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lOBRADCR (Port lara labarador, ' coltinble 
bad "X the name ({[iven by certain Fortugueae dii- 
aiTBvn tn the continnitil ooMt of Amerie* new 
NrvfooiidlAod \ & naiae aa inAppropriato afl that 
of Gnaland > The name p%Aaai\j cime to be 
ertoddl fmrn ths Strait of Belleiile to HndBOn'a 
Stnit, bong sometiiiia canied m far wettward ai 
" ' " ." . 'i Baj. More properly, 

inly «uch portiona of that 
it peoiaiola tm do not fall nrithin the chartered 
^"~"i of the Hud*oa'i Bay Company (q. v.), by 
■rater into Hudion's Strait or Hudaini i 
this natrictol aenw, the country itretches 
ja :i. UL from about 52* to about 60*. and in 
V. long, froin about 65° to npvardi of 65* ; area, 
%m raoare miles; pop. SOOa Of this exteuaive 
tiKitry the interior i> little known ; bat i« under- 
stood to be moBtly an impenetrable ivildemeH of 
mnipi and forests. The maritime bordt ' ~ ~ 

..„..._ ._ ... .n 600 feet, and 
OB the DoTth Imrn 1000 to 1500 feet), is not 
TiAoBt ita value. The tea ii here far len anbjeet 
lo focn than it ii it> the neighboorhood of New- 
foradUnd, where the warm watcre of the Florida 
Stmis meet the cold carrents from the north ; and 
■ it ii cnastaatly Btmptied from the polar ice, its 
taipenton' ii remarkably favoarable both to the 
qnastiiy and the quality of its fiah. Of the entire 
popvlalion of L.. 4000 are Ewjuimaux, who are 
■fitted on the gnlfa and creeki of the coast, and who 
nhnit chiefly by Cahing. Many European eatab- 
Itdunnta also have >prung ap on the coast, aome 
- tttbe m. inch as the Moravian aettli 
°i>niB)trdil parauiCa with miiaiouai; labaura. Thi 

ai purauiui wito miaaiouaiy labouia. The 
pnanpa] mujdoDary stations are Nain (founded 
mil. Okak (1776). Hebron (1S30), and Hopeothal 
(ITBSt. The tiaheriea employ, in the season, nearly 
■ODD d«ked veswla, belonging partly to the British 

iM^porto C( 

and seal-oil — the annual amnnnt being estimated n1 
fully £600,000 sterling The climate, like that ol 
North America generally, ia subject to great vicissi- 
tndes. In summer, the thermometer ranges as high 
as 85* Fahr. ; in winter, the temperature, and that 
in nearly the same latitndes as the British lalea. falla 
3D* below the freezing- point. L. is a dependency 
of the United Kin^nm, but it has never had s 
separate government of its own. being considered 
sometimes as an appendage of C^anada, and some- 
times as an nppendage of Newfoundland. It ia at 
present believed to be iu the latter position. 

variety of Felspar (q. v.|. common as a constituent 
of duleritc. grccnatone. the gabliro, and hypersthene 
rocks. It consists of about 53 per cent of silica, 
and 29 alamina, with 12 lime, and a little soda and 
pcroiida of iron. It is cut into snuff-boies and 
other articles ; taking a tine polish, and often 
exhibiting rich colours, not unfrequentl; aeveral 
in the same piece, when the light foils on it in 
particular directions ; the gennal coloor being 
gray. It was firat discovered by the Moravian 
ries in the island of St Panl, on the 
Labrador. It has been found in meteorio 

LA'BRIDJB, a family of oMeooa fishes, ranked 

by Cavier in the order Aauohoplery^ (□. v.), by 
MUUer in his new order, PharyngognaiM (q. v.).. 
They are divided by MQller into two families, 
Cteno-l(JiridiX and Cyiiytairridia, the former luiTing. 
ctenoid, the latter, cycloid acalea ; the former com- 
paratively a small, the latter, a v«ry numerous, 
family. They are generally oval or oblong, and. 
more or less comprcsaed, with a sinsle dor^ flu,, 
spinous in front, and the jaws covereilby fleshy 11;^. 
Their colon™ are Benerally brilliant They abonrnV 
chiefly in tropical seas, but twelve or thirteen 
■pedes are found on the British coasb^ none of 
them latKB. nor esteemed tor food. "Die mcrt' 
valnable id the family is tba Taotog (q.T.) of North' 



America. To thia funily belong tlie Wra»ieii tuiil 
the PuTot-Oahe*, on« M wbich ia the oelebrated 
ScaruM of the Ancients. 

LABBUYERB, Jb*k dk, m French euthor of 
celebrity, psrticulu'ly noted for his nice and delicate 
delineations of dianictfr. He woa bom at Doiirdan, 
in Nomutndr, in l&M or 1646, was brought to 
the I^nch court at tbe recommendatian of Bosauet, 
ftod become one of the tutois of the Dauphin, whose 
edocation Fenelon Baperintended. He spent the 
whole remainder of hia life at court, in the enjoy- 
ment of > pension, and in (he moat iatimato iot«r- 
ooune with the moet oocompUabed men of hi> (dme. 
The work an which his high reputation rest«, Let 
Caraclira de TMopkraMe, traduUt dii Orec, atiec 
Ut Caractiru ou let Mcsun da a Siidt (Par. ISST), 
bos gone thnHuh many edition!, aome of them 
annotated. Hid luB been translated into aererol 

LABIJA'N, a member of the Malayan Archi- 
pelago, lies about thirty milee off the oortJl-west 
ooaat of Borneo, tt meaaurea ten miles by five, and 
the latitude and longitude of ita centre ore 5° 22* N., 
and 115° Iff B. SmaU a* it ia, it ia peculiarly 
Taluable. Besides posssaaing a good harbour, it 
contains an eztensive bed of excellent coal, which ia 
worked by a recently formed company of British 
ca^ntolists ; and having become, in 1S46, a British 
posseasion, it bids fair, aa well from ita political 
connection as from its natural advantages, to be a 
nucleus of civilisation tor the whole of the surround- 
ing islands. Already it has been erected into a see 
of the Church of England. 

LABU'ENUM [C^timt (q. v.) iaiurNum], a 
nnall tree, a native of the Alpa and other moan- 
taini of the south of Europe, much planted in 
■hrubberiea and ple&sure-giounda in Britain, on 
account of its gloesy foliage and ita large pendolnus 
rooemes of ydlow ftowen, which ore produced 
in great abundanoe in May and June. It is 
often mixed with lilac, and when the latter pre- 
ponderat«a, the combination has a fine effect. In 
favourable circumstanoea, L. aoi 

J of Scotland. It is of rapid growth, yet it 

wood is hard, fine-grained, and very heavy, of . 

■dark.biown or colour, and much valued 
for, inlaying, and turnery, and for 
making knife-handleSi musical instnimenta, &c. The 

'leaves, bark, ka., and particularly the seeds, a 
nouseoiu and p<uaonotiB, cont-iinmg Cylidat, i 
emetic, purf^tive, and narcotic principle, which 
also found in many allied plants. Accidents from 
Ii seeds are not unfrequent to children ; but to 
hares and rabbits, L. is wholesome food, and they 
are ao fond of it, that the safety of other trees in a 
yoimg plantation may be insured by introducing L. 
plants in great number, which spring again from the 
mots when eaten down. — A tine variety of L., called 
ScOTCB L., by some botanists regarded as a distinct 
species [C. Alpiniu), is distinguished by broader 
leavee uid darker yellow flowers, which ore — 

' ttoced later in the aesaoa than those of the oom 
in" EttgtiA laburnum. 

LA'BTRINTH (a word of unknown origin, 
derived by some from Laboris, the name of an 
Egyptian monarch of the twelfth dynoaty), the 
name of some celebrated buildings of antiquity, 
ooDBiating of many chambers or pasaogea difficult to 
pass through without a guide, and the name hence 
appjiad to • eoofiued mass of construction*. In 

die Egyptian, the Cretan, and the itomiuir Xha 
first, or Egjrptian, of which the others seem to hav» 
b«en imitatioua. was situated at Crocodilonolis, close 

the lake Mori*, in the vicinity of the present 
pj^amid of Biakhmu. According to the cloiaical 
autbore, it was built by an Egyptian monarch named 
Peteeuchja, Tithoes. Imandes, Ismandes, Maindes, or 
Mendes. The recent discovery of tte remains of 
this building by Lensiiis has, however, shewn that 
the city was founded by Ameni-mha I., of the 
twelfth Egyptian dynasty, about 1800 B.a, and 
that this monarch was probablv buried in it, while 
the pyramid and sontb temple were erected by 
Amenemba III. and IV., whose ptmuomena reaembb 
the name of M<Bris, and their siater, Sebeknefru or 
Scemiophris, appears to have been the last aovereiga 
of the twelfth dynasty. Great confuaion prevaija 
in the ancient outhoritieB aa to the object of the 
building, which contained twelve pnlacea under 
one roof, supposed to have been inhabited by 
the Dodecarcliy, or twelve kings who conjointly 
reigned over Egypt before Psammetichus I. ; while, 
BGOording to other authorities, it was the place of 
aaaembly of the governors of the nomea or oiatrictB, 
twelve in number according to Herodotua, sixteen 
according to Pliny, and twenty-seven according to 
Strabo. It was built of polished stone, with many 
chambeia and passages, said to be vaulted, having 
a periatyle court with 3000 chambers, half oi 
which were uoder the earth, and the others above 
ground, which formed another story. The npper 
(jiamben were decorated with reliefs ; the lower 
were plain, and contained, according to tradition, 
the bodies pi the twelve founders of the building, 
and the mumniies of the sacred crocodiles, conferring 
on the building the character of a maiisoleom, 
probably conjoined with a temple, that of Sebok, 
the crocodiie-god, and so resembling the Serapeium. 
Herodotoa and Stjobo both visited thti edifice, 
which waa difficult to pass through without the aid 
of a guide. It stood in the midst of a great aqaare. 
Part was oonstructed of Parian marble — probably 
rather arragonite--and of Syenitic granite jtillan i 
had a staircase of ninety steps, and columns of 
porphyry ; and the opening of the doora echoed like 
the reverberation of tfamider. For a long time, 
great doubt prevailed whether any remains of the 
building existed, and it was supposed to have been 
overwhelmed by the waters of the lake Mceria ; and 
although P. Lucas and Letronno thought they hod 
discovered the site, ita rediscovery ia due to Lepsiaa, 
who found part of the foundations or lower cbaaben 
close to the site of the old Mceria Lake, or modem 
Birket-el.Ktrronn. According to PUny, it was 3600 
years old in his days. 

The second, or next in renown to the Egyptian, 
was the labyrinth of Crete, supposed to have been 
built by Diedolus for the Cretan monarch Minos, 
in which the Minotaur was imprisoned by his oidero. 
Although represented on the Cretan coins of Cnoaoa 
sometimes of a square, and at other times of a 
circular form, no remains of it were to be found 
even in times of antiquity, and ita existence was 
supposed to be fabulous. lie only mode of finding 
the way out of it waa by means of a hank or akein 
of linen thread, which gave the clue to the dwelling 
of the Minotaur. The tradition is supposed to have 
been baaed on the existenoe of certain natural 
caves or grottos, perhaps the remains of quarries, 
and it hu been supposed to have existed north- 
weat of the island, near Cnossns, while a kind of 
natural labyrinth stilt remains close to Gortynk. 
The idea is supposed to have been derived from Iks 




reniaiiu ihnt up in Om ceUi with the othet renilb 
of liKompoaitinn. 

The Binall twiffi, when well covered, are gathered 
hy the vatireii, and are placed in hot water, which 
loelts the reaioous matter, liberates the pieces of 
wood Ainl the remainB of the inaecta, and alao 
diwolvei the cnloitring natter, This is facilitated 
by k Heading the melted rcain wbiUt in the hot 
water; it is then taken out and dried, and is after- 
wards put into strong and very coarse cotton hags, 
which are held near enough to charcoal fires to 
melt the resin without huraing the hnfri. By twist- 
ing the ha^, the melted resin is then forced through 
the fabric, and received in thin curtain-like films 
upon Btri]« of wood. This hanlens as its surface 
l>«comea acted n]>OD by the air, nnd Wiog hroken off 
in fntf^enta, constitutes the shell-' ic of conmierce. 
The best sheU-lac is that which is most completely 
freed from impurities, and ajigiroaches most to a 
li^t omn^ brown colour. If the colouriug matter 
has not been weQ washed out, the rcain is often 
very dark, consequently, we liad the foUowing 
varieties in commerce -orange, garnet, and liver. 
Much that i> squeezed through the bags falls to 
the gronnd without touching the sticks placed to 
catch it ; ■mall quantities falling form button-like 
drops, which constitute the bullon-l/rc; whilst 
larger ones, from an inch to two or three inches 
in diameter, constitute the piale-tac of commerce. 
That known as Btick-tae is the twigs as they are 
gathered, but broken short for the convenience of 

Below the lac-bearine trees there is always a very 
considerable qsanlity of the resin in small particles, 
which liave been detached by the wind shaking and 
chaGng the branches; this also is collected, and 
constitutes the seed-hu: of our merchants. 

The water in which the stick-lac is first softened 
eontains. as before mentioned, the colouring matter 
of the dead insect. This is strained and evaporated 
nntil the residue is a pur[>1e sediment, which, wh<-n 
sufficiently dried, is cut in small cakes, about two 
mches square, and stamped nith certain trade- 
marks, indicating its quality. These are then fully 
dried, and packed for sale as ioc-dne, of which 
large quantities are useil in the production of scarlet 
cloth, such as that worn by our soldiers; for this 
piirposs, lac-dye is found very suitable. 

The lac insect is a native of Siam, Assam, 
Burmah, Bengal, and Malabar ; the lacs and lac-dye 
come chiefly &om Bombay, Pegu, aud Siam. During 
the last two or three yeais, the averac^e imports 
into Britain have amounted to about 610 tons oE 
the htc-dye, and 1120 bons of lac, including the 
varieties of shell, stick, aud seed Inc. | 

As we have no strictly analoi.'ous resin from the i 
vegetable kingdom, not even from the lac-bearing 
trees, it may be assumed that the juices of the 
trees are somewhat altered by the insects. The 
best analyses shew that shell-lac contains several 
peculiar resins. The great value of the Iocs is 
found in their ailaptability for the manufacture 
of varnishes, both in consequence of their easy 
solubility, and also becouse of the line hard coating, 
susceptible of high polish, which they eive when 
dry. The well-known 'French jxilish' is little more 
tlian ■hell-lao dissolved in alcohol ; and a fine thin 
varnish made of this material constitutes the lacquer 
with which brass and other metals are coated, to 
preserve their polish from atmos]>heric action. 

All the varieties of lac are translnccnt, and some 
of the finer kinds, which are in flakes not much 
tiiicker tiian writing-paper, are quite transparent, 
and all. as liefore stated, are colouml various shades 
of brown, from orange to liver. Nevertheless, if a 
quantity of shell-Uc bs softened by heat, it may, 

by continually drawing it oat into lengths, sad 
twisting it, be made not only quite white, but alio 
oi>aque ; in this state it has a beautiful rilky lustre ; 
and if melted and mixed with vennilion, or any 
other colouring matter, it forms some of the fancy 
kinds of sealing-wax: the more uaual kinds an, 
however, made by merely melting shell-lac vith a 
little turpentine and camphor, and mixing ths 
colouring matter. SheU-lac has the property of 
being leas brittle after the tiist melting than after 
subsequent meltings; hence the sealing-wax manu- 
factured in India has always bad a high reini- 
tation. and hunce also the extreme beauty aud 
durabihty of those Chinese works of art m l^ 
some of which are very ancient These are usuilly 
chow-chow boxes, tea-basins, or other amall objects 
made in wood or metal, and covered over witli a 
crust of lac, coloured with vermilion, which, whilst 
soft, is moulded into beautiful patterns. So rare 
and beautiful are some of these works, that even in 
China they cost almost fabulous pricea. 

LA'CCADIVES (called by the natives Lakant- 
Divh, i e., the Lakara Islands), a gronp of islands 
in the Arabian Sea, discovered by Vasco de Gama 
in 1499, lie about 190 miles to thewest of the Mala- 
uast of the wninaula 
..d in N. Ut between 

long, between 72" and 74°, - _. 

Being of coral formation, tliey are generally low, 
with deep water immediately round tbero, and ars 
therefore all the more daugerous to navigators. 
Pop, 7000; chief productions cocoa, rice, betel-niiti, 
sweet potatoes, and cattle of a small breed. The 
inhabitanta, who are called Mnptatji, are of Arabi.m 
origin, and in religion follow a sort of Moham- 
mManism. Tbey pay tribute, said to be ahiitiC 
£1000 a year, to the district <^ Cananore, in ths 
presidency of Madras. 

IiACEI, an ornamental fabric of linen, cotton, or 

:ei.tiiig ^ . ... 

mentioned at the end of thu article, is not known, 
nor is it known with any certainty when this art 
came into practice in Europe ; but there is gi^Kl 
reason to suppose that nuinl-fucr, the oldest varn-ly 
known, was the work of nuns during the latter lislf 
of the 14th and the beginning of the 15th centuHci. 
This poiot-loce is very charncteriBtic, and is tndy 
■n art production. The artistic character of the 
patterns, and Che wonderful patience and tab^ur 
shewn in carrying them ant, places them, as feniAio 
prDdncttoni, on a parallel with the decorative worki 
in stone, wood, and metal of the monks. They indi- 
cate no tiresome eflbrts to copy natural objecU, bnt 
masterly conceptions of graceful forma and tasb'fid 
combinations. The actual figures of the patten 
were cut out of linen, and over these foundatii'n- 
piecca, as they may be called, the actual lace-work 
was wrought by the needle, with thread of marvcllinii 
fineness, and with such consummate art, that the 
material of the foundation is quit« undiBCover^ble 
under the fairy-like web which has been woven 
over it. These portions of the fabric were then 
joined together by connecting threads, each cf 
which, hke the broader parts, consists of a fouuda- 
tiou, and hice-work covering; the former being a 
~iere thread, ofl«n of exceedingly fine Torn; the 
■■---■<--- ^ .' 1 T ., jg^ nwdeiB 

r being a sort of loop-w 

a by Google 



b*tw«BB Moh bsiiig nfficieatlr wide to admit of a oi Lulei Hartiai of Milan hare in tbia raspect 
■hQling pudng edgewayi bedreen them. Behind attamed great celebrity, and _i« said to jiinaiioa 
tii«*e threads, and corresponding to the interspaces, ; about £16,000 worth per anaiuu. 

i. a row of ingeniously constructed flat bobbins or I LACE-BABK TBBB {Lagtlla lialearia), a tiM 
reels restu^ m an arrangement aJled » co^-bar ! ^ u.^ „j„^ o^^^ rAymeleaefo, a native ot the 
orMt-bar. Theee are so placed, that with the Wort Indies. It is a lofty tree, with ovate, entire, 
firrt '™'t™J^.^'J?,t ^■^_!: !?:^.!T.!f: " .^ »"«'o*'' ^'^- "^ '""t^ rfowers. it is remarkable 

of its inner bai^ and 
,,,,,■. , . ., > 1. . ■ !-■ . . "■" ■"•uu=~ "11.U "luiu ma inner bark may ba 

la it^igedmanotherand similar bolt-barm front of „p^ted, after maceration in water, into layen 
the warn. But this front bolt bar, beside, an advanc- I regembling lace. A governor ot Jamaica is said to 
mg and mofaon. has another movement, i,„e pi*imt«d to CharlcB IL a cravat, frill, ■wd 
caned*Ac53.»s-tromnghttolcft Whenitreceiveaa rnffles made of it. 
bobbin by ita forward motion, it draws back, bnnsiag . „._. „ , 

the bobbin and thread through two of the up^ht ' LACE-LEAF. See Lawice L«i». 
threads; it then thogs or moves to one side, and [ LAC^P^DE, Bernard Gerk&in' Stikkni dk 
goea forirard agun, taking the thread through the LavTLi.E, Count he, an emiaent naturalist and 
next two warp-threads, aoil lodging the bobbin on elegant writer, was bom of a noble fuoiiy. 36tli 
the back Inlt-bar again, one diatauce beyond its last , December 1756, at Agen. Having early devoted 
Bi>are i this it recovers by the next movement, and himself to the study of natuiaJ history, in which 
it a^ain passea through the first space, to be again he was greatly eocouragod by the fnendship uf 
received by the front bolt bar. By these move- Baffon, he was appoint^ curator of the Cabinet 
menCa. the tMbbin- thread is twisted quite round one of Natural History in the iioyal QanJens at Paha. 
upright thread of the warn; another movement This oSoo he h^d till the Revolution, when he 
then shifts the bobbin, so that it will pass thron^h became Profeasor of Natural History, and also 
the next pair of upright threads, and so cairy on ita entered upon a political career, in which be mse 
work, the warp-threads moving at the same time, to be a senator in 1799, a iniuiatcr of etate in 1S09, 
unwinding from the lower beam, and being rolled and, after the return oF the Bourbons, a peer of 
on the upper one. There being twice as many bob- France, although he had previously been one of the 
bins as there are threads in the warp, each bult-bar most zealous ^herents of Bonaparte. He died of 
Laving a set which it exchanges with the other, and ' Boiall-poz at his mansion of Epinay, near St Denis, 
all being regulated with great nicety, a width of lace Cth October 1S25. A collective edition of bis woits 
is made in far less time than has been required to ' was pulilished in 1S26. Among them arc works on 
write this short description. The various additions the Natural History of Rejitiles. of Fishes, and of the 
to, and variations upoi. these o|<erations, which only Cetacea, a Work on the Natural History of Man, and 
apply to bobbin-net, for the production of patterns, , one entitled Le» Ago de la Natun. His work on 
are so numerous and complicated — each pattern Fiahps (5 vols. 1798 — 1803) is the greatest of his 
repairing new complications — that it will be useless works, and was long unrivalled in that departinent 
Bttemptmg to describe them ; suffice it to say, they of zoology, although it has now been in a neat 
all depend upon the variations which can be given ' measure superseded. L. was a highly accomplished 
to the movements of the flat, disc-like bohbins. | musician, waa the author of a work entitled /.a 

The history of the lace-machine is not very clear ; Poillque de la Mutique {'2 vols. 17SS}, and of two 
it is said to have been originally invented by a | romances intended to illustrate sociid and mora] 
■ /■■aiiitintri knitter of Nottingham, from studying , principles. He was an amiable man, extremely 
the lace on his wife's cap ; but it has been continu- | kind, delighting in domestic life, and very aimj>l<^ 
aUy receiving improvements, amongst which those of and almost abstemious, in his hatuta. 
Heathcote in 1809-^.0 first to work successfully- lacE'BTA and LACE'RTID^. See LraiMX 
Morley. in 1811 and 1824, and those of Le.'iver and ,, ,-,„. .m, »■ ^i -r 

Turton. andof Clark and Mari, both in 1811. The! LACK AI8E, FRANCIS Daik de, a Jesuit, bora 
manufacture of lace by machinery ia chiefly located ' »' » ."o"* family, 23th August 1624, in the castle 
in Nottingham, whence it is sent to all parts of the "* ■*"<.. P"* " the depMtment of Loire, was . 
world i but we have no means of knowing to what ' pro'""':'fl. "( his order, when Louis XIV, Beloet«d 
extent, for, with that strange i^rversity which dis- j f>™ for his confessor on the death of Father temer 
tioguishes our atatisticaiadministration, only //H^rf-"'.16'ft His position was one of great difficulty, a mentioned in the lists of exports, whilst our owing to the ditferent parties of the court, and the 
vast production of cotton-hioe is mixcl ap with the »tnfe between Janseniats and Jeauits. In the most 
returns of calico and other fabrics of that material important questions of his time. Father L. avoided 
Oold-lace and SUiitr-taa. proi>erly speaking, arc "'^^T^^^ courses. A zealous Jesuit, and of moderaU 
laces woven, either by the hand or by machinery, ' abibties, he yet sustained among his contemporaries 
from exceedingly fine threads of the metals, or from i ^\^ repitation of a man of mUd, simple, honourable 
linen, silk, or cotton threads which are coated with 1 P™™?'^,':- M*lame Mamtenon eould never forgive 
Btill finu- threads of gold or ailver ; but in this 1 l"™ *•»« ''t*le zeal with which he opposed the reasons 
country it ia too common to designate as gold or ' urged against the jniMication of her marriajre with 
•ilver Jace, not only that which is rightly so-caUed, J.^ ^^.g = ^ut during the thirty-tour yean that he 
but alao fringe made of these materials, and alao gold nj'™ 'i" "mce of confessor, he never l<Ht the favour 
and silver embroidery, such as ia seen on state rabai of the kinj;. He waa a man ^ some learning, and 
and trappings, and upon some eooleaiastical dreSKa, (""^ "^ ?"".1"J;"°?.P''^"jH- He died a>th January 
tc. Gold-liuie is made in London, but consider- 1 I'O*—!??"? XIV bmit him a eountty house to the 
able quantitita of that used tor decorating uniforms ' '^t "^ P»P»- the larw garden of vrijich was in 18W 
and other dresses. Ac., in this country, is obtained ^P^*/™.";"' ' bunal-place, and is known aa the 
from Belgium, where it is an important branch of ^ere-fa-CftoMr. 

manufacture. France snpidiea much of the gold and I LA'CHES, in English Law, is a word ns^ (from 
nlver thread used, and excels all other countries in Fr. lAcJur, to looseu) to denote negligence o* iindiie 
its production, in some of the more artistic vsrictlea delay, such as to disentitle a party to a partkniUr 
of gold and silver laoe and embroidery. Italy haa | remedy, or to rebet In Scotland, the word fw la 
Ut^y ahewn gr«at taste and aktlL The worka j i* often used to denote undue del^. 

a by Google 


Li'UilKUSL a kboi of MrpenI 
m^ bm^ iCrotidida], but diflei 

rata of the lUttle- 

. . ,. liffering from rattle- 

mttm IB luriDg tiie tul tcmunstetr with a spine 
mtui vl a ntua, aad in haring the head oovered 
tefk Klin, and niot with plates. The ipeoiee are 
■U Mil II ■ of tiia warm parta of America, where 
aB< of tbeiB •» ammg the most dreaded of 
nMMBM »,nif ta. llkej are luuallj seeo coiled 
to, with keen glaring eyea, watehius for prej, on 
i^ick th<7 dart with the ■wiriiiiiiii of an arrow, and 
tkn eoiii^ thamaalrta up again, wait qnietl; till 
Ac dmk-itna^e of tlia victun ia orer. Some of 
that (ttain t& ktngth of aeTHS feet. They are 
■■J ta he apt to attai^ men, enen when not 

nlbjoiaa the Mnr 

U'CHIiAN, a riTS of Eaat Anrtralia, rises in 
Sn SMth Wales, to the wi^waid of the Hue 
MiMliBi and, after a ooarsa of 400 milei, with 
' cs of the Darling (<]. v.) on a smaller 
Mnrrainbidie^ whioh itaelf, a little 
oteis the Hurray. The fbmwr of 
Aot two points of oanflnenoe is in lat 34° 3(r S., 
miia^ 14^ 10' K 

LICHMANX, Kabi, a oelebnted Gernun critic 
mi phiIiJ<^;i>t, was bora 4th March 1793, at BniDs- 
vick. (todied at Leipnc and GiiCtingea, became 

L'l literary activity was extraoTtlinair- He was 

Salt; drroteil to claaalca] tubjecti and to those of 
Gfnnau literatnre, and illustnted both by a 

jniaati and aagaciooi criticiam. Among his 
iBjurtuit productions are his editions of the K'f't- 
Infnlid, the works of Walter tod der Vogelwi^ide, 
Pn^vrtiua. Catulloi. TibuUai, and the New Teats- 
B« iBrA 1S3I : 3d edit. I846|, of which a larger 
edAka. with the Vulgate translation, appeared la 
!nik iBerl 1S46 and 1850). The desijjn of the last 
d thac woib was to restore the Greek text as it 
tD^ei ia the EaMem Chnreh in the 3d and 4th 
aanrita. It i> considered, on the whole, the best 
•litiiv of the Greek Teatament that baa yet been 

LA'CHBT&L£ CHRI'STI, a miucatel wine of 
liqnant taste, and a moat agreeable 
I is produced from the grapea of 
■«ai aoouna, near VemTins. There are two 
kiida. the white and the red. the first being generally 

; which is 

>■ tke anpfdy, larae quantities of the pi 
Bauh. Iitna, andNola are sold nnder tl 


facrital in the article £vK. There ve, however, 
on&a diseaKa to which they are liable which 
Hfun 1 Iviri BoticA. 

Then may be a deficient secre- 
tion of tears, an affectum for which 
the term Xrm/iA/Aa'niia has been 
invented. It may be palliated by 
keeping the ccmea oonataatly ' ' 


dowa tie ekadct. This affection 
termed £^npAora, and must not be 
oonfaiuided with the BU^ddhan 

_. _.■ bom an obstmcUon of 

{)_„^gj^tbe tbanwols throogh which they 
pass into the noee. It it common 
^anfnloas children, and ikoiild be treated with 
■ rliubarb iMmtHnad with 

by a thickening of the mucous membrane tbat linea 
it, and is a not uncommon affection, especially in 
scrofulous young persons. There is a feeling of 
weakness of the eye on the affected aide, and teara 
run down the cheek, while the noetril on that side 
is onnaturally dry. The lachrymal sac (see Hg, 6 in 
the article Ete) is distended with tears, and fonnt 
a small tomonr by the side of (he root of the nose. 
On pressing this tamnur, tears and mucus can b« 
squeeied b*ckwards through the puncts, or down- 
wards into the nose, if the closure is only partiaL 
This affection often leads to iafiatnmation of Ae toe, 
or to the Formation of a listulous aperture at the inner 
comer of the eye, communicating with the lachry- 
mal sac, and known as Fiduia Lackryaiali*. This 
fistulous aperture is caused by the bursting of an 
abeceas, arising from inflammation of the sac It is 
generally surroanded by fungous granulations (popu- 
larly known as pmvd^fiah), and the adjacent skin is 
red and thickened from the irritation caused by the 
flow of tears. In these cases, the sac must be opened 
by a puncture, and a style (a silver probe about an 
inch long, with s head like a nail} should be pushed 
through the duct into the noao^ The retention of 
this instrument causes the duet to dilate, so that the 
tears flow by its side. The Sat head of the style 
lies on the cheek, and both keeps the instrument in 
its place and facilitates its occasional removal tor 
the purpose of cleansing. Sometimes it is necessary 
that the instniment diould be worn for life, but 
in less severe cases the duct remains permanently 
dilated, and a cure is effected in a few months. 

LACONIC. The Suartans, or laoedsmonian* 
(whose couutry waa called Laconia), systematically 
endeavoured to confine themselves to a sententiona 
brevity in speaking and writing ; hence the term 
laeome has been apjiUed to this stylsL 

LACORDAIRB, Jux Baftiste Htysi, the 
most distingiiishad of the modem pulpit- orators of 
France, was bom at Recey-sur-Uurce, in the depart- 
ment CdM-d'or, March \% 1SII2. He was educated 
at Dijon, where he also entered npon hb le^ 
studies; and having taken bis degree, be transferred 
himself in 1822 to Paris, where he be^an to practiae 
as an advocate in 18*24. and rose rapidly to distinc- 
tion. As his prinoipltfs at this penod were deeply 
tinged with unbelief, it was a matter of nniversia 
suqirise in the circle of his acquaintance that ha 
suddenly fiave up his jirofcsaion, entered the College 
of St 8ulpii.-e, and lu 1827 received holy orders. 
He soon became distinguished as a preacher, and 
in the College of Juilly, to which he waa attached, 
he formed the acquaintance of the AbM I.amen> 
nais, with whom he speedily formed a close 
and intimate alliance, and in coujunction with 
whom, after the revolution of July, he published 
the well-knawn journal, the Avaur, an organ at 
once of the highlit church principles and of the 
most extreme radicalism. The articlea published 
in this journal, and the proceedings which were 
adopted in asaertin^ the liberty of edacation, led to 
a proaecntion in the Chamber of Peers in 1831 ; and 
when the Avenir itadf was condemned by Gregory 
XVI.. L. formally submitted, and for a time with- 
drawing from pubUo aflairs. devoted himself to the 
duties of the pnlpit The brilliancy of his eloquutoe, 
and the novel and striking oharacter of Ua view^ 
eiciled an interest altogether unprecedented, and 
attracted unbounded admiration. Hi* oonrsw ol 
sermons at tfotre-Dsme drew to that immense piU 
crowds such aa had neva been seen within the 
memory of the living generation, aitd had nudooed 



u) Mctroordinaiy 
woHl, when ODC« u&in L. fixed the woader of tha 
public by relinqiUBhiag the career of diatiactioQ 
which vraa open to him, and entering the novitiate 
of the DominiciLn order in lS4a A short time pre- 
viounly, he had publi^ed a memoir on the re-estab- 
lithment of that order in France, which wa« followed, 
ifler hia earolment in the order, by a Life of ita 
fonnder, St Dominic ; and in 1S4I he appeared once 
again in the pulpit of Notre- Dame, in the well-known 
habit of a Dommican friar. From this date, he gave 
much of hia time to preaching in varioiia parti 
of France. In the first election whicli succeed 
the revolution of 1348, he was choeen one of the 
repreaentativea of Marseille, and took part id some 
of the debates in the Assembly ; but he resigned in 
the following May, and withdrew entirely from 

Clitical life. In 1849, and again in IS50 and ISai, 
resumed his courses at Notre-Dome, which, 
together with earlier discourses, have been collected 
in three volumes, under the title of Oon/erencn de 
yotn-Daim dt Paris, 1S35— 1850. About this 
time, however, his health began to decliot 
he withdrew in 1864 to the convent of £ 
where he spent the remainder of his life. Id 1858, 
he wrote a series of LeUfra to a Yo-ang Frimd, 
which have been much admired; and in I860, 
having been elected to the Academy, he delivered 
what may Ite called his last aildrees— the customary 
inaiigural discoune, a Memoir of his predecessor, M. 
de locqueville. L. died at Soreze in the fallowing 

LA'CQUER is a varnish prepared for coating 
metal-work (see Lac), UBually iwlished brass. The 
formula usually employed is, for gold colour: 
alcohol, 3 galloas ; powdered turmeric, 1 pound, 
macerate for a week, and then filter with a covered 
filter, to prevent waste from evaporation ; to this 
■dd, of the lightest-coloured shell-lao, 12 ounces; 
nmlMge, 4 ounces ; gum-sondarach, 3| pounds. 
This is |>ut in a warm place until the whole is diS' 
solveii, when 1 quart of common tunientiae varnish 
A red lacquer, jirepared by subatitutiD) 

early part of the 4th century. He was of Il^iu 
descent, but studied at Sioc*. In Africa, under the 
rhetorician Amobius, and in XI A. n. settled aa a 
teacher of rhetoric in Nicomedia. He wns invitvd 
to Gaul by Constantine the Oieat (312—318 k-O.), 
to act aa tutor Xa his ion Ccispus, and is supposed to 
have died at Treves about 325 or 33a L-'b jirin- 
cipal work is his Diviaanim /nslifutionum, libn viL, 
a production both of a polemical and apologetie 
character. A supposed tendency to Manicheiaui in 
his views, and his Chitiasm, have marred bis repu- 
tation for pure orthodoxy. He attacks pogsniam, 
and defends Christianity- Among his other 
writings ore treaties De Ira Da and De HoriAat 
Peneculorum. Some el<^cs have also been ascribed 
to him, but erroneously. H'^ style is wonderful, 
if we consider the late ago at which he wrote, 
and has deservedly earned for him the title of the 
ChrittUm Cicero. He was, besides, a man of very 
coDsiJerable learning, but as be appears not to have 
become a Christian till he was odvauced iu yesn, 
his religious opiotons are often very crude and lin- 
I gular. L. was a great favourite during the middle 
I aaes. The e<fi(io princepn of this writer is one of 
toe oldest eitout specimens of typography. It wis 
printed at Subiaco iu 146Sl 

SELS, are the Lymphatic Vessels (q. v.] of ths 
small intestine. They were discovered in 1622 by 
Aselli (q. v.), and received their name from con- 
veying the milk-like pnxluct of digestion, ths 
Chyle (q. t.]i during the digestive pniceas, to the 

iqientinc varnish 
1 lacquer, pi 
3 pounds of anuotta for the turmeric, and 1 poui 

>f dragon's blood for the gamboge, is extenaively 

LACQTTERINO, the art of coating metal with 
varnish. The term has also a wider signification, 
and is made to apply to the process by which 
acme varieties of goods in wood and papier mftchi 
are also coated with lB_yerB of varnish, which are 
polished, and often inlaid with mother-of-pearl, ka. 
See Papier Mica^. It would appear, from the 
very fiue specimens from Japan in the International 
Exhiliition, that the Japanese excel in the aril of 

Sroilucing articles of exquisite thinness and delicacy, 
he varnish used by the Chinese and Japanese 
appears to be the aame, and is a natural secretion 
which fiows from incisions in the stem of the 
Vamish-tree (q. »-} Usually, the oriental lacquered 
work is tastefully ornamented with designs painted 
in gottl, or with inlaid shell-work. The Japanese 
have carried ^is art so far as to apply it to 
their delicately beautiful china, some of which is 
la<Muered and inlaid with mother-of-pearl, forming 
landscapes and other designs. 

LACS D'AMOUR, in Het»ldiy, a cord of 
running knots used as an eitemal decoration to 
■urrouad the arms of widows and unmarried 
women, the mrddier, which differs but slightly 
from it, being used similarly with the ahields of 
toarried women. 

LACTA'NTIITS, in seTeTal MS3. deaignated 
LuciDS Cffiutrs. or Cxcnjua Fibmiamub L., an 
niineat Christia:! author, who flooriahed ia the 

Thoracic Duct (q. v.), by which it is t 
to the blood. These vessels comm< 
shewn io the article Dioisiton, i 
villi, and passing between the layers of the Mesen- 
tery (q. v.). enter the mesenteric glands, and final]* 
mate to form two or three large trunks, whiclp 
the thoracic duct. 




of lUspnith the [nimitive diaJect of the aborigTiia] 
peuple iDhftbitiriK Che rcf^on between Hindiutaa 
•nd Tartiu?. The religioa i> LunaUni, & form of 
Buddhimi (q. v.). The Kovenimeat ii > despntiita 
ooDtroUed by the priesuood. The cApital dty ii 




Thb, coniiit o( the Mirtren ol the Robee, the Lodiea 
of the Bedchamber, tbe Bedchamber Women, tod 
the Moida of Huiiour. 

The [>fGce of Alistreiui of the Bobei ii of oooiider- 
&ble antiquity. It a her duty to refnilate the mta- 
tion and timea of attendance of the rest of the 
Ladiee of the HniisehoM. who are all iiibonlinate to 
her. She has the iiipcriat^ndence of all duties con- 
nected with the bedchamber — within which the 
Lord Chamberlain b.ia no authority — aod the custody 
of the rolwA On state occasions, she must see that 
the ceremony of robing the Queen is properly per- 
formed. In public ceremonials, she acoomjianiea 
Ute Queen in the same caniaf^ or walks immediately 
before Her Majesty. The Lodia of the Balchambe; 
who now num)>er ei^ht, with three extra ladies, aod 
the Bedchaml/er Wninea, of whom there are eight, 
besides one resilient and two e^ra, are personal 
attendants, ministoing to the state of Her Majesty. 
The Maidt q/'/fonoNC, of whom there are eight, are 
immediate attendants on the royal person, and in 
rotation perform the duty of accompanying the 
Queen on sU occasions. They enjoy by courtesy the 
title ' Honourable,' when not entitled to it by birth, 

•nd are then desijinated the ' HoDourable MiAi ' 

without the Christian nama 
LADIMO. Bill of. See Bill ot 'Ll-dwo. 
TTLADISLAS, different form* of a name frequently 
Occolring in the histories of Poland, Hungary, 
Bohemia, and Servia. — Vlatiibias L of Poland, sur- 
named Lnhietek (the Short) — one of those {irinces 
who appear to be raised up during a period of 
inteetioe confusion and disorEaoisation, for the 
purpose of shewing how powerful is tbe influence 
of one great mind— was ruler of tbe small province 
ot Cracow, at a time when Poluid was subdivided 
into countless small independencies. V. nniteil them 
in 1319 ; and tbe further to increase the stability of 
tbe government, he reduced the privileges of the 
liigher nobles, removed the coancil of prelates and 
magnates, replacing it by a popular ' sssembty i he 
ereatly improved Uie administration of justice, and 
furthered commerce and industry.— Vladtslas II. 
and VLADiSLita III. See JAOBLLOHa. — Vlasisilas 
rv. (1632-1848), while yet a youth, was elected 
Ct.v of Russia in IGIO, but was prevented by his 
fatbiT, Sigismumi. from accepting the crown. He 
was a wise and iwlitic prince, yet it was iinder his 
reign that Sweden, Russia, and Turkey commenced 
to nibble at the outlying provinces. He strove 
manfully to remedy the peculiar defects of the 
Polish constitution, but they were too deejjy rooted ; 
and though he sought to end the oppression of the 
dissidents, and touk the part of the Cossacks against 
those nobles who had de[)rived them of their rights, 
to weak was the royat suthority, that his support 
availed them nothing'. The Cosaaclu, maddened by 
deprivation of their liberties, the impoaition of new 
taiea, and the {leraecuting leal of the Romaa Catholic 
clergy, rose in rebellion, annihilated tbe Polish army, 
and put themselves under the rule of Buaiia. At 
this critical moment, V. died- 

LADO'GA (StaraIa, or Old Ladooa), an ancient 
BsuMUi tows, ID tlie gorwnment of 8t Petenbur^ 

on the left bank of the river Wolkhol It was tba 

residence (8G3) ot Iturik, the foimder of the Russian 
monarchy, and the walla of a fortress erected bj 
him, and a church of the 11th c, still mark its >lte. 
Provioualy to tbe accession of Peter L, Old Lailo^ 
waa an important strategic pi>int fur the ^efenid of 
Novgorod, Peter I. built the town of Suvo, ot 
New Ladoga, near the entrance of the Wotkhuf into 
Lake I^oga. and now on the site of the obi town 
of Rurik stands the small village of Ousjienikoe. 

LADOGA, Lakk, the largest lake of Korope, is 
situated in the north-west of Russia, between FitiB- 
land and the goTemments of Olonets and Peters- 
burg. It is 120 miles in length, 70 mdes in breadth, 
and 6804 square miles in area. It receives tba 
waters of Lake OuegK, Lake Saim, and Lake llmen. 
and its own waters are carried off to the Gulf of 
Finnhuid by the Neva (q. v.}. The depth of Lake L 
varies from 12 to 1000 feet, and the navigatioii ia 
exceedingly dangeroits, owing to the shallows, sand- 
banks, and sunken rocks in which it abounds, and 
to the gusty winds which are crefited by its steep 
and rocky banks. Of the aeveral islands o( tbs 
lake, the prinrI[Al are the Vahum and Kooevet^ 
with monasteries, which attract iium1>cni of pilgrima 
Of the 70 rive™ w-hith fall into Lake L, the 
principal are the Wolkhof, the Siaa,^and tbe Siir, 
each of which is a means of communicatiun between 
tbe Neva and tbe Volga. In order to obviate 
the difScnity of navigation, canals have been con- 
atructad along its south and Bouth-east shores, the 
princijial being the Lodo^n Canal (70 feet wide), 
which unite* the mouth of the Wolkhof with the 
Neva. Other two canals unite the mouths of the 
Svir with the LA<ll>ga Canal. This canal- 
rms the thomugbfare for a very exteosi»e 
traflic betwwn the Volga and the Baltic Com- 
municfttiou by water sutniats between Lake L and 
the VHiite Sea as WeU as the Cas]>ian. 


of about 20 islands, the Qorthemmoat Austn^iaa 

laL13i°~201°H., and Ions. 1451'— UT" K. 

They are dis|iased in a row almost due north and 

south. Their united area is about 12.14 aciuaro milea. 

They were discovered by Magellan (in l.Wl), "ho 

ve them the name which they still liear. from tbs 

ievish propensity displayed by the natives. They 

fre afterwards called Uie Lazams InlmuU; and 

the Jesuit missionaries, who settled here in IG67i 

called them the Mariana ItlaiuU. They are mmia- 

lUB, well watered and wooded (among the trees 

the bcead-fruit, tbe banana, the cocoa-nut), 

fruitfid in rice, maize, ootton. and indigo. European 

domeatic animala are now very common. At tbs 

le when they were discovered, the population was 

ikoned at 100,000, but the present jiopidation 

only al»5iit S.WO. The inhabitaiita. who are 

:ile, rcligionEi, kind, and liospitable, reacmble in 

[Aysiognomy those of the Philippine Islanila The 

islands are very important to the Spanianls, in a 

commercial point ot view. The largest ialaud i) 

GiiBJan, 90 miles in circumference ; on it is the 

capital, San Ignacio de AgaoHa, tbe seat of tb* 

Spanish governor. 

LADY, a woman of distinction oonelatively to 
Lord (q. v.), used in a more extensive aenae in com- 
Dn parlance oorrelatively to gtntieman. As a title, 
belongs to peeresses, the wives of peers, and of 
peen by courtesy, the word Lady beinu in all these 
cases [nefiied to the peeracs title. The daiwhtcn 
of dukes, marquises, and earls are by courtesydeaig- 
nated by tbe title Lady pretiied to their Chris- 
tian name and surname ; a title not lost by mairiage 
with a conmioner. when the lady only subatituM 
her hosband's suroame for ha own, and retains hm 

a by Google 



Lower BTittuf, In 1781, and died then in 182& 
He ttndied medieiQe in Puris, vhere he ritended 
ttke pnctioe of Corviurt, to whom the medical pro- 
tesuOQ i> maialy indebted for the introduction of 
percimion in the iaveiti^tiaa of diKaaei of the 
chest, ftlthaagh the orif;iiutl discovery is due to 
AvenbnifiRcr. In 1814, he took the degree of 
Doctor ot Medicine, Mid in the wme year, he became 
the chief editor of the Joarnal de iffdrane. In 
1816, he Via appointed chief phyncian to the 
ESpital Nccku, and it wh tbere that he rood 
after m-vle the discovery of mediate amcoltatton, 
or, ia other words, of the use of the Stethoscope 
(q.v.). lo 1819, he published his Traltl <U TAut- 
cuilalioK illdiaU, which has oDdoabtedly prodaced 
■ greater effect, in to fnr a* the advance oidvxgiuxAt 
ia concerned, than Boy other ibgle book. Hia 
treatise had not long apiwared, when iudicationa 
of cODsiimption were discovered in hii own cheat 
by means of the art of hia own creation, and after 
K few years of delicate health, during which he 
continued to practise in Paris, he retiriid to die in 
hi* native province. 

L,«:TA'R]£ SUNDAY, oaUnd also Mid-lrnt, U 
the fourth Sunday of Lent- It is so named from 
the first word of the Introit of the mass, which is 
from Isaiah livL 10. From this name the charac- 
teristic of the services of the day is joyousness, and 
the music of the on;an, which throughout the rest 
of Lent is suspendnd, is on this day resumed. 
Lietare Sunday is also the day selected by the pope 
for the blejuing of the Goldkh Rose {q. v.). 

LA FARI'If A, an Italian author and politician, 
bnm at Meeiina in 1819. In the univenity of 
Catania, tbe degree nf Doctor of Laws was conferred 
nn him at the ai^ of 19; and in IS.T7, having taken 
part in an inetfectual rerolationary movement in 
Sicily, he sought safety in expatriation. In 1839. 
he returned to Sicily, was received as a lawyer, and 
•tarted several pohtioal jonmals, which were all 
successively suppressed. This led htm to remove 
to Florence, where he published several works, 
more remarkable for thetr contents than for the 
graces of their language. Ia the rising of 1848, 
La F. took B prominent part in the movement of 
Tuscany, where he eilited the first democratic and 
anti-papal journal, the Alio. He soon returned to 
Sicily, and was elected member of tlie council of 
war, and member of parliament; and on the deposi- 
tion of the king by the Sicilians, he was despatched 
by the provisional government on a mission to 
Rome, Tuscany, ami Turin. On his return to 
Palennn, lie (jucharged the combined duties of 
Minister ot Public Instruction, of FubUc Works, 
and of the Interior. After the Capture of Messina 
by the myal troops. La F. accepted from the king's 
government tbe post of Minister of War, a step 
which incurred the severe censure of tbe party of 
liberty, but which only led to his renewed banish- 
nient from Sicily. In the war of the south, by 
which the heroic Garibaldi liberated the kingdom 
of Naples, Ln F. reappeared in Sicily ; but his 
nnfurtuoate differences with Oaribaldi led to his 
ultimate eipulaion from the island, by order of 
the dictator. Some of hia principal works are — 
Boavrairi of Rome and Tuxany ; Itah (IvoL) ; 
SioHa^rhu/ (2 vols); China (4 Tola); m<tor\i tff 
th» JCenolulkn of Sicily in 1818 and 1849 (S voU.). 

LAFAYETTE, MasiB Uadi^ni Piockb db 
LAVitRONE, CouTEasi DB, born 163.?, died 1G93, 
the onthoreH of a number of novels, ezceUed by no 
works of that a^ in the development of character 
and true delineation of human nature. Her father, 
Aymai- de Lavergne, was sovemor of Bavre. She 
reoeirnd aa excellent eduuatioo, and in 16S9 

of her at . _, 

it was frequented by xke persaas of highest nok 
and faahioD in Paris. Her novels, Znldf- and La 
PriiKott de Olivt*, have been frequently reprinted 

LAFAYETTE, Maris Jeak Paul Roch Yva 
OiLBiHT MoTiBB, Mai(4(;ib DB, deeofndod from an 
auciemt family of Auvergne, was bom Gtb Sept-itbet 
17G7, in the castle of Cluvagnac, now in the diipirt- 
ment of Upper Loire. He became a soldier at u 
early age, and in 1777 went to America, to take wt 
with thecoloniata in theirwarof iodependencb The 
friendship of Washington eierciaed a great influsDee 
over the development of his mind and the Cormatiua 
of his opinions. The declaration of war lietween 
Fiance and Bntain ipive him on opportunity of 
aiding the new repubhs effectnolly, by returning to 
France, where he was received with honour by tlis 
court, and with enthusiasm by the peojile. lie 
again re[iaired ia America in 1780, aiul was intrusted 
by CoD/reaa with the defence of Virginia, where 
he rendered important services. On a thiid vijil 
to North America in 1784, after the oonclusinn of 
peace, he was received in such a manner that his 
tour was a continual triumph. 

h. had imbibed liberal principles, and now eagerly 
sought to promote a thorough reform in his native 
connlry. He was called to the Assembly of NoUlileS 
in 1T8T. and was one of those who most earnestly 
urged the Assembly ot the State*. He took [art 
also in the movements which converted the Assembly 
of the States into the National Assembly in 17S9. 
He took a verv active part in the proceeding of tha 
Asnembly, and being apjiointed to tbe chief com- 
mand of the armed citizens, laid the foundation of 
the National G-uard, and gave it the tricolor cockad& 
In these first iwriods of the Hevolution, it secmeJ as 
if L had the destinies of France in his hands. But 
he foimd himself unable to control the excitement 

— because of his seal for the new 

e founded the 

Inptiun nf the 
constitution of 1790, he retired to his estate of 
Lagrange, till he received the command of the 
army (S Ardennes, with which he wim the first 
victories at Philippeville, Maubeupe, and Flureiines. 
Nevertheless, the calumnies of the Jacobins remiered 
him exceedingly imgiopular, and he was accused of 
treason, but acquitti-iL After several vain efforts 
to maintain tbe cause of rational liberty, he left 
Paris for Flanders, but was Uken prisoner by 
the Austriaos, and conveyed to Olmiitz, when 
he remained for about live years, till Bonajiarte 
obtaineil his liberation in IT9T ; but he took no part 
in public aflTairs during the asceodency of Bona- 
parte. He sat in the Chamber of De]>uties for ths 
department of Sartbe from ISIS t<> 1824, and w» 
one of the extreme Left. From 1B25 to 18^. be 
was again a leailer of the opposition in the Cliamber 
□f Dejiutiea. In 1830, he took ao active part in tbe 
revolution, and commanded the National Ouanl& 
He died 20th May 1:)34. 

LAFAYETTE, a city of Indiana, United States 
of America, on the east bank, and at the he.vl of 
navigation of the Wabash lUver, 6.? miles north- 
west of Indianopolia, on the line of the Wabash 
and Erie Canal, and at the intersection of four 
railways. It is a flourialiiitg city, in tbe midst of 
a rich prairie-country. I^d out in 182S, it has 15 
ehorohM, 2 daily, ud 3 weekly newspapers vith 

a by Google 


I bonk^ LotaU, and nuuttifitctoTies. Pop. 

LAFFITTR, Jacqdb, & nmch baaker aod 
AatccBui, \)CTa of humble nreotage at BajoQoe. 
M(h October 1787. wu eu-ly employed as a clerk 
W t-S* rkh banker Ferregani in Paris, and boc- 
attdfd bin ia baiinen in 1809. He soon rose to 

■ I8H enTmiOT of tbe Bank of Frui 
wtBTB of Xapoleon from Elha, Lonia XVIII. depo- 
Bisd a laire sum in L.'9 bands ; and after the 
battle ei Waterioo, Kapoleon intnisCed 9,000,000 
fram to him, vhich he kept s^e, altboDB;h the 
gmrraratat made aome attempta to lay bold of it. 
After tbe second restoration, he becune odb of the 
mtaition in the Chamber of Depntiea, and enjoyed 
t«c hi^best popnlarity in Paris. When the nvoln- 
t« broke oat in 1S30. he wrote to the Duke of 
Orbwis, ■aying, ' Yon hare to make your choice 
bitw tm a' crown and a passport' He freely 
Hnbeal tbe money reqnisite oa that occsHion. 
He MGSiBe one of the nnt mioistry of the new 
ka^ amd in November 1B30 was intrusted with 
be formation of a cabinet, tbe conservatire ch&r- 
Bcto' of which caused the loss of his popularity. 
KetBwIuU bis banking aflairs fell into confuaioa, 
aad be was obliged to sell all his property to pay 
lii debts. A national subscription preserved hiai 
ha bOtel in Paris ; and bein^ iwaiu elected to the 
Cbambfx as a depatv for Pans, be became a leader 
rf the oppoeitian. From tbe ruins of his fortnne 
be (aunded a new Discount Bank. As the govera- 
BBit T«eeded more from tbe principles of the 
RTuhitian of lS3ti, L. became more active in oppo- 
■tioB. In 1S43, to tbe pnat displeasure of the 
(oart, be was elected president of the Chamber of 
Depotio. He died 26th May 1844. 

LATONTAraE, Jbak db, a French poet, 
JiirtpigrtiAwH above all bis countrymen as a fabulist, 
was ^Le son of a Haltre dea Eatu et Fortta, and 
na bcMH Jnly S. 1621, at Cbftteaa- Thierry, in 
*>" Tr*(7" la bia early youth, he learned ^inost 
■atbinA and at the age of 20, he was sent by 
h> taiiitr to the Onton' at Bbeiins, in a state 
s< extreme ipioiance. Herc^ however, he began 
to exhibit a decided tasta for the classics and 
br pocb7. Tbough selSab and vicious to the 
laat ds^rae, be pcaeeseed withal a certain child- 
&m botiomimit ; it was not grace, or vivacity, or 
wit, bat a certain soft and pleasant amiability of 
Maoner. so that ba never wonted friends. He 
siKecaBtvely fotmd protectors in the Pucbiws de 
Bosillon, who drew nim to Paris ; in Madame de 
BaUitn, and in M. and Madame Hervart. He 
wwyed tbe friendship of Moliftre, Boileau, Racine, 
sad other contemporary celebrities ; and even tbe 
aBntly FenetoD lamented his death in eitravagant 
Aaina, In 1693, after a daogemus illness, he 
carried into exocution what a French critic char- 
SetfTBitically terms his pr/»d de coniierjion, and 
tptnt the brief remainder of his life in a kind of 
irtifieial penitence, common enough among licen- 
tiDoa men and women in those sensoal days. Ee 
dM at Paris, April 13, 169S. His beat, wbicb, bow- 
I VET are alao his most immoral productions, are 
Cmtf tt NoutdUi m Ver, (Paris, 1665 ; 2J part, 
W*i Sd part. 1671). and fabU, ChoitU, mitet en 
Vat (also m three parts, of which the first appeared 
n 1(68, and tbe third in 1693). The editions of the 
FMe* have been innumerabta. The best edition of 
L's odleeted works is that of Walckenaer (18 vols. 
hria, 1819—1820; improved edition, in 6 vols. 

LAGEBSTBtSVIA, a genus of plants of the 

natural onier LyOiraeea, the type of a Bub-order 
LaxKritncmint, which is diBtinjraished by winged 
seeds, aod in which are to be found some of the 
noblest trees of tropioal forests, whereas the tnie 
Lythrea are generally herbaceous. Laneratramia 
Srffiiia is the Jarool of India — a magnitieent tree, 
with red wood, which, although soft, is durable 
under water, and is tberefore ranch used for boat- 

IiA'QOMYS, a eeous of rodent quadrupeds, of 
tbe family Leponda, mueb resemblind hares or 
rahbita, bat with limba of more equal length, 
more perfect clavicles, longer claws, lonf^er bead, 
shorter ears, and no tail They am interesting 
from their peculiar instinota, storing up herbage 
for winter use in heaps or stacks. The AiJ-lNB 
L., or PiKA of Siberia (L. alpaau), the largest 
of the genus, is scarcely larger than a guinea- 

S'g, yet its stacks are sometimes foor or five feet 
gh, hy eight feet in diameter, and often afford 
adventurous sable-hunters the food necessary Cor 
their horses. The little animals lire in burrows, 
from the inhabited part of which gsllenes lead to 
the stacks. Tbe herbage of which they are com- 
posed is of the choicest kind, and dried so as to 
retain much of its joicea, aod form the very best of 

LAGOO'N (Lat lacuna, a hoUow or pool) is a 
species of lake formed hy the overflowing either of 
the sea or of rivers, or by the infiltration of water 
from these ; and bence lagoons are sometimes 
divided into 6uvial and marms. They are found 
onlv in low-lying lands, such as the coasts of 
Holland, Italy, l£e Baltic, and the east coast of 
South America ; are generally shallow, and do not 
always present the same aspect In some cases, 
they are completely drieil up in summer ; in others, 
after being onc« formed, they preeerve thronghoat 
the whole vear the character of stagnant marshy 
pools ; and in others, again, the sea. which re-unitca 
them to itaelf in winter, is separated from them in 
snmmer by a bar of sand or shingle. 

LA'GOS, a city and seaport of Portngal, in tho 
province of Algarve, on a wide bay, 2.1 miles east- 
north-east from the ertremity of Cape St Vincent 
Tbe harbour affords protection from nortD and west 
winds only, and accommodates only small v-isebL 
A prodnctiVB tunny-llHhcr^ is carried on ii. the 
vicinity. Pop. 7800. In the hay of L., Admiral 
Boscawen obtained a signal victory over the Frei oh 
Toulon fieet, August 18, 1759. 

LAORANGB, Josefh Louts, Comte, one (-f 
the greatest of mathematicians, was bom at Turin 
in 1736. He was of French extraction, and 
was the grandson of Descartes. When still a 
yo'itb, he solved the isoperimetricol problem of 
Euler, and when scarcely 19 years of age, was 
appointed Professor of Mathematics in the Artillery 
School in Tiu4n. Frederick the Great appointed 
him to bo Euler's sticceaaor, as director of the 
Academy at Berlin, in 1759. After Frederick's 
death, Naples, S-irdinia, Tuscany, and Fmnce struv* 
for the honour of offering L. a better position. Ha 
accepted the offer of Prance, and to.)k up his 
quarters in the Louvre in 1787, obtaining a pension 
of 6000 franca (£238). In 1791, he was chosen a 
foreign member of the Bujal Society of London, 
and the same year tJie National Assembly con- 
firmed to him bis pension, and be was appointed 
one of the directors of the Mint. He was in great 
danger during the Beign of Terror, but escaped, 
and was afterwards professor in the Normal and 
Polytechnic Schools. Napoleon made him a mem- 
ber of the Senate, bestowed on him tbe Grand 
Cross of the Legion of Honour, the title of Cuunti 



lad many other fkvmm. He died lOth April 
1813, and wu iDterred in the Puitheoii. Hii 
principal vorks are : Memoin ' oo the Hotion of 
Fluida' aod 'the Prapuatioi) of Sooad;' another 
memoir refuted D'AleTDbert'l viewi regardinv the 
theory of the earth's formation. When only 24 
yean of age, he pabliihed hia Jftte Mtthnd, gubse- 

Siently luomi M the Calealut of Variaiionf, 
ui adding a new and powerFuI weapon to the 
philOBophicS annourf. In 1764. hi* memoir on the 
*Libratian of the Moon* carried off the tint piue 
at the Academy. It was in thia tceatiae that he 
■hewed the e^nt and fruitfulneai of the prin- 
ciple nf 'virtual velocitiei' which he afterwani* ta 
aucceesftiUy applied to meohanica. Next appeared 
his vorka on tha lolation of numerical' and 
'algebraic' equation!; and in 1787, hii ifieaniqae 
Anatgtiqtie, a work in which mechanics la reiluoed to 
a mBTH question of calculation. His last important 
works were, Gaieul lUt FoiKliotu Ana/i/liqua, TraUt 
da FoBctiom, and SItolalion de» Jiqualioiu Humt- 
riqua, L. maile niany other important investiga- 
tions in pure and mixed mathematics, aad particu- 
larly in astronomy — the chief subjects of which are, 
the problem of Three Bodies, the Long Inequality 
of Jupiter and Saturn, the moon's SKCulaT Inequality, 
attraction of ellipsoida, perturbations of Jupiter's 
■atellitea, diminution of the ecliptic, variation of the 
elements of the planetary orbito, Ik, 

LAGRIM0'3O, an Italian term used in Music, 
meaning weeping, or mournfully j limilAr to (anieii- 
Uno, which expreases the same, bat in a higher 
dt^fee. The delivery should be hearten irring, but 
•t the same time free from all mannerioma and 

LA GUATRA. See Ou&tka, La. 

LA GU^BOKN I^EE, Louis Etibhnx Artbdh, 
VicouTi □>, a conspicuoua French politician of the 
prosent day, was bom in 1816, oE a noble family nf 
Poitieta. He first attracted notice by the articles 
which he coDtribuCed to the Aveiiir J/aiionai of 
Limo^e!!, about 1835. Subsequently, he made the 
acquaintance of Lamartine, wQom lor many years 
he regarded both as his political and literary 
master. Ultimately, he came to a ru|>ture with 
Lamartiur, and became an ardent Bonapartist, and 
after the coup tTflal (2d December l!i5t), the apolo- 
gist of tliat audacious deed. In 1853, he entered 
the CouncU of State. La G. has retained his con- 
nection with the press, anil, at least until recently, 
•tood so well in the good graces of the Frendi 
emperor, that hia articles ana pamphlets have been 
considered to posaces a lemi-officiol value. Tbe 

Ejier he now conducts, La Frante, has attained a 
jh degree of importance in the sphere of political 
Cumaliam. La G.'s moat noted publications of 
te years have been : L'Empereur Napolton HI. 
tt tAnnlettTTt (1858), L'Smperair NapoUon III. 
et rilulie (1S59], and Lt Pape tt U Congrit (1859}. 

LAHIJA'N, an important trading- town of Fenia, 
in the provinoe of Uhilnn, close to the southern 
■boiT ot tbe Caspian Sea, thirty miles east-south- 
CMt of Beshd. Pop^ 7000. 

LAHX, an important affluoni of the Bhina (q. v.). 

LAHO'BE, the chief city of the Punjab, stands 
on the left bank of the Bavi, the middle of the 
five rivers which give name to the country ; lal 
81* 36* N.. long. 74° 21' E. It- is aurrounded by a 
brick wall, formerly twenty-fire feet hij;^ and by 
fortifications seven miles in circuit. In the north- 
weat corner of tlie dty stand the citadel, the great 
magaxtne, and milituy workshops. The stieeta 

B narrow and gloomy, the bazaars weU furnished, 

^ .i_ t ;_ . ,__:_.= ___. \yithin 

the circuit, veils a 
cultivated, adorned with magnificent gaidraa, -iid 
strewn with numerous ruins of a bygone spleudonr 
and prosperity. The present town, whirli has s 
population of about 100,000, is Said to have pos- 
sessed under the Moguls 1,000,000 inhnbitaats. In 
the 12th a., it wia the capital of the dynarty of the 
Ghaznevides, and sabaequently a favourite rasi- 
dence of the ineceswin of Baber. In 1799, Ruujeet 
Singh, the Sikh prince, beoame ruler of Lahore ; 
but aa he chiiae for hia head-quarters, Amritsir, a 
city about forty milea to the east, L became much 
neglected. Since 1849, the epoch of the British 
conquest of the Punjab, L. boa advanced in com- 
merce and wealth. More eapecially, however, baa 
the change of masters been beneficial to educa- 
tion. A seroiaary not only for imparting Hindu 
and Mohammedan literature. Init oTio for commn- 
nicating, throuj^h vernacular langnacca, Eiiroiieon 
knowledge, has been suooeasfuUy eHtabtiahed. The 
institution, though it does receive a grant in aid 
from the supreme government, is yet mainly aup- 
portcd by the rulers And populations of native 
principatitiea. Even in 1&40, die pupils numbered 

LAHR, a manufactuiing town of Baden, situated 
on the Shutter, an afQueat of the Ithine, 53 mila 
south. south- west of Carlsnihe. It stonda in a rich 
and beautiful district, and carries on consider- 
able manufactures of linen and woollen cloth, silk 
ribbons, leather, and tobaoca Pop. 7uoa 

LAI'BACH, or LAYBACH, a town of Austria, 
capital of the crownland of Carniola, is situated in 
on eitfliiaive plain on a river of the same name, fifty 
miles north. east uf Trieste, It contains a lyceum, 
gymnasium, and other educational inatitiitions. and 
cornea on an ertenaive transit.tmde with Trieste, 
Piume, Grfitz, &c Its maniif natures of cotton em- 
ploy 400 hands, and upwarda of 200 worlimen ar^ 
employed in the sugar-wurka. To the south-west of 
the town is the L^ibach Moraaa, which formerly 
waa frequently covered by the awollen waters of the 
rivpr. It is upwarda of eighty aquars miles in 
extent. Within the last thirty yeara, the half of it 
haa been brought under cultivation, the remainder 
aSbnls an inexhaustible supply of turf. Pop. SO.IINX 

Thia town ia famous for the congress of monarcha 
which met here in I8S1. The purpose of thia 
concress was to secure the peace of Italy againat 
Carbonarism, to aireat the then increasing pniereaa 
of revolution, and to restore in Naples and Ciicily 
the former condition of ndairs. The result of it waa 
the passing of a reaolution establishing among Euro- 
pean nations the right of armed intervention in tb« 
affairs of any neighbouring state which may be 
troubled with factions. In the resolutions of thia 
cougreai the British minister refused t« take port 

LA'IS, the name of one, or, more probably, 
two Greek courteaaua, celebrated for extraordinary 
beauty. The elder is believed to have been ham 
at Corinth, and flourished daring the Peloponnesian 
War. She was reckoned to noesess the most grace- 
ful figure of any woman of her time in Greece, but 
she was oapricious, greedy of money, uid in her old 
age became a tippler. — The younger appears to 
have been bom in Sicily, but came to Corinth when 
still a child. ^ She sat aa a model to the painter 

XUea, who is said to have m:ommended her to 
Jt the profession of a proatitnte, in which she 
obtained a 'bad eminence? She waa stoned to 
death by some Tbessalian women whom shs had 
made iealuua. Both of theaa women had templi4 
erected to their memory. 

LA'ITT {from the Gr. lao», the common people], 
the name given in the Boman Catholic Chun£ to 

a by Google 


■I fmmmm ^ha do not belong to the Clerg; [a 
TW MtBK appean to bare origjuated u eorl^ u 
Ita &I e^ wiien the idea grew up that the miett- 
knJ iiaiiHil Ma iiiternu<li»te ciua bftweea Christ 
mii the Cbriatuii conunonitj. The iuflueaoe which 
tha Ititj had at fint exercised in the government of 
tb* cterdl gradually declined u the power of the 
kanreky iacTf std, and although, as late aa the end 
<f (be 3d c, caaea oocur in which learned laymen 
tei^t poUkly with the approral of biahopa. atiU 
Ali bbarty waa ever more and more narrowed, 
■^ linally. i> 502. a arnod, held at Rome nnder 
Aa bJaWip. Syramachua, forbade laymen to inteilere 
■ aay waj ta the aSaiia of the chnrch. The 
Fiaa alaiil Charcb. in general, maintaina on icrip- 
taaal grcmnda the cammon and eqnal prieBthood of 
atl ^^rrwtiam i atill. as marking a Tiaibie difltinctian 
)1 aCcB, tbe wmda oootinne in lerf general nae, the 
4aA e< tbe diatioction implied Tarying with the 
■iMRb' vieWB of thoae employing them. Some 
mr atrirt Proteatsnta are oareful to aay nuniater 
^a yupta, iiwtead of clergy and laity. 

LAKE (lAt. laait) ia a portion of water anr- 
lanadud by land. Tbere are (1) some lakes which 
x ilh a rcceivo nor emit atreama ; (2) some, fed 
hf apriags, emit, but do not rtoeiTe atreams ; (3) 
aAm. as the i-'aApian and Xrti Seas, receive riTera, 
kst b>Tv no risible outlet ; but (4) by far the greater 
■■■iba' both rveeive and emit streams. Almuat tbe 
•Vile of the lakea coming under tbe third claaa 
■c mlt or brackish ; Lake Tchad, in Central Africa, 
hry^g aae of the moat [RoniiDent exceptions. 

aptmaoa of tbe S( Lawrence (q-v.), extends about 
m aules below the nortb-eaat end of Lake Ontario. 
It ia weD worthy of its name, being said to contain 
ITM Uet«, the lanrest meaanrinc lU mile* Iw G. 
b arparvtca Upper Canada from the atate of ><ew 

LAXK OP THE WOODS, a body of water 
^■oaa in tbe history of the intemation^ boondaiy 
liilwmi tbe (Tnited States and the Hudson's Bay 
ramimij'i tenitories. takea ita natne from the fact 
rf ita baiBi; itndded with wooded ialanda, and 
m Bilea west-north-west of l^e Superior. Ai 
B^b-eaat estd, it raoeiva the Kainy Kiver from the 
Baiay I^ke; and at its north-west extremity, it 
Bead* forth tbe Winnipeg on its courae to Hudion'a 
B^. According to toe treaty which cloaed the 
Tar of Independenee, it waa divided by a central 
Ss« betweeai England and her old colonies. It 
■MMins about 300 milea round ; and ita remotest 
pot ■ in lat 49' >'., and long. ttS* W. 

f.alT K SCHOOL, the name with which tbe 
MUm^mryk Striae dnbbed certain poets (Worda- 
wartb. Coleridge, and Sonthey) who, towards tbe 
fbsa of last c, took np tbeir reaidence in the Lake 
Artiirt of Comberland and Westmoreland, and 
wkt— tbmi^ widdy different finm each other in 
th^^ eraj aihtr reapect — prufesaed to aeek the 
asB«ea ef poetical in^iatioii in the aimplicity of 
MlBii. ratiwr than in tbe works of their prade- 
^■n and tbe hahion of tbe liinea. The epithet, 
Maser u , is not a happy one, and does not help na 
la abetts knowledge of the men. 

l.^yip* . in point of law, belong to the owner of 
the IsmI which snrroiinds them ; by which is meant 
H( only tbe water and the use of it, bnt the soil 
r. Where the land aurrannding the 
D different owners, each has prknA 
a ose the lake for ordinary purpose*, 

g or boating ; bat it depends on how 

i__i s were acquired, whether and how far 

da feneial mle tffiim to any parbcolar caM. 


LAKES, colours prejiared by combining aaimal 
and vegetable colouring matters with alumina, 
which hM a remarkable progwrty of uniting with 
and separating these coloura from their solutions. 
Thus, if we ti£e the coloured solution of cochineal, 
and add to it a solution of alum, tbe alumina in 
the alum immediately combines with tbe colouring 
matter, and the result ia a precipitate whioh is 
carmine or Florentine I^ke 

Red lake ia made in s simiUr manner from Brazil 
wood, a little solution of tin being added to heighten 
the colour, and uotaah being used to acoelerate tha 
preciuitatioQ. Lakes of several shades of red and 
pur|)le are also made from madder- roots, the quantity 
of ]iotaah used detemuning tbe pr^>per colour. Two 
or three yellow lakes are used, tbe manufacture of 
which ia very similar ; they iire prepared from 
yellow berries or from amotto. Almost every knowit 
animal or vegetable colour may be converted into a 
laJot, but those mentioned are tbe only ones found 
practically useful. They are chiefly employed by 
calico-priuters and paper-stainers. 

LAKSHMI, in Hindu Mythology, the name of 
tbe consort of tbe god V'ishu'u (q. v.). and considered 
also to be hi) femue or creative energy. According 
to tbe mystical doctrine of the worshippera M 
Visbn'n, this god produceil the three goddesses, 
BnUiml, Lshshml, and Cban'tliki, the tint represent- 
ing his creating, tbe second, his preserving, and tha 
third, bis destroying energy. This view, however, 
fonaded on the superiority of Viaho'u over the 
two other gods of the Hindu triad— Brfchml, or 
Saraswatl, being generally looked upon as the 
energy of Brabmi, and Chan'd'iki, another name 
of Durgi. aa the energy of S'iva — is later (baa 
the m^b, relating to L, of the epic iieriod ; for, 
according to the latter, L ia the goddess of FortuD* 
and of Beauty, and arose from the Ocean of Milk 
when it was churned by the god^ to procure the 
beverage of Immortality, and it was oidy aftei 
this wonderful occurrence that she became tbe wife 
of Vishn'n. When she emerged from the agitated 
milk-sea, one text of the K&mftyan'a relates, ' aha 
waa repoaing on a lotos- flower, endowed with 
transcendent beauty, in the first bloom of youth, 
her body covered with all kinda of ornaments, and 

marked with every anspicious 

irld, the goddess, who is 

bnaom of Han — L e., Vishn'n.' A curioua festival 
is celebrated in honour of this divinity on tbe liftb 
lunar day of the light half of tbe month Mftgba 
(February), when she is identified with Sarnawatl, 
the consort of BrahmA sad the goddess of learn- 
ing. In his treatise on festivals, a great modem 
authority, Raghunandana, mentions, on tbe faith 
of a work called SammaUara-iaiultpa, that L. ia to 
be worshipped in tbe forenoon of that dny witb 
flowers, penumes, ripe, and water ; that due honour 
ia to be paid to inkstand and writing-reed, and no 
writing to be done. Wilson, in hia essay on tbe 
Bdiiiioat FettiiiaU qf Ihe MUdiu (works, voL ii. 
Tk 180, ff.], adds that, on the morning of the 2d 
Febmaiy, 'the whole of the pens and inkstands, 
and the books, if not too oumcroua and bulky, are 

-- cloth, 

ore arranged upon a platform, or a iheet, and 
strewn over with flowers and blades of young 
barley, and that no flowers except white are to bs 
offered. After performing the necessary rites .... 
all the members of the family assemlue and make 
their prostrotions ; tbe books, tha pens, and iitk 
having an entire holiday ; and, ^onld any emergency 
require a written oommonication on tjs day dedi- 
cated to the divinity of acholaiship, it is done with 



vhalk or churMi annn • black or wttite txKud' 
111 itifTercnt parta of Inilia, thii fntiral U celebrated 
mt dilTmnt iMaoiit, anonliiu to the double upect 
DDiIrr wKich L. ii virwnl b; her wnnhijiper*. The 
[ettird in the month Mtjha leeiiu onj;mallr to 
bkTe b-vn k *rnul feut. mTkiii^ the oommeiioe- 
Bent of Ibe teaaaa of ■pHoft 

LALAN'DB, JcMzrH JIkAmi I.Knu.if*is db, 
•n ■mia-Dt Preach Mtronomrr, wu bum at Boarc, 
11th July 17:(-2. H« daruteJ hiuudf with *u.b 
taroeaa ti> mathematio* ami ■■Ininnidy, that the 
FrtDch Acailrmy ivnt bim to Brrim in 1751. to 
itctcrrniDe the motm't parallax, at the aame time 
ilia vu teat to the Cape of (ino<I Ua|>e. 

r.>al ; 

■iinhip of a«triiDuDi]r in 
Hie •.iiinL.-e ae r raniir. tin lecture* hail a rare 
attractivcocea, and ha publiihed aeTeral aatmn- 
omical worki of a giopular kind, a( well aa wiirki 
of pruf.iuDd aciea.-e. He Gnallr fiUed the olBce 
Ol of the Paria Obaerratnnr, an.l ditd 
4th Afuil ISlM. Ku character wai mu-ked by 
■xtrema miiCy ; but no ant bai ever rqualluL him 
— a lactorvr on anlronomy, aod few bav«c->iilnliutcd 
Dor* to the urn^Tal |>n>Kma of aatniiu>iui<-4l Kieoi-e. 
Uia pnncii.J work i* bil TnM •TAMlniHunit 
(3 toLl I'arit. I7M -a new aod ausnu^tnl r>lttiaa 
Id 4 <ri<U Pane. 17T1— 17»1|. He alwj pulJuhed 
BUDor worki oa aairmiiiiny, navijfiti' id, tic., aiid 
ka account uf liii trarvla in Italj duriu|{ 1763 and 
|;M t9 Tula I'ana. 17H<>). 

LALITA-VISTARA (■ tlw name nt one of the 
mrmt •vl«l>nitni worki of Baddhittic tit-ntiire. It 

BuildhA Slkvamuni (•><« Hl^DIUl.and u conii.lrnd 
by the HiiiMluaU aa one o( their nme chief w<-rka, 
Irmtm,' of l>h..rma. or rr)ii.->.<ua bw. U i> on« of 
Ute deivl..(«i -sUlrai of the Mahtvtna mt^m. An 
•dilioo of the San* nt l-it, and an I'jiji'h trannla- 
ti.tB ot Ihi* w..ik by mi>a HtKndral^l Mitn, ii 
puWieliiiia oB.Irr iS- au'pii-ee of the Aii»li.- S>.^,■ty 
uf BennI, A Pr^rx'h tntn<lati.>o fr»m t))« Ti>-.t« 
baa b»n ma.le h> Ph. t^L F.>u.-a<ii. In t^'buiM*, 
th<^ ar* tw.. trir..l.ti..n. „f ,L S^ 1-1 H<irr...if, 
/■/ftWh^'w-I d Clli^..if <f« lh-llk,-n' In Urn 

ll'aria. 11441 : ai..l W. W..i>,n. /vr B^.W.i^^m, 
a-irw />-r'vii. ov«'.-Ak bjhJ L'Unttr \^ I'vUn- 
boTit. ISt-lL 

LA'M.K. or I-L.4MA {Aur^^ia t.-.ii. • n.-^ 

■ ■ I th- fin«ly 


It L 


r It ..ludt to U 
u a ni. r- .1 'me* 
It I It nai ii 
™ th- P-nniai 

brown, with ihailei of yrllow or hlick. freqaently 
■peckled, rarely quite while or bbck. The (Ic^ ■ 
■poof)'. coame. and not of a very lutvc^lilp Satnor. 
The nair or wiiol ia inferior to that uf lbs alpaca 
but ■■ oanl for timilar purpo*-* ; that of the feoal* 
ia finer than that of the male. The L. ha« been 
iotniduceid with the al|>aca into Aiutralia; bal it 
■• only for atvep nHHiutijn regiuoa that it aeemi lo 
be adapted. 

LA'MAISM (bom the Tibetan hLama* apiritoiJ 
teauhar or li>ril) ia tha name uf the tvli.-inn pn- 
railiux in Tilwt and Muna^ki. It ia Buddlun 
[q. V.) oorrupt«d by S'ivaiun (q. r.),an<l by Shauaina 
(q. T.), or apirit. worship. Aa aiiLifiit RuddhuB 
knowi of no wonhip of t^iid, but mrrtly of an aiLs- 
atioo of aaiata, the latter ■■ alao the m>in fcaton 
of Lamaism. The esHnce of all th-tt ia aacrrd 
ia comprianl by thia reliuion under tlic name uf 
dKon DiChhofi gSttiim IpruDooDced K'lnrktntttmi, 
which cmiii»t» of the 'Ihrve moat pn-oiciuii jL-wela'— 
vii. ' the Bii,idha-jewel,' the • doctniu' jcwrl." and 
■ the prii.'«thi(").jeweL' A aimllar triiul is implied by 
the thnv BuJ'Uiialic fonnuts ; ' I t.ikr my refa^ 
in Buddha ; I take my rcfui,-e in the law [ur duc' 
trine) ; I take my rcfii^.'e in ihe concnvilion lot the 
prii.'sta),' but it did not obtain t)i« aunc do^TnitM 

— i^ i>..,i.ii.i — .. ;_ Ijmuo,in_ when it i* 

. .. nity, n:|>n-wiitm^ u 
t__^uu~ uu..^. The &nt penon of tliu trinil* il 
the Buddha 1 but he )■ not the creator, or the oruo 
of the univrne ; a« in Bud.thum, be ti mt-rtlj tla 
founder of the doctrine, the hi^licet uint. thoo,^ 
rn.l.iwed with alt the qiialili.-a ol auprenie wiflom, 
power. Tirtue, and ln-anly, which niiae him bsjnad 
the pale of iinJinary eai-nnce. The •.'.'■nd jewel, 
IT the diwtrinr. ia the law or te?i;,T m (h« whiih 
in. ai it Wire, tho incarnation o( tlie Buddha, kii 
actual exiatciico after he had diaapiwAr-il in tb« 
Vir\tna. The thirtl jewpl. or the iirimthol, it th* 
o>n;rf.:itioD of the auiiU, compn<iiu thu wbib 
clrri;y. th'- iiicarti.'wie aa wrtl aa the n'>ii lucanul* 
n'|irr»-ntiUivi'« of Uih Tari'Hii Bu<ldhi-tic lamla 
The latter oimpriae the hve Dhvtm-ltu.Mhai. t 
the Buddha* of contemj'lation. 'ati'I, l-t-id(«. iD 
those m>-na.U of Bodhisattwaa, Pnt.vckiKuJdhM, 
and piiiiii men, who btmme can'inivt after their 
dvath. It ia obviou* that anrnii.! th-'ir number a 
jBirtion only can enj<»y practical wor"hii> ; IpQt the 
^ ' ~ " ' live o( ih-ai> nint% 

at all thf trh.'Viiit 

thr k'oU ani i|>iniii, the lonner chii'Mv tak>a fpi* 
the Pinlb'-n of tbfS-iv.iit^ Th.- hijb.-t |i.«.l.<4 

Tii!, y'../r.i'i* v.l, th- i:'.^l of th.' \\nu .m.'nl : U>\ 
the SfX of de^lb anil ttt<- infi'mal rrL.-i»n*; 

1 hi* 


I TonoKlalJ* 
r^aith. Th* 

ft-,.l M.-.-r for 

A»ln ..-.: 
■h-ul.l r. t 

Will** Yb- Uir-irO i-lf-l"! '.V fi' I 

iAI. r. > I. I* * 

tL'-<iM'r. hu a :- 

*;.>at-.L r-.- 1-1. 

„ k. a- I .- 

In^<n•tlon 'rf hymn*. acc<>ni]iani>-il with a hmd ^i 

and d-'afmina a.iiiii<li of hom*. trumi* la. ani JrnM 
of ranoiK .I'-.-niXion*. Ihinnv Kin w.>ohi|<. w!i«b 
lakre pi u-e thrvp tunra a ilav. the cl-'v-r. i-iiUBna-J 
br the loUinj of a little l>i')l. ai 

i.i-.l-r,Vid oth-r. o 
.. ili.-w,.r>!,i|>|.rn: I 

!' .^uTtak 

Uk BU'ldtuitic faith. I^niaiain ktfiw* etpmaTy 

p ■ Tery nnuoit E"*"^'/ ' 


fc« | i t fc«tiT>lm. TiM Loff gBMir,OT the fettxTil 
i ttf trw Jtai, in Febnury, m&rka tbe 
iM*' tlM irtuoa of tpring, or the Tictor of light 
ni nmth over d&AoeM xm\ ootd. The lAnuuta. 
tti tht Baddhiita, oeUbr«te it in cotnmemonitiaD of 
BfidiKTfMauMd bj tlie BudiUut S'lkynmiuu, over 
Ita ai bentic t««cfacra. It liata tifteea days, and 
omA c' > MrMB of feuti, dancea, iltumitisttnDa, 
mi elirt minifeatatioiu of joy i it is. in short, the 
Tbna areinL The Mcond feitival, prohably 
At oUft fcBtiTkl oF the Bnitdhistic Church, is 
U) ■ csmmemoiation of the conception or incar- 
^in tl the Bdddhk, uid mirks the commence- 
■Bt tf )inamer. The third is the mater-fi/ul, in 
ii^ uid September, marking the commencenient 
dattam. BaptiBm and oonlinnation are the two 
fraqol iictBmenta ot Ijimaiiiia. The former ii 
^■uMnl on the third or tenth day after birth ; 
be httrr, jjaunlly when the child can walk and 
^■L Thr mairiaee ceremonj i> to Tibetans not 
in^iou, bat a einl act ; Devertheless, tbe Lamas 
hgw bav to tarn it to the beat advantose, as it 
■ frim them that the bride^mm and bride have 
k kvB the anipicioas day when it ahouIJ be 
fofinKd; nor do they fail to complete the act 
litk pifcn and ritea, which most be responded 
tl vita handioma presenla A mmilar observation 
■f£(t to the foneial cenmonim oC the Tibetans. 
nipHy speaking, there are none requiring the 
iiiWince of the clergy, for I^muam does not 
dn tbe intennent of the dead. Persons diatin- 
nilKd by rank, learning, or piety, are bnmed after 
BIB death ; but the general mode of disposing of 
lai bodiea in ITbet, as in Mongolia, is that of 
nfmf tbem in the open ur, to be devoured by 
b4 sod beaala of prey; yet it is the Ldma who 
^ it pnaent at tbe moment of death, in order 
k j^cnotrad tbe proper separation of body and 
nlitoohi tbe departed spirit, and to enable him 
kURtarn in " "" -~' " ' -■--— 

to have founded, in 1355 or 1367 of the Christiai 
era, the present system of the Lama hierarchy. Thr 
Khntnktua were in their prior existences othei 

Bnddhistic saints of very great renown ; and thr 
KhubiJ^uuu are those reborn hosts of saintly 
patrons whom the temples and convents of Lamaisn 
possess in boundless numbers. Up to tbi end of last 
centnry, tbe clergy of these vanous classes deter, 
mined the choice of the children into whose bodies 
tbe souls of their departed members bad mi^^ted. 
At present, however, it seems that the emi>eror 
of China exercises a paramount influence on the 
itcovery of those transmigrations— or, in other 
rords, on the filling up of clerical posts — autl there 
can be do doubt that his influence is supreme in 
the case of detrrmininB the election of the two 
highest fnnctionaries of this theocracy. In ohler 1« 
' ' "le re-birth of a departed Lama, rarions 
relied upon. Sometimes the deceased 
had, before his death, confidentially mentioned tn 
his friends where and in which family he wouM 
re-appeor. or his will contained intimations to this 
effect. In most instances, however, tbe s-vsred 
hooks and the official astrologers are consulted on 
tbe snbject; and if the Dalai-lama dies, it is the 
duty of thePan-ehheo to interpret the traditions and 
oracles ; whereaa, if (he latter dies, the Dalai-lama 
renders him the same service. The proclamation 
of so great an event, however, as the metempsy- 
chosis of a Dalai-lama or Pan-cbhen is preceded 
by a close eiaminitioD of the child that claims to 
a pDBSeiisioa of tbe soul of either of these 
inages. The reborn arch-saint, usually a boy 

years old, is queationed as to his pre. 

career ; books, satments. and other articles. 

used and not nsed by the deceased, ore |ilaceil 

before him, t 

. _.. . , be eiposcd. 

mcrative psit of hia bnainees, however, 

• as BuMiS which he has to perform, until the 
mi m ideated from Tama, the uifemal judge, and 
n^lDre-enlerintoita new existence; the doctrine 
rf BrtnDpsychoaia being the uuue in this religion 

Om tl the most iutemting teatuKs of Tamaism 

■ llie on^sointioa of its hierarchy. Its snmmit 
'" *oqKfd by two Lanut popes, the one called 
Dilti-latia, i e,. Ocean priest, or priest as wide as 
tk oaaii— be midea at Potala, near Jnasaa-the 
«iB TwaiinB the titles of Taho-lama, Bogdo-lama, 
t, ad (tfaally called Fan-dJun Ria po ch/u, 
iknllj, 'the ri^t reverend piat teacher-jewel' 
i- 1. [nooiis teacher) ; he resides in tbe convent 

■ bEis SbiM Lhao po, near gShisa Ka rise. In 
Any, both popes have the same rank and autho- iHritusJ as well as in temporal matters; 
W u the Dalai-lama poasoves a moch larger 
'niteT than the other, he is in reality mticb more 
pmrlsL Kelt in rank are the K/iutuituf, _vho 

Sbccanrofed to the Boman Catholic cardinals 
udibiaEapa. Hfl third deeree is that of the 
ualal^uai or Hobilghans — which Moagol name 

■ Mm brqnently given to them than tbe Tibetan 
^B>uj (MaS— a banslstion of the Sanscrit 
Wkinttki. Their number is very great. These 
^^ 4>gR<s represent the clergy that claims to 

* ^ iscimatiaD of the Bnddhistio saintB. The 
bU-bma ud tbe Pan-cbhen were in their former 
■^thc two chief disciplea of tbe great Lamaist 
'^■B VTsong kb» po, who was on mcamation of 
fts BndkiBttwa Amrt&bha. or, as some will have 
*>^ Uujiu'rl at»d Tajimpin'i, and who is reputed 


those which belonged ti> 
But however satiitactory 
his answers be. they do not yet suffice. Various 
little bells, required at the duly devotions of the 
Lama, are put before the boy, to select that which 
be did use when be was the Dalai-lama or Fan- 
chhen. 'But where ia my owu favourite bell!' 
the child exclaims, after having searched in vain ; 
and this question is perfectly justified ; for, to 
teat the veracity of the reborn saint, this particular 
bell had been withheld from him. Kow, however. 
there can be no doubt as to the Dalai-Luna or Pau- 
chhen being bodily before them: the believers fall 
on their knees, and the I^maa who successfuUy 
performed all these frauds join them in announcing 
the momentous fact. 
Besides these three classes of tbe higher clergy — 
~ig the incarnate existences of depart-«l 
d chosen, therefore, without re^^ard tu 
igst the cliildren of privileged families— 
^ jssesHes a tower clergy, which, having no 
claim to incarnate holintes, recruits its ranks on 
the princijile of merit and theological proficiency. 
It has four orlers : the pupil or novice, who enters 
the order generally in nia leventh or ninth year; 
the assistant priest; the religions mendicant; an.l 
the teacher, or abbot To these may be added twn 
academical or theological degrees, and also two 
dignities, conferred by the sovereign Lamaa on those 
doctors who have distinguished themselves by extra- 
ordinary sanctity or learning. All the members 
of these orders must make the vow of celiliacy. 
and by far the greatest number of them lire m 
'ents. A Lamaist convent, dGon pa, consisu 
temple, which forms its centre, and of a numlwr- 
of buildings connected with the temple, and appro- 
priated to the meeting-rooms, the library, refectory- 
dwellings, and other spiritual and worldly want*- 
of the monks. At the bead of the convent is n- 
Ehubilghan, or an abbot, the latter being elected b> 



onlm of n 

has Uke- 

Tha Lanuiit bilile be>n the nuns of bK<^ g/ar 
(prmtmaofd Kanjar)—LB., ' tntulktioo of the 
wonU,' (ni., of tbr Buddlu. It conUini not leu 
thao 1»K3 vorki. which in tome editimii fill 10-2 to 
1(M Ti>lnm« in folio. It coniiit* of the following 
■potioni; t. *Z»uRa (S»n«:rit. Vin»)-»),or diiicij.tine ; 
2, SUfr pliilm (Suu. Plijiii|i4nmiUi. or philiMOphy 
anil mc^jiLyiipS 1 3. Phal Mm (Suu. BudJhAvatA 
fUDi;h>). or ths doctrinn of the Baillhaa, their 
inoiniAtiiHm »<v ; t dfCoM brT^y (S*u«. RjiUia- 
kAt'al. or the oillwtion of pivrii>iu thingi; 5k tnDo 
ttD* iSuu. SairmI, or tho clii-ction of SOtru ; 
K ilyi-o 'Aim (Suu. Kirrlnal. or thr lilvntion 
tmm wi>rld]}r paioi; 7. rOjuii |R>na. Tuitiaa). or 
inrantittiont. ftc. BvaUlen thja mua of workt, there 
ie a wry TiJuminoui ooltwtion, the bm Tail 'ajur, 
or the tranelation of the ductnoe, in 225 Tola, in 
(oliii-. but it tliKi not aeem to puawu caouiiical 
•uthnrit;. \ 

The oldrot birtorr of I«iiiaiim !■ ihraoded in 
darkopw. For iti crowth and ilrTtliijitncut ander 
the Monip>l and Manjn dynaitira, an- the article 
Tibet.— The hot work on I^maiun w Dit 
I.<im<i ••£/!£ Ili'ranUe uiul Kirdir. m Karl 
frinlriek Kotpifn iBcrlin, 1A.V)|. S'e tiaa Hue, 
BoHt^nin rfi.» V-<«-tt da»A la TorlnrU; U Tihri tt 
In r-Aia< (Paria, \iii] ; aod Rari Ititler* Erdtuiutt 



LAMARCK, JuK BArmn Pmim Airronrv 
tti MoTivT, Cniviun dk, a meet dintintfiiiahed 
Preorh natonlUt, waa bnm nl a n»hla faniily at 
Banntia. io tVardr, Auenit 1, 1744. He WM 
iotroilnl fnr the church, but prefertMl the aimy. 
An (fcidrntal injury, wbn-h iilai-ed hii life in danger, 
pot a »tflp to thia earr*T. and he bivame a banker'! 
drrk. fli* Hrrt anrntilic puniiit waa that of 
BKeiinilniiy. frxm which be turnni to bitany. and , 
attsmptrd to intmlum a nrw ivatrin nf claHitica- 
tiflo. which br oalled the Analylial Syitsm, but 
whtrh mrt with bttle aowi>lAnc^ In I7TS. he i 
paldubnl bia /* t'TOiKau^ (.'i rt.UI. which waa 
alterwanli mailr tba baaia of the work of Decan- | 
didla. Khortlv after, he wai a|'|ninl--il Imtaiuat to 
the king, and tutor to the aiin of BuirnD, with > 
wh»n he viii]teil f<irrit{n onuntnea, and inniHTleit 
thnr bntaan-al oollnliona Hr aUo roatnlmt^il , 
Diaoy botanical articlea to arirnlilic worka. After 
a oinuideralile pnrtWD of bia lil<- bjul lairn anrnt in 
the eanmrt rtuily of botany. L drvlnl himarlf 
ohipfly to moln^y. and in I7U3 waa made prufeaanr 
of the natural hiitiiry of th<- lower rlaatra of ani- 
mala in tkr J»r,lim df* Plaml/a. He ren'leml <r«7 
a thia braai-b c<l trieooa. Hia 

whan he received tba grade of Ueutraaat in 
tlie artillery, previnia to leaviai; in IHO, Ba 
waa aiieedily promoted to bo adjutant- major, aad 
directed bia apecial attention to the imjitoTeEanl 
of regimental fgrninaatica, mlinK, and (hwitiug, and 
to the orgaoiaatioD of nonoal tcbool* for the limeet 
•>f the |.KvaU axldien. In IS31, bavins obtauwl 
hia cajitaincy. be Bet out on a tour of iriajn-tioD sf 
the great military eetabliahmenti both of Earnn 
and the East. In 1S4S, be became major, and for 
hit diitingiiished ooiiduct in the iuttii>iiat war ij 
1848. waa deooiated with the m»lal of Talmr. 
The lervice* he then Tendered the .'iardiaiao army 
removed front the mind of Charlce Albert a pRJn- 
dice which bia warm advocacy of military Mini 
hail arouaed in the kins. In 1949, hf ent^rwl thi 
cabinet aa Miniater of War, and DotwitbRtandiau liii 
aiur;ere seal fur naefol reforma, a fteiier^ iiiirTt irf 
ceniure wai eviiked by hia Ti^roii* effurti lo di>|ilaa 
from the Sardiniaa rank* the Italian rvfiignsa wbo 
bail entered the regidar army. In 1S.U, he witlMlnw 
from the miniitry, to aaaumo the command of tba 
Sardinian tn»|>« m the Crimea, and at the cliiie of 
the war wa* iiivui>t«d with tlie Onler of the Bath, 
and the Gnad Croaa of the T^i.'ioD <>f Honour, aod 
re-eotcred ths mini>try in hia fumier ca[acity. He 
took an active part in the war of IVi9. by vhwh 
Lombardy waa acquired by the kini; of Sarduia, 
and baa lieen recently appointed military guremi*' 
of Xaplea. A npd iTuH^iplin^rian and leal.oi 
military reformer. La M. belnnL:*. by bia p>btml 

vmtnt oork la bil HuLiirr d^ Aium,..^ _„ 
Trritl-n (7 Tola. Paria. IMIA-IM'S; Sd »lition 
by l>»hav'e and Uilne->:.lwanLa, fana. I83&, Jtc.l. ' 
U hia PliiUm,i*ia Za.Uu.iiiur 12 Tola. I'aru. INlW), 
and Bione uthrr werka. he indiilfrd in ritnmely , 
•(■eculatiT* newa, aiMBa of which, howeree. are ■ 
attiw-tiBg jrreat attaotioa in the •■ ientilic worM at 
the prrarnt day. L. waa the Hrit <i( we except a I 
Irw oliK'ur* ward* of BulT»n tooanla the cloea of 
kia hfer to art forth the Uwory of the •Vanatua 
of Npecica,' whiob haa bran rnvntly reeiral by 
I>arwuL L. dnl XHh I>n:ember I(t39. after harins 
faeeo (or ■erentaoo year* blind, in oonaequeooe i^ 

LA MARMORA. Auano, HiMm &■, a 
Rardiaiaa aenerai aod ctateaman. bora litb Norrm- 
b«lS»4. Inlbl«ka> 

the oofuemtive Sanliuian parly, n 
th»n to that of the party of pr<>i:r<'aa. t<> whoa* 
irrvfiiilar military combination* he ■* atnauly 

LAMARTIWE, AiPHomm, «»* bom at yicnv 
Urt October 1792. In hia ../ ny Y-iK 
be haa given ua a touching account id the haid- 
*hi|ia to which bia family waa sulijected diinn( 
the Reien of Terror. He W«* eiiui« principally 
at the collein of the Pint de la Kih, at lirllv. <>o 
Wving collfiie. he >pent some time in trsvelling ta 
Italy. Aft^r the fall of Napoleon, he enterM tba 
armv, which, however, he ac">n qiiittnl. revimiB^ 
Italy in 18IH. Id 183a aopeare-l hii .Vf-'i'itinm 
Pof'liipift. The eacoi** ot tliia work helped lo efiv 
up f<ir him a dipTomatio career. He waa appoialrd 
niiarh* to the French embaMiy at N'apir*, and (■ 
tbithnr nurrinl, at Ocnt'Ta, a brautifni and 
, i<bnl Kndiah la.ty. Mioa Bmh, wbnn ba 
had met the year before in thi' vall.-va U Savor. 
In 10-23 a|'.l hi* .V.»<f f/e* A/^l.l.i'imM. and ■ 
IK* he U-came *ecrptar7 ot the legatum at tTif 
ence. An unlucky eipre*(ion wbii-h L. bad aard, 
il<-«-rii>tive of the Italian), in hia Dmirr (TiaU d( HonJd IIN'2.1), led to a duel I-etwem hiB 
an.1 Colonel PepA Thoogh L. waa wminded, tka 
mult. liK'kily. waa not arrinta. In IH-29 appeared 
th.> C'llection of //ormiaiet Po/'iput H H'li-nnurt. 
In (lie aame year he waa el<-ctcd a member of tba 
French .\<'aitemy. After the revoluti'io '■( ISM 
having failnl to pronire a aent in the Cbamlwr 
of lleputi.'a. be let ant in 1833 to travel in tba 
F.aaL The death of hia only dsiik-ht^ tbl«W a 
ul'iifa over Ihi* period of hia life. Bporivitm 
it Jeruaalem, of hi* elirtirm by tho 
, of BtTgiiea, he rrtiimod to nfia 
Though he Boon became a noti-il aivaka' in the 
(ThamW, he Hill vi^ronaly pununl bii litnai? 
■tuliM. Id \BX\ he pnbliabnl an aooonat of Ul 
eaatem travela. The //iatoryit/'lAe r;imN'/i<M. wh«l 
originally came nut in joarnala, waa, in \M'. pnb- 
liahed complete in 1 Tola. It bait noqueatiouhly 
much influence in bringiug about the great annH 
of the following yi^. When the Kevnluti.iB irA 
plac* in FebfuUT 1S48, U became a menbar (4 tM 



■on) Oamru 

aad Hiniiter of ForaiKn 

gnat inflnenoe over t£e 

repatiltc^ Ten dep&rt- 

Ukn, nd axercued 
ill nmwnta oC Ui« 
■ntt dtcted him m thor repretmtatii 
H a hlwut ilMiiiiililj ; lie ma klao choacn one of 
Ikr fin mBDbera i^ the EiecatJTe Cotamissiui]. 
bI tsjajBil far aome monlh* ui immeiKe papa- 
Inilf ; vtiiLit his B[ririt«d snd patnotie conduct, in 
nAb| the mete aiuuchic innurectiaaa of the 16th 
kfA wd I9th Mk^, mnrt be r^arded H h&ving 
pCTotrf grfi «vili. Yet tluB WM one of the 
)n^it] I limn at hia downfall ; the crowd became 
ticked, tlw Mi-mbly hoatile, and the (npreme 
■rnr puwd for a nief period into the hBoda of 
I^nipK [q. T.). Ttumgil L. wu nomiaated for 
ft( jnokDcj, bat few Totn were recorded in 
tabToar; ud the amp diUU of Sd Deoember 
l!il tent luD) back to pcirkte life. He has BiDoe 
;>-g Unuelt almort wboUj to literary pnTsoits. 
VaHi^ant qfAe Retebaion a/1848 had appeared 
1 IVa. It wu followed, in 185I-I85Z, by his 
Ei^ari tf At ReMOTO&M of MownrAy in Franee; 
□j m ISM, by the Hitlory of Tarlxy. He hu 
■Is^ Di to the preaoat tinui, contributed Urgely to 
mnil joninal*. L. ia altogether one of the moat 
■MiliIJi FreBcluneft of hia day, and ime of the 
•Ml •nliminoaa writen of hia oonntiy. Hia a^le 
a pictBcaaae and faarinating. bat ita eKet ia 
ritea aamd by ^atiam and nuaity. 

LIHASOOI.. or LAMffS-WOOU an old Bng- 
U beraiA oompoaed of ale and the pulp of 
aaMd ^ipha, with aiisar and apioea. The naina it 
^m tk ancaoit Britidi La maa iMal, the day of 
iffla, beeaaae thia bererage waa dnmk at a feaat 

UHB, Cbaxub, an Engliah poet and e^yiat, 

■MlaniBtbeTea " ^ 

nd TceMTad hia t 


CJoidg^ WoidawoTth, Hunt, Hazlitt, and other 
^-^ir^H men of his time, he lived in affectionate 
■Sna^. In 1792, he becanie a clerk in one of the 
t yila»ala of the India House; and in 1825 he 
*M iDovtd to letiie with a pension granted by 
'it dkcetcn. Hia fint poenu appeared in a smaU 
•diM^ ia which Tcnture Coleridge and Lloyd 
•a* 1m partooa. In 1801, lie published J^m 
Ftsdial, a dnuDiL, in which he looks upoo man and 
Man wilk the ne of an Elizabethan. His Euayt 
^ Ba were originally pablished in the jConif on 
jfsiailac, L. waa narer married ; he lived with an 
■lywtet, who waa anbject to insane fits— in one 
•f whd ibe killed her mother— and for whom he 
iWiiW the teodereat affection. Ha died in 
Li^n. on the 37th December 1834 Since his 
fa&, Ut Joatice TalfooRi published two volumes 
li^LMtn; and theae, in 1846, he supplemented 
h tka Awl Memoriahi. in which, for the firat time, 
w ntld bacawe acquainted with the atory of his 

Ih«]n(ni«{ L. were never widely read, nor are 
ft? Jt*; hJM reputation rtsta entirely upon hia 
otKHM aad bm Utaayi. The critical remarks 
■aaliil to hi* Sp-ximau of EngliMh Dramatic 
Jvai an <d the higheat v^os, whila hia Ettay 
■ it OsBu of HogarA is cootidered by many 
k fant critical p^ier in the laoguage. In the 
f'Gti'ad graco, quaintneaa, and a certain tender- 
— -' ' ■ » smile on the lip, and a * — 

**t ha pcttic inatinct^ hia charily, ami hia odd 

bora at Turin, 8th September 1749, 
and was the daughter of Prince Louis Victor 
AmadeuB of Carignan. She was very beautifol aad 
amiable, and was married, in 1767, to Louis Alelan- 
der Joseph Stanislaus de Bourbon, Prince of Lam- 
balle, who soon after died, a victim of debauchery. 
The princess becanie the intimate friend and cbnqen 
compamon of Marie Antdnette. At tbe time of the 
attempted flight of the king and queen, she sought 
refuge in England, hut returned to tbem in Feb- 
raary 1792. iUter the events oE the lOtb of August, 
she received permisoion to share the captivity <A 
the qaeen, but was soon separately immured in 
the prison of La Foroe^ and on 3d September waa 
brought before the tribunal, and commanded ta 
swear that she loved liberty and equality, and 
hated the king, the queen, and royaltv. ' The first 
oath,' Bfae rephed. ' I will swear, but tke rest 1 can- 
not : my heart rebels against it.' Many of those 
who stood by were anxious that ahe should escape, 
bnt 'she did not hear the advices which ^ey 
addressed to her. ' Let madame go ! ' said the presi- 
dent ; and at thia signal of death two men conducted 
her to the door, where she received a stroke of a 
sabre on the back of her head, when blood ipouted 
up, and her long hair fell down. On receiving a 
second stroke, she fell, and the murderers tore 
her body to piecce, placed her head and heart 
upon pikea, and brut^ly paraded them befora (be 
windows of the Temple, where the royal family 
wet« oonfined. 

LAHBEATTX, a croas, b HeraldiT. ia i 
formed in the upper Uke a etoaa patt^ 
bnt with the lower limb not widened, 
but terminating in a label of three 
points, * having, according to Sylvanus 
Horgan, ' a great deal of mystery in 
relation to the top, whereon the first- 1^ 
bom Son of C!od did suffer, sending 
oat three atreama from his handa, feet, lambeanx. 

LAMBERT, JoBA<ra HEnmicH, a philosopher 
and mathematician, waa bom 29th August 1728, 
of German parentage, at Muhlhauaen, now in the 
department of Haut-Rhin. France. His talents and 
application to study having gained him frienda, he 
obtained a good education, and made remarkable 
progress in mathematiiB, philoer^y, and oriental 
languages. He obtained a aitnation as clerk in an 
office, and gradually rose, till Frederick the Qnat, 
in 1764, summoned him to Bertin, and made hia 
a member both of tiie Conndl of Arcfaitectnre 
and at the Academy of Sciences. He died at 
Beriin, 2Sth September 1777, leaving behind him 
the renown of having been the greatest analyst in 
■nathematecs. logic, and ntetiqihysica that the IStil 
□. had produced. He waa the nnt to lay a scien- 
tifio buia for the measurement of the intensity 
of light, in his Photontetria (Angsb 1760), and he 
discovered the theory of the spaaking-tubd In 
philosophy, and particularly in analyti^ 1°^ he 
sought to establish an accnrate system by bnnging 
maUiematics to bear upon theae subjects, in hia 
y^euea Organon, Oder Gednnhen fiber rfte £rfortduitiff 
und Bezie/mrui da Wahrm (2 vola. Leip. 1764). Of 
hia other worka, we may mention his profound 
KonmJogiKlu Briefe fiber ifis Sbtritjitung df WtU- 
baua (Angsb. 1761), and his con>espondeiice with 

LAMBERT, JoBN, on English parliaiuentary 
mneral, waa bcrn at Kirkby-Malhamdale, in York- 
ahire, September 7, ISIS, and on the outbreak of 
the Civil War, became a saptain under Fairfax. Ha 
foiuht at Maraton Moor, at Naaet^, in Soottand, 
•aaat Worcester, but did not acquire 



till after the death of the pvli Protector, vhen he 
beeatDe the hiud of the cabal of malcontent ofEceis 
who overthrew the feeble aHminiatration of Richard 
CromiTFlL II wai now looked upon as the leader 
of the Fifth Monarchy or eitrenie republican party; 
tnppresaed. with conaiderable I'i^ur, the myatiat 
iciuTTcction in Cheshire, August 1G59 ; and two 
moDtlu afterwardB, diimissiai; the remnaiit of the 
Rump Pacliameat, virtually governed the country 
aloDg with hia officers under the title of the 'Com- 

mittee of Safety.' " - - "--■-' ---' "-= '■^-- 

was considered ao 

adviied to make 

hii daughter. The counterplot of Mi 

fruitrated all hii designa ; anil on the 22d of Aiiril 

he wju taken prisoner by a Culonfl liiguldsby, tried 

in 16G3. and InnUhed to the isle of Guernsey, where 

he died in 16»2. 

LA'MBETH, a parliamentary borough of Eog- 
l.ind, in the connty of Sorrey. fonna a great part of 
the south'West quarter of I^Dndon. It is said to 
cover an area of 8840 acres, and had, in 1861, a 

Kp. of 2!M,883, Besideg Lambeth Palace, which 
9 been the official residence of the archbishops 
of Canterbury for several centuries, it contains 
Astley's Theatre, the lite of the once fninoiis 
Vanxhall Qardena, and the Surrey Zoological Gar- 
dens. It returns two membera to the House of 

LA'MBREQUIN, a word used in Heraldry in 
three senses : I. The mantling attached to the 
helmet and represented as depending over the 
■bield [see Misnjuo) ; 2. A Wreath (q. v.) ; 3. The 
point of a label 8e« I.fcagi. 

LAMB'S LBTTUCE. See Conn 8alu>. 

LAME'GO, an old town of Portugal, in the 
province of Beii«, i> situated amid rucky moun- 
taina on aa affluent of the Douro, about three 
miles from that river, and forty-six miles east of 
Oporto. It contains a Gothic cathedral ; and there 
are ancient renuini both Human and Moorish. Fop. 

LAMEXLtBRAVCHIA'TA, a class of acephal- 
ous mollnscs, all of which have bivalve shells (see 
BiTALVis), and which respire by gills in tiie form of 
Taacnlar plates of membrane attJiched to the inner 
surface of the mantle. Oysters, cockles, and mussels 
are familiar examples. The aildurlnr muscle, which 
closes the shell, is single in some, double in the 
Breatet number. More important diffe 
in the poweta of locomot' — •■■ 

leaping, or burrowing in sand, 
^an one of these ways, being provided for thia pur- 
pose with a fleshy muscular organ called the foot 
Some, as mussela, when tht^jr have found a suitable 
place, ^x themselves there by a B<jmiu (q. v.). The 
mouth of the L. is jawtesa and toothless, and all 
seem to depend for their f»od on the currecta of 
water continually brought by ciliary action into 
tlie mouth. They all seem more or less sensible 
to light, and numerooi small red spots on the 
od^ of the mantle of some are suppiMed to be 
eyes. They have organs of hearing, and labial 
tentacles, which are aupi>o»«l to exercise the sense 


family of 

coleopterous insecta, of the section rtniamtra, con- 
taimng the largest of the bretles, aa well ss many 
species remarkable for pecidiar oonformations of 
the b«ad and thorax. The three laat joints of the 

antennie are flattened into Lunellx, which are *ame- 
times disjiosed like the leaves of a fan, sometima hke 
teeth of a comb. Many of the L feed on decaying 
animal or vegetable matter, but tome on leaves or 
flowers 1 the latter are generally cut brilliaat nwtalUe 

colours ; the former, black or brown. The lama are 
soft, cylindrical, with six small lega, and the body 
always carved. Dung-beetles, stag-beetles, cock- 
chafers, ka., belong to this family. 

LAMELLIRO'STRES, in the eystem of Covier, 
ft large group of web-fnoted birds [Palmipedra). dis- 
tin^iished by a thick bill having tooth-like tamfl/tr 
At its edges, apparently more for the purpose of 
straining water from the food than of masticating or 
COmminutinc it. The AnaCida and MrrgidiM (ducks, 
idera and merganseia) constituta 

swans, geese, gnoeandera and 
the group of CamelliroBtrefl. 

LAMENNAIS, F^Licrri Robert dr, one of 
the most celebrated of the politico-religious writers 
of France during the present century, was bom of 
a family eng.-iccd in the shipping-trade .at St Main, 
June6, 1782. With the exception of some instruct ioa 
in Latin, which lie received from his elder brother, 
L was. owing to the revolutionary troubles, almoot 
entirely self-taught. His early turn of thought waa 
strongly religious, as well lU decidedly literary ; and 
resisting all his father's efforts to Kx him in com- 
mcreial liie. he pnisiied a literary career, and in 
1807 received an ajjpointment as teacher of mathe- 
matics in the college of his native town. His firrt 
work, published in the next year. On the State of the 


it«rature of his own 
time. A few yeare later— having meanwhile taken 
the clerical tonsure — be produced, in coninnctioD 
with hia brother, a treatise Oa Oie TradUion of 
ll,e Church on the Imtitution of Bishop,, wWeh arose 
out of the conflict of Napoleon with the Holy Sea 
as to the affaire of the cnureh in France. Dnrins 
the Hundred Days, he was obliged to flee to EnglaniC 
where he waa received hy the celebrated AbbS 
Caron ; and on his return to France, he entereil 
the seminary of St Sulpice, where ha received 
priest's orden in I81G. A year afterwarda, he 
published his moat celebrated work on the side of 
orthodoxy. An Kttay on Indifffrtnrt in Rtliijioit, 
which is a work of exceediug acuteuess, aiul of 
great learning and brilliancy. In this work, bow- 
ever, ha puahes the cl^m of authority to sn>;ti a 
length, and makes all reasoning resolve itaelt so 
completely into authority, that even those who 
agreed in the conclusion at which he arrived, irera 
not surprised at the recod by which, tliii jrinftifta 




LIUnnMrgalei {OypailM barbatia). 
AirioB, and «rill bou high above th« loftieat 

LAMHERHOO'R3. > nogeof low hilla in Scot- 
Und, runDiag in an east-Dorth-esit direction for one 
half of their lei^th on the boundary-line between 
£iut Lothian and Berwickshire, the other half lying 
in tbe aouth-oMtem comer of the furmer county, 
and formiDg. wheie it meets the Gertnan Ocean, a 
bold, rocky, and dangerous cout. Tbe L. send off 
•pveral minor rengei southwards into Berwickshire. 
The higbeat snmmits are Lanuner Law (1732 feet) 
and Sf^eton (1534 feet). 

LAHORICIERE, CanisraPHC Lfion Loitii 
JcciiAULT DK, a French general, was bom at 
N'anbea, 5th February 1806, studied at the Ecole 
Polytedininue, and after tbe revolution of 1830, 
went to Algeria aa a Uentenant of engineers. In 
1833, he became chief of the battAlioa ot Zouaves ; 
in 1835, heutenant'colonel ; and in IS.'iT, coloneL 
He particularly diatiaguitlied himself at the siege 
of Conitantine. Id 1843. he was appointed a 
general of division; in the following year, com- 
mander of the Legion of Honour ; and in 1845, 
interim-governor of Algeria. To him belongs the 
glory of concluding the war in Afrien, where he 
had made no fewer than eighteen campaigns, by 
forcing Abd-el-Kader to mrrender in 1947. On the 
outbreak of the revolution in February 1848, he 
nearly lost his life in endeavouring to proclaim 
the regency of the Duchess of Orlean*. In June 
1848, he commanded the attack on tbe barricades, 
and quelled the anarchic tumults of the Socialists. 
He was war-minister during the covemment of 
General Cavaignac, to whoso republican party he 
afterwards attached himself in tbe Legislative 
Chambers but being a very decided opponent of 
the schemes of Louis Napoleon, he was arrested 
on the occasion of the coup iTdal of Sd December 
1851, and at first imprisoned in Ham, but after- 
ward* conveyed out of France, and set at liberty. 
He hai since lived in Germany, Belginm, and 
England. During his exile, the great M>ldier 

iependence threatened 
toe Boiety of the pope, L. proceeded to Some in 
1860, and waa appointed by Pius IX. commander of 
the papal troops. He waa, however, oompelled to 

surrender with his whole force to the Sardinian 
general, Cioldini. at Ancona. 

LAMP-BLACK, the soot produced by burning 
resin, turx>entine, pitch, oil, and other matters, in 
such a manner that large volumes of smoke are 
formed and collected in properly arranged recep- 
tacles. Lamp-black is tbe colooring matter of black 
and slate-col on nd painta. 

Large quantities of this pigment are made in 
Germany by burnin)* the refuse reein and fragments 
of fir and pine treta. Tbe combustion ia carried on 
slowly, and the dense smoke passes up a long flue, 
at the top of which is a large hood mode of Coarse 
woollen cloth. In this hood the carbon is deposited 
rapidly at the rate of twenty to thirty pounds an 
hour, which is collected by lowering the doth bonl, 
and ahakiDg it out In Great Britain, a similar 
process is (^njited ; but large quantities of an infe- 
rior kind are also collected from tbe flues of cuke- 
ovena ; and a superior kind, knou-n as bime-bliici, is 
obtained from tlie tluee of kilns in which bonee are 
calcined for manure. By mixing lamp-black ia 
various proportions with white-lead, every grad^ 
tion of colour, from jet black up to slate and ffty, 
can be eaoily produced. 

LA'MPBEY (FeiTomjfKm), a genn* of cartil- 
aginous fishea, Denno]iterous (q. v.], and baviiii; 
a circular mouth formed for sucking {cydoitomoutt. 
They are of eel-like form, and have no scales. Tbe 
skeleton is very soft and imperfect The tongiia 
a piston in tbe sucking ii '' ' - ' 
Witt 1 . . . .. 

. numerous hard teeth, or tooth-like 

on each side ; the German name L 
(Nine-eyes). Lampreys have the power of drawing 
in as well as of expelling water throngh the 
gill-orifices, and thus respiration ia earned on 
even when they are firmly attached to aome object 
by the sucking mouth. I^mpreya often attach 
vary firmly U ' 

Omimnn I«mpr*y (Pttro m )te» wutrttiu). 

teeth readily pierce, and which ore unable to shake 
them off. They eat also any soft animal matter. 
The species are numerous, and are widely distri- 
buted in the seas of different parts of the worliL 
Some of them are periodical visitonta of fresh waten, 
as the CoMHOir L {P. mnrimii), fonnd on the snores 
and in the river* of most porta of Europe. It some- 
times attains a length of more than three feet, atid 
is often two feet long. It ascends rivers in the lattir 
part of spring <x beginning ot anminw, tor tb« 




and general economy. It» body ie & cylinder, 
usually aboat S iDchea in beiRht by 5 inchea in oia- 
meter. the lower part of whicn containa the rtore of 

oU. On the top of the oil reits . . . 

constantly preyed down by a spiral spring situated 
between it and the top of the barrel The P'slan is 
represented in the figure as resting on the trottom. 
Tnroujih the piston is inserted a smal! tube, which 
passes n|> to the burner at the top ; and the pressure 
nf the spring on the piston causes a constant stream 
nf oil to rise up through this tube and feed the wick, 
0. What is not consumed, Rowa over the burner, 
D, and back into the barrel above the piston. It is 
ahore the luston also that frefih oil is introduced. 
When tho piston has reached the bottom, it is 
wound up agnin by a rack and pinion, E ; and a 
vatuum bcinc thiu formed, the oil above it is forced 
to the nndereide through a valve-kind of oantrivanoe 
round its edge. 

It is obvious that in this machine the flow of oil 
will be greatest when tho piston has been newly 
wound up, nnd the Sprint; la at its greatest tension. 
This inequality ia regulated, or modTOffJ— hence 
the D^me of Uie lamp — by on extremely ingenious 
cuntrivance. The tube tiirough which the oil 
ucends (represented in fig. 3 on an enlarged scale) 
oonsiats of two porta — a narrower, i, fixed to the 
piston, and riung with it, and a wider, c. fixed to 
the bomer, and forming a sheath into which the 
other ascends. Within the upper tube ia phtoed a 
rod or wire, G, which descends so as to enter only a 
ihort way into the tabe h, when the lati«r ia drawn 
down to the full, as represented in the figure. Now, 
the effect of the rod within the narrow tube at r is 
to retard tho passage of the oil ; and it is evident 
that the effect will be greater the further the tube 
b ia pnshod up. because the narrow part ia then 
mode 1ont:er. The obstruction thus increases and 
diminishca with the force of the spring, and the flow 
of oil ii rendered equable. 

The use of oil-lampa baa been greatly diroinished 
by the rapid extension of gas-works, and by the 
invention of lamps to bum cam|>hinQ, which is 
recti6ed oil of turpentine, and the various 
kinds of naphtha petroleums and panlGne 

These lompa require to be formed ao aa 
to insure perfect combustion of the material, 
for which purpose the reservoir of fluid ia 
placed much below the flame, and the 
wick passes into it and sucks it up by 
capiDary attraction. The glaas qhimtcy 
which surTDODda the wick ia always made 
I very narrow at the bottom and top, with 
I an enlargement round the flame (iie- 4)- 
This figure insures a great indraught of 
air at Die bottom, which keeps tho com- 
buation so perfect, that in a well-made 
Uk 1, lamp the smoke i* imperceptible ; in addi- 
tion, iJiera i« an arrangement auiroundin^ 

the wick-tuba for admitting au-, and bringing it 

into contact with the Some. Theae lamps give a 

meet brilliant light ; and as they not only have 

greater illuminating power, but arc 

struction, and are very economical 

they have come into very -' - 

can is required, however, u 

fluid to be burned; some of 

petroleum* and rock- oils 

of cheap 

other respects, 
. . . Much 

the selection of the 

very inflammable 

moat brilliant in burning. 
LAMP-SHELL ( Tenbratula), a genua of brachio- 
podous molluscs (see Brachiofou a], having a delicate 

shell, of which one of th« valves is larger and 
mora convei than the other, prolonged backward* 
Into a kind of beak, which is pierced by a hole 
or fissure. Internally, there is *, delict bony 
framework, of two branches, attached to the doraal 
valve, by which the arms {see Brachiopom) ar« 
Bupjiorted. This is called the hop, and oft<'n by 
shell -collectors the eatriage-tpTiari. It is well seen 
in many fossil Trr^attda. The recent species ore 
numerous, and very widely distributed from the 
polar to the tropiul seas; the fossil species sr« 
extremely numerous. 

. . lunty of the 

same name, ia titnated on an elevation rising frota 
the Clyde, 30 miles aouth-wcat of Edinbur^jh. Ita 
antiquity is attested by the fact, that here, in 978. 
Keaoetli II. assembled a [>aj'hament, or meeting 
of the estates of the realm. Little trade is hero 
carried on ; but the town derives some aupport 
from the numbers attracted U> this district 
by the beauW of the soenery in the vidnity. L, 
unites with Hamilton and three other burghs in 
sending a member to parliament. Fop. (ISSI) 
5384.— About a mile to the south, lies the mann- 
factuiing villaea of New Lajiark •(pon. 1396), 
celebrated as Uie scene of Robert Owens exi>eri- 
ment (1815 — \SrXl) for the social improvement of 
the working-clsseea. 

county of Scotland, lies west of the ahirea of Edin- 
burgh, Linlitligoff, and Peebleo. Its leoiith is &t 
miles, and width ii milea. Its are.i is 8S9 aquare 
miles, or 563,867 acres, of which there are under 
cultivation Ml.SCS acres. This eoimty U aub- 
divlded into upper, middle, and lower wanls. Tho 
first of these comprises more than one-half of the 
county, and consists in a great measure of hills 
and moorish ground ; the second contains alKtnt 
160,000 acres, much of which is unprofitable ; the 
third, which contains the city of Glasgow, is nearly 
all cultivateil. although very little of the soil, unlen 
bonlering on the Clyde, is of flrat nnality. The 

Elncipal hilla are the Lowtliers, which rise in 
reen HiU to the height of 2403 feet; Tintock is 
2335 feet higL In the upper want is tho villajn 
of Leadhilla, which ia 1323 feet a'ove sca-levet. 
being the highest inhabited place in Si;otland. Thia 
county poBaoBBcfl K^t mineral wealth. There ore 
upwards of 150 coUierles, and 13 irou-works, having 
nenriy 90 furnaces in blast. The cotton, flax, 
silk, and wuolleD factories (descrilied in the article 
Glasodw) are very extensive, and constitute on* 
of the moat important sources of wealth in the 
country. The county ia watered principally hy iha 
Clyde (q. v.) aud its affluents. L. was famous for 
its oreharda as early as the time of the Venerable 
Bede. They yielded, early in the present centnrv, 
as much aa £8000 yearly, hut have latterly fallen 
off; and the ground is more prohtably employed 
in producing gooseberries, vegetables, &c, for the 
Glasgow market. The climate of L. is moist, and 
in many of the lower districts mild aud genial, but 
often cold and boisterous in the high grounds. It 
in general well suited for raisini; groin-crops ; 
ich of it is exoelleutly adapted for the rearing 
of stock and for dairy purposes. In 1S5T, the num- 
ber of occnpants of land was 2931, and the total 
acreage under rotation was 32I.5GS ; of which there 
were 8.163 acres of wheat, averaging 37 buahels I) 
pecks pec acre ; 2142 barley, 36 bushels 3i peeks ; 
,^T.041 osts. 36 bushels 3t pecks ; 11,934 acres tui- 
nips, avero^ng 17 tons I^ cwta. pel acre; and SSSS 




LAKCASTER, Sib Jub, the brt Bngliah 
lAvijgator who commanded ■ fleet boand far tha 
I ttl. Indiei, B&iltfd froia Plymoath, 10th April 1591. 
Id 1600, the newl^ conatituted £iuf Irulia Company 
tnlnuted lum with their tint eipeditioD. L. h&ving. 
In the coiine of hit voysgea, collected ft nomber of 
raliuble documenta in eupport of the exiitence of « 
Dorth-west puaage, the gavenuoeat, acting on hit 
ftdvice, wnt out an expedition to attempt to dia- 
cover it They diacovered t, atmt in 74* N. l»t, 
which w*B Honied by Baffin LancaMer Somui, in 
honour of Laac«at«r. L. yita created a baronet 
tor his aervicea, and died in 1620. The hiatocy of 
hi* Toyages haa been preaerved by Eakluyt and 

LANCASTER, Jobuh. Sm Beu, Akdkiw, 
■nd Mutual iKsTttDcnoH. 

LANCASTER GUN, a tpeciea of liBed cannon, 
which h&a lieen partially adopted in the Britiih 
aervice. When the preat difficulty of rifling heavy 
ordaance to an extent to give a aufflcient rotoiy 
motion to the projectile became apparent, Mr Lan- 
eaater devised a plan by which groovea might be 
diapenaed with altogether. Initfad of a strictiy 
circular bore, he gave hia gun an elliptical bore,' the 
ellipae being o( very amaU eccentricity. Tha majo] 
uia WM not in one plane from end to ead of thi 
gun, but woa made to revolve in the length, nntil it 
bad moved round one-fourth the periphery of the 
ellipae. The Drojectilea are, of coorae, ellitilical 
»lio ; elonrated, and aomewhat pointed in frout. 
When the Bbell ia projected, it muat follow the twist 
in the bore, and the rotary motion thui imparted 
u retained to the end of the range. The eCtect of 
tbia will be explained under Ritled Ordnance. 
Several Lancaster guua wi-re employed at the tiege 
of Sebaatopol, and aome of them burst. Bat these 
were scarcely fair specimeni, being aervice S-inch 
guna (with circular bore] bored to Mr Lancoater'g 
elliptical atandord, aod therefore weakened. The 
WTOught-iroa guna on hia special model promise, 
however. moi« certain reaulta, which, as eiperiments 
Are atill ia progreaa, will b« better given under 
KirLED Ordnance. 

LANCASTER HERALD, one of the aii heralds 
ot England, rankinic second in jraiot of aeniority. 
Hia office ia said to have beea inatituted by Edward 
IIL, in the 34th year of hLi leign, when he created 
hii son. John of Gaunt, Duke of Lanoaater. Henry 
rv. niiaed Laacister to the dignity of a king-at-arms. 
Edward IV., after reducing him back to tiie status 
of B herald, abuliahed his office, which was revived 
by Heniy VIL 

LANCASTER SOUND, a western inlet of 
Ba£Gn's Kay. in lat 74° N., and extending from 
8U* to 87' W. long;. Though thia og^ening into the 

KUr ocean waa discnvered by Baffin himself, as for 
ck as IGIG. yet it lay virtually neglected for 
more than 200 yfan. At length Par^, in 1819. 
penetrated through it into Barrov's atroit, and, 
lieyor.d it, to the North Qeorgian Islands. 

LANllE ditfored from qKar or javelin in that it 
waa not intended to be thrown, but to be thnist at 
the enemy by force of baud, and with the impetus 
acquired by speed, and thus woa moat effective in 
tha honda of a mounted aoldier. Heuce the lance 
waa the favourite arm with knights for oommencing 
a combat ; it was of tough aah, of oonsiderable 
length, weighted at the end, and held not far from 
the hilt. Sm ToDRSAiuaT. In modeni warfare, 
the lance ia a long rod of tough ash, with an 

able organiaation, far lower than that of any otha 
vertebrate animals, connectios cartili^inoua fiahea 
both with molluaci and with annelids. A few 
apecies are known, all amall ; one of them (A , laiteai- 
lalia), the first which was discovered, a native of 
the coasts of Britain and of Europe generaUv. It 
inhabita banka of aand, and when dog u 

length, very moch compreosed. tniiering to a pcant 
at each eitremlty, the head not nutaUy distinct 
from the body. It is silvery white and semi-trona- 
parent j the skis destitute of acoles. A low dotaal 

fin extends the whole len^ of the back. He 
skeleton is merely rudimentary, the spine being 
represented by a Hbrous ibeath. containmg a great 
number of tn^verae membranous ptntea. There it 
no vestige of a skull, or any enlargement of the 
spinal cord ioto a bnJn ; nor is the L. fumiahed 
with organs of sight or of hearing. The month ia 
situateu beneath Uiat part of the body which soay 
be regaided as the head ; and is surrounded by • 
cartilaginous ring, in several piiices, each of wluch 

Srea off a urolougatinn to supjioit cirri, or aliOTt 
amenta The mouth communicates with a wida 
and long cavity, which contains the organs of respir- 
ation, and from the other extremity of which tha 
alimentary canal proceeds. The L. does not eat or 
swallow, but simply imbibes its food, along with tha 
ater which supplies air for respiration. The intea- 
ne is slender and almost straight ; but there ia 
very long ccecum. The walls of the respiratory 
ivity and the intestine are covered internally with 
ibratite cilia. The blood is colourless. Instead of 
a heart, there are several elongated blood-vewelo, 
which contract succeasively i and at the commence- 
oent of each of the vessels connected with the 
irgana of respiration there is a little contractile bolbL 
rbe muBculiir imtcm accords with that of the 
higher tishea. — Tlie very anomalous structure of the 
' ' led to the supposition, that this genua may 

- . , , - ■ » 

la the oCteunvs arm 

LAItCBLBT (Amphioxut, or BranAi'oitima). a 
gmos of Deimopteroua (^. r.J fishes^ <d ivj remaA- 

iging rather to former geologic periods than to 
the present. 

LANCELOT OF THE LAKE, one of the herow 
of the let»odaiy atory of King Arthur and tha Ronnd 
Tabic. See AnTHTJlt. 

