade is chiefly in the export of agricultorol pro- 
duce, especially bariey ; butter, cattle, pigs, jwnltJjr, 
and eess are also exported in large qnoatities. W. 
is divi&d into nine baronies. The principal towns 
are Wexford (q.v.), Enniscorthy, New Soss, and 
Qorey ; Newtownbarry and Toghmon also deserve to 
be noticed, as each having a population of about 
1000; and Duncannon, aluiongh now very incoD- 
siderable in size, for the sake of its anient lort and 
interesting historical 
position of W. laid it open earh .... 
the Danes, to whom the name Weitord, or Woisf ord, 
is traced by antiquaries. It was the first landing- 
place of the Englisli in the invasion, and formed part 
of the tntct gnnted by MacMorrough to the English 
odventDTen whoae awtstanee he had invoked. By 
the marriage of Stnnigbow with Eva, MacMwrough's 
daughter, a cane into his handa ; and after the por- 
*'^''>ti of hia hmda aznong his daughters at his death, 
nndarwent muiy cEanges OL maaters. During 
the civU wars which followed 1641, W. was the 
scene of frequent contests ; and in the more recent 
insnrrection of 1798, it formed the theatre of the 
only formidable conflicts of the peasantry with the 
regular troops. There are numerona rehcs of anti- 
quity, Celtio 0* well as Ancdo-Nonnan, in almost 
[nrt ot the oonn^. Upwards of a hundred 
still tnceabb, and many ecclesiasticBl 

oastiaa . 

Li, l i....>L.OOg 'l 


nDuiiM, of irhich the monuteiiea of Danbrody, 
Tiutern, Rois, and some otbera mre not odwotUit 
of the best dajs of medieval Krchilect[ir& W. 
return* four members to tlie imperial HrliMueat, 
two for the county at large, one for the bor 
of Wexford, and one for that of New Bom. 

WEXFORD, capital of the county of that 
name, a eeaport, and porliamentaiy Bad monicipal 
burf^ ia situated at the monUi of the river 
filoney, 74 milea aouth from Dublin, with whioh 
it communicatee bj the Wicklow, Wexford, and 
Waterford Railway, complete oa ffir M EnaiB- 
oorthy. The pop. in 1861 was 12,016, of whom 
11,273 were Boman Catholics, 6*9 Frotettanta of 
the Established Church, and the rest ProtoBtants of 
oUier denominationa. The town is Eitosted on the 
south-western shore of the eato&ry of the Slaney, 
which is known as Wexford Harbour, and along 
which tho quay extends nearly 1000 yards, fonning 
a ipacions and not inelegant terrace. Behind this, 
the town extends in two nearly parallel streets. 
Here are two Protestant, and Uiree Catholic 
churches. Of the latter, two are modum and hand- 
some stractures. One of the former, 8t Sdsker's, 
is ancient, part of its walls dating fnmi the ^glish 
invasion. There are also a Presbytaian, a Methraist, 
and a Quaker meeting-hoose ; a coavent of FnuciB- 
con Friars, a nunnery, a Roman Catholic collie, and 
National, Christian Brothers', and con veatual schools. 
Besides the union workhoose, there are also an infir- 
mai7 and a fever hospitoL The only monnfao- 
torea of any importance porsaed ore thoie of distil- 
latioQ and the gnnding of com ; the chief industry of 
the town being in connection with the export bide 
of the county, already described. The position of W. 
for export tnide, favourable in itself, is maoh man«d 
by the shaUownees and intricate character of tlie 
channel of the Slaoey, which has the farther diiad- 
Tontage of being obstructed by a bar. Qreat efforts 
have been made for its improvement^ a patent slip 
and dock have been constructed, and an active 
■hipping-trade is carried on. The W. fisheries also 
have long been reckoned among the most valuable 
on the eastern coast The town is extremely ancient, 
and was occupied by the Danes u one of their 
strongest settlements. From the tine of the inva- 
sion, it became an WngTi^h stronebold against tho 
native population. During the civil wars of 1641, 
it was occupied by the craifederated Catholics, but 
was taken by Cromwell in 1644. The insurgents of 
1798 also had possesaion of it for a short time. W. 
returns one member to Uie imperial parUament. Its 
munidpal ofEuni are managed by a coiporation, 
with a levenne from borough rates of £1260. 