LANCERS, a description o! cavolrv aoldlan who 
e armed with lances. The type aod perfectirai of 
ncers are the Bussinn Cossacks, whose long Ibdcm 
enable them to combat with enemies at a diotance 
from which they themselves take little harm. The 
lancers were brought into European notice by Napo- 
leon, who greatly relied upon some Polish regimmt& 
After the peace of 1B15. tiie arm was odopt^ in the 
English service, but it is thought by mitny Qui the 
British lancer has a weapon too short to enable 
him to charge an infantry square with an/ ohono* 
of anccess. The regiments armed ai laucen aM 
enumerated in the article Cavalbt. 

a by Google 


LAROBT- WIN DOW, • Durov vindov with 
anii'r-pauitad mich head. This fonn wu mnch 
■^ IB Eo^uid and SootJand during ths eariy 

mimiIhI penod t 

Fm Glufow CathcdnU 

^ _ . . » a pleuiiig effect. In Scotland, the 
iBe«t-«iiida« wu, like many other features of 
SmCcIi Gothic, retoiDcd to a much later period than 
a K"g'f — ' The fig. ahewa the east window of 
Gbuiw Cathedr^ which consists of four Lmcet- 
sadows grouped tiigether. 

LA'NCEWOOD, a wood valuable for its great 
<n»|.lh and elasticity. It is produced by the small 
biv (Tmalii i ■■ wirgala (natural order Antmacfa). 
AaMkET spfcies, O. laiLrifoiia. yields the wood called 
WMtm Lnutoewood. Hm latter is not much used. 
L is of gmt tkIus to eoach.builden, by whom it 


■ the tiae, which i> TeT7 straight, and tarely note 
ih^ niae iacfaea in dismeter, with the bark on. It 
s^H in small onanbtieH frotn tha West Indies, 
■kirfy, bawerer, frum Janwca. 

LANCIA'NO (the Jmia or Ani-fl of Pliny, mib- 
nqorntly Andanum), the capital of a district in the 
SapoEtan province of Abniuo Citra, is situated 
( miles frocD the Adriatic, and 15 from Chieti. Pop. 
ItSOa Ita' present site oceupiea three hills, of 
vkir^ the two most adjal^ent are connected by au 
SDcieat briil^ of great square blocks of stone, ongin- 
sUy dedicated to Diocletian. The central position 

■ this town favoured its being selected as n centre 
^ judicial and civil adminiatrtition during both the 
Eeoun aud Gothic periods, nnd from its extensive 
»sffic, it olitained the title of 'The Emiwnnm 
J the Ftvntani.' L. possesses a fine cathedral, 
stoned with marbles and volnable paintings ; Oon- 
hoj seTeTml large foundries, and carries on manu- 
ketoRa of linen goods and farinaoeous paitea. 

LASD, Trus to. See Tirut 
hATSDAJJ. s town of Rhenish Bavaria, and a 
hi 1 1 1 w M tha Genoanio Confederation, is situated 

■ s beantiful district on the Qneich, which lills ita 
biM with water, twenty mila north-west of Caris- 
nhe. Thetv are here important mannfacturea of 
Viacea. Pop., ezclasive of the garrison, 7200. h. 
W bceo the scene of important events during every 
nt war sitiM tha 16th centmy. In the Thirty 
lorf War, it was taken ei^t timea by Swedes, 
Spuiaids, Impeiialiita, and French. In 1634, it 
TH fortiSod b; Twiban, and wm oousidned 

inmtegnahU until taken, in 1702, bv the imperialist! 
under the Mailigraf Ladwig of Baden. 

LAND-CRAB, the popnlar name of all theaa 
species of <>»b (q. v.) which in a mature state ara 
not aquatic They ate now erected into a family or 
tribe, and divided into sereral genera. The species 
ore namerous, and all inhabitant of warm countries. 
They very much resemble the common crabs of our 
shores, and are remarkable ai animate breathing 
by gills, aod yet not aquatio. some of them inhabit- 
ing very dry placea, where they burrow in the sand 
or earth ; but such presence of moisture is abaolutely 
necesaaTT to them as to prevent the desiccation ol 
their gills- Many, and probably all of them, depoeit 
their spawn in wat«r, for which purpose some of 
them annnally migrate from condderable distances 
to the sea; but there is reaaco to suppose that sima 

I«nd-Ciah (OrfatisiMi mcuunit). 

deposit their spawn in fresh water. The Black 
Crab, or Mountaik Cras (Gecarelmu rurieota), of 
the West Indies, ususlly resides in woods and on 
hills at a distance of at least one mile, often two 
or three miles from the sea, which, however, it 
rupilarly visits io the months of April and May, 
when inunense numbera may be seen joonieying 
together, moving straight on, unless obstacles quite 
insuperable im^^e their progress. Like moat of ths 
other species, this L. is active chiefly during the 
night 1 and except in rainy weather, it seldom leaves 
its burrow by day. It feeds chiefly on vegetable 
food. When in season, it is highly ^teemed for the 
table, as some of the other laodcrBbs also are ; and 
its spawn or roe, which before being deposited forma 
a bunch as large as a hen's egg, is accounted a 
delicacy. ^A L. of Ceylon (Oej/wdfl is bo trouble- 
some on account of the burrows which it mokes itt 
the dry soil of the equestriaa promenade at Colombo, 
that men are kept in regular employment to fill 
them up. — The grass-lands of some isHa of India 
swam with small land-oraba, which feed on the 
grass or on green stalks of rice. 

LANDED MEN, JuBI or. In Scotch Law, it it 
a privilege belonging to a landed proprietor, when 
tried for a criminal offence, to demand a jory tha 
majority of whom are landed proprieton. 

LAKDED PROPERTY is not a leral, but tathn 
a popular phrase, to denote that kind of property 
which consists ot freehold eatates in land, or, in 
Scotland, heritable estates. A peraon may have a 
mere chattel interest in land, snch as a lease (though 
In Scotland even that is heritable ratate), and the 
landed property doee not in sueh (sse belong to 
him, but to his landlord, to whom and whose heirs 
the land descends for ever, until alienated. Landed 
property includes houses and all things called cor- 
poreal, and also some incorporeal rights connected 

with land. 



nin Tkrioui w»ya in which thii imporUnt kind 
of ptiiperty i> hdd, uid the formalitiet attending 
ita trnnifer, >rs treated of under such heads as 
ALUtuwH, FtK, Fbuhold, CopmoLD, Peoff- 
■UNT, Deed, Fsu, Sasink, CsABTEit, Coxvxyisck, 
CoMriVANCINO, 8ai^ Tttli, &C. 

LANDER, RiciUKD, the disooverer ot the moalh 
ot the Niger, waa boni in Cornwall in 1801, and 
became a phnteri but in 1825 vent with Captain 
Clapperton, at hii aerrant, to Africa, and accom- 
nnwd him from the Bay of Benin to SCkoto. 
There Clapperton died : and L, returaioff to England, 
pablielied a journal oontaininR an account of tbe 
ezjiedition, giving proof of auch qualittcationa, that 
the Britiah government intrusted bi him tbe proae- 
oation n[ further researohea concerning the course 
of the Nijnr. In 1B30, he and bia brother John 
tucceeded in proving that the Quoits or Niger, folia 
hj many montba into the Bight of Benin. Tbe 
OTBthera were, however, aeiied by the negroea, and 
■old to a alave-deoler, but being broagbt to Cajie 
Fonnoaa, ware redeemed by the maater of a Liver- 
pool ahip. They retunied to England in June 18,T0, 
and pubiiahed a Joumai a/an Hm/irdiliom to Sxplort 
IKe OovTK and TrrmiJUilioii of tkt NigfT {3 vola. 
Lond. 1832). In 1832, thay undertook a new eipe- 
ditioD to the Niger in an iron ateam-boat, and 
bought a noall ialand aa a Britiah trading'ttation. 
In 1833, Biobard L, with a few companiona, made 
» trading eicuraion in tbe delta of the Niger ; but 
thay were assailed by tbe native*, and L, reoeived 
a wound, of which be died, at Fernando Po, STtb 
January 1834. — John L, who was about three 
yean younger than his brother Richard, waa 
rewarded with an appointment in the Cuatoms ; bnt 
died, IGth November 1839, from tbe effacta of the 
African climate. 

LANDE8 (Ft. heaths), ertcnsiva tmeta on the 
cooat of the Bay of Biscay, between tho Oirondeand 
tbe Pyrenees. Few districts in Europe are more 
desolate and noprodactive. The part nearest the 
aea is more so than tbat which lies further inland 
on the riven Adour and Midonxe. The soil is in 
general sandy, sometimes marshy, mostly covered 
with nothing better than heath and dwarf shrubs, 
except where large plantations of fir and cork trees 
were made in 1789, by diiection of the minister 
Nackar. Only a few more fertile spots yield crops 
of rye, maize, and millet. The inhAhitants. who are 
called Parrm, live in scattered villaeaa of wretched 
huts, in the eastern part of the L. : they are of 
GaacoD race, vary poor and rude, but active, good- 
natured, and boapicabte. They very generally walk 
on stilts in the manhy and aandy grounds. They 
keep bees, swina, and sheep, and also live by fishing 
and hunting ; and have begun to derive mnch 
advantage from tha plantatiuna, in which Ihey find 
occupiition in charcoal 'bumin;;. cork-cuttjng, and 
eoUecting turpentine, resin, and ]iitch. They alao 
maoufikcture taboU, or wooden shoes. The aheep of 
the L are of a very wretched breed, with ouarae 

LANDBS. a maritime department of France, and 
one of the largest and most thinly peopled in the 
country, ia bounded cm the W. by the Bay of Biscay. 
Area, 2.134,752 acns; pop. (1862) 31X1. S.19. The 
principal river is tho Adour. The iwlway from 
Bordeaux to Bayonne passes through the whole 
length of the province from mtfth to south. Of 
the entire area of the department, 61,100 acres are 
in vineyards, and about in,U>0,nOO gallons of wine 
are produced annually. The dapnrtmant ia divided 
into tba three arrondisaements, Mont-de-Maraan, St 
Sever, and Doe. Capital, Mont-de-Haraao. 



by which the owner ot land or houses, or the pirty 
entitled to the exclusive possession thereof, lata 
or hires tbia exclusive posseasion to another for » 
limited time, is generally called a tease, and then-bv 
the relation ot landlord and tenant ia created. 
The party letting ia called the landlord or leaaor, 
and the party tajLlns tba lease is called the leaea 
or tenant. In order to let a house, tha coa- 
tract need not be in writing, unless tha pro[>erty 
is let For more than three yaois ; but writing ia 
always useful, especially if any variation is made 
from the usual terms. In Scotland a verbal liaso ia 
good only for one year. If nothing ia said ai to 
details beyond the amount of rant, and the lenath 
of time tLe lease ia to last, there are certain rigbta 
undeistoud to exist as between landlord and tei^nt, 
of which the most important are as follow* in 
England. Tbe tenaut has a right to assign or sublet 
the property, if not otherwise agreed, but be atOl 
remains bound for tbe rent, unless the landlord 
accept the sub-tenant in his placa. Aa a genei>l 
rule, the tenant ia primarily liable to bear all public 
impositions, whether they ba parliamentary toiea or 
poor-rates, paving, lighting, watching, water-rates, 
highway -rates, county or borough rates, and church- 
rates. Hence, if the teuaat wishes the landlord to 
pay these, or any of them, he must make soma 
special agreement to that effect, for the only two 
rates which the landlord is bound t/. 

repay to the tenant, a 
perty-tax, and the sewers-rate. As renirds repairs, 
tha bunion of nrpaire is, at common law, thrown 
on the tenant ; and therefore, if the landlord ia to 
re;iatr, ha must bind himself by express contract. 
Bat the tenant is only bound for onliuaiy repain, 
□ot for repairs to the fabric itself. He is bound to 
use tha premises in a fair and reasonable manner, 
and to give them up at tbe end of tbe term in mucb 
the aomo condition, making allowance for tear and 
wear, and the effects of time. Strange to say, th« 
landlord does oat Impliedly warrant the house bo be 
reasonably St for habitation, or that it wUl last 
during the existence of the lease ; and it boa been 
held that a house infested with bu^ could not ba 
thrown up by the tenant merely on that ground. 
Moreover, if tba landlord agree to do repairs, and 
fail to do tham, the tenant is not entitled to quit oa 
that account, unless there ia an express ngreemeot 
to that effect. Where the premises consist of a 
farm, the tenant ia bound to repair the fences ; and 
when a tenaut makes great improvements on a farm, 
be has no cinim against tbe landlord for the valna 
of such improvements, if no express agreement ban 
been mode. This state of the law. which exists alaa 
in Ireland, has given rise to constant disiiutes thera. 
As regards game, the tenant has a right to ahoot 
the game, if he has a gome licence, unless he ^taa 
otherwise specially agreed. Tha tenant of a farm .laa 
no right to the mines of coal or other mineral, un.ea* 
tlicy are already open, in which case he may tak« 
them for his own use. If nothing is sjiecially agreed 
as to tbe time of payment of the rent, it is only dns 
at the end of each year, hut there is usually an 
express agreement to pay quarterly at tbe end of 
each qiu^ter. Such quarter-days are L«dy-day, 
March 25 ; Midsummer-day, June 24; Micbaehnaa- 
day, September 20 ; andChriatmaa-day,I>ecember2J^ 
Rent is sometimes agreed to be paid in advance, 
but there must be an eipr«aa agreement to that 
effect. In caaa of fire, if nothing has been expressly 
weed, the tenant is bonnd to go on paying rent ks 
it the house actually existed ; and yet tlierf is no 
IS of compelling the landlord to rebuild tho 
i, and it is not even expressly settled whether 
lat case the tenant can get quit of his lease tjr 



A landlord is priTile^ed 
ikoT* tO otber crediton ■• to the wvf in whicli 
W itcoTon hii rent, for ha need not, ][ke other 
(mlitan. gp to the expense and delay of bringing 
^ actioa, bat he con make a distreu ~~ "~~ 
fTMiica, L e., aeiie At once aa much furn 
gooia ai be fiada there, to my the rent in ... . 
>ad be can nxov^ »ix years' rent in thia way. And 
il X iaunaterial irhether tbs gooda ao seited belonj 
ta tbe tenant or not ; it ia enough for the land 
laift porpoae that they are found on the premises 
Hmee, tboagli the house is sablet to anothei 
ttunt vfaoae goods are there, or even if the fnrni 
tart M hired, and though the landlord knew this, 
jct be may seize it and pay himself ; the only 
osptiao heiag made in favour of trade, as where 
Ae gooda hare been sent to a tailor or weaver to 
be iBMilt Dp. This privilege of distress, however, 
tkwrii tnMt valuable to the landlord, is subjoct to 
tfau qualification : it cannot be resorted to till after 
1^ rent ia dne. Hence, if the tenant is bound only 
to pay lus rent at the end of the year, he may on 
t»lut day remove all his goods and furniture, and 
■> pDt them beyond the reach of the landlord's 
daibv^ It is tme he does not get quit of the debt, 
ter the landlord may then sue him, like other 
cnditoi«. but he has no privilege. On the other 
kiad, tbou^ the landlord cannot distrain till after 
tke rent is due. still it may happen that, even after 
rrat ■• dat, the tenant may yet manage to clandes- 
tiaely remove the gooda, the rule being, at common 
bw. tliat if once the goods be taken off the premises, 
the lawUonl'i secority is gone. In such cases, the 
bndJord is entitled by an express statute to follow 
be goods ao fraudulently removed to avoid a 
£dn*a, provided he do so within thirty days ; and 
W aa then seize them, in whose hands soever they 
■ay be, and distrain them, as if they were still on' 
ins premiBes. Another qnalificatton of the lond- 
kird^ right of distress is of some importance : he 
■aooot break open the outer-door of the house, or 
(one his way in, though he ma^ nse stratagem to 
pt m peaceably, and when once in, he can enect his 
parpoae bf seizing a table in name of the other 
nda, and learing his broker or bailiff in possession. 
It is gRterallj the bailiff or agent of the landlord 
«ko nukes the distress, but it ii the same thing. 
Beaoe, it often happens that a tenant who is vigt- 
hat, and not to be surprised, may for a long time 
dictaally keep his landlord at bay, as far as the 
power of distress is concerned, for bis house is bis 
catfle to this extent. Another advanta^ a landlord 
W ss a cmlitor is, that if his tenant is indebted to 
tinnl parties, who obtain jud|nnent against such 
(»»ot, and put an executi" "~ ' 

mi 'a entitled to be fint paid out of the proceeds 
ol tie fnmihire or goods, one year's pent if in 
smar; if there is more rent due, then he must take 
lie same mncdy as other creator*. The mode of 
bnnnating a leaoe is by the time expiring, or by a 
Mice to quit. In the ordinary tenancies of houses, 
•kieh are called tenancies from year to year, the 
nie is. if nothing is agreed to the ooutnuy. that 
«tW party can put an end to the_ tenancy by 
fjving a half-year's notice at such a time that the 
kntt will end at the same time of the year as the 
teaaDcy c^Txnmenoed. Thus, if the tenant entered 
m lit Hay ISS3, then he can give a half-year's 
MkK to quit on 1st Uay 1S64, 1865, or any subse- 
qamt year. Sometimes the parties aaree that only 
a quarter's notice will suffice, and that at any of 
tte maal quarter-days of the year. Sometimes the 
tMaot, after giving or receiving notice, refuses to 
Will, aai Mlda ovar j in wfaich case, if the land- 

lord chooses, he may accept Iiin, and thoeby lb* 
tenancy is renewed from year to year ; or he may 
insist on the notice, in which ease he requires to 
bring an action of ejectment to turn the tenant cit ; 
and in snch oases, the landlord is entitled to demand 
doable rent or double value, until he gets back the 
po f iion. A lodger is in much the same jioeiticn 
as a tenant to the party from whom he hire* the 
lodgings. See Lodginos. 

In Scotland, the law on tbs subject of landloid 
and tenant differs in a great variety of details from 
the law of England as above stated, but it will be 
uecessaiy onl^ to notioe the leading points. There is 
no implied nght jn the tenant to assigu and sublet 
an ordinary lease of an agriimltural subject, such as 
a form : but sab-latting and assigning are implied 
rights of the tenant of an urban property. V. 
a tenant take a farm or house, he is impliedly 
bound to slock the one and furnish the othei 
If a house is let, the landlord impliedly war 
rants that it is in a fit state of repair ; and ii 
the landlord is bound to repair, the tenant may 
either do the rejuurs at the landlord's expense. 
or retain the rent till the repairs are done, Usually, 
the lamllotd pnts the farm building*, fencee, road- 
ways, kc, in thorough repair at entry of the tenant, 
who is bound to leave the whole, at the end of the 
lease, in good condition, excejit at regards deterior- 
ation from ordinary tear and wear ; by which 
arrangement aU disputes, such aa occnr in Ireland, 
are avoided. The tenant has no claim for improve- 
ments, unless when his lease is abruptly terminated. 

1 this 

of T 


tenant of a farm is, in the absence of ■]>ecial agree- 
ment, m>t entitled to the game. Bent is payable 
twice a year, if not otherwise agreed. In case of 
accidental fire, the tenant is no longer bound to 
pay rent if the destruction is complete, and other- 
wise is bound only pro lanlo. A landlord has a 
hypothec, and can sequestrate (resembling the 
power of distress in England) the tenant's goods 
for rent which is current but not yet due. But 
the landlord cannot in general sequestrate a 
stranger's gooda, unless in town-houses, and even 
then subject to qnalitication ; and he cannot take 
a suh-tenant's goods, if the siib.tenant has paid 
the rent to the tenant. The landlord's hypothec or 
security over the goods follows the goods wherever 
they go. unless in the case of crops of a farm, when 
sold in bulk in public market ; but this right must 
be exercised within three months after the term 
when the rent was due. Tfaa notice to quit, or 
warning, is sufficient if given forty days before the 
term of removal But in Edinbargh the local 
iniatnm is to give a three mouths warning at 
Candlemas. Bent cannot be retained for an illiquid 
or unoonstitut«d claim. If no notice is given for^ 
days before the termination of a lease that advan- 
tage is to be taken of its close, the agreement is 
held to be renewed for another year by tacit reloca- 
*<on. See Paterson's Compendium qf Englith and 
»ftA Laa, pp. 127—149. 


eans the lien or seourity for the landlord's rent 

which attaches upon the tenant's gooda. See Ljjid- 


LANDON, LETrriA Elieabeth, an English 
poetess — better known by her initials L. E. L — 
was born in London in 1802. Her childhood was 
spent in the house of a relative in Eertfordshirs^ 
In 1S20, her first poems appeared in the Liternry 
Oaxelte, and attracted considerable attention. On 
the death ol her father, she devoted her entir* 
attention to literature, earning both fame and money. 
published several Tolumes of vane, the most 



widely read umI admired of which mt the /rnpn>- 

viaairiee, and three Dovela, which have lonj 

beta deaettad hy the world of readeTS. < 
7th of June 1838, ihe married Oeorse M 
Eaquire, Qovemor of Cape Coast CaatTc, and waa 
found dead in her new house on the 15th October 
1839. It ii understood that for the alleriation of 

rma, with which ahe waa occnsionalty visited, 
trai in the habit of taking small dose* of pnudc 
add, and her death ii euppoaed to have been caused 
by an overdnee. There ii no reaaon to infqtose 
that her death waa other than accidentaL In 
1811, Mr Lamon Blaochard publiahed her Life and 
Literary Remain*, in 2 vols. 

Her poemi are altogether high flown and romantic, 
but they hare a cert^n musical impulse which ii 
pleasing, and which gave them all the charm they 

LANDOR, Walttr S*vabs, son of Walter 
LandoT nitd of Elizabeth Snvnse, waa bom at Ipaley 
Court, WarwiclHhire, in ITTri. He was educated 
at Riifi;)iy, and at Trinity College, Qiford, quitting 
the auivenity without taking ■ degree. He suc- 
ceeded to the family eri^tcs on the death of his 
father. In 1S08. he raised a body of men at his 
own erpense, and joined the Spanish patriots under 
Blake. He was made a colonel in the serrice of 
Spain, but resinied his commisaion on the restara- 
tinn of Kin? Ferdinand In 1811, he married Miss 
Julia Thuillier of Bath. After his marriage, he 
resided first at Touia, then at Florence, where he 
bought an estate. He tint become known as the 
author of Count Jvliaii. which was fallowed by a 
poem called Gehir. In 1820, appeared Idyliia 
HtToiea (in Latin), and in 1824—18-29, his fma- 
ginanj Connrrtatio'u of Lilrrani Mm and Slatet- 
fflrn 1-1 vols.). L, is a thorouKh classical scholar, 
and bis Ureek and Romao characters ajteak as we 
should expect the ancient heroes to have spoken. 
He is CTcater as a prose writer than at a poet ; but, 
according to Emerson, who visited him in 1833, 
nature meant him rather for action than for litera- 
ture. ' He baa,' aajfa Emeraon, ' an English appetite 
for action and heroea' In 1R)6, he published 
Lnltnofa Coni»rratiw ; in the same year, a Satire 
on Snliri-lK, and JdiTionitian fa Detraclort ; in 
1837, Tlu Pfitlamrron and Prntnloque; In 1847. Tht 
HfUcnia; m \9^. Imaginarv Coar-rmliont of Kin^ 
CaHo Alhrrio and Ihe Dfdiau Bd'jioiom im thi 
Affair) and Fr^pteU q/" ]tat<j; in 1851, Popen,. 
BriliA aid Forfi.,n ; in 1853, Laal Fruit off an Old 
Trrr; in 1AM. LftUr, of an Amrriran, Some more 
recent productions of I*'s pen are not considered to 
have added to his reputation. He reside* at present 
<I863) abroad. 

IiANDOU'B, a sanitary station in British India, 
on the aouth border of the protected state of 
Qurhwol (q. v.], at an elevation of 7579 teet above 
the sea. On ascending to this point from the 

Co. the thermometer has been known to fall I 
90* to 52* F. in the course of two or three 
houra. Even in June, the temperature rarely rises 
to 80* ; while, in January, it averages only abont 
63*. Much has been done to render the place avail- 
Able for invalida Barracka have been erected, ai 
alio a post-office, a church, a hospital, a hotel, a 
library, and many private houses. L. is 1028 
miles to the north-west of Calcutta. This sani- 
tary station i* all the more accessible from its 
proumity to both the ereat riven of the neigh- 
bourfaood, the Junma and the Ganges 


LANDRAILS, in point of law, are protected by 
the game-law* from illegal trespassers, thoooh Dot 
included in the deflnition of 'gams.' Sea OaMX. 


LA'NDSBERG, a town of Prussia, m the pro- 
vince of Brandenburg, is situated in a pleaaani 
and fniitfu! district on the Warthe, 40 miles north* 
east of Frankfurt. Its com and wool markets ar« 
important ; weaving, tanning, distilling, and machine- 
making are carried an. PopL 13,495. 

LA^DSCAPE-GARDEITING, the art of laving 
ont grounds in order to beauty and pleasure, wbiih 
>Ba.j (airly claim to be reckoned among the fine sju. 
It IS chiefly practised either in connection with tlia 
residences of the opulent, or in the public parka and 
pleasure-grounds of citiex. The happiest rejiilti are 
Indeed obtained, where the mere purpose of pleoidris 
is not too much obtnided on atteutiun, hut where it 
is seen to harmonise with some other design. 

Where the Beuerol aspect of a country ia wild, 
and has been Tittle modified by cultivation, enclo- 
sures, and other works of man, ttiose scenes are 
felt to be most pleasiog which exhibit hia progri'M 
and triumph. Thus, when pleasure-grounds lirst 
began to be laid out. they ezhiiiited oidy geometric 
forms ; and alleys, avenues, and parterres did net 
seem artificia] enough to give delight, withmit 
buildings of various kmds, terraces, mounda, artifi- 
cial hills, lakes, and streams, duse-clipued heJ^^t^s, 
and trees or shrubs trimmed by tojiinnait art into 
fantastic shapes, such as ligures of animals, vist«. 
and the like. The art of the lopiariaa or picachi-r 
— dating from the Aupiston age in Rome — ^is now an 
longer in repute. lu districts where the eeneral so^ue 
eihibiU asuccessinn of rectangular lielchi, and whtrre 
everything has evidently been reduced to a coiiili- 
'"" lubaervieut to utility, a greater irTBguIarity 
pleasure, and the eye love* to rest on any 
portion of the landscajie which seem* to exhil'tt 
the original beauties of nature. Tha landscapc- 
gardeuer, however, must not attempt an exact imita- 
of nature, or to reduce everything to a st.^te of 
primitive wildncso. Like the pamter, ne mwt sci-k 
exhibit nature idealiaeil. The introductiiiii of 
ter is seldom successful ; the mere landscape- 
gardener's lohe or cascade is too obviously artiticial. 
Where water is within view, it i* a chief object of 
the landscagie- gardener to arrange everything so 
that the view of it mny be enjoyed from the 
windows of the mansion, or from the principal walksL 
iare it given to the disposal of wood, io 
. groups, and single tree*. Belts and clumpa, 
which were much in vo^us in the latter part of tliQ 
18th c, are now oumparatively seldom planted. 

The style oC londsoapc-aardenini; in which re^u 
Ur forms prevail is colled the Qtomftrie ; and tb* 
opposite style, bam having been lint eitensivelr 
practised in England, in which country, indeed, it 
may he said to have origim^, is known as tl^ 
Englith. On the ooutinent of Europe, a pleasure 
ground laid out with winding and irregular walks 
and scattered trees or groujis of tree* and shmbn. ir 
called an Englitk garden. But many of the conti- 
nental English gardeoB are rather cancaturea of the 
true Enghsh style than illustrations of it. 

The taste of the present age rejects the gTottoa, 
temples, statues, monuments, fountains, jeta-d'eian. 
Ad., with which it was once the fashion to rill 
pleasure -grounds, or admtta only of their spuing 

In the laying out of gronnda, whether on a large 
or a small scoU, it is of great importance that t£e 
tree* and ihrubs be well chosen, and the differeot 
kinds well groiqrad. 

LANDS-CLAUBES ACT, ■ statnU paved n 

a by Google 


^ I ooda of ragnlstiou geuenOj 
i in all loral icti where a poirer is given to 
i^pnlaonlj > nua'a land for the parposea of 
OBnroTeoiciita. Aa no nun ram be oompelled 
> atU hii proper^, a *t«tator; power to 
ia aecaaarv in all caiee where a public 
'ailmy, harbonr, &c, 
A statutes Vict c 18, accordingly, 
vith tke aboTe title, was passed for Englanil, and 
S Tict. c 19 for Scotland, each contstning detailed 
fConDtKi* u to tbe mode of fettling the price to be 

1UA51>SEER, Stb Gdwct, E.A., an En^ish 
pantcr, Kfn of Jobn I^ndseer, an emin^Dt engniTer, 
WM boTD in Lrondon in 1802, and waa carefully 
tniaed hy bia father, who nlied to take him oat, 
vfaa only a child, to Hamnatead Heath, and 
•rcaatnoi him to aketch aoimala from life. The 
ii« wnrk of I.'b tbat brought him prominently 
hrierr tbe public waa 'Dora Fighting.' exhibited 
■ 1SI9. It waa aocceeded by the 'Doga of St 
Getkard' (1819), tbe popularity of which waa nry 
mat Tbe scene of aervral of bin fineat pictorea u 
W in tbe Hi^hlanda of Sootland. For upwarda nf 
ttitT rearm, ereiy London eibibition baa witnesaed 
ha aDecee& In IS27 be waa elected a RA.. and in 
1890 he was knighted. Among bia moat celebrated 
aiimnwnta axe: 'The Betnrn from Deer-ttalk- 
M,' •Tho lUicit Whiaky-Btai.' > Highland Miiaic' 
■taden Derr-rtalking,' 'Bolton Abbey in the 
0Uc9 Time,* 'A Seme in the Gnmpiam — the 
Dnrrvr'* Departure,' ' Return from Hawking,' ' Tbe 
OU Sbepberd's Chief Mourner," 'Peace,' 'War.' 
*Sba at Bay,' ' Tbe Drive— Shooting Deer on the 
hs/ ' Tbe Random Shot.' ' ^'igbt.'' ' Mominp,' 
'TSe CtuMrm of tbe Miit^' 'Saved,' 'Highland 
S ui a ca ^ DrdicatccI to Misa TTiefatiiWe,' ■ Deer- 
■ilfcincu' and 'Flood in the Hi^hlaDdT (1861). L. 
a reckotml tbe moet auperi) animal -painter of bia 
ItBE ; hi> coDoeptions are often highly poetical ; the 
■atiini III wbich he thniwa into his repreacntationa 
ti the ' dumb crestnr« ' ii quit« wonderful, and the 
(Acitj ot faia eiecutinn is onsnrpaaed. Moat, if not 
■& bia ptctnrea have been engraved. — L. has two 
hiTitbet9.CHABL^aadTHOMAS, alsoartists. Thomas 
ii «M of the brat living engravers in England. 
LA3iT>'S EXD. See CoRswiu. 
LAin>SH1TT,aDaacieDt and pictoreaque German 
tows, opital of I»wer Baiaria, is situated in a 
mat. fertile diatarwt on tbe laor, 39 milea north- 
* ol Montch. Il> atreeta are rich in quaint old 
MUna, aad tbcn are nnmemas towen : Ibat of St 
MasiiB'a Church (a Gothic building, dating from 
1400) ■■ 43) English feet in height L. containa 
JB U eW Bri CT, and baa manafactnrea of woollen cloth, 
Irathiii. boaiery, and tobacco. In IS26, the nni- 
mwlj. which waa mnoved hither from Ingotatadt 
n IMO- waa transferred to Munich. The caitle of 
a, long the residence of the Dnkes of Bavaria, 

rr— ■** *" '""* ****" "fW'i'Uy a Roman station. 

Dwstf Um lliirty Y«Bn' War. and tbe war of tbe 
ilaJiian Sucoeoion. L. was an important fortreas, 
B«d tbe scene of many oonflicts. Pop. 11,316. 

LAITDSLIFS. large portions of land which from 
m^K> csnae havv beocma detached from their original 
frat ri- . and aUd down to a lower leveL They are 
Willi iallj eommon in volcanic districts, where tbe 
MsMlilin)} of tbe earth that fraqnently acoomnaniea 
th* es up t iu n of a volcano is sufficient to split off 
larae DortiocB of moantsina, which slide down to 
■ below. Water is another gnat agent 

ttealains b 
me n a cing L 

ipa. It operates m vanoui ways. 
on method ia when water insinn- 

the atnts are very much inclined, and r«et o 
bed anaceptible of absorbing water, and becoming 
alippery. tbe aoiicrincnmbent maaa slides over it to 
> lower level This took place on a Urge scale in 
Dorsetshire between Lyme and Axminster in 1839, 
an nnusnally wet aeaaoo, in which the strata bad 
become saturated with moiatare. A mass of chalk 
and greenaand here slid over tbe slippery surface of 
a b^ of liasaic clay down into the sea, leaving a 
rent tbree-qimrteia of a mile long, 240 feet wide, 
and IM Suet deep. Of the same kind was the 
slip of the Roaaberg. in Switzerland (see Qoldah). 
LBiidali|)s of a diS^nt kind have been pmiuced 
in peat-moasea, which becoming by heavy raina 
thoroughly saturated with water, bave burnt their 
natural boundaries, and diachargod themselves on a 
' wer "lereL The most remarksble case on record 
that of the Solway Moss, which, in 1772, owing 
greater raiua thui had fallen for nearly two 
eeutnriea, spre^ rtself in a slowly rolling, resisUeM 
deluge of black mud over 400 acres of cultivated 
fields, and to such a depth as almost to cover 
several booaea, while it reached the roof of other*. 
LAXDSMAy, a term applied on board ship to 
Bailor who haa never been at sea before. Tho 
word is gratlually becoming obsolete, and is supplied 
in tbe royal navy by vie ezpreasion ' ordinary 
•eaman of the 2d cUss.*^ 

LAND-SUBVETiyC, or the maasnrement of 

e area of a portiini, whether amsU or large, of 

e earth's auruce, is an important appbcation of 

mathematics, and involves a thoruii^'h auiiiaintance 

with geometry, trigonometry, and the theory and 

oftbo instruments employed for tlie dotermin- 

D of angles. Fields or portions of ground of 

JI extent are measured ensily and with suffi- 

it accuracy by a chain (for distonocs). and a box- 

COmposB or croBs-ataS (for angles). For larger areas, 

tbe use of tbe surveyor's table is requisite ; and for 

those of still greater extent, in which tbe greatest 

accuracy is requisite in the determination of <iia 

aoales, the astrolabe, tbeodoUte, sextant, circle, 

rsUector, micrometer, Ao., are useiL The surface 

I measured ia divided into triangles, which are 

separately measured and calculated ; but when a 

large extent is included in the measurement, it is 

not enough to proceed from one triangle to another, 

ited with continual increase : but a base line, sa 
ng as circumatsucea admit of, must, iu the Grat 
stauce, bo aceurately meaaured, upon which, by 
cans of the measurement of angloa. alt tbe subse- 
quent catcutatioQB are made to depend, and linea 
~ ibaequently measured are only intended to be 
irrective of the tfmlts obtained by calculation. 
When the extent of surface is still greater, as when 
whole ootmtry is to be measured, point* here and 
there are sstronomiaslly determined, tbetr meridians 
are accurately laid down, and a complicated aystem 
of triangles is employed to insure aocuracy. TMj 
'~ called TriaHgnialion. 

LAND-TAX, a tax imposed npon land and 
house* for purpoaea of revenue, in lieu of the ancient 
subaidiea, seutages, talliages, tenths, fifteenths, 
and such occasional taxes. From a very early 
period to the middle of the 17th &, pariiament 
bad provided for the extraordinary necessities of 
the government chiefly by grantuig aubeidies, wbich 
were raised by an impost on the people in respect of 
their rejmted estates. Landed pniperty was tbe 
chief subject of taxation, and was asaeaaed nominally 
' ' in the poond. But this asseaament was madf 
£h a w^ that it did not rise with tiie valot 



of land, bnt dwindled xwty to about 2d, in the 
jtonod. Ths Long Parliatnmt devised a more 
cfGcieDt ptan hy (ixing the *um to be rawed, and 
then dishnhuting it among coiiBtiea ftccordiag to 
tbeir iTippoRed wealth, leaviog them to miae it 
b; a rate. In 1692. a neAr mfiiatioo of landa wag 
tnade, and it wu fonnd that a tax of li. per pound 
would yield half a million. Id war, tbia fru raiBed 
to 4ft la 1 793, the parliament relieTed itwlf of the 
trouble of Every year passing an act. and a geners] 
act waa paMod, permnneutly fixing the land-tax 
at i>. in the pouod. This act (38 Geo. TIL c BO) 
enabled the landlord to redeem liie tax, and accord- 
fogly, lince that time, a great part of it has been 
redeemed, only aboat one million bein;; onreileemed. 
Though the act of 1798 directed the tax to be 
assessed and collected with impartiality, tbia pro- 
vision was not catried out, bat the old valuation 
of 1698 was noted on, and in modem times the 

ntetit possible inequality prevails. If the tax ia 
Tear, the tenant is liable to a distress ; bnt the 
tenant may deduct it from the next rent he pays. 
The tax. thongfa nominally chargeable on the land- 
lord, falls neither on the landlord nor the tenant, 
but on the braeficial proprietor, as distinguished 
from the tenant at rack-rent; for if the tenant 
has sublet, and has a beneficial interest, he pa^ 

Clan/0 tjie tax, charging the residue on the land- 
L The proportion of land-tax fixed on Scotland 
was iM7.9S4, and a proportion waa fixed on eaoh 
oonuty, tlie commissioners having power to amend 
the vatuatioo- The collection and management of 
ths tax waa given to the commissioners of taxea by 
Ota statute 3 and 4 Will IV. c. U 

ponding t 

e being 

t always retain* 
peace, its members spend most o 
pnnnita, and are called out fi 
only in times of war or of comi 
taken however, that they are ai 
to make them ready for snoh service wnen necea- 
aary. Tbe name Landwehr was first apjilied to the 
l^leso, who rose against the French ; and in 1905 
a fnree was raised in tbe other Oerman 

Cvinces of Austria, which, however, the emperor 
recently aboliihpiL fly far the moat elaborate 
and complete system of hind -defence is the Prussian, 
which vas called into existence in 1913. when all 

in the Prussian army, had proposed such a thing: 
biit it HB« not till the openine of the campaign of 
1B13 that the Prussian Landwehr was on-anised 
according to Schamhorst'e plan by a royal edict, 
dated 17th March. At first, it was designed solely 
u a lanil defence, properly so called, and not, what 
is now the case, as an integral part of the regular 
army. It waa called ont in two separate levies, 
the first comprising all men from 26 to 33, and the 
second those from 32 to 39. The old men up to 
60 belonged to the Ltaidghtrm, whiuh was called 
out only far the defence ot home and hearth. 

After the second Peace of Paris ap]ieared the 
LnmiiBrliivnlinins (Landwehr-reguUtion) of 21st 
April 1815, according to which the country was 
divided into 104 districts, each of which had to 
furnish a bsttalion of Landwehr. To every bat- 
talion of Landwehr was attached a squadron of 
nlans -, three battalions formed a reEiment ; two 
roeimcnts, a I^dwehr brigade, which, along with 
the brifptde* ol cavalry and infantry, was iilaoed 

nnder a genera] of division. More r««entl;, th« 
Landwehr was brought into closer onion with th» 
line, in order to Tvmedy the faults which hid shewn 
themselves, in spte of all the admirsblenees of tha 
System. Landwehr brigades have been in^tiduced 
into the regular army. 

vol Church of England, was born ol a nobis 
family at Favia, in 1005, and educate^l, partly at 
Pavia, partly at Bologna, for the profpiaion of chs 
law. For a time he followed the profeMion of aa 
advocate at Pavia ; but in the hope of greatti- 
distinction, he removed to Prance, and founded at 
AvranchoB a school of law, which sonn became ono 
of the moat popular in France. Having been way- 
laid and all I) lit murdered by robbers during ono 
of his Journeys to Houen, he was carried to tho 
monastery of Bee, where he waa treated with much 
tenderness ; and the deep religious impresaions there 
received determined him to abondnn the ivorld and 
become himself a monk. He was soon (1041) choMen 
prior of tbe monastery; and his reputation for piaty, 
as well as the fame for tfaeologiokl learning irtiicli 
ho acquired, especially in his controversy on the 
Eucharist with Berengar, led to his tranuation in 
1062 to the still more important monaster of St 
Stephen, at Caen, recently founded by William, 
Duke ot Normandy. Having enjoyed the confidenoa 
of that prince for many yean, he was selected b^ 
him, after the conquest of England, to fill the prima- 
tiol see of Cuiterbury. and ne was indnced with 
much reluctance to accept it in 1070. Having onos, 
however, undertaken the charge, he entered leal- 
•usly into the pobcy of his sovereign ; and under 
his spiritual nile the Church of England received 
as strong an infusion of the Norman element *» 
was forced upon tbe political system of England 
by the iron hand of the Conqueror. L. ouuived 
William ; and to his influenoe the hiatoriani mainly 
ascribe the peaceful submission with which Uiat 
monoroh'a succtssor, Rufus, was accepted by the 
kingdom, as well as the comparative modeiatioii of 
the earlier years of Rufus's reien. Tbe tyranny 
which has made the name of Kufua odious datca 
mainly after the death of L, which occurred ia 
1089, in the S4th year of his ace. His chief writ- 
ings are —Commentaries on the E^iistles of St Panl, 
the Treatise against Berengor, and Sermons. Hia 
letters, however, are very interesting. The first 
complete edition of his works is that of D'Aefaery 
(f»i. Paris, 1648). They are also found in the 
BibtioiJuKii Parrun. See Milman's Latin Chritti. 
anils, ^1- "i- PP- 438—440, and also Dr Hook's 
Livet of Ok ArdAitKipt of CiMerbiiTy. foiii. 1861. 

LA'NOfiLAKD (i. e., bng lamTi, a Danish island, 
situated at the southern entrance to the Cirent Belt, 
betwoeo Fuhnen and Laaland. It is 3.? miles in 
length, and about 3 miles in average brea<Ith- Area, 
about 100 squire mQes ; pop. 17,4IX). It consists of 
a ridge of low hills, is very fertile in soil, and is 
well wooded. Grain, pease, butter, and cheese are 
largely produced. RndkjUbing, pop, 2000, on tha 
vest coast, is tbe only town. 

LAMaENBIE'LAU, a sucoesnon of snudl con- 
tienous villages in Prussia, in the province of Silaia, 
33 miles south-west of Breslau. Entire pop^ 12,667, 
who are employed in linen, cotton, and other manu- 
factures, and in sugai^reGning and dyeing. 

LANGENSA'LZA, a manufacturing town o( 
Prussian Saxony, on ths Salsa, 20 miles north- 
west of £rfnrt. It contains an old castle, and ia 
surrounded by walls. ManuFactures of silks, linens, 
and woollens are carried 'm. About two mtlea 
from the town are a suljihur spring and btthL 

a by Google 


IifKOHOLH, B bur^ of barony and market- 
Ml IB Dmnbusihire, Sootland at the junctioD of 
b Ewn, the Wauchope, and the Eek, about 30 
■is met of the county town, and 8 miles nnrth of 
lb Eiditli border. There are 6 factorin in the 
Im, not ftaple nianiifaotiires are irooUea yama, 
1^ a nollen doth called Tweed, for wbicb the 
kn ii aatrd. Dye-work* are a1>o in operation. 
L ommAi of the united rillagM of Old and New 
la^Mm. Pop. (1861t 2979. 

LAJOREB, a manofactaring town of Prance, in 
dtt ifeputment of Baute-Hame, is aittuted at an 
tlmbon of I40S feet abova «ek-le*el, 20 miles 
m;h-a>t of Chanmoot. Here cutlery of the finest 
qnkj i> manufactured, and tbere is a considenbla 
Inde in gnin. lint, eatUe. and tbeep. It is said to 
bn been tbe see of a biahop aince the 3d a., and 
iniiFiiri a cathedral of the 11th century. Pop. 
k^ L, the ancient Andomatunum, wsa m 
lit tone of CsBar the capital of the Lingones, a 
uw cnnpted into Laogrea. 
U'XGSAT, or lANSEH. See Meliacea 
LAKGTON, STEPaBn, celebrated in the history 
d Ihc libertit* of England, was born probably in 
UiBiln cr Deronahin^ in tbe early |iart of the 
lU ceatvry. He received the 4hief part of hia 
oliatiiia in the uniremty of Faria, where be was 
tk frilaw.atndFnt and fnend of Innocent III. ; 
■d hartng completed hi* (tndi^ be roae through 
111 will grades to the office of chaneellar of the 
nimnCy. After the elevation of Innocent, L., 
hsviiig tinted Borne, was named to the cBrdinalate 
tf tbe pope ; and, on oocaaion of the disputed 
iktKn to the Bee of Canterbury, he was reoom- 
■mlel to thoae elector* who had come to Rome 
<■ lit appeal, and having been elected by them, 
nt emi*LLiated by Innocent himself at Viterbo, 
Jut !T, 1307. Hia ^jpomtment, neverthelea*, w>« 
noM by King Joba ; and for six years, L, was 
aAtiai frwn the see, to which he was only 
sisiiltfd on the adjustment, in 121.^ of the kioR'a 
iafttt with Innocent through the legate FandiUf. 
Sk Immoowi lU- Thi* reconciliation. Qowever, was 
hn loiponHy. In the conflict of John with bis 
hnmi, L was a warm partisan of the latter, and 
b nme ia the first of the aabaoribing witneose* 
tJ Migna Cbartft When the pope, actmg on the 
ttWBtstiOB of John, and eaponsing his cause as 
^Int nf I T*ml of the holy see, exoommunicated the 
^Biiai, L ittnsed to pubiiih the exoommunioation, 
nd VIS in consequence suspended from hi* func- 
boi in 121^ He was restcved, however, probably 
B tbe (dlowing year ; and on the accession ^ 
Dory IIL, he waa r«nstated (13IS) is his see of 
i^aterbitry. tioiD which time he chieSy occupied 
ksidf with chnrch reforms till his death, which 
kck place July 9, 1228. L. waa a learned and suo- 
<«ral writer, but his writings are lost, and the chief 
bm vhii^ he has left in sacred hterature ii the 
bwaa of the Bible into chattels, which is ascribed 
b kirn, tiiraldai Cambrensii (q. v.] dedicated 
tntnl of his book* to Lan^n.— See Wharton's 
ifSa Sacra, vo]n. L sad iL ; Lingard, voL iL ; 
wsb'i Latin C/iritlianilv,Ta\. it. ; and DrHook'i 
lM.Bf At ArrKbis/iopt of Canterbury, ToL iL 1861. 


U'SGUKD, or LAMPASS^ in Heraldry. An 
bmI whoae tiHigae is of a different colour from 
^ Wy, IS nid to ba langued of that colour. It 
■ mderHood in England that unless the bhuoa 
^Kl otiwwiae, all animals are langued Kulea 
^CM tmetore is not gules, and an animal gules is 
ypa l azure. Thi* rule don not hold good in 
oMtirii Heraldry, wberi^ ' when the tongue, teeth, 
■d cisvs are of djflarent tinotnrea from their 

bodies, they are to be mentioned a* aimed ant 

laugned of such a tincture.' — Ifiibel. When a baaal 
or bird is represented withoQt teeth or cUws, thi* 
is expressed in blazon ' Bans langue and arma.' 

LANOUEDOC, the name eiveD in the middle 
ages, and down to the French Berolution, to a 

Knvince in the south of France, bounded on the 
. by Auveigne and Lyonnaig ; on the K by the 
river Rhone ; on the S. by the Mpditerrauean and 
the couutiea of Foix and Bouasillon ; and on tbe W. 
by Ooscony and Guieane. It was traversed through 
it* whole length, from north-east to south-west, 
hv the Cevennea Iq. V-). L. is now divided into 
le departments of Lozire, Gani, Ardiche, Audo, 

derived from Oiat of the soathera French dialect, 
or Provensal, which was called the langue iTix, 
whilst the northern waa called la/tipit iCoui or 
lanspit (foil, bccauae in the former the word oc 
(probably from tbe Teutooic oucft) was used for 
ya, and in the latter oil or out (Teul um/J). 

LANI'AD^ a family of birds, generally ranked, 
as by Cuvier, in the order liaaaora, sub-order 
DtAttrottra, but allying them to Acapilru. Thpy 
are the largest and most repadoua of the Dta- 
tirotlra, preying on small Inrdi, qaadrupeds. and 
reptiles, aa well ■* on large insect*. Many of them 
have the curiou* habit of impaling their prey o'l 
thorns, after which they pull it in pieces, anil devour 
It at leisure. They h^ve a ihort, strong, a^imptly 
hooked bill, with a notoh or tooth on each tide, ami 
sharp daws. The Shnkes {q.v.), or Bntcher-binls, 
are the type of the family; but it is united by 
numerous link* to the family of the MuK'icapidtt. 
or Fly-catchers, and the limit* of the tno fomiiiei 
are very uncertain. 

LANKA, the anoient name of the capital ol 
Ceylon. In Hindu mythology, it is renowned, as 
the chief city of the giaut Kftvana (q. T-), who, by 
carrying off 8ftA, the wife lA Rlma, caused the 
conquest of Ceylon by the latter personage, who is 
considered as an incarnation of the god Vishn'u. 

LANKA V AT ARA, the name of one of the chiel 
reli^n* work* of the Buddhists. It treats of their 
religious law, and of some of their most abetmae 
phibeophical problems. See £. Bitrnouf, lui., and 
W. Wassiljew, Ac, as named under Lujta-vibtakl. 

LAKIJKB (i'aJoo Umaarau), * (pedes of fakon, 

I^imar [iUeo Uumariiu). 



Unpiutge of UleooTj ; the m*le, being nnaUer, 

LANyES, Jeait, Dckb 07 Moiotbello, a 

mars)iat of the Frenui Empire, wu born llth April 
1769. at Lcctaure ; entered the army in 1792, and 
•oon rose to high military rank. He rendered 
Napoleon important service on tho 18th Brrimaire, 
and enjoyed his highest tavonr. On 9th Jane 1800 
he won the battle of Montebello, whence his title. 
He bora a principal share in the battle of Marengo, 
and commanded the left wing at Amterliti. He 
•erred in the cam])Mgn against Pnimia in 1806, 
oominandcd the centre at Jena, and diatinguiohod 
himself at Eylau and Friedland Being sent to 
Siiain, be defeated Oenenl Castaflos at Tudela. 22d 
Novemher 1808, and took SaraBossa. In 1809. he 
again served on the Danube, ami commanded the 
centre at Aspera {the 22d May), where he had both 
his leip carried away by a cannon-shoL Ha was 
removed to Vienna, and died there. .31st May. He 
was interred in the Pantheon, in Paria. 

LANNION, a town and rivei^port of FrMice, in 
the dejiartment of Cfitea-du-Nord, on the Guer, 
about seven miles from the mouth of that river. 
Its trade is chiefly in deals, Bordeaux wine, and 
colonial produce. Pop. ahout 6000. 

LANSDOWNE, Hekry Prrrr-FnTJiAOTtic*. 
third Marouis 01', an Ensliah statesman, waa 
born at Lanadowne House, Lcndiin, July 2, 1780. 
His father, the celebrated Earl of Shelburae, waa 
premier to George IIL, and received the coronet of 
a marquis in 1784 L. (then Lord Henry Petty) 
was a younger son, and was sent to Westminster 
School, and afterwards tu Edinburgh, then the 
school of the young Whigs destineil for political 
life. He took his d^ree at Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, in 1801, and when barely o( age, entered 
lailiament as M. P. for Calne. He turned his 
attention to finance ; and on Pitt's death, he 
became, at the age ot 25, Chancellor of the 
Exchequer, in the administration of Lord Gran- 
ville. In 1809, he sncoeedod hia half-brother in 
the marquisBte, became one of the heads of the 
Ubernl party in the House of Iiords, and during 
a long opl")sition, oon«ist«ntly advocated those 
various meaeiiree of progress which he lived to 
tee triumphant. When the Whigs, after their 
long exclusion from power, came into office with 
Earl Gray at their head, L. became Loni Presi 
of the Council, which post ho helil. with a brief 
interval, from November 1830 to Se]>tember 
resuming it in 1846. after the fall of the 
ministry, and aeain filling it until 1854 He then 
fonnally bade faraweU to office, and resigned the 
leadership of the House ot Lords ; but consent-' "• 
hold a seat without office in the Abenieeu cat 
and again in the first administration of Lord 
Palmcraton. After the death of the Duke of 
Wellington, he became the patriarch of the Upper 
Bouse, and the peiwjna] friend and ailviser of the 
Queen. lie had a keen relish and a cultivated taate 
for literature, and was the generous patron of ni' 
of letters. He formed a splendid library,, and o 
of the noblest collections oC pictures and statuary 
the kingdom. He refused a dukedom, and might 
more than one* have been prime minister, 
death took place January 31, 1863, at Bowood. 

LA'NSINQ, the capita! of Michigan, U.a., on 
Grand Wver, 110 miles north-west of Detroit, con- 
tains a state-house, female college, state agricnl- 
tural college, and model (arm of 7(K1 acres, house 
of correction tor juvenile ofTenders, ten churches, a 
hank, two weekly (lapers, and seveiml manutactoriee. 
SetUed in 1847, it bai a population ol 900a 

LAKTEBN, in Ardiitectnre, 
stmcture raised over domes, roofs, *c, to give light 
and ventilation. The dome of St Pauls Catie- 
dral and many other large domes are erewnBd 
with a lanteni. Where a lantern is for the purposa 
light, it is called a lantfrn-fight. In 
Qotlio architectura. a lanlfrn-lower is frequently 

K' cod over tlie centre of cross churohee — the vi-nlt 
ng at a considerable height, and the liflht 
admitted by windows in the sidel. York and Ely 
cathedrals, and many ohurcbe* in England, bavo 
such lantern towera. 

LANTBRN-FLY (FHlgora), a genus ot homop- 
tereus insects ; the type of a family Fuigoriditt 
allied to CicadUla. but having legu more adai>tetl 
for leaping, and destitute of organs for producing 
sound. The forehead is remarkably prolonged into 

Lautere-ny [Fulnora laUnaria). 

natives of the warmest parts of the world. The 
name L. was Originally jfi^en to F. Intenuiria. m 
large species, found in Guiana, and of which tha 
inflated pnijeotion of the forehead is said to be 
sometime* moat brilliantly luminous ; but the evi- 
dence is doubtful, and many naturalists refuse to 
believe in the luminosity of any of this genius 
The moat probnble explanation is, that the lumi- 
nosity is sexual, and merely occasional, perhaps 
limited to p,irticu]aT season a Concern lug the 
liiminoaity of the Cnm^ h. {F. eourfftirio), there 
is still greater doubt. The prelongstion o( the 
forehead in this specie* is a comparatively narroir 

from Uie Greek word Lan^uinein, to lie hid, is k 
metal which was discovered by Mosander in 1S41 
in Crri/e (q. v.), a hydrated silicate of cerium. It 
is of httle chemical interest, and is of no practical 
value. Till recently, the three metals cerium, 
lanthanum, and didymium were all confounded 
together under the name cerium. 

LA'NYARDS, b • ship, are short ropea used 
either to nuke fast various apparatus in its {dace, 
or to stretch other and iminrtant ropes to their 
utmost tension. 

LANZABOT^ one of the Canaries (q. t.]. 

LiANZI, Lcioi, a celebrated Italian antiqoary, 
waa bom at Monte dell' Olmo, near Macerala, June 
14, 1732. He entered the order of the Jeauita, and 
resided at Rome, and afterwanis at Plorance, where 
he died March 30, 1810. In 1762. he published at 
Florence hia Darriaone drUa Onllrria di Firtji^. 
His great works, distingniahed for their profound 
erudition, ai« hia Sagrjio di JAngna Ktrutea (3 vols. 
Rome, 1789), in which, contrary to the prevalent 
opinion among Italian savants, he maintaisa the 
influence tA Greece npon Gtmscan civil) aatiuu, and 
his Storia PiUorica d'ltalia, *c (Florence, 1792 ; 
and Baanno, 1789, and 1606). This latbir work 

a by Google 


(Bito'i Standard Ubnry, 3 roU iS47). He ii the 

tao, Kolptam, Ac Hi* poathamoii* irork* „ 
pUiibel m 2 rob. at noreucs in 1817. 

LA'OCOOK. aooording to cImuc legend, a pnect 
■Iktr of Apollo or NeptUDe, in Troy, who in nun 
■vaad Ui ooanbymen of the deceit practiMd by 
Ikt Gneki ia thoir pretended offering of the wooden 
km lo MioirTa, and waa deatreyed aJong with hia 
tn KB! fa; two enonnoua aerpentl which came 
ha the aea. Tltey fint Eaateoed on hi* childieg, 
ai aha he attempted to rescue them, involved 
111— IF ia their coila. Thia l^nd ii not Homeric, 
h( U iitef origin. It waa, bowevvr, a favourite 
tkoK rf the Gnwk poeta, and i* introduced in the 
Imi af VirgiL It acqoiie* a pwmliar intereat 

Am beiag the aabject of one of the mo«t funoiu 
v*b d( andent acnlptiire (till in eiiitence ; a 
rn dBcoTered in 1S06 at Rmne, in the Sette Sale, 
■ iktide of the Bnuiliae Hill, and purcbated by 
t"» Jilim IL for the Vatican. It waa carried 
taPtna, bot recovered in 1814. The whole treat- 
■aa U the ubject, the anatomical accuracy of the 
i(WB, and tin repmeotation b<itb of bodily pain 
■i o' paMOn. have alwaye oommanded the higbest 
■•■intKO. According to Pliny, it wa» the work 
d Ike Rhodiaa srtiet* Ageeander, Polydoms, and 
tOaaiam, bat thia ia doubtful Caste of it are 
h b« fond in erery European mnaeum. For an 
MMe eipaaitiaD M ita meriti, >e« Leming*a eele- 
iniid Laocoo» mfar Mter dit Oraiten do- Malera 

UODICB'A, a ei^ of andent Pbrygia, near 
k onr Ly™*! ■» caUed after I^odice, queen of 
^•tefaoa TWoa, ita fonnder. waa built 

ht nSi^l^ , . 

*Bhhr, fdl into the handa of the Tnrka ii 
Ml •pin deMii>yed in 1402, and ia now 
*^^nitluuUn^ raina, known hf the i 

Idfrtown aaaiBi DioBpolia. It «»* deatfoyed 
(anhquake duriajt the reign of Tibetiua, 
built bf the inh^Htanta, who were very 

ecelesiaatical discipline. A aecond eonncil waa beU 
here in 47S, which condemned tiie Eutychiana. 

LAON, chief town of the department of Aime, in 
France, ia aituated in a atrong poaition on a ateap 
iaolatedhilUSO mileenorth-eaatof P&ria. TbewaUa 
(flanked with towers) with which it is aurraunded, 
the noble Gothic cathedral (buUt 1112-1114) on 
the Bummit of the hill, and the charming character 
of the scenery in the vicinity, greatly enhance tba 
appearance of the town. The public library, with 
20,000 vols., contains also a beautiful statue in 
marble of Oabrielle d'Eatr^ee. The manufictorea 
are nails, bate, leather, and hosiery. Hne, on 
March 9 and 10, IS14. N&poteun waa defeated by th* 
alliea, and compelled to fall back on SoiBona. 
Pop. 10,412. 

LA'0& See Shui Sr^na. 

LAOU-TSZE, a celebrated pMloaopher of China, 
the founder of a religion aa aoeient and important 
aa that of Confucius (q. v.). Thia sect ia commonly 
known U the Taou, or sect of reaaon. His family 
name waa Lt, or Plum, and bis youthful name 
Urk, or Eat — ^ven him on acoonnt of the size 
of his eua. Hia name of honour waa Pt-vang, hia 
■umaiue Laoa-ltit ('old child'), or Lwni-kfun-tat 
('old prince'), by which he is generally known. 
Little anthentic la known of the life of L., hia 
followen having subsequently made a myth of his 
biography. He waa bom in tfae thiid year of the 
Emperor Ting-wang. of the Chow dyuuty (604 
KC), in the atate of Tseu, at preaent known as 
Hoo-pih and Hoo-nan. 64 yean befora ('onfaciuB. 
His father, according to the legenda of tbe Taon 
•ect, waa 70 years before he married, and hia mother 
40 yeaia of age when she conceived him. He waa 
tbe incarnation of a shooting-star, a hind of god on 
earth, and was 80 yean m his mothei^i womb. 
More tnutworthy is the statement that he waa 
a historian and archivist of a king of the (?bnw 
dynasty, who loved books, studied ntee and hietoiy, 
and went, about 600 a-d., to the western parte of 
Chins, where be might have beowne acquainted 
with the wonhip of Fuh or Buddha. ConfuciDS 
was so attracted by his renown, that he went to 
see him, but the meetinff does not a|)pear t« have 
been entirely aToicable, for L. reproached the sage 
with pride, vanity, and ostentation, statins tiiat 
■ages loved obscurity and retreat, ' stadied tinn 
Hid circnmstencea beTore they ipoke, and made no 
parade of knowledge and viitiie. Confucius, how- 
ever, highly lauded L. to hia foUowen, and called 
htm a dragon soaring to the clouds of heaven, which 
nothing could surpass. L. asked Confucius if he 
had discovered the Taoit ('path' or 'reason') by 
which Heaven acts, when Confnuius anawersd that 
he had searched for it without snooees. L. replied 
that the rioh sent away their friends with presents, 
sages thein with good advice, and that be humbly 
thou^t himself a a^e. By this be prob^ly nuaot 
that all he oould offer Councina waa the advke ut 
aeeking the Taon. He retired to Han-kwan, wbara 
the magistrates of the plaoe reoeived him, and ther* 
be wrote the Tamt-tUtiiag, or Book of Reason and 
Virtne. He died, or, aocording to other aoooantli 
mounted to heaven on a black bofTalo, in the 2lBt 
year of the reign of Kiog-wangot the Chow dyna«^. 

ject of the 



Void prodnoad th* T»oii, the ' Logoa ' or itatoa by 
whleh tnovetneiit wu produced ; and from tfaese two 
•prUDg all Minn which containod in themaelves 
the diul [iiineiple of male and female. Maa waa 
onnpowd oF two priaciplea, the one materiat. ODit 
the other tpiritual. from which he emanated, nnd 
to irhich he onght to return, by throwiiij; off the 
vhocblei of the body. onnihilHtinji the material 
piMiona, the incliDationii of the ooul, and plen- 
•nres of the body. By this means, the soul waa to 
tegain it* oriKin— become immortoL Thia could 
only be effected by tile renunciation of richci, 
honourv, and the ties of life. Up to the period of 
L., the national worship hod been restricted to the 
Shang-te, at *Hupreme ruler' of the world, and the 
Teat, Of 'heoven.' JFor the»e, L. Bubstituted the 
Tatm (' path ' or ' reowin ') of the coamoe, not citing, 
M the CoufnciooiBto, the precedents of ancient lunn 
or lagee —appealing to the abatraot principle, and, 
ID fact, pr«uJiiDB a religion which found an echo 
in the Chinese breast. The followers of his sect, 
howerer, considerably altere<l his doctrines. The 
moral code of the Toou sect is exoellent, inculcating 
>II the great principles found in other religions 
— charity, benavolence, virtue, uid the fiee-wiU, 
moral agency, and responsibility of man. But it 
Bubeequentlybecamecormpteil with strange doctrines 
and practices. They promulgated that they had 
discovered the drink of immortality, and obtained a 
host of partisans in the reign of Wan-te of the Han 
dynasty. 140 ajo., and many of the emperors were 
addicted to their rites, and some poisoned by the 
drink of immortality. Alchemy also Iwcome another 
pnnuit of the sect ; ao did divination, the invo- 
cation of spirits, and the prediction of the future. 
The doctors of the sect, called Tttn-sze (■ celestial 

out pBBsiag through the intermediate state of 
death. Such statements, however, were riiliculed 
by the Joo-itaou, or sect of Confucius, the sceptics 
Of China, who openly derided their pretensions. 
Innumerable godl were also introduced into the 
woiship, which was assimilated to the Buddhist 
Since the 2d o. A.D., the sect has continued to 
•pread in Chin*, Japan. Cochio-China, Tonquin, and 
amongst the Indo-Chinese nations. Klonasteriei 
and nunneries belonging to them were founded 
and flourished. The principal books or classics of 
the sect are the Taou-lih-ting already cited ; the 
collections called Taou-cAang ; the Kan-yiag-ptn, 
or Book of Rewards and Punishments ; and the 
Tiim-kum-ltOi, or List of tha Scarlet Lauras Cassia. 

Stanislas Juhen, Le Livre dtt Rreomp«n»a {Svo, 
Paris, 1838) -. Pauthier, La Oliiat (Svo, Paris. ia37, 
p. 114—117); Neumann, Ldirtaal da MiOdreidi* 
(8to, Munich, 1856) ; Orosuer, Dacriptuin <U la 
Chinr ^4to. p. 571) ( Mimoini tur U CIum (x. 423 ; 
XT. 208-2S9). 

LA'PI DART-WORK, the art of cntting, grinding, 
and polishing smott pieces of ornamental or precious 
atoDsa for jewellery. (For the engraving of figures 
on prsdoni itonea, see Cufio and 0™a.) The work- 
ing of the less precioo* ornamental atones has mode 
great strides within the last twenty or thirty yeart, 
and nowhere has it reaohed greater yierfectioD than 
in Scotland. A large trade is now carried on in 
this kind of work Mtween Birmingham and some 
towns of Oermony, whue the Scotch patterns are 

U a rvady market. 

Stone* an ent bjr rabbing the powder of a harder 

■tone againat a softer one. There are ten typea of 

Hardness (q. t.], from tale op to diamond ; but in 

practice it ii foud most convenient to employ either 

diamond- powder or emery, which is nest to it, for 
the cutting of all kinds of stones. Diomood-duat i» 
found to cut ten times faster than emery ; ta that, 
except where the machine is driven by water- 
power, it is found more profitable to employ diamond- 
powder, notwithatanding its high price. Diamood- 
Kwder is |in.-j>anxl mim the inferior kind of 
ainonda (q. v.) called hort (costing about a goinea 
per carat), by grinding in a steel mortar. 

To produce a plain polished surface on any 
stone, say a jasper, it goes through the three pro- 
ccBsea of cutting or slittitig, grinding, and polishing. 
The diamond-alitting machine (the emerj-machlne 
is essentially the same) ia shewn in tig. I. Th* 


slitting- wheel, A, which is driven by means of tb* 
handle, B, ia a mere disc of thin sheet-iron, from 
6 to 9 inches in diameter, with a tnracd edge, and 
is generally placed in a horizontal position. Tha 
diamond-dust, mixed with a little sperm -oil. is 
applied to the edge of the slitting- wheel with tha 
finger, and is then pressed into the soft iron with a 
smooth hard stone. The wheel will then continue 
to cut for several hour* without any renewal of the 

Eowder. When the wheel is thus prepared, a stona 
eld by the hand to the cutting edge la rapidiv slit 
through. During the operation, sperm-oil ia'kcpt 
dropping from the coo, U, to keep tha wheel from 

The grinding ia performed on a horizontal lead- 
wheel, charged on it* upper surface with emery- 
powder i the atone to bn ground being ]ireasril 
againat it with the hand unW it ia amooUi enough 
fur poliabing. In iiolishing, a tin wheel is inheti- 
tuted for the leaden one, the polishing material 
being rotten -atone. 

If, instead of a plane Sat surface, some ornamental 
■nrfitoe ia required, say an agate brooch in the shape 
of a butterfly, a model is produced in pUuter o[ 
Paris, to serve as a guide, and metal siie-^tes axv 
prepared for the pieces 6i stone which are to form 
the winea, Ac For these, thin slice* of agate ora 
cut at the slitting-mocbine, or chipped off with a 
hammer and chisel, and are then formed ron^y 
into ahape, by means of soft iron nippers. The 
several pieces are now ground and polished, a* 
already dcacribed, and the brooch is finished. When 
pieoea of stone are too smatl to be held in the hand, 
they are attached with cement to a wooden handle, 
and then applied to the wheels. 

One of the most elabiirato opentiDDS of th* 
lapidary is the cutting of Coimgonn (q. v.) atone*. 
The mode of faceting the surface, which so much 
enhance* their beauty, ia shewn in fig. 2, which is 
just tha oidinaiy grinding-wheel, with tha addition 



e I WM appointed Minuter of the Interior by Bonaporto- 
j hut WM, after aiz weeks, depoied for incafiacity. 

(f ■ ■Boden peg, rtnck ronnd with projec 

VMi The itone ii fixed with cement on ttie .._, ^ 

ifi^tt , h»Tii y ■ txde It the oUier end fittinff on ' He continued, however, to reeeive marha of hono 
**»^*'^'*"^ "■'"cli, being M different heighta, ' from Nspoleon, and on the erection of the imjierial 
■u^t the atoDe tobe h^ at »ny angle to the ' throne, was made a count In 1814, he voted fol 
^ra«i»n Bafa ec With thii eimple Koide, the lapi- j the apprantinent of the provisional goTenitnent, 
mj {iuueuli to cot tlia faoeta, diruliag them off for Kapoleon'e depoeition, and the rcBtoration of 
the Boorbona. After the second KeetoratioD, Looit 
XVIIL made him a peer and a marquia. In the 
Chamber of Peers, he shewed, as he had done nnder 
"le rerolutionary gnvemmenti the greateat unfitness 
IT political affairs, and the mnat extreme servility, 
[e died at Taris, 5th M.irch 1827. L. was gifted 
with wonderful scientiiic sagacity i this appean 
especially in his eiplanatious uf certain resulta 
of mathematical analysis formerly looked upon h 
inexplicabte, but which he shewed to be the erpres- 
~Dn of physical phenooieiia which hod hitherto 
caped detection, and subeeqaent observation* 
generalJy confirmed L,'a oooclusiona. Above al' '- ' 

Klio eye, aided by his sense of feeling ; and ii 
'Ha way, in about a fortnight's time, as many as 
,J) beets ore }>n>dnced of perfect regularity upon 
» lUae, uy an inch in diameter. A Cairngorm of 
pol edlonr, so cot, toay be worth about i:30. 

U'PIS LA'ZULI, a mineral of beautiful ultra- 
^^ise or amre colour, consistins chiefly of oilit 
uJ .Inmiii^ with a little snlphunc acid, soda, — 

it (3 vols, 

W the eye, aided by his sense of feeling ; and in ?"^ 'l^ri*^'"" ■ "V '" u^"^'" ^"''T^ 
Am n/ 1^ .)»-» ; tZ. ■ i^< i ""t> • "'" '" the greateat of asteouomical work*. His Ex/iotttiat 
b way. m about a fortn.ehts hme. a, manv a. ^„ |j^,^^ ^„ ^„„j, ^^ ,„^ p,^ ITBeTeth 

; ed. 1S24) is intended for those who cannot fallow 

' the dilhoult demonstrations and calculations in hia 

great work. All K's important investigations wer« 

lade for the piu-poae oi testing the generality of 

le law of gravitation, and the caust of sundiy 

. . , , I .iTeguloritiee iu the motions of the planets. Hu 

_ . J« ™".'"' '*"«> °'"«'i "> ■«< ^K^ of works comprise many able treatises on particular 
Bttt^ U L. a often marked by white spota and ; ,„b]ects in Astronomy, Pure lUathematics, Proba. 
bjoda It IS generally found ma«ive. and is trana- bilitiea, Mechauic^ Heat, and Electricity ; most of 
kut st a»e edges, with uneven, finely granular them Iwing Memoirs communicated to the Academy 
ta*ta«, but Bometunea appears crystallised in , „( Sciencea 

rt«bK! dodec^edrons, its pn.mtive fonn. It la I lA'PLAHD. The teixitory stiU known under 
fc«d m pnmiuve hmestoue and m granite; in\^i, „^„^ j^^ „rt constitute a »q*™» poUtio.1 

__. „ j.™^^^„„„„ „,, .„ p™n,„; ,„ ^ ^^ constitute a -iparaW poUtio.1 

«rti^?)^ t^K*"-- ^^ ""** V'**^; ■ "t<"««»y- b^i i" i''<=''"l^ nnder the d<inimon. 
■™.«b™nghtfn,m Bucha™. The Greeks and „, s„J^„ ^^ jf^.y^ ^^ „f jj,^,^ ^ the 

tides oa which we refer for a special notice of 

I several divisions. Ii., or the Ijuid of the 

[>s, which is called by the natives Saineanda, 

kimellada, occupies the noriJi and north-east 

— — . -in», Bull lur ■umpLumu mum auu Bormea. _-_t;„, _» i-hn RMndinmvian nrnilmiilm. Nnrwn. 

nluU. nmnent ejlled Dltr«u^ne (q y.) i. mMs f„^ ^j pi^^^t ; Swedish l" under North and 

a called il 

ed by them a 

■» ia Tbsy used it much for engraving, for vi 
. It 1. — . : — 1_ . — 1 — [ j^ ornamental 

s altars and ahrinea. 

le of the tninerals sometimes oalled 

South Bothnia, and divided i 

) TornelL, Lul^ 

■^™^ „ . . . I Kt(«, Umdl, Usem Lappmark ; Russian K, under 

LATlTaS, » wild race, inhabitmg, m ancient Finland, in the circles of Kemi and Kola. Horwe- 
to«, the iDoantaina of Theaaaly. They derived gi^n L. comprises an area of nearly 26,600 sqnaro 
Obt Bsae bom a mythical anoestor, Z,(iptA«<, a son miles, with a native population of BOOO ; Swediah 
• ipnOo, aod the brother of Centauros, the equally L._ ^n area of 60,600 equore miles, with 4000 inha- 
■Jtkicil auoertor of die Ceotanrs Iq. v.). A bloody bitants ; and Kuaaian L.. an area of ll.WO sqiioro 
■ir H Bid to hare be«i waged between the kindred miles, with a popuktion of 8800. These number* 
*«s la pre-hutono tunes, whitii ended m the refer merely to the tnie Lapps, in addition to whom 
ISIj ^CT "'^""' ™* **" ^ '™* "" *^'^ t""" ; there are Finos. Swedes, NorwejUns, and Russians. 
"Mood by Herenlea. | gettled in various parts of the Lappish territoij, 

LAPLA(% PiKRBB Smoii, Mi,itqins Dt. one of i whose respective numbers probably bring the popu- 
tt* jcnatest of matbonatician* and astronomen, I lation of the several parte to about the following 
•B bera 23d Mainh 1749, at Beaumont-en- A uge, ! figurea_vi£, for Norw^ian L., about 60,000; for 

■ tke deportment of Calvados, was for some time I Swedish L., abont 14,000; and for Russian L, 

■ tcscher sf mathematios in the military school j abont 60,000; but the boumlaries of these division* 
^ot, aad aftarwards went to Paris, where, having ore ao loosely defined, and tbeir areas and |iopula- 
Knoed Um notice of D'AJembert, he wa^ through i tiona so variously given by different writem, that it 

Xinted professor in the military I is difficult to arrive at an accurate eatiniate of 
litted a member of the Academy < either. The climate of the lAppish teiritor^t i* 
He had b^ this time mastered the extremely cold for nine months of the year; while 
of matbsDiatnal seisne^as Uten known, I the exceaaiTe heat of July and August, when in tho 
~ a solved lenral problems, which had ' northemmoat parts the sun never seta for several 
_ i_>_i j^ attempts of geometsra; weeka, is only separated from the cold seasons by a 
o him to devMe hia maths- abort qving and aatamn of a couple of weeks. The 
■rrics of astronomy, and ' genial limit of the cereals is 66' S. lat ; but 
d to plan tlie work which ; bariey can be grown as far north in L as 70*. The 
he Mteaaiqw CUfite. In ' country is oowed over a considerable part of it* 
a Sony picture. He | surface with lotttt*, ooniitting chiefly of birel^piQC^ 



Sr, wd aU^r, tad hftTing m nndergrinrtii of lichens { 

B town in tha north-wo«* 

i^-of «iS^wtii.E^»n.tituW the princip.1 Lali« Miohig-a, »nd .t *^\i'""^°'' ^^JT^ 
SS^rfwoOAto the inhabitant* Muiy elev.ted | important ™lw.y3. It oont»i« 11 ^t^^J 
Tr^.™, h™^ entirely de.titaf of ^rt»tion. ' ne^.p-pen. »d Urge f^d™^ m^hme-d^ ««i 
iiSoon«;iaently nninh>bit.ble. | n«nuf«tone«. Pop. {I860) 602& 

The L*PPS or LAPLiNDEHB, who bm cl»B»ed i laPPBNBERG, Johabm Mabtot, « GennaB 
Bthndoiiically in the wms famUy u the Fioiu, I historian, waa bom 30th Julj 17M, in Hanibm. 
Eathoo^a, and Livonianfc and who occupy tha , j^g studied medioioe at Edinburoh, bat afterward* 
most northern parte of the Scandinavian peninaula, devoted himaelf to hiatoricnl and political itudi^ 
are dirtingniahed, in accordance with the nature of ; Ha resided for aorae time in London, and afterward* 
their parauita, at tha SodapjKit and the Botiappfn, j Btadisd law and liiatory in Berlin and Giittingen. 
or the Senfaring and Land-tilling Lapps. They h^ hecame the repraientatiTB of hia native city 
were oriainaUy all noinadio ; bat the difficulty oEi^e-thB Fniaaian court in 1820, and in 1823 «a« 
finding juffioient food within the limited space to I appointed archivist to the Hamburg aenate, an 
which the increasing cirilisation of the neigbbourmg »pnointnient which led to his diaoovery of many 
peoiJa had grailuaily realricted them, liaa com- i valuable hiatorio rccorda which wure auppoaed to 
belled some of the tril>es to wttle near tha larger ' have been lost. In 1851), he represented his native 
nvera and lakes, where they follow the pursuitt of i gj^y at the diet of Frankfurt One of hia principal 
tidiing and hnntina with considerable success, ^i^ts u a QtMhidite von Enifiand (2 »ola Hamh. 
They ahew ereat akill aa markamen, and regidarly | I9:f+— 1837 ; with continuation in 3 vols. Hamb. 
liipiilV the large annual marketa of Vitangi and I 1353^ ^nd Gotha, 1855— IS.IS, brinring down the 
Kenina with game and akina, which are aent by I history to the end of Heury VII. s reign) ; the 
ToroHl to Stockholm, where they find a ready fir,t volume of which has been translated iDto 
mart The I^ppa, who call themselvea the Snmi or English by B. Thoqw, with the title of A IfiMorg 
SaAinrlaiU, are a physically ill-developed, diminu- gf js„glaad uadfr (A* Awjio-Samii Kiagt (2 Toll 
tive race with small eyes, low forehead, high cheek- {moA. 1845), and tha second, with that of A 
honea, pointed chin, and scanty beard- They are, jf^^ory of En-jiaad «ndrr (A* Normaa Kitttft 
however neither wanting in mental eai>aoity nor (| vol, 1957). He is the author alw) of the following 
manual dexterity ; and in the Seminary for Lapp ^-orka. which are remarkable for the core and 
teachera at Trondenoes, in the district of Senien, research which they display; viz., UrkuniUiclit 
aeveralofthestudentahavedlBtinguished themselves (7,^^^(^ ^e* Urtfraajf der deutx/^m Uaitaa 
by their extensive acquirements. In the mythical jj voU. Hamburg, 1830) ; .Die OtxhicliU Hei/olami* 
a of Scandinavia, the Lsp^ are represented a* ' (Hamburg. 1831) ; aiso an edition of Ditmar of 

^ I . e represented an ' | 

im" inferior race, distinguished only for craft and , , 
treachery, and addicted to practices^ ^of^^aorccry. 1 
They are regarded, ~ - ' "' ' 

, .J accordiniCB with the 

kolhorities, u the original occupiers of the whole 
of Scandinavia, from the fertile and mora southern 
portions of which they were in ancient times 
driven forth by the superior, god-descended race ol 
Odin, who banUhed them to the inhospitable 
jegions in which they are Bow circumscnb«L 
Their tendency to deceit is probably m a great 
measure to be attributed to the inferior position m 
which they are kept by the Norwesiana, Swedes, 
and Bnaaians, near whom they live, for they are 
honest and strongly attached to their own people 
and country : anif although they are stdl suprsti- 
tioiu and credulous, they are not devoid oi religinua 
•entiment They conform to the Chriatian faith 
of their neighboiira— the Norwefoan Lappa belong- 
ing to theXutheran. and the Kussian Lappa to 
the Greek Church. The Bible has been traiislated 
into their own lanipiace, which i« divided, hke that 
<rf all nomadic tribes, into numerous dialects, whoso 
a:any afEnitiea and differcoces have of late years 
attracted mnch attention from Northern and Gcr- 
mui jihilologiata. The number of the I^pa prob- 
ably falls below 30,000, of whom rather more than 
Yf^^ ftie inclnded in the population of Sweden 
•nd Norway, the remainder dwelling within the 
Busman dominiona. The reindeer is the ohiel 
■onroa of wealth, supplying the people mth^most 
of the article* of food ai ■ 
Their dwellings consist 
■nud'huts, raised on stakes, and almost impervious 
to light and air, or of hide-coverod tenia. Towns 
or villages are unknown amongst them. The 
eontemiit with which they are regarded by the 
toll, wdl-developed Norwegian peassnla, hinden aU 
snaleMnatKMi between the race*, while their pecuhar 
halnta, and the tenacity with which they cling to 
their own enatoms, tends still mora to iaoUte thrai 

?burg, and many valuable works relating 
specially to Hambnrg and Bremen, 

LAPSE. A legaoy ■• •"'d to lapse if the legate* 
dies before the testator; for as a will only oiieratea 
from the death of the testator, and at that time the 
legatee is dead, the legacy laiwes ; i. e., falls into and 
becomes part of the residuary estate. So as to 
a devise. Hee LioaCT. 

LAFSRD (Lapii). the deaignatioa applied, iu tk« 
early centuries of the Christian Chnruh, to thoes 
who, overcome by heathen porMcntion, did not oim- 
tinue faithful to the Christian religion. Their tinm- 
ber was moat considerable, when, after a long tints 
of peace, the first general pereecution under Deciua 
began ; but those who saved themselves bj flight 
reckoned amongst the L, although their coaa 
not regarded as equally bad with that of 
those who saoriliced to idol*. The L were at tirst 
punished bv exoommunication, and their receptioa 
- --' the church again waa atreuuously reaialed ; 

in the .'id c. a milder oourse was generally 

adopted with regard to them. The treatment of 
the lapsed was one of the practical questiona most 
earnestly discussed iu the early church. 

LAPWING (FaneUus), a genus of birds ol tb* 
family Chamdriaria (Plovers, Ac}, differing from 
the plovers chiefly in having a hind-toe, which, 
however, ia small. The naaal grooves are bIm> 
prolonged over two-thirds of the beak.— One specie^ 
the ConMOH L, CamrKD L., or Paswn ( V. eria- 
laUu), is a weU-known British bird. It ■■ also a 
native of almost all parta of Europe, and of soma 
parta of Asia aad of Africa. It ia found in Bengal, 
u China, in Japan, and in Iceland ; but it is nut 
a native of America. It is not quite so lann aa 
s pigeiBi, and hM the head surmounted with a 
beautiful crest The head and crest are black i 
the throat black In summer, and white in winttx t 
the back is green, glossed with purjile and ooppM- 
colour. The name L is derived from the sound 
vhioh the wings make in Sight; the name Paowit 

a by Google 


iSnttiih Pemamp), with the Franoh Dixkuit, the 
graU ITipii, the Dsnkh /Timf >Dd F.Tw, the aid 
^bi F|^ the Oreek Air, ic, from the plun- 
bn Hie: the lockl SooHish TtHdt-^aid (Tuftheiull, 
ban the crested hewL The L, is Tery plentiful 
B wxn, opeD oommoni, uid manhy traQt*, in 
pan dkriiie the breediag-*euan ; and in winter in 
jgcki, chiajt Ml the •e&-ibore. Its RrtiGoe* to 
in¥arf IIm dMCOTery of itiiiMt ua Teiy interating. 

enter into detailed explanation 

lubject* wluoh 1 
DOW capable of larcen;, such aa title-deeoi, wi! 
pigeons, doge, oysten, vegetable*, fruit*, tixtiu 
' i by 1 ■ 

lowing (F. tritlattu), 

TW Met ti little more than a mere depreoion 
In Ae gTDiiad, and the fall complement of egga is 
■■■Uj four ; bat if some are taken away, the 
M goes on laying, an initinct of which the ej;;g- 
(tthocn take advantage. The eggs are esteemed 
■pnt delicacy, and great numben are sent to the 
Uniaa market, under the name of PlomrV Ei/gt. 
bm the manhv diatricta of England. The bird 
Mf ii alrc highly eattiemed tor the table.— A ]iet 
L ii a ganlen u of great aervice in preventing the 
Vnfi'el iai nasi of woimi aad lings. — Some species 
of L liafe wattlv at the base of the bilL— The 
Tnr-TEEO of Sonth Ameiica ( V. Cayannai*), a 
■paiia with spur* on the wings, abounds on the 
na^u of South America, is noisy on the approach 
rf tnnjien. like the common L,, and ita eggs aie 
Ikaiie in the higfaeat eateem as a delicacy. 

LIB, an important town of PenJa, capital of the 
jnvBce of Lariatan, is situated on a well-wuoded 
^bin. at the foot of a ridge of hill» , 60 miles from 
thi Panao Gulf, and ISO milea south-south-east of 
Aim. The bazaar of Lar is said to be the finest 
Bd nost flaborate in Penla. PopL 12,000, who 
niolicture swords, mniketa, and outtun-cloCh. 

LIBBOARD, an obsolete naval term' for the left 
■Is of 1 teasel laolditg fanmnU. From its liability 
to W coafosed by the steenman with the not very 
Utfat sound, ' itarboaid,' the word was a few 
V* sgn officially abolished, and the expression 
'{■It' sibitrahly lubatitutod. The terms tiarboard 
*>i (mtoorrf were originally Italian —Tuetto hordo, 
Ika tide [the n^t| ; and gudlo iorja, that aide (the 
UU: which were oontraoted into '«(0 bordo and 
'b Isrrfg, sail tinally became starboanl aod larboard. 
Qe ■ord fiort ia said to be an abbreviation of pnrta 
Ii IMSH. ' carry the helm,' suegesting the analogy 
<|i«tiDg the arms on the left band. 
U'BCB.\Y is the t«chniosl legs 
laciod and Irdand to denote the cr 

fl^fk Isneoy 

. ... tancea of agOTavatJoo. Lar- 
nsv it defined aa an onlawful takina of things 
pnsail, with intent to dqiriTe the right owner of 
** MSB, On facfa word and phrase of this de&- 
■Am naoy eatnmentariea have been written ; but 
> ^sr^o^ understands idiat theft is, it is Bcaroel J 

dated in the recent act 24 and 2S Virt. o. 96. An 
ancient doctrine of the common law was, that 
, trustees, Ac, cvuld never be convicted of 
larceny, because they get the poaseaaion of tiie 
goods lawfully, in the tint instance ; but now theaa 

eniona may be convicted of stealing, like othen. 

'ormerly, diere was a diatinction ^tween petty 
laroeny and grand larceny, aocording as the valne 
of the thing stolen was under or above (welvepence ; 
and the punishment was more severe in the tattat 
caae. The distinction has been abolished, and in 
all cases the crime of laroeny is felony, though there 
are certain things, such as fmit, vegetables, hares, 
ia., the taking of which, though unlawful, and 
often called stealing, is not treated as such, but 
is punished by a moderate fine or impriaoameut. 
Whoever oorruptly takes a reward under pretence 
of aaaisting in recovering stolen property, unleaa 
he use due diligence to cause the offender to be 
ht to trial, ie gnilty of felony, and liable to 
years' penal servitude, or two years' imprison- 
Whoever ahall publicly advertise a reward 
for the return of stolen property, stating that no 
qnestions wilt be asked, or promising to return to 
iwnbrukers or others any money advanced on such 

rrty, and also whoever ahall print or publish 
advertisemeot, shall forfeit dESO to any penon 
who will sue for the same. 
The punishment of lai«eny has varied in this aa 
I all countries. In the Jewish law, it was punish- 
able by tine and satufactioa to the owner. At 
Athens, it was converted from a capital oSencs 
> an oETenoa punishable by line. Uar Saxon 
laws punished laroeny. if the thing was abova 
twelvepenoe in value, with death ; but the lav 
became subject afterwards to the softening effect! 
of the Benefit of Clergy (q.v.). In 1827, the dis- 
tinction of petty larceny was abolished, and eveiy 
person convicted of simjilc larceny of any amount 
made liable either to transportation or impri- 
aent ; but later statutes have abolished ttia 
iw the general 
for leloniea 
liihable like simple larceny, is penal servitude 
tor three years, or imprisonment not exceeding 
two years, with or without hard labour and solitaij 
oontinement, and in the case of a male under lo. 
with or without whipping — such whipping to ha 
administered by a birch-rod, and not more than 
twelve strokes. In case of previous offences, tha 
term of penal servitude may be extended to aeven 
or ten years. In some cases considered to ha 
attended with great aggravation, as stealing linen, 
woollen, silken. Ac. gouda while in process ufmann- 
factiire, if of the value of ten shillings, the term ia 
inoreaaed to H years' penal servitude. In stealing 
cattle, Uie term is alio 14 years, or imprisonment for 

14 yeaia' penal servitude, or two years' imprison- 
meat ; and the ssme is Uie pnniahment, whatever 
be thfl value, if by threata any one therein ia nnt 
■ ■ 'ily fear. The ar ^-^ — . -■ •'- 

in ships, wharfs, Ac. larceny from 
rheo attended with peraonal violenoa. 

with 14 years' jiuial servitud 



intoiit to rob, tb« paDubmcnt ia two yesn' intpriaon- 
ment, or three yean* panal eerritnde. Again, if the 
aanolt or robbery wtu irith ufTennys weapoiu, oi 
in campaiiy irith other crimiiiklB, or attetKled with 
panonkl violence, the panishmeat ii penal aervitnde 
loT life. Larceny by a clerk cr aervant ia piiniafa- 
able with 14 yean |ienal aerritude, or two yeara' 
impriaonment. Larceny of letters by poet-office 
letter-orriera is paniahable with aeven yeara' penal 
Beiritnde, or two yean' tmpnMiameiit, aod if the 
letter ccntained moDey, with penal aerritnde for life. 
Receivere of itolen property an alao gnilty of felony, 
and pnnighed with 14 yeara' penal aervitnde, or two 
yearr im prison meal^ 

Beddea the offences ander the head of larceny 
which are indictable, then are many cognate 
oflencea which have been included in the aa' 
consolidation Btatute, bnt which are considered 
far of a petty nature as not to merit the solemn 
puniahment by indictment, and are left b 
puniahed summarily by justjces of the peace. Thus, 
some offences relating to wild animals and game r — 
so treated; for example, banting, carrying away 
killiag deer in the naeneloaed part of a forest 
park IS punishable by jiiatiees with a tine of £50 ; 
and persons in poeaesdnn of deer-skins, and not 
accounting for tbem, or setting snarea for deer, 
incur a penalty of £iO. Taking or killing, or settina 
anane unlawfully for hares or rabbits ra enclosed 
ftronnd by day, subjects the party to a penalty of 
£& St«^ing a dog is subject to a penalty of £20, 
orer and above the value of the d<% ; and having 
a stolen dog or its skin in one's possessiDD, subjects 
to a penalty of £30. Stealing binli, beasts, or other 
animals ordinarily kept in a state of confinement, 
tor any domestic purpose (not beins fit tor fiiod), 
or wilfully killing the same, with intent to steal. 
subjects to a penalty of ^^, besides the value, or 
to six months' ImpiisonmeDt. Killing or wounding 
honse-duvea or pigeoni snbjeota the party to a 
penalty of £2, besides the valne of the bird. Taking 
or destroying lish in a stream or water which is 
private property, subjects the party to a penalty 
of £S, besides the valne of the fieh ; and angling 
in the same induces a penalty of £2, besides seiiure 
of the fishins- tackle. Stealing trees and shrubs 
or nnderwood worth !«., anbjcvts the party to a 

Cnalty oi £5 ; so dues Itealing or destroying 
icea, or posts, wires, Ac, used as such. Stealing 
frtlit or vegetables from ^rdena, ftc, subjects the 
party to a penalty of £20, beeiiies the value, or 
to six months' imprisonment. Stealing cultivated 
roots or plants used for the food of man or beast, 
or for medicine, growing in fields, ftc, subjects the 
party to a fine of 20s., beaides the value, or to one 
mODth's impiisonmeni Having ihipwrecbed goods 
knowingly in one's po ss e ss ion, or Pipoaiiig the same 
for sale, aubjects to a penalty of £20, ^idea the 
Talne, or to aix months' imprisoiuneiit. See Lost 

In Scotland, theft is distingnisfaed into trifling 
Uieft or pickery, which ia punishable with fine, 
imprisonment, or whipping. Simple theft was 
never a capital offence, nnleea aggetviteA, aa thett 
by a trustee, theft of cattle, or of ohildten. The 
pimiahment of theft in Scotland is left vm; much 
to the discretion of the eourt. 

LARCH (Lanx), a genna of trees of tiie natural 
order Coni/me, differing from fin lAbiet) — of which, 
however, some botanists regard it as a mere sqIi- 
geniiB — in having the scales of the cones attenuated 
at the tip, and not fallins off from the axis of the 
oona when fully ripe, ana the leaves deciduous and 
in cinaten, except on shoots of the same year, on 
whiA they are single and seattet«d.— Tie Cohmon 
Ia (L. Swopaa or Abitt Larix) i* a benntiful tna. 

growing wild on the mountains of the south and 
middle of Europe, and found alao in Asia, where it 
extends much further north than in Europe, even to 
the limits of perpetual snow. The L. is not a 
native of Britam, and was not planted in any part 
of the island as a forest tree till the middle of 
the I8th c, when it began to be very extensiveljr 
planted. Its introduction has changed the aspect 
of whole districta, particularly in Scotland. The 
perfectly erect and re^arly tapering stem of the 
L., ita small branches, its regular cnnical form, snd 
its very numeroua and very small IcavM, make ita 
aspect peculiar, and very different from that of 
any oUiar tree seen in Britain. It attains a height 
of 60—100 feet, and an see of 200 years. The male 

e of 200 years, 
small and bright ycltow, the fenialo 
catkins geuerally pnT]>le ana erect; the conee ovat^ 
oblong, about an inch long, and erecl The L. growa 

apidly, and ia useful eren from an early age ; the 

I, palings, Ac ; U 

:ty of purposes, 
lb is very resinous, 
does not readily rot 

readily attacked b? 
worms, and is mu<^ 

warp, and is 


ited for pUnka - 
L-bark is used for 
tanning, although not 
nearly equal in value to 
□ak-bark.— In Siberia, 
where large tracts of 
L. forest are not unfre- 
quentty cunaiimed by 
accidental IJrea, the 
scorched stums yield, 
instead of a rann, a 
^m similar to gum- 
arabic, reddish, and 
completely soluble in 
water, which ia known 
as Orfiibiirgh Ours, 

LsTch [L. Suropaa). 

notwithstanding a 
I as an article ct 

pd of Manna |q. v.J 

udes from the leaves of the I^, in the hoCteat 
■ the year, having a sweetish tJiste. with a 

,„.,- „[ . ..... t. :. gathtrcl prin- 

I as Brianfoit 
J/owM.— The L. wood" of Britain 
have of late yean suffered greatly from a diwir. 
~- which the centre of the stem decays; the 
lure and canses of which are very imperfectly 
underatood. although it aeema to he sufficiently 
ascertained that those plantations are peculiarly 
liable to it which are formed where any kiivl nf fir 
has previously grown, and those least so which are 
T^pilarly thinned, so that the trees enjoy abundance 
of fresh air. The L. does not dislike moisture, but 
itagnation of water is very injurious to it, and 
thorough drainage ia ther^oie neceasary.^There 
are Tarieties of the Common L reinarkabtB for 
crowded branches, for pendulous branches, and for 
other peculiarities, which are sometimes planted 
oraamentni trees.— The Red AHBHlCjtH L, 
Hackmatack (L. tamifolia), distiuunisbed 
by Tery small cones not quite half an uch i- 





Norwegun prolennona to tii« Soottiih uluidB. 
LARICIO. See Pink. 

LA'RID^ ft twnily of birtU, of tlie order Fed- 
mipeda or Kalatort*, caUed Loa^pfnna by Cuvier, 
^m the leut^ of wing wbich ii chorscteriBtio of 
them. They are generally capable of protracted 
ai well u of rapiil and graceful flight ; all of them 
are »ea-bird», although Bome reaort to breeding- 
placea at aotue distance inland, and oome follow the 
coune of rivera to very oonBiderable diataneea from 
the lea. Soma of them are the most oceanic of all 
birds, beina often seen far from any ahore. They 
generaUy take their prey either by a niddcn descent 
to the water during fliglit, or whilst swimmin, 
and are not good divers. The hind-too is small an 
free ; the bin is pointed or hooked, but destitute < 
UmellB. Oulls, Skuas, Terns, Petrels, Shearwater 
Alhatroiaes, Noddies, Skimmer*, *c., belong to th 
numerous family, which has many represeiitativi 
in all parts of the world. They prey chiefly i 
fishes and molluscs, and are in general ready to ei 
any animal garbage. 

LABl'SSA (called by the Turks Ttnitschir), 
town of European Turkey, ia the province ui 
Thessaly, and one of the most ancient and import- 
ant in that territorj-, is situated on the Salembria 
(anc. Panii»). in lat. SB' 37' N,. lono. ar 28' E. It 
contains numeroiis mosques, from which arise many 
■leniler and dazzlingly white minarets. It earriea 
on an important transit-trade, with manufactures 
of Bilk an<l cotton goods, and Turkey-red dyeworhs. 
Pop, 25,000. In ancient times it was celebrated for 
itiWl- fights. 

LAR13TAN akd MOGISTAN, two maritime 
provinces of Persia, hounded on the S. by the 
Peraian Gulf, and the Gulf of Oman, and on the 
14. by IJie provinces of Faniatan and Kerman. 

LARK [Alauda], a genos of small birds of the 
Older Intrt»om. section Coiiirottre», the type of 
a family Alaadida, to the whole of which the 
English name is commonly extended. In this 
family, the bill, although stout and nearly conical. 
it more lengthened than in buntings and Snches. 
The tfles are long, and separate to the bate ; the 
claws long and little curved, that of the hind-toe 
generally very lonp. The true larks (geuus Alau'tn) 
have also lung wings, and great power of flii;ht. 
Mnny of them are birds of paseage In common 
with almost all the family, they nestle and seek 
their food— seeds, insects, worms, Ac — on the 
ground ; and in admirable harmony with this mode 
of life, their plumage exhibits much uniformity of 
oolonrinff, so that wlien on the ground they may 
not readily be noticed by their eoemiea. The L. 

Sky I^ik {Alawla arvaul*). 

family ii rery widely distributed ovn tbe world. 
The Common L., Field L., or Skv L, {Alauda 
arBouif), is one of the best-known British birds, 
and notwithstanding the tamenesa of ita b 
Tiliinuim. is a universal favourite, on acconi 

a of iti oheeHul song, which it poun 

forth whilst soaring and Boating in tbe air, and 
which every one associates with pleasant scenea and 
delightful days. It more rarely sings on the ground. 
It is in great reputu as a ca^-bird, uid singi well 
in confinement, but flutt«r» its winjfs whdat ling- 
ing, as if still deeirous of soaring id the air. It 
abounds chiefly in open but cultivated districts. It 
is common in most parts of Europe, but from the 
more DortherD parts, it migrates southward on tb« 
approach of winter. It ts also a native of Asia, and 
is ■ winter visitant of Che north of Africa. It i* 
not found in America. It makes ita neat generallr 
in an open field, and often uniler shelter of a tuCt 
of herljage, or a clod of earth ; lays tour or five 
mottled eggs, and fjenernlly produces two broods in 
a season. It is not truly gregarious in summer, but 
in winter large flocks assemble together; and at 
this season multitudes of Urka are taken for the 
table in the south of England, in Fmnce, and other 
eountriea. They are often caught by horse-haif 
nooses, attached to a long line of jiackthresd. to 
whidi tbe nooses are fastened at distancei of about 
ail inches, the line being peopled to the ground at 
intervals of twenty yards. This mode is most snc- 
ceasful when the ground is covered with snow, and a 
little com is scattered along the bne. The Claii-nel 
Trammel-net |q. v.) are also emnloyed 
by luk-catchera, and great numliers of larka are 
taken in some parts of England by dragging 
the trammel-net over the stubblej atid iiastiirt* 
Ticirling for /aril is a peculiar mode of turning 
int the attractiveness which any glitlenng 
-■ •■ -- - '^--■G 

object posses 

I for these birds! It is a FreDcd 

of lookiog- 

encd on tbe top of a rod, so as to reUed 
lys upwards, and ia mAile tn twirl by 
string. Larks are greatly attracted by 
it, congregate around it, and are readily shot in 
larfic numbers.— The Ceestto L. {A. critiatal very 
similar in sise and ]ilumage to the common L., but 
having the feathers of the crown of the head mote 
distinctly developed into a crest, altlioui^h a very 
common bird in many lutrta of Europe, and abundant 
near Calais, baa very seldom been seen in Britain. 
—The Wood L (A. arborea), a smaller s]>eciea, not 
unfrequent in some parts of Englnnd, but rare in 
Scotiaod, is a bird .of very dL-liglitful song, and 
usually sings perched on the branch of a tree. It 
frequents wooded districts. Its ne.-t, however, is 
made on the ground.— The Shohk L [A. itlpa<rru). 
which has only in rare instances been foimd in 
Britain, inhabits the northern parte of Europe, Asia, 
and America, and is the only North American 
species. Ite aong is very sweet, and glatldena the 
visitor of such desolate shores as those of Ldbrailor, 
where it breeds, amidst the tufta of mossea and 
lichens, with which tbe bare rocks are iDten>]teTBrd. 
It is a winter vinitant of Kew England, and is some- 
times seen as far south as Georgi.i. The bead baa 
two erectile tufts of feathem, somewhat resembling 
those of homed owls. Black, white, and yellow 
vary the brown plumage of the Shore Lark. 

LARKHA'KA, the capital of a district of ha 
own name in Sinde, stands MS miles north ol 
HydcraWi It contains aX-oM 12,01X1 inhabitinta, 
and manufactures silk and cotton, beaiiiea being 
one of the largest com-marta in the country. 

LARKSPUR (Dflplimiiim), a genus of plant* oj 
the natural order Aanuncubicns, annual and [leren- 
nial berbaceona plants, natives of the temperate and 
cold regions of the northern hemisphere. They hare 
five sepals, the u[>per spurred ; f<na petals, distinct 
or united into one, the two apper having s|i(iia 
insertod into tiwaepalineipur; audi — Sm 

a by Google 



latDMtor of the milite^ bcapiUIi there, uid while 
on nil return, after hkTiae concluded his Uboun, he 
died »t Lyon, Mtb July IS42. Apurt from the (kill, 
tUent, courage, uid huouDit; thevia ia the course 
of his practice, L. bx a high ecii^ntific reputation, 
■ad i* the author of a number of very valuable 
boolu on variouB subiecla connected with hia pro- 
feuion, moat of which have been tranalatel iota 
other langiiagea. L.** worki have been oonaidered 
by eminent authoritiea to be ' the connecting link 
between the aurget; of the laat age and that of the 
ptvsent day.' 

LA'BVA, in Natnral Hiatoty, is the denomination 
of animala which undergo tnmaform.itioD, in that 
state in wbieh thev Gnt exist after iBSniae from the 
egg. Until recently, the larva state waa Known in 
insects only, and Uie term larva ia atill commonly 
ase<l only with regard to them ; but it haa been dis- 
covered thnt many maiioe animala spend a coniider- 
abte part of their extatence in auch a itate, during 
which they are often extremely different from what 
they become after their next transformation ; some 
of them, B8 the young of the Cirrhopoila. awimming 
about freely in the larva atate, whilst they become 
flrmly fixed to one spot when they have reached 
their [lerfect development, and — which Bcemi atill 
more remarkable — pnsacsaing eyes in the fonner 
■tat?, and becoming destitute of them in the latter. 
The larva state of crabs exhibits a very singular 
form, long known as a distinct genua of crustaceans, 
nodcr the name Zota. The youn^ of at least some 
Entuzon ;iass thraui;h a larval state ; those of Che 
tape-worms were formerly reganled aa creatures 
altofiether distinct, and received the generic name 
Scokx. which wlien now used is with regard to these 
animals equivalent to larva. — The larvie of insects 
differ very much in the ilesree of their develo]>- 
ment, the differences being chnracteriitic of different 
ordera ; some of them much rescuibliuj the perfect 
insect. cxrM)']<t in the want of wings, and others beiog 
very untikc it. The larvfe of m.iuy insects, jiarticn- 
larly tliose which are very unlike the |ierfect inaect, 
aa gnilia (cotro;iterous larvte), ma^aiita (dipterous 
larval, and caterpillars (lejiidoptcroiis Inrviei, accu- 
mulate fat in great quantity, which serves to sustain 
them durinir their Pupa (q. v.) atate, in which they 
take no food. The same accmnulation of fat does 
not take place in larvn more nearly limilar to the 
perfect insect, aa in nenropteroua insects, the pupee 
of whiuh are active and voracious. 

LARYNX, may be either an acute or a dironic 
•ffei'tion. Acute laryngitia. in ita more severe form, 
oommenccs with a chill, which ia Fullowed by fever, 
with ■ Full strong pulse, a hot skin, and ■ flushed 
face. There ia alio soreness of the throat, hoaiaeneas 
of the voice, f^reat di£Gculty in swallowing, and a 
feeling of extreme constriction of the larynx. There 
ti a painful striduloua cough, but onljr alittle mucus 
is ejivted. Great difficulty of breathing Boon cornea 
on, tlie act of inspiration bein;{ prolonged, and 
wheezing, in consequence of the swollen membrane 
of the gliittia impeding the entrance of air. On 
eisminiug the faucea. the ejnglottia (see Lanvm) ia 
observed Co be of a bright im colour, erect, and so 
much swnllen as not to t>e able to descend and close 
the glottis during deglutition. The ]iLitient eihibita 
•ymptonia of great anxiety and diatresa ; his lips 
become blue, his face of a livid paleness, his pulse 
iiregiilar anil very feeble, and at length he sinks 
into a drowsy atate. often preceded by delirium, 
aud quickly followed by death. The diseaae ia very 
rapid, ending, when fatal, in three or four days, uid 
occasionally in less than one day. 

The most frequent cauae of laryngitia, wheilur 

mild or savare, ia exposure to cold and wet, espe- 
cially when in a state of perspiration. It frequently 
also arises from direct injurr to the larynx, aa fron 
attempting to swallow boding water or oorrasiTs 
fluids, from inhaling irritating gaaea, tx. 

In severe cases, the strongest aatiphlogiatic treat- 
ment must be at once adopted, as general bleedine, 
leeching, and either tartar emetio or calomel II 
these fail, tlie only remedy upon which much relisoos 
can be placed is tracheotomy. In chronio laryngitis 
there is hoarseness, the voice is altered, and various 
morbid aeusatiiins are fett in the larynx, which 
excite cough. If the disease goes on to ulceration, 
phthisis or syphilis is probably its cause. The 
treatment of nicerated Luynz is notioed in LailTKX, 


larynx by mesas of a reflecting mirror, it was not 
until two German pbysiologists, Dra Tnrck and 
Czennak. took up the subject in 1S5T and la'iS, 
that the great importance of laiyngoscopy was first 
generally recognised. 

The laryngoscope is a smaU mirror placed on a 
stalk attached to its ^oargin,', at aA aAgle of from 
120° to 1.511°. tbe stalk'twing abou't'six inches in 
length, and being composed of flexible metal, no 
that it can be bent at the will of tbe operator. 

Tbe mouthpiece of a lai^ reflector, with a central 
openiag through which the observer looks, is held 
between the molar teeth ; or, B;bich is better, the 
reflector may be attached to a spectacle frame 
by a stiffly working ball-and-soctet joint. The 
rays of the aun or of a good lamp are concentrated 
by means of this reflector on the laryngeal mirror, 
which ia placed against the soft palate and uvula. 
The laryngeal mirror, introduced with the right 
hand, which rests by two lingers on the jaw, is 
maintained at such an inclination that it throws 
tbe light don-awards, and illnminates the parts to 
be exnmined, while at the same time it reflects tho 
images of these parts into tbe eye of the otMerver 
through tbe central opening of the reflector. By 
this means he can look through tbe larynx into the 
tnchea or windpipe. 

By means of thia instrument we Can see ths actual 
position of small tnmoiira, nlcers, ka., whose exia^ 
ence would otherwise have been at most only sus- 
pected ; and the precision and accuracy of diagnosis 
to which we can thus attain, enable ns to employ 
rational means of local treatment to an extent that 
was quite impossible before the intmdnotioti of 

LA'RYNX, The {Gr. lari/nx), ia the f.rpin of 
voice, and takes a part in the respiratory pn-rc!^ 
aa all air passing cither to or from the tuuus must 
pass through it It is a complex piece of met^ani.-m, 
resembling a liax composed of pieces of cartilage, 
which may be moved on each other, and enclosing 
tbe membranous bands (the thonia vocaUt) by 
which the vocal vibrations are i>rodnce(L 

It is sitnated between the trruAea, or windpipe 
and tbe base of the tongue, at the upper and front 
part of the neck, where it forms a considerable 

ejection (eB])ecially in men) in the mesial lins ; 

id it openi superiorly into the pharynx, or throat, 
and inferiorly into the windpipe. 

Tbe cartilages of which the skeleton of the larynx 
composed are Ave in nnmber — viz., the thvri<id 
and the cricoid cartilogea, the epiglottia, vu! the 

a by Google 

^ Each of 

kanwn u iiie pomum Adami, or Adnm'i 

these ])latea La proloDged at the 

twer poatcnor conLcn. loe tlijroid 


[rnm Todd uii Bffwmin.) 
BlAiia ef IiTTU uid rplglotiK and Dpi>cr rinf> of m 
■■friHiirkiiiil: ■,mr;t«Mile>rtlli(n; ft.«I|Hrtt>re 
riajnM ortllMR ; t, Hi iufcrtn com < ; rf. imlBia 
JH rf ctKibU ; /, re■l■taUl^ wlih ![• ptrtorHioMi i. 
■■liKilikinid; 1. lulifl lalinot tubmlr; [, Ruh 

BtSigB fonni ■Imoat the vhole of the anterior and 
ited w*Il* of tbo Ivynx. 

Tke oKoid {Or. ling-tike) cartQuie ii a ring whose 
^■v DurgiD a jmllel to the nnt ring of the 
*—■ -Vt, to which it is united by Gbroiia membrans. 
btwfftr border is connected in front with the lower 
Mtt of tiM thyroid cartilage b;r a thick yellow 
ftNsi tiaua. It preMnta two articular nufacea on 

•ttw tide, Til, a lower one (A in B, flz. 2), which 
"^altfa with the inferior conma of ^c thyroid 
BrtOigt, ud an apper one (A in B, % 'Tj, which is 

□Tal in form, and supports an an^noid cartilaij^ 
The aryltnoid (Gr. ladle-like] cartilages are pyn- 
midal bodies resting on the oval articolar mirfacca 
at the npper and posterior part of the crio id 
cartilage. When in litu, they present a concai'e 
posterior surface (fig. 1). From their conoectio.! 
with the Tocal cords, and from their great mobility 
aa compared with the two larger cartilages, the 
arytenoids play a very important part in the 
mMhanism of the laiynx. The q>igU)Ui» is a very 
flexible cartilaginous Talva (lig 1, /). situated at 
ths bass of the tongue, and covering Uie opening of 
the larynx. lU direction is vertical, excejit during 
deglutition, when it becomes boriioDtal. It is 
attached inferiorly by a kind of pedicle to the 
angle of the thyroid cartilage. Upon remoTing the 
investing mucous membrane, the cartilage is ^und 
to be perforated by numerous foramina, f. Each 
psrforation admits some fasciculi, of yellow, elaatic, 
tigamentouB bssne, which expands on its anterior 
aapeot, and secures the return of the epiglottis to 
its vertical position, independently of any muscular 
action. Such is the skeleton of the larynx, wUch 
hangs from the hyoid bons, with which it is con- 
neoted by the thyro-hyoid ligament and certain 


?lrw of Hrrta Item •bora, ■/)« WUIIa. t. Ilcuinls naldsf 
irftHinM iDd erlculd aTtlliicn; •, Utfrajd atlilif* A 

X, ertcitil urihyNc; ■(, r\t^\ orivft-nrjKiwkl mucJ*; nt 
>rJUiio.J «rLiU(v; U r, foulcDrdi. 

of which are those known as the true and false 
vocal cords. In their quiescent state, the tme vocal 
cordi d-> not lie ]iarallel to each other, but cooTerge 
from behind forwards (sec fig. 3), The length of 
the vocal cords is greater in the adult male than in 
the adult female, in the ratio of three to two. In 
infancy, they are very short, and iiicreaae T«(ii- 
larly from that period to the age of puberty. The 
mucous oierabrane o£ the Uryni ij purt of the 
great respiratory tract (see Mtrcoca Membrami), 
and is remarkoble for its great sensi^)ili^?. 

Tha length of the chinh or aperture of the glottis; 
which is directed horizontally from before back- 
Wards, Torjea, like the vocal cords, nntil the period 
of puberty, when its length, in the male, nndergoea 
a sudden development, while in the female it 
remains stationary. In the adult male, it is abont 
eleven line* in length. 

The larynx is provided with two sets of mnsdea, 
via., the ettriutic, by which the whole organ is 
elevated or de[ireased, and the infn'iwie, which 
regulate the movements of the various snnnenta 
of the organ in relation to one another. By tha 
action of theaa latter mnsclea, aided, in aome caae^ 




\ij the extriniic muicles, the teaiion ot tlis voc&l 
eorcU nuy be increMied or diininiihed, ftod tlie liie 
of the opening nf the glottic re;plUt«l t,t wilL 

The nerrea of the UrTDi %n tlerived tram the 
■uperior and inferior laryngeal branehea of the poen- 
nwaitiie or Tigua nerve. The ■uporior hnnoh 
H for the most part wniorj (beinK nuJQly diatri- 
bated to the mucoiu membnne), while the inferior 
branch communieatea inotor-|iower to all the 
mtrinaie maaclre except the crico- thyroid. 

In the |>reoeding aoooant ot the eartilasee, rocal 
eorda, tnucoua membntoe, inntclea, and nerrea 
of the larynx, we have included only tito moat 
eaKntial pointi. For detvla reftarding the attach- 
toenta of miiacles, ftc, the reader muat oonnilt anj 
atandard work on Anatomy. That the larynx ii 
the organ nf vovx, a proved by amneroiu facta, 
amongat which the following may be mentioned. 
' Fint, the leaat alteration in the condition of the 
mucous membrane oovering the vocal cordi, ia 
Invnnably accompanied by a change in the tone 
of the voice, e, s., hnoneneaa ; BeoondW, olcerative 
diaeaae, eating throngh one or both of theae vocal 
eonla, destroys or greatly imiiain the voice ; thirdly, 
opening the trachea boluff the vocal cordi. lo aa to 
divert the current of air in expintion from- the 
larynx, will destroy the voice; fourthly, levtion 
of the inferior laryngeal nervea, by which the 
inSuence of the will u brought to bear on the 
mnsclea which regulate the tension of the vocal 
cords, destroya the voice ; and lastly, by experi- 
menta on the dead larynx, aounda may bejiroduced 
reaetnbling thoao of the voice.'— Todd and Bowman's 
Ro/o;7>aif .^lurtonur, vol. iL p^ 431. 

I <tf (Ae inryiix.— Of theae, the moat 
•enouB u aevte ii^AamniaCiow of the laiynx, or 
Laryngitis (q. v.). 

(Sjirma, or tteeUinu qf lie glaaii, althojigh of 
oommon occnrrence in laryngitia, may be developed 
ind^ndently of inUammation, from obstniction of 
the veins leading from that part, or from other 
eauaea. The sirmjitoins are those of acute inflamma- 
tion, except that there is no fever or iiiflammatton, 
and lesa diflioulty of swallowiof;. Trachi-otomy 
{the oneration of making an opening iniA the wind- 
pipe, below the seat of the disease) affords the 
patient almost his only chance of Ufa. 

CAnmk iiiJIaMma'io* and itlcemiioH of the la^ni 
kre very common in tubercular consumption and in 
secondary syphilis. In tbtxe cases, the laryngeal 
i^ectiou is merely a local mauifestation of a gvnvr^ 
disease. The chronic hoaraentss and cough are often 
remarkably relieved, in theae case*, by swabbing the 
epiglottis and upper part of the air-pasaagea with 
k strong solution of lunar caustic. 

LA SALLE, a city of lUinoia, United States of 
America, llOmiiea nortii- north* east of Springlield, 
ia the terminus ol the Illinois and Michisnn Canal^ 
and junction of the Illinois Central and Chicago and 
Bock Island Railways. La S. has eight cool--'- " 
near the city, five churchea, and t' 
lielUinois Central Railroad here era 
Hivor on a bridge of twenty arch 
length. Pop. about 400a 

LA'SCAR, in the East Indies, ngnifiea properly a 
oamp-follower, but ia generally a|iplied to nalave 
sailors on board of British ships. The Laacara 
make good aeamen, but being of an eioesatTriy 
irritable and revengeful natnta, are gaderally kept 
in the minority in a ship's crew. 

LASCARIS, CosHTAirmrs, a celebrated Greek 
refuMe, after the captora of Constantinople bv the 
Turks, and one of the finrt founders of Qreek 
•tudiea in the Wrst He was received with distinc- 
tion by Francesco Stona, Dnk« of Milan, in 14Si, 

I, goo feet in 

labours was Rome, where he settled in the train 
of the learned Greek cardinal, Bisasarion, and, 
finally, Naiiles and Messina, where he tanght 
rhetoric and Gieek letters until hia death in 1493. 
His Oreeh grammar, entitled Jirvtemata. and dated 
1476, is the earliest printed Greek book. To 
him his contemporaries were also indebted for 
several other elementary Greek books of Itm 
uota. His grammar is known chiefly thnmgh a 
Latin translation printed at the Aldine preaa, and 
frequently reprinbid. Hia librarv, which ia ■> ery 
valuable, is now in the Escuriat — John Ji.vub 
L., a member of the same familv, ■omamed Riim- 
SACEHUB, has also acquired ft place in the history 
of the revival of letter*. He was one of those 
whom Lorenzo de' Medici employed in the collection 
of ancient, and especially Gredt chusical authors, 
of whom L. brought home a valuable coltectioa 
from Mount Athos, On the death of Lorenzo, L. 
went to Paris, where he taught Greek under Charles 
VIIL and Louis XIL ; but he erentually settled in 
Rome, where he was appointed by Leo X. to the 
superintendence of the Greek press which that 
pontiff established. L. edited several of the edilknuu 

prineina at the It " "" ' ' 

aa amliassador at t 
wards at Venice, ai 

r, in 1535. See YillHmain'a Ziojciirw, o\ 
1&~* SaeU (Paris, 182S). 

LAS CASAS, Bastolomj pe. Bishop of 
Chiapa, in Mexico, suniBm»l the AmnUe of ikt 
Indian*, a celcbt&ted evangelist and philanthropist, 
was of French descent, and was bom in Seville in 
1474. He studied at Salamanca. In 1312, be 
accompanied Don Nicolas Ovando, who was sent 
out aa governor, to St Domingo. Eight jear) 
after his arrival there, he was ordained to the 
priesthood, and wsa subsequently apgiointed t» 

charge in Cuba. Here he began to signaliat 

Indians. To oppose t 
amongst the conquerors, he went to S|iain, where 
he prevailed on Cardinal Ximeaea to send a oom- 
mission of inquiry to the West ladies ; but th* 
procecilings of the commission by no means satis- 
fying his zeal, he revisited Spain, to procure the 
adoption of stronger measures for the |irat«cti<in 
of the natives. Finally, to prevent the entire 
extirpation of the native race by the toils to which 
they were subjected, he proposed tllat the colonists 
should be compelled to employ negro slaves in 
the more severe labours of the mines and snijai^ 

Citations ; and the proposal was adopted. I^u C 
on this Boeount been represented aa the autht t 
of the alave-trade, although it has been proved to 
have existed long before this proposal was mado 
Las 0. afterwarls attempted to carry out Castihaa 
peasants aa calonlsta to the West Indies, with the 
view of giving more complete effect to his echemM 
on behidf nf the Indians ; bat failing in this, he 
retired to a Dominican eouvent in Hispsniola. He 
again visited Spain in 1539, out of benevolent 
regard to the native inhabitants of the Weat IniUes. 
and published his Brmimima Rdneion de In DtMrv^ 
cion <U lai India*, which was soon trvislated inic 
the other languages of Europe. The rich bishoprir 
of Cuzco was oSered to him , but be prefemd the 
poor one of Chiapa, in a wild and almost unexpliired 
region. The colonists received him with no friendly 
feelings, and as he went the length of refusing the 
saenments to those who disregarded the new lawn 
in favour of the Indians, he drew upon himself nut 
only the resentment of the planters, but the dia 
approbation of the church, so that ht wu comjiiUIed 




deck, b; noj* of a nuit crosaiiii; it at a third or > 
fourth of thu my up. 

LATENT FAULT. In the contract of Bale, it 
U a rule that th« buyer takes the risk of all latent 
faulta or defect* in the thing sold which vera 
unknown to the aeller at the time of the sale, all 
that tbe aeller aniwen for beinf^, that the thing is, 
■o far aa he knowa, what it appears to be. This, 
which was the English rule, waa extended to Scot- 
land by the sUtute 19 and 20 Vict, c 60, s. 5. 


LA'TERAN, Obiisch of St Joas, the Srst in 
dignity of the Roman churches, and styled in 
Boman nsnge ' the Mother and Head of all the 
churches of the city and the world,' is so colled from 
it* occnpying the aitfl of the splendid palace of 
Plantiui Lateranns, which haTing been escheated 
(66 A-D.). in conaeqaence of Lateranus being im)ili- 
catcd in the conspiracy of the Fisoa, became impe- 
rial property, and waa assi^ed for Christian uses 
by the Emperor Conatantine. It was originally 
dedicated to the Savionr ; but Lucius II., who 
rebuilt it in the middle of the 12th c, dedicated it 
to St John the Baptist. The solemn entrance of 
the newly eli-cted pope into office is inaugurated 
by his coming in procession to take possession of 
this church ; and over its portico is the balcony 
from which, on certain fcstirals, as from St Peters 
apcD other days, he bleeses the entire world. Tbe 
original ehiiich ia aaid to have been an adaptation 
to religious uses of the Basilica which was pre- 
aented to Sylvester by Constantine. but has been 
several times rebuilt and modified, its final comide- 
tion dating from the pontilioate of Clement XII. It 
has been the scene of five councils, regarded as 
ecumenical by the Roman Church. See Council, 
The palace was the habitual residence of the popes 
nntir after the retnm from Avignon, vhen they 
removed to the Vatican. It is now occupied partly 
by oSeiais of tbe chapter, partly for public ]>ur[>oeea 
Ilie present pope, Pius IX, has converted a portion 
of it into a museum of Chnstian arcliieulogy. In 
the [nozra of St John Lateian stands tbe celcbtated 
relic called the ' Scala Santa,' or ' Holy Staircase,' 
which is reputed to be the stairs of Pilate's houae 
at Jenuolem, made holy by the feet of our Lord as 
fae passed to judgmenb 

I^TERITB, a mineral substance, the product 
of the disintegration and partial decomposition of 
^eias. It forma a bright reA earth ; which, where 
It abounds, aa in some parts of Ceyton. being blown 
about aa a fine dust, imparta ita hue to every 
neglected article, and to the dreaaea of the inhabit- 
ants. The redness of the atteeta and roads attracts 
the notice of ever^ stranger at Oalle and Colomboi 
L, however, is ni>t always red. Its reduess is 
■uppoeed to be owing to the presence of iron in 
oonsiderable quantity. When felspar preponder- 
ates in the gneiss, it is whitish ; when nomblende 
prepoaderates, it is yellow. 

LA'TES {LattM Niloticiu), a Bsh of the perch 
family, one of the most delicato and beat-Qavoured 
Sahea of the Nile. It grosvs to a large size, aome- 
timet 3 feet long. It is mentioned by several ancient 
authoia. In fonn it resembles a perch, and the 
genua is very nearly allied. — Another species of this 
genua is the Vjxrn (Loies vabitit), called Coet-up by 
tbe English in Calcutta, one of the most esteemed 
fishes of the Oaogea, which it ascends as far as the 
tide doea. 

LA TEX, in Botany, the sap of plants after it 
haa been elaborated in the leavea. It returns fnnn 
the leaves to tbe bark by veaseta called latid/eroif 
wsKit, which branch, n&ite^ and aoMtomoM rery 

varioosly. They are not always of unifonn thick- 
ness, but present many distentions, often almost aa 
if articolated. Feculiu' currents are observed in tb* 
Lattx, which were first pointed out by Scbiilti, who 
haa bestowed great attention on this subject, and on 
the branches of ]ih;aiology connected with it. Tbe 
L. difiers very much in different plants, in colour 
and other qualities, but in all it is full of granules. 

LATHAM, Robert Gaiu>ox, on eminent English 
philologist and ethnoloj^t, was bom in 1812, at 
Billingboroui ■ - ■ ■ ■ 

Jillingborough. Lincohu 

He was educated at 

to direct his attention jiarticularly to the 8candi> 
navian langiuuea. For aeveral years he waa pro. 
feasor of tLe English Language and Literature in 
University College, London. As a jihysician, he 
has held miportant appointments. His well-known 
work, EngliM Language, was published in 1841, and 
has gone thruogh numerous editions. The !fatural 
Hittory of the yarUlia of Mankind (Loud. 18SU) 

?/ Europt (Lond. 1S6J}. Hs U a F.R.&L, 
member of many learned societiea in Europe and 

LATHE. See Tfukivo. 

LATHS Aim LATHWOOD. Lath* are small 
strips of wood of various lengths, rarely more than 
4 feet; they are made either by splitting lathwood, 
which is the Norway spruce fir (Piniu abieii), or else 
they aru sawn from Canada deal The sawn Istha 
.are a modem introduction, due to the development 
of steam saw-mills in Cannda. which thus use up 
the unsll portions of the lumber. Laths are naea 
for nailing to the uprights of partition-walls, and 
1 _,!!■__ -^ — builiiings; thev ara 

3 the rafter* of ceiling ._, , 

E laced sli^tly apart to receive the plaster, which, 
y being pressed into the intervals between tha 
laths, is retained, and when dry. is held secnrclj 
on the walL Slaters' laths are longer stripe of 
wood, nailed on to the framewurk of the root, for 
the purpose of nistaiains the slates, which are 
fastened to the lath* by naUs. 

LATHT'RUS, a genus of plants of the natoial 
order Ltt/uminoaa, sub-order Fapilionaaa. Hie 
leaves are furnished with tendril*, and ate |hniiat«, 
bat oUta only with one pair of leaflets. Tbe 
species are numeroua, mnniLi and perennial herba- 
oeons plants, natives of temperate countries in tha 
northem htnnispbere. Few of them are American. 
A number are natives of Britain. Some have very 
beautiful flowers of considerable size, on account 
of which they find a place in flower-gardena, aa 
L. iallfoliiu and L. tyipe/^rit, the latter a native 
of England, and the former of the south oF Europe, 
both perennials, and known by ths name of Evca- 
uatiNO PcA. Tha Swirr Ptx (L. odoratua), a 
native of the Eut, is one of the best kii?wn 
omamenl* of our flower-gardens, a haniy annual, 
esteemed not only iw account of the beauty of its 
flowers, but of Uieii delightful fragrance. Many 
varieties are in cultivation, differing in colour, ko. 
The most common British species is the Meadow 
Vetchlino {/,. pmlouit), with briftht yellow flowers, 
L. tatiBUM, the Chicxuso Vetcei, or Lentil of 
Sfaih. a native of the south of Europe, with flowers 

a by Google 


1^ (k ■eoainit of aweotio qiulitiM vUch .. 
■■MMi, ml wbich oiued il« cultivatioii for food 
m ka mladicted ia Wiirtomberg in 167]- 
■Biblt pmljnia of the limb* hu somatintea been 
p>Jamd V '^ ^lO^ ■» hnraui beiaga and bwer 
^■k Tlu Mad' of £. cicsu, klthoDgh wnietimei 
^ br tha coontr* paopls of France, »re even 
tm» at If. Aphiua, a ipeciaa 

IM (£. tiiiaroMu}. 

iB^OMi toimd on gnvdljr aoQi in Wnglrm^ , poi> 
■■ ■milar qiulitia whan ripe, but in an niiripe 
Ate in aatai vith tha podi which contain them, 
mi m quite wholeaome. L. Iibframt, a D&tiTe of 
GKBn;r ■B'l other parti of Enropa, but not of 
liitBa, ii enltiTated on the oontineDt for ila amjr- 
^tBiM tuboi. The tnbon aie tometimca called 
Ml iltee; in Geimanj, ther are known as 
fait la The herbage <d the ;riant ia teliahed by 

UTIHEB, Hdoh, ome of the moat diatingiiiahed 
4 fta Knglieh refonnera, waa bmn at Tharcaaten, 
' ' ' ' " , in the yi U90 or 1491. Ha 
it Cambridga. and after a brief 
A deroiion to the papacy (< I waa aa 

aaya, '1 

te attached to the new learning and 
iititf which had bagon to eatabliab thaniaelTea 
An- Be raj tooo beoama a BealoiiB pnwcher of 
■h Kfaotad doctrineni Tha oooaeqoence of thia 
■^b«a ual waa, that many nf the adherenta of 
tta (U faidi were itrangly excited a^nat him, and 
k WH embfiailcd in many oootroTemea. 

n> dilute about Henry VIIL'a marriage with 
^Wwian <■( AragoD bronght L. mare iatu notice. 
Bi an uoe of the dinnaa appointed by the 
■inialy of Cambridge to eKamioe aa to ita law- 
^^m, and be declared on the king's aide. Thia 
•BBBt Henry's faroar, and hs waa appointed one 
rf tjfhaJiiM, and reoeived ■ living in Wiltshire. 
la IBS, Lb waM appointed Bishop of Worcester ; 
■1 it the cpening of convocation on the 9th of 
•w* lUE, ha Tcucfaed two very powerful and 

writing, correcting, and refonning, either aa hi« 
abilily would serve, or the time would bear.' This 
was his true filni^on. He waa an eminently 
pnctical reformer. During the cloaa of Henry's 
reign, and when the reactionary party, headed by 
Owdiner and Bonner, were in toe aaceodant, Ij. 
lived in great privacy. He waa looked upon with 
jealonay, and closely watched, and finally, OD Coming 
up to London for medical advice, he was brought 
befon the Privy Council, and cut into the Tower. 

On the accession of Edward VL, be again appeared 
in public. He dBcIined, however, tc reaume hie 
epiacopal foncUona, although his old biahoprio waa 
(mered to him at the instance of the House of 
Common*. He devoted himself topreaching anil 

E£tisal woriu of benevolence. The pulpit was 
great power, and by hia stirring and homely 
i,„ j;j 1. 1 . ipint of religious 

with the lamented death of E , 
reformers were arreated in their career of activity , 
L. waa put in prison, and examined at Oxfoid in 
ISH. After his examination, he was tranaferred to 
tha oonuDOn jail there, where he lay for more than 
a year, feeble, aickly, and worn ont with hia hard- 
_^,__ ^ ., V, ^^ j^^ , 

would not 
taRuination of hia life. 

anDunoDed befOTa certain oommiaaionera, an>ainteil 
to lit in Jodgmmt upon him and BJdley; and after 
an ignominioua trial, he waa condemned to be 
bnraed. Ha aoffersd along with Kidley ' without 
Booardo Gate,' opposite Baliol College, on the 18th 
of October 1596, exclaiming to hia companion: 'Be 
of good comfort. Master Ridley, and play tlie man : 
we shall thia d^ light such a candle, hy Qod's grace, 
in England, aa I trust shall never be put out' 

L.'i character preaenta a combination of many 
noble and disintereated qualities. He vraa brave, 
boneat, devoted, and enei^tic, homely and popular. 
yet free from ail violence ; a martyr and hero, yet 
a plain, Bimple-hearted, and nnpretending man. 
Humour and cKeerfulneas. manly sense and direct 

'angelical fervour, dLitiDguiih hu sermons and his 
life, and make them alike mtarEating and admirable. 

L,'s sermons were reprinted at London, in 'i 
ols., 1823. The latest edition ia that by the Rei-. 
O. £. Corrie, in 4 vohi., 184& Oompate TuUoch'a 
Ltadtri ofOa Jif/ormaliim (1859). 

LATIN CROSS, a cross with the bwer limb 

msiderably longer th&n the other three. 

LATIN EMPIRE, the name given to that por- 
tion of the Bycantine onpire which waa aeized in 
1304 by the Ornaaden, who made Conatantinopli: 
"leir ospitaL It waa overthrown by the Oreeka in 

Kl. See BvzAtmxB Ehmrs. 


■Lanffuagf. — The Latin language is a member ut' 
the great family commonly called Indo-Oermuiic. 
Indo-European, or Aryan. It ia therefore cloaely 
allied to the Greek, Persian, (German, Celtic, English,. 
and many other tongnes and dialects of Europe, and. 
to all these its kindred is more or less cleariy shewn 
by identity of stems and similarity of atnicture. 
It waa primarily developed among the people whn 
inhabited that put of Wiwtem Italy which lies 
between the rivers Tiber and Liris; and though the 
ity of Home stamped her name on the poutioal 
istitotions of the empire, yet the standard tcuinie 



1 knd everyday life aniong the 
It was ID the laat yean of the Republic and the firat 
of the Empire that the potiahed Unguage reached ita 
highest pomt of perfection in the writinga of Cicero. 
Horace. Vi^il, and others. But by the influi of 
•tranoers, by the gradual decline of Roman feelinn 
and Boman ipirit, and by the intermiitnre of the 
dauic forma with the dialects of the prorincea, it 
became oormpted, the procru of deterioration goioR 
on with double rapidlCy after the diunemberment of 
the Boman Empire in the 6th century. Thua were 
formed the modem French, Spanish, Italian, and 
Portuguese. The English langiis^ also owes mnch 
to Litin, both directly by derivation from the 
classical forms, and at aecond-hand through the 
Morman-French. Latin continued to be the diplo- 
matic language of Europe till a comparatively 
recent period. It is stilt the medium of commani- 
oation among the teamed of the world, and is now, 
M it tias aJwa^s l>een, the official language of the 
Roman Catholic Church. — For a discussion as to 
the origin and aources of the I^tin language, see 
Donaldson's Vaironiunvi. 

The grammar of the Latin langnage haa been 
•tadied and illnstrated by many celebrated scholsn 
from Varro (116— S3&C) down to Zumpt, Grote- 
fend, Kuhner, and Madvig, through a long list 
of names, such as Dnnatus, Priscian, Laiirentius 
Valla, Manatius, Melanchtbua, Scaligi^r, Ferizooius, 
Schneider, Liuacre, Kuddiman, Alvarez, and many 
more. In lexicography, Perotti, Stephanus, Paber, 
Geaner, Forceliini, acheller, Freund. Georges, and 
othen of less note, have done valuable service. 

XiWmfvre.— The Soman Republio had well-nigh 
ran ita course ere it possessed a writer or a litera- 
ture worthy of the name. A kind nf rude poetry 
was cultivated from the earliest times, and was 
employed in such compositions aa the Hymn of the 
Fratrea Arvales <itug up at Borne in 1T7S, and in the 

to particular deities, and in triumphal poems and 
Iliads, in the Feneennine Carols, and other nide 
attempts to amuse or dope an iUiterate and vulgar 
populucfii And even when, in later yean, the 
Komans did begin to foster a literary taste, the rage 
for Greek models hindered every effort at original 
thought. It was conaidered highly meritorious to imi- 
tate or translate a Greek writer; white, on the other 
'hand, it was deemed dishonourable to follow a Latin 
author. Such was the feeling even in the days of 
Horace and Virgil, both of whom are largely indebted 
to their Un:ek modeta. Ths fint period of Booian 
literature may lie said to eiteud from 240 B. c. to 
ths death of Sulla (76 b. c.) ; tba second, or Qolden 
Age, from the death of Sulla to the death of the 
Emperor Augustus (14 A. D.) ; the third, or fjilver 
Age, from the death of Augiiatua to the death of 
Adrian 1 1 38 A. D.)! and ths fourth from the death of 
Adrian to the overthrow of the Weatern Empire id 
476 iL. D. In the Gist period, the most diitinguiahed 
names are those of Livini Andronicua, a writer of 
dramas adapted from the Greek, whose first play 
ifSs iKtinghl out in 240 B. C ; Eunins. wbcae chief 
work was an epic poem on the History of Borne, and 
who alao wrote dramas and satires; with Navtus, 
Plautus, and Teranoe, the oomedians. The second 
period is adonied bjr Varro, who wrote on agri- 
culture, grammar, antiquities, fto. ; bjr Lncretiua, a 
writer of the dii^ctic epic i by Virgil, who, to his 
great e^ the ^neid, added pastoral and agricul- 

I Setogua and Otorgki; by 
_ . . ., , . -._• and in satire; by Catulhu, 
in lyric ; by Tibultus and Propertiiis, in el^y ; by 
livy, Cnsar. Sallust, and Nepos, in history and 
biography; fay Cicero, in philuaopfay, rhetoric, and 
oratory; and by Ovid, in elegiac and didactio 

Ctrjf, The third period boasts of Tacitua, the 
lorian and biograplieT ; of the elder Plmy, the 
□atunJist ; of Persiua and Juvenal, the satirists ; 
of Martial, the epigrammatist ; of Columella and 
Lncan, the didactic and epic poets ; nf Statius, Siliua 


y other 

The fourth period produced few mon 
ui usnie; uuii among those who are beat known may 
be mentioned the Emperor M. Aurelius, Amniianus 
Maraellinns, Gellios, Justin. Ap;>uleiiis. Lactantins, 
Kutropiui, Macrobius, Calinimius, Boithiiis. Paul- 
liniiB, and Claudianos, the ust of the Bonuu clasiic 

The spread of Christianity gave rise to the eccle- 
siastical poi'try of the middle agea, which departed 
from the classic models, and struck out for itavlf 
a new type. It disregnrded the restrictions of 
quantity and metre, ami substituted accent and 
riiyme aa the r^nlating principles of its form. The 
most famnus name in the earlier period is that of 
PrudentiuB— to whom we muy add Sedulins, St 
Hilary, St Ambrose, and St Gregory the Great; 
and in the later period. Fortunatus; the Emperor 
Charlemagne. anUior of Vexi CrfutOT ; Bede (the 
Venerable); Bernard de Morley; Adam of St Vic 
tor ; Thomas of Celano, author of the famous Dirt 
Ira; James de Benedictis, author of the equally 
famous Stabal Mater; and St Thomas Aquinas. — 
Sse Beruhardy's Roman LUerature, and Trench's 
Saertd Latin Prutty. 

LATI'NI, an Italian people, who in prehistoric 
times had established tbemsetves on the lower )>art 
of the Tiber anil the Anio, lietween the se.i and the 
nearest Apennines. The limits of thi^ir territory 
(Lattuh) cannot, however, be fixed with precisian. 
The L. liad the Volsci for neighbours on the south, 
the -Equi and Hemici on the east, and the Sabinea 
on the Dorth; but after the subjugation of these 
tribes by the Romans, the name of Latium was 
given to the whole of the conquered districts. Th« 
original and strictly ethnological Latium is called by 
Vliaf. Latiam Antiquum, and the newer and added 
portions, Laiium Adjectam. The legend which fonna 
the subject of the ^neid, the great national epic of 
the Bomans, and which deacnWs the introduction 
of a third or Trojan element in the persons of 
jEneaa and his companiana, poBSeuea no historical 

which, according to the le^nd, went forth tli* 
founders of Borne, Ostia, Antium, Tusculnm, Pn^ 
nsste, and Tibnr. 

LATITAT, an old form of writ in England, 
which commenced on action in the Court of Queen's 
Bench ; now obsolete 

denote the angular distances of a lilace on the eartlk 
from the equator and first meridian respectively; 
the angular distance in longitude being found by 
supposing a plane to pass Sirough the place, the 
earth's centre, and tfae poles, and measuring the 
angle made by thia plane with the plane <if the tint 
meridian ; the angular distance in latitude being 
found in the same manner, but subatitiitins the two 
eitremities of an equatorial diameter for &e poles ; 
or, more simply, latitude is the angle made by two 
lines drawn from the earth's centre— the one to the 
place, the other to the equator at the point where 
it i* crossed by th>. meridian of the place. Lattnde 



■ Mt«Kd from the eqDator to the poles, a place 
m lb( n|iiitiir haviag \M. CF, &nd the poles 90* 
1(. ud !lr 8. nspectiTely. Ijingitucle is reckuned 
Jnf Uie cqnitor fram the firat meriiiiui ; bat as 
uHre hu Dot, as in the ease of latitude, supplied 

■ nth * filed ataiting- point, each nation hm 
rhta iti ova Gnt meridiiui ; thus, in Qreat 
Biitiii ud W colonie*, in Holland, and other mari- 
Imc <t4t«i, loogitade ii rvckoned from the meri- 
&a vMcb jtiMwi through Qreenwich ; in France, 
b<m ttiat Urough Paris, Ac ; and in DUiny old 
tkirii, frtm Ferro (one of the Canary .lalea], or 
ha the Madeira Isle*. It ia reckoned east and 
rat from to 180*. though aHtronomers roclinn 
ba <r £ to 360' E., and never nse west longi- 
tbk It will e«dly be seen that if the latitude and 
loftalc of a place be giren, its exact position 
on Ic dcttnninpd, for the latitude fixes its position . 
t> I drek r**""g roand tbe earth at a tuif orm ' 
lint lijtaaee from the eqnstor (called a parallel 
rilitKade}, and the longitude ebewa what point of . 
lu drcl* li to he intcrseuted by the mendian of 
ikjjice. the place beins at the intersection. 

Tie determinatioa both of latitude and longitude I 
Intsdi Dnon astronoiuical obaeirstion. Tbe prin- 1 fixed ■ 
a^ M whicJi the more luusl methods of fiodiag \ 
dit ktilDde depend, will be understood from the \ 
i^irwsag coBaktBratioiu : To an observer at the 
oRL'i sqoator, the oelestial poles are in the 
knam, and tbe meridian point of the equator 
13 Ike unith. If DOW he travel northwards 

the rate of 360 to 24 hours, givea the differenoa of 
Inneitnde. The two methods in use amone traTeUer* 
onaon bo«rd ship are remoi^ble for their combina- 
tion of simplicity with occoracy. The first oonsistl 
merely in determining at what hoar od the chron- 
ometer (whiph is set to ths time at Qreenwioh, or 
some place of known longitude) the ann cranes the 
meridian. It is evident that as the son oompletea 
a revolution, or 360°, in 24 hours, lie will move 
over 16" in 1 hour, or 1' in 4 mioates. Now, if 
the watch be set to Greenwich time— viz., point 
to 12 o'clock when the sun is on the meri iian of 
Greenwich, and if at some other place, when the 
Ban is on the merdisn there, the watch points to 
9 honn SH minutes, the difference of longitude ii 
63°, and the longitude wi)l be W., as the snn hot 
arrived over the place taUr than at Greenwiob ; 
similarly, if the sun be over the meridian of a |ila<« 
at 9 hours 40 minutes A. M.. the longitude is ^° £. 
(by the chronometer). The accuracy oE this method 
depends evidently apon the correctness of time- 
keepers (see Watchib). The other method'— that 
' ' ' ' ' ' ' V be briefly explained as 

1 from certain 

s ia calciilatftd with great ai 

■■ drgm of the meridian, the north oelestiol pole 
rl i{i|ieu one degree above the horizon, while 
Ikf unhao point of the equator will decline one 
de^ touthwarda ; and so on, nntil, when he 
■kW the terrestrial pole, the pole of the heavens 
mU be in the cenith, and the equator in the 
Linos Tbe same thing is true with regard to 
tb nDtheni hemisphere. It thus appears that to 
i-^f^ tbe latitude of a place we have only to 
M Ite attitude of the pole, or the xenith distance 
■ the meridian point of the equator {which is the 
SBS thing as the complement of its altitude). The 
i^tsde of tbe pole is found most directly by 
■>T im| the greatest and least altitades of the 
^ itsi (see Tout), or of any circnmpolar star, I 
•ad (eorrection being made for refraction) taking 1 
Ui Oe snm. Similarly, half the sum of thi 
ffttUtt lod least meridiaii altitudes of tbe sun 
S the two Bolsticei, corrected for refraction and [ 
fBiEax, girea the altitude of the meridian point ' 
t the eqsatnr. The method most usual with 
■■*icitm and travellers is to obaervo the meridian 
iHaiit of a star whose decliuatioD or dietonce 
ha the equator is known ; or of the snn, whose 
Mntini at the time may be found from the 
Sm&ai AlmaiMc; the sum or difference (accord- 
Bi to the direction of the declination) of the 
liitala sod declination sivee the meridian altitude 
tl lie equator, which ts the co-lMitude. Other 
Mhedi ni findiuK the latitude require more or 
W tngnnometricu calculatiun. 

Hu determination of tbe longitude is hy no 
*>!■> m readily Bocomplisbed. Various methods 
im at diOeient times been proposed, most of 
•iii art onlT fitted for observatories. Among 
■hee may be cbssed those which depend upon the 
*»mhisti«ni of the local time of the occurrence of 
Miis celestial phenomena, snch ss the eclipses of 
Bt wa, looan, or Jupiter's satellites, occul^tions 
^ liltd etan by the moon, tbe lime occupied in the 
■Mi'i traisit over the meridian, Sx. ; and comparing 
>> efaaerred local time with tbe calcinated time 
f Hi* oecnrTence, at some station whose lonsitade 
* bnwa (e; L, GieenviiA), the difference of time 
sin leWcd to degrees, minutes, and seconds, at 

Greenwich time, and jmblished in tbe Jfauikat 
A tmaaae. The moon's distance from simie one star 
having been ol>served, and corrected for rebw;tion 
and parallax, and the local time having also been 
noted, the difference between this toc^ time and 
lAal time in the table mil idi corrrtpondi lo Oie tama 
dUtanee gives the longitude, which may be con- 
verted into degrees as ^iFore. It may also be men- 
tioned, that the longitude of all places connected by 
telegraph with the reckoning- point oan be easily 
found by transmitting from the latter a signal to 
an observer in the place, at a certain fix^ time 
(reckoned in solar time at the reckoning-point), and 
by the observer instantly and accurately notios the 
local time at which the si^al arrived ; the differ- 
ence of the two times, reduced in tlie way shewn 
aliove, will give the longitiid?, the time occupied in 
the transmisaioD of the signal being so small aa to 
be neglected. When appiieii to a heavenly body, 
tbe terms latitude and longitude have ths same 
relations to the ecliptic and its poles, and to the 
point on the ecliptic called tbe Equinox (q. v.), that 
terrestrial latitude and longitude have to the 
eqimtor and a first meridian. The jiositiona of a 
heavenly body relatively to the equator are called 
its Declination (q. v.) and Right Ascension (q. v.). 

CoRBBT DE, bom 23d November 174.1, at Carhoix 
in Finistire, France, of an illegitdmate branch of 
the family of the Dukes of Bouillon. He entered 
the army in 1767 : and in 17S1 served under the 
Duke de Crillon at Port Mahon. On the out- 
break of the Revolution, he attached himself to 
the national cause. Tbe army of the Alps, which 
operated against the Sardinians in 1T92, contained 
no braver officer than Latour. He vss tbe Hist to 
enter Chambery. sword iu hand, at ^e head of his 
company. But he would not hear of advancement 
in military rank ; and in the followine year, though 
placed at the head of a column of 8000 grenadiers 
in the army of the Pyreneee, he continued te wear 
ths uniform of a captain. Hia corps obtainnl the 
nune of the 'infernal column,' on account cf the 
dread which its bayonet- chargea inspired. When 
he was subsequently with the army of^ the Rhine in 
1800, OS he still refused all promotion. Bonaparte 
bestowed on him the title of ' He Fint Qrenajliar 
of Fnnce.' He was kiUed. on 2Hh June of tiinl 
r Nsnburg in Bavoiu. "nie 
ity of Ia were wonderful ; 



full of inatanccB of 
bin duin^ tsIodt, liia Sputui siimdicity of life, 
■D>1 lui chivklroiu aSectioD for hit friendi. When I 
be died, the vhole French army mourned for him 
tbree days i ererr loldier set aside a day's pay 
to purcbaae a nlver ura to bold hia bea^; hig 
ubre wai placed in the church of the Invalide«; 
aad each morainit, till the dose of tbe Empire, at 
the muster-roll of hia renment, his name continued 
to be called, and the oldeat sergeant answered ' 
the call : ' MoH au dianp ifKojiiieiir' (Dead on t 
field of boDour), L. was not only a brave warri 
but also a man oE a studious dispoaitioo, and the 
author of two works, NoavdSf* Sfdiarchet tvr la 
Langae VOrigbu H la AnliguMt ila BrtUim 
(Bayonne, ITffi!), and Origint* Oauloiaet (Hamb. 
IBOl), which is, however, only a third edition of 
the former. 

LA TRAPPE, * narrow valley in Normandy, u 
the department of Ome, closely shut in by wood* 
and rocks, and vttj difficult of access. It is notable 
as the^lace in which the Trappists (q. v.) originated. 

LATRINES, convenience* for soldiers in oampa 
and barracks. Much attention bas of late been 
devoted to their construction, a large percentage 
of tbe army lickneas having been traced to their 
defective and impure condition. 

LATTEN, a term now seldom nsod. _. _ 
applied to sheet-bnaa, and previous to the reforms 
in the Customs toriO', the name was regnlarly recog- 
nised. There are three varieties of latten known — 
hlaet, ihavm, and roll The Snt is rolled brass 
about the thickoees of ordinary pasteboard, aud 
anpnliahed; the second as Uun as writing- paper; nod 
the third i* either of the other kinds polished on 
both sides. The term latten is of some archaio- 
logical interast, as it is not known what is meant 

!' the 'mines of latten' mentioned in the time of 
enry VIIT., and frequent mention is made of this 
metal in varicnu public records, without eiplana- 

gonala either aimple wrougbt-in>a bars, or hdlow 
malleable iron tubes, or oE coat iron. The wrought- 
iron taibular bow-bridge, now in very common use in 


LATTICE-BRIDGE, «o called from havint 
aides constructed with croes- framing resembling 
Uttic«-work iFr. and Qer. latie, a lath). See Fbahi- 
BBIDOE. Many rerj large bridges of this kind 
have been erected with timber-frainiog in America, 
^lat over tbe Soaqnehanna at Columbia is about 
one mile and a quarter long, and has twenty-nine 
■pant, each 200 feet wide, lie principle on wbiob 
manT lattice-bridKei are constructed resembles that 
of ue tmaaed nAeraof roofs (A,B,C, Gg. 1), witb 

> king-port or hanger in cenba. Bach span con- 
■ists oE a aeries of these raftera, ao arranged that 
the head of one rafter (B) is immediately over the 
feet of the two adjoining rsften. Other lattice- 
bridges an oonsbucted with diagonal braces, united 
with strong pina, and without suspensioa-rods. Tbe 
former method is tbe stronger, as in the Utter 
the strain comes chieSy on the pins uniting tbe 
diagonal Croa-bracea. Lattice- brii^es are aUo con- 
atmcted in iron, and have been much used for 
railway purposea. The first application of the 
lattice principle to iron was made by Mr George 
Smart, who registered, in 1824, hia ' patent iron 
bridge.' Many modiGcatian* of the same principle 
have been adopted— tbe horizontal ties at top and 
bottom being always of wrought iron, and the dia- 

railway constroction, is a combination oF the tnbnlar 

and the lattice principle. See Tctbitlar Bmimb. 
Pig. 2 shews a portion of the lattice bridge over the 
OiMe at Lendd Ferry. Yorit, u designed by Mr 
I>redae. C.E. The bridge has a clear span of 173 
feet 6 inches. 

YAM. or OUVIHANDRANO [Ouvirandra fntn- 
fraiii), a plant referred by some hotaniita to the 
natunil order Juncagiota, and by some to Naiad- 
acta. It is a native of Madagascar, and grows in 
running streams. It has a root-stock about the 
thickness of a man's thumb, six to nine inches long, 
often branching, internally white, with a lipht- 
brown skin, fonnaceona, and used for food The 
D of the root is under water, and tbe leaves 
float just under the surface ; Uie flower-stalks 
rise above it The flowers aro in forked sj^ec. 
The leaves are very curious ; the blade resembling 
latticework or open needle-work of a most r^iular 
pattern ; the longitudinal ribs being crossed at right 
iijles by line tendrils, and the intervening spaces 
ting open. The blade is of an elongated oval fortn, 
abruptly acuminated ; the length of the stalk varies 
according to tlie depth of the water. The wholA 
appearance of the plant is very 
beautiful It erows well in hothouse |^ 
aquaria in Britain. ^ I 

Heraldry, is a term apjilied to a V 
shield covered with a decoration \ 
resembling Pretty (q-v.), but differ- 
ing in this respect, that the pieces 
do not cross over and under each 
other ; those directed from deiter 
chief to sinister base are placed 
uppermost and doiU, that is, have nails inaeited at 

LAU'BAN, a town of Pnissia, in the province ol 
leaia, is situated in a channing valley On tbs 
Queis, 40 miles west-soath-west of Liegnita. Pop^ 
6582, who are engaeed chiefly in woollen, linen, and 
cotten weaving, bleaching, printing, dyeing, and 

LAUD, WnJlAK, Arehbishop of Caot«ibary, 
was the son of a clothier in good circiirastancea. and 
was born at Reading, in Berkabire, October 7, 1573, 
He entered St John's Collwe, Oxford, in 1589; 
became a Fellow in 1593, and took bis d^ree of 
M.A. in 1598. Ordained a priert in 1601, he soon 

a by Google 


tX Um DoiTsnitj by bis 
bat htiag then k 

■K Ui ptn di ttnt uM drfnite ecdesiaabcum, 
tta m^ iiiwii|| i.h.v-p ol his devutJoD to 

Ar droraia of liarth Kilwoith in Lekeatenhire. 
h hik el tiiae liviagt be tbeWHl faimulf ta 
' 1 accoiding to the HLgb-obareh 

Am - "^ 

uiiDg fl . 

wa ifpuitol Rector of Weat Tilbury, in Seaex 
B 1611 -IB Biite of itroiij; oppoaitiaD—PrendeDt 
ri Si Job's CoUe^Ec; Id 1G14, Prebeodvy of Lia- 
aii: iwl in 1615, Arcbdeutm of HoDtingdoii. 
Lig JiBBB now b^an to recognise what sort of 
t Bss L. «■■, and to sea tbst be misbt rely on 
hiB M s rafaisble ally in carrying out his notiooa 
<f Ike 'diiiiis li^L' Not tbat tbeir ainu were 
fait idntical— ^ames via chiefly aoxioua to 
~--*--- the abaolabe aotbority of tbe sovercini, 
«d L the abaolnte authority of episoopscy. In 
Ul;, L aeexniiwuad hia majesty to Scotland, with 
Ae ii» of iotiwlaciag episcopacy into the chorch- 
■iimaiiil of that euaatry ; but tbe attempt 
U>d. Id ]S21, he was consecrated Bishop of St 
Unk After tbe aceeaoioB of Charles L. he was 
tnaiidf^ from the see of St Davids to tbat of 
ink tad Wella. became higji in favour at court, 
n* Bore than errr hated by the Ptuitaus, and was 
fc— lauuil in parliauiBit. In 162S, be was made 
B^ of Loodon. After ' 

_ . , and acted in 

o the ajHrit of tbe times and to tbe 
qona of t^ Kreat body of Pnritana in England, 
a><Be Bi^t bare foreseen his min to he laevit- 
•Ut.nqMeof therofalfaToiir. Id 16.%, he was 
(Ws diaoeellor of the nnirenity of Oxford, the 
ate d( Hi^-dtoreh loyalty. From thii jieriod he 
*B lor several yean booly hot fmitlvaaly employed 
B irjtrtmag PnritaniBii. The means adopted were 

~^~* ■-—■-*- — *- -', even dcteatable. Croppng 

ee, braniilDK the foreheiul. 

ft* thai tEBper of tbe £kii^ish nation they were 
As iNt ^ffwe weak and foolish. In the High- 
■^■■■OB aad 8tar-cbamfaer Conrte, tbe induence 
rf L, WH SBfceme ; but the penalty be paid (or this 
■daiBn wia the hatred of the Eni^h pariiament 
■■dWihepniilageaaitlly. In 1633, he was raised 
te tk< SKhh^otin: of Caolerbary, and in the same 

£Bade chaB«lcr of tbe onivenity of Dublin. 
bmam ordinanoe regardiog Sunday aporta, 
rtieh waa iml^ahed abnnt tlua tune by royal com- 
■•Bd, was believed to be drawn np by L., and 
pttj marmaei the dialike felt towards him by the 
nmaa. Hia Bunute aitt rations in puhlio worship, 
B proper piHitioD of tbe 
it witb decent rails, bis 

influence, in short, has hindered luT from becomins 
as doctrinal and Cafnitutif as hisr srticlEa woolS 
iMcally necesntate. Dming 1635—1637, another 
efiart waa made by him to establish episcoimcy 
in Sootlaod; but Uie flnt attempt to read the 
liturgy in 8t Giles's Church, Edinborgh, excited a 
dangerona tnmttlL ProceeilingB were tioaUy taken 
sgainat him, and on the lut 3 March 1640—1641, 
lu was, by order of the Honae of Commons, oon- 
veyed to the Tower. After being stripped of bit 
hououra, and exposed to many indignities and mndl 
injnatice, he waa finally brou-^ht to thai before (he 
House of Lords, November 13, 16i3. on a chai^ of 
treason and other crimen The Lords, bowevcj, 
did not hml him guilty ; Imt the Commons hsa 
previously re«>lTed on his death, and passed KB 
ordinance lor hta execution. To this the Upper 
House gave ita aaaent ; and in spite of L.'s producinff 
a royal pardon, he was— andoubtedty in violation tn 
eipreaa statute, and by the exerdae of a prercwativ« 
•A parliament aa arbitrary aa any king haiT ever 
eihibited— beheaded, loth Janoary 1644-1616, L. 

■b aaj 11m ftoeinji of 
fao^ DBtab BodWall 


tie rank (boMhcs where they resided, dispUy a 

Kiati llni I akd an intolenat apiiTt ; aa othtr of 
:ti^ iHi— tt that thas loiked in his amall 

i hIks. fitdl. it most be confeaaed that _ 
• It lis. L.'s litoaliaiB baa (riompbed. Tbs 
bRJt af EMiaai waa RradaaUy pen^nted -^"^ 
■ qaU, and Iha high valne which she haa i 
> fsl SB rrligimia earemooiea H partly owiiw to 
" i-rtisarinM effiwta si the uvhlMahop. Thi« 

Oifonl, in the Sinree of his hfe, with 1300 lisaL 
in different Enro)iean and Oriental langoagea ; bat 
his eiclnsive aacerdotalism, hia inabiUty to under- 
atand bia fellnw-creatures, and his cansequenb 
disr^^ard for tbeir rights, forbid na to admire bit 
obaracter, thongh we pity his fate. Hia writinigs 
are few. Wharton pnbliabed bia Diary in 1694; 
and during ISA7— IS60, Parker, the Oxford pub- 
lisher, iasDpd The Worlai of the Matt Rteenni 
FaduT ta Ood, W^liam Laud, D.D.. lomttime Lont 
AnU>uti>p of Crmierbary, containing, among oth«Er 
thinga, bis letteia and nuacetlaueous papers, some ot 
them not before pnbliahed, and, like his Diary, d 
gr«st value in helinng us to form an adequate 
conception of the man and his time. 

the moat generally used oE all the preparations of 
opium. It is obtained by macerating the sliced or 
powdered drug in spirit, and filtering. It is of > 
deep browmsh-rcd colour, aod possesses the peculiar 
odour and smell of opium. One of the greatest 
objections to it is, that it is liable to great variations 
oF strenzth. Dr Chriatiaon remarks: 'Laudanum 
la made by all the collides with such proportions at 
the opium and spirit that about thirteen Tnlnimf 
and a half, or about tweuty-Gve drops, cootain ths 
entire part of ooe gmin of opium. But tbe London 
tinctnre may be sometimes sixteen per cent, stronger 
than the others, aa dry opium is directed to lis 
used.* This medicine is, moreover, very oftcB 

laudanum is a powerful anodyne and Soporiflc, 
but is more liable to cause headache thaa the solu- 
tion of one of the salts of morphia. Its general 
action and its usee will be described in the articls 
Opiuh. The doee Cor an adult varies from ten 
minims to a drachm. To children (sa is the caas 
with all opiatea), it must be given with extrems 
caution. One niniia, which ia equivalent to ths 
ISOtb of a grain of norphia, haa been known to 
prove fatal to an infant 

LAUDS. See Cakonical Hodbii 

a dncby belongine to the Qerman confederacy, 
bat onited with l£e crown of Denmark. In the 
earlier half of tite thirteenth century, it fell into 
the pniimian of the Duke of Simony one ot 
whosa sona became the fonnder of the ducal Honaa 
of Saxa-lAoailMug. After the eitirwtion of this 
Use, it was inherSad by the Dnka of Bmnawick- 
CsUe in 1689, and passed into the pnaarnsinn of the 



4 uized olon^ 
.._. . 1803; and after- 
I of boiindAiy, wu nuide 

Denmuk, but with reserratioQ of oU the rigbta and 
privilegra of tba ooimtrj. It haa on area of 400 
•qiiare miles, dod (la 1860) .'50,147 inhabitanta, liea 
on tbe right bank of the IClhe, and borden with 
Haaover, Mecklenburt^ Holsteia. and the terri- 
tories of HMoburg aod Lubeck. and ii a well-ciiltJ- 
vatecl and fertile country. It ia cloeely couoected 
in political affairs with Holateia. The capital, 
Lauetiburg. haa only about 1100 tababitanti : the 
two laiveat towna an Katzebnrg ([wp. 376U), and 
Molhi (iK>p. 3322). 


familiar and peculiarly human expressiaa boa been 
the occaeion of a good deal of discuasion and contro- 
versy, being connected with a large and important 
class of eSbcta, named the liidicroua, and also with 
wit and humour. We shall Grst advert to the 

Sbysical part of the phenomeDOD, and then coDiiiier 
le mental causes or accompaniment* of it 

Physically, laughter is a convulsive action of the 
Diaphragm (q. v.). In this state, aa remarked by 
Sir Cbarles Bell, the peiwin 'draws a full breath, 
and throws it out in inti^irapted, short, and audible 
oachinnations.' 'Diis convulstna of tbe diaphragm is 
the Drinci[ial part of the physical manifestations of 
lauffhter ; but there are several accea^Hve. espe- 
ciallj the aharp ttcoI utterance arising from the 
violent tension of the larynx, and the eiprvasion of 
the features, this beinj; a more intenae form of the 
■mils, the ohaiautaristic of pieasicg emntioas gener- 
ally. In eitreme caun. tbe eyes are moiateiied by 
the effusioD from the lachrymal glands. 

The cause* of laughter are both phyairal and 
mntoL Among physical causes, we roust rank ti™t 
hilarity, or animal spirits generally. When there 
is a i^reat overflow of good spirits, it takes the form 
of the langh among other violent macifeBtations. 
The rel«iimd of robust nntiires from constraint or 
cnnttnement, as when children are released from 
■chnol, is marked with uproarious glee and excite- 
ment. Laughter is sometimes prodnced by the 
application of cold, aa in the cold bath. Another 
notable form is the hysterical lit, where the 
eiplosiveneis of the nervous system is an effect of 
disease, and followed by exhaustion. 

The mrnlai causes of laughter are what have given 
rise to tbe controversv. To determine the common 
characteristic of all tnose things termed 'ludionms,' 
lias been foimd a problem of no common difficulty. 
Various theoriea tiave been priijiounded, alt with 
•ome truth, but pt-rhapa none entirely explainina 
the tacts. Aristotle lays it down that ' the ridicul- 
ous implies something deformed, and coneLsta in 
those smaller faults which are neither painful nor 
iH'micious, but unbeseeming— thus, a face excites 
laughter wherein there ia deformity and distortion 
wiuiout ]iain.' Here he touches u[ion several of tbe 
important conditioDB—vi7., that there should be some 
strangeness or deviation from the ordinary appear- 
ances of nature, that this deviation should be on the 
aide of degradation or inferiority, and that it should 
sot be of a kind to excite any other strong emotion, 
as pity. Hobbei lias given a theory to the eff^-ct 
that laughter ia 'a sudden glory, ariaing from a 
Buddea conception of some emineocy in ouiaelvea 
by comparison with the intinuity of othen, or with 
— — ~i formerly.' This evidently suits a certain 

to reconcile it with tlMhunoniua and genial laughter | 'qa wn n c M 

of those that are but little given to self-aloTificatiMi 
or pmnd exultation over othar men's fsoomlSturtb 
Partly owing to this deficiency, and partly frara tba 
harah judgment of human natiuv implisd in it, this 
theory has been very onpopular. It has bodo con- 
tend^ in opposition to Hobbea. that there are jests 
that do not imply tbe degradation of any livini[ 
being; and that we often feel contempt for others, 
and sudden glorying in onraelvea by tbe comparison, 
without beini^ urged to laughter. As to the first o( 
these allegations, CBmj>beli, in tbe PhUotophtf of 
Rhetoric, induces the following instance : ' Hanv.' 
be Bays, 'have laughed at the queemeas of th* 
comparison in these lines (from Hiuiibrat) ; 

who never dreamed that there was any person or 
party, practice or opinion, derided in them.' But in 
addition to the agreeable surprise caused by tba 
novelty of the com]>arison, wbicb is tbe chief mere- 
dient in wit, anil may exist without any d^^adation 
of the subject, there is here a most aiiparent degra- 
dation of the poetic art, hallowed as it is in mvn'a 
minds by the most digniRed associations aa some- 
thing akin to divine inspiration, and now rediU'ed 
to a Tulgur mechanism of rhyme-making. Hohl>ea 
confines his definition too much to actual penwns ; 
for the lai;gh may be raised against claases, pal-til's. 
systems, opinions, institutions, and even inanimnt* 
things supposed to be perw)nified. It would not ba 
easy to prixliice any unequivocal instance of a lauch 
raised without dcgroiling some penon or interert, 
whde in a vast number of cases this citciimatance ia 
the indispenaabla and admitted condition of tba 

Dr Campbell himself, while cballengins the theory 
of Hobbes, suhatitntes nothing in its jSace excejit 
an enumeration of tbe most prmninent kinds of 
ludicrous effects. Tbeae are, first, the debasement of 
things erent and eminent ; secondly. "the a(K''andiso> 
ment of little things by the language of s]>lendoiir ; 
and thirdly, the queemeas or singularity of the 
imagery. Now, aa regards tbe first of t^eaa. the 
debasement of thinga eminently great— by far the 
largest class— the doctrine of HiAibes, if property 
gusiiied, would be found fully applicable. There n 
a strong satisfaction iu pulling anything down from 
a high pinnacle to plunge it in the mire, which we 
can inter[iret only as a mode of the sentiment of 
Power, one of tbe most energetic and deep-seatnl 
passions of tbe hnman mind, Thia aentunent ia 
gratified by every striking effect that we can pro- 
duce onraelvea ; and few effects are more atnkin^ 
than to debase or humiliate some person or interest 
from a proud eminence ; and not only so, but (wbst 
Hobbea neglected to remark) also by seeing the 
effect produced by tbe agency nf some other person. 
A familiar mode of pandering to the sense ni pouer 
is to put any one tu fright; even tha diild esa 
chnckle over this triumph of ita yonng ability. 
Campbell's second elaas of oases might seem at first 
si^t to be the opjiosite of the lirat, and thereby t« 
contradict the general theory which that illustrates 
But when mean and Uttle things ara aggraudiaed, by 
elevated phiaaeology. so aa to rajaa a laugh, it wiU 
always be found that the effeot ia owing, not to th« 
raising of the sabject. but to the derailing u( th« 
language bv connection with auch a aubjeoL Thi* 
is btie so-called nock-heriHC, where the grand and th« 
lofty iu speech being employed upon iba mean and 
insignilicant, are debased to the level of wliat they 
are applied to. Such ia tbe nature of pandf. R« 
that, m fact, Campbell's aeoond species ar« merely • 
variety of tbe liraL The third speoieB, mailed by 
' and aingolari^ of imagei;,' >i« ruallj 

a by Google 


M«li»ii|ii bvt on matljtu alwajm jidd more or 
ka el the daocnt (rf impli«d Uttlenoa or moumen 
ktnbiact waaOr beU grert or dignified. 

b Aort, if V* caiefony let uide the element of 
Ik vittf, «e tbaD gnenUy be >ble to eipUin the 
ndKtUB of Uo^ter upon » nniform principle. 
Etot mc woold probaUj allow ttut nine cues out 
dmrj toi cf tin genoinely ladicnxw *re oaaa of 
tfe [fai»«fc td degrading aomethiiiKi which famiibca 
1 eEwidenbte preaoraptMii that ma remainder are 
ii IW nuDC geocral character, althoagh perhaps 
mdcf tt l with circTuiistuicea that diagnise the foct 
IV fi^iraa of a powerful imagination, the reaonrcea 
d Iniaiag, aad the poliih m rhettwical art, may 
ate iato a huticroui rambioatioa. Sach we have 
a the worfca of the gr«at comia writen — in the 
fbn of Anatophann, Motitre, and Shakapeare, 
mi m At huDonr of Co-vantea. Addison, Swift, and 
ffdacf Saith — ^bat wbervns there is no eKpresaed 
w i^hed ^Kradatian of Mane chuactera. claaaea, 
t^BHKi or inatitiitianB, «« ahall probablj not 
opiiULa the propv ddi^lt of the Indicr joa. 

LAmCB (Ammodyla). a zenoa of fishes, of tb« 
ti tribe, with Tery plonnted body, elongated he*d. 

hcp^-opi-niozs, dor«^ fin extending nearly the 
■M Length of ^e back, anal fin also long, tdl- 
fa dHi' ■ ' , . -. 

Ii dildsct from them both, and forfc^ 

are cotnmOD on the British coast, often culled 
n, a name which, in some boohs of nxtuTsl 
ia reatricted to the larver and lesi abundant 
a [A- Tobinmu), a S& about a foot long. 

^vh laed as bait by tishennen. Both are, howe' 
w; dilicata aodLuUBtable. They are of a beautiful 
■1^ cvlour. The under jaw projects beyonil the 
larn, sad ia nsed in bnirowing in the sand, to 

LAiniCBSTOS, the seeood town of TssmaDia, 
V Taa Dia>en*> I^nd, ia to tbe north of the island 
■iM Hobait Town, the capital, is to the south 
-tte chief port of entry and mart of trsde. It 
•t^it at Ihe jnnctiun erf tbe E^ with the ramar, 
■tadi, after a aDone of 32 mila, enter* Bass's 
hih li(. T.) at Port Dalrymple. It is accessible 
h ibpa of ODandcralile honun, and carries on a 
Itamaf; eommerce with the colonies of Victoria 
■d Soiltin Anatnlia. Among the principal build- 

■ ' - ' hoDse, a court- 

, barrmcks, and 

. college, I 

•■haok T^ popolation is upwards of 600a In 
Un^ SSI TCMEli, of 98,180 tons, entered and 
dsed the part. Hie import*, amounting in 1860 
b 2443,792, auMiat of manabctored goDds, tea, 
i^sr. tx. "Ae exnorta in tb* same year anumnted 
to /4B3,908, die chief aftichn being wool, oata, 
vhart, lonr, timb«r, potatoes, boraea, frolta. In 
ftt ivranadiag dia^ict of the satna naou riaea 
Um*^ toUta be^ of 4900 feet 

unites with the borongk of Newport in sending a 
member to the House of Commons. Tbe county 
assiie formerly held here is now beld at Bodmin. 
Pop. (1861) of municipal borongb. 2T9a 

IiATTSCH. the laraeat boat belongiog to a ihip. 
The launch has nearly superaeded the long-boai, 
formerly the principal of a ship's boats. It is rowed 
by a conaiderable number of owa, double-banked, 
and has capabilities for sailing well, and for stowing 
aevBvl days' proviaioaa. The launch of a man- 
of-war ia frequently armed with a small piece ul 
artillery in the bow -, and when the ship is employed 
in narrow seas or ri»e™, it is not unusual for the 
laonch to be despatched on expeditions far from 
tbe ship, and to poiata which she is unable hereelf 

LATTXCH ia the prot c as of removing a Teasel, 
especially a new one, from land to water. A ship 
is ordinarily bnilt npon a wooden slip, which a 
an inclined plane (rismg abont '625 in 12), with one 
end reaching below the anrface of the wat«r to a 
de^th greater than the ship's ilraught. The keel ia 
built, uot upon the slip itaelf, but on btucka of wood 
abont three feet or mi apwt, standing on the slip. 
To TTnintjin the hoU in sqnihbrio while building it 
rests in a eradU, the bottom 
of which ia supported by 
the tn^ on the slip, planed 
timbera leadina towards 

cnMswiae of a ahip 
titi* pcaition is abewn ... _ 

the annexed figure. The 
time for launching having 
arrived, the ways are wdl 
greased, the sAom and •toteAioat which hold tha 
ship in place are knocked soddenly away, a battle o( 
wine is brahen over the bow by some ' lady fair,' 
who gives the name, and tht vessel glides down, sfens 
Jbremott, into the water. Tbe cradle ii so formed 
that Uie weight of the vessel holds it together ; bnt 
when that is withdrawn through the buoyancy tt 
the water, the ciwlle breaks np into many pieoeiy 
and is recovered by boats in attendance. 

The famous Ortai Eatler* was budt at BlackwaO 
with the side parallel to the river, and launched 
over numerous iron rails ; but owing to the bite <rf 
Uie iron keel npon the rails, it took three month*' 
eiertioD, with the aid of tbe most powerful hydrauUo 
rams, tojiush the immcBse ship (12,000 tuna weight) 
into the river (Jannaiy 31, 1858). 

LAURA'OE^ a natural order of exogenon* 
plants, consisting of trees or ehniba which hare 
leaves without stipules, and flowen in paniclm or 
umbels. The perianth ia 4 — ft-cleft ; the stamen* 
opposite to its Barents, and twice as many. Th* 
fmit is a oDe-seeded berry or drwie ; tbe fnut«talk 
often enlarging and becoming fleaby. — Una order 
contains about 4S0 known apecie*, mostly tropicaL 
Tbe Laurel (q. T.) ia tbe mily Boropsan specie*, 
An BTOmatjo and fragrant chanuster perradea tb* 
order, and lunongst its prodoeCa are cinnamon, 
cassia, and other anvnatic barks, also a number of 
Blvmaljo fruits somewhat resembling noting Sea 
Numo. The timber of aome species, aa green- 
heart, is valuable ; aome are Talnable for tbeii 
medicinal bark*, aa greenheart (bebeeri) and \\mm 
fras ; aome for their secretion*, of which eampbut 
ia the moat importanL OnodopAH opifira, a 



Sooth American trae, yields a uiunphonueoui 
volatile oil in great quntity. i[ mere inciaioni ue 
mide in its b&rk. ?Ihe fruit of some species is 
a)(reemble, w dia Avocado Pear (q. v.). — A few very 
reniarkBlde species, forming the genus Catytlta, 
hare been iiuited with this order by many botanists, 
although otben seiiaiate them as a distinct order. 
They are climbing paruites, like dodilers, and 
inhabit the woods of uie hottest parts of the gkibe. 

LAUHEATB, an officer of the hoosehold 
of the sovereigns of Qi«at Britain. The appellation 
seems to have originatsd in a cuatom of the English 
universities oF presentino; a lanrel wreath to gradn- 
ates in rhetoric and Tcnificatioa ; the new graduate 
,heing then styled Foda Laur«atut, The kind's 
lanreate was then simply a graduated rhetorician 
in the serviin of the king. B. WhittingtoD, in 1612, 
seems to have been the last man who received a 
rhetorical de^n^e at Oxford The earliest mentioD 
•>f a poet-laureate in Englimd occura in the reign of 
Edward IV,, when John Key peceived the appoint- 

£100 per anonm, with a tiercs of canary ; which 
latter einotument was, nnder Southey's tenancy of 
the office, commuted into an annnal payment of 
£27. It need to be the duty of the laureate to 
write an ode on the birthday of the aoveieiga, and 
•Mnetimea on the occasion of a national victory ; 
but this custom was happily aboliahed toworda the 
OODclusion of the retgn M Geoiye III. The foUowing 
poets have held the office of laureate since the 
vear 1670: John Dryden, Nahum Tote, Nicholas 
ilowe, Laurence Eusden, Colley Cibbcr, William 
Whitehead, Thomas Warton, Henry James Pva, 
Rolwrt Southey, William Wordaworth-the office 
being at present held by Alfred Teanysoa. 

LAU'RBL (Lawnw), a genus of Xnvrai»E (q. t.), 
which, as now restricted, contains only a single 
known species, the NoBUl L, Victor's L., or Sweet 
Bay {L. nobili'), a native of Asia Minor, but now 
diffused over all thn countries around the Medttrr- 
ranenn Sea. It is often a mere bush of fifteen feet 
or less, but sometimea becomes a tree of thirty, or 
even aJxty feet high. It bos rather Urge, lanceo- 
late, leathery, shining leaves, reticulated with reins, 
and axillary clusters of yello wish. white flowers of 
no be.-tuty. The fnitt is ova!, and 
■bout half an inch lon^ Both the leaves and the 
[ruit are bitter, astringent, and aerecalily aromatic, 
and weni formerly much used in meflicine as a 
Stomachic and stimulant, but are now almost out of 
use. The leaves, however, ore still used in cookery 
tor flavouring. They contain a volatile oil {oil of 
fwt hnij\, and a bitter, gummy eitroctive. 

By the aiicient Oreeks, the L. was colled daphne ; 
it was sacred to ApoUn. Berry-boarina twigs of it 
were wound round the forehead of victorious heroes 
and (loets; and in later times, the degree of Doctor 
was conferred with Hiis ceremony — whence the 
term iourmtion; and, accordinjj tti some, the term 
Badirhr (q. v.). And to thii ilny, a L crown is the 
emblem ol the honour to which poets, artists, and 
warriors aspire. 

The Noble L. is common in shrabberics in Britain, 
bat not nearly so common as the species of Cherry- 
laurel (q. v.), which share with it the name L. as do 
not a few other shrubs botonicaJly very different, 
but somewhat similar in their evergreen lotiags. 

LAUEBL-WATER is obtained by distilling 
• mixture of chopped and bruised leaves of the 
eberry-laund and water, after 21 hours' rnacera- 
tion. It ia seldom pnacrilied medioinally in this 
eountiy, bnt may be given in doses of frvm half a 
4iachm to a drachm aa k sedative nanntic, in 

□enndgic paina, spasmodic cough, and palpitation 
of the heart ; in short, in all uie cases in which 
hydrocyanic is ap|>iicable. Death has occurred, with 
all the symptoms of hydmcyanie poisoning, from 
its incautious use as a flavouring ingredient in 
creams and puddings. 

LAURE'NTIAN BTBTEM, a aerie* of highly 
metamorphosed rocka, older than the Cambrian, and 
apparently the fundamental series of the stratified 
rocks, lliey have been so named from their cover- 
ing the whole oountiy nc«th of the St Lawrewe, 
where th^ were originaUr described by Sir William 
Logan. They consist of hombleudic and micoceoua 
gneiss, alternating with or nassiug into mica-schist, 
^e whole being oonsidered to have been originally 
sedimentary de|>oaits, and to hove been thua ^tered 
by long-con tinned metamorphio action. A few 
luge, irregular beds of crystalline limestones, and 
bed-like masses of magnetic oxide of iron and other 
minerals, are interstra tided with the gneiss. True 
igneous rocks ars frequently intruded among these 
strata, oa veins and masses of granite, syenite, 
and greenstone. The beds are higoly inijined and 
greatly contorted, so that no ap;iroximate estimate 
can be made of their thickness, which seems to be 
very great. Murchisou and Geikie have lately 
determined that certain great masoes of highly 
crystalline gneiss, which underlie the Camlirian 
S^es in the north of Scotland, belong to this 
period. It is probable that some of the highly 
metamorphosed rocks of the north of Ireland may 
be of the same age. 

LAURUaTI'NUS (r*«rnu™ Tmua, see ViBUB- 
NCM), a shrub very frequent in pleagure-grounda 
in Britain, a native of the south of Euro|« and tha 
north of Africa. It is a bonutiful everi^veu, with 
dark, shining, leathery leaves, small whitish flower* 
ia corymbs, and smM lilacltisb-bhie berriea. llie 
flowers apiieor in winter or very larly s|>rinz. The 
berriea have drastic purgative pro)ierties ; they are 
very acnd. and iaflame the mouth violently, yet 
some kinds of birds eat them with avidity. The L, 
cannot endure much frost ; and in Germany and 
the northern parts of the Cnited States, it ia • 
green-house plant. 

LAUSA'NNE (Lot Lovmivi), a city of Switaev 
land, capital of the canton of Vanil, ia pictureaqiielj 
situated on the southern sloiie of the Jura Moun- 
tains, close to the noHihem ahore of the L^e of 
Qeneva, on which the villas of Ouchy forms it> 
harbour. The two principal porta of ibv city or* 
separated by a valley, across which a line liridga 
ho) been recently thrown. L has a niiiober of 
religious, eduoational, and scientiHc institiitiona. 
The cathedral, a beautiful Gothic builiiing, begun 
in the Kith c., and completed in the 13th. ia 
the greatest ornament of the city. L it much 
frequented by visiton from all parts of the world. 
Keie Gthbim resided for mnny years, and the lionas 
in which he wrote the greater part of the Drtliiie 
and Fall is still shewn. John Kemble the actur 
is buried in a cemetery in the vi<nnity. Brewing, 
lithograph in II, and cotton and wool spinning are 
the pniicli«l branches of trade. Pop. 18,000. ol 
whom lOoO are Roman Catholics. 

LA'VA, a name sometimes applied generally to 
VolcBDia Rocka |q. v.), but more strictly nmliDnl 
to thuee rocks which have been poured out aa • 
stream of molten matter from a volcanic opeainK. 
either on dry land or in shallow water. The surface 
of the stream, which sjieedily cools and luLrden^ 
is generally quite porous and vraicular, from tL* 
escape of the confined gases ; bat aa roclc ia alwaja 
a bad conductor of beat, the interior often remuua 
long in a hquid oondittoo, permitting the continuad 



km of m Btnuru nmetimea to « very sreat 
CMk( from the orifice bom which it bai Men 
teiufnl, DotwitJutaDdiiig its indurated covering. 
Ibt cw of the stream ia a slowly -moTing mass 
d ira* poroiu biocka, rolling and tumbling over 
mt^eib/a with a lond rattling noiae, Iwing pushed 
kvinl in lits Bod starts by the viscid lava, nrhen 
t kmli tbe bardeoed emit and rushes on. The 
MiLliut of the interior of a suUd lava-stream ahewB 

■ oHjiact and boniogeDeoaa rock, aasumine a more 
■d Bsrv cTVBtalliDe structure as the coining has 
liB lite work of a longer or shorts period o[ time. 
Cnsn an aometiinca formed in lava-streams by 
A< (upe erf the malten mass bdow, leaving the 
cnM crast standiikg like the roof of a tunneL 

e town of 

d on tbe river Mayeane, 42 mil 
SfBHi. Its chief buitdiug is an old chlteau, novr 
1 [na, and fortneriy the naidence of the Dnkea 
d U TlunoaDIe. For 500 yean, this town has 
bKS ed^Trsted for its linen maaufsctnivs, trhicb 
m* oported from, aa well as sold throughout 
rnBC& Cottons, csliooes, vrge, soap, and leather 
n sbo msnafactnred. aod there is a cnnaideraMe 
tads in giain. wool, timber, sad iron. In the ricinity 
d L the Ventleans under Larochejaqneleia gained 
1 bnlliant victory over tbe Republicans, who lost 
ttOOU oeo and 19 cannon in the eneaaement. Pop. 
tUHL ^^ 

LA VALFTTA. See TauiTA, La. 

U TALLIKRE. FBAXfoisK Loinac db LAB&uin: 

UuufC Lie, a celebrated mistms of Loiiis XIV. of 
FniKe. vu bum at Tonia, in 1M4, of an ancient 
ad sable family. At an eirly age^ she lost her father, 
ai Tu bruu^t to court by ber mother, who hul 
■mini a •enioil time. She was not a j^at beauty, 
■d bad a tli^bt Umvnesa ; bat her amiability and 
*iuiag nuoners, and, above all. the extraordinary 
mttDoi and ttuidemeu expressed in ber looks, 
mdcred ber very attractive. It is seldom that one 
MB du Bore than praise the face n( a king's muitrees. 
IM thi] singular creature was characterised by an 
otRiae, we miirht almost say a morbid delicacy 
ai EDolcsty. She really loved Lonis, and bore 
ka fdnr children, of whom two died in infancy ; 
kn sltboagb she and they received wealth and titles 
d bgncar. she remained always extremely sensible 
d (he diif^nce of their birth. When Madame de 
Mostespan became the rojral faronrite, she retired 
ate a Carmdite nunnery in Paris, where she took 
Ik nil in 1674. She died 6th June 171(1, after 
^riag ifrTL% more than 30 yean in penances and 
K&CViB austerities. 8he wrote a work entitled 
l>!taiimf sn- la Mitfrironit dt Diat (Paris. 16S0), 
d wluEh a oopy. dated 1688, with corrvetions by 
Bhmm, was dncoverod m the Lonvre in 1S5Z Both 
bn been edited I^ U. Kemame Cumut {Paris, 
MH). A ooQectioa of hm letters was pablished 

■ ITfl. 

UTATFK, JofUini KaHPiR, horn on the 15th 
Ssnstbet 1741 at Zilrich, was the son of a physi. 
aa. As a boy, he was by no means distinguished 
W Us talesU ; but in 1762, whilst yet a youth, he 
fm a signal proof of his energy and courage in 
Mnag f Lirwanl, alona with Heniy Fnaeli, to accuse 
At laadttigl Grebel of oppression and injustice, 
■drr which other* had groaned without duing to 
*^-Ti Ha early gained a high reputation by 
* •vlaiDt of poema, entitled Sduotmrwier (Bern, 
rtTi. His next publication was AuMndiUn in dte 
twigtait i3 vols. Zllr. 1766—1773), of which sevanl 
•Atioaa WOT soon called for. Ths tons of this work 

k that at hi^ idigioiis mthusiMia, iiuiigl«d with 

He filled in succession several ecde- 
siastical offices in his native dty, and finally, in 
1786, became minister of the chunJi of St Peter 
there. His powers of obnerration were veir keen, 
and his discrimination of charaoter most cldicate, 
and believing that he could discover much of men'a 
characters bom their countenances, he concluded 
that PhyaiogDomy might come tn be reckoned 
among tbe sciencca He laboured, therefore, to form 
a system of jihysiognomy, hoping thus to promote 
greatly the welfare of mankind, and at last he pub- 
lished the wivk to which he owes the chief part of hia 
celebrity, Phi/giOffiumturAm t'mgmrnlt lur Brfur- 
(Urunn drr JUtntdvnIxnninim anJ Meimelimliebe (4 
vols., Leip. and Wintcrth. 1775—1778). This work, 
which has often been reprinted and translated, ia 
written in an inflated style. It gave rise to much 
discnssion, and occasionea not a little display of wit 
and humour. L. himself appeon latterly to have 
been convinced that his system was fancifuL Bat 
he was of a highly imaginative temperament, anil 
the religious orthodiiiy which he flrmly retsiniid 
was incongruously combined with novel speculations 
and with supersbtioua notums. He was the choaeo 
spiritual sdviaer of nnny persons both in Switzer- 
land and Germany, with whom he maintaiued an 
unwearied corTeauondence. On his touts in Ger- 
many he receivoJ extraordinary marks of |>opular 
esteem and honour. When tbe French Revolution 
began, L. hailed it with joy ; but after the murder 
of tbe king, be regarded it with religious abhorrencBt 
In performing kind offices to some wounded pcisoua 
on the street at the capture of Zilrich by Massena, 
26tb September 1799, ho received a wound, irf the 
efiecta of which he died, after long Buffering Sd 
January 1801. 

LAVAUR, a town of France, in the department 
of Tarn, is situated on the left bank nf the Agout, 
20 miles north-east of Toulouse. Its manufacturei 
are cotton-yam, leather, and silk. Pop. 7330. 

LATENDEK (L«tand<da), a. genns of plants of 
the natural order Lahialie, having the stamens and 
style included witLin the tube of tbe corolla, the 
corolla two-lipped, ths up]>ec lip bilid, the lower 
trifid.-The Common L, or Narrow-leaved L. (i. 
BfTO or L. angutliMia), grows wild on ston^ moun- 
tains and hills in the south of £uri>i>e, and in more 
northern regions is very generally cultivated in 
gardens. It has a delightiul aromatic fragrance, 
and an aromatic bitter taste, and contains a great 
quantity of a volatile oil. nit of lavtaJer. Tbe 
whiile plant poestssea stimulant proi)ertiea, and n 
used in medicine, but particularly the epkn of the 
flowers, as a tonic, stomachic, nervous stimulant, 
Ac L. flowers are often put into wardrobes to keep 
away moths. They are much used in perfv\inery. 
O'd of L. ia procured by distillation of L. Bowers 
with water. It requires 70 11«. of Howers to yield 
I lb. of oiL It is ratlier lighter than water, pals 
yellow, very Snid, and very fragrant. Spirit of L. 
IS made by distilling L. flowers witb rectified spirit; 
h. voter, mat of tbe moat popolor of all perfumea. 
by dissolving oil of L. with smaller quantitieH of 
other volatile oils in rectified spint. L. is exten- 
sively cultivated for its flowers iu some ]>Iaces near 
London, and particulariy at Mitcham in Surrey, 
where more than SOO acres sre occupied by it, the 
light and sandy soil being eapecially suitable to it — 
BSOAS-UUVU) L. {L. taUfriiia or L. iptca] is also A 
native of the south of Europe, but is more tender 
than common lavender. It is also less fragrant, and 
the oil which it yields ia called Oil qf Spike, and 

- times eortign Oil ef Laoembr. Thia oil u 
by oainter* oo poroeJain, and in the prepwatiun 

sod by nam) 
f varniue*. 



\,AV BR, a name given to a number of kiadi c 
■n»-weeii, which »re ii»ed ar '- - ' !-"- ■» 

ptyra tHilj/arit >nd P. fact' 

Coit/rnrococ, and newly alliva u> uie genuii i> uu. 
Thew plants grow on rocbs and atones in (he aea, 
and are not ualrequent on the British shares. The; 
Dousiat at ■ very thin flat purpie frood. which ia not 
geJatinoUR. The frond of P. VKlgarU it wavy and 
undivided, that of P. laaniata (sometimes oatled 
Sloke) is dee|ily cleft, and haa the s^ments lobed 
and cut at the edgea. L. is stewed and brought 
to table na a luimy ; alao pickled and eaten with 
pepper, vinegar, and oil, or with lemon jtiic«. It is 
regarded as useful in scrofulous affection* and 
gUndular tunioiin, a property which it jirobably 
owes to the iodine which it D[)ntains.~The name oS 
Qkun L. is given to UIm latimima, a oommon 
Ma-weed of the British shores, the frond of whiob 
ia green, membranous, broad, flat, wavy, and some- 
tines inllated. It is bitterish, but ia often used 
ill the same way as the (rue L,, and iHwseasea 
umilar properties. 

LATI3H PERSOya See Ismvicnox. 

LAVOISIER, Antoihi LAiniEHT, the founder 
of the antiphlagistic or modem chemistry, was 
born in Paris, Aui^ist 1743, and devoted himself to 
Boientilic, and particularly to chemical studies, to 
obtuD the means of more fully proaecuting which, 
lie accepted, in 1TC9, the oHice of farmer-general. 
In 1768, he was made an academician ; in 1776, 
discovered a way i 
of gunpowder ; and 
in economica, and in the application of chemistry to 
agriculture. Availing himself of the discoveriee of 
Slack, Priestley, and Cavendish, and making many 
experiments and discoveries himself, he was led to 
connect the recently-discovemd gas, oiycen, with 
the phenomena of combuation and of acidity; and 
in 1783, he proved that water can be fortnod by 
biirniDg OKjrgen and hydrogen together, and that it 
can be decomposed into the same elementa. He and 
hia anodstea invented a new chemical nomencla- 
ture, adapted to the advanced state of the acience, 
which was very generally adopted. See CaEHiSTitv, 
and CamitAL t ,. _ 

Hay 179t. His principal work ia hia fraiU Klti 
(aire de Chimie (2 vola., Paris, 1789] ; but of couise 
all hia chemical worka are now interesting merely as 
marking the history of the acience. 

IjAW, in Theology, a term varionaly used. In the 
Bible, it often includes the whole of revelation, 
doctrinal aa well as preceptive ; but it is often also 
used, in a more restricted and somewhat conven- 
tional sense, to signify the books of Mosea, the whole 
Jewish scri]>turea being oompreheaded under the 
twofold designation of 'the law and the prapheta.' 
A very natural and common use of the term law ia 
to denote the preceptive part of revelation, in con- 
trailistincciun to the doctrinal, the one being desig- 
nated as tin laa, and the other *a iAx gotpd. Whan 
employed in scri]>tiire with exclouve referenoe to 
the preceptive part of revelation, the tern law 
■ometimes signlhes the Jewish oode of precept* aa 
to rite* and ceremonies, called by theologian* the 
CERuaNUL Law, and which is r^arded aa having 
been abrogated when the Jewish dispensation gave 
place to the Chiiatian. The oeremonial taw ia alao 
reg.inled as having in it* rites and ceremonies — ' a 
ahadow of flood thing* to oome' — symbolised the 
f(n»t doctrines which form the ayatem of Chris- 
tianity.— The MolUI. Law ia that preceptive reve- 
lation of the divine will irtiioh ib of perpetual 

and iinivenal obligation. It ia commonly rej^ardcd 
by theologians aa summed up in the Tn CimnimBii- 
mtnia ; and, according to cur Saviour's own «Ute- 
meot, aa still more liriefly and comprchentiTely 
Bumnied np in the two commandments of loving 
God with all our heart, and soul, and strength, ud 
mind, and loving nnr neichboura aa ounelvia 
Although the Teu Commandments were given to 
the Jews at Mount Sinai, it is not therefure held 
that they were intended fur the Jews alone, or wei« 
then first promulgated ; the moral law being 
regarded aa really the laui qfnaturt, written on th* 
h^irt of man at hia creation, nltboofib to fallrn mas 
a clear and express revelation of it haa tiecnms 
necessary. One of the chief contested jiointi in cm- 
nection with this subject is that of the XaliLath 
(g. V. ). Another relates to the law of natiue. and 
the value which ou:;bt to be practically a4Si;:Li>!il to 
the decisioQS of the judgmi'ot and conacicnce of 
mau. apart from exjireas revel atioo.— The ohli^alion 
of the mnral law on the coiiicicnces of Chrisliana ii 
admitted by all except Antinumiaua (q. v.). 

LAW has been variously defined. BlacWitoM 
says it means the rules of human ai-ticm or condni-t. 
This definition is too wiile. for it is conHm^l 'inly to 
such rules as courts, supjHirteil by ]iro[H-r ntitbnrity, 
will enforce. The law of nature consists of thuss 
law* which are common to all maukind. and an 
supposed to be, as nearly as can be conjectured, 
independent of the accidents of time and plac& Ths 
civil or municipal law of a nation ia wlLit it com- 
monly understood by the term law. when applied to 
a particular country, llie 'Civil Law' ia also some- 
times used par rxcrUntct to denote the old IloniaB 
Law aa emboilied in the iHttittitm of Justinian, the 
Code, and other part* of what is commnnly called 
the Corpiu Jum ClrHia. Many <if the Ic.vling 
'en a(ln[vted by mmlpni 
" itiy which 

doctrines of that law have been ai 

nations. England 

liaa adopted the least from that code of U<r. while 

Scotland follow* the c 

intinental n 
I the Roman or Civil Law to 
<□ many subjecta in adiiptin^ il 


larjje e 
entiivly. Tb* 

public Inter- 
Ernntional law. 

law of nations is sulKlivideil 
national Law {q. v.) and private ii 
or the eomiiat gentiain. Law ia oiteo uieii la 
England aa contradistinguished from equity, but 
this is chiefly doe to the accident^ circumstance 
that there ia a subdivision of courts into conrt* 
of law and equity, according to the nature of ih* 
remedy given. See JdRIkPKUDeNcB, iNTERNAiroNaL 
Law, Chahcirt. Law ia also oCtea in i>ni>alar 
parlance distinguished from justice, the latti^r fieiii| 
BUpiHiaed to be perfect in its natnre, or aa neir tlM 
standard of perfection as can be supposed ; whereM 
(here are numberless cases of injury, hnnlahi]!, and 
oppreaaion, which, owing to human inliimity. no 
system of human laws can adequately redress; 
and thi* is often adduced as contirmatioa of the 
doctrine of future rewards and punishmenta. La* 
ia also sometimes subdivided into criminal law, 
oonatitutioaal law, ka., according to the porttcular 

LAW, RqiiAR or Ctvn. See Law. 

LAW, WiuJAM, ao influential reliviona writer it 
last century, was born at Kiogscliffe, Northnmi>toa- 
shire, in 1686, and educated at Emmanne] Ccill^ 
CambridKB, where he took his degree at ti.k. ii 
1712. Ha was for some time tator to Eilvard 
Gibbon, father of ths historian, who apeak* of his 
pia^ and talents with nnnaiial warmth. Aboot 
1740, two of his friends, Miss Hester Gibbon, siatar 
of his pupil, and Mrs HutcheMO, widow of a London 
barrister, having resolved to retire from the worid. 
and devote thmnaelvas to worka of charity and k 



_» eotnnioDly calli_ __, „ 

ii nJDdnal work ta hi* Serion Call to a Oetoat 
•W Htlif Lift UT^I, ft baHw that tint awakeaed 
tW nligwoi •endbilitieB of Dr Johnson, who tpeoka 
d it in hi^ teniu, and bosa which the brothers 
Wed«T alao derived much »dT«itage. Next 
Bmo-u CM. hi* mort importaut worka ai 
Ahws Id Maodeville'* FahU of Hit Bea (published 
ITMi repabliahed, widi an introductioa bythe Ker. 
F. D. Uaorice. 1»14), hi* Letten to the Biahop of 
Buggr. ne Wag lo KaaaUdge, and The S/nril iff 
iwr. His e o lle ct ad woib wen uuhliahed (Lond. 

LAW, Jobs, oomptroner-general of the Snancea 
rf France, asd funoos for his credit aperabaiis 
iarmf the minority of Louis XV., was bom at 
Edinbur^ 21it April 1671. Hb father wu a 
pUanita and banker, and proprietor oE the estate 
d LaoriMon, near Edtabnrgh. L. early shewed a 
m^ remarkable talent for arithmetic, algebra, and 
kadrcd Bcienccs. After the death of his father, be j 
R»jT«d to London, where he was aibnitted into | 
ttc Gnt circles of fashion, but was soon comnellMl 
to li*. in conaequence of a duel id which he killed 
b nirvt^Tj. He went to Arastetdam, and spent 
ta tiaie in itadyiog the credit operatinns of the 
liuk. About the year ITOU, be rcturaed to Edin- 
W^b, a loalouB advocate of a |Ki]ii'r curreacy ; but 
b pnipoaai* to the Scottish mrltamvnt on '' ' 
■bjixt met «^tl> an anFavourahle rece|>tion. ^. 
k>w Tinted djflctrcDt parts of the continent, where 
it sccnmalated a large fortune by gambling, * ' 

vajhl in vain to win the favour of giiverouiL 

t> his banking schemes. At last, he settled in 
hh^ and in cain|Nui^ with his brother William, 
■1 ip, in 1716, a pnvate bank, which waa soon 
mtamifal and prosjiernna to inch on cxtmordinary 
ift^. that the Duke of Orleans, tho KeKei ' 
■Hitel, in I7IS, L's plan of a national bank, a 
■■wi prodizioaa quantities of bank-notes, which 
■ViTBu perfect creilit, whilst the ordinary' national 
kM nmALDcd, as they bad long been, at a price 
fv betow their nominal value. In IT19, L. onj^n- 
Red his ilit^uiippi Sdiemf (q. v.), and the following 
Joe WIS nude a Councillor of SLite and Comp- 
Wls-geotral of Finances; but on the failure of his 
i^SM. and the iosulvency of the nattunal bonk, ~ 
toiped tb* latter office, and thought it prudent 
^nt fnacc He proceeded first to Brussels, but 
AaiDj settled in Vonice, where he managed to eke 
HI 1 wr-t4:iied liTioj; by gambling, and died there 

a Maj I7'i9. A coroi>lete edition of his works 

rdliJied at Paris in 1790, and another in 134% 

LAWBUBBOWS, Lrrrus or, in Scotch Law, 
e of the sovereien, 
e •acnrity a^nst o^i^ 
^ '. Tbe person applying 

{ tbe letten most swear to the truth 
<< siia* eaaae of aUnn. sDch a* actual personal 
osbec or threats of Tiolencb Sometimes a wife 
■■f afiply for kiwbarniwi against a husband. The 
pnga agwat whom the Mten are directed, most 
w raalinn to kaep tbe peace within a certain 
M^xr al dajm spacified, and this he doe* by 
ascaliBg a bond at cantioD. If be, notwithttand- 
t mt viBieDce, an action of contraTestion of 
kwtaiiu ■ • may be taised agaioat him before 
FMeta ol the peace, And he ia fined in a sum 
iqnl ta the actaal damage leantting, whiok ia paid 
It Ik* party iojnied. An actkv lie* againat 

to what are called Artsdea of the Peace (q. t ) is 
En^Bod or Ireland. 

LAW-MBRCHANT. a name often •^ in !c<r 
to denote the customs which have giuwn op nuiutis 
merchant* in reference to mercantile docunu-nts and 
buaineas, such as bills of eichant^ biLs oF iadina 
Ac, These customs become incorporated with, and 
form part of, the common law, and are binding ■• 

LATPRENCE, a city of Mossochnsfits. US., on 

both side* of the Memmack River, 26 Diil<« from 

' mouth, and the same distance north oF BoetoiL 

is a handsome manufacturing city, with a park, 

and toiiDtaini sn[i]ilied from a reservciir 110 Feet 

high ; has 14 churches, 3 weekly new8pi»|ier«. aud 

cotton manotactorica employing a capitul oF 6 

millions of dollars. These are snp)>lie<l with water- 

rer by a granite dam across tbe Merrimack 

'er, 1629 feet long, and at the deepest iMrt 404 

feet high, which has created a basin 9 miles lonK 

'"' water is distributed to the mills by a eanul 

ile long, IWI feet wide, and 12 deep. The city 

has been entirely biult wiUlin a few years, and wa* 

incorporated in 1353. Pop in 180U, 17,639. 

LAWRENCE, Gdlt or Sr, a western inlet of th« 
Northern Atlautic, washes at once all tbe British 
provinces, projierlj' so called, of Korth America-- 
Newfound land, Cuiaila, New Brunswiek. Nova 
Scotia, and Prince Edward's IslaniL It has three 
communications with the ocean-tbe Strait of BeUe- 
iale, between Newfoundland and Labrador; the Gut 
of Oanso, between the island of Cape Breton and the 
peninsula of Nova Scotia ; and a far wider i>.issaga 
than either, with the inUnd of St Paul in the niiaiUi), 
between Ca]ie Breton and Newfoundland : while in 
tbe opposite direction it narrows, at the west end of 
Anticosti, into the estuary of the mighty river, to 
which, as far even aa its sources, it bas oRuluallj 
extended its own D.inie. Beeidea Anticost-. St Paul's, 
and Prince E>lward'«, already mentiuneJ, tliia arm 
of the sea contains very many cludtera of islanda, 
and, more particularly in it* southern haif, the 
Mudalens and the Birds ; these islands bein;;, one 
anil all, rendered more dangerous to ahippiug hf 
the thickness nf the fogs and the nncertunty of the 
currents. Tbe Gulf of St L. is celebrated for the 

does, the bnsiest thoroughfares of maritime trad* 
with one of the most extensive systems of inlaiid 
navigatiOD in the world. 

LAWRENCE, St, tbe river mentioned in the 
preceding article, constitutes by far the lareest body 
of fresh water in the world. Including the lake* 
and Btreama, which it comjirisea in its widest accep- 
tation, it covers, according to the lowest estimata, 
fully 73,000 square mUe* ; and aa nearly the whide 
of this area averages considerably m^ira tlian 000 
feet in de[ith, the a^cgrcgate cannot re]>resent less 
than 9000 solid miles— a mass of water which 
would take upwards of 40 years to |«nr over the 
Palls of Niagara, at tbe computed rate iif a inillicsi 
cubic feet in a second. As the entire basin of thia 
water-system falls short of 3U0,0OI) square mUoL 
the surface of the land ia only three tunes that of 

Thia mighty artery of North-east America rise*, 
nnder the naQia of the St Louis, on the spacioua 
plateau which sends forth also the MiisiHijipi 
towards the Uulf of Mexico, and the Red Kiver <tf 
tbe north towards Hudson's Bay— all tlirea bein^ 
aaid, in wet seasons, occasionally to mingle their 
floods Lake Superior, tbe next link in the chain, 
tind* it* way to Lake Horoo through the laiod 
of St Mary, which has been over«ooui by a uiif 


<MB>) oo tbe right, or Americui mda. Below Loka 
Hnron, which leceirea Lftke Michinn from tha 
•onth. the rirer St Clur, Lake 8t Clur, the nver 
Detroit and Lake Erie ztuintaia pnttj uearl; the 
ume level, till the river Niagara defends 3M feet 
to L^e Ontario, which is itself still 230 feet above 
■ea-level. From thii, the loit of the connected 
■eries of inland seat, issnes the St L. proper, vhich, 
with a few compnratively insij^ficaat eipansions, 
[Hcsenta the character Qnt of a river, and tben 
of an estuary, down to the gulf. Between Lake 
Ontarin and the city of Montreal, whiuh marki the 
head of the navif^tion, there are variaus cataract* 
or rapitU, which, besides having been gndiuJly 
ascertained to be mora or less practicable, may be 
all avoided by means of canals on the British side. 
At about two-thirds of the distance from Lake 
Ontario to the city of Montreal, the inteisection of 
the parallul of 45* determines the inint where the 
8t II, after having been an international bauadary 
from the head, or nearly so, of I-ake Superior, 
beoomcB exclusively Canadian. Jmmeiliatcly above 
the island of Montreal, the St L. is joined by its 
principal auxiliary, the Ottawa, from the north- 
west; and a little more than half-way between 
this confluence and Three Riverfl, the hi);liest point 
of tidal influence, the Richelieu or Sonil, from the 
■outh, brin^ in the tribute of Lake Champlain. At 
Quebec abiive which vessels of more than 600 tons 
can scarcely ascend, the river, aft«r a run of nearly 
400 mtlt's from l^ke Ontario, steadily widens into 
an estuary of about the same length. The entire 
length, including the chain of lakes, is aboat 2200 

Id connentioa with the improvement* on itself and 
its afUueuts, the St L. offers to sea-going ships the 
noblest system of inland navijiation in the world, 
embmcini; a caiitinuoos line of about SOOO miles ; 
ita advantaRea. however, are materially impaired by 
the severity of the climate, which binds it in the 
chains of winter at least five months in the year. 

LAWRENCE, St, the Deacon, one of the moirt 
ee1eWrat«d martyrs of the early church, the sub- 
ject of DiBoy ancient panei^rics, and of one of the 
moat elaborate of tha hymns of Pnidentiua He 
was one of the deacons of Rome, in the pontificate 
of Siitus L (3d c), and as such was especially 
charj^ed with tlie care of the poor, aod the orphans 
tuid widows. In the persecution of Valerian, being 
•ommoDcd, acconling to the legend, before the 
pnebir as a Chriiitian, and being c^Ded on to deliver 
up the treasures of the church, he mockingly pro- 
duced tlie |>oor and the sick of his charge, declaring 
that ' thuae were hia treasures ; ' and on his per- 
sisting in his refusal to sacriticc, being condemned 
to be ruMtcd on a gridiron, he continued through. 
«lit his tortures to mock his persecutnra. Many of 
tbe dettiils of hia martyrdom are probably due to 
the imn),H nation of tlie poetical narrator; but the 
nartynlooi is unqueationably historical, and dates 
from the yeai 23S. His feast is celebrated on the 
lOtb August. 

LAWRENCE, Sib TBoua, President of the 
Boyal Academy, was bom at Bristol in 1769, and 
■t the early age of ten year* entered on the pro- 
fession of a jKirtrait- painter in crayons, nt Oifonl, 
where he immediately obtained full employments 
There is an engraving which bears to have been 
'direuteil by I. K. Sherwin,' the celebrated engraver, 
of a |>artrait of the young artist ; it is dedicated in 
the following termi: 'To the nobility and gentry in 
general, and the university of Oifonl in particular, 
who have so liberally countenanced his pencil, 
tiiia portrait of Master Lawrence is insorilwd by 
their must devoted and most grateful servant, T. 

at Bath. June 18. 1783, along with a print 
of Mrs Siddons in the character of Zan. drawn 
by Master L,, and engraved by J. B. Smith. Tb* 
young artist next set op at Bath, where ha 
met with great encouragement ; and at the aga 
of eighteen, settled in London, and entered as • 
student of the Royal Academy, having a year 
previously taken to painting in oiL HTi succeaa 
was extraordinary; in 1791, before he attained th* 
ue requireil by the laws of the Academy, he wa« 
elected a supplemental associate by desire of th« 
king ; on Reynolds's death a year afterwards, was 
appointed limner to his majesty; was made » 
Royal Academician in 1798; knUhted in ISIS; and 
on Benjamin West's death in 1826, succe«led him 
as President of the Royal Academy. He dieil in 
London, 7th January 1830. L. was the favourite 
portrait. painter of his time, had an immense prac- 
tice, and obtained larger prices for his works thao 
were ever paid to any previous portrait-painter. 
His talent as a painter was doubttt'sa overnktvil 
during his life, but justice has scarcely been done 
to it of late years ; for his style, though in many 
respects meretricious, was greatly influeiieeil hy tha 
fashion and dress of the period, and in time to 
come, impressions of the principal characters who 
figured during the Regency, and in the reign t.f 
George IV., will be taken mainly from liia works. 
His portraits in the Waterloo Gollerv at Windsor 
are of the greatest value as historical moniunenta. 
He was a man of great urbanity and fine tasl«, 
and left at his death a most valuable collirctton of 
drawings by the old masters, now unrnrtimatilj 
broken up. See the Li/t and CorraponiUnt^ of Sir 
T. Z.OHTr™«,byWilIiama (1831), and Cunningham'* 
Live» 0/Briluh Painltrs (183.1). 

LAWRENCE, lUcKT Honookabli Sm Jowit 
Laiku-Maiu, Bart, Indian statesman, is yono^ier 
son of Lieutenant-colonel Alexander Lawrence, who 
served in the Mysore campaign, and at the capture of 
Seringapatam. Bom at Kichmond, Yorkshire, 1SI1, 
he obtamed, in 1827, a presentation to Haileybury 
(Dullege, where he earned off the chief prizes fur 
law, oriental languages, &c His first years in the 
Indian civil service were spent in Delhi and the 
neighbourhood. Un the annexation of the Punjab^ 
consequent upon the treacherous rebellion of the 
Sikhs. L. was appointed commissioner, and after* 
wards lieutenant-governor of the Punjab. Hia 
administratioD was marked by rani talenta, and 
rewardei) by brilliant success. When the Indian 
mutiny broke out, bis great qualities and forea 
of character proved the main stay of the British 
dominion in India. The once restless Sikhs had 
become to attached to his firm, equitable, and brna- 
floent rule, tliat L. was enabled to send troops tu tlM 
relief of Delhi, ftc So timely was this sucoour, and 
so great was his foresight, that he was styled, with 
a periiaps pardonable eiageeration, ' tha savionr of 
India.' On his return to England, h> reoeiml the 
order of O.C.R, tha thanks of parliament, with tha 
grant of a pension of £1000 a year, the freedom of 
London, Glasgow, Ae. Re was made a baronet and 
appointed a member of tha council of India in 18SH, 
and a privy. councillor in 1839. In 1861, wh«i tha 
order of the ' Star of India ' was instituted by tb* 
Queen, L. was nominated one of the kni^^ita 

His elder brother, Brigadiet^general Sib Hbttbt 
MoirrocKERV Lawbknce. bom in 1808, wm cbi^ 
commissioner of Lncknow, and virtually goTeraur 
of Oude when the Indian mutiny broke ont. While 
in command of the handful oF hernio man wlu 
defended the womsn and children in the Beaideocy 
of Lncknow, Sir Henry was wonnderi by tl.a expln. 
don of • shell, and died July 4, 18fi7. Ha Ym tb 

a by Google 


fcMikrof the L^wranoe Asfhaa, for Uh recaption 
4 tU children of tba Enropeoii (oldiere id ladia. 
A aoaoiiMot to hii memoiy bM been placed m St 

UV-TBBH8. The ninil laT-ternu io England 
pd Irdud mean tiioae penodi of the year daring 
«Ueb Ibe b*-eoarta sit in banc or in full court to dia- 
^of boiinesa. These are of ancient orii^n, and are 
■Dw fiial bj (tatate aa follows : HiUuy tenn begii 
JoDuy 11, enila 3Ist Jtnnaiy ; BaatCT term b«^i 
lfnllS,aHUBthMaj; Tiinity term begins May 22, 
■a lAb June ; Micboelmis term begins fi'oTembnr 
tmbJStb November. Though tbo courts always 
d at those ^rioda, yet they havs » power of 
■BQDtia^ sitaags after term also, which power is 
mjt eierciaea for the despatch of arrears of 
Inaoi, And the judg^ also practically sit nearly 
il Ac jrar round, diipusiog of ousineBs of one kind 
V umtlicr, except in the long vacation, which 
fOaih from lOtb Auguit (o 24th October. Bat 
tnt dsring that period also, one Or more judges 
illnJ to pmomi incidental bosinen : and it is only 
far MM nupOMB, and for some kinds of business, 
Ibt the long racatioa acts a» ■ suspennon of 

Id Scotland, the law-terms are diOiFrently arranged. 
Tit Cocnt of Sesnon sits from 12th Nuvember to 
Xa March, and from 12tb May to 20th July. But 
ftn also the jodf^ea are employed in other business 
bnigthe intervals. 

li to tin quarter-days niual between landlord 
nj lEoaat, see Laudlobd and TKHurr. 

UWTER, in the Cnit«d Kingdom, ii not a 
bckoieil term of Inw, btit a popular name given to 
tee who are either practitioners of the law or 
^jnately connected with its adminiatration. In 
Gmt Bntain and Ireland, lawyen are subdivided 
alo hro cUascfl. See AtrosKKva and SoLicrrosa, 
BuESTKBa, Adtocatb. In the Doited States of 
Aainca, an attorney acta as counsel, and vice 
•nl. there being no mmilar aubdiviuoa of the 
nlamaa, and the expediency of the suhdiTieion 
■M ettea been canvaMed in the United Kingdom 

mi politician, waa bom at Pari* 
iiWiwI for the law,bat findil^ the profession little 
•Mpsial to hia tastea, ha aet out un. a course of 
aiten Invd, visited several diatricta of Aaiatio 
Tiaby, and beoame familiar with the manners and 
'iilecli of Poain and Ar»bU. On his first journey 
■bet the fawika of the Ti^ria, in 1840, ha waa 
■n^ with tha niiiia at Nimrud— a village near 

<i>T of Hineveh — and felt an irretistible desire 
1> (sisnae the mnaina of the ' birthplace of the 
vbLbi of tha we«t' In 1842, M. Botta, the French 

■Uiaa* at that place, and L. returning to the 
f^Bt, ^^ direotod his attention to Nimrud. It 
*M lUS before he ooold obtain the requisite meana 
■d tiHitifi for hia aearch, and he then, with the 
Up «i sooie AralM^ beeaa aeoiatly to dig id the 
Biad sng^naed to oontain the ruins. Ue soon 
3«t ^lon BoiBa aeiilptarsd remains, and became 
nrinxdthathahadtoaohedariohveinof ardueo- 

Ktnasara. Hia exoavations were resumed in 
lad 1847, and hia energy aod perseverance 
««s lewaided fay the disooverj (rf the ground 
nasios ti foor distinct palatial ediSceo. The walla 
U baa liasd with large alaba of gypaum or 
■hbsstcr, oorered with Ma-reliefs and cuneiform 
MTiptiut. Many of theae w«re aent to Elngland 
H L, tnpithfir wiui gigutic-winged human-headed 

bnlls and liona, and eagle-headed deities They 

were placed in the British Musenm, of which they 
have since renuiined the chief attraction. L. at fint 
conducted his search at his own expense ; he wa« ' 
in l»45, liberally assisted by Lord Stratford de Bed- 
diffe, then British ambasssdor in Coastantinople ; 
and eventually, as the value of these specimens of 
' Aaayriao art began to be known, the Hqiibc of Com- 
! mons voted a sum of £3000, which waa applied by 
I the truateea of the British Musenm, in continuing 
the excavations under L.'s superintendenue. On his 
return to England, he pubbshed a nBrrBtive of bis 
, explorations, noder the title of HiiunxA, and it* 
Remttint, and another work entitled MonuTneaU o/ 
Nineetk. He was presented with the freedom of 
the city of London, received the honour of D.C. L. 
from the university of Oxford, and was Iiord Rector 
of Aberdeen university in 1865—1356. Having 
determined to devote himself to a political career, 
he became, in 1S52, M.P. for Aylesbury, but lost bis 
seat in \SS1. Ha visited the Crimea during the 
Russian war, and went to India after the mutiny. 
In 1861), he again entered the House of Commooa 
aa member for Soutbwark. In 1S61, he was 
appointed Doder-Secretary of State for Foreign 
Affain in the Palioerston govenUDeat This post 
he continues (1363) to liU. 

LATINO, or LAYERmO, a mode of propagat- 
via trees, abmha, and perennial herbaceooa plant^ 
which is very frequently employed by gardenera and 
nurserymea. It consists in bending and fastening a 
branch, so that a portion of it is imlMKlded in earth, 
there to throw out roots, the extremity being made 
to grow erect in order to form a new plant. The 
sepaiation from the parent (dant is not effected till 
the layer is snffidently provided with roots. Any 
injury which prevents the free return of the sap 
greatly promotes the formation of roota, and a notcn 
IS therefore nsaally made in one side of the branch, 
at the place whsre the formation of roots is desired ; 
it is obo ofttm a little split up from the notch ; 
and somelimea a ring of bark ia cut off, or a wire 
is twisted round it. The time which must elapse 
before the layer should be separated from Vta 
parent plant is very variouB ; a few months being 
sufficient fur some, and two years requisite for 
othera. Many plants wbioh can be propagated by 
cuttings are mure easily and auccesafully propagated 
by layers. 

LA'TTTLITB, or AZDRITE, a mineral Ions 
confounded with Lapis Lazuli (q. v.), but althongn 
somewhat siniUar in colour, very different in com- 
position 1 consisting chiefly of pboa^horic acid and 
olnmioa, with ma^eaia and protoxide of iron. It 
occurs imbedded in quartz, or io tiisares in clay> 
slate, in Styria, Nortb Carolina, Brazil, ftc. 

LAZZABCNI, a name said to be derived from 
that of Lazarus in the parable, and, until lately, 
desiffnatinff a particular class of the inhabitants of 
Najuea. They had no fixed habitations, regular 
occupation, or secure means of subsistence, bnt 
occasionally obtained employment aa messengers, 
porten, boatmen, itinerant vendors of food, Ac. 
They have performed an important part in all the 
levolntions and movements in Naples for a long 
period, and in recent times have allied them- 
selves to the cause of despotism. They were wont 
annually to elect a chief {Capo Lazzaro], who waa 
formally recognised by tiie Neapobtoa government, 
and who eierciaed an ertraordiuaiy power over 
them. Of lata, they have lost many of their pecu- 
liarities, have come more within the pale of civil- 
isation, and, in fact, are no longer recognised as a 
separate olaaa, thon^ the name la still given to the 
btutmen and fiahermen of the city, who ore really 


ti)« moat indoitriooi mnd bcst-priudpled of tlia ! 
Nupolitui popnlBoe. I 

LB, tbe e>inUl of Lwlakh. or Middle Tibet, on 
tbe right bank oE the Upper Indus, in kt. 34° 10' N., I 
uid Jong. 77° W £., At BD elevfttion uf more than , 
lO.OOO Feet above the tea. Tbe populatioD is about 
4000. The place is a main tnlrepSl between Chinese 
Tartary and the Punjab, bein^ more esneciolly the 
grand mart for the famoiia shairl-wool of Tibet. I 

like an elongatvd clook-ireight, attached to ■ line of 
about 20 fathoma. Tbe lower part of the lead-ig 
■cooiied out, and filled with tallow, that portions of 
the bottom may adhere. The dtep-Ka iiad weight 
from 25 to 30 Iba., and is attached to a line of far 
gr«st«r length. 

LEAD (symb. Fb., equiv. 1037. apec irav. 11-4] 
is a liluish-white metal of considerable brilliancy, 
whiuh scion disappears on expoaure to the air, owing 
to the formation of ■ thin film of oxide. It is ao 
•oft that it may be readily cut with a knife, or may 
be made to take impreaaions. and it leaves a streak 
Qpon paper. It may be cut or beaten into thin 
sheets, but in ductiRty and teoacity it is low in 
tbe scale of metals. It is readily fusible at a 
temperature of about 626*. and at a higher teinper- 
atnre it abaorba oxyjien rapidly from the Mr, and 
the oxide thus formed volatilises in the form of 
vbite fumea. 

The combined action of air and water on load is 
a subject of great practical importauce, in oonse- 
quence of the metal beinf( ao frequently employed 
ID the cnnstmction of cisterns and watei^pipea. 
The lead becomes oxidised at the surface, and the 
water dissolves tbe oxide ; this solution absorbs the 
carbonic acid of the atmosphere. ■ film of hydiated 
oxycarbonate of lead (PbO.HO + PbO.CO,) is 
deposited in silky scales, and a fresh portion of 
oxide of lead is farmed and dissolved, and in this 
way a rapid corrosion of the metal ensues. This 
action is materially increased by the presence of some 
salts, and diminished by the presence of other sslts 
in the water. It is much iDcreaaed by the occur- 
rence of chlorides (which, as chloride of sodium, 
is often present in spring water), and of nitixtes 
aad nitrites (which are often present in spring and 
river waters, from the decomposition of organic 
matter) ; while it is dimiaished by the sulphates, 
phosphates, and carbonates, and eapecially by 
carbonate of lime, which Is an extremely conmioa 
im]nihty in Spring water. In the latter case, a 
film «( insoluble carbonate of lead is rapidly 
formed on the sniface, and the metal beneath is 
thus protected from the action of the water. If. 
however, the water contain much carbonic acid, 
Uie carbonate of lead may be dissolved, and con- 
aiderins the dangeia that ariae from Uie use of 
water impregnate with lead, ciat«rms constructed 
of slate are far preferable to l^vlen ones. 

Pnre lead tl of very rare occnrrence. Almoat 
■11 tbe lead of commerce is obtained from Galena. 

obtained on a large acale b^ the oxidation of lead 
' in a current of air, when it foms a scaly maaa nf 

a yellow or reddish tinb If tJie oxidation ba 
effected at a temjierature below that required for 
the fusion of oxide, a yellow powder, termed 
AtnmirBt, is obtained. Litharge is much used by 
the assayer (see Asaiv) as a ftui ; it enters largely 
into the composition of the glase of common 
earthenware, and it is employed in pharmacy in 
the pn^paration of plsste™. A mixture of I part 
of massicot with 10 of brickdusi^ made into a 
paste with Iiaseed.oil, forms the compound known 
as Dhit Toailie, which, from the hardness with which 
it sets, is frequently employed to repair defects in 
stone-foci nga. 

The must important of the salts oF the protoxiile 
of lead ore— 1. The earbonaU (PbO.CO,). which 
occurs native as a beautiful mineral in tran>]«rvnt 
needles or fibrous roosoea, and which is prejareil 
under the name of wAiie lead on a larae scale aa s 
pimnent by a ]iroeesB to be Bubseiiuently descrilieil 

early pure, and to ohtain it prrfialy pure, it 
■hould be rnluced with black flux from the oxide 
left by igniting the pure nitrate or carbonate. 

The compounds of lead with oxygen are fonr in 
nnniber—viz., a aub-oxide, Pb,0, which is a black 
powder of no importance ; a protoxide, PbO, which 
U tbe base of the ordinary salts of tbe metal ; a 
tdnoxide, PbO, ; and red lead, which is a com- 
pound of the two last-named oxides, and is naually 
repreKuted by the formula 2PbO,PbO.. The 
14T>toxid« ia oonmionly' known as LiUiartfe, It is 

largely charged with carbonic . . 

blackened by ex[riieure to hydrosulphunc tu'iil 
(sulphuretted hydrogen), either in the form uf gaa 
or m solution, and this is a aerinus drawhack to 
the use of the lead salts as pigments. 2. The 
tulphate (PbO.SO,). which occura native in Vrlitta 
prismatic crystals, ar)d is formed as a heavy white 
precipitate on addina sulphuric acid or a aoluble 
snlphate to a sohibie lead aalL 3. The nitrate 
(PbO,NU,). which U formed by dissolving Ifod or 
its protoxide in dilute nitric acid. i. The dirttmnlet, 
of which the princijxil are the neutral chromate or 
chrome ytllaw (PI.0,GrO,), and the dichnimate or 
orange c^mrv. These are much used as pii^mcnta, 
and in calico-dyeing, fi. The acebrle*. Tlie ordinary 
or neutral acetate (Pli0,C,H,O, + 3aq.) is pre- 
pared on a large scale by the solution of lithanie 
in distmed vinegar, nnd evaporation, when the Bait 
ia obtained in four-aided prisms, or more eommnnlv 
in a moss of confused minute white crystals, whicb 
at 212 lose their water of crystallisation. Fnim its 
apjiearauce, and from its sweetish taste, it derives 
Its common name of fiuiar of Irad, It is mnch uwi 
both in medicine and in tbe arts. Basic acetate of 
lead, reg.irded by some chemists aa a diacetate, and 
by othera as a triacetate, and commonly kniiwn as 
OoulanCt Kxlract, is prepared by boiling a snlntion 
of sugar of lead with litharge, and adding alt-ohol. 
when tbe salt separatee lu minute transjiarent 
needles. It is tbe active ingredient of tfoWnnl 
Water, which is imitate.1 by the Li<rw>r Phimbi 
DiacetatU Dilutw9, and of Ooviard'e Vera'e, which 
ia imitated by the Ciratum PlimM Compomtum of 
tbe tiondon Pbarmacopceia. 

The beat tests for solutions of tbe sdta of lead 
are the formation of a black solphide with hydro- 
sulphuric acid or hydrosnlphate of ammonia, 
insoluble in an excess of the reagent; of a white 
insoluble sulphate with aniphuric acid, at a Hdnble 
snlphate ; of a yellow chromate with chromate of 
potash 1 and a yellow iodide with iodide of 
potassium. All the solta of lead, insokble in 
water, are soluble in a Solution of potash. Befnn 
the blow-pi|ie on charcoal, the aal^ of lead vielii 
a soft white bead of tbe metal, anmnuided by a 
yellow ring of oxide. 

/ts (ue In ifedtciise.— The most important com- 
pound of lead in the materia medic* is the arrlaH 
of lead, which is administered internally a* an 
astringent and as a sedative. It is of serrie.- as 
an astringent, especially in combination with opium, 
in csaea ol mild fei^lisb cholera, and even of Aaiatic 
cholera, and in vanoos forma of diairhria. It will 
frequently cheek tbe ponilant exx>ectarati( o ia 

a by Google 



MM Mr H. Pkttinton nf Newcutle^D-Tyne. It 
ootuUtiiii mdtlng the lud, and allowing it to oool 
■lowly, dt the umc time briskly itirriuj; the melted 
nuu. A portion of the lead ii thni nude to crys- 
talliie in anull gnina, irhich, u pore lead loUditire 
>t ■ lower tempentura than when alloyed with 
■ilver, iearM the nncrjetallised portion rioher in 
ailver, Inthii operatioD, a row of. uj,nine cait-iron 
pot* are used sunilar to the one dicwn in fig. 3. 
They ani usually about 6 [eet in diameter, and each 
heated with a Rre below. The lead from the smelt- 
ing famace ii treated ai abnve in the middle pot. 
from which the poorer cryetalliied portion is ladled 
with a sUmiaer into the linit pot on tbe right, and 
the richer poition, which remaine liquid, ia remoTnl 
to the first pat on the left With both kinds, the 
proceMis several times repeated — the one becomina 
poorer, and the other richer in silver even' time, till 
the lead in the pot on the extreme right haa had it* 
tilver almost entirety removed, and that in tbe pot 
on the extreme left oontaina about 3lK) ounces of 
silver to the ton. The silver is then obtained from 
this rich lead by melting it on a flat bone ash cupel, 
placed in a reverberatory furnace, and exposing it to 
a current of air which reduces the lead to the oxide 
or lilkarge of commerce, leaving the silver on tbe 
OupeL Nearly )>00,000 ounces of silver are in tbis 
way annnally separated from British lead, the latter 
at the ssme time being improved in quality. 

Lead is an important metal in the arts. BoUed 
out into sheets, it is largely used for rooUnc houses, 
for water-ciatema, and for water-pipes. It is also 
of great service in the construction of large chambers 
for the manufacture of Buljihnnc acid. Its value for 
the manufacture of shot is well known. Alloyed 
with antimony, Ac, it ia largely cfiasnmed for type- 
metal, and with tin for solder. Muoh lead is also 
reqnired for the manufacture of pewter, Britaimia 
metal, &c See Allot. 

Of tbe com)iaun<U of le^ other than alloys which 
occur largely in commerce, the following an the 
principal : 

WhiU Lead or Cdrbonale of Lrad, a substanoe 
very extensively used as white paint, and ^so to 
form a body for other cobun in painting. As much 
aa 16,000 tons of it an aimuolly made m England. 
White lead is atill largely made by tbe old Dutch 
process, which conaists m treating metallic lead, cast 
la the form of stars or gratings, in such a way aa to 
facilitate the alaoqition of carbunio acid. These 
stars of lend placed in earthenware vessels, like 
flower-pots, containing a little weak acetic acid, are 
built up in tiers in the form of a stack, and sur- 
rounded with spent tan or horse-dung. Hie heat 
given out from Uie dung volatilises tbe acid, which, 
■long with the air, oiidises the lead. The acetic 
■cid changes the oxide into the acetate of lead, and 
this is, in turn, converted into the carbonate by the 
carbonic acid siven off from the hotbed. By this 
proces!!, metallic lead requires from six to eight 
weeks for its conversion into white lead. Soma 
new and more rapid modea have been introduced 
for the preparation of this material from Iithaif{e, 
and also from acetate of lead, by exposing them to 
a current of carbonic acid gas. but the white lead 
so manufactured is inferior in opacity. 

Minium, /fed Lrad, or Red Oiufe qf Lead, h 
much consumed in the manufacture of ftint-^aas 
and porcelain, and to some extent as a pigmenL It 
requires to be made of very piire lead, as a slight trace 
of copper would impart a colour to glass. Minium 
is pre;>ared by heatmg mauicoi or protoxide of lead 
te a temperature of 600* F. in iron trsvs, in a rever- 
beratory furnace, carefully avoiding fusion. More 

..^1... — j.._ii__i i._j Slid aoonipound 

if lead ia fonned. 

having a bright red oolonr, which is tlw red )a>d of 
commerce.— XiUAafi;e has been already noticed. 

LBAB- POISON INO. Persons whose syataai 
becomes impregnated with lead, as, for eiamfde, 
painters, who are constantly handling whit« lead, or 
persons who for a length of time have been u s in g 
water charged with a lead-salt, exhibit a series of 
phenomena of lead or satamine poisoning. 

The early ^enomena, which constitnte what 
Tanqnerel dee Planches, the highest authority on thia 
subject, terms priniilhie anturntne inloxivatien, are, 
(1|, a narrow hina tine, due to tbe prcsance of lul* 
phide of lead, on the margin of the gnms next tha 
teeth ; (2), a peculiar taste in the mouth, aad m 
peculiar odoor of the breath; (3), a jaandioed atata 
of the skin, with more or less emaciation ; (4), a 
depressed state of the circulation. 

These premonitory phenomena are foUowed. ttnleaa 
remedial meaus are adopted, by the four following 
forms of disease, each of which may exist alone, or 
may be oompiicated with one or mora of the others, 
or may follow tb« others, without, however, having 
any delinite order of snccesmon. 

1. Lead Couo, which is by far the moat frequent 
of the diseases. 

2. Lead Skvtiutisii or Akibraloia, which ia 
freqiiBncy ia next to colic. 

3. Lead Paut or Paralvsb, which may affect 
either motion or sensation, and is next in freqaeney. 

4. Disease or the Brain, which is the least 
common of all the forms of lead -poisoning, and >■ 
manifested by delirium, by coma, or by convulsions. 

Lead Colic is characterised by sharp continnous 
abdominal pains, which are nsnalljf duniniahed on 
presBOre ; by hardness and depreanion of the abdo- 
minal walla ; by obstinate cacstipatioo, slowne^ 
and hardness of the pulse, and general diaturbanoa 
of tlie system. The. blue line on the j^ma servea st 
onoe to diatingnish it from other vsrietiea of colic. 

diminished by pressure, increased by motion, am: 
accompanied by cramps, with hardness and tensioa; 
of the altected parta. It is distiaguiahed fromsimilAi 
affections by the blue line on the gums. 

Lead Pnify ia characterised by a loss of votnntsry 
power over certain muscles. It more cflmmoaly 
affects the upper than the lower extremity, and th« 
muscles moat frequently affected are those of tha 
ball of the thumb, and the extensors of the wiiat, 
giving rise to tbe condition represented in the figBl« 
aa wrM-Jnyik 

salts on the skin into the inert black aal[duda i 
lend. These baths shonld be repeated till they ces«« 
to oanse any coloration of the sk in. At the asois 
time, he should drink water acidulated with sol- 
phnrio acid, or a solution of sulphate of magnesia, 
with a alight •zossi of sulphuiia acid, by whiuh 



lead ii formed, 
e pnTgktiTe action of the 
cn^ of Bolplute of^ magnems. Iodide of potae- 
M^ m Uko adminiatend, whi<di acta by diseolviiig 
tki lead oat of the tiaaaea, and allolriiig it to be 
HMjTed by the orine. 
Th panj' maj be spemaUy treated, after the 
' ----- -' tlie lead, by electricity, and by 

ttioD to the riik 

■Tckniaa in misntQ doe 

■ tt the warm bath wiUi the lue id nilphi 

imtami' or tMBcda beer aeidolated with aulphnrio 

»ad.«a(innlc, th«y may ««cape the effeota of the 

LKADKK, the name given to the perfonDcr in an 
mhutii* who plsyi the pnnci|>al fint- violin. 

LEADISO NOTE (Fr. nola tiuibU), in Hosic, 
ii (HaDr tukderstood to mean the sharp sereath of 
tte ■*T'~i- acale, or the semitone below tbe octave, 
t> viiiii it lesds. The moat of the Oermaa theorists 
t*i« aanr telinqoiahed the term leading Date, as 
rwry Bote, when it is felt that another imme- 
liiMilj above or below it ahotdd follow, may be 
b1 to be > leading note. 

UADESO Q1TBSTION is a technical erprea- 
MB ia law to denote a qnertion *□ pat to a wilneaa 
■ la sugvst the answer that is deaind or expected. 
V^ ifa witness ia aaked : ' Wbb he dressed in a 

n' way of pattins the queation 
_. ed!' or, ' What kind of coat*' 

fe lie raje established in eourta of justice as to 
tte ccrrect practice in such matters, is, that when a 
lilsiss a exBomied in chief, i. a., by the party who 
iJiiHi I each wibina, lending qoeations are not 
tlmd. except in one or two raw caws ; whereas, 
■ha the witiuas is cToes-examined, L e., by the 
miaii^ p»rty, leading qnestions may be pot ; for 
it object is to nuke the witotss contradict and 
«dtifT hinuelf, » that the jury will disbelieve him. 
Tk aiiove mle, however, only applies to material 
T'nitiT. for in immaterial qnesUons leading qnee- 
^sa maj be pnt^ so aa to save time. 

lAAF-CUTTEB BEE, B Mine given to oertain 
ifiM* of tnlilary bee* (aee Bu) of the genera 
t imiil and Otmia, in ctmseqaenoe of their habit 

Qie pn^ier wi 

i Kbbc tkeir ocBta with portions of leaves, or 
pt^s ot flowera, whkh they cnt out for this pnrp 
MtgachOt eaiianaitarU, 

it for thispDrpoae 

I Bciti^ species, ns«s tbe leaves — oat the 
Mis— of roaea, Bttiog the piecva together so as to 
UB one thimble-shaped odl within another, in a 
^ cvHBdriol barrow, the bottom of each cell 
- ' '* f ai^ a little pollen paste. The 


i*^ a *en i^naikabte genm of orthoptetoD* 
Hrti, of th« binily Pkaimidtt (q. v.); naUves of 

he league 

tropical conntriei, having winga extremely likv 
leavea, not only in colour, but in the way in which 

they are ribbed and veined The joint* of the leg* 
are also expanded in a leaf-like manner. These 
insects spend their lives among leaves, move slowly, 
and would be much expcaed to every enemy, did 
not their leaf-like appeonutoe preserve them from 

LEAGUE (from tbe Lat. Uvea), a measure of 
length of great antii^oity. It was used bv the 
Romans, who derived it mm the Oauls, and esti- 
mated it as equivalent to 1500 Koman paces, or 
1'376 modern Englisb miles. Tbe league was intro- 
duced into Eogland by the Normanii, probably before 
tbe battle of Hasting <l06e), and hod been by this 
time lengthened to 2 English miles of that time, 
or 2X modem English miles. At tbe present day, 
the league is a nautical measure, andsignifies the 
20th put of a degree — L e., 3 geographicu miles, or 
3*406 statute miles. The French and other nation; 
use the same nantical lesigne, but the former nation 
hod (nntil the introduction of the metiicBl system) 
two land-measurea of the same name, the legal 
posting-leagne ^ 2'42 £ng. miles, and the lea~ 
of 2S to the degree, which a — "■" -'-'-'- ■"- - 

LEAOUE, the term genenJIy empl<:7^ in the 
16th and 17th oentoriea to designate a politvcal 
allianoe or coalition. The moat famous leagues were 
those of Cambray, Schmalkald, NUmberg, ftc But 
tbe name has a peculiar importance in the history 
of France, as appUed to the oppoution oi^anised by 
the Duke of Guise (q. v.) to the gi«ntmg of the 
free exercise of their religion and political rights to 
the Huguenots. This league, known as the Holy 
League (.Mature Llfjue), was formed at Fironne, iu 
IST^ for the mainteDance of the Roman Catholic 
religion in its pradominsince ; but the object of tbe 
Guises was rather to exclude the Protestant princea 
of the blood from the succession to the throne. 
For an account of the civil war that ensned, see 
Hehut III., Henby IV.. and Quisi. — See Mignet, 
ifi<totr« dt la Lif/iu! (S ToEs. Par. 1829). 

LEAKE, WiLUAH Mabtin, a lieutenant-oolonal 

the British army, and a traveller who hss contri- 
buted much to our knowledge of the ancient and 
modern geography, history, and antiquitiM of Oreece. 
He was bom >□ 1777, and died .January 6, 1S6U. 
With remarkable critical acoteneas and sonndnesi' 
of judgment, be comlnned great learning and an 
admirable power of clear itatemcmt. His principal 
Dntiuning the matured fruit of His obaer- 
ind studiea, are — JietranAeM Jo Orteee, kc 
(1814); TU Topoffrapky i^ Atitau, Ac (1821); 
Journal of a Tour in Atia Minor, leiA Comparatitt 
Remarkt on 1^ Ancirrtl and Modem Qeagraphy of 
Oiat Coaatru (IS24) ; TVnreli in Ms Morta (1830) ; 
TraveUin Norlhtm Greece (1S3S]; andA'uBn'fnufua 
HtUmiea (18M). 

LEA'HINCTON, a fashionable wntering-place 
in the ciiunty of Warwick, England, and one of the 
bandsomeet towns in the country, is beautifnily 
situated on the Loam, a tributaiy of the Avon, 
obout two miles from Warwick. It contains public 
gardens, a protirietarv college, erected in 1S47 in. 
Uie Tudor style, and other iustitutiona. In the 
centre of tbe town ia a Pump Boom, a handsome 
structure. L. is wholly of modem growth, having 
1 important only within the present oentury.. 
ineral waters are saline, sulphureous, and, 
eate. The watenag-season Issta from October- 
ly. The town stands in the centre of a tine- 
buntiug'^ountry, and ia much resorted to by lover* 

« chase. Pop. (1861) 17,908. 



LEAP'TRAR. » yvw of MS dayi («m Cauk- , Hm teno* ol MtiT u« Dmallj WUtMa^r * 
HAM), » cUUd bHiwiaB it Wp* torwud » da; •■ MvtiBaui^ vbioh requre tht difltnnk ini^i 
omopaiml vitli wa ontiui? fur. It k> bapfMM mmU in Uw tarn* nt Umn. In dTawiaa sp Ik* 
tlwt Um laap-TCftn cmnddK *ith tba jtmis tbM an \ th« moM expniesoad hraen of tlwir rmntii 
diruibli- bj tear, tad tkoi they (naj b* knovn. | dutricU ibould be eo— ultad. >ad the I hum taUKnl 
IH U>« jrrKTt oonclndtn); centarim, only rrurr fonitli < u (v u puuiUe. la CDCoara^ the (rae tfi|>licMin 
ii k Inp-you'. bcxinnini with WllO, which u ' of cspitftl to Uod. mod at the aame tiaw to ■tbmI tb 
diviable by Am, m ia >lao 34U0, Ac The tcnn . di^nontioo o( the ImmI at the emry nf tb* t^m. 
Bittililr. afiplifd by the Ronuw Is inp-jrmr, unee | Tbe f<>Ut>winK an ths neaal rf«nii» in aa i#i 
fma tbpir nckoaing tbe 6tli bf f"n Um Kalendi uf ' coHnnl leue : vit. — I. IjUMUord Icta land* (pfnlM 
Uarch l^tb KebnuTTl twK« (iw), wbmai we hU : for tenn erf rean, exclodiug tmigarra and mk 
* day to tbB Bd of t^ BoaUi, rnakios tha 29th of i tcunta X. Kiwtvm Dunea. *c^ witb pnw« t 
Pebrauy. | work them ; jiover to rxeamh. plank ahn •* 

LKA»B a the eovtraet ertahluhiBg the relation i"^" loaiU, hunt, ahoot and 6A, cnt and lan; 
brtwwi Laadloid and TenaiK iq. r.l. If tbe term ' "'™J »»«* '•» P^ o* '•'^ '<* buildup fmir-mt 
el yHn ia mm than thru*, thra il not be by I """pB-t farm. Ac W hen piercw oi rwtraln 
dsnl undrr •ntl in EnicUnd, or by writtoc ia Soot- | <»«»• anriaoe damage, tbia to be \*m1 Ut. 1 
land, if fof mm than one yrmr. An impr.ifinK Inae , Hauae of wamadice. 4. AMiRnatiMi to .Jli^b m 
- -t-T the \nmn acrw-a to keri. the [ntiikKa •» p™vi,>ua bpoant to Imto prvmian in ordrr, 4 

■^ J-.-.1- — .„ idditiooa] bnnaea and faftn 

..ition on teoaot to )«y m 
I appcitird at two t^rma. ft. Ta maintain aad Inn 
■ to UmM* holdinR land I '«■>*'** >" K<><^ npair. 7. Tci inaun bcxun b-ux 
ima uie owncn. naa ottB tnml in Sontlaod damaco by fire. 8. 0>ppin« duue rr-juUuai 
(or BUT* than a oentary. To thia ia. bo d.mbt. cultivation of landa, aod manner m wh»* tb^ 
to be aH-nbnl, to a gr««t eztnit, the rapid pro- "* *<> b* l»ft ; and alao diipoaal ot wayj^iuw ff^ 
ETtu wbirb impmremmU in fanninji hare n*do '""''™' f»"™-'""k, Ac, ». ArbatnUm dauat la 
IP the n.«b wilhrn that period. The lenfcth o( , •etUanent o( diapulea, Itt Uljinaikxi hi imt 
l«aaF« in So.Uaod i* coomoalr niwt«n yean. M •«pi™t">n ol leaee. II. Geiwrel^abTy .Ua* 
RBCCoUy. in paatunU fanna. where no nitatiiH al ■ '*■ Llauae of re^iatrati.JO. And 13. Trrtiim -Uiw 
CTOM ia MmniiT.1, and no anUtantial itnprnrnDenI I "™T !*»» I*" "" "»» pe^;uliaT Jctaili lo trl.r 
ci|wct4>l, ihort Lam of erTrn or ten jTa« bare "x» »" dr»m»«e, buuaea, and crupiPinit UTirti J 
OMBO into nae. What wo b^ve to n.-tice in paru- ■ ''"'"t entera withoat payiofl fur the Mmw .■ 
cuUr. ia the oommon aBTifTiltoral leaae o( unetwn ' «»»nure, it ia called ' ateelbow. awl he n<>-itH * 
y.«», wbich funna the jrroat ha»» of rural pn* »alii* furllwa^ when he loavo* (Xruun.Uli. mti 
perity. Purinn the carrrncy of thie apfnre of leaae. 1 »" P*^ whully or in part by the cnmnt pn ' ■■ 
the Ij^nant baa in a gn^t mManr* tbe aocnatniUeil K™">- • quantity of grain bring IUe.1, c.nv. n. - 
paMn»i.« al the land, and thia leo)rthriK<l term ! »* "» "«■"?* market price of tho t^atoa. a> .l-ui 
eaal>lM bio to rt»p the beuefita of impri>ir<'ni'-aU ur ' "^'^ by a jury before tbe •benff m a curt .»..-- 
money expended. LcuM oo the SMtch iVftem are the Kian Court. In eooaeuueooe of the ptwi* um 
BOW becomins amre Rnipral both in Eauland and "> "bich Scotch leaace are drawn op. dia|>ute< vr ., 
Ireland. No d.>ul< bol'lLnfi land from year to year | "" ocnuTeooe. It will, td cuurw, be uo.It^» 
haa wroujtht well to aome parU o( Enalaod. when I that aiKb leaaea can only be brvu^ht mto opff*!. i 
brge oapitala an inroted in tbe land by tenaaU ] *here Undlordi are able and willinit to put l*rtb 
who hmn w> othtr nenrilT than tbe enod faith thuruu^bly in order for the tenant, and r^— • ■ 

eelinc bel 

■ and lan-ri-rla la | ti^iunt p»aaL-»ea aufficient capital to work thr fan 
' tntai^eiHuly. 

, however, tha ly te ai ct 

a aad jfeniai of farming. A Itaae aboald I LEASE avd RELBASB. an 
be dearly atid ooociaely written, *o that the tenna ' mnrL'yani-e of land fonnerly much naod in Ec^tiM 
May ba well nbdarelind by both partiea. and all I but now anpenrded by atirant. 
dinateaatitB<-i«rya*<«M. TVerop|,n« daoaea LEASEHOLD. A leaaehold wtata i* mmir A 
rf(aa««»ar7 with the localiuea. In the nrinhhoor- j„trr«t or property which a man haa wh.' h Mi 
hood of town*, tbe tmant la aaiially allcwnl to aril I [^ue ; and be u alw ■umrlimea called a IravK 4dri 
llHwbnle pnNlaea,indiidia(theatraw.but iabonnl i IraMbold tMato ia of much im tlun 
to bring back maonre to mUe up tbe waate. In (r«boU eaUto, for a Wae mult »mr t.-w < 
inlaad pacta, as tbe other hand, where tbe aeUintc other oi>iae to an end, wheiraa a fre. h<>td nUt* i 
o( tbe itraw year after year miiibt imponnah tbe held by a man and hia hetr* Inr c*er -tbat i*. oet 
■otUit iaenabiimarytonwtrictti-uBtarmcnandnuui. he or they chooaa to part with it See Lxyuvot 
It ia alao oomana to debar tenanta from •ellinH ,^p TiHt^rr. 

taimpa B.^ tW cUuae. cannot b. moaiderod I jj^^^i [^ FJcflnrj. the thonr o* Wathw » 
a* any har.Uh,|. to .mprorine tenanU. The n^nx .^^^.i, , i^,^ ;, ,„|^" ,j^ .^^ j„ „^^,^ 

reab^cted. In the beat arable diatrtrta, tenanU I „_, : ... „ „:rt_4;__ ;. ll_i.iJ„^^ 
art often tmind not to take two wh.te crop* ia I "^ '" '"'"' ■>«""»<•*»« ■» H<TaWr7. 
waeaemtm. Tbia ia. perham, a pud en.iuiih nile t« { LEAfliyO-MAKIIlO, b Bcntch Law. m« 
b aDfdMd to Uj(bt laaUbut in other ca»« bari-v ae.lilioua worda, which conatitutad an (Aa 
misht ba aOowed to be taken after wheat. All puniabalJe with death by ancient atatntn of M 
brmfn abaald be alliwed to gmw pea«! to a certain i "" l**^ The pnuahmaot waa aflarwarda mitojak 
•itcot, bat not more than the twentieth part of ' *<> >■■■<■ ^d unpnaunment, or buth, at tha diacnlM 
lb* lawl ander nvnlar cnltaTatica. 1^ rmppiDR i "^ tha amrt, 

elaaw« abuold ba trnmsl in accurdama with tbe j LEATHER cowiata iimiiiliallj of tba *k M 
na prrTaihoji la the nrii;bbi>arbaiid. Whaterer < animala chroiintlly alterad by the renetalilr (al 
are, they ahoold ba d-srly drfioad. No nuJi aple callnl Taarnn. or Tannic Acid (q. r.l. ao m I 

■yalaaaa prrTaihoji la the nrii;bbi>arbaiid. Whaterer < animala chroiintlly alterad by the renetalilr (at 
I III— are, they ahoold ba d-srly drfioad. No nuJi aple callnl Taarnn. or Tannic Acid (q. r.l. ~ ' 

' (afmiajt aocnrdina to tha lolaa of (ood amat that pniDeneaa to dtoimpoae which ■ 

'' abnold be altowed. aa tb« ia apt to lewl ' tenatw of airft animal nbatanoaa. Ito mriBM 
^Maant U d«tinin( wfeM lb«* ralaa h^ | leKbaa bayood tha d>*a of bmtjiy. «ml i 



tbM mncli lev time inffiosi j aiid nutciula an nim 
tu«d which act to much more qnicUy than oak- 
bat^ klorie, that area if the old proceaa ia nasd, ii 
ia givatljr accelerated. The moat naeful of Uieae 
nutetuli ara catechu and outch (of which 9000 tool 
are annually imported into Qreat Britain from India 
and Singapore), aambiar (about 1200 tons, from 
Singapore), divi-divi (3000 tons, ima Manoaibo, 
tc.), vulonia (the acomi of the Querciu MgjUipa, 
23,000 tona of which are yearl; imptHtvd from 
Tnrkev), and aamaQh leavea (20,000 tona, chie% 
from Turkey). 

The tint attempts at improvement in tanning 
were the method invented by Mr Spilabu^ in 1823, 
•nd the improvement on thii method by Mr Drake, 
of Bodminatar. in 1831. The principle oonaiated in 
cauaing the oont or latt-Uquor to 61t«[ through the 
hidea under presiure. Far thia pnrpoae, in lAake'a 
proccaa, the edge* of the hidea were aewed np ao 
aa to form a b^ The baga being aiupended, were 
tilled nith cold tan-liqaor, which gradually tiltered 
through tlie porea of the hides, and impregnated 
them with the tannin. The proce$»e» by infil- 
tration, however, hare been entiray abandoned for 
heavy leather, aa they have the eStut of rendering 
the leatber porona and deficient in firmnesa. 

Vaiions patents for improvement! in tannins have 
been in operation of late yean. Herepath and Cox, 
of Briitol, tied hidea to each other to form a long 
belt, and prensd them between rollers, to aqoeeie 
out the partially exhanated tan-tiqaor from the 
porea, ao that a atraager liquor might be abaorbed. 
Heaan J. and O. Coi, of Oorgie Milla, near Edin- 
bnrgh, made an improvement on tbia mode, by 
attaching the hidea to a revolTing dram, ao th^ 
the hides preaa on each other on the top of the 
drum, but hang aiupended in the tan-liqoor from the 
lunerpart; and Ihna, by the hidea being altMlMtel]' 
in and oat of the liquor, the **""'"g ia quickly 

After the hidea have become thoroughly tanned 
in the pit by the action of the tannic acid upon 
their gelatinooa anbatance, and when portly dried 
(if for 'Btraok* aole-leather), they are operated 
np«i) by a two-bandied tool with three blunt edgea, 
Mlkd a pin (6g. 2, and Mclion, a), which, by being 


rabbttd with gnat p w a an re baekwurda and far- 
wardt on the grain-side of the leather, raakea it 
cmnmct ; and thia ia still further 

. . y Iwided brs . . 

The tanning of goat-akinl (Fi 
morocco ia made), -"■ — '~ '- 
and imaU calf-akins .... „, „ 

•awing up the skina, and filling the bag with a 
divoction of ahuroao in a Warm state. They are 
kept in an active state for twenty-tour houn or 
to, which sufficiently «atui»t*» them. 

A process has been patented by Mr Preller, of 
Beimoodaey, within the last ten yean, by whioh 
the heaviest skins are converted into leather in a 
venr short space of tiae; but the moceM ia tawing 
rather than tanning, and ia naod tor uaiAuneTy- 
belta t»incinallv. 

■ with aati- 

_., , JO aa to preserve them - , . 

but by thia operation no chemical change is effected 
in the geUtine of tin akina ; henoe, tawed leatber 

can be naed in the manufacture of glue. 
the first process ia careful waahing, nei 
them with lime, then removing the hiur oi 
laatly, ateeping them in some one i 
varioua mixtnrea which are uaad fore 
into leather by tiiia method. The method of tawing 
lamb-akina will fpve a fair idea of the proceM, whicb 
ia, however, much varied, accoiding to tlie kipd of 
skin and the experience of the worker. Lamb-skina 
of home-production are generally limed on the flesh- 
side with cnam of lime, which enablea the wool to 
be easily pulled off. Dried lamb-akina an generallf 
submitted to the heating proeat, to get the wool 
removed. The pelta, aft^ beins waahed, ara rubbed 
on the convex piece of wood called the beam ; and 
when aupple, the ffesh-side of each skin ii thickly 
besmeared with a cream of lime \ and when two 
are so treated, they are laid with the limed aurfaf«a 
in contact ; and a pile of them being made, they 
are left for a few days, when they are examined hy 
pulliug the hair. Ii it separata eaaily, then tba 
lime is waahed out, and the hair is removed with 
the unhairing knife [fig. 3], aa in the oaae of hides. 

Fig. 3. 

unless it is reqnired to be kept on, aa io iha caaa 
of skins for door-mata, io. After tiiotoagh oleana- 
ing, the pelts ara steeped for two or tl^ee weeka 
in a pit filled with water and lime, being takan 
out from time to time, and drained on sloping 
benches. When removed finally from the lime-pit, 
the skins are worked with the knife, to render 
them still more supple, and they are then put 
into the brnTming mixture. This consists of bma 
and water, in the projurtion of two pounds of bras 
to a gallon of water. From this mixture, in about 
two days, they ore tronaferred to another bath, con- 
sisting of water, alum, and salt. After the proper 
amount of working in thia mixture, they undergo 
what is called the patting, if intended io /orm whita 
leather. The pa*te is a mixture of wheaten-bran 
and sometimes fiour and the yolks of ^ga. Thoy 
are usually worked in a rotating cylinder with thia 
paste and water, and are found in time to hav* 
absorbed the paste, leaving little more than tba 
water. IE the akins are not intended to be whiti^ 
other materials are often need, and much 
and doga^ dung is employed, some large 


dried and examined, and, if necessary, the pasting 
ia repeated ; if not. they are dipped into pure water 
and worked or stoked by pulling them backwarda 
and forwards on what is called a tlTtttlmg or toft- 
ening iron, and smoothed with a hot amootlung-iruo. 

Another kind of dresaing ia by treating the akin 
with oil. By hard rubbing with cod oil, or by tha 
action of ' stocks,' after the skin haa been properly 
cleaned with the lime, the oil works into uie skiI^ 
displaces oU the Water, and becomes united with 
the material, rendering ita texture peoaJiarly soft 
and spongy. Wash-leather or chamois-leather ia so 
pre]«red, and for this purpose the fiesh-halTca «f 
split sheep- skins ore chiefiy uted. 

Besides Uaming and faioina, many kinds of leather 
require the currier's art to bring tiiem to the state 

_i ,..- --red for various purpoaea. The 

newly tanned skins, and finds 
them harsh to the feel, and rough on the fleah-side. 
He removes all the roughneas by carefnlly iharing 
with a peculiar knife. After a soaking in clean 
water, he thsn acr^iea ths akin w'th o 



hiiiBila to dij completely, and u 
Imim it, the oil peoetratea. Wlien quite dried and 
^■rtt*i< with tbe oil, the akin it rsbbad on > board 
■ilk nuded ridgEi, by which a peoaliar grained 
laanaea ii fpTeu, and tbe leather ia rendered rery 
paik. Ib cnnying. almoat ereiy variety of leather 
itftim KDe TariatioD in the procciaei employed, 
kH tke cnrrier'a object ia in all casta to give • 
■^inM and fine finiah to tbe akina. 

M*ncm koAar, formerly an article oF import from 
fle Biliary eoaat, ia nov prepared in lar^ qniui- 
titia IB thu GOODtry, from goat-akina ; sheep-akins 
tte are laed for imitation. It ia always dyed on 
tt( oatv or grun aide with aoma colanr, and the 
tatta-dreaaer in finiahing givea a peculiar ribbed 
m a nra^y granulated intihce to it, by meana of 
o^rad boxwood bolla which he worka over the 

Auu InUker ia much Talued for ita aromatic 
lian. vhich it derivea from the peculiar oil of the 
bd'baA nsed in tannine it The fact that this 
■Im tqiela motha and oUier insecta, render* thia 
kitber particQlarly valnsble for binding booka; a 
in bowi in a library, bound in Ruaaia leather, 
loag dTcddve aofegiurda against insect enemiea. It 
■ ilia said to destroy or prevent the vegetable evil 
bIU mildew, to which booka are so very liable. 

LUTHER, Vboetible, is a composition, the 
\m of wbicfa is mppoaed to be oxidised oiL It is 
fmd oTcr cotton or other cloth, and is used as a 
nto'prDoE material for carriage- hoods, seats, gaiters, 
knO, Ac At present, it is only mode by one coro- 
(uj, which holds the aecrat of its manufacture. 

LUTHERWOOD (i>ircapalu<()«t,adecidnouB 
ilnb of 3-6 feet hiah, with the habit of a minia- 
tmVia, a native of North America. It belongs to 
Ac Bitiinl order Thgmeleaaa. Tbe bark and wood 
«t cneedini^y tough, and in Canada the bark ia 
Hd for ropes, baskets, ka. The leaves ore lanoeo- 
ImhUdoif; the flowers are yellow, and appear 

LEAT8 ANo LIOBNCB, a phrase in English 
In b> denote that leave or permiaaion waa given to 
^ KKie act complained of. It ia a common defence 

LEATEN, '•our' dough, or dough in which 
fMnfacttcKi boa begun, and which, owing to the 
pwtace and mind growth or mnltiplicatioo of the 
r~< riant, qoickly commnnicatea ita character to 
Inii dough with which it ia mingled, causing tbe 
Ineesi ol fementation to take place aoonar than it 
rtuSLSL would. The use of leaven in baking dates 
ba a very remote antiquity ; tiie employment of 
}ait ii mar« recent. Sea YlOBT and BuoD. 

LEATEWOBTB, a city of Kansas, TJnited 
hto of America, founded in ISM, on tbe right 
Uak of the Hissoori River, 2S miles above Konzaa 
Otj. It IB a handsome town, of broad aveaiies, 
inted with gaa, with IS chnrchea, 8 banks, 11 
iidh. 3 daily, and weekly papers, one of which 
■ C«nnaa, and one French, with laive mills and 
hdorigt Ihia is the head-qaart«ra of the govem- 
•ort eontraetoia for trains across the plai"* *" 
C^Stw Mexico, ia, who eniploy6000 ' — 
•adU^oxen. Fop {1960) 7429. 

exposing the aap to air and light on their extenaiw 

Burfacea. It ia usually in the Azila (q, v.) of leave* 
that buds and branchea are developed; and with 
reference to bnda and branches, they are new 
situated otherwise than beneath them, althoojpi in 
the axils of many leaves no development of bud or 
branch ever takes place. After itB full develop- 
ment, a leaf retains ita form and size unchanged till 
its death. As to the duration of their life, leaves 
exist either for one year — that is, during a year's 
period of active vegetation — in which ease they are 
called />enffttout (q. v.), or for more than one year, 
when they are called EixTgrrat (q. v.). 

A leaf first appears as a little oonioal bod^ 
pushed out from Uie stem or branch. At Gist, it 
conriat* entirely of cellular tissue, oontinuous with 
the bark, bnt vascular tiasue afterwards generally 
appears in it. When fully developed, it usually 

' ~~ if two parts: an expanded part, called the 

limb; and a stalk Euppoitins this pact, 
and called the Uaf-ttalk, oi petuM, whi(£ sometunea 
aaaumea the form of a aAeofA of the stem, as in 
grasacfl. The leaf-stalk, however, is often wanting, 
m which case tbe leaf is called sesiUe; and when 
the base of thu leaf embraces the stem, it is called 
amplfxieaid. A leaf which has a leaf-stalk is called 
petioiatit. Sessile leaves often extend In wing-like 
prolongations down the stem, and are then colled 
decurrttU. They are sonietinies pa-foliatt, entirely 
surrounding the stem with tiieiT base, so that it 
seems to pass throngh the leaf. Opposite leavea 
are sometimeB combined in this way. Leaves an 
called limplf, when all their parts are united into 
one iriiole by a connected cellular tissoe; (hey are 
called compoaTid, when they consist of a number 
of distinct, completely SBporated parts, which are 
oalled leajkts. — Ah to the place where leave* arise 
from the stem, they are either radieat (root-leaves), 
when they arise from the very base— and many 

Slants havs radical leaves only ; or cauline (stem- 
lavea), when they arise from the daieloped stem 
or brsjicbes — the radical leaves really arising &om 
the stem ; or Jhral, when they arise fn^ the 
flowering axis. — A* to their arrangement on tbe 
■tern, leaves are vertidilait, or uAorlnl, or oppotiU, 
or Mernate, or leaUend. Opposite leaves are usually 
placed so that each pair is at right angles to those 
next above and below. All these mode* of arrange- 
ment on tlie stem can be reduced either to the uAoH 
the ipind ; whilst by the tearing out of the 
' ' ifement arises, and the who * 

f the apital, but so that t! _ 
re easentiolly the aama. The 
nomber of leaves requisite to form a complete tt/cle, 
or to encircle the stem, is v^ constant in tbe 
lame apeciea. In the Common Hunaeleek, tbe cycle 
consists of no fewer than thirteen leaves, which are 
grouped together to form the rotrtta of this plant. 

Leaves conaist either exclusively of ocllular tiaam^ 
OB in mosses, or, mora generally, of cells and bundle* 
of spiral vessels, as in the leaves of trees and moat 
other phanerogamous plants. The stronger bnndle* 
of vemela form nova, externally oouspicuous, the 
finer ramifications of which are called twins. In 
endogenous plants, the nerves of the leaveB run 
mostly in straight lines, and nearly parallel ; 
wher^M, in exogenous plants, a oot-like ramiflob- 
tion of Uie nerves pravaUa. 