WBT'HODTH, a township of Massachusetts, 
C S., on Boston Arbour, twelve milea south-soutii- 
esst of Boston, on South Shore Bailway, containing 
the fishing and coasting village of Weymouth I^nif 
ing, and Ihe monufaohiring village* of East Wey- 
mouth and South WeymoutJi, with latm factories of 
nail^ boots and ahoea, &e. Pop. in 1860, 774^ 

•eaport, a hshionable vratering-place, and a moni- 
cipal oikd parliamentary boron^ of Donetahire, on 
a t>end of Hie ooast faqiig the south-east^ and at 
the month of tho river Vfiy, thrse mile* north of 
the isle of Portland, and eight miles sonth of Dor- 
cheatet by railway, seven in a straight line. A pro- 
jecting point, called the Nothe, separate* the two 

extending to the north, aikd facing the 

two quarters conunnnjeate by means ol a image 

_;*k . *~ug in the middle, to pennit the passage 

with a 

Id town is nnintereatdng in appear- 

an«e ; Uelcombe-Bt^ elegantiy built, stands on s 
nuTOW peniosola, with tiie sea on the east, ssd in 
estuary on the west side. Its chief features ara Iht 
sea-teinoe and esplanade, the latter odonied with s 

foil tide, and in tiie bay there 
in seven or eight fathoma. Fortlai^ Harbour, miw 
in prooeaa of completion, will be a tooroe o( ff*»i 
trade to the town. W.-and-M. ia the seat of tttim- 
tn£Bc to the Channel Islands. Ship-buildinA tope 
and sail making, and the export of Fortlsnd stoM 
and Koman cement, employ the great moia of the 
inhabitants. The town la connected with tbe Gtsit 
Western and Londoa and South-western Bailwsji, 
and there is one in coorae of oonstraction to comiect 
it with PorUand Isle. Pop. (1861) 11,383. 

WHAIiB, the popolor name of the Isrnt 
c«ta|Ceans, particnlarly of all those belonging to hk 
families Balanida and PhyteUrida or (SitMontiia. 
The latter faniily has already been notioed in tlie 
article Caobolot, and some of the species of Dd- 
jAinida, also sometimea called whales, have been 
described in separate articles, as the Cauho Whali 
and the Belctoa. The Bt^imida alone remain to 
be described now. In this family, the head is ol 
' ^ as in tiie Calodoalida, but ii 

Jsws of Oreenland Whale, ihewing tlie Baleen. 

entireljr destitntfl of teeth, instead ol whitJi, tbe 
palate is furnished with an apparatus of baJSM, or 
whalebone, for the purpose oE straining out of Uie 
water the small cmataceAos and acaleplue, which 
form the food of these whales. Budiment* of teeth, 

however— dental pulps— ^ipear in the foBttu of the 
whale— dxty or aenenty on eadi sid« of each jaw ; 
but tbey u« te-absorbed into the syitam. ftnd tbe 

C' its* of whalebone are not prodaoed ttita them, 
t from the integuments. 

The fibrous structure of baleen, or wkaUbom, its 
elasticity, and its heavinen^ an well known. Tbe 


plates of it in the month of b W. are Teiy nuine- 
rons, leveral hnndreilB on each aide of the mouth, 
and the}* are very cloaeljr |Jaced together, ao that 
the mouth is filled with them ; the vhole quantity 
in the mouth of a large W. lometiineB amount- 
ing to nearly two toaa in weight. They are 
pended from tlie roof of the mouth ; none pn 
from the lower jaw. They extend on each side from 
the middle line of the palate, like the btrbe of a 
feather ; those in the middle of the month are longest. 
The base of each plate is embedded in tite mibstanoe 
of Uie monbrano that covers the palate, whilst its 
e<^ forms a loose fringe, compoaed of fibr«e or 
pliant brisUes. The vastmonUl being; opened, water 
IS taken in ; and the small f '""1" which ent«r with 
it beins retained for food, the water is hllowed to 
escape by the Bid«s of the month. 