The leave* of phanerogamous plants and fems are 
covered with a wall-deroloped separable ^Mtrmit, 
which extends over all their ports, and which ia 
provided with numetoua amall pon*— Aonola (q. v.) 
— sometimes on one, aometjmea on both sides, 
serving for the absorption and exhalation of gaseous 
aubstances. Sobmeiged leaves, however, and th« 
under side of leaves which float on the Burfaoe a. 


wi tar, hkTe no ttonuts, no true epidcamia, uid no 
ton« raaonUr tisnie. 

Some pUnti have no lesTes, their fnnctioiu being 
perfonnsd by the green jaicy riad of the stklki, 
in Caeiacea mnd WHne of the sens " ' " 
hy the genenl rarfBDO of the iWli 
Icn^Eenoiu plants- 
It ia ia Ibe leaves of pUnti that the elaboration 
of 111 ) up chiefly takea plaoe, and when a tree ia 
deprived of ita leavea, do wood ia fbnned until they 
are agaio developed. The incesaant removal of 
leaTM M they an formed deatroys a plant, and 
thia method U aometiinee advanb^eoiuly adopted 
•a to weed! baring deep ta apreadiag pereumal 
I'OoU, and otb«nnM diffiralt of extirpation. 

Leavea exhibit mora or leas decidedly a periodical 
altematioTi in thor direotioD and expansion, geoer- 
•lly carrcapondiiig vith the ■ItcmBtioa of day and 
night Some leaves exhibit a peculiar irrit^iility 
under Tariooa influences, aod thoae of two iw thrM 

apeoiea of planta, by their closing togethv, oatcft 
and kill iuaecta which alight on them, a thinz, 
however, of which no relation to the vegetal^ 
economy is known. Bee Ibiutabiutt ix PLum, 
Slbbp or PiAins, sad DiovMi. 

The forma of leaves are extremely Tanooa. SimpU 
leavea vary from a (ona almost perfectly circolar, 
or even broader than long, to an extreme eloogatioii, 
as lintar or fii/orm (thread-like). The breath of 
■ome increases towanls tbe apex, and this is indi- 
cated by the terms obovaie, obconlale, kc, and 
Bometiniea by the word inverWy prefixed to tha 
term which describes the form. Simple leaves are 
either entire, or they are more or lees deeply looUked 
or serrate ; or they are cut or lobed by divisions 
extending from the margia towards the base ; or 
tbe division may extend towards the midrib of the 
leaf, whan the leaf is pinnaHfit, •" 
Tvitdnatt, Ae. The accompany]"" * 
■oma of tiia forma of leavea, a 

i: t, laHslsWI *, hutsle; 

Foims of Leaves: 
Tula ; IS, iBpuI-plDiia 

i; 19, ra 

I, Ifnu; 10, dlfluic; 

brisfly than words ooold, smne of the tenna naed 
in dnoribing then, ffimilar terns are emjdr^red 
aa to tbel^etsot aiMnponndle«r«a,bnt thevanety 
of forma ia not newiy >o great Compound leaves 
exhibit two chief varieties of form, according aa 
the diviaiona which fom the leaflets extend 
towanta the baas of the blade, or towards the 

guinata Ii 

midrib. Of the fanner daaa are lentattt TiulenaCs, 
' leaves, to.; the latter are called piiim at* 
Bat the same mode of diviuon may ba 
tbe leafleta, and thua a leaf may be 
if again divided, Irttemate, Ac, taX 
very many leavea are bipianalf, tripi»»ale, &«. 
Whoa the diviaion ia often repeated tlw leaf ia 



bU JKaw^mtti, A pimute kml, tsmiiiutiiig in 
1 fu of Itmiiltt, is oalled pari-piiuiate, or abntpUy 
fia^: bot k pinoato lekt Taiy often termiiuttfia in 
H M hiiet, and ia then oalled aipari-pinnate. 
lb bhde of a leaf ii generally in the eame plane 
■'""■ at light anglea to 

n bud, ii, like the atlivatio* 
d brcn, rery charaoteristiD cj different plant* 
md tribe* of plants. 

Aml-Ieairf are generally laiger than tUm-Uava, 
In tn ool; preaent in herbaoeoni planti, and are 
panllj the Grat to fade. The opper stem-leavei 
■n geacrally smaller and Ina divided than the 
Vma. tboae Dearest the flowen often pasaing into 
bnoi By metamorphoaia of leavea, alt bracts, 
imlun^ Jtc, are produced, and all the differeot 
pti d floven, bb calyx, corolla, stamens, carpels, 
ud tLocfon even frmta; and the mode of their 
UTiiic«meDt relatively to the aiia corresponds 
with that of learia. AH oraaos formed by meta- 
Rtphosii of leaves ate called leq/'-or^rans. See 


Sad-Jtara are the cotyledons of the Seed, raised 
ilmt i;ronnd after germination, and serving the 
fi\<fim of te>re« to tin young plant, although 
Ki«*Bt nry nnlike its future leavea. Thia, how- 
(nr. mly takes p1a«e in some plants, 

lottra lad higher of two monntain-chaios which 
m tkm^ Syria from north to south parallel 
ntk lbs coast of the Levant Its araraga height 
■ (boat 7000 feet, but tta loftieat peak, Dahrel- 
Ootih, in the range oalled Jebel Makmd, attains 
IS dnalioa of 10,060 feet For six months of 
A* fear, this mountain ia oovoed irith snow. The 
m Uehart point ia Jebel Suooin, S555 feet 
Ik mad from Baalbek to Tripoli smeses L, at an 
AnliDa of 7330 feet Prom the western side of the 
m^ KTeial apnii strike off across the narrow 

as( lerel oout, and project Dpon the Levant in 
pssraloriea. In the sonlJi are the sourcea 
it tke Jitdan, the most impiwtant river that rise* 
DLetaDoa; not far from Dahtel-Kbotib, those of 
Itt Onnta, the next largest stream, which flows 
mkwird, and intersects the chain at AnUki 
Usiisal). L. derive* ita name, not from the snow 
)■■ *kiteDB its peaka, bnt from its chalk cliffs. 
IW TtftetatioD of L ia, on tke whole, scanty ; 
^ sad tbov, woods and willow-groves ai« seen ; 
6t lomr parta of the mountains, however, are 
■n/wbere well watered and ooltivated, and the 
<>llq« are often covered with oruharda, vineyards, 
•in ud mulberry plantationa. and comSelds. 
TW Uitabte. diatncte are mostly in tlie possession 
riHinoite* (q. t.) and Dnuea (q. v.). Everywhere 
iknaet of L. ia wild and solituyi the only sound 
Itas Uli upon tiie ear of the tiaveller ' " 
■ of tba ea^a Nomeron* - • - 

1 everjr day's wandenngs. The 

n haooa Cedars of L. have afanoat diaappeared ; 
•^ a solitaiy grave remain*. Sea Ckdak of 

Im-LiBAvov, or /<M-ea&-SA«rH, lie* east of 
fa preceding; the range ia less Oompact, and its 
■■*(• height inferior. The peat plain between 
|k two ia known ai CiBle-Syria (q. v). Anti- 
li^ae tsrminale* snathwards in Mount Hennon, 
** ^VkM> pnint, which reaches an elevation of 
Kl Kst Iti ndes are clothed with snen poplar- 
^ bU it has DO cedars. On it* table-lands are 
^Mi w*» n e ui little looha or tama, which are a 
■kaiLUiiiUu feature of thia mnKe, and diatiuinUsh 

LEBBDIA'N, a diatrict town of Great Roaaia, in 
the govemment of Tambov, 100 miles west-north- 
west of the city of that name, on the Don, in Jat 
63* N. It has two annnol furs, the commercial 
transactions of which realise £700.00a r<De >■! the 
chief articles of sale is horaea ; and goveniment 
officers frequent the fain of L., in order to iuniish 
horses for Uie cavalry regimeots. 

LEB&DI'N, a town of Little Russia, in tba 
government of Kharkor, 90 miles north-west of 
Uie town of that name, in lat SO* 30' N., long. 
34* 30' E. It was founded in the 17th century. 
Pop. 13,377, who manufacture sirdles and sashes 
to the value of many thouaand roubles. These 
articlea, which are worn by the Euisian peaaant*, 
are sent for sale U> Moscow, and to the fain of 
Nijoi-Kovgorod, Kursk, &n. 

LEBRUN, Obuiliis, a French painter, bom at 
Paris, March 22, 1619, studied in the school of 
Vouet and afterwards at Rome, under Ponssin, for 
six year*, returning to France in 1646. He became 
principal court-pamter to Iiouts XIV,, and died at 
Paris, February 12, 1690. L..'s best works are a seriea 
of pictores representing the battles of Alexander, 
which were fehcitously engraved by Ofirard Audran. 
L, belong* to the classical and artificial Sohool, but 
he ia a very favourable specimeu of it 

LE'COE, the chief town of a district of the same 
name in the province of Terra di Otranto, in 
Southern Italy, 10 miles from the Adriatic, aad 2G 
south -south -east of Bnndisi, has a population of 
19,400. It ia the Lupioe of the ancient Saleutiues, 
the name having become Lycia in the middle age*, 
and henoa Leooe. It contains fine churcbe* and 
public edifices, the architecture of which is much 
enhanced by the beaaty of the fine white stone 
found in ahundaooe in the nei^bonrhood, which 
admits of exquisitely minute cutting. L. has a large 
trade in ollve-oiL 

LBOO'MPTON, the capital of Kansas, United 
States of America, is situated on Kansas Kiver, BO 
miles from ita mouth at Kansas City. It contains 
the state Capitol, United States Land Office, and 
other govemment buildings. Fop. about 1000. 

LB'CTEHN, or LIHTERN (Lst. Udorium or 
{ectrietum), a rcadlns- 
desh or stand, proper^ 
movable, from which 

chanted or road. The 
lectern ia of very 

forma, and of different 
materials. It is found 
both in Roman Catholio 
ohurohes and in the 
oathedrsla and college- 
ohapels of the Church 
of England. The most 
ancient lecterns are 
of wood, a beautiful 
example of which 
is that of Ramsey 
Church, Huntingdon- 
shire (about UCO), 
rejiresented in tiie . 
wood-cut; but they 
were frequently also 

of an eagle (the mnbol of St 7ohn the Bvb» 
gelitt), the outspread wings of which fonn the f ram* 



ciiinortinfi Uie toIdum — In aonui ptuti of the e*at of 
RcotUnd, the preceotor'a desk in ths Preabfterun 
nhnrclieB is called the lettran. 

LECTTHIDA'CE^, a nataral older of ezogen- 
nii« plants, or tub-order of JtgtiacoE, the diatiD- 
miHfaing chsractoriitic being that the fruit U a 
lirge wuofly capsule, with a number of celli, which 
ill aome specie* remaina closed, and in sotne opena 
with Hi lid. All the known apecicB, about forty, are 
iiativeB oE th» hottest parts of South America. AH 
Hre lar^ trees. They have alternate leaves, and 
l.irge showy flowen, solitary, or in racemea. Tike 
utanienB itre uumeroaa, and a portion of them some- 
timea connected into a kind of petal-like hood. 
Bnudi Nuts (q, v.) and Sapucaia Nuta (q. v.) are the 
/••vU of treea of thia order. The Caonon-ball Tree 
Iq. V.) b«loni{S to it. The capanleB of some species 
are known as moidCey-poU. Monkeys are very fond 
of theaueds. 

LB'DA, in Grecian Mythology, the wife of the 
Kiiaitan king Tyndareua, whom Jupiter viaited one 
night in the disguise of a swan. She became by 
the Kod the ■iiot£er of Castor and PoUui, and titer 
her death, wu rvised to a divinity under the name 
ii[ Nemesis. The story hu mpplied a thenw for 
many works of art. 

liE'DBCRV. a nnall town of England, in the 
county of Hereford, is situated fourteen niilee eait- 
*outh-eaat of the city of that name, on the Here- 
Fnrd and Glourester canaL Glove -mak in); is the 
principal branch of indiutry. Pop. (1S61) 3263^ 

LEDGER-LINE, a kind of tackle used in fish- 
intc. It roDsiitii of a bullet or piece of lead with a 
hole thmtigh the centre ; through which a gat-line 
is thre:ule<i, having at the end of it a hook. About 
19 or 20 inches above tlie hook, a shot or bead is 
fastened firmly to the line, to prevent the lead 
(rom slipping down the line nearer to the hook. 
The hook being baited, the toclde is then cB«t into 
the water. The l«ad reata on the bottom, and the 
line is kept tight, but without lifting the lead off 
the bottom- The moment a &ah bitea at the bait, 
it is felt by the angler, who immediately gives ■ 
strong pull or atrike. This method of fishing is 
used chieSy for barbel or bre^m. 

LEDRU-ROLLIN, Alkxandrk Auodste. a 
noted French democrat, was bom in Paris in 1808, 
and ttuitied for the bar, to which he waa admitted 
in 1830. He was counsel for the defence in most 
of the pmspcutions of opposition joumala during the 
rvigu of Louis Philippe, and obtained a great reputa- 
tion for eloquence among the lower ordera. In 1S41, 
he was elected deputy by the department of Sarthe. 
and became a prominent membec of the eitreme 
Left Id IS4S, he published a Socialistic manifesto, 
entitled Appel aiix TraBaiU/.un, in which ha 
dechireil ' univenial suffrage ' to be the only panacea 
for the miseries of the workiDg-cloases, He was 
also an anient, or even a violent promoter of the 
reform- meetings that preceded the crash of 184S. 
On the outbreak of the revolution, he opposed 
the proiHisal of a regency, advocated the fomiatioD 
of a Provisional Qovemmeut, and when this was 
carried out, was intrusted with the portfolio of the 
[nterior. He was afterwanU one of the oonunittee 
of live in whose hands the National Assembly 
placed the interim government of the ooimtry. 
In this high position, be shewed great wont of 
perDei>tion. firmness, and energy, la oonsequenoe 
of the insurrection of June t&48, be ceased to 
hold office, and then Kinght to recover (what he 
hwl loet by accepting office) his iuBnence with 
the extreme democrats. He p«rtially succeeded in 
his attempt, and even veotund on a candidature 
'■r Uie presideDoy, but obt«iiwd only 370,119 

votes. The unsuccessful tmeuit of June 1849 nut 
aa end to L.-B.'a pohtical rilU in fiance. He fled 
to England, and in less than a year politely puli- 
lished a work a^nst the land wbidi hod giv«n 
him on aaylum. De la Dtoadent* de F AnyUtfrrt 
(2 vol*. Par. IS50}. He haa also written a great 
many pamphlets, treatiaea, letters, Ac, which do not 
poaaeat any permanent iutereat 

L&'DUM, a genus of plants, of the natural order 
Erieea, sub-order Rhodorta, consisting of small ever- 
green shrubs, with comparativelv large flow^TS, i f 
which the coroUa is cut iato five deep petal- tike 
segments. The species are natives of Europe ami 
North America ; aome of them are common to botlb 
The leavea of L. lofi^iuni are said to be need in 
Labrador as a anbatitute for tea. whence it is sonie- 
timea callfni Labiuiior Tra. Sir John Fnuiktin 
and bis party, in tiie arctic eniedition of [819— IS-JS, 
need in the aome way the Ledum pnlunlrf, wbich 
produced a beverage with a ameU resembling 
rhubarb, yet they found it refreshing. The leavea 
of both these shrubs possess narcotic properties, and 
render beer heady. They are regarded as uaefiil in 
agues, dysentery, and diurhcsa. 

LEE, or LEEWARD, a nautical term for tlie 
quarter to which the wind ia directed, aa distin- 
guished from Toiadioanl, or the part uAenoe the wind 

LEE, the name of a diatinguiahed Virginian 
family. Their ancestor. Ricbabd Leb. emigmtnl 
with a numerous houaehold to America, in the rei;^! 
of King Charles I,, and settled in the country lyini; 
betweea the Rappahannock and Potomac rivcra. 
He was a bold royalist, and during the PrutoctoraM 
of Cromwell, was mainly instrumental in inducing 
the colony of Virginia to assume a semi -independent 
attitude.^RirHARD Henhy Leb. great -grand son 
of the preceding, and the most illiiabious member 
of the family, was bom at Stratford, in Virgiuia, 
Janiury 20. 1732. He was educated first at home, 
and afterwards in England. He did not come promi- 
nently before hia countrymen till after the BHtuh 
parllunent had passed (1764) the act declaring ita 
right to tax the colonies, and also the Stomp Ai-t 
(iteG). when, aaaoolated with Patrick Henry, h« 
immediately became Uie centre of an aoliTe oppo- 
sition among Che colonisti of Virginia. He was 
aooD after Sent aa a delegate from Virginia Id the 
firat Ameriean Congress, which met al Fbiladel- 
phia (September 5, 1774), and at nnce became » 
leader in the assembly. He bad the chief part 
in the oompoaltion of acme of those addressee to 
the king, the people of Euglaud. and the colonies, 
which compelled the great Chatham to admit, that 
' for solidity of reasoning, force of sagacity, anil 
wisdom of conoluaion, under aiich complication of 
circumatances. no nation or boily of men can staiiil 
in preference to the general congress at PhilaileliihiA.' 
When war between the mother-country and the 
colonies became inevitable, Lee wai placed on tlia 
committees charged with preparing the mnnititkna 
of war, and with ileviaing all other meana of offering 
a vigoroiiB reaistaDce to the British government. 
Hia laboun at this time were enormous. On t:be 
TthirfJune l776.Lee made the moatcelebrated (ami 
important) of all his speeches, when introducing 
before the congreH of Philadelphia a meuuT« 
declaring tiie ' united oolonies ' to be ' free and iixlir- 
pendent states,' and ' absolved from all allegiaao* 
to the British crown.' Durina the war of iiMl»- 
pendence, he was— in sptte of ill-health— one of Um 
most active of the patriotic party, chiefly, howeV(>r, 
as a civilian. In I7S4, he was elected pieaidsnt of 
congress, and when the federal conatitation ^wbc 
estaliliiibed, he entered the ■ 



Tonnla tlw doae ot hii career, tie bocune ft decided 
fediTslut, KlthoD^ NTgiiiall]' he had viewed that 
H i l iau of eDTenunent with (jreat Btupicion, aa tend- 
■t towanb a deapotie eentratiaation of power. In 
ITSS. ha ntiml from peblie affiun, and died in hia 
■am atate, June 19, 1794 Hi* Ll/e and Corre- 
mm d a m t was pabliahed by his great-grandson, R. 
a Lee (*; ToU. PbEIaddphia, 1825).— Lra, Arthur, 
gnaKnti brvther c^ the prec«ling, wag bom in 
Virgiua, December SO. ITM. Ha was educated at 
Eloa. then atudiad mediODB at EdinbnrKh, and 
after travdling on the contineiit for some time, 
KMnaed to America, and started as a phjwcian. 
QRanwtaiKxa, howeTcr. soon drew him into the 
Ud of pnlitics ; h? returned to Eneland, advocated 
tkc rigfata of tlie ookMiiM in the Eogliih Dewafiapers, 
Md in ITTft, took np his reaideiii.-e at Paria, as 
IIm Mcrrt agent of the American oon^reaa. In this 
a^tatj, Iv iraa bniily employed dunug ths whole 
MiBggle, and conducted his bunnen on the conti- 
■Bt greKtly to tbe advantage of the colonists. He 
&d DcoRnbtT 12, 1792. Lee, like hia brother, 
vaa aa adTnirable scholar and writer, enjoyed the 
fawLsfaip of aonie of the most eminent men of 
hia tiRke. Borke, Wyndham, Sir William Jones,- the 
Abbt Rajnal. and the Duke de Rochefouutuld. 
See Lift ajul Corrtrpoadftux. br K- H. Lee (2 vols. 
Boatmi, 1829).- Lee. Henkt. a distinguished Ameri- 
cas geocral, whoae father was cousin nf the preced- 
■^ waa bom in Virginia. January 29, 175& He 
•aa ooe ot tbe moat daiinE;. vi^lant, and successful 
cavalry officera on the aide of tiie colooiata. ' Lee's 
t^igioa ' was probably the most effective and coiir- 
acenos body of troops raised in America. In the 
bonus retrpat lA Qreene before Lord Comwallia, it 
fcnied the rf^r-f^uanl, tbe poet of honour, and 
ovvensd itarlf with ^ory. At tbe battles of Ouild- 
Wd Court House and Entaw, at the sieges of Fort* 
Watoon. Mott«, and Oranby and Augosta, and at 
the •tonnins of Fort Grierson. Lee particulariy 

tumselE. After the war, he 

(■■jpTas aa a delegate from Virginia, advocated the 
sdoption of a fedml conatjtntioa, and in 1792, was 
ckcneo smemor oE Virginia. In 1809, be nabliahed 
a valnaV-le work, entitled Memoir) of the War in the 
SaKtkm De/'artmenl of At Uaiird Slatet. He died 
« Camberland IsUnd, Georgia, March 23, 1810.— 
Lex. Bobebt EDHC^n. ie a son of the preceding. 
Be waa bora in Virginia about Ihe year 1810, and, 
Ke his anceators. has enjoyed lar^rely Ihe honors 
aalenolnnifnla disbursed by tbe United States gov- 
CTanent. He entered West Point aa cadet in 1825, 
fT«a which he gradualed in 1B29, and entered tbe 
•vvicc as brevet second lieutenant of engineers; 
was appointed assistant aalronomer for filing the 
ksandary between Ohio and Michigan in I83ti; was 
pomoied lo first -lieu ten ant in 1886. and 1o captain 
m IS38. In tbe »ar with Mexico hs served as chief 
sapaaer of the army commanded bj Brigadier-Gen- 
val Wool, and was brevetled miyor " for gallsni 
Bad Mcritoriuus conduct in Ihe battle of Cerro Gor- 
■a." April 18. ISlIj liantenaat^olonel "for gal- 
iaal aad meritorious conduct in the bailies of Con- 
mtssandCburubuBCO," Aug. 20, 1847; sod colonel 
"fsr gallant and meritoriona conduct in Ihe baItU 
tf Ck^llepeo," SepL 18, 1847, in which he was 
VMa4cd- He waa aaperinlendenl of the military 
acBJcaiy at Weal Point ttY>m September 1, 1852, to 
Msiib. 1S56; OB retiring from which he waa ap- 
paaiad lieuienanl-«olanel 2d Cav^ry, Marob 8, 
Uii. On the breaking out of the rebellion he re- 
■ ■ ■ [the serrice of his country, 

on of "Commander of the 

in-chief by Jefferson Davis. Genera] Lee is oader- 
stood to have been in immediale command of the 
Confederate forces in and around Richmond, and 
throughout Northern Virginia, for Ihe mosi part, 
during the war; and the success of the Confederal* 
forces on Ihe sanguinary bnltle-fielde of the Penin- 
sola, Fredericksburg, and Bull Run, compel a re- 
oognilion of his rare military ability, in spile of 
the disastrous repulses suffered by his troops at 
AnUetam and Gellyvburg, Early in life he mar- 
ried the adopted grand- daughter and heiress of 
Washington, by whom he has G«e sans, all in Ihe 
Confedarale service, — one of whom is a general 
and another a oolouel. 

LEE, SalfUEL. D.D., an English orientalist and 
linguist, was bora, I4th May l7S^i, at Longnor, in 
Shropshire, studied at Queen's College, Cambridge, 
and took hia degree of B.A. in 1617. Two yearm 
after, he was chosen Arabic Profi'ssor iu the same 
onivenity. obtained the dcuree of D.D. from Halle 
(unsohdted) in 1822, and Irom Cambridge in 1833; 
was aiipointed R^oa Professor of Hebrew in 1831, 
and died rector of Barley, in Hertfordshire, lOtll 
December 1852. His Grammar nf tlte Hehrtw Lan- 
guage (2d ed. Load, 1831), his Book of Job, trtoit. 
lautdfrom (Ae Oivfiruil Htbrew (3 voU. Lond. IS-TT), 
bis H^rew, ChaUtaiCt and Eiiglitk Lexicon (Lond. 
1840), his translation from tbe Arabic of tbe Travels 
of Ibo-Batuta (Lond. 1833). hare secured for him 
a very high reputation. His Sernwiu on Uie Studg 
-' l/ui Hoig ScriptuTtt (1830). and EveaU aad Timet 

are also higluy eateemed. He took charge, far the 
British and Foi-eign Bible Society, of wiitiona ol 
the Syriac Old Teatament, and of the Syriac New 
Teatoment, or Peshito, of the Malay, Persian, and 
Hindnitani Bibles, and of the Psalina iu Coplio 
and Arabia 

LBB, Fredsrio Richard, R.A., an English land- 
scape painter, born at Barnstaple, in Devonshire, 
about the close of last century, and first exhibited 
at the Royal Academy in 1824. He became an 
A.R.A. in 1834, and an R.A in ISaS. Lee is one 
of the moat thoroughly national painters of his day, 
the oharad^riatio scenery of his native country, its 
quiet river-banks, its parlu, ita leafy lanee. and its 

picturesque villages, forming the favourite aubjecta 
of his penciL Among his best known and moat 
admired pictures are 'The Broken Bridae,' 'Th« 

, Ths Watering-phice.' "The FiSier. ,_ 

Haunt,' 'The Silver Fool,' ■The Ploughed Field,' 
' A Devonshire Village,' ' A Village Green,' ' Cover 
Side,' ' Harvest Field,' ' A Devonshire Lane,' • Pcns- 
hnnt Avenue,' 'Avenue in Shobrook Pork.' Among 
his latest works are 'The Bay of Biacay,' 'Ply- 
mouth Breakwater,' 'View of Gibraltar frr>m tbe 
Sanda.' In 1848, he began to paint a series of 
works along with 8. Cooiier, the cattle-painter — 
the former execatiDg the landscape, and the lattar 

LEECH, JoBR, an Eiwliili artist, waa born in 

London about 1816, uaa received hia eduoation 

at the Charter House. The reputation of thia 

utist is almost entirely associated with Punch, 

which, by this time, he has contributed many 

■sand humorouB sketches. These aketche* 

frequently as full of grace as of humour; the 

drawing is often eioelleDt ; and hia female faces 

have a quiet, healthful bMuty, which would be 

attractive in the ball-room, but more attraotiva 

by the fireside and with children on the knee. In 

the PutteA tketehe% he has satirised keenly, yet 

on the whole hnmanely, the vagaries of male 

and female attire, the preoocity of the youn^ 

tbe pomp of Fateffamiliaa, tlia pride of domestM 


■rrvMiti. And the nngulu- rEUiiom which mmc- 
timei nbdrt bptTTRcn thi pBrlour »iid the kitoben. 
To the futura hiitorun of the Vicloriui era, th< 
luitf iketches will be invalnsble. 

L. h>a publiahfld, in > neparBte form, Tht Riaag 
Otmration (1S48). Bad PictartM of L\fe and CItanuiltr 

(165i|. the Utter being ft coileetuui of hi* ^ 

•UCCessTol i'unek ccntnbutiono. 

LKEC'I [Hintdo), » Linnnui geniis of Amttlida, 
of the order SucUiria, now fonnins the family 
HirudM'itr, »nd dirided into > onmber of genera, 
•ame of which contain inuij Hpeoie*. They are 
mottly inhabitants of fresh waters, althougti 
livB Hmongi;niiia, tic., in moiat places, and som 
mahne. Thi^y are most common in warm clin 
The body is soft, and comjKised of rinas hke that 
nf the earthworm, hut not furnished with bristles 
to aid in progression, an in the earthworm ; instead 
of which, a lucking disk at each extremity enables 
the leech to avail itself of its power of elongating 
And •horteaing it« body, in oitler to pretty rapid 

locomotion. The mouth i* in the anterior sacking 
disk. The mouth of many of the species, as of the 
common medicinal leeches, i^ admirably adapted 
not only for killing and eating the minute squat' 
animals whiuh C"nBtit11te their ordinary food, bi 
for making tittle wounds in the higher animal 
when opportunity occurs, through which Uood may 
be lucked. The mouth of the medicinal leech ' 
three small white hard tiwth, minutely sen 
along the edges, and curved so as to form little 
■emicircular sawi, provided with mnsclei power" 
■Qongh to work them with fp|eat effect, and 
produce a triradiata wound. The stomach is veiy 
tarjie. and ia divided into compartments, some of 
which have large lateral cnoa; and a Ie«ch which 
faai once gorged itself with blood retains a store 
for a very Toug time, little changed, in these recep- 
tacles, whilst the digestive process slowly goes on. 
The circulating eystem consists of four great pulsat- 
ing trunks, one ilorsal, one ventral, anatwo lateral, 
with their branches ; there ia no heart The aera- 
tion of the blood tales plAoe by numerous small 
apertures on the ventral surface, leading into respir- 
atory aaca. Leeches ar« oviparous, and each indi- 
Tidiul is androgynous. They have imall eyes— in 
the medicinal leeches ten —appearing at black spots 
near the mouth, and of the most simple structure. 
Leecbea frequently change their skin; and One canse 
of the great mortality so often eiperienoed aranng 
leeches kept formedicmal nae.ia the want of aquatic 
plants in the veesets containing them, among which 
to rub themselvea for aid in thii procesa, and for 
getting quit of the slime which their skins eiade. 
liMch aquaria in which aquatic plaats grow, are 

vudieuaiii at Samguimig^ 

The Mnuoinu, L. {H. 
oficiaalit) is a rare native 
of Britain I but lasah> 
gathering is the occu- 
pation of some poor 
persona, particulaiiy in 
Cumberland. Leechea^ 
however, are geuaallj 

Enropa. The collectuig 
of leechEs gives emploj- 
ment to many persool 
in some parts of Europa ; 
and leech - gaUumta 
sometimes adopt the 
simple mode of wading 
into the Water, and aeia- 
ing the leeches which 
attach themselres to 
their bare legs. Pi«ee* 
of liver, &c,, are arone- 
times used for baits, 
and a kind of net ia 
sometimes nsed. Sotn* 
parts of Europe are mp- 
plied from more eaatem 
regiona. Slight differ- 
enoea have led to the 
(•tablishment of two 

more aoath* 
era — among those com- 
monly imported into 
Britain. Tbe more north- 
em— which is that above 

named—has the belly 

spotted with blackj the The MgertlTe Appmatos rf 
more southern {U. pr^ fhn Mrdininsff twiA : 
Kmcio/ia, or Sangvimga ki, ih* Mamach ; k, latwtf 
nnf icinoiM or meridiiM- caca 1 1, tntmUa^ 

alU) has the bellj un- 
spotted. Other species are nsed for the ssbm 
medicinal purpose of blood-siicking in other parta 
of the world. The ancients were well ooiuaintfld 
with leeches, but their medicinal use sevma to 
have originated in the middle ages. Manv miUiona 

of leeches are annually imponed into iBritain. 

The HoRSE-LEiCH [Himmpu tattffuitorha) is com- 
mon in Britain ; it is much larger than the medi- 
cinal species, but its teeth are comparativelr 
blunt, and it is little of a blood -tucker— notwith- 
standing the popular notion— and nselcst for medi- 
cinal purposes. It feeds ffreedily on earthworms, 
which issue from the bMiks of the poadi or 
.1 :.!. _. '--ih it inhabita.— In many parti 

Hona Tidnnh 

of India, M in the warm valleys of the Himal^a, 

the moist grass twarms with leeches, tome of 
them very small, but very troublesome to cattle 
and to men who have occasioa to walk through 
the grais. Sir James E. Tennent's description of 
the land-leech of Ceylon {flirmadipm Cej/taitiea) is 

■ery 1 




length, and as line at a common knittini; Uf^dleibut 
kpable of distention to the thickness o? a quill and 

Mngtht^ tmuij two inches. It ci 



tJoB^^ Ae '''««*'t of th« flncst ttooking. It ic 
■Ivm nadj to mail a paaahig traveller or quad- 
n^l T!m coffee-jdantan are obliged to wear IteA- 
fittn li doaely-woTsn aloth (or protection. HoraM 
mt drino wild bj theaa peal^ ' and rtamp the 

Tnm Itmatt Orfltm. 

pomd in fmrj, to ahake tbem from their fatiocks, 
lg Ttiidi tliey bang in bloody tikSseU.' The kuv 
k^ d palaoqtiin-beaieTa are adorned with clnsten 
it them like banclMa of snpes. Their QiiDibei* 
1>K dien occaatoned tbe death of men compelled 
M ipnd dayi vbera they ahoiuidad. The moiit 
vHefi of Jara, Snmatnv Chili, and other tropii^ 
cMrica, iwann with land-leechea aa much aa 
tboc af India and Ceylon. 

LEBCHING, or the application of LeechiS [cl. v.), 
fa the pnrpcae of alasbw^tiiig blood, ia preferable to 
nwcttoo or cuppLna in many forma of diaease ; 
^hreiaznple — ]. In local det^mioationa of blood, 
BitUHkd with fsbrile symptomi, u in acute 
■Auunatiaii of tbe female breut, whea the prea- 
SR of the cnppiag-glaai would caiue intenae ^in- 
* U (hdominal inflammattona, MpeciaUjr in Peri- 
Uits Iq. T.), tbe application of leeches i« often 
/nimble to general blood-letting, pftrticnlarly in 
paint* c< a weak coQBtitntioD. 3. In various organic 
Aetiflni of the heart and tangi, leeching often 
i&rli great relief. Indeed, there are few diseaaei in 
•bicfa kns of blood is required, eiceptins ervripelaa, 
■ skich the application of leeches is objectionable ; 
■kboDgfa it is inexpedient, a« compared with Tene- 
■ctioD, in those cases in which it is desirable to 
wikii SB immediata imnreasion on the diieaie (aa in 
r where the diseaae 

When the leecbea have fallen of^ it is umallj 
deaiiable to promote to soma extent the flow <rf 
blood from their bitea, and this u readily done by 
the application of warm fomentatioDH or poultice). 
The bleeding generally stops BpontaneooBl; after » 
ihort time ; if it goes on longer than is desiikbUi 
mere eipoauic to the air, or the application <^ the 
fluff of a hat, or of a bit of eobweb, will anally 
<dieck it, tbe fibrins of the blood coagulating on 
the applied filaments, and forming a small clot. If 
theae means foil, a litiJe cone cf lint shoald b« 
inserted into the bite, orer which a compress should 
be laid and ■ buxli^ applied ; or the bite should 
be touched with ■ stick of nitrate of silTer (lunar 
eanstic) scraped to a point. 

Leeches, when applied to the mouth or interioi 
of the nose, hare been occasionslly awallowcd, and 
have given rise to very unpleasant aymptoma, Th« 
beat treatment in a case of thia kind is to pi«- 
toribe wine — half a ^ass, or eren a glass, erery 
qnarter of an hone — which will speedily destroy 
the leech. A moderately strong solution of com- 
mon sftlt would probably exert a aimilar fatal action 

LEED3, the first town in Yorkshire, and lifth in 
England in point of population, is a parliamentary 
and municipal borough, bein^ one of those urbicn 
were enfrancbiaed at the passing of the Reform Ml 
It is situated in the north-west of the West Riding 
of YorkahirB, in the volley of the Aire, and is liM 
centre of the clothing district. The extent of thia 
and the other commercial pursuits of the town maj 
*" ~ estimated from the f ollowina statistits of employ- 

mta in L., a« ascertained in 1858. 

a isj rapid and fatal 


^auM, aibcr oeuu Ofieu ay ruouK 
hoen doth, shouM be placed in a 
T in a wine-riasB, and a4)plied to 
1 it is deorea that they should a' 

_, __, croup) 

la tlie iliBeaae* of infanta and young children, 
hprku moat be applied with caution. ' Infanta are 
tlliiiim CMnpletely blanched by the application 
if w or two leeches, and a case is recorded by 
Mtctsa in which six leeches applied to the chest 
inteJ fatal to a child aged aii years. In B]>p1ying 
Mekfs, the part should De thoron^ly cleaned, and 
1h Iffchea, after bonf dried by rubbing them in a 

' " ' ' -- on open pill- 

, the spot at 

A Oiey should attach them- 

When it ia wisbed to affix a leech to the 
limit of tbe month, it is placed in a narrow tube 
bIU a ieeeh-glwa. When the animals will not 
■tack thfsis»h-rs rtadily, they may sometime* be 
■faced to bite by moistaning the part with milk 

He qnmtity of Uood which a leech is capable of 
^anog may be estimated at an arerage at abont 
t dnchm and a half, although occasionally a leecb 
■31 ibitract ortween three and four dracbms ; and 
Iba qaantity does not include that lost after the 
■i&al haa fallen off, which is frequently, especially 
* la. In order to canae 








s rebuilt in 1838 at a 

PiJi&c ^Mftdin^— There are 36 ohurcbea in Leed^ 
of which 26 are in the town aitd 10 in the enburbs. 
Of these, 22 are parochial vicaruea, and 14 are 
perpetual curacies. The chief is Si Peter's, which 

uinEiii^te, ■ ■ ' 

£2ft77ft It it 

' -"- to,. _,^ , ._ 

very noble edifice. The prindpal 
windows are of beautiful stained glaBS. It also con- 
taio* some fine statues, one of which is erected in 
memory of those native* of Leeds who fell in the 
Crimea ', the ohureh has a flood choir. The other 
principal building are chiefly of recent erection, and 
are aa follows : The Town-hall is 2S0 feet long, 200 
feet broad, and tbe tower is 225 feet high. It cover* 
S600 square yards. Tbe great hall is 161 feet lone, 
72 feet wide, and Tfi feet Bgh. It is richly decorated, 
and contoina one of the largest and most powerful 
orrauis in Europe, also statue* of Edward Bainea 
and Bobert Hall, formerly member* for the borouob. 
There ia also a ooloasal statue of the Queen in uie 
vestibule, and of Wellington in the front of the 
building. Kirkatall Abbey, about three miles frani 
L., was fonoded between 1147 and 1153 by Heaij 



da L«de for tba CitteraUn order of monki. It ti a 
Aim old ruin, mii*Tk»bla for ita rimple gnuideiir 
and unity of dedgn. Adel Church, about four niiles 
from L., ia *n interesting building, erected 1140. 
lf«ar it wu > Bamu) ittttion, where seyeral anti- 

!uitica h>ve been found. The Grammar-achool wu 
nUt in 1859, at a cost oE £13,000. It i> buUt in 
the (bape of a croa in the Gothic Etyle, decorated 
iwriod, and was deaigned by E, M. Bury, Eeq. 
Tlie hoTough jail ii a large caitellatod buildmgat 
Armley, aomirably idaptM for ita purpose. Tbe 
Cora Exchaoge, a handsome buQdinE of an oval 
lomi ; the Puat-office, formerly the Court House, 
near which is a statue of Sir Robert Peel ; the 
Queen's Hotel, recently erected by the Midland 
Railway Company ; the Philosophical Hall, built 
in the Doric order of architecture, and having a 
One museum, Ac The educational institntions 
comprise tlie Mechanics' Institute, founded 1824. It 
possesses a library of 12,000 Tolumes, readine-room 
and lecture-hall, day-schools, and evening cUssea ; 
it haa 1500 members. In connpction with it is the 
School of Art, one of the moat prosperoiia in the 
kingdom, and ciTing instruction in drawing to 3000 
persooB. The Working- Men's Inititute, numbering. 

s, ncwipapeta, indoor and 
outdoor games, refreahmanta at coat-price, all for 
a weekly subscription ot id. Bendea the above, 
there are about twelve smaller institutions for the 

Eromotion of popular instmction. There ia also a 
brary of 30,000 volumes, founded bj* Priestley in 
IT6S. The number of subscribers is limited to 500. 
Among charitable institntioni may be mentioned 
the Iniimi.iry. which is about to be rebuilt on a 
new site from draiKna by George Gilbert Scott, R.A., 
and towards whidi upwards of £66,(100 has been 
■ubscrilied ; the Dispensary ; House of Recovery ; 
Hospital for Women and Children ; Tradeamui's 
Benevolent Society ; Industrial Scbool, and hand- 
some new workhooie ; the Refonnatory at Adel, 
where about 60 juvenile cHminala are usefully em- 
ployed in agricultural and other occupations. L. has 
also a Commercial Newa-ronm, a Stock Exchange, 
two general marketa — one of which ti a hand- 
some structure of iron and gloss — a cattle- market, 
coloured and white cloth holla, three railway- 
atations, seven banks, two theatres, one daily and 
three weekly newspapers. L. sends two members 
to parliament Po|). in 1B6I, 207,165. 

liEEK {Allium Poman ; see ALumi), a biennial 
jdant, and a native of the South of Europe ; with 
no proper biJb at the root, but generally a slight 
increose of the thickoeai of the ibem ; o «t«m obout 
3 feet high, leofy at bottom ; the lesrea obout on 
inch wide ; the Bowers in a large and very dense 
terminal globnlor nmbel, wbicli ia not bulbiferoua. 
It has been long in cultivation, and some of 'the 
rarictiea exhibit tba effects of cultivation in greatly 
jncreased size and delicacy. The lower part of the 
atem. before it haa run up into a flowei^«talk, 
blanched by enrthins up or other means which also 
induce it to swell and extend, is much esteemed for 
colinanr purposes. Ita flavour is much milder than 
that of the onion, or any other apeciea of AQium. 
He L. has long been an especial favourite of the 
Welah ; and much attention has of late W'cn paid 
to ita cultivation in some parts of Scotland. It is 

and dry soiL Oardeneis often transplant seedLas 
leek*, instead of merely thinning out the originu 
rows ; and sometimes make deep holes for them 

LEEK, a mannfaeturiiw aod market-town of 

England, in the county of Stafford, 24 miles n<R4- 
nortb-esat of the town of that name. The parish 
church dBt«a originally from 11811, ood the towa 
containa alao numerous edncatiooal and benevolent 
institationa Pop. (1861) lO.IHfi, who are employed 
chiefly in the nunufacture of aiUl goods. 

LEET COUBTS, in English Law, mnn courta 
held in k manor, townahipv or hundred, for local 

LBEU'WARDEN, a town of the NetherUnds. 

capital of the province of Friesland, in a rich and 
extensive plain, on the Hariingen and GriJaingen 
Canal, 16 mQea eoat-north-eaat of Hariingen. It 
oontaina a handsome town-hall, an ancient palace 
of the Princes of Orange, and many cburchm. 
Numerous canals intersect the town. L baa a 
society^ for the investigation of Frisian history, 
antiquities, and language, and another for the study 
of natural histoiy. Linen fabrics and paper are 
manufactured, and a trade in horses is carried on. 
Pop. 24,461. 

THOHT TAH, One of the earliest microscopic observers, 
was bom at Delft, in HolUnd, in 1632, and died in 
the aome town in 1723. llie compound miemteop*, 
as it existed in bis time, was very imperfect, and 
subject to many errors, which induced L. to em[>tov 
only rimpU microtcopa, that is to say, very miidl 
lenses of short focal lengths, which were flxed 
between two plates of metal that had been pierced 
with a ve^ narrow opening. He bequeathed to 
the Royal Society of London (where Uiey are catv- 
fully preserved) a collection of these microaco|>ea. 
It was in the PiutotofAical Trantactioii4 of this 
Society, to which he contributed 112 papers, that 
most of his observations were orieinally published. 

Amongst the most imjiortant m his inveatigntinna 
may be mentioned a Memoir communicated to the 
Royol Society in 1690. in which he discovered, ond 
clearly demonstrated, the continuity of the ortiries 
and veins through intervening capillaries, and tbua 
afforded ocular demonstration of the trath of 
Harvey's views regarding the circulation ; he alao 
examined the structure of the crystalline lens ami 
of the brain. He is jierhapa most generally known 
as the discoverer of the Rol\fer4, and as beinj tha 
first to recognise the property which these animals 
possess of alternately dying and being resuacitatcil, 
according *s they are dried or provided with tlie 
water ueceasary for the maintenance of their vitality. 

His writin;^ were collected and pabliohed m 
Dutch at Lcyden and Delft in seven 4to volumes, tha 
publication eitendiuff from 1686 to IT32. A Latin 
traniiation, under ^e title of O/iera Omnia, aeu 
Arrana NaturtE, was publiebed at I^yden in 1792; 
and an EoglisU translation woa publiahed bv Mr 
Samuel Hoole, in two 4to volumes, in 1798 -18(KX 


LBBWAT. Wken a ship is steering in • direc- 
tion AB, and a Btn>ng wind la blowing as indicated 
by the arrow, the ship's aotiial course ia tha result- 
ant of two forces, one represented by her headway 
locomotive power], the other l^ the foiee nrt^g 

Hut angle tepnaenta the leeway ; and the BiM>ant 



4 ai«d lott io lesward in a given diatance uiled 
■ it»a b; tbs aide of tbe triuule iubtending this 
■i^ la all compatatioiia of uia coara« puraued, 
ilbnaer W to be made for leawaj. Some ahipa, 
B riwahlf WEstheT, nuke acarcely May perceptiblB 
Ittnj. irhik bwl saileca fall off as mucii M aevea 
fiatt of Uic compaaa. 

LXnBrRE, FxAKfOia Jdbktb, Doke of DsnziK 
u) UBikal of France, ma bora at RnffiKh, in 
Abn, SSth October 1755. He entered the annj 
H tkc aiie of eigtiteen, and tu a aergeant in the 
Fiadi Cturda vhco tbe ReTolntion broke oat. 
Oi (he dinoliitiaD of bta regiment, he wu 

LEO, Teb. oompriaea ail tlut part of the lowei 
Aremity which Eea between the knee and the 
aokle. It coiuista of two batiea, the tibia and 

1 two 

I the 

/ of reoderiDg important help __ ._. 
Tint Euilj. There waa alwaj'a aamethiDgJcallant 
atl kuBuie in the vaioar of Lefebrre. He loac 
a ngk with wonderful rajjiditr. He took part 
nk Bnupvte in the eoup dftat of the 18th 
tkiBiin, and it waa he who, at the head 
^naiiicn. bnrst into the hall of the Council of 
fin Haadi^ and reacned hia fainting chieL 
IM, be waa nude a Manhal of the Empire, 
tte battle of Jena, he commanded the infantry of 
tk Onuda. He alao conducted the aiege of Danzig, 
■Jaflcr its captnre was created Doke of Danzig. 
Bi dbtingmahed faimaelf in the early part of the 
fta b wU r War, bat waa recalled to Qennany, 
ikn In waa invested with tbe command of the 
lamiaD anny, and auppreaaed the 
Ac TjToL Daring the Bnsaian campaign, he had 
^ wnmand of tih« Imperial Qnard, and in 1814, 
ri Ik kft wing of the anny which reaiated the 
■4nacc gl the aOiea in Frane«. Submitting to the 
laAnia after N^wJeon'a abdication, tie waa made 
\jm. He died 14th September 1820. 

IITKOSI'A, called alao Nieosi'a. andent Leu- 
nai, capital of the Tnrkiah ialand of Cypnu 
^T.|, ii aitnated in a plua auiTounded by moun- 
a>^ about 3S milea inland from Famagnata Bay. 
I> it anoQndcd by walla 3 milea in circumference. 
ni antrtaina aareral bnildinga of intereat, aa the 
^afal, nmr tbe moMoa of St Sophia, the chnrch 
i Si Nkbdas, mod the goremora palace. The 
tap if C^ivna of the Lnaignan dynaaty redded 
kae Caheo-pcintinK, tanning, and ailk-Wearing 
R tk> princmal am^ymenta of the inhabitanta. 

LEPOBT. FsAVtoiB, aon of Jacqnea Lefort, 
■■111 of the Qrand Conneil of Geneva, waa bom 
■ Oewnia ISSfl. He waa deacendad from an old 
Saul taiDUy that had been settled there for a een- 
tiT. aad membo* of which atiU exist at Geneva. 
iai aerring for aome lime in the French and 

"^"^ '— ' ot to Boaaia, where he obtained 

...a in the army. He fought with 
t the Tnrka and Tartan under 
£o{ Brnpadanofaki, and took an active 
lirt in On iDtrigtMa which placed Peter the Great 
* Aa IhtoDe. The etaz never forgot L., who 
boaa kia diief favourite, and, next to Peter, tbe 
M* inpwlant peiaonage in Buama. He waa a 

■ rfgnat aenteneaa and abili^. He remodelled 

nteneaa and abili^. 
ay.Bnd abo laid the 

.,^. .0 enooanae mauufacturea, 

■'tepnmote the improvetDent of agriculture, and 
^(ncd for atrangon aootain nuaaure of toleration 
-* — " . In 1694, be waa made Grand 

Sbula (see Skeleton and Foot), and of n 
muaclee (together with nervea and vesaela) which 
are held in Uieir pooition by coveringa of fascia, and 
are enveloped in the general integument. 

The ahaft of the tibia ia of a triangular pHa* 
moid form, and pmenta three anrfaoea and three 
bordera. The internal surface is amooth, convex, 
and broader above than below ; except at ita upper 
third, it lies directly under the akin, and may b« 
readily traced by the hand. The external and the 

Crior Biirfacea are covered by nnmerous mnsdee. 
mnacnlar maas forming the calf (Formed by 
the gaiiToentimvt, loleui, and plantarii moaclea) la 
pecidiar to man, and ia ditectly connected with 
hia erect attitude and hia ordioarf mode of pro- 
greanon. The anterior border of the tibia, the most 
prominent of the three, ia popolarly known aa Oie 
ahm, and may be tntced down to the inner ankle. 

The fibula, or amall bone of the teg, liea on the 
oater aurface of the tibia, and articulates with il< 
npper and lower extremities, and with the aatiagalua 
inferiorly. It affords Htta<^mien<a to many ■» the 
mUBclea of this region. 

This re^on ia nounahed by the anterior and pos- 
terior tibW arteries into which tie popliteal artery 
separates. Both these arteries occasionally require 
'' ''1 tied by the surgeon in casea of wouuds or 
iam. Itie blood ia returned towards the heart 
hy two acta of veina— the deep, which accompany 
the arteriea, and tbe euperiicial, which are known 
as the internal or long sapbanoua, and the external 
short saphenous veina. These auperficial veina 
I very liable to become permanently dilated or 
ricose (a condition tbe nature and treatment 
of which are considered in the article Varicosi 
Vdhs), if there ia any impediment to the free 
tranamiaaion of the blood, or even from the mere 
weight of the asoendin^ column of blood, in peiaona 
whose occupation rc«]iiues continuous standing. 
"^ ~ nervea of the leg, both sensory and motor, 
ived from the great sciatic nerve and from 
linal branches, tbe internal popliteal and tbe 
external popliteal or peroneal nerve. 

' 1 cases of fracture or brottn teg, the two bonea 
more frequently broken together than singly, 
and the most oommon situation is at the lower 
third. The tibia ia more often broken bf itaeU 
than the Qbula, in consequence of ita austainmg tha 
whole weight of the body, while the fibula baa 
nothing to support. 

LEGACY is a bequest or gift contained in tiie 

will of a deceased person of a chattel or sum of 

money or other thing. In England, it is provided 

by statute that if a l^acy ia given to the witnesa of 

ill, or to hia or her wife or husband, the legacy 

roid j therefore, a legatee should nevra' act aa a 

nesa. 3o beqnesta to auperstitions uses are void, 

for example, to maintain a priest, or an aoniver- 

Bai7 or obit, or a lamp in a church, or to aay massea 

for tho testatur'a soul, or to circulate pjuuphleta 

inculcating the pope'a aupremacy. Legaciea of 

money for charitable puqMMies, aa far the use of 

schoola, churchea. &c,, are valid, but if the money ia 

directed to be laid out in tbe purchase of land for 

such nurposei, the legacy ia void by what is called 

the Mortmain Act (q.v.), 9 Geo, IL c 36. The 

policy of this statute haa often of late been quea- 

tioned, and it ia enongh to say that there is a mode, 

often practised, of evading it 

'■'^acies are divided mta specific and generaL 

ipecific l^acy means a legacy of a spscifis 

thing, aa a particular horse, picture, silver-plate 

to, or a Bum of atock in the funda. A geneift. 



legany meuu a lum of money, irithoat layiDg 
<Ktt of what fund it ii to come, uid it a pftnble 
oat of the BHets genenllj. The important differ- 
ence between tha two kinds of legtcj is thia, th&t 
if the « abject- matter of the iptdfio legacy fail, 
a* if the hone die or be preriondy lold, ftc., the 
l^acy is giine, and no compenaation ia given for " 
while, on the other band, if there ia not enou^ 
to pay all the general legaciea, then they mutt 
abate— that ia, ahare tiie Ion — whereai the ipecifla 
legacy, if it exist, must ttill be paid in fnlL Thns 
Me various ralea of groat nicety and intricacy oon- 
nected with the proper oonatniction of legaciee in a 
will, which are too technical to be noticed. It ia 
k general rale applicable to all legacies, that they 
are only payable tf there is money enotu;h for the 
purpose, after paying all the testator's deMa, for the 
maiim ap|i1in, that a man must be just before he is 

eenerous. The rale ia, that a legaey is not payable 
y the executor till ■ year has elapsed sAer the 
testator's death, for it is presumed he reqnim this 
time to inqaire into the state of the property ; and 
this is true even though the testator has ordered 
the legacy to be i»id within «x months after the 
death. Ii a legacy ia left to an infant under twenty- 
one, it cannot be paid to the father, or any otJier 
lelation, withont the sanction of the Court of 
Chancery. If a legacy is left to a married wo 
the husband is entitled to claim it, unless it ii 
to her separate use, or unless she is aniwovided 
for by tha husband ; in which case, the Court of 
Chancery will order the aroount, if eiceeding £200, 
to be settled upon her eiclusively. Interest is dne 
on legacies from the time when the principal eom 
is payable— L e., one year after the death— nnleas 
otherwise specified. If the legatee die before the 
testator, the legacy lapses —that is, becomes void ; 
bat there are somn exceptions, as where the lentee 
is a child or grandchild of the testator. — In Scotland, 
the niles as to legadei are mainly the same, but not 
entirely. The details are too t«chntcal to require 
notice here. See Faterson's Compeadiam <^ Englak 
and ScutcA Lam, p 233. In Scotland, a leeacy can 
be enforced in aii months after the testatoi^s death, 
and bean interest from such de^th. If a legacy is 
left to a mairied woman, the husband is now in 
general bound, as in Endand, to settle it on the 
wife, by the statute 24 and 2S Vid c 86. 

Id tbe United Kingdom, a legacy or aueceasion 
duty is levied on the amount of all leaocies (eioept 
to husband Or wife). Children and issue, also 

Sirents and anceatoia, pay one per oent. duty ; 
rotheis and sisteia, and their issue, pay three per 
cent; ; anclei and aunta, and their isane, pay Dve 
per cent ; srandundes, &c., and their issue, nay sii 
per oent Strangers in blool, and diatant relatiTea, 
also illegitimate children, pay ten per oent 

Iaw, means the right oE redemptiou of an adjudica- 
tion oi heritable property, equivalent in England to 
equity of ledemptioa of a tenant in tUgiL 

LEGATE, the name of the ambanador or repre- 
•entative, whether temoorarv or permanent sent by 
the pope to a particular dmrck In the ancient 
church, we meet many examples of officials, called 
in Greek apoeruiarioi, and in lAtin raponialta, at 
the court of Constantinople ; but their commission 
was commonly temporary, and granted for some 
niecial object In the later constitution of the 
Cburch, three claosea of legates are distinguished : 

1. Ltgati a loJcre, 'legaten despatched from tbe 
tide ' of the ponti^ who are commonly cardinals ; 

2. Lcaati misii, called also ' apostoliu nuncios,' and 
ineluojng a lower grade calleid ' intemuodos ;' 3. 
Ligaii noli, ' L^taa born,' whose office ia not 

personal, but is attached by aao . _ 

usage to the see or other ecclesiastical dignity 
which thef hold. Of the lart cUsa then wer« 
examplea m moat national chutchea ; thua, the 
Bishop of Theasalonioa waa legate bom for lUyri- 
com, the Bishop of Arlea for Gaul, the Bishop of 
Maioi for Qermany, the Bishop of Toledo (though 
his claim waa often disputed^ ror Spain, tbe Bishop 
of Canterbury for England, ka. This institntioii, 
however, has gone entirely into abeyance ; a=J, 
indeed, the authority of legates is much modiAed in 
the modem church. In the medieval timed, the 
legate claimed full papal jurisdiction in the country 
aasigned to him, even overruling the local jurisilio- 
tion of the bishops of the national church. Tbil 
led to many disputes ; to refusals to receive legates, 
aa in France, where the legate waa ohliged to 
wait at Lyon till his credentials should have bren 
examined and approved at oourt ; and to counter 
legislation, as in Ensland, to the statute of 16 
Richard IL, commonly known aa the Statute of 
Premunire ; and the Council of Trent removed 
the groimd of contention by abolishing all inch 
claimi to local jurisdiction as trenched upon tha 
authority of tbe bishops. The legate, in tbe modem 
church, is little other than the ambassador, mainly 
for spiritual purposes, of the pope. He ia held aa 
belonging to the diplomatio body, and by the usage 
of Coolie courts enjoys precedence o[ all other 
ambassadon. The legates at the second-rate courta 
have the title of inltmuncia. Legates are com- 
monly hishops or archbishopa, in pariifmt iajtilrlium. 
The establiahment of a nunciature at Munich, in 
178S, led to an animated controveray. In the 
pope's own states, as they existed before tbe late 
revolution, the governors of the Legatious (aea 
Italt, PaFAj. Statie) were called Ugattt. 

LEGATO (ItaL eiol), in Music, means that the i 

notes are to be played as if bound or tied together, 
or in such a manner that tbe one note is as it wem i 
rounded off, or flows into tbe following one. Many 
;:iaiis think that legato paasages should W 
played slower, which is a great mistake. Wherever | 
Ltgalo is marked, either as tbe character of the 
'bole piece, or only over a part ol tbe notee, it ia | 
le sien that tbe music reijuirea to be pcrfonued ' 
I a flowing manner, and without any intermptioa i 
between the striking of the notes. 

LBOATUM BEI ALIE'N.£, in the lUanao , 
Law, is the legacy of a thing which doea not belon~ 
to the testator. In England and Ireland, sucb a I 
legacy ia simply null and void ; but in Scotland, tbo I 
Roman law has been adopted, by which, if the 
testator knew the thing bequeathed waa not his ' 
own, the executor is bound to purchase aomcthing I 
''■^ as compensation to the l^iatee. { 

LBOEIfD (Lat Ugtnda, things to be ra^l. 
lessons) was the name giTsn in esfly timw. im tbe ' 
Roman CathoLc Churc^ to a book containing tbe 
daily lessons which were wont to be read aa a part 
of cuvine service. Then the narratives oi tbe Ixvtm 
of saints and martyrs, as well aa the oolleotioDa »f 
such narratives, reoetved this nama, because tbe 
monks read from them at matins, and after dinner 
in the refectories. Such legenda ware also ioaerteil 
ia the breviaries (see Bkcvurt), in order that 
they might be read on the festivals of the saints 
and martyrs. Among the medieval coUeotioiia of 
legenda, that drawn up by the Oeooeae srobbiihop. 
' 'ma de Vorasine. in the second half of the l.liL 
uler tiie tiUs of Legtnda Anna (the Goldra 
Lc^nds), or HiaUiria LomiiarduM, is tbe moat oele- 
brated. But the most oompreheuatre and valomLle 
work on the anbjact ia that oomaenoed by tfa> 
Bollandista (q.v.) is the 17th o.— Ada StmOor^m 



jiem tnad, auisd themselires 

w<aid«rftil, esig^entioi. .. 
tioal enthniuim, at time* even 

' thna narrK- 

inrh«Mtir«l biatar^; uti thai the word 'legenda' 
iks KTTes to •cpuBte reliirioiii from aeciilar tndi- 

it debated the peoaantiy of medieial Europe. 

^^ IB tbia •enae of the word, u ipiritnal 
■r irdwiBttical ngM, are found not oolf ia the 
BHn CaUxdie, bat b1k> in the Greek Chnreh, and 
fear eri^ T«aDhe* bwk to the earlieaC agee of 
CInMBDity — ChhM himwl^ the Yir^n, Jo^ tii« 
BkrtiBt. the BiKMtlee,- uul other promineiit pereoni 
ti &e goqiel biitory having become, at a very early 
pHrind, cbe aabject of them. But this tendency 
to Bjtbic embelliahment shewed itself more eepe- 
daDj in refjanl to Mary, the later saints, martyn, 
mi holy men and womcEL From the ecclesiastical 
itrnliii I of the Eaatem and Westera Churches, 
t^nially of the latter, the legends also found an 
MtnBOQ into the naliimai literature of Cliriatian 
Batiia Anwog the Germans, this was very 
mmArdlj the cue after the second half of the 
ISA c iUtbaagti apecameiis of legeudory poems are 
Ht attogrtbcr vanting at an earlier period. We 
■•T owntioo, for example, tbe KaiKrchmaii (Impe- 
tiai Cfarooicle), where the legendary element forms 
a *ery important part of the whole; and Werner's 
•cnified JforioiMa* (Life of Haiy), written in 
1173k A(x The aathon of theae works were eccle- 
■■liia ; hat alreuly Uymea. too, had appeared 
■ the aame field. The poetic vergioni of the 
kgrad U -St Onrald and that of Pilate nprnng 
Inm this claH ; and in the following age, when the 
■edicral poetry of Oermany was in its richest 
Uonm, and the fnatetera of the poetic art were 
■■per on and priacea, rather than eccleaiastica, the 
iBpad was employed by laymen an a jgnnd scale, 
■a the aubjart-nutter of epic narratives. Thua, 
HartDiann von Aue (q. v.] worked up into a poem 
Ac religioua legenda about Gregory ; Konrad von 
hascabronnen, those concerning the > childhood of 
ls»is .' Bodolf von &Da, those about 'Barlaam and 
Iiwipbit ' (gv.) 1 and Beinbot von Duma, thoae 
aboot 'St GeDTEe.' Between the 14th and Iflth 
ecmtsiiea, legends in prose began also to appear, 
mA aa Hermann von Fritilar^ Ton lUr IlfUigeit 
LAok (written about 1343), and gradually sup- 
ilaBted the others. Finally, in the 16th c, when 
FiotesitaDtiam b^in to powerfully influence the 
wbaieof Geiman bteratnre, the legend disappeared 
fr«a GcmMH poefay, or paaled over into the moral- 
Wii til •»! ako the oomio narrative, in which 
«■■ it «M employed t^ H>B* S*ohs with the 
'--■ 1 attempta have been 


efhot. ifumer 


s wbo clearly appMheaded the poetic 

-' -a of the dd Cbriatian legend 

d siBW his day, many German 

Bpie, the 'BMnoatio Sohool'— have 

d to give tlwM k new embodiment. 

LBQBSIJRB, Aram Mabik, aa eminent 

hneh mrtbwnatinisn, bora at Paris in 17fi2. He 

sMsBed, in 1774 

■ tte liilitary 8 

VM emfdinrad by tb* FVeneb govonment, aloDc 
«itt faaiiii aad If aohMD, ia inaataring * dMtee M 
Nilaili . and waa ehoaai to perform the oalonMion* 
tfhr the work of obaemrtioa had been finiahed. In 
UN, he was unraioted 1^ the uaperial govenunaot 
w m ii kui lor Me of tba nnivanily, and after (be 

second Restoration, an honoraty member of tlia 
Commisuon for Public Education, and chief of the 
committee of Weights and Measures. But becaose 
in so election to a place in the Academy he did not 
vote tor the ministerial candidate, he was deprived, 
in 1824, of his pension of 3000 franca. He died 
9th Jannary ISSa L. is the author of Thforii 
dra tiOB^/ret and Eltmentt lU Otornttne, and par- 
tionlarly distiaguisbed himself by bis investigation 
of the difficult subject of the attraction of the 
elbptio q)heroid, and of a method for determining 
the paths of ooineta. 

LBOER-LINES, in Music, the name of those 
short lines above or below the staff which are used 
to express those notes which extend beyond thn five 
lines of the staff. 

LVrGHORN (ZAvomo), one of the chief Meilitei^ 
ranean se^xOTa, ia a dty d Toacany, in the modem 
province of Uvomo, SO milea west-south-west of 
Florenoe. and 14 milea sauth-soutb-weat of Pisa ; 
lat «• a? 7' N., lona llf 17' 7" K. ; pop. 78.860, 
including about 8000 Jews, who posseea a consider- 
able portion of the commercial watlth of the place. 

I. is one of the leading emporiums of trade in 
Italy, and enjoys the advantage of being a free port, 
to whioh oiicumstauos it owes its extensive import* 
trade both with England and France : in no conti* 
Dental town are the manufactures of these countriea 
to be found on a larger soole or at a more modemte 
cost. The average annual import and export trade of 
L. amounts to about £6,000,000, upwards of 10,000 
veeaela being employed for tba transport of the vari< 
oua oommoditiea of tbia traffic The town is partly 
inteneoted with oanaU, by which meruhaniUse la 
nnveyed from the harbour to the numerous ware- 
ousea of the city. The port consists of an inner 
nd outer harbour, the latter being sbeltered by a 
lole, which projects into the sea upwards of half 
mile, cioae to the great light-house. To secora 
Haeaaed shipping aocommodation, a new harbour 
baa been lately conatructed for the reception of 
veaaala of oonaideiaUe tonnage. The roadstead, 
which is oafiaaioua, liee weat-north-weat of the 
barboDT, and ia protected by towen and a oaatK 
On an iaUnd tontb of the harbour itauds the 

The population oomnuea native* of many clime* 
Turks, Moora, 4c), wluMe 

eaqas appearance to the [dace. This ooncoorae of 
strangers ia further enlarged in the summer season 
by a great inftnx of native and foreign viiitoia, who 
resort to L. for its baths and mino^ spring*, Uie 
latter of which enjoy high medical repute. Tba 
'n itself ia chiefly of modem origin, and deatituta 
the grand historical associations and -l"W''«l 
monuments which ioveet moat Italian cities with 
'lest interest ; its &ne Mediterranean ait^ 

__— aspect, and p™^ oonuneroial life, are its 

principal attractioDS. The streets are regular and 
well paved, but narrow, and in consequence of being 
" ' ' by high houses, they are for the most pan 
' ;l(xnny. Tim diurcbes a 

Maitv of the private dwellinga of L. are tasteful 
abd nxoHotu, uid charming villas abound in tha 
envituM. The public inatitafiooi ate well organised, 
and inchide three hospital*, an observatory, a poor- 
bouae, and a tree UbrMT. The cirvnit of the town 
ba* been lately mneh extended by the demolition 
<A <dd.fortifioa(Mna, and the extension of the bairien 
or city walla. The mannfaotures of L. are varJon* 
and important; it po*Beas«a great factorie* of oil, 
tefaaoao, soap, salt, and the well-known liqueur 
RotDlio ; its ■^■■t'"''"'^ and dyeing works are 
also celebrated. Ita chief expend are law and 



BiuiiifKctai«d nlki, Btnw-hata And gtmr-plaiting, 
oil, &nitH, bonx, cheese, snchoTiea, niarbls, tulphur, 

■ndoonU Its importacompnw colonUl produce, rnw 
■ad nuDufactDred oottoa, sad Wool, cutlery, hard- 
wsre, metallic gondi, earthenware, and aalted finh. 

TowanlH the end of the 13th u., L, wai an uopro- 
teet«d village, which only auuroed Kane importance 
on the deetruction of the port oF Pisa, and eapedally 
on ita beine aasigned to Florence in 1421. Alea- 
■andro del Medici constructed its citadel and forti- 
fied the town ; Cosmo L declared it a free port, and 
from that time dates the rise of its prosperity. In 
the nth c, under Ferdinand L, it was a towo of 
ereatcommercial importance; and during the French 
imperial occupatioa of Italy, Li was proclainied the 
chief town of^the departmeat oE the Mediteoanean, 
Since 1830, L. has taken a foremost part in the 
revolutionary life of Italy. 

LBOION, in the Eoman military tntsnt, ooirei- 
ponded ia force and organiaatioo to what ia modera 
times we should call a corju ^armSe. It differed ia 
constitution at different periods of Roman history. 
Id the time of the Repuhlio, a legion comprised i500 
men, thus divided : 1200 kaiiati, or inezperienoed 
troma ; 1200 prindpe*, or well-trained soldiers ; 
ISOu vtliles, or ikirmiahera ; 600 triarii, or pUaTti, 
Tetorans forming a reserve ; and 300 eguUa, kuigbta 
who acted as cavalry, and belonged to families of 
rank. During this period the legions were formed 
only for the season ; standing annies being of later 

The hnstati, principea, and triarii formed three 
Mparate Lues, each divided into 10 manipla or 
companies, of 120 men each in the case of the two 
front lines, and of 60 men in the triaiiL A maaiple 
was commanded by a centurian or captain, who 
had a second-centurion, or lieutenant, and two sub- 
ofScers, or sergeants, under him : as non-commia- 
1 officers, there was a decanus, or coqiorol, to 

itof te 

L These 

of each line commanded that Lne, and had therefore 
functions corresponding to a modem lieutenant- 
coloneL The primipilui, or senior centurion of the 
taiarii, was the most important regimental officer, 
and commanded the legion in the absence of the 
tribunes. The 300 cavalry formed a regiment of 
ten turma, or troops of 30 horsemen, each under 
three daurioiu, of whom the senior had the com- 
mand. The velites were light troops, not forming 
part of the line of biLttle ; had apparuotly no officen 
of their own ; and were attached to the 3Q maniples 
xn equal proportions. The HtaQ* of the legion con- 
sisted of six tribunes, who managed the paying, 
quartering, provisioning, &c. of the troops, and wbo 
oomoianded the le^on in turns for a period each of 
two months. This changing ooaunand, although 
iaconvenieut, lasted till the times of the civil wars, 
w len a If/jnlui. or lieutenant-geoefal, was appointed 
K permanent commandant of the legion. 

The offensive weapons of the hastati and principea 
were two barbed iron-headed javelins, one o( which 
was hurled at the enemy on the first onslaught, 
while the other was retained ■■ a defence against 
cavalry. The triarii had long pifcea. In addition 
to these arms, every soldier bore • short, strong, 
cut-ond- thrust, two-edged sword. The l^onariee' 
defensive armour consisted of plumed helmet, breast- 
plate, iron-bound boot for the right leg, and a semi- 
cylindrical shield i feet long by S} brood. The 
Telitea hod no defensive armour, were lightly armed, 
■nd in action usually operated far flanking puiposes. 
Each maaiple bore an ensign aloft, and each legion 
bad its distinguishing eaglB. Dp to the time of 
Mariua, service in a legion waa sooght as honourable 
oucupatioD, and tnen of Mma meant wera alone 
ei^rile ( but Mariui ealiated alaTsa, and turned 

the legioni into corps of a purely mercenoi^ imy. 
At the same period, tiie manipular formation woa 
abolished, the three lines were assimilatsd, aod 
the legion was divided into 10 cohorts, each of 3 
maniples. Soon the cohorts were raised to OHO 
men, making the legion 6000 infantry beaidea cavalry 
and velitea. It waa ranged in 2 lines of S oohorta 
each ; but Crasar altered the formation to 3 linea, of 
respectively 4, 3, and 3 cohorts. 

During the later Empire, the legion beesxoe com- 
plex and DnnuwBgeable ; many sorts of arms being 
thrown together, and bolistie, catapulta, and onager* 
added by way of artillery. Having so degentriird 
from its pristine simplicity and completeneM, tb* 
legionoty formation was soon overthrown unid tb* 
incimions of tils victorious barbariana 

LBQION, Thi Thdhdkrin'o (LaL Lrgia Fulmi. 
tutrix), a legion of the Roman army which is tba 
subject of a well-known miraculona legend. During 
Marcus Aurehua's war with the Marconuuiiu (174 
A.I}.), his army, according to this narrative, being 
shut up in a mountainous deSIe, was reduced to 

Christiana, not only waa rain sent seasonably to 
relieve their thiiat, hut this rain was turned upon 
the enemy in the shape of a fearful thunder- 
shower, under cover of which the Bomans attacked 
and utterly routed them. The legion to which 
these soldiers belonged was thence, according to 
one of the narrators, called the Thundering Legion. 
This legend haa been the subject of much contro- 
veisy; and it ia certain that the lost told circum- 
stance at least is false, as the name ' thundering 
leuion' existed long before the date of this story. 
There would appear, nevertheless, to have been 
some foundation for the story, however it may 
have been embellished by the pious zeal of the 
Christians. The scene is represented on the column 
of Antoninns. The event is recorded by the pagan 
historian Dion Cassius (liii. S), who attribute* it 
to Ei(yptian sorcerers ; and by Capitiilinus and 
Themistius, the latter of whom stenbea it to tb* 
prayers of Aiirelius himself. It ia appealed to by 
the nearly contemporary TertuUian, m his Apoiojf 
(c. 5), and is circumstantially related by Eusehius, 
by Jerome, and Orosius. It may not improbably 
be conjectured, suppoaing the sutatantial truth at 
the narrative, that the fact of one of the luions 
being called by the name ^ laundering ^ may hava 
the localising of the story, and that it may 


. the circumstance. 

LBOION OP HONOUR, an otder of merti 
iiutitiit«d under the French Repnbhc in 1802 by 
the First Conanl, as a recompense for militai; and 
civil services. It waa ostensibly founded for the 
protection of repubtican principles and the laws of 
equality, and for the abolition of differences of rank 
in socie^, ev^ social grade being equally eligible ; 
but its real um doabtleas was, by pipularising the 
idea of personal distinction, to pave the way for 
the establishment of the Empire and of the mora 
exclusive titles of nobility that were to accompany 
it The proposal for its institution waa at tiist 
violently oppoeed by the legislative body and the 
tribunate, oa democratic grounds, and carried even- 
tually by a narrow majority. 

TIu order originally omnprised three rlswia 
Qrand OfScers. Commanders, aod Legionariea. The 
class of Qrand Officers was, od the oomnation of 
Napoleon L. divided into Knights of th« Otand 
" ' [the highest class), and Grand Offioetc On 
of the Bourbons, Um Legico waa 




rfoMt * Tie doMical ivmbol at the uUiid of SiaHf 
(TriDMTik) wu fbimra of thne lukked legi Biiiii- 
Urly coDJoioed, mod the tripIe-mouDtkined lale ot 
UftD might hftTB kwskeiHKl in its Nomuu tovenigOM 
■ome reooIIectioDS of tbeir Medileiranoui cnuiileiitBi' 

LB'OtTHB ILfgutnm], in Botany, ■ frnit eonsitt- 
ing of ■ nngle carpel, two-valved, aad with the 
•eeds — one or many — attached to the ventnl mture 
only. It il commonly called a pod, and occnn in 
moct of the flpeciea of the great natural order 
Leguninata (q, v.), of vhich the Boan and Pea are 
familiar ezamplea. The lepiime generally opena 
when ripe, and then both by the doraal and Tentral 
autnre ; whereai the foliieU, which nearly resemblei 
it, openi by a mtoTe along ita face, and it one- 
Talved. A lew l^nmea do not open, bat the «atui«* 
■re present. Seme are divided by trsDivene par- 
titifms {diapimgnu) ; and tiie kind c^led a fonicn- 
turn is contracted in the apacei betwixt the leeda, 
and separate* into pieoeB instead of opening. 

The seedi of most legnminotu plants (peaae, beans, 
lentila, Ac), and of the sweet and bitter almond, 
contain a proteine or albiiminouB body, whicli in all 
its esseutial proi>er(SeB correspoiids with the caseine 
of milk. For example, it i» precipitated (com its 
BalutiLins by r«nnet, acetic acid, alcobol, Ac. aad a 
not custpilated by boiling ; while, aa in the cue of 
milk, the application of beat oocaaions the focnution 
of a pellicle on the surface. The afBnity of the 
two kmds of oaaeine is further shewn by the fact, 
that cheeae ia made by the Chinese from pease 
and beans. 

In order to obtain legnmine, pease, beans, or lentils 
are well soaked in hot water, and after being 
reduced to a pulp, are mixed with a considerable 
quantity of water. The starch, membranes, Ac, 
toon sink to the bottom, and the lei^imine must be 
precipitated by acetic acid from the decanted or 
altered fltiid. Dry pease contain about one.fourth 
of their weight of legnmine. 

LEQUHUrO'S^ (Fabacto! of Lindley), a great 
natural order of eiogenoui plants, containing her- 
baceous pUnta, sbnibs, and trees, many of them of 
Uie greatest magnitude. The leaves are alternate, 
usually compound, and have two stipules at Uie 
base of tbe leaf-stalk, which often sc>on fall off. 
The iuftorescence is varioua The calyx is inferior, 
5-parted, toothed or deft, the tegmenta often 
nnequal. The petals are 5, or. by al>ortinn, fewer, 
inserted into the base of the calyx, usually imequal, 
often Papilioaaceou* (q. v.). The stanieDa are few or 
many, distinct or variously Qnited. The ovary ia 
l-ceUed, generally of a single carpel ; the Style 
simple, pioceeUinK from the upper margin, the 
stigma smiple. Tbe fruit ia either a Legume (q. r.) 
or a Drupe (q.T.). The aeeda are anlitary or nomer- 
ous, occasionally with an aril, often curved : tbe 
cotyledons very lor^^ — There ate three aub-ordsn : 
1. Popilionatrtr, with papilionaceous flowen ; 2. 
Oafttlp'uita, wiUi irrefjuW flowen and spreading 

' Js ; 3. itmotea, with unall r^{ular flowen. — 
I natural order oantains almost 7000 known 

- jies, of which about 600(1 belong to the sub-order 
Papiilonaeia. They are spread over all parts of the 
world, from the equator to the poles, but their 
number is greatest in tropical and aub.tropical 
regiona They are applied to a great variety of 
purposes, and some of them are of great importance 
in domestic economy, the arts, medicine, to. To 
this order belong tbe Bean, Fea, Kidney-bean, and 
all kinds of jndte ; Clover, Liquorice, Brown, I^bnr- 
Dum, Lnpine, Resna, and many other medicino] 
planta; Tamarind, Logwood, Indigi^ and numyotlien 

This I 
species, o 

which afford dyes, fte. ; tbe Aeada*, Mimom*. Ac 
Many apedes are interesting on aeoonnt ol tbeir 
beauty of form, foliage, or floweta. In the aecda 
of many is found a nitrogenou* substance callod 
Leguit^ne (q. v.} ot VtgttaiM Cataac 

LEI' A, an important tradiuR town of India, !d th« 
Punjab, is situated in a fertile district on the Irft 
bank of the Indus, 60 miles south of Dera Innael 
Khan. I^t. 31° N., long. 71* K Bendes being a 
mart for the nle of the prodtace of the snrrounding 
district, it carries on an extensive transit- trsda 
between the Punjab and the regions west of tba 
Indua. FrovLsions, metals, grain, and ooth>n and 
wool, are the chief articles of sale. Pop. 15,000. 

LEIBNITZ, Oi/rrriuu) Wilhrui voir, periup* 
the most extraordinary example of univ ersal scholar- 
ship upon record, was bom, July 6, 1646, at Leipzit;, 
where his father was professor of law. He juaaeil 
through the elementary studies at the ' Nicholas 
School' of bis native city, under Thomaain*; bat be 
derived much more of the vast store of miocellanenua 
learning which his after-life eiliibits from bis 
private studies in a library to which be had acceos, 
and thus entered the university with peculiar 
advantages, in his 15th year, selectjng the law as his 
profesniou, but devoting himself also to philosophy 
and litemture. He spent some time at tiie univer- 
sity of Jena, and on his return, presented himself 
for the degree in law, for which he composed two 
essays of very remarkable merit. In consequence 
of Ilia youth, however, he was refused the degree at 
Leipzig, and ultimately (in bis 20th year), in 16G6, 
graduated at Altdorf, where be was offereil, but 
declined, a professorship ; accepting in preference 
the post of secretary and tutor in the family of tlic 
Baron von Boineburg, to whom he rendered, from 
1667 tiU 1672, a variety of literary and politico- 
literary services, and Uirongh whose recommen- 
dation he was appointed member of tbe judicial 
council in tbe service of the Arehbishou-elvctar uf 
Uaini. In 1672, he accompanied Boinebiirc'B sona 
to Paris, and there submitted to Louis XIV. an 
essay entitled ContiUum jEgnptiaeum, cootaining 
a plan for tbe invasion of I^pt, which is by 
some supposed tu have led to the Egyjitian 
expedition of Bonaparte in 1798. In tbe conne 
of this tour, which extended also to Lomlon, he 
formed the acquaintance of tbe most eminent 
philosophers of Franca and England, and among 
them of Newton. On the death of the Elector <S 
Mains, L., decUning an appointment at Paris which 
would have neceOBitated nis becoming a Catholic, 
entered the service of the Duke ol Brunswick, 
and followed that prinoe, in 1676, as privy-oonn- 
cillor and librarian, to Hanover, where he per- 
manently fixed his reaidenoe. His litenry aervicee 
to this court were of a very miscellaneoua oharacter. 
After a tour of historical exploration, be prepared 
a series of works illustrating tlie History oC the 
House of Brunswick, seven volumes of which were 
published by himself, and two have been editni 
m our own tune by Dr Fen, Aiuu^tt Imperii Oai- 
dentu BruBtmicatu (1843— 1B45). He undertook 
likewise the scientific direction and organisation of 
the royal mines, into which he introduced many im- 
provements ; and he also, at the deaire of the prinoe, 
took an active part in the negotiations for church 
union, and the theological diaenaaions connected 
therewith, which formed tbe (ubject of a protnOri 
correspondence with the celebrsAed Boswut {q. v.) 
and with M. Felisson, and led to the pr^Mration, on 
his own part, of a very cuiiona exposition of dootriaal 


«■ Mmied to form » IimU of n^otul 

I, berweTa-, were cbieflj' philoaonhical 
1 Hii oormpoDdenoe on Uieae nl ' 
■uive. ud he 

Bnw^ tkmt Prtarthe OiMt, who invited kim to 
■EMB^ at Totgao, Bad beatoved on him > peiuion 
d l<MO iililrn. with the title of prrvy-conncillor, 
«nd tke fUm of the nnoe oekbnted Academy of 
ft Fttaolnrg. Ob the ■ooenon of the Elector 
fiM|C to the crowB of Qntt Bntaia, u Geoi^ L, 
L n dii^^iointed in hii expectation of ifcam- 
•apu; the prinoe to hi* new coart ; nor did he 
Li BTtin thst emt. Hia death, which WM 
i^ ■ ■ ■ ■ " - . 

T BnnpectHl. oocntred at Hanom', Noveml«T 
7lt. Hia bit^T^ihen JDitlT 
DtT waa treated with but lit 

; bat a tanly atone 

ilain that bis 
for their 


■ttst haa b«ai Teeentty offered bjr the erection of 
1 pACe BOOanacDt in hii native city of l«tpEig. 
Ik Kbilanhip of L. aa leganla the vaatneai 
rf id n^e, n probebly ontxampled. He waa 
^■CBt ia luigiUBes, hisbuy, divinity, philow 
liitical ftadiea, expo' 

mtal e 

1 bdla-Ietln& But it is chiefly 
4na^ hia philoeophicil repntation that he lives 
a wcvy. It waald be difficult to coovey, in 
• ptfelar ■*-♦■■*' , a correct notion o{ his philo- 

■ ]aical antem, opedally aa he haa nowhere him- 
arf 1 till 111 Mil 1 it Id the main, he may be deacribed 

■ I CarlBBan, bat be diSeied from Deacartea both 
3 b netbod and in some of hia piinciplea. The 
MC iBifiaTtBBt pemliaritiet of L.'i system may be 
ndxed to fottr : his doctrine as to the Origin of 
I^hii tbeory of Mokajh (q. v.), the ' Pra-estab- 
■tsd HinDOTy',' and the theory of OFmasii (q. v.). 
'i Aese, thice wiH be foond discnaaed under separ- 
M Wadi. tbe Pre-eatablished Harmony requires 
I few wivda of expUnation. The object of this 
■nbr oo^^tion waa to explain the mysterious 
nlen of tbe joint action of mind and body, or 
^« ia gesenl the joint action of any two or more 
i 6r so-called ' monads,' aiuce L. held that no two 
amadi' cobLI act npon each other. Descartes 

W imi lie J this prol 

■9^ whidi attributed all 

Mttaacc of God. ' 

lUem bj his theory of saaist- 
the direct 

dthet , 
M iidipewlrat machines, each having 
^*T*H * " t. tfaoogh simnltaneoiu action ; bnt both 
• nfvlated b]r a harmony preestsbtisbeil by Ood, 
fta their mutoal aetioni sbalt correspond witJi each 
•Arr. tmd ahall occur in exact and infallible unison. 
T^ hiaiiaij L. explained by the example of two 
tarpeeea, oae of which shonld be nuwte to strike 
^ ■ the other pointed to the hour. In the same 
nj, i«t at the moment when the mind freely 
^ ' -- " - particnlar act, the body, by a 
r by God, wiU [rodnce the 
h is required to £iv« efficacy 
> A* vo li t kai of the mind. One of tiie most 
■■M taeadenti in Ute literary and scientific 
■kny sf L., waa his coutrvieisy wiUi Newton 
M b pnefity in the discovery ol the method of the 
^mim. See CaICCTUI, Pluiioxs. h. waa the 
■ nate «f a calcalatiDg-raaeliine, the workii^- 

■«t> «« fint colketed by Dntena, in 6 vols. Ito, 
Cmsm ; hia pUosoellieal works by Haap& Aniater- 
MK ITCT; sod ha> s'Wms at Lausanne and Geneva, 
I «^ «sl IHO. Bat tfaoe collectiona are very 
i^vw^ aftd l«ga ad^Gticas have been made of 

late jrean, both in Germany and b Rwioe, emeciany 
by Dr Guhiaaer, to whom ve are also indebted Ua 
a bicH^aphy. 3ee Leibnitz, Emt BiograpkU, 2 yiA». 
Svo, Breslan, 1842. 

LErCESTER, a town of England, mnnidpal and 
parliamentary borough, and capital of the oounly 
of the same name, is situated on the right bank 
of the Sosr, about 100 milee north- north- west of 
London. It contains numerous interesting churches, 
one of which, St NicboUs. is partly built of bricks 
from an ancient Roman bailding in the vicinity. 
Besides the ecclesiastical edilices, there are a 
number of important educational and benevolent 
institntions. Manufactures of boots and shoes, and 
of woollea and hosiery goods, lace-makinjc, wool' 
combing and dyeing, are extensively carried on. L. is 
the centre of a famous agricultural and wool-raising 
district. There are about twelve fairs aanitally. 
The town of L, returns two members to parliament 
>p. (1861) 6S,03«- 

L, known to the Romans as Rata, derives its 

eaent name either from Leirn, the former name of 

a 3oar,orfram its having been a CiriCas l/tgimiHii, 

Station or camp (Dostni) of the l^iona, vbich 

e Saxons would tnnalate into Legeo-ccaster, 

oorreaponding to the Hritiah or Welah Uaer-leon. 

Under the lancaatrian princes, ita caatle, now almost 

entirely destroyed, was frequently a royal rest- 

denoe. The nuns of the abbey of St Man Pt^ or 

De Pratis, where Cardinal WoUey died, stiU exist. 

LEICESTER, Robert Dddlbv, Ejlbl or, bom 
in 1531, was the son of John Dudley, Duke at 
Northumberland. His father was executed on 
aoconnt of the part which he took in the cause of 
Ladv Jane Qrey, and be was himself imprisoned 
on Uie lame account. He was liberated in 155i; 
and in 155S, on the acoessioo of Eiiiabeth, the dawn 
of his fortime began. He waa made Master of the 
Horse, Knight of the Garter, a Privy-oauncillor, 
High Steward of the university of Cambrid;^, Baron 
Dudley, and Earl of Leicester. For these high 
honeuia, he seems to fve been indebted solely to 
a handsome person and a courtly manner, for the 
coune of hia life shews him to have been possessed 
of not one single quality either of head or heart 
deserving of admiration. When young, he married 
Amy, daughter of Sir John Kobsart. The general 
voice of the times has charged him with being 
acoeasory to her murder ; and it is certain that 
she died suddenly, and very opportunely for his 
ambitious news, he being at that time a suitor 
for the hand of Elisabeth. Bixabeth eave out 
that she wished him to marry Mary of Jutland ; 
but in this the English queen was acting with her 
usiul insincerity. She encouraged L. openly aa a 
nuitor long after his arrogance had dii^;nsted tha 
lobles, and his profligacy had brought him into 
disrepute with the nation. His marriage to Iddy 
Bsaex for a time exeited the anger of hia myal 
'ess. but she anon forgave him. In 158C, be 
into the Low Countries at the bead of a 
military force ; but on this, as on two snbaeqneQt 
oocaaionB, he shewed himself utterly unfitted for 
command. He died suddenly, on September 4, iSHS, 
It was commonly said that he was ptMsoned by hi* 
wife, she having given him a potion which he had 
intended for her. 

LEI'OESTERSHIRB, an inland county of 
Eaaland, lies immediately south of the counties 
of Derby and Nottingham. Ares, S14,I84 acres ; 
pop- 237,412. The surface of the county is oovered 
thiou^out by low hilla. The district in the sonth- 
weet, still called 'Ohamwood Forert,' retains ita 
name, although it is now almoat deatitnte of wood. 
The 'Forest is oooupied by hills, wbioh, though 



J height, »re nigged, distinct, and 

iodividiial in outliae. From the highest of them, 
Bsrtton Hill, 8S3 feet in height, an cxtensivB view 
is obtniDed. Chief rivein, the Trent, which forms 
far a few miles the bonndar; of the county, and 
its offineat the Soar. The climate is mild, and 
the soil, which Tsriea in fertility, ia chiefly loamy. 
Tho richest tracts m tept in paatore, for which 

it^ is famous. Iq all, upwards of 250,000 

.._ I in grass. Oranng, and sheen and cattle 

brcetUng. are carried on with great skill and anccess 
An improved long-horn is the favourite hreed of 
cattle. The 'Stilton' variety of cheiw is for the 
most part made in this county. Coal'mines are 
worked, and gntnite, coarse sUCe, and freeetone are 
qoarried. The ooonty returns four members to 

LEIGH, a small but rapidly increaaini; mantt- 
Cacturing town in I^nciishire, England, a station on 
the Bult«n and liverpool RAitway, is situated 13 
mites west of Mauoheater. Silka. cambrics, muaUns, 
and fiiBtiana, are eitenaively maniifactared ; cotton- 
Spinning and weaving are carried on; there is a 
large foundry, where agricultural implements are 
enteosively made; and in the vicinity are produc- 
tive coal-mine* and flour-mills. J'op. (1861) 5206; 
(ISSl) 10,621. 

LEIGHTON, ROBSRT, Archbishop of Glasgow, 
was bom in Bdiubnrgh, or, as others thinlc, in 
London, in the year 1611. He entered the university 
of the former city in 1627, took his degree of M.A. 
in 1631, and afterwards proceeded to France. Here 
be resided \Fith some relatives at Doun, and 
formed the acquaintance of several Roman Catholic 
students, whose Christian virtues condrmed the 
natural charity of his spirit. L., indeed, could nevcr 
have been a bigot. Gentle, tender, and pious from 
hia earlimt year*, he shrunk from all violence 
and intolerance; bnt his intercourse with men 
whose opinii»is were so different from his own, 
convinced hia reason of the folly and sinfuloeaa of 
' thinking too rigidly ot doctrine.' Returning to 
Scotland, he was appointiid, in 1641, to the parish of 
Kewbattle, near Edinburgh; but he was not mtlitiuit 
enough to please his fierce co-preshytenL They 
appeared to him, who had stiidiM far more deeply 
than any Scotchman of his time the varioua eccle- 
siastical polities of Christiindoin, truculent about 
triSc!!. According to Bishop Burnet, 'he soon came 
to dislike their Covenant, particularly their ini]xiHing 
it. and their fury against all who diHcred from them. 
He found they were not capable of h.r^e thoughts ; 
theirs were narrow aa their tempers were sour ; so 
he grew weary of mixing with them.' Yet we 
cannot altogether ap[irovc the facility with which 
he fraternised with the party that had inflicted 
such horrid cruelties on nis encellent father, I>r 
Aleiaoder Leighton, in 1630, for merely publishing 
a book in favour of Presbyterian ism. In IG52, he 
resi;;neil hia charge, and in the following year woa 
eleetrd Principfti of the university of Edinburgh, a 
dignity which he retained for tea years. Earnest, 
S]nritital, and utterly free from all selfish ambition, 
be lalioiired without ceasing for the welfare of the 
students. After the restoration of Charles IL, L., 
who bail long separated himnelf from the Presby- 
terian party, was. after much reluctance, induced t« 
accept a bishopric He chose Dunblane, because it 
was small and poor. Oufortimately for bis peace, 
the men with whom he was now allied were even 
more intolerant and unscrupulous than the Preaby. 
teriana The despotic measures of Sbarpe and 
Lauderdale sickened him. Twice he proceeded to 
London (in 1665 and 1669) to implore the kini 
adopt a mildOT 

occasions declaring 'that he could not concur i 

planting of the Christian religion itself in such 

iodure the misery of seeing an eccleaiasticBl 
system which he believed to be intrinsically the 
hest, perverted to the worst of pnrposea, and himself 
the accomplice of the worst at men. In 1670, on 
the resigDBtion ot Dr Alexander fiumet, h« was 
made Archbiihop Of Glasgow ; an office which he 
accepted Only on the condition, that he ahould be 
assisted in his attempts to eairy out a liberal 
measure for 'the comprehension of the Ptesby- 
teriana' His efibrta, however, wtre all in nun; the 
high-liaoded tyranny of bis colleagues was renewed, 
and L. felt that he must resign, which he did in 
1673. After a short residence in Edinburgh, he 
went to hre with his sister at Broadhuist. in 
Sussex, where he spent the rest of his days in a 
retired manner, devoted chiefly to works ot religion. 
Hedi«lJiine25, 16S4 L.'a best works (he published 
nothing duriug his lifetime) at« to be found in an 
edition pu)>hshed at London (4 vols. 1825). All hia 
writings are pervaded by a spirit at once lofty and 
evangelical. The truths of Christiaoity are set 
forth in the sjiirit of Platot It was this that reoim- 
mended them so much to Coleridge, whose Aiili U> 
Jlylfction are'Dnly oommeDtaries on the teaching of 
the saintly archbishop. 

LEIGHTON-BUZZABD, a market-town of 
England, Bedfordshire, is situated in a large agri- 
cultural district, 40 miles north- north-west of 
London. It has claims to considerable antiquity— 
its church was erected in the beginning of the 
I3tb c, and in its market-jilaoe is an ancient ao'l 
elegant pentangular cross. Many of the inhabitants 
are employed in maldng straw-plait. Fop. (164JI) 

\ LEl'NINGEN, the name of one of the wealthint 

> of the me<Iiatised Houses of (iecmany, was formerly 

I applied to a German county in the district of 

Worms and Spires, with which, in the beginning; 

if the 13th c, the (»nnty of Dachaburg became 

lonnccted as iiart of the family pusseuiona Tbe 

amily is one of the oldest still existing in Uermanv. 

i In 1779. the head of one of the biancliea into wh>..;h 

it had become divided, the Count of Leininj^eo- 

Hardenburg-Dachsburg, was mised to the rank of 

a prince; but the peace of Lun£ville deprived him 

of his ancient possessions —about 252 square miles 

in extent, on tha left bank of the BJiine. He 

received, however, a compeusatioQ in other parts 

of Germany ; and though no longer ao independent 

prince, he retains his rank and wealth, hia punses- 

■ions being within the tenitorie* of Baden, bvana, 

and Hesse. 

LEI'NSTER, one of the fonr provinoea of Ireland, 
occu^es the south-east portion of the countiy, 
and IS bounded on the K by St George's Channel 
and the Irish Sea. Area, 4,876,211 nana; pfk 
(1861) 1,439,596. At tiie period of the i 
by England (1170), this yrovince ' 

kingdoms, those of L. and Meath. _. 

the reign of Henry Vlil., the i>rovinoe h 

divided into the counties of Dublin, Meath, Lonth, 
Kildare, Carlow, Kilkenny, and Wexford. Tha 
following counties were erected anhaeqnently : 
Wicklow, formed from a portion of the oounty of 
DubUn; West Meath and Longford, from a part of 
Meath ; and King's and Queen'* Counties tonned 
out of part of Kildare. 

LBIPOA, a genus of gallinaoeona Uida, of the 
family MfrinpMvl<r, of which Uie Only known 
species is L. ocrllaia, a native of Austruia. inha- 
I biting sandy and bushj plaint. It m cvUed L. 



<r XiTTVS PBaABurt, t^ the coloniita. Like the 
i-«nliu juugle-fovi, the L couatruots mounds 
ll Bad, or earth, tad leavea, in which to lay 

Leipoa (La'poa oeiUata). 

K$i. Morr tb&n a dracn are oftf^n fonnd ia » neat. 
Tbj we about thnre timce «■ large ta those of ■ 
ovunoa fowl ; and ara much esteemed im food. 
Wliea ninaed. it seeki to eacape rather hy rnnning 
ud bfias in the boah, than by the use of ita winf^ 
FfV Uidi aeeiD mora hkely to prove useful in 
t— III alii III than the Leipoa. 

LEI'PZIG (formerly LihitOti, aud to tneoD the 
kMM oS the litiden or lime tre«a, from the Slavic 
L<p or LijM. a lime-tree}, a citr of the kiogiloii] of 
Euoay, utaated about 65 mileB vest -north- west 
<i Dnsden. aeax the Fruuian bonier, in a targe 
Bj fertile plain. The Etstcr, the Pleiaze, and t^e 
Pmhe flow through or past the city, snd unite 
tk«t 3 milea belov it. The inner or ancient city 
■■ (brmcHy sorrounded by walla, which hare now 
JapfKated, bat it is atill ■eporated friim the far 
Ben extensive aaborba (FritarkliM-iladl, Johanntt- 
*nJ( kc) by promenailei planted with beautiful 
natN* of lime and chestnut trees. Many of the 
Nrarl* of the inner ci^ are nanow and crooked; 
Ikse of the more modem part (which contains 
iha ■ anmber of fine sqnares) are wide and well 
Ml The BBoitaiy state of the city has been much 
panted by an eiteoiiiTC and costly ■ystera of 
■rvss. The inner city ia the princiiml seat of 
tanen and menhaadiae. Pop. (1S6I) 78,495, of 
Than 1300 are Catholics, and 400 Jewa ; the rest 
R PiUestanta, mostljr beloQ^g to the Lutheran 
Qateh. Of the pablio buildings of J., few are in 
■ST *ay renuvkable. The beet is the Au^steum, 
its vat of the nnirenity, finished, according to 
Upa by Sefainkd, in ia3& The oourt has a 
•fJcadid a^ipeKTSooe. Of the three castles which 
Wncrly czstad, only one remains, the Pldssenburg, 
^ SKd for goremmeat cAcas and barracks ; 
■d, a portion of it, as a wool-store ; the ditch 
h* beeona a plaoe for drill; and the tower, an 
^nstuij. L ia the seat of conrta and public 
rtea foe a large district, as well as of those 
praW belon^ng to the laij itseU. It has many 
•Miratnt inatitntiras, and also msny educational 
nassliiMs, iDoloding the university and two 

■wwil of a larae nnmW of Qtfman students 
h« Pr^t^a to C in 1401), in consequenoa of dis- 
pKv between the Bohemians and Qennons. It 
4faul a stnonooa reaiatance to the Befonuatioo. 
n W ahsajB nuuBlaiaed a hi^ reputation amons 

names are oomiected with it. Connected witll 
the university are 60 professors, and 70 private 
teachers. The number of students ia about 80(X 
In the early part of the preeent century, the 
number amounted to about 1300. The University 
Library contoina 150,000 volnmea and 2CuD manu- 
scripts, and there are alao in connection with 
the university a botanic rarden, and a number 
of muaeums devoted to different departments cf 
science. The City Library contains 80,b00 volumea 
and 2000 mauuscHpta. There are a number of 
scientific aaaociationa, and vaKous associations and 
institutioua for the cultivation of the £ne arts. In 
particular may lie mentioned the conservator! um 
of music, which ia reckoned one of the first in 
Europe. See Conservatoire. 

The three annual faira (held at Easter, Michael- 
mas, and tlie New Year, and lasting from three 
to five weeks) add much to the importance of L.. 
and render it, with the exception of Hamburg the 
greatest seat of trade in Qermany. The Origin of 
these fain ia traced back for more than 600 years. 
They ore attended by Jews, Turks, Greeks, Arme- 
nians. Persians, and even (of late] by Chinese. The 
acceaaion of Saxony to the Oerman Customs' Union, 
[ZoUverein), and the 0|iening of railways, have of 
late yeaiB produced a gi^at increase of the con- 
course and of the business at these faira, which 
had previoUBly begun to decline. Transactions to 
the eitcnt of 70,000,000 thalers (obove ;£10,000,000 
Bterling) now take place at an Easter fair. The 
ket. which was Instituted in 1828, and ia 
held for three days in June, ia much frequented. 

,irinci])3l seat of the bookselling and 
publishing tiade in Gennanv, and indeed, in thia 
ipect, ranks third among the cities of the world, 
ning immediately after London and Paris. Up- 
wards of 150 houaea are engaged in the book-trada. 
There were also, in 1854, 35 printing eetahliahmentai 
Here the German booksellers have founded a com- 
exchonge, and annual settlements of accounts 
lake place at the Easter Fair. One thousand 
'louses ore then represented by their commissioner* 
it Leijudg. In conicquence of this activity, Ik 
has become the principal seat of type-founding in 
Gennany. Among ita other manufactures are 
pianofortes, scientific instmments, wu-doths, oila, 
chemical products, perfumes, &a 

The city sprung up round a castle built by King 
Heinricb L, at the junction of the Fleisze ijid the 
Farthe. It is firat mentioned oa a town in lOlS, 
and in the latter part of the 12th c, had from 5000 
to 6000 inhabitants. It graduoUy increased in 
prosperity and importance. The famous Leiptiir 
Ctn^frrmce between Luther, Eck, and Carlstadt, in 
1619, greatly tended to the promotion of the Eefor- 
matioa. L. suffered greatly in the Thirty Years' 
War, in which it was tive times beait^ed and taken, 
and again in the Seven Years' War ; and although 
'■ - -eial changes connected with the French 

Eevolution at first affected it very favourably, yet 
it anSered not a little amidst the terrible struggle* 
of the years 1812 and 1813, when it was alteniBlety 
in uoasesaion oC the French and of the allies. 

The immediate neighbourhood of L has been the 
soene of two battles of great importance in the 
history of Gennany and 5 Europe— the battle of 
Leipzig, or of Breitenfeld (q. v.), on September 7. 
1631 ; and the great battle of Leipzig— colled the 
Baitlr. ofNationa, which contiuued for three days — 
from the 16Ch to the ISth of October 181a The 
latter was one of the most bloody and decisive of 
those which effected the deliverance of Europe from 
French domination. Hie troops under Napoleon in 
this battle amounted to about 180^000 men, and thoM 
of the alliea, oommanded by Prince Schwanenbetg, 



kU tbal tliiri^M. mmI Bcn^ott^ Clown-pnaoe i>f 
8«»U&, to almoit 30a00a About 3000 pMoa ot 
■rtilWy wen brooght to Uu ficU. The k» a< the 
fnach vu redumed at aboat 38,000 killed ud 
wmiadtd, aad 30^>0 pnaooen; that of the »llie( 
to >l>out 4S,lWa Tbe victoi? at tlie alliM WM 000- 
pletc utd tlM French were compelled to ei 
t>> kod to ratiemt towudi their own ooiuitrj. 

1 <J the" Firth' o( Forth, at th« month of the 
WaltT n( I^itk. two milee north of EiiinhuTKh. with 
wliirh it M now connected by ■ oontiDnoua line of 
houtr%. Altboutfh not without muy fine eililioM, 
tlir town, u a whole, a nther mrui in apjvusnrc. 
benu; irnt^uUi' uul dincy. sjieoiiilv mtheuliler and 
nut nt put*. TheL'iutoni-boiiM.'Tuwn'balL Ko}^ 
EjulLHitT, and rfently-rretlCTi Com Kichantfe, are 
bjui'laciaie buililiii)^ W<«t uf tbe town, on tbe 
■ Leitb Fort, an artillvry itation. 


> pii'T*, npwanb of a mile into 
Firth, and haa a dc-pth of fmm 3» to 25 Iwt at 
hi;!h-watvr. There are aJmilf three wrt-ilocki, 
OiUtuDina an area of IS «ctm ; and two new ducks 
of larve dimenainna are in cuntcmpUtiuD. Thei¥ 
arc (II irav ion- ducks; ooeof them. rti.-ently Gniahtil. 
IwiriK «>0 fert luDtf far 80 Irft bru»l (at •» 
and 24 deep un •ill at ajirinii'ti-lia. In 186'i 
vrw-la, of S3(l.670 ton*, eob-ral and cleaml the ! 
port. Tbe tnde o( L ■■ chicdy in mlnnial and | 
lon-iL'n produce^ Antnni the imports tor Ib62 were 
481.,U0 qn. wheat; Sl.^.'US qn bartry ; 47.1175 
qrL oatai Sl^T qnt brans sod [leaM ; II.TmI 
qra. Indian com : M.I92 tacks sod birrela of flour; | 
SHu-tJU loads of tunU-r; N.Sm V>t\t al guuia Wmc I 
ami ti>la«u are alno rxtvnsivrly jm|»rtnL The { 
Cuitonu l>utie« for IWI aniimntrd to 147Z4U I 
Tbe chief tnsniifsi-tare* are thira |io woiM 
inmi. mai'hiuerv. uilcl'itb. ii>|-Fa. alp, rectilini iji 
I, boitl.'a, fl'iir (for which there are eitri 
•I. FopL 3XiMi U nnitrt with P. >rt.>l>rllo aod 
liuB>'Jliur|^ in — "'''"g a memlier to parliameot. 

LKITRIM. ■ coantT of the provin.-e of Cn- 
naachl, in In-land. wbtcb rrsib<« the w-a no the 
day III [>»iH-^-al, but is encirejed on lU other Bile* 
b]t the ciwntKa of Daaeifal. Fennaaai^b. t'avan. KnKomoMm. and Sli,^ Area, CI3 ■loarv 
•lilri. ar 192,303 aenM, of which 249,3.'>il are anIJe, 
•nd fl-iM an covered by water. The Mufaa 
of L ■■ ■ite.nil*''. It ia divklnl into two pnru 
by a olou-U-ralila lake eallrd Loui;b AtU-n. Th< 
•nuthem diviHOO it broken ap by ti* namii 
ri<l.:ea, whirh cocloaa nnmrroiu nnall Iskiv, Ui> 
cb>rf at which ia called Luu;;h Kion. The more 
krel )>irti"B uf thia iliTiuno of the conntr fomu 
part uf tb* peat tunxtooe plain of lielaiid. 
and CT'Eitaina ■nma eKcelJi-ni arable aod pasture 
laud. Tba Dortben diTmna it much sore inrKulsr 
In eaHsiv, beui iatrrasL'ted by trvrnl ruliCf at 
sinMHlrrab)* eleTatifla. To the north of l^ni^b 
Allen tbe toil, aic^ at ran interrala. it DDfamar- 
aUe lor ai^cuJlara. and the clinala u damp aii-i 
mncrniaL I1ia principal cni]a an potat-ir*, oata. 
■nd hay ; but. on tka wbule. the eoabuoa of the 
aencvltan eery lackwnnl, tha tuu] biunher 
of am ■odM' e(i>|ia of all kindt hanng hrttk, id 
laei. 843M. and la laU. m,4S7. U. howeeer. 
it Bore a pannf than a tiltaffe diatrvt Ijuve 
^ntntiriea irf ht»— d cattle an raised in the 
anaiherB dieiww. Dm total namber of ontUr 
to IKM waa Tt-HOI; of ih-T. 13,441. Tnri u 
abamlaal in aU partt »t tha ~ 

wen Bonan CaUulica, OEIC Fio*Mtn»h rf tkm 
Established Chorch, and tba nst Pntatfanta d 
other dcniKninatJooi. Th« nnmbar of ckildre« 
receifing ednration JO tbe ich<x4t of tbe B(«rd 
of National Education in 1861 wai 14jaB. of 
whom 13,71c wen Bomao Catholic*. The riter 
Shannon (q. v.) entrn this oounty nan" iti anor e 
in ('sTan. and tramninj^ Loosh Allen, paatra not 
st the amthem eitremttv uf Leitrim. Of otlvr 
riTrn, tbe Bonnet, tbe YeUow Rirrr, and ll>e 
DaS; may he tiwcially nentioDed. Tbe oely 
towns of any note an Cairick -on -Shannon, iluf t- 
Hsmilton. and MohilL The nortbem dinan-ti '4 
the onnnty is mora rich in minerals than id->^ 
district! of In-lsod. Coal it foond in the Lou.-^ 
Allen liasin, the chief workinn-heds hein^ is 
the tilien-an-Ierin Moontaioa, where nial is raianl 
for smelting pnrpoee*. In tbe lamt dtstnrt a 
fniind iron, the on of tbe Arii;na minea jiciilii: 
at mnch aa Sft'2 per ctuX. of uetaL Lead a*v is 
also alniniUnt, altho(u;h tbe mining opcntuuM bar* 
)-rvn dwrii I tinned. The occupation of the pc^*;-^' 
lirini; chietly agricultural, then an hanlly a^y 

L, anciently formed part of the terrilnrT "f 
Brrifne O'Roiirk. It wan reduced to tbe Knl:! -b 
tnhniittinn in the reign of Elital-eth, but reTiilt«l n 
l.iWl, tubmitting onoe man in 1803; 1 

.„; ettate^ The conliicatiaut which follownl tbe rmt 
oivj war may be taid to harn rrlinipiithif Ua 
native p<ni|inetary and the family of IfUuark. 

LKLASD. Joiix. D-D^ an FjiJiiJi dirine asl 
ai">t(p;n"t for Chriatianity. was h.ira at Wijao, m 
{.sncuhirv, in lti»l. li-rune a diM-nlinc mitiicpr :n 
DiiMin in ITAI. and lint siiprsreil as an auth<-r in 
i'M. hv publiilnni: a re].ly to Tin-U't deiati. al 
work. I'l.vli-iHityniOtd at iJkr f'rtnli.a. In 17.f7, 
tpnli'ig:, ne IHrtnt ^uriLiri'i. 

4 lb* oubMt. Tba p>(in- 

• iM rni-f -V™ 


:j"^ At/'rmi-iu till FiiUf Rrtnomij'f ■/ a B.—i 
■/■■''I • 7V Jtf«r..i P>,U<^,pkrr: As the lean,-.- ; 
dupUyiil in tbene woHtn was great. and the alaLt.ti 
n null iVral lie. the nnivrr>ity of Alieti le ^n criaferTe-l 
on L. (he di-cma of I).l>. Hit beat work i* .4 
IVie (,/■ tie /"Hei-i/o/ A>™f->.i( Wrjlrr, ijHt A— • 
'if'/"Fmf ia Kifiliinit It ooee held a hiji^h )«iait -a 
in (.'hnntian apologetic literatnre. aad ntany [»•■ 'r 
■till n-csTil it u a sati'f^ctiiry detnolition <uf A- .cb. 
L dini in 176& To his hoomir it ah<«U be hI i-L 
that thoiiufa his life wat one of onntnireny. tte 
tpmt of lairocat aiMl charity naecr fonuok ham. 

LELY. Sib Pmnt (Prmt VaKtrn Faw . 
was the ton of one Vander Faen, a ~r*"^ I'l * 
n^^imrnt of infantry, who waa gtomiHy oa^inl 
Le t.'B|i!taiiie da Lya. or Lrly. frixa barini( la^m 
Haffua- ia a house the trust id vtu'S 


.S..«t. in We>ti>hsba. in I6IH. Hit lather |iUcw>l 
him ia the f-hmj of Peter Urel-I>ar. a painter >4 
talent at Haarlem, when ha remained two *--ara. 
He en^meoool bia career aa a [auuter of Lib-I- 
•capca ami tnlijecta from hutorr; but his t^k -..t 
iaJuccal him (o devota hiiaarlf exclaMiiTl* «s 
iHVtnut-paintine. and toon after tha Iralh ii^ Vaa 
Wck. bio tritled in Loodoo. Ha wat aK|4i>*«l 
nooeeaitely by Charlra L, CraMWi-11. aud ( liwt^ 
IL. who DxmiBatad him omH-painler, aikl cno- 
Icned no hua the booonr of kniirbthooL Hv k^l 
enmt laciliiy of exH-iiUon, and kit slyU, tkau^k 
ilrtii'ient la all tbe hiuher qnalitn* of art, *■■ w«il 
railed (or bis puaumn sa tha tsTnanta uiirtraia- 
ijatntm of tucb a oiwrt at that at his chnf r— *riB- 
Thm IS a lanre ouUecuoa of hit portxaiu al tla^ik 
iM Cbov waU kauwA to tb* ■WM-'iMa -M>Mn J 



At pablio ilMitnMnto Uinrs m the Besotiea of tl: 
Ont of Chariea IL He died in London in 1680. 
LEVAX, Luck. See OmvA, Lak> or, 

LTHBEEO (Conaerly Loaaiburp, 'ci^ of the 
S«;'i-n. of iso Dinielowici, Pnnce of Haliei, 
■faifmida it in 1299; Polish name. ' Uwiw'), 
thtaiiul of the Aiutrian kingdom of GaliciA and 
Lidniaia, ia dtuated on » imall itreani c&lled the 
fAew, ia ■ narrow basin among hilU. IaL 40° 
» N., kmK. 24* K Pop. 6S,000, of whom 24,000 
ET Itwa. L. ia the aeat of a Koman Catholio, 
4 Gnetk United, uid an Armenian archbiabop, 
ai\aa 29 (it onoe had 60) churohee. It i> one 
ci tx Sacat tovm in Anstria, yet the honwa 
■R, (or the moat part, roofed with ahingle. The 
ifBp<f[i)e* in particular sre very beautuul. The 
onnntj (Alma fyandteat). founded in 1784, has 
K jrofeoon kad 1000 itudeata. The university 
Btirr ooDtiuaa 40,000 vulamea, 350 M3S., anil a 
odfctiDD of coina, amoDDtzDE to 10,000. Here also 
ii the sett of the institate Hunded bj Ossolinslci, 
■ith a hbnrr of 60,000 volnmn. and IKN) MS8., 
Airfj ol PoUsh UtcTktare. The trade and manu- 
biteca of L. $i» at gmat hnporMioe. The town is 
■Dw [^{olarly fortifieol. 


Otoifidiuii], a genna nf 

tia th«B in the eitreme shortnen of the ears 
td, inj in h>Ting luKer and stronger claws, n 
i^fM for digging. They are also more heavily 

[LtmmuM IfarMgiaa), 

I, where it ordinarily teeda on reiodeer- 
a^ ua other lichens, gnus, cstkina of biroh, fto. 
Bitf. braeding often in the conne of a year, and pro- 
taatf four or five at a birth, it iiiulti)>liee so mnoh, 
tkil, poriodically, vast troops leave their native 
npeos. Biigistiiig either towud the Atlantio Ocean 
vliM Golf of Bothnia. Bears, wolves, fozea, lynxes, 
Uk* aad pi«y apoo them. Hawks and owls also 
•tnd. and coDtnbnte to the diminution of their 
— htrL It ifl said Uut those which survive, after 
^i^liuM ■ winter in the n^oo to which they have 
Kjtitfd, seek to find their way back to thdr 
*)piu] abode. In time* of prevalent superstition, 
tirnmBi were often exoreised by tbe priests, and 
ttspnivntryof Norway rappoaedtbem to fall from 
kdoan. The Li^iUaden eat the lemming. 

LmnlAN EABTH, a mberal found in 
As adaad of Lrauoa ; nuasira, cbslk-like, soft, 
f^Hnih mf, or whitiah, and tolling to powder 
■ nte It msnisfi of about W per Mot. ulie*, 

with 14 of alumina, and a little oilde of iron, sodk 
and water. It lon^ had » gr«at and undeserved 
repntatioD in medicine, and beiog sold in little 
pieces, each stamped with a particular stamp, it 
acquired the name of Terra b-igiUata (Sealed Roiib). 
Tbe belief in its medicinal power is of very great 
antiquity. The stamp in aooieot times, O&len says, 
was the head of Diana, the tutelary goddess of 
Lemnoe ( but is now only the Turkic name of the 
mineroL The aaoienta hod more than one legend 
reapBctiiu; the discovery of the virtues of Lemnion 

TjE'MITOS (now commonly called Slaiimne), an 
island in the northern part of the OrecJaa Archt' 
petaco, about 40 miles west of the entrance to the 
DordaDelles, It is irregidar in shape, and Is nearly 
divided into two islands, by tvo deep bays — Port 
Paradise on the north, and Port St Antoo; on the 
south. Area, ISO square miles. Pop. abont 12,000. 
Tlie women are famed for their beauty. It is hilly, 
rather bare of wood, and bears nmniBtakable traces 
of volcanic action at an early period, which foot 
probably originated the ancient myth of Vulcan 
lightitiK on this ialaod when Jnpiter hnrled bim 
from heaven. Moschylos, a volcano, no longer 
active, was believed to be the workshop and 
favourite residence of this deity. The priocipal 
product of L. is the Lemiu'aa KarA (q. v, ), used in 
ancient times as a cure for wounds and serpent- 
bites, and stiU highly valued by both Turks and 
Oreeka The chief town, Kastro (on the site of 
the ancient Mi/rina], has a popolaticai of 2000. 
It furnishes excellent sailors. 

LEMOX {CUnu Liaumum). a troe which has by 
many botaoiats been regarded as a variety of the 
Citron (q. v.), and, like it, a oative of the north of 
India. Its leaves are ovate or obking, usually 
serrulate, pale green, with a winged stalk ; the 
flowers are streaked and reddish on tbe outside ; tba 
fruit is oblong, wrinkled or furrowed, pale y^ow, 
with generally concave oil-oysta in the nnd. In the 

lemon lOUnu Umeinm), 

oommon variety, which i« verv extensively cnlti 
vated in many tropical and lub-tropiool counbiea. 
tbe pulp of the fruit is very acid, abounding in 
citric acid. There is, however, a variety called the 
Sweet L>> occasionally cultivated in the south of 
Europe, of which the jnioa is sweet. It is CUru* 



' Vi'll-kBowa cooliDfi b*T«T«aa 
1 ii kl-a ailauDictcTed in vanua 
1 ■cvrhutio eoBpUut& 

i« prrpkrmtioD . , . 

called LewKimiiU, \ puaed of a Kmple o( MaqmcKrbooate nf onuu-iL 
a furtnt in febrile | in culiitioa, with ail dndimi of Irmic juior, »• 

A( I 

r. ta extnctol frun 

1 pnvaitiTa o( LEMOK8, Oil or £ 

i aitirla ol ■«-■[«». | Uie miaaM otUa which kra nmbla u_ . 

titnc w-fci uxl Uaoa-jaioe are Ukawu* bu.U , ih, lunon. by aabniUinK napinin of thr buit k 
Inita it in icraat qnaatiur*. The rind ni U» fruit . )>reuni« in luir ta -^ It n>* bUo In' ii'itaiacd Ki 
ii,™..ii-p-r/|. arpanled fn>m the pnlp. »od kq* m ] dimllins the \Kt\ with wmtcr; bat iU lLtv.«u'. w! ,'l 
■ dniil alJilr. la ■ (ntrful atiwuchic. Knd ii much obtainval in thu way, ia \tim aKTe«a><l«, altlw-a^ I'l 
UV.I fur riivourins. The prnlnoa of tbe kason- oil itaeU i* purer, owiut to the aI'kd'W o( Bttii 
Cm-.-n 'if lul.T, tha TtthI. Spain, Fortuintl, tbe | agiaoui matter. Tbe dialilloil al ia >>!•! ai-dw tu> 
Kiulh nf Fruoe. and otber OHintriea kinkriu): on . oame of teoyriiui-Hroiit, for rcmoviDii ir"-i« ■|.<i 

(rnitful : it u uiors baidy tboa the tur]i 

HHna puta of t)>e amith of Kiil:Iuu1 „ j,r 

lIuc--> \rrj fioad cmpa, Uine tiuoed to a will, , an *i 

'Oipiiaed of a bydmcarban, o 

jprnlu.™ very )ii>aa cmpa, Uine tm 
an.1 ia>.tr.i.i1 by a movable frame n 
>. bi iiii[-|B«nl tu hare bivi 


ine. with vhicb it i* oftaa adul' 
ipilly iiaed for tlie purp'Hr •■< ciRniiumist] 
able aluur tu other Bwliciiin. altbiu^b i) 
lea tkkdD in tbe d(«e of twu or tiinv dr 

ii often adiind to arapumung Lutuma aad 

It oaturalued in the 

•■Hiib "f Kiinipc It i* au eomijli't'ly uaturaJisHl in i 

•>i«De ('*'•" "i *''• *"ith of Br»iil. tbiil thi- tii-ah of I LEMONS, Salt or n name e 
V whub iMtnre in tbe ..«U a«|mrai a i,„p„,.e,iT aj.pW by An,^n* U. 
' ■- ' -■'- a little id the 

iii'U uf Irmoni, cattle briu^ very fond of the ! , 

7 ai>pb«i 


LKMONA'VK ia fomnl by a.Mlna two lemot 
t!<ii'-l. mid two otiDCva ■•( white di-.r-U'. Ka a qiia: 
•A y-tUn; watrr. and dii.-<-*tiiii,' till oihL It i« 
iiwIli,' >liii.k fi<r atUvinu tliirmi. anil m a rcfnirrai 

benre it baa hern draignatenl .Soil of *.«tbL Ii ■ 
emjiliiyed in taking ont ink-apoM. 
I LEMPRIKRR. JoRn, D I)., bom in 
: nai. waa txliioated at W.-atmin-lvr S.l..;.| anl 
. , IPembrok.- O.Il.-«.\ Oifurl. and di,-.l F. i.nurr 1, 
giren im.L | ^^.,^^ |{^ q^^, ,„ ^^ ^,j ^^„„^ ^, ^^, 

LKMIIN-<:RASd (Aminjp>-i„ii tr/y,..inlAuii. a ' ctuiiud student in the Rritnh ein[<'n-. )il ttiK 
'■utiiid lan^uial izraaa, Uirw or four fwt Uiiib. , mini; e>ii<-niti<>n ii foruftlin; it. an-l it wi!! 
ith loiiii'M' ni'iatly Iranini; l>>uu« aide, and apikeb'ta ' becmni? nu- tt pnnrrra nHiiL L 

Aii, .^nbia. Ac, and la eitr>'iiirly slmnilaat in j yean tlii> at-miUrd work of fef--i 
aiit [il.o-a. It baa a atraoK lemunlike frauianw, | on mil nutter* iif ancient mytko|rv,;v. i>i'>;:ra, >,v ai.-t 
' ' •- ' Li">i:™i>hy. To ebUriy acholar*, ti.e iti"..- 1114: ^ 

lip uiaay pleaaant memonra of yrari bm.' i-ir.e •■. 
but tbe book iUrlf c«aaed to pm«'«i aiiv minBdu' 
value aft>«' tbe publication of Ih.- n.i^-i,.! . •.< 
il.uu.ii'al ditti'ininM olited by I>r Willuni <\,-.--. 
IM-i-IN-U Another work of L'* w^ t'> 

LE'.MUR a cpmu of mammalia whi -b r'^'* .ti 
name to tbe fiundy LmnnLr. a f*iiiil\ tL\i.A W 
m<mkev>, and. like tfavm, qu.vlniiTiin.MH, bii.ii_- .- 
each of the fuur axtrunitiva a wvU-Je(i.loi><l iLti^ 


■ ht'iT tbe ictva ai-HXinla. It ia t<.' 
\- .Abn hv rattle eic-iA aht-n y.niiiL;. 

an.) la th. 

r. r..rc often 'buni.'d down. (Jin.iK-aiu in 

IndLi m.. 

.' u, M.-Fw.>l>le ■t'-nuubw an.l Uh,k U'.i or 

tlie f>.di 

U-3vra. by di.til.-il>.>!!. an e»>.'i>tiil 

■a ..)il.i.i> 

d {L.m.m-.jrT,H 0,1,. »1.i.h ia eiii,.!..y»l 

..». with a ■Ir^.ni: Wm.m like mii.II. Tbii 

oil .. •■. 

1 in p. riunirry, au-t u often oU.'l Oil:/ 

IV. ., 

th'- V\ .-.I 


X-Jl'ICK ia » •.mewbat Lianne. Tery 

•'•II I]..<n 

, ..(■uine.l from Irimoa liv eipnwMin and 

h. a...l'tr ia rlur 1.. 'the i<^v>.i« of 

CTlri. ..,.) 

a liiile mitii- aci.i Iti lonungal nap* in 

m.'V 'IV- 

rv lb.- f..lli.w,n^ : 1. .Va an ant. ■'■.rlmtic. 

.-.11.' aay* Sir Cill-rt Blane, -who baee 

nilr lb. 

tb.' II .> t 

h .t..ry ..( tliii ciuMrv. can didV 

rut- tb- 

Tii.i.' M thie ainple rrmMv.' Ita x-tire 

«l rlf.T.™-.i 

.£ dra...'bta. 
a bAlf o< lem 


nppnaed to the fini^.n 

but in ntlxr Teaperta «Wal 
' ordinaiy 'inailiiipnlal lyM 

It th» obJTvt ia ; tbe bind luufaa Ungrt ud lar){er tku the f^ce li»ki 



Ik Bolir tntli are fdnimbed irith pmnted taberda 
UiK iota fach other, a> in iHtre ti pom, and tlie 
ihik dnUiti<ia of maoj of the family u Kdkpted 
w BBiI ntber Uuo Tcgcbibls foud. All the 
LmmrHr an nktiTca of th« vuin puia of the old 
^lU, ud Kre ehiefl^ in forests, mott of them 
fc^rig tniet witli all tfae agility of moukejra. The 
■■* L iLat. I ctmt, a gfaort) is alloaire to thar 
B^ ad fRodiar Donclea* maraikeiits. They ara 
fn^tl uid b^mtifDl cmtnns, and ^enoally 
fatit tad caaihr taowd ; b«t thsy hara neither the 
pmi ad maacfaieTooa ilu|>asitian>, nor the intelli- 
fatt it BOBkeya. Tb« iiKcia of the geoos L., as 
«*Rabietod,ac«aniiativ«of Uadagucar. They 
K atanonm, and thar food oonsBta partly of . 
fc^ Tfe aanos JfoK and Uaeaueo are dveo to 
iv<f thea, and aometiiM extended to all The 
hr^ ipsciea ia aboat the aiie of a lai^ cat—To 
t, L bmikj belaiig aba the lariM, Indna, Qabgoa, 

LniilCKS, the gmeral desigoatino given by 
fc Kiauaa to all ipirit* of departed persoDS, ot 
rtiB the j!Ood were honoured as Lares (q. 
*• imt iLirva) were feand, ■■ ehosta or apectres 
B^sf br the npaatitiaaB. Like the latter, they 
we aid to wando' about duriog the night, seeking 
W a affartBait}r of inflicting injury on the lii-- - 
IW iMiia] callal J>nu>rn was held on the 
l;*.ad 13th ct May. and was acoompanied 
■^■■wca ti vaahiuz hands, thruwuig black beans 
^IhelHsd. Ac, and the jHVnuitciatioa nine times 
a tee vivda ; ' Be<ooe, you >{iectrea of the houi 
nA iefriital the I^ of their power to harm. Ovid 
iacnba the Lemima in the lifth book uf his faMt 

IXXA, an important river of Eaati-m Siberia, 
OB uaid the moontains on the north-west shoiu 
4 lake B-ifc»t, is the govemmeiit of Irkutsk, 
%m Dnt in a north-taatem direutioD to the town 
rfJakitsk. then north to the Aretic Oce.-in, 
nA il falls by aeTcnd mouths. Its coan 
M» aika in length, and its chief afQuents are 
ria an the left, and the Vitim. the Olekma. and 
as AVUb on the richt Kavigatiun on the L. is 
fa men Ua; till Norember. During spring the 
■>■> id the nrrr r^nlarly overflow their banks. 
imt (he town <a Jakntsk, the breadth of the river 
B (^ uiea, l^ is the principal artery oE ihe trade 

■ Evicts Siberia. Russian and Chinese goods, as 
*i u Iberian furs, fumiahed by the natives, are 
qMlsd from this river. The iliief harbours on 
h nrw si<e Okkminsk, Jakutak. and Kachogsk, 
*iae CSbfiOO worth of good* from Irkutsk are 
lETptd anaajJIy. 

USCZl'ZA. an ancient Polish town, in the 
H iiiiiaint of Waiwnr, about 90 miles west-south- 
«tf J the city o( that name. It contains the ruins 
d 1 aait at Kaiimir ]I., erected in 1 ISa Pop. 
S^lalF id whasn are Germans and Jews. Liuea 
■4 snJhii doth* and soap an manufactured. 

UXKOKAir, a Russiaa seaport on the Chspisn 
W sad a djatnct town in tbe government of Baku, 

a tt Ttm in Ut, 3S* 46, is a i^ace of great 

■Twlaiu fn- the trsle between Bussia and 
Foil; bst a defective harbour, and the vicinity of 
ssdfa tribes, have hitherto renderBl its natural 
M-lij^a id mOe avaiL Pop. 5644. 

LZ5XKP, Jax DiKiKL tak, a Dutch philologist, 
■■ kota at I«cDwardeu, in the province of Friea- 
M^ is 1734, and studied at Fraueker and Leyden. 
^ KS!, he waa appointed Professor of Andent Lan- 
pav at Omingen, and fifteen years afterwards 

■ Anskar. He died in 1771. The works which 
'Mopdy rfitsiwl him a repntalioo for leamiog 
w< w^BLa, vs his S^pnoloiiieum Liuaum Oraca, ' 
^^Dt Am^egiA Liifttm Ontm, boUi of which 

Datid Jacob vax LKnifiF, a member 
of the same family as the preceding, was bom 
at Amsterdam, 1.5th July 1774, devoted himself 
to the study of pbilology, and nlttmately became 
Profenor of Rhetoric at Lnden. He died 10th 
February 185a Bendea bemg one of the beat 
Latinists among hie countrymen, be wrote several 
exiquiaite pieca of poetry in bia mother-tongiuk 
His principal writing are Camina Juvrmitia 
(Anut. 1791), Emralalioaa Jurit (Leyd. 179G>, 
valuable annotated editions of srane of the classic 
antbors. and a metrical Dutch translatioa lA the 
Worts and iJayt of Hniod (AmsL 18-23).— His 
son. Jacob tan Lknhet, born at Amstenlsm, 25th 
March 1802. is proudly called by his coootrymen, 
tbe ' Walter Scott of Holland.' Educated for tfao 
law, be paaed as a barrister, and hhhi achieved • 
great reputation for legal knowledge. Yet with- 
out uegtectin^ his extensive practice, he has for 
more than thirty years cultivated litcratare with 
ontiriiig assiduity, and, considering the drudgeiy 
of his professional work, with astuuishitia sucosaa, 
L. first appeared as an author shortly before 
1830, in a work entitled Vaderlandarlit Ltgtitdat 
(Mational Legends). Since then, bis nkost jiopnlar 
works have been the oomedies, JiH Dorp mm dia 
Grenzen (The Frontier Villsfie, I83U). Hft Dorp 
OBfr die Gmsen (Tbe Tillage over tbe Frontier, 
1830), and the novels, Onae Vuoroudtri (Our Fore- 
fathers), Jh- Root van Drtnma (The Boae of 
Dekama, IS.'H -English by Woo.lley. 1847), and 
/V rUeffzoon (The Ad.ipted Son— English by 
Hoskina, Kew Yoik, 1847). L., who pissesses a 
remarkable knowleilge of the EnL;lish language 
and litnatnre, ha translated into Ltutch some of 
Sliaksi>eare'B finest ptays, and ol Byroo, Southey, 
and Tenn;-BOn'B poems. A eomplete eilition of 
his dramatic works, comprising tiagclies. comedies, 
and ojieras, appeareil at Amsterdam in 1852 — 1S55. 
He has bei^Q engaged for wveral yean on an edition 
of the great Dutch poet TondeL 

LT^rUNOXTOWN, a viDsgo of Stirlinsshii*. 
Scotland, is situated in a picturesque district on 
Glazert Water, at the terminus of the Campaie 
Railway, eleven loilea north-north-east of Glasgow, 
It contains (1861) 3184 inbabitaots. employed ctuefly 
in the priat-works and alum-worka m the imme- 
diate neighbonrhuod. 

LBXOciVlUM is a term borrowed fi^ the 
canou law, and used in RnjiH.h, but more frequently 
in Soi'toh law to denote a Kusbaod's connivanoe in 
his irife's adultery. The wife can set up soch 
defence to a suit for divome, do the ground of her 
adultery so procured. 

LENS (Lat. 'a lentil') is a thin circular section 
of any transparent aobstance, adapted to magni- 

^ng pnrposea by having Ha two sntfacea aither 
both spherical, or one of than plane and the 
other spbeiioaL Tbe above Dgun represents, in 



tmuverax Kction timnurh their centra, the differ' 
cnt fbnni of lease*. aS these aeparate fannB ars 
mmnffeH into two claaM, thoae which are thickest, 
and th«".< wbich »re thianeat, in the centre, the flnt 
being ^^lerally dsaomio&ted eonvec, »nd the Hicoad 
eonroiw iSDSPB. The effect prodoced by leoiea upon 
ntye of I'lrht (lauing through them, i>. u in prisms, 
to beud the mrt tawuda the thickest part of the 
lens ; so that wheo a pencil of psraUel rayi panes 
Uirou^h a codtpi tens, the emerji^nt raya are Con- 
rrrgf-Bt (•!. v.). while, it a oonoa»e lena be used, they 
■re Divtrgent (q. v.), and the point to which the rays 
DODvei^, nr train which they diverge, approaches 
senriT (A the lens as its cnrvature increases. This 
pnint is called the principil focus, and is real, i e., 
the ra^a actnatly pass thmu,qh it, far a cnnneE 
Itos; but virtiii^ or imacinary, for one that is 
concave. As a simple illustration of the mode 
in which this point is determined, we shall take the 
ease of pitmllel rays fallmg directly upon a double 
convex lens (tig. 2). Here, O is the centra of the 
onrye.! surface PAP", and (>■ of the surface PBP'; 

s thi> p 


RC. 3. 

the thickness of tfaa leo* U so small as to be 
Defected, which may always bo dune when the 
curvature of the lens is small, kq = Bq, and AF = 
BF. By the demoastratdoD given under the article 

DiOPTBiCS, we find/" = : r, for the refraction at 

the first surface ; and, for the second surface, we 
find, ia the ordiiiuy tieatisea on Optica, that when 
a pencil of converging rays emerges from a lens, 
C= C _ -. Adding this formula to the 

former, we obtMn = (fi— !)(- + -) — ->, or , 
i~(r> — l)|- + -{i and if the lens be equi-couvex 
(r- =1 •), and of glass C" = 4), we have -^ = p or/= r. 

This retnlt ia equally correct for a double concave 
lens; but if the thickness of the leos be taken into 
account, theie is a small quantity which is addi- 
tive to the valae of ^ in the convex, but snbtractive 
in the concave lena. The determination of the 
priDci|ial focus in the other and less common forms 
of tenses, will be found in any of the ordinary 
teit-lNKiks. All ths lenses iiinired in <i^. 1, though 
thay T2ty be of the same focal len^h, have peculiar 
proiorties which render them suitable for particular 
optical iustrumenta; thus, the conveio- plane lens 
has only one-fourth of the aberration of a piano- 
convex, or two-thirds of an equi-convcx or equi- 
oonoave of the same focal lengtli—but. in general, 
the equi-convex is the most desirable foim of lens. 
This abemitioa* has been to opticians what tefrac- 

• The directions which have been pven for flndhis 
Uie fod of tvnsra. apply only to lajs which pui through 
and near the centre of the lens; the ran which pass 
near the siigea converge to a different (ootu, and the 
distanoe between these two toai is sailed tbe longi- 
^adinsl atwrration* 

, .._ ODWeleome iotnider, 

wliich spoils bis fineat theories, and sets a limit to 

the accuracy of his results. But, in the case of 
lenses, the aljerration has been destroyed by com- 
bining lenses of equal and oppoeite aberrationa. aa, 
for instance, uniting, by meani of Canada balsam, 
a double convex with a double concave. A still 
better meUiod would be tbe formation of lense« 
having one side spherical, and tbe other of an ellip- 
soidal 'or a hyperboloidal form ; this, however, ha* 
not yet been successfully accomplished. 

LENT (Ans.-Sax. Imetea = Ger. lem, spring ; Or. 
TVanracoife .- Lat. Quadragaijiia], the fastiuK-tima 
Ijefore Easter, which is observed in the lloman. 
and in the Greek, and other Oriental churches. 
Under the head of Yilit have been considert^l 
the doctrinal and historical questions connected 
with the general practice of fasting. It remains 
only to explun briefly what is peculiar in tbe 
institution and the observance of tbe Lenten fa^t. 
It ia certainly of very ancient, if it be not even of 
primitive institution. The earliest allusions to it 
apeak of it as an established usas^ haniled down 
from the Fathers. The forty days' period, as com- 
memorative of our Lard's forty days' fast, or of 
the similar perfunctory foata of Moses and of, 
commences with Ash-Wedne»iiay, between whiu-h 
day and Esstcr-Sunday (omitting tbe Suad-ivs on 
which the fast is not oliserved), forty clear days inter- 
vene. The rigour of the ancient observance, whioh 
excluded all flesh, and evcri the so-catled ■whito 
meats,' is now much relaxed; bnt tbe principle of 
permitting but one meal, with a slight refection or 
collation, is everywhere retained. In Spain, during 
the Crusades and the wars with the Moon, a prac- 
tice arose of permitting, in certain cases, the su)>-ti- 
tiition of a contribution to the holy for the 
observance of the Lenten absticenoe ; and althonjjli 
the object has long since ceased, the composition 
is still permitted, under tbe same title of tba 
Cruznda, In the Greek Church, the aote-paaoha] 
fast is of 43 days; but it is only one of foui 
similar fasting periods observed in that cbun^h. 
See Past. In tbe Anglican Church, L«nt is retained 
as a church season of the calendar, with special 
services, and proper oollecta and prayeia ; but the 
otjservonce of the fast is left to the discretion of 
eooh individuaL 

LBNTA'NDO, in Music, the some as ralUntanda 
or rilartlando, meaning a gradual decrease in tha 
speed of the movemenl 

LENTIBULARIA'CE.^. a natural onler ot 
exo<;eooiis plants, allied to Frimulaettr, bnt ilistin- 
Eui3he{l by an irrei^hLr corolla and diandmua 
Sowers. It has also intimate relatiuns with ScrtijAv- 
lariarne. It contuns nearly 'JOO known sjivcifs, 
all herbaceous, and all living in water or nianbes. 
Tliey abound chiefly in the tropics. A few speci<-9 
at Blodderwort (q. v.) aud Butterwort (q. v.] are 
its only representatives in Britain. 

LENTIL (Ermm leiu), an annnal plant of tba 
same ^enus with Tares (q. v.), a native of tba 
countnea near the Mediteiranean, and wbich baa 
been cultivated from the earliest times, yielding on 
eatefmed kind of pulse. The English translatuia 
of the Bible is probably oorrect in calling the mi 
poltage with which Jacob purohaaed Esau's lurth-. 
right, pctlti/f. of Unlili; the red oolonr being rtiy 
characteristic of this, which ia still a very conm«a 
article of food in the EasL The L is extannvrljr 
cultivated in the south of Europe, Egypt, and th« 
East, and to aome extent in other jmrta of Uie world. 
It has a weak and branching stem, fron 6 — 13 
inchet high. Mid pinnate leaves with R — f pair at 



lataii the Mfpv Inna only mnaing into teodrik. 
C* tsvca we matJl, white, liUe, or pale bine, 
Oc omlla nnch odaoealed bf the calyx, which is 
tniai almroet to it* boee into Ere oamw teeth. 
Tit pode ue voj ibort tad blunt, thia, two-aeeded, 

hM, eoaTez'oD both liaHi. Tl 

wifti^ b>Tiag whiUi, Vqwh, and block seeda, 
vtick abo differ considasbly id die, the gteatcat 
lmm\ li I of tKe largnt beinjf about equal to that 
d ■mlenie-nml pease. Leutils are a very nutritive 
M. cDotainina an QnoommoDly Urge aroouut of 
■nnceiuxu substancea, aod more easily digested 
ttaa p«9e. They have recently become coiniaoD in 
buhnps of Brit&ia in a fonn rcaemblina ipiit prait, 
ad is that of meal {L./ariiui], which is the basis, 
i set the whole sabetance, of Jtemlejila AmbKa 
mi frmfnt'is, so much advertised u food for 
tj^fptx pctMota, at pricea ttreatly exceeding those 
iit irhich 1^ meal can be obtained nader its own 
Haw. t tmli\» Buied with pesae in the ""'''"g of 
f iin[i. grvatly ''■"■■'*■■>' its teodency to produce 
^■slii r Lentils are alao exoellent food for 
h»^; and tb« herbage seed aa gnwa food for 
n*\ recvlmi tbem eztrcTnel; pmduutive of milk. 
Ik L paw* bait in a li^t and ntthtr dry soiL 
la a ntj rich •oil, it prodacea comiiaratively few 
f^ Some of thp vanetics aucceea well even on 
My poor wnOn. The whole liFe of the plant is 
■Mta than that of any other oF the Leffuminota: 
oiDotal ia Britain. The seed may be sown in 
Ainl ia the cUmate of Britata ; but although 
Um ii Bothing in the ooldness of the climate 
h fnvtat tiw atiooeaafal cultivation of lentds, it 
■^ to be too maiat for them, tbe riiie or ripen- 
5 sMib beiag vny apt to be injured by moisture. 
Ihm is DO rrident leaaon, however, why this 
J^t ^ibIiI not ba cultivated for green food of 

LUTI'KI, a town of Sicily, in the province of 
fa M ai I . «taiiili Dear the lake of tbe same Dame, 
« a bin 15 railea soath-soath-weat of Catania, and 
^ ikiot 9000 inhabitants. It has a large gun- 
mviIh Bin, and derirei a good revenue from the 
^^7 in I^ka LoitinL 

IXXTO, or LENTAMEVTf, in Unno, means 

■low, gentie. AooordiDg to the beat antboritMa. 
the lUDvenient implied tiy LtMlo ia nnickar tlua 
Adagio, oc between it and Andanu. 

tiEO, the fifth sign of the Zodiac (q. v.). 

LE'O, the name of twelve among the popea o( 
the Konian CatholiB Church, of whom the folhiwing 
call for partacnlar notice. — Lio L, anmamed 'tha 
Great.' who ia held a saint of the Soman Catholio 
Church, and is one of the moat eminent of the 
Latin Fathera, was bom of a diitingnLibed Etrurian 
family at Rome about the end of the 4th oentury. 
Of hu early life, little ia known. On tbe death of 
Sixtoa IIL in 440, L. was chcaen as hia auccessor. 
It i* in hia pontificate that the regular aeries of 

Epol letters and decietala may be aaid tc 
o's letters, addreeaed 

by Roman cuutinveniialiBle oa an evidence of tha 
extent of the jurisiliction of the Koman see. In a 
oonnci] held at Kome in 449, he aet aside tha 
proceedings of tbe council of E^heaua, which had 
pronounced in favour of Eutychas (q. v.), summoned 
a new council at C'halcedon, in wWh his ii^atea 
presided, and in wbich Leo'a celebrated ' Dogmatical 
Letter' was acce[ited 'aa the voice of Peter.' and 
adopted aa tbe authentic expoaition of tlie orthodox 
doctrine ou tbe peraon of Chriat. The hiatory of 
Leo's interposition with Attila in defence of the 
Komao city and people will be found under the head 
Attila ; and his subaeqnent similar int«r[Hidtion 
with Qenseric, if less dramatic in the incidenta with 
which biitory or legend baa inveeted it. was at least 
BO far successfiU as to save the lives of the citiaen^ 
and the public and private buildings of the city of 
Rome. Leo died at iiome in 401. His works, the 
moat important of which aie hia Letters and Ser- 
mons, were first printed in 1479, and afterwards by 
Qoesnel (2 vols. Paris, 167S) ; but a much mora 
complete and trustworthy edition ia that of Cacciaii 
13 vols. foL Rome, 1753—1755), and of the Brothera 
BaUerini (Venice, 1757).— The pontificate of Lm 
III. is chiefly noticeable aa the epoch of tbe fnnnal 
establiahment of the Empire of Uie We^ He waa 
a native of Hume, and was elected pope on the death 
of Adrian L in 795. Durins the greater part of tha 
6th c, tbe popm, through the practical withdrawal 
of the eastern emperora. had exercised a temporal 
sapremacy in Rome, which waa fidly reoognised by 
the gift of Pepin, and placed nnder tbe protecto- 
rate of the Frank sovereigna, who received the titla 
of Patrician. The pontificate of Leo, however, was a 
troubled one, and in 799 he was treated with much 
violence, and obliged to flee to Spoleto, whenoo he 
afterwards repaired to Paderbom, in order to bold 
a conference with Charlemagne. On his tetuni to 
Rcnie, he was received with much honour by tho 
Romans, and the chiefs of the conspiracy against 
him were aenteiiced to banishiaeub In the following 
year (80U), Cbarlemagne. having oome to Rome, waa 
Bolnunly crowned and sainted emperor by the poM 
and the temporal sovereignty of the po[ia over UM 
Roman city aod state, under, however, tbe sum- 
ainty of the emperor, was formally established. In 
804, Leo visited ChailemagDe at. hia court at Aix- 
la-Chapelle. With Cbarlemagne's auccfeaor, Looia 
le D^bonnaire. Lao was embroiled in a dispute 
about the right of sovereign juriadiction in Rome, 
which bad not been brou^t to a oondiiaion when 
Leo died in 816.— Lao X., Giovanni de' Medici, tha 
second aon of the celebrated Lorenzo de' Medici, 
waa bom at Florence in December 147S. Frbm 
his ciadle, he was destined to the eccleeiuitical 
career. Hia education was intrusted to the ablest 
scholars of the age ; and through the influence of 
hia father with Uie pope, Innocent VIIL, he wit 



•-eated eudiiuJ at the unprecedented >» of 
thirteen yeue. io I48S. la the expalsion of the 
Medici fmm Flurenoe, after the death of Lorenzo, 
the yoon); cardinal wae included, and he oaed the 
occasion aa an opportunity of foreign tnveL He 
iraa employed ai le|pite by Julina I[. ; and during 
the war with the French, he wae taken prisoner in 
the battle of Ravenna, but eoon afterwards eSfectad 
his escape. On the death of Julius II. in 1613. 
Cardinal de' Medici wae cboeen pope at the early 
age of 37, under the name of Leo X. His lirrt 
appoiotment of the two great scholars Bembo and 
Saiioleto OS his secretanea was a pledge of the 
faTour towards learning which was the charac- 
teristic of his pontificate ; but he did not neclect 
the more material intereata of the church and tlie 
Boman see. He brousht to a successful conclu- 
sioa the tifth council m the Lateran (see Cooncil). 
and the sehiam which was threatened by the rival 
oouDcU of Piaa. He ooacluded a concordat with 
Francis L of France, which continued to regulate the 
fiench church till the Kevolution, In thu political 
iclationi of the Boman see, he consolidatod and, 
in Bomc det^ree, extended the rc-coaquents of his 
warlike prcileceHor, Juliiu IL.^thouch hsalaonMKl 
bis poaition and his influence for the aggrandiae- 
tnent of hia family. Hii desertion of the alliance 
of Oancta I. for that of hii yonng rival, Charles V.. 

^ta of ItaJy. 
CUV It la moflb o[ au as a patron oi learning and 
art that the reputation of Leo has lived >ith 
posterity. Himsflf a acholar. be loved learning for 
Its DWD sake 1 and hia court was the meeting-point 
of all the Eicholan of Italy and the world He 
fooO'.lisd a Greek college in Itome, and established 
a Greek preaa, which he endowed muniQcently (see 
Lab('AR1S|. In the encouragement of art. ho was no 
leaa munificent Painting, sculjrture, architecture, 
Vere equally favoared ; and it is to his vast project 
for the rebui'din^ of St Peter's, and to the step to 
WhioU ha had recoane for procuring the necessary 
Eonds — his permitting the preaching of an indulg- 
ence, ooe ni the conditions of obtaining which was 
the oontributinn to this work— that the Drat rise 
of the Refnnnstion in Germany it ascribed He 
bimsclf seems to have regarded the movement as 
of little im[H>rtance. describing it aa *a squabble 
among the friara;' and thou^li he condemned 
the propositions af Luther, and issued a commis- 
non to inquire into hia doctrines, his mensnres, 
oo the whole, were not marked by much severity. 
His personal babita were in keeping with his taste 
—BplendiJ and mnniticent in the highest degree ; 
but in his moral conduct he maintained a strict 
propriety, and his oharader, although not free 
fmm tiie stain of ne;iotism, the vice of that age, 
and more modelled on the ideal of an enlightened 
prince t^an on that of a sealous and ascetic 
cfaiuchman, was beyond all imputation of unworthi- 
nesa or irregularity. His death, which occurred 
rather suddenly during the public rejoicings in 
Bome for tbe taking of Milan, was by some ascribed 
to poiHOD ; but tJiere seems no solid reason for the 
■UBuicino. It took place Oecemlier I, \hi\, in the 
4Gth year of his age. See Koscoe'a Lifr and Pon- 
tificale of Lfo X (4 vols. Liverpool, 1S«5 ; Italian 
by BoaaL 12 voU MiUo, 1818). 

LEO llI..FLATir8,sumamcd 'theliaurian' (from 
his birthplacel. Emperor of Constantinople (718 — 
741 A.D.). vas. like most of tho eaatcm emperon, 
fint a soldier in the imperial army, and soon rose to 
eoiineace through bis military talents. Anastasius 
n. ap[>otnted him to guard the Asiatic portion of 
the empire from the ravages of the Arabs, who 
wen headed by the celebrated Moalema; but on 

tile deposition of the former by TheodosiDa IIL, Leo, 
outwitting his Arab opponent manned ^^inat tha 
usurper, whom he compelled to resign &a crown, 
wbidi he himself assumed (March 718). Leo waa 
scarcely seated on the iidperial throne, when the 
CaUf Suleiman laid siege to Conatantinople by 
land and sea ; Uiis, the third siege of the capit.'U 
by the Arabs, lasted for two years, but was finally 
raised through the energy of Leo. The govemnra 
of several provinces had meantime rebeUed. and it 

Leo several years of petty warfare before 
peace was restored to the empire. The o|>tmr- 
tunity having at length arrived for which he hail 

watched, Leo issued an eillct ci,ndemning tho 
worship of images in the Catholic cbnithes throuijh- 
ont the em))ire. In this he seems to have b«-a 
actuated by a double motive —the restoration of 
purity of worship in the Catholic churches, and the 
removal of a grievous eyesore to many of his sub- 
jects. Christian, Mohammedan, Jewish, and Oriental 
The edict pmduced a most startling effect ; rebel' 
lions broke out in all quarters, and Ravenna, Rome, 
and the other Greek possessions in Italy were finally 
severed from the empire. Leo, enraged at his iosat-a. 
determined to take revenge an their author, the 
r>a;>e, and accordingly removed Greece, Illyria. and 
Alacoionia from his spiritual jurisdiction, subject- 
ing them to the Patriarch of Constantinople, thiia 
creating a permaoent breach between the Latin Knd 
Greek churches (".tl). During the remainder of his 
reign, httle ol LmportBoce occurred, excepting an 
indecisive war with the Arabs, and a ercat earth- 

Juake (October 74<)), which caused dreadf id\»lamitie< 
iroughout tha empire. Many of the princi|ial 
buildings and monuments in Con8tantiai>r>Ie were 
thrown down ; the towns of Nicomedia, Prencti»\ 
and NicBa in Bithynia, were completely destMywC 
and in I^Tpt several towns disappeared with all 
their inhabitants. Leo died 18th June 741. 

LEOBSCHUTZ, a town of Pmssia, capital of 
the circle of the same name, near the river Ziiina, 
33 miles south of Oppcin, has lai^e com and flax 
markets, and manufactures of vahoui kinib. PupL 

LEOMINSTECt, a mailet-town, and monicipal 
and parliamentary borough of England, in the 
county of Herefoi^ situated 12 miles north of the 
city of that name, on the river Lag. It retiima 
twomembers to parliament The immediate vicinity 
of L. is the most celebrated oattle-breeding di^ttrii-t 
in the world— all the prize 'Herefonls' at the 
shows being bred and fed here. Pop. (1861) fi65a 

LE'ON, tho name of a citj^ and of a like, call.a 
also Klanagua, in Nioaragoa, in lat 12* 2S' X.. and 
long. 80 G7' W. It stands near the north-west 

situated in a moat picturesque district and c 
tains a catheilral, a noble edifice, and a nninrsity. 
From the top of the cathedr:U a beautiful and 
extensive view, ambraeing 13 volcanoes, may b* 
obtained. Pop. about ai.IIUU.— The lake measuna 
35 miles by 15, It derives considerable imrurt- 
ance from ita being an essential part of perhagi* 
the meet promising route aeroas Ceiitmt America 
between the Atlantic and the Pacitic. Between 
it and the former ocean lies the still larger Lake 
of Nicaragua, into which it empties itsell, with a 
faU of only 28 feet 

LEON (the Lt^ tptinta gembia of the Romans) 
capital of the former Spanish provinoe of the aame 
name, is situated between the rivers Berwaga and 
Torio, in a beautifully wooded {Jain, 8.1 milM 
north-vest of Valladolid. Fart of the old Boaun 



i4 90 fast thii^ ia itai ituidin^ The d 
■tovokal sod dirt^, but tbe chorchM are both 
i^MKKH and spleikLii, eauacially tba oathadnl, 
■iiiBM of the pnraat GotLic, couUiDiog the tomba 
i taaj urovigna o^ I.^ luntB, and nuitpa: Tt 
D^ «f L a now nnimporUnt Pop. 060% 

LEOy, fanatrij w kinfdom. and mbeeqTienttv 
prnsa' of Spain, now Bubdivided into the BDuUler 
piTBiM of SaluTuuica, Zamortt, and Leon, is aitu- 
iStd ia the north-vest of Spaio, south of Asturios, 
Ki Indenng on FortiieaL Area about 15,000 
tfanmJJa. Pop. 861,431 The country, irhich is 
■loMirtRl by the Doaro, is mountainous, generally 
iiair, but muwrablj cultivated. It affords pastur- 
a:( In Tast Socki of merino sheep. The inhabit- 
uB in for the moat part uoedacated and lazy, 
bit in Ttry hich-Bpirit«d, rich in peculiar customs, 
W fOR Spuiub dncent, sincere, hospitable, and 
Viic It ii said iJkat in the high districta south 
ci ^'m*""^! Tvmiunta of the pure Gothic tribes 
oirt. and at Artorga, remnaDtB of the old Celtiberi 

rayala*. The I 

< of c 

■t FrsTsliere rety defective. The Kingdom of 
leai wia erected, in 746, by AlfoDSo the Catholio 
iKt (if the nir>Tincc« he had wreated fnmi the 
^ncms. uiil the olda kiogdom of Aaturias, and 
u 130 it iraa pemuuiently united to Caatile. 

LBOTTARDO DA TIKCL This great gttiiiu, 
ihae wdHu in painting are classed with those of 
Baiael aad Mii^iael Angelo, waa also a sculptor, 
tWtt. and ensineer, uid he cultivateil succeaa- 
Itlf anatoanj, botany, mathematics, aatcoDomy, 
f>^. and moaie. He was bom, in 1452, at Vinci, 

■ Ac Val d'Amo, near Florence i his father, Pietio 
is Vari, aotary to the si^iory of Florence, placed 
tm ia pnA time with Andrea Verrocchio, who 
m u ahls acnlptor, and a good painter ; bnt in 
pBtinn. hi* papd soon snrpassed him. In 14S3, 
M *at to Ml'*", and the Ihike Lodovico il Moro 
evkrred on ><"" an annual pension of 600 dollars. 
lain perfonning various services for the duke, 
iMEaliHy aa an euziaecr, he iustiiuted an Academy 
4 Ana in 14S5l This Academy, of which he was 
■Bol director, waa attended by many eminent 

it beneficially the Lombard 
aa in 1497, when 45 years 
^ IH; tint he eieeated hii famous fresco, 'The 
Ual Sapper,' wlkich waa painted in oil on the wall 
a Ike lefecti*; o( the Dominican convent of Santa- 
bBa^k]le-OTaci& He remained in Milan till 
m vben, €« ita occapation by the French, he 
ttned to Flarenee, and in 1502 waa appointed 
■cbtact and chief engineer to Ceaare Borgia, 
^taa-geaenl of the pope's army. In 1503, 
it Tas empjOTed by Suderini Gonfaloniere of 
Ikbcc to point one end of the council-ball of 
ba PilaiK) Vecchio. For this, L. only completed 
Ih cei^Lrated cartoon called the ' Battle oE the 
kadard;' another cartoon for a painting in the 
■■c apartmoit, the equally celebrated deaign 
■U the 'CartooD of Pisa,' baring been execut^ 
Xkeaame time by Michael Angelo. He returned 
»Vilin in 1506. In 1 51 3, he visited Eome in the 
bi of Ginliaoo de' Medici, who went there to 
aaM at the coroaation of his brother, Leo X ; and 

■ IS15, acoompsnied Frauds L to Elologna, where 
te a^ned the concordat with Leo X. On the 
FMbi; iaritation of Franda, he acGomi>anied that 
^BiRti to France, in 1516, along with his pupils 
(ria and HebL la bad health during the whole 
iniid be waa in France, he executed no paintings 
tec, beisfi chiefly occujaed in engineering. His 
*iA Kcurad at Amboise, 2d May 161B. The 
aoaa <it L. waa uni*eraal : painting waa not hia 
Mt aTwfatioM. He inifartea to kit woAa certain , 

qualities a! the highest kind, for hia drawing evincaa 
venr great dciicacj^ and elevation of style, not 
modelled on the antique, bat fomicd on a profound 
knowledge of nature ; and in hia treatment of light 
and shadow, he infosed a degree of power, combined 
with softness, into hia productions that inveata 
them with a peculiar charm ; while the influence 
of his atyle has operated powerfully on the school* 
of Milan and Parma. L.'t Treatise on Painting, 
TVaUato dtila Putum, has been published in several 
langna^ea. llie priudnal edition is that pubiuhed 
at Pans, in folio, by Du Freane, iihutrat*yl with 
drawings by Nicolas Pouasin ; the beat, aa regards the 
text, was published at Rome in ISIT. Mr Hallam 
•ays, in hia JntrodiKtion to the Literature of Europe: 
' Leonardo's greatest literary distinction is derived 
from those short fragmenta of his unpublished writ- 
ings that appeared not many yean since, and which, 
according, at least, to our common estimate of the 

Tin which be lived, are more like reveUtion* 
physical truths vouchsafed to a single mind, 
than the BQi>erBtructiire of ita reasoning upon any 
established baaia. The discoveries which mada 
Q^ileo and Kepler and Maestlin and Manrolicna 
and Castelli, and other names iUnatrious, the 
system of Copemicng, the 'eiT theoriea of recent 
geologista, are anticipated by Da Vinci, within the 
compass of a few pages, not. perliapa, in the moat 

Crecise language, or on the moat conctnaive reasoning, 
at so aa to strike na with lometbing like the awe 
of preternatural knowledge.' The writiiigs referred 
to by Mr Hallam were published by Venturi at 
Paris, in 1797. under the following tiUo r t'ttai rur 
la Ouvmga Fhytieo-Motitfmatiqtia dt Lionard da 
Vinci, avre den Frafpnem tirt* de Sfs Manuteril* 
ajiporUi de Fltalie. These MSS. were afterward* 
reatored to Milan, where they are atill preserved. 
LEONFCVRTB, a Sicilian town, in the provinoe 
Messina, situated in a mo'jntainoua neighbour- 
hood, on the shore of the Mediterranean. It ia 
anrrounded by walls, and hai a pop. o( 11,170 
inhabitants. There ia a thriving trade in oil, wine, . 
and grain. 
LEO'NIDAS L, son of Anaiandridea, king of 

rrta. succeeded hia half-brother, Cleomenes L, 
Jt 401 B.C. When the Peratan monarch XerxM 
approached with an immense army. L. opposed him 
at the narrow pass of Thermo]>ylffi (480 ac.) with a 
force of 300 ^urtana, and rauier more than 5000 
auxiliaries. The Peniaaa attempted in vain to win 
L. by the promise of making bim ruler of the 
whole of Greece ; and when Xerxes aent a herald 
calling the Greeks to lay Aowa their arma, the 
Spartan answered ; ' Let him come and take them.' 
llie treachery of one Ephialtes having made it 
impossible to bar any loneer the progress of tba 
foe, L. and his little band threw themselvea on ths 
awonuing myriads, and found a heroic death. 

LirONINE VBKSBS, the name given to the 
hexameter and pentameter verses, common in the 
middle agBB, which rhytned at the middle and end. 
They were so named after Leoninns, a canon of the 
church of St Victor, in Paris, about the middle o( 
12th c., or, aa others aay, after Pope Leo IL, 
I waa a lover and improver of music Traces of 
thia kind of verailicatiou appear here and there in 
lloman poeta. eapecially in Ovid, in some of 
whoee EpisUea, indeed, they are as common on an 
Lge a* once in every eisht lines. Camden givea 
curious apecimeos from Walter de Mapea, 
Michael, the Coraiah poet, and Dan Elingham, a 
monk of Linton, The atory of the Jew who, having 
fallen into a refuse-pit on Saturday, would not ba 
helped out, because it was tut Sabbath, while the 
Chrijtiao, who oflcred him taiiatsnoe, refnaed to do 



a Aii,hu boen thrown into 

T«Hla Duntu Salomoii, tfo t* do ■teroora Idlam ; 
8*bb>U noftn coJo, dc iteimtB mrEers nolo. 
tjablnta oostn guidcm StlomoD oelBbnbii ibtden. 

LEOPARD IFelu kapardtu), one of tliB larger 
Felida (q, t.}. dow generelly mipposed to be identical 

with the panther {F. panhu), although bjf 

they are regarded aa varieties, and othcra Btill 

Kse them to be distinct Bjwciea. Great contusion 
B prevaileii in the nomenclature ; tlia panthrr and 
parialit of tho ancieota are not certainly known ; 
the JB^ar was erroBeously described as the panther 
by BuSba ; the pamB is often called paatber in 

America ; the L. is known by the name of ti^r in 
Africa; and as Sir J. K Tunaent tella ua. it is by 
Diistalie often oalled cheetah in Ceylon. Suppogiuf; 
the L. and panther to be one B|iecies, we may 
describe it as characterised by a pecuUar graceful- 
ness, alenderaeaa and fleiibility of form, wi^ a rery 
long tail, and B])otti!d fur, the sputs being siranj^ed 
in nuineroui rows along tlie aiiles. and each spot com- 
posed ot five or Bii Binall spola arraogwl in > circle 
or rosette. The general colour is yellowish ; the 
lower iiarU lighter ; the ajiots darker than the general 
colour of the lur. The I. is extremely agile, and ]io«- 
•cases the jnwer of leaping and aUo Uiat of climliing 
trees in great [icrfectioQ. It haunts wooded places, 
and is seldam to be found in open regions of long 
^rass, like the tiger. When jniiHiiBil, it takes refuge, 
if poBdihle, in a tree, and if bard pressed, springs 
down on ita assailants. It is cunning, and adojits 
devices similar to those of the fox fur carrying on 
its depredations, and concealing its place of retreat 
Deer and antelopes are its habitual prey ; but it is 
equally ready to feed on pigs, poultry, or whatever 
may be found in the vicinity of a farm or village. 
The size and strength of the L. render it aa daoger- 
OQ« to man as any of the Ftiida ; but it generally 
seema to dread and Qee from man, unleai aasiiiled. 
It ia very capable of domestication. 

LEOPARD, in Heraldry. The leopard haa been 
described by some heralds as the issue of the pard 
and lioness; and the circumstance that such hybrids 
are unprodnctive, ii assigned ai a reason for appro- 
priating that animal to the armorial ensigns of 
abbots and abbesses. However, the representations 
of leopards, at least in English beraldcv, are so 
exactly Uke those of the lion pauant gardant, that 
U has oeen made a question whether there is | 
uy difference between the two, and it ha* more 1 

especially been a keenly contested point whetbet 
the three animals in the royal escntchoon lA England 
were iions or leopards. In eariy times, we hnd 
them blazoned in both ways, and the tme •oliitiio 
of the rpiaiMio oaala seems to be, that at one period 
the heraldic leopard oame to be considered aa a 
mere synonym for the iion passant gardant, thoa^h 
the two animals were originally regarded as distmct. 
In the infancy of heratilry. before distinctive appel- 
lations Were invented for the different attituilirs 
of animals, it was customary to draw a linn in 
the attitude since called rampant, and a laopard m 
passant gardant This diflerence of position sctti. 
cieiitly indicating which animal was meant, they 
were otherwise similarly represented, and no attcm)>t 
was made to exhibit the spots ot the leopanL By 
and by, aa coats of armour were miiltiplinl, it 
became necessary to dilTerence them by varying; the 
position of the animals depicted ; and tlie blaz'iiivr* 
of those days, thinking more of attitude thaji nt 
zoology, had recourse to a compromise in tlirir 
nomenclature. The lion was naturally anppoied 

I rampant and in proGle. the IcojNird p^Li.'unt 
gardant When the conventional animal that iiicht 
stand for either was passant and in profile, he wu 
dcsigoed A lion-lfopardS ; and when rampant garilant, 
he waa a Uopani-lioimt. The king of b«a»t3 w,u 
very early assumed as his apnropnate insignia l>y 
theaovi^reign of England, as Well as by the sover>'i::!ii 
of other countries in Western Euro[ie. The linn 

at tint borne singly, and his natural attitude, 
like that of other lions, was consitlered to he 
rampant But when a second and third lion wvre 
added, it became less convenieut to dra 

the 1 


Iconarde or pasuint. a 
John : a further chang 

ad the lioi 
of p 

I tbe a 

Gardant made them lieratdically leopards, bilu-anl 
IIL, Kdwani the Black Prince, and Kichanl II., 
': of their crest of the leopard, Nioholaa -Serl.y 
designated Leopard Herald in the rci>pi mI 
y IV. 1 and it was not tiU the uiidiUe uf llie 
15tb c that the lions of England regained thiir 

Though leopards, properly so called, hardly occur 
in English heraldry, having passed into I inns 
nt gardant, their heads or faoes are occasionally 
L If no part of the neck is shewn, the |>ri>|a;r 
n is a leopard's face ; if a portion of the neck il 
n, it is a leo)iar<l's head, erased or c»upiii, 
ding as it is cat off evenly or with k ja^'-d 

LEOPARDI, OiACOUO Count, a modem {»et 

and classical scholar of Italy, was horn at Kecanati, 

a town in the march of Ancona, on the 2dth June 

1T98. Without the aid of instnicton. L., at the 

of seventeen, had attained to a dcgn-e of 

lical scholarship almost marvellous. Latin aw\ 

Greek he mastered as his own mother- tongue, and 

iposed some of his philological criticiams at 

age of nineteen, when he was elected meiulH-r 

of the Academy of Science at Viterbo. Slmrtiy 

after, be departed from his secluded home fi-r 

Homo, where he won the friendshiji of several erle- 

brateil men, amonpit othere, of Niebuhr, who wu 

deputed to offer him the chair of Greek philnnophy. 

-~ the univeisity of Berlin, which he decline-i. Ill 

'olth acting on the temperament characteristic «f 

genius, seems to have cast a gloom over his spirit, 

which deeply tinged his general impreaaions of inrn 

and things. On his return from Rome to his native 

place, his health grew seriooaly impaired, from thn 

ardour with which he imrsned his varied studint. 

He finally took up his abode in Florence, wlier^ *"• 

pnbliBhed hii admired Cataoni and other wi 



ijo Ranieri ; and by the delicB 
■ of Buiieri mad Lis BUter, tbi 
Ailliii I mfferiDg poet was ihielded to the boa 
d ha drath. Ftoa thn period, a MDiiible Bufteniae 
•i ifiiit liiii ■mil """li^— t m hu writaogB ; it seemed 

■ i the poet lud l^med to Tilue uid cling to 
ii> lad fnenda only vhra nunmooed to reUoquiah 
kMk. He died in faia friend'i anna at If^Iai, 
l«k Jue 1837. at the an of 39. Hii rtmaiua lie 

■ a aaaO ciitiich at Po^ppo. The iraAt of 
L BC all more or leaa the redes of hi« morbid, 
iofnading ntiiid. Thej an remarkable for origin- 
liof, ngoar, and eluauce of atyle. Hia collected 
T'>fei were pobliahed in 1819, by Le Uonoier, at 
fLoMe. nnder the title of Verwi t Prose di Giaeoma 
t If III if I Hii Italian love-aoimeta are fidl of fire 
■d gnoe ; and hi* ioMuoiu imitatioiu of the 
Btifw fbnn of compoaituni, written in Qreek and 
Ubh. wetb bo perfect, aa to be miatokeD by many 
it gBMiae long-loat gem of ulanical literature. 

LBOPOL.D L, OEORflB Csamuv Frkdemce, 
tmf of tbe Belgiaiu, son of Frands, Dnke of Saxe- 
C<W^ w» bora 16th December 1790. He received 
B envEeot litersry and (cieiitifio education, and at 
t^ eonclnaioa of hia itodies hod the reputstion of 
<iaiig one of the best informed princes in Enrope. 
TW Bamage of his nster Jnlioaa with the Graod 
Dtike CooitantiDe having closely allied the Home 
<< Saie-CoboT]; with the imperial family of Rnseia. 
bWante a general in the tUmian army ; hnt the 
amtea of NapoleoD compelled him. in 1810, to 
nia hia commission. He afterwards a;niin joined 
t±« Koaiaa •noy, and was prenent at the battles 
<f lAtmi, B&utzen. Leipzig, and Kulm. Having 
natnl Eo^:Und after the peace of 1815, he won the 
Actiaaa of the Princesa Charlotte, the heiress of 
tiw thmocL L. was now naturalised by act of 
priiuneot in 181ft, and received an annual pension 
4 £30.000, with the title of Duke of KendaL The 
linage took jiUce on 2d May 1816: but the 
p^am died in childbed on 6th November 1817, 
■id Iter ehikl did not survive. Prince Leopold now 
End in cam[dete retirement, aometimea io London, 
■nd inatetiiiies at his seat of Claremont He received, 
ii Pehroaiy 1830, the offer of the crown of Greece, 

kctina of the Greeks with the arrangements deter- 
■iiied nnaa by the Oreat Powers. In June tS31, 
b «ia »!—*»■<, by a Katiooal Congress, king of the 
lilt,ia»i. and on 21(t Joly of that yew, his inaogura- 
«w took piaoB '^ BnuielB. In 1832, he married 
b riiiiiiMi Looiaa. dati^ler ot Loai* Pbihiipe, 
l»g of tbe Fnach, who £ed in Ootoher 1S50, and 
kj whan be baa iaaiiii the Crown Prince Leopold, 
Mkc of BrabsDt, another aon and a daughter. Aa 
a iwaii h. be haa oondocted hima^ with great 
pelmet , fimmcaa, and moderatioii, with constant 
novd to the prinoiplea of the Belgian conatitntion, 
M^aa erideot annety to advaooe th« uatioaal 

iks ^iBiiaiiliat ol a noble family whieb derived 
m (rigin fcom the Fisnkish kings, was the first 
^a^Ury Maifcgraf of Aurtiia (983 «.!>.), and his 
Iwmiiliiila coDtiailed to rule over that eountiy 
•S tha liae hr*!?*" extinct, in the person of Fred- 

nk tb Wailike. in 1246. Thia family pUyed 
~f " itsat part in the Gnelph and Ghibelune coufli 
W tlv 12th e-, and obtained the duchy of Bavaria, 

LEPA'NTO (ancient ^ama'etiu), now called by 
the Greeks Epaelo, the chief town of the emrchy 
of the s-ime name, in the province of ^tolia- 
Aeamania in Greece, is sitoated on the north side 
of the Golf ol Leponto, 26 miles eaat of Miaso- 
longhL The town, which is ill bnilt, and haa a 
miserable appearance, is the snat of an archbiaho|i, 
and haa an eicelleot port Pop. 2000. In tha 
middle 'kB', it was siven by the Greek emperon 
of the Eaat to the Venetians, who fortified it so 

ly, that in 1477, it stood a siege of four 
tnonuia by 30.000 Turks, and was only taken in 
1499 by Bajaiet II., at the head of 150.000 men. 
Near L., took place the celebrated naval battle 
between the Turks and Cbriatians in 1S7I, in which 
the latter, commanded by Don John of Anatria, 
{q. v.), achieved a decimva victory. 

LEPIDODE'NDRON, a genus of fossil plants, 
abnndant in the coal measures. Some sjieciea were 
of amall siie, but the greater number were larin 
trees, 40 or 60 feet long, and more than 4 feet m 
diameter. They taper upwards, and branch gens- 
rally in a dichotomoo* nuumer. The aurfaoe i* 

> 1138^ so Um rebellion of Henry the Proud, but 
d^ a lou ooufliet with hia aon, Henr^ the Lion, 
■> MBpdled to raai^ it to that priooe in 1 ISS. 1 


either oovered with narrow, sharp-pointed. Kale- 
like leaves, or marVed with lozenge-shaped spaces — 
the scars of the fallen leaves — arranged iu a spiral 
manner. The leaves which are foond ae[iarBted 
from but associated with the trunhs, have been 
aced in a provisional genua under the name of 
tpidophyUimi. The fruita are elongated, cylin- 
drical bodies, composed of a conical azia, around 
~hich a great qaantity of scales are comiiactly 

Brogniart and J. D. Hooker oonridar that Lepido* 
dendis are gigantic Lycopoda. Their modem repre* 
aentatives would thus be a daaa of amall, genenJIy 
creeping, moss-like plants, the largest not being 
more than three or lour feet high. In their form 
Jid in the strncture of their fruit, they certainly 
^nproacb them more nearly than any other living 
plants ; Lindley, however, sees in the Conifene, and 
especially in the Norfolk IsUnd pines, the closest 
reaemblutcea to this ancient class of plants. 

LEPIDO'PTEBA (Gr. scaly-winged), an order of 
sects, undergoing pomplete metamorphosis, having 
the mouth in their perf»:t state eiolusively adapted 
for sacking, and further characterised by four mem- 
braaoos win)^ covered with minute, closely set 
---'— The order contains a vast number of species, 
ine chiefly in warm climates ; bnt the British 
apedea akine are about two thousand The L. are 
very natmrally divided into three great aectiona — 
i>iiim<i, CtfpvtailaTia, and JITocturNO, ao named 
becanae almost all thoae of the flnt aectioo are to b* 



wen OD wing onlj Airing the dii^, those of the 
•eoond morb ^nenlly during the twilight, whilst 
thoae of the third tn more noctamul ; their pnptiUr 
deeigiutioni mjieetiTely being BDrrlHrLim, Hawk- 
MOTHH, md MoTHB. See these heivla. Among the 
L. nre included manjof the largest nnd most beauti' 
ful of insect^ with coiours u exquisitely Tuied m 
they are hriiliant ; tiiera are also many — particu- 
larly among the moths— of small size and sober 
hue, but not one of them can be denied the praise of 
beauty. The difTeranoe between the lame and the 
perfect insects in food, stmcture, and hnhite. is very 
wooderfuL The larvEe are described in the article 
CATUtFiLLAJt. the pun in CBHVKALia. The perfect 
inacot feeds only on the nectareous juices oE I'lants. 
The princinal organs of the mouth are the maxilla, 
the mandibles and labmm being redaced to mere 
nidimenta ; and the maxilla appear in the form of 
two long slender Ulamenta. which combine to form i 
a protxmcis or trunk, spirally rolled up when not 
in use. This trunk is capable of RTeat variety of 
movement, and is of extremely delioata structure. ' 
— The Kcates of the wings are ot very various [orma, 
but with a j^neral similarity, 3ome of them are 
figured in the article Bdttervlt. The win)^ are 
generally large, and are not folded when at rest. 
The three segments of the thorax are much united. 
The abdomen has neither sting uot ovipositor. None 
* "^1 L. for- - ■■ - -•'■^ -■^ ' - 

ten foui 

>f them. 

LGPIDOSI'REH' (or ProUnUnu), a very remark- 
able genus of animala, one of the conneoting links 
between Amphibia (or Batrachia) and Pish^ and 
ranked by some naturalists with the former, and by 
Bome with the latter. Owen strenuously maintains 
the proper place of this genus to be among fishes. 
There are several species of L., of which the best 
known is L. anturctant, an inhabitant of tho upper 
part of the river Gamliia. It ui alwut • foot long. 

gelatinoUB, except thoae of the heiid, which rescmbh 

■e furnished with an undulating ribbon of 
)ne, covered with enamel, the uDdul.itions of the 
niiper and luwer jaw adajited to each other, and 
ainng the edf;ea are sm.ill sharp teeth. There are 
free fit.imentnry gills situated under gill-covers, as 
in osseous fiKbes, but two of the arteriiU arches, 
which ordinarily supply the gills ot fishes with ; 
blood, are represented in L, by trunks, which 
proceed to the double air-bladder, and moify over 
Its cellular surface, so that the air- bladder, having a 
eommunicition with the mouth, is eajmble of serving 
to a cerU-iin extent the puqioses of lunga, and the 
animal is enabled to sustain a torpid eiisteaco 
during the dry season in mud, in wliich it forms 
for itself a kind of nest, which h.-ia been likened to 
the Cnciion of an insect, by means of a mucous 
secretion from its boily. Specimens of L. nnnrrtant 
have sometimes K-en brought frnm Africa with 
plants, among the roots of which they hail taken up 
their residencev Numerona specimens have been 
kept alive in the Zoological Gnrdena of London and 
tile Crystal Palace, and tbeir habit* have been 
tvefnily studied. Thtj do not Msm to need Ute' 

annual period of torpidity, fen' whidi, aa forced upon 
them in their native country, they are so wefl pre- 
pared. They readily eat any kind of animal food ; 
Irocs are particularly acceptable ; and when placed 
in Oie same tank with gold-fiahes, they kill them bjr 
a single htte close to the pectoral lins. approaching 
them from below, biting out the piece, and oft«i 
eating no more of the (ish than that one bite. In 
iia native coimtry, the fleih of the L. is much 

LE'PIDUS, an illnstrions Roman family ot the 
ancient iEmilian gens. It makes its first appear- 
ance in history about the beginning of the 3il 
c, before Christ ; and was long one of the moat 
distinguished in tho patrician order, reckoning 
amonfj its members many who held the greatest 
dignities in the state, consiUs, augurs, jirstors, 
military tribunes, censon, and heads of the prie«t- 
hood. It disappears about the close of the 1st 

, but because of the imjiortant events in 
which he to<^ a part, is Harcub fuurs L., 
who, when war broke out (49 B. c) between Cooar 
and Pompey, declared for Cieaar, who appointed 
him, dnring his own absence in Spain, Dictator of 
Rome, a Magiilrr Equilmn (47 B.C.), and hia col- 
league In the consulate {46 B. c.). He afterward! 
supported Antony, and became one of the trium- 
virate with OctavianuB and Antony; but hia weak- 
ness of character, and want both of military talenta 
and of statesmanship, mode liim of very inferioe 
importance to the other two, who assigned hint 
Africa aa hts province (40— .39 b.c). After the 
defeat of Sextui Pompeius, ho thought to have 
maintained himself in Sicily against (Ktavisn, but 
bis suldieis deserted him, and went over to his rival, 
who. however, allowed Mm to retain his wealth and 
the ilignity of pontifei maiimus. fie died 13 S.C. 

LB'PORID^C See Haiut 

LEPRA ia a Greek term which is now generally 
employed by medical writers to designate a acaly 
affection of the skiiL These acalea occur in circDlar 
patches of a ^yish colour, with a red, slight^ 
elevated margin. It the scales fall off or ar« 
removed, the surface ot the skiu is red and shining, 
and new scales rapidly fonzi. The patches vary in 
si'e, being often about an inch in diametu-, and 
sometimes much larger. Lepra most commonly 
occiui on the limbs, and especially on thcae parte 
where the bones are moat thinly coverad Its 
duration is uncerlain, aod if not intemiptad l:^ 
treatment, it will frequently continue for jeara, 
without mateHally affecting the general health. II 
is not contagious. The local application of tar 
ointment, or the iodide of sulphur ointment, will 
sometimes remove it If it does not yield to this 
treatment, small doses of Fowler's Ataenical Solit- 
tion (three to five minims) may be prescribed, twio* 
or tfarice a day, either in water or m the deooctiaa 
of dulcamara, which is supposed to be apecUlIy 
benetlcial in chronic skin diseosea. 

LEPROSY. This term has been very vaguelv used 
both by medical and other writera ; wo ahall ben 
restrict it to the Lepra tubercuk}»a, as it appestn t<i 
have prevailed during tbe middle ages and down to 
modem times in Eun>|ie, and as it ts now met with 
in various warm climate; the scaly variety, whirh 
in Te.-ditjy is a |ierfectly separate djaease, lieiDg 
noticed m the article LSFKA. The affectioa here 
discussed is identic-kl with the elfpAantian* of jii 
Orrtki, and the U}>m of tie Arabiaiu, while it is 
altogether different from the effpAanlJost* o/' iJm 
JmhiaHt, and the lepra iff At ffra^ whiok Uttsr 
ia the Koig lepra of onr own d^. 




_ Ja by CnTk* not mnMns 

t Rulotoa. Tha tane nUtkin* ol 
thrx- creatnrN, hanver. aftar bkring beea rendered 
-robihle by other*, were flnBllf demonitrsted bjr 

llitt. when vnani^ tbey naenble the liigher cni>- 
txrani mucb moi« tun in their nutore state ; 
haviii|{ then organe for iwinunin^. which the; are 
capable of doiiui with gnat agility, and eyee—or ao 
eye H in Crclo)ia, to which they exhibit much 
aener*! rrscmblaDoe ; whiUt, when matare, they are 
fiidl tA a nnste apnt. aa (laraiite* on tlthea, and are 
deatitDtc both of eyra and of orguu of liK-nmntJon. 
The nnniber of the L. i» vety (treat, each kind of fiih 
having apparVBtly ita own pecoliar apeciei of nan- 
lite. Some of them adhere to the eyta of fiahea, 
which they render blind, aome to the ailli, aome 
to otbiT nrti of the boity. The ancirnta were 
acqiiaiiited with iqch parmaitn of the tunny and 
iwonl-liih, and Ariiti>tle mentioDa them aa csnaing 

Ct annoyaDoe to the Hihea infested by them. 
L. anuma in their matora >tat« very rarioua 
and gnitesque fonna. 

French marahal of the areoad Empire, waa laim 
at Puria, 9Mt August 1801, entered the army in 
IBIS, but found it neceaaary mora than once to 
leave it. ao that, in IH^l, after a Upat of fifteen 
yeara. he was only a lirutf^anL la 1837, he was 
appointed captain of the foreign legion, and fint 
roae tn eminence in the African wars. The raloor 
be eihiliitrd at the liege of CnDitaotine won him 
the cnias of the Lev-inn of Honour. In IMOt he 
became ■ e/iff dr balal&m; b IM2, a lieutenant- 
colonel ; ami in \MAjti cnlioeL Ihuing the rising 
M the drarrt tri)<ea under Bou-Haia, Oilnnel L. de 
8t A. lignalised himself at the heaul of the cnlmnn 
placet! under his ordcn, redncod the Dahn tn 
snbje-'tinn, and made fina-Msia a prisoner. On 
the lennination ol the campaign, he was promoted 
to he a {V«amsnileT of the u-gion of Honour. In < 
IS47, be was mised tn the rank of a fleM-manhal ; | 
and in the «riy part of I83I carried on a bloody 
but BueevMfol warfare with tha Kabyles. He waa 
now a[if<uinU<d ■ peoeral nl division. At this period, 
Louis fi'apoleon wat plotting the OTerthrow of the 
republic, and wm on the look-ont for reaotntr awi 
nnscmpiiluua aocomphoea \ and aooordinjily, altont 
the lieginiung u( aulnmn. L. de !4t A. apjjeiarHl in 
Pari*, and was immoliately aopointol to the oom- 
Band erf the srouod iliviann ol the city fom«. On 
the 96th Oi;lulier be heeama war minister, and took 
aa actiTC part in tha amji tTflal of 3d December, 
aud tha au'iBKiuent msssacrrs at the barncailea. 
On the brrakiug ont of the Crimean war in ISM, 
he waa tntrnitfd with the ooounand of the French 
forcea, and oo-operatnl with Lonl Hsftlan in tha 
battle <d th* Alma, Snth Septonher. He died 
BlBe day* ifterwarda, tka rictin ol m 

her hand ; but in INS be married tta daoghti; 

penaion of 600 liTiea. Snoie o 
piece* attained great popularity ; and in 1709 hi 
waa ofTered 100.000 franca to anpprea* one of theia 
7'urairi-I, a bittej- aatire on the finaacien of tin 
time, bat he refused the offer. Hia oomif aorels 
which have never been eicetled lir anythins ■• 
tha aani« kind, won for him a stin higher {Ab' • 
in literature, particnlarly L« DvMe Boilmx, /.' 
Arrnlura dt Omman fAI/arackr, Bod Gil Bl i. 
He SanliUant (2 vols. Par. 17I5|. which is nniTf-r 
ssLy reganled ■* bis master-piece. He died ITt) 
November 1747. A complete edition o( hia work. 
was published in Paris in 1730. The ooTrk at>.>x-> 
named hare been tnuisUtal into dilTerent lanicua,^* 
and OH Hlfu, in particular, i* extremely pofiaLa 

LB'SBOS. the ancient name of an ialaod in tb 
Grecian Archiprlngo, bclonpng to Turkey, oaliiil 
<lnring the middle ase*. Miii/Uit <from its captt-a 
city), and hcncv. by the modtm Oreeka, Mil^n » 
.V^uKi, awl by the Turk* ifitfiUiL It lies 40 auk- 
south-east of Lemnoa (q. v.), near the coast of Aat. 
Minor, from which it ia distant only 10 miln ; art« 
about 600 square miles; popL about 411.0(10. of wimw 
frum lA.INU to 18,000 are Turka, the tst are Umk< 
L. is rather toountaiooua, but only one of Vh 
moUDtains sttains an elevation of 31100 feet. Tlk 
climate is salubriona bejnnd that o( any othrr ial»iai 
in the Xa^aa. and the soil ia fertile. Aacwcitly. ■ 
was famous for its wines— Horace alebntsa tb 
innnrriilit ponla Lfibii — but the modem prodocr i 
indiffureut Ita liga,howeTeT, an eicellent : bat it 
jirincipa] exports are oil, timber, and gall-nata. Tl> 
'hief town ia Caatro (q. v.), — L. waa the birthplac 
>f Terpaoder, Arion, Aloena, Sappho, Pittaciu 
Tbeopfarastua, and Cratippw. 

LESION, a term {a flcotch Law to danots iajwr 
or prejudice aiiiitained by a minor or by a prnbi 
of weak capacity, auflleient to be a ero(n>d ri aetw - 
to reduce or art aside th« deed which canaad tk 
leaion. See Iswurt. 

LR^WirK, a bnrgb of barony, chief town el tha 
Shetland Iilands, la situated oa the Mainlaad, on 
Breawy Huond, 110 milea Dortb-eaat of KirkwalL 
Tha t"wn pnwnta a ttranire appnaranoe from having 
BO refinlar strerta, the only thorongh(an« between 
tha buuaea being badly ke|rt aod wukdms pathwaya. 
The harbour is omunudmua aod safe. Fop, (1861) 
JOSl- In 1861, to* vc*N-Ls, of 00,743 tons, entcreil 
aad rtnuv) tha puaL Fabing ia tba otuaf bianch 

LBSAOB, ALan ViXfi. a FraaiA diamatiat aad 
Boverist, barm Sth May 1668. at Samn, now in 
tba departxacat of Horbihaa, and studied nnder 
th* Jtwaita. In 1692, he came to Paria. to ponoe 

ka i^ikaofUc t 

DaviiL Earl nf HuDtingiW and the P-ari.rh, Itntks 
of Kmi; William tbe ijaa. gnuitivt a charter t 
Malcolm, tha son of Hartholf, of the land of Inaly 
<aow written Li^ie), a wjd pastiiral jianab > 
Alwrdevaaliire. BarthoiradcacemLuita, takios than 
suruame from their lands of Lntic, acqairnT larg 
domains before the and of the 13th c. by mama^ 
with the brima of Rothea on the .Spey, aad w-.t 
one of the oo-hcin-na ol Aheroethy on tba T»- 
Sir Andrew of Ixwlie apoaan aa one of thr umt iiali 
of Scotland in 1330, and from thia time Ibe fun 1 
fienrea mora or leas [somincDtly in tbs hmtiarj • 
the coantry. 

Ea*u Ann Dtki or Rom.— It bsiim n 
noblcd in 1497, wbm Qeorge of Leslie, ol Rdi«l» 
ami of Leslie npn Levan (the family had lia— fan i 
tba name of its first pass rad o n in the GaiioA Ut U 
lands of Pethkil, in Fife) waa made Eari at WtaA> 
and Lord Leslie. The third ear) waa tba Tnhar ■ 
Norman Lealw, Master of Rotbea, tba chW act**- i 
the mntder of C^ardiiu] Beaton. Tb* filth aai 
although a man a( di»alate life,diatinei>i*h«d hn^ 
at one of tha ableat of tha Covanantins kwlen. H 
eon, acarcclj leaa able, Ibon^ aboai Bnadncat«> 


tasaB Ij>d CluBcdlar of Seotluid in 1B6T, ud 
a ten ma et«Kted Duke of Kotltca, Mknjou of 
Mwliiiii li. EsH of Lfslie, Ac. l%ese honour*, 
hna baitRl to the heits-male of hit body, became 
aBactainB hia death Tithont male issue in 1681. 
nr t at t iu w of Rnflica went to hii eldest daughter, 
«bK dcanndaiit, the pnamt Oount«M of Rothea, 
■ Ae mtwjit h who haa beld the dignity. 

Eaau ow Lktxh. —Before the family foimok ila 
int Hat ta Abetdeetuhire, it had thrown ofF 
ir^^a, KHDC dt which (till floonah there. The 
ckcC Oat o( Balqabain, ha« giren birth W itself 
« kr iti aSthoata to leTeral men of mark, inch 
B ^ baiwed John Lealie, Bishop of Roes (boi 
a UST. died in I-WG), the devoted champion • 
Krr, Qmcs of Sonta; 8ir Alexander Leslie i 
i -Liiit j jil a genial in the Mnsoovite serrio 
*b died eoTcmor of Smolenako in 1063; no 
daia Le^ie, chaaMllor of the diocese of Conno , 
■Ikr of B Siarl Mrlliod wiA the Deiil», who 
bd m 1732. A itill mote diitinentshed mt 
ni **-"—*— Leslie, a soldier of ^rtane, wh 
taisa* tbe trammels of ill^timate birth and .. 
1 (he eoidd write his Dsme, bat 
o be a Gdd-maiahal of Sweden 

■■sliiiK aniiy; and in 1641 was nude 
^ 1 aodXotd Bilgooy. He died in 1661, 

Stvo pandfhildwn. the yoan^er of whom 
tka &ri «t HelTiOe, and left a son, who 
taaat tUfd bil of Leren and second Eari of 
BMIa. Hi> dMcendant is now derenth Eul of 
:«* aNd toa bri of HelrilU. 

iMEM I^vnos^ — Ilka seeood son of Oie fifth 
U rf BMbM wM created Lord Undores in 1600. 
Ik tUe bsa boen dormant nnc« the death of the 

[mm MiwaKK.— DsTid Leslie, fifth son of the 
fas Lnd lindona, serred with diitinetkni under 
''i^Otnm A^phna at Sweden, and retoniins t 
• ifisil. oa tiM ootlmak of the Great Civil Wa 

_ _j of the leaders of the Pu^amcntary 
wMj at Ibnton Hoar, and aorpneed sad routed 
Si^nM at Philipb*Dgh. He was defeated by 
•j-mril at Donbar in 1650, and after ten yean' 

it KwlOT-rtinn. Ho was made Lord Newark in 
Ml, sri died in 1682. The title has been donnaut 
mm Ibe iliiath of hi* great-giandson, the fourth 

— Walter Leslie, a younger iod of 
' ' .distingnishred himself in the 
. . 1 1637 wsa created s connt 
a rewaid for his serrices in the 

, .. rtein. He died without issue in 

n he was aacceeded by his nephew, James, 

. — *-' in the Aostriaa service, who died in 

Al Tke title, it is onderslood, became extinct in 

Ik hMoVT of flie Leslie* wag written by Father 
V^^B Aloyaiiis Lialie, a younger brother of the 
tmi ooonfc, in a laifte and mmptiiouB folio pab- 
&k4 tf Grtta in 16V2, with the title of Laurwi 
The Ptdigne of Ow Famiiy of 


tadr 1^' 

in MS. One of them boasts 

_ . thies Leslies we™ generals of 

^M in threa kiagdoma— Walter, Count Leslie, 
a Qai^y; Alexander Lealie, YaA lA Leven, in 
v^Md ; asd Va Alexander Lcdie of Anchintool, 

UBUB, 8n JoHiF, a eekbrated natnral ^lil- 
■ i fcu. wn bom in Largo, Fife, 16th April 1766. 
■n a bD7, Aewing a aWoog Inas tor the exact 

sciences, he was sent to St Andrews TTnivenity in 
1779. Li 1785. he entered the Edinbnreh Diviiutry 
Hall, but dcToted most of his time to the sciences, 
particularly cbemiatry. In 1788, he lA Edinbnrf^ 
and after being two years in America, ■* tutor to 
the sons of a Virginian planter, be retnmed to 
London in 1790. lR>m that time till 1805 he wsa 
em^oyed as tutor to the family of Mr Wedcewood, 
at Etruria, Staffordshire, in bavelling on Vor con- 
tinent, in eontributine to the press, and in making 
experimental researches : the fruits of his labinira 
were a translation of BuObn's Nabtnd HitUjirg 
of Birdii (1793), the invention of a Differential 
Thermometer, a Hyerometer, and a Photometer, 
and the publication oT an ExpowienUd iTuparg into 
lit Naturr and Propo^Koa of Heal (1804), a most 
ingenious work, constituting an era in the bistoi? 
of that branch of physical sdeoce, and for which 
the Royal Society awarded him the Bumfoid 
medals. In March 1809. he was, after a great deal 
of opposition from the Edinhnrgh clergy, elected 
Professor cA Mathematics in die nniverntj of Edin- 
burgh, and soon after commenced the publication lA 
his COuTtt qf MaOi/matia. In 1810, L. invented 
the process of artificial congelation, performed the 
experiment in the following year before the Kojal 
Society of London, and in ISIS published a hilt 
explanation of bis views on the subject ; subse- 
quently, he discovered a mode of freeiine mer- 
' """ ' ' " ' > the cuoir of 

Natural Philosophy, a position better adapted to 

his necnliar genios, and in 1^3 published one 

of EUmaUt of JVatamJ PkUo»oplij/, i 

completed. In 1832, he was created a knight 
of the Gnelphic Order) and on November 3 of 
the same year expired at Coatea. a smaU estate 
whi^ he had purchased near Largo. Besides 
the instruments above mentioned, he invented an 
fthrioscope, Pyroscope, and Atmometer, and cod- 
tribiited manv articles to various periodicals on 
Heat, Light, Meteorology, the Theory of Compres- 
sion, Electricity, Atmospheric Pressure, tM. Hia 
tsat important work was his disconme on the fVo- 
grat of Malhtmalical and PAjnuoJ SeieiKX during 
Vu BighUmth Century, which constitutes the fifth 
dissertation in the first volume of the Bfcyd/tpadia 

LESLIE, Chasles Robkrt, R. A. This dietia- 
gniihed artist was bom in London in 179C Hii 
parents were Americans resident there at the time 
of bis birth ; they went back to America in 1799, 
taking with them Charles Robert along with their 
other diildren. His father died in 1804, leaving 
the family in straitened circamstancea. Young L 
having, ^om infancy, been fond of drawing, wiMed 
to be a painter ; but his mother not having tha 
means of giving him a painter's educatton, be waa 
bound apprentue to Messrs Bradford and loafceep, 
booksellers and publishers in Philadelphia. He had 
been three years at Lis spprenticeahip, when be 
managed to execute a drawing of the popular actor, 
(George Frederick Cook. The likeness tuving been 
pronounced excellent by a number of connoissenrs, 
a Eubscription was raised to enable the rising 
. . artiat to sCndy painting two yean in Europe. He 
j*f tf B^jmiam was printed at Bakewell ilk accoidmgly returned to England in 1811, and 
M. far private drcnlati^ Some histories of the entered as a student in the Royal Academy. He 
" ' " ' ' seems at first to have attempted mbjects in what 
is »Ued die elasaieal sfyle, tcietha: with portraits ; 
but by degrees he came to follow oat tiie bent <^ 

ityle in which he distingnisfaed himself — vis., genre- 
painting of the hi^iest class. The firat pictni« 
that tmwght him into notiee wsa 'Sir Roeer 

.. n 1.._ _.!__ .J chnreh,' exhibited in Uie 




_ A the Academy; uld 

' SoQcho Puua and tha Duchess,' paiated for Lord 
Egremont, and exhibited Id IS24, bis best work (of 
which there ie a repetition amoim the puintiags of 
the Britiab school ttequeathed by Mr Vernon to 
the National OalleTT), obtained for him the rank 
of Academician. After this, titl near the period of 
bia death, there were few exhibitions of the Royal 
Academy to which L, did not contribute. L's 
principal pictniei are embodiments of scenes from 
the works of many of the moat popular authors — 
Shakspeare, Cerrantet. Lesage, MoliSre, Addison, 
Sterne, Fieldino, and Smollett. His works have 
had a great inSaence on the Enelish school ; and 
though he almost alwi^s executea repetitions o( his 

Srineipal works — a practice that j^nerally leads to 
ecrease ths value of pictures — his pictures bring 
iinmeDse prices. Great power of expression, and a 
delicate perception of female benaty, are the lesding 
points in L-'s pictores. In tbe early part of his 
career, his style may be objected to as deliciGnt in 
colour, and rather dry and bard ; but the inQuence 
of Newton, hii talented compatriot, led him to 
direct his attention to the works of the Venetioa 
maatera, and impart greater richness to his colour- 
ing, later in Ufa, the example of Constable inclined 
him to strive at producing empagto, or fulness of 
surface, in his pictures. 11 accepted the 
ment of Professor of Drawius at the 
ftcademy of West Point, New York ; but 
up this occupation after a five months' reaiuence, 
and returned to England. In 1S4B, he was elected 
Professor of Fainting at the Koyal Academy, but 
resisned in I85I. He died in London in May 1859. 
Hie lectures were published in I84J; under the title 
of A Handbook for Young Painteri — a very sound 
and most useful work on ut. A life of bia intimate 
friend and brother, artist, Const:ible, whose great 
taleat he was the first fully to appreciate, was 
published by him in IMS, and deoervedly rmnks 
with the belt writiDga of that class. The Aulo- 
UographKnt RfcoUtcttonM of Ltdie, edited by Tom 
Taylor, Esq. (Lond. 1860), is a very interesting 

IfESSINO, GormoLD Efkbaik, an iHuitriou* 
Oerman author and literary reformer, was bom 
Januuy 22, 1729, at Kamenz, in Saxon Upper 
Lusatio, where hia father was a der^vman of the 
highest orthodox Lutheran achooL After spending 
five years at a school in Meissen, where he worked 
Tery hanl, he proceeded to the university of Leipzig 
in 1746, with the intention of atudying theology. 
But he soon began to occupy himself with other 
matters, made tJie acquaintance of actors, contracted 
a great fondness for dramatic entertainmenta, and 
aet about the composition of dramatic pieces and 
Anacreontic poems. This sort of life pained his 
severe rel.^tives, who pronounced it 'sinful,' and for 
a short time L. went home ; but it was his destiny 
to revive the national character of German litera- 
ture ; and after one or two literary ventnres at 
licipzig of B trifling character, he proceeded to 
Bt^rliu in 1750, where he commenced to publish, in 
conjunction with his friend Myliua, a quarterly, 
entitlud Britrdgt zut Hiilorit und AtifiuAme det 
Thealen. which only went the length of fonr num- 
bers. Ahout this time also appeared his collection 
of little poems, entitled Kleiaigkeiten. After ■ brief 
residence at Wittenberg, in compliance, once more, 
with the wishes of his parents, he returned to Berlin 
in 1753, and in 1755 produced his Miu Sara Samp- 
ton, the first spMimen of bourgmitie tragedj^ in 
Germany, which, in spile of somu hostile criticism, 
became very popular. L. now formed valuable lite, 
rary friendships with Gleim, Eamler, Nicoloi, Moses 

Mendelssohn, and others. In c 

any with tha 

1, he started (J7GT) the BiblioAetder S, 
W'atenichUpea, the best literary journal of ito time, 
and atill valuable for its clear natural crilicisin ; 
ha also wrote hia Fabda, his lAUmtuTbri^t, and » 
Tariety of miscellaneona article* on literature and 
Bsthetics. Between 1760— 17(15, he lived at Breslsa 
as secretatytoGeneral Taaenlien, governor of Si!i-3ia. 
The year after his return to Berlin, he publisbul his 
master-piece, the Laoeoon, peHiapa the finest anil 
most classical treatise on Asthetio criticism in the 
German or any other language. In 1767. a|Fpearcd 
Minna von Bamlielm, a national drama, homly Int 
celebrated than the Laocoon ; and in 1768, his 
Dramaivrgie, a nark which exercised a powerful 
influence on the controversy between tha Fren<.-h 
and the English styles of dramatic art — L e., 
between the artificial and the natural, between the 
conventional and the true, between shallow and 
nompona rhetoric, and genuine human emotion, tu 
1770. L. waa appointed keeper of tha WolfeabUtt.'I 
Library. Two years later appeared iutSmilirOol-Ui : 
and between 1774—1778, the far.famed Wolfn^uH''.- 
icAen FragmtnU einrt Ungeaatmten. These Wolfvn- 
hsttel Fiogmenta are now known to have been the 
composition of Reimarua (q. v.). but the odium of 
their authorship fell at the time on L., and he was 
involved in much bitter controveny. la 1779, be 
published hia Noihan der Wane, a dramatic expo- 
sition of his religious opinions (his friend Mcut-s 
Mendelssohn is said to have been the original of 
Nathan) ; and in 1780, his Erziehung da Mtntch-'n- 
goKhUrhlt. B work which is the germ of HenJir's 
and all hiter works on the Education of the Human 
lUce. He died February IS, 1781. L. is one <.f 
the greatest names in German literature. If his 
works seem hardly equal to his fame, it is becau^ia 
he sacrificed his own genius, as it were, tor the sake 
of others. When he appeared, the literature of his 
country was comipted and enslaved by French 
influencea. The aim of L was to reinvigoiat* and 
emancipite the national thought and taste ; and the 
splendid outburst of DBtioual genius that followed, 
was in a large measure the result of his laboDm. 
Compare Adolf Stabi's G. E. Leaina, San Lebfm 
und Srine Wfrh- (2d. e<tit Berlin, 1862). 

LETHAL WEAPON, in Scotch crimtiul law, 
means b deadly weapon by which death was csnsed, 
OS a sword, knife, pistoL 

LE'TH^, in Grecian Hytholofpr, fli* stream of 
forgetfiilness in the lower world, from which soula 
drank before passing into the Elysiaa Kelda, that 
they might lose all recollection of Mithly ■orrow*. 

IjBTTER of MARQUE (because the Bovei¥i:rn 
allowed a market or mart— i.e., authorised tbe 
disposal of the property token), the oommissioa 
authorising b privateer to make war upon, or aeize 
the property ol, another nation. It most be granted 
by the Lords Commissioneri of the Admiralty, or 
by the vice.admtrol of a distant prorinoe. Veswla 
sailing nnder auch commissions on commonly 
spoken of as UHtri if marque. Making war without 
letters of marque by a private v«sel is piracy. 
Letters of marqne were abolished among European 
nations at the treaty of Paris in 1SS& 

LBTTBBS, a legal term used in the United 
Kingdom in combination with other words. Lettrrt 
of Adminalrotioli in England and Ireland dipui 
the l< ■ • ^ . . - 

deceased person who has died iutestato. See Adxi:!- 
wnuTTos, Will, IsTEsraor. LtUrr t^ Attontrt). 

or power of attorney, in English law, is a wribn^ 
or deed authorising an agent (wheUier he ia • 
certificated attorney or not) to M Hiy lawfol ftct 



■ tki itaid of tlia putj eiecutiog it LeUtn 

^j money to a third pereoo. 
. m Scotch criminal law, ore 
L ■■mat obtuDsd by » priioaer to summon 
■IliMMi on bis beluU M his triaL Letter qf guar- 
(*(. ia Sootcii law, meant a writiDg guaranteeing 
■ikH or SDmgeineiit of another. LSttr of tkerice m 

■ Add «r ioatrnment eiecuteil by the creditors of a 
kiJa wka ii ituolTent, giving him time to pay, and, 

raDuc«. Lettitn ntMat, in England, is an order from 
Ac Lncd CluiMxllor to ft peer requesting the tatter 
tontfT as ^)pesrance to a bill tiled in Chancery 
^tA bkA peer ; in Scotland, the word means any 
tnttcn agrrement or memorandum relative to some 
tarpin ■■ to mercantile mattem, or aa to the sale of 
liaJ or homea or the letting of land. hftUrt pattnt 
■sa a writing of the Queen, sealed with the Great 
StiJ at Great Britain, authorisinf; or appointing the 
prtj to whom it is addressed to do some act, or 
ftKstr lomc office, as creating a peer ; a judge, a 
<)nai'i Counsel ; also granting a patent right to a 
ftRH who is the first mventor of aome new contriv- 
laot See Patent. LtUera of re^eH, in English 
■rliBnTii il l&w, mean a writ which commeocea a 
tit is the Court of Archea gainst a clei^naD. 
■Iml of pnxKdlinK, in the fint instance, m the 
Ciwittnry Coart Lrtim of *nft amdutt mean a 
nit. ander the great seal, to the subject of a state 

■ *ir with this ooontry, aathoriaing and protecting 
■d fobjcet while datling or travelling in this 
aotiy, BO thkt neither he nor his gooda may be 
■otd, ■■ they otherwise might be. 

Imvi an coDTcmtional ntatka ur visible signs of 
Ik iLiwtal aoaodi of spoken language. The 
•uiiat aymbc^ of aounde represented syllables 
Btka thaa aiiniJe aoonds {see Alfuabet, Hibko- 
amia, Chot^ LjiNarAGi). It waa only ^adu- 
dj that syllatilei were reduced to their ultiniate 
Wata, and kll alphabet* yet bear marks of their 
ifQifasry oriran (see letter K), displaying various 
afcrlH^ioDB both of excess and defect 

Aiticalata sounds are divided into vowels and 
ii|»«iiils. and the Utter are subdivided into 
-iriliai and Tocal elements (otherwise called 
'ik«[a' and 'flats'), obstructive and continuous 
iiacMi (otberwise called 'mutea' and ' semi- 
ink *k, and liquids. Many other divisious have 
W j«in«»il. but the above dassificatioD embraces 
C ral TaiietieA. The elements are likewise clasai- 
M secsnliaK to the organs which form them, aa 
^U^ l~ yiJ» , guttunu, nasals, Ac A physio- 
t^ral it ■ liiitinn of the articulate sounds osed in 
IscU spee^ will shew the necesur^r extent of a 
tmi qrnem <rf letters, and exhibit the short- 

■ ■s|p of aax prewut alphabet 

Afl tha ihiini iifl of apeeeh , are insceptible cf 
Vad* foanatiofi ; and in the following description, 
■inaee ia always intended to the exact sound of 
■4 itmi^x^ uid not to the names of the letters. 

Eaitteil breath meehaaically modified forms every 
•ttmltfe aDowL The breath is lirst modified in 

V Anat, bj a certain amount of constriction 
I Ac biynx, sraotins which restraint, the air 
*aU kw uat noiselnaly, as in ordinary breathing. 

V ("''''g'j. a* in sighing. The breath is thus 
1 siaiiiiT into a steady stream, and Tendered 
■aUt k? tho degi«e of roofless or ' aaperatit 

opposing ligament* of the glottis (the apertoie of 
the larynx), and sonorous voice is produced The 
vocalised or asperated breath receives vowel and 
articulate mndincation in it* passage through the 
mouth. When the month is sufficiently open to 
allow the breath to flow withoat obstructioii or oral 
asiieration, the air is moulded into the varioni 
qualities of voifd-souud ; and when the ohaonel 
of the mouth is obstructed, or narrowed so much 
as to cause a degree of asperatioD of the breath 
between the tongue and the palate, the lips, Ac, 
(UnMRan^80unds are produced. 

The upper jiart of^ the month is an immovable 
arch : all variations in the shape of the oral passagie 
are consequently effected by the tongue and the 
UjM. [A nasal variety of vowel-sounds occun ■■ 
!FVench — represented by n after the vowel-letteia. 
These sonnds are formed by depressing the soft 
palate, which otherwise coven the inner end of the 
nostrils, and allowing part of the breath to paia 
through the nose, while the remainder is modified 
in the usual way.] 

Fouv/*.— When the tongne is nused in ita greatert 
convexity towards the roof of the mouth, bnt 
withoat being so close aa to roughen or aspeTato 
the breath, the resulting vowel qu^^ is that heud 
in the word td; and progressively leas degree* ^ 
elevation produce a si>Hea of Ungoal vowela, of 
which Ah is the mo«t flattened — ^tbe lipa being 
equally expanded throughout the aeries, to allow 
the breath to escape without labial modification. 

When the aperture of the lips is contracted ia 
the greatest degree short of asperating the breath, 
the resulting vowel-quality ia that heard in the word 
owe ; and progressively less degieea of labial con- 
traction form a series of labial vowels, of which 
Aid a the most open — the toogne being retracted 
thronghout the senes, to direct the breath without 
Ungual modificatioa forward against the lips. 

A third series of vowels is formed by combizunc 
elevated positions of the tongne and contracted 
positions of the lips, or retracted pcaitiona of tha 
tongue, and expanded positions of the lips. Of this 
labio-Iingual series, the German <1 is the most con- 
tracted, and the English sound heard in the word 
err the moat open. 

The following table shews the priocipal vowala of 

The T 
are endless, and untraceably r 
shades of vowel-quatity h^trd in dialeets, and 
among individual speakers. In English, there ars 
altogether tAirlcrn established varieties, as beard in 
the words ed, iil, ale, ell, an, oat, oA, err, up, all, 
ore, oil, oote. Besides thne, which a perfect 
alphabet must represent W6 have the diphthongal 
Bounds heard in the words iste, owf, ml, and Um 
asperated compound yoo — the sound of the letter ■ 
in v*e— which is often, bat ettoneonsly, supposed 
to be a diphthongal vowel. 

The Atpimte ^.— The letter H (see Adikats) 
rspreeent* an eipnlsive breathing, modified by 
the form of the vocal element which follows it 
— aa in lie. Any. \igli, hoe, tc, in which the H will 
be observed to have the quality of ^ d, I, ^ Ac, but 
withoat the laiyngal contraction, and oonseqaent 
aaperatioQ of Uie breath, which form* a whispered 

CbnsosaaCK— When the tongne ia rused oonvezly 
against the back of the palatal arch so as to stop the 
OTeath, the separation of the tongns from the nxtf 



or bai^ of tbu nMilili ia mccompuiied by s perciuuTe 
affect, which U rei^ewDted in the Bozliah alphabet 
by G, K, and Q. *>id W Q when tha obrtrocted 
breath ia vocaliaed. While the tongue ii in thii 
t^Mbuctive poaitian, if the loft palate ba depreuad 
BQ ai to nncover the inner end of tha noebila, the 
breath will paM through the nose. Thia. with 
Tucallted breath, ia the formation of the element 
npreaented in Enaliah, for lack of an alphabetic 
ohai«cter, by thu digTa|)h ng. 

rrha pereuHive ^ect of E— G ia elightly modi- 
fied by the ]ioint at which the toa^fue leaves the 
palate before diffeiient vowels, aa io the worda teg 
and Olio,- the consoaant of tbe latter word being 
atnick [mm the soft |>alat«, and that of the former 
Woni further forward, from the hard palate. A 
peculiar Anf[Iiciam of pronunciation is derived from 
the Bubetitution of (he anterior for the poiterior 
formation of £—0 in certain worda, aa kind, card, 
guidi, gunrti, girl, Ac.] 

When the fore-put of the tongue it ruaed to the 
front of the palate, ao aa to atop the breath, the 
■eparetion of the tongue is aoHnnpauied by the 

rcuaaive effect which is repreaentixl by T, and by 
when the obatmcted breath is voc^iaed. The 
nocovering of the end of the noetrila while the 
tongne ia in thia abatmctive position piudcicea, with 
TDcaliaed breath, tl>e sound represented by }T. 

When tha Up* are brought in contact (the lower 
lip rising to join the upper lip), their separation 
from the obstructive position ia accompooied by the 
percussive effn:t represented by P, and by B when 
the obstructed breath is vouoliiK-d. The uncovering 
of the iwres while the lips arc in contact, produces, 
with VDOalised breath, the soimd represented by U. 

The renuuains conoouaDta are all of the continuous 
or non-obitructive clani Hie organs of articulation 
being so placed as nkerely to narrow the apertures, 
Mntral or lateral, through which the breath isauea 
with a degree of hiaaing or aaper.ition. 

The elevation of the base of the tongue so aa to 
leave a narrow aperture between its centre and the 
back-port nf the palate, forms, with vi>caliaed breath, 
the sound of Y initial as in j/e. The sound oF y 
resembles that of the vowel i, but with the con- 
tracted aperture and resulting oral asi«ration of the 
breath essential to a consonant. The same position 
with voiceless breath forms the German cA as in icA 
— an element which is heard in English aa the sound 
of H before ii, as in hue. [The Scotch guttural heoni 
in Indi diffrrs from this only in the more retracted 
position of the tongue, which is approiimated to the 

The approiimatioa of the concave root of the 
taneuo to the fringe of the soft palate causes the 
uvula to flutter in the breath, and forau the rough 
Northumbrian burr.] 

The elevation of the middle of the tongue towards 
the front of the palatal arch, with a narrow centra] 

rags for the breath, produces the element which, 
lick of an alphabetic character, is represented 
by the digraph Sh ; and the same position fornu, 
with vocalised brealji, the common clement heard in 
pUaturr, teinirt, tc, but whicb baa no appropriate 
literal symbol in English. 

The approiimatioa of the flattened point «f the 
tongue bo the front of the moutb, so as to leave a 
Skrrow central postage between the tongue and the 
wpper nun. forma the sound represented by S ; and 
by Z ^i^n the breath is vocalised. 

The elevation of the tip Ol the tonj(ue towards the 
rim of Uie palatal ardi causes a degree of vibration 
«f tha edge of the tongue, and consequeot aapera- 
tion of the breath, proportioned to the degree of 
•lavation, which ia the English sound of tha letter &, 

[R final, or befon a c 

approximated to the palate^] 

The approximation of the lower to the nj^ier lip, 
BO as to leave a central aperture for the breath, |iro- 
duoea, with vocaliaed breath, the sound of W initial, 
aa in vioo. Tha aound of is resemblea that of tha 
vowel oo, but with a more contracted aperture. 
The aame position, with voiceless breath, forms the 
element represented, for lack of an alphahetia 
character, by the digraph WA. 

The remaining vaneties of Endiah aiiicnlata 
sounds are formed by forcing the breath tlirougb 
fafemfaperturos. instead of one central aperture. 

When the fore-part of the tongue is spread against 
the front of the palate, and rotulised breath passe* 
laterally over the middle of the tongue, the sound of 
L is heard. [The same position of the tongue forms, 
with voicelesi breath, the aound of Li m Welsh. 
The English L. aa heard before II {= yoo) is modilii-d 
by convexity o( the back-part of the toogua towards 
its position for Y, farming the sonnd ^leh is repre- 
sented in Smart's Dictionary by L', aa in ture, pro- 
nounced Foor. A. peculiar Qsielic variety of L ia 
formed by raising the back-part of the tongue to tha 
soft palate, and pasting the vmce laterally over tba 
root of the tongue.] 

When the tip oC the tongue it applied to tbe Upper 
teeth (or the gum), and the breath ia emitted later- 
ally over the point of the tongue, the sound of tba 
digraph Tk at in lAin ia heard ; and, with vocalised 
breath, the sound of Th in {A«n— neitlier at which 
elements ia represented in our alphabet. 

When the middle of the lower lip is applied to 
the edge of the up]>er teeth, and the breath le emitted 
InteralTy between the teeth and the lip. the snnnd 
represented by F is produced ; and, with vocolistd 
breath, the sound of V. 

Zt'^uiila.^The voice is so little intercepted in 
passing through the nostrils (formms m, n, or n^^ 
and through the wide ai)ertiires of L, and also of 
R when not initial in a syllable, that the souo.! 
has almost the pure sonorousness of a vowel ; and 
these elements have received the name of Liquids, 
to deaignate their projierty of syllahically comhla- 
ing with voiceless consonants — seeming to Bow into 
and to be absorbed by them, and losing much of 
their natural quantity as vocal sounds ; as in tamit, 
ttmte. leal, uriur, truth. Ink {= ingt), *c, ; mitt, »i'Ut, 
hftp, xlf. life, Welth, heaitA, kc ; Aari, Arart. Aaip, 
»fr/, tarlh, lairih, horte, ic. ' The charactenatic effi'ct 
trf the Liquids will be beat perceived by contmsting 
Buch words as leinie and TfiaTnfi. henef and hen*, 
tilt and elU, carat and eur*^n which the normal 
influence of vocal consonants on aubseqnent elemenla 
is manifested in the vocalising of the sibilant in tba 
second word of each pair. 

From this review of the physioloffical varieties of 
articulate sounds, it will be evident uat onr alphabet 
of 26 letten is very imperfect, both by lednndancy 
and deticiency. (1.) The aame aonnds ore repre- 
sented by mora than one letter ; aa C, K, and Q ; C 
and Si Q and J. (2.) The same letter represent* 
more than one aound ; aa C, which ia aometuDM 
E, and aometimea S ; O, which ts sometimes the 
vocalised form of K, and aometimea J; N, which 
il sometimes N, and sometimes nj; 8, ^ich ia 
aometimea 3, and aometimea Z; and 7, wbich it 
aometimea a consonant (when initial), and aometimet 
a vowel, sounded like the latter L (3.) Single letteit 
are uaed to repreaeut articulate compoundi ; at O 
and J, whidi are tounded dtk [the voioeleaa fora 
of J it repreaented by ck, a* in Aair\ ; U, wbich ii 



■alid Uto; aad X, which w sosiided tt, ■nd 
mmtmrn tm- (^> n> alpliabet ocataiDi bo char- 
«W« br BX of OBT nndoabted conaonAnt elemeotB 
-*^ Wh, Tk(iB), Th(Bn|, Sb, Zh, Hg. (JL) Each 
i M ii h illM iii|MiiMiili aun; aaiuuia ; uid the Uck 

_. .__ ..lobec ol 0U7 vowel-letter*, 

■ inJiiil by abcHrt uty combinatiQiis of two 
m tl thice hill 11 1. M tlut tha origiDal phonetic 
(boedr ol the alphabet is klmoat entirely loat 
Ihi rmhmaa at our mthographj. 

OnBoaot* lorm, u it were, tin hare and bony 
AAttm of qnech ; Towdi gire definite ihape and 
■dindiuU^ to werda. Hiiu the oonionaati tprl 
gnMinte tbe oommon akeleton of such diTem 

i^tB^e, mtftiiutt oMpti'alt, which reoeiTe Uiar dia- 
tact ooafinration ud filbng np frran the Towd- 
Hodi, wbich corer Uu ooDBOoant skslBtoD with 
■■Ated degance and Tariety. Conaonanti are 
tta the mofc stable elenMota of words, and their 
yiiih«ani« in the anrespoDdisg words of allied 
tafMs are foond to foDow oerbuD goteral laws 
difeadait on the relatkoa and afBiuties of letters. 
Sn Qkoo^ Law. 'deas nlatioDS are exhibited 

(fat 4k 

A it 


_ . _ g Um lettu* of the fint cJaas, the 

^ m chiefly oonoamed ; in ths second, the prin- 
m/d oma is the tongoa, or the tongue and the 
IMh {AemcB tbey are afao called dealaU) ; and in 
tk ttrd, tlw b«k-iiuta of the tragoe and palate 
n (Bokyed. Bat while all the Bounds of each 

fm iiHra frnm the other letters of the 

shut — otherwise called Jfute 
iinff lettera, having open ajiertiirp*. 
•ibdant in effect- Otherwise called 

n effect 

itfmtt (a. v.). The difference also betwi 
mm^at at the several pairs is of the lan 
bnHbaat i e differs from bta f does from 
baa 3, or A trota lA. 

Vd^ius attem|ita ha^ been made, hitherto nnsnc- 
nrfallf. to intruiluce a system of ph"notji>es, in 
sbci each soand should be represented by one 
sTviiUc ^Liracter; aee pHOKznc WRrrtHO. In 
Xi Em*'* Flea /or PhauOc SpdUay. and Mr 
HftrSle BelTs PrinajAe* of Bpetdi, the stndent 
vjl bJ the mevt recent and comidete develop- 
Hste of the theory of Articnlate Sounds which 

LVrTBR-WOOD. iwe <rf the most beautiful 
M^eliiiM of the vegetoUa hingiinin; it is the 
Wt-vood at > traa, fbnnd sparingly in the forests 

I AuHtlii of Poeppig, 

* tW ' risiv ' or Tcoeelea r is of beqnenl bat nnre- 
^^ri ■eeomoti!. It is beard in Frenoh, a* the 
M^ 4 r l)ul after a ooocHiaut, as in Ikeatrt ; and 
k Inta. M a sobaiitota for Or, as in Arer, 

ttto -^wp' fens d the naMls an In eoartant oaa 
- ■MliiiliMil Bomda, as in km ifkl (immDimowl 
h/). ^r (npnrira tl is srim ). and Wss/ osed 

belonging to the Braad-fmit family {Artocarpaeea) 
It grows from 60 to 70 feet high, aud acquires • 
diameter of from 2 to 3 feeb The outer layers ot 
wood (alburaom) are white and hard ; the centm 
portion, or heart-wood, which nrely exceeds 7 inchec 
m thickneaa, is extremely hard and heary, and is ol 
a rich dark -brown ootonr, most beautifmly mottled 
with Terj deep brovn, almost black spots, arranged 
with much greater r^ularity than u usually tb< 
case in the marking of wood, and bearing s shgbl 
resemblanoe to the thick letters of some old black- 
letter printing. Its scarcity and value make it an 
article of rare and limited application. It lb used 
coly in this country for fioe veneer and inlaying 
woric, and in Gniana for amali articles of cabinet- 
work. The natives make bows ot state of it, but 
are said to pnfer k variety which is not mottled 

LETTTRES DB CACHET, the name given to 
the famous warrants of impriaaiunent issued by the 
kings of France before the Bevolntion. All royal 
letters (Mru royrraz) were either letlref palatte$ 
or leant de codkd. 1^ former were open, signed 
by the king, and ooiuitereigned by a minister, and 
had the great eeal oC state appended. Of this kind 
were all ordinances, grants of privilege, && All 
letters- patent were roistered, or enleriaaltd, by tlia 
parliaments. But these cheokii on aihitrary power 
did not exist with regard to lettres de cachet, also 
called UUreii dot*, or asaled letters, which were folded 
np and sealed with the king's Uttle teal (cadtft), and 
by which the royal pleasure was made known t« 
individnalfl or to oorporatione, and the administrm- 

a of jnatice was often interfered with. The ose 
._ lettres de cachet became much more freijnent 
after the aooeenon of Louis XIV. than it had been 
before, and it was very common for penons to be 
arrested npon such warrant, and confined in tha 
Bastille (q, v.), or some other state prison ; when 
some of them remained for a very long time, and 
some for life, either because it was so intended, or, 
in other cases, becanse they were forgotten. The 
lientenant-general of the police kept funa* of 
lettrea de cachet ready, in which it was only 
necessary to insert the name of the individual M 
be arrested. Sometimss an amstment on letttM 
de cachet was a resource to shield criminals from 

LETTUCE (Xnetuea), a genns of fJaote behrag- 
...g to the natural order CmKpimut, snh-order 
Ckhoraefo, having small flowere with imbricated 
bractcB, and all Uie corollas ligulate, flatly oom- 

esaed fruit, with a thread-like beak, and thread- 

le, soft, decidumis pappus. — The Oardeh L. 
{L. soltni) is suppoaod to be a ikative of the £aat 
Indies, but is not known to exist anywhere in a 
Willi state, \ad. from remote antiquity has been 
cultivated in Kurope as an esculent, and particolady 
as a salad. It has a leafy item, oblong leaves, a 
spreading flat-topped panicle, somewhat resembling 
a oorymb, with ycUow flowera, and a fruit without 
marnn. It is now generally cidtivsted in all parts 
of ue world where the climate admits of it ; and 
there are many varietiea, all of which may, however, 
be regarded aa sub-varieties of the Coffi L. and the 
Cabbaqs L., the former having the leavee mon 
oblong and uprii^t, requiring to be tied together 
for blanching— tlie latter with roonder leaves, whidi 
spread out nearer the ^^tiund, and afterwanla ioU 
roll tr^ether into a nead like a small cabbage, 

e L IS easy of digeetiou, gently laxative, 
and moderately nutritious, and is generally eaten 
raw with vinesar and oil, more randy as a boiled 
1^ white, and somewhat narcotic 

vegetable. The whi 
milky juice of this p 



M t» lopijv^ mdMiin, oputo OHdidiie. The beat j wm pnMot m dztsn, ■i l irg fwl e( lb* li*v 
uH njait OMfn] kind of tlut Joica >■ obtaJDcd W I io tiurtwn. and mlarmmt td lb* iTHphUica 
nuluDi: ioi-iiiciDi in Um floverinti lU-mk, tod , in elarru inttaooca. Henof, tsmrbctida cl Ika 
■klloviii;! Ui« juice vbich flnm to irj npon theui. j kbdnmeu it one of tbe moat (imiuiiait BTmjrtia* 
Lettuii-i tn *awn in fiuiltiu frooi time to time, { The micniecopK eiuniiutioa of > Bni^le drdp 
that UiTV may be obtkiDed in good coDdition dnrini; of Mood i« luAideDt to determine the lulof* tt 
tbc wL'-lc winuner. Id mild winter*, thry may be the dweate. Tbe caowa at leuAirytbeiua at* 
kept ri'aily for plantioiE out in •pno^. ~ The other I uiikiio*D ; aod althoutih tbr muat Tanrd rrmrdK* 
()K«->ra til thu ifi-nui nhilat iiockiD|:{ of the bland i hare been tried, the dueate i« almoat inranalilf 
qualilv of the jrarden letture.— The Srw^O- • falaL 

-■(XTF.. L [t. rir.-.) i. di.UnK«i«hed by th* ' LEccOL, LBOCOUSR or QmcoLDTB 
,.:vUyk«l or the leavH^andbyahlack .moolh (u H,S). U OM o( the c»mp..u...U >-l.t^n«l by 
™.U »ith a ratW broad margin. It u found m ■ u,g d^iiu.uoo U mal-tar. It i* .1]... «blAin-d 1^ 
tome i-vrta of Hntun. toff-o'^"™ » mi-*™" ] ti^, j^,,]],yo„ „[ „i„i,^ p;n^.t,,.Biur. w rtr). hniaa 
iT^m lU freab-aathered leavpa, m the AoweniiK L„iJ, |„,.^j^ It U a o.louti™ ai.d rtr..o;U Mr«t- 
*■»*.«. The Wv« hare a Kroog and na.«rou^ ! ^^ ^.j^.^.j, ,^^ ^ ,,^„t *■-) . k^, i ..- .6-- 

with U-^uuial b ae tloireta tb« atony decJiTit»a of . j^.„hoi „,1 rthei-. and neulrali*-. a.-i.U. f-.rm.i^t 

a»d cle-U <d rocka 10 aooM pari, of (^ | crj-MallifcUJe aalta -ilh ti.rm. Hh I-.'...^ t— |«-J 

m the H«t &c, but >. ■»( a natn^ „, ,,.^,j .^j^ y,^ ^ i„|,j, ^ „„,.,_ ^^..i^ „ 

:_."'i'7l:.i^;!L'!!fl_[?^rfT? ^ J* oUaioed. which, wbas diMolve-l >D ^M, r, trrMeJ 

' vith an eicuia of auunooia, and bdli-J fi-r a»tDa 

time, yirld a rtaiiKini ■ulstanie, nhi-h ti readily 

Boluble in alcubol, and lumiihca a ijilcutLd Una 

of UnUiD. 

Dtbrr iiivciM ia qoalitiea reacmhliDg L. 

LEI'CA'DIA, the ancient bbbm of &uctj> Havma 
tq. T,,. 

LEI' CHTENBBRG. Sea Buxtbamaa 

LRtTIME (denved from the Orrek irord Inmt. 
wbit'i iH'liini^ to the claaa ol biiilie* to whieh 
ehrnii-ta now t]fAj the term amidu-arida, aod 
whii'h an auljatanna in whiob ooe e>|airalent of ' '1' 
the hydriven ol the radicle of an aci.1 ia rejda.vd 
irf i.iip r>{iiiTaJent of amaloaeo (NH,I. The 
rtBpin.ll fonnula fnr IrkHim ia <',,H,,NU.. whde 
that of rapniir acid (wbnae amiilnacid it ia aup- 
poanlt.Wi iaC,,H,,0,. tt ia ubvioua that if for 
ODC o( theaa twi-lTe eqiuTalenta of hvdnven ooe 
■qaitJ nt d( amHloL'en ia aulstitnlr^ the Utipr 
lonnuU tiniiai«C,,H,,( XH,M),. whirh coot»a> 
the aui>e «|iuita]fDU aa the formula t',,H,,Nl),. 
but in.|ii-»t** m->n cKi»-ly their mode i>f CTunpiUK. 

U-ii. iiir 11 n( gTFst impnrtanoe in phyvolni^ii-al 
eheiiH-try, brinR * onn»tituent of murt of the 
){laalnlar juiii-a of the boily. Cooai-iirjns the 
aoonT« from whirh it ia otitaiiird artitiiially, there 
can It n.> douU that the teurine found in the k-ly 
■a one irf the niim.Timi ptulucta of tba regraaivc 
nict^ri<ir|tfao4i« of the aitnipmoui tinuea 

LKlL-1 PPfSt, the fuundrr of th« Atamiatic 




Mir ihr I'.numalanna ol hia hlu. 
LErt'l'St-l'K. a Kraoa of tmh-w 

1 f. 

_ a known oooMrDinK 
t ilip |>Uc« cf hii binb. 

LEUCO'UA (derived tram the Gmk vord 

tvn-4, whit«j I* the trnn ap|>lie<l to a while upanlj 

of die oomea— the traaa|>arvnt front nt the E_i« 

It ia the rMolt of acute indammatKia, 

the tiirfaw, or between the layrn U the onM. 
It ia •■>ui>'tiiu<s rB-Bl«orl>ed on iLe naaaU.A <d 

|iarenrr : but in nanj ea»ii it ia peraiatcM Sftd 

LECCTRA, anciently, a rilU^ of B*yi«. m 
Onwe, famoua for tba far*i v^y^t-rr wbK-h th* 
Thelana umlrr Epanunondaa |q. r.j here w>«i o*^ 
the S)i*rtan king Cleomhrutiia iXl a.iM. u e«a» 

JueDoe uf wkicti the iDdnrnoe cirn.-ue'l by >par«n 
>r cenlanea orrer tba wbote of tJrerOB vaa IciAa* 

f, 15 mil. 

1.1IKI II 

h the AolAa of Leak, ailuated S miitm 
Durthwanl at the hea.1 <^the vallcv .if the Ilak a«I 
the (."t of the aH^enl ovrr the (i^niui {«■■. At 
thui pl.v-e, which ia WMt (i-et al..vr Ihr *-i, thrva ■ 
a haiiih-t of aXI inhal'ilanta. an.l aevrral b-i.-nf- 
11 aiiil hi'telajiie the accnmnnnUti-n •/ raurnla 

nuioWr uf : (I- 
•prri. •. aiu.'DK which aiv the Ki'a.h, lile, L>acip, j i>hi 
tlraii..!!^. t bull. Bed-eye. Uinnow, Ao. Tbent an ] UV 
DO liuirla The aaal awl duaW Baa are dartituta an. 
•* •*^'"< "T-- I 1" 

LFrcOC^THE-MIA (derirod from tbe Or«* ' "" 
Wiinli (-HI.*, while, rvfua. a n-11, aivl iirmn. Ucmll *'" 
of white (DrnuiilM . •" 




.' aalmr. rt„h 
-..l^ anl arv u>.-.l lK>th for .hinkin.- an.t lMth< 
They a» chi.'fly un.'lul in .licw.* of the ak.a ; 
>Dr i>-->iiliintv la tli>' U'iii.-lh ■•! tiiur tSr ratM> ita 
in in Uie lutha - a> ]..<i.- a^i H b.Min a .Ut. K ^ 

V, in wl.i,tia«manyai>IAc.r-.'<ii.r-.i«.W lk-4b 
,.-1wl m loiL' w'.>1I.'ii dn-ue.. Uibe in r.~mn-^ : 
il ii|> tu thi'iT OK-ka ID sale-, they l>vi '• tL' 

IB IhT- l.l.jol a|<)>«ra to be htt^Ut inc. 

there .* a aimulUne-ma dmunM-m o( the re.1 *"" *"'' «■_, 
(«r,.u^ I.* The d.««. waa n.*«d almnat at , fl-^. *<■ There appen U 
tbe u-n- tm>e lin KWi by Heooett of fMinlHirsh . e.Ul.l..hi.*nl bete aa eariy aa the ILti miluty. 
aa>l Vii, t,..w,4 Wiir»l«rg: the firmer iririn^ it lb- LETTHEX.a Tillaceef PrnBii. in lyiwn- Stb« ^ 
name •taniimt at the b> ,;ioninit of the artK-le. while » mile* ant of IknUu. IW NU. li u ,-r:. tnt.,| 
tbe Utter K*te It ihe laa rxpreasTe nam* of for the Ti. t"ry wna there, Mh IW-'mher IT.tT, K* 
/.nl-rnm. or H' lU—t I Pmlenek the Uirat. with 3.*{,l>« hm n, orrr lb* 

The iii.n>a>- of the wbite (V e»biiirb.a rnrnuclea Aoatnan* nn.ler I'rUKie fharUa <.( ty.rrair' a» tb* 
•rvms to W alwayi arr>ai<aninl, umI peolialilv pre- he.*.! <pf tr^tlill). The Auatnani lit 7iai) kJW ^.t 
onl-l, by ntbar ntorfwl compiical-'iiu, of wb»^ the woanleiL ll>» priacneia, and \M pwrM U wtil- 
B<Kt lni(uent an enlanrmeBt of the ■lOrea. of the lery : the Pruiaiana only WlNt killed and — tm' ' 
bier, aii.1 of the 1yni|Julic glamla In nineteen Tbe rraull ■>( th>* nctory waa I' 
' ba ifJera , piKter |*rt u( ^ileaia by tba P 

o haie Ivrn ■ I. 

w troio^Daat W ifea 



LTVATTT, Tmm-tMm the ItaJtu It Lreonfc. 
*■ Orirmt. or Rimmg, that ii, the Eut— a i»me 
^li 111 throDgtiaitt the whole of Eorape to deaig- 
^ Uw aMtcnk put* of the MeditenuieBa Sea and 
li ' prwwt cmiatneK. la a vider (cdk. it it applied 
to aO the n^oaa eartvard &om Italj, a* far u the 
Gqbnta sut the Nil« ; but more geaartLj a uaed 

■ a owire leMricted senae, aa iacluding onlj I 
ivMa of A*tk Minor. Syria, and Egypt. 

b^iA Law aiiplied to cattie whk-h hare ttrayed 
^ aaother'a Lu>d^ and have beta ao long UicTe 
riiM Ikar hsTe Ikin down and dept there. 

UTA'KI FACIAS, imrr or, in f^Eliah Law, 

■ a writ of eiecntton jaued upon • judgmeat, by 
■hick the juilgntent creditor takei the real and 
poMBal nt^ite, aoch aa landa, honaea, ^uniture, 
t^ (f hk debtor to aatiafj- fais debt The mode liy 
«ka4 th» Taa dona wa* by the Bheriff drawing 
*> mtt sBd paying the creditor. The writ is 
ii» pneticsUy aapeneded by the writ of tHefril 
^ T.| aa ret^rda real ertatc, and Fieri Fa<ia» 
li T.) aa r«£vds penonal estate. 

LETEE, the (tate ceremonial of the toverngn 
iKsrmg vista trom thoaa iubjecta whoee poaition 
■fida them to that hoaour. By the atafft of the 
•art of Great Britain, a levee diffen from a draw- 
KT-RBa in thia reepect, that gentlemen only are 
pvst (nifvpting the chief ladiea of the coart), 
iWe at a drawing-room both ladiea and Eenttemen 
ifpaai^ IHie name ia owing to luch receptioni being 
«apBa3y held in the monarch'a bedchamber at the 
kwsf risag {Ft. ievtr\. 

LEVEE, tbe French nam« fm 

LEVEL A^D LKVELLUTO. Level a a term 
^f&d to aafatxa that are parallel to that of Mill 
n^ or perpendicnlar to the direction of the 
t ia alao applied to the inatnunent 

liiijiil in determining thi 
^ ■erfect lerdneaa. The inatmment ii a cylin- 
Irial i^aaa tnbe very aliglitly convex on one aide, 
1^ BO Dorly tilled with water, or, what ii better, 
*ak akobol, that only a amall bubble of air remaioB 
■■ria. Tba level ia then mounted on a three or 
tar k g g u i stand, with ita convex aide npwarda, 
■d by If ana of a pivot and elevating acrewa, ia 
^i^ ■fa'-lii id aaaaming any required poaition. 
S Aa len) be properly oonatnicted, the babble 
AnU li> tM^if in the middle of the tube when 
te wabm^taat ia property adjiuted, and, at the 
■■a BBS. the line m ngfat of the teleaoope attached 
» Aa lard iluNiId be aooorately parallel to the 
^Aaa of rtiP water. In ordinary levela, thia 

I of Om ImbUa iriun tha 
Tlie toba and babble Bhould 
e length to iniuie accnracy. The 
-..__._ -Ji fnmi^ied ^ritli 

a pole from 10 to 14 feet high, and graduated f. 
feet and inches, or feet and tenths of feet. If !» 
wiahe* to meamre the height of A above B, he 
may do thia by banning either at A or B. Let 
the_lmtter be Uie caae, then one assistant ia placed 

top of the pole at B) ; the surveyur, .._. 

lelf between them, reads off ths height Bi, which ha 
pnta down in the bach -light column of his book, and 
then tumi the le»el to C, reading off Co. which U 
entered in the front-sight column. The aurveyor and 
his aastBtant at B then take up new poeitiona. the 
latter at D ; the back -sight Cc and the front-sight 
Dm are read off, and the process is repeated till one 
of the amittanta reaches A- The excess of the sum 
of the back-aighto oter that of the front-sights gives 
the height of A above B, A little consideration 
will shew that this method can only hold true when 
practised on a small scale, and conscqnantly in 
extensive aonreya. the level (ss found by the above- 
described method) tequires to be reduced by an 
allowance for the eaith s carvature. 

JSBWiS, Loch, a beautiful sheet of water, of an 
oval form, in the east of Kinroas-ahire, Scotiand, 
meaBuring between 10 and II miles in circuit, and 
dotted here and there with luiall islancis, the chief 
of which are, St Serfs Inch, at tbe east end, 60 
acres in eiteot, with tbe remains of a religioua 
house of neat antiquity (see CULDEES), and 
another of 5 acres, opposite the town of KiDIMS, 
on which stand the ruins of Loch Leven Castle. 
The loch is supplied by several small Htceaois, 
and empties itself by the Leven into the Firth of 
Forth. It hat lon^ been celebrated for the qiuui' 
tity and quality o£ its troat. which are of eicelleat 
flavour, and average about a pound in weiubt, 
although some arc found of 4, 6, and even 10 Iba. 
Fike and perch also occur ; a pike was caught in 
1846 weighing 29 lbs. The rich colour of the Loch 
L. trout IS due to the abundance of a certain kind 
of Crustacea upon which they feed. Loch Leven 
Castle is connected with several events in Scottish 
history, the moat noted beiutf the imprisonment 
of Queen Mary in June 1507- Here she was forced 
to sign her abdication of the throne ; and, after 
one unsuccessful attempt, succeeded, by tlie aid of 
GeorjjB Douglas, the governor's brother, and of Willie 
Douglas, ' a foundling,' supposed to be a relative of 
the fiunily, ia effsctiog her escape (2d May 1568). 

LEVEN, LooB, an arm of the sea, or rather of 
Loch Linube (q- v. ), on the west coast of Scotland, 
between Argyle and Inverness, i« about II miles ia 
length by, on an average, less than one mile in 
braU^ and is remark&le for the wildness aitd 
Erandeur of its scenery. The current prvdueed in 
this loch by the ebb and flow of the tide runa at 
the rate of at least 4 miles an hour. 

LEVEB, the moat simple and common, bnt, 
at the same time, most important of the seven 
mechanical powers, oousists of an indexible rod — 
straight or bent, as the case may be — supported at 
Bome point of ita length on a prop which ia called 
the/ulcmm, and having the tn^glU to be moved and 
the power to more it applied at other two pvinta. 
In the acoompanyiDg iUuatratioo (fig. 1, a), AB ia 
the lever, F the f ol- 
cram, A and B the ' 

of F 

Aand B tb« 'p— 
of Bp^icatioD P 
Mief W, the 0' 


tively. If the arms AF and BF be eqnal, tite power 
P and the weight W must also be equal to prodooa 
eqaiKIaiam ; it the arm of the power, AF, be lunger 


Ibu t)^f kW J the wauht, BF, Umd, to pradooe 
•i|iulil-nim, thrn porar F mnit ba Icn tun the 
weight W, ukI ruv ivr)d ,- if AF ba dnaUa Ute 
Itnjth ot BP. thfD P, to produca eqailibnam, miut 
belitU ,rf W 1 ud. guicnlli-. w ■ (hewB in the 
cleuMnUry tr«tl<d oa msiiuics, (la pineer amd ' 
terisilu art ia Ikr Unrrv nUto q/^ lil«.r duliuun yrtnt 
14«/Ktenrn. Thu u hiuaII; trae Ut (Iru^ht or 
bait krisn; bat (ti^ 1, t|. Ui« dutwic* tA the 
povff- wDil vviftbt from 
tha [lUcnun ia BoL in 
kll caaei, tba actual 
Ip length of the araia, but 
Pi(. 1. k U>e Irnijtha of nerpao- 

diculara (rum tha fat- 
en m upnn tbf directLoiu of the pcwrr and «eit!h(. 
TkU pnDoi(>lii h<.I.U giMi.1, vhaUvet In the ralatiTa 
HMiti'-oi ul tlio piiwer. weit;Lt, auil tulcnua ; and M 
thrn tao t* tlin« diffvrent amaevmenU of tbeaa, 
w« thua •iliuin what an cbIIehI * the three kimla of 
lerrn.' Tlu^rit tiwf (lijj. t) >• where the (lUcnuD 
I ]^ed Ivtaitn tha piiwer and the weight; the 

la i^ed iietaita tha piiwer and 
Balance <q. v.). aiiailc (when nanl 
•ee-aaw, kx., are exaai[ile* of thia ; 


1 L 




a nf the aame 
i timl {At 3) are tboae 
in which the Vitlht ii betUFea ue power aod 
tnlorum : riampln of thia ue the emwbar, when 
n>e4 fur |Kuliinit vrinhta forward, the oar— the 
Watrr Ivina the (uk-rnm, anrl tba mwliK-k the 
point of applirati'-u "I the weight ami the wherl- 
bamtw ; and of ibfublelrrm of thi* kiml we bare 
bnt-cracken a* an eiample. In lerrn of Iht 
tk.rd hud {(^g. 4), the 


which paaaea down the fmnt el tbe Auditvi. aad 
attached, at A. to the ntdim (a«e Akmi : the vu.-i 
ia tbe vei^t of tbe furrann, tOi;ether with aa 
thing held in tiw band, the two htian agpptd 
be O0(nbin«] into one weicht actinL; nt U. Bj U 
it, a Urge extent o[ molion ia funad, 1 

a alight cm 

bvse tnecbaniral adraotjf« a raqnn 
Una naj b« obtainad. withoot an inorduuite Imgt 
aaia^ «f tbe bver, iy mcMia of a cvmlHnatioa 
tbm (aa m (iff. 6). Here tha leven hare their an 
in the iBtiD of 3 to I, and a little cuniiderBtioe w 
make it plaia Ibat a power (P) d 1 IK wiB Uta> 



r defect ot tbe lerer i 

wrik-bt and the ful 

crum. FiahiDerada, whipa 
hn-llaa. and. T<i>«t in 
■awl with tb. 
V are Wen nf I thia nukhi 
third kind, and ihaan. | LRVER, 

Vb .tr«»ei 

. to be lifted two iniJiea, the puwM- n>]aa 
to ha drunvaed (S >-J7 or) M ioeUea : ud M ll 
extent ol awerp of the power cano-it be larfa 
iscrcaard without ino'DTenienw, the aJvaoi^B 

I toDsi, Ac, are eiamplH ' DuliUo. 3lat Au^^iut IWI6 Ue vaa 

^%« ot donlilF-leTen of thia j nmtlcal pmft'iaiuu, atudj-inR tint at Tiuutt I'.'ilH 

^ claaa It ia i-ndpnt that, an.l aftirwarda oo tha oonluH-nL AfuiiakiMl 

FIS' 4 to pfoduiv eqailibrtna in | ili-^-m- at <i'<ttiii[.'<-n. bi> waa attached laa |Jitu.ia 

IfTan of tha liret kiad. I to i),e li.-ati.'n at BniwU. and. on hi> rikUL. 
Ifaa Dowar mMJ. aooordina to the ratio of the nf that ■■■■t. la-came nlili>r of the /luVa {'-■•tii 
lc«vtii< of the arm, lie nlber i^reatn or Iraa than ' Maifizin'. He ojirnml hii Imlliant tiUrur lan 
tha we^hl; in tbe amnid kind, it muat alwajr* be | bj Harrp LormiutT; anil auuv lliat \>n\-A\r h 
Lmb; aiid ia tlie Ihinl kiul. alwaya Kreatcr. Tliia puUialiecl a whole Ubmr^- of lk'ti.<D, Ibr larj 
ia axiTweil IB tn-hiiH-al phnw hjr u)mii that the pniimrtion of which waa uan<il m thr arrul I r 
first kiiui \A Uier jn»« a mwiuaioi/ nJitinJo'^ or with illuatntj.ina. Among L'l Int d..ti:» aa 
d^*adt.>mt.x^ tOK UBruA:(ii.-«L Puwanii. Um ■n-.nd he ■qn-ilii-.t rhnrif* O UnUfg, Ton fl..*-. R.Jm 
■Iwaja itii>« a mnlianiral adrantage, awl the tJiiid | Cntlifl. Tht Kni-jlU nf titrynm, Thr l><-h{ f-rw 
alwaya a Bi-~i'luni 'al itiaadrantafaL Lrn-r* of the | Al'^rvad, DnmMit Dumit. When ba ~ 

I kiod. kai 

e famuoa Iriah t 

•• tha puwar, in thr taatrful. be remned to Flurenoa, when heal pna 

Lanra of tba third |IN63| readM. 
r, or a Urge atmt ol , The aariiw BovvU of L. an ii—fcaMi fcr 
iipBaa ol power, and oartaia bBi««»Baa nirth aad wbiri ol a^^im 
«B MMb aaad m tba ^ Ilia ladiM kod f— Umbm aam «mI«v tb* nMa* 



Latterly, the ODireiit of bit genius hu 
hoaa hrmder and olearer, uid •evenl of hi* reoent 
■ab. a-litla they «« not devoid of the early 6i8h 
mi tmtimMk, aim mIUx eanetliiiig of ■ tfaouglitful 
•mat ud an vtiatic dsTebprneDt of ch«iscter. 

LETBRET. the young of the hare during the 
ktjmialaa age. 

LBVKKBIEB, Ukbuk Juif Josefh, a French 
■naiBief of great celebrity, wu boni at St U, 
m tW dniTtiiieDt of Mancbe, 11th Much 1811. 
■a lotted into the Polytechnic in 183), and 

oMKr ia cuDDection with the Tobacco Board. 
[i tSK, be publiabed iftnw im mr la CmnbiaaiKm* 
it Pia^ian ante tHfdTogint el avre Oxggint. "' 
Idin if iffrcmre, and leTeral memoire on 
•otv ineqnalitiM,' opened to him the door of the 
Icalny m 18M ; and at the inatigation of Aiagp, 
ht^flied himaelf to the examination of thediatuAi- 
mea m the motioni of the plaocti, froni which 
Ite rontiioe ot an nndiscorered planet oonld be 
'rfvnd : and aa the remit of his laborious calcula- 

pat IB tbe hearena where, a few days afterwards, 
Iht fluet Nepttute was actually discovered, the aame 
aiaf bong also, b^ a re^markable coincidence, done 
ikiM tltt same time, and independentlTi by the 
t^^ Htnnomer Adams (q.v.). For this L. was 
mtded with the Grand Cross of the L^on ot 
Enaai. a ptvfeasanlup of aitronomy in the Faculty 
tf Scieeoea at Paris, and Tmrioos minor hononra. 
*ki the Rerolntion of IS4S broke ont, I. sought 
faortiun aa a democratic politidaa ; Uie depart- 
•M nf La MaiMhe ehme hun in May 1S49 to be 
lamibg- of the Legislative Assembly, where he at 
w> brcame oonnter-Tevolutionary ; and in 18SS, 
Li^ Xapoleun made him a senator. After the 
farik of Arafpi, an imperial decree of January 1854 
^ferd npoo L. Ae directonhip of the Obaerva- 

UVI, the third aos of Jacob and Leah [Qen. 
m. 3<i. Be i* coaapicnous Ukroogh the part he 
V4 *ith his btothv Simeon in the wholesale 
iH^ter oC the inhabitants of Shibem, together 
>ith BuDor and Shechem their princes, while 
■ » deftnoeleai state, in order to avenge the 
tntg iaflicted by the latter on Dinftb. Jacob, 
na oa bit deathbed, could not forgive tbis, their 
tMf 'aiwer and self-will,' and nronounoed this 
av OQ^uem both, that they should be scat- 
tml uuBg Israel (Ocn. zlii. ^). How this was 
bjilM in the case of Levi, whose descendants, 
Kftol out [or the service of the sanctuary and the 
fMnI iutmctioD of the people, had to reside in 
alB »t wide for them throughout the length and 
ii bradth uf the land, wilt be more fully shewn 
cdsLivms. In Egypt, the House of Levi had 
^Tidtd itself into three families, those of Gerahom, 

ISvrATRAX, a acriptnral tenn for a great 
■ wiQiter,' but nu>re especially a Crocodile (q. v.). 
i> Ik Pravlteta and Fsalma, it is occasionally used 
■(■TkIjm uf E^ypt and Pharaoh. Many vroudroui 
^pvical tales an etmnected with this word in the 
I^^ sad MidntlL 

= tH Gamisn, .tfoAocHiir s the Master, Hamtdak- 
tf = tlie OfammariMi), ■ Jewish granunarian and 
; ^sK «hiv Utoo^ nnoh oveirated, still holds a 
kfl nak aMOOg Uciirew scholan, was bom at 
liwiito oa ib* Aiaeh, near Nurembeiv, in MTa 
4i ri Aa then Craansnt expolsiaDS of the Jews 
la^ Ub to wtA ra^ in Italy, where he held a 
h^ f—ftn m tti-*— oL HolsBW, first in Venioe, 

He then returned to Venice, whisra oe lived for 

the most part until his death, 1&4IIL Hi* principal 
exegetical and biblical works are a CommtalaTg ml 
Job m vtra^ a Oarnin» Tra»alation of the Pmlim, 
an Edition of H<£ Ptalmt isifA Kmtrhis Comiam- 
lory, an £dilio» qf Ihe Targura to Prorerbii, and 
of AinicA>'« Cirmiaattary (o Amot. His grammatical 
worka are chieUy ; iloKoretk Hammaureth (Tradi- 
tion of Traditions), a treatise on the vowel-puints, 
Ac, in the Old Testament; Tub Taum (Uuod Judg- 
ment}, a treatise on Accents ; Sifer IlabackuT or 
Ditdak (Grammar), besides many minor treatieea. 
In the field of li'xicogr^hy, he has contributed 
AtrlttrgeiHiui (^ Dragoman), an attempt at a Tal- 
mudioat and Tareumical Dictionary ; Ti'lifii, a 
oomplement to Hebrew dictionaries ; S'lrmoA 
Debarim (The Names of Things), a Bebrew-German 
dictionary ; Jfimuiim, gloeses to David Kiiuchi'a 
Buot oftlel/rew Ruolt, ksi. Most of L.'s works have 
been repeatedly edited »nd partly tianaloCed by 
Buitorf, MUnster, Focius, and others, who owed 
most of their Hebrew knowledge to L. eictuiively : 
a fact not generally recognised. 

LBVITES, the descendants of Levi (q. v.), who 
were singled out for the service of the sanctuary. 
The term is more particularly employed in coa- 
tradiatinctioD to Pnests (4. v.), in designating all 
those members of the tribe who were not of ^a 
family of Aaron. It was their office — for which ai> 
further ordination was required in the case of th* 
individual — to erect, to remove, and to cany the 
tabernacle and its uteosLls during the sojourn of tha 
Israelites in the wililemeas. When the sanctuary 
had found a fixed abode, they acted as its servant* 
and guardians, and hod to sssiat the prieatB ID 
their noly functiotis in the sanctuary and in their 
medical capacity among the people. The vocal 
and instrumental music in the tem{de was like- 
nnder their care, aa were also the general 
instruction of the people, certain judicial and 
administrative functions, the keeping of the genea- 
logical lists, and the propagation of the Book of 
the Law among the community. In order to 
enable them better to fuMl these functions, no 
special part of the land was allotted to them, but 
they were scattered — in accordance with Jacob's 
last words (Qen. xlii. 7) — in Israel ; forty-eight 
Levitical cities, among which there were also certain 
> of refuge,' being set anlde for them on both 

of the Jordan ; without, however, [ireventing 

their settling wherever else they pleased. Their 
revenues consisted of the annua! Tithe (q. v.), 
and of a share in the second tithe, due every third 
year, and in the saciiticial repaato. The li'ngth of 
tbeir service voriod at different times. No special 
dita* was pteBcribed for them until the time of 


the desert not more than S.'iSO serrioe- 
able men atrong, they had, under Bavid, reached 
the number of 38.000 men fit tat the KTvice, 24,000 
of whom thi* king selected, and divided thent 
into four rlnnsns ssrorHntnl asaiatants, doorkeepers, 
singers and mniicdan*, and judges and offlcers. A 
very small number only returned from the exile, and 
all the Mosaic ordinances with respect to their oitiea, 
tithes, share in sscrificial repasts. Ac, were virtu- 
ally iJ>rogated during the second temple. Nothing 
but the Bsrvios in ths temple, in which they 
were assisted by certain nwnials called Netfdnim, 
WB* left to them. It may be presumed that they 
earned their Urslihood partly like the nst A 
the oommuni^, partly i" ' -■■--- --■ 


lEvmcus— LEwia 

Ina lik«. Theii tawraUiog-prb eo-jiwted, accord- 
iog to tbe T&lmnd (Jebun., 122 a), of a itaff, a 
pouch, uid a Book of the Law. Foreign mien 
k1*o gnnted them exeoiptioii from t*xe«. Thu ii 
tbe oulj tribe which a (appiaed to hare ke|it 
nil its pure lineaf^ to thii d»y, and ceitein, albeit 
nuall, Biu;iu of dutiuctioo are >tiU beatowed upon 
'■ " anbers, more e»peci»Uy in the case ot the 

i;«uinGd deacendaota of Aaron {the Kolianiiii). But 
1 more thai 
many inBtaDcea.— L. is alio the 


g than queitionable i 

puritj' of Imease ta 

inBtances,— L. is ..._ .._. _. . . . 

aaccrdotal auLstants in the Bomiah Chnreh. 

LEVITICUS (Heb. VajiJera) ia the name of the 
third book of the Pentateuch, oontaininR chiefly the 
laws and onliuancea relating to the Levitea and 
priesla. Little or no progreu ia made in it with 
relpect to the history of the people, and the few 
event* reirorded are cloaely connected with the 
apeci^ aim and purpart of the book. The erection 
of thij aanctuary hariof; been deicribed at the eod 
of Eiodua. the nature of the worship — revealed 
b; God within thia tabemade— ia >et fortli in 
Leviticue, which forms ita coiitiaoatian. The 
order fullowed ii not atrictly systematical, but a 
cerL-kin plan ia apparent, ID ita outlinee at least. 

The a^e and anthonhtp of Leviticua will be Con- 
•idered, toj;ether with that of the other 'Mosaic' 
recorda. under PEWraTKOCH. We shall con6na our- 
■elvei to mentioning, in this place, that the whole of 
the snppoacd 'origiual' or ESohistic document (see 
Gviiaial ii by modem critics held to be embodied, 
in its primitive shape, *c nearly aa poaaibte at 
least, in the ' Leviticus' ai we have it now. Among 
the fev additions and alterations ascribed to the 
Jehoviat, are reckoned chapten x. 16—20, zi. 
20—25, XXV. 18—22, and the greater part of 
chan xxvl {3— ltd), the second verse of which (end 
of Panu/iah xxxH) ia held lA have concluded the 
Sinaitic legislation in the original document. 

LEVY (Ft. lev^), a the compulsiiry raising ot a 
body of troops from any specified claaa in the com- 
munity for purposes of general defence or oSence. 
When a country is in dant^r of instant invasion, a 
{ce/« rn nifluf IB sometimes made — te>, every man 
capable of Waring arms is required to contribute in 
penen tnwarda the common defence. On less urgent 
occasions, the levy may be restricted to a class, aa 
to men between eighteen and forty years of age. At 
other timi'9, a Ifvj of so many thousaod men of a 
oertain a^e is decreed, and tlie districts concerned 
draw them by lot from among their eligible male 
population. In armies sustained by volunteering, 
the levy, which is a remnant of barbarous times, 
is unnecessary ; but the system was frequently 
resorted to in France before tbe enactment ot the 
oonacriptiun laws i 1862 has shewn ^at levies in 
the United States of America ; and m any country 
whfre creat daugpr is apparent, and volunteers are 
not aufticientty iiumeroiia, recourse must at all times 
be had to a levy of the people. 

LE'WBS, the county-town of Sussex, maiket- 
town, and narl i.imentary borough of England, moat 
picturesquely situated on the navigable river Oose, 
00 miles south from London, and 7 from Newbaven, 
which is its port L. has a population of 10,110, 
and ia the seat of the assizes. It returns two 
members to parliament, and ia the seat of election 
for fciut Siiasex. Fairs are held here on Whit- 
Tueeiby and ttth May far horaea ; on the 20th 
July, for wool ; and on 21st and 28th September, for 
South-down sheep, of which from 40,000 to 60,000 
•re often collected. The chief trade is in enio, 
sheep, and cattle. There are three iron fonndriea; 
and ship-building, brewing, tanning, rope-making. 
amd hme-bumin|{, employ many of the inhabitanta. 

Bace* are held here annually in July or Angns^ 
near Monnt Harry, on the Downs, where the cele- 
brated battle of Lewes was fought, between Heurj 
III. and the insur|cent barona of tbe kingdom, on tbe 
Uth May 1264 The castle, tbe principal tower ot 
which now forma the museom of the Sussex Archv- 
ological Society, was lun^ the seat of William de 
Warrenne, whose remains and those of his wif^ 
Gundrada, dauchter of the Conqneror, wen dia- 
covered here. L. ia of very remote origin, and wan 
the site of a Roman station or campt Three p<wen 
are here published, and the town is governed bf 
two high-cons tables. 

LEWES, GcoitOK Ecnsr, a versatile English 
anthor of the present day, was bom in Londun, 
April IS, ISI9, educated at various schools. studie<l 
medicine for some time, and finally resiilved to 
devote himself to authorship. In his twenty-Hrrt 
year, he proceeded to Germany, where he remained 
far two years, studying the life, lani^ge, and 
literature of that country. On his return ft 
England, he took np his residence in London, and 
has ever since been one of the must indtutrious aa 
well as successful of lilUraletiri. • An intellect clear 
and sharp, if not remarkahly strong ; a wit lively 
and piqoant, if not very rich ; sympathies warm, il 
□ot wide ; and a style aa firm as it is graceful, have 
made L. one of the best of critics and biogrspbers. 
He has contnbnted to most of the quarterbea and 
msgazinesof the day ; edited (with admirable talent) 
tbe Leadrr newepsjier from 1849 to 1851; composeil 
novels, comedies, and tragedies ; and, of late yeare, 
has turned his sctive mind to the study of physi- 
ology and cognate branches of science, in which he 
hsB won a^ nigh a reputation as in the liiibter 
detiarCments of literature. Hisjirincipal works are 
his Biajraphieal Hitlory of PhibiMophy (1845, a new 
edition of which, much enlarged, has since been 
published) ; TJu SponM Dmma, Lope de Vrgn and 
Cablenm (1816) ; Coml^i PkUoaapliu of fhe Scimr't 
(forming one ot tbe volumes in Bohn's Sfiratific 
Libmrn, 1853). a work which Is not a mere transla- 
tion of the French ssvant, but in several parts 
a complete remodelling, by which the style at least 
does not suS'er ; Li/t aitd Wortt of OoetAf, tc 
(1855), prohnbly his most valuable performancei and 
indisputably the beat work on the snbject ; -S-t- 
tide SiKdia at Il/raaiinbe (1858) ; and Pkaiiolodg 
qf Common Life {1860|. He ia understood to be 
enga)|ed at present (1863) on an edition of the works 
of Spinosa. 

LBWI8, or SNAKE RIVEB, the great sonthem 
branch of Columbia River, United States t< 
America, rises in the Rocky Mouutaina. on th* 
western borders of Nebraska Territory, and after 
a circuitous course, the general direction is north- 
west, through Oregon Territory, it inius tb« 
Columbia, near Fort Walla-WalU. lat 46 fi' K.. 
long. 118- 40' W. Length, 900 miles. 