The tongue i> a soft thick mass, not extending 
beyond the Mck of tile month. The gullet of whales 
is very narrow ; it is said not to be more than an 
inch and a half in diameter even in a lar^ W., so 
that only very small «.nitn»l« can pus through it. — 
The head of whales occupies from a third to a fourth 
of the whole length. The skull is unsymmstrioal, the 
right side being larger than the left. The flesh is 
red, firm, and coarae. The skin is naked, with the 
exception of a few bristles aboat the jaws, and ite 
Btirface is moistened by an oily fluid. The lower 
surface of the tme ekia extends into a thick layer of 
btvbber, an open network of fibres in which fat is 
held. The blubber is from a foot to two feet in 
tbicknen, the whole mass in a large W. some- 
tixnes weighing more than thirty t«Ds, and serres the 
porpoae A keeping the auinuu warm, as well as of 
nmhing the s^ieclflo gravity of the whole body much 
lighter than it would otherwise be, and of resisting 
tbe pressure of the water in tbe great depths to 
wtidi it often descends. 

Tlie skin of whales is always infested witii 
parasites ; malloscs adhere to it ; certain kinds of 
cirrbopods burrow and live in it ; and orustaceans, 
auch as the Whale-louse (q. v.] attach themselves to 
H, and feed upon it 

It has been attranpted to calcolate the age of 
whales from tbe transversa lines on the plates of 
baleen, and in this way it has been oompnted that 
they attain tiie age of 800 or 900 years, each trans- 
verse line beiiie assumed to indicate an anniud check 
of growth ; but it is evident that there is no good 
ground for the assumption on which such calculation 

In the genns Balma tliere is no dorsal Gn, nor 
elevation d the back corresponding to it, as in some 
of tlie family. The belly is smoofli, not platted, as 
in tbe other genera of tJie family. The most im- 
portant species, and indeed the most important of 
all the whales, is that known as the Bight W., or 
Gbskhl&xd W. {B. myilKetnt). It inhabits the 
seas of the northern parts of the world, and aboonds 
chiefly in the arddc regions. It is sometimes seen 
on the coasts of Britain, and even in more southern 
Lttitudes. It attains a size of sixty or seventy feet 
in length. The body is thickest a little behind the 
flipptrt, or pectoral fins, tapering oonicslly towards 
Uie tail, and slightly towards the head. The tail is 
five or six feet ^ns, and from twenty to twenty-five 
feet broad ; formed of two diverging lobes, broikdest 
almost where they are united, but with a slight in- 
dentation. The pectoral fins are eight or nine feet 
long, and four or five feet broad. The month is 
fifteen or sixteen feet long. The eyes, which are 
sitiuited on the sides of the head, about a foot above 
and rather behind the angles of the month, are not 
larger than tboee of an ox ; but the sense of ligbt 
seems to be acute, at least in the water. The iris ia 
wbite. The blow-holes are situated an the mo«t 

elevated part of the head ; they are from eight to 
twelve inchca long, but of comparatively amall 
breadth. The upper parte are velvety black, tiie 
lower parts white. The upper parts, in very old 
whales, sometimes become piebald, the black being 
mixed with white and gray. The period of gestation 
is uncertain ; one young one is produced at a birtii, 
and is from ten to fourteen feet in length when 
bom. The Diother displays great aSection for her 
ofispring, of which whsle-iishers sometimes take 
undue advantage, harpooning the young one — itself 
of little value — in n-der to secure the mother. 
Suckling is performed at the smface of tbe water, 
and the mother rolia from sido to side, that she and 
the young one may be able to breatiie in turn. The 
usual rate of progress in swimming is about four or 
five miles an hour, and whales often swim not far 
beneath the surface of the water, with the mouth 
wide open to take in water from which to sift food. 

Greenland or Right Whale (Duiana mytiicau*). 
The W. ia capable, however, of nrimmiiig with 

is extremely powerfnC and a single blow of it is 
sufficient to destroy a large boat, or toss it and its 
crew into the air, so that the whale-fishery is attended 
with no little danger. Whales ninally come ia the 
surface to breathe at intervals of eight or ten 
minutes, but they are capable of remaining nnder 
water for half an hour or more. When they come 
np to breathe, they generally remain on the sorface 
.bout two minutes, during which they blow eight or 
line times, and then descend. The noise which they 
sake in blowing is very load, and the spout of wator 
ejected ascends several yards into the air, appearing 
at a distance like a puff of smoke. They often 
assume, as if in sport, a vertical podtion, with the 
head down, and nap tbe surface of tbe water with 
the tail, making a sound which is heard two or three 
mites ofT. The Greenland W. is not properly 
gregarious, being generally found alone or in pain, 
except when numWrs aro attracted to particular 
feeding-grounds, as is sometimes tbe case in the 
bays and inlets of northern coasts. 