LEWIS, Riaar Hon'. Sih Qiokok CoBmwaix, 
BABr., English statesman and anthor, was bora in 
London 1806. He was eldest son of Sir Thomas 
Frankland Lewia, first baronet, of Harpton Court, 
Radnorshiic, who. after a long official career, was 
chairman of the Poor-law Boanl from 1831 to 183!L 
L. was educated at Eton and Christ-church, OKfoid, 
where, in 1828, hs was fiistA^aaa in claasiei, aiid 
aecond-clasa in mathematict. He was called to tba 
bar of the Middle Temple iu 1831, and after acting oo 
various commiasions of inquiry, auoceeded his father 
sa Poor-law Commissioner in 1830, and remained at 
the Poor-law Board until it was broken up and recon- 
stituted in 1847. He had m««nwhile married Lady 
Maria Theresa, sister to the fourth Earl of Claren- 
don, aad a connection by marriage of Eari BwadL 



gtiiag determined to adopt » politioal cuccr, and 
bn^ thai mcorponted into the number of Whig 
ift Ttl fimflif . hi> pnunotioD wai certain and rapiif 
b Mt lor Hereftadilure from 1M7 tn I8fi2, and 
tanw nKxeaeiTelj Secretary to the Indian Board 
d OanbtA, TTader-Becretary for the Rome Depart- 
am, and Finaseial Secrebur to the Treaaur;. In 
IfiC; bf Inat bii seat in the Honse of Commona, and 
■^iqirntJy accepted the editonbip of the Edin- 
left ffr*vw. which he continned to conduct until 
no, vhen he was elected for the Radnor diatrict 
d bofinub*. He had acarrely taken hia aeat when 
Uri Pamuiaton offered him the Chaucellonhip of 
tla Eichequcr in hia Gnt administratton, which 
W Md from March 1SS5 to the dissolution of the 
[trmimeot in Febrnaiy 1858. On the return of 
urd Palmeraton td power, in June 1859, L. accejited 
Ik poet of Secretoiy of State for the Home Depart- 
■nt, vhich, to the lurpriBe of the nation, he 
dckujed. in isei, on the di^ath of Lord Herbert, 
{< lit office of Secretary of State for War. In the 
mat ffsr. he publiahed a work of much reiearch, 
■litkd the Attromomy of Ae Andfitlt. Thii unre- 
■Bng labour weakened hii frame, and a cold 
oaAt while lie wai enjoying the Eaater holidaya 
U n family aeat, waa followed by congeation of 
lb loagi, which proved fatal, April 13, 1S63. L. 
ni to able, oiueat, and sincere politician. Ai an 
ntoc, he oooLl acucdy be aaid to exureaa him- 
■tf Tith doqneoce or vivacity ; yet nia sonnd 
mat, raiicd kiiowledge, and moral and intellectual 
fMGbn, Blade him one of the chief omamanta of 
jdHc and political life in England. Hii laquhy 
«• He Cndibiiilg q/ Earln Rrmta» Hitloru, ia 
oadactol on the critical principles of NiebUhr, 
H ii nuve ricoroas and sceptical in spirit than 
tb work of Uie graat Oennan historian. The 
twru of varied knowledge and wisdom which 
W M coUeeted during bis comparatively short life, 
w )• gatlwred fn>in a list of his wotka, which 
■Jade a tr ta tiao on the Origin and Forvialuin of 
' " Lanuuaoe, The FabUt qf Babriiu, The 

dansfMB and Reaioiting in Polilio. Local Diaturb- 
■» fad lie Irith CImni Quetlioa, The Qvaernmait 
if DfpmdeiieU*, A O/ottarj/ qf Prov'mcial Words 
■atf ia Her^arrlMrt, and the AitroTtnmy of Iht 
iannli. Hu Latest work waa a DialogMe on the 
£■ fvrm of OoKvmmeiU, which was published a 
W liji before hia death. 
LEWI5-VITH-BARBI8 (the name Lewis is 
barrel from the Norwegian Ljodikae, the sounding 
la«i|, aa island of Scotland, one of the Outer 
HilnJt^ the mort northern and the largeiit of (he 
f^ hf about 30 miles north-west ^m Boea- 
*in. Enm which it U separated bv the Minch (q.v.)- 
Iin, the larger and moat northerly part of the 
iM. Manff t» Bosa-shire ; the other partioa, 
3in,ticloDgi to Invemess-shire. Entire length, 60 
■■ia : |inlnl breadth, 30 miles. Area, 770 sqoate 
*£a^ pop, (1861) 23.606. The coasts are wild 
■d iWgtd ; the diief indentations being Brood 
V u^ &iaort, Seaforth, Beaort, and Roag. 
lb Bott df Lewis, a promontory at the extreme 
"*. is Isl 68r 31' N., long. 6" IB" 30' W., riaea 142 
te lion sea-leTeL The surface is ni^^ged, with 
**k d iVBinp, a oonaiderable portion is covered 
»*fM*,and there Me ' •--■■• 

lb ialabilaats are almoat all of Celtic extraction, 
^ Ar aarpHoa of a colony in the north, who, 
^bia^ they speak the Gaelic language, are of 

way Caatle, the seat of Sir James Uatheson, Bart, 
who, aa proprietor of Lewis, has expended Urg' 
sums in various kinds of improvemeots. Stonio 
way is visited by steamers from Glasgow. £iee 

LEWl'SIA, a genus of plants, of the natural 
order Poriuiaeatea (see PvftSLAini), named in honour 
of the American traveller Lewis. L. redivira ia 
found in the regions of his explorations, on the west 
side of the Bocky Mountains. Its roots are fpithered 
in graat qiuuititiea by the Indians, and are highly 
valued as nutritive, and also aa restorative, a very 
amall quantiCy bvii^ deemed sulficient to sustain a 
man tfirouDhout a long journey and much fatigue. 
It is called Tohaceo Root becuae, when cooked, it 
baa a tobacco-like smelL 

LETWISTOWN, a town of Maine, United 3Ut« 
of America, on the Androecocgin Kivf^r, 33 milei 
north of Portland. The river has here a fait of 90 
feet in 200, and the water-power is distributed bj 
a dam and canal to 7 manufacturing companies, and 
several large saw-miUs, ftc There are 8 churches, 
4 newspapers, and a Baptist seminary. Pop. 7D0(X 

LEX FC/RI, a legal eipreaaion often used to 
denote the law of the conntr; where a suitor brings 
his action or suit See InTERNiTlONAi. Liw. 

IiEX LtyOI, a legal expreaaion to denote tha 
law of the country where a particular act waa doiu^ 
or where land is situated. See Intkrnatiohu 

LEX HON SCRI'PTA, the unwritten law, u 
expreaaion often applied to the oommon law, or 

unmemorial custom. 

LEX TAliIO'NIS, the law of retaliation, conk' 
mon among all barbarous nationa, by which an 
e^e for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth, waa eon- 
udered the appropriate punishment. The doctrina 
is repudiated by all civilised countries. 


LE'XINGTON, a small village of Massachusetts 
Onited State* of America, 10 milea Dorth-weat lA 
Boston, oelebnted aa the scene of the first ConSict 
between the coloaista and British troops in the Wat 
of IndciMmdence, AprU IS, 1775. Pop. 2000. 

LEXINGTON, a eity of Kentucky, Doited State* 
of America, on the Town Fork of the Elkhom, 
a tributary of Kentucky River, 77 mites east of 
Louisville. It is a handsome city, Hurrounded by a 
country of great beauty and fertility. Its princijial 
edifices are a Coart-bouse, Transylvania University, 
State Lmiatic Asylum, City Hus[<ital, Orphan Asylum, 
banks, 12 chnrcbes. There are 2 newspapers, 6C 
manufacturing establishments, mostly of hemp and 
tobacco. The town was beii^ laid out when newt 
arrived of the skirmish at Lexington, 1775, when 
the ttame waa adopted. It has a beautiful cemetery, 
with a handsome monument to Henry Clay. Pop. 
(1860) 9321. 

LEXINGTON, a town of Mjssonri, Dnited State* 
of America, on the right bank of the Missouri River, 
350 miles above St Louia. It has 7 chnrcbea, 2 
newspapers, a branch of the Bank of Missouri. It 
has been the scene of repeated conflicts duriug ths 
present War of Secession. Fop. (1860) 4115. 

LETDEN (Ft. Leyrf<,thfl ^usrfunum Baiavontm 
of the Bomana, originjly iuyWuin, from hiijk, 
an end, and dun, a hill \ during tha middle ages, 
Lugduin or Leydie), a celebrated seat of learning in 
HoUand, situated on the Old Rhine, 22 miles south- 
westof Amsterdani,andl7iiorthofRotterdam. Pop. 
37,339. It ia s«d to be the oldest town in Holland. 
and has space for three times its present popul»- 
tion. In 1640, L. contained 100.000 souls ; m 1750^ 
the number* had fallen to 70,000i and at th* 



bcdoning of the prtMot eeabay, to SO.OOO. Sines 
1830, trwle hu Kg«iQ b^Q to flouriih, kod the 
popalatioB tn jacreue. llie Btr«eta are wide, the 
public biiildin^^B besTitifiil, and the cuiala broad and 
numerouB. Withia the city are the ruiu of an 
old CAitlc, called tlie ' Burg,' vuppoeed to have been 
bnilt by the Homani before the birth of Chmt The 
prinuijibt iQAnufactiirefl are linen clotha, calicoes, 
woollena, bnt on a Tery BmoU scale, as compaied 
with former times. There is a considerable weekly 
□larket, for the whole of that part of Holland called 
Rhiuuland, held at L., at which much butter and 
che«ae chan^ hands. Bat the chief ornament 
and gloiy of the dty is its university— once ansur- 
passed by any in Europe. The origin of the 
aniversity is well known. In 1574, when Holland 
was struggling to throw off the yoke of Spain, 
L. was besieged by the Spaniards, and had to 
endure all the horrors of famine. For seven weeks 
the citizens had do bread to eat, and multitudes 

Brished of hanger. The heroic burgomaster, 
eter AdrlaauBioon Van der Werff, even offered 
his body aa food to some who were imploring him to 
capitulate. At last, the Prince of Orange brake 
down the dykes, flooded the oountiy, drowned a 
j;reat number of the Spaniards, and relieved the 
inhahitantg. The Prince of Orange now offered, as 
•ome compensation for their nnparalleled sufferings, 
either to remit certain taxes or to establish a uni- 
Tersity in the city. The Leydeners nobly chose the 
latter, which was inaagurated by Prince William 
in 1576. Many eminent men, from all countries of 
Europe, have been eooDected with it, botli aa pro- 
fessors and students. We may mention Sealiger, 
OomBnis, ArminiuB, Orotius, Descarteo, Boethaave^ 
Camper, Spanheim, Rhunken. At present, it hu 
27 ordinaiy profeaaora and 1 extraottiiDaiy. In 
1862, the students were 487— being, law, 238 j 
theology, 100 ; medicine. 82 ; other classes, 46. It 
also pmsesses a valuable library, with maay rare 
MSS. ; a magnificent collection In medicine ; a 
botauical gankn, valaable for its tropical plants ; 
a museum of natural history, one of the richest 
in £uro[ie ; and aoother eqiujly Sne of compuB- 
tivc anatomy. The Museum of Antiquities is also 
excellent On the 12th January 1*]7, the most 
beautiful quarter of the city was destroyed, and 
many lives lost, by the explosion uf a ship's carfio 
of gunpowder, and the site of the mined streets is 
B>iw a plain on which the troops are eiercieed. 
LETDEN, hvcut VAH. oneof the most celebrated 

C'intcr« of the early Dutch school, was liom in 
yden in 1494. His talents, which were developed 
when he was very young, were firrt cultivated by his 
father, Hugo Jacobs, an obscnre painter ; but he was 
afterwanls placed in the school of Cornelias Engel- 
breclistcn, an artist of repute in his day. "- 

the celebrated print, so well known to collectors by 
the name of * Mahomet and the Monk Sergiua,' 
was pulliahed in 1508, when he was only fourteen. 
He pnietiaiHl successfully almost every branch of 
painting, was one of the ablest of those early painters 
who engraved their own works, and he succeeded, 
like Albert DUrer, in imparting certain qualities of 
delicacy and finish to his engravings that no mere 
engraver ever attained The pictiu-ee at Lucas van 
L. are noted for clearness and delicacy in colour, 
variety of character and expression ; but his drawing 
is hard and (h>thic m form. Examples are to be seen 
in man^ of the galleries on the continent. His range 
of subjects wa* very wide, and embraced events m 
sacred history, incidenla illnatrative of the mannen 
of his own pwiod, and portraita. Hit engnviiig* 

are very highly prized by coUeeton, and are tanked 
abont as highly as those of Albert DUivr. H« 
also executed some wood-cots, which are very mi*. 
Bart^ch gives a list of 174 engi>vings by him. Hia 
habits were expensiye. He seems to have occasionally 
entertained his brother- artists in a snmptuoos man- 
ner ; was on terms of intimacy with the celebntcd 
Xiainter, Jean da Mabuae. who is alleged to have b>wi 
rather too fond of good living; and held fritudlj 
interconise with Albert DUrer, whose talents b* 
admired without professional jealousy. He married 
in early life a lady of the noble fatrify of Bosbsgen. 
by whom he had one daughter. He died in 1533, 
aged 39. He had been cooSned lo bed six year* 
before his death, but contrived to paint and engrave 
till within a short period of his decease. 

LETDEN JAR. See Elktbioitt. 

LE'ZE HAJESTY, an ofTenee a^unst sovereign 
power— IiEfa nut/rsftia 


LIA'NAS, a term first used In the Freodi 
colonies, but afterwarda adopt«d by English, Gel^ 
man, and other traveUers, to desigiiate Vte woody, 
climbing, and twining |>lants which abound m 
tropical forests, and constitute a remarkable and 
ever-varying feature of the scene Such i>lanta am 
comparatively rare in colder climates, although thn 
honeysuckles and tome specie* of CUmatit adord 

famHiar examples of them ; bat as tbc«e oft^ over^ 
top the hedgee or bushea in which tiiey grow, aud 
fall down again by the weight of their leavaa aa 
their stems elongate, so the L. of tropical conntrir* 

ler, and bind the whole forest together in a 
of hving network, and often !^ oalSea as thii-k 
those of a man-of-war. Many parta of the firest 
as in the alluvial regions of the Anvu^n an.l 

Orinoco — thus become t ^—vi- . 

aid of the hatchet, and 

them either pass through narrow oovend naUu 

kept open by oontioual use, or fnnn bough 

far above the gi ' ** ' — 

species of WrigSi 

I paUu 



IkoT ateaa, and often kiQ by comtrictiou the occur, fur the tue which m 

a which orioiully Bnppdrted them; uid when &nd for the kdspbiticina i 

!___ . , ... ,_., , „ , ,.. , .... .J ^^^ j^ , 

yof tl 

tknt hare decsye 

„ . . . a their Btmoture whioh 

jecsyed, the convolDtuHU of the L. fitted them to live in water. The moat Dote* 
«xkArt> wtmdcniil maa of contoiion magnificeDt worthy >i« specie* of Ichtbyoesorna {q. v.) and 
it ttv luttriaac* cf foliage and flowera. No tropical , Plesioeaunu (q. v.) 

luBUi eied in iplendoar tboae of some lianaa. | The LioMic rocka extend in a belt of Taryins 
iwBmg them are fonnd alio some Taloable medicinal ' breadth acroei Eagland. from Whitliv, on the coaM 

~' laiiArtlla. The rattani and Tanilla are of Yorkahire, south to Leicester, t)iea loiith-eart 

r Gloocester to T — . . — 
LIBA'NIDS, one of tha latest and moat eminent 
of the Greek sophiits or rhetoricians, woa bom at 
Antiocb, ia Syria, about .114 or 316 A.D. He studied 
at Atheos under various teachers, and first sL-t up * 
school in Cop*tantinopTe, wherti his prelections were 
BO attnctive that he emptied the beaches of tha 
other teachers of rhetonc. who had him brought 
before the prefect of the city on a charge of * magic,' 
and expelled. Ha then proceeded to Nicomedia ; 
but after a resideDce of bve yeara, was forced by 
intrigoes to leave it, and returned to Constan- 
tinople. Here, however, his adversaries were in the 
aKWndant; and after several vicisaitudea. the old 
sopUst, broken in health and spirit, settled down in 
his native city of Antioch, where he died about .^93 
A.D. L. was the instmctor of St Chrysostom and 
St Basil, who always remained his friends, though 
L. was himself a pagui. He was a great friend of 
Jaliao, who oorreeponded with him. 
re DnmeroiU, and mostly extant, and 
itions, dedunatioas, narratives, letter*, 
lost oomutete edition of the oratiou 

ig to the difficulty of their cnltiVBtion. 
LIAS. The lis* is the lower division of the 
Oidiiir or Jnrssdc Period {q-v.). The beds oom- 
pHDf- it msiy be considered as the areiUaceons basis 
tl Ihat Mries of rocks, consistinz of more than a 
■nssiid feet al altemaliona of cuy and limestone, 
nk bat a few onimportant dapoBts of sand. It 
■■arta of tbe following groups : 

TVs Upper Ijaa consista of thin limMtone beds 
MiHiml tbroodi a great thickness of blue clay, 
Mvs or leas indurated, and so sluminooa that tt 

wumuiuuH wuH ",the ICmperor 
Whitby, A thick j His works ai 


ksB hcBi wrought for ali 

lurf of vesrtaHe matter c __ , „„ 

lt« dTTMton. in which are found nodnleB and lumpa 4(^ ^„„ ^„, „„, „„ „,.«.." ui u.o u..^.i«. 

t a peculiar mineral compowd of carbon and j „d declaroations is that by Reiske (4 vols. Altenb. 

, __ .^_,.._ .. ,_ ^j j^^ 1701-1797), and of the lotten that by 

WoU (Anut 1738). 


LIBATION (Lai H/nrt, to pour oat), litentUy, 

anything poured out befom the goda aa an act td 

homaee or worship ; a drink-offering. The term 

was often extended in signili cation, however, to the 

whole offerins of which this formed a part, and in 

which not only a little wine was ponred upon the 

altar, but i small cake was laid npoo it. This 

custom prevailed even in the houses of the Bomans, 

who at their meals made an offering to the Laraa 

in tbe Gre which burned upon the hearth. Tha 

libation waa thus a sort of nsothsn ' grace before 

LrBATT, a seaport of Conrland, Rnsaja, on the 
Baltic. 6S8 miles sonth-west of St Petersburg. 
It existed previous to the settlement here of tlu 
TeiitoDic Knights, who surrounded the town with 
walla, and erected in 1300 a cathedral and a castle. 
In I79S. it was annexed bo Russia. The port, with 
a secure harboiu' 14 feet deep, is open sJmoat tho 
whole year. Its inbabitants, since the 17th <L, 
have devoted themselves to ship-building, and now 
furnish merchant- veeseU to St Petersburg, RigBi 
and ReveL In 1S6I. 239 ships entercti, and 140 
cleared the port. The imports, amounting in valna 
to 1,673,866 rubles, consist of salt herring wines, 
fruit, and colonial produce: the exporte 11.739,802 
mhlea in value) are chiefly oereal^ leather, flax, 
seeds, and timber. Pop. 10,126. 

LIBEL, in Scotch Law and in English Eccled* 
astical Law, means the *timmont m similar writ 
suit, and oontaioiog the plaintiCa 

LIBEL is a publication either in writing, print, 
. . by way irf a picture, or the lite, tha tendency of 
which is to degrade a man in the opinion of hia 
neighbours, or to make him ridiculous. When 
ainular resuHa follow from words spoken, the act 
is called Slander (q. v.), which, however, is leM 
•everely puniabad. It it extremely dil&adt to 

„__], and probably having a ^ 

_Bh«- of the tertiary lignites. A sens of 

bvn amd yellow sands, and a peculiar layer called 
lit ee|4>alopoda bed, from the abnodance of theae 
iaak coDtaiued in it, occur above these clays ; 
r^tly, ibry hare been se]>aiated from the inferini 
•ritfe, aod joUK*] to this division, on the evidence of 
tb attained foaaila. 

The Jlartatoaa is an arenaceous deposit, boond 
Mp^kr atker by a Cakareous or fermginoua 
oaat. IB the one cans nassiag into a coarse shelly 
"■Mwfnnr. and in the other into an ironstone, which 
kn br^ extenavely wrought both vu the north and 
■nth -(rf England. 

Tk Lower Lias beds oonairt of an extensive 
ft"*i i "f <d blue days, intermingled with lasers of 
Killwoas Haicatone^ In weathering, the thm beds 
rf elae or gray limestone become tight brown ; whUs 
A* ater-sti^i£ed shales retain £eir dark colour, 
pimii the quarries of this rock, at a distance, a 
ibiped or ribbon-like appearance, whence, it is 
ufpaaeA, the miner's name lias or layers is derived. 
<nKaOy. the claya mt on triassic rocks, but 
■■■i anllj there is interposed a thin bed of lime- 
Amc, coDtaining fragmeata of the booes and teeth 
4 fi^«iles and fish, generally of undoubted liassic 
sp ; aceaatooally. the bouas of keuper reptile* are 
■rf with in it, causing it to have been referred to 

hly fottilifaroua, the contained 

wdl pnaeivod ; the fishes are often 
cC aa to exhibit the com[dete form of the 
with the fina and scales in their riatural 
. Kamcroa* remains of plants occur in the 
u>d in tbe shalea. The name Oryphite 
baa been given to the Lias, from the 
of Grypiai tneurvata, a kind of 
in it. Some of the older genera of 
(t31 found in these beda, but the 
'ese animal* more nearly 
use newer secondarr forma. Tish- 
I frequently met wiUi; the reptiles, 
I the most striking f eatniea. Tbsy are 
lor the gnat niunben in which they 



dffloe what aMontti to libcUom matter, for the 
qacBttoa whether a pabUcation amonnta to libel 
miut alway* be left to the dccUioD of a jury. 
kDil thii ili-cuioo ii ■omewhat auccrtain, and variei 
with the pn)iul,ir taond for the time. But tl. 
teat ia. in piiint of law, whether then reeull 
d^lCnuUtinn if character. There are two remnlii 
in EJit:luiil lot the wmn); cau»ed by UIkI ; at 
i( by iiidictDieiit, the other ta by actioa. It the 
offence U of a public Datore, an indictment ii 
Bi-nenUy rrx.rtn) to. tor every lil«>1 t<-n<li to 
breach of the peace ; or the liWlled party apiilii 
to the Cnurt I'f Quoen'i Bench for a criminal 
infurmation, which i> a vnriirty of indii-tmrnt 
M'ht'D ao wrlion ia broucht, ita ohject ii to miirei 
dainagii for the private injury aiiiL-UDeiL The rule 
funnerly wu. In inJictmenta anil criniinal informa- 
tiiina. that the defendant waa not allnwot to plead 
in ilift-ni-e that the lilirlloui matbr wai tnie. But 
the law wu in \%i3 alternl, and the defendant ii 
BOW allowed, by way uf defence, to allege the truth 
of what waa cliari^l, and further that it wai for 
the pnlilic Iwrnlit that the matUr ahould he iiub- 
liihol. ttalin;! how. If. however, the jury by their 
Trnlict find ntticrwiae. tbia defencv often aEW-nTatea 
the ^niohmrnt. The aUtnte 8 and 7 Vict c OG 
alao unpriivul the law of libel a* n-j^ar^U editor*. 

iuaertiil without their knowled^ By the im-nent 
law. the d<*feD<lant may pleail in defence that the 
article in questinn waa inacrtol without ai-tiia] milic« 
and withiiut UTt^ii iiei;'iK''n<^> and that, li>'f>ire the 
commencini-'nt iif Ihraetmn. or at the cartieit oppor- 
tuiiity aftiTwanlvthedifrndantintertcil an ap"lney. 
or if the iienoillral did not ap|iear within an interval 
of a werk. thit ha olTerrd tu (lubliah an apnlofor in 
any newijiiper or peri-alieal to be aelcctcd by the 
plaintiX But the dtf-iidant. when h< ' ' " 


miX a • 

a of n 

by way of ameni , , 

caata. even where the |m>cee.linK i* by indietment or 
•riininal inforroatioD, the defendant, if b« obtaina 
• veriliet, will (oootnry to the p-neral rule) be 
mtitli-il to have hii cuata Mid by the pnw-cutor. 
There are cerUin liU'U wliich are called 1.1a*]>hi-nioui 
«a ai-c-imt «f their d.nyios tlie fun.lameiiUl trutba 
of l'hn«ti.inity. and th--»e are [iilni"hiilp|e liy tine and 
Lmiinx'nim'nt. -So there are > tnuonaUe, 
and iniin-Til lilx-la. aceonlini; to the natuiv of the 
■ul.j«t-riuiltT. If any peraon threaten tn^h 
a hU'l. nr "ir.-r to iirvvent aueh Jiulilication, with 
inUut !"> eilort any m.mejr. »e.'urily, or raluaMi 
thitui. ur 

y numry. ae.'urily, or raluaMi 



It with or without 
Ul-piir (or tbr.* yeara. If any jviwin nioli- 
I iHilili.h ■ il-famatiny liWl. knowing the 


'( inipruiuimrnt and a 

LtbKH. Sc* Bau aad Ban. 

LIBRRATIOM. ia Hcotrii Uw. meaaa diaehatxe 
frtm inn-nnintwnt. K'innrrtv, if a penoa waa 
iBprwitinl liir di lit. and paid the amoonl. he hail to 
prnamt a lull i4 lilirratian and auajienuua to get wut 
of prwa. which w not now nvnaaaiy. 

LIBR RIA. a arirm ivpuMie on the Drain t'oaat 
o( r|>|ier UuinrA, The trmlory of the reiKiMii: 
estrixli fn>ni lanf. 9* M tu Ir Sf W. The lenicth 
«f a*rt ia about OUV milca, the ttwngt bnadtli of 

the territory about SO milea. Oo DecetDbar )1 
1S16, ao aawtciatioD, of which Henry Ctay (q t 

waa preaident, (tyled the American Coloniuti" 
Society, waa fonned, for the pur|ioH of (oualii. 
a colony of einancipal/-d nejtmea, and of piim 
them favourable opportanitiea of ■elf-inipntvrniiiii 

ISJI, a treaty waa ooncludni with the natii-e [■ 
by which a tl»ct of hind fit for the imq-jae «< 
acijuired. The aaaociation immediately [nmmefift. 
opcrstiona. and allotted to e.tch man 30 acrr* c 
land, with the meana of cultivatiiij; it. A tivi 
called Momvria, waa founiled at l.'at-e Menrvl" 
the boundariea of the colony were enlar;;ed bv Ih 
purcbaae of new tratt«; and a aecond town, ttV.n 
Caldwell. In bouonr of the oH^nator of Uw aax-n 
tinn. waa foaiuled upon the river .Meaiinilo. X.i 
•cttleinenla were afterwanU formed at Cape JI"Ot 
anil in tlie newly acquired Bnau Land, id wh'. t 
in 1S.U a Uwa waa founded, and rall.-d f^um 
in acknowle-l)^ent of pecuniary aid nent to th 
colony [n>m Eiliubur^h. Many of the nri^bboansi 
chief* were received into the colony, wbilal nlhir 
were euUlued. In 1M7, L. waa left tfl iU owi 
reaouma, declared an iodej-cndcnt n-pubbe, an 
the Bovemment oonunitteii to a prenident, •mab 
and honse o( repreaenlativea. Tlie jirni-lcnl aoi 
TeprmentAtivei are elected for two, and the tmi 
tora [or four year*, all citiien* being quaLB" 
elector* when they reach 21 V"""* "J ojfr, aai 
putai'H mil f^-ilf. The Jiidiiiai |>ower ia re^te- 

■Slavery and the ahive'traile are pn>liil<itrd. aai 
the naht of petition ectablinbrd. White* ar 
eiclmled from rij;ht* of cittzenibip, l-ot thn ■ 
only a tem|>ar«ry meaaare. The pnHpcnty of Ih 
colony MKin became very obviou* ; cliurch--* aoi 
■ehuila were founded m peater pnip<rt: >D t 
the pojndation than in moat parla of Briaii 
•ir America; a regular postal iVBt-'ni waa tutab 
linhiil, uewipaiier* publiaheil, and >ljvery in tbr 
neii;hbo<iring itatr* abiiliihiiL Ni^riH-a fn>m lb 
nei^hlxiurin,! rcifiona, acttling ill the rvfioktic aa- 
■ulnnlttiiift tl. iu law*, were ailmicied to parti . 
(ation in cinl and ]>ulitical freeilom equally w.t! 
the toloniita. The new repuUlic waa rrv»i.-tiiie> 
by Britain in laiN. and liiiee hy oth.-r Hun'|m 
)iDWera. The Britiih Koremmint' it a prrvn 
..I a cim-ptle of war with lour pun*. Tile pr-iigvnt; 
and uaefulnei* of L. hare ainee continiie'l to in iiniii 
but the number of aettleia from North America ka 
never Iveo )(n'at in any year, and up to IHS&, tl. 
whiile nuniWr in the country waa ri-ckoned n-t b 
eKceeil ID.IHJO. Additional ne^rro trilv* am. bow 
ever, from time to time included within ita iTntun 
III 1KHI, the native inhabitanU of I. were nlimiti'i 
at 300.n(K> ; and aUmt 50,00(1 bail aci|UirTd the Y^.^ 
luh lantciuue. uf whom aUiut 3i»K> werr B>em>. r 
of the I'hriilian church. Ai:riculture ii orri'd n 
but, ai yet. without much ■ii<>'e<ia. C-ITiv h a pr. , 
cipal article ol produce^ I'onia, coCtoo. the taeu 
cane (lS.'iOj. amw-toot, and rice arc al»i i-u<iiT*t I 
Trail e i* rapidly extending, ai>d |wlm-'.il, iv.-ri 
ifilil-duat, ramwoiid, wax, cnfTee, indiipi. i;in;.| 
arn>w;n><>t. and hidea. an ■mutii.-it Uia prin- . < 
articlea of ex^mrt. In 1R60. a cu-.-o of (iijar ■ • 
•rnt to New ^ork. and thi* ia the uulr muuiai't .- 
yet pniaivutciL L'onautt Bowen'* ri-n'm/ Af.i 
(New York, l&ITl, and Thomaa'i WttI Ctmut • 

UBBltrrs. ft natiT* tl Roma, bora U ti. 
early |«rt o[ the 4Ui ft, auocR^IM to tb* ae» 
lUmr in 3SO tin Um deatb of r-.)* Juliua L Hi 
pmuHcate falta npon tba itormieat prrinl tj 1 1 
ooDlnivenj. Sea Aun Tba Em^tu 




■tykd idiiloaophen of the French Revolatioo- For 
honour! uke, Mr Taylor, for truth tmd virine'i 
take, let AmeHcaD phUoaopben tai poUticUru 
(iMpiM it'— (Vol vi. p. 464.) 



pbtaaa descriptive of tlie right of the inmriiltul 
mbject to do all thing! not ipeciAlIy prohibited hj 
the law, and the less restriction there ii bj the law, 
the greater is the extent of the liberty enjoyed. 
In its widest sense, the phrase may be understood 
aa compiisiDB the whole of the rights allowed by 
law to the subject ; but what is generally understood 
is the liberty of the person, or of rights connected 
with the persoD—sucti as personal liberty or free- 
dom from slavery, the right of fnw speech, liberty 
of conscience, libra-ty of the press, and constitutianal 
liberty, or the liberty to influenoo and take part in 
legisIaUoD, which majr be (iiither gubdlTided into 
the limitation of the royal prerogative, the powers 
and privileges of parliament, the right of appljcing to 
courts of law tor redress of injuries, the right of 

Ciitioning tha crown or parliament, the right of 
viofE arms for defence, the right of habeas corpus, 
&«. AJ! these subject* at« noticed in detail uoder 
their proper heada. 

LIBIDIBI. See DirrorvL 

LIBOURXE, a handsome town of France, in the 
department of Gironde, on the right bank of the 
Dordogne, at its confluence with the Isle, 20 miles 
north-east of Bordeanz. It is one of the ancient 
Battidr* or Free Towns, and was founded by 
Edward L, king of GngUcd. in 1286. It cairiei 
on considerable trade in wines, spirits, grain, salt, 
and timber. Cotton-yam. iron, leather, ropes, and 
nails are manufactured. Pop. 13,290. 

LI'BBA, the seventh sign in the sodiac At the 
first point of Libra, the 
equator (o the southei 
being thai the aufttnuaJ iqidnac. 

LIBBARIE& The term library ia applied 
indifferently to balldinfia, kc., destined to contain 
booka, and to the hooka themselves deposited in 
tfa«>ie buildingo. In (he present article, it ia used 
chiefly, if not exclusively, in the tatter sensa 

Passing over the ' libraries of clay,' as the e<^ea- 
tioDS of inscribed brinks and tiles of the Anyrians 
and Babylonians have been »itly deaiTnated, ths 
firtt library, properly so called, of which we have 
any tnowledf^ is that which, according to Diodorus 
aiculuB, was forraed by the Egyptian ting Osy- 
Uandyas. The aiisUnceof this eatsblishment, with 
i\x appropriate inscription, Piychtt ioiinon — the 
storehouse of medicine for the mind — was long 
regarded as fabnloui ; but the researches of Cbam- 
poUion, WUkinsoD, and other modem i uvestigaton, 
go far to prove that the account of Diodorui, Uiouah 
pertiaps exaggerated, is at least based upon truUL 
A more celebrated Egyptian library wa* that founded 
at Aleiaodria by Ptolemy Soter, for an accoont of 
which see Alexahdsun LmninT, The library of 
Psigamns, a formidable rival to that of Alexandria, 
was tonnded probably by Attalus I., audwas lai^y 
d by Um foctering care of his " - ~ '- 

a, being sent by Antony as a 
gift to ClMpatro. At the tune that this tranafer- 
«DC9a took puie«, it oontainsd, aocording to Plutarch, 
200,000 ToluneA 

Tha first pablio library established at Athens ia 
•aid to havs b«tti fotudM by RdsUatua ; but the 

information we possess regatdiug this and utbtf 
Grecian libraries is meagre and unsatisfactory. Tbs 
earliest Boman libraries were thoM collected by 
LucuUua and by Aainins PoUio. The latter was a 
public library, in the fullest sense ; and the [nmur, 
though private property, was administered with so 
much liberality as to place it (nearly on the sam* 
footing. Various other libraries wen fonnded at 
Rome by Augustus and his successors ; the most 
important, perhaps, beiw the Ulpian Library lA 
the Emperor Trajan, ^e private collections ol 
Ejnilini Paulns, Sulla, Lnonllus (already mrntioaed), 
and Cicero, are well known to every student of the 

The downfall first of the Western, and snb- 
seqnently of the Eastern Empire involved ths 
destruction or dispersion of these ancient libraries 
The warlike hordes by whom these once mighty 
monarchies were overthrown, had neither time nor 
inclination for the oultivatioa of letteis ; bnt even 
in the darkest of the dark ages, the lamp of learning 
continued to shine, if with a feeble, y^t stilt with a 
steady light. Within (he sheltering walls of the 
monnstenei. tha books which had escaped destruc- 
tion, the salvage, if we may so express it. of the 
general wreck, found a safe asylum ; and not only 
were they carefully preserved, but so multiplied by 
the industry of the transcriber, as to be placed 
beyond all risk of loss for the future. Amongst the 
conventual Ubrarie* of the middle ages specially 
worthy of notice are those of Christ Church, and al 
Che monastery of St Angustiue, Canterbury ; of ths 
abbeys of Fleury and Clugni,in France; of Moota 
Cossino, in Italy ; and of St Gall, in SwitzerUitd. 
Private collectors, too, existed then as now, tfauiieh, 
of course, their number was small Amonnt thi;s^ 
Etchard de Bury, Bishop of Durham, holda a dia- 
tiriguished place. 

The revival of learning in the 14th and I5th oca- 
turiee, followed immediately by the invenUon c( 
the art of printing, led naturally to a vast increase ia 
the production of books, and introduced a new erft 
in the bistoi; of public libraries. The number of 
these establishments which have unce aprang into 
existence is immense, and is constantly morvasint; ; 
so much BO, that a bore liit of them would at 
exceed the limits of an article Uke the present. AH, 
therefore, that we propose to do is to )pve s short 
account of the most important and interesting 
amongst them. 

First among the libraries of Great Britain, and 
second to few, if to any abroad, is that o^ the British 
Museum. For an acconnt of this magnificent collco- 
tion. see Britisb Hussfil Next in rank ia tlta 
Bodleian Library at Oxford, which has also b«fn 
already described. See Bodleyih or Bodlzia5 
LlBRAKT. The third and fourth places are oocnmed 
by the Public, or UniversiW, Library of Cambridge^ 
and the Library of the Faculty of Advocates at 
Edinburgh, which are nearly on a par aa reganla 
extent aod value. A notice of tho latter wul be 
found uoder the heading AnvocATia' LmRaRT ; bnt 
the number of volumes which it contains bos been 
slightly understated in the article referred to. At 
present (1863). they are not fewer than iao.OI1i). 
The Library of Trinity College, DnbUn, with about 
130,000 volumes, is the largest and most valuable in 
Ireland. These Ave libraries have long been, and 
still are, entitled by statnte to a copy of every book 
published in the empire ; the act of parliament by 
which the privil^e is at preseot regulated ia tha 
JS and 6 Vict, c 45. Besides the abore, six other 
UbrariM had been in the enjoyment of the smds 
privilege up to tha yeu- 1836. By the act 6 sad T 
Will fv. c 110, which was thei ' " 

was lednoed from eleven to 

the numbrt 


tr Ac learn «( tlw priTileee beii^ allowed, in tb« 
!■■ al tm MUinal gnnt <3 money ebargtd ~ ~ " 
CiMiMitna Pnod. TbeuDoont of "^' 

iff fl> bM «( tiw 

* ''^ e UDOont of this p»at wu, 

1 bj a compatatuKi of tbe 

ifi aawttl vakw of tiM book* recored dariDC 

~Wlfa«e nan iramedatdy orending the MMing iM 
te act. n« aninc* of One libraiiea refened to, with 
r ct vtAantta they at present oootain, and 
I Mivcd in lian at the pririlega, are 

Tb tmaot Ghnriea of Great Britain an ao nanurona, 
tta ■ ^TB list of their namea would exceed the 
Mu within which an article like the present mr 
k eoaliBed. Amongit those deserrine spec 
■«r« are the Library of tbe Society of Writers 
^ S^wrt, minhargh, containing upwards of 4S,000 
nl^asi ; U ie Hnnterian library, Qlaanw, with 
Amx I3J0OO Tolnmes, incinding many chmce 
mem at caoiy printing ; tbe Chetham library, 

r, iqrwards of 18,000 Tolnmes ; Dr Williams' 

IV Fritlic Ubnri^ Acts of 1S50 and 18SS have 
b^ adsnted by aarenl of the lar^ towns in 
bfjand. Manchester and liropool being the moat 
^alaat. Tbe free libraries ertabliahed in these 
}!■ IS skilcr the pmrinoni of the acts just named 
■n ■■ > ftoorilhinK ooadition. Of private libiaries 
> y-rf-irt. ik w3] be MifficieDt to name that of 
lad T|ii»iiir. at Althoip, containing npwarda of 
VJU I Ilia III I m. nuny of exbcme ran^ and valaa, 
Bi all n BdmiTaMB condition. 

TW great "**i'T'*' libraiy of France, Ia Btblio- 
ft^H dn Boi, aa it naed to be caUed. Ia Biblio- 
ttiiiiw tmp^riate, as it is called at present, is one of 
tac Uij-st and nost valuable collections of books 
mil ~— —-" ■ [ ■* T in the world. Attempts to form a 
Any had been made by Lonis XL and his auc- 
tmm*» with conaiderable sncoess ; bat the appoint- 
■^ of Dc Tboa to the office of chief librarian by 
** * tV. nay be r^arded ai the fonndation ot 
-^'*^-*-~— * aa it now exists. The nnmber 
I contained in it is estimat«d at 

_^ , . i of mannscripta at about 90,000. 
im mfti lilnnes of the second claas existing in 
Pta^ the Idaxarine Libraiy, and the library of 
k. fiiM lir 1 1 are the chief. Hie framer contain* 
aooly l-tflJIOO vohunes ; the latter, upwards of 
KUWl Mnay exceOent libraries ar« to be fonod 
» Af snriiMnl town* of Pnnoe, particnlariy at 
tiMftt, Bordcanx, Lyon, and Strasbonr);. 

■ ol printed volumes contained 

I he slsted with mccancj ; but it is in the 
■cript d^Ktrtment— replete with treasures of 

.„ .1 valuable kind— that its chief 

M^ liM. The Caaanata libiaiy, alio at Bome, 
bI to oiHctaia opwaidi of 300,000 vtdnmes. The 
ikiB^ia library, at Milan, ha* a ooUectioD ot 
M^ l»ijaou vidnnn ; and the Brei» libnuy, of 

*U«nthiwloB«n tt these an 

lodsed in 


tbe Hune ei^, one of about 190,000; At Florene* 
we find the Ijuirentian Library, conaiatiug almost 
entirely of nuuiiucHpts : and the Magliabechi 
libraiy, with about 160,000 volumes. Amongit the 
other librarie* of Italy worthy of notice are the 
Boval Library at Naides, with 200,000 volumea, 
and that of St Mark at Venice, with 120,000. 

The jKineipal libranes of Spain are the BiblioteCK 
Beal at Madrid, namherins nearly 300.000 volume^ 
and tbe Library of the Escoria!, wbich has been 
already noticed See Escubuj.— Of the libraries 
of Portogal, no trustworthy statistic* can bo 

The Imperial library at Vienna, fonnded by tbs 
&nperor Frederick IlC in the year 1440, is a noUe 
collection of not fewer than 400.000 volumes ; ol 
which 1S,000 are of the clan called iocunsbiUa, n 

book* printed before the year ISOO. The Royat 
libnuy at Monich owes its oruin to Albert V., 
Duke of Bavaria, about the middte of the IGth cen- 

tury. The ■tatements which have been made ai 
the extent of this Ubrary are of • very oonflictiog 
character, varying from 400,000 volumea on the one 
hand bo SOO.OOO on the other. The real number u 
probably about 600,000. It is woithilj lodged in 
the Bfilendid building erected by the late king^ 
Liidwig L, in the Ludwk Strwe. The Royal 
Library at Dresden is a collection of nearly 3'JU.OOO 
rolumtio, amongst which are incladed some of the 
Bcaiceat specimens of early printing, amongst others 
the Mains Psalter of 1457, the Sist book printed 
with a date. The foundation of the Boyal Library 
at Berlin dates from about the year 1&90. It now 
extend* to about SSO^OOO volumes of printed books. 

the latter many precioas reUcs of Luther and U_- 
other leaden of the Betoimation. Of the other 
libraries <rf Germany, it will perhaps be enough to 
notioe that of the university of Gfittingen, with 
upward* of 350,000 volumes ; and the ducal library 
of WolfeabUttcl, with about 2U0.00a 

In HolUud, the prindpal library is the Boyal 
library at the Hague, containing rather more than 
100,000 volumes, of which about 1500 are good 

ucimen* of early printing. 

The Boy*] Libnuy at Copenhagen wa* founded 

mat the middle <A tbe 16th century. Its contents 

V now estimated at nesriy 450,000 volumes. Ihe 
UnivendtylibraivpoiHeBaea nearly 160,000volamaB; 
and Clasaen'* Library, also in Copenhagen, about 

In Sweden, the targtat falwary is that of the 

livenity of U|iaal, consisting of neariy 140,000 
volumes. One irF ita i^cf treasures ii the famous 
manuscript of the Gothic Goapela of Ulfiloa, com- 
monly known a* the Codex Aijfentena. The aniver- 
aity of Lnad posaeasM a collection of upwards of 
70,000 volames. 

Tbe library of the nnivenity of Chriatiania i> 
Norway, founded in 1811, Oontains upward* of 

15.000 volomei. 

The Imperial library of St Petenburg WM 
fonnded about the b^;ianing of the 18th centunr. 
In the year 1795. it wat Urgely incmsed by the 
addition of the Zalusk^ Libnuy of Wanaw, which 
waa aeiied and carried off to St Peteialmrg by 
Suwaro£ At present, the total number of Tolumes 

iinot be less Uiau aboat 550,00a 

In the United States ul America, though there 

e no hbraries equalling thoae of the first rank in 
Europe, there are still not a few of conaidetable 
magoititde and value. The oldest and one of tbe 
largest amongst them is that of Harvard College, 
which has been in eiiatenoe more than 200 years. 
The following i* a table of the prineipa) libraries, 
with the approximate number of their volumes: — 



public LlbnrT of thedljof Bcntoii... 

Ykli CoUegK tilmn 

ta UliruT ■! AlbHJ, H<* lark.... 

of Km. York CIg 


Libnrj of Union tb»Wlc*l Sum. of S«v 1 
Llimn Co. of PMlBdalphki 1 Logului UbruT. 

... rAHld.of»»i™r "■..--■-<-•■'- 

I« Ubnrj AHodaUon < 

Pruvldenn Alh«nBiiiiL 

The b«st work on the iubject of libraries is Ed- 

wardB'B Memoirt iff Librariii (2 Tol«,, Lond., 18&9). 

LIBRARIES' ACTS, Though there is do iyste- 

matic provieion of libwriea for publio nso, at the 
expense of the state, eioept the British Maseuin 
Library in London, ta kttempt baa been made by 
the lemBhtture of late veara to empower district* 
to eatabliah librariet, and to tax the inhabitants for 
that piirpoaa. The 6nt act was paiwed in 1S90 for 
England, bat has been repealed by the act 18 and 
19 Vict c. 70, in 1855l Town oonnciU of towns 
having a population exceeding SOOO, may, after due 
notice, CDDvene a pnblio meeting of the buraeaees, 
and two-thirds may resolve to establish a library, 
and rate the inbabitanta. So in parishes oC a like 
population, and local improvement districts, two- 
thirds cf the istepayera may also adopt the act 
The rate to be levied in all such ernes is not to 
exceed one penny in the pound. All such libraries 
are to be open to the public, free of all charge. A 
■imilar act. 16 and 17 Vict c. 101, extended the 
first Eneliah act, 13 and 14 Vict. o. 66, to Ireland 
and Scotland, but i« not so extensive, as it applii 
only to baronghs in Ireland and Scotland having 
population of 10,000- 

LIBBABIES, MiUTABY, are either garrison i 
legimentaL The former comprise large collections 
of books, with newipapera, games, lectures, Ac, '•- 
oommodious rooms, and are intended to win soldii 
froni the gin-shops and vicious haanta which are 

for inatmotion and amusement ; but statistioa prove 
that the men patronise few besides fiction and 
travels, and religious books not at all- Regimental 
Ubrariea are Bmoller coUectinna of books, which 
accompany regiments in their various movements. 
The charge fcr military librariea in the Britiah 
aimy is for 1863-1804 the sum of £4213. 

LIBRATIOH (from Lat. Ubra. a balance, mean- 
ing a balancing or oecillatina motion), a term applied 
to certain phenomena of the moon's motion. The 
moon's librations (or, more properly, apparmt libra- 
tions) are of thr«e kinds— fibration in longitude, in 
latitude, and the diurnal libration. If the moon's 
MtatioQ in her orbit were uniform, as her rotation 
on her axis is, we should alvmya see exactly 
same portion of her surface, but as this is not 
cose, there are two small strips of surface runi — 
from pole to pole, on the east and west sides, which 
become alternately viHble ; this is called the moon's 
longUudknai Kbnlbm. The J.Voton in latU«de 
arises from the moon's aris not beina perpendicular 
to her orbit, in conaequence of which, a portion of 

her surface round the north pole is viable dining ona 
half, and a correepondinE portion round the aontli 
pole daring the other half of her revolution in her 
■-■' The diurnal libralirm hardly deaervea the 
nd is simply a consequence of the observer a 
position on the surface of the earth, and not at the 

........ :. :_L- :_ the gradual diaappeaiaDce of 

edge of the moon's diak as 

she approaches her culmination, and the amwarancv 
o( new points on her opposite border as shedeaceniia, 
lie flret and third of these librations were dis- 
covered by Galileo, and the second by Hevelios, 

LI'BYA, the name given by the oldeat geograiihen 
„ Africa. In Eomer and Henod, it denoted the 
whole of this quarter of the globe, eioept Egn>t: in 
Herodotus, occasionally, tiie entire continent ; but 
it is also applied by others in a more restrictnl 
sense:, to the northern part of the couati7, from 
E^ypt and the At*hian Golf westward to Mount 
Atlas. The great sandy tract of which the Sahara 
forms the principal part, was called the Libyan 
Desert To what extent it was known to the 
oucienta is not very clearly oic^tained. See AnucA. 

LICENCE. See Oamb, Pdblio-hodbis, lla»- 


LIOBTITIATE (from Lat. Uett, it is Uwfnlt, 

le of the four ancient university degreea. It is no 

__oger in use in Enghuad, exoept at Canibrid>,'e, 

which oonfeis the degree of lioentiate of medicino, 

In France and Germany, however, when it M 

e general, a licentiate is a person who. bavins 

ergone the prescribed examination, has received 

o deliver lectiiret The degree, s 

BadtSoT of ArU 

idergone the p 

honour, ii intermediate b 
and Doctor. 

LICENTIATE, among Preebyterians, is a pw^ 
^n anthoriaed by a presliytery or similar body t« 
preach, and who thus becomes eligible to a pastoral 

LI'CHEN, a papular disease of the akin. Then 
are two species, viz., L. nmpUx and L. agritu, the 
latter of which may be regaided as a very aggravated 
form of the former. L. fimplec consists in an erup- 
tion of minute papulie of a red colour, which nevir 
contain a fluid, and are distributed irregularly over 
the body. They appear tirst on the face and armn, 
then extend to the trunk and lowei- extremities, and 
are accompanied with a sense of heat, itching, and 
tingling. In a mild case, the disease ii over in a 
week, but sometimes one crop of papnlai ntcc<vil« 
another for many weeks or montlis. In L. agrinx, 
the papulsB are more pointed at the anmniit, oiid on 
of a bright-red colour, with more or leas rednc-as 
extending round them. lo this form of the diae«se, 
the general health is usually affected, in oome- 
quence of loss of sleep and general irritation. 

It is often hard to say what is the cause of lichen. 
The simpler form is often dependent in childim on 
intestinal irritation, while in other caaea it may 
frequently be traced to exposure to heat, or error* of 
diet Ills severe form is also occasioned hy extreme 
heat and by the abuse of siiwituous drinks. 

In ordinary cases, an ontiphlogistio diet, a few 
gentle aperients, and two or three tepid baths, are all 
that is required. When the diseese asnuoea a chronic 
character, a tonic treatment (bsi^ and the mineral 
acids) is necessfuy ; and in very obatiBate caae*, 
small doses (three to Sve minima, well dilated) of 
Fowler's Arsenical Solution may be {^*cn with 

LICHENIN is a starch-like body, found in 
Iceland moss and other lichens, froni which ii 
is extracted by digesting tbe moss in a cold, w«ak 
solution of carbonate of soda for mni ■ tame, and 



' thit piocen, the lichenia i 
no. utd ant " 

W|—i ■im CAonie, I860, ^i. S14), it aonieumei 
MnBC« a hlaiCy and smnetimea > greeDuh tint, 
wbe* tRsted with bodioe. la most M Ui ralatioiu 
it fwpoada with otdiuuy ■■^rch. 

|bat> of laaK U^i dtflerin^ io thii very i 
■■a fam^ Tnej are mort widely diffused, gi 

g nuunly of • Thallua [a. 

mi vithoat iteni uid leavea ; nbolly cellular, 
mA nmruhed throoj^ their whole lurfoce by the 
^ufiwu in which tbey lire, which i« air, and not 
vator. althoo^ ■ certain amount of moiitort in 
the air ia alwaya necenary to their active ntjwth; 
Md wbi^ tbe air becunua rery dry, they become 
ducBaat, ready to naama their nowth on the 
Btan <rf Don (aToanbla weather. The thalloe of 
turn* u palvonleBt ; that of others is cnutaceous ; 
<ri gthcsB, Ie«f-lika ; erf otliers, fibrous. Reproduc- 
tiaa taksa plaoa by spores, osualljr containad in sacs 
Mm, (icoF), embodied in repositories of various 
krak, ohm sfaieldlike or disc-like, called apoUteaa 
(k ahieldil. which arise from tlie outer layer of the 
*'■*"■—. and are geuerally very different in colour 
bsB the **■*""■ But there is also aouther mode of 
pnpmatJuD by goniiiia, separated oells of the ioner 
m mtiaHarj layer of the '"'H"', usually spherical or 
■tariy si^ ajid always of a green colour. This suems 
' ' 'a for the propagation of L., eren iu 

IB of the abeenoe of light — unfavuur- 
n of thecB and ^mres. L, are 
""'"""" "~ """1 very widely 
d, growing 
it refriuua. On 
A* atoaoat limita of TeKetation, iu veiy nigh lati- 
Mas, or on the very hi^iest mountains, they cover 
the sod in great — *■■— Some grow on earth, 
•tteiB on atoaea, others on the ba» of trees, and 
saBt of tbe tropical spedea on evergreen leavea. 
la the ftii al economy of nature, they serve for the 
' ' ■.-■.^--^ especially to 

d by miunte I>, which have be^nin to vege- 
tate wliere Dothing else could. The curiously scat- 
's of some present the appearance of 
'acten often seen on the bark of trees, 
a tnfla or shsf^ beards from old treea, 
imidst heaths and meases to cover the 
Mt frigid regiona L. contain a peculiar 
ivhataoce reaemUing starch, and rallul 
r Lidtm Slarti ; generally ^ao a bitter 
called Cttrarijn ; resin ; a red, bright 
ydnw, cr brown colouring matter ; oxalate and 
fh^itete of Hme, Ac ; and are therefore adapted 
t* pLTpu mm of dioneatie economy, medicine^ and 
the aita. Some are naed for food, as Iceland Moss 
^^ V. I aad Tript dt Roche U\. v.) ; some afford food 
ior attle, aa Reindeer Moss (q. v.); some are 
■ilsii it. aa Iceland Moas; some aSbrd dye-stuffs, 
■ Archil iq. ■*■). Cudbear (ij. v.), 4*. 

LTCHf IBLD. an ancient epiacoul city of Stat- 
liailsliiia. *?"g'"-^i a municipal and parliamentary 
h«aa^ aad county in itaell, ia aitoated 17 miles 
•Mb^east id StaAiid, and 1 15 north-weat of London. 
Ik «k^ «difiee is the cathedral, part oE which is 
* 1^ Evl7 F-«.gli«h itjle. It ha* three towers, 
Mck sBiBHMatad by a spire, and ia profuse and 
slahw^a a its oraameatatwu. Tba Free Grammar- 
timd, in *bic^ Addison, Aahinale, Joluson, and 
GMnk wae ediuated, lu« auiaaome of about £100 
a jm, ud baa nine exhibitiooa, tenable for three 

CCoosidenUe brewing is oanied on. Fop. 
L r^arma two meabM* to poiliameot 


LICINIUS, a Roman emperor. See ComTAN. 

LICTORa (according to Aolns Gellius, from 
ligart, to bind, because the lIctOTS bad to bind th* 
hands and feet of criminale before pn n ishing tben^' 
were, among the Romani, the official attendants 
of mupatratea of the highest rank. They carried 
the Ji^iacei (q. T.) before the magistrates, clearing 
tbe way, and enforoing the use of the appropriate 
marks of respect. It was their duty to execute the 
puniahntents ordered by tbe magistratea, such as 
scourging with rods, and bebeadiug. They were 
originally free men of tbe plebeian order, and not 
till the time of Tacitus could the office be held by 
iresdmen. Slave* were never appointed lictors. 

LIE. in point of Law, is not a ground of action, 
unless in peculiar circumstancea U, for example, it 
a materiu, and is utt«red by a witness or deponent, 
it is the criminal offence of perjury. Sometimes, 
also, if a person, knowing that another will act upon 
his information, tell a lie, and which is believed to 
be true, and acted on, and damage foQowa. the party 
telling the lie may be aued for the danugea. But in 
other cases, l^ne per tt is not- powsbanle by law, 
civilly or criminally. 

LIEBIO, Jcsms, Basoh voir, one of the greateat 
chemists of the present day, was bom at Darmstadt, 
12tfa May 1803. He early shewed a ttrons predileo- 
tion for natural science, fie studied at Bonn and 
Erlangen. and afterward* in Paris, where he attracted 
the attention of Alexander von Humboldt by a paper 
on Fulminic Acid. This led to bis appointment, in 
1824, aa Extraordinary Professor, and in 1S26, aa 
Ordinary Professor of Chemistry at Giessen, where 
he laboured with great activi^ for more than a 
quarter of a century, making that small university 
a centre of attraction to studenta of chemistry from 
all parts of Germany and from foreign countries. 
Many honoora wore eonferted on him. The Duke of 
H«ae raised him tn tbe rank of baron. In 1S52. be 
accepted a profeBsorsbip in the university of Munich, 
and the charge of the chemical laboratory there ; 
and in 1860 was appointed president of the Munich 
Academy of Sciences, aa tha successor of Thifflsch. 

L. baa laboured with success in all departmenla of 
chemistry, but particularly in organic chemistry, 
in which he has made many discoveries and done 
much to improve the metnods of analysis. He 
has investigated with great Care the rations o( 
organic chemistry to physiology, pathology, agricul- 
ture, Ac ; and although many of hi* viewa have 
been combated, and several have been abandoned 
by the author himself, it is, nevertheless, universally 
admitted that his researehea have gieatJy advanced 
the science of agricnilnra in particular. Many of 
his papers are contained in the ^BaoJen der Chaait 
und Pharmac't. He published Uie Werlerfnidt da- 
Chtme (Brunsw. 18.17—1851) io oonjunction with 
Pogzendorf, and also a Supplement to this work 
(1^1— 1S52), but the disooveriea of more recent 
yeois are exhibited in the later volumes. H« 
wrote the part relative to Oi^nio Chemistry in tha 
new edition of Qeieer's BaaJbudi der Pkarmadt 
(Heidelb., 1839), pnbtiBhed afterwords u Die Or- 
gmaKJu C/ifmU ia ikrtr Anmryidung anf PAjftiologie 
imd Palkoioyie, which was translated into French 
and Bngliah (1842). Hia work on Oroonie CAemiffr^ 
M its AppUottion Io AgriiMlturt (Brunsw. 1B40; 

OAaiueal LeUtn (Paria, 1802), aU of which have 
gone throuf(h numeroos editions, and have beea 
translated mto different language^ are among the 
moat valuable oontributions to chamioal literature 
which have been made in onr aoe. 



LnS'CHTEIf STEIN, the ■malleat principAlit; of 
the QeniuD ConfederatioD, hoa sd irea of only 60 
■qiure miles, with & pop. of 71S0. L. ia ■ moun- 
tamoui district, lying on the Upper Rhine, between 
Switierluid ud tba Tjrol, tbe latter boanding 
it to the N. and E., while .the Rhine forma iti 
weatem, and the canton of the QriBoog its toutbern 
boundaiy. It is divided into the diatricts of 
VaduU and Schellenberg, and the principal town 
ii Liechtenitein (pop. lOOO), formerly known aa 
Vadntz. The produt^t* are wheat, flax, and good 
wioes and fruit. Considerable Dumbeia of cattle 
are Taised, and game ia abundaol L., to(;etheT with 
■evetal other amall atatea, forma the Ifith member 
of the German Confederation, bnt in the Plamm, 
or full Council of the Diet, it has a eeparate 
vote. It fumiahea a contiogpnt of 70 men to the 
fe<leral annj. The Prince of L., whoae family ia one 
of the moat ancient and illuatrioiia of Central EurojM, 
poaseaaea extensive mediatised priacipalttiM in 
Auatcia, Prusaia, and Saiony, which together extend 
over an area of nearly 2200 aquare miles, with a 
population of more than 600.000, and yield their 
proprietor an annnal revenue of 1,4(IO,000 florina. 
The government of L, ia administered by the aid of 
a chamber of representatives, who meet annually to 
hold a diet, but whoae acta are uuder the control of 
a Council of State, which haa its seat at Vienna. 
where the prince usually reaidea. The revenue of 
L., indegiendentty of the mediatised poaaeesiona of 
the aovereien, amounta to 31,000 thalers. There i* 
no national debt. 

LiB'OE (so called in Frmch, but by the Oermana 
Liilticli, and by tlie Fleminga Luyti ia the mnat 
eaaterly province of Belgium. Area, II06 aquare 
milea ; pop. (1861) 630,308. The southern ptvt of 
the province ia hilly, rocky, heathy, and much 
covered with wood, in some places ^eldine, how- 
ever, great quontitiea of coal and iron i but the 
part called the Uemtland (north of the Weeze) is 
extraordinarily fertile and well cultivated, and haa 
also splendid paaturage for cattle; The valley of 
the Weeie is very beautiful, and exhibits an eadleaa 
divFiaity of aceoeiy. The railway from Aix-la- 
Chapelle to L., which passes through this valley, 
haa had immense difficulties to overcome in the 
nature of the ground, and ia consequently regarded 
aa a ehe/iroruere of the kind, ^iearly a siKth of 
the whole road had to be artificially constructed- 
The inhabitants are WaUoona. 

LiB'GE, capital of the province of the aame name, 
ia situated on the Menae, immediately below its con- 
fluence with the Ourtbe, in a mi^ificent plain. A 
hill rises on each aide of the city, one of which is 
occupied by the citadel. The river, which divides L. 
into two parts, the old and the new town, ia crossed 
b^ IT bridKea h. is said to be the moat pictaresque 
Oity in Belgium. Many of the public buildings are 
fine, eapecially the chnrches. of which the principal 
are the Church of St Jamea (founded 1014, finished 
1538), the cathedral (finUhed 1S57), the Churob of 
St Martin's, the Church of the Holy Crosa (oonae- 
orated 979), and 8t Barthelemy (which haa S uavea). 
The Palace of Jnatioe, with itt painting* and OO 
rooms — formerly tha reeideuce of the episcopal 
piinces of L.— and the Univeiaity, noted tor ita 
mining-achool, also deaerre mention. The general 
interior of the dty, however, ia by no means pleasant ; 
everything is blackened by the amohe of the coal- 
pits, which have been worked for SlK) year* ; the 
streets are narrow, the houaea high, badly aired, and 
uncleanly. The manufacture of arma la the great 
staple of industry. Ererywhetethehammeris heard; 
oountteaa forgea flash out their audden sparks, and 
vhole atreeta are ni wiUt the reflection of fires. 

party wh 

All kinda of ateam-machinery, locomotivea, steam- 
boate, tc. are miade here for Germany. In tfaa 
immediate neighbourhood are important iinc-foiin> 
dries. L. ia connected by railways with FnasTll 
Antwerp, Namiir, kc Pop. (1861) 96.307. 

L. became the Beat of a bishop in the 6th c, and 
continued to be ao till 17M', and its biabopa wo« 
i«choned among the princes of the Qerman empiie ; 
hut as it early acquired considerable magnitude and 
importance, its inhabitants maintained a itru;;;^ 
for their own independence againat their biahopa, 
in which frequent appeals were made to Jtrrua. 
During the warn of Ijoni* XIV., it was several 
ttmea taken and retaken. 

LIEGE POnSTIE. See Duth-bsd. 

LIE'GNITZ, a town of Pmasia, in tha govern- 
ment of Silesia, at the confluence of the Sdiwarz' 
waaser and the Katibach, 40 milea weat-Dorth- 
west of Breslau. It has numeroua educational and 
benevolent institutions, ari-collectiDna, and indoa- 
trial museums. Cloth, leather, and tobacco ars 
largely manufactured, and vegetables are exten- 
aively cultivated in the gardens of the subnrbs. 
This town was, from 1164 to 1GT5, the resideiice ol 
the Dukes of Liegniti. Here, in 1813, BlUcber 
defeated the Freo(£. Pop. 16,584, of whom about 
3000 are CathoUcs. 

LIEX, in English and Irish Law,msana the secaritj 
or hold over goods or land for a debt whidi ia due. 
A right of lien ia the right to retain gooda of a thini 
which are in the creditor's hands, nntil a debt 
auch party to tha creditor ia paid. Poaaee- 
Bion IB in gener^ enentiBl to conatitute a lien, for 
the moment the gooda are voluntarily parted with 
the lien is gone. Liens are general or particiilar. 
Thus, an attorney has a general lien over his client'a 
papers and title-deeds till the amount of hia bill at 
coat* ia paid. So have banhela, d^eis, calico- pin tera, 
factors. A particular lien is a lien over goods, for a 
debt contracted in reapect of such goods, as fur tii« 
^ce of them, or some labour expended <ki them. 
Thus, a miller has a lien on the flour he has gronrul. 
a trainer on the horse he has trained, tus. Ttere ars 
also maritime liens and equitable liens, which do 
not require possession to constitute the righL In 
Scotland, lien is generally called siUm Itotcntiaa 
(q.v.) or Hypothec (q.Y.). 

LIE'BRE, a town of Belgitun, in the mvnott of 
Antwerp. 10 mites south-east uf the dty of that 
name, at the confluence of the Great and Little 
Nethe. L. haa noted breweries ; eitenaive manu- 
factures of linen, silk, lace, and muiical jnatnUDeots 
are carrieil on, and there are several tn|pkr-refineriea 
and oil-mills. Pop. 15,000. 

LIEUTENANT (Fr. fnsn Lai loain-lanmt, 
holding the place of another], a term applied to a 
varietf of offices of a representative kind. Iliua. 
in mibtary matters, a Iieutrikint-0en<raJ peraonatrs 
with each division of an anny the generat-ia-chieL 
A LirtUtnaHl-cotonel (q. V.) commands a battalion 
for a culoDet, in the latter's abaence. But the title 
lieutenant, without qualitication, denotes ths secDod 
officer and deputy, or locum-tenena, of the captaia 
in each ounpnnjr of cavalry or infantiy. A lieuten- 
ant in the British Foot Guards tanks as i- t*.**^ in 
the army, and exchanges with a Aptain in aiiother 
regiment — Capfain-fieutenon/. an olsolete rank, was 
the subaltern who commanded the 'cokmel'a com- 
jNmy' in eauh rBgiment_A tKmid-lieulaiaM ia the 
junior anbnltem of a company, and cnrrespouds to 
an Enaign (q. v.). The pav of a lientenant vana 
from llta. 4J. a day in the Life Guards to 6a. fld. ia 



teitiiBB in an rt^»eel» emitajMMid to thoae of a ' coaaby. The graDtinv of money, and lands, aud 
■•aiB m the annj, wHh vhom he nuka, and with penriooa, of all ti^ea of boDaar ezoept simple kniglit- 
■ii^ ke also ocartj matclun in regard tu par. A hood, the appoiatmeot nf privy-connciUon, jiiiuei, 
i^^BaA'e full pay is 10k a day ; and hi* tuuf-paf law-officera, and goremon of forts, aad ttie appoint- 
napa, ■eoording to length of serrioes, from 4*. to ment to mihtary oommissioDS, are reserved to the 
•a a day. Six years' serrice afloat ant requisite to eoTereiga, actiD^ however, on the lord-Ueatenaol^a 
f^fifj aa officer for the rank of lientenan^ and the adTioe and recommendation. No oomplaint of inina- 
ladidato has alao ta pass a satiatBOtcry examination tice or opjireasion in Ireland will be entertained by 
■ — ■snstii|i and gensrsi professional knowledge, the sovereign antil first nude to the lord-lieiitenant. 
Is ka d i ts ia all minor caiterpsiaes, such as bcHit who is in no case required to execnte the royal 
ii|»diliiias. enttisg ont, Ac, lieotanants in war-time instmctions in a matter of which be may diup|>rove 
any off a wt of the laonla awarded to actions of until he can communicate with the BOFereif^n and 
asplar penooal daring | receive further orders. Yet, notwithstaodina the 

UHITEJANT, LORO-, 0» 1 Corarr, . p„ Uig^iJ "iJ.'"l»»'iMliWolM7 oSoi. Ih. loiflira- 
"" : . , "'"'^' "' r /^V li '^ I tenant »ct« m every matter of imnortance under the 

-.^pronneial governor appo.1,1.1 S "» •"» , din»t eontrol ol lie eabinel of Or^l Britain. The 
mbj patrat m Jir tie great "jJ- ™" ■«" " ™„ and opiniona of the oabinel on all the 

■ "^"t. i?* oecainraai com bsio | imp^^tant qneatioos ooouected with his oovemment 

"'j— ^i hi the orown "^o-ol danger or , ^l^^^^M lohimhytheHomeSeeretary, 
SSSS.'S'S^!* "^"St^M^™"!^ ' '^ " '»''' rea|»niiMe for the govemmenl of Ir^ 
Be M the mantiee to wmcn ine TOmmia i j^^ ^ jy^ whom it ie the duty of the liird-hen- 

S^ JITi "S^ l„^";.^ur^^ iS^ 1 1"^* ■« he in done eorreqxinden.4 , on matter, of 

^^ J L A "i""" D laaue Bucn comnuaaionB jgyg^u. 1,^ ^^^ ^ jj, eonatant oommnnication with 

S^ sv^R^^^r b^lS*^ :x ->^.y t^to'^-^'-tTthrLo'-ra^jo^!^ 

SJ**^. »t "" B«lo™t.™ by a declaratory act | ^ u/^^d^r of the F^^ His wOaiy is £20.000, 
TWlorf-^ten«.t " »°- J^ T^^L,}.^, '■ with a r«idence in Duhlio CaeUe. «wdl a. oneiS 
i^rtasstaave of the crow.^ who, on the oocasioi of , p^^^ p„^ ^^ ^^^^^ ^f ^^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ 
!!. ""S^ " ^^"L^ "^ to raise the ^ y^ ^ j^ f j^^ j^^ j^ ^^ B ^ 
:Srti^j:ST''%w"^ ^- 1Z^^ ^« ' >" ^eo. IV. c 7, a Roman Catholic is ineligiblJ for 
ore omuuMHma to offioeia. The history of the ^ lieutenancy of IreUnd. 
•^e aniia to have been somewhat similar in Soot- , «="i«>™"'.j ui utjukiu. 

^1 la act 143S c 3, the -lieutenant' is com- LIEUTENANT.COLOXEL, in the British 
Mill ml to 'raiae the county' whenever it may be j Army, is nominally the aeoond officer u are^pment; 
■^^uy to bring tlie rebellions and unruly uoa- i but virtually a lieuteoant-coloaei conunaiida every 
^HX> of caatls and fortalices into subjection: ' battalion of infantryandreaimeDtDf cavalry, tbepost 
nl tLaag^ hia pDveis were eiecuUve rather than ' of colonel being merely an honourable sinecure, wiUi 

j^ml, b« SB Bonetimea to have bad authority j usually £1000 a year attacheal, awarded to a general 

b Dociae the functions of the sheriff, or overrule officer. The lieutenant-colonel is responsible fur tha 
^ ill I ■iiiiia The lotd-lieuteuant of a county is at diBcipliiie of his battalion, the comfort of bis men, 
tb h^vl ol the inagiiliacy, the mihtia, aiid the ' and ultimately for every detail connected with their 
f ■■iiij : he Domiaatea officers of militia and , or^nisation. He is aniated in his dnties by tha 
idaat«erm, aad is the chiri executive authority, ' major. Id the artillery aud eogineeis, where the 
irmmg the Kttled channel of communication \ noK of colonel is a substantive rank, with taagible 
l»r»mi the government and the magistracy, and , regimental duties, the functions of lieuteuanticolond 
iiasiiliiiiil aa reapoouble in casea of emergency for are more hmiCed. one having cbar^ of ever; two 
Ik (nwrratioD of public tranquillity. Under him, I batteries of artillery, or two compauies of enRiaeers. 
acpsnaaeat depnty-lieutenants appointed by him. : The My of alieutenant-oolonel variesfram £i.9>.2(J. 

. . -._ , , .1. ■ ' I P*'' oiom in the Household Cavalry to 17<- in the 

UEUTBN AST, 1-oei>-, of Ibbaxd, the viceroy ^,„try of the line. Five years' r^imental service 
• imryo* the wvereizn to whom the government „ lieutenant-colonel entitles an ^cer to brevet 
•( Irdanri t* conunitted. The office has eiated ^ „„t „ colonel, which, whUe improving bis position 
b.. a remote pmod, the appointment ^ving been ;„ the army, dou not, however, affectTlia Stilus in 
Mde DDda- different dengnationa. His powers y, ^ment 

K'tilS'Laf?~t:7'f.n^g'5..'^"r.£;I-,l "TOTKKAKT-OliMEAIa 8« O^ui 

^ lord-Ueotenant resided htUe in Ireland, visiting Orwicsa. 

t fair OBce in two years, to hold the seaaion of i LIFE. In seeking a definition of life, it is diffi- 

Some lords-lieatenant never went to cult to find one that does not include more than 

at all. and oecasioiially, instead of a vicerov, is neceeaary, or exclude something that shonld 
. . T ■ 1 aptiointei be taken in. Richerand's definition of life, that it 


Inla^ at aU. and oecasumally, instead ol a viceroy, i 
hA jastieas taee Josncn, Lobm) were appointed. I 

TW Wd-liBCrtenaat ia ^igcdnted under the great is ' a collection of phenomena which succeed each 
^d si the United Kingdom, and bean the sword of ^ other during a limited time in an organised body,' 

me aa the •ywbol of his viceregal office. He has 
Ifca aanataaM of a privy-conncn ot 68 members. 


by the aavereigD, and of officer* of state. 
_ . 1 . . ^^^ ij,, peace, and the laws 

eqnally applicable t 

after death. According t. _ , _ 

refold internal movement of compoaitiDn 

inpaaition, at once general and continui 
of Ireland, 'and to see that jnstioe j Mr Herbert Spencer m his Prindplet 

■ Mfailiillj administered. Ha has the control of I well obaervea. tbia ooaception is in some respects too 
*■ fcHiet, and may isane orden to the ceneral I narrow, and in other respects too wide. Thus, it 
^^aawttwc the Inopa for the sapport of the civil ' eicludea thoae nervous and muscolar functions which 

Mhiiiil I. iTii pruteetiai of the pnblie, the defenee . form the most oonsnicuoua and distinctive classes of 
d Ae kiaglnBi, and the inppreaswn of insurrection, vital phenomena, while it eqnaUv applies to the pro- 
Ba Bay confer knif^thiood, and has the disposal of ceases going on in a living body and in a galvanic 
thvrh ta liuni ait (aioept biahi^ sees and dean- I battery. lOr Spencer (in IS52) proposed to define' 
wsB, sa well m all tbs othtr patronage of the j life aa 'the oo-ordinatioa of aetion^' but, as he- 




obiMTei, like the othen, tUe definitioD includes 
t K) mui^ for it nu^be uid of the eoW lyttem, 
with its regnlu-ly recatring tnovemeiitB and its 
Bvlf-balBiiiring pertiirlutioai, thst it also exhibiti 
co-onliDation Ot actioBB.' Hia present and emended 
eoniHtptiiin of life ia ; > The dennite cranbiiuition of 
heterogcoeotu cheona, both eimoltiuieoue end snc- 
cFMive, in correBpondeuce with eitemkl cu-^iistencce 
■nd sequeacca.' One of the latest deliDitioni of life 
i) that which haa been aoggeated by Mr Q. H. Lewes : 
* Life ia a aeriea of defioite and auecf'saive chances, 
lioth of atructure and compoaitioD, which take plAce 
within art individtial without deatro^og ita iden- 
lity.' Thia ia perhapa ea good a deAnition u haa yet 
been given ; but no one of thoae we have quoted 
ia niDre than approximately true, sad a perfect 
(leSuitioa of life aeema to be an imposaibility. 

LIFE, Mkui Dim&TiOH or. By this term is 
meant the average length of life enjoyed by a 
H^vea number of pcnona □[ the tame age. Suppoae 
we look at the Nortbamptou Table of Mortality, we 
tind that, of 363S Jieiaona aged forty, SSiiO reach 
fiirty-one, 3482 reach forty-two, and so on j the 
whi^e failing at ninety-aix. The average a^e then 
attained by the .IddS penona being Mcertained on 
these data, would be the mean duration of life after 
the age of forty has been reached. Suppoee, then, 
that a be the giveo number alive al a giren age 
l>y a given mortality table, and b the nnniber 
alive at the end of the tint year, e the namlier 
alive at the end of the aecond, and so on ; then 
Ihere die at the end of the first year, a — b ; and 
aunming that those who have died have, on an 
avenge, lived half a yew, the aggregate length 
•if life enjuyed by those who have died dnrinK the 
lirst yeiu will be \ia—b) yean; then b being 
(till alive, the a perBooi have enjoyed, at the end 
sf the first year. Ha — b) + b = 4(a + b] Venn. 
la the aecona year, the a penona enjoy t(o>-c) ; 
ID the tiiird, the e persona enjoy ((c4-if) yeora i 
Summing thesf, and dividing by the 
• of uvea, so ai ' . i .t 

; hence the rrile ; Add 

anginal nomher 
«verage, gives | 
the nuMtbere alive at each age above that given, 
divide by the number alive at the given age, and 
add hiilf a year. The mean duration of life at a 
eiven age is often called the * eiitectation <A life ;' 
but this it clearly a wrong term ta ana. 
Of lUOO Uvea at twenty, suppose £00 to 
reach forty-five; then a man aged twenty 
has an equal chance of reacliiiig forty- 
five^ and twenty-live J^ais would be ma 
eip(«tation of life. But it clearly does 
not follow that taking the 600 who have 
not n-oched twenty-nve, along with the 
BOO who have survived it, we should 
find, on extinction of the whole, that 
the mtan duration was twenty-five yean. It might 
lie either greater or lesa. The tenu ' expectation of 
life,' as guni^rally ap]>lied by assurance companies to 
denote mean duration, i> therefore a wroog one. In 
cniineotion with this subject, see Moktauit, also 

LIFE-ASSURANCE. See Insdbjjics. 

LIFE-BOAT, a boat adapted to 'Uve' in a 
atormy aea, with a view to the saving of life tram 
shipwreck. Ita qualities must be Duojrsncy, to 
avoid foundering when a sea is shipped; strength, 
to eacape destruction from the violence of waves, 
from a rocky beach, or from oolliaion witli the 
wreck ; facility in turning ; and a power of righting 
when ca]«iied. 

A melancholy wreck at Tynemonth, In September 
17811, inggMted to the subwriben to the Swith 

Shields News-Rxun, who had witDoased the destruc- 
tion of the crew one by one, that toms special con- 
BtructioD of boat might be deviaed for saving life 

from atranded vesaela. They immediately offered 
a premiom for the best lorm of life-boat j and tlia 
first boat built with the express object of saving Hie 
was that couatfucted on this occaaiun by Mr Henry 
Oreathead. It waa of gnat strength, having toe 
form of the quarter of a spheroid, with sides pro- 
tected and rendered buoyant within and without >>y 
the superposition ot layen of oork. So usefol was it 
in the first twenty'one vests after ita introductioii, 
that 300 lives were saved thniiigfa Hm instmmentalily 
in the mouth of the Tyne afane. Mr Greatlu.'iul 
received the gold medals of the Society of Arts ami 
Royal Humane Society, £1200 from parliament in 
1802, and a purse of 100 guineas from Lloyd's, the 
members of which society also voted iliSHM) to 
encourage the building of lifeboats on differeut 
parta of the coast. Although various otlier lite-boats 
have been invented from time to time, Greathsairs 
remained the general favourite until about the year 
1851, and many of his c 

of the coaat They faU«L 
however, occasionally ; and aeveral aad mishaps btf ill 
the crews of lifeboats, especially in 
in whicli twenty ] 

. luth Shields, in whic~h tweiitv pilota perishitL 
Upon thia the Duke of Northumberland offered a 
prize for an impraved coostmctiun, and numerniis 
designs were submitted, a hundred of the beat of 
which were exhibited in tB5l. Mr James Beecfaing 
of Varmonth obtained the award ; but his b<t\t 
was not considered entiroly satislactory, and Mr 
R. Peake, of Her Majesty's Dockyard at Woolwich, 
was intrusted with the task ot producing a life- 
boat which shoidd combine the best qoalities of 
the different inventiona His efforts were very 
successful, and the National Lifeboat InatitiitntD 
adopted his model as the standard for the boau 
they ahoiUd thereafter establish on the coasts. 

Sections of Mr Peahe's life-boat are ahewn Iwlow, 
one lengthwise through the keel, the other cro-n- 
wiso in the middle. A, A, are the thwarts ■m 
which the rowcn sit ; BB. a water-ti^ht deck, rain -l 
BuQicientty above the bottom of tiio lioat to t-? 
above the level ot the sea when the boat is loode I ; 
C, C, are air-tight chambers running along ea h 
side, and occupying from 3 to 4 feet at each en 1 : 

Kg. L— Seotion le^thi 

the buoyancy afforded by these more than snlli r-s 
to sustain the boat when fully laden, even if til"-.) 
with water. To diminish the liability to capsiie in 
a heavy sea, the life-boat has great beam (br«idt :| 
in proportion to her length, viz.. 8 feet beam to ^tO 
length- In addition, the bottom is almost flat. As 
in her build it lias been found convenient to dis- 
penao with cross -jiiecea, some means are requind U» 
proBcrve the rigidity of the whole structure omiil t'-.« 
buffetings of a tempest To achieve this, and al-<> 
to serve the purjioses of light ballast, Mr Peoke titli 
the space between the boat's bottom and the wst t- 
tight deck (BB) with blocks, tightly wedced tngeUi -r, 
of cork and light bard wood, D, D. Then woul'l 
form a false bottom, were a rent made in the ouU-r 
covering, and, by theiT comparative weight ci>a>i' 

teract in some degree t*"" ' — ' ' '" ' ' 

the sir-TeMeis, wtuch a 




Bntuli aorereisa uid gMrieon at Loadon. Tbey 
took their origin in two troops of horae-gnn&cliere 
raited respectivelj in 1693 nnd 1702 : tbeae troops 
wnre teilticed in 17S3, and reformed an rtgimenta nf 
Life riu-irdi. Although tuntJ]; employed ftbout 
the court and metroixilis, the Life Gnarda are not 
exempt from the liability to foreign aerrioe when 
requireil, having ilistiajniiahed thenurlvM in Qia 
PeDinanta and at Waterloo. The mea are all aix 
feet hit;h and upwanla, armed with iword and 
carbine, wear knee-boote. leather breeches, red coats, 
and Bteel helmeta. Thej' alao wear steel cuimasn, 
the utility of which ia considered very doubtCuL 
With this unwieldy armour, they require powerful 
hones, which arv uniformly blnclt. The two regi- 
tDents compriai.' 8T8 men, with 550 barseg, and their 
pay and pei»)iuJ aUowances amount (o £54,742. 

LIFE-PKESEHVERS, inventions for thepreaer- 
ration of life in cases of lire or shij)wreck. The tire 
life- preservers will be found treated of under Firb- 
BCA.PES. The otlivr class iDcludea the various con- 
trivancca tor pri'Sorvinf; the buoyancy ot the hninftti 
body, and for renchine the shore Of these, the 
readiiit and moat effective are empty water-casks, 
well t>Tinged-up, and with ropes attached to them 
to hold on by. It has been loand that a ■'W-gallon 
cask HO iirepared can support ten men conveniently. 
in tolerably stuDoth water. Cook's and Ilnilger's 
pntent life-mfta consist of square frames buoyed 
up by a cask at each comer. Among foreign 
nations, frames of bamboo, and inflated goat and 
aeal aluns, have been long employed as life-pre' 
aervers ; and in China, it is customary for those 
living on the banks of the canals to tie gonrds to 
their children, to buoy them up in case of their 
falling into the water. Since the introduction of 
uork. jacket) and l>c1te of that material in immense 
variety have been p.-itented. It has been calculated 
that one pound of cork is amply suSicient to support 
■ man of ordin^iry tile and mnke. A few years ago. 
on the invention of iiutio-mbbtr cloth, inflated belts 
of this material were made, and found to be superior 
in buoyancy to the cork belt, besides, when emptied 
of air, ^^fiu^ very portable. They are, however, much 

inore lishle to dama;^ by being punctured or torn, 

_ . remedied 

of the belt divided iiLto several compartments ; so 

ir to decay by being pit away while damp. Some 
' fl remedied by having 

and been fonnd very efTecti' 

the Gi«at Exhibition of IB31 having sustained 96 

eunds for live days without injury. But the 
rourite life-buoy among sailors is composed of 
slices of cork neatly and compactly arranged, so as 
to form a buoyant zone of about 30 or 32 inches 
in diameter. G in width, and 4 in thickness. It 
oanBi-<[Uvntly contains about IS lbs. of cork, and ia 
generally covered with painted canvas to add to its 
itrength and protect it from the injurious action of 
the water. A baoy so oonstructed can sustain six 
persons, and it is generally furnished with a li/e-UTie 
(a cord running round the outside of the buoy and 
hstened to it at four points] to afford a more conve- 
nient hold. This life-preserver is found on board of 
all vessels. 

LIFERENT, in Scotoh Law, means a right to 
•se a heritable estate for life, the penon enjoying it 
being called a liferenter. The rights of a liferenter 
nearly resemble, though they are not identical with, 
those of a tenant lor life- m England. See Lirk- 

LIFTS, ropes, on shipboard, for rainng or lower- 
ing and Duintaining in position the yards. They 

pass tram the deck over pulley at the maat-head, 
and thence to near the extremities of the yard. The 
lift bears the deeignation of the yard to which it ia 
attached, tt fare-lift, main-lop-gaUanl-mi, to. See 

LIGAMENTS are oords, bonds, or membiMiotia 
expansions of white fibrous tissue, which p1a7 m> 
extremely important part in the medtanism or joiDtB, 
seeing that they pau in fixed directions from ta» 
bone to another, and serve to limit some movements 
of a joint, while they freely allow othen. 

Todd and Bowman, in their Phynnlogieai A uatoimf, 
arrange ligaments in three classes : 1. Funiculm-, 
roun£d cards, snt^ as the external lateral ligameot 
of the knee-joint, the perpendicular Ugament eA the 
ankle-joint, &c. ; 2. ^aaeiciiliir, flattened bands, mote 
or less expanded, *uch as the lateral ligaments of tb* 
elbow-joint, and the great majority of ligamcnta in 
the body ; 3. Captalar, which are barrel-shaped 
erpansions attached by their two ends to the two 
bones entering into the formation of the joint, whicli 
they completely but loosely invest : they constitute 
one of the chief chanctera of the hall-and-socket 
joint, and occur in the shoulder and hip joints. Se« 

LIGATU'RA, an Italian term in Munc. mesniiig 

binding, frequently marked by a slur, thos . ^ 

which IS placed over certain notes for the purpwre of 
shewing that they are to he blended together ; if in 
vocal music, that they are to he sun^ with one 
breath ; also used in instrumental music, to mark. 
the phrasing. 

LI'GATTTRE, the term applied, in Snrgety, to 
the thread tied round a blood-vessel to stop bleed- 
ing. The ligatures most oommonly used conaut at 
strong hempen or silk threads j bnt catgut, horse- 
hair, &c, have been employed by some surgeons. A 
ligature should be tied round an arteir with 
sufficient tishtncaa to cut through ila middle and 
internal walls. Although the operation of tying 
arteries ns* clearly known to Rufus of Ephesos, 
who flourished in the time of Trajan, it SDhaeqaently - 
fell into desnetude, till it was rediscorered by 
Ambrose Pari, in the IGth century. 

LIGHT is the subject of the science of Optics 
Iq. v.). We here just notice its principal phenomena, 
and the hypotheses advanced to explain them. 
Every one knows that light diven^es from a luniui- 
oiu centre in all directions, and Uiat its tranamis- 
sion in onjr direction is tIraigU. It travels with 
great velocity, which was Gist ascertained, by obser- 
vations on the eclipses of Jupiter's satel]il«a, to be 
195,000 English miles in one second. Shadovrs (q.T.) 
are a result of its straight transmission ; and it 
follows from its diverging in all directions from 
a luminous centre, that its intensity dinunishea 
inversely as the sqoare of the distance from the 
centre. When it talis on the Sorfaces of bodies, 
it ia reflected from them, regularly or irt^[ularly, 
totally or partially, or is partly or wholly tnns- 
mitted or refracted through them. The phenomena 
of the reflection and of the nifnction of hght ors 
treated of respectively nnder the heads Catuotrics 
{q. V.) and Diopttioa {q. v.). The facte of obser- 
vation on which catoptrics is founded are two: 
1, In the reflection of light, the incident ray, the 
normal to the surface, and the reSccted n.y are in 
one plane ; 2. The angle of reflection is equiil to the 
angle of incidence. Similar to these ore the ^yvral 
laws on which dioptrics ia fonnded. Whea a ray 
of homogeneous light is inoident on a refracting 
surface, 1. The incident and refraat«d r»y lie in the 
same plane as the normal at the point of incideooe, 
and on opposite sidta of it ; S; The tiuci uf tlis si^ 



! of tike media bAween vhich the 
Es jdaoe. uid on the nature of the 
6^1. In Matiiu these lam, we have hinted at 
i^K bei^ of di&rent kindi. At one time, it was 
■at mnwuJ that ocdour bad anything to do with 
HfMi DOT, then is do anions dispute bat that 
tea an liriits of different oolonrs (see Ohkom- 
raa aad Spktrun), with different propertiet, 
IkiBpJi ftbvying the same general lawa. AinoDg the 
■^ striking pheoiBneDa of light are thoae treated 
rf ■sder tba bead Poumution {q.v.y. Next to 
tbMC in ioterot an the pbeuomeDa id double 
r^wsiao. See BirucnoN, DonLa. For an 
•eeasBt ut the chief diemieal propertin of light, see 
hwRMSArHY and STmotftUM. See also, for pheno- 
mm» aok wticed abore, the articles Abkbrattov, 
OawMACTmn, DisruwoK, liiTKaniutHO. 

T«T> hjpatheaca have been advanerd to explain 
tte di&nnt {^teooineiiB of light, ria., the theory of 

a depend on the velodty ol 

i that there are interstices in 
t bodies, to allow of the passa^ of the 
|Ktic)ea of light, and that theM particles are 
Mtrs<-t«d bj the molecules of bodies— their attrac- 
bs eombasinff with the velocity of the particles of 
IkU to onse them to deviate in their oourse. The 
taialatmr' theory aaaumea that lieht is propagated 
W ^ *ibt«tiuoa of an imponderable matter t«med 
A^T (q. T.>. On this view, light is somewhat 
' kr to auund {see lart RfEK BUCL). " 
mthi ■ ■' ■ 

, I nnduiatioDS has triumphed 01 
■a* su>^- Ita ■aondnesa may be said to rest on 
Mlsr erideiice to that which we have for the 
tkacy of gravitation : it had not only satiafaotorily 
■Maated for all the phenomena of light, but it haa 
Wa tbe ineaas ci diaEovering naa pheuomena. In 
ita, it baa supplied tha philosopher with the power 
tl uvm-ix ace in regard to its subject. Those who 
vii to atody the tbeoiT may advantageoiulj oon- 
«it its popular exposition by Toung {Ltclura on 
JTiAraf FMUtuopAg, London. 1845). and Lloyd's 
Waw nMiry of L^t (DubUn, 1856). The mathe- 
■atieai theiwy is very tidly investigated in Aiiy's 
Mtkrmmlieal TraeU. 

LIGHT. Inpointof Law, the right to light is one 
<4 the righta incident to the ownership of laad and 
hiaSLi . Wlten it is claimed in such a way as to 
■ Wi f m with a neidibaar'i absolute rights, it is 
aSed, in England and Ireland, an Kaaement (q. v.), 
■d in Scotland a Serritade (q. v.}. In England 
■d IrelaiHl. the light to light, as between neigh- 
han, ■ qoalilied in this way, and forms a subjeot 
"■ *" ' '" — te in towns and populous places, 

the edge erf his ground 
■1^ wmoows iDUHing mto B'a field ^~ "*"~ 
•tack is adjacent, B may next day, c 
stilhiB 9> years, mn np a house or screen close 
la A*! srindows, and darken them all, for 
m pod a right to build on his own laut 
^s. Bot 1! B allow A's house to stand 20 years 
¥lthiiiil bnildini^ B i* for ever after prevented 
li^ baHding on his own land so as to darken 
k"* B^ts, tar A then aoquirsa a prescnptive right 

Tl m iMi t over Fs Luda. In the Enmao law, 

a Bean was entitled not only to a servitude of 
■pt, bat also of prospect ; bnt in this coontiy ihs 

right of prospect, or of having a Hne view, is not 

recognised by the taw, except so far that the lights, 
after 20 years, must not be sensibly darkened. In 
Scotland, a servitude of light may exist in like man- 
ner, but it cannot be constituted except by HpeciJ 
grant ; whereas in England, if nothing is said, th« 
right is acquired by prescriptioD, or mere lapse of 
time. In Scotland, a naghbonr, B, may, after SO 
yeare, or any distance of time, build on his own land, 
and darken A's windows, provided he do not act 
wantonly, emulously, or so as to cauae a nuisance. 

LIGHTER, a large flat-bottotned barge or boa% 
usually projieUed or guided by two heavy osj^ and 
used for oonveying merchandise, coals, Ac, between 
ships and portiona of the shore they cannot reach bf 
~ oson of their drought. 

LIOHTFOOT, JoHS, one of the eadier Hebrew 
Bcholon of England, was born in 1602 at Stoke -upoD- 
Trent, in Staffurdahlra. He stndieil at Chrut'a 
College, Cambridge, and, aftar entering into orders, 
became chaplain to Sir Rowland Cotton, who, being 
liiin«»lf a good Hebrew scbular, inspired L. with » 
desire to become one also. la 16^, appeared his 
ifntMiin, or Miaerllania Chr'alian aiui Jadaieat, 
which were dedicated to Sir Rowlonil, who, in 1631, 
presented him to the rectory of Ashlev in Stafibrd- 
shira Subsequently, he removed to Lourioti, that 
he might have better opportunities for the prose- 
cution of his favoarito study -, and in 1642 h« 
was chosen minister of 8t Bartholomew's, to the 
parishioners of which he dedicated bis Handful 


who met at 

Westminster in 1643, aiid in the debate that 
took place there, betrayed a decided predilection for 
Presbyterian form of church government. Id 
Mme year, he was chosen Master of Cathoiin* 
Hall, Cambridge, and in 1665 vice-chancellor of th* 
UDiversity. At the Restoration, be oomplied with 
the terms of the Act of Unifi»7ni^. He died st 
Ely, December 6, 167S- At his death, he wit 
engaged on a Hamang. The first collected edition 
of L.^s works was pnUished in 16»i, in 2 vols, folio ; 
the beat, by the Rev. J. Pibnan, in 1822—1821^ 
in 13 vols. L was a very learned Hebraist for 
bis time, but h« was not free from the unscieDtifio 
Crotohets of the period, holding, for examjile, ttM 
inspiration of the vowe1-p(»nta, fto. He has dona 
gqod service to theoli^^y by pointing out and insiatiaK 
npoD the dose connoution net ween the Talmiidiciu 
and Uidroshio writings and the New Testament^ 
which, to a certain extent, is onl^ to be undetstood 
by illostrations from the anterior and oontempor- 
oneous religions hteratnre. 

LIGHTHOUSE, a hnOding on some eonsmca. 
ons point of the sea-shore, from which a light is 
exhibited at night as a golds to mariners. Light- 
bouses are of great antiquity, bnt they were long of 
an imperfect Kind, and only in recent times hava 
the systems of lightiog them been perfecteiL The 
most celebrated hght-house in snciene times was 
that erected on the island of Photos, at Alexandria, 
280 B.C., from which Pharos come to be a general 
name for a ligfat-boose, and still subsists in tha 
French Phart, 

There is no sorer test of the advance in civilisa- 
tion of any maritima ooontry, than an increoss in 
the niunber of ita hght-hoases. When we consider 
the amount of propertj eooatantly afloat around 
the ahoies of Bntom, ond Uw anniber of valuabla 
lives at stake, it seems hardly possible t 
estimate the importance of thntn ^ — 




vhich Bupptf, thoagh, of oonrae, in an extremely 
it-iperfect vky, the want oE the light of the iud. 
Tbe liffht-houses of the United Kingdom now num- 
ber, with hMbour-liffhta, upw«rdi of 400 Btation*, 
and include lome of the fineat Bpecimeos of engineer- 
ing, such ea Smeaton'i Eddyitone, Kabert oteven- 
•on'a Bell Rock, ALu Sterenson's iSkerryrore, and 
Jamea Walker's Bishop Rock. As informatiOD vill 
be found under their respective heads regarding lome 
of these intereBtine works, we shall restrict our- 
•clvea in the fallowing short memoir to the internal 
economy of light-hoiuea, and the moat approved 
means of prodacing a powerful light for the ma of 
the mariner. 

Caloptrie or R^jUcting Syttm. — So recently as the 
latter part of last century, the sea-lighta of Britun 
consisted of open coal-fires ; but this imperfect 
means of illuminstion was replaced by reSectora 
having lamps in their focL At Gnt, these iDstni- 
menta consisted of small facets of miiror-glaaa fixed 
in a mouid hy means of cement ; but reflectors of 
copper-plate faced with silver, and hammered to the 
proper forin, and Carefully polished, were afterwards 
mtrodnced. The parabolic form (see fig. 1). aa is 
well known, is the most correct for renecting the 
light proceeding from the focus and falling upon ita 

MT&ee into one beam i4 parallel nys. Whenaieriea 

of wch reflectors are arranged close to each other 
round a cylinder in a light-bouse, they illuminate 
conatantly, though not with equal intensity, the 
whole horizon. As the property of the parabolic 
reflector is to collect the rays incident npon ita 
surface into one beam of parallel rays, it would be 
absolutely impossible, were the flame from which 
the rays prooeeil a mathematical point, to produce a 
light which would illuminate the whole of the horisoa, 
onlesi there were an intinite number of reflectors- 
But ai the radiant, instead of bein^ a mathematical 
point, is ■ physical object, consisting of a flame of , 
Tory notable siie, the rays which oome from the 
outer portion of the luminous cone proceed, after j 
reflection, in such divergent directions, sa to render 
it practically posaible to light up, though uneijuttlly, 
the whole hori?J>n. The divergence produced m this 
way by a burner of one inch iu diameter, with a 
focal distance of four inches, is in the horizontal 

e' uie about 14° ^. The whole horizon may thus 
illuminated hy reflectors. 

If, for the purpose of distinction, it is desired 
to shew a mdeing light, then several of those 
reflecton are placed with their axes parallel to 
each other oo each of the facei of a four-sided frame, 
which is made to revolve. In such a case, the 
mariner sees a light only at those times when one 
of the faces of the frame is directed towards him, 
but at all other times be i« left in darknesa. The 
ntatien of the frame upon ita axil tltua produces 

to his eye a inccession of light and dark intcmtla, 
which enables him to diatingui^ it from the fixed 
light which is ootirtautly in view in every aaimatii. 
The distinctioQ of a red light is best produced by 
using a chimncyof red instead of white glaaa for 
each burner. The fiathing or scintillating light, 
which is one of the moat striking (if all the diitiDC- 
tions, was flrst introdaced by the late Mr Robert 
Stevenson, the engineer of the Northern Iig;ht- 
houses, in 1822, at Bucbannesi, in Aberdeenahir& 
The same engineer alao introduced what has been 
caJled the inUrmUteiit hgbt, by which 
frame with reflectors is instiuit»oeou 

and is again as suddenly revealed to ... .^ 

vertical movement of opaque cylinders in front of 
the reflectore. The intermittent is distinguished 
from the revolving li){ht, which also appearand die- 

~ *- '' '■ — ■■- "■- oddeDneai 

, .bTa> 
lights there la a gradual Wkxmg 
and waning of the light 

Dioptric ^ytfmt.— Another method of beading 
the diverging rays proceeding from a lunp into 
such directions as shall be useful to the mariner, 
is that of r^focIioB. If a flame be placed in the 
focus of a lens of the proper form, the divesving 
rays will be bent parallel to each other, so as to ^no 
a single solid beam of light So early as 1759. • 
Loudon optician proposed to rrind the glaas of the 
Eddystone Light-bouse to a^nticular form; but 
this proposal came to notbing, for the first light 
of the Eddystone conaistad uF a few wsx-candlea, 
placed upon a chandelier, without even so much aa 
a reflector of any kind behind them. U. Augustin 
Fresnel was the first to propose and to introduce 
leuticul&r action into light-house iliumination, by the 
adoption of the annular or built lens, which had been 
suggested as a burning instrument by BuSod and 
Condorcet He also, iii conjunction with Arago and 
Matbieu, used a large lamp having four concentrio 
wicka In order to produce a revolving light on the 
lenticular or dioptric system, a different arrani^ement 
was adopted from that which we have described 
for the catoptric system. The large lamp was now 
made a iixture, aad four or more annular lenaes 
were fitted together, so as to form a frame of 
glass which surrounded the lamp. When this frame 
u made \a revolva round the lamp, the nuriner 
gets the full effect of the lens whenever its aiii ia 
]>ointed towards him, but in all other poaitiona 
then is darkness. In order to operate upon thorn 
raya of light which passed above the lens, a system 
of double optical agents was employed by FresneL 
These (see hg. 2) consisted of a pyramii of Irnnos. a. 
with mirrors, b, plaued above at the pr^ier angle tor 


stop hert!, for, in order to make the lenticular 
system suitable for fixed as well as revolving light*, 
he designed a new optical agent, to which the name 
of cylindric refractor has been given. This cod- 
sisted of cylindrical lenses, which were the aoliJs 
that would be generated were the profile of an 
annular lens maile to cireulate round a vertical axis. 
The action of this iustroment is obviously to allow 
the raya to spread naturally in the horizontal plane, 
while they suficr refraction in the vertical plane. 
The effect of this instrument is therefore to shew 
a light of equal intensity all rouud the hotiwn, 
and thus to farm a better light than that whii:h 
was formerly produced for fixed ligbti by pan. 
bolic reflection. It i« obvious, however, from our 
description that the divernag rays which wen 
not intercepted by this o^indric hoop, or thaso 
which would have pMsad upwards and been nse- 
lessly ex[ieDded in illuminating the cltHid^ im 



_ . > lort t« Ute 

M^ to tEnder these eSectivB, Fremel nltunatelf 
idofited the ue of what hu been called the intenal 
* total nAectioD of gUv ; aad here it ii neo wt y 
n explain that ooe of the peat advanta^ M 
the letacia bj f^aw (Tver reHecbon by metal u the 
BuBo' qnaotit? t^ light that it aliaorbe. It hai 
Wa w ■ itiiiiiil that there ia a gain of almoct 
mf fnarth ('249| by employing glaM piiim* izutead 

and oatA in connection with the diagonal ftBisiill 
luoed by Ur Alan SeeveiuOD, it may be aaia 

the aecond 
rcSect, by 

[rat surface; 
other refrac- 
arallel with 
hoop. The 
IM thuB bent 
mt upww^ 

ii the moat 
Iraidal form, 


to be a perf ect appanLtos. In the figure, pahevtba 

- iuna and B. the cylindric refractor. 

From what has already been atated, it will be 
readily seen that, in lo far a* regards Gied lights, 
which are required to illiunioate the whole of the 
horizon with equal inteniity, the dioptric light of 
freanel ia a perfect inatrnmeot. Bat the caae ia 
otherwijw *■ regards revolring lights, or thoee whei* 
the whole rays have to be concentnted into one 
ore beams of parallel raya. To revert to the 

, tolic reflector, it mnat be obvious (see fig. 1) that 

every ny which escapes past the lips of the reflector 

-■ reaches the eye ot the manner, while, ii we 

_.. n to the diop^c revolving light of Fresnel, 
we find that thnee rays which escape past the lena 
are acted on by two agents, both of which cause losa 
o( light by absorption. The Ion oocawoned by Uis 
inclined mirrors (see fig, 2), and in passing through 
the pyramidal inclinra liensea, was estimated by 
Fr«enel himself at one-half of the whole incident 
In order to avoid this loss of light, Mr 
Thomas Stevenson proposed, in 1519, to introdace aa 
*. 1 — ^i,:„k..i „f ~ _* »i A. 

is avoided, sod the empioyment of total reflection, 
which had been Hucce«fiuty employed by Freanel 
for fixed lighta. wsa inb«duced with great adrantagi 
' revolviog lighta. 

This effect may be produced by tlw eombinkluia 

Fig. El 

innlar lent, L (fig. 5) ; a pazabc^o oonmd, a, 
d at its parameter, or between that and ita 
Tertm ; and a portion of a spherieal mirror, b. Tha 
lena, when at ite proper focal distance from the flams, 
•ubtBuds the same angle from it aa the outer lips of 
the paraboloid, so that no ray of light coming from 
the front of the flame can esoaps being intercepted 
either by tha paraboloid or the lena. The spherical 



flune ia at mice in the centre of the spherical mirror, 
and in the common focui of the leiu and paraboloid. 

Let US DOW innpoee, aa repreeented in the figure, 
that the poraliolic conoid ii truncated at the para- 
meter ; the whole Buhere of ra;« emanating from 
the flvne may then be regarded >■ divided int ' 

mode parallel by ita action, 
intercepted by the paraboloidat inrface, and mode 
parallel by itn action. The rayi forming the poete- 
rior heroispbere fall on the gpliericaJ mirror whind 
the flame, and are reflected forwards again, through 
tbe focua in the tame li"<»if, but in opposite direc- 
tion! to those in which they came, wnenee paaiinE 
onwards, they are in port refracted by tbe leas, and 
the rest are made parallel by tbe paraboloid. The 
back rays thna fiooUy emerge horizoatollj in union 
with the light from the anterior hemisphere. This 
instrument, therefore, fulti!s the oecesanry conditions, 
by collrctiag the entire ip/iere of divrrginn rays into 
one btam of paralUl raya without employing any 

The deacription given above is for a metallic 
holophote ; but where total reflection, or the most 
perfect tnttem of illuminatiou, ia adopted, the front 
bolf of the rays is operated npoo by totally reflcct- 
btg priumi {p, p, fig. 6), similar in section to those 

' be readily wen by comparing ^ T and Rg. 2, in tbs 
former of which, one agent is enabled to do the 

I work of two airenta in 

tbe latter, while total 

reflection, or that by 

which least light is 
; lost, is sabstituted for 
[ metallic hy which one 
, half of the whole 

incident rays are ah* , 

j Borbed. The dioptrio 
[ bolophotal system, or 
I that by which tolal 

reJlectifiR is uaed at a 

portion of Ike rrvolving 

apparatut, was first 

employed on a small 

scale in 1350 at | 

the Har«bnrgb Light- 
house, and on the large 

scale in 1S51, at North 

Ronoldahay in Orkney. 

Since that date, this 

system has been all 

but universally intro- 
duced into Europe and Rg. 7- 


aimded by Fiesnel for flied lights ; hot instead of 
being cnrvillDear in the horiiontBl plane only, they 
are also curvilinear in the Tertical plane, and thus 
produce, in nnion with an annular lena. a beam of 
parallel nys. similar to what is effected by the 
parabolic mtrrar (fi^ 1). The rays procteiling back- 
wards fall upoQ pnema, ab, ah, which produce two 
total reSections upon each ray, and cause it to pass 
back through tV flame, ao aa ultimately to fall in 
tbe proper direction upon' the dinptrio holcphota 
in front, bo that the whole of the light procmling 
from the Same is thus ultimately parallelised hj 
means of the Bmalleat number and the beat kinds 
of optical agents. It ia a remarkable property of 
the spherical mirror, oi, that uo ray posses tknyugh 
it, ao that an observer atanding behind the instru- 
ment perceives no light, though there is nothing 
between him and Uie flame but a soreea of 
transparent glass. 

Where the light is produced by a great central 
■tationory burner, tiie apparatus assumes the form 
(fig. 7) of a polygooot frame, which dreulatea 
round the Same, and each face of which prodncee a 
beam of parallel rays. Hence, when tbe frame 
revolvea with uniform rapidity round the centra! 
flame, the mariner is alternately illaminated and 
left in darkness, aooording aa the axis of the holo- 
photea ia pointed towards him or from him The 
difference between the revolving light of Freanel 
■nd the holt^lotal light, as it hai been termed, will 

Aamvtiial Condmnttg Light.— The above ii a 
description ot the general principles on which liirhl- 
houses are illuminated In plocmg a light in Bonie 
situatiouB, regard, however, must be had to the 
physical peculiarities of the locohty ; the following 
two plana of Mr Thonuw Stevenson may be cit«d u 
examples. In fixed lights of the ordinary coDBtruc- 
tion, the light ia distributed, as already explainaf, 
equally all round the horizon, and is well adapted 
for a rock or island situated in tbe middle of tJi« 
ocean. But where it ia only necessary to illumia- 
ate a narrow sound (fig. 8), it is obvious Uiat the 

«(. a 

requirements are very different On the ride next 
the shore, no Ught is required at all ; acroes tbe 
sound, a feeble light is all that is necessary, becauM 
the distance at which it has to be seen is small, 
owing to the narrowness of the channel ; while os 
(DC) and down (AA) the sound, the sea to be Ulum- 
inated is of greater or lesser extent, and requirei 
a corresponding intensity. It the light were maH* 
sufficiently powerful to answer for the greater dis- 
tance, it would he greatJy too powerfnl for the 
shorter distance acroes the sound. Such an arranLV- 
mcnt would occaaion an nnneocesary waste of <>il, 
while the light that was cast on the landward side 
would be altogether useless. Pig. 9 represents (in 
plan) the condensing hght, by which lA« (iffAt /imnf.;- 
ntgfrom Ae flame u aUofalA tn lAe d^-^viU azimv'hi 
in proportiait (o tht distaitcet at which the Uiihl rrrpiim 
to bt tern by the mariner in those laimutikt. Let ui 
suppose that tbe rays marked ■ require to he awn 
at the greatest distance down the sound, and th<Dw 
marked S to a somewhat smaller diataiice up the 
sound. In order to strengthen those area, the ajioia 
light proceeding landwatda, which would othmnM 
be lost, ia internepted by poitioiu of holophotea, 


mi C, nbtcnding (pfaerioal ftngle* proportiaiud to 
tka rdAtiTa nagn and aoEulu ipcoel of tbe ucs 
■ nd /L Tbe pgrtioni 01 l^ht thni iotorcepted 


It baa been called an apparent lights from its 

appearing to proceed fnun a flame on tbe rock, 

while tbe light in reality proceeds from the ihoFe, 

about GW feet diitaat, and ia refracted hf 

glaaa prisnu placed on the beacon. 

Sounxt nf Light— Drumvumd Lightr—'The 
deacriptioni which have already been given 
have all bad reference to the beet meana of 
eiiipIo3riDg a given light. Many attempts bavo 
from time to time been made to increase tha 

EDWer of tbe radiant itself — eucb as com- 
oatjon of tbe limeball, when eipoaed to a 
flow uf oxyoen and hydrogen gaa. When this 
MQTce of Lgbt is placed in the focus of s 
pusbola, as was proposed by Lieutenant 
Dnimmond, a Tery intense beun of parallel 
ntys ia prodaced. The dilEaulty of maintain- 
ing continunna combustion has hitherto pre- 
vented its adoption in li<;ht-hantoa, altboudi 
recent improvementB have rendered tMs 
method mora feasible than formerly. 

Magntto-rleelrie LighL — The electric light 
discovered by Dr t'araday, and recently 


[ by the holophotea, and faQ upon 
the pti ama a, a, and h, b, reapectively, which anin 
iriiart tbem in the horiiontal plane only ; and, uter 
faasBg ttuvngh focal points (independent for each 
(tan), bbey emersa in separate equal beams, and 
ineq^ thitHifijh the same angles as ■ and ^ reapec- 
nvdy. In this way, the light proceeding up and 
iava tbe sound is sbcngtheQed in the required 
nda W utilising in the manoer we have described 
tfe lif^t, which would otherwise have been lost on 
tlie UniL These ioatnlments were first introduced 
St thne soond light* in the west of Scotland, in 
US7. where ■{>paratas of a small size, cuuibineJ 
witb a unall bnmer, was found to produce in the 
(■Ij dircctiona in which great power was required, 
laKas of light eqnal to the largest class of apparatus 
d bm-ner. The saving thua effected in oil, he, has 
'it about £400 or £000 per anni 


LrwAt. — At Stomoway Bay, the pocition 
ick has been anfficiently indicated by 

a of n bom of p*"""^ "J* tAroum from the 

dUr* npon Certain optical apparatoa fixed in the 
ky el n bfoon eieeted npon the rock itselL By 

■^ (^ tUa plan (vide flg. 10), tha expense of 
■M^ a Uairt-bonaa os) the tdi^ itself has been 
Md, wd sQ the p o rpoae* of the mariner served. 

nnder the auapices of the Trinity House of 
London. Although it ia undentood that 
sanguine hopes are entertained of its being 
rendered practically efficient, it has not yet 
been brought t« th^ state of perfection which 
would warrant its general adoption. 

Gat. — The uncertainty and other objections 
attending the mannfaoture and use of gas in remote 
and inaccessible places, have as yet prevented its 
adoption at light-house stations, but it has been 
successfully us^ at many harbour- lights. 

OtJ.— The oil which is now employed in Oreat 
Britain is that which eoea by the name of coUa, and 
the quantities anDually consumed by the Northern 
Light-boosea may be stated at 40 gallana for an 
argand one inch in diameter, and 800 gallons for 
the fonr-wick burner, which ia used in dioptrio 
lights of the first order. 

VitibUilf of LighU.- — The distance at which any 
lu{bt can be seen, of course depends on the height 
of the tower, and varies with the state of the 
atmoaphere. Tbe greatest recorded distance at 
which on oil-light baa been visible is that of the 
bolophotal light of AUepey at Travancora. which has 
been seen from an elevated situation at a distance 
of 45 miles. The bolophotal revolving light at 
Baocolieu, in Newfoundland, is aeen every night 
in dear weather at Cape Spear — a distance of 40 
nontical tnileo. 

Pomrr of Light- AouK Apparal'^.— Tbe reflector 
(26 inches diameter) used in the Northern Lig^t- 
hoases, with a burner of one inch diameter, has 
been estimated as being equal to about 3611 orgsni 
flomea. The cylindric refractor, used in fiied lights, 
with a 4-wick burner, has in like manner beeo 
estimated at 260 ; while the annular lens employed 
in revolving Itgbto, witt) the same burner, is equal 
to about 3000 argand flames. 

Jdmiaiatration.— The licht-houses of the United 
Kingdom are managed by the three following 
boar^ : via., the English, by the Trinity House 
of London ; the Soot^, by uie Commissinnera of 
Nortbem Light-honsee ; and the Irish, by the 
Ballast Board of Dublin. The Merchant Shipping 
Act of ISM provides that the Scotch and Irish 
boards shall receive the sanction of the Trinity 
House before tbe erection of new light-houses; 
while sll tiie three must receive the sanction of 
the Board of Trade both as to new lights and ths 
expenditure of thcdr funds, the soorce of wbiuh ii 



a frequent than forked- liJJitiiiiig. 
third kind ii called boll-lightning 
Oer. Kugrlblitz). This to-called 

LIOHTKIVG (Fr. Mair, Oer. Blib). the name 
gJT«n to the sudden diBokarge of elactriciCy between 
one group of clouds and another, or between the 
claui& and the ground. It ii eweatiallj the ume, 
though on a much grander scale, us the spark 
obtained from ma electric machine. Clonds charged 
with electncitT are called thunder^clouds, and are 
easily known by their peculiarly dark and dense 
sppearanosb The height of thunder-clonds is very 
Tarious : aotnetimea they have been aeen ai high as 
29,700 feet, knd a thunder-cloud is recorded wluwe 
height was ouly 89 feet ^>ove the ground. Acoording 
to Arago, there are three kinds of lightning, which 
he names lightning of the first, second, and third 
classes. Liuhtniog of the first clus is familiarly 
known as tarked-liffhtnin^ (Fr. tclair en tig-zag). 
It appeatH aa a broken line of light, dense, thin, 
and well detined at the edgea. Occamnnally, when 
daitmg between the clouds and the earth, it breaks 
up near the latter into one or two foi^ and is then 
called bifurcate or trifureate. The terminations of 
these branches are sometdmee several thousand feet 
from each other. On several occaaiona, the length of 
forked-lightning has been tried to be got at trigono- 
tnetrically. and the result gave a length of several 
miles. Lightning of tlie second oUas is what is com- 
manly called sheet-lightDing (Qer. Flaehaibiils). It 
haa no definite form, nut seemB to be a great mass 
of light. It has not the intensity of lightning of the 
fliet class. Sometimea it is tinged decidedly red, at 
other times, Uue or violet. When it occurs behind 
a cloud, it lights up its outline only. Occasionally, 
it illomiaes the world <rf donda, and appean to 
comefoi- ' ■' " ^ "" - -- -^'-- -- 

Lightniug of the third 
(Fr. fffoiM <U /™, Oer. Kugrlblitz). 
lightning describea, perhape, more a meteor, which, 
on rare occasions, aocompaniea electric diaeharge. 
or lightning proper, than a phenomenon in itself 
electricaL It is asid to occur in this way : After a 
violent exploaton of lightning, a ball is seen to pro- 
ceed from the region of the eifdosion, and to make 
its way to the ei^th in a curved line like a bomb. 
When it reaches the ground, it either splits up at 
once, and disappear!, or it leboands like an elastic 
ball several time* be(ar« doing so. It is described as 
being very dangerous, readily setting fire to the build- 
ing on which it alights ; and a lightDing-conductor 
is DO iirotectioD against it, Ball-ligbtniiig last* for 
sevenu seconds, and, in this respect, dinun very 
widely from lightning of the first and second rlssnns. 
which are, in the strictest sense, momentary. 

The thunder (Fr. lonnerre, Ger. Dminer) whioh 
accompanies lightning, aa well as tha sn^> attending 
the dectric spark, has not yet been satiafactorily 
accoDuted for. Both, no doubt, arise from a oommo- 
tion of the air brought about by the passage of ideo- 
tricity ; but it is difficult to undBratand how it take* 
plaoe. Suppoae this difficulty cleared, there still 
remains the prolonged railing <x the thunder, and its 
strange rising and ulling to account for. The echoes 
sent between the clouds and the earth, or between 
objects on the earth's surfaoe, may explain tbia to 
aome extent, but not fully. A penoa m the imme- 
diate neighbourhood of a flash of lightning hean only 
one sharp report, which is peculiarly sharp when an 
object is struck by it. A psison at a distance hean 
the Mate report aa a prolonged peal, and penons in 
different sitDations hear it each in a different way. 
Tha may be so far exjdained. The path of the 
lightning nay be reckoned al one or two miles in 
l^gtli, and ^ch point of the path is the origin oi a 
separate sound. Suppoae, for the sake of simplicity, 
that the path is a straight lia«, a peivon at the 
extremity of this line must hMtr a prolonged report j 

for though the sound onginatiiig at eadi pant M 
the path is produced at the same instant, it ia aome 
time before the suimd coming fmn the more diatant 
points of the line reaches the ear. A pcrvon Dear 
the middle of the lino hear* the whale less prolonged, 
because he is more equidistant from the different 
parts of it. Each listener In this way hean a differ- 
ent peal, according to the position he stands in with 
reference to the line. On this suppcaition. however, 
thunder ought to becin at its loudest, and gradually 
die away, because the sound comes first from the 
nearest pointa. and then from points more and mora 
distant. Such, however, it is well known, is not tba 
case. Distant thunder at the beginning ia inat 
audible, and no more ; then it gradually swells into 
a crashing sound, and again grows fainter, till it 
ceases. The rise and fall are not continuous, for the 
whole peal apjKian to be made up of several auocea- 
Btvc iKsls, wiuch rise and fall aa the whole. Some 
have attempted to account for this modulatiori from 
the forked form of the lightuing, wbioh makea ao 
many different centres of sound, at diS^nt angles 
with each other, the waves coming from which inter- 
fere with each other, at one time moving in oppo«t« 
directions, and obliterating the sound, at another in 
the same way, and then strengthening the aonnd, 
produced by each. Iliunder has never been heard 
more than 14 miles from the flash. The re{Hirt of 
artillery has been heard at much greater distancefl. 
It is said that the cannonading at the battle of 
Waterloo was heard at the town of Creil, in Uia 
north of France, about 116 miles from the field. 

nrrre, Oer. Blitzableitfr), The principle of tba 
lightning-conductor is, that electritity, of two 
condnctiag pssSBga, selects the better; and that 
when it hss got a sufficient conducting j 

he holds in his hand a ball, connected with tha 
pDund by a witw or chain, the above sensation 
IS Bcaittely, if at all, felt, as each spai^ oceara, 
for the electricity, now having the hall and wire 
passage to the ground, prefere it to the leas con- 
ducting body. If. instead of a ball, a pointed rod 
were used, no sparks would twu, and no sensatioa 
whatever would be felt. The point silently dis- 
charges the prime conductor, and doea not allow the 
electricity to accumnlate in it so sa to produce a 
spark; and the qtiantitypassing at a time, evm mp- 
poaing the rod lUsconnected with the ground, is not 
sufficient to affect the nerves. If, for the prin>e con- 
ductor of the machine, we substitute the thnnder- 
clouda ; for the body, a building ; for the conTuIaiva 
sensation, as the evidence of electric power, heal- 
ing and other destructive effects ; for the ball, or rod, 
and wire, the lightning-conductor, we have the same 
conditions exhibited on a lai^er natural pctie. It 
is easier, however, to protect a building from the 
attacks of lightning than the body from the electric 
spark, aa the rod in the one case ia a much better 
conductor, compared with the building, than it ia 
oompared with the bod^, and, in consequence, more 
easily diverts the electricity into it. 

The lightning-conductor consists of three parte : 
the rod, or part overfopping the building ; the 
conductor, or part connecting the rod with the 
ground ; and the part in the ground. The rod ia 
made of a pyramidal or oonical form (the latter 
being preferable), from 8 to 30 feet in height, 
secnrely fixed to the roof or highest part of tha 
building Oay-Lassae proposes t^t this rod abooM 
conaiat, fo* the graater part at its length bdow. U 




bwag iHotnred. with ta roundiiis aoenery or objeota, 
dniing thnndsr-itoriiu. One object very fceoersUy 
■poken of m being printed is a aeigliboiiring tree. 
Thifl may be icaooDted for by (uppoeiag that the 
lit{htDing-diachar|ie has taken plaoe on &e ikin in | 
the tonn of the electric brash (aea Electbicitv), 
whieh haa the itroDgeat pauible reeamblance to 
a bee, and that thi* being in totne way or other I 
iaprinted on the akin, haa led obeerrera to con- ' 
foand it with a neiahboDhng tree. Of other printa, 
it wanU, be diScoft to fpt» a aatiataotory aooount. 
However, obeerma ha*e done tnmetbtiig in imita- 
tiou of them. It baa been ahewo, for iiutance, by 
Oennan obeerrera, that when a ooin ia placed on 
glaai, and a atream of aparka poured on it from a 
powerful electrical niaenine, OQ the f[laaa being 
breathed u^, after ita removal, a diitinct iniaee 
of the coin ii traced out by the dew of the bt«atb. 
Mr TomLnson, by interpoaing a pane of glaaa 
between the knob of a chargeii Layden jar and 
that of the diachargtng-tonga, obtained a perfect 
breacA-jiijupe of the diacharge on each aide of the 
glaas, which him tha moat itrikinE reaemblance to 
a tree. With all due aUowance far the probable 
printing-power of lightning, the acooanta given of 
it, in moat oaaea, bur the itamp of eia^entian ; 
and luch of them aa have been inquired into have 
been found to dwindle to a Tet; amall reaidanm 
of fact, in which there remained UtUe that w»i i 
wonderfoL ! 
LIQHTB, Us« at, in Public Wobshit, a practice 
which prevailed in the Jewiah (Eiodua nv, 31 — 30) 
and in moat of the ancient religions, and which ia 
retained both in the Boman and in the Oriental 
churchea. The nae of lighta in the nisht-aervicea, | 
and in subterranean cbuichca, auch aa thoae of the , 
early Christiana in the catacombs, is of counie easily 
iotelligilile ; but the practice, aa bearing also a 
bolical alloalon to the ' Light of the Worl ' ' 
the ' Light of Faith,' waa not confined to 
of necessity, but ajipears to have been from an early 
time an accompaniment of Christian worahip, eape- 
dally in connection with the sacraments of baptism 
and the enchariat. The time of the service in which 
lights are used has varied very much in different 
It Jerome speakaof it only during the readiog 

ia inaolnble in water, aloohol, ether, and dilate adda, 
and ita chief chemical characteriaiic is, that it ia 
more readily soluble in «lV«liTin liqnida than celln- 
loae. Ita exact compoaitian ia uncerC^n, but it ia 
known to constat of carbon, hydnwen, and oiygeOa 
and to differ in ita oampoaibcm frum celluloae io 


from the goapel to the end of the canon ; and c 
oaUy it waa extended to the entire time of the 
nusa. In other servicea, also, ligbta have been used 
from an early period. Lighted tapera were placed 
in the hand oC the newly baptised, which Bt Qregoiy 
Nazianzen inteipreta oi emblems of future glory. 
Indeed, in the ttoman Catholic Church, the moat 
profuse use of lighta is reserved for the aervicea 
connected with that aacrament. The usage of 
bleaaing tiie Paachal Light ia described elsewhere. 
See Holt Week. The material used or lights in 
obnrchea it either oil or wax, the latter ua peni- 
tential time, and in aervicea for the dead, being of 
a yellow colour. In the Anglican Church, candle- 
sticka, and in aome instancee candles themselvea, 
are retained in many churches, on the oommunion 
table, but they are not lighted. The retention of 
them ia greatly favoured by the ' High Chnrch ' 
party, and much disapproved by the ' Low Chnrch ' 
or 'Evangelical' party. In the PreabjrteHon and 
Independent churches of Britain, Amenu, Ac, tbe 
aymbolical uae of ligbta and candlesticks is rejected 


aubmitted to deatructive distillation, it yieldi acetie 
acid ; and that it ia the aourca of the pyrcJigneooa 

. acid (which ia merely crude acetic acid) obtained by 

[ the deatructive diati|latton of wood, is proved by the 
(act, that the hardeat woods (those, namely, which 
contain the greateat proportion of lignine) yield the 
largest amount of acid. Lignina ia identical with 

' the Tnatiire inenutanU of Fayen and other French 

I botanitta. 

tIGNITB, fosail wood imperfectly mineraliaed, 
and retainiog itA original form and structure much 
more completely than the trul^ mineral coalt, and 
therefore not improperly descnbed aa intermeitial* 

I between peat and cooL Brmon coal, Surtxrhrand, 

' and /rf, are generally regardedaa varieties of lignite. 

j The foaatl plants of lignite are always terteatrial ; 

I polma and cooiferoua treea are amongst tbeoi. 
Remains of terreatrial >n«mTnn]i> are uao found 


LI'OKUH RHOrDIUM, a kind of wood which 
occurs aa an article of commerce, having a pleasant 
smell resembling the amell of roaea. It ia brought 
to Europe in strong, thick, and rather heavy pipce^ 
which are cylindrical bnt knotty, and sometimes 
split. They are externally corered with a cracked 
gray bark ; internally, theyare yellowish, and ofteo 
reddish in the heart They have an aromatic 
bitterish taste, and, when rubbed, emit an i^reckble 
rose-tike smelL Thia wood comes from the Canaiy 
Islands, and is produced by two shrubby and er«ct 
special of CoHmlmiliu, with amal! leaves, C, ico/ia- 
rnu and C. floridta. It ia the wood both ti the 
root and of the atom, bnt the latter is raUier interior. 
An essential oil (Oil qf L.R), having a stmif^ smell, 
is obtained from it by distillation, and is used for 
aalvea, cmbrocationa, tc, and alwi very frequently 
for adulteration of oil of roBML—Besidaa this L. K. 
of the Canary Islands, on American kind ia alao a 
common article of i 
the Amj/ria hattatH\fera, a natii 

f'elds an essential oil, very similar to the former. 
be L. R. of the Levant is now Bcarcely to be met 
with in commerce. It ia the produoe of Lvfnad- 
ambar OrimUxU. From this, however, the nnina 
haa been tranifeiTed to the other kinda. 

LI'Gy nH-yiT..«, the wood of Quaiaatm ogiei- 
ttaZefnab. ard. Zyqophyllacta), and probably of loiiM 
other speciea. nativea of Jamaica and St DomiogOt 
The hardness and exceeding toudineaa ofthii 
very useful wood waa shewn 1^ Profesaor Voigt 
to depend upon a very peculiar interlacing of the 
fibrea. The beart- wood, which is the part naed, ia 
vecy dense and heavy, of a dark, grc«insfa -brawn 
colour, rarely more than 8 inches in diameter ; tbe 
atam itaelf seldom reaches 18 inchea in diameter, 
and growa to the height of about 30 feet^ The wood 
ia much valued for making the wheels o{ puUt-ys 
and other amoll articlei m which hardocas and 
toughneaa are required ; laiga qnantitiea are cuo- 
snmed in making the aheavM (tee Pullkt) of ahir^ 
blocka Besides these naea, tha wood, when redncwd 
to fine shavings or raninn the b^, and also a 
gieemah resin which exide* (rom the stem, ara nncli 
used in medicine, being rupuded as having powerfwl 
anti-ayphititio and anli-r£eillMti« pr<tptttitu. ,\^ 



irSWY, % TiDaga in Bclgnmi, in tin provinee of 
MBK aboot 10 mUm nortli-esrt of Chirleroi, 
ksMia aeeoont of the battle foa|^t here hy 
Ikr h«aek. imder Nuoleon, and Uw Pnatdans, 
sicr Steelier. 16th Jdm ISIK, the Mme day 
m vfakfa tlie Fraooh, under Uanhal Ney, irere 
■igy d wMi the Britith, ouibr Wellington, at 
l^nbe-fiMB. Ni^kon had formed a plan (or 
nuuvaeiiai; turn antagonialg in detail ere they 
CBM ooooenbats tiieir foreei ; and contrary to the 
rwjwiittinn a both of Wellington and BlUcher, bmn 
ha np giti oma by^ wniTing the Pnunaiu. The 
hrttb took place in the aftenoon. The poaaenioo 
rf Iks TiDagea of L. and St Anand wm hotlj con- 
tat«d:bultbePnunanawereatUwtconip^ed to 
pn wtf. llie Fnaaiani loat in this battle 12,000 
aa ud SI cannon ; the French, 7000 men. A 
■■Mha prermted a corps of Uie Frendi amy, 
oiir Qjoa, from taking the part assigned to it 
a the bsttle, and led to Sey'n encDuntering the 
Mfkaa aitd Hritufa at Qnatre-Bna (q. v.). initead 
4 B^toig hia forcee with thoee enptged agiunit the 
Pnawaat ligny. 

U'GITLATB (Lit. lif^ula, a little tongne), a term 
■■d ia Botany to dcKribe a corolla of one petal 
tlk% gn coe aide, and nuvad out in the form of a 
tFcfw tr etrsp, toothed at the extremity. Tbu 
f^m of corolla ia rety coduood in the Compoiila, 

UaCLK. See Ouhk. 

UOtrOBI, Auoiizo Uaxu db, a eaint of the 
E^ao Ck t ho t ic Chnrch, and foonder of the order 
if Lagaariana or Bedemptoriata. He iraa bom of a 
mUf bautr at Maidea, 2Teh September 1696, and 
akaead t£e profeaaion of the Uw, which, however, 
ie isldenly relinqnithed for the purpoae of devotins 
kanK entirely to a relisioiu life. He receiTsd 
#BBl^ erden m 17SS ; and in 1733, in oonjunotion 
■ife twdre oeimpanimu, founded the a«aociatioD 
ikek m maw called b^ his name. See Liouorixhb. 
It nss, be waa afipomted biabop of Sant' Agata 
ki G«(i, in iJie ku^jdom of Naples, and his life 
■ ■ faUb^ ■■ MofeMed by Pn>testant as well aa 
QtkMc bDrtrarian* to have been a model of the 
pMsal ehata«ter ; but ahnaking from the reapon- 
■>iWw of ancb an office, he nnsned his see in 
t773t after which date he i«tumed to his order, 

v^ak had chatactflrited hie early life. Having snr- 
•md bis retirvment twelve yean, he diod at Nocera 
ia Pag^ai, August 1, I7S7, and was solemnly 
■ ■■s il in the Roman Catkolic Chansh in 1S39. 
L a ^ oif tbe moat volaminons and mmt papular 
< •miJLi II Catholic theiJogica] wrilerB. His works, 
s^ck ^Aetid to seventy volumes Svo, embrooe 
Most every department of theological learning, 
Entity, eaaniatiy, ei^jesiB, history, canon law, 
^sdi^rapfay, aeceticisin, and even poetry. His 
wiBuiuialence also is volnminoas, but is almost 
■anjj go udiitual subjecta. The principles of 
Mcatry cx|uiiied by I* have been receiv^ with 
*3A bTonr in the modem Bamaa schools ; and in 
■■ cksi^ Lis moral theology, which is a modiH- 
lakcu of tiie aD-called ' probabQiitic system ' of the 
■p iuadiatdy before his own, is largely osed in 
te directioa of corascienceB. See Probabilisx. 
^ mmli be ovt of plaoe here to enter into a 
^HHOi ef the «ice[Aiona which have been taken 
>• ^itma portMos of it on the aeon of moi^ity, 
*kAar ia rstaotoe to the virtue of chastity or to 
feM ■( I iliLi and of veracity. These objeoKons 
lo MMt of the caaniita, and have often 

' hem the subject of oontroveny. L,'s Theologia 
Mnralit (8 vols. 8vo) has been reprinted nnmberleaa 
times, aa also most of hie ascetic worka. The most 
Domplete edition of his works (in Itelian and I«tin) 
is that of Monza. 70 volumes. Thev have been 
translated entire into Frenoh and Uerman, and ni 
great part into English. Spaniah, Poliab, and otL«r 
European langoages. 

I'lOUO'RIANS, called also Redzmptoflisis. a 
cougre^bion of mieiionary priests founded by 
Liituon in 1732, and approved by Pope Benedict 
XlV. in 1759, Their object is the relijpoiis 
instruction of the people and the reForm of publio 
morality, by periodically visiting, preaching, and 
hearing confessions, with the consent and onder the 
direction of the pariah clergy. Their instmctiona 
ore ordet^ to be of the plainest aod most simple 
character, and their ministrations are entirely 
without pomp or ceremonial The congregation waa 
founded oii^natly in Naples, but it afterwarda 
extended to Germany and Switzerland. Ia the Aua- 
trion provinces they had saveml houses, and were 
by some represented as but establishments of the 
suppressed Jesuits under another name. Nothing, 
however, coald be more diSereot than the constitu- 
tion and the obiecla of the two orders. Since the 
Kestoration, and especially since the Revolution of 
IS30, tba L. have effected an entrance into France, 
and several houses of lAe congregation have he«n 
foonded in England, Ireland, and America; but 
their place is in great measure occupied by the 
more active congregation of the Lazarist or Vin- 
oentian Fathers, whose objects are substantially 
■^ and who are mnch more widely spmail 

Paul, and Tbioxhtuk Cor- 

See ViKODrr ) 

LIGU'BIAN REPUBLIC the name given to 
tlie republic of Genoa in 1797, when, in consequenos 
of the conquests of Bonaparte in Italy, it waa 
obliged to exchange its aristocratic for a democratio 
constitution. See Ginoa. The name was chosen 
becanse the Genoese territory foimed the pnncipal 
part of ancient Lignria. 

LILAO (Syrini^a), a genns of plants belonging to 
the natural order Oleaate, and consisting of shniba 
and small trees, with 4-cIeft comlla, 2 stamens, and 
a 2-oelled, 2-valvnlar capsule. The CoKMON LlLao 
(S. vulgarii] ia one of the most common ornamental 
shmbs cultivated in Europe and North America. It 
is a native of the north of Persia, and was Hrrt 
brought to Vienna by Busbecq, tbe ambassador of 
Ferdinand I., to whom we also owe t^e introdnction 
of the tulip into European gardens. From Vienna 
it soon spread, so that it is now to be found half 
wild in the hedges of some parts of Enrope. Tliere 
are many varieties. The flower* grow in large 
conical panicles ; are of a bluish 'lilae' colour, 
purple or white, and have a very delicious odonr. 
The leaves are a favonrtte food of oantiiaridea. The 
bitter extract of the nnrjpe capenlee ha* very 
marked tonic and febrifugal properties. The wood 
ia fine-grained, and ia osed for inlaying, turning, and 
the making of small articles. A fra^ant ou can 
ba obtained from it by diatillatioa. The Chineu 
L11.AO {S. CAinauul has larger floweia, but «ith less 
powerful odour, and the PiBSUN Liuo {S. Pernca.) 
ttas narrower leave*. Both are often planted in 
gardens and pleaeure-groiuids. There are several 
other apecie*. 

LILIA'OR£, a natural order of endogenona 
plants, oontaiiiing aboat 1200 known speoisa. They 
are most nunerons in the wanier parts of the tem- 
pMate lonee. They are mostly herbaosoos plants, 
with hnlbona or tuberon^ aometiiius Shnms niota j 


ULLE— tlLT. 

landj ihrnlM 01 

The shrubby and ■ 

: leftfy. 

Us leavea u« ninple, gsnerklly 
oyliDtbiul, KHDetimM flttnlar. The Raven . . 
generally lum with S^deft or S-toothed periantb . 
mnd grow eui^y or in •piliee, ncemea, nmbela. beads, 
or pauiclee. The atameDi are ni. oppottM to tb« 
aegmpnta of the pnionth ; tbe pirtil baa a anperior 
3-oelled. manT-aeeded ovary, and a ainffle style. The 
fniit ia ■iioculent or capeularj the seed* packed nne 
upon aaother in two rows. Tbia order contaim 
many of oar finest eorden, green-houK, and but- 
house Hovers, aa liUea. tulijn, dog's-tooth violet, 
lily of tbe vallt^, tuheroae. crown imperial and 
other fritillarics, hyacintha, Otorioia miperba ; many 
apeciei useful for food, aa garlic, onion, leek, And 
otber speciea of AUi-um, Aaiioraifua, tbe Qui 
Biacuit Root {Camattia etailenia) of North 
the Ti iDrarama IrrmiHalit or Cardulim Ti) at the 
South Seaa, Ac ; many apeciea valuable in medicini 
, aa aquill, aloes, kc ; and aome valuable for the fibi 
wbicb their leave* yield, ai New Zealand Flax, and 

tbe ipecies of Bowrtriog Hemp or San»eviTa Thia 

natural order hoa been the subject Of a namber of 
iplendid works, amone which may be particularly 
named Bedoute's La Liliactet {H vols. Paris, 1802— 

LILLE (formerly Llai^ 'the island;' Flemish, 
Ityitcll, an important manufacturing town and 
fortress in the north of Franoe, chief town of the 
department du Nord, is sitnated on the Deule, in 
a level, fertile district, 140 miles north-nortfa-east 
of Pans, and 62 miles sonth-east of Caloit. The 
streets are wide, tbe squares imposing, and the 
houses, which ore mostly in the modem style, well 
built Tbe principal buildings and institutions are 
the Medical School, the Lyceum, the Boune, and 
tbe palace of Rioheboarg, now the Hfltel-de-Villo, 
in which is the school of art, with a famous collec- 
tion of drawings by Raphael, Michael, and other 
mastera. L. <»riyes its name from that of the 
caatle around wbicb tbe town originally arose, and 
which from its position in the midst of marsbps was 
called Isla. It Was founded in 1007 by Baldwin, 
the fourth Connt of Flanden, and baa suffered 
greatly from frequent sieges. Of tbean, the most 
recent, and perlups the most severe, took place 
in 1708 and 1792. On the former occasion, during 
tbe war of the Spanish Succession, the garrison 
capitulated to tbe alliea, after a bcnnbanlmeol of 
120 daya; on th« ImUbt, tbe Auatrians, after a 
t«ni&o bombardment, were obliged to raise tbe 
siege. L. is the head-quarters of tbe third mili- 
imry division. It is also tbe seat of extensive 
and thriving manufactures. Tbe goods principally 
manufacture an linen, hosiery, gloves, blankets, 
lace, and tuUe. Tbe town containa many spinning- 
milla, bleoch-flelds, sugar-reSneriea, diitillenea, tan- 
pita, dye-bouaes, Aa In the vicinity are numerous 
oil-mills, ponxtain-foctoriea, and gloas and pottery 
work*- Pop, 131,827. 

LI'LLIPUT. tbe name of a fabdoul kingdom 
described by Swift in OuUnxr't TVaneb, of which 
tbe inhabitants are not greater in size than an 
ordinary man's finger. The term Lilliputian has 
come into common use *• a designatitm of anything 
vary diminutivs. 

IjILLT, WnJJAif, an English astrologer, hom 
at Diaeworth, in Leicesterahire, in 1602. Whilat 
y*t a young man, be waa employed aa book-keeper 
by a merclAnt in London, who could not write, and 
on his employer's death, married his widow, with 
whom be obtained a fortaine of £1000 sterling. He 
betook himself to the stndy of astrology, {MutiMi- 


larly Om An Solaria of Cornelius Agrippa, and 
soon acquired a considerable fame a* a caster of 
nativities, and a predictor of future events. In 
IB.'M, he is aaid to have obtained perminon from 
the Dean of Westminster to search for hidden 
treasure in Weatadnster Abbey, but waa driven 
from his midDight work by a atom, which he 
ascribed to hellish powera. From 1644 till hu 
death, he annually laaoed hia Meriimu Anrilimt 
Junior, containing vatioinationa, to which no small 
importance waa attached by many. In Uie Civil 
War, he attached himaelf to the parliauwntary 
party, and was actually sent in 1648, with mnolbrr 
astrologer, to the camp at Oolcheater, to encouro^ 
the troops, which service he performed so welt tiiat 
he received a penaion for it. whkb, I 

• time imprisnn,-), 
on the supposition that he waa aoqaainted with tli« 
secrets of the Bepnblicana ; but being net free. h« 
retired to the country. He waa again apprehenilcd 
on suspicion of knowing something of the cau-H-i 
of the great fire of London in I6G6. He ditnl. 
Mb June 1681, at his eiUte at Hershom. L 
wrote nearljf a score of works on his favourite 
subject They are of no value whatever, except 
to illuatrats the credulity or knavei; of thu'ir 

jUiacBg, containing a number of speciea miii-h 
jvizod for the siie snd beauty of their flowers. 

The perianth is bell-shaped, and ita s^menta are 
often bent back at the extremity. The root is a 
scaly bulb, the stem herbaceous and simple, oftrn 
ral feet high, bearing tba flowers near iti 
nit-The White Lilt [L. candidum), a native 
of the I.evaat, has been long cultivated in gaixlcns, 
and mucb sung by poets. It has lane, erect, fiirt 
white flowers, as much prized for their fragram'e 
aa for their beauty. — The Orange Lily (£.. tu/'.i- 
firu-m), a native of tbe south of Europe, with lar^p. 
erect, orange -coloured flowers, is a well-known ao^l 
very showy omainent of the flower-garfen. — TTie 
Martogon or Turk's Cup Lily [L. Slariagoni, a 
native of tbe south of Europe, and allied Fpocies 
with verticillate leaves and drooping flowers, uv 
also common in gardens. The Tiger Lily {L 
ligrinam) is a native of China, remarkable for the 
axillary buda on the stem; and some very fine 
species nre natives of NorthAmerica, as Z^ nipn-6a'n, 
which grows in marshes in the United States, has 
a stem 6—8 feet high, and reflexed orange flowers, 
spotted with black ; L. Canadaue, ic Several 
fine speciea have been introduced from Jajon, 
Japonicvm,L. ipKiotum, toA L. iaiuHfolium. — 
3ulbs of L. Pomponium, L. Jiarlagon, and L, 
Kamltchactnae, are roasted and eaten in Siberia 
That of L. canilidam loses its acridity by dirinff, 
roasting, or boiling; when cooked, it la viaciJ. 
pulpy, and sugary, and is eaten in some parts '>« 
the East — Lihi^ are generally propagated by offivt 
bulbs- A single scale of tbe bulb will, however, 
suffice to produce a new plant, or even part i>f a 
scale, of which skilful gardeners avail tbemselrei. — 
The name lily is often popularly extended to flowers 
of other genera of the same order, and even of 
allied orders. 

LILT.OiOAXnc (i>orsati(Aete»»^),af Aiutnlia. 
.. plant of the natural order Amarifiliihtt, wiu 
flowering stem 10 or 14, sometimea 20 feet hich. 
bearing at top a cluster of large crimi 
■™- ----1 U leafy, but the latest lu ._ 
This plant ti found botii on th« a 



lilr-TiH [IhnramAa exedta). 

k^ faand exeelltnt for ropea uid for teztOe 

ULT OF THE VALLEY {OoKoaUaiia), a 
f^B id planta of the iwtaral order LUiaeaa, haviDB 
fcr— 1 racemea of flower*; • whits, beU-th«ie(C 
« rahnli- fr«left or 6-tooUied peiiaath ; a 3-oeUed 
pMo, with two orolee in eaoh cell, ud a nccu- 
■at inil. — The mparin eammonlj known aa the 
ILj <t tbm Vmliey {O. ivvaiH), the JVoiNuuM or 
M^^wcs- ai the Gnuo^ growa in buah; {dacM 

I4f ^ tha TaDor (a a^^Mfit). 

mill ■ Earape, the North of Aaia, and North 

■tot. aad haa a li ifliaa asape, with a raceme of 

B tmrrrw turned to ods aide. It it a ooivenal 

m pleaaing anwaraoce, the 

e of ita Sowen. and the laaij aeaaoa at 

■yA tkar 'PP'*'- It <■ thoefore '(vry often 

WiMid la garrlfiiw, aod Jbrvmi lo earlier flowai^ 

■liafcailiiiaaia Twietiea an in mltivalion with 

•A, »iiii|tit<»V aod doable floweia, The barriea, 

^ ttat, aad the flowoi hare a ""■t™", bitter. 

aid laBrwhak a^id taate, and po^ative aiul 

teMc t"--^ The aeiell of the flowon when in 

■V ^BMrtitj. and is a oloae aputment, is oarootie. 

^Md a«d powdBvd, thej become a etemntatoiy. 

Ite iMUMiiil fan d'or of the Fieneh ia a water 

fa^U baa the fk>wcn.— Allied to lilj o( the 

i-'dfi ■ SoLOMOa'a Sku. (q. v.). 

Lliu, the capital of the repablio of Peni. 

oomipted, in laL ir 3* &, and long. TT D' W. It 
ii six Biilee diatant fiom ita pnt, on the Paoiftc^ 
Callao, with which it i« oonnaoted bj a railway. 
InalodiDg ita suburban villaae*, ten in nnmber, 
it contaui* about IW^OOO inhabitanti. L ii of 
Spuiiah origin, and iti generally magnifioent public 
boildinn entitle it to rank aa the haadaoDMot oi^ 
of Soutb Amerioa. At one time the grand eatrtjA 
for the weat coiat of the amtinent. It atill oarriea 
on a large trade, importing cottona, woollena, silk*, 
hardware, winea, and bnnd; ; and exporting Bilirer, 
ooi^er, Wk, aoap, vicuna wool, nhinnhilia (kiu^ 
nitre, lagai-. Ac The tanppnture i« agrvealde, 
iveraging 6Sl' in winter, and 77'6° in aummeri 
.nd the climate ia eompatatively aalDbriaaa, abnitd- 
ant dewa making up for the want of rain. 

LIMA WOOD, a name of the dje-wood alao 
called Petnatnbnco Wood, Nicaragua Wood, and 
Peach Wood, the heart-wood of CamUpbtia edmatii. 
See Brazil Wood. It ia eitcndTely uaed for 
dyeing red and peach-oolonr. 


LIHBER u half the fleld-«qmp*«e of a cannon 

' howitaer. The one half ocniwata of the oaniagn 
itaelf. with the gun; while the limber, a two- 
wheeled carriage, litted with boiea for the &etd- 
anition of the piece, and haring ihaftn to which 
the hoiaca are hamened, forma the reminder. At 
the back-part, the limber has a strODR hoi^ ta 
which, on the march, ia attached the foot of the 
Enin-carriage by a ring at J^ in Uie figoitt under 

four-wheeled (rame. which, whilnt eaaier for ttana- 
port than a gun on two wheela only, haa the 
advantage of seeping together the gun aud ita 
ammunition. In marching, the gun pointa to the 
rear; but in coming to action, the artillerymen, bj 
a rapid evcdntion, wheel rouiid, ao that the gun 
pointa to the fronts It ia then Mniiabtrrd, or 
unhooked, and the limber conveyed far enough to 
the rear to be out of the way of the men working 
the piece. To limber up again, and retreat or 
parne, ia the work bat of a few m '~ 

LTMBURO, an old province of Bdgium, which, 
after ha viae fortned part of Bel^um, Franoe, 
Holland, and Austria, waa. in 1839. divided between 
Belgium and Holland. —Bblotaji Limbuiu}, or Lu- 
BOiTBa, in the north-eaat of the kingdom, ia aepar- 
and thence by a line nmnins eaat-Oorth-eaat to the 
northern boundary of the kingdom. The inrbee 
of the province ia flat, and a large portion of it i* 
occui>ied by barren heath i bnt in the aonth and 
centre there ia good arable land. Then is excellent 
paaturage along the banks of the Meuae, and l^rge 
herds m cattle and swine are here rearad. The 
mannfacturee include soap, salt, pottery, paper^ 
tobacoo, atmw-hata, beet-sugar, Ac The area at 
the province ia 923 Enzliah a^are milea, and the 
population (1861) 195,319. The capital of the 
province is Harnelt (q. v.). 

LIHBUBO, a }irovince of Holland, which also 
rauka aa a duchy in the Oeimanic Confederatioi^ 
forma the aoath-eait comer of the kingdom, being 
contiguoua to the Belgian pmrinoe of the same 
name. Ita surface ia generally level, and the soil 
ia poor, a ^5>t P>rt (> it consiatiog of moora and 
maiahea. However, in the valleya of the Ueoae 
and ita chief tribatariea, excellent crops of grain, 
hemp, flax, oil-seeds, Ac, are raiaed, and cattle 
and Bhe«> roared, liere ace many manafactoriee 
of gin, tobacco, aoap^ leather, paper, and glass. The 
cental ia Maeetricht (q. v.). Afea, 8ii En^ish 
aquare toUe* ; pop. (1861) 218,727. 


T.nrB TTH — T.TTini'^ 

LFMBTTS (I^t. Umbud, k border), the nu 
■nigned in Boman Catholki theology to that ]i1b 
or condition of Heported lonli ia which Uuae ■ 
doUineil irhDlkini not offended by uiy paraooal ■ 
<>f their own, but, uerurUiBleM, &re not admitted 
the divine rioion. lliey distingniih it into t 
Limbut AUrXM and the LinbuM Irffanlium. 1 , 
the former name they nuderatand the plaoe of those 
juat who died before Uie ovtning of the Bedeemcr, 
and of whom it ia said (1 Feter iiL 19), tha' ' 
preached to tkoea qnriti that were in priaon. By 
the latter ia meant the place or itate of the aonb 
of infants who die without baptiaoL Sea Hill. 
Begwding the nature ol both these places <rf deten- 
tion, great variety of oranion prevmls in Boman 
Catholic schools. See Weteer's KirAet-Lexiemt, 
art ' HoUenfahrt Chrisa' 

LIUE is the oxide of the met^ Caloium (q. v.), 
and is known in cheuitstry ■■ ooe of tlie alkaline 
earths. Its lymbol is CsO, its equivalent is 28, and 
it* speciGo gnvity is 3'1& In a state of piuity, it ii 
a white caustic powder, with an alkaline reaction, 
and 10 infusible as to resiiit even t!ie beat of the 
oxyhydnwen jet. See DniniKOHD Ijoht. It is 
ohtemed &f basting pare carbonate of lime (as, for 
instance, Gairan marble or Iceland spar) to full 
redoesa, when the carbonic acid is expelled, and lime 
■■ left Commarcial lime, which is obtained by 
burning common limestoDe in a kiln, is nsoally very 
far from pmv. Iliii compoond (CaO) is known as 
aukktime, or, from the ordinal; metliod of obtaining 
it, as burited line, to distinguish it from the hydralt 
of Ihtk, or sillied hiru, which is repreeented by the 
formula CaO.HO. On pouiing water on quioUime, 
there ia an aa^entatiou of balk, and the two 
enter into combinatioD ; and if the proportion of 
water be not too great, a li^t, white, dry powder 
It formed, and a greet heat is evolved. On exposinE 
the hydrate to a red heat, the water ia expelled, and 
quicklime is left 

If qoicklinie, instead of being treated with wat«r, 
la simply espoaed to the air, it ntowly attracts both 
■qneous Tsponr and oarbonic aoid, aad becomes what 
ia termed air-daird, Uie resulting eompound in this 
case being a powder which is a miiture (or possibly 
a OombinSition) of carbonate and hydrate of liaic. 

Lime is about twice as soluble in cold as in boilii^ 
water, hut even oold water only takes up about tiitn 
of it* weight of lima. This solution is known as 
Umi-waier, and is much employed both as a inedi- 
cig e and as a test for carbonic acid, which instantly 
reodan it turbid, in consequence of the carbonate A 
lime that ia formed being more insoluble even than 
lime itself. It must, <n course, be kept carefully 
guarded from the atmosphere, the carbonic acid of 
wbi 'h would rapidly affect it. If in the preparation 
of slaked lime cunsidErably more water is used than 
is necessary to fnnn the hydrate, a white semi-fluid 
matter is produced, vhich is termed miii <if liaie. 
On allowing it to stand, there is a de|K>siUoa of 
h^rate of hme, above which ia lime-water. 

The use o( liine in the preparation of morton and 
MDienta is described in the articles on these subjects. 
Lime is also largely employed as a manure (see 
below), and in the pnritication of ooal-gaa, in the 
lation at bides for tonmng, for varions labora- 
"oceoea (from its powtr a! attracting w»ter), 
BC ><a medicinal naee an noticed below. 

The followinfl; are the meat important of the sslta 
of lim& SidphaH <if line (CaO,SO,) oconrs &«e 
from wat«r in the tainetal onA^rtte, but is much 
nore abnndant in combination witii two equivalents 
of water in tdtmlt, and in the difltennt varietie* of 
gjiptum and aiaboMiT, Bee Oiraint. 

Oarbonatt af Vmt (CaO.CO,) ia abundantly pre- 

In the inoTganic kingdom, it ocomi in a czyatallins 
fmn in Ic^nd ipor, Aragonite, and marble — in 
which it is found in minute granular crystals — while 
in the amorphous conditioa it f<»inB the different 
varietiea of limestone, oholk, &c It ia always 
present in the ashes of plaota, bat here it is, at 
all eventa, in part the result of the oombmtitm <A 
dtrates, aoetates, malates, 4c., of Ume. It is tbe 
main conititoent of the shells of i liislaiinim and 
molluue, and ooonri in conaidvaUe quantity in 
tbe bones of man aod other vcrtehratea. Carbonate 
of lime, hdd in solutioD by free corbonio *cid, is 

_.__ . i_ jjiji^ spring and river waters^ and 

Stolaofates, stolMiiitea, tafa, ami 
U omnpoaed of thu nit, deposited 
from calcareous wateia. Certain foima of eanMUiata 
of lime — the Portland aad other oolitaa, aonw of tbs 
magnesian limestonea, &c. — are of extreme valus 
for building purpoaea, and the vaiiom naaa of tba 
Uarbles (q. v.] are too well known to requin 

There is A oombination tA lime with aa organia 
acid, viz., oxalate of lime, which ia of great import- 
ance in pathology as a frequent oonstituent of 
urioary calculi and sedimenta ; for a description 
of it see Oxalic Acid. 

The soluble salts of lime (or, more accorati'lT 
speaking, of calcium] give no precipitate with 
ammonia, but yield a white precipitate (of cai^ 
bonate of lime) with carbonate of potash m- of moA%. 
These tcnotions are, however, ooimnon to the aajti 
of barium, strontinm, and calcium, Solutioii of 
■ulphatfl of lime prodnces do mariied efcct whea 
added l» a salt of ealoiiua, but throws down a 
white nilpbate witii the other salts. Tbs ronst 
delicate t^ for lime is oxalate of ammonia, wbidi, 
even in very dilute neutral or alkalioe aolations, 
throws down a white predpitote of oxalate of linw>. 

There are several compounds of [^Kisphoric ocitl 
and lime, of whicb the most impoiteot n tbe bojdc 
phoiphate of Um/i, sometimea termed bone p/koe- 
phaU, from its being the chief ingredieot of boBea. 
The basic phoaphste is represented by tiie fonniila 
SCaO.POg, and qot only occiITS in braiea, but aiao 
in the minerals apetito and phnphoritc:, and in 
the rounded nodulee termed coprolitea, which ore 
found in the Norfolk crag. It forms }ths of the 
ash of well.bnined bone, the remuning (th beinz 
carbonate of lime. This ash is known as boitf-tarfk, 
and is employed as a monttre and in the pr^ar««iinl 
of (dioBphoraa, ha. 

The aubstaikoe oommonly designated as Morid» 
of lime has been already deaoribad in the artiLde 
Blbaceino Fowiwb. 

LiTM tu Jfonurs.— This mineral substance has 
been used for many centuries as a means of incmoin;; 
the fertility of land. All cro|ie require a ctt't&ia 

,t, as is found by an^ysing tha ash which 

IS after combustion. It is aometiHtea snik- 
plied, without previons preparati«i, in the form of 
marl and chalk, but in meet cases ia Grat calcaaed 
and nduoed to a fine powder by ■l«H na with 
The qnantity of calcined lime amlied v, 
tea te eight tons to the mm. The am 

qnantity may be sufficient for light laod ootitBiiuDi; 
little vegetable matter, while the larger niBy Ik- 
required for rtraig hud, or for land h^di^ mm-h 
The lam <|aAB- 

required fi 

organic maner in ao iners aiani 

tity of lime uplied abesre that it . 

due man to ila pndunng a eartaiB eh(«ioal eCrVt 
on the land, than to ito affoadiog nntriiaeot to tti^ 
orchis- lime proioote* the deoo(np«^ti)w of ojl 
kinda of ve^taUe matter in the soil, aad, forlfa.T 
it corrects any acidity in the oigeaio w»>ta.i, aaj 
thus diatKqrs ttuae weed* whioh an Ia*aar«l j,* 
auoh a condition of tha aoiL It ■— ^ata >— ~i.- 


of Mttain ttHa wbaaa baan fonn I ■adoritlD and aoldipaainodic. Tba farmer 
popular remedy for catarre 

„ t prepare tiieir food, 
rf land, the finer graaaea do not thrive ontil the 
bad faaa been limed, and in tiieas oaae* ita <ue 
huama xB-impoitant. Lime ia the only cure, 
toe, ftat can be relied oo for ' fingpr-aad-toe' in 
tanipa, Bad ita oae ia, from thia eame, beooming 

LMe-OTnpowHb lit Materia Medteo-^QiMiime, 
ta — n ri^t j o n with potaah, either aa the PoUuta 
ova Mire, or aa Vienna PaMe, a occaaionally uaed 

■ a mtrtic. Ltme-wata; tniied with an equal 
fttity or aa esceaa of milk, ia one of our beat 
ILMiiiia tor ihe -ranating depeodent on iiritability 
rf tte atamach. Prom half an ounce to two or thrM 
tmkiM maj be thiu taken thrM or tour times a da^. 
tit SIC aa a oonstitamt of Cairon oil ia boma it 
MtiBed m tba article Lnmtnm. CAoil, or oar- 
baA ^ Hme, when ftned fram the impnt^iee witii 
«bich it U rAcD anociatad, ia lued aa a duftina- 
i iani n IB nuHat eicoiiaticina, ulcere, to. ; and in the 
tmiofciaU miiiurt tad eoMpouHdfotederqfdi^t, 
k a popular remedy in varioua torma of dianfaiBa. 
A a Mture ol ui ooDoe of proeifntated carbonate of 
iof aod M. quarter of an onnce of tiitely powderad 
awpbor, ia aold M Campltoratal Crelaeanu Toolh- 

LDCB {Citrut aeida], a fruit nmilar to the Lemon 
If. T.I. but much amaller, being only about 14 inch 

■ diaiDcter. and abnoat globuur, with a thin rind, 
ad B> extmnely acid juice. It ii regarded by many 

^-' '- aa a variety of the same apeciee with the 

Qb« aad Lemon. The plant doe* not attain the 
■atailiulii of a tree, but ia a ahnib of about eight 
fctf ia heigbt, with a crooked trunk, and many 
y iiiij; prickly braocbea. It is a native of India 
mi Chma, bnt ua long been cultivated in the West 
Was. tl^ aoath of Europe, to. In the West Indiea, 
a ■ plaatni both for the aake of ita fmit and for 
Wilya . The fruit ia naed for the same purpoaes as 
Acl^cBi ; but its acid ia by many reckoned more 

EsUe. Lime-juice ia imported into Britain like 
B-JHioe for tlie manufacture of citric acid. — Tbe 
■ 111 Lime (C. LivuUa of Bisao), cultivated in 
tae toath of Europe, appears to be a mere variety, 
pnbablj tbe r«aalt of coltivation, with a sub-acid 

, , ^ catorrBs. ihe seeds abound ia 

fixed sweet oiL— The EcBOPBin L., or LisDm 
[T. EuTvpim), often attains a large size, particularly 
in rich aUuvial soils. Some botuiistB dtstingniah a 
small- leaved kind {T. part^/blia or munvphifia) and 
a la^e-laared (t. ffnatdifiilia) aa different ipeciea; 


- LIKDEK (TiUa), a genu* of treea of 
1 oc>der TVia^ta, lu^vea of Europe, the 
' North America. The species 

• of ratbo' small yellowish flowers ; each 
fT^ or panicle scoompaaied with a large, oblong, 
filUsiiili, menbraaoaa bract«a, with netted veins, 
Ms kFVS- part of whtefa adheres to the flower-stalk. 
&■ snod B li^ht and soft, but tough, durable, and 
ivticnlariy aaitable for carved work. It is much 
■ai by tamcia, and for making pill-boxes. The 
Isi I II il made <^ it is often used tor tooth-powder, 
I parpoaea, for crayons, and for the 
of gunpowder. The use of the fibrous 
naking ropes, mate, and other plaited 
1 in the article Rabc. It ia also used 
application to wounds and nores, being 
— , and abounding in a bland sap. 
n* kawa an m soma oovntriea nsed as food for 
«Hk^ bet (BW1 fed on tbem prod>K« bad batter. 
The ivwos ban aa ameaUe ooour, and abonnd in 
kvr. Bvb Bo^t ^r try beea. Tbe cdebrated 
much vahiea for mediciiud nae and 
iDCTUs, is the produce <rf great L. 

Lime-Tree [T, Sunpaa). 

others regard them aa mere varietiea. Tbe Hoodbd 
or Catdchih L is an intereetinK monstrous varie^. 
The L.-tree is often planted for shade in towns ; 
and the principal street of Berlin is called Unter dot 
Lmdca, from %'tie rows of L.-treeB which line it. 
The L. is a very doubtful native of Britain, althouah 
indigenous on Uie continent from Scandinavia to £0 
Me£terTanean. Id Britain, the L.-tree is EenorallT 
propagated by layers.— The AmibiCji.i Ij.[T. A men- 
oma, or T. gU^ra], commonly called Ba&iwood in 
America, has larger leaves than the European ipeciea. 
It abounds on the shores of Lakes Erie and Outaria 
Other species take its plaoe in more western and 
more southern regioas. 

LI'HBRICK, an inland ooon^ of the provinoa 
of Munater, in Ireland, separated by the Shannon 
oa the N. from Clare, and bounded on the K by 
Tipperary. on the S. by Cork, and on the W. by 
Eerry. Its extreme length is 35 miles, its breadth 
64 milce ; area, 1064 square miles, or dSO.342 acres. 
Pop. in 1861. 208.684; in 1861, 170,983, of whran 
1M.8TS were Roman Cathcdics, 6606 Protestants 
of the Established Church, and the reet Protest- 
ants of other denominations. The surface of L> 
is an nndulatini; plain, whioh forms put of the 
central carboniferons limestone plain of Ireland. 
A mountainous district on Uie west belongs to the 
much great coal-tract of Munsto-, but tiie coal ii 

Limerick is a 
brown marlde { 

marble of inferior value. IJore than one of tlM 
distriota oootains iron, copper, aod lead ores ; but 
at preaent, no raininfi^ operatioDs are carried Ott. 
The soil in genera] is very fertile, especially tba 
district called Ute Qoldau Tale, which comprise* 
opwards of 160,000 acrea ; as abo a portion of 
the left bank of the Shaanm below limerick. Of 
the tntire acreage of the county, 626,S70 acres 
are arable, and 121,101 unsoited to cnltivstion. In 
general, the soil is equally fitted for blU^ and Ear 
pastnrv, In 1802, SUO^U aorea were under oropa 
of rariov* kinds, only 410 being reported EsUdv, 



la tlie uhm yew, tlie number of horn«d MtUe 
WM 146,686, uid of iheep €2^6. The n&tioDKl 
KhooU in IS6I vert, 177, attended by 30.413 pupik. 
of whom 16,863 were boy^ ud I5fi5l girls. 

The principBl towoB of L. ve the city of th>t 
name, Newcoatle, and Bsthkeale. Of the lecoDdory 
riven, the Deel and the Mainie ore the meet import- 
ant. The great biehnsy i3 water-communtc<~' ~ 
however, is the Shaiinon itaetf, the iiaviKati< 
which hiu heea much improTed, and in which the 
hwbour of Foynra promises to form the nucleaa of 
■n estended foreim trade, L. communicate by rail- 
way with Dublin, Waterford, Cork, and Ennia. The 
popolation is chiefly occupied in agriculture, hardly 
any manufactures eiistiuE ontaide the city, 
anciently fonned part of ^e territory of Then 
the principality of the O'Briem. After the Engliah 
iovasioD, it fell, through many viciseltudea, in gnai 
part to the Desmond Pit^eialds~the confiscated 
estates of the last eail in L. ooataining no fewer than 
96,165acre8. On the forfeitures after 1641 and; — 
it was parcelled out to new pniprietora. L. is i 
than usually rich in antiqtutiei, both eccleaiaatical 
and civil, of the Celtio as well as of the Aogla- 
Mormaa period. There were at one tiioe nearly 40 
ruligiouB CoundatioQS of the O'Briens alone, and 
the ruins of about 100 castles are still in existence. 
The ecclesiastical remaios of Adare are exceedingly 
interesting, two of the ancient churches havmg 
been restored, one as the Protestant, the other as the 
Catholic parish ohurch. Two other moooatic r 
in very good preservation, form a jjroup of eci 
••tical remains hardly surpassed, m number 
pieturesquenesa, even in tiie most favoured diatricta 
of the midland and oortheni counties of England. 

LIMEKICK, city, capital of the county just 
deacribed, is ntoated on the river Shannon, 120 
miles west-south-west from Dublin, with which it 
is connected by the great Southern and Western 
RaUway. Pop. in 18fll, 63,448 ; in 1861, 44,6-26, of 
whom 33,689 were Roman Catholics; 3934 Pro- 
testants of the Established Church, aed the r<Bt 
pTotestunta of other denominations. L. is a parlia- 
mentary and roitnicipal borough, and returns two 
members to parliament. It occupies both aides of 
the Shannon, together with a tract called King's 
Island, which liea on • bifurcation of the river ; 
•od is divided into the EagUeh Town, the oldest 
part of the city (and connected with the exten- 
aive suburb called Thomond Gate, an the Clare 
aide of the Shannon), and the Irish Town, which, 
within the present c, haa extended on the south 
bank of the river into what is now the best part 
of L., called the New Town, or Newtown Ptrr, 
one of the haadsomeat towns in Ireland. L. la 
a place of great antiquity. From its position on 
the Nhannon, it was long an object of desire to the 
Danes, who occupied it in the middle of the Bth 
e., and held posseaaion till reduced to a tributary 
oondition by Brian Boroimhe. in the end of the 
10th century. It waa early occupied by the Eng- 
lish, and in 1210, Kine John visited and fortitimi 
it. It was afterwards assaulted and partially 
burned in 1314 by Edward Bruce. Its later 
history is still more interestine. It was occupied 
by the Catholic party in 1641, but surrendered to 
IietoQ in 16S1. At the Bevolntion. it waa the 
last stronghold of King James. Having been 
nnauccesaf luly besieged by William after the victory 
of the Boyne, it was regularly invested in 1 691 by 
Oeneral Ginkel, and after a vigorous and brilliant 
defence of several weeks, an armistice was pro- 
posed, which led to the well-known 'Treatv of 
limerick,' the alleged violation of whiuh has been 
the subject of frequent and acrimonious contro- 
VKsy between poliCioal iwrtte* in Ireland. The 

BO-oalled ' Treaty Stone ' still marks the spot, near 
Thomond Bridge, at the entrance of the aubnrb of 
Thomond Gate, where thia treaty was signed. The 
modem city of L. is more tasteful in its general 
character, and possesses more of the appliances of 
commercial enteiprise and social culture than most 
towns of Irelana Its pubhc buildings, eapeciallj 
the new Roman (^tiiolio cathedral, and church 
of the Kedcmptorist order, ste imposing, and in 
excellent taste. Ila charitable and religioua estab- 
lishments are truly munificent for a provincial towiL 
'" ' 'ional schools, as well a* 

[ustitutiona The Shannon 

at L. ia still a noble river, navig 
large harden. The docks and 
very eitenaive and commodious 
export trade, as well as the in 
river, is conducted with considt 
The inland navigation is by mea 
Killaloe, where it enten I^ugh Derg, and thenw 
by the upper Shannon to Athlone. and by the 
Grand Canal, which isauai fnim the Shannon at 
Shannon Hartaur, to Dublin. The manufactum of 
Li are not veiy extensive, but some of them enjoy 
not merely an Irish, bat an imjieriol reputation 
— such are the manufactures of laoe, of gloves, and 
oC fish-hooks. There are sevend iron-foundries, 
Sour-mills, breweries, distilleries, and tanneries, and 
of late years, the ship-builiUne trade has bcc-D 
considerably extended. In 1662, 1037 veesela, of 
200,396 tons, entered and cleared the port, 

LIME3T0XR, the popular as well as technical 
Lme for all rocks which are composed in wh<j|e, 
to a large extent, of carbonate of lime. Few 
inerals are so extensively distributed in nature as 
ia, and in some form ot other, limestone r<H:ks 
cur in every geological epoch. ' Carbonate of linie 
nearly inaoluble in pure water, but it is nmdejv,! 
easily soluble by the presence of Carbonic acid jz^^i^ 
which occurs in a variable quantity in all natural 
waters, for it is absorbed by water in its jiaaHve 
through the air as well as through the earth. 
Carbonate of lime in solution is coDsi-quenUy found 
n all riven, lakes, and seas. In evaporation, water 
,nd carbonic acid gas are given off, but the cac- 
icnate of lime remains uninfluenced, becoming 
:radually concentrated, until it has superaaturatftl 
he water, when a precipitation tnkes nlace. In this 
ray are formed the stalactites which han;; icicle- 
like from the roofs of limestone caverns, anil the 
stalagmites which rise as columns from their flmas. 
Travertine (Tiber-stone), or calcareous tufa, is 
similarly formed in running streams, lakes, and 
springs, by the deposition of the carbonate of lime 
on the beds or sides, where it encrusts and InmU 
together shells, fragments of wood, leaves, stones, 
to. So also birds' nests, wigs, and other objects 
become ooated with lime in the so-called petnf \-iii^ 
wells, as that at Knaresborough. From the s&njp 
:, pijies conveying water from boili^ii an,! 
a often become choked np, and the tea-ketUe 
gets lined with ' fur.' 

While water is thus the great store-hoaa« i-l 
carbonate of lime, very little o? it, however, n fixeil 
by precipitation, for in the ocean, eraporst^on diw* 
not take place to such an extent as to permit it to 
deposit, beaidea, there is five times the quantity i^l 
free carboaio acid gas in the water o£ the sea that 
is required to keep the carbonate of linu ia it 
solution. Immense quantities of lime are b^Ter- 
eleas being abstracted from the eea, to torm 
the hard portions of the nnmeroua aniniala -wlui^ 
inhabit it. Cmataoea, nollusca, looplkytes, «ii,l 
foraminifera are ever busy separating tba liitl* 
particles of carbonate of lime from the water, and 
•oUdifying them, and so supplying tlie ni«ter «la 



Iv fannia^ aalid rock. It lui besa found tlut 
I iirgE portion of tha bed of thn Atlantio between 
fiDopr uhI North America is covered with » ligbt- 
sIobibI ooie, oompo»ed chiefly of the perfect or 
InkcCL akeletoDs of foruninifem^ foroiiiig A Bub- 
MucB. •bin dried, which, in «ppearauoe «id stnic- 
tnc dosdy nsemblea chAlk. In tropica] region*, 
mall are building reefi of enormaus magnitude, 
«](ni{>ondin^ in structure to many Tocks id tlie 
aAoDiferoas and other fonnationi. The Tocki 
tka OT^janic^ly formed do nnt alwayi occur as 
1^ ver« ori^nally depoaited ; denudation has 
nnetimea broken them up to ^e-d>^I)oeit them 
M a cak3f*ous aediment Great changes, too, may 

e compact, concretionary, i 

Ike teitnre 
krd. otbcn 

ate chief raneties of limestone are : Chali (q. v.) ; 
')q£u iq. V.) ; Compact LtWttone, a hard, smooth, 
tur-grained mck. jnuerally of a bluish-gray colour ; 
Ajitiffm Limatone, a rock which, from inets- 
■n^ic Bctinn, has become gntnolar ; fine-fTaioed 
vUie Tantttifi. reaemhUng lou-sngar in texture, are 
aSStd Saee/iarum i>r Staluarg Marble. Stagnrtian 
Hmr^ont or DfiioimU (q. t.) is a rock in which 
orbjoate of tna^esia is mixed with carboaate of 
bat Particular names are pivea to some linie- 
nws From the kind of foaails that nbonnd in them, 
M XBmmiilite, Hippiirite, Indiisial. and Crinoidal 

'mi III I ; and to otbers from the formntion to 

vtgci tbey belong, as Devonian, Carbooiferous, and 

LtlfFIORD. SeeDiinujts. 

UMtTATION, in English I«w, u the limited 
(■( aUuweal to parties to commenos their soits or 
stMBB, or olbar prooeedinp, so as to shorten 
Ittetfian. In all anliaed countries, soma period 
i> jascvibed by statute (called statutes of limita- 
Ma. or prvflcriptiou) with this view, thoogh few 
tnmtrmm »!i>pt the same limit, aud Sootlaod differs 
maA trvKa England and IreUnd in this point. In 
rajiiaiil. suits to recover land must generally be 
ItH^t within twenty years, and to recover debts 
HJndiiig biila lA exchange) and damage* within 
sa J*»**- Actions for assault or battery must be 
koagbt within four yeara, and for slander within 
*■■ years. In Scotland, Prescription ia the word 
■ ■nil J nsed for Umitstion, and actions to recover 
wd grotrally most be bivugbt within forty years, 
i3 Many onlinary debts within three years, but 
hr Uk uf eKcbaoge within six years. There ore 
May otber differencefl of detaiL See Faterson'a 
fif sif - ^En^iA and Scotdi Lam. 


LLMIT3. Thbobt op. Tha importance of tha 
■CBa at a fistit in Uathematics cannot be orer- 
■tDBatsil,aa isany br^nchea of the science, including 
1^ jiflereitial <^culus and its adjuncts, coaaist 
d ■oUiiiig elae than tracing tbe 

r from this notioo. The foil. 

Ic niuitrations □( the idea : The sum of 
t- i 1- fto^ approaehl 

t> ! as the immber of t< 

increased ; thus, the 

-J 11 11. 11 IB. »«, «Kh . 

d«aya diOering from 2 by a fraction equal to the 
hat 4if the terms whidi have been added ; and tinea 
«(h \ msiiiinlnr is doable of the preaeding one, 
ft* hither the aeries is extended, the 1<« the differ- 
«« faetWMD its sum and 2 beoomea ; also this 
*Jii I ni I may be made amaller than any assign- 
Ah oBtBtity— ny, tt^.tit. by merely exteod- 
^ llw series tiQ tha last denwniiutM' beoanu* 
#atv Oaa 100,000 (for thii, we need only take 

18 terma ; 3 terms more will give a differenoe lew 
l^iA'i i.iiV'TTT ; '"'' "> "") '• ^S*iii- the sum of the 
series can never be greater tlun 2, for the differ- 
ence, though steadily diminishiDg, still subsist* ; 
under these drcumrtanoea, 2 is said to be the 
limit of the sum of the senca. We see, then, that 
the criteria of a limit are, that the series, when 
extended, shall approach nearer and nearer to 
it, in Tslua, and ao that the di&crence can be 
made as small as we please. Again, the area of a 
circle is greater than thsit of an inscnbed hexagon, 
and less than that of a circumscribed hein^D ; 
but if thne polygons bo converted into 6gnre» of 
twelve sides, the area of the interior one will be 
increaacd, and that of the exterior diminished, the 
area of the circle always continuing intermediate 
in position and value ; and as the number of 
sides is incresned, each polygon ajiproacbee nearer 
and nearer to the circle in size ; and as, when the 
aides are equal, this diffeivnce can be made as small 
as we please, the circle is said to be the limit of an 
equilateral polygon, the number of whose sides ia 
incieaaed indefinitely ; or, in another form of words 
commonly used, ' the polygon approaches the circle 
SB its limit, when it* sides increase without limit,' 
or again. *when tiie number of sides ia intinitA, 
the polygon becomes a circle.' When we use the 
terms 'infinite' and 'zero' in mathematics, nothias 
more ia meant than that t}ie quantity to which 
the term is applied is increiuin^ loitAouI Unut, 
or dimiiti^ng \>idffinil^-i ; and if this were kept 
in mind, there would be mucb less confusion m 
the ideas connected with these terms. From the 
same cause has arisen the discussion concerning the 
potaibility of what are called vaniabing fractious 
(L e., fractions whose numerator and denominator 
become lero simultaaeously) having reni values ; 

thus J- = -j;, when 1=1; but by diviiwon wo 

: + 1. which = 2, 
could never have 
arisen bad the question been interpreted rightly, 

a* follows : 1 approaches to 2 as its limi^ 

when X contiunally approaches 1 as it* Umit, t, 
proposition whitdi can be proved trus by substi- 
tuting successively 3, 2, 1\, 1^. 1^. lyl,, Ac, when 
the corresponding values of the fraction are 4, 3, 
2(' ^> 2^ 2t^, Ac The doctrine of limits is 
employed in the Differential Calculus (q. v.). Tha 
best and most complete illustrations of it are found 
in Newton'* Prindpia, and in the chapters OD 
Maxima and Minima, Curves, Summation of Series, 
and Integration genermlly, in the ordinary work* 
on the C^GUlus. 

LI'MMA, an interval which, on accoont of its 
exceeding smallness, does not appear in the practice 
of modern mniic, but which, in the mathematical 
calculation of the prnjiortions of different intervals, 
is of the greatest importance. The limma makes 
its appearance in throe different mat^itudet — viz., 
the great Umma, which is the difference between 
the UTgH whole tone and the small semitone, being 
in the proportion of 27 to 25 ; the small limma, 
which 1* the difference between tbe great whole 
tone aud the great semitone, being in the proportion 
of 135 to 138 ; and the Pythagorean limma, which 
is the difference between the great third of ^ 
aocieuts (which conmsted of two whole toues) and 
the perfect Eonrth, tbe proportion of which is as 266 
to 24a 

LIMNjCA (Or. linuM, a swamp), a genua at 
gasteropodoua moUnaos ol the order PnimOBata, 
giTina it* name to a family, Ltmaaadir, allied to 
Htliada (Snails), Limaatla (Slugs), ko. The ■peaee 



at Uiit hmOi' are numerous &nd abonnd in freah 
wsten in all puts of tiia irorlil They feed on 
t«ici]tab1e lubaunces. They all bare a thin, delicate. 
hora-colmmd ahell, capable of containlnR the whole 
■nimaJ wtien retracteit, but varying very much in 
[onn in ths diOerent Reners ; bein^ produced into 
a loinewhat elont^ted snira in the true Lintniga 
(PoHn-BNilu), whilst in Pianorbu the aptre a coiled 
in the aame plane, and in Aiicylwi {Rtvwr LmpEia) 
it ia limpet-uiaped, with a samewbat produced and 
recurved tip. Many of the Limiurada have a habit 
of floatmiE aud gliding ahell downwards at the sur- 
face of the water, aa may readily be observed in a 
freah-water aquarium, in which they are of great 
use Id preventing tbe eiceasivo grawth of coufer- 
»oidj, and removing all decnyiug vegetable matter. 
They servo the same purpose m the economy of 
nature in lakea, ponds, and rivers, and furnish food 
for lialies. They arv hermaphrodite. They deposit 
their e^ipa on etouea or aqu&tic planta, eTivelo|ied in 
masses of a gl^y subatance. The development of 
the young moliiiac may easily be watched in the 
aquarium, the membrane of the egg being perfectly 

LIMNO'KIA, a genus of etustaeea of the order 
Jtopoda, containing only one known species, which, 
however, ia important from the mischief it does to 
fnera, dock-gati-s, and other wood-work immeTsed in 
the water of the sua, on the coasts of Britain, and 
of some nnrta of continental EuroiM. It is only 
about a sixth of an inch in length, of an ash-gray 
colour, with blnck eyes, which are cam|ioaed of 
numerous oerli:, placed close together. The head is 
broad. The legs are ahort The general appearance 
resembles that of a small wood-louse, and the crea- 
ture rolls itself up in the aame manner, if seized. 
The contents of the stomach consist of oommiuuted 
wood, and food ia the object of the perforation of 
wood for which the L. if notable. Mr Stevenson 
found it very troublesome during the operations 
connected with the building of the Bell Bock Li^t- 
house. The piers at Southampton liave auCTered 
greatly from it. The kyanisLng of wood and otber 
expedients have been raaorted to, to prevent its 

LIMOGES, capital of the department of Haiite- 
Vienne, in France, and of the former province of 
Tjimousin, picturesquely situated on a hill in the 
Talley of the Vieunc, 67 miles south-east of Poicters. 
It ia an ancient city, and the seat of a bishop. It 
haa a cathedral, begun in the 13th c, but atill 
incomplete; a n urn tier of scicatilic and benevolent 
institutions and public buildinga ; considerable man n- 
bcturea of dmggets, of a kind of packthread known 
aa Limoges, ftc It wsa the Augustoritnm of the 
Bomana, in the couutrr of the Gallic Lemovioes, and 
afterwarda reci-ived uie name of Lemovica, whence 
the present Limo^ts. Before the French Revolution, 
it had more than forty oonvcolK Pop. 6l,0S3. 

LIMPET {PaltUa), t, genus of gaateropodoua 
molluscs, of the order CyiiobranMala, the tjye 
of the family Patrltidit. In all thia family, 
the ahell ia nearly conical, not apiral, and has a 
wide mouth, and the apex turned forwards. The 
f»iim»l has a large round or oval muscular foot, by 
which it adheres firmly to rocks, tbs power of 
creating a vacaum being aided by • viscous secre- 
tion. Limpets live on rocky coasts, between tide- 
marks, and remain firmly fixed to one spot when 
the tidn is out, as their gilla cannot bear exposure 
to Uie air, but move about when the water covers 
them ; many of them, however, it would aeem, 
TsmaininiF Ions on the aame apot, which in soft 
Ls is found hollowed to their exact 
TitejF bed on algn, whkh they eat by means 

of a long ribbon-like tongue, oovered witli nTiina<- 
ous TOWS of hard teeth ; the CoHHOlt L (PaieOa 
vulffarit) of the British coasts having no fewer 
tiian 160 rows of teeUi on its tongue, 12 in each 
row, 1920 teeth in aU. The ton^e, when not in 
use, lies folded deep in the interior of the animal. 
The gills are arranged nnder tbe margin of the 
mantle, between it and the foot, farming a einde of 
lea9et& The sexes are distinct— The power of 
adherence of limpets to tbe rock is venr great, ao 
that unless surprised by sudden seizure, th^ are not 
easily removed without violence sufficient to break 
the shell The species are niunerous, and exhibit 
many varieties of form and colour. The Common 
L. is most abundant On the rocky coaati of Britain, 
and is much .nsed for bait by fishermen ; it ia also 
nsed for food. Some of the limpets of warmer 
climates have very beautiful shells. A s]iecie« foand 
on the western coast of Sooth America hns a shell 
a foot wide, which is often used by the inhabitant* 
as a basin. 

LINA'CKA. Sea Fux. 

LINCOLN, Abbaban, siileenlh preiiilcnt of lb* 
United States, wsa born in Kenlucky, February 11, 
181)9. His father, a poor farmer, removed from 
Kentucky lo Indiana in 180G. In tbe span* 
aetilemenU of the great Weal, opportunities for 
education wers extremely limited: young L. re- 
ceived less Ihan one year's schooling, in which he 
learned reading, arithmetic, and, through tbe aa- 
Bialance of a neighbour, writing. His earnest de- 
sire for knowledge led him to improve every oppor- 
tunity tor study. During tbe day he was employed 
in the severe labors of western farming, and at 
night, by the light of a huge log fire, he read such 
books as could be borrowed in ths neighbourhood. 
At the age of 18 his library consisted of six booka. 
Twice before the age of 21 he had desoended Ihs 
Mississippi in charge of a flat-boat, — the nsoal 
means, at that time, of Intercourse between tb« 
great West and Kew Orleans. In 1830 the family 
removed to Illinois, and soon after L. left bis 
parents lo begin life for himself. He firal becmma 
a clerk in a store, and afterwards studied law, aup- 
porling himself meanwhile by land-surveying. In 
1B34 be was elected to the stale legislature, and 
was S times re-elected. In 1830 he was admitted 
lo practise law, and soon afler removed to Spring- 
Geld, the state capilat. In 1644 be canvassed th« 
■late for Mr Clay, then nominated for president. 
Mr Clay wsa defeated, but the popularity gained 
by L. in the canvass secured bis own election to 
Congress in 1846, where ha voted against the ei- 
tanaion of slavery. In 1858 he canvaaaed the state 
ss a caodidale for Uniled States senator against 
Mr Douglas, but without success. In I85C he was 
an active supporter of Mr Fremont in the pr«si- 
denlisl canvass, which resulted in the election of 
Mr Buchanan. In 1860 he was nominated for the 
presidency by the Chicago Convention. The noo- 
eitenaioa of slavery to the territories, or new slalea 
to be formed from them, was the most important 
principle of hia party. There were three other 
candidatea. — Mr Douglaa, of Illinois, Democrat; 
Mr Breckinridge, of Kentucky, then vice-presi- 
dent, and since a general of the Confederate army, 
Southern Democrat; and Mr Bell, of Tennnsee, 
Canst it ulional Union. Ur Lincoln received ih* 
vote of all but one of the IVee stales, while in motf 
of tha Southern atates no Republican ticket waa 
allowed. He waa inaugurated preaideol March 4, 
1861. It Is believed that Hr Linoaln desired t» 
ooneillote the South; but the Southern Demoormte, 
fearing the Influence a BapubUcMi administtAtioK 



■(■Id IwTc apoD lUTnj, prgvcnlad luoh > 001 

lail it\a Iba raduclion of Fort SnmKr, Tigoroui 

Munna vara Uken ta«>rd tlw aubjugalioii of Ibe 

Hrj 1, 1868, be ^«oliihD*d tke freedom of all ilftTt 
itikcilMainretiellioH, «lo«pt oarUin pula then 
oritf U* miljtuy jyrisdistioii of tbt geTerninaiit. 
Jimmg kii •dmintHrsliMi >UTe<7 vae ■bo!i>h«d in 
IkDiniet of Colusbik. Tbe HoolatiaD of Con- 
im, sffcring cenpenutiau to uij BlaMi kboliih- 
tDf ^T«7 bf tb« jMtT IWO, also arJginkLed vitb 

LTXCOLN (called by the Romam ZIntfum ; 
fnm rbich, villi Cbbmio nibjoined, comes tha 
B»Itni njme), a city of Eaftland, oapitkl of tha 
taaVf of the urae Dame, a [wriiaineDtary and 
mmpal borongh aod count? of itaelF, ia aituiited on 
tbt WTtliam, 140 milea north -Dortb- west of London 
£7 nilwav. Bailt on the slope of a hill, which ia 
(mned bj the cathednl, the city ia imposing in 
ttert, and can be wva torn a very conaiderabln 
Ijuaoe. It ia very aadoit, ia iiregularly laid out, 
mi cootaina maiiy iaternting specimeaa of early 
vdiitwtare. The cathednl, one of the finest in 
bjlud. ia tb* principal bnilding. It is giirmouated 
tf three towen, two of which. 180 feet in height, 
*m lomerly contioaed by apin* of 101 teet The 
ontnl tower, S3 feet aqiian, u 300 feet high. Tha 
akritr leDoth of tbe cathedral ia 482, the width, 
» fart. T^ famons bdl called Tom of Lincoln 
naatt io 1610, and waa haos in one of the weat 
km* ef thla edidce. It waa oroken np, however, 
ID ISM, and, together with six other beils, waa 
waA to fona the preaent larffc bell and two qoarter 
Uk The present bell, wfaidi hanga in the central 
tonr. ■ a torn 8 cwt in weight, and ia 6 feet IO) 
B^a in diameter at the nioath. The atyle of the 
alkslnl, though variooa, ia chieSy Early English. 
L iko contains many other interesting rchgioos 
•tike^ amon); which are three churches, dating 
bin bdore the Itcformation. &c, numerciu schools, 
■albnenjoit institutiona. Several Iron foundries, 
lad aisnnfactoriea of portable eteam-enginHi and 
■pKohond macbiaes, aa well as large steam flour- 
Wb arv in aperation here, and there is an active 
tndt ID OaoT. Brewing and machine-making, with 
1 tnde in com and wool, are also carried on. Two 
■aabeti an returned to the House of Common* 
bthacity. Pop. (1801) 2D,99(Il 

UXOOLSSUIHE, a moiitiiDe county of Eng- 
had. sod, after Yorkshire, the lai;ge«t in the 
•mtry, ia bonnded on tbe S. by Yorkshire, and 
)BtkaE.bytholiorthSn. Area, 1,T7S,4I>7 statute 
•■Mi pop. 412,248. The coast, from tbe Humber 
— ■!>« acparatea tbs county from Yorkshire on 
tkt aartb— ti> tha WaaL, ia almost onilbrmly low 
mi *anby; so low, indeed, in one part — betweeo 
fc mntia ol tbe WelUnd and the Nen-that the 
Aat koe reqoire* tbe defeooe of an embank- 
Mal tinn tbe inroads of tbe aea, L. has long 
W divided ioto three districts, or ' parts,' as they 
■I oUad — via., the Farts of Lindsay, an insitW 
dwict totmiog tba Dotth-eastcm portion of L., 
a) BcliidiDg tba Wolda or chalk bilta, which 
B tbott 47 milas in leOKlh by 6 milea in average 
boadtk; (be Patta ot Kaateven, in the Btn&- 
««: nd tba Part* of HolLuid, in the aouth- 
ait. i-*.*.^ tb« greatar part of tbe fens. Chief 
"SB, tbe AcBt, tbe Ancbofane, tba Witbam, 
■1 tka WcDbimL Tbe snrfaoe ia oomparatiTnly 
bni with Um OMiXiaD of tbe Widds in tbe Durtb- 
Mb Tb* maU tttont^ Terr Tariooa, ia mi tha 
*Ma twj fMtUa. It inolnlea tncta of gtadng- 
pNsd ■■•nfAaaad in riohneaa, and tha 'warp- 

tHa WutrDto) along tbe aide of the Trent 

prodnce aplendid crops of wheat, baaus, oata, aai 
rape, without the aid of manure. No other county 
in England has finer breeds of oien, bonea, and 
aheep. Homcaatle and Lincoln hone-faira are fre- 
qoented by French, German, Bunian, and ]»ndan 
dealeis for the purpoae of buying samrior hunter* 
and cairiage-horae*. The climate, thongh anbjeot 
to Htrong westerly winds, ia pretty much the same 
as that of the other central cminties of Vjiglytd, 
Four membaiB are returned to parliamenL 

LINCOLN'S INN, one of the four English Inoa 
of Court, having exclusive power to caQ persnna 
to tbe bar. It is so called because it belonged to 
the Earl of Lincoln in the reign of Edward if., and 
became an Inn of Court soon after bis death in 
1310. See Ihnb or Cofrt. 

LIND, Jbhht. 3ee Oouwchwvt, Madams. 

LINDLET, John, a distinguished living botoaist, 
was bom in 17W at Catton, near Korwjtb, where 
his father, who was the authnr of A OuiU to 
Ortitard and K itchm Oanieiu, owned a large nnraPlT 
" ' ' attraetpd hn 

garden. Botany aeema to have early 
attention, aa, in 1819, he published a translatioa 
of Bichard'a Analyie da Fruit, and in 1820, his 
Monograpkia Rtnarwn appeared. Amongst hit 
most important works are hia Introdwtim to ilie 
NatKToi SifMtm of Botany (1830); latrodveliiM to 
the Structurt and Phynotoay of PlaiiU |S vols. 
1832); Flora M^dka (1833); and Tkt VefftlabU 
Kingdom (1846), which ia a standard work on tba 
aubjcct ol classification, and is an expaneinn of 
hia IntTodwttioH Io tht Natural Sj/ttem, which bad 
previously (in 1836) been rfntodelled nnder tba 
title of A Natvmi Syttem o/* Botany. L. hna done 
moch to popularise the study of botany by tba 
publication of hia LadifJ Botany, Sf^ooi Botany, 
' Botany ' in the Library qf U»ffat Knoalrdge, mi 
the botanical articlea aa far bb the letter R in 
the Penny Cyrtopadia, In hia Theorg of Horti- 
euilurf, whioh haa paased thnm^ several editiona, 
and in the weU-known pcnodical, Th Oardtner't 
ChrtmicU (the horticultural department of which ha 
baa edited from ita commencement in 1S41), he haa 
shewn the practical value oi a knowledge of vege- 
table phyaiology in the common operations of uie 
field and garden. In conjunction with Mr Huttorv 
he haa published The Fotta Flora of Orral Britain, 
which consists of descriptions and fignrea of all the 
J ooimtry up to Uie time 

. . . _ _ this publication in 18331 

Our limited space prevents us from noticiag his 
other works, or hia nnmeroiu contributions to sden- 
tifio transactions. In 1829, at tbe openins of the 
London Univereity, ha was appointed Pro^aaoT of 
Botany, and he continued to discharge the datiea 
of tha chair till 186U, when be resigned. Sines 
182% he has acted aa assistant secretary to the 
Horticultural Society, and haa not only edited their 
TraDsadiona and I'roowdings, but took an active 
part in the mansj^ment of their gardens at Tnmbam 
Green to the date of their discontinuance. Ha 
a Fellow of almoat all tbe learned societies both 
r home and abroad. 

LINDSAT, Sn David, or thb Modht, one ol 
the best, and long the most popular of the oldef 
Scottish poets, waa the bod of David Lindsay tk 
Oarmylton in Eaat Lothian, and <^ tbe Mount in 
Fife, whose grandfather waa a natural son of 8ir 
William Lindsay of the Byrea. The poet is believed 
to bava been bom at the Monnt about the year 
mm, to have bad his first training at the grammar- 
achool of Cupar, and to have studied at tha univer- 
aity of St Andrews from 1503 till 19U9. He eeema 
to have viaitad Italy in IGlOt Ha returned to 



m lb« winter of I51I, irtien he i> 
found taking riMi in > riar Mtad More the ooort oE 
King Junes IV, In the folloiring spring, he wma 
•ppainted 'keeper 'or 'usher' of the prince, who, 
when little moni tiun a twelvemcmth old, beoune 
King Junes V. ; and hi* Teraea preserve some 
pleaaiDS trMea of the oare and affection with 
which Be tended the king's infant years. His wife, 
Janet Donglas, had long the cha^ of the royal 
appareL In 1524, the oonrt fell under the power 
ri the queen-mother and the Donglases, and L. 
lost his place; but four jeaia afterwards, when 
the Dauf^uea irere overthrown, L. was made one 
of the kin^t's heralds. About 1S30, he was knighted, 
and promoted to the office of Lion King at Arms. 
In tBs cnnacity he accompanied embassies to the 
courts of England. France, Spain, and Denmark. 
He a;>peius to have repreauited Cupar in the 
parliaments of 1642 and 1543 ; and he waa preaent 
at 5t Andrews in 1547, when the followers of the 
reformed faith called Knox to take apoa himself 
the office of a public preacher. He died nhildiese 
before the anmmer of 1565. 

The fin,t collection of L's poem* appeared at 
CoiienhageQ about 1551 They were republished 
at Faria or Kouea in 1556; at London in 15S6, 
157S, and 1681 ; at Belfast in 1714; in Scotland in 
1559. 1568, 1571, 1574, 1588, 1592, 1597, 1604. 1810, 
1614, 1634, 1648. 1696, 1709, I7i0. and 1776. This 
mere enumeration of editions might be enough to 
shew the great popularity which L. long enjoyed. 
For nearly two centuries, indeed, he was what Bums 
has aince becoma— the poet of the Scottish people. 
His works were in almost every house, his verses on 
almost every tongue. ' Like Burns, he owed part of 
his popularity, no doubt, to his complete mastcTy of 
the papular ajieeuh. But, like Bums, L. would have 
been read in whatever language he chose to write. 
His verses shew few marks of the highest poetical 

Cwer. but their merits otherwise are meat. Their 
icy is scarcely less genial than their numonr. and 
they are full of good sense, varied learning, and 
knowledge of the world. The^ are valuable now, 
if tor nothing else than their vivid pictures of 
raanoers and feelings. In the poet's own day, 
they served a nobler pnrpoee, b^ jirepnring the 
way for the great 

I nobler pnrpoae, by preparing the 
way for tbe great revolutiou of the iStn century. 
It has been said that the verses of L. did_ 

for the Retormation in Scotland thi . 
•ernona ol Knox. Like Bums, L. ihnt some of 
hit sharpest shafts at the clergy. If his 
much more open than the 
charge of liceutioi " "'" 

if Bums to the 

^ bo remembered that 

n a much coarser and looser age. The 
earliest and mnet poetical of his writings is Tht 
Dreme ; the moat ambitious, Tkc IfoiiariAU ; the 
moat remarkable in hii own day, iwrhaps, was The 
Satyri: of the Thrie EMtaitia ; but that which is now 
read with mnst pleasure, both for the charm of its 
subject and for its freedom from the allegorical 
fashion o£ the time, it TU Hiilorie of Squyer 
liddrum. The best edition of L.'i works is that c' 
the Ute George Chahneis (Lond 1806, 3 vols. 6vo) . 
but Uicre is ample room for a better. Tbe Bookt 
and Jle.iuttT q/'.irnuf, which L. compiled at Lion 
King at Anna in 1M2, wm printed in tae-nmilo at 
Edinburgh in 1823. 

LIXE, an GipreMion uaed in the army to distin- 
guish ordinary cavalry and infantry from the Onardt, 
Artillery, and Gngineera. It obvionsljr takes it* 
origin fmm tbe fact, that the troopa in question 
oonstituted the usual ' line of battle.' 

LINE, Matskmaticu, denotes a magnitode 
having only one dimension. Euclid define* it to he, 
■ that which hat leugUi without breadth.' 

LINEAL DESCENT, the deaeeat in a ri^ 

m, at from father to son, grandson, Ac 


fabrics manufactured wholly from flax or lint (Idt. 
{jnHm). The manufacture of linen has reached 
ita greatest perfection in France aod the Nether- 
Liniu. where the stimnlns to prodnce &ne yama 
(see Spihuino) for tiie laoemoken has Kiven ritu 
to such care and attention in the cultivation and 
pieporation of flax, that in point of fineuen of 
fibre liiey have been unequalled. Consequently, 
the linens of France, Belgium, and lioUaod have 
loiu; enjoyed a well-deserved reputatiDn, and in the 
article of lawn, which is the linest kind of Unen- 
cloth moiJe, the French ore unrivalled. In tiie 
ordinary kinds of linen, our own manufactures are 
rapidly improving, and will soon equal in quality 
the productions of contioental oompetitora. Thoea 
of Ireland, especially, ore remarkable for their excel- 
lence, and this trade has become a very important 
one in that oountry ; whQst in Scotland a large 
trade in the coarser and inferior kinds has located 
itself. Tile export of linen and linen yams from 
tbe United Kingdom exceeds in value £6,000.000 ; 
and tbe amount produced for home-consumption 
may be reckoned at £5,000,000 more, 

'The chief kinds of linen manufactures, besidea 
yam and thread, which will be described under 
Spimniio, are ; Lawh (Fr. lioon), the finest of flax 
manufactures, formerly exclusivdy a French prO' 
duction, but very line lawns are now mode in 
Belfast, Armagh, and Varringstown ; Cambric 
(q. V.) ; DahASIC (q. v.) ; DiAFEB (q. v.). Of tha 
finer plain fabrics, SfueUagi are the most important 
in this country. Tbe chief places of tbeir manufao 
ture are Belfast, Armagh, and Leeds. Commoa 
ShMting and Touting are very eitenaively manu- 
factured in Scotland, uartieidarly at Dundee, Kirk- 
caldy, Forfar, and Arbroath. DiKLt, Haetabacta, 
Otaabiirga, Crath, and Tick (comipted from (icien 
and dtkten, Dutch for cover), are ve^ coorva 
and heavy materials, some fully bleached, other* 
unhleach^ or nearly so. They ore chiefly made in 
Scotland, Uie great seal of the mauufoctura being 
at the towns just mentioned, althouf;h much ia 
mode in the smaller towns and village*, alto at 
Leeds and Bamsley in England. Some ttv varieti^ 
of velvet and velveteen ore also made of flax at 
Manchester, and mnch linen.yom it used aa warp 
for other material*. 

Linen is one of the moat aocient of all textUa 
mannfacturea, at least it is one of the cailieat mm- 
tioned. The cerecloth, in which tbe moat ancient 
mummies or* wrapped, proves its early and *bT 
exteiuivB nse among the Egyptians. It formed 
also parts of the garmentt M the Hebrew t* 
well *• ^e Egyptian prieeta. Panopolit wat tbm 
Belfast of the aucienta, as, according to Strabo, it 
was there the manufacture of linen was chiefly 
oonducted. The wonderful durability (rf linen la 
evidenced by its existence on mummies, and by tha 
remarkable fact mentioned by the Oemwn writer. 
Seetnn. and referred to by Blumenbach, that he had 
found several napkins within tbe folds of the oover- 
ins on a mummy which he unwrapped, and that ha 
had them washed several tilnea without injury, aad 
used with great venerataoti ' this venerable Unest, 
which had been woven more than 1700 years.' 
From the time of these Mwient Bgyptiana (u> to 
the pr e a e nt period, tha osa of linen for dotlnas 
and other purpoaea hat b«en eontinnona: aad 
althongfa tiie introduotion and vait development 
of tbe oottoo nanntacture ohedMd ita 0OD*umpti<a 
for • time, it ha* folly Trained, and has indaad 
exoeaded, it* former pmportumi *• una of our ipaM 



USa (£<ta malra), a fiih of the fuoilj Qadlda, 
itmitat on mist pula of the Biiluh coaate, and 
ihrtat thiDu^oat the Dotthera leaa, and in 
nht atncat riTalling th« ood. Id fonn, it ia much 

li it agreea id haviag two doraal 
te aad ooa anal Gn. the anal and ecoond donal 
Imfi bottbennoadiffen in thepnaenoe of barbels, 
d viucb tlie L. hu only one at the extremity of 
IW laws' )xw. The L. ii genenlly three or four 
!■! IcK acKDrtiiBea more, and hu been known 
H wa^ MTHitT HKUuU. Tbe coloor i( gray, 
ixiiaiaK to (JIts { the belly, ailTei? ; the &Di u^ed 
■nk akto. The tail-tin u roooded. The gape ia 
\Mgi, tad the mtnth well funiiihed with teeth. 
Ik L ia a very *tH«cioiu fith, feeding chiefly on 
miHtr liihfe. It ia alao very proUflt^ and depoajta 
k ■?■*> ia Jane, in aoft oozy ^uad near the 
t a tki at riren. It i* found cbiefly where the 
bMfca at the wa ia rocky. Great ntunbera are 
whi ia tlie lanie maaner aa cod, by baod-linea 
md loBg liDBa, OB the coaati of Cornwall, the 
Bdndaa, the Orkney and Shetland Iilanda, kc ; 
ai in aplit from head to tail, cleaned, salted in 
ioM, waahed, dried in the am, and sent to the 
mAH in the fonn of Stoet-Jitk. They ■» lai^ely 
ofgrtfd to Spain and other conntriea. The air- 
mini at lonndi are [Mckled like thooe of ood. 
Ill trcr alao yielda an oil nnular to ood-liver oil, 
vlitfa i* oaed for the supply of lampa in Shetland 
■d tlwwhwa. — Other qieciea of L are found in the 
■nhin leaa — ^The Burbot (q. t.) ia a fieah-water 
fntl of tha aame genoa. 

U70A (a Sanacrit word which UteraDy meaoa a 
■a <r (vmbol) denotci, in the sectarian worahiji of 
da Bindua, the phalliu, as emblem of the niBle or 
ntnlive power of nature. The Linn-worBbip 
irmil* with the S'aivas, or odoren of Siva (lee 
Kada Religion nnder IXDU). Originalty of .an 
■W aod mystical natni«, it has degenerated into 
Jnrlkes of Hie gnesest deacriptioD ; thus taking 
At Mme conrae as the similar worship of the 
I^Hssiii, Greeks, and other nations of the eut 
md vBrt, The nuumer in whtuh the Lings is 
"JKimtwl B generally inoffensive— the pistil of a 
iwtr.s pillar Of stone, or other erect and cjlimlrical 
rtjurts, beiiig held u appropriate symbols of the 
ntntiTe power of SiTa. Its counterpart is 
liai, or the symbol of female natnrc as fructified 
ad pndnctive. The 8'iva Parlna names twelve 
Laps wbidt aeem to have been the chief objects 
4bb wnraliip in India. 

USCABD. JoBM, DJ)., a nember of a humble 
Imsb Cathfdie bmilj, was bom at Winchester, 

... 1 Prance, where he remained tdil that 
olin IB ooconion with moat of the religioos 
^aUiikMeata of EVaac^ was broken np by the 
MUm (rf tbe BrSToIntiDn. The recent Catbulic 
tiU Bill T-**'''''g Catholics to open school* in 
b^ud, tbe Donai oommnnity waa ttanaferred to 
riwkhsll. and oHimatelj to ifshaw, in the county 
<i DnhaHL !> eontinDad attached to the college 
a ib straral iBiaimtioDa, although not always real- 
^C is 1TV3, BO aora^ttad the office of tutor in 
Oa bnily of Lcrd St«urton ; bat in the follow- 
af jm he ratomed to oomplata hia theological 
MHB at CrooUiaU, when he eotared into priest's 
v'as. aad ia which ha contiDiMd aa prnfeaaor of 
(Umd^j, prefect U atodiea, and viee-pre«id«nt. 

ed matdant In 11 
mtue cure of Hon 

Wanv, he aeM{>t«d the hnmtile cure of Horaby, 
^ ' nlTSTtr*. w which he oontinoed to reaide 
aUs licath, Jal7 13, ISSl. L.'s first important 

work was the AnUquity of the Aitglo-Btann Chxrci 
(Svo, 1S06), reprinted In 1810, and afterwards, iu 
a much enlai^ edition (2 vols. lB4fi). Thi» 
waa bat the pioneer of what became eventaall} 
the labour of his life — a Bittor) of Sn{iliuui {S 
Tola. 4tii), published at intervals, 1S19— 1825; and 
afterwards in 14 vols. 8vo, 1823—1831. This 

appeared ia ISM— 186!L From its first 
appearanosk it attiw;ted moch attention, as being 
fnnnded on original authoritiea and the result m 
mnch new research. It was critieised with con> 

bm, and so eareful a oonsiderKtion of the ori)pnat 
antbuiitiea, that tbe result was to add materially 
to bis reputation a* a scholar and a critic It wor 
fv itaelf a pUce as a work of origiaal research 
and althoi^h it bean gum istak able evidence of thu 
raligioaB opinions of tbe author, yet there is also 
evidence of a sincere desire to investigate uid to 
BSCertain the truth of histocy. In recognition vl 
his gRSt services, many hofuion were offered to 
him ; and he reoeived a pensiOQ of £300 fnnn the 
crown in reward of hia literary services. His 
remains were intettsd in bis old college of St 
Cnthbert, at Ushaw. 

ISSGATBTH, a tows of the island of Luzon, 
Philippine Islands {q. v.), on a bay of the sama 
name. Pop. 23,0(>3, who export rice and sugar. 

LI^NIMENTS (from the Latin word iinlrt, to 
beamear) may ba r^arded, in so far as their physical 
properties are concerned, as ointmeDts having tha 
consistence of oil, while, chemically, most of them 
are tmpt — that is to say, compounds of oils and 

B of tl 

ence, they are rubbed into tbe skin more readily 
than ointments. Among tbe most im|iortant ol 
them are ; Liniment of Ammonia, popularly known 
as HaTithom ami Oil, which is pi¥|iared by mixing 
and shaking together solution of ammoaia and olive- 
oil, and is em]iluyed as an eitemal stimulant and 
rubefacient to relieve neuralgic and rheumatio 
1>aiDs, sore throat, i,c : Soc^ LiHimait, or OpodMoe, 
the constituents of which are soap, camphor, and 
spirits of naemary, and which is used in sprains, 
bruises, rheumatism, kc : LttthntHl Cff Lime, or 

to bums and acatds, and from its genen 

ment for this purpoae at the Corron iron-woru, 
has derived its popular name : CampJior Linintatt, 
consisting of camphor dissolved in ulive-oil, which 
is used m sprains, bruises, and glandular enlarse- 
menta, and which must not be confounded with 
Compoand Camp/tor Linimfni, which contains a 
considerable quantity oE ammonia, and ia a powerful 
stimulant and rubefacient : Opium LJnimnt, which 
consista of soap liniment and tincture of opium, 
and is much employed as an anodyne in neuralin 
rheumatism, tc ; and the Simple lAnimnU of Uia 
Edinburgh Pharmaoopoeda, which is composed of 
four parts of olive-oil and one part of white wax, 
and la oaed to soften the skin and promote tha 
healing of chaps. 

LIITKOPINO (old Norse Lmgal3puHQar, later 
LioTiJjaii^iying), one of the oldest towns in Sweden, 
capital of the ben of the same name, is situated on 
tbe Sttnga, which here flows into Lake Roxen, 1 ID 
tniles south-west of Stockholm. It is legidsrly 
built, with fine market-pUcea and public squares, 
bat the bouses are mostly of wood. L, has three 
chuTchea, <d which the catiiedral — a Qolbio edifica 



Sweden. It iSao poBKuet a Kbrary of 30.000 vol«. 
ItoCndeiicoDsidenble. Pop. 5733. In old heathen 
timea, L. woi a |>liice of BscriGce. 

in Scotland, ia boOBded on the N. by the Firth of 
Forth, haviag the ooimtiea of Mid-Lothiaa, Lanark, 
and Stiriiog on the B., B., and W. Ita length, north 
to south, is 20 milo^ and eaat to •mat IS milea. Ita 
area ii 127 aqnara milM, or 81,230 aorea. The 
■uiface of the gnnind ia iiregutar, but the hilla are 
inconBidei»bl6 m height, the bigheet not being abo»e 
1000 feet The oUmate i> (Aaageable, but healthy. 
The soil i» very varied, and, Moejit along the border* 
of the Firth, tbera ia Uttle land of fint quality. In 
tome oF the high groundi there i* sood pasture, 
also a conBiderable breadth of nnreclaimed inoaa. 
There are few streams of any note, the Almond and 
ATon being the prinoipaL The minerals are of con- 
aiderabla ■nlae, yielding opwarda of £22,000 yearly. 
The freeitonfl uaed in budding the Roval Inatitu- 
tion. National Oallery, and other iniblio bnildiDgs m 
Edinburgh, wai got at Binny, near the oounty toirn. 
There are aencal colheriM in full and profitable 

There are tw* royal bnighi — Linlithgow, 
oounty town, and Queensfeny. The other prinopal 
towns are Bithe^te and Borrowttounnels. Thia 
county is intenected with railways, and the Edin- 
burgh and Glasgow Union Canal, on which there ia 
a great traffic in manure and minerals, traverses it 
for unwarda of ten milea. The old valued rent was 
£6237. In 1811, the real rent was £88,745 ; and in 
1862 it was, Eicluding raQwayg sod canals, i:i73,17I. 
The following are the agricultural atatastdes for 
1857 : Nnmber of occupants of land, 443 ; act™ 
under a rotation of cr<ipe, 60,ft47 ; of which there 
were 3737 acres of wheat, averaging 30 bnshels 3 
pecks per acre ; 4653 barley, 33 bushels 3 pecks pei 
acre; 11,990 oats, 3* bnsbeU per acre; 6246 acrt« ol 
turnips, averaging 14 tons 16 owt* per acre ; and 
1666 acres of potatoes, 2 tons 6 cwtn per acre, O: 
live-stock the numbers were— horsea, 25.13 ; cattle, 
10,766; sheep, 15,982; swine, 2232. Total stock, 
31.613. This county contains several remains of 
Roman antiqaitiea. Fop. 38,645, Constituency in 
1B62, returning one M.F., 766. 

LINLITHGOW, a market-town, royal and moni. 
dpal bnr^ of Scotland, chief town of the countv 
ofttie same name, a station on the Edinburgh 
and Glasgow Railwar, is situated on a small lake, 
18 milea west of Edinburgh. It waa fonnded 
by David L (1124—1163), and. though it has been 
o-ach modernised, it still contains many antiquated 
house*, and soma ruins rich in historionl aasociation. 
The parish church of St Michael's (built partly in 
the Iflth and partly in the 16th &}, a portion ot 
whit^ ia still in uae. is a beautiful specimen of early 
Gothic. The palace, atrikingly situated on -- 
eminence which divides the lake (of 103 acres) 
two alnioat equal parta, waa founded in the 16th 
century. It la quadrangular in form, and heavy, 
but imposing in i^ipearanee ; waa frequently the 
residence of the later Scottish monarchs, and is the 
birthplace of Mary, Queen of Scots. In the main 
■trect of the town tbe Begent Moiay waa assas- 
ainated by Hamilton of Bothwellbaugh. L. unites 
with several other burghs in aanding a member *" 
parliament. Fop. (1861) 3693. 

LINKft, Kakj. TOM, often called Limf*i», oat 
ot the greateat of Datnraliats, was bom 4th Ma;r 
1707, at Baahntt, in 8mala~l (Sweden), where his 
biher was a oonntty puMa in rvj poor 

2H. His parents intended him for his faUter'a 

profession, but he made little proBcienoy m the 

necessary classical studiea, manifestinji, nowerer, 

from his very boyhood, the greatest love for botany. 

"lb father, disspiiointed, proposed to apprentice 

m to a riioemsker; but Dr John Rothmann. a 

Sioian at WeniiJ, a friend of his father, nnder^ 
for a year ijie expense of his education. 
and guided him in the study of botany and of 
physiology. In 1727, the young naturalist went to 
study medicine at Lund, and in the year following 
he went to Upsala, but during his attendance at the 
nniversity he endured great poverty. Olaf Celsius 
received him at last into his hoose, and availed 
himself of his assistance in preparing a work or the 
plants of the Bible. He also won the favourable 
regard of Olaf Hudbeck, the professor of botany 
at UpsalB,by apaperinwhichhe exhibited the first 
outhnes of the sexual system of botany, with which 
his name must ever remun oonneeted. Budberk 
appointed him curator ot the bntanio garden and 
botanical demonstrator. In his 24th year he wmt« 
a Hortti* Uplandicuit. From May to November 
1732, he travelled in Lapland, at the expense of the 
govemioent. The fniits of this tour appeared in hia 
TloraLapponica (Amat 1737). He afterwards spent 

named Mortus, who supplied him with 
of going to Holland to take his degree, whidi be 
obtained at Harderwyck in 173S. In Holland, he 
became the associate of some of the jnosl eminent 
scientific men of the time, and won for himself a 
high reputation as a naturalist, developing ori^nal 
views which attracted no little attention, while he 
eagerly prosecuted bis researches in all depaitmenta 
of natural history. During hia residence in Holland. 
L. composed and publiahed, in rapid suocesaiiHi. 
Honie of his greatest works, particularly his Si/tlfma 
Natura (Leyd. 1735), hia Fuadameata fiutoiwa 
(Leyd. 1736). his OnKraPiaaWruin (Leyd. 1737). his 
Corotlarium Oentrum PUaaamm (Leyd. 1737). Ac, 
He visited England and France, and returned to 
Sweden, where, after some time, he waa appointi^d 
royal botanist and president of the Stockbolm 
Academy. In 17*1, he was appointed ]>rofn>or of 
medicine in Upsala, and in 1742 profesaor of botany 
there. The remainder ot his life was mostly spent 
at Upsala in the greatest activity of scientiKe stody 
and authorship He produced revised editiona at 
his earlier works, and numerous new worka, a 
Flora SuKiai (1745), Fauna Suecim (1746), Horhia 
Uptatientia (1749), Jfoferia Mediea (1T49— 1752}, 
his famous PhUoaophia Botanica (17611, and the 
Sprriet Plantarvm (1753), in eoms reapectn tit* 
greatest of all his works. He died on lOtfa JanaaiT 
1778, the last four years of his life having been 
Spent in great menlij and bodily infirmity- U 
was not only a naturalist of most aocunite obaerv*- 
tion, but of moat philosophical mind, and n[ion thia 
depend^ in a groat degree the ^most unparalleled 
influenoB which he exercised upon the |aupia* 
of every branch of natural history. Among tlw 
important services which bo rendered to aijenc*!, 
not the least was the introduotioB of a more dear 
and precise nomenclature. Hie gnmpa which be 
indicated and named have, in the great majority ol 
instances, been ret^ned amid all the pro|!reaB of 
science, and are too natnral ever to be broken R}> : 
while, il tbe botanical system whieh he introdneed 
is arHficial, L. himself waa perfectly awara ol thii^ 
and recommended it for mere tttnp<»>iT i»a till tlw 
knowledge of planta abonld be aa far advanoao th*t 
it oonld give i&aoe to a natural iTWIigamwt. 8m 



UIHKT (Zfaefo), a pnoi of uuall bird* of Uw 
iaij Pt iifOliJa, aiaztj raiombling the tnie Boclw, 
1^ i«rka. Ac. Tbe bill ia ahort, stnight, conksl, 
ai paBted ; Um win^ lon^ and wuiiewhat pointed ; 
lb nil ibcfccd. Tbe tfeae^ >re widely dutribated 
a tka DOtUwra, tenq>enU^ and McUo tegiona, but 
H(k osafB«ii>a hM •liaea eonceming tbem, from 
ite iiftnm between the plomjige of tbe breeding 
HBi wd tlMit of the gnkter p^rt of the jeaz. 

n* CoKMOK L. (Ik mBfloHiia), or Qbeatbr 'Rxd- 
nu (m. Salpcitt, is commoD in almatt eveiy part 
d lb Britiah laluidi uid of Europe, and eitenda 
OS Ana to Jaun. In size, it a abont eqiuJ to 
*"*•**■—*' Id ita winter-plumace, ita prevaiKng 
stmt k brown, tbe qnill and tul teathen black 
ntvkite edgea; in the nupU&l-plunuife, tbe crows 
J Ai head and the breist ftre bright vermilion 
idat aad a general brigbtening of colour takes 
jkai BIS' the net o( the plumage. Tbia change of 
jltaigt ruiaia it to be deingDatsd the brown, gray. 
« stae L>, according to tbe seaaon of theyoiU' and 
litn. It ta the Lmtie of the Scotch. The aweet- 
>B cf ita aong makca it everywhere a favourite, 
b aagi well id a cage, and readily breeda in 
oalameot ; but the^rightncaa of the nuptial- 
;kB^( never sppean. Ihe L. abouuda chiefly 
a nnewhat open diatiicta, and aeema to prefer 
anlliTated and fniae-caveied grounda. Ita neat 

■ nxy oftca in a fniza-bnab or hawthorn-hedge ; 
a ined of amaO (wiga and itema of sraas, nicety 
aid vith wool or ban-; tbe ^gi are Tour or five 

■ n^iv, pale hluiah white, apeckled with piirple 
■i blown. t.;....rfj congr^ate in large Boclu in 
*alix. aad in great part deaert tbe nplandi, and 
not to the MK-eoaat.— The Mbaly Kcdfole [L. 
naaatl ia alao a widely diitributed apeciea, and ia 
imi in Nortli America, at well as in Europe and 

la^ ehidy in Tery Doithem r^oua. It ia 
BotBa In aiae, ii ia nearly equal to tbe C 
IahL By aome, it ia r^uded as a larger varie^ 

briU, which ia coounon in Britain, although in tbe 
ntk <i F^gj.iMJ it ia chiefly known aa a winter 
■aOal. Tlw fotebead, throat, and lore are black ; 
a Iha vpni^'plamage, tbe crown of the bead ia 
^^-riniaiii : the oeneral colour ia brown of variona 
Ma Thia ^Mcui ia common in all tbe northen 
lab rf the world, enlivening with ita pleaaont 
inkr and ifsig^Uy habila even the deeolate waatea 
' Jwrilwini n — The only other Brltiah speciea ia 
^ HocxTant Ii^ or Twm {!/. nuxUium), chieQy 
^Mi ia ■mmtainoo* or very northern diitricls. 
li i> ^bDo' than tbe preoetun^ baa a yellowiah 
tt. aaj ■«va' asimea Uke red colour which toark* 
ttta^tial-plamage of other apeeiea. 

UHKKD. the eeed of flax, ia importad in large 
fBriilin ioto Britain from the oonlinent of Enrope, 
■db^ lad^ for tha makiag of Umimd oil Mid 

oil-cate; in order to which the leeda are firat bndMd 
or cniahed, then ground, and afterwardi aubjected 
to presaure in a hydraulic or screw press, sometimea 
without heat, and sometinies with tbe aid of a steam 
heat of about 200° F. Lintfed oU is iiisually ambe^ 
coloured, but when perfectly pure it ia colourlesa. 
It baa a peculiar and rather diaagreeable odour 

a without beat Icald-dro 

chieSv used for making varniahes, 

paints, *c That made without '--' '- '-" -" 

Imiatd oi'f) ia purer, and leas apt b 
"■ "'""'"'"""'" appiiea. 

and with heat from 22 to 27 per cent, of oil Lin- 
aeed oil, boiled either alone or with litharge, white 
lead, or white vitriol, dries much more rapiiUy on 
eipoaore to the air than tbe nnboiled oil; and boiUd 
or dn/ing oii ia particolariy adapted for maa^ naesL 
— The oU-cake made in expreaaing linaeed oil is vs^ 
naeful for feeding oattlet ud, beaidee what ia mada 
io Britain, it ia largely imported from the contint at 
See OiL-CAKB. liiueed itself is excellent food for 
cattle and for poultry. Tbe aeed coals abound in 
mucilage, which forms a thick jelly with hot wato', 
and ia very uaeful for fattemng cattle. — Liuteai 
iHAiL much osed for pooltioea, is generally made by 
grinding fresh oil-cake, but it is better if made by 
grinding the seed itaeli 

LINSTOCK, aa iron-shod wooden rtaflT naed in 
gunnery, tor holding the lighted match in readinesa 
to be applied t« tbe toach-hole of the eaanoo. In 
old pictures, the linstock is seen planted in tha 
gronod to the riitht rear of each piece, with a match 
amuking in each of the end* of the fork in which it 

LINT. See Yt-AX. 

LINTEL, the horizontal bearer over doors, 
windows, and other opemn^ in walls, uanally either 

LIN-TSBH-SU, Cbinean Imperial Commiasionen 
was bom in I78S at Hing-hwa, in tbe province of 
Fuh-keen, and hia Chinese biogiapheni have not 
failed to find that his birth was attended with 
aupematural indicationa of future »ninence. fill 
he reached his 17th year, he asaistpd his father 
in his trade of making artificial flowem, and spent 
hia evenings in ttudying to qualify himself for 
tbe villaee oompetittve ezaminatioos, at which 
he suocetSed in obtainmg Buccessively tbe degrees 
analogous to Bachelor of Arts and Idaatcr of 
Arts. Hia ambitioua mind, not aatieRed with 
these triumpba, pointed tu Pekin as tbe fitting 
sphere of his talents, but pov^ly barred the way. 
Happily, however, a wealthy friend, who was filled 
with admiration for L.'s merits and virtues, invited 
him to become his son-in-law, and he was now ia 
a position to posh hia fortune at the capital Ha 
became a doctor of lawa and a member of the 
Hanlln College, which latter honour qualified him 
for the faighe«t official posts. 'When 30 years of age, 
he receivM bis fint official appointment aa censor; 
and by diaplaying the aame zeal and industry, 
combined with irreproachable probity, which he 
had shewn in private life, he gradnally rose into Um 
favour of tha emperor and hia miniatera. He wm 
sent to superintend the repairing of the banks of the 
Yellow Biver ; and on the termination of hia mioion, 
two years after, wsa highly complimented by hia 
sovereign for his diligence and energy, and, as an eri- 
denoe id imperial favour, waa appointed to the poat 
of Giumcdal commiasioner for Eiang-nan, io which 
provinoe a famine was at that time decimating tha 
population. L eihansted all hia private reeouroea 
sod emolnroeota tn providing food for the suSeran, 
it snooeeded in natoiing 



•pminted vroeroy of the two provincoi of Sbcn-M ' itrengtli of the L. U meh that h« e*a canj off > 
•nd Kan-Bo, where, u in Kunp-iuui, he rnxm ^oed ; heifer ta a c&t ouriea a rat. 

th« aflectioai of the people and the commeadationi of { The L. is chiefly an inhabitant of Africa, although 
the emperor. On his reception b; the emperor after ' it ■■ found alio m aome of the wilda of Aaia, par- 
hia return, nev titles vcre ihoirered upon him, and ticolarly in oertaia parti of Arabia, PersiB, and 
he obtained the signal honour of enterrna the impe- India. It was anciently much more cummoa in 
rial precincts on horseback. But now hia brilliant I Asia, and vai found in same parts of Europe. 
' be checked. He hod long urged particutarly in Macedonia and Thrace, aocnrding U> 
' ' ' ' neaaurea Eandotn* and other authors. It has diaappeaivd 
imera of also from Egypt, Poleetine, and Syria, in whiih it 
opium, the bane and aconive of his native laud ; and was onae eommon. The L, is not. in general, an 
on the Cflinmen cement of difficulties with Great inhabitant of deep foreats, but rather of open ptaina, 
Britain, he was aupointed to deal with the growing in which the shelter of occanonal bushes or thicketa 
evil, and, if poaaible, pot a gtop to the obooxious may be fonnd. The breeding. place is siwsjrs in 
traffic He airiTed at Cantoo, invested with un- aome much secluded retreat, in which the young — 
limited authority 1 bat his unwise though well-meant two, three, or four in a Ltter — are watched over 
measures excited a war with Britain, and brought | with great aasiduity by both parents, aud. if ncces- 
down upon himself the vengeance of his incensed , sary, are defended with great courage —nithoogh, in 
sorereieo. He was banished to the region of | other circumatancea, the L. is more dispoaed to 
Ele. where he employed himself in improving the retire from man than to assail him or oootcnd with 
agriculture of the conntrjr, bj introducing more him. When met in an open cooatrv, the L. retires 
scientihc methods of cultivation. He was soon ' at flnt slowly, as if ready for battle, but not deairooa 
recalled, and restored to mora tban his fonnar of it ; then more swiftly ; and fiunlly by rapid bonoda. 
honoura. aod did good service by crushing a rebel- ! If compelled to defend himselC, theL. manifests great 
lion in Yun-nan. His health now besan to fail, and conrage. The L. o[t«n springe apon his prey by a 
he obtained permission to retira to his native pro- ' sudden bound, accompanied with a roar ; and it is 
vince ; but shortly afterwards, while on his way to said that if he fails in seizing it, he does not usually 
attack the Tai-piugs, he died, January 1850. His pursue, but retires as if ashamed ; it is oertain, 
death was the sign^ for general mourmug throiltjb- however, that the L. also often takes his prey by 
out China, and the emperor ordered a sacrificial pursuing it, and with great perseverance, llieanimal 
prayer to be composed, recording the illustrious gingled out for pursuit, as a lebiv, may be swifter 
deeds of the departed ; a signal favour, only coofeired of foot than the L., but greater power of endurance 
upon persoDS of eitraordi^uy merit and virtue. | enablee him to make it his victim. Deer and ant«- 

L., besides thoroughly mastering the statiaticB and lopes are perha]ia the moet common food of liona. 
politics of China, devoted much ofhis time to study. , The L., like the rest of the Fclidie, is pretty much 
ing the geognphy and history of foreign countries, ' a nocturnal animal ; its eyes are adaptad for the 
and to ijrivate literary study. He is ranked oa one night or twilight ratiier than for the day. It Inrke 
of the chief among Chinese poctsi aud the style, ' generally in its lair during the day, and issnea aa 
literary merit, and Ligical order of his public docn- night oomes on, when its tremendous roar begina to 
ments form a strange coutrart to the ubuoI diffuse, be heard in the wilderness. It hu a harror of tim 
rambling, and incoherent style of Chiaeae state- . and torcfa-hghta ; of which travellers ■□ .Africa anil 
papei*. I themselves, when surrounded by prowling liana in 

LIKTZ. tb, apM ot tt. c»w„-toJ ot Upper ' "" -Tldm-. b, rijbl, •^^•' "(•f- U— 

right lint of th. Du.l«, .hi.l I. km draial by "TiS'^ ^ """"^^li^j^l!""* * "Z ?': 

IK _ n „ or nnn T. i. . .. 1- ( -i.-.: J to faTTOeis in South Afnca and other countne* 

Vienna. rop. z7,0uO. It la a atroncly tortitied, _, ,. , j...i v e ,.. 

„„;»* ,«w„ ^nd a bishop', seat, witVnumenma "^"^ '^•^"<'' " J^ ^*" f<""^ "*'™^''« 

.l„T,t i„Rtit„tin„. «nH „f,v„,^,n-nt "wre sjxTtsmen from thee: 

lurches, benevolent institutions, and government SJT" .spi^tsmen from the excitement attending rt. 
Office* There are U™ imperial factories f„ The rifleha, proved too m.ghty for the I. wherever 
carpeU and other woollen ^ooda ; and cloths, '''.''" *^''™P'"y^ »K^"» '""•."'^ ''.'«'» "P"^? 
cotUna. cnssimerea. fustians, lather, and cards ara ^T^' t^'^^ , ""^-iTA^JLJ" 

.!«. mde. The navigation of the Danube occa. > '"^"^ *^,^ »" ""i^ ■^""''"^ ^ » ^"J "l-l d'«tncto ; 
aions it lively trade. Steam-boata ply daily up the T '?, ^"^ ■*'™% *'"'" "^f^."* ^'"°'" Yl ^ 
river to RatJbon, and down the river to Vienna. 1 'HTJ^'I*. ^°^ ""^ '"^ '^ *''" '""S ""^ ^^ 
The women of L. are celebrated for their beauty. """if^ ,"?""*., ^. . ^, . , .. 

■^ The Xj. is easily tamed, at least when taken yoong ; 

IilOIf (Fdii Uo), the largest and meet majestic ! and when abundantly suppLed with food, is veir 
of the Friida and of carnivorous quadrupeds. ] docile. learning to perform festa which excite the 
It is, when mature, of a nearly uniform tawny or . admiration of the crowds that visit menageries 
^Uowish ccJour, paler on the undoparts ; the Gihibitioni of this kind are not, however, uoat- 
young alone exhibiting markings like those com- | tended with danger, as too many instances have 
mon u the Felidse ; the male baa, usually,' a great proved. Lions were nude to contribute to the har- 
ahaggy and flowing n<ane ; and tiie tail, which ia barons apoita of the ancient Romans ; a oomhat of 
pretty long, terminates in a tuft of hair. The liona was an attractive spectacle ; and vast numbeia 
whole frame is extremely muscular, and the fore- l were imported into Rome, chiefly from Africa, for 
parts, in particular, are remarkajjly powerful ; ! the supply of the amphitheatre. Pompey exhibttflt 
giving, with the large head, bright-flashing eye, and ' 600 at once.— ^Lions have not nnfrequently bred ia 
copious mane, a noble appearance to the animal, ; the menageries of Europe, and a bybnd between thb 
which, with its strengtb.haa led to its being called i L. and the tiger has occasionally been ]>raduced- 
the ' king of beasts, and to fandea of its noble \ The mane of the L., and the toft at the end of tbc 
and generous disposition, having no foundation in j tul, an not fully developed till he is ati or aeves 
reaUty. A L of the largest aise meaaurea about i yean old. The tail tenninatet in a small prickle, 
8 feet from the nose to the tail, and the tail the elistenoe <rf which was known to the soicieota, 
about 4 feet The liowu is smaller, has no mane, and which was supposed by tban to be a kind of 
and is of a lighter colour on the ander-partai The | goad to the «"'"■»! when i««i«i"j liimaeK witb hi* 




Horn. The funoua Teatobiirf;-WaId (SdUni 7*0110- 
biwiinuu), ia whicli the legiona of Varni were 
annihilated by Anniniiu (see GBMUincfB Cmoah), 
niiu through the tonthiem port of the princi- 
pality, which i> on the whole rather hilly, but 
haa many fertile valleya. The largest nver a 
the Werre, a tributary of the Weaer. The prin- 
cipal occupation of the inhabitonts ia aEricultnre, 
and the rearing of cattle, sheep, and swine ; 
macb pains is likewise bestowed on the cultivation 
and management of forests, as L. is perhaps the 
most richly wooded district in Oermanj, Linen 
weaving is the chief manufacturing industry of the 
conntry. Among the mineral products are marble, 
iron, lime, and salt. The pnnces of L. are one 
of the oldest sovereign families of Oermany. aiid 
were in a ttourishing condition as early as the 12th 
century. The first who took the name of L. was 
Bemhard von der Lippe, in 1 129. The family split 
into threo branches in 1613 — Lippe, Brake, and 

LIPPI, Fra.' Fiuppo, a Florentine painter of 
great talent, the events of whose lifa were of a very 
romantic kind. Bom about 1412, left an orpban 
at an early age, he apent bis youth as a novice 
in the convent of the Carmine at Florence, where 

captivity, he regained hia liberty, 
in 14.S8, painting at Florence. Filippo was mncli 
employed by Co^o de' Medici, and executed many 
important works for him. While painting in tbe 
convent ef Sta Margarita at Prato, a yuung lady, 
Lncrezia Buti, a boarder or novice, who had been 
allowed by the nuns to sit for one of the li),-utea in 
his picture, eloped with him ; and though strenuous 
efforts were made by her relations to recover ber, 
he Buccuisfully resisted tbeir attempts, supported, it 
is thougbt, by Cosmo; and she remained with and 
had a son by him, who became an artist perhaps 
even more celebrated than Filippo himself. He 
died at Spoleto, 8th October 1469, being at the time 
engaged in painting the choir of the cathedral, along 
with f>a Diamant^ one of his pupils. 

LIPPI, FIUFPINO FlUFFO, oommonly called 
FiLiFPiNO Lirri. tbe son of Pro Filippo andLucrezia 
Buti, was born at Florence in 1460. It is said that 
bis father left him to tbe Care of Fra Diamante, his 
pural. He afterwards studied under Sandro Botti- 
oelli, also a pupil of his father's, and one of the most 
celebrated of his schooL He soon acquired a high 
reputation, and executed various works in Florence, 
Bologna, Genoa, Luoca, aad at Rome, where, in 
1492, he painted some frescoes for the Cardinal 
CaraOa, io tbe church of Sta Maria Sopra Mi 

But tbe high position be attained is proved princi- 
pally by hia works in tbe Eraocacci Chapel m the 
cburch o( the Carmine at Florence. Tbe frescoes in 
this cbapel have always been held in the highest 
Bstimatlon ; they have been studied by the moat 
celebrated painter*, among others by Raphael and 
Michael Angelo ; and though long believed to be 
entirely the work of Maaaccln. are now ascertained 
to have been commenced by Masolino, continued by 
Masaccio, and finished by Filippino ; the works of 
the last being—' The restoring of a Youth to Life,' 
part of which was painted W Masaccio; 'Tbe 
CrudUxion of St PeUr;' 'St Peter and St Paul 
before the Proconsul,' and 'St Peter liberated from 
Prison i ' also, acoording to some, ' St Paul visiting 
St Peter in Prison,' in which the figure of St Pam 
was adopted by Raphael in his cartoon of ' Paul 
preaching at Athens.' FiUppino died at Eloraice 
« 13th April IGOK. 

LIQUBITR. This name is given to any aloobolto 
preparation which is flavoored or perfumed and 
sweetened to be more agreeable to the taste ; Uitrs 
is consequently a large class of liqueuis, of which 
the following are the principal : Anitned Conliol, 
prepared by flavouring weak spirit with aniseed, 
coriander, and sweet fennel seed, and sweetening 
with Bnely clarified syrup of refined sugar. A Mnl/ie 
is sweetened spirit Savoured with the joung to]is of 
certain species of Artemisia (q. v.). Clove Ci/rdinl, 
much sold in the London gin- shops, is Uavonred wilb 
cloves, bruised, and coloured with burned sugar. 

KUmmd, or Doppd-SUmmd, is the principal 
litjueur of Russia ; it is made in the ordinary way 
with sweetened spirit, flavonred with cumin and 
caraway seeds, the latter usually so strmig as to 
conceal any other flavour. It is chiefly made it 
Riga, and there are two qualities : that made in Itiga 
is the sort in common use, and ia not the finest ; ili« 
better sort is only manufactured in smaller quautliic* 
at Weissenstein, in Esthunia ; the chief difference is 
in the greater purity of the spirit used. Hai-mrliino 
is distilled from cherries bruised, hut instead uf 
the wild kind, a fine delicately -flavoured variety, 
called ifaraiguea, grown only in Ualmatia, ia UDnL 
This cherry is largely cultivated around Zara. the 
capital, where the liquenr ia chiefly made. Grf^ 
care ia taken in the distillation to avoid inj ury to 
the delicate flavour, and tJie finest sugar is useil to 
sweeten it 

Noyau, or Crtmf. dt Noyau, is a sweet oorlial 
flavoiu^ with bruised bitter-almonda. .In Turkey, 
the fine- flavoured kernels of the Mahaleb cherry u« 
used, and in some places the kernels of the peach iir 

very large quantities are sold ; it usually conniziu 
of the ordinary sweetened f^ flavoured with the 
essential oil of peppermint, which is previously 
rubbed up wiUi rebned sugar, and formed into an 
oleosaccharum, which enables it to mix with tha 
ve^ weak spirit. 

Cwrofoa and KirtdtuxuMr are described nndei 
their own names. 

LIQUIDA'MBAR, a genus of b«es ot the natural 
order Allingiaeece, and the only genua of tbe o^ler, 
having flowers in male and female catkins on tlw 
same tree, the fruit formed of S-oelled, manj acn\i A 

oaptnlea. and the seeds winged. They are tall ts im^ 
remarkable for their fraf^t balaamie nvdoc^ 
L. ilyraeijlua, the AjOBicUiI^, or S^rwwrQvm trv«^ 
ia a beautifiil tree with pklmato iamrta, a native of 




architecture in the world. The nuraofacturra 
are inconsiderable, bat it is the principal trading 
port of Portugal, and contains 130 foreign com' 
merciol fimii. In 1861, IKU ve«els entered and 
oleared the port ; and of tboe, 677 veaiela, of 
122,191 tons, vers British. In the jmc 1860— 
1S61. the imports, oonaistine ehietlj of cottoni, 
metals, colonial produce, and woollens and fnis, 
amounted to £%842,8S3 ; and the exports, chiefly 
liquids and animal and chemical products, to 
£1,297,062. About 30,000 Galegos (Qalicians) earn 
a subostence here at porters, and in other sorts 
^ hard work. 

L. is said to bave been founded by the Phceni- 
oians, was a flonrishing commercial oit^ when the 
Romani tint became acquainted with it, and the 
capital of Lnsitania. It was taken by the Moors 
in 712, from whom, after undergoing monv viciaai- 
tndee, it was rocaptHTed by ^onso L m 1147 j 
became the seat oE an archbuhopric in 1390, and of 
a patriarchate in 17IS. L. has been frequently 
Tiaited by earthquakes ; thot of 1755 deetroyed a 
great part of the dty and 20,000 of the inhabitants. 

IiI'SBURN, a market-town and parliamentary 
borough, oituatad on the rirer Logan. partW in the 
oounty of Antrim, portly in the county of Down. 
Irelond It i* diatont from Dublin 97 mUes north- 
Dorth-eaot, and 8^ south- south-west from Belfast, 
with both which places it is connected by the 
Dublin ond Belfast Junction Railway. The popu- 
lation in 1861 was 9653 ; of whom 4330 were Fro- 
testonts of the Established Churoh, 2543 Catholice, 
and Uie leat Protestants of various deoominations. 
L, originated in the erection of a oastle, iu 1610, by 
Sir Fnlk Conway, to whom the manor was assigned 
in the settlement of James L ; but its importanoe 
dates from the settlement of a number of Huguenot 
&milies, who. after the revocation of the Edict ol 
Kontes, estobliahed themselves at L., where they 
introduoad the manufacture of linen and damask, 
after the method and with the machinery then in 
use in the Low Countries. It is a dean and 
well-ordered town, with a oonvenient market, and 
considerable manufacture* of linens and damaakt ; 
besides which, bleaching, dyeing, flai-dreming, flai- 
spinninz, Ac., are carried on. Ita pariah church is 
the cathedral of Down and Connor, and is inter- 
esting as the bnriol'place of Jeremy Taylor, who 
waa bishop of that see, and died at L. in 1667. 
L. returns one member to parliament. 

LISIEUX (ancient ffoviomasut Laavitim), a 
town of Northern France, on the Touques, 27 mQes 
•aat-south-east of Caen, at the entrance of a beauti- 
ful valley. The principal building is the church of 
8t Pierre (formerly a cathedraJ], belonging to the 
13th c, and built on the site of an older edifice, 
in which Henry II. of England married Eleanor of 
Ouienns. L. is the centre of an eitenaire manufac- 
ture of coarse linens, woollens, flannels, horsecloths, 
ribbons, Ac., which gives employment to more than 
3000 workmen. Pop. 13,00a 

LIBKBA'RD, a mnnicipal and parliamentary 
borongh in Conwall, is situated in a well-oultivated 
diatrict, on the Looe, 16 milea weat-north-weat of 
Flytooath. Two miles to the souQi of the town is 
Mmong spring, sud to have been presented to the 
mhabitoala by St Eeyne, and the virtue of whoa* 
waters is set forth in Soutlu^'a well-known ballad, 
TAa WrU qf 81 Stye. There are manufactures (d 
•erge and leaHier, and oonaiderable traffic in the 
pndace of the tin, copper, and lead mines of the 

ndghboarbood. L. retonks a member to ps 
Pop. (1861)ofpariiameiitai7bartiagh,6(SI 

LISHO'RE, on island of Argvleshire, sir miles 
from Oban, is sitnated in Lech lioi^e. and is 
10 miles in length, with an avenge breadth of 1| 
miles. It contains the remains of sevenl interesting 
buildings, as Aohindnin Castle— formeriy the pwii- 
dence of the Bishops of Argyla— an old cathedral, 
and Castle Rachal, a ScancUnavian fort, now very 
minona. The island is for the most part nnder 
cultivation. Pop. (1861) 853. 

LI'SSA (PoL Lazna), a town of Praasia. in the 
province of Posen, and the circle of Frauatadt, 44 
miles south -south-west of Posen. Pop. 10,014, of 
whom nearly one half are Jews. L, has a fine 
townhoDse, a castle, one Roman CathcJic and three 
Proteatant churches, with manufactures of wooUena, 
leather, and tobacco. This place became for o tiiDe 
the chief seat of the Bohemian Brothers. 

LIST. See FiLur. 

LISTON, ROBiRT, o celebrated suT^eon. was 
bom at Ecciesmochon. in the county of I^nlitfagow, 
in 1794, ond was the ton of the Bev. Heary Listen, 
the minister of the parish. A Eter studying anatomy 
under Barclay in Edinbargh, and following the 
usual course of medical etudy in that city, ho prtv 
ceeded to London in 1S16, where fae attended tbe 
surgical pmctiCH of the Blizords at the London 
Hospital, and of Abemethy at St Bartholomew' a. 
After becoming a member of the B^at C<rflege of 
Snrgeona of London, he returned to lidinlnii:^ and 
iu 1818 was elected a FeUow of the Boyal CoUege 
of tjurgeons of that dty. 

L. now commeoced his career as a lectarer na 
anotomy and sntgery, and soon became remarkable 
for his boldness and skill as an operator. In conse- 
quence of his performing monj' successful operatiooa 
on patienta who had been discharged as mcurable 
by the sorgeong of tbe Edinburgh Inlirmajy, he was 
requested by the managers to refuse his aBaiatanF« 
to any person who had been a patient in that insti- 
tution, and to abstain from visiting tbe words. Ue 
naturally declined to accede to these eitraotdinary 
propoeitionB, and in conieqiience Was expelled, and 
never entered again its words, ontil in 1827 he was 
elected one of ita surssona. His anrpca] skill, and 
the ropidtty with which his operations were per- 
formed, soon acquired for him a Eoropean teputa- 
tioo; ondiu 18&, he accepted the invitation o( the 
council of University College to Sll the ch^ of 
Clinical Surgery. He soon acquired o large London 
practice ; iu 1840, he was elected a member of the 
council ol the College of Snrgeous ; ond in 1846^ he 
became one of the Board of Examiners, la the 
very climax of his fame, and a]ipareDtIy in the 
enjoyment of vigorous health, he wos Btnck down 
by diseaae, ond died 7th December 1847. 

His most important works are hia Elanentt of 
Surffmj, which appeared in 1831, and hii Praelieal 
SurgfTv, which appeared in 1837, and has goiia 
tbruugb four editions. His uncontrollable temppr, 
ond the coanenesa of language in which he fre- 
quently indulged, involved bim in vorious quorrela 
with hia profesBianal brethren ; yet, notwitlistuidiiig 
these defects, he always succeeded in obtaining tba 
regard and esteem of his pupils. 

LISZT, FbjiVZ, pianist, wos bom at Baidiiut 
in Hungary, 22d October 1811. His father, » 
funetionoiy emtJoyad on the estates of Prixtce 
Bsterliazy, was himself poasenad of some anuiol 
skill, and carefully cultivated the woodarfnl talent 
which L shewed even in hia infancy. In hia Dintli 
year, the child ployed publicly at PrcabBn^ ami 
excited universal astonishment. By the aiMMtnitca 
of two Hungarian noblemen — Connta ^Thvli m^^X 




Tlis mlowr of tha depoait ii of coniiderable 
impartutce in d«tanDUUDK its value u ■ motbid 
lymptom. Tavmy or reddish sedimenti of this 
liiiid ue fiequeDtt^ the result of mere indioestioD 
or a comiDon cold; the yeltovish- white ones deserve 
mora atteotion, ai they are believed frequently to 

Kicede the excretion of BMgar througli the kidneys. 
t piok or brickduit sedimeots are almost always 
associated with febrile disturbance or acute rheuma- 
tism : and if these aediments are habitual, without 
fever, there is moat probably diaease of the liver or 
apteen. If the nriae ia very acid, a portion of the 
hthic acid is separated from ita base, and shews 
itself, as the fluid ooola, in a free crystallised stata, 
resembling, to the miked eye, (trains of Cayenne 
pepper, but appearing under the microscope as 
ihombic tablets. This free lithic acid is for lees 
common than the lithates, and does not dissolve on 
the applicntion of heat 

T)ie persriDs who suffer from this diathesis are 
chiefly adolts beyond the middle aoe, and of indo- 
lent and luiurions or intempente nabita. As the 
fonnntioQ of iithio deposita is due to over-aeidity of 
the urine, alkalies are the medicines mosC commonl]' 
prescribed, and the preparations oE potash are far 
preferable to those of soda, becaoae lithate of potash 


the I 

•alt _ 

Be^pjnen is, however, ot far more use than medi- 
cine in the lithic acid diathesis. The patient should 
dioe moderately and very plainly, avoiding acid, 
laccharine, and starchy matters and fermented 
hquoiB. The skin should be made to act freely 
by friction, and by occasional warm or daily tepid 
baths. Worm clothioK must be used ; plenty of 
active exercise must be token in the open air ; 
and the healthy action of the bowels and liver 
duly attended to. It must be recollected that the 
hthatea are sometime* thrown down, not from 
nndue acidity of the unue, but simply from that 
fluiil not containing the due quantity of water to 
hold them in solution. In such coaeB, a tumbler of 
coM spring.water taken nisht and momtag will at 
once cause the ceaaation of Uua morbid symptont. 

LI'TUIUM (symb. Lj eouiv. 64; sp. gr. O'SgSG) 
is the metallic base of the ukali litJiia, and derives 
its Dame from the Greek word tMot, a stone. The 
metal ib of a white silvety apjiearance. and is much 
harder tliati sodium or potassium, but softer than 
lead. It admita of beiDD welded at ordinary tem- 
peratures, and of being drawn out into wire, which, 
however, is inferior in tenacity to leaden wire. It 
fuses at 306*. It ia the %htest of all known 
metals, its specific gravity beiog little more than 
half that of water ; it decomposes water at ordi- 
nary temperaturaa. It bums with a brilliant 
li^Lt in oxygen, chlorine, and the vapours of iodine 
and bn>mine. It ia easily reduced from ite chloride 
by means of a galvanic Iwttery. Lithium forma two 
Olmpounda wiui oivften, viz., lithia (known also aa 
lithion or Uthon), which is the oxide of lithium, aud 
a peroxide of lithinm whose fbnnula has not been 

LitJiia, in a pnre and isolated state, cannot be 
ftbtained. Hydrate of lithia {LO.HO) occurs as a 
white translucent msas, which cloeelv resembles 
the hydratea of potaah and aodiL The aalte of 
lithia are of sparing occurrence in nature. The 
minerals petobte. tri|>hane, lepidolitc, and tour- 
maline CDDtoio lithia in combination with ailioio 
acid, while triphyline and amblygouite contain it 
aa a phoaphote ; it ia also present in small quantities 
in many mineral watera. 

Carbonate of Uthia (LO.CO,) ia precipitated 
when carbonate of f"""0"'» is added to a afaoDg 

solution of chloride of lithium, and oocura aa a wliile 
mass with a alight alkaline reaction. At a dull tbA 
heat, it melte into a white enameL It requires lOD 
parte of water for ite solution, but ia more aolnble in 
water charged with carbonic acid. The soUntion of 
the salt has been strongly recommended in casta of 
jicout and gravel, in consequence of the aolvcot power 
which it exerts on uric scid. The sulphate, jilma- 
pbate, and nitrate of lithia are of no speaal import- 
ance. Chloride of lithinm {LCl-f-4aq.) ia readily 
prepared by dissolving the hydrate of lithia in 
hydrochloric add, and evaporating. It ciytalliaca 
in octohedra, and is one of the most deliqnesceut 
salte known. It ia of importance as bamg the 
source from whence lithium aud carbonate id lithia 
are obtained. 

Lithia was discovered in 1817 by Arfvedson. 
The rortal lithium was first obtained in 1622 by 
Brande, but nothing woa known regarding ita pro- 
perties until 1855, whan Bunien and Uatthiessen 
discovered the present method of obtaining it, and 
carefully investigated ite physical and ehetoical 

LITBO'ORAPHT (Or. Uffo*, a itone), the ait 
of printing from stone, waa invented by Alova 
Senefelder, at Munich, about the end of the 18th 
century. It ooniists, first, in writing and drawing 
on the stone with the pen and bmsh, with tbe 
graver, and with the crayon or chidk ; or in 
bBngferring to the stone writings and drawint:s 
mode with the pen or brush on traaafer-paper, or 
impressionB from copper, steel, and pewter plates. 
taken on a coated paper, aud then in printing olT 
from the stone the writings or drawings thai made 
upon it The principles of the art are these : 
an unctnoQS composition having been made to 
adhere to a calcareo-argillaceous stone, thnee ports 
covered by it— i. e.. the writing or drawing — aounire 
the power of receiving printing-ink, whereas thoae 
parte not containing the writing or drawing are 
prevented from receiving ink from the iokinc- 
roller by the interposition of water ; and lastly, 
an absorbent paper being lud on the atoTte, and 
subjected to strong pressure, copies are obtained. 

The best Utliograplae itonet are found at Kelb^ai 
and SotenhoCen, near Pappenheim, on the Danube, in 
Bavaria ; but they have been found also in Silesia, 
England, France, Canada, and the West Indies. 
These stones are composed of lime, clay, and silicioua 
earth, and are of various huea, from a pale yellowish- 
white to a light buff, reddish, peorl-uray, ligbt-gray. 
blue, and greenish colour. Those of uniionn colour 
are the best The yellow-buff ones, being soft, ar« 
adapted for lettering and transfer ; the peaH-grsy 
ones, being harder, for chalk-drawings and engrav- 
ing. They are found in beda. commencing with 
Uyers of the thickness of paper, till they reach tiie 
dimeosions of one, and several inches in tfaickners, 
when they are easily cut, being yet soft in th« 
quarries, to the sizes required for printing pur- 
poses. The sMnea are ground nlone with sand, ami. 
when required for the pen, the bruah, the graT«:T. 
or transfer, they ara policed with pnmioe &o<l 
water-of-Ayr stone; and for chalk-diiiwinga a>lMl 
graduated tints, an artificial gratu is given by 
ground glass or tine sand. 

When any writing or drawing baa bean finiafapd 
on stone, it then requires to be etched, thna ; a 
mixture of 2 parte <Mf nitrio acid, and from 41) to 
60 parts at dissolved gum-arabic, is poured ir«-er 
the stone onoe or several times, acootding tn -Ui* 
nature of the work, The etoliing changa tba 
Burfaoa of the stone, raising the i N»k ut it ta> ^ 
degree scarcely perceptible to the naked ^re. Tb« 
writing or drawing, which has been (Sfected l>w 
peasy ink or chalk, remains protected boa *it% 




Btephena's Steapt for At Blone and Oravel, wtiicli 
was raported on lo favoDrablj b^ a oomimttee of 

Srofcamonid men, that pArlUmmt, in 1739, parchiued 
le Brcret for £5000. The trmtmeat doabttew 
afforded relief ; but there U no evidence that any 
OAlcoliia waa actnolljr diMoIved, for in the bladder 
of each of the fonr persona whose cure wai oertified 
in the report, the atone wai foand after death I 
At present, no gnbstance, which, taken by the 
month, has the power o[ disMlTing calculi, ii 
known ; biit aa Dr Prout tenuu-ki in hia well-known 
tieatiae. On Ihr tfatvre and Trmtmait 0/ SlomacJi 
and Urinary Dveaea, remediea of this claaa aro to 
be aniigbt ' among harmleaa and onirritating oom- 
poDude, the elements of which are 10 aaaociated w 
to act at the eame time, with respect to calcolous 
iIlgTedient^ both as alkalies and acids.' Solations 
of the super-carbonated alkalies containing a Kreat 
eicess nf carbonia acid—aa, lor example, the natural 
mineral waters of Viohy— approach most nearly to 
what is required. The relief which, in many 
instances, has followed the adminiatration by the 
mouth of Bubstances snppoaed to be Uthontn|ttics, 
has been derived not mim the solution of the 
calculi, but from Uie diminution of pain and irritation 
in the bladder. 

On the other hand, considerable sncceaa has been 
obtained by the direct injection of solvents into the 
bladder, eapecially when the natare of the calcniua 
is susjiected ; weak alkaline solutions having appar- 
•ntly caused the diaappearance of uric acid calcali, 
while phosphatio calcoii have unqneatiODably been 
dissolved by the injection of very weak acid soln- 
tioDS. It ia reported that a waak gnlvsnic current 
has been recently foood soccesafiil id the houda of 
an Italian sargeon. 

LITHOPHA'OID^ [Gr. stone-eaters), a term 
sometlmea applied to the molluaca which bore holes 
(or their own residence in rock*. See Pbolab. 

LITHOPHANB (Or. pAnniM. clear, transpai«nt), 
a peculiar style of ornamental pnrcehun chietiy 
adapted to lamps and other trans pare ociei ; it con- 
uats of pretty pictures produced on thin sLeeta of 

L picture, owing to the t 
pareucy of tlie porcelain, which has the lights and 
shadows correctly shewn, if viewed by ttonamitted 
Lght. Litbophane pictures are common in Ger- 
many, wliere the art has been more favourably 
recMVfd than in France, its native country. Tliey 
are usually employed to form the aides of onia- 
meiitEil tamps and lanterns, and are sometimes 
inatrted in decorative windows. 

LITHOTOMY (Gr. Ulhot, a stone; tSnl, the act 
of ciittiugl, tbe technical name for the surgical 
operatioD popularly called cuitingfitr t/ie aion^ 

As most of the symptoms of stone in the bladder 
(wliidi are noticed in the article Calculus) may be 
simuLited by other diseases of the bladder and 
adj^icent parts, it is necessary to have additional 
evidence re^rarxling the true nature of the case 
before resorting to so serious an operation as 
lithotomy. This evidence is afforded 1^ sounJi'im 
the ii.itient — a simple ptelimiiiary operation, which 
consixts in introducing into the bladder, through 
the natural urinary passage (the nrethra), a metalQc 
instrument, by means of which the stone can be 
plainly felt and heard. 

Lithotomy has been performed in varioni ways at 
differvut timea. The earliest form of lithotomy is 
known as culling <m lie spijit, or Celnu't mMod. It 

received the former name from &a stone, after being 
fixed by the pressnre of the fingen in the aniu. 
being directly cut upon and extracted ; and the 
latter, from its having been first described, so far 
as is now known, by Celaua, although it had prob- 
ably been practised from time immemoriaL At a 
later period, this operatim r^cdred from Harianus 
the name of the apparatui nunor (from a knile and 
hook being the only iostniments used), to diatin- 
guilh it from his own method, which he called tbe 
apparatus major, from the numerous instruments be 
emplaye'L ITie Marian method was founded 00 '.1m 
eiTuneous idea, that wounds of membranous part* 
wonU not heal, while their dilatation was compai^ 
atively hannleas. The object was t« do as little a* 
possible with the knife, and a* much as poesiMe 
with dilating instruments ; and the necessary' result 
was laceration and such other severe injury, that tliis 
became one of the roost fatal o^rations in sur(Eery. 
Nerertheleea, it was the operation mainly in vosue 
for nearly 200 years, tQl Fri!re Jaoufs, 111 1697, intro- 
duced what is essentially the method now in u*e. 

The lateral operation, so called from the lateral 
direction in which the incision is made into the 
neck of the bladder, in order to avoid wounding tbe 
rectum, is that vrhtch, with various minor modjiiira- 
tions, is almrist universally employed at the jm-sent 
day. Frtoe Jaques, a priest, seems to have learned 
the method from a provincial suri^eon named Fiem 
Fiance, and to have practised it with much sncoess ; 
and, in 1697. he came to Paris in onler to make it 
puhlicly known. The advantage o( this o]ienitivn, 

without laceration of the part* or injury b 
rectum, was immediately recognised by the leailm^ 
surgeons of the time, and the MoHan process was at 
once Dnivenially given up. 

We can only very briefly indicate the leading 
Steps of the operation. The patient beine laid uo 
the taiile, and chloroform bung administereiL an 
instrument termed a curved staff, with a devp 
groove, is pssaed into the bladder. An incision is 
then made 00 the left side of the mi'sial line, abiuit 
an inch and three-quarters in front of the anus, aod 
extending downwards to midway between the anus 
and the tuberosity of the left ischium. The incision 
should be sufficiently deep for the O]>erator, i>D 
introducing a finger of the left hand, to feel the 
ETODve of the ataSl The knife, directed by this 
iiDger, is now fixed in the groove, and alidine along 
it towards tbe bladder, divides the membra.nous 
portion of the nrethra, tbe edge of the jiroslate, 
and the neck of the bladder. The knife is nuw 
withdrawn, aa also ia the ata^ and the suijieon 
introduces the forceps over the finser of the h-ft 
hand into the bladder, feels for uie stone, and 
draws it otit. 

It is nnneeessory to enter into any at tbe details 
of the after-treatment. At first, the niine tscnpn 
through the wound, but in favourable case* it is 
voideu by the natural pasaage in a week, and tlis 
wound heals in the course of a month. 

From the ahortneea of the female urethra and the 
extent to which it oan be dilated. an<l, additioaally, 
from the comparative rarity of calculous affections 
in women, the operation of Uthotomy is cxdusiwly 
restricted to the male aex. 

The danger of the operation seems to tbtt with 
the age of the patient. Out of IS6 caiws collected 
by Mr Hutchinson of the London Uiiapital, 137 were 
under tbe age of 20, and of these. )23. or mvly 90 
per oenl, recovered ; while of the 49 who were oTer 
20 years of age, 26, or more than S3 per cent., died. 

LITHO'TRITY (Gr. stODe-orosbiiig), the surKical 
operation of breaking up a itono in the bladder uta 



Md mtD (ngmenta that the; mftj rodQy be 

tfpdkd bj the arethn. Although the important 
•[ BKh in opentioD bu been recagDnsl ftom the 
■rfial lime, ■ French lUrgeDn, Civiile, who com- 
Boeal hii meucbea ia 1S17, but did not perform 
te Snt ogentiaii till the betcinning of 1S24, is eatLtled 
tt b( r%u>l«I u the discoverer of htbotrity. The 
iMJiuuent by vhich the diuntegntioa of the stone 
■ effgeted. is introduced in the ume moDaer u > 
otMer or louiid into the bUdder, snd, after cktch- 
iag Iha iloiie, either borea, hajnniera, or enwhes it to 


Quhbig ia now eeDenJlj oreferred, the stone 
hag gatped by the blade* of the instniment shewn 
in the Ggure, oue Uade acting on the 
^^ other by mouu of a screw. 
tSjk Tlu pToc«aB Beams, at first sight, so 

^^ M^e, aa compared with the operation of 

^1 lithotomy, that it is necessary to djstin- 

I guiah those caaes in which it may be 

I I morted to, and those in which it is 
•I oontra- indicated. It may be resorted to 

ivben the nttieiit is an sdnlt. and the 
oivthra fuQ-siEed and healthy, so ■■ 
freely to admit the passage of the iastrn- 
ment ; when the prostate ia not much 
enlarged, which is very often the case 
in old men, and wh«i the bladder is 
not thickened or veiy irritable : while 
^ it most be avoided in children, in 
1^j*U consequence of the snudlness of the 
I nrethra 1 when there is great irritation 
y and thickening of the bladder ; when 
B there is great enUrgement of tie pro- 
n ftate^ which hinders the manipalation of 
y the iDstrnmeDt, and the escape of the 
ffta broken fragments of stone ; when the 
■tune is of targe size, as, for example, of 
I IRSter diameter than two inches ; and when there 
smna to bdiere that the concretion is a mntberry 
alralu, which, from its extreme hardness, cannoC 
laditj be broken. Great care mnst be taken that 
a fnguent remains in the bladder, as such frag- 
■ata tfe almost sore to form the nuclei of fn^ 

IT Litira, which formed 

KnadoD L., comprising Folesie, 
Sick Kvaia or Nori^rodek, White Russia or 
Ka^ Meiihiv. Witeb^ Smolensk, Folotsk, and 
I'dik LiToaiK. This country contained aboat 
UUQO Koglisb square miles, and was partitioned 
kontn Russia and Prussia, the Utter receiving 
■isEis BOW deoominated the government of Oum- 
hso, in Eart Pnusia. The LiUiuaniauB, a race 
l> Bknu be long the Letts of Livonia, the Coun 
ri (>srlaBil, and the ancient inhabitants of East 
PiMia. arc [vobabty a Slavonio people, whose 
topBil duractensties have been much modified 
M liiae and the intermixture of other races. 
tnaiiliii^ to the Lithuanian language 
iff((ai:k« neu«r to the Sanscrit than any otlwr 
auer ol the Aryan group. 

LvMst first subject to Buadk, but shook off the 
,nli liout the end of th« l2tJh c, and became an 
■tliiiiliiil utwer. Their mkra, who bore the 
Ui ri Grand Dnk^ conqosred the ne^bonring 
I^Ua provineea, and sveit carried their ravages 
k tki nry gatea of Hoscow, The Grand Duke of 
UJ^dvn, was in 13S6 dected king of PoUud, 
W Msd an edict of nnion between the two 
Mbia. and in ISOT the two were decOared to 

LITMUS is a well-known colouring matter, 

which is obtwned from several lichens, but chieSy 

from Ltcanora larlaTfo. The hchens are powdered 

and digested with ammoniacal Uuids (urine, for 

example) till they undergo decomposition. Alum, 

potash, and lime ar« tlien added, and the mixture ia 

allowed to stand till tho maximum decree of colour 

iheerved. Sand and chalk are added, to give a due 

rree of solidity, and the moss is then dried in cobes, 

1 is ready for the market The exact nature of 

the changes which ensue is not altogether kaiiwn ; it 

is, however, certain that the pizment is originally 

red, and that it only becomes man on the addition 

of alkalies or of lime^ This blue colour is acain 

{hanged into a red, on the addition i)f a free add. 

m. ., litmus-papM' and tincture of litmm 

for the purpose of detecting the acidity of floida, 
tt, is known to every student -• ■ ■ ■ " 

t of cbemistiy. Se« 

LITRE, the unit of the present French a 
' capacity, both dry and liquid. It is the volama 
a cubio decimetre (see ^I^REj, and is equal to 
0-2200967 Britiiih impenol gallon. It is subdivided 
decimally into the tiecUiln, cfntUilre, and miliiUtrt 
(respectively i^th, ii,th, and jAith of » litre). 
Ten litres are a decatiire: 100, a lieciotan; 1000, a 
kilolitre. The hectolitre is the common moaaur« 
for grain, and is eqoal to 0-3439009 Biitish imperial 
quarter, or nearly 2] imperial bushels. 

LITTLE FALLS, a villase of New York. Dnited 
States of America, on the Mohawk River. 01 miles 
north-west of Albany, on the line of the Kris Cauol, 
and New York Central RaUway. The Uohawk here 
passes through a romantic defile of two miles in 
length, with falls of forty-two feet, giving water- 
power to four paper-mills, two woollen tactorie^ 
flouring-milla, &c. The village bos nine churches 
a bank, newspapers, and manufactures of starch, 
shoes, &C. Po|i. in 1860, 5989- 

LITTLB ROCK, the capital of Arkansas, United 
States of America, is situated on the south bank of 
the Arkansas River, 300 milos from its month, on 
the first bed of rocks bounding the alluvial valley 
of the MiisissippL It contain! the state Capitol, an 
arsenal, penitentiary, and five churches. Founded 
in 1820. Pop. in I860, 3727- 

celebrated English jurist, was bom early in the 
ISth 0. (the exact vear is not koown), studied 
— it is thought probable~at Cambridge, after which 
he removed tu the Inner Temple. Ueniy VI. 
apnointed him steward or judge of tho Court of tha 
I'idace, and in 14Bfi king's Serjeant, In which eapa> 
city he travelled the northern circuit. In 1466, hs 
was made one of the judges of the Court of Common 
Pleas; and in 1475, he was created Knight of the 
Bath. He died August Zt, 1481. L.'s fame resia 
on bis work on TVnurs*, which was origiDaUy written 
in Norman -French, and tirst giublisHed about th» 
time of his death. It went through a multitude of 
editions. The first translation into English wm 
mads in 1S39. and in the course of the next hundred 
years it went tbrongh no less than 24 editions. Tha 
changes in the laws rehitive lo proiierty have matly 
diminished its value, and it is now little studied by 
isidered a model on account 
rhich the subject 
is handled. 

LI'TUROY (Qr. lalourgla, a pubUc service), in 
general, si^ifiea a fonn of prayer and ceremoiual 
estahli^ed ny ecclesiastical authority, to be used in 
the finhlic services of the church, bat is especially 
applied to that used in the celebration and adminis* 
tralaon of the Encharist The very earliMt historical 
leoorda of Chriatiani^ plainly shew that snch fonna 

lawyeis ; yet it is oonsi 
of the clear and logical a 


1 the I 

I, but il 

_._ ._ ..._ ._ ._B jihnul- _ ._. . 

hif^hly probsble that tor a conijdenble period thej 
were not reduced to writing ; and bence even thou 
of the extant liturgies which reprewnt the eu-lieit 
fonoB differ cojuidernbly ftoax eich other, if not ia 
tlie Bbbatance of the rite, ftt leut in the ■rruige- 
ment even of tboee puia which Kre common to 
them jiL A theulneical diBuiiuioD of the Bubject 
of the liturgy, tboiigb, of course, most iinport&nt in 
■> ducti inul point oi view, and most interesting for 
Uie study of Christian antiquities, would be out of 
place iu ft popular cyclopasdit. The liturgiee form 
the grcki atrongUnid of the Catholic coatrover- 
sialiata on the subject of the real preaeace and of 
the cuchoristic aocritice ; but we must cnniine our- 
selves to a brief historical ucconnt of the vorioua 
liturgien now extant, and of their onnnection with 
tiie variiiua ancieut Christian commuuitieg, whether 
of the East or of the West. Liturgies may, indeeil, 
beat be iliatributed into two cIobms, thuae of the 
East, and those of the West. 

1.0ri^a(a/Li("rflif«. -The Oriental liturgies areaii 
in number, four of which ore derived from the great 
churches in which they were used; the dfth 1 rom 
the Armenian Cburcli, which early formed a distiuct 
liturgy ; and the siith from tbe great Syrian acct 
of Nestorim, by which the liturjgr was modified to 
suit its own peculisj tenets. These liturgies are 
•everaJly known oa tbe litur^ei of Jerusalem, of 
Antioch, of Alexandria, and of Constantinople, the 
Armenian litiir^^y, and the Kcdtnrian liturgy. Tbe 
diversities of these liturgies, although very great in 
appeu^Dce, yet can hardly be said to be substantial- 
Certain loading psrts ore common to them all, and 
are found in all without substantial variation ; but 
they are arranged in a different order, and, eicejit 
in the form of the euchoriatic consecration, the 
hymn Trisaginn, and a few otlier details, the form 
of wor^ia ia often entirely dissimilar. The liturgy 
of Jerusalem, although ascribed to St James, ut 
of uncertain origin snd date ; nor is it well ascer- 
tained whether its original language was Syrian or 
Oreelc. The latter is the tanguagi' in which it ia now 
found, and the preaent liturgy closely corresponds 
in the main with that which formed the text of 
8t Cyril of Jerusiilem in his well-knpwn Mysta- 
gogicol Lectures. The liturgy of Antioch exists 
la Syrioc, but it is evidently only a tree tranalation 
of the liturgy oC Jerusalem. The ancient liturgy of 
Alexandria is ascribed to St Tktark; but the existing 
liturgy has received numberless additions at lajier 
dates, and biis been modilied by both the great sects 
of this patriarchate to suit their peculiar doctrines. 
Several other liturgies are in use among the Copts, 
imder the name of St Basil, St Gregory, and St 
Cyril I and the Abyssinian Christians have no fewer 
than ten, which are distinct, at least in name. The 
church of Coustiiitiiiople has two different liturgiea. 
both of great antiquity, that of St Basa and that uf 
St Chrysostijui. Tbeae, however, are not indiscrim- 
inately used, each being employed oa special occa- 
■iona or on certain dehned festivals, The litur^ 
of Constantinople ia the original of the Slavonio 
liturgy, which isuwd in the Biuaian and Busao-Oreek 
Church, and in its various branches. The Armenian 
liturgy dates from the introduction of Christianity 
into Armenia under Gregory the Ulnminator. It u 
in uioflt reapecta derived from that of St Ohrvaostom. 
Tbe Nestorians have three liturgies— tbe lltni^y of 
the Apostles, the liturgy of Theodore of Mopeuestia, 
and the liturgy of Heatoriua. The«e, however, are 
all comluned into one, e«ch being asaigned to a 
pvticulor leaaon, or used on speciaT occasions. The 
language of all is Syriac 

2. WttUrn Litiirgiet.—-Tba litnrgiea of tbe West 
present much lets variety, uid indeed m all derived 

either from the eastern litur^es m- from a oomBon 
source. The Catholic litnrgie* may be rsdueed to 
four — the Boman. the Milanese or Ambroaian, the 
Gothic or Moxambic, and the Qallic liturgiesi The 
oldest forms of tlie Bomau liturgy are to be found 
in three so-called socruneutartes^-'that of Leo, that 
of Qelssius, and that of Gregory the Great. It ia 
the last that haa left ita impresa moat clearly on 
the modem Bomon missal, which was brought to 
its present shape by a commisaian ordered by tb« 
Council of Trent, siter a careful revision and colla- 
tion of all the hturgicBl forms in use in the Wot in 
the 16th century. The first teviaiou took place under 
Pins V. , and two subsequent revisions were nude 
by Urban VIII. and Clement VIII. The Ambmaiao 
htnrgy ia used only in the diocese of Milan, and is 
popularly traced to fit Ambrose. It bears a close 
analogy to the Boman liturgy, but it has many 
psculiuities, some of which are highly interesting, 
aa illustrating the history of the devils of Christian 
worship. Its ceremonial, which is ohecrved with 
great solemnity in the cathedral of Milan, ia in some 
parts highly striking and characteristic The Gotbio 
or Mourabic is of still more limited use. being now 
confined to a single chapel at Toledo, founded and 
endowed for the purpose by tbe cflehnited (.'ardinal 
Ximenes. It is the old Uturgy of the Gothic Churv-h 
of Spain ; and after the infusion of the Arabic 
element, which followed the Moorish invasion, it 
was called by the name of Mozarabic, a word of 
disputed etymdogy. This liturgy is certainly of 
Oriental origin ; biit Ita history, and the time and 
circumstances of its introduction into Siiain, bavs 
furnished matter for much speculation. Some ]iarts 
of the rite are exceedingly curious, especially tb«te 
which accompany the breaking of the host Tbe 
Gallican liturgy has no precise modem rcpnaenta- 
tive, and is only known from ancient forms, more or 
less complete, which have been edited by M^^ulloa, 
and recently by Mone. The ohjer GaUican forms 
bespeak on Oriental origin, and are pro! ably derived 
from the Greek Christian colony which settled at 
Marseille, Lyon, and the other churches of tha 
south. The later forms ^proxunate more to tha 
Itoman. Neither of these, however, ia to be coa- 
founded with the mora modem missals in use in 
several of the French dioceses, which do not ilif(<>r 
from the Roman except in minor detoilii, and most 
of which hare now been displaced by the Roman 
missal. Of Protestant communities, the Auetican 
Church alone professes to follow the ancient litur- 
gical forma (see Common P&ater, Book ok). S^e 
Keoandot'a Ontnlaliunt Lilttrgianim f'uU'rl'O, 1740, 
2 vols, j Assemanni's BUAio'lifea OrienUUin; Piilmi.'r's 
Antiquities of the Englidt Litur^j ; Binterim's 
DeaiidiTdiglxUea der Chrisi-Kailuiiiidiat XirtJie. 

LI'TUKGY, Jewish, in tbe narrower nense of a 
ritual of fixed prayers, cbielly for public worship. 
The Mosaic records contain an ordinance reapectiui; 
the 'confession of aina ' (Lev. v. fi; ivL 21), with- 
out, however, pre«cribing a distinct form for tb4 
puqwse. Three formula* ooly are fixed — the ben«- 
diction of the priests (Num. vL 24— S6), the pnyer 
of thanksgiving on the oooasion of the first ooWug 
(Dent. xxvL 5—10), and that which was to accom- 
iiany tha offering up of tbe third year's tithe, 
beginning : ' I have brought away the hallowed 
things out of my house ' (ib. 13—15). Altfaoujib 
prayers are often mentioned before On E^iie, -i-vt 
they do not seem, except in the oases meutioaed,' ti< 
have been introduced as yet as a regular element 
into tbe service of tbe Temple. The songs of the 
Levitea (1 Chr. ivL 4; ixUL 3), and ocoaaiooBl 
prayers, such as are to be found in the Pnlma. ot 
like that of SolonuM at the inauguntioa ot tha 
Temple, are all we find recorded. FrirMe devotkwa 



SMHlt twelve inohes from dde to side, and nx or 
•even inche* from iti anterior to ita poat«nor border. 
It il situated in the right hypocbaadriac re^oo, ard 
reacbea over to the len ; being tbick and indented 
behiad, where it crouea the convex bodies of the 
vertcbrffi ; cwnvei on its up[>er uuface, where it ]iei 
in the coacavity of tbe diaphragm ; and concave 
below, where it rests agunat the stomach, colon, 
and right kidney. This lower snrface presents a 
fissure dividing tbe organ into a right and a left 

The liver is retaioed in ita position by five liga- 
ments, Beaides the ri^^t and left lob<^ there an 

nie liver: 
jL,r1|ht1abe; B. 1>ftlolxi: a,dcpn«l< 

li.f«rl»r Ur«-. dd, mrheeunooverrf 
■ ' ■ ■ Tiff, tmran fur gBll-W«ddtr ; 

three smaller lob««. The gretit bidk of the organ 
is, however, made up of tbe right lobe, which is six 
times as large as the left 

The vcss^ of the liver are the hepatic artery, 
which cornea off from the CiEliac Axis (q, v.), and 
supplies the organ with nutrient blood \ the Portal 
Vein, which conveye to the liver the venous blood 
of the intestines, spleen, and stomach, and from 
which (after the vessel has ramifled like an artery] 
the bile is secreted ;* the hepatic veins, which 
convey the Uood from the liver into the inferiOT 
vena cava ; the hepatic duct, which carries off the 
bile from tiie liver \ and the lymphatics. 

The liver, both on its surface and internally, is of 
a dark reddish tint, which is so weU known that 
the term tlver-ixlaurtd is univenally recopiised. 
The Bul«tance of the organ is composed of lobules 
held together by extremely line areolar tissue, and 
ramifications of the minute branches of the various 
hepatic vessels. EUch lobule is composed of a mass 
of hepatic cells, of a ploius of biliaiy ducts, of a 
portal plexus (from the content* of which the cells 
obtain the biliary matters that are found In their 
interior), of a branch of the hepatic vein, and 
of minute arteries. The exact mode in which the 
bile formed in the cells makes ita way into the 
origin of the dacta, it not known with certainty. 
The numberless minute dncts gradually run into 
one another, until, aa they emerge from the lower 
surface of the liver, thejr are reduced to two bu^e 
trunks, which soon umte (see fig.) to form the 
hepatic duct Into the hepatic duct, the cystic 

■ecnted from the capillaries of tbe hepstie arteiy, 
while the portal blood oonH-^-- '•- ' --' ' 

duct from the neck of the gall-bladdn (preaently to 
be described) enters, and the two combine to form 
the common duct {Ducttu eonmunu cKotrdorkwi, 
which opens into the duodenum (see DioBtnovl. 
This common excretory duct of the bver and gsU- 
bladder is about three inches in length, and of 
the diameter of a gooBe-quilL 

The chemical composition ot the liver has beoB 
studied by Dr Beale, who finds that the organ in 
health contains SS-fl per cent, of water, and 31 -i p>r 
cent of solid constituents— of which 38 are fat, 4 7 
albumen, while the rest is made up of vessels, salu, 
and extractive matters. (In the diseased cimilil-in 
known aa fatty degeneration of the Uver— whirh. t>* 
the way, is artificially induced in the geese wbictt 
contribute to the formation of Strasbnrg Pie, nr 
pAtt de /oie grot — the fat is enormously increased ; 
in one remarkable cose analysed, by I>r ileale, it 
amounted to 6S'2 per cent of*^the whole weight i>f 
the organ.} Sugar, vrwryiug in amount from t to 
2 per cent, is also found ; and inoeit^ uric Sf id, 
jarcine, xanthine, and teupine usually occur m 

The gallbladder may be renrded as a dirrr- 
fkuium or ofishout from the nepatic dart It 
has somewhat the shape of a pear, and Ilea in a 
depression on the under surface of the liver. Its 
use seems to be to serve aa a reservoir for tbe 
accumulation of the bile, when ita Bow into ths 
intestine is interrupted, as it is alwaj-s found fall 
after a long fast and empty when digestinn a 
going on. That the gall-bladder is not an essentiiJ 
appendix to the liver, is thewn by the fact thit 
it IS absent in many genera of mammals. Thiit. it 
is present in the ox, sheep, and goat, but absent in 
tbe homo and many other herbivon. 

It was formerly believed that the liver servul 
merely for the separation of the biliary Becivti'>n 
from the blood ; but there is now abundant evidrn.-o 
that tbe blood itself ia changed by its meaus, in 
such a way as to shew that this gland poasesat-' an 
tugimilating as well as a dfpurating action. Tliiis. 
the albuminous matter contained during digi'rtion 
in the blood of tbe veins which pass from the intes- 
tine to the portal vein (the mesenteric veins), is rwy 

the hepatic veins ; the blood, before reaching the 
liver, containing a crude albuminous product, whilt 
the hepatic veins contain only true bIood-albuni*B. 
That the liver {wsBesses an assimilating power on 
albuminous substances is also shewn by the ei|>iTi- 
ments of Claude Bernard, who found that if a hiJu- 
tion of eg^-albumen be injected Into any part of 
the aystemic circulation, albumen speedilr appeaia 
(like other soluble substances whi^ are foreign to 
the body) in the urine, and ia eliminated as an 
extraneous matter ; but if it be ■njected into ths 
irtal vein, it does not appear In the urine, but 
'comea a normal constituent of the blood iblrna). 
albumen), through tbe latency oi the liver. It is 

also known, that if the liver does not secrete 

le sugar, as Bernard supposed, it at all evenly 
t«s a substance closely allied tOr and reaihlv 
convertible into sugar— vit, Glyoogeu Iq.v.) — wlncli 
must be regarded as a respiratory or heat-formiu^ 
food. Further, it appears from Bernard's research<4 
that fatty matters are elaborated in the liver— the 
blood of the hepatic veins which leave the liyrr 
containing considerably more fat than that of the 
portal vein which enten it Some of thia fat is 
doubtless bnmed off in tbe lungs ; but if a deficient 
sujiply should be introduced bj the lacteals. kmie 
of rt would doubtless be applied to the ftHntativa 
Lastly, dnnnE the last three days <>f 



lii braAc* <d th« portol T«m, aod ii then oon- 
ntai fitij into blonf-orrnudn, which enter the 
iPiHiin iBil |»rtlj into tale, which ii diachvited 
^ te iiilnliiii Hence, there is diatinct evidenoe, 
<na mnl pointi of view, that tbf liver ia an 
u^ritfii; otgUL Tie dqrunitiiij; actios of tbil 
mm ■ dUbited in the aecretioD of Kle (q. v.). hj 
*U the bj-ilro-caibonaoeoDa portion of the effete 
aoen o( th« Uood ii removed, jint M the nitro- 

OwhaitHl nnee doea not aUow of our notidoj 
a at \mglh the comnratiTe ooatoioT of thia im- 
potot jdud, which first sbeira itKlf in the form 

^ulipod^ £ 


_ e >t the vertcbrated olaaaea, it coDsuta 
1 kbt* or fflllide* containing cells, which atuiil to 
im 'a tbe telatioo of an e()itbelioln. uul ita atruc- 
tnwmmlj made ont ; but when, h in tlie verte- 
kaa, il ii mainly eompoaed of a aolid parenchyma, 
^t ip of Latnlea, each of which ia eompoaed of 
tpn&na <d et^ anrronnded bj the Jternate 
Mimtiiiin of tlM docta and other veMela, it pre- 
na *a fii^"w"— ' complexity which it in almost 
Xfimiitta tuuaTeL 

LITIB, Dnusa 0> TBK. C<Mgt«liim of the Hver 
I we ri the moat freqaent of ita moHiid condi- 
s^ b ia noat commonly canaed l^ obstmctioa 
k Ike faaaaee of tlie blood from tb« fiepKtie veins, 
CHB| ben UHmctc iliirartit impeding the ciicalatian 
ariA dw ligM Bde of the heart. The coOKestion 
■R fa nlcvid at thia stage, or may, by ita obstmc- 
bttdioe, caoae CMgastion of the portal branches, 
k «lub case w« lM*e the lirer much enlarsed, the 
'■|liiii«> dnaky, the urine high coloured, aedi- 
; aaffw). and acaaty, and often m<ve or leaa dropsy 
4 tW abdoneo » lower eztremitiea. The treat- 
I BM Mmt be 1(A antirely to the phyaidan. 

idammiilwn <rf the Uvar haa been Already noticed 
[ a & Htick HxMTms. 

I ^anrtiii iaipansnt aSectioo of the liver is that 
■iiA '» kaowii by the name of Grrliont (Or. tirrkot, 
;ilhairii) Itbegiaaaaaninflammatory aSectioD, in 
niA Ijitfk (ae* iKn^aMHATiOK) ia effuaed in the 
I MSBT IJMiii a Bf t wiD ding the branches of the portal 
•n TW aoMlkr branches become obliterated by 
I i T"— ' ^ ■•J * *be lymph anbaequentJy oon- 
I McMh larjer tmn^Ma of the veina and ducts become 
AH^latEd, and the anifaoe o( the oi^an aBtaniei 
, Ik aarrna or twsed appearance kaown aa '106' 
I laW. Ia thk auction, the liver ia at firat aome- 

•■Wlllamul, lull m II tmliiin of the effnaion 

I fwt M, it at kngA becomes conaidenbty tmaller 
I *^ (he ittnnl ■■&, The ordinary cause of this 
I ^■siitMTit-il rinHnfc snH it is popularly known as 
I ttfi^ib ata't liser. 'The obstmctioD t« the portal 

1 csiitj ; sad this tfoaioa often goes on ao 
^ iloo to I«ce up the diaphngm and 


from the bow^ oc *toma«lL 

In a fn&y developed «Me of oinlicaiB, the liver is 
ao altered in stmctore that ^Uiatire treatment is 
all that can be attempted. This must be directed 
to the ndief of the dinpsy, and if medicines fail to 
remove or diminish it, temporary relief may be 
ibtained by tapping. The disease is at beet a very 

mongat the other affections of thia oivon are the 
faltjf Unrr. The liver in this case is much enlarged, 
of a white colour, and roonded at the edges ; it 
is moat oommoolv found aaaociatcd with phthisis. 
Closety allied to this is the lardatroiu or waxy liver, 
in which the depoeitcd matter is not fst, but some- 
thins between fat and albamen \ it chiefly occurs in 
scramlooa young persouOi Tubercle, diffennt form* 
of cancer, and Hydatids (^ v.) are not unfrHjuently 
found in this organ. In connection with the 
preeent subject, the i^Ader is referred to the article 

LI'YERPOOL, titnated on the north bank of the 
Mersey, Laocaahire, is, after London, the largest 
town in the United Kingdom, and, taken in con- 
nection with Birkenhead, on the oppoeite side of 
tbe Meraey, it tank* in maritime importanoe before 
the metropolis itself — a circumstance due to its 
positian on the west coast of England, niA only 
Bs a port for the adjacent manufBcturing districts, 
bot for the trafBo with America. It is sitoated 
at one bout's distance by railway from Man- 
chester, mi hours from Loodon and Edinburgh, 
and ei^t honrs by steam from Dublin. Tbe rue 
of Liveipool is remarkable. In the middle of the 
14th c, it coDtatned only 840 inhabitAnta and 168 
cottages : whilst in 1561 ita population was only 
690. It was not untjl 1647 that it was made a 
free port (having been subject down to that date to 
the Chester officBts) ; whilst Ita distinct individu- 
ality as a parish was not dedared until 1697, when 
its poimlatioa numbered about 5000 aoids, and 
its alupping about 80 vessels. Between 1710 and 
1760, ita population increased from 8160 to 25,780 ; 
and ita commercial navy &n>n 84 vessels to 1240 
vessela. In I7OO, its fitst r^rnlar dock waa buill^ 
on the aite where the Custom-house stands at the 
present day. Prom 1760 to 1800, the population 
advanced from 25,700 to 77,700 inhabitants ; the 
shipiHng from 1200 vessels to 5000 veasela; and 
tbe amount of dock dues collected, from ^£2300 to 
£28,300 ; naarly two-thirds of the increase taking 
pUi^ during the last 15 yeora of the period. The 
rapid pjt>}nTfls of the cotton fa^le was the chief 
cause of this almost sudden improvements Simul- 
taneously with the mechaniol revolution brought 
aboat by Uargtvavee, Arkwright, Crompton, and 
others, Uiere come an increased fi>rpign trade, and 
an augmented inland bnsineaa, owing to the opening 
of tbe Bridgewater Canal in 177a About the aame 
iod, too, a groat start waa given to the ship- 

orden received from the government; ■ _._ 

veesela of war beiiig lannched between 1777 and 
1782, of very oonaideiable tonnage^ and ranging 
between 16 and 60 gnoa. By thia time, L. had far 
ontatripped Briatol id commercial importance : the 
trade of the Utter port beingin process of rapid 
transference to the fomier. The following state- 
ment will shew how far L. waa benefited by ths 
cotton tntde: 

. ^ 





I °* 








Bat this pmptm, importuit u it wu, liM boen lax 
exceeded by the miMeqdent lanteaao of buonecs. 
and at the present time L itaodi at the head of 
Britiab commerci^ porta, and hai no equal in the 
world. Ita rapid growth will be Ken from the 
fallowing table : 










The following table will ahew that the export tra 
of L. ia nearly eqoal to the entire trade of t 
ling potto of the United Kingdom i 

■ AIL Dihvn, A 'n.r?? A'Oo 

TaUUVomlhelTnludKlnidaiB, Iu.8>l,tf7 lOUUO 

This gigantic trade hai given being to a ma^ifl- 
cent ayiiti^Ri of dochH. eiteniling along the mar^n of 
the river for a Hiitance of about miiei, oontaining 
4S docks and buina, covering an area of over TOO 
acrea, and having nearly 17 miles of quay space. 
The whole at these docks have, with the exception 
of the Saltbonse, Kinj^a, part of the George's, and 
part oC the Queen'a, been built since 1812. They 
wereerectcil chiefly nndertheiuptrintendence of the 
late Jeese Hartley. Esq., and are considered by all 
who have seen them to be one of the |;reatest engi- 
neering triumphs of the preaent cenbiry. Several 
of the docks ore enclosed with large warehonaea ; 
the erection of those round the Albert Dock cost 
£358.000, and the dock itself £141. OOOv In addition 
to the usual pier appnuehea there are two large 
floating laniling-st^!eH, one of which ia lOOS feet in 
lenj.'th. S2 feet in width, and 4500 tons in weight 
In the (general traffic of L., that carried on hy large 
■team- vessels with New York, Boston, Halifax, 
and other ports on the American continent, has 
deservedly attained celebrity, and draws large 
nnmbers of passengers to the town. 

The approaches to the town on thb land mdea are 
the I^nCBShire and Yorkshire, Saai Lancashire, 
London and Korth-Wcatem, and Great Northern 
Railways. There are Uiree tnanela nnder the town 
in connection with the London and North- Western 
Bailway. taking different directions, vaning from a 
mile and a half to two miles and a halt in length. 
The passenger stations in LimeSCreet andTitheWn 
Street are Urge and handsome buildings ; the latter 
is raise<l on arches at a oonsidersble elevation from 
the level of the town. 

The architecture of the town has been wonderfully 
unproved within the past qoartcr of a centtuy, and 
especially during the last ten yean of the period, 
and it now puaseases many fine thoroaffhfares, 
thronged with niunerona splendid edificea. There , 
are several large and elegant squares in the east, or 
fashionable part of the town, and a number of ' 
thoroughfares, lined with the private resi'lences | 
of the mercbaots and tradesmen ; i^lst the out- 
skirts of the ti>wn are studded with the mansions , 
of Uie oonunerdal aristocracy. Ot what may be 
termed the offimal buildinfb~tha Town Hall, St , 

Oelrge's Hall, Cnitom-houae, Sailon' Homtt, PoUe*. 
offices, WorUtoniea, Baths and Waili-hoasee, Watrr- 
worka, and Gas Offices, are the moat noteworthy: 
next follow the variona literary and cducationil 

Royal InstitutioD, the varioiis schools attachml v 
the national and other churcbee. Society of Fine 
Arts, Academy ot Fine Arts, Egyptian Uuaeam, 
the Exchange, Lyceum, and Athemeum, newwDoou 
and libraries, and niunerooa associationa devntcd 
to commercial, political, and religious ^aita. 
tho inhabitant are not niggardly, is proveil bv 
the fact that there are no less than 96 cihariU>,lg 
institutiotls in the boroudi devotod to the alU- 
viation of the variona evils that Buah ia heir t-i, 
Ajuonnt tha more prominent are the Royal Intir- 
mary. Northern aiKi Southern Hospitala, Indudtrbl 
Schools, Bine Coat Orphan Schoi Is, Male, FeA.ile, 
and Infant Orphan Asylums and Church ; School. 
Workshops, and Church for the BIbd ; DAf 'and 
Dumb, and Eye and Ear, Institutions ; " 
' ' - ■ ei. 


with such ii 

e establishment 

as the Adelphi, Washington, WatJIoo, Queen's, 
Grand Junction, Royal, Angel, and a soorv or 
two of minor importance. The buildings de>ii' 
cated to amnauments are quite in keejiing with the 
other characteristics of the town. Cnder this 
bead, there are the Philharmonic H»ll , capable of 
accommodating 3000 people ; the Amphithtatre, 
lold JSOOU ; the two ooncert-rooma of 
St George's Hall, before alluded to, the larg<'r U 
which is acknowledged to be one of the lintst 
rooms in the kingdom ; the Theatre-Royal ; Prioc« 
of Walt«' Theatra ; Adelphi Theatre ; Hen<;ler'a 
Circus. Ac Th« religious wants of the community 
are supplied by about 150 cUhrches anil rhaptU, 
of which 46 belono to the Established Cbucvh, 
14 to Roman fatholica, 21 to P^byteriana, ^^ to 
Wealeyans, 15 to Indeueodents, 11 to Etaptist^. aa.i 
25 to miscellaiieons Nonconformists, includitti; 3 
Unitarian, 2 Jewish, 1 Oemua, and 1 Greek. There 
are eight cemeteries, one only U which ia aitiiatc^ 
— ithin the town, namely, St Jamea's, Duke Street, 

le remainder bi^g laid out in the suburb*. 

'Die buildings devoted to commercial purrnita nr* 
also very fineand numerous, and not the leut intvt^ 
esting to the stranger. Amongst those are tb« 
Exolungc, the Albasy, Apsley, Brown'a, Riclimon.1, 
Hari^reaves (the last thrse recently erected by Sir 
William Brown), Liverpool and Lonilon Insnrmnoe 
Ghambera, Koyal Insuranoe, and Queeit Inaurxacv 
building (all local companies), Royal Bank, Walmer. 
Drury, Tower, India, and Brunswick buildinga, an>l 

V others. There are 13 banks in the tuwn. 

les two or three others just started, and sevi-r^l 
liosseseed of very Urge and haiidaoine 
mises. Amongat theea may be daqi,.*! 
tho^ brand) of the Bank oflSngUud, tod the Ru\ ..1. 
Liverpool, Union, District, Commercial, and X>irth 
and Sonth Wales banks. In the principal atrertc 
there an also aevenU very extensive trade establish- 
ment*, seoond to none out of Londan, and devot«,l 
to every department of business, wholesale an-l 
retail. Of manumaots the chief are those of N^Iwto 
WeUington. Huakisaon, and WiaUm IV.,«- 
Siveial in the Town HaU, St Geoi^'s Hall. Fm 
Library, and parka. The parks are two in nambtT, 
the Prince's in Toiteth, and the Bobaiiie, Wawtrvr^ 

The stated market days are Wednreday uij 
Satntday, for gtaenl agricultural piodaoe, «|^ 



tmit^ aad Fndar for earn. The faiza for honn 
■1 otfUc an held Jal7 2Sth and NoTember llth. 
le com trade traiuaeta its biuinea in the Com 
II liaiiii . Bnm«wiek Street, and there is aa eiteo- 
w katket for the eattle-dealera iv Kenmogton. 
w cdAitca <d all kiodi then are St JoIid'i Market, 
3 jaida lour, 49 jarda wUe, and luhted by 138 
^wa; 8t Jamea'a, Gill Stnet, and St Hartin's 
; tfa«n i> alio a'6ah mu^et, and aeTeral 


> 4 duly and 9 weekly newspapara, 

ii-- "i r --J •" fj J-' --' p-"-''fi'--jj_---'- 

K*dy dmtod to ahipfung mattery aad two weakly 

1b general indmtry, then are aereial ezten- 
■n ibp and boat-bmldi^ yanh, iron tud brau 
fa^idnaB, chain-cable and anchor smithies, Bteun- 
npne wnrkahopa, ter and turpentine diitiUelics, 
- - - ■ " — r ■"■"'J"»- 


a yfT<g'''*' Iaw, deootea the act of 
J pdawauon. It ia moBt freqaently 
1 tb« phraie ' livei; of leiiiD,' coiTegpoading 
to the Scotch infeftment or usiae. 

LTTERT (from lal Gberatio), a word applied 
m ita ori^n to the e oat om which preruled under 
tte UaxfTingian and CarioTiofpan kings, of deliver- 
B iplrmliil haMn to tiie memben m their honae- 
hiib on grtat featarala. In the daya of chiTalry, 
' ; of lirerywaa not, aa now, oonttned to 
vranta. The dnke'a son, aa page to the 

, . e the prince'a livery, the earTa son bore 

the iAr'K triaun and badge, the son of the eaquire 
, wm tbt livnry of the knight, ^ud the aon of the 
patleman that of die caqmie. ' t^vaUera wf»e the 
nsy of their nuatnaica. There «u aIbo b large 
daaa id armed rstaiiwn in liTery attached to many 
■< the iDore poverfnl nobl«, who were engaged 

By die culonn aad Wdge of the retainer 
MH kum the maito' mider whum be served. 
lb livery coloon of a family nrWrhm from their 

a of the fidd are taken instead, where 
kaa twtt. Tbcy are taken from the fint quarter in 
oae of a qoaitered ahleld. llieae same colours are 
dtaaalAl in Uw Wreath (q. v.) on irtiich the creat 
-»—-*■ The royal family of England have aome- 
tBca aAopttA odours varying fnnn the tinctures of 
Oa vna. The PlantageDeCa tiad scarlet and white; 
Ike Hooae ot York, mnrrey and blue; white and 
Uia w^rc adopted by the House of Lancaster; 
white Bod green by the Tndors ; yellow and rvd by 
the StoBTta, and by WiUiam IlL ; and scarlet and 
hbe It tbe Hooae at Hanover. An indispensable 
pKt of tb4 lively in former times was the Badge 
t%T.L Tse Chnidi of Rome has ita liveriea for 
^uatfaa. coafdaOfB, mar^n ^^o*! »"1 penitenta. 
Tha finjwii of Ihe lU guilds or oorporatiDns 
wlwh anbnwe (ka mB few n t tradea of London, an 
niHiiil li ves jwea , beeaoae entitled to wear the livery 
rf Ihcv rcspactive eompaniea In former timca the 
a anil—" o< tiM eompamea were in me yearly to 
4 li 1 1 a to the Lonl Mayor eettain annis, twenty 
"" i of wUeh WM ^ven to individuals who 
* ' '*« mooey, to enable Uiem to procure 
or a anit, and Ibe oompanies prided 
L i._j,j le which thar 

the Reform Bill in IS32, they had the exdnsiTa 
privilege of voting at the election of the memben 
of parliament for the City. 

LITINGSTONB, Dattd, African traveller and 
miiuonaiy, is a native of Scotland, and was bom at 
Blaatyre, in Lanarkshire, in the year 1S17. At thr- 
age of ten he became a 'piecur' m a cotton- fortoTy, 
and fur many years was engaged in hard work a* 
an operative. An evening school fiimLshed bim 
with the opportonity of acquirin? anme knowledge 
ot lAtJn and Greek, and, tinaliy, after atteudins 
inn of medicine at Glasgow University, and 
the thoolosical lectutee of the Jate Dr Wardlaw, 
'esaor of theology to the Scotch Indejiendenls, 
offered bimseU to the Loudon Missionary 
Society, by whom he wtu ordained as a medicul 
missionai; in 1840. In the summer of that year he 
landed at Fort Natal in South Africa. Circum- 
«a made him acquainted with the Bev. Robert 
MoSat (q. v.), himself a distinguished missionary, 
e daughter he subsequently married. For IS 
years L. proved himself a faithful and zealona 
servant oL the London Misai'inary Society. The 
two most^mportant reeolts achieved by him in thi* 

>eriod were the discovery of I^ko Ngami (Augntt 

i, 1849], and his crossing the continent of Sonth 
Africa, from the Zamb^ (or Leeambye) to the 
Congo, dnd tbeuoe to Loando, the capital of Angola, 
which took him about IS months (from Jannary 
18M to June 1854). In September of the same 
year he left Loando on his return across the conti- 

lent, reached LiAanti ^ lat. 18° 17' S., and long. 

t3r sty E.), the capital of the great Makololo tribe, 
and from thence proceeded along the luuiks of the 
Leefunbye to Quihmana on the Indian Ocean, which 
he reached May 20, 1856. He then took ship for 
Engljind, where he arrired December 12th oi the 
same year. The receptioa accorded him by hit 
countrymen WB* most enthusiastic Probably no 
traveller was ever more affectionately honoured. 
This was owing not merely to the imjiortance of 
his discoveries — though it would be difficult to 
overestimate such — but to the thoroughly frank, 
ingenuous, simple, and manly character of the 
traveller. In 1857, L. published his Miatioitarg 
TrarA and BaeanAa in SouA A/riea, a work ot 
great interest and value. * In all his various jour- 
neys,' said Sir Roderick Murchison. at a meeting 
of the Royal Geographical Society, held shortly 
after L.'b return, * he had travelled over no less than 
11,000 miles ot African territory .... By hia 
astronomical observations he had determined the 
sites of numerous places, hills, rivera. and lakes, 
nearly all of which had been hitherto nnknown, 
while he had seized upon every opportanity of 
describing the physical features. climatoloCT. and 
geoldgical structure of the countries which ^e had 
explored, and had pointed out many new sources ot 
ooDomerce as yet nnknown to the scope and the 
enterprise of Uie British merchant.' In 1858, tha 
Britiah government ^ipodnted him consul at Qoili- 
mane, whither he returned in the course of tha 
year. A portable steam-boat has been constiQcted 
for his use in thia country, and L., with several 
sdentifie aaaociatea, and a crew of natives, started 
a few years ago up the Zambesi, with the view of 
making discoveries in the nneiplored territory 
south of the equator. Accounts of bis progTes* 
are occasionally received — the latest dating June 
20, 1863, from which it appeara that L was (on 
February 27) near Murchiaou Falls, on the Zambesi, 
bent on the further exploration of the great Lake 



rhetorician, and wroto on rbetorio. There 
intemal evidence, veil handled b; Niebobr, which 
makes it probable that he did not oommetuie his 
great hiitorical work till ha wu drawing near 
middle age. He had ample tima to finiah it, for 
he lived to aee hia eiehtieth year ; and having been 
bom under the republic, died under Tiberiua. Hia 
fame waa ao thoruuglily eetabliahud and widely 
•pread, even during hie lifetime, that a Spaniard 
travelled from Qadea to Borne only b> see him. 
Qointiiian, in claimiag for the Romans equal merit 
in the department of history with the Greeks, 
compares L. to Herodotus, and there is no doabt 
that his couDtFymen regarded him as their greatest 
historical wrilfr. The atory that Asinius Pollio 
pretended to discover a certain provincialism or 
Palavinily in his style, is probably false ; but even 
if it be true, modern criticism is nnable to discover 
in what the peculiarity consisted ; far I..'s work 
is one of the preateet masteijiieceB of I*tin, or of 
human composition. Oripinally, the Roman history 
of L. was comprised in 142 books, divided into (™ 
or decada ; but only SO books, with the greater part 
of S more, now exist. Instead of a complete aorrativo 
from the foundation of the city te the historian's 
own time, we have detailed portions, the most 
valuable of which are the fint decade, containing 
the e*'^ history, and the third containing the wan 
with Hannibal Among the surviving fragmenta 
of what is lost, is a character ot Cicero, preserved 
in the Svanoria of Seneca, the eiecution ot which 
makes us deeply regret that time has not spared 
L's account of the transactions of his own period. 

In cliusine L. in his proper place among the great 
historians of the ancient and modem world, we must 
cot think of him as a critical or antiquarian writer — 
a writer of scrupulously calm judgment and diligent 
lesearoh. He is pre-eiainently a man of beautiful 
Bcnina, with an unrivalled talent for narration, who 
ukea up the history of his oonntiy in the ^irit of 
on artist, and makes a free use of the materioU lying 
handiest, for the creation of a work full of graoe, 
colour, harmony, and a dignified eaae. Professor 
Bamaayhos remarked, that he treats the old tribunes 
Just aa if they were on a level with the demagnguea 
of the worst period; and Kiehuhr censures the errors 
of the same kind into which bis Pom^ieian and 
aristocratic pr«]K*scfli'ionB betrayed him. But this 
tendency, if it was ever harmful, is harmless noi< 
and was i^lowly connected with that love of ancient 
Roman institutions and ancient Soman times which 
spired his genius, and was a jrart of it. 
8 history is incalculable, even 
La the mutilated state in which we have it, as a 
picture of what the great Roman traditions were 
to the Romans in their most irultivated period. The 
literary talent most conspicuons in L. is that of a 
narratfir, and tlie English reader perhaps 
the best idea — thoudi it is but a faint one- 
quality, from the nistoriet of Goldsmith, 
Talft of a (lrauii/all.eT of Sir Walter Scott He 
does not rival Taicitus in portraiture or in tragic 
power, but no writer has ever aorpaased him in 
the art of telling a story; and the speeches which, 
aocording to the antitiue fashion, he puts inti^ the 
mouths of hia historic charaoteri, are singularly 
ingenious, painted, and dramatically real. There 
is also somethmg in a high degree winn'-- —' 
engaging about what we may call thi 
atmosphere of L,'s history, which nobody con imu 
without feeling that the historian had a kindly 
tender disposition— a large, oandid, and generoua 

•t once inspired hii 
And the value of li 

-of his 

The edUio priveept of !>., which did not 
coDcam all that we now have of the work, was 
published at Rome about 1469, and MSS. of porta 
of L. were existing in that century which barg 
unoe diaappeared. The moat celebrated oditioDs 
at« those of Gronovius, Crevier, Diakenborch, and 
Buddimon ; and, in recent timo^ esteemed recen- 
sion* of the text have been issued by Madvig, 
Alschefski, and Weissenbom. 

LITIUS ASDBONI'GUS, the father of Rooisd 
dramatic and epic poetry, waa a Greek by birth, 
probably a native of Tarentum, and nourished abont 
the middle of the 3d c B.c Be translated the 
Odyssey into Latin Satumian verse, and wrote 
tr^ediee, comedies, and hymns after Greek mudfli. 
Mere fragments are extjuit, of which a coUecUf>n 
mar be found in Bothe's Potta mntici Latini (vol 5, 
Halberat. 1823); and DUnt^fs LirU Andnnid 
Fragmtnta Collegia el Ilhulrala (Berlin, 1835]. 

LITNY, an ancient diatrict town of Great 
Bussia, in the govenment of Orel, in lat. 6'2* SS 
S., long. 37° 37 E. Fop. 10,S38, who carry on ao 
aitensiva trade in com, cattle, uid honey. 

LIVOTJIA, one of the three Baltic mtmnccs of 
Russia, to which belong also the islands of OchI, 
Man, and Runo, contains an area of 17,638 square 
mQes, with a population of SS3,681. The conntry i* 
mostly fiat, and one-fourth oE it is covered with wood. 
The soil is only of moderate fertility ; but never- 
thelesa agriculture, and cattle and sheep breedin;;, 
are brought to a high degree of perfection. L. ha* 
many eitenaive factories and distilleries twloni;ing 
to the government, also some cluth manufactoriea, 
one of which, aituated near Pemao, is very exten- 
sive. The inhabitants of the country are of Finnish 
and Lettish discent ; those in the tovma are chiefly 
Gannans, with a slif^t sprinkling of Russians, Fulrs, 
and Jews. L., up till the 17th c, included the three 
modern Baltic provinces of Courlaud, Livonia, and 

LITRE, the name of an ancient French coin, 
derived fnnn the Homan Libra, or At (q. v.). liiere 
were livres of different valnea, the meet important 
bein^ the Livr» Toumois [of Tours), which vm 
considered the standard, and the Livrr Parwu (uf 
Paris), which was equal to (ths oE a livre Tcnr- 
nois. In IT95, the livre was superseded by the 
franc (80 francs = 81 livres Tournois|.~LiVBi wu 
also the ancient French unit of weight, and waa 
equal to 17'267 oz. avoirdupois; the kilt^pramme 
(see Oramub) has taken its place. 

LIXIVIA'TION (Lat fix, ashes),aterm employed 
in chemistry te denote the process of waalung or 
steeping certain substances in a tiuid, for the pui^ 
pose of dissolving ■ '■■ — -' '■--■- -- - . 

a portion of their ingrediunta, 
biuu Liiem from the insoluble residue 
Thos, wood-aah is lixiviated with water to dias.ilve 
out the carbonates ot soda and potash from Ibe 
insoluble parta. The solution thus obtained i« 
called a linviuni, or Uy. 

LIZARD [Laeerta), a gens* of santua reptile^ 
the type of a numeroos gronp, in which Monitor* 
(q. v.), &a., are included, and to which the MrgaU^ 
aauruf and other large foail sauriana are reicrmL 
The name L. is indeed often extended to all tha 
aaurion reiitiles ; but in its more restricted aenae 
it is api'lied only to a family, Laerrtidir, none of 
which attain a lai^i^e liia, whilst most of then ara 
■mall, active, brilliantly coloured, and bright-eyt-d 
creatures, loving warmth and sunshine, abouniimg 
chiefly in the warmer ports of the Old World. They 
have a long, extensile, forked tongue ; the bodv la 
generally long, and terminotea in a rather long Uil i 
Uie feet have eaoh five toea, fnniiuied with cUwa t 




IW kaqk part of the palate U armed with two row« 
•f teeth. They feed duedr on insecta. BhtaiD 
indaeca odIj two well-a««rtaiii«l speciea ; the 
Sin L. [£. o^ilN or L. «(>77>iiiiB), about seven incliM 
hi^ raiuUe in odanr aiid marliing, but geaerally 

1, TiT^MTOU Li^^ ; 2, Saod Luard. 

mtif-himra oa tbe npper parts, blotched witb 
4>kir bnnm, and having a latent Mriea of black, 
^»kd apola, eadi of which haa a jellowiah- 
■kte dot or line in the centre ; and the CoamoN 
L. <r VmrAiujUB L {Zooloea mttpam), imsJler, 
am dmder, very variable in colour, a dark-brown 
ssunBj piwailicg on the upper parta. The former 
^dei is compkrativelv rare ; it JDhabita aandj 
Mithi: the latter i> abnndant in dry moon sod 
■ad-baaka. They difiRo- remarkably in the former 
b^q ovipBroiiB, the latter, viviparoua, or, more 
eomj tpeaking, ortrnTiparotu. Both are harm- 
kii cmtiirea, aa are all the reit of thia family. 
' cies ant found in the more Bonthem parte 

Some of the lizards ant quite auaceptible 
They are remarkable for the readi- 
ICB with whiA the end of the tail breoka off ; the 
liaging of a glove or haodkerchief on one when it 
a trjing ta make ita eKspe, ii often enough to cause 
U« leparaticm of thia portion, which liee wriggling, 
■Uit tbe »"""■' haatena away. The lost portioo 
■ dtov«rda reproduced. Litarda become torpid 

UCAHD, in Heraldry, meani either~l. The 
•Ttd; anuBy ao called ; or, 2. A beast lomewhat 
ronUing tbe wild-eat, and laid to be found in 
*n»»l oountrie* of Nrnthem Europe, repreaented 
*A IxiTwii far, and large apota of a daiker ahade. 


LUKA. SeeLuu. 

LLAjrDA-FF {Lliut 1 .^. 
m the TafF). a cit^ of South 
i Ckmnr^an, ia ntoated on the rioht bank of tbe 
TiC 3 milea above Cardiff, in a diitriat remark- 
■Ut tor ita beau^. It ia the aent of a biahopric, 
%• irmute of irtiich U £4200. Fop. about 700. 

LLASDITDNO, a watering-pUoe of riains 
MpMtanoc in the coonty d CaorDarv<Mi, North 
^liia, tM sitnatad between the Great and Little 
tcae'a Heada, 40 milea waat-ionth-weat of Liver- 
frti. He air >* dcecribed oa ' delicioua,' and there 
■ emy bcOitT lot ae»-bathing; Pop. (18^1) <^ 


_..„ , ji tb» 

county of Caermarthen, and 16 milea sonth-eaat o' 
the town of that name. The mineral wealth of the 
vicinity, and the eoay acceaa to the aea, have raiaed 
the town to considerable commercial importance. 
The CambtiaQ copper-worki employ a great Dum- 
ber of tbe inhabitants ; bnt there ore also iilver, 
lead, iron, and tin works, and a pottery. Cool is 
largely exported. Id 1S62. 6745 veMela of 417,28.') 
torn entered and cleared the port. Fop. (1861) of 
parliamentary borough, 11,446. 

LLANGOXLtJN, a umaU t«wn of North Walea, 
in the county of Denbigh, pLctureaqiiely situated 
on tbe right bank of Ihi river Dee, 22 milea, 
aouUi-weat of Cheater. It ia visited by tourista on 
account of tbe beauty of the famous Vole of L,. 
and for ita ontiquitiea, among which ia the fragment 
Of the round inscribed Pillar of Eliay. 

LLANIDLOES, a mnnicipal and parliamentary 
borough of North Wales, in the connty of Mont- 
gomery, 19 milea weat-aouth-west of the town of 
that name. Ita church ia one of the most beautifnl 
in Walea. Considerable manufactorea of flannel and 
other woolleD fabrics are CMried on. L. unites with 
several other boroughs in seDding a member to 
parliament Pop. (1861). 3127. 

LLA'NOS are vast steppes or jdains in the 
northern portion of South America, partly covered 
with tall luxuriant eraas, and partly wim drifting 
sand, and stocked with innumerable nerds of oattle; 
They resemble the more sonthem Pampas (q. v.), 
and tbe Korth American Savannahs (q. v.). Tbe 
inhabitants, a vigorous race of shepherds, are called 

LLORENTE, JtJAN AnTono, a Spanish histo- 
rian, was bom at Kincon del Soto, near Calahorra, 
March .10, 1T60. He was educated by his maternal 
tiDcle, and r«ceived ordera in 1779. He took his 
de^free in canon taw, and was named successively 
advocate of the Cuundl of Castile in 1781, vicar. 
general of Calahorra (1782), and finally secretary 
of the Inquisition in 1TS9. L. was from an earl* 
period atteched to the liberal party. On tbe faU 
of Jovellanoe, he wob deprived of bis employ- 
ments, and remained in disgrace till 1805, when 
he recovered favour as the reward of a literary 
service of a very questionable character which hu 
reudered to Qodoy, by a hialorical essay agoiust 
the liWrtiea of the Basque Piovinces. On the 
iutniHion of tbe Napoleon dynasty, L. became a 
zealous partizan of the French, and an active 
instrument of the French policy, to which he lent. 
oU hia support at the preM, as vrall as in office ; and 
being oblijied to fly, on tbe restoration of Ferdinanil, 
he fined his residence in Paris, where he published 
the work to which his celebrity is chiefly due— 
his Critical Hitloiii qf At InmutUion. This work, 
which professes to be founded on authentic docu- 
meDto, although throwing much light on a aubji-ct 
previously inacceesible, has, in the judgment of 
impartial historians, as Presoott, Ranks, and 
others, loet most of ita value by its plainly 
partiKau character, and by the exaggerations in 
whioh it abounds. Sea Ivctvaxnos. Written 
by L. in Spanish, it was translated into French,. 
under tbe author's eye, by Alexis Fellier (Par. 
1817— ISIS), and baa been traoslated into mi>at 
of the European languages. L. published, during 
bia reaidence in Paris, several other works, some 
literary, aa his Critioif ObttrvaUoiu on Gil Blot; 
some polemical, oa hit Portraiii Poliliqutt dei Papen; 
and others, it is alleged, of a more questionalile 
character in a moral iioint of view. His work on 
the popes led to his teing compelled to quit Puis 



in 1B22, and & few d*ya ftftei lie reaohed Madrid 
ha died, FebmsTr 6, 182.1 He vu alao the author 
of jfemoir* of (A« &paniak imoiudon, 3 vol*. 8vo, 
1819, BJid an fuay cm a Retigiom ConttUvlion, 
1819; Mittt of bia works wer« publiahed both in 
Spauith and in French. 

LLOTD'S, a *et of roomi on the fintt fioor of the 
Royal Exchange, London, frequented by merchoota. 
■hip-ownara, underwrite™, fta, for the piiryoae of 
obtainine (hipping intetligeace, and transacting 
marine inBimncei. One br)te mom, with amall 
rooms attached to it, ia set apart for the nee of the 
undencritert, and there two eanrmoiu ledgers lie 
constantly open, the one containing a, lilt of vessels 
trriixil, the other recording diaavteie at sea. In 
the same seriea of rooms there ia a aeU-iegiatering 
anemniuet«r and anemoscope fur the oae of the 
aaderuntern ; aiao a valuable collection of oharta 
for consultation. See Insurakok, Makihk. The 
extent of liiuineu transacted here may be imagined 
when we coaaider that the amount annually 
insured amounts to about £40,000,000. Tfone but 
memliera of L. who have duly paid the fees, 
are allowed to trsosact business there either as 
insurance-brokers or underwriters. The shipping 
intelligence is furnished by agents appointed for the 
purpose, and there is scarcely a port of consequeDCe 
where one ii not stationed. The agent reeeivea no 
aalary, his labour being amply compensated by the 
advantages he derives from the connection. The 
intelligcQce contained in the ledgers is also diffused 
over the countiy every afternoon by the publica- 
tion of Lla<^» hut. There are two other rooms— 
the Beading Boom, which is merely an eirtensive 
news-room ; and the Caplaini Riiom, where auctions 
of ships are carried on, and where captains and 
merchants can meet together in a sociable manner. 
The society of L, is mani^ed by a committee of 
twelve, selected from among the members, who also 
appoint the agents and offidala of the establish- 
ment. The expenses are defrayed by fee* and 
annual subscriptions. 

LloijfCi RegUler of BriUA and Farrign Shipping 
!■ a volume published annually, and contAining 
information respecting vessels, their age, materials, 
repairs, owners, captains, Ac. Thia information is 
tappUe^I by salaried agents at the different porta. 
The nfGce of the Begitia- ia quite distinct froni L. of 
the Exchange. 

"" LIojKTi.whichisnowgenericallyapplied, 

UjOYD'B, Aubtsiax, an asaociatioo for 

Sneral, commereial, and industrial purpoaea, was 
nnded in Trieste bjr Baron Bruct in 1833, to 
anpply the want expenenced by the maritime msur. 
ance companies of that port, of a central admioia- 
tnktion to attend to their common interesta. This 
MSociation, like il« London prototype, haa agents 
in all the principal foreign porta, whoae duty it 
it to collect all information of a nature to affect 
tbe commerce and navigation of Tneata, and to 
keep a list cj all entiancea and cteaiknces of ahi[>« 
at their respective porta. This information i> 
{Mblisbed in the OiomaU dA Lloyd Auttriaeo. Tiaa 
company haa established ragulai communication 
between Trierte and all the important •MDorta 
in the Adriatic and Levant* by means of a large 
fleet of eteunere, whiuh also carry tha AuatriaQ 
•nail. Thn aociely of A. L. includes three section* : 

.1 _. ^ oompaniee, the 

,---J. while the third 

tcientifia depertmant (eebabliahed ia 1849), has 

k printing-prsee, an engrttving-n 

establishment for the petfectii^ of engnving oa 
copper and steel. Thia last section baa issued a 
great number of journals and periodicals of • 
Gterary and scientific deacription. 

LOACH {Cobiti»), a geouB of flsbea of the family 
Cypn'tHda, having an dongated body, covered •rito 
small scales, and invested with a thick moeous 
aecretim ; a amall head, a anjall toothleei moQlk 
aunrounded with 4—10 barbules ; small gill-opea- 
inga, and three branchiostegous rays. One sppcinv 
the Common L. (C barbatula), called in ScctUnd 
the Butrdie, is common in riven and bmoks in 
Britain. It seldom exoeeda four inches in leni^h: 
is ydlowiah. white, clonded, and apotted HiCh 
brown 1 feeds on wonns and aquatic insects ; and is 
highly esteemed for the table. It generally k«>]e 
very eloee to the bottom of the water.— Tlie LaII 
L. {C. /otgiii*) of the continent of Enrope. is 
sometimes a foot long, with longitudinal >trij>e« of 
hrown and yellow. It inhabits the mud of Kiaf- 

mineral cooaistinBof a mixture of peroxide of iroa 
and protoxide of iron ; sometimes occorring ii 

Kina, as Iron Satid, in trap rocks, sometimes ia 
a in primitive rocks, as in Scandinavia, wben' it 
is a valuable ore of iron. It is remarkatile for its 
highly magnetic quahty ; and indeed magnctiFm 
WBs ^nt known as belonging to it. It is of a I'lj^-k 
colonr ; and occurs in ooncretions, and cryatalluMl 
in octahedrona and rhomboidal dudecahedrnia. 

LOAM (Ger. LAm, allied to lat. Umwi, mod, scl 
to timt, iliBir], a term much employed by a^cul- 
turists and others, to deaigtiate a soil onnaistintt uf a 
mixture of clay, aand, and lime, with -"i"!.-! and 
vegetable matters in a state of intimate mixture. 
The clay varies from 20 to 60 per cent. ; the pmj«r- 
tion of lime is generally not more than S per Oi-nt. 
Loamy soils are among the beet and moot fertile of 
saila They are not stiff and tenaciooa like cLty 
soils, and they are much mora fertile than sauily 
soils. Even in mero meduiBicai properties, tfaey in 
superior to both. The ' clay ' used for making 
bncka ia often really a loam in which the propor- 
tion of true clay is lai^ In Italy, France, and 
other countries, walls are made of L. beatea dovn 
s Tery soUd, and last for 

LOAIf OF MONET ia an implied contract by 
which B, the borrower, agrees to repay L^ the 
lender. There are varioua modes by which B i^ivia 
an acknowledgment for a loan, aa by giving a 
bond or a prumisaoiy-note, or L O. U. (q. v.l. the 
last of which requires no stamp. But no writing 
is necessary to conBtitnt« the contract, which may 
be proved by parol, and often ia proved by tee 
lender's oath, confirmed by circumstantial evidrnnt 
or letters of the borrower. The debt muat io 
general be sued for in six years in England and 
Ireland. In Scotland, a borrower ia much mare 
favoured, for there are only two ways of pruvma 
the loan if it exceeds £8, 6a Bd., via., by inmt 
writing of the borrower, or by staking the truth 
as to whether the money ia really due on the 
borrower's oath. Hence, if a hundnd witimse* 
saw the loan advanced, bnt there was no writini^ 
or the borrower, when put to it, denied it on oaU, 
he can eacape liability entirely. 

LOA'NGO, a maritime kingdom of Soatb-Wevt 
Africa, extenda on the coast &om Cape Lopex, m 
lat 0* 44' S., to the river Congo or &ire, whi'.'h 
it on the south from the ootuibry of Congia 




almost too amall to admit it* body. The cLiini are 
powerful weapoQi of defence ; one is alwKya lu^er 
than the other, and the [Hiicen of one claw are 
knobbed on the inoer edg'O, thoae of tbe other are 
■emted. It ia more dan^^eroui to be teiied by the 
•errated than by the knobbed cl>w. Ixibaters are 
aametimea caiight by the hond, which requires dex- 
terity ; but they are more freqaently taken in trapa 
of various kinds, sometime* made of oaier twi^ 
■ometimes a kind of nets, sometimes pots, but always 
buted with animal garbage. Vast quantities of 
lobabeis are sent to market, chiefly to London, from 
the coasts of all parts of Britain, including the utmost 
Shetland Tsles and Hebrides. Lobaten are very 
voraciuus ; they are also very pugnacious, and have 
frequent oonibat* among tbemselves, in which limbs 

'e often lost ; but the loss is soon repaired by 
r limb, rather smaller than 

growth of .. _. . . 

old one. Like crabs, they frequently change tbeir 
shelly coveriag, and, for a short time before their 
moulting, ars very languid and inert. Their growth 
takes pUce during the time when the shell is soft, 
and with extraordinary rapidity.— The Ambrican 
L. [H, Americantit) baa cUws much larger in pro- 
portion tboD the common lobster. — Tbe Norway 
L (jVrp4rop» XorvB/kiu) is frequently takeo on 
the British coaata, and appears in the markets. 

Korwaj Lobster {Wqihnpt Iforvvieiu). 

Dm eyes ar« kidney.shaped, and not round, as 
In the common lobster. The cLawa have alao a 
more slender and prismatic form, and tbe colour 
is a pole flesh colour. It is said by some to be 
the most delicate of all the crustaceans ; by others, 
to be inferior to the common lobster. — The Spimy 
L., or Ska ClUTniK {Poiia«rut vulgaris), is not 
uncommon on the rocky coasts of Britain, particu. 
larly in the south. It is l>e!ieved to be the Korahoi 
of tiie Greeks, and the Locutta at the Romans. 
It attains a length of about eighteen inches. Tbe 
■hell is very hoid, and the whole body ia rough 
with short spines. The antennn are very long, much 
longer than those of the common lobster. There 
are no claws or pincers, the Snt t^ °i ^^et being 
Tety similar to the others. The Spiny L, is brought 
to market in London and elsewhere, but is inferior 
to the common lobister.— <)ther apeciei of these genera 
are found in other patts of the world. , 

LOCHABBR AXB, an ore with a enmd 
handle, and very broad blade. It was the aoeient 
weapon of the Hishlandera, and was carried by th* 
old City Oaard of Edinburgh. 

the Indre, 2S miles south.east of Toun^ Pop. GI91. 
The castle of L. {now a min) aoqniTed a feirful 
reputation daring the reign of Louis XL, as the 
scene of those deeds of cruelty which were la 
horrible that they had to be done in utter dark- 
ness and secrecy. At a lat«r period, James V. oi 
Scotland was married in this castle to Mai^alen 
of France ; and still later, Francii L received hen^ 
in spl^did state, the Emperor Charles Y., on his 
way from Spain to Ghent. 

LOCK of a ran is that ajiparatus by which tin 
powder ia fired. Muskets, in their earlical uj", 
were fired by tbe hand applying a alow match M 
the touch-hole. Towards the end of the 14th c, 
the first imprevement api>eared in the nulcUucL 

Thia consisted <rf a crooked iron lever, a, in the end 
of which the match was lixcd. By a pin-gear of i 

simple nature, pn^ssure on the trigger, b, bmu.-bl 
the match accurately down on the powder.pan. of 

rbeen thrown fur- 
tiring involveil I ha 
slow match. nau.>,ly 

in the pan, so that the raatchlovk, clumsy witLJ, 

IS bat an uncertain 


1 the matchlock was the vAM-l'i'i. 

and a 

-ated the sporka aimultaneously u 

— ^'--' ■'-- danceis from in 

before firing, i 

rred tbe 
and rain were averted ; 

apparatus required to be wonnd-up like a ilivk, 
and therefore the discharcea could not he freqner.c 
The wbeeMock cuntioued for a long peiriod :o \t 
used in Germany, and parlully in France. In th« 
Spanish dominiona, however, its place was suppli.J 
by the simpler contrivance called the Snaphaun^r, 
Snapphohn, or Asnaphan lock, of nearly contain. 
poraneouB invention, which actinc by meana o: s 
spring outside the lock-plate, pro£iced fire throu.-h 
the concussion of a flint against the ribbed tiip .[ 
the powder.pan. Its positions of half and full ci>-k 
were obtained by the insertion of a pin to stay the 
operation of tbe main.spring. Ia tbe middle u the 
iTth 0., the ^inf-foot was invented, combining the 
action of the wheel. lock and the snapbaance, wh^e 
it was inconteatably superior to eifaheT. Aji-r 
coml>ating much prejudice, it was Diiirer»il!v I 
adojited in the armies of Western Europe by f-a i 
commencement of tbe I8th oentury. Mii^k> ;s 
embracing it obtained the name of ' fusils,' a Fr>':i. 'i 
adaptation of the Italian word foeOt, a tlint. WiiJt 
successive improvements, the flint-lock continned in 
General use until tbe introduction of the ^Mmusinit- 
lotk almost in oar own day; and amoof eaatera 
and barbaric nations, the fliot-lock ia a^ in com- 
mon demand. Its great superiority over th< 

..J y_ .u. ,1 1.1 — I jjii _ i.^h 


■■■Iljl Hil lliii'i .' appliances itiU ntaincd 

■ itliicuwinit-lock. which mabled the podtiODa 
ri y( ad foil cock to be taken ap withont the 
ite»liaB of puu, alway* nncertuD in their 

Oi praciiils of the pcronnJMi-lodc i> the pro- 
MiM «( fin bj the falling of a hamMer apon 
jMMtav pmrder, the exploaian of which pene- 
Uliiti)tbeahai|[a in the barrel of the gun. The 
ta [iKlicd application of this principle to fire- 
n a dsc t« the Her. Mr Fonyth of^ Belhelrie, 
» Atadtwihire. Variou fomu in wbich to 
i;>lt Ae dftDootiDg powder bare been doTiaad, 
w tbt BOW geiMnUy aooepted ia the coiipcr cap, 
inof tiKhtly on the nipple of the goo, charged 
ni 1 Moutinx oompoiiad, and ez^oded b; the 
h^w UliBg npon it The percuwion-lock, with 
At liHI iiDjvoTemeata, ia aliewn in the aooeied 
Ipn A B the lock-plate ; B, the maiji-Bimii^ 
■■ninttnft (hnm^ the iwivel C, with the 

M lua delivered ita itroke, and its further 
rca h the dinctiija required b; the spring B, 
• kmd by the nipple M. On pulling back the 
^fs. E, to the position of half-cock N, the 
teUa tana with it, and the pointed end of the 
^ I (wiidi man* on the *cear-nail I. oa centre), 
I 'faemd b; the eceKr-aprinf; R, falU into the 
Hii 0, ia the tumbler. Thia notch has such a 
^ liai no actian of tbe tri|{gcr can release the 
^1^ tnu the itoppage caused by the acear. 
'■ Matg baek tbe hammer to full-cock O. bow- 
■V. tba Hsir will move down to tbe sballowar 
"AB: ud BO the lever end of tbe soear being 
^ bj tb« trimer nntil the pointed end clean 
^ Wn kt, Um l^ter, acted on by tbe main-epring, 
u nood to the position delineatwd, and brings 
«n th htwiBCT with a heavy blow on the cap. 
-ikrcp the wotka of the lock linnly in their 
>^ lilK«i. a metal shield, called tbe ' bridle,' ii 
""A Dver than bv the screwi at L and P, and 
^lia the pin, F, in ita width. The percuesion- 
■» vii gencnilly adopted in the British army 
'^ tbi yur 1840: it is now frequently applied 
; '■awoBuwellMioiall-armi, 

u)CK, OS B river or canal, is an arrangement of 
ta pnDtl Boodgatea, by which conunonication 
l<»n<l b«t>«a two rescbea of different levels. 
^ Iccb were lirst introduced, is not known 
*iW 1 ksadied years, not ia it clear whether 
™*at or Italy cso claim the distinction of having 
^Oflojtd than. This much, bowerer, can be 
r"^ vith certainty, that at the beginninB of 
"'ITlibilocki existed in both conntnes, and it 
^f^sth tkat they were arrived at gradually by 
■"^ii i^sDvementa in tha mode of render- 
*■ <Ud¥ nven oaviffabla. Obykmaly, tbe flnt 

st«p woold have been to dam the stream saraaa at 
intervals, leaving gates in the dams for the passage 
of vessels. This measure would bare divided the 
rirer into reaches or steps, each, as the source was 
approached, being higher abore tbe saa than the 
one last passed. But the passage np or down— and 
eepecially up — such a stream must be eitrnnely 
slow, aa at each dam a ressel must wut until the 

Ste has been opened, and the lord equalised in 
B reach it is in, and that on which it is propoeed 
to enter. Where tbe reaches wer« far aput, a 
large body of water would require to be raised or 
lowered, and the process ooiild not hot be tedious. 
The medieval engineers next tried to place the 
dams aa near togeUier aa possible, but exnenaa 
limited this. The conrse then was to build two 
dams, with floodgatea, just far enough apart to 
allow a msel to float within. Under this arrauge- 
ment, only the sectiou between the dama had to 
be raised or lowered. The coat of thus doubly 
damming a wide river, however, waa very grea^ 
and it was an easy transition of idea to remove the 
passage from the main stream altogether, and oon- 
strnet a tort with double gates, whidi should open 
at one end above, and at the other below the dam 
or weir. The economy of money in building, and 
d tame and water in working, waa ohvioas; and ob 


this principle all locks are now mi 
there ia traffic of any importanc& The arranM- 
ment consists of two pairs of gates, opening up ue 
atream, and offering, ^hen shut, a salient angle to 
the atream or upper pressure. The effect is that 
the weight above only tends to dose the gates (till 
tighter. When a veaael is to be brought from one 
level to tbe other, it is floated into the ' pound.' as 
the space between the upper and lower gates is 
oalled. The gates are then shut, and a sluice in the 
lower port of the npper gate ruaea the surface of 
the pound, or the sluice in the lower gate depresses 
it, in a few minutes to the level of the iqiper at 

Vertiosl Seotion of a Thames Look. 

lower reaeh, as the ease may he. Hese sluiae* an 
worked by racks in the gates, and the ponderous 
gates thamsetves are moved with the aid of long 
and heavy levers. Of course, one pVr of gates 
must always he shut, or the two reacbea would 
siieedily atdmilatr tfasir leveK In the engraving, 
the boat haa just entered from tha bwer part of 
the river. 

On canals when water is soarce, a reaervcnr, 
equal in siia to the lock, is formed at ite side. 
When the potuid ia to be emptied, the water ia 
run into the reasrvoir until it and tbe lock are at 
the MUIM level, which wiU be half height. Tha 


IMM voir i> tfan* cloaad, uid the remuning wkter 
in tLe IcKik run off through the lower iluicea in 
the urnwl way. Od refllliag the lock, before open- 
ing the upper Hluicea, one quarter the quantity 
required oan b<i obtained from the reeerroir, thua 
effecting m wvlag of many tons of -water at eacl 

On riven, adTaotage i> taken of islandi for thi 
formation of Weirs (q. ».) and locks. On thi 
Thames, the locka are from two to three milte 
apart, aad the ri*er i> locked by upwards of SO 
locks from Teddington to Lechlade. On canals, to 
economise mpertntfndence, the locks are nnially 
constructed in 'ladders' of several close together, 
like a flight of steps. As the pressure on lock-gates 
is very great, and varies with the height of water 
above, the rise in one lock is rarely more than 8 
or 9 feet, although in some instances 12 feet have 
been accomplished, and in a t - ' 

LOCK, a contrivance for securely fnsiening the 
door of a bnilding, the lid of a box, ftc. AmoOEst 
the early BVyptuins, Qrecka, and Romans, locks 
werf) used, but their conatraction evinced little 
■kilt, and Uiey were usually made of hard-wood ; 
in fuct, they were little more than wooden bolts, 
requiring only the band to uafaaten them. The 
first advance upon this was a remarkable one. 
invented by tiie ancient f^ptians ; it contained 
' iciples of the 

m tumbli 

J Turks, 

in their haods, made 
any advance. This 
lode consists of a case, 
fig. I, A, which is 
^. 1. nailed to the door ; 

through the ease 

passes a large wooden bolt, fig. 1, B, the end of 

which, E, enters the staple, whilst the opposite 

end ia left exposed. In the loner part of the 

bolt ^ is a ■4'»'B groove C, which bos certain 

round or square 

holes, as seen in 

fip. 2, /, which 

gives the open view 

oftiielock. When 

^ the bolt is poshed 

home into the 

staple, these holes 

come exactly under 

corresponding Uttle 

cavities in the case 

Kg. a. 

-which Is pbued an upright wooden nin, with a 
. knob, which prevents its falling too low ; these 
little pins consequently fall into Uie holes in the 
bolt when it is pushed far enough, and the door is 
' locked. In order to unlock it, the bar of wood, 
fig. 3, is passed into the 
LL-t^ groove C, in the bolt, 
^'^ and on the bar there are 

Fig. 3. the same number of jnns 

of wood placed upright 
as there are hole* Id the bolt, and loose pins m the 
chamben of the case ; and these upright pins are 
placed so aa to correspond exactly in size and 
position to the boles ; therefore, when the pins 
reach the boles, they slip into them, and pnsb up 
the looee pins into their respective oavitiea, and 
the bolt is then easily pulled back by means of the 
bar or key. This is simple and ingenious, bot it 
is ven dumif, and, as usually made in Turkey, ii 

not secure. Nevertheless, it has been in um lo^cr 
than any other form of lock in existence. 

During the middle ages, verr cami]jicated and 
ingeniouB locks of various kinds were made, and 

f tlie 

of Uie] 

purposes, ■ 

locks, however, ^ 


present century, even for impoTtaot 
this kind of lock is Mill in very 
It consists of a bolt of metal, to 
which a spring is attached, and it is moved hack- 
ward or fonnrd by means of a key, which, by 
raising the bolt, compreaaes the spring in tiie ■li>t, 
thronah tv'bich it works, and so lets it pass on until 
out of the range of the key's action, which, turning 
on a pivot, is regulated by the length of its wanlii, 
and the depth of a curve cut in the under side i>f 
tiie bolt In order to prevent any key of the same 
size opening all such locks, little ridges of iron are 
placed in curclea or parts of circles, and wards an 
cut in the keys, so as to correspond with them ; 
hence, only the key which hss openings or wanli 
which will allow the ridges to pass tbrou^ tbem, 
can be used. Ihis will be better seen by the 
sketch, fig. 4. A, is the bolt, having at the end 


~A " 



)ppoeite to that which enten the atai^ a Hnall 
)iece slit, bent outwards, and tempered hard ; this 
orms the spring a ; below, are two notches b. b, 
divided by a curved piece of the bolt e ; there ia 
another notch d, which, if the key ent^ra, and ia 
turned round, it dra-ws the bolt forward or hack- 
ward in locking or nnlocking, and the qiring makt^ 
the end of the bolt either drop into oue of tb« 
notohes fr, 6, or rise np the curve e, according to 
the distance to which it is pulled. The ridgva B, B 
are so placed aa to allow flie wards of the key, ■.'. 
to move freely, and to prevent the entrance of 
another key of different ammgementi 

The tutnltier-loek is the type of another class. anA 
is an advance upon the last ; the twopiinciples aru, 
however, in mnet cases combined. The princijile nf 
the tumbler-lock will be readily seen by nfereaca 

to fio. B. In this, a lock nearly aUke the fa^— i 
hae been chosen, and the simplest fonn of Immhl, 
added. It will be seen that the bol^ A, has 



h mra exsotiy m far apui aa the 
* moTcd by the txdt in locking or UDlocking. 
Btkad tlw ixiHi, partly aaen only — the covered parti 
iaag iKliated by dotted lines— is the lurabUr B, 
1 aiall {date iBOTing on the pivot d, &nd having 
fr^Btbag Erom ila face a imall sqnare pin e, which, 
vka tbe bolt ia locked or unlocked, lalla exactly 
■b amt <^ th« other of the amall ootchea//. It 
«€1 also be Men tbat then ia in tbe key a notch 
f vbich eerrcBponda to tha ontline of tbe tninbler, 
H iadicited by tbn dotted tinea. Thia acta upoo 
Ik tBBbleT wben the key it toni^ and iwcea it 
H a to lift the pin oat of the notch in the bolt, and 
iDw tbe latter to be mored freely forward until 
tkc eth^ notch cornea under the pin, when the 
tctrr falla into and immediately stops its further 
■miiwa, and tlie actum of the key must be reversed 

■ (rder to rdieTe it again. Thia very simple appli- 
oMioa of the tambler is sufficient to axpUin the 
pmci^e wbicfa may be, and is varied la an almost 
eaiOas extent. Chnbb'a justly celebrated lock 
ania it out meat fully, tbe bolt itself being only 

■ airin at tambleis, irtiii a notch on the key foe 
aek Bramah'a lock, patented in 1788, has enjoyed 
iancaae repotatioD. chiefly for cabineta, desks, and 
■tks iptttjr applications ; it ia very differeul in 
fndple frvm thoae before mentioned, consisting 
ti a namber of movable slides or interior bolts 
vofcinfi ia an internal cylinder of tbe lock, and 
R^nlattd by tbe preMute upward or dovnirnrd of 
tb key acting on a spiral spring. For ordinary 
^muaeih it ia very secure ; bat when the most 
fonrt aeeority is required, the beautiful lock 
OTOrted by Mr Cotterill of Birmiasham, and the 
aH sure ingenious one of &fr Hubba of America, 
amt be preferred. These beautiful and cumuli- 
oud pieces of mechanisin cannot be described 
vnliin the limits of this article ; but ample 
i]tf9tautitHi upon them and others can be found 
m itr Denison's TVtatita on L<kIi, and in The 
rBtisii irii J Trmhtt m Ae CotutntOion of Lock*, 
Ijr Claries TomlinsoiL 

LOCK, or GOWFBS, in Scotch Law, is the 
poqinite paid by custom to the miller's man for 
pndiDg com. See TsotLkau 

LOCK-UP HO0SE8, Uie notne piven to the 
boea of baiUffs (rf the sheriff, to which debtors 
■ntn) for debt an tint taken, until it is seen 
vWther tbey will settle their debt without being 
^en to the ordinary jaiL See JSxrodtiok ; 


LOCKB, JoH-y, waa bom at Wrington. near 
bMuL oo the 29th of Aogust 1632. His father was 
^nmd tu Colonel Fophun, and served under him 
M aptain id the Parliamentary army durini the 
LJT^War. Li- was sent for his education to West- 
Master School, where he conldaued till 16S1, when 
kwas ele<Aed a student of Christ- Church, Oxfoid. 
IWn be went through the usual studies, but 
naed to prefer Bacon and Deacartet to Aristotle. 
Hu tonleacy was towards experimental philosophy, 
sad be rhnsr mediona for his profession. In 1664, 
b vest tu Berlin, a* secretary to tbe British envoy, 
WtscDD returned to bis studiea at Oxford. In 1666, 

> live at his house. In 167i^ when Sbaftea- 
-same Lord ChaoosUor, L. was appointed 
T of Presentations, a post which he after- 
^t^ ezchaagod for that of Secretary to tbe Board 
ri Trade. Be was employed to draw up a oonsti- 
Msw fur the Amerioao province of Carolina, but 
teslkEiMon tdigion were deoted too libcnl, and 

the clergy got a clause inserted, givins the hvon 
of the state exolosivety to tiie eatabli^ed chuit^h. 
In 1676, he took np bis rtaidence at MnatnelJier for 
the benefit of his health. He had nil his liie an 
asthmatic tendency, which at that time ibreatiMind 
to pass into consumption. At Montpellier, he 
formed the acquaintance of the Earl of Pembroke, 
to whom his Et»ay is dedicated. In 1679, hs 
rejoined tbe Earl of Shaftesbury in England ; but 
in 1682 tbe earl fled to Holland, to avoiil a prose- 
cutioa for high treason. I^ bore him company, and 
BO far shared with him the faostihty of tbe gnvem- 
ment of James, as to bavs his name erastil, by 
royal maudate, from the list ot students of Christ 
Church. Even in Holland, be was demanded <f 
the Statee-genenl by the English envoy | but he 
contrived to conceal himself till tha English court 
oeased to trouble itself on his account. In 1687, 
his £Miry OB the Oaderilanding, begun seveoteen 
years before, was flntsbed; aud an abridgmeiit of 
IS published in French (1688), by his triend Le 

Booh. In 1689 appeared (also in Holland) his first 
letter on ToUrrUioiL But in 1688. tbe year of the 
Revolution, be came back to Eriglaud m the fleet 
that conveyed the Princess of Orange. He soon 
obtained from the new govermnent tbe situation of 
Commissioner of AppeaU, worth i.'200 a yvaz. He 
took a lively interest in tiie cause of toleration, and 
in maintaining the principles of the Kevolution. 
In 1690, his £«iy on tht Underttanding was 
publislied, and met with a rapid and extensiva 
celelirityi and also a second letter on TWeiiition, 
and his well-known Trtatita on Oocerameat. In 

various tracts on the subject. In 1692. he brought 
out a third letter on ToUnition, which, as well 
aa the second, was a reply to tbe attacks made 
on tbe first In 169J was published his work on 
l-ducatu/n. In 1695, King WUIiam app>inted 
him a Comminioner of Trade and Plantations. 
lo the same year he pubhsbed bia treatise on TU 
JitaHonahlentM of Chriatianittf, which was written 
to promote William's favourite scheme of a com- 
preEienaion of all the Christian sects in one 
national church. He maintained a controversy in 
defence of this book ; he had another controvcray id 
defence of the Miaay on the Undemanding, against 
SUUiBsHeet, the Bishop of Worcester. Hia feeble 
health now compelled him to resign his oBice of 
Commissioner of Plantattons, and to quit Loudon; 
and he spent the reioaioder of bis Ufa at Gates, in 
Essex, at the seat of Sir Francis Mosbam. Hia last 
years were very much occupied with the study of 
tbe Scriptures, on which he wrote several disserts* 
tions, which, with bis little work, eutitled On Iht 
Conduct of Uie UndergUiading, were published after 
his death. He died 28th October I7U4. 
Great as were L.'8 services to his country, and to 
le cause of civil and religious liberty, lus fame 
ats on the E»»ay on the Uadtrttaiui'mg, which 
marks an epoch iu the history of philosophy. His 

Eurjiose was to inquire into tbe {nwers of the 
uman understanding, with a view to hod out what 
things it was fitted to grapple with, and where it 
— Tt foil, so as to make tlie mind of iruin 'mora 
tious in meddling with things exceeding it* 
iprehenaion, and disposed to stop when it is at 
utmost extent of its tether.' lliis ])urpose led 

to that thorough investigation of the coosti- 

tutioD of the human mind, resulting in the most 
□umeront and important cvotributions ever made 
by one man to our knowledge on this subject He 
- — ■=■-'— - preliminary iaquiiy, in the subject ot 


LOCKED JAW— Locuar. 

the Firrt Book, m to tka exMeacfl of ini 
t^aiin>Ur4l um) practioal, on which the nhiloanphical 
mrid bH bno » maeh divitlnl 3m Cokmok 
SCNHI. L artfOM aftuaat th« rTUt«ni.-e ri theae 
(uiii'iaod iankte ooaoFuUoa*, or iatnitiiini, of the 
Diioit with k fcirw knd er<f(ruej that >pp««r irre- 
■iitilit*. U>vtn|{ tbm repotluUed the uutiuctiTe 
■ Hircc* nt uur k.Dow1eitt::t or idoH. he ie bound to 

' 13 chDidM^ 4 banks, 9 duly ud 3 weekly mn*. 
{•■pen, kod tenneriea, maaafeotori w of >cni ahanl 
unplementa, glue, As. Pop. in IMO, 13,o3. 

LCCLR, » [nmtier town of Switmisod. o>Mi« 
of Nenchitel, end 10 milee nurtli-vcct M the bnm 
of that name. IN>p^ SSI4, who aic eojckenl chuAj 
in wktch-nukin^ In 18S1, no lea* than 83^ 

ehy t 

1 the c 

eijwrieDoe. Onr eiperieaoe b«ia^ twofutd, vitenial 
aiiil iDt<-nul, we hare twn cimii, of ideu — Uuiee of 
K 'DBtti-Q. and tboee of iti-dKticin. He hu tbere- 
fifre (•> trave all the nix>)iiii*>^l ooB«|itioiu of the 
■uiod t" uoe or othrr of thi>H Harore. Manj of 
iMir DKliiitu are olnioiuly deTiv«l from Experirncw, 
aa ciiliHira. toandi, ic ; bat aanw hani beai dis- 
pated. miiri! npecially auch aa Space, lliDc. Infinity, 
Piiwcr, Siilietaoce, Caose, mere uood ami Kril ; and 
L diouwe tbeee at kDith, by way of tnoinK then 
ti the auine ori^o. Thi* ia the rabJArt af Book 
.Secnn.U ratitleil 'Of Una.' Book Third ii on 
Uat;u.v:i.' ouoaideml a« an initnUDent nf touth. and 
ontaiitf much Taloable matiTiaL The roorth Book 
i* ou the nature, liroita, and reality of nor know- 
lAl;:r. tucliiJiDK the oatun of dismtnutratiTe tnth, 
the t'listt'OiT uf ■ God, the prunnoee of faith and 
rwuD. »»>1 the naUue at error. 

IXM'KBD JAW. See TsTurrs. 

LOOKHART. Jobs Oimos. waa born at Cam- 
■•auftlian, in SaiUud, in I'M. Hia father waa 
iitubT of the btabli*hr<l Church of Scotland. 


1 the 

jirl afterwanla pTocivfllird to Oxford, 
whrrr, in IHI3, he tiiok Ont-cLua hooonn. In 
ISIS, bv bvckme an advocate at the Scotch bar. 
He ap]>>«n, however, to have wanted the qoali- 
lioati-'ix rK-vreaary few fuoerea in thia prnfivaiiio, 
and 1>-«i>lni, iha bsnt u( hia minil wae niurr tuward 
Lt'i4lurv Uian law. He ami Wilaiin were tuoii the 
chii-l fufi-niA-n at maeiw.,^1 ilw,t-.i,r. ll^re 
lie Ui eibilat ttut aharp and bitler wit that 
waa hu DKitt aalient charactt^ri^itic, and maila him 
the terror u( Li> coemiea. It wu thiA cniDi-cti.m 
whi>'h l■^l t» hia acijiiaintance with 8ir Walter 
.• In 1819, ai'pvared PrlrrM Lr'im to hU 
Kiiu'-li. Id IHJO, he marriHl Mia .Scutt, <:ld«t 
Jau^liMr of Sir WalUx. Id It'Jl, bo publiabul 
y.U'r, .^ a».l m IS-Si. A'lam Bl<ir. Both <-f th««! 
w.irlta. «i--cially the Utter. «Ut-w him to have 
|iiB>K->«'l. at IvwL a tbiir<>iii(h aounainlancq with 
the nd- nf art in liai«iwritin«. In 1«3 a|>|wared 
h.* l:-ii4..U IMUxt. a tale ul Ru>:li'di nnirvnlty 
life, aiid m 1ti-.'1 hia Jmflml .'fuuiiiA Balta-U— 
|irrli.k;« Ih" m «t loipiilar of all hia writiiu.'^- In 
the vKii - h<- puMiibal hta Iwt novel. iliHoru 
W Jf r *-.V WtM. Frim IWJO ti> IS.V1, he edifHl 
t'be V'"-'-'-'* Krrinr. Froa lli37 to 1839, ai-iiearwl 
Ilia ;.;'' ./>V.^i.a work uf undoulited ment, but 

In l-^.C. inn wife ilinl. havinif h»«i mdireawxl by 
thrir <:t'^t »n Hii.:h. Hia aecond aon .li.-.l at a 
latrr |. n>l. In 1SU. L wu a|.poiatnI AudibT 
<■( l'i.- l>u. by of I'liTDwall, with a aalary nf £U<X) 
a In I'Hl, hia only rvm*iniiiK cliiM. a 
daii,;[.I--r. the at)!* ■umTing dnoendant of Sir 
WaJUT S.s.(t, raarrwt J. fi. Ga^ She 
(■n-.-!.-! to the Htale of AUwur-mt on tbe 
death of brr lather, 2M) Norember IHM. 

UK'KPORT, a rUla*. of New York. O. S.. on 
the Enr l.'anaL and the Rxbmln and Nianra 
PalU lUilway. SS taila weat of Ro. hmtn. The 
maal here lalb U !««, with S oomUnMl duuble- 
locka, and iti mttjiaa walvr jpne pnwer to 5 
banBtf-roilla. T aaw-nilla, S (tare aad abiDiile 
IkMuTH* machinr^ahopa^ awl fuandhaa. Tberv are 

tiaTeraed by a point w _ _ 

in aooordaoee with certain determinate cnoditioeA 
lliaa, the locna cd a point which Buat alwajn [■*■ 
aerre the aame nniform diataaee froin a fiinl |<«at, 
ia tba mrCaoe of a aphens ; bat if the Dkilna be 
at the aamn time oontined to a plane, the iumi ta 
thia oaaa will lie a ctrds : thia ia an illaalratuia id 
the dinaiao into »iU and pta»e loa whicb {re- 
Tailed among the aneiaat& Tbe Umk k-nxBeaoi 
made their geometrical analyna dr|>rnd much b|k« 
the inrestif^Uiao of looi, bat no igpvciTic rrvorli tl 
their pmgresi in thia branch of Knuortry now uut. 
What would appear to hare been thru- mt'tbiid via 
reatored by I>r Simaoa cf GLa«gi>w, wlu^w w«k, 
Dt Locii Ploaif (1749), ■• a D«>lel at <ir.;att>. 
In molem Cleometiy. plane Ind are tiftud uaitar 
the name of CcRvn (q. t.). 

JX>Cn8 DELICTI, the place wherv a m^ WM 
committed, ia a phrase oaed m mminal law. 

LOCUS PtEyiTENTLC the lime !■< wilbdnw 
from a barvain a phraec often iup<l in .■^-■^.h bw. 
The i;enenl rule ia, that until the iimlrac-t a tioaOy 
aettled, either party majr rgtrart -. but if rW iiiVr* 
r'oUa* baa interreiied, i. e., if mnip a<-t baa brra 
dune by the other party on the faith nt the vr- 
meut, and by which bia poaitinn hon bo-n allrniL the 
luau prnUrHria is barred. Hn>.'b d'-i-rn ts >« the 
circunutancea of each caae a* to the a)>tiLi.'atim ii' 
the rule. 

LOCUST ILocmla at aooM entatn.>I.>o*ta. aid 
Arrylin't of utbera). the type of a faintly i/fra^im 
or Acrpilidit) of the order (JrtAap'rra. an I xitba 
Saltiili/ria (•>« GHrLLtii). Li>'u>Li .liAr Ina 
L;ruabiipi«n and crivkrta in th>ir -'i..rt aut-naai. 
anil in uia ({rvatar rubuntneaa of th< ir UaL** a»l 
timba. The bead ia lanie, with two f]fi)rKin4 
oval compound eyia, and three niinniu.v ryw .« 
its aummiL The wing*, when foldnl. i^'l at aa 
aniila abore the hack ; the alidumrti i* ohu aL aki 
iprveeed. Their luiiddfga are Itr^r. aiul tWy 

of ka 


njnal W 

■tnduUnt nmae by tba lh>.-tiua ot thr r>\;h kuai- 
lei^ aMunat Uie wiiitl-oovcn. The uuu i.,\.n an 
li-athciy, namiwer Uiau the wiu/v bi 
them in Iciii^tb ; the wiuin are Uiv. 
fold like a laii, and are uilen beaiiLi! i \\ o. .jrrti 
- red, pink, brown, grren, or Idur. IV- {»wrr ! 
fliifht of IncosU baa been (he riSi'it U ma. h 
diapita. MOM aastrting that they caa ttj U> sr^tX 
dirtancea. others that they hare litt'e (aiwir U 
dii;bt, and are merely carried brfiprr a ^tj> -4 
wiud. The truth Brenu to Ik bi7tw,iii th'H ■ itrraa 
iiiniuoni : loniuta fly well, but thry ar<- im |im si 
wafted by windx wbem their puerr >■< il,^ ,| ■ -'4 
-T ban carriol them. Their foil .-xauaU << cL« 

a and B 

rMiiiK. they use tlu'ir fure-teet b> bnn^ lixu- f aal 
tu thi'ir noulh. They generally ({u.f •-•■^ma 
any stalk uf itraa* <W other Knvti tliia; >bi. h tky 
liave Bt'U'Cted and cuL n» toml4r rar^^n -l 
locusta sit owing to tha nut nnmlm in wbw* 
they appear, hlling tlM air like Oaka id a^tm~ 


Loccsrr TEEB-LODomoa 

jrtwjng tlia akj, aa tiut obiecti cact no sbadow 
■ wliil^ IB the diituice, like > thick unuke^ 
itf^BBg wiUi > eoand like the rushing of chariots 
m <I waifTK, or. in the words of the prophet Joel, 
'U* the Dotae <jf ■ flwne nf tire that devoureth Uie 
diMa;' whilst, ■• he ftlao Bays, 'the land is as 
At pjdcD of Eden before them, aad behind them 
1 daulate wildemcH.' They eat up every green 
tlu^ tad after the gnai and leaTca, they dCTOur 

Hediterranean, and its pods are the locost beau 
of onr shop*. See Cabob. A kiad of efierrescing 
beer, made from locust or carob pods, WM laat year 
told in London.— The L0CU8T TRKK of Americ* 
[t/obhua pteudaearia), also called the False Acacia, 
or Thokk Acacia, and on the continent of Enrope 
and in Bntain, Tery ceneixlly the Acacia, is a 
valuable and extiemety beautiful tree. t:iee RoBiHtA. 
Tha wood, known as Loeaat Wood, ie usefal for all 
porpos™ in which great strength, 
and especi&lly toughness, 14 
regnired : tbii latter quality, 
es pre.eniinently. 

LooQtt [ZoCTuto niffraloria). 

a Swir hunger the bark of trees and abrubs. Ripe 
pta, however, may escape, as being too hard 
aad dry. These moltituitiuons Bwanns of locusts 
lo ant appear annually : it is only after the lapse 
rf a nrober of years that they are ajjaiu >o gnft 
md so diaii uctjve ; and particular ycais are marke'l 
ia tbe faiitoiy of some c tnntriei as yeara of tbeir 
rOiaordiaiay abnoilance. and of consequent famine 
■■d frntilence. When ilriven by a etruug Kind into 
tfae aea, they have sometimes been flung back on the 
liHrh in niiji quantities as to produce a ateoch 
Ttnhri.ble to a f^^at distjuice. 

I^vosls are found in almost all parts of the world 
OB^ tbe cojilest regions, but they abound chieSy 
a tn^-icil a.ail snbtooptcal couutnei, and moit c' 
■0, in Arabia and Africa. The eastern and soiitlier 
■aionolly visited by tbei 
m the south of Frano 
sllection of locusts i 

iettnictin horts, 
iTvards arv pnid for the 

V pnid f 1 
Tbe e 

Lod cemented toj^ther 
■ ome muBes in uie gronud. The insects them- 
■dwa mrr taken by means of a stont cloth, the 
«i^ of which ia Esade to sweep over the nu^ace 
ef lh« groand, and the locusts thns thrown tof^her 
m qnickly gathered into sacks. A similar mode 
rf dminisfaing the noisanee is adopted in North 
ftmiii I ; bat before an invasion such as districts 
4J .^Ba and Africa are oocasionaUy subjected to, 
«B human effurt fails. 

r iried i 

the ■ 

the son. They thiis appear in the 
Bsketa of Arabia, Syria, Egypt, Madagascar, kc., 
■E>1 arc even exported as au article of conunerce. 

The atnst noted species is Loeiuta nwfmtoria 
•or ArrjdatM ToiijmtoTitiJR) ; about 2{ inches 

bwBoUJy Been in Europe. It is a rare visitant 
^ Britain. Otlier species belong to other ]iarts 
rf the vcrid. Some of them, forming the gam 
fnuBJsf, and inbabitir- "-' ' — — ^* 

Tkp- little chirping * grassbo]>pera ' most common 
differiae nom true graashoppera in their 
bdong to tiie genus Tetrix, and 

LDCL'fyr TREE, a name fpven in <Uflerent parte 
tf tke VM-U to diflernnt tiees of ths natoral order 
flit ■laiiwi — The Carob Tree [Ceratonia tiliqua) is 

which it po&ieK 

trenails used in slii^ -building, 

and large quautities are im- ' 

. ported for this purpose. It ia 

* also valuable for making tho 

cogs of wheeta —The HOKKT 

liScmn (q. v.l Thkb of America 

is a OfnJi/se/iia.^The l«CD8r 

Tro of the West Indies ia 

Ilymenaa nourfcari^, a gigantio 

tree, whose pods also supply 

a nutritious matter, a meidy 

BnbataQC« in which tbe pods are imbedded. It la 

sweet and pleasant, but apt to induce diarrhcea 

when recently gathered, wlueh property, however, 

it loaea when kept for a short lime. A decoction 

of it, allowed to ferment, mokea a kiud of beer. 

file bark of tbe tree :■ anthelmintic ; it yields 

a kind of resin called Aniue (q. v.). and it ia 

valuable as a timlier-tree, the timber (also known 

as Loctut Wood) being claee-graioe.! aud tough, 

and in request in England fur trenaila It is very 

t^nerally imported id the form of trenails. 

LODB, > miner's term tor Veins (q. t.) in which 
minerals occur. They are crerices, more or less . 
vertical, produced hy contraction, or the mechanical 
disturbance of the rock, which have subsequently 
been tilled with metallio ores. 

LODEVE (ancient LuteBo in QalUa Nnrhonenma), 
a town of Southern France, in tlie dejiartment of 
Hfrault, situated on the Er^e, in a beautiful valley, 
32 miles uortb.west of Montjiellier. It is enclasp 
by walls, has a cathedral, and a pop. of 12,763, with 
manufactures of woollen cloths. L. is the birth^aca 
of Cardinal Fleury. 

LODGED, in Heraldry. A beast of chase, as a 
stag, is said to be lodg^ when lying down with 
its head erect ; a beast of prey iu tbe Same pcoitiOB 
is said to be oouchauL. 

LODGINO-MONEY is an allowance, in th« 
British army, granted to officers uid others, for 
whom suitable quarten cannot be provided iu 
barracks, Married sergeants and private soldien 
who are married ' with penniasiou, are entitled to 
lodgingmoney at various rates up to fti a week, 
when separate rooms in barracks cannot bu sparetl 
for the accommodation of each coujile. Tlie tot^ 
charge tor lodging-money in the army estimates at 
ISG3 -1S64 amounts to about £100,000. 

LODGINGB, or the use of part of another pei^ 
son's house, when occupied, constitute the relation 
of landlord and tenant between tbe parties, Lodg-. 
ings being generally taken by the week, or mnnt£, 
or qnarter, it is not necessary that the contract 
should be by writing, though it is expedient, espe- 
cially where any particnlar stipulations are maile. 
But where a fnmished house is let, and a written 

Eument or lease is used, it is aUotutely oeceeaaiv 
t there should be a stomp ou such writing, whitdi 
must be cancelled by the parties under a penalty of 
jCS besides stamp-duty ; and house-agents who let 
funushad housea above jC2S for hire, must now taka 


■Ml in uinaal bomo*, ud p«y dat7. la Enriaad, 
the clii'-( pninU of U« which uite >ra M Follow; 
• >iiP<irtli<-nikD which thalodicrr rana U. th>t if hii 
Wmltiin). L, n hinurll a tmut to A, toin*boily cUe. 
tlirn. if l/a rput i> in arrekr, the ]oAgr-r't ^mhIs may 
b(i U' rn l>v A t" pny thit. fur the role i*. that «1J 
pnxli Kmnil on tlu- )>rami*M, to vhomweTer beloQjj;- 
inil. nijiv 1v K'tiiil to (iiv umui of rrot, and it u 
Iniinalrniil whirtbiT the UoiUurd A. who tliitraina, 
knciwt ihry an n»t L'a, but the lodtipr'a cui-U. The 
odIv rnixily ID luc-h a cue for the liHl)(er ii to 
driliirt the amount of luai frnin the next rvnt he 
{■•ya In 1. lor ■■•■l;;inea, Hrnt'e, in onlcr to kam 
i*li''tlif-r Ihi- aUivc rutt ia im|KnilinK. a lnd|{er 
Irvi|iipiil1v iiiijiiirra Ivlorrhantl at the landlurd of 
tlir lixiix'v A, aiul the Ui-ciiU.-rton, whether rent. 

: which nearly 
Lhe aAle cuatuJy 
y lialilr for or<ti- 
it at all h.UAnl* 

L-x-ti are etolen | 

, Lamt P, . 

wu sraduall; umiu|4(i1 into Ibe l iilerB 
name of LoM h. il catebtktn] tor Ott Ticbay J 
the French, nnder BoDapartn. onr the Antriaaa, (■ 
lOth Hay ITM. when the long uad namiw hole* 
wu carriett by the French colmnu, notwithataai' 
' •- ■ — the Amtrian baltenra. 

LO'ESS, a loamy depoait of Plriatocroe a;^ 
occiirnng in the ralleya of the Khine aitJ tfaa 
Danube. It oooaiata of a tiulTenikDl liiam <d a 
yellowUh-jp»y colonr, tnada np jinnn|i*ily ■■'. 
ar^liaeeoua matter, combined with a aiitb pait i 
carbonate of lime, and a aiith of qoaiti^ae m 
snniL In the Rhine, :' 
the whole Talley ami il 
conaiderable height up the bonndins 
ha* lubeeqiwnUy been nnatly abradol. ■ 

e kre[«r 

re taken hv 
: if by thie 

by the r 

'. and r 

.nB«i. . 

iom. in Bel^parn and Holland. 1 hi* octinw - 
drpoait of Bne ■Hlimcnt aDexeated the b^Ha I 
the orif^inal obsrrren of an enorexaw Likt. wWa 
harrier was at the narrow giircr of the ILhuw ■ 
Bin^vn. But the la«* occoi* furthrr •l--mu - Incl* 
itainrd fimila are not Wiiatnoe. l>ut 


• {tin 

L M-. 

tl th.^ IrtU-eri t-"-l» ('» 

Ihr l..l.,i,. •„.„*■ k.n-rf.*r«>t 

thplla {Iftia, Fuft, and . 
Micvrd to be the nomiDe mail of tt>» Ahaai 
elai-ien. which waa ajnad out ^rtitlv is tb* TallcTi 
u( the Rhine and Uuml*. aa tlv Un.l .T^laauf 
ennrmd fnxn the aea. The luam m hi ir-' jly trvm 
3tl tv SO fwt la tlii'^knrM, tL.Hi.-U x.^'tuifW a. 
much aa -jmi fnt F.'^U ar* n<t .-' >-nUy 'tiKi 
liUtol in the •tnta.Utt tb^v are ktiut.ti-i ' a-aLi 
atxio.lanL ThrT cumwt chirlly c4 land afe:!* w 

LOP<:>DES. LOKPOTlEN, or Utf'TBt. . 

rhau of blaDda m the n<>rth-weat ro^it ^ Ndf^ra* 
Ivlween Ul 67" ami (iV IS N.. a^l Ai-t. -js.; k>«4A 
wi-*t aibl Donh «« ITJ m.A Ti^ Lafv** ' 
lhe HLuHla an Kin-iue. Athl*. aad Lan.Mr, i« 
VaitfCB. W<M Vai^-r*. aail r.asiU.1... Ku .< tbrs 

• asarr-ra la Vaaino ana-n aa a.t:uir << «>• 



tig hi m> tbat Urn Bat aoiface ii at right anxle* to 
llMikip') ooww. When thrown ant— attached to 
ik kg-lioe (see Knot) — the tog meet* with tach 

nil I that it ibcoretically remaiiui atationary io 

Ita witer, and tbe lag-liiiepasnDg freely out shewi 
tW qnd of the ii miil Tben are, however, many 
■qnml loga, which have oomplicated appaiatiM. 
ir >«iHiii (he way made, ohangee of direction, 
It Hw uig and fioe are known to hare been 
tmd m tarty >■ 1570 a.d^ and were alluded to bj 

B (^leraticiii, aUowance having 

brrleaa contin^^t circninibuice*. In Hup» 
d vw, it ia Diiul to heave the loeerery hanr; 
B nrr^iaBtnitni, every two boors. The log-board 
a a heard On which the hourly mnlta of the log- 
ksriBg an ncoided in cbalk, with the wind^B 
IfKtHB, and other particutan, for the guidance of 
Ike dkea in charge. The oontenta of the lag-board 
B* entonl daily in the log-book, with all partica- 
Im I ■riilial to the hiatory c^ the voyage, aa 
ihpa noken, icebeffp aeeo, land lighted, &0. 'Hie 
Itfimi tfana become* a tod(^ joarnal : and it ia 
(oaqiBlaary upon every maat^ of a veeael to keep it 
psprlT, and to have it ready for inapection by any 
^ tt war of bii own nation whose captain may 
nqian ita {iraduetion. 

LOGAMIA'CKfi, a Datiusl order of eiogenoua 
p^ta, ooostxting of tree*, ahrnb*. and berboceoua 
fbala, with oppodte entire leave*, and osually 
VTib ftipnles, which adhere to the footstalks. 
V fonn sbeatbs. The calyx i* 4— Soartite ; the 
onAa hypof^ynoos, regular or iireKular, 4--S or 
1*<WL The stamens arise Irom the corolla. Tbe 
eniT ia generally 2^celled ; there ia one style. 
TW frait IB a capenle, a impe, or a benpr. A few 
^ena of this order occur in Aottralia and in 
Ac lempenrte parts of North America; the rest 
Bc all tropical or snb-tropicaL There are aboat 
IC known sijedea. Ko uabusl order of plants is 
■Be stroog) J charactarined by poiaonous properties. 
It iadndea the genna Strvchhos (q. v.), of which 
Stx VoMica Iq. V.) ia one of the products, and 
maber ■• the Woorali (q. v.) poison. StTyrAnine 
4i). (.1 ia a prevalent and peculiar cbaracteristio 
inaaplc td the L4)eaBiace(B. Some of the order, 
Itwev a, are of aae in medicine, a* certain ipedes 
d SrwsLU (q. T.). 

Bi rarre* whose abedsSK are proportional to tbe 
bfarithiiis of tbe corresponding ordinate* ; conae- 
4«[ly, if the abeciBne increase in arithmetical 

' ii,t>Mordinate* will increase in geometrical 
a theae curve* being 

1= a log. jp (a being eonttant), V j~ = "• abewing 

Oat th« anbtangHlt ha* the same value for all 
^int* tt the corra, and i* the Modnlna (q. v.) of the 
ijiliBi ol lo^rithm* repreaented by tlfe paiticalar 
mve. This coire ha* another remarkable property 
— viL, that the area contained between any two 
•diaaUa is equal to the difference of tbe onUnate* 
■■ll^iKd by the ocinatant subtangent 

■■ret iLwiilail by a point which moves aniformljr 
limg • —f"— <y rerolvii^ stnight lioo. Thi* 

onrre baa sevenl remarkable properties, some of 
which are analogons to those possessed by the 
logarithmic curve. Its involute and evolate are tho 
same vrith itself. Newton .sucked that if the foroa 
of gravity had varied inveraely as the cube of the 
distance, the plimets would have ahot off from tbo 
snn in logarithmic ainrala. ''''la eqoaUon to Um 
onrve ia r = ear. 

tJOGABITHUS, a aeriea ol nnmbers having 
a certain relation to the •eiies of natural numbers, 
by means of which many arithmetic^ opeiationa 
are made comparatively easy. The nature of thtt 
relation will Im onderBtood by coniidertng two 
sim|)le series tneh as the following, one proceeding 
from unity in geometrical prognmion, the other 
from in arithmetical progreasioQ i 

Oeom. series, 1,2,1,8,16,33,61,128,256. 912,&o. 

Arithseries, 0,1, 2,3, i, H, 6, 7, 8, »,&e. 
Here the ratio of tbe geometrical series is 2. and 
any term in the arithmetical series eipiesao) how 
often 2 has been nmlti;died into 1 to produce the 
corresponding term of the geometrical aeries ; thus, 
in procetfding frtan 1 to 32. there have been 5 step* 
or multiplications by tiie ratio 2 ; in other words, 
the ratio of 32 to 1 is compounded five times of the 
ratio of 2 to 1. It was this conception of the 
relation that led to giving Hie name of Lttgarilhrna 
to the arithmetical seriea, the word logarilJim (Gr. 
logon arilhmiH) meaning ' the number of the ratiee.' 
As to tbe use that may be made of snch series, it 
will be observed that tbe sum of any two logarithms 
(as we shaU now caU the lower aeries) is the 
logarithm of their product ; e. g., 9 ( = 3 + 6) ia 
the logarithm of 512 (=8 v 64). Similarly, tba 
difference of any two logarithms is the logarithm 
of the quotient of the numbeis ; a multiple ol any 
logarithm is the logarithm of the correBpouding 
number raised to tbe power of the multiple, e. g., 
8 (= 4 X 2) is the iof^thm of 256 |= 16'), and 
a snbmnltiple of a logarithm is the logarithm of 
the correapondinA root of its nnmber. lu this way, 
with complete tables of numbers, and their oorrea- 
ponding logarithms, addition is made to take the 
place of mnlUphcation, subtraction of division, 
multiplication ofin volution, and division of evolation. 

In order to make the aeries above given of [a«c- 
tical use, it would be naceasary to complete them 
by interpolatiDg a set of means between the several 
terms, as will be explained below. We have chosen 
2 as the fundament*! ratio, or base, as being moat 
convenient for illustration ; bnt any other number 
(iategrsl or fractional) might be taken ; and every 
different base, or radix, gives a difTerent system 
of logarithm*. The system now in use has 10 for 
its base ; in other words, 10 is tbe number whoM 
logarithm ii I. 

The idea of nuking tise of ■erie* in this way 
would seem to have been known to Archimedes and 
Euclid, without, however, resulting in any t''act'<^ 
scheme; but by the end of the 16th o., trigo- 
nometrical operations hod become so compUcated 
that the wits of several mathematiciaoa were at 
work to derise means of shortening them. The real 
invention of logarithms i* now universally ascribed 
to John Napier {a. v.). Baron of Merchistonn, who 
in IGllpnnted his Canon MirabUu LogarUlmt- 
orun. HIb table* only give logarithms of sinei^ 
cosines, and the other functions of angles ; they 
also labour under the three defects of being 
sometime* + and sometimes — , of decreasing as the 
oorreapondiDg natural nombers iacreaae, and of 
having for their radix (the nomber of which tih« 
logarithm is 1) tbe number which is the sum of 

1 + 1+ J-5 + |-4-5+.*«- Tt*" detects war* 




1 Teiii«died : John SpMdell, in 1619, 

■mended the Ublea In rich > muner that the 
logarithma becune kll poutive, and iocreued ^oni; 
with their oomspondiug natural numben. Hi 
liao, in the ibith edition of hia vnrk (1624), oon 
■tracted a table of Napiet'i logarithina for thi 
int^er numben, I, 2, ,1. Ac, np to 1000, with their 
differcDctfl and arithmetical complementa, beridee 
other improvements. Speidell'i tablet are now 
known aa hyptrbotie logariikmt. But the greatest 
impraremeDt wai made in 1616, by Profeasor 
Remy Bri)^ (q, t.), of Londnn, who anbetituted 
for Napier's inconTenient 'radix,' the number 10, 
and succeeded before his death in calculating the 
logarithms of 30,000 natural numbers to the i-nw 
Tuix. Briegs's ezeitiona were ably seoonded ; and 
before 1628, the logarithms of all the natural num- 
bers up to 100,000 hod been computtd. Computers 
have aince chiefly occu[iied thanselves mtner ia 
repeatedly revisiug the tables already cakulated, 
than in eitendinR them. 

Coniiriieiioit of Tabla. — The (oUowini, 
plat method of constmctiag a table of lof[arithini 
on Brigga's aysicm. The log. of 10 = 1' ; the log, 
of 100 Iwhich is twice compounded of 10} = 2- : 
the log. of 1000 = 3-, to. ; and the logarithms of all 
IKiwera of tO can be found in the same manaer. Ths 
intermediate logarithms are found by continually 
computing geometric means between two namben, 
one greater and the other less than the numbei 
reqaired. Thua, to find tho log. of fl, take thf 
geometric mean between 1 and 10, or S'lBS,.., Ihf 
eorTCBponding arithmetic mean (the loi;. of I being 
0, and that of 10 being 1) being 5; the f^eometric 
mean between 3163... and 10, or 6«23..., oorre- 
■ponda to the arithmetio mean between -5 and I' 
or 15; the treometric mean between 3-162... and 
C-623...,or 4216..., haa il 
or -625; thia o)>eration ia continned till 
is obtained to the necessary degree of accuracy. 
In this example, the twenty-first result givea the 
geometric mean = ,5-000.003, and the corrcaponding 
arithmetic mean =■ '698,970, which ia in ordinary 
calculationa uied aa the logarithm of 5. Since 
diviaion of number* cotrespoiidi to subtraction of 
logarithms, and since 2 m. y, the log. of 2 = log. 10 
- log. S = 1- - -698970 => -.W1030. The logarithnw 
of all prime numben are found in the same way as 
that of 5 : thine of composite numbers are obtained 
by the addition of the logarithtna of their factors ; 
thug, the log. of Q == log. 2 + log. 3 = -301030 + 
■4771S1 = 776151. This metliod, though ahnpla in 
principle, involves an enormouB amount of calcula- 
tion ; and the following method, which depends on 
the modem algebraic analyaia, is much to be pre- 
ferred. Accortling to thia method, logarithms are 
considered aa indices or powers of the radii ; thus, 
I0» = 1, lO-*'** = 2, 10*-"» = 3, Itf" = ion, 4o. ; 
and the laws of logarithma then become the same 
■1 those of indices. Let r represent the radix, y the 
natural number, x its logarithm; then — ~~ 

putting 1 
by the bi 

X for r. 

= (1-1- o)'-: and i 

by the binomiiil and exponent!^ theorems (a 
ordinary works un Algebra) that y — 1 -t- 


ritLm and the radix. If -^ be aubstituted tor z, then 

_'-,-!■. 10.-271828182... 
is genenlly oalled e 

of r to the bass or ndix c 
Then, re^rring to the abore- mentioned valoa 
of jj, we have, log. r (L &, log. of r to tlia 

« ItwariUi 
, referring 

= o — — + — — to.; a •eriai from which lo( 
(1 + a) cannot be found, unless a be fractionaL 
However, if we put ~ a tar a, log. (1 — a) a 

— a- 5 — -5- — tci and subtracting this exp fi^ 
sion from the former. Jog. (I + a) — h^ (1 — «) ur 

log. ,(1"^)"^" * y + i' ■*■ *°-*' "* '" "" 

sake of eouTenience, putting - 
which case, a =L 

Rarn? '—(• Bit" I"""" 

cormnla, the Napierian lo^ritbm of 2 is at once 
obtained to any deiree of accuracy required ; if 2 
be put for u, tha Napierian logarithm of 3 can be 
ca!cul:itod| Ac. Now. aa logarithms of any system 
have always the tame latiu to one another aa the 
corrcs ponding logarithma of any other system* no 
matter what ita base, if a number can be found, 
which, when mnltiplied into the liigirithm of a 
certain number to one base, givea the logarithm 
of the same nnmber to another bas<% thia multi- 
plier will, when multiplied into aay logarithm to 
the first base, produce the correspondiny lowrithm 
to the other base. The multi|>lier ia called the 
ModuluB (q. v.), and for the conversion of N'^ierian 
into common or Brig^^a's logarithms, is equal to 
■4342914... ; BO that, to /.id lAe c-minoa loijarHAm 
0/ any BiijiJitT ; frit, find tht Napierian la^rithm, 
and malliplg U by '4342944... 

Aa in Brigga'a ayatem, the logarithm of 10 ia 1-, 
and that of 100 ia 2-, it follows that all numbera 
between 10 and 100 have, for tlieir loHantlim^ 
unity + a proper fraction ; in other worda, the 
integer jmrtion of the loj^rithms of all numbera ut 
two Hgures is unity ; similarly, the inteL^r ;kirttiia 
of the lorarithma of numbers between 100 and IDUO 
ia 3, and, in generjl, the integer portion of the 
logarithm oE any nomber eTpreasca a mmiber leas 
by unity than the number of hgurea in that number. 
TTiia integer ia called the ciorruJf risfic, the decunal 
ig deaicnated aa the manfuao. 
ogarithm of 1 = 0, the togarithms at 
quantitiea lesa than nnity would naturally be neea- 
* thus, the logarithm of \ would be — -30103, 

kept alvaya positive, and the negative sign only 
affects the characteHstio ; the Ii^arithm tX^atS 
would thn* be 1-69897, the characteristic in thia 
and similar casea, expressing, when the fraction is 
reduced to a decimal, the number of plaoea the first 
fignre is removed from the decimal point ; thua, th* 
b^rithm of -OOOS is 4'69897. 

Diiivciiona for the uae of Loguithma in oalcnlaticA found prefixed to any set of TaUaa. Tha 
history of the discovery ia given in ths pie&oe t» 

Dr Mutton's Tables. 
The t 

t diatjngniatwd for Honr»ny a; 


a« of CUM (wbo adHed Oardenei'i editum of 
jSvaui't Taiit*, ""^'"g Mvenl idditioiu bdcI 
iauu i ema iM), to lereii jJaceii of decimila (Pwia, 
Uei); UkaJe,taGT«pUc«a|Pahi, IS31); Huttoo, 
Id mras plaoeB (lSt9), uaned in a mors coaveDient 
hni| vitli improvAmenta, b; Mown W. and It. 
CJHBben; the molt accurate of all, hoirever, are 
■RfpfuBd to ba those which Mr Babbage haa pro- 
Aud (itb tlia aid ol hia iugeiiioiu calculating 

LO'GOU, an Ilalias word lignifyiug an open 
■ode. eneloaiiiE a puaage or open apartment. It 

■ ■ &rDiirite 3am of boildias in Italy and other 
nm oomitriea. The Loggia de' lAnzi at Florence 

■ oai irf tb« &iie«t emmpliia extant ; and the Loggie 
if dkt Vitic»n. which are aroded pungefl rouod 
Ike iaterior of the cortile of the palaoe, onumented 
■ith btaatiful paintings and anibeBquei by fiaphael 
«d Ui popila, are wcll-knoirn ipecinieas. 

LOGIC. Tbii name denota the icieace connected 
>itk tha EomiB and ntethodi of reBauning. and the 
■aUkkiiKnt c^ tnjtfa by evideace. The BCience haa 
^K dovn to Ol from the Greeka, obtaining in gre&t 
fH the ahj^ie that we find it in from Ariatotla, 
tHkougti he did not apply to it tha name ' Logic' 
Jtm aame, atgni^ring ori|^nally both Thonght and 
tk £iiireuioit of Tlunght, moat have betui applied 
■aa lAa the time of Ariatotle. The mott aacient 
Mae waa ' DiiJectic,' meaning literally, ' convena- 
tiaa,' 'ooDoquy,' or 'diaput^ (Hamiltoa'a Logic, 
kt 1.) ' But it apoears that Ariatotle poaaoBaed 
H OB^ teriD by vhich to deaignato the general 
laaa cf which he wsa the pnndpal author and 
imAa. AMatgtic,iad Apodtietic ■«\tit Topic (eqoi- 
•dat to Dialectic, and including Sopliitlic), were lo 
:., neby which he denoted the parti- 

troTeny. There waa fonnerly 

ty, with aome variations in the 

bni of the phraaaolo^ employed. We fiod 

ly the Art ol BeaaoniDg, or the Suiei 

; or both the one and the other. And 

I haa been always undentood formai 

alU uauaOy tl 

f BeaaoniDg, or the Science 


<] maoniiiK has been 

riiriini^ tut ia, infarencei stated in such general 

II kindi of matter 
s say three times 
is twelret withont consideriag what the niim- 
Ibi lie nomben oL A modification of this view 
im bea tAoplM by Sir W. Hamilton : he calla 
Ion tht 'Science of the Iaws of Thought ai 
Omght' The inbodnction of the larger word 
'Uan^t' ia considered requisite, because 'iteaaon- 
iif ' ia aomewhat too limited, there being procesaea 
n^ided in logic, and necessary to the eetablish- 
■nt of tmtli, which that word does not cover ; 
■rk, for example, are Conception — tha forming 
ri fCBenl notions — and Judgment, the statement 

B with 

•U latdligence^ inclading Memory, Imagination, kc,^ 
■ nQ sa tba oparattona concerned abont truth, 
Bvt be beid to its nazrower meaning, by which 
t mfily indnde* ^a time great operaUons, oon- 
aitatio^ tba diatinct ataoea or diviaiona of logic, 
CeeoEptim, Jodgment, and Beaaoning. 

Mr Jabn Stnait Uill has proponndad a radical 
ianntiao in the detlnitioD and province of this 
■iliivt. AoQOiding to him, logic ' is the science of 
k apcratioiia of the nnderatanding which are aub- 
■nint to the estimation of evidence ; both the 
F"wi itarlf of pruceeding from known tmtha to 
nkaewu, and all other intdlectnal operationa in ao 
^ M auiili«nr to tliia. It inolndea, therefore, the 
ftJaKalliawing; te Ungitaga ' 

This definition has the merit of aetting distioctlr 
forth the end of the science, which is the esaentUd 
point in evecy pnuiicat science, as logic ia. That 
end ia the ettimati(m qfeviiUnce, in other words, it ia 
not the ascertainment of all truth, but of thoaa 
portions of truth that are authenticated by meana of 
other truths, or by infiretiee. The proper condoct 
of the operation of inferring one thing from another 
ia the final end of the whow science. And in laying; 
down the true criteria of inference, a certain amount 
of atndy haa to be bestowed upon some of tha 
operations of the human nnderstuidiog, not to tha 
extent of converting logic into a syatem of mental 
philosophy, bat aiimily ao far aa will oonduce to the 
purpose in view. It ia not. therefore, the * lawa of 
thought, aa thonght,' but the laws of thought aa 
bearing upon the art* i^ inference, that Mr Mil) 
would esteem the matter o( the acience. 

But Inference is admitted on all handa to be of 
two kinds — Deductive or Formal Inferenoe, and 
Inductive or E*al InferMioe. In the one, no mora 
IB inCerred than ia already oontained in the premiaea; 
for example, 'AJl men are mortal, therefore, tba 
preaent generation of Englishmen will die,' ia k 
{(»mal inference ; the conclnaion is within, or leaa 
than, the premiaea. This is the kind of inferraiao 
treated of in the Deductive or Syllogiatia Logio, 
which was till lately the whole of the science. In 
the other kind of inference, a conclusion is drawn 
wider than the premises, so that there is a real 
advance npon our knowledge : from certain things 
directly ascertained we infer other things' that have 
not been ascertained by direct experiment, and 
which, but for such inference, we should have had 
to determine in that msmier. Thus. ' This. that, and 
the other piece of matter, in which actual obearva- 
tions have been made, liravitatea,' therefore, 'all inert 
matter existing everywhere, known and unknown, 
gmvitatea.' ia an inductive inference. Of thia 
tast elaaa of inferences, all the inductive science*, 
indnding Phyaica, Chemistry. Fhyaiology, Mental 
Philosophy, to., are made up. Accordingly, Mr Mill 
treats this aa coming within the province of logic, 
no len than the Deductive, Fonna], Syllogiatic, or 
Neceasary inference, which previoua logicians ha4 
conHoed themaclvta to excloaively. 

Sic W. Hamilton, in hia ayatem, admits the con- 
aideratioa of Induction onder what be terma ' Modi- 
fied Lof^ic,' in contradistinction to ' Pure Logic,' Wf 
Formal Inference ; and it haa not been anuaual fot 
wrilera on the science to devote a chapter to Induo- 
tion, after expounding the laws of the syllogism. 
But Mr Mill baa pven to the inductive part tha 
predominanoe over the other, as being the more fun> 
domentol, aa well as practically the more important 
oF the two. Making logic oo-eitensive with ProoL 
he endesvoan to shew that the establishment of 
the prnmiei, from which the formal logician takes 
his start, is, after all, the main ^int, and that the 
other is subsidiary and subordinate, although atill 
important to be attended to, and susceptible of 
being well or ill done. He further ahewa that there 
are rules, or methods of procedure, which may be 
set forth and followed in the inductive operation j 
that mankind often break those rules from ignor- 
ance or inadvertence (aa well as from other causes); 
and that good may be done by explicitly calling 
attention to them, and m siting them a branch IK 
education, aa the old logic haa Tat a long lime been. 
See iHDircTioN, Snxoanai. 

LO'OOORAH (Or. logo*, a wcrd, and gramma, k 
letter) ia aimply a complicated or multiplied form 
of the Anagram (q.v.), whtae the poiue-mongav 



io^id of Mutenting Iiiiiuelf with the foniutioi] of 
» (iugle new wonl or Kiitencc out of the old, by 
VLe ^nipotiticm of the lettois, ncka hi> brain 
to discover kII the wordi that may be extracted 
from the nliole or from any portion of the letters, 
»ad tikrowi the whole "'- - — ' ' ■- 

the couee&led wordi ■>«, and, through them, what 
is the primuy word out of which they have all 
been extracted A Bpecimen ii given in Heniy B. 
Wheattej's book on Anagranu (1862), in which, 
out of the word 'curtains,' no lea than 93 imallar 
ones are framed. 

LOGO'OBAPHERS,anama by which the Greeks 
designated their historians previous to Herodotua. 
The logographera describeil in prose the mytho- 
logical subject! and traditions which had been 
tieated of by the e\Ac poets, Bupplemeoting them by 
traditions derived b-om other quarters, so u to form, 
at leiist in appearance, a connected hiatorv ; their 
'works, however, seeming to be intended rather 
to amuse their readers, than to impait accurate 
historical knowledge. The term was also aiiptied 
to those orators who composed indicial speeches or 
pteadiugB, and sold them to those who required 


happens that, while the idea ia clear and distinct, 
all truce of its reprtsentative sound baa disappeared ; 
or another sign, or one convmng the cooTerse of 
what ia intended, is used. Su(i a condition is often 
Bsaooistcd with organic disease of the nervous atmc- 
ttire. as in psralytics. In certain caaea, there ia an 
irreaiatiblo rapidity of atterance, or, apparently, s 

roluDtary utterance of certain words or phrases 
foreign to the character of the individual !□ 
another class of cases, memory appeara to be chiefly 
at fault ; there may be the oblivion of all words ; 
the forgetfulneaa of certain classes of words, such as 
■ubstantivee, while others are recollected and cor- 
rectly applied ; the forgetfulness of particular words, 
as of the individusl's own name ; or of parts of 
words, as occurs in general paralysis, where the last 
or penultimate ayUable escapes attention, and is 
generally omitted ; or there may be confusion as to 
orthography, and this has been observed when 
limited to a single letter. Dr Graves. Dublin, 
mentions a farmer who retained a knowledge of 
all parts of B|>eech except nouns and proper names j 
but even of these he recoUected the initial letter : 
he carried a pocket-di<;tionsry, and when about 
to use such words ta 'Cow' or 'Dublin,' turned 
to the letter 'C and 'D,' and then recalled 
what he wished. Patients are found who impose 
upon themaelvea a mutum as to certain phrases, 
and limit their Tocabnlary to particular eipres- 
■ions. In others, there is inTariably a transposition 
of words ; such as when, in place of saying, ' The 
rose is beautiful,' a paralytic recasts the sentence, 
' Beautiful rose is,' and all other sentences in a 
■imilar fashion. Fever, in Mezzofanti, is said to 
have swept away, in an hour, his Tast acquisittnna 
in sixty languages ; in other cases, it haa recalled 
dialects forgotten for half a century ; and mere 
excitement aeems capable of inventing or inspiring a 
Taat number of sound* assoming the aspect, and 
even the relations of a languid so cloeely as to 
■nggcst doubts M to whether they are creations 
■ncD as those of Psalmanazar, which deceived the 
linguists of the Boyal Society, or those ebullitiona 

• MMTted to in place of wordaj or 

the ordinary language is mng or chanted, or m 
rhythmically; or a forei^ langus^ may be en^ilDy 
or imitated. The bearing of su^ alterations u; 
the philosophy of mind, and npoo any theory as 
the origin of langosge. most be obvions j bnt th 
piiasess a still more intimate connection with t 
amount of inteiligenoe and responsibility laedica 
in every case of disease of the neTTona sy^te 
— Cslmiel, De la Paralytie cotuidnrit cAm 
Aliini*; Phrenoiogiaal Journal, Vo. 47; Colerid 
Biographia Literaria, voL i. p. 112. 

LO'GOS (Or. from la/o, 'I speak') denotts t 
act of sjieaking; that which ia spoken ; the n.itu 
process gone through for the purpose of the fnm 
tion of speech : the ressoning powers themselvi 
— all the attributes and o[>eratiODS of the sc 
in fact, sa manifested by the spoken word. 
thuB occurs in the classical writers under I 
manifold significations of word or words, eonv 

'' oration, exposition, commsnd, history, pre 

won! logos, as oecuning at the Wgianing of 1 
gospel of St John, was early taken to refer 
Mie ' second person of the Trinity, i. c, L'hri 
Yet what was the precise meaning of the apoai 
who alone makes use of the term in a mam 
which allows of a like inteijiretstiDo, and only 
the introductory part of his gospel ; whether 
adopted the symbolising nsaee in which it • 
employed by the various schools of his day ; ivb 
of their widely differing aignitications he hwl 
view, or whether he intended to convey a meani 
quite peculiar to himself ; — these are some of 1 
innumerable questions to which the word has gi' 
rise in divinity, and which, though most (icru 
diaonssed aver since the first days o( Christuuii 
are far from having found a satisfactory snluc 
up to this moment. The fact, however, is. tl 
the notion of a certain manifestation <» rcvt'lat 
out of the centre of the Godhead, as it wen 
which manifestation, as a more or less penwnil 
part of the Deity, stands between the realms uf i 
infinite and the finite, of spirit and matter — has fr 
times immemorial been the common property of i 
whole East, and is found expreescd m the rvIiLrii 
of the primitive Egy|>tians, as weU as in th<ac 
the Hindus and Panees. This notion of an embii 
ment of divinity, as ' Word ' or ' Wurtom,' f on 
its way, chiefly from the time of the Babylon: 
exile, into the heart of Judaism, which in vain en<l 
voiired to reconcile it with the fundamental >i 

, sa<ra that it had dwelt with God fr 
the beainmng. and Job (xxviiL 20), that it t 
assisted in the creation — as (A< emanation of G 
which emanation was supposed to be bodily ti 
certain, however minnte, degree. Thus. Siracfa < xi 
I, 2.1) understands the 'Spirit of Ooil' (Gen. l 
to be a kind of veil or mist, and speaks (L 1. 91 
the ' wisdom that is of the Lord and is with 1 
Lord, everlasting,' and that 'it was ataUd before 
things, and known unto Him' |ib.). 

This Wiidom, or Word of creation, which, acco 
ing to Sirach's view, fanned and develop^ I 
chaos, further manifested itaelf — visibly — ^bya dir 
and immediate influence npon one select neoj 
Israel, through which it wished farther to influri 
ail mnnkiniL A nearer acquaintance with t 
doctrine in all its bearings at once solves the i 
riddles of certain Targnmic intopretstions, wh 
hare puzzled a host of investigatoTa. Thus vem> 
like that of Targum Jeruahalmi to Geo. i. 1, ' W 
If isifoni, God created heaven and earth,' and i 
constant use of the term ilemra (Wad) inatsM] 




LOIRE, ■ ifcjiartment in tlie (outh-eflst of Franca, 
formerly part of the province of Lyonnsia, com- 
prisca the arrondiMumenta of MontbriBon, Roanne, 
and St Etienne. Are*. 1,178,234 Enelish acre*; 
pop. 11862) 517,603, The bagin of the Loire, which 
flows through this dejiartment, is a i^her iinfniit- 
ful valley, hut the lanuDtaiua are rich in iron aud 
l^d, and the coal-tields of the department are the 
richest ID Fratu^ I. is aUo noted for the rearing 
of lilkwormi, and for the excellence uf ita silk 
tnanufactures. The weaving of hem[i and liaea ia 
alio largely carried on. Ita mioeral sprinRS are in 
great reput«, eB|iecially those of 8t Alban, Soil-soua- 
Couzan. and St Oalmier. The chief towns ara St 
Etieane, Koanne, RIve-de-Gier, and Montbriaon. 

LOIRE. Hact^ a cential department of France, 
bounded on the aouth by the departmenta of 
hazere and Anifehe, Area, 1,212,160 aquare acrea ; 
pop. (I86S) 305.521. He aurface ia mountainous; 
oovered by the Cevennea, the Cantal Mountains, 
and the Margarirle chain, whoM alopea are clothed 
with foreets, and whnse peaka are dnring about half 
the year covered with anow. Chief rivera the 
Loire and the Allier. The soil of the plains is 
fertile, and the agricultural prodoce of the soil cun- 
•iatin^ of the usual crop* with fniita is abundant. 
The climate is very varioua, owing to the irregn- 
larity of the aurfaca. The arrondiaaementa are 
Le-Puy, Yasengeaui, and Brioude; the capital, 

LOIRE-INFfeRIEUBE. a maritune department 
in the weat of France, formed out of the southern 
portion of the old province of Brittany, and com- 
prising the arrondissements of Sautes. Ancenis, 
Faimbieuf. Chittaubriant, and Savenay, lies on both 
•ides of the n>er Loire. Area, 1.6!>7,97a English 
acres ; pop. (1B62J 580.207. In the south of the 
dejuutoicnt lies Ontnd-Lieo, the largest lake in 
France. The interior is, on the whole, Btit. but the 
Dorth-eaat and south-eaat are slightly hilly. The 
Boil ia fertile, producing wheat, rye, and barley, 
and forming in some parts rich pnsturaf^ There 
are also aome fine foreflta. SiUt murHhea are 
numerous in the west. The vineysjils yield 
annually about 32 ntiUinu e»lloo