It was formerly supposed that the Greenland W. 
was an inhabitant of the southern as well as of the 
northern parte of the world ; but the Socisziu' or 
Capb W, (B. atietralia] is now regarded as a dis- 
tinct speoies, the head being flmaUer in proportion 
than that of its northern oonsener, and the oolour a 
nniform black. It attains the length of 60 or 60 
feet. It is nsnally found in comparatively shallow 
water near coasts. It occurs not only in Uie colder 
parts of the southern hemisphere, but tbrongliout 

_.. ,. . . . „ B, auil its raiigB extendi into the 

tropio. It baa been taken even m fir north u 
Japan. Iti capture ii prosecuted to » coiuiderkble 
extent, particnlarlr on the cotuts of South Africa 
and New Zealand although this whale-fiaheiy ia 
not nearly bo important as that of the northern 
seas. Seventl other spedefl of SaiiBna, have been 
described, bat the; ore imperfectly ascertained and 
chaTsctensed, specimena not often i^ming under 
Vba obaerratioii of competent nAtoralista in aperfeot 
state. The Nordiapfr of the Iceiandets Hsa by 
some natnraJiits been dtscribed as a distinct Bpedos, 
althoogh it is more generally regarded as a Ta~' '~~ 
of B. myetiutus. It differs, however, from the 
mon vj^iety in hanng the body more slender and 
the head propottiooally smaller ; the nnder jaw 
very ronnd, deep and broad ; and the plates of 
baleen comparatively short It is of a gray colour 
the lower part of the head of a brilliaDl white. II 
is said to be more active and more fieroe than the 
Common W., bo that its capture is attended with 
greater danger. 

The species of the genua Mega 
Eini^BACKSD WaAUsa, and by wl 
narily ffump-badci. They have a rudimentary 
dorsal fin, in the form of an elevation of the back. 
There are several species, but some of them are very 
imperfectly known. Jf. longimana, so called from 
the length of the pectoral fins, is found in the North 
Sea, and is included in the British fauna. M. Ame- 
ricana, the BKBimiA Hcmp-b*ckkd W., oocutb 
chiefly about the Bermudas, from which Its baleea 
is extensively imported. Another species, M. Pae- 
hop, occurs at the Cape of Good Hope. 

The genua Baitenoptera, Phj/iaiiui, or JtorqwiIiA 

_ . „ . , having a dorsal fin. 


AH the species of the«e genera are objects of pur- 
suit to whide-fiBhen, although the Greenland W. 
is that which 'Uiey prefer. 

Important as the W. is to civilised man, both 
for the oil and the whalebone which it yields, ' 
atill more important to the rude nativefl of aj 
regioni, as the Eeauimaux and Qieenlanders, who 
twe its oil for food as well as for burning, and to 
whom its flesh also is a chief article of food ; while 
its hones and baleen are used for making tents, 
sledges, boate, hoipoons, and spean ; the sinews 
sup^y a substitute for twine or thread ; and the 
membranes are used instead of giost for Mondows 
There is no essential difference in the way in which 
Ibe capture of wholes is prosecuted by the rudest 
tribe* and the mc«t civilised nations. The whale- 
flshen approach the whale in boats, and attack it 
bj faarpoons to which lines are affixed, following up 
Md lepeatitig the attack, until its strength is ei 
haufted, taking advaataee of tho neoeaaity which i 
ezperiencM of coming at intervals to the surface to 
breathe, and finally Killing it with lances, which 

flattened barbs. Muiy modifieationB have been 
made, the moat important perhaps being the gun- 
harpoon. The ordinary ha^wons are attached to a 
loDR hne at the oppcute end to the barbed point, 
ana when the bmit is near eooagh to the W., 
the man whose duty it it dart* or plunge* the 

weapon with all his force into tiw aDiaaTa sida 
In its fleeing from the attack, the tine is t»)>)d1« 
drawn out ^ the boat, until the creature it tired, 
and risee to the surface for air